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The National Sites and Services Project in Tanzania : a case study Remtulla, Zubeida H. 1976

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THE NATIONAL SITES AND SERVICES PROJECT IN TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY  by  ZUBEIDA H. REMTULLA B.Arch., University of Nairobi, 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  In  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  of  It  by  shall  requirements  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that copying  not  or  for  that  study. thesis  t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  f i n a n c i a l gain  the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  for  fulfilment of  freely available  that permission  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  Cft of  «VA\j rV i T f  British  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  T  Columbia  Pr-r\fD  J t E d E l ^ b l a rJ R->-  P^HVr\/  - iii -  ABSTRACT  Due  to the high fate of urban population  growth i n Tanzania, there  i s an inadequate supply of housing, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r low-income groups, which has caused a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of squatter settlements i n the urban areas.  The Tanzanian Government i s t r y i n g to improve the q u a l i t y and  quantity of the housing supply f o r low-income urban groups.  In 1973,  the planning of the National Sites and Services Project, j o i n t l y  financed  by the International Development Association (IDA) and the Tanzania Government, was undertaken i n three urban centres  i n Tanzania:  Dar es  Salaam, Mwanza and Mbeya. This study of the National Sites and Services Project i n Tanzania examines the d i f f e r e n t stages of the project cycle normally pursued by the IDA for planning various development projects. objectives of t h i s study are:  The d i s t i n c t i v e  to i d e n t i f y various problem areas that  require attention when planning  future s i t e s and services projects i n  Tanzania; and to provide guidelines on IDA project cycle which would be useful f o r the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development when planning  IDA projects.  This information  (Ardhi)  could be p a r t i c u l a r l y  useful f o r other s i t e s and services projects, e s p e c i a l l y since i t i s hoped that the IDA would continue to play an active r o l e i n supporting s i t e s and services projects i n Tanzania. The  IDA project cycle i s composed of f i v e stages:  identification,  - iv -  preparation, appraisal, negotiation and supervision.  Since the National  Sites and Services' Project had e f f e c t i v e l y completed only the f i r s t  three  stages of this cycle when this study was undertaken i n A p r i l 1974, analysis of the negotiation and supervision stages i s not included i n the study. Before analyzing these three stages of the project cycle, the f i r s t chapter of the study examines some general aspects of foreign a i d projects i n developing  countries.  I t points out various motives behind a i d  giving and examines some problems that the r e c i p i e n t s and the donors face i n the course of undertaking  aided p r o j e c t s .  The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n used f o r t h i s study was that of p a r t i c i pant observer.  The author spent about s i x months i n the Sites and  Services Section of Ardhi i n Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, during which time contact was established with various o f f i c i a l s i n the Tanzania Government involved i n the Project.  P r i o r to this six-month observation  period, the author v i s i t e d the World Bank headquarters i n Washington, D.C., to interview various IDA o f f i c i a l s involved i n the p r o j e c t . Contact was also made with IDA o f f i c i a l s involved i n the Project who v i s i t e d Tanzania on project missions during the observation period. This study concludes that though the project was operating s a t i s f a c t o r i l y during i t s planning stages, the success of the project depends largely on the implementation stage of the Project.  The l a s t  chapter of the study focusses on the various operational and  institutional  problems f a c i n g the Project and attempts to o u t l i n e the possible steps that could be taken to overcome these problems.  These recommendations  are developed through the author's subjective reactions as a p a r t i c i p a n t observer.  - vi -  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  vi  LIST OF TABLES  ix  Chapter 1.  SOME GENERAL ASPECTS OF FOREIGN AID  Introduction Concept of Aid Motives for Aid-Giving 1.3.1 Economic Motives Behind Aid 1.3.2 P o l i t i c a l and Strategic Interest . i n Aid-Giving 1.3.3 Aid to Ex-Colonies 1.4 The Effectiveness of Aid Programmes 1.4.1 Effectiveness of Manpower Development Programmes 1.4.2 Effectiveness of Projects 1.5 Summary Chapter 2. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL SITES AND SERVICES PROJECT IN TANZANIA  1  1.1 1.2 1.3  2.1 2.2 2.3  Introduction: Squatter Settlements Squatter Settlements i n Tanzania Housing Problems i n Tanzania  Chapter 3. 3.1 3.2  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Project by the Tanzanian Government I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Project by the International Development Association (IDA)  Chapter 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3  IDENTIFICATION OF THE NATIONAL SITES AND SERVICES PROJECT IN TANZANIA  PREPARATION OF THE PROJECT  The Selection of Urban Centres Selection of the Project Sites i n the Urban Centres Content of the Project at the Preparation Stage  1 3 7 8 11 13 14 16 17 19 21 21 22 25  2  8  2  8  32 38 38 40 ^  2  - vii-  PAGE .:4v4.  IDA Project Preparation Mission 4.4.1 Selection of the Target Population 4.4.2 Squatter Improvement Schemes 4.4.3 Design Standards 4.4.4 Demand f o r the Project Interaction Between Various Authorities Involved i n the Project Preparation  4.5  Chapter 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 ,  43 43 45 45 48 49  APPRAISAL OF THE PROJECT  56  Project Financing and Organization Changes i n the Content of the Project Design Standards Plot Charges Appraisal of the Project Implementation ... „ Procedures ....'.„ \  Chapter 6. 6.1  6.2  6.3  66  THE EARLY STAGES OF THE PROJECT: ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Manpower and Administrative Capacity 6.1.1 Manpower Problems 6.1.2 Work D i s c i p l i n e 6.1.3 Loan Recovery Procedures Selection and Design Aspects of the Project 6.2.1 Selection of Urban Centres 6.2.2 Selection of Project Sites 6.2.3 Dwelling Units Socio-Economic Data  Chapter 7.  56 60 63 64  CONCLUSION  69 '  69 70 72 75 78 78 80 82 85 87  FOOTNOTES  91  LIST OF REFERENCES  96  APPENDIX 1 - L i s t of Abbreviations  98  APPENDIX 2 - Short Notes on Tanzania  99  APPENDIX 3.1 - Map of A f r i c a  108  APPENDIX 3.2 - Map of Tanzania  109  APPENDIX 3.3 - Dar es Salaam Land Use 1973  110  - viii PAGE APPENDIX 4 - A Summary of M i n i s t e r i a l Records  111  APPENDIX 5 - National Planning i n Tanzania (charts) 5.1 Steps i n the National Planning Cycle  122  5.2  Central Government and Control Relationships  123  APPENDIX 6 - The Tanzania Housing Bank  124  APPENDIX 7 - The World Bank  125  APPENDIX 8 - Preinvestment Program Study Data Sheet  127  APPENDIX 9 - Estimates of Household Income D i s t r i b u t i o n  130  APPENDIX 10 - Ardhi Structure 10.1 Ardhi Structure P r i o r to 1973 10.2 Ardhi Present Structure  131 132  10.3  Department of Urban Development Structure  133  APPENDIX 11 - Structure of the Regional Administration  134  APPENDIX 12 - Structure of the D i s t r i c t Administration  135  APPENDIX 13 - L i s t of Interview Participants  136  APPENDIX 14 - Photographs of Manzese Squatter Area  138  - ix -  LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 1.  Rate of Population Growth i n Tanzania Between 1971-1972  24  Table 2.  Estimated Housing Demand i n Urban Areas, 1970-74  35  Table 3.  Estimated Average Annual Housing Demand i n Urban Areas by Income Group  36  Table 4.  Proportions of Project Costs (1000 Tanzanian S h i l l i n g s ) Shared Between IDA and Tanzania  57  - 1-  Chapter 1. 1.1  SOME GENERAL ASPECTS OF FOREIGN AID  Introduction The extensive scholarly attention given to foreign aid i s understand-  able due to the continuing crises which characterize the contemporary aid scene.  The most depressing expression of the t o t a l developmental c r i s i s  i s the gap between the standards of l i v i n g of the r e l a t i v e l y r i c h onet h i r d and the r e l a t i v e l y poor two-thirds of the world.  The gap between  these two groups i s widening so rapidly that talk of f i l l i n g i t would be Utopian.  This widening gap between these two groups and the inherent  consequences (such as s o c i a l tensions between the r a c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l groups i n the world) r e s u l t s i n such disorders as coups, revolutions, c i v i l wars, assassinations, terrorism, etc., and represents not so much of an obstacle to be overcome as an explosion to be contained. It i s i r o n i c that an equally depressing expression of the developmental c r i s i s i s the set of world i n s t i t u t i o n s set up primarily to resolve the problem.  There i s a general consensus among many national leaders and  scholars that many developmental programmes i n the developing countries are f a i l u r e s .  Therefore, attempts are now being made to discover the  weaknesses that have made developmental planning an i n e f f e c t i v e exercise. In many cases, the developing countries of today are newly independent self-governing states, lacking the p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and c u l t u r a l homogeneity of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d nations. African perspective.)  (This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the  - 2 -  The p o v e r t y o f these c o u n t r i e s r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l backwardness i n the i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s and a g e n e r a l p a u c i t y o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l and human c a p i t a l as w e l l as t h e m a t e r i a l means o f p r o d u c t i o n .  The development o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s w i l l be a  r e l a t i v e l y slow and p a i n f u l p r o c e s s o f ' l e a r n i n g by d o i n g ' , even w i t h monetary and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e developed  countries.  countries a r e faced w i t h the m u l t i p l e tasks o f accumulating skilled  The poor  infrastructure,  l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l c a p i t a l and i n d u s t r i a l know-how, o f t e n w h i l e  t r y i n g to achieve p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y ,  n a t i o n a l u n i t y , s o c i e t a l moderniza-  tion, etc. F u r t h e r m o r e , most o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ( t h e s a t e l l i t e s ) o f today were p r e v i o u s l y c o l o n i e s o f t h e e x i s t i n g developed m e t r o p o l i t a n powers).  T h e r e f o r e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s underdevelopment i s  to a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o d u c t o f the relationship masters.  countries (the  satellite-metropolis  between t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s and t h e i r former  colonial  The economies o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have been o r i e n t e d  towards p r o v i d i n g raw m a t e r i a l s t o f e e d t h e i n d u s t r i a l development o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r i e s ; as a r e s u l t , t h e d o m e s t i c needs o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s have been n e g l e c t e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t .  The major t a s k t h a t f a c e s t h e  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s o f today i s t o b r e a k away f r o m t h i s h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f 'dependency' on t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n powers and t o u t i l i z e investment  potential  t o modernize and develop  t h e i r own societies."'"  their  - 3 -  1.2  Concept o f A i d The word  War,  ' a i d ' became p o p u l a r i z e d i n America a f t e r the Second World  when the v a s t U n i t e d S t a t e s ' programmes o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n became  known as a i d , and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o Europe as M a r s h a l l A i d . M a r s h a l l A i d was  a post-war measure  European economies.  t o r e s t r u c t u r e and r e b u i l d the  The concept o f a i d today i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  from t h a t of M a r s h a l l A i d .  Though M a r s h a l l A i d was  different  developmental i n  n a t u r e , the problem o f economic r e c o v e r y i n Europe was  a different  problem than promoting economic development i n the T h i r d World  countries 2  o f today.  The European c o u n t r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d as n a t i o n - s t a t e s ,  c u l t u r a l l y mature and e c o n o m i c a l l y advanced; they needed o n l y an i n t e n s i v e but b r i e f i n j e c t i o n o f c a p i t a l t o r e s t o r e t h e i r economies and s e t them back on the path o f ' s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g growth'. There a r e t h r e e main purposes f o r which the d e v e l o p i n g  countries  seek a i d : a.  A i d i s needed to b r i d g e the gap between the amount of f o r e i g n  exchange the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r e c e i v e from f o r e i g n t r a d e and p r i v a t e investment and the amount they need to purchase import  goods  ( e s p e c i a l l y c a p i t a l goods) and to pay t h e i r f o r e i g n d e b t s . b.  A i d i s needed to f i l l  the gaps i n the n a t i o n a l economic and  s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed f o r development u n t i l these systems work w e l l enough  to be managed by the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s themselves.  A i d f o r t h i s purpose i n c l u d e s the e x p a n s i o n o f p u b l i c goods and  -  4  -  services such as power, transportation, communications, technical and professional education, etc.  a g r i c u l t u r a l services, marketing f a c i l i t i e s ,  But u n t i l these services are developed to a c e r t a i n l e v e l , i t  would be d i f f i c u l t to u t i l i z e the country's l i m i t e d c a p i t a l  resources  productively. c.  A i d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the form of technical assistance, i s needed  to help strengthen  the administrative, technical and managerial  cadres of the developing  countries.  Technical assistance a i d  programmes include the provision of s k i l l e d personnel from the donor countries (those providing the aid) to work on projects i n the recipient countries (those receiving the a i d ) , e.g. the t r a i n i n g of foreign students, Peace Corps projects, etc.  This type of a i d  improves the capacity of the country to plan and coordinate d i f f e r e n t features of economic and s o c i a l development with their own  personnel.  There are two p r i n c i p a l sources through which a i d i s made available to developing  countries:  b i l a t e r a l agreements and m u l t i l a t e r a l agreements.  Agreements whereby a donor country transfers a i d resources recipient country i s known as b i l a t e r a l aid.  d i r e c t l y to a  Aid received by a r e c i p i e n t  country from an international agency, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, etc., i s known as m u l t i l a t e r a l a i d . agencies acquire the resources  These i n t e r n a t i o n a l  f o r giving a i d through contributions from  their member countries which include both the r i c h and the poor countries. There can also be certain instances  where there i s a mix of both b i l a t e r a l  - 5-  and m u l t i l a t e r a l a i d . Aid from either of these sources can be c l a s s i f i e d i n several ways. One of the most basic d i s t i n c t i o n s i s aid i n the form of a grant or a loan.  Aid i n the form of grants can be defined as "a u n i l a t e r a l transfer  (of resources) to the recipient country, with no obligation to repay the amount and no charges for the use of funds i n the form of interest payments" (Hawkins, 1970, p. 30). Aid, i f offered on terms other than on grant basis, i s as a loan. There are several important features involved when loans are negotiated. One i s the period for which the loan i s made, known as the amortization . period. lent.  A second feature i s the interest rate charged on the c a p i t a l sum A t h i r d feature i s the grace period, which i s the number of years  before the repayment of loans begins.  Perhaps the most important feature  i s whether the loan i s to be repaid i n the currency of the donor or the recipient country.  If i t i s to be paid back i n the recipient  country's  currency, runaway i n f l a t i o n common to many developing countries may completely wipe out the loan. Various combinations  of these three features enable loan terms to be  c l a s s i f i e d as 'hard' or 'soft'.  Hard loans are characterized by higher  interest rates, shorter maturity periods and n e g l i g i b l e grace periods. For example, a major part of USSR economic aid to developing countries i s offered on hard terms with an amortization period of eight to ten years, an interest rate of 4% and a grace period of one year a f t e r completion of  - 6-  the project (Resources f o r the Developing World, 1970, p. 303). Soft loans are offered on less stringent terms whereby a l l or most of the contractual conditions described above are relaxed; soft loans are more favourable to the recipient countries than hard loans.  For example, the  International Development Association (IDA) offers soft loans to the poorest nations which include a f i v e to ten year grace period, a f i f t y year amortization period, and 3/4 of 1% interest on the sum l e n t . Aid, whether i n the form of grants or loans, can be made available to a country i n two ways:  project a i d or programme a i d .  A i d given to  finance a p a r t i c u l a r project i n the recipient country i s known as project aid.  In the case of programme a i d , the resources made available to the  recipient country are not designated to any p a r t i c u l a r item of expenditure, but are given to support a set of developmental p o l i c i e s designed to achieve specified goals over a period of time.  Thus programme a i d i s  often given to support a developmental programme i n a p a r t i c u l a r economic sector of the recipient country.  While combinations of both these forms  are possible, the bulk of developmental assistance takes the form of project a i d . Aid may also be c l a s s i f i e d as " t i e d " or "untied".  Apart from aid  that may be t i e d by end use (via projects or programmes), a i d can also be t i e d by source.  This means that the a i d resources made available to  recipient countries can be t i e d to the procurement of goods from the donor countries.  There has been a general trend towards 'source tying' of a i d  - 7-  in the l a s t decade.  About two-thirds of a l l b i l a t e r a l aid to developing  countries has been t i e d either i n the form of commodites provided or i n agreements that a i d funds are to be spent on goods from the donor countries (Foreign Aid P o l i c i e s Reconsidered, p. 93, 1966). One of the main reasons why donor countries are interested i n tying aid by source i s that aid made available i n this manner increases exports and employment of the donor country.  One important lobby group i n the  donor countries which supports developmental assistance i s the domestic industries hoping to p r o f i t from export contracts under such terms of ' assistance.  Further, by tying aid to source, donor countries can minimize  the charge which their a i d programmes make on their foreign exchange reserves (Healey, 1971, p. 74). However, a i d tied to source would i n p r i n c i p l e be less preferable to the recipient countries than untied a i d .  To the recipient countries,  tying of aid may mean that goods are bought at higher prices, or goods of lower quality are purchased.  Untied aid leaves the recipients to use  aid resources to procure goods and services from any international source at the most competitive prices.  1.3  Motives for Aid-Giving It i s d i f f i c u l t to pin down what the donor countries' motives are i n  giving a i d .  Theoretically, one would l i k e to think that the only motives  needed are humanitarian, a r i s i n g from the perception of the wide d i s p a r i t y between the economic levels within the international community.  In r e a l i t y ,  - 8 -  aid flows often cannot be divorced from less a l t r u i s t i c national policy interests of the donor countries, such as b e n e f i c i a l trade r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s t r a t e g i c and p o l i t i c a l motives, and maintaining the t i e s with ex-colonies. For many (perhaps most) donor countries the economic and  political  advantages gained from giving aid are probably more important motives for an aid programme than any humanitarian or a l t r u i s t i c considerations. 1.3.1  Economic Motives Behind Aid.  A simple question to ask i n the  context of these motives i s whether the donors' economies as a whole are l i k e l y to benefit from giving a i d .  Most a i d programmes are run with some  expectations of economic advantages accruing to the donor countries. This motivation i s most apparent i n the expectation that the progress of these poor countries w i l l add to the growth of the world economy i n general, as well as the economic growth of the donor country through an relationship with the recipient country.  improved  For example, economic advantages  accruing to the donor countries from a i d may be r e a l i z e d through better trading positions with the developing countries i n the world market.  As  Fatouros and Nelson state: To maintain their present standards, the developed countries must continue to expand. But the volume, of international trade among developed countries i s much higher than that of the trade between developed and underdeveloped countries or among underdeveloped countries alone. The greater the number of developed economies, therefore, the more the value of international trade and the better the opportunities for expansion for any one country. In the long run then, the development of the economies (and the markets) of the now less developed areas w i l l assure continuing expansion of the now developed areas. (Fatouros and Nelson, 1964, p. 8). In c e r t a i n cases, a donor country's economic relationship with the  - 9 -  recipient country through aid i s not only economically more b e n e f i c i a l to the donor than i t i s to the r e c i p i e n t , but also, as Gunder Frank points out, this aid relationship tends to promote a greater dependency of the recipient's economy on the donor country. contributes to the hindrance  As a r e s u l t , this r e l a t i o n s h i p  of the economic development of the recipient  country. Frank's discussion (1969, pp. 149-161) on American aid to B r a z i l between 1949  and 1962  i l l u s t r a t e s this point.  F i r s t , this aid was  to the procurement of goods from the United States.  tied  This t i e d aid was  part of a programme to develop foreign markets for surplus American goods and could further contribute towards the u t i l i z a t i o n of excess capacity in the export industry i n the United States. was  forced to import  Under this t i e d aid, B r a z i l  'essential' raw materials and  from the United States.  Importing  'basic' foodstuffs  equipment and technology would have  assisted B r a z i l i n developing i t s excellent a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l and eventually i n becoming independent of such imports. Second, United States c a p i t a l i n B r a z i l was i n Sao  not only  concentrated  Paulo, .. to the prejudice of other regions, but i t was  mainly  invested i n the processing and export-oriented i n d u s t r i e s , i . e . meat, products, manufacturing goods, iron ore, etc.  The United States  rationale for investing i n such export-oriented industries was  that  B r a z i l seriously lacked export earning products and American investment i n these sectors was  supposed to help B r a z i l overcome this problem.  But  -10-  i n r e a l i t y B r a z i l ' s need at that time was not to concentrate on the export-oriented economy but to invest resources for the promotion of regional and sectoral economic integration and to develop additional basic industries to serve domestic needs. In l i g h t of these two basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of American aid to B r a z i l between 1948 and 1962, Frank suggests that this aid f a i l e d to generate any substantial economic benefits to B r a z i l ; the outflow of c a p i t a l from B r a z i l to the United States was  greater than the flow of  United States c a p i t a l into B r a z i l during that period.  In addition,  American investment i n B r a z i l increased B r a z i l ' s dependence on the United States and consquently hindered B r a z i l ' s economic growth. Having reviewed this American-Brazilian aid r e l a t i o n s h i p , Frank ventured to answer why  B r a z i l seeks American aid under circumstances  that are damaging to i t s own economic growth.  Apart from the fact that  t h i s relationship does p r o f i t a c e r t a i n group of B r a z i l i a n s who have the economic and p o l i t i c a l power to maintain t h i s relationship, B r a z i l finds i t s e l f forced to continue this relationship since breaking away from i t would Involve high costs i n the short run.  This means that B r a z i l would  f a i l to receive funds to refinance the already-existing debt, and that the cut i n imports from the United States would create short run problems since these very imports have prevented the investment i n sectors that would obviate these imports.  As Frank puts i t :  and other countries f i n d themselves  "In other words, B r a z i l  i n a debt-slavery relationship . . .  i n which the very exploitation appears to make i t s own  continuance  - 11 -  necessary."  (Frank, 1969,  p.  189).  However, i t would be erroneous to assume that a l l donor countries have as s t r i c t economic motives i n their aid relationships with the recipient countries as the United States-Brazil case seems to suggest. Though most donor countries design t h e i r aid programmes i n a manner that would generate economic benefit for their own these expectations  countries, the degree of  varies from donor to donor.  the bulk of Swedish b i l a t e r a l aid to developing  For example, u n t i l countries was  i n the form  of project a i d , untied to procurement of goods from Sweden (Ohlin, p. 212).  1974,  1970,  However, a small part of Swedish b i l a t e r a l aid i n 1975 w i l l be 3  t i e d to procurement of goods from Sweden.  This new  trend i n aid p o l i c y  i s to a large extent a response to the Swedish public opinion on a i d . public has been questioning the increase i n Swedish aid to  The  developing  countries i n r e l a t i o n to the economic benefits which accrue to Sweden through these programmes. In general, a major part of t o t a l aid to developing  countries i s  transferred b i l a t e r a l l y and v i r t u a l l y a l l b i l a t e r a l aid i s t i e d to the donor's national export (Robinson, 1966,  p. 29).  Therefore,  i t seems ;that a  donor prefers to give aid on a b i l a t e r a l instead of a m u l t i l a t e r a l basis to ensure that the commercial benefits of assistance come back to the country instead of to some other 1.3.2  nations.  P o l i t i c a l and Strategic Interest i n Aid-Giving.  The giving  of s t r a t e g i c a i d , generally i n the form of m i l i t a r y assistance, implies  - 12 -  that the donor i s interested i n providing the recipient country with a more powerful m i l i t a r y establishment than i t could otherwise afford.  In the  1950's, the Soviet threat was viewed by the United States as world-wide i n scope but greatest at the periphery of the Soviet 'empire' and Mainland China.  Each weak country i n the v i c i n i t y of the Soviet 'empire', i t was  argued, must be aided economically and m i l i t a r i l y , "because the f a l l of that country would make i t easier f o r communism to triumph somewhere else, and each subsequent country would be more costly f o r the West to defend" (Wolf, 1963, pp. 623-635).  The s t r a t e g i c motivation of the U.S. i n giving  aid i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the large proportion of t o t a l U.S. foreign a i d c l a s s i f i e d as 'military a i d ' .  Of the t o t a l U.S. foreign a i d given i n  1957, over one-half was i n the form of m i l i t a r y a i d (Friedman, 1970, p. 64). Donor countries, through the giving of a i d , can extend 'a hand of friendship' to developing countries which are of strategic and economic importance  to the donor countries.  In order to maintain t h i s friendship,  a donor country may not only give assistance to the recipient country i n f i g h t i n g mutually unfavourable external aggression, but may also give aid to subdue l o c a l opposition i n the recipient country that would otherwise jeopardize the donor's position i n t h i s country.  Therefore, a i d i s  given to make sure that the p o l i t i c a l climate i n the recipient country i s such that the donor's strategic and economic interests are well looked after.  The donor supports certain segments of the population i n the  recipient country that hopefully maintain this favourable strategic and p o l i t i c a l situation.  This may vary from country to country, but w i l l  - 13 -  generally include some subset of the upper class, the middle class, the businessmen, the landowners and the m i l i t a r y . 1.3.3  Aid to Ex-Colonies.  H i s t o r i c a l association and strong c u l t u r a l  l i n k s are obviously important i n motivations behind some of the a i d programmes.  Thus much of the a i d of B r i t a i n , France, Belgium and others  goes to countries whose leaders were educated i n the same u n i v e r s i t i e s as the leaders of the metropolitan country and who bring similar ideas and i n s t i t u t i o n s back to their own countries.  Assistance to the ex-colonies  i n these circumstances i s just one strand i n a web of relationships between the metropolitan powers and their ex-colonies. For example, France's policy towards her former colonies has been dominated by the concept of interdependence.  The plan for the economic  and s o c i a l development of the French Union was designed to ensure harmonious development of the ex-colonial empire. trading system.  whole, not the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y of the parts of her  Interdependence i s assisted by a highly p r o t e c t i o n i s t  Trade between France and her ex-colonies was enhanced  by extensive trade preferences, s t a b i l i z a t i o n funds for a g r i c u l t u r a l exports of the African countries, and guaranteed minimum p r i c e s i n the French market of c e r t a i n commodites.  Although these trade advantages are  to a certain extent o f f s e t by the obligations of some African countries to import French manufactured goods at r e l a t i v e l y higher prices, there has been a net transfer of French resources to A f r i c a (Streeton, 1972, p. 6).  - 14 -  1.4  The Effectiveness of Aid Programmes Recent l i t e r a t u r e on aid has emphasized the mixed feelings of the  donors and the recipients about the effectiveness of foreign aid i n the developmental e f f o r t s of the developing  countries.  Most of the pessimism  about aid programmes i s based on the r e j e c t i o n of the notion that Third World countries of today must necessarily proceed along the l i n e s of development that brought about prosperity to the Western World i n the past.  A kind of 'ethnocentrism' has led a majority of the developmental  theorists to base their ideas and proposed systems for development i n the poorer countries on the concepts of economic development i n the Western World.  The donors have tended to overlook the human beings who inhabit  these regions, with t r a d i t i o n a l cultures f a r removed and distant from those of the Western World. The people i n the emerging countries have deeply inbred habits of behaviour as well as s o c i a l and economic patterns unrelated to, probably 4 antagonistic to, and often detrimental to many developmental e f f o r t s . It had been thought that by i n j e c t i n g c a p i t a l and technological  innovations  i t would be possible to change the t r a d i t i o n a l values of the s o c i e t i e s i n the developing  countries.  There have been cases where e f f o r t s i n technical  'improvement' have had disastrous e f f e c t s on these s o c i e t i e s because the programmes overlooked the i n t r i n s i c nature of the s o c i e t i e s involved. The example of the Y i r Yoronto t r i b e i n A u s t r a l i a could be quoted to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s .  These p r i m i t i v e people had one single f o o l , a stone  - 15 -  axe.  There was no stone i n their t e r r i t o r y , so the obtaining of the axe  head necessitated an annual pilgrimage of hundreds of miles by the strongest and boldest men of the t r i b e . with another distant t r i b e .  These men obtained the axe heads by trading The axe heads were consequently  regarded  with  veneration, and i n each family the axe was jealously guarded by the family head.  A group of missionaries decided to help the Y i r Yoronto tribe by  supplying them with.steel axes, which they made available to those (including women) possessing the v i r t u e s approved by the C h r i s t i a n missionaries, which were very d i f f e r e n t from those previously recognized by the t r i b e .  The result was a complete break-down i n the respect for the  authority of the tribe and i n i t s physical health and capacity for s u r v i v a l (Spicer, 1952).  (In c i t i n g this example the author does not wish to  assert that the success or f a i l u r e of innovation and new ideas i n developing countries i s always d i r e c t l y related to t r a d i t i o n a l values, but to suggest that such relationships should be taken into account.) In general, i t i s necessary  for the donor countries to make a big  e f f o r t to conquer their i n s u l a r i t y and to r e a l i z e that customs and conditions i n the developing countries may be very d i f f e r e n t from those to which they are accustomed; methods and practices that work well i n t h e i r own countries may have f a t a l consequences elsewhere.  I t i s clear that  f a t a l mistakes are being made through a i d programmes.  This i s because the  donor countries have assumed that there i s only one route to development - the one v i a which they themselves grew and prospered.  In their naivete,  - 16 -  they have overlooked the need for adequate knowledge about the l o c a l conditions where aid programmes have been 1.4.1  conducted.  Effectiveness of Manpower Development Programmes.  Not a l l aid  programmes have the same goals or objectives. Any attempt to measure the effectivenss of aid programmes i n general must look at some s p e c i f i c examples used to evaluate developmental  efforst.  Since i t i s the aim of  most developing countries to be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n s k i l l e d manpower, one of the c r i t e r i a used both by the donors and the recipients to measure the effectiveness of foreign aid projects i s the rate at which projects can become f u l l y staffed with l o c a l manpower. time i t takes to man  developmental  The shorter the  the project with l o c a l personnel the more e f f e c t i v e  the project i s regarded to be.  However, since there i s an acute  shortage  of s k i l l e d manpower i n developing countries, this i s regarded as one of the main problems with the effectiveness of aided projects i n developing countries. Much of the problem of the s c a r c i t y of s k i l l e d manpower i n developing countries i s based on the fact that the wrong mix of manpower i s being produced by the educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the developing countries.  For  example, there are more people being trained i n t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s , such as law, education and other s o c i a l sciences, than there are people being trained i n the appropriate technical d i s c i p l i n e s which are most required f o r developmental  projects.  The s c a r c i t y of s k i l l e d technical  manpower i n developing countries not only makes i t necessary f o r these  - 17 -  countries to seek the services of foreign experts i n the required technical f i e l d s , but i t also creates the problem of providing these foreign experts with l o c a l counterparts  who could eventually take over from them.  Most  donor agencies supply their projects i n recipient countries with the required technical manpower, and supplement these with educational t i e s to t r a i n the l o c a l manpower f o r the projects. few years before l o c a l counterparts  facili-  However, i t takes a  are available and many donor countries,  e s p e c i a l l y small countries such as Sweden and Norway, f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to r e c r u i t their own q u a l i f i e d technical personnel for various long-term projects i n developing countries  (Ohlin, 1970, p. 212).  Among many other manpower problems which create problems with the effectiveness of a i d projects i n developing countries i s the organization of manpower.  The lack of manpower organization i n developing countries  often r e s u l t s i n wasting the scarce human resources of these countries. For example, many university graduates i n developing countries are often given positions i n government agencies which lack job descriptions.  Thus,  these graduates f i n d themselves i n the f r u s t r a t i n g p o s i t i o n of not knowing what they are supposed to do on the job. 1.4.2  Effectiveness of Projects.  In addition to manpower develop-  ment, the effectiveness of aid programmes i n developing countries has also been questioned i n terms of the kindsof projects which are supported by the donors. according  Foreign aid projects often concentrate on sectors which,  to the donor agencies, are 'productive'.  The whole sphere of  - 18 -  s o c i a l goals and s o c i a l development of the people i n the countries was  considered  'unproductive' u n t i l recently.  developing This i s because  the necessary preconditions related to the economic p r o f i t a b i l i t y of undertaking a project are used as the main yardsticks for measuring the v i a b i l i t y of foreign aid projects i n developing  countries.  Moreover, the  intangible benefits that accrue to the countries from projects that concentrate on developing  the s o c i a l well-being of the people (e.g. housing,  health, f a c i l i t i e s , etc.) cannot be quantified i n terms of monetary values. The c r u c i a l point, however, i s that without attending to the problems of the s o c i a l well-being of the people i n the developing  countries, economic  d i f f i c u l t i e s (lack of savings, low productivity of labour, etc.) which hinder development cannot be overcome. that housing a i d to developing  Homer Hoyt (1963, p. 17) proposes  countries should not be considered  as an  independent matter, but as an e s s e n t i a l part of the economic development process of the r e c i p i e n t countries. However, i t i s enlightening to read the recent address by R.S. McNamara (1973), President of the World Bank, to the World Board of Governors. McNamara outlined the reorientation of the World Bank p o l i c i e s i n order to provide a more equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of the benefits of economic growth i n the developing  countries.  McNamara outlined the measures necessary to  meet this goal: Though the strategy for increasing the productivity of small-holder agriculture i s necessarily tentative, the following are e s s e n t i a l elements of any comprehensive programme:  - 19 -  - Acceleration i n the rate of land and tenancy reform. - Better access to c r e d i t . - Assured a v a i l a b i l i t y of water. - Expanded extension f a c i l i t i e s backed by intensive a g r i c u l t u r a l research. - Greater access to public services. - And most c r i t i c a l of a l l : new reforms of r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and organization that w i l l give as much attention to promoting the inherent p o t e n t i a l and productivity of the poor as i s generally given to protecting the power of the p r i v i l e g e d . Recently, the World Bank has been giving loans to developing countries for 'non-economic' projects l i k e housing developments, r u r a l health centres, schools and education centres, etc.  Investment i n such s o c i a l  infrastructure complements other forms of investment f r o economic development i n the developing countries.  McNamara's speech shows some new  trends  i n the World Bank policy towards aid programmes i n developing countries. 1.5  Summary The factors that contribute to the problems of aid programme  effectiveness i n developing countries l i e both i n the attitudes of the donor countries towards aid and i n the very nature of underdevelopment i n the recipient countries.  As pointed out e a r l i e r i n this chapter, there  are conditions attached to aid programmes which i n many cases have had adverse effects on the development process of the recipient countries.  In  any case, the developing countries should work from the basis that aid should not govern the nature of the path of development they choose i n t h e i r countries.  The developing countries themselves have to formulate  their own development policy and incorporate aid programmes that would help  - 20 -  f u l f i l the task of expediting their development process.  National e f f o r t s ,  supplemented by a i d programmes, are the essential ingredients f o r the development of these emerging countries. The following chapters deal with the study of the National Sites and Services Project i n Tanzania, Government.  j o i n t l y financed by the IDA and the Tanzania  Among other things, these chapters point out how the project  f i t s i n with the o v e r a l l development objectives of Tanzania.  - 21 -  Chapter 2.  2.1  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL SITES AND PROJECT IN TANZANIA  SERVICES  Introduction: Squatter Settlements The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of squatter settlements i n urban areas accompanied  by the increasing demand for urban services i s a problem facing most developing countries.  Squatter settlements include areas where people  take unauthorized possession of apparently unoccupied land, b u i l d i n g substandard housing upon such land.  These unplanned settlements have poor  access to urban services compared with other high-density areas which are planned.  Houses b u i l t i n these settlements are non-permanent i n nature  and are not constructed i n accordance with the b u i l d i n g by-laws.  Squatting  problems exist wherever there i s a mass movement of people to the c i t i e s and i n s u f f i c i e n t shelter to accommodate this surge of people.  Squatting  i s triggered mainly by rural-urban migrants i n quest of employment and services i n the growing urban areas where there i s more certainty for the future.  Rural-urban migrants account for almost half the urban population  expansion i n the developing countries (IBRD, 1972, p. 10). Although the existence of the squatter settlements i s generally deplored, these settlement areas nonetheless demonstrate  the determination  of the migrant, having moved to the urban centre, to claim f o r h i s family "the right to shelter" and h i s a b i l i t y to b u i l d i t with any available materials.  But these adaptive a b i l i t i e s have not always been used i n  collaboration with governmental  attempts to promote the orderly growth of  - 22 -  the urban areas.  Instead the squatter has no choice but to s e t t l e i n such  settlements without basic amenities.  This 'spontaneous'  form of urbaniza-  t i o n i s now accepted i n many countries as being unavoidable.  New  zoning  practices and dwelling standards are being formulated and enacted to bring housing costs more i n l i n e with the economic capacity of the squatters. 2.2  Squatter Settlements i n Tanzania Pre-independence  squatter settlements i n Tanzania, during the 1950's  and 1960's, were not regarded as problems since the growth rate of the urban population during that time was n e g l i g i b l e .  This was mainly because  of the n e g l i g i b l e rate of African migration to urban areas. independence,  Before  Europeans, Asians and Arabs were the permanent residents of  urban areas i n Tanzania, and the Africans were mainly regarded as temporary workers who  eventually returned to the r u r a l areas (Stren, 1973).  Moreover, u n t i l the late 1950's, the squatters could be evicted, without compensation,  from land needed f o r urban developments.  Tanzania since independence has been concerned about i t s urbanization process which has largely taken the form of squatting on vacant land and constructing shanty settlements.  After independence,  a high rate of urban population growth.^  Tanzania experienced  It i s estimated that the African  portion of the population i n Dar es Salaam grew at an average annual rate of 14% a f t e r independence compared to i t s annual growth rates of 2% between 1931-48 and 9% i n 1948-57. After independence,  under the Freehold T i t l e Conversion and Government  - 23 -  Leases Act of 1963,  a l l land i n Tanzania was b a s i c a l l y nationalized and  only long term leases could be issued to the former owners. took the opportunity who  occupied  But many i n d i v i d u a l s  suburban fringe land under t r i b a l or t r a d i t i o n a l law did not  understand the new these leases.  to take out long term leases.  Most owners  Act, and therefore did not apply f o r , or receive,  As the demand for this urban land increased as a r e s u l t of  urbanization, these individuals continued  to subdivide t h e i r land and  i t i n small parcels at reasonable rates for housing.  This informal  procedure of subdividing land continued because the Government was to o f f e r acceptable  alternatives to this p r a c t i c e .  not  able  It became p o l i t i c a l l y  d i f f i c u l t to stop t h i s informal practice of subdividing land and urban areas were occupied  sell  large  i n this manner.  In order to accommodate these developments and provide the  squatters  with minimum urban services l i k e p o l i c e , f i r e protection, p i t - l a t r i n e s , pumping services, roads, etc., the Government charges the occupants a small transfer tax on the land purchase, and a small fee to r e g i s t e r the property.  This payment also e n t i t l e s the owner to compensation when the  land has to be made available for 'formal' development by the Government. Housing b u i l t i n this manner i s categorized as temporary and i s subject to redevelopment. The prospects  of enjoying urban services, of leading a 'modern l i f e '  and of getting employment i n urban areas were the basic factors that stimulated rural-urban migration i n Tanzania a f t e r independence.  As a  r e s u l t , the population i n major urban centres i n Tanzania has been growing  - 24 -  at an average of 7% per annum, two and a half times faster than other areas of the country.  Table 1 below shows the growth i n population i n some  major urban centres i n Tanzania.  Table 1 Rate of Urban Population Growth In Tanzania Between 1971-1972  Urban Centre  1972 Population  Growth 1971-1972 Number  %  395,000  30,000  8.2  Tanga  74,800  2,800  3.9  Arusha  50,000  5,000  11.1  Mwanza  46,300  2,300  5.2  Moshi  36,500  1,800  5.2  Iringa  32,000  3,800  10.3  Morogoro  31,500  1,500  5.0  Dodoma  30,500  1,500  5.2  Tabora  23,200  600  2.7  Musoma  22,000  1,200  5.8  Mbeya  18,000  1,600  9.8  Bukoba  13,900  800  6.1  Dar es Salaam  Source:  Concentrating Ardhi's E f f o r t s on Development, Mckinsey  and Company, July 1973, pp. 1-4.  - 25 -  2.3  Housing Problems i n Tanzania One of the basic problems that grew out of the increase i n urban  population was a shortage of housing i n the urban centres.  This problem  was characterized not only by an inadequate supply of housing, but also by the fact that the housing provided by the private and public sectors was beyond the economic reach of the majority of the migrants who squatter areas.  settled i n  Projections of urban housing needs by income d i s t r i b u t i o n  suggested that about 12% of households i n need of housing earn less than 180/=  per month, 49% earn less than 35/= per month and 67% earn less than  500/= per month. about U.S.  $0.14.  One Tanzanian S h i l l i n g (/= or T.Sh)  i s equivalent to  (See also Table 3 i n Section 3.2 below.)  According to the estimates (United Republic of Tanzania, 1973) of the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (Ardhi), about 23,000 dwelling units are required annually (mostly i n urban areas) to provide for the housing needs of low-income families earning less than 500/= per month.  Assuming that low-income people cannot afford to buy a house  costing more than 2.5 times their annual income (IBRD, June 1973, p. 11), g these families can afford to pay less than 15,500/= for housing. The low incomes of the squatters i s not the only factor that makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r government i n s t i t u t i o n s to provide adequate resources for housing the low-income people; most of the sources of income for these people are not always r e l i a b l e .  The Urban Labour Force Survey of 1971,  carried out by the Economic Research Bureau of the University of Dar es Salaam, showed that 50% or more of the squatters are c l a s s i f i e d as casual  - 26 -  labourers, self-employed and unemployed (seeking work).  The i r r e g u l a r  nature of such employment makes i t d i f f i c u l t for government i n s t i t u t i o n s to assess whether these people would be able to pay regularly towards owning a house.  However, i t would be f a l l a c i o u s to conclude that persons  with i r r e g u l a r sources of income are always u n r e l i a b l e i n repaying debts. For example, a craftsman who  i s self-employed might not have a regular  source of income but h i s average earning power might be s u f f i c i e n t l y reliable. It i s assumed i n the Tanzanian housing p o l i c y that people i n Tanzania, especially low-income people, should be encouraged which they are l i v i n g .  This assumption  to own the houses i n  stems from the Tanzanian policy  of socialism and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , which stresses that a l l people, whether r i c h or poor, must become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n providing food, serviceable clothing and shelter (The Arusha Declaration, 1967, p. 17).  Tanzania  recognizes the fact that access to good housing i s a fundamental human  right and that no i n d i v i d u a l , regardless of h i s s o c i a l or economic conditions, should be denied access to good housing.  Since i t i s the poor who have  neither the economic means to rent good housing nor to b u i l d good housing for themselves, the Government of Tanzania has assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of encouraging and aiding low-income people to b u i l d their own  houses.  For example, the Government, through the Sites and Services Projects, provides urban infrastructure to low-income r e s i d e n t i a l areas and provides the low-income plot-occupants of these areas with access to loans for b u i l d i n g self-help housing i n these areas.  - 27 -  Furthermore, the Government of Tanzania does not encourage people to own houses for renting.  According to the Government, t h i s a c t i v i t y i s  the exploitation of the poor by the r i c h and as a result i s against the Tanzanian policy of socialism which endeavours, most of a l l , to promote equality amongst the people of Tanzania.  The A c q u i s i t i o n of Buildings  Act (1971) empowers the President to acquire c e r t a i n buildings, used by i n d i v i d u a l landlords for the purpose of renting, which can then be used for better public uses.  This i s part of the Government's strong emphasis  on encouraging people, p a r t i c u l a r l y low-income people, to own the houses i n which they l i v e . In 1972, the Tanzanian Government, pressured by the increase i n squatter settlements caused by the inadequate supply of low-income housing i n the urban areas, decided to launch a large scale s i t e s and services programme i n three areas of Tanzania:  Dar es Salaam, Mwanza and Mbeya.  - 28 -  Chapter 3.  IDENTIFICATION OF THE NATIONAL SITES AND TANZANIA  SERVICES PROJECT IN  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n stage of the National Sites and Services Project i s the f i r s t of the three stages i n the World Bank project cycle that this study attempts to examine.  The two other stages to be discussed i n t h i s  study are Preparation and Appraisal.  The review of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  stage of the Project includes the examination of the World Bank's and the Tanzanian Government's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process.  3.1  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Project by the Tanzanian Government Although the Tanzanian Government has been concerned, since indepen-  dence, about the housing needs of the urban low-income groups i n Tanzania, i t was not u n t i l 1969 that the 'big push' came for inaugurating a substant i a l programme to a l l e v i a t e this problem.  The present Sites and Services  Project i s one of the major programmes undertaken by Tanzania to provide housing f o r low-income groups i n urban areas. This Sites and Services Project i s carried out under the leadership 9 of the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (Ardhi), functions are:  whose  to provide services needed to make land available for  development, to control land-use both i n urban and r u r a l areas, and to provide housing and other community f a c i l i t i e s i n a l l types of settlements varying from small v i l l a g e s to the c a p i t a l c i t y . The Government of Tanzania launches, every f i v e years, a development plan which s p e l l s out projects that w i l l be given highest p r i o r i t y i n  - 29 -  each sector (transportation, industry, education, during that f i v e year period. was  health, housing, etc.)  The Second Five Year Development Plan (SFYP)  launched for the 1969-74 f i v e year period.  Under the 'Housing Sector',  the SFYP c l e a r l y states the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a programme of s i t e s  and  services projects to be undertaken to house urban low-income groups. According  to one Ardhi o f f i c i a l , this i s l a r g e l y because the benefits of  investment i n such projects would accrue to a great many more low-income people than the same investments would i n more convential housing schemes. Under the Sites and Services project i n t h i s study, p l o t s w i l l be l a i d out and basic services w i l l be provided, while the actual house construction i s l e f t to s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s of the future residents of these schemes.  This programme would i n i t i a l l y be c a r r i e d out i n urban areas  where crowded conditions of squatter areas, lacking the r e l a t e d i n f r a s t r u c ture (drainage  system, roads, e l e c t r i c i t y , etc.) create public health  hazards and perpetuate substandard l i v i n g environments for the people residing i n these settlements.  Photographs i n Appendix 13 show some aspects  of the unhygenic l i v i n g environment i n the Manzese squatter area of Dar es Salaam.  Sites and services projects thus become important components  of the urban housing p o l i c y . Apart from the Second Five Year Development Plan, there were other forces that added impetus to the b i r t h of the present Project.  Sites and  Services  The following summary of the M i n i s t e r i a l records"^ describes  nature and o r i g i n of some of these forces.  the  - 30 -  In January 1969, an Internal Memo from the P r i n c i p a l Secretary of Ardhi to D i v i s i o n Heads took note of the problems with squatter settlements, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Dar es Salaam.  This Memo suggested an acceleration of  the process of making plots available and a lowering of the plot standards so that the plots could be brought within the reach of the low-income people.  In a l e t t e r to Ardhi i n February 1970,  the President's O f f i c e  showed great concern over the inadequate processing of plots for a l l o c a t i o n . This l e t t e r directed Ardhi to submit a paper to the Economic Committee of Cabinet (ECC), not l a t e r than A p r i l 1970, intended to take i n managing this problem.  i n d i c a t i n g the action Ardhi In response to the concern  shown by the President's O f f i c e over the inadequate supply of plots f o r a l l o c a t i o n , Division Heads of Ardhi held various discussions on the ways and means of managing this problem of squatter settlements and of accelerating the process of plot a l l o c a t i o n . Ardhi then formulated a draft policy paper on "Easing of Squatter Settlements i n Dar es Salaam", which outlined the action of undertaking a 'crash programme' to make 6000 surveyed and serviced p l o t s available to squatters i n Dar es Salaam.  This paper was discussed by Ardhi o f f i c i a l s  with o f f i c i a l s from the Treasury and from the Ministry of Economic and 14 Development Planning (DevPlan).  These discussions mainly dwelt on the  problems of scarce funds and manpower shortages i n undertaking this programme. 6.)  (For DevPlan's r o l e i n the national planning cycle, see Appendix  - 31 -  In 1972, the preparation and layout of plots f o r three s i t e s and service schemes i n Dar es Salaam was started.  About a year l a t e r , i n  October 1973, Ardhi presented a policy paper to ECC on a"National Sites and Services Programme"; this outlined the need f o r such a programme i n the urban areas of Tanzania due to the high rate of urban population growth and the acute shortage of low-income housing. previous approaches  This paper pointed out that  to house low-income groups, i . e . construction of low-  cost housing units by the National Housing Corporation (NHC) and provision of surveyed plots i n high-density urban areas to i n d i v i d u a l s who could then b u i l d their own houses, had not proved adequate i n a l l e v i a t i n g the problem of housing f o r low-income groups.  Hence there was a need to  launch s i t e s and services programmes to supplement the previous  approaches  to the low-income housing problem i n the urban areas. The National Sites and Services Programme would provide the r e s i d e n t i a l land with the necessary infrastructure and the plot occupants organized around cooperatives would be expected to b u i l d t h e i r own s e l f - h e l p houses. The s i t e s and services approach towards improving the housing s i t u a t i o n for low-income groups i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to Tanzania since the programme does not heavily subsidize the housing of urban workers i n an e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l country.  Moreover, this programme also emphasized the  Government's policy of promoting the self-help and cooperative housing movements i n Tanzania. The financing of the s i t e s and services programmes was also discussed  - 32 -  in this policy paper.  Since development funds f o r s i t e s and services  programmes were not available and since the Tanzania Housing Bank (THB) could spend only a portion of i t s lending on 'other projects' (including s i t e s and services schemes), the paper proposed that Treasury should seek external sources f o r financing t h i s programme (see Appendix 6).  Since  the World Bank had already indicated a strong interest i n financing such programmes i n Tanzania through the International Development Association (IDA), Treasury was asked to approach the World Bank concerning this programme.  3.2  (For a b r i e f discussion on the World Bank, see Appendix 7.)  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Process by the International Development Association (IDA) The World Bank's interest i n supporting  s i t e s and services projects  i n developing countries i s stated i n the Bank's sector working paper of 1972 on "Urbanization" IBRD's supporting  (IBRD, June 1972).  In a follow-up to t h i s report,  paper, "Sites and Services Project" (IBRD, A p r i l 1974),  sets out some of the following considerations which account for the IBRD's i n t e r e s t i n supporting A.  s i t e s and services projects i n developing countries.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Problem Areas:  - Urban population  growth in'the developing countries i s expected to  increase by more than four per cent per annum i n the next two decades. In a considerable number of c i t i e s the population w i l l t r i p l e i n less than a decade. - With the available resources,  i t would be d i f f i c u l t to accommodate  - 33 -  this growth by conventional housing of even minimum cost standards. Most urban families cannot afford conventional housing unless heavily subsidized, a plan which public authorities i n the developing countries cannot support beyond r e l a t i v e l y small programmes. - Over one-third of the urban population l i v e s i n squatter settlements which are over-crowded, unhygenic and lacking i n basic services.  But  these squatter settlements provide accommodation at prices that most people can afford. - The prospect that the supply of dwellings and urban services w i l l continue to l a g behind the growth i n the urban population, with consequent further p r o l i f e r a t i o n of squatter settlements and i n t e n s i f i e d overcrowding  and deteriorating levels of services, i s  making reconsideration of current urban development p o l i c i e s mandatory. But there are other reasons of productivity and e f f i c i e n c y no less pressing: i.  The high l e v e l of urban unemployment represents a labour  resource that should be better u t i l i z e d , ii.  The e x i s t i n g pattern of unplanned and uncontrolled settlements  i n urban areas represents an i n e f f i c i e n t use of land and other resources.  Provision of housing and supporting services tends to  be much more expensive than need be.  Sites of squatter settlements  often prove to be p a r t i c u l a r l y costly to supply with adequate services.  - 34 -  iii. iv.  The environmental considerations are largely neglected. The redevelopment of squatter areas i s much more costly than  providing an adequate r e s i d e n t i a l development area i n i t i a l l y . B.  Policy Recommendations:  'Opening up' of new tracts of urbanized land i n convenient locations, and supplying these locations with supporting urban infrastructure to create viable low-income communities, may present many advantages and would conveniently f a l l wtihin both general resources a v a i l a b i l i t i e s and the a b i l i t y of the recipients to pay.  Such s i t e s and  services projects can provide: i.  An increased supply of b u i l d i n g plots with urban infrastructure  and services that are economical i n resources but cannot readily be supplied on an unplanned basis, ii.  A better physical l i v i n g condition than i s available i n the  squatter settlements with a greater opportunity f o r subsequent upgrading. iii. iv. v.  An increased scope of self-help constructions, A security of tenure and a basis for community development. A better general environment.  The timely formulation of the IBRD's new p o l i c y of supporting s i t e and services projects for low-income urban housing programmes i n developing countries coincided with Tanzania's urgent need to formulate programmes to provide low-income urban families with decent housing.  Tanzania,  r e s t r i c t e d by inadequate f i n a n c i a l and manpower resources to undertake  such  - 35 -  programmes, approached task.  the World Bank f o r assistance i n carrying out the  The World Bank, beginning to implement i t s new s i t e s and services  approach, showed d e f i n i t e interest i n a s s i s t i n g Tanzania i n this respect. In March 1972, the IDA economic mission i n conjunction with the UNDP 12 advisor on housing,  conducted a study on urbanization and regional  development trends i n Tanzania as part of the o v e r a l l study of economic 13 development i n Tanzania.  The mission examined d i f f e r e n t aspects of the  housing sector i n Tanzania as an i n t e g r a l part of the study on urbanization trends i n Tanzania.  Tables 2 and 3 following, referred to i n the Mission's  report (IBRD, March 1972, p. 10), describe the nature of the demand for housing i n urban areas of Tanzania. Table 2 Estimated Housing Demand i n Urban Areas, 1970-1974  Source  Total Number of Dwelling Units Needed  Average Annual Needs  To meet future urban population growth  63,500  12,700  To r e l i e v e existing overcrowding conditions*  19,500  3,800  To include replacements  25,000  5,000  108,000  21,500  TOTAL  * Measured i n terms of more than two persons per room; see Footnote 14. Source:  Land Survey  - 36 -  Based on information derived from past data and surveys carried out by the National Housing Corporation (NHC), the following breakdown of annual needs by income has been calculated. Assuming that people cannot afford houses costing more than two and one-half times their annual income, future housing demand can be estimated by cost of housing and income group. low-cost urban housing.  Table 3 below indicates the need for  From this table, almost one-half (49%) of the  persons requiring houses cannot afford houses costing more than 10,500/= and two-thirds of the urban dwellers cannot afford houses costing more than 15,000/=.  Table 3 Estimated Average Annual Housing Demand In Urban Areas by Income Group Family Income (/= per month)  Affordable Housing Cost Range (income x 12 x 2.5)  Dwelling Units Needed  0 - 180  0 - 5400  2500  11.9  11.9  % of Total  Cumulative %  181 - 350  5431 - 10500  7800  37.1  49.0  351 - 500  10530 - 15000  3800  18.0  67.0  501 - 700  15030 - 21000  2500  11.9  78.9  701 - 1500  21030 - 45000  4000  19.0  97.9  1501 - 2000  45030 - 60000  400  1.9  100.0  Source:  J . Leaning, "Low Cost Housing i n Tanzania - A Factual Analysis".  - 37 -  The report concludes that financing such houses i n the 10,000/= to 14,000/= range would be a problem because the standards of this type of housing are well below those required by ordinary mortgage companies (IBRD, March 1972, p. 11).  Furthermore,  the Government cannot afford to  a l l o c a t e s u f f i c i e n t resources to a s s i s t i n a l l e v i a t i n g the urban housing problem.  IDA's pre-investment studies programme (IBRD, June 1972, p. 24)  proposed a study on the v i a b i l i t y of s i t e s and services schemes as an e f f i c i e n t means of providing shelter to low-income urban communities.  The  study data sheet prepared by the IDA mission i n the same report described the proposed study (see Appendix 8). The IDA I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Mission v i s i t e d Tanzania towards the end of 1972 to examine and i d e n t i f y possible s i t e and services projects i n Tanzania.  This mission apparently responded negatively towards these  projects (according to an Ardhi o f f i c i a l ) , but the IDA approved the project anyway, apparently on the basis of strong and v a l i d recommendations made by IDA's economic mission f o r such projects i n Tanzania. then ready for the preparation stage.  The project  was  - 38 -  Chapter 4.  PREPARATION OF THE PROJECT  After the National Sites and Services Project was  i d e n t i f i e d by both  the Tanzania Government and the IDA, Ardhi started to work, i n collaboration with other Government agencies, on the preparation of the project. In March, 1973,  the IDA preparation mission, composed of an economist, an  engineer and a research assistant arrived i n Tanzania working out the project. steps necessary  to a s s i s t Ardhi i n  The preparation stage of a project e n t a i l s a l l  to bring the project to a point where i t s technical,  economic and f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t i e s have been established.  4.1  The Selection of Urban Centres The three urban centres chosen for the National Sites and Services  Project were:  Dar es Salaam, Mwenza and Mbeya."*"^  The three main c r i t e r i a  that influenced the choice of locations for the National Sites and Services Project were: a.  The impact of urban population growth on the urban centres.  impact of urban population growth was measured i n terms of the  The housing  shortage, both generally and for low-income groups, and i n terms of the number of applicants on the waiting l i s t s for the a l l o c a t i o n of plots.  The higher the impact of population growth i n an urban centre,  the more suitable the urban centre for s i t e s and services projects b.  The administrative capacity of the urban centre to c.implement  the project.  - 39 -  c.  The geographic  the investment  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the urban centres.  In order that  of feasible s i t e s and services projects should benefit  as many geographic  regions as possible, the urban centres chosen for  the project should be geographically dispersed. Dar es Salaam, the f o c a l point of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Tanzania, has been experiencing a rapid population growth. Some insight into the magnitude of the population growth i n Dar es Salaam has been outlined i n Chapter 2. 1980,  I t i s estimated that between 1973  and  Dar es Salaam would double i n population, from almost 440,000 to  926,000, an increase of 486,000.  This increase i n population puts an  added pressure on the demand for housing i n Dar es Salaam.  Apart from  the increase i n demand for housing due to increase i n population, there i s the backlog of applicants for plots within the present population of Dar es Salaam.  Due to the magnitude of i t s problems, about 56% of the  plots i n the Sites and Services Project w i l l be i n Dar es Salaam. Mwanza i s the t h i r d largest urban centre i n Tanzania, with a population of about 52,000; the population i s growing at nearly 7% per annum.  Located  on the shores of Lake V i c t o r i a , i t i s the regional administrative centre and a major i n d u s t r i a l and trade centre of the Northwest.  Mwanza i s also  an important r a i l and sea centre for handling goods and services coming to and going :from Western Kenya, the West Lake D i s t r i c t of Tanzania (when the trade r e l a t i o n s were better) to and from Uganda.  and  The r o l e of  Mwanza as an important regional centre has led to i t s rapid population  - 40 -  growth; over three-fourths of this growth i s a result of rural-urban migration.  Urban squatting has begun to spread i n Mwanza, primarily along  the main roads leading into town.  Due  to the growing shortage of  low-  income housing, which has resulted i n a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of squatter s e t t l e ments, i t was  f e l t that Mwanza should be the f i r s t upcountry town for the  National Sites and Services Project.  Mwanza's geographic l o c a t i o n i n  the northwest part of Tanzania also influenced the choice of this urban centre for the Project. Mbeya, the t h i r d urban centre chosen, .is the major regional centre for the Southwest.  It has gained increased s i g n i f i c a n c e due to i t s strategic  location on the Tanzania-Zambia Highway.  Mbeya w i l l have the second largest  station and repair yard for the railway.  New  industries that are planned  for Mbeya include a cement plant which w i l l serve the Southwest Region, cold storage f a c i l i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l produce, and a pyrethrum extracting f a c i l i t y . . Due  to the construction of the Tanzania-Zambia railway and  highway, Mbeya i s experiencing a rapid population growth, composed mostly of migrants who the town.  s e t t l e i n squatter settlements mostly on the outskirts of  The population growth rate of Mbeya i s estimated at 9.8%  annum, the second highest i n Tanzania.  per  The increased pressure from this  population growth on the inadequate supply of housing and the increased backlog of plot applicants led Mbeya to be selected for a s i t e s and services project.  4.2  Selection of Project Sites i n the Urban Centres The p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a for the s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c s i t e s i n the  - 41 -  selected urban centres were:""" 1  a.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of land suitably sized and appropriately situated  so that i t could be developed economically  into low-cost housing  areas, and i n the case of Dar es Salaam, i n accordance with the Master Plan. b..  Appropriate  natural conditions l i k e topography, vegetation,  soil  and ground water, etc., which were s u i t a b l e for construction and drainage. c.  Relative proximity to employment opportunities, public transporta-  t i o n and o f f - s i t e infrastructure l i k e roads, water, e l e c t r i c i t y , etc. In Dar es Salaam (see Map for new  I I I , Appendix 3), the three s i t e s chosen  p l o t s and the squatter settlements  areas were to form the beginning  of a north-south r e s i d e n t i a l corridor to the west of the c i t y centre as proposed i n the Master Plan.  Located on the p r i n c i p a l roads to the c i t y  centre, the s i t e s are near the r a p i d l y developing Ubungo i n d u s t r i a l area on Morogoro Road. completion i n 1977,  When the Port Access Road i s constructed, scheduled for the s i t e s w i l l also be within a short distance of the  i n d u s t r i a l area along Pugu Road.  The s i t e s are well located i n r e l a t i o n  to public transport and o f f - s i t e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e.g. water, roads, e l e c t r i c i t y , etc.  The s i t e i n Mwanza i s also well-located i n r e l a t i o n to  off-site infrastructure.  It i s located on the major east-west route near  the Nyakato i n d u s t r i a l area.  In Mbeya, the s i t e i s situated near the c i t y  centre and close to the Tanzania-Zambia Highway and Railway.  - 42 -  4.3  Content of the Project at the Preparation Stage a.  Sites and Services: i.  Dar es Salaam  Approximately 5,000 new plots i n the 245 hectare area of  Sinza (3,200 surveyed plots and 2,100 serviced plots - see Section, 4.4 below).  The d i v i s i o n between surveyed and serviced  plots i s a r b i t r a r i l y made i n the r a t i o of 6:4 and could be changed a f t e r reviewing s p e c i f i c needs of each area, ii.  Infrastructure  improvements i n the e x i s t i n g squatter area of  Manzese, r a i s i n g standards of approximately 5,000 existing plots to the standards of surveyed p l o t s , iii.  Shared community f a c i l i t i e s and services f o r Sinza and Manzese,  including schools, markets, s o c i a l centre, etc. iv.  O f f - s i t e infrastructure f o r Sinza and Manzese, including  improvements to the public transportation  f a c i l i t i e s and services  operating on Morogoro Road. v.  Approximately 6,400 new plots i n the Tabata West area (3,800  surveyed plots and 2,600 serviced plots) and related community f a c i l i t i e s and services, improvements to the public  transportation  system, and other o f f - s i t e infrastructure, vi.  Approximately 1,670 new serviced plots i n the remaining three  quadrants of Kijitonyama and about 1,000 surveyed plot's i n Mikocheni, including community f a c i l i t i e s and services, improvements to the public transport  system, and other o f f - s i t e  - 43 -  infrastructure. vii.  F e a s i b i l i t y study and preliminary engineering  of improving  transportation f a c i l i t i e s and providing services such as water and power to the Magogoni area across the harbour so that this area could be developed for subsequent s i t e s and services as well as squatter improvement schemes, b.  Sites and Services: i.  Mwanza and Mbeya  Approximately 5,000 new  plots i n each upcountry town (3,000  surveyed plots and 2,000 serviced p l o t s ) , and related community f a c i l i t i e s and services and o f f - s i t e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , ii.  A f e a s i b i l i t y study (including preliminary engineering) of  the need for surveyed and serviced plots i n other upcountry towns, including community f a c i l i t i e s and services and  off-site  infrastructure. 4.4  IDA Project Preparation  Mission  This mission arrived during the preparation of the Project participated i n the actual preparation work.  and  The mission examined the  design elements of the Project i n great d e t a i l .  This included the  of the target population and the s p e c i f i c need for the projects.  choice It also  examined such other aspects of the Project as scale, standards, l o c a t i o n , etc. 4.4.1  Selection of the Target Population.  IDA preparatory  mission attended to was  The f i r s t issue that the  the s e l e c t i o n of the target  - 44 -  population f o r the Project.  T y p i c a l l y , well over half of the urban  population has incomes below the necessary l e v e l f o r paying f o r conventional housing.  There are also considerable variations of incomes and p r i o r i t y  of f e l t needs.  For example, some low-income groups have higher incomes  than, the average and would be prepared to pay higher charges f o r better facilities;  the poorest of the low-income groups might have inadequate  incomes to pay regularly f o r dwellings and to make payments large enough to cover the major part of the costs involved.  I f the s i t e s and services  schemes are designed to cater to the needs of those who can pay a reasonable part of the costs incurred, the poorest elements of the population would be denied the services of such schemes. amenities provided,  Thus the greater the  the smaller would be the proportion of the lowest .  income groups e l i g i b l e  f o r serviced s i t e s .  Thus the choice of the population group representing the large middle stratum of the low-income groups generally appears to be most  appropriate,  at least at the s t a r t of any large scale s i t e and services project (IBRD, A p r i l 1974).  From the middle l e v e l of the low-income groups i t would be  possible to recover a major part of the.costs incurred on the project. This i n i t i a l population group would provide a f i n a n c i a l basis f o r a largescale, ongoing programme.  But the choice of the large middle stratum of  the low-income population as the target population f o r s i t e s and services projects leaves much to be desired; t h i s strategy does not include the poorest of the low-income groups who presumably are i n most need of these  - 45 -  services. However, a conscious e f f o r t was made, i n the s e l e c t i o n of the target population, to include as many of the low-income families as possible. Thus, the target population for the Project includes low-income families earning between 200/= and 750/= per month.  This target population, at  least i n Dar es Salaam, covers about 70% of the t o t a l low-income population; the remaining low-income families are equally divided between those earning under 200/= and over 750/= per month (see Appendix 9.) . 4.4.2  Squatter : Improvement . Schemes.  The National Sites and  Services Project also includes a programme to improve e x i s t i n g squatter communities.  A major problem to be faced i n such schemes i s that i t i s  d i f f i c u l t to recover d i r e c t l y from the occupants the costs incurred i n upgrading these areas.  But i n view of the low-income groups involved, i t  could be j u s t i f i a b l e to subsidize the improvement of the e x i s t i n g squatter settlements.  However, this question of subsidizing the low-income  residents of the squatter improvement d i s t r i c t s was not given any serious consideration, according to one Ardhi o f f i c i a l .  This was because i t i s  against the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of the World Bank to subsidize any p a r t i c u l a r group of people i n their development projects. 4.4.3 for  Design Standards.  The issue of acceptable  design standards  the Sites and Services Project was dealt with by the mission  with the Government consultants.  together  The basic design standards were based  on a p l o t s i z e of 280 square metres."^  The.proposed standards were:  - 46 -  i.  Surveyed p l o t s :  These w i l l be provided with d i r t road access  except for the gravelled main road, earth ditches along the main and secondary roads for storm water drainage, common p i t - l a t r i n e s ,  one  water kiosk consisting of four water taps per 50 p l o t s , and power to community f a c i l i t i e s , ii.  Serviced p l o t s :  These w i l l be provided with d i r t road access to  the i n d i v i d u a l p l o t , improved p i t l a t r i n e s with soakways (dry p i t l a t r i n e ) , one water tap per 10 p l o t s , power mains through the areas, and street l i g h t i n g near community f a c i l i t i e s , iii.  Improved serviced p l o t s :  These w i l l be provided with d i r t  road access to the i n d i v i d u a l p l o t , treated gravel main and  secondary  roads, improved p i t l a t r i n e s with connection to central sewage system, i n d i v i d u a l water connections, street l i g h t i n g along main road and near community f a c i l i t i e s . The choice of standards i n the f a c i l i t i e s provided was also discussed by the mission.  The existing b u i l d i n g codes i n Dar es Salaam were outdated  and required design standards that were too high, and therefore too costly for s i t e s and services projects.  The mission learned from i t s investiga-  tions that the Government was aware of t h i s s i t u a t i o n and had planned to review, revise and update the b u i l d i n g codes.  In the past the Government  had waived the codes for low-cost housing projects.  The IDA needed  assurances, however, that during the l a t e r stages of the Project the present b u i l d i n g codes would not apply to the proposed project and that construct i o n guidelines geared more towards the s i t e s and services concept would  - 47 -  be adopted. The mission attached  great importance to the integration of the Sites  and Services Project with the o v e r a l l housing and urban development p o l i c y of the country.  The Sites and Services Project therefore  incorporated  basic p r i n c i p l e s as outlined i n the urban housing p o l i c y of Tanzania; i t included the following a.  considerations:  The Sites and Services Project would become an i n t e g r a l part of  the Government's housing p o l i c y .  The Sites and Services Project  would be centralized i n Ardhi so that the provision of a l l serviced plots to low-income groups could be coordinated b.  i n one  office.  The programme would operate i n accordance with the Government's  policy to promote s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The construction of houses and community f a c i l i t i e s would be c a r r i e d out on a self-help basis. c.  The programme would focus on the housing needs of low-income  people.  Housing construction would be financed through  or on an i n d i v i d u a l basis.  cooperatives  In order to provide additional incomes  for the households in.the programme and to provide cheap accommodation for those who  could not afford a p l o t , renting of accommodation would  be included i n the programme. The IDA project preparation mission concentrated on the technical aspects of the Project.  Although general aspects of financing and  organization of the Project were also examined at t h i s stage, f i n a n c i a l and organizational d e t a i l s were worked out during the appraisal stage of  - 48 -  the Project."*""  Before i t departed,  the mission and the Sites and Services  Section discussed the work schedule for the few months leading up to the a r r i v a l of the appraisal mission i n August 1973.  The appraisal mission  required the following information p r i o r to i t s a r r i v a l : a.  Terms of reference and contractual arrangements with  the  consultants, and the output of their work as i t becomes a v a i l a b l e . b.  More complete information on household, income of the project's  target population. c.  Progress reports on the preparation of Ardhi's 1974  financial  year budget, o u t l i n i n g the measures required for b u i l d i n g up the s t a f f , and the budget of the Sites and Services Section i n accordance with the function requirements of the proposed programme. d.  The Government's review of the present ground rent structure  and i t s r e v i s i o n of the rents r e l a t i n g to the proposed s i t e s and services project; and e. Revision of the e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g codes i n Dar es Salaam and  up-  country towns. 4.4.4  Demand for the Project.  The demand for the Project was  arrived at by the mission through an examination of the  qualitative  aspects of the housing problems for low-income groups i n urban areas e.g. urban population growth, p r o l i f e r a t i o n of squatter settlements i n urban areas, backlog of applicants for plots i n the e x i s t i n g population, etc.  The mission did not f i n d i t productive to employ any  specific  - 49 -  quantitative methods to determine the demand for the Project because the simple magnitude of the low-income housing shortage was to indicate that there was  4.5  s u f f i c i e n t enough  an adequate demand for the Project.  Interaction Between Various Authorities Involved i n the Project Preparation Ardhi has o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the Sites and Services Project.  The Sites and Services Section within Ardhi i s responsible for planning, designing and constructing the infrastructure and community f a c i l i t i e s of the Projects, i n consultation with other concerned M i n i s t r i e s .  The  l o c a l administration of the project (e.g. project p l o t a l l o c a t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n of payments, etc.) would be handled by the respective Regional 19 Land Development Offices (RLDO).  The Tanzanian Housing Bank  would give loans to the i n d i v i d u a l plot-occupants  (THB)  and cooperatives for  house construction. The i n t e r n a l structure of Ardhi was t i o n stage of the project.  reorganized a f t e r the i d e n t i f i c a -  The subsequent preparation and appraisal stages  were completed under the e x i s t i n g organization, which has been i n operat i o n since 1973  (see Appendices 10.1  Urban Development Department was This department was  and 10.2).  At that same time, the  established i n Ardhi (Mckinsey, 1973).  intended to improve Ardhi's performance i n land,  housing and urban area development, and to make Ardhi  operations more  e f f e c t i v e within the Government's decentralization p o l i c y (see Appendix 3).  Under the decentralization p o l i c y , the regional administration i s  10.  - 50 -  responsible f o r making land available f o r development through the provision of the necessary services.  I t i s also responsible f o r c o n t r o l l i n g land  use i n both urban and r u r a l areas.  As a r e s u l t , Ardhi's r o l e has changed;  instead of providing these services d i r e c t l y to the regions, they now provide more o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n i n matters requiring a national perspective or some s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s .  Under the decentralization p o l i c y , Ardhi  functions as an advisory body f o r the various regional administrative bodies. The Urban Development Department consists of three d i v i s i o n s : Housing Development D i v i s i o n , Urban Planning D i v i s i o n and the National Housing and Building Research Unit (see Appendix 3).  The Director of  the Housing Development D i v i s i o n i s responsible f o r two sections, the Sites and Services Section, which has the primary task of planning and implementing the National Sites and Services Project; and the Housing Finance Services Section, which i s responsible f o r planning and c o n t r o l l i n g the f i n a n c i a l resources required to implement Ardhi':s housing programmes. The Site and Services Section has the o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l t y f o r designing, managing and executing the Sites and Services programmes; i t i s also responsible f o r coordinating the services of d i f f e r e n t Government agencies involved i n the programme, e.g. regional engineers  f o r roads,  regional medical o f f i c e r s f o r dispensaries, regional education  officers  for schools, e t c . The Section prepared the programme implementation time-table i n conjunction with a l l the agencies responsible f o r carrying  - 51 -  out the various tasks.  The project plans are reviewed by the Director of  Housing Development, who  i s responsible for obtaining approval from both  the Ministry and the region p r i o r to carrying out the programme. The Sites and Services Section has experienced s t a f f i n g problems (see also Chapter 6 below) and r e l i e s heavily on technical assistance  provided  by the UNDP and other external financing and b i l a t e r a l agencies.  Due  to  the shortage of s t a f f , the Section has r e l i e d on the services of an expatriate or foreign consulting firm (COWIconsult) to carry out  the  design and engineering  The  work for the Sites and Services Project.  reliance on expatriates i s expected to be reduced as additional s t a f f are  20 trained under the proposed t r a i n i n g programme at the Ardhi I n s t i t u t e . The Sites and Services Section w i l l also be assisted by the Regional and D i s t r i c t Land Development Teams, who  have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the  execution and management of the l o c a l project. Since 1974,  under the decentalization p o l i c y of the Government, a l l  towns i n Tanzania are either regions (e.g. Mbeya, Mwanza, e t c . ) .  (e.g. Dar es Salaam) or d i s t r i c t s  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for implementing urban  development projects f a l l s under the Regional Land Development O f f i c e (RLDO). The Regional Land Development s t a f f has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for carrying out numerous executive  and management functions, such as land compensations,  plot a l l o c a t i o n s , premia and land r e n t - c o l l e c t i o n s , and project i n f r a s t r u c ture maintenance.  They also process and s i t e survey plot applications,  give advice on housing cooperative  formulation,  coordinate housing loans  - 52 -  to.individuals or cooperatives with l o c a l THB Occupancy papers.  agents, and issue Right of  However, due to the s i z e of the Project and the shortage  of s t a f f i n the RLDO's, s i t e o f f i c e s at the large schemes can provide l o c a l management and technical assistance for the project implementation. The Housing Finance Services Section i s responsible for ensuring that funds are available to finance s i t e s and services projects and housing projects.  This Section prepares estimates of funds required and  secures commitments from funding sources such as the THB to the NHC,  other  (mainly for loans  and to the Registrar of Building, and to housing cooperatives),  external sources (mainly for s i t e s and services p r o j e c t s ) , and the (mainly for matching funds for s i t e s and services p r o j e c t s ) . 10.2  and 10.3  show the flow of communication between Ardhi and  agencies involved i n the preparation of the project.  Treasury  Appendices other  This i n t e r a c t i o n i s  summarized by the following points: a.  The c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n within Ardhi which c a r r i e d out the task  of preparing the Project was  the Housing Development D i v i s i o n under  the Urban Development Department.  The whole Project was  prepared  under the leadership of the Sites and Services Section i n the Housing Development D i v i s i o n . b.  As a result of the reorganization of Ardhi, the P r i n c i p a l Secretary  has been able to delegate f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for providing the necessary coordination among a l l the a u t h o r i t i e s involved i n the project to the Commissioner for Urban Development.  Although the  - 53 -  P r i n c i p a l Secretary did play an important r o l e i n communication with the higher authorities ( l i k e the Treasury) during the project preparation, the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Project belonged to the Commissioner for Urban Development. his  The Commissioner, by v i r t u e of  senior p o s i t i o n and freedom from detailed d a i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  i s i n a strong p o s i t i o n to provide this coordination. c.  The Planning Unit  provides s t a f f support  Secretary for planning and monitoring Ministry.  to the P r i n c i p a l  the development p o l i c i e s of the  This unit had a close working  relationship with the  Housing Development D i v i s i o n i n preparing the Project.  The main  function of the Planning Unit i s to provide s k i l l e d research and a n a l y t i c a l support  f o r programme and a c t i v i t y planning i n the  d i v i s i o n s of the Ministry. d.  The number of agencies outside Ardhi involved i n the Project  tends to increase as the Project gains momentum.  This i s mainly  because of the d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s required for the Project.  The  large v a r i e t y of inputs makes coordination between agencies d i f f i c u l t . e.  In order to e s t a b l i s h a better coordination between the develop-  ment of the Sites and Services f a c i l i t i e s and the planning programmes of other m i n i s t r i e s and parastatal organizations, the Sites and Services Section prepared the project f a c i l i t i e s i n collaboration with these other a u t h o r i t i e s . For example, the provision of education and health f a c i l i t i e s for the Project was planned with the help of the  - 54 -  Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, respectively. In the same way, information and planning l i n k s were established between the Tanzania E l e c t r i c Supply Company (TANESCO) and the Ministry of Water Development to make provision f o r planning the supply of e l e c t r i c i t y and water f o r the project.  These various m i n i s t r i e s and  agencies would also be responsible f o r operation and maintenance of the. infrastructure, community f a c i l i t i e s and services. f.  During the project preparation, active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  decision-making  process f i l t e r e d down to the lower levels of the  hierarchy, e.g. strong contacts were established with RLDO'S, regional engineers, etc. Because of the complexities and uncertainties of the Project (an in-depth knowledge of the s i t e s was necessary i n order to assess them) and because of the need to gear the project design and management to the capacity of the l o c a l administration, i t was necessary f o r the lower elements i n the hierarchy to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making  process during project preparation when such  aspects were being considered. g.  Communication l i n e s i n Appendix l0-2> show that the whole of the  Urban Development Department was involved i n preparing the Project. The IDA Preparation Mission established contact with a l l the divisions i n the Department.  There was substantial coordination between d i f f e r -  ent divisions and sections within the Urban Development Department. h.  Due to shortage of s t a f f , the Sites and Services Section r e l i e d  - 55 -  heavily on the assistance of the consultants i n preparing the project. As a r e s u l t , the consultants almost became part of the Sites and Services Section of Ardhi. the consultants.  Technical decisions were mainly l e f t to  - 56 -  Chapter 5.  APPRAISAL OF THE PROJECT  The preparatory  work on the Sites and Services Project did not end  with the IDA preparation mission.  The Sites and Services Section of Ardhi  continued with the preparation of the Project for the IDA appraisal mission i n August, 1973. Appraisal of a project i s done exclusively by the IDA s t a f f .  The mission studies the project thoroughly i n order to  make sure that the solutions arrived at are the best solutions under the given circumstances.  How d i f f i c u l t the appraisal i s depends very much on  how the project has been prepared. part i n preparing relatively  Since the IDA s t a f f had taken active  the Sites and Services Project, the appraisal was  straightforward.  Most of the information  that IDA required p r i o r to the appraisal  mission was made available to them by the Sites and Services Section (see Section 4.4).  The IDA appraisal mission mainly concentrated on the  f i n a n c i a l and organizational aspects of the project. 5.1  Project Financing and Organization An important aspect of the appraisal i s to ensure the existence of  an adequate financing plan which w i l l make s u f f i c i e n t funds available for constructing the Project on schedule.  The cost financing of the  Project i s shared between IDA and the Tanzania Government i n the following proportions,  according  to the various components of the project.  - 57 -  Table 4 Proportions  of Project Costs (1000 Tanzanian S h i l l i n g s ) Shared Between IDA and Tanzania  Component of the Project  Total Cost  *  Government Financed  IDA Financed  —  % IDA Financed  —  4,530  4,530  Infrastructure  31,557  11,045  20,512  65%  Community F a c i l i t i e s  12,019  4,207  7,812  65%  8,755  2,189  6,566  75%  700  100%  Land A c q u i s i t i o n  Technical  Assistance  Equipment/Vehicles  700  —  THB-Construction Loan  45,000  31,000  14,000  31%  Contingencies  17,083  5,979  11,104  65%  119,644  58,950  60,694  50.8%  TOTAL  Note: This component of the project i s e n t i r e l y financed by the Tanzanian Government, or the recipient country. The World Bank does not normally contribute towards the land a c q u i s i t i o n costs involved i n any of their projects. Source:  National Sites and Services Appraisal, IDA, Annex 1, Table 3.  The main issue i n project financing i s usually that of placing a value on the land used for project s i t e s .  In Tanzania, the land a c q u i s i t i o n  costs f o r the Project consist of compensation f o r crops and e x i s t i n g  - 58 -  houses which are demolished.  Since a l l the land i n Tanzania i s vested  i n the State by Freehold T i t l e s Conversion and Government Leases Act,  1973,  no land purchase costs are included i n the project. The IDA appraisal mission also dealt with the issues of goods and services procurement and the disbursement of funds. Bank's "Guidelines on Procurements" (IBRD, 1974,  According to the  p. 21), the Bank usually  requires the r e c i p i e n t country to obtain goods and services for the project through i n t e r n a t i o n a l competition.  However, because of the  fragmented and diverse nature of the Sites and Services Projects, i t i s sometimes impractical to enforce this requirement on the r e c i p i e n t country. As a r e s u l t , project contracts are tendered i n such a way  as to a t t r a c t  the widest possible biddings from a l l types of l o c a l firms with the award going to the lowest bidder.  Since one of the objectives of the s i t e s and  services programme i s to promote employment opportunities, the Bank encourages construction work to be executed under labour-intensive methods. The IDA mission considered d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s of grouping Project contracts i n such a way  as to a t t r a c t small contractors - e.g.  tendering  roads and drainage i n one contract, water and sewage i n the other. i t was  However,  f i n a l l y decided by the mission that a l l the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e on each 21  s i t e should be contracted i n one package, except for power supply. The disbursement of IDA funds (loans or credits) i s governed according to the Bank's regulations on "Disbursement" (IBRD, 1974,  p. 21).  ment of funds by the Bank i s made only a f t e r there i s acceptable  Disburseevidence  - 59 -  that the work has been carried out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . for  Disbursement of funds  this p a r t i c u l a r project would be made based on the following conditions: a.  The Bank can disburse funds for c i v i l works either by reimbursing  the borrower, i n which case evidence of f u l l payment i s required, or by making part payments d i r e c t l y to the -contractors.  In the  case of t h i s project, the former method of disbursing the loan was in effect.  S i x t y - f i v e per cent of the cost of a l l c i v i l works, i . e .  infrastructure, community f a c i l i t i e s  and the Ardhi I n s t i t u t e building,  would be made against payment c e r t i f i c a t e s endorsed by consultants and approved by Ardhi. b.  The Bank would pay a l l of the foreign expenditure  costs f o r  consultant's services, including the t r a i n i n g programme for developing  the necessary l o c a l manpower.  c.  The Bank would pay a l l of the c . i . f .  prices for imported goods,  or would pay the ex-factory price of l o c a l l y manufactured equipment/ vehicles, or would finance the expenditure  of imported goods purchased  locally. d.  The Bank would finance f i f t y per cent of the amount disbursed by  THB  f o r early construction loans.  In order to help the THB i n the  early stages of the programme, IDA would i n i t i a l l y  disburse 50% of  the loan amounts paid by the THB, even though IDA's t o t a l contribut i o n would be only 31% of the THB's o v e r a l l costs for this project. Since the THB i s the p r i n c i p a l lending agency for the Project's construction loans, the IDA appraisal mission studied both the administrative  - 60 -  capacity of the THB  for handling  and programmes of the THB.  the Project, and the lending p o l i c i e s  The THB  i s governed by a Board of Directors  which i s made up of eight to twelve members including the P r i n c i p a l Secretary of Ardhi.  The Board of Directors largely determines the  p o l i c i e s and procedures of the THB. administers  and c a r r i e s out the THB  The head o f f i c e i n Dar es Salaam operations  i n the country.  Though  the THB has branch o f f i c e s i n some upcountry towns, the head o f f i c e i n Dar es Salaam remains the f o c a l point of a l l operations. mission was  The appraisal  s a t i s f i e d with the s t a f f i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the Bank; at the time,  the THB had a s t a f f of more than one hundred persons - this was three years ahead of i t s s t a f f i n g plans.  The THB  almost  also receives technical  assistance from Norway and Sweden to f i l l vacant positions while Tanzanians 22 are being trained. The lending rate of the THB was proposed by the mission that the THB  also examined by the mission.  should increase i t s 6% lending rate  for low-income revolving funds for the new But i t was  I t was  s i t e s and services projects.  u n l i k e l y that the Government would accept this proposal because  of the Government's policy to subsidize housing for low-income groups. The IDA did not endeavour too much to influence the Government's p o l i c y over this issue because the IDA's proposed contribution was to the t o t a l THB needs.  Moreover, a new  create administrative problems for the 5.2  small compared  rate for lending IDA funds would THB.  Changes i n the Content of the Project The content of the proposed project underwent some changes at the  - 61 -  appraisal stage. of 6,400 new  The Tabata West area i n Dar es Salaam, which consisted  p l o t s , was  dropped.  In view of the number of p l o t s involved  i n Tabata West, which i s well over one-half  the t o t a l number of plots  included i n the three project s i t e s i n Dar es Salaam, the area was  con-  sidered too large for the e f f e c t i v e administration and implementation of the Project.  Also, the v i a b i l i t y of the Tabata West area depends on the  construction of the proposed Port Access Road to serve t h i s area. this road has not yet been constructed, suitable as a location for the Project.  this area was  Since  not p a r t i c u l a r l y  Moreover, since the size of the  Sites and Services Project had to be reduced to bring the costs within the l i m i t of t o t a l IDA project c r e d i t , the most f e a s i b l e solution was  to drop  the Tabata West area. The revised proposal consisted of approximately 10,600 serviced plots located as follows: - about 7,450 plots i n three s i t e s i n Dar es Salaam - Sinza, Kijitonyama  and Mikocheni;  - about 2,300 plots i n Mwanza; - about 850 plots i n Mbeya. The proposed improvement of the public transportation f a c i l i t i e s and services operating on Morogoro Road i n Dar es Salaam was was  also omitted.  It  concluded, i n l i g h t of the f e a s i b i l i t y study carried out by the consul-  tants on Bus Transportation for Sites and Services Areas i n Dar es Salaam, that such an improvement programme could not be implemented without  -  reviewing  the o v e r a l l bus  62  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i n Dar es Salaam.  the s c a l e of such a t a s k , i t was the S i t e s and  -  Due  to  found t o be u n f e a s i b l e t o i n c l u d e i t i n  Services Project.  Though the two  i t e m s d e s c r i b e d above were o m i t t e d  f r o m the P r o j e c t ,  t h e r e were a l s o t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n s t o the P r o j e c t : - An e x p a n s i o n of the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s of the Town P l a n n i n g programme a t the A r d h i I n s t i t u t e .  This should enable A r d h i . t o  a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y to f i l l S i t e s and  Services  train  the v a c a n t p o s i t i o n s i n the  Section.  - An improved t r a i n i n g programme f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l s t a f f o f A r d h i be c a r r i e d out by the c o n s u l t a n t s - New  to  f o r the p r o j e c t .  community f a c i l i t i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f e l e v e n community  c e n t r e s , one h e a l t h c e n t r e , seven d i s p e n s a r i e s and  education  e l e v e n markets.  - A p i l o t p r o j e c t t o improve the n u t r i t i o n a l awareness of the househ o l d s i n s i t e s and - A new  services  areas.  f i n a n c i a l arrangement t o i n c l u d e the THB  programme of  'soft'  c o n s t r u c t i o n l o a n s f o r low-income groups. - An e x p a n s i o n of IDA p r o j e c t c r e d i t t o cover the f u l l c o s t s of  the  equipment and v e h i c l e s f o r the p r o j e c t . The  s i z e o f the s q u a t t e r improvement programme was  an a d d i t i o n o f the Mwanjelwa s q u a t t e r a r e a i n Mbeya. i n b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and of Manzese A and B i n Dar  also increased  by  Thus, improvements  a d d i t i o n a l services i n e x i s t i n g squatter  es Salaam and Mwanjelwa i n Mbeya w i l l be  areas provided  - 63 -  for about 8,800 dwellings. Additionally, i t was  proposed that consultants would be h i r e d to carry  out the design, engineering,  and supervision of the Project.  These consul-  tants would perform these tasks for the basic infrastructure and community f a c i l i t i e s of .the Project. preparation:  They would also be engaged to undertake the  of the follow-up  s i t e s and services projects.  The monitoring of the Project, which would be carried out during the implementation of the Project, was  added during the appraisal stage.  monitoring of the Project would include the assessment of the extent which the objectives of the Project are being achieved.  The to  Information derived  from this monitoring would be used to plan future s i t e s and services projects 5.3  Design Standards The appraisal mission paid substantial attention to the design standards  of the basic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for the Project.  Design standards were mainly  determined by the cost per p l o t that could be paid for by the households at  the lower end of the household income scale.  However, the design of  the infrastructure would allow for future expansion of these f a c i l i t i e s . For example, i n d i v i d u a l house connections for water and e l e c t r i c i t y would be possible as f i n a n c i a l circumstances of the plot-occupants  permit.  The e f f e c t s of soaring prices also played a v i t a l r o l e i n determining the design standards for the project. increased from $US  7 m i l l i o n to $US  Though t o t a l IDA c r e d i t o f f e r s  8.5 m i l l i o n during the appraisal stage,  - 64 -  project costs were also r i s i n g due to i n f l a t i o n .  Because of these  increased costs, i t was l i k e l y that further cuts i n standards would be proposed during the negotiation stage i n order to keep the plot costs within the budget.  Such a measure would be i n e v i t a b l e since IDA refused to enter-  t a i n any requests  for further increases i n IDA c r e d i t for the Project,  i r r e s p e c t i v e of further increases i n the project costs. Nevertheless,  one of the s a l i e n t features of the Project was that  serviced plots i n the s i t e s and services areas would be available at a price lower than the market rate of unserviced p l o t s .  For example, to  rent a room i n Manzese (a squatter settlement) would cost about 60/= per room per month; an occupant of a serviced p l o t i n the Sinza s i t e s and services area would make t o t a l monthly payments of about 52.5/= per month, which would include statutory ground rents, chargeable ground rents, and average construction loan payments for building a house on the plot (see Section 5.4 below). 5.4  Plot Charges One of the important issues examined by the appraisal mission was  the question of plot charges i n these s i t e s and services areas.  Some  important changes were i n s t i t u t e d i n the Government's p o l i c y on land tenure to s u i t the Sites and Services Programme.  I t had been the Govern-  ment's p o l i c y since independence to issue short-term  "Right-of-Occupancy"  (renewable on a yearly basis), leases i n high density areas. ment charged the plot-occupants  The Govern-  i n these areas fixed ground rent and  - 65 -  permitted construction of temporary t r a d i t i o n a l houses. density areas, long-term Rights-of-Occupany  In some high  leases were issued.  The p l o t -  occupants i n these high density areas were charged a fixed ground rent which varied according to the s i z e and l o c a t i o n of the p l o t .  The ground  rent did not include the charge for the minimal urban services provided to these p l o t s .  The plot-occupant, on accepting the Right, was also  required to pay the high front-end costs f o r the provision of these services. Ardhi found i t necessary to review i t s land tenure p o l i c i e s and procedures  for the Sites and Services Project i n order to help low-income  people obtain serviced plots i n the Project areas.  These revisions would  also make i t possible f o r low-income people to have access to c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s to b u i l d permanent houses i n these areas.  The Sites and  Services Section, i n collaboration with the Lands D i v i s i o n of Ardhi, i n s t i t u t e d the following changes i n the Government's land tenure p o l i c i e s : a.  Plot-occupants i n the s i t e s and services schemes (which are  categorized as high density) would be issued with long-term Rightsof-Occupancy f o r twenty-five years.  This long-term Right-of-  Occupancy would qualify the plot-occupants f o r the THB house construct i o n loans. b.  The plot-occupants would be required to b u i l d permanent houses  i n these schemes.  The minimum value covenant (usually about 15,000/=  i n high density areas) would not be included i n the Right, and the  - 66 -  Township (Building) Rules would not a f f e c t the plot-occupants s i t e s and services scheme.  i n the  However, the houses b u i l t i n the s i t e s  and services schemes must comply with the Government's c r i t e r i a for the economic l i f e of dwellings; the Sites and Services Section, i n collaboration with the National Housing and Building Research Unit (NHBRU) and the THB,  are working on suitable house designs for these  schemes to meet the budget of the low-income households, c.  The ground rent charged to the plot-occupants  in two parts:  would be divided  statutory ground rent for the p r i v i l e g e of using  the  land, and chargeable ground rent for the cost of on-site i n f r a s t r u c ture provided  to the p l o t s .  Ardhi's e f f o r t s to review the land tenure p o l i c i e s for the Sites and Services Project coincided with the Government's e f f o r t s to reshape i t s land tenure p o l i c i e s . Charge) Act of 1974  This has led to the new  whereby a l l plot-occupants,  Land (Rent and regardless.of  Services density  areas, w i l l be charged on the basis of the s i z e and location of the plots and the services provided 5.5  to these p l o t s .  Appraisal of the Project Implementation Procedures The organizational aspects of the project have already been discussed  i n the l a s t chapter.  One of the administrative units for the Sites and  Services Project that needs further emphasis i s the Regional Land Development Offices (RLDO).  These Offices w i l l be the p r i n c i p a l bodies i n d i r e c t  contact with the plot-occupants  during the i n i t i a l stages of implementation  -  The  67  -  f u n c t i o n o f the RLDO's i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s p r o j e c t  includes:  - to p r o c e s s the a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r , and the a l l o c a t i o n o f , p l o t s ; - to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e i n the f o r m a t i o n o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s f o r the r e s i d e n t s o f these schemes; and - to e s t a b l i s h l i n k s with other agencies i n t h e i r regions i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t , such as the THB r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , s i t e o f f i c e s , e t c . The o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and community facilities  f o r the p r o j e c t would be c a r r i e d out by v a r i o u s o t h e r  i n the r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  offices  F o r example, the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s o f  M i n i s t r y o f Communication and Works i n t h e p r o j e c t c e n t r e s would c a r r y out the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f r o a d networks i n t h i s p r o j e c t .  The  community f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be managed and m a i n t a i n e d by the s t a f f s under the R e g i o n a l Educat i o n O f f i c e r s , R e g i o n a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s , e t c .  The funds  f o r the maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f these f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r i n the annual budget o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n a l The  offices.  IDA a p p r a i s a l m i s s i o n a l s o l o o k e d i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  h a n d l i n g o f funds d u r i n g the implementation  o f the P r o j e c t .  I t was agreed  upon by t h e Tanzania Government and the IDA t h a t the c e n t r a l Government i n s t i t u t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a n d l i n g the funds f o r the P r o j e c t would be the T r e a s u r y .  The IDA would make the c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e t o the T r e a s u r y  which i n t u r n would channel t h e funds t o A r d h i through i t s normal procedures.  The T r e a s u r y would a l s o make a v a i l a b l e the proposed  of the funds t o the THB. at 3% i n t e r e s t  budgetary portion  The T r e a s u r y would l e n d the funds t o the THB  f o r twenty-five years.  The THB would r e l e n d the funds f o r  - 68 -  house construction at 6% i n t e r e s t .  The additional 3% interest charged by  the THB on i t s borrowing rate would mainly be used for future loans, a f t e r administrative and other costs generated by the Project were met. The THB would maintain separate records f o r the Project expenditures and other housing loans. The Finance and Office Services Unit, which prepares Ardhi's Annual Development and Recurrent budget, would work in.conjunction with the Units' Accounts Section to prepare monthly expenditure reports for the Project. These project expenditure reports would be presented regularly to the P r i n c i p a l Secretary.  The Housing Finance Services Section would also be  concerned with the day-to-day  detailed records of project expenditure.  The c o l l e c t i o n of payment for plots and f o r THB loans would be handled either by the employers of the plot-occupants through salary deductions, or by the regions themselves.  These payments would be forwarded to the  Treasury through the central banking system.  Plot-occupants can also  choose an option to make payments d i r e c t l y to the THB or through a housing cooperative.  - 69 -  Chapter 6.  THE EARLY STAGES OF THE PROJECT:  ANALYSIS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  The completion of the appraisal stage concludes the descriptive part of t h i s study.  While the f u l l impact of the Sites and Services Project  i s not yet known, some analysis can be made about the early stages of this Project.  There are several areas where p o t e n t i a l problems might arise  i n the Project which might reduce i t s o v e r a l l effectiveness.  Some of  these problems w i l l be looked at and some possible recommendations for improvements w i l l be  6.1  considered.  Manpower and Administrative One  Capacity  of the main problems that might a r i s e i n the Project i s that  some of the i n s t i t u t i o n s might not be able to carry out the tasks assigned to them.  The i n s t i t u t i o n s involved i n the Project, as we have seen e a r l i e r ,  range from the central executing body (Ardhi) to other m i n i s t r i e s , paras t a t a l organizations, and various regional and d i s t r i c t  administrations  (see Appendix 12). Under the Government's decentralization plan, the regional  administra-  tions are responsible f o r providing most of the services needed to make land available for development and for c o n t r o l l i n g land use i n both urban and r u r a l areas.  The regions should be largely self-managing under the  decentralization plan and should enjoy managerial independence s i m i l a r to that of the M i n i s t r i e s .  Thus the regional administrations  should be  greatly involved i n l o c a l decision-making and i n the execution of regional  - 70 -  plans prepared by them. was  The Sites and Services Project, to a large extent,  centrally planned with regions and d i s t r i c t s of the three urban  centres functioning i n i t i a l l y as information banks during the preparation of the Project.  But these regional and d i s t r i c t administrations have been  delegated various tasks of project implementations. One of the c r i t e r i a for choosing  the three urban centres was  the  executive capacity of the regional and d i s t r i c t administrations to operate and monitor the Project.  However, there are c e r t a i n  inadequacies  i n these administrations that might create b a r r i e r s to the e f f e c t i v e and planned operation of the project.  The two basic inadequacies  are the lack  of trained manpower and the i n e f f i c i e n t work d i s c i p l i n e i n these administrations.  These problems, e s p e c i a l l y the former, also a f f e c t the Sites and  Services Section i n Ardhi. 6.1.1  Manpower Problems.  This problem has been well recognized  and  provision has been made i n the Project to conduct suitable t r a i n i n g programmes at the Ardhi Institute to meet the manpower requirements of the Project.  Additional t r a i n i n g programmes for technicians (e.g.  engineers  and surveyors) would be conducted by the consultants to f u l f i l l the manpower needs of the Project. One  of the conditions negotiated by the IDA concerning  this project  i s that Ardhi would f i l l a l l vacancies at professional levels within the Sites and Services Section by June 1974.  The vacancies  architect/planners, three c i v i l / s a n i t a r y engineers  included  two  and one land o f f i c e r .  - 71 -  According to the IDA/Ardhi agreement on this project, the Sites and Services Section would be given p r i o r i t y over other departments i n Ardhi i n r e c r u i t i n g trained personnel from the Ardhi I n s t i t u t e . Though the Ardhi I n s t i t u t e i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of Ardhi, Archi has l i t t l e control over the a l l o c a t i o n of graduates from this Institute.  The a l l o c a t i o n of manpower to government i n s t i t u t i o n s i n  Tanzania i s handled by the Central Establishment ministries.  and not by the i n d i v i d u a l  Moreover, since there i s competition from other i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n need of trained manpower, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain the extent to which Ardhi would be successful i n securing trained people f o r the Sites and Services Section of Ardhi.  Manpower shortages and a l l o c a t i o n i n e f f i -  ciencies can cause serious drawbacks i n the implementation of the present Sites and Services Project and i n the planning of future projects. The shortage of s k i l l e d manpower i s also f e l t i n the regional and d i s t r i c t administrations.  Decentralization has i n t e n s i f i e d the need f o r  s k i l l e d t e c h n i c a l and administrative personnel at the regional and d i s t r i c t levels.  The Regional Land Development Offices (RLDO) of the three urban  centres included i n the Project are at present not adequately staffed to carry out the technical and administrative implementation tasks assigned to them.  Additional s t a f f w i l l also be required to plan and  implement any new s i t e s and services projects. Moreover, since the housing a c t i v i t i e s i n the regions w i l l increase in the future with the introduction of new s i t e s and services projects  - 72 -  and other housing projects, i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r the Regional Land Development Officers to carry out the tasks of administering and coordinating both the land development a c t i v i t i e s and the housing a c t i v i t i e s i n the regions.  Therefore, i t would become necessary, i n the future,  that new posts for Housing Officers i n the regional administrations (possibly under RLDO's) be created to carry out the tasks of planning and coordinating a c t i v i t i e s i n the regions. Recommendations: i.  Ardhi should ensure that the Manpower A l l o c a t i o n Committee, under  the Central Establishment,  has made adequate provision to f i l l i n the  vacant posts i n the Sites and Services Section required by the IDA/ Ardhi Credit Agreement on the Project. ii.  Ardhi should make a l l e f f o r t s to f i l l i n the f i v e approved posts 23  of housing o f f i c e r s i n the regions.  The three regions involved i n  the Sites and Services Project should be given p r i o r i t y i n t h i s respect.  Ardhi should also endeavour to create Housing Officers  posts i n the other urban regions. 6.1.2  Work D i s c i p l i n e .  The success of project implementation does  not only depend on the amount of s k i l l e d manpower i n the administrations involved i n the Project.  Elements of work d i s c i p l i n e that are p a r t i c u l a r l y  c r u c i a l f o r the success of the Project are high degrees of r e l i a b i l i t y and competence within these administrations. One example of this type of administrative problem i s the misallocation  - 73 -  of compensation funds for the project.  In one region, the compensation  funds for the s i t e s and services scheme i n Manzese were allocated to compensate households i n the Kisuto squatter area.  Another example i s  the valuation of property for compensation and plot a l l o c a t i o n procedures for the Project.  In one Parliamentary  Session, the issue of malpractice  in property valuations for compensation i n an area of Dar es Salaam created great concern among the Members of Parliament. Such i l l i c i t and corruptive practices a f f e c t i n g these  important  components of the Project could reach proportions that seriously affect the various s o c i a l and economic benefits the Project i s expected to generate.  Though procedures for centralized p l o t a l l o c a t i o n have been  worked out i n the form of an a l l o c a t i o n point system to promote the i n t e g r i t y of the o f f i c i a l s involved, the c e r t a i n degree of d i s c r e t i o n exercised by these o f f i c i a l s could a f f e c t plot a l l o c a t i o n  procedures.  The executive capacity i n terms of manpower and i n terms of work d i s c i p l i n e of these administrations can be best regarded as a supply problem and executive capacity can be considered inadequate only i n comparison with the demands made on i t .  For example, the o r i e n t a t i o n of  the d i s t r i c t administrations towards managing day-to-day tasks and towards tackling the short range p r i o r i t y projects i n the d i s t r i c t s , might affect the e f f i c i e n c y with which they can execute long-range projects l i k e Sites and Services Project.  the  For example, the present e f f o r t s to carry out  the TANU Directives on V i l l a g i s a t i o n and C u l t i v a t i o n constitute the bulk  - 74 -  of the work schedule i n a l l the d i s t r i c t s i n Tanzania.  As a r e s u l t , i t  might prove d i f f i c u l t for the d i s t r i c t administrations involved i n the Sites and Services Project to devote t h e i r attention and resources to e f f e c t i v e l y implement the project. Recommendations: i.  The administrative system should be revised to minimize the  discretionary powers of the o f f i c i a l s involved i n plot a l l o c a t i o n and compensation, procedures.  This could take the form of supervision  by Ardhi o f f i c i a l s at d i f f e r e n t stages of the Project.  For example,  administrative assistants from the Finance and Services Unit of Ardhi might temporarily be assigned the task of supervising and monitoring  the compensation procedures i n the regional administration.  A tendency does e x i s t for Ardhi to take over problem tasks from the regional and d i s t r i c t administrations i n order to minimize delays i n project implementation.  Hwever, these short cuts should be avoided  whenever possible because they often f a i l to strengthen  the e x i s t i n g  and future working relationships between Ardhi and the d i s t r i c t administrations. ii.  The Sites and Services Section should i d e n t i f y the various  stages  of the Project that would need possible administrative and technical supervision to ensure the smooth running of the Project, iii.  The regional administrations should be involved as much as  possible during the entire Project.  Many large scale housing projects  - 75 -  ( l i k e s i t e s and services p r o j e c t s ) , however, would have to be c e n t r a l l y planned, at least for the near future, u n t i l the have adequate manpower and technical resources themselves.  Therefore,  regions  to plan the projects  a high degree of involvement i n the Project  would not only help to t r a i n the regional administrators  for planning  future projects, but would also contribute towards stimulating a sense of team work and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y necessary for the success of the Project.  One  of the ways i n which regional involvement could be  promoted i s by ensuring that the regional administrators  involved  i n the Project p a r t i c i p a t e i n various meetings and discussions related to the Project.  This would a s s i s t the regions i n acquiring a clearer  idea of t h e i r role i n the whole project, which would i n turn help to promote better s e n s i t i v i t y on the part of these administrations toward the Project.  Such meetings would also help the peripheral  i n s t i t u t i o n s involved i n the Project (e.g. Ministry of  Education,  Ministry of Health, TANESCO, etc.) to acquire o v e r a l l knowledge of the Project. 6.1.3  Loan Recovery Procedures.  dual plot-occupants  In order to ensure that the i n d i v i -  of the s i t e s and services schemes do not default on  payments for housing loans and plot charges, the i n d i v i d u a l p l o t occupants were o r i g i n a l l y required to make these payments either through a salary check-off system or through housing cooperatives.  However, both  these loan recovery procedures suffer from weaknesses which may  cause  defaults i n loan payments and subsequent s o c i a l drawbacks to the projects.  - 76 -  Defaults i n loan repayments might occur through the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the employers to channel regularly the funds acquired through the salary check-off system.  I t i s not yet clear whether such defaults i n payments  occur because of i n e f f e c t i v e administrative and accounting procedures i n the organizations where the effected workers are employed or because of 26 misallocation of these funds by the employer - or both. There i s another organizational drawback that might a r i s e through these loan recovery procedures.  Since housing cooperatives, especially  for low-income groups, have yet to gain strength i n Tanzania, the alternat i v e of a c q u i s i t i o n and payment of loans through housing cooperatives may prove to be less popular with the THB than the salary check-off system. But the salary check-off system might only apply to those who are employed i n the formal sector and therefore have a registered income. This may prove s o c i a l l y discriminatory (Turner, 1974, p. 40) because i t may add to the already e x i s t i n g gap between the low-income people who enjoy the benefits of being employed i n the formal sector and those low-income people employed i n the informal sector and not protected by such benefits. Recommendations: i.  Ardhi should make e f f o r t s to strengthen the Housing Cooperatives  Section with established manpower.  I t was pointed out that one of  the main reasons why housing cooperatives were not given much emphasis i n the Project was because of the inadequate manpower capacity of the Housing Cooperative Section to deal with the housing cooperative  - 77 -  component of the Project, ii.  The Housing Cooperative Section should concentrate on enhancing  the role of housing cooperatives f o r low-income groups.  The need  for shelter i s a primary one and the heads of households, however poor, have been able to f i n d the shelter f o r their f a m i l i e s , however inadequate these shelters may be.  Often the inadequacies of these  shelters have been due to the lack of s k i l l s and the lack of f i n a n c i a l resources by these low-income households.  But i t i s known that the  t o t a l amount of s k i l l s and resources that go into these inadequate shelters could be organized to produce housing of much higher stan- : dards.  Cooperative housing organizations may be one of the p r i n c i p a l  means by which the available s k i l l s and f i n a n c i a l resources could be organized to produce good q u a l i t y , low-cost housing, iii.  The administrative and accounting l i n k s established between the  THB and various employers through the Workers' and^Farmers' Housing Development Fund should be used to overcome defaults i n repayment of loans.  The Workers' and Farmers' Housing Development Fund (Finance  and Management) Act 1974 imposes a levy of 2% of the gross s a l a r i e s and wages paid by any employer with ten or more employees.  The levy  i s paid by the employers, and i s channeled through the Commissioner for Income Tax to the Workers' and Farmers' Development Fund which i s administered by the THB.  This fund w i l l not only add to the  f i n a n c i a l resources of the THB to help increase i t s lending a c t i v i t i e s  - 78 -  in Tanzania, but w i l l also help to strengthen the accounting and administrative t i e s between the employers and THB.  This w i l l help  to a l l e v i a t e defaults of payments through the salary check-off iv.  Workers' Councils, set up i n a l l organizations  system,  to safeguard the  interest of the employees, should be entrusted with the task of ensuring  that the loan repayment funds are regularly deducted by  the employers.  6.2  Selection and Design Aspects of the Project In the process of s e l e c t i n g the proper locations and the proper  technical designs for the Sites and Services Project, there are a number of suggestions which could possibly increase the o v e r a l l effectiveness of the Project.  More important, however, i s the fact that some improve-  ments i n these areas might be useful i n any further such projects.  This  i s e s p e c i a l l y relevant since i t has been learned that the IDA has shown interest i n supporting 6.2.1  other s i t e s and services projects i n Tanzania.  Selection of Urban Centres.  The major c r i t e r i a that influenced  the s e l e c t i o n of the urban centres for the Sites and Services Project were:  administrative capacity, urban growth impacts, geographical  and employment and i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l .  location,  Since these c r i t e r i a were used  to j u s t i f y the undertaking of the Sites and Services Project and  strongly  influenced the choice of suitable urban centres where these schemes could be located, they seem to be most relevant i n the.selection of the urban centres for s i t e s and services projects.  Therefore,  these c r i t e r i a should  - 79 -  play an important role i n the selection of urban centres for future s i t e s and services projects. Recommendations: i.  As many urban centres as possible should be involved i n the next  s i t e s and services projects, so that the benefits accrued from such investments can be spread over a larger geographical spectrum of the country. ii.  Prime examples of urban centres for the next s i t e s and services  projects are Dar es Salaam, Tabora and Iringa (see Appendix 32). Dar es Salaam, being the largest urban centre i n Tanzania, w i l l continue to experience rapid population growth, mainly from rural-urban migration.  Though Dar es Salaam w i l l evenutally lose i t s status of  c a p i t a l c i t y to the planned c i t y of Dodoma, i t w i l l continue to remain a major centre for economic and commercial a c t i v i t i e s i n Tanzania. Tabora, having demonstrated the capacity to successfully plan and implement a s i t e s and services project, and having found the need to plan a project i n spite of a comparatively low rate of urban growth (2.3%), should be considered as a p o t e n t i a l urban centre 27 for the next project. Iringa i s experiencing a high rate of urban population growth (10.3% per annum).  The high rate of urban growth i n Iringa i s  stimulated by the i n d u s t r i a l expansion of the urban centre.  Iringa  - 80 -  i s also the centre f o r marketing the a g r i c u l t u r a l products from i t s f e r t i l e and prosperous hinterland.  Potential iron-ore mining  resources  i n the Chunya area of the Iringa region w i l l also contribute towards i t s growth as an important urban centre i n the southern part of Tanzania.  Thus Iringa should be treated as one of the prime urban  centres f o r the next s i t e s and services project. 6.2.2  Selection of Project S i t e s .  The main factors contributing  towards the s e l e c t i o n of project s i t e s i n Dar es Salaam, Mwanza and Mbeya were: - technical considerations, e.g. adequate o f f - s i t e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , suitable s o i l conditions f o r a cheap sewage disposal system, etc.; - planning considerations, e.g. the s i t e s selected were i n accordance with the master plan of the urban centres; - employment considerations, e.g. the l o c a t i o n of these s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n to employment f a c i l i t i e s ; - neighbourhood considerations, e.g. the v i a b i l i t y of squatter improvement programmes. The most important single factor which influenced the choice of the majority of locations f o r the s i t e s and services schemes was the proximity of these schemes i n r e l a t i o n to employment. However, s u f f i c i e n t attempts were not made at exploring the possible advantages of developing  small scattered s i t e s nearer to the c i t y  centres  where the majority of the employment opportunities e x i s t rather than  - 81 -  developing centres.  a few large s i t e s on the semi-urban fringes of these urban The proximity of low-income r e s i d e n t i a l areas to the sources of  employment can be a determining factor i n the economic development of the residents of the s i t e s and services schemes.  Projects located far from  the employment sources because of low land costs can be disastrous to the occupants who  financially  have to bear the extra cost of transporta-  t i o n to work. As pointed out by an IDA o f f i c i a l , experience i n many developing countries reveals that transportation costs appear to r i s e i n d i r e c t proportion to the distance from a project to the c i t y centre. these considerations, i t would be preferable  In view of  i n the future to select  small scattered s i t e s nearer to the c i t y centre for s i t e s and services projects rather than a few large ones located further out.  Furthermore,  since i n most urban centres, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Dar es Salaam, smaller s i t e s nearer to the c i t y centres are being s e t t l e d by squatters, such areas could be treated as p r i o r i t y squatter improvement schemes for future s i t e s and services projects. Another factor that should play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n of project s i t e s i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n to the urban d i s t r i c t s .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important where there i s more than  one project s i t e selected i n an urban centre.  Concentration  of project  s i t e s i n a single d i s t r i c t i n an urban centre imposes heavy duties of project implementation under one d i s t r i c t , and might r e s u l t i n i n e f f i c i e n t  - 82 -  task execution.  For example, a l l the present project s i t e s i n Dar es  Salaam are concentrated i n Kinondoni D i s t r i c t . i n project implementation  This might cause problems  since the scale of the project might be too  large for the capacity of Kinondoni D i s t r i c t administration. Recommendations: i.  Small scattered u r b a n - i n f i l l s i t e s should be selected for s i t e s  and services projects, i f possible, ii.  Dar es Salaam should concentrate on squatter improvement pro-  grammes i n areas closest to the c i t y centre; e.g. squatter areas that have developed around Pugu Road i n d u s t r i a l areas, Temeke and I l a l a (see Appendix 3.3). iii.  Project s i t e s should cover more than one d i s t r i c t i n an urban  centre where more than one project s i t e i s selected. 6.2.3  Dwelling Units.  The infrastructure design of the Project  has been worked out i n great d e t a i l .  But the design of the dwelling units  has not been given much emphasis i n the Project.  The IDA appraisal  mission contacted the THB on the subject of house designs for the Project. But the THB designs l e f t much to be desired by the mission.  The  THB  representatives had no knowledge about the market value of their proposed designs.  Most of the design proposals were arbitrary and did not pertain  to any design c r i t e r i a .  The National Housing and Building Research Unit  (NHBRU) has carried out valuable research on b u i l d i n g materials and certain house designs which could be used f o r the Sites and Services  - 83 -  Projects.  However, i n view of the scale of the present project and i n  view of future s i t e s and services projects, i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the NHBRU and the THB to contribute s p e c i f i c a l l y towards house design for urban low-income communities. For example, one of the aspects of house design f o r low-income communities that should be given emphasis i s the concept of b u i l d i n g .the dwellings i n stages.  Installment b u i l d i n g rests on the premise that a  family, having b u i l t the minimum l i v i n g space i n a short span of time, can move into that space and thereafter expand the house as time and funds allow.  This type of construction i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable f o r low-  income groups who are neither e l i g i b l e nor can afford to take loans from the THB for single-phase house construction.  In order to b u i l d houses  i n installments, an i n d i v i d u a l needs i n i t i a l financing to b u i l d a minimum room to l i v e i n while h i s family gradually makes e f f o r t s to b u i l d the  28 rest of the dwelling. Installment b u i l d i n g also helps to cover some of the shortcomings of self-help operations, i . e . the owner-builder has often no place to l i v e i n while he builds the dwelling.  Frequently the owner-builder has already  spent h i s funds on a squatter's hut or l i v e s f a r from the s i t e of the dwelling he i s b u i l d i n g . The i n d i v i d u a l plot-occupants, having obtained plots i n the s i t e s and services schemes, s t i l l face the problems of b u i l d i n g the dwellings. Generally, self-help housing schemes i n urban areas have had l i t t l e  - 84 -  success compared to the success such schemes have had i n r u r a l areas (USAID, No. 65). This i s primarily because the individuals i n urban areas have much less free time than people i n r u r a l areas, and therefore generally f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to devote enough time to b u i l d their own houses (Bienfied, 1970, p. 17). Furthermore, the non-seasonal nature of urban a c t i v i t i e s , the fact that people i n urban areas cannot depend on the supply of free labour from their friends and r e l a t i v e s , and the enforcement  of urban b u i l d i n g by-laws d i c t a t i n g the design and construction  of houses a l l create drawbacks to the successful undertaking of self-help b u i l d i n g of dwelling units i n urban areas. However, self-help housing does not necessarily mean that the houses have to b u i l t e n t i r e l y by the owners.  Self-help housing projects can  have a high component of casual labour paid by the owners.  However, low-  income residents of these schemes do not have the money to have their houses b u i l t i n this way, nor the access to laon f a c i l i t i e s for borrowing the money, nor the f i n a n c i a l circumstances to permit them to assume such amounts of long-term debt. Another c r u c i a l factor, e s p e c i a l l y i n house designs for low-income groups, i s that designs and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s should be acceptable to the owner-occupants who pay for the house and i n most cases are responsible for b u i l d i n g the houses.  Therefore, c r i t e r i a emphasizing the l i v i n g  patterns of these low income groups and the required l i f e - s p a n of the dwelling, should be used as a basis for designing low-income dwelling units.  - 85 -  Recommendations: i.  The NHBRU and the THB should channel part of their resources to  work on designs for dwelling units suitable for s i t e s and services schemes. ii.  D i f f e r e n t aspects of suitable house designs should be developed  with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of low-income people, iii.  Design coordination between the Sites and Services Section and  the NHBRU should be promoted during the i n i t i a l stages of future s i t e s and services projects, iv.  Rural construction units under the Prime Minister's O f f i c e and  the technical s t a f f from NHBRU should a s s i s t i n supervising s e l f help construction of the dwellings i n these schemes, v.  The review of b u i l d i n g by-laws should be i n i t i a t e d as soon as  possible.  This task should be c a r r i e d out by the NHBRU i n coordination  with the THB.  6.3  Socio-Economic Data The i n s u f f i c i e n t socio-economic data on the target population for the  Sites and Services Project has forced the planning team to use the 'Urban Labour Force Survey' (ERB, the Project.  By monitoring  1971)  as a source of socio-economic data for  the present project, various  information  c o l l e c t e d w i l l be used to plan future s i t e s and services projects.  How-  ever, there w i l l be some projects that w i l l be planned i n the immediate future before this information i s a v a i l a b l e .  Thus i t i s e s s e n t i a l for  - 86 -  i n s t i t u t i o n s within Ardhi (e.g. NHBRU) and other research i n s t i t u t i o n s (Economic Research Bureau, BRALUP, etc.) to recognize the immediate need to conduct socio-economic  research on the population groups to be served  by future projects. This research should emphasize the physical, s o c i a l and economic factors that influence the l i v i n g environment of low-income communities i n urban areas.  Research i n these f i e l d s would help to design  neighbour-  hoods to s u i t the l o c a l conditions and to r e f l e c t and enhance the l i v i n g patterns of these communities. Recommendations: i.  The Sites and Services Section should establish contacts with  the ERB and BRALUP to f a c i l i t a t e research on socio-economic  factors  related to urban low-income groups. ii.  The present project should be c a r e f u l l y monitored  from the i n i t i a l stages of project execution.  and evaluated  - 87 -  Chapter 7.  CONCLUSION  Because the National Sites and Services Project i n Tanzania encompasses the provision of basic urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for new low-income r e s i d e n t i a l areas and for improvements i n e x i s t i n g squatter  settlements,  the Project i s i n keeping with both the Tanzania Government's urban housing p o l i c y and the o v e r a l l development objectives of the Second Five Year Development Plan of Tanzania.  In the context of the World Bank, the  Project i s i d e n t i f i e d with the Bank's contemporary p o l i c y of supporting s i t e s and services projects i n the urban sectors of developing countries to a s s i s t both the socio-economic and physical aspects of urbanization i n these countries. There i s a general consensus among Ardhi o f f i c i a l s and IDA o f f i c i a l s involved i n this Project that i t has so f a r been successful.  That i s ,  the o f f i c i a l s mean that the Project, i n the process of attaining a form that i s acceptable both to the Tanzania Government and the IDA, has not suffered any major shortcomings i n the planning process and the Project has been running s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .  Though many would not disagree with t h i s  point of view, there exists some concern over the successful implementat i o n of the Project, as noted i n the previous chapter.  Implementation  of any project, i n p a r t i c u l a r foreign aid projects, i s the r e a l test f o r the recipient country's a b i l i t y to mobilize i t s technical and administrat i v e resources i n a coordinated  manner.  Furthermore, the successful planning of the Project has to a large  - 88 -  extent been attributed to the leadership of one expatriate i n Ardhi has been i n charge of the National Sites and Services Project. course of this study,, i t was Project i s 'a one-man show . 1  In the  often pointed out to the author that the This might not be altogether true since the  expatriate has a capable Tanzanian counterpart who equally e f f i c i e n t l y .  who  can  'lead' the project  However, i t seems that by v i r t u e of his background  t h i s expatriate has operated as the v i t a l l i n k between the Tanzania Government and the World Bank during the entire undertakings of the Project examined i n this study.  In spite of the fact that this 'link' has been  advantageous both to the Tanzania Government and the IDA i n successfully planning this Project, i t seems to cast some shadow of doubt on the strength of future l i n k s between the IDA and Ardhi for the planning of future s i t e s and services projects a f t e r t h i s expatriate has completed his services with the Tanzania Government. On the other hand, the Tanzania Government's decision to invest i t s resources or i n i t i a t e foreign aid investment i n undertaking other s i t e s and services projects should rest upon the extent to which the Project has been e f f e c t i v e . The two  fundamental questions  present  that could be  posed to measure the degree to which the Project has been e f f e c t i v e are: a.  To what extent have the benefits of the Project reached the target  population? b.  Has  the Project been successful i n creating a viable i n s t i t u t i o n a l  framework?  That i s , are the executing agencies of the Project able  - 89 -  to plan and implement other s i t e s and services projects a f t e r the f i r s t intensive input by IDA? Answers to these questions would assist both the IDA and the Tanzanian Government to evaluate the p o t e n t i a l i t y of further investment i n s i t e s and services projects i n Tanzania.  This type of information would also  help the IDA to evaluate the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of the experience of the Sites and Services Project i n Tanzania to other developing  countries.  This study of the National Sites and Services Project i n Tanzania should not be treated as a complete study of the Project but should be looked upon as a background to various other studies that would provide further insight into the understanding of s i t e s and services projects. Examples of various studies that could follow from this study of the Project are: a.  A study of the implementation of the Project.  Such a study would  not only cover an important stage of the project cycle that i s not included i n t h i s study, but would also indicate the operational and i n s t i t u t i o n a l aspects of the Project that need attention when undertaking future s i t e s and services projects. b.  A socio-economic study related to the low-income population  residing i n the s i t e s and services schemes. c.  A study focussing on how f a r the s i t e s and services projects  have been successful i n a l l e v i a t i n g the housing shortage of lowincome groups i n these urban centres where the schemes have been undertaken.  - 90 -  Apart from the fact that these studies would a s s i s t i n understanding the f u l l implications of s i t e s and services projects i n Tanzania, such studies would also add to the limited knowledge that exists on s i t e s and services projects i n developing countries.  FOOTNOTES  "In the process of e s t a b l i s h i n g this export economy i n the colonies, the metropolitan powers furthered the economic interests of the producers and exporters of these raw materials, which prevailed a f t e r the independence of these colonies and as a r e s u l t p r e c i p i t a t e d the growing 'dependence' of these countries on the economic interests of the metropolitan (Frank,. 1972, p. 89). Pounds i n P o l i t i c a l Geography describes 'nation-state': A modern state i s l i k e l y to show the greatest s t a b i l i t y and permanence when i t corresponds closely with a nation. In such instances the state i s the p o l i t i c a l expression of the nation, the mechanism through which the welfare of the nation i s safeguarded and i t s i d e n t i t y preserved. The purpose that the state f u l f i l l s i n these cases i s obvious. But a nation state i s very much a phenomenon of our times, and not a l l states have become nation-states; some are multinational such as the old Hapsburg Empire; some l i k e Canada and Czechoslovakia, even today have two d i s t i n c t nations.(Pounds, 1972, p. 12). It was pointed out by a Swedish expert at Ardhi that though Swedish.aid to Tanzania i n the future would continue to be provided on a grant basis, i t would be t i e d to procurement of goods and services from Swedish suppliers. Peter Marris i n "Social Perspective" i n Development of a Divided World (1971, pp. 84-104) c i t e s examples of s o c i a l values i n developing countries which he thinks are detrimental to the Western notion of economic development. For a closer examination of one p a r t i c u l a r aspect of i n h i b i t i n g s o c i a l customs i n developing countries, see " S o c i a l Barriers to A f r i c a n Entrepreneurship" by Marris i n Journal of Development Studies, 1968/69, Vol. 5-6, pp. 29-38. Marris considers entrepreneurship to be a v i t a l component i n the process of economic development, but views the creation of an 'entrepreneurial c l a s s ' i n developing countries as an u n l i k e l y occurrence i n l i g h t of the existing s o c i a l structure. Here i t i s assumed that most foreign aid projects have a large component of foreign experts working on the project during i t s i n i t i a l stages. For short notes on Tanzania and for the physical l o c a t i o n of i n A f r i c a , see Appendices 2 and 3.1.  Tanzania  - 92 -  The operational d e f i n i t i o n of the term 'urban' i n Tanzania i s an area whose population i s primarily engaged i n non-agricultural a c t i v i t y . Through personal communication with Ardhi o f f i c i a l s i t was found that the public sector i n Tanzania has not undertaken any houses costing under 15,000/=. The closest the National Housing Corporation has come i s 17,000/=. In Tanzania a l l Government organizations are referred to, o f f i c i a l l y and otherwise, by their short forms i n Swahili (the National language). Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development i s referred to as Ardhi, which i n Swahili means land. The Ministry w i l l be referred to as Ardhi i n this study. For other abbreviations used i n the study, see Appendix 1. 10  11 12  13  14  15  16  M i n i s t e r i a l records include working f i l e s and c o n f i d e n t i a l f i l e s on the National Sites and Services Project. For detailed summary of the m i n i s t e r i a l records i n chronological order, see Appendix 4. A l l Government p o l i c y papers are presented  to ECC for approval.  The UNDP advisor who worked with the IDA economic mission i s the present Housing Finance advisor to Ardhi on the UNDP aid programme. He has been instrumental i n working out the National Sites and Services Project, The mission produced a report i n four volumes c a l l e d 'The Economic Development and Prospects i n Tanzania" i n March 1972. The Urban Development and Housing Sector i s discussed i n Volume I I , Appendix I I I , of t h i s report. "In many areas of the world, including developing countries, a dwelling i s considered to be overcrowded i f i t has more than two persons per room." (Project Planning Associates Ltd., "National Capital Master Plan Dar es Salaam", TS2, Planning Studies, June 1968.) In s p i t e of the fact that such measures of overcrowding are subjective and c u l t u r a l l y determined and therefore not transferable, the above measure of overcrowding i s often used as a rough r u l e of thumb to e s t a b l i s h the approximate magnitude of the problem, and i s so used i n this table. Most of the information on these centres was obtained from 'Sites and Services Project', by R. M e r r i l , Ardhi, pp. 3-8. For the geographical l o c a t i o n of these urban centres i n Tanzania, see Appendix 3.2. In s e l e c t i n g squatter improvement areas for the project, the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a was based on the existence of well-constructed housing and viable neighbourhoods i n these settlements.  - 93 -  17  18  The t r a d i t i o n a l size of surveyed plots i n Tanzania i s 400 square meters. The Government now recognizes the need to reduce plot sizes i n order to improve land use e f f i c i e n c y and to lower i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l costs per p l o t . In the proposed project, the minimum and predominant plot size i s 280 square meters. Smaller plots are not recommended because of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of land, the size of the t r a d i t i o n a l Swahili house (120 square metres), and the space requirements for equipping each plot with a p i t l a t r i n e . A t y p i c a l Swahili type house i s constructed of bush poles and mud and consists of four to s i x rooms separated by a central corridor which i s used as a cooking place during rainy seasons. The owner-occupant usually rents one or two rooms. At the rear of the p l o t , there i s generally an out-building which covers the p i t l a t r i n e , kitchen and storage space. The following are the various organizations that the preparation mission had contact with during the project preparation: Organization  O f f i c i a l Met  Ministry of Finance  Director, External Finance; Deputy Secretary  Devplan  Economic Advisor (SIDA); Economist, Health Service  Ardhi  Acting P r i n c i p a l Secretary; Acting Commissioner for Housing; Acting Commissioner for Lands; Commissioner for Surveys and Mapping; Chief Valuer; Cooperative O f f i c e r ; UNDP Housing, Finance Advisor, Planning Advisor; Director, National Housing and Building Research Unit  THB  General Manager  NHC  General Manager  Dar es Salaam Municipal Transportation  Chairman and Managing Director  TANESCO  Acting General Secretary; Acting Chief Transmission Engineer  Dar es Salaam Municipal District  City Treasurer; City  Ministry of Health  Health Economist  Engineer  - 94 -  19  Ministry of Water Development  Planning Engineer  COWIconsult (Danish Consultants)  Resident Manager; C i v i l Engineer  UNDP  Resident Engineer.  For the administrative structure of the regions and the p o s i t i o n of the Regional Land Development O f f i c e i n the context of the regional administration, see Appendix 11. ' ,  The Ardhi I n s t i t u t e i s a parastatal organization established under the Ardhi I n s t i t u t e Act (1974). This i n s t i t u t i o n provides t r a i n i n g at the sub-professional l e v e l i n surveying, valuation and town-planning for positions within Ardhi, the National Housing Corporation, the Registrar of Buildings, etc. In Tanzania, the Tanzania E l e c t r i c Supply Company (TANESCO) i s the only organization responsible for the supply of power i n the country and i s responsible for any construction work involved i n the supply of power. However, TANESCO would not meet the costs for the supply of power to the project s i t e s through i t s own budget, and the supply of power to these s i t e s would have to be financed through IDA c r e d i t . In a l a t e r interview with a THB o f f i c i a l , i t was learned that the THB i s currently s u f f e r i n g from a shortage of manpower because of recent expansions i n lending a c t i v i t i e s i n Tanzania and i s currently behind i t s s t a f f plans. Out of the twenty posts for Housing O f f i c e r s proposed by Ardhi for the Second Five Year Development Plan, only f i v e were approved by the Central Establishment i n June 1974. Tanzania i s a one-party state and the r u l i n g party i s the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) (see also Appendix 2). TANU has representation at each l e v e l i n the Governmental administrative hierarchy. At the regional and d i s t r i c t l e v e l , the TANU representatives are Regional Commissioner and D i s t r i c t TANU Chairmen respectively. The TANU representatives perform the task of seeing that the TANU d i r e c t i v e s are carried out through the regional and d i s t r i c t administrations . The TANU D i r e c t i v e on V i l l a g i s a t i o n ' r e q u i r e s the d i s t r i c t administrations in Tanzania to encourage the movement of people i n c e r t a i n areas of  - 95 -  Tanzania to planned v i l l a g e s i t e s . Also, i n view of the problem of food shortages i n Tanzania, the TANU Directive requires the d i s t r i c t administrations to organize the expansion of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s in their d i s t r i c t s . Both these d i r e c t i v e s are high p r i o r i t i e s i n Tanzania. In order to avoid further misallocation of funds, Ardhi has decided to i s s u e . i n d i v i d u a l cheques f o r compensation to the affected houseowners instead of delegating t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Regional Land Development Director (RDD). It was learned that the National Housing Corporation suffered through this problem of default i n payment for one of their housing schemes. The problem reached a point whereby Treasury threatened to deduct the necessary funds from the s a l a r i e s of the accountants of the i n s t i t u tions involved. Tabora has undertaken a squatter improvement programme through i t s regional budget a l l o c a t i o n . I t was learned that Tabora i s the only region i n Tanzania which has taken the i n i t i a t i v e to plan and undertake such a project on i t s own. In fact, installment b u i l d i n g i s the only way many low-income families without savings can get their houses b u i l t . I t may seem more p r a c t i c a l to save u n t i l there i s enough to pay for the house, but savings are not always possible and convenient f o r low-income groups.  - 96 -  LIST OF REFERENCES  Fatouros and Nelson. "Canada's Overseas Aid", of International A f f a i r s , 1964.  i n The Canadian I n s t i t u t e  Frank, G.A. Capitalism and Underdevelopment i n L a t i n America. and London: Monthly Review Press, 1969. . Lumpenbourgeosie: Lumpen Development. Monthly Review Press, 1972.  New York  New York and London:  Friedman, Milton. "Objectives of Foreign Aid", i n Bhagwati and Ekaus (eds.), Foreign Aid. Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books, 1970. Hawkins, E.K. The P r i n c i p l e s of Development Aid. Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books, 1970. Healey, J.M. 1971.  The Economics of Aid. London:  Routledge and Kegan Paul,  Hoyter, H. " P r i n c i p l e s Governing Housing Aid to Underdeveloped Countries", i n Study of International Housing. Sub-Committee on Housing, Committee on Banking and Currency, United States Senate, United States P r i n t i n g . O f f i c e , .1963. International Bank of Reconstruction and Development. "The Economic Development and Prospects i n Tanzania . . March 1972. 1  .  1  "Urbanization Sector Working Paper".  June 1972.  . "Economic Development and Prospects i n Tanzania". 2, Annex 3: "Urban Development and Housing". June 1972. .  "Sites and Services Project".  Volume  Paper No. Sec. M74-239, A p r i l  1974. International Development Association. "Tanzania - Appraisal of National Sites and Services Project". Urban Projects Department, 1974. . Tanzania - Sites and Services Project Preparation Mission, Office Memorandum of Urban Projects Department, A p r i l 1973. Leaning, J .  "Low-Cost Housing i n Tanzania - A Factual Analysis".  - 97 -  McNamara, R. "Address to the Board of Governors". Nairobi, Kenya, September, 1973. Nyerere, J.K. The Arusha Declaration and TANU's Policy on Socialism and Self-Reliance. Dar es Salaam; TANU P u b l i c i t y Section, 1967. Ohlin, G. "Foreign Aid P o l i c i e s Reconsidered". 1966.  Development Centre, OECD,  . " C r i s i s or Consolidation i n Foreign Aid?", i n Foreign Aid and Rural Development, Proceedings. University of Dar es Salaam Seminar, 19-23 January 1970. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). "Resources For The Developing World, The Flow of F i n a n c i a l Resources to Less Developed Countries, 1962-1968". OECD, 1966. Robinson, R. "The Argument of the Conference", i n International Cooperation i n Aid, Cambridge Conference on Development Problems, Cambridge: Jesus College, 4-7 September 1966. Spicer, E. (ed.). Human Problems i n Technological Change. Russell Sage Foundation, 1952.  New York:  Streeton, P. A i d to A f r i c a - A Policy Outline f o r the 1970's. York: Praeger Publishers, 1972.  New  Stren, R. "Urban Squatting i n Tanzania with Special Reference to Dar es Salaam". Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Planning Unit, 1973. Turner, J . Consultant's Report to the World Bank Appraisal Mission for Sites and Services Proposal of the Government of Tanzania, August 1973. United Republic of Tanzania.  The Second Five-Year Development Plan.  7  . An Extract from the Budget Speech of the Minister for Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Estimates 1973/74. Dar es Salaam, 1973. Wolf, 0. J r . "Some Aspects of the 'Value' of Less Developed Countries to the United States", i n G. Rosen, Democracy and Economic Change i n India. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1967.  - 98 -  Appendix 1 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Ardhi:  Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development  ComWork:  Ministry of Communication and Works  DDD:  D i s t r i c t Development Director  DLDO:  D i s t r i c t Land Development Office  DevPlan:  Ministry of Economic Development and Planning  ECC:  Economic Committee of Cabinet  Education:  Ministry of Education  Health:  Ministry of Health  IBRD:  International Bank of Reconstruction and Development  IDA:  International Development Association  NHBRU:  National Housing and Building Research Unit  NHC:  National Housing Corporation  RDD:  Regional Land Development Director  RLDO:  Regional Land Development O f f i c e  TANESCO:  Tanzania E l e c t r i c Supply Company  THB:  Tanzania Housing Bank  Treasury: UNDP:  Ministry of Finance United Nations Development Programme  - 99 -  Appendix 2 SHORT NOTES ON TANZANIA* Location and Situation The United Republic of Tanzania i s situated on the eastern side of the A f r i c a n Continent.  It l i e s south of the Equator, between the areas  of the great lakes - V i c t o r i a , Tanganyika and Malawi - and the Indian Ocean.  Tanzania's coast-line stretches for 500 miles along the Indian  Ocean.  I t i s bounded on the north by Kenya and Uganda, on the east by  the Indian Ocean, on the south by Mozambique, on the south-east by Malawi and Zambia, and on the west by Congo (Kinshasa), Burundi and Rwanda. The t o t a l area of 362,688 square miles includes 19,982 square miles of inland water. The section of the United Republic known as Zanzibar comprises  the  islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, and a l l i n l e t s within 12 miles of their coast, including uninhabited Latham Island, 36 miles south of Zanzibar Island. Topography Most of Tanzania l i e s on a plateau about 3,000-4,000 feet above sea level.  The numerous r i f t s i n the plateau make communication and transpor-  tation across the country d i f f i c u l t .  This area i s also very dry with an  * Most of the information was obtained from: World Mark Encyclopedia (section on A f r i c a ) , and Tanzania i n Maps, by L. Berry.  - 100 -  average annual r a i n f a l l w e l l below 30 inches. Although three great r i v e r s - the N i l e , the Congo, and the Zambezi, have their origins i n Tanzania, the country has few permanent r i v e r s . During half the year, the Central Plateau has no running water, but i n the rainy season, flooding presents a problem.  The main rivers are the  Pangani, whose source i s Mount Kilimanjaro and the Wami, R u f i j i , Great Ruaha, Mbenkurua and Ruvuma Rivers s t a r t i n g from the Usambaras Mountains and draining the central plateau.  Only the R u f i j i and Kagera are  navigable. Two-thirds of Zanzibar Island, p a r t i c u l a r l y the central and eastern portions, consists of low-lying coral country covered by bush and grass plains; this area i s largely uninhabited except f o r a f i s h i n g settlement on the coast.  Apart from the b e l t of coral country i n the east, the  island i s f e r t i l e and densely populated. Climate There are three climatic zones covering Tanzania. a.  These are:  The Coastal area and the immediate hinterland with t r o p i c a l  conditions, i . e . high humidity, average temperatures  about 80° F, and  an annual r a i n f a l l between 40" to 76"; b.  The Central Plateau, with considerable d a i l y and seasonal  temperature^variations, but primarily hot and dry, e.g. annual r a i n f a l l between 20" and c.  30";  The Semi-Temperate Highland areas with a mild climate that i s  both healthy and invigorating.  - 101 -  The climate on the islands i s t r o p i c a l but the heat i s tempered by sea breezes that are constant throughout the year, except during the rainy season.  Population The population of Tanzania was estimated at 13.6 m i l l i o n i n 1972. Because of the general lack of water and the prevalence of the tse-tse f l y , about two-thirds of the people l i v e i n about 10% of the t e r r i t o r y . The most densely-populated regions are the elevated areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Usambara Mountains around Kilimanjaro, Meru on the shores of Lake V i c t o r i a and i n the Southern Highlands.  The population density i n 1969  was 13 people per square kilometre (137 i n Zanzibar) and the annual rate of population increase between 1963 and 1968 was about 2.5 per cent. Apart from the 120 African t r i b e s i n Tanzania, there are also people of non-Arican origins residing i n Tanzania.  In 1966 over  7.5%  (85,000) of the non-Africans were Asians (mainly from India and Pakistan) but the absolute number has gradually decreased since then.  Other non-  Africans include Arabs (25,000), Europeans (20,000 from some t h i r t y d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s ) , Somalis,  Syrians and Chinese.  The l e v e l of population density i s affected by a variety of circumstances.  Urban areas have p a r t i c u l a r l y high population densities as  large numbers of people have found employment i n i n d u s t r i a l and service a c t i v i t i e s i n these concentrated locations.  In r u r a l areas small population  clusters can occur where there i s some concentration of non-agricultural  - 102 -  activities.  For example, the l o c a t i o n of some mining communities, such  as Mwadui and Kiabakari and those on the Lupa Goro f i e l d s , explains certain l o c a l clusters i n these r u r a l areas.  However, the major deter-  minant of population density i n the r u r a l areas i s the type of a g r i c u l t u r a l system employed by the l o c a l population.  The lands occupied by nomadic  p a s t o r a l i s t s have markedly d i f f e r e n t population densities from those occupied by maize/beans/cattle  a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s or those inhabited by  coffee/banana cultivators and r i c e  farmers.  P o l i t i c a l Party The Tanganyika A f r i c a n National Unit (TANU) was founded i n 1956 by Julius K. Nyerere and i s the sole l e g a l party i n Tanzania. been the r u l i n g party since Independence i n 1961.  TANU has  TANU o f f i c i a l l y  favors nonracialism, equalizing economic opportunities, and u t i l i z i n g the country's resources for Tanzania as a whole.  TANU encourages the  formation and development of cooperatives and trade unions. The party i s divided into branches organized l o c a l l y , and then grouped into d i s t r i c t s , and f i n a l l y grouped into regions.  The TANU National  Executive Committee has 66 members (34 of whom are e n t i t l e d to vote) and contains representatives from the Labor Federation, the Cooperative Union, the Youth League, the regional committee chairmen, the National Assembly, and the President's and Attorney-General's  offices.  TANU's p r i n c i p a l p o l i c y - and decision-making  body.  The Committee i s A central committee  of 20 members of the National Executive Committee, appointed by the  - 103 -  President from persons resident i n or near Dar es Salaam, i s called into action i n case of emergency. a year.  A TANU delegate's conference meets once  In addition there are d i s t r i c t , area, and regional conferences  and meetings of regional committees. Concerned about.the growing gap between the people and the government, Dr. Nyerere resigned the premiership i n January 1962 i n order to give f u l l time work to TANU and to interpret the government program d i r e c t l y to the people.  Later that year he was  newly-organized Republic.  elected to the Presidency of the  He was re-elected to this post for a five-year  term i n 1965; i n November 1970, when 95% of the b a l l o t s were cast i n h i s favour, he was re-elected for a t h i r d term.  International Cooperation Tanganyika was admitted as a member of the U.N.  on 14 December, 1961,  and i t became a member of some of the specialized agencies.  Tanzania  i s also a member of CCTA, the Commonwealth Nations, the Organization of African Unity, and other inter-governmental organizations.  With Kenya  and Uganda, Tanzania belongs to the East A f r i c a n Common Services Organization. Income The gross domestic product at market prices for 1968 was T Shs. 8,089 m i l l i o n , compared with T Shs. 7,120  m i l l i o n i n 1966.  National income  t o t a l l e d T Shs. 7,587 m i l l i o n i n 1968, compared with T Shs. 6,606 m i l l i o n i n 1966.  - 104 -  Economy The growing of foodstuffs f o r l o c a l consumption and the production and export of primary produce form the basis of Tanzania's economy. The chief commerical  crops are s i s a l (of which Tanzania i s the world's  largest producer), coffee, tea, cotton and oilseeds.  The most important  minerals are diamonds and gold, and there are known deposits of coal, iron, and other minerals whose exploration i s not yet commercially feasible.  Animal hides and skins are a valuable export.  Industrial  a c t i v i t i e s focus mainly on the processing of raw materials f o r export and l o c a l consumption.  Secondary manufacturing industries are increasing i n  the p r i n c i p a l towns as the economy begins to mature.  Although most of  the people are peasant farmers, they are increasingly being attracted to  cash crops, especially through cooperative s o c i e t i e s .  Agriculture Although most farmers s t i l l grow subsistence crops with t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t i v a t i o n techniques, they are increasingly producing f o r the market and adopting new methods of c u l t i v a t i o n and conservation introduced by the government. P r i n c i p a l food crops are corn, r i c e , sorghum, and pulses.  Chief  cash crops are s i s a l , cotton,and coffee, and oilseeds, nuts, sugar, tea, pyrethrum,  and tobacco are also becoming increasingly important.  Industry Most i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n Tanzania consists of the small-scale  - 105 -  processing of l o c a l food and raw materials.  However, there i s also a  broad range of i n d u s t r i a l l y produced goods, including aluminium cookware, block f l o o r i n g , bricks and t i l e s , metal containers, chemical products, coir and s i s a l matting, i n d u s t r i a l glass, leather goods, n a i l s , paint, precast concrete, razor blades, rubber products, sheet metal work, shoes, soap, t e x t i l e s , meerschaum pipes, beer, soft drinks, p l a s t i c s , i n s e c t i c i d e s , and clothing.  Many towns and v i l l a g e s have cottage  industries that make wearing apparel, shoes, and various household items.  Modernization of established enterprises, and setting up of new  ones, has been taking place steadily as a result of tax concessions and other benefits granted by the Government.  Labor The estimated number of wage-earning workers employed i n 1968 400,000.  was  Of these, about 200,000 were i n agriculture, forestry and  f i s h i n g ; 8,000 i n mining and quarrying; 30,000 i n manufacturing; 30,000 i n construction; 18,000 i n commerce; 30,000 i n transport, and communications; 75,000 i n service, and the remainder  i n government employment.  The larger urban centers have both unemployed and under-employed workers.  A minimum wage i s fixed by law.  preliminary attempts at settlement.  Strikes are i l l e g a l without  In Dar es Salaam a l l workers are  required to have work permits; unemployed persons are expected to return to the regions of their o r i g i n .  - 106 -  In 1964, by l e g i s l a t i o n of the National Assembly, the thirteen e x i s t i n g trade unions were dissolved and amalgamated into a single national i n s t i t u t i o n , the National Union of Tanganyika Workers (NUTW). A l l employees are t h e o r e t i c a l l y represented by NUTW, the General Secretary and Deputy Secretary of which are p r e s i d e n t i a l appointees.  The  first  General Secretary was also the Minister of Labor. The normal work day i s 8 hours and the work week„is 45 hours.  In  a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , daily tasks are generally assigned and can o r d i n a r i l y be completed within s i x hours.  Labor l e g i s l a t i o n i s generally  in accord with ILO conventions. Housing Tanzania developed a serious urban housing shortage as a result of the i n f l u x of people to the towns i n the postwar period.  A l l postwar  development planning has included considerable f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n s for urban housing schemes.  With private enterprise unable to meet the  demand, the government i n 1951 launced a low-cost housing program, which has been continued since that time.  The F i r s t Five Year Plan estimated  that over 50% of urban dwellers i n Tanzania l i v e d i n overcrowded and inadequate housing.  Two-thirds of the country's houses have neither water  nor t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s .  The plan called for^f20 m i l l i o n (U.K.) i n the  five-year period to be spent on housing and related development. the f i s c a l year of 1968/69, the Government spent about T Shs. m i l l i o n on housing.  16.9  In  - 107 -  Education Most schools are financed wholly or p a r t l y by the central government or by l o c a l authorities.  Of the 794,400 Tanzanians who were enrolled f u l l  time i n educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1968, 770,000 were i n primary  schools,  23,800 i n secondary schools and 600 i n the University of East A f r i c a . In addition, 1,508 students attended u n i v e r s i t i e s overseas. About 53% of school-age children i n Tanzania attend the f i r s t years of primary school, approximately  four  one-sixth go on to upper primary  school, and only 6% enter secondary or trade schools.  Since 1960,  enrollment i n secondary schools has t r i p l e d , and university enrolment i s also increasing.  Other educational f a c i l i t i e s i n Tanzania include  trade schools, a technical i n s t i t u t e i n Dar es Salaam, and a growing number of teacher-training colleges. U n t i l 1961, three d i f f e r e n t school systems existed i n Tanzania, separated f o r A f r i c a n , Asian and European children.  A new three-year  education plan introduced i n 1961 i n i t i a t e d a single integrated system of  education f o r a l l children.  P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was l a i d on expanding  secondary education. ..To meet t h i s growing enrolment at a l l l e v e l s , the two five-year plans concentrated heavily on education; the 1968/69 budget allocated T Shs. 188.7 m i l l i o n f o r education. The University College i n Dar es Salaam opened i n 1961 with a single faculty, law, and a small number of students. added i n 1964 and a science faculty i n 1966.  A l i b e r a l arts faculty was There i s also a medical  school at University College i n Kenya, which i s part of the University of East A f r i c a .  - 108 -  MAP OF AFRICA  - 109 -  NATIONAL  SITES  & SERVICES  PROJECTS  ©  PROJECT  CENTRES  $U  PROPOSED  CENTRES  RAILWAY  APPENDIX 3.2 MAP OF TANZANIA  - 110 to UJ  8 *2 o<  < UJ Ct < _l < K rZ Ul  ui  z  ul  a <  <  TER  _  co <  Ul C0=J UJ o  tec co Q.  O  II  > Ul  <  rZ Ul  9<  a CO  •  CO Uj UJ ct  a<  o  < ct r-  CO  la  o ct r-  co  5  1  2 <D C3<  z  <o met  Of: z to  55  APPENDIX 3.3 DAR ES SALAAM LAND USE 1973  - Ill -  Appendix 4, A SUMMARY OF MINISTERIAL RECORDS 1.  Internal Memo of January 1969 To:  Ardhi Heads of Divisions (Commissioners for Lands, Housing and Directors of Planning).  From:  P r i n c i p a l Secretary, Ardhi  Content: i.  Government i s becoming increasingly blamed for the spread of squatter settlements i n urban areas,  ii.  Things which a t t r i b u t e towards the spread of the squatter settlements are: - i n a b i l i t y of Ardhi to make available s u f f i c i e n t plots to meet the demand for these plots i n the urban areas; - possible corruption i n plot a l l o c a t i o n procedures which frustrate the applicants for plots and consequently make them p o t e n t i a l squatters; - Lands, Housing and Planning divisions i n Ardhi involved with making p l o t s available employ high p l o t standards "at the expense of human, economic and s o c i a l considerations".  iii.  The following l i n e of action should be pursued i n order to increase the processing of p l o t s : - An i n s i t u survey should be carried out so that the e x i s t i n g houses can l a t e r f a l l into the plan when these houses become  - 112 -  due for rebuilding. - Plans should be adjusted to s u i t an e x i s t i n g area, not a prototype plan to serve a l l areas. - Plots should be made available for displaced squatters to move to. - A crash programme, not s c i e n t i f i c surveys, should be undertaken to make simple readjustments  i n squatter areas.  - Ardhi i s pressed to present an ECC paper on housing policy and plot a l l o c a t i o n policy.  2.  Letter of February 1970 To:  Ardhi  From:  President's Office  Content: i.  There are 15,000 applicants a year for r e s i d e n t i a l plots i n  Dar es Salaam, and there are only 3,000 plots available for a l l o c a t i o n each year. ii.  The President's Office wishes_to see immediate action taken  to ensure that plots are made available to these applicants, iii.  The President's Office d i r e c t s that an ECC paper should be  submitted no l a t e r than the second week of A p r i l i n d i c a t i n g action that Ardhi intends to take i n managing this problem.  3.  Letter of May 1970 To:  P r i n c i p a l Secretary, A r c h i  From:  Commissioner for Lands, Ardhi  - 113 -  Content: i.  Two categories of r e s i d e n t i a l plots that have to be made  available: - Plots which require normal procedures of acquiring and surveying of land.  Ouptut of such plots per year i s 3,000.  - Surveying of plots occupied by squatters. ii.  Squatters have agreed to move from the areas which are ready  for surveying but demand that alternate plots be made available to them. iii.  Due to s c a r c i t y of p l o t s , " l e g a l i z e d and organized" squatting  should be allowed i n areas which are not yet surveyed and which do not come under the scheduled master plan development, vi".  Sub-offices should be set up i n certain areas where a person  needing a plot may  go to apply and have his plot "pegged on the  ground", so that l a t e r the area could be supplied with urban services without d i f f i c u l t y . - Due to shortage of manpower, consultants should be hired for this job. - This programme should be coded as a separate project i n the Ardhi's budget. 4.  Draft policy of December 1970 To: From:  Treasury P r i n c i p a l Secretary, Ardhi  - 114 -  Content: .1, i.  Easing of Squatter Problems i n Dar es Salaam At the beginning of the Second Five Year Development Plan, i t  was decided that due to the growing problem of squatters i n Dar es Salaam, and the inadequate  supply of funds f o r paying compensation,  e f f o r t s should be made to provide p o t e n t i a l squatters with serviced plots.  But there are technical and f i n a n c i a l problems that should  be given adequate consideration before Ardhi can undertake the crash programme of making plots a v a i l a b l e f o r these squatters: - Shortage of manpower i n Ardhi to undertake this project.  There-  fore, services of consultants should be sought to work on the project. - Crash programme f o r making available 6,000 plots f o r a l l o c a t i o n i s planned.  Expenses f o r this programme are not included i n the SFYP  budget.  The f i n a n c i a l source f o r this project has to be i d e n t i f i e d ,  ii.  Such crash programmes should be launched from time to time i n  order to contain the squatter problem i n Dar es Salaam. (Treasury, i n reply to this paper, suggested  to Ardhi that the  technical and f i n a n c i a l problems related to this project should be discussed with Ministry of Economic and Development Planning (DEVPLAN). The Commissioner for Housing on taking up this matter with DEVPLAN was t o l d that there were no funds available f o r this programme f o r the remainder of the 1970/71 budget.  The project could only be  - 115 -  implemented i f Ardhi can i d e n t i f y savings within their vote for 1970/71 budget.) 5.  Internal Memo of To:  1970  P r i n c i p a l Secretary, Ardhi  From:  Planning Unit, Ardhi  Content: Frame-Work of Implementing the Crash Programme i.  Objective: To consider measures that could be adopted to ease the backlog of applications for plots i n Dar es Salaam and to outline m i n i s t e r i a l procedural delays i n providing plots,  ii.  Investigation: There are about 10,000 applicants for plots i n Dar es Salaam. Time period between plot a p p l i c a t i o n and plot a l l o c a t i o n i s about eighteen months.  Under "emergency" s i t u a t i o n , this  time period can be shortened to eight months, iii.  Problems: - Shortage of manpower delays the process of a l l o c a t i n g p l o t s . - Administrative procedures are too lengthy.  Each concerned  party feels that within and outside their d i v i s i o n s , the administrative procedures are too bureaucratic.  In many  instances, approval and documentation can be delegated intermediate s t a f f l e v e l s .  to  - 116 -  - P o l i t i c a l considerations sometimes overrule s o c i a l , technical and administrative considerations i n design and layout of d i f f e r e n t areas.  This r e s u l t s i n delays through re-designing.  - Town Planning Division i n i t s design considerations does not sometimes relate to l o c a l conditions; e.g. topography, other natural features of the area. - A v a i l a b i l i t y of surveyed and registered land i s r e s t r i c t e d because: (a) Squatting does not allow s u f f i c i e n t areas to be readily available for survey. (b) Compensation on the other hand encourages squatting and thus prevents rapid development of land. Conclusions - Alternatives to tackle the problem of a v a i l a b i l i t y of p l o t s : (a) Engage consultants to work on the proj ect. (b) Establish 'emergency procedures' within the administrative framework of divisions concerned with the project. (c) E s t a b l i s h a task force of existing s t a f f from each d i v i s i o n concerned with the project. Recommendations: The alternative suggesting the creation of task force, i s recommended.  This task force should be given s u f f i c i e n t  authority and f l e x i b i l i t y to achieve maximum speed i n project implementation.  - 117 -  6.  Internal Memo of August 1972 To:  Commissioner f o r Lands Director of Planning, Comm. f o r Surveys Mapping  From:  P r i n c i p a l Secretary, Ardhi  Content: i.  Preparation and layout of plots has started i n three main areas  in Dar es Salaam - Kijitonyama, Tabata East and Sinza. ii.  Town Planning Department should investigate t o t a l number of  plots that can be made available i n those areas. iii.  Surveys and Mapping D i v i s i o n should check the number of plots  already surveyed i n these areas and estimate how long i t would take to survey the remaining p l o t s .  This d i v i s i o n should also give  an estimate of manpower requirements on the project, iv.  An o f f i c e r should be appointed to communicate d i r e c t l y with  the P r i n c i p a l Secretary. 7.  Policy Paper of October 1973 To: ECC From:  Ardhi  Content: National Sites and Services Programme i.  The urban population of Tanzania continues to grow at a f a r more  rapid rate than the r u r a l population. Dar es Salaam i s 7% per annum.  Estimated growth rate of  Studies have shown that the present  migrant workers i n urban areas are l i k e l y to spend a much longer period of time working i n the towns than t h e i r predecessors and  - 118 -  that these migrants have a higher l e v e l of education than their predecessors. This rural-urban migration puts pressure on the Government to provide services and amenities f o r the urban workers so that they can l i v e more decently and work more productively, ii.  Up to the present time there have been two approaches to  house low-income people: (a)  The National Housing Corporation has b u i l t from 1964-rl971/72, 11,831 low cost housing units throughout the country.  (b)  The provision of surveyed plots i n high density urban areas to individuals who can then b u i l d t h e i r own houses. Both these approaches have not approved s u f f i c i e n t l y adequate  due to shortage of s t a f f and due to shortage of compensation  funds.  These two approaches have to be supplemented by a dramatic new programme to improve the present housing shortage, iii.  Proposal:  - Sites and services f a c i l i t i e s should be provided on a large scale. A s i t e s and services programme would provide necessary infrastructure to r e s i d e n t i a l plots after which the plot occupants are expected to b u i l d t h e i r own houses through s e l f - h e l p . - Sites and services approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to Tanzania because: (a)  I t does not heavily subsidize the housing of urban workers i n an e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l country.  - 119  -  (b)  I t i s based on s e l f - h e l p .  (c)  I t can to a c e r t a i n extent be organized around cooperatives of credit and  savings  associations.  - Based on data such as income d i s t r i b u t i o n , family s i z e , employment s t a b i l i t y and housing needs of i n d i v i d u a l families, standards can be designed such that low-income families do not have to pay more than 10%.„of t h e i r income towards housing. - Contrary to current practice i n high density areas, plot occupants i n the s i t e and services schemes w i l l be responsible for repayment of the f u l l cost of the infrastructure provided.  Only i n t h i s  manner can revolving funds be created for the development of  future  schemes. - In order to provide additional income for plot owners and provide cheap accommodation for those who sub-letting can be included  to  cannot afford a plot,  i n the programme.  To avoid exploitation,  rents for sub-letting can be controlled and measures can be taken to ensure that individuals i n the scheme do not b u i l d on more than one  plot.  - In addition to providing  serviced p l o t s , the programme would  community f a c i l i t i e s but the cost of these f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not  include be  charged to the plot occupants. - Improvement of e x i s t i n g squatter areas would be included programme.  i n the  This would include provision of access roads, surface  water drainage, public water kiosks and e l e c t r i c i t y .  If t h i s  exercise  - 120 -  i s carried out at the same time as the new s i t e s are being  prepared,  unplanned settlements can be r a t i o n a l i z e d and densities decreased as households move to the new schemes, iv.  Finance:  - There are no development funds a v a i l a b l e f o r the s i t e s and services programme.  The Tanzania Housing Bank proposes to spend only a  portion of their lending on 'other a c t i v i t i e s ' which includes s i t e s and services schemes. - Treasury should seek external sources of finance to carry out t h i s project.  The World Bank has already indicated a strong interest  i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s i t e s and services programme through IDA credits.  I f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l loan i s secured, the THB can service  the loan, v.  Organization:  - A s p e c i a l fund would be established at the THB from which a l l o c a t i o n would be made through s p e c i f i c request of Ardhi. - F u l l use would be made of the i n t e r - m i n i s t e r i a l urban development coordinating committee.  In the major urban centres, similar bodies  w i l l be set up to deal with the project. - Ardhi should set up a Sites and Services Directorate which would be responsible for the d e t a i l s and actual implementation of the programme.  In order to speed up the implementation process, the  Sites and Services Directorate should have the option of contracting out d i r e c t l y f o r a l l stages of project development.  - 121 -  vi.  Recommendations:  - The s i t e s and services programme as proposed should be approved and form an i n t e g r a l part of the programme already included i n the SFYP. - The Treasury should seek funds both externally and i n t e r n a l l y to enable the scheme to be started immediately with Dar es Salaam where areas are now available for the Sites and Services schemes. - Ardhi should be the project leader and funds should be made available through the THB.  The detailed mechanism of c o l l e c t i n g  loans, etc., can be worked out between Ardhi, the THB, and the Treasury.  I - 122 -  APPENDIX 5.1 STEPS IN THE NATIONAL PLANNING CYCLE  ...,,..„.,..,  UJ  i. ...  • - ' •  , u,»,,,«^^ Ul  CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CONTROL RELATIONSHIPS  CENTRAL GOVERNMENT PLANNING RELATIONSHIPS  DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE OF T H E C A B I N E T  OEVf LAN  n  MAENDELEO  TREASURY  >w  z  a H o o H o *J o  O  f  PARASTATALS  <  s  1  >  23 H  w w  H  L_j  o  T)  CO 3d M  Tl M CO 2!  O  DISTRICTS  - 124 -  Appendix 6 THE TANZANIA HOUSING BANK  The Tanzania Housing Bank (THB) was established by the Tanzania Housing Bank Act of 1972.  I t replaced the Permanent Housing Finance  Company of Tanzania (PHFCT), a commercial i n s t i t u t i o n jointly.owned by the Government of Tanzania and the Commonwealth Development Corporation (U.K.).  PHFCT was set up i n 1968 to finance medium and high-cost housing  in Tanzania.  The PHFCT funds were expensive because they were borrowed  at a high interest rate from the public, Government and from abroad. The r e s u l t i n g high housing costs and rents l e d to,public c r i t i c i s m and the subsequent by the THB.  takeover of the PHFCT assets, l i a b i l i t i e s and operations  The THB i s a parastatal branch of the Treasury, i . e . a  corporate body with more than 50% of i t s share c a p i t a l owned by the Government.  - 125 -  Appendix 7 THE WORLD BANK The World Bank i s the world's largest developmental i n s t i t u t i o n , consisting of three closely integrated specialized agencies of the United Nations: - The World Bank (International Bank of Reconstruction and Development); - IDA (International Development Association); and - IFC (International Finance  Corporation).  Their purpose i s to help improve the welfare of people i n the developing countries.  Acting on behalf of 122 member governments by which they are  financed and controlled, they perform four main functions: a.  serving asaprofessionally administered channels f o r the e f f i c i e n t  transfer of c a p i t a l from r i c h nations to poor; b.  providing and organizing a wide range of technical assistance  to developing countries, both to public agencies and the private sector; c.  helping to coordinate  external assistance from a l l sources to  individual countries; and d.  serving as a global medium f o r the exchange of development ..ideas  and information,  thus helping to apply the experience of a l l  countries to the problems of each.  - 126 -  The IDA was founded i n 1960.  I t i s administered by the Bank and  lends f o r the same purposes, using the same project c r i t e r i a , i . e . c a r e f u l l y appraised, productive developmental  projects.  The IDA helps  only the poorest developing countries and lends on exceptionally easy terms.  This i s possible because most of the funds are i n the form of  contributions by the 19 wealthiest member governments. an IDA credit f o r the Sites and Services Project.  Tanzania secured  - 127 -  Appendix 8 PREINVESTMENT PROGRAM - STUDY DATA SHEET  Area:  EAST AFRICA  Country:  TANZANIA  Sector(s):  URBAN HOUSING  1.  NAME OF PROPOSED STUDY:  URBAN LOW-INCOME HOUSING AND "SITES  AND SERVICES PROGRAM" 2.  PURPOSE:  (a) Formulate a housing program for the e x i s t i n g and  rapidly increasing housing needs of the urban low-income f a m i l i e s ; (b) make recommendations for the f i n a n c i a l , technical and administrative framework i n which the program w i l l be implemented; and (c) define s p e c i f i c projects f o r early implementation of the program. 3.  SCOPE: Phase I of the study s h a l l :  (a) review and analyze e x i s t i n g  needs for low-income housing i n urban areas; (b) the magnitude of housing needs and the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the low-income people, especially for the Sites and Services Program, i n order to assess how well they are meeting t h e i r stated objectives, and i f not, why not; (c) formulate action programs for low-cost housing and a " s i t e s and services" for the country. Phase II s h a l l :  (d) define s p e c i f i c projects i n both low-cost housing  and " s i t e s and services"; (e) detailed f e a s i b i l i t y of a selected number of projects from (d) above. 4.  BACKGROUND;  Expected Data  (a) Related Studies  Problems.  (b) Other Available Data  (c)  - 128 -  The Second Five-Year Plan, Annual Plans and the Economic Survey; "Low  Cost Housing i n Tanzania - Factual Analysis" and appendix - John  Leaning; "A Note on Low Cost Housing" - J i l l Wells; "Squatter Communities i n Tanzania" and "Housing Cooperatives i n Tanzania" - Stan Benjamin; "A Long-Term Housing Policy for Tanzania" - M.A. Bienefeld; Squatter S e t t l e ments i n L a t i n America" - AID - programs and experiences of a l l the L a t i n American countries i n 1969.  The Housing Needs -'intensive study of  Ministry of Land might be available at the beginning of the Study. 5.  TIMING:  (a) Duration and Phasing of Study  (b) Desired Starting Date  Phase 1 - 6 months  FY73/7A  Phase I I - 6 months 6.  COMMENT ON POTENTIAL STUDY SPONSORS: Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development (Ardhi)  7.  PROJECT(S) EXPECTED TO RESULT FROM STUDY ( i f known): (a). Description  (b) Estimated Investment  (US $ equivalent)  Several low-income housing " s i t e s and  (c) Financing Need and Potential Source  services" projects 9.  STAFF'S COMMENT ON PRIORITY RANKING OF STUDY: Top p r i o r i t y . STUDY DATA SUPPLEMENT  1.  TENTATIVE STAFFING  (a)  Type of S p e c i a l i s t  Number on Team  Total ManMonths  Foreign Professional S t a f f : Housing  1  12  - 129 -  Economist (Project Director)  1  12  Sociologist  1  12  Architect  1  12  "Sites and Services" Expert  1  12  Public Administration S p e c i a l i s t  1  12  6  72  1  12  1  12  Draughtsman  1  12  Secretary  1  12  Total Counter-Part Project Director (b)  Local Professional S t a f f : Housing Economist or F i n a n c i a l Specialist  (c)  Local Supporting Staff:  TENTATIVE STUDY BUDGET (US$ equivalent) (a) Professional Staff Costs  Foreign Currency  Local Currency  200,000  5,000  20,000  1,000  220,000  6,000  Total  (b) Equipment (c) Other (Travel, nonprof, s t a f f , etc.) (d) Total OTHER COMMENTS  226,000  - 130 -  Appendix 9 ESTIMATE OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME DISTRIBUTION (1971 sample updated to 1973, Dar es Salaam)  Wage/Salary Category (T.Shs./month)  Number of Households  Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n of Households  0-100  86  6  101 - 200  143  10  201 - 300  512  34  301 - 400  296  20  401 - 500  125  8  501 - 750  125  8  751 - 1,000  57  4  1,001 - 1,500  52  4  1,501 -  84  6  1,480  Source:  100  Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development.  CO  o  c  rc Co Ef  MINISTRY OF LANDS, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PRESENT ORGANIZATION  Hi 0  cI— o n ft)  t-H 1  3 rt >-i W rt H* O 3 ro0Q  rt cn h-» O 3  <>  n H3 CO  — !?i  o cx o rr •o g  a> 3 CO  rt  > M  N A T I O N A L H O U S I G C O R P R A T I O N  eE gIS iV sT tII rSG aIrA o f F I N A N E I NRV T I O N E S T A I S H M E N TAND A D P L A N ONING D IB VL SC O N Buildings VALUATION E S T A B L I S H M E N T S SU R V E Y S A N D L A N D R E G I S T R M A P I N G T O W NP L A NI N G A D M I N I S T R A T I O N D V I O NY D I V I S O C o m inionar C o m i t s toner C o m i i o r w N A T I O N A L H O U S I N G D B U I L D I N G R E S E A R C H U I T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N I A D M I N I S T R A T I O N A D M I N I S T R A T I O N A D M I N I S T R A T I O N A D M I N I S T R A T I O N A D M I N I S T R A T I O N S I T E S A N D E R V I C E S D I E T O R A T E M A S T E R P L A N S V A L U A T I O N T R A I N I N G . Z O N A L O F I C E S , R MAP P R O D U C T I O N LE IS BE RARC YH AND L A N DR E N TACQUISITION C A R T O G R A P H I C D R A W I N G O F I C E • Primary point of contact for Ministry's puMilih through chairman of thair boards  McKlnaey & Company, Inc.  CO O  n o 3 n n>  rti  CO  ft)  s  3 i-i o O 03 3 3 r t cn  to rt  >J3  c  O  H»  a  3  MINISTRY OF LANDS, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT RECOMMENDED ORGANIZATION TO DIVISION LEVEL  iD  CD CTQ < M O a.  >  •a  3*  gCD  3  N A T I O N A L H O U S I N A N P O W R A N D L D I N G -G V E L O P M E N T R E S E A R C HBUI U I T >iS.M O I V IE SD IE ON  > w pa X H  o o  CO • H  > H  rH  O 25  CO H  • This dorted line indicates a close working relationship on operating matters. Tht General Manager of NHC and the Registrar of Buildings cominut to bt statutorily ntspontibie to their boards, whose chairmen an tht Minister and tht Principal Secretary respectively; they tlso have accatt to tht Principal Sacrttary, at Civil service head of their parent ministry, on important matttn  § o H a  Note:  This chart shows reporting relationship* only; it does not indicate otier working relationships (tMcapt for parmtatalsK nor does it necessarily reflect relative status  McKln**y ft Company, rrrc  _  Communications w i t h a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e A r d h i  CO  o c w O n l-tl O •ro <-> rt> 3 • C O o M H 0) rt 3 o CO r t i—• ii VO O Cr Dt CO 3 3 U) H* ro O 3 ^< ro 09 e>> < ro i— > ii o o O. •o 3" 3 ro 3 CO 1  rt_  I n v t i g a t e a n d m a f c a A n a J y t a f i n a n c i a l a « w c t D a v a l o p f i n a n c i a l p l a n t t o r | A u i n w i t h d a v s t o p m e n t r p w hm ij t o m t n d a t i o r t i o n o f b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c i n t h a p r o g r a r m o f t h t h o m n g p r o g i a lotyfbav n-cal trrolaprnatmhttfhotrtdoawulniorafadtlioongn-stmStaoaurmpnarslityaaJrttnbtahdarlafwidngregions prR nv y h a h u m a n r t q u i r e a a amprRlraaa goagniw odtiuotn racntw iaiidonprodabulycapailldantimppOPd A d v i a t o n t e n i n g u p P l a n a n d m a n a a n a t i a l m t n t o f h o u i a o f l e a J r b u t i n g o p a r a t w t t h a i d t r v c t * p r o j e c t * a q u i p m a n t H a n d l a f u n d i t o r n a t i o n a l T a t k i M o n i t o r h o i n g b r t a ritat a n d a r v i ctiprojact p t r t o r m a n c a Padovicdea tramchnicaJMiitanca 4 • R a t a r c h b u i l d i n g Monitor tht m a l a r i a l i D t g n i m p r o v a d h o u s t l a y o u t ! • P r o v i d a d a t a a h a t i o n b u i l d i n g m t r i a l t a n d m t n o d t implamanutiori of urOan awvatoprnani  TI»I  hoy£na  McKiitary A Company, l u c  _ —  Communications with agencies Outside Ardhi  -  CO 2 CD H o 3 =r c  REGIONAL ORGANIZATION  ro n s: ro ro 3 ro• • ro  3  rt o 2 n O 30 C CD HH- a 3 a- H* CO roN ro Pi rt H-  to  C-! O 3 P a. 3 C 1 n a o • H.  •<;  >  i—•  -  i—i  3 n •  ro  5 a 5M CO  H  2 a H  ADVICE. ASSISTANCE AND ESSENTIA!. SUPPORTIVE SERVICES  n z H a a H  co pd X  H  M  o H K W  8  o H O  S3 >  r  1  DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT  PROGRAMMES  ADVICE. ASSISTANCE AND ESSENTIAL SUPPORTIVE SERVICES  00  o  c s H H to3- n C-l 3 roro toto • • 3 z C Q ro to3 o ra  3 o rf i-! 3 03 cn O toro c 3 to H-  r~•  a. N ro to ~ rt  o o o •*• 3 I  -  3  >n  00  >  H ?a X C w H n z z H a M H 00 C X t^] io N3 > H H O H  > o  1  z  Fl  a  00  H ?o H n H  DISTRICT ORGANIZATION  - 136 -  Appendix 13 LIST OF INTERVIEW PARTICIPANTS  Institution  Official  Date  Place  A p r i l 1974  Washington D.C.  IDA (Urban Projects Department)  George McBride, Project O f f i c e r , Sites and Services Project Missions to Tanzania.  A p r i l 1974  Washington D.C.  IDA (Urban Projects Department)  C. Tager, Research Assistant, Sites and Services Projects Missions to Tanzania.  May 1974  New York  United Nations (Centre f o r Building and Planning)  Mr. Garces, Director  May 1974  New York  United Nations (Centre f o r Building and Planning)  L. Vanesch, Architect  Ministry of Lands Housing and Urban Development.  Continual communications was maintained with the following officers:  Housing D i v i s i o n  R.N. M e r r i l , Housing Finance Advisor (United Nations Development Program), Head of Sites and Services Project.  Sites and Services Section  J. Mghweno, Town Planning O f f i c e r  Sites and Services Section  K. Venermo (Finnish Aid O f f i c e r ) Town Planning O f f i c e r .  Planning D i v i s i o n  R. Catchpole (Canadian International Development Agency) Planning O f f i c e r .  July 1974 : Dar es Salaam to December 1974  137 -  Planning D i v i s i o n  Z. Haule, Director of Planning.  Housing  I. Guhr (United Nations Development Programme), Associate Cooperative Expert  Cooperative  Housing Cooperative Section  S. M i l l i n g a , Cooperative Expert  Hous ing.. Cooperative Section  I. Hansen (Norwegian Agency f o r Interna-: . 1 t i o n a l Development), Cooperative Expert  National Housing and Building Research Unit  H. Kristiansen (Norwegian Agency f o r International Development) , Director  August 1974  D a r e s Salaam  Ministry of Finance  R.R. Mariki, Finance O f f i c e r , External Finance and Technical Cooperation D i v i s i o n .  July 1974  Dar es Salaam  Attorney General's Chambers  Mr. Chenge, Lawyer  July 1974 and Nov. 1974  Dar es Salaam  Tanzania Housing  Mr. Yona, General Manager; Mr. Seip (Norwegian Internat i o n a l Development), Advisor to Tanzania Housing Bank.  July 1974 Dar es Salaam and Dec. 1974  COWIconsult  H. Lehd, Project Engineer  October 1974 Dar es Salaam  IBRD  Bashir Ahmded, World Bank Loan O f f i c e r to Tanzania  December 1974  Dar es Salaam  IDA (Urban Projects)  Dawood Ahmed, Engineer, Sites and Services Project Mission  December 1974  Dar es Salaam  COWIconsult  R. Jacobsen, Project Manager  - 138 -  Appendix 14  PHOTOGRAPHS OF MANZESE SQUATTER AREA  -  139  -  - 140 -  Unsanitary  conditions i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the houses  Outdoor cooking and drying of utensils create health hazards  - 141 -  Unplanned r~ad system  - 143 -  Lack of educational f a c i l i t i e s : Primary school classes conducted under a tree  the open  

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