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Urban growth management : the development of a program for the Edmonton area Scott, William Guy 1976

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URBAN GROWTH MANAGEMENT: THE  DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM FOR THE EDMONTON AREA by WILLIAM GUY SCOTT B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE  SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY  AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 0  19 76  William Guy Scott, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  t h a t the l i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  may be granted by the Head o f my  Department or by h i s r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  April  26, 1976  ABSTRACT  Urban growth management i s a t o p i c o f r e l a t i v e l y new b u t increasing interest.  Throughout North America,  communities are attempting patterns. reasons  t o modify  T h i s t h e s i s has attempted  f o r t h i s new concern  t e c h n i q u e s used t o accomplish  numerous  o r manage t h e i r growth t o draw t o g e t h e r the  f o r growth management, the i t and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n h e r e n t i n the a c t u a l development o f a management program. In o r d e r t h a t a r e a l world p e r s p e c t i v e be a c h i e v e d , t h e Edmonton a r e a o f A l b e r t a was c o n s i d e r e d .  Through d a t a  o b t a i n e d from the Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission as w e l l as from a number o f o t h e r governmental a g e n c i e s and through  the author's employment w i t h the P l a n n i n g Commission,  an i n s i g h t i n t o the c u r r e n t growth p a t t e r n s and problems o f the a r e a was a t t a i n e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e new concern  f o r growth management i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I I .  Three g e n e r a l areas o f concern are d e s c r i b e d : s o c i a l , environmental  and economic.  Chapter  I I I enumerates and  b r i e f l y reviews v a r i o u s growth management t e c h n i q u e s as they a r e a p p l i e d i n North America.  As the l e g a l i t y o f any  management t e c h n i q u e i s c r u c i a l t o i t s s u c c e s s , Chapter IV d i s c u s s e s t h e l e g a l b a s i s f o r the v a r i o u s growth management techniques  i n the A l b e r t a s e t t i n g .  A detailed explanation  of  t h e use o f t h e S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s o f  Alberta  i s used t o e x e m p l i f y  management  the l e g a l  adequacy  o f some  techniques.  With t h i s  background data,  management p r o g r a m  t h e development o f a growth  f o r t h e Edmonton a r e a was  C h a p t e r V summarizes  initiated.  t h e c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n and economic  growth o f t h e a r e a as w e l l as t h e views o f t h e t h r e e of  government  growth.  and t h o s e  Finally,  the p r e c e e d i n g program  Chapter VI brings together  chapters  levels  o f the general populace concerning  t o develop  f o r the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  population  growth  a growth  t h e work f r o m management  and r e a l l o c a t i o n  and economic growth o f t h e a r e a .  of the  iv,  TABLE OF CONTENTS page. ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .  CHAPTER I :  INTRODUCTION  Introduction  .1  t o the Problem  .. 2  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Research Objectives  3  o f Research  ,4  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  ..5  S u b s t a n t i v e Content  ,, 7  CHAPTER I I : WHY MANAGE GROWTH?  .9  S o c i a l Impacts.. Economic  .,10  Impacts.  ,  . 15  Environmental Impacts and Concerns  ,,25  A H o l i s t i c Approach  ,  CHAPTER I I I : A REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Growth R e s t r i c t i o n s  , , , 34  Land Use R e s t r i c t i o n s  , , 35  Other Growth D e t e r r e n t s .  , ,, , 39  Growth D e f l e c t i n g Techniques  Summary  .,.31  33  Servicing Restrictions  Alternate  . 29  , , 33  Building Restrictions  Growth D i v e r s i o n  ix  , , , 42  Incentives  43  Growth C e n t r e s  ..45 ,  , 48  V.  page. CHAPTER IV:  LEGAL ASPECTS OF GROWTH MANAGEMENT IN ALBERTA  P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s and Growth Management  50 51  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r Regulations  of Alberta  56  Growth Management Through the S u b d i v i s i o n and Transfer Regulations  of Alberta  61  Summary CHAPTER V:  70 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EDMONTON AREA  Growth i n the Edmonton Area Population  71 72  Growth  74  Economic Growth  80  General Government P o l i c y and P u b l i c Concerns Toward Urban Growth CHAPTER V I :  87  A GROWTH MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE EDMONTON AREA  Areas C u r r e n t l y Able t o Accept Increased  95 Growth  The Management Program  96 102  Growth T a r g e t s  102  General Edmonton Area Needs  104  i  A Growth Management Program f o r the C i t y o f Edmonton  106  A Growth Management Program f o r the V i l l a g e of Sherwood Park  109  vi.  page. A Growth Management Program f o r the Town o f St. A l b e r t .  113  A Growth Management Program f o r t h e Towns o f F o r t Saskatchewan, Leduc and Spruce Grove....114 The R e g i o n a l P l a n CHAPTER V I I :  117  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  119  Summary  120  Conclusions  123  Recommendations  125  BIBLIOGRAPHY  '.  127  vii.  LIST OF TABLES page.  TABLE I :  MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND THEIR LEGAL SANCTIONS IN ALBERTA  TABLE I I :  COMMUNITIES  TABLE I I I :  URBANIZATION IN ALBERTA  TABLE IV:  THE RURAL/URBAN  53  IN THE EDMONTON AREA  74  1951-1971  75  COMPONENTS OF THE EDMONTON  AREA POPULATION TABLE V:  75  NATURAL POPULATION INCREASE IN THE EDMONTON AREA  1966-1971  76  TABLE V I :  MIGRATION TO THE EDMONTON AREA  TABLE V I I :  MIGRATION DESTINATION FOR IMMIGRANTS TO CANADA  1966-1971  76  1966-1971  77  TABLE V I I I :  EDMONTON AREA URBAN POPULATIONS  TABLE IX:  PERCENTAGE SHARE OF EDMONTON AREA POPULATION INCREASES  TABLE X:  1951-1973  78  1956-1973  79  PROJECTED 1981 AREA LABOUR FORCE BY INDUSTRIAL DIVISION  TABLE X I :  83  MUNICIPAL PERCENTAGE SHARE OF TOTAL EDMONTON AREA NONRESIDENTIAL BUILDING PERMITS BY TYPE AND VALUE OF CONSTRUCTION; 1962 t o 1966, 1967 t o 1971, 1972 t o 1973  TABLE X I I :  85  SUMMARY OF APPROVED AND PROPOSED MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL  TABLE X I I I :  97  PERCENTAGE SHARE OF EDMONTON AREA POPULATION GROWTH  1971 - 1973  ..101  viii. page.  TABLE XIV:  PERCENTAGE SHARE OF EDMONTON AREA NONRESIDENTIAL BUILDING PERMITS 1972-1973  102  LIST OF MAPS  MAP I : THE EDMONTON AREA  73  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r s , Dr. M i c h a e l  Seelig  and Dr. C r a i g Davis f o r the time and e f f o r t which they so w i l l i n g l y gave t o me i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  thesis.  The numerous meetings, c o n s t a n t feedback and encouragement are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  I f e e l extremely  f o r having had such w i l l i n g and a b l e  fortunate  advisors.  I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank my w i f e , S h e l l e y , f o r her c o n s t a n t encouragement, p r o o f - r e a d i n g and t y p i n g . Thank you a l l .  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  2.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Problem  Concern f o r growth i n a q u a l i t a t i v e sense i s r e l a t i v e l y new.  Throughout the h i s t o r y o f North America, urban growth  has been c o n s i d e r e d very p o s i t i v e .  I t has been c o n s i d e r e d  b e n e f i c i a l i n t h a t i t s pays f o r i t s e l f and makes opportunities available.  new  A change of a t t i t u d e i n r e c e n t  years has come about l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of a concern q u a l i t y of l i f e and  a s s o c i a t e d with growth.  environmental  reevaluated  The  social,  f o r the economic  consequences of growth have been  ( S c o t t , 1975).  The Canadian f e d e r a l government has  s t a t e d i t s concern  w i t h urban growth. "The r a t e o f urban growth of our r e g i o n s has a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h e i r a b i l i t y to p l a n and manage t h e i r growth, more, perhaps than does t h e i r absolute s i z e . Some c i t i e s - eg: Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton, C a l g a r y - maintained an annual growth r a t e of t h r e e percent or more i n the decade to 1971; t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a d o u b l i n g time of twenty four y e a r s or l e s s . Such high r a t e s o f growth e x e r t enormous p r e s s u r e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e d l a n d and f o r housing, employment, r e c r e a t i o n and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Canadian p o p u l a t i o n growth i n our l a r g e urban c e n t r e s a l s o a f f e c t s the s m a l l e r towns and r u r a l c e n t r e s i n Canada. These s m a l l e r c e n t r e s tend to l o s e p o p u l a t i o n to the l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , and t h i s reduces t h e i r a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e adequate or improved s o c i a l and economic f a c i l t i e s . The widening gap between what i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l a r g e s t c e n t r e s and i n the r e s t o f Canada i n t u r n l e a d s t o f a s t e r r a t e s o f i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n to l a r g e c i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y f o r young people l o o k i n g f o r work or more v a r i e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s : (Urban A f f a i r s Annual Report, 1975, p. 1 ) . At an e a r l i e r conference  on urban growth, the f e d e r a l  3.  government p o s i t i o n was premised on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the p r e s e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f urban growth was unacceptable and t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f growth s h o u l d be sought  (Basford,  1973) . The problems o f urban growth have been  recognized.  Numerous attempts have been made t o a l l e v i a t e , c o n t r o l o r manage growth.  The r e s e a r c h h e r e i n i s concerned w i t h urban  growth management.  I t w a l l d i s c u s s the need t o manage  urban growth, study v a r i o u s methods o f management and f i n a l l y , develop a case study f o r i t s a p p l i c a t i o n .  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Research  Given the chanqinq a t t i t u d e toward urban qrowth and q i v e n the  Canadian f e d e r a l government's  p o s i t i o n , the t o p i c o f growth  management i s one i n which t h e r e c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s a widespread interest.  A f t e r examining the changing a t t i t u d e toward urban  growth, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l Alberta.  f o c u s upon the Edmonton area o f  While l i m i t i n g i t s e l f t o one a r e a and d e v e l o p i n g a  management program  f o r t h i s area, t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l develop  a format f o r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s elsewhere. The reasons f o r the r e c e n t change i n a t t i t u d e  towards  growth l i e i n t h r e e areas o f concern: s o c i a l , economic and environmental.  While the v a l u e placed.on each  critical.acea  v a r i e s from p l a c e t o p l a c e , i t i s the composite o f these three  which determines the a t t i t u d e towards growth i n any locale.  These areas of concern w i l l be  given  explored.  F i n a l l y , t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l p r o v i d e a review of growth management techniques and  and  r e l a t e these  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Edmonton area.  to the Canadian scene T h i s w i l l be done by  examining c u r r e n t management techniques to manage growth.  and  Each o f the p r o v i n c e s  the l e g a l  ability  o f Canada has  basically  the same r i g h t s as do the o t h e r s under the B r i t i s h North America Act.  Therefore,  d i s c u s s e d may  many of the growth management  be t r a n s f e r a b l e t o other areas o f Canada.  O b j e c t i v e s o f the  The  techniques  Research  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s r e s e a r c h , i n i t s o v e r a l l  i s t o study  perspective,  growth management i n terms of the reasons f o r i t ,  the methods c u r r e n t l y i n use,  and,  g i v e n the Canadian f e d e r a l  government's p o s i t i o n on urban growth, t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the Edmonton r e g i o n of A l b e r t a .  The  r e s e a r c h w i l l be  i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Edmonton r e g i o n and  limited  therefore w i l l  deal  w i t h methods o n l y as they r e l a t e to the c u r r e n t l e g a l g u i d e l i n e s for  growth management i n t h i s In d e t a i l ,  The  area.  the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s r e s e a r c h are  sixfold.  f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s to document the change i n a t t i t u d e  which has brought about the concern f o r growth management. T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as i t r e l a t e s t o growth i n North  5.  America  i n general.  Secondly, the r e s e a r c h w i l l enumerate growth management mechanisms as they are c u r r e n t l y a p p l i e d i n North The  America.  t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i s t o review the growth of the  Edmonton a r e a .  T h i s w i l l be r e l a t e d to the concerns o f the  people i n the r e g i o n as d e s c r i b e d i n the Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission's r e p o r t Concerns  o f the P u b l i c , T e c h n i c a l  Report 4, and e v a l u a t i o n of these concerns i n a p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e paper prepared i n the summer of  1975.  A f o u r t h o b j e c t i v e i s t o d i s c u s s the l e g a l a b i l i t y o f the A l b e r t a government to manage growth and f o l l o w t h i s t o the implementation  level.  F o l l o w i n g from the f o u r p r i o r o b j e c t i v e s , the f i f t h i s t o draw these t o g e t h e r and develop a growth management program f o r the Edmonton a r e a . The  f i n a l o b j e c t i v e of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o develop a  methodology f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f a growth management program which, w h i l e r e f e r r i n g t o a s p e c i f i c case study, i s t r a n s f e r a b l e to o t h e r l o c a t i o n s .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  Because of the nature of much o f the m a t e r i a l to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e a number of terms so as t o l i m i t t h e i r  interpretation.  Jt  6.  The ways.  t e r m " u r b a n g r o w t h " may be e x p r e s s e d  Increased  services  population,  and c u l t u r a l  manifestations  employment, l a n d c o v e r a g e ,  opportunities are only  o f urban growth.  Population  g r o w t h a r e two w i d e l y  accepted  and w i l l  f o r the d e f i n i t i o n  in  this  be t h e b a s i s  It  will  growth" w i l l  be t h e r e s u l t  be d e f i n e d  r e g i o n a l product technique" or  i n d i c a t o r s o f urban  to the area.  i n terms o f the a b s o l u t e f o r a predefined  1975, p . 4 ) .  will  management  "patterns  o f land use, o f development" is a  two c a t e g o r i e s o f g r o w t h  T h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s a r e  which a i d i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  techniques.  a r e as f o l l o w s :  Growth R e s t r i c t i o n s 1)  A "growth  techniques..  be s e t .  o f g r o w t h management  growth"  increase i n gross  r a t e and n a t u r e  research,  further divided i n subcategories  subcategories  area.  o r e v o l v i n g method, t a x , p l a n  o f g r o w t h management  techniques  "Economic  A " g r o w t h management p r o g r a m "  the purpose o f t h i s  management  area.  w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o g u i d e  combination  classes  growth  be d e f i n e d as t h e a b s o l u t e  i n c l u d i n g t h e manner, l o c a t i o n ,  For  o f urban  growth  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n b i r t h s and  i s any t r a d i t i o n a l  activity  (Scott,  and e c o n o m i c  i n t h e number o f p e r s o n s w i t h i n a p r e d e f i n e d  deaths plus the net migration will  a few o f t h e  research.  "Population increase  i n a number o f  Building Restrictions  The c a t e g o r i e s a n d  7 .  2)  Servicing Restrictions  3)  Land Use R e s t r i c t i o n s  4)  Other Growth D e t e r r e n t s  Growth D e f l e c t i n g Techniques 1)  Growth D i v e r s i o n I n c e n t i v e s  2)  A l t e r n a t e Growth Centres  Each o f the management techniques  t o be d i s c u s s e d w i l l f i t  i n t o one o f the c a t e g o r i e s and s u b c a t e g o r i e s . to  r e c o g n i z e t h a t the techniques  are n o t t o t a l l y mutually  found  exclusive.  i n each  subcategory  Depending on t h e i r  manner o f use, they may o v e r l a p i n t o o t h e r  Substantive  I t i s important  subcategories.  Content  T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o seven c h a p t e r s . remaining  s i x c h a p t e r s w i l l d e a l w i t h growth management from  a number o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . one  The  Each o f the c h a p t e r s w i l l  realize  o f the o b j e c t i v e s . Chapter  It w i l l  two w i l l d i s c u s s the need f o r growth management.  focus on the a t t i t u d i n a l change i n North America as  r e l a t e s t o urban growth.  Three areas o f concern w i l l be  d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l as they r e l a t e t o growth management. are the s o c i a l , economic and environmental  These  a s p e c t s o f urban  growth. Chapter  three w i l l  study growth management  techniques.  8.  The  growth management c a t e g o r i e s w i l l  which these v a r i o u s techniques Chapter f o u r w i l l  form the s t r u c t u r e i n  w i l l be  reviewed.  look a t the l e g a l c a p a c i t y of  p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a to manage growth.  It will  t r a c e the  o f power from the B r i t i s h North America A c t through Albera Planning  the flow  the  Act.  Chapter f i v e w i l l  i n t r o d u c e the case study.  It will  o u t l i n e the Edmonton area as d e f i n e d by the Edmonton Regional  P l a n n i n g Commission i n 1974  of Edmonton.  d i s c u s s the growth  A l s o d i s c u s s e d w i l l be the concerns of  l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and growth and  and  the p r o v i n c i a l government stand  the on  i t s management.  Chapter s i x w i l l produce a growth management program f o r the Edmonton subregion.  I t w i l l be based on a l l p r e v i o u s  chapters  v a r i o u s management techniques  and  o u t l i n e how  be used to determine f u t u r e growth i n the Edmonton The  f i n a l chapter,  chapter  research to that point. It w i l l  t h a t area.  summarize  the  Problems encountered w i l l be o u t l i n e d . on a  t h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t s are o n l y a p p l i c a b l e  It w i l l  f u r t h e r e x p l a i n t h a t the methodology  used i n t h i s development i s p o r t a b l e and may areas.  subregion.  emphasize t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h has been focused  s p e c i f i c area and to  seven, w i l l  could  be used i n o t h e r  F i n a l l y , recommendations f o r a d d i t i o n a l work i n the  f i e l d w i l l be  suggested.  CHAPTER I I  WHY MANAGE  GROWTH?  10.  There are no standard answers o r reasons f o r urban growth management.  Numerous t e x t s have been w r i t t e n on  the s u b j e c t y e t few have attempted for  it.  any s y s t e m a t i c  reasoning  T h e r e f o r e , t h i s chapter w i l l attempt t o draw t o g e t h e r  some c e n t r a l i d e a s found i n v a r i o u s l i t e r a t u r e and develop an argument f o r growth management. Urban growth has been presumed to be a t h r e a t f o r s o c i a l and economic reasons.  E c o l o g i c a l impact and environmental  q u a l i t y have become a d d i t i o n a l r e a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (Meier, 19 62).  P l a n n e r s are c o n s t a n t l y warned o f the dangers o f  r e s t r i c t i n g a study t o a narrow p e r s p e c t i v e ; most p l a n n i n g t e x t s note the importance  of a h o l i s t i c  approach.  Social,  economic and environmental impacts a r e o f primary  concern.  These t h r e e f a c t o r s , then, w i l l be c e n t r a l t o the d i s c u s s i o n of  growth management i n t h i s c h a p t e r . For  c e n t u r i e s , people have u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y gone along  w i t h growth.  Any form o f growth was thought t o be p o s i t i v e ,  a s i g n o f p r o s p e r i t y and h e a l t h . begun t o doubt  this idea.  Only r e c e n t l y have people  T h i s change i n a t t i t u d e may be  l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts and more r e c e n t l y t o a r e e v a l u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l  Social  economics.  Impacts  Perhaps  t h e b e s t way t o i n i t i a t e  a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  s o c i a l impact of r a p i d urban growth i s through the concept of  q u a l i t y of l i f e .  Urban growth undoubtedly  has many  p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s which are n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d range of c h o i c e .  Generally, a positive  correlation  e x i s t s w i t h income, i n c r e a s e d range of work, i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c i t y s i z e .  Job and e d u c a t i o n a l  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shopping and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s in greater d i v e r s i t y  also  exist  i n l a r g e urban a r e a s .  On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e are c o s t s t o urban growth. Increased t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s , c o n g e s t i o n , p o l l u t i o n ,  crime,  the decrease i n space per c a p i t a and the disappearance of the c o u n t r y s i d e are among the major c o s t s (The Ann Growth Study,  Arbour  1972).  These c o s t s are most obvious i n h i g h growth areas where, due to new to  to the speed of development, the change cannot be either mentally  (as w i t h c i t i z e n s who  development) nor p h y s i c a l l y  adapted  are inundated w i t h  (where f a c i l i t i e s  are unable  be maintained a t t h e i r c u r r e n t l e v e l o f s e r v i c e ) . " A c c e l e r a t i o n i s one of the most important and l e a s t understood of a l l s o c i a l f o r c e s . . . the i n c r e a s e d r a t e a t which s i t u a t i o n s flow p a s t us v a s t l y c o m p l i c a t e s the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e of l i f e , m u l t i p l y i n g the number of r o l e s we must p l a y and the number o f c h o i c e s we are f o r c e d t o make" ( T o f f l e r , 1971, p. 32). The combination of l a r g e numbers of new  residents  the speed of development made p o s s i b l e by new  and  technology  make r a p i d urban growth and community changes p o s s i b l e . e f f e c t i s o f t e n one of a l o s s of community i d e n t i t y  The  through  changes i n f a c i l i t i e s and people. other.  People no l o n g e r know each  People d r i v e p a s t t h e i r neighbours  past and s t o p p i n g t o t a l k  i n s t e a d of walking  (GVRD, 197 2 ) .  Growth i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o i n terms o f f e a r .  People  are a f r a i d o f what growth w i l l do t o t h e i r community. distinction i s valid.  Growth always means change w h i l e  change does n o t always mean growth  ( S e e l i g and S e e l i g ,  Because we know t h a t change i s p e r c e i v e d by d i f f e r e n t i n d i f f e r e n t ways, p l a n n e r s should be concerned problems o f both p e r c e i v e d and r e a l change. p l a n n e r s cannot  The  and should n o t attempt  people  w i t h the  Obviously,  to t o t a l l y  s o c i e t y o r communities from the e f f e c t s o f change. i s one o f degree and q u a l i t y .  1972).  shield The q u e s t i o n  I f l a r g e s c a l e change i s a  r e s u l t o f l a r g e s c a l e growth and t h i s causes p e r c e i v e d and r e a l h a r d s h i p s i n the community, then perhaps the p r o c e s s o f change o r growth should be slowed.  Whether change i s a r e s u l t  of urban growth o r o f the c o n t i n u a l t r a n s i t i o n t h a t s o c i e t y i s undergoing,  should be c o n s i d e r e d  ( S e e l i g . and S e e l i g ,  1972).  The p l a n n e r ' s r o l e may be seen as one o f accommodation through q u a l i t a t i v e d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s and/or q u a l i t a t i v e growth management techniques t o l e s s e n these e f f e c t s .  In  t h e o r y , then, t h e r e e x i s t s a range o f o p t i o n s open t o p l a n n e r s anywhere from e l i m i n a t i n g growth and c o n c e r n i n g o n e s e l f w i t h m i n i m i z i n g i n t e r n a l l y induced changes a l l the way t o a c c e p t i n g the annual r a t e o f growth and managing i t as w e l l as the  i n t e r n a l l y induced changes, f o r the maximum s o c i a l  benefit.  Moving from the t h e o r e t i c a l to the more c o n c r e t e , a number o f s o c i a l problems are r e a d i l y  identifiable.  Consequences mentioned e a r l i e r such as i n c r e a s e d c o n g e s t i o n , p o l l u t i o n , decrease i n space per c a p i t a and the disappearance of the c o u n t r y s i d e are o f t e n c i t e d .  Others a r e not so e a s i l y  i d e n t i f i e d y e t a r i s e i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the c i t i z e n s o f high-growth  areas.  A "problem" o f some c o n t r o v e r s y i s the  i n c r e a s e d crime r a t e . statements  about  Due t o the nature o f crime  i n c r e a s e d crime i n high-growth  r e a l o r may be p e r c e i v e d .  The Ann Arbour  notes i n c r e a s e d crime r a t e s i n i t s area.  statistics,  areas may be  Growth Study  (1972)  However, no  c o n c l u s i v e evidence seems t o e x i s t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f growth and crime r a t e .  Although o f t e n mentioned by c i t i z e n s  when speaking o f growth, the sources seem t o be mainly Other  sources o f s o c i a l concern are not.  mentioned d e c l i n e o f f a c i l t i e s ,  The above  such as daycare,  community leagues and s c h o o l s i s an example.  intuitive.  hospitals,  High-growth  areas a r e o f t e n found t o l a c k f a c i l i t i e s because they a r e n o t developed facilities  a t the same pace as the p o p u l a t i o n grows. are overused  o f the community.  Thus,  and l e s s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l c i t i z e n s  High growth means i n c r e a s e d housing demand.  As growth a c c e l e r a t e s , a l t e r n a t e forms o f housing development are e x p e r i e n c e d .  Residents begin to "perceive d i f f e r e n t  housing t y p e s , h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s , and even some o f the  14.  newcomers themselves as t h r e a t s t o the community, as d i s r u p t i v e of the s t a t u s quo, and as a d i s t u r b a n c e (R.W. S c o t t , The  to e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s  1975).  e f f e c t t h a t growth has on taxes i s g e n e r a l l y thought  t o be s t r i c t l y economic.  I t may a l s o be a s o c i a l f a c t o r i n  t h a t i t causes adverse f e e l i n g toward t h i s change. i n c r e a s e d demand f o r f a c i l i t i e s ,  Due t o  taxes u s u a l l y r i s e .  Citizens  o f t e n express the f e e l i n g t h a t because t h i s need has been brought about by new r e s i d e n t s , t h a t these new r e s i d e n t s should  pay t h e f u l l c o s t s o f the new f a c i l i t i e s .  seldom the case.  The need t o slow growth i s again  This i s expressed  (R.W. S c o t t , 1975 and GVRD, 197.2). High urban growth r a t e s mean i n c r e a s e d demand f o r l a n d to accommodate t h i s growth. higher  T h i s i n c r e a s e d demand means  land p r i c e s f o r competing uses.  l a n d p r i c e s , there a r e two o p t i o n s .  With these  higher  One i s t o i n c r e a s e the  c i t y s i z e by growing i n t o p r e v i o u s l y undeveloped areas o f the urgan f r i n g e .  The c o s t s o f development i n t h i s manner  are w e l l documented ( L i t h w i c h , 1970 and Russworm, 1971). "Because new l a n d i n urban areas soon becomes very s c a r c e , and because o f the h i g h c o s t s and long time d e l a y s t h a t are u n a v o i d a b l y p a r t o f producing new b u i l d i n g s , the demand f o r urban space can be expected t o i n c r e a s e f a s t e r than the supply . . . " ( S t o t t , 1974, p. 3 ) . The  second o p t i o n i s t o i n c r e a s e d e n s i t i e s . According  t o a Greater  Vancouver Regional  District  (GVRD)  r e p o r t , many people seem t o a s s o c i a t e i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s  15.  with  a d e c l i n e i n the q u a l i t y  (GVRD, 1 9 7 2 ) .  of their  A summary o f t h i s  neighbourhoods  r e p o r t notes  that:  " O l d e r b u i l d i n g s w h i c h may h a v e v a l u e t o t h e community a r e removed t o make way f o r l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e s ; l a n d p r i c e s r i s e and t h i s , c o u p l e d with higher construction costs, increase the price o f accommodation; h i g h e r d e n s i t y l i v i n g i s o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d by a d e c l i n e i n p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s i n t h e community; t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l a t e t o o t h e r s a s i n d i v i d u a l s i s r e d u c e d ; t h e community may seem t o many t o move b e y o n d t h e i r s c a l e o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n " ( S t o t t , 1974, p . 3 ) . While  t h e o b j e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a b o v e summary i s  questionable, considering  many g o v e r n m e n t s a r e a c t i n g  these  types  management p r o g r a m s . not w e l l d e f i n e d . different  degrees  to different  environmental  i n developing  impacts  o f urban growth a r e  t h a t many e x i s t  people  problems,  as c l o s e l y  but to  i n different  these  areas  problems a r e n o t as  as a r e economic and, t o a l e s s e r  the planner's duty  growth  and e x t e n t o f g r o w t h t a k i n g p l a c e .  t o say t h a t while  quantifiable  those  The s o c i a l  I t i s apparant  d e p e n d i n g on t h e t y p e Suffice  of concerns  or seriously  they  to listen  as p o s s i b l e ,  are very r e a l . to citizen these  extent, Because  concerns  social  i t is  and a c t on  impacts  should  be w e i g h e d h e a v i l y .  Economic  Impacts  Traditional aspect: p o s i t i v e .  economics t e l l s More r e c e n t l y ,  u s t h a t g r o w t h h a s b u t one some e c o n o m i s t s  have b e g u n  16.  to r e e v a l u a t e  the growth syndrome and concluded t h a t some  forms o f growth a r e b e t t e r than o t h e r s r a p i d growth may i n f a c t be harmful  and t h a t  excessive,  (Mishan, 1966) .  On the  urban s c a l e , t h i s means t h a t not a l l growth i s n e c e s s a r i l y good.  W i l l i a m Toner notes t h a t r a p i d growth i s o f t e n  unstable  (1974).  He i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n times o f r a p i d growth,  construction i s greatly affected.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  however, i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n s t a b i l i t y . on  industry,  Depending  such f a c t o r s as "(1) t h e l o c a l demand f o r housing  the s t a t e o f f e d e r a l f i s c a l and monetary p o l i c i e s  (2)  (3) the  weather, and (4) c o s t o f land ", the i n d u s t r y peaks and declines  (Toner, 1974, p. x i v ) . Thus, w h i l e the incomes i n  t h i s i n d u s t r y a r e r e l a t i v e l y good d u r i n g times o f h i g h demand, they a r e a l s o very v u l n e r a b l e  to f l u c t u a t i o n .  Because o f the r e l a t i v e i n s t a b i l i t y o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y , the p u b l i c i s a l s o a f f e c t e d .  In times o f d e c l i n e ,  the c o n s t r u c t i o n workers a r e i n need o f p u b l i c support through unemployment i n s u r a n c e , assistance.  welfare  and other  forms o f s o c i a l  Toner goes on t o say:  "The economic h e a l t h o f the l o c a l p u b l i c s e c t o r begins t o r e f l e c t t h a t o f i t s p r i v a t e c l i e n t e l e . T h i s s i n g l e example o f the economic p i t f a l l s o f a h i g h growth r a t e extends through the l o c a l economy. U t i l i t i e s p r o v i d e unused c o n n e c t i o n s , the f i n a n c i a l i n d u s t r y i s l e f t w i t h loans running out, p u b l i c s e r v i c e committments are made and the whole l o c a l economic s t r u c t u r e s e t t l e s t o a d i m i n i s h e d pace" (Toner, 1974, p. x i v ) . Toner c o n t i n u e s  f u r t h e r t o p o i n t o u t t h a t many  high  growth areas are dominated by a s i n g l e major i n d u s t r y . w i t h any system, d i v e r s i t y w i l l h e l p to m a i n t a i n when f l u c t u a t i o n s o r p e r t u r b a t i o n s Goldberg, 1974). number o f f a c t o r s .  This  arise  i n s t a b i l i t y may  As  stability  (Jacobs, 1961 and  be the r e s u l t o f a  I t i s l i k e l y , however, t h a t  decisions  a f f e c t i n g the community w i l l be made elsewhere.  The  example  1960's,  i s appropriate.  S e a t t l e , u n t i l the l a t e  Seattle  r e l i e d very h e a v i l y upon the American Aerospace I n d u s t r y f o r i t s economic w e l l b e i n g . Plant,  S e a t t l e underwent  With the c l o s u r e  a serious  o f the Boeing  economic d e c l i n e .  Unlike  many o t h e r c i t i e s , however, S e a t t l e , because o f the nature of the aerospace i n d u s t r y was  able  and i t s employees' c a p a b i l i t i e s ,  to rebound r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y a f t e r the c l o s u r e .  High growth areas are f u r t h e r a f f e c t e d by a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l c o s t s made necessary by c o n t i n u a l  community development.  "These p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s not o n l y r a i s e the immediate tax burden, they a l s o l a y the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r a d d i t i o n a l development. How o f t e n i s the argument 'We have gone t h i s f a r so why not f i n i s h i t ? ' r e s u l t e d i n continuing expenditures? Beyond t h i s , even e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s become s t r a i n e d : s c h o o l s become overcrowded, s t r e e t s and highways congested, u t i l i t y networks overburdened. Periods o f h i g h growth undermine both the c a p a c i t y to d e l i v e r e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and the a b i l i t y t o expand e x i s t i n g capacity. L i t t l e wonder, then, t h a t l o c a l high-growth communities are not n o t a b l e f o r t h e i r dramatic d e c l i n e s i n p r o p e r t y taxes by r a t h e r f o r enormous i n c r e a s e s i n bonded indebtedness" (Toner, 1974, p. x v i i ) . In the GVRD's study o f the e f f e c t s o f economic a number o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s were e x p l o r e d . (1974) p o i n t s  out, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  growth,  Because, as F i n k l e r  to i s o l a t e  population  18.  growth from economic growth, both were examined i n the GVRD r e p o r t e n t i t l e d P o p u l a t i o n Growth, Economic Growth and Related  Problems  (1972) f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s on each  other.  A summary o f t h i s study  follows.  Both p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth are q u a n t i f i a b l e . However, when both are combined, the n e t e f f e c t i s not r e a d i l y apparent.  D i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , depending i n p a r t upon  t h e i r various i n t e r e s t s , w i l l perceive d i f f e r e n t  effects.  E i g h t g e n e r a l i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f r e g i o n a l growth are mentioned below 1)  (GVRD, 1972(2)).  I f the Gross R e g i o n a l  Product  (GRP) i n c r e a s e s more  r a p i d l y than does p o p u l a t i o n , then income per c a p i t a w i l l also increase.  I f the r e v e r s e o c c u r s ,  c a p i t a w i l l drop. per c a p i t a w i l l  then income p e r  I f both i n c r e a s e a t the same r a t e , income  l i k e l y remain c o n s t a n t .  I t i s important  to  note, however, t h a t i n a l l i n s t a n c e s , economic growth has occured. to  C l e a r l y , not a l l o f these  s i t u a t i o n s are b e n e f i c i a l  the r e s i d e n t s o f the community. 2)  Government income and expenditure  i s dependent on  the demand f o r government s e r v i c e s and the amount o f money available.  Money i s made a v a i l a b l e through t a x a t i o n . I f ,  as p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the demand f o r government s e r v i c e s is  i n c r e a s e d , and i f the GRP i n c r e a s e s a t a g r e a t e r r a t e than  the p o p u l a t i o n ,  the government's per c a p i t a income may  When GRP i n c r e a s e s a t a g r e a t e r r a t e than p o p u l a t i o n ,  rise. there  are b a s i c a l l y three a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o the government. A)  The  or B)  government can p r o v i d e more and/or b e t t e r s e r v i c e s , the government may  present  q u a l i t y and  choose to leave s e r v i c e s a t  q u a n t i t y , on a per c a p i t a b a s i s ,  reduce taxes, or C) the government may s e r v i c e s and  moderately  be l e f t w i t h  In t h i s i n s t a n c e , there may government may  i n c r e a s e taxes t o m a i n t a i n  o f s e r v i c e s o r C)  present  choose an i n t e r m e d i a t e  The  level  step w i t h minor taxes.  A t h i r d r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n and  economic  p r e v a i l where both i n c r e a s e a t the same r a t e . . Under  these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  s e r v i c e s c o u l d be maintained  tax l e v e l s remain r e l a t i v e l y  Other f a c t o r s which may  economies due  Costs may  cost of  be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  on  drop as a r e s u l t o f s c a l e  or, i n another i n s t a n c e , c o s t s may  like.  The  to l a r g e r s u p p l i e s of m a t e r i a l s b e i n g  diseconomies o f s c a l e due  constant  a f f e c t the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s  s e r v i c i n g an i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n may a per c a p i t a b a s i s .  at a  constant.  be the economies or diseconomies o f s c a l e .  the  A)  per c a p i t a  taxes but decrease the  adjustments i n both the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s and  and  GRP,  lower per c a p i t a revenue.  be three a l t e r n a t i v e s .  s e r v i c e l e v e l s or B) maintain  may  increase  i n c r e a s e s a t a g r e a t e r r a t e than  then the government may  l e v e l while  and  reduce t a x a t i o n .  When p o p u l a t i o n  growth may  their  purchased  increase r e f l e c t i n g  the  to i n c r e a s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s  20.  3)  The c o s t  of l i v i n g  may  rise  growth  inside or outside  capita  income d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n an  standard  of  f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the cost  i n a region  i s that,  the  cost  local  example  of l i v i n g .  i n per  improved  earlier  also rise  of land  standard  grows,  of  there  may  wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s  Thus, as incomes  p r i c e i n d e x may  given  and  as a r e g i o n  o r d e v e l o p a c o r r e l a t i o n between local  C l e a r l y , the r i s e  living.  Another living  an a r e a .  as a r e s u l t o f economic  and t h e  rise within  (Thompson,  a  region,  1965).  i n a growing region  be  The  will  suffice  o n c e more. Local standard  s u f f i c i e n c y may  of l i v i n g .  a region, With  self  specialized  size,  may  are produced  more h i g h - o r d e r  goods,  uneconomic  s u c h as  savings.  may  and/or  s e r v i c e s may  within  jewelry,  et cetera,  Above a c e r t a i n e c o n o m i c  previously  and  r e s u l t from t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  s e r v i c e s , museums, t h e a t r e s ,  become a v i a l a b l e . threshold,  a f f e c t the cost  When more p r o d u c t s  lower c o s t s  increased  also  population  become v i a b l e  ( G a r n e r and Y e a t e s , 1 9 7 1 ) . 4)  Employment r a t e s  economic growth.  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  As a r e g i o n  grows,  are affected  the v a r i e t y o f  increases.  An e c o n o m i c m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t i s c r e a t e d .  new  stimulate  j o b may  jobs One  t h e demand f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e l a t e d  services. A s i t u a t i o n ,in w h i c h e c o n o m i c g r o w t h e x c e e d s  by  labour  f o r c e growth may  have a number of e f f e c t s .  As noted  earlier,  one consequence may be t o i n c r e a s e labour incomes and may  i n c r e a s e the c o s t o f l i v i n g .  I t may  this  a l s o draw i n v a r i o u s  members o f the p o p u l a t i o n not p r e v i o u s l y i n the labour market such as housewives and s t u d e n t s .  A t h i r d outcome may  be to  encourage i n c r e a s e d m i g r a t i o n , thus i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e s . Where p o p u l a t i o n growth i s g r e a t e r than economic growth the converse  o f the above may  occur.  When p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic growth are i n c r e a s i n g a t e q u a l r a t e s , the major e f f e c t may of jobs and s e r v i c e s .  be a g r e a t e r  diversity  The p o p u l a t i o n has grown and the  demand f o r s e r v i c e s d i v e r s i f i e d w i t h a consequent e f f e c t o f making s t i l l more jobs and s e r v i c e s e c o n o m i c a l l y I t i s important o f investment  t o understand, however,  be f u l l employment i n one s e c t o r o f the  l a b o u r market, o t h e r s e c t o r s may  5)  (Thompson,  experience.serious  employment  1965).  Land p r i c e s and land consumption are both a f f e c t e d  by p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth. the demand f o r housing prices.  t h a t the type  d i c t a t e s the type o f jobs which w i l l be produced,  and w h i l e t h e r e may  problems  viable.  may  As p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s ,  increase, r e s u l t i n g i n higher  land  One r e s u l t might be to f o r c e the more i n t e n s i v e  use o f l a n d .  Secondly,  community  be developed,  may  new  l a n d around the p e r i p h e r y o f the p r e s e n t i n g the need f o r new  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s i n the  form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , sewers,  utilities,  other  schools  and  facilities.  Depending on the type of economic growth, s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s on land c o s t s and expected.  For example, the  consumption can  be  l o c a t i o n o f manufacturing  servicing industries generally requires land.  various  large q u a n t i t i e s of  I f such p a r c e l s are a v a i l a b l e , l i t t l e  expected on l o c a l land p r i c e s , p r o v i d e d shortages e x i s t i n the area.  Low  and  no  e f f e c t would  significant  be  labour  land p r i c e s , however,  a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y which n o r m a l l y a t t r a c t s o t h e r  i n d u s t r y which  n o r m a l l y a t t r a c t s more people.  A l l r e q u i r e l a r g e t r a c t s of  land a t r e l a t i v e l y low p r i c e s .  The  r e s u l t i s generally  p e r i m e t e r growth. "A d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d p r i c e s and land coverage may be i d e n t i f i e d ; i f no new land f o r b u i l d i n g s were a v a i l a b l e , y e t growth continued to o c c u r , p r i c e s o f p r e s e n t l y developed land w i l l rise. This r i s e i n prices w i l l eventually r e s u l t i n p r e s s u r e s t o develop t h i s l a n d a t h i g h e r i n t e n s i t i e s r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h d e n s i t i e s and a l l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. On the other hand, i f l a r g e amounts o f land were a v a i l a b l e i n the f r i n g e areas o f the r e g i o n , t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y low p r i c e s may a t t r a c t a g r e a t number o f people to l o c a t e there a t r e l a t i v e l y low d e n s i t i e s . This r e s u l t s i n urban sprawl and a l l the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t " (GVRD, 1972(2), p. 16). 6)  Housing p r i c e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n and  a f f e c t e d by p o p u l a t i o n  and  q u a l i t y are  economic growth.  As  also  mentioned  e a r l i e r , housing p r i c e s r i s e as a f u n c t i o n of land v a l u e s costs of l i v i n g . pleases  The  home owners.  increase  and  i n the p r i c e o f homes g e n e r a l l y  Their p r o f i t  i s , however, o n l y  a  "paper p r o f i t " the  f o r when t h e homeowner b u y s  r e g i o n , t h e s e c o n d home's c o s t w i l l  Consumer h o u s i n g  expectations  What was s a t i s f a c t o r y may be c o n s i d e r e d 7)  The a m e n i t i e s  major c o n s i d e r a t i o n . cultural,  growth  i s greater  and g o v e r n m e n t to provide will for  ago i n a s m a l l e r  as a r e s u l t  Again,  amenities  the balance  i s the determining  than  ability  population  o f growth a r e a  t o t a x may r i s e ,  between  greater  will  economic  largely  Demand w i l l  expenditures  population  viable.  growth,  there  support  The l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n b a s e may  v i a b l e b u t n o t t o t h e same d e g r e e a s i n  growth a r e a .  be  Individual  facilities  g e n e r a l l y l e s s money o n a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s t o  a high  income  governments  amenities.  p r e v i o u s l y uneconomic  l a r g e numbers o f a m e n i t i e s .  population  I f economic  enabling  g e n e r a l l y h a v e more money, e n a b l i n g enjoyment, making  i n c r e a s e s and  factor.  more r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l  make some a m e n i t i e s  community  growth, d i s p o s a b l e  When e c o n o m i c g r o w t h l a g s b e h i n d is  similarly.  today.  e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r  and e c o n o m i c  risen  W i t h g r o w t h , t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  becomes more d i v e r s e .  growth  needed  have  home i n  a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by g r o w t h .  some y e a r s  substandard  another  Luxury amenities  in this  case  foregone. i n c r e a s e more q u i c k l y when e c o n o m i c a n d  population  growth  i n c r e a s e a t t h e same r a t e .  be g r e a t e r  support  facilities  w h i c h were n o t e c o n o m i c a l l y  forcultural,  The r e s u l t  may  r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l v i a b l e i n the past,  a l l o w i n g government to i n c r e a s e support  f o r other  public  amenities. As p o p u l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e s , c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l and  c u l t u r a l f a c i l t i e s c o u l d become overcrowded and As a r e s u l t , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n may numbers c a u s i n g  absorb the  the overcrowding of these  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , more i n t e n s i v e and e x i s t i n g amenities  may  surface.  increased  amenities.  imaginative  use  of  T h i s , however, i s not  long-term s o l u t i o n but more l i k e l y a s h o r t - t e r m 8)  overused.  remedy.  When d i s c u s s i n g the e f f e c t s o f p o p u l a t i o n  economic growth, one  o f the most n o t a b l e  and  concerns i s the  p o s s i b l e adverse e f f e c t s on the n a t u r a l environment. economic growth, we  assume i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n  i n c r e a s i n g amounts o f waste.  effects i s desirable.  Increased  The  reduce any  adverse high areas  a l t e r n a t i v e i s to concentrate, y i e l d i n g  economic growth may  earlier.  y i e l d i n c r e a s e d income p e r  c a p i t a thereby encouraging people to spend more and more, p o l l u t i n g more.  this  open l a n d and w i l d l i f e  the problems o f h i g h d e n s i t y mentioned Increased  with  need f o r land d u r i n g  economic growth p e r i o d s p r e s s u r e s t o be developed.  With  With economic growth o f  k i n d , p u b l i c management to c o n t r o l and  a  Population  waste  growth f o l l o w s the same  p a t t e r n u s i n g more consumer goods and  s e r v i c e s and y i e l d i n g  i n c r e a s e d waste m a t e r i a l s . Economic impacts of growth are c o n t r o v e r s i a l on  their  own.  When c o n s i d e r e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n growth, they become  more complex.  The consequences o f p o p u l a t i o n and economic  growth depend both on t h i s balance as w e l l as on t h e type of economic growth f o r e s e e n .  A capital-intensive  industry  may have a f a r d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t than a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e industry. good.  C l e a r l y , not a l l economic growth i s n e c e s s a r i l y  A p r o j e c t t h a t may seem t o be a r e a l a s s e t when  c o n s i d e r e d i n s t r i c t l y economic terms may have consequences which are n o t b e n e f i c i a l t o the r e g i o n as a whole.  Because  o f these v a r i o u s " s p i n - o f f " e f f e c t s , growth management may be necessary t o c o n t r o l the impact o f proposed developments.  Environmental Impacts and Concerns  Urban growth g e n e r a l l y means i n c r e a s e d urban area, more l a n d under development.  The consequences o f new development,  whether on the newly devleoped land o r t o the c i t y as a whole, are r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s s e c t i o n , w h i l e not attempting t o come t o g r i p s w i t h a l l o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e c o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  will  d i s c u s s a number o f these concerns. "While g r e a t e f f o r t s are made t o ensure t h a t you do not break an ankle, t h e r e are few d e t e r r e n t s t o a r r e s t the dumping o f poisons i n t o the sources o f p u b l i c water supply o r t h e i r i n j e c t i o n i n t o ground water r e s o u r c e s . You are c l e a r l y p r o t e c t e d from a s s a u l t by f i s t , k n i f e o r gun, but not from e q u a l l y dangerous t h r e a t s o f hydrocarbons, l e a d , n i t r o u s o x i d e s , ozone o r carbon monoxide i n the  atmosphere. There i s no p r o t e c t i o n from a s s a u l t s o f n o i s e , g l a r e and s t r e s s . So w h i l e a h a n d r a i l may be p r o v i d e d f o r your s a f e t y and convenience by a c o n s i d e r a t e government, you may drown i n a f l o o d p l a i n , s u f f e r l o s s o f l i f e and p r o p e r t y from i n u n d a t i o n o f c o a s t a l a r e a s , from earthquake or h u r r i c a n e ; the damage o f l o s s o f l i f e c o u l d be due t o c r i m i n a l i n j u s t i c e a t b e s t , w i t h o u t the p r o t e c t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n o r o f laws" (McHarg, 1969, p. 5 5 ) . McHarg c o n t i n u e s : " I t s h o u l d be o t h e r w i s e ; t h e r e i s a need f o r s i m p l e r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i c h ensure t h a t s o c i e t y p r o t e c t s t h e v a l u e s o f n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s and i s i t s e l f p r o t e c t e d . C o n c e i v a b l y , such l a n d s w h e r e i n e x i s t t h e s e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s and c o n s t r a i n t s would p r o v i d e the s o u r c e o f open space f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . I f s o , they would s a t i s f y a double purpose: e n s u r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f v i t a l n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s and employing l a n d s u n s u i t e d f o r development i n ways unharmed by t h e s e o f t e n v i o l e n t p r o c e s s e s . Presumably, t o o , development would o c c u r i n a r e a s t h a t were i n t r i n s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e , where dangers were absent and n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s unharmed "(McHarg, 1969, p. 5 6 ) . The use o f more l a n d f o r urban growth i s v i r t u a l l y unavoidable t o be used. what t y p e .  i f growth i s t o t a k e p l a c e .  Some l a n d w i l l have  The d e c i s i o n t o be made i s how  much l a n d and  of  I n h i g h growth communities where the speed o f  development i s o f t e n i m p o r t a n t , the development o f a g r i c u l t u r a l and e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e a r e a s i s common.  Robert Cahn notes  t h a t , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , s t u d i e s e s t i m a t e some f i v e hundred thousand t o seven hundred f i f t y thousand a c r e s o f r u r a l open space are used a n n u a l l y i n the urban grov/th p r o c e s s (197 3 ) .  O b v i o u s l y , not a l l o f t h i s l a n d i s prime a g r i c u l t u r a l  land or i n e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e areas.  However, because  of the r e l a t i v e ease o f c o n v e r s i o n o f these areas, they have been a t t r a c t i v e f o r development Aside  1974).  from the c o s t s of l o s s o f n a t u r a l e n v i r o n s ,  c o n v e r s i o n o f farmland production. and  (Stott,  The  the  means i t s removal from a g r i c u l t u r a l  consequence i s a r i s e i n l o c a l food p r i c e s  a d e c l i n e i n f r e s h n e s s o f l o c a l l y o b t a i n a b l e goods  because o f i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e s  ( S t o t t , 1974).  the l o c a l area i s e f f e c t e d however.  The  More than  e x c e s s i v e l a n d used  to house the p o p u l a t i o n s o f our c i t i e s i s obvious.  While  may  developed  areas of the world  n a t i o n s continue in existence  s u f f e r from food s h o r t a g e s ,  to d e s t r o y some of the most p r o d u c t i v e  ( R e v e l l e , 1974).  land  With d e c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s and  i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n , more l a n d i s b e i n g used f o r development than ever b e f o r e . ten year p e r i o d from 1950  New  t o 1960  York, f o r example, i n the grew by  f i f t e e n percent i n  p o p u l a t i o n y e t i n c r e a s e d i n l a n d area by f i f t y one  percent  (Davis, 1965). Aside  from the l o s s of l a n d , r a p i d urban growth has  environmental  impacts.  As R u s s e l T r a i n p o i n t s out,  l a s t seven y e a r s , the U n i t e d S t a t e s has taken t o c l e a n up i t s environment.  other  during  s e r i o u s steps  Canada i s i n a s i m i l a r  A i r p o l l u t i o n , water p o l l u t i o n , p e s t i c i d e c o n t r o l ,  situation.  noise  abatement, s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l and w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n are areas  i n which r e g u l a t i o n s and The  c o n t r o l s have been moved  t i m i n g of development o f many new  areas o f  fast  on.  28.  growing c i t i e s services.  leads t o long t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s t o o b t a i n many  I t i s f a i r t o say t h a t there i s a g e n e r a l n a t i o n a l  concensus i n favour o f c l e a n a i r .  When urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c o n t r o l p l a n s a r e proposed i n order t o meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e of  c l e a n a i r , and these c o n t r o l s c a l l  i n automobile  f o r a dramatic  decrease  d r i v i n g , the r e a c t i o n may be q u i t e a g a i n s t  the c l e a n a i r o b j e c t i v e ( T r a i n , 1975). c o n f l i c t i n g c h o i c e s i s apparent  T h i s problem o f  i n many environmental  issues.  For s o c i e t y t o s t r i v e toward t h i s g o a l i s proper, but f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o have t o h e l p t o achieve t h i s i s o f t e n a contentious issue.  Somehow, the two a t t i t u d e s a r e incongrous!  Energy problems a l s o r e l a t e t o h i g h growth a r e a s . "Very simply, h i g h growth areas are energy p r o f l i g a t e . Spreading new development based on automobile t r a n s p o r t a t i o n wastes energy, n o t t o mention l a n d , a i r and water. M i l e a f t e r m i l e o f new s u b d i v i s i o n , i n d u s t r i a l park and shopping m a l l - a l l h a l l m a r k s of h i g h growth areas - a r e now monuments o f a wasteful past. Even i f the c u r r e n t energy shortage should prove a somewhat c o r p o r a t e c r e a t i o n , h i g h growth areas w i l l be v e r y much aware o f t h e i r energy dependency" (Toner, 1974, p. x i x ) . High growth can mean t h a t n o t a l l o r even most a l t e r n a t i v e s have been c o n s i d e r e d .  Each new development a u t o m a t i c a l l y  r u l e s o u t a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the f u t u r e .  Resources a r e  committed, l a n d i s used and o p t i o n s a r e l o s t . g r e a t e r the growth, the more l i k e l y mistakes  The f a s t e r and a r e t o be made  i n the i n t e r e s t o f speed and d o l l a r s and the more l i k e l y environmental  impacts  w i l l be i n c r e a s e d .  29.  A Holistic  Approach  T h i s chapter does not urge the c e s s a t i o n o f growth. "Given the p o l i t i c a l ,  social,  and economic s t r u c t u r e o f  North America, i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o pursue p o l i c i e s o f no growth"  ( S e e l i g and S e e l i g , 1973, p. 18).  a more h o l i s t i c approach t o p l a n n i n g growth.  I t argues f o r I t argues t h a t  growth should be slow when n e c e s s a r y , s m a l l when u n c e r t a i n and t h a t steps should be taken t o determine the b e s t course a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the o p t i o n s , even i f t h i s means the l o s s of development. An analogy can be drawn from R u s s e l T r a i n ' s statement. "I have been asked whether I was f o r or a g a i n s t o f f - s h o r e o i l development, deep water p o r t s and similar f a c i l i t i e s . The answer, o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n p l a c e s where we should p r o b a b l y not undertake such developments, and we should never push them down the t h r o a t s o f communities which are adamantly opposed to the developments. A t the same time, t h e r e are p l a c e s where such development can be undertaken and i n ways which do minimal harm t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l and community v a l u e s and which w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l b e n e f i t s t o our s o c i e t y . It i s a matter o f c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , and o f t r a d e - o f f s . I t i s b a s i c a l l y a matter o f making r a t i o n a l , o r d e r l y c h o i c e s " ( T r a i n , 1973, p. 44). Growth should be managed i n o r d e r to achieve the maximum s o c i e t a l b e n e f i t , w i t h minimum s o c i a l , economic or e n v i r o n m e n t a l costs.  T h i s does not i n d i c a t e a t r a d i t i o n a l  type o f d o l l a r s and c e n t s a n a l y s i s .  cost-benefit  I t does m a i n t a i n , however/:  t h a t the c h o i c e should be c a r e f u l l y weighed and i n the s o c i a l  30.  e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  balance,  Where g r o w t h  positive,  with.  Where i t i s d e f i n i t e l y  rejected. should  i s definitely  Finally,  be c a r e f u l l y  i t should  negative,  where g r o w t h considered  the d e c i s i o n  be p r o c e e d e d  i t should  i s of umcertain  before  made.  be worth, i t  any d e c i s i o n  i s made.  CHAPTER I I I  REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES  This chapter w i l l b r i e f l y describe  growth management  techniques which have been used or are p r e s e n t l y These techniques, are p o l i t i c a l l y  however, w i l l be  in  use.  l i m i t e d to those which  f e a s i b l e i n the Edmonton Region of A l b e r t a .  " I d e a l l y managed growth c o n s i s t s of a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d , e f f i c i e n t , and a f f i r m a t i v e system where c h o i c e s or d e c i s i o n s are made e x p l i c i t l y and w i t h f u l l knowledge of the v a r i a b l e s and t r a d e - o f f s i n v o l v e d , and where the programs are c o - o r d i n a t e d i n f u r t h e r a n c e of c l e a r community growth and land use o b j e c t i v e s " ( S c o t t , 1975, p. 4). T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l not attempt t o develop, but merely d e s c r i b e ,  the v a r i o u s  inputs  i n t o such systems.  C l e a r l y , these i n p u t s have problems when taken on individual basis. they are  I t i s o n l y when, as d e s c r i b e d  " w e l l i n t e g r a t e d , e f f i c i e n t , and  they w i l l be p r a c t i c a l and must be c o n s i d e r e d ,  by the o f f i c i a l or c i t i z e n ,  as w e l l as whether or not p o i n t s of view.  The  and  above,  Each t e c h n i q for i t s  administrative effects  i t i s d e f e n s i b l e and  community should  consequent " t r a d e - o f f s " and  an  affirmative" that  of maximum b e n e f i t .  l e g a l , s o c i a l , economic/fiscal  will  from which  be made aware of  the  d e a l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h these  when d e t e r m i n i n g whether such techniques should  be  used  ( S c o t t , 1975). Two  categories  described.  The  of management techniques w i l l  first  c a t e g o r y , growth r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  b a s i c a l l y w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s which preclude development.  The  be deals  c e r t a i n types o f  second c a t e g o r y , growth d e f l e c t i n g  t e c h n i q u e s , d e a l s w i t h mechanisms used t o encourage growth t o l o c a t e elsewhere.  Each o f these c a t e g o r i e s has a number  o f s u b c a t e g o r i e s which are separated  further into various  management t e c h n i q u e s . Growth  Restrictions  1)  Building  Restrictions  2)  Servicing  3)  Land Use  4)  Other Growth  Restrictions Restrictions Deterrents  Growth D e f l e c t i n g Techniques  Growth  1)  Growth D i v e r s i o n  Incentives  2)  Alternate  Centres  Growth  Restrictions  These r e s t r i c t i o n s are used t o d i s a l l o w may  growth.  They  be i n the form o f r e s t r i c t i o n s on b u i l d i n g , s e r v i c i n g ,  l a n d use or the development p r o c e s s Building  itself.  Restrictions  By r e s t r i c t i n g the type, s i z e and mass o f a b u i l d i n g , the b u i l d e r may another  be l i m i t e d and/or encouraged t o l o c a t e i n  area.  There are a number of b u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s c u r r e n t l y i n use.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these b u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s were i n  the form o f codes and p e r m i t s .  These two r e s t r i c t i o n s s t i l l  p l a y a major r o l e i n the growth management f i e l d . d i f f e r e n c e i s r e a l l y one o f degree o f use.  The  By d e v e l o p i n g  u n r e a l i s t i c b u i l d i n g codes, some b u i l d i n g s can be excluded due t o m a t e r i a l c o s t s . are  f u r t h e r examples.  B u i l d i n g h e i g h t and mass r e s t r i c t i o n s They have been used i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s f o r some time i n such p l a c e s as Boulder, C o l o r a d o , and are  now appearing i n Canada i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and  Toronto.  These r e s t r i c t i o n s can have very s i g n i f i c a n t  on the type o f development which w i l l  effects  occur.  B u i l d i n g p e r m i t s may p r o v i d e formal o r i n f o r m a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on the l o c a t i o n and type o f development.  They  may a l s o a f f e c t the t o t a l amount o f development by l i m i t i n g the  number o f p e r m i t s a v a i l a b l e as i s t h e case i n Petaluma,  California. A b a s i c problem w i t h b u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s i s t h a t , as w i t h any o t h e r management technique, they a r e very weak t o o l s when used a l o n e .  B u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s may simply  force  development o u t s i d e o f the managing m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s b o u n d a r i e s . T h i s may cause urban sprawl and/or f o r c e the a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t y t o manage t h i s Servicing  development.  Restrictions  S e r v i c i n g l a r g e l y determines where development w i l l I f s e r v i c e s a r e l i m i t e d by a bylaw o r by economic  occur.  constraints,  development may be s h i f t e d elsewhere. These management techniques can take many forms.  In most  cases they are used t o l i m i t the s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e o r to make them so c o s t l y as t o be uneconomical t o b u i l d e r s o r developers.  P o p u l a t i o n and employment t a r g e t s have been s e t  and c a r r i e d out by the s e r v i c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n method.  Prince  George's County, Maryland, s e t s f o r t h annual t a r g e t s and uses these t o guide new development  (ASPO, 1975).  "Placement o f roads, sewer, water, and o t h e r support facilities  i s a means of i n f l u e n c i n g the l o c a t i o n o f  development"  (ASPO, 1975, p. 37).  Thus, whether the s e r v i c i n g  r e s t r i c t i o n s be t o t a l moratoriums on development, as i n F a i r f a x County, V i r g i n i a , or i n t e r i m development the  r e s u l t s may  controls,  be the same: l i m i t e d s e r v i c e s , l i m i t e d  growth.  These techniques are g e n e r a l l y used t o stop development w h i l e p l a n s are drawn up, but have been used on an extended b a s i s i n a number o f c a s e s . Land Use  Restrictions  As the name suggests, t h i s c a t e g o r y d e a l s w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n o f l a n d uses.  Traditionally,  used by most c i t i e s t o d i c t a t e  zoning was  "what goes where".  y e a r s , the methods used t o c o n t r o l land use have i n c r e a s e d i n number and i n t e n t .  The f i e l d  the method In r e c e n t  greatly  of growth  management has been the t e s t i n g ground f o r many o f these. Zoning has been d i v e r s i f i e d i n the name o f growth management. new,  Downzoning  and a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning, w h i l e not  are now much more commonly used  (Bergman,  1975, and Miner,  1975).  Both have the e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g the amount o f land  a v a i l a b l e f o r new development.  Downzoning g e n e r a l l y decreases  the d e n s i t y o r i n t e n s i t y o f development, thus l i m i t i n g the amount o f growth which can take p l a c e . downzoning  i s a major c o n t r o v e r s y . *  The l e g a l a s p e c t o f  A g r i c u l t u r a l zoning  a s i d e areas t o be used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes a l o n e .  sets It  g e n e r a l l y i s used i n c o n c e r t w i t h f i n a n c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s , such as reduced t a x e s , t o r e l i e v e p r e s s u r e f o r urban development. I t can be used t o l i m i t sprawl and manage growth  (Isberg, 1975).  By l i m i t i n g l a n d t o t h i s use, the l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r housing and i n d u s t r i a l purposes i s e f f e c t i v e l y reduced. Controlled  l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e space i s another l a n d use  r e s t r i c t i o n used t o manage growth.  The use o f o f f i c e  development p e r m i t s s i n c e 1965 and the passage o f the C o n t r o l of O f f i c e Development  and I n d u s t r i a l Development A c t has  r e s t r i c t e d the c r e a t i o n o f new jobs i n m e t r o p o l i t a n The purpose i s t o reduce the a t t r a c t i o n o f a c e n t r e .  London. Their  use i n London i s a f e d e r a l response t o e x c e s s i v e growth. appears t o have worked w e l l t o date ( D a n i e l s , 1975).  It  The GVRD  r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e approach t o a l t e r the flow o f growth i n Vancouver i s a s i m i l a r type o f mechanism, a l t h o u g h much l e s s  *  F o r an i n d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n o f downzoning, see Bosselman, F r e d P. and David C a l l i e s and John B a r t a . The Taking Issue: A Study o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l L i m i t s o f Governmental A u t h o r i t y t o Regulate the Use o f P r i v a t e l y Owned Land Without Compensation to the Owners. C o u n c i l on Environmental Q u a l i t y , Washington, D.C., 1973.  developed a t t h i s date. Critical  areas and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y r e s t r i c t i o n s can be  used t o d e s i g n a t e l a n d which i s e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e , such as wet lands and a q u i f i e r r e c h a r g e areas ( O d e l l , 1975). B a s i c a l l y , the area i s measured  f o r i t s e c o l o g i c a l importance  and c a p a b i l i t i e s and i s r a t e d on t h i s  basis.  " A thorough a p p l i c a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s t o land-use r e g u l a t i o n s has been a f f e c t e d i n the Lake Tahoe B a s i n o f C a l i f o r n i a and Nevada. The Lake Tahoe R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Agency . . . developed a Land C a p a b i l i t y Map, a G e n e r a l Plan Map, and a d e t a i l e d implementing o r d i n a n c e " ( O d e l l , 1975, p. 25). These areas  are o f t e n prone to development, as mentioned  e a r l i e r , and t h i s type o f r e s t i c t i v e t o o l may  be h e l p f u l i n  such cases. A e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l s can be used t o r e g u l a t e the appearance or d e s i g n o f development.  Petaluma, C a l i f o r n i a , uses these  to r e s t r i c t developments " a c c o r d i n g t o p e r c e i v e d l e v e l s o f •desirability " 1  ( S c o t t , 1975, p. 24).  of t h i s t o o l i s c l e a r l y  The s c i e n t i f i c nature  questionable.  The land use c o n t r a c t i s r e l a t i v e l y new  t o North America.  I t i s very s i m i l a r to the B r i t i s h system o f development p e r m i t s . The purpose i s t o f o r c e d e v e l o p e r s t o come to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to b a r g a i n f o r development a p p r o v a l .  The l a n d use c o n t r a c t s  and impost fees are methods by which the c i t y can o b t a i n b e n e f i t s f o r the e n t i r e community such as park d e d i c a t i o n s , s e r v i c i n g and community f a c i l i t i e s . p r o v i d e d , the c i t y may  I f such b e n e f i t s are not  not a l l o w the development to proceed.  38.  The  problem i s t h a t land use  T h e i r use  i s generally only  problems w i t h zoning  c o n t r a c t s are d i f f i c u l t  to s e t .  i n unique cases which run  into  bylaws.  R e s t r i c t i v e covenants and the  land i n c l u d e  other  agreements running w i t h  an  "array of deed r e s t r i c t i o n s , easements and other n e g o t i a t e d agreements which t r a n s f e r w i t h ownership. R e s t r i c t i v e covenants are f r e q u e n t l y used to t a i l o r the purposes of zoning or other p o l i c e power r e s t r a i n t s t o a s p e c i f i c s i t e or to be more r e s t r i c t i v e than g e n e r a l p u b l i c requirements. While the agreements may be i n c o r p o r a t e d by the developer a t the request of an agency t h a t approves p u b l i c p l a n s , the r e s t r i c t i o n s cannot be amended by p u b l i c a c t i o n as can zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s " (ASPO, 1975, p. 39). Covenants have been used to p r e v e n t s u b d i v i s i o n of  land  without sewer and water s e r v i c e i n Marion County, Oregon, i n l i e u of planned u n i t development o r d i n c a n c e s i n Dade County, V i r g i n i a , and  i n Houston, _Te.xas i n l i e u of zoning  P u b l i c a q u i s i t i o n may  be d e s c r i b e d  means o f r e s t r i c t i n g land use. The  " a q u i s i t i o n of the  costly. the  (ASPO, 1975) .  as the most  obtrusive  Four mechanisms may  fee simple"  be  cited.  i s u s u a l l y the most  I t r e q u i r e s the government t o purchase the deed to  land and  g i v e s t o t a l c o n t r o l o f i t s use  to the  government.  A second method, t h a t of "land banking", i n v o l v e s the a q u i s i t i o n of land by government where development i s expected. land may  The  be.made a v a i l a b l e to p u b l i c or p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s  but w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t r e s t r i c t i o n s as t o i t s use. banking can be used to r e s t r i c t  Land  land s p e c u l a t i o n and- urban  sprawl.  "Compensable r e g u l a t i o n " , a t h i r d method of p u b l i c  a q u i s i t i o n , may "greater  r e s u l t when land i s to be  used f o r the  p u b l i c good".  The  e x p r o p r i a t i o n of land f o r a  p r o j e c t i s an example.  The  land i s v i r t u a l l y wiped o f  value  and  may  be  considered  taken.  dam any  Compensable r e g u l a t i o n  i s a method o f combining c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c e power w i t h compensation.  A f o r t h and  f i n a l method of p u b l i c a q u i s t i o n  i s t h a t of a " l e s s than fee simple a q u i s i t i o n " . development r i g h t s or easements are purchased. p o t e n t i a l i s thereby reduced. i n c o n t r o l o f the  land and  Thus, the  The  development  land owner remains  i s a b l e to r e t a i n the  p r e f e r a b l y without large pressure Other Growth  The  land,  f o r development  (ASPO, 1975).  Deterrents  B a s i c a l l y , these techniques are s i m i l a r t o r e s t r i c t i o n s but may  other  be more b l a t a n t i n t h e i r use.  t e c h n i q u e s are extremely d i v e r s e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r consequences. o f growth t a k i n g p l a c e .  The  i n methodology y e t  quite  A l l a c t to reduce the amount  However, they work-on the  development  p r o c e s s r a t h e r than on e i t h e r the land or the b u i l d i n g s . One  of the most obvious d e t e r r e n t s  administrative administer  processing  and  delay.  t o development i s i n  "A government  even when l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y may  can a l s o use  'creative foot-dragging'  be  can  lacking.  by h o l d i n g up  projects  t o the p o i n t of making them f i n a n c i a l l y i n f e a s i b l e " (ASPO, 1975,  p. 47).  There i s l i t t l e  t h a t the a p p l i c a n t can  do,  It  40. p r o v i d e d t h a t the d e l a y s are not obvious. are t o w a i t or t o move t o another  The  alternatives  community.  By p l a c i n g c e i l i n g s on r e n t a l i n c r e a s e s which are not i n l i n e w i t h i n c r e a s e d c o s t s , the amount o f new accommodation development w i l l drop. come about.  rental  Many a s s o c i a t e d problems  The e x i s t i n g accommodation i s allowed to  d e t e r i o r a t e , b l a c k markets develop f o r housing, and are encouraged  t o remain  i n u n i t s which are  people  "overhousing"  t h e i r needs. When r e q u i r e d t o pay d e v e l o p e r has l i t t l e  full  s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , the b u i l d e r -  c h o i c e but t o s h i f t t h i s e x t r a c o s t onto  the consumer u n l e s s he e l e c t s not t o b u i l d i n the a r e a . from s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , o t h e r c o s t s may developer.  of  be charged t o the  These a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s are c a l l e d impact  the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  fees i n  They are simply fees t o cover the c o s t s  a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t o the community.  the name of impost  Aside  In Canada, under  f e e s , they have a s i m i l a r purpose.  Again,  the d e v e l o p e r has two o p t i o n s : one which w i l l be a b e n e f i t to  the community through i n c r e a s e d a m e n i t i e s and another which  w i l l not be a burden on e x i s t i n g community r e s o u r c e s . S u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and  zoning are p r o b a b l y the o l d e s t  methods of c o n t r o l l i n g development.  In r e c e n t y e a r s , the  use of s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l to manage growth has been much more common. for  While  still  b e i n g used to e s t a b l i s h  standards  p u b l i c improvements such as s t r e e t s i z e s and sewer  lines,  s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s are a l s o b e i n g used t o manage growth by d e t e r m i n i n g the "sequence and tempo o f development, as happened i n Ramapo" (ASPO, 1975, p. 41). which w i l l be s u b d i v i d e d projected  By d e t e r m i n i n g areas  on a y e a r l y b a s i s , growth can be  along w i t h the needed f a c i l i t i e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  to accommodate any new growth. The  case o f Petaluma, C a l i f o r n i a , i l l u s t r a t e s a v e r y  simple y e t seemingly e f f e c t i v e way t o manage growth. l i m i t i n g the number o f d w e l l i n g  u n i t s b u i l t p e r year, t h i s  c i t y has stopped i t s r a p i d growth. being resolved California,  L e g a l q u e s t i o n s are s t i l l  i n c o u r t b u t , a t t h i s time, a t l e a s t i n  t h i s c o n t r o l mechanism seems v a l i d  In a d d i t i o n , there as d e d i c a t i o n  By  (Gray, 1975).  are a number o f o t h e r mechanisms such  fees - which must be p a i d i n cash, land o r  b u i l d i n g s - and amenity requirements, which work i n a s i m i l a r way t o f e e s . These are b a s i c a l l y " s p i n - o f f s " o f impost and  do n o t m e r i t  further  discussion.  A f i n a l growth d e t e r r e n t  i s the t a x and f e e system.  There are four a l t e r n a t e t e c h n i q u e s . r u r a l s e r v i c e area. the  fees  The f i r s t  i s the urban/  "This technique d i s t i n g u i s h e s areas by  l e v e l o f s e r v i c e they can be expected t o r e c e i v e and  therefore  the l e v e l o f t a x a t i o n t o pay f o r those s e r v i c e s "  (ASPO, 1975, p. 4 3 ) . Thus, the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n t o l i m i t urban s e r v i c e s would reduce taxes on farm l a n d s .  Generally,  t h i s i s used w i t h o t h e r techniques such as timed a l l o c a t i o n  of p u b l i c funds. fee.  The second  technique i s a user b e n e f i t  These a r e not r e a l l y taxes b u t more l i k e a s e r v i c e  charge.  The user i s charged  to h i s s i t e .  f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s  Thus, because c o s t s i n c r e a s e w i t h d i s t a n c e ,  growth o f o u t l y i n g areas i s d e t e r r e d . i s p r e f e r e n t i a l t a x a t i o n o r assessment.  A third  technique  Under t h i s  technique  farm l a n d i s taxed a t lower r a t e s t o enable farmers t o c o n t i n u e farming without p r e s s u r e s t o develop.  T h i s has  been s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d r e c e n t l y as landowners a r e u n l i k e l y t o forego h i g h e r c a p i t a l gains made through eventual sale  (ASPO, 1975).  The f o u r t h technique i s t h a t  of s e t t i n g a s i d e development d i s t r i c t s .  These areas a r e  s e t a s i d e as the areas o f development and are taxed on t h a t basis.  Thus, h i g h e r taxes on development area lands h e l p  t o pay f o r s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s both t h e r e and i n o t h e r areas o f the community  Growth D e f l e c t i n g  (ASPO, 1975).  Techniques  These mechanisms d e a l w i t h growth, n o t i n terms o f managing i t on a l o c a l l e v e l , b u t on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . T h e r e f o r e , they r e q u i r e a t l e a s t two l e v e l s o f government agreement and l i k e l y a t h i r d .  Through v a r i o u s i n c e n t i v e s ,  areas o t h e r than the o r i g i n a l growth d e s t i n a t i o n are made more a t t r a c t i v e f o r development.  Growth D i v e r s i o n I n c e n t i v e s While growth may r e s i d e n t s o f one of  another.  not be c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r a b l y by  area, i t may  be d e s i r a b l e to the i n h a b i t a n t s  Through the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n c e n t i v e s i n the  area, such as tax c o n c e s s i o n s development may  or o t h e r reduced  be r e o r i e n t e d to o t h e r  costs,  areas.  In Canada, the Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion  of the f e d e r a l government  (DREE) has been  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g a number of these B a s i c a l l y , DREE p r o v i d e s l o a n guarantees development i n d e s i g n a t e d  techniques.  or grants t o s t i m u l a t e  areas.  Rodwin p o i n t s out a number of techniques which can be used. " T r a i n i n g programs c o u l d be s e t up, a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on expanding areas d i s s e m i n a t e d , and, where r e s o u r c e s p e r m i t t e d , maximum a s s i s t a n c e payments p r o v i d e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d of r e l o c a t i o n . Investments i n h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n , i n s o c i a l r a t h e r than economic overhead c a p i t a l , might a l s o be emphasized i n these r e g i o n s . Such investments would c o n t r i b u t e to development as w e l l as t o welfare. F i n a l l y , some areas might need h e l p f o r o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d or might r e q u i r e more moderate a s s i s t a n c e whereas i n o t h e r areas, some economic investments and tax bonuses might be i n e s c a p a b l e . In s h o r t , some p o s i t i v e and some token e f f o r t s and a g r e a t d e a l of consummate p o l i t i c a l s k i l l w i l l be e s s e n t i a l " (Rodwin, 1970, p. 3 0 ) . Tax c o n c e s s i o n s  f o r developments i n d e s i g n a t e d areas  used t o a t t r a c t development.  Here, any development  are  locating  i n the p r e d e f i n e d area would be f o r g i v e n f o r a c e r t a i n amount of  tax over a p e r i o d of time.  The  problem i s t h a t , i n the  i n i t i a l y e a r s , r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o s t s of development  and  o p e r a t i o n would mean a low p r o f i t margin and t h e r e f o r e taxation.  The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n would  therefore suffer Loans may qualified  low  (Brewis, 1969).  enable a v e n t u r e , which would not have  for f i n a n c i a l assistance at i t s o r i g i n a l  to proceed a t a more m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l s i t e .  location,  I f the  development chooses t o l o c a t e w i t h i n a d e s i g n a t e d a r e a , i t may  r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form  possibly grants.  o f loans and  The e f f e c t o f t h i s type of program i s  t o a t t r a c t development away from c e r t a i n areas towards o t h e r s A l a r g e amount of i n d u s t r i a l and o t h e r v e n t u r e s are f a i r l y " f o o t l o o s e " ; they have few l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . these, t h i s type o f program may work.  For  Others which have  p r e r e q u i s i t e l o c a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l not, g e n e r a l l y , be a t t r a c t e d through t h i s type o f program. A combination o f tax c o n c e s s i o n s and loans may  be found  by way o f an a c c e l e r a t e d c a p i t a l c o s t allowance.  Here, a  high s t r a i g h t l i n e depreciation  equipment  r a t e on most new  as opposed t o a lower r a t e on a d i m i n i s h i n g b a l a n c e amount to an i n t e r e s t f r e e loan over s e v e r a l years  (Brewis, 1965).  T r a n s f e r o f development r i g h t s has been used i n t e r n a l l y in c i t i e s  f o r some time.  B a s i c a l l y , a l l land i s given a  development p o t e n t i a l i n the form o f development These r i g h t s may  rights.  be t r a n s f e r r e d , through p u r c h a s i n g , to  o t h e r s i t e s but, once t h i s i s done, f u r t h e r development on  the o r i g i n a l s i t e i s i m p o s s i b l e .  R e c e n t l y , the i d e a o f  r e g i o n a l t r a n s f e r o f development r i g h t s has been suggested f o r growth management. land  T h i s t e c h n i q u e would e v a l u a t e a l l  w i t h i n a r e g i o n and, based on a number o f c r i t e r i a ,  development r i g h t s would be a l l o c a t e d .  Through  this  a l l o c a t i o n , v a r i o u s areas would be d e s i g n a t e d f o r a l t e r n a t e types and degrees o f development  (Chavooshian, e t a l , 1975  and C o s t o n i s , 1974, 1975). The use o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n can a l s o be used t o d i v e r t growth.  By a l l o c a t i n g v a r i o u s areas f o r p a r t i c u l a r uses, a  type o f r e g i o n a l zoning can be implemented.  Rather than  i n d u c i n g growth t o go elsewhere, i t makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r it  to locate at i t s o r i g i n a l choice.  Through the r e g i o n a l  p l a n and the above t a x a t i o n and l o a n t e c h n i q u e s , a form o f r e g i o n a l t r a n s f e r o f development may be p o s s i b l e . These techniques may be used t o improve o r i g i n a l areas from which migrants came or t o i n c r e a s e the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r areas f o r development.  In e i t h e r  case, they p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and a c t t o d i v e r t growth from one area t o another.  I t must be emphasized  t h a t these techniques r e q u i r e the c o o p e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government.  Where t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n i s l a c k i n g ,  these techniques w i l l not be f e a s i b l e . A l t e r n a t e Growth C e n t r e s These techniques r e q u i r e the g r e a t e s t governmental  i n t e r v e n t i o n and e x p e n d i t u r e of any of the management categories described to t h i s point.  Achievement of these  techniques r e q u i r e s the use of techniques  i n a l l other  growth management c a t e g o r i e s . The development o f a New Ciudad,  Guayana, Venezuela  C i t y i s a phenomenal t a s k .  i s p r o b a b l y the b e s t example o f  t h i s type o f development.  G e n e r a l l y , t h i s i n v o l v e s the c h o i c e  of a l o c a t i o n which w i l l draw growth from o t h e r c e n t r e s and has enough n a t u r a l a m e n i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s t o be a b l e t o support a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n .  I t s purpose i s t o draw growth  from many c e n t r e s , not j u s t one. l o c a t e d i n a unique  The Ciudad  area of Venezuela  o f r e s o u r c e s such as o i l and gas  example i s  w i t h a g r e a t abundance  f i e l d s and ore d e p o s i t s .  In  t h i s case, a s m a l l community e x i s t e d p r i o r t o the d e c i s i o n to develop a new B r a z i l , was  c i t y but t h i s i s not necessary.  developed  i n an a r e a w i t h v i r t u a l l y no  Brasilia, settlement.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of t h i s technique i s t h a t i t attempts  t o p r o v i d e a v i r t u a l l y independent  c i t y able to  compete f o r development on an equal b a s i s w i t h o t h e r c e n t r e s (Rodwin, 1970).  C l e a r l y , the g r e a t e s t l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s the  tremendous c a p i t a l c o s t of such a v e n t u r e . The New  Towns concept  Garden C i t y movement.  New  o r i g i n a t e d i n England w i t h towns, u n l i k e new  cities,  the are  designed t o r e l i e v e growth p r e s s u r e from a s p e c i f i c c e n t r e . The  s i t e chosen i s w i t h i n r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f the  centre  to be r e l i e v e d of growth p r e s s u r e s .  It w i l l  c l o s e enough t o r e l y on the e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e  thus be  f o r high  order  s e r v i c e s y e t f a r enough away t h a t i t s development as a d o r m i t o r y suburb i s very u n l i k e l y . reliant  f o r employment and  g e n e r a l l y have few,  i f any,  l o c a t i o n of a s m a l l town.  A f t e r choosing the  new  Areas chosen be site  encourages  like.  for a  new  industry  through a system of i n c e n t i v e s .  the  the  l a r g e s c a l e development of  a t t r a c t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner by expenses and  town i s s e l f  i n h a b i t a n t s or may  community f a c i l i t i e s and  to l o c a t e there  new  r e s i d e n t i a l needs.  town, the government begins the housing and  The  People  are  s u b s i d i z e d housing, moving  C l e a r l y , l i k e the new  city  technique,  towns are extremely expensive to develop. The  development of New  Communities s e t s out areas t o  developed i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y and population  and  be  s t r i v e s to d e c e n t r a l i z e  employment as w e l l as s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s .  does not mean t h a t these developments are t o t a l l y  This  independent.  In Stockholm, Sweden, where t h i s technique i s used, r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e s l i n k the modules t o the c e n t r a l c i t y . the module i s s e l f c o n t a i n e d , isolated  y e t not  from, the c e n t r a l c i t y  Basically,  independent of  (Guttheim, 1973  and  nor Whittick,  1974) .  A l t e r n a t e growth c e n t r e s ,  as s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  enormous c a p i t a l investments and techniques described  use  require  of many of the management  throughout t h i s c h a p t e r .  For  this  48.  reason, a l t e r n a t e growth c e n t r e s may be d e s c r i b e d as the l a s t r e s o r t f o r growth management.  While some o f these  techniques have been s u c c e s s f u l a t reasonable c o s t , such as the new communities developed i n Stockholm, many examples can be c i t e d where even a f t e r l a r g e investments have been made, as i n B r a s i l i a ,  capital the r e s u l t a n t  s h i f t s i n growth have been minimal.  Summary  Two c a t e g o r i e s o f growth management techniques have been designated.  Growth r e s t r i c t i o n s attempt t o reduce development  i n an area through a s e r i e s o f techniques which may reduce building alternatives, servicing availability,  land used and  g e n e r a l l y make the development p r o c e s s d i f f i c u l t profitable.  and l e s s  They are what have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " s t i c k "  approaches t o growth management.  The second c a t e g o r y , growth  d e f l e c t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , may be d e s c r i b e d as p o s i t i v e o f a l t e r n a t e growth. " c a r r o t " approach.  reinforcers  These have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e The approach o f these t e c h n i q u e s i s t o  induce growth t o l o c a t e elsewhere through f i n a n c i a l  incentives.  The management t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n each c a t e g o r y are i n no way independent.  Where o n l y one technique i s used, the  success r a t e i s v i r t u a l l y z e r o . have been d e s c r i b e d .  A number o f these problems  What i s needed i s a management program.  Such a p r o g r a m w o u l d for of  involve  the development  the area under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s y s t e m o f management  to achieve would  the o b j e c t i v e s .  vary with  of objectives  and t h e f u r t h e r  techniques  development  w h i c h w o u l d work  C l e a r l y , the techniques  the objectives  and s i t e  under  together  used  consideration.  CHAPTER IV  LEGAL ASPECTS OF GROWTH MANAGEMENT IN ALBERTA  51.  T h i s chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h growth management i n A l b e r t a from a l e g a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  In order f o r a management  technique t o have value t o those who w i l l use i t , i t must f i r s t have l e g a l s a n c t i o n .  Without t h i s ,  the technique  work o n l y as l o n g as i t remains out o f c o u r t .  will  Clearly,  t h i s i s not the b a s i s f o r an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l technique and/ or  r e s u l t a n t program.  To determine  the l e g a l i t y o f such  management t e c h n i q u e s , i t may be necessary t o t r a c e the course of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power from i t s o r i g i n a l source through t o  the d e l e g a t e d q u t h o r i t y .  The sources o f a u t h o r i t y f o r a  number of growth management techniques w i l l be d e l i n e a t e d through the c i t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s . techniques w i l l be s t u d i e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l ;  Other  they w i l l be  d i s c u s s e d as they e x i s t i n The S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s o f the P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a (SDTR) pursuant t o The P l a n n i n g A c t o f t h a t same p r o v i n c e .  I t must be r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t , due t o the o v e r l a p p i n g nature o f the s u b j e c t matter o f a number o f s t a t u t e s , more than one a c t may be i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the method o f implementation management technique.  o f a growth  T h e r e f o r e , i n the g e n e r a l treatment o f  a number o f t e c h n i q u e s , s t a t u t e s o t h e r than those c i t e d may a l s o be i n v o l v e d .  P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s and Growth Management  A number o f e n a b l i n g a c t s a f f e c t v a r i o u s aspects and techniques  o f growth management.  This section w i l l  describe  some o f these a c t s as they r e l a t e t o a number o f management techniques The  described  earlier.  use o f a growth management technique  s e c t i o n o f some l e g a l document.  i s based on some  The techniques  generally  f i n d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and method o f use i n an a c t o f e i t h e r the f e d e r a l o r the p r o v i n c i a l government.  Often,  these  s t a t u t e s o v e r l a p i n s u b j e c t area o r consequences as they r e l a t e t o growth management.  T h i s may be because the  o r i g i n a l a c t was not couched i n terms s p e c i f i c t o the growth management f i e l d .  I t i s f o r t h i s reason  management techniques  t h a t a number o f  have been q u e s t i o n e d  time, few have been quashed i n Canada.  i n court.  At t h i s  T h i s may be because  growth management i s r e l a t i v e l y new t o Canada o r because more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r i g h t s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government are found i n Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n . chapter By  I t i s the p o s i t i o n o f t h i s  t h a t the l a t t e r i s the case. f a r the most comprehensive documents r e l a t i n g t o the  management o f growth i n A l b e r t a a r e The M u n i c i p a l  Government  A c t and The P l a n n i n g Act, Chapters 246 and 276 o f The Revised The  S t a t u t e s o f A l b e r t a 1970 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Pursuant t o  P l a n n i n g A c t are a number o f r e g u l a t i o n s , the most  important  o f these b e i n g The S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r  (Regulations A c t 1967, Chapter 215).  Regulations  Although numerous  pieces of other  l e g i s l a t i o n are i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n  o f a u t h o r i t y t o manage growth, these three p r o v i d e t h e dominant framework w i t h i n which p l a n n i n g Alberta.  i s c a r r i e d out i n  Due t o the number o f techniques  and a u t h o r i z i n g  a c t s i n v o l v e d , o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f techniques and e n a b l i n g l e g a l s a n c t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d .  TABLE I  MANAGEMENT TECHNIQES AND THEIR LEGAL SANCTIONS  GROWTH MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE  LEGAL  IN ALBERTA  SANCTION  A GROWTH RESTRICTIONS CATEGORY 1 Building Restrictions (a) b u i l d i n g codes  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t  (b) b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR  2 Servicing Restrictions (a) l i m i t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e  The E l e c t r i c Power and P i p e l i n e A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The P l a n n i n g A c t , The SDTR  (b) i n c r e a s e c o s t s  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR  3 Land Use R e s t r i c t i o n s (a)  zoning  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t  TABLE I  (b) a g r i c u l t u r a l  (continued)  zoning  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t , The SDTR  (c) c o n t r o l l e d l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e space  The P l a n n i n g A c t  (d) r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r environmentally c r i t i c a l areas  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n Act,The Land Surface C o n s e r v a t i o n and Reclamation A c t , The SDTR  (e) r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r areas o f h i g h c a r r y i n g capacity  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t , The Land Surface C o n s e r v a t i o n and Reclamation A c t , The SDTR  (f) a e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l s  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR  (g) land use c o n t r a c t  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR  (h) r e s t r i c t i v e  The Land T i t l e s A c t  covenants  (i) p u b l i c a q u i s i t i o n  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR, The Government Land Purchase A c t , The E x p r o p r i a t i o n Procedure A c t  (j) development c o n t r o l  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The SDTR,  Other Growth D e t e r r e n t s (a) slow a d m i s t r a t i v e procedure  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The SDTR  (b) s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR  TABLE I  (c) l i m i t b u i l d i n g  (continued)  permits  (d) t a x and f e e system  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government Act. The SDTR The E l e c t r i c Power and P i p e l i n e Assessment A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Tax A c t  GROWTH DEFLECTING TECHNIQUES CATEGORY 1 Growth D i v e r s i o n  Incentives  (a) t a x c o n c e s s i o n s  The M u n i c i p a l A c t (Rogers, 1975, p, 867)  (b)  grants  The M u n i c i p a l A c t (Rogers, 1975, p. 822)  (c)  loans  The Land Loans A c t  (d) t r a n s f e r o f development rights - regional  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR (Rogers, 1975, p.786)  (e) r e g i o n a l p l a n  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The SDTR  2 A l t e r n a t e Growth  Centres  (a) new c i t y (b) new town (c) new communities  The P l a n n i n g A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Government A c t , The New Towns A c t , The M u n i c i p a l Tax A c t , The SDTR, The Land T i t l e s A c t , The Government Land Purchase A c t , The Land Loans A c t , The E x p r o p r i a t i o n Procedure A c t , The Land Surface C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t , The County A c t , The Improvement D i s t r i c t s Act  In some c a s e s , not a l l l e g a l s a n c t i o n s noted O f t e n , however, the use o f a d d i t i o n a l a c t s may m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the o r i g i n a l e f f e c t s . group of a c t s may  operate  the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s .  are r e q u i r e d .  enable  In t h i s manner, a  as a s t e e r i n g mechanism to  C l e a r l y , the use of these  achieve  techniques  w i l l depend upon the p o l i c y o f the government i n q u e s t i o n , f o r i n most cases, development d e c i s i o n s have a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s . As as example, The  SDTR w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l .  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s of A l b e r t a  The The  SDTR of A l b e r t a i s b a s i c a l l y the means through  P l a n n i n g A c t i s c a r r i e d out.  The  which  approving a u t h o r i t y  v a r i e s w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f proposed development; i t may  be  the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board, the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission or the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g commission.  The  P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board i s the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y but g e n e r a l l y i t s a u t h o r i t y i s o n l y used i n cases where development i s proposed i n areas o u t s i d e m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g areas.  G e n e r a l l y , the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board i s charged  w i t h o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g and r e p o r t s to the L i e u t e n a n t Governor in Council.  The  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission c a r r i e s  out  p l a n n i n g f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n i t s d e s i g n a t e d r e g i o n . Each m u n i c i p a l i t y pays a s e t amount i n t o the A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g  Fund which enables t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  commissions  t o p l a n f o r these a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f The SDTR.  The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the  c o u n c i l o f t h e member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The t h i r d a u t h o r i t y  which may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the SDTR i s t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g commission.  In t h i s case "a  m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l may, by by-law, e s t a b l i s h a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g commission" t o p l a n w i t h i n i t s boundaries P l a n n i n g A c t o f A l b e r t a 1972, r e s p o n s i b l e t o the m u n i c i p a l  Section 15).  (The  The commission i s  council.  In order t o determine the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f the SDTR, it  i s necessary  t o t r a c e through  The B r i t i s h North America  the enabling l e g i s l a t i o n  from  (BNA) A c t t o The P l a n n i n g A c t o f  A l b e r t a , which enables the r e g u l a t i o n .  The i n t e r n a l powers  of t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s as they r e l a t e t o the use o f the SDTR w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The  BNA A c t , i n S e c t i o n 92, g i v e s t h e p r o v i n c e s a u t h o r i t y  to make laws i n r e l a t i o n t o matters which a r e d e s i g n a t e d i n sixteen c l a s s e s of subjects.  Three o f these a r e o f t e n c i t e d  as g i v i n g the p r o v i n c e s a u t h o r i t y t o p l a n .  These a r e :  Subsection  " L o c a l Works and Undertakings, o t h e r than such as o f the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s : (a) L i n e s o f Steam or o t h e r Ships, Railways, Canals, Telegraphs, and o t h e r Works and Undertakings, c o n n e c t i n g the P r o v i n c e w i t h any o t h e r o r o t h e r s o f the P r o v i n c e s , o r extending beyond the L i m i t s o f the P r o v i n c e ; (b) L i n e s o f Steamships between the P r o v i n c e s and any B r i t i s h o r F o r e i g n Country; (c) Such works, as, although wholly w i t h i n  58.  the P r o v i n c e , are b e f o r e or a f t e r t h e i r E x e c u t i o n d e c l a r e d by the Parliament of Canada to be f o r the General Advantage of Canada o r f o r the Advantage o f Two or more of the P r o v i n c e s . S u b s e c t i o n 13 P r o p e r t y and C i v i l Rights i n the Province S u b s e c t i o n 16 G e n e r a l l y a l l Matters of a merely l o c a l or p r i v a t e Nature i n the P r o v i n c e " ( M i l n e r , 1963, p. 4 6 3 ) . Subsection  10 i s g e n e r a l l y the a u t h o r i t y c i t e d  d e l e g a t i o n o f the power to p l a n t o the p r o v i n c e s . should be kept i n mind t h a t whenever a government legislature)  i s authorized  (or implicitly,  (Milner,  1963,  461).  From The  BNA  A c t which d e s i g n a t e s  matter, the next step i s t o The  planning  Revised  1970.  delegates  T h i s a c t , passed i n 1963,  approve development, and  Planning  Board.  5 of The  Planning Act.  "1. 2.  The  as a p r o v i n c i a l  P l a n n i n g A c t of the  of A l b e r t a or Chapter 276 of The  to  "It  to develop land i t has,  a power to p l a n , as w e l l as c a r r y out the p l a n " p.  f o r the  Province  S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a the f i n a l  t h e r e f o r e p l a n , to the  authority  Provincial  e n a b l i n g a c t d e l e g a t i n g power i s S e c t i o n It states:  The P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Board i s hereby continued under the s t y l e and t i t l e o f the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board. The Board s h a l l c o n s i s t o f (a) the D i r e c t o r who, s h a l l be the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of the Board, and (a) a chairman, a deputy chairman, and o t h e r members who s h a l l be appointed by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l to h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g p l e a s u r e , but no M i n i s t e r s of the Crown s h a l l be appointed to the Board" (Revised S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a 1970, The P l a n n i n g Act, S e c t i o n 5 ) .  The  P l a n n i n g Board a l s o recommends the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commissions which are g i v e n  of  approving  a u t h o r i t y as are m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g commissions.  U n l i k e the  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission, whose d e c i s i o n s may  be  to the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board, the m u n i c i p a l  appealed  planning  commission, which i s e s t a b l i s h e d by a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l by-law, may  have i t s d e c i s i o n s appealed to the m u n i c i p a l The  council.  f i n a l step i n t r a c i n g the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r  the SDTR may  be found i n S e c t i o n s 17 and  A c t of A l b e r t a . i n C o u n c i l may  19 of The  Planning  S e c t i o n 17 s t a t e s t h a t the Governor  General  make r e g u l a t i o n s known as the S u b d i v i s i o n and  T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the purpose o f c o n t r o l l i n g , r e g u l a t i n g and governing " (1)  (2)  the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d .  S e c t i o n 19  states:  A person who proposes t o c a r r y out a s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d s h a l l apply f o r a p p r o v a l o f the proposed s u b d i v i s i o n i n the manner p r e s c r i b e d by The S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s . An a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p p r o v a l of a proposed s u b d i v i s i o n s h a l l be made to and a p p r o v a l may be g i v e n by (a) the municpal p l a n n i n g commission o f the c i t y where the l a n d proposed to be s u b d i v i d e d l i e s w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s o f the C i t y of Edmonton or the C i t y o f C a l g a r y , or (b) a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission t h a t has ; been a u t h o r i z e d i n r e s p e c t o f a s u b d i v i s i o n of land w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r e a , o r (c) the D i r e c t o r i n a l l o t h e r c a s e s " (Revised S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a 1970, The P l a n n i n g A c t , S e c t i o n 19).  In terms of s p e c i f i c powers, the P r o v i n c i a l Board, the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commissions and  the  Planning municipal  p l a n n i n g commissions a l l have q u a s i j u d i c i a l powers.  Only the  60.  first  two, however, have l e g i s l a t i v e  powers.  The q u a s i j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board comes from h i s p o s i t i o n as the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y i n cases o f appeals o f d e c i s i o n s o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission as s e t o u t i n S e c t i o n 7 o f The Planning Act.  T h i s s e c t i o n s t a t e s t h a t appeals o f d e c i s i o n s  of t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commissions a r e the concern o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board and w i l l be d e c i d e d by t h a t body.  The D i r e c t o r ' s l e g i s l a t i v e  f u n c t i o n may  be e x e m p l i f i e d by S e c t i o n 59 o f The P l a n n i n g A c t .  Here, the  D i r e c t o r i s g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y t o p l a c e zoning caveats on lands which, although  s u b d i v i d e d , a r e not s u b j e c t t o any  zoning by-law. The  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commissions have a q u a s i  f u n c t i o n through t h e i r  a u t h o r i t y t o i n t e r p r e t SDTR.  d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers a r e i n h e r e n t i n a l l a p p r o v a l s . commissions' l e g i s l a t i v e  judicial Clearly, The  power i s b a s i c t o i t s a b i l i t y t o  p l a n and c a r r y out these p l a n s .  The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission  has t h e c a p a c i t y , through i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t o develop and c a r r y out a g e n e r a l p l a n under S e c t i o n 69 o f The Planning Act. The  Herein l i e s i t s l e g i s l a t i v e  power.  q u a s i j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n o f the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g  commission i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission.  Under S e c t i o n 15 o f The P l a n n i n g A c t , the m u n i c i p a l  p l a n n i n g commission i s g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y t o serve as an  61.  approving a u t h o r i t y  for subdivisions.  The  commission  has  v i r t u a l l y no a b i l i t y t o l e g i s l a t e because i t must seek  the  a p p r o v a l of the m u n i c i p a l  c o u n c i l f o r i t s general  or  zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s .  council i t s e l f  91 of The  The  r e g i o n a l p l a n or the r e g i o n a l The are  i s bound by  P l a n n i n g Act which s t a t e s t h a t any  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y must conform t o the  administrative  preliminary  plan.  powers of these approving a u t h o r i t i e s  i n the next  In summary, the BNA  Act a l l o c a t e s planning  Governor i n C o u n c i l  d e l e g a t e s the  The and  province,  through The  authority through Planning  The  to the r e g i o n a l and  municipal  commission, and  the  w i t h the m u n i c i p a l The  Act,  SDTR i n a s s e s s i n g  Growth Management Through the Alberta  c o u n c i l f o r the  planning municipal  c o n t r o l of s u b d i v i s i o n of land i s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of these t h r e e  Regulations of  the  f i n a l a u t h o r i t y r e s t s w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l  commission.  f o l l o w the  of  planning  P l a n n i n g Board i n matters o f appeal i n the r e g i o n a l  planning  This  a u t h o r i t y t o the D i r e c t o r of the P r o v i n c i a l  P l a n n i n g Board and commissions.  SDTR.  section.  a l o c a l n a t u r e t o the p r o v i n c e . Lieutenant  Section  development  found i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e The  w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  plan  approving a u t h o r i t i e s  applications.  Subdivision  and  Transfer  who  In A l b e r t a , pursuant t o The P l a n n i n g  A c t , The SDTR are  used to d i c t a t e the s p a t i a l a l l o c a t i o n o f growth.  These  aspects and the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f the SDTR w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in  some d e t a i l t o give an understanding o f the use o f these  r e g u l a t i o n s t o manage growth.  In d i s c u s s i n g the use o f these  r e g u l a t i o n s , i t must be r e c o g n i z e d be  t h a t other  l e g i s l a t i o n must  s t u d i e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o enable the f u l l  growth management techniques t o be used.  range o f  Only when the l e g a l i t y  of these techniques i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i l l they be o f maximum b e n e f i t and without f e a r o f being  defeated  i n the c o u r t s .  Having e s t a b l i s h e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f the SDTR, t h e i r l e g a l i t y i s not i n q u e s t i o n . at  the v a r i o u s  section w i l l ,  then,  look  s e c t i o n s o f the SDTR and how these r e l a t e t o  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n The  This  o f the SDTR t o manage growth.  SDTR a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .  with the general  a p p l i c a t i o n process.  P a r t one d e a l s  P a r t two i s concerned  w i t h t h e land requirements and the a c t u a l content o f proposed development. for  Both p a r t s c o n t a i n s e c t i o n s which a r e u s e f u l  the management o f growth.  These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  a t some  length. P a r t one o f the SDTR i s broken i n t o three d i v i s i o n s . f i r s t d i v i s i o n d e a l s w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s and t h e i r requirements.  Provisions  basic  f o r copies of subdivison  dimensions o f proposed parks, r e s e r v e s  The  p l a n s , the  and roadways, the  l o c a t i o n s and dimensions o f a l l e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s , b u i l d i n g s  or  structures,  plan  and  i s required  are  outline  plan,  must be  submitted  i n which the authority for  the  The  to  to  the  the  u n d e r w h i c h an Under t h e  approving  i s situated. have t o  (SDTR 1974,  the  may  override  l o c a t i o n of of  endorsement of  SDTR, t h e plan  5  decisions  1,  f o r the  an plan  municipalit  approving  Thus, made on  municipality the a  municipal  development. part  the  one  r e f e r s to  subdivision  a number o f  Subsection  of  outline  from t h a t  (1)(2)).  approving authority to  The  authority  seek a p p r o v a l  outline  provision  However, t h e  Section  second d i v i s i o n  r e f e r the  comments.  described.  to  authority  a p p e a l and 7 of  land  plan  as  conditions  some d i s c r e t i o n i s a l l o w e d .  does not  approving basis  the  Clause  the  plan.  i s given  Under the  other departments (b)  decision, Section  authority for  their  states:  "an a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y may r e f e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o and s h a l l r e q u e s t t h e comments o f any c o u n c i l , approving authority, l o c a l health authority or u t i l i t y o p e r a t o r o r a g e n c y whose i n t e r e s t s , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y , may be a f f e c t e d , o r who c l a i m s t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o p o s e d s u b d i v i s i o n , and (c) an a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y , by i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e l a n d o r o t h e r w i s e may r e q u i r e s u c h o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e s u b d i v i s i o n as may appear n e c e s s a r y . . . The a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y s h a l l g i v e due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e comments o f o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s t o whom t h e a p p l i c a t i o n has b e e n r e f e r r e d , b u t i t n o t bound by them" (SDTR 1967, Section 5). These s e c t i o n s  can  be  used  management t e c h n i q u e s . "creative  foot dragging"  i n a i d of  a number o f  Clearly, administrative i s enabled  through t h i s  growth delay  or  section.  These d e l a y s may i n c r e a s e c o s t s f o r the development such t h a t i t becomes f i n a n c i a l l y u n f e a s i b l e , o r development simply The  discourages  through t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f the a p p l i c a n t .  t h i r d d i v i s i o n o f p a r t one o f The SDTR, Endorsement  P r i o r t o R e g i s t r a t i o n , r e q u i r e s t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n , p r i o r t o r e g i s t r a t i o n , be endorsed as t o having  provided  necessary lands o r , i n l i e u o f t h i s , money o f equal T h i s l a n d i s r e q u i r e d under The P l a n n i n g be used as t h e government wishes. or d e d i c a t i o n f e e .  Along w i t h  value..  Act f o r reserve to  I t amounts t o an impost  roadways and r e s e r v e s ,  i t can  amount t o up t o f o r t y p e r c e n t  o f the land t o be s u b d i v i d e d  (SDTR 1967, S e c t i o n 19 ( 2 ) ) .  C l e a r l y , t h i s may amount t o  a f e e which many s u b d i v i d e r s c o u l d not a f f o r d t o pay.  Once  the s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n i s approved, the a p p l i c a n t may have up to one year t o submit the f i n a l p l a n f o r endorsement by t h e approving a u t h o r i t y .  When t h i s a p p r o v a l  i s g i v e n , the p l a n  i s submitted t o the D i r e c t o r o f Surveys f o r h i s endorsement. The  D i r e c t o r o f Surveys may l i m i t the time h i s endorsement  w i l l be e f f e c t i v e and w i t h i n t h a t time, the a p p l i c a n t must take " a l l n e c e s s a r y steps t h a t may be r e q u i r e d o f him t o enable the r e g i s t r a r t o r e g i s t e r the p l a n " 11 and  (1) b ) ) .  (SDTR 1967, S e c t i o n  Thus, the time a l l o t t e d by the D i r e c t o r o f Surveys  time r e q u i r e d t o r e g i s t e r t h e p l a n may be v a r i a b l e s o f  g r e a t importance i n g a i n i n g a p p r o v a l stage,  to subdivide.  At t h i s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e l a y s may cause the l o s s o f t h e  endorsement o f the p l a n .  In t h i s case, -either the p r o c e s s  must s t a r t over again o r an appeal must be lodged t o the approving  a u t h o r i t y f o r re-endorsement.  P a r i two o f The SDTR i s comprised  of ten d i v i s i o n s .  Not  a l l o f these d i v i s i o n s r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the e a r l i e r mentioned management t e c h n i q u e s .  Therefore, only  those  which have r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The  f i r s t d i v i s i o n concerns  Applicable to A l l Subdivisions.  General  Requirements  T h i s d i v i s i o n enables a  number o f management t e c h n i q u e s .  S e c t i o n 13 notes t h a t :  "Land may be s u b d i v i d e d o n l y i f i t i s s u i t e d o r can be e c o n o m i c a l l y adapted t o the purpose f o r which the s u b d i v i s i o n i s i n t e n d e d , having r e g a r d to (a) topography, (b) soil characteristics, (c) s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e , (d) p o t e n t i a l f l o o d i n g , subsidence and erosion, (e) accessibility,. (f) the a v a i l a b i l i t y and adequacy o f s e r v i c e s , (g) the e x i s t i n g and p r o s p e c t i v e use o f l a n d i n the v i c i n i t y and (h) such o t h e r matters which i n the o p i n i o n of the approving a u t h o r i t y may p r e j u d i c e sound p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n the v i c i n i t y (SDTR 1967, S e c t i o n 1 3 ) . This s e c t i o n c l e a r l y allows f o r d i s c r e t i o n . may be s e t f o r "a" through But  " f " above, which may be f o l l o w e d .  "g" and "h" above are " c a t c h - a l l " c l a u s e s .  may be used t o enable  agricultural  This section  zoning, a e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l s  increased servicing costs, r e s t r i c t i o n s critical  Standards  f o r environmentally  areas and r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r areas o f h i g h c a r r y i n g  capacity. Section  15  sets  component a r e a s o f and  e x i s t i n g and  for  and  parks.  the  concern.  proposed  accessibility Within  general  to  considerations  These range  uses o f school  these given  land  sites,  and  from the  to  the  the  topography  anticipated  r e c r e a t i o n a l areas  considerations,  there  need and  exist  guidelines  which could  be  used  to maintain a g r i c u l t u r a l  land.  Section  a l s o notes the  need  f o r economical p r o v i s i o n  of  15  services. service The the  use  This  may  be  considered  when w a n t i n g t o  limit  extensions. land of  use  impost  contract fees  i s e n a b l e d by  is also  Section  17,  where  allowed.  "17 (1) Upon t h e w r i t t e n r e q u e s t o f t h e c o u n c i l , t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y may a p p r o v e a p r o p o s e d s u b d i v i s i o n on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t a l l o r any (a) p u b l i c r o a d s , s i d e w a l k s and c u r b s (b) storm sewers, d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s , b r i d g e s , c u l v e r t s , and l a n d f i l l , and (c) other necessary services, be p r o v i d e d o r constructed. (2) Where a c o u n c i l r e q u e s t s t h a t a l l o r any o f t h e w o r k s and s e r v i c e s r e f e r r e d t o i n s u b s e c t i o n (1) be c o n s t r u c t e d o r p r o v i d e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e owner o r p a r t i a l l y a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e owner, t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y may a p p r o v e a p r o p o s e d s u b d i v i s i o n on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t e n t e r i n t o an a g r e e m e n t i n w r i t i n g w i t h t h e c o u n c i l s t a t i n g (a) t h e r e s p e c t i v e o b l i g a t i o n s t o be assumed by him and t h e c o u n c i l w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , operation, r e p a i r and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s p e c i f i e d w o r k s and s e r v i c e s , (b) t h e s t a n d a r d s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n t o be a d o p t e d and c o m p l i e d w i t h (c) t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e c o s t s o f t h e same a r e t o be met o r r e c o v e r e d , and (d) the p e r i o d s of time i n which s p e c i f i c items o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o r i n s t a l l a t i o n work a r e  'to be completed i n r e l a t i o n t o the g e n e r a l development o f the s u b d i v i s i o n " (SDTR 1967, S e c t i o n 17). C l e a r l y , 17 (1)(c) and 17 (2)(b) may f o r c e  increased  c o s t s i n the amount o f s e r v i c e s and i n the q u a l i t y o f services.  The c o s t s may become p r o h i b i t i v e f o r the  proposed s u b d i v i s i o n .  17 (2) may be used t o f o r c e the  a p p l i c a n t i n t o a land use c o n t r a c t , again  something which  may a f f e c t the p r o f i t s and reduce the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f subdivision. D i v i s i o n two concerns the p r o v i s i o n o f r e s e r v e s f o r parks,  r e c r e a t i o n a l areas and s c h o o l s i t e s .  percent reserve.  Generally, ten  o f the land t o be s u b d i v i d e d must be s e t a s i d e f o r Where l a n d i s poor and u n s u i t a b l e  the approving a u t h o r i t y may accept to t e n p e r c e n t  an amount o f money  o f the t o t a l value o f the l a n d .  may be a f i n a n c i a l burden on the a p p l i c a n t . the area used f o r roads and access government.  This  w i t h o u t compensation t o the owner.  Subdivison sixth division.  itself  Under S e c t i o n 19,  Where t h i s amounts t o t h i r t y percent  may be e x c e s s i v e  equal  i s a l s o g i v e n t o the  the s u b d i v i s i o n , a maximum o f f o r t y percent  to any zoning  f o r these uses,  f o r an e c o n o m i c a l l y  o r more o f  w i l l be taken  T h i s type o f  expenditure  viable subdivision.  f o r i n d u s t r i a l use i s c o n s i d e r e d  i n the  S e c t i o n 43 s t a t e s t h a t l o c a t i o n s are s u b j e c t  o r l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t are i n e f f e c t and  t h a t i n d u s t r y may o n l y l o c a t e "where s u i t a b l e and adequate  4  68.  p r o v i s i o n can be made f o r the supply d i s p o s a l o f i n d u s t r i a l wastes"  o f water and f o r the  (SDTR 1967, S e c t i o n 43 ( b ) ) .  What i s " s u i t a b l e and adequate" i s a d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e c i s i o n . These f a c t o r s may vary w i t h the s i t e and proposed development. A proposed unwanted i n d u s t r i a l use  may be r e q u i r e d t o  m a i n t a i n uneconomical standards i n terms o f water p r o v i s i o n and  waste d i s p o s a l .  Local health authorities also a f f e c t  industrial subdivision.  Each a p p l i c a t i o n must be r e f e r r e d  t o t h e l o c a l board o f h e a l t h f o r t h e i r assessment o f t h e impact o f t h e development. discretion i s possible. required  Again, a c e r t a i n amount o f  Waste p r o d u c t s and p o l l u t i o n may be  t o be w i t h i n c e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s .  may be e x c e s s i v e ,  causing  equipment, thus r e d u c i n g  increased  costs  These g u i d e l i n e s for control  the economic v i a b i l i t y o f the  project. The  f i n a l d i v i s i o n o f the SDTR t o be c o n s i d e r e d  t o country r e s i d e n c e s .  Section  49 s t a t e s t h a t : "only  relates land  h a v i n g s p e c i a l s c e n i c and l o c a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s and on which no  i n t e n s i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r e or small holding p u r s u i t s are  permitted: quarter  may be used and t h a t a maximum o f s i x s i t e s t o t h e  s e c t i o n i s permitted"(SDTR 1967, S e c t i o n 49).  S u b d i v i s i o n w i l l n o t be p e r m i t t e d zoning  on "land scheduled under any  bylaw o r land use r e g u l a t i o n s  f o r any other  uses, o r  which, i n the o p i n i o n o f the approving a u t h o r i t y may be more s u i t a b l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y  utilized  f o r other  purposes w i t h i n  a reasonable time"  (SDTR 1967. S e c t i o n  of land f o r country r e s i d e n c e s all  must a l s o make p r o v i s i o n f o r  s e r v i c e s as o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n "(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  51). The s u b d i v i s i o n  52.  These  include:  t h e p r o v i s i o n and o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f sewer and water s e r v i c e s , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f power and heat, t h e c o l l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l o f r e f u s e , f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o f roadways and sidewalks, t h e development and maintenance o f parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas o r the accommodation o f r e s e r v e s and, what s c h o o l accommodation w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r the use o f f a m i l i e s t o be r e s i d e n t i n the s u b d i v i s i o n " ( S D T R 1967, S e c t i o n 52).  O b v i o u s l y some, but n o t a l l , o f these p r o v i s i o n s w i l l be f u l l y a t the expense o f the a p p l i c a n t . : Others w i l l be a t the j o i n t expense o f t h e a p p l i c a n t  and the r e g i o n  concerned.  The  d e c i s i o n as t o the adequacy o f a l l o f these r e s t s w i t h t h e approving a u t h o r i t y .  Time d e l a y s may a f f e c t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n .  Costs w i l l c e r t a i n l y be a f a c t o r and may v a r y a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the approving  authority.  The SDTR has i t s g r e a t e s t of municipal  planning  e f f e c t outside  commissions.  the j u r i s d i c t i o n  I t determines what w i l l  happen i n s m a l l towns, suburbs and the areas inbetween. in coordination  w i t h the powers o f the m u n i c i p a l  Used  planning  commissions and P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board, l a r g e numbers o f managment techniques are enabled.  C l e a r l y , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of t h i s a b i l i t y w i l l depend on p o l i c i e s o f the v a r i o u s i n the use o f the SDTR and o t h e r e n a b l i n g  legislation.  authorities  70.  Summary  T h i s chapter has attempted to d e t a i l the use of growth management techniques through i n the P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a . provincial  the l e g a l c a p a b i l i t i e s  available  C l e a r l y , t h e r e are numerous  s t a t u t e s which are a p p l i c a b l e to the v a r i o u s  techniques.  In o r d e r to determine the a b s o l u t e  legal  a u t h o r i t y to use any of these t e c h n i q u e s , i t i s necessary d e t a i l the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n .  The  to  techniques o u t l i n e d  e a r l i e r have g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y under the a c t s c i t e d .  It i s  necessary, however, to study the s t a t u t e s i n d e t a i l to determine the exact c a p a b i l i t i e s which are a v a i l a b l e f o r use by whom.  The  S u b d i v i s i o n and T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s o f  A l b e r t a have been presented be used to enable  to show how  growth management.  t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n can  71.  CHAPTER V  AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EDMONTON AREA  T h i s chapter d i s c u s s e s the c u r r e n t growth r a t e and concerns Alberta.  r e l a t e d to t h i s growth i n the Edmonton area o f This discussion w i l l  i n v o l v e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of  the p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth as w e l l as the  federal,  p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l government p o l i c i e s i n regard to these phenomena.  A f t e r having d e t a i l e d the concerns  of the  p u b l i c as they r e l a t e to the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f growth, a p r e l i m i n a r y statement  d e s c r i b i n g where growth may  focused i s made.  chapter r e l i e s h e a v i l y on data  The  from T e c h n i c a l Reports Commission's The  of the Edmonton R e g i o n a l  best  be  obtained  Planning  (ERPC) Growth S t u d i e s S e c t i o n .  area d i s c u s s e d c o i n c i d e s w i t h the a r e a  developed  f o r study by the Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission.  It  i s i n the c e n t r a l p a r t o f A l b e r t a w i t h i n an approximate t h i r t y m i l e r a d i u s o f the C i t y of Edmonton. approximately people.  2,800 square m i l e s , there are about 600,000  T h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s l o c a t e d i n a number of s m a l l  towns, suburban communities and one o f Edmonton.  The  i n c l u d e s farmers 1975(3)).  W i t h i n t h i s area of  remainder i s found  urban area, the  City  i n r u r a l areas.  and country r e s i d e n t i a l developments  See Table I I and Map  This (ERPC,  I.  Growth i n the Edmonton Area  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r the growth o f the Edmonton a r e a .  Source:  ERPC.  I t w i l l d e s c r i b e , i n g e n e r a l terms, both the p o p u l a t i o n economic growth of the  and  area.  TABLE II COMMUNITIES IN THE  EDMONTON AREA  SMALL TOWNS SUBURBAN COMMUNITIES URBAN AREA Beaumont Bon Accord Calmar Devon Gibbons Legal New Sarepta Morinville Thorsby Stony P l a i n  F o r t Saskatchewan Leduc Sherwood Park Spruce Grove St. A l b e r t  Edmonton  RURAL AREAS County of Leduc County of Parkland County of Strathcona Municipal D i s t r i c t of Sturgeon  Data Source: ERPC, 1975(3).  P o p u l a t i o n Growth Urbanization i n Alberta i s taking place l a r g e l y i n major c e n t r e s : Edmonton-and C a l g a r y . approximately 13.5%  Together, they make up  60% of the p o p u l a t i o n of A l b e r t a .  o f the p o p u l a t i o n was  (ERPC, 1975(2)).  two  In 1971,  found i n o t h e r urban  only  centres  Alberta's urbanization i s a continuing  t r e n d , as shown i n Table I I I . In c o n t r a s t to the g e n e r a l r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , the Edmonton area shows a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  rate.  g i v e s the u r b a n / r u r a l components of the Edmonton area  Table  IV  population.  TABLE I I I URBANIZATION  YEAR  POPULATION  1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 Data  1951-1971  (TOTAL) URBAN  939,501 1,123,116 1,331,944 1,463,203 1,627,875 Source:  IN ALBERTA  NA NA 843,211 1,007,407 1,196,255  A l b e r t a Bureau o f  RURAL  % NA NA 63.3 68.9 73.5  %  NA NA 488,733 455,796 431,620  NA NA 36.7 31.1 24.5  Statistics.  TABLE IV THE RURAL/URBAN COMPONENTS OF THE EDMONTON AREA POPULATION 1951-1971  POPULATION  YEAR  214,141 295,543 382,675 448,000 523,816  1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 Data  Source:  The  ERPC,  (births  during  %  RURAL  83. 87. 88. 90. 92.  8 8 8 8 7  34,701 37,540 43,178 41,180 38,375  16.2 12.7 11.2 9.2 7.3  1975(1).  15,200 p e o p l e  - deaths)  shown  179,440 258,003 3 39,497 406,820 485,081  o. "o  c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o f t h e Edmonton a r e a i s  approximately  as  (TOTAL) URBAN  i n the f i v e  i n T a b l e V, was  that  per year.  year p e r i o d from  32,67 2 p e o p l e ,  same p e r i o d , shown  The n a t u r a l  increase  1966 t o 1971,  The n e t m i g r a t i o n  i n T a b l e V I , was  43,785  people  g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 76,457 o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15,200 persons per  year.  T h i s r a t e o f growth  i n t h i s decade  shows no s i g n s o f d e c l i n i n g  (ERPC, 1 9 7 5 ( 3 ) ) .  TABLE V NATURAL POPULATION INCREASE IN THE EDMONTON AREA  YEAR  BIRTH  DEATH  1966 1967 1968 1969 1970  8,519 8,726 8,764 8,810 9,063  2,142 2,212 2,259 2,267 2,330  1966-1971  NET INCREASE 6,377 6,514 6,505 6,543 6,733  TOTAL:  32,672  Data Source: A l b e r t a Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s .  TABLE VI MIGRATION TO THE EDMONTON AREA  IN  1966-1971  OUT  109,854  66,065  NET 43,785  Data Source: A l b e r t a Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s .  The Edmonton a r e a has one o f the h i g h e s t r a t e s o f urban growth i n Canada.  M i g r a t i o n from o u t s i d e Canada p l a y s a  significant  Table V I I shows Edmonton as r a n k i n g e i g h t h  role.  as the d e s t i n a t i o n o f new people  to Canada.  c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t where people w i l l  finally  Because economic l o c a t e , and  because Edmonton has f a v o u r a b l e economic c o n d i t i o n s , many people may be a t t r a c t e d t o the area from t h e i r f i r s t  point  o f a r r i v a l i n Canada. .  TABLE V I I MIGRATION DESTINATION FOR IMMIGRANTS TO CANADA  DESTINATION  1966-1971  TOTAL IMMIGRANTS  Toronto Montreal Vancouver Hamilton Ottawa Calgary Winnipeg Edmonton Kitchener London Victoria Quebec  262,195 115,345 71,670 26,530 25,390 24,040 23,780 21,510 15,125 15,055 8,780 5,930  Data Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  As a f i n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n growth o f the Edmonton a r e a , s i x t e e n communities are d e s c r i b e d i n Table V I I I . Table V I I I shows t h a t , d u r i n g the l a s t two decades, t h e r e has been a t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n i n the communities surrounding  t h e C i t y o f Edmonton. In r e c e n t  t h i s t r e n d has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  One f a c t o r  years,  behind  78.  t h i s i n c r e a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n i n surrounding  communities  has been the lower c o s t o f housing, due l a r g e l y t o lower land  prices.  TABLE V I I I EDMONTON AREA URBAN POPULATIONS  COMMUNITY  1951  1956  1961  1951-1973  1966  1971  1973  2 C i t y o f Edmonton Sherwood Park St. A l b e r t F o r t Saskatchewan Leduc Spruce Grove Stony P l a i n Devon Morinville Calmar Gibbons Legal Thorsby Beaumont Bon Accord New Sarepta  170,929 246,561 320,598 376,925 438,152 442,365 22,164 - (3) 2,923 6,339 14,282 1,129 1,320 4,059 15,088 9,736 11,800 2,582 1,076 2,972 4,152 5,726 6,756 1,842 5,271 2,008 2,356 2,856 4,000 598 4,256 309 465 3,029 878 1,098 1,311 1,397 1,770 1,919 842 1,502 1,429 1,418 1,283 1,468 892 1,483 957 935 995 l',475 944 845 730 700 600 799 723 192 230 551 457 572 683 523 524 563 604 385 411 491 583 595 412 194 234 337 147 398 141 332 175 184 202 173 220  Total  179,440 258,003 339,497 406,820 485,081 504,689  — —  Table Notes: 1.  Data Source: 1951 t o 1971, S t a t i s t i c s Canada; 1973, A l b e r t a Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s except the C i t y o f Edmonton p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e which was o b t a i n e d from C i t y o f Edmonton C i v i c Census.  2.  C i t y o f Edmonton p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r 1951, 1956, and 1961, i n c l u d e the communities o f B e v e r l y and Jasper P l a c e which were l a t e r annexed t o the c i t y .  3.  Census d a t a i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r u n i n c o r p o r a t e d p l a c e s p r i o r t o and i n c l u d i n g 1961.  Source: ERPC, 1975(1), p. 87.  While  a l l communities i n the Edmonton a r e a have been  a f f e c t e d by t h i s change i n the share o f growth, two communities, Sherwood Park and St. A l b e r t , both w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the c i t y , have e x p e r i e n c e d the g r e a t e s t impact.  Other  communities o f over 1000 p o p u l a t i o n i n 1971 a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g moderate growth w h i l e those o f under 1000 p o p u l a t i o n i n 1971 c o n t i n u e t o grow s l o w l y .  Table IX i n d i c a t e s t h e  r e l a t i v e growth r a t e s o f these areas i n the p e r i o d from 1956 t o 1973 (ERPC, 1975 ( 1 ) ) .  TABLE IX PERCENTAGE SHARE OF EDMONTON AREA POPULATION INCREASES  COMMUNITY  1956  C i t y o f Edmonton  96.3  Sherwood Park and St. A l b e r t  -(2)  1956-1973  1  1961  1966  1971  1973  90. 8  83. 7  78. 2  21. 5  -  13. 5  12. 8  57. 0  2. 7  7. 9  19. 0  0. 1  1. 1  2. 5  Other Communities over 1000 p o p u l a t i o n (1971)  Communities l e s s than 1000 p o p u l a t i o n (1971)  -  Table Notes: 1.  D e r i v e d from Table V I I I EDMONTON AREA URBAN POPULATIONS  2.  U n s u f f i c i e n t data.  1951-1973.  Source:  ERPC, 1 9 7 5 ( 1 ) , p. 88.  80.  The two  l o c a t i o n of housing  shifts.  i n the Edmonton a r e a has  For y e a r s , v i r t u a l l y a l l new  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the r e g i o n was  residential  i n Edmonton proper.  came a s h i f t to an emphasis on l o c a t i o n i n the communities, as shown i n Tables V I I I and may  IX.  be i n the process o f b e i n g r e v e r s e d .  v a l u e s i n these surrounding  seen  Then  surrounding This trend  Increased  now  land  communities, i n c r e a s e d c o s t s of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and a p o s s i b l e change i n a t t i t u d e towards c i t y l i v i n g , may  be the causes of t h i s second s w i t c h  (ERPC,  1975(4)). In terms of p o p u l a t i o n growth, the Edmonton area i s one  of the f a s t e s t growing areas of Canada.  I t s annual  growth r a t e , i n excess of t h r e e p e r c e n t , g i v e s i t a d o u b l i n g time of under twenty f i v e y e a r s .  E s t i m a t e s t o the year  i n d i c a t e t h a t , a t the p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e , Edmonton area w i l l have i n excess  2001  the  of one m i l l i o n r e s i d e n t s .  C l e a r l y , a l l communities i n the area are e x p e r i e n c i n g the consequences of t h i s h i g h p o p u l a t i o n growth. Economic Growth In order to e s t i m a t e the economic growth of the labour f o r c e p r o j e c t i o n s developed  by the Edmonton  area,  Regional  P l a n n i n g Commission are used. Edmonton's development may first  be a t t r i b u t e d  factors.  The  r e l a t e s to the area's  important  early transportation routes.  l a r g e l y to f i v e  location  The North  on Saskatchewan  81.  R i v e r was for  a prime t r a n s p o r t a t i o n route and  fur traders.  I t soon became a supply c e n t r e f o r  t r a v e l l i n g from Winnipeg through B r i t i s h Columbia. 1891, for  and  t r a d i n g centre  A rail  persons  the Yellowhead T r a i l  to  l i n k ' w i t h Calgary, e s t a b l i s h e d i n  f u r t h e r r a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n l a t e r , opened the  area  a l a r g e number of s e t t l e r s i n the e a r l y 1900s (ERPC, N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the Edmonton area have been  major f a c t o r i n the area's  1975(1)).  another  growth.  "The area's good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s p e r m i t t e d s u c c e s s f u l farming and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of i n d u s t r i e s , such as meat packing, f l o u r m i l l i n g , t a n n i n g , and d a i r y products manufacturing. Although many of these i n d u s t r i e s have d e c l i n e d i n r e l a t i v e importance to o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of /the area have remained the base f o r much o f the sub-region's i n d u s t r i a l development'! (ERPC, 1975 (1), p. 123). With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the P r o v i n c e i n 1905, s e l e c t i o n of Edmonton f o r i t s c a p i t a l and  the  the subsequent  l o c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a i n 1907,  came o t h e r  major f a c t o r s i n the development o f Edmonton. In 1947'  o i l was  d i s c o v e r e d i n Leduc, a town  f i f t e e n m i l e s from Edmonton proper.  T h i s was  g r e a t e s t s t i m u l u s t o the area's development. are r e a d i l y apparent  related  undoubtedly the "The  results  i n the form of i n d u s t r i e s s e r v i n g o i l  e x p l o r a t i o n , r e f i n e r i e s , chemical p l a n t s and of  approximately  industries"  (ERPC, 1975(1), p.  a l a r g e number  124).  Today, Edmonton i s a major s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r o i l e x p l o r a t i o n and  the o i l i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l .  The  l o c a t i o n of  82.  the p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c e s and Alberta  i n the  With c u r r e n t  the U n i v e r s i t y  of  c i t y are o t h e r major employment g e n e r a t o r s .  government p o l i c i e s , d e s i g n e d t o d i v e r s i f y  the economy, and  major i n d u s t r i a l p r o p o s a l s ,  increased  i n d u s t r i a l expansion i s expected to c o n t i n u e Before d e s c r i b i n g the  labour  (ERPC, 1 9 7 5 ( 1 ) ) .  force p r o j e c t i o n s of  ERPC, i t i s necessary t o o u t l i n e the  two  basic  the  assumptions  under which these p r o j e c t i o n s were made. "Assumption #1. Past t r e n d s i n the (Edmonton area's] share of the labour f o r c e growth ( r e i n f o r c e d by the f a c t t h a t energy r e l a t e d p e t r o c h e m i c a l p r o j e c t s w i l l tend to l o c a t e i n or be s e r v i c e d from the (Edmonton area] ) w i l l be only s l i g h t l y a f f e c t e d by p r o v i n c i a l government e f f o r t s to d e c e n t r a l i z e industry. As a r e s u l t , 45% of the t o t a l expected p r o v i n c i a l labour f o r c e i n c r e a s e s w i l l be w i t h i n the study area. Assumption #2. Expected trends i n the [Edmonton area's] share of A l b e r t a labour f o r c e growth w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by p r o v i n c i a l government e f f o r t s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e i n d u s t r y and as a r e s u l t , 40% of the t o t a l expected p r o v i n c i a l labour f o r c e i n c r e a s e s w i l l be w i t h i n the study area": (ERPC, 1974 (3) , p. 2 6 ) . P l e a s e see Table X and  Table Notes  following.  T a b l e X i n d i c a t e s the p r o j e c t e d i n d u s t r i a l sector  to 1981.  percentage i n c r e a s e  i n the  Under the labour  ( a l t e r n a t i v e number 1) t o 68% assumption number two, based on the r e s p e c t i v e An can  labour first  assumption,  ( a l t e r n a t i v e number 2 ) .  alternatives labour  the  f o r c e would range from  the range would be  i n d i c a t i o n of the  f o r c e growth by  from 55% to  60%  Using 62%,  (ERPC, 1 9 7 4 ( 3 ) ) .  f o r c e growth by  community  be o b t a i n e d through the percentage of the value of  TABLE X PROJECTED 1981  AREA LABOUR FORCE BY INDUSTRIAL DIVISION 19  Industrial Division (7) Agriculture Other Primary  1971 Actual  Assumption  1971 Adjusted  ( 1 )  Altern.#l  #1(45%) ( 4 )  (  8 1 Assumption  )  Altern.#2  ( 5 )  Altern.#l  ( 4 )  #2 (40%)  Altern.#2  6,420  6,791  5,400  5,200  5,100  5,000  4,790  5,076  8,100  7, 800  7,700  7,400  Manufacturing  25,640  27,025  43,000  41,400  41,100  39,600  Construction  19,330  20,372  31,000  31,000  29,700  28,700  Transportation, Communication and Other Utilities  21,130  22,270  33,400  32,200  31,900  30,800  Trade  39,170  41,270  66,800  64,400  63,900  61,600  9,790  10,312  18,800  18,100  18,000  17,300  62,000  65,368  124,800  120,200  119,300  115,000  Public Administra t i o n and Defence 23,380  24,670  43,400  41,800  41,500  40,000  16,990  5,487  9,200  8,900  8, 800  8,500  228,640  228,640  384,000  370,000  367,000  354,000  Finance, Insurance and Real E s t a t e Community, Business and Personal Service  Unspecified and Undefined TOTAL *  6 }  For Table Notes p l e a s e see next page. Source: ERPC, 1974(3).  ( 3 )  ( 5 )  84.  TABLE X  (continued)  "Table Notes: 1.  A d j u s t e d labour f o r c e f i g u r e s i n c l u d e the 1961 to 1971 i n c r e a s e d labour f o r c e i n the u n s p e c i f i e d and undefined c a t e g o r y d i s t r i b u t e d among the i n d u s t r i a l d i v i s i o n .  2.  Assumption #1 s t a t e s t h a t the study area w i l l r e c e i v e 45% of the p r o v i n c i a l labour f o r c e i n c r e a s e s to 1981.  3.  Assumption #2 s t a t e s t h a t the study area w i l l r e c e i v e 40% of p r o v i n c i a l labour f o r c e i n c r e a s e s t o 1981.  4.  A l t e r n a t i v e #1 i s based on an A l b e r t a Department of' Manpower and Labour f o r c e p r o j e c t i o n which assumed t h a t a l l p r o j e c t s planned f o r A l b e r t a would be b u i l t as planned by 1980. T h i s p r o j e c t i o n was extended to".1981 by a Growth S t u d i e s s t a f f e s t i m a t e .  5.  A l t e r n a t i v e #2 i s based on an A l b e r t a Department o f Manpower and Labour labour f o r c e p r o j e c t i o n which assumed t h a t o n l y s e l e c t e d major p r o j e c t s planned f o r A l b e r t a would be b u i l t as planned by 1980. T h i s p r o j e c t i o n was extended t o 1981 by a Growth S t u d i e s s t a f f e s t i m a t e .  6.  Column t o t a l s may d i f f e r from the items due to rounding.  7.  Based on the e x p e c t a t i o n of expanding b u i l t - u p areas i n the s u b - r e g i o n and s t r o n g c o m p e t i t i o n f o r labour f o r c e from other s u b - r e g i o n a l i n d u s t r i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l labour f o r c e i s p r o j e c t e d to d e c l i n e i n a b s o l u t e terms. However, w i t h r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g food p r i c e s and growing c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i n the study area, one cannot exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the tendency toward increased i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e v e r s e past trends and s t a b i l i z e s u b r e g i o n a l labour f o r c e i n t h i s d i v i s i o n somewhere around the 1971 l e v e l "  :  Source: ERPC, 1974(3), p.  30.  sum  of i n d i v i d u a l  TABLE XI MUNICIPAL PERCENTAGE SHARE OF TOTAL EDMONTON AREA NONRESIDENTIAL BUILDING PERMITS , 1967 t o 1971, 1972 t o 1973 BY TYPE AND VALUE OF CONSTRUCTION; 1962 t o 1966  Municipality  Industry^  1962- 1966 3 I & G Comm.  1972-1973  1967-1971 4  Industry  Comm.  I &G 87.9 N/A 2.2 0.8 0. 3 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 N/A N/A N/A 5.7 0.1 0.2 1.1  Industry  Comm.  I &G  66. 3 N/A 1.9 2.5 0.8 3.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 N/A 15. 2 2.6 3.5 4.1  87.8 N/A 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.4 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.1 N/A 4.5 1.1 0.2 1.3  83.7 N/A 1.7 1.7 1. 3 2.0 1.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 N/A 0.0 N/A 6.7 0.1 0.0 0.0  100.0  100. 0 34,120  93.5 N/A 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 N/A 0.0 N/A N/A N/A 2.3 1.0 0.2 0.8  92.4 N/A 1.9 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 N/A 0.1 N/A N/A N/A 2.6 0.2 0.0 0.0  73.2 N/A 0.1 1.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 • 0.1 N/A N/A N/A 19. 4 3.6 0.7 1. 3  91.2 N/A 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 N/A N/A N/A 4.4 1.1 0.0 0.0  100.0  100. 0 194,082  100.1 79,803 409,014  99. 7 155,670  99. 8 173,541  27,756  156,706 219,582  38,816 Average Annual V a l u e a l l N o n r e s i d e n t i a l 69,682  15,961  31,961  34,708  13,878  78,853 109,791  C i t y o f Edmonton Sherwood Park St. A l b e r t F o r t Saskatchewan Leduc Spruce Grove Stony P l a i n Devon Morinville Calmar Gibbons Legal Thorsby Beaumont Bon A c c o r d New S a r e p t a c County o f S t r a t h c o n a County o f P a r k l a n d County o f Leduc M.D. o f S t u r g e o n Total  6  T o t a l v a l u e (000$) A l l Nonresidential  69.0 N/A i. 0 1. 6 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.3 N/A N/A N/A 9.0 6.0 10. 6 2.0100. 0 39,055  (000$) Average Annual V a l u e 7,811  S o u r c e : ERPC, 1975(1)  115,271 348,408 23,054  81,803  100.2  17,000 oo  86.  TABLE XI  (continued)  "Table Notes: 1.  Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  B u i l d i n g Permits,  (64-001)  2.  I n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s b u i l d i n g s used f o r manufacturing and p r o c e s s i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, and other u t i l i t i e s ; and a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mine and mine m i l l b u i l d i n g s .  3.  Commercial c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s s t o r e s , warehouses, garages, o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , t h e a t r e s , h o t e l s , f u n e r a l p a r l o u r s , beauty salons and m i s c e l l a n e o u s commercial — s i g n s , p o s t e r s , h e a t i n g and plumbing i n s t a l l a t i o n s , e t c .  4.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l and governmental c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s e x p e n d i t u r e s made by the community, p u b l i c , and government f o r b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s such as s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , h o s p i t a l s , c l i n i c s , churches, homes f o r the aged, b l i n d , deaf and dumb, government o f f i c e arid a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g s , law enforcement, p u b l i c p r o t e c t i o n , n a t i o n a l defence and a n c i l l a r y b u i l d i n g s .  5.  Includes  Sherwood Park"  Source: ERPC, 1975(1), p.  133.  n o n r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g permits i s s u e d per community i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r from 1962 breakdown of the v a r i o u s  to 1973.  Table XI shows a  percentages of the value  b u i l d i n g permits by community f o r t h i s time.  Also  of included  are d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the average annual v a l u e construction  by  of  f o r each economic s e c t o r f o r a l l n o n r e s i d e n t i a l  c o n s t r u c t i o n over the  same p e r i o d of time.  Table XI i n d i c a t e s t h a t , although the C i t y of Edmonton's p o r t i o n o f the n o n r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n value  continues  87.  to exceed t h a t o f a l l o t h e r communities, i t s share i s declining i n a l l sectors.  The communities o f S t . A l b e r t ,  F o r t Saskatchewan, Leduc and Spruce Grove a r e n o t a b l e i n t h a t they have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r share b u i l d i n g permits.  Although  o f the n o n r e s i d e n t i a l  nonresidential construction  does n o t p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e measure o f the labour f o r c e growth f o r an a r e a , i t does y i e l d a crude e s t i m a t e o f the i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y o f an area and hence, o f the labour force  requirements.  General Government  P o l i c y and P u b l i c Concerns Toward  Urban  Growth  Each o f the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government can have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the growth o f an a r e a . where the f e d e r a l government  Depending on  spends money o r i s w i l l i n g t o  l o a n money, the growth o f an area may develop patterns.  in different  In t h e same manner, development depends upon where  the p r o v i n c i a l government w i l l spend o r l e n d money o r a l l o w development.  The m u n i c i p a l government's acceptance o r  r e j e c t i o n o f development w i l l a l s o have a g r e a t e f f e c t i n d e t e r m i n i n g where and how growth takes p l a c e . reasons,  each o f the t h r e e l e v e l s o f governmental p o l i c y  towards urban qrowth w i l l be b r i e f l v d i s c u s s e d . concerns  For these  Public  a l s o have t h e i r p l a c e i n growth management.  These  88.  too w i l l be  described.  In 197 3, a conference of the t h r e e was  h e l d i n Edmonton.  A f f a i r s , Ron urban growth.  Basford,  l e v e l s of government  At t h a t time, the M i n i s t e r of Urban p r e s e n t e d a f e d e r a l p o s i t i o n paper  In h i s paper, he noted the c o n c e n t r a t i o n  on of  Canadian urban growth. " F i r s t , the present p a t t e r n o f growth i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d to a s m a l l number of very l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas; i e . , i t i s concentrated growth. Secondly, the r a t e o f growth i n these areas i s extremely rapid. I t i s the pace of growth t h a t i s the source of many c u r r e n t urban problems." Basford  continued:  "The m a j o r i t y of Canadians show no i n d i c a t i o n of any g e n e r a l d e s i r e to t u r n t h e i r backs on the many and v a r i e d advantages of u r b a n i z a t i o n . But there i s a g e n e r a l and growing sentiment amongst Canadians t h a t the p r e s e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n and pace of urban growth - l e t alone f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s may not be d e s i r a b l e . " In c o n c l u s i o n ,  Basford  notes:  " I f we accept t h a t the p r e s e n t t r e n d towards h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d and r a p i d urban growth i s u n d e s i r a b l e , we must seek an a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n of u r b a n i z a t i o n through the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t Canadian towns and c i t i e s are not independent of each o t h e r , but are c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n a nation-wide system of c i t i e s . U r b a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s an a g g r e g a t i o n of f o r c e s which not o n l y produces growth i n i n d i v i d u a l c i t i e s .but a l s o forges l i n k a g e s between and among cities. These l i n k a g e s support a network of population,.communication, i n d u s t r i a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n flows and exchanges t h a t c r e a t e a s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g urban system which i s n a t i o n a l and i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope. What t h i s means, i n s h o r t , i s simply t h a t the f o r c e s which impel some c e n t r e s t o grow, o t h e r s t o remain s t a b l e , and many t o d e c l i n e , are seldom f o r c e s amenable to c o n t r o l , o r even s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e s o l e l y  89.  w i t h i n the c e n t r e a f f e c t e d . I f we are to a l t e r the p r e s e n t trends t o c o n c e n t r a t e d and r a p i d growth, our s t r a t e g y must be one t h a t u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e s management o f the urban system as a whole' (Basford, 1973, p. 5). The f e d e r a l p o s i t i o n was  further c l a r i f i e d :  "During the Edmonton conference a l l l e v e l s o f government endorsed three p r e l i m i n a r y urban objectives: the need f o r a more balanced n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f urban growth; the need t o d i v e r t growth towards s m a l l , medium-sized o r new communities - e s p e c i a l l y by improving the amenities and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of s m a l l e r c e n t r e s ; and the need to m a i n t a i n and improve the q u a l i t y of the environment i n the h e a r t o f the l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e s . The conference a l s o endorsed the c o n c e r t e d deployment o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s t o these ends" (Urban A f f i a r s Annual Report, 1975, p. 1 ) . The f e d e r a l government's p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g urban growth seems t o be one o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . i n f l u e n c e i n the Edmonton area may agencies  and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  The  government's  be through i t s numerous  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  C o r p o r a t i o n may be c i t e d as an example. The p r o v i n c i a l government p o l i c i e s on urban growth are more c o n c i s e .  The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e  Party's  1971  e l e c t i o n campaign s t a t e d a d e s i r e to r e t u r n power to the l o c a l government, wherever p r a c t i c a l . i n t e n t i o n to reorganize  They spoke o f t h e i r  the Department o f M u n i c i p a l  Affiars  so t h a t the problems of the two l a r g e s t c e n t r e s , Edmonton and Calgary,  c o u l d be d e a l t with  s e p a r a t e l y from those o f the  s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s whose problems were very  different.  Through t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the government c o u l d p o l i c i e s which r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s —  "create  i e . the  90.  metropolitan the other  centres  centres  now  consider  of A l b e r t a g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r  u n e q u i v o c a l improvement" Further,  growth as a mixed b l e s s i n g -  (ERPC, 1975(1), p.  the P r o g r e s s i v e  Conservative  growth an  18). Party c a l l s  for  a more d i v e r s i f i e d economy, l e s s h e a v i l y r e l i a n t on the o i l and  gas  platform  industry.  In p r o c e e d i n g towards t h i s g o a l ,  s t a t e s : "To  s t r i v e to e q u a l i z e more f a i r l y  p o t e n t i a l throughout the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e " To  The  The  and  Plan.  expanding  purpose of the  Incentive  Plan i s t o "encourage the a t t r a c t i o n of new  industrial  t o u r i s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s to l o c a t e i n A l b e r t a :  (ERPC, 1975(1),  p. 18).  and  Both of these programs have a s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e o f  g i v i n g p r i o r i t y t o the  smaller  f u r t h e r evidenced by the  centres.  This p o l i c y i s  s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n o f the  government  "to c r e a t e a more balanced P r o v i n c i a l wide growth; and hence, encourage d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e investments . . . and . . . A d e c l a r a t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l Government e x p e n d i t u r e p o l i c y t o assure t h a t as many as p o s s i b l e of the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o l l e g e s , c e n t r e s and o p e r a t i o n s are d e c e n t r a l i z e d and l o c a t e d over time i n the s m a l l e r c e n t r e s of the P r o v i n c e " (ERPC, 1975 (1) , p. The  19).  government's a p p l i c a t i o n of these p o l i c i e s can  f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d w i t h regard  to the Edmonton area by  statement t h a t these p o l i c i e s w i l l be  1  established  the A l b e r t a I n c e n t i v e s  Fund i s a source o f revenue to a i d new  e n t e r p r i s e s i n the p r o v i n c e .  growth  (ERPC, 1975(1), p.  these ends, the government of A l b e r t a has  the A l b e r t a Oppportunity Fund and  their  used "to support  be  the small  centres  e x i s t i n g near C a l g a r y  development of s a t e l l i t e —  and  Edmonton r a t h e r  e n t i r e l y new  than  -- bedroom c i t i e s "  (ERPC, 1975(1) , p. 19) . F i n a l l y , the government has  s t a t e d t h a t , i f necessary,  i t w i l l p r o h i b i t developments a t s p e c i f i c  l o c a t i o n s i f these  developments, i n the o p i n i o n of the government, are inappropriate elsewhere The  to t h a t l o c a t i o n and  c o u l d be b e t t e r  located  (ERPC, 1975(1)). p o l i c i e s o f the m u n i c i p a l  are v a r i e d .  Generally,  area are p l a n n i n g  governments o f the  a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the  for increased  growth.  Edmonton  Many are  presently  c o n s i d e r i n g o r have r e c e n t l y completed annexations t o boundaries t o accommodate more i n d u s t r i a l and expansion.  c i t i z e n s concerning  residential  growth, statements by  f u t u r e development are not.  s e r i e s of interviews, questionaires sought the o p i n i o n s ,  c o u n c i l s and The  their  While the p o l i c i e s of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are  consistent with continuing  ERPC has  area  and  the Through a  p u b l i c meetings,  on growth, o f the  municipal  the r e s i d e n t s o f the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  c o u n c i l s of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were v i r t u a l l y  i n the b e l i e f t h a t i n c r e a s e d  growth would be  unanimous  beneficial.  "Most c o u n c i l l o r s f e l t t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ' q u a l i t y of l i f e c o u l d be improved by promoting growth, t h a t i s by a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r y — thus c r e a t i n g more jobs and a b e t t e r tax base — and p o p u l a t i o n -- thus expanding the p o t e n t i a l market f o r goods and s e r v i c e s : (ERPC, 1975(3) , p. 10). The  the  c o u n c i l l o r s , however, were concerned about the  rate  of growth and  optimal  size for their municipalities.  wanted more i n f o r m a t i o n  in this  They  regard.  " G e n e r a l l y , i t was f e l t t h a t a 'moderate growth r a t e was p r e f e r a b l e to a r a p i d growth r a t e . Related concerns i d e n t i f i e d were p r e s e r v i n g community i d e n t i t y , m a i n t a i n i n g l e v e l s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and a c h i e v i n g more 'balanced' (between r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l l a n d uses) growth" (ERPC, 1975(3), p. 11). 1  The  r e s i d e n t s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had  response to the q u e s t i o n classified  of growth.  The  a more v a r i e d  respondents can  be  i n t o four categories:  1.  rural  2.  s m a l l town r e s i d e n t s '  3.  suburban r e s i d e n t s  4.  urban r e s i d e n t s .  The  r u r a l r e s i d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y i n favour of growth.  They f e l t  residents  that increased  l i v i n g c o u l d be achieved. c e n t r e s was  s e r v i c e s and The  a higher  standard  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of  another b e n e f i t they saw  along w i t h  smaller improved  s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l which would decrease the t o t a l area farmland being The  used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes  of  of  (ERPC, 1975(3)).  r e s i d e n t s o f s m a l l towns were g e n e r a l l y the most  p o s i t i v e to growth.  Increased  were the main b e n e f i t s they saw  s e r v i c e s and  opportunities  to i n c r e a s e d growth.  They  were aware, however, t h a t there are disadvantages t o growth. T h i s was and  recognized  to be  l a r g e l y dependent upon the  type of development allowed  to take p l a c e  speed  (ERPC, .1975 ( 3 ) ) .  Suburban r e s i d e n t s were the growth w i t h some opposing i t . atmosphere. for  l e a s t p o s i t i v e towards  They l i k e d the s m a l l town  Somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h i s was  increased  commercial f a c i l i t i e s ,  community s e r v i c e s . s e r v i c e s and  other  The  public u t i l i t i e s  concern and  n e c e s s i t y of commuting f o r employment,  a m e n i t i e s was  w i t h these communities  their  mentioned as a major problem  (ERPC, 1975(3)).  the c u r r e n t r a p i d growth but  Most wanted to reduce  to m a i n t a i n a slow-to-moderate  development r a t e . The  urban r e s i d e n t s were " g e n e r a l l y more concerned w i t h  the r a t e of change than the r a t e of growth" p. 7 ) .  They noted inadequate p u b l i c t r a n s i t ,  congestion and  (ERPC, 1975(3),  and  noise,  traffic  the p h y s i c a l d i s r u p t i o n of neighbourhoods  the high c o s t o f housing as a s s o c i a t e d problems.  major b e n e f i t s they saw  r e l a t e d t o the i n c r e a s e d  enabled through urban growth  The  opportunities  (ERPC, 1975(3)).  In summary, i t seems t h a t the r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s r e s i d e n t s view growth from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . towns and  r u r a l areas see  The  small  i t as a very p o s i t i v e element i n  the development o f a more v i a b l e community.  The  suburban  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , w h i l e s t i l l w i s h i n g to m a i n t a i n growth, more concerned w i t h the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s . the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may  be d e s c r i b e d  In t h i s  side e f f e c t s .  are  respect,  as wanting a l l  the b e n e f i t s o f growth y e t not w i s h i n g to endure any negative  of  of  the  They d e s i r e to have more employment  y e t not the i n c r e a s e d t h i s development.  numbers o f r e s i d e n t s a s s o c i a t e d  with  The c i t y has d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s .  Here,  the r e s i d e n t s wish t o m a i n t a i n the growth f o r the i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s y e t wish t o slow the changes which are perceived  to take  place.  The p o l i c i e s o f the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s o f government are i n b a s i c agreement.  Both seek t o b e t t e r  manage urban growth through d e c e n t r a l i z i n g i t so as t o spread the b e n e f i t s o f the i n h e r e n t  development.  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Edmonton area are i n b a s i c on the concept o f d e c e n t r a l i z i n g growth. growth as a mixed b l e s s i n g . view i t in'.a p o s i t i v e l i g h t .  The s m a l l e r Federal  agreement  The c i t y views communities  generally  and P r o v i n c i a l funds  are a v a i l a b l e f o r the development of s m a l l e r Considering  The  the a t t i t u d e s o f the v a r i o u s  communities.  l e v e l s o f government  and the people o f the areas i n v o l v e d , a p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d urban growth f o r the Edmonton area would seem the most  appropriate.  CHAPTER V I  GROWTH MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE EDMONTON AREA  Given the c u r r e n t growth t r e n d s i n the Edmonton area and the a t t i t u d e s o f t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government  and  r e s i d e n t s i n the area towards t h i s growth, a p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d growth has been suggested.  T h i s chapter  will  note areas which are c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to accept i n c r e a s e d amounts o f growth and d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l a l l o c a t i o n o f t h i s growth. of  T h i s w i l l be p r e l i m i n a r y t o the development  a growth management program f o r the a r e a .  w i l l be made up o f a number o f the management described i n e a r l i e r  T h i s program techniques  chapters.  Areas C u r r e n t l y Able t o Accept  Increased  Growth  Most of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Edmonton area c u r r e n t l y have l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n growth. of  Many  the l a r g e r towns have s i g n i f i c a n t areas which have r e c e n t l y  been approved f o r development o r are now  i n the a p p r o v a l  process. " S u f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l areas are planned o r proposed t o accommodate i n the o r d e r o f an a d d i t i o n a l 775,000 persons which would i n c r e a s e the study area p o p u l a t i o n t o a t l e a s t 1,300,000, a p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l w e l l i n excess o f the C i t y of Edmonton's 2001 p r o j e c t e d study a r e a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 1,000,000" (ERPC, 1975(1), p. 75). T a b l e XII d e s c r i b e s the r e s i d e n t i a l development of  potential  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c o u n t i e s i n the Edmonton a r e a .  While the C i t y of Edmonton O u t l i n e P l a n areas account f o r  TABLE XII SUMMARY OF APPROVED AND PROPOSED MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL  Remaining Development P o t e n t i a l i n Approved Plan Areas Total Acreage Edmonton 20,823 Sherwood Park 99 St. A l b e r t 158 300 F o r t Saskatchewan 874 Leduc 162 Spruce Grove Stony P l a i n 20 Devon 80 Morinville Calmar 107 155 Gibons Legal Beaumont 67 Bon Accord New Sarepta S u b t o t a l Urban Areas  22,845  Number o f Dwelling Units Population 121,644 794 817 1, 584 3,270 555 90 340  2  5 , D  433,875 2,445 3,024 5,440 13,098 2,296 375 1, 360  450 550  1, 800 2,000  179  720  130,273  466,433  June  30/74  Proposed Development  Areas  Number o f Dwelling Units  Total Acreage 2, 853 5,200 4,248 1, 845 625 ,  I  253 152  2  3  16,200 i 19, 500 17,170 9,000 3, 594 1 968 656 X  J_  975  3,389  20 20  unknown 60  40  16,231  5  Population 60,000 72 ,000 63,534 33,210 13,340 4,128 2, 571 14,821 4  unknown240  110  440  70,647  264,284  0  10  TABLE XII (con't) SUMMARY OF APPROVED AND PROPOSED MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL June 3 0 / 7 4 Remaining Development P o t e n t i a l In Approved Plan Areas Proposed Development Areas Number o f Total Dwelling Acreage Units Population  Total Acreage  Number o f Dwelling Units  Population  Country R e s i d e n t i a l Approved P l a n s (3) County o f Leduc County o f S t r a t h c o n a M.D. o f Sturgeon County o f Parkland Sub  Total  360 2,070 160 1, 480 4,070  (11) 88 (11) 545 (11) 62 (11) 383  352 2,180 248 1,532  (11)  4,312  1,078  113  457  113  457 11,100  Enoch New Town TOTAL  26,915  Table Notes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Source: ERPC,  131,351"  470,745  1 6 , 344"  1. 368  1,368 5  5 82,204"  40,000 305,652  Approximately 3 . 7 persons per d w e l l i n g u n i t Approximately 4 . 0 persons per d w e l l i n g u n i t T h i s i s the b e s t a v a i l a b l e estimate o f remaining development p o t e n t i a l Mobile home park Estimated Includes mobile home park proposed f o r the s o u t h e a s t I n d u s t r i a l O u t l i n e Plan Area P o p u l a t i o n based on 3 . 0 4 persons p e r mobile home Source: Mobile Home Court Study ERPC, September 1 9 6 8 . E x c l u d i n g country r e s i d e n t i a l The d w e l l i n g u n i t t o t a l assumes one d w e l l i n g per approved c o u n t r y co residential parcel. E x c l u d i n g Gibbon's mobile homes. Parcels 1975(1).  64% o f t h i s development p o t e n t i a l , the "approved and proposed r e s i d e n t i a l area i n  Sherwood  Park and S t . A l b e r t  alone c o u l d accommodate study area r e s i d e n t i a l growth f o r nine y e a r s "  (ERPC, 1975(1), p. 75). Other areas, such as  F o r t Saskatchewan, Leduc and Spruce Grove, c o u l d accommodate s i g n i f i c a n t growth as w e l l .  The s m a l l e r communities a l s o  have areas a v a i l a b l e f o r development but not on the s c a l e of t h e communities mentioned above. The p r o v i s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l land f o r development i s s i m i l a r t o the r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y w i t h i n the Edmonton a r e a .  Most o f the communities have l a n d  f o r i n d u s t r i a l use.  As w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , the C i t y o f  Edmonton has the major share of the a v a i l a b l e land.  available  industrial  Many o f the s m a l l e r communities, however, do have  s i g n i f i c a n t p a r c e l s a v a i l a b l e and where l a n d i s u n a v a i l a b l e , it  i s g e n e r a l l y not because o f a l a c k o f d e s i g n a t e d  l a n d but r a t h e r , due t o a l a c k o f s e r v i c i n g  industrial  (ERPC, 1975(1)).  C l e a r l y , the p r e s e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f land i s n o t the o n l y f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g where growth should go.  I t does,  however, p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f where growth a l l o c a t i o n may be most s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d r e s u l t s .  Factors  which have determined the growth o f those areas i n the p a s t are important.  Elements such as access t o v a r i o u s modes o f  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n c l u d i n g road, r a i l and a i r may be important to the success o f e f f o r t s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e growth.  100.  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t most communities i n the Edmonton area are s u i t e d and w i l l i n g t o accept new  growth.  The  s m a l l e r communities however, would be most g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e i r growth simply because of  t h e i r s i z e r e l a t i v e t o the p r o j e c t e d r e g i o n a l development.  The community to  p r e s s u r e s would be too g r e a t were these  accept s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d growth r a t e s .  areas  Large  s c a l e i n c r e a s e s i n growth o f these communities w i l l t h e r e f o r e be avoided.  Thus, w h i l e t h e i r development w i l l be encouraged,  growth w i l l not be focused on these  areas.  The i n t e r m e d i a t e s i z e d communities which are a b l e t o accommodate more s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f growth, due t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i z e , l o c a t i o n and l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y , w i l l be more significantly affected. St.  The communities o f Sherwood  Park,  A l b e r t , F o r t Saskatchewan, Leduc and Spruce Grove w i l l  be d e s i g n a t e d as the major f o c a l p o i n t s f o r the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  the Edmonton area growth.  however, area's  The C i t y of Edmonton w i l l ,  c o n t i n u e t o accept a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the  growth.  In d e c e n t r a l i z i n g the growth of the Edmonton area,  then,  Edmonton wOuld i n i t i a l l y m a i n t a i n the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of  the area's growth.  T h i s would change as the s e r v i c e s and  demand i n c r e a s e d i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e communities.  Once they  were a b l e to b r i n g enough land on the market and develop the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e necessary t o assume a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f the  101.  growth, t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n would i n c r e a s e .  Thus, the C i t y  of Edmonton would be surrounded by f i v e growing communities.  T h e i r growth, however,  area's growth, would be presumed  along w i t h the Edmonton  t o reduce over time as  the p r o v i n c i a l government's p r o v i n c e - w i d e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n program became more s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s l a t e r  stages.  T a b l e s X I I I and XIV show the inadequate d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth i n the Edmonton area.  TABLE X I I I PERCENTAGE SHARE OF THE EDMONTON AREA POPULATION GROWTH 1971-1973  COMMUNITY C i t y o f Edmonton Sherwood Park St. A l b e r t F o r t Saskatchewan Leduc Spruce Grove  22 40 17 5 7 6  Total  97  Data Source: ERPC, 1975(3).  102.  TABLE XIV PERCENTAGE SHARE OF EDMONTON AREA NONRESIDENTIAL BUILDING PERMITS  1972-1973  COMMUNITY  %  Edmonton Sherwood Park (County St. A l b e r t F o r t Saskatchewan Leduc Spruce Grove  o f Strathcona)  .  79.3 8.8 1.7 1.6 1.0 4.4  Total  96.8  Data Source:  ERPC,  1975(3).  T a b l e Notes: 1.  Sherwood Park i s an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e . T h e r e f o r e , no separate data e x i s t f o r i t s n o n r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g permits. Instead, the county f i g u r e i s used.  The Management Program  Throughout t h i s t h e s i s , the need f o r a number o f management t e c h n i q u e s has been s t r e s s e d .  When put t o g e t h e r  i n a workable system, they form a management program. program i s n o t stagnant.  By r e p l a c i n g  This  o r m o d i f y i n g the  v a r i o u s management t e c h n i q u e s , the e f f e c t o f the t o t a l program may be changed.  C l e a r l y , as time goes on and new  developments o c c u r , the program w i l l have t o be a l t e r e d t o account  f o r these.  Growth T a r g e t s  103.  The t a r g e t o f the program to be developed i s a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Edmonton area's growth. is  It  i m p o s s i b l e to e s t i m a t e the e f f e c t s o f such a program  u n t i l i t i s i n operation.  At p r e s e n t , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth i s weighted i n favour o f the C i t y of Edmonton.  While the c i t y a c c e p t s 22% o f the  p o p u l a t i o n growth, i t r e c e i v e s approximately 80% o f the value of n o n r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n .  While not equatable  t o job c r e a t i o n , the n o n r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n v a l u e i s a good i n d i c a t i o n o f economic growth. The i n t e r m e d i a t e communities of F o r t  Saskatchewan,  Leduc and Spruce Grove would accept l a r g e r p o r t i o n s of both p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l growth.  The town o f S t . A l b e r t  would r e c e i v e i n c r e a s e d i n d u s t r i a l growth w i t h a s t a b i l i z e d or s l i g h t l y decreased p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Sherwood Park  would r e c e i v e a decreased amount o f p o p u l a t i o n growth, but, due t o i t s p o s i t i o n i n the " o i l r e f i n e r y county" and i t s s t a t u s as an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e whose income i s supplemented by the county, i t would r e c e i v e o n l y adjustments i n terms o f i n d u s t r i a l development.  slight Finally,  the C i t y of Edmonton would r e c e i v e a c o n t i n u e d  population  growth but a decreased i n d u s t r i a l a l l o c a t i o n .  This  reallocation  of i n d u s t r i a l growth would h e l p to reduce the burden o f communities which have had h i g h p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the p a s t w i t h v i r t u a l l y no economic growth t o o f f s e t the i n c r e a s e d  104.  costs. change. for  As time goes on, t h i s management program c o u l d The program developed, then, i s not a b l u e p r i n t  growth management i n the f u t u r e but an ongoing and  e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s which would be m o d i f i e d as f u t u r e needs and developments warrant. General Edmonton Area Needs In  order f o r any growth management program to work, i t  must f i r s t be agreed t o by the people who for  the areas concerned.  are r e s p o n s i b l e  T h i s means t h a t , a s i d e from the  i n d i v i d u a l communities, both the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments must be i n v o l v e d .  Where f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l  money i s a l l o c a t e d i s o f c r i t i c a l of  the management program.  importance t o the success  The agreement o f the communities  i n v o l v e d i n the growth program i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l .  In t h i s  case, the C i t y o f Edmonton must agree to l i m i t i t s s i z e and must be w i l l i n g t o take the steps t o l e s s e n i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s for  development.  F u r t h e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the i n t e r m e d i a t e  growth a c c e p t i n g communities t o be w i l l i n g t o take on t h i s i n c r e a s e d growth.  A weakness i n any o f these l i n k s may mean  r e a l problems f o r the e n t i r e growth management program. Thus, the program w i l l attempt to do t h r e e t h i n g s .  It  w i l l attempt t o l e s s e n the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Edmonton and Sherwood Park f o r development, to cause a s l i g h t decrease i n the  p o p u l a t i o n growth and an i n c r e a s e i n the i n d u s t r i a l  of  S t . A l b e r t and to i n c r e a s e the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the  growth  105.  communities of F o r t Saskatchewan, Leduc and The  first  be to l i m i t  Spruce Grove.  step i n the development o f the program would  the p h y s i c a l s i z e o f the C i t y of Edmonton.  The A l b e r t a Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t proposed a r i n g road around the c i t y traffic  to a v o i d the c i t y and  communities i n the a r e a .  The  has  i n o r d e r to a l l o w  improve access to the s m a l l e r c i t y c u r r e n t l y has no  p l a n s f o r areas beyond t h i s roadway  outline  (ERPC, 1975(1)).  This  r i n g road i s i n the same approximate area as an  area  proposed f o r a g r e e n b e l t s u r r o u n d i n g the c i t y .  This area,  then, would be used to d e s i g n a t e boundaries c i t y would not grow. agriculture_  The  beyond which the  g r e e n b e l t i t s e l f would be used f o r  and/or p a r k l a n d .  g r e e n b e l t c o u l d be purchased  The  land contained i n t h i s  by the P r o v i n c e .  The  areas  used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes would then be l e a s e d t o farmers  whose l a n d i s a d j a c e n t .  The  land used f o r p a r k l a n d  would remain under the c o n t r o l o f the P r o v i n c e and  be  developed  communities  as a r e g i o n a l park f o r use by a l l - o f the  i n the Edmonton a r e a .  T h i s use c o u l d p r o v i d e a  partial  f u l f i l l m e n t o f the P r o v i n c e ' s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of i n c r e a s i n g park space i n the Edmonton a r e a . The  l o c a t i o n o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l government  f u n c t i o n s should be the next c o n s i d e r a t i o n . would be l i k e l y t o take the f i r s t d e v e l o p i n g new  Few  businesses  i n i t i a t i v e i n moving or  o p e r a t i o n s i n these s m a l l e r communities.  To  106.  provide increased confidence  i n the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  the area's growth, the p u b l i c s e c t o r may way.  have to l e a d the  The f e d e r a l government has a p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  growth so t h a t any new programs which i t p l a n s f o r the area should be developed  w i t h t h i s growth program i n mind.  P r o v i n c e has a p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and o p e r a t i o n s Province"  The  "as many as p o s s i b l e  i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o l l e g e s , centres  . . . (to the]  . . . s m a l l e r c e n t r e s o f the  (ERPC, 1975(1), p. 19).  The growth management techniques  p a r t i c u l a r t o the s i x  communities d i s c u s s e d above w i l l now be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . The communities a r e : 1.  C i t y o f Edmonton  2.  Sherwood  3.  St. A l b e r t  4.  F o r t Saskatchewan  5.  Leduc  6.  Spruce Grove.  Park  The management techniques  f o r these communities  be d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l  will  growth  separately. A Growth Management Program f o r the C i t y o f Edmonton The growth management techniques  used i n the C i t y o f  Edmonton would s t r i v e t o a l t e r o n l y s l i g h t l y growth but to decrease  residential  s i g n i f i c a n t l y the i n d u s t r i a l growth  107.  of the c i t y . Because o f an i n c r e a s i n g number o f new o f f i c e  buildings  and the s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f employment generated by these, the f i r s t  i n d u s t r i a l growth management  technique t o be used  i n the C i t y o f Edmonton would be the r e d u c t i o n o f the h e i g h t and mass o f b u i l d i n g s allowed  t o develop.  T h i s , along w i t h  the newly d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s , mentioned e a r l i e r , c o u l d be used t o reduce the amount o f o f f i c e space i n the c i t y , it  out t o the s u r r o u n d i n g communities i f i t were  i n c l i n e d t o remain i n the Edmonton a r e a .  forcing  still  The c o n t r o l l e d  l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e space would be a second technique.  This  would be used t o reduce o r f u r t h e r l i m i t the number o f o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s i n Edmonton's c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and thereby reduce the l o c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a l between the c i t y and the s u r r o u n d i n g c e n t r e s .  In t h i s manner, r a t h e r than  l o c a t i n g i n a l e s s p r e f e r e n t i a l s i t e w i t h i n the c i t y , the development o f o f f i c e s would be more r e a d i l y a t t r a c t e d t o prime l o c a t i o n s i n one o f the s u r r o u n d i n g c e n t r e s . S e r v i c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y  implemented.  Inadequate s e r v i c e s v i r t u a l l y deny any development i n the area.  While l a n d may be zoned f o r a c e r t a i n type o f use,  the l a c k o f s e r v i c e s makes development i m p o s s i b l e .  Thus,  s e r v i c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s would be i n t r o d u c e d f o r any new manufacturing, heavy i n d u s t r i a l o r warehousing developments i n the c i t y .  Where new s e r v i c i n g was i n the p r o c e s s o f being  108.  i n s t a l l e d f o r use by these kinds  of a c t i v i t i e s ,  full  costs  would be passed on t o the a p p l i c a n t . Many o f the i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s  i n the C i t y o f  Edmonton are o f a type which o f t e n makes t h e i r v i s u a l impact a concern t o the people d i r e c t l y adjacent v i s u a l proximity.  t o or w i t h i n  close  Chemical p l a n t s , s t e e l m i l l s and v a r i o u s  r e l a t e d s e r v i c i n g i n d u s t r i e s which, w h i l e not i n t o l e r a b l e in  t h e i r v i s u a l impact, c o u l d be g r e a t l y m o d i f i e d i n  appearance t o become l e s s o b t r u s i v e .  These uses however,  are g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d away from r e s i d e n t i a l areas and concentrated The  on t r a c t s o f land d e s i g n a t e d  f o r c e d a l t e r a t i o n o f the d e s i g n  f o r t h e i r purposes.  o f these developments  would g r e a t l y reduce the c i t y ' s l o c a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l benefits.  Thus, t o f u r t h e r reduce the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the  C i t y o f Edmonton f o r these developments, a e s t h e t i c would be implemented.  Any new developments would thereby  have t o be o f such a d e s i g n  as t o make the l e a s t  v i s u a l impact on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l o c a t i o n s . lends  itself  t o other management techniques,  of q u e s t i o n a b l e  integrity,  procedure, are e f f e c t i v e .  such as slow  Clearly, this which, w h i l e  F i n a l l y , w h i l e c u r r e n t l y zoned  f o r t h a t use.  little  new land  The c o s t s o f e x i s t i n g  i n d u s t r i a l land would t h e r e f o r e r i s e . increased  negative  administrative  i n d u s t r i a l land would not be rezoned, very would be designated  controls  C l e a r l y , these  land c o s t s would become a l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  109.  which, along w i t h the o t h e r management techniques  would  reduce the c i t y ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . The management techniques  used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l growth  would remain v i r t u a l l y as they are a t p r e s e n t . includes  p a r t i a l to f u l l  servicing costs,  This  subdivision  d e s i g n c o n t r o l s , some s e r v i c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s and zoning. An a d d i t i o n a l technique  t o be added would be a u s e r  fee f o r s e r v i c e s developed  i n o u t l y i n g areas.  benefit  Thus, the  f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s were extended, the h i g h e r the c o s t s t o the consumers would be.  Because o f t h e l i m i t s on the p h y s i c a l  s i z e o f the c i t y as a r e s u l t o f the new boundaries, the present s u b d i v i s i o n p o l i c i e s of developing large t r a c t s of l a n d a t low d e n s i t i e s would be d i s c o u r a g e d . people would not be f o r c e d  from the c i t y ,  r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s would be encouraged. benefit  In order  that  increased The user  fee would encourage new areas t o develop  at increased  d e n s i t i e s i n o r d e r t o achieve r e l a t i v e economies o f s c a l e . As a s p i n - o f f e f f e c t , t h i s technique would h e l p t o reduce the developments i n o u t l y i n g areas away from major i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as s c h o o l s and h o s p i t a l s . These t e c h n i q u e s ,  then, would make up the management  program f o r the C i t y o f Edmonton. by h e a v i l y  The o b j e c t i v e  i s achieved  l i m i t i n g i n d u s t r i a l development, and p l a c i n g  only  m i l d r e s t r i c t i o n s on r e s i d e n t i a l growth. A Growth Management Program f o r the V i l l a g e o f Sherwood Park  110.  Sherwood  Park i s an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e of  approximately 30,000 people.  I t s p o s t i o n i n the o i l  r e f i n e r y County o f S t r a t h c o n a makes i t one of the most wealthy communities i n A l b e r t a . itself,  however, has l i t t l e  The a c t u a l  community  employment-generating i n d u s t r y .  I t remains r e l i a n t upon the C i t y o f Edmonton and the o i l i n d u s t r y i n the County.  Thus, w h i l e the community  r e q u i r e economic development f o r i t s own  does  growth as an  independent c e n t r e , i t i s not l a g g i n g f i n a n c i a l l y and can afford  increased services.  T h e r e f o r e , i n the i n t e r e s t o f  e q u a l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l development, u n t i l the i n c o r p o r a t e s as a town or c i t y ,  community  i t would not r e c e i v e a  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amount of the Edmonton area i n d u s t r i a l growth.  At p r e s e n t , the county has  r e s i d e n t i a l growth p r e s s u r e s .  tremendous  I t accounts f o r approximately  f o r t y p e r c e n t of the annual Edmonton area r e s i d e n t i a l  growth.  T h i s growth would be reduced to a more r e g i o n a l l y b a l a n c e d figure.  T h e r e f o r e , the management techniques t o be used i n  Sherwood  Park would attempt to m a r g i n a l l y i n c r e a s e  industrial  growth but s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s e i t s r e s i d e n t i a l growth r a t e . Because the C i t y of Edmonton would s e v e r e l y l i m i t i t s i n d u s t r i a l growth, there would be s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e on Sherwood  Park f o r i n c r e a s e d i n d u s t r i a l expansion.  Park's l o c a t i o n ,  Sherwood  j u s t minutes from Edmonton's c e n t r a l  business  d i s t r i c t v i a two h i g h speed freeways, and i t s access t o heavy  111.  and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s i n the Edmonton area make i t a prime a l t e r n a t i v e t o the c i t y .  Thus, the t e c h n i q u e s used  f o r t h i s community would be s i m i l a r t o those used f o r the C i t y o f Edmonton but they would not be as r e s t r i c t i v e . As i n t h e C i t y o f Edmonton, h e i g h t and b u l k r e s t r i c t i o n s would be s e t .  O f f i c e space would a l s o be d i s c o u r a g e d . In  o r d e r t h a t these r e s t r i c t i o n s n o t have the e f f e c t o f r e p e l l i n g a l l o f f i c e a c t i v i t y , they would be m o d i f i e d o r reduced i n i n t e n s i t y from those used by t h e c i t y .  Thus, w h i l e the  r e l a t i v e advantage o f Sherwood Park would be reduced as compared  w i t h t h e o t h e r communities, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f  the C i t y o f Edmonton, i t would remain r e l a t i v e l y  attractive  f o r some a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d n o t l o c a t e f u r t h e r out from the  city. Again, f u l l s e r v i c i n g c o s t s would be passed on t o t h e  developer t o reduce the r e l a t i v e advantage o f Sherwood Park. Because Sherwood Park l a c k s a m e n i t i e s such as r e c r e a t i o n a l facilities,  p l a z a s , and a l l weather m a l l s , l a n d use c o n t r a c t s  would be sought f o r any proposed development  i n order that  p r o v i s i o n s f o r these kinds o f a m e n i t i e s be r e q u i r e d o f any development.  A e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l s would be used i n c o n c e r t  w i t h these t e c h n i q u e s t o determine d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s f o r new developments.  Thus, the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f development  l o c a t i n g i n Sherwood Park would be s t r e s s e d .  C l e a r l y , the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the SDTR c o u l d again cause d e l a y s i n  112.  a p p r o v a l which may Park a r e a .  l e a d development out o f the Sherwood  F i n a l l y , the amount of land d e s i g n a t e d f o r new  i n d u s t r i a l development would not be i n c r e a s e d because Sherwood Park c u r r e n t l y c o n t a i n s adequate land f o r t h i s purpose. The r e s i d e n t i a l development o f Sherwood Park would be much more r e s t r i c t e d .  C l e a r l y , the purpose o f these  increased  r e s t r i c t i o n s i s t o reduce the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h i s community f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use.  The f i r s t  i n v o l v e more s t r i n g e n t b u i l d i n g standards.  technique would This technique,  along w i t h reduced s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l would have effects.  First,  two  the number o f new developments would be  l i m i t e d by l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y .  Secondly, because o f the  i n c r e a s e d b u i l d i n g standards, p r o f i t s o f home b u i l d i n g would be reduced.  T h i s would r e s u l t from Sherwood Park's r e l a t i v e  l o c a t i o n i n the Edmonton a r e a .  With a l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n s f o r  development a v a i l a b l e w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r o r more a m e n i t i e s , p r i c e s i n Sherwood Park would be f o r c e d t o remain competitive.  Thus, l a n d l i m i t a t i o n s and h i g h s e r v i c i n g  may  reduce b u i l d e r and d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t i n the a r e a .  new  s u b d i v i s i o n s would r e q u i r e f u l l  costs Any  s e r v i c i n g c o s t s t o be  p a i d by the a p p l i c a n t and l a n d use c o n t r a c t s would again be employed t o i n c r e a s e a m e n i t i e s r e q u i r e d i n areas o f new subdivisions.  B a s i c a l l y , these r e s t r i c t i o n s are those which  would attempt t o decrease the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f Sherwood Park  f o r development.  As a l a s t r e s o r t however,  b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s would be Thus, Sherwood managed community  the number of  limited.  Park would become the most  i n the Edmonton area.  strictly  Again, these  techniques would be monitored on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s t o determine t h e i r e f f e c t and f u t u r e use. A Growth Management Program f o r the Town o f S t . A l b e r t S t . A l b e r t r e q u i r e s a much g r e a t e r t a x base to develop and m a i n t a i n s e r v i c e s which have lagged behind i t s r e s i d e n t i a l growth i n the p a s t .  Thus, S t . A l b e r t ' s i n d u s t r i a l  would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  growth  i n c r e a s e d w h i l e i t s p o p u l a t i o n growth  would be s l i g h t l y reduced. The i n c e n t i v e s needed f o r i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n St. A l b e r t may  not need to be as l u c r a t i v e as i s i n d i c a t e d  by i t s c u r r e n t low r a t e of i n d u s t r i a l growth. of Edmonton and the v i l l a g e of Sherwood  With the C i t y  Park having q u i t e  s t r i n g e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n d u s t r i a l development, S t . A l b e r t i s the next l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r i n d u s t r i a l  location.  I t i s c l o s e to the C i t y o f Edmonton's north-west boundary and has good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n access t o major highways i n the Edmonton a r e a .  Because S t . A l b e r t c u r r e n t l y has a weak  economic base, i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n  provincial  f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g through loans and g r a n t s .  Capital  f o r the A l b e r t a O p p o r t u n i t y Fund and the A l b e r t a P l a n may  be d e s i g n a t e d f o r t h i s type of use.  allocated  Incentives  Having o b t a i n e d  114.  adequate f u n d i n g , the f i r s t  technique t o be used i n S t .  A l b e r t would be to i n c r e a s e the l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l use and payment o f p a r t i a l s e r v i c i n g c o s t s f o r new l o c a t i n g i n the a r e a .  Tax c o n c e s s i o n s f o r new  developments i n c l u d i n g o f f i c e  industries  industrial  l o c a t i o n would be g i v e n f o r  a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d of time as another a t t r a c t i o n .  Finally,  p r o v i s i o n s f o r amenities t o be p r o v i d e d by the development would be continued but l e s s s t r i n g e n t l y than may be r e q u i r e d under the SDTR.  Thus, through e a r l y p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e , the  economic growth of the community would be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the  future. As w i t h i n d u s t r i a l development, the r e d u c t i o n of the  amount of r e s i d e n t i a l growth i n Edmonton and Sherwood Park would p l a c e new p r e s s u r e on S t . A l b e r t .  In o r d e r to  m a i n t a i n or s l i g h t l y reduce the r e s i d e n t i a l growth r a t e i n St. A l b e r t , the amount of l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s use would be reduced.  T h i s would mean t h a t new  reduced i n number and e x t e n t .  s u b d i v i s i o n s would be  F u r t h e r , user b e n e f i t  fees  would be a s s e s s e d developments based on the d i s t a n c e from the source o f s e r v i c e s .  These techniques would reduce S t .  A l b e r t ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and thereby reduce i t s r e s i d e n t i a l growth r a t e . A Growth Management Program f o r the Towns o f F o r t Saskatchewan, Leduc and Spruce Grove These towns are very s i m i l a r i n terms o f t h e i r  respective  4  115.  population  and economic growth.  Therefore,  the growth  management program developed f o r each w i l l be very  similar.  Any changes i n t h i s program would have to come a f t e r these techniques  had been i n e f f e c t f o r some p e r i o d o f time.  A f t e r t h i s time, i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s would be worked out by m o d i f y i n g  the r e s p e c t i v e community's  growth management  program. These communities have been d e s i g n a t e d much g r e a t e r amount of p o p u l a t i o n they p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v e .  as r e c i p i e n t s o f a  and i n d u s t r i a l growth than  They are a l l w i t h i n a very  short  d i s t a n c e o f the C i t y o f Edmonton and each has good r e g i o n a l access  v i a road  and r a i l .  Leduc has an advantage i n being  c l o s e t o the Edmonton I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t which i s b a s i c a l l y a passenger f a c i l i t y .  The o t h e r  two communities are c l o s e r  t o the Edmonton I n d u s t r i a l A i r p o r t which i s used p r i m a r i l y for  freight. Because these towns would see the g r e a t e s t change i n  development, they would r e q u i r e the g r e a t e s t i n t e r v e n t i o n t o a t t a i n the d e s i r e d growth r a t e s . appropriate  t o begin  Therefore,  i t would be  t h i s growth management program w i t h the  d e s i g n a t i o n o f these communities as new towns under the New Towns A c t o f A l b e r t a .  T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n would enable the  P r o v i n c i a l Government t o a l l o c a t e l a r g e sums o f c a p i t a l i n order  t o o b t a i n the l a r g e amounts o f land and s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d  to accommodate t h i s new growth.  T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n would  allow  116.  tax c o n c e s s i o n s , g r a n t s and loans t o these communities f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  from  funds.  T h i s new town d e s i g n a t i o n would g r e a t l y h e l p i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y t o these communities.  attract  But as mentioned  e a r l i e r , p r i v a t e c a p i t a l may be c a u t i o u s t o e n t e r developments i n new, u n e s t a b l i s h e d communities.  T h e r e f o r e , the p r o v i n c i a l  government would be encouraged t o l o c a t e as many new " i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o l l e g e s , c e n t e r s , and o p e r a t i o n s " as p o s s i b l e i n these communities expenditure  (ERPC, 1975(1),  p. 19). T h i s p r o v i n c i a l  should p r o v i d e the c o n f i d e n c e needed t o a t t r a c t  p r i v a t e development. Tax c o n c e s s i o n s , g r a n t s and loans would be used  primarily  to d e v e l o p the towns p h y s i c a l l y t o be a b l e t o accommodate t h i s new growth.  Some o f these i n c e n t i v e s , however, c o u l d be used  i n i t i a l l y t o a t t r a c t l a r g e j o b - p r o d u c i n g developments.  High  s e r v i c i n g c o s t s and problems o f land a q u i s i t i o n would be e l i m i n a t e d through these c o n c e s s i o n s .  As more development was  a t t r a c t e d t o the towns, these c o n c e s s i o n s would be g r a d u a l l y removed so as t o reduce  the f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f the  p r o v i n c e and make these new i n d u s t r i e s The  "pay t h e i r way".  Edmonton area l i k e most m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n  Canada, has a housing  shortage.  As housing p r i c e s i n c r e a s e ,  fewer people a r e a b l e to a f f o r d the expense o f p u r c h a s i n g a home.  I n c r e a s i n g l y , l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f t h e new home p r i c e i s  made up o f the land component.  In order t o reduce  the land  117.  component c o s t , these towns would be developed  on  government  owned land which would be l e a s e d back t o the new r e s i d e n t s on n i n e t y - n i n e year l e a s e h o l d s .  T h i s would i n i t i a l l y mean  s u b s i d i z e d l a n d v a l u e s which again  would be reduced  as  development proceeded. The i n c r e a s e d i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l development i n these t h r e e communities would a l s o i n i t i a l l y s c a l e government involvement.  As the new  involve large  towns' development  proceeded, c l e a r l y t h i s program would have to be m o d i f i e d t o reduce r e l a t i v e r e g i o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i n the i n t e r e s t  of a  more balanced Edmonton area growth. The R e g i o n a l  Plan  The programs which have been developed communities would have major e f f e c t s Edmonton a r e a .  f o r these s i x  on the growth o f the  There a r e , however, numerous other areas which  w i l l have t o be managed i n l e s s s t r i n g e n t terms. t h i s i s the j o b o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n .  Clearly,  With i n c r e a s e d  development r e s t r i c t i o n s i n a number o f the communities, t h e r e would be the s t i m u l u s t o develop on what i s b a s i c a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l  lands o u t s i d e these land.  communities  To reduce the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i s type of development, the r e g i o n a l p l a n would implement an a g r i c u l t u r a l and c r i t i c a l areas  zoning  p o l i c y where no a g r i c u l t u r a l or e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c r i t i c a l could be developed  land  o u t s i d e of those communities so d e s i g n a t e d  by the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n growth management program.  Developments  118.  on o t h e r  l a n d s w o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d  SDTR w h i c h w o u l d  t h r o u g h t h e use o f t h e  be u s e d i n a i d o f t h e  decentralization  program. A development p o l i c y in  t h e a r e a would  desire  f o r the small  villages  be d e v e l o p e d u n d e r t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n .  o f these communities  consideration.  towns and  t o grow s h o u l d be  taken  into  The  CHAPTER V I I  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  1 2 0  .  The t o p i c o f urban growth management i s r e l a t i v e l y new.  T h i s t h e s i s has d i s c u s s e d i t from a number o f  perspectives.  T h i s chapter w i l l p r o v i d e a summary o f t h i s  work and o u t l i n e the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations  which  may be drawn from i t .  Summary  In r e s e a r c h i n g the growth management f i e l d ,  i t becomes  apparent t h a t t h e r e are numerous components t o the development-of attempted  a growth management program.  T h i s t h e s i s has  t o d e s c r i b e the reasons g i v e n f o r t h i s new concern  and the t e c h n i q u e s c u r r e n t l y i n use. used w i l l v a r y w i t h the l o c a t i o n . i n the development  C l e a r l y , the t e c h n i q u e s  I t i s therefore necessary,  o f a growth management program,, t o  determine the l e g a l i t y o f the v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t o be used. In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a r e a l world example o f the use o f a growth management program, the Edmonton a r e a o f A l b e r t a was s e l e c t e d as t h e s u b j e c t f o r the development In examining the new i n t e r e s t  o f such a program.  i n urban growth management.  i t became apparent t h a t t h r e e a r e a s o f concern were the major causes o f t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e : s o c i a l , economic and environmental.  The s o c i a l impact was l a r g e l y the r e s u l t o f  the r e s u l t o f the r a t e o f growth.  The l i t e r a t u r e  suggested  t h a t people were more concerned w i t h the q u a l i t y o f l i f e  than  the economic w e l l b e i n g . identity, cited.  F a c t o r s such as the l o s s of community  i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and crime r a t e s were  The  economic q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n e d arguments  developed  by some economists q u e s t i o n i n g the v a l u e of growth. housing  p r i c e s , demands on s e r v i c e s and  the economic v u l n e r a b i l i  o f h i g h growth c e n t r e s were among the f a c t o r s The  environmental  matters  impacts  and  considered.  i n t e r e s t s were c o n s i d e r e d :  o f i n c r e a s e d p o l l u t i o n , use of farmland  s e n s i t i v e areas f o r development and energy Finally,  Increased  and  ecologically  requirements.  the need f o r a h o l i s t i c approach to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of the growth of urban c e n t r e s , i n c l u d i n g these major areas of concern, was  alluded to.  A review o f the v a r i o u s growth management techniques provided.  In p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h i s review,  were d i v i d e d i n t o two  categories.  the  was  techniques  B a s i c a l l y , these c a t e g o r i e s  were what have been d e s c r i b e d i n the p a s t as " c a r r o t " " s t i c k " approaches to growth management.  and  Growth d e f l e c t i n g  t e c h n i q u e s , or the c a r r o t approach, are used t o enhance a l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n s , thus i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r growth.  The  second, the growth r e s t r i c t i o n s c a t e g o r y  s t i c k approach, i s comprised  of a number of techniques  or which  can be used to r e s t r i c t development i n v a r i o u s a r e a s , to slow it  down or to make such development v e r y c o s t l y .  a number of these techniques management program.  The  The  use  of  i n c o n c e r t y i e l d s a growth  use o f r e s t r i c t i o n s  i n some areas  and  122.  i n c e n t i v e s i n o t h e r s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r the management program. In d e c i d i n g what techniques w i l l be used, i t i s necessary to determine those which are l e g a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r use area i n q u e s t i o n .  The  i n the  use of the Edmonton area as an example  n e c e s s i t a t e d a review of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l and of the v a r i o u s management techniques considered. and  to be  In d o i n g t h i s , p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s were d i s c u s s e d  the growth management techniques enabled  by the S u b d i v i s i o n  and T r a n s f e r R e g u l a t i o n s of A l b e r t a were d e t a i l e d i n e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s p r o c e s s .  Other e n a b l i n g s t a t u t e s c i t e d  in this  s e c t i o n would a l s o need t o be s t u d i e d i n t h i s manner to determine the l e g a l v a l i d i t y of o t h e r management t e c h n i q u e s . In order to p r o v i d e a " r e a l world" example of the development o f a growth management program, the Edmonton area o f A l b e r t a was  described.  government and  the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l government were  presented.  The  p o l i c i e s of the F e d e r a l  Then the p o l i c i e s and  first  f e e l i n g s of the member  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were d e s c r i b e d as found  i n the T e c h n i c a l Papers  o f the Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission's Growth S t u d i e s Section.  T h i s source was  a l s o used to d e t a i l the p u b l i c concerns  as they r e l a t e d to growth i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities. F i n a l l y , the p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth o f the v a r i o u s communities was and  concerns  and  described.  Having c o n s i d e r e d these  policies  examined c u r r e n t growth p a t t e r n s of the  123.  Edmonton area, a p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z e d growth was suggested. F o l l o w i n g from the d e c i s i o n to d e c e n t r a l i z e growth, the  a l t e r n a t e communities were c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e i r  p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth. the  A tremendous imbalance i n  p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth i n  make up the Edmonton area  respective  was noted.  the communities which To c o r r e c t  this  imbalance, s i x o f the communities were s e l e c t e d to be the f o c i of  a growth management program.  was then developed. to  The growth management program  In g e n e r a l terms, t h i s program attempted  reduce the C i t y of Edmonton's economic growth and m a i n t a i n  i t s p o p u l a t i o n growth, t o g r e a t l y decrease Sherwood Park's p o p u l a t i o n growth and m a i n t a i n i t s economic growth and to decrease S t . A l b e r t ' s p o p u l a t i o n growth w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g i t s economic growth.  In a d d i t i o n , the program attempted t o g r e a t l y  i n c r e a s e both the p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth o f the towns of  F o r t Saskatchesan, Leduc and Spruce Grove.  I t was  emphasized t h a t these s t r a t e g i e s apply t o p r e s e n t growth p a t t e r n s o n l y and would r e q u i r e c o n s t a n t m o n i t o r i n g and adjustment as time and developments warrant.  Conclusions  A number o f requirements f o r the development o f a s u c c e s s f u l growth management program have become c l e a r . w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d .  These  An urban management program based on one m u n i c i p a l i t y i s v i r t u a l l y doomed t o f a i l u r e .  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t i t  would not work f o r the area i n s i d e such a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s b o u n d a r i e s , but t h a t such a program w i l l o n l y f o r c e development to l o c a t e o u t s i d e t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t y . i s urban sprawl.  One o f the l i k e l y  results  Thus, an e f f i c i e n t management program should  be developed i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t .  The p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h i s  i s the agreement o f the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government on what type o f program and f u r t h e r , what t e c h n i q u e s , need be used.  C l e a r l y , any d i v e r g a n c e o f o p i n i o n  on the p a r t o f any o f these l e v e l s o f government w i l l  seriously  j e o p o r a d i z e the e n t i r e management program. Secondly, i n the development o f a program, numerous management techniques are r e q u i r e d .  No one o f the techniques  d e s c r i b e d would work by i t s e l f t o c r e a t e an e f f e c t i v e program. poor.  managment  Where t h i s has been attempted, the r e s u l t s have been  The program i t s e l f  should be made up o f t e c h n i q u e s which  can be monitored and changed w i t h time and which do not " l o c k themselves i n " so t h a t they cannot be removed.  In s h o r t , the  management program should e v o l v e so t h a t i t can adapt t o new s i t u a t i o n s as they a r i s e . a dynamic  I t should not be a b l u e p r i n t , but  tactic.  F i n a l l y , the growth management program d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s has been developed f o r a s p e c i f i c area and i s repsondent to s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and circumstances found i n t h a t area.  125.  T h i s being the case, the program developed i s not t r a n s f e r a b l e . However, due to s i m i l a r l e g a l c a p a b i l i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e s o f Canada, the method of development f o r the program and the t e c h n i q u e s used may  p o s s i b l y be a p p l i e d i n o t h e r  C l e a r l y , t o determine t h i s ,  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be r e q u i r e d  both f o r the l e g a l c a p a b i l i t i e s and the community this  locations.  data used i n  project. T h i s t h e s i s does not attempt t o determine the v a l i d i t y  of growth management but merely d e s c r i b e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which should be a p p r a i s e d and the means t o develop such a program. The d e c i s i o n whether or not t o use the v a r i o u s techniques and thus, the o v e r a l l program, must be made by p o l i t i c i a n s based on the wants and needs of the g e n e r a l populace.  Recommendations  T h i s t h e s i s has c o n s i d e r e d the Edmonton area o f A l b e r t a as the b a s i s f o r i t s development o f a growth management program. The Edmonton a r e a i s one o f h i g h economic growth.  The  o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f such an a r e a are a t t r a c t i v e t o many p e o p l e and developments.  I t has been suggested however,  t h a t growth  management programs r e q u i r e d i n areas which do not have h i g h economic growth but are a t t r a c t i v e simply f o r t h e i r a m e n i t i e s may  be v e r y d i f f e r e n t .  w i t h the q u a l i t y of l i f e  physical  As people become more concerned  as opposed t o simply the economic  126.  well-being,  the  growth of  very d i f f i c u l t  t o manage.  merits  research.  further  high  n a t u r a l a m e n i t y a r e a s may  This topic  i s one  which  be  clearly  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l b e r t a Progressive Conservative Party. 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