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Growth of British Columbian native Indian children as assessed from anthropometric measurements Rabeneck, Sonya 1976

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GROWTH OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN AS ASSESSED FROM ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS by SONYA RABENECK B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the D i v i s i o n of HUMAN NUTRITION SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  i s understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS  Date  M^M.  S  i l°!^>-  Columbia  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  i  ABSTRACT A c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l growth study was designed  to obtain  i n f o r m a t i o n on the growth p a t t e r n s o f B r i t i s h Columbian t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n .  Na-  The o b j e c t o f the study was t o e s t a -  b l i s h whether growth p a t t e r n s o f B.C. Native Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s correspond Indian r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n .  t o those o f non-  The study sample c o n s i s t e d o f  a l l c h i l d r e n 6 t o 17 y e a r s a t t e n d i n g the s i x student dences a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department o f Indian and Affairs.  The t o t a l sample s i z e was  i n g 77 r e s e r v e s i n the p r o v i n c e . h e i g h t , weight, arm circumference,  734 c h i l d r e n ,  Northern  represent-  Standing h e i g h t , four s k i n f o l d  resi-  sitting  thicknesses  ( t r i c e p s , subscapular, b i c e p s and s u p r a i l i a c ) , and head cumference were measured  a c c o r d i n g t o the recommendations  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Program 1969).  cir-  Arm muscle diameter,  of  (Weiner and' L o u r i e ,  circumference  r i v e d a c c o r d i n g t o the method o f F r i s a n c h o  and area were de(1974).  Indivi-  dual f i n d i n g s were p l o t t e d , as s c a t t e r diagrams a g a i n s t s t a n dard r e f e r e n c e curves, data f o r which was o b t a i n e d from Caucasian  children.  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e growth d e f i c i t i n s t a n d i n g and s i t t i n g h e i g h t i n younger c h i l d r e n which appears t o be somewhat c o r r e c t e d by adolescence.  Weight  measurements, although f a l l i n g predominantly below the Iowa mean, g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t adequate g a i n w i t h age. ments i n d i c a t e w e l l maintained musculature  Arm  throughout  measure the  age-range s t u d i e d , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low degrees of t r i c e p s adipose t i s s u e . ficit  de-  i n younger c h i l d r e n which i s l a r g e l y c o r r e c t e d by a d o l  scence. o f B.C. may  Head circumference d i s p l a y s an i n i t i a l  I t was  concluded t h a t p r o t e i n n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s  N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s  be r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r than c a l o r i e n u t r i t i o n a l  status.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r Dr. M e l v i n Lee, I extend my s i n c e r e thanks f o r h i s guidance, o u s l y o f f e r e d throughout  and encouragement so gener-  the course o f t h i s p r o j e c t . I n  a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. K. Damji and t o Dr. B. A l f r e d f o r t h e i r h e l p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s .  I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Mr. Edward  R. Powell f o r h i s very k i n d h e l p i n d e v e l o p i n g computer p r o grams f o r t h e data  analysis.  I am g r a t e f u l t o the M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s Branch  (Pacific  Region) o f the Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , and t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f o f t h e s i x r e s i d e n t i a l schools v i s i t e d , f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n i n the data c o l l e c t i o n .  F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank the c h i l d r e n  who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study; without  t h e i r enthusiasm and  c h e e r f u l c o o p e r a t i o n , my t h e s i s c o u l d not have been accomplished.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i i i  LIST OF FIGURES  V  Chapter I  II III IV V VI  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  1  Anthropometric Parameters Assessment o f Native I n d i a n P o p u l a t i o n s 1. U.S. Native Indians 2. Canadian Native Indians  1 13 13 18  INTRODUCTION  23  MATERIALS AND METHODS  29  RESULTS  34  DISCUSSION  65  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  79  BIBLIOGRAPHY  81  APPENDICES  A  Legends t o Appendices  92  Standing h e i g h t , s i t t i n g h e i g h t , s i t t i n g h e i g h t / s t a n d i n g h e i g h t r a t i o and weight (sorted a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age)  96  B  S k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s ( s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age) I l l  C  Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e , upper arm muscle dimensions and head circumference ( s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age) 126  V  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1-1  Standing h e i g h t o f males  45  1-2  Standing h e i g h t o f females  46  II-l  S i t t i n g h e i g h t o f males  47  II-2  S i t t i n g h e i g h t o f females  48  III-l  Weight o f males  49  III-2  Weight o f females  50  IV-1  T r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f males  51  IV-2  T r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f females  52  IV-3  Subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f males  53  IV-4  Subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f females  54  V-l  Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f males  55  V-2  Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f females  56  V3T-1  Upper arm muscle diameter o f males  57  VI-2  Upper arm muscle diameter o f females  58  VI-3  Upper arm muscle circumference o f males .  59  VI-4  Upper arm muscle circumference o f females  60  VI-5  Upper arm muscle area o f males  61.  VI-6  Upper arm muscle area o f females  62  VII-1  Head circumference o f males  63  VII-2  Head circumference o f females  64  1  CHAPTER I REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Anthropometric Parameters N u t r i t i o n a l anthropometry d e a l s w i t h the measurement o f body composition and dimension, a t d i f f e r e n t o f n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s , from b i r t h t o adulthood.  levels  I t i s well  accepted t h a t growth and t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l body s i z e are l a r g e l y determined by g e n e t i c f a c t o r s , however, a number of environmental i n f l u e n c e s are seen t o a c t upon t h i s pot e n t i a l f o r growth.  Among these i s n u t r i t i o n .  Retarda-  t i o n o f growth and development i s one o f the consequences o f n u t r i t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n , w h i l e a l t e r e d growth p a t t e r n s are observed i n the o v e r n o u r i s h e d . measurements  Thus, anthropometric  are a v a l u a b l e t o o l i n the assessment o f  growth and development and r e f l e c t adequacy o f the n u t r i tional  state. Anthropometric techniques are w i d e l y used i n the  assessment o f growth and development o f both the i n d i v i d u a l , and o f groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  A l t e r a t i o n s o f body  s i z e and composition d u r i n g the growth p e r i o d o f an i n d i v i d u a l can be assessed by s e r i a l measurement o f one o r more parameters ( a l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn about  2 the r a t e o f growth) o r by s i n g l e measurement o f a t t a i n e d dimension values.  which i s subsequently Two important  compared w i t h  standard  p o i n t s are w e l l r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f such i n f o r m a t i o n , as s t r e s s e d by F a l k n e r (1962).  First,  standard c u r v e s , by nature o f t h e i r con-  s t r u c t i o n , do not show the i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s o f each c h i l d , and are t h e r e f o r e presented as smooth curves few dramatic changes.  with  In comparison, the growth c h a r t o f  an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d w i l l d i s p l a y some i r r e g u l a r i t i e s w h i l e the c h i l d i s growing n o r m a l l y . o f average l i m i t s  Second, although the range  (or d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p e r c e n t i l e  g i v e s p o i n t s w i t h i n which we can expect of a healthy i n d i v i d u a l to f a l l ,  curves)  thewraeasurements  there i s no w e l l d e f i n e d  c r i t e r i o n f o r abnormal growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  Thus,  w h i l e a c h i l d ' s measurements f a l l i n g o u t s i d e e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t s p r o v i d e s some value i n a s s e s s i n g h i s p r o g r e s s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the adequacy o f growth i s t o be made w i t h caution. In the assessment o f growth and development o f a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s , although the parameters measured and techniques employed are s i m i l a r t o those i n i n d i v i d u a l assessment, c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g growth s t a t u s are made i n o t h e r ways.  I n group a n a l y s i s , i n f o r m a t i o n can be ob-  t a i n e d on the generalggrowth  t r e n d s o f the group which mean  v a l u e s are compared s t a t i s t i c a l l y w i t h means o f a w e l l nourished population.  Thus, f o r example, mean h e i g h t v a l u e s  3 f o r a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s might i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l l y t a l l e r or s h o r t e r s t a t u r e , a t c e r t a i n ages o r throughout the growth p e r i o d , as compared w i t h the mean h e i g h t v a l u e s o f reference c h i l d r e n .  In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o  the p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the sample who inadequate  growth s t a t u s can be o b t a i n e d .  show  Findings of  t h i s nature can then be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t o f i n formation r e g a r d i n g c e r t a i n n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s known t o a f f e c t the study sample. Although  numerous anthropometric  measurements are  r e c o g n i z e d , c e r t a i n o f them are recommended  as b e i n g o f  p a r t i c u l a r value i n the assessment o f growth and ment o f a p o p u l a t i o n .  develop-  Growth i n l i n e a r dimension i s com-  monly measured by s t a n d i n g h e i g h t and s i t t i n g  height.  Measurement o f s i t t i n g h e i g h t allows d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f head and trunk t o t o t a l s t a t u r e , through d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s i t t i n g h e i g h t / s t a n d i n g ratio.  height  Measurement o f weight p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the  t o t a l body mass, although t h i s i s a gross measure o f s i z e . More s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d on the growth o f v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f the body. and head circumference  Arm  circumference  measurements are w i d e l y used f o r  t h i s purpose, w h i l e measurement o f chest circumference i s c o n s i d e r e d important  f o r preschool c h i l d r e n .  Changes i n  s p e c i f i c body compartments d u r i n g growth can a l s o be obt a i n e d w i t h anthropometric  techniques.  S k i n f o l d measurements  4 i n c e r t a i n w e l l d e f i n e d r e g i o n s of the body p r o v i d e  informa-  t i o n r e g a r d i n g d e p o s i t i o n o f subcutaneous adipose  tissue;  w h i l e arm muscle diameter, circumference  (arith-  and area  m e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d from t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d and arm  circumfer-  ence measurements) p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on growth of upper arm 1.  muscle. Standing h e i g h t and  because i t i s growth cumulative  s i t t i n g height.  In p a r t ,  and i n p a r t , because the  measuring e r r o r i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , Garn  (1973) c o n s i d e r s  the simple measurement o f standing h e i g h t  "a more s e n s i t i v e  group i n d i c a t o r o f n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s d u r i n g the growing p e r i o d than anything we o r recover  c o n v e n i e n t l y measure i n the serum  from the u r i n e . "  T h i s author c o n s i d e r s  stand-  i n g h e i g h t , o r recumbent l e n g t h i n the i n f a n t to be  the  most f r e q u e n t l y measured parameter o f body s i z e d u r i n g growing p e r i o d . w e l l nourished  the  I t i s w e l l documented t h a t c h i l d r e n from populations  stand c o n s i s t e n t l y t a l l e r  c h i l d r e n from p o o r l y nourished  than  groups, and t h a t boys  and  g i r l s o f the middle and upper socioeconomic c l a s s e s are t a l l e r than those o f the lower c l a s s e s .  T h i s has been  shown f o r p o p u l a t i o n s  1971;  from N i g e r i a (Rea,  1974), E t h i o p i a (Ekmyr, 1970), Costa R i c a  (Villarejos et  a l . , 1971), T u n i s i a (Lowenstein and O'Connell, (Amirhakimi, Turkey  1974), Guatemala  (Johnston  (Neyzi e t a l . / 1973), and Nepal  Thus i n d e v e l o p i n g  Janes,  1974), I r a n  e t a l . , 1973), (Farquharson,  c o u n t r i e s , where the c h i l d r e n o f  1976). the  5 h i g h e s t socioeconomic group are l e s s l i k e l y t o be burdened with  severe n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , the s t r e s s e s o f d i s -  ease  (Scrimshaw e t a l . , 1968), and o f other  social conditions  detrimental  ( C h r i s t i a n s e n e t a l . , 1975), •ygrowth i n  h e i g h t i s g r e a t e r than i n l e s s advantaged c h i l d r e n . Data from developed c o u n t r i e s show t h a t s t a t u r e i s s i m i l a r l y r e l a t e d t o economic l e v e l . t i o n Survey  The Ten State N u t r i -  (1968-1970) r e v e a l e d t h a t mean h e i g h t s f o r  white c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s were g r e a t e r f o r the h i g h income - r a t i o group than f o r the low-income-ratio  group.  T h i s was observed w i t h i n v a r i o u s subsamples though at somewhat d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s f o r b l a c k s , w h i t e s and Meso-Americans. S i m i l a r l y , Owen e t a l . (1974), i n the Preschool Status Survey, r e p o r t s t h a t h e i g h t expressed age-  and s e x - s p e c i f i c Z-scores,  Nutritional  i n terms o f  i n c r e a s e s over the f o u r  Warner Ranks used t o c a t e g o r i z e socioeconomic s t a t u s .  Fur-  t h e r , Jose and Welsh (1970) have r e p o r t e d t h a t among p r e school A u s t r a l i a n c h i l d r e n , those o f h i g h  socioeconomic  s t a t u s have g r e a t e r mean h e i g h t s than those socioeconomic group.  o f the low  S o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n height  have a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n .  Goldstein  (1971) r e p o r t e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n h e i g h t f o r both sexes, b e t ween the h i g h e s t and lowest  s o c i a l c l a s s , o f 1.3 cm ( f a -  v o r i n g the advantaged c h i l d ) f o r 7 year o l d s a f t e r  allow-  i n g f o r the e f f e c t s o f p a r i t y , mother's h e i g h t and number of s i b l i n g s .  The authors  state that t h i s difference r e f l e c t s  6 o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s r e l a t e d to s o c i a l  class.  Height measurements g e n e r a l l y show l e s s than do some other anthropometric on a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  variability  parameters when taken  Gwynn and  Sanjur  shown t h a t standing h e i g h t measurement o f  (1974) have  malnourished  Colombian c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y much s m a l l e r d e v i a t i o n s from standard v a l u e s o f r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n than do other meters measured.  As  s t a t e d by the authors,  e v i d e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s may  the  para-  self-  be t h a t h e i g h t , once gained  cannot be l o s t , w h i l e the o p p o s i t e i s t r u e f o r o t h e r pometric  parameters such as weight.  anthro-  Thus s t a n d i n g h e i g h t  measurement can be c o n s i d e r e d a l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p a r a meter f o r the assessment o f growth, although low f o r age,  height  c o i n c i d e n t w i t h normal weight f o r h e i g h t ,  has  been used as a dependable i n d i c a t o r o f p a s t c h r o n i c p r o t e i n c a l o r i e m a l n u t r i t i o n (Seone and Latham, 1971). Body p r o p o r t i o n , as determined by the  relative  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s i t t i n g h e i g h t to s t a t u r e and by  sexual  dimorphism i n s t a t u r e i n p o o r l y n o u r i s h e d groups, however, displays l i t t l e Stini  (1972) has  d i f f e r e n c e from t h a t o f w e l l - f e d p o p u l a t i o n s . shown, i n a comparison o f data on v a r i o u s  p o p u l a t i o n s l i v i n g i n a wide range o f environments, t h a t these body p r o p o r t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y constant among the groups.  The  authors  s t a t e t h a t t h i s i s due t o  differential  growth r a t e s i n males and.females; males growing more slowly but f o r a longer p e r i o d o f time under s t r e s s .  Thus,  7 i n a p r o t e i n - d e f i c i e n t Colombian p o p u l a t i o n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data i n d i c a t e t h a t a d e l a y i n s k e l e t a l maturation i n males f a r exceeded t h a t observed  i n females  ( S t i n i , 1969).  p i t e i t s l a c k o f v a r i a b i l i t y , measurement o f  Des-  sitting  h e i g h t among .groups of i n d i v i d u a l s a l l o w s f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f physique  d u r i n g the growing p e r i o d , and i s v a l u a b l e  i n group assessment. 2.  Body weight.  hood and adolescence  Growth and development d u r i n g c h i l d -  i s r e f l e c t e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c and  char-  a c t e r i s t i c g a i n i n body weight, which i s w e l l c o r r e l a t e d t o dimensional changes throughout  the body  (Tanner, 1962).  an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s a s e r i a l weight r e c o r d g i v e s the o b j e c t i v e evidence o f m a l n u t r i t i o n (Church and 1971)  On  earliest  Stanfield,  and the c h i l d ' s weight graph has been demonstrated t o  be a most u s e f u l a i d i n c h i l d r e n ' s c l i n i c s in. d e v e l o p i n g countries  (Cole-King, 1975;  Yankauer, 1975).  In group a s s e s s -  ment, measurement o f body weight i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r a meter o f anthropometry.  According to J e l l i f f e  (1967),  weight measurements i n p o o r l y n o u r i s h e d groups should be combined w i t h c l i n i c a l examination o r w i t h o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e measurements.  Body weight when c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to  the expected weight f o r h e i g h t , p r o v i d e s a means o f a s s e s s i n g the degree o f harmony between these two measurements. Addy (1970) has  shown t h a t w e i g h t - f o r - h e i g h t i s l e s s  t e d than weight-for-age  and may  affec-  p r o b a b l y be a b e t t e r i n d i -  c a t o r o f the a c t u a l n u t r i t i o n a l p r o c e s s o c c u r r i n g i n the  8 child.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , they may  be r e f l e c t i n g  different  stages o f the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t e s i n c e there i s a low  degree  o f c o r r e l a t i o n between these two measurements i n malnourished children  (Dugdale e t a l . , 1970;  Gwynn and Sanjur,  1974).  I t i s known t h a t body weight i s v u l n e r a b l e t o n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t o f both short and  l o n g d u r a t i o n , and  f e c t e d i n s t a t e s o f d i s e a s e , such as i n f e c t i o n a l . , 1967).  T h i s e f f e c t i s due  i s af-  (Cravioto et  i n p a r t to i n h i b i t i o n o f  n u t r i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n , enhanced t i s s u e breakdown or a combin a t i o n o f both.  Despite t h i s apparent l a b i l i t y o f body  weight, however, Sohar e t a l . (1973) have shown, i n a sample o f 404  study  c h i l d r e n i n T e l A v i v , t h a t there i s a h i g h  degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n between body weight o f each c h i l d at age  6 to 7 and at age  13 t o 14;  a c o r r e l a t i o n which e x i s t s  f o r both obese and nonobese c h i l d r e n .  S i m i l a r l y , the  per-  s i s t e n c e o f excess body weight from i n f a n c y t o adulthood been emphasized  ( M u l l i n s , 1958;  E i d , 1970).  has  Thus, body  weight measurement, as a t o o l i n the assessment o f growth, p r o v i d e s a composite index o f a p o p u l a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g both the c u r r e n t n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s and the g e n e r a l  pattern-of  weight accruement. 3.  Skinfold thickness.  Since v a r i o u s components o f  the human body respond d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t o n u t r i t i o n a l adequacy o r d e p r i v a t i o n d u r i n g growth and development,, measurements more s p e c i f i c i n nature assessment o f these p r o c e s s e s .  anthropometric  are o f value i n the  The measurement o f  skinfold  9 thickness  i s based on the assumption t h a t i n c r e a s e d  taneous f a t , due  e i t h e r t o low  subcu-  energy expenditure o r h i g h  c a l o r i e i n t a k e , o r t o a combination o f both, r e f l e c t s a greater  energy r e s e r v e .  A number o f s t u d i e s have been made  o f the c o r r e l a t i o n between s k i n f o l d measurements and body f a t as determined by o t h e r methods (Hammond, Brozek and  Keys, 1951;  Dobeln, 1971). 0.50  to 0.98.  t h a t one  Pascale e t a l . , 1956;  These s t u d i e s  total  1955;  Hermansen  and  show c o r r e l a t i o n s o f between  However, i t i s s t r e s s e d by Ward e t a l . (1975)  cannot expect to know the  a c t u a l amount o f body  f a t , as i s p o s s i b l e w i t h animal s t u d i e s , and  t h a t one  l i m i t e d to comparison o f methods of p r e d i c t i o n .  These  u s e f u l procedures, however, s i n c e i n some l a r g e the p r e v a l e n c e o f o b e s i t y due  is are  populations  to o v e r n u t r i t i o n i s a major  concern. Durnin and  Rahaman (1967) have shown t h a t the  l a t i o n s h i p between body d e n s i t y , s k i n f o l d thickness  and hence body f a t ,  equations and  tables to  calculate  percentage o f body weight as f a t , on t h i s b a s i s . study  and  i s s u f f i c i e n t l y uniform to a l l o w con-  s t r u c t i o n of regression  ther  re-  In a f u r -  (Durnin and Womersley, 1974), these workers  showed t h a t the.measurement o f a s i n g l e s k i n f o l d  (triceps)  p r o v i d e s p r e d i c t i v e power equal to t h a t o f four t o t a l  skin-  folds. S k i n f o l d measurement i n the neonate has  f u r t h e r shown  t o be a u s e f u l method f o r n o n i n v a s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f  10 p e r i n a t a l body composition  and n u t r i t i o n  (Brans e t a l . ,  1974).  Decrease i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f body weight  butable  to water, and  attri-  f a t d e p o s i t i o n i n subcutaneous  and  i n t e r n a l body s t o r e s are seen t o be normal changes i n body composition  during f e t a l l i f e .  F u r t h e r , lower f a t s t o r e s  and expansion o f a l l body water compartments r e s u l t i n t r a u t e r i n e growth r e t a r d a t i o n . g e s t i o n , by these ment recorded  authors,  T h i s has  allowed  from the  sug-  t h a t s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s measure-  at v a r i o u s times a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n (with  changes noted due  t o c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y ) of the c a l i p e r s  v i d e s an e s t i m a t i o n o f both f a t . s t o r e s and  pro-  subcutaneous  i n t e r s t i t i a l water. Children of greater adiposity both t a l l e r and developmentally children  are  more advanced than average  (Garn and H a s k e l l , 1960).  animal experimental  f o r t h e i r age  T h i s i s supported  by  s t u d i e s demonstrating t h a t o v e r n u t r i -  t i o n brings e a r l i e r s k e l e t a l maturity s i o n a l growth (Hammond, 1954).  and g r e a t e r dimen-  However, because measure-  ment o f s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f c h i l d r e n o f p o o r l y  nourished  groups r e v e a l s l e s s subcutaneous f a t , i t has been suggested t h a t e v a l u a t i o n o f growth based upon s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s i s l e s s s e n s i t i v e among such p o p u l a t i o n s . Garn (1971) r e p o r t t h a t o n l y those  Thus F r i s a n c h o  c h i l d r e n with  and  triceps  s k i n f o l d below the 5th o r above the 95th p e r c e n t i l e show systematic  d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a n d i n g h e i g h t i n a sample o f  Guatemalan r u r a l c h i l d r e n .  In other words, the r e l a t i o n s h i p  11 between degree o f a d i p o s i t y and growth i s not l i n e a r , and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s i s not a v a l u a b l e c o r r e l a t e o f growth for  s t u d i e s among these c h i l d r e n .  T h i s does not appear t o  be 'due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f a t d e p o s i t i o n s i n c e the same r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d from measurement o f subscapular s k i n f o l d .  S i m i l a r data have been r e p o r t e d  among c h i l d r e n from Costa R i c a (Frisancho e t a l . , 1971) and Honduras (Frisancho and Garn, 1971).  However, s k i n f o l d  measurements, p a r t i c u l a r l y those taken a t the t r i c e p s and subscapular, are c o n s i d e r e d by J e l l i f f e great importance of  (1966) t o be o f  i n the assessment o f n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s  a community. 4.  Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e .  Measurement o f upper arm  circumference has r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g an important t o o l i n anthropometry.  Many s t u d i e s  have been made t o assess the v a l i d i t y o f measuring arm c i r cumference as a means o f determining the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of  a p o p u l a t i o n , as summarized by Loewenstein  (1973).  and P h i l l i p s  Comparing r e s u l t s o f arm circumference measurement  with c l i n i c a l  e v a l u a t i o n and w i t h o t h e r anthropometric  para-  meters (such as weight, weight/age and w e i g h t / h e i g h t ) , the authors concluded t h a t arm circumference measurement i s o f v a l u e f o r t h r e e purposes:  1) r a p i d assessment o f n u t r i -  t i o n a l s t a t u s o f a geographic  a r e a , 2) s c r e e n i n g o f a l a r g e  group f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r i n g immediate a t t e n t i o n , 3) e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f ongoing  programs  12 designed t o improve the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f a group. S i m i l a r l y , J e l l i f f e (1969) has  s t r e s s e d i t s value  i n iden-  t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h v a r i o u s  de-  grees o f p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e m a l n u t r i t i o n . Frisancho height  (1974) has  and weight, arm  circumference  change between ages 1 and and  Burgess, 1969)  cal  age may  and  shown t h a t , compared w i t h  5 years  shows very  little  (as i n d i c a t e d by  t h a t exact knowledge o f  Burgess  chronologi-  not be necessary f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f n u t r i t i o n a l  s t a t u s based upon t h i s measurement. 5.  Arm  muscle measurements.  Other s o f t t i s s u e s o f  the body, most n o t a b l y muscle, d i s p l a y s p e c i f i c changes d u r i n g n u t r i t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n as w e l l as p a t t e r n s d u r i n g normal growth and  characteristic  development and  u s e f u l measurement i n group assessment.  provide  Studies by Waterlow  and Mendes (1957) show t h a t r e d u c t i o n o f body weight i n i n f a n t s on a p r o t e i n - d e f i c i e n t d i e t i s exceeded by a crease  de-  i n muscle mass, as determined through e i t h e r limb  measurement o r c r e a t i n i n e o u t p u t . r i e d out on  According  t o work c a r -  s i x c h i l d r e n h o s p i t a l i z e d w i t h kwashiorkor,  and then v e r i f i e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y r a t , C a s t e l l a n o s Arroyave  and  (1961) have shown t h a t t h i s r e d u c t i o n i n muscle  size provides  amino a c i d s f o r gluconeogenesis and  s y n t h e s i s i n the l i v e r .  protein  In a d d i t i o n , w i t h n u t r i t i o n a l r e -  h a b i l i t a t i o n the c a l c u l a t e d i n c r e a s e i n muscle s i z e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with increased urinary-outputs  of  13 c r e a t i n i n e , c o n s i d e r e d the most d i r e c t b i o c h e m i c a l index o f muscle mass (Standard et. a l . , 1959). Frisancho  (1974) p r o v i d e s data showing t h a t muscle  s i z e , when expressed  as muscle diameter o r circumference f o r  c h i l d r e n age 1 t o 12 y e a r s tend  t o underestimate  the mag-  n i t u d e o f t i s s u e growth, compared w i t h t r e n d s d i s p l a y e d by i n c r e a s e i n muscle a r e a .  Further, greater muscularity i s  r e l a t e d t o g r e a t e r s t a t u r e and thus arm muscle measurements can be c o n s i d e r e d an acceptable g e n e r a l index o f growth. In summary, n u t r i t i o n a l anthropometry p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l means o f a s s e s s i n g body dimensional  changes .of an  i n d i v i d u a l o r p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g growth and development and d u r i n g v a r i o u s stages o f n u t r i t i o n a l adequacy o r d e p r i v a t i o n . Assessment o f Native Indian 1.  U.S. N a t i v e Although  Populations  Indians t h e r e i s an e s t a b l i s h e d need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  c o n c e r n i n g the adequacy o f growth among B r i t i s h Columbian Indian c h i l d r e n , and o f Canadian I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , i n g e n e r a l , few s t u d i e s are a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  More a t t e n t i o n  has been g i v e n Indian groups i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , however much o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s based upon small samples  (Vavich  e t a l . , 1954; P e r k i n s and Church, 1960) o r l i m i t e d age range (French, 1967; Mayberry and Lindeman, 1963; Wenberg e t a l . , 1965) . Height  and weight were measured  i n a sample o f 1,200  14 c h i l d r e n between 6 and 11 y e a r s o f age i n the B l a c k f o o t I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n N u t r i t i o n Survey r i e d out by the Interdepartmental for  N a t i o n a l Defense  (ICNND).  (1964), a study c a r -  Committee on N u t r i t i o n  The sample was d i v i d e d a c -  c o r d i n g t o sex, and between 31 and 63 c h i l d r e n were i n each one year group.  Heights and weights c l o s e l y approximated  those o f Iowa r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n .  I n the same study, mean  h e i g h t s o f 82 p r e s c h o o l boys from the same r e s e r v e were compared w i t h Iowa standards  for height.  Values were con-  s i s t e n t l y more than one standard d e v i a t i o n below the Iowa mean a f t e r age 1.  Mean weight f e l l below the Iowa mean  a f t e r 6 months o f l i f e .  Among a sample o f 85 p r e s c h o o l  g i r l s mean h e i g h t s and weights were between the Iowa mean and 1 standard d e v i a t i o n below the mean throughout  the age  range s t u d i e d . C h i l d r e n from the F o r t Belknap Indian R e s e r v a t i o n (1964) showed s i m i l a r growth p a t t e r n s .  These data were  d e r i v e d from equal numbers o f Gros Ventres and A s s i n i b o i n I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n n o r t h c e n t r a l Montana.  The sample  was d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o sex and between 14 and 28 c h i l d r e n were measured i n each one year group.  Average h e i g h t and  weight v a l u e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y a t o r above Iowa means f o r both sexes, w i t h boys o f 9 t o 11 y e a r s t e n d i n g t o weigh more than r e f e r e n c e boys.  The p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , however,  showed a marked growth d e f i c i t . In a more r e c e n t study c a r r i e d out i n 1973 on the Blackfoot Reservation  (Nichaman e t a l . , 1975), growth data  15 were o b t a i n e d from 1,261 c h i l d r e n , aged 6 t o 17 y e a r s . H e i g h t - f o r - a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n s , when compared w i t h Iowa standards, were found t o be normal.  Weight-for-height,  however, was skewed toward the h i g h e r p e r c e n t i l e s , as was weight-for-age. o f Waterlow  U t i l i z i n g the method o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  (1972), 6.7 percent were found t o be r e t a r d e d  i n h e i g h t - f o r - a g e w h i l e 0.8 p e r c e n t were a c u t e l y ished  malnour-  and a f u r t h e r 11.5 percent o f the group were o v e r -  weight. Owen e t a_l. (1972) completed  an important  growth  study o f 201 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n from 125 f a m i l i e s , members o f the White Mountain Apache T r i b e i n A r i z o n a .  These authors  found t h a t  38 percent o f the h e i g h t s were below the 10th  percentile  f o r r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n , although s k e l e t a l mat-  u r a t i o n was normal, w h i l e 3 percent f e l l above the 90th percentile.  Weight measurements r e v e a l e d 18 p e r c e n t t o be  below the 10th p e r c e n t i l e w h i l e 7 p e r c e n t were above the 90th p e r c e n t i l e  f o r reference c h i l d r e n .  When compared w i t h  Negro p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n low-income r u r a l areas o f M i s s i s sippi  (Owen e t a l . , 1969), the Apache c h i l d r e n are seen t o  be c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r ;  among t h e Negro group 24 percent  had h e i g h t s below the 10th p e r c e n t i l e .  Head c i r c u m f e r e n c e s  o f Apache c h i l d r e n , o f both sexes, were below average of reference c h i l d r e n o f Nellhaus Comparatively  values  (1968).  more data are a v a i l a b l e  f o r Navajo  I n d i a n c h i l d r e n than f o r o t h e r I n d i a n groups i n t h e U n i t e d  16 States.  T h i s group i s now  o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  the l a r g e s t w i t h i n the  boundaries  Darby e t a l . (1956) r e p o r t e d  average  h e i g h t and weight o f school-aged c h i l d r e n , compared t o a Canadian sample  (Pett, 1955)  and r e v e a l e d t h a t Canadians  were c o n s i s t e n t l y t a l l e r by 3 t o 4 i n c h e s f o r c h i l d r e n  from  10 y e a r s o f age t o l a t e adolescence.  10  y e a r s t h e r e was  U n t i l the age o f  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n h e i g h t between  the groups r e g a r d l e s s o f sex.  Comparison o f average  weight  s i m i l a r l y favoured the Canadian c h i l d ; from 8 y e a r s o f onwards the Navajo boys weighed 3 t o 22 pounds l e s s t h e i r Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s .  When expressed as  than  'percent  o f standard' u s i n g the Baldwin-Wood t a b l e s (Bigwood, f o r U.S.  c h i l d r e n , i n c r e a s i n g a?ge, f o r both sexes,  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g percentage than 90 p e r c e n t o f standard.  age  1939)  was  of subjects l e s s  For males, about 20 p e r c e n t  o f the sample were l e s s than 90 p e r c e n t o f standard at 5 y e a r s w h i l e almost  35 p e r c e n t were l e s s than 90 percent o f  standard at 15 y e a r s .  For females, the p r o p o r t i o n l e s s  than  90 percent i n c r e a s e d from 15 percent o f sample a t 5 y e a r s t o about 20 p e r c e n t at 15 y e a r s . A r e c e n t study o f 944 Navajo c h i l d r e n between the ages o f 4 and 7 y e a r s , on the Head S t a r t program, from a l l p a r t s of the r e s e r v a t i o n (Van Duzen e_t a l . ,  1969),revealed  t h a t n e a r l y one t h i r d o f them were below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e o f Iowa standards f o r h e i g h t , w h i l e one t e n t h were below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e f o r weight.  In a l l cases, the d i f f e r e n c e s  between observed and expected h e i g h t and weight v/ere s t a t istically  significant  (P<0.01).  The authors f e l t  that  t h i s r e t a r d a t i o n i n growth was the end r e s u l t o f c h r o n i c c a l o r i e and p r o t e i n m a l n u t r i t i o n , and repeated b a c t e r i a l and v i r a l  infections.  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s among p r e s c h o o l e r s as w e l l as o l d e r c h i l d r e n a l s o from the Navajo group were o b t a i n e d i n a study by R e i s i n g e r e t a l . (1972).  A l l age groups f o r both  sexes  had a c o n s i d e r a b l e excess o f i n d i v i d u a l s below the 50th p e r c e n t i l e f o r h e i g h t and weight when compared w i t h N a t i o n a l H e a l t h Examination  Survey standards  (Hamill e t a l . , 1970).  Thus, 20 p e r c e n t o f boys and 15 percent o f g i r l s between 2 and 4 y e a r s o f age were below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e f o r weight. For c h i l d r e n between 5 and 9 y e a r s o f age, the percentage of boys and g i r l s below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e f o r weight was 16 and 11, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The authors comment t h a t although  t h i s may r e p r e s e n t catch-up growth i n t h a t these p r o p o r t i o n s decrease  (no s t a t i s t i c a l  t e s t on these t r e n d s was  offered),  the p e r c e n t below the 50th p e r c e n t i l e does n o t change s i g nificantly.  The authors s t r e s s t h a t the slower r a t e o f  growth and development observed i n the Navajo group, as compared w i t h r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n , may be caused w h o l l y o r i n p a r t by n u t r i t i o n a l  differences.  No o t h e r n o t a b l e s t u d i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g growth p a t t e r n s o f American I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , indeed  several  major n u t r i t i o n surveys c a r r i e d out i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  18 exclude an I n d i a n subsample. t i o n Survey  The N a t i o n a l H e a l t h Examina-  (1967), designed t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the  n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f American c h i l d r e n , based on a probability  sample o f n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n i n the U n i -  ted  S t a t e s , excluded c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s  set  a s i d e f o r use o f American I n d i a n s .  o p e r a t i o n a l problems encountered Ten State N u t r i t i o n Survey  T h i s was due t o  e a r l y i n the survey.  (1968-1970), the f i r s t  The  compre-  hensive attempt t o assess the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Americans, r e p o r t s no anthropometric dian c h i l d r e n . i n a t i o n Survey  measurements taken on I n -  S i m i l a r l y , the H e a l t h and N u t r i t i o n Exam(Abraham e t a l . , 1975), p a r t o f a program  designed t o measure the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s p o p u l a t i o n and t o m i n i t o r changes i n s t a t u s over time, does not r e p o r t on f i n d i n g s s p e c i f i c t o I n d i a n c h i l dren.  The P r e s c h o o l N u t r i t i o n Survey  (Owen e t a l . , 1974)  i n c l u d e d a t o t a l o f 159 American I n d i a n p r e s c h o o l  children  between 1 and 4 y e a r s o f age, r e p r e s e n t i n g 1 percent o f overall subjects.  Although  the authors s t a t e t h a t  survey  sampling was designed t o p r o v i d e a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s f o r comparisons between subsets o f the sample p o p u l a t i o n , meaningful  r e s u l t s are not a v a i l a b l e nor i s d i s c u s s i o n  d i r e c t e d t o I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s o f t h i s sample 2.  inadequat  size.  Canadian N a t i v e  Indians  With r e s p e c t t o Canadian I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , t h e r e i s  19 similar s c a r c i t y of information.  S t u d i e s c a r r i e d out i n  c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n Canada s e v e r a l decades ago u n d e s i r a b l e growthcpatterns, cussed f o r U.S.  Indians.  evidenced  s i m i l a r t o those a l r e a d y d i s -  V i v i a n et a l . (1948) r e p o r t e d  anthropometric measurements o f a d o l e s c e n t s 10 t o 19 years o f age  i n the James Bay a r e a .  Between one half, and  two  t h i r d s o f the g i r l s and about one t h i r d o f the boys i n the two bands s t u d i e d were 10 t o 30 pounds underweight f o r h e i g h t , as compared w i t h the standards o f P e t t (1955).  The  authors suggest t h a t the p r e v a l e n c e o f t h i s degree o f underweight i s i n d i c a t i v e o f n u t r i t i o n a l f a i l u r e .  Among c h i l d r e n  under 9 y e a r s o f age, most showed s a t i s f a c t o r y growth.  How-  ever, i n one band s t u d i e d ( A t t a w a p i s k a t ) , 40 percent o f g i r l s between 6 and 9 were 6 t o 14 pounds l i g h t e r than  ex-  pected. In c o n t r a s t , a l a t e r study o f two  (Best and G e r r a r d ,  1959)  I n d i a n groups i n Saskatchewan r e p o r t e d h e i g h t s and  weights o f 30 boys and 44 g i r l s i n r e l a t i o n t o those of non-Indian  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n Saskatoon.  R e s u l t s show  good agreement between I n d i a n and non-Indian More r e c e n t r e s e a r c h begun i n 1972 1975)  children.  (Coodin e t a l . ,  r e p o r t s on the growth o f i n f a n t s and p r e s c h o o l c h i l d -  ren i n two  i s o l a t e d I n d i a n communities i n n o r t h e r n Manitoba;  Cross Lake Reserve and Gardin H i l l Reserves.  Heights com-  pared w e l l w i t h Iowa standards, w i t h weights g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r than those o f r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n .  Mean head  20 c i r c u m f e r e n c e s c l o s e l y approximated haus  the standards o f N e l l -  (1968). Regarding B r i t i s h Columbian I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ,  anthro-  pometric measurements were c a r r i e d out a t two I n d i a n  Re-  s e r v e s , Ahousat and Anaham, as p a r t o f a comprehensive  nu-  t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s assessment o f these two groups (Birkbeck e t a l . , 1971).  Standing and s i t t i n g h e i g h t , weight,  head  c i r c u m f e r e n c e , arm circumference and t r i c e p s " s k i n f o l d ness were measured.  Standing h e i g h t d i s p l a y e d a l a g a t 2  y e a r s when compared w i t h Iowa standards and w i t h a I n d i a n group from the Vancouver a r e a . was  thick-  non-  T h i s growth d e f i c i t  g r e a t e r f o r the Anaham p o p u l a t i o n than f o r the Ahousat  group,  although the Anaham females showed a catch-up growth  effect  subsequent  t o an i n i t i a l h e i g h t o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than s t a n d a r d . (This b e i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study, growth c o u l d not be demonstrated groups were c l e a r ; )  less  catch-up  although d i f f e r e n c e s among age  The authors s t r e s s t h a t  insufficient  data were o b t a i n e d f o r the two p e r i o d s o f most r a p i d growth, namely i n f a n c y and adolescence, t o permit s p e c u l a t i o n on the meaning o f the  findings.  S i t t i n g h e i g h t measurements, when compared w i t h s t a n dards o f Simmons (1944) showed a d e f i c i t a t both r e s e r v e s u n t i l age 10.  A catch-up growth phase was  again observed;  d e s p i t e t h i s , however, the Anaham group f a i l e d t o r e a c h standard throughout c h i l d h o o d .  21 Body weight measurement showed t h a t both males and females from Ahousat compare w e l l w i t h standards  throughout  c h i l d h o o d and i n t o adolescence, although females  from  Anaham f a l l  i n the lower p e r c e n t i l e s o f standard.  Head  circumference o f c h i l d r e n when compared w i t h standards o f Watson and Lowry (1967), r e v e a l e d a l l c h i l d r e n from Ahousat to  be w i t h i n standard range, w h i l e younger females i n the  Anaham group were below s t a n d a r d . ever, by l a t e r c h i l d h o o d .  Arm  T h i s was  c o r r e c t e d , how-  circumference showed a c l o s e  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h body mass although no comment was of  offered  i t s adequacy w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o standards i n e i t h e r group  sampled.  T r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s measurements among  c h i l d r e n showed an adequate subcutaneous f a t l a y e r when compared w i t h the standards o f Tanner and Whitehouse  (1962).  The authors s t r e s s c a u t i o n i n a s c r i b i n g these growth p a t t e r n s to n u t r i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two  groups  s t u d i e d , although the g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r t r e n d s d i s p l a y e d by Ahousat c h i l d r e n were c o i n c i d e n t w i t h s u p e r i o r d i e t et  al.,  (Lee  1971). A d d i t i o n a l anthropometric data were o b t a i n e d from  I n d i a n c h i l d r e n at F o r t S t . John and at two communities i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y by the same authors ren  i n a l l t h r e e areas f e l l  (Lee, 1975). C h i l d -  i n the lower p e r c e n t i l e s o f  standard and tended t o show i n c r e a s i n g d e f i c i t i n weight for  age, as compared w i t h standards.  A t the t h r e e l o c a -  t i o n s s t u d i e d , head c i r c u m f e r e n c e and o t h e r  anthropometric  22 parameters were s i m i l a r t o those f o r r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n . No o t h e r growth data v a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r Canadian, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , B r i t i s h Columbian I n d i a n c h i l d r e n .  and  Al-  though anthropometric measurements were c o l l e c t e d on I n d i a n c h i l d r e n by the N u t r i t i o n Canada;'Survey (1973), these data are,  as y e t , u n a v a i l a b l e .  ,  23  CHAPTER I I INTRODUCTION  The Native I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n s i s t i n g o f about 52,000 people  (Canada, 1971a) i s char-  a c t e r i z e d i n s e v e r a l important ways as b e i n g a group whose need f o r p u b l i c h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n and need f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n g e n e r a l i s g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. and  T h i s i s supported by demographic  s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as w e l l as c u l t u r a l  and-health  p a t t e r n s o f the N a t i v e Indians i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , as w i l l be discussed. Although the demographic data f o r B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n s , as f o r Canadian Indians g e n e r a l l y , i s somewhat i n adequate, e s t i m a t e s o f v i t a l  statistics reflect a situation  d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the non-Indian  population  o f B.C. and o f Canada  The i n f a n t  (Piche and George, 1973).  m o r t a l i t y r a t e f o r B.C. Indians i s very h i g h , and d e s p i t e a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , i s s t i l l more than twice t h a t o f the t o t a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n .  Indeed, i n f a n t  m o r t a l i t y r a t e s f o r B.C. Indians are h i g h e r than those f o r any o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l Indian groups, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the Yukon and North West T e r r i t o r i e s .  The b i r t h r a t e o f  24 B.C.  I n d i a n s , although d i s p l a y i n g a d e c l i n e i n r e c e n t y e a r s ,  i n keeping w i t h the Canadian.population l a t i v e l y high:  as a whole, i s r e -  35.4 p e r 1000 p o p u l a t i o n i n 1970 as compared  t o an a l l - C a n a d a r a t e o f 17.4. M o r t a l i t y r a t e s among B.C. I n d i a n s , although  declin-  i n g , are t h e h i g h e s t o f a l l p r o v i n c i a l Indian groups, which are i n t u r n h i g h e r than the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. With a d e c l i n i n g m o r t a l i t y r a t e and r e l a t i v e l y h i g h  birth  r a t e , the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada i s i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y (3.0 percent  i n 1970;as compared w i t h 1.0 percent  g e n e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ) .  f o r the  The r a t e o f annual i n c r e a s e  f o r B.C. I n d i a n s i s 2.7 p e r c e n t .  Thus the Canadian  Indian  p o p u l a t i o n and the B.C. Indian group are i n demographic transition.  F u r t h e r , the p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l B.C. Indians  under the age o f 14 i s much g r e a t e r than t h a t f o r the general p r o v i n c i a l population:  census data show t h i s  sta-  t i s t i c /to be 47 percent and 13.8 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y (Canada, 1971b).  The I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. t h e r e f o r e  d i s p l a y s demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n . Other^ f a c t o r s have some b e a r i n g on the need f o r community h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n  services.  There i s an i n -  c r e a s i n g r a t e o f m i g r a t i o n from r e s e r v e s t o urban areas, w i t h accompanying changes i n s t y l e o f l i f e . i s , admittedly,  Although  d i f f i c u l t y i n assessing health related  blems consequent t o t h i s s h i f t ,  there pro-  successful adaptation to  the s t r e s s e s o f c i t y l i v i n g i s c l e a r l y dependent upon adequate  25 health education  services.  A l s o , w i t h c o n t i n u e d r a p i d ex-  pansion o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication systems throughout the province? b r i n g i n g Indians on r e s e r v e  lands  i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the non-Indian p o p u l a t i o n , the Native Indians have s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l requirements  in  o r d e r t o meet these changes. Among those aspects o f h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n t h a t are o f p a r t i c u l a r importance t o N a t i v e Indians i s t h a t o f n u t r i t i o n , i n s o f a r as improvement o f d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s i s amenable t o e d u c a t i o n and p u b l i c h e a l t h programs.  Given t h a t sound  programming i s dependent upon adequate data p e r t a i n i n g t o the h e a l t h s t a t u s o f a group, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t  specific  and a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n be a v a i l a b l e as a b a s i s f o r such planning. Relatively l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on  n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f B.C.  the  Native Indians, indeed such i s  the case f o r the Canadian and North American Indian i n general.  The  N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey  (1973) r e p o r t s on  the  n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Canadian Indians on the b a s i s o f d i e t a r y , b i o c h e m i c a l and c l i n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n .  Generally,  r e s u l t s c o n f i r m t h a t the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Canadian Indians i s i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Thus, v i t a m i n C s t a t u s o f Native Indian i n f a n t s and c h i l d r e n from remote areas was  l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y than f o r the gen-  e r a l p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. quate c a l c i u m i n t a k e , low  Poor v i t a m i n A s t a t u s , inade-  i r o n r e s e r v e s and poor u r i n a r y  26 r i b o f l a v i n v a l u e s were a l s o found among t h i s age group. Among a d o l e s c e n t s , c a l o r i c i n t a k e s f o r Indians were c o n s i s t e n t l y lower than those o f the same age group o f t h e national population.  A s i g n i f i c a n t percentage o f a d o l e -  scents had u r i n a r y t h i a m i n e x c r e t i o n s i n the range o f "moderate r i s k " .  V i t a m i n A s t a t u s o f a d u l t s was found t o be  o f some c o n c e r n , r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Indians had lower d i e t a r y i n t a k e s than the national*sample and lower median serum v i t a m i n A l e v e l s w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f serum v a l u e s c l a s s i f i e d as "moderate r i s k " . Indians were poor.  I t was concluded  that l i v e r stores of  Both c a l c i u m and v i t a m i n D i n t a k e s  were c o n s i s t e n t l y lower among N a t i v e I n d i a n s .  A relatively  l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f Indian a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s had low i r o n s t o r e s as judged by t r a n s f e r r i n s a t u r a t i o n v a l u e s .  Adult  I n d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n remote areas, had a h i g h e r p r e v a l ence o f low serum v i t a m i n C l e v e l s , and lower i n t a k e s o f c a l c i u m and v i t a m i n D than d i d the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Among pregnant women, poor v i t a m i n C s t a t u s , low serum v i t a min A l e v e l s , marginal  c a l c i u m and v i t a m i n D i n t a k e s , mar-  g i n a l median i r o n i n t a k e s , and low serum f o l a t e  values  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Native I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . In view o f these f i n d i n g s , a sound s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s has been p r o v i d e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h i s segment o f the C a n a d i a n - p o p u l a t i o n .  Further,  i n r e c o g n i z i n g the need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on Canadian  Native Indians i n g e n e r a l , c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o p r o v i n c i a l groups.  Among the 29 bands p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey, 7 were l o c a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, although the survey d i d not r e p o r t s p e c i f i c a l l y on the tritional  s t a t u s o f Native Indians from  nu-  B.C.  There are s e v e r a l aspects o f n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s i n vestigation of a population. i n determining  Dietary evaluation i s useful  p a t t e r n s o f food consumption and  riutrient  i n t a k e s , w h i l e c l i n i c a l assessment allows d e t e c t i o n o f t r i t i o n a l deficiency signs.  nu-  N u t r i t i o n a l anthropometry/  encompassing c e r t a i n techniques  f o r the assessment o f a t -  t a i n e d p h y s i c a l dimension p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on growth p a t t e r n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r group o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  Although  growth i s a f f e c t e d by a l a r g e number o f f a c t o r s , i t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t c e r t a i n growth p a t t e r n s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  an o p t i m a l l y nourished p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e  suboptimal  nu-  t r i t i o n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s the growth s t a t u s o f a p o p u l a t i o n . As d i s c u s s e d i n the review o f l i t e r a t u r e , r e p o r t i n g anthropometric  studies  data on Canadian Indian, p o p u l a t i o n s  are o f v e r y l i m i t e d sample s i z e , are l i m i t e d i n terms o f t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the B.C.  Native Indian c h i l d r e n  p o p u l a t i o n as a whole and are l i m i t e d i n terms o f the t u a l measurements taken.  Indeed, there i s no  able aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at B.C.  avail-  Native Indian c h i l d r e n w i t h  a view to a s s e s s i n g t h e i r growth p a t t e r n s . for  study  ac-  Thus, the need  a study o f l a r g e r sample s i z e and o f g r e a t e r scope i s  clear.  28 The present r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t h e r e f o r e was  designed  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the growth p a t t e r n s o f B.C. I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s . o f the study was o f B.C.  study  The o b j e c t i v e  t o e s t a b l i s h whether the growth p a t t e r n s  Native Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student  correspond  Native  residences  t o those o f non-Indian r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n .  sample c o n s i s t s o f a l l c h i l d r e n , aged 6 t o 17  The  years,  a t t e n d i n g the s i x student r e s i d e n c e s f o r N a t i v e Indian ren i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  T o t a l sample s i z e i s 734  r e p r e s e n t i n g approximately  4.3  percent  child-  children,  (Canada, 1970)  of  the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  study i s c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n d e s i g n ,  i n g standard anthropometric o f s t a n d i n g and circumference,  techniques  f o r the assessment  s i t t i n g h e i g h t , body weight, arm and  skinfold thicknesses.  s i o n s are a l s o r e p o r t e d .  The  utiliz-  Arm  and head  muscle dimen-  c h i l d r e n l i v e i n an  institu-  t i o n a l environment; adequate meals are made a v a i l a b l e on a regular basis. pometric  I t was  expected  t h e r e f o r e t h a t those  anthro-  parameters s e n s i t i v e to p a s t n u t r i t i o n a l problems  would be a f f e c t e d t o a g r e a t e r extent than those which r e f l e c t current n u t r i t i o n a l status.  29  CHAPTER I I I MATERIALS AND  METHODS  A c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l growth study was  designed  t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the growth p a t t e r n s o f Native Columbian Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student The o b j e c t i v e o f the study was growth p a t t e r n s o f B.C.  residences.  to those o f non-Indian r e measurements were c a r -  r i e d out on a l l Native Indian c h i l d r e n from age  6 to  17  student r e s i d e n c e s a d m i n i s t e r e d  the Department o f Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . sample s i z e was  British  to e s t a b l i s h whether the  Anthropometric  a t t e n d i n g the s i x B.C.  ob-  Native Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n  student r e s i d e n c e s correspond ference c h i l d r e n .  to  368 boys and  r e s e r v e s i n the p r o v i n c e .  The  total  366 g i r l s , r e p r e s e n t i n g  The  study was  by  77  c a r r i e d out  with  the c o o p e r a t i o n o f M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s Branch ( P a c i f i c Region) o f the Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and?: Wei f a r e , and the a s s i s t a n c e o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the student dences.  The  Sechelt  ( S e c h e l t Student Residence),  (St. Mary's Student Residence), Residence), W i l l i a m s Lake  Residence).  Mission  Kamloops (Kamloops Student  (Cariboo Student  (Lejac Student Residence) and L y t t o n  Student  resi-  student r e s i d e n c e s were s i t u a t e d i n the f o l l o w -  ing locations:  Lejac  with  Residence), ( S t . George's  30 The name, b i r t h d a t e and band number.of each c h i l d was o b t a i n e d from r e s i d e n c e r e c o r d s .  Table I shows the  d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o age-sex grouping, the percentage  as w e l l as  o f t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbian Native  Indian  c h i l d r e n i n each age-sex grouping r e p r e s e n t e d i n the studysample . TABLE I Number o f s u b j e c t s i n each age-sex grouping and as % o f t o t a l B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n each group Age Group  Females Number%*  Males Number %*  6.00- 6.99 7.00- 7.99 8.00- 8.99 9.00- 9.99 10.00-10.99 11.00-11.99 12.00-12.99 13.00-13.99 14.00-14.99 15.00-15.99 16.00-16.99  31 27 30 32 30 35 35 42 43 30 30  4.1 3.1 3.6 4.2 3.8 4.5 5.0 6.3 6.9 5.0 5.1  28 23 29 33 38 38 42 37 38 30 32  3.5 2.9 3.6 4.1 4.8 5.4 6.1 5.7 6.5 4.9 5.3  Total  366  4.2  368  4.7  * Number i n study sample r e p o r t e d as % o f t o t a l number o f B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n each eage group. These f i g u r e s are c a l c u l a t e d from data c o l l e c t e d i n 1969. Each percentage i s based upon the t o t a l number o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n the p r o v i n c e f o r the age group 6 y e a r s younger than t h a t o f the study sample.  A l l anthropometric  measurements were done a c c o r d i n g t o  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Program recommendations The  (1969).  c h i l d r e n were c l o t h e d o n l y i n undergarments, and a l l  31 anthropometric  measurements were done i n the a f t e r n o o n ,  f o r e the evening meal.  be-  These i n c l u d e d s t a n d i n g h e i g h t ,  t i n g h e i g h t , body weight,  f o u r s k i n f o l d measurements  ceps, subscapular, b i c e p s and  sit-  (tri-  s u p r a i l i a c ) , midupper arm  cir-  cumference and head c i r c u m f e r e n c e . Standing h e i g h t was  measured t o the n e a r e s t 0.1  a p o r t a b l e stadiometer; the measuring board was a d i g i t a l readout  cm w i t h  equipped  i n order t o e l i m i n a t e p a r a l l a x .  The  " s t r e t c h i n g upward" technique o f Tanner and Whitehouse was  not used.  n e a r e s t 0.1  cm;  S i t t i n g h e i g h t was  a s t o o l o f known h e i g h t was  measured t o the n e a r e s t 0.05  beam-type p l a t f o r m b a l a n c e .  (1966)  s i m i l a r l y measured t o the used and  s i t t i n g h e i g h t subsequently o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i o n . weight was  with  actual Body  kg w i t h a p o r t a b l e  No c o r r e c t i o n was  made f o r  clothing. T r i c e p s , subscapular, b i c e p s and  suprailiac  were measured w i t h Harpenden S k i n f o l d C a l i p e r s  skinfolds  (Skin F o l d  C a l i p e r s , H o l t a i n L t d . , Pembrokeshire, Wales), which read to  0.1  mm  accuracy. 2  sure o f 10 g/mm  These c a l i p e r s e x e r t a constant p r e s -  through the whole range o f s k i n f o l d  nesses at a l l d i s t a n c e s o f jaw  separation.  T h i s was  thickveri-  f i e d by the method d e s c r i b e d by World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n (1968).  A l l s k i n f o l d measurements were taken on the  s i d e o f the body.  The accuracy o f the measurements  such t h a t d u p l i c a t e r e a d i n g s agreed t o w i t h i n t h i r d s or more o f a l l repeated measurements.  left was  5% i n two  The method  32 was  v a l i d a t e d i n t h i s manner on a group o f 12 c h i l d r e n ,  p r i o r t o the data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . Arm  circumference was measured t o the n e a r e s t 0.1 cm,  u s i n g a s t e e l tape measure, w i t h the arm i n a r e l a x e d p o s i tion.  Compression o f s o f t t i s s u e was avoided.  The measure-  ment was taken a t the p o i n t midway between the acromion p r o cess o f the scapula and the o l e c r a n o n p r o c e s s o f the u l n a . Upper arm muscle diameter,  circumference and area were  d e r i v e d as d e s c r i b e d by F r i s a n c h o  (1974), as f o l l o w s :  AC  (1) UAMD = ^  - TC  (2) UAMC = AC - 77" TC (3) UAMA =  [UAMD ] 2  where UAMD = upper arm muscle diameter  (mm)  UAMC = upper arm muscle c i r c u m f e r e n c e UAMA == upper arm muscle area  (mm)  (mm )  TC = t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s (mm) AC = arm circumference  (mm)  Head circumference was measured by p l a c i n g the  tape  f i r m l y around the f r o n t a l bones, j u s t s u p e r i o r t o the suprao r b i t a l r i d g e s , p a s s i n g i t around the head a t the same l e v e l on each s i d e , and over the maximum o c c i p i t a l prominence a t the back. Data were recorded on the " N u t r i t i o n a l Status I n v e s t i g a t i o n Form" o f the School o f Home Economics.  The coded  sheets were read by the IBM 1232 O p t i c a l Mark reader a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and key punched onto c a r d s .  The  33 data were then t r e a t e d by a u t i l i t y computer program and preliminary  s c a t t e r p l o t s o f s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s were made  t o a s s i s t i n the d e t e c t i o n  o f obvious e r r o r s .  Data  was c a r r i e d out w i t h the IBM 370/168 computer.  analysis  Scatter  dia-  grams o f i n d i v i d u a l f i n d i n g s were prepared w i t h the CALCOMP p l o t t e r t o g e t h e r w i t h standard r e f e r e n c e c u r v e s .  34  CHAPTER TV RESULTS  All cally  anthropometric parameters  are d i s p l a y e d g r a p h i -  (pages 45 t o 64), a g a i n s t c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n of b i c e p s and s u p r a i l i a c s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s . These two parameters,  as w e l l as s i t t i n g h e i g h t / s t a n d i n g  h e i g h t r a t i o , are l i s t e d i n the 1. ing  Standing Height.  Appendix.  F i g u r e s 1-1  and 3>2  h e i g h t s f o r males and females, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  curves are those of Jackson and K e l l y  show standStandard  (1945), d e r i v e d from  the Iowa growth d a t a , measurements taken s e v e r a l decades ago on Caucasian c h i l d r e n predominantly from the h i g h e r socioeconomic group.  In u s i n g standards d e r i v e d from a  group both c u l t u r a l l y and g e n e t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from the study sample., i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s i s somewhat l i m i t e d .  Standard curves t h e r e f o r e are  presented as a r e f e r e n c e o n l y . Throughout  the age range s t u d i e d , most i n d i v i d u a l s  f a l l between the mean and 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. range.  In males,  79V percent of the study sample f a l l  E l e v e n percent are above the mean.  i n this  While none are  more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s above the mean, 10 p e r c e n t  35 o f males are more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. Those more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean a r e not evenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  the age range s t u d i e d f o r  males between 6 and 8 y e a r s o l d , 23 percent are more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean, w h i l e f o r o l d e r males, between 14 and 16 y e a r s , t h i s percentage  has decreased t o  8.8. In females,  70 percent o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s are b e t -  ween the mean and 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. Twenty-five percent o f females are above the mean.  While  none are more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s above the mean, 5 p e r c e n t o f females a r e more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. 15.5  Of the females between 6 and 8 y e a r s o l d ,  p e r c e n t are more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the  mean w h i l e f o r o l d e r females between 14 and 16 y e a r s percentage  has decreased t o 3 p e r c e n t .  this  Thus the p r o p o r t i o n  o f females who have low h e i g h t f o r age, as compared w i t h r e ference c h i l d r e n , decreases w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age^ as w i t h males. 2.  S i t t i n g height." As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,  h e i g h t / s t a n d i n g h e i g h t r a t i o was computed; i n d i v i d u a l  sitting find-  i n g s are l i s t e d i n the Appendix s i n c e standards are not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s parameter. played g r a p h i c a l l y  Only s i t t i n g h e i g h t i s d i s -  ( F i g u r e s I I - l and I I - 2 ) .  o f Simmons (1944) are used  (mean - 2 standard  The standards deviations).  36 These standards are based upon measurements decades ago on Caucasian c h i l d r e n .  taken s e v e r a l  T h i s parameter i n d i c a t e s  growth o f t h e head and t r u n k . In g e n e r a l , the p a t t e r n o f s i t t i n g h e i g h t i s s i m i l a r to  that of standing height.  In both males and females,  most  i n d i v i d u a l s f a l l between the mean and 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below thermean.  Among males, 66 p e r c e n t a r e i n t h i s  Only 12 p e r c e n t a r e above the mean.  While  range.  none are more  than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s above the mean, 22 p e r c e n t o f males a r e more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. For those males between 6 and 8 y e a r s o l d , 60 p e r c e n t a r e more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. f o r o l d e r males, between 14 and 16 y e a r s , t h i s  However, percentage  decreases t o 0.8 p e r c e n t . Among females, 66 p e r c e n t o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a r e b e t ween the mean and 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. p e r c e n t o f females are above the mean.  While  Ten  none are more  than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s above t h e mean, 24 p e r c e n t o f females a r e more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below t h e mean. For those females between 6 and 8 y e a r s o l d , 40 percent more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean. females, between 14 and 16 y e a r s , t h i s percentage to  27 p e r c e n t .  Among o l d e r decreases  Thus, f o r both sexes, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  children with a d e f i c i t c r e a s i n g age.  fall  i n s i t t i n g h e i g h t decreases w i t h i n -  37 3.  Body weight.  F i g u r e s I I I - l and I I I - 2 show body  weight p l o t t e d a g a i n s t c h r o n o l o g i c a l are those o f Jackson and K e l l y p e r c e n t i l e s are p r e s e n t e d .  age.  (1945).  Standard curves  Mean, 3rd and 97th  Most i n d i v i d u a l s are between  the 3rd and 97th p e r c e n t i l e s ,  although f o r both males and  females, the m a j o r i t y are between t h e mean and 3rd p e r c e n tile.  Thus, 79 percent and 78 p e r c e n t o f males and females  respectively  are between the mean and the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e .  Among males, 18 percent are above the mean f o r body weight, i n c l u d i n g one i n d i v i d u a l  ( l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f  a l l males) above the 97th p e r c e n t i l e . males a r e below t h e 3rd p e r c e n t i l e .  Three p e r c e n t o f Among females, 21 p e r -  cent are above the mean, i n c l u d i n g one i n d i v i d u a l  (less  than 1 p e r c e n t o f a l l females) above the 97th p e r c e n t i l e . One p e r c e n t o f females are below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e . These r e s u l t s are i n t e r e s t i n g i n view o f the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n o f both sexes who show d e f i c i t s i n s t a n d i n g and s i t t i n g h e i g h t . i  4.  1  •  .  Skinfold thickness.  F i g u r e s IV-1 t o IV-4 d i s -  '.j  p l a y t r i c e p s and subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s f o r males and females. Whitehouse  P e r c e n t i l e curves are those o f Tanner and  (1975), and are d e r i v e d from c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  on London s c h o o l c h i l d r e n taken i n 1966. curves have been smoothed g r a p h i c a l l y .  data  These p e r c e n t i l e  Since v a l u e s ob-  t a i n e d by s k i n f o l d measurements g i v e a non-gaussian  fre-  quency d i s t r i b u t i o n , the a p p r o p r i a t e l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , as d e s c r i b e d by these authors has been employed f o r  j  38 both s k i n f o l d s , and transformed v a l u e s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t age. Males are predominantly below the 50th p e r c e n t i l e a t a l l ages f o r t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s .  Eighteen percent  i  o f males are above the 50th p e r c e n t i l e and t h i s f o l l o w s the p r e a d o l e s c e n t f a t wave:  generally  slow a p p o s i t i o n ,  fol-  lowed around age 13 by a s l i g h t decrease i n t h i c k n e s s as d e s c r i b e d by Garn and H a s k e l l house  (1960).  Tanner and White-  (1975) c o n s i d e r those i n d i v i d u a l s below the 3rd p e r -  c e n t i l e t o be a t r i s k , b e i n g perhaps undernourished.  Sev-  e r a l males i n t h i s study sample are c o n s i d e r a b l y below t h a t p e r c e n t i l e , w h i l e none exceed the 97th p e r c e n t i l e . T r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s i n females  (Figure  IV-2)  i s g e n e r a l l y below the 75th p e r c e n t i l e o f Tanner and Whitehouse.  More females than males are below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e  (9.5 p e r c e n t of' females compared t o 4 p e r c e n t o f males), however s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n s are above the 75th p e r c e n t i l e (2 p e r c e n t o f females compared t o 3.5 percent o f m a l e s ) . No females r e a c h the 90th p e r c e n t i l e .  The g e n e r a l t r e n d  o f g a i n i n a d i p o s i t y over the age range s t u d i e d adheres t o t h a t o f the r e f e r e n c e c u r v e s :  increased triceps  subcutan-  eous f a t w i t h age, which c o n t i n u e s ( u n l i k e t h a t o f males) throughout c h i l d h o o d and i n t o adolescence. F i g u r e IV-3 d e p i c t s subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f males.  Most i n d i v i d u a l s  10th and 75th p e r c e n t i l e s .  (92 percent) are between the No males s t u d i e d are at the  upper extreme f o r subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s and o n l y  39 two  i n d i v i d u a l s are below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e .  The t r e n d  o f i n c r e a s e i n subscapular adipose t i s s u e w i t h age, as i n d i c a t e d by standard p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s , i s seen i n the study sample.  Subscapular f a t a p p o s i t i o n , u n l i k e t h a t i n the  tri-  ceps r e g i o n , c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e through adolescence i n males. F i g u r e IV-4 females.  shows subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f  Eighty-two percent o f females are between the  10th and 75th p e r c e n t i l e .  More females than males  i n the extreme lower p e r c e n t i l e range:  appear  11 percent o f f e -  males are below the 10th p e r c e n t i l e compared w i t h 3.5 cent o f males.  Tanner and Whitehouse  per-  (1975) c o n s i d e r those  i n d i v i d u a l s a t the 97th p e r c e n t i l e t o be obese.  Only  one  female i n t h i s study can be so c o n s i d e r e d on t h a t b a s i s . For females, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n c r e a s e i n subscapul a r adipose t i s s u e f o l l o w s t h a t i n d i c a t e d by the standard c u r v e s , w i t h a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n t h i c k n e s s from hood i n t o adolescence.  Throughout  child-  t h i s p e r i o d o f growth,  females have g r e a t e r subscapular f a t than do males,  as the  standard curves i n d i c a t e . 5.  Arm  circumference.  F i g u r e s V - l and V-2  c i r c u m f e r e n c e measurements o f males and females  show arm  respectively.  Standard p e r c e n t i l e curves are those o f F r i s a n c h o  (1974),  and are based on a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample of white s u b j e c t s f .••('  d e r i v e d from the U n i t e d S t a t e s Ten State N u t r i t i o n o f 1968-19,70.  Survey  These standard curves are from measurements  40 taken on the r i g h t  arm.  As can be seen from F i g u r e V - l , most males (82 p e r cent) have arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e s t h a t are between the 15th 85th p e r c e n t i l e .  Only 2 percent o f i n d i v i d u a l s are above  the 85th p e r c e n t i l e , w h i l e 16 percent are below the percentile.  Arm  age  15th  circumference i n the group as a whole i s  seen t o i n c r e a s e throughout the decrease  and  the age-range s t u d i e d , d e s p i t e  i n t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s b e g i n n i n g at  12. I n d i v i d u a l f i n d i n g s f o r females  (Figure V-2)  have a  v e r y s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s standard p e r c e n t i l e to males, w i t h the study sample as a whole weighted the lower p e r c e n t i l e s .  curves toward  E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f females have  c i r c u m f e r e n c e s between the 15th and 85th p e r c e n t i l e .  arm Only  3 p e r c e n t o f females are above the 85th p e r c e n t i l e , w h i l e 17 p e r c e n t are below the 15th p e r c e n t i l e . Increase i n arm circumference o c c u r s at a slower r a t e i n females than i n males, as the curves show.  slightly  standard  However, a t age 14 the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i s  d e c e l e r a t e d i n females w h i l e male arm circumference tinues to increase with 6. VI-2  con-  age.  Upper arm muscle diameter.  F i g u r e s VI-1  and  show upper arm muscle diameter measurements, d e r i v e d  as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h the standard p e r c e n t i l e curves o f F r i s a n c h o  (1974).  E i g h t y - f i v e percent o f males  41 are between the 15th and 85th p e r c e n t i l e s , i n d i c a t i n g  that  arm muscle diameter i s w e l l maintained i n the study sample as a whole.  T h i s parameter c l o s e l y approximates t h a t o f  the r e f e r e n c e group and i n c r e a s e s throughout the age studied.  range  Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e and t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s ,  as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , are weighted toward the lower p e r c e n tile  curves.  I t seems apparent, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the i n -  crease i n arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e w i t h age i s due p r i m a r i l y t o growth i n muscle  tissue.  E i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f upper arm muscle  diameter  measurements o f females (Figure VI-2) are between the 15th and the, 85th p e r c e n t i l e .  T h i s group, as a whole, i s weighted  toward the upper p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s : f  15'percent o f females  are above the 85th p e r c e n t i l e w h i l e 2 p e r c e n t are below the 15th.  For males, these p r o p o r t i o n s are 5 p e r c e n t and 8 p e r -  cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . percentile.  No female i n the study i s below the 5th  T h i s i s n o t a b l e i n the l i g h t o f arm c i r c u m -  ference and t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d which are weighted towards the lower p e r c e n t i l e .  Thus, upper arm musculature i s w e l l main-  t a i n e d d e s p i t e g e n e r a l l y l e s s e r i n c r e a s e s i n upper arm pose  adi-  tissue. Rate o f i n c r e a s e i n upper arm muscle diameter i s  slower i n females than i n males.  A p l a t e a u i s achieved at  age 15 i n females, w h i l e i n males t h i s measurement c o n t i n u e s to i n c r e a s e throughout a d o l e s c e n c e .  42 7.  Upper arm muscle c i r c u m f e r e n c e .  F i g u r e s VI-3  and VI-4 show upper arm muscle circumference o f males and females r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p e r c e n t i l e of Frisancho  (1974).  curves  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s  a c r o s s standard p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s , as w e l l as the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f muscle growth w i t h age i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f upper arm muscle diameter 8.  f o r both  Upper arm muscle a r e a .  sexes. F i g u r e s VI-5 and VI-6  d i s p l a y upper arm muscle area o f males and females tively.  Males are predominantly  percentiles  respec-  between the 15th and 85th  (88 percent are i n t h i s range), b e i n g w e l l  dis-  t r i b u t e d about t h e mean (6 p e r c e n t o f males are above t h e 85th p e r c e n t i l e , and 6 p e r c e n t are below the 15th p e r c e n tile).  Increase i n t h i s dimension w i t h age c o n t i n u e s  throughout  the age range s t u d i e d .  T h i s t r e n d i s not no-  t i c e a b l e when muscle s i z e i s expressed  i n terms o f diameter  or circumference. Upper arm muscle area measurements i n females ( F i gure VI-6) are predominantly percentile  between the 15th and 85th  (82 p e r c e n t o f a l l females are i n t h i s  range),  w i t h more v a l u e s above the 85th p e r c e n t i l e than below the 15th  (16 p e r c e n t and 2 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  t h i s dimension slowed  Growth i n  o c c u r s i n t o adolescence, however i t i s  a f t e r age 12.  Thus, i t i s a t t h i s age when the  g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n upper arm muscle area between males and females  occur.  43 9.  Head c i r c u m f e r e n c e .  Head circumference measure-  ments are r e p o r t e d i n F i g u r e s VII-1 and VII-2 o f males and females r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The r e s u l t s are p l o t t e d a g a i n s t the  standard curves o f Watson and Lowry  (1967).  These  standards  p r e s e n t the mean i 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s and a r e n o t sexspecific.  They are d e r i v e d from measurements on Caucasian  children. Most males are w i t h i n - 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s . o f the mean; o n l y 8 p e r c e n t are o u t s i d e these l i m i t s . c r e a s e s more i n d i v i d u a l s are above the mean.  As age i n Thus, i n males  between 6 and 8 y e a r s , 25 percent are above the mean w h i l e 75 percent are below t h e mean.  F o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n between  14 and 16 y e a r s , these percentages  a r e 82 and 18 percent  re s p e c t i v e l y . Females d i s p l a y a s i m i l a r growth p a t t e r n i n head c i r cumference.  Most females are w i t h i n - 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s  o f the mean; o n l y 6 p e r c e n t are o u t s i d e these l i m i t s .  A  s i m i l a r p a t t e r n a l s o i s noted w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age as w i t h males.  I n females, between 6 and 8 y e a r s 1 p e r c e n t are  above the mean w h i l e 99 p e r c e n t are below the mean. ween 14 and 16 y e a r s these percentages 68 p e r c e n t In  Bet-  are 32 p e r c e n t and  respectively. summary, a growth l a g i s observed i n s t a n d i n g and  s i t t i n g h e i g h t i n both sexes, which i s p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t e d d u r i n g adolescence.  T h i s i s apparent  s i n c e t h e r e i s a de-  crease i n p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean as age i n c r e a s e s .  Body weight  measurements  44 more c l o s e l y approximate s i t t i n g height.  standards than do s t a n d i n g and  The d e f i c i t  i n s t a t u r e i s t h e r e f o r e not  r e f l e c t e d by a s i m i l a r d e f i c i t  i n body weight.  Growth p a t -  t e r n s i n arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e f o l l o w the expected t r e n d s i n both sexes, a l t h o u g h " i n d i v i d u a l f i n d i n g s as a whole are weighted below the'smean. i n d i c a t e l e s s subcutaneous  T r i c e p s s k i n f o l d measurements adipose t i s s u e than expected  when compared w i t h those o f r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n . diameter, c i r c u m f e r e n c e and area approximate  Arm muscle  standard c u r v e s .  Subscapular s k i n f o l d s g e n e r a l l y approximate  standards  more c l o s e l y than do t r i c e p s w i t h fewer i n d i v i d u a l s below* the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e , f o r both sexes. pose t i s s u e i s found a t t h i s s i t e , age c o n t i n u e s i n t o adolescence.  As expected, l e s s  adi-  although i n c r e a s e w i t h  Head c i r c u m f e r e n c e measure-  ments f o r both sexes d i s p l a y a growth t r e n d s i m i l a r t o t h a t of  s t a n d i n g and s i t t i n g h e i g h t .  An i n i t i a l d e f i c i t  i s ob-  served, as compared t o standards, w i t h l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of both males and females below the mean o f r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s l a r g e l y c o r r e c t e d d u r i n g adolescence, an e f f e c t more d i s t i n c t i n females than i n males.  45  F i g u r e 1-1. S t a n d i n g h e i g h t o f males. low.a s t a n d a r d c u r v e s are d i s p l a y e d as the mean + 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (Jackson and K e l l y , 1945).  46  F i g u r e 1-2. Standing height of females. Iowa s t a n d a r d c u r v e s are d i s p l a y e d as the mean + 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (Jackson and K e l l y , 1945).  47  F i g u r e I I - l . ' S i t t i n g h e i g h t o f males. Standard c u r v e s are d i s p l a y e d as the mean + 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (Simmons, 1944).  F i g u r e I I - 2 . S i t t i n g h e i g h t o f females, Standard c u r v e s are d i s p l a y e d as the mean + 2 t t a n d a i l d e v i a t i o n s (Simmons, 1944).  49  Figure I I I - l . Weight o f males. Iowa s t a n d a r d c u r v e s a r e d i s p l a y e d as the 3 r d , 50th and 97th p e r c e n t i l e s (Jackson and K e l l y , 1945).  50  Figure III-2. Weight o f f e m a l e s . Iowa s t a n d a r d c u r v e s are d i s p l a y e d as the 3 r d , 50th and 97th p e r c e n t i l e s (Jackson and K e l l y , 1945).  51  F i g u r e IV-2. Triceps: s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f f e m a l e s . S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from Tanner and Whitehouse (1975).  F i g u r e IV-3. S u b s c a p u l a r s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f males. S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from Tanner and Whitehouse (197 5 ) .  54  0.0  2.0  I— 4.0  6.0  1 —  8.0  AGES  10.0  (YR)  ~  1  —  12.0  —1  M.O  16.0  F i g u r e IV-4. Subscapular s k i n f o l d thickness of females. S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from Tanner and Whitehouse (1975).  "I 18.0  I 20.0  55  F i g u r e V - l . Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e of males. S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from F r i s a n c h o  (1974).  56  0.0  1  1  1  1  2.0  4.0  6.0  8.3  AGES  1  10.0  IYR)  1  12.0  1  14.0  1  16.0  F i g u r e V-2. Arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e of f e m a l e s . S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from F r i s a n c h o  1  18.0  (1974).  i 20.  95  4.C  I— 6.0  _,  e.c RGES  ,  io.o CYR)  12.0  "T 14.0  16.0  10.0  Figure VI-1. Upper arm muscle d i a m e t e r o f males. S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from F r i s a n c h o (1974).  —I 20  58  o  o .  !' H Q  Hi O W  I §5J  0.0  2.0  4.0  ~ i — 6.0  -1— 8.0  10.0  IYR]  I 12.0  I 14.0  16.0  18.0  Figure V I - 2 . Upper arm muscle d i a m e t e r of f e m a l e s . S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from F r i s a n c h o (1974).  I 20.0  -i  0.0  1  2.0  :  1  4.0  1  6.0  1  8.0  AGES  1  10.0  (YR)  r  12.0  r  H.O  1  16.0  1  18.0  Figure V I - 3 . Upper arm muscle c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f males. S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from F r i s a n c h o (1974).  1  20  60  o  o  0.0  2.0  ~1—  A.a  —i— 6.0  —  1 8.0  10.0  RGES (YR)  12.0  - i — 14.0  —I  16.0  TaTo  F i g u r e VI-4. Upper arm muscle c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f f e m a l e s , S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s a r e from F r i s a n c h o (1974).  -1  20.0  61  F i g u r e VI-5. Upper arm muscle a r e a o f males. S t a n d a r d p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s are from F r i s a n c h o  (1974).  62  Figure VII-1. Head c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f males, S t a n d a r d c u r v e s a r e d i s p l a y e d as the mean + 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (Watson and Lowry, 1967).  Figure VII-2. Head c i r c u m f e r e n c e of f e m a l e s . S t a n d a r d c u r v e s a r e d i s p l a y e d as the mean + 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (Watson and Lowry, 1967).  65  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION  The  use o f anthropometric data f o r the assessment  o f n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the w e l l  recognized  f a c t t h a t many f a c t o r s , both environmental and g e n e t i c , a f f e c t the r a t e , p o t e n t i a l and p a t t e r n o f growth. d e v i a t i o n s from standard  Therefore,  may be due t o one o r more causes  or t o a more complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e v e r a l .  In i n t e r p r e t -  i n g growth data i n n u t r i t i o n a l terms w i t h o u t i n f o r m a t i o n r e garding  a c t u a l n u t r i e n t i n t a k e s , one i s h e s i t a n t i n a s s i g n -  ing c e r t a i n observations reference The  t o other  t o n u t r i t i o n a l causes, except by  studies.  o b j e c t i v e o f the study, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , was  to e s t a b l i s h whether the growth p a t t e r n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia Native  Indian  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s  pond t o those o f non-Indian r e f e r e n c e  children.  corres-  The study  was c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n nature; anthropometric data were gathered u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t sample o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t each p o i n t w i t h i n the age range s t u d i e d .  I m p l i c i t i n t h i s de-  s i g n are c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f data on the b a s i s o f growth p a t t e r n s . In a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study, one i s a c t u a l l y a s s e s s i n g  66 the body s i z e o f c h i l d r e n a t v a r i o u s ages r a t h e r than the p a t t e r n s o f change i n body s i z e and dimension o f a s i n g l e sample o f c h i l d r e n f o l l o w e d through time Any anthropometric parameter  (longitudinal  study)  r e f l e c t s to a;greater or l e s s e r  degree, c e r t a i n g e n e t i c and environmental  (including  t i o n a l ) f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s growth.  nutri-  However,  c o n c l u s i o n s cannot j u s t i f i a b l y be drawn on the p a t t e r n s o f growth o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r group on the b a s i s o f measurements taken on independent  samples.  Thus, although the c r o s s  s e c t i o n a l growth study i s o f v a l u e i n a s s e s s i n g v a r i o u s p a r a meters o f body s i z e and dimension o f c h i l d r e n at d i f f e r e n t ages d u r i n g t h e i r growing p e r i o d , the a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f growth i s not e v a l u a t e d .  The l o n g i t u d i n a l study i s more  amenable t o such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s to >be ,-  drawn on the r a t e and v e l o c i t y o f growth as w e l l as catch-up growth.  L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s have the major disadvantage o f  a c o n s i d e r a b l e time requirement f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . There are o t h e r w e l l - r e c o g n i z e d shortcomings o f c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data a n a l y s i s . Anderson and Kowalski  As d e s c r i b e d by  Prahl-  (1973), the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  variable  i s confounded w i t h the c o h o r t v a r i a b l e i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l studies.  With r e f e r e n c e t o the p r e s e n t study, d i f f e r e n c e s  observed, f o r example, i n s t a n d i n g h e i g h t between 6 year o l d males and 16 year o l d males r e f l e c t age changes as w e l l as d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n environmental and c u l t u r a l p r e s s u r e s . These authors suggest that the r e p e a t e d f i n d i n g s o f s u b s t a n t i i  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between i n f e r e n c e s made on the b a s i s o f c r o s s s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l data f o r anthropometric ables  (Damon, 1965)  e f f e c t may  play.  vari-  p o i n t t o the important r o l e the cohort  B a l t e s (1968) has s t a t e d t h a t both c r o s s -  s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l designs have such an absence o f c o n t r o l as t o be o f very l i t t l e of  the disadvantages  s c i e n t i f i c value.  In view  o f both c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d -  i n a l designs t o the study o f growth and development, P r a h l Anderson and Kowalski  (1973) have d e s c r i b e d a m i x e d - l o n g i t u d i n a l  type w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g c o h o r t s , as a convenient  compromise.  However, i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y and u s e f u l n e s s i n the assessment of  p o p u l a t i o n s has not y e t been e x p l o r e d . Despite the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  de-  s i g n and o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data, u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on the growth s t a t u s o f c h i l d r e n i s a v a i l a b l e with t h i s In  approach. the p r e s e n t study, a d e f i c i t i n s t a n d i n g h e i g h t  is  demonstrated by the l a r g e percentage,  ing  below the Iowa mean (89 p e r c e n t and  t i v e l y f o r males and f e m a l e s ) .  i n both sexes,  fall-  75 p e r c e n t r e s p e c -  The decrease  i n the p e r c e n t -  age w i t h h e i g h t s more than 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d as compared w i t h l a t e r for  adolescence,  both sexes, i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e p o r t e d by Lee e t a l .  (1971) f o r c h i l d r e n from the Anaham and Ahousat  Reserves.  The authors suggest t h a t a catch-up e f f e c t i s observed, t h a t r a t e o f growth i s i n c r e a s e d a f t e r the i n i t i a l  in  deficit,  68 p r o v i d i n g some compensation.  T h i s i s u n c e r t a i n , however,  s i n c e t h e i r data were c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l . R e i s i n g e r e t a l . (1972) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r among Navajo  findings  I n d i a n c h i l d r e n between 5 and 14 y e a r s from  the Lower Greasewood Reserve  i n Arizona.  In t h a t study 83  percent o f males and 81 percent o f females were below the 50th p e r c e n t i l e f o r h e i g h t o f Iowa r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n . males,  the percentage below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e  In  decreased  from 19 p e r c e n t f o r those between 5 and 9 y e a r s t o 10 p e r cent f o r those between 10 and 14 y e a r s . comment on the s t a t i s t i c a l  The authors do not  significance of this finding.  A  s i m i l a r decrease was not observed among females.  The authors  suggest t h a t t h i s may r e p r e s e n t catch-up growth.  Diet evalua-  t i o n s i n t h a t study suggest t h a t many o f the study s u b j e c t s had inadequate food i n t a k e s which c o u l d account f o r the growth r e t a r d a t i o n . Height measurements r e p o r t e d by Darby et. a l . (1955) on Navajo c h i l d r e n , i n comparison w i t h Canadian data, r e v e a l Navajo 10.  c h i l d r e n t o be s h o r t e r than Canadians  a f t e r age  The authors comment t h a t s i n c e 1910 v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s  ( i n c l u d i n g n u t r i t i o n ) have r e s u l t e d i n t a l l e r Canadians, but t h a t these i n f l u e n c e s are n o t n o t i c e a b l e among the Navajo. The et  study on p r e s c h o o l Navajo c h i l d r e n o f Van Duzen  a l . (1969), r e p o r t e d n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f the sample be-  low the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e o f Iowa standards f o r h e i g h t .  The  authors suggested t h a t the observed r e t a r d a t i o n i n growth  69 was caused by c h r o n i c c a l o r i e and p r o t e i n m a l n u t r i t i o n as w e l l as c e r t a i n d i s e a s e f a c t o r s . In c o n t r a s t t o these f i n d i n g s , both ICNND s t u d i e s (1964, 1964) c a r r i e d out i n the U.S. (on Native I n d i a n c h i l d ren o f the F o r t Belknap and B l a c k f o o t R e s e r v a t i o n s ) ..report average  s t a n d i n g h e i g h t s almost e n t i r e l y a t o r above Iowa  means f o r both  sexes.  Growth i n head and trunk i s observed  as i n c r e a s e i n  s i t t i n g h e i g h t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. Although the same t e n dencies toward a decreased percentage  o f i n d i v i d u a l s below  2 standard d e v i a t i o n s , w i t h age, i s n o t i c e a b l e i n t h i s p a r a meter, as w i t h s t a n d i n g h e i g h t , c o n c l u s i o n s drawn r e g a r d i n g body p r o p o r t i o n and r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f head and trunk to s t a n d i n g h e i g h t are not j u s t i f i e d .  For t h i s  purpose,  s i t t i n g h e i g h t / s t a n d i n g h e i g h t r a t i o should be a n a l y z e d . From the data, i t i s c l e a r t h a t s i t t i n g h e i g h t i n most c h i l d r e n i s l e s s than expected when compared w i t h  standards.  Thus 88 percent o f males and 90 p e r c e n t o f females are below the mean o f r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n .  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were  r e p o r t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbian I n d i a n c h i l d r e n by Birkbeck et a l . (1971). Although these two parameters,  s t a n d i n g and s i t t i n g  h e i g h t , i n d i c a t e a growth l a g i n the study sample as a whole, a comparable d e f i c i t i s not seen i n body weight measurements.  As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , males and females  fall  l a r g e l y w i t h i n the two extremes o f Iowa standards, and i n crease i n body weight w i t h age f o l l o w s normal p a t t e r n .  Thus,  70 body weight i s g e n e r a l l y adequate d e s p i t e s h o r t s t a t u r e . Body weight i s more v u l n e r a b l e t o immediate n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t , and i s more a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d d u r i n g  times  o f n u t r i t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n than are some o t h e r parameters. However, a t t a i n e d body s t a t u r e i s r e f l e c t i v e o f p a s t growth r a t e ; i t i s a cumulative  index o f growth.  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the observed n u t r i t i o n a l b a s i s i s open.  T h e r e f o r e , the  l a g i n s t a t u r a l growth has a  A l l c h i l d r e n i n the study  sample  were r e s i d i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s where adequate n u t r i t i o n was  made a v a i l a b l e .  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g c o u l d w e l l  p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e f i c i t s i n weight t o be c o r r e c t e d , through proper n u t r i t i o n w h i l e the d e f i c i t i n s t a t u r e would not be so immediately a f f e c t e d . D i e t a r y data on B.C.  Native Indians suggests t h a t  the i n t a k e s o f c e r t a i n n u t r i e n t s i s below o p t i m a l f o r c h i l d ren.  Data c o l l e c t e d by 24-hour r e c a l l on the Anaham Reserve  by Lee e t ad.. (1971) showed t h a t a number o f c h i l d r e n i n t a k e s o f c a l o r i e s , c a l c i u m and v i t a m i n A l e s s than t h i r d s o f the Canadian D i e t a r y Standards.  had two  In a d d i t i o n , a  number o f teenagers, o f both sexes, had low i r o n i n t a k e s . Of the p r e s e n t study sample, 61 c h i l d r e n measured, r e p r e s e n t i n g 8 percent o f t o t a l , were from the Anaham Reserve; t h i s i s the l a r g e s t number o f c h i l d r e n from a s i n g l e r e s e r v e . The  seven r e s e r v e s l o c a t e d i n B.C.  surveyed by  Nutrition  Canada (1973) ( r e s u l t s o f which are d i s c u s s e d i n the I n t r o duction) c o n t r i b u t e d 46 c h i l d r e n to the p r e s e n t study, r e p r e s e n t i n g 6 percent o f the t o t a l * s a m p l e .  N u t r i t i o n Canada  71 documented poorer n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the Canadian  Indian  p o p u l a t i o n as compared t o the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Although f i g u r e s are not p r e s e n t e d , most o l d e r c h i l d ren had attended r e s i d e n c e s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and have been a f f o r d e d adequate n u t r i t i o n f o r a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f time than have younger c h i l d r e n who show g r e a t e s t d e f i c i t s i n stature. quent  Thus, the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a catch-up phase  subse-  t o the l a g i n growth i s p r e s e n t . In a s i m i l a r study, c a r r i e d out among extremely  poor  c h i l d r e n i n Peru by Andrianzen e t a_l. (1973) found a s i g n i f i c a n t l a g i n l i n e a r growth w h i l e body weight much l e s s s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d .  as a whole was  The authors p o s t u l a t e t h a t  these c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d p e r i o d s o f r e c o v e r y from malnut r i t i o n w i t h easy weight  g a i n b u t incomplete r e t u r n t o nor-  mal o f the mechanisms necessary f o r l i n e a r growth. it  Although  i s not l i k e l y t h a t c h i l d r e n o f the p r e s e n t study sample  have undergone severe n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t , a s i m i l a r  situa-  t i o n c o u l d be p r e s e n t . H e l l e r e t a l . (1967) observed h e i g h t d e f i c i t s c i d e n t w i t h adequate body weight  coin-  (as compared w i t h Iowa  data) i n A l a s k a n Eskimo p r e s c h o o l e r s .  The authors  t h a t these p a t t e r n s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by i n h e r i t e d  state factors  o r by p e r s i s t e n t environmental i n f l u e n c e s , although they f e l t t h a t a n u t r i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n was u n l i k e l y .  This  sample was re-examined s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r and a c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f the measurements o f the o r i g i n a l cohort o f  c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t two y e a r s o f l i f e , by Waterlow (1972), was (1975).  I t was  as  proposed  c a r r i e d out by Nichaman e t a l .  shown t h a t the occurrence o f moderate and  severe growth r e t a r d a t i o n was  a t l e a s t s i x times more p r e -  v a l e n t than acute under n u t r i t i o n . It  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n are o f  s h o r t e r s t a t u r e , and o f r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r body weight Caucasians, as a r e s u l t o f g e n e t i c f a c t o r s .  than  However, Ha-  b i c h t e t a l . (1974) have shown t h a t the g e n e t i c e f f e c t o f mean growth i n h e i g h t and weight pared w i t h environmental e f f e c t s .  i n c h i l d r e n i s s m a l l comThus, 3 p e r c e n t o f d i f -  f e r e n c e s i n h e i g h t and 6 percent o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n weight were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n e t h n i c background. importance  The  o f t h i s study i s t h a t the authors have c o l l e c t e d  a wider range o f i n f o r m a t i o n and made s c i e n t i f i c sons more p r e c i s e l y than h e r e t o f o r e . s u l t s i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t one  compari-  I m p l i c i t i n these r e -  set o f growth standards  should be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f data from a l l e t h nic  groups. J e l l i f f e and J e l l i f f e  (1975) p o i n t out the  difficul-  t i e s i n s e l e c t i o n o f standards f o r u n i v e r s a l use;  primarily  due t o problems i n d e l i n e a t i n g the g e n e t i c "mainstream o f mankind".  Thus, f o r example, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t  opti-  m a l l y f e d i n f a n t s b e l o n g i n g t o a g e n e t i c a l l y s h o r t group would achieve the " u n i v e r s a l standard". data on Japanese c h i l d r e n  However, growth  (Takahashi, 1966)  shows t h a t  € h i s group i s now  h e a v i e r and t a l l e r than p r e v i o u s  t i o n s , approximating  the Western o v e r f e d model.  genera-  I t i s un-  c l e a r which standards r e p r e s e n t the optimum as regards p r e sent and f u t u r e h e a l t h and s u r v i v a l and which r e p r e s e n t the o v e r n o u r i s h e d w i t h p o t e n t i a l or a c t u a l r i s k s o f o b e s i t y . Garn (1965), however, suggests t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u r e as w e l l as body b u i l d and f a t - f r e e  mass:.:complicate  the u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f simple standards o f h e i g h t weight.  T h i s author advocates  and  the use o f p a r e n t - s p e c i f i c or  p a r e n t - c o r r e c t e d s i z e standards f o r growing c h i l d r e n .  Fur-  t h e r , i t i s suggested t h a t r e f e r e n c e standards should be  ap-  p r o p r i a t e t o the p o p u l a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n , making use o f the e c o n o m i c a l l y advantaged group t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f optimum growth. In a more r e c e n t r e p o r t Garn and C l a r k (1975) o u t l i n e the problems i n the n u t r i t i o n a l assessment o f b l a c k i n d i v i d u a l s , when compared w i t h standards o f white  refer-  ence c h i l d r e n , due t o c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a n d i n g h e i g h t , and body weight as w e l l as s k e l e t a l mass and bone density.  They conclude t h a t f a i l u r e t o employ a p p r o p r i a t e  standards w i l l r e s u l t i n u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the r a d i o g r a p h i c and radiogrammetric  dimensional,  e f f e c t s of u n d e r n u t r i t i o n  i n b l a c k s a f t e r the second year o f l i f e .  Their conclusions  are based on data from s e v e r a l l a r g e - s c a l e n u t r i t i o n growth s t u d i e s , . i n c l u d i n g the P r e s c h o o l N u t r i t i o n  and  Survey  (Owen e t a l . , 1974), the N a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i v e Survey (Garn e t a l . / 1974), the Ten-State N u t r i t i o n Survey e t a l . , 1973), Kaiser-Permanente Survey  (Garn  (Winegerd e t a l . ,  74 1973)  a n d t h e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h Examination  et a l . ,  Survey  (Hamill  1970). Although  i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t a s i m i l a r case c o u l d  be made f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Native Indian data, s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s simply not a v a i l a b l e .  By and l a r g e ,  r e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out on North Ameri c a n I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r .  So t h a t w h i l e  comparison o f p r e s e n t data w i t h t h a t o f r e f e r e n c e c h i l d r e n , both c u l t u r a l l y and g e n e t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t , might be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , more s u i t a b l e  standards  are not a v a i l a b l e . C o i n c i d e n t w i t h the observed  s t a t u r a l growth l a g  and r e l a t i v e l y adequate body weight i n c r e a s e w i t h age, the r e s u l t s show a tendency  toward l e s s subcutaneous adipose  t i s s u e than expected on the b a s i s o f comparison w i t h the standards o f Tanner and Whitehouse  (1975).  Thus, 82 p e r -  cent o f males and 87 p e r c e n t o f females are below the 50th p e r c e n t i l e f o r t r i c e p t s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s ; i n a d d i t i o n 68 p e r c e n t o f males and 65 p e r c e n t o f females are below the 50th p e r c e n t i l e f o r subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s .  Tanner  and Whitehouse s t a t e t h a t the p e r c e n t i l e s r e p o r t e d as s t a n dards imply n o t h i n g as t o the d e s i r a b i l i t y o r u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a group o r p o p u l a t i o n having a s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f subcutaneous f a t . R a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n amount and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f body f a t have been observed.  Malina  (1966) has shown t h a t  b l a c k American c h i l d r e n have c o n s i s t e n t l y l e s s t r i c e p s and s u b s c a p u l a r a d i p o s e t i s s u e than do w h i t e c h i l d r e n .  Robson  e t a l . (1971) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e r a t i o o f t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t o s u b s c a p u l a r s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s m a i n l y i n b l a c k i n f a n t s and c h i l d r e n from Dominica was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than t h a t o f w h i t e c h i l d r e n from B r i t a i n .  A s h c r o f t (1972) argues t h a t i t  i s n e c e s s a r y t o measure o t h e r s k i n f o l d s i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e body f a t a d e q u a t e l y and t o make assumptions  relative to diet-  a r y adequacy. Mean s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s o f c h i l d r e n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y found t o be s m a l l e r than t h o s e o f c h i l d r e n i n developed  c o u n t r i e s , an e f f e c t w h i c h . i s i n p a r t  due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s . al.  Thus M a l i n a e t  (1974) r e p o r t s t h a t mean s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s o f r u r a l  Guatemalan L a d i n o c h i l d r e n a r e low when compared w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s o f Tanner and Whitehouse (1962).  They a r e l i k e -  w i s e s m a l l e r than t h o s e o f urban c h i l d r e n i n upper socio-economic s t r a t a o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s (Mora P a r r a e t a l . , 1970). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e Guatemalan d a t a shows a l a r g e r d e f i c i t i n t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d than i n s u b s c a p u l a r s k i n f o l d as does t h e p r e s e n t d a t a .  Thus, mean v a l u e s f o r t r i c e p s  are a t o r below t h e 1 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f s t a n d a r d between 6 months and 7 y e a r s , w h i l e mean v a l u e s f o r s u b s c a p u l a r , d u r i n g t h a t age range, v a r y between t h e 25th and 50th p e r c e n tile.  The a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l f a t r e d u c t i o n  76 on the e x t r e m i t i e s and trunk i n marginal n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s may  be i m p l i e d . In n u t r i t i o n a l terms, l e s s body f a t , as r e f l e c t e d  by  l e s s subcutaneous adipose t i s s u e , means a s m a l l e r c a l o r i e r e s e r v e a v a i l a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l .  Tanner and Whitehouse  r e g a r d c h i l d r e n at e i t h e r extreme t o be at r i s k . p r e s e n t study sample, 9.5  p e r c e n t o f females and 4 percent  o f males would be c o n s i d e r e d undernourished, o f these a u t h o r s .  In the  by the  criteria  However, s i n c e o t h e r body measurements  were not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d s i n these c u l a r c h i l d r e n and a b l e , one  s i n c e d i e t a r y h i s t o r i e s are not  partiavail-  i s h e s i t a n t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r  nutritional status. Whether the g e n e r a l l y lower degree o f subcutaneous adipose t i s s u e i n B.C.  Native Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n  r e s i d e n c e i s due t o e t h n i c o r i g i n , t o c e r t a i n  environmental  f a c t o r s o r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o n u t r i t i o n a l causes, i s u n c l e a r . Upper arm muscle i n both sexes was w e l l maintained;  observed  t o be  i t i s growth o f t h i s t i s s u e mass which  makes the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n toward o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e .  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by Gurney  et a l . (1972) among Jamaican i n f a n t s and p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . E i g h t percent had arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e s below the 3rd p e r c e n t i l e w h i l e 21.4  p e r c e n t had t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s  which were below t h i s p e r c e n t i l e o f standard v a l u e s .  The  77 authors concluded t h a t t h e i r d i e t may  be l a c k i n g i n t o t a l  c a l o r i e s r a t h e r than i n p r o t e i n . M a r t o r e l l et. aJL. (1976), who  r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s on a  group o f r u r a l Guatemalan p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , drew s i m i l a r conclusions.  I t was  found t h a t although these c h i l d r e n  had  a reduced arm muscle and f a t area, the r e l a t i v e r e d u c t i o n i n arm  f a t area was  son was was  g r e a t e r than i n arm muscle a r e a .  Compari-  made w i t h the standards o f F r i s a n c h o (1974).  suggested t h a t l a c k o f energy r a t h e r than p r o t e i n  c i e n c y i s the main n u t r i t i o n a l problem  in this  It defi-  group.  I t i s tempting to a s s i g n the p r e s e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s t o s i m i l a r d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s , although both o f the above s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out on p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Canada Survey  Indeed,  Nutrition  (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t c a l o r i c i n t a k e s o f a d o l e -  scent I n d i a n s were c o n s i s t e n t l y lower than those o f the a d o l e s c e n t s o f the n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e p r o t e i n i n takes f o r t h i s group were more than adequate.  Very few i n -  d i v i d u a l s were c l a s s i f i e d as at r i s k on the b a s i s o f serum protein values.  However, the p r e s e n t study sample may  l a r g e l y removed from these d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s .  One  be  is justi-  f i e d i n c o n c l u d i n g from these data, however, t h a t p r o t e i n n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f B.C. dences may  Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n r e s i -  be r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r than c a l o r i e  nutritional  status. Although the e f f e c t s o f n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s upon growth i n head c i r c u m f e r e n c e are seen predominantly i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d ,  78 these e f f e c t s may be r e f l e c t e d by subsequent growth p a t t e r n . Thus, as shown by M a l i n a  (1975),  s m a l l e r mean head c i r c u m -  f e r e n c e s i n l a t e r c h i l d h o o d a p p a r e n t l y r e f l e c t growth r e t a r d a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t two y e a r s o f l i f e .  Most  rapid  growth i n head circumference o c c u r s d u r i n g e a r l y i n f a n c y w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l decrease  i n v e l o c i t y by age 6.  Thus the  magnitude o f change i n head circumference over the age-range s t u d i e d i s not g r e a t .  However, those c h i l d r e n who  f a l l at  or below the lower extremes may have experienced some nut r i t i o n a l i n s u l t i n the p a s t . Thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c r i b e a catch-up e f f e c t t o the observed  growth  improvement w i t h age i n head c i r c u m -  ference r e l a t i v e t o standard.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d  by Birkbeck e t a l . (1972) on Native Indians from the Anaham and Ahousat r e s e r v e s .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l -  though t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g ..dissociation between head circumference and s t a t u r e as c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r (Malina e t al.,  1975), the p a t t e r n o f growth i n t h i s measurement i n  the p r e s e n t study i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f growth i n standing  height.  79  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary Growth p a t t e r n s o f B r i t i s h Columbian N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s were s t u d i e d u t i l i z i n g n u t r i t i o n a l anthropometric techniques on 734 c h i l d r e n aged 6 t o 17 y e a r s a t t e n d i n g s i x student r e s i d e n c e s . The study was c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n d e s i g n and r e s u l t s were compared w i t h standard r e f e r e n c e d a t a .  The o b j e c t i v e o f the  study was t o e s t a b l i s h whether t h e growth p a t t e r n o f B.C. Native I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s c o r respond t o those o f non-Indian  reference c h i l d r e n .  A c o n s i d e r a b l e growth d e f i c i t was demonstrated i n younger c h i l d r e n which appears t o be somewhat c o r r e c t e d by adolescence.  The study sample as a whole a r e short when  compared w i t h Iowa standards.  S t a t u r e , as i n d i c a t e d by  s t a n d i n g and s i t t i n g h e i g h t , was more s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d than weight.  Upper arm measurements were found t o i n d i c a t e  l e s s adipose t i s s u e than expected as compared w i t h standards, w h i l e s k e l e t a l muscle i s w e l l maintained i n comparison standard p e r c e n t i l e c u r v e s .  with  I t i s concluded t h a t p r o t e i n  n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f B.C. I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n student r e s i d e n c e s may be r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r than c a l o r i e  nutritional  80 status.  The growth p a t t e r n o f head circumference  reflects  t h a t o f s t a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n females. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these p a t t e r n s are due t o n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s , although i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s on t h a t b a s i s i s not w h o l l y j u s t i f i a b l e i n view o f the l a c k o f dietary information.  Recommendations F o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s , s e v e r a l r e commendations can be made: 1.  A study t o o b t a i n growth data on p r e s c h o o l Native  Indian  c h i l d r e n should be undertaken i n o r d e r t o determine the growth s t a t u s o f t h i s age group.  Since the r e s u l t s o f the  p r e s e n t study i n d i c a t e a growth d e f i c i t i n B.C. Native I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c h i l d r e n o f t h e younger age groups s t u d i e d , the need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e s c h o o l  child-  ren i s c l e a r . 2.  Growth data on Native Indian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s  should be o b t a i n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d i e t a r y data i n o r d e r t o determine growth p a t t e r n s o f those c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the home environment, as r e l a t e d t o n u t r i t i o n a l  factors.  In comparison w i t h r e s u l t s o f the present study, the e f f e c t s o f r e s i d e n c e d i e t s upon growth p a t t e r n s c o u l d be d e l i n e a t e d . 3.  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Waterlow, J.C. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o t e i n calorie malnutrition. Br. Med. J . 3:566-569, 1972. Waterlow, J.C. and Mendes, C.B. Composition o f muscle i n malnourished human i n f a n t s . Nature 180:1361-1368, 1957. Watson, E.H. and Lowrey, G.H. Growth and Development o f C h i l d r e n . Year Book, 5th, Chicago, 1967. Weiner, J.S. and L o u r i e , J.A. Human B i o l o g y : A guide t o f i e l d methods. IBP Handbook No. 9. B l a c k w e l l S c i e n t i f i c P u b l i s h e r s , Oxford, 1969. Wenberg, B.G., Boedeker, M.T. and Schuck, C. Nutriture value o f d i e t s i n Indian boarding schools i n the Dakotas. O b s e r v a t i o n s o f growth and development of a d o l e s c e n t Sioux I n d i a n g i r l s . J . Amer. D i e t . Assoc. 46:96-101, 1965. Wingerd, J . , Solomon, I.L. and Schoen, E . J . Parent-specific h e i g h t standards f o r p r e a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n o f t h r e e r a c i a l groups, w i t h method f o r r a p i d d e t e r m i n a t i o n . P e d i a t r i c s 52:556-560, 1973.  91 World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n . N u t r i t i o n a l Status o f Populations: A Manual on Anthropometric A p p r a i s a l o f Trends. WHO/Nutr 70.129, 1968, p. 12. Yankauer, A. An e v a l u a t i o n o f n u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s f o r mothers i n a p e d i a t r i c c l i n i c setting. J . Trop. Ped. 21(2) 90-92, 1975. :  92  APPENDICES Legends t o Appendices  Page Legend t o Student Residence  93  Legend t o ReserverCodes  94  93  LEGEND TO STUDENT RESIDENCE  00  S e c h e l t Student Residence, S e c h e l t , B.C.  01  S t . Mary's Student Residence, M i s s i o n , 'B.C.  02  Kamloops Student Residence, Kamloops, B.C.  03  Cariboo Student Residence, W i l l i a m s Lake, B.C.  04  L e j a c Student Residence, L e j a c , B.C.  10  S t . George's Student Residence, L y t t o n , B.C.  94 LEGEND TO RESERVE CODES Reserve  Code  Reserve  Code  Adams Lake  1  Hope  24  Alexandria  2  Kanaka Bar  25  A l e x i s Creek  3  Kitwancool  26  Alkali  4  Klahoose  27  Anaham  5  Kluskus  28  Anderson Lake  6  Kwawkewlth  29  Boothroyd  7  Lake Babine  30  Bridge R i v e r  8  Lillooet  31  Burrard  9  Lower N i c o l a  32  10  Lt.  33  Canoe Creek  11  Lytton  34  Chehalis  12  Matsqui  35  Chemainus  13  McLeod Lk.  36  Cheslatta  14  Moricetown  37  Clinton  15  Mount C u r r i e  38  Coldwater  16  Musqueum  39  Cook's F e r r y  17  Nanaimo  40  Cowichan  18  Nazko  41  Deadman s Creek  19  Necoslie  42  Douglas  20  Nemiah V a l l e y  43  Fountain  21  Neskainleth  44  Hazelton  22  Nicomen  45  Homalco  23  Nimpkish  46  Canim  Lake  Lake  1  Shuswap  95  Reserve  Code  Reserve  Code  Nooaitch  47  Soda Creek  63  North Thompson  48  Spallumcheen  64  Ohamil  49  Squami sh  65  Pavilion  50  Squiala  66  Penelukut  51  Stellaquo  67  Penticton  52  Stone  68  Port Douglas  53  S t u a r t Lake  69  Samahquam  54  T a k l a Lake  70  Seabird  55  Toosey  71  Sechelt  56  Tsaw  72  Seton Lake  57  Ulkatcho  73  Shakan  58  Upper N i c o l a  74  Shuswap  59  Westbank  75  Skookumchuk  60  W i l l i a m s Lake  76  Skwah  61  Yale  77  Sliammon  62  Non s t a t u s  88  APPENDIX A STANDING HEIGHT, SITTING HEIGHT, SITTING HEIGHT/STANDING HEIGHT RATIO AND WEIGHT (sorted a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age)  CODE JMBER  411 78 71 390 407 656 68 408 3 78 383 410 76 84 385 406 73 6 59 666 409 81 541 384 74 404 395 387 658 75 413 419 417 83 539 412 386 63 394 416 418 414 536 392 415 393 87 661 660 376 70 389 69 537 402 400 538  RES- RESI- SEX ERVE DENCE  3 55 60 3 43 34 23 5 43 5 76 38 55 76 76 38 7 25 3 65 42 3 60 63 2 3 88 24 3 76 5 55 32 5 5 62 10 10 5 71 1 71 11 11 12 26 26 5 38 43 46 21 28 3 16  02 01 01 02 02 10 00 02 02 02 02 01 01 02 02 01 10 10 02 01 03 02 01 02 02 02 10 01 02 02 02 01 03 02 C2 00 02 C2 C2 02 03 02 02 02 01 10 10 02 00 02 00 03 02 02 03  M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M K M M M M H  M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M K M M M M M M M M M M M M  AGE .:STANDING SITTING SIT/ST <YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CM) (CM) 6.00 109.5 6o02 116.3 6,08 112.0 6oC9 110. 5 6 10 116o8 6.13 112.8 6.14 101.6 6.15 102.8 6.19 117.8 6.2 5 103.8 6.40 105.5 6.41 115.5 6.44 1C8.5 6.49 106.8 6o61 12C.1 6.63 108.8 6.6 5 109.8 6o65 12 0.6 6.66 114.5 6.70 116.6 6.72 122.6 6.75 114.5 6.77 117.1 6.81 113.1 6. 82 115.5 6o£7 116.6 6.8 9 108.3 6.97 111.6 7.03 115.5 7.11 112.5 7.15 11-5.1 7.17 112.1 7. 19 117.0 7.20 11C.6 7.20 111.8 7.3 5 123. 1 7.44 112.8 7.44 111.8 7.45 111.5 7.47 115.5 7.52 112.8 7.5 6 116.5. 7.65 117.8 7.74 118. 8 7.87 120.6 7.89 119.6 7.89 120.0 7.90 115.1 7.94 116.0 7.96 121.0 7.96 120.5 8.01 119.1 8o07 125.8 8.08 122.0 8.12 11 £.5 o  58.6 62.6 62.3 5 9.6 63.8 62.6 56.8 57.4 64.8 58.3 58.6 65.1 61.8 60.6 63.3 60.8 61.6 67.3 61.6 63.5 65.8 61.6 65.8 62.0 62.1 64.5 57.8 60.6 63.1 60.5 62.6 60.1 64.1 61.0 62.0 67.6 62.5 61.5 5 9.5 64.3 62.6 6 5.3 63.5 64.5 67.3 66.3 65.8 63.6 62.8 65.6 64.1 63.1 68. 1 64.6 64.3  0.536 0.539 0.556 0.540 0.546 0.556 0.5.59 0.558 0.550 0. 563 0.556 0.564 0.5 70 0.567 0.527 0.558 0.562 0.559 0.538 0.545 0.537 0.539 0.563 0.548 0.539 0.5.53 0.534 0.543 0.546 0.538 0.543 0.537 0.549 0.5,51 0.555 0.549 0.554 0.550 0.534 0.557 0.556 0.561 0.539 0.543 0.558 0.554 0.549 0.553 0.541 0.542 0.532 0.530 0.541 0.530 0.543  WEIGH <KG)  16.19 22.15 21.41 17.01 2-1.80 19.36 15.7,1 14.81 22.79 15.80 15.99 23. 61 20.04 17.75 22.86 18.94 18.94 24.44 20.66 24.40 26.84 20.66 23.89 20.24 18.66 20.24 17.80 22.11 19.05 17.29 19.80 19.40 21. 10 15.00 16.81 24.44 19.05 18.04 17. 01 21.21 20. 00 21.21 20.11 21.10 25.54 23.30 24.64 20.79 21.60 22.35 22.51 24.95 25.19 24.20 22.44  CODE NUM8ER  399 544 657 67 72 85 77 377 60 66 7 669 662 397 79 543 374 86 3 75 540 542 82 403 545 664 54 102 551 373 553 665 57 405 80 61 550 673 356 388 380 62 552 56 668 65 92 672 436 375 663 671 382 53 5 4C1 91 420  RES- RESI- SEX 4GE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE DENCE (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CH) (CM) 3 74 25 6 38 65 60 28 38 34 34 58 43 55 73 71 55 68 74 59 60 5 33 34 62 24 57 43 1 7 65 10 60 38 57 45 5 5 2 38 16 56 34 62 18 37 43 5 34 26 3 8 28 38 5  02 03 10 00 01 01 01 02 00 10 10 10 02 01 03 02 01 02 03 03 01 02 03 1G 00 01 03 02 03 10 00 02 01 CO 03 10 02 02 02 GO 03 00 10 00 01 10 02 02 10 1G 02 03 02 01 02  M M M  M K  M M M M H  M M M M  «M  M M M M M M M M  K M M M M M K M H  M M M M M P.  M M M M M M H M M M M M M M M  8.13 8.13 8ol4 8»15 8ol6 8ol7 8.18 £.25 8.30 8.31 8.36 8.39 8.40 8.40 8.41 8.44 8.48 8.50 8.5 8 8.67 8.70 8»80 8.87 8.57 8.59 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.09 9.10 9.12 9.13 5.14 9.14 5.18 9.31 9.33 5.3 7 9.43 5.4 5 9.46 9.48 5.5 5 9.55 5.59 5.55 9.59 9.64 5 65 9.65 5.66 9.70 9.72 5.82 9.86 0  115.5 126.5 126.0 124.3 129.5 123.3 128.0 121.5 127.3 125.5 120.8 120. 3 123.1 13 C. 3 122.3 126.6 123.5 130.8 125.0 127.5 127.5 122.6 125.3 125.5 134.3 134.5 126.1 119.1 122.8 13 2.3 132.1 128.3 12 0.5 117.3 135. 8 128.1 127.3 121.1 122.3 115.5 124.6 137.1 137. 8 115.6 139.8 136.8 132.3 125.8 13C.3 124.6 12 2. 1 12 5.1 130.8 13 5. 8 125.5  65.3 67.3 68.1 67.6 69.3 64.8 70.8 67.8 6 8.5 6 7.3 66.1 67.5 64.8 70.8 65.0 68.5 65. 1 69.8 68. 8 66.8 69.1 64.6 70.6 66.3 65.5 72.1 67.6 65.8 66.1 72.6 70.1 70.6 65.3 64.0 71.6 68.3 66.3 66.3 66.6 63.1 67.0 73.0 74. 1 6 2.8 74.8 74.0 70.8 68.1 7G.8 68.1 70.5 66.1 69.6 72.6 68.6  0.547 0.533 0.540 0.543 0.536 0.526 0.553 0.559 0.538 0.537 0.547 0.561 0.527 0.543 0.531 0.541 0.560 0.533 0.550 0.524 0.543 0.526 0.546 0.528 0.517 0.537 0.536 0.553 0.538 0.549 0.531 0.551 0.531 0.546 0.527 0.5.33 0.520 0.548 0.544 0.528 0.537 0.532 0.538 0.543 0.535 0.541 0.535 0.525 0.544 0.547 0.534 0.529 0.532 0.534 0.531  1  WEIGHT (KG)  20.86 24.79 25.10 25.15 26.64 25.45 30. 14 23.34 26.64 25.15 22.95 22.04 24.20 27.65 25.19 25. 19 25.61 27.35 30.84 26.05 29.59 22.55 29.04 21.65 33.79 31.55 28. 75 22.55 25.50 28.40 28.64 22.90 28.05 20.29 31.20 25.85 24.16 24. 86 24.35 23.34 21. 34 33.04 30.95 22.75 30.69 34. 10 31. 00 24.71 30.65 26.60 25.96 22.3 5 29.85 30.45 29. 15  CODE NUMBER  RESERVE  . E SI- SEX AGE TANDING SITTING SIT/ST (YRS) sEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO 1ENCE (Cf-) iCHi  429 64 545 39 534 422 351 708 670 398 110 55 95 58 55 631 431 108 435 548 49 40 104 445 714 107 450 705 704 425 36 434 430 424 121 106 710 94 51 446 105 96 93 437 454 702 97 444 555 98 66 119 421 554 5C  63 38 57 23 21 41 41 34 34 68 18 72 60 38 65 69 3 60 41 57 9 62 12 3 34 60 41 34 34 11 56 43 5 43 60 60 34 31 46 28 35 24 . 35 28 5 26 60 3 21 55 29 38 5 8 38  02 CO 03 00 03 02 02 10 10 02 01 CO 01 00 cc 04 02 01 02 03 00 00 01 02 10 01 02 10 10 02 00 02 02 02 01 01 10 01 00 02 01 01 01 02 02 10 01 02 03 01 00 01 02 03 00  M M M M M M M M ¥,  K M M M M M M M H M M M M M M M M M M H  M M M M M  M K M M M M M M M M  M M M M M M  M M  M M M  9.87 5.85 9.96 10.00 10.CO 10.01 10.02 10.05 10.05 10. 10 10.11 10.13 10.20 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.28 10.37 10.41 10.43 10.45 10.45 10.46 10.46 10.51 10. 56 10.64 10.65 1C.69 10.70 10. 77 10.78 10.83 10.84 10.88 10.92 10.53 10.58 10.99 10.59 10.99 11.03 11.03 11.04 11.06 11.12 11.14 11*14 11.16 11.23 11.26 11.27 11.28 11.32 11.33  135.3 132.6 132.1 138.8 121.0 13 2.6 127.6 130.5 130.5 123.6 120.8 138.5 135.0 125.6 141.3 13 8.5 126.3 130.1 134.1 130.8 133. 8 127.3 143.8 127. 1 136.6 133.1 134.3 135.3 134.3 134.5 137.6 13 8.5 134.3 137.6 146.6 136.1 138.0 126*0 141.8 126.5 131.1 137.1 12 8.6 132.8 137.8 143.3 137.6 133.1 137.1 137.8 125.8 136.8 122.0 141.8 141.3  62.6 67.6 68.6 73.8 61. 6 71.1 67.3 71.1 70.1 66.8 68.3 74.3 69.6 68.6 74.3 72.6 67.1 69.1 70.8 68.8 72.0 6 7.1 77.8 69.8 74.0 71.0 71.3 71.6 71.3 65.8 70.8 71.8 70.5 71.8 80.6 72.6 73.6 67.3 73.5 70.5 70.0 72.0 69.3 69.3 73.8 76.8 74.1 68.0 70.3 71.1 70.3 72.3 69.8 72.6 74. 1  0.463 0.5.10 0.520 0.532 0.510 0.536 0.528 0.545 0.538 0.541 0.523 0.537 0.516 0.530 0.527 0.525 0.531 0.531 0.52 8 0.5.27 0.538 0.527 0.541 0.5.50 0.541 0.533 0.531 0.530 0.531 0.519 0.515 0.518 0.525 0.523 0.550 0.534 0.533 0.53 5 0.518 0.516 0.534 0.525 0.540 0.522 0.536 0.536 0.539 0.511 0.513 0.517 0.541 0.529 0.530 0.512 0.525  WEIGHT (KGJ  28.75 28.60 29.15 34.54 20.75 33.04 25.30 30.84 28.05 21.96 25.96 39.09 27.81 26.16 35.79 33.24 25.54 27.39 29.81 35.40 32.65 26.71 37.99 27.61 31.66 31.00 28.25 30.9.1 33.20 29.3 5 30.84 33.44 31.59 29.81 36.70 31.59 33.79 22.75 35.44 32.85 28.01 30.29 25.61 27.90 32.45 34.85 34.30 32.60 27.74 32.65 29.15 31.11 29.00 30.36 34.61  CODE JMBER  573 452 632 120 42 53 556 113 423 101 432 448 449 428 31 546 90 52 89 706 433 112 558 62 8 627 123 707 443 115 117 711 118 705 116 567 440 560 427 426 693 699 465 103 471 451 629 43 630 700 479 439 565 473 698 561  RES- RESI- SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE DENCE (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO CCM) (CM) 50 3 69 65 23 38 15 31 10 60 5 11 5 73 38 57 55 9 65 34 10 60 33 69 36 60 22 68 61 55 45 55 34 66 16 5 • 1 5 5 34 88 11 55 68 68 70 27 30 34 4 73 57 5 58 21  03 02 04 01 00 00 C3 01 02 01 02 02 02 02 00 03 01 00 01 10 02 01 03 04 04 01 10 02 01 01 10 01 10 01 03 02 03 02 02 10 10 02 01 02 02 04 00 04 10 02 02 03 02 10 03  M M M M  M M M M M M M K M K M M M M M M  M M M M M M M M M K M M  M M M M  M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M  11.33 142.1 1-1.37 126. 1 11.39 139.3 11.40 13 9.3 11.41 - 130.3 11.41 137.3 11.46 142.1 11.48 143.6 11.49 139.1 11.57 129.6 130.8 11.58 11. 58 144.3 11.58 13 8.1 11.61 139.3 11.63 139.8 11.63 144.6 11.72 133.3 11.75 12 9.6 11.77 141.8 11.85 13 9.3 11.9 4 13 5.6 11.94 145.0 11.94 145.0 11.95 141.3 12.01 148.8 12.04 140. 1 12.13 140.5 12. 14 137.0 12. 15 146.0 12.20 154.8 12.21 143.6 12.23 143.0 12.28 140.3 12.29 144.3 12.31 137.8 12.33 142.0 12.37 143.1 12.41 143.3 12.42 146.5 12.45 143.5 12.46 148.6 12.47 159.1 12.51 129.3 12. 52 148.1 12. 5 4 146.8 12.62 147.3 12.64 143.6 12.64 147.3 12.66 156.6 12.69 139.6 12.69 136.3 12.71 156.6 12. 71 147.8 12.73 148.8 12.7,3 148.5  75.1 69.3 75.6 73.6 70.1 73.5 70.6 75.5 72.9 70.3 68.5 75.6 73.6 75.8 72.6 76.3 73.3 74.3 74.0 74.0 70.3 76.5 77.0 74.6 77.1 71.1 77.0 73.1 75.1 80.1 75.3 76.1 73.5 74. 6 73.3 74.1 75.1 76.1 7 7.5 73.5 75.5 81.1 70.1 77.3 77.8 78.1 78.5 78.0 82.8 74.6 77.1 82.1 79.6 81.1 7 7.3  0.529 0.550 0.543 0.529 0. 53 9 0.535 0.49 7 0.525 0.5.24 0.542 0.524 0.524 0.534 0.544 0.520 0.52 7 0.551 0.533 0.521 0.531 0.518 0.528 0.531 0.528 0.518 0.50 8 0.548 0.534 0.5.15 0.517 0.52 5 0.532 0.524 0.517 0.532 0.522 0.526 0.531 C.52S 0.512 0.508 0.510 0.543 0.522 0. 53 0 0.531 0.546 0.529 0.529 0. 53 5 0.566 0.525 0.5.3 8 0.545 0.521  WEIGH" (KG J  36.10 27.54 34. 5 C 34. 50 26.80 34.96 34.06 36.30 29.15 25.50 27.15 34. 10 34.85 32,65 36.19 42.59 32.69 37.51 32.60 37.60 26.05 35.71 38.10 36.50 37.40 31.3.9 37.55 28.60 33.31 45.69 34.61 36.15 39.40 36.54 34.8.5 35.40 36.41 38.19 35.75 32*10 41.40 42.31 29.39 40.46 37.71 40.00 36.15 41.21 46.71 37.71 39.25 43.05 48.25 39.40 36.26  CODE RES- RES I- SEX AGE T A N O I N G SITTING SIT/ST NUMBER ERVE OENCE CYRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CM) (CM) 43 8 568 703 447 695 88 634 32 547 712 647 694 696 713 99 633 572 35 474 453 747 442 697 141 640 743 37 559 134 566 648 124 466 122 441 114 111 562 154 462 639 564 459 463 476 100 470 646 156 483 145 30 461 748 484  71 75 37 41 34 65 65 38 48 34 30 34 34 34 60 3C 16 56 10 71 22 11 34 55 69 34 62 74 55 16 30 60 5 31 61 38 55 21 38 3 70 6 5 5 5 38 28 42 60 71 60 23 5 34 28  02 03 10 02 10 01 04 GO 03  10 04 10  10 10 01 04 03 00 02 02 10 02 10 CI 04  10 GO 03 01 03 04 01 02 01 02 01 01 03 01 C2 04 03 02 02 G2 01 02 04 01 02 01 00 02 10 02  12.77 M 12.78 M 12.82 M 12.82 M 12*82 M 12.8 5 M 12.93 M 12.97 M 12.5 8 M 12.99 M 12.55 M 13.00 H 13.05 M  M 13.07 M 13.12 M 13.14  M 13.14 M 13.15 M 13.15 M 13.15 M 13.26 M 13.3G M 13.30  M 13.3.1 M 13.3.1 M 13.33 H 13.34  M 13.36 N 13.38 M 13.41 M 13.46 M 13.50 H 13.51 M 13.51 M 13.53 M 13.53  M 13.59 M 13.65 M 13.70 M 13.71 M 13.76 M 13.80 M 13.80 M 13.81 H 13.85 M 13.88 M 13.91 M 13.98 M 14.G2 M 14.06 M 14.08 M 14.08 M 14.C9 M 14.11 M 14.12  146.5 165.8 145. 8 148.8 149.6 145.8 156.3 142.6 146.1 155.0 15C.6 146.3 151.3  141.6 143.8 143.5' 152.2 160.3 142.1 14C.6 158.6 141.8 149.1 149.8 158.G 16 0 .6 143.6 141.0 151.8 138. 6 162.1 151.6  152. 8 143.6 145.3 128.6 153.0  144. 1 146.1 158.8 155.5 143.1 148.5 149.6 170.5 147.6 156.5 150.3 148.6 158.1 155.6 144.3 156.8 155. 5 158.6  76.6 85.8 77.3 76.6 78.3 79,1 83.6 74.6 77.0 82.3 80.8 75.1 78.5 72.8 75.6 78.8 80.6  0.523 0.517  0.5.30  WEIGHT (KG)  33.55 67.50  41.60  0.515 0.523 0.528  41.01 41.56 40.46  0.523 0.527 0.531 0.537 0.513  35.05 3 7.2.0 47.06 46.40 36. 10  0.536  G.519  51.39  37.5.1  0.514 0.526 0.549 0.53 0 0.519  31.66 35.20 37.64 37.05 46.40  0.533 0.532 0.518 0.519 0.530 0.526 0.528 0.565 0.508 0.534 81.1 74.3 0.537 87.5 0.536 79.3 0.523 80.5 0.526 73.1 0.505 75.3 0.519 65.6 0.541 82.3 0.538 75.8 0.526 76.6 0.524 32.3 0.518 81.1 0.508 75.8 0.530 75.8 0.511 75.6 0.532 89.3 0.524 78.1 0.529 80.6 0.516 78.1 0.519 76. 8 0.517 81.6 0.516 81.8 0.526 76.1 0.52 8 81,6 0.521 86. 3. 0.541 81.3 0.513  36.96 48.25 32.65 35.40 37.20 49.50 50.09 43.41 36.34 48.20 32.65 50.80 41.14 38.10 33.44 35.99 31.70 42.04 40.26 34.96 47.10 44.24 36.10 38.06 45,41  83.1.  74.0 75.0 84.3 73.5 77.3 79.3 83.1 84.8 8i,l 71.6  0.5.20  35.16  55.3.5  41.21 44.55 39.49 45.41 42.75 44.31 37.55 46.51 58.81 47. 5 C  CODE NUMBER  571 749 742 478 155 635 569 649 588 458 563 744 641 741 63 8 557 701 472 133 151 457 750 642 469 593 139 456 146 140 33 57C 464 651 467 652 596 460 598 148 63 7 597 734 739 590 138 34 153 149 477 152 480 650 482 468 736  RES- RE SI- SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO ERVE OENCE (CM) (CM) 57 7 34 28 60 30 57 30 57 3 21 34 70 22 70 16 34 5 77 54 5 34 37 54 8 38 5 12 18 23 50 5 30 5 42 16 88 21 51 70 38 34 34 57 49 23 62 60 5 39 5 70 4 71 34  03 10 10 02 01 04 03 04 03 02 03 10 04 10 04 03 10 G2 01 01 02 10 04 02 03 01 02 01 01 00 03 02 04 02 04 03 02 03 01 04 03 10 10 03 01 00 01 01 02 01 02 04 02 02 10  M M M M M M M M M M M K M M M M M M M M M M M M M K M M  M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M H M M M M M M M M M M M  14.16 14.20 14.24 14.25 14.30 14.30 14.32 14.34 14.34 14.36 14.39 14.41 14.48 14.51 14.58 14.59 14.59 14.62 14.64 14.66 14.69 14.71 14.72 14.78 14.86 14.87 14.88 14.88 14.96 14.9 8 14.99 15.04 15.05 15.10 15.11 15.14 15.18 15.20 15.25 15.26 15.33 15.33 15.38 15.39 15.42 15.44 15.46 15.47 15.49 15.54 15.57 15.58 15. 59 15.61 15.62  163.6 159.0 154.8 153.8 149.8 162.1 163.8 154.1 174.8 162.8 141.1 168.3 156.8 155.6 160.8 160.8 159.5 151.1 138.5 167.1 156.0 164.1 159.8 163.8 169.5 156.1 171.8 149.1 154.6 179.6 162.8 164.5 168.8 153.3 171.5 157.5 175.1 149.3 165.8 148.8 165.3 164.1 164.8 167.8 161.6 160.8 161.8 173.3 173.8 173.1 163.6 149.6 15 5.3 172.8 176.0  82.8 83.8 80.1 78.3 81.1 85.1 86.8 82.6 90.3 81.8 72.8 83.1 80.1 81.5 86.5 88.1 84.8 76.6 72.6 90.1 82.6 86.1 84.8 86.1 87.1 78.5 89.6 77.3 79.5 94.6 85.0 87.3 89.3 77.3 91.3 83.8 91.6 80.8 85.6 80.6 86.3 88.6 84.5 88.3 84.1 86.6 86.3 92.6 91.6 90.1 83.1 81.6 81.3 91.6 92.1  0.506 0.528 0.518 0.509 0.541 0.526 0.530 0.536 0.517 0.502 0.516 0.493 0.511 0.559 0.538 0.548 0.532 0.507 0.524 0.539 0.52 9 0.525 0.531 0.526 0.514 0.503 0.522 0.519 0.514 0.527 0.522 0.531 0.530 0.505 0.532 0.533 0.523 0.541 0.516 0.542 0.522 0.541 0.513 0.527 0.521 0.539 0.533 0.535 0.527 0.520 0.509 0.546 0.524 0.530 0.523  WEIGHT 1 KG J  51.15 47.45 41.84 41.36 42.15 51.50 61.80 47.81 58.61 43.80 36.89 53.11 46.31 49.65 51.30 51.81 42.55 38.35 32.01 55.59 48.99 57.40 42.15 49.19 58.50 37.29 57.79 36.50 43.49 73.81 49.74 49.15 55.31 41.84 57.90 48.99 55.95 41.91 51.94 41.80 50.01 54.80 53.20 54.30 47.45 57.44 51.26 60.81 59.64 66.00 50.01 42.79 48.09 50.80 68.09  102  CODE JMBER  587 733 455 589 740 481 135 644 551 751 645 74 5 753 475 595 73 7 594 752 643 73 5 586 754 147 585 131 129 15 7 755 655 636 127 653 126 592 654 323 142 137 160 270 265 262 281 488 268 155 265 245 267 501 171 237 489 263 266  RES- RESI- SEX ERVE DENCE  38 34 41 33 22 41 66 36 57 45 69 22 57 63 16 16 57 16 36 34 21 57 39 21 9 38 60 21 69 70 23 36 23 38 36 21 55 18 38 3 43 2 68 74 63 65 28 71 3 74 60 3 16 5 3  03 10 02 03 10 02 01 04 03 10 04 10 10 02 03 10 03 10 04 10 03 10 01 03 01 01 01 10 04 04 01 04 01 03 04 02 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 03 02 01 02 02 02 03 01 02 03 02 02  M  M M M M  M M M  M K  M M M M M M M M  H  M H H  M M H  M M  M M  M M H  M M  M M M  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO iCM) (CM)  WEIGHT (KG)  15. 70 15 6.5 15.7G 168.1 161.3 15.73 15.76 171.1 15.51 165.3 15.92 158.5 16.00 16 8. 8 174.6 16.01 16.02 170.3 16.03 164.6 163.8 16.08 16.09 156.8 166.5 16.18 16.30 160.1 16.32 16 5.0 16.35 171.6 166.0 16.37 16.42 16 5.0 16.43 165.3 16.44 173. 8 16.45 171.3 170.5 16.50 162.8 16.55 16.56 166.5 157.0 16.57 16.62 152.5 16.71 164.1 16. 72 172.1 16.75 163.5 16.75 164.6 16.76 174.0 16.78 165.5 16.85 165.6 163.1 16.67 16.88 17 5.5 16.52 167.6 167.1 16.92 16.93 165.5 6.01 111.1 6.05 115.8 6.09 109.1 6.10 11 C O 6.12 115.5 6.20 112.6 6.21 116.5 6.26 112.8 6.27 1C7.8 6.28 1C5.1 6.32 102.5 6.33 114.5 106.3 6.42 6.42 110.8 6.54 107.8 6.54 108.6 6.55 106.6  48.95 58.41 46.64 57.7.1 62.35 47.15 60.65 59.44 61.0.5 57. 90 60.74 50.80 55.00 45.96 53.04 57.99 55.59 53.00 56.25 62.85 51.04 62.00 50.29 58.61 46.16 40.81 55.31 52.01 61.7.1 52.65 62.15 59.99 53.50, 55.75 60.50 58.61 60.54 60.50 18.00 18.46 20.31 19.40 18.85 19.91 15.84 19.6.0 16.35 17.36 17.01 19.80 16.70 17.95 16.70 20.66 15.55  82.8 88.3 83.3 92.3 93.5 79.8 87.3 90.6 89.1 86.3 87.6 84.3 89.5 84.1 87.8 90.5 88.6 87.8 90.3 90.3 88.8 89.0 86.3 88.6 80.3 78.1 87.5 89.6 86.6 86.0 92.1 91.3 88.1 88. 0 92.6 88.6 84.5 88.8 61.1 62.6 60.8 60.6 62.8 62.1 62.6 61.8 60.1 60.5. 60.6 6-1. 6 59.1 59.8 60.1 58.8 58.3  0.530 0.525 0.517 0.539 0.552 0.503 0.517 0.519 0.523 0.525 0.535 0.538 0.538 0.526 0.533 0.5.27 0,534 0.53 2 0.533 0.520 0.519 0.522 0.531 0.532 0.512 0.513 0.533 0.521 0.530 0.522 0.529 0.539 0.532 0.539 0.528 0.528 0.506 0.537 0.551 0.541 0.558 0.551 0.544 0.552 0.537 0.548 0.558 0.555 0.591 0.5.38 0.556 0.539 0.558 0.541 0.547  CODE NUMBER  28 6 243 272 264 280 38 283 676 238 246 261 29 163 500 164 257 25 8 682 284 487 158 256 166 244 678 506 275 168 259 172 250 276 260 680 44 46 677 249 47 253 502 170 279 274 162 278 239 251 674 247 246 24 511 27 679  RES- RESI- SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE OENCE 1YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CM) (CM) 41 11 63 28 43 23 71 25 3 5 1G 65 55 1 55 5 5 34 5 13 65 68 24 68 34 57 5 38 11 60 71 3 3 7 23 38 34 76 38 2 8 12 11 5 60 28 5 61 32 3 10 65 42 62 34  02 02 02 02 02 CO 02 10 02 02 02 01 01 03 01 02 02 10 02 03 01 02 01 02 10 03 02 01 02 01 02 02 02 10 00 CO 10 02 00 02 03 01 02 02 01 02 02 02 10 02 02 CO 03 00 10  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  6» 59 6o60 6.64 6o64 6.64 6.66 6.66 6.67 6.68 6.73 6.74 6.89 6.94 6.97 7.03 7.17 7.17 7.26 7.27 7.29 7.34 7.38 7.38 7.47 7.50 7.51 7.56 7.58 7.59 7.65 7.68 7.74 7.74 7.82 7.84 7.84 7.89 7.90 7.95 7.96 7.98 8.01 8.11 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.23 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.31 8.32 8.36 8.41  111.8 113.3 116.5 112.3 110.1 102.6 113.3 118.0 110.5 106.8 110.8 126.1 117.5 120.8 121.8 118.1 116.5 125.1 108.8 116. 8 124.8 114.5 125.5 117.3 117.8 12 5.1 116.8 121.1 108.6 118.6 123.6 119.5 118.5 118.6 113.0 125. 8 117.0 120.1 112.6 113.5 120.1 128.3 124.1 118.3 118.5 127.6 122.5 121.6 120.6 114.5 121.8 129. 0 13 7.1 123.0 115.3  58.3 62.0 63.6 61.0 61.8 57.1 61.0 63.1 61.6 58.6 59.6 67.3 64.5 64.1 67.0 63.5 62.8 6 7.1 61.1 61.5 67.1 61.1 65.8 63.3 63.6 6 7.1 64.6 66.1 58.1 63.1 65.8 64.6 63.6 66.8 61.1 66.8 62.3 64.6 62.8 61.0 63.3 71.6 66.1 63.1 64.6 67.8 66.6 65.1 64.8 62.6 67.0 69.8 71.8 66.5 63.3  0.522 0.547 0.546 0.543 0.562 0.557 0.538 0.535 0.558 0.548 0.538 0.534 0.549 0.531 0.550 0.537 0.540 0.537 0.562 0.527 0.538 0.534 0.525 0.540 0.540 0.537 0.553 0.546 0.535 0.532 0.532 0.541 0.537 0.563 0.541 0.531 0.533 0.538 0.557 0.537 0.527 0.558 0.533 0.534 0.546 0.531 0.544 0.535 0.538 0.547 0.550 0.542 0.523 0.541 0.549  WEIGHT (KG)  18.00 17.60 20.86 16.61 21.30 15.80 19.80 22.24 20.46 16.94 16.94 27.90 23.69 24.40 22.51 20.11 19.80 25.50 21.05 21.69 23.80 15.99 19.40 22.75 22.20 28.91 22.24 24.24 21.01 20.20 27.35 23.69 22.70 22.31 20.55 25.61 19.25 23.41 19.69 19.40 23.21 26.95 25.70 20.20 22.31 27.06 22.66 24.71 21.14 19.65 23.10 25.89 32.41 25.65 20.15  104  CODE RES- RESI- SEX AGE STAfvOING SITTING SIT/ST NUMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CM) (CM) 675 164 241 236 50 5 254 271 285 176 683 169 509 6 81 282 28 499 161 6 04 20 41 25 296 273 188 311 3G4 49 5 242 167 277 291 252 179 48 292 191 315 516 290 23 313 289 684 607 497 300 512 494 298 496 498 685 26 308 503  45 55 28 11 15 41 88 5 51 25 60 32 34 68 56 57 55 14 38 72 23 41 3 12 43 5 42 5 38 3 10 10 39 23 10 38 11 50 3 53 71 11 34 14 32 3 75 21 3 59 50 34 56 5 52  10 01 02 02 03 02 02 02 10 10 01 03 10 02 00 03 01 04 00 00 00 02 02 01 02 02 03 02 01 02 02 02 01 00 02 01 02 03 02 CO 02 02 10 04 03 02 03 03 02 03 03 10 CO 02 03  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  8.42 8.43 8.47 8.53 8.62 8 . 66 8.67 8.67 8.68 8.70 8.71 8.74 8.75 8.80 8.93 8.97 8.99 9.02 9.03 9.07 9.08 9.12 9.17 9.19 9.19 9.25 9.26 9.30 9.31 9.31 9.41 9.43 9.4 5 9.47 9.48 9.56 9.56 9.60 9.60 9.76 9.77 9.82 9.83 9.83 9.89 9.92 9.95 9.96 9.97 10.02 10.03 10.06 10.08 10.17 10.17  120.5 123.5 128.5 126.1 119.5 129.1 125.5 119.5 116.6 130.1 117.5 125.5 132.6 122. 8 125.6 128.0 120.6 130.1 12 6.5 134.0 132.8 121.1 127.8 131.5 12 5.6 12 5.1 142.6 119.0 131.5 122.8 132.8 115.1 132.1. 122.8 13 0.1 131.5 126.1 134.3 123.1 131.3 129.1 136.3 131.3 133.1 137.1 126.1 137.3 132.6 130.1 133.5 124.3 131.5 141.1 142. 8 13 2.3  64.3 65.3 70.1 67.6 63.3 67.1 66.6 64.8 63.8 66.0 63.6 66.3 69.5 68.1 68.6 67.3 65.3 67.8 68.6 71.3 72.1 69.6 68.1 69.8 67.3 66.8 73.8 63.8 68.0 64.8 74.1 64.5 70.5 65.8 69.6 69.6 66.8 71.1 68.6 67.8 69.6 71.8 70.6 68.6 71.0 65.8 74.8 70.3 70.6 71.8 64.1 69.6 74.3 78.0 70.0  0.53 4 0.529 0.546 0.537 0.531 0.521 0.531 0.542 0.546 0.507 0.541 0.528 0.524 0.555 0.546 0.527 0.541 0.521 0.535 0.533 0.543 0.531 0.533 0.531 0.536 0.534 0.518 0.536 0.517 0.529 0.559 0.560 0.534 0.536 0.536 0.530 0.531 0.530 0.557 0.517 0.539 0.526 0.538 0.515 0.517 0.5.21 0.545 0.531 0.543 0.538 0.516 0.530 0.527 0.546 0.529  WEIGHT (KG)  22.15 21.14 26.95 24.24 23.76 23.54 27.81 23.45 19.10 22.86 20.75 23.54 25.70 22.99 28.40 27.65 21.49 31.75 29.00 34.76 28.80 28.75 27.94 28.49 25.81 25.06 35.79 18.85 28.84 21.65 30.29 19.40 32.49 26.09 27.94 38.10 23.69 34.50 25.45 27.54 29.8 5 28.36 30.21 29.90 31.50 25.85 34.25 30.49 26.64 29.39 24.05 29.00 37.60 35.35 32.56  105  CODE IMBER  606 295 690 22 486 1 505 183 288 513 186 178 692 605 253 4 287 490 485 314 599 491 295 691 294 307 343 306 510 301 18 514 508 312 687 6 02 7 492 685 333 608 305 12 5 30 3 533 310 309 686 16 531 194 187 181 688  RES- RESI- SEX AGE :STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE DENCE {YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CK) iCN) 69 41 7 23 1 65 16 38 5 73 12 62 22 67 28 56 5 8 74 71 70 33 11 34 10 10 3 41 75 71 62 64 59 68 7 14 62 13 45 5 30 5 65 62 28 57 58 68 34 38 16 60 12 56 34  04 02 10 00 03 00 03 01 02 03 01 01 1C 04 02 00 02 03 03 02 04 03 02 10 02 02 02 02 03 02 00 03 03 02 10 04 00 03 10 02 04 02 00 00 02 03 02 02 10 00 03 01 01 01 10  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  10.21 10.26 10.27 10.29 10.30 10.37 10.43 10.44 10.44 10.52 10.52 10.55 10.56 10.56 10.58 10.59 10.62 10.65 10.70 10.80 10.80 10.84 10.89 10.94 11.00  11.08 1-1.12 11.13 11.16 11.19 11.20 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.32 11.32 11.33 11.33 11.39 11.41 11.42 11.51 11.54 11.54 11.55 11.6.1 11.62 11.72 11.73 11.73 11.75 11.77 11.81 11.83 11.87  134.6 127.8 120.3 128.1. 133.1 138.1 128.5 13 5.8 128.5 143.3 125.6 136.8 142.5 144.1 137.1 141.3 128.5 123.8 128.6 133.3 140. 8 143.6 140.8 145.5 131.8 127.1 135.5 143.5 143. 5 140.6 148.1 151.5 144.5 151.5 137.6 145.6 142.1 142.3 148.5 144.3 145.1 13 8.0 151.3 142.3 135. 8 146.1. 144.8 13 £. 3 152.0 142.8 144.0 147.8 124.5 147.5 147.6  73.1 67.5 6 5.6 66.6 68.6 7-2.5 67.3 74.8 69.3 77.0 68.8 73.3 78.1 75.3 72.6 73.8 6 8.3 66.1 65.8 70.1 74.6 74.8 73.6 79.3 71.3 69.8 74.0 75.8 75.1 76.6 78.6 78.0 75.8 78.6 72.1 78.0 76.5 74.8 76.8 74.3 78.1 73.8 82. 1 75.1 74.6 75.6 76.5 73.1 78.8 76.6 76.3 79.1 67.6 76.8 77.6  0.544 0.528 0.534 0.520 0.515 0.525 0.525 0.535 0.540 0.537 0.531 0.535 0.548 0.523 0.529 0.522 0.5 32 0.534 0.5.12 0.526 0.529 0.521 0.522 0.530 0.541 0.550 0.530 0.528 0.524 0.544 0.530 0.515 0.525 0.5.19 0.524 0.535 0.538 0.526 0.518 0.516 0.539 0.535 0.543 0.527 0.534 0.517 0.528 0.529 0.519 0.537 0.530 0.536 0.544 0.521 0.526  WEIGH" (KG)  26.71 27.46 27.90 23.14 28.91 35.2 0 25.30 33.15 24.75 38.06 26.00 33.79 42.55 40.46 26.25 32.21 26.44 25.45 27.94 25.61 36.70 34.85 34.10 59.25 28.45 24.24 31. 86 32.85 35.35 30.65 41.49 40.26 36.96 35.90 32.85 34.10 38.90 31.55 38.61 32.41 33.15 30.65 45.85 32.45 34.61 34.61 36.61 33.66 35.44 48.75 35.31 40.46 23.14 37.16 36.30  CODE NUMBER  526 532 517 603 515 297 318 190 601 319 302 600 189 3 518 729 717 15 722 177 623 33 0 184 326 17 493 619 2 523 19 339 618 520 335 528 195 320 331 334 611 325 193 727 11 316 525 180 9 5 07 6 32 8 217 720 715 317  RES- RES I- SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE DENCE (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CM) (CM) 57 8 38 70 21 5 10 38 42 15 41 30 38 62 74 34 34 38 7 60 14 3 24 5 62 57 69 38 57 65 3 30 38 28 73 20 10 3 5 37 5 60 34 62 3 50 77 38 8 88 28 23 22 34 43  03 03 03 04 03 02 02 01 04 02 02 04 01 00 03 10 10 00 10 01 04 02 01 02 00 03 04 00 03 GO 02 04 03 02 03 01 02 02 02 04 02 01 10 00 02 03 01 00 03 00 02 01 10 10 02  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  11.87 11.89 11.94 11.98 12. 01 12.02 12.04 12.07 12.09 12.12 12.16 12.18 12.20 12.23 12.31 12.35 12.50 12.54 12.55 12. 57 12.61 12.62 12.67 12.70 12.77 12.78 12.79 12.83 12.84 12.85 12.87 12.87 12.88 12.90 12.92 12.96 12.98 12.98 12.98 13.01 13.02 13.04 13.07 13.12 13. 13 13.19 13.19 13.22 13.22 13.23 13.24 13.28 13.29 13.32 13.34  152.6 149.6 140.5 145.8 145.5 145.1 144. 5 14 2.3 140. 8 146.3 142.5 146.6 147.1 143.3 141.0 153.8 143.5 137.6 148.1 145.6 151.8 142.8 154.5 155.5 156.3 151.0 157.8 146. 8 159.1 156.1 150.3 163.3 153.8 144.1 153.1 140.5 144.3 150.3 145.1 146.1 139.6 148.5 145.3 14 7.1 148.6 153.5 14 7.5 149.3 153.6 134.1 162.8 155.6 15C.8 154.3 138.5  83.6 78.6 75.8 78.1 77.8 76.6 77.6 72.6 74.3 76.3 74.8 78.8 77.5 79.0 72.8  0.548 0.525 0.540 0.536 0.53 5 0.528 0.53 8 0.511 0.528 0.522 0.526 0.538 0.526 0.5 51 0.516 8-1.1. 0.527 75.1 0.523 71.6 0.521 78.5 0.530 78.1 0.536 80.3 0.529 80.6 0.564 78.0 0.505 81. 0 0.521 82.3 0.527 78.6 0.521 84.8 0.537 80.3 0.548 84.6 0.531 84.6 0.542 81.1 0.540 85.3 0.522 83.8 0.546 76.1 0.52 8 81.6 0.533 73.6 0.525 78.6 0.545 81.3 0.541 73.3 0.505 78.1 0.535 73.3 0.525 0.548 81.3 76.3 0.525 80.8 0.550 77.8 0.524 78.6 0.513 74. 6 0.506 83.5 0.559 82.1 0.535 69.6 0.519 84.5 0.519 83.1 0.534 83.1 0 . 5 . 5 1 81.3 0.527 72.6 0.525  WEIGHT (KG)  49.94 37. 91 36.15 35.71 32.85 32.49 36.30 39.71 35.31 36.50 32.45 34.85 38.61 41.14  36.10 48.91 40.55 34.69 38.50 37.55 45.65  38.70 5 1 . 5.0  50.09 54.45 47. 81 49.50 39.91 52.69 43.14 34.65 53.75 47.45 34.69 45.76 31.04 42. 94 41.95 30.60 38.19 29.04 40.70 38.30 42. 11 30.69 39.64 3 7.84 41.95 50.01 29.11 52.14 4 9 . 19 51.15 42.59 32.30  CODE JMBER  RES- RESI- SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE DENCE iYRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATI G (CM) (CM)  WEIGH"  527 617 3 24 621 524 322 730 530 346 182 14 341 716 343 583 213 529 321 723 210 329 368 192 13 357 613 337 625 225 579 327 3 72 353 522 350 235 363 574 10 355 201 610 3 67 205 719 234 615 345 352 33 8 254 332 22 8 8 340  33 70 11 67 50 63 34 13 73 35 6 68 34 68 74 18 21 28 34 18 11 3 60 65 5 70 3 69 60 44 41 68 71 21 68 24 11 1 62 4 18 70 3 9 25 18 70 41 5 11 5 10 62 23 68  45.76 53.75 33.90 47.26 53.86 35.90 41. 80 54.05 52.69 40. OG 44.75 40.15 57.31 33.44 48. 8G 48.05 49. 5 C 40.15 49.06 52.14 54.05 45.61 3 8.70 52.80 38.15 45.21 42.90 44. 75 40.50 45.06 47.54 45.30 43.34 48.51 36.19 44. S5 47.26 67.14 45.85 50.16 40.04 49.15 37.91 45. 96 45.25 47.41 46.35 49.39 45.50 48.25 40.00 50. 8 0 50.80 47.10 40. 04  03 04 02 04 03 02 10 03 02 01 00 02 10 02 03 01 03 02 10 01 02 02 01 00 02 04 02 04 01 03 02 02 02 03 02 01 02 03 00 02 01 04 02 01 10 01 04 02 02 02 02 02 01 CO 02  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  13,35 13.40 13.41 13.46 13.46 13.46 13.48 13.51 13.51 13.54 13.58 13.55 13.62 13.62 13.65 13.69 13. 74 13.79 13.80 13.81 13.83 13.85 13.89 13.90 13.51 13.97 14.01 14.03 14.0 3 14.05 14.06 14.06 14.09 14.12 14.17 14.18 14.20 14.25 14.26 14.26 14.29 14.30 14.3 0 14.32 14.35 14.41 14.46 14.46 14,48 14.51 14.52 14.52 14.5 5 14.56 14.58  15 7.3 158.8 146.1 154.1 160,8 145.6 152.6 159.1 161.3 142.0 149.8 153.3 158.1 135.6 157,6 155.5 155.5 144.8 156.5 156.3 157.6 154.1 145.6 157.1 148.0 152.5 155.8 152.8 145.8 152. 8 155.1 153.0 155, 8 15 7.6 149,8 158, e 156,1 163.8 155,1 149.8 155.1 161.1 150.8 157.1 145. 5 163.6 157.5 153.6 15 8.3 153.1 159.1 150. 3 156.3 145.6 154.1  75.6 87.1 77.6 79.5 84.5 75.6 78.6 84.5 84.6 76.1 79.8 82.0 81.6 74.1 84.6 85.0 83.1 77.0 81.1 82.3 82,0 80.1 76.8 86.5 78.6 81.1 82.0 81.8 80.0 79,8 82.1 84.3 85.3 85.3 77.6 81.8 82.1 88.3 84.1 80.0 81.5 85.6 77.3 86.5 79.1 81.5 84.6 79.3 84.3 79.6 83*1 81.6 80.1 83.3 80.5  0.506 0.549 0.531 0.516 0.525 0.520 0.515 0.531 0.524 0.536 0.533 0.53 5 0.517 0.531 0.5 37 0.547 0.521 0.53 2 0.518 0.527 0.520 0.519 0.52 7 0.551 0.531 0.532 0.526 0.536 0.534 0.522 0.530 0.552 0.534 0.541 0.518 0.515 0.526 0.540 0.542 0.534 0.525 0.532 0.5.13 0.550 0.530 0.498 0.537 0.516 0.533 0.521 0.523 0,544 0,512 0,557 0.522  IKGI  CODE NUMBER  185 718 620 580 521 724 200 222 622 624 232 351 216 220 336 212 344 173 207 72 8 206 202 175 348 581 609 174 229 366 577^ 575 198 3 59 349 22 6 616 371 726 224 347 614 369 219 223 358 731 360 626 578 519 36 5 356 362 230 214  RES- RESI- SEX AGE ERVE DENCE CYRS)  60 22 70 21 50 34 39 40 69 69 60 11 55 12 15 49 3 20 40 58 9 38 60 41 6 36 24 38 73 19 16 23 10 68 60 42 5 34 60 5 70 11 60 60 11 34 5 70 57 21 5 5 43 60 27  01 10 04 03 03 10 01 01 04 04 01 02 01 01 02 01 02 01 01 10 01 01 10 02 03 04 01 01 02 03 03 01 02 02 01 04 02 10 01 02 04 02 01 01 02 10 02 04 03 03 02 02 02 01 01  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  14 60 14.61 14.65 14.69 14.73 14.76 14.82 14.89 14.90 14.90 14.91 14.92 14.97 14.97 15.02 15.03 15.05 15.06 15.10 15.12 15.15 15.18 15.34 15.35 15.39 15.40 15.45 15.45 15.47 15.55 15.55 15.57 15.61 15.61 15.61 15.65 15.70 15.74 15.74 15.79 15.81 15.84 15.88 15.91 16.00 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.0 5 16.10 16.14 16.14 1-6.15 16.18 16.18 o  iC SITTING SIT/ST (EIGHT HEIGHT RATIO {CM) (CM) 147.0 155.6 160.6 152.3 159.6 159.0 157.3 159.6 154.0 155.5 167.5 156.6. 161.8 151.5 155.3 163.0 156.8 154.5 153.5 167.5 154.1 14 6.5 155.6 149.1 159.6 156.0 15 2.8 154.8 164.3 164. 6 156.6 151.6 146.3 157.8 152.1 152.0 162.1 158.3 154.3 157.8 150.8 165.6 152.1 156.5 151.3 159.5 154.1 148.8 162.8 148.5 154.3 148.6 153.8 149.5 154.8  79.3 87.6 84.3 81.8 82.8 83.5 85.3 85.0 82.8 83.1 88.1 86.1 85.8 79.6 71.6 87.5 86. 0 81.1 8 5.0 88.5 81.1 79.6. 83.1 82.8 82.6 84.6 81.0 82.5 87.1 87.5 82.8 84.5 79.6 84.1 82. 5 82.1 83.6 85.1 80.8 81.3 8 2.8 86.3 83.1 84.1 82.5 85.8 83.6 78.6 86. 8 81.6 80.8 81.6 82.6 82.6 82.6  0.539 0.563 0.525 0.538 0.519 0.52 5 0.542 0.532 0.538 0.535 0.52 7 0.550 0.530 0.526 0.461 0.537 •0.5.48 0.526 0,554 0.528 0.526 0.544 0.5.3 5 0.556 0.518 0.542 0.5.30 0.5.33 0.531 0.5.31 0.528 0.557 0.544 0.533 0.542 0.541 0.516 0.537 0.523 0.515 0. 549 0.521 0.546 0.538 0.545 0.538 0.543 0.528 0.533 0.550 0.524 0.550 0.537 0.553 0.534  WEIGHT {KG)  45.21 59.71 54.34 48.99 48.71 68.20 50.64 59.95 50.60 51.81 57.44 48.99 54.01 41.21 45.61 64.31 60.10 52.29 50.09 47.19 50.75 45.14 54.01 54.21 60.46 50.25 51.59 48.51 60.50 52,76 50.01 56.41 48.55 48.7.1 50.7.1 46.71 43.01 46,05 46.31 40.26 54. 14 55.66 50.20 51.11 46.16 48.40 53.55 46.75 46.79 43.89 49.19 45.61 49.94 44.90 49.30  109  CODE JM8ER  203 221 72 5 233 218 370 231 215 227 21 364 576 197 612 361 208 584 721 209  RES- RESI- SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST ERVE DENCE (YRS J HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (CM) (CM) 38 20 34 18 56 76 60 18 39 23 68 57 65 70 28 56 33 25 12  01 01 10 01 01 02 01 01 01 CO 02 03 01 04 02 01 03 10 01  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  16.22 16.23 16.24 16.30 16.33 16.38 16.35 16.47 16.47 16.52 16.57 16.59 16.71 16.78 16.85 16.89 16.91 16.93 16.93  143.0 155.8 154.3 155.1 167.6 159.3 155.5 160.3 162.5 151.0 152.1 166.6 163.5 156.8 155.1 155.1 152.6 155.6 157.3  77.8 83.6 81.3 85.1 87.1 85.6 84.1 90.0 89.1 84. 1 82.8 86.1 88.1 84.6 84.6 83.6 79.6 84.0 85.0  0.544 0.537 0.527 0.545 0.520 0.537 0.541 0.561 0.549 0.557 0.545 0.517 0.539 0.540 0.546 0.5 25 0.522 0.526 0.540  WEIGH (KG)  47.70 42.3 5 51.90 60.1C 57.20 46.75 56.69 65.05 56.80 55.75 47.85 55.86 62.46 57.79 53.00 52.01 51. 15 54.01 56.45  Ill  APPENDIX B SKINFOLD THICKNESSES (sorted a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age)  Code Number  411 78 71 390 407 656 68 408 378 383 410 76 84 385 406 73 659 666 409 81 541 384 74 404 395 387 658 75 413 419 417 83 53 9 412 386 63 394 416 418 414 536 392 415 393 87 661 660 376 70 389 69 537 402 400  Bes- B e s i - Sex erve dence  3 55 60 3 43 34 23 5 43 5 76 38 55 76 76 38 7 25 3 65 42 3 60 63 2 3 88 24 3 76 5 55 32 5 5 62 10 10 5 71 1 71 11 11 12 26 26 5 38 43 46 21 28 3  02 01 01 02 02 10 00 02 02 02 02 01 01 02 02 01 10 10 02 01 03 02 01 02 02 02 10 01 02 02 02 01 03 02 02 00 02 02 02 02 03 02 02 02 01 10 10 02 00 02 00 03 02 02  n  Age (yrs)  6.00 6.02 6.08 6.09 6. 10 6.13 6. 14 6. 15 fl 6.19 M 6.25 M 6. 40 H 6.41 M 6.44 M 6.49 M 6.61 M 6.63 M 6.65 M 6.65 6.66 M 6.70 M 6.72 M 6.75 a 6.77 6.81 H 6.82 M 6.87 H 6.89 M 6.97 M 7.03 M 7.11 M 7. 15 7. 17 H 7. 19 7.20 7.20 7. 35 7.44 M 7.44 M 7.45 M 7.47 7.52 H 7.56 a M 7.65 7.74 H 7.87 M M 7.89 7.89 M 7.90 H 7.94 .H H 7. 96 M 7.96 M 8.01 M 8.07 M 8.08 M M M M H M M  B  E  B  E  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (ram) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 7. 1 9.5 6. 8 7.4 5.4 7. 8 5. 8 5.2 6.4 6.2 5.0 8.0 10.4 5.4 5.4 7.0 7. 6 6.6 9.3 10. 2 7.5 9.4 8.3 7.4 5.9 5. 1 8.2 7.9 4.8 3.3 5.0 5. 5 7.0 5.0 5.9 7.5 4. 1 4. 0 3.6 6.4 6.4 6.6 4.9 5.5 5.9 6.5 7.0 5. 8 8.5 7.2 5. 1 10. 1 7.8 6.8  173 189 170 175 156 178 161 154 167 165 151 180 194 156 156 172 177 169 188 193 176 189 182 175 162 152 181 179 148 118 151 157 172 151 162 176 137 135 126 167 167 169 150 157 162 168 172 161 183 174 152 192 178 170  3.9 6. 1 4.4 4. 1 4.0 5. 1 4.6 3.9 4.5 4.3 4.2 5.2 6.2 4.6 3,6 4.4 5.0 5.3 5.4 6.0 6.0 5.5 6.0 5.2 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.8 3.7 4. 1 4.3 4.7 4.8 3.6 4.0 5.4 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.2 5.0 4.4 4. 1 4.2 5.8 5.2 4. 9 4.4 6.0 5.6 4.4 6.4 4. 1 5.4  133 164 142 137 135 152 145 133 144 140 139 154 165 145 126 142 151 155 156 163 163 157 163 154 144 135 139 148 128 137 140 147 148 126 135 156 14 5 142 135 139 151 142 137 139 161 154 150 142 163 158 142 167 137 156  4.8 8.5 4.3 5.0 4.0 5.6 4.8 3.9 4.3 4.3 3.1 6.0 6.5 3.4 3.5 5.0 4.4 3.9 3.8 7.1 4.7 3.9 6w1 5.0 5.3 3.5 4.9 4.5 3.3 3. 1 3.9 3.0 5.0 3.5 3.9 5.7 3.8 3.5 3.0 4.6 4.0 4.5 3.0 3.1 5.4 4.2 4.3 4.2 6.1 5.1 4.9 6.0 4.5 3.5  4.2 6.9 4.5 4.4 6.3 5.6 5.2 4.0 7.3 4.2 4.6 6. 1 7.1 4.8 4.3 5.0 5.4 4.8 5. 8 10.3 8.0 5. 9 6. 8 7.2 5.0 4.5 4.8 5.2 4.3 4.8 4. 2 4.5 4.8 4. 1 4.4 6.0 4.6 4.4 4. 1 4. 3 5.2 4.9 3.7 4.0 5.5 6.0 6.0 4.6 8.4 5.4 5.8 7.0 5.2 4.7  Code imber  53 8 399 544 657 67 72 85 77 377 60 667 669 662 397 79 54 3 374 86 379 540 542 82 40 3 545 664 54 102 551 373 553 66 5 57 405 80 61 550 673 396 388 380 62 552 56 668 65 92 672 436 375 663 671 382 535 401  Bes- R e s i - Sex erve dence  16 3 74 25 6 38 65 60 28 38 34 34 58 43 55 73 71 55 68 74 59 60 5 33 34 62 24 57 43 1 7 65 10 60 38 57 45 5 5 2 38 16 56 34 62 18 37 43 5 34 26 3 8 28  03 02 03 10 00 01 01 01 02 00 10 10 10 02 01 03 02 01 02 03 03 01 02 03 10 00 01 03 02 03 10 00 02 01 00 03 10 02 02 02 00 03 00 10 00 01 10 02 02 10 10 02 03 02  M M M M M M M M M M H M M M M M M M M a  M a  M M M M H M M M B  M & M M M M H  M H  M M H  M M H H H A  «  Age (yrs)  8.12 8. 13 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8. 17 8. 18 8.25 8.30 8. 31 8.36 8.39 8.40 8.40 8.41 8.44 8.48 8.50 8.58 8.67 8.70 8.80 8.87 8.97 8.99 9.0 3 9.04 9.05 9.09 9.10 9.12 9. 13 9.14 9. 14 9.18 9.31 9.33 9.37 9.43 9.45 9.46 9.48 9,55 9.55 9.59 9.59 9.59 9.64 9.65 9.65 9.66 9.70 9.72  * * * * Skinfold  Triceps (mm) log  5. 1 6. 0 7.6 6. 2 7.3 5.5 6. 9 8.0 5.6 5. 8 8. 0 7.7 8.9 6.3 7, 5 6,6 6.3 7.0 6. 1 11.6 5.6 11.0 4.4 8.4 4.6 10.5 6. 1 8.3 6. 1 7.2 6.3 8.3 6. 8 8.1 5. 1 5. 4 6.3 3.4 5.5 7.0 10.5 4.8 8.0 9.4 6.2 6.5 7.3 5.3 5.6 8.2 9.2 5.9 6.6 8.6  152 163 177 165' 175 157 171 180 158 161 180 178 186 166 176 169 166 172 164 200 158 197 142 182 145 194 164 182 164 174 166 182 170 180 152 156 166 121 157 172 194 148 180 189 165 168 175 155 158 181 187 162 169 184  Thickness * 4 * * Subscapular Biceps Supra 113 (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 4.5 144 4.4 142 6.1 164 4.8 148 5. 8 161 4.4 142 5.2 154 5.4 156 4. 6 145 5. 1 152 5.4 156 166 6.3 5. 1 152 4.4 142 5.4 156 5.3 155 4.8 148 155 5.3 5.4 156 7.7 178 150 4.9 7. 2 174 4.0 135 5. 1 152 144 4.5 7. 8 178 5.1 152 169 6.6 5.4 156 5.0 151 4.6 145 6.0 163 5.3 155 5. 2 154 4.2 139 5.8 161 139 4.2 4.0 135 5.6 158 5.8 161 6.0 163 4.4 142 5.5 157 5.7 160 5.8 161 148 4.8 7.2 174 4.9 . 150 4.4 142 6.7 170 4.6 145 4.4 142 4.9 150 5.9 162  4.0 4.1 7.0 4.5 7.3 4.0 6.8 6,4 3.2 3.4 4.7 5.0 6.3 3.4 5. 1 4.4 5.1 6.4 3.9 6.8 5.6 7.2 2.5 4.8 3.4 7.0 3.2 3.3 4.4 3.7 3.4 5.7 4.0 4.9 2.9 3.6 3.9 3,0 5.0 - 4.1 7.2 2.9 5.0 4.8 4.8 3.8 5.2 4.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.1 6.0  4.4 3.9 6.0 5.6 6.0 4. 4 6.5 7.3 4.2 5. 8 5.2 7.4 5.5 5.0 5.7 5.6 4.9 5.4 5.9 7.9 5.5 10.6 4.4 5.6 5.3 7.9 4.7 5.3 4.6 4. 9 5.4 6.6 5.9 6.8 4.4 4.8 5.0 3.5 7.2 7.7 9.6 5. 1 5.1 7.0 6.1 5.2 8.6 5.4 4.5 9.4 6.3 4.7 5.2 8. 1  Code Number  91 420 429 64 549 39 534 422 391 708 670 398 110 55 95 58 59 631 431 108 435 548 49 40 104 445 714 107 450 709 704 425 36 434 430 424 121 106 710 94 51 446 105 96 93 437 454 702 97 444 555 98 66 119  Pes- R e s i - Sex erve deuce  38 5 63 38 57 23 21 41 41 34 34 68 18 72 60 38 65 69 3 60 41 57 9 62 12 3 34 60 41 34 34 11 56 43 5 43 60 60 34 31 46 28 35 24 35 28 5 26 60 3 21 55 29 38  01 02 02 00 03 00 03 02 02 10 10 02 01 00 01 00 00 04 02 01 02 03 00 00 01 02 10 01 02 10 10 02 00 02 02 02 01 01 10 01 00 02 01 01 01 02 02 10 01 02 03 01 00 01  M B H M  M M M a E  M M M .(1 M  X M M M H  tt  H M M M M M M  tt  M  a  M fl H  M a  M M M  B M M M H  fl H  M M M H  H JS  a a  Age (yrs)  9.82 9.86 9.87 9.89 9.96 10.00 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.05 10.05 10. 10 10.11 10.13 10.20 10. 22 10. 23 10.24 10.28 10.37 10.41 10. 43 10.45 10.45 10.46 10.46 10.51 10.56 10.64 10.65 10.69 10.70 10.77 10.78 10.83 10.84 10.88 10.92 10. 93 10.98 10.99 10.99 10.99 11.03 11.03 11.04 11.06 11.12 11.14 11.14 11.16 11.23 11.26 11.27  * * * * S k i n f o l d Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 6.4 7.5 7.8 8. 6 6.3 9.0 6.3 5.2 5. 1 9.0 7.4 11.3 6. 1 15.4 6.2 9.0 10. 1 6.6 5.5 9. 8 5. 6 11.3 7.9 6.6 10.0 6. 0 8.0 8.5 6.2 7.7 8.3 4.7 10.0 5.0 8.4 7.2 9.5 7.2 8.4 6.2 8. 8 8.5 9.7 6. 1 6.5 4.2 6.9 6.2 9.4 8.4 5. 3 10.2 10. 3 7. 1  167 176 178 184 166 186 166 154 152 186 175 198 164 214 165 186 192 169 157 191 158 198 179 169 192 163 180 183 165 178 182 147 192 151 182 174 189 174 182 165 185 183 190 164 168 139 171 165 189 182 155 193 193 173  4.2 5.9 4.9 7.4 5.3 6,0 4.9 6,2 5.0 5.6 6.0 5.9 5. 1 10.2 4.8 6.4 6.2 6.4 4.3 5.5 5.0 9.4 6.2 4.8 7. 1 4.6 6.0 6.0 5. 1 6.3 6.0 4.4 7.3 5. 2 5.6 5.7 6.4 5.7 7.6 5.4 6.0 7.0 6.2 4.3 4.7 4. 3 5.3 5.0 6.4 6.2 4.6 8.0 8.2 5.4  139 162 150 175 155 163 150 165 151 158 163 162 152 193 148 167 165 167 140 157 151 189 165 148 173 145 163 163 152 166 163 142 175 154 158 160 167 160 177 156 163 172 165 140 147 140 155 151 167 165 145 180 181 156  3.6 6.3 3.5 6.9 4.6 5.1 3.0 4.5 3.5 4.4 5.0 5.5 4.3 10.8 4.0 7.2 6.9 5.4 3.0 5.8 4.2 7.3 5.6 4.9 5.8 6.3 5.4 6.2 4.5 4.8 '4.4 3.4 6.6 3.6 3.6 5.2 8.3 4.4 5.5 3.3 5.4 5.7 6.1 2.8 4.3 3.0 6.2 4.4 6.9 5.0 4.0 6.0 9.6 6.2  4.4 8.6 6.7 13.4 5.5 6.4 4.2 6.2 5.4 7.4 8,9 8.4 6.4 15.6 5.2 6.0 8.4 5.4 4.0 5.9 4.3 10.3 10.0 5.0 5.7 5.2 6.0 6.3 5.3 7.6 6,2 6.1 12.5 5.7 5.7 5.2 8.9 5.7 6.5 5. 3 8.4 8.8 6.3 4.7 4.3 4.5 6. 1 6. 3 7.4 5.7 4.8 8. 3 10.2 5.7  Code Number  421 554 50 573 45 2 63 2 120 42 53 556 113 423 101 432 448 449 428 31 546 90 52 89 706 433 112 55 8 628 627 123 707 443 115 117 711 118 705 116 567 440 560 427 426 693 699 465 103 471 451 629 43 630 700 479 43 9  Res- R e s i - Sex erve dence  5 8 38 50 3 69 65 23 38 15 31 10 60 5 11 5 73 38 57 55 9 65 34 10 60 33 69 36 60 22 68 61 55 45 55 34 66 16 5 1 5 5 34 88 11 55 68 68 70 27 30 34 4 73  02 03 00 03 02 04 01 00 00 03 01 02 01 02 02 02 02 00 03 01 00 01 10 02 01 03 04 04 01 10 02 01 01 10 01 10 01 03 02 03 02 02 10 10 02 01 02 02 04 00 04 10 02 02  B B B M M B M M H H M B M M B B B B B B B B M B M B B B  Age (yrs)  11.28 11.32 11.33 11.33 11.37 11.39 11.40 11.41 11.41 11.46 11.48 11.49 1 1 . 57 1 1.58 11.58 11.58 11.61 11.63 11.63 11.72 11.75 11.77 11.85 11.94 11.94 11.94 11.95 12.01 n 12.04 B 12.13 B 1 2 . 14 M 12.15 B 12.20 B 12.21 B 12. 23 B 12.28 M 12.29 M 12.31 M 12.33 M 12.37 B 12.41 B 12.42 B 12.45 B 12.46 M 12.47 B 12.51 B 12.52 B 12.54 B 12.62 B 12.64 B 12.64 M 12.66 M 12.69 M 12.69  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular B i c e p s Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 7. 1 7.8 8.3 6.7 5.0 8.4 8.9 6.6 10. 3 5.6 8.5 5. 1 5.6 4.9 6.5 8.6 6.2 9.4 9.2 7. 1 9.0 6.6 13.5 6. 1 10.2 7.8 6.7 10.4 6.4 7.0 7.7 6.0 7.5 5.4 11.0 8.4 8.9 7. 1 4.5 8.2 7.4 8.7 4.1 10.6 6.9 6.5 9.2 4.5 8.2 5.2 5.3 8.4 5.0 6.2  173 178 182 170 151 182 186 169 193 158 183 152 158 150 168 184 165 189 187 173 186 169 207 164 193 178 170 194 167 172 178 163 176 156 197 182 186 173 144 181 175 184 137 195 171 168 187 144 181 154 155 182 151 165  5.8 5.5 6.2 6.0 4. 2 6.3 5.8 5.6 6.2 4.8 7.3 4.3 4.2 5. 8 4.8 7.3 5.6 7.5 7.3 6.0 9. 1 4.6 10.6 4.8 6.3 7.0 7.0 7.0 4.9 6.5 5.9 4.7 6. 1 5.7 7.5 8.7 7.8 7.2 4.6 7. 1 6.6 5.8 4.7 8.3 5.4 5.0 8. 2 4.9 7.0 5. 6 6.0 5. 2 5.5 5.5  161 157 165 163 139 166 161 158 165 148 175 140 139 161 148 175 158 176 175 163 187 145 195 148 166 172 172 172 150 168 162 147 164 160 176 184 178 174 145 173 169 161 147 182 156 151 181 150 172 158 163 154 157 157  3.5 4.1 6.6 4.4 4.3 6.1 7.7  4.6 8.4 2.8 7.0 3.3 2.6 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.5 7.2 6.0 4.2 7.8 3.2 7.3 3.9 7.5 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.1 5.7 5.1 3.4 5.6 6.8 8.0 5.0 3.4 5.0 6.1 5.8 3.0 8.2 3.5 3.3 4.3 2.9 4.8 4.1 4.8 6.0 3.3 6. 1  6.7 6.6 9.0 6.2 4.5 7. 9 7.6 6.8 7.5 6.0 9.4 4.4 4.2 5.7 7. 1 7.8 5.2 14.4 7.6 6. 2 14.2 4.2 8.4 5.6 7.7 9.3 6.8 7.5 5.5 7.6 6.2 4.2 7.7 6.6 6.4 10.7 7. 1 9.1 4.8 9.5 8.6 6.8 4.9 12. 3 5.7 4.9 10.4 5.2 7.4 » 6.4 6.6 7.8 6.0 5.9  Code Number  565 473 698 561 438 568 703 447 695 88 634 32 547 712 647 694 696 713 99 633 57 2 35 474 453 747 442 697 141 640 743 37 559 134 566 648 124 466 122 441 114 111 562 154 462 639 564 459 46 3 476 100 470 646 156 483  Res- R e s i - Sex erve dence  57 5 58 21 71 75 37 41 34 65 69 38 48 34 30 34 34 34 60 30 16 56 10 71 22 11 34 55 69 34 62 74 55 16 30 60 5 31 61 38 55 21 38 3 70 6 5 5 5 38 28 42 60 71  03 02 10 03 02 03 10 02 10 01 04 00 03 10 04 10 10 10 01 04 03 00 02 02 10 02 10 01 04 10 00 03 01 03 04 01 02 01 02 01 01 03 01 02 04 03 02 02 02 01 02 04 01 02  M  M M M M H M M M H  M M M .H  a H H  a  J3 H M M M M H  M M H •M M M H  a  H H M M fl  R M M M  M M M H M fl fl  M  fl  M M  Age (yrs)  12.71 12.71 12.73 12.73 12.77 12.78 12.82 12.82 12.82 12.85 12.93 12.97 12.98 12.99 12.99 13.00 13.05 13.07 13.12 13.14 13.14 13. 15 13. 15 13.15 13.26 13.30 13. 30 13.31 13.31 13.33 13.34 13.36 13.38 13.41 13.46 13.50 13.51 13.51 13.53 13.53 13.59 13.65 13.70 13.71 13.76 13.80 13.80 13.81 13.85 13.88 13.91 13.98 14.02 14.06  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) (mm) iliac log (mm) 7.6 8.0 6,0 6.5 5. 9 17.3 6.5 8.5 9. 2 7.5 9.2 6. 3 7.7 6.0 9.3 5.7 6.5 6.5 7.6 6.3 4,7 5,9 5.5 10.4 7.0 5.5 6,2 7.2 6.4 6.6 6.9 7.7 7.2 6.6 6. 1 7. 5 6.3 9.2 7. 5 10.4 8.7 8.6 6.7 8. 4 4.4 5.2 7.6 8. 1 4.3 6.8 7,2 6.7 8. 8 6.9  177 180 163 168 162 220 168 183 187 176 187 166 178 163 188 160 168 168 177 166 147 162 157 194 172 157 165 174 167 169 171 178 174 169 164 176 166 187 176 194 184 184 170 182 142 154 177 180 140 170 174 170 185 171  5. 8 8.3 5.4 5. 8 5. 2 14. 4 7.4 6. 0 6.6 6. 1 9.2 5. 5 6.6 5. 8 8.3 5. 1 6. 1 5. 1 6.9 5. 1 5.3 6.0 5.3 7. 8 8.0 4.9 5.4 5. 8 8.4 6.5 7.6 7.3 6. 4 5. 2 5.9 6. 1 5.9 6.9 5,4 8. 0 7.6 7. 2 5.0 6.9 5.4 4. 8 6.4 7, 2 7.2 5.4 5.7 5. 1 8.5 6, 0  161 182 156 161 154 211 175 163 169 164 187 157 169 161 182 152 164 152 171 152 155 163 155 178 180 150 156 161 182 168 177 175 167 154 162 164 162 171 156 180 177 174 151 171 156 148 167 174 174 156 160 152 183 163  4.0 6.2 3.3 4.0 3.5 11.6 4.5 6.0 5.5 4.4 5.6 3.9 4.0 3.4 6.3 3.4 4.8 4.2 6.7 3.2 3.9 4.8 3.4 7.8 3.6 3.6 3.9 5.5 4.4 4.2 6.6 5.0 4.3 3.4 3.7 5.2 3.1 6.7 4.0 7.4 6.3 4.7 4.8 5.6 3.0 3.1 5.1 4.7 3.5 3.7 5.2 3.3 6.7 3.0  6.4 9.8 6.0 7. 1 6.3 22. 4 8.5 8.6 8.0 7. 1 15.8 6.5 9.3 7.0 8.3 6.8 6.9 5.3 7.6 5.8 6.5 7.5 5.6 13.6 7.6 4.6 6.4 6.6 9.3 7.9 11.5 7.3 7.6 5.5 6.0 7.8 5.6 8. 1 6.8 9.0 9.5 9.6 4.9 7.8 5.2 5.7 9.9 7.8 8.7 5.4 7.2 5.7 9.5 6. 1  Code Number  145 30 461 748 484 571 749 742 478 155 635 569 649 588 458 563 744 641 741 638 557 701 472 133 151 457 750 642 469 593 139 456 '146 140 33 570 464 651 467 652 596 460 598 148 637 597 734 7 39 590 138 34 153 149 477  Bes- B e s i - Sex erve dence  60 23 5 34 28 57 7 34 28 60 30 57 30 57 3 21 34 70 22 70 16 34 5 77 54 5 34 37 54 8 38 5 12 18 23 50 5 30 5 42 16 88 21 51 70 38 34 34 57 49 23 62 60 5  01 00 02 10 02 03 10 10 02 01 04 03 04 03 02 03 10 04 10 04 03 10 02 01 01 02 10 04 02 03 01 02 01 01 00 03 02 04 02 04 03 02 03 01 04 03 10 10 03 01 00 01 01 02  Age (yrs)  14.08 14.08 14.09 14. 11 14. 12 14. 16 14. 20 14.24 14. 25 14.30 fl 14.30 M 14.32 fl 14. 34 M 14.34 H 14.36 M 14.39 M 14.41 M 14.48 M 14.51 M 14.58 M 14.59 M 14.59 fl 14.62 M 14.64 M 14.66 M 14.69 M 14.71 M 14.72 fl 14.78 H 14.86 14.87 a M 14.88 a 14.88 14.96 M 14.98 fl 14.99 H 15.04 fl 15.05 M 15. 10 M 15. 11 H 15. 14 M 15.18 M 15.20 M 15.25 fl 15.26 M 15.33 M 15. 33 M 15.38 M 15. 39 M 15.42 M 15.44 M 15.46 fl 15.47 M 15.49 M M M M M M M H M M  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 7.3 5.0 4.8 11.4 5.6 8.0 7.0 6.4 6. 4 7. 0 7.8 11.5 4.5 8. 8 5.3 10. 6 7.7 6.2 6.4 5.0 7.4 6.7 7.6 8.6 7. 3 5. 8 6. 3 5. 8 6. 3 8.1 4.7 8.9 5.3 9.2 7.0 6.0 4.5 4.3 4. 8 5.7 6.2 6.2 6.5 5. 2 6.4 6.3 6. 0 5.4 4.4 5.8 4. 8 6.2 9.0 6.2  175 151 148 199 158 180 172 167 167 172 178 199 144 185 155 195 178 165 167 151 175 170 177 184 175 161 166 161 166 180 147 186 155 187 172 163 144 140 148 160 165 165 168 154 167 166 163 156 142 161 148 165 186 165  5.3 5. 3 5. 6 8.0 5.1 6. 2 5.7 6.2 5. 7 6.3 5.8 10.4 5.4 8.0 5. 3 9. 1 7.2 6. 6 6.8 5. 3 7.2 6.5 5.5 7.6 6.7 6.0 8.2 5.4 6. 4 7.7 4.8 8.0 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.7 6. 0 6.3 6.1 6.9 7. 2 6.5 6.9 6.0 6. 8 7. 1 7.9 7.0 6.2 5. 2 8.0 6.5 9.6 7.2  155 155 158 180 152 165 160 165 160 166 161 194 156 180 155 187 174 169 170 155 174 168 157 177 170 163 181 156 167 178 148 180 156 155 155 160 163 166 164 171 174 168 171 163 170 173 179 172 165 154 180 168 190 174  4.0 4.5 3.4 7.1 2.9 4.0 4.0 4.3 3.9 4.6 5.5 4.4 3.3 4.1 3.0 6.0 5.7 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.4 3.6 5.1 4.0 6.1 4.4 4.3 4.0 5.5 3.9 5.6 3.7 5.0 10.7 3.5 3.0 3.7 3.3 3.8 3.4 4.2 4.4 3.5 4.3 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.5 4.2 3.2 5.2 4.1  6. 1 5.7 7.2 11.0 5.4 10.3 7.0 6.4 6.2 5.0 6.8 18.2 5.4 8. 3 4.4 11.0 10.0 7. 2 7.0 6.0 6.9 6. 1 7.0 9.0 5.5 6. 8 8.0 6. 1 9.9 10.0 4.6 10.6 6. 1 7.0 15.8 7.8 7.0 6. 2 5.6 7.3 6.4 5.7 13.4 6. 1 13.3 6.2 6.6 7. 1 6.3 5.2 13.0 9.3 9.6 8. 8  Code Number  152 480 650 482 468 736 587 733 455 589 74 0 481 135 644 591 751 645 745 753 475 595 737 594 752 643 735 586 754 147 585 131 129 157 755 655 636 127 653 126 592 654 323 142 137 160 270 269 262 28 1 488 268 159 265 245  Res- R e s i - Sex erve dence  39 5 70 4 71 34 38 34 41 33 22 41 66 36 57 45 69 22 57 63 16 16 57 16 36 34 21 57 39 21 9 38 60 21 69 70 23 36 23 38 36 21 55 18 38 3 43 2 68 74 63 65 28 71  01 02 04 02 02 10 03 10 02 03 10 02 01 04 03 10 04 10 10 02 03 10 03 10 04 10 03 10 01 03 01 01 01 10 04 04 01 04 01 03 04 02 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 03 02 01 02 02  M H  M M M H  M H  M M M  M M  a  a a  M M M M M  fl H  M n  &  M M H  M M M H  M B  H M  «  H  H H  H .H  M F F .F F 3? F F F F F  Age (yrs)  15.54 15.57 15.58 15.59 15.61 15.62 15.70 15.70 15.73 15.76 15.91 15.92 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.08 16.09 1 6 . 18 16.30 16. 32 16.35 16.37 16.42 16.43 16.44 16.45 16.50 16.55 16. 56 16.57 16.62 16.71 16.72 16.75 16.75 16.76 16.78 16.85 1 6 . 87 16.88 16.92 16. 92 16.93 6.01 6.05 6.09 6.10 6.12 6.20 6.21 6.26 6.27 6.28  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra [mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 5, 8 8.6 6.0 5.5 5. 5 5.5 6. 1 6.5 5.4 5.6 4.3 7.3 7.9 5.0 7.3 8.0 5.6 5.2 7. 6 6. 4 5.6 5.4 7. 5 5.5 6.7 5. 8 5. 1 7.4 6.6 4.8 7.4 6.7 7.3 5.0 5.5 6.6 6.5 6.7 7.6 5.7 5. 1 4. 8 7.0 6. 2 8.0 5.0 6.9 9.0 5.0 8. 1 5. 8 6.4 6. 2 7.3  161 184 163 157 157 157 164 168 156 158 140 175 179 151 175 180 158 154 177 167 158 156 176 157 170 161 152 175 169 148 175 170 175 151 157 169 168 170 177 160 152 148 172 165 180 151 171 186 151 180 161 167 165 175  8.0 8.2 6.9 5.8 5.9 6.2 7.0 7.2 4.6 6.8 5.7 7.6 12.6 6. 8 7,3 8. 8 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.8 7.1 7.0 7. 1 7.0 8.2 7.6 6.4 7.4 6. 8 6.8 7.0 5.3 8.2 6.3 7.4 4.9 6.8 8.2 6.7 7.5 6.7 6.8 7.0 8.8 5.2 4.4 6.2 6.4 4.5 5.6 4.5' 5.0 4.2 4.7  180 181 171 161 162 165 172 174 145 170 160 177 204 170 175 185 175 174 174 178 173 172 173 172 181 177 167 175 170 170 172 155 181 166 175 150 170 181 170 176 170 170 172 185 154 142 165 167 144 158 144 151 139 147  3.6 5.9 4.4 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.3 4.7 2.7 3.7 3.0 4.3 4.5 4.1 3.6 4.5 4.0 3.6 4.7 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.6 3.4 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.7 4,3 3.3 5.2 4.5 4.5 3.2 4,0 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.3 4.2 3.5 7.2 3.4 6.1 4.6 3.6 6.0 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.1  6.6 10.2 13.4 5.3 5.9 6.8 6.3 8. 5 4.8 7. 2 5.0 9.5 11.3 6.5 12.2 7.7 8.0 5.3 8. 1 7.6 9.6 9.4 8.0 9. 5 7.2 7.0 5.0 12. 3 9.4 7.4 6.2 5.7 11.0 4.9 8.0 5. 0 6.6 7.2 7.6 6.2 6.6 7.5 7. 3 7.8 6.0 4.6 6.0 6. 3 4.4 9.5 5. 8 6.1 4.0 4.8  Code Number  267 501 171 237 489 263 266 286 243 272 264 280 38 283 676 238 246 261 29 163 500 164 257 258 682 284 48 7 158 256 166 244 678 506 275 168 259 172 250 276 260 680 44 46 677 249 47 253 502 170 279 274 162 27 8 239  Bes- Hesi- Sex erve deuce  3 74 60 3 16 5 3 41 11 63 28 43 23 71 25 3 5 10 65 55 1 55 5 5 34 5 13 65 68 24 68 34 57 5 38 11 60 71 3 3 7 23 38 34 76 38 2 8 12 11 5 60 28 5  02 03 01 02 03 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 00 02 10 02 02 02 01 01 03 01 02 02 10 02 03 01 02 01 02 10 03 02 01 02 01 02 02 02 10 00 00 10 02 00 02 03 01 02 02 01 02 02  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F I  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  F F F F F F F F F F F F F  Age (yrs)  6.32 6.33 6.42 6.42 6.54 6.54 6.55 6.59 6.60 6.64 6.64 6.64 6.66 6.66 6*67 6.68 6.73 6.74 6.89 6.94 6.97 7.03 7. 17 7. 17 7.26 7.27 7.29 7. 34 7. 38 7.38 7.47 7.50 7.51 7.56 7.58 7.59 7.65 7.68 7.74 7.74 7.82 7. 84 7.84 7.89 7.90 7.95 7.96 7.98 8.01 8.11 8. 16 8. 17 8.18 8.23  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 8. 2 7.0 6. 9 6.6 6.6 6. 3 7.2 7.2 5.5 6. 8 4.5 7.9 6.5 8.7 8.6 10.0 7.7 6.4 9.7 9. 1 10. 2 6.0 4. 5 4.4 10.0 11.0 6.6 9.0 3.4 4.4 8.3 9.0 9.3 8.2 9. 8 12.0 6.2 11.8 8.4 7.4 8.2 9.4 6.5 5. 8 8.0 6.6 7.2 10. 2 6. 1 10.2 5. 4 7.4 9.1 6.6  181 172 171 169 169 166 174 174 157 170 144 179 168 184 184 192 178 167 190 187 193 163 144 142 192 197 169 186 121 142 182 186 188 181 191 201 165 201 182 175 181 189 168 161 180 169 174 193 164 193 156 175 187 169  5.1 6.5 5.0 5.4 6.2 7.6 6. 1 4.9 3.7 4.6 3.7 6.3 6.5 5. 1 4.7 6.5 6. 2 5. 2 5.9 7.0 7.6 4.8 5.1 5.0 7.0 7.7 5.6 5.4 6. 1 4.5 6.4 5.6 8.2 6.0 6.5 7.8 4.9 8.3 7.4 7.3 5.4 7.6 6.5 5. 2 6.6 6.0 5.0 7.8 4.5 7.2 5.2 5. 1 6.3 6.0  152 168 151 156 165 177 164 150 128 145 128 166 168 152 147 168 165 154 162 172 177 148 152 151 172 178 158 156 164 144 167 158 181 163 168 178 150 182 175 175 156 177 168 154 169 163 151 178 144 174 154 152 166 163  6.1 8.6 6.2 4.5 5.1 6.6 5.0 5.0 3.8 4.8 3.8 6.5 5.6 5.3 5.4 4.7 5.0 4.4 8.8 6.2 6.4 7.0 3.6 3.5 7.0 5.6 5.8 6.0 2.3 4.6 5.1 6.1 7.6 6.3 5.6 5.7 6.6 8.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 7.2 8.2 3.2 5.7 6.2 4.0 8.4 5.2 4.8 3.7 6.1 6.9 5.0  5.1 7.0 6.8 5.3 7.4 9. 1 5.6 6.9 4. 2 5.9 4.0 6. 8 7.5 7.6 7.0 6. 3 5.7 5. 3 10.6 9.7 7.7 5. 3 5.0 4.9 9.9 7.1 8.3 7.5 5.2 5.4 7.0 5. 8 9.6 8.0 9.2 7. 1 6.1 9.3 8.0 7.9 5.9 11.4 11.6 6. 2 7.4 7.2 5. 2 8.0 6.2 7.3 5. 1 4. 8 8.5 6.3  code imber  251 674 247 248 24 511 27 679 675 164 241 23 6 505 254 271 285 176 683 169 509 681 282 28 499 161 604 20 41 25 296 273 188 311 304 495 242 167 277 291 252 179 48 292 191 315 516 290 23 313 289 684 607 497 300  Res- R e s i - Sex erve dence  61 32 3 10 65 42 62 34 45 55 28 11 15 41 88 5 51 25 60 32 34 68 56 57 55 14 38 72 23 41 3 12 43 5 42 5 38 3 10 10 39 23 10 38 11 50 3 53 71 11 34 14 32 3  02 10 02 02 00 03 00 10 10 01 02 02 03 02 02 02 10 10 01 03 10 02 00 03 01 04 00 00 00 02 02 01 02 02 03 02 01 02 02 02 01 00 02 01 02 03 02 00 02 02 10 04 03 02  F F F F F F  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  F F F F F F F F F F F F F  F F F F F  Age (yrs)  8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.31 8.32 8.36 8.41 8.42 8.4 3 8. 47 8.5 3 8.62 8.66 8.67 8.67 8.68 8.70 8.71 8.74 8.75 8.80 8.93 8.97 8.99 9.02 9.03 9.07 9.08 9.12 9. 17 9. 19 9.19 9.25 9. 26 9.30 9.31 9.31 9.41 9.43 9.45 9.47 9.48 9.56 9.56 9.60 9.60 9.76 9.77 9.82 9.83 9.83 9.89 9.92  * * * * Skinfold  Triceps (mm) log  10. 8 6.9 8.2 6.0 6.9 9.2 7. 8 8.0 8.2 7.0 6.2 6. 1 6.7 6.0 9.4 8. 8 6.3 7.7 6. 8 9. 2 5.5 4.0 8.0 9.6 7.2 10.1 11.0 12. 0 8.6 9.6 6.4 6.0 7.3 7.2 10.4 6.0 8.0 5.5 7.2 5. 2 12.2 8.2 7.4 14.8 6.4 11.3 8. 8 10.0 11.0 4.7 9.0 7.0 8. 8 9.0  196 171 181 163 171 187 178 180 181 172 165 164 170 163 189 185 166 178 170 187 157 135 180 190 174 192 197 201 184 190 167 163 175 174 194 163 180 157 174 154 202 181 175 212 167 198 185 192 197 147 186 172 185 186  Thickness * * * * Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm)  6.4 5. 1 6.0 5. 4 6. 2 8.6 5.8 4.8 5.0 5.5 4, 2 4.4 5. 7 4.4 7.5 8.4 5. 2 5.0 4.0 5.4 4.9 4.0 7.4 7.4 5.5 7. 8 8.8 8.2 7.9 6.6 6.5 4.6 6.4 6.2 10.4 5. 1 7.0 4.4 5.4 5.8 7.6 7.5 5.5 13.5 6. 2 9.5 6.7 5. 6 10.6 5.7 6. 6 7.5 6.2 9.0  167 152 163 156 165 184 161 148 151 157 139 142 160 142 176 182 154 151 135 156 150 135 175 175 157 178 185 181 179 169 168 145 167 165 194 152 172 142 156 161 177 176 157 207 165 189 170 158 195 160 169 176 165 186  4.0 3.7 7.2 4.5 7.0 7.4 5.3 3.8 5.1 6.8 4.0 3.8 5.6 3.4 5.8 6.2 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.0 4.1 3.5 7.2 5.9 6.5 7.0 10.0 11.6 9.8 4.3 4.5 5.2 5.2 4.3 7.1 5.0 7.7 4.3 4.9 2.9 10.9 9.8 3.8 11.0 4.4 6.6 6.4 8.1 10.9 4.5 7.0 5. 1 6.4 6.7  8.4 5. 4 7.7 6.7 12.0 8.9 6.8 4.6 5.2 6. 8 5.0 4.2 7.4 4. 4 8.2 7.6 3. 1 6.8 4.2 7.0 5.5 3.7 8. 3 8.4 5.5 12. 8 14.0 16. 5 12.0 10.2 9.4 4.7 7. 1 7.6 9.8 6.5 9.5 3. 8 9.0 6.7 11.0 10.0 7.2 17. 0 6.0 7.7 9.2 8.7 9.5 6.1 7.6 9.8 8.0 12.9  Code Number  512 494 298 496 498 685 26 308 503 606 295 690 22 486 1 505 183 288 513 186 178 692 605 293 4 287 490 485 314 599 491 299 691 294 307 343 306 510 301 18 514 508 312 687 602 7 492 689 333 608 305 12 5 30 3  Ees- B e s i - Sex erve dence  75 21 3 59 50 34 56 5 52 69 41 •7 23 1 65 16 38 5 73 12 62 22 67 28 56 5 8 74 71 70 33 11 34 10 10 3 41 75 71 62 64 59 68 7 14 62 13 45 5 30 5 65 62 28  03 03 02 03 03 10 00 02 03 04 02 10 00 03 00 03 01 02 03 01 01 10 04 02 00 02 03 03 02 04 03 02 10 02 02 02 02 03 02 00 03 03 02 10 04 00 03 10 02 04 02 00 00 02  F F F F  F F  F F F F F F F  I  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  F F F F  F  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  Age (yrs)  9.95 9.96 9.97 10.02 10.03 10.06 10.08 10. 17 10. 17 10.21 10. 26 10.27 10. 29 10.30 10.37 10.43 10.44 10.44 10. 52 10. 52 10.55 10.56 10.56 10.58 10.59 10.62 10.69 10.70 10.80 10.80 10. 84 10.89 10.94 11.00 11.08 11. 12 11.13 11.16 11.19 11.20 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.32 11.32 1 1. 33 11.33 11.39 11.41 11.42 11.51 11.54 11.54 11.55  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 8.6 10.6 7.0 7.6 8.7 11.1 8.4 9.2 12.0 6.6 9.0 7.8 6. 2 9.0 10.2 5. 7 6. 8 5.6 7.6 7.0 8. 2 9.9 8.5 7. 1 7. 8 6.4 7.0 9, 8 8.4 6.9 9.9 9. 3 15.6 5.9 4.9 8. 9 8. 5 10. 8 6.7 6.7 10.3 6.7 6.6 9.3 6. 0 9.5 7.0 10. 1 5. 4 7.0 8.2 12. 5 6.6 8. 8  184 195 172 177 184 197 182 187 201 169 186 178 165 186 193 160 170 158 177 172 181 191 183 173 178 167 172 191 182 171 191 188 214 162 150 186 183 196 170 170 193 170 169 188 163 189 172 192 156 172 181 203 169 185  8.6 9.9 5.4 7.6 5.8 11.0 7.7 7.0 8.0 5.7 7.8 6. 1 5.0 5.4 8.4 5.6 6.2 4.7 8.6 4. 8 6.7 10.4 7.4 4. 5 6.5 5.9 5.0 8.4 6.3 6.5 8.0 6.0 13. 7 5.7 5.4 6.0 5.0 6.3 5.4 7.3 6.5 6.9 5.9 7.8 5.3 7.0 5.7 8.6 4.9 6.9 6. 4 8.7 4.4 7.3  184 191 156 177 161 197 178 172 180 160 178 164 151 156 182 158 165 147 184 148 170 194 175 144 168 162 151 182 166 168 180 163 208 160 156 163 151 166 156 175 168 171 162 178 155 172 160 184 150 171 167 184 142 175  7.4 6.1 4.8 8.0 6.2 7.0 7.5 6.6 6.5 5.2 6.5 3.4 7.8 4.7 6.3 3.5 4.2 4.5 7.4 3.8 5.2 7.4 6.4 3.9 7.8 5.2 5.4 6.1 6.3 5.0 6.7 4.7 12.0 6.2 3.0 5.9 4.8 6.4 4.8 6.6 6.3 6.6 7.4 4.9 4.4 7.7 3.7 6.9 4.7 5.5 4.9 9.6 4.0 4.4  8.9 11.2 6.7 8.9 8.7 15.0 10.5 8. 1 10.2 5.6 10.9 5. 8 7.4 6. 1 12. 9 6.4 5.9 6.4 8.9 5.8 9.3 12.7 9.3 4.6 10.6 10.1 6.4 10.5 8.8 8.2 10.2 9.6 22.0 9.0 5.8 6.5 7.4 13.2 8.0 10.8 9.7 10.0 7. 1 7.2 6.7 10.4 8.4 10.5 5.0 7.9 9.4 14.0 4.6 9.5  Code amber  533 310 30 9 686 16 531 194 187. 181 688 526 532 517 603 515 297 318 190 601 319 30 2 600 189 3 518 729 717 15 722 177 623 330 184 326 17 493 619 2 52 3 19 339 618 520 335 528 195 320 331 334 611 325 19 3 727 11  Bes- R e s i - Sex er ve dence  57 58 68 34 38 16 60 12 56 34 57 8 38 70 21 5 10 38 42 15 41 30 38 62 74 34 34 38 7 60 14 3 24 5 62 57 69 38 57 65 3 30 38 28 73 20 10 3 5 37 5 60 34 62  03 02 02 10 00 03 01 01 01 10 03 03 03 04 03 02 02 01 04 02 02 04 01 00 03 10 10 00 10 01 04 02 01 02 00 03 04 00 03 00 02 04 03 02 03 01 02 02 02 04 02 01 10 00  F F F F F F F F F F F F  F F F F F F F F 'F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 1  F F F F  Age (yrs)  11.61 11.62 11.72 11.73 11.73 11.75 11.77 11.81 1 1.83 11.87 11.87 11.89 11.94 11.98 12.01 12.02 12.04 12.07 12.09 12. 12 12.16 12.18 12.20 12. 23 12.31 12. 35 12. 50 12.54 12.55 12.57 12.61 12.62 12.67 12.70 12.77 12.78 12.79 12.83 12.84 12.85 12.87 12.87 12. 88 12.90 12.92 12.96 12.98 12.98 12.98 13.01 13.02 13.04 13.07 13.12  * * * * Skinfold  Triceps (mm) log  7.6 6.5 6.3 5.4 15. 8 7.6 13.5 6. 6 7. 1 7.8 8. 1 9.4 8.6 6. 0 6. 0 3.8 6.0 10. 4 11.7 11.6 5. 9 5. 6 7.7 9.6 10. 1 10.0 8.8 7.5 9.2 10.2 9.8 8.3 10. 8 8. 1 13.8 10.7 12.0 9.2 11.0 7.7 7.8 10.2 8.9 5.6 10. 5 9.8 6.9 9. 3 8.5 8.8 6.5 8. 2 9. 3 8.8  177 168 166 156 215 177 207 169 173 178 180 189 184 163 163 131 163 194 200 200 162 158 178 190 192 192 185 176 187 193 191 182 196 180 208 195 201 187 197 178 178 193 186 158 194 191 171 188 183 185 168 181 188 185  Thickness * * * * Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm)  5.9 8.0 5.6 6.3 13.6 7.0 7.5 5.0 5.0 6.2 8.2 7.4 8. 2 6. 1 5.6 5.5 6.3 8.7 9.3 10.5 5.1 4.6 5.9 8.5 9.3 10.5 8.5 6.0 9. 4 7.0 9. 3 6.0 10.5 9. 1 10.3 8.9 8.8 9.3 9.4 6.4 8.0 11.3 11.8 5.5 7. 9 8.4 8.6 8.5 5. 5 9.0 5.8 7. 2 7.8 9. 6  162 180 158 166 208 172 176 151 151 165 181 175 181 164 158 157 166 184 188 194 152 145 162 183 188 194 183 163 189 172 188 163 194 187 193 186 185 188 189 167 180 198 201 157 179 182 184 183 157 186 161 174 178 190  5.3 5.6 4.5 3.5 8.6 5.8 8. 1 3.7 4.4 4.2 6.4 6.0 6.1 3.1 4.8 3.4 5.2 5.5 7.6 8.5 3.5 3.0 4.3 7.4 7.5 6.7 7.6 7.2 7.5 9.6 7.3 5.5 5.0 5. 1 14.4 6.7 9.3 6.2 4.6 7.8 6.6 8.4 6.5 5.8 6.0 5.3 6.3 8.0 5.6 7.3 4.8 6.4 6. 1 6.4  9.4 9.7 8.4 9.6 24.0 8.2 12.5 4.8 4.3 7.8 7.7 10.5 9.7 7.4 9. 1 5.4 7.9 10.7 10.9 7.8 7.3 4.6 7.5 16. 1 10.7 11.8 12.0 8.2 11.5 9.2 13.5 7.9 23.0 10.0 23.0 13.2 10. 6 18.0 9.7 8. 5 8. 2 15.7 12.5 5.1 8. 0 9.3 14.2 8.9 6.5 11.1 11.5 7.7 11.3 13.2  Code Number  316 525 180 9 507 6 328 217 720 715 317 527 617 324 621 524 322 730 530 346 182 14 341 716 343 583 213 529 321 723 210 329 368 192 13 357 613 337 625 225 579 327 372 353 522 350 235 363 574 10 355 201 610 367  Res- R e s i - Sex erve dence  3 50 77 38 8 88 28 23 22 34 43 33 70 11 67 50 63 34 13 73 35 6 68 34 68 74 18 21 28 34 18 11 3 60 65 5 70 3 69 60 44 41 68 71 21 68 24 11 1 62 4 18 70 3  02 03 01 00 03 00 02 01 10 10 02 03 04 02 04 03 02 10 03 02 01 00 02 10 02 03 01 03 02 10 01 02 02 01 00 02 04 02 04 01 03 02 02 02 03 02 01 02 03 00 02 . 01 04 02  F F F F F F F  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  Age (yrs)  13. 13 13. 19 13. 19 13. 22 13. 22 13.23 13.24 13.28 13.29 13. 32 13.34 13. 35 13.40 13.41 13.46 13. 46 13.46 13.48 13.51 13. 51 13.54 13.58 13.59 13.62 13.62 13.69 13.69 13.74 13.79 13.80 13.81 13.83 13.85 13.89 13.90 13.91 13.97 14.01 14.03 14.03 14.05 14.06 14.06 14.09 14. 12 14. 17 14.18 14. 20 14.25 14.26 14.26 14.29 14.30 14.30  * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular B i c e p s Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 6.0 7. 0 8.3 9.5 17. 0 6.2 9.8 13. 1 11.0 8.6 5.3 8.8 15.0 7.4 9.7 14. 6 5.7 10.0 12.0 8. 1 13. 2 13.0 8.2 14.6 10. 0 10.4 9.8 9.0 10.3 10.5 14.6 13.1 11.0 8.9 13.0 6.8 6.7 9.9 8.6 11.0 9.6 9.4 9.6 10.0 11.0 5.5 8. 8 10. 3 18.2 7.8 11.8 11.0 11.2 7.7  163 172 182 189 219 165 191 206 197 184 155 185 213 175 190 211 160 192 201 180 206 205 181 211 192 194 191 186 193 194 211 206 197 186 205 170 170 191 184 197 190 189 190 192 197 157 185 193 222 178 201 197 198 178  5.0 6.6 7. 8 8.6 10.0 5.4 11.0 9.2 10. 2 7. 2 7.5 5.9 13.0 6.2 10.0 9.7 4.4 8. 1 10. 0 12.9 11.5 12.5 8.3 17. 9 8.5 13. 1 7. 3 8.0 10.5 8.7 14. 4 11.8 7.3 8. 5 10.8 7.3 7.7 10. 4 10.0 9.0 6.6 7.7 8.7 6.9 9.0 5. 2 7.4 7.2 20.3 8.2 8.5 9.5 9.3 6.7  151 169 178 184 192 156 197 187 193 174 176 162 205 165 192 190 142 180 192 205 199 203 182 221 183 206 175 180 194 184 211 201 175 183 196 175 178 194 192 186 169 178 184 171 186 154 175 174 227 181 183 189 188 170  4.2 6.0 6.5 6.7 10.3 6.7 7.0 5.6 6.2 6.3 5.6 5.0 9.4 4.7 6.4 8.7 4.4 5.4 12.2 7.0 8.0 9.2 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.8 7.0 4.6 6.0 5.2 10.0 8.2 7.3 5.7 9.6 3.4 6.4 7.1 7.7 10.5 8.1 7.5 7.8 6.5 9.2 4.5 7.8 6.2 17.3 6.2 9.3 6.6 6.3 6.3  6.0 9.2 8. 9 11.4 14.7 6.9 14.0 19.6 15. 1 8.0 7.4 7.8 22.0 6.2 15.0 13. 2 5. 2 11.5 13. 4 13. 0 9.5 19.2 12.2 22.0 11.0 18.5 16.3 8.2 15.0 11.4 15.0 16. 1 8.0 9.4 28.0 11.0 14. 5 10.5 15.6 17.2 9.0 13.8 10.0 8.7 12. 6 7.0 7.6 9.0 22. 5 10.6 12.6 10.3 14.9 8.3  Code Number  205 719 234 615 345 352 338 354 33 2 228 8 340 185 718 620 580 521 724 20 0 222 622 624 232 351 216 220 336 212 344 173 207 728 206 20 2 175 348 581 609 174 229 366 577 575 198 359 349 226 616 371 726 224 347 614 369  Res- R e s i - Sex erve dence  9 25 18 70 41 5 11 5 10 62 23 68 60 22 70 21 50 34 39 40 69 69 60 11 55 12 15 49 3 20 40 58 9 38 60 41 6 36 24 38 73 19 16 23 10 68 60 42 5 34 60 5 70 11  01 10 01 04 02 02 02 02 02 01 00 02 01 10 04 03 03 10 01 01 04 04 01 02 01 01 02 01 02 01 01 10 01 01 10 02 03 04 01 01 02 03 03 01 02 02 01 04 02 10 01 02 04 02  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  Age (yrs)  14. 32 14.35 14.41 14.46 14.46 14.48 14.51 14. 52 14.52 14.55 14.56 14.58 14.60 14.61 14.65 14. 69 14.73 14.76 14.82 14.89 14.90 14.90 14.91 14.92 14.97 14.97 15.02 15.03 15.05 15.06 15. 10 15. 12 15.15 15. 18 15.34 15.35 15.39 15.40 15.45 15.45 15.47 15.55 15.55 15.57 15.61 15.61 15.61 15.65 15.70 15.74 15.74 15.79 15.81 15.84  * * * * S k i n f o l d Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular B i c e p s S u p r a (ram) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 9. 3 9.4 11.6 7.7 7.2 7.3 8. 1 6.3 7. 7 10.0 9.0 8.3 14. 0 14.6 11.0 9.5 9.1 18.4 12.2 13.2 11.2 13.5 13.6 11.0 16.4 9.2 8.0 18.2 15.6 12. 9 13.6 9.2 8. 8 11.6 11.5 16.8 14.4 11.6 13.4 13.5 13. 2 16. 5 7.9 14. 3 12.4 10.0 13.6 11.0 5.8 6.6 12.9 7.4 10.6 9.4  188 189 200 178 174 175 180 166 178 192 186 182 209 211 197 189 187 223 202 206 198 207208 197 217 187 180 222 214 205 208 187 185 200 199 218 211 200 207 207 206 217 179 210 203 192 208 197 161 169 205 175 195 189  12.0 7.5 10.0 5.3 10.0 5.7 9.0 6.7 12. 1 7.8 12. 2 6.5 15.0 13. 6 10.0 9.5 9. 2 27.0 8.0 12.4 12.0 14.5 12. 4 9.8 10.4 6. 1 7.4 21. 1 16. 1 17. 1 11.0 7. 8 14. 6 9. 2 16.8 18.0 12.2 15. 3 16. 8 11.6 12.8 13.3 10.0 12. 4 14.6 7.5 11.5 7.7 5.8 8.4 7.7 6.9 15.3 12. 0  201 176 192 155 192 160 186 170 202 178 202 168 213 208 192 189 187 241 180 203 201 211 203 191 194 164 175 229 216 219 197 178 211 187 218 221 202 214 218 200 205 207 192 203 211 176 199 178 161 182 178 171 214 201  6.2 4.5 11.7 3.8 5.1 6.0 5.7 5.3 4.4 6.5 9.2 5.7 9.2 8.0 7.0 8.7 6,7 18.6 5.8 12.6 8.2 7.7 7.3 5.8 10.2 7.9 5.2 9.0 10.6 9.6 6.8 3.5 11.2 6.6 7.2 9.3 6.6 9.5 8.4 9.2 8.0 9.4 6.0 7.4 6.7 6.0 6.2 11.7 4.5 5.7 5.9 3.1 9.4 7.7  1 2 4  10.0 11.5 14.8 6.6 9. 1 10.5 10.4 6.8 14. 5 12.0 26.0 8.5 20. 2 23.0 14.0 13.5 12. 0 22.0 8. 5 22, 0 14.0 17.7 19.0 13.3 16. 1 10.1 9.7 31.0 15.8 \ 22.0 15.5 12.8 18. 2 8.2 18.2 21. 1 18.0 14.0 21.3 17.0 20.7 17.0 11.7 19, 2 20.0 11.0 17.9 15. 8 6,9 11.6 14.6 8. 3 23.5 16.4  Code itnber  219 223 358 731 360 626 57 8 519 365 356 362 230 214 20 3 221 725 233 218 370 231 215 227 21 364 576 197 612 361 208 584 721 209  Res- R e s i - Se.s: age erve dence (yrs  60 60 11 34 5 70 57 21 5 5 43 60 27 38 20 34 18 56 76 60 18 39 23 68 57 65 70 28 56 33 25 12  01 01 02 10 02 04 03 03 02 02 02 01 01 01 01 10 01 01 02 01 01 01 00 02 03 01 04 02 01 03 10 01  F 15.88 F 15.91 16.00 16.03 F 16.04 F 16.05 F 16.05 F 16.10 F 16.14 F 16. 14 F 16. 15 F 16.18 F 16.18 F 16.22 F 16.23 F 16. 24 F 16.30 F 16.33 F 16.38 F 16.39 F 16.47 F 16.47 F 16.52 F 16.57 F 16.59 F 16.71 F 16.78 F 16.85 F 16.89 F 16.91 F 16.93 F 16.93 F  F  * * * * S k i n f o l d Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (.mm) log (mm) log iliac (mm) (mm) 13. 2 11.0 10.4 11.4 16.0 9.2 10.0 10.5 7.0 8.0 10.6 9.5 8. 8 12. 5 8.4 16. 2 13. 8 11.0 9.2 12.4 15, 1 8.9 10.5 7.9 14. 2 18.6 18.7 12.0 10. 5 11.6 10.6 11.0  206 197 194 199 216 187 192 194 172 180 195 189 185 203 182 216 208 197 187 203 213 186 194 179 210 223 223 201 194 200 195 197  10.0 11.0 10.0 9.7 11.0 8. 1 7.6 9. 5 8. 1 9. 8 12. 3 7.7 9. 0 17.7 8. 2 18.0 13.8 8.5 10.9 14.0 19.0 11. 0 11.5 7.5 12.4 15.0 11.7 13. 2 5.9 11.7 13.7 11.3  192 197 192 190 197 180 177 189 180 191 203 178 186 221 181 221 208 183 196 209 224 197 199 176 203 213 200 206 162 200 208 198  10.4 10.2 5.3 6.2 8.4 6.7 5. 1 7. 1 6.4 6.7 6.7 7.4 6.9 7.8 7.0 6.2 10,5 6.1 6.6 10.8 7.7 8.2 10.8 6.1 8.0 10.5 11.6 7.3 3.2 6.8 5.5 7.3  19.0 18.8 13.8 13.7 17.0 10.3 10.6 10. 2 8.4 13.0 20.0 11.0 15. 6 21.0 9. 1 23.2 18. 8 14.4 14. 5 23.4 33. 0 12.6 24.0 13.4 15.3 27.0 20.8 20.0 24.6 17.8 21.4 15.6  APPENDIX C A-RM CIRCUMFERENCE, UPPER ARM MUSCLE DIMENSIONS AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE (vsorted a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age)  CODE ItfBER  411 78 71 390 407 656 68 40 6 378 383 410 76 84 385 406 73 659 666 4G5 81 541 3 84 74 404 395 387 658 75 413 415 417 83 535 412 386 63 394 416 418 414 536 392 415 393 87 661 660 376 70 389 65 537 402 400 538  RES- RESI- SEX AGE ARM ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 3 55 60 3 43 34 23 5 43 5 76 38 55 76 76 38 7 25 3 65 42 3 60 63 2 3  88 24 3 76 5 55 32 5 5 62 10 10 5 71 1 71 11 11 12 26 26 5 38 43 46 21 28 3 16  02 01 01 02 02 10 CO 02 02 02 02 01 01 02 02 01 10 10 02 01 03 02 01 02 02 02 10 01 02 02 02 01 03 02 02 00 02 02 02 02 03 02 02 02 01 10 10 02 00 02 00 C3 02 02 03  150 6o CO 185 6.02 6.08 173 156 6.09 185 H 6.10 H 168 6.13 M 6.14 160 150 6.15 H 190 M 6.15 M 6.25 158 160 V> 6.40 M 6.41 • 195 M 6.44 186 M 6.45 162 M 6.61 17 7 164 M 6.6 3 M 6.65 176 M 6.65 188 ¥, 6.66 165 195 M 6. 70 M 6.72 193 168 M 6.75 M 6.77 183 178 M 6.81 M 6.62 165 152 « 6.67 166 K 6.89 M 6.57 190 150 M 7.03 N 7.11 170 168 M 7.15 M 7.17 165 M 7.15 171 150 M 7.20 156 M 7.20 M 7.35 188 165 M 7.44 N 7.44 162 M 7.45 150 171 M 7.47 178 H 7.52 176 M 7. 56 170 M 7.65 M 7.74 173 183 M 7.87 176 K 7.89 7. 85 183 M 189 M 7.50 185 M 7.54 M 7.56 180 175 M 7.56 M 8.01 192 M 8.C7 191 H 8.08 183 M 8.12 177 M M M M  HEAD UPPER ARM MUSCLE AREA CIRC 0.1 AM CIRC (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 40 49 48 42 53 45 45 42 54 44 45 54 48 46 50 45 48 53 43 53 53 44 49 49 46 43 44 52 42 50 48 48 47 42 43 52 48 47 44 48 50 49 49 49 52 49 51 54 50 50 50 51 52 51 51  127 155 151 132 168 143 141 133 169 138 144 169 153 145 160 142 152 167 135 166 169 138 156 154 146 135 140 165 134 159 152 .151 149 134 137 164 152 149 138 150 157 155 154 155 164 155 161 170 158 157 158 160 166 161 160  1256 18 85 1809 1385 2206 1590 1550 138 5 2290 1520 1590 2250 1809 1661 1963 1590 1809 2206 1452 2206 2206 1520 1885 1885 1661 1452 1520 2123 13 85 1963 1809 1805 1734 1385 1452 2123 1805 1734 1520 18C9 1963 1885 1885 1885 2123 1885 2042 2250 1963 1563 1963 2042 2123 2042 2042  47.9 50.3 51.5 48.3 50.0 48.6 48.8 48.1 50.0 49.4 49.1 52.3 52.0 49.1 51.7 52.3 49.8 52.4 48.7 50.4 52.3 48.8 53.8 51.6 49.5 51.1 51.2 53.1 51.1 49.0 49.3 45.5 52.8 47.6 47.7 51.0 49.2 48.9 47.0 50.6 51.6 51.6 50.2 51.2 52.6 51.7 51.9 51.0 52.5 50.8 52.0 53.2 53.2 51.5 50.3  CODE IMBER  RESERVE  399 544 657 67 72 8 5 77 377 60 667 665 662 397 79 543 374 86 379 540 542 82 403 545 664 54 102 551 373 553 66 5 57 405 80 61 550 673 396 388 380 62 552 56 668 65 92 672 436 375 663 671 382 53 5 401 91 420  3 74 25 6 38 65 60 28 38 34 34 58 43 55 73 71 55 68 74 59 60 5 33 34 62 24 57 43 1 7 65 10 60 38 57 45 5 5 2 38 16 56 34 62 18 37 43 5 34 26 3 8 28 38 5  RESIDENCE  02 03 10 00 01 01 01 02 00 10 10 10 02 01 03 02 01 02 03 03 01 02 03 10 00 01 03 02 03 10 00 02 01 00 03 10 02 02 02 00 03 00 10 00 01 10 02 02 10 10 02 03 02 01 02  SEX  ACE (VRS;  ARM ;IRC MM)  M M M M  8.13 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 6.17 8.18 8.25 8.30 8.31 8.36 8.3 5 8.40 6.40 8.41 8.44 6.48 8.50 8.58 8.67 8.70 8.SO 8.8 7 8.97 8.55 9.03 5.04 5.C5 9.09 5.10 5 . 12 9.13 5.14 9.14 5.18 5.31 9.33 5.37 9.43 9.45 5 . 46 9.48 5.55 9.55 9.59 5.55 5.55 9.64 5.6 5 5.65 9.66 5.70 9.72 5.82 5.8 6  173 187 184 180 176 188 203 180 156 174 170 173 189 153 151 182 184 185 211 153 200 166 197 159 220 204 208 175 191 196 198 199 150 170 202 153 177 190 184 190 165 212 194 193 154 210 210 183 202 190 177 153 206 150 200  K  N M K  M fs  M  M  M M M M  M M M  M M  M M M  M M M M M M M M  M M M M M M M M M M M  M  H M P M M  M  M M f  M  U P P E R ARM M U S C L E AREA D I AM CIRC (MM) (MM) ( M M * * 2 )  HEAD CIRC (CM)  1885 2042 2123 18 85 1963 2123 2463 2042 2463 1734 1661 1661 2206 2206 2290 2042 2042 2123 2375 2375 2123 1809 2250 1661 2733 2642 2551 1885 2206 2463 2290 2463 2123 1885 2642 2375 2123 2290 2042 1885 1734 2733 2123 2375 2375 2733 2922 2123 2463 2 042 1963 2250 2463 2290 2463  50.2 53.0 51.5 55.5 56.5 52.2 54.4 50.8 52.3 51.2 50.8 53.2 51.0 53.7 50.8 50.2 52.1 51.5 52.9 54.2 53.1 51.4 54.8 51.3 53.8 54.0 55.5 51.4 52.7 51.8 52.0 52.8 53.4 50.6 53.5 52.6 53.3 50.7 52.2 51.5 50.6 54.2 52.5 54.5 52.8 55.9 53.6 52.8 53.0 51.0 50.6 51.8 53.2 55.5 54.0  49 51 52 49 50 52 56 51 56 47 46 46 53 53 54 51 51 52 55 55 52 48 54 46 5 9 58 5 7 49 53 56 54 56 52 49 5 8 55 52 54 51 49 47 59 52 55 55 59 61 52 56 51 50 54 56 54 56  154 163 164 157 158 166 177 162 177 148 145 145 169 169 170 162 162 165 174 175 165 152 170 144 187 184 181 155 168 176 171 177 164 153 185 173 166 172 162 157 149 186 164 173 173 187 193 165 176 161 158 172 178 169 176  128  CODE JMBER  RESERVE  429 64 549 39 534 422 391 708 670 398 110 55 95 58 59 631 431 108 43 5 548 49 40 104 445 714 107 45 0 709 704 425 36 434 430 424 121 106 710 94 51 446 105 96 93 43 7 454 702 9 7 444 555 98 66 119 421 554 50  63 3 8 57 23 21 41 41 34 34 68 18 72 60 38 65 69  •a  60 41 57 9 62  12 3 34 60 41 34 34 11 56 43 5 43 60 60 34 31 46 28 3 5 24 35 28 5 26 60 3 21 55 29 38 5 8 38  RESIDENCE  02 GO 03 00 03 02 02 10 10 02 01 CO 01 CO 00 04 02 01 02 03 CO CO 01 02 10 01 02 10 10 C2 00 02 02 02 01 01 10 CI CO 02 01 01 01 02 02 10 01 02 03 01 00 01 02 C3 CO  SEX  M Ns  M M M M M W M K M M  M  M M ft  M M M M  M M  M H M M  K M K  M M  M  AGE (YRS1  ARM ;IRC MM)  9.8 7 9,89 9.96 10.00 10.00 10.01 10.02 1C.C5 10.05 10.10 10.11 1 0 . 13 10.20 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.28 10.37 10.41 10.43 10.45 10.45 10.46 10.46 1 0 . 51 10.56 10.64 10.65 10.69 10.70 10.77 10.78 1 0 . 83 10.84 10.88 10.92 10.93 10.98 10.99 10.99 10.99  185 185 196 210 165 203 178 193 194 196 181 248 180 193 212 206 182 190 187 233 221 182 223 187 196 200 197 190 200 200 214 211 211 192 218 208 196 172 210 196 199 199 183 185 203 195 2C9 201 185 209 197 192 197 186 210  M M K M H M M M M M 11.03 K  11.03  11.04 M 11.06 M 11.12 M 11.14 K 11.14 M 11.16 M 11.23 K 11.26 M 11.27 M 11.28 K 11.32 M 11.33 M  UPPER ARM MUSCLE D I AM AREA CIRC {MM ) (MM) ( M M * * 2 )  HEAD CIRC (CM)  2042 1963 2463 2551 1661 2733 2042 2123 2290 2042 2042 3117 2042 2123 2551 2642 2123 1963 2206 3019 3019 2042 2827 2206 2290 2375 2463 2123 2375 2642 2642 3019 2642 2206 2733 2733 2206 1809 2642 2206 2206 2 551 2042 2290 25 51 2375 2551 23 75 2206 2463 2123 2290 2375 2042 2642  54.6 53.2 52.0 54.5 51.2 53.7 52.3 53.0 53. 7 53.5 51.6 54.0 54.4 51.3 52.7 54.2 52.2 52.2 54.2 55.6 53.5 52.8 54.6 53.4 54.1 53.2 52.5 52.6 52.9 54.4 53.3 54.7 52.6 52.8 56.0 51.2 54.2 50.2 55.2 54.3 54.3 52.3 53.0 53.8 53.7 53.5 57.6 54.6 50.4 53.0 55.2 55.8 51.1 54.4 55.0  51 50 56 57 46 59 51 52 54 51 51 63 51 52 57 58 52 50 53 62 62 51 60 53 54 55 56 52 55 58 5 8 62 58 53 59 59 53 48 58 53 53 57 51 54 57 55 57 55 53 56 52 54 55 51 58  160 157 176 181 145 186 161 164 170 160 161 199 160 164 180 185 164 159 169 197 196 161 191 168 170 173 177 16 5 173 185 182 195 184 169 188 185 169 152 182 169 168 179 162 171 181 175 179 174 168 176 164 169 174 161 183  129  CODE IMBER  573 452 632 120 42 53 556 113 423 101 432 448 445 428 31 546 90 52 89 706 433 112 558 62 6 627 123 707 443 115 117 711 118 705 116 567 440 560 427 426 693 699 465 103 471 451 625 43 630 700 479 435 565 473 698 561  RES- RESI- SEX AGE ARM (YRS) CIRC ERVE DENCE 1 MM) 50 3 69 65 23 38 15 31 10 60 5 11 5 73 38 57 55 9 65 34 10 60 33 69 36 60 22 68 61 55 45 55 34 66 16 5 1 5 5 34 88 11 55 68 68 70 27 30 34 4 73 57 5 58 21  03 02 04 01 GO 00 03 01 02 01 02 02 02 02 00 03 01 00 01 10 02 01 03 04 04 01 10 02 01 01 10 01 10 01 03 02 03 02 02 10 10 02 01 02 02 04 00 04 10 02 02 03 02 10 03  M M M. M M M M K  M M M M M M M H M M M M M M M M M M K M M M M ft  M M K M ¥<  M M f,  M M M M M Vi  M Vi  M M M M M K M  l l . 3.3 11.37 11.35 11.40 11.41 11.41 11.46 11.48 11.49 11.5.7 11.58 11.5.8 11.58 11.61 11.63 11.63 11.72 11.75 11.77 11.85 11.54 11.54 11.54 11.55 12.01 12. 04 12.13 12.14 12.15 12. 2 0 12.21 12.23 12.28 12.25 12.31 12.33 12.37 12.41 12.42 12.45 12.46 12.47 12.51 12.52 12.54 12.62 12.64 12.64 12.66 12.69 12.69 12.7.1 12.71 12.73 12.73  2G6 180 210 210 183 223 193 212 186 186 178 193 204 194 22 0 234 207 228 224 215 182 208 210 214 203 195 222 189 185 228 206 218 211 203 218 203 223 220 211 192 227 217 203 232 203 248 210 223 218 213 226 216 244 2G5 2 06  HEAD UPPER ARM MUSCLE AREA CIRC CIRC 01 AM (MM) (MM#*2) (CM) (MM) 58 52 58 57 51 60 55 58 54 53 51 54 56 55 60 65 58 63 64 54 51 56 59 61 54 55 63 52 52 65 60 58 58 55 62 60 62 62 58 57 61 62 58 64 60 70 61 65 60 62 65 61 69 59 59  184 164 183 182 162 190 175 185 169 168 162 172 176 174 190 205 184 199 203 172 162 175 185 192 170 174 200 164 166 204 189 183 184 175 195 188 197 196 183 179 153 195 182 203 188 222 153 206 191 197 206 192 218 186 185  2642 2123 2642 2551 2042 2827 2375 2642 2290 2206 2042 2250 2463 2375 28 27 3318 2642 3117 3216 2250 2042 2463 2733 2922 2250 23 75 3117 2123 2123 3318 2827 2642 2642 2375 3019 2827 3019 3019 2642 2551 2 522 3019 2642 3216 28 27 3848 2922 3318 2827 3015 3318 2922 3739 2733 2733  53.0 53.0 53.8 55.0 51.0 56.0 54.9 54.9 54.4 52. G 51.0 54.6 54.2 54.7 54.8 56.7 53. 8 55.2 52.7 53.2 52.2 55.0 55.0 53.3 56.5 52.6 54.4 53. 0 54.1 54.5 51.8 55.4 55.1 52.6 53.5 53.5 53.7 54.9 52.2 51.0 54.1 54.1 54.8 55.8 55.6 54.8 51.6 57.2 58.6 99. 9 55.0 56.5 55.7 52.5 55. 3  CODE IMBER  438 568 703 447 €95 88 634 32 547 712 647 694 696 713 99 633 572 35 474 453 74 7 442 697 141 640 743 37 559 134 566 648 124 466 122 441 114 111 562 154 462 639 564 459 463 476 100 470 646 156 483 145 30 461 748 484  ARM RES- RESI- SEX AGE ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 71 75 37 41 34 65 69 38 48 34 30 34 34 34 60 30 16 56 10 71 22 „ 11 34 55 69 34 62 74 55 16 30 60 5 31 61 38 55 21 38 3 70 6 5 5 5 38 28 42 60 71 60 23 5 34 28  02 03 10 02 10 01 04 CO 03 10 04 10 10 10 01 04 03 CO 02 02 10 02 10 CI 04 10 00 03 01 03 04 01 02 01 02 01 01 03 01 02 C4 03 02 02 02 01 02 04 01 02 01 CO 02 10 02  M M M M K  M M M M M M M M M M M M M M K M M M K  M M M M M M M M M M H  M M M M M N.  M M M M M M M M M M M M  12. 7.7 12.78 12.8 2 12.82 12.82 12. £5 12.92 12.97 12.98 12.99 12.99 13.00 13.05 13.07 13.12 13.14 13.14 13.15 13.15 13.15 13.26 12.30 13.30 13.31 13.21 13.33 13.34 13.36 13.38 13.41 13.46 13.50 13.51 12.51 13.53 1.3.5.3 13.59 13.65 13.7.0 13.71 12.76 13.80 13.80 13.81 13.85 13.88 13.91 13.9.8  14.02 14.06 14.08 14.0 8 14.09 14.11 14.12  196 276 230 218 218 22 5 256 200 2 04 212 236 195 194 182 210 220 203 212 194 218 232 197 197 216 242 230 242 225 233 206 233 219 199 190 210 230 217 225 206 227 212 212 223 233 245 223 223 215 230 208 220 210 226 270 216  HEAD UPPER ARM MUSCLE DI AM CIRC AREA CIRC (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 56 70 66 60 60 64 72 57 57 61 65 56 55 51 59 63 59 61 56 58 66 57 56 61 70 66 70 63 66 58 68 62 57 51 59 62 60 63 58 63 63 62 63 66 73 64 63 61 64 59 62 61 67 74 63  177 221 209 191 189 201 227 180 179 193 206 177 173 161 186 200 188 193 176 185 210 179 177 193 221 209 220 200 210 185 213 195 179 161 186 197 189 197 184 200 198 195 199 207 231 201 200 193 202 186 197 194 210 234 198  2463 3848 3421 2827 2827 3216 4071 2551 2551 29 22 3318 2463 2375 2042 2733 3117 2733 2922 2463 2642 3421 2551 2463 2922 3848 3421 3848 3117 3421 2642 3631 3019 2551 2042 2733 3019 2827 3117 2642 3117 3117 3019 3117 3421 4185 3216 3117 2922 3216 2733 3019 2922 3525 4300 3117  5-1.8  57.0 55.0 56.0 57.8 52.7 57.7 51.8 55.5 57.2 58.2 51.4 55.0 53.8 54.2 53.0 55.8 56.9 53.8 56.6 54.6 53.0 55.0 54.3 54.4 56. 5 57.2 55.8 55.2 54.5 57.1 54.7 54.0 54.3 51.7 51.7 54.0 54.5 57.2 56.9 54.1 54.8 55.3 56.3 56.1 53.5 57.6 53.3 55.6 54,1 56.5 53.3 54.2 57.7 57.4  CODE  IMBER  571 745 742 478 155 635 565 64S 588 45 e 563 744 641 741 638 557 701 472 133 151 457 750 642 469 593 135 456 146 140 33 570 464 651 467 652 596 460 598 148 637 597 734 735 590 13 £ 34 153 145 477 152 480 650 482 468 736  RESERVE  57 7 34 28 60 30 57 30 57 3 21 34 70 22 70 16 34 5 77 54 5 34 37 54 8 38 5 12 18 23 50 5 30 5 42 16 88 21 51 70 38 34 34 57 49 23 62 60 5 39 5 70 4 71 34  RESIDENCE  03 10 10 02 01 04 03 04 03 02 03 10 04 10 04 03 10 02 01 01 02 10 04 02 03 01 02 01 01 00 03 02 04 02 04 03 02 03 01 04 03 10 10 03 01 CO  01 01 02 01 02 04 02 02 10  AGE (YRS1  ARM ;IRC MM)  14.16 M 14.20 M 14.24 M 14.25 M 14.30 M 14.30 K 14.32 K 14.34 M 14.24 M 14.36 M 14.35 M 14.41 M 14.48 M 14.51 M 14.58 M 14.55 M 14.59 M 14.62 M 14.64 M 14.66 K 14.65 M 14.71 M 14.72 M 14.78 M 14.86 N 14.87 M 14.8 8 M 14.8 8 M 14.56 M 14.5 8 M- 14.55 M 15.04 M 15.05 K 15.10 M 15.11 K 15.14 K 15. 18 M 15.20 M 15.25 M 15.26 M 15.22 M 15.33 M 15.38 M 15.39 K 15.42 M 15.44 M 15.46 M 15.47 M 15.49 M 15.54 M 15.57 K 15.58 M 15.55 M 15.61 M 15.62  2 33 215 215 208 215 246 260 231 236 212 210 243 221 239 223 243 210 203 155 245 244 248 205 228 255 186 242 205 225 267 226 226 256 210 258 244 228 233 236 223 256 245 233 247 211 275 225 252 253 283 221 233 244 213 268  SEX  M  UPPER OIAM (MM)  66 61 62 59 61 70 71 65 66 62 56 69 64 69 65 69 60 57 53 70 71 72 59 66 73 54 68 59 62 77 65 67 77 62 76 71 66 67 69 64 75 71 68 74 61 82 65 71 74 84 61 68 72 62 79  ARM MUSCLE AREA CIRC (MM) ( M M * * 2 )  2 07 193 154 187 193 221 223 216 208 195 176 218 201 218 207 219 188 179 167 222 225 228 186 208 229 171 214 188 196 245 207 211 242 194 240 224 208 212 219 202 236 2 26 216 233 192 259 205 223 233 264 193 214 226 195 250  3421 2922 3019 2733 2922 3848 3959 3739 3421 3019 2463 3729 3216 3739 3318 3739 2827 2551 22 06 3848 3959 4071 2733 3421 4185 2290 3631 2733 3019 4656 3318 3525 4656 3019 4536 3955 3421 3525 3739 3216 4417 3959 3631 43CG 2922 5281 3318 3955 43 00 5541 2922 3631 4071 3019 4901  HEAD CIRC (CM)  56.7 55.8 55.5 54.8 55.8 59.6 59.9 57.9 56.6 53.7 54.7 54.5 55.2 55.8 55.8 55.8 54.7 54.0 51,5 57.7 55.8 56. 6 53.9 56.0 58.4 54.6 56.6 53.4 54.3 59.5 54.7 57.0 59.3 55.6 59.0 55.0 57,8 53.9 54.8 53.7 55.9 57,0 57.3 58.5 53,9 57,5 54.4 55.9 56.3 57.9 55.6 54.7 57.4 55.9 59.5  132  CODE NUMBER  587 733 455 585 740 481 135 644 591 751 645 745 753 475 595 737 594 75 2 643 73 5 586 754 147 585 131 129 15 7 755 655 636 127 653 126 592 654 323 142 137 160 270 269 262 281 48e 268 159 265 245 267 501 171 237 489 263 266  RES- R SI- SEX AGE ARM ERVE D NCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 38 34 41 33 22 41 66 36 57 45 69 22 57 63 16 16 57 16 36 34 21 57 39 21 9 38 60 21 69 70 23 36 23 38 36 21 55 18 38 3 43 2 68 74 63 65 28 71 3 74 60 3 16 5 3  03 10 02 03 10 02 01 04 03 10 04 10 10 02 03 20 03 10 04 10 03 10 01 03 01 01 01 10 04 04 01 04 01 03 04 02 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 03 02 01 02 02 02 03 01 02 03 02 02  M 15.70 M 15.70 M 15.73 15.76 M 1 5 . SI M- 15.92 M 16.00 M 16.01 M 16.02 M 16.03 M 16.08 16.09 n 16. 18 M 16.30 M 16.32 M 16.35 M 16.37 M 16.4 2 M 16.43 K 16.44 M 16.45 M 16.50 M 16.55 M 16.56 K 16.57 M 16.62 M 16.71 K 16.72 M 16.75 ¥. 1 6 . 7 5  M 16.76 M 16.78 H 16.85 M 16.87 M 16.88 K 16.92 M 16. 92 M 16.93 F 6.01 F 6.05 F 6.09 F 6.10 F 6 .12 F 6.20 F 6.21 F 6.26 F 6.27 F 6.28 F 6.3 2 F 6.33 F 6.42 F 6.42 F 6.54 F 6.54 F 6.55  234 248 222 2 57 265 218 270 250 277 226 264 250 250 205 23 8 251 240 240 258 260 236 280 228 258 230 225 255 240 273 250 260 260 253 244 261 263 257 265 175 156 180 170 157 174 180 175 160 161 160 174 158 163 162 180 171  UPPER ARM MUSCLE 01 AM CIRC AREA (MM)  (MM)  68 72 65 76 80 62 78 74 80 63 78 74 71 58 70 74 68 70 75 76 70 81 65 77 65 64 73 71 81 72 76 76 72 71 77 78 74 78 47 44 50 45 44 47 51 49 44 43 42 48 43 45 44 50 47  214 227 205 239 251 195 245 234 254 200 246 233 226 184 220 234 216 222 236 241 219 256 207 242 206 203 23 2 224 255 229 239 238 229 226 244 247 235 245 149 140 158 141 141 148 161 154 140 138 134 152 136 142 141 160 148  (MM**2)  3631 4071 3318 4536 5026 3019 4778 4300 5026 3117 4778 4300 3959 2642 3848 4300 3631 3 848 4417 4536 3848 5153 3318 4656 3318 3216 4185 3959 5153 40 71 4536 4536 4071 3959 4656 4778 4300 4778 1734 1520 1963 1590 1520 1734 2042 1885 1520 1452 1385 1809 1452 1590 1520 1963 1734  HEAD  CIRC (CM)  58.2 57.8 55.7 58.3 58. 1 56.5 56.1 58.9 58.3 57.1  59.0 56.6 58.8 54. 8 58.8 57. 0 58,3 58.7 57.0 58.7 56.9 58.3 57.8 58.3 55.8 55.6 57.0 57.5 59.9 54.8 56.0 5-7* 0 56.1 59.7 59,0 59.0 58.3 59.5 50.2 49.4 50.8 50.1 49.4 49.0 '5-1.1  48.1 48.7 48.7 48.0 49.1 48.6 49.5 47.8 48.4 47.6  133  CODE JMBER  RESERVE  286 243 272 264 280 38 283 676 23 8 246 261 29 163 500 164 257 258 682 284 48 7 158 256 166 244 67 8 506 275 168 259 172 250 276 26 0 680 44 46 677 249 47 253 502 170 279 274 162 278 239 251 674 247 248 24 511 27 679  41 11 63 28 43 23 71 25 3 5 10 65 55 1 55 5 5 34 5 13 65 68 24 68 34 57 5 38 11 60 71 3 3 7 23 38 34 76 38 2 8 12 11 5 60 28 5 61 32 3 10 65 42 62 34  RESIDENCE  02 02 02 02 02 00 02 10 02 02 02 01 01 03 01 02 02 1G 02 03 01 02 01 02 10 03 02 01 02 01 02 02 02 10 00 00 10 02 CO 02 03 01 02 02 01 02 02 02 10 02 02 00 03 00 10  SEX  AGE (YRS  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  6o59 6.60 6.64 6.64 6.64 6.66 6.66 6.67 6.66 6.73 6.74 6.89 6.94 6.5 7 7.03 7.17 7.17 7 . 26 7.27 7.25 7.34 7.38 7.3 6 7.47 7.50 7. 51 7.56 7.58 7.59 7.65 7.6 8 7.74 7.74 7.82 7.84 7. 84 7.69 7.90 7.55 7.56 7.98 8.01 8.11 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.23 £o 26 8.27 6.28 8.29 8.3 1 8.32 8.36 8.41  ARM :IRC [ MM)  149 154 178 151 184 168 158 169 170 173 160 208 190 193 175 159 160 193 184 188 190 162 170 183 182 203 195 198 182 173 195 186 185 183 187 190 161 178 176 165 189 150 192 160 182 194 169 186 173 160 180 188 215 199 180  UPPER DIAM (MM)  40 43 49 43 50 46 41 45 44 47 44 56 51 51 49 46 46 51 47 53 51 48 49 49 48 55 53 53 45 48 50 50 51 50 50 53 45 48 49 45 49 54 50 45 50 52 47 48 48 42 51 52 59 55 49  ARM MUSCLE CIRC AREA ( M M ) (MM**2)  126 136 156 136 159 147 130 141 138 148 139 177 161 160 156 144 146 161 149 167 161 151 156 156 153 173 169 167 144 153 157 159 161 157 157 169 142 152 155 142 156 170 159 143 158 165 148 152 151 134 161 166 186 174 154  1256 1452 1885 1452 1963 1661 1320 1550 1520 1734 1520 2463 2042 2042 1885 1661 1661 2042 1724 2206 2042 1809 1885 1885 1809 2375 2206 2206 1550 1809 1963 1963 2042 1963 1563 2206 1590 1809 1885 1590 1865 2250 1963 1550 1963 2123 1734 1809 1809 1385 2042 2123 2733 2375 1885  HEAO CIRC (CM)  47.3 51.7 50.1 50.7 51.8 46.3 47.3 50. 5 50.1 4 7.6 49.1 51.6 51.8 50.8 51.3 48.9 49.8 50.6 50. 5 50.3 50.5 49.0 48.6 50.9 51.5 55.8 51.8 52.0 51.0 50.1 51.6 51.5 50.4 49.9 50.0 51.4 47.8 51.3 50.3 49.8 51.2 52.5  51.5  49.4 51.6 52.0 50.6 50.7 50.3 51.0 50.4 52.3 52.0 50.4 47.6  134  CODE NUMBER  675 164 241 236 505 254 271 285 176 683 165 505 681 282 28 499 161 604 20 41 25 296 273 188 311 304 495 242 167 277 291 252 179 48 292 191 315 516 290 23 313 289 684 6 07 497 300 512 494 298 496 498 685 26 308 5 03  RES- R SI- SEX AGE ARM ERVE D NCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 45 55 28 11 15 41 88 5 51 25 60 32 34 68 56 57 55 14 38 72 23 41 3 12 43 5 42 5 38 3 10 10 39 23 10 38 11 50 3 53 71 11 34 14 32 3 75 21 3 59 50 34 56 5 52  10 01 02 02 03 02 02 02 10 10 01 03 10 02 00 03 01 04 00 GO CO 02 02 01 02 02 03 02 01 02 02 02 01 GO 02 01 02 03 02 CO 02 02 10 04 03 02 03 03 02 03 03 10 CO 02 03  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  8.42 8.43 8.47 €.53 8.62 8 .66 8.67 8.67 8.68 e.7o  8.71 8.74 8.75 8.80 8.53 €.57 8.99 5.02 9.03 9.07 5.0 8 9.12 5.17 9.19 9.19 9.25 9.26 9.30 9.31 9.31 9.41 5.43 9.45 5.47 9.4 8 9.56 9.56 9.60 9.60 9.76 9.77 9.82 9.83 9.83 9.89 9.92 9.55 5.56 9.97 10.02 10.03 10.06 10oC.£ 10.17 10.1.7  196 180 183 175 185 170 207 194 169 165 173 175 188 173 194 190 179 208 222 238 195 192 194 187 185 194 208 166 195 168 205 170 212 240 183 240 170 200 187 198 210 190 197 192 195 180 215 202 187 197 180 195 212 210 223  HEAD 135 UPPER ARM MUSCLE CIRC DIAM CIRC AREA (MM) (MM) (MM#*2) (CM) 54 50 52 49 52 48 56 52 47 44 48 46 54 51 53 50 49 56 59 63 53 51 55 53 51 54 55 46 54 47 58 48 55 68 50 61 47 52 50 53 55 55 53 54 53 48 59 53 52 55 48 50 59 57 58  170 158 163 155 163 151 177 166 149 140 151 146 170 160 168 159 156 176 187 200 167 161 173 168 162 171 175 147 169 150 182 153 173 214 159 193 149 i64 159 166 175 175 168 170 167 151 187 168 165 173 152 160 185 181 185  2290 50.0 1963 49.0 52.6 2123 1885 50.9 52.2 2123 1809 50.5 2463 52.6 2123 49.3 1734 49.3 1520 50.8 51.4 1809 1661 52.0 52.2 2290 2042 51.3 2206 52.8 1963 53.8 51.2 1885 51.5 2463 53. 5 2733 53.4 3117 22 06 50.9 2042 50.9 2375 51.4 2206 53.8 2042 52.8 2290 50.4 2375 53.2 50.1 1661 54.0 2290 1734 48.3 51.1 2642 47.8 1809 52.5 2375 50.4 3631 52.8 1963 54.5 2922 52.3 1734 53.1 2123 50.5 1963 51.0 2206 53.6 237 5 52.0 2375 52.8 2206 51.7 2290 52.5 2206 51.7 1809 52.0 2733 53.2 2206 51.5 2123 52.3 23 75 50.8 1809 52.0 1963 54.9 2733 52.8 2551 52.9 2642  CODE IMBER  606 295 690 22 486 1 505 183 288 513 186 178 692 605 293 4 287 490 48 5 314 599 491 299 691 294 307 343 306 510 301 18 514 508 312 687 602 7 492 689 333 608 305 12 5 303 533 310 309 686 16 531 194 187 181 688  RES- RESI- SEX AGE ERVE DENCE (YPS)  69 41 7 23 1  65 16 38 5 73 12 62 22 67 28 56 5 8 74 71 70 33 11 34 10 10 3  41 75 71 62 64 59 68 7 14 62 13 45 5 30 5 65 62 28 57 58 68 34 38 16 60 12 56 34  C4 02 10 00 03 00 03 01 02 03 01 01 10 04 02 00 G2 03 03 02 04 03 02 10 02 02 02 G2 03 02 00 03 03 02 10 04 00 03 10 02 04 02 00 CC 02 03 02 02 10 00 03 01 Gl 01 10  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  10.21 10.26 10.27 10.25 10.30 10.37  10.43 10.44 10.44 10.52 10.52 10.55 10.56 10.56 10.58 10.59 1C.62 10.69 10.7.0  10.80 10.80 10.84 10.89 10.54 11.0.0  11. 08 11.12 11.13 11..1.6  11.19 11.2.0  11.27 11.28 11.25 11.32 11.32 11.33 11.33  11.35 11.41  11.42 11.51 11.54 11.54 11.55 11.61  11.62 11.72 11.73  11. 73 11.75 11.77 11.81 11.83 11.8.7  ARM ;IRC MM)  183 192 193 183 197 212 193 196 177 215 192 206 231 221 179 205 183 191 201 184 214 213 208 274 157 174 196 197 213 183 205 215 206 154 211 189 237 196 210 193 214 200 235 215 213 200 211 199 197 265 200 224 179 210 198  UPPER ARM MUSCLE AREA Dl AM C I R C i MM) (MM**2) (MM)  51 52 53 52 53 57 55 55 50 60 54 57 63 61 49 57 51 53 54 50 61 57 56 71 56 50 53 54 57 51 58 58 58 55 57 54 65 55 56 56 61 55 62 61 59 56 60 57 57 68 56 57 50 59 55  162 163 168 163 168 179 175 174 159 191 170 180 199 194 156 180 162 169 170 157 192 181 178 2 24 178 158 168 170 179 161 183 182 184 173 181 170 207 174 178 176 192 174 195 194 185 176 190 179 180 215 176 181 158 187 173  2042 2123 2206 2123 2206 2551 2375 2375 1963 2827 2290 2551 3117 2922 1885 2551 2042 2206 2250 1963 25 22 2551 2463 35 59 2463 1563 2206 2250 2551 2042 2642 2642 2642 2375 25 51 2250 3318 2375 2463 2463 2922 23 75 3019 2922 2733 2463 2827 2551 2551 3631 2463 25 51 1963 2733 23 75  HEAD CIRC (CM)  49.9 51«4 54,0 50.6 51.8 54.5 51.1 51.7 50.3 52.0 50.2 50.8 55.3 55.3 5 0.7 52.8 51.8 51.1 52.3 50.3. 53.8 53.8 51.8 56.6 52.4 45. 2 52.7 52.6 50.8 51.0 53.5 54.0 52.8 51.7 .51.7 52.2 52.6 52.7 53.2 53.7 55.8 52.2 54.0 52.8 54.0 52.6 52.1 53.0 53.0 56.8 54.3 54.8 51.4 54.7 54.2  136  CODE NUMBER  526 532 517 603 515 297 318 190 601 319 302 600 189 3 518 729 717 15 722 177 623 33 0 184 326 17 493 619 2 523 19 339 618 520 335 528 195 320 331 334 611 325 153 727 11 316 525 180 9 507 6 328 217 720 715 317  RES- R SI- SEX AGE ARM (YRS) CIRC ERVE 0 NCE (MM) 57 8 38 70 21 c 10 38 42 15 41 30 38 62 74 34 34 38 7 60 14 3 24 5 62 57 69 38 57 65 3 30 38 28 73 20 10 3 5 37 5 60 34 62 3 50 77 38 8 88 28 23 22 34 43  03 03 C3 04 03 02  02 01 04 02 02 04 01  00 03 10 10 CC 10 CI 04 02 01 02 00 03 04 CC 03 00 02 04 03 02 03 01 02 02 C2 04 C2 01 10 CC 02 03 01 CC 03 GO 02 01 10 10 C2  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  11.87 11.89 11.94 11.58 12.01  12.02 12.04 12.07 12.09 12.12 12.16 1-2.1.8  12.20 12.23 12.31 12.35 12.50 12.54 12.55 12.57 12.61 12.62 12.67 12.70 12.77 12.78 12.79 12.83 12.84 12.8.5  12.87 12.87 12.88 12.90 12.52 12.56 12.58 12.58 12.58 13.01 13.02 13.04 13.0.7  13,12 13.13 13.19 13.19 12.2 2 13.2 2 13.23 13,24 13.28 12.25 13.32 13.34  247 211 218 210 192 186 216 225 217 214 249 186 208 219 223 236 225 220 206 228 227 217 248 240 268 238 234 222 252 225 150 235 223 2C4 227 203 236 218 188 230 190 216 208 230 178 202 222 227 257 203 238 233 244 212 192  HEAD CIRC ( M M * * 2 ) (CN)  UPPER ARM MUSCLE DIAM CIRC AREA (MM)  (MM)  70 57 60 60 55 55 62 61 57 56 73 53 58 60 60 65 62 62 56 62 62 60 68 68 71 65 62 61 69 63 52 64 62 59 61 54 68 60 51 64 53 60 56 64 50 57 62 62 64 58 65 61 66 58 55  221 181 190 191 173 174 197 192 180 177 230 168 183 188 191 204 197 196 177 195 196 190 214 214 224 204 196 193 217 200 165 202 195 186 194 172 214 188 161 202 169 190 178 202 159 180 195 197 203 183 207 191 209 184 175  3848 2551 2827 2 827 2375 2375 3019 2922 2551 2463 4185 2206 2642 2827 2827 3318 3019 3019 2463 3019 3019 2827 3631 3631 3959 3318 3019 2922 3739 3117 2123 3216 3019 2733 2922 2290 3631 2827 2042 3216 2206 2827 2463 3216 1963 2551 3019 3019 3216 2642 3318 2922 3421 2642 2375  55.0 54.8 55.5 54.1  54.2 50.4 52.8 56.3 52,6 53. 8 53.2 52,8 53.6 54.0 53.3 56.6 55.0 52.9 54.6 54.3 53.9 53,7 55,5 54.9 54,2 55.3 53.3 53.1 55.5 53.5 54.7 57.0  56.8 54.8 55,3 5-1.0.  8 56.0 53.6 53.9 50.9 55.5 53.8 54,1 50.4 52.6 54.7 53. 2 56.9 50.6 56.4 53.5 55.0 54.2 55.4 54.  137  CODE IMBER  527 617 224 621 524 222 730 530 346 182 14 341 716 243 583 213 529 321 72 2 210 329 368 192 13 357 613 337 625 225 579 327 372 353 522 350 235 363 574 10 355 201 610 367 205 719 234 615 345 352 338 354 332 228 8 340  RES- RESI- SEX ACE ARM ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC I MM) 33 70 11 67 50 63 34 13 73 35 6 68 34 68 74 18 21 28 34 18 11 3 60 65 5 70 3 69 60 44 41 68 71 21 68 24 11 1 62 4 18 70 3 9 25 18 70 41 5 11 5 10 62 23 68  03 04 02 04 03 02 10 03 02 01 00 02 10 02 03 01 03 02 10 01 02 02 01 00 02 04 02 04 01 03 02 02 02 03 02 01 02 03 00 02 01 04 02 01 10 01 04 02 02 02 02 02 01 CO 02  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  13,35 13,40 13 .41 12.46 13.46 13.46 12.48 13.51 13.51 12.54 13.58 12.59 12.62 13.62 13.69 13.69 13.74 13.79 13.80 12.81 13.83 13.85 13.89 13.90 13.91 13.57 14.01 14.03 14.03 14.05 14.06 14.06 14.09 14.12 14.17 14.18 14.20 14.25 14.26 14.26 14.29 14.30 14.30 14.32 14.35 14.41 14.46 14.46 14.48 14.51 14.52 14.52 14.55 14.56 14.58  226 246 200 233 2 53 192 206 271 236 233' 240 208 262 213 230 240 222 221 225 245 250 224 218 265 220 228 215 231 228 230 228 220 208 226 186 223 233 275 230 236 234 230 206 235 230 226 223 230 210 227 207 256 245 248 210  HEAD UPPER ARM MUSCLE AREA CIRC CI AM CIRC (MM) (MH**2) (CM) (MM) 63 63 56 64 65 55 55 74 67 60 63 58 68 57 62 66 61 60 61 63 66 60 60 71 63 65 58 64 61 63 63 60 56 60 53 62 63 69 65 63 63 62 57 65 63 60 63 66 59 64 59 73 67 69 58  198 198 176 202 207 174 174 233 210 191 199 182 216 181 197 209 193 188 192 • 199 208 189 190 2 24 198 206 183 203 193 199 198 189 176 191 168 195 200 217 205 198 199 194 181 205 200 189 198 207 187 201 187 231 213 219 183  3117 3117 2463 3216 3318 2375 2375 4300 3525 2827 3117 2642 3631 2551 3019 3421 2922 2827 25 22 3117 3421 2827 2827 3959 3117 3318 2642 3216 2922 3117 3117 2827 2463 2827 2206 3019 3117 3739 3318 3117 3117 3019 2551 3318 3117 2827 3117 3421 2733 3216 2733 4185 . 3525 3739 2642  54.2 54.6 55,0 56.0 56.7 53.6 54.1 56.3 55.2 52.5 52.8 54.8 57.0 52.4 56.6 58.3 54.7 53.9 5 5.2 55.3 57.4 54.7 54.8 54.2 54.5 54,9 54.9 53.7 53.2 54.9 55.4 56.9 53.8 54.8 52.5 55.0 56.2 57,2 53.7 56.8 52.9 56.1 54.2 54.6 53.0 53.0 52.9 55.7 54.0 54.8 53.3 53.1 53,3 53.5 54.7  CODE IMBER  RESERVE  RESIDENCE  s e x  •  185 718 £20 580 521 724 200 222 622 624 232 351 216 22 0 336 212 344 173 207 728 206 202 175 348 £81 609 174 229 366 577 575 198 359 349 226 616 371 72 6 224 347 614 365 219 223 358 731 360 626 5 78 519 365 3 56 362 230 214  60 22 70 21 50 34 39 40 69 69 60 11 55 12 15 49 3 20 40 58 9 38 60 41 6 36 24 38 73 19 16 23 10 68 60 42 5 34 60 5 70 11 60 60 11 34 5 70 57 21 5 5 43 60 27  01 10 04 03 03 10 01  01 04 04 01 02 01 01 02 01 02 01 01 10 01 01 10 02 03 04 01 01 02 03 03 01 C2 02 01 04 02 10 CI 02 04 02 01 01 02 10 02 04 03 03 02 02 02 01 01  AGE (YRS)  ARM CIRC (MM)  223 F 14.60 14.61 266 F F 14.65 243 F 14.65 243 F 14.73 223 F 14.76 275 F 14. 82 246 F 14.89 , 267 F 14.50 242 246 F 14.90 F 14.91 250 236 F 14.52 F 14.97 255 F 14.57 221 F 15.02 220 278 F 15.03 266 F 15.C5 240 F 15.0.6 F 15.10 247 214 F 15.12 F 15.1.5 259 F 15.18 248 233 F -1 5 . 3 4 250 F 15.35 269 F 15.35 F 15.40 253 234 F 15.45 236 F 15.45 256 F 15.4.7 F 15.55 257 236 F 15.55 277 F 15.57 250 F 15.61 F 15.61 239 260 F 15.61 F 15.65 230 F 15.70 207 F 15.7.4 202 235 F 15.7.4 228 F 15.79 F 15.81 263 240 F 15.84 250 F 15.8.8 F 15.51 245 F 16.00 238 232 F 16.03 273 F 16.04 F 16.05 252 F 16.05 220 225 16.10 F 1 6 . 1 . 4 . 238 240 F 16,1.4 F 16.15 266 226 F 16.18 240 F 16.18 F  UPPER D I AM (MM)  56 70 66 67 61 69 66 71 65 64 65 64 64 61 62 70 69 63 65 58 73 67 62 62 71 68 61 61 68 65 67 73 67 66 69 62 60 57 61 65 73 66 66 66 65 62 70 71 60 61 68 68 74 62 67  ARM M U S C L E AREA CIRC (MM) (MM**2)  179 220 208 213 154 . 217 207 225 206 203 207 201 203 192 194 220 216 199 204 185 231 211 196 197 223 216 191 193 214 205 211 232 211 207 217 195 188 181 194 204 229 210 208 210 205 156 222 223 183 192 216 214 232 196 212  2463 3848 3421 3525 2922 3739 3421 3959 3318 3216 3318 3216 3216 2922 3019 3848 3739 3117 3318 2642 4185 3525 3019 3019 3959 3631 29 22 2922 3631 3318 3525 4185 3525 3421 3 739 3019 2 827 2551 2922 3318 4185 3421 3421 3421 3318 3015 3848 3959 2827 2922 3631 3631 4300 3019 3525  HEAD CIRC (CM)  54.5 55.7 55,6 53.9 53.9 57.1 53.8 58.2 53.0 55.0 56.6 56.2 55.2 56.4 55.2 56.3 57,1 56.0 55.7 55.2 55.0 54,2 57.0 56.7 56.0 55. 5 55.5 56.6 56.8 55.4 55.0 55.5 52.4 55.1 56.5 55.0 53. 6 54,6 55,9 53,8 55*7  56.8 54.8 55.2 54.2 54.0 55.5 52.6 55.1  55.8 54.4 52.6 55.3 57.0 52.6  CODE IMBER  203 221 725 233 218 37C 231 215 227 21 364 576 197 612 361 208 584 721 209  RES- RESI- SEX ERVE DENCE  38 20 34 18 56 76 60 18 39 23 68 57 65 70 28 56 33 25 12  01 01 10 01 01 02 01 01 01 00 02 03 01 04 02 01 03 10 01  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F  AGE ARM (YRS) CIRC (MM) 16,22 16,23 16,24 16,30 16.33 16.38 16.35 16.47 16.47 16.52 16.57 16.55 16.71 16.78 16. 85 16.89 16.51 16.93 16.93  256 202 233 267 265 236 253 283 265 267 243 244 270 271 263 246 252 246 258  HEAD UPPER ARM MUSCLE AREA CIRC DI AM CIRC (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 68 55 57 71 73 65 68 74 75 74 69 63 67 67 71 67 68 67 71  216 175 182 223 230 207 214 235 237 234 218 199 211 212 225 213 215 212 223  3631 2375 2551 3959 4185 3318 3631 4300 4417 4300 3739 3117 3525 3525 3959 3525 3631 3525 39 59  56.1 54.2 53.6 58.6 56.3 54.8 56.2 58.4 55.4 53.3 53.9 53.0 55.0 55.0 55.2 56,6 55.3 56.1 55.9  

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