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Public and private responsibilities in child welfare : a review of the distribution of functions in child… Errington, Barbara Gene 1964

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PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RESPONSIBILITIES IN CHILD WELFARE A Review of the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Functions i n Ch i l d Welfare Between Public and Private Agencies i n Four Canadian Provinces by Barbara Gene Errington Ruth Freeman G a i l Greenwell Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1964 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8, Canada. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8, Canada. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8 , Canada. i v ABSTRACT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RESPONSIBILITIES IN CHILD WELFARE: A Review of the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Functions i n Chi l d Welfare Between Public and Private Agencies i n Four Canadian Provinces. Prepared by Barbara Gene Errington, Ruth Freeman, and G a i l Greenwell under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. J. V. Fornataro. A p r i l , 1964. This study i s concerned with the development of protective and adoptive services f o r children under public and voluntary auspices i n four provinces; namely, Nova Scotia, Ontario, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Saskatchewan. An attempt i s made to delineate areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the administration of the relevant c h i l d welfare statutes. This study i s part of a larger project which i s concerned with an examination of the changing relationships between public and voluntary s o c i a l welfare and of issues raised by these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The major public and private c h i l d welfare agencies i n the four provinces were canvassed f o r information. An examination was made of pertinent s t a t i s t i c a l reports and of relevant statutes. The writers reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e which articulated, the p o s i t i o n and the rationale of both voluntary and public intervention, p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h i s applies to c h i l d welfare. The study revealed that the l e g a l principle, and statutory provisions i n a l l four provinces were fundamentally s i m i l a r , although differences were observed. The pattern of a l l o c a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r services was found to be d i f f e r e n t i n each province. In Nova Scotia, both private and government agencies administer the C h i l d Welfare Act, with no discernible c r i t e r i o n f o r the establishment of one or the other, i n any p a r t i c u l a r geographic area. The private agencies receive from 50 to 75 per cent of t h e i r revenue from the governments. In Ontario, a l l d i r e c t service under the Act i s provided by private agencies, which, on the average, receive 90 per cent of t h e i r funds from the governments. In Saskatchewan, a l l services under the Child Welfare Act are provided by the governmental department. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the provisions of Chi l d Welfare Statutes are administered by the government except i n the urban areas of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a where Children's Aid Societies implement the statutes. In a l l provinces, the broad outline of services appears to be s i m i l a r . F i n a l l y , issues a r i s i n g out of t h i s study are i d e n t i f i e d f o r possible subsequent examination. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would l i k e to extend our sincere a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l those who cont r i b u t e d t o t h i s study. The i n t e r e s t and cooperation of the o f f i c i a l s of the voluntary agencies and of the p r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Welfare Departments i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Nova S c o t i a i n supplying p e r t i n e n t information made the completion of t h i s study p o s s i b l e . S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o Mr. J . V. Fornataro of the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, whose encouragement, c r i t i c i s m , and suggestions have been i n v a l u a b l e . We would a l s o l i k e t o express a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. Leonard C. Marsh f o r h i s help i n t e c h n i c a l matters. This p r o j e c t , which i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a l a r g e r study concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e w e l f a r e , has received support from the Koerner Foundation i n the form of a grant. Other se c t i o n s so f a r i n process de a l w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d welfare i n Great B r i t a i n and i n the United S t a t e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1. Public or Private? Chapter 1. Voluntary Agencies and Government Provision: Paee fionale ana tili The rationale f o r voluntary and f o r public agencies' in S o c i a l Welfare. Application to Child Protection. Dev-elopment of Child Welfare laws and services i n Canada. The modern trends to public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Scope and method of t h i s study 1 Chapter 2. The Legal Aspects: A Review of the Child weJJare Statutes in F q u ^ T r ^ f f i g g s . Protection laws and duties of c h i l d welfare agents. Adoption laws and t h e i r implication f o r the status of c h i l d -ren and f a m i l i e s . Rights of the adoptive and natural parents. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c h i l d welfare o f f i c i a l s . . . . 26 Part 2. Current Provisions i n Four Provinces Chapter 3. Child Welfare Services in Nova Scotia D i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between public and voluntary agencies. Regulation and financing of children's aid soc-i e t i e s . Co-ordination in Cape Breton. Programs of the Child welfare agencies. Residential I n s t i t u t i o n s 47 Chapter 4. Child Welfare .^e^ices^^in^ntari^o Direct service by children's aid s o c i e t i e s . Super-v i s i o n .and other duties of the Child Welfare Branch. Regu-l a t i o n and financing of children's aid s o c i e t i e s . Programs of service. P r o f i l e of two agencies. Residential I n s t i -tutions 68 Chapter 5. Child Welfare Services in Saskatchewan Administration of the Child Welfare Branch. Goals and programs, including a u x i l i a r y and preventive services under Protection services. Adoption services. Reform I n s t i t u -tions 92 Chapter 6. Child Welfare Services in B r i t i s h Columbia Di v i s i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n between" public and volun-tary agencies. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Child Welfare D i v i s i o n . Aims, supervision and regulation of children's aid s o c i e t i e s . Programs of service under adoption and protection laws. P r o f i l e of a children's aid society. Residential I n s t i t u -tions H I Part 3. Issues of Responsibility Chapter 7. Some Questions Raised Extent and Ef f e c t s of public financing on private agencies. Governmental controls on administration of private agencies. Comparative examination of services. The Halifax Welfare Council's study of public and private services i n Halifax County. Some questions concerning t r a d i t i o n a l defenses of the voluntary agency 131a i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Appendices: A. Questionnaire Used i n Study 1. L i s t s of Agencies Sampled l42 2. Questionnaire lkk 3. Covering L e t t e r 147 B. B i b l i o g r a p h y 1^ 9 Tables: Table 1. Sources of Revenue by R e l a t i v e Amounts of the T o t a l s Received by Three Representa-t i v e C h ildren's Aid S o c i e t i e s . (Nova S c o t i a ; 1963) 51 Table 2. Sources of Financing of Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . (Ontario; 1961) 76 Table 3. Sources of Government Financing of C h i l d -ren's Aid S o c i e t i e s . (Ontario; 1961) . . . 76 Table k. Residence of C h i l d r e n i n Care. (Saskatchewan; 1962-63) 102 Table 5. Reasons f o r Admission of C h i l d r e n t o the Care of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) 116 Table 6. Number of Ch i l d r e n i n the Care of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare and of Child r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t i e s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) 117 Table 7. Number of C h i l d r e n Placed f o r Adoption by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) . ., 123 Table 8. Number of L e g a l l y Completed Adoptions by Type of Placement and by Agency . . . . 123 ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) PART. I: PUBLIC OR PRIVATE? CHAPTER 1 VOLUNTARY AGENCIES AND GOVERNMENT PROVISION: RATIONALE AND HISTORY The changing rel a t i o n s h i p between public and voluntary agencies i s among the most s i g n i f i c a n t trends i n s o c i a l wel-fare today. H i s t o r i c a l l y , welfare began so l e l y as private charity. As early as the seventeenth century voluntary groups formed under r e l i g i o u s auspices to provide r e l i e f f o r the poor. In the next two hundred years the growth of i n d u s t r i a l i s m greatly increased economic dependency and m u l t i p l i e d s o c i a l problems.. By the end of the nineteenth century the extent of these problems had made i t necessary f o r government to take over many of the voluntary agencies or to incorporate them into government bodies. The two types of service were f e l t to be necessary; however, there was a d i s t i n c t d i v i s i o n of labour. For the next f o r t y to f i f t y years the public agency was to do the routine jobs of dispensing p a l l i a t i v e s or of p o l i c i n g the use made of public a i d while the voluntary agencies pioneered and demonstrated new services, and set the pace f o r the sop h i s t i c a t i o n of standards. Today such a clear d i s t i n c t i o n i s not so e a s i l y made.. The functions and in t e r e s t s of the two types of agency have come closer together; service, s k i l l s and goals have become, increasingly s i m i l a r . Many voluntary agencies provide ser-vice to the community as a whole under private auspices, rather than dispensing private charity to an exclusive group. As a r e s u l t , a pattern of services including both public and private exists i n almost every community, varying from region to region according to the philosophy, r e l i g i o n , cus-tom, law, or p o l i t i c s of the community, and i t s a b i l i t y ? t o pay. The d i v i s i o n i n any one l o c a t i o n , or i n any one service or area of services, between the public and private agencies has not grown according to any discernible p r e v a i l i n g p r i n -c i p l e , and where the two types of agency exist side by side r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may be determined by "community needs, t r a d i -t i o n s , public attitudes, sources and a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds."1 There often appears to be a lack of communication between the two types of agency. Each i s ignorant of the structure of the other; both may serve the same c l i e n t , though they may hot be fu n c t i o n a l l y related, and t h e i r p o l i c i e s may hot be the same. As. alignments between public and private agencies change;, as the difference between them diminishes, as t h e i r d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s becomes; blurred, as services; tend to over-lap i n ce r t a i n areas, i t becomes p r o f i t a b l e to examine the nature of some of these alignments not only to determine what the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between public and private wel-f a r e , but also as prerequisite to considering what i t should be. In the case of the voluntary agency, the question has . 1 Kramer, Ralph M., "Public-Voluntary Relationships i n the S o c i a l Services; Some Concepts and Attitudes", Proceed- ings, National Conference on S o c i a l Welfare, 1961, Community Organization Volume, p., 1% arisen as to whether i t should exist at a l l , and i f so what the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s existence i s . It i s usually-defended on the basis that i t s s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s enable i t to f u l f i l l c e r t a i n r o l e s , provide cert a i n services, and express values that the public agency by i t s nature cannot do. A. The Voluntary Agency A voluntary agency, by normal d e f i n i t i o n , i s one which depends e n t i r e l y on private support and whose action i s gov-erned independently by i t s own board. O r i g i n a l l y , a l l ser-vices may have been performed by unpaid volunteers. I t i s t h i s autonomy which gives private agencies the p o t e n t i a l to be i n the vanguard of welfare services. The administrative structure of private agencies i s con-sidered to be superior to that of the public administered agencies. By determining t h e i r own p o l i c i e s and answering only to t h e i r own board members, private agencies remain independent of r e s t r i c t i v e government p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c a l pressure. They regard themselves as bei*nig free from bureau-cracy within t h i s structure and therefore more e f f i c i e n t and economical. This independence i s given cre d i t f o r one of the p r i n c i p a l advantages claimed f o r private welfare; namely, greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the forming and implementing of p o l i c y and i n the improving of standards of service. Voluntary welfare has t r a d i t i o n a l l y sought support f o r i t s p o s i t i o n through an appeal to r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l -4-sentiment. Our t r a d i t i o n s have tended to esteem the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l i n contrast to the claims of the state upon the i n d i v i d u a l on behalf of the community as a whole. It i s accepted as axiomatic that the government which gov-erns least governs best, although most c i t i z e n s would -re s i s t the withdrawal of governmental intervention from numberless areas of our corporate l i f e . There i s the assumption that i d e a l l y the state should intervene only when the voluntary e f f o r t s of the private c i t i z e n have f a i l e d . This notion implies that voluntary action pro-vides and sustains a free society. The c o l l e c t i v e ' i n s e c u r i t i e s which are the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of an increasingly s p e c i a l i z e d urban society seem to have reinforced a defense of the voluntary agency based on the idea the i t i s i n voluntary association we f i n d one of the best means of education i n the democratic way of l i f e . The increasingly s e c u l a r i s t and t o t a l i t a r i a n trend of government and c i v i l i z a t i o n warns us that we had better t r y to generate moral stand-ards of service, and standards of what becomes the good c i t i z e n . This setting up of standards can only be done-^in co-operation with l i k e -minded people. Another common defense of the voluntary agency, again based on the p a r t i c u l a r value system of our society, i s that voluntary association maintains the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l to choose what he wants to do and what he f e e l s 1 Royal Bank of Canada Monthly Letter, The Volunteer i n  Our Society, August 1962, vol . 4 3 , no. 8, Montreal, p. 2. i t i s important to do on behalf of others. By exercising h i s choice i n favour of a p a r t i c u l a r voluntary service he w i l l "remain human i n spite of automation and mechanization". He can hope to experience a sense of accomplishment and f u l f i l l -ment, w i l l f i n d a source of "expansion f o r h i s l i f e " , and w i l l be expressing "the i n s t i n c t s of human nature i n i t s 1 highest form"-. An extension of the concept of individualism places the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r locating a s o c i a l need, f o r setting goals and f o r planning i n the hands of the private c i t i z e n , who w i l l f u l f i l l t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n r a t i o n a l co-operation with others i n voluntary association. The s p e c i a l role of the voluntary agency i n providing welfare services i s usually described as that of pioneering, experimenting, and "blazing t r a i l s " . Government agencies are considered to be interested i n the protection of the community at large. Voluntary agencies i n i t i a t e d services geared toward prevention, such as those provided by the Family Ser-vice Agency i n preventing family breakdown; and i n r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n , as undertaken by the John Howard Society. Voluntary agencies are also represented as being i n a pos i t i o n to stimulate, to check, to contribute a balance of s o c i a l power; to co-operate with government e f f o r t s , to v i t a -l i z e c i v i c i n t e r e s t s , to develop the whole f i e l d of community organization and i n s t i t u t i o n a l co-operation, and to b u i l d up an informed 2public opinion and guide i t into e f f e c t i v e channels. \ 1 Royal Bank of Canada Monthly Letter, l o c . c i t . 2 Ibid. -6-Another defender of the voluntary agency sees i t as the i n s t i g a t o r of a l l l e g i s l a t i v e reform. Government never leads, but i t w i l l follow i f enough people demonstrate enough intere s t over a long enough period of time. It i s our job to see that they do.-* The concensus of opinion seems to be that voluntary ser-vices w i l l continue; that t h e . m u l t i p l i c i t y of welfare needs requires more than one system of service. . Even i n England, where the state undertakes to provide a range of services from cradle to grave, there has been a continuation of the voluntary agency. Government at the present time and probably f o r some time to come w i l l not perform every service that any one group i n the community may require. Voluntary agencies.--f e e l they can provide s p e c i f i c services that do not conform to the value judgements of the community at large, such as those values held by c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s or c u l t u r a l groups that form a minority. They f e e l that the special nature of t h e i r structure makes i t possible f o r them to step i n where controversy makes the meeting of a s p e c i a l need unacceptable to the government. Voluntary agencies f e e l secure i n continu-ing to have a d i s t i n c t place i n providing services within a r e l i g i o u s referent even though the same service may be pro-vided by a public agency, such as services i n the f i e l d of adoptions. In cases such as these, services could, not be considered to duplicate, but to complement. 3 Thomson, Deryck, i n reply to a column, by Jack Scott, Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 23, 1963, p. 19. -7-B. Public Welfare Agencies After the f i r s t voluntary agencies were established, and had been operating f o r some time, the p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l climate began to change. There was a growing d i s -illusionment with governments which maintained the old l a i s -s e z-faire doctrine i n the face of changing conditions. This disillusionment was the culmination of events during a period of s o c i a l change. The s h i f t from an agrarian to an i n d u s t r i a l economy i n e v i t a b l y p r e c i p i t a t e d profound s o c i a l changes. The urban ..centres increased i n population as people moved to i n d u s t r i a l centres where they became reservoirs of cheap l a -bour. People moved from the r u r a l areas, where patterns of community help had been established by t r a d i t i o n , to the urban area, where the lack of neighbourhood cohesiveness engendered f e e l i n g s of anonymity and anomie. The new indus-t r i a l economy resulted i n new concentrations of wealth and power; consequently, the nation and private c i t i z e n s a l i k e became increasingly vulnerable to powerful economic forces whose s o c i a l consequences were beyond c i v i l i a n c o n t r o l . There was a need, f o r corporate intervention i n the public i n t e r e s t . Modern governments have necessarily been involved increasingly i n regulatory a c t i v i t i e s , among which are those generally referred to as welfare services. During the l a s t f i f t y years, state welfare agencies have developed through several stages. In the beginning phase, the agencies' services were commonly p o l i t i c a l l y dominated sj;..d -8-and were primarily involved i n perfunctory r e l i e f - g i v i n g . During the depression period of the 1930"s, government agencies were faced with too many applicants and too few resources. Even though the Second World War brought to North American countries considerable prosperity, the s o c i a l problems concomitant with being at war brought to the agen-cie s c l i e n t s with new kinds of problems. F a c i l i t i e s f o r dealing with these problems were over-taxed, and only minimal services were given. Since the war some government welfare administrations have given evidence of a new l e v e l of matur-i t y by moving d e c i s i v e l y beyond the demands simply of income maintenance and custodial care programs. Most public, tax-supported agencies provide services aimed at arresting and, i d e a l l y , at remedying, personal and f a m i l i a l breakdown and at restoring capacities f o r self-help.. The assumptions on which public s o c i a l welfare i s based can be expressed i n the following way. The state i s as strong as i t s c i t i z e n s . The government i s responsible to and re-sponsible f o r i t s electors. There i s a concensus regarding what i s necessary f o r s o c i a l well-being. To ensure that these necessaries are available to a l l c i t i z e n s , the govern-ment provides, through l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r services to a i d c i t i -zens i n need. .Those who believe that i t i s the duty of government 'to provide e s s e n t i a l services f o r the people i t serves w i l l press f o r increasing assumption of public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , through public taxation, f o r a l l those services which are i n the public i n t e r -est. 1 On t h i s r a t i o n a l e , then, was public s o c i a l welfare based. These assumptions are s t i l l stated as j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the continuing existence of the public agency. Indeed, even greater cogency attaches to the rationale as modern society experiences increasingly the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of much more rapid and pervasive technological change. o Public agencies have a "broad scope and base". The scope of such agencies can be seen i n the many and varied services offered. The administrative p r i n c i p l e of co-ordinating a l l e s s e n t i a l related s o c i a l services within one organizational unit i s regarded as f u n c t i o n a l l y and economically desireable. It i s thought that i n t h i s way problems of interagency r e f e r -r a l are minimized, since fewer r e f e r r a l s w i l l be necessary. Families coming to a s o c i a l agency f o r help with one problem can also be given preventive treatment services around other p o t e n t i a l problems; the f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h i s are availa b l e i n one place. The "broad base" of public agencies i s seen i n the diver-s i t y of problems which are accepted f o r service. More emphasis i s put on those underlying basic needs, such as protection and 1 Morgan, John S. "S o c i a l Welfare Services i n Canada", S o c i a l Purpose f o r Canada, 1961, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, p. 155. 2 Kramer, Ralph, op. c i t . , p. 19. -10-f i n a n c i a l security, than on needs which present a less c r u c i a l or immediate demand, or those which a f f e c t a r e l a t i v e l y small minority. Public agencies, generally, perceive t h e i r task to include the provision of those necessities, which a l l persons need, to those who may be unable to provide f o r themselves. Public agencies are available to a l l within a given ju-r i s d i c t i o n . For example, i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, although the population i s widely scattered and i s very sparse i n some areas, public welfare o f f i c e s are accessible to every community. The agency i s set up, i n p r i n c i p l e , so that the applicant or c l i e n t i n any part of the province can t r a v e l to his l o c a l o f f i c e without undue d i f f i c u l t y or expense, and w i l l f i n d the same services as the c l i e n t i n another geographic area. This l a s t statement introduces another desirable p r i n c i p l e j u s t i f y i n g the public administration of welfare. This i s the p r i n c i p l e of equitable implementation of po l i c y regardless of differences i n the personal circumstances of the applicant. It i s intended that services be provided on a consistent basis, regardless of l o c a l idiosyncrasies and prejudices, since pro-v i s i o n f o r service i s made by statute. It i s easy to imagine, f o r example, that i n a community i n which a large proportion of the population i s Native Indian, the white members of the ; community may see the Indians as a " s h i f t l e s s and lazy" group, who''don't know how to raise children properly'.' I f l o c a l pre-judice were allowed to colour the s o c i a l worker's attitudes and recommendations, i t might happen that an Indian adoptive a p p l i c a n t couple would be summarily refused. L o c a l t h i n k i n g w i l l of n e c e s s i t y a f f e c t the judgments of the worker, but. since the r i g h t to be s e r i o u s l y considered upon making a p p l i -c a t i o n t o adopt a c h i l d Is a s t a t u t o r y one, the p u b l i c agency worker cannot l e g i t i m a t e l y be governed by l o c a l p r e j u d i c e . On the other hand, a vol u n t a r y agency, by v i r t u e of being supported by p r i v a t e l y - d o n a t e d funds, i s l e g a l l y u n a s s a i l a b l e should i t p r e f e r t o o f f e r s e r v i c e s which exclude c e r t a i n groups. For example, a p r i v a t e s e c t a r i a n agency need only serve c l i e n t s of that p a r t i c u l a r s e c t . Since the p u b l i c agency i s using p u b l i c funds c o l l e c t e d through u n i v e r s a l tax, i t i s respon-s i b l e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s who are e l i g i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s provided by s t a t u t e . The agency must o f f e r s e r v i c e s t o every e l i g i b l e a p p l i c a n t , regardless of h i s e t h n i c , r e l i g i o u s , or f a m i l i a l o r i g i n . Everyone i s able t o apply f o r s e r v i c e and uniform r u l e s of e l i g i b i l i t y ( f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , f o r example), and uniform requirements f o r " c a p a c i t y f o r parenthood" ( f o r adoptive parents, f o r example) are the only c o n d i t i o n s which should govern the r e c e i p t of these s e r v i c e s . The only accep-t a b l e reason f o r d e n i a l of these s e r v i c e s i s a l a c k , on the a p p l i c a n t ' s p a r t , i n meeting these reguirements. Another c l a i m made i n favour of the p u b l i c s o c i a l agency i s that i t can be made accountable f o r i t s performance. Such a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ensures that i f s e r v i c e s are administered i n a c a p r i c i o u s or casual manner, something d e f i n i t e can be done about i t , i f . t h e government or e l e c t o r a t e so decides. I t a l s o -12-leads, i n p r i n c i p l e , to the constant challenge to improve upon inadequate performance. When public funds are being used, i t i s not only necessary to ensure against waste and mishandling, i t i s also necessary to make f u l l and most ef f e c -t i v e use of the funds f o r the purpose f o r which, they were intended. According to our l e g a l theory, there must be some l e g i s l a t i v e authorization f o r a l l administrative actions imposing or enforcing duties upon members.; of the public; and other kinds of administrative ac-tions are s i m i l a r l y controlled by the requirement that no money may be spent unless appropriated by the l e g i s l a t u r e . .. -In enacting statutes and. appro-p r i a t i o n , the l e g i s l a t u r e lays down the administra-t i v e g o a l s — t h e basic value premises, of administra-t i v e decision;—and often prescribes means f o r accom-plishing,, these goals or forbids the use of c e r t a i n means. The o f f i c i a l s of the public agency, then,, are given r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e i r authority derives from t h e i r being assigned duties: by the l e g i s l a t u r e . The employees make judg-ments and decisions which a f f e c t other c i t i z e n s , and there-fore the necessity f o r accountability i s axiomatic. In', another area, that of financing, there i s a further popular j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the public agency. A private agency i s financed mainly by personal and corporate donations^" and and i s l i a b l e to a rapid and unforeseeable f l u c t u a t i o n i n funds, to the degree that the economy fluctuates. l e t , regardless of recession, depression, or periods of prosper— 1 Simon, Herbert A., Donald W.. Smithburg, and V i c t o r A. Thompson, Public Administration, A l f r e d A. Knopf, New York, 1961, p.. 522. 2 The government subsidizes private agencies also. Yet ini times of economic stress, the f i r s t claims on public funds are. those of the public agencies. If there i s no surplus i n the budget, subsidies to private agencies may not be given. -13-i t y , taxation continues. There w i l l always be funds available from government revenues f o r the public business. In t h i s respect, we can say that financing i s more stable than f o r the private agencies. It i s important to remember i n t h i s regard that i n periods; of economic stress, a l l problems become increasingly aggravated and services must be equipped to do more than i n times:, of re-l a t i v e plenty. A. reduction i n revenues cannot force a reduc-t i o n i n the number of c i t i z e n s receiving public welfare ser-vices. Moreover, there are cer t a i n kinds of s o c i a l problems that require such expenditures; as would render i t impossible f o r a smaller group, with less f i n a n c i a l resources, to handle. These, then, are among the most commonly advanced j u s t i -f i c a t i o n s offered on behalf of public s o c i a l welfare. C. An H i s t o r i c a l Perspective of C h i l d Welfare i n Canada Within the broad domain of s o c i a l welfare, c h i l d welfare occupies a major and s i g n i f i c a n t area. Questions about the a l l o c a t i o n of private and public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l services are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant f o r the f i e l d of c h i l d wel-f a r e . Both private and public i n t e r e s t s accompanied the deve-lopment of services f o r the care and protection of minors* The p r i n c i p l e upon which; child, welfare i s founded enunciates public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of children. It has i t s roots i n the eighteenth century concept of 'parens patriae' i n which the King, through h i s chancellery, assumed general pro> t e c t i o n f o r the infants of the realm. In Canada t h i s role was; -14-undertaken by vo l u n t a r y agencies, under l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s which, required the courts t o decide upon p e t i t i o n s seeking m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n guardianship. In Ontario, the f i r s t expres-s i o n of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was contained i n the Orphans Act of 1799. According to t h i s s t a t u t e the care of orphans could be assumed by town wardens, w i t h the signed consent of two J u s t i c e s of the Peace, f o r the purpose of b i n d i n g orphans to a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s . The need of every c h i l d f o r a home was not yet f u l l y r e a l i z e d , since t h i s s t a t u t e only permitted, but d i d not commit, o f f i c e r s t o undertake the care of orphans. L e g i s l a t i o n enacted between 1799 and 1867 e x p l i c i t l y enunciated the s t a t e ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n who were without parents or guardians, and to make p r o v i s i o n f o r the establishment of s o c i e t i e s t o administer these r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s . The Guardianship Act, passed i n 1827, provided f o r court appointment of guardians t o care f o r orphans. The Act gave the guardians f u l l l e g a l powers over the orphan, i n c l u d i n g that of "binding him over" to a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . But the court was a l s o given the power to. r e l i e v e the guardian of h i s charge i f the c h i l d was found t o be neglected or i l l -t r e a t e d . Further l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n against mistreatment was granted apprentices i n 1851 by l e g i s l a t i o n that allowed ac-t i o n t o be brought against masters. From l 8 4 o - l 8 6 7 the f u r t h e r development of the p r i n -c i p l e of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y expressed i t s e l f i n the growing volume of new l e g i s l a t i o n , attempting to a l l e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s of l e s s f o r t u n a t e persons who were i n need of a s s i s t a n c e or p r o t e c t i o n . 1 See Note 1 next page. - 1 5 -During t h i s period two statutes were enacted which were v i t a l to l a t e r developments i n the protection of children. One of these stated the p r i n c i p l e that the juvenile offender was i n need of protection and thereby required spe-c i a l consideration and treatment. The 1&57 Act made manda-tory the separation of adult and juvenile offenders. The Court was empowered to prolong the sentence of a delinquent up to f i v e years, i f the court f e l t t h i s were b e n e f i c i a l and would help i n the reformation of the c h i l d . The embodiment i n law of the separation of juvenile and adult offenders provided the basis f o r l a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n concerning the adjudication.'and the d i s p o s i t i o n of juvenile delinquents. Although the Charitable Associations Act of 16*50 could not be considered l e g i s l a t i o n pertaining to the welfare of children, i t was the statute under which s o c i e t i e s catering to the welfare of children could be established. This sta-tute provided f o r the incorporation of charitable and p h i l -anthropic s o c i e t i e s which could l e g a l l y hold r e a l and per-sonal property, enter into contracts, and sue or be sued. The reasons f o r i t s enactment are made clear i n the preamble to the Act. Whereas large and increasing numbers of s o c i e t i e s have associated themselves together f o r the purpose of providing against sickness, misfortune and death and f o r the r e l i e f of orphans and widows of deceased persons and owing to the absence of l e g a l protection the funds have been subjected to great and serious losses. . . . I  1 Spettigue, op.cit., p. 23, (quoted in) -16-C h a r i t a b l e s o c i e t i e s could then be considered l e g a l e n t i t i e s which could apply t o the c o u r t s , and could be accountable t o the c o u r t s . In the f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e , t h i s was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t . According t o t h i s s t a t u t e , pro-p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d s o c i e t i e s could be assigned l e g a l powers to act i n the i n t e r e s t of neglected and dependent c h i l d r e n , and could themselves be accountable f o r the discharge of t h e i r guardianship r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Such s o c i e t i e s could a l s o , under the law, maintain f a c i l i t i e s f o r the care of c h i l d r e n . In f a c t , many p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n were i n c o r -porated from then on; among them were the Houses of Industry and the.Boys' Home i n Toronto f o r the care of abandoned boys. The growing concern of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s f o r the p l i g h t of homeless c h i l d r e n was expressed i n the establishment of these i n s t i t u t i o n s , since the i n i t i a t i v e and s u p e r v i s i o n and most of the funds came from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . In these e a r l y days The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these ( o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) and government a u t h o r i t i e s was confined t o f i n a n c i a l questions and appeals f o r support; management and p o l i c y were the concern of the c i t i z e n boards or r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s which d i r e c t e d the i n s t i t u -t i o n s . ! In g e n e r a l , l e g i s l a t i o n enacted before 1887 i n Ontario made p o s s i b l e the care of homeless c h i l d r e n , but d i d not e i t h e r appoint bodies or persons r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and p r o t e c t i n g neglected c h i l d r e n , or develop procedures f o r the rescue and care of w a i f s . Touzel, Bessie and'(revised by) L i l l i a n Burke, The Province of Ontario. . . I t s Welfare S e r v i c e s . Ontario Welfare -17-But the trend to recognize and provide f o r the needs of abandoned children i s apparent i n the l e g a l changes made f o r apprentices. The f i r s t law (1799) allowed f o r the binding over to apprenticeship, but did not hold the master account-able f o r h i s treatment of the minor. In other words, t h i s law conferred a convenience upon masters, but no protection f o r c hildren. By 16"51 masters were held accountable to the courts f o r mistreatment of apprentices. The Toronto Humane Society, formed i n 1887, was the f i r s t society to seek out abandoned children a c t i v e l y , and to i n i t i a t e action on t h e i r behalf. The Society was pr i v a t e l y financed and operated. The leadership came from Mr. J. J. Kelso ( l a t e r to be appointed the f i r s t Ontario Superintendent of Neglected Children) who organized a group of private c i t i -zens to take up the cause of abandoned children. The aggressive leadership of Mr. J. J. Kelso and his associates was responsible f o r exposing conditions that shocked the public and led to the founding of , the Humane Society to protect animals and children. The Society was primarily a rescue operation, which hired a policeman to seek out waifs. It did not i t s e l f provide f o r the rescued children, but turned them over to any i n s t i t u t i o n which was w i l l i n g to take them. The Toronto Humane Society was patterned on the e a r l i e r development of the New York Soci-ety f o r the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. In addition to i t s humanitarian purposes, the New York Society saw as i t s rationale the protection of society. It considered i t s opera-1 Touzel, op. c i t . , p. 3. -18-tions as an impediment to the growth of the criminal classes. Charles Brace Loring, one of the prominent s o c i a l reformers of the l a t e nineteenth century, stated: My great object i s to prove to society the p r a c t i c a l t r u t h . . .that the cheapest and e f f i c a c i o u s way of dealing with the 'Dangerous Classes' of large c i t i e s i s not to punish them, but to prevent t h e i r growth; to throw the influences of education and d i s c i p l i n e and r e l i g i o n about the abandoned and destitute youth of our large towns; to so change t h e i r material c i r -cumstances and draw them under the influence of the moral and fortunate classes that they s h a l l grow up as useful producers and members of society, able and i n c l i n e d to a i d i t i n i t s progress. 1 With the formation of the Toronto Humane Society a great impetus was given to the creation of l e g i s l a t i o n and services to protect neglected, dependent and delinquent children. As. with the New York Society, the Toronto Society had two main objectives: to seek out abandoned and mistreated children; and to impel the enactment of e f f e c t i v e protection laws with the means f o r t h e i r enforcement. A year a f t e r i t s incorporation the Toronto Humane Society secured l e g i s l a t i o n which permitted the commital of neglected children under fourteen to any society or i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l i n g to receive them. The purposes of the Society were accorded greater l e g i -mation by the Report of the Prison Reform Commission of 1890, 1 Brace, Charles Loring, The Dangerous Classes of New York  and Twenty Years Work Among Them. Wynkoop and Hallenbeck, New York; 1880, as quoted i n Smyser, Martha Marbury, Protective  Services f o r Children: Changing Patterns i n Children's Pro-te c t i v e Services i n the United States and Canada, 1874-1954, and i n the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. (1901-1954)»•• Master of S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia; 1954, p« 6. -19-which declared that the chief causes of crime i n the community are: the want of proper parental control; the lack of good home t r a i n i n g and the baneful influence of bad homes lar g e l y due to the culpable neglect and indifference of parents and the e v i l e f f e c t s of drunkenness. This view of the Report had important implications f o r the public's attitude toward neglected children. It a t t r i b u t e d the development of crime to poor environmental conditions, and thus discounted the view of inborn "badness" as the basis of criminality.. The formation, i n Toronto i n 1892, of the f i r s t Children's Aid Society i n Canada was l a r g e l y due to the Humane Society's e f f o r t s regarding neglected children. The Children's Aid So-cie t y was authorized as the responsible body to seek out and arrange f o r the care of Toronto's abandoned and neglected children. The following year "An Act f o r the Prevention of . Cruelty to and Better Protection of Children" made provisions: f o r the court to invest the Society with the powers of guard-ianship. A p r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Neglected Children was appointed to promote the development of children's a i d s o c i e t i e s throughout the Province of Ontario. During t h i s period, a further expression of public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r neg-lected children can be found i n the provision of two dol l a r s , per week by the municipality of residence f o r the support of destitute children. The concept of what constitutes adequate care and  1 Smyser, op. c i t . , p. 33. -20-protection of homeless children was enlarged to include the security of a home, i n adoption laws enacted i n Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Sask-atchewan around 1920. Adoption laws provided f o r formal means of t r a n s f e r r i n g guardianship to f o s t e r parents, and of accord-ing to an adopted c h i l d the same l e g a l r i g h t s as that of a natural c h i l d . The Adoption of Children's Act w i l l do away with the d i f f i c u l t i e s we have had-to contend with i n the past i n regard to f o s t e r homes, as before the f o s t e r c h i l d was not protected i n cases where the f o s t e r parents died without making a w i l l i n which a c h i l d was men-tioned. Neglected and abandoned children were not the only concern of the Ontario Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . E f f o r t s regarding the protection of delinquent children resulted i n the enactment, i n 16*94, of Dominion l e g i s l a t i o n to further separate youthful from adult offenders. This l e g i s l a t i o n provided f o r t r i a l s of youthful offenders under sixteen years of age to be held i n camera. With respect to Ontario, l e g a l provisions were made f o r the a c t i v i t y of the Children's Aid Societies i n matters pertaining to the t r i a l s of children under the age of twelve. Courts were to n o t i f y the Society i n that l o c a l i t y of such children, and were to consider the advice of the society as to the needs of the c h i l d . The Court could d i r e c t children under twelve to be placed i n f o s t e r homes or i n I n d u s t r i a l Schools instead of sentencing them.  1 MacMurchy, Helen (ed), Handbook of C h i l d Welfare Services. Department of Health, Canada, Ottawa, 1923, p. 50. - 2 1 -The Dominion S t a t u t e of 1894 was the f o r e r u n n e r of the J u v e n i l e Delinquency Act of Canada, 1908, which permitted the p r o v i n c e t o e s t a b l i s h j u v e n i l e c o u r t s . Where no p r o v i n c i a l Court was c r e a t e d , p r o v i s i o n was made f o r f e d e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n -of p r e s i d i n g judges or m a g i s t r a t e s as J u v e n i l e Court judges. These appointments were made at the request of l o c a l o f f i c i a l s and were c o n d i t i o n a l upon the l o c a l p r o v i s i o n of proper deten-t i o n homes, I n d u s t r i a l Schools and upon the f o r m a t i o n of Juve-n i l e Court committees. Both p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d -ren's a i d s o c i e t y o f f i c i a l s , and p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s were t o be r e p r e s e n t e d on the committees. Probation s e r v i c e s t o s u p e r v i s e y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s were not given much c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Even by 1943 the number of s a l a r i e d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s was l i m i t e d , although n o n - s a l a r i e d o f f i c e r s could be appointed by the pro-v i n c i a l government a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with judges and munici-p a l o f f i c e r s . A 19^3 r e p o r t of the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l s t a t e s : Only a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of j u v e n i l e c o u r t s have s a l a r i e d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and o n l y the l a r g e s t c o u r t s have woman o f f i c e r s . A l a r g e r group of c o u r t s have r e g u l a r l y appointed non-paid l o c a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s with heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s elsewhere. S a l a r i e d s t a f f , except i n Manitoba, are paid from l o c a l funds.1 The growth of o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o care f o r neglected and aban-doned c h i l d r e n was more r a p i d . In O n t a r i o , the o b j e c t i v e was province-wide establishment of p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s which would undertake p r o t e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s under e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . By#l898, t h i r t y - t h r e e s o c i e t i e s had- been formed 1 Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , J u v e n i l e Court i n Canada: Being A B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n of Juvenilenr6ur1:'-"TjrgaT;ri^TI"oTi-"ffrTttS "Pro-yTnclslfrrum m*r.— -22-to cover the whole province, and the protection of neglected and dependent children became a private r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a l l areas. Although by 1919 a l l Canadian provinces but Quebec had enacted protective l e g i s l a t i o n which allowed f o r the e s t a b l i s h -ment of children's aid s o c i e t i e s , i n f a c t such s o c i e t i e s were formed i n only urban and more populous centres. In the un-served areas the protection and care of neglected children became a public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y undertaken by a department of the p r o v i n c i a l government. Public support, i n the form of p a r t i a l subsidies, was not long i n coming. For example, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, by 1910 the Vancouver Children's Aid Society received $1.50 per week toward the support of each ward of the Society. F u l l support f o r the wards of s o c i e t i e s came l a t e r . The p r i n c i p l e that f u l l support of children made wards of children's a i d s o c i e t i e s i s a government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was eventually established i n a l l of the provinces where protection l e g i s l a t i o n was i n e f f e c t . It was established i n Ontario p r i o r to 1924, and i t was considerably l a t e r before i t became manda-tory elsewhere that support orders against the muni-c i p a l i t i e s of residence f o r the f u l l cost care should be included as part of every order committing a c h i l d ^ to the guardianship of a children's a i d society. The care and protection of neglected and abandoned c h i l d -ren was the concern of private organizations from the early days of the Toronto Humane Society. Public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the form of f i n a n c i a l subsidies gradually asserted i t s e l f . Although private organizations pressed f o r l e g i s l a t i o n pro-t e c t i n g the juvenile offender, the f a c i l i t i e s established f o r 1 Smyser, op. c i t . , p. 50. -23-T h i s purpose were g e n e r a l l y under p u b l i c j u r i s d i c t i o n . Today, the custody of c h i l d r e n committed t o care under j u v e n i l e d e l i n -quency s t a t u t e s i s v i r t u a l l y a government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w h ile the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n v a r i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s . In some areas p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s , i n r e c e i p t of v a r y i n g amounts of p u b l i c funds, are the author-i z e d b o d i e s , and i n oth e r areas u n i t s of government departments c a r r y out s e r v i c e s t o n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . Customary F u n c t i o n s i n C h i l d Welfare The major f u n c t i o n s of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c c h i l d w e l f a r e agencies concern themselves w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of laws f o r the care and p r o t e c t i o n of n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n and f o r ado p t i o n . P r o t e c t i o n d u t i e s i n v o l v e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of com-p l a i n t s , r e f e r r a l t o the Court of apparent c o n d i t i o n s of c h i l d n e g l e c t , and the care of c h i l d r e n h e l d t o be n e g l e c t e d . The agencies may p r o v i d e casework ^services t o the parents t o im-prove the c h i l d c a r i n g standards of the home, or they may remove the c h i l d i f th e r e i s evidence of n e g l e c t ; removal i n v o l v e s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the cou r t f o r a change i n g u a r d i a n s h i p . F o r the :care of " c h i l d r e n who are committed t o the custody o f a c h i l d c a r i n g agency, a program of f o s t e r homes i s maintained. T h i s i n v o l v e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of the home, a p p r o v a l and subsequent s u p e r v i s i o n of homes i n which wards are p l a c e d . S e r v i c e s o f f e r e d under a d o p t i o n laws c o n s i s t of i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s , f o r the purpose of r e p o r t i n g t o the court the p r o p r i e t y -24-of changing the chil d ' s guardianship and the f e a s i b i l i t y of a s p e c i f i c adoption placement which may have been p r i v a t e l y arranged. Or the c h i l d welfare agencies may themselves place children i n previously studied and approved homes f o r the purpose of adoption. In the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n , the agency w i l l supervise the adoption placement during the probation-ary period, and w i l l o f f e r help to the adoptive parents. The agency w i l l also assess the s u i t a b i l i t y of the placement and report to the Court. D. Method and Scope of the Study This study i s a preliminary phase i n examination of questions r e l a t i n g to the proper spheres of private and of public -child welfare agencies i n Canada. The scope of the study -is an examination of the pattern of c h i l d welfare ser-vices i n four Canadian provinces; namely, NovaLScotia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of the study was to assess the extent and kind of services to children provided under public and voluntary auspices, without attempting an evaluation either of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e -ness or of t h e i r completeness. In t h i s study, c h i l d welfare i s defined as those services which provide f o r the care, pro-t e c t i o n , and adoption of children, although other aspects of c h i l d welfare w i l l be mentioned b r i e f l y throughout. ' The method used to obtain t h i s information was a survey of the relevant statutes, regulations, annual reports, and other o f f i c i a l documents supplied by responding agencies. - 2 5 -A questionnaire requested information about services provided. These questionnaires 1 were sent to the major c h i l d welfare 2 agencies i n each of the four provinces, and to some of the smaller agencies. In each of the provinces canvassed, the Chil d Welfare Branches of Departments of S o c i a l Welfare were asked to complete the same questionnaire mentioned above. The respondents were guaranteed anonymity and i d e n t i f i a b l e data\ are those derived from public documents. There was a response from 4-8 per cent of the agencies canvassed. Many of the responding agencies included with t h e i r completed questionnaire, pertinent f a c t s and suggestions; i n the) form of l e t t e r s , annual reports, further s t a t i s t i c a l data, and statutes and regulations under which services were given. 1 See Appendix. A-2 f o r the Questionnaire. 2 See Appendix A - l f o r the mailing l i s t used CHAPTER 2 THE LEGAL ASPECTS: A REVIEW OF THE CHILD WELFARE STATUTES IN FOUR CANADIAN PROVINCES Laws governing the care, p r o t e c t i o n and adoption of dependent c h i l d r e n are promulgated by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . Although each p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n has i t s own c h i l d welfare s t a t u t e s the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the Acts are b a s i c a l l y y s i m i -l a r . This chapter w i l l examine the C h i l d welfare s t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a , 1 O n t a r i o , 2 Saskatchewan,3 a n d B r i t i s h Columbia.1*" L e g i s l a t i o n f o r the care and p r o t e c t i o n of neglected c h i l d r e n makes i t incumbent upon the province as a whole to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care and p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n whose parents or guardians are unable or u n w i l l i n g t o c a r r y out t h e i r p a r e n t a l d u t i e s . The o f f i c i a l instruments f o r s o c i e t y ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n neglect s i t u a t i o n s are designated i n the c h i l d welfare laws. The agencies are e i t h e r p r i v a t e bodies, u s u a l l y c a l l e d c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , or s u b d i v i -1 Nova S c o t i a , C h i l d Welfare Act, Revised Statutes of Nova S o o t i a , 1954, as areFdelf ITy "1^ 61 r~C. 17. Nova S c o t i a , Adoption Act, Revised Statutes of Nova S c o t i a , 195^, Queen^s^FrTbTSr7 H a l i f a x , 1961. 2 Ontario, The Child. We I f a r e Act ^and .Regulat i o n s , i 9 6 0 . Ontario Department'" of ^ub^ic^life'ffare 1, 1 'Toronto'",' L$62. 3 Saskatchewan, The C h i l d Welfare Act, Revised Stat u t e s of Saskatchewan, 1 9 5 3 ,l^iapfer as"amen^e^'and Regulations as amended. O f f i c e C o n s o l i d a t i o n , Queen's P r i n t e r , Regina, i 9 6 0 . ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, The P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act, 19^3, - P r o t e c t i o n Laws -27-sions of government departments often known as Chi l d Welfare Branches or Divisions. D e f i n i t i o n of Neglect The laws of the four provinces of B r i t i s h Columbia, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Saskatchewan reveal s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r -1 ences, both i n the d e f i n i t i o n of neglect and i n the procedures governing the implementation of care and protection. The d e f i n i t i o n of neglect covers some f a i r l y obvious s i t u -ations t r a d i t i o n a l l y recognized, as such. A c h i l d i s consid-ered neglected and i n need of protection when: the parent or guardian cannot and/or i s not giving adequate physical care to the c h i l d ; a c h i l d i s l i v i n g i n an u n f i t place; a c h i l d i s associating with or i s under the care of an u n f i t or improper person; a c h i l d i s found begging or performing i n a public place; and a c h i l d i s working between evening and dawn. Standards of care are not defined i n the statutes, and there-fore c h i l d welfare o f f i c i a l s and judges have wide d i s c r e t i o n -ary powers i n determining what i s an " u n f i t place", an " u n f i t and improper person", and "proper care". Most j u r i s d i c t i o n s also consider a c h i l d to be i n need of protection when the c h i l d commits an offence with the consent or encouragement of his parents, or i s " i n c o r r i g i b l e " and "unmanageable". The d e f i n i t i o n of neglect i n some j u r i s d i c t i o n s covers some situations that indicate a more sophisticated standard, of 1 For the purposes of Acts governing the care and protection of children, a c h i l d i s defined as under the age of sixteen. -23* care. Ontario and Nova Scotia s t i p u l a t e that a c h i l d i s e n t i t l e d to medical or other remedial treatment necessary f o r his health and well-being. Wheie parents-neglect or refuse to provide these services, the c h i l d may be described as i n need of protection and may be apprehended by the authorized c h i l d welfare agents. Ontario's Act declares the chil d ' s right to receiveqadequate pa-ff ection, and defines a neglected c h i l d as: one who i s emotionally rejected or deprived of a f f e c t i o n by the person i n whose charge he i s to a degree that on the evidence of a p s y c h i a t r i s t who i s on the r e g i s -t e r of s p e c i a l i s t s i n psychiatry of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario i s sufficient:, to endanger h i s emotional and mental development. Apprehension and Detention Police o f f i c e r s , and designated agents of authorized c h i l d caring agencies are empowered to remove an apparently neglected c h i l d and detain t h i s c h i l d u n t i l he i s brought before a judge. As an a l t e r n a t i v e a court order may be obtained requiring the parent to present the c h i l d to the judge at the appointed time.. The actions of removal or of n o t i f i c a t i o n to the parents f o r the purpose of producing the c h i l d i n court constitute the a c t i v i t i e s referred to as apprehension. In a l l four provinces, when a c h i l d i s apprehended he may not be detained i n quarters used to detain adults, such as a j a i l . The above mentioned authorized persons may "rescue " a neglected c h i l d without a warrant. In Saskatchewan they may 1 Ontario, The Child Welfare Act, Section 11, subsectional clause e. -29-also search premises f o r a neglected c h i l d without a warrant, but i n Ontario and i n Nova Scotia a warrant must f i r s t be obtained to gain r i g h t of entry. In no province may a c h i l d be detained beyond a s p e c i f i c time l i m i t without n o t i f i c a t i o n e i t h e r to the Court or to the parents. In Ontario a c h i l d must be returned to his parents or guardians, or brought before a judge within ten days of his; apprehension and detention. In Saskatchewan a judge must be informed within three weeks, and i n B r i t i s h Columbia a c h i l d must be brought before a judge f o r examination within seven days. Nova Scotia l e g i s l a t i o n states An agent of a Society or the Director or a constable who apprehends a c h i l d under Section IB or 19 s h a l l forthwith n o t i f y the parent or guardians of the c h i l d , i f known, of the apprehension. 1 Provision i s made i n the statutes of Ontario and of Saskatchewan f o r parents to make written requests f o r the care of t h e i r children. In such circumstances, court hearings are not required i n order f o r the c h i l d caring agency to assume the care of the c h i l d . In Saskatchewan the agency must meet these requests, and undertake to care f o r the c h i l d f o r periods not exceeding one year. Court Hearings Cases of neglect are heard before a judge, or a magistrate designated a judge, f o r the purposes of Acts f o r the protection of children. In larger urban centers Juvenile and Family 1 Nova Scotia, C h i l d Welfare Act, Section 20. -30-Courts hear cases of neglect. In order to protect the c h i l d and family from p u b l i c i t y , only those d i r e c t l y concerned with the case are permitted to attend hearings of neglect complaints. Ontario requires such hearings to be held i n premises other than those o r d i n a r i l y used as Magistrates' Courts, underlining the p r i n c i p l e that the care and protection of the c h i l d i s to be the paramount consideration through a l l phases of action i n neglect cases. Hearings of complaints of neglect are not held u n t i l a l l par t i e s to the case have had reasonable notice. This includes parents, the person or persons having custody of the c h i l d at the time of apprehension, and the public body (that i s , the p r o v i n c i a l department or the municipality) l i a b l e f o r a l l or part of the costs of maintaining a c h i l d made a ward under the Act. In a l l four provinces, the judge has the power to summon and to enforce the attendance of witnesses to give evidence under oath, i n hearings of neglect. The r i g h t s of parents to be heard d i f f e r s i n each j u r i s -d i c t i o n . In Ontario, the l e g i s l a t i o n permits the judge to hear any person on behalf of the c h i l d . But although parents must be served notice of the hearing, there i s no mention that the parents must be heard or that they must be represented by counsel. In Nova Scotia the law e x p l i c i t l y allows parents to be represented by counsel. Saskatchewan's l e g i s l a t i o n extends the p r i n c i p l e of parents' right to counsel even further. The Minister of S o c i a l Welfare and Reh a b i l i t a t i o n may, i f he con--31-siders i t to be i n the public i n t e r e s t to do so, engage l e g a l counsel not only on behalf of the d i r e c t o r but also separate counsel to represent the parent at the hearing and i n prepara-t i o n f o r the hearing. This means that l e g a l fees may be paid by the department on behalf of parents who appear against the department i n court. This provision i s important as a means of extending the elementary c i v i l r i g h t s to due process into non-criminal j u d i c i a l actions. Dispositions i n Neglect Cases When a judge find s a c h i l d to be neglected, he can order the c h i l d placed i n the care of, and/or made a ward of, a Children's Aid Society or of the Superintendent or Director of Ch i l d Welfare of the province. In Nova Scotia and i n Saskatche-wan the c h i l d becomes the ward of the Minister of S o c i a l Welfare. The appointed agent becomes the l e g a l guardian of the c h i l d u n t i l he i s adopted or u n t i l wardship i s l e g a l l y terminated. Wardship i s terminated when a c h i l d reaches the age of eighteen i n Ont-a r i o and i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and twenty-one i n Saskatchewan and i n Nova Scotia. Not a l l wardships continue to the age of majority, however. There are alternate dispositions f o r a c h i l d found to be neglected. The case can be adjourned and the c h i l d returned to his parents, subject to supervision by a c h i l d welfare agency or department. In Saskatchewan and i n Nova Scotia there i s a l i m i t of one year on each order so made, a f t e r which the case i s reviewed by the court. -32-In Ontario and Saskatchewan a judge can commit a c h i l d t o the temporary care and custody of a c h i l d welfare s o c i e t y or of the department, which assumes f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d . However, a temporary commital order must be r e -viewed before the court w i t h i n a period of twenty-four months i n Ontario and w i t h i n twelve months i n Saskatchewan. In two j u r i s d i c t i o n s , Ontario and Nova S c o t i a , the judge makes an order, naming the m u n i c i p a l i t y which i s l i a b l e f o r the cost of maintenance under the Act. Several s e c t i o n s i n the Acts of both provinces are devoted t o e s t a b l i s h i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In Ontario p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the l i a -b i l i t y of the province i f the c h i l d i s not e l i g i b l e t o be con-sidered a r e s i d e n t of any m u n i c i p a l i t y . A judge i n Nova S c o t i a r e q u i r e s the w r i t t e n consent of the s o c i e t y ' s o f f i c i a l before he can commit a c h i l d t o i t s care and custody. Osten-s i b l y t h i s measure informs the court whether or not the S o c i e t y i s w i l l i n g to undertake the f i s c a l and s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s involved i n guardianship. Where the n a t u r a l parents are able to c o n t r i b u t e t o the maintenance of t h e i r c h i l d , a judge i n Saskatchewan, Ontario and Nova S c o t i a may req u i r e them t o pay a s p e c i f i e d amount towards h i s care i f he i s committed t o the custody of a c h i l d c a r i n g agency. V i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s f o r the parents may be ordered by a judge i n Ontario. The r e l i g i o u s f a i t h of a c h i l d i s determined at a hear-i n g , and the judge i s empowered t o guarantee the c h i l d ' s r i g h t t o be brought up i n that r e l i g i o n . L e g i s l a t i o n i n - 3 3 -Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan enables the c h i l d to r e t a i n h i s r e l i g i o n by s t i p u l a t i n g that, where p r a c t i c a l , a c h i l d s h a l l be committed to the care of a society under the auspices of his f a i t h , and/or s h a l l be placed with a family of the same f a i t h . Where a ch i l d ' s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h cannot be determined, Saskatchewan law permits the c h i l d to be brought up i n the f a i t h of i t s f o s t e r parents or as the minister d i r e c t s . Appeals and Rehearings A l l four p r o v i n c i a l Acts make provision f o r appeals from court orders, by parents, guardians or by c h i l d welfare o f f i -c i a l s . In some provinces the appeal i s heard by a higher court, i n customary appellate form,in others the appeal i s made to the court of o r i g i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . In Saskatchewan and i n Nova Scotia there i s a review of the case by a higher court which may c a l l witnesses. Nova Scotia, laws; also pro-vide f o r a rehearing before the court of o r i g i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n within t h i r t y days of the making of an order, and f o r the pur-poses of further inquiry. B r i t i s h Columbia statutes provide f o r a review of the evidence by the court of o r i g i n a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n . In Ontario an appeal against an order may be taken within t h i r t y days to a higher court which has the d i s c r e t i o n 1 to make "such order as the court considers proper". Onta-r i o ' s statutes permit parents to apply to a higher court judge f o r an order for^ the production of a c h i l d who has been 1 Ontario, The C h i l d Welfare Act,. Section 29, subsection 2> - 3 4 -committed to the care of a.society. In B r i t i s h Columbia such an a p p l i c a t i o n i s made to the court of o r i g i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . Where the c h i l d has been i n the care of persons other than the parents f o r some time, the burden of proof of parental competence l i e s with the parent under Ontario's laws the judge s h a l l not make an order f o r the delivery of the c h i l d to the parent unless the parent s a t i s f i e s the judge that, having regard to the welfare of the child,-.he i s a f i t person to have the custody of the c h i l d . The re-opening of cases concerning children i n care by c h i l d welfare agents i s regulated by c h i l d welfare laws. In a l l four provinces provision i s made f o r a review whenever at case i s adjourned, and the c h i l d i s returned to the parents under supervision of a c h i l d welfare agency. In Nova Scotia, adjournments may not exceed a t o t a l period of one year. The case must be reviewed, and an order f o r committal or f o r return to the parents must be made. In the case of adjournments'' i n Nova Scotia, the society's agent reports to the judge who may re-open the case at any time. In the other three pro-vinces, a c h i l d welfare agency wishing to end a permanent commitment may request a review of the case before the court., Court action i s required? f o r review of temporary commitments within a twenty-four month period i n Ontario and a twelve month period i n Saskatchewan. 1 Ontario, The Chi l d Welfare Act, Section 3 0 , subsection 3 , clause b. 2 The Act does not specify at what i n t e r v a l s , nor at whose i n i t i a t i v e . - 3 5 -L i a b i l i t i e s of Parents and Children Under Protection Status Parents or persons having charge of a c h i l d are subject to summary conviction f o r offences s p e c i f i e d i n the Protec-t i o n Acts of a l l four provinces. Offences include: neglect, desertion, and abuse of a c h i l d ; leaving a c h i l d under age (under ten i n Ontario) f o r an unreasonable length of time; causing a c h i l d to beg; causing a c h i l d to perform i n a public place; i n t e r f e r i n g with a ward of a society or a department; or obstructing an o f f i c i a l of a c h i l d welfare agency i n the discharge of h i s duties. Children may be charged with working or l o i t e r i n g offences under the C h i l d Welfare Act i n Ontario. They must be detained i n quarters separate to those u t i l i z e d f o r adult offenders, and a d i r e c t o r of the l o c a l children's a i d society must be n o t i f i e d and allowed to investigate. The judge may deal with these offences under the section of the Act pertain-ing to the Protection and Care of Neglected Children, or under the Training Schools Act. A c h i l d adjudged, responsible f o r committing such an offence may be committed to a children's; a i d society, i f he i s charged under the Protection Act, or to one of the nine t r a i n i n g schools operated by the Depart-ment of Reform I n s t i t u t i o n s i f charged under the Training Schools Act. A s i m i l a r provision exists i n Nova Scotia f o r wards who are "unmanageable" or " i n c o r r i g i b l e " . They may be sent to reformatories. -36-Miscellaneous Provisions; Advertising r e l a t i n g to the adoption or to the residen-t i a l care of children must be supervised by the Minister of S o c i a l Welfare and Rehabi l i t a t i o n i n Saskatchewan. The law requires publishers of newspapers and magazines to submit to the Director of C h i l d Welfare copies of the advertisements, along with the name, address and occupation of the advertiser. „ , Nova Scotia l e g i s l a t i o n forbids anyone to advertise or publish, notices arranging f o r adoptions or care of children without f i r s t obtaining the consent of the Director. In Saskatchewan, s t a f f members of the department are granted p r i v i l e g e d communication i n the discharge of t h e i r duties under the Child Welfare Act. This means that confid-e n t i a l information given a s o c i a l worker by parents must be kept i n confidence even when the s o c i a l worker gives t e s t i -mony i n court. The Act s p e c i f i c a l l y states that: No member of the s t a f f of the department s h a l l be competent or compellable to give i n evidence at any t r i a l , hearing, or other proceedings any written or or a l statement made to him i n confidence i n the course of the performance of his duties under this; A c t . 1 Three provinces, B r i t i s h Columbia, Ontario, and Saskatche-wan have provisions f o r the protection of children born out of wedlock. Most of the relevant sections, of the Acts address themselves to the support of the mother and the c h i l d by the putative father. The Saskatchewan Act allows f o r advice and 1 Saskatchewan, The Chi l d Welfare Act, Section 136, sub-section 2„ -37-protection to be given to a single woman and her c h i l d , and fo r s o c i a l assistance a p p l i c a t i o n on behalf of the mother. Reports of the b i r t h of a c h i l d to a single woman are made to the Director of Chi l d Welfare by the Registrar of V i t a l Sta-t i s t i c a within t h i r t y days of the b i r t h , and by the superin-tendent of an i n s t i t u t i o n caring f o r the mother within two weeks of the b i r t h . Conditions f o r the intervention of a children's a i d society are stated i n Ontario's Act as follows: Nothing i n t h i s Part requires a children's:aid society to int e r f e r e with the care and maintenance of a c h i l d born out of wedlock where the c h i l d has been adopted i n accordance with the laws of Ontario or where the c h i l d i s being cared f o r v o l u n t a r i l y by a person whom the society-, considers suitable to have charge of the c h i l d . B. Adoption Statutes The f i r s t adoption laws i n Canada were enacted around -1920, approximately twenty-five years a f t e r the passage of the f i r s t Acts f o r the Protection of Children, and were i n pr i n c i p l e an extension of protection laws. Protection sta-tutes established society's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to protect c h i l d -ren from neglect and abuse. Adoption laws enunciated the right s of children to enjoy status as l e g a l children of f a m i l i e s . P r i o r to the enactment of these laws, adoptions were treated as contracts, and sub-ject to the laws, of contract. Thus the c h i l d could not be 1 Ontario, The Chi l d Welfare Act, Section 42. - 3 s -assured of the permanency of h i s adoptive home since he could; be removed at the request of eit h e r the adoptive or of the natural parents according to the terms of the contract. Under adoption laws the rig h t s and duties normally e x i s t i n g under law as between natural parents and c h i l d are made to apply with the same l e g a l force to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the adopted c h i l d and the adoptive parent. There i s a kind of reconstituted family formed under the law rather than by natu-r a l means;, but having the same l e g a l status as applies to the l a t t e r . Adoption laws enunciate the status and r i g h t s of adopted children, and stipulate the procedures and regulations govern-ing adoptions. The l a t t e r serve to protect the r i g h t s of adop^ ti v e and of natural parents as well as those of the c h i l d . 1 A l l applications f o r adoption are decided by the Court, which i s the f i n a l authority f o r granting or denying a p e t i -t i o n f o r adoption. In i t s decision, the Court i s to act with regard to the best i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d . This i s implied i n the Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia l e g i s l a t i o n which require that a judge must be s a t i s f i e d that such an order should be made. The Ontario Act e x p l i c i t l y states that: The Court before making an adoption order s h a l l be ''satisfied. . .that the order w i l l be i n the best in t e r e s t s of the c h i l d . 1 In Nova Scotia, Ontario and Saskatchewan the County or Districts-Courts j i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a Judge of the Supreme Court. 2 Ontario, The C h i l d Welfare Act. Section 69, clause b.„ -39-B r i t i s h Columbia's laws provide more guidance to the Court. I f the Court i s sat i s f i e d , of the a b i l i t y of the p e t i -t i oner to bring up, maintain, and educate the c h i l d properly, and of the propriety of the adoption, hav-ing regard to the welfare of the c h i l d and the in t e -rest of the c h i l d ' s parents, the Court may. . .make an orderj_for an adoption of the c h i l d by the p e t i -t i o ner. Status Protection f o r the C h i l d and Parents The status of an adopted c h i l d i s the same as that of a natural c h i l d , with regard to the adoptive parents. Adoptive parents.have the same r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards adopted c h i l d -ren as they have towards t h e i r natural children; that i s , they are bound to maintain, educate and nurture adopted children. The sections pertaining to the status of an adopted c h i l d i n the Adoption Acts of a l l four provinces c l e a r l y enunciate this; p r i n c i p l e . OntarioIs statute i l l u s t r a t e s the l e g a l formula-t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e . ' For a l l purposes the adopted c h i l d , upon the adoption order being made, becomes the c h i l d of the adopting parent and the adopting parent becomes the parent of the adopted c h i l d as i f the adopted c h i l d had been2 • born i n lawful wedlock to the adopting parent. The adopted c h i l d i s l e g a l l y given the name of the adoptive parents, and assumes rights of inheritance. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, .Adoption Act, Section 9, subsection 1. 2 Ontario, C h i l d Welfare Act, Section 76, subsection 1. -40-Adoption laws a l s o p r o t e c t the sta t u s of parenthood f o r couples who adopt c h i l d r e n . According to law they become the parents of the adopted c h i l d , and the s t a t u s of parenthood i s l e g a l l y removed from the n a t u r a l parents. P o s s i b l e grounds f o r appeal t o a higher court, a g a i n s t an adoption order are s t a t e d i n the Acts of two provinces.3hNova S c o t i a an adoption order may be set aside i f the w r i t t e n con-sent f o r adoption was f r a u d u l e n t l y obtained; however, no appeal w i l l be heard a f t e r one year from the date the order was made. In Saskatchewan the Court of Appeal may i n v e s t i -gate the matter, and reverse the order. But there i s an important p r o v i s i o n t h a t p r o t e c t s an adoption order a g a i n s t a r e v e r s a l due t o t e c h n i c a l i t i e s . I f there has been a s u b s t a n t i a l compliance w i t h the requirements of t h i s Act the Court of Appeal s h a l l not set aside an order of adoption by reason only of a defect or i r r e g u l a r i t y i n matters of procedure. Procedures f o r Adoption ;; In u s u a l circumstances, c h i l d r e n may be adopted by mar-r i e d couples, or step-parents. A l l prospective adoptions must be i n v e s t i g a t e d by c h i l d welfare o f f i c i a l s , according to the laws of the f o u r provinces. With the exception of Saskat-chewan, the adoption s t a t u t e s permit p r i v a t e p a r t i e s t o arrange the placement of a c h i l d i n a home f o r the purposes of adoption. In the Province of Saskatchewan, parents wishing t o adopt submit an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r adoption to the D i r e c t o r of C h i l d Welfare. The next step i s t h a t 1 Saskatchewan, The C h i l d Welfare A c t, s e c t i o n 79, subsec-t i o n 1.. -41-. . .The d i r e c t o r s h a l l cause an i n q u i r y t o be made i n t o the s u i t a b i l i t y of the a p p l i c a n t and the h i s t o r y of the c h i l d and i f the report upon the i n q u i r y i s s a t i s f a c t o r y the d i r e c t o r may approve the a p p l i c a t i o n on the c o n d i t i o n that the c h i l d s h a l l be maintained i n the home of the a p p l i c a n t f o r a period of one year upon such terms as the d i r e c t o r may p r e s c r i b e . *L The act makes no reference, except i n the case of a step-parent arrangement, to c h i l d r e n . b e i n g placed i n adoptive homes by p r i v a t e arrangement. A l s o , the Act does not s p e c i f y what i s to take place should the d i r e c t o r not approve the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r adoption. The only i m p l i c a t i o n that can be drawn i s that the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r adoption i s i n f a c t an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the placement of the c h i l d f o r the purpose of adoption, and that placements are arranged through the d i r e c t o r ' s o f f i c e . The Act allows f o r an a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Court f o r an order f o r adoption anytime w i t h i n the year of residence, with the consent of the d i r e c t o r . Should the D i r e c t o r not consent t o the court a p p l i c a -t i o n , i t may be submitted a f t e r the year i s up, provided the D i r e c t o r has received t h i r t y days n o t i c e . The D i r e c t o r i s r e -quired t o submit h i s reasons f o r denying consent t o apply, and the judge may request f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o the co n d i t i o n s of the home. I f a c h i l d i s placed i n a home f o r adoption, c h i l d welfare o f f i c i a l s must be n o t i f i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Ontario. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare must be n o t i f i e d w i t h i n fourteen days of the placement. He must a l s o be n o t i f i e d at l e a s t s i x months before a p e t i t i o n t o adopt i s f i l e d . Within t h i s s i x month period he i s required, t o I b i d . , s e c t i o n 70, subsection 1. -42-conduct an inquiry into the s u i t a b i l i t y of the home and of the parents. In Ontario i f the placement has been arranged by par-t i e s other than a children's a i d society, the Director of C h i l d Welfare must be n o t i f i e d within t h i r t y days. After n o t i f i c a -t i o n the Director requests the l o c a l Children's Aid Society to make the necessary i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Registration of placement i s intended as a safeguard f o r the c h i l d and f o r the natural par-ent. It prevents placement of a c h i l d f o r adoption without the knowledge of the c h i l d welfare authority of the province. Although Nova Scotia does not require placement r e g i s t r a -t i o n , the Director of Child Welfare must be n o t i f i e d of the intent to adopt at least one year before the p e t i t i o n f o r adop-t i o n i s f i l e d . Therefore a l l four provinces require o f f i c i a l n o t i f i c a t i o n of adoption plans: Saskatchewan with an applica-t i o n f o r prospective adoption; B r i t i s h Columbia and Ontario with placement r e g i s t r a t i o n ; and Nova Scotia with one year's notice of intent to f i l e f o r adoption. A l l provinces require a waiting period during which the c h i l d resides i n the prospective adoptive home. B r i t i s h Colum-bia and Nova Scotia laws specify a period of not l e s s than one year between the ap p l i c a t i o n f o r an adoption order and the Court hearing, while Ontario laws require a period of six: months. Saskatchewan dates i t s period of residency from the date of the Director's approval f o r a p p l i c a t i o n . With the Director's consent to p e t i t i o n f o r an order f o r adoption, the court hearing may take place i n l e s s than one year, and with-out h i s consent a f t e r one year has elapsed. -43-There are provisions i n the statutes of a l l four provinces f o r the court to dispense with or to shorten the period of r e s i -dency, i f i t i s i n the best in t e r e s t s of the c h i l d . The Court, before granting an adoption order, i s to be s a t i s f i e d about the s u i t a b i l i t y of the adoptive parents, and about the well-being of the c h i l d i n the applicant's home. In three of the provinces the Director of Superintendent must sub-rait a report to the court recommending that the adoption order be granted or refused. In Saskatchewan the Director indicates his approval by f i l i n g on behalf of the applicant. Should he not do so, he must submit h i s reasons f o r not consenting to the p e t i t i o n . In Ontario the Director's approval of the order must be stated i n writing before an order i s made. The Superinten-dent i n B r i t i s h Columbia f i l e s a report which contains his recommendations. In Nova Scotia, the Director i s not required, to, but may, at h i s d i s c r e t i o n , appear at the hearing. An order f o r adoption must not contain the information that a c h i l d was born out of wedlock when t h i s i s the case, according to the laws of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ontario and Saskat-chewan. In a l l four provinces protection from p u b l i c i t y i s afforded the adoptive parents and c h i l d . Provisions are eithe r made f o r the Court hearing to take place i n chambers, or f o r the Court to be cleared of a l l but the o f f i c i a l l y interested p a r t i e s . A l l l e g a l papers pertaining to an app l i c a t i o n f o r an adoption order are sealed and f i l e d i n the o f f i c e of the court. These papers may not be opened f o r inspection except upc>n court order, or upon the written d i r e c t i o n of the Director of Chi l d -44-Welfare i n some provinces, and that of the Minister i n others. The Saskatchewan Act contains a section to ensure against the sale of babies or the payment of commissions f o r arranging adoptions. Under t h i s Act any persons found to give or receive payment, other than fees prescribed under the law, shall.be denied an adoption order. The same circumstances i n Ontario make the person l i a b l e to summary conviction. Consents f o r Adoption The sections governing the parents* consents to release a c h i l d f o r adoption protect the right s of natural parents to r e t a i n t h e i r children. Because consents are irrevocable, unless reversal i s ordered by the Court i n unusual circumstances, they protect the adoptive parents from unexpected and capricious claims by the natural parents. In general, a c h i l d cannot be placed f o r adoption unless the parents or l e g a l guardians state 1 i n writing t h e i r consent to release the c h i l d f o r adoption. In Ontario an a f f i d a v i t must be witnessed by an o f f i c e r of a Children's Aid Society or by a Judge. B r i t i s h Columbia requires an a f f i d a v i t that the person understands and i s f u l l y aware of the consequences of giving consent f o r adoption. In B r i t i s h Columbia, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan, a minor parent can release a c h i l d f o r adoption without the consent of the minor's parents or guardians. 1 In the case of a c h i l d born out of wedlock, the consent of the mother i s usually s u f f i c i e n t . When a c h i l d i s i n the care and custody of a c h i l d welfare agency, the consent of the Director or Superintendent i s also s u f f i c i e n t . -45-In a l l provinces children above a certa i n age cannot be adopted unless they themselves consent. The age i n Ontario is; over twenty-one, and i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia over twelve. The judge i s given d i s c r e t i o n to dispense with consent under c e r t a i n circumstances, according to the statutes of a l l four provinces. The Acts permit proceeding without consents i f a c h i l d has been abandoned, deserted, or not supported by his parents. Nova Scotia's l e g i s l a t i o n i s more s p e c i f i c and provides f o r dispensing with consents i f a c h i l d has been deserted or neglected f o r a period of two years from the date a p e t i t i o n f o r adoption i s f i l e d . This permits f o s t e r parents who have cared f o r a c h i l d f o r two years to adopt that c h i l d without the consents of the natural parents. Both the Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan Acts allow f o r the waiving of consents when the parent or guardian i s of unsound mind. In Saskatchewan the person must be found to be defective or i l l under the Men-t a l Hygiene Act. Two provinces specify a waiting period between the b i r t h of the c h i l d and the signing of consent. In B r i t i s h Columbia the c h i l d must be at least ten days old, and i n Ontario seven days old. This waiting period i s intended to provide the par-ent with some time following the b i r t h i n which to make a deci-sion about the guardianship of the c h i l d . Ontario's statute allows f o r a reversal of consents within twenty-one days of sign-ing. With the exception of the l a t t e r provision, consents can be withdrawn only by an ap p l i c a t i o n to the Court which i s to rule -46-i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d . The laws i n B r i t i s h Colum-bia and Nova Scotia make provision f o r an a p p l i c a t i o n to the Court f o r the reversal of consent; i n Nova Scotia there i s a statutory l i m i t a t i o n of one year from the date of adoption. Although Adoption laws are enacted p r o v i n c i a l l y , each j u r i s d i c t i o n recognizes as v a l i d and binding any adoption law-f u l l y consummated under the relevant statutes of another j u r i s -d i c t i o n . Ontario's pertinent statute states that: Every person heretofore adopted under the laws of Ontario and every person adopted under the laws of any other province or t e r r i t o r y of Canada or under the laws of any other country s h a l l f o r - . a l l purposes i n Ontario be governed by t h i s Part. 1 Ontario, C h i l d Welfare Act, section 77* PART II CURRENT PROVISIONS IN FOUR PROVINCES CHAPTER 3 CHILD WELFARE SERVICES IN NOVA SCOTIA In Nova Scotia, the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n i s a d i v i s i o n of the Department of Public Welfare ? I t ' s chief executive of-f i c e r i s the Director of C h i l d Welfare who i s appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council and i s responsible to the Mini-ster. He has "throughout the Province a l l the powers of a Children's Aid Society and may from time to time designate per-sons to act f o r him i n the exercise of these powers and p r i v i -1 leges." He acts i n t h i s capacity through Regional Offices i n the counties of Antigonish, Guysborough, Digsby, and Halifax, excluding Halifax c i t y . Twelve Children's Aid Societies serve the rest of the province. Other duties under the Act include a l l the duties imposed upon the Inspector of Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s under the Humane and Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s Act i n regard to a l l reformatory institutions.; dealing with children. Regulations under the S'hild Welfare Act extend these duties to include those of inspector of a l l c h i l d -caring i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o s t e r homes and maternity homes. He i s also the Superintendent of Neglected and Delinquent Children f o r the purposes of the Juvenile Delinquents' Act (Canada) and of the Prisons and Reformatories Act. In the Regulations, his duties further include encouraging 1 Nova Scotia, C h i l d Welfare Act, Section 4. -48-and advising " i n the establishment and growth of Children's Aid Societies and i n the performance of t h e i r duties. Sections i n the D i v i s i o n of C h i l d Welfare The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n consists f i r s t of a l l of the. Central Office comprised of administrative, supervisory, and consultative s t a f f , the l a t t e r of which are available "at a l l times" to give help and d i r e c t i o n to the various private agen-2. c i e s . Another Section of t h i s D i v i s i o n consists of the Nova Scotia Training School and i t s Advisory Board. This School operates f f o r the care, education and t r a i n i n g of mildly retarded children.. An Adoption Clearance Section provides a coordinating ser-vice i n f i n d i n g homes and placing children f o r those agencies engaged i n c h i l d placement... A Psychological Section consisting of a chief psychologist and two s t a f f psychologists, provides t e s t i n g and diagnostic services to children referred by the Nova Scotia Training School, Children's Aid Societies and Regional o f f i c e s of the department, Child Caring I n s t i t u t i o n s , Juvenile Courts and Corrections i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i n d i v i d u a l parents. The Corrections Section comes under t h i s D i v i s i o n and con-s i s t s of the Juvenile Court Judges and the Nova Scotia School foruBoys and i t s advisory board. A l l twelve Children's Aid Societies come under the 1 Nova Scotia, Regulations made under the Child Welfare Act, October 21, 1959, Section l , c . 2 Nova Scotia, Department of Public Welfare, Annual Report  the Year Ending March 31, 1962, p. 13. -49-supervision of the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , as do a l l the other private agencies concerned with c h i l d welfare. These l a t t e r include eight c h i l d caring i n s t i t u t i o n s , two c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t utions, and two maternity homes. Children's Aid Societies Children's Aid Societies carry out approximately 75 per cent of the c h i l d welfare work done i n the Province. Under the Act any ten persons who wish to form a society and become engaged i n the "protection of children from cruelty and pro-vide care and custody f o r neglected children may, upon appro-v a l of t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n by the Governor i n Council, become a Children's Aid Society 1 1." 1" The Lieutenant Governor i n Coun-c i l may prescribe the t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Society, and may by order declare a Society no longer competent to accept the care and custody of children. Amendments to the constitution require the approval of the Lieutenant Governor i n Council; amendments to the by-laws require the approval of the Director. The appointment of agents of a Society, or of the Director of C h i l d Welfare requires the approval of the Minister; otherwise a Children's; Aid Society has the power under the act to appoint i t s own s t a f f and "to do such other acts and things as may be neces-sary f o r the attainment of i t s objects and the exercise of i t s powers"? 1 Nova Scotia, C h i l d Welfare Act, Section 9. 2 Nova Scotia, C h i l d Welfare Act, Section 10, e. -50-An ssg ent of a Society has a l l the authority and powers of a constable, f o r the purpose of enforcing the Act as does an agent of the Director of C h i l d Welfare; namely, that he may "serve and execute any process issued under t h i s A c t " . 1 Children's Aid Society Financing Although the Children's Aid Societies are private agencies, they do not depend on voluntary contributions alone but are hea-v i l y subsidized by the government. Under the Act each Ch i l d -ren's Aid Society i s subsidized from the province's Consolidated Revenue Fund as follows: a) A sum equal to 20 percent of funds received i n the previous f i s c a l year from voluntary sources. Voluntary&sources; exclude, however, bequests, grants, or other subsidies, or income from endowments or investments. In f a c t the Act seems to be designed to re f e r p r i n c i p a l l y to the United Appeal a l l o -cation and to the donations of i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s . b) A sum equal to 20 per cent of funds the Society received i n the previous f i s c a l year as an operating grant (excluding payment f o r the care of wards) from the municipali-. . 2 t i e s . c) Payment f o r s p e c i f i e d services, including the super-v i s i o n of wards at $70.00 per person f o r .3 per cent of the population of the t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n served; by the Soci^. ety; $20.00 f o r a f i r s t adoption report and $10.00 f o r a  1 Nova Scotia, C h i l d Welfare Act, Section 16, 1. 2 Ibid., Section 14. - 5 1 -Table 1. Sources of Revenue by Relative Amounts of the Totals Received by Three Representative  Children's Aid Societies (Nova Scotia; 1963) SOURCES. SOCIETIES "A" ttgt? C.A.S. C• A.*S. C.A.S. a 55.6 60 Government 51.2 Voluntary 42.5 30 4 2 . 9 Other 1 3 1.9 10 5 . 9 Total 1 0 0 . 0 100.0 1 0 0 . 0 a. includes a l l l e v e l s of government b. includes i n t e r e s t on investments, donations other than United Appeal, and sundry receipts. c. approximate figures -52-second report on adoption placements that have been requested by the Director; f o r probation cases supervised by the Society at a maximum rate of $40.00 per case as determined by the Director. U n t i l 1962 the largest part of the subsidy consisted of a payment of $1,000.00 f o r every 10,000 population i n the j u r i s -d i c t i o n served by the Society. An amendment to the l e g i s l a -t i o n repealed t h i s section and al t e r e d the method of c a l c u l a t -ing subsidies. This made available an add i t i o n a l $30,000 f o r the S o c i e t i e s . Item (c) above came into e f f e c t as an amend-ment to the Regulations on A p r i l 1, 1962, but whether items a), b), and c) now represent the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l subsidy i s not made clear i n the material forwarded by the responding Societies or by the department. In order to qu a l i f y f o r the Government subsidy, the Soci-e t i e s must conform to cert a i n standards and methods of work. Under the Act the Lieutenant Governor i n Council prescribes these standards and methods in.~the regulations. A l l or part of the subsidy may be refused at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Minister i f these standards are not maintained. The subsidy may also be withheld i n part i f a Society does not provide f o r an un-trained worker to attend in-service t r a i n i n g classes provided by the department. The Regulations provide a schedule f o r the evaluation of the standards of the Societies i n which points are awarded f o r c e r t a i n procedures followed or services given. It i s divided into three sections:; organization (ten points), administra--53-t i o n (30 points), and services (60 points) f o r a t o t a l of 100 points. A score of 60 or more must be attained i n order to q u a l i f y f o r a government subsidy. The Regulations state that the evaluations must be made once yearly by the Director on the basis of a report submitted by each Society concerning i t s a c t i v i t i e s during the year. According to the Annual Report of the Department of Wel-fare p r o v i n c i a l subsidies account f o r almost 50 per cent of the revenue of a l l the Children's Aid Societies; i t therefore becomes e s s e n t i a l that the Societies meet the standards l a i d down by the Department. They are i n e f f e c t more accountable to the Government than to t h e i r own boards. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s provide anywhere from eight to twenty-five per cent of the budgets of the S o c i e t i e s . Under the Act the amount contributed toward operating expenses and s a l a r i e s of agents i s subject to the d i s c r e t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , thus explaining the wide range i n amount from j u r i s d i c t i o n to j u r i s d i c t i o n . This i n turn a f f e c t s the amount of the provin-c i a l subsidy a l l o t t e d — t h e l e s s the municipality grants, the l e s s the p r o v i n c i a l Government contributes. Societies appear to be i n a p o s i t i o n of having to convince the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of their' needs. The executive d i r e c t o r of one Children's Aid Society reports: I would hope that the expansion of service to the areas of . . . w i l l demonstrate p a r t i c u l a r l y to the municipal people the continuing value of the service and that they w i l l give due consideration to accept-ing the proposed formula . . . the formula being the c a l c u l a t i o n of a grant based on a -54-s p e c i f i e d amount per c a p i t a of po p u l a t i o n . Voluntary c o n t r i b u t i o n s make up the r e s t of the budget of the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . J u s t what c o n s t i t u t e s a vol u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n under the Act does not seem to be too c l e a r , however. As i n d i c a t e d above, the Act excludes c e r t a i n kinds of c o n t r i b u t i o n and income. One of the respondents c l a s s i f i e d such items as le g a c i e s under "Other sources of Income," Another c l a s s i f i e s as "Other" funds received from the United Appeal. Another, with non-government revenue of t h i r t y - f i v e per cent of t o t a l funds, places t h i r t y - o n e per cent under "Other" without s p e c i f y i n g the source. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i t , too, was received from the United Appeal. I f there are i m p l i c a t i o n s here that the agencies mentioned, do not consider United Appeal v o l u n t a r y but r a t h e r some form of required l e v y imposed on the business community, there are i m p l i c a t i o n s a l s o that these S o c i e t i e s see themselves as r e -c e i v i n g only token voluntary support. The Annual Report of A p r i l , 1962 i n d i c a t e s that the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of the"Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s i s a con-t i n u i n g problem. Reports t o the D i r e c t o r i n d i c a t e that the S o c i e t i e s need a d d i t i o n a l operating funds i f they are to con-tinue maintaining and improving s e r v i c e s . Of the twelve S o c i e t i e s , f i v e operated w i t h a small s u r p l u s , two had r e -venue s u f f i c i e n t t o equal expenditure, and f i v e operated with a d e f i c i t . Reduced amounts from United Appeal campaigns p a r t l y accounted f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s . Again, under the system of c a l c u l a t i n g p r o v i n c i a l s u b s i d i e s , the l e s s c o l -l e c t e d , the l e s s the government grant. -55-The system of a l l o t t i n g p r o v i n c i a l subsidies on the basis of evaluation of services pos&s a further question here. I f , i n f a c t , a Society i s unable to maintain i t s services owing to a lack of municipal and voluntary contribution, i t stands to s u f f e r a reduction i n or even a loss of i t s provinc-i a l subsidy as well. Cape Breton—a combined operation The c h i l d welfare agencies i n Cape Breton provide an i n t e -r e s t i n g exception to the structure f o r providing service to children as i t has been described so f a r . Instead of each agency operating within i t s own d i s t i n c t boundaries, the Children's Aid Society and the Department of Public Welfare undertook a single combined operation under a j o i n t service type of administration. There are two factors to be mentioned here, that probably contributed to such an arrangement. One i s the nature of Cape Breton i t s e l f . It i s an i s l a n d supported mainly by a r u r a l economy. It i s divided into four counties, but the bulk of the population (120,000) resides i n Sydney, the one main i n d u s t r i a l centre. The remaining 50,000 l i v e i n the r u r a l counties. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tend to give the area iden-t i t y as a u n i t . A second f a c t o r i s the way i n which the services developed. The Cape Breton Children's Aid Society was established i n 1916 but the Department of Public Welfare did not have a regional o f f i c e i n the area u n t i l 1943. Shortly thereafter problems arose f o r both the Society and the Department over shortages - 5 6 -of s t a f f , overlapping of services, and the s h i f t i n g of respon-s i b i l i t i e s from one agency to the other. A j o i n t arrangement was thought to be necessary, and the Director and the Board of the Children's Aid Society under-took to es t a b l i s h t h i s . Under the agreement which was put into e f f e c t i n 1947, the Society and the Regional Office combined under a j o i n t l y employed administrator. The cost of his salary i s shared; he serves at the same time as executive d i r e c t o r of the Children's Aid Society and Regional Admini-s t r a t o r of the Department of Public Welfare. The two agencies share the same o f f i c e accommodation. Each, however, employs i t s own s t a f f , but the j o i n t d i r e c t o r i s allowed f l e x i b i l i t y i n deploying both the professional and c l e r i c a l s t a f f as the need requires. This means i n practice that s t a f f from the Children's Aid Society could be used to perform functions f o r the Department of Public Welfare and vice versa. Each agency also maintains i t s own f i l e s with a cross reference system, and which are made available to the s t a f f of both. In a discussion of t h i s system appearing i n Canadian  Welfare, 1 July-August 1963, Mr. Caldwell, the author and Regional Administrator-Executive Director of t h i s combined agency, records that c r i t i c s of the program feared that the private agency would be submerged under such an arrangement. 1 Caldwell, G., "Combined Operation", Canadian Welfare, July-August 1963, v o l . 3 9 , no. 4 , Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, p. 157-159.. It was f e l t that the Board would lose the support and intere s t of the community, and that any decision to be made would u l t i -mately be made by the government. In discussing the Results, these fears are not referred to. Success of the arrangement i s expressed i n terms of a doubled budget, increase i n s t a f f and lowered s t a f f turnover. Of the 24 professional s t a f f employed, nine are employed by the Children's Aid Society. This f i g u r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i g h t of the above fears. In s t a f f meetings (the s t a f f meets; together) the Children's Aid Society s t a f f are i n the minority. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate whether the Board under such a system i n f a c t can have " f u l l and complete management, control, and disposal of the a f f a i r s , property and funds of the Society • e • Adoption Services Under the Adoption Act, the only service required r e l a t i n g to adoption i s the home study. In addition, however, most agencies provide home-finding, a s o c i a l and health assessment of the c h i l d , home supervision until-adoption, and presenta-t i o n of the c h i l d i n court. One of the smaller Children's Aid Societies which responded to the questionnaire held group meetings f o r adoptive parents. Services are also provided to unmarried mothers and w i l l be discussed here, since i t i s the children born out of wedlock f o r whom the majority of adoptive homes must be found. In the year ending March 31, 1962, 1 Constitution and By-Laws f o r the Children's Aid Society of Cape Breton. -58-children born out of wedlock accounted f o r 401 out of 47$ com-pleted adoptions. Generally speaking, i n providing services each agency i s responsible f o r i t s own j u r i s d i c t i o n , usually one or more counties, with the exception of the Halifax Children's Aid Society, and undertakes services f o r that j u r i s d i c t i o n to the-extent of i t s f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y or i t s conviction about the necessity of the service. Although the provision of adoption services as such i s not usually required i n the constitutions of the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s , t h i s extension of the scope of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i s covered i n the Regulations, made under the C h i l d Welfare Act, where i t i s stated that a Society may enter into an agreement with the Minis-t e r to perform functions not inconsistent with i t s objects or constitution^including the making of adop-t i o n home studies. . . In the evaluation schedule, under services, a Children's Aid Society i s encouraged to "supervise a l l the proposed adop-tions i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n and make reports and recommendations without delay". It i s recognized as good practice to evaluate adoption homes and to use selective methods of placement. The province maintains an Adoption Clearance Section f o r the use of a l l agencies engaged i n f i n d i n g adoptive homes f o r children i n t h e i r care. Not a l l agencies use t h i s service, however. In the Annual Report f o r March 31, 1962, figures indicate that out of 294 children placed by agencies, 100 were placed through 1 Nova Scotia, Regulations made under the Child Welfare Act, Section 10, 1. - 5 9 -the Adoption Clearance Section of the Department of S o c i a l Wel-fare . C h i l d caring i n s t i t u t i o n s provide a notable exception to the enlargement of adoption services by the c h i l d welfare agen-cies already discussed. There are eight of these i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the province, including one maternity home which also serves as a nursery f o r short-term stays (the average i s 21+ days). These are under various r e l i g i o u s auspices; two appear to be maintained e n t i r e l y by voluntary funds, the rest are subsi-dized from public funds to the extent of from fourteen to f o r t y -seven per cent. 1 They were responsible f o r the placing of 30 children i n adoptive homes i n the year ending March 31, 1962. Authority f o r t h i s i s given i n the Adoption Act, Section 5 , Subsection i+. According to t h i s statute a c h i l d may be given up f o r adoption to the Director, to a Children's Aid Society, or to an incor-porated charitable i n s t i t u t i o n or to a r e l i g i o u s organization f o r the purpose of adoption. Of the remaining number of completed adoptions, one was placed by an outside agency, and the remainder, a t o t a l of 183, were placed p r i v a t e l y , two-thirds of them with r e l a t i v e s . Although home studies were completed i n compliance with the statutes, these were not supervised adoption placements. Fur-ther, s t a t i s t i c s given i n the Annual Report show that the major portion of these children were born out-of-wedlock, i n d i c a t i n g 1 A l l S t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s section are from the Nova Scotia Department of Welfare Annual Report f o r the year ending March 31, 1962. -60-that a s i m i l a r number of unwed mothers did not receive service related to t h e i r own personal needs. In examining services provided to unmarried mothers, i t i s again pertinent to r e f e r to the schedule f o r evaluation of Children's Aid So c i e t i e s . Under the schedule, s a t i s f a c t o r y service i s f e l t to be given i f the agency acts promptly on r e f e r r a l s , provides casework services, and makes "creative use of community resources (and) constructive use of termination services". By examining s t a t i s t i c s alone, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the quality of services given, though something can be learned of t h e i r extent. S t a t i s t i c s indicate that 47 per cent of a l l unmarried mothers received service, e i t h e r f o r themselves or f o r the c h i l d , from an agency. The t o t a l number receiving service was 626. This percentage varied from eight percent i n Antogonish and Guysborough counties to 60 per cent i n Halifax county. The larger figure f o r Halifax i s probably influenced by the fac t that many unwed mothers would go to Halifax to seek temporary anonymity and help from an agency. Casework services are provided to unwed mothers by a l l agencies. Non-ward care, f o s t e r homes, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l care are a v a i l a b l e . The emphasis i s on the c h i l d , however, and casework services appear to be available only u n t i l the c h i l d i s placed or taken into care. Only three agencies provided service to the mother a f t e r the c h i l d had been p l a c e d — a t o t a l of twelve mothers were receiving such service at the time of - 6 1 -r e p o r t i n g . Cape Breton, again, presents a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e than the r e s t of the province. In a d d i t i o n t o the combined o f f i c e already d i s c u s s e d , there i s a C a t h o l i c agency, Diocesan C h a r i t i e s , which provides s e r v i c e t o unmarried mothers and arranges placement of c h i l d r e n . This agency was a c t i v e i n s l i g h t l y more than two-thirds of the cases of unmarried mothers i n the year ending March 31, 1962. The remaining t h i r d were handled by the Regional O f f i c e s e c t i o n of the combined opera-t i o n . According t o information returned on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the Regional O f f i c e may a l s o provide s e r v i c e t o Roman C a t h o l i c c l i e n t s , but they do so i n co-operation w i t h the Diocesan C h a r i t i e s i n home-finding. S i m i l a r l y , the Regional O f f i c e a s s i s t s i n providing*; s e r v i c e s t o the non-Catholic c l i e n t s of the Diocesan C h a r i t i e s . In October of 1962, however, a l l cases of unmarried mothers were t r a n s f e r r e d from the Regional O f f i c e t o the C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the Cape Breton C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y no longer takes instruments of consent t o place a c h i l d f o r adoption, but goes d i r e c t l y t o the J u v e n i l e Court on a wardship a c t i o n . 1 The p e r u s a l of the Adoption Act r e v e a l s no obvious l e g a l s a n c tion f o r t h i s a c t i o n . "The Judge may, at h i s d i s c r e t i o n , waive the t a k i n g of consents, i f the person whose consents are required ( i n t h i s case the mother's only) i s dead, of "unsound mind," cannot be found w i t h i n the province, or has 1 Executive D i r e c t o r ' s Annual Report, Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Cape Breton, May T<^, 1963, p. 1. - 6 2 -deserted or neglected or l e f t her c h i l d i n a charitable i n s t i t u -t i o n f o r a period of two years. None of these apply. A. f i n a l clause states that consents may be dispensed with i f the person i s "a person whose consent i n a l l circumstances of the case ought to be dispensed w i t h ; 1 t h i s might be interpreted generally enough to provide the basis f o r the practice i n Cape Breton. If the c h i l d i s apprehended and made a ward under the Ch i l d Welfare Act as a neglected c h i l d , then section 5, clause d, of the Adoption Act states that the Director may provide written consent to adoption.. Adoption i s f e l t by the Department and the agencies con-cerned to be a v i t a l function, and a great deal of emphasis i s placed^ on f i n d i n g suitable homes f o r children i n care. The Adoption Clearance Section makes a spe c i a l e f f o r t to place children with physical handicaps or of mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n . There i s a shortage of Roman Catholic adopting homes and, although the number of Roman Catholic adopting homes has increased recently, the need i s s t i l l described as urgent. One Executive Director's report indicated that the Chi l d -ren's Aid Society he represented had had trouble gaining accep-tance by the community and establishing a suitable public image, and only recently was beginning to lose i t s reputation as a "baby snatcher". It may be in f e r r e d from t h i s statement e i t h e r that services i n that area are improving or that they are being better interpreted to the community. 1 Nova Scotia, Adoption Act, Sections 5, 2, e. -63-Protection Services In providing f o r the care and protection of neglected children, both the Director, through his Regional O f f i c e , and the Societies provide services f o r t h e i r respective j u r i s d i c -t i o n s . Services include investigation of complaints, apprehen-sion of children considered neglected, provision of accommoda-t i o n f o r children taken into care, and casework with parents and children. O f f i c i a l s of both the public and the private agencies have equal power to apprehend neglected children. In the schedule, f o r evaluating t h i s service the regulations state that com-pla i n t s of neglect and r e f e r r a l s f o r investigation should be acknowledged and investigated promptly, and i f apprehension i s necessary the case should be prepared adequately and presented before the court. I f the c h i l d i s made a ward of the Minister he may be turned over to the care and custody of either the Director or of a Society, with the s t i p u l a t i o n that he i s not to be placed i n a home or i n s t i t u t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n than h i s own, or i n a home that i s not licensed. Each Society must make an annual report to the Director l i s t i n g by name a l l the wards i n i t s care. The t o t a l number of children made wards f o r the year ending March 31, 1962 ( a l l s t a t i s t i c s used i n t h i s section w i l l be taken from the A.'.nnual Report that year) rose to 295, an i n -crease of 91 over the previous year. More than half the - 6 4 -increased number were admitted through the Children's Aid Soci-ety of Halifax. This Is explainable i n part by the f a c t that Halifax has a high proportion of Nova Scotia's negro population; more negro unwed mothers are seeking aid than before, and t h e i r children are harder to place i n adoptive homes. Of the 295 children made wards 152 were children of unmarried mothers; 143 consisted of others i n need of protection, the major con-t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s being desertion, alcoholism, and poor hous-ing. The t o t a l number of wards i n care according to the Annual Report referred to here was 2302. Of these 1549 were placed i n boarding homes; that i s , any home i n which a ward i s maintained at the expense of the Director or of the Society. The amount paid i s |10.08 per week; the municipality contributes 64 cents per day. An a d d i t i o n a l 658 of the wards were i n other types of fos-t e r home arrangements such as free homes and wage homes, i n adoption probation homes, or with t h e i r parents ( s t i l l under the guardianship of the M i n i s t e r ) . Adequate supervision of wards i n f o s t e r homes, according to the evaluation schedule, consists of four v i s i t s per year to children under sixteen, two v i s i t s per year to children over sixteen. In the average num-ber of v i s i t s made only one Society f e l l below t h i s standard. One Society, with four workers, one of whom i s professional, averaged twelve v i s i t s per year to each of i t s 170 wards.. -65-These v i s i t s are to be made both to the f o s t e r parents and to the c h i l d alone. Other necessary services to wards, according to the evalu-ati o n schedule, include provision f o r education, recreation and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g , suitable clothing giving attention to the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l taste, an i n i t i a l medical and dental examination; , and the use of the Psychological Services pro-vided by the Province i f psychological assessment i s f e l t to be necessary.;. At the d i s c r e t i o n of the Director or a Society, a ward may be placed i n one of the eight c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s already mentioned. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s contribute $312. per year per c h i l d . These i n s t i t u t i o n s provided care f o r 412 c h i l d -ren during the year, ranging i n age from newborn to 20 years. Of the 204 s t i l l resident at the end of the year, 72 were wards of the Minister. The Director i s i n charge of inspection to see that i n s t i -tutions meet the standards l a i d down i n the regulations, and he also has the duty to "encourage and advise c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the provision of adequate f a c i l i t i e s " . The Director's Annual Report implies some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the service provided by these homes. While he reports that the standards of care are s a t i s f a c t o r y , there i s the sug-gestion made that "some change i n the function of our i n s t i t u -t i o ns i s necessary i f they are to continue to meet the e x i s t i n g needs of the c o m m u n i t y J u s t what t h i s change of function 1 Annual Report, p. 15*1 • 1 - 6 6 -i s t o be i s not i n d i c a t e d . The report f u r t h e r s t a t e s that the number of c h i l d r e n r e s i d e n t i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s rose by 30 over the l a s t year. This increase would add, to the f i n a n c i a l and s t a f f i n g problems already faced by the i n s t i t u t i o n s , and would appear t o be contrary t o the Department's p o l i c y of emphasizing adoption and f o s t e r home placement. There are no r e c e i v i n g homes i n Nova S c o t i a . One county maintained a r e c e i v i n g home f o r f i f t e e n years; i t was operated by the County Children's Aid S o c i e t y but i n 1962 i t was de-cided that i t was no longer f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e . Under the Act i t i s up t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h a r e c e i v i n g home f o r the use of both the D i r e c t o r and of the S o c i e t y . Other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which wards were placed included r e f o r m a t o r i e s , the Nova S c o t i a T r a i n i n g School f o r the m i l d l y r e t a r d e d , schools f o r the b l i n d and deaf, h o s p i t a l s and s a n i t o r i a . E i g h t wards were re s i d e n t i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n v o c a t i o n a l schools. Non-ward care i s not provided f o r under the C h i l d Welfare Act, but i n the r e g u l a t i o n made under the Act, s o c i e t i e s are encouraged t o arrange f o r i t where f e a s i b l e . A l l three C h i l d -ren's Aid S o c i e t i e s responding to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as w e l l as the Department of C h i l d Welfare, i n d i c a t e d that they offered t h i s s e r v i c e , but no s t a t i s t i c s were presented i n the Annual Report. I t i s probable that t h i s s e r v i c e i s included i n the t o t a l f i g u r e f o r c h i l d r e n i n care. Goals i n p r o t e c t i o n cases are expressed as being the recon-s t r u c t i o n of the f a m i l y where p o s s i b l e . Even a f t e r the c h i l d -67-has been removed i t i s f e l t that casework should be c a r r i e d on with the parents i n an e f f o r t to enable the c h i l d to be returned to them. There appears to be v a r i a t i o n i n the extent to which t h i s i s put into practice; one agency reported no caseworkibr parents when the c h i l d i s not i n the home; another reported that 20 f a m i l i e s were receiving t h i s service. (Total number of children i n care was 474)• The greatest needs perceived by the department at the moment are f o s t e r and group l i v i n g homes f o r adolescents, treatment centres f o r emotionally disturbed children, and Roman Catholic f o s t e r and adoptive homes. Adequate f i n a n c i a l support i s a continuing problem f o r a l l the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . It was noted also from the respondents' r e p l i e s that there are no provisions f o r homemaker services. Miscellaneous services an agency.may provide include the making of investigations and reports f o r the Director pertain-.ing to mother's allowances, s o c i a l assistance, school attend-ance, family allowances, divorce actions, medical s o c i a l r e f e r -r a l s , the provision of probation and parole services f o r juve-n i l e courts, and after-care services, although the exact nature of these i s not s p e c i f i e d i n the information a v a i l a b l e . CHAPTER 4 CHILD WELFARE SERVICES IN ONTARIO The C h i l d Welfare Act of Ontario provides f o r a variety of services designed to ensure the care and protection of children who otherwise would be deprived of adequate care"} The aim of the Act, as a r t i c u l a t e d i n the Foreword, i s intended to secure the r i g h t s of children and to safeguard them from deprivation and neglect. The methods include intervention,guidance, counselling and, sometimes, f o s t e r home care and adoption placement. The aim i s always to restore the c h i l d to the benefits of a sound and happy home l i f e . F i f t y - f i v e children's aid s o c i e t i e s , incorporated under The Corporations Act, are the o f f i c i a l instrument through which the province c a r r i e s out the intent of the C h i l d Welfare Act. These s o c i e t i e s have both the authority and the respon-s i b i l i t y to administer the Act through programs of service. Their j u r i s d i c t i o n s are usually determined by geographical or municipal boundaries. However, some j u r i s d i c t i o n s or areas, such as Metropolitan Toronto, Hamilton, and Essex: County are served by more than one society. The area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n these j u r i s d i c t i o n s depends upon both geographical bound-ar i e s and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . In Toronto, f o r example, the Metropolitan Children's Aid Society i s responsible f o r services; to a l l non-Catholic children and f a m i l i e s i n the metropolitan area, whereas the Catholic Children's Aid Society of Metro-p o l i t a n Toronto concerns i t s e l f with Catholics i n the same area.  1 Ontario, The Child Welfare Act. 2 Ibid., Foreword, p. 5. - 6 9 -The rationale of the establishment of a children's aid society i s included i n the C h i l d Welfare Act. The pertinent section reads: A children's a i d society may be established having among i t s objects the protection of children from neglect, the care and control of neglected children, assistance to unmarried parents, the placement of children i n adoption, the supervision of children placed i n adoption u n t i l an adoption i s made and generally the discharge of the functions of a c h i l d -ren's aid society under t h i s A c t . 1 C h i l d Welfare Branch The C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Department of Public Wel-fare does not carry out d i r e c t service to c l i e n t s , but acts i n a supervisory capacity to the s o c i e t i e s . The function of the Branch, with regard to the s o c i e t i e s , i s Through advice, supervision and inspection and the administration of grants, to insure continued improve-ment i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the 55 children's a i d s o c i -©t 1 © S j • • • With a f i e l d s t a f f of seventeen, eight of whom have had at l e a s t one year of post-graduate t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work, the Branch works toward i t s objective of improving the quality of services.3 Societies are v i s i t e d at l e a s t once a year. In addition to inspection, the f i e l d s t a f f i s available to advise s o c i e t i e s on various matters, such as the administration of 1 Ontario, C h i l d Welfare Act, section 6, subsection 1. 2 Ontario, 31st Annual Report 1961-62. Department of Public Welfare, Queen's Printer; Toronto, p. 21+. 3 For the purposes of comparison, the r a t i o of trained to untrained personnel i n one agency, the Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto i s as fallows: 139 p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained d i r e c t service workers to 21 in-service trained; 19 £rc3f&ssionally trained supervisors to 3 in-service trained supervisors. -70-new services, changes i n p o l i c y , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of new l e g i s l a t i o n . In addition to i t s supervisory and consultative function, the Branch also acts i n the capacity of a t r a i n i n g centre f o r workers of the children's a i d s o c i e t i e s . The Branch organizes and sometimes administers courses f o r workers. The Branch considers t h i s an important part of i t s function. The c o r o l l a r y must then be that, i f the function of t h i s Branch i s to advise, supervise and inspect with improvements i n services as i t s goal, the focus f o r the immediate future must be to a greater extent than r ever before s p e c i f i c a l l y the quality of the service. Towards t h i s end then, . . .active p a r t i c i p a t i o n was continued i n e f f o r t s to t r a i n and r e c r u i t more compe-tent s t a f f f o r the agencies served. 1 In 1961-62 the Branch designated a member of i t s s t a f f to carry out research into the treatment of children i n care, and to make recommendations to improve t h i s service.^ The Branch was concerned that children i n care might be subjected to greater i n s e c u r i t y and s u f f e r greater damage because of the movement from one set of f o s t e r parents to another. Prelimi-nary findings of the research project indicate that only one i n s i x cases of those children sampled remained i n a single f o s t e r home. The Annual Report .recommended the following: that attention be given to the development of group care f a c i l i t i e s ; that greater emphasis be put on f i n d i n g permanent adoption homes; and that consideration be given to reducing the number of children who are taken into care. The Branch 1 Ontario, 31st Annual Report, op. c i t . , p. 25. 2 Ibid., p. 13. -71-appears to be w i l l i n g to undertake research designed to improve the services necessary to carry out the Child Welfare Act, and to advise the s o c i e t i e s i n r a i s i n g the standards of care. The Branch also operates an adoption clearance service, through which babies born i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of one society may be adopted by parents l i v i n g i n another. This task requires co-ordination that i s more e a s i l y undertaken by a central P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e , than by 55 autonomous children's a i d s o c i e t i e s . For any one society the number of babies free f o r adoption and the number of approved adoptive homes are not always equal. The purpose of t h i s service i s to equalize t h i s imbalance, as much as i s possible, by informing the s o c i -e t i e s where the children i n need of parents are, and where the prospective adoptive parents are. With the co-operation of the s o c i e t i e s , the Branch i s also making a concerted e f f o r t to place f o r adoption children who are d i f f i c u l t to place, such as handicapped children. Children's Aid Societies Each society i s incorporated under the Corporations Act and i s governed by a board of d i r e c t o r s . The board i s elec-ted according to the by-laws of the society, with the stipu -l a t i o n i n the Ch i l d Welfare Act that one or more municipal o f f i c e r s be represented on the board. Furthermore, the Act requires s o c i e t i e s with more than nine directors to pass a by-law f o r the e l e c t i o n of an executive committee. Thus there Is l e g a l control over the composition of the board, but -72-i t i s s t i l l the society that elects i t s di r e c t o r s . The by-laws and amendments passed by the so c i e t i e s must be approved by the Minister of Public Welfare before they can be enforced.. The board of directors of a society appoints an executive d i r e c t o r who i s responsible to the board f o r the administration and enforcement of the Ch i l d Welfare Act and the society's con-s t i t u t i o n and by-laws. A minimum standard i s set by the Act. Before an executive can be appointed, he must meet ce r t a i n requirements as stated i n the Regulations to the Act. He must be t h i r t y or more years of age and have a degree or diploma from a un i v e r s i t y i n Canada and has (a) had experience of at least three years i n s o c i a l work i n Ontario with a children's a i d society; (b) or any other educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that together with his experience i n s o c i a l work are, i n the opin-ion of the Director (of the Child Welfare Branch) equivalent to the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s prescribed by clause a. 1 The authority of the Director of the Branch, or h i s appointees, to supervise and inspect the soc i e t i e s i s provided i n the C h i l d Welfare Act and the Regulations made under the Act. The Director s h a l l at a l l times have access to, and may inspect and supervise the inspection of any prop-erty controlled, operated or owned by a children's a i d society and he or his nominees may fronutiriie to time inspect any or a l l of i t s records. The Act permits the Director to investigate any home i n which a c h i l d i n care of a society i s placed. Although the authority 1 Ontario, The Chi l d Welfare Act, Regulations, Part I, sec-t i o n 1, subsection 1, clauses a and b. 2. Ibid. , Regulations, Part I, section 7. -73-i s granted the Director under law, pre sent iistaf f ing of the Branch almost precludes the active enforcement of t h i s author-i t y . There are seventeen f i e l d personnel assigned to super-vise and advise 55 s o c i e t i e s , as well as to carry out duties previously noted. Other procedures designed to permit a measure of inspec-t i o n include a monthly s t a t i s t i c a l report submitted by the soc i e t i e s to the Chi l d Welfare Branch. The form of the report, i s standardized by the Branch f o r a l l s o c i e t i e s . The inform-ation submitted i s concerned with a wide variety of services and practices. The Report informs s t a t i s t i c a l l y on;the l i v i n g ; arrangements f o r children i n the care of the society; cases terminated and f o r what reasons; boarding home applications and approvals; children on adoption probation; protection of children born out of wedlock; agreements with putative fathers; and s t a f f i n g . The monthly s t a t i s t i c a l : ; reports must accompany the ap p l i c a t i o n made each month f o r the installment, on the annual grant provided the so c i e t i e s by the province. In summary, then, the so c i e t i e s have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both public and private organizations. In the private sector, they ele c t t h e i r own board of di r e c t o r s , which i n turn appoints an executive d i r e c t o r and s t a f f . Each society has i t s own con-s t i t u t i o n , by-laws and p o l i c i e s . In the public sector, the so c i e t i e s carry out public r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as sp e c i f i e d i n the Child Welfare Act. The s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r progress of service are subject to supervision and inspection by a public -74-o f f i c i a l , namely the Director of the Child Welfare Branch or his appointees. The sanctions f o r f a i l i n g to comply with these regula-tions or to meet the standards set by the Branch are implied rather than s p e c i f i e d . According to the Act, the Lieutenant Governor holds wide powers to dissolve a society, but neither the grounds nor the procedures f o r d i s s o l u t i o n are stated. The pertinent section reads: The Lieutenant Governor may at any time dissolve a children's a i d society on such date as the order pro-vides, and upon the d i s s o l u t i o n of a society i t s property vests i n the Crown to be held and disposed, of i n such-^a manner as the Lieutenant Governor deter-mines. The terseness of t h i s section quite obviously does not take into consideration the planning needed to dissolve a society, which has custody of numbers of children, and i s supervising others i n t h e i r own or i n adoptive homes. The lack of regula-tions governing the power to dissolve a society suggests that t h i s i s not a sanction which can be f e a s i b l y used, except per-haps i n extreme circumstances. The measures f o r the s o c i e t i e s ' accountability to the Branch would seem to be l i m i t e d without provisions f o r sanctions. Financing The method of financing constitutes another public charac-t e r i s t i c of the children's aid s o c i e t i e s . Much of the revenue 1 Ontario, C h i l d Welfare Act, op. c i t . , section 10. - 7 5 -of the s o c i e t i e s comes from public sources."'* Out of a t o t a l of $15,118,442 allocated f o r c h i l d welfare services i n the pro-vince, 89.1 per cent i s received from governments. Voluntary fund r a i s i n g drives, such as Community Chest campaigns account f o r 6 .3 per cent. The remaining 4 . 6 per cent comes from mis-cellaneous sources such as membership fees, interest and dona-ti o n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds received by the 55 s o c i e t i e s i s shown i n Table 2. The picture of financing f o r i n d i v i d u a l agencies i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the three representative agencies c i t e d i n Table 2. Three l e v e l s of government ( p r o v i n c i a l , municipal and federal) contribute to the revenues of the s o c i e t i e s . The largest proportion comes from municipal governments which sup-2 port 76.5 per cent of public funds received by the s o c i e t i e s , with the p r o v i n c i a l government contributing 17.7 per cent and the f e d e r a l government 5.8 per cent. (See Table 3 ) . Public moneys are provided under two categories. Each l e v e l of government contributes i n the form of outright grants; and each l e v e l pays f o r the maintenance of children who ar e , i n the care and/or custody of the society, and f o r whose support 3 the government i s l i a b l e under the C h i l d Welfare Act. The 1 Figures of financing are f o r the year ending December 31, 1961, and are derived from those tabulated i n Ontario, 31st  Annual Report, 1961-62. 2 The p r o v i n c i a l government refunds 40 per cent of municipal funds that are paid f o r the maintenance of children. 3 This includes children whose parents seek care on a volun-tary basis, and who are therefore i n the care, but not the cus-tody of a children's a i d society. - 76 -(Ontario; 1961) Amounts i n thousands of d o l l a r s SOURCES SOCIETIES 55 S o c i e t i e s "A"C.A.S. "B"C.A.A. "C'C.A.S. Government 3 $ Federated Drive 0ther b Amount Per Cent Amount Cent Amount Cent Amount Cent 13,465 946 708 89.I 6.3 4.6 $3,337 361 71 88.5 9.6 1.9 $407 72 20 81.6 14.4 4.0 $113 6 95.0 5.0 T o t a l 15,119 100.0 3,769 100.0 499 100.0 119 100.0, 5* Includes m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. ® Includes money received from parents and guardians, donations other than from Community Chest or other Campaigns, member-ship f e e s , i n t e r e s t , and sundry r e c e i p t s . Table 3. Sources of Government Financing of INTENT GOVERNMENT P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l Federal T o t a l Grants Maintenance of C h i l d r e n $ 596,321 1,780,712 $ 683,043 9,62o,976C $ 47,9l6 a 735,937b $ 1,327,280 12,137,625 T o t a l Percentage of t o t a l 2,377,033 17.7 10,304,019 76.5 783,853 5.8 13,464,905 100.0 a From Indian A f f a i r s Branch of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. 1 3 From Indian A f f a i r s Branch, and from Family Allowances. c F o r t y per cent i s refunded t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by the p r o v i n c i a l government. * Source of f i g u r e s : Ontario, 31st; J l n j u a l Report 1961-62, op. c i t . , pp. 62 and 63. -77-maintenance payments from the f e d e r a l l e v e l c o n s i s t of Family Allowances which are payable by the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare t o a l l c h i l d r e n , and money f o r the support of Indian c h i l d r e n from the Indian A f f a i r s Branch of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. P r o v i n c i a l grants are annually awarded the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , as authorized i n the C h i l d Welfare Act. The purpose of these grants, as stated i n the Regulations t o the Act, i s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the home of a parent, and r e q u i r i n g s u p e r v i s i o n by a s o c i e t y . The Regu-l a t i o n s provide a formula f o r determing the amount of the annual grant, and the procedures f o r applying f o r the grant. Each s o c i e t y annually r e c e i v e s a sum equal t o $100 per employee, or a t o t a l of $150, whichever i s g r e a t e r . Those s o c i e t i e s which operate i n a t e r r i t o r y without municipal o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c e i v e an a d d i t i o n a l sum, ranging from $1,500 f o r a popula-t i o n under 5,000, to a grant of $5,000 f o r a population of 15,000. 1 The p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o makes a v a i l a b l e grants covering up to 25 per cent of the cost of new b u i l d i n g s . Annual grants are paid i n twelve monthly i n s t a l l m e n t s . Each s o c i e t y i s required t o submit a form requesting the i n s t a l l m e n t each month; t h i s form accompanies the monthly s t a t i s t i c a l report on the s o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s . Per-diem maintenance r a t e s f o r each c h i l d are estab-l i s h e d Ontario, C h i l d Welfare Act, Regulations, s e c t i o n 6. -78-by order of a judge, or by a magistrate designated as a judge f o r the purposes of the C h i l d Welfare Act. Each children's a i d society applies to the Court i n February of each year f o r i t s rate f o r the year, and gives notice to the muni c i p a l i t i e s concerned of the hearing and of the rate asked. The s o c i e t i e s set t h e i r rates according to a complex formula established i n the Regulations under the Act. The formula takes into account the cost of caring f o r and supervising wards, the administra-t i v e expenses of the society and the yearly t o t a l of the num-2 ber of days i n which a society provides f o r each c h i l d . The judge may hear representations^"rom the society, and any muni-c i p a l i t y which wishes to be heard, and then makes an order establishing the per diem maintenance rate per c h i l d . For that year t h i s w i l l be the rate paid to the society by the muni c i p a l i t i e s f o r children i n care. Duties of Children's Aid Societies The major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the children's a i d s o c i e t i e s consist of the protection and care of neglected children, adop-t i o n services, and help to unmarried parents. In areas with l i m i t e d s o c i a l welfare resources, some so c i e t i e s provide a program of family counselling f o r f a m i l i e s where the protection 1 of children i s not an issue. The so c i e t i e s may be retained on a fee f o r service basis to make the necessary investigations 1 Ontario, C h i l d Welfare Act, Regulations, sections 17 and 18. 2 Figures are based on the•previous f i s c a l year. -79-and f i l e a court report, regarding the custody of children i n divorce actions.''' In I960 there were 2,000 divorce actions which required such a report. Protection duties involve a variety of services. Agents of the so c i e t i e s investigate reports of neglect, and i f the study so indicates they attempt to work with the family i n order to improve the s i t u a t i o n and a l l e v i a t e the circumstances which constitute neglect. When a society cannot e f f e c t what i t perceives to be improvement, i t s agents may decide to remove the c h i l d from the home f o r his protection. This action, r e f e r -red to as apprehension, requires court decision f o r the purpose of protecting the c h i l d by giving the society custody. The majority of court decisions giving wardship to the society consist of temporary wardship which must be j u d i c i a l l y reviewed f o r further action within two years.^ In subsequent action, the c h i l d i s usually returned to the parental home, or committed to the care and custody of the society as a per-manent ward. Casework services are given to the parents when the children are out of the home, i n order to prepare the home f o r the return of the children. The figures f o r the discharge 1 These duties are carried out on behalf of and under the supervision of the O f f i c i a l Guardian, who i s a public defen-der of the estate r i g h t s of children. 2. Of the t o t a l court dispositions giving the s o c i e t i e s wardship, 66.5 per cent are f o r temporary wardship. This fig u r e i s obtained from: Ontario, 31st Annual Report 1961- 62, op. c i t . , p. 59. -80-of children from care reveal that 46 per cent of them are returned to t h e i r parents or guardians."1" The implication that, can be drawn from the rates of temporary commitments and of discharge from care i s that protection services are seen as the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the home to the l e v e l that children can be returned with safety. Circumstances i n some f a m i l i e s con-tra- i n d i c a t e the return of the children, who may then be com-mitted to the permanent care of the society. Some parents may be unable to care f o r t h e i r children, and may request a society to care f o r t h e i r children. The society, i f i t wishes, may meet t h i s request without taking court action to make the children wards of the society. This i s referred to as non-ward care. I f the municipality has passed a by-law authorizing non-ward care, i t i s l i a b l e f o r the costs of maintenance of children i n non-ward care. To accommodate children i n t h e i r care a children's a i d society requires r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s . About half of the so c i e t i e s maintain receiving homes that serve as temporary shelters when the children are removed from t h e i r homes. Receiving homes are generally small, or are divided into small units housing up to ten or twelve children. They are main-tained by the society and are managed by r e s i d e n t i a l parents employed by the society. Other s o c i e t i e s may use previously screened private homes f o r emergency shelter. Approximately 6 6 . 6 per cent of children i n care reside i n fo s t e r boarding 1 Ontario, 3'1 st Annual Report 1961-62, op. c i t . , p. 61 . - S i -homes, which are private homes receiving a monthly maintenance rate paid by the society f o r each ward placed i n the home. The, next largest group, consisting of 15.9 per cent of a l l c h i l d -ren i n care, are i n adoption probation homes. The remainder are housed i n temporary shelters and institutions."'' The use of f o s t e r homes as residences f o r children i n care requires an active program of home fi n d i n g , i n v e s t i g a t i o n and supervision. Applicants f o r f o s t e r parenthood are obtained through responses to advertisements and from i n q u i r i e s . A f t e r an i n i t i a l telephone screening, s t a f f members v i s i t the home to interview the applicants and to determine t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a c h i l d . When a home i s approved and a c h i l d i s placed, s t a f f members p e r i o d i c a l l y v i s i t to inspect the home and help the f o s t e r parents with problems they may have with the s o c i -ety's ward. Some larg e r s o c i e t i e s operate a separate Home Finding Department to es t a b l i s h f o s t e r and adoption homes. In addition to providing residences f o r children i n care, the s o c i e t i e s are also responsible f o r clothing and educating xirards, and f o r obtaining medical and dental care. Some larger s o c i e t i e s operate medical and dental c l i n i c s f o r t h e i r wards, and use consultative services of s p e c i a l i s t s such as psychia-t r i s t s and psychologists. Casework services are provided to the children. However, the l e v e l of the casework services may vary among the s o c i e t i e s , and w i l l depend on the t r a i n i n g of the s t a f f and upon the number of children assigned to each 1 Ontario, 31st Annual Report 1961-62, op. c i t ; , p. 60. -82-worker. The s o c i e t i e s are involved i n a l l adoptions i n the pro-v i n c e . When adoptions are arranged by p r i v a t e p a r t i e s , the l o c a l s o c i e t y , at the request of the D i r e c t o r of the C h i l d Wel-f a r e Branch, i n v e s t i g a t e s the circumstances of parents apply-ing f o r an adoption order, and f i l e s a rep o r t f o r the Court. The m a j o r i t y of adoptions (78 per cent) are arranged by the s o c i e t i e s . This i n v o l v e s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a p p l i c a n t s , and stud i e s of the backgrounds and present c o n d i t i o n of the c h i l d -ren. When the c h i l d r e n are placed i n adoptive homes, the So c i e t y supervises the home f o r the s i x month probation p e r i o d . This i n v o l v e s v i s i t s t o the home by a s t a f f member, and can include advice and help f o r adoptive parents. Reports are then f i l e d f o r Court hearing of the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r adoption. The s o c i e t i e s ' programs of s e r v i c e t o unmarried parents ( u s u a l l y t o the mother) are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to adoption ser-v i c e s . This i m p l i c a t i o n i s drawn from the f i g u r e s which r e v e a l that 73.6 per cent of adoptions completed i n 1961 involved c h i l d r e n of unmarried parents. This s e r v i c e c o n s i s t s of case-work help t o the expectant mother around planning f o r the perio d before the b i r t h of the baby and f o r h i s f u t u r e care. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Met-r o p o l i t a n Toronto w i l l be used t o i l l u s t r a t e the operation of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y . The Toronto S o c i e t y i s the l a r g e s t of the 55 c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n Ontario. Membership i s open to any c i t i z e n f o r a two d o l l a r annual fee. The Society i s a private agency governed by a board of directors elected., by the membership. Two members of the Board are appointed by the municipality. Although i t i s a private agency, the Society administers p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and i s l a r g e l y financed by public f u n d s . I t s j u r i s d i c t i o n extends to the l i m i t s of Met-ropo l i t a n Toronto, excluding Catholic f a m i l i e s and children. In order to provide service more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h i s large area three branch o f f i c e s are maintained. The objective of the Society i s to protect children from neglect and cruelty. However, the Society's concept of pro-t e c t i o n i s extended to emphasize the improvement of the hiome si t u a t i o n , where possible, i n the b e l i e f that Whenever possible children should remain within t h e i r natural f a m i l i e s to grow up l i k e other children i n the community. 2 Thus an important part of the work of the Society i s to re-es t a b l i s h the home on a sound basis or, alt e r n a t e l y , to pro-vide a permanent home, preferably an adoptive home. A s t a f f of 170, including 139 with at least one year of professional s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , provides d i r e c t service to c l i e n t s . These s t a f f members are supervised by nineteen super-visors who have professional s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , and by three supervisors with in-service or other t r a i n i n g . Other profes-s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s are employed, f o r example nurses and psy-chologists; consultative services are available from psychia-1 Table 1. ("A" C.A.S.) shows/the percentage as 89.1 f o r 1961. 2 Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, 1962 Annual  Report. Toronto. -84-t r i s t s . Medical and dental c l i n i c s are held to provide a pre-ventive and remedial service. Some 300 volunteers contribute i n various ways, such as by helping i n c l i n i c s , c o l l e c t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g toys on s p e c i a l occasions, and providing items of clothing f o r children. They do not serve c l i e n t s d i r e c t l y . In 1962 the Society placed 683 children i n adoptive homes! The policy i s to place children i n adoptive homes as soon as possible. A greater e f f o r t has been made i n the l a s t ten years to f i n d adoptive homes f o r children who have not been easy to place because of age, physical handicap or r a c i a l background. The protection department investigates complaints of neg-l e c t and provides casework services to f a m i l i e s whose l e v e l of c h i l d care i s considered below the minimum necessary f o r the well-being and development of the children. There are also l i m i t e d homemaker services available to keep f a m i l i e s together ' i n times of emergency, such as during h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n of the mother. Counselling services are also available to unmarried parents, although usually the focus i s on planning f o r the future of the c h i l d and on obtaining support from the putative father. A t o t a l of 10,292 r e f e r r a l s concerning protection and unmarried parent services were dealt with i n 1962. When children must be removed from t h e i r homes, the-. Society i s responsible f o r providing f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r care. 1 Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, 1962  Annual Report. Toronto. 2 ISid. -85-This applies even when children are temporarily i n care, and casework help i s being given to the parents i n an e f f o r t to prepare the home f o r the return of the children. The Society operates a Receiving Center and has available three private homes f o r emergency admissions.. The Receiving Center i s d i v i -ded into three units of eight beds each f o r children from six to sixteen y e a r s . 1 Infants are not placed i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , but are cared f o r i n f o s t e r homes i n the community. From the emergency shelters children may be placed i n f o s t e r homes, returned to t h e i r own parents, or placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . Although the Society operates some group l i v i n g homes f o r older children, most of the children i n care are i n f o s t e r homes. These are private f a m i l i e s i n the community who agree to care f o r wards of the Society i n return f o r payment ranging from $45 to $60 per month. In addition to the maintenance payment the Society provides clothing, money f o r educational needs, and medical and dental care f o r t h e i r wards. The Soci-ety maintains a Special Purposes Fund, b u i l t of private con-t r i b u t i o n s , forr-such items as higher education f o r children whose wardship has been terminated because they have reached the age of eighteen. The use of f o s t e r homes involves a range of personal ser-vices including home fi n d i n g , investigation, and supervision. 1 Children's Aid Societies of Metropolitan Toronto, Some  Important Facts.. Toronto; 1963. (mimeographed) 2 Ibid., p. 4 -86-The children i n f o s t e r homes also have casework services a v a i l -able to them. The Catholic Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto Catholic children and f a m i l i e s i n Metropolitan Toronto are served by the Catholic Children's Aid Society. This Society i s smaller than the Toronto Children's Aid Society and operates on on an annual budget of #2,025,64$ i n contrast to 13,767,762.'"" Both Societies derive t h e i r functions from the same statutory source, The Ch i l d Welfare Act and Regulations of Ontario. They are s i m i l a r i n many respects. The Catholic Society's objectives coincide with those of the other Society, namely care and protection of children, preferably i n t h e i r own homes. Casework services to children and parents and to unmarried par-ents, the operation of admission centres, group l i v i n g homes and f o s t e r homes a l l are part of the Catholic Society's pro-gram. The Society i s a private agency with i t s own board but administers p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n on behalf of Catholic fami-l i e s and i s supported primarily by public funds; 95 per cent of i t s revenue i s received from governments. The major d i f f e r -ence between the two Societies i s the close association between the Catholic Society and the Catholic Church. The Annual Report i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s t i e i n the following statements: As a Catholic agency we must ever be mindful of the philosophy of Catholic c h i l d care. . .The goal of the Catholic Church f o r homeless and hurt Catholic c h i l d -ren i s that these children may grow i n wisdom and 1 Ontario, 31st Annual Report 1961-62, op. c i t . , p. 63. -87-grace to serve and love God and t h e i r neighbors. 1 The t h e o l o g i c a l associations of the two Societies may d i f f e r , but t h e i r concept of what constitutes good c h i l d care appears to coincide when carried out i n p r a c t i c e . Ontario Association of Children's Aid Societies The Ontario Association of Children's Aid Societies i s an association of the 55 children's aid s o c i e t i e s and serves as a clearing house f o r information and as a medium f o r c o l l e c t i v e action. Incorporated i n 1920, the Association i s supported mainly by the s o c i e t i e s , although about ten per cent of i t s revenue comes from the P r o v i n c i a l government. The Association aims to improve standards regarding the practices and ethics of the agencies' personnel, and to develop uniformity i n the basic p o l i c i e s and procedures of the agencies. The formulations of the Association are not binding on the agencies but serve as a guideline f o r good service. Public r e l a t i o n s programs, on behalf of a l l the children's aid s o c i e t i e s , are c a r r i e d out by the Association. No examples of s p e c i f i c improvements traceable to t h i s Association were found i n the questionnaire and material returned by i t . The implication therefore i s drawn that the Association serves primarily as the c o l l e c t i v e voice of the children's aid s o c i e t i e s . Miscellaneous In addition to i t s supervisory and consultative services to the children's a i d s o c i e t i e s , the C h i l d Welfare Branch of 1 Catholic Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, 69th Annual Report 1962. Toronto. -38-the Department of Public Welfare administers two p r o v i n c i a l Acts that are d i r e c t l y related to the care and welfare of children, although they are not part of the Ch i l d Welfare Act. Under the Children's Boarding Homes Act, enacted In 1957, the Branch licenses and supervises any premises housing f i v e of more children not related to each other. This excludes r e s i -dences supervised under other statutes. The administration of t h i s Act insures a minimum standard of physical conditions and supervision of children i n these homes. The Branch also super-vises and promotes the improvement of services given by 1+2 i n s t i t u t i o n s incorporated under the Charitable I n s t i t u t i o n s Act."1* Twenty-six of these i n s t i t u t i o n s are f o r children, and of the t o t a l number of persons served by a l l the i n s t i t u t i o n s , approximately SO per cent were under 21 years of age. The re s u l t s of the Branch's supervision can be seen i n the modifi-cation of the programs of some of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . From establishments containing large numbers of children treated impersonally, some i n s t i t u t i o n s have broken down t h e i r residen-t i a l arrangements into smaller group u n i t s , and have consider-ably increased the r a t i o of s t a f f to children. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the more progressive children's i n s t i -tutions i s the Protestant Children's Homes of Toronto. As a private agency i t receives 93 per cent of i t s revenue from 2 voluntary and private sources. The association places and supervises children i n f o s t e r homes, when parents request t h i s 1 Touzel and Burke, op. c i t . , p. 34. 2 As reported i n the Questionnaire (Appendix A., 2). -89-service. No dormitory type i n s t i t u t i o n i s operated, and thus the children have a normal family l i f e preserved f o r them. In addition to supervising f o s t e r homes, the s t a f f of ten ( a l l with at least one year of professional t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work) provides after-care counseling services f o r f a m i l i e s a f t e r the children are returned home. This year the Protestant Children's Home plans to begin a two year demonstration project concerning day care f o r children. The association plansSto approve and supervise day-care f o s t e r homes suitable f o r pre^ school children of working mothers. Reform I n s t i t u t i o n s Other i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r children exist under the j u r i s d i c -t i o n of the Department of Reform I n s t i t u t i o n s . This Department: operates the j a i l s and reformatories i n the province, as well as nine t r a i n i n g schools f o r children, and a diagnostic and reception centre f o r g i r l s . Children who are committed to t h e s e - i n s t i t u t i o n s have been found delinquent by the Court. The C h i l d Welfare Act governs some of these offences, and the Court has the a l t e r n a t i v e of dealing with these children under the Schools Training Act or as neglected children under the Child Welfare A c t . 1 A l l children committed to a t r a i n i n g school become the wards of the school u n t i l they reach the age of eighteen or u n t i l wardship i s terminated by the Court. The municipality pays a perdiem rate f o r each c h i l d so committed. Four of the t r a i n i n g schools are large i n s t i t u t i o n s housing between 130 1 Ontario, Child Welfare Act, section 36 and 3&-- 9 0 -and 250 children.• They provide academic and vocational t r a i n -ing, and have available psychological, psychiatric and s o c i a l work services. One smaller school, housing 50 boys, i s a more r e s t r i c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n u t i l i z e d f o r boys that are found to be unmanageable i n the other schools. Two smaller centres f o r g i r l s give greater emphasis to treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The f i r s t such i n s t i t u t i o n , the Reception and Diagnostic Center f o r g i r l s i n Gait, Ontario, i s divided into two sections. The Reception and Diagnostic Center receives newly committed g i r l s f o r t e s t i n g and orientation before they proceed t5o t r a i n i n g schools. The treatment unit receives g i r l s who have been unable to adapt to t r a i n i n g schools, and i t s purpose i s to provide adequate counseling services to enable the g i r l s to return to the schools. The second treatment oriented school i s available to younger g i r l s who are not i n need of the more r e s t r i c t i v e schools. This centre houses twenty g i r l s i n a home-like atmosphere, and allows f o r more contact with the community; f o r example stu-dents i n t h i s centre attend the l o c a l high school. The Department of Reform I n s t i t u t i o n s also supervises three t r a i n i n g schools operated under private auspices. The Training School i n A l f r e d , Ontario, i s one of the three, and i s essent-i a l l y a private i n s t i t u t i o n supported e n t i r e l y by public fundsS and supervised by a government department?," One hundred and eighty-three children are committed to the care of t h i s School, under statutes dealing with juvenile delinquency. Not a l l are ~ 1 Information concerning the t r a i n i n g schools operated by the Department of Reform I n s t i t u t i o n s was obtained from: Touzel and Burke, op. c i t . , pp. 5 3 - 5 6 . 2 Source of information i s the returned questionnaire (see Appendix A, 2 ) . -91-housed i n the School, since 51 are placed i n fo s t e r homes approved and supervised by the School. The School also has a program of counseling services available to fa m i l i e s when the children are i n t h e i r own homes; at present 211 fa m i l i e s are receiving counseling. Out of a s t a f f of 45 employed to give d i r e c t service to the children, f o s t e r homes and f a m i l i e s , not one has been trained i n a school of .social work. CHAPTER 5 CHILD WELFARE SERVICES IN SASKATCHEWAN The major s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r c h i l d care i n Saska-tchewan are contained i n the C h i l d Welfare Act, R.S.S. 1953. There are two main agencies re s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the Act, and f o r p r o v i d i n g the s e r v i c e s required by i t . These are the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and the J u v e n i l e Court, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the program of the C h i l d Welfare Branch i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d and s e r v i c e s are implemented through ten r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . The range of these s e r v i c e s w i l l be elabo-rated l a t e r . The goals of the p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s are, b r i e f l y s t a t e d , t o ensure adequate p h y s i c a l care w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n the province; t o enhance c o n d i t i o n s which are conducive t o healthy development of c h i l d r e n , p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , p r e f e r a b l y w i t h i n t h e i r own homes and, as a l a s t r e s o r t i f preventive s e r v i c e s are not enough, t o appre-hend the c h i l d and provide a s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e home f o r him. The aims of the adoption s e r v i c e s are t o provide s u i t -able parents f o r c h i l d r e n who need f a m i l i e s and t o help par-ents who r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r c h i l d r e n to do so i n the l e a s t harm-f u l and most conclusive manner. A. Functions^ ,ano\_ S e r v i c e ^ J . n P r o t e c t i o n Any agency or i n d i v i d u a l who i s concerned f o r the welfare of a c h i l d can supply information t o the workers of the Depart-ment and i t i s the duty of the s o c i a l worker t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l such complaints. Complaints concerning the care and treatment a c h i l d i s r e c e i v i n g may be met by any i n t e r e s t e d person. In - 93 -the case of complaint, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out by the s o c i a l worker t o determine the a u t h e n t i c -i t y of the r e p o r t . The parents concerned are i n t e r -viewed and an assessment i s made of the f a m i l y ' s t o t a l circumstances. A d e c i s i o n i s made by the s o c i a l worker and the su p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e , as t o whether the c h i l d involved i s being adequately cared f o r , i s l i k e l y t o become neglected, or i s p r e s e n t l y neglected. I f the c h i l d i s being adequately cared f o r , the case i s c l o s e d . I f i t i s decided that there are elements of neglect i n the s i t u a t i o n , then help i s offered t o the parent or guardian t o improve t h e . s i t u a t i o n . 1 I f the s o c i a l worker decides that the neglect i s such that the c h i l d seems t o be i n need of p r o t e c t i o n as defined i n the Act, the worker can enter the home without a warrant and apprehend the c h i l d f o r i t s p r o t e c t i o n . This i s done only i n extreme cases of n e g l e c t , where there i s no parent a v a i l a b l e , or where preventive or a m e l i o r a t i v e casework s e r v i c e i s refused by the parent. I f the s o c i a l worker does apprehend the c h i l d , he then places him i n a temporary f o s t e r home or i n some other c u s t o d i a l f a c i l i t y pending the hearing of the case i n Court. The department a l s o provides care t o c h i l d r e n without apprehending them. Parents can enter i n t o w r i t t e n agreements wit h the department f o r the p r o v i s i o n and h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d f o r a temporaryjperiod. U s u a l l y t h i s i s done only when the parent i s t e m p o r a r i l y unable t o provide f o r the c h i l d due t o i l l n e s s or other emergent circumstances. Such "non-ward" care i s a l s o provided f o r some c h i l d r e n who w i l l need f o s t e r homes while r e c e i v i n g o u t - p a t i e n t treatment at Mental Health C l i n i c s or at general h o s p i t a l s which are a long Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, C h i l d Welfare S e r v i c e s , Wp^k ^ogramme f o r the ^ F i s c a l Year of 1962-63, the Budget Bureau""; - 9k -d i s t a n c e from t h e i r own homes. In 1962-63, 91 c h i l d r e n were admitted t o care as non-wards. 1 The department p r o v i d e s continuous s e r v i c e s t o i t s c h i l d -ren i n c a r e . These i n c l u d e the r e c r u i t m e n t and s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e f o s t e r homes, the s u p e r v i s i o n of wards i n these homes, and the c o u n s e l l i n g of f o s t e r p a r e n t s . These s e r v i c e s are p a r t of the broader p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n t h a t the depart-ment i s p r o v i d i n g f o r the maintenance of c o n d i t i o n s which are f r e e of n e g l e c t , but might otherwise become v u l n e r a b l e t o i t . T h i s i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n as the department must enfo r c e a p p r o p r i a t e standards of c h i l d care f o r i t s own wards i f i t i s t o j u s t i f y i t s power t o take a c t i o n a g a i n s t n a t u r a l parents who n e g l e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F o r some c h i l d r e n who are committed t o the care of the m i n i s t e r i t i s l e s s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home. Although the m a j o r i t y of these wards are i n f o s t e r homes (1 ,729 out of 2,613 or 66 per cent of a l l wards i n 1962-63, see Table I) there are others who, because of s p e c i a l needs and circum-stances, are i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . As w i t h a l l wards, the D i r e c t o r of C h i l d Welfare e x e r c i s e s h i s l e g a l g u a r d i a n s h i p with these c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . The D i r e c t o r i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n who are cared f o r by p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , even though many of these c h i l d r e n may not be wards. These c h i l d r e n are known t o him because he i s informed of the admission and discharge 1 Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , C h i l d Welfare Branch, 1962-63 S t a t i s t i c s , p. CW-1. - 95 -of every c h i l d cared f o r by p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the same way that c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes can be i n a p o t e n t i a l l y n e g l e c t f u l s i t u a t i o n , so too can c h i l d r e n who are placed i n p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; i n f a c t , neglect can be more of a p o s s i -b i l i t y i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , where the i n d i v i d u a l care which each c h i l d r e c e i v e s may be much l e s s than i n a f a m i l y home. For t h i s reason, s o c i a l workers from the C h i l d Welfare Branch make r e g u l a r i n s p e c t i o n s of i n s t i t u t i o n s t o determine the standard of care being provided t o the c h i l d r e n . 1 Preventions of problems i n c h i l d care i s an important focus of the p r o t e c t i o n programme offered by the Department. For example, the s u p e r v i s i o n of p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s which care f o r c h i l d r e n i s perceived as part of the c a s e - f i n d i n g and preventive part of p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l workers provide f a m i l y casework s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s i n which there i s p o t e n t i a l neg-l e c t . This s e r v i c e w i l l strengthen the home r e l a t i o n s h i p s so that the c h i l d ' s needs can be met w i t h i n the f a m i l y . S o c i a l workers help parents understand the reasons f o r the behaviour of a d i f f i c u l t c h i l d . This s e r v i c e w i l l encourage the parents i n understanding appropriate ways of c a r i n g f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . As a r e s u l t of such a c t i v i t i e s , the c h i l d may not have p t o be removed from the home. I t may be that these f a m i l i e s come t o the agency because of a r e c o g n i t i o n that they need these casework s e r v i c e s , or they may be r e f e r r e d by t h e i r doctor, a p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse, or another s o c i a l agency. In a d d i t i o n , 1 In the case of wards placed i n p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Branch workers provide s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s ; these w i l l be el a b -orated below. 2 op.. . c i t . , p. 8. - 96 -the department i t s e l f may o f f e r these services to the families on the basis of the information gained through case-finding a c t i v i t i e s . For instance, when the parents of a c h i l d are i n -volved in a court action f o r divorce and/or custody, the de-partment makes an investigation from which i t can furnish the court with information and recommendations concerning the guardianship arrangements whichhappear to be in the best i n t e r -ests of the c h i l d . When, through a leg a l action which serves to break e x i s t i n g marriage t i e s , a parent i s removed from the family group, the child' s emotional needs are threatened. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that his needs w i l l not be met in the newly-formed s i t u a t i o n . It may be desired that a casework service be used in an evaluative way, to make recommendations aimed at establishing a new family s i t u a t i o n that w i l l be least s t r e s s f u l f o r the c h i l d . This i s an example of the case-finding a c t i v i t i e s of the department, f o r while the c h i l d may not be ac t u a l l y in a neglectful s i t u a t i o n , his interests and well-being are under review in the hope that a p o t e n t i a l l y harmful s i t u a t i o n may be prevented from becoming a c t u a l l y harmful. In Saskatchewan, there are no private children's aid soc i e t i e s which provide d i r e c t protection services. Provision is made in the Child Welfare Act f o r the establishment of such voluntary s o c i e t i e s , however. The Children's Aid Societies which did exis t some ,/years ago have discontinued since the government assumed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r basic c h i l d - c a r i n g services. However, protection services of a preventive nature are offered by some private agencies as well as by the Department. Two of these agencies are the Saskatoon Family Service Bureau and the FamilyyService Bureau of Regina. Casework help i s - 97 -o f f e r e d t o f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n who present b e h a v i o r a l d i f -f i c u l t i e s , such as r i v a l r y w i t h peers, underachievement i n sch o o l , and aggravated problems of adolescence. Such f a m i l y problems, then, are d e a l t with by both the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e and by the f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency. In a d d i t i o n to such casework f o c i , the p r i v a t e agencies provide a housekeeping s e r v i c e f o r f a m i l i e s which are te m p o r a r i l y broken or are experiencing some c r i s i s . Housekeepers may be provided, f o r insta n c e , when a new b i r t h has caused the mother i l l n e s s , when a mother has died and the f a m i l y has not yet found a s u b s t i t u t e , or when the mother s u f f e r s from a dis t u r b e d mental c o n d i t i o n . This type of s e r v i c e provides a very important part of p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s i n general, since housekeepers may sometimes prevent f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The immediate s t r e s s i s s t a b i l i z e d , or reduced, and c h i l d r e n are given a mother s u b s t i t u t e who can provide some of the emotional securityyand g r a t i f i c a t i o n which would otherwise be l a c k i n g . In a sense, then, such housekeeping s e r v i c e provides a safe-guard against p h y s i c a l and emotional neglect which might have r e s u l t e d from the withdrawal of the mother from the f a m i l y and which could have led t o the committal of the c h i l d . S e r v i c e s of a preventive nature do not always prove e f f e c -t i v e , and when c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e to the point of c h i l d n e g l e c t , apprehension becomes i n d i c a t e d . The l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n has f r e q u e n t l y placed the department i n the p o s i t i o n of p r o t e c t i n g a c h i l d f o r whom there i s no adequate resource. A mother abandons her c h i l d r e n , whether or not there i s an adequate resource^, these c h i l d r e n cannot be l e f t at the p o l i c e s t a t i o n . 1 Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, C h i l d Welfare Branch, HJ-gtp^Jx^ S e r v i c e s , p. 3. - 98 -When children are apprehended, the d i r e c t o r must fi n d suitable f a c i l i t i e s f o r housing them. Even though i d e a l l y appropriate resources may not be available, the children must be placed somewhere u n t i l they are committed to the care of the minister and placed i n a fo s t e r home or u n t i l they are returned, by the court, to t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The department uses f o s t e r homes; these are private dwel-lings which are inspected by s o c i a l workers to ascertain the s u i t a b i l i t y of the applicants f o r fo s t e r parenthood. Persons are chosen who can give s a t i s f a c t o r y substitute family homes to children temporarily or permanently separated from t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The s o c i a l worker chooses as appropriate those homes in which there i s adequate provision f o r physical care (for ex-ample, there must be adequate bed space) and f o r emotional support. There are two types of foster homes: those which are termed, "boarding homes", in which the fo s t e r parents are paid a set fee f o r maintenance of the c h i l d , and those which are ca l l e d "free homes", in which the foster parents are not paid (see Table 4 f o r the extent of use of these resources f o r c h i l -dren i n care). Poster parents may operate a "free home" be-cause of a sp e c i a l interest in a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d whom they want to help, or they may wish to express t h e i r willingness to enlarge t h e i r family without the legalized permanence of adop-t i o n . In Table 4, reference i s made to the "wage home" which i s another type of resource f o r placement. Placement in t h i s type of resource i s usually r e s t r i c t e d to the older adolescent who wishes to earn his own maintenance by working in the fo s t e r home or in the family business or farm. The c h i l d i s , in a sense, employed by the f o s t e r parents, but in addition he re-ceives the benefits of l i v i n g in a fo s t e r family, and of being - 99 -a member of i t . Children in need of medical care when apprehended or made wards of the minister are placed in hospitals and treatment centres. Children who are mentally retarded are admitted to the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n f o r that group. Children with special s o c i a l or emotional problems needing psychiatric or related c l i n i c a l help may be placed i n Embury House, a treatment centre f o r emotionallyydisturbed children. There are two f a c i l i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r housing apprehended children before t h e i r presentation to court f o r d i s p o s i t i o n . These f a c i l i t i e s are known as receiving homes. There are two receiving homes in Saskatchewan, Dales House in Regina, and Kilburn H a l l in Saskatoon. These Ins t i t u t i o n s are operated by the department and provide emergency short-term care to children. Services are set up f o r temporary care pending permanent placement, and f o r assessment purposes when a c h i l d has just been admitted to care. When other f a c i l i t i e s are not a v a i l a b l e , these receiving homes may be used f o r pur-poses f o r which they were not intended, such as extended domi-c i l i a r y care. There i s , i n Kilburn H a l l , a "holding unit" f o r g i r l s which has a four hed capacity. This unit can be used during periods of planning. There i s a good deal of interrelatedness between the work of the department in protection and the a c t i v i t i e s of the court. The department's workers present the c h i l d to the court and prepare a report f o r the purpose of aiding i n the judge's mak-ing of a decision. The court has primary j u r i s d i c t i o n in a l l complaints of - 100 -c h i l d n e g l e c t . In many cases, the s t a t u t e s mention that the judge may or may not allo w a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n " i n h i s d i s c r e -t i o n . " Yet i n making a l l d e c i s i o n s the judge i s t o be guided, by the wording of the laws, towards a c t i o n " i n the best i n t e r -e s t s of the c h i l d . " The judge i s t o be a s s i s t e d , i n t h i s r e -spect, by repo r t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s given him by o f f i c i a l s of the department. When a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been examined, the judge makes h i s order. I f he f i n d s that the c h i l d i s w i t h i n the l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n of a n e g l e c t f u l s i t u a t i o n , he may order the case ad-journed f o r not more than a year and the c h i l d returned t o the person having custody at the time of the apprehension. In t h i s case the m i n i s t e r i s empowered t o supervise and make p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n of the care the c h i l d r e c e i v e s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the judge may order that the c h i l d be committed t o the care of the m i n i s t e r f o r a period of no more than twelve months or that the c h i l d be permanently committed t o the care of the m i n i s t e r . I t should be noted that there are s u b s i d i a r y s e r v i c e s of the court which are not d i r e c t l y required by l e g i s l a t i o n but which enhance the general help given t o neglected c h i l d r e n . An example of these e x t r a b e n e f i t s i s seen i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: Often, the process of court a c t i o n enables the parent to achieve a deeper understanding of h i s inherent r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as parent. The court may f i n d a c h i l d neglected but r e t u r n the c h i l d t o h i s home under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the department. The parents may,'be able t o use the i n s i g h t s gained through courtroom statements i n becoming more able t o cope with p a r e n t a l 1 Government of Saskatchewan Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C h i l d Welfare .Branch, Work Proggawne f or the F i s c a l Year of 1962-63. The Budget Bureau "(photocopied) p. 10. - 101 -a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, the undertaking of the a c t i o n i t s e l f can arouse i n the parents f e e l i n g s of s u r p r i s e and i n d i g n a t i o n t h a t past p a r e n t a l care d i d not meet the standards expected, and t h i s can lead t o renewed e f f o r t s t o care f o r the c h i l d adequate-l y i n f u t u r e . W i t h i n the cou r t a c t i v i t i e s there i s a gre a t d e a l of i n t e r -a c t i o n and interdependence between the a c t i v i t i e s of the of-f i c i a l s of the C h i l d Welfare Branch and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and a c t i o n s of the judge. Thus the cou r t p r o v i d e s not only l e g a l s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d ; these are determined i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s o c i a l f a c t o r s and r e l e v a n t circumstances of the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y . I n s t i t u t i o n s In Saskatchewan, the l e g i s l a t i o n c oncerning the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o j u v e n i l e s adjudged d e l i n q u e n t i s i n c l u d e d under the P r o t e c t i o n Part of the C h i l d Welfare A c t . J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s are o f f e r e d the same c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g the s e r -v i c e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s , as other c h i l d r e n who are committed t o the care of the m i n i s t e r . T h i s i s an attempt t o c a r r y out the p h i l o s o p h y t h a t any d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d i s a l s o n e g l e c t e d . I t i s not p o s s i b l e , then, t o separate the f i g u r e s i n s t a -t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s as t o c h i l d r e n who are and are not counted as j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , i n many cases the s e r v i c e s w i l l be o f f e r e d t o both the "d e l i n q u e n t " and the "non-delinquent" groups. T h e r e f o r e , although t h i s study does not i n c l u d e an ex-amination of s e r v i c e s f o r " d e l i n q u e n t s " as such, i t i s neces-sa r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e ; f a c i l i t i e s which are used as c u s t o d i a l u n i t s f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n -quents w i l l not be used s o l e l y f o r these. Some c h i l d r e n who are - 102 -Table 4. Residence of Children in Care (Saskatchewan; 1962-63) Category Number In boarding home 1729 In adoption homes 488 Free homes 17 Wage homes 8 Institutions (a) 216 Own home 4o Own arrangements 105 Whereabouts unknown 10 Total in Care 2613 (a) Detail of i n s t i t u t i o n s : treatment centre 2 hospital 24 special t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n correction i n s t i t u t i o n 44 private i n s t i t u t i o n 30 Boy's School 20 Embury House 12 Dales House 14 Kilburn H a l l 17 Source: Government of Saskatchewan, Department of Soc i a l Welfare and Rehabilitation, Child Welfare Branch, 1Q62-63 Statistics,, p. C.W. -5 - 103 -committed t o the care of the m i n i s t e r f o r other than delinquent complaints w i l l be served i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n , as the two types of committed c h i l d r e n are not segregated, e i t h e r i n p l a c e -ment or i n formal s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s . One i n s t i t u t i o n operated by the department i s the Boy's School i n Regina. Although t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y a t r a i n i n g u n i t f o r boys who are unable t o conform to s o c i e t a l l i m i t s there are a l s o f a c i l i t i e s f o r those who need c u s t o d i a l care pending per-manent plans i n f o s t e r homes. By the 1959 l e g i s l a t i o n , boys adjudged delinquent are made wards of the m i n i s t e r who then "has the d e c i s i o n as t o where these c h i l d r e n would best f i t i n t o the resources."- 1- The m i n i s t e r may decide the c h i l d i s an appro-p r i a t e r e f e r r a l to t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . Boy's School i s a l s o used f o r those c h i l d r e n who are a w a i t i n g an appearance i n c o u r t , where other resources are not a v a i l a b l e . The bed c a p a c i t y i s twenty-four. I t i s an open i n s t i t u t i o n yet there are f a c i l i t i e s f o r segregation. Group a c t i v i t y i s emphasized and thus boys are not admitted who are so p h y s i c a l l y or mentally handicapped that t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r the group experience are l a c k i n g . Boys must be at l e a s t twelve years of age t o be considered f o r ad-mission. The s e r v i c e s i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , beyond c u s t o d i a l care, include education, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a -t i o n , and group r e c r e a t i o n . S o c i a l workers from the C h i l d Welfare Branch make r e g u l a r i n s p e c t i o n s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s and reports from the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s d i r e c t o r are sent annually to the D i r e c t o r of the Branch. There i s no f a c i l i t y f o r g i r l s who r e q u i r e closed custody; at present the Marymound School f o r G i r l s i n Winnipeg i s the Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , C h i l d Welfare Branch, H i s t o r i c a l Background of C h i l d Welfare Service (mimeographed) p . ' T ^ " ~w"~ - ic4 -resource used f o r g i r l s from Saskatchewan. This arrangement, by contract, has been in e f f e c t f o r many years, and has been j u s t i f i e d on the grounds that very few g i r l s 1 are found to re-quire t h i s kind of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Fi. nancing and Account a b i l i t y The c h i l d protection services in Saskatchewan, then, are provided v i r t u a l l y in f u l l by the Child Welfare Branch. This agency i s f u l l y financed by p r o v i n c i a l revenues and i s d i r e c t l y accountable to the Minister of the Department of Soc i a l Welfare and Rehabilitation. There i s no charge made to the municipali-t i e s involved. Some of the miscellaneous services of housekeep-ing and prevention-focussed casework are provided by private a-gencies. Some public subsidies are supplied to these private agencies. For example, the City of Saskatoon granted $3000 or seven per cent of the Family Service Bureau's budget 2 in 1962. The remaining $19,500 was.received from the Saskatoon United Appeal. The City of Reglna granted $15,000 or 25 per cent, of the t o t a l 1963 budget of the Family Service Bureau of Regina.3 The remainder was received from the Regina Community Chest — an allotment of $28,700 — and miscellaneous revenues such as rent, donations, and fees f o r services which t o t a l l e d $556. Private agencies are accountable only to t h e i r boards which are made up of private c i t i z e n s . B. Adoption^ Services The only s o c i a l agency, at present, which i s involved in 1 In the yyear of 1960-61, there were nineteen g i r l s who were outside the province to receive such custodial care. A l l were in the Marymound School. _op_.^  cJLt. p. 5 2 Saskatoon Family Service Bureau, Treasurer's Report, 3\th Annual Meeting, 1963, Mimeographed,.p. 5. ~ 3Family Service Bureau of Regina, 33rd Annual Report, 1964, Mimeographed, p. 9. - 105 -the p r o v i s i o n of adoption s e r v i c e s i s the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The department must approve a l l adoption a p p l i c a t i o n s . Therefore a home study must be made of every a p p l i c a n t . When an a p p l i c a -t i o n has been r e c e i v e d , the worker from the department w i l l be-g i n an i n q u i r y i n t o the s u i t a b i l i t y of the a p p l i c a n t . I f the c h i l d has been placed by a p r i v a t e person or i f he i s a s t e p - c h i l d , part of t h i s home study w i l l include i n q u i r i e s i n t o the care that he has received so f a r ; a s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the c h i l d w i l l a l s o be included. I f the c h i l d i s a permanent ward of the m i n i s t e r , he w i l l be placed w i t h a f a m i l y only a f t e r approval of the a p p l i c a t i o n by the m i n i s t e r . He must a l s o , as a p r e l i m i n a r y to placement, be found emotionally and p h y s i c a l l y ready and l e g a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r adoption. The c h i l d i s placed to meet h i s needs, not those of the a p p l i c a n t s . Adoptive parents are c a r e f u l l y chosen f o r the c h i l d . Parents are selecte d who can meet the needs of a c h i l d and can accept the c h i l d as t h e i r own. The s e l e c t i o n of the appropriate home f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d i s an a c t i v i t y which i s undertaken w i t h considerable care. There i s a c e n t r a l adoption placement c l e a r i n g house, and r e -g i o n a l o f f i c e s forward f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e p o r t s on the c h i l d -ren a v a i l a b l e f o r adoption as w e l l as home stu d i e s of a p p l i -cants. With a l l types of a p p l i c a t i o n s , ( i n c l u d i n g those where p r i v a t e placements have been made, those i n v o l v i n g a s t e p - c h i l d , 1 Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , C h i l d Welfare Branch, Work Programme f o r the F i s c a l Year of 1962-63, The Budget. Bureau,-tp^oXoecp-leTrJr," T>V T T . - 106 -and s e l f - r e f e r r a l s with whom wards may be placed) s e v e r a l home v i s i t s and o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w s are needed t o complete the r e p o r t . I f the f i n d i n g s are s a t i s f a c t o r y , the d i r e c t o r w i l l approve the a p p l i c a t i o n , provided that the c h i l d i s maintained i n the home f o r a one year p e r i o d . At t h i s p o i n t , a permanent ward of the m i n i s t e r may be placed with the f a m i l y f o r adoption probation. During t h i s p e r i o d , the s o c i a l worker w i l l be engaged i n super-v i s i o n of the home. Further information w i l l be sought as t o the type of care the c h i l d r e c e i v e s , and the c a p a c i t i e s f o r parenthood of the a p p l i c a n t s . I t i s the purpose of the s o c i a l worker t o help the c h i l d and the adoption f a m i l y i n the adjustments involved i n t h i s new ex p e r i e n c e . 1 This i s a departmental s e r v i c e which, although not e x p l i c i t l y required by the Act, i s recognized by the Department as an im-p l i c i t c o n d i t i o n f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y adoption planning. At the end of the one year probationary p e r i o d , the a p p l i -cant a p p l i e s t o a judge f o r an adoption order. The s o c i a l work-e r then compiles from the f i l e a resume of a l l r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n the case; t h i s i s made as a report t o the judge f o r the pur-pose of a i d i n g i n h i s making a d e c i s i o n f o r or against adoption. The d i r e c t o r makes a recommendation f o r or against f i n a l i z a t i o n which i s appended t o the s o c i a l worker's report and i f the con-sent of the d i r e c t o r i s withheld reasons f o r t h i s are s t a t e d . S e r v i c e s f o r the c h i l d t o be adopted I t i s the duty of the department's s o c i a l worker t o obtain w r i t t e n consents f o r the relinquishment of r i g h t s and du t i e s i n 1 l o c . c i t . - 107 -respect of a c h i l d , from the parent or guardian. Before these are taken, the worker provides casework help t o the parent i n making h i s d e c i s i o n regarding relinquishment. I t i s v i t a l f o r the c h i l d ' s f u t u r e p r o t e c t i o n that the parent understand the con-sequences of g i v i n g h i s consent, and the s o c i a l worker must not take a consent i f there i s any doubt i n h i s mind that the parent i s u n c e r t a i n or not f i r m i n h i s d e c i s i o n . Services r e l a t e d j_°_.3^PPJ3°^, w n i c i r l a r e -,P^°X^^e.^^"^^,!l*^.^9^^ When an unmarried mother decides t o r e l i n q u i s h her i n f a n t , a p p l i c a t i o n i s made t o a judge i n accordance w i t h the C h i l d Welfare Act. The s o c i a l worker prepares the parent and the c h i l d f o r t h e i r appearance i n court and e x p l a i n s the purpose of the a c t i o n . The court serve's to pr o t e c t the r i g h t s of both the parents and the c h i l d and the parent i s urged t o use the p r o t e c t i o n afforded by the court t o p r o t e c t h i s r i g h t s . 1 This statement e x e m p l i f i e s the d i f f i c u l t y i n separating, i n any r e a l i s t i c f a s h i o n , t h i s aspect of the court's adoption process, that i s , the relinquishment of the c h i l d t o be adopted, from the p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s as a whole. Let us now examine the a c t i v i t i e s of the court with respect t o the a p p l i c a n t s f o r adoption. A f t e r a c h i l d has been placed w i t h a f a m i l y , the court f i r s t becomes involved i n the adoption a c t i o n when the probationary period has expired and the a p p l i -cant a p p l i e s t o a d i s t r i c t court judge f o r an adoption order. In the court procedures, the e f f e c t s of f i n a l i z a t i o n of an adoption order are made e x p l i c i t . The n a t u r a l parent i s divested of r i g h t s and d u t i e s towards the c h i l d and these are I b i d . , p. 10. - 108 -t r a n s f e r r e d t o the adopting parents. This t r a n s f e r of p a r e n t a l status i s exem p l i f i e d by the changing of the l e g a l name of the c h i l d at the time of the f i n a l i z a t i o n of the order. The judge u s u a l l y gives to the adopted c h i l d the surname of the adopting parent and such C h r i s t i a n names as the adopting parents may wish. The court provides f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s i n adoption cases through the Court of Appeal. This court has f u l l d i s c r e t i o n and power t o rec e i v e any f u r t h e r evidence upon questions of f a c t . I t can then make any order which ought, i n law, t o have been made i n the f i r s t court appearance. The order or d e c i s i o n of the Court of Appeal i s not subject t o f u r t h e r appeal, however. F i na n_c i n g^flcj^ Jic^oun t a^iJL^ity In adoption s e r v i c e s , the department i s the only s o c i a l agency concerned. I t i s financed t o t a l l y by government revenue and i s d i r e c t l y accountable to the M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . C. Othe r^e^rvj^ce s^ i n Ch 11 We I f are In a d d i t i o n t o the p r o t e c t i o n and adoption s e r v i c e s pro-v i d e d by agencies i n t h i s province, the C h i l d Welfare Branch i s r e s p onsible f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g other s e r v i c e s as required i n the C h i l d Welfare Act. Under the C h i l d r e n of Unmarried Parents Part of the C h i l d Welfare Act, the D i r e c t o r of C h i l d Welfare i s required t o pro-v i d e , through the department's workers, s p e c i f i c d i r e c t s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n . For example, where a c h i l d ' s f a t h e r has admitted p a t e r n i t y , the d i r e c t o r determines what amount of payment would be adequate f o r the maintenance of the c h i l d . Payments received - 109 -by the m i n i s t e r from the f a t h e r are placed i n s p e c i a l t r u s t accounts and money i s disbursed f o r the c h i l d ' s care t o the person having custody of him. On the other hand, i f the f a t h e r does not admit p a t e r n i t y and does not make maintenance payments on behalf of the c h i l d , the mother i s e l i g i b l e t o apply f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . In t h i s way, the d i r e c t o r ensures that the c h i l d ' s m a t e r i a l needs are met, i n part at l e a s t . The m i n i s t e r must be n o t i f i e d of the b i r t h of a c h i l d t o a s i n g l e woman by the R e g i s t r a r General of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . Upon r e c e i p t of such n o t i f i c a t i o n , the d i r e c t o r may i n i t i a t e any necessary proceed-ings i n the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d . The m i n i s t e r , i f he deems i t i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t o do so, may engage counsel f o r such proceedings on behalf of the d i r e c t o r or of the s i n g l e woman or both. Another Part of the C h i l d Welfare Act which assigns d u t i e s t o the department i s the Immigrant C h i l d r e n s e c t i o n . The D i r e c t -or of C h i l d Welfare i s required by t h i s part t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l requests of those persons who are not parents or guardians of "immigrant" c h i l d r e n (that i s , c h i l d r e n whose residence i s out of the province) t o b r i n g such c h i l d r e n t o Saskatchewan. With-out the d i r e c t o r ' s w r i t t e n permission, no person can b r i n g an immigrant c h i l d i n t o the province, nor can he place a c h i l d w i t h another person who i s not h i s parent or guardian. This s e c t i o n of the Act ensures the s a f e t y of c h i l d r e n who might otherwise be e x p l o i t e d because of la c k of proper guardianship. C oncJLusj. ons^ J ^ o r ^ ^ a ^ a t c^ hewan^  In t h i s p rovince, the great m a j o r i t y of p r o t e c t i o n and a l l adoption s e r v i c e s are provided by the p u b l i c agency. P r i v a t e agencies deal mainly i n o f f e r i n g preventive casework help t o - 110 -f a m i l i e s i n p o t e n t i a l or a c t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and make r e f e r r a l s to the department when c h i l d r e n are seen as i n need of protec-t i o n . For the purpose of i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l comparisons, i t i s necessary t o note at t h i s p o i n t the r e l a t i v e proportions of t r a i n e d and untrained s o c i a l workers employed by the Department and the two voluntary agencies t o which reference was made above. In the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, there are 84 s o c i a l workers p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s . Seventeen of these have completed at l e a s t one year of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; the remain-der are i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d . There are 27 s t a f f members who su-pervise the d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t a f f ; a l l of these have had at l e a s t one year of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . In the voluntary agencies described above, the t o t a l num-bers of s t a f f members are of course, much l e s s . In the Family Service Bureau of Regina, there are f i v e s o c i a l workers who pro-vide d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s . Three of these have had at l e a s t one year of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Two of these three supervise the other d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t a f f i n a d d i t i o n t o pro-v i d i n g d i r e c t s e r v i c e themselves. In the Saskatoon Family S e r v i c e Bureau, there are f o u r d i r e c t s e r v i c e s o c i a l workers, three of whom have had at l e a s t one year of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . There i s one sup e r v i s o r , and t h i s person has had p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 1 CHAPTER 6; CHILD WELFARE SERVICES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA A. Prot e c t i o n ^Bgrv^ices In the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, s e r v i c e s t o neglected c h i l d r e n are provided under the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act. This Act i s administered by the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, i n most of the province. In the C i t y of Vancouver the Children's Aid S o c i e t y and the C a t h o l i c Children's Aid S o c i e t y are res p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . In V i c t o r i a the Children's Aid S o c i e t y , a department of the Family and Children's Service Agency, c a r r i e s out the p r o v i s i o n of the Act. The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n provides i t s s e r v i c e s to the r e s t of the province through seven r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . The D i -v i s i o n i s responsible f o r the d i r e c t s e r v i c e provided through the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . Sections w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n provide i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s through such a c t i v i t i e s as l i c e n s -ing of nursing homes and operating a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s u n i t t o encourage new f o s t e r parent a p p l i c a t i o n s . The p r o t e c t i o n serv-i c e s w i l l be described later.v. The Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s are p r i v a t e agencies, each governed by an e l e c t e d Board of D i r e c t o r s . The aims of the s o c i e t i e s are common t o a l l three; "We pr o t e c t the L i t t l e Ones", the motto of the Children's Aid S o c i e t y which goes back t o i t s founding i n 1901, describes c l e a r l y the o r i g i n a l and con t i n u i n g purpose of the Agency . . . C h i l d r e n t h r i v e best w i t h -i n the f a m i l y and best of a l l w i t h i n t h e i r own f a m i l y . Experience has shown that the best method of p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n i s t o strengthen and preserve f a m i l i e s f o r them where t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , t o provide s u b s t i t u t e - 112 -f a m i l y care where i t i s not, or where no f a m i l y e x i s t s , t o create a new one. 1 I t i s recognized i n the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act that there are c i t i z e n s who may wish, to a s s o c i a t e themselves together f o r the purpose of p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n from c r u e l t y , a m e l i o r a t i n g f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s that lead t o neglect of c h i l d r e n , and c a r i n g f o r and p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n i n need of pro-t e c t i o n . Such persons may make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a C h i l d -ren's Aid S o c i e t y . I t would seem, at the outset, that the aims and purposes of a l l the s o c i a l agencies p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s were s i m i l a r ; namely, t o a l l e v i a t e s t r e s s i n a f a m i l y which i s harmful to the c h i l d and, i f the s i t u a t i o n does not improve despite preventive e f f o r t s , t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d from harm by removing him. P r o v i n c i a l ^ ^ p e ^ J ^ s o r y Put i e 5 The Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare has the duty of seeing that the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act are c a r r i e d out. In t h i s con-n e c t i o n , he has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e x e r c i s i n g supervisory d u t i e s w i t h respect t o the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s which are p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s under the Act. His d u t i e s i n t h i s regard i n -clude g i v i n g encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e i n the establishment of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , a d v i s i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g them i n the manner i n which t h e i r d u t i e s are t o be performed; he may attend any annual or s p e c i a l meetings of the s o c i e t y or i t s 1 Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver, _Me__ld_s of_ Service 3 ; Worksheets Prepared f o r the Community Chest and Councils P r i o r i t i e s Study, March 1963, (mimeographed) p. 3. 2 B r i t i s h Columbia. The P r o t e c t i o n Act, 19^3, c.5, s.21. - 113 -board. The s o c i e t i e s must send a monthly report t o the supe r i n -tendent which includes i d e n t i f y i n g information regarding every c h i l d who has been committed to the s o c i e t y ' s care during the month, i n t h i s way, the superintendent keeps informed of the a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t i e s and can check unwarranted a c t i v i t i e s before they are l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d . Regulatj.ons_ i^X^^JL?&^SS.^^3^^ We have already seen that the Act r e q u i r e s each s o c i e t y which has c h i l d r e n committed to i t s care t o prepare a monthly report on i t s wards f o r the superintendent. There are other s t a t u t o r y requirements which govern the a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t i e s , t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e i r methods. The a f f a i r s of each s o c i e t y are managed by a board of not l e s s than ten nor more than twenty-five d i r e c t o r s ; the d i r e c t -ors are e l e c t e d by the members i n a general meeting of the so-c i e t y . 1';.; The d i r e c t o r s have f u l l power t o administer the a f f a i r s of the s o c i e t y . They may make f o r the s o c i e t y any con-t r a c t s that the s o c i e t y may by law enter i n t o . They may make by-laws not contrary to the Act f o r r e g u l a t i n g the number of d i r e c t o r s , t h e i r term of o f f i c e , the appointment, f u n c t i o n s , d u t i e s , and removal of a l l agents and o f f i c e r s of the s o c i e t y , and t h e i r remuneration. Every such by-law and every r e p e a l , amendment, and re-enactment of by-laws has fo r c e only u n t i l the next general meeting of the s o c i e t y , and no by-law, r e p e a l , amendment or re-enactment has any fo r c e u n t i l i t i s approved by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . B r i t i s h Columbia, The P r o t e c t i o n Act, 1943, c.5, s.4. - 114 -U n l i k e the s t a t u t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s f o r such s o c i e t i e s i n some other provinces, the Act does not provide f o r the Superin-tendent's or the M i n i s t e r ' s power to disband s o c i e t i e s , nor t o release from h i s d u t i e s a d i r e c t o r or other o f f i c i a l of a so-c i e t y . The o r i g i n of the s o c i e t y , too, i s l e s s under the con-t r o l of the Superintendent of the M i n i s t e r than i n some other j u r i s d i c t i o n s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, any ten or more r e s i d e n t s can apply to e s t a b l i s h a s o c i e t y by making an a p p l i c a t i o n d i -r e c t l y t o the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n . From the above d i s c u s s i o n i t can be seen that there are some s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s placed on the c o n s t i t u t i o n and the by-laws of the s o c i e t i e s ; there i s a l s o a degree of autonomy e v i -dent. The Act i s more s p e c i f i c w i t h regard t o the s e r v i c e s which the s o c i e t i e s must o f f e r , and i t i s to be remembered that these are s i m i l a r t o those o f f e r e d byythe C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , f o r : The Superintendent s h a l l have and may e x e r c i s e a l l the powers conferred upon a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y under t h i s Act, and he may from time to time appoint such persons to act f o r him i n the performance of any of h i s d u t i e s under t h i s Act as occasion may r e q u i r e . 1 In the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , then, the terms "the s o c i a l worker" and "the agency" w i l l be used to denote an agent of e i t h e r the S o c i e t y or the D i v i s i o n , and e i t h e r the p r i v a t e or the p u b l i c agency, unless these are f u r -t h e r q u a l i f i e d . P r o t e c t i o n Service s When a complaint of neglect i s received by the agency, 1 King, Mary. " C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , " Annual Report 1962-63, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , p. 39. - 115 -the s o c i a l worker i n v e s t i g a t e s i t . I f the s o c i a l worker con-s i d e r s the s i t u a t i o n t o be a n e g l e c t f u l one w i t h i n the meaning of the Act, the c h i l d i s apprehended. The worker places him i n a temporary home u n t i l the c h i l d i s brought before the cou r t . The s o c i a l worker prepares a report f o r the court appearance. I f the c h i l d i s deemed by the judge t o be i n need of p r o t e c t i o n , he w i l l be committed t o the care of the appropriate agency. I f he was apprehended w i t h i n the boundaries of the area i n which a s o c i e t y has j u r i s d i c t i o n , he w i l l be committed t o the care of the s o c i e t y . I f he was not apprehended w i t h i n such bound-a r i e s , he w i l l be committed t o the care of the Superintendent. The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n apprehended under the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act i n the f i s c a l year of 1962-63 was l^T^.1 The grounds f o r admission of c h i l d r e n t o the care of the superinten-dent are varied and are shown i n Table 5 . The agency t o which committal i s made has the duty of p l a c i n g the c h i l d i n an appropriate f o s t e r home or other f a c i l i -t y . Continuing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r such wards i s expressed by the c ontinuing s e r v i c e s of i n t e r v i e w i n g wards i n t h e i r placements on a r e g u l a r b a s i s to ensure t h e i r continued w e l l - b e i n g , as w e l l as by a c t i n g i n the way of o f f i c i a l guardian towards them. The number of c h i l d r e n i n the care of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare and Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s i n the l a s t f i s c a l year i s seen i n Table 6. A n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s such as recruitment of f o s t e r parents and reports made of the s u i t a b i l i t y of f o s t e r parent a p p l i c a n t s are a l s o provided. In a d d i t i o n , s o c i a l workers provide f a m i l y 1 K i n g , Mary. " C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , " Annual Report 1962-63, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , p. 3 9 . - 116 -Table 5: Reas ons_ J^t^Adtn i s ^ o ^ ^ ^ f . ^ J ^ i 16^® n^ , t o .the nCare of^ the Superintendent^ of_ C h i l d Welfare ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) Neglect Desertion of parents I l l n e s s of parent(s) Death of mother R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of parent(s) Transient c h i l d Minor unmarried mother Behaviour of c h i l d Medical care P h y s i c a l handicap or mentally retarded Education and t r a i n i n g Awaiting adoption placement M a r i t a l problems S u b - t o t a l At request of other provinces Others 1 T o t a l 17^3 Source: Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Annual Report, 1962-63, Table V I I I , p. 48. 1 This category includes other agency's wards, non-wards, and before the court c h i l d r e n , who were t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare f o r s u p e r v i s i o n . - 117 -Table 6: Number of Chlldj?e^ in the Care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare and of Children's Aid Societies ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) Agency- Total during the year Number in care on March 31/63 Superintendent of Child Welfare 4995 3763 Vancouver Children's Aid Society 1886 1356 Catholic Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1010 811 Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a 631 4 06 Totals 8522 6336 Source: Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Annual Report, 1962-63, Table IV, p. 46. - 118 -casework of a preventive nature t o f a m i l i e s i n which there are con d i t i o n s of p o t e n t i a l n e g lect. This g e n e r a l l y occurs only when a f a m i l y requests such help. S o c i a l workers of the De-partment of S o c i a l Welfare provided t h i s preventive type of ser-v i c e to 2,178 f a m i l i e s i n the past f i s c a l y e a r . 1 Other secondary p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d are the p r o v i -s i o n of custody reports f o r the Supreme Court, immigration r e -ports f o r the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, and l e g i t i m a t i o n r e p o r t s f o r the D i v i s i o n of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . Workers i n t e r v i e w f a m i l i e s when requested t o do so by the Fam-i l y Allowance D i v i s i o n . Among those c h i l d r e n permanently committed t o the care of s o c i e t i e s of the superintendent, there are some who because of s p e c i a l circumstances, cannot be placed i n f o s t e r homes. A l -t e r n a t i v e placement resources, i n c l u d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and hos-p i t a l s , were used f o r 435 permanent wards of the Superintendent i n 1962-63 and t h i s represented approximately e i g h t per cent of 2 the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n care. Several g r o u p - l i v i n g homes are operated throughout the province, and these resources are u t i l i z e d by the s o c i e t i e s and the D i v i s i o n when i t i s f e l t that a group f o s t e r home pl a c e -ment i s the best pl a n . Three g r o u p - l i v i n g homes are operated by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare i n co-operation with the Mental Health Services Children's C l i n i c . G r o u p - l i v i n g homes are s i m i l a r t o f o s t e r homes except that they are purposely set up f o r wards who are d i f f i c u l t t o place i n the usual f o s t e r home f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . S o c i a l workers whose caseloads 1 King, op. c i t . , p. 39 . 2 King, op. c i t . , p. 4o . - 119 -include wards i n such placements have e x t r a d u t i e s to perform. They must choose home-parents with s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , such as abilityyrfco t o l e r a t e a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour. They give the home-parents i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the ward's behaviour, and of the dynamics of the e f f e c t s of the behaviour of each ward on the others. Some c h i l d r e n i n the care of s o c i e t i e s and of the superin-tendent are discharged before they reach m a j o r i t y . Reasons f o r discharge from care include marriage (on the part of females), the f i n d i n g of a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g occupation, and r e t u r n t o parents i f sanctioned by the court. In the year of 1962-63, 2,186 wards of the Superintendent were discharged and of these 1,302 or approximately 60 per cent, were returned t o t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . 1 Four hundred and two, or approximately 20 per cent, 2 were discharged by reason of completion of adoption. Cost of maintaining the c h i l d r e n i n care of the Superinten-dent of C h i l d Welfare and of the three Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s during the l a s t f i s c a l year was $4,286,872.86; c o l l e c t i o n s from various sources of repayment, such as parents, pensions, and Workmen's Compensation t o t a l l e d $913,818.49.3 B. Ad^opJ^i^n^Services The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , through i t s c e n t r a l o f f i c e and c l e a r i n g house and the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, and the three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s pro-vide adoption s e r v i c e s as required by the Adoption Act. Services t o unmarried mothers are i n t e r r e l a t e d with 1 King, P P j ^ c i t . , p. 4o. ^ Loc. c i t . - 120 -adoption s e r v i c e s i n many cases. Through casework with the parent, the s o c i a l worker r a i s e s such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as the r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s of parenthood, and helps the parent to make a d e c i s i o n as t o whether she has the c a p a b i l i t i e s to meet these o b l i g a t i o n s . I f relinquishment of the c h i l d i s the mother's p l a n , p r e n a t a l casework makes p o s s i b l e a d e s i r a b l e e a r l y placement of the c h i l d , f o r the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the c h i l d can be e f f e c t e d by. the worker even before the b i r t h . Ten t a t i v e d e c i s i o n s about a p o s s i b l e adoptive placement can be made, and the c h i l d placed d i r e c t l y from h o s p i t a l , i f the mothe remains f i r m i n her d e c i s i o n to r e l i n q u i s h the c h i l d . From the p o i n t of view of the c h i l d ' s w e l l - b e i n g , current theory suggest that e a r l y placement i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y than placement i n an adoptive home when the c h i l d i s old enough t o recognize that a change from one home to another has taken p l a c e . In any case casework s e r v i c e s t o unmarried parents are a v i t a l part of both the p r o t e c t i o n and adoption s e r v i c e s offered by agencies. There were 2,718 unmarried mothers, served through casework i n the year of 1962-63; of these 1,182 were served by the Depart-ment's workers and 1,536 were served by the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . 1 There i s some d u p l i c a t i o n here since some un-married mothers were served by both a r e g i o n a l o f f i c e and a s o c i e t y . Services t o adoptive parent a p p l i c a n t s are offered i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The s o c i a l worker makes s e v e r a l home v i s i t s and conducts o f f i c e i n t e r views w i t h the f a m i l y as a whole and w i t h i n d i v i d u a l members. He assesses the f a m i l y ' s c a p a c i t i e s f o r adoption and aids i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the adoption procedures. King, op. c i t . , p. 4 l . - 121 -On the b a s i s of h i s assessment, he prepares a home study f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Adoption Placement S e c t i o n , i n the case of the Department's worker, or the adoption s u p e r v i s o r i n the case of the worker of a s o c i e t y . In the Adoption Placement S e c t i o n , workers b r i n g together home studie s of f a m i l i e s that seem t o be appropriate f o r a par-t i c u l a r c h i l d , whose study has been r e c e i v e d . The f i n a l s e l e c -t i o n i s made on the b a s i s of judgments by the S e c t i o n workers as to which f a m i l y can best meet the c h i l d ' s needs. In the Vancouver area, there i s a good dea l of interagency co-operation i n placement-making. Adoption Placement S e c t i o n workers, a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with Children's Aid S o c i e t y and C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y workers, place i n f a n t s who have been r e l i n q u i s h e d through the s o c i e t i e s , but Adoption Placement Section uses i t s own adoptive homes f o r t h i s . That i s t o say, workers i n the Section cannot use homes i n the Greater Vancouver area (the j u r -i s d i c t i o n f o r adoption s e r v i c e s of the Vancouver c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s ) as resources f o r the i n f a n t s they p l a c e , even though these i n f a n t s may have been r e l i n q u i s h e d i n the Vancouver area. There i s a reason f o r the s o c i e t i e s ' using the S e c t i o n workers' help. Many of the unmarried mothers of the province leave t h e i r home communities when the date of confinement approaches, and most of these women go to Vancouver, where there are most r e -sources such as maternity homes, to be d e l i v e r e d . The s o c i e t i e s would soon be "oversupplied" with adoptable i n f a n t s f o r which there were no adoption resource f a m i l i e s i f i t were not p o s s i b l e f o r the S e c t i o n workers to place the s o c i e t i e s ' wards i n adop-t i o n probation homes elsewhere i n the province. There were 9^1 c h i l d r e n placed f o r adoption i n the year of - 122 -1962-63; of these, 584 were placed by the workers of the Depart-ment and the s o c i e t i e s ' workers placed 357, (see Table 7 ) . S i x t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n of white o r i g i n , i n good h e a l t h , and under one year of age 1 remained i n f o s t e r homes awa i t i n g adoption placement at the end of the f i s c a l year, 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 . 2 Fourteen hundred and nine adoptions were completed i n 1962-6 3 . Of these c h i l d r e n adopted, the D i v i s i o n and the s o c i e t i e s had placed 84-0, p r i v a t e persons had placed 75, and step-parents and other r e l a t i v e adoptions made up the r e s t (see Table 8 ) . P r i v a t e placements continued t o decrease i n numbers; there were; 33 l e s s than the previous year. I t i s b e l i e v e d that t h i s i s due t o b e t t e r p u b l i c understanding of the purpose of the adoption l e g i s -l a t i o n and the use of s o c i a l agencies i n adoption placement .3 During the adoption probation p e r i o d , the s o c i a l worker i s i n -volved i n enhancing the development of f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n assessing the standard of p h y s i c a l and emotional g r a t i -f i c a t i o n the c h i l d i s r e c e i v i n g . I f at the end of the p e r i o d , the worker and h i s s u p e r v i s o r are convinced that the home i s an appropriate one f o r the c h i l d , they w i l l recommend t o the Sup-erintendent that t h i s adoption be completed. Adoption cannot be f i n a l i z e d u n t i l a l l necessary consents are r e c e i v e d , or u n t i l the Superintendent waives the need f o r an outstanding consent. Grounds f o r dispensing with a consent 1 These c h i l d r e n are o f f i c i a l l y expected t o be "most adopt-a b l e " , i n that adoptive a p p l i c a n t s u s u a l l y wish white i n f a n t s , under age one, w i t h no h e a l t h problems. The s t a t i s t i c means, o f f i c i a l l y , that there were 64 c h i l d r e n of a high degree of " a d o p t a b i l i t y " who were not yet placed. 2 OP- c i t . , p. 45. 3 Loc. c i t . , - 123 -Table J: Number of C h i l d r e n Placed f o r Adoption by the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare and The Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 196I-62 and 1962-63) Agency 1961-62 1962-63 Department of S o c i a l Welfare C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver C a t h o l i c Children's Aid S o c i e t y C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y of V i c t o r i a 533 197 36 98 ' " 584 " 191 63 103 T o t a l s 864 941 Source: Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Annual Report. 1962-63. Table XVII, p. 55 Table 8: Number of L e g a l l y Completed Adoptions by Type of Placemen^ ^ nd^ by Age ncy ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962-63) Agency Type of Placement T o t a l Agency R e l a t i v e P r i v a t e Step-parent Other Department of S o c i a l Welfare Cv A.S.I C.C.A.S.2 C.A.S.3 522 204 36 78 294 74 12 38 5 | 9 56 15 2 2 931 301 50 127 T o t a l 84o 4 i 8 76 75 1409 Source: Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Annual Report, 1962-63, Table XXII, p. 57 1 Children's Aid So c i e t y of Vancouver, B. C. 2 C a t h o l i c Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B. C, 3 Children's Aid S o c i e t y of V i c t o r i a , B. C. - 124 -are that the parent has deserted or abandoned the c h i l d , or that the parent cannot be found, or that the parent i s incapable of g i v i n g consent, or that the parent has neglected to c o n t r i -bute towards the support of the c h i l d , i f he i s l i a b l e to do so. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that there i s very guarded p r o v i s i o n i n the Adoption Act, s e c t i o n 8, subsection (5), f o r r e v o c a t i o n of consents. In the year of 1962-63, only one mother a p p l i e d t o the Supreme Court f o r r e v o c a t i o n of her consent. The de-c i s i o n was made by the court that i t was i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d t o be adopted, and the mother was not permitted t o revoke her consent. 1 The^  Chj.ldren^s Aid inS99j-ejby^^of Vancouver In order t o understand b e t t e r the c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s of t h i s province, a d e s c r i p t i o n i s given below of the Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver and the s e r v i c e s i t o f f e r s . This i s the la r g e s t . c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, both i n membership and i n the range of s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . I t i s a voluntary agency with a Board of D i r e c t o r s composed of twenty p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . Under the terms of i t s c h a r t e r , the agency provides s e r v i c e s which are sanctioned by law, as w e l l as those which are beyond those l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d . Because the agency i s p r o v i d i n g a p u b l i c s e r v i c e , and because approximately 90 per cent of the budget i s derived from p u b l i c funds, some s t a f f members r e f e r t o the auspices of the agency as being " q u a s i - p u b l i c . " The geographic j u r i s d i c t i o n of the s o c i e t y v a r i e s depend-ing on the s e r v i c e being considered at the time. That i s t o 1 OP. e f t . •>. P. ^3. 2 paraphrased from a questionnaire response. - 125 -say, under the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act, the s o c i e t y has j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r i t s p r o t e c t i o n , unmarried mother, and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver. I t s j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r adoption s e r v i c e s includes the C i t y of Vancouver, North and West Vancouver, and the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands. The f o s -t e r home area includes t h e e C i t y of Vancouver and large a r e a s , 1 i n North and West Vancouver, Richmond, D e l t a , Burnaby, New Westminster, Surrey, and Langley. The o b j e c t i v e s of the S o c i e t y are the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l -dren from neglect, and the enhancement of f a m i l y l i f e . A s t a f f of 6 l s o c i a l workers, i n c l u d i n g 50 w i t h at l e a s t one year of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , provides d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s . These s t a f f members are supervised by eleven p r o f e s -s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s u p e r v i c o r s . A doctor and a nurse are a l s o employed, and medical and d e n t a l , as w e l l as p s y c h i a t r i c help, i s purchased when needed. Many c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n the agency's s e r v i c e i n a volunteer c a p a c i t y . (An example of the use of volunteers i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e i s that 27 of these act as d r i v e r s . t o t r a n s p o r t c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f o s t e r parents to med-i c a l appointments 5. The Society's workers compiled 511 c h i l d s t u d i e s during 1 9 6 3 . 2 They placed 204 c h i l d r e n f o r adoption probation. They were engaged i n adoptive home-finding and processed 252 a p p l i -c a t i o n s . During the adoption probation p e r i o d , they super-vised 770 homes. They.yalso arranged and conducted, i n co-oper-a t i o n w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y Extension Department, group meetings of adoptive parents i n d i s c u s s i o n of common problems. 1 These are shared as f o s t e r home resources w i t h the De-partment of S o c i a l Welfare and the m u n i c i p a l i t y and d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . 2 These s t a t i s t i c s are f o r 1963, except where s p e c i f i e d . They are taken from the response to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . - 126 -The S o c i e t y was a c t i v e i n the area of p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . In p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , the S o c i e t y made i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s of complaints r e c e i v e d , and out of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s 186 new neglect cases were found i n 1963. The S o c i e t y was i n -volved i n apprehension s e r v i c e s , and presented 266 c h i l d r e n t o the court f o r d i s p o s i t i o n . Casework w i t h parents was a c t i v e l y undertaken, and 2484 f a m i l y cases were served. In s i x emergen-cy s i t u a t i o n s , the S o c i e t y arranged f o r agency-paid housekeepers to give temporary help i n the home u n t i l a l t e r n a t i v e plans could be made. The S o c i e t y was guardian t o 1308 wards commit-ted t o i t s care. In a d d i t i o n , s i t u a t i o n s i n which parents r e -quested the S o c i e t y t o take custody of t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r a temporary period led t o there being 667 c h i l d r e n who required "non-ward" care. The S o c i e t y secured and approved 157 new f o s t e r homes. The agency's s o c i a l workers placed 689 new admissions i n f o s t e r homes. In a l l , there were 1076 f o s t e r homes i n a c t i v e use i n 1963, and a l l of these were supervised by the S o c i e t y i n that r e g u l a r home v i s i t s were made t o provide f o r ongoing reassess-ment of c o n d i t i o n s . The agency's Reception Centre, a temporary-r e c e i v i n g home, accommodated twenty-nine c h i l d r e n throughout the year. The S o c i e t y operates two g r o u p - l i v i n g homes; one of these i s f o r boys and one f o r c h i l d r e n of both sexes under twelve years of age. Eighteen c h i l d r e n l i v e d i n these homes i n the past year. There are three g r o u p - l i v i n g homes f o r boys i n Vancouver other than those operated by the S o c i e t y . The So-c i e t y works i n close co-operation with these i n s t i t u t i o n s , as i t s wards make up the m a j o r i t y of the r e s i d e n t s . The S o c i e t y - 127 -i s r esponsible f o r the maintenance of these boys; the agency o f f e r s casework s e r v i c e s t o i t s wards i n these other homes, and i t employs a s t a f f member who works as a l i a s o n s u p e r v i s o r w i t h these and other i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 The S o c i e t y has f o u r wards which are committed t o i t s care under the J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act. Services other than those r e l a t i n g to p r o t e c t i o n and adop-t i o n are offered i n the l i c e n s i n g of boarding homes f o r c h i l d -ren, p u b l i c education and research. In co-operation w i t h the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Committee and the C i t y Health Department, the S o c i e t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n s p e c t i o n and recommendation f o r l i c e n s i n g of boarding homes f o r c h i l d r e n . In the past year, workers inspected 68 of these p r i v a t e homes, which served 107 c h i l d r e n . In the area of p u b l i c education, most a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i e t y are d i r e c t e d towards f u r t h e r i n g community understand-ing of a v a i l a b l e resources i n c h i l d w e l f a r e . The S o c i e t y pub-l i s h e s pamphlets, f o r example, which describe adoption s e r v i c e s and e x p l a i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of each agency involved i n t h i s s e r v i c e . S t a f f members are encouraged to speak to various community groups about the broad needs of c h i l d r e n . The So-c i e t y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a "Family L i f e Education" programme. This programme arranges meetings and d i s c u s s i o n groups made up of adopting parents. In March, 1963, the programme was described i n t h i s way: A p i l o t p r o j e c t set up i n the F a l l of 1959 by the . Extension Department (of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) and the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s to o f f e r post adoption s e r v i c e s through group d i s c u s s i o n s From a questionnaire response. - 128 -to a l l interested adopted parents. The i n i t i a l e f f o r t demonstrated the need in the community and has subsequently become a regular part of our adoption program. . . To date there have been 8 discussion groups with an average enrolment of 30 in each group. The series runs f o r f i v e consecutive Tuesday or Wed-nesday evenings.1 Research a c t i v i t i e s of the Society are mainly carried out in the area of evaluation of the ex i s t i n g operations and services. The Society participates in research a c t i v i t i e s by co l l e c t i n g data f o r s p e c i f i c projects undertaken by such organi-zations as the Community Chest and Councils. In discussion of the Research services provided by thi s agency, the following i s noted: 2 ^SSSS^SS^Bi33S'• (the extent to which there are p i l o t •6T*^em^nTfraTTon programs underway to improve the service e i t h e r in qu a l i t y or quantity or to evaluate the effectiveness of the ser v i c e ) . (1) A continuing study of adopted children returning to t h i s agency as adults. (2) Group sessions through University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department with parents of children whose adoption has been completed. (3) Group sessions with prospective f o s t e r parents. (4) Group sessions with prospective adopting parents. (5) Group'therapy in Boys' Home under c h i l d p s y c h i a t r i s t . (6) The operation of a true Reception Center. (7) Long-term group care f o r boys of a younger age group. C. Other Serv'iceis In addition to the major ch i l d welfare services provided by the societi e s and by the Child Welfare Division under the Protection of Children Act and the Adoption Act, a l l agencies may carry out duties under the Children of Unmarried Parents 1 Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C. F i e l d j ^ f Service, Worksheets Prepared f o r the Community Chest and ''Council P r i o r i t i e s Study, March 1963, "Family L i f e Education." 2 Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C. Fie l d s of Service, "Research: b. Welfare and Recreation." - 129 -Act. The Superintendent has the duty of ob t a i n i n g a l l p o s s i b l e information with respect to c h i l d r e n born out of wedlock; c h i l d -ren's a i d s o c i e t i e s must make t h i s information known to the Superintendent i f he so requests. Under the Act, there are three s i t u a t i o n s which can obviate the i n t e r v e n t i o n of s o c i a l agencies i n the case of a c h i l d born out of wedlock. These occur when the c h i l d i s l e g i t i m i z e d by the subsequent marriage of h i s n a t u r a l parents t o each other, when the c h i l d i s adopted, or when the c h i l d i s being cared f o r v o l u n t a r i l y by a person deemed s u i t a b l e by the Superintendent. Any unmarried mother may apply t o the superintendent f o r advice and a i d i n any matter connected w i t h her c h i l d . 1 I f the mother wishes to take an a c t i o n against the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r f o r maintenance of the c h i l d , the superintendent w i l l a i d i n t h i s t a k i n g of a c t i o n . Furthermore, the superintendent can, on behalf of the c h i l d , apply f o r guardianship of the c h i l d e i t h e r alone or j o i n t l y w ith the mother. Another miscellaneous duty of the p r o t e c t i v e agencies i s that of s u p e r v i s i n g t h e i r wards who are i n I n d u s t r i a l Schools. This i s required under the I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys and The I n d u s t r i a l School f o r G i r l s A c t s . The M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l Wel-f a r e i s charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l Schools. There are some s e r v i c e s offered t o those c h i l d r e n ad-mitted who are wards of the superintendent and the s o c i e t i e s by these agencies. S o c i a l Workers v i s i t the agencies' wards p e r i o d i c a l l y and develop plans f o r the wards' placement on d i s -charge. In the f i s c a l year of 1962-63, there were 4 l o boys 1 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that under t h i s Act, p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r l e g a l s e r v i c e s , f r e e of charge t o the mother, when she wishes t o obtain an order against the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the maintenance of the c h i l d . - 130 -admitted t o the Brannan Lake School f o r Boys. The department was the s u p e r v i s i n g agency f o r 58 of these, the Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver f o r t h i r t e e n , and the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver f o r f o u r . 1 ProfjLle__qf th_e_,Loyal_ . ^ j ^ ^ s t a n t Home f o r C h i l d r e n New Wes^tminster,^ B C. This b r i e f statement, based on a personal v i s i t and i n -q u i r y , i s presented f o r purposes of comparison of f i g u r e s w i t h s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n other provinces. This i s a v o l u n t a r y agency, d i r e c t e d by a f o r t y member board; i t i s supported e n t i r e l y by p r i v a t e funds, except f o r a grant of f i v e hundred d o l l a r s from the p r o v i n c i a l government. The revenue other than t h i s grant i s received through s e r v i c e charges, and from p r i v a t e donations. The agency i s not a mem-ber of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . As of the f i r s t of A p r i l , 1964, there were 64 c h i l d r e n i n residence. F i f t e e n of these were aged three t o f i v e , and were i n the nursery dormitory. Two segregated d o r m i t o r i e s housed the older boys and g i r l s . The oldest c h i l d i n residence i n A p r i l of 1964 was t h i r t e e n years of age. S p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s include a three-bed s i c k room and a basement r e c r e a t i o n room where an a c t i v i t y period i s provided one night each week by v o l u n t e e r s . There i s a small playground on the grounds; an elementary school i s located two blocks away, and there Is f u r t h e r playground space t h e r e . The s t a f f i s composed of a d i r e c t r e s s , seventeen c h i l d -1 Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of S o c i a l Wel-f a r e , Annual Report for' "the year _e_nding March 31, _ 19.63 . Queen's P r i n t e r ^ ^TcTorTa^ T95"3~! ' - 131 -care and k i t c h e n workers, and f o u r male j a n i t o r s . C h i l d r e n are placed i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n by t h e i r parents. I t i s thought by the s t a f f that the parents see placement i n the Home as p r e f e r a b l e t o f o s t e r home care provided by:- the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, as a l l c h i l d r e n from one f a m i l y can be housed together under one r o o f . PART 3: ISSUES OP RESPONSIBILITY CHAPTER 9 SOME QUESTIONS RAISED This review of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n c t i o n between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c h i l d welfare agencies i n f o u r Canadian provinces gives r i s e t o c e r t a i n observations and poses some questions concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two types of auspices. An examination of the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s i n Nova S c o t i a , Ontario, and B r i t i s h Columbia provides i n d i -c a t i ons of the changing nature of the p r i v a t e agency. None e x i s t e n t i r e l y on v o l u n t a r y funds. In Nova S c o t i a , 50 t o 75 per cent of the revenue of the Children's Aid Socie-t i e s comes from the p r o v i n c i a l and the municipal governments; i n -Ontario and i n B r i t i s h Columbia almost 90 per cent of the revenue i s from p u b l i c tax funds. This i s done i n two ways; the government may make an o u t r i g h t grant, or may pay f o r the maintenance of c h i l d r e n i n care, i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s , or i t may do both, as i n Ontario. The g r a n t i n g of pub-l i c funds to a p r i v a t e agency appears to be done to a s s i s t the agency i n p r o v i d i n g what i s considered a p u b l i c s e r v i c e — as a means of d i s c h a r g i n g p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The govern-ment agency i t s e l f would be f o r c e d , by s t a t u t e , t o provide these s e r v i c e s i f voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d not wish t o do so-under these circumstances, a p r i v a t e agency could be con-sidered an agent of government, or at l e a s t under c o n t r a c t u a l agreement with'the government, and i t s s t a f f engaged i n c a r r y -ing out a p u b l i c s e r v i c e and c o n t r o l l i n g the expenditure of p u b l i c funds. This presents a problem around the separation - 132 -of f u n c t i o n from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . For some years, a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e theory has attempted t o demonstrate the confusion, admini-s t r a t i v e p a r a l y s i s and breakdown i n a c c o u n t a b i l i t y which r e -s u l t s from a f a i l u r e t o i n t e g r a t e a u t h o r i t y w i t h f u n c t i o n and r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y . " 1 ' In the present case, governments have c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d d u t i e s w i t h respect t o c h i l d r e n but these are " l e t out," as i t were, " f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n " i n the form of grants or fees f o r s e r v i c e , to o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are e n t i r e l y auton-omous and independent of government i n t e r v e n t i o n . I f p u b l i c grants are made to an independent agency as a means of d i s c h a r g i n g a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i t becomes p e r t i n -ent to r a i s e the question of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . I f a p r i v a t e a-gency i s r e c e i v i n g support from p u b l i c t a x a t i o n , i t can be a r -gued that i t must be considered r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the d e s i r e s of the p u b l i c i n meeting a general community need. I t i s reasonable, then, that the p u b l i c i s e n t i t l e d not only t o know how and t o what extent t h i s i s being done, but a l s o t o ex-pect that performance i s subject t o no l e s s a c c o u n t a b i l i t y than would be true of c i v i l s e r v i c e performance. On the other hand, of course, one of the a l l e g e d values of the v o l u n t a r y agency i s that i t i s not accountable t o government and i s t h e r e f o r e f r e e t o be more i n v e n t i v e and t o set standards. This i n t u r n r a i s e s the question as t o whether government should have c o n t r o l over voluntary groups i f such c o n t r o l i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as innovators. In any case, a l l three of the provinces having C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t i e s appear to e x e r c i s e at l e a s t some measure of con-t r o l over these agencies. The Department of C h i l d Welfare i n 1 See, f o r example, Mary Parker F o l l e t , Dynamic Admin t i o n ; "The C o l l e c t e d Papers of Mary Parker J?'6TTe~"tand 'Victor " X7*Thompson, Modern Organization, Knopf, New York, 1961. - 133 -Nova S c o t i a c l e a r l y demands an accounting; the y e a r l y evalua-t i o n of the S o c i e t i e s according t o the schedule set out i n the Regulations made under the C h i l d Welfare Act and i t s subsequent e f f e c t on the s i z e of the f i n a n c i a l grant f o r the f o l l o w i n g year would appear t o provide an e f f e c t i v e method f o r the c o n t r o l of s e r v i c e . Ontario e x e r c i s e s no such c l e a r c o n t r o l ; however, the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s are subject t o the s u p e r v i s i o n and i n -spection of the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Department of Pub-l i c Welfare, and submit annual repo r t s on case and f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of government money i s not depen-dent on q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e . The only s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n f o r sanction empowers the Lieutenant-Governor t o d i s s o l v e a S o c i e t y which f a i l s to comply wi t h the r e g u l a t i o n s or meet the stan-dards set out by the Branch. This p r o v i s i o n appears to be un-enforceable, since no p r o v i s i o n s are made f o r c a r r y i n g out t h i s a c t i o n , nor f o r r e p l a c i n g the agency i n order t o execute s t a -t u t o r y d u t i e s . Neither does any government agency e x i s t t o do t h i s . An examination of the composition of the boards of the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s of Ontario r a i s e s a f u r t h e r question as t o whether or not these agencies can be t r u l y autonomous. The s t i p u l a t i o n made under the C h i l d Welfare Act that one or more municipal o f f i c e r s be represented on the board p o s s i b l y provides the municipal government w i t h a measure of i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i c y - and decision-making, and thereby some c o n t r o l over the expenditure of i t s funds and income. Since the m u n i c i p a l i -t y c o n t r i b u t e s h e a v i l y , i t could be expected t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g f i s c a l p o l i c y . S t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n that r e -qui r e s a S o c i e t y w i t h more than nine d i r e c t o r s t o e l e c t an ) - 134 -executive committee to supervise the e n f o r c i n g of the C h i l d Welfare Act, and the p r o v i s i o n that s p e c i f i e s the reguirements that the executive d i r e c t o r of a s o c i e t y must meet, c o n s t i t u t e f u r t h e r l e g a l c o n t r o l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Government i n t e r v e n -t i o n i s a l s o e x e r c i s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Ontario i n the requirement that a l l amendments, by-laws, and repeals i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n of a Children's Aid S o c i e t y be approved by an executive branch of the government. The source of v o l u n t a r y funds a v a i l a b l e t o the p r i v a t e agency has changed. P r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y has waned, and has bean replaced l a r g e l y by the Community Chest or United Appeal cam-paigns. The scope of federated fund r a i s i n g has grown t o i n -clude almost as many c o n t r i b u t o r s as there are taxpayers. I t i s , on the whole, l e s s a type of v o l u n t a r y g i v i n g and more an annual levy upon the business community intended t o c u r t a i l m u l t i p l e s o l i c i t i n g by p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Confusion as t o whether federated funds c o n s t i t u t e v o l u n t a r y g i v i n g i s r e f l e c -ted i n some of the answers received on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Some respondents from Nova S c o t i a and Saskatchewan d i d not i n -clude revenue from the United Appeal as v o l u n t a r y funds, but r a t h e r as "other" sources of income. Ontario, i n i t s f i n a n c i a l r eports keeps a separate column f o r United Appeal as opposed to other voluntary sources. One r e p l y from a B r i t i s h Columbia source c l a s s i f i e d a municipal grant as "other" r a t h e r than as income from a p u b l i c source. These answers i n d i c a t e that a great d e a l of confusion e x i s t s as t o what r e a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s voluntary f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; agencies c l a s s i f y i n g United Appeal c o n t r i b u t i o n s as other than voluntary appear to see them-selves as r e c e i v i n g only token voluntary support. In many cases, the method of p r o v i d i n g government sub-- 135 -s i d l e s appears t o be e x c e s s i v e l y complex. Nova S c o t i a ' s tax-based method of f i n a n c i n g , where the m u n i c i p a l i t y , apart from maintenance f o r ward care, may grant any amount of money i t sees f i t and which amount then determines the p r o v i n c i a l grant i n d i r e c t r a t i o i s unstable and i l l o g i c a l . M u n i c i p a l grants may not n e c e s s a r i l y be r e l a t e d t o need f o r s e r v i c e s and the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s given; poor m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y have more c h i l d welfare problems, but are able t o provide l e s s money. The Children's Aid S o c i e t y concerned would then a l s o receive l e s s from the p r o v i n c i a l government. In Ontario a r a t h e r cum-bersome and c o s t l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement e x i s t s i n which the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s reimbursed by the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r money extended t o the S o c i e t y i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Many people f e e l that the r e c e i p t of p u b l i c funds, because of the n e c e s s i t y to account f o r t h e i r use, and because of the subsequent l i m i t i n g of autonomy and the confusion of l i n e s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d e v i t a l i z e s the p r i v a t e agency. Under these circumstances the p r i v a t e agency cannot be s a i d t o remain inde-pendent of r e s t r i c t i v e government p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c a l pressure as has been In d i c a t e d . Such a s i t u a t i o n a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way i n which the v o l u n t a r y agency w i l l be able t o f u l f i l l i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of p i o n e e r i n g , s e t t i n g standards, p r o v i d i n g a source of c r i t i c i s m and experimentation. As f a r as was d i s c e r n a b l e from the m a t e r i a l used f o r t h i s study, the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s d i d not I n i t i a t e new programs. In f a c t , the government agencies sometimes seemed to be the ones o f f e r i n g l e a d e r s h i p . On the whole, s e r v i c e s provided by the S o c i e t i e s and those provided by the government bodies were e s s e n t i a l l y the same. In Nova S c o t i a , a r e l a t i v e l y new s e r v i c e was provided by the e s t a b l i s h -- 136 -merit of the Adoption Clearance S e c t i o n , but t h i s was done by the p r o v i n c i a l government. A s i m i l a r s e r v i c e i n Ontario was begun under p r i v a t e auspices. Saskatchewan, i n making l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e t o parents, provides a s e r v i c e not provided by any other agency, p u b l i c or p r i v a t e , that was surveyed i n t h i s study. Both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies claim t o provide rehab-i l i t a t i v e and preventive s e r v i c e s -- once thought t o be ex-c l u s i v e l y i n the realm of the p r i v a t e agency alone. Ontario p u b l i c reform i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r i n s t a n c e , claim t o p r o v i d e both these s e r v i c e s , but t h e i r e f f e c t s as agents of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or of prevention are not evaluated. In f a c t , i t can be q u e s t i o n -ed as to whether such i n s t i t u t i o n s can r e a l l y c l a i m preventive s e r v i c e s when they are d e a l i n g w i t h problems that have already reached the penal and c o r r e c t i o n a l stage. A s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n i n Ontario under p r i v a t e auspices provides c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s as a preventive measure, but has no p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel. One Children's Aid S o c i e t y i n Nova S c o t i a claimed t o be con-cerned with r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f a m i l y as a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e measure, but t h e i r s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e that work having t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s being done only i n a l i m i t e d way. The r o l e s of innovator and standard s e t t e r can no longer be s a i d t o f a l l ex-c l u s i v e l y or even p r i m a r i l y t o the v o l u n t a r y agency, and the e v a l u a t i o n of performance i n these r o l e s must be judged i n the l i g h t of present performance r a t h e r than past. Q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e may be i n part determined by the q u a l i t y of s t a f f . Again there i s no c l e a r case f o r e i t h e r type of a-gency to claim s u p e r i o r i t y here, though t h i s , too, was once a poi n t i n favour of the voluntary agency. While an Ontario Children's Home, a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , has a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l \ - 137 -s t a f f , the p r i v a t e reform i n s t i t u t i o n already mentioned has none. In Saskatchewan, the Department of C h i l d Welfare employs seventeen p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f out of e i g h t y - f o u r . A p r i v a t e f a m i l y agency i n the same province has three p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f out of f o u r ; a B r i t i s h Columbia Children's Aid S o c i e t y has f i f t y out of s i x t y - o n e . While these f i g u r e s seem to i n d i c a t e a higher p r o p o r t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d workers i n the p r i v a t e agencies, other f a c t o r s may merit c o n s i d e r a t i o n as being of s i g n i f i c a n c e here. Urban centres may f i n d i t e a s i e r t o r e c r u i t s t a f f ; the question may not be so much one of p u b l i c versus p r i v a t e auspices as i t i s one of urban versus r u r a l opportunity. Volunteer workers are seldom used, and then, apparently, only i n p r o v i d i n g a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s such as d r i v i n g cars or c l e r i c a l t a s k s . I t can then be questioned t o what extent the vo l u n t a r y agency today a c t u a l l y provides opportunity f o r the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n t o achieve the s a t i s f a c t i o n s and s e l f - f u l -f i l l m e n t that are f e l t t o attend v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e . D i r e c t s e r v i c e t o people i n need i s u s u a l l y i n the hands of p r o f e s s i o n -a l s t a f f . Moreover, i t i s no longer considered d e f e n s i b l e t o engage i n s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s f o r the primary s a t i s f a c t i o n of one's own p r i v a t e need f o r g r a t i f i c a t i o n . With reference t o research, three s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s were noted i n the m a t e r i a l used f o r t h i s study. The Ontario Gov-ernment i n 1961 conducted some research i n t o the care of wards; a l s o , a v o l u n t a r y agency began a study on the need f o r f o s t e r day care. The H a l i f a x Welfare C o u n c i l , a p r i v a t e organiza-t i o n , undertook a study of welfare s e r v i c e s i n the H a l i f a x area i n the same year. The Ontario A s s o c i a t i o n of Children's - 138 -Aid S o c i e t i e s has the power t o i n i t i a t e research, hut there i s no mention of t h i s having been exercised or of any s p e c i a l programs being implemented by t h i s body. I t appears t o serve mostly as a spokesman f o r the S o c i e t i e s . These observations i n d i c a t e t h a t , though p r i v a t e agencies were, h i s t o r i c a l l y , the f i r s t to provide new s e r v i c e s , to' "blaze t r a i l s , " t o do research, they are not the only ones t o be engaged i n these endeavors today i n the f i e l d of c h i l d wel-f a r e . An argument can r e l y f o r v a l i d i t y upon h i s t o r i c a l o r i -g i n s , but must c l e a r l y be examined i n the l i g h t of contempor-ary c o n d i t i o n s . Although the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n i t i a t i n g s e r v i c e s may e x i s t i n p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the f i n a n c i a l and admini-s t r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the voluntary agencies discussed here has some bearing on the extent to which t h i s p o t e n t i a l may be r e a l i z e d . Where Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s have been financed l a r g e l y by the p u b l i c , there appears t o be l i t t l e d i f -ference i n s e r v i c e and s t a f f i n g from those observed i n the pub-l i c agencies. The Welfare Council of H a l i f a x , i n t h e i r C h i l d and Welfare Services Study of 1961, discovered some of the disadvantages that may a r i s e when both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e welfare s e r v i c e s develop i n the same area independent of each other. The Coun-c i l noted that the s e r v i c e s , though they developed t o meet new needs and f u l f i l l new concepts of w e l f a r e , lacked c o - o r d i n a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s and the methods of f i n a n c i n g r e -su l t e d i n an overlapping of s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the C i t y of H a l i f a x i t s e l f , and a gap i n s e r v i c e s i n the l e s s populated towns and r u r a l areas. The d i f f e r e n t agencies, often p r o v i d i n g the same s e r v i c e s under d i f f e r e n t auspices proved confusing t o those needing s e r v i c e and c o s t l y t o the agencies i n terms of - 139 -time taken up by r e f e r r a l . The Council was concerned that the people of H a l i f a x County were not g e t t i n g the best s e r v i c e i n r e t u r n f o r the money spent on w e l f a r e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the recommendations a r i s i n g from the study suggested f i r s t of a l l that a l l e x i s t i n g c h i l d welfare and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s be administered under one head, and t h a t , secondly, t h i s c e n t r a l agency be p r i v a t e , "governed .by l o c a l c i t i z e n s . " F i n a n c i n g , i t i s suggested, w i l l come from both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e sources, the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s being that t h i s i s how the agencies i n question are financed at present. I t i s suggested that a formula be developed so that c e r t a i n parts of the s e r v i c e s would be financed by p u b l i c money i n an adequate way and the other s e r v i c e s from voluntary c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Cape Breton, faced w i t h a s i m i l a r problem, implemented a d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n -- a combination of the p u b l i c and the p r i v a t e under one roof -- discussed i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Three. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r maintaining the p r i v a t e aspects i n these two instances cannot be j u s t i f i e d e a s i l y on the grounds of e f f i c i e n c y or p r o v i d i n g s u p e r i o r s e r v i c e , as has been d i s c u s -sed e a r l i e r . The b a s i s f o r the d e c i s i o n to make a l l s e r v i c e s i n the H a l i f a x area united under a p r i v a t e board, and t o main-t a i n the i d e n t i t y of the Cape Breton Children's Aid though i t shares the same a d m i n i s t r a t o r , o f f i c e , phone, s t a f f , and d u t i e s as the Regional O f f i c e of the Department of C h i l d Welfare seems to be based on the argument that i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o maintain the voluntary agency to ensure a democratic way of l i f e . Welfare Council of H a l i f a x , The Chi1(3 and^ WeIfare^ejpyices Study, 1961, p. 18. - 140 -Such arguments as t h i s tend t o provide the weakest r a t i o n -a l e f o r the continued existence of the voluntary agency. I t often does more t o confuse the debate with e f f u s i o n s of r a t h e r demogoguic s e n t i m e n t a l i t y from which the volun t a r y agency e-mer'ges as the "bulwark against d i c t a t o r s h i p " that "maintains our f r e e s o c i e t y and sets i t apart from a slave s o c i e t y . u l Even though the d e s t r u c t i o n of voluntary agencies may be one of the f i r s t steps taken by a t o t a l i t a r i a n regime i n i t s i n v a -s i o n of personal l i b e r t y , i t i s not a necessary c o r o l l a r y that freedom i s a b s o l u t e l y guaranteed by the existence of such a-gencies or that a more e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of welfare ser-v i c e s i s tantamount to t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . The question that can be r a i s e d i s whether human needs are r e a l l y a p r i v a t e matter, the a l l e v i a t i o n of which should depend on the i n c l i n a t i o n s of the volunteer, or i f they are not i n f a c t a p u b l i c matter that should be brought i n t o the p o l i -t i c a l arena. Part of the basis f o r the existence of volun t a r y agencies depends on whether s o c i a l s e r v i c e i s t o be considered the r i g h t of every i n d i v i d u a l or a p r i v i l e g e extended t o those i n need as a r e s u l t of the generous a c t i o n s of others. Is there i n f a c t a place f o r the vo l u n t a r y agency today i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare? Even those agencies rendering s e r v i c e s under r e l i g i o u s auspices may be seen as not e n t i r e l y f u l f i l l i n g the purpose f o r which they e x i s t when they do not e x i s t everywhere, and, p a r t i c u l a r l y y i n such s e r v i c e s as adoption, when the p u b l i c agencies must often provide the same s e r v i c e s under the s t a t u t e s . From the agencies responding i n t h i s study, a d i f f e r e n c e The Royal Bank of Canada Monthly L e t t e r , Op. c i t . , p. 1. - i 4 i -i n s e r v i c e s was seen as occuring when the v o l u n t a r y agency was set up f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose not provided f o r by s t a t u t e , not administered i n terms of the C h i l d Welfare Act, and financed l a r g e l y by p r i v a t e funds. The government does not meet a l l the needs of the communityyat any one time. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that defenders of the voluntary agency are.not w i l l i n g t o see welfare placed back i n the hands of neighbours and church groups. 1 This i m p l i e s a r e c o g n i t i o n that perhaps the s o c i a l problems of modern l i f e are so complex as to r e q u i r e the a t t e n t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l , and are so extensive as t o r e q u i r e p u b l i c support and f i n a n c i n g to a l -l e v i a t e them. They are perhaps no longer a matter f o r the volunteer, no matter how w i l l i n g he may be, nor can they be l e f t to the capriciousness of c h a r i t y . Kramer, Ralph, op._ c i t . , p. 22 . APPENDIX A - QUESTIONNAIRE. USED IN STUDY 1. L i s t of Agencies; Canvassed 2. Questionnaire Sent to Agencies; % Covering Letter - 142 -APPENDIX. A. 1. L i s t of Agencies Canvassed B r i t i s h Columbia Children's Aid Society of the Catholic Archdiocese of Children's Aid Society of Family and Children's Service Agency of Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, Department of S o c i a l Welfare Vancouver Children's and Family Court Vancouver Vancouver Victoria! V i c t o r i a Vancouver Nova Scotia Children's. : Aid Society of Annapolis Children's Aid Society of Cape Breton Children's Aid Society of Colchester County Children's Aid Society of Cumberland County Children's Aid Society of Children's Aid Society of Pictou County Director of C h i l d Welfare, Department of Public Welfare Maritime Home f o r G i r l s Nova Scotia School f o r Boys St. Euphrasia's School Supervisor of Corrections, Juvenile,. Department of Public Welfare Annapolis Royal Sydney Truro Amherst Halifax S t e l l a r t o n Halifax: Truro Shellburne Halifax Halifax - 143 -Ontario Catholic Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto Children's Observation Home Detention Home Director, C h i l d Welfare Branch, Department of Public Welfare Director, Day Nurseries Branch, Department of Public Welfare Jewish Family and Chi l d Service Juvenile Observation Home Ontario Association of Children's Aid Societies Protestant Children's Homes St. Mary's Training School St. John's Training School St.. Joseph's Training School Toronto Toronto Toronto Ottawa Toronto Toronto Toronto Hamilton Brantford Toronto Toronto Uxbridge A l f r e d Saskatchewan Catholic Family Service Society Catholic Welfare Society Director of Chi l d Welfare, Department of S o c i a l Welfare and Rehab i l i t a t i o n Family Service Bureau of Saskatchewan's Boys' School, Department of S o c i a l Welfare and Rehab i l i t a t i o n Saskatoon Family Service Bureau Regina Saskatoon Regina Regina Regina Saskatoon - i44 -APPENDIX A 2. Questionnaire Sent to Agencies The following information i s s o l i c i t e d by the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n connection with a study of certa i n aspects of the voluntary and the public provision of c h i l d welfare services. If i t is- to be of maximum value to the study the material should be returned by February 17th, 1964. Sources of information supplied through t h i s inquiry w i l l be kept anonymous. NAME: OF ORGANIZATION: Address: AUSPICES (please check appropriate space):Voluntary Society Government Other(spe c i f y ) GEOGRAPHIC JURISDICTION (please check appropriate space: Municipality Metropolitan Area C ounty Province Other (specify) . SOURCE(S) OF BUDGET IN PERCENT.:. Voluntary % Government(s) % Other (i ) $ NUMBER OF STAFF WHO PROVIDE DIRECT SERVICE TO CLIENTS: Professional ( i i ) Other NUMBER OF STAFF WHO SUPERVISE DIRECT SERVICE STAFF: Professional, ( i i ) Other (i) Please specify the nature of "other sources" e.g. invest-ments, fees, etc. ( i i ) For purposes of consistency i n comparison, please interpret "professional" r to include only persons; who have success-f u l l y completed the ENTIRE, requirements: of at least one year of post-graduate study i n S o c i a l Work. In-service trained personnel should be shown under "other". - 145 -SERVICE PROVIDED SCOPE OF CASELOAD a l l cases i n area served Yes; or No Groups s p e c i f i c -a l l y excluded. (Specify) (3) CASELOAD ** ADOPTION 1. C h i l d Study 2'. C h i l d Placement 3. Home Finding 4. Home Supervision 5. Group Meeting with Adopt-ive Parents 6. Court Presentation f o r ° Completion PROTECTION 7. Investigation of com- . pl a i n t s 8. Apprehension of children 9. Presentation to Court for di s p o s i t i o n 10. Casework with Parents (Children i n Home) 11. Casework with Parents (Children out of Home) 12. Homemaker Services 13*. Care of Children made Wards(under Protection of Children Ststute) 14. Won-Ward Care 15. Foster Home Finding 16. Foster Home Placement 17»Foster Home Supervision 18. Receiving Homes 19. Group Living Homes 20. Nursery Institutions; 21. Care of Children made Wards(under Juvenile Delinquency Statute) MISCELLANEOUS 22.Inspection and Licensing 23. Public Education 24. Research 25.Other (specify) ** a) Number of cases (define unit of count f o r " c l i e n t " , i . e . separate i n d i v i d u a l s , or family units) served during year, ifb) Number of cases current at end of l a s t reported year ( i n d i -cate which - a or b) NOTE: (3) _ Please state the basis f o r non-admission to service; e.g. age; sex; r e l i g i o n ; diagnostic judgment. - »rL* »'- -J- „1„. s** "V w - *i> *rv 't- -r- *v* *v> -- 146 -Are volunteers used i n any of the services l i s t e d above? Specify the service (by number) and state whether volunteer provides service d i r e c t l y to c l i e n t s . Service number Direct Service Yes No How many volunteers are currently engaged i n the above a c t i v i t i e s ? •s1/' -J- -Jr •»*«• ^« Jp, J ^ i «f% >J< *p .y* - l47 -APPENDIX A 3. Covering Letter THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver 8, Canada School of S o c i a l Work January 31st, 1964 Dear Some members of the f a c u l t y of t h i s School are engaged i n an examination of c e r t a i n aspects of public and private welfare. Exenfc.ua£Lly we hope to compare data derived from Canadian, English and. American practice i n the areas of c h i l d welfare, corre c t i o n a l and health services. We are currently concentrating upon the p r o v i s i o n of c h i l d welfare services. My part i n t h i s task i s to assemble the pertinent data r e l a t i v e to practice i n Canada. You w i l l appreciate the f a c t that the completeness and the accuracy of the Canadian picture w i l l depend partly upon the adequacy of the information secured from those engaged i n providing c h i l d welfare services. The purpose of t h i s l e t t e r i s to s o l i c i t your assistance i n two ways. It would be most valuable to the study i f you would supply me with a copy of those o f f i c i a l documents which authorize the work of your organization and those which report upon i t , v i z . statutes, regulations,; and the most recent Annual Report. I would welcome also any s p e c i a l studies or reports r e l a t i v e to your organization or i t s e a r l i e r h i s t o r y . The a d d i t i o n a l help I. request i s your provision of c e r t a i n f a c t u a l d e t a i l s concerning your organization's a c t i v i t y . The enclosed form has been prepared with a view to e l i c i t i n g adequate information without necessitating extensive prepa-rationof descriptive commentary. A stamped self-addressed envelope i s enclosed f o r your convenience. I would be most g r a t e f u l i f you could s a t i s f y these requests at the e a r l i e s t possible date. In any case, could you return the completed form by February 1$, 1964, so that i t - 148 -can be of maximum usefulness. W i l l you a l s o include your account f o r any documentary: m a t e r i a l f o r which payment i s r e q u i r e d . In making these requests I am keenly aware of the numerous and burdensome demands which are continuously made of you. However, I am desirous of having the most complete and r e l i a b l e i nformation p o s s i b l e , and I f e e l sure that your help w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s standard. I hope that our study w i l l have the b e n e f i t of your a s i s t a n c e , and I thank you i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of whatever c o n t r i b u t i o n you may f e e l disposed t o make. S i n c e r e l y , yours, J . V. Pornataro A s s i s t a n t Professor APPENDIX B - BIBLIOGRAPHY - i4'9 -Bibliography-Angus, Anne Margaret, Children's Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B. C , 1901-195T: Vancouver". ; B r i t i s h Columbia, The Ad opt i on Act, 1957• Queen's P r i n t e r ; V i c t o r i a ; i960?" B r i t i s h Columbia, The P r o t e c t 3 ^ n ^ c.5, s . l . Queen ''s^TrThTeTT^VTcTorTa^; 1956". Burns, Evelyn M. "The Role of Government i n S o c i a l Welfare," Social^.Work J o u r n a l , vol.xxxv, no. 3, J u l y 1954. C a l d w e l l , G. "Combined Operation," C a n a d l a ^ , ^ l f , vol.39, no. 4, July-August 1963. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , E s s e n t i a l s i n Adoption S e r v i c e . Pub-l i c a t i o n 128, CouncTr"Hous^";"TJtta"^aT"I^". Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , J u v e n i l e Court ^ " ^ , a ^ l Being a B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n of "Juvenile 'CdurT^rg^hTzWiohs i ^ the TroyfncesT! Tut>llcaYToh T2T, goU n c i l house • Ottawa; f 9 4 3 . Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , P ^ l j . c - P r i -vate JReJla t,i o ^ s ^ l p ^ J.n_ Ch i I d We I f are, Report"^6f^ar^fucTy. 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" " ""*""" w"""~ Government of Canada, Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare --Research D i v i s i o n , Changes and Deyelopments i n C h i l d Welfare S ^ General"Series Memorandum "No. Ottawa";" 'September 195^ (mimeographed). Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, C h i l d Welfare Branch, H i s i t p r i c a l ^Background ^of^Chl_ld^ WeJLf are S ervices (mimeogrS'phe'd^; Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, C h i l d Welfare Branch, R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of S t a t i s t i c s , 19^62-63 (mimeographed). Government of Saskatchewan, Department of C h i l d Welfare, C h i l d Welfare Branch, Reminiscences of C h i l d Welfare and Pu b l i c A s s i s t a n c r X ^ ^ Government of Saskatchewan, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, C h i l d Welfare Branch, Work^ P^Pg^g™6,^S°T„ Jfoe-..Fiscal ^ BBS. J;9§2~ 63. The Budget Bureau^'X'phtito'copiecTJ". Hendry, Charles E. 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