UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ecological features of moose Alces alces andersoni winter habitat in the boreal white and black spruce… Silver, Roderick Sterling 1976

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ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MOOSE (Alces alces andersoni) WINTER HABITAT IN THE BOREAL WHITE AND BLACK SPRUCE ZONE OF NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA by RODERICK STERLING SILVER, B.Sc. (Brit. Col.) -A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REOJJIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCE THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 Copyright Roderick Sterling Silver In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilitient of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or his representative, i t is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Plant Science The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. i i /Abstract A study of the dispersion patterns of moose i n winter habitats was conducted from June 1972 to May 1974 i n a w i l d l i f e reserve i n north-eastern B r i t i s h Columbia. Major factors affecting the patterns were examined i n an attempt to determine their relative importance. Data from eight representative vegetation plots indicated productive browse i n deciduous forests and open habitats. In coniferous forest there was very l i t t l e shrub development. Moose were well adapted to low winter temperatures which often followed warm winter temperatures associated with Chinook winds. Snow cover rarely exceeded 76 cm. Canopies of mature coniferous forest profoundly influenced the depth of snow on the ground., but, because the snow depth i n open areas was not r e s t r i c t i v e , moose did not extensively use coniferous forest. Willow, aspen and bog birch were the most important forage species. Rumen analyses and t r a i l i n g methods supported these observations. Instances of moose cratering (pawing) and debarking were observed. Winter forages . (probably a limited sample) were very low i n crude protein. Open shrubland, agricultural land, and deciduous forest were preferred winter habitat. Several variables, quantified during ground and a e r i a l observations, were used i n a model to predict moose dispersion, but the model was applied with limited success. Future management of habitat for moose should include logging and prescribed burning to enhance the forage resource. The purchase of alienated lands to ensure control of the land base i s also recommended. FRONTISPIECE moose in winter a pen and ink drawing by hudson 1s hope a r t i s t b.g. bairstow i v ) v) ADKN0WLFJX2MENTS The successful completion of the following winter program of ungulate research was accomplished with the help of many knowledgeable and dedicated people. My supervisor, Dr; V. C. Brink provided invaluable guidance at the university level while biologist F. Harper initi a t e d and supported the pro-ject i n the f i e l d . Dr. R. J. Hudson supplied computer analyses and inter-pretations of dispersion data. Researcher D. Eastman, conducting a similar study of moose habitats i n north-central B r i t i s h Columbia, stimulated many discussions involving research techniques. The study was entirely financed by the Cmineca-Peace region of the B r i t i s h Columbia Fish and Wildlife Branch. The financial and administrative support of Regional Director R. Goodlad was appreciated. Various members of the Fish and Wildlife Branch staff contributed to the success of the project through discussions, analyses and criticisms. These include S. Wheadon, G. Gosling, J. Merriman, B. Pratt, B. Ward, B. Webster, E. Dunn, J . Kelly, R. Demarchi, K. Sumanik and R. Ritcey, D. Demarchi of the E.L.U.C. Secretariat helped with the project out-line. T. Lord provided valuable s o i l association maps and noted moose ecologist, Dr. J. Peek of the University of Idaho, c r i t i c a l l y reviewed the manuscript. M. Warren, Information and Education Officer for the Fish and Wildlife Branch, allowed the use of several of his fine photographs of the study area. Drs. V. C; Brink and J. Sawitski identified most of the plant specimens gathered and mosses and willows were identified by Drs. W. Schofield and T. C. Brayshaw respectively. Ms. M. Larkin and I. Derics analyzed plant samples for crude protein and lignin content. vi) The effects of bitter cold temperatures and howling north winds associated with extensive fieldwork, were more than compensated for by the hospitality and services of Mr. and Mrs. J. Warren (mile 136, A.H.) and Mr. F. Ruttan (mile 147, A.H.). Aerial reconnaissance utilizing the skills and expertise of pilots M. Bergh (Okanagan Helicopters) and M. Hoff (Fort St. John Aviation) generated much of the moose dispersion data. local information of guides of the Isbrthern Guides Association, trappers and of field employees.of Westcoast Transmission Co. Ltd., was appreciated. Ms. L. Carr and Ms. D. Green contributed a high quality of typing excellence, despite the corrections and confusion of two manuscripts. My parents provided me with the support necessary to initiate my-interests in ecology. And, finally, my wife, Babs, endured without complaint the many challenges and hurdles associated with a research project of this type. To these people and a l l others who contributed to the study, I am indebted. vii) TABLE OF CDNTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. THE STUDY AREA 3 2-1 Location 3 2-2 Topography 3 2-3 Geology 7 2-4 Climate 7 2-5 Soils 8 2-6 Flora 9 2-7 Fauna 10 2-8 History 11 2-9 Land Use 13 2-9.1 Agriculture 13 2-9.2 Fire 14 2-9.3 Oil and Gas Industry 15 2-9.4 Forestry 16 2-9.5 Guiding and Trapping 17 2-9.6 Recreation and Tourism 17 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 19 4. PROCEDURES AND METHODS 22 4--.1 Approaches to the Study of a Moose Population 22 4-2 Road Checks and Hunter Sample Returns 22 4-3.1 Aerial Surveys and Local Office Records 23 4-3.2 Ground Surveys, Personal Checks and Local Information 23 4-4 Measurement of Some Representative Forest Cover Types 24 4-5 Some Abiotic Components of Winter Habitat in the 25 Cameron River Reserve 4-5.1 Winter Air Climate 25 4-5.2 Snow Cover Measurements 27 4-6 Measurement of Forage 28 4-6.1 Measurement of Forage: Abundance and Availability 28 4-6.2 Measurement of Forage: Quality . .: . < 28 ". 4-7 Forage Use by. Wintering Moose 29 .4-7.1 Rumen. Analysis 29 4-7.2 Trailing Studies 30 4- 8 Procedures for Estimating Winter Dispersion Patterns 32 of Moose 5. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 37 5- 1 Some Observations and Statistics for Moose in the 37 Peace River District . 5-2 Moose Population Characteristics in the Cameron River 43 Reserve 5-3 Distribution.of a Sample of Aged Moose 53 v i i i ) Page 5-4 Analysis of Major Plant Communities Used by Moose 57 in the Boreal White and Black Spruce Biogeoclimatic Zone 5-5 Some Abiotic Components of Winter Habitat 55 5-5.1 Winter Air Climate 55 5-5.2 Snow Cover Measurements 70 5-6 Measurement of Forage 76 5-6.1 Comments on Forage Abundance and Availability 76 5-6.2 Winter Forage Quality 81 5-7 Forage Use by Wintering Moose 85 5-7.1 Rumen Analysis 85 5-7.2 Trailing Studies 87 5-7.3 General Observations of Moose Food Habits 97 5- 8 The Dispersion of Moose in the Habitats of the 104 Study Area 6. DISCUSSION 116 6- 1 The Dispersion of Moose in the Habitats of the H6 Study Area 6-2 The Effect of Human Activities on Moose Habitat 1 3 3 6-3 A Strategy for the Protection and Enhancement of 140 Moose Habitats 7. SUMMARY 142 8. LITERATURE CITED 144 9. APPENDICES ix) LIST OF TABLES Page 1 A Summary of Predictor Variables Used in the Multiple 35 Classification Analysis 2 Moose Harvest in Northern British Columbia, 1950-1974 39 (Hunter Sample) 3. Moose Classified on Helicopter Flights, Peace River District 44 1972 and 1973 (B.C. Fish and Wildlife Branch Surveys) 4 Moose Classified on Helicopter Surveys, Cameron River 44 Reserve 1972, 1973 and 1974 5 Ages of Adult Moose Killed in the Cameron River Reserve, 54 1972 and 1973 6 Age Structure of a Sample of Moose Harvested by Hunters, 55 1972 and 1973 7 Physical Characteristics of Vegetation Plots 59 8 Dominant Vegetation of Plots Studied 61 9 Mean Monthly Temperatures for the Winters of the Study, 66 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 and Winter Normals (1942-1970) Compared 10 Comparison of Air Temperatures During Chinook Conditions 69 11 Snowfall for the Winter Months of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 71 at Fort St. John and for the Winter of 1973-1974 at Pink Mountain Compared to the Normals (1942-1970).at Fort St. John 12 A Summary of Snow Stake Readings in Selected Cover, 1972 75 and 1973 13 Shrub Forage Abundance of Selected Forest Types 79 14 Chemical Composition of Selected Moose Forages Sampled 82 Three Times During the Year, 1973-1974 15 Preferred Moose Forage Species as Determined by Rumen Analysis 86 16 Winter Forage Preferred by Moose as Determined by Trailing 89 Analysis 17 Browsing Height During the Winter Period as Determined by Trailing Analysis 90 x) Page 18 Important Winter Forage Sources for Moose in Northeastern 94 British Columbia 19 Known Important Forage Sources for Moose in North America 95 20 Empirical Results of Variables Describing the Dispersion 109 of Moose in Winter Habitats 21 Relative Ability of Predictor Variables to Explain Moose 115 Dispersion Variability 22 Aggregation Sizes of Moose Observed 121 LIST OF FIGURES Page 1 Northeastern British Columbia 4 2 The Cameron River Reserve 5 3 Topography of the Study Area 6 4 Vegetation Analysis Methods at Each Sample Point 26 5 A History of Estimated Hunter Numbers and Hunter Success 41 in Northern British Columbia 6 Forest Types of the Study Area 58 7 A History of Winter Snowfalls, Fort St. John, British 73 Columbia 8 Qali: Accumulation on Black Spruce 77 9 Winter Forage Sources of Moose as Determined by Trailing 91 Analysis 10 Extensive Areas of Debarking of Decadent Willow and Aspen 92 were Observed in the Spring of 1974 11 Marks Left by Lower Teeth Indicate Method of Bark Removal 92 12 Warmth Generated by the Underground Transportation of Natural 98 Gas Stimulates Early Spring Growth of Herbs and Grasses 13 Coltsfoot Shoots are Common Early Spring Plants on These 98 Natural Gas Lines 14 Cratering for Raspberry at a Disturbed Road-Side Location 101 15 Cratering for Cow Parsnip 102 16 Browsing of Cow Parsnip 102 17 An Aerial View of an A r t i f i c i a l Forage Source, Winter 103 1973-1974 18 Cratering for Oats Often Resulted in Moose Having to Kneel 103 to Secure Forage 19 Miles of Seismograph Lines and Pipelines Provide Edge, 118 Forage and Travel Corridors for Moose 20 An Aerial View of the U-Shaped Halfway Valley Showing a 118 Mosaic of Habitat Types xii) Page 21 An Aerial View of a Valley-Bottom Location Noted for Large 122 Concentrations of Wintering Moose 22 The Moose as a Nuisance Animal in Traditional Winter Range 122 23 MCA Coefficients of. Select Predictor Variable Categories, 130 Early Winter Period 24 MCA Coefficients of Select Predictor Variable Categories, 130 Late Winter Period 25 The Nature of the Protective River Valleys 132 26 Riparian Habitats Provide Important Winter Browse Species 132 27 Alteration of River Valleys for Agricultural Purposes 135 28 Recent Burn Areas are Excellent Moose Habitats 135 29 An Aerial View of Brule Areas Regenerating to Spruce .136 30 Moose Using Recent Burn Areas, Winter 1973-1974 136 31 The Cameron River Valley and Prime Moose Wintering Habitats 138 32 The Sign Jjnforming the Public of the Concern for the Land 138 Base in the Study Area 33 Construction of Pipelines and Seismograph Lines has Created 139 Many Miles of Valued Moose Habitat 34 Proper Logging Prescriptions may Enhance the Habitats 139 Available for Moose xiii) APPENDICES Page Report to the Lands Branch Proposed Cameron River Reserve 1969 161 2 The Climate of Northeastern British Columbia 170 3 Characteristics of Soil Associations Cameron River Reserve 183 4 The Scientific Names of the Flora of the Cameron River Reserve 189 5 The Scientific Names of the Fauna of the Study Area ' 195 6 Characteristics of Gas Wells 197 7 History of Logging Activity 200 8 A History of Trapline Catch, East Area of the Cameron River Reserve 202 9 Some Characteristics and Methods of the Resident Moose Hunter in Northeastern British.Columbia 10 A Summary of Summer Traffic, Alaska Highway 11 Canada Land Inventory Categories 12 Life Tables and Survivorship Curves Developed from Hunter Harvest Information 220 13 Summary Printouts of Computer Analyses, Vegetation Plots 239 14 Blconing and Fruiting Times of some Conspicuous Roadside Flora 243 15 The Crude Protein Content of Eight Forages Compared to Values Obtained for Willow by Eastman (unpublished) / 245 16 A Summary of Rumen Analyses 254 17 Observations of Moose Cratering for Herbaceous Forages • 258 18 Dispersion Maps 262 19 A Summary of Bedding Characteristics of Moose 268 20 A History of Land Alienation Patterns in the Halfway River Valley 272 21 The Location of Vegetation Plots, Snow Stakes and Forage -.. • Sampling Areas 276 204 206 208 1 1. INTRODUCTION The moose (Alces alces andersoni), one of three subspecies of the largest member of the deer family in British Columbia, is an important wildlife species in the province. This ungulate is a valued source of. wild meat, a unique and magnificent trophy, a quarry providing many hours of recreation and an unforgettable sight. Moose are distributed throughout most of mainland British Columbia. The central and northern regions support the greatest densities where the preferred habitats of riparian vegetation and burned areas (brule) are common components of the boreal and sub-boreal biogeoclimatic zones. Historically, a limited number of moose studies in British Columbia have focussed on the winter habitats of specific areas (Hatter, 1946; Ritcey, 1965; Sumanik, 1972(b)). A recent study by Eastman (1974) has documented the requirements for moose in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone of central British Columbia. However, detailed in-formation is lacking for most of northern B.C. To dcicument the dis-persion of moose in representative Peace River area habitats and to examine the habitat and animal components of an important wildlife reserve, were the main objectives of this study. A broad, holistic approach was employed. Working objectives were designed to: 1. provide an inventory of moose dispersion in available winter habitats; 2. define the vegetative characteristics of representative habitats; 3. document the consumptive use of the moose resource; 4. estimate the size of the moose population; 5, develop a strategy for future habitat protection and enhancement programs. 3 2. THE STUDY AREA THE CAMERON RIVER RESERVE 2-1 LOCATION The Cameron River Reserve, the area in which this study was under-taken ', is situated on the Alberta Plateau of northeastern British Columbia some 153 km northwest of Fort St. John (latitude 57°00', ... longitude 122°22'). The map reserve (Figures 1 and 2) was established in 1969 by. the British Columbia Land Management Branch (Appendix 1). 2 The purposes of the 925 km reserve are primarily to protect land, having a high capability for wildlife, from alienation for arable agriculture, and secondly to provide grazing lands for existing ranches. A total of 5,126 hectares, or 5 percent of the area, was alienated prior to establishment of the reserve. 2-2 TOPOGRAPHY The Cameron River Reserve occurs on the Alberta Plateau area of northeastern British Columbia, immediately east of the Rocky Mountain foothills. A series of narrow valleys, separated by rolling and sharp ridges running north-south, characterize the study area. Valley bottoms, originally resulting from drainage from the Rocky Mountains and glacial actions, comprise most of the area below the 915 m elevation (Figure 3). FIGURE 1 Northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia Scale 1:250,000 Figure 2. The Cameron River Reserve 6 7 2-3 GEOLOGY The geology of the reserve area is reported on by Irish (1970). The lower elevation drainages (Halfway River, Cameron River, Blair Creek and Townsend Creek) are characterized by glacial gravels, sands and silts of the Cenozoic. The upland of the western part of the Cameron River Reserve is dominated by the Sikanni Formation (Lower Cretaceous) which consists of three thick sandstones separated by three shale units covered by a thick shale unit (the Sully Formation of Stott (1960)). Localized occurrences of the Dunvegan (Upper Cret-aceous) and Buckinghorse Formations (Lower Cretaceous) are associated with the Sikanni Formation. The Buckinghorse Formation is exposed in the Darber Creek area between the Halfway and Cameron Rivers. This formation is characterized by thin layers of easily eroded grey shales in areas of low relief. The Dunvegan Formation, predominent in the eastern inter-stream ridges of the study area, consists of sandstone and shale originating as sediments of deltaic and near shore environ-ments (Irish, 1970). The Dunvegan Formation is the youngest consoli-dated stratum in the area. Ice sheets over the Alberta Plateau during the Pleistocene moved south-westerly and left a veneer of t i l l containing distinctive Keewatin boulders (Holland, 1964). 2-4 CLIMATE The Dfe Climate (Koppen*) is characteristic of the Boreal White *See Appendix 2 for Koppen climate notations. 8 and Black Spruce biogeoclirnatic zone (Krajina, 1965). This cold continental climate is distinguished^by long, cold winters and cool, short summers. Mean temperatures, based on twenty-nine years of records at Fort St. John, show January and July to be the coldest and warmest months respectively, with readings of -17°C and 16°C. July is also the month having the greatest accumulation of rainfall (6.4 cm) and the most amount of sunshine (300 hours). January is the month of greatest snowfall and February is the month with greatest accumulated snow. Calm air is infrequent giving significance to the winds, particu-larly to the prevailing west winds. Chinooks (foehn winds), caused by warm Pacific air rapidly descending in the lee of the Rocky Mount-ains, are responsible for sudden temperature increases during the winter period. These strong, warm, dry winds result in the rapid disappearance of snow, especially from exposed areas. Occasional north winds are strong, turbulent and cold and are associated with arctic air mass movement along the eastern slopes of the Rockies and Foothills. The frost free period varies from year to year and site to site but at Fort St. John i t averages 111 days. Slope, exposure and type of vegetation are important determinants of the frost free period at any one site. Appendix 2 describes the climate of northeastern British Columbia. 2T-5 SOILS Gray Luvisol soils (Gray Wooded) occupy the..undulating t i l l plains of the Alberta Plateau east of the Rocky Mountains (Lord et al., 1973). The soils of the study- area are Gray Luvisols with, associated Eutric Brunisols. In the Cameron River Reserve, Luvisols occupy the. extensive upland area between the major drainage basins. The Brunisols (Brown wooded) occur most widely in the Halfway and Cameron River valleys. Lord (1972, unpublished) noted that organic soil associations were generally lacking in the study area but they occur in the foot-h i l l s to the west. Localized patches of organic soil occur within the study area but are not recognized at the soil association level. The characteristics of the soil associations of the study area as documented by Lord (1972, unpublished) are presented in Appendix 3. 2-6 FLORA The Cameron River Reserve lies in the Boreal White and' Black Spruce biogeoclimatic zone. White spruce (Picea glauca*) is consid-ered to be the climatic climax dominent on fine textured upland soils while black spruce (Picea mariana) is an edaphic climax species on poorly drained sites. Moss (1955) suggested periodic burning, with the removal of organic material, may contribute to the maintenance of black spruce stands in poorly drained shallow basins. Certainly fire plays a very important role in the ecology of a l l forest land in the area. Aspen (Populus tremuloides), lodgepole pine (Pinus cortorta), birch (Betula papyrifera) and willow (Salix spp), species which occupy much of the study area uplands, represent pyroclimax vegetation. * See Appendix 4 for scientific names of the plant species. Moist valley bottoms often support a shrub cover (bog birch (Betula  glandulosa), willow (Salix spp) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla., fruiticosa) on poorly drained sites. The better drained sites support productive stands of black poplar (Populus balsamifera) and white spruce (Picea glauca). A wide variety of herbaceous plants are associated with boreal forest types. Exposed river breaks are established to herbaceous species such as needle and thread (Stipa comata), junegrass (Koeleria cristata), and wheatgrasses (Agropyron spp) with bluejoint (Galamagrostis  canadensis), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium). Roses (Rosa spp) and vetch (Vicia,:- spp) are major- components of the lush herbaceous and shrub cover common in recently burned areas frequently established to aspen. Maturing coniferous forest has a poorly developed ground layer of mosses, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylc>comium splendens or Dicranum spp. Bulrush (Scirpus spp), sedges (Carex spp) and cotton-grass (Eriophorum spp) are common in moist and swampy locations. Oats, barley and other Graminaceous species, are planted for green feed in the cultivated fields of the valley bottoms. 2-7 FAUNA A wide variety of animals, native to the boreal forest, frequent the study area. Moose (Alces alces*) are the most abundant ungulate; while mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are common and caribou (Rangifer  tarandus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) occur occasionally. *See Appendix 5 for scientific names of the animal species. 11 Black bear (Ursus americanus) are common in the Alberta Plateau and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) are limited by a lack of suitable habitat and by man's industrial and recreational intrusion into the wilderness. Wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are the most common predators and cougar (Felis concolor) occur only rarely,(Ruttan personal communication; Rand, 1944). Common furbearers include the red fox (Vulpus fulva), pine martin (Martes americana), lynx (Lynx canadensis), wolverine (Gulo luscus) and beaver (Castor canadensis). A wide variety of birds frequent the Cameron River Reserve. Gallinaceous birds such as spruce grouse (Canachites canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), raptors such as the great-horned owl (Bubo viJJginianus) and snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca), and a variety of Passerine birds, are common. Domestic horses and cattle have utilized the grazing areas of the study area for many years and a privately introduced herd of bison frequent the area. Accounts of the fauna of the Alberta Plateau can be found in Williams (1932), Raup (1934), Cowan (1939), Rand (1944) and Cowan and Guiget (1965). 2-8 HISTORY The Peace River area of northern British Columbia has a colourful history. Since the famed expedition through the area by explorer 12 Alexander MacKenzie in 1783 and the establishment of trading posts by Simon Eraser in 1805, this section of British Columbia has provided a challenge to white settlement and activity. Following the Klondike gold rush of 1897, the designation of the Peace River Block in 1907 resulted in the fi r s t agricultural settle-ment bordering the Block. Previously, the federal government had pro-hibited settlement, as Bowes (1952): reported: Land surveyors and settlers entered the Peace River region of British Columbia only a few years prior to the First World War. Until that time, the area from the Rockies east to the Alberta boundary had been kept under a provincial government reserve which prohibited homesteading. The purpose of this reserve was to permit the federal government to select 3,500,000 acres of unalienated arable land (The Peace River Block) in return for aid given earlier by Ottawa for railway construction elsewhere in the province. The long-delayed choice of the Block was announced in 1907, and Ottawa threw open some of the lands for homesteading in 1912. Further settlement was stimulated by the arrival at Dawson Creek in 1931 of the Northern Alberta Railway line (Peace River and Dunvegan), from Edmonton. In the study area, agricultural activity dates back to 1912. Prior to 1912 and up until the early 1940's, Northwest Mounted Police trails, which provided access for ranchers, trappers, hunters, land surveyors (Umbach, 1929) and phytogeographic surveyors (Raup, 1934), followed the Halfway River drainage bordering the study area. Motorized travel was f i r s t attempted just south of the study area by the ill-fated Bedeaux Expedition of 1934. The Alaska Highway was constructed after 1941 as a defence measure in World War II, and now constitutes the northern boundary of the Reserve. 13 Natural gas and petroleum exploration, originating in a successful commercial well near Fort St. John in 1951, is manifest in seismic lines, o i l and gas wells, and transmission lines in and around the Reserve. Bowes (1952), Wilson (1965), Stacey (1973) and Ventress et al. (1973) have documented much of the history and development of the Peace River area of British Golumbia. 2-9 LAND USE 2-9 ;1 /Agriculture Agriculture was practised in the study area even prior to the expansion of homesteading in the 1960's. As a matter of interest, areas of the Halfway River Valley were settled before locations in the Peace River Block were released by the federal government. Within the Cameron River Reserve, the Halfway Valley is the most developed area for ranching but minor developments occur in the Cameron River and Blair Creek drainages. Cattle-oriented operations are favoured over cereal production, as climatic conditions place severe limitations on cereal production. Forage for pasture, and hay, are grown with limited success. The_long, distance to markets places serious economic con-straints on hay and grain marketing possibilities. Native summer range is very restricted. Open grassland in the area is minimal and occurs almost exclusively on warm exposures of breaks along the major streams. Aspen encroachment is common. Burning of forest and bush to create range for livestock and wildlife has been 14 a common practice in northeastern British Columbia, but this has been curtailed by recent British Columbia Forest Service fire suppression policies. Periodic wildfire is a natural agent and the prohibitive and suppressive policies have already seriously reduced the quality and quantity of range for domestic stock and wildlife alike. Future utilization of the woody species may provide a substitute for fire in the more productive forested areas, but low productivity forest and shrubland areas will require periodic fire i f forage and browse produc-. tion is to be maintained (Also see 2-9.2). 2-9.2 Fire Fire has been the dominant force in the evolution.of the current forest cover of the Cameron River Reserve. Heinselman (1971) concluded that fire was a prime influence in the succession, species composition and compartment ages of the northern forest. Dasmann (1964) categor-ized the moose as a mid-successional species and recognized the constant need of the species for succulent deciduous browse associated with post-fire habitats. Fire in the Boreal White and Black Spruce biogeoclimatic zone, as in most zones, alters the tree canopy and renews and improves the quantity and quality of available browse Cowan et al., 1950). Though documentation of older forest fires in the Cameron River Reserve is lacking or scanty, the recent burns and the nature of the present vegetation, provide ample evidence of fire as a major ecological factor. Lightning strikes have, no doubt, been responsible for a majority of the burn areas. However, fires initiated by man's 15 activities including grazing land maintenance, land clearing, road building, logging, petroleum exploration, recreation and tourism, have been common in recent decades. Large areas of favourable moose habitat were thus created. Man has deliberately set fires. Raup (1934) cited numerous references to the setting of range fires by Indians. Vince (personal communication) reported extensive burning of areas of the Blueberry River breaks by Indians as a method of rejuvenating forage for horses.. Elk numbers in the Tuchodi drainage have recently increased as a direct result of fires initiated by man. Harper (personal communi-cation) noted that several residents of the now flooded Gold Bar area on the Peace River often culminated their spring trip east to Hudson Hope to replenish supplies, by progressively burning the vegetation of the river breaks to create grazing areas. Fire is recognized as a dominant and necessary factor, in the maintenance of quality habitat for both wildlife and domestic livestock. 2-9.3 The Oil and Gas Industry Northeastern British Columbia is one of the few areas of the province underlain by sedimentary rocks and the only area apparently rich in petroleum resources. In recent years, the demand for petroleum products has resulted in sizeable expenditures in exploration and production activities. Westcoast Transmission Company Limited and Pacific Petroleums Limited, major companies in the Peace River area, have established collecting networks for natural gas and o i l respec-tively, and share ownership of the McMahan Oil Refinery at Taylor, B.C., 16 km southeast of Fort St. John. 16 The study area is characterized by a network of seismic lines. Numerous well sites occur in the area though no wells are currently producing (Appendix 6). The mainline Westcoast Transmission Line, an underground 76 cm steel natural gas line, bisects the Cameron River Reserve. It originates in Fort Nelson and its corridor across the provincial terrain is about 36.6 m wide and 1,280 km long. Constructed in 1957, the system terminates in Huntingdon, near Abbotsford, B.C., where i t connects with the Colorado Interstate Pipeline Company and the El Paso Natural Gas Company lines which distribute Canadian gas to the western United States. The compressor station N4, located near the centre of the study area, is one of seventeen stations located at intervals along the mainline. Natural gas driven turbines move the vaporous gas through the pressurized pipeline system. Operational data such as volumes of gas, are measured at each station and, by a sophisticated computer electronic supervisory system, provide continuous data analysis for the entire system. The turbines force a daily average of one billion cubic feet of natural gas through the mainline, about seven and one half percent of which is fuel for the turbines. 2-9.4 Forestry The capability of the land for the production of trees is high in portions of the Cameron River Reserve; particularly in parts of the Halfway River valley. However, a history of extensive and frequent fire and clearing for agricultural activities, has resulted in few remaining sizeable tracts of merchantable coniferous timber. At the 17 present time, the long distance to mills and markets seriously reduces the possibility of profitable logging operations. There have only been six small timber sales within the study area, total-ling a mere 84 hectares (Appendix 7). In recent years, the forest industry in northeastern British Columbia has experienced major changes. Small seasonal lumbering operations have expanded and become less seasonal with increased road and r a i l access. 2-9.5 Guiding and Trapping The Cameron River Reserve is one of the few areas of northeastern British Columbia where the guiding of non-resident hunters is not permitted. However, the study area is surrounded by profitable guiding enterprises which cater mainly to sportsmen from the United States. The wildlife reserve lies entirely between two trap lines; one held by native Indians and the other by Einar Westergaard of the pioneer Westergaard family. The intensity of trapping is influenced by fur prices, snow conditions, trapper effort and current success. Both lines have been subjected to limited harvests during recent years and are being utilized mainly on a recreational basis. Appendix 8 documents trends in fur take on Westergaard1s Blair Creek - Townsend Creek line. 2-9.6 Recreation and Tourism Moose hunting is the major consumptive form of recreation in 18 the study area. A history of hunting success in northeastern British Columbia, particularly near Pink Mountain just north of the Cameron River Reserve, has resulted in a large number of hunters. Appendix 9 provides additional information about the resident moose hunter. Caribou, deer, black bear, and an occasional grizzly bear, are also taken by hunters. The Halfway River supports a modest arctic grayling and dolly varden fishery. The capability of many small streams for fish pro-duction appears to be limited by large areas of muskeg in the drainage areas. The rolling Plateau terrain is not scenically spectacular and the many moist muskeg areas discourage cross country hiking. Non-consumptive uses of wildlife occur mainly as observations of animals near the Alaska Highway. The highway, the northern boundary of the Reserve, brings many tourists and hunters to the periphery of the study area. The gravel highway is the major, and until recently, the only land route to the Yukon and Alaska. The five gasoline and service outlets, scattered along this section of the Alaska Highway, derive summer income from traffic associated with major northern petroleum projects, regular oil f i e l d maintenance activities, hard rock mining exploration, tourism, and the local ranching and guiding community (Appendix 10). The autumn income of these businesses is augmented by resident and non-resident hunters. A smaller flow of traffic to northern British Columbia, the Yukon, and Alaska, often supplemented by petroleum industry activities, provides a small income during the adverse season. 19 3. LITERATURE REVIEW Habitat Winter habitat selection by moose varies with the vegetative composition and climatic influences of the location. Lowland physio-graphic sites are favoured (Sumanik and Warren, 1968; Sumanik, 1972a; Sumanik, 1972b; Peek et al., 1976), but valley sides with gentle slopes and warm exposures are also used (Prescott, 1968; Peek et al., 1976). Adequate forage and shelter sources and favourable exposures characterize important winter habitats. Hatter (1946) and LeResche et al. (1974) recognized the importance of fire in the production of winter browse. Des Meules (1962), Smith (1962), Ritcey (1965), Houston (1968)Prescott (1968), and Brass and Brassard (1974) reported heavy utilization of specific browse species in areas of winter concentrations of moose. Although deciduous species provide the bulk of the winter diet, coniferous canopies provide shelter from deep snows and penetrating winds (Peek, 1970; Eastman, 1974; Markgren, 1974; Peek et al . , 1976). Selection of wintering areas may be the result of a migration from areas of deep snow to those having less snow (Edwards and Ritcey, 1956; Edwards, 1956; Ritcey, 1965; Dodds, 1974). The maintenance of productive moose populations is dependent on the manipulation of critical winter habitat utilizing fire, logging,, or mechanical treatment (Stelfox, 1962; Ritcey, 1972; Telfer, 1972; Syroechkovskiy and Rogacheva, 1974; Lykke, 1974). Food Habits and Forage Quality A detailed analysis of food habits of the North American moose 20 by Peek (1974) suggested the variability of the plant material obser-ved as part of the moose diet indicates the adaptability of the ungulate to local habitat types and conditions. In western North America, willow species provide the major winter forage (Wilson, 1971; Houston, 1968; Eastman, 1974). LeRejsche and Davis (1973) report extensive use of nonbrowse foods by moose in Alaska. Bark peeling, considered a sign of poor range conditions during the winter period, indicates a forage preference during the spring (des Meules, 1968). As a forest approaches the climatic climax condition, the quantity and quality of forage for moose deteriorates (Cowan et al., 1950). Measurement of forage quality is rather crude as maturity of plant, location of sample on the plant, species of plant, and site growth characteristics, influence sampling (Tew, 1970; Oldemeyer, 1974). Moose Management The net productivity of Alces on good range is considered to be between 20 and 25 percent (Simkin, 1974). The quality of habitat available and influence of climatic variables represent major factors in the rate of moose productivity. Female moose conceiving twins may be selected for in burns as a direct response of the reproductive potential of the ungulate to the favourable ecological variables (Geist, 1974). Climatic variables affecting productivity include ungulate response to both vegetation (Peek, 1962) and winter con-ditions (Ling, 1973). Wildlife managers have developed a number of techniques for moose management. Robinson (1962) described a management method u t i l i z i n g sex ratios and Mitchell et a l (1964) applied the sex ratio methodology i n distinct geographic locations. A high level of pro-ductivity was reported i n Simkin's (1964) study. The mean age of •': moose harvested by hunters was lower in heavily hunted areas than i n li g h t l y hunted areas. Ritcey (1974) and Gumming (1974) provided histories of moose management programs in both Canada and Ontario respectively. Season length, season closures, d i f f e r e n t i a l seasons for sexes and licence number restrictions controlled moose harvests. Long range planning and public education were also necessary to main-tain the management programs. The value of regulations with sound biological inputs i s often jeopardized by emotional and p o l i t i c a l pressures (Rausch et a l . , 1974). 4. PROCEDURES AND METHODS 4-1 Approaches to the Study of the Cameron River Reserve Moose  Population The nature of the forest habitat limits the opportunities to observe moose. In the study area, observations were further handi-capped by a rolling terrain with very few vantage points. Data on moose dispersion patterns and other characteristics were gathered by several means. Since, funding> and time were.very limited, no one of these methods offers complete data. 4-2 Road Checks and-Hunter Sample Returns The Fish and Wildlife Branch data collected at the Cache Creek Hunter Check. Station in south central British Columbia and the pro-vincial Hunter Sample returns, were used in the analysis of the moose population of the Peace River district of northeastern British Columbia (old Game Management Area 28, currently management units 7-19 to 22, 31 to 36 and 46 to 46). The Cache Creek data provided the age structure of a sample of the moose k i l l as aged using the method of Sergeant and Pimlott (1959). These data represent only moose killed by non-locals as the Cache Creek station is located at the junction of Highways 1 and 97, 1100. km south of the study area. Life tables and survivorship curves were developed according to the method of Eberhardt (1969). Estimates of moose hunter numbers and hunter success were obtained from the Hunter Sample returns but these data are for the whole Peace River area of which the study area is but a part. 4-3.1 Aerial Surveys and Local Office Records The moose population of the Cameron River Reserve per se was examined using completed aerial census reports and aerial reconnais-sance. Aerial survey reports provided sex ratios for moose in several areas of the Peace River and also provided a basis for sex ratio comparisons between different locations for different years. During the aerial reconnaissance flights, moose population features were recorded, and at the same time, moose habitat characteristics were described. These flights consisted of rough north-south oriented air searches using either a Cessna 172 fixed wing or a Bell Jet Ranger 206 B helicopter. Fixed wing aircraft flew at an altitude of 31 to 92 meters at approximately 130-160 kilometers per hour.' The maneuverability of the helicopter during animal classification activ-ities resulted in a variety of elevations and speeds (10-91.2 meters at an average speed of 110-225 kilometers per hour). Mitchell 1s (1970) moose classification methods were used to establish the sex of moose observed during the aerial surveys. Observations of moose and habitat were recorded by cassette recorder and plotted on 1:63360 gas exploration (seismic) maps. General spring and winter dispersion patterns of moose were established from aerial survey data. 4-3.2 Ground Surveys, Personal. Checks and Local Information Ground reconnaissance, associated with other research activities 24 and limited to a few miles of useable road,, provided additional data for the general spring and winter dispersion patterns established through aerial surveys. Moose dispersion patterns during summer, a period when thick foliage hinders the observer, were obtained using a limited number of animal and track observations. Autumn dispersion of moose in the habitats of the study area was determined through contact with hunters and local resident businessmen. The location of known moose harvests were marked on a 1:63360 seismic map. The age of each moose harvested was determined by sectioning the f i r s t incisor (Sergeant and Pimlott, 1959) (Appendix 9). 4-4 Measurement of Some Representative Forest Cover Types . The vegetative cover of the Boreal White and Black Spruce bio-geoclimatic zone of northeastern British Columbia, has been studied by Raup (1934), Jeffrey (1964), Wareing (1971), Annas (1971, 1973 and 1974) and Annas (unpublished). Variations in edaphic and climatic conditions and firing of the forests have created a mosaic of forest canopy types in the study area. Representative forest cover types, selected from aerial photographs on the basis of homogeneity, were quantitatively analyzed by methods modified from Ohmann and Ream (1971a) viz: 1. Ten sample points were systematically located in two groups of five parallel, to the contour. 2. The coverage class system of Daubenmire (1968) was employed to estimate ground cover.' 25 '-, The 18 m distance between sample point was paced rather than measured, Tree seedlings were treated as tall.shrubs. Representative canopy types were examined using the following data collected at each of the ten sample points during August, 1973 (Figure 4): .1. GROUND COVER (.3 x .6m frame) Species occurring in the herb layer (viz. mosses, lichens grasses, herbaceous plants and small shrubs), not ordinarily available to moose during winter, were ocularly assigned a coverage class ranking of 1-6 (Daubenmire, 1968). 2. TALL SHRUB COVER (Circular) The number of stems by species, diameter of stems and total estimated area occupied by species were recorded. A brow-sing index (U.S. D. A. Handbook, 1969) was utilized for a l l shrubs and the presence of pellet groups was noted. .3. SAPLING COVER (point - centered quarter) Saplings were defined as woody plants having a diameter at breast height (dbh) of 2.5-10 cm. The distance to the near-est sapling in each of four quadrants from the sample point was measured to the nearest .2 m. Species and dbh of the nearest live and dead sapling were noted. 4. TREE COVER (point - centered quarter) The tree cover of selected habitats was examined using the point - centered quarter method as described for saplings (Cottam and Curtis, 1956, In Ohmann and Ream (1971a)). Tree age and height were recorded for the nearest tree in quadrant four. A tree was considered any woody plant having a diameter of at least 10 cm at breast height. Summary computer programs, developed by Ohmann and Ream (1971a, 1971b) were used in the analysis of the sample plot data. 4-5 Some Abiotic Components of Winter Habitat in the Cameron River Reserve 4-5.1 Winter Air Climate A 1" x 2' Frame, Herbaceous Cover B Milacre p l o t , Shrub Cover. C Distance to nearest Sapling D Distance to nearest Tree Figure 4. Vegetation Analysis Methods at Each of Ten Sample Points (from Ohmann and Ream, 1971a) 27 The winter air climate (Dfc Koppen) of the study area is char-acterized by a wide range of air temperatures and wind speeds. The Canada Department of the Environment stations of Wonowon, Fort St. John and the Pink Mountain station located at mile 136, Alaska High-way, provide records which characterize the regional climate. Temper-atures recorded at these stations during the study period were compared to the temperature normals for the Fort St. John station for period from 1942-1970. Hygrothermographs were established at three locations in the study area; however, with access uncertain and performance and maintenance erratic, the incomplete data were of questionable value. 4-5.2 Snow Cover Measurements Snow cover data were obtained from several sources, viz: 1. The Canada Department of the Environment, Fort St. John Station (1942-present). 2. The newly-established Canada Department of the Environment Stations at nearby Wonowon (mile 101 A.H.) to the south, and Pink Mountain (mile 136 A.H.) to the north of the study area. 3. Snow stakes established in several forest sites. The Canada Department of the Environment records provided estimates of occurrence, nature and monthly totals of precipitation, and facilitated the development of a winter severity index useful for moose ethology in northeastern British Columbia. The effect of forest canopy on snow depth was assessed at ten sites in selected 28 habitat types by using snow stakes. Paired 2,5 x 7.6 cmx 1.2 m wooden stakes, painted at 15 cm areas of contrasting colours, were situated in representative forest types. The snow stakes were pos-itioned to face east and readings were made with minimal disturbance. Subtraction of the length of the stake exposed from the total stake length of 1.2 m gave the depth of snow. Observations were made monthly during the winter of 1972-1973 and bimonthly during 1973-1974. Qualitative aspects of snow cover such as texture, load on stems and branches, and disturbance by falling snow were noted. The forest canopy cover at these sites was estimated using a dot grid analysis of black and white photographs taken with a Konica Autoreflex T camera equipped with a Pentax fisheye lens. 4-6 Measurement of Forage ' 4-6.1 Measurement of>"Forage Abundance and Availability The relative abundance of shrub forage was estimated in selected forage communities using the Wilderness Ecology methods of Ohmann and Ream (1971a) (see 4-4). Detailed forage abundance and availability measurements were considered to be beyond the scope of this study; variability created by seismic line cuts and by differential snow depth and ablation and other factors is manifest in the area's vegetational mosaic. .. 4-6.2 Measurement of Forage Quality Selected forage species were sampled to broadly define browse 29 quality and its change with season. The species, chosen on the basis of abundance and documented importance to moose, were two willows, lodgepole pine, white spruce, aspen, bog birch, alder, and an arboreal.lichen (Alectoria spp.). Randomly selected plants were chosen from representative forest and ecotone areas which could be easily reached during the winter. Sampling occurred in May (Spring), November (Autumn) of 1973, and monthly during the adverse period (December - March) of 1973-1974. The forage samples were systematic-ally . collected within the same 12 hour period and air dried. The browse consisted of current year 1s growth and any plant material  attached to. the current year's growth at the time of sampling. That is , leaves were not separately sampled. Forage samples were oven dried at 85°C for 24 hours and ground to a fine texture using a Wiley mill. Two analyses undertaken were: 1. Crude Protein Determination Crude protein, usually the most important nutrient to wild ungulates, includes both true protein and nonprotein nitro-gen. Rumen function is impaired by low levels of protein. The modified semi-micro Kjeldahl method of Nelson and Sommers (1973) was used to evaluate crude protein duplicate samples of selected forages utilized by moose. 2. Quantification of Lignin Content Lignin is a complex component of plants that is virtually non-digestible. The Acetyl Bromide method of Morrison (1972) was used to determine lignin values which indicate the diges-t i b i l i t y of forages. 4-7 Forage Use by Wintering Moose 4-7.1 Rumen Analysis .Rumen samples were collected to determine the general food . habitet:preferences of moose in the boreal forest. A sampling bias occurred because of the ease with which autumn (hunting season) material is obtained and because out-of-season killing on a large scale was undesirable. A few winter samples were obtained from one harvested moose, road k i l l s and poached animals. Rumen contents were thoroughly mixed in situ and a'large sub^ -sample removed and stored frozen in plastic bags. Winter sampling was sometimes dif-ficult as freezing conditions prevented thorough mixing of the rumen contents. Sub-samples (ca. 1 litre) were removed from the thoroughly mixed, thawed large samples and washed, 250 ml. at a time, through a 4 mm sieve with a constant flow of water (Eastman, 1974). Identi-fiable plant material was. separated, placed on paper towelling, and then volumetrically measured to give percentage estimates of volume. 4-7.2 Trailing Studies Harry (1957), Knowlton (1960), Ritcey (1965), Peek (1974), Eastman (personal communication), and Peek et al. (1976) documented forage use by moose by employing a trailing technique. The basic method involves trailing fresh moose sign for various distances and observing instances of forage.use. Peek-(1974) recognized definite constraints to the method, viz: 1. Determination of what constitutes "fresh use". 2. Differential observability of use of different plants. 3. Determination of a single bite. 4. Definition of feeding areas (casual feeding or curious browsing vs preferred feeding areas). During the 1973-1974 winter period, the fresh tracks of several moose 31 were followed and en route their use of forage recorded; undoubtedly bias occurred in sampling as ease of access to the tracks varied greatly through the winter. The vegetation keys of Morris et a l . (1962) were used to identify unknown species. Data recorded include: 1. Time during the winter. 2. Species eaten. 3. Number of bites per shrub, i f applicable. 4. Height of bite above snow level as determined by visual estimate. For the purpose of the. trailing analysis, the following statements apply: bite: An uneven but characteristic twig break assumed to be one incidence of browsing. shrub: A stem or group of. woody stems that constitute, based on visual judgement of stem proximity, a single plant. Snow accumulations precluded the use of a demarcation of a shrub as a plant having a stem completely surrounded by soil or similar definition. Data were analyzed using n-way joint frequency distribution CROSS TABS programs and an IBM computer (Nie et al., 1970). Casual obser-vations of moose foraging or evidence of moose foraging were recorded to provide a broad data base to quantify moose food habits. Obser-vations of experienced northeastern British Columbia outdoorsmen were also recorded. The data obtained from the several food habit techniques were pooled and summarized. Each technique had its limit-ations. Moose food habit studies of other researchers are presented for comparative purposes. 32 4-8 Procedures for Estimating Winter Dispersion Patterns of Moose Dispersion patterns of moose in winter habitats were difficult to determine. Snow conditions and depths in excess of 76 cm reduced mobility by both food and vehicle. Rolling forested terrain, usually devoid of outlook points, reduced ground reconnaissance efficiency. Helicopter and fixed wing surveys, completed by ground  truthing, provided most of the moose dispersion information in the winter habitats. The helicopter (Bell Jet Range 206 B) flights were more or less orientated in a rough north-south direction; the fixed wing (Cessna 172) searches were more precise in north-south direction being parallel to the configurations of the terrain. Much of the aerial reconnaissance was concentrated on observing moose in winter habitats rather than observations of habitats not utilized by moose. Harper (personal. communication) suggested habitat type, as defined by dominant forest type, was a criti c a l variable in the dis-persion of moose. To test this hypothesis, the following general hypotheses were developed, viz: Ho During the winter period, moose in the Boreal White and Black Spruce Biogeoclimatic Zone are dispersed in (a) pre-ferred habitat type(s); or Hi During the winter period, moose in the Boreal White and Black Spruce Biogecclimatic Zone are dispersed throughout a l l available habitat types without preference for any (one) habitat(s). , Only a single frequency statistic (viz. delineation of the habitat type in which moose are observed) is required to test these 33 hypotheses. Though this simplistic approach provides important empir-ical data, other variables were also examined. A l l were stored in a cassette recorder, mapped on 1:63360 seismic maps, and later recorded on individual observation.sheets. Data on record include: 1. Date and time of observation. 2. Position of moose on the slope. 3. Number and classification (if possible) of moose sighted. 4. Number of standing animals. 5. Estimate of the proximity of animals. 6. Simple canopy type. 7. Estimate of slope (steepness). 8. Primary direction of exposure (aspect). 9. Microtopographic direction of exposure (aspect). 10. Forage species utilized during observations (limited obser-vations) . 11. Estimated distance of moose from maturing coniferous canopy (limited observations). In addition, the Canada Land Inventory, Forest Cover, Soil Association and transposed moose dispersion maps contributed the following infor-mation as map overlays (1:126720): 1. Recent modification of the land (if any). 2. Forest cover type (B.C. Forest Service). 3. Canada Land Inventory Wildlife Capability. 4. Canada Land Inventory Forestry Capability. 5. Canada Land Inventory Recreation Capability. 6. Soil Associations (Lord, 1972 unpublished). 7. Co-ordinates of moose observation locations (.8 km grid). 34 Details are appended (Appendix 11). Data from two related studies, the aforementioned trailing analysis to determine food habits, and a study of bed site character-istics, were incorporated with these data. At a: limited number of fresh moose beds, characteristics such as aspect, slope, dominant cover, browse species composition, and snow depths, were recorded. Data for the 1973-1974 winter period were subjected to Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) programs as documented in Le (1972) and Andrews et al. (1973). The MCA programs "examine the interrelationships between several predictor variables and a dependent variable within the context of an additive model". (Andrews et al., 1973). As part of the multiple classification analysis (super vide), a mul-tiple regression technique, summarized "the effect of each predictor variable on the dependent ^variable both before and after taking into account the effects of a l l variables".. (Andrews et al., 1973). For the purpose of this project, the dependent variable considered was MOOSE DISPERSION and eight predictor variables were chosen from the literature and my data (Table 1). Development of the MCA technique required several computer runs. Reported results, for the early winter (November 1" - January 15) and later winter (January 16 — April 1) periods, represent an aggregation of similar data, viz. data were summed for census cells of the systematic grid. MCA printouts presented several valuable statistics of which three are detailed. The squared multiple correlation coefficient evaluated the proportion of observed moose dispersion variance explained by 35 TABLE 1 A SUMMARY OF.' PREDICTOR VARIABLES USED IN THE MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS Predictor Code Predictor Rationale for Predictor Use CAN SLP. Forest Canopy Type Slope ASP. HT. SNO. . MODI. EDGE. FAGE.. Aspect Height of For-est Canopy Snow depth Recent Land Modification Edge Effect Forest Canopy Age Description of simple forest canopy type (as a habitat description) Indication of any topographic pref-erence of moose. Harper (pers. comm.) theorized that mid-slope areas were important for thermal reasons in mid-winter. Measurement or the orientation of the terrain to the sun. A measurement of the tree layer. The length and type of the canopy influ-ences the degree of cover and amount of browse. Estimation of snow depth during the observation period to examine the effect of snow depth on habitat selection. Definition of recently modified habitat. A simple measurement of edge. Cowan et a l . (1950) and Eastman (1974) have documented the value of ecotones to moose. An estimation of the age of the forest canopy. Effects shelter and forest availability. 36 the eight predictor variables together (multivariate analysis). The Eta-squared statistic was a one-way analysis of variance indi-cating the proportion of the total sum of squares explained by each predictor variable (Hudson, 1975). The Beta-squared value measured the unique ability of each predictor variable to explain the variation in the dependent variable while controlling for a l l other predictors (Andrews et al., 1973). The MCA coefficient for each predictor category indicated the relationship of the predictor variable category and the dependent variable MOOSE DISPERSION. 37 5. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 5-1 Seme Observations and Statistics for Moose in the Peace River  District Statistics for the Cameron River Reserve study area may be usefully set in the context of the larger physiographic area viz. the Peace River area of northeastern British Columbia. Northeastern British Columbia, especially the Peace River area, has extensive areas of choice habitat characterized by the,.deciduous forage species favoured by moose, a mid-successional species (Dasmann, 1964). The presence of moose in the Peace River district was f i r s t noted by Alexander MacKenzie (1801); Williams (1932), Raup (1934), Cowan (1939), and Rand (1944) have provided more detailed population and habitat information. Harper (personal communication) roughly esti-mated the Peace River area moose population at 50,000 animals. Although moose, are distributed throughout the area, numbers in the eastern portions are few as a result of agricultural development and the occurrence of extensive muskeg. Mountain and foothill areas are extremely productive. During mild winters, moose have been observed at altitudes in excess of 1525 m, but severe winter conditions often force the ungulate to the restricted valley bottoms. Though not documented before, i t is to be noted that moose in this region migrate from areas of excessive snow depth to areas of lesser snow depth. Migrations of this nature have been documented in other parts of the province (Edwards and Ritcey, 1956; Ritcey, 1965). The Canada Land Inventory has rated the capability of the land of the Peace River district to produce ungulates. Major river valleys were 38 rating extremely "high". Harper (personal communication) suggested 2 a moose density of 4 per km for lands rated as 1W (Appendix 11 explains Canada Land Inventory symbols). A recent revision of ungu-2 late density data suggested that a moose density of 5 per km for the same lands might be estimated (Luckhurst et al . , 1975). Thousands of acres of such prime moose habitat, rated 1W and 2W by the Canada Land Inventory to-day, l i e beneath the reservoir created on the Peace River for hydroelectric power. The reservoir, partly covered by floating trees and debris, provides a vivid testimonial for the total disrespect shown the environment by the insatiable demands of a growth-oriented human population. Proper management and enhance-ment of remaining critical habitat is now required. In the early homesteading days of the fi r s t half of the century, moose were a .common source of food as the- settlers sought self-sufficiency. The only ground travel routes linked the area to nor-thern Alberta. With the construction of the John Hart Highway in 1952 and subsequent paving in 1955, a link from the Peace River district to north central British Columbia was provided. Even with access to the Peace River district, moose hunters from southern British Colum-bia, frequented areas north and west of Prince George in the central interior of the province. However, the construction workers who came to the Peace River following the decisions to develop the Peace River for power and to export local gas to parts of the United States and British.Columbia, soon discovered .the excellent moose hunting opportunities in the northeast (Table 2). Moose hunting was further encouraged by a two moose season (1967, 1968 and 1969 hunting seasons) TABLE 2 MOOSE HARVEST IN NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1950-1974 (HUNTER SAMPLE) (PEACE RIVER AND NORTHERN B.C., NORTH OF 56°N) ESTIMATED NUMBER ESTIMATED MOOSE ESTIMATES OF YEAR OF MOOSE HUNTERS HARVEST SUCCESS 1950 1,478 340 23 1951 1,559 265 17 1952 2,012 644 32 1953 380 114 30 1954 1,552 326 21 1955 1,559 608 39 1956 2,105 821 39 1957 2,692 1,373 51 1958 3,554 2,026 57 1959 3,512 2,177 62 1960 3,706 1,779 48 1961 4,091 2,373 58 1962 4,692 3,378 72 1963 5,425 3,038 56 1964 5,943 3,292 55 1965 4,931 2,814 57 1966 5,919 3,646 62 1967 6,188 3,729 60 1968 8,402 5,726 68 1969 6,868 4,120 60 1970 9,683 5,183 54 1971 9,337 5,613 60 1972 8,302 3,410 41 1973 11,750 5,283 45 1974 9,010 3,655 41 Area presently covered by Management Units 7-1 to 7-53, 6-7, 6-17B, 6-16 to 6-29 (1975). Previously Game Management Area 26, 27, 28 and portions of 21 and 25 north of 56°N latitude.• Originally Game Management Area 21 The data presented represent the sum of information for G.M.A. 26, 27 and 28 as very limited access results in insignificant resident harvests in G.M.A. "21 and 25 north of 56 . 40 in an attempt to utilize the thousands of moose about to be des-troyed by rising waters of the Williston reservoir and to shift the hunting public from the central portion of the province. Hunting success was extremely high during this period of time and the Peace River district became known for its abundance of moose (Figure 5). To-day, local hunters constitute only slightly more than f i f t y per-cent of the British Columbia hunters in the Peace River area and hunting is largely restricted to the Alberta Plateau as the Rocky Mountain region of the northeast is accessible only by aircraft or horse. Non-resident hunters, attracted by a variety of trophy species and well publicized guiding services, take moose and other trophies almost exclusively from the habitats of the Rocky Mountain region. The Cache Creek Hunter Check Station, provides age and sex data of wildlife harvested mainly in central and northern British Columbia by both residents and non-residents. According to the 1972 records, 18 percent of the male moose shot and 34 percent of the females harvested by resident hunters in the Peace River district, were old animals,.'i.e. 5.5 years or older; in 1973, the male moose proportion increased slightly to 19 percent while females decreased to 22 percent. The British Columbia Hunter Sample, designed to estimate hunter and harvest numbers (Table 2 and Figure 5), shows that, in northern British Columbia, marked fluctuations occur in the numbers of moose hunters and in the estimates of harvests. A l l of the following influences may well be involved in an explanation of these variations: 1. Variations in the weather. . " : 10T F i g u r e 5, A H i s t o r y o f E s t i m a t e d H u n t e r H a r v e s t a n d H u n t e r S u c c e s s i n N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( s e e T a b l e 2 f o r a r e a d e s c r i p t i o n ) 42 2. Length and timing of both antlered.and antlerless seasons. 3. Changes in hunter numbers and effort. 4. Shifts in hunter distribution. Averaging the data for four hunting seasons in Game Management Area 28 (M.U.'s 7-19 to 22, 31 to 36, 43 to 46) viz. 1971-1974, about 7,109 moose hunters a year harvested 22 percent of the provincial moose harvest (i.e. about 3,305 moose) in this area alone. Compari-sons with harvests of earlier years are not very meaningful as changes in hunter mobility have occurred; in 1950, for example, one half the moose known to be shot in British Columbia were from the area south of Quesnel rather than in the northern portions of the province (Ritcey, 1974). Data presented for recent Cache Creek Hunter checks suggest a constant percentage of male moose harvested can be considered in the 5.5 year or older age category. A significant reduction in the percentage of older females harvested in 1973 may be the result of a larger aged sample size, a real decrease in female moose surviving to the 1973 season, or, more likely, the effect of a reduced cow hunting season. Life tables and survivorship curves (Eberhardt, 1969) appended, show the differences between moose survival for 1972 and 1973 (Appendix 16). Hunter preference for male moose (selection), vulnerability of the bull during the rut, a short cow season, and the sex ratio of the population, explain the difference in male and female survivorship curves; i f the slopes may be taken as the level of exploitation, the 1972 and 1973 harvests may be regarded as acceptable (Larson, 1970). In 1973, the curves for both males and 43 females are very similar. Even i f the reduction in the 1973 female harvest is taken into consideration, the harvest may s t i l l be con-sidered to be moderate because.a large percentage of young moose were harvested; a heavy harvest of older moose would suggest a population of reduced productivity and one which is lightly exploited (Martin, 1956; Simkin, 1964; Lynch 1973, and Ojimiing, 1974). The British Columbia Hunter Sample, designed to estimate hunter and harvest numbers, describes an increased male moose k i l l of 1973 and 1974. Increases in the ratio of the length of bull season to the length of cow season, may partially explain this increase. Ritcey (1974) suggested that selection against calves is strongest where moose are abundant. The juvenile:cow ratio of the k i l l for Game Management Area 28 (33:100) is considered to be indicative of a lightly hunted area. The juvenile component of the k i l l as esti-mated in Table 3 suggests a strong selection against juveniles in the Peace River district. .5-2 Moose Population Characteristics in the Cameron River Reserve Aerial census reports from years prior to this study were examined to provide an estimate of the size of the moose population in the Cameron River Reserve. However, wildlife census flights have traditionally been conducted to evaluate the sex ratios of moose rather than to provide exact locations of the animal (Robinson, 1962). Only two of the early flights provided accurate moose location information. A Canada Land Inventory survey of March, 1966 44 TABLE 3 MOOSE CLASSIFIED ON HELICOPTER FLIGHTS PEACE RIVER DISTRICT 1972, 1973 (B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch Surveys) Census Area Observations Sex Ratio males females juveniles u n c l a s s i f i e d F M J 1972 Peace River 22 68 30 1 100: 32:43 Pine River 49 53 25 0 100: 92:48 Cameron River- 102 112 48 6 100: 91:35 Cache Creek 1973 Peace River 9 46 32 0 100: 20:70 Pine River 28 51 . 39 0 100: 54:76 Cameron River- 72 210 • 110 0 100: 34:52 CSehe Creek West of Halfway River 34 42 25 0 100: 81:60 TABLE • 4 MOOSE CLASSIFIED FROM HELICOPTER SURVEYS CAMERON RIVER RESERVE 1972, 1973, 1974 F l i g h t Date Observations Sex Ratio males females juveniles u n c l a s s i f e d F M J December 5, 1972 79 88 34 5 100: 90:39 December 45? 1973 ' 21 23 6 '2 100: 91:35 December 15, 1973 23 • 86 39 .0 100: 27:45 February 22, 1974 56 86 28 56 100: 65:33 TOTALS (n=632) 179 283 107 63 100: 63:38 45 included 3 east-west flight transects over the Cameron River Reserve to document dispersion patterns. A second aerial census, conducted by Regional Wildlife Biologist, F.E. Harper, on February 1, 1972, provided a healthy winter sex ratio of 100:62:39 (female:male: juvenile) for some 430 moose observed in or near the study area. An important, but secondary objective of the study, was to obtain estimates of the size of the moose population wintering in the study area. Aerial census data, gathered mainly for the purposes of habitat use discussions, must be assessed in the light of the limitations of aerial reconnaissance methods. These are well known and have been extensively reviewed by LeResche and Rausch (1974) and Timmerman (1974) who also emphasized the need for caution in interpretation. Important variables affecting the census are the randomness of flight lines, forest cover type, weather and snow conditions, slope and aspect, observer awareness and experience, and pilot awareness and experience. Accurate population and density estimates are difficult in the absence of known.square mile plots or defined flight lines (Lungle, 1971). LeResche and Rausch (1974) found census errors in square mile quadrat sampling through habitat arid observer biases. Random and rough transects were utilized here to document moose dispersion patterns in available habitats and to continue long term sex ratio comparisons. LeResche and Rausch (1974) have presented limited data on the effects of forest canopy characteristics on moose visi b i l i t y in controlled plots in Alaska. Sumanik (personal communication), Eastman (personal communication), Harper (personal communication), 46 and the author have concluded that given a constant, flat terrain with l i t t l e coniferous cover, a maximum of 80 percent of the moose present are observable from.the air but that over the same terrain established to trees with a well-developed canopy, the percentage observed is extremely low. Ritcey (personal communication) suggested search time (intensity), aircraft type and light conditions are important variables linked to forest type. Also, a long search time and a G3B helicopter aircraft may disturb the animals, causing them to "flush" so they can be tallied whereas a short search time with a Bell 206B Jet Ranger helicopter or fixed wing, may not have the same effect. Wind, temperature, sunshine and cloud influence the ability or opportunity to see moose from the air. Harper (personal communi-cation) suggested optimum Peace River district census conditions during winter exist at about -29°C under high overcast and with calm winds. Ritcey (personal communication) suggested that moose are more likely to bed in the shade on a bright day thus making obser-vations difficult. Fresh snow is usually desirable as the presence or absence of tracks is an indication of whether moose are present. The presence of fresh tracks momentarily increase observer awareness. Ritcey (personal communication) documented reduced vis i b i l i t y with frozen snow or hoar frost on deciduous canopies and i t is the author's experience that freshly fallen or wind blown snow on bedded moose reduces their vi s i b i l i t y from the air. Gusty or prevailing winds can force moose to the shelter of dense conifer canopies as observed by Sumanik (personal communication) and impairs both mental concen-tration and physical evidence of the observers. 47 Vaxiations i n slope and aspect affected animal v i s i b i l i t y i n the survey area. Aircraft type, f l i g h t direction and f l i g h t speed and height may be determined by terrain types. Attempted fixed wing line transects following east-west seismic lines failed as most lines bisected the north-south trend of the ridges. Low level f l i g h t routes, while providing excellent ground v i s i b i l i t y on the east-facing slope, were poor for west-facing slope examination as the climbing speed necessary to remain airborn was excessive. North-south f l i g h t lines, p a r a l l e l to the ridges overcame this problem to some extent. Though most of the study area has been modir fied by f i r e , some unaltered sites s t i l l exist and thus slope and aspect, along with s o i l type, have influenced the development of the vegetation to a greater extent. Slope and nearness of f l i g h t to the slope affected observations. Observers seated i n the rear of the a i r c r a f t with no forward view, were able to scan parallel slopes easier than f l a t terrain. Observer awareness decreased with f l i g h t length due mainly to eye fatigue which varied with flying and sunlight conditions. Exper-ience too in viewing moose and habitat i n the correct perspective had to be acquired. P i l o t experience and awareness i s a corribination of knowledge of the area, awareness of animal habits, and interest i n w i l d l i f e . Most pilots have considerable a b i l i t y to observe animals from the a i r . The a b i l i t y to predict the response of an animal to aircra f t and i t s probable escape route i s a desirable quality, especially when a helicopter i s used. Sheep, elk, deer and moose react 48 differently to disturbance from aircraft. These reactions may vary from habitat type to habitat type. Tables 3 and 4 summarize moose classified during helicopter surveys. Sex ratios are affected by the time of flight, the area surveyed and possible differential habitat selection by group and sex (Peek, 1962; Peek et al., 1976). Census conditions were ideal for the December 5, 1972 flight as high overcast at a temperature of•approximately -29°C. The bull:cow ratio was 90:100. Many males were observed in the preferred lowland shrub and burn habitats utilized primarily during the post rut period. Thirty-nine juveniles per 100 cows (uncorrected for non-product cows) indicate moderate productivity. A very small portionJof the study area was surveyed on December 4, 1973 with male moose prominent in the bog birch -willow lowland shrub of the Cameron River headwaters area. Glare and warm, sunny weather, adversely affected the accuracy of the December 15, 1973 count. A harvest ratio of 224 males per 100 females (74 males, females actually shot) is reflected in the classified census data. The lowland shrub habitats were lightly pop-ulated at this time, perhaps due to the recent presence of hunters and use of other habitats. The 45:100 juvenile to cow ratio, rep-resents healthy productivity. One known set of twin calves was observed on a recent burn located on a west-facing slope. The large U-shaped Halfway River valley, the western border of the study area, was intensively searched on February 22, 1974. Clear skies and deep snow conditions resulted in an excellent count. Fifty-six moose could not be classified partly because moose near groups of domestic 49 animals were not classified for fear of disturbing these livestock. Large concentrations of moose were difficult to classify as the helicopter caused the animals to scatter. The difference between the December 15, 1973 (early winter) ratio of 100:27:45 and the February (late winter) ratio of 100:65:33 is, at least, partially explained by the difference in area surveyed, the difference in time of year, the probable difference in animal status (viz. resident versus migrant), and the difference in habitat selection by sexes. The difference in the male components from the two flights may be a result of large numbers of males migrating from an area of lower hunting pressure, i.e. where non-residents are taken on guided hunts, and perhaps differences in male habitat selection (viz. post rut versus late winter). The variations in the juvenile numbers may indicate the influence of possible lower productivity in the foot-h i l l s , an early winter mortality of 21 juveniles per 100 cows, immig-ration or emigration of juveniles, or differential observability of cows and juveniles in December and February. However, data previously presented indicates high productivity in the foothill area. Cow: juvenile ratios obtained.on the February flight are similar to those obtained by Harper"in February, 1972. One hundred and seventy-six of 226 moose observed occurred dn approximately 34.2 km of valley habitat. By assuming an average survey path width of .8 km (.4 km on each side of the helicopter), the moose density was calculated as 6.2 ± 1.8 moose/km2 (t .= .05). Estimates of the size of the moose population in the study area may be made utilizing data secured from both aerial surveys and hunter harvest information. Calculations assume that vi s i b i l i t y biases associated with the habitat types can be defined and that there is no repetition of survey area. Two February flights over distinct portions of the study area were combined for this estimate a fixed wing aircraft flight over portions of the area east of the Halfway River and a helicopter survey of the Halfway River valley. Of the 316 moose observed, 187 were seen in open habitats, 90 moose were observed in deciduous forest and 39 in coniferous cover. Discussions in 5-2 have indicated that i t is difficult to quantify the v i s i b i l i t y biases for the different forest canopy types. How-ever, using a l l of the information available in the literature and information of other researchers (Ritcey, pers. comm.; Harper, pers comm.; Eastman, pers. comm.), i t is assumed that 80 percent of the moose present are observed in open habitats, 60 percent observed in deciduous habitats and 20 percent in. coniferous habitats. Given these assumptions, the population of moose, as determined by aerial survey, can be calculated as: Number of moose observed in open habitats 187 _ .8 o r .8 6 Number of moose observed in deciduous habitats 90 ^ or — p r = 150 Number of moose observed ,6 in coniferous habitats 39 , : ^ or -TT = 195 .2 Total moose population of the census area = 579 51 Area of moose clumping in preferred valley locations were adequately surveyed but upland areas were only partially surveyed. Five hundred and seventy-nine moose represent a minimum population estimate. In 1973, 94 bull moose were harvested from the study area. The spring (1974) carry-over count of juveniles was 33:100 cows. Assuming a 50:50 sex ratio for juveniles, the carry-over of bull juveniles was 16:100 cows. If 100 cows produce 16 juveniles, the number of cows required to produce 94 males i s : 94 x 100 n c o o _ r-F or 588 cows 16 Based on the ratio of 100:65:33 (female:male:juvenile), the popu-lation is estimated as 588 females, 382 males, and 194 juveniles, or 1,164 moose. This estimate is influenced by unknown numbers of moose migrating to the study area during the winter. The minimum number of moose wintering in the study area ranges from 562 to 1,164 animals. The calculated cow:juvenile ratio, established through aerial census, represents a mimumum productivity estimate as an unknown portion of females are incapable of reproduction as yearlings and two year olds. Markgren's (1969) conclusion that most females reach puberty at age two was verified in Swan Hills, Alberta by Lynch (1973). Ritcey (personal communication) suggested a small percentage of females breed as long yearlings in southern British Columbia. The cow component of the sex ratio should be adjusted to reflect true productivity. In the absence of quantified variables to develop a confident adjustment factor, sex ratios were compared assuming a constant reproductive portion of the cow moose in the population. 52 Aerial surveys are valuable in establishing trends in wildlife population parameters. Table 3 presents recent Peace River district moose sex ratios. Unmeasured factors which influence ungulate sex ratios include: a) hunter selection and pressure (access), b) aerial survey conditions, c) observability of moose in varying habitats, d) the area-surveyed, and e) the influence of predators. The data suggest the Cameron River Reserve is as productive as anywhere in the Peace River district. Some biologists (viz. Mitchell et al. , 1964; Lynch, 1973) adjust sex ratios for productive females. Unknown factors involved in such an accurate adjustment inciide: a) sex ratio of embryos and calves -Pimlott (1959) and Markgren (1969) suggested 55-58 percent of births were males, b) differential age and sex survival.- Males enter the critic a l winter period low on fat reserves and physically exhausted from the rut. Unlike older males, young bulls do not participate strenuously in breeding activities (Markgren, 1974; Harper, pers. comm.). Ritcey (1974) documented yearling male pre-rut vulnerability to hunting, in .British Columbia; and c) differential grouping and habitat selection by sexes. Aerial surveys are usually undertaken in December to facilitate easy recognition of antlered males. Group age and sex composition influences habitat selection which in turn affects moose observability (Peek et al., 1976). Considering the factors involved in adjusting for adult produc-tivity, Harper (personal communication) utilized uncorrected sex ratios to manage Peace River district moose populations. Retention of natural population sex ratios, whether 60 percent - 40 percent in 53 favour of cows, as documented by Cowan (1943), or 50 percent of each sex, as suggested by Peterson (1955) and Ritcey (personal com-munication) , is the primary goal of moose management; in British Columbia. Differential hunting season length is widely used to manipulate moose sex ratios. Harper (personal communication), Regional Wildlife Biologist for the area, recammended that the high proportion of males in the Peace River moose population be decreased by shortening the length of the cow hunting season in 1973. An increase in the harvest of male moose was documented by the 1973 and 1974 Hunter Samples. 5-3 Distribution of a Sample of Aged Moose A sample of 63 incisors, 37.5 percent of the known harvest, was aged from the 1972 and 1973 hunter harvest in the Cameron River Reserve. Tables 5 and 6 document the age structure of this sample. The average age of adults harvested in 1972 was 4.9 years of age (n = 37). Over both the 1972 and 1973 seasons, the average age of male moose taken was 4.8 years (n - 40). The average age of females was 4.1 years (n = 14). Moose in the sample ranged from .5 to 12.5 years of age. The average age of moose harvested in the Cameron River Reserve is similar to recent harvests in Big Game Zone 5, Cypress Hills, St. Paul and the mountain zones of Alberta (Lynch, 1973). Lynch (1973) reported an average age of 7.2 for males and 8.2 for females in a lightly harvested moose population in northern Alberta. Dimming (1974) concluded that changes in age ratio related to over-hunting were difficult to document. He suggested that,an increase 54 TABLE 5 AGES OF ADULT MOOSE KILLED IN THE CAMERON RIVER RESERVE, 1972 AND 1973 Year Number of Number of Bulls Number of Average Cows Number of Average Harvested Bulls Aged Age Harvested Cows Aged Age 1972 25 1973 74 Both Years 99 11 29 40 4.1 5.1 4.8 25 33 58 6 8 14 4.3 3.9 4.1 Number of Unclassified 1s Harvested Number of Number of Adults Juveniles Total Harvested Harvested Harvest 1972 1 1973 1 Both Years 2 50 107 157 4 5 9 55 113 168 55 Table 6 Age Structure Of A Sample Of Moose Harvested By Hunters, 1972 and 1973 Two Year 1972 1973 T o t a l Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Harvested of Harvest Harvested of Harvest Harvested of Harvest Age 0-.5 .5-1.5 1.5- 2.5 2.5-3.5 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5 7.5-8.5 8.5-9.5 9.5-10.5 10.5-11.5 11.5-12.5 12.5-13.5 4 3 2 4 3 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 19.0 14.0 9.5 19.0 14.0 0 14.0 9.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 7 5 4 5 2 1 2 3 0 0 2 0 11.9 14.2 16.6 11.9 9.5 11.9 4.7 2.3 4.7 7.1 0 0 4.7 0 9 9 9 9 7 5 5 3 2 3 0 0 2 0 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 11.1 7.9 7.9 4.7 3.1 4.7 0 0 3.1 0 T o t a l s (n) 21 Average tx) 3.5 (calves and adults) Percentage 38 of known har-vest aged 42 4.4 37 63 4.1 37.5 56 in the percentage of yearlings harvested as a result of increased hunting intensity (20-45 percent of the k i l l ) . Simkin (1964) found 24 percent of the harvest in the five and one-half plus age category in easily accessible Ontario moose populations. In is o l -ated populations, however, 59 percent of the harvest was in this category. Reduced pressure and selection were considered important factors in the harvest of isolated moose populations. The harvest of older animals (5.5 years plus) was 24 percent and 32 percent for 1972 and 1973 respectively in the study area. In terms of Simkin's anal-ysis, the area is classified as accessible. The 1973 increase in the harvest of older animals can be attributed to a larger sample size, increased pressure by hunters, and the effect of dry weather on hunter access which made.possible the harvest of moose normally inaccessible. Unknown animal movements may also have contributed to this increase. Harvest of yearling moose was essentially constant for both years (14 percent). Life tables developed for the Cameron River Reserve moose population are based on a very small sample size. Data collected for males were used because the sample size was much bigger than, that of female moose. Female l i f e tables are, of course, superior to tables based on statistics for males (Henny et al., 1970). Conscious of the data limitations, the l i f e tables and survivorship curves are presented for cautious comparison with Peace River district data secured from the Cache Creek Hunter Check:Station (Appendix 12). Survivorship of male moose in the study area was similar to that of the Peace River district male moose in 1972 and greater in 1973. 57 5-4 Analysis of Major Plant Ccmnunities Used by Moose in the Boreal  White and Black Spruce Biogeoclimatic Zone Fire and drainage are two important factors influencing the tree, shrub and herb layers of the vegetation of the Boreal White and Black Spruce Biogeoclimatic Zone. Eight sample plots, representing princi-pal cover types (Figure 6), were selected on the basis of relative layer densities, probable importance in moose dispersion, stand homogeneity and accessibility. These plots were analyzed to define the vegetative characteristics of representative habitats. Three sites were duplicated to test the effect of reducing the 20 sample points of Ohmann and Ream (1971a) to 10 points. Tables 7 and 8 summarize the cover types studied; summary com-puter printouts for each plot are appended (Appendix 13). Based on the Wilderness Ecology methods (Ohmann and Ream, 1971a), type vege-tation is described as follows: 1. Birch - Willow (Betula - Salix) Lowland Shrub Community The vegetation of the Betula - Salix lowland shrub community is dominated by thick stands of glandular birch (Betula glandu-losa) and willow (Salix bebbiana var bebbiana) of the shrub layer and moss (Hylocomium splendens) and grass species (Gramineae) of the herb layer. There is no tree layer. The Betula - Salix low-land shrub community is restricted to the hydric sites (receiving) located in the headwaters of the small drainages of the Cameron River. The largest area of this community is prominent in the upper Cameron River drainage and was utilized by post-rut bull moose groups in late November and December. The valley bottom location of this community designates i t as critical winter habitat though available forage may not be preferred;. Domestic livestock use portions of this community under permit. 2. Willow - Alder (Salix - Alnus) Upland Shrub Community The Salix - Alnus upland shrub community, common on ridges, represents post-fire mesic site revegetation. The tree layer, represented here and there by clumps of decadent willow (prob-ably Salix scouleriana) and rare lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) 58 Figure 6. Forest Types of the Study Area TABLE 7 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETATION PLOTS P l o t Number Community Type Moisture Nutrient S o i l A l t i t u d e Estimated C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Association and Exposure Slope (°) Average Height Average Age . of • Dominant 1. •' of Dominant Tree Canopy Tree Canopy (meters) (years) Betula - Salix hydric Osborn-Nig o r t h i c gray Lu v i s o l 3300' West Salix - Alnus mesic F e l l e r s -Wonowon 3600' East 10° Populus tremuloides mesic (regeneration) Wonowon-Osborn-Jedney o r t h i c gray L u v i s o l 3000' West 30 Q Pinus - Populus (regeneration) mesic-xenc Wonowon-Osborn-Jedney o r t h i c gray L u v i s o l 3600' 10° Pinus contorta 19 Southwest 8 m • ?v (n=18) (n=10) TABLE 7 - Continued PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETATION PLOTS Average Height Average Age Pl o t Number Community Type Moisture Nutrient C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S o i l Association''" A l t i t u d e and Exposure Estimated Slope (°) of Dominant Tree Canopy (meters) of Dominant Tree Canopy (years) 5. Populus tremuldides (maturing) mesic Wonowon-Osborn-Jedney o r t h i c gray L u v i s o l 3000' West 25° Populus tremuloides 16 m (n=20) 60 (n=19) . 6. Picea mariana hydric-mesic Osborn-Nig o r t h i c gray L u v i s o l 3500' East 5° 7. Pinus contorta (mature) mesic Wonowon-Osborn Jedney o r t h i c gray L u v i s o l 3200' West 20° Pinus contorta 20 m (n=19) 90 (n=16) 8. Pinus - Picea (mixed mature) mesic F e l l e r s -Osborn gray L u v i s o l 3100' Northwest 10° Pinus contorta 20 m ;(n=7) 106 (n=7) O TABLE 8 DOMINANT VEGETATION OF PLOTS STUDIED Plot Number and Name Tree Dominants by Layer Sapling Shrub Herb 1. Lowland Shrub absent absent bog birch grass 2. Upland Shrub absent willow alder fireweed 3. Aspen ~ aspen " aspen willow fireweed 4. Pine-Aspen pine, aspen pine, spruce spruce, willow bunchberry 5. Aspen (Maturing) aspen spruce soapberry grass, fireweed 6. Black Spruce absent black spruce (rare) willow lingonberry 7. Pine (Mature) pine absent (rare) high bush cranberry mosses 8. Pine-Spruce (Mature) pine, spruce absent (rare) high bush cranberry mosses I—1 62 and white spruce (Picea glauca) veterans, is extremely sparse. The patchy shrub layer is characterized by clumps of mountain alder (Alnus crispa) with scattered high bush cranberry (Vibur- num edule) plants. The herb layer is extremely variable with the alder of the shrub layer a major influence in determining its composition. The herbaceous layer is made up of a decaying lit t e r of alder, willow, and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) leaves. Though the willow - alder upland shrub community seems important to moose year round, greatest use of this community was observed in early winter. 3. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Community Recent post-fire aspen communities are characterized by thick deciduous aspen (Populus tremuloides) sapling canopies and are widespread throughout the study area especially on shedding lo-cations on ridges. This community provides excellent year round habitat for moose. Summer forage is obtained from the lush fire-weed of the herb layer or from the leaves of the dominant sap-lings and shrubs viz. aspen and willow respectively. Winter browse is easily reached from the preferred willow dominating the shrub layer and the lower shoots of the sapling aspen. Rare young seedlings of either balsam poplar (Populus balsami- fera) or aspen - balsam poplar hybrid (Populus tremuloides x Populus balsamifera) received noteworthy winter browsing by moose along edges of roads and seismic lines. 4. Lodgepole Pine - Aspen (Pinus - Populus) Community ' Recent pbstTfire communities located on xeric ridgetops are characterized by vegetation diversity. The fact that the two plots analyzed reflect a difference in vegetative composition indicates the necessity of 20 sample points in highly variable forests. Widely dispersed tree groves of lodgepole pine, aspen and rare white spruce veterans occur with white spruce and lodge-pole pine being the main saplings. The variable dense shrub layer of mountain alder, white spruce and willow is underlain by a highly variable herb and l i t t l e layer with bunehberry (Cornus canadensis), decaying wood and fallen deciduous leaves prominent. Moose were never observed in the sample plot but autumn use was established.through hunter observations, known moose harvests and pellet group occurrence. 5. Maturing Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Community The tree layer of the maturing Populus tremuloides commun-ity, identified by the prevalence of aspen, provides limited browse and shelter for wintering moose. However, a well devel-oped shrub layer of soapberry (Shepherdia canadensis), willow and high bush cranberry provide important browse particularly 63 in autumn and early winter. A lush herbaceous cover of grass, mainly bluejoint (Calamogrostis canadensis) and fireweed are characteristic of this community. (Foresters regard maturing stands of aspen as a cover crop for developing white spruce (climax stand) saplings). 6. Black Spruce (Picea mariana) Community Moist receiving sites, usually located on the lower third of the ridge slopes, are characterized by dense black spruce stands. Moss (1955) suggested this corimunity represents an edaphic c l i -max maintained by poor drainage and periodic fires. In the ab-sence of a tree layer., the stunted growth of the sapling layer, averaging 5.2 m (n=10) ^ provides minimal shelter for wintering moose. In fact, snow stake data presented in 5-5.2 indicate increased snow depths in black spruce commuhities due to the structure of the canopy/ The sparse shrub layer of this commun-ity is restricted to a few willow with lingonberry (Vaccinium viti s - idaea) and several mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Nephroma arcticum) prevalent in the herb layer. Moose use this community as travel through or escape cover areas when they are in the neighbouring lowland shrub community of the valley bottoms and the aspen communities of the upper slopes. 7. Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus cortorta) Community Averaging 19.6 m (n=19) in height, the trees of community viz. lodgepole pine provide possible winter shelter and a secluded habitat for calving. The poorly developed shrub layer consists solely of .scattered high bush cranberry plants. A moss, Pleuro- zium schreberi dominates the herb layer but lingonberry and bunchberry are common. Observations suggest use of this com-munity by moose is limited. 8. Mature Lodgepole Pine - White Spruce (Pinus - Picea) Mixed  Community The mature coniferous mix community of lodgepole pine and white spruce provides winter shelter from possible snow crus-ting conditions, seclusion and privacy for calving in the spring, escape from the summer heat and escape cover during the hunting season. The effect of the thick canopy is to produce a very patchy shrub layer of high bush cranberry and a herb layer domin-ated by a moss Pleurozium schreberi, bunchberry and lingonberry. A fresh summer bed and a cow moose were observed in the plot location during a relatively warm period of August, 1973, suggesting the cool reaches of coniferous canopies may be utilized during the few warm days characteristic of this northern clime. 64 Duplicate plot data indicate 20 sample points per plot of the Wilderness Ecology (1971a) method are desirable in heterogeneous vegetation as exemplified by the.lodgepole pine - aspen recent burn (community site. However, in homogeneous stands viz. aspen and lodge-pole pine - aspen (communities, observed variation is expected but minimal with the increased sample size. The intensity of the 10 sample point analysis is considered satisfactory for description of homogeneous communities. The methods may be too detailed and time consuming for general wildlife habitat surveys; however, there is a potential for developing modifications in methodology once the faunal requirements are better known. Phytological development along roadsides and seismic lines is given in Appendix 14. Several plants are almost restricted to dis-turbed sites and are rare in communities deemed to be of prime importance to moose. Successional development on the disturbed areas is important but is a direction of study that must be pursued in future work. Because of the vigorous development of shrubs over much of the disturbed area, these areas may well have a definite impact of the suitability of the habitat to sustain a moose population. The logical next step in inventorying the vegetation of the Cameron River Reserve should include a complete analysis and classification of the vegetation resulting from disturbance and its use by moose. Knowledge of the successions in these areas may well be the found-ation for moose habitat management in the future. Oswald and Senyk (1972) documented forest cover anomalies in northeastern British Columbia by reporting black spruce on dry sites and lodgepole pine on wet sites. Stands of black spruce were observed 65 in upland areas (mesic) of the study area but their presence is considered consistent with the soil features described by Lord (1972, unpublished). The network of seismic lines in the Cameron River Reserve offered a unique opportunity for photographic analysis of vegetative characteristics. Brink (personal communication) suggested systematic photographs could provide a valid basis for dot grid analysis of dom-inant vegetation. Interception of canopy types by seismic lines is considered random. Attempts to perfect an accurate method were ad-versely influenced by variations in the depth of field (viz. focal length varied with stand density), development of ecotonal veget-ation (impedes accuracy), and other priorities influenced by a short growing season. Lack of success in this instance, however, does not eliminate the desirability of an efficient, accurate photographic method for quantifying representative canopy types adjacent to seis-mic lines. 5-5 Some Abiotic Components of Winter Habitat 5-5.1 Winter Air Climate Over 30 years of climatic data exist for the Fort St. John airport station. In northeastern British Columbia, the long winter is characterized by low temperature regimes interrupted by occasional chinooks (foehn winds; see 2-4), Table 9 compares the mean monthly temperatures for the two winters, during which the study was pursued, with the average mean monthly temperatures for the 1942-1970 period. TABLE 9 MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURES FOR THE WINTERS OF THE STUDY, 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 AND WINTER NORMALS (1942-1970) COMPARED Period Mean Monthly Temperatures (°C) 1942-1970 1972-1973 1973-1974 Normal (A) (B) (A-B) (C) (A-C) December January February March -13 -17 -12 - 7 -17 -13 -11 - 3 +4 -4 -1 -4 -14 -21 -11 -12 +1 +4 -1 +5 67 The data show that the 1972-1973 winter was warmer than normal with only the month of December recording a mean monthly temperature below the long-term normal. The 1973-1974 winter period can be classified as colder than normal, with February as the only month with a mean monthly temperature above the normal. March 1974 was extremely cold with a markedly lower mean monthly temperature than normal. March i s an important month for ungulate survival as low temperatures impede snow cover melt and vegetation development, and generally lengthen the period of winter stress. . During 1973, several new climatological stations were established in northeastern British Columbia by the Canada Department of the Environment. Two of these, Wonowon (mile 101, Alaska Highway) and Pink Mountain (mile 136, Alaska Highway), produced pertinent temper-ature records. The Pink Mountain station is on the northern boundary of the study area. • Appendix 2 gives the mean monthly temperature for Fort St. John, Wonowon and Pink Mountain. The mean monthly tempera- .. ture of Wonowon (30 seconds north and 36 seconds west of Fort. St. John) is -18°C cooler than Fort St. John, while Pink Mountain (46 seconds north and 1 degree 38 seconds west) is -16°C cooler than Fort St. John. Though topography and altitude represent important unmeasured variables, a general trend of lower air temperatures to the north is described. Formozov (1946) concluded that moose distribution in Russia was limitely fi r s t l y by snow depth and secondly by air temperature. The presence of expanding populations of moose in northern Russia (Formozov, 1963) and the Arctic Slope in Alaska (LeResche et ai., 1973) 68 would indicate a tolerance for much lower temperatures than are usual for the study area; an area where fluctuation is common. The land area east of the Rocky Mountains experiences chincoks. The effects of these warm, westerly winds in general are less pronounced east of the mountain lee, but the strength of foehn winds, altitude and the presence of other systems, may modify this influence. Though localized .chinook conditions often result (Peattie, 1936), mean monthly temperatures do not show the sudden temperature changes associated with foehn'winds; Table 10 presents some specific data indicative of chinook conditions, On February 2 and 3, the variation between minimum and maximum Fort St. John temperature was 9°C, while, at Pink Mountain, the same statistic was23°C. The Pink Mountain station recorded a maximum temperature of -4°C, or 15°C greater than the Fort St. John station. ' Variation of air temperature is attributed to the localized effect of the chinook in the Pink Mountain area. Conversely, data presented for February 13 and 14 documents temperature changes indicative of a powerful chinook influencing the entire east slope and plateau areas. The patterns of polar outbreaks for northeastern British Columbia have been established (Tyner, 1951). Large masses of cold air move from the north and east over the Alberta Plateau creating either stormy conditions or periods of extreme cold. Strong northeast winds create large snow drifts. The general effect of winds on ungulate thermal regulation has been documented by Moen (1968). The effects of the cold winds, although not measured in this study, may be an important factor in habitat selection. 69 TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF AIR TEMPERATURES DURING CHINOOK CONDITIONS FEBRUARY, 1974  Date February Temperature by Location Fort St. John Pink Mountain Maximum Temperature °C °F Minimum Temperature Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature 1 2 3 -23 -19 -19 -10 - 2 - 2 -32 -28 -29 -26 -18 -21 -20 - 4 - 7 19 - 4 25 -28 -27 -22 -18 -16 - 7 13 14 15 -17 0 4 1 32 40 -28 -20 - 6 -19 - 4 21 -23 -10 - 1 30 2 36 -26 -28 - 7 -20 -18 20 5-5.2 Snow Cover Measurements The state of the snow cover and weather conditions are the most important abiotic factors which create the character of the winter regime. A.N. Formozov, 1963• Partially as a result of Formozov's classic work of 1946, char-acteristics of snow cover have received greater attention from wildlife biologists (Edwards, 1956; Pruitt, 1960; des Meules, 1960; Ritcey, 1965; Peek, 1970; Kelsall and Prescott, 1971;.Telfer and Kelsall, 1971; Coady, 1973). Edwards and Ritcey (1956) recognized snow as "a major environmental variable affecting the survival, and hence the survival behavior" of moose. Formozov (1946) concluded that snow had a substantial influence on the formation of faunas. He considered moose as CHIONEUPHORES viz. species able to live in areas of considerable snow depth. Deep snow was considered to be a major factor in determining the distribution, of moose in Russia. Snowfall data collected by the Atmospheric Environment Branch of the Canada Department of- the Environment are given in Appendix 2. The summary of monthly snowfall shows that snowfall was above average during the f i r s t four months of the 1972-1973 winter. Precipitation in the form of snow was well below normal in March and, which when coupled with the milder than average temperatures, resulted in an early spring (Table 11). The winter of 1973-1974 was characterized by near normal early winter snowfall; however, the late winter period was distinguished by excessive amounts of snow. The March snowfall of 76 cm was almost three times the normal measure of 28 cm. TABLE 10! SNOWFALL FOR THE WINTER MONTHS OF 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 AT FORT ST. JOHN AND FOR THE WINTER OF 1973-1974 AT PINK MOUNTAIN COMPARED TO THE NORMALS (1942-1970) AT FORT ST. JOHN Period Snowfall (cm) Normal 1942-1970 Fort St. John (A) 1972-1973 Fort St. John (B) (B-A) 1973-1974 Fort St. John (C) (C-A) . 1973-1974 Pihk~Mountain November 30.5 49.6 19.1 36.4 5.9 34.3 December 34.8 49.3 14.5 26.2 - 8.6 15.3 -January 35.1 48.3 13.2 77.8 42.7 17.8 February 29.0 63.0 34.0 18.0 -11.0 10.2 March 28.2 8.9 -19.3 76.3 48.1... 38.0 72 The heavy snows and low temperatures confined moose to valleys for most of March 1974. Data presented for the Pink Mountain station suggest that the study area, located in the lee of the Rocky Mountains, receives far less snowfall than the Fort. St... John station where shadow effects are less. Fresh snow in March 1974 for the Pink Mountain station was one-half that measured at the Fort St. John station. Yet, because of the uncertain effects of altitude and topography on the Pink Mountain measurements, the short period of. station records, and the length of the Fort St. John records, the information of the latter station is considered the best indicator of trends for ,the study area. The snowfall at the Fort St. John airport is given in Figure 7. The 1962-1963, 1966-1967 and 1973-1974 winters received the greatest amount of snow. Over a ten year history, the March 1974 snowfall is greatest. The late winter snowfall of 1973-1974 is the greatest for the decade. Comparisons of winter conditions have recently been made u t i l -izing an index comparison method. Picton and Knight (1971) developed a numerical index while studying elk responses to winter conditions in Sun River, Montana. . Kohn (1972) employed maximum air temperatures and snow depth to compute "winter points". A simple index of winter severity, based solely on snow cover, was developed for northeastern British Columbia. A snow depth of 76 cm, as suggested by Ritcey (personal communication), Peterson (1955) and Rue (1968), was con-sidered to be an impediment to the movement of moose. Assuming 76 cm of snow increases the energy required for movement or forces the animal to seek the shallower snow beneath coniferous canopies (Eastman, personal communication; Peek, 1970; Peek et al . , 1976) , Figure 7. A History of Winter Snow F a l l 1962-1974, Fort St. John, B.C. 2 5 0 1 0 0 f ro vo I CN VO CTl VO I ro vo tTi in vo I VO CTl VO VO I If) vo CTl vo l vo vo CTl 00 VO I r~ vo CTl CTi vo I CO vo cn o I CTl VO CTv I o CTl CN I cr. ro I CN r~ CTl s co-NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM NDJFM WINTER TIME PERIOD 74 the number of days in the month with a snow cover of greater than or equal to (76 cm) were computed. The winter severity index was the sum of such days over five months, November to March. Appendix 2 gives winter severity indices using data from the Fort St. John' station. The data suggest that there were only two severe winters in the last ten years, viz. 1966-1967 and 1973-1974. The 1973-1974 winter is distinguished by sixty-nine days of restrictive snow depth. The figures presented in Appendix 2 document variations in the snow depth between years and cover types. Results are presented without taking into consideration the effects of altitude, exposure, slope, or microtopography in stand sites. Of 10 snow stake sites, data from seven are presented in some detail. The heavy snowfall of the 1973-1974 winter period has been noted (5-5.2). ' Table 12 summarizes the effect of different canopies on the depth.of snow. Four sites: a) lowland shrub, b) a 1956 recent burn, c) a regenerating aspen, and d) a maturing aspen, gave similar maxima and duration measurements each year. At these sites, inter-ception of snow is minimal since the winter cover is thin. The data clearly demonstrate the inability of the deciduous cover to intercept snow and to modify, in an important way, the patterns of snow on the ground. The data for both winters indicate maximum snow depths in the black spruce sites. The height and structure of the dense black spruce canopy in effect causes snow accumulation, even though, by dot grid analysis, there is a fairly dense canopy. As the maximum height of the canopy is 6.1 m, snow, known as gali often accnimulates TABLE 12 A SUMMARY OF SNOW STAKE READINGS IN SELECTED COVER TYPES, 1972 and 1973 Geographic 1972 1973 Cover Location Maximum Snow Average Maximum Snow Average Rating, per-Co v e r Depth Recorded Period, Depth Recorded Period cent cover in Periods Snow Cover !n Periods Snow Cover (dot grid (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) analysis) Townsend Creek Willow-birch 56 30 75 48 0 Drainage,3000 f t shrub community, no elevation trees Cameron River Recent burn (1956) 51 28 75 52 0 Drainage, standing coniferous 3200-3500 f t snags, canopy of woody elevation species lacking Blair Creek Aspen regeneration 54 28 71 50 30.5 Drainage, recent burn (1952-2900-3400 f t 1954), Age: 10-30 yrs elevation Ht. 31-107 m Aspen, older burn 53 22 80 47 41.5 Age: 49-68 yrs Ht. 10.9-19.8 m Black Spruce (edaphic 60 38 81 56 44.0 climax) Age: 30-40 yrs Ht. 3.0-6.1 m Mature Pine 44 28 64 43 64.0 Age: 91-100 yrs Ht. 20.1-33.6 m Maturing Spruce 32 20 53 29 74.0 Age: 91-100 yrs Ht. 20.1-28.9 m on the wide branches of the low growing trees (Figure 8); the areas immediately beneath the trees have somewhat less snow but noticeable gamanigs, or a bowl shape depression or snow shadow about the base of a tree, are quite limited (Pruitt, 1960). As g a l i increases,, the weight and volume of the snow load eventually forces the black spruce branches down to release the snow. Also, ablation i s probably minimal. . 5-6 Measurement of Forage 5-6.1 Comments on Forage Abundance, and A v a i l a b i l i t y The bulk of forage for moose during the winter i s browse (Cowan et.al., 1950; Harry, 1957; Knowlton, 1960; Ritcey, 1965; Coady, 1973; Peek, 1973? Peek et a l . , 1976). However, LeResche and Davis (1973) have shown that non^woody species are important to moose in Alaska. Measurement of useful vegetation i s best undertaken during or shortly after the growing season (summer and autumn) or after the growing season v i z . during the winter. Measurement of browse takes many forms including leader growth measurement (Houston, 1968), browse surveys (Harry, 1957) or plant density calculations (Ohmann and Ream, 1971a). The abundance of shrubs and saplings within a given forest canopy i s a function of the evolutionary adaptability of the species. Factors such as s o i l s , slope, exposure and drainage combine with external forces, such as.fire and man, to mold plant communities. Figure 8. Snow accumulated on black spruce branches (Qali) o f t e n f o r c i n g them down and d e p o s i t i n g the snow between the close-growing t r e e s . 78 As plant comtunities develop and mature, the quantity of desirable moose forage may be reduced and important species may become over-developed to the point of being of l i t t l e forage value to wintering moose. Also, varying depths and conditions of winter snow, while excluding low growing forage sources, may make taller browse species available and short statured species less available. For the purposes of this study, forage abundance was considered only in the context of the selected forest communities. The shrub analysis of 4-6.1 indicates the relative area of the shrubs in the representative communities (Table 13). The data indicate that a prominent shrub layer occurs in deciduous.and mixed recent post-fire communities but is conspicuously absent in the more mature coniferous communities. However, the data, while quantifying shrub density in selected com-munities, f a i l to describe the important ecotonal vegetation on disturbed sites. Seismic lines and o i l - gas roads have removed and 2 altered vegetation on an estimated 24.4 km (1214 km x 20 m) of the study area. The proliferation of browse species on these disturbed areas is influenced by seed source, soil type, drainage conditions, surrounding vegetation, and exposure. Sampling of disturbed communities is complicated by localized development, the nature of the shape of the communities viz. long narrow seismic lines, and the time the area was disturbed. The data presented describe only the shrub portions of forage in selected communities. The dynamics of shrub and tree utilization as a forage resource as influenced by snow depth and the description of the variable plant communities on disturbed sites, provide topics for further research. Mature coniferous canopies TABLE 13 SHRUB FORAGE ABUNDANCE IN - SELECTED FOREST TYPES COMMUNITY TYPE Major Browse Species (Basal Area/ha 2) -o a r H o as 3 r H S H QiXi D CO rd 0) w c Ci) ft CQ Cn C - H u - p e c CD ft U l < • a cu ft CO ^ < r H i <d CD U a cu • H CO ft ~ 0) o n ft w A: CJ nS r H m CJ tH ft w CO - p -H 0) o 3 u ft w I (!) - H ft Bog B i r c h Willow Alder High Bush Cranberry Rose Soapberry Aspen White Spruce Black Spruce 9,989.0 1.2 112.7 .18.6 2.0 19.4 2.8 1.6 2.8 2.4 107.5 1.2 2.8 2.4 3.6 21.4 83.6 83.6 44.0 37.2 2.0 2.8 13.8 80 intercept snow to a lesser degree than less mature stands, perhaps as a result of tliinning through competition. Data suggest mature conifer sites provide less canopy cover than similar less mature sites though interception abilities of coniferous species may vary with the characteristics of falling snow. However, as the snow stake data clearly show, relatively mature stands of spruce and pine are associated with relatively shallower snow packs; ablation from the taller canopy is no doubt a partial explanation as relative humidity is (commonly very low during much of the winter. The snow stake data presented verify the favourable winter snow cover characteristic of moose winter ranges in northeastern British Columbia. Deciduous canopies are ineffective in modifying the snow pack, while thick coniferous stands intercept snowfall and effec-tively reduce snow depth at ground level. The importance of conif-erous canopies for moose survival has been documented by Peek (1970), Coady (1973), Peek et. al. (1976) and Eastman (personal communication). The snow stake data combined with the winter snowfall regime measured outside the study area, suggest maximum snow depths seldom impede adult moose movements. As the 1973-1974 winter period is disting-uished as the severest snowfall period of the last ten years, i t is concluded that severe crusting conditions, absent during the two winters of study, exist as the major theoretical factor to force moose to coniferous cover. Harper (personal communication) reported moose tracks sprinkled with blood as a result of snow crust inflicted cuts to the hoof and Peek (personal communication) notes that localized crusting is common in foothill valleys of northeastern British Columbia. 81 Formozov (1946) and Peek (1970) described falling gali as com-pacting the snow cover without greatly increasing snow depth. Obser-vations in the thick coniferous canopies of the Cameron River Reserve indicate the result of falling gali is a hard compact area usually of less depth than the prevailing level of snow cover. The obser-vation of Formozov (1946) that the snow cover remains longer in spring under closed canopies is supported by data presented for March 1973 (Appendix 2). Areas of severe browse hedging were not common in the study area. However, several small areas were noted where aspen and willow stems had been severely browsed. In one instance, the occurrence of a lick was associated with localized hedging of neighbouring browse species. Severe hedging may be compensated to some extent by the summer rest when rapid growth of browse species occurs. Peek et al. (1976) reported browse species could withstand removal of 50 percent of the current year's growth without severe detrimental effects. Over-browsing is site and plant community specific. Current year's growth measurements in the study area ranged from 5 to 76 cm for the preferred species of willow and aspen. 5-6.2 Winter Forage Quality . . Table 14 and Appendix 15 give the analyses, for crude protein and lignin, of eight forages used by wintering moose in the study area. These forages, selected on the basis of their use and availa-bility, include two coniferous species for comparative purposes; however, i t should be noted that available literature suggests deciduous species are the preferred browse in most areas. TABLE 1]_?4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SELECTED MOOSE FORAGES SAMPLED THREE TIMES DURING THE YEAR, 1973-1974 Forage Sample Percent Crude Protein C c r i - " ; t 5 (mean of duplicate samples) Spring Autumn Winter (May) (September) (January) Percent L i g n i n - ' "y (mean of d u p l i c a t e samples) ' Spring Autumn Winter (May) (September) (January) Willow (Salix scouleriana) 8. OS 3.04v 3.0' 9. SO- lO. 2C 9.6 : Willow (Salix bebbiana var bebbiana) 7.83) 3.1- 3.11 7.70 10.91 7.6 Bog Birch (Betula glandulosa) 7.6?, 3.10 2.9.0, 10.30 10.3 7.3 , Alder-(Alnus crispa var crispa) 8.0' 4.§? 4.00,' 7.40 8.20 10.3 Aspen (Populus tremuloides) 7.04 2.71 3.1. 11.21 • 7.K. 9.2 • Pine (Pinus contorta) 3.6 i 1.8 2.8 13.4' 13.2" 14.0 Spruce (Picea glauca) 2.9 2.1' 1.2 8.8' 10.5 8.5 Arboreal lichen (Alectoria spp) 1.1 • 1.6 1.9 ;. 10.7 • 10.3-:. 9.4 83 Crude Protein The deciduous forages sampled maintained, in winter, a relatively higher crude protein content than the coniferous samples. Quality changes over the season are much as expected on a priori basis. Deciduous samples, taken during the spring and characterized by lush leaf growth and bud development, exhibited the highest crude protein values. Reduced crude protein content is evident in the autumn samples and mid-winter crude protein was extremely low. The samples of coniferous species and arboreal .lichen reflect year round low protein content with minimal monthly fluctuations. The data presen-ted, rechecked for laboratory accuracy, suggest the selected forage of the study area.to be of sub-maintenance level (less than 7 percent crude protein) for wintering moose. When compared with the values of Cowan et al. (1950), Kelly (1972), Eastman (unpublished) and Oldemeyer (1974), the crude protein values are extremely low. Crude protein values are, in part, influenced by state of phenological development, part of plant sampled and growth site conditions. Gasaway and Coady (1974) suggested that forage selected by moose in winter is near the minimum required protein level. A large rumen f i l l was thought to "Compensate for poorer quality forage as microbes are provided with more substrate which leads to increased utilization of lower quality food". (Gasaway and Coady, 1974) Tew (1970), documented a wide variation in the crude protein content of aspen over several sites in a localized area. The below normal crude protein levels presented might be explained by: a) procedural errors in collection and analysis of samples, b) dilution effect of 84 not sampling stems and leaves separately, c) genuine low levels of crude protein in.forage plants of the study area, or, d) combinations of these. Laboratory procedures were re-examined for errors but duplicate samples were extremely close to original samples. The dilution effect should only affect the spring sample where either the contribution of the leaves or buds may mask the other in deterinination of an overall crude protein value. The relatively high lignin values tend to suggest that c) is the case for there is a fair positive correlation between crude protein and lignin values in most browse. samples (Brink, personal cxsramunication). However, relative crude protein values seem comparable to the data of Eastman (unpublished) and Oldemeyer (1974). Reported levels of crude protein should be rechecked before .firm conclusions are formulated. Data presented here must be considered as preliminary results. Lignin White spruce, the willows and bog birch exhibited a high lignin content of 7-10 percent during the autumn sampling period. Spring and mid-winter values were considerably less. Alder values increased with time indicating very low digestibility by January. Lodgepole pine and lichen (Alectoria spp.) readings were constant for the three sampling dates. '=A. spring lignin content of 11.2- percent, an autumn value of 7.1 percent and a relatively high winter reading of 9.2 percent was peculiar to aspen. The relatively low value for September suggests an increase in the digestibility of aspen. These data support the findings of the rumen analysis and the observations 85 of feeding habits.. High levels of essential o i l s i n conifers and alder . lower palatability and d i g e s t i b i l i t y . 5-^ 7 Forage Use by Wintering Moose 5-7.1 Rumen /Analysis Table 15 and Appendix 16 are summaries of the information gained from the 25 rumen samples analyzed for plant remains. Season, sex, age and behaviour of the animal, range conditions, and analytical techniques influence the kind of information obtained (Eastman, 1974). It i s assumed that vegetative material occurred i n similar proportions i n both the identifiable and unidentifiable rumen portions. August analyses (n=2), representing the summer period, show that about 80 percent of the contents were willow and the remaining 20 percent aspen. Leaves and current year's woody growth comprised most of this material. In the samples collected during the autumn, willow and aspen fragments constituted 46 and 43 percent respectively of the identifiable material. Lignin values for this period (5-6.2) indicate relatively high d i g e s t i b i l i t y of aspen browse. It should be noted that Tew (1970) suggested that di f f e r e n t i a l times of leaf drop on certain trees may result i n quality differences i n ingested browse over quite a long period of time during autumn. Two samples examined revealed unusually large concentrations of sedges or sedge-like material; both moose, a male and a female, were harvested i n a white spruce forest i n the same general area. Although the sample i s too small to permit a firm statement) i t i s interesting TABLE '.(M>. PREFERRED MOOSE FORAGE SPECIES AS DETERMINED BY RUMEN ANALYSIS Forage Composition of Ident i f i e d . P l a n t s Type (Average Percentage by Volume) Summer Autumn Ea r l y Winter Late Winter (n=2) (n=17) (n=2) . ,(n=4) Deciduous species 100 Willow 80 Aspen 20 others 0 Coniferous species 0 Forbs 0 Graminoids 0 91 " 91 100 46 95 - 54 43 5 43 11 0 3 Tr 0 0 9 9 Tr Tr 0 0 87 that the data support the belief that, in the rut, certain open habitats are used.. It is also interesting that bunchberry (Cornus  canadensis) appeared in an October rumen (sample 31-37) obtained from a female moose shot by a resident hunter. The occurrence of bunchberry in trace amounts not only suggests limited use of this species but also reflects wide ranging habits of the moose; the animal was harvested on a road near a mature pine - spruce community and where the slope was in excess of 25 degrees. The steep slope undoubtedly allowed the short-necked moose to easily crop the low-growing bunchberry, a view that has received support by observations presented elsewhere (5-7.3). LeResche and Davis (1973) reported spring use of bunchberry by moose in Alaska. Traces of lodgepole pine needles in several autumn rumens are consistent with the use of jackpine (Pinus banksiana) reported by Peek et al. (1976) for boreal forest habitats of Minnesota. Early winter analyses were composed mainly of willow; trace amount of cow parsnip and Jacob's ladder (Polemonium spp.) present in one sample indicate limited use of non-browse species. The small early winter sample size may not fairly indicate the heavy use of aspen and other tree species. Aspen dominated samples collected in late winter (54 percent) but willow accounted for 43 percent of-the volume. Traces of raspberry iden-tified were consistent with trailing observations (5-7.2).•„ 5-7.2 Trailing Studies A total of 5,342 instances of moose foraging were documented for the 1973-1974 winter period. These data represent but a fraction of the desirable sampling intensity. Poor winter access, other research 88 demands on time and lack of field assistance influenced the sampling. Tables 16 and 17 summarize the composition and foraging height of preferred winter forage sources as determined during trailing. Summaries of these observations indicate that 53.3 percent of the total winter diet was willow while aspen and bog birch contributed 15.4 and 14.2 percent of the total diet respectively (Figure 9). Foraging activity was concentrated between 0.6 and 1.8 meters above snow level with 64 percent of the observed use (bites) occurring in this height range. Browsing in excess of 2.4 m was rare (1 per-cent) . During the early winter period, 37 percent of the observed forage selected was. willow and low growing plants such as alder and high bush cranberry received moderate use. Late winter data indicate that preference by moose for willow increased to 57 percent; snow depths to 84 cm covered the short plant species. Consequently, foraging was concentrated between 0.6 and.1.2 m. However, cratering activities and utilization of plants in qamaniqs accounted for 7.2 percent of the late winter diet. Debarking of aspen was observed in the late winter - early spring transition, suggesting that bark provides seme attraction during the period of sap mobilization (Figures 10 and 11). Symington (1960) and des Meules (1968) con-cluded that debarking of trees during winter indicated a browse shortage and critical snow conditions but that spring debarking suggested a marked preference for highly palatable bark and cambium. Des Meules (1968) also noted that not a l l moose obtain spring forage by debarking. The low percentage of alder and birch in the overall diet may be the result of a repelling chemical; Ahlen (1968) suggested TABLE.16 WINTER FORAGE PREFERRED BY MOOSE AS DETERMINED BY TRAILING ANALYSIS Forage Source Percentage Composition of T o t a l P l a n t s Browsed (n = 5,342) Willow Aspen w B i r c h H o CH A l d e r w Q High Bush Cranberry Raspberry Rose Labrador Tea (Salix spp) (Populus tremuloides) (Betula glandulosa)^ (Alnus crispa) (Viburnum edule) (Rubus idaeus var strigosus) (Rosa acicularis) (Ledum groenlandicum) 53.3 15.4 14.2 7.0 4.2 2.4 0.4 0.4 m Fireweed, Cow Parsnip w and other herbs sc (Epilobium angustifolium, Heracleum lanatum, etc.) 2.7 Paper b i r c h (Betula papyrifera) was used on one occasion; i t i s not common i n the area and tends to occur i n i s o l a t e d groves. I t i s , however, common i n other p a r t s of northern B r i t i s h Columbia. 90 TABLE 17-• BROWSING HEIGHT DURING THE WINTER PERIOD AS DETERMINED BY TRAILING ANALYSIS Height of Browsing Point Percentage of To t a l Above Snow Level Browsing Points (n = 4,489) Snow - . 6 m 12.3 .6 - 1.2 m 36.8 1.2 - 1.8 m 2-7.4 1.8 - 2.4 m 7.5 2.4 - 3.0 m 0.6 3.0 m 0.7 Not recorded 14.7 Willow 53% Aspen 15% Birch 14% Figure 9. Winter Forage Sources of Moose as Determined by T r a i l i n g A n a l y s i s Figure 10. Extensive areas of debarking of decadent willow and aspen was observed i n the spring of 1974. Figure 11. Marks l e f t by frontal teeth indicate method of bark removal. 93 that these high protein forages contain chemical repellents especially as young plants. Comparison of rumen analysis and trailing technique data reveal nrinor differences in ranking of important winter forage sources (Table 18). Willow plants constituted the most important forage source throughout the winter period. Hybridization of willow plants and identification of species during the dormant period influenced accurate documentation of willow species use. Salix bebbiana var. bebbiana of lowland shrub areas received' l i t t l e use, especially when large shrubs of the preferred Salix scouleriana existed. Aspen and bog birch were of secondary importance. Data presented must be regarded with some caution because of the small sample size. The relative importance of forage sources during the winter period for- various locations in North America is comparatively examined in Table 19. Data collected resembles the Alaskan data of LeResche et al. (1973) and Spencer and Chatelain (1953 in Peek, 1974). LeResche et al. (1973) concluded that paper birch, willow and alder comprised the bulk of winter forage secured from the t a l l shrubs of the Kenai peninsula of Alaska. Spencer and Chatelain (1953 in Peek, 1974) reported major use of quaking aspen in south central Alaska.., Peek (1974) provided a detailed analysis of food habits of North American moose and suggested food habit studies in successional sequence would be valuable. Variations in methods, samp-ling, and biological factors, make comparisons difficult. The data presented for northeastern British Columbia, preliitdnary as i t may be, is a basis for a future detailed browse production (as a function of successional patterns) and utilization study. Table 18 Important Winter Forage Sources For Moose In Northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia Method of A n a l y s i s P l a n t Species Rumen T r a i l i n g ; (order of preference) Willow Salix spp 1 1 Aspen Populus tremuloides 2 2 Bog B i r c h ; Betula glandulosa 3 3 A l d e r Alnus crispa 5 4 High Bush ' Cranberry Viburnum edule 4 5 DECIDUOUS ro O ro > s: ro O CD ft! P - • •CO P -PJ ft -43 PJ • •a H-** CD CD . O CD CD H o o M " 3 O o si Cd w CD .p-ti N o (D if 0 o. 0 to o *o to VQ to rt o o H rt o ni CD r - CD H O H H p. 3 O •a rt P) rt CD •a 3 VC CO C r-J 3 C ta- C 3 c c r - l •a co O c r - l l i r-4 C r-J rt c 0 ) a co P . PJ C Q> r - i c BJ CO P . Hi r - l o CO It) CD o p. CD H to G i H PJ PJ CD P ) CO CO P> r - l P . CO 12 •a Z cn H H vO tr1 >J w < cn h C 3 3 •a ro cn d (-3 cr o 3 cn H CD ro r 3 cn • O On o EY t"1 w > M cn M M o CD P> ffi - J CO tt w ,v PJ CD rt OJ r - l w s tt CD H-3 cn 3 CD • rt Pi r- i CD Ln 0 3 PJ 3 P> o cn JO o r 3 a K o |> w cn H O n > s o o P> cn 3 tt CD H OJ 2 s us o H3 *d O Q tt vo TABLE !• - Continued KNOWN IMPORTANT FORAGE SOURCES FOR MOOSE IN NORTH AMERICA (Ranked) WINTER FORAGE SOURCE REFERENCE SILVER EASTMAN RITCEY LERESCHE et al PEEK et al SMITH NE B.C. N B.C. S B.C. Alaska Minn. Montana 1976 unpub. 1965 1973 1976 1958 Low Bush Cranberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea False Box m o Q o High Bush Q Cranberry Pachystima myrsinites Viburum edule Hazel Corylus Californica w 8 H En H o u Subalpine F i r Abies lasiocarpa 97 5-7.3 General Observations of Moose Food Habits The study provided a variety of qualitative observations to be made on forage use by moose. A terrain that offered few vantage points for observations prevented the use of sueh methods as animal minute quantification of moose foraging. However, occasional direct observations of moose foraging and observations of moose browsing activity were used to establish forage preferences. sP r i n9 Observations of willow and alder debarking were recorded and i complement the previous documentation of aspen debarking. Later in the spring, the1 use of coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus) stems and flowers indicates a turn to lush, new growth as winter faded. Two separate observations substantiate this conclusion. A cow and un-classified yearling moose were observed foraging on a disturbed mound of earth bordering the Alaska Highway. Examination revealed extensive use of new coltsfoot and fireweed shoots. Observations along the Westccast Transmission line during the spring suggested that heat generated from the underground gas stimulated rapid spring.green-up of vegetation on the mound of earth immediately above the pipeline well before natural green-up of surrounding vegetation occurred. Use of new grass and coltsfoot shoots by moose were noted on this mound. In both cases, jthe opportunity for the short-necked moose to use the low-growing herbs was aided,by the elevation of the disturbed soil (Figures 12 and 13). Charman (personal communication) also reported early use of the same pipeline, right-of-way by deer in southern British Columbia. " . -Figure 13. Coltsfoot plants produce shoots very early in the spring over natural gas lines. It provides important early spring forage for moose. 99 Summer Limited summer observations of moose foraging indicate exten-sive use of fireweed; observations also made by LeResche and Davis (1973) in /Alaska. An instance of the use of rock harlequin (Corydalis sempervirens) was noted. This plant i s unccsnmon i n the study area. Cultivated oat crops (Avena sativa) .were also used. Autumn Hunter pressure and rut a c t i v i t i e s made moose d i f f i c u l t to observe and few opportunities were provided to observe moose food habits. ..Little (personal communication) reported the use of clover (Trifolium - probably pratense) and Breitkreutz (personal ccimmuni-cation) documented instances, of debarking of aspen blowdowns i n October. Winter LeResche and Davis (1973) documented the importance of non-browse foods to wintering moose i n Alaska. Pawing or cratering exposed low-growing plants i n a crater of snow. No written record of cratering by.moose i n B r i t i s h Columbia exists. Several outdoorsmen have obser-ved cratering a c t i v i t i e s by moose in northern B.C. During the course of this research, many craters were seen, examined, and the forage taken from them identified. The f i r s t instance of cratering, observed i n January 1973, consisted of a trampled area of approximately 46.5 2 m . Extensive use of bulrush (Scirpus microcarpus), which i n summer grow i n several feet of water, was evident. A mesic, west-facing slope, dominated by aspen, bordered the marsh. Disturbed roadside 100 and seismic line sites provide an excellent environment for fi r e -weed growth and cratering was conmon in such areas. An abandoned sand pit near the height of land between Blair and Townsend Creeks was extensively and frequently cratered through the 1973-1974 winter period. A fireweed sample, secured in March for crude protein anal-ysis purposes, yielded an extremely low crude protein value of 1.84 percent. Cratering to obtain vigorous raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus) plants cranmonly occurring on disturbed roadside sites was also noted (Figure 14). Cratering for cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum), illustrated in Figures 15 and 16, rounds out the evidently consider-able l i s t of species sought for by cratering. Recent land clearing for agricultural purposes,, allowed establishment of healthy cow pars-nip plants which, in turn, attracted wintering moose. Cow parsnip in craters was c^ ct^ monly observed along vehicular travel routes (disturbed soils). Portions of the plants remaining in the crater were sampled in1 March 1974. A very low level of 1.3 percent crude protein indicates the plant is a very poor source of fixed nitrogen but may serve other dietary needs. Observations presented in Appendix 17 show that cratering for grasses (mainly Bromus spp.) occurs. Stooks of oats in the Halfway River valley attracted, twenty-two moose to a field during:•February and March 1974. Aided to some extent by pawing of several horses, the moose obtained oat plants by cratering and frequently kneeling to obtain the forage in a manner similar to that seen in Alaska by LeResche and Davis (1973) (see also Figures 17 and 18). Browse species, bog birch for example, covered by snow, were also exposed by cratering and eaten. Fastman 101 Figure 14. C r a t e r i n g f o r raspberry was common a t t h i s d i s -turbed s i t e throughout the winter of 1973-1974. F i g u r e 16. Cow Parsnip was taken both above and below the snow l i n e a t various l o c a t i o n s i n the study area. Figure 17. Stooks of oat sheaves provided an a r t i f i c i a l forage source f o r 22 moose during the winter of 1973-1974. Four horses shared t h i s resource. Figure 18. Cratering for oats often r e s u l t e d i n moose having to kneel to secure forage. 104 (personal crannmunication) reported extensive cratering by moose for unknown species in the Spatsizi Plateau region of northern British Columbia. 5-8 The Dispersion of Moose in the Habitats of the Study Area Moose in the Cameron River Reserve are widely dispersed in spring, summer and autumn. With the effects of climate minimal and preferred forage abundant, behaviour is a major dispersion factor during the post-winter period. Dispersion data for spring are scanty and i t is almost as though the large valleys, the center of winter activity, are vacant.during this period. The majority of the large wintering concentration in the Halfway River valley in 1973-1974 moved rapidly to the ridges to the west and east as rising temper-atures decreased the snow pack. The warmth generated from the sun shining on the thick, black winter coat, the glare from melting snow (Gosling, personal cximmunication), and the effect of spring heat on tick infestations may be important factors in the induction of move-ments to coniferous cover. Harper (personal communication) also noted the importance, of the coniferous stands of the islands of the Peace River for calving. Beattie (personal communication) reported the use of conifer stands near water courses for calving in foothill areas. The shift in May to secluded cover by cow moose is probable but was not personally observed in this area. Markgren (1969) documented the need for secluded calving locations by moose in Sweden. Observations of moose in summer were restricted by thick foliage. A short, summer helicopter search failed to locate any moose within 105 the study area. Though seme swampy habitats exist, large bodies of water, providing refuge from black flies, are lacking and the few summer observations suggest that moose seek windy ridgetops with deciduous tree cover. Movements from ridge to ridge were cxOTtion as shown by tracks on wet soil following summer rain. During autumn, ..the dispersion of moose was influenced by behav-ioural activities associated with the rut and by the presence of hunters. Habitat selection was extremely variable though ridges having diverse coniferous-deciduous habitats, a mosaic of vegetation types and ecotones, were preferred. Appendix 18 diagrams the autumn distribution of harvested moose. Winter is the period of greatest stress for the populations of ungulates in North America (Pruitt, 1960). Year to year variation in the winter climate is considered the primary cause of natural mortality with shelter, predation and disease as related factors. Observations of moose in the Cameron River Reserve suggest that the dispersion of moose is largely influenced by the snow depth in neigh-bouring foothill regions and by the abundance and availability of preferred forage. Accamulations of snow in the foothills force moose to the river valleys incised in the Alberta Plateau, viz. the valley of the Halfway River and its tributaries. Ease in obtaining forage is important in providing the energy necessary for moose to exist in the stressful period of winter. The composition of the plant cover, age and sere are important deternnonants of forage abundance and availability. Data collection for the two winters of the study was influenced by winter severity and budgetary restrictions. The 1972-1973 winter period was characterized by mild winter conditions and 106 moose were widely dispersed. A heavier than usual snowfall in the foothills in 1973-1974 forced a large number of moose to winter in the adjacent river valleys of the Alberta plateau and moose were commonly observed in large concentrations. Winter dispersion maps (Appendix 18), developed solely from aerial reconnaissance data, document the dispersion of moose in the study area. Clumping was prominent in the Halfway River valley, upper Cameron River headwaters area, and in small old burn habitats. Deep snow in the study' area during the 1973-1974 winter period reflects similar conditions in the neighbouring foothills region, although measurements were not possible there. Conversations with trappers verified that the 1973-1974 snowfall in the foothills was exceptionally heavy, restricting travel by snowmobile. Moose sightings in this region were rare. It should be noted, however, that British Columbia Snow Survey do not record a major difference between the years in snow readings taken at selected Rocky Mountain stations. Interestingly, readings for the Pink Mountain station, on the periphery of the Alberta Plateau, support snow stake data presented in 5-5.2. Thus, British Columbia Snow Survey data for the two winters of study, document important yearly differences in snow depths for a station situated near the Alberta Plateau but do not describe any similar trends for mountain stations. Possible explanations of this phenomenon include: 1. British Columbia Snow Survey data represent localized areas of terrain important only for hydrological predictions. Meteorological stations in the northern Rockies are lacking. 2. Localized deep snow cover conditions were characteristic in 107 only the foot h i l l s area adjacent to the study area. 3. Moose were forced from the fo o t h i l l s area by another factor or combination of factors (viz. predators, snow crusting, wind, storms, or lack of preferred forage). Future studies should attempt to quantify moose dispersion as related to climatological variables comparing f o o t h i l l and plateau habitats. The observations from the study area show that moose must move to the valley bottoms and low elevation burns. LeResche (1974) recognized three types of moose migrations: Type A: Those migrations involving short distances between two seasonal ranges with l i t t l e difference i n elevation. Type B: Those migrations involving medium to long distances between two seasonal ranges with significant differences between range elevations. • , Type C: Those migrations involving medium to long distances between three distinct seasonal ranges with significant differences i n range elevations. Edwards and Ritcey (1956) defined both Type A and Type B moose migra-tions i n central B r i t i s h Columbia. Though quantification of migratory movements by either marking or radio-tracking was not attempted i n this study, observations suggest that at least Type A and Type B migrations involve the winter habitats of the study area. The wintering population of moose i n the study was estimated using aerial census data corrected for estimated v i s i b i l i t y biases. To document moose dispersion patterns i n the habitats, the same data were used without the correction factors. Aerial census data were 108 challenged by observations of moose while on the ground, the trailing of moose in habitats, and the completion of road transects. In a l l instances, habitat type was defined by a simple expression of dominant forest canopy. Three'categories ratings - "coniferous", "deciduous" and "no canopy" were used. The."deciduous" habitat type included acmmunities dominated by aspen, balsam poplar and/or paper birch. The "coniferous" habitat type included canopies dominated by white spruce, lodgepole pine and/or black spruce. The "no canopy" habitat category included shrub (communities of willow, bog birch and/or alder and areas dominated by grasses, herbaceous material resulting from recent disturbance (ecotones) and agricultural crops. A continuous tree canopy did not exist though patchy tree: areas were common but not continuous enough to be mapped at the forest canopy type level. The frequency distribution of moose observations in the three habitat type categories are in Table 20. Little differences in early and late winter habitat preferenda can be seen. "No canopy" and "deciduous" habitat account for 80 percent of the observed habitat types. Approximately .20 percent of the moose observed were found in "coniferous" canopies. The limitations of the aerial reconnaissance data have been previously discussed (5-2). Ground observation and road transect data separately support the total data base (Appendix 18) even though distinct biases also exist in these methods. Data from road transects were achieved while traversing established routes but these routes may not"intercept a l l the available habitat types or intercept areas of preferred moose habitat (i.e. areas of highest use by wintering moose). However, the data suggest that moose in the TABLE 20 EMPIRICAL RESULTS OF VARIABLES DESCRIBING DISPERSION OF MOOSE IN WINTER HABITATS Variable Observation Frequency (percent) E a r l y Late Winter Winter (n=179) (n=563) Change A. TYPE (Dominant Forest Canopy) 1. "Deciduous" 39.6 38.0 - 1.6 2.•"Coniferous" 19.6 21.2 + 1.6 3. "No Canopy" 40.8 40.9 + 0.1 SLOPE 1. 0-10 degrees ( f l a t ) 40.2 56.3 +16.1 2. 11-25 degrees (moderate) 53.6 32.5 -21.1 3. 26 plus degrees (steep) 6.1 11.2 + 5.1 ASPECT (Direction of Exposure) 1. North 2.2 3.9 + 1.7 2. South 8.4 29.8 +21.4 3. West 50.3 43.3 - 7.0 4. East 38.5 22.9 •-15.6 SNOW (Estimate of Snow Depth) 1. 28-38 cm (11-15") 26.8 2. 38-51 cm (16-20") 73.2 3. 51-64 cm (21 T25") 48.0 4. 64-76 cm (26-30") 52.0 RECENT LAND MODIFICATION ( i f any) 0. Absent 42.5 36.8 - 5.7 1. F i r e 39.7 30.4 ' - 9.3 2. Acpriculture' 1.1 8.5 + 7.4 3. Forestry. (Logging). 0 0 0 4. Seismic Line 16.2 21.1 + 4.9 5. Flood Area .6 3.2 + 2.6 TABLE 20, (continued) EMPIRICAL RESULTS OF VARIABLES DESCRIBING DISPERSION OF MOOSE IN WINTER HABITATS Variable .•' Observation Frequency (percent) Early Late Winter Winter (n=179) (n=563) Change F. FOREST EDGE EFFECT 0. Not recorded 19.0 5.5 -13.5 1. Edge present 29.1 37.1 + 8.0 2. Edge absent 52.0 57.4 + 5.4 HEIGHT (of Dominant Forest Canopy) 0. No canopy 42.5 •.41.7 - 0.8 1. .3-10.7 m (1-35+') 33.5 33.7 + 0.2 2. 10.8-19.8 m (36-65+*) 17.3 13.5 - 3.8 3. 19.9-29.0 m (66-95+') ' 6.7 10.3 + 3.6 4. 29.0-38.1 m (96-125+') 0 0.7 + 0.7 FAGE (Age of Dominant Forest Canopy) 0. No canopy (sapling) 35.2 38.4 + 3.2 1. 10-30 years . 31.3 27.5 - 3.8 2. 31-50 years 14.5 15,3 + 0.8 3. 51-70 years 16.8 13.7 - 3,.l 4. 71+ years (mature) 2.2 5.2 + 3.0 I l l Alberta Plateau area of the Boreal White and Black Spruce Biogeocli-matic Zone select habitats characterized by either no forest canopy or a deciduous canopy. Coniferous canopy dominated habitats receive minor use probably.due to the suppressed shrub production character-tic of these habitats. M l data support the hypothesis: Ho: During the winter period, moose in the Boreal White and Black Spruce Biogeoclimatic Zone are dispersed in preferred habitat types; and further defines the preferred habitat types as a) "no canopy" shrub land, and b) "deciduous" canopies (old and recent burns). Limited data collected during trailing analysis activities, designed to quantify forage preferences, support the habitat selection information. The majority of the bites recorded occurred in either "deciduous" or "no canopy" habitat types. The few instances of browsing in areas of coniferous habitat were restricted to ecotone areas such as seismic lines and road right-of-ways. Trailed moose tended to pass through conifers to the more abundant forage sources of ecotone and deciduous habitat areas. Examination of 19 fresh beds indicated a similar preference for areas that were not coniferous. Beds were located an average of 8.8 m from the nearest tree with but a single occurrence of bedding in a conifer-created qamaniq was noted. The nearest tree to the beds averaged 11.4 cm in diameter at breast height, suggesting the tree provided very limited shelter. Previous data suggested coniferous stands nearing maturity provided the greatest degree of snowfall interception and protection from the winter environment. The limited number of moose beds examined along with observations and photographs 112 resulting from aerial reconnaissance suggest a preference for open and deciduous habitats for bedding activities (Appendix 19). Var-iability of microtopography and the sheltering effect of diffuse deciduous species may provide protection from wind and storms. The radio-tagging of moose or definite searches for animals during storms are necessary to verify these preliminary observations. However, in . some study area locations, coniferous cover was virtually non-existent and both aerial and ground observations support the thesis presented. Peek (1971) noted that moose beds in Minnesota were common in the densest coniferous cover during the winter period during a l l weather conditions. Sumanik (personal communication), working in northeastern B.C., noted a distinct general winter shift from open to conifer habitat influenced by wind during cold weather periods. Though habitat type was considered the main variable in habitat description, other variables were quantified to provide further infor-mstion on Alces winter habitat preferenda (Table 20). A summary of empirical results follows: Slope: Moderately steep and flat areas were preferred slopes during the winter period. Steep slopes, although they occur infrequently in the study area, received l i t t l e use. A definite increase in late winter period moose sightings in flat terrain correlated with an increased use of available habitats of U-shaped river valleys. Aspect (direction of slope): Due to the north-south orientation of the terrain, east and west aspects predominate. In early winter, 89 percent of the observations occurred on east and west aspects. In the late winter period, however, a marked increase in observations 113 occurred in habitats facing south and west. "Warm" exposures are consistent with moose utilization of river valley habitats during the critical stress period. Estimated Snow. Depth; The data achieved for this variable summarize snow depth estimates for each observation period (i.e. flight, tran-sect) and are of l i t t l e analytical value due to the range in the depth categories and frequency of observations. Recent .Land Modification: The recent land base modification variable was designed to describe areas altered by nature and man during the last 15 years. Observations of wintering moose in habitats influ-enced by fire and seismic exploration remained almost constant through-out the winter period while the use of habitats influenced by flooding and agricultural activities showed a marked increase during the late winter period: (viz. those habitats of valley bottoms). Forest Edge: For the purpose of this analysis, forest edge was defined as a contrast between continuous forest cover types in the immediate  observation area. In broad terms, deciduous-coniferous, coniferous-shrubland and deciduous-shrubland ecotones comprise the forest edge vegetation. Data were secured from both field observations and forest cover maps with questionable and missing observations included in the not recorded category. More than 50 percent of both early and late winter observations were characterized by a lack of a continuous forest edge. Typical observations supporting the data include sightings of wintering moose in large burn areas, on grassland slopes, and in fields cleared for marginal agriculture. Height of Dominant Forest Canopy: The height variable documented tree 114 canopy characteristics independent of canopy type. The data indicate over 70 percent of a l l moose observations were concentrated in the no canopy and very short canopy (.3-10.7 m) categories. No winter period difference was demonstrated. Forest Age: Forest canopy age characteristics were secured from forest cover maps to check field assessments. The data document the fact that over 60 percent of a l l moose were observed in no canopy and limited canopy (10-30 years old) categories. The Multiple Classification Analysis evaluated the proportion of the observed moose dispersion variance explained by the chosen predictor variables (R-squared). These experimental variables accounted for 43 2 2 percent (R = .43) of early winter dispersion and 24 percent (R = .24) of late winter patterns. These data document the proportion of observed MOOSE DISPERSION variability explained by the analytical model. A stepwise MCA regression procedure was employed to discard predictor variables that contributed l i t t l e to the overall explan-ation. Eta-squared and Beta-squared values ranked the importance of the predictor variables (Table 21). Predictor variables EDGE (forest edge, B = .401) explained the largest proportion of moose dispersion variability during the early winter period. Variables MODI (recent 2 2 land modification, B = .092) and EDGE (forest edge, B = .082) were the most important late winter variables, MCA coefficients of the most significant predictor variables examined positive and negative relationships between predictor variable categories and the dependent variable MOOSE DISPERSION. 115 Table 21 • Relative A b i l i t y Of Predictor Variables To Explain Moose Dispersion V a r i a b i l i t y E a r l y Winter Predictor Variable Time Period 12 E Late Winter Predictor Variable EDGE (forest edge) .401 PAGE (forest age) .015 MODI (recent land' .012 modification) ASP (aspect) .010 HT. (forest height) .007 ,440 MODI (recent land modification) ,076 EDGE (forest edge) ,008 ASP (aspect) ,004 SNO (snow depth) ,011 ' FAGE (forest age) .092 .128 .082 .139 .019 .019 .017 .023 .006 .023 R 2 = .43 R^ = .24 116 6. DISCUSSION 6-1 The Dispersion of Moose in the Habitats of the Study Area This study of moose habitat selection was designed to provide base line information about an important wildlife reserve in north-eastern British Columbia. The winter period was chosen for the majority of the fieldwork since the adverse season is extremely important for animal survival, moose are more easily observed, and research funds were very limited. As a result, spring, summer and autumn dispersion patterns were not well doajmented and data represent very general trends. Ideally, year round habitat preferenda should be described utilizing radio telemetry to monitor movements and overcome the prob-lems of moose observability and behaviour. A l l empirical data for the winter period indicate a preference for open shrubland areas and deciduous forest types. Sole use of open areas and deciduous forest by moose in late winter is not cxDmmon in the literature. Ritcey (1965) concluded snow depth and forage abun-dance determined winter habitat areas and Franzmann et al. (1974) indicated that wintering moose may have an affinity for birch regrowth areas (73-83%). Mature hardwood (14-17% and spruce regrowth areas (3-11%) received relatively less use. Trailing techniques and bed site analyses of this project support aerial reconnaissance, ground observation and road transect data. During the 1973-1974 winter period, characterized by exceptional snow depths, the data suggest moose failed to shift to the shelter of coniferous canopies and were C/cmmonly observed in open habitat types devoid of conifers. In many 117 of the observations of moose in coniferous canopies, accounting for approximately 20 percent over the winter period, ecotone areas, created by seismic line and road construction influences, provided unusual forage sources that perhaps influenced the choice of that habitat (Figure 19). In the Alberta Plateau, snow depth does not seem to influence habitat selection though i t is thought to influence Type B moose migrations from the neighbouring fcbthills area. Avail-able forage sources and the protection from the environment offered by the U-shaped river valleys seem to be the most important deter-minants of moose dispersion in available winter habitat types (Figure 20). Peek et al. (1976) documented a mid-winter shift to dense conifer stands by moose in Minnesota. Increasing snow depths and snow texture conditions were suggested as reasons for the shift to t a l l conifer stands. Thus, both deciduous and coniferous habitats alike received use during the winter period. Similarly, Eastman (1974) concluded that dense conifer canopies provided valuable late winter habitats for moose in the Sub-Boreal Spruce Zone near Prince George. Deep snow conditions necessitated use of coniferous canopies for shelter and some foraging activity. Telfer (1968) suggested deep snow con-ditions in New Brunswick restricted moose to shelter types and the edges immediately adjoining food-type stands. Smith (1962) concluded that Shiras moose in Montana preferred to feed in areas having suffic-ient coniferous cover nearby. However, extensive general use of coniferous habitats was not recorded during the 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 winter periods in northeastern British Columbia. Figure 19. M i l e s of seismograph l i n e s and p i p e l i n e s provide edge, forage and t r a v e l c o r r i d o r s f o r moose. Note the use of the ecotone. Figure 20. The U-shaped Halfway River v a l l e y provides a mosaic of habitat types for wintering moose. The f o o t h i l l s of the Rocky Mountains are i n the distance (west). 119 Peek et al. (1974) suggested that large group sizes of moose, in habitats of Alaska, Minnesota and Montana characterized by open cover, may be partially explained by a psychological phenomenon wherein the larger group replaces the vegetative cover. It is dif-ficult to prove such a theory in the study area as deeper foothill snows and the abundance and availability of valley bottom forage sources are also important factors in the dispersion of moose in winter habitats. Peek et al. .(1974) concluded that forage abundance, snow conditions and topography played a major role in moose aggregation patterns in the mountainous areas. The location of the Halfway River valley near the foothills, the relatively light snowfall and valley soils rated as having a high capability for the production of forests and browse species alike, support the application of this thesis to at least the western portion of the study area. Though not quanti-fied by this study, limited observations of moose during stormy periods indicate that valley topography provides important shelter and protection from prevailing winds and storms. Perhaps future studies may attempt wind and temperature measurements to establish air movement pattern's" (Peattie, 1936) . Movement of moose from neigh-bouring ridges to valley bottom habitats during periods of storm or extreme cold is thought to partially be a response to available forage. Open shrublands (bog birch and willow) and riparian vegetation were usually characterized by dense plant populations as opposed to the scattered distribution of the preferred willow and aspen species of upland areas. Utilization of bog birch, not considered a preferred species, provides a large volume of forage within a small area and 120 reduces the energy expenditures associated with searching for forage. Houston (1968) and Geist (1971) suggested that moose populations are widely dispersed in late winter cover having sparse forage sources. It is apparent, though, that dispersion and aggregation patterns developed from aerial reconnaissance are severely limited by method-ology biases as previously discussed in 5-2 (Chamberlin, 1972). Table 22 documents the frequency of moose aggregations for the 1973-1974 winter period. The moose is considered to be the least gregarious member of the deer family (Peterson, 1955). Sixty-four percent of the moose observed were single individuals and the largest aggregation was 22 animals. The large aggregations occurred in open habitats consistent with the observations of Peek et al. (1974) (Figure 21). While Shannon et al. (1975) explained approximately 65 percent 2 of the variability of bighorn sheep spatial distribution (R = .65), the low R-squared values reported in 5-8 were influenced by several important factors. Animal Factors Behavioural considerations such as rutting, calving, mother-young relationship and male social system had an unmeasured effect on moose observability. The ^ responses of moose to the presence of a large hunter population are also unknown. Art i f i c i a l forage sources such as hay, oats and barley may have promoted unnatural dispersion biases. Farmers complained of moose trampling and eating tender oat shoots during summer and concen-trations of moose near haystacks were not uncommon. Larson (personal communication) complained of 10 to 20 moose raiding haystacks located TABLE 22 AGGREGATION SIZES OF MOOSE OBSERVED Aggregation X o t a l w i n t e r (number of moose) Number Of Observations In Number Of Observations In Observations Percentage i n observation EARLY WINTER LATE WINTER (n=731) (%) 1 • 141 330 471 64 2 31 115 146 20 3 7 47 54 7 4 2 16 18 3 5 2 10 12 2 6 1 5 6 .8 7 5 5 .7 8 5 5 .7 9 4 4 .5 10 . 1 1 2 .3 12 1 / 1 2 .3 13 2 2 •3 14 1 1 .1 15 1 1 .1 17 1 1 .1 22 1 1 .1 122 Figure 22. Using traditional winter ranges, moose often become a nuisance by destroying hay stacks. 123 on the banks of the Halfway River during the 1973-1974 winter period (Figure 22). Cattle refused to eat trampled hay saturated with moose urine. Just south of the study area, Simpson (personal communication) claimed hay losses in. excess of two thousand dollars as moose, concentrating in traditional Halfway River winter ranges, were attracted to haystacks in fields. - " . Possible differential habitat use behaviour by sexes and groups introduced further unmeasured variability. Peek et al. (1974), Peek et al. (1976), documented differential habitat use by moose sex groupings in several North American moose ranges. Evidence of low-land shrub habitat selection by post-rut male groups was noted here but radio-tracking is really required to substantiate these data. Type A and Type B moose migrations were dispersed in a variety of habitats as a result of geography and topography. Inability to separately describe the habitat selection by these migratory popu-lations may mask the relative importance of each datum. The study area is characteristic of excellent moose winter range. Perhaps a comparison of several winter ranges having greater contrasts would provide a more complete data base for predictor variable com-parisons. Aerial reconnaissance data document time specific observations of moose in a) habitat without any measure of use of adjacent habitat types (i.e. spruce stringers in brule areas, coniferous stands bordering riparian vegetation, aspen stands bordering agricultural fields). Daily movements for food and shelter, especially in patchy forest mosaics, were not documented. 124 The effects of predators on the numbers and dispersion patterns of the moose of the study area received cursory study. Only the very general dispersion patterns of wolves, considered to be the most important predator, are known. In October 1972, McODrmick (personal cxsmmunication) reported a pack of "20 or more wolves" attacked penned domestic calves on the upper Blair Creek drainage. The author observed wolf sign in the same general area but never to a degree indicative of such a large pack. A lone, large, black wolf with a light silver marking on one flank was observed on July 8, 1972 on a ridge to the east of Blair Creek. Wolf sign was plentiful and wolf howls were heard in the immediate area. A wolf of similar description was observed at mile 127.5 of the Alaska Highway but i t could not be verified as the same individual even though the observations occurred in the same general area. Westergaard (personal communication) repor-ted that several wolves had surrounded a lynx held by a leg-hold trap and the author observed tracks of a pack of 6 or 8 wolves travelling the mile 132 access road in the same area. A lick at mile 10 of this road received repeated scrutiny. These data suggest a small pack utilized the Townsend Creek, Blair Creek and upper Cameron River drainages. Several cattle were taken in November 1972 by wolves in this latter location. Tracks and scent spots of 4 or 6 animals were recorded here in October and December 1973 and one wolf was observed on a late winter flight. In the southeastern portion of the study area, wolf activity was reported by hunters in October 1972. Meat from several cooling carcasses was scavenged by an unknown number of wolves. Wolf numbers in the Halfway River valley to the west are 125 unknown but complaints of livestock loss and harassment by these canids indicate their presence in the valley. Two moose carcasses, either killed.or found by wolves, were observed during aerial surveys. In one instance, December 1973, a small moose carcass was observed in the same general brule area as two wolves and a cow and juvenile moose. Another k i l l was observed nearer the Halfway River itself in a coniferous stand but no wolves were observed. Frozen watercourses are known to be used by wolves as travel routes during the winter period. Because of this fact, and considering the large concentra-tions of prey (moose and livestock) and the nearness of the uninhabited foothills area, the Halfway valley should provide a suitable environ-ment for a number of wolves. However, exact numbers are unknown, as is the habitat selection response of moose to their presence. Beattie (personal communication) suggested conifer stands near watercourses of the foothills were important in early spring. Moose were observed to seek refuge in the icy water when the presence of a newborn calf or the occurrence of crusted snow made other escape from wolves im-practical. The author observed moose utilizing a small watercourse as an escape route in an area of heavy snowfall near Revelstoke in southern"British-Columbia* A moose calf was observed in the cold waters of a beaver pond near mile 108 of the Alaska Highway in October 1973. The victim had been attacked by wolves and had taken to the water either to prevent further attacks or to soothe the wounds already inflicted. Harper (personal communication) suggested islands in the Peace River, dominated by canopies of spruce and balsam poplar, were utilized for calving because of the protection from predators 126 after the river ice had gone. However, Peace River power projects have altered the temperature regimes of the water and i t is not known to what extent these island habitats are now utilized. Cow moose must now swim to the islands as the river does not freeze over. A study of wolves and their effects on the wild ungulates of northern British Columbia is needed to provide answers to a number of important questions, the effect of predators, on habitat•selection being one of them. Both black and grizzly bears range in the study area but their predation on moose is probably limited to new born calves (Wolfe, 1974). Black bears are common but only a few are harvested as an incidental species encountered during the moose hunt. The population of grizzly bears is very small. A large sow was shot on the ridge between the Halfway and Cameron Rivers in October 1973. In the southern portion of the study area, the same hunters that were harassed by wolves in 1972, lost several prime cuts of moose meat to at least one family group of grizzly bears. Grizzly tracks were also observed in the headwaters of the Cameron River Reserve during October 1973. Reports of cougar sightings in the vicinity of the study area suggest that this predator may be present but in very small numbers. Rand (1944) reported cougar tracks had been seen in the Buckinghorse River area and two reports of cougar sightings were received during this study. Deer usually provide the bulk of the cougar's diet, however, moose are known to have been taken (Spalding and Lesowski, 1971; Wolfe, 1974) . The effects of o ! ± i e r wild ungulates and. domestic stock on moose dispersion in available habitats were not examined. A small population 127 of deer share much of the Halfway River break habitats with moose. Wolfe (1974) concluded that deer and moose do not seriously compete with each other and are often oblivious to each others presence. Though caribou are infrequent visitors to the study area, l i t t l e is known of moose -. caribou coactions. Casual observations of caribou driven from the foothills by heavy snowfalls (i.e. to moose .habitat), moose and caribou utilizing the same lick south of Pink Mountain and summer observations of moose in caribou habitats suggest a relationship similar to that with deer. Domestic livestock may compete for both herbaceous and browse food sources especially when the range is overstocked by livestock or in poor condition (Wolfe, 1974). Two smaller animals, namely the beaver and snowshoe hare, may be important to moose. Beaver activities benefit moose by retarding forest succession and stimulating the growth of succulent browse shoots. The effects of snowshoe hare browsing on the flora and fauna of the area is not documented though some general discussions are available for North /America (Wolfe, 1974). Definite hare - moose competition was noted for lowland shrub habitats of bog birch and willow. These habitats, located in the valley bottoms, are considered criti c a l wintering areas for moose so that competition would be greatest during severe winters. Moose are considered the least gregarious of the cervids as large aggregations are seldom..seen (Peterson, 1955; Geist, 1963). Geist (1971) concluded that the majority of moose habitat was short-lived sub-climax plant communities. Since the development of the 128 communities is characterized by rapid and erratic processes (viz. fire), a social moose would rapidly deplete productive habitats that are naturally beccming less productive as time passes. Habitat studies of moose must consider this characteristic as moose are much more difficult to observe than a social animal such as sheep. The very evolution of the animal places restrictions on the data base. The presence and use of several known licks and their influence on habitat selection was not measured. The effects of disease and parasites on moose productivity were not studied.. Technical Factors Several variables were chosen in an attempt to explain winter moose dispersion patterns. Many other environmental variables remain unmeasured. Tiiese include the effects of a r t i f i c i a l forage sources, the role of temperature and radiation, the response of moose to wind speed and direction, habitat use behaviour in storms and chinooks and the effect of ecotonal vegetation on habitat selection. Some of the variable categories were inadequate partly due to unfamiliarity with the analysis. These categories attempted to describe the varia-bilit y of a predictor variable but there were no treatments per se. Ideally, an experimental design of habitat treatments for fire, agri-culture, logging, etc., would provide a stronger analysis. A number of measurement biases, including the difference in flushing effect of the aircraft, incorrect forest cover typing and canopy vis i b i l i t y differences, occurred. Variations in procedures, and human error were technical factors 129 influenced by weather conditions, time of day, time of year, and monetary and time constraints. Further analyses, recognizing other variables and using refined methods, are required to accurately define the factors affecting moose dispersion patterns i n available winter habitats. This analysis has shown that not only i s the choice of variable important, but also the categories of each variable must accurately describe the entire range of v a r i a b i l i t y . Some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n explaining variable category relationships are apparent i n the data. Predictor variable EDGE, for example, was described by two categories; edge present and edge absent. But edge present described a l l ecotone areas without distinguishing the f u l l range of edge conditions. Nevertheless, the frequency of moose observations where edge was not present combined with forest cover descriptions, supports the thesis that moose in northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia do not shift to maturing coniferous stands i n late winter (Peek, 1962; Eastman, .personal connunication; Peek et a l . , 1976). A future examination of forest edge must d i f f e r -entiate between edge types and provide accurate distance measurements (Churchill, personal cratimunication). Figure 23 diagrams the MCA coefficients of the categories of predictor variable EDGE for the early winter period. A positive relationship to both the presence and absence of edge i s shown. During the winter period, moose were dispersed i n a wide variety of habitat types as a result of hunting pressure, di f f e r e n t i a l behaviour and habitat selection by sexes (viz. late autumn use of open lowland shrub communities by male groups) and predator pressure. Forage was readily available as the small amounts of snow did not r e s t r i c t 130 .8 H .6 -.4 - .2 H .4 H LATE WINTER MODI. 3 Flood Area -6 H Figure 23. MCA coefficients of select predictor variable categories, early winter period. -2-f - .1-1 2 EARLY WINTER LATE WINTER EDGE Figure 24. MCA coefficients of select predictor variable categories, late winter period. 131 movements and certain moose groups were observed i n open shrubland habitats and large burns. Other groups required the forage and escape cover provided by edge. By late winter, changes i n the values indicate a more positive relationship to the presence of edge. This increase may be the result of a) the need to u t i l i z e the ecotonal vegetation for food (viz. roadsides, seismic lines and agricultural borders), b) the shelter requirements for protection during the adverse period, and c) the concentration of moose in valley bottoms altered by a mosaic of clearing and agricultural a c t i v i t i e s creating many ecotone areas. Analyses indicated that predictor variable MODI (recent land modification) best explained late winter moose dispersion (Figure 24). A l l but one of the categories examined represented long-term alteration of natural vegetation; f i r e , however, was confined solely to the description of very recent burn areas v i z . less than 15 years old. The negative relationship to recent f i r e may be a function of a limited acreage of recent burn habitats (viz. less than 20 percent) and concentrations of moose in the valley bottoms already altered through agricultural a c t i v i t i e s . The attraction to these areas i s not to agriculture per se but rather a traditional response to the protective shelter and abundant forage resources of the U-shaped river valleys (Figure 25). A r t i f i c i a l forage sources such as oats and hay and ecotone and clearing regrowth areas may also attract moose. Seismograph lines show a positive relationship i n describing moose dispersion i n late winter as they not only provided edge for escape cover but also created favourable growing areas for deciduous browse and a corridor for travel. Flood areas, those climax riparian 132 Figure 25. The U-shaped nature of river valleys protects moose from winter storms. (Note lack of cover in foreground). Figure 26. Riparian habitats common in the river valleys provide important winter browse. 133 habitats located below the average high water mark, showed a negative relationship to moose dispersion as these habitats were limited i n area and are characterized by a poor shrub layer, neighbouring devel-oped riparian habitats, those not subject to flooding i n an average year, were heavily u t i l i z e d especially i n the Halfway River valley (Figure 26). 6-2 The Effect of Human Acti v i t i e s on Moose Habitat Analyses of t e r r e s t r i a l ecosystems provide essential data bases for the protection, management and enhancement of both habitat and animal components alike. Management decisions affecting the present and future consumptive and non-consumptive use of the resources i s often based on limited biological information. The soil s and vege-tation of the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone of northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia are influenced by more than the natural processes of erosion, f i r e , competition and succession. Too often, the socio-logical and p o l i t i c a l objectives of man represent a force equal to or greater than the natural ones, scarring natural ecosystems and molding future management options. An examination of historic land use practices provides direction for future land use decisions. To appreciate such a history, i t must be stated that the s t i l l relatively small human population i n northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia shows l i t t l e concern for environmental, issues,, Wilderness resources seem unlimited. The problems of habitat and w i l d l i f e management Of southern Br i t i s h Columbia v i z . flooding of c r i t i c a l winter range, overgrazing by cattle, 134 urban sprawl and recreational pressures, are unrecognized. During the 1960's, agricultural development of both marginal and viable Peace River lands was encouraged by provincial and federal government agricultural agencies embracing a technology rather than developing a land ethic. There was an insatiable desire to promote agriculture throughout northern Canada (Harris et a l . , 1972). In Br i t i s h Columbia, the Lands Branch f a c i l i t a t e d land disposition with l i t t l e regard for agricultural capability or other inherent land values. As agricultural development inundated the wilderness, land use conflicts arose. Productive river valley bottoms, having high capabilities for the production of timber and wintering w i l d l i f e , were cleared and ploughed (Figure 27 and Appendix 20). At the same time, forest f i r e suppression techniques, developed for the more productive forests of the southern portion of the province, continued to harness one of the very natural processes responsible for the creation and maintenance of the boreal forest ecosystem. The forest industry grew. A policy of seeking•short-term timber supplies rather than intensively managing lands having a high capability for the production of timber slowly evolved. As a result, a l l lands, regard-less of forest capability, were protected from f i r e by the Forest Service under the auspices of Smokey Bear. Valuable.moose habitats were destroyed and altered. The lush riparian habitats were replaced by crops of oats and barley and moose became nuisance animals on their own traditional winter ranges; the productive brule areas of willow and aspen were allowed to regenerate to spruce (Figures 28, 29 and 30). 135 Figure 28. Recent burn areas (brule) are excellent habitats for moose. Note the presence of spruce stringers providing cover for escape and calving. Figure 29. Forest f i r e suppression has allowed brule areas to regenerate to spruce. The q u a l i t y and quantity of forage for moose i s reduced i n these habitats. The decadent willow to the l e f t i s of l i t t l e value to moose. Figure 30. Recent burn areas, though r e s t r i c t e d i n s i z e , provide v a l u a b l e winter forage 137 Management of both wildlife habitats and populations was very-superficial and government personnel and monies were limited. Yet, the erosion of wildlife habitats was recognized and several important land reserves were established and publicized (Figures 31 and 32). Habitat manipulation projects were planned. However, the task of managing the wildlife resources of the Peace River area not only-entailed reacting to the pressures of resource allocations, but also included a continuous ccrardtment to educate people in this province as to the diversity and numbers of wildlife of the isolated but 1 important region. This latter task was often difficult when the very agency responsible for the management of these resources was orientated towards the people - wildlife problems of southern British Columbia. While agricultural activities and fire suppression destroyed and harnessed the land and natural processes necessary•for the maintenance of quality moose habitat>,a limited number of timber harvests and extensive o i l and,gas exploration activities have created small acre-ages of valued habitat. The clearing of miles of seismic lines and pipeline right-of-ways, though often destroying valuable habitat for furbearers and creating erosion problems affecting fishery values, allowed rapid regeneration of succulent moose forage species such as willow.and alder. Edge and a travel corridor were also benefits from these lines (Figure 33). Small clearcuts and select logging projects have also increased shrub production and increased edge conditions. However, logging activities are closely related to economic conditions so that large tracts of preferred wood are sought rather than the 138 Figure 31. Establishment of the Cameron River Reserve prevented alienation of prime river-bottom habitats such as this (Cameron River). Figure 32. Communicating with the public is important i f wildlife habitat is to be maintained. This sign in the study area informed the public of the concern for the land base in the study area. Figure 33. Construction of p i p e l i n e s and seismograph l i n e s has created many miles of valued moose habitat. However, the e f f e c t of removing fur habitat (and valuable timber) and the r e s u l t i n g erosion problems must be examined. Figure 34. Proper logging p r e s c r i p t i o n s may enhance the hab-i t a t s a v a i l a b l e f o r moose. However, the e f f e c t s of recrea-t i o n a l access must be considered i n the logging plans. 140 patchy mosaic of timber common in areas such as the Cameron Paver Reserve (Figure 34). Protection and maintenance of quality wildlife habitats and viable animal populations in northeastern British Columbia is a dif-ficult challenge that must be met. As man's industrial activities thrive, the required management programs will necessitate a diligent educational program directed towards the public, politicians and bureaucrats alike. In the face of recent industrial plans (Government of British Columbia, 1975*), the program of protecting and maintaining the wildlife resources of northeastern British Columbia must be improved immediately. 6-3 A Strategy for the Protection and Enhancement of Moose Habitats Several points, together formulating a rather general contingency plan, can be stated as a result of this study: 1. As proposed in a letter to the Lands Branch in March 1975, the boundaries of the Cameron River Reserve should be extended west to include the crit i c a l winter habitats of the neighbouring foothills area. Such an extension would discourage further alienation and reit-erate the importance of the area for the migration and wintering of moose. 2. The Fish and Wildlife Branch should develop a detailed manage-ment plan for the reserve to confirm their active involvement in the protection, maintenance and enhancement of critical winter ranges. *Wildlife resources received token acknowledgement in this report and the guiding industry attracted similar cursory comments. 141 This plan should include such options as controlled burns of selected mature brule types, .winter logging in a variety of treatments, and wildlife management programs to provide new and unusual opportunities for. both consumptive and non-consumptive users. Size of clearcut should be larger than those in the Prince George area but blocks and strips of cover must be incorporated into the design of these cutblocks. Other resources, resource users and government agencies should be considered in any plan. A coordinated land use plan may be best (Anderson and Scherzinger, 1975). 3. The Fish and Wildlife Branch, British Columbia Wildlife Federation and the Northern Guides Association should actively promote further moose research. Suggested topics include establishing migra--tion routes, describing the importance of eeotones, -<foajmenting the role of fire in the boreal forest.and perfecting aerial census techniques. 4. The Fish and Wildlife Branch should examine the possibility of purchasing or relocating ranching operations in the critical winter range of the Halfway River valley. Alienated land should be returned to the production of moose and trees (Harper, 1973). These criti c a l areas should be considered for purchase and enhancement as mitigation for future Peace River power projects and coal inining developments in northeastern British Columbia. 142 7. SUMMARY 1. A broad, holistic approach was used to study the dispersion of moose in available winter habitats of a wildlife'reserve in northeastern British Columbia. 2. Since 1968, estimated moose harvests in northern British Columbia have fluctuated between 3400 and 5700 animals. Changes in hunting seasons; access and autumn weather are the major factors that have influenced harvests. 3. Aerial reconnaissance in the study area indicated that the observed sex ratios and adult to juvenile ratios are similar to other locations in the Peace River area. Accurate population figures are complicated by seasonal migrations. A sample of aged moose provided an average age similar to published data from Alberta. 4. Eight vegetation plots, representing the major plant communities, were examined and described using the Wilderness Ecology methods. Shrubs were most abundant in the no canopy and deciduous canopy plots. 5. Moose seem well adapted to the cold air temperatures common during the winter period. The study area is characterized by temper-ature fluctuations•as a result of chincoks (foehn winds). 6. The Cameron River Reserve is characterized by moderate winter snow depths. Ah index of snow depth as i t affects moose (viz. greater than 76 cm) indicated that the 1973-1974 winter had the most,severe snowfall of the decade. The effects of forest.canopy on snow depth were examined. Deciduous canopies intercepted 143 l i t t l e snowfall whereas maturing coniferous canopies greatly altered the depth of snow on the ground. 7. Very low crude protein values for eight selected forages probably indicated genuine low level of crude protein in the plants of the study area. 8. Winter food habits of moose were examined using both rumen and trailing analysis techniques. Willow,,aspen and bog birch were the most important forage sources. • 9. Open shrubland areas and deciduous forest types are the preferred winter habitats. No late winter shift to coniferous habitats was noted. - Multiple Classification Analysis was employed to examine the interrelationships between several predictor vari-ables and the dependent variable, MOOSE DISPERSION. The pre-dictor variables explained 43 percent of early winter dispersion and 24 percent of late winter dispersion. Predictor variables EDGE (forest edge) and MODI (recent land modification) were the most important predictor variables. Models of this nature can be improved through accurate variable and variable category definition. 10.The protection and enhancement of critical winter range in the . area should involve the extension of the existing range and the development of management plans. Alienated lands should be con-sidered for purchase as compensation for hydro and coal develop-ments in the region. ' 144 8. LITERATURE CITED Allien, I., 1968. Research on Moose Vegetation Interplay i n Scandanavia. Proc. F i f t h N.A. Moose Workshop, Kenai, Alaska: 23-38. 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An Overview of Moose Coactions with other Animals.' In the Can. Naturalist, Moose Ecology, J. Bedard (ed.), Laval Univ. Press: 437-456. APPENDIX 1 Report of the Lands Branch Proposed Cameron River Reserve 1969 162 FORT ST.. JOHN LAND INSPECTION BRANCH P R O P O S E D R E S E R V E C A M E R O N R I V E R A R E A F E B R U A R Y 1 9 6 9 163 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1. Area Location Access 2. Future Development, Topography, Climate 3. Blueberry S.Y.U., Map included Present Alienation 4. Crown Land within the Reserve 5. Economics of the area 6. Recommendation 164 CAMERON RIVER AREA PROPOSED RESERVE PROJECT The area of the proposed reserve covers 357 square m i l e s . I t i s l o c a t e d 75 miles North-West of F o r t S t . John reaching southwest from the Alaska Highway from M i l e 124 to M i l e 143 and extending to the East bank of the Halfway R i v e r covering the upper v a l l e y p a r t s of Gundy, Townsend and B l a i r Creeks, the N. Cameron R i v e r v a l l e y and the North East p o r t i o n of the Halfway R i v e r v a l l e y . At M i l e 109 an o i l company road branches and provides access to Gundy, Townsend and B l a i r Creeks. These roads are not recognized by the Department of Highways but are used by the p u b l i c f o r hunting and by s e t t l e r s . The f i r s t three (3) miles are f a i r ; the next f i f t e e n (15) poor d i r t road. At M i l e 132 on the Alaska Highway another o i l company road provides access to the Cameron and Halfway R i v e r v a l l e y s . This road has been r e b u i l t by the Westcoast Transmission Co. to s e r v i c e a pumping s t a t i o n on t h e i r main gas p i p e -l i n e from F o r t Nelson and the company maintains the road as f a r as the Cameron R i v e r . Beyond t h i s the s e t t l e r s on the Halfway R i v e r keep the road usable. The f i r s t twelve (12) m i l e s are good; then ten (10) m i l e s are b a r e l y pass-a b l e . There i s a branch road to B l a i r A l Well and to s i x (6) undeveloped s e c t i o n s of land. At M i l e 143 on the A l a s k a Highway another o i l company con-s t r u c t e d road provides.access to the Northern p a r t of the area, f o r o i l e x p l o r a t i o n West of the Halfway R i v e r . This i s a p u b l i c road and i s graded o c c a s i o n a l l y by the Depart-ment of Highways. Each of these roads i s known by the mile post on the A l a s k a Highway where they begin. This i s the most used access and i s a moderate a l l weather road. I t wo.uld form the N. boundary of the reserve. Numerous abandoned o i l roads, seismic and logging roads pass through the area but are not maintained and are only o c c a s i o n a l l y used by s e t t l e r s , land seekers and hunters. Because of the North/South d i r e c t i o n of the f i v e (5) v a l l e y s the roads f o l l o w the topography - r e s u l t i n g i n b i g road mileages be-tween p o i n t s . The d i s t a n c e from major a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r-v i c e s i s i n the region of 100 to 125 miles and few of the roads could be described as a l l weather. This long haul to markets i s a major f a c t o r i n c o s t i n g operations i n the area. 1 6 5 PRESENT PATTERN OF ALIENATION AND UTILIZATION A d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n of a l i e n a t i o n can be observed on the la r g e s c a l e map (No. 2) attached to t h i s r e p o r t . Settlement has been d i c t a t e d by the topography w i t h the well-watered open r i v e r v a l l e y areas a t t r a c t i n g the ranch type of farm oper-a t i o n . The area of present a l i e n a t i o n i s 12,689 acres of which 8,697 have been c l a s s e d as a r a b l e . This leaves a balance from the t o t a l 228,480 acres i n the proposed reserve of 215,791 acres of Crown land ( u n a l i e n -ated) of which only 6,873 acres can be f a i r l y d e scribed as ara b l e ; (reasonably l e v e l , below 3000' and w i t h s u f f i c i e n t depth of s o i l f o r c u l t i v a t i o n ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the remaining arable Crown land i s widely s c a t t e r e d along the upper l e v e l s of the r i v e r v a l l e y s and cannot be co n s o l i d a t e d under cur-re n t methods of survey. LOCATION OF CROWN LAND WITHIN THE PROPOSED RESERVE BELOW 3,000' A.S.L.  TOTAL ARABLE NON-rARABLE Halfway R i v e r V a l l e y (E. Side of R i v e r i n Reserve) . 13,260 993 12,277 Cameron R i v e r V a l l e y 38,045 3,455 34,590 B l a i r Creek V a l l e y 16,219 1,248 14,971 Townsend Creek - 2 V a l l e y s 10,407 1,177 9,230 T o t a l s 77,931 6,873 71,068 Plus land above 3,000' +137,860 T o t a l 215,791 The 6,873 acres of arable Crown land remaining i s only 3% of the t o t a l acreage w i t h i n the proposed reserve of 3.2% of the remaining Crown land. The arable land of 993 acres i n the Halfway V a l l e y i s i n the pockets along the East of r i v e r and can only l o g i c a l l y be added to e x i s t i n g holdings 166 when required. In the Cameron V a l l e y 3,455 acres have been classed as arable but they are again strung out along the v a l l e y . Only one sizeable block occurs at the lowest part of the v a l l e y . On B l a i r Creek the pattern i s the same with the arable land d i s t r i b u t e d i n 50 - 100 acre parcels along the upper l e v e l s of the v a l l e y . Townsend Creek. There are two forks to t h i s creek and 1,177 acres of arable land have been i d e n t i f i e d . The same problem e x i s t s of surveying l o t s to 50% a r a b i l i t y i n order to make development economically f e a s i b l e . ECONOMICS OF THE PRESENT OPERATIONS IN THE AREA The present low returns on most a g r i c u l t u r a l products against a background of r i s i n g costs stresses the need f or e f f i c -i e n t farm operations f o r p r o f i t a b l e production. Even under good management on developed arable land and with c o s t l y inputs of f e r t i l i z e r , q u a l i t y seed and modern mechanized c u l t i v a t i o n s the best farmers i n the Peace region are strug-g l i n g to remain solvent. There are two a l t e r n a t i v e methods to beat t h i s s i t u a t i o n . One i s the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of land use - higher production per acre; the other i s the spreading of c a p i t a l costs over more acres, accepting lower y i e l d s per acre but increasing t o t a l output without a corresponding increase i n costs. The present ranching-- operations i n the area are marginally economic. Four operations grazed 267 head of stock on f o r -est range at $1.00 per head for four (4) months i n 1968'! Assuming one (1) b u l l to f o r t y (40) cows and a calving average of 85% these cows should produce 212 calves. I f we a'llow 200 to be marketed as lh year o l d steers the cur-rent returns of $45.00 per head, net would mean $9,000.00 to four operations or $2,250.00 net to each o u t f i t . This i s the only cash return and must bear the whole cost of running expenses, management and return to c a p i t a l invested - a low l e v e l of income. Without cheap grazing such oper-ations cannot e x i s t . A section of land of poor grazing (8 acres per animal u n i t per month) should support 16 an-imals i n a year. The l o c a l estimate i s ten (10). The benefits of pla c i n g a Reserve over t h i s area would be to ensure grazing to e x i s t i n g ranches e s p e c i a l l y i n the area to the Southeast. This block of land has many sur-veyed l o t s vacant and contains more arable land (40%) and 167 could support a large l i v e s t o c k population. The protection of future f o r e s t resources and e s p e c i a l l y the preservation of winter moose range would guarantee pub-l i c enjoyment of hunting and recreation. In the past, ranching operations have tended to develop these willow f l a t s f i r s t , because of l i g h t c l e a r i n g and thus cause a c o n f l i c t with the needs of w i l d l i f e . Only one application* for Crown land i n the area i s pre-sently under consideraiton so the p u b l i c demand i s low. Some improvement to e x i s t i n g f o r e s t range could be made i f the demand arose. A grazing and w i l d l i f e reserve i s considered to be the highest and best use, for t h i s area at t h i s time. I t i s f e l t that some speculation i n land values has been behind previous a l i e n a t i o n s . 168 As these roads are not regularly plowed in the winter the increasing use of the snowmobile is making a useful con-tribution to the efficiency of farm operations in outlying areas. SERVICES: At Mile 101 on the Alaska Highway there is a school and post office, service stations, store, cafes and a land clearing contractor. A service station and post office is also located at Mile 143 on the Alaska Highway. Major markets, services, hospital, etc., are located in Fort St. John 100 to 150 miles away. There i s a rumoured possibility that a gas plant may be set up to service the o i l and gas wells in the Halfway and Cypress Creek region to the west of the Halfway River. The main gas pipeline from Fort Nelson passes through the area but is not tapped. Another possibility i s the con-struction of a power line from Hudson Hope (Bennett Dam) to Fort Nelson but i t would be uneconomical to tap this for power to the widely scattered ranches. TOPOGRAPHY: The area i s characterized by a series of valleys running North and.South. The only areas suitable for development are in the lower parts of these valleys. 71% of the total area i s above the 3000' A.S.L. mark and this combined with the narrow valleys greatly reduces the growing season. A profile of the area i s enclosed which stresses this prob-lem of the land aspect. .The vertical scale (V= 100') does exaggerate the situation but, makes clear the differences between the different valleys and the general shortage of level arable land below 3000' A.S.L. This topography i s the result of drainage erosion imposing a pattern on an area of Rocky Mountain f o o t h i l l folds complicated by glacial action which cut the original N/South grooves in which the rivers now flow. The area i s rough,- essentially, non-arable except for those areas identified on the accompanying map which are below 3000' A.S.L. and level enough for cultivation. Elevations range from 2500' to 3850' above sea level. 3000' A.S.L. i s regarded as the upper limit for crop pro-duction and over this is considered too high in the narrow valleys with poor air - drainage. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS: 169 The climate approximates to that of the Fort St. John area, that i s , of continental type with long cold winters, short mild summers. The frost-free period i s 50 days but this is shortened in the high narrow valleys making grain pro-duction uneconomic. Precipitation averages 16" - 18" i n -cluding snow, with growth commencing in late May to early June and ceasing with the frosts of late August to Sep-tember. Supplies of water in the area are adequate with the slower runoff into many rivers and streams caused by slow melting of snow and forest coyer retaining moisture and preventing excess evaporation. The soils of the area are partly glacial in origin, of crushed sedimentary rocks with some mineralization. The valley soils are all u v i a l or belong to the Goose series of Orthic meadow s i l t y clay loams and clays. These soils are poorly drained and occur in association with peat so i l s . The characteristic cover i s groundbirch, with willow sedges and reeds. Cleared and drained they are capable of good forage production. They are not recommended for grain crops without expensive correction of acidity P.H. 5.6 -7 and improved structure developed under grasses and leg-umes. BLUEBERRY SUSTAINED YIELD UNIT The proposed reserve li e s within the Blueberry Sustained Yield Unit. The forest cover of the area i s resultant on major fires which spread over the area in the 1930's and 1940's. Most of the trees of merchantable species: Spruce and Pine, are therefore immature. There are some blocks of merchant-able timber and information on volumes and productive po-tential could be supplied with more f i e l d work, but was not considered necessary at this stage. The area consti-tutes some 10% of the total area of 2,456 square miles within the Blueberry S.Y.U. as shown on the included map (No. 3). It is expected that systematic harvesting of the forest and resources w i l l be achieved under Forestry control as the timber matures. There are no current Tim-ber Sales in the area, some old ones appear on our maps. APPENDIX 2 The Climate of Northeaste B r i t i s h Columbia KOPPEN CLIMATE NOTATIONS (from Wali and Krajina 1973) humid and subhumid climates severe winters; coldest month below -3°C warmest month above 10°c pronounced dry season lacking precipitation of driest month in summer more than 3 cm summers cool and short; 1 to 3 months below 10°C NORMAL CLIMATIC MEASUREMENTS FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. 2275' ELEVATION LATITUDE: 56° 14" LONGITUDE: 120° 44' (Based on 1941 - 1970 records) Normal Normal Normal Temperature Normal Bright P r e c i p i t a t i o n Snowfall Month °C Sunshine Hours (cm) (cm) January -17.0 73.4 .05 35.0 February -11.9 106.3 .02 29.0 March - 6.4 159.0 .07 28.2 A p r i l .2.4 217.6 ' .64 17.5 May 9.8 280.0 2.5 7.9 June 13.6 274.0 6.1 .5 July 15.8 300.0 6.3 0 August 14.6 270.0 5.2 1.5 September 9.9 174.0' 2.9 3.3 October 4.1 137.0 1.2 18.0 November - 6.4 81.0 .3 30.5 December -13.2 61.4 .05 34.8 Source: Atmospheric Environment Service Canada Department of the Environment Meteorological Summary A SUMMARY OF SNOWFALL AT FORT ST. JOHN DURING THE 'STUDY PERIOD JUNE 1972 - MARCH 1974 Month T o t a l Snowfall (cm) By Year 1972 1973 1974 Normal Snowfall (cm) (1941-1970) June July August September October November December January February March A p r i l May 0 0 0 31.0 23.4 49.5 49.3 0 0 20.8 0 23.9 36.3 26.2 48.3 62.9 8.9 11.4 0 77.7 18.0 76.-2. .5 0 1.5 3.3 18.0 30.5 34.8 35.1 29.0 28.2 17.5 . 7.9 174 A TEN YEAR HISTORY OF A WINTER SNOW DEPTH INDEX FORT ST. JOHN, BRITISH COLUMBIA Number of Days of Snow Depth Snow Depth Index Winter Period In Excess of 76 cm (30 inches) For Winter Period N D J F M 0 E A E A V C N B R 1963 - 1964 0 0 0 0 0 0 1964 - 1965 0 0 0 0 0 0 1965 - 1966 0 • 0 0 0 o- 0 1966 - 1967 0 • 4- 12 28 7 . 51 1967 - 1968 0 0 0 0 0 o 1968 - 1969 0 0 0 0 0 0 1969 - 1970 0 0 0 0 0 0 1970 - 1971 0 0 0 5 0 5 1971 - 1972 0 0 0 0 13 13 1972 - 1973 0 . 0 0 0 4 4 1973 - 1974 0 0 15 23 31 69 175 Snow Stake Measurements for the Winters of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 Lowland Shrub (Bog birch and willow) 100 H TIME (MONTHS) 176 Snow Stake Measurements f o r the Winters of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 TIME (MONTHS) 177 Show Stake Measurements for the Winters of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 Immature Aspen 100 H 76 H \ 1972-1973 1 1 1 1 ; 1 ; 1 NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH TIME • (MONTHS) 178 Snow Stake Measurements for the Winters of 1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 and 1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 Mature Coniferous Mix 1 0 0 H 7 6 -A TIME (MONTHS) 179 Snow Stake Measurements for the Winters of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 Maturing Aspen 100 H TIME (MONTHS) 180 Show Stake Measurements f o r t h e 1 Winters of 1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 and 1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 Mature White Spruce TIME (MONTHS) 181 Show Stake Measurements f o r the Winters of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 Mature Pine 100 H TIME (MONTHS) 182 Snow Stake Measurements f o r the Winters of 1972-1973 and 1973-1974 Black Spruce TIME (MONTHS) APPENDIX H C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S o i l Associations Cameron River Reserve (Lord, 1972) SOIL ASSOCIATION 2e Fellers-Osbc .TI LANDFORM AND GEOLOGIC MATERIALS Deep, acid to neutral glacial t i l l and lacustrine deposits overlying shale and sandstone on nearly level to moderately sloping, unpatterned uplands Elevation range: 840-1100 m (2750-3600 ft) SOIL COMPONENTS Major Minor Fellers Gleysols Brunicolic Gray Luvisol 0shorn Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol 2 f Fellers-Wonowon J edney-Alcan-Rockland Deep, acid to neutral glacial t i l l overlying shale and sand, stone on nearly level to mod-erately sloping unpatterned uplands Elevation range: 915-1220 m (3000-4000 ft) Fellers Gleysols Brunisolic Gray Luvisol Wonowon Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Shallow to moderately deep, Jedney acid to neutral glacial t i l l overlying sandstone and shale on moderately sloping to ex-tremely steep uplands and escarpments Elevations less than 1220 m (4000 ft) Lithic Orthic Gray Luvisol Alcan Orthic Gray Luvisol 2h Jedney-Wonowon Shallow to moderately deep, acid glacial t i l l overlying sandstone and shale on nearly level to moderately sloping unpatterned uplands Elevation range: 970-1220 m (3200-4000 ft) J edney Lithic Orthic Gray Luvisol Wonowon Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Gleysols SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOILS About-60$ of the soils occupy shedding sites and are moderately deep, moderately well drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam and clay horizons developed from t i l l materials. About 40$ of the soils occupy receiving sites and are moderately deep, imperfectly drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam surface horizons overlying slightly calcareous clay subsoils dev-eloped from lacustrine deposits. About 60$ of the soils occupy shedding sites and are moderately deep, moderately well drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam and clay horizons. About 40$ of the soils occupy receiv-ing sites and are moderately deep, imperfectly drained, and slowly permeable; the surface lay-ers overlie clay loam and clay subsoils. About 40$ of the soils are shallow, moderately well drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam horizons overlying bedrock at 9-50 cm (4-20 in). About 30$ of the soils are mod-erately deep, moderately well drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam horizons over clay subsoils. About 30$ of the mapping unit consists of Rock Outcrop. Most of the soils occur on shedding sites. About 60$ of the soils occupy shedding sites and are shallow, moderately well drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam horiz-ons overlying bedrock at 9 -50 cm (4-20 in). About 40$ of the soils occupy receiving sites and are moderately deep, imperfectly drained and slowly permeable; the surface horizons overlie clay loam and clay subsoils. CO SOIL ASSOCIATION 2 i Wonowon-Jedney LANDFORM AND GEOLOGIC " MATERIALS Moderately deep to shallow acid to neutral glacial t i l l overlying sandstone and shale on nearly level to moderately sloping, unpatterned uplands Elevation range: 760-1020 m (2500-3350 ft) SOIL COMPONENTS Major Minor Wonowon Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Jedney Lithic Orthic Gray Luvisol Gleysols SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOILS About 8O/0 of the soils occupy receiving sites and are moderately deep, imperfectly drained and slowly permeable; the surface horizons overlie clay loam and clay subsoils. About 20$ of the soils occupy shedding sites and are shallow, moderately well drained and slowly permeable; they have clay loam hor-izons overlying bedrock at 9-50 cm ( 4 -20 in). 2 j Wonowon-Osborn-Jedney Moderately deep to shallow acid to neutral glacial t i l l overlying sandstone and shale on moderately to steeply slop-ing, unpatterned uplands Elevation range: 760-1220 m (2500-4000 ft) Wonowon Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Osborn Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Jedney Lithic Orthic Gray Luvisol Gleysols About 50$ of the soils are moderately deep, imperfectly drained, and slowly permeable; the surface horizons overlie clay loam and clay subsoils. About 30% of the soils have clay loam surface horizons overlying slightly calcareous lacustrine clay deposits. About 20$ of the soils occupy shedding sites, are shallow, and have clay loam horizons over-lying bedrock at 9-50 cm ( 4 -20 i n ) . 00 SOIL ASSOCIATION 3a Donnelly-Snipe LANDFORM AND GEOLOGIC MATERIALS SOIL COMPONENTS Major Minor 3e Nig-Kenzie-Osborn 3 f Osbom-Alcan 3g Osborn-Nig 3h Osborn (eroded phase) Deep weakly calcareous mixed Donnelly t i l l and lacustrine deposits on nearly level to moderately sloping lower plateau areas Elevation range: 685-900 m (2250-2950 ft) Deep neutral to acid lacust-rine deposits on level and depressional lower plateau areas Elevation Range: 840-990 m (2750-3250 ft) Orthic Gray Luvisol Snipe Low Hurr.ic Eluviated Gleysol Nig Rego Humic Gleysol Kenzie Terric Mesisol' (Sphagnic) Osborn Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Eutric Brunisols Deep weakly calcareous mixed Osborn Gleysols t i l l and lacustrine deposits on moderately sloping lower plateau areas Elevation range: 840-990 m (2750-3250 ft) Deep moderately calcareous lacustrine deposits on un-patterned nearly level slopes Elevation range: 760-990 m (2500-3250 ft) Deep, weakly calcareous mixed t i l l and lacustrine deposits of lower dissected plateau slopes Elevation range: 760-990 m (2500-3250 ft) Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Ale an Orthic Gray Luvisol Osborn Gleyed Orthic Gray Luvisol Nig Rego Humic Gleysol Osborn Gleyed- Orthic Gray Luvisol Orthic Gray Luvisols Regosols SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOILS About 70$ of the soils occupy shedding sites and are deep, moderately •well drained and slowly per-meable; they nave clay loam and loam surface horizons and compact clay subsoils. About 30$ of the soils occupy ponded sites and are poorly drained, slowly permeable clays. About 50$ of the soils are deep, poorly drained and slowly permeable; they have dark coloured, s i l t y clay loam surface horizons and massive compact clay subsoils. About 30$ of the soils consist of very poorly drained organic materials, and about 20$ are imperfectly drained clay loams. These soils occupy level and ponded sites. Veil drained sandy soils occupy scattered hummocky shedding sites. About 60$ of the soils occupy receiving sites and are deep, imperfectly drained and slowly permeabl they have clay loam surface horizons over slightl calcareous lacustrine clay. About 30$ of the soi occupy shedding sites and are moderately well dra ed clay loams developed from glacial t i l l . • Poorl drained slowly permeable clays occupy 10-20$ of t mapping unit on ponded sites. About 70$ of the soils occupy receiving sites and are deep, imperfectly drained and slowly permeabl they have clay loam surface horizons over clay sv soils. About 30$ of the soils occupy ponded site are poorly drained slowly permeable clays. Dpminantly moderately well drained, slowly permes ble soils on shedding sites; they have clay loan surface horizons and compact clay subsoils. Var-iable amounts of eroded soils occur on irregular dissected topography along terrace edges 00 SOIL ASSOCIATION LANDFORM AND GEOLOGIC MATERIALS SOIL COMPONENTS Major Minor SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOILS 4a Bullmoose-Portage Neutral to weakly calcareous, Bullmoose Orthic Reg-coarse textured alluvial and outwash materials overlying gravels on nearly level low terraces Elevation range: 730-1220 m (2400-4000 ft) Cumulic Regosol osols Portage Degraded Eutric Brunisol About 80$ of the soils are well drained and rapidly permeable; they have sandy loam sur-face horizons and gravelly subsoils. About 20$ of the soils occur on gravelly river bars. Much of this mapping unit has a high seasonal water table and i s subject to flooding. The soils occupy shedding sites. 4e Fortage-Bullmoose Neutral to weakly calcareous, coarse textured outwash and alluvial materials overlying gravels on undulating terraces Elevation range: 730-1100 m (2400-3600 ft) Portage Orthic Degraded Eutric Regosols Brunisol Greater than 80$ of the soils occupy shedding sites and are well drained and rapidly per-meable; they have sandy loam surface horizons and gravelly subsoils. About 20$ of the soils occupy receiving and ponded sites and are im-perfectly and poorly drained. Parts of the mapping unit may be flooded in periods of high water. APPENDIX .4 ] The S c i e n t i f i c Names of the F l o r a of the Cameron River Reserve (from Hubbard 1955, Hulte'n 1968, Schofield 1969, Hale and Culberson 1970, and Hitchock and Cronquist 1973) 190 S c i e n t i f i c Name Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach Cladonia gracilis (L.) W i l l d . Cladonia mitis (Sandst.) Hale & W. Culb. Common Name Dicranum fuscescens Turn. Dicranum scoparium Hedw. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S..G. Nephroma arcticum Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) M i t t . Polytrichum commune Hedw. Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.) De Not. Hair Cap Moss Lycopodium annotinum L. S t i f f Club Moss Equisetum hyemale L. Eguisetum sylraticum L. Carex aquatilis Carex aurea Carex rostra Eripphorum brachyanther urn Trautv. & Mey. Eriophorum Scheuchzeri Hoppe. Juncus arcticus Juncus balticus W i l l d . Juncus bufonius L. Juncus castaneus Sm. Luzula multiflora (Retz.) L e j . Luzula parviflbra (Ehrh.) Desv. H o r s e t a i l H o r s e t a i l Sedge Sedge Beaked Sedge Cotton-grass Cotton-grass Rush Rush Rush Rush Woodrush Woodrush 191 Scientific Name Scirpus microcarpus Presl. Agropyron pauciflorum (Schwein.) Hitchc. Agrostis scahra Willd. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. Bechmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fern. Bromus pumpellianus Scribn. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. Elymus innovatus Beal Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. Hordeum jubatum L. Poa compressa L. Trisitum spicatum (L.) Richt. Achillea millefolium L. Antennaria media Antennaria rosea Greene. Arabis Drummondii Gray Arnica cordifolda Hook. Astragalus alpinus L. Aster ciliolatus Lindl. Aster conspicuous Lindl. Brassica spp. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Aschers Cornus canadensis L. Corydalis aurea Willd. Common Name Bulrush Wheatgrass Bentgrass Short-awn Foxtail Sloughgrass Brome Bluejoint Wild-rye Sweetgrass Foxtail Barley Canada Bluegrass Spike Trisetum Yarrow Pussytoe Rose Pussytoes Rock Cress Arnica Milk Vetch Aster Aster Mustard Shepherd's Purse Strawberry Blite Bunchberry Golden Corydalis S c i e n t i f i c Name Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers. Delphinium glaucum S. Wats. Empetrum nigrum L. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. Epilobium angustifolium L. Erigeron philadelphicus L. . Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. Galeopsis'tetrahit L. Galium boreale L. Geranium Bicknellii B r i t t . Geum macrophyllum W i l l d . Heracleum lanatum Michx. . Hieracium gracile Hook. • Hieracium scabriusculum Schwein. Hieracium umbellatum L. Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter. Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don. Mitella nuda L. Parnassia palustris L. Pentstemon procerus Dougl. Petasites palmatus (Ait) Gray. Phacelia franklinii (R.Br.) A. Gray. Platanthera orbiculata (Pursh.) L i n d l . Platanthera unalaschcensis (Spreng.) Kurtz 192 Common Name Rock Harlequin Larkspur Crowberry Willow-herb Fireweed Fleabane Strawberry Hemp Nettle Bedstraw C r a n e s b i l l Cow Parsnip Hawkweed Hawkweed Hawkweed Peppergrass Pineapple Weed Sweet Clover B l u e b e l l Bishop's-Cap Bog Star Beardtongue C o l t s f o o t Phacelia Bog Orchis Bog Orchis 193 S c i e n t i f i c Name Polemonium pulcherrimum Hook. Polygonum viviparum L. Pyrola asarifolia Michx. Pyrola secunda L. Ranunculus abortivus L. Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh.' Rhinanthus minor L. Senecio pariperculus Michx. Sisyrinchium montanum (Greene.) Solidago canadensis L. Thalictrum spp. Trifolium hybridum L. Valeriana dioica L. Veronica Wormskjoldii Roem. & Schult. Vicia americana Muhl. Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.).Speng. Artemisia canadensis Michx. Setula glandulosa Ledum groenlandicum Oeder. Linnaea borealis L. Potentilla fruiticosa L. Potentilla spp. Ribes oxyacanthoides L. Rosa acicularis L i n d l . Rubus chamaemorus L. Common Name Jacob's Ladder Smartt/eed Wintergreen Wintergreen Buttercup Buttercup Yellow R a t t l e Ragwort. Blue-Eyed Grass Goldenrod Meadow Rue A l s i k e Clover V a l e r i a n Speedwell Vetch Alder Bearberry Wormwood Bog Birch Labrador Tea Twinflower Shrubby C i n q u e f o i l cinquefoil Currant Rose Cloudberry Scientific Name Rubus idaeus var strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. * Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Veratrum Eschscholtzii A. Gray Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf. Betula papyrifera Marsh. Picea glauca (Moench) Voss Picea mariana (Mill.) B r i t t . Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. Populus balsamifera L. Populus tremuloides Michx. *Several willow species and/or hybrids occurred only three were identified. Salix bebbiana var bebbiana Sargent Salix glauca L. Salix scouleriana Baratt in Hooker 194 Common Name Raspberry Soapberry Lingonberry False Hellebore High Bush Cranberry Paper Birch White Spruce Black Spruce Lodgepole Pine Balsam Poplar Quaking Aspen in the study area but Bebb's Willow Scouler's Willow APPENDIX 5 The S c i e n t i f i c Names of the Fauna of the Study Area (Cowan and Guiget, 1965) Scientific Name Alces alces andersoni Canis latrans incolatus Canis lupus columbianus Castor canadensis canadensis Cervis canadensis nelsoni Felis concolor missoulensis Gulo luscus luscus Lepus americanus Martes americana actuosa Martes pennanti columbiana Mustela erminea richardsoni Odocoilus hemionus hemionus Rangifer tarandus osborni Ursus americanus cinnamomum Ursus arctos horribilus Volpes fulva abietorum Canachites canadensis Dendragapus obscurus Bonasa umbellus Bubo virginianus Nyctea scandiaca Common Name. Moose Coyote Wolf Beaver Elk Cougar Wolverine Snowshoe Hare Marten Fisher Weasel Mule Deer Caribou Black Bear Grizzly Bear Red Fox Spruce Grouse Blue Grouse Ruffed Grouse Great-Horned Owl Snowy Owl APPENDIX 6 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Gas Wells (Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources F i l e s and I r i s h , 1970) CHARACTERISTICS OF GAS WELLS IN THE CAMERON RIVER RESERVE Well Name Elevation (m) Total D r i l l Depth (m) Result S t r a t a Penetrated Age Depth Below Ground Level P a c i f i c Town (A-l) P h i l l i p s Petroleum B l a i r "A1 No. 1 P h i l l i p s Petroleum Town "A" No. 2 French Petroleum Company -R i c h f i e l d Daiber French Petroleum Company -R i c h f i e l d Daiber No. 1 French Petroleum Company -R i c h f i e l d Daiber P h i l l i p s Petroleum Daiber "A" 1 Texaco N.F.A. Cameron River (1) Texaco Texan B l a i r 970 1,001 892 1,077 882 974 903 891 1,053 2,259 Completed gas well from Miss-i s s i p p i a n s t r a t a 2,654 Abandoned, dry 2,259 Abandoned, dry 1,651 Abandoned^ dry 1,739 Gas from T r i a s s i c 1,494 Gas from T r i a s s i c 3,509 Abandoned, dry 1,563 Completed gas well from T r i a s s i c 2,159 Abandoned, dry M i s s i s s i p p i a n M i s s i s s i p p i a n M i s s i s s i p p i a n T r i a s s i c T r i a s s i c T r i a s s i c Devonian T r i a s s i c 2,092 2,324 2,085 1,581 1,292 1,432 3,091 1,492 oo .Continued CHARACTERISTICS OF GAS WELLS IN THE CAMERON,RIVER RESERVE Tota l Strata Penetrated Well Name Elevation (m) D r i l l Depth (m) Result Age Depth Below Ground Level P a c i f i c et al Julienne 1,058 1,982 Abandoned T r i a s s i c 1,965 Gigol. BWG B l a i r 919 1,575 Abandoned T r i a s s i c 1,554 S i n c l a i r Julienne 1,130 4,189 Gas Devonian 1,060 Arco P a c i f i c Julienne 1,022 1,914 Gas T r i a s s i c 1,899 Whitehal Cdn Sub Cameron .1,064 2,289 Dry, abandoned T r i a s s i c 2,266 vo APPENDIX 7 H i s t o r y of Logging A c t i v i t y (Forest S e r v i c e F i l e s ) CAMERON RIVER RESERVE LOGGING HISTORY Timber Sale Year Total ha Logged Type of Cut Volume (CF) Species Composition Stand Age X72275 1958 5.3 Selective 9,762 Spruce X72274 1960 1.8 78% Selective 1,111 Spruce, pine X81122 1960 25.3 Selective 101,345 Spruce 130 X98421 1970 32.3 Clear 301,909 Spruce, pine 140 X96414 1970 15.4 Clear 128,600 Spruce, pine 122 A02387 1970 4.0 Clear 20,798 Spruce 123 84.0 596,525 . / to o APPENDIX 8 A History of Trapline Catch, East Area of The Cameron River Reserve (Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch F i l e s THE HISTORY OF TRAPPING CATCH, EAST AREA OF CAMERON RIVER RESERVE, 1950 - 1974 ( B r i t i s h Columbia F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch Records) Species Beaver Coyote Fisher Fox . Lynx Martin Mink Muskrat S q u i r r e l Weasel Wolverine Year 73-74 - 3 5 - 12 1 _ _ 1 2 72-73 - 11 8 - 29 1 2 _ 4 8 71-72 3 - 3 - 45 2 2 _ 8 4 70-71 - - 2 - 18 • - _ _ 69-70 - - - - - _ _ 68-69 - - - - _ 67-68 41 - - - _ _ _ _ 66-67 : - - - - — _ _ 65-66 36 - 1 3 2 _ 64-65 23 1 - - 14 - - _ 300 4 63-64 64 3 5 - 23 4 1 , - 170 15 62-63 14 - ,. - - - _ 61-62 - - - - _ _ 60-61 38 2 2 - 4 3 6 2 183 17 59-60 - - - - - — _ — 58-59 25' - 1 2 3 8 1 _ 230 16 57-58 41 - - - 6 8 265 15 56-57 7 - 1 2 3 2 1 - 107 9 55-56 60. 1 1 1 2 7 - 4 319 12 54-55 50 ' - - 1 1 9 - - 130 18 53-54 54 2 1 7 5 6 2 5 182 22 52-53 52 - 1 7 25 7 9 - 287 26 51-52 •• 50 - 2 5 11 18 1 5 240 8 50-51 50 - - - - - - 16 6 2 2 APPENDIX 9 Some Characteristic's And Methods of the Resident Moose Hunter In Northeastern British Columbia (Full Report In Press) 205 MOOSE HUNTER CHARACTERISTICS 1972 and 1973 Category Number of moose hunters contacted Number of hunters per motor v e h i c l e Time spent on hunting excursion (days). Estimated average hunting mileage per day (miles) Permanent residence of hunter: Vancouver Island Lower Mainland I n t e r i o r Peace River History of hunting New Returnees Estimated maximum hunting distance from veh i c l e (miles): foot a u x i l i a r y v e h i c l e Number of a u x i l i a r y v ehicles u t i l i z e d by hunter 1972 1973 Average 275' 325 300 2.1 2.1 2.1 8.9 10.8 9.9 61.8 49.5 55.7 106 120 113 117 160 139 27 34 9.9 25 11 6 77 116 97 144 183 164 1.50 1.80 1.65 7.40 5.20 6.30 28 46 37 "206 APPENDIX 10 A Summary of Summer T r a f f i c , A l a s k a Highway (Canada Department of P u b l i c Works, 1971) -207 A Summary of Summer Traffic Mile 163, Alaska Highway SOURCE: Canada Department of P u b l i c Works 1971 Alas k a Highway T r a f f i c Study, Summer 1971 TRAFFIC VOEUMES: (motor v e h i c l e s per hour) Average hourly volume Average daily volume 69 620 TOURIST COMPOSITION: (percentage) American t o u r i s t s Canadian t o u r i s t s ' 55 45 DESTINATION AND FREQUENCY OF TRIP: (percentage) Northbound to Ala s k a Y e a r l y t r i p frequency 97.5 76.8 COMPOSITION OF VEHICLE TRAFFIC: VEHICLE TYPE NORTHBOUND % SOUTHBOUND Car 37.3 37.7 Camper truck 22.2 19.9 Car w i t h t r a i l e r 11.0 10.4 4-Wheel d r i v e 14.3 16.4 5 Axle truck 7.0 7.8 Bus 2.8 2.5 2 Axle truck (6w) 1.4 1.6 3 Axle t r u c k 1.4 2.1 4 Axle t r u c k .4 .3 Other .3 .4 Not recorded 1.9 .8 APPENDIX 11 Canada Land Inventory Categories (A.R.D.A.) ,2°9 The Canada Land Inventory-Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r W i l d l i f e Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Ungulates C a p a b i l i t y Classes Class 1 Lands having no s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s to the production of ungulates. Class 1W Winter range. Class 2 Lands having very s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s to the production of ungulates. Class 2W Winter range. Class 3 Lands having s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s to the production of un-gulates . Class 3W Winter range. C a p a b i l i t y Subclasses Climate. Q - Snow Depth The l i m i t a t i o n i s prolonged periods of snow conditions which reduce the mobility of ungulates and/or the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of food plants. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to define the l i m i t a t i o n or provide uniform standards for use across Canada because i t may be due to one or more of the f o l -lowing f a c t o r s : depth, texture, s i z e of snow granules, compressibility, density and uniformity of the snow. Experience and knowledge of snow conditions on the winter ranges w i l l a s s i s t the surveyor i n a r r i v i n g at a decision on whether or not snow i s a l i m i t i n g factor to the production or s u r v i v a l of ungulates. Ungulate Indicator Species D Deer (white-tailed deer,. Columbia b l a c k - t a i l e d deer, mule deer) M Moose Reference . ' The Canada Land.Inventory Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r W i l d l i f e The Canada Land Inventory Report No. 7 1970 210' The Canada Land Inventory-Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n For Forestry C a p a b i l i t y Classes Class 3 Lands having moderate l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial f o r e s t s . Class 4 Lands having moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial f o r e s t s . Class 5 Lands having severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of com-mercial f o r e s t s . Class 6 Lands having very severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial f o r e s t s . Class 7 Lands having severe l i m i t a t i o n s which preclude the growth of commercial f o r e s t s . C a p a b i l i t y Subclasses Climate A - drought or a r i d i t y as a' r e s u l t of climate. C - a combination of more than one. c l i m a t i c f a c t o r , or two or more features of climate that have s i g n i f i c a n c e . H - low temperatures - that i s , too cold. U - exposure. S o i l Moisture M - s o i l moisture d e f i c i e n c y . W - excess s o i l moisture. X - a pattern of "M" and "W" too intimately associated to map separately. Z - a pattern of wet organic s o i l s and bedrock too i n t i -mately associated to map separately. Permeability and Depth of Rooting Zone D - ph y s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n to rooting caused by dense or consolidated l a y e r s , other than bedrock. R - r e s t r i c t i o n of rooting zone by bedrock. Y - intimate pattern of shallowness and compaction, or other r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r s . Other S o i l Factors E - a c t i v e l y eroding s o i l s . F "- low f e r t i l i t y . I - s o i l s p e r i o d i c a l l y inundated by streams or lakes. I 2 1 2 • 1 wit ) X Y ^ V\ Y \ ? f\ \ ) • J (A \ J Y\\< V \ * 0 ^ • \ Y " rp V Y ^ V \ \ \ \ i \ ( \ ^ „ . *? \ VS s "" i ^  \ ^  vX ' i 5 \ \ \ A "-is -x vS°v5 -^N ^ - 7 !) sr. , "? ( S ( ^ ^ \ j I / ' * \ - 5 5 / CIS-\ 5 V ^ s V ^ - S 41" ? L \ V W V V Y c ^ .\\u\. \ \ \\\\ —1 ^ Y^ [Mi>^ I \ ' \ . P M \ \ \ v6 ' 6 A c— «« ! If IP v — V V / ) // /• ) ( S \ L •x V 1^ Y s { V \ \ I \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ > < 55 VJP V • \ v."—- • i. > \ \ ^ 3« IP IP V ( N - V \ 213 L - excessive l e v e l s of calcium. N - excessive l e v e l s of to x i c elements, such as soluble s a l t s . P - stoniness which a f f e c t s f o r e s t density or growth. S - a combination of s o i l f a c t o r s , none of which a f f e c t the class l e v e l by themselves, but which cumulatively lower the c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s . Indicator Species wS White Spruce (Picea glauca) IP Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) bPo Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) tA Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) bS Black Spruce (Picea mariana) Reference The Canada Land Inventory Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Forestry The Canada Land Inventory Report No. 4 1970 .214: The Canada Land Inventory-S o i l C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n For A g r i c u l t u r e C a p a b i l i t y Classes Class 1 S o i l s i n t h i s c l a s s have no s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s i n use for crops. Class 2 S o i l s i n t h i s class have moderate l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s t r i c t the range, of crops or require moderate conservation prac-t i c e s . Class 3 S o i l s i n t h i s class have moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s t r i c t the range of crops or require s p e c i a l con-servation p r a c t i c e s . Class 4 S o i l s i n t h i s c l a s s have severe l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s t r i c t the range of crops or require s p e c i a l conservation prac-t i c e s , or both. Class 5 S o i l s i n t h i s class have very severe l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s t r i c t t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y to producing perennial forage crops, and improvement p r a c t i c e s are f e a s i b l e . Class 6 S o i l s i n t h i s class are capable only of producing per-ennial forage crops, and improvement pra c t i c e s are not f e a s i b l e . Class 7 S o i l s i n t h i s class have no c a p a b i l i t y f o r arable culture or permanent pasture. C a p a b i l i t y Subclasses Subclass C: adverse climate - The main l i m i t a t i o n i s low temper-ature or low or poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of r a i n f a l l during the cropping season, or a combination of these. Subclass I: - inundation - Flooding by streams or lakes l i m i t s agri-c u l t u r a l use of the land. Subclass R: shallowness to s o l i d bedrock - S o l i d bedrock i s le s s than three feet from the surface. Subclass T: adverse topography - E i t h e r steepness or the pattern of slopes l i m i t s s a g r i c u l t u r a l use. Subclass W: excess water - Excess water other than from flooding l i m i t s use for a g r i c u l t u r e . The excess water may be due to poor drainage, a high water table, seepage or runoff from surrounding areas. 215. Reference The Canada Land Inventory S o i l C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r e The Canada Land Inventory . . Report No. 2 1969 '2171 The Canada Land Inventory Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n For Outdoor Recreation C a p a b i l i t y Classes Class 1 Lands i n t h i s class have very high c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor rec r e a t i o n . Class 2 Lands i n t h i s class have a high c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor recreation. ' Class 3 Lands i n t h i s c l a s s have a moderately high c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor re c r e a t i o n . Class 4 Lands i n ' t h i s class have moderate c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor recreation. Class 5 Lands i n t h i s class have moderately low c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor recreation. Class 6 Lands i n t h i s class have low c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor rec-r e a t i o n . Class 7 Lands i n t h i s class have very low c a p a b i l i t y for outdoor recreation. U denotes "UPLAND" un i t area C a p a b i l i t y Subclasses Subclass A: Land providing access to water affo r d i n g opportunity for angling or viewing of sport f i s h . Subclass E: Land with vegetation possessing r e c r e a t i o n a l value. Subclass M: Frequent small water bodies or continuous streams occurring i n upland areas. Subclass 0: Land a f f o r d i n g opportunity for viewing of upland w i l d l i f e . Subclass P: Areas e x h i b i t i n g c u l t u r a l landscape patterns of a g r i -c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l or s o c i a l i n t e r e s t . Subclass Q: Areas e x h i b i t i n g v a r i e t y , i n topography or land and water r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which enhances opportunities for general outdoor recreation such as hiking and nature study or for aesthetic appreciation of the area. Subclass V: A vantage point or area which o f f e r s a superior view r e l a t i v e to the class of the unit(s) which contain i t , or a c o r r i d o r or other area which provides frequent viewing opportunities. 219 Subclass W: Land affording opportunity f o r viewing of' wetland wildl i f e . . Reference The Canada Land Inventory Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Outdoor Recreation The Canada Land Inventory-Report No. 6 1969 A P P E N D I X .J]J2 Life Tables and Survivorship Curves Developed From Hunter Harvest Returns Estimated Number Estimated Number Year of Hunters of Moose Harvested Calculated Success Estimated Estimated Harvest Percentage of Composition (per 100 cows) P r o v i n c i a l Moose Harvest Males Females Juveniles 1971 7,385 4,497 60 25 135 100 20 1972 6,647 2,578 38 22 144 100 15 1973 8,141 3,658 44 20 228 100 28 1974 6,263 2,488 39 21 217 100 27 NUMBERS OF HUNTERS AND MOOSE HARVESTED IN THE CAMERON RIVER RESERVE, 1971-1973 Year Estimated Numbers of Hunters (actual numbers i n brackets) Estimated Numbers of Moose Harvested 1 (actual numbers i n brackets) Calculated Success Estimated Harvest Composition (per 100 cows) Males Females Juveniles 1971 100 - 120 2 1972 343 (275) 68 (55) 20 100 100 16 1973 404 (323) 141 (113) 35 224 100 14 C a l c u l a t e d by assuming an 80 percent sample by f i e l d reconnai to f-1 ssance 2Harper (per comm) RECENT MOOSE SEASONS IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA (Length of Season i n Days i n Parentheses) Bag Year Male Season Female Season Limit S p e c i a l Regulations 1966- 67 August 13-December 11 (121) 1967- 68 August 1-December 10 (132) 1968-69 August 3-December 15 (134) 1969-70 August 16-December 14 (120) 1970- 71 August 15-December 13 (120) 1971- 72 August 14-December 12 (120) October 8-December 11 1 (64) October 7-December 10 1* (64) October 5-December 15 1* (71) October 4-December 14 1* (71) October 3-December 13 1 (71) October 2-December 12 1 (71) Except i n M.A. 28 and that portion ofrM.A. 21 below the high water mark of the Peace River Dam - Bag l i m i t 2. . Except i n M.A. 28 and' that p o r t i o n of M.A. 21 below the high water mark of the Peace River Dam - Bag l i m i t 2. Except that portion of M.A. 21 and M.A. 28 below the high water mark of " W i l l i s t o n Lake", the open sea-son on b u l l moose i s August 16 to March 31 and on a n t l e r l e s s moose October 4 to March 31, 1970. ....Continued RECENT MOOSE SEASON •IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA (Length of Season i n Days i n Parentheses) Bag Year Male Season Female Season L i m i t Special Regulations ' ; ; < 1972- 73 August 15-November 26 October 7-November 26 1 (103) (50) 1973- 74 August 15-November 18 October 6-October 28 1 (95) (22) Source: B.C. Fish and Wildlife Hunting Regulations Courtesy: G.D. Gosling, Senior Conservation Officer, Prince George 224 225 226 LIFE TABLES DEVELOPED FOR HUNTER HARVESTED MOOSE IN NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA Age Female Moose, Game Management (Years) Area 28 (M.U. 7-18-23, 7-31-36, 7-43-46) 1972 1973 l x dx qx l x dx qx 1.5 1000 80 . .08 1000 287 .29 2.5 920 145 .15 713 168 .23 3.5 785 209 .26- 545 119 .21 4.5 576 129 .22 426 91 .21 • 5.5. 447' ' 97 .21 335 119' .35 6.5 350 97 ' .27 216 28 .12 7.5 253 16 .06 188 49 .26 8.5 237 16 .06 139 28 .20 9.5 221 32 .14 111 35 .31 10.5 189 32 .16 76 14 .18 11.5 124 65 .52 64 28 .43 12.5 108 16 •(•; .14 32 14 .43 13.5 92 16 .17 18 0 0 227 LIFE TABLES DEVELOPED FOR HUNTER HARVESTED MOOSE IN NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA Age Male Moose, Game Management (Years) ' Area 28 (M.U. 7-18-23, 7-31-36, 7-43-46) 1972 1973 l x dx 4qx l x dx qx 1.5 1000 108 .11 1000 215 .22 2.5 892 . 206 .23 785 182 .23 3.5 686 235 .34 603 136 .22 4.5 451 167 .37 467 168 .35 5.5 284 108 .38 299 103 .34 6.5 176 39 .22 196 23 .11 7.5 137 49 ..35 173 37 .21 8.5 88 39 .44 146 37 .25 9.5 • 49 10 ,.20 109 51 .46 10.5 39 20 .51 58 23 .39 11.5 19 . 10 .52 25 9 .36 12.5 9 10 1.0 14' 5 .35 13.5 0 0 0 9 . 5 .56 228 LIFE TABLES DEVELOPED FOR HUNTER HARVESTED MOOSE IN NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA Male Moose, Cameron R i v e r Reserve 1972 1973 l x dx qx l x dx qx 1.5 1000 182 .18 1000 107 .11 2.5 818 182 .22 893 179 .20 3.5' 636 182 .28 714 143 .20 4.5 454 182 .•40.. 571 " 143 .25 • 5.5 .363 0 0 428 143 , •, .33 .6.5 363 91 .25 285 71 . .24 7.5 272 182 .66 214 36 .16 8.5 90 0 0 178 36 .20 • 9.5 0 0 0 142 107 .75 10.5 0 0 0 35 0 0 Age (Years) 229 SURVIVORSHIP CURVES 1972 •: Females, G.M.A. 28 Males, G.M.A. 28 0: Males, Cameron River Reserve —r i r r r i T I r r 1 1 r~ 1.5 2,5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9,5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 AGE (years) 230 SURVIVORSHIP CURVES 1973 2 1000 H 900 H 800 - J 700 H 600 H 500 H 400 300 -\ 200 H 100 H •: Females, G.M.A. 28 Males, G.M.A. 28 0: Males, Cameron River Reserve ~ T i r r r i i i i 1——i 1 r 1.5 2,5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13. AGE (years) 231 Cameron River Reserve Hunter Harvest 1972 Number Sex Date of K i l l Tooth Age i f any •1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male U n c l a s s i f i e d Female Male . Male . Female• Male Male Female Male Male Female Male September 10 September 30 October 1 October 2 October 1 October 1 (Week) October 2 October 2 October 3 October 5 October (1st Week) October (1st Week) • October 5 October (1st Week) October "7 October 7 October 5-7 October 5-10 October 5-10 October 5-10 October 5-10 October 5-10 6.5 3.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 4.5 4.5 2.5 3.5 7.5 1.5 7.5 232 Number Sex Date of K i l l Tooth Age i f any 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Female Female • Male Fiemale C a l f Male Female Female . Male Male Male Female Female Male Female Ca l f Female Female Female Male Female •Female Female Female Female October 5-10 October 5-10 October 6 October 10 October 10 "October 10 October 11 October 11 October 9• October 13 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 October 12-14 November 8-13 November 8-13 November 8 r l 3 November 8-13 November 8-13 November 9-12 6.5 .5 3.5 .5 3.5 233 Tooth Age Number Sex Date of K i l l i f any 48 Female November (2nd Week) 49 C a l f November (2nd Week) .5 50 Female (dry) November 10 51 Female November (2nd Week) 52 Male November (2nd Week) 53 Female November 13 6.5 54 C a l f November 13 .5 •55- . Female November 14 4.5 234 Cameron River Reserve Hunter Harvest 1973 Number Sex Date of K i l l Tooth Age Estimated Age i f any 1 Male 2 . Male 3 Male 4 Male. 5 ' -' ' Male 6 Female ( i l l e g a l ) 7 Male 8 Male 9 Male 10 Male 11 Male 12 Male 13 Male 14 Male 15 Male 16 Male 17 Male 18 Male 19 Male 20 Male 21 Male August 17 August 20 August 17 September 1 September 2 3 September 18 September 24 September 24 September 24. September 24 September 25 September 26 September 26 September 26 September 27 September 29 September 22 September 27 September- 30 October 1 October 4 2.5 ' • 1.5 3.5-4.5 2.5 1.5 2.5 1.5 1.5-2.5 2.5 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 . 1.5 2.5 2.5 3.5 9.5 2.5 1.5 3'. 5 235 Number Sex Tooth Age Date of K i l l Estimated Age i f any 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 .38 39 40 41 • 42 43 44 45 46 Male Male Male Male Female Calf Female Female . Male Male Female Male Male Male Male Female Female Male Male Male Male unclassified Female Male Male October 1 October 6 October 6 October -.6 October 6 October 6 October 6 October 6 October* . 6 October 6 October 6 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 6 October 8 October 8 October 8 3.5-4.5 2.5 2.5 (Young) .5 4.5 2.5 2.5 (Mature) (Mature, 50") (Young) 9.5 2.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 8.5 3.5 1.5 2.5 236 Number Sex Tooth Age Date of K i l l Estimated Age i f any 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Male Female Male Male Male Female Female Male Male Male Male Male Female C a l f Female Female' Female Male , Male Male Male Male Male Female Male October 8 October 8 October 8 October 8 October- 8 October 8 October 8 October 9 October 9 October 6 October 9 October 9 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 10 October 11 3.5 3.5 (Mature) 3.5 (Mature, 43") (Mature, 58") .5 3.5 (Mature) (Mature) (Young) (Mature) 7.5 9.5 3.5 .5 5.5 12.5 237 Number Sex Tooth Age Date of K i l l Estimated Age i f any 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79. 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Female Male Male Female Male • Male -••Female , Female• C a l f (Male) Female (dry) Male Male Female (dry) Male Female (dry) Female C a l f Male Female ' Female Male Female Female Male October 11 October 11 October 8 October 11 October 12 October 12 October 12 October 13 October 14 October 14 October 14 October 8 October 9 October 10 October 9 October 15 October 15 October 16 October 16 October 16 October 17 October 17 October 17 October 16 (Mature, 46") 2.5 (Mature) (Mature) 2.5 8.5 12.5 .5 6.5 6.5 2.5 5.5 1.5 .5 (Young) 238 Number Sex Tooth Age Date of K i l l Estimated Age i f any 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Male Male Female Female Female Female Male C a l f Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male October 17 October 17 October 18 October 19 October 20 October 22 October 23 November 2 November 18 November 8 November 10 November 10 November 11 November 11 November 12 November 12 November 25 October 7 3.5 3.5 .5 . 2.5 (Mature, 45") 3.5-4.5 1.5 (Mature,'41") (Mature, 43") (Mature, 45") (Young) 1.5-2.5 3.5-4.5 1.5 1.5 3.5 4.5 4.5 1.5 APPENDIX ]13'. Summary P r i n t o u t s of Computer Analyses Vegetation P l o t s The f o l l o w i n g i s an example of the compu-t e r p r i n t o u t s summarizing a n a l y s i s of herbaceous and shrub components of s e l e c t e d v e g e t a t i o n types. A l l p r i n t o u t s are de-p o s i t e d w i t h the o r i g i n a l copy of the t h e s i s at the U n i v e r s i t y o f - B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . c A N A L Y S I S F O R P L C T N U M B E R 1 F R E O . , N C . O F B A S A L D E N S / B . A . / R E L . R E L . R E L . I M P O R I N D E X C F O C C * S H R U B S A R E A A C R E A C R E S P E C I E S F R E Q . D E N S . D O M . V A L U E 1 . 0 6 . 81-9 4 3 8 . 1 2 9 2 3 0 0 . 2 . 7 7 h I LLOW 5 . 6 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 8 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . C . 0 . 0 ASPEN 0 . 0 0 . C 0 . 0 , 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 ALDER 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 - 0 . 0 1 . 0 I O C . 3 0 6 5 4 5 9 4 2 4 . 6 1 3 0 0 0 . 2 4 7 2 5 . <i\ 8 I.ftOH 9 4 , 4 7 8 . 9 9 9 . 9 9 T T i " 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 S HE P ER D I 0 . 0 0 . 0 C O 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 ' . 0 . 0 . 0 SPRUCE 0 . 0 • C . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 C R A N B E R R 0 . 0 C O • C O 0 . 0 0 . 0 ' " " * o ' " " " 0 . " " " 0 . ' 0 . 0 R O S E . o . o 0 . 0 ' " " " " c o "" "" 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . a 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 L E D U M 0 . 0 C O C . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 ' 0 . c . 0 . 0 A L D E R 0 . 0 C C 0 . 0 C O 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . c . 0 . c C I N Q U E F O 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 c T i - i o e . . 3 8 8 4 4 5 9 8 6 2 . — 2"4~72"aT6~B" T C T A ' L • - 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . P E L L E T S : — c arjnP'v— * - v • — I N S F R e a u F N C i S P E C I E S % CANOPY FREQUENCY P = R C : M T N O N A M 5 C O V E R - M E A N P R E S E N C E O C C U R R F N C -D O M I N A N C E PER A C R E ' DOM I NANCE PER H E C T A R E Rt_L4 T I VE • DO MINA NCS R E L A T I V E I M P O R T A N C E FREQUENCY VALUE S I T ; i A C H V I L A n X '•.« n s ALNIJSD t 0 . 2,0 GO 0 0 ' 54 1-9 i 32 10 3 7 8 . 6 4 0 . 0 13 4 * 0 . 8 6 2 6 8 5 1 . 7 1 0 . 0 0 . 1 3 6 . 3 5 0 . 0 . 1 .41 2 . 3 2 0 . 0 A R M I S P P E T U S R > C L A G R 6 C L 1 K I T -C O R C AN O E L C - L A . 5 . 6 3 U . 0 3 0 . 0 —o.-c— 0.0 _ o.'o C . 79 1 ..59 0 . 0 3 . 1 7 2 4 . e& C O - o i - o - -0 . c ~ 5 . 6 4 0: . 0 5 6 7 g Q i o "t l p o A • o •> . 2 5 4 to 0 — r> • 0 0 4C . CO 1 G O . 30 - -o.o---C .0 60 . 0 0 0 .0 2 1 75 7 . 29 i 09-}.3 0vi". 00 o. o 8 7 0 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 0 53 7 6 3 , 2 7 0 3 6 1 1 0 , 4 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 5 0 5 3 . 6 -' 0 . 0 0 . 7 1 3 5 . 6 4 0 . 0 — Q ;-0— 6 . 6 2 . 84 0 . 0 ' ~ 5 — S I C " P . 2 3 3 A ^ 5 13 4 4 0 . 3 6 0 . 0 1 3 4 4 0 . 36 6 ". 0 26.38 1 . 7 1 3 6 2 9 0 3 . 1 3 0 . 1 8 0 . 0 0 . 1 3 0 6 C . 3 5-4 . 79 ~z k 0 c,. o — 1 .41 0 0' 1 " A 1 0 ! 0 2 . 3 2 9 . 66 -ir-rt— 0 . 7 9 0 . 0 ' 0 . 79 0 . 0 1 . 5 9 7 . 3 2 1 .3 1 4 1 5-1 6 i 3 E M P N I G E P T A N G E-">GP3P ?ou.w v-F = • A G S P C - ' L T = f GR A'V J \ 2 • 2 2 26 2~ .H I E G L A H V v.. S P!_. J U N C A C L A T H S - ' L E A N E D L E D G ~ n . L E V I E D „ 5 r, . 0 7 -0" 0 5 4 5 9 . 3 2 .54 3 g ! 32 6 r 0" 10 3 7 8 . 6 4 2 4 6 8 6 1 . 6 3 6 8 5 3 5 4 ^ 6 3 0 . 0 L Y C A N N K!~<i J S C P E O L A P P E T A S P -P J . C c . S P P L E ? C H p ni. Y s p -O ' i-0 c . 0 0 . 0 ' 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 6 9 3 5 4 8 . 0 0 0 . 0 — • 0 . 0— 0 . 0 c . 0 0 . 0 2 2 . 3 4 0 . 0 — e . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 c , 0 0 .0 9 . 8 6 0 .0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 9 4 0 3 6 . 0 0 0 • 0 -2 V5 0 5 3 . 6 9 -0 . 0 0 . 0 -0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 24 0 . 0 -2 • 3*>— 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 -6-5-S-— 0 . 0 2 . B 2 --2 . 8 2 -0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 —S-srG 0 . 0 % & . I 0 0'. 0 — 0 »;0 C .-0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 7 3 3 . 7 5 A A 0 2 0 -2--0 0 0 0 . 0 20 . 0 0 0 . 0 -20 -.-00-0 I 0 ^rvr;— 3 30 7 5 . 2 5 C ..0 -3-7-0 2 9 .1 3-0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 ~7 3 3 T O ' 4 0 4 1 42 p,-; Tf p T — P Y P O S P ' c n 3 A ;.o " U - - .'.-'C S A L X 3 P — S H P C A N VACC S ° V A ~ V I T I 25 • 0 0 • 0 54 3 9 . 3 2 0 . 0 5. 0 3 7 8 . 6 4 -1-9 5-81-5 .-56-0 . 0 0 . C 0 . 0 gr6 3 8i l . 7 i ~ 1 3 4 4 0 . 8 6 0 . 0 26 8 8 1 , 7 \ -4 8 3 870- . 3-1-0-. 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 -i5-rEr5— 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 0 . 3 5 -6.-3.3--0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 6 1 0 .'0 2 . 8 2 • 9-i 8 6-0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 * ... :o . 0 2 . 0 3 C * 'J -.2 . 3 3-c . 0 C-. 0 . 0 . 0 ~S-» 0 9 C . 79 0 . 0 1 „ 5 9 •fi . : 2 -0 . 0 0 . 0 0 ..0 —y- i 3 M L .2 --7-0 0 o 0 . 9 5 erre— - 0 . 0 4 4 0 5 3 5 . 1 3 2 0 6 6 9 4 . 5.5 : - O-.-0--0 * 0 0 o 0 0 . 0 0.' 0 10 8 8 7 0 9 . G O 5 X 0 7 5 2 . 6 9 0 I 0 0 . 0 3—A •J • «> 0*0 1 4 . 3 6 6 . 74 0 « - 0 — 0 . 0 V . 0 0 . 0 —g - i r S — 0 . 0 .0 ..0 1 3 . 5 2 6 . 39 — - 0 - . 0 — C-« 0 'C—.0 ' 4 5 45 4.7 - 4 8 -49 5 0 51 V IC I S P waOL.EV ARC TUV EOU'I SP-P I O I 5 P P Q P T ~ E A S T C C N - 0 .20 c . 2 5 0 . 0 90 #03 50. • CO v "•' 0'*"" 0 . 0 0 ! 0 -. 0 . 0 — 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 6 3 7 . 0 4" • 0 - . 0 - -0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 D-i^ to LOWLAND SHRUB COMMUNITY HERBACEOUS PLANT ANALYSIS APPENDIX JT4 Blooming and F r u i t i n g Times of Some Conspicuous Roadside F l o r a 244 Blooming and Frutl;lng Times of - Some Conspicuous • • Roadside Flora, Came7:on • River Reserve Date  Species Salix spp Populus tremuloides  Alnus spp  Taraxacum spp Mertensia paniculata ' Eriophorum spp  Fragaria spp U Cyperaceae spp Cornus canadensis  Ledum groenland icum Pyrola jjpp_ Rosa spp Corydalis sempervirens  Galium trifidum A c h i l l e a millefolium  Epiloblum angustifolium  Gramineae spp  Viburnum edule  Rubus spp May . June July August Sept. ****_ Willow Aspen Alder Dandelion Bluebell Cotton grass Stawberry, Sedges Eunchberry Labrador tea Wintergreen Rose Rock Harlequin Bedstraw Yarrow Fireweed Grasses High Bush Cranberry Cloudberry 'k-k~k*-kJ"k'-k'iri'"k-t;'k*ki:kW~k-k -kt'z'-k'k'klfk-k-k-k-ick-k'k-lck-•k -k -k -k iV VcvV }V V: -Jrk -k >Wc -k Ve -k -i;i:irk'k*-kir!;i~k-•ii -k -k s'nV k •k 1n'i-k-k -i'<->':-k~k'k'k'k~k~kitc'k~k-k --k-k-k'k'kic-k'k-kk-k'k-k -k-k-k-k-k-k->\--k-k-k~!rk-k-t<-**********! •k'k^<1rk1ii*k'k-k*k-k-!"k1i >V**/V^c-* v ' s * ^ r * * v V * A * v ' : * * * f t * i l c * * * * * * * •?fk'k*-tc-!<i;-k-k*-k-!:k-k*k *** Blooming Period F r u i t i n g Period APPENDIX 15 The Crude P r o t e i n Content of E i g h t Forages Compared To the Values Obtained For Willow by Eastman (unpublished) (The s o l i d l i n e represents a wandering three p o i n t average of Eastman's data) A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content 246 A r b o r e a l Lichen (Alectoria sarmentosa) May Sept. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. 1.1 1.6 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.6 3 H Ch 1 1 1 P4 1 1 1 1 en, »; m w w X EH 2 w m Ct W W CQ < w X tD EH O w O 0, EH > u p O o w < Hj W O Q TIME (Months) 247 A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content White Spruce (Picea glauca) Sept. 2.7 Nov. 2.8 Dec. 2.2 Jan. 1.2 Feb. 2.6 Mar. 2.6 248 A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) May. 3.6 Sept. 3.1 Nov. 1.8 Dec. 1.6 Jan. 2.8 Feb. 3.2 Mar. 3.0 1 1 rt 1 - 1 1 1 1 W Pi rt >H m tf w W rt EH a w PQ CQ Pi CO w m s . X D • EH • o -. w w D O P< EH > o S3 pa W o o w *c w < co o 23 Q .  W M S s <: D ' SB -I « >i D O . W W D rt U £ 3 i-3 O U > O E  PQ rt 2j S B S " ^ - TIME (Months) 249 A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content Willow (Salix scouleriana) May 8.0 Sept. 3.0 Nov. 2.9 Dec. 3.1 Jan. 3.0 Feb. 2.5 Mar. 2.6 A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content 251 Willow (Salix bebbiana var bebbiana) May Sept. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.' Mar. i d EH rt <*> W Q § U •a • A A A A rt 23 rt - -j- * W rt rt pa rt w w >H EH a w PQ PQ rt CO w PQ a a < D EH o w O rt EH > u w u o w < co o S3 Q TIME (Months) rt PQ w CM rt-252 A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content Aspen {Populus tremuloides) May 7.0 Sept. 2.7 Nov. 2.5 Dec. 2.7 Jan. 3.1 Feb. 3.2 Mar. •. 3.1 1 1 1 1 -. rt 1 1 1 W rt rt PQ rt w w EH g w PQ PQ W W m a a w P EH o w w •z O rt EH > p p P w U o w h> b w O 2 Q >H rt . . . . rt <: J . w w PQ g g <: P sa H W >H p O W W p rt U rt • * • Z- i-q rt > C J Z PQ rt rt <J p P p W O W et. W <J < g h ) F> rf3 W Z b fa g . TIME (Months) 253 A Graph Of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n In Crude P r o t e i n Content Bog B i r c h (Betula glandulosa) May Sept. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. • A • H < Pi W Pi CQ w w >< EH S W CQ CQ rt < W W CQ 2 a D P EH O w w « U Ph EH > o CQ D p W CJ o w < W b W O 2 Q TIME (Months) rt APPENDIX 16 A Summary of Rumen Analyses SUMMARY OF MOOSE RUMENS, ANALYSIS, CAMERON RIVER RESERVE Estimated Estimated Rumen Approx- Sex C o l l e c t i o n Relative Importance of Major Plant Relative Importance of Minor Plant I d e n t i - imate of area Species Found In Rumen Species-Found In Rumens f i c a - Date Animal Habitat Type (percent by volume) t i o n (canopy- Willow Aspen Alder Birch High Bush browse) Cranberry August A-73 •August 18 ' M burn (aspen,- 85 15 Tr. willow) B-73 August 20 M • mature spruce- 75 25 wintergreen leaves (Trs) September 109 Rd. September 26 U/C c a l f road ecotone burn (aspen,-willow) 70 25 J-73 October 7-72 6-72 5-73 6-73 September 26 M mature spruce Tr. Tr. October 2 October 3 October 7 October 7 M mature spruce-pine-aspen mix M pine-aspen mix, road ecotone M willow bottom-beds M willow shrub type 95 95 55 30 15 75 Tr. Tr. raspberry (Tr.), pine (Tr.) monocot le a f (Tr.) monocot l e a f (probably sedge) (100) (rutpit?) Tr. monocot l e a f (Tr.) raspberry 10 cow parsnip (10), aster (Tr. SUMMARY OF MOOSE RUMENS, ANALYSIS, CAMERON RIVER RESERVE Rumen I d e n t i -f i c a -t i o n Approx-imate Date Sex of Animal C o l l e c t i o n area Habitat Type (canopy-browse) Estimated R e l a t i v e Importance of Major P l a n t Species Found In Rumen (percent b y volume) Willow Aspen A l d e r B i r c h High Bush Cranberry Estimated R e l a t i v e Importance of Minor P l a n t Species Found In Rumens October-Continued 7-73 October 7 October 7 October 7 October 9 October 9 October 10 October 11 October 11 October 11 October 17 F burn,-willow 60 18 M burn,-willow 70 25 M mature aspen 20 80 F immature Tr. Tr. spruce M mature aspen 40 60 F burn (aspen,- 85 10 w i l l o w M burn,-willow 55 5 F mature spruce 5 95 -pine mix F burn (aspen,- 95 5 willow) F w i l l o w bottom 90 10 lands Tr. 40 Tr. Tr. 18 monocot l e a f (Tr.) u n i d e n t i f i e d her-baceous l e a f (Tr.) Tr. raspberry, u n i d e n t i f i e d , wood (Tr.) bunchberry (Tr.) monocot l e a f (Tr.) ( l e a f and f r u i t ) monocot l e a f (probably sedge) (80) u n i d e n t i f i e d (20) f i n e grass (Tr.) Tr. monocot l e a f (Tr.) Tr. u n i d e n t i f i e d herbaceous (Tr.) bunchberry ( T r . ) , pine (Tr.) monocot l e a f (Tr.) herbaceous u n i d e n t i f i e d (Tr.) N (J o Tr. raspberry SUMMARY OF MOOSE RUMENS, ANALYSIS, CAMERON RIVER RESERVE Estimated Estimated Rumen Approx- Sex C o l l e c t i o n Relative Importance of Major Plant Relative Importance of Minor Plant I d e n t i - imate of area Species Found In Rumen Species Found In Rumens f i c a - Date Animal Habitat Type (percent by volume) t i o n (canopy- Willow Aspen Alder B i r c h High Bush browse) Cranberry 56-73 October 17 M mature aspen 50 30 15 Tr. cow parsnip (5), monocot l e a f (Tr.) November Male - November 12 M burn (aspen,- 90 10 Tr. willow) Late Winter Sample January F spruce,-willow 90 Tr. cow parsnip stem (5), larkspur (5) Cow February F aspen,-agri- 70 25 5 monocot l e a f (Tr.) raspberry (Tr-.) culture C a l f February F aspen,-agri- 65 35 u n i d e n t i f i e d herbaceous (Tr.) culture Wolf k i l l February F black spruce, 20 80 Tr. Tr. -willow Rd. k i l l March U/C mature spruce- 15 80 5 aspen mix APPENDIX 1 .7 Observations of Moose •Cratering f o r Herbaceous Forages 259 OBSERVATIONS OF PAWING BY MOOSE (Alces alces americana) IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA January 22, 1974 Mile 147, A.H. Beatton River Temperature -5 -10° F overcast, snow f l u r r i e s NcBr + o l d a g r i c u l t u r e rare mature Spruce 520 -.620 slope (0 - 10°) Aspect East Young Male plus u n c l a s s i f i e d adult (M) (u/c) 2h years est. Occurrence Front Leg Times Pawed Comments u/c on knees eating u/c stood up paw eat paw eat paw eat l e f t 10 l e f t 10 (beneath mature Spruce) l e f t 7 (on front knees) paw paw r i g h t r i g h t 4 2 eat paw eat paw eat l e f t l e f t s t i l l beneath spruce tree paw eat look eat paw paw eat l e f t l e f t l e f t .Continued OBSERVATIONS OF PAWING BY MOOSE (Alces alces americana) IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA Occurrence , Front Leg Times Pawed Comments paw l e f t 5 look paw l e f t 4 eat paw l e f t ' 5 eat paw r i g h t 3 eat paw l e f t 4 (30 sec) paw l e f t 5 paw l e f t 6 eat (65 sec) paw l e f t 6 eat (20 sec) paw . l e f t 5 eat (95- sec) paw r i g h t 4' eat (80 sec) paw r i g h t 4 eat (95 sec) paw l e f t 7 eat (20 sec) sec) sec) sec) sec) walk bed look (30 eat (55 look (20 eafe shrubs (55 .Continued 261 OBSERVATIONS OF PAWING BY MOOSE (Alces alces americana) IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA Occurrence . Front Leg Times Pawed Comments Male: -f i r s t observed pushing snow w i t h nose paw : l e f t 3 eat paw r i g h t 2 4 steps eat 4 steps eat shrub use near banks of Beatton R i v e r 5 steps eat 3 steps eat bed APPENDIX 18 D i s p e r s i o n Maps (developed from a e r i a l census) 263 264 265 266 267 APPENDIX 19 A Summary of Bedding C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Moose CHARACTERISTICS OF MOOSE BEDS, CAMERON RIVER RESERVE, WINTER, 1973-1974 Distance Diameter at Maximum Average Average D i r e c t i o n Dominant Species D i r e c t i o n .to near- Breast Height Dominant Bed..,.'., n Snow Depth o of Bed Slope Vegetation of near- to nearest est tree nearest tree Browse Depth Depth Sinking Front Aspect Type est tree tree (m) (cm) Species (cm) (cm) (cm) December West West lowland shrub Willow West 3 12.7 Willow, 38 46 .33 Alder West West lowland shrub Aspen Southwest 9 10.2 Willow, 38 48 36 Alder South West lowland shrub Willow Northeast 2.7 10.2 Willow, 41 43 25 Alder South West lowland shrub Black South 6 15.3 Willow, 33 51 28 west Spruce Alder Northwest West shrub-Spruce Spruce North 1.5 28.0 Willow, 28 41 31 Alder January North East lowland shrub Aspen Southwest 10.6 6.4 Willow, 46 • 64 46 (burn) Aspen, Birch South East lowland shrub Aspen North 15.3 6.4 Willow, 46 66 41 N (burn) Aspen, Birch CT Northeast East lowland shrub- Aspen Southwest 9.2 6.4 Willow, 46 64 46 Aspen (burn) Aspen, Bi r c h CHARACTERISTICS OF MOOSE BEDS CAMERON RIVER RESERVE, WINTER, 1973-1974 D i r e c t i o n of Bed Front Slope Aspect Dominant Vegetation Type Species of near-est t r e e D i r e c t i o n to nearest t r e e Distance to near-e s t t r e e (m) Diameter at Breast Height nearest t r e e (cm) Dominant Browse Species Maximum Bed Depth (cm) Average Snow Depth (cm) Average Depth o S i n k i n g (cm) January-Continued North East lowland shrub-Aspen (burn) Aspen Jtfest 6.0 2.5 Willow 48 Aspen,BBirch 66 48 February North East Shrub-Aspen ecotone Pine West 36.6 12.7 Willow 28 64 41 North East Shrub-Spruce ecotone Spruce East 29.0 15.3 Willow 46 56 51 Northwest East Shrub-Spruce ecotone Spruce East 30.5 15.3 Willow 46 56 51 March South West Shrub-Conifer Mix Aspen East .9 20.3 B i r c h 43 64 48 North West lowland shrub Spruce North 1.5 5.1 B i r c h , Willow 36 56 43 North West lowland shrub . Spruce North 11.5 5.1 B i r c h , 46 56 C 43 Willow CHARACTERISTICS OF MOOSE BEDS, CAMERON RIVER RESERVE, WINTER, 1973-1974 Distance Diameter a t Maximum Average Average D i r e c t i o n Dominant Species D i r e c t i o n to near- Breast Height Dominant Bed Snow Depth o of Bed .Slope Vegetation of near- to nearest e s t t r e e nearest t r e e Browse Depth Depth S i n k i n g Front Aspect Type est tree t r e e (m) (cm) Species (cm) (cm) (cm) March-Continued Southeast East Black Spruce Spruce Northwest .3 7.6 Willow 48 56 43 Northeast East lowland shrub Spruce North .9 20.3 Willow 46 51 43 Southeast East lowland shrub Spruce Northwest 1.2 10.2 Willow 31 56 43 West West regeneration Aspen Southeast 1.5 7.6 Willow, 53 66 51 (Aspen) Aspen Averages: 8.8 11.4 41 56 41 h-1 APPENDIX 20 A H i s t o r y of Land A l i e n a t i o n P a t t e r n s i n the Halfway R i v e r V a l l e y (Lands Branch f i l e s ) 2 7 3 274 275 APPENDIX 21 The L o c a t i o n of Vegetation P l o t s , Snow Stakes and Forage Sampling Areas 2 7 7 SAMPLING LOCATIONS IN THE STUDY AREA Scale 1:250,000 2 7 8 KNOWN LICK AND CRATERING LOCATIONS IN THE STUDY AREA G Scale 1:250,000 Q Oats Sedges 


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