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Migration of the Sons of Freedom (Lower Mainland) Commeree, David Lee 1964

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MIGRATION OF THE SONS OF FREEDOM (Lover Mainland) by DAVID LEE COMMEREE IRENE JEANETTE FOERSTER WILLIAM BASIL MUNDY Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1964 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia THE MIGRATION OF THE SONS OF FREEDOM TO THE LOWER MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Movement to the Gates of Mountain Prison, Agassiz, B.C. 1962-1963 by DAVID LEE COMMEREE Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1961* The University of Br i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3, Canada. D a t e / v n f t ^ ^ r U - it at i i i ABSTRACT The Sons of Freedom Doukhobors have been of great concern to the Government of .Canada and the people and Government of Britisfr: Columbia for many years. They have gained notoriety in;recent years because of protests against the Canadian and B r i t i s h Columbia Govern-ments by the use of treks, arson, dynamiting, nudism, opposition to schools, taxes, and forms of registration. - Since 1925 there have b'een more-than 900 acts of violence and terrorism attributed to the "Sons of Freedom. There have been convictions iniapproximately 10 percent of the cases. Proposed relocation i n B r i t i s h Columbia has not occured because of protests from the proposed areas. Many countries have been approached for possible migration:but none w i l l accept the Sons of Freedom. Iha1961-1962 there were over 100 acts of terrorism and arson which led to the imprisonment of 95 Sons of Freedom. There are many conflicting issues on-the subject of terrorism. Most of i t has to do: with inter-sect conflict with one groupoblaming-the others of siding with-the government imam attempt to destroy the sect and assimilate i t into._the: Canadian way,-of l i f e . Out of fear of death and destruction the marchers burned their homes and vowed that their destination! would be the gates of Mountain Prison,, a special prison established for Sons of Freedom offenders. The trek was designed as a protest to draw public attention! t03 themselves and force the government into making an impartial investiga-tiombehind the imprisonment of their sons, husbands, and brothers. The trek began on September 2, 1962 and ended on August' 21, 196J. This migration-is significant in-so-far-as i t brought the Sons of Freedom out. .of relative isolation i n the Kbotenays and exposed them, for a period of time s t i l l to be determined, to the heavily populated area of Vancouver and the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The present migration is possibly the most significant event i n recent Doukhobor history as i t offers the f i r s t hope for possible integration or at least a.better understanding betweenithe-Sons of Freedom and the larger Canadian Community. This study records the facts and details of the migration and the reciprocal impact between;the Sons of Freedom and the community of Agassiz. Information was received from interviews with the Freedomite spokesman, people i n the community, newspaper and magazine articles and books written about the Doukhobors. • The entire study is divided into four sections done by four students inithe School of Social Work. The f i r s t section is the movement of the migration from the Kootenays into the community of Hope. The second is the movement of the migration from the community of Hope to the city of Vancouver. The third part focuses upon the social welfare aspects and implications of the migration* The fourth section is the movement of the iv migratiomfrom the city of Vancouver to the gates of Mountain Prison i n the Municipality of Kent. It is with this later phase of the migration that this section of the study is concerned. The Freedomites failed i n their objective to gain an impartial investigation for the prisoners. They did however gain the objective of being with the men and share their suffering with them. The Free-domites displayed their usual capacity to adjust to-any situation by making and subsisting i n their makeshift encampment. They have caused very l i t t l e trouble outside of "squatting" on municipal land. The Freedomites are keeping their usual detachment from the community. The community is rather passive i n regard to the Freedomites. The sect is very uncertain i n regard to the future as they have np place to go and no money or resourses.. The Freedomites Bhould be encouraged to remain i n the lower mainland where improved community relationships and better understanding are;possible. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page The Doukhobors i n Russia 1 The Migration to Canada 2 The Doukhobofcs i n Canada Conflict i n the Eootenays 3 Kent Municipal By-Laws 7 Supreme Court Action 7 The Movement to the Gates of Mountain Prison . . ©8 The Freedomite Encampment . . . . . 10 The Reaction of the Community to the Sons of Freedom . . . 13 The Freedomite Reaction to the Municipality of Kent . . . . 19 The Human Rights Organization 21 Conclusions and Implications . . 23 Appendix A. By-Law No. 399 30 Appendix B. By-Law No. kOO 32 Appendix G. Supreme Court of British Columbia No. 2519/62 3k Appendix D. Opinion Questionnaire U5 Appendix E. The Prisoners' Declarations U8 Appendix F. Bibliography . . . . . .. h$ 1 The Doukhobors i n Russia A h i s t o r i c a l review of the development of the Doukhobors i n general and the Sons of Freedom i n particular, with primary focus on migrations, both i n Russia and Canada, i s necessary for an understand-ing of the present situation. The Reformed Group of Sons of Freedom say that they are the only true Doukhobors. They s t i l l maintain deep rooted religious convictions that remain basically unchanged i n their 65 years i n Canada* The Doukhobor religion as i t i s known today originated i n Russia in the 19th century as a peasant sect protesting against the controls of the Russian government and the Russian Orthodox Church. The Douk-hobors i n Russia attempted to l i v e a communal way of l i f e , free from any form of external control. They believed i n t o i l and a peaceful l i f e , i n which they had a direct communion with God. This rebellion led to opposition to authority, with a complete rejection of man made laws and a complete acceptance of God's law. In Russia the Doukhobors lived i n geographical isolation. The sect was banished from the Mily Waters to the sparsely settled Wet Mountain region of the Southern Caucasus i n I8i4l. In the Southern Caucasus, which i s located near the Sea of Azov, the Doukhobors liv e d i n isolation from the larger Russian Community. This isolation was an attempt on the part of the government to segregate the sect so they would not influence other people. Soon after Peter V. Yerigin became leader compulsory military training was extended into the Southern Caucasus. The Verigin followers refused to co-operate with the government orders. Verigin 2 was eventually exiled into prison on the Kola Peninsula* During his imprisonment he began his study of the writings of Leo Tolstoy. Tolstoy, who later became a champion of the Doukhobor cause, believed i n pacifism and was opposed to commercialism, Verigin reviewed and expanded Doukhobor religious philosophy and incorporated Tolstoy's teachings. During Verigin's exile the sect continued to resist government orders. In 1895 there was an imperial decree which ordered the banish-ment of the Doukhobor sect, many settlements were broken up, and the families were evicted. The Migration to Canada The Society of Friends i n England, led by Aylmer Maude and sym-pathetic Russians led by Leo Tolstoy, found the ways and means for migration of the Doukhobors. The choice of location was between Canada and the Island of Cyprus. In 1898 Aylmer Maude, among others, went to Canada to make f i n a l arrangements for migration. A group of 1000 migrated to the Island of Cyprus, were disappointed because of land and climate conditions, and later migrated to Canada. One of the prime reasons for the Doukhobors1 selection of Canada was an Order-Ih-Council i n 1898 granting them exemption from military service. By the end of 1899 over 7000 Doukhobors had reached Canada. The Doukhobors settled i n three blocks of homesteads i n Saskatchewan, then part of the North West Territory. By the spring of 1900 nearly 2000 had separated themselves from the communal system and took up individual homesteads. In 1907 the main body of Doukhobors in Saskat-chewan, under the leadership of Peter V. Verigin refused to sign for 3 individual land t i t l e s and take oaths of allegiance to the Crown. The refusal to.sign for individual land t i t l e s led to a government repossession of 100.000 acres of community occupied land* By the end of 3£©° more than 5000 Doukhobors made their large-scale resettle-1 ment i n the West Kootenay region of B r i t i s h Columbia* Conflict i n the Kootenays In the early 1930»s there were many large scale demonstrations which led to the imprisonment of several hundred Freedomites on Piers Island, one of the Gulf Islands* Many of the demonstrations were reactions to the imprisonment of Peter the Second for perjury* Attempts were made to deport him which fa i l e d * Over three hundred Doukhobor children were placed i n foster homes and children's i n s t i -tutions upon the imprisonment of their parents* In 191*6 Michael "The Archangel" Verigin formed a new society? called the Union of Christ and formed a colony at H i l l i e r s on Van-couver Island. The Colony grew and prospered and was composed of Freedomites who moved from the Kootenays to avoid violence and terror-2 ism. The colony was burned during the reign of terror that charac-terized the Doukhobor settlements i n the middle 19U0*s and early 1 Hawthorne, Harry B*, ed., and others. The Doukhobors of B r i t i s h Columbia* The University of British Columbia and J*M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Limited* 1955* The B r i t i s h Columbia Government established a research committee i n 1950. The committee was composed of Anthropologists, Economists, Sociologists, Psychologists and specialists i n Agriculture, Law, Child Study and Social Work* The 2 year study attempted an analysis of the trouble and made recommenda-tions. This book i s based on that report* 2 "Mike Verigin Moved to Avoid Violence", Vancouver Sun, 6 November 191*7 • u 1 In 1950 Stefan Stanley Sorokin, a displaced German Baptist Missionary of Russian ancestry, became leader of the Sons of Freedom* His influence led to a short period of peace and he formed the Chris-tian Community and Brotherhood of Reformed Doukhobors* In 1953 Stefan S* Sorokin moved to Montevideo* Uruguay. He remains i n Uruguay at this time and i s s t i l l the s p i r i t u a l leader of the reformed group. In 1950 the B r i t i s h Columbia Government set up a research com-mittee and a consultative committee to study and make recommendations regarding the Doukhobor problem. The consultative committee made recommendation regarding resettlement and relocation i n Canada and other countries• In the years that followed recommendations for resettlement i n B r i t i s h Columbia and migrations to foreign land were proposed but a l l f a i l e d because of resistance i n the proposed areas and countries. In 1953 Costa Rica, Panama, and Bolivia were considered. 2 In 1959 the Doukhobors made an attempt to return to their native Russia. At this time the Canadian Government agreed to p^y f o r their t r i p 3 back and the cost of resettlement* In January of 1959 the R.C.M.P. disclosed that a small group of Doukhobor leaders exploited the proposed k move* In 1961 the Doukhobors planned another exodus, this time to 1 "Arson Suspected i n »Douk» Blaze, Fire Destroys H i l l i e r s Hall, B.C. Police Seek Firebug", Vancouver Dally Province, 20 December 19k7» 2 "Sect S t i l l Waiting Russian Permission", Vancouver Province, 19 February 1959. 3 "Ottawa Willing to Ship Doukhobors", Vancouver Son, 22 January 1959. U "Freedomites Say They Plan Another Exodus", Vancouver Sun, 15 November 1961. 5 Uruguay. This plan f a i l e d because the government of Uruguay f e l t 1 that the Doukhobors were troublesome and troublemakers. In l$5k> 97 Freedomite children were confined at a school at New Denver i n the Slocan Valley. The children were removed from their parents i n the summer of 1959 • In 1961 and 1962 many Freedomites i n and out of prison gave members of the R.G.M.P. "D" Squad (D for Doukhobor) statements i n which they accused many of their own leaders of inspiring their crimes 2 and gave details on how they assisted. Many of these people volun-teered this information i n court and i t was read into the public record. On March 2k, 1962 a 150 man "D" squad raided 90 Freedomite homes and seventy members of the Fraternal Council and their aids were arrested. The leaders were charged with the use of violence to i n -timidate the Parliament of Canada and the Legislature of B r i t i s h Columbia. On June 8, 1962, three days before the preliminary hearings of the leaders the f i r s t homes i n the Freedomite settlements were 1 "Doukhobor Migration Exploited", Vancouver Province, 1? January 1*59. ~ 2 For a number of years the Reformed group of Doukhobors blaim that John L. Lebedoff was assisting the R.C.M.P. by inciting terrorism. This was done through the use of prophecy and promises. The prophecy was that Doukhobors w i l l only leave Canada through Canadian j a i l s . The terrorists were t o l d that they must commit any crime and then con-fess to i t . The terrorists were also told to blame members of the Fraternal Council as instigators. The promises were land and being reunited with their families and s p i r i t u a l leader. The prisoners changed their confessions and said i n court that they deliberately l i e d on themselves and others. At the present time they fe e l that they had been deceived and deliberately railroaded into prison. 6 burned. During the f i r s t day fifty-three homes were burned, the next day thirty-nine more. At this time a l l of the prisoners except one, Mike Bayoff, reversed their earlier statements. In the next six weeks two hundred and f i f t y more homes were burned. When the leaders came to t r i a l Magistrate William Evans dis-missed the charges. The majority of the leaders were released from 1 j a i l on August 7, 1962. In December of 1962, two months after the trek began, Magistrate William Evans contacted the embassies of Sussia, B r a z i l , Columbia, Venezuela, Argentina, Cuba, Turkey and Peru. Non would accept the Sons of Freedom. Every country contacted refused the offer giving the same reason. They have compulsory military training with no provision 2 for the exclusion of minority groups. The Present Migration The migration from the Kootenays began on September 2, 1962. The f i r s t major stop was an RfC.M.P. roadblock at Bromley Park which lasted u n t i l the 28th of September. After the roadblock was l i f t e d the marchers proceeded to the community of Hope, arriving on the 29th. Prior to leaving for Hope the Sons of Freedom gave a statement to a meeting of the Kent Municipal Council. In the statement they gave their destination, the reasons why they were going, why the children were included, and what they believed the government intentions were. The Freedcmites said that they were considered third class citizens 1 Simma Holt. "Death of a Doukhobor". Canada Month, (October 1S>63), PP. 26-28. 2 "Nobody Wants the Sons B r i t i s h Columbia Government Told", Vancouver Province, £j> January I963. not worthy of the rights of others. Kent Municipal By-Laws. On September 17 and 18, 1962 the Kent Municipal Council wrote Emergency By-Law 399 and Building and Sanitation By-Law 1*00. The two by-laws were legal attempts by the Municipal Council to protect the community from the impact of the threatened migration. The Muni-cipal Council felt that there would be a complete disorganization within the municipality in the areas of schooling, housing, health, sanitation, and law enforcement. Section 2 of Emergency By-Law 399 prohibited anyone associated with the Doukhobors, who were part of the trek, or who had intentions of remaining close to Mountain Prison from entering the Municipality 1 of Kent during the emergency. Building and Sanitation By-Law UOO made i t illegal for anyone to camp in tents or temporary shelters of any kind. It limited the number of persons to 10 per acre. Shelters and latrines had to be inspected by the Sanitary Inspector. Piped 2 drinking water and rainproof cooking shelters also had to be provided. Section 3 of By-Law 399 and section k of By-Law UOO defined the penalty for violation of either By-Law. Any violator was subject to areest without warrant, upon conviction subject to a fine, of #500.00-and/or imprisonment up to six months together with court costs. Supreme Court Action On October 9, 1962 Mr. Justice Monroe granted a temporary Supreme 1 Kent, Ordinances, The District of Kent Emergency By-Law. September 18, 1962. By-Law Number 399. By-Law? K | e ^ e m ? ^ r ! 9 ^ 2 ? ^ ! a 5 e i S e r ° E c ^ d S a n i t a i y C o n t r o 1 8 Court Injunction with the understanding that By-Law would be tested i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the near future. On November 19, 1962 Mr. Justice Whittaker ruled By-Law 329 invalid as sections 2 and 3 made or attempted to make i t a crime for any Doukhobor to enter the Minicipality of Kent. According to Mr. Justice Whittaker the Kent Municipal Council sought to meet the situation by the creation of a new crime. This was an evasion of the 1 exclusive legislative authority of the Parliament of Canada. The Sons of Freedom remained i n the community of Hope u n t i l January 18, 1963 at which time they moved to the cit y of Vancouver. The events i n Hope w i l l be covered i n another section of this paper by Mr. William Mundy. The Sons of Freedom remained i n the cit y of Vancouver from January 18, 1963 u n t i l August 21, 1963. The events that took place i n the cit y of Vancouver w i l l be covered i n another section of this study by Mr. Roopshand Seeberan. The Movement to the Gates of Mountain Prison Between the dates of August 19 and 21, 1963 an estimated number of f i v e to six hundred Sons of Freedom moved from the c i t y of Vancouver to the gates of Mountain Prison. Mountain Prison i s located i n the Municipality of Kent near the small community of Agassiz. It i s a 1 The Corporation of the District of Kent v. Florence Storgoff  and Marie Shalakoff and the class that they represent being ihe Sons of Freedom Sect of the ^oukhobors and the Honourable the Attorney General of the Province of B r i t i s h uoiumbiiu Reasons for the Judgement of the Honourable Mr. Justice Whittaker. In the Supreme Court of Br i t i s h Columbia. IS November 3#62. No. 251S/62. 9 maximum security prison -which was b u i l t i n the spring of 1962. The prison, which i s fire-proof, was established for the imprisonment of Doukhobors and. more spe c i f i c a l l y for the,Sons of Freedom who are con-victed for some act of terrorism or violence. The Freedomites were motivated i n their move from Vancouver because of the prisoners' hunger strike which started one month earlier, on July 21, I963. The hunger strike was originally declared to be a fast u n t i l death as the prisoners claimed that they were railroaded 1 into prison and were not being allowed the right of appeal. The fast was called off on October 31, 1963 at which time the prisoners 2 forgave those who caused their suffering. The Freedomites* decision to move from Vancouver was spontaneous and came about i n a Sobranya i n Victory Square, Vancouver on August 1?, 1963. Sobranya i s the traditional Doukhobor group meeting. It i s Doukhobor religious philosophy that God i s present i n each i n d i v i -dual. In Sobranya the God of each merges with the God of others. From this corporate union a decision i s reached wftich i s God's W i l l 3 speaking through the group. This form of decision making absolves the individual from any formal responsibility. The Sons of Freedom arrived at the gates of Mountain Prison over a two day period. They arrived i n chartered busses and private automobiles. The move was financed from social assistance funds. The expected storming of the prison and breakdown of law and order did not materialize. 1 Fred Chernenkoff, Agassiz Camp Newsletter - Mountain Prison  Doorstep, 12 September I963. p. 1. 2 Storgoff, Mrs. Florence. Interview with writer. 22 December 1963. 3 Perepolkin, Mr. John. Interview with writer. 16 January 1961*. 10 0a August 23, 1963 representatives from the Vancouver Human Rights Organization were allowed i n the prison i n an attempt to c a l l o f f the prisoners' fast. Mr. William Carson, President of the Human Rights Organization* showed the prisoners a telegram from Stefan S. Sorokin. the Freedomites1 Spiritual Leader which requested a stop to the f a s t . The attempt f a i l e d . At the same time Mr. Carson sent a telegram to the Attorney General of B r i t i s h Columbia recommending that the Government of Bri t i s h Columbia offer the Freedomites land with an extended payment plan and a promise of immunity for S. S. Sorokin shogld he return to B r i t i s h 1 Columbia* On the same date the Freedomites sent a cable to the Minis-2 ter of Justice i n Ottawa requesting an inquiry into the situation* At the time of the marchers arrival a number of the marchers started a fast of their own which lasted for a few days* The marchers immediately began the construction of their cardboard, plastic, and canvas encampment. The Freedomite Encampment The Freedomite encampment i s situated on a half-mile section of road at the gates of Mountain Prison. In the f i r s t weeks at the camp-si t e everybody was building ramshackle tents, lean-to's and huts which l i n e the road. In the weeks that followed many tents were overlaid with pla s t i c sheeting for protection against the weather and later .1 "Authorities Move to Save 103 Sons", Vancouver Province, 2? August 3362. — ! 2 . . . Aggssiz Camp Newsletter (hereafter cited as ACN), . . . . 11 covered with slabwood siding. Others chopped poles from the nearby forest and covered them with cardboard* canvas, old pieces of wood and sheet metal. They also dug privies, sank holes into the ground beside the road to tap swamp water for washing and bored two wells for drinking water. There are approximately l£0 assorted buildings i n the encamp-ment running k to f> deep along the road. The larger buildings are the size of medium and large camping tents. The majority of the buildings, which are tents, have one room with the cooking equipment situated near the entrance. The homes are neat and clean and contain only essential household equipment. Because of the nature of their situa-tion, the Freedomites do not have modern household appliances or con-veniences . Stove pipes have been fashioned from tins cans which are crimped together and held up with wire. The huts are heated by various methods, some have conventional wood heaters and stoves, others have home-made heaters and stoves fashioned from assorted non-inflammable material. On the opposite side of the road, next to a marshland, there i s a series of clotheslines and wood p i l e s . In the center of the encampment i s a large sign made of canvas with the Canadian B i l l of Rights outlined upon i t . Above the sign i s written - Fact or Fantasy. When vis i t o r s come to the encampment Doukhobor children sing religious songs i n both Russian and English while standing next to the sign. The Freedomites' clothing i s plain and colourless. The elderly men are characterized by their long beards and the women by their 12 babushkas* The encampment has many elderly people, school age child-ren and their mothers, but few teen-agers and middle-aged men. While i n the encampment one sees much aimless wandering and sober faces. Apart from the play of children and the sawing of wood there i s l i t t l e noise present i n the encampment. With the exception of the traditional Sobranya there i s no formal organization i n the encampment. The Freedomite spokesmen say that formal organization or structure i s impossible because of the uncer-tainty of the situation. The Freedomites gather for Sobranya when-ever convenient, usually i n the morning and on Sunday afternoon. The teen-agers and young people also have a daily Sobranya of their own. Sobranya i s frequently used for the passing of current news and infor-mation. The spokesmen claim that they frequently have to be careful about what i s said i n Sobranya when vis i t o r s and outsiders are present. The sect has several spokesmen but deny any individual leader-ship or individual policy making. The sect spokesman use both English and Russian when meeting outsiders. They speak to the outsiders i n English and settle issues amongst themselves in Russian. They welcome interested v i s i t o r s and w i l l extend themselves i n answering questions or guiding them through the encampment. The spokesmen seldom, i f ever, depart from the subject of their situation or religious philosophy. They want people to know and understand their situation but are very intolerant of any other point of view. The spokesmen frequently lead one into highly abstract and i d e a l i s t i c ideas on their values and way of l i f e as opposed to the c a p i t a l i s t i c free enterprise system of government. The Sons of Freedom seem to be preoccupied with highly 13 abstract ideals and values rather than giving thought and practical consideration to solving their problem. Outside of their active protest they leave the problem-solving to others. The encampment has three buildings which are not used for hous-ing. One i s the community steam bath which w i l l hold 10 - 15 people at one time. There i s also a wash room for clothing with a hand driven washing machine, a bath tub. and a hot water heater which suppli both. The hot water heater i s an old washing machine with an oven b u i l t into i t . There i s also a community h a l l which w i l l hold up to 200 people. The community h a l l i s a wood structure which i s frequently used for Sobranya and children's play activity. The Freedomites obtain their building material from various sources. They obtain waste wood from saw mills, cardboard and packing crates from stores* waste lumber from destroyed housing, t i n cans from service stations, and whatever they can salvage from garbage dumps The Reaction of the Community to the Sons of Freedom The municipality of Kent, which i s both mountainous and farm region, covers an area of 70 square miles. The population i n the 1961 census was 219k• Agriculture, logging, mining and dairy farming are the major sources of income i n the area. The largest community i n the municipality i s the village Agassiz with a population of 1*78. 1 Observations and Interviews by the Writer* Ik The Municipality has one Reeve and £ councillors, a 2 man R.C.M.P. detachment and a 12 man f i r e brigade for f i r e protection. The Agassiz-Harrison Advance i s the local weekly newspaper. The Anglican, United and Roman Catholic faiths are the principal religious denominations. Agassis has a small business community which includes several grocery stores and service stations, one barber shop, hotel, movie theater, general store, hardware store, and real estate o f f i c e . It also has a bank and several other small businesses. The grocers i n Agassiz have profited financially from the Sons of Freedom. Particular grocers receive vouchers distributed to the Freedomites from the Salvation Army. Direction to specific stores was put into effect to spread the money evenly i n the community. The grocery store closest to the encampment cashes checks for the Free-domites. The owner of the store says that she has found the Freedomites to be "terrib l y honest"• At the same time she cannot see the govern-ment helping them out when many of them are healthy and able to work. Another store keeper, who i s close to the encampment, has a very hos-t i l e attitude towards the Sons of Freedom. He w i l l only deal with them on a cash basis, and says that the only way i n which he would help these people i s by furnishing transportation to get them out of the municipality. A third storekeeper located close to the encamp-ment refused to discuss the Freedomites with the writer. One storekeeper has a mobile grocery store and drives to the encampment each day. The owner of the general store says that the Freedomites are shrewd shoppers. They always buy the best quality that their money w i l l buy. The Freedomite women w i l l purchase pure 15 and not blended food products even though the blended items might cost l e s s . They w i l l also purchase the best quality of clothing that their money w i l l permit. The Freedomites seldom, i f ever, patronize the other businesses. Because of lack of money they seldom frequent the l o c a l barbershop or hardware store. The owners of these businesses were very hostile i n their attitude towards the Sons of Freedom as was the owner of one local service station. The service station owner stated that the Freedomites/ w i l l frequently attempt to barter for white gasoline and small batteries. A drug store clerk finds the Freedomites to be l i k e any other people i n her business dealings. The Freedomites seldom patronize the l o c a l restaurants because of lack of money. The encampment has attracted many tourists into the municipality. The business community i s quite c r i t i c a l of this because the tourists are not staying and spending money in the community. The least c r i t i c a l i n the community are those who make a financial p r o f i t . Those who make l i t t l e or no p r o f i t are very c r i t i c a l and often hostile i n their attitude towards the Sons of Freedom. The local r e a l estate agent stated that the presence of the Free-domites i n the Municipality has not effected the sale or price of property. One business man, the owner of the general store, estab-lished business at the time of the arrival of the marchers. He said that the presence of the Freedomites had no effect on his decision to establish business i n Agassiz. Prior to the arrival of the Freedomite marchers the Municipal Council was icpncerne'd over the p o s s i b i l i t y of a serious health and 16 sanitation problem. Upon the establishment of the encampment the Public Health Department offered and made available a l l the services* available to the general community. To date there has been no out-standing incident of illness or disease. The Sons of Freedom have made good use of the Public Health Service as the Public Health Nurse comes into the encampment on a regular basis. The Sons of Freedom have followed the advice and suggestions of the health and sanitation o f f i c i a l s . When medical care requiring a doctor's care i s needed. frequently the Freedomites go to the emergency ward of the General 1 Hospital i n nearby Chilliwaok. Another major concern of the Municipial Council was the possible disorganization of the public school system. Thr Provincial Govern-ment granted #3500.00 to the Public School System to meet the sudden expansion of the l o c a l school. One teacher was added and two new classrooms provided. P r i o r to this, a room i n the Anglican church building was used as a classroom. The Provincial Government also provided finances for the Freedomite children's i n i t i a l school fees and school supplies• This caused some concern among several teachers since there were some non-Doukhobor children whose parents could not afford supplies. In the beginning the Freedomite children were segregated but were t o t a l l y integrated by January of l$6k» The f i r s t problem was to determine the proper grade placement for each chi l d . The school 1 Hunton, Mrs. Margaret. Interview with Writer. 5 November 1°63. 17 system did not have the previous school records for the Freedomite children. Various tests were given to the children at the beginning of the school year to determine their school level and a b i l i t y . None of the Freedomite children are doing poorly i n school, and none have displayed behaviour or discipline problems. The only outstanding characteristic i n school i s that a child the age of a sixth grader might be in the fourth grade. The Freedomite children mix well with the children of the regu-l a r community and do not show any signs of feeling "different". It i s the opinion of school and public health o f f i c i a l s that the Freedom-i t e children are often better dressed, cleaner, and better behaved than children i n the general community. The Freedomite children have been excused from participation i n physical education, the singing of patriotic songs, and the pledging of allegiance. This has been done i n respect to the Doukhobor's religious convictions. In September of 1°63 there were nearly 80 Freedomite children enrolled i n gchool. In January of 196k there were only 6k children enrolled. The majority of those who l e f t school returned either to 1 Vancouver or the Kootenay area. Reeve James Frazer i s b i t t e r l y opposed to the presence of the Freedomites i n the Municipality and to any form of help or assistance that they receive. Reeve Frazer blames the Salvation Army assistance vouchers for keeping the Freedomites where they are. He feels that 1 Duncan, Mr. W.C. Interview with Writer. 16 January 2$6k* 18 the Salvation Army i s aiding and encouraging them to remain and feels 1 that the Government should look after i t s own w d i r t y work". He asked the Attorney General to remove the Freedomites from the muni-2 ci p a l i t y because they were violating the camping by-law but this was not done* Reeve Frazor also feels that the Freedomites think that they can flout the law because the R.C.M.P. has not enforced the 3 building and sanitation by-law. The R.C.M.P. officers i n Agassiz are reluctant to discuss the Doukhobor i n a specific manner* One officer of the l o c a l detachment said that the Freedomite encampment contains the largest concentration of criminals i n Canada. He says that he i s unable to enforce the k By-Laws because of instruction from the Attorney General's o f f i c e . A cross section of people i n and around Agassiz were interviewed regarding their opinion of the Sons of Freedom. A l l of those inter-viewed (20) f e l t that the Sons of Freedom are strange people, with a majority (lit) feeling that the group has poor leadership and the individual members not being f u l l y responsible f o r their behaviour* Approximately three-fourths (U*) of those interviewed had l i t t l e or no concern when they heard that the Freedomites were on their way to Mountain Prison. However (11) did see the p o s s i b i l i t y of a serious problem i n housing, health, sanitation, and schooling. A very small 1 "Reeve Raps Salvation Army", Vancouver Sun, 12 February 1°6U. 2 "Kent Attacks Government Inaction", Vancouver Sun, 6 September 1963. 3 "Sons Out of Trouble for a Week", Vancouver Province, 23 August 1963. -h Interview with Writer, 5 November 1963. 1° minority (3) Seared destruction of property, a breakdown of law and order or a police problem. Only k of those interviewed had never met a Doukhobor i n the Agassiz area. The majority (16) had either a business contact or met them i n a store. Half of thosiinterviewed stated that they would not offer help to the Sons of Freedom i n any form. One-fourth (5) said they would help them i f the need arose. The remainder (5) said that i t a l l depended upon the condition. Three-fourth (15) of those interviewed stated that the Freedom-ites could remain i n the community i f they would follow municipal, provincial, and federal laws. Only 3 would not l e t them remain i n the municipality under any condition. Several of the people interviewed f e l t that the Freedomites want publicity and f e l t that they should not receive i t . Some f e l t that the Freedomites are confused, do not know themselves, and are "bums" wanting "handouts". The biggest impression that the Freedomites have made on the community i s the care and discipline that they give their children. Not one negative comment was raised against the Freedomite children. The Freedomite Reaction to the Municipality of Kent The Sons of Freedom tend to isolate themselves from the general community. They do not participate nor take interest i n the affairs , of the town. The majority of their contacts are i n business trans-actions with l o c a l grocers and service station operators. In the f i r s t months of the encampment the Freedomites were able 20 to choose which grocer they pleased. This was changed by the Salva-tion Army and grocery vouchers were directed to specific stores. The Sons of Freedom are satisfied with these contacts. They say that some grocers give them a l i t t l e extra for their money. The major source of contact with the community i s through the school children who ree&Lve much praise and favourable comment from members of the community. The Freedomites appreciate the school system's recognition of their religious convictions i n regard to physi-cal education, the singing of patriotic songs and the pledging of all e -giance • The Freedomite spokesmen say that By-Laws 399 and kOO do not exist as far as they are concerned. They do not believe i n man-made laws. They fe e l that they have a duty and a responsibility to be with the prisoners and f e e l that they are f u l l y j u s t i f i e d i n their action. Ehe Freedomite spokesmen say that the only individual i n the community who has directed h o s t i l i t y toward them has been Reeve James Frazer. As stated previously, he b i t t e r l y opposes their presence i n the municipality. The Sons of Freedom claim that the R.C.M.P. and the "D" squad are treating them same way they did when they were i n the Kootenay area. They maintain that they have no f a i t h or trust i n members of the R.C.M.P. They denounce alleged bribes and promises that presum-ably led many of the prisoners to making confessions to crimes that they say they did not commit. The Sons of Freedom f e e l that members of the community have treated them f a i r l y well. The Freedomites have only a limited 21 contact with individual members in the community. Some community-members have brought them food and clothing, others have given them rides, offered f i r e wood and occasional part time work. One farmer 1 i s going to loan them a f i e l d to make a garden i n the spring. The Freedomite spokesmen say that there i s a charitable element i n any community but this does not speak for the views of a l l the people. They f e e l that the majority of the people could not care less about the situation. The Freedomites f e e l that those who make a financial p r o f i t are pleased and those who speak the loudestiare those who do 2 not p r o f i t financially or p o l i t i c a l l y . The Human Rights Organization The Human Rights Organization from Vancouver has been actively engaged i n working on the Doukhobor problem on the community l e v e l . They are concerned over the rights of minority groups and individuals who come into conflict with society and have d i f f i c u l t y i n speaking for themselves. The Human Rights Organization, through i t s leaders, are outspoken regarding the Doukhobor problem. Mr. William Carson, President of the Human Rights Organization, i s highly c r i t i c a l of the major forces i n the community which have formed public llpinion over the years. He does not f e e l that the government w i l l ever take a true look into the situation because any investigation would lead to revela-3 tions that would embarass various individuals and authorities. 1 "Freedomite Hut Village Busy Place", Toronto Globe and Mail, 17 February 196k. 2 Storgoff, Mrs. Florence, Ribalkin, Mr. Tim, Perepolkin Mr. John. Interview with writer, 22 December 1963. 3 Carson, Mr. William. Interview with the writer. 2 October 1963. 22 Mr. William Carson and Br. Ananda Bhavanani kept i n contact with Mrs. Florence Storgoff and John Perepolkin i n the encampment and Joe Podov±ninkoff, a Doukhobor residing i n Vancouver. Joe Podovinikoff i s an associate of Stefan S. Sorokin, the Spiritual Leader i n Uruguay. Conflict arose between the Human Rights Organization and the Freedomites i n November of 1963 because the Freedomites f e l t that the Human Rights Organization was trying to t e l l them what to do, and rejected their offer for solution. The Human Rights Organization solution wanted to place the group on an island. The Freedomites were to turn over their property holdings to the Human Rights Organization i n return for the island and the Freedomites would receive a written document that the money received from the sale of their land would be returned i f i f u l l i f they should ever decide to leave the island. In this way the Free-domites would not have to buy the land and they would not have to pay 1 taxes or rent. The Freedomites rejected this offer. They said i f the Human Rights Organization wants to help there i s an alternative. "Let them get the prisoners out of prison, take them to some land and then we 2 w i l l follow." In January 1°6U the Freedomite sect contacted Mr. Carson asking him to bring Stefan Sorokin back from Uruguay to t e l l them what to do. They said that they w i l l do whatever he says. Mrs. Storgoff said that they would move to land i f i t would be advised by their leader and i f 1 Carson, Mr. William, Letter to Mrs. Florence Storgoff, 28 November 1°63. 2 Storgoff, Mrs. Florence. Interview with writer. 22 December 1963. 23 1 he would obtain land for them. On A p r i l 16 1°6U Mrs. Storgoff Infor-med the writer that the Human Rights Organization has lost contact with the members of the encampment. They have had no contact for a long period of time with their s p i r i t u a l leader Stefan S. Sorokin. Conclusions and Implications The migration of the Sons of Freedom to the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia i s but one i n a long l i n e of mass movements that have long characterized the Doukhobors'. The present migration brought the Sons of Freedom out of relative isolation i n the tight, small valleys i n the West Kootenay region of B r i t i s h Columbia, and offers the f i r s t hope of possible integration or at least a better under-standing between the Sons of Freedom and the larger Canadian community. The f i f t y - s i x years since the movement of the sect to B r i t i s h Columbia have been characterized by terrorism, arson, violence, and nude demon-strations. These demonstrations have been protests directed towaJ&ds the control of government and conflict between members and factions within the sect i t s e l f . The current migration was designed as another protest against the government, this time to draw attention towards themselves and to force the government into making an impartial investigation into the reasons behind the imprisonment of their sons, husbands, and brothers. The desired investigation fa i l e d to materialize. The Sons of Freedom also found themselves without money, homeless, without leadership or 1 "Doukhobors Asking Help With Possible Return of Their Leader," Agassiz-Harrison Advance. 16 January I963. 2k direction and "squatting" on property where they are not wanted. The Kent Municipal Council attempted to meet the problems im-posed by the impending migration by the creation of an emergency by-law. The Kent Municipal Council foresaw serious problems i n the area of housing, schooling, health and sanitation, and i n law enforcement. The Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia ruled the by-law invalid as i t 1 sought to create a new crime. Though the Freedomites are violating the Building and Sanitation By-Law by "squatting" on municipal property they have not caused serious problems i n any of these areas of concern. The Kent Municipal Council and various members of the community were concerned because they were unable to enforce the Emergency By-Law, as defined i n the Municipalities Act. They f e e l that the Provincial and Federal Governments are not assuming their responsibility and they find themselves powerless to cope with the situation and receive no support from the senior government bodies. From a l l appearances the govern-ment i s inactive on the Freedomite problem except for their standing offer for individual or family resettlement any place in Canada. The Freedomites have showed their usual a b i l i t y to adjust to an/ situation and make the best out of i t . The encampment i t s e l f and the people i n i t are, considering the circumstances, unusually clean. The Freedomites have displayed an almost unbelieveable a b i l i t y to 1 That of making i t i l l e g a l f o r a Doukhobor or anyone associated with them from entering the Municipality during the duration of the emergency. Judge Whittaker's decision, even though he recognized that an emergency existed, upheld the rights of an individual i n a free society. 25 make a liveable situation out of "nothing". The Freedomites continue their usual detachment from the surrounding community. As one spokes-man said, "We mind our business and they mind theirs". The Freedomites f e e l uneasy when confronted by the sights* sounds, and temptations of the town or c i t y * They fear l i v i n g i n Vancouver as i t necessarily separates them. Occasionally they w i l l go to the c i t y obtaining medi-cal care. They also prefer having new born children l i v i n g i n the c i t y because l i f e i n the encampment i s often harsh and cold and not good for infant children. The Sons of Freedom have no intention of participating i n the affairs of the town or cit y as this would demand reciprocal behaviour on their part. They desire a community of their own making free from any form of external control. At the same time the Freedomites are inactive on working out a solution or compromise to their problem. The Municipality of Kent, apart from the Reeve and two other council members seem quite passive to the presence of the Sons of Freedom. This i s probably due, i n part, to the fact that the Free-domites have not resorted to some of their traditional acts of arson, terrorism, violence, or nude demonstrations• Interviews with a number of people i n the area indicate that very few people were at a l l concern-ed over possible terrorism. This i s probably due to the fact that there were no acts of terrorism while the Freedomites were in Hope or Vancouver. A number of people interviewed were concerned over possible problems i n housing, schooling, health and sanitation but only a small minority are absolutely opposed to the Freedomites re-maining i n the municipality under any condition. It would seem that 26 the general community i s less concerned with the Freedomites than members of the Municipal Council who represent the general community i n government. Policing has not proved to be an outstanding d i f f i c u l t y . The fiCC.M.P. "D" squad i s located i n the municipality and additional police have been added to the local R.C.M.P. detachment. Twenty-four hour policing has been put into effect in the municipality. Mem-bers of the "Dtt squad come into the encampment quite frequently and talk to Mrs. Storgoff. The Freedomite children have made an excellent adjustment to the school situation. None are f a i l i n g i n school nor have they been any behaviour or discipline problems. The children have been clean and appropriately dressed. When influenza and measles were rather widespread i n the community, the Freedomites, including the children, were almost immune. This i n i t s e l f helped the Freedomite image i n the community. The Freedomite children's good behaviour can be re-lated to the s t r i c t obedience expected of them. This form of obedience carries over into later l i f e as the adult Doukhobor displays fierce loyalty to the group and i t s leaders. A small number of young adult women in their late teens and early twenties seemed to separate themselves from the group and l i v e independently in Vancouver. In recent weeks several of these young women moved back to the encampment. They w i l l only say that they did not l i k e the c i t y or were there for medical reasons. One spokesman said that they are moving back upon their parents' request. It has said by several authorities and the Freedomite spokesmen themselves 27 that the individual Doukhobor who tries to separate themselves from the group find i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to stay away from the group for any period of time. The spokesmen deny any dissatisfaction among the teenagers in the encampment. The Freedomites are subsisting financially from Salvation Army vouchers and from casual employment i n the Agassiz area. (See the section on Welfare by Miss Irene Forrester.) Many of the able-bodied men are employed by farmers i n the planting and harvesting of seasonal crops. Other men i n the encampment have s k i l l s i n house painting and house building. More often than not farmers and individuals i n the community w i l l come to the encampment and seek someone for the ser-vice they require. The Freedomites share their mottey with those i n need. Some of the working men w i l l help support a mother and children whose husband and father i s i n prison. The f i r s t prisoners w i l l be released i n May and June of 196U. Some of the prison terms are up to fifteen years. It i s l i k e l y that the Freedomites w i l l remain i n theiropx»sent location u n t i l they are forceably removed or relocated i n another area. They w i l l not move before this because they have no place to go and no money to move. If they should move for any reason, i t would either be back to Van-couver or to the Kootenays. In Vancouver they would be able to ob-tain housing and social assistance payments. They say that they w i l l never return to the Kootenays because their property has been sold. They also say that they moved from the Kootenays to clear their name from the terrorism and violence that has for so long been associated with them. 28 It i s suggested that the Freedomites be encouraged to remain i n the lower mainland of Br i t i s h Columbia. This w i l l offer hope for eventual integration and better understanding between them and the people of the immediate area. It i s unlikely that any form of terrorism, violence, or demon-stration w i l l develop. It w i l l only be used as a last resort to draw public attention to themselves i f their situation becomes untolerable. Because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of demonstrations the surrounding community should be encouraged i n i t s practice of accepting the group• The public school system acted very wisely be respecting their religious convictions and integrating the children into the classes best suited for their individual a b i l i t y . Public health services should continue to be extended to the members of the encampment. The government should explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of extending social welfare medical services •AfT to the encampment as i l l n e s s , the effects of age, and limited diets w i l l eventually have an impact on the group. It i s also suggested that interested members and groups i n the community reach out to members of the encampment and include them or at least make possible for them to participate i n some form of commu-nity project. This could be started with the school age children i n some form of school or recreational programme. At the presentiitime no grogp, organization or government agency i s actively engaged i n working out the Doukhobor problem. The Free-domites themselves are s i t t i n g back i n a very passive way. The Sons of Freedom are pfesently homeless, and "squatting 1 1 on municipal property, without financial funds and without much leadership. 29 It i s up to the government and the lo c a l community to take the i n i t i -ative and work with the people on a cooperative basis. Only i n such a way w i l l mutual understanding come about. The Sons of Freedom should not be expected to give up their cherished hope for a Doukhobor community free from internal and exter-nal pressure. 30 Appendix A. THE CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF KENT BY-LAW NO., 399 WHEREAS The Council of the Di s t r i c t of Kent i s reliably informed that an organized group of several hundred members of the Doukhobor sect known as Sons of Freedom i s rapidly approaching the Dist r i c t of Kent with the intention of remaining i n that Dis t r i c t f o r an indefi-nite period. AND WHEREAS many children of school age are within the approaching group• AND WHEREAS the group has neither the financial resources necessary to enable the members to acquire dwelling houses nor the intention of acquiring or maintaining dwelling houses within the d i s t r i c t . AND WHEREAS members of the sect are addicted to nudism, arson and the i l l e g a l use of dynamite and explosive devices. AND WHEREAS the Di s t r i c t of Kent lacks school accommodation to take care of the children of school age within the group. AND WHEREAS the Di s t r i c t of Kent lacks f a c i l i t i e s for the accommodation of a group of this magnitude under healthful and sanitary conditions. AND WHEREAS the arr i v a l of a group of this kind i n the District of Kent w i l l disorganize the educational system of the School D i s t r i c t , w i l l be a menace to health and i s l i k e l y to lead to breaches of the peace and the possible break-down of law and order i n the D i s t r i c t . AND WHEREAS the powers and authorities vested i n or conferred upon the Council are inadequate to deal with the emergency created by these conditions. NOW THEREFORE the Council of the Dist r i c t of Kent i n open meeting duly assembled enacts as follows: 1. The Council of the District of Kent declares that by reason of the matters set forth i n the preamble hereto an emergency exists. 2. No person associated with or being a part of the group of Douk-hobors presently moving from the Kootenay area of the Grand Forks area to Agassiz or the d i s t r i c t of Kent with the intention of remaining close to the Mountain Prison for Doukhobors and no person who i s or has been a member of or who i s or has been actively associated with the Doukhobor sect known as Sons of Freedom sh a l l enter the d i s t r i c t of Kent during the continuance of this emergency. 31 3* Any person who contravenes any provision of the By-law shall be liable to arrest without warrant and on summary conviction to a fine of up to #500.00 or to imprisonment for up to six months or both together with costs. h» This by-law may be cited for a l l purposes as "The District of Kent Emergency By-Law, 1962, No. 399. READ A FIRST TIME and passed by the Council on the 17th day of September A.D. 1962. READ A SECOND TIME and passed by the Council on the 17th day of September A.D. 1962. READ A THIRD TIME and passed by the Council on the 17th day of September A.D. 1962. RECONSIDERED and finally passed by a two-thirds majority of a l l the members of the Council of the District of Kent this 18th day of September A.D. 1962. Reeve <5IerF I hereby certify the above to be a true copy of the By-Law No. 399, as passed by the Municipal Council of the Corporation of the District of Kent, on the 18th day of September A.D. 1962. 32 Appendix B. THE CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF KENT CAMPING REGULATION AND SANITARY CONTROL BY-LAW, 1962 BY-LAW NO. UOO The Council of The Corporation of the Di s t r i c t of Kent in open meeting duly assembled enacts as follows: 1. DEFINITIONS; "Camping" includes l i v i n g i n tents or i n temporary shelters of any kind but does not include l i v i n g i n a t r a i l e r having sani-tary f a c i l i t i e s which have been approved by the Sanitary In-spector or Health Officer. "Sanitary Inspector" means the Sanitarj! Inspector of the North Fraser Health Unit. "Health Officer" means the medical health officer of the North Fraser Health Unit. 2. No group consisting of five (5) persons or more shal l camp on any parcel of land i n the Di s t r i c t of Kent u n t i l a Permit to camp has been issued by the Council of the District of Kent or by some o f f i c i a l or employee of the Council authorized by the Council to issue a Permit. 3 . (a) Application for such a Permit shall be made i n writing to the Clerk of the Dist r i c t of Kent by the person who i s i n charge of the group or who accepts responsibility for the conduct of the group with respect to this by-law. (b) The application s h a l l : (1) State the number of persons proposing to camp and shall give their names. ( i l ) State the legal description of the parcel of land on which the camping i s proposed. ( i i i ) Describe the tents or shelters proposed to be used giving dimensions and state the number of persons who w i l l occupy each tent or shelter. k* The number of persons on any parcel of land shall not exceed ten persons per acre of area. 33 5. No permit to camp shall be issued u n t i l the Sanitary Inspector has inspected the tents or shelters proposed to be used and u n t i l latrines have been constructed and the Sanitary Inspector or health of f i c e r has c e r t i f i e d to the Council that the tents or shelters and sanitary f a c i l i t i e s are adequate. 6. No more than ten persons sha l l camp of any parcel of land which i s not served by piped drinking water. 7. No more than ten persons shall camp on any parcel of land which does not have within i t s area rain proof cooking shelter. 8. Any person who contravenes any provision of this by-law shal l be l i a b l e on summary conviction to I fine of up to $500.00 or to imprisonment for up to six months or both, together with costs. 9. This by-law may be cited for a l l purposes as "Camping Regulation and Sanitary Control No. 1*00. READ A FIRST TIME and passed by the Council on the 17th day of September A.D. 1962 READ A SECOND TIME and passed by the Council on the 17th day of September A.D. 1962 READ A THIRD TIME and passed by the Council on the 17th day of September A.D. 1962. RECONSIDERED and f i n a l l y passed by the Council of The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Kent and the SEAL of the Municipality affixed and signed by the Reeve and Clerk, on the 18th day of September A.D. 1962. Reeve Clerk I hereby certify the above to be a true copy of By-Law No. 1*00, as passed by the Municipal Council of The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Kent, on the 18th day of September A.D. 1962. Clerk 3k Appendix C. No. 2519/62 IN THE SUPREME COURT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BETWEEN: THE CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF KENT P l a i n t i f f , AMD: FLORENCE STORGOFF and MARIE SHLAKQFF and the class that they represent being the Sons of Freedom Sect of the Doukhobors AND THE HONOURABLE THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Defendants Frank Wilson, Esq., - for P l a i n t i f f T.G. Bowen-Colthurst, Esq., Q.C. and G.S. Cumming Esq., - for the Attorney-General This action i s brought by the Corporation of the Dist r i c t of Kent (hereinafter referred to as "Kent") against Florence Storgoff and Marie Shlakoff and the class that they represent being the Sons of Freedom Sect of the Doukhobors. The Attorney-General of B r i t i s h Columbia i s also named as a defendant. The P l a i n t i f f ' s claim i s for an injunction restraining the defendants (other than the Attorney-General) from violating the REASONS FOR JUDGMENT OF THE HONOURABLE MR. JUSTICE WHITTAKER 35 terms and provisions of P l a i n t i f f ' s by-law number 399 passed on Septem-ber 18th, 1962. My brother Monroe, on October 9th, 1962, granted an injunction u n t i l t r i a l . In his reasons for judgment Munroe J . was careful to express no opinion as to the v a l i d i t y of the by-law. The matter comes before me by way of motion on behalf of the Attorney-General for an order that the injunction be dissolved on the ground that the by-law i s i l l e g a l . The parties have agreed that the hearing of the motion shall be considered the t r i a l of the action, and that any order I may make shal l be as effective as i f made after t r i a l . Upon hearing of the motion the defendants the Sons of Freedom (hereinafter, for the sake of brevity referred to as the , ,Freedomites u) were not represented by counsel, but counsel for the Attorney-General argued strenuously, and I may say, very ably, against the v a l i d i t y of the by-law. At the outset of the present hearing, Mr. Wilson, counselSfor Kent, admitted that certain portions of the by-law were bad f o r un-certainty. Counsellor the Attorney-General conceded that those por-tions could properly be severed. The preamble and operative sections of the by-law, with the offending portions deleted, readss-"WHEREAS the Council of the D i s t r i c t of Kent i s reliably informed that an organized group of several hundred members of the Doukhobor sect known as Sons of Freedom i s rapidly approaching the Dis t r i c t of Kent with the Intention of remaining i n that D i s t r i c t for an indefinite period. AND WHEREAS many children of school age are within the approaching group* AND WHEREAS the group has neither the financial resources necessary to enable the members to acquire dwelling houses nor the intention of acquiring or maintaining dwelling houses within the d i s t r i c t . 36 AND WHEREAS members of the sect are addicted to nudism, arson and the i l l e g a l use of dynamite and explosive devices• AND WHEREAS the Di s t r i c t of Kent lacks school accommoda-tion to take care of the children of school age within the group* AND WHEREAS the Di s t r i c t of Kent lacks f a c i l i t i e s for the accommodation of a group of this magnitude under healthful and sanitary conditions. AND WHEREAS the arrival of a group of this kind i n the Dis t r i c t of Kent w i l l disorganize the educational system of the School Di s t r i c t , w i l l be a menace to health and i s l i k e l y to lead to breaches of the peace and the possible break-down of law and order i n the D i s t r i c t . AND WHEREAS the powers and authorities vested i n or conferred upon the Council are inadequate to deal with the emergency created by these conditions. NOW THEREFORE the Council of the District of Kent i n open meeting duly assembled enacts as follows: 1. The Council of the Di s t r i c t of Kent declares that by reason of the matters set forth i n the preamble hereto an emergency exists. 2. No person — - being a part of the group of Doukhobors presently moving from the Kootenay area or the Grand Forks area to Agassiz or the Dis t r i c t of Kent with the intention of remaining close to the Mountain Prison for Doukhobors and no person who i s a member of the Doukhobor sect known as Sons of Freedom sh a l l enter the Dist r i c t of Kent during the continuance of this emergency. 3. Any person who contravenes any provision of the by-law shal l be l i a b l e to arrest without warrant and on summary conviction to a fine of up to $500.00 or to imprisonment for up to six months or both together with costs." This by-law was passed by Kent i n purported exercise of the powers conferred upon municipal bodies by S. 218 (2) of the Municipal Act, R.S.B.G. I960, Ch. 255. The sub-section i s as follows:-37 "(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, when the powers and authorities vested i n or conferred upon the Council of a municipality are inadequate to deal with an emergency, the Council may, by by-law adopted by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds, of a l l the members thereof, declare that an emergency exists and exercise such powers as are necessary to deal effectively with the emergency." It i s not for me to say whether such an emergency existed as would j u s t i f y the exercise by Kent of the rather wide powers conferred by S. 218 (2). The Council evidently f e l t that the authorities vested i n them were inadequate to meet the situation and declared that an emergency existed. That would appear to conclude the question as to whether of not an emergency did i n fact exist. I f, however, that were a question for me to decide, I would have no hesitation i n say-ing that Kent was, and s t i l l i s , confronted with an emergency of alarming proportions. In what i s known as the Mountain Prison i n Kent Municipality some sixty-eight Freedomites are serving sentences for such offences as arson, bombing and possession of explosives. In August or early September of this year there was a mass migration of Freedomites, men, women and children from their homes in the Kooten-ays approximately 1*00 miles distant from Kent, with the expressed i n -tention of "going where our destiny l i e s , with our fathers, husbands, brothers and sons at Buchenwald." Before leaving on this trek many burned their own homes. Eventually the trekkers arrived at Hope, only a few miles from Kent, where they are now camped. There are approximately 1000 persons in this group, including about 160 children. On September 10, 1962, representatives of the Freedomite marchers read the following document at a meeting of the Kent municipal council:-38 "TO GIVE THE GENERAL PUBLIC A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF OUR PRESENT MISSION, WE WOULD LIKE TO PUBLISH OUR SIDE OF THE PRESENT SITUATION. WE TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT. Fi r s t - Our Destination We are going where our destiny l i e s , with our fathers, husbands, brothers and sons at Buchenwald. Second - Why we Are Going John L. Lebedoff, who has the protection of the R.C.M.P., has been threatening our people with loss of l i f e i f we did not comply with his wishes, which are: the burning of homes voluntarily. If this was not carried out, he stated that the homes would be levelled to the ground with bulldozers supplied by the R.C.M.P. He further stated that Krestova would be raced to the groundj the old would be destroyed, the new would be created. This shows us how Lebedoff and thg Government of British Columbia have been working hand-in-hand to create the present situation. While the Government were building the fireproof and indestructible Buchenwald of Mountain Prison at Agassiz, Lebedoff was instigating the terrorism for the complete destruction of Krestova and the other d i s t r i c t s of Sons of Freedom. This accomplishes the plans.of Lebedoff and the Government of f u l f i l l i n g the purpose of Buchenwald, which i s the transplanting of the Sons of Freedom from their homes to a concentration camp. This terrorism and the consequent use of the Mountain Prison has l e f t us destitute and homeless. Now we, the mothers, wives, children, the aged are going there to complete the transplanting. Why we the children follow i n li n e with our fathers and mothers? Because we fear we w i l l be taken again from our parents and will undergo again the same experience, cold hunger and separation as we have went through i n the New Denver Dormetory. Have you b u i l t this Buchenwald for us or for yourselves? If for us, then l e t us go there to join our brethren. I f you find that the Mountain Prison w i l l not be satisfactory for a l l of us, w i l l not accom-modate a l l of us, then build us a duplicate at Krestova. 39 You make claims that the Mountain Prison i s only for terrorists and wrongdoers. We ask a l l of you who the wrongdoers i n Germany were - the Fascists and Hitler-i t e s , those who b u i l t Buchenwald and allowed i t to be b u i l t , or those who were imprisoned i n i t ? I f you judge that those who b u i l t and allowed i t to be b u i l t , are the guilty party then by comparison you likewise are the wrongdoers. By remaining silent, you share the g u i l t . You consider us third-class citizens, not worthy of having homes or land, or having a family and our own way of l i v es, of having children and bringing them up satisfactorily according to our religious con-victions o You wish to solve our problem with the com-plete liquidation of our group. I f this i s your firue desire, Good! Do with us as you wish. Do with our bodies as you think necessary - soap, f e r t i l i z e r , hand-bags, lampshades and bind your books with our hides. The population of Kent i s about 2200. The prospect facing this small municipality was i t s invasion by 1000 people belonging to a sect with a history of violence and the expressed present intention of joining those members of the sect then inmates i n the Mountain Prison. These people were without housing and had no financial resources. Problems of housing and sanitation would inevitably arise. Schools would have to be provided for the child-ren. The residents of Kent might well fear a breakdown of law and order following the frustration of the Freedomites' expressed pur-pose of joining their imprisoned brethren. These are the urgent problems which the residents of Kent have sought to f o r e s t a l l by the passage of the by-law i n question. Said S. 218 (2) i s , i n my opinion, wide enough to confer upon a municipal council the power, i n an emergency, to adopt such measures as could be exercised by. the Provincial Govern-ment. It cannot, however, authorize the enactment of legislation 1*0 Id a f i e l d assigned exclusively to the Parliament of Canada* ".. .a provincial Legislature cannot delegate any power tsnich i t does not possess; and the extent and nature of the functions which i t can commit to a municipal body of i t s own creation must depend upon the legislative authority which i t derives from the provisions of S. 92 other than No* 8." Attorney-General fo r Ontario v* Attorney' General for the Dominion (18?6) A.C. 3U8 at 361*• By S. 91 (27) of the Bri t i s h North America Act the Parliament of Canada i s given exclusive legislative authority i n matters relating to the criminal law* By S. 92 (15) Provincial Legislatures may exclusively make laws i n relation to "The imposition of punishment by fine, penalty or imprisonment for enforcing any law of the Province made i n relation to any matter coming within any of the classes of sub-jects enumerated i n this section*" The test as to what constitutes a crime i s thus stated by Lord Atkin i n Propagietary Articles Trade Association vs» Attorney-General for Canada (1931) A.C. 310 at 32l» "The criminal quality of an act cannot be discerned by intuitionj nor can i t be discovered by reference to any standard but one: Is the act prohibited with penal consequences?" Applying this test i t seems clear that Kent has, by sections 2 and 3 of the by-law, made, or attempted to make i t a crime for any Freedomite to enter the Municipality. This i s an invasion of the exclusive legislative authority of the Parliament of Canada, unless i t can be said that the imposition of punishment la was for the purpose of enforcing a law coming within any of the classes of subjects enumerated i n the above section 92. It i s true that i n the preamble the by-law refers to anticipated problems of housing* education and health* Those are l o c a l problems* but the penalties imposed are not for the breach of any law relating to those subjects* The by-law i s designed to prevent conditions arising which may lead to their breach* This i s a laudable object, i f i t could be achieved by the exercise of powers within the jurisdiction of the municipality or the Province, but Kent has sought to meet the situation by the creation of a new crime. This i s clearly beyond i t s powers. The by-law i s also designed to prevent conditions arising which may lead to a breach of the peace or unlawful assembly. These are matters relating to the criminal law and as such are M t h i n the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the Parliament of Canada. Both are covered by the Criminal Code; breach of the peace by sec-tions 30 and 31, and unlawful assembly by Section 62j.. In Rex vs. Karminos (1936) 1 W.W.R. ii33, Turgeon J .A. at 14j.O quotes a portion of the judgment of the Privy Council i n Russell vs. Reg. (1882) 7 A.C. 829: "Laws designed for the promotion of public order, safety or morals, and which subject those who contravene them to criminal procedure, belong to the subject of public wrongs rather than c i v i l rights and f a l l under section 91 of the B r i t i s h North finerica Act and have relation to the criminal law; the true nature and character of the legislation i n each particular instance must always be determined in order to ascertain the class of subjects to which i t really belongs." 1*2 I am of the opinion that for the reasons mentioned the by-law must be declared invalid and the interim injunction dis-solved. There were a number of other points of attach on the by-law which I need not consider. I may say that I have been greatly assisted by the able arguments of counsel on both sides. If I am right i n the decision I have given i t would appear that Kent, acting alone,i8Lhelpless i n the face of the emer-gency with which i t i s threatened. One does not l i k e to think that the law i s so inadequate that higher authority also finds i t s e l f powerless to come to Kent's assistance. Section 6k of the Criminal Code i s as follows: "An unlawful assembly i s an assembly of three or more persons who, with intent to carry out any common purpose, assemble i n such manner or so conduct themselves when they are assembled as to cause person i n the neighbour-hood of the assembly to fear, on reasonable grounds, that they (a) w i l l disturb the peace tumultuously. . . . " The statement read to the Kent municipal council, cqutsted above, expresses the intent to carry out the common purpose of "going where our destiny l i e s , with our fathers, husbands, brothers and sons at Buchenwald." It i s apparent that the Freedomites could not join their fathers, husbands etc. unlessthey either attempted to enter the prison by force, or committed some offence which would cause them to be imprisoned. On the strength of this expressed intention, and in view of the fact that the Freedomites have assembled i n such force the citizens of Kent evidently feared, upon what would appear to be reasonable grounds, that these people would "disturb the U3 peace turaaltuously. n To meet this danger i t would not appear to be neces-sary to lay a charge or make an arrest. By the Criminal Code. Sec-tion 27, i t i s provided that "Everyone i s j u s t i f i e d i n using as much force as i s reasonably necessary (a) to prevent the commission of an offence (i) for which, i f i t were committed, the person who committed i t might be arrested without warrant, and ( i i ) that would be l i k e l y to cause immediate and serious injury to the person and property of anyone; or (b) to prevent anything being done that, on reasonable and probable grounds he believes would, i f i t were done, be an offence mentioned i n paragraph (a). Unlawful assembly i s one of those offences coming within the above S.27 (a) ( i ) , for, although i t i s punishable only on summary conviction, i t i s nevertheless a criminal offence, and by virtue of code section J.3J>, anyone committing i t may be arrested by a peace offi c e r without warrant. It i s therefore an offence -fflhich may be prevented by the use of force without laying a charge. These preventive measures could be taken as soon as the Freedomites show signs of leaving their present camping grounds for their march on Kent. Anything I have said which i s unnecessary for my decision on the v a l i d i t y of the by-law i s said solely for considera-tion by the proper authorities, and i s not intended as a j u d i c i a l pronouncement. It i s not for me to say what Government policy should be. Nevertheless, every citizen must be concerned, as I have been while writing these reasons* because of the problems facing the people of Kent i f the Freedomites are permitted to enter their municipality* "W.W. Whittaker J." Vancouver, B.C, 19th November, 1962. Appendix D. Opinion Questionnaire 1. Were you aware of the Sons of Freedom before they l e f t Krestova? Yes No Comments: 2. Where did you obtain your prior information? Check more than one. Radio . . . . Television . . . . Newspapers . . . . Friends . . . Relatives . . . . Books . . . . Magazines . . . . Observations . • Other . . . . Comments: 3« What impressions had you formed about these people? Check more than one. A l l strange . . . . Some strange . . . . None strange . . Good Leadership and responsible for their behaviour . . . . Other . . . . Comments: U. What were your concerns when you heard they were coming to Agassiz? Check more than one. No concern . . . . L i t t l e concern . . . . Much concern . . . . Burning and bombing of l o c a l property . . . A serious housing problem . . . . A serious health and sanitation problem . . . . A school problem . . . . Breakdown of law and order . . . . A police problem . . . . Physical harm to se l f and/ or family . . . . Other . . . . Comments; 5>. Have you had any personal contact with any of these people since they have been i n the encampment? Check more than one. Yes . . . i ) No . . . . Couldn't care less . . . . Visited encampment . . . » Met i n store . . . . Met on street . . . . Met i n school . . . . Business contact. . . . . Please explain nature of the business contact Comments: 6. Have you or would you help these people i f the need arose? Please check more than one. Yes . . . . No . . . . It a l l depends • . . • Food . . . . C l o t h i n g . , . . . . Fuel . . . . Money . . . . Transportation . . . . Other . . . . Comments: • 7. Under which of the following conditions would you l e t these people remain i n the municipality? Check the most appropriate. If they would follow the l o c a l , provincial, and federal laws . . . . I f they set up a ccanmunity form of l i f e and remained to themselves . . . . I f they follow only some of their own and some of the laws of the land . . . . Under any situation as long as they do not commit any form of arson, violence, and terror-ism . . . . Not under any type of situation . . . . Comments: • 8. Do you f e e l that these people have helped the municipality? Check the most appropriate. Yes . . . . No . . . . Maybe . . . . Financially . . . . They have attracted people to the community . . . . They have kept people away from the community . . . . . Comments: 9. Have any of your ideas changed regarding the Sons of Freedom? Check the most appropriate. Yes . . . . No . . . .A l i t t l e . . . For the best . . . . For the worse . . . . Comments: . hi From your experience do you f e e l that the radio, press, tele-vision, magazines, and books have presented the Doukhobor problem properly? Yes No . . . . Comment: . . . . * # * * * * U8 Appendix E. The Prisoners* Declarations 1, The Text of the Prisoners* Declaration reads as follows: "We openly declare unto a l l , that we are on a hunger-strike -u n t i l death -The reason i s that the Gov't, refuses to investigate our matter. They refuse us lawyers & they refuse us appeals & we have to suffer incarceration for no reason at a l l . When we were in Nelson J a i l , Lebedoff, Bayoff & Special D Squad (CIB) came every day to see us and promised us everything -solving our problem, freeing us & find us a piece of land & reunite us with our families & our Spiritual Pastor, S.S. Sorokin. GIB special D squad gave us a l l kinds of privileges and favors, Bodnaruk, Malenowski, Padowski & others drove us home to see our wives & l e f t ushome for several hours on many occasions. And the young boys were driven to Weddings and evening parties. Through a l l these promises and favors that were done by special D squad we titers© convinced that they were sincere i n solving our Douk. problem. Therefore we agreed & accepted everything & l i e d on ourselves & others. Now we see that we were deceived & deliberately railroaded into prisons. From a l l the brothers i n Agassiz Mt. Prison." 2. We the incarcerated brothers and sisters, i n Mountain Prison, at Agassiz B.C. have come to a conclusion to forgive everyone, who caused our suffering and on our behalf we plead before our heavenly father, that he forgive us upon of our belief or f a i t h we started our hunger fast and we discontinue i t . Brothers and Sisters i n Mountain Prison Bibliography 1. Blakemore, William. Report on Royal Commission - on matters  relating to the Sect of Doukhobors i n the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia. Victoria, B.C. Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's most excellent majesty, 1 ° 1 3 . 2. Blisher, Bernard R., ed. Canadian Society, Sociological  Perspectives. Toronto, The MacMillan Co. of Canada Limited, 1956. 3. Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . Regional Industrial Index  of B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Industrial Development, Trade and Commerce, 1957 edition. It. Evalenko, Alexander M. The Message of the Doukhobors. New York, The International Library Publishing Co., 1913• 5. Hawthorn, Harry B., ed. The Doukhobors of B r i t i s h Columbia. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia and J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Limited, 1955. 6. Hawthorn, Harry B., ed. The Hawthorn Report. Vancouver, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952. 7. MacKintosh, W.A. and Joeny, W.L.Q., eds. Canadian Frontiers of Settlement. Group Settlement. Ethnic Communities i n Western  Canada. Toronto, The MacMillan Company of Canada, 1936, 7 vols. 8. Maude, Ay Inter. A Peculiar People the Doukhobors. New York and London, Fink and Wagnolls Co., 190h. 9. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Municipal Statistics for the Year  ended December 31, 1962. Issued by the Department of Municipal Affairs, 1963. 10. Waight, J.F.C. Slava Bohn. The Story of the Doukhobors. New York, Toronto, Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 19U0. 11. Zubek, John P. and Solberg, P a t r i c i a A. Doukhobors at War. Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1952. PUBLIC POLICY IN HEALTH AND  WELFARE IN THE MIGRATION OF THE SONS OF FREEDOM TO THE LOWER MAINLAND by IRENE JEANETTE FOERSTER Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social tyork School of Social Work' 19& The University of British Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. i i i ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis i s to record the movement of The Sons of Freedom in 1962 - 1963 into the Lower Mainland Area, since i t was f e l t that such a piece of unusual social history relating to the Sons of Freedom was worthy of documentation. The thesis i s divided into four main parts. The f i r s t part i s a dis-cussion of the reciprocal impact of the Sons of Freedom and the village of Hope, the second part deals with the reciprocal rela-tions between the Sons of Freedom and the City of Vancouver. The third section deals with public policy i n health and welfare aspects of the Sons' of Freedom migration and the fourth section discusses the reciprocal impact of the Sons of Freedom on the village of Agassiz. This section of the thesis focuses on public policy i n health and welfare aspects of the Sons' of Freedom migration. The paper i s divided into three main parts, and discusses public policy in health and welfare at Hope, Vancouver and Agassiz, with an emphasis placed on public policy in the granting of Social Assist-ance to the Sons of Freedom at Vancouver. Research was carried out largely through interviews with public and private agencies which bad bad direct contact with the Sons of Freedom. An analysis of present problems of Sons of Freedom in Vancouver was carried out through an individual survey of problems of Sons of Freedom receiving Social Assistance, as defined by the City Social Service Department, and by the Sons of Freedom themselves. A small number of Sons of Freedom i n Vancouver who were not receiving Social Assistance were also contacted. This study yielded four major findings. It was found that the health of the Sons of Freedom remained f a i r l y good throughout the migration. Public policy i n health was construed l i b e r a l l y i n relation to the Sons of Freedom, and authoritative action was taken only when danger of an epidemic at Hope was f e l t to be imminent. Care of Sons of Freedom children was found to be excellent, and no major problems arose regarding their schooling. It was further found that the older members of the sect i n receipt of Old Age Assistance and Old Age Security were the main source of financial aid to the group, when Social Assistance was refused to those who applied. Finally, i t was found that public policy i n social wel-fare was frequently applied i n an inconsistent and discriminatory manner. An attempt was made in this paper to discuss public policy in health and welfare as i t related to discussion and recom-mendations in the Hawthorn Report of 1952. The recommendation made in the Hawthorn Report that a permanent Commission on Doukhobor Affairs be set up to insure consistency and coordination in public policy was f e l t to be s t i l l applicable. i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to express particular thanks to Professor W. Dixon, Head of the School of Social Work for his suggestions and direction in the preparation of this thesis. Appreciation i s also extended to Mr. Carlos Charles and other members of the staff of the City Social Service Department and to Major T. Powell of the Salvation Army for their warm interest and cooperation. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Tbe Migration to Hope 1 Welfare 1 Health k Schooling 6 Recreation 6 2. Tbe Migration to Vancouver 6 Stage I The Main Group Welfare Social Assistance 7 Old Age Assistance, Old Age Security and Supplementary Social Assistance Ik Housing . 15 Schooling 17 Health and Child Welfare 18 Stage II Tbe Residual Group Caseload Statistics 21 Welfare Problems and Policy 23 Future Policy 26 Employment 27 3. Tbe Migration to Agassiz 28 Welfare 28 Health 31 k. Review of Social Welfare Policy 33 5. Conclusions 39 Appendices ^2 A. Sample Registration Forms k2 B. Letter to tbe Dept. of Social Welfare... kk C. Pictures of Agassiz Camp D. Bibliography 7^ Tbe Migration to Hope  Welfare On September 29, I962, approximately kOO Sons of Freedom Doukhobors arrived at Hope, B.C., just over three weeks from the time the march began. By October 3rd the numbers bad swelled to about one thousand. As early as September 12th the Sons of Freedom began com-plaining of lack of funds, since those who were on Social Assistance bad not received their September cheques. At this time, the o f f i c i a l position of tbe Department of Social Welfare in Victoria, as stated by the Deputy Minister, was that "there w i l l be no welfare allowances paid to those on tbe trek".^" Merchants along the route of the trek, however, bad reported that sales to tbe Doukhobors had been brisk. Other reports indicated that individuals, both Doukhobor and non-Doukhobor, bad sup-plied g i f t s of f r u i t and vegetables. Prior to tbe total group's a r r i v a l at Hope, many of the children had stayed br i e f l y with relatives and friends along the route, and had been amply cared for. It seems li k e l y , therefore, that at this point at least the sect members were receiving sufficient food to meet their needs. Tbe Sons of Freedom set up their camp beside tbe Coquiballa River at tbe Coquiballa Parksite on tbe outskirts of Hope. Conditions were described by one spokesman (a non-Doukhobor l i v i n g i n Vancouver) as intolerable, but on October 21, 1962 a rather lengthy report prepared by 1 Quoted in the Vancouver Province;, September 12, 19^2, p. 1. 2 the Catholic Family Services for tbe Attorney-General's Department stated tbe following: Their income and food has been supplemented by groups and people i n tbe neighbourhood and obviously from the Kootenays, and they are not without resources for material l i v i n g . She \Marie Scblakoff\ also mentioned that clothing had come from Vancouver and we...knew that our St. Vincent de Paul Salvage Bureau had supplied some clothing.... About this time social welfare o f f i c i a l s i n Nelson reported that some Doukhobors were receiving Social Assistance cheques, but i t was impos-sible to say whether these were or were not members of tbe trek. It was also reported, then and later, that many Sons of Freedom were returning br i e f l y to their former homes i n Krestova to salvage root crops from their gardens and cellars. Other reports indicated that some of tbe Sons of Freedom were working i n the orchards of the Okanagan, while others picked corn and dug potatoes for nearby farmers. On October 10th, several women appeared at tbe Social Welfare Office i n Chilliwack requesting Assistance. They were told that pro-vi n c i a l policy as lai d down by o f f i c i a l s in Victoria was that no Assistance was to be given to trekkers. The o f f i c i a l i n question further conveyed to tbe Doukhobors that he was i n complete agreement with this policy. He stated that i n bis opinion, an application for a Board of Review (permitted under the Social Assistance Act for those who feel policy or procedures have been inappropriately applied i n tbeir case) would not be applicable, since i n this case policy concerned a group, not an individual. However, neither i n the Social Assistance Act, nor i n tbe Policy Manual governing administration of the Act, i s there a state-ment given preventing a Board of Review i n such a situation. 3 A few days later, a group of V/ancouverites interested i n ethnic groups sent a telegram to Welfare Minister Black requesting a review of l i v i n g conditions at the Doukhobor camp with a view to assessing i f destitution was evident. No reply was received to this telegram. Following the Sons' of Freedom move to the Seventh Day Adventist camp in November, Paul Scberle, Village Chairman of Hope, threatened to move the Doukhobors to Victoria, i f some form of social welfare aid was not forthcoming. This prompted an investigation of the situation by social welfare o f f i c i a l s but no action followed this investigation. Reports were s t i l l being received that Doukhobors were receiving Social Assistance from Nelson, but again, there was no evi-dence to prove these recipients were in fact l i v i n g at Hope. Early i n December Mr. Scherle made good bis threat and a busload of Doukhobors arrived i n Victoria to discuss "the whole problem of the Doukhobors". Nothing came of this meeting, however, and on December l8tb a group of fourteen Sons of Freedom women went to the Social Welfare Department i n Cbilliwack to demand Social Assistance. A meeting was held, comprised of local welfare o f f i c i a l s , the Salvation Army, the Court Registrar and tbe R.C.M.P. After consulting with o f f i c i a l s i n Victoria (who had previously asked tbe Salvation Army to "watch" the welfare needs of these people) i t was decided that each of these person's needs would be assessed by Major Powell, Salvation Army representative in Chilliwack, and i f need was established each would receive a $10.00 grocery order. On December 20tb thirty-five more arrived and received $10.00 grocery orders, on December 29th thirty-eight more received tbem. Tbis money was later reimbursed by the provincial government. At this point, i t was clear that a more formal procedure for coping with the situation would have to be init i a t e d , so Major Powell drafted registration forms (see Appendix A) based on those used by the Department of Social Welfare. Registration began in early January, but before i t was completed tbe group moved to Vancouver. The o f f i c i a l position of tbe Salvation Army officer i s at best puzzling. Although operating as a member of a certified voluntary agency, his services i n tbis instance were not, be stated, on behalf of tbe Salvation Army. On the other hand, although using government funds, he was not i n tbe employ of the government and was therefore accountable to them only for f i s c a l arrangements. Tbe fact that the rates given were lower than those normally given to Social Assistance recipients for food suggests a policy of l e s s - e l i g i b i l i t y ; yet can this officer be held accountable for such a policy? Health Aspects Un t i l late i n December of 1962 the health of the members of the trek remained very good. During their stay at tbe Coquiballa campsite, sanitation and health conditions were checked regularly and there was no evidence of malnutrition or i l l - h e a l t h due to unsanitary conditions. Following tbe move to tbe Seventh Day Adventist camp, occasioned by tbe rising water of tbe Coquihalla River, questions arose as to sanitation at tbe new camp. However, tbe f a c i l i t i e s , which include hot and cold running water, e l e c t r i c i t y , thirty indoor t o i l e t s , a small hospital and 5 a dining h a l l , were i n f i n i t e l y superior to those at Coquiballa. A question was raised by tbe f i r e marshall as to a f i r e hazard presented by having stoves i n tbe tents, so the Doukhobors formed a f i r e brigade and even conducted a f i r e d r i l l . As temperatures dropped, fears arose that water and sewage pipes at the camp would freeze. Dr. A.S. Arneil, Director of tbe Upper Fraser Valley Health Unit, had been v i s i t i n g tbe camp at least once a week and reported sewage disposal was quite inadequate. However, despite tbreats that tbe water would be shut off permanently, the Doukhobors remained i n tbe camp. When water for sewage disposal was f i n a l l y turned off entirely they used nearby f a c i l i t i e s i n restaurants and service stations. Tbe only major threat of illness came i n late December, when about ten cases of measles and one case of hepatitis were reported. Many of the sect were also suffering from severe colds and coughs and a major epidemic was feared. Largely due to the efficient efforts of Dr. Arneil, tbe situation remained under control. The only incident where authority had to be exercised occurred when a 72 year old Doukhobor, on her sixteenth day of fasting, refused hospitalization. Legal authority was obtained to have ber hospitalized. She was fed intravenously and released several days later. Although several o f f i c i a l s advised that the children at the camp should be removed to more adequate accommodation, no o f f i c i a l action was taken. It i s quite possible, however, that i f tbe health situation had become worse or the Sons of Freedom had remained much longer such action would have been i n i t i a t e d . Scbooliag and Family Anoyances Largely due to tbe efforts of Ray Tborstenson, Dis t r i c t Superintendent of Schools, registration of tbe 130 school age Doukhobor children was accomplished quickly and e f f i c i e n t l y . Average attendance however was about $6; at no time was f u l l attendance recorded. Costs for schooling of the Sons of Freedom children were reimbursed by tbe provincial government. Although Family Allowance can be withdrawn i f pupils f a i l to attend school, there i s no record of this having occurred. In any case, i t i s estimated that somewhat less than half tbe families eligible for Family Allowance are actually receiving i t . Many of tbe Sons of Freedom refuse to accept this allowance, for they feel that somehow tbe government would then have some sort of special control over their children. Recreation While there was l i t t l e attempt on tbe part of tbe adult Sons of Freedom to participate i n the community l i f e of Hope, i t i s reported that some of tbe teenage children attending school did v i s i t the homes of some of tbe school children i n Hope. However, only three of the thirty children registered i n high school took an active part i n tbe physical education programme. Most of tbe children, although they mixed well with tbe Hope children during school hours, returned to tbe camp as soon as school was dismissed. The Migration to Vancouver Stage I Tbe Main Group January - August 1963 On January l6th and 17th, 1963 an estimated 800 Sons of Freedom Doukhobors arrived i n Vancouver. City o f f i c i a l s seemed unsure as to what to do - and did in fact do nothing. However, other forces were already organizing to cope with tbe situation. By 2:00 p.m. tbe same day a group was formed, which became known as tbe Committee for tbe Welfare of Sons of Freedom Children.* The concluding paragraph of tbe record of their f i r s t meeting read as follows: It was made clear at this meeting that the lawless actions of tbe Sons of Freedom were not endorsed by this committee and i t s only concern i s to meet the emergency for tbe sake of tbe very old and tbe very young i n tbe group from the humanitarian aspect.2 Members of the committee included Prof. W. Dixon, U.B.C., Chairman of tbe Committee; Dr. Joseph Katz, U.B.C.; Rev. Ross, F i r s t United Church; Dr. Black, Department of Citizenship & Immigration; Michael Audain; Margaret Erickson; Father Hanley, Catholic Church; Deryk Thompson, Family Service Association; P h i l i p Stratton, Vancouver Housing Authority; and Mr. Ikuta, Vancouver Buddhist Church. Mrs. Ostupcbuk, Executive-Director of Civic Unity Association, acted as secretary for the Committee. The group had three main purposes: to assist in finding housing for the Sons of Freedom, to aid i n helping them obtain public assistance and to help them register their children for schooling. Public Welfare Social Assistance Although Fanny Storgoff, unofficial ...spokeswoman for the group, stated on January l6tb to the press that tbe group did not intend to try to get Social Assistance, nevertheless on January 17th a group of three Hereafter referred to as the Ad-Hoc Committee. 2 Vancouver Civic Unity Association, Board Meeting, Community Chest and Councils' Building, Thursday, January 16, 1963. 8 Doukhobors, Fred Baraboroff, Marie Scblakoff and Fanny Storgoff approached Brigadier Purdy, Salvation Army Officer i n charge of family welfare, and requested him to help them. Brigadier Purdy interviewed approximately ten applicants a day and began issuing food vouchers to those found e l i g i b l e . Tbe rates were as follows: $5.00 for one adult for one week, $7.00 for two adults and $1.00 per child. In a l l , tbe Brigadier handled over 300 families. The Salvation Army remained active with the Sons of Freedom for about three months, assisting families and individuals having d i f f i c u l t y obtaining Social Assistance. Throughout this period, close liason was maintained with the City Social Service Department to confirm there was no duplication of service. As bad occurred at Hope, expenses accrued from service to the Sons of Freedom were reimbursed by the provincial government. During these f i r s t few weeks, tbe Sons of Freedom were also helped by the Catholic Family Services, which as indicated bad previously been in contact with the Attorney-General's Department regarding the l i v i n g conditions of tbe Sons of Freedom at Hope. Social workers at tbe Catholic Family Services again were i n contact with tbe Attorney-General's Department and with o f f i c i a l s from the Department of Social Welfare at tbis time, i n an effort to help the Sons of Freedom obtain housing and Social Assistance. They too provided emergency r e l i e f to Sons of Freedom families and maintained communication with tbe Salvation Army i n this regard. Rates used by the Catholic Family Services were those recommended by tbe Metropolitan Health service; that i s , $19.00 a week for food for a family of four. Tbis was given i n tbe form of food vouchers and, as was tbe case with the Salvation Army, expenses were paid by tbe provincial government. 9 Tbe Ad-Hoc Committee, as indicated above, was formed to belp cope witb problems of social welfare, bousing and schooling. Immediate contact was made witb the Salvation Army and witb Mayor Ratble regarding Social Assistance. The Committee was told by the Mayor that nothing could be done at the moment, but that be, tbe Mayor, would be discussing the situation witb Mr. Bonner that night. Letters were written to both tbe Minister and Deputy Minister of Social Welfare, requesting that Social Assistance be provided to the Sons of Freedom, but no action followed these requests. On January 30th i t was o f f i c i a l l y announced that Social Assistance would be granted to Sons of Freedom Doukhobors who were found to be e l i g i b l e . Tbe following day i t was announced that a provincial worker from the Kootenays,'. a Mr. McLeod, would be sent to the city to belp process Doukhobor applications. On February 5tb City Council minutes ran as follows: That the Social Service Administrator be instructed to handle applications for Social Assistance received from the Sons of Freedom as best possible by seconding one Social Worker from bis present staff to work with the special Provincial Social Worker seconded from i t s Nelson Office ( s i c ) . Further, that tbe City Council advise tbe Provincial Government that the City i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s obligations under the terms of tbe Act as well as can be done witb i t s present staff. Also, that the City Council has gone on record as refusing to accept any additional administrative costs.3 It might be helpful to pause here for a moment and examine some of the implications which can be drawn from tbe actions of the City of Vancouver as contrasted to those of Hope. 3 Council meeting of City of Vancouver, February 5> 1963, Item 6. 10 When the Doukhobors arrived at Hope, the provincial govern-ment was DO more anxious than was Hope to have the 1,300 Sons of Freedom as permanent residents. The government, i t i s suggested, f e l t that administration of Assistance to tbe majority of these people would only encourage them to remain in the area. However, when tbe situation showed signs of growing out of control on December l8tb, the government did provide Assistance of a kind to tbe Sons of Freedom, thus preventing a repetition of the "March to Victoria" incident which bad been given such wide publicity. At tbe same time, however, Assist-ance was given In such a way that administrative responsibility was carried by tbe Salvation Army rather than the government. i In Vancouver, however, the situation was quite different. Tbe Attorney-General believed and, i n fact, stated quite openly that Vancouver was the ideal spot for the Sons of Freedom to remain indefi-nitely. Vancouver not only had the financial capacity and the administrative machinery to cope with the problem; Vencouver was the ideal place to accomplish tbe long hoped-for integration of tbe Sons of Freedom. Whether integration was or was not achieved i s beyond tbe scope of tbis paper. It was clear, however, that Vancouver did not agree with tbe provincial government regarding either i t s administrative machinery or financial capacity to cope with the Sons of Freedom (see quotation on page 9)« It seems clear that a provincial-municipal power struggle was occurring with tbe Doukhobors as the p o l i t i c a l football. The technical situation was, of course, f a i r l y clear. I f the Doukhobors remained i n Vancouver, the city would presumably be responsible for some kind of maintenance, for under tbe City Charter, Vancouver must 11 care for i t s "poor and destitute".1*' Tbe City was not, however, under obligation to pay them Social Assistance rates, since the Social Assistance Act states that i f the terms of the Act are met, Social Assistance may (but not "must") be granted. I f , however, Social Assistance was granted to the Sons of Freedom i t was reasonable to expect that tbe provincial government was then under obligation to reimburse tbe City up to the schedule of amounts being followed throughout the Province and which are approved by the provincial legislation.5 Once the City had approved in principle that Assistance would be granted, i t was then l e f t to tbe Social Service Department to issue Assistance to tbe Sons of Freedom " i f they break away from the main sect body and apply as i n d i v i d u a l s " T h e r e was no attempt, however, in practice, to enforce such a policy. Although, as stated, approval to grant Assistance had been given i n January, most of the Sons of Freedom did not receive Assistance u n t i l the end of February. Tbe f i r s t days were marked by considerable confusion. No one seemed to be sure who was responsible for decision-making. Mr. McLeod, tbe worker brought i n from Nelson, thought his role was merely to carry out instructions, while others thought Mr. McLeod would take a lead in decision-making. Assistance at f i r s t was issued i n tbe form of food vouchers. These were based on tbe same rates h Vancouver Charter, Chapter 55* section 183-5 Social Assistance i n British Columbia provides that the provincial government pay 90$ of costs. Tbe municipalities pay 10f> on a per capita basis. Vancouver pays approximately 1/3 of this lOJL 6 Victoria Times, January 31, 1963, p. 26. 12 as tbe food portion for other Social Assistance recipients and were issued bi-monthly. By the end of February, as tbe Sons of Freedom began looking for private dwellings, requests began to come i n for tbe rental portion of Social Assistance rates also. Rental portions were therefore granted up to the rates established for a l l Social Assistance recipients. However, i n many cases tbe portion given was considerably less than the maximum allowable, since most of tbe Sons of Freedom lived in groups of two to five families per dwelling. For example, where three families were l i v i n g together in a dwelling where the rent was $60.00 per month, each family would receive $20.00 as their rental portion. Following this, a group of women staged a s i t -down strike in the office of the Social Service Department as a protest to back up their request for tbe "miscellaneous portion" of Social Assistance allowance normally granted to Social Assistance recipients. This portion, tbey stated, was needed to pay for light and fuel b i l l s . Need was assessed, therefore, in each case and the portion granted where i t was f e l t to be needed. In April tbe cumbersome system of food vouchers was dropped and regular Social Assistance cheques were used instead. S t i l l , tbe practise continued of delivering the cheques to the homes of tbe various sect members, a time-consuming job for tbe two social workers involved. In June, therefore, this system was dropped and the Sons of Freedom were designated a special "issue day" on which they, like other 'Social Assist ance recipients, came i n to complete tbe Income Forms required and to receive their cheques. By June i t was noted that many of the families were beginning to move off to individual dwellings and i t was estimated 13 by one o f f i c i a l that almost one-third of the Sons of Freedom on Assist-ance were now receiving tbe same amount of Social Assistance as other non-Doukbobor recipients. During tbe summer months there was a decline in tbe numbers receiving Assistance. It was estimated that about forty young persons had found or were attempting to find jobs in the city. Others bad l e f t to work i n tbe orchards of tbe Okanagan. Several times during these months social welfare problems arose which could be considered peculiar to tbe Sons of Freedom. On July 17, 1963 the Department of Forestry requested names of persons wbo were considered employable and able to act as fire-fighters. Tbe names of eighteen Sons of Freedom were provided. Of tbis number four could not be contacted, three were working on a part-time basis and three bad returned to tbe Kootenays. Tbe remaining eight refused to accept tbis employment, stating they wished to remain In Vancouver witb the rest of the group. They were therefore refused further Social Assistance. Before further action was taken, however, seven of the men l e f t with the trek for Agassiz. Tbe Doukhobor who remained has subsequently been able to obtain Assistance. On several occasions, there were extensive delays before Assistance was received. Tbis usually occurred because tbe applicants had been out of Vancouver v i s i t i n g i n the Kootenays and bad received some Assistance there i n tbe form of food vouchers. While delay i n such cases could be expected i n any case, the Sons of Freedom seemed almost invariably to consider i t as discrimination aimed at them i n particular. Ik In fairness i t should be added that, as mentioned above, delay was often unnecessarily prolonged because of lack of c l a r i t y as to who sbould assume responsibility for decision-making. Possibly as a result of tbis, decisions at lower levels often seemed to be more narrowly interpreted than at bigber levels. Old Age Assistance, Old Age Security and Supplementary Social Assistance. Recipients of Old Age Security and Old Age Assistance* continued to receive tbeir pensions throughout the duration of the trek. Between f i f t y and sixty of these recipients upon a r r i v a l i n Vancouver applied for Supplementary Social Assistance. Tbe O.A.A. Board designated one office worker (not a social worker) to handle a l l Sons of Freedom applications. Delay was noticeable here also. It took approximately one month to process a l l applications but this was largely due to the d i f f i c u l t y in establishing the residence of many of tbe applicants. As with the Social Assistance recipients, many of the Sons of Freedom were moving from temporary shelter into more perma-nent dwellings and thus, when the worker visited, he frequently found that the applicant no longer lived at tbe address given. Only one problem case stands out from the rest. In tbis case the elderly Doukhobor was receiving O.A.A. and his wife was receiving Social Assistance. In July, the R.C.M.P. reported to the O.A.A. Board that this man allegedly bad a large amount of money in the Kootenays. Although tbis report was later found to be without basis, the man's S.S.A. was cut off for four months. Hereafter referred to as O.A.S. and O.A.A. respectively. Hereafter referred to as S.S.A. 15 Housing On a r r i v a l of tbe trek i n Vancouver tbe older Sons of Freedom spent tbe nigbt i n tbe New Democratic Party Hall on Bobson Street. Tbis bad been arranged by a member of tbe Ad-Hoc Committee, who continued to help locate tbe group in smaller dwellings for some weeks following their a r r i v a l i n Vancouver. Following tbis about 150 of tbe sect members moved to tbe Russian Community Hall i n East Vancouver where they slept on blankets and make-shift cots. Others went to the Central City Mission (single men), the Catholic Hostel (men and boys) and tbe First United Church Hall (women and children) at Hastings and Gore. From here tbe group members began moving out into skid-row hotels and into homes, usually several families to a home. Tbe largest group moved to the Japanese Buddhist Temple, and bere they remained u n t i l they were,granted Social Assistance. Tbe group's aim, as voiced by Fanny Storgoff, was to move to the Vancouver Forum, a building which could bouse several thousand persons. Tbis suggestion bad been voiced several months earlier, and had been given f a i r l y broad newspaper coverage. At that time o f f i c i a l s had given tbe suggestion a f l a t veto and now i n January there decision remained the same. Several problems confronted tbe Sons of Freedom in their search for housing. The f i r s t and main problem was their wish to remain together. City o f f i c i a l s , however, were anxious to have them segregated, partially with the hope of preventing mass demonstrations and partially with tbe hope of integrating them into the community. The Sons of Freedom were, of course, perfectly aware of these considerations and were themselves concerned about the insidious influences the ci t y might have on tbe unity of tbe group. 16 A second problem was that of finances. It was one thing to live i n rent-free accommodation at Hope, wbere friends and relatives could provide some of tbe f r u i t and vegetables needed. It was quite another thing to pay from $14-5.00 to $120.00 a month for rent and then try to purchase food at r e t a i l prices. Also, many of tbe Sons of Free-dom had no idea what rental should be paid for accommodation. They were not helped in tbis by the local homeowners i n tbe east end, some of whom raised their rents when they learned the d i f f i c u l t i e s many of tbe Sons of Freedom were having i n procuring accommodation. On the other hand, however, a good deal of assistance was given to tbe Sons of Freedom i n helping them locate dwellings. Several members of tbe Ad-Hoc Committee spent many hours helping individual families find suitable accommodation, and a volunteer worker from tbe Catholic Family Services found accommo-dation for approximately fifteen families. Others volunteered to take families into tbeir own homes,for many were concerned about tbe welfare of tbe children and aged. Tbe f i n a l problem posed was that of finding furniture, as tbe Sons of Freedom bad brought very l i t t l e with them. Some was provided free to the Sons of Freedom by the St. Vincent de Paul Salvage Bureau, and some was provided by both St. Vincent de Paul and the Salvation Army through tbe City Social Service Department's Emergency Health Aid. This meant that a l l costs would be paid by tbe provincial government. It should be noted here again, that i f rent was lower than that allowable under Social Assistance regulations, the Sons of Freedom received only the amount necessary for rental payment. I f the rental 17 I f tbe rental exceeds tbe rate given under Social Assistance tbe Sons of Freedom were not considered for "rental overage". (Rental overage, a recently-instituted policy amendment, was introduced to cover rents wbicb were i n excess of tbe rates given on Social Assistance. Under tbis regulation, up to $10.00 a montb extra may be granted by tbe Unit Director upon tbe recommendation of tbe social worker. It i s only to be recommended where tbe worker feels the accommodation i s adequate to tbe needs of the family concerned.) Schooling A few days after tbe Sons of Freedom arrived i n Vancouver a delegation of the sect, beaded by Florence Podovinikoff, approached Mrs. Ostupchuk, acting secretary for the Ad-Hoc Committee, and requested help in putting their children into school. Dr. Black, a member of the Ad-Hoc Committee, went with the delegation to a meeting with Dr. Sbarpe, Superintendent of Schools, and other school board o f f i c i a l s . As with bousing, tbe Doukhobors wished to prevent assimilation and therefore requested that a l l their children be placed i n one school. It was explained to them that this could not be granted and when reasons for this decision were given, the sons of Freedom accepted the decision. They were told that tbe children would not be required to sing "0 Canada" or to salute the flag, but that they would be required to stand during tbe singing of "0 Canada". The Sons of Freedom children assimilated very well i n tbe schools, although attendance, as at Hope, fluctuated. Offi c i a l s reported that most of the children did participate in physical education and 18 several of tbe teenage g i r l s began wearing nylons in imitation of tbe Vancouver children. The City Social Service Department maintained contact with the Vancouver School Board and on several occasions inquired whether children were attending school. In three cases, i t was reported that tbe families bad been told that their children must be attending school before Assistance could be granted. Certainly, on January 19, 19^ 3 i t was reported i n a local newspaper that "a high government source said that i f tbe Doukhobors find homes i n Vancouver and put tbeir children  in schools (tbe i t a l i c s are mine) they w i l l become eligible for pro-v i n c i a l welfare a i d " J It might be noted here that a member of the Doukhobor Research Committee of 1952 stated: While i t i s true that, under section 13 of the Social Assistance Act tbe Director of Welfare "subject to tbe approval of tbe Minister, i s empowered to establish regulations and formulate policies not inconsistent with tbis Act...", insistence on registration and school , attendance as qualifying conditions appears inconsistent with tbe s p i r i t of the Act i n i t s emphasis on the meeting of need where i t exists." Health and Child Welfare Upon ar r i v a l i n Vancouver medical authorities reported that tbe health situation was quite good: tbe only major illnesses reported were six cases of measles amongst tbe children. These children were immediately separated from tbe main group. One elderly Doukhobor, who 7 Vancouver Sun, January 19, 1963> P« 2. 8 W.G. Dixon, "Public Administration and tbe Community", Tbe Doukhobors  of British Columbia, ed. H. Hawthorn, Tbe University of British. Columbia and J.M. Dent and Sons(Canada)Limited, Vancouver, 1955> P« 203. 19 bad been fasting for several days, was discovered trying to sleep on a church pew i n one of tbe halls provided by a church organization. Despite her extremely weakened condition from lack of food she refused to leave her uncomfortable bed, stating i t was right that she should remain with the group. Several days later, through tbe efforts of other sect members, she was f i n a l l y taken to hospital. A f a i r l y large number of tbe Sons of Freedom used tbe f a c i l i -t ies of both St. Paul's and Vancouver General Hospital's Out-Patient Services. Mrs. Kaller, volunteer worker for Catholic Family Services, reported that the Sons of Freedom were questioned at Vancouver General Hospital as to who was to pay for any service granted. (This was during the time when tbe Hospital was complaining about tbe cost of services and was suggesting civic authorities should assume responsibility for tbe Out-Patient Service.) On one occasion i t was reported that a doctor refused to make a bouse c a l l to see a sick child and stated the child should be taken to the Out-Patient Department of Vancouver General Hospital. However, since i t was Saturday night and Out-Patlent Service would not be available u n t i l Monday morning, this was not possible. Tbe cbild was taken to St. Paul's Hospital and was admitted. It should be noted, however, on the other side of tbe picture, that a local Japanese doctor did offer his services to the Sons of Freedom free of charge. Several of tbe sect members also received psychiatric treat-ment. In a case presentation given at Vancouver General Hospital some months later i t was noted that a lack of self-identity seemed to be present i n many of these cases. This was particularly noticeable i n 20 the men and was thought to be partly attributable to tbe emphasis on group identity rather than individual identity, and partly to the fact that i n many of the families i t i s the woman who i s tbe leader and decision-maker. The Children's Aid reported that there were no eases of apprehension of Sons of Freedom children, although several telephone calls were received from citizens concerned about them. In fact, a rather interesting reversal of roles occurred on one occasion, when a Freedomite family telephoned tbe Civic Unity Association office to report that tbey had taken l a a child who had been found wandering near their downtown room. The child was later discovered to be i n foster borne care. Tbe Migration to Vancouver  Stage II Tbe Residual Group During the period from January to August 1963 when 500 - 800 Sons of Freedom were l i v i n g i n Vancouver, many persons expressed the belief that tbe Sons of Freedom were becoming assimilated i n tbis urban community, and that "tbe Doukhobor problem" bad ended. If by assimila-tion one means lack of newsworthy a c t i v i t i e s , this was certainly true. The Sons of Freedom no longer congregated in Victory Square and only a half dozen articles about them appeared i n tbe press during the entire month of July. It seemed as i f a kind of mass amnesia had struck the group. Tbe leaders among tbe group questioned later about this f e l t i t to be true. Tbey too had been concerned about assimilation, as noted 21 above^ ana bad tried to keep tbe group united physically i n order to prevent tbis assimilation from occurring. But such arrangements bad been impossible and gradually intergroup communication was breaking down. When tbe " c a l l to arms" came, provoked by tbe fasting prisoners at Agassiz, tbe majority of tbe group awoke from their lethargy, but those who remained seemed definitely to have assimilated. It i s important, however, to distinguish between this assimilation, l i t e r a l l y , "to be absorbed into" and integration, that i s , "to become a part of tbe whole". Tbe residual group of Sons of Freedom, numbering approximately 150 to 200 persons have become assimilated. They have not, for the most part, become integrated. I state "for the most part" because there i s no doubt that some of tbe younger persons, particularly single g i r l s i n tbe age group 18 to 25 who are working i n the city have, at least outwardly, become indistinguishable from other urban community dwellers. How complete tbis transition i s , only time w i l l t e l l . Many of tbe school children, too, show signs that integration i s i n progress i n much the same way that i t occurs with most second-generation Canadians. Caseload Statistics Tbe number of Sons of Freedom receiving Social Assistance i n Vancouver has not fluctuated radically from September 19&3> u n t i l the time of this present recording i n February 1$6\. At tbe end of September 1963, there were ^6 open cases; at the present there are 51 cases. The maximum number reported was i n early February when the number of cases 22 rose to 56. As of February 196h, tbe total number of cases closed since January 1963 stands at 212. Since many of tbe Sons of Freedom bave stated tbat only tbe sick and elderly remained i n Vancouver, i t i s interesting to examine tbe caseload distribution according to age. Certainly from tbis breakdown sucb statements appear somewhat unfounded. AGE DISTRIBUTION OF HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD  ACCORDING TO BIRTH DATE  1900-09 1910-19 1920-29 1930-39 19^ 0-^ 9 Total Ik 6 7 16 8 51 Of the total caseload of 51> thirty men are registered as the head of the household, compared to twenty-one women. Further, the average age of the thirty men registered i s 50, compared to an average age of 3h for tbe women. This suggests tbat many of the persons i n tbe age group 55-61+ would be unemployable men, and this, in fact, i s borne out: eleven of tbe fourteen cases i n tbis age bracket bave men registered as tbe bead of tbe household. Most of these cases are registered as unemployable persons due to illness or di s a b i l i t y , and the other two or three cases can be considered unemployable to a l l intents and purposes, since tbey are unskilled labourers, past "marketable" age. Tbe large number of cases where tbe bead of tbe household i s between 25 - 3^  years of age suggests that these may represent some of tbe young wives of prisoners in Mountain Prison. Tbis i s , i n fact, also found to be true. Ten of tbe sixteen cases bave women registered as the head of tbe household, and a l l but one are wives of prisoners i n Mountain Prison. 23 Welfare Problems and Policy Tbere i s always d i f f i c u l t y , evea i n aa "ordinary" caseload to decide unequivocally wbicb persons should be considered employable and which unemployable. In cases where a woman with small children has applied for Assistance i t i s usual to consider her unemployable, since i t i s assumed that on the average, tbe woman needs to remain in the home to care for the children. In cases where tbere i s only one cbild, however, and this child i s not an infant (that i s , under about tbe age of two) the woman i s usually considered employable. However, discretionary power i s used bere and i f tbe worker feels tbere i s some justifiable reason why the woman should be considered unemployable, exception can be made. With the Sons of Freedom, however, tbis policy has been more r i g i d l y applied. A l l Sons of Freedom women who have only one child and are physically able to work are considered employable. Tbis seems to be a departmental, that i s , a unit decision; at tbe administrative level there was no indication given that such r i g i d i t y should be used. While at the moment the policy affects only three families, i t i s another i l l u s t r a t i o n of the problems which have arisen in this governmental department i n regard to the Sons of Freedom because of lack of adequate communication. It should be added, too, that these young Freedomite wives do not understand this policy. Their view i s , that the government took away their means of livelihood by putting their husbands in prison; therefore the government should support tbem. Another policy wbicb has been applied to tbe Sons of Freedom i s that they are not eligible for rental overage.9 Here again i t was 9 For an explanation of this term see page 17. 2k stated by tbe assistant administrator of tbe City Social Service Department, tbat tbis policy i s no longer applicable and should not be used. Yet at tbe unit division level tbis policy i s being applied. It i s estimated by tbe worker handling tbe caseload that this policy affects approximately one-fifth of the caseload. None of the Doukhobors to whom this writer spoke were even aware tbat such a policy existed; they were therefore hardly in a position themselves to press for equal consideration for rental overage. We should perhaps examine the impli-cations of tbis a l i t t l e more closely. Rental overage i s not auto-matically granted when rent i s higher than the portion allotted for i t under Social Assistance rates. It i s not granted where accommodation i s considered substandard. Thus the policy has tbe expressed intent of encouraging Social Assistance recipients to procure housing wbicb meets minimum standards of health and decency. I f rental overage i s not granted to Sons of Freedom, i t implies at least, that they have less right to adequate accommodation than do other Canadians. It i s clear from discussion with administrative o f f i c i a l s that no such policy of " l e s s - e l i g i b i l i t y " i s intended. It would therefore seem necessary that communication at different departmental levels be improved, so the expressed policy and actual application of policy become one and the same. As pointed out in tbe Hawthorn Report, section 8 of the Social Assistance Act forbids discrimination based on race, colour, creea, or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . 1 0 10 W.G. Dixon, op_. c i t i , p. 201. 25 Another interesting development in the area of social welfare i n relation to tbe Sons of Freedom has arisen around the question of accepting Family Allowance. A family i n receipt of Social Assistance may receive Family Allowance over and above their Social Assistance allowance; that i s , Family Allowance i s not deducted from tbe Social Assistance allowance. At the moment exactly half the families eligible are not receiving Family Allowance. The social worker handling tbe Doukhobors has been encouraging these families to accept tbis Allowance and has been successful i n convincing some that tbis Allowance does not mean tbe government has some mysterious bold on their children. Some women would accept this Allowance, the worker believes, but are afraid of the disapproval of their husbands in Agassiz Prison. A further policy initiated at the time the Freedomites f i r s t began receiving Social Assistance was tbat there should be no casework counselling service or referral service given to the sect members. From tbe beginning, however, this latter policy seems never to have been implemented for the Sons of Freedom received numerous referrals to the Salvation Army and St. Vincent de Paul for both clothing and furniture. During this early period i t would have been almost impos-sible to have given casework service i n any case, since the actual administering of the cheques took up almost a l l of tbe workers' time. At present, however, the situation i s quite the opposite; the Sons of Freedom receive probably more individual casework service than many other Social Assistance recipients. The rather peculiar position 26 exists tbat at tbe administrative level casework and referral services are approved, but at tbe unit level are not approved and at the caseworker level, casework and referral services are implemented. Several interesting cases show tbe results of tbis policy implementation. Mrs. K., a young Freedomite woman whose husband i s i n Mountain Prison,decided a few months ago to accept Family Allowance for her young child against ber husband's wishes. Tbis caused a good deal of contention between Mrs. K. and tbe other young Freedomite wives but she stood firm on ber decision. A l i t t l e while later with the worker's encouragement she began training as a power-machine operator under tbe provincial rehabilitation programme "Schedule M". Her child attends a day-care centre while tbe mother i s at school. At the time of writing Mrs. K. i s doing very well i n ber course and i s enjoying i t immensely. Mrs. K. i s s t i l l a Freedomite but she i s also becoming a Canadian. In another case, Mr. H., a young Freedomite who i s also receiving Family Allowance, i s now taking a carpentry course after referral was made to National Employment Service Special Placements Division. Future Policy What w i l l future policy be i n relation to tbe Sons of Free-dom? Integration here i s also planned. In a few months the ^Doukhobor caseload" w i l l cease to exist. The different families w i l l be designated to tbe Social Assistance worker who ordinarily covers tbe d i s t r i c t i n which tbey l i v e . There w i l l be, i t i s stated, no special regulations 27 for Doukhobors; they w i l l be treated under policy exactly as other Social Assistance recipients. And what i f the major sect of tbe group should return to tbe city? It i s anticipated that they would again receive Social Assistance and that the City would again hire a worker to assist the provincial social worker in tbe administration of Assistance. Employment It Is extremely d i f f i c u l t to assess accurately tbe number of Sons of Freedom who are employed i n and around Vancouver. One of tbe reasons for this d i f f i c u l t y i s the mobility of tbis groupj much of their work i s of a casual nature. During the f a l l months of 1963 and on into tbe winter months, many of the employable men at tbe camp in Agassiz travelled down to tbe city to work as longshoremen, while tbe grain shipments to Red China were being loaded. Some worked on farms in tbe Agassiz d i s t r i c t , while others went to the Kootenays to find work. Of those who remained in Vancouver a number found work at a gardening nursery Just outside tbe c i t y . A total of eleven procured jobs on tbe Winter Works Programme and were found to be efficient workers. A few, probably not more than half a dozen, obtained work as carpenters, a trade at which many Doukhobors are particularly s k i l l e d . Fewer of the women seemed to have obtained employment. However, several are working as waitresses and three young g i r l s are reported working as nurses' aides at a local hospital. Tbis small group of young unmarried g i r l s , numbering perhaps ten, are indistinguishable from other Vancouverites. Most of them wear lips t i c k and nylons, go to movies and go out on dates. 28 Tbe Migration to Agassiz  Welfare Wben tbe Sons of Freedom moved to Agassiz i n late August tbe Department of Social Welfare again asked the Savation Army to provide food vouchers for those persons who requested Social Assistance. Again i t was not stated tbat tbis money was to come from tbe government but by now tbe source of income had become f a i r l y common knowledge. In December, the Vancouver Sun newspaper printed the following: Everyone - including the Doukhobors - assumed tbe Salvation Army money was coming from the organization's own reserves. But Army spokesman L t . Col. John Steele, said Wednesday tbat wasn't tbe case. He said tbe Salvation Army bas been receiving tbe emergency funds -$2,100 a month - from the provincial government, then simply passing on the money to the Freedomites.il Tbe Salvation Army o f f i c i a l i n charge again registered the Sons of Freedom "eligible" (see Appendix A for form used) and within two weeks some 160 persons were registered. The Sons of Freedom must also com-plete a second form similar to tbe Social Assistance Income Form (see Appendix A-2) each time they receive the food vouchers allotted to tbem. These food vouchers are issued bi-montbly, not every two weeks as some newspaper reports have stated. Tbere i s a distinction here because, i f tbere should happen to be five weeks in a month, some of the Sons of Freedom may not receive a food voucher for three weeks. In the Social Welfare offices i n British Columbia tbis problem bas been solved by granting assistance calculated on h 1/3 weeks per month. Thus, one's total Social Assistance for any one month w i l l always be 11 Tbe Vancouver Sun, December 20, 1963* P* 1 0 • 29 tbe same, no matter bow many days there are i n that particular month. Since the Salvation Army rates are calculated on a two-week basis, but issued on a bi-monthly basis, tbe amounts actually received per month w i l l usually be less than the rates given below. given under tbe Social Assistance Act. It i s not clear why i t i s f e l t that tbe Sons of Freedom should be able to survive on two-thirds less food than other persons but apparently the provincial government does not object to tbis arbitrary rate, since i t neither insisted upon a particular rate nor reviewed the rates once they had been set. The decision regarding tbe amounts to be given was l e f t entirely to tbe Salvation Army o f f i c i a l s . Tbe Sons of Freedom, however, those people who receive the vouchers, do object to tbe rates. Several letters were written by tbe Sons of Freedom to tbe Director of Social Welfare protesting against tbe meagre funds. No answer was received to these requests so i n January a group of women wrote a letter (see Appendix B) to the Minister of Social Welfare protesting what tbey called "belp which i s so meagre tbat i t i s next to impossible to live on". Whether as a result of tbis or not, a change was made: now for each child whose father i s in prison an extra $1.00 i s given every two weeks.; Families are also now allotted one bag of coal per montb. Such arrangements might appear strange, not to say ludicrous, to some 1 person 2 persons 3 persons k persons 5 persons 6 persons 7 persons 8 persons $ 5*00 every two weeks 10.00 every two weeks 12.50 every two weeks 13.00 every two weeks 15.00 every two weeks 17.50 every two weeks 20.00 every two weeks 22.50 every two weeks These rates represent approximately one-third of tbe portion 30 observers; however, there has s t i l l been no voice raised by the provincial government. It might be noted here that i t i s not only tbe Department of Social Welfare which i s Involved i n these arrange-ments. The Salvation Army maintains close contact with the R.C.M.P. and sends information regarding tbe Sons of Freedom to tbe R.C.M.P. every two weeks. Presumably, tbis information relates only to tbe whereabouts of families. Quite apart from the legality of the situation i t i s interesting to examine what could be called the "social aspect" of the situation. On one hand, the Salvation Army has received sharp criticism for helping tbe Sons of Freedom at a l l . Tbe Council of the Municipality of Kent, which normally grants a certain portion of i t s funds to tbe Salvation Army, has stated that this year this money w i l l not be forthcoming because of tbe Salvation Army's assist-ance to tbe Sons of Freedom. On tbe otber band, those who are sympa-thetic to tbe Sons' of Freedom present plight and are convinced there i s genuine need in the camp are highly c r i t i c a l of the arbitrary rates set by tbe Salvation Army, and fee l tbat by using government funds tbey are the willing dupes of a governmental policy of l e s s - e l i g i b i l i t y and discrimination. Between this two-pronged attack stands tbe Salvation Army o f f i c i a l responsible for setting tbe rates and administering tbe food vouchers. His services to tbe Sons of Freedom must be squeezed into a working week which i s already six and a half days. Hot only must he v i s i t the camp regularly, complete forms and administer the vouchers, but be must also handle a l l accounts and records. For a l l these services be receives no remuneration. Thus, in effect, tbe government has an unpaid employee doing the work of about, three persons, 31 who receives tbe brunt of a l l criticism for tbe administration of tbeir money. Tbose i n receipt of O.A.A. and G.A.S. continue to receive tbeir cheques, although no S.S.A. i s granted. Tbe old people receiving these cheques share their money with the others. It i s one of the major sources of income to the group and i t might be speculated tbat, had this source of income not been forthcoming during tbe winter months when few of tbe men were working, a major c r i s i s would have arisen. Health There are approximately 120 shacks in the Sons' of Freedom camp outside Mountain Prison. Most of them are now reinforced with two layers of plastic which makes them effectively rain-proof. Tbe huts are warmed by wood and coal stoves, which provide adequate heat but constitute a real f i r e hazard. To date, a few individuals have sustained only minor burns but tbe threat of a major f i r e i s s t i l l very real. The Doukhobors as a wbole are an extremely clean, tidy people and the Sons of Freedom are no exception to this rule. They have now built two steam bathhouses, in which large stones are heated and then water poured on them. Before these were built, however, many of the Sons of Freedom used to travel to Harrison Hot Springs to use the baths provided tbere. They also used tbe laundromat located tbere to wash tbeir clothes. 32 Sanitation at the camp seems to be very good. A sanitary inspector v i s i t s tbe camp once a week and reports that the Sons of Freedom keep the camp in a clean and orderly state. They have dele-gated one man to keep tbe privies clean and have organized a garbage disposal brigade. Tbe public health nurse reported that the children are always provided with an adequate school lunch despite tbe limited amount of money which the Sons of Freedom receive. She also com-mented on tbe excellent condition of the children's teeth. Of a l l those children examined, there was apparently only one child with a cavity in her teeth. The children are also very well clothed, although very l i t t l e of tbe clothing i s new. (The Salvation Army w i l l provide new clothing i f i t i s "quite sure" that i t i s needed. For each ar t i c l e 25^ i s deducted from the family's food voucher.) Such a favorable report of tbe health condition of the children i s not surprising, since tbe Doukhobors are extremely affectionate and attentive parents. It i s interesting to note, too, tbat in early March when funds i n tbe camp had reached a new low, the mothers held a meeting at which they decided they would take their children out of school as a protest against tbe Salvation Army's welfare rates. They intended to state they had done this because they could no longer afford to provide their children with adequate school lunches. Whether they hoped tbis would lead tbe school to suggest providing lunches i s not known, but certainly their concern for the children was genuine enough. 33 I f the Sons of Freedom are not provided with a l l the Social Welfare services they might lik e , certainly tbey lack nothing in tbe way of health services. A l l the young mothers were encouraged to use tbe baby c l i n i c i n Agassiz and, in fact, about one-third of these women did take advantage of this service. They bave been offered a l l immunization services and oral polio vaccine. There was a T.B. Mobile survey truck set up at tbe camp to enable a l l the Sons of Freedom to have chest X-rays. There i s one diabetic i n the camp, who receives free insulin. Even the local milkman and dry cleaning service delivers to the camp. Tbe provincial government may ins i s t that the Sons of Freedom do not have a bona fide address, but certainly tbe local merchants seem to bave no problem finding them. Review of Social Welfare Policy There are several major legal problems involved in tbe question of granting Assistance of any kind to tbe Sons of Freedom. These legal problems sbould not be construed narrowly as pertaining only to the Sons of Freedom, but sbould be seen as reflecting the type of discriminatory action which could be applied to anyone i f such action were again thought necessary. Tbe f i r s t i s tbe question of responsi-b i l i t y for the Sons of Freedom - a rather well-worn subject. In this case tbe Municipality of Kent By-Law No. hOO, tbe Camping Regulation and Sanitary Control By-Law enacted September 18, 19&2, prohibits tbe camping of persons i n tbe Di s t r i c t of Kent without a permit. It further prohibits the camping of more than ten persons per a c r e . 1 2 12 The Corporation of tbe Dist r i c t of Kent, Camping Regulation and Sanitary Control By-Law Mo. kOO, sect. k. 3* Thus, because tbe Sous of Freedom are not legally camped in tbe Municipality of Kent, i t would seem tbat tbe Municipality bas no responsibility for tbe welfare of tbe Sons of Freedom under tbe Municipal Act wbicb states tbat a l l municipalities must care for their "poor and destitue" Since the failure to remove the Sons of Freedom from their present residence i s due entirely to tbe action (or inaction) of the Attorney-General's Department, which last August requested time enough to "study the Kent By-Law", i t seems clear that responsibility for the welfare of the Sons of Freedom rests at the provincial government's doorstep. Further, under section 639, subsection (3) of tbe Municipal Act, a municipality i s not responsible for the payment of Social Assistance i f a d i s t r i c t municipality bas under 2,500 persons and assessed land value and improvements taxable for school purposes does not exceed $2,500.00 per person. As a consequence, the Munici-pality of Kent i s not responsible under tbis subsection of tbe Act. If the Sons of Freedom, then, can in no legal sense be considered tbe responsibility of tbe Municipality of Kent and are tbe direct responsibility of tbe provincial government, they are tben eligible for welfare of any kind only under the Social Assistance Act of British Columbia. Under this Act, however, Social Assistance i s not granted as a right, but as a privilege. Tbat i s , the Social Assistance Act states tbat "social assistance may be granted"^ (tbe i t a l i c s are mine) i f certain stipulated terms of the Act are met. 13 R.S.B.C. i960 Chapter 255 Municipal Act, sect. 639. Ik R.S.B C. i960 Chapter 360 Social Assistance Act (19^8), sect. 3. 35 The Act does not read that i f the terms of the Act are met, Social Assistance shall be granted. Thus, i n a legal sense there i s no guarantee that even i f tbe terms of tbe Act are met, Social Assist-ance w i l l be granted. However, as stated previously, tbe Act does stipulate tbat there shall be no discrimination based on race, colour, creed, or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . While i t cannot be shown unequivocally tbat Social Assistance has been denied the Sons of Freedom specifically because of their creed, a statement in the Hawthorn Report of 1952 i s worth noting in this regard. It reads: Tbe case for Social Assistance to resistant Doukhobors or to tbeir dependents rests i n the f i r s t instance on a principle recognized in the case of tbe sick, tbe mentally i l l and the delinquent of whatever creed, tbat however resistant, useless, depraved or criminal an individual may become, be has the right to expect tbe necessities of l i f e simply because of tbe fact that be i s a human being.15 Further, under Section 13 of tbe Act the Director of Welfare "subject to tbe approval of tbe Minister, i s empowered to establish regulations and formulate policies not inconsistent witb this Act...."l6 It may well be questioned whether the granting of funds to an o f f i c i a l of a private organization, to disperse as be sees f i t amongst more than 500 persons i s a policy consistent with the Social Assistance Act, but certainly i t does not contravene any specifically stated section of the Act. ;15 W.G. Dixon, "Public Administration and the Community", The  Doukhobors of British Columbia, The University of British.Columbia and J.M. Dent & Sons (Canada) Limited, Vancouver, 1955» p..203. 16 R.S.B.C. I960 Social Assistance Act (19*4-8), sect. 13(d). 36 I f we examine tbe question now from a less technical point of view and trace back over the events outlined above, we see a group of people who moved from their own community to a second, small com-munity, in which they were not granted social welfare. They then moved to a third community, a large, powerful, highly-organized conraunity. Here tbey were granted Assistance. They f i n a l l y moved to a fourth community, again a small community. Tbis time tbey did not receive Social Assistance. For a people who mistrust the machinery of a democratic government and who are quick to pick up inconsistencies in tbe operation of democratic government, what must tbey think of such inconsistency? Tbe provincial government f i r s t stated tbat Assistance would not be granted at Hope because the Sons of Freedom were "trekkers". But there are no regulations preventing the mobility of persons from one part of the province to another and i t would therefore seem clear tbat the government was clutching at straws here. Such a view i s reinforced by the fact that when tbe group arrived in Vancouver no such policy was announced. Quite the reverse was true; the government was anxious that the group should receive Assistance, for ittsaw this as a means of assimilating the group into this large, urban centre. But when the group moved to Agassiz, tbe government once again refused the members Social Assistance, tbis time on the grounds that tbey did not have a bona fide address. The Sons of Freedom, i t should be noted, do have a postal address and certainly their community, complete with washbouse, steam-baths and a community h a l l , seems f a i r l y permanent. The government policy should be seen clearly for wbat i t i s : a policy 37 of l e s s - e l i g i b i l i t y administered by a private individual who has neither tbe time nor the experience to administer the funds properly. Lest this criticism of government policy seem over harsh i t might be as well to examine some of tbe views which have appeared repeatedly i n the papers, sometimes in editorials, sometimes in letters written by private individuals. One of tbe frequent protests given runs something like this: "Why sbould we pay out money to people who burn homes and dynamite buildings?" To this argument i t sbould be pointed out tbat there are now some 100 persons serving prison sentences at Mountain Prison for just such offenses. Under democratic Canadian law we presume a person i s innocent u n t i l proven guilty. Therefore we must assume the remaining 1,500 odd Sons of Freedom, that i s , the vast majority, are Innocent and are therefore as eligible for Assistance as any other citizen. A second argument, somewhat more potent, states generally, "Why sbould we pay Social Assistance to men who voluntarily quit their jobs to go marching over the countryside?" Again, tbe quotation given above from tbe Hawthorn Report i s applicable here, for i t stated tbat no matter bow resistant, useless or .depraved we may consider an individual, be s t i l l has a rigbt to expect the necessities of l i f e , simply because of tbe fact tbat be i s a human being. We do not agree witb tbe Sons* of Freedom policy of dynamiting and arson but we do not punish them in prison by denying them adequate subsistence. It would therefore seem unreasonable to deny other members of tbe sect tbe basic necessities of l i f e simply because we do not understand or condone tbe beliefs which drive them to many of their actions. 38 A f i n a l and somewhat irrelevant argument wbicb bas been used i s tbat of quoting sums of money wbicb tbe Sons of Freedom are e s t i -mated to have spent thus far. Tbe implication of sucb arguments i s , tbat tbe Sons of Freedom have an enormous reserve of funds and do not need to receive Social Assistance. For example, one newspaper e s t i -mated tbat i n tbe f i r s t ikl days of tbe trek, tbe Sons of Freedom bad spent $225,000.00.^ Tbis sum may appear at f i r s t glance to be very large, but a simple estimate w i l l sbow tbat for 1,000 Doukhobor, this represents approximately '$1.50 per day. We should remember, too, tbat those in receipt of O.A.A. and O.A.S. continued to receive their cheques, which for this period of over four months would represent probably $50,000.00. Be that as i t may, tbe argument, as stated, is really irrelevant, since Social Assistance i s paid only to those who can demonstrate need, not to those whom one guesses, or supposes, need Assistance, i t should be questioned whether the Salvation Army o f f i c i a l has either the time, knowledge or administrative machinery to accurately assess t b i s . It should be noted, too, that tbe government has never suggested that payments should not be granted because tbey are not needed. Surely by granting them even the present limited amount they are acknowledging that a need does exist. From a l l tbat bas been said bere i t should be clear, i f i t were not so before, tbat tbe present system of giving i s discriminatory, i n e f f i c i e n t and of doubtful legality. 17 Vancouver Sun, January 21, 1963, p. 23. 39 CONCLUSIONS Tbe mass migration of tbe Sons of Freedom into tbe Lower Mainland i s a unique occurrence i n tbe history of British Columbia. It i s therefore not altogether surprising that conflict i n application of public policy sbould arise in relation to tbis mass movement. It is hoped, therefore, that this study w i l l be an aid for future refer-ence should such a mass migration of tbe Sons of Freedom again occur. The health of the Sons of Freedom remained, on the whole, very good during the migration. This i s not altogether surprising, since tbe Doukhobors are known to be a health-conscious, cleanly people who, unlike some other minority religious sects, are not averse to using community health resources. Public health policy, when applied to the Sons of Freedom, was construed l i b e r a l l y , since the above-mentioned attribute of these people was recognized. Authorita-tive action was taken only when the danger of an epidemic, as at Hope, became imminent and when there was actual danger of loss of l i f e . The children on tbe trek appear to bave been well cared for and remained generally in good health, except for the epidemic of measles which occurred at Hope. Their registration i n the schools at Hope, Vancouver and Agassiz was completed witb almost no f r i c t i o n or publicity and tbey assimilated well i n tbe school environment. On no occasion was there reported to be a need for intervention on tbe part of Child Welfare authorities. The aged members of tbe sect undoubtedly suffered some physical discomfort during the actual trek but public policy i n welfare ko was applied less r i g i d l y to tbem than to younger members and few were in actual financial need. It should be noted, however, that these elderly persons did not, in fact, benefit materially from their financial resources, since their money was used to sustain the group when other sources of income (specifically Social Assistance) were not forthcoming. It i s f e l t that public policy i n welfare, and specifically as i t relates to the granting of Social Assistance was applied i n an arbitrary and capricous manner which ignored the expressed intent of tbe Social Assistance Act to prohibit discrimination, and u t i l i z e d inappropriately the provincial discretionary powers permitted under the Act. Section 3 of tbe Social Assistance Act i s very broad in i t s provisions, for i t states: Social Assistance may be granted out of funds appropriated by the Legislation for the purpose to individuals, whether adult or minor, or to families who through mental or physical illness or other exigency are unable to provide in whole or i n part by their own effort, through other security measures, or from Income and other resources, necessities essential to maintain or assist i n maintaining a reasonably normal and bealtby existence. It would be reasonable to assume tbat under tbis section of the Act r the Sons of Freedom would be eligible for Assistance. Further, i t appears evident tbat provincial-municipal cooperation in public policy relating to tbe Sons of Freedom was at a minimum, and tbat power p o l i -t i c s influenced the public welfare policies implemented at Hope, Vancouver and Agassiz respectively. Tbe present policy i n operation at Agassiz, where public funds are administered by a private organiza-tion not accountable under tbe Social Assistance Act of tbis province, would appear to be indefensible. kl The Sons of Freedom camped outside Mountain prison, are not unaware of the inconsistencies i n government policy implemented during the trek and are hostile towards present social welfare policy. Tbe members of tbe sect inside Mountain Prison are reportedly receiving no type of education program and i t would thus seem that their imprison-ment can bave l i t t l e , i f any, rehabilitative value. Thus, on both sides of the prison fence we bave a large group of discontented and hostile Sons of Freedom, who show no signs of becoming more accepting and less hostile towards the government or government policy as i t i s now implemented. It i s therefore f e l t that the recommendation of the Hawthorn Report, that a Commission on Doukhobor Affairs be set up to insure coordination and consistency i n government policy, i s s t i l l appli-cable. Such an advisory body of five to seven individuals would belp in the formulation of policy and would aid i n protecting administrative integrity against hostile outside pressure. Most important, and most significant to tbe present situation, i t would prevent governmental policy from drift i n g from one c r i s i s situation to another. It i s clear that such a Commission would be of some considerable value at the present stage of inactivity. Appendix A THE SALVATION ARMY CHILLIWACK, B. C. WELFARE DEPARTMENT  Ap p l i c a t i o n f o r Emergency R e l i e f 1. NAME 2. ADDRESS 3. PIACE OF BIRTH. 4. NAME OF SPOUSE DATE OF BIRTH. NEE 5. ADDRESS OF SPOUSE I F DIFFERENT THAN ABOVE. 6. DEPENDENTS NAME ... RELATION DATE OF BIRTH BIRTH PIACE REASON FOR DEPENDENCY P*.. 1 1 • - • • • • • • 7. Unemployment Insurance No.. .Occupation. 8. Monthly income of Applicant and Dependents from a l l sources, 9. T o t a l Assets of Applicant and Dependents 10. Date Moved to Local Area 11. Place and Date of Last Assistance Received 12. Reason f o r A p p l i c a t i o n . 13. Previous Addresses during padt two years_ DECLARATION OF APPLICANT Province of British Columbia, solemnly declare as follows: m the (1) That the statements and allegations contained i n the foregoing a p p l i c a t i o n which I have read or have had read t o me, are true and correct t o the best of wiy knowledge and b e l i e f . (2) That no information required t o be given has been concealed or omitted. (3) And I make t h i s solemn d e c l a r a t i o n conscientiously b e l i e v i n g i t to be t r u e * and I w i l l n o t i f y the Commanding O f f i c e r of any change of my f i n a n c i a l s t atus. Witnessed at £3 r " ^ (Signature of Applicant on t h i s day of _19_ by/for Major Thomas I. Powell Commanding O f f i c e r Page &3 Appendix A-2  Duplicate of Weekly Income Form NAME Date Food Voucher Income CV Remarks Page kk Appendix B Copy of Letter to Dept. of Social Welfare Mountain Prison Gate General Delivery, Agassis, B.C. January 15th, 196^. Mr. Black Department of Social Welfare, Parliment Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Dear Mr. Black:-We have written to Mr. Sadler of the Welfare dept. at Victoria, B.C., some time ago hit did not receive an answer from him. How we wish to ask you and i f you can be kind to t e l l us where we can turn to for belp. Fir s t of a l l , for tbe women with children whose husbands are i n prison. From what we beard -tbat according to your regulations tbese women sbould receive assistance from the Welfare Dept. of the province. Secondly -for people that are not able to work or not able to find work and bave no income to live on. We are being helped by tbe Salvation Army, but the belp i s so meagre that i t i s next to impossible to live on , e.g. A person i s alloted a five dollar voucher for a period of two weeks, need we say more? A mother and two children get twelve dollars and f i f t y cents for tbe period of two weeks and not money, but vouchers. Please let us face i t i n a truthful manner, let us not have discrimination here i n Canada like tbe one in the U.S.A. witb tbe Hegroes, only then the Government w i l l be free to "Say tbe Rights". We are very truly speaking to a l l Hations of a l l Races. Yours Truly On behalf of a l l mothers in camp. Mrs. F. Storgoff Mrs. Mary Repen . Mrs. Annie Davedoff Mrs. Made Ogloff Mrs. Katie Lebedoff Mrs. Polly Verigin Page 45 Appendix C Pictures of Agassiz Camp Fanny Storgoff on the l e f t Signs opposite Fanny Storgoff's shack Page U6 Construction of some of tbe snacks Page hi BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Dawson, C.A. Group Settlement, Ethnic Communities in  Western Canada. Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1936. Hawthorn, Harry, ed. The Doukhobors of British Columbia. Tbe University of British Columbia and J.M. Dent & Sons (Canada) Limited, Vancouver, 1955* Keith-Lucas, Alan. Decisions about People l a Meed. Tbe University of North Carolina Press, Chapel H i l l , 1957-Maude, Aylmer. A Peculiar People, the Doukhobors. Funk and Wagnalls, New York, 1904. Snesarev, V. Tbe Doukhobors i n British Columbia. The University of British Columbia Publication, Dept. of Agriculture, Vancouver, 1931• Wright, J.F.C. Slava Bobu: Tbe Story of tbe Doukhobors. Farrar and Rbinehart, New York, 191*0. Zubek, J. and P.A. Solberg. Doukhobors at War. Tbe Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1952. Acts and Charters Province of British Columbia. Vancouver Charter (revised). Queen's Printers, Victoria, 1961. Revised Statutes of British Columbia R.S.B.C. i960 ^Chapter 255 Municipal Act 1957 Amended 1961, 1962. R.S.B.C. i960 Chapter 3k0 Residence and Responsibility Act No amendments. R.S.B.C. i960 Chapter 360 Social Assistance Act (l$&8) Amended 1961 c. 59 s. 31. In force January 1, 1961. Page k8 Tbeses Brown, Beverly. Measurement of Meed i n Social  Assistance. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of Bri t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1962. Jackson, Douglas L. Public Assistance Policy. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1955• Kock, Wolfram J . Measuring tbe Incidence of Welfare Problems. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, i960. Putnam, James M. Less E l i g i b i l i t y and Modern Welfare  Principles. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 19^ 7« Miscellaneous Perepelkin, J.J. Doukhobor Problem in Canada A Prototype Copy of tbe Hewbrew People i n Egypt. Published by the Fraternal Council of the Union of Christian Communities and Brotherhood of Reformed Doukhobors, no place of publication given, 1959. Sorokin, S.S. Doukhobor Affairs Inside Out... Published by Tbe Union of Christian Communities and Brotherhood of Reformed Doukhobors, no place of publication given, 1957* THE SONS OF FREEDOM AT HOPE A Study of the Interaction of a Set t l e d Community and a Migrant Community. by WILLIAM BASIL MUNDI Two Chapters Summary and Conclusions f o r a Joint Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of Social'Work 1964 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t fr e e l y a vailable for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publ i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. ABSTRACT This thesis i n i t s entirety sets out to record to date an unusual piece of social history - the Migration of the Sons of Freedom Doukhobors from in t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia to the Lower Mainland of the province. Two other sections discuss the effects of public policy i n the health and welfare f i e l d s and the relations of the Freedomites with the Agassiz community to which they went on the f i n a l leg of their Migration. This present section i s concerned with the mutual impacts of the unorgan-ized community of Freedomites and the organized settled community of Hope, the f i r s t town they encountered i n the Lower Mainland, at which they remained through force of circumstance for the major part of the winter. I t was f e l t that t h i s mutual relationship merited special attention and study due to i t s unique character and r e s u l t . It could well reveal guidelines for the future i n the confrontation of a settled community by a migrant minority. Research was pursued by means of interviews and the review of reports written at the time. The current leaders of the Sons of Freedom were a primary source, as were the Village Chairman at Hope, the newspaper Editor, the School Superintendent, and the Medical Officer of Health, as well as police and Salvation Array personnel. Records were obtained from news media, of f i c e records, reports by social workers. Analysis of the relationship between the two groups revealed an unusually high leve l of statesmanship and wisdom i n the leadership structure of Hope, which avoided triggering off any defensive response i n the migrants. Patience and sympathy were present instead of the oft-encountered suspicion and h o s t i l i t y with which such groups are met. There was some ground for b e l i e f that an extension of the mature and just attitude of the leaders of Hope on the part of a l l concerned with the Freedomites, might bring a rapid end to a "problem" which has beleaguered two provinces and7") the federal Government for nearly seventy years. THE FREEDOMITES AND THE TREK Occasion In the early f a l l of 1962 a large group of people l e f t t h e i r f a m i l i a r surroundings i n the various villages-'- of the Southern West Kootenay d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia province, and migrated en masse to the P a c i f i c coast area. Their numbers are estimated v a r i o u s l y between 500 and U+00,^ but were at l e a s t 1000 when they approached the peaceful v i l l a g e of Hope, the f i r s t town they encountered a f t e r penetrating the coastal mountain b a r r i e r . I t i s there that t h i s part of our story of them i s set. Their progress toward Hope had not been without i n c i d e n t . They st a r t e d of f on foot, a group of the women, perhaps 350 i n number, having burned t h e i r homes i n a gesture of pious defiance against the m a t e r i a l i s t code of the dominant cult u r e . ^ Background What led up to t h i s i s hard to guess, for i t came out of a past plagued with c r i s e s of t h e i r culture, that of the Doukhobors of 18th and 19th Century Russia as i t r e s i s t e d a s s i m i l a t i o n i n a strange, fast-moving Canada. Some of the women remembered f a i n t l y the Russia of the Czars, where men had r e s i s t e d enforced m i l i t a r y service by burning t h e i r r i f l e s , and they had had t h e i r v i l l a g e s burned by the Cossacks, -*-See Schooling (below) p.29. 2 T h i s would be between V3 and V2 of the Sect. See Hawthorn Report p.12 3Hawthorn Report:- Women's ro l e s p.17, Arson p.18. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the best leadership i n the Russian period was given by Lukeria Kalmikova, who took PPeter (Lordly) V e r i g i n as her l o v e r . 2 becoming e x i l e s i n the Caucasus, and eventually a r r i v i n g i n Canada through the help of Tolstoy and Aylmer Maude. In t h i s land they had hoped f o r freedom f o r a r e l i g i o n which forbade m i l i t a r y service, or any form of compliance with an ungodly c i v i l power, in c l u d i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n of persons or lands. This was never f u l l y c l a r i f i e d with them, having to be s e t t l e d with Maude i n t h e i r name.-'- They believed they were to have the r i g h t to educate t h e i r c h i l d r e n as they saw f i t , on lands they simply occupied without govern-mental controls, as i n the Caucasus. When the part of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s on which they s e t t l e d became the Province of Saskatchewan, land r e g i s t r a t i o n was required i n the name of i n d i v i d u a l s , offending both t h e i r communal l i f e and t h e i r anarchism, but the f i n a l i n s u l t was the requirement of an oath of a l l e g i a n c e . This caused many of them to look toward the west, and under Peter (Lordly) V e r i g i n they established t h e i r B.C. homes on communal purchased land, galvanized by the Saskatchewan government's beginning to e s t a b l i s h schools i n t h e i r colonies there. Many however, were able to accommodate t h e i r r e l i g i o n with the dominant culture of Canada, and remain c i t i z e n s on the P r a i r i e s . Their main i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s with the o r i g i n a l group are i n t h e i r informal mystical r e l i g i o n and t h e i r pacifism, i n which they are not unlike the Quakers. No-one has ever s e r i o u s l y threatened any of the Doukhobors •Vide Hawthorn Report pp 8-9. Cf. "Slava Bohu" - Wright pp 170-1. 1 'It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to read the possible motivations of the leaders f o r t h i s migration to B.C. i n "Slava Bohu." with co n s c r i p t i o n , an Order-in-Council i n 1898 having exempted them from arms-bearing. 1 The f i r s t group of opponents to a s s i m i l a t i o n a r r i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1908, and w i t h i n f i v e years they were joined by nearly s i x thousand from Saskatchewan. The purchased lands were near T r a i l i n the Columbia Valley, and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s at Grand Forks, and Crescent V a l l e y (Slocan) and the Kootenay near the Columbia. These they turned i n t o model f r u i t - f a r m s , using i r r i g a t i o n which depended on c a r e f u l maintenance. A f t e r t h e i r ambition l e f t them these farms became desert wastes. They also engaged i n lumbering, and t h e i r s k i l l i n carpentry has become famous l o c a l l y . There was f r i c t i o n between these peoples and other s e t t l e r s i n the area, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the f i r s t World War. The Freedomite l i t e r a -t u r e ^ sees t h i s period as one i n which Canadians who had been at war (and thus were engaged i n what they see as a reprehensible a c t i v i t y ) coveted t h e i r lands. From t h i s time onward there i s a thread of h o s t i l i t y toward the imagined enemy i n the Kootenays, v a r i o u s l y located i n the Grand Forks veterans, the T r a i l and Nelson municipal leaders, and the various i n d u s t r i e s of the C.P.R., as w e l l as the L i f e Insurance Companies who foreclosed on t h e i r mortgaged lands and the Gtovernment who saved them from e v i c t i o n by buying back the land from the Companies. E s s e n t i a l l y , •Vide Hawthorn Report p. 10 'e.g. "Open Letter to the Quakers." 4 these ideas can probably be understood as projections of blame by a people who see t h e i r way of l i f e threatened by c u l t u r a l progress, but cannot understand that the elements of t h e i r downfall l i e i n t h e i r r i g i d reactions to change, and t h e i r choice of leaders. Origins of Thought Their o r i g i n a l leader i n Canada, the man associated with t h e i r l a s t great Russian leader, Lukeria, was Peter (the Lordly) V e r i g i n , who a r r i v e d i n 1904 a f t e r an e x i l e i n S i b e r i a . He had advocated a communal l i f e i n h i s l e t t e r s , and no a s s i m i l a t i o n , but when he a r r i v e d he found l i f e i n Canada v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from that i n Russia at the time, and f o r a while he seemed to accept a s s i m i l a t i o n . This confused the f a i t h f u l , who r e c a l l e d many negative ideas i n h i s l e t t e r s and they began to i n t e r p r e t h i s acts and words on a "double-think" basis.1 Symbolical obsession and double-entente has become a noticeable feature of thought among Sons of Freedom. One of the commonly understood motives behind the move to B.C. was Peter V e r i g i n 1 s wish t o reunite the Doukhobors and consolidate t h e i r c u l t u r e . The Freedomites were at t h i s time an embarrassment to the others, because of t h e i r extreme l i t e r a l n e s s about Peter's f i r s t ideas which made them 1-e.g. One of the people charged with Arson i n the Kootenays t e s t i -f i e d that the s i g n a l to burn was the wearing of a t i e backwards by t h e i r leader. 2 T h i s i s not unusual i n a r t and poetry, but i t i s an uncommon feature i n the prosaic l i f e of most Canadians. It has been characterized as a feature of childhood by psychologists and p s y c h i a t r i s t s , who r e l a t e i t to primary-process thinking, and thus to a tendency to seek immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n instead of subjecting the i d - f o r c e s to the r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l of the ego and the stringencies of the super-ego (conscience). Vide, Charles Brenner, M. C u n l i f f e . 5 non-conformists with the mass of the Doukhobors who were somewhat w i l l i n g to adapt. There were home-burnings i n Saskatchewan, and the time when horses were released from servitude to wander over the P r a i r i e d i d not endear Freedomites to t h e i r neighbours, whose crops were damaged, but t h e i r nude parades were t h e i r most e f f e c t i v e form of protest against a s s i m i l a t i o n . There i s evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e that these burnings and nude parades offended Peter and h i s son by h i s o r i g i n a l marriage who followed him. The father had been an astute business man, under whom the a f f a i r s of the B.C. group were able to prosper. He had however mortgaged t h e i r lands heavily when a bomb-blast took h i s l i f e i n a t r a i n on the C.P.R.'s Kettle V a l l e y Line i n 1924. There was t a l k of having h i s common-law wife take over, but the succession f e l l to Peter Petrovich V e r i g i n , who c a l l e d himself Chestiakov (the Scourger.) He had been i n Canada before to v i s i t h i s father, but nearly caused a r e b e l l i o n against the l a t t e r , and had been sent back to Russia. The Revolution of 1917 had brought i him t o a l o c a l leadership p o s i t i o n , and he came to Canada r e l u c t a n t l y i n 1927. He found compensation i n an apparently debauched l i f e , which he explained to h i s followers i n f u r t h e r "double-think," as a ruse to keep the Canadianuauthorities from knowing he was "the C h r i s t . " When he died i n a Saskatoon h o s p i t a l just before World War I I , one of h i s followers declared he had t o l d them to l i v e as Canadians, except f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . This r e l i e v e d many who had already drawn away, and although i t was d i s -puted, the advice was widely followed. Soon afterward however, the War 6 set back a s s i m i l a t i o n by r e u n i t i n g various groups i n a common stand f o r pacifism. Sons of Freedom The Freedomites, who had gradually emerged as an extreme f a c t i o n taking the Leader's words at t h e i r most conservative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , repudiating a l l a s s i m i l a t i o n , and d e l i b e r a t e l y avoiding education, had always adhered to the V e r i g i n leadership even when i t castigated t h e i r a n t i c s . Now a period of anarchy followed. Michael V e r i g i n , who s t y l e d himself "Archangel" and c a p i t a l i z e d on h i s name, joined forces with Joe Podovinikoff to found an i d e a l i s t i c communal soc i e t y at H i l l i e r s on Vancouver Island at one point, but t h i s had few adherents, and d i d not p e r s i s t . Some Doukhobors formed organizations to follow on the o r i g i n a l C h r i s t i a n Community of Universal Brotherhood, notably the Union of S p i r i t u a l Communities of C h r i s t with John J . V e r i g i n as secretary, or independent groups a f f i l i a t e d to t h i s body i n some matters. Economic burdens tended to weaken and separate the groups, and many Doukhobors were f u l l y a ssimilated to the dominant cul t u r e , some even changing t h e i r names to English forms. The Sons of Freedom claim to be the only "true Doukhobors" l e f t , and t h e i r i s o l a t i o n i n Krestova (accessible only by pathway) and the shaded lower Kootenay v a l l e y v i l l a g e s would suggest a "Shangri-la" separation. The majority, who d i d not go to H i l l i e r s , were lea d e r l e s s f o r a time, and one John Lebedoff began to emerge as t h e i r leader. He showed some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with Peter Petrovich, but before he could consolidate h i s p o s i t i o n he was displaced by an eastern 7 European Baptist missionary, Stephan Sorokin. The l a t t e r i s c a l l e d " s p i r i t u a l leader" because he refuses to control many of the economic matters i n which former leaders have delighted. He was, however, able to form a working r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s i n the Kootenays, e s p e c i a l l y with Magistrate W i l l i a m Evans, under whose j u r i s -d i c t i o n the Freedomites came, and r e l a t i v e peace reigned f o r a time a f t e r he took over about 1950. There were the seeds of r e b e l l i o n i n the r i v a l r y of Lebedoff, who had a small following at h i s home i n Wynndel, B.C. Sorokin went along with the idea of migration to a promised land, whereas Lebedoff favoured settlement and some accommo-dation to the Canadian c u l t u r e . Many elements of Russian peasant culture have gone in t o the Freedomite makeup. From t h e i r f r i e n d and protector Tolstoy, came a reinforcement of p u r i t a n i c a l reformism. They express the ubiquitous Russian "mother-earth" concept i n terms of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s value of p h y s i c a l t o i l and repudiation of advanced technology, and i t s concomitant mystical u n i t y of a l l mankind i s shown i n t h e i r pacifism and communalism, so long only an i d e a l but indulged i n during t r e k s . They profess to despise worldly show, and "go naked i n the world" as they were born, when i t comes to a showdown with the corrupt and compromised. Their d i s t r u s t of complex r e l i g i o n s , (though they have learned to t o l e r a t e but not to t r u s t most Canadian Churches) comes probably from the general Russian peasants' mistrust of the Orthodox Church which was i d e n t i f i e d with C z a r i s t power before the Revolution. Violence had been taught them 8 by the Cossacks who plundered them and the Caucasian bandits to whose mercy they were thrown, but the "depredations" l a i d at t h e i r door, i n the form of bombings and burnings, t h e i r p a c i f i s t creed forces them to deny. There i s much evidence of a martyr-complex pervading the group, and they have become an outcaste i n the Kootenays, as the Hawthorn Report amply indicates.-*-Ever since Peter (the Lordly) V e r i g i n was k i l l e d on the C.P.R. i n 1924j t h i s railway and i t s other i n t e r e s t s , the West Kootenay Power Company and Consolidated Mining and Smelting at T r a i l and Kimberley, have been considered betes noirs by many Freedomites. While the connection has been l a r g e l y unproved, power poles and railway bridges have been prime targets of t e r r o r i s t a c t i v i t i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l Government's schools and highway cu l v e r t s have also been fo^cusses of a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour. While no further l i v e s of Canadians have been l o s t , 2 i n accord with the Doukhobor creed of abhorrence f o r violence, m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s have been l o s t i n property damage, and untold m i l l i o n s i n l o s s of investment. Concrete evidence to l i n k "the troubles" with the Freedomites was found i n 1961 when a grain elevator was blasted at Wynndel, and the same day workmen found a bomb unexploded i n the crawl space under a t i n y Anglican Church beside the highway and 100 yards from an occupied school. The school ^ p . C i t p.16 20ne Freedomite youth (Kootnikoff) was k i l l e d and four others i n j u r e d when an i n f e r n a l machine he was car r y i n g i n h i s lap exploded i n a car at Kinnaird, B.C. i n 1962. 9 was immediately evacuated, while a bomb expert from the Canadian army, at great personal r i s k , s u c c e s s f u l l y removed the detonators from 36 s t i c k s of very old and dangerous dynamite.-'- This was traced, and two Freedomite Doukhobors were convicted. They implicated others, and the bombing of a power pylon carrying four miles of t r i p l e wire across Kootenay Lake 2 was traced to Freedomites as w e l l . Strangely enough, people confessed r e a d i l y . Freedomite spokesmen now l a y these confessions to a prophecy by former leaders, which they say was c i t e d by Lebedoff frequently, that the Doukhobors would emigrate "through the j a i l s . " Some sect members blame the "D" squad of the R.C.M.P. f o r improperly e x t r a c t i n g confessions by inducements. A l l of t h i s occured while Stephan Sorokin was i n South America, ostensibly searching f o r a new land to which the Freedomites can migrate. Of l a t e years they have v a r i o u s l y canvassed Mexico, Russia, B r a z i l and Uruguay, a l l unsuccessfully, and they s t i l l look to Sorokin to help them, although he i s s e t t l e d i n Montevideo and does not intend to return to B.C., where he faces l i t i g a t i o n . Through the processes of court action about a hundred of the younger Freedomites were under sentence and the Federal Government had decided t o incarcerate.them together i n a s p e c i a l prison where t h e i r vegetarian d i e t a r y requirements could be provided and they would not be i n danger of corruption by "hardened c r i m i n a l s " i n the 1-The author was present, being at that time Rector of the Church (St. P a t r i c k ' s ) . 20ne of the two longest spans i n the world. The other i s i n Russia. 10 ordinary p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The people of Agassiz, a small v i l l a g e on the Fraser River, had asked that the prison be placed there to b r i n g employ-ment and trade, and i t was thus that Agassiz became the focus of Freedomite i n t e r e s t . The Sons of Freedom named the double-wired, grey-walled huts, separate f o r male and female prisoners i n t o two adjacent camps, "Buchenwald." Its o f f i c i a l t i t l e i s "Mountain Prison." The Treks In early F a l l of 1962 then, with Sorokin i n Uruguay and many of t h e i r men i n prison, the people of Krestova v i l l a g e were v i s i t e d by John Lebedoff. What was said i s d i f f i c u l t to determine, but the r e s u l t of t h i s v i s i t was a rumour that i f they did not leave the v i l l a g e and begin the Migration from Canada, someone would burn down t h e i r communal ol d people's home, people i n s i d e or no. One morning e a r l y the e l d e r l y people were evacuated and the torch took the b u i l d i n g . That day, 2nd September, the women of the v i l l a g e set out on the Trek, with some of the men accompanying them and others beseeching them to stay. A l l of them f u l l y expected the "D" squad of the R.C.M.P. to stop them, as they had i n the past prevented t h e i r parades. By n i g h t f a l l , with no-one barring t h e i r path, they were eight miles from home. Some returned to pack up and get s u i t a b l e equipment, r e a l i z i n g that they were on the Trek i n earnest. Many more joined them. Progress They halted f o r a few days i n f r i e n d l y t e r r i t o r y at Grand Forks, where there are many Orthodox and Reformed Doukhobors, notably Vanichka (Johnny) V e r i g i n . He i n v i t e d them to camp overnight, but l a t e r was glad to see them go, as t h e i r communal provisioning depleted 11 h i s farm r a d i c a l l y . They frequented government camp s i t e s and f r i e n d l y farms i n t r a v e r s i n g the Okanagan and the Similkameen Val l e y s , and by mid-September were about to go through Princeton and on over the high pass country of Manning P r o v i n c i a l Park. They were encamped overnight at Bromley P r o v i n c i a l Campsite, when they discovered they were barricaded from going onward or back, by the R.C.M.P., on the orders of someone i n •the Attorney General's Department. Barricade This barricade la s t e d f or several weeks, and some who had been behind the main groups were trapped on the eastern side. One man was kept from his family f o r several days, at a time when his wife was expecting t h e i r second c h i l d , simply because he had returned to the I n t e r i o r to s e l l h i s business and j o i n the trek i n earnest. He was f i n a l l y l e t i n , and found the trekkers breaking out i n sores bacause t h e i r d i e t was l i m i t e d by t h e i r i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y to a v a r i e t y of vegetable foods. They had become dependent on tomatoes, he stated. His wife s h o r t l y began to d e l i v e r , and he put her i n the car not knowing i f he would get through the barricade on the Princeton side, but i t was dark, and when he t o l d the constable on duty h i s wife was going to have a baby, h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was not inspected. She was sa f e l y delivered at Princeton H o s p i t a l . During t h i s period, the Attorney-General and the Premier met with representatives of the Vancouver Council of Churches whom they had ••-This account, which may r e f l e c t the bias of the t e l l e r , i s from a c o n f i d e n t i a l taped interview with two of the authors. 12 asked to come to V i c t o r i a , to discuss the barricade.^ They perceived no support f o r the barricade p o l i c y on the part of these representatives, who had made themselves informed about the Sons of Freedom by reading the Hawthorn Report. The next day the barricade was l i f t e d . The V i l l a g e Chairman at Hope states that the o f f e r of Angelo Branca, Q.C., l a t e r made a judge, to defend any member of the Sons of Freedom who defied the barricade,. was believed l o c a l l y to be the cause of the l i f t i n g of the barricade. There i s a story i n Hope that the p o l i c e of the "D" squad who had been b i l l e t t e d i n Hope Motels while manning the barricades, were ordered at 2 a.m. to leave towrprecipitously, and d i d s o . 2 Approach to Hope At any rate, the Freedomites were informed of t h e i r freedom to proceed by a newspaper reporter, and they immediately passed Princeton and headed down the mountains toward Hope. They planned to remain there only a day or two, while they r a l l i e d strength to go to Kent municipality, where the prison l i e s , to t e s t i t s new by-law against t h e i r presence. The f a c t that they stayed i n Hope f o r h a l f the winter i s the basis of our study of t h e i r impact on t h i s peaceful community, and of the reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the v i l l a g e , i n contrast to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to other s i m i l a r communities i n the past, and ever since. The author was asked to obtain background information f o r t h i s meeting at the time. 2Taped interview with the author. 13 The present leaders of the trek f e e l that t h e i r stay at Hope was the b r i g h t e s t spot i n a l l t h e i r recent h i s t o r y . John Perepolkin and Fanya Storgoff both say "At Hope we found hope."-*- They a r r i v e d there 29th September 1962, intending to stay only two days, so they were welcomed i n t o the town's campsite i n Coquihalla Park. The d e c l a r a t i o n of i n t e n t i o n they had made while i n Bromley of marching toward Kent mu n i c i p a l i t y , - and the dubious by-laws, passed by that municipality, caused a temporary i n j u n c t i o n to be given, banning them from proceeding to Kent. This was followed by another by-law l i m i t i n g campers to 15 per acre, banning t h e i r entry i n t o Chilliwack, and u n t i l the by-laws were tested and declared u l t r a vires, on 19th November 1962 and the 3 i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n dissolved, they were trapped i n Hope. S i t u a t i o n Thus we f i n d two communites thrown together by no choice of the one and no planning of the other. Wherever these people or migrating groups of t h e i r f a i t h had camped before, there had been at l e a s t subconscious and often conscious h o s t i l i t y on t h e i r p a rt. Thite f r e e - f l o a t i n g anxiety was s t i l l a v a i l a b l e to these people, and given the r i g h t s i g n a l s , would have been galvanized i n t o a c t i o n . That i t was not i s the miracle of Hope, i n large measure cre d i t a b l e to the town's leaders. Before we pass to consideration of the stable community of Hope, ^Personal interviews with the author. 2See D. Commeree ( i n another chapter of t h i s t h e s i s ) ^See Hope Standard (Appendix H.S.I and H.S.4) i t i s w e l l to consider the c r i s e s through which the Freedomites passed,^ and f a c t o r s which might have caused v o l a t i l e reactions. They a r r i v e d bent on j o i n i n g t h e i r separated brothers i n the prison, though preferably i n peace. They were f r u s t r a t e d by Kent's by-law, then f u r t h e r confined by Chilliwack's, and thus pent up i n Hope. Any h o s t i l i t y by residents would have been reciprocated. They were faced with the problems of refugees, i n e f f e c t , and t h e i r campsite was not suited to the weather they soon experienced. P o s i t i v e s Their p o s i t i o n was made more t o l e r a b l e by the town's unthreatening response. When t h e i r children's needs were met r e a d i l y , 2 as we s h a l l see, a further bond was established, and when town o f f i c i a l s took pains to h a l t harrassment by i r r e s p o n s i b l e youths, they saw authority i n a f a i r e r l i g h t than ever before. At one point the leaders made common cause with them to t r y to gain Governmental attention, by taking a busload to V i c t o r i a . 3 Being forced by n a t u r a l calamity to move out of t h e i r bivouac, they found acceptance by a r e l i g i o u s group i n i t s camp. Probably v.if'j t h i s arrangement had not been disturbed by the gradual threat to health caused by frozen sanitary f a c i l i t i e s , the stay would have been longer. Also, many of them found some economic support i n the welcome l-See Appendix H.S. passim. 2 I b i d . H.S.I, H.S.3, H.S.5, H.S.14. 3lbid. H.S.7-11. 15 way they were h i r e d f o r s e m i - s k i l l e d labour i n Hope and nearby. Under these circumstances, with the desperate motivation they f e l t i n trekking at a l l , and t h e i r nearly-paranoid sense that the world opposed them, i t was c r u c i a l that t h e i r f e e l i n g s be respected i n order that health and sanity could p r e v a i l i n t h i s encounter. That the s i t u a t i o n was perceived, and met with more than adequate responses, speaks h i g h l y of the maturity of the leaders i n Hope. ^See interviews with P. Scherle and J. Reid (below) on "Economics." THE REACTION OF HOPE Dramatis Personae The leaders interviewed compose the people i n p o s i t i o n s of infl u e n c e i n Hope and i n Chilliwack, the county seat, who had d i r e c t and s i g n i f i c a n t contact with the Sons of Freedom. Those i n Hope had close communication with each other t h r u the informal channels of contact i n a small town, and those i n Chilliwack had communication e i t h e r p r i m a r i l y with the leaders i n Hope, or else with the P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . These leaders were interviewed personally, without a predetermined schedule of questions, but with the aim of learning the impact of the Freedomites on the s e t t l e d community, the r e c i p r o c a l impact of Hope on them, and the unique features of the i n t e r a c t i o n which made t h i s encounter a peaceful one. V i l l a g e Chairman We asked V i l l a g e Chairman, Paul Scherle, why he thought they had found Hope so p o s i t i v e . He r e p l i e d that i t was because they were not bothered i n Hope; no-one bothered them. He gives the impression of being a very calm, wise, clear-headed person with a wide experience of l i f e and an acceptance of himself and other people. He did not take c r e d i t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e , which the Sons of Freedom r e a d i l y ascribe to him, but as t h i s and other interviews i n Hope went on, i t was apparent that Mr. Scherle had given unusually sensible leadership, and had been backed up also by other community leaders, who although they were personally acquainted with "the troubles" i n the Kootenays, refused to be stampeded by the a r r i v a l of the Freedomites i n 17 t h e i r midst."'" Scherle's r e a c t i o n to our c u r i o s i t y about h i s novel open-mindedness to the "Sons" was: "When you've got a cat i n your l a p , you don't twist i t s t a i l , you pet i t And while they were here, and they were here, we thought we'd better make the best of i t . We couldn't do anything about them being here, anymore than Kent can do anything about them being there." (Referring to the municipality which t r i e d to bar them from entering.) Many of the townspeople v i s i t e d them, e s p e c i a l l y young people who made f r i e n d s through school. Responses He was asked what he thought as he knew they were approaching h i s v i l l a g e , and answered "You have to t r e a t people l i k e people no matter who they are. We have four or f i v e hundred campers over a weekend here i n the park. I t ' s about the same. People are people. I f we had treated them roughly, with the frame of mind they were i n at the time they could have got rough r i g h t back. There are 2780 people i n town here, and there was something l i k e 1100 Doukhobors; we could have had a l l sorts of trouble, but i n ac t u a l f a c t we didn't have any." There were no crimes nor misdemeanours while they were i n Hope. They d i d everything Scherle asked them to do, and nothing he asked them not to do. He says "I've never seen a people who co-operated better while they were here." Economics Quite a few got employment i n Hope, both men and women, ISee also Interview with J. Reid (below). 18 i n part-time work, i n carpentry and housework. There has been praise for the q u a l i t y of t h e i r work. Most of the able-bodied men picked corn, f i l b e r t s and potatoes i n the farmlands near Chilliwack; sometimes they were paid with h a l f of the potatoes they picked, other times as l i t t l e as .750 hour f o r other farm work. The workers i n town got the going rate. They were good craftsmen. Mr. Scherle had the c l o s e s t dealings of any of the c i t i z e n s with them, as Chairman of the V i l l a g e Commission. He f e e l s h i s r e l a t i o n -ship with them has not af f e c t e d h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s e l e c t o r s . The s i t u a t i o n at Chilliwack, wherein the Salvation Army has suffered l o s s of popular support by a c t i n g as the d i s t r i b u t o r of s o c i a l assistance f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Government, 2 was deplored by Scherle. He f e l t the government ought to take i t s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and deal d i r e c t l y with the Freedomites, rather than i n v o l v i n g a good organization l i k e the S a l v a t i o n Army. . The g i v i n g of grants at a l l was a t a c i t recognition of a r i g h t to welfare and t h i s 'should be handled i n the normal manner.3 Mr. Scherle"referred to the costs of the government's actions about "the Doukhobor problem" to date, and how the Hawthorn Report's recom-mendations could have solved many problems i f they had been i n s t i t u t e d . Campsites Mr. Scherle said that a f t e r Hurricane E t h e l caused the Coquihalla River to f l o o d t h e i r camp the Sons of Freedom moved to -'-Above (note 1, p.15) 2See interview with Major Powell (below) 3 See note 3> next page 19 the Seventh-Day Adventist Camp through the e f f o r t s of Joe Podovinikoff, a self-appointed spokesman for them who l i v e s i n Vancouver, and the R.C.M.P., "who didn't want them on the highway." He d i d not arrange i t , but he had been keeping a close smitiny over the s i t u a t i o n i n the town's Coquihalla campsite as the r i v e r rose during the winter r a i n s . ATTITUDES We discussed the d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e i n Hope as compared to the Kootenays. He said Hope was never subjected t o "the troubles" as the Kootenays were. They had a few l o c a l youths who s t a r t e d to harrass the campers, but he and a l o c a l publisher, John Reid, p a t r o l l e d the campsite each night, u n t i l 2 or 3 a.m., and had a guard of Freedomites organized as lookouts. Some youths went through " r a i s i n g hell"cone night, and the Doukhobors tape-recorded t h i s , so the town o f f i c i a l s recognized voices, spoke t o the persons concerned, pointing out that "there was nothing f o r them i n the camp at that time of night," and the trouble ceased. V i c t o r i a (Government Relations) At one point Mr. Scherle took a group of Freedomites to V i c t o r i a on a bus, to bring t h e i r p l i g h t to 3There was a time i n e a r l i e r years of Freedomite a c t i v i t y i n the Province when they were granted lower rates of assistance than other persons, but t h i s p r a c t i c e had stopped by the time the Hawthorn Report was w r i t t e n , (q.v. pp. 197-200 - an excellent d i s c u s s i o n of the issues involved.) This p o l i c y seems to have been reinstated. (Appendix H.S.12.) 20 the government's a t t e n t i o n . 1 This aroused the c r i t i c i s m of the M.L.A. at the time, Irvine Corbett, a government member.2 The government had refused to answer three wires, and d i d not accept i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y here, so Mr. Scherle took some of them to V i c t o r i a . He f e l t he should have taken a l l of them. The money f o r the t r i p was r a i s e d l o c a l l y among businessmen. The Council d i d not spend any extra funds on the Freedomites. The Chamber of Commerce took no overt i n t e r e s t i n them, but some l o c a l merchants asked that the Freedomites be barricaded from leaving the town, so welcome was t h e i r business. For the f i r s t period they were i n Hope, the S o c i a l Welfare Department had no dealings with them at a l l , not even i n C h i l d Protection. The c h i l d r e n attended school, the School Board having made space and teachers a v a i l a b l e at the request of the Doukhobor parents.3 The Attorney-General's Department paid the extra costs to the School Board. Town Relations The Freedomites were well-dressed and w e l l - f e d , sharing with each other. The town accepted them as campers and t o u r i s t s , not growing weary of them. I f they had remained t i l l Spring, they would have been asked to vacate the campsites f o r summer guests, and Mr. Scherle f e e l s they would have gone r e a d i l y at any time he asked them, so co-operative Appendix H.S. 7, 8 and 10. 2 I b i d . H.S. 8-9. There was a further l e t t e r i n the same vein a f t e r the Freedomites l e f t Hope. ^Appendix H.S.I, H.S.3, H.S.5. See also section on Schools (below) 21 •were they. The service clubs had very l i t t l e to do with them. One minister went to v i s i t them often, u n t i l t h e i r controversy with the government,1 i n which he supported the government. Young people i n v i t e d t h e i r Freedomite fellow students to watch T.V. at t h e i r homes. Mr. Scherle took one l i t t l e boy i n t o h i s own home on the night of Hurricane E t h e l , and he remained with the Scherles a month. He was asked how people might receive Freedomites wishing to s e t t l e i n Hope. He s a i d i f they wanted to s e t t l e down l i k e other c i t i z e n s they would be welcome, as long as they didn't bother people. Personal A t t i t u d e Mr. Scherle had studied the h i s t o r y of the Doukhobors before they came, out of i n t e r e s t , and had known the conditions of t h e i r leadership under Peter the Lordly V e r i g i n and under Peter the Second, as a resident i n Saskatchewan. He knew t h e i r co-operative Jam f a c t o r y at B r i l l i a n t to have been a very f i n e operation. He f e l t they had not learned from experience with bad leadership, and were s t i l l l i s t e n i n g to people who t o l d them to do things but stayed s a f e l y out of the s u f f e r i n g . Asked who 'seemed to be the leaders when the Freedomites were i n Hope, he said Fanny Storgoff at that time was p r i m a r i l y a spokesman f o r other leaders (Joe Podovinikoff and Marie Schlakoff among these) but now he understood she had e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the group at Agassiz. (This i s borne out by our observations.) iSee note 3> p.14 22 When asked who el s e was involved with the Freedomites during t h e i r stay, Mr. Scherle r e p l i e d : "Most of the town didn't have much to do with i t " i n d i c a t i n g that Mr. Reid, the publisher, had more contact than any others, and the school a u t h o r i t i e s were also i n v o l v e d . 1 PUBLISHER AND EDITOR: HOPE "STANDARD" Mr. John Reid agreed with the remark made by Mr. Paul Scherle, and quoted to us by Mr. Green, the former's a s s i s t a n t : " I t ' s a l l very w e l l to t a l k , but when a t i g e r i s s i t t i n g on your l a p , you pet i t . " He said t h i s summarized the a t t i t u d e of Hope v i l l a g e toward the Sons of Freedom. Personal Attitude Mr. Reid had personal experience of "the trou b l e s " i n the Kootenays, having grown up i n Nelson, and been i n "the ba t t l e of Baker Street." A l g i r l on the s t a f f of the Nelson Da i l y News, where Mr. Reid worked, was grabbed by demonstrating Doukhobors and he went to help her. He was nearly dragged down by the women, who would not s t r i k e , but would c l i n g to a v i c t i m u n t i l he was trampled. However, when the Freedomites came to Hope, h i s former experience had made him r e a l i z e they could not be f o r c i b l y expelled, and he resolved not to provoke them i n the press. His e d i t o r i a l s , when they concern the trekkers at a l l , are reasonable and even defend t h e i r r i g h t s . Almost every week ISee Mr. Scherle's opinion of the townsfolk i n Appendix H.S.11 ( l a s t paragraph). This section i s based on two c o n f i d e n t i a l interviews, one taped. 23 h i s small but excel l e n t newspaper contained an a r t i c l e or two of news about them.l When the youth of the v i l l a g e went to the camp to s t i r up excitement, Mr. Reid warned Paul Scherle from experience that trouble must be headed o f f at once. If h o s t i l i t y were allowed t o a r i s e i t might cause the Freedomites to carry out bombings as i n the Kootenays, and he feared f o r the Fraser bridge. Therefore to stop the youth from t h e i r hazing and tormenting, he and Paul Scherle made a n i g h t l y p a t r o l of the camp as long as the Freedomites were i n Hope. They caught the c h i l d r e n of some well-known c i t i z e n s and threatened to take t h e i r pictures and publish them of they returned. They never d i d . Mr. Reid states that the teachers were hig h l y impressed with the a b i l i t i e s and behaviour of the ch i l d r e n of the Sons of Freedom. He s a i d h i s own experience i n the past also impressed him with the close family r e l a t i o n s h i p s and respect f o r elders f e l t even by t h e i r teenagers. When young people i n town took out the Freedomite young people, they were back to the camp by 9 p.m., the self-imposed curfew time f o r a l l Freedomites while i n Hope. Poli c e While they were i n town, i n order to avoid provoking them the "D" squad had l i t t l e contact with them. ITh.e. Conporal-in-^ e e Appendix H.S.(passim) p a r t i c u l a r l y H.S.2, H.S.3, H.S.8, H . S . l l , and H.S.14. 2See interview with P. Scherle(above) section "Attitudes." -^Appendix H.S.3. See also section "Schools"(below) 2 / + Charge, stayed i n h i s headquarters and sent out others whom they would accept more r e a d i l y . Asked why there had been t h i s change i n the t a c t i c s of confrontation by the law, which had been so obvious during the time i n the Kootenays when arrests were r i f e , he f e l t i t followed the '.'about face" of the Attorney-General's Department a f t e r the blockade at Bromley f a i l e d to get support from the p u b l i c . We discussed t h i s and concluded that t h i s blockade had been b l u f f , i n i t i a t e d at a lower l e v e l , which embarrassed the Attorney-General, and that he was only too glad to abandon it."*" Reid f e l t i t was l i k e the Kent Municpality's p r o h i b i t o r y By-law, which was a bold b l u f f that could not succeed, and has had to be abandoned. Welfare and Economy Mr. Reid t o l d us about the arrangements f o r S o c i a l Assistance through the Salvation Army at the rate of $10 a month per person, which are outlined elsewhere. This followed the " s i t - i n " by a number of the Freedomite women and chil d r e n at the S o c i a l Welfare o f f i c e i n Chilliwack. This brought up t h e i r constrasting r e l a t i o n s with Hope, which were c o r d i a l . He pointed out that, l i k e everyone, these people respond very w e l l to kindness. They spent 'between e i g h t y - f i v e and one hundred thousand d o l l a r s i n Hope. The presence of old-fashioned large b i l l s at the banks showed that they were using up long-term savings, and they were i n genuine need of money by the time they l e f t . 3 •*-See (above) notes 1 and 2, p.12 2See notes 2 and 3, p.l8> also I. Foerster (another chapter i n t h i s Thesis) 3Appendix H.S.I ( l a s t para.) H.S.5, H.S.12. 25 E f f e c t on the Sect He mentioned that he and Paul Scherle v i s i t e d them twice i n Vancouver a f t e r they l e f t , and f e l t i t was a good experi-ence f o r them to be i n the b i g c i t y , out of Krestova and s i m i l a r v i l l a g e s f o r the f i r s t time i n many years. He f e l t that the c h i e f fomenters of the unease among the Freedomites \vere not those who l i v e d i n the camp. The F r a t e r n a l Council was suspected of keeping the pot b o i l i n g , and the blame attached by Freedomites to Lebedoff was not e n t i r e l y valid."'" Mr. Reid also a t t r i b u t e d "the troubles" to the poor guidance they received from i r r e s p o n s i b l e leaders. Like everyone who meets them, he expressed admiration f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y to survive and to keep clean i n the face of conditions on the trek, and i n t h e i r Agassiz camp. He f e l t that Hope 1s treatment of the Freedomites rested on the town's w i l l i n g n e s s to take these people on t h e i r own merits, and not on past reputation i n the negative reports i n I n t e r i o r newspapers. His own treatment of t h e i r coming, which might have been much more prejudiced i n a man who had twice been beaten during demonstrations i n Nelson, was 2 an example to a l l townspeople of f a i r n e s s and common sense. R.C.M.P. Detachment Being curious about the r o l e of the p o l i c e , we intern-viewed the head of the l o c a l R.C.M.P. detachment. He had no d i r e c t dealings with them, as the "D?*' squad was i n charge, from the time of the 1-See section "Latest History" i n Chap. "The Freedomites and the Trek" -(above) 2 Personal interview with two of the Authors. 26 Bromley barricade u n t i l they l e f t Hope f o r Vancouver. They were seen as no problem to the P o l i c e , who had n a t u r a l l y been a b i t apprehensive, but found them co-operative and q u i e t . They were i n f a c t h e l p f u l to the economy of the town, i n the opinion of the Sergeant. The only incident causing anxiety occurred when "some of the town bucks drove thru the camp to see the Sons of Freedom g i r l s . " The camp objected and the youths were persuaded to d e s i s t . The detachment head had only the highest praise f o r Paul Scherle i n h i s handling of the problem. He was aware that there were some who c r i t i c i z e d him f o r "going out to them" and l e t t i n g them use the municipal Coquihalla campsite but the general v i l l a g e a t t i t u d e was favourable to Scherle and t o l e r a n t of the Freedomites.1 HEALTH Camp Health Conditions Dr. A.S. A r n e i l 2 had.regularly v i s i t e d both campsites of the iFreedomites i n the course of his duties as Medical O f f i c e r of Health. There was no problem i n the Coquihalla campsite u n t i l r a i n swelled the r i v e r to washout proportions. The s a n i t a t i o n was twice inspected by the s a n i t a r i a n and once by himself and was good. They kept themselves extremely clean and well-washed, established t h e i r own garbage c o l l e c t i o n , had only one t e n t - f i r e (which was not s e r i o u s ) , and no r e a l hunger except f o r one hunger-striker, an e l d e r l y woman.^ The Children 1 I b i d . 2 M e d i c a l O f f i c e r of Health, Chilliwack. See Appendix H.S.5. 3See Appendix H.S.6, H.S.14. 27 were w e l l cared f o r , and t h e i r teeth were better than normal, t h e i r parents having made better use of d e n t i s t r y . There was next to no i l l n e s s , c e r t a i n l y no epidemics, a l i t t l e measles w i t h i n c o n t r o l , and very l i t t l e pneumonia.-'- The same applied when they moved to the more comfortable Seventh-Day Adventist camp, where unfortunately the septic tank was overloaded i n f r e e z i n g weather, causing a need to evacuate p them near the time they l e f t . However, they were not forced out, though they were often asked t o move on. Interactions Like Paul Scherle, Dr. A r n e i l found them most co-operative i n a l l h i s demands or requests. They were apparently l e d by Marie Shlakoff. The t a l k of famine was a figurehead. They had many p o s i t i v e features: they brought money to the v i l l a g e , caused no trouble such as crime or s h o p l i f t i n g , they w i l l i n g l y r e g i s t e r e d the c h i l d r e n f o r school, perhaps out of fear of t h e i r being taken from them, but there was no need for c h i l d protection casework at any time. The doctors of Hope gave them good se r v i c e , and were not f u l l y paid. They s t i l l use some of these doctors, although most go to Chilliwack. A s p e c i a l c l i n i c set up i n the h o s p i t a l basement was f u l l y covered under B.C.H.I.S. or other government grant, though i t d i d not have a heavy demand.-^ He said the complaints of poor treatment had not come from i l b i d . H.S.12. 2 I b i d . H.S.13. 3 l b i d . H.S.I, H.S.5. 28 Freedomites, but from Vancouver newspapers, Church groups, who brought supplies which apparently were not needed, and so on."*" He believed the v i l l a g e had given them clo t h i n g (blankets from c i t i z e n s - author.) They received food supplies from Krestova, and there was coming and going between the two places, 5 per cent of the huts being padlocked and un-occupied while t h e i r inhabitants were on t r i p s back to the Kootenays. This was during the end of November and i n December. Personal Assessment He had had some previous experience with the group from v i s i t i n g Krestova where the c h i l d r e n were cared f o r by a l l members of the v i l l a g e , as were the aged. While there was easy "divorce," t h i s d i d not bother the c h i l d r e n , because they received communal care. They were not militantly-minded people, and seldom d i d violence i n t e n t i o n a l l y , but they had a long-standing grievance against the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, going back to t h e i r o r i g i n a l settlement scheme i n Saskatchewan. Their peculiar habit of nudism derived from working i n the nude, and they greeted each other by s t r i p p i n g , showing 3 t h e i r p r i s t i n e condition. He f e l t they were a matriarchal society. He f e l t the New Denver School had been the best thing ever done f o r the c h i l d r e n . ^ l l b i d . H.S.5. 2This idea has come up i n interviews with independent Doukhobors by the Author as w e l l . 3The strong r o l e of women as leaders i s apparent, from the beginning i n Russia to the present i n Agassiz. (Author) 4-Personal interview with two of the Authors. 29 SCHOOLS We interviewed the Superintendent of Schools f o r the D i s t r i c t , Mr. E. Thorstensen, whose f i l e on the c h i l d r e n was most enlightening. He had taught Freedomites before, when Michael (Archangel) V e r i g i n and J. Podovinikoff and some members of the F r a t e r n a l Council had set up a colony at H i l l i e r s , on Vancouver Island. At the time of the Trek he had been on vacation and had gone out to see the marchers on t h e i r way to the Lower Mainland. The communities en route had f e l t concern.1 Princeton could not accommodate the c h i l d r e n who applied f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n at i t s schools, so they were kept from getting on the school bus. This may have been an a d d i t i o n a l cause behind t h e i r confinement at Bromley campsite.2 Request f o r Education When they descended to Hope, the town • chairman was c r i t i c i z e d f o r allowing them to stay i n the town's campsite, but t h e i r o r i g i n a l stay was t o be short.^ I t grew of necessity,^ 4- and the parents of the Freedomite c h i l d r e n approached the School Board asking to have t h e i r c h i l d r e n allowed to attend the schools. Two motives were seen by the townfolk i n t h i s novel request: 1. A desir e to adhere to regulations while out of t h e i r own l(Keremeos' Chamber of Commerce i s rumoured to have talke d of organizing a town guard.) 2chapter on "The Freedomites and the Trek" - note 1, p.11 and note 1, p.12 (above). 3Appendix H.S.I. 4lbid. H.S.5. 30 community, a r i s i n g from f e a r of the possession of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by c h i l d welfare a u t h o r i t i e s or the truant o f f i c e r (as i n the . New Denver School s i t u a t i o n . ) 2. A c u r i o s i t y to t e s t the s i n c e r i t y of school a u t h o r i t i e s as providers of education when presented with t h e i r a c t u a l co-operation. Sanction This request f o r education required r e f e r r a l to the P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , who immediately advised the l o c a l board to co-operate with the parents, and promised f i n a n c i a l assistance. Dr. E n g l i s h , the Deputy Minister, was chairman of the "Deputy M i n i s t e r s ' Committee on Doukhobor A f f a i r s , " and was kept posted d a i l y . ^ The f i n a n c i n g came from interdepartmental t r a n s f e r s of funds, and was to be handled by extra grants to 1963 and 1964 budget i n the School D i s t r i c t . The arrangements were made by the School Board quickly, and were revised i n the l i g h t of changing s i t u a t i o n s . Numbers There were t h i r t y c h i l d r e n of high school age, who were q u i c k l y integrated completely i n t o e x i s t i n g classes at the high school. Classes began October 3rd. This added to the already crowded s i t u a t i o n . Enrolment i n grade 7 increased from 96 to 111, i n grade 8 from 99 to 109, i n grade 9 from 94 to 99, making t o t a l enrolment r i s e from 485 to 515. 1There i s a very appreciative note from the Deputy Attorney-General f o r "the e f f o r t s which (the) Board has made i n a s s i s t i n g with t h i s community problem, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s s i s t i n g these c h i l d r e n to receive an education. He f u r t h e r commends the Board f o r i n t e g r a t i n g the high school c h i l d r e n , and wishes the same could be done as f a r as possible f o r elementary p u p i l s . 31 E x t r a teacher time was required to bring the students (not previously-attending school i n Autumn 1962) up to the l e v e l of other students. The p r i n c i p a l commented that despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s "these students are well-behaved and co-operative." He f e l t that t h e i r attendance record was adversely a f f e c t e d by t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 1 We learned that they had not objected to the opening exercises i n v o l v i n g the singing of the n a t i o n a l anthem, but had stood s i l e n t l y . They were w e l l - l i k e d by t h e i r fellow students, making many fri e n d s among them, and learning of the homelife of Canadians at f i r s t - h a n d by v i s i t s to t h e i r f r i e n d s ' homes. One parent discovered that h i s c h i l d had absented himself from school, and enforced h i s attendance. School d i s t r i c t records i n d i c a t e names of 99 elementary l e v e l c h i l d r e n who r e g i s t e r e d on 2nd October, 1962, as w e l l as the high school c h i l d r e n . 2 Among p o s s i b i l i t i e s thought of was the bussing of 10 c h i l d r e n 3 miles to S i l v e r Creek, 33 to Yale 20 miles away, and 19 to St. Elmo about 16 miles away, but instead, a l l were accommodated i n Coquihalla Elementary School at Hope and l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d to the Seventh-Day Adventist Camp as a school, before the whole Freedomite group moved there.3 The l o c a l schooling of the children avoided the considerable cost of bus transportation to r u r a l schools, as w e l l as providing i n a xSchool Board F i l e "D", item 5. 2 I b i d . Item 1. 3 I b i d . Items 2,3,8 and 12 32 more humane manner a f a c i l i t y close to t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Arrangements The f i r s t arrangement f o r the elementary pupils was an afternoon-evening s h i f t . 1 This caused problems f o r the regular teachers, who needed the rooms f o r preparation of next day's classes, and together with the anxiety of some Freedomite mothers about t h e i r children's coming home i n the dark, t h i s l e d the School Board to arrange to t r a n s f e r the s p e c i a l school to the Seventh-Day Adventist campsite, i n the l a t t e r h a l f of October. An announcement dated 31 October, 1962, on the letterhead of School D i s t r i c t number 32 (Fraser Canyon) Hope, B.C., reads: "Announcement of Day School f o r the Sons of Freedom. The Board of School Trustees has rented accommodation to place the Elementary-aged c h i l d r e n of the Sons of Freedom i n Day School. Units have been rented i n the l o c a l Seventh-Day Adventist Camp and regular Day School w i l l commence at 9.00 a.m. and dismiss at 3.00 p.m. on Thursday, November 1st, 1962, and each day thereafter, Monday through Friday of each week. As these are regular day sessions, arrangements should be made accordingly. The c h i l d r e n w i l l have a one hour recess during the lunch hour. (12.00-1.00 p.m.)".2 The b u i l d i n g s used at the Saventh-Day Adventist Campsite included the school b u i l d i n g , the'Dorcas b u i l d i n g , Business o f f i c e , Home Mission b u i l d i n g and a recreation b u i l d i n g f o r s h e l t e r on r a i n y days f o r games, •See Appendix H.S.I. School Board F i l e "D", Items 8 and 12. 33 recess and noon. There had to be heating arrangements made i n some of these b u i l d i n g s . The immediate cost of t h i s move, f o r renovations to the b u i l d i n g s and f o r necessary equipment, was $650:00, and there were continuing costs f o r j a n i t o r i a l , maintenance, heating and other ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e services, as w e l l as the teachers' s a l a r i e s . T e a c h e r s who had known the Doukhobors before wrote i n , o f f e r i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s , but the need was met from the r e l i e v i n g s t a f f i n the d i s t r i c t . This o was thought wisest as the duration of stay was expected to be very short. None of these costs came out of the school taxes of Hope and d i s t r i c t c i t i z e n s . The S.D.A. Camp School was as s a t i s f a c t o r y as the one at Coquihalla school, to judge from the attendance records.3 In each case, attendance began at a high l e v e l i n r e l a t i o n to r e g i s t r a t i o n (80.9$ and 80$ respec-t i v e l y ) and f e l l to a more or l e s s stable average (72.6$ and 74.6$) i n the main c e n t r a l periods of each school. Integration The school a u t h o r i t i e s regretted that considerations of space prevented the i n t e g r a t i o n of elementary p u p i l s as the high school p u p i l s were integrated. The c h i l d r e n were easy to handle, one of them even being b r i l l i a n t . 4 The c h i l d r e n took part i n games, though three ) ^ b i d . Items 3 and 14. 2Appendix H.S.I. 3See Table S.R.I (below). ^Readiness of Freedomite c h i l d r e n to obey adult f i g u r e s has been described at length by Claudia Lewis i n the Hawthorn Report (p.lOSff). It i s s t i l l apparent i n the homelife of the trekking c h i l d r e n . 34 parents objected to ph y s i c a l education as m i l i t a r i s t i c i n nature. (Their c h i l d r e n , i n high school, v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e d anyway.) The high school c h i l d r e n attended assemblies and stood s i l e n t l y and unobtrusively through opening exercises. They inte r a c t e d w e l l with other p u p i l s , e s p e c i a l l y when they were i n small numbers; where t h e i r numbers were la r g e r they tended to remain together. They d i d not take much part i n af t e r - s c h o o l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . When they were asked t h e i r future ambitions, one c h i l d r e p l i e d "When I grow up I want to go to j a i l . " 1 The school superintendent asked one of the leading spokesmen, whether i n three months' experience anyone i n town had regimented the Freedomites, as they always claimed Canadians imposed our cu l t u r e upon them, and the Freedomite r e p l i e d "No. I f t h i s trek does nothing else, i t w i l l teach my people they can l i v e with the re s t of you." Origins The school records provide an i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o the places of o r i g i n of the c h i l d r e n , g i v i n g us some index of where the o r i g i n a l trekkers came from i n the Kootenays.3 There were four c h i l d r e n from Pass Creek from two f a m i l i e s , f i v e from Winlaw from four f a m i l i e s , four from Passmore from three f a m i l i e s , eight from Perrys Siding from f i v e f a m i l i e s , fourteen from Grand Forks from nine f a m i l i e s , ten from Thrums from eight f a m i l i e s , f i f t y - s i x from Crescent V a l l e y from perhaps t h i r t y -i n t e r v i e w with the Author. 2 l b i d . 3School Board F i l e "D", item 19. 35 eight f a m i l i e s , and two from Nelson from one family, with one each from O l i v e r , Appledale and Slocan C i t y . While they were i n Hope there must have been very few permanent returns to the Kootenays, because the schools there d i d not request any Pupil's Record cards. Attitudes There was a determined e f f o r t on the part of the School Board to avoid playing i n t o any h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s toward education among the Freedomites. No p u b l i c i t y was allowed, and a l l transactions were handled very d i s c r e e t l y . There was one occasion i n Hope when some Freedomite spokesmen who had been i n v i t e d to a service club meeting were rather c l o s e l y questioned, but otherwise there seems to have been a t a c i t agreement on the part of the power-structure and a l l opinion-makers to avoid provocation. SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICE One person had a unique r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Freedomites, during t h e i r stay i n Hope, and he ggain has t h i s r o l e now. Major Powell, i n charge of the Salvation Army C i t a d e l i n Chilliwack, acts f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Welfare Department as i t s agent i n dealing with the Freedomites. This developed out of a request by the P r o v i n c i a l Government to Major Powell when the Freedomites a r r i v e d at Hope, i n regard t o any s u f f e r i n g i n the Coquihalla Campsite. With some apprehension he v i s i t e d them, but h i s i n q u i r i e s and examination could discover no p r i v a t i o n . 2 Interview with the Author. 2 T h i s f i n d i n g i s corroborated by the findings of other C h r i s t i a n welfare workers who v i s i t e d the Coquihalla Campsite at about the same time. See Appendix H.S.I and H.S.5. 36 He v i s i t e d the camp several times i n October, but could detect no obvious need; he l e f t h i s name i n case i t should a r i s e . He states that he discussed the Kootenays with them, having come from Nelson himself, and s t i l l having r e l a t i v e s there i n business, who had kept him up to date on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of the c i t y and the Freedomites, which had been unpleasant. C r i s i s On December 18th, fourteen Sons of Freedom women and c h i l d r e n conducted a " s i t - i n " demonstration i n the Chilliwack S o c i a l Welfare O f f i c e , claiming S o c i a l Allowance as a r i g h t . 1 Rather than e v i c t them v i o l e n t l y at closing-time the R.C.M.P., S o c i a l Welfare o f f i c i a l s and Major Powell conferred h u r r i e d l y , contacted both S o c i a l Welfare and Salvation Army headquarters, and Major Powell was i n s t r u c t e d by both sources to issue food vouchers where need was proven, and to b i l l the P r o v i n c i a l Government. 2 P r o v i s i o n He took names that night and the next day, and l a t e r v i s i t e d the Camp to set up a proper r o s t e r . Fourteen r e g i s t e r e d 18th December, t h i r t y on 20th December and t h i r t y more on 29th December. The P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s authorized the issue of any amount up to the regular portion of S o c i a l Allowance given for food ( i . e . $34 per si n g l e ! l b i d . H.S.12. 2The r e a c t i o n of Hope c i t i z e n s toward t h i s "makeshift" arrangement has been discussed i n the Interview with the V i l l a g e Chairman (above)-see notes 2 and 3, p.18. The publisher of the paper expressed s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s . A main objection i s that the Government i s admitting i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to provide, but "dragging i n " a good organization un-n e c e s s a r i l y . 37 person per month, with a s l i d i n g scale upward for f a m i l i e s . ) At t h i s time he decided a grant of a f l a t rate of $10 per applicant per month was appropriate;-'- t h i s was l a t e r increased to $15 f o r f a m i l i e s . He said he d i d not wish to encourage them to remain i n Hope, but rather to r e t urn to Krestova or go on to Vancouver. At f i r s t the vouchers were non-specific as to where they could be spent, but the Freedomites tended t o favour c e r t a i n stores, so a r o t a of stores was i n s t i t u t e d , spreading the business around. As the numbers grew, he began using forms almost i d e n t i c a l with the S o c i a l Welfare Department's, and to take r e g i s t r a t i o n s i n groups of t h i r t y , followed by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of need. At t h i s time he thought there were at l e a s t 1500 Freedomites at Hope. Not a l l of them had been r e g i s t e r e d f o r t h i s form of S o c i a l Assistance before they departed f o r Vancouver i n mid-January. Major Powell expressed concern that people had the misconception that the Salvation Army was using charity-donated funds to help the Sons of Freedom group. There had been withdrawal of some support i n the area when the annual Red Shield appeal was made. He f e l t people should understand i t was p r o v i n c i a l revenue that was i n use, and that as a person who understood the Freedomites and was not overly sentimental toward them he was protecting the taxpayers by h i s c a r e f u l use of these f u n d s . 2 1See Appendix H.S.12. 2Interview with the Author. See also I. Foerster i n another chapter of t h i s t h e s i s . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS SUMMARY Certain f a c t s emerge from t h i s study. Perhaps the most f a s c i n a t i n g i s the town of Hope's unthreatening response to the a r r i v a l of the Freedomites i n t h e i r midst. Other towns had been h o s t i l e i n the past, from Saskatchewan where the Freedomites arose as a s t r a i n of world-negating l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t e r s of Verigin's l e t t e r s , through the long h i s t o r y of Kootenay "troubles" to the injunctions b a r r i n g entry i n t o Agassiz and Chi l l i w a c k . But Hope accepted them as people, and was rewarded with good behaviour. There were several c r i s e s i n which the town's response might have been very d i f f e r e n t . The f i r s t was the request f o r schooling, which was met by prompt and e f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n . This could have evoked anxiety about the p o s s i b i l i t y of a protracted stay, and indeed there i s the note of t h i s i n the newspaper at the ti m e , 1 but the f e e l i n g of panic was co n t r o l l e d and suppressed by the School Board and the Publisher. Again when some youths of the town attempted to harrass the campers there was a quick, d e c i s i v e and e f f e c t i v e handling of t h i s without the use of the po l i c e , by the V i l l a g e Chairman, Paul Scherle, and the Publisher, John Reid. Collaborating with the campers these two maintained a n i g h t l y v i g i l , and thus set a tone of respect f o r j u s t i c e to m i norities which the town accepted. Appendix H.S.I. 39 When the senior governments got i n t o a wrangle about whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y these problem-people were, the town c o u n c i l and business-men, under Scherle's leadership, made common cause with the Freedomites by sending a busload of them to V i c t o r i a , thus reminding the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s that t h i s was not an administrative abstract, but the .suffering of r e a l people. Then when the campsite was flooded, instead of saying "We t o l d you so, now move on" there was a genuine concern f o r t h e i r welfare, and the Seventh-Day Adventists opened t h e i r hearts and campsite and took them i n . The same s p i r i t was shown l a t e r when an e v i c t i o n order was held back because there were too many s i c k c h i l d r e n i n the camp to move them.^ One can also c i t e the sympathetic response to t h e i r economic needs by the townsfolk, who offered them as much work as they could, and were very pleased with t h e i r craftsmanship and d i l i g e n c e . They also gave some material assistance i n t h e i r need, i n the form of foodstuffs and blankets. But the prime d i f f e r e n c e l a y i n the attitudes of the town's leaders, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Paul Scherle, the chairman. He i s a unique blend of cool -ness, common sense, and great human warmth. His ex c e l l e n t handling of t h i s s i t u a t i o n has been praised by every leader we met, and every resident we spoke t o . This sentiment i s fu r t h e r echoed by the Freedomites themselves, to whom he i s a tru s t e d beacon of l i g h t i n a dark sea of prejudice. He, i f anyone, could help them t o accept c i v i c authority. Appendix H.S.13. 40 CONCLUSIONS We have seen the mutual impact of two communities, one i n an immature state of organization and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , xvith the attendant p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to fantasy, fear, and panic and acting-out behavior, coming to another with a high degree of organization and c o d i f i e d behaviour, and mature, secure leadership. We have observed the mature so c i e t y trans-f e r r i n g i t s ethos to the l e s s mature, not by a d i d a c t i c pose but by be-having according to i t s own highest i d e a l s , and thus being a t t r a c t i v e i n the eyes of the weaker, disorganized society, which emulated i t i n areas of behaviour where i t had l i t t l e experience. The clue to t h i s process i s found i n the at t i t u d e s of the leaders of the s e t t l e d community: "Make the best of i t t r e a t people l i k e people" (Scherle), and to take the Freedomites on t h e i r own merits, not on past reputation (Reid), meet t h e i r demands s e r i o u s l y and give them the highest standard of service possible, without undue p u b l i c i t y (Thorstensen). These leaders found w i l l i n g support on the part of the majority of the residents,1 who r e f l e c t e d t h e i r e t h i c s i n dealing with the v i s i t o r s . 2 That t h i s warm-hearted response following an open-minded meeting was reciprocated by the Freedomites i s apparent from t h e i r compliance,-^ and the growing iSee P. S c h e r l e 1 s L e t t e r to the E d i t o r , Appendix H.S.10. As witness the accounts of employment, material a i d and h o s p i t a l i t y being offered by o l d and young a l i k e ; e.g. Appendix H.S.3; " V i l l a g e Chairman-Economics; Town Relations" (above); "Publisher & Editor-Welfare & Economics" (above). ^See (above) " V i l l a g e Chairman-Responses"; "R.C.M.P. Detachment." 41 genuine a f f e c t i o n towards the residents of Hope. 1 I t i s evident from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and f i n d i n g s that the Sons of Freedom Sect i s now i n a frame of mind to observe and emulate the highest behaviour-patterns of democratic Western communities, where these are apparent from the actions of leaders and populace with whom they come i n contact. This informal community education i s acceptable, and does not threaten the Sect, so i t avoids the evocation of negative and r e -gressive behaviour. By t r e a t i n g these people with equality, j u s t i c e , and some warmth, the so - c a l l e d "problem" i s i n a p o s i t i o n to be solved. A l l behaviour that tends to i s o l a t e , stigmatize, and herd together these people i s to be avoided. In p a r t i c u l a r they need gradually to learn t h a t the governments of t h i s Province and Country can be just and considerate i n ' t h e i r dealings with them. ^•See Appendix H.S.4, H.S.6, H.S.9, H.S.12, H.S.14. TABLE S.R.-I ATTENDANCE RECORDS F r i . Night 12.10.62 Total Gp.l Gp.2 Gp.3 Gp.4 Gp.5 Gp.6 102/126 12/19 17/23 21/24 25/28 11/11 16/21 Mon. 15.10.62 » 101/126 10/19 18/23 22/24 27/28 10/11 14/21 Tues. 16.10.62 " 92/129 11/20 16/23 19/24 23/30 8/11 15/21 Wed. 17.10.62 " 99/129 13/20 18/23 20/24 24/30 9/11 15/21 Thurs. 18.10.62 95/129 14/20 16/23 19/24 23/30 10/11 13/21 F r i . 19.10.62 « 88/129 12/20 14/23 21/24 24/30 7/11 10/21 Mon. 22.10.62 " 94/129 13/20 17/23 22/24 23/30 8/11 11/21 Tues. 23.10.62 " 98/129 14/20 18/23 23/24 26/30 6/11 11/21 Wed. 24.10.62 » 91/129 12/20 17/23 21/24 24/30 5/11 12/21 Thurs. 25.10.62 " 93/129 14/20 17/23 22/24 24/30 5/11 11/21 Wed. 31.10.62 " 76/130 12/20 13/22 18/26 20/30 4/11 9/21 Thurs. Day 1.11.62 104/130 19.5/20 18/22 24.5/26 23/30 8/11 11/21 F r i . 2.11.62 » 103/130 16/20 19/22 25/26 25/30 6/11 12/21 Tues. 6.11.62 » 96.5/130 13.5/20 21/22 18/26 27/30 6/11 11/21 Wed. 7.11.62 " 95/130 14/20 18/22 23/26 24/30 5/11 11/21 Thurs. 8.11.62 98/130 16/20 19/22 22/26 24/30 6/11 11/21 F r i . 9.11.62 » 99/130 16/20 18/22 23/26 24/30 6/11 12/21 Thurs. 15.11.62 " 93/133 13/21 15/23 22/27 24/30 7/11 12/21 F r i . 16.11.62 " 95.5/133 14/21 18/23 22/27 22.5/30 8/11 11/21 Note: In each case f i g u r e s f o r attendance are expressed as a f r a c t i o n of f i g u r e s f o r current r e g i s t r a t i o n i n the c l a s s (or t o t a l ) . M O P E . S T A N D A R D 1 O 0 4 . !00 More Star* ScAoo/ Freedomites Leaving But Date Uncertain Sons of Freedom camped at Coquihalla campsite are still planning to move on towards the Mountain Prison in spite of a court injunction preventing them from entering Kent municipality, but at press time they had no definite plan for departure. On Wednesday a group In eluding "Big Fanny" Storgoff and Marie Schlakoff made - a trip to the Popkum area, just across the bridge from Agassiz. ! They found suitable property for camping on a farm near the Cheam Marl lime quarry, but were unable to contact the i owner. Bob Cattermole, of Chil-liwack. only 78 of these were among the 116 registered. At one time he had been told to expect 160 — so eventual registration was still an open question. At present there are four classes, Grade Five and Six t a u g h t by George Martin, Grade Four taught by Mrs. A. Soltis, Grade Three taught by ,. Mrs. Margaret Jones and Grade Told on their return of the 1 Q n e ^ ^ 0 taught by Mrs. success of Kent's application j£elen Fuchs. for an injunction, they said they. _, . . . . . . . . , did not understand the legal L children w.H have only technicalities involved and could * w o h ° u r s schooling a day. from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m., and the special classes are set up on a night-school basis, not as a not afford a lawyer, .but they intended to keep moving closer to t^ he. prison. regular school. It is understood The court proceedings were t n e Department of Educa not a test of the validity of the Kent by-law barring the Free-domites and Mr. Justice Craig Munroe ruled that such a test tion will pay the bill. Subjects to be taught are arithmetic, reading, spelling All the teachers hold certifi-cates and are experienced. They are local people who normally serve as substitute teachers. At,Jfce campsite comfort ap-peared: to have been restored after the heavy weekend rains. There were numerous plastic shelters over cooking and liv-ing areas as well as plastic covers over many of the tents. New arrivals over the weekend were reported to have swelled the number of campers to 1400. The Freedomites have now occupied the campsite for 11 days, although they had per-mission only for two. There has been no discussion of re-quiring them to move on, but must be made by Kent if the a n < ? w r J t i n S - . municlpaltty wishes the by-law . n o r ™ ] s c h ° o 1 d a * , s 4 y * to remlm effective. 1 h o u r s - e r e , s n o t e n o u g h T h e injunction establishes that the by-law is in effect unlil this court decision is attorney - general and t h e R.C.M.P. enforce it. Mr. Justice Munroe rebuked Attorney-General Robert Bon-ner for deciding not to enforce the by-law, saying that he' had wrongly assumed the role of a judge. classroom space to teach the Freedomite children during the day, and their parents would . , . t . j not agree to a school day from made and requires that the<| 4 t o % p S B a s i t w o u ^ h a v e kept the children away from home after dark. The children are supposed to be receiving instruction at the camp as well as in school. Most of the pupils are from either Crescent Valley Etesmen-itary School or Mount Sentinel On Wednesdayi afternoon 9 0 ^ ^ S e h o o , g o u t h Freedomite pupils registered I g l o c a i l ^ records w i n b e for classes at Coquihalla Ele- o b t a i n € d j ^ t h w U , te ^ v e n mentary School tests to make sure they are in J r ' " C i P l " ; ^ C ^ l , ^ their proper grades. Village Clerk Stuart Stearn states that they will not be allowed to stay indefinitely. Leaders say that they are running out of money, but bus-inesses report plenty of cus-tomers with no indication that they lack cash. Stories circu-lated on the weekend that : many of the Freedomites were; in hospital, but a check on I Tuesday showed that only, three had been admitted and one had been discharged ^atur-; day. i /* 116 had registered in advance but not all the 90 who actually showed up were among the 116. Previously there had been a list of 98 names submitted, but More than two dozen parents' accompanied the children when they came to school. The adults showed great interest in the classrooms and the instruction program. I t . - . I \9<o D O U K H O B O R C H I L D R E N , l ike their parents , show n o i l l e f f e c t s f r o m c a m p i n g out in t h e co ld ra iny weather e x p e r i e n c e d h e r e t h i s p a s t w e e k T h e sect is c a m p e d at C o q u i h a l l a P a r k , a n d a s c a n b e seen by th is p i c ture the c h i l d r e n v a r y i n a g e f r o m tots to t e e n s . C o n t r a r y to rumors , F r a s e r C a n y o n H o s p i t a l h a s o n l y a d m i t t e d thre^j?f_th« s e c t s i n c e t h e y a r r i v e d h e r e S e p t . 2 9 D O U K H O B O R C A M P E R S are h e l p i n g to c l e a r awiay f a l l e n trees in C o q u i h a l l a c a m p s i t e as they cut up the waste wood to f eed c a m p f ires these co ld , wet days . H . «3. What Other Newspapers Are Saying In a slit trench under enemy shell - fire the white soldier doesn't climb out because his companion is a Negro. Injured in a car accident on a lonely stretch of road the white man doesn't stumble to the nearest house and turn away if the occupants have dark-colored skin. And many, many people think only of prayer when they are in trouble. Man writes of himself as a noble animal. But is he? He has been on earth since crea-tion and he has not yet learned how to live with his fellowman in peace and understanding. In the past few days the fin-ger of criticism has been point-ed at a segment of the popula-tion in tiie southern United States because of ugly racial discrimination incidents. But how many of the critics are themselves guilty of discrimi-nation against people of an-other race, color or creed? Here, in Canada, we have been witnessing a trek of Douk-hobors in British Columbia. Acting under instructions the R.C.M.P. th-ev up a road block to deprive these people of their right to travel on the Queen's Highway. One municipality passed a by'aw to forbid the trekking Doukhobors to enter. This is freedom and democracy as interpreted by some Cana-dians. Let us be honest enough to admit they are bald-faced acts of discrimination against the Doukhobors. Let us be very careful of throwing stones in glass houses in criticism of racial incidents in the southern United States. We hold no brief for the Sons of Freedom sect, of the Doukhobors in the acts that have\beeh committed against other people in violattfm of Canadian criminal law. We can agree that they might find a happier life in some other coun-. try. But the solution to the Doukhobors problem is not in persecution or acts of discri-mination. It is not to be found in setting up a type of concen-tration camp to take fathers and brothers away from wives and children. It is not to be found in roadblocks or ques-tionable bylaws that say: "This is our town; you can't come in." Hostility toward the Douk-hobors is apparent in remarks made by people in official posi-1 tions in government. From this; antagonism stems the b< lief t h a t Doukhobor spokesmen speak the truth when they say they are unable to establish a, line of communication . with; government officials to discuss! matters of controversy. • \ Our forefathers were able to reach agreement with the In-dians on the occupation of land,; the establishment of reserva-! tions and rights to be recog-nized in law. In this modern age of wise men it appears to be impossible (or is it reluc-tance?) to reach similar agree-ment with the Sons of Free-jdom sect. They adhere to what jthey call "God's laws" as found j in the Bible. Like any other religious sect they are entitled to their beliefs. Like other re-ligious sects that must expect , to obey the dictates of crimi-nal law. But civil law in regard to land, education and such matters may be in conflict with some of their beliefs. This does not necessarily make them less Christian than other people liv-ing in Canada. In fact, in their family lives and the upbringing of the children they may be m o r e Christian than thou-sands of their critics. The answer to the Doukho-bor problem is not in persecu-tion and acts of discrimination. It is not to be fourid in break-ing up families and filling the jails. The answer • might be found in reasonable discussion with the Doukhobors on the establishment of a type of re-servation or settlement where they can live in peace without government fores; and inter-ference to make them confor-mists. Is it not true that Douk-hobor "incidents" followed gov-ernment interference? Is it not true there has been antagon-ism toward the Doukhobors a) most from the day of their ar-rival in Canada almost half a century ago? The solution calls for statesmanship of the high-est order but-ibasically it de-mand's recognition that they are - people. And people with many fine qualities that are demonstrated in family and community life.—The Sudbury Star. H a v e. \ i C^.\%2 Sons of Freedom Itonlfhobor children from- the ' Coquihalla campsite attending Coquihalla Elementary School t.this.. past week- -have wonjthe^pj^ises of their teachers and nave been U accepted by- other stu-at the school. ! "The Doukhobor children at-tend school from 4 p.iri. until 6 p.m. daily, and are. using the r e g u l a r classrooms at the school. School Principal Harold Car-law said that 116 registered last Wednesday, the (Brat day, and an additional 10 h&vte since registered. School attendance averaged about 101 students daily he said. . Subjects taught are arith-metic and ttie ta i lgate arts of reading, writing find-spelling. Mr. Car&w children w$&e mpjst 4, -gfe" said W^/Spfe*^! school with flUf , done, and if materta&ifife E ren bring-them. 1 ^ New Vamping fifr-law Block Sons' Plan to Move Into Chilliwack ! Sons of Freedom Doukhobors camped at Coquihalla campsite have again been blocked in their efforts to continue their western trek by a local by-law. Chilliwack Municipality has restricted the number of people who may tent on an acre of land to 15. Early this week, a scouting party from the local camp had selected apiece of government t ,j (-\ „ land within the Municipality of/ Chilliwack as the next camp-site for the trekers. Holes for •outside toilets were dug and the group was all set to move Wednesday with an advance party going ahead Tuesday. Chilliwack municipal officials said the advance party tried to set up outhouses ,in a prov-incial gravel pit of £ ,the Trans-Canada highway between An-nis Road and Ford ; Road. The site is two miles within the! eastern boundary of the muni-1 cipality and was only about 28 acres and . this would provide accommodation for less than a third of the Freedomites un-der the new by-law. At noon Wednesday, there was no indication at the camp that the sect planned any im-mediate move, but an R.C.M.P. plainclothes detail was keeping close watch on the camp. Questioned as to what the campers planned to do now, Mrs.* Florence (Big Fanny) Storgoff said a mass meeting would probably be called at the camp today to decide what the , sect's next move will be. Colder nights and the danger that sudden fall rains might swell the Coquihalla River to the point where it would flood the park, makes it essential \ that the sect move from the 1 campsite at the earliest possi-; ble date in the opinion of Vil-lage Chairman Paul Scherle. Sons Waiting to Hear Outcome of Injunction Case Sons of Freedom Douk-hobors camped at Hope's Coquihalla campsite appa-rently are waiting to see w h a t the outcome of Attorney - General Robert B o n n e r ' s application to have the injunction barring their entry into Kent muni-cipality dissolved at a hear-ing in the B. C. Supreme Court on Nov. 7. Meanwhile, many of the men and some of the wo-men are being employed in corn fields in the Chilli-wack and Agassiz areas. Spokesman said Wednes-day that no action is pre-sently planned until the result of the Nov. 7 hear-ing is known. However, it is reported that a mass meeting will be held Sun-day at the campsite, and some other plan of action may come from this meet-ing. TEMPERATURES Max. Min. Pre. Oct. 17 , . 89.2 36.1 Oct. 18 , 55.5 47.8 .34 Oct. 19 . . . . . . 58.6,,524 tr. Oct. 20 ., 57.2 52.1 .51 Oct. 21 , . 60.2 04.9 .30 Oct. 22 .02 Oct. 23 •% \«* . . 64.2 40.0 ..t we.-: Doukhobors Pray For Our Safety A group of about 35 of the over-1300 Doukhobors camped at Coquihalla campsite parad-ed down Wallace street about 9 a.m. Monday singing in Rus-sian. Mrs. Florence "Big Fannie" Storgoff, who was one of the group, told The Hope Standard that the parade was in memory of Peter (The Lordly) Verigin No. 1, who had died when a train was bombed on Oct. 29, 1924. Big Fanny said the parade was also to thank "the good people of Hope for their kind-ness to us here." She said the group had been praying that the "good people of Hope" would be safe from atomic bombs. Fanny herself, had tears in her eyes and many of the women and children had been crying, she said. Otherwise, the week passed without incident insofar as the Doukhobors are concerned. The children, however, did not go to school Monday, the anniver-sary of Verigin's death. School Board officials are en-deavoring to make other ar-rangements for classrooms for the children attending Coqui-halla Elementary between 4 and 6 p.m. f ht#E W\ Max.-:'Min. Oct. 24 64.9 43,9 Oct. 25 59.8 40.6 Oct. 26 55.9 48.7 Oct. 27 63.9 4}.l Oct. 28 66.8 464 Oct. 29 66.8 45.2 Oct. 30 60.1 40.2 IB M O R E ^ T A N D A R I J 14 No i / . i y ^ - i iie/fs Tighter B®£ Emrga%e Is m v a m p Sons. of Freedom Doukho-bors camped at Coquihalla •campsite here have been the subject of a number of exag-gerated, if not completely er-roneous, ' reports circulated I across national news media this week. Statements attributed to A. Reibin of Victoria, a Doukho-bor who is sympathetic to the Sons of Freedom, that there is disease and starvation at the camp here, are without founda-tion. Mr. Reibin is the man wjio came to Hope Nov. 4 with his station wagon loaded with clothes and food donated by Victoria church organizations and others: He visited the camp again last weekend. Village Chairman Paul Sche-rle visited the camp imme-diately after hearing the re-port Tuesday morning, and; found conditions there much I the same as before. (Cnt. on Page 4, 1st Sec. > Dr. A. S. Arniel Denies Reports ,(Cont. from Page 1, 1st Sect 1 The. Doukhobors themselves admit that their funds are fun-ning low and that food supplies are also getting low. ' Ma$.,«' 'Florence (Big Fanny) Stojjjjc&f and Mrs. Marie Shia ^ofr^told The Standard that some families are without money, but that, the group is assisting them by sharing what they have.' Fanny said that if there is a critical . shortage of food t hat the adults would have to fast and allow the children to have : most of the available food. The present shortage is not j that accute however. She did not suggest or mention any-thing about a hunger strike as! had been reported in radio and television newscasts. Dr. A. S. Arniel. M.B.. Ch.B., D.P.H., director of the Upper i Fraser Valley Health Unit, has 1 denied reports that pneumonia I and contagious disease and un-of Contagious Disease at Camp sanitary conditions exist in the j camp. Therfc have been no new I admissions of Doukhobors to* Fraser Canyon Hospital and' there are none in hospital now. Doukhobor elementary school children are attending school at special classrooms set up in t h e ' Seventh - day Adventist . camp here. Rumors of every description persist, but on investigation these are found to be without substance. A story that the Freedomites were building a meeting hall at the campsite were found to be false Wed-nesday. A 16 x 16 army tent had been put up as a meeting place. Mrs. Marie Sh'akoff said (Cont. on Page 5, 1st Sec.) j DENIES REPORTS ; i Cont. from Page 4, 1st Sec.) i that a radio report that Stipen-diary Magistrate H. Evans of Nelson had said the group was ready to move to South Ameri-ca was untrue. According to Mrs. Shlakoff, the Freedomites want to clear their name here before they contemplate any move from Canada. Spokesmen continue to ex-press the group's determination to move Westward as quickly as legal restrictions are re-moved to permit them to do ! so. They also appear deter-. mined that they will not return to the Kootenays. Meanwhile, the Freedomites continue to fortify their tents with cardboard and wood, and a big percentage of them now have stoves in their tents. Many of the stoves are made ; from discarded oil cans with 48-oz. juice cans shoved to-gether as chimneys. THE WEATHER • < Max. Min. Pre. Nov. 7 . . . . . . . 50.4 38.0 .54 Nov. 8 51.9 39.7 .23 Nov.-9' 47.8 37.4 .37 Nov.' 10 48.9 41.0 .34 Nov. 1% . . . . . . 46.8 47.1 .46 Nov. 12 49.0 34.5 .061 Nov! 13 . . . . v . 50.6 36.9 .10 •1..., T H E H O P E S T A N D A R D HOPE RRJTISH COLUMBIA W E D N E S D A Y . N O V E M B E R 28 1962 10c PI Remove Fasting Freedomite to Hospital Here Mrs. Taniii Rezansoff, 72-year-old member of the Sons of Freedom gioup camped at] the Seventh day Adventist campground here, was taken to Fraser Canyon Hospital at 4 p.m. Wednesday, when health authorities intervened in her 16-day fast because of her con-dition Dr. A. S. Arniel, director of! the Upper Fraser Vallej Health Unit, had earlier been granted a warrant to have Mrs. Rezan-soff apprehended to receive treatment for her own protec-tion under thi Mental Hospi-; lals Act The application was made be-' fore C. S. Davidson. Justice' of i the Peace who went with Dr. Arneil tr> sex- Mrs. Rezansoff before granting tin application.: At 4 p.m. she was moved from a cabin at the Holiday Motel to the hospital by ambu-lance. The warrant commits her to i J L d S f^ n d ^ F £ u r t h « ^ S F r a s e r C a n y o n H o s p i t a l a t 4 p m " W e d n e s d a y " S h e ~ w a s ^ ? -^IJ!"8 U 1 o n her 1 6 t h doy w i t h o u t food and fourth d a y w i t h o u t w a t e r , cal examination > '_ _ _ ' Mrs. Rezansoff was on her 16th day without food and her fourth day without water. M R S . T A N I A R E Z A N S O F F , 72, pictured h e r e w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r P a u l i n e , w a s m o v e d f r o m h e r m o t e l b e d t o Doukhobors Offer to Build New Home for Haywards for Free Donations to the fund set up here last week to re-establish the Don Hayward family, who lost everything when Texas Cieek flooded their home Nov. 19, are not coming in very fast. Only $128 has been contributed thts far. Village Chairman Paul Sche-rle said that six members of the Sons of Freedom group at t h e Seventh - day Adventist camp here had offered to as-sist the Haywards in cleaning up and repairing the damage done by the storm, free of charge. However, after surveying the damage, it is believed it is use-less to try to salvage anything from the home. Most of the yard has been washed away, along with part of the founda-tion under the house. The fam-ily's well is buried somewhere under gravel. It has now been suggested (Cont. from Page 4, 1st Sec.) lHH KHOBOR OFFER iCor.t From Page 1, 1st Sec.) that the famiK should build a new home on land they have leased about 100 yards further west. Once again the Doukhobors, who have many good carpen-ters in their group, have vo-lunteered to supply 30 to 50 men free to build another home for the Haywards. There is only one problem. Them isn't enough money to buy material. Mr. Scherle esti-mates that upwards of $500 will be needed to start the job. 0 0 r« Return Too Scherle Has Government Pledge To Help in Doukhobor Problem Village Chairman Paul Scherle returned" to Hope late Wednesday with provincial assurances that the Provincial government will do all it can to alleviate the problems at the Sons of Freedom camp here. After many hours of nego- (  tiation, the chairman succeed- j power to assist in solving the ed in getting government ot'fl-! problem. cials to agree that the village Mr. Scherle said that the should not be responsible for Provincial government was the Doukhobors. , still prepared to pay expenses He said that Deputy Attor-ney-General Gilbert Kennedy and Deputy Welfare Minister to send a delegation of the Doukhobors to Ottawa if the Doukhobors wish to carry their Ray Rickinson had told him i case to the Federal govern-that the provincial government! ment. would do everything in their : The 45 Freedomites. who loft S T A N D A R D , H O P E . BRITISH COLUMBIA here by bus Tuesday morning, returned on another bus Wed-| nesday, and their belongings were brought back on a truck, both paid for by the Provin-cial government. Mr. Scherle said that he could rest now that the bur-den of responsibility for the Freedomites camped here had been lifted off the shoulders of the Vi'.lage. Mr. Scherle, in company with Commissioner Henry Hockin, went to Victoria with 45 mem-bers of the Doukhobor sect : Tuesday morning, arriving at t h e Provincial Legislature buildings about 1:45 p.m. that afternoon. The^reedomites were trans-portenPin a bus chartered by Mr. Scherle, and paid for by donations from Hope business (Cont. on Page 4, 1st Sec.) WEDNESDAY, D E C E M B E R 5, 1962 Government Agrees to Help With Douk Problem (.Com. From Page 1, 1st Sec.) men. Mr. Scherle and Mr. Hoe-kin travelled in the la tier's sta-tion, wagon. Chairman Scherle and two of the Doukhobor women who made the trip on the bus met with Premier W. A. C. Bennett Tuesday afternoon, but appa-rently no solution to the prob-lem was found. Mr. TScherle was quoted in the daily press as saying'that the Premier cut the interview shoft when the Chairman said that if no action was taken Tuesday he would bring 1,000 more of the Freedomites to Victoria. The dailies said that Mr. Scherle said the premier was angered by this remark, but the premier, according to the dailies, denied this later. Meanwhile, life went on as usual at the Freedomite camp here. The Doukhobors did not appear to know what was going on in Victoria. ! Mr. Scherle spent a busy day! at home Monday answering en-1 quiries as to whether he would i take the Doukhobors to Victo- j ria and departures and ex-1 pected arrival times and so on. Late Monday afternoon, the Village Council received the following telegram from Attor-ney-General Robert Bonner: "Your various telegrams re Sons of Freedom received and appreciated Stop Understand government officials have at-tended your district resulting in usual local discussion held Stop Awaiting word Provincial Fire Marshal re fire hazard Stop Provincial health officials continue surveillance of situa-tion Stop Congratulations due your area for intelligent hand-ling of problem to date." This was the first response the Village had received to telegrams sent to Victoria over the previous two weeks. Mr. Scherle replied imme-diately, stating that he saw nothing in the attorney-gen-eral's telegram to indicate that any governmental action was planned to seek a solution to the problem posed by the 1300 Sons of Freedom staying in the Seventh-day Adventist sum-mer campground here. He con-cluded his telegram with the information that he had char-tered a bus and would leave Hope for Victoria at 8 a.m. Dec. 4, as announced earlier. Tuesday morning found the Freedomites gathered around the bus as the 45 volunteers prepared to go abroad. A brief scuffle occurred between Mrs. Florence (Big Fanny) Storgoff and a daily newspaper report-er. The reporter's camera was broken in the process. Commissioner Henry Hockin returned Tuesday night. rva>.ar 1-1 O P E ^ N L> A l < 0 77ie So/is o f Freedom Village Chairman Paul Scherle has taken a busload of Sons of Freedom Doukhobors to Victoria in an effort to get some action started on the problem posed by the group camped at the Seventh-day Adventist summer campgrounds here. In his first response to Village wires sent to him over d,he past two weeks, Attorney-General Robert Bonner concluded his message with the statement: "Congratulation* due your area for intelligent hand l ing of problem to date." Mr. Bonner, the Provincial Government and the Federal Government might well extend congratulations to this community. However, it is hardly fair for senior governments to expect that this little community can cope with this situation indefinitely. The Sons of Freedom have been most co-operative with officials in Hope, and are most appreciative of the manner in which they have been received here. The fact remains, however, Hope does not have accommodation avai lable to house these people under severe winter condit ions if such should come our way. Whatever , the merits of the Doukhobor's claims and government counter-claims, it must be clear to both sides that Hope had no par t in creating the problem and is no way equipped to solve it. Some may disagree w i t h what the C h a i r m a n and Council has done but no one can say that they sat on the i r backsides and did nothing. R e e v e S i m p s o n S u p p o r t s M o v e B y P a u l S c h e r l e Village Chairman Paul Sche-rle had the moral support of • municipal leaders in other ce.i-] tres when he carried the Douk-i hobor problem to Victoria j Tuesday. One of these, Reeve W. G. R. Simpson of Chilliwack Town ship expressed his support in a telegram Wednesday. This is what the telegram |said: "I want you to know that | we fully support your efforts ; to resolve the Sons of Freedom p r o b l e m . Transporting this | problem to Victoria is, in our opinion, a very reasonable so-lution." THE WEATHER Max. Min. Pre. Sn. Nov. 28 . . 38.3 30.2 Nov. 29 . 34.1 28.8 .69 tr. Nov. 30 . . 36.2 33.4 .72 6.3 Dec. 1 . . . 39.1 31.0 .06 1.5 Dec. 2 . . . 41.9 33.0 1.23 1.4 Dec. 3 . . . 39.0 34.3 .12 Dec. 4 . . . 40.0 33.3 .09 Visitors Probe Douk Problem Members of Hope's Village-Council had two'meetings last Saturday aliernoon with Van-couver Island people interested in the Doukhobor situation here. F i r s t meeting was with' Jamas Sadler of the Provincial : Welfare Department, who came | here at the request of the '• Attcirney-General's Department, to gather information about the situation. Second was with Mr. and Mrs. Charles Smith of Lasqueti Island. The Smiths had made | previous visits to Hope to visit j the Doukhobors. They brought I a plan to re-establish the Free- \ domites on the Island to the Council to get the reaction of the Commissioners. Council members made no comment on the p'an, but suggested the Smiths contact Victoria. The Editor, Hope Standard: Sir — In view of the publicity being given just now to the Doukhobors who are presently residing at Hope in the Yale Constituency which I represent in the legislature, I have the following comments to make: The Village Chairman Paul Scherle allowed the Doukho-bors to stop in Hope on Sept-ember 29 and they have resided ; at the Coquihalla Campsite' within the Village until Noy-t ember 19 when they were flood-ed but. After all this timettheee. is big excitement to g e t b u s -load of them to Victoria. j I have investigate*] to sonic extent the Doukhobor' situation and find that a good many of i these 'Doukhobors camped at Hope have'homes to go to and many of them left good jobs to come on this trek. Some, ofj course, did burn their homesj and have no place to which they can return, i think it is abundantly clear that the hard-ships the Doukhobors are en-during are self inflicted in order to get from our Society that which they could not ob-tain through regular channels. t ' I -it . J fe> o« « f-^it or I would say that it should be a responsibility of our So-4fe|y to look after these people ir they were in our Village camping as a result of some disaster beyond their control. However, these hardships that they are enduring with their women and children are, we must remember, self inflicted and their leaders and publicity • agent are trying • hard to get the sympathy of the general public. As I see it, these peo-ple on their trek, are demand-ing the release of those mem-bers o f their sect whS'are serv-ing time for their crimes. "Ehey are not willing to accept the rulings of juctice laid down by our courts which form the basis for our Society. Gross disrespect for our courts was demonstrated when attempts were made to blow up the (Cont. on Page 3, 2nd Sec.) (Lr C o A r'4 V r e , ^ i J r f 1/ P * LETTER OF THANKS (Cont. from Page 2, 2nd Sec.) Court House in the Kootenays during the hearings. The Doukhobors have con-sistently ' turned down accom-modation which has been of-fered to ' them in different areas. Those with homes as well as those without are stay-ing here under adverse condi-tions in order that they may receive sflpcial privileges. I further think that Mr. Scherle in assisting the Douk-hobors . is only aiding them in their endeavor to gain from the Government special assis-tance which would have to be paid for by the taxpayers. Aid-ing and abetting these people who are not willing to accept our laws and live in our Society as we ourselves' must do is not my idea of a solution to this problem. The burden on the taxpayers of this Province on behalf of the Doukhobors al-ready runs into many millions of dollars. As a representative of the people I do not feel justi-fied in requesting the Govern-ment further to assist these people when they are not wil-ling to assist themselves. If and when they go to their sep-arate homes and it is found that they require Socia', Assis-tance, they should receive it on exactly the same basis as any-one else. 1^  seems strange that the Health Officer rinds a haz-ardous sanitary condition when in fact these people have moved from an area where there were no septic tanks nor plumbing to an area where these facili-ties are available. And now Mr. Scherle has taken it upon him-self for reasons bvst known to himself to ship a busload of these people per week to Vic-toria. If I thought that moving the Doukhobor people to Victoria would solve the problem I would assist Mr- Scherle in this endeavour.. I believe tho proper solution to the immediate prob-lem would be for the Doukho-bors who have homes or who have friends with whom they can stay to go home or to their friends and for those who have not to atcept'what accommoda-tion is available. Those wiio have jobs should go back to their jobs and not expect the other .'•> working people of our Province to keep them. If other groups of people were to act j as do the Doukhobors we would i have chaos. If their problem is; that they have been misled byi their leaders then they should1 get busy and clean up this sit-uation and we should assist, them wherever possible in do : | ing so. t I. F: CORBETT, M.L.A. 1 V-l o p t - T A N L J f'\ K U -THE WEATHER Max. Min. Pre; Dec. 5 52.4 34.8 1.17 j Dec. 6 51.9 40.4 .48: Dec. 7 48.2 42.6 .70! Deo. 8 . . . . . . . 49.9 41.5 .02 Dec. 9 46.0 87.8 ! Dec. 10 42.6 38.2 ' Dec. 11 48.8 36.4 ' t-r \ Vic Freedomites Want Scherle To^^^tawaM^piem trovers^ oyer who shou|d aeeo|^p^y-'|^|^'' !^JP^4Qaa "4eieg^|^";to ,;0itawa to seek setting up<"6'f & cp&raasiQh; to iriveWgate the problems of this Doukhobor1 sect, i Four Doukhobors were select •ed to represent the group at meetings here over the week-end. The Freedoiaites also wanted Village' Chairman Paul Scherle to accompany them as an impartial observer. The Freedomites made their •desires known to Mr. Budd, executive assistant to Premier Bennett, in a series of tele-phone calls between Hope and Victoria Monday. The Provincial Government wanted Deputy Provincial Sec-retary Wallace to accompany the delegation, and would not agree to Mr. Scherle being sent. Reservations were made for the delegation on a plane leav-ing Vancouver .at .9:20 a.m. Tuesday, but no agreement ; foSf* delegates and one witness j was reached on who should chosen to go Stop The refusal | accompany the delegation and. to have a chosen witness by so the Doukhobors remained, group shows Bennett Govern-at the Seventh-day AdventistJ rrient insincere in offer Stop camp here with their bagsl'Our group likewise cannot un-packed, jderstand the Victoria Govern-; Asked if he would accomp-jnient's' refusal to see the dele-, any the Doukhobor delegation, I gates before departure to Oi-Mr. Scherle made it clear heftawa." would only go to Ottawa if'the The Freedomites say they Provincial Government felt h i s j h a v e received-no reply to this presence, would assist in s o l v - j ^ h a v e m a d e n o f u r t h e r mg the problem. He said he was much too busy with his business and Village affairs to tawa on another Doukhobor, matter, could be the witness toi negotiations that the Sons of! Freedom requested was not' favored because it was felt Mr. Evans would be too busy with the other matter to give suffi-j cient time to the delegation. | | However, the Doukhobors i held fast to their request that j Mr. Scherle accompany them and the plane left Tuesday without them. | At noon Tuesday, after sev-eral meetings, the Doukhobors sent the following telegram to the Provincial government. "Our group, the marching Doukhobors, are wondering about the delay of the delega-tfarife to Ottawa Stop There are be running off to Ottawa. A suggestion that Stipen diary Magistrate H. Evans of j Nelson," who is already in Ot-|' : f ; o -v 1 - .4 attemtps to contact the Prov-incial Government.,. Meanwhile, there is-' growing concern about the chances of freezing weather forcing the shut-off of water lines at the' Seventh-day Adventist camp hree. . ' ripper Fraser Valley Health Unit officials are keeping a close, check on conditions at the camp. W E D N E S D A Y . ' D E C E M B E R 1.2. .1962 T H E H O P E The Ediioi Sir • The \>pi:» for aniiii! suggest piously .Letters to the Editor H o p e Stan-rani: o.M. i! seems /is-;'.tii i-xyicrt? to' simple solu-.i tions. to the Doukhobor prob-. lem. "Thi y should be_sent back, to the Koo!eu.-.ys, by force*, if necessary." «ays one. This per- : son thinks little, if anything,j about such ci forceful act ion j being illegal. "They should go] back on thi ii- own to . their i hon'ii or their friends' homes! wheoee they came", says an-' other. Tills would suit me just' fine bin all the j.ivkkois I have! t«lke;i to >.uid I tun'e talked j (o a treat manyi say that, they| are not going back. "Unload ! them all in Victoria if they are; willing to go," says the next' person. This could be the legal | solution to th--- immediate prob-lem^faeing this community but it would probably do little to advance a solution to the pro-I lem for all of British Colum-I bia. However, if weather or i ! unsanitary conditions compel | • evacuation of the camp now! j occupied by the Doukhobors, | and the 1400-uekkeis became a; standing problem, Hope's re-, sources are insufficient to cope-with if. all. Forty trekkers in 281 iCont. on Page 7. 2nd Sec.) (Conf.-- from 'Page. 2. 2nd Sec.') hours convinctii "the Gowrn-meiit. of British Columbia that 14<10 for an indefinite period was too mgeh to ask a small community to face. Now Mr. Editor. 1 . wish to make clear a few7 points con-cerning my : actions in recent, weeks. First. I did not invite the. trekkers to Hope nor did .1 invite them to the Coquihalla Camping Park. When the R.C.M.P. avowed a "handsoff" policy after the road-block was ruled illegal, the trekkers asked if they would be permitted to camp at the Coquihalla for two days. There was nolhing legal we could do at that time to prevent the trekkers from en-tering our community. The Village of Hope had a choice of permitting the Doukhobors to enter the Coquihalla Camp on friendly terms or possibly having them in Memorial Park in the centre of the community on unfriendly terms. There was only once choice and we made it. • ' Mr. I. F. Corbet!.. M.L.A. for this riding, has said that. I have "aided and abetted" the Doukhobors. Now • I do not deny that as Chairman of the Board of Commissioners I have shown r-onc«-ri :«.r the people and the pioperty :>i I-top.-, and that: in so-doing 1 have found il necessary to d'o some things that, were not altogether to the liking of the Government of the Province of British Co-Sons to Discuss Premier's Offer Sons of Freedom camped at t h o Sewnth - day Adventist campground here will hold a meeting Thursday to discuss, a proposal made Wednesday • by Premier W. A. C. Bennett to re-establish the Freedomites anywhere in Canada as indivi-dual families. lyirtbia.'My first, duly is to the pocjjjle 'of Hope- and in my ac-tions .1 have been guided by that sense of duty. It was -my position that,the problem was too- big for Hope? to face alone. That is still my position, and I am relieved to say it is now the position of the Government of the Province of British Co-lumbia. If the Government of | this province had replied posi-' tively to our repeated requests for assurances of aid in the event of emergency there would have been no' trip to Victoria. It would have pleased me more if Mr. Corbett had sup-ported' the people lie represents rather than carping and com-plaining about the mild and lega! action we took to protect; ourselves. The only regret that. I have nbout the trip to Vic-toria is that, it was necessary. And if . the .. good member thinks that the trip to Victoria was aiding and abetting T would like to know what he considers the- millions of dal- • lars his. government has voted to the Doukhobor problem. 1, make no apologies for my ac-1 tions re the trip to Victoria, j Now, Mr. Editor, ' 1 have a \ few personal notes to add. Peo-; plo with little bettor to do, , hav..- circulated stories about ! int ix \ ancestry, and my mo-, i Lives. To I hose who bear false! ! stories I suggest a reflection; •on the Biblical admonition i j "Thou Shall Not. Bear False' Witness " For those who doubt ' my ancestry let me say there is documentation enough to satisfy any court in the land it hat my foreboajvrs were Oer-' man. To those who question my mot i vis 1 suggest they first examine their own. To 1 those people' ir, Hope who have, conducted Hie .ns- . ' lves calmly, .humanly and decently i and tBfc group includes the vast majority of the people of Hope) I express my profound grati-tude. When other authorities have acted rashly, intolerantly, and in some cases illegally, your good sense and good be-haviour have helped to main-tain the good name of our com-munity arid to frustrate the sensation-seekors. I am proud of the people of Hope. P A U L S C H E R L E , Next Stop—Ottawa Attorney-Genera! Bonner may ca l l him par t of t h e problem, but Hope V i l l a g e C h a i r m a n P a u l Scherle de- • serves credi t for what he has done in t r y i n g to get gov-ernment act ion about the Sons of Freedom Doukhobors . We don't: think it was necessary to take a busload of Freedomites to V i c t o r i a in order to impress the, p rov inc ia l government wi th the fact that a problem exists, the government is p l a i n l y we l l aware of that. Bu t it appa ren t ly was necessary to take such action in order to j o l t p rovinc ia l authori t ies out of t h ink ing that they could jus t leave ihe whole th ing in Hope 's lap whi le , shout ing thai the federal government should do some-th ing . M r . Scherle has been accused of p l ay ing pol i t ics with the matter because he took his busload .to V i c t o r i a and not to Ot tawa. That seems very doubtful . The oh-, vious difference in d i f f i c u l t y and co&t between the short t r i p and the long one seems ample explana t ion . Tin-prov inc ia l government i tself apparen t ly is not prepared to take so expensive a step and is offer ing to finance a ' delegation to Ot tawa of onh three. In our opinion Hint 's unfortunate, because it's be-coming very obvious that the federal government, unl ike the p rov inc i a l , does not realize, thr seriousness of the problem. .A busload of Freedomites sle,eping on the steps of the legislature may have been c a r r y i n g coal t<> Newcast le , but a busload on the steps of the house of commons might be a real eve-opener t..' a lot of cabinet ministers from Eas te rn Canada . Three may not be enough to have the required effect. We don't blame any level of government for not so lv ing this problem, because we have no solut ion to suggest, -hut it 's about l ime the provinc ia l and federal governments got together to try and solve it instead of "leaving it. to anv • n i d i lunate mun ic ipa l i t y where the Freedomite.s happen to be. M r . Scherle has obvio.isl.v iie.iped to drive this point SKCoftT) SECTION - P A G E T H R E E the effort .was w o r t h - w h i l e .—A g a s s i z - ; r iar i ' son Advance. ATTENTION: SONS OF FREEDOM DOUKHOBORS Sons of F r e e d o m D o u k h o b o r s e n c a m p e d a t H o p e who wish to re-establ ish d o m i c i l e as ind iv idua l f a m i l i e s in Brit ish C o l u m b i a or e lsewhere in C a n a d a may m a k e a p p l i c a t i o n in wr i t ing d i rect ly to the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Soc ia l W e l f a r e , Par l i a -m e n t Bu i ld ings , V i c t o r i a , B. C . In a c c o r d a n c e with the ind iv idua l ' s need , cons i -de ra t ion wil l be g iven to assist b o n a f i d e a p p l i -cants who show good in tent ion . Deputy M i n i s t e r of Soc ia l W e l f a r e V i c t o r i a , B. C . H-1 j Sit-Down at Welfare Office Rumors Say Sons to Move But No One Knows Where '• Rumors persist that the 1300 Sons of Freedom who are staying in tents and cabins at the Seventh-day j Adventist campground here will soon be leaving, organization nvitation to tell a mass meeting sent for Mr. The church is fearful that colder weather may force shutting off of water in the camp, and have warned the Doukhobors of this. However, despite repeated excusions to the Agassiz area, the Freedomites have not been able to find a place to move to, and the group has no idea where they will go if they leave here. Shortage of funds has be-come acute for some of the Doukhobor families, especially those whose bread-winners are ' in jail. Fourteen of these wo-men staged a sit-down strike at the Social Welfare office in Chilliwack Tuesday. They didn't gjt welfare but each was given SONS OF FREEDOM (Cont. from Page 1, 1st Sec.) declined an his story to the Doukhobors Scherle. The man said he had no cre-dentials and that the Premier had made the request in a t e ^ phone conversation Friday. The Chairman suggested that if he was a bona fide repre-j sentative of the Premier he • should ask that a letter be sent', and a number of children sat t o t h o Freedomites outlining ! in the welafer office from 10 a " v . P'°Posed scheme for relo-cation of the stranded trek-a $10 Salvation Army order on a Hope store after the women a number of children sat kers him to t h e | l e a W a.m. to 5 p.m. Five of these women hadj visited the welfare office previous Tuesday. They saidi , , they were told local welfare1 S ^ ™ ™ " ! . 3 . ° f f e r J ° . : ^ 1 0 ^ : officers could do nothing but would refer the matter to Vic-He then asked the camp. Meanwhile, the Provincial i ! individual families continued to! be looked on with suspicion j toria and advise the Doukhobor b y t h e freedomites and it ap-1 women of the outcome by mail. P ' ' a r s t h a t n o n * o t r n e , n h a v e ! No word was heard from c h u . 'accepted the offer. , Placards announcing the of - ; fer which are posted through-; liwack, so the back yesterday. women went. THE WEATHER Max"! Min. Pre. Dec. 19 42.2 35.2 .13 Dec. 20 . . 44.9 37.2 .07 Dec. 21 51.0 37.8 .85 Dec. 22 37.9 30.1 Dec 23 .-.. . . . 36.5 28.2 Dec. 24' 32.2 32.9 Dec. 25 . . . . . . 32.2 22.1 | Letters to Editor The Editor, The Hope Stand-ard: Sir — May we, through your newspaper, express our heartfelt thank-you from all the Doukhobor children of fhe "Doukhobor March to Agassiz" for the gifts • of oranges, nuts and candies. We would especially like to thank Mr. Scherle and Mr. Reid, all the good people of Hope, the Catholic Women's League and the Mennonites of the Fraser Valley. T H E DOUKHOBOR C H I L D R E N , Seventh-day Adventist Campground, Hope, B . C . Village Chairman Paul Sch- ," u t l h £ c a T m P "ow have a verse rle -asked a man to leave the i f . r o m S ; Luke If thou there-1 camp Sunday. Tho man n a d fore wilt worship me, all shall contacted Mrs. Florence Stor-i b e . ' w r l t t e « u n d e r t h e goff and Mrs. Marie Shlakoff' p r l n t l n g ' . at the camp. The women said ; 1 0 „ "i r he told them his name was Peter Barabanoff and that he was from Kamloops. He said that hie had been sent to thv camp by Premier W. A. C. Bennett to ascertain if the Freedomites wished to be re-located as individual families or as a group. Wtwn the .man (Cont. on Page 5. 1st Sec.) reported to fever and M e a s l e s , C o l d s S p r e a d A m o n g D o u k C h i l d r e n There are approximately 30 sick children in the 40 tents and cabins at the Sons of Freedom camp here, which were visited Thursday by a Public Health nurse, according to Mrs. Marie Shlakoff. Mrs. Shlakoff said she had no idea whether the percentage. i t y refused to/supply water. However, there is be some scarlet chicken pox. One case of hepa-titis in an elderly man has been reported. : It has been rumored the Sons would be asked to ileave the , Seventh-day Adventist camp on j Jan. 3. Village Chairman Paul ' Scherle says that this is out of 1 the question now. He doesn't think the Freedomites 'should move while so many of their children are sick. .< The Doukhobors have been making repeated excursions to the Agassiz area in search of land. A plan to move onto a piece of government land near Mountain Prison was thwarted this week when the municipal-would be as high in the other hundred tents and cabins in which the Doukhobors are living. Dr. A. S. Arnell, director of the Upper Fraser Valley Health ments about the Sons Unit, is keeping a close watch dom appearing in a on the situation. in the Dec.119 Chflll' Measles and colds se^nvto be gress, and, attributed the most common ailments, missioner Forrest. Thursday, the trekto a telegram^fo Assir*- 1 missioner D. O. Foi manding officer of the"j " E " division, protest!; A N U A R Y 2, lfKfci 10c PER COPY—$3.50 P E R Y E A R Asked to Leave Jan. 3 Deadline Passes Bi Freedomites Remain • "Sons of. Freedom Doukhobors Si;a'nth-day Adventist campground camped at the hei*e have made no move to leave the camp the church, organization.' '• -A telegram sent . to G. O. Adams, pivgi-dent- -pi" the I'i.'C.; Confei'-ric-'.' of Seventh-day -Ad-ventists. at Mission City •"•artier •this week asked that the Ad--ventists report tin failure of the Doukhobors ••to-move wh<-n • requested to do so .to The auth-orities. The t.-legram said tnat the • government - would then be faced with the n'roblem of whore to move the Ft\:-edo • mites. ' . Wednesday night rence "Big Fanny' r.-edori'.i y the Jan.. 3 'deadline set by with-so ' many sick' children. ' J A N U A R Y 9, .1963 Mrs, Fto-Slorgofl e.s would were ahit re (• Moun sa:d the "F move; as soo; •o find a p taiij Pris*.«! , i.Vegatio!,s ;w con'inuing to •j co ut. th" .".ga:-WLZ area .in search of land and acoomnioda Mon for the i;i0o 'rekke>>. camped- here "Big Fanny'" suggested Wed nesuay tha: a. meeting with thv: SevvntU-iia'y Adventisis to out-line the reasons, why the group cannot move at present might tie a |fcod idea Measles, chicken pox. sore throats and colds .are' common among the younger population at tin- camp, and the Frvodo-mites say they cannot niove Jan • .Jan. J a n. Jan. Jan/ Jan: •Jan. iHI: WEATHER 39.9 42.0 42.8 47.2 -1-1.8 35.1. 38.9 36.8 4.4.6' '•32.5 28.8 •30:o •29.2 36;6 :i .2.3 .01 .63 J.0C PER COPY~-$3.50 PER Y E A R Over 1000 Without Toilets Water to Be Turned Off at Doukhobor Camp;.Jan. 9 • V i l i a t tie -hairrn, ting ot Hop. V .•id be. taken to laid could arise .-eyenih-day Adven t i s t cam There :.-i epwards of a ti.oo-;?aiid Sons , , f Km-dor* f>otik hobors. ihe .ea.-up. and they will be v.'ithou; .toilet facilities fit ••fi-- ••air.n if the water is r: Pa hi Scherle cal led an emergency lag!.' Counc i l to discuss wha t ' s t eps )e with the health .problem which the wafe r was : shut off at the here. • • tiiterpreic-i ! although foi them aria while to . their . if'.- told them that i •' Jan. -3 deadline r, move had passed he was _ sympathetic difficulties he- still ir. clierie said that. i.he.Vil-lag--.-, e Ir-rk tskd been' inlonned at i p.m. Wednesday by - Henry Ot'.nsti.'iiii-.or',. caretaker, at the -Adveutise 'campground. that th' • water would be shut off at 10 Wednesday- night. A second meeting is .sche-dul.xf for 9 a.m. Thursday at which 1 line the Council wilt . contact Victoria,to advise them I Conferv.nce of Seventh-day Ad-On Monday afernoon. George O. Adams, president of the B. C. of this latest development, vonists-. whose head office 'is at Mission City, visited the camp in company with Secrc-tary^Treasurer Howe : and .five directors .. | .The group met with Mr. '•Scherle. C. J. Verbeck. tvpre-I senting • School District No. 32 and other local people to dis-I cuss ' the problems created by | the Sons . of Freedom staying I in the camp. j Following this discussion. ; Mr. Adams addressed a mass j meeting of the ' Doukhobors | with. Peter Sukoroff acting as j.wanted .them to leave the camp. Tl.-.e .. Free.potnit •_•:.> were aa emitted to the campgrounds as , an emergency measure when I 1'Corn, on Page 5. .1st-Sect WATER OFF . i'eon! Page !. 1st Sec-1 overflowing Coquiballa SHI / (Con!, :r. t :i riser forced them to abandon Coquihalla campsite;.during the Nov.. 19 storm. It ' was under-stood they would,only stay two of three days. Since their stay' has been prolonged, and with the danger of freezing '.. weather-, closer, the Seventh-day tists have repeatedly, the Doukhobors t hat-pipes and plumbing campground would stand cold weather getting Adven-warned water at '.the not with-and that would have to be the weather turned the water shut off if cold. ' * However, repeated excur-sions to the west by the Sons has failed to produce another site for them. , I Remainder Going Thursday Sons Start Move to City on Wednesday I . Sons o.f Freedom •! 'oukhobors who came- to Hope 'j last Sept. 29 began evalua t ion of the Seventh-day A d -; ventist campground "here at dawn Wednesdav and by I mid-morning over hai l ' of the group had left'for V a n -| couver. The remainder are scheduled to leave T h u r s d a y . j morning. ! More than 600 of : lie H'reedo-i mite-s left the 'camp Wednes-| day . morning. Two buses car-. ! ried 90 of this number. The re-I mainder travelled by private • vehielv. Upwards <:<< 7!" eai:s, pick-ups and trucks were used I to transport ' the Doukhobors j and their baggage. | The Sons had been saying | they were moving i»v several j days but kepi their dostination a secret. All the questioning of •s failed to the trek to planned to oi the buildinjL ground started the group to j. : rek.. Two' in or. Monday, and 'Tama Kozaris*)!'!' near death a from fasti-tit.-., a gait:. . Camp spok Wedn- ^Jcy's' i-iud<- MV-y- •.< and ;iidv •; '; ..•id.--. :':• Tbey e. ii i I d r homos ! h e y i hos<- w W i l l , ! ,- . : .-chools child it v/a.-pie and children • eommoda i< A party j will romai I Ad.von'isf i i i ' ! Urn iii; s at ine camp-In fast to split :'0>:oed with ji.'ln."ii tho '.ha' th who .ilioi't. line Commc-no! M : . f been earlier ! .nice w o u l d i 15 y. a • •;>. m a t among incut. ;nid that trv- yoimg.-e • n will b e ;d.'i i:i -: I in if sympathi:* rs once veil Va..'lrollv> v. r-.|',d ir> a r e of xhool ago itely be placed in v h S i i i ' V l ' area, t h e :e< also said that old peo-mothers with ' young will he similarly ac-ot six or eignt men at 'he Seventh-day anipground here to | camp to the cond.i-• lion t h e Doukhobors found Earls Wednesday, was a hoo-hi\v of families tore down mo camp activity as ' tents and police and ropuru get any member o divulge where t.h>" g°-At iirsvMi -no...- Wednesday. the answer - was, out. By this time the- group h.ui assembled in Victory Square :;i downtown ! Vancouver. A Jan. 3 deadline for the i DoukhoSors to leave- the eanip-: ground here passed but they did- not move. They told (he i Seventh-day ' Adventists that many of their children wen; , sick and they would move j when this condition improved, i ' With last week's cold wea-I ther it became necessary to I shut the water off at the camp-' ground. This also forced the : closing of toilet facilities at the burned wood frames and other i camp, creating a health prob- materials. ! lem. Two out-door stand-pipes . were left for drinking water. • Provincial Health Department Officials vivre notified. In the : meantime,, facilities in down town Hope wore taxed* to the > , limit. Some walked to the out-door toilets at " Coquihalla i • ' campsite. Meanwhile, the expressed in-tention of the group to mov-c westward became more and : more determined, and on Tues-• day evening it was. announced I that, two buses had been char-i tered and that about half the j femp would ' move Wednesday morning. | Last weekend .10 older Douk j hobors living upstairs in one Ait v. j t|>p< •> -y J <(>-•• i^i Doukhobor Kids! Stage Farewell Concert Monday Sons of Freedom Doukhobor children gave a public concert in Hope Memorial hall Monday; evening, which was attended! by some 50 local residents and; adult Doukhobors. j The concert had been staged j that afternoon in a hall at the'. Seventh-day Adventist camp- j ground, and at the suggestion j of¥ some who heard it, the i Doukhobors agreed to the eve- j riing program: J . Ken .James taped the after-; noon program and Bill Neufeld j did likewise in. the evening. I The program consisted of 17 numbers including singing of hymns and other songs in both Russian .tii..t Kiiglish by the Dnakholwr Vo'ut h Choir. At i he. In-Ruining-of tho'pro-gram Marie Schlakoff ad-dressed ihe gathering expres-tti. • appreciation of the io.'v.'t'.': for the kind recep-!ii. Doukhobors had re-Hope lg this a member of .John Savenkoft. read I'ing. -As a token of • on, we, the Youth Doukhobors. an tiere to thank all the people of Hope for their kindness in our hour •They opened their us and took us in n«.»;'ded comfort. We that - the Village of stir rounding district . Christian, and live according to the gospel of the Great. Teacher. As the hour of parting rs approaching, we fee! that, we at. least have to spend a :->hort while together, and praise'Hun .n a manner 'befit-ting Chri».t'arts by rendering some hymns in His name." The- audience was very, ap-preciative. smg Free-eeivi.-n in Fc-llcwi tho .'h'-.ii-the folio-apiH-.-cia; Choir of i of lleC-d. doors to' when we can see Hope and is, indeec 

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