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Growth of British Columbian native Indian children as assessed from anthropometric measurements Rabeneck, Sonya 1976-02-08

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GROWTH OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN AS ASSESSED FROM ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS by SONYA RABENECK B.Sc, University of British Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Division of HUMAN NUTRITION SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date M^M. S i l°!^>-i ABSTRACT A cross-sectional growth study was designed to obtain information on the growth patterns of British Columbian Na tive Indian children. The object of the study was to esta blish whether growth patterns of B.C. Native Indian children living in student residences correspond to those of non-Indian reference children. The study sample consisted of all children 6 to 17 years attending the six student resi dences administered by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. The total sample size was 734 children, represent ing 77 reserves in the province. Standing height, sitting height, weight, arm circumference, four skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, biceps and suprailiac), and head cir cumference were measured according to the recommendations of the International Biological Program (Weiner and' Lourie, 1969). Arm muscle diameter, circumference and area were de rived according to the method of Frisancho (1974). Indivi dual findings were plotted, as scatter diagrams against stan dard reference curves, data for which was obtained from Caucasian children. Results indicate a considerable growth deficit in standing and sitting height in younger children which ap pears to be somewhat corrected by adolescence. Weight measurements, although falling predominantly below the Iowa mean, generally reflect adequate gain with age. Arm measure ments indicate well maintained musculature throughout the age-range studied, with relatively low degrees of triceps adipose tissue. Head circumference displays an initial de ficit in younger children which is largely corrected by adol scence. It was concluded that protein nutritional status of B.C. Native Indian children living in student residences may be relatively better than calorie nutritional status. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my research director Dr. Melvin Lee, I extend my sincere thanks for his guidance, and encouragement so gener ously offered throughout the course of this project. In addition, I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. K. Damji and to Dr. B. Alfred for their help in the preparation of this thesis. I would especially like to thank Mr. Edward R. Powell for his very kind help in developing computer pro grams for the data analysis. I am grateful to the Medical Services Branch (Pacific Region) of the Department of National Health and Welfare, and to the administrators and staff of the six residential schools visited, for their assistance and cooperation in the data collection. Finally, I would like to thank the children who participated in this study; without their enthusiasm and cheerful cooperation, my thesis could not have been accom plished. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii LIST OF FIGURES V Chapter I REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1 Anthropometric ParametersAssessment of Native Indian Populations 13 1. U.S. Native Indians 12. Canadian Native Indians 18 II INTRODUCTION 2 3 III MATERIALS AND METHODS 29 IV RESULTS 34 V DISCUSSION 65 VI SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 APPENDICES Legends to Appendices 92 A Standing height, sitting height, sitting height/ standing height ratio and weight (sorted accord ing to sex and age) 96 B Skinfold thicknesses (sorted according to sex and age) Ill C Arm circumference, upper arm muscle dimensions and head circumference (sorted according to sex and age) 126 V LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1-1 Standing height of males 45 1-2 Standing height of females 6 II-l Sitting height of males 47 II-2 Sitting height of females 8 III-l Weight of males 49 III-2 Weight of females 50 IV-1 Triceps skinfold thickness of males 51 IV-2 Triceps skinfold thickness of females 52 IV-3 Subscapular skinfold thickness of males 53 IV-4 Subscapular skinfold thickness of females 54 V-l Arm circumference of males 55 V-2 Arm circumference of females 6 V3T-1 Upper arm muscle diameter of males 57 VI-2 Upper arm muscle diameter of females 58 VI-3 Upper arm muscle circumference of males . 59 VI-4 Upper arm muscle circumference of females 60 VI-5 Upper arm muscle area of males 61. VI-6 Upper arm muscle area of females 62 VII-1 Head circumference of males 63 VII-2 Head circumference of females 4 1 CHAPTER I REVIEW OF LITERATURE Anthropometric Parameters Nutritional anthropometry deals with the measure ment of body composition and dimension, at different levels of nutritional status, from birth to adulthood. It is well accepted that growth and therefore potential body size are largely determined by genetic factors, however, a number of environmental influences are seen to act upon this po tential for growth. Among these is nutrition. Retarda tion of growth and development is one of the consequences of nutritional deprivation, while altered growth patterns are observed in the overnourished. Thus, anthropometric measurements are a valuable tool in the assessment of growth and development and reflect adequacy of the nutri tional state. Anthropometric techniques are widely used in the assessment of growth and development of both the indivi dual, and of groups of individuals. Alterations of body size and composition during the growth period of an in dividual can be assessed by serial measurement of one or more parameters (allowing conclusions to be drawn about 2 the rate of growth) or by single measurement of attained dimension which is subsequently compared with standard values. Two important points are well recognized in the interpretation of such information, as stressed by Falkner (1962). First, standard curves, by nature of their con struction, do not show the individual patterns of each child, and are therefore presented as smooth curves with few dramatic changes. In comparison, the growth chart of an individual child will display some irregularities while the child is growing normally. Second, although the range of average limits (or distribution of percentile curves) gives points within which we can expect thewraeasurements of a healthy individual to fall, there is no well defined criterion for abnormal growth of the individual. Thus, while a child's measurements falling outside established limits provides some value in assessing his progress, in terpretation of the adequacy of growth is to be made with caution. In the assessment of growth and development of a group of individuals, although the parameters measured and techniques employed are similar to those in individual assessment, conclusions regarding growth status are made in other ways. In group analysis, information can be ob tained on the generalggrowth trends of the group which mean values are compared statistically with means of a well-nourished population. Thus, for example, mean height values 3 for a group of individuals might indicate generally taller or shorter stature, at certain ages or throughout the growth period, as compared with the mean height values of reference children. In addition, information relevant to the proportion of individuals within the sample who show inadequate growth status can be obtained. Findings of this nature can then be interpreted in the light of in formation regarding certain nutritional factors known to affect the study sample. Although numerous anthropometric measurements are recognized, certain of them are recommended as being of particular value in the assessment of growth and develop ment of a population. Growth in linear dimension is com monly measured by standing height and sitting height. Measurement of sitting height allows determination of the relative contribution of head and trunk to total stature, through determination of the sitting height/standing height ratio. Measurement of weight provides information on the total body mass, although this is a gross measure of size. More specific information can be obtained on the growth of various regions of the body. Arm circumference and head circumference measurements are widely used for this purpose, while measurement of chest circumference is considered important for preschool children. Changes in specific body compartments during growth can also be ob tained with anthropometric techniques. Skinfold measurements 4 in certain well defined regions of the body provide informa tion regarding deposition of subcutaneous adipose tissue; while arm muscle diameter, circumference and area (arith metically derived from triceps skinfold and arm circumfer ence measurements) provide useful information on growth of upper arm muscle. 1. Standing height and sitting height. In part, because it is growth cumulative and in part, because the measuring error is relatively small, Garn (1973) considers the simple measurement of standing height "a more sensitive group indicator of nutritional status during the growing period than anything we conveniently measure in the serum or recover from the urine." This author considers stand ing height, or recumbent length in the infant to be the most frequently measured parameter of body size during the growing period. It is well documented that children from well nourished populations stand consistently taller than children from poorly nourished groups, and that boys and girls of the middle and upper socioeconomic classes are taller than those of the lower classes. This has been shown for populations from Nigeria (Rea, 1971; Janes, 1974), Ethiopia (Ekmyr, 1970), Costa Rica (Villarejos et al., 1971), Tunisia (Lowenstein and O'Connell, 1974), Iran (Amirhakimi, 1974), Guatemala (Johnston et al., 1973), Turkey (Neyzi et al./ 1973), and Nepal (Farquharson, 1976). Thus in developing countries, where the children of the 5 highest socioeconomic group are less likely to be burdened with severe nutritional deficiencies, the stresses of dis ease (Scrimshaw et al., 1968), and of other detrimental social conditions (Christiansen et al., 1975), •ygrowth in height is greater than in less advantaged children. Data from developed countries show that stature is similarly related to economic level. The Ten State Nutri tion Survey (1968-1970) revealed that mean heights for white children and adolescents were greater for the high-income -ratio group than for the low-income-ratio group. This was observed within various subsamples though at some what different levels for blacks, whites and Meso-Americans. Similarly, Owen et al. (1974), in the Preschool Nutritional Status Survey, reports that height expressed in terms of age- and sex-specific Z-scores, increases over the four Warner Ranks used to categorize socioeconomic status. Fur ther, Jose and Welsh (1970) have reported that among pre school Australian children, those of high socioeconomic status have greater mean heights than those of the low socioeconomic group. Social class differences in height have also been established for English children. Goldstein (1971) reported a difference in height for both sexes, bet ween the highest and lowest social class, of 1.3 cm (fa voring the advantaged child) for 7 year olds after allow ing for the effects of parity, mother's height and number of siblings. The authors state that this difference reflects 6 other influences related to social class. Height measurements generally show less variability than do some other anthropometric parameters when taken on a group of individuals. Gwynn and Sanjur (1974) have shown that standing height measurement of malnourished Colombian children display much smaller deviations from standard values of reference children than do other para meters measured. As stated by the authors, the self-evident explanation for this may be that height, once gained cannot be lost, while the opposite is true for other anthro pometric parameters such as weight. Thus standing height measurement can be considered a less discriminating para meter for the assessment of growth, although low height for age, coincident with normal weight for height, has been used as a dependable indicator of past chronic protein-calorie malnutrition (Seone and Latham, 1971). Body proportion, as determined by the relative contribution of sitting height to stature and by sexual dimorphism in stature in poorly nourished groups, however, displays little difference from that of well-fed populations. Stini (1972) has shown, in a comparison of data on various populations living in a wide range of environments, that these body proportions are relatively constant among the groups. The authors state that this is due to differential growth rates in males and.females; males growing more slowly but for a longer period of time under stress. Thus, 7 in a protein-deficient Colombian population cross-sectional data indicate that a delay in skeletal maturation in males far exceeded that observed in females (Stini, 1969). Des pite its lack of variability, measurement of sitting height among .groups of individuals allows further descrip tion of physique during the growing period, and is valuable in group assessment. 2. Body weight. Growth and development during child hood and adolescence is reflected in a systematic and char acteristic gain in body weight, which is well correlated to dimensional changes throughout the body (Tanner, 1962). On an individual basis a serial weight record gives the earliest objective evidence of malnutrition (Church and Stanfield, 1971) and the child's weight graph has been demonstrated to be a most useful aid in children's clinics in. developing countries (Cole-King, 1975; Yankauer, 1975). In group assess ment, measurement of body weight is an indispensable para meter of anthropometry. According to Jelliffe (1967), weight measurements in poorly nourished groups should be combined with clinical examination or with other appropriate measurements. Body weight when considered in relation to the expected weight for height, provides a means of assess ing the degree of harmony between these two measurements. Addy (1970) has shown that weight-for-height is less affec ted than weight-for-age and may probably be a better indi cator of the actual nutritional process occurring in the 8 child. Alternatively, they may be reflecting different stages of the nutritional state since there is a low degree of correlation between these two measurements in malnourished children (Dugdale et al., 1970; Gwynn and Sanjur, 1974). It is known that body weight is vulnerable to nutri tional insult of both short and long duration, and is af fected in states of disease, such as infection (Cravioto et al., 1967). This effect is due in part to inhibition of nutrient utilization, enhanced tissue breakdown or a combi nation of both. Despite this apparent lability of body weight, however, Sohar et al. (1973) have shown, in a study sample of 404 children in Tel Aviv, that there is a high degree of correlation between body weight of each child at age 6 to 7 and at age 13 to 14; a correlation which exists for both obese and nonobese children. Similarly, the per sistence of excess body weight from infancy to adulthood has been emphasized (Mullins, 1958; Eid, 1970). Thus, body weight measurement, as a tool in the assessment of growth, provides a composite index of a population, reflecting both the current nutritional status and the general pattern-of weight accruement. 3. Skinfold thickness. Since various components of the human body respond differentially to nutritional adequacy or deprivation during growth and development,, anthropometric measurements more specific in nature are of value in the assessment of these processes. The measurement of skinfold 9 thickness is based on the assumption that increased subcu taneous fat, due either to low energy expenditure or high calorie intake, or to a combination of both, reflects a greater energy reserve. A number of studies have been made of the correlation between skinfold measurements and total body fat as determined by other methods (Hammond, 1955; Brozek and Keys, 1951; Pascale et al., 1956; Hermansen and Dobeln, 1971). These studies show correlations of between 0.50 to 0.98. However, it is stressed by Ward et al. (1975) that one cannot expect to know the actual amount of body fat, as is possible with animal studies, and that one is limited to comparison of methods of prediction. These are useful procedures, however, since in some large populations the prevalence of obesity due to overnutrition is a major concern. Durnin and Rahaman (1967) have shown that the re lationship between body density, and hence body fat, and skinfold thickness is sufficiently uniform to allow con struction of regression equations and tables to calculate percentage of body weight as fat, on this basis. In a fur ther study (Durnin and Womersley, 1974), these workers showed that the.measurement of a single skinfold (triceps) provides predictive power equal to that of four total skin folds. Skinfold measurement in the neonate has further shown to be a useful method for noninvasive investigation of 10 perinatal body composition and nutrition (Brans et al., 1974). Decrease in the proportion of body weight attri butable to water, and fat deposition in subcutaneous and internal body stores are seen to be normal changes in body composition during fetal life. Further, lower fat stores and expansion of all body water compartments result from intrauterine growth retardation. This has allowed the sug gestion, by these authors, that skinfold thickness measure ment recorded at various times after application (with changes noted due to compressibility) of the calipers pro vides an estimation of both fat. stores and subcutaneous interstitial water. Children of greater adiposity for their age are both taller and developmentally more advanced than average children (Garn and Haskell, 1960). This is supported by animal experimental studies demonstrating that overnutri-tion brings earlier skeletal maturity and greater dimen sional growth (Hammond, 1954). However, because measure ment of skinfold thickness of children of poorly nourished groups reveals less subcutaneous fat, it has been suggested that evaluation of growth based upon skinfold thickness is less sensitive among such populations. Thus Frisancho and Garn (1971) report that only those children with triceps skinfold below the 5th or above the 95th percentile show systematic differences in standing height in a sample of Guatemalan rural children. In other words, the relationship 11 between degree of adiposity and growth is not linear, and skinfold thickness is not a valuable correlate of growth for studies among these children. This does not appear to be 'due to differences in distribution of fat deposition since the same results were obtained from measurement of subscapular skinfold. Similar data have been reported among children from Costa Rica (Frisancho et al., 1971) and Honduras (Frisancho and Garn, 1971). However, skinfold measurements, particularly those taken at the triceps and subscapular, are considered by Jelliffe (1966) to be of great importance in the assessment of nutritional status of a community. 4. Arm circumference. Measurement of upper arm circumference has received much attention in the literature as being an important tool in anthropometry. Many studies have been made to assess the validity of measuring arm cir cumference as a means of determining the nutritional status of a population, as summarized by Loewenstein and Phillips (1973). Comparing results of arm circumference measurement with clinical evaluation and with other anthropometric para meters (such as weight, weight/age and weight/height), the authors concluded that arm circumference measurement is of value for three purposes: 1) rapid assessment of nutri tional status of a geographic area, 2) screening of a large group for those individuals requiring immediate attention, 3) evaluation of the effectiveness of ongoing programs 12 designed to improve the nutritional status of a group. Similarly, Jelliffe (1969) has stressed its value in iden tification and classification of children with various de grees of protein-calorie malnutrition. Frisancho (1974) has shown that, compared with height and weight, arm circumference shows very little change between ages 1 and 5 years (as indicated by Burgess and Burgess, 1969) and that exact knowledge of chronologi cal age may not be necessary for evaluation of nutritional status based upon this measurement. 5. Arm muscle measurements. Other soft tissues of the body, most notably muscle, display specific changes during nutritional deprivation as well as characteristic patterns during normal growth and development and provide useful measurement in group assessment. Studies by Waterlow and Mendes (1957) show that reduction of body weight in infants on a protein-deficient diet is exceeded by a de crease in muscle mass, as determined through either limb measurement or creatinine output. According to work car ried out on six children hospitalized with kwashiorkor, and then verified in the laboratory rat, Castellanos and Arroyave (1961) have shown that this reduction in muscle size provides amino acids for gluconeogenesis and protein synthesis in the liver. In addition, with nutritional re habilitation the calculated increase in muscle size is significantly correlated with increased urinary-outputs of 13 creatinine, considered the most direct biochemical index of muscle mass (Standard et. al., 1959). Frisancho (1974) provides data showing that muscle size, when expressed as muscle diameter or circumference for children age 1 to 12 years tend to underestimate the mag nitude of tissue growth, compared with trends displayed by increase in muscle area. Further, greater muscularity is related to greater stature and thus arm muscle measurements can be considered an acceptable general index of growth. In summary, nutritional anthropometry provides a useful means of assessing body dimensional changes .of an individual or population during growth and development and during various stages of nutritional adequacy or deprivation. Assessment of Native Indian Populations 1. U.S. Native Indians Although there is an established need for information concerning the adequacy of growth among British Columbian Indian children, and of Canadian Indian children, in general, few studies are available in the literature. More attention has been given Indian groups in the United States, however much of this information is based upon small samples (Vavich et al., 1954; Perkins and Church, 1960) or limited age range (French, 1967; Mayberry and Lindeman, 1963; Wenberg et al., 1965) . Height and weight were measured in a sample of 1,200 14 children between 6 and 11 years of age in the Blackfoot Indian Reservation Nutrition Survey (1964), a study car ried out by the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND). The sample was divided ac cording to sex, and between 31 and 63 children were in each one year group. Heights and weights closely approximated those of Iowa reference children. In the same study, mean heights of 82 preschool boys from the same reserve were compared with Iowa standards for height. Values were con sistently more than one standard deviation below the Iowa mean after age 1. Mean weight fell below the Iowa mean after 6 months of life. Among a sample of 85 preschool girls mean heights and weights were between the Iowa mean and 1 standard deviation below the mean throughout the age range studied. Children from the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (1964) showed similar growth patterns. These data were derived from equal numbers of Gros Ventres and Assini-boin Indian children in north central Montana. The sample was divided according to sex and between 14 and 28 children were measured in each one year group. Average height and weight values were consistently at or above Iowa means for both sexes, with boys of 9 to 11 years tending to weigh more than reference boys. The preschool children, however, showed a marked growth deficit. In a more recent study carried out in 1973 on the Blackfoot Reservation (Nichaman et al., 1975), growth data 15 were obtained from 1,261 children, aged 6 to 17 years. Height-for-age distributions, when compared with Iowa standards, were found to be normal. Weight-for-height, however, was skewed toward the higher percentiles, as was weight-for-age. Utilizing the method of classification of Waterlow (1972), 6.7 percent were found to be retarded in height-for-age while 0.8 percent were acutely malnour ished and a further 11.5 percent of the group were over weight. Owen et a_l. (1972) completed an important growth study of 201 preschool children from 125 families, members of the White Mountain Apache Tribe in Arizona. These authors found that 38 percent of the heights were below the 10th percentile for reference children, although skeletal mat uration was normal, while 3 percent fell above the 90th percentile. Weight measurements revealed 18 percent to be below the 10th percentile while 7 percent were above the 90th percentile for reference children. When compared with Negro preschool children in low-income rural areas of Missis sippi (Owen et al., 1969), the Apache children are seen to be considerably shorter; among the Negro group 24 percent had heights below the 10th percentile. Head circumferences of Apache children, of both sexes, were below average values of reference children of Nellhaus (1968). Comparatively more data are available for Navajo Indian children than for other Indian groups in the United 16 States. This group is now the largest within the boundaries of the United States. Darby et al. (1956) reported average height and weight of school-aged children, compared to a Canadian sample (Pett, 1955) and revealed that Canadians were consistently taller by 3 to 4 inches for children from 10 years of age to late adolescence. Until the age of 10 years there was no significant difference in height between the groups regardless of sex. Comparison of average weight similarly favoured the Canadian child; from 8 years of age onwards the Navajo boys weighed 3 to 22 pounds less than their Canadian counterparts. When expressed as 'percent of standard' using the Baldwin-Wood tables (Bigwood, 1939) for U.S. children, increasing a?ge, for both sexes, was associated with an increasing percentage of subjects less than 90 percent of standard. For males, about 20 percent of the sample were less than 90 percent of standard at 5 years while almost 35 percent were less than 90 percent of standard at 15 years. For females, the proportion less than 90 percent increased from 15 percent of sample at 5 years to about 20 percent at 15 years. A recent study of 944 Navajo children between the ages of 4 and 7 years, on the Head Start program, from all parts of the reservation (Van Duzen e_t al., 1969),revealed that nearly one third of them were below the 3rd percentile of Iowa standards for height, while one tenth were below the 3rd percentile for weight. In all cases, the differences between observed and expected height and weight v/ere stat istically significant (P<0.01). The authors felt that this retardation in growth was the end result of chronic calorie and protein malnutrition, and repeated bacterial and viral infections. Similar findings among preschoolers as well as older children also from the Navajo group were obtained in a study by Reisinger et al. (1972). All age groups for both sexes had a considerable excess of individuals below the 50th percentile for height and weight when compared with National Health Examination Survey standards (Hamill et al., 1970). Thus, 20 percent of boys and 15 percent of girls between 2 and 4 years of age were below the 3rd percentile for weight. For children between 5 and 9 years of age, the percentage of boys and girls below the 3rd percentile for weight was 16 and 11, respectively. The authors comment that although this may represent catch-up growth in that these proportions decrease (no statistical test on these trends was offered), the percent below the 50th percentile does not change sig nificantly. The authors stress that the slower rate of growth and development observed in the Navajo group, as compared with reference children, may be caused wholly or in part by nutritional differences. No other notable studies are available concerning growth patterns of American Indian children, indeed several major nutrition surveys carried out in the United States 18 exclude an Indian subsample. The National Health Examina tion Survey (1967), designed to provide information on the nutritional status of American children, based on a proba bility sample of noninstitutionalized children in the Uni ted States, excluded children living on reservation lands set aside for use of American Indians. This was due to operational problems encountered early in the survey. The Ten State Nutrition Survey (1968-1970), the first compre hensive attempt to assess the nutritional status of Ameri cans, reports no anthropometric measurements taken on In dian children. Similarly, the Health and Nutrition Exam ination Survey (Abraham et al., 1975), part of a program designed to measure the nutritional status of the United States population and to minitor changes in status over time, does not report on findings specific to Indian chil dren. The Preschool Nutrition Survey (Owen et al., 1974) included a total of 159 American Indian preschool children between 1 and 4 years of age, representing 1 percent of overall subjects. Although the authors state that survey sampling was designed to provide a realistic basis for comparisons between subsets of the sample population, meaningful results are not available nor is discussion directed to Indian children on the basis of this inadequat sample size. 2. Canadian Native Indians With respect to Canadian Indian children, there is 19 similar scarcity of information. Studies carried out in central and eastern Canada several decades ago evidenced undesirable growthcpatterns, similar to those already dis cussed for U.S. Indians. Vivian et al. (1948) reported anthropometric measurements of adolescents 10 to 19 years of age in the James Bay area. Between one half, and two thirds of the girls and about one third of the boys in the two bands studied were 10 to 30 pounds underweight for height, as compared with the standards of Pett (1955). The authors suggest that the prevalence of this degree of under weight is indicative of nutritional failure. Among children under 9 years of age, most showed satisfactory growth. How ever, in one band studied (Attawapiskat), 40 percent of girls between 6 and 9 were 6 to 14 pounds lighter than ex pected. In contrast, a later study (Best and Gerrard, 1959) of two Indian groups in Saskatchewan reported heights and weights of 30 boys and 44 girls in relation to those of non-Indian school children in Saskatoon. Results show good agreement between Indian and non-Indian children. More recent research begun in 1972 (Coodin et al., 1975) reports on the growth of infants and preschool child ren in two isolated Indian communities in northern Manitoba; Cross Lake Reserve and Gardin Hill Reserves. Heights com pared well with Iowa standards, with weights generally greater than those of reference children. Mean head 20 circumferences closely approximated the standards of Nell-haus (1968). Regarding British Columbian Indian children, anthro pometric measurements were carried out at two Indian Re serves, Ahousat and Anaham, as part of a comprehensive nu tritional status assessment of these two groups (Birkbeck et al., 1971). Standing and sitting height, weight, head circumference, arm circumference and triceps"skinfold thick ness were measured. Standing height displayed a lag at 2 years when compared with Iowa standards and with a non-Indian group from the Vancouver area. This growth deficit was greater for the Anaham population than for the Ahousat group, although the Anaham females showed a catch-up growth effect subsequent to an initial height of significantly less than standard. (This being a cross-sectional study, catch-up growth could not be demonstrated although differences among age groups were clear;) The authors stress that insufficient data were obtained for the two periods of most rapid growth, namely infancy and adolescence, to permit speculation on the meaning of the findings. Sitting height measurements, when compared with stan dards of Simmons (1944) showed a deficit at both reserves until age 10. A catch-up growth phase was again observed; despite this, however, the Anaham group failed to reach standard throughout childhood. 21 Body weight measurement showed that both males and females from Ahousat compare well with standards throughout childhood and into adolescence, although females from Anaham fall in the lower percentiles of standard. Head circumference of children when compared with standards of Watson and Lowry (1967), revealed all children from Ahousat to be within standard range, while younger females in the Anaham group were below standard. This was corrected, how ever, by later childhood. Arm circumference showed a close correlation with body mass although no comment was offered of its adequacy with reference to standards in either group sampled. Triceps skinfold thickness measurements among children showed an adequate subcutaneous fat layer when compared with the standards of Tanner and Whitehouse (1962). The authors stress caution in ascribing these growth patterns to nutritional differences between the two groups studied, although the generally better trends displayed by Ahousat children were coincident with superior diet (Lee et al., 1971). Additional anthropometric data were obtained from Indian children at Fort St. John and at two communities in the Yukon Territory by the same authors (Lee, 1975). Child ren in all three areas fell in the lower percentiles of standard and tended to show increasing deficit in weight for age, as compared with standards. At the three loca tions studied, head circumference and other anthropometric 22 parameters were similar to those for reference children. No other growth data v are available for Canadian, and more specifically, British Columbian Indian children. Al though anthropometric measurements were collected on Indian children by the Nutrition Canada;'Survey (1973), these data are, as yet, unavailable. , 23 CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION The Native Indian population of British Columbia, consisting of about 52,000 people (Canada, 1971a) is char acterized in several important ways as being a group whose need for public health education and need for health ser vices in general is greater than that of the provincial population as a whole. This is supported by demographic and social characteristics, as well as cultural and-health patterns of the Native Indians in this province, as will be discussed. Although the demographic data for B.C. Native In dians, as for Canadian Indians generally, is somewhat in adequate, estimates of vital statistics reflect a situation distinctly different from that of the non-Indian population of B.C. and of Canada (Piche and George, 1973). The infant mortality rate for B.C. Indians is very high, and despite a substantial reduction in recent years, is still more than twice that of the total Canadian population. Indeed, infant mortality rates for B.C. Indians are higher than those for any other provincial Indian groups, with the exception of the Yukon and North West Territories. The birth rate of 24 B.C. Indians, although displaying a decline in recent years, in keeping with the Canadian.population as a whole, is re latively high: 35.4 per 1000 population in 1970 as compared to an all-Canada rate of 17.4. Mortality rates among B.C. Indians, although declin ing, are the highest of all provincial Indian groups, which are in turn higher than the Canadian population as a whole. With a declining mortality rate and relatively high birth rate, the Indian population in Canada is increasing rapidly (3.0 percent in 1970;as compared with 1.0 percent for the general Canadian population). The rate of annual increase for B.C. Indians is 2.7 percent. Thus the Canadian Indian population and the B.C. Indian group are in demographic transition. Further, the proportion of total B.C. Indians under the age of 14 is much greater than that for the general provincial population: census data show this sta tistic /to be 47 percent and 13.8 percent respectively (Canada, 1971b). The Indian population of B.C. therefore displays demographic characteristics of a developing nation. Other^ factors have some bearing on the need for community health and education services. There is an in creasing rate of migration from reserves to urban areas, with accompanying changes in style of life. Although there is, admittedly, difficulty in assessing health related pro blems consequent to this shift, successful adaptation to the stresses of city living is clearly dependent upon adequate 25 health education services. Also, with continued rapid ex pansion of the transportation and communication systems throughout the province? bringing Indians on reserve lands into close contact with the non-Indian population, the Native Indians have specific educational requirements in order to meet these changes. Among those aspects of health education that are of particular importance to Native Indians is that of nutri tion, insofar as improvement of dietary patterns is amenable to education and public health programs. Given that sound programming is dependent upon adequate data pertaining to the health status of a group, it is essential that specific and appropriate information be available as a basis for such planning. Relatively little information is available on the nutritional status of B.C. Native Indians, indeed such is the case for the Canadian and North American Indian in gen eral. The Nutrition Canada Survey (1973) reports on the nutritional status of Canadian Indians on the basis of dietary, biochemical and clinical evaluation. Generally, results confirm that the nutritional status of Canadian Indians is inferior to that of the general population. Thus, vitamin C status of Native Indian infants and children from remote areas was less satisfactory than for the gen eral population as a whole. Poor vitamin A status, inade quate calcium intake, low iron reserves and poor urinary 26 riboflavin values were also found among this age group. Among adolescents, caloric intakes for Indians were consistently lower than those of the same age group of the national population. A significant percentage of adole scents had urinary thiamin excretions in the range of "mo derate risk". Vitamin A status of adults was found to be of some concern,relative to that of the general population. Indians had lower dietary intakes than the national*sample and lower median serum vitamin A levels with a corresponding increase in the proportion of serum values classified as "moderate risk". It was concluded that liver stores of Indians were poor. Both calcium and vitamin D intakes were consistently lower among Native Indians. A relatively larger proportion of Indian adolescent girls had low iron stores as judged by transferrin saturation values. Adult Indians, especially in remote areas, had a higher preval ence of low serum vitamin C levels, and lower intakes of calcium and vitamin D than did the general population. Among pregnant women, poor vitamin C status, low serum vita min A levels, marginal calcium and vitamin D intakes, mar ginal median iron intakes, and low serum folate values characterized the Native Indian population. In view of these findings, a sound scientific basis has been provided for further research into the nutritional status of this segment of the Canadian-population. Further, in recognizing the need for more information on Canadian Native Indians in general, consideration should be given to provincial groups. Among the 29 bands participating in the Nutrition Canada Survey, 7 were located in British Columbia, although the survey did not report specifically on the nu tritional status of Native Indians from B.C. There are several aspects of nutritional status in vestigation of a population. Dietary evaluation is useful in determining patterns of food consumption and riutrient intakes, while clinical assessment allows detection of nu tritional deficiency signs. Nutritional anthropometry/ encompassing certain techniques for the assessment of at tained physical dimension provides information on growth patterns of an individual or group of individuals. Although growth is affected by a large number of factors, it is well established that certain growth patterns are characteristic of an optimally nourished population, while suboptimal nu trition adversely affects the growth status of a population. As discussed in the review of literature, studies reporting anthropometric data on Canadian Indian, populations are of very limited sample size, are limited in terms of their representation of the B.C. Native Indian children population as a whole and are limited in terms of the ac tual measurements taken. Indeed, there is no study avail able aimed specifically at B.C. Native Indian children with a view to assessing their growth patterns. Thus, the need for a study of larger sample size and of greater scope is clear. 28 The present research project therefore was designed to obtain information on the growth patterns of B.C. Native Indian children living in student residences. The objective of the study was to establish whether the growth patterns of B.C. Native Indian children living in student residences correspond to those of non-Indian reference children. The study sample consists of all children, aged 6 to 17 years, attending the six student residences for Native Indian child ren in British Columbia. Total sample size is 734 children, representing approximately 4.3 percent (Canada, 1970) of the entire population of Native Indian children in British Columbia. The study is cross-sectional in design, utiliz ing standard anthropometric techniques for the assessment of standing and sitting height, body weight, arm and head circumference, and skinfold thicknesses. Arm muscle dimen sions are also reported. The children live in an institu tional environment; adequate meals are made available on a regular basis. It was expected therefore that those anthro pometric parameters sensitive to past nutritional problems would be affected to a greater extent than those which re flect current nutritional status. 29 CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional growth study was designed to ob tain information on the growth patterns of Native British Columbian Indian children living in student residences. The objective of the study was to establish whether the growth patterns of B.C. Native Indian children living in student residences correspond to those of non-Indian re ference children. Anthropometric measurements were car ried out on all Native Indian children from age 6 to 17 attending the six B.C. student residences administered by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. The total sample size was 368 boys and 366 girls, representing 77 reserves in the province. The study was carried out with the cooperation of Medical Services Branch (Pacific Region) of the Department of National Health and?: Wei fare, and with the assistance of the administrators of the student resi dences. The student residences were situated in the follow ing locations: Sechelt (Sechelt Student Residence), Mission (St. Mary's Student Residence), Kamloops (Kamloops Student Residence), Williams Lake (Cariboo Student Residence), Lejac (Lejac Student Residence) and Lytton (St. George's Student Residence). 30 The name, birthdate and band number.of each child was obtained from residence records. Table I shows the distribution according to age-sex grouping, as well as the percentage of total British Columbian Native Indian children in each age-sex grouping represented in the study-sample . TABLE I Number of subjects in each age-sex grouping and as % of total B.C. Native Indian children in each group Age Group Females Males Number- %* Number %* 6.00- 6.99 31 4.1 28 3.5 7.00- 7.99 27 3.1 23 2.9 8.00- 8.99 30 3.6 29 3.6 9.00- 9.99 32 4.2 33 4.1 10.00-10.99 30 3.8 38 4.8 11.00-11.99 35 4.5 38 5.4 12.00-12.99 35 5.0 42 6.1 13.00-13.99 42 6.3 37 5.7 14.00-14.99 43 6.9 38 6.5 15.00-15.99 30 5.0 30 4.9 16.00-16.99 30 5.1 32 5.3 Total 366 4.2 368 4.7 * Number in study sample reported as % of total number of B.C. Native Indian children in each eage group. These figures are calculated from data collected in 1969. Each percentage is based upon the total number of Indian children in the province for the age group 6 years younger than that of the study sample. All anthropometric measurements were done according to the International Biological Program recommendations (1969). The children were clothed only in undergarments, and all 31 anthropometric measurements were done in the afternoon, be fore the evening meal. These included standing height, sit ting height, body weight, four skinfold measurements (tri ceps, subscapular, biceps and suprailiac), midupper arm cir cumference and head circumference. Standing height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm with a portable stadiometer; the measuring board was equipped with a digital readout in order to eliminate parallax. The "stretching upward" technique of Tanner and Whitehouse (1966) was not used. Sitting height was similarly measured to the nearest 0.1 cm; a stool of known height was used and actual sitting height subsequently obtained by subtraction. Body weight was measured to the nearest 0.05 kg with a portable beam-type platform balance. No correction was made for clothing. Triceps, subscapular, biceps and suprailiac skinfolds were measured with Harpenden Skinfold Calipers (Skin Fold Calipers, Holtain Ltd., Pembrokeshire, Wales), which read to 0.1 mm accuracy. These calipers exert a constant pres-2 sure of 10 g/mm through the whole range of skinfold thick nesses at all distances of jaw separation. This was veri fied by the method described by World Health Organization (1968). All skinfold measurements were taken on the left side of the body. The accuracy of the measurements was such that duplicate readings agreed to within - 5% in two thirds or more of all repeated measurements. The method 32 was validated in this manner on a group of 12 children, prior to the data collection period. Arm circumference was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm, using a steel tape measure, with the arm in a relaxed posi tion. Compression of soft tissue was avoided. The measure ment was taken at the point midway between the acromion pro cess of the scapula and the olecranon process of the ulna. Upper arm muscle diameter, circumference and area were derived as described by Frisancho (1974), as follows: AC (1) UAMD = ^ - TC (2) UAMC = AC - 77" TC (3) UAMA = [UAMD2] where UAMD = upper arm muscle diameter (mm) UAMC = upper arm muscle circumference (mm) UAMA == upper arm muscle area (mm ) TC = triceps skinfold thickness (mm) AC = arm circumference (mm) Head circumference was measured by placing the tape firmly around the frontal bones, just superior to the supra orbital ridges, passing it around the head at the same level on each side, and over the maximum occipital prominence at the back. Data were recorded on the "Nutritional Status Investi gation Form" of the School of Home Economics. The coded sheets were read by the IBM 1232 Optical Mark reader at Simon Fraser University and key punched onto cards. The 33 data were then treated by a utility computer program and preliminary scatter plots of selected variables were made to assist in the detection of obvious errors. Data analysis was carried out with the IBM 370/168 computer. Scatter dia grams of individual findings were prepared with the CALCOMP plotter together with standard reference curves. 34 CHAPTER TV RESULTS All anthropometric parameters are displayed graphi-cally (pages 45 to 64), against chronological age, with the exception of biceps and suprailiac skinfold thickness. These two parameters, as well as sitting height/standing height ratio, are listed in the Appendix. 1. Standing Height. Figures 1-1 and 3>2 show stand ing heights for males and females, respectively. Standard curves are those of Jackson and Kelly (1945), derived from the Iowa growth data, measurements taken several decades ago on Caucasian children predominantly from the higher socioeconomic group. In using standards derived from a group both culturally and genetically distinct from the study sample., it is recognized that interpretation of re sults is somewhat limited. Standard curves therefore are presented as a reference only. Throughout the age range studied, most individuals fall between the mean and 2 standard deviations below the mean. In males, 79V percent of the study sample fall in this range. Eleven percent are above the mean. While none are more than 2 standard deviations above the mean, 10 percent 35 of males are more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. Those more than 2 standard deviations below the mean are not evenly distributed throughout the age range studied for males between 6 and 8 years old, 23 percent are more than 2 standard deviations below the mean, while for older males, between 14 and 16 years, this percentage has decreased to 8.8. In females, 70 percent of all individuals are bet ween the mean and 2 standard deviations below the mean. Twenty-five percent of females are above the mean. While none are more than 2 standard deviations above the mean, 5 percent of females are more than 2 standard deviations be low the mean. Of the females between 6 and 8 years old, 15.5 percent are more than 2 standard deviations below the mean while for older females between 14 and 16 years this percentage has decreased to 3 percent. Thus the proportion of females who have low height for age, as compared with re ference children, decreases with increasing age^ as with males. 2. Sitting height." As previously mentioned, sitting height/standing height ratio was computed; individual find ings are listed in the Appendix since standards are not available for this parameter. Only sitting height is dis played graphically (Figures II-l and II-2). The standards of Simmons (1944) are used (mean - 2 standard deviations). 36 These standards are based upon measurements taken several decades ago on Caucasian children. This parameter indicates growth of the head and trunk. In general, the pattern of sitting height is similar to that of standing height. In both males and females, most individuals fall between the mean and 2 standard deviations below thermean. Among males, 66 percent are in this range. Only 12 percent are above the mean. While none are more than 2 standard deviations above the mean, 22 percent of males are more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. For those males between 6 and 8 years old, 60 percent are more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. However, for older males, between 14 and 16 years, this percentage decreases to 0.8 percent. Among females, 66 percent of all individuals are bet ween the mean and 2 standard deviations below the mean. Ten percent of females are above the mean. While none are more than 2 standard deviations above the mean, 24 percent of females are more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. For those females between 6 and 8 years old, 40 percent fall more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. Among older females, between 14 and 16 years, this percentage decreases to 27 percent. Thus, for both sexes, the proportion of children with a deficit in sitting height decreases with in creasing age. 37 3. Body weight. Figures III-l and III-2 show body weight plotted against chronological age. Standard curves are those of Jackson and Kelly (1945). Mean, 3rd and 97th percentiles are presented. Most individuals are between the 3rd and 97th percentiles, although for both males and females, the majority are between the mean and 3rd percen tile. Thus, 79 percent and 78 percent of males and females respectively are between the mean and the 3rd percentile. Among males, 18 percent are above the mean for body weight, including one individual (less than 1 percent of all males) above the 97th percentile. Three percent of males are below the 3rd percentile. Among females, 21 per cent are above the mean, including one individual (less than 1 percent of all females) above the 97th percentile. One percent of females are below the 3rd percentile. These results are interesting in view of the large proportion of children of both sexes who show deficits in standing and sitting height. i • . 1 4. Skinfold thickness. Figures IV-1 to IV-4 dis-'.j play triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses for males and females. Percentile curves are those of Tanner and Whitehouse (1975), and are derived from cross-sectional data on London school children taken in 1966. These percentile curves have been smoothed graphically. Since values ob tained by skinfold measurements give a non-gaussian fre quency distribution, the appropriate logarithmic transforma tion, as described by these authors has been employed for j 38 both skinfolds, and transformed values plotted against age. Males are predominantly below the 50th percentile at all ages for triceps skinfold thickness. Eighteen percent i of males are above the 50th percentile and this generally follows the preadolescent fat wave: slow apposition, fol lowed around age 13 by a slight decrease in thickness as described by Garn and Haskell (1960). Tanner and White-house (1975) consider those individuals below the 3rd per centile to be at risk, being perhaps undernourished. Sev eral males in this study sample are considerably below that percentile, while none exceed the 97th percentile. Triceps skinfold thickness in females (Figure IV-2) is generally below the 75th percentile of Tanner and White-house. More females than males are below the 3rd percentile (9.5 percent of' females compared to 4 percent of males), however similar proportions are above the 75th percentile (2 percent of females compared to 3.5 percent of males). No females reach the 90th percentile. The general trend of gain in adiposity over the age range studied adheres to that of the reference curves: increased triceps subcutan eous fat with age, which continues (unlike that of males) throughout childhood and into adolescence. Figure IV-3 depicts subscapular skinfold thickness of males. Most individuals (92 percent) are between the 10th and 75th percentiles. No males studied are at the upper extreme for subscapular skinfold thickness and only 39 two individuals are below the 3rd percentile. The trend of increase in subscapular adipose tissue with age, as in dicated by standard percentile curves, is seen in the study sample. Subscapular fat apposition, unlike that in the tri ceps region, continues to increase through adolescence in males. Figure IV-4 shows subscapular skinfold thickness of females. Eighty-two percent of females are between the 10th and 75th percentile. More females than males appear in the extreme lower percentile range: 11 percent of fe males are below the 10th percentile compared with 3.5 per cent of males. Tanner and Whitehouse (1975) consider those individuals at the 97th percentile to be obese. Only one female in this study can be so considered on that basis. For females, it is clear that increase in subscapu lar adipose tissue follows that indicated by the standard curves, with a gradual increase in thickness from child hood into adolescence. Throughout this period of growth, females have greater subscapular fat than do males, as the standard curves indicate. 5. Arm circumference. Figures V-l and V-2 show arm circumference measurements of males and females respectively. Standard percentile curves are those of Frisancho (1974), and are based on a cross-sectional sample of white subjects f .••(' derived from the United States Ten State Nutrition Survey of 1968-19,70. These standard curves are from measurements 40 taken on the right arm. As can be seen from Figure V-l, most males (82 per cent) have arm circumferences that are between the 15th and 85th percentile. Only 2 percent of individuals are above the 85th percentile, while 16 percent are below the 15th percentile. Arm circumference in the group as a whole is seen to increase throughout the age-range studied,despite the decrease in triceps skinfold thickness beginning at age 12. Individual findings for females (Figure V-2) have a very similar distribution across standard percentile curves to males, with the study sample as a whole weighted toward the lower percentiles. Eighty percent of females have arm circumferences between the 15th and 85th percentile. Only 3 percent of females are above the 85th percentile, while 17 percent are below the 15th percentile. Increase in arm circumference occurs at a slightly slower rate in females than in males, as the standard curves show. However, at age 14 the rate of increase is decelerated in females while male arm circumference con tinues to increase with age. 6. Upper arm muscle diameter. Figures VI-1 and VI-2 show upper arm muscle diameter measurements, derived as described earlier, together with the standard percentile curves of Frisancho (1974). Eighty-five percent of males 41 are between the 15th and 85th percentiles, indicating that arm muscle diameter is well maintained in the study sample as a whole. This parameter closely approximates that of the reference group and increases throughout the age range studied. Arm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness, as described earlier, are weighted toward the lower percen tile curves. It seems apparent, therefore, that the in crease in arm circumference with age is due primarily to growth in muscle tissue. Eighty-three percent of upper arm muscle diameter measurements of females (Figure VI-2) are between the 15th and the, 85th percentile. This group, as a whole, is weighted toward the upper percentile curves: 15'percent of females f are above the 85th percentile while 2 percent are below the 15th. For males, these proportions are 5 percent and 8 per cent respectively. No female in the study is below the 5th percentile. This is notable in the light of arm circum ference and triceps skinfold which are weighted towards the lower percentile. Thus, upper arm musculature is well main tained despite generally lesser increases in upper arm adi pose tissue. Rate of increase in upper arm muscle diameter is slower in females than in males. A plateau is achieved at age 15 in females, while in males this measurement continues to increase throughout adolescence. 42 7. Upper arm muscle circumference. Figures VI-3 and VI-4 show upper arm muscle circumference of males and females respectively, together with the percentile curves of Frisancho (1974). The distribution of individual values across standard percentile curves, as well as the general pattern of muscle growth with age is similar to that of upper arm muscle diameter for both sexes. 8. Upper arm muscle area. Figures VI-5 and VI-6 display upper arm muscle area of males and females respec tively. Males are predominantly between the 15th and 85th percentiles (88 percent are in this range), being well dis tributed about the mean (6 percent of males are above the 85th percentile, and 6 percent are below the 15th percen tile). Increase in this dimension with age continues throughout the age range studied. This trend is not no ticeable when muscle size is expressed in terms of diameter or circumference. Upper arm muscle area measurements in females (Fi gure VI-6) are predominantly between the 15th and 85th percentile (82 percent of all females are in this range), with more values above the 85th percentile than below the 15th (16 percent and 2 percent respectively). Growth in this dimension occurs into adolescence, however it is slowed after age 12. Thus, it is at this age when the greatest differences in upper arm muscle area between males and females occur. 43 9. Head circumference. Head circumference measure ments are reported in Figures VII-1 and VII-2 of males and females respectively. The results are plotted against the standard curves of Watson and Lowry (1967). These standards present the mean i 2 standard deviations and are not sex-specific. They are derived from measurements on Caucasian children. Most males are within - 2 standard deviations.of the mean; only 8 percent are outside these limits. As age in creases more individuals are above the mean. Thus, in males between 6 and 8 years, 25 percent are above the mean while 75 percent are below the mean. For older children between 14 and 16 years, these percentages are 82 and 18 percent re spectively. Females display a similar growth pattern in head cir cumference. Most females are within - 2 standard deviations of the mean; only 6 percent are outside these limits. A similar pattern also is noted with increasing age as with males. In females, between 6 and 8 years 1 percent are above the mean while 99 percent are below the mean. Bet ween 14 and 16 years these percentages are 32 percent and 68 percent respectively. In summary, a growth lag is observed in standing and sitting height in both sexes, which is partially corrected during adolescence. This is apparent since there is a de crease in proportion of children more than 2 standard devia tions below the mean as age increases. Body weight measurements 44 more closely approximate standards than do standing and sitting height. The deficit in stature is therefore not reflected by a similar deficit in body weight. Growth pat terns in arm circumference follow the expected trends in both sexes, although"individual findings as a whole are weighted below the'smean. Triceps skinfold measurements indicate less subcutaneous adipose tissue than expected when compared with those of reference children. Arm muscle diameter, circumference and area approximate standard curves. Subscapular skinfolds generally approximate standards more closely than do triceps with fewer individuals below* the 3rd percentile, for both sexes. As expected, less adi pose tissue is found at this site, although increase with age continues into adolescence. Head circumference measure ments for both sexes display a growth trend similar to that of standing and sitting height. An initial deficit is ob served, as compared to standards, with large proportions of both males and females below the mean of reference children. This is largely corrected during adolescence, an effect more distinct in females than in males. 45 Figure 1-1. Standing height of males. low.a standard curves are displayed as the mean + 2 standard deviations (Jackson and Kelly, 1945). 46 Figure 1-2. Standing height of females. Iowa standard curves are displayed as the mean + 2 standard deviations (Jackson and Kelly, 1945). 47 Figure II-l. ' Sitting height of males. Standard curves are displayed as the mean + 2 standard deviations (Simmons, 1944). Figure II-2. Sitting height of females, ard curves are displayed as the mean + 2 deviations (Simmons, 1944). Stand-t tandail 49 Figure III-l. Weight of males. Iowa standard curves are displayed as the 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles (Jackson and Kelly, 1945). 50 Figure III-2. Weight of females. Iowa standard curves are displayed as the 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles (Jackson and Kelly, 1945). 51 Figure IV-2. Triceps: skinfold thickness of females. Standard percentile curves are from Tanner and Whitehouse (1975). Figure IV-3. Subscapular skinfold thickness of males. Standard percentile curves are from Tanner and White-house (197 5). 54 0.0 2.0 I— 4.0 6.0 8.0 AGES 1— 10.0 (YR) ~1— 12.0 —1 M.O 16.0 "I 18.0 I 20.0 Figure IV-4. Subscapular skinfold thickness of females. Standard percentile curves are from Tanner and Whitehouse (1975). 55 Figure V-l. Arm circumference of males. Standard percentile curves are from Frisancho (1974). 56 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.3 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20. AGES IYR) Figure V-2. Arm circumference of females. Standard percentile curves are from Frisancho (1974). 95 4.C I— 6.0 _, , e.c io.o RGES CYR) 12.0 "T 14.0 16.0 10.0 —I 20 Figure VI-1. Upper arm muscle diameter of males. Standard percentile curves are from Frisancho (1974). 58 o o. !' H Q Hi O W I §5J ~i— 6.0 -1— 8.0 I 14.0 I 20.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 10.0 IYR] I 12.0 16.0 18.0 Figure VI-2. Upper arm muscle diameter of females. Standard percentile curves are from Frisancho (1974). -i 1 : 1 1 1 1 r r 1 1 1 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 H.O 16.0 18.0 20 AGES (YR) Figure VI-3. Upper arm muscle circumference of males. Standard percentile curves are from Frisancho (1974). 60 o o ~1— A.a —i— 6.0 —1 8.0 RGES -i— 14.0 —I 16.0 TaTo -1 20.0 0.0 2.0 10.0 (YR) 12.0 Figure VI-4. Upper Standard percentile arm muscle circumference of females, curves are from Frisancho (1974). 61 Figure VI-5. Upper arm muscle area of males. Standard percentile curves are from Frisancho (1974). 62 Figure VII-1. Head Standard curves are standard deviations circumference of males, displayed as the mean + 2 (Watson and Lowry, 1967). Figure VII-2. Head circumference of females. Standard curves are displayed as the mean + 2 standard deviations (Watson and Lowry, 1967). 65 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The use of anthropometric data for the assessment of nutritional status is constrained by the well recognized fact that many factors, both environmental and genetic, af fect the rate, potential and pattern of growth. Therefore, deviations from standard may be due to one or more causes or to a more complex interaction of several. In interpret ing growth data in nutritional terms without information re garding actual nutrient intakes, one is hesitant in assign ing certain observations to nutritional causes, except by reference to other studies. The objective of the study, as stated earlier, was to establish whether the growth patterns of British Columbia Native Indian children living in student residences corres pond to those of non-Indian reference children. The study was cross-sectional in nature; anthropometric data were gathered using a different sample of individuals at each point within the age range studied. Implicit in this de sign are certain restrictions in the interpretation of data on the basis of growth patterns. In a cross-sectional study, one is actually assessing 66 the body size of children at various ages rather than the patterns of change in body size and dimension of a single sample of children followed through time (longitudinal study) Any anthropometric parameter reflects to a;greater or lesser degree, certain genetic and environmental (including nutri tional) factors affecting an individual's growth. However, conclusions cannot justifiably be drawn on the patterns of growth of an individual or group on the basis of measure ments taken on independent samples. Thus, although the cross sectional growth study is of value in assessing various para meters of body size and dimension of children at different ages during their growing period, the actual process of growth is not evaluated. The longitudinal study is more amenable to such interpretation, allowing conclusions to,->be drawn on the rate and velocity of growth as well as catch-up growth. Longitudinal studies have the major disadvantage of a considerable time requirement for data collection. There are other well-recognized shortcomings of cross-sectional data analysis. As described by Prahl-Anderson and Kowalski (1973), the chronological age variable is confounded with the cohort variable in cross-sectional studies. With reference to the present study, differences observed, for example, in standing height between 6 year old males and 16 year old males reflect age changes as well as dissimilarities in environmental and cultural pressures. These authors suggest that the repeated findings of substantii discrepancies between inferences made on the basis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data for anthropometric vari ables (Damon, 1965) point to the important role the cohort effect may play. Baltes (1968) has stated that both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs have such an absence of control as to be of very little scientific value. In view of the disadvantages of both cross-sectional and longitud inal designs to the study of growth and development, Prahl-Anderson and Kowalski (1973) have described a mixed-longitudinal type with overlapping cohorts, as a convenient compromise. However, its applicability and usefulness in the assessment of populations has not yet been explored. Despite the limitations of the cross-sectional de sign and of interpretation of cross-sectional data, useful information on the growth status of children is available with this approach. In the present study, a deficit in standing height is demonstrated by the large percentage, in both sexes, fall ing below the Iowa mean (89 percent and 75 percent respec tively for males and females). The decrease in the percent age with heights more than 2 standard deviations below the mean during childhood as compared with later adolescence, for both sexes, is similar to that reported by Lee et al. (1971) for children from the Anaham and Ahousat Reserves. The authors suggest that a catch-up effect is observed, in that rate of growth is increased after the initial deficit, 68 providing some compensation. This is uncertain, however, since their data were cross-sectional. Reisinger et al. (1972) reported similar findings among Navajo Indian children between 5 and 14 years from the Lower Greasewood Reserve in Arizona. In that study 83 percent of males and 81 percent of females were below the 50th percentile for height of Iowa reference children. In males, the percentage below the 3rd percentile decreased from 19 percent for those between 5 and 9 years to 10 per cent for those between 10 and 14 years. The authors do not comment on the statistical significance of this finding. A similar decrease was not observed among females. The authors suggest that this may represent catch-up growth. Diet evalua tions in that study suggest that many of the study subjects had inadequate food intakes which could account for the growth retardation. Height measurements reported by Darby et. al. (1955) on Navajo children, in comparison with Canadian data, re veal Navajo children to be shorter than Canadians after age 10. The authors comment that since 1910 various influences (including nutrition) have resulted in taller Canadians, but that these influences are not noticeable among the Navajo. The study on preschool Navajo children of Van Duzen et al. (1969), reported nearly one-third of the sample be low the 3rd percentile of Iowa standards for height. The authors suggested that the observed retardation in growth 69 was caused by chronic calorie and protein malnutrition as well as certain disease factors. In contrast to these findings, both ICNND studies (1964, 1964) carried out in the U.S. (on Native Indian child ren of the Fort Belknap and Blackfoot Reservations) ..report average standing heights almost entirely at or above Iowa means for both sexes. Growth in head and trunk is observed as increase in sitting height with increasing age. Although the same ten dencies toward a decreased percentage of individuals below 2 standard deviations, with age, is noticeable in this para meter, as with standing height, conclusions drawn regarding body proportion and relative contribution of head and trunk to standing height are not justified. For this purpose, sitting height/standing height ratio should be analyzed. From the data, it is clear that sitting height in most children is less than expected when compared with standards. Thus 88 percent of males and 90 percent of females are be low the mean of reference children. Similar findings were reported in British Columbian Indian children by Birkbeck et al. (1971). Although these two parameters, standing and sitting height, indicate a growth lag in the study sample as a whole, a comparable deficit is not seen in body weight mea surements. As described earlier, males and females fall largely within the two extremes of Iowa standards, and in crease in body weight with age follows normal pattern. Thus, 70 body weight is generally adequate despite short stature. Body weight is more vulnerable to immediate nutri tional insult, and is more adversely affected during times of nutritional deprivation than are some other parameters. However, attained body stature is reflective of past growth rate; it is a cumulative index of growth. Therefore, the possibility that the observed lag in statural growth has a nutritional basis is open. All children in the study sample were residing in student residences where adequate nutrition was made available. The institutional setting could well provide the opportunity for deficits in weight to be correc ted, through proper nutrition while the deficit in stature would not be so immediately affected. Dietary data on B.C. Native Indians suggests that the intakes of certain nutrients is below optimal for child ren. Data collected by 24-hour recall on the Anaham Reserve by Lee et ad.. (1971) showed that a number of children had intakes of calories, calcium and vitamin A less than two thirds of the Canadian Dietary Standards. In addition, a number of teenagers, of both sexes, had low iron intakes. Of the present study sample, 61 children measured, repre senting 8 percent of total, were from the Anaham Reserve; this is the largest number of children from a single reserve. The seven reserves located in B.C. surveyed by Nutrition Canada (1973) (results of which are discussed in the Intro duction) contributed 46 children to the present study, re presenting 6 percent of the total*sample. Nutrition Canada 71 documented poorer nutritional status of the Canadian Indian population as compared to the general population. Although figures are not presented, most older child ren had attended residences for several years and have been afforded adequate nutrition for a greater proportion of time than have younger children who show greatest deficits in stature. Thus, the possibility for a catch-up phase subse quent to the lag in growth is present. In a similar study, carried out among extremely poor children in Peru by Andrianzen et a_l. (1973) found a signi ficant lag in linear growth while body weight as a whole was much less severely affected. The authors postulate that these children experienced periods of recovery from malnu trition with easy weight gain but incomplete return to nor mal of the mechanisms necessary for linear growth. Although it is not likely that children of the present study sample have undergone severe nutritional insult, a similar situa tion could be present. Heller et al. (1967) observed height deficits coin cident with adequate body weight (as compared with Iowa data) in Alaskan Eskimo preschoolers. The authors state that these patterns could be explained by inherited factors or by persistent environmental influences, although they felt that a nutritional explanation was unlikely. This sample was re-examined several years later and a cross-tabulation of the measurements of the original cohort of children during their first two years of life, as proposed by Waterlow (1972), was carried out by Nichaman et al. (1975). It was shown that the occurrence of moderate and severe growth retardation was at least six times more pre valent than acute under nutrition. It is possible that Native Indian children are of shorter stature, and of relatively greater body weight than Caucasians, as a result of genetic factors. However, Ha-bicht et al. (1974) have shown that the genetic effect of mean growth in height and weight in children is small com pared with environmental effects. Thus, 3 percent of dif ferences in height and 6 percent of differences in weight were attributable to differences in ethnic background. The importance of this study is that the authors have collected a wider range of information and made scientific compari sons more precisely than heretofore. Implicit in these re sults is the suggestion that one set of growth standards should be appropriate for evaluation of data from all eth nic groups. Jelliffe and Jelliffe (1975) point out the difficul ties in selection of standards for universal use; primarily due to problems in delineating the genetic "mainstream of mankind". Thus, for example, it seems unlikely that opti mally fed infants belonging to a genetically short group would achieve the "universal standard". However, growth data on Japanese children (Takahashi, 1966) shows that €his group is now heavier and taller than previous genera tions, approximating the Western overfed model. It is un clear which standards represent the optimum as regards pre sent and future health and survival and which represent the overnourished with potential or actual risks of obesity. Garn (1965), however, suggests that differences in stature as well as body build and fat-free mass:.:complicate the universal application of simple standards of height and weight. This author advocates the use of parent-specific or parent-corrected size standards for growing children. Fur ther, it is suggested that reference standards should be ap propriate to the population in question, making use of the economically advantaged group to provide an indication of optimum growth. In a more recent report Garn and Clark (1975) out line the problems in the nutritional assessment of black individuals, when compared with standards of white refer ence children, due to consistent differences in standing height, and body weight as well as skeletal mass and bone density. They conclude that failure to employ appropriate standards will result in underestimating the dimensional, radiographic and radiogrammetric effects of undernutrition in blacks after the second year of life. Their conclusions are based on data from several large-scale nutrition and growth studies,.including the Preschool Nutrition Survey (Owen et al., 1974), the National Collaborative Survey (Garn et al./ 1974), the Ten-State Nutrition Survey (Garn et al., 1973), Kaiser-Permanente Survey (Winegerd et al., 74 1973) andthe National Health Examination Survey (Hamill et al., 1970). Although it is plausible that a similar case could be made for the interpretation of Native Indian data, suf ficient information is simply not available. By and large, relatively few studies have been carried out on North Amer ican Indian children, as discussed earlier. So that while comparison of present data with that of reference children, both culturally and genetically distinct, might be inappro priate for correct interpretation, more suitable standards are not available. Coincident with the observed statural growth lag and relatively adequate body weight increase with age, the results show a tendency toward less subcutaneous adipose tissue than expected on the basis of comparison with the standards of Tanner and Whitehouse (1975). Thus, 82 per cent of males and 87 percent of females are below the 50th percentile for tricepts skinfold thickness; in addition 68 percent of males and 65 percent of females are below the 50th percentile for subscapular skinfold thickness. Tanner and Whitehouse state that the percentiles reported as stan dards imply nothing as to the desirability or undesirability of a group or population having a similar distribution of subcutaneous fat. Racial differences in amount and distribution of body fat have been observed. Malina (1966) has shown that black American children have consistently less triceps and subscapular adipose tissue than do white children. Robson et al. (1971) reports that the ratio of triceps skinfold to subscapular skinfold thickness mainly in black infants and children from Dominica was substantially less than that of white children from Britain. Ashcroft (1972) argues that it is necessary to measure other skinfolds in order to estimate body fat adequately and to make assumptions relative to diet ary adequacy. Mean skinfold thicknesses of children in developing countries are generally found to be smaller than those of children in developed countries, an effect which.is in part due to differences in nutritional status. Thus Malina et al. (1974) reports that mean skinfold thickness of rural Guatemalan Ladino children are low when compared with the standards of Tanner and Whitehouse (1962). They are like wise smaller than those of urban children in upper socio- economic strata of developing countries (Mora Parra et al., 1970). Interestingly, the Guatemalan data shows a larger deficit in triceps skinfold than in subscapular skinfold as does the present data. Thus, mean values for triceps are at or below the 10th percentile of standard between 6 months and 7 years, while mean values for subscapular, dur ing that age range, vary between the 25th and 50th percen tile. The authors state that differential fat reduction 76 on the extremities and trunk in marginal nutritional status may be implied. In nutritional terms, less body fat, as reflected by less subcutaneous adipose tissue, means a smaller calorie reserve available to the individual. Tanner and Whitehouse regard children at either extreme to be at risk. In the present study sample, 9.5 percent of females and 4 percent of males would be considered undernourished, by the criteria of these authors. However, since other body measurements were not correlated with triceps skinfolds in these parti cular children and since dietary histories are not avail able, one is hesitant to draw conclusions regarding their nutritional status. Whether the generally lower degree of subcutaneous adipose tissue in B.C. Native Indian children living in residence is due to ethnic origin, to certain environmental factors or specifically to nutritional causes, is unclear. Upper arm muscle in both sexes was observed to be well maintained; it is growth of this tissue mass which makes the greatest contribution toward overall increase in arm circumference. Similar findings were reported by Gurney et al. (1972) among Jamaican infants and preschool children. Eight percent had arm circumferences below the 3rd percen tile while 21.4 percent had triceps skinfold thicknesses which were below this percentile of standard values. The 77 authors concluded that their diet may be lacking in total calories rather than in protein. Martorell et. aJL. (1976), who reported findings on a group of rural Guatemalan preschool children, drew similar conclusions. It was found that although these children had a reduced arm muscle and fat area, the relative reduction in arm fat area was greater than in arm muscle area. Compari son was made with the standards of Frisancho (1974). It was suggested that lack of energy rather than protein defi ciency is the main nutritional problem in this group. It is tempting to assign the present observations to similar dietary patterns, although both of the above studies were carried out on preschool children. Indeed, Nutrition Canada Survey (1973) reported that caloric intakes of adole scent Indians were consistently lower than those of the adolescents of the national population, while protein in takes for this group were more than adequate. Very few in dividuals were classified as at risk on the basis of serum protein values. However, the present study sample may be largely removed from these dietary patterns. One is justi fied in concluding from these data, however, that protein nutritional status of B.C. Indian children living in resi dences may be relatively better than calorie nutritional status. Although the effects of nutritional status upon growth in head circumference are seen predominantly in early childhood, 78 these effects may be reflected by subsequent growth pattern. Thus, as shown by Malina (1975), smaller mean head circum ferences in later childhood apparently reflect growth re tardation during the first two years of life. Most rapid growth in head circumference occurs during early infancy with a substantial decrease in velocity by age 6. Thus the magnitude of change in head circumference over the age-range studied is not great. However, those children who fall at or below the lower extremes may have experienced some nu tritional insult in the past. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe a catch-up growth effect to the observed improvement with age in head circum ference relative to standard. Similar results were obtained by Birkbeck et al. (1972) on Native Indians from the Anaham and Ahousat reserves. It is interesting to note that al though there is an increasing ..dissociation between head circumference and stature as children grow older (Malina et al., 1975), the pattern of growth in this measurement in the present study is very similar to that of growth in stand ing height. 79 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Growth patterns of British Columbian Native Indian children living in student residences were studied utiliz ing nutritional anthropometric techniques on 734 children aged 6 to 17 years attending six student residences. The study was cross-sectional in design and results were com pared with standard reference data. The objective of the study was to establish whether the growth pattern of B.C. Native Indian children living in student residences cor respond to those of non-Indian reference children. A considerable growth deficit was demonstrated in younger children which appears to be somewhat corrected by adolescence. The study sample as a whole are short when compared with Iowa standards. Stature, as indicated by standing and sitting height, was more severely affected than weight. Upper arm measurements were found to indicate less adipose tissue than expected as compared with standards, while skeletal muscle is well maintained in comparison with standard percentile curves. It is concluded that protein nutritional status of B.C. Indian children living in student residences may be relatively better than calorie nutritional 80 status. The growth pattern of head circumference reflects that of stature, particularly in females. It is possible that these patterns are due to nutri tional factors, although interpretation of the results on that basis is not wholly justifiable in view of the lack of dietary information. Recommendations Following interpretation of the results, several re commendations can be made: 1. A study to obtain growth data on preschool Native Indian children should be undertaken in order to determine the growth status of this age group. Since the results of the present study indicate a growth deficit in B.C. Native In dian children, particularly in children of the younger age groups studied, the need for information on preschool child ren is clear. 2. Growth data on Native Indian children living on reserves should be obtained in conjunction with dietary data in order to determine growth patterns of those children living in the home environment, as related to nutritional factors. In comparison with results of the present study, the effects of residence diets upon growth patterns could be delineated. 3. Health personnel at the student residences should keep serial height and weight charts on those children who are undersized, in order to assess their growth patterns in the school environment. 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, S., Lowenstein, F.W. and O'Connell, D.E. 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Ped. 21(2):90-92, 1975. 92 APPENDICES Legends to Appendices Page Legend to Student Residence 93 Legend to ReserverCodes  4 93 LEGEND TO STUDENT RESIDENCE 00 Sechelt Student Residence, Sechelt, B.C. 01 St. Mary's Student Residence, Mission, 'B.C. 02 Kamloops Student Residence, Kamloops, B.C. 03 Cariboo Student Residence, Williams Lake, B.C. 04 Lejac Student Residence, Lejac, B.C. 10 St. George's Student Residence, Lytton, B.C. 94 LEGEND TO RESERVE CODES Reserve Code Reserve Code Adams Lake 1 Hope 24 Alexandria 2 Kanaka Bar 25 Alexis Creek 3 Kitwancool 26 Alkali Lake 4 Klahoose 27 Anaham 5 Kluskus 28 Anderson Lake 6 Kwawkewlth 29 Boothroyd 7 Lake Babine 30 Bridge River 8 Lillooet 31 Burrard 9 Lower Nicola 32 Canim Lake 10 Lt. Shuswap 33 Canoe Creek 11 Lytton 34 Chehalis 12 Matsqui 35 Chemainus 13 McLeod Lk. 36 Cheslatta 14 Moricetown 37 Clinton 15 Mount Currie 38 Coldwater 16 Musqueum 39 Cook's Ferry 17 Nanaimo 40 Cowichan 18 Nazko 41 Deadman1s Creek 19 Necoslie 42 Douglas 20 Nemiah Valley 43 Fountain 21 Neskainleth 44 Hazelton 22 Nicomen 45 Homalco 23 Nimpkish 46 95 Reserve Code Reserve Code Nooaitch 47 Soda Creek 63 North Thompson 48 Spallumcheen 64 Ohamil 49 Squami sh 65 Pavilion 50 Squiala 66 Penelukut 51 Stellaquo 67 Penticton 52 Stone 68 Port Douglas 53 Stuart Lake 69 Samahquam 54 Takla Lake 70 Seabird 55 Toosey 71 Sechelt 56 Tsaw 72 Seton Lake 57 Ulkatcho 73 Shakan 58 Upper Nicola 74 Shuswap 59 Westbank 75 Skookumchuk 60 Williams Lake 76 Skwah 61 Yale 77 Sliammon 62 Non status 88 APPENDIX A STANDING HEIGHT, SITTING HEIGHT, SITTING HEIGHT/STANDING HEIGHT RATIO AND WEIGHT (sorted according to sex and age) CODE RES RESI SEX AGE .: STANDING SITTING SIT/ST WEIGH JMBER ERVE DENCE <YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO <KG) (CM) (CM) 411 3 02 M 6.00 109.5 58.6 0.536 16.19 78 55 01 M 6o02 116.3 62.6 0.539 22.15 71 60 01 M 6,08 112.0 62.3 0.556 21.41 390 3 02 M 6oC9 110. 5 5 9.6 0.540 17.01 407 43 02 M 6o10 116o8 63.8 0.546 2-1.80 656 34 10 M 6.13 112.8 62.6 0.556 19.36 68 23 00 M 6.14 101.6 56.8 0.5.59 15.7,1 408 5 02 M 6.15 102.8 57.4 0.558 14.81 3 78 43 02 M 6.19 117.8 64.8 0.550 22.79 383 5 02 M 6.2 5 103.8 58.3 0. 563 15.80 410 76 02 M 6.40 105.5 58.6 0.556 15.99 7 6 38 01 M 6.41 115.5 65.1 0.564 23. 61 84 55 01 M 6.44 1C8.5 61.8 0.5 70 20.04 385 76 02 M 6.49 106.8 60.6 0.567 17.75 406 76 02 M 6o61 12C.1 63.3 0.527 22.86 73 38 01 K 6.63 108.8 60.8 0.558 18.94 6 59 7 10 M 6.6 5 109.8 61.6 0.562 18.94 666 25 10 M 6o65 12 0.6 67.3 0.559 24.44 409 3 02 M 6.66 114.5 61.6 0.538 20.66 81 65 01 M 6.70 116.6 63.5 0.545 24.40 541 42 03 H 6.72 122.6 65.8 0.537 26.84 384 3 02 M 6.75 114.5 61.6 0.539 20.66 74 60 01 M 6.77 117.1 65.8 0.563 23.89 404 63 02 M 6.81 113.1 62.0 0.548 20.24 395 2 02 M 6. 82 115.5 62.1 0.539 18.66 387 3 02 M 6o£7 116.6 64.5 0.5.53 20.24 658 88 10 M 6.8 9 108.3 57.8 0.534 17.80 75 24 01 M 6.97 111.6 60.6 0.543 22.11 413 3 02 M 7.03 115.5 63.1 0.546 19.05 419 76 02 M 7.11 112.5 60.5 0.538 17.29 417 5 02 M 7.15 11-5.1 62.6 0.543 19.80 83 55 01 M 7.17 112.1 60.1 0.537 19.40 539 32 03 M 7. 19 117.0 64.1 0.549 21. 10 412 5 02 M 7.20 11C.6 61.0 0.5,51 15.00 386 5 C2 M 7.20 111.8 62.0 0.555 16.81 63 62 00 M 7.3 5 123. 1 67.6 0.549 24.44 394 10 02 M 7.44 112.8 62.5 0.554 19.05 416 10 C2 M 7.44 111.8 61.5 0.550 18.04 418 5 C2 M 7.45 111.5 5 9.5 0.534 17. 01 414 71 02 M 7.47 115.5 64.3 0.557 21.21 536 1 03 M 7.52 112.8 62.6 0.556 20. 00 392 71 02 M 7.5 6 116.5. 6 5.3 0.561 21.21 415 11 02 K 7.65 117.8 63.5 0.539 20.11 393 11 02 M 7.74 118. 8 64.5 0.543 21.10 87 12 01 M 7.87 120.6 67.3 0.558 25.54 661 26 10 M 7.89 119.6 66.3 0.554 23.30 660 26 10 M 7.89 120.0 65.8 0.549 24.64 376 5 02 M 7.90 115.1 63.6 0.553 20.79 70 38 00 M 7.94 116.0 62.8 0.541 21.60 389 43 02 M 7.96 121.0 65.6 0.542 22.35 69 46 00 M 7.96 120.5 64.1 0.532 22.51 537 21 03 M 8.01 119.1 63.1 0.530 24.95 402 28 02 M 8o07 125.8 68. 1 0.541 25.19 400 3 02 M 8.08 122.0 64.6 0.530 24.20 538 16 03 M 8.12 11 £.5 64.3 0.543 22.44 CODE RES- RESI-NUM8ER ERVE DENCE 399 3 02 544 74 03 657 25 10 6 7 6 00 72 38 01 85 65 01 77 60 01 377 28 02 60 38 00 66 7 34 10 669 34 10 662 58 10 397 43 02 79 55 01 543 73 03 374 71 02 86 55 01 3 75 68 02 540 74 03 542 59 03 82 60 01 403 5 02 545 33 03 664 34 1G 54 62 00 102 24 01 551 57 03 373 43 02 553 1 03 665 7 10 57 65 00 405 10 02 80 60 01 61 38 CO 550 57 03 673 45 10 356 5 02 388 5 02 380 2 02 62 38 GO 552 16 03 56 56 00 668 34 10 65 62 00 92 18 01 672 37 10 436 43 02 375 5 02 663 34 10 671 26 1G 382 3 02 53 5 8 03 4C1 28 02 91 38 01 420 5 02 SEX 4GE STANDING (YRS) HEIGHT (CH) M 8.13 115.5 M 8.13 126.5 M 8ol4 126.0 M 8»15 124.3 K 8ol6 129.5 M 8ol7 123.3 M 8.18 128.0 M £.25 121.5 M 8.30 127.3 H 8.31 125.5 M 8.36 120.8 M 8.39 120. 3 M 8.40 123.1 M 8.40 13 C. 3 « 8.41 122.3 M 8.44 126.6 M 8.48 123.5 M 8.50 130.8 M 8.5 8 125.0 M 8.67 127.5 8.70 127.5 M 8»80 122.6 M 8.87 125.3 M 8.57 125.5 M 8.59 134.3 K 9.03 134.5 M 9.04 126.1 M 9.05 119.1 M 9.09 122.8 M 9.10 13 2.3 M 9.12 132.1 K 9.13 128.3 M 5.14 12 0.5 H 9.14 117.3 M 5.18 135. 8 M 9.31 128.1 M 9.33 127.3 M 5.3 7 121.1 M 9.43 122.3 P. 5.4 5 115.5 M 9.46 124.6 M 9.48 137.1 M 5.5 5 137. 8 M 9.55 115.6 M 5.59 139.8 M 5.55 136.8 H 9.59 132.3 M 9.64 125.8 M 5065 13C.3 M 9.65 124.6 M 5.66 12 2. 1 M 9.70 12 5.1 M 9.72 130.8 M 5.82 13 5. 8 M 9.86 125.5 SITTING SIT/ST WEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (KG) (CM) 65.3 0.547 20.86 67.3 0.533 24.79 68.1 0.540 25.10 67.6 0.543 25.15 69.3 0.536 26.64 64.8 0.526 25.45 70.8 0.553 30. 14 67.8 0.559 23.34 6 8.5 0.538 26.64 6 7.3 0.537 25.15 66.1 0.547 22.95 67.5 0.561 22.04 64.8 0.527 24.20 70.8 0.543 27.65 65.0 0.531 25.19 68.5 0.541 25. 19 65. 1 0.560 25.61 69.8 0.533 27.35 68. 8 0.550 30.84 66.8 0.524 26.05 69.1 0.543 29.59 64.6 0.526 22.55 70.6 0.546 29.04 66.3 0.528 21.65 65.5 0.517 33.79 72.1 0.537 31.55 67.6 0.536 28. 75 65.8 0.553 22.55 66.1 0.538 25.50 72.6 0.549 28.40 70.1 0.531 28.64 70.6 0.551 22.90 65.3 0.531 28.05 64.0 0.546 20.29 71.6 0.527 31.20 68.3 0.5.33 25.85 66.3 0.520 24.16 66.3 0.548 24. 86 66.6 0.544 24.35 63.1 0.528 23.34 67.0 0.537 21. 34 73.0 0.532 33.04 74. 1 0.538 30.95 6 2.8 0.543 22.75 74.8 0.535 30.69 74.0 0.541 34. 10 70.8 0.535 31. 00 68.1 0.525 24.71 7G.8 0.544 30.65 68.1 0.547 26.60 70.5 0.534 1 25.96 66.1 0.529 22.3 5 69.6 0.532 29.85 72.6 0.534 30.45 68.6 0.531 29. 15 CODE RES-NUMBER ERVE 429 63 64 38 545 57 39 23 534 21 422 41 351 41 708 34 670 34 398 68 110 18 55 72 95 60 58 38 5 5 65 631 69 431 3 108 60 435 41 548 57 49 9 40 62 104 12 445 3 714 34 107 60 450 41 705 34 704 34 425 11 36 56 434 43 430 5 424 43 121 60 106 60 710 34 94 31 51 46 446 28 105 35 96 24 93 . 35 437 28 454 5 702 26 97 60 444 3 555 21 98 55 66 29 119 38 421 5 554 8 5C 38 . E SI-SEX AGE 1ENCE (YRS) 02 M 9.87 CO M 5.85 03 M 9.96 00 M 10.00 03 M 10.CO 02 M 10.01 02 M 10.02 10 M 10.05 10 ¥, 10.05 02 K 10. 10 01 M 10.11 CO M 10.13 01 M 10.20 00 M 10.22 cc M 10.23 04 M 10.24 02 M 10.28 01 H 10.37 02 M 10.41 03 M 10.43 00 M 10.45 00 M 10.45 01 M 10.46 02 M 10.46 10 M 10.51 01 M 10. 56 02 M 10.64 10 M 10.65 10 H 1C.69 02 M 10.70 00 M 10. 77 02 M 10.78 02 M 10.83 02 M 10.84 01 M 10.88 01 K 10.92 10 M 10.53 01 M 10.58 00 M 10.99 02 M 10.59 01 M 10.99 01 M 11.03 01 M 11.03 02 M 11.04 02 M 11.06 10 M 11.12 01 M 11.14 02 M 11*14 03 M 11.16 01 M 11.23 00 M 11.26 01 M 11.27 02 M 11.28 03 M 11.32 00 M 11.33 TANDING SITTING sEIGHT HEIGHT (Cf-) iCHi 135.3 62.6 132.6 67.6 132.1 68.6 138.8 73.8 121.0 61. 6 13 2.6 71.1 127.6 67.3 130.5 71.1 130.5 70.1 123.6 66.8 120.8 68.3 138.5 74.3 135.0 69.6 125.6 68.6 141.3 74.3 13 8.5 72.6 126.3 67.1 130.1 69.1 134.1 70.8 130.8 68.8 133. 8 72.0 127.3 6 7.1 143.8 77.8 127. 1 69.8 136.6 74.0 133.1 71.0 134.3 71.3 135.3 71.6 134.3 71.3 134.5 65.8 137.6 70.8 13 8.5 71.8 134.3 70.5 137.6 71.8 146.6 80.6 136.1 72.6 138.0 73.6 126*0 67.3 141.8 73.5 126.5 70.5 131.1 70.0 137.1 72.0 12 8.6 69.3 132.8 69.3 137.8 73.8 143.3 76.8 137.6 74.1 133.1 68.0 137.1 70.3 137.8 71.1 125.8 70.3 136.8 72.3 122.0 69.8 141.8 72.6 141.3 74. 1 SIT/ST WEIGHT RATIO (KGJ 0.463 28.75 0.5.10 28.60 0.520 29.15 0.532 34.54 0.510 20.75 0.536 33.04 0.528 25.30 0.545 30.84 0.538 28.05 0.541 21.96 0.523 25.96 0.537 39.09 0.516 27.81 0.530 26.16 0.527 35.79 0.525 33.24 0.531 25.54 0.531 27.39 0.52 8 29.81 0.5.27 35.40 0.538 32.65 0.527 26.71 0.541 37.99 0.5.50 27.61 0.541 31.66 0.533 31.00 0.531 28.25 0.530 30.9.1 0.531 33.20 0.519 29.3 5 0.515 30.84 0.518 33.44 0.525 31.59 0.523 29.81 0.550 36.70 0.534 31.59 0.533 33.79 0.53 5 22.75 0.518 35.44 0.516 32.85 0.534 28.01 0.525 30.29 0.540 25.61 0.522 27.90 0.536 32.45 0.536 34.85 0.539 34.30 0.511 32.60 0.513 27.74 0.517 32.65 0.541 29.15 0.529 31.11 0.530 29.00 0.512 30.36 0.525 34.61 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST WEIGH" JMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (KG J CCM) (CM) 573 5 0 03 M 11.33 142.1 75.1 0.529 36.10 452 3 02 M 1-1.37 126. 1 69.3 0.550 27.54 632 69 04 M 11.39 139.3 75.6 0.543 34. 5 C 120 65 01 M 11.40 13 9.3 73.6 0.529 34. 50 42 23 00 M 11.41 - 130.3 70.1 0. 53 9 26.80 53 38 00 M 11.41 137.3 73.5 0.535 34.96 556 15 C3 M 11.46 142.1 70.6 0.49 7 34.06 113 31 01 M 11.48 143.6 75.5 0.525 36.30 423 10 02 M 11.49 139.1 72.9 0.5.24 29.15 101 60 01 M 11.57 129.6 70.3 0.542 25.50 432 5 02 M 11.58 130.8 68.5 0.524 27.15 448 11 02 K 11. 58 144.3 75.6 0.524 34. 10 449 5 02 M 11.58 13 8.1 73.6 0.534 34.85 428 73 02 K 11.61 139.3 75.8 0.544 32,65 31 38 00 M 11.63 139.8 72.6 0.520 36.19 546 57 03 M 11.63 144.6 76.3 0.52 7 42.59 90 55 01 M 11.72 133.3 73.3 0.551 32.69 52 9 00 M 11.75 12 9.6 74.3 0.533 37.51 89 65 01 M 11.77 141.8 74.0 0.521 32.60 706 34 10 M 11.85 13 9.3 74.0 0.531 37.60 433 10 02 M 11.9 4 13 5.6 70.3 0.518 26.05 112 60 01 M 11.94 145.0 76.5 0.528 35.71 558 33 03 M 11.94 145.0 77.0 0.531 38.10 62 8 69 04 M 11.95 141.3 74.6 0.528 36.50 627 36 04 M 12.01 148.8 77.1 0.518 37.40 123 60 01 M 12.04 140. 1 71.1 0.50 8 31.3.9 707 22 10 M 12.13 140.5 77.0 0.548 37.55 443 68 02 M 12. 14 137.0 73.1 0.534 28.60 115 61 01 M 12. 15 146.0 75.1 0.5.15 33.31 117 55 01 K 12.20 154.8 80.1 0.517 45.69 711 45 10 M 12.21 143.6 75.3 0.52 5 34.61 118 55 01 M 12.23 143.0 76.1 0.532 36.15 705 34 10 M 12.28 140.3 73.5 0.524 39.40 116 66 01 M 12.29 144.3 74. 6 0.517 36.54 567 16 03 M 12.31 137.8 73.3 0.532 34.8.5 440 5 02 M 12.33 142.0 74.1 0.522 35.40 560 • 1 03 M 12.37 143.1 75.1 0.526 36.41 427 5 02 M 12.41 143.3 76.1 0.531 38.19 426 5 02 M 12.42 146.5 7 7.5 C.52S 35.75 693 34 10 M 12.45 143.5 73.5 0.512 32*10 699 88 10 M 12.46 148.6 75.5 0.508 41.40 465 11 02 M 12.47 159.1 81.1 0.510 42.31 103 55 01 M 12.51 129.3 70.1 0.543 29.39 471 68 02 M 12. 52 148.1 77.3 0.522 40.46 451 68 02 M 12. 5 4 146.8 77.8 0. 53 0 37.71 629 70 04 M 12.62 147.3 78.1 0.531 40.00 43 27 00 M 12.64 143.6 78.5 0.546 36.15 630 30 04 M 12.64 147.3 78.0 0.529 41.21 700 34 10 M 12.66 156.6 82.8 0.529 46.71 479 4 02 M 12.69 139.6 74.6 0. 53 5 37.71 439 73 02 M 12.69 136.3 77.1 0.566 39.25 565 57 03 M 12.71 156.6 82.1 0.525 43.05 473 5 02 M 12. 71 147.8 79.6 0.5.3 8 48.25 698 58 10 M 12.73 148.8 81.1 0.545 39.40 561 21 03 M 12.7,3 148.5 7 7.3 0.521 36.26 CODE RES-NUMBER ERVE 43 8 71 568 75 703 37 447 41 695 34 88 65 634 65 32 38 547 48 712 34 647 30 694 34 696 34 713 34 99 60 633 3C 572 16 35 56 474 10 453 71 747 22 442 11 697 34 141 55 640 69 743 34 37 62 559 74 134 55 566 16 648 30 124 60 466 5 122 31 441 61 114 38 111 55 562 21 154 38 462 3 639 70 564 6 459 5 463 5 476 5 100 38 470 28 646 42 156 60 483 71 145 60 30 23 461 5 748 34 484 28 RES I- SEX AGE OENCE CYRS) 02 M 12.77 03 M 12.78 10 M 12.82 02 M 12.82 10 M 12*82 01 M 12.8 5 04 M 12.93 GO M 12.97 03 M 12.5 8 10 M 12.99 04 M 12.55 10 M 13.00 10 H 13.05 10 M 13.07 01 M 13.12 04 M 13.14 03 M 13.14 00 M 13.15 02 M 13.15 02 M 13.15 10 M 13.26 02 M 13.3G 10 M 13.30 CI M 13.3.1 04 M 13.3.1 10 M 13.33 GO H 13.34 03 M 13.36 01 N 13.38 03 M 13.41 04 M 13.46 01 M 13.50 02 H 13.51 01 M 13.51 02 M 13.53 01 M 13.53 01 M 13.59 03 M 13.65 01 M 13.70 C2 M 13.71 04 M 13.76 03 M 13.80 02 M 13.80 02 M 13.81 G2 H 13.85 01 M 13.88 02 M 13.91 04 M 13.98 01 M 14.G2 02 M 14.06 01 M 14.08 00 M 14.08 02 M 14.C9 10 M 14.11 02 M 14.12 TANOING SITTING HEIGHT HEIGHT (CM) (CM) 146.5 76.6 165.8 85.8 145. 8 77.3 148.8 76.6 149.6 78.3 145.8 79,1 156.3 83.6 142.6 74.6 146.1 77.0 155.0 82.3 15C.6 80.8 146.3 75.1 151.3 78.5 141.6 72.8 143.8 75.6 143.5' 78.8 152.2 80.6 160.3 83.1. 142.1 74.0 14C.6 75.0 158.6 84.3 141.8 73.5 149.1 77.3 149.8 79.3 158.G 83.1 16 0 .6 84.8 143.6 8i,l 141.0 71.6 151.8 81.1 138. 6 74.3 162.1 87.5 151.6 79.3 152. 8 80.5 143.6 73.1 145.3 75.3 128.6 65.6 153.0 82.3 144. 1 75.8 146.1 76.6 158.8 32.3 155.5 81.1 143.1 75.8 148.5 75.8 149.6 75.6 170.5 89.3 147.6 78.1 156.5 80.6 150.3 78.1 148.6 76. 8 158.1 81.6 155.6 81.8 144.3 76.1 156.8 81,6 155. 5 86. 3. 158.6 81.3 SIT/ST WEIGHT RATIO (KG) 0.523 33.55 0.517 67.50 0.5.30 41.60 0.515 41.01 0.523 41.56 0.528 40.46 0.536 51.39 0.523 35.05 0.527 3 7.2.0 0.531 47.06 0.537 46.40 0.513 36. 10 G.519 37.5.1 0.514 31.66 0.526 35.20 0.549 37.64 0.53 0 37.05 0.519 46.40 0.5.20 35.16 0.533 36.96 0.532 48.25 0.518 32.65 0.519 35.40 0.530 37.20 0.526 49.50 0.528 50.09 0.565 43.41 0.508 36.34 0.534 48.20 0.537 32.65 0.536 50.80 0.523 41.14 0.526 38.10 0.505 33.44 0.519 35.99 0.541 31.70 0.538 42.04 0.526 40.26 0.524 34.96 0.518 47.10 0.508 44.24 0.530 36.10 0.511 38.06 0.532 45,41 0.524 55.3.5 0.529 41.21 0.516 44.55 0.519 39.49 0.517 45.41 0.516 42.75 0.526 44.31 0.52 8 37.55 0.521 46.51 0.541 58.81 0.513 47. 5 C CODE RES- RE SI-NUMBER ERVE OENCE 571 57 03 749 7 10 742 34 10 478 28 02 155 60 01 635 30 04 569 57 03 649 30 04 588 57 03 458 3 02 563 21 03 744 34 10 641 70 04 741 22 10 63 8 70 04 557 16 03 701 34 10 472 5 G2 133 77 01 151 54 01 457 5 02 750 34 10 642 37 04 469 54 02 593 8 03 139 38 01 456 5 02 146 12 01 140 18 01 33 23 00 57C 50 03 464 5 02 651 30 04 467 5 02 652 42 04 596 16 03 460 88 02 598 21 03 148 51 01 63 7 70 04 597 38 03 734 34 10 739 34 10 590 57 03 138 49 01 34 23 00 153 62 01 149 60 01 477 5 02 152 39 01 480 5 02 650 70 04 482 4 02 468 71 02 736 34 10 SEX AGE STANDING (YRS) HEIGHT (CM) M 14.16 163.6 M 14.20 159.0 M 14.24 154.8 M 14.25 153.8 M 14.30 149.8 M 14.30 162.1 M 14.32 163.8 M 14.34 154.1 M 14.34 174.8 M 14.36 162.8 M 14.39 141.1 K 14.41 168.3 M 14.48 156.8 M 14.51 155.6 M 14.58 160.8 M 14.59 160.8 M 14.59 159.5 M 14.62 151.1 M 14.64 138.5 M 14.66 167.1 M 14.69 156.0 M 14.71 164.1 M 14.72 159.8 M 14.78 163.8 M 14.86 169.5 K 14.87 156.1 M 14.88 171.8 M 14.88 149.1 M 14.96 154.6 M 14.9 8 179.6 M 14.99 162.8 M 15.04 164.5 M 15.05 168.8 M 15.10 153.3 M 15.11 171.5 M 15.14 157.5 M 15.18 175.1 M 15.20 149.3 M 15.25 165.8 M 15.26 148.8 M 15.33 165.3 M 15.33 164.1 M 15.38 164.8 H 15.39 167.8 M 15.42 161.6 M 15.44 160.8 M 15.46 161.8 M 15.47 173.3 M 15.49 173.8 M 15.54 173.1 M 15.57 163.6 M 15.58 149.6 M 15. 59 15 5.3 M 15.61 172.8 M 15.62 176.0 SITTING SIT/ST WEIGHT 102 HEIGHT RATIO 1 KG J (CM) 82.8 0.506 51.15 83.8 0.528 47.45 80.1 0.518 41.84 78.3 0.509 41.36 81.1 0.541 42.15 85.1 0.526 51.50 86.8 0.530 61.80 82.6 0.536 47.81 90.3 0.517 58.61 81.8 0.502 43.80 72.8 0.516 36.89 83.1 0.493 53.11 80.1 0.511 46.31 81.5 0.559 49.65 86.5 0.538 51.30 88.1 0.548 51.81 84.8 0.532 42.55 76.6 0.507 38.35 72.6 0.524 32.01 90.1 0.539 55.59 82.6 0.52 9 48.99 86.1 0.525 57.40 84.8 0.531 42.15 86.1 0.526 49.19 87.1 0.514 58.50 78.5 0.503 37.29 89.6 0.522 57.79 77.3 0.519 36.50 79.5 0.514 43.49 94.6 0.527 73.81 85.0 0.522 49.74 87.3 0.531 49.15 89.3 0.530 55.31 77.3 0.505 41.84 91.3 0.532 57.90 83.8 0.533 48.99 91.6 0.523 55.95 80.8 0.541 41.91 85.6 0.516 51.94 80.6 0.542 41.80 86.3 0.522 50.01 88.6 0.541 54.80 84.5 0.513 53.20 88.3 0.527 54.30 84.1 0.521 47.45 86.6 0.539 57.44 86.3 0.533 51.26 92.6 0.535 60.81 91.6 0.527 59.64 90.1 0.520 66.00 83.1 0.509 50.01 81.6 0.546 42.79 81.3 0.524 48.09 91.6 0.530 50.80 92.1 0.523 68.09 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST WEIGHT JMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (KG) (CM) iCM) 587 38 03 M 15. 70 15 6.5 82.8 0.530 48.95 733 34 10 M 15.7G 168.1 88.3 0.525 58.41 455 41 02 M 15.73 161.3 83.3 0.517 46.64 589 33 03 M 15.76 171.1 92.3 0.539 57.7.1 740 22 10 M 15.51 165.3 93.5 0.552 62.35 481 41 02 15.92 158.5 79.8 0.503 47.15 135 66 01 M 16.00 16 8. 8 87.3 0.517 60.65 644 36 04 M 16.01 174.6 90.6 0.519 59.44 551 57 03 M 16.02 170.3 89.1 0.523 61.0.5 751 45 10 M 16.03 164.6 86.3 0.525 57. 90 645 69 04 K 16.08 163.8 87.6 0.535 60.74 74 5 22 10 M 16.09 156.8 84.3 0.538 50.80 753 57 10 M 16.18 166.5 89.5 0.538 55.00 475 63 02 M 16.30 160.1 84.1 0.526 45.96 595 16 03 M 16.32 16 5.0 87.8 0.533 53.04 73 7 16 10 M 16.35 171.6 90.5 0.5.27 57.99 594 57 03 M 16.37 166.0 88.6 0,534 55.59 752 16 10 M 16.42 16 5.0 87.8 0.53 2 53.00 643 36 04 M 16.43 165.3 90.3 0.533 56.25 73 5 34 10 H 16.44 173. 8 90.3 0.520 62.85 586 21 03 M 16.45 171.3 88.8 0.519 51.04 754 57 10 H 16.50 170.5 89.0 0.522 62.00 147 39 01 H 16.55 162.8 86.3 0.531 50.29 585 21 03 M 16.56 166.5 88.6 0.532 58.61 131 9 01 M 16.57 157.0 80.3 0.512 46.16 129 38 01 H 16.62 152.5 78.1 0.513 40.81 15 7 60 01 M 16.71 164.1 87.5 0.533 55.31 755 21 10 M 16. 72 172.1 89.6 0.521 52.01 655 69 04 M 16.75 163.5 86.6 0.530 61.7.1 636 70 04 M 16.75 164.6 86.0 0.522 52.65 127 23 01 M 16.76 174.0 92.1 0.529 62.15 653 36 04 M 16.78 165.5 91.3 0.539 59.99 126 23 01 H 16.85 165.6 88.1 0.532 53.50, 592 38 03 M 16.67 163.1 88. 0 0.539 55.75 654 36 04 M 16.88 17 5.5 92.6 0.528 60.50 323 21 02 M 16.52 167.6 88.6 0.528 58.61 142 55 01 M 16.92 167.1 84.5 0.506 60.54 137 18 01 M 16.93 165.5 88.8 0.537 60.50 160 38 01 F 6.01 111.1 61.1 0.551 18.00 270 3 02 F 6.05 115.8 62.6 0.541 18.46 265 43 02 F 6.09 109.1 60.8 0.558 20.31 262 2 02 F 6.10 11 CO 60.6 0.551 19.40 281 68 02 F 6.12 115.5 62.8 0.544 18.85 488 74 03 F 6.20 112.6 62.1 0.552 19.91 268 63 02 F 6.21 116.5 62.6 0.537 15.84 155 65 01 F 6.26 112.8 61.8 0.548 19.6.0 265 28 02 F 6.27 1C7.8 60.1 0.558 16.35 245 71 02 F 6.28 1C5.1 60.5. 0.555 17.36 267 3 02 F 6.32 102.5 60.6 0.591 17.01 501 74 03 F 6.33 114.5 6-1. 6 0.5.38 19.80 171 60 01 F 6.42 106.3 59.1 0.556 16.70 237 3 02 F 6.42 110.8 59.8 0.539 17.95 489 16 03 F 6.54 107.8 60.1 0.558 16.70 263 5 02 F 6.54 108.6 58.8 0.541 20.66 266 3 02 F 6.55 106.6 58.3 0.547 15.55 CODE RES-NUMBER ERVE 28 6 41 243 11 272 63 264 28 280 43 38 23 283 71 676 25 238 3 246 5 261 1G 29 65 163 55 500 1 164 55 257 5 25 8 5 682 34 284 5 487 13 158 65 256 68 166 24 244 68 678 34 506 57 275 5 168 38 259 11 172 60 250 71 276 3 260 3 680 7 44 23 46 38 677 34 249 76 47 38 253 2 502 8 170 12 279 11 274 5 162 60 278 28 239 5 251 61 674 32 247 3 246 10 24 65 511 42 27 62 679 34 RESI- SEX AGE OENCE 1YRS) 02 F 6» 59 02 F 6o60 02 F 6.64 02 F 6o64 02 F 6.64 CO F 6.66 02 F 6.66 10 F 6.67 02 F 6.68 02 F 6.73 02 F 6.74 01 F 6.89 01 F 6.94 03 F 6.97 01 F 7.03 02 F 7.17 02 F 7.17 10 F 7.26 02 F 7.27 03 F 7.29 01 F 7.34 02 F 7.38 01 F 7.38 02 F 7.47 10 F 7.50 03 F 7.51 02 F 7.56 01 F 7.58 02 F 7.59 01 F 7.65 02 F 7.68 02 F 7.74 02 F 7.74 10 F 7.82 00 F 7.84 CO F 7.84 10 F 7.89 02 F 7.90 00 F 7.95 02 F 7.96 03 F 7.98 01 F 8.01 02 F 8.11 02 F 8.16 01 F 8.17 02 F 8.18 02 F 8.23 02 F 8.26 10 F 8.27 02 F 8.28 02 F 8.29 CO F 8.31 03 F 8.32 00 F 8.36 10 F 8.41 STANDING SITTING HEIGHT HEIGHT (CM) (CM) 111.8 58.3 113.3 62.0 116.5 63.6 112.3 61.0 110.1 61.8 102.6 57.1 113.3 61.0 118.0 63.1 110.5 61.6 106.8 58.6 110.8 59.6 126.1 67.3 117.5 64.5 120.8 64.1 121.8 67.0 118.1 63.5 116.5 62.8 125.1 6 7.1 108.8 61.1 116. 8 61.5 124.8 67.1 114.5 61.1 125.5 65.8 117.3 63.3 117.8 63.6 12 5.1 6 7.1 116.8 64.6 121.1 66.1 108.6 58.1 118.6 63.1 123.6 65.8 119.5 64.6 118.5 63.6 118.6 66.8 113.0 61.1 125. 8 66.8 117.0 62.3 120.1 64.6 112.6 62.8 113.5 61.0 120.1 63.3 128.3 71.6 124.1 66.1 118.3 63.1 118.5 64.6 127.6 67.8 122.5 66.6 121.6 65.1 120.6 64.8 114.5 62.6 121.8 67.0 129. 0 69.8 13 7.1 71.8 123.0 66.5 115.3 63.3 SIT/ST WEIGHT 104 RATIO (KG) 0.522 18.00 0.547 17.60 0.546 20.86 0.543 16.61 0.562 21.30 0.557 15.80 0.538 19.80 0.535 22.24 0.558 20.46 0.548 16.94 0.538 16.94 0.534 27.90 0.549 23.69 0.531 24.40 0.550 22.51 0.537 20.11 0.540 19.80 0.537 25.50 0.562 21.05 0.527 21.69 0.538 23.80 0.534 15.99 0.525 19.40 0.540 22.75 0.540 22.20 0.537 28.91 0.553 22.24 0.546 24.24 0.535 21.01 0.532 20.20 0.532 27.35 0.541 23.69 0.537 22.70 0.563 22.31 0.541 20.55 0.531 25.61 0.533 19.25 0.538 23.41 0.557 19.69 0.537 19.40 0.527 23.21 0.558 26.95 0.533 25.70 0.534 20.20 0.546 22.31 0.531 27.06 0.544 22.66 0.535 24.71 0.538 21.14 0.547 19.65 0.550 23.10 0.542 25.89 0.523 32.41 0.541 25.65 0.549 20.15 CODE RES-NUMBER ERVE 675 45 164 55 241 28 236 11 50 5 15 254 41 271 88 285 5 176 51 683 25 169 60 509 32 6 81 34 282 68 28 56 499 57 161 55 6 04 14 20 38 41 72 25 23 296 41 273 3 188 12 311 43 3G4 5 49 5 42 242 5 167 38 277 3 291 10 252 10 179 39 48 23 292 10 191 38 315 11 516 50 290 3 23 53 313 71 289 11 684 34 607 14 497 32 300 3 512 75 494 21 298 3 496 59 498 50 685 34 2 6 56 308 5 503 52 RESI- SEX AGE DENCE (YRS) 10 F 8.42 01 F 8.43 02 F 8.47 02 F 8.53 03 F 8.62 02 F 8 . 66 02 F 8.67 02 F 8.67 10 F 8.68 10 F 8.70 01 F 8.71 03 F 8.74 10 F 8.75 02 F 8.80 00 F 8.93 03 F 8.97 01 F 8.99 04 F 9.02 00 F 9.03 00 F 9.07 00 F 9.08 02 F 9.12 02 F 9.17 01 F 9.19 02 F 9.19 02 F 9.25 03 F 9.26 02 F 9.30 01 F 9.31 02 F 9.31 02 F 9.41 02 F 9.43 01 F 9.4 5 00 F 9.47 02 F 9.48 01 F 9.56 02 F 9.56 03 F 9.60 02 F 9.60 CO F 9.76 02 F 9.77 02 F 9.82 10 F 9.83 04 F 9.83 03 F 9.89 02 F 9.92 03 F 9.95 03 F 9.96 02 F 9.97 03 F 10.02 03 F 10.03 10 F 10.06 CO F 10.08 02 F 10.17 03 F 10.17 STAfvOING SITTING HEIGHT HEIGHT (CM) (CM) 120.5 64.3 123.5 65.3 128.5 70.1 126.1 67.6 119.5 63.3 129.1 67.1 125.5 66.6 119.5 64.8 116.6 63.8 130.1 66.0 117.5 63.6 125.5 66.3 132.6 69.5 122. 8 68.1 125.6 68.6 128.0 67.3 120.6 65.3 130.1 67.8 12 6.5 68.6 134.0 71.3 132.8 72.1 121.1 69.6 127.8 68.1 131.5 69.8 12 5.6 67.3 12 5.1 66.8 142.6 73.8 119.0 63.8 131.5 68.0 122.8 64.8 132.8 74.1 115.1 64.5 132.1. 70.5 122.8 65.8 13 0.1 69.6 131.5 69.6 126.1 66.8 134.3 71.1 123.1 68.6 131.3 67.8 129.1 69.6 136.3 71.8 131.3 70.6 133.1 68.6 137.1 71.0 126.1 65.8 137.3 74.8 132.6 70.3 130.1 70.6 133.5 71.8 124.3 64.1 131.5 69.6 141.1 74.3 142. 8 78.0 13 2.3 70.0 SIT/ST WEIGHT 105 RATIO (KG) 0.53 4 22.15 0.529 21.14 0.546 26.95 0.537 24.24 0.531 23.76 0.521 23.54 0.531 27.81 0.542 23.45 0.546 19.10 0.507 22.86 0.541 20.75 0.528 23.54 0.524 25.70 0.555 22.99 0.546 28.40 0.527 27.65 0.541 21.49 0.521 31.75 0.535 29.00 0.533 34.76 0.543 28.80 0.531 28.75 0.533 27.94 0.531 28.49 0.536 25.81 0.534 25.06 0.518 35.79 0.536 18.85 0.517 28.84 0.529 21.65 0.559 30.29 0.560 19.40 0.534 32.49 0.536 26.09 0.536 27.94 0.530 38.10 0.531 23.69 0.530 34.50 0.557 25.45 0.517 27.54 0.539 29.8 5 0.526 28.36 0.538 30.21 0.515 29.90 0.517 31.50 0.5.21 25.85 0.545 34.25 0.531 30.49 0.543 26.64 0.538 29.39 0.516 24.05 0.530 29.00 0.527 37.60 0.546 35.35 0.529 32.56 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE : STANDING SITTING SIT/ST WEIGH" IMBER ERVE DENCE {YRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (KG) (CK) iCN) 606 69 04 F 10.21 134.6 73.1 0.544 26.71 295 41 02 F 10.26 127.8 67.5 0.528 27.46 690 7 10 F 10.27 120.3 6 5.6 0.534 27.90 22 23 00 F 10.29 128.1. 66.6 0.520 23.14 486 1 03 F 10.30 133.1 68.6 0.515 28.91 1 65 00 F 10.37 138.1 7-2.5 0.525 35.2 0 505 16 03 F 10.43 128.5 67.3 0.525 25.30 183 38 01 F 10.44 13 5.8 74.8 0.535 33.15 288 5 02 F 10.44 128.5 69.3 0.540 24.75 513 73 03 F 10.52 143.3 77.0 0.537 38.06 186 12 01 F 10.52 125.6 68.8 0.531 26.00 178 62 01 F 10.55 136.8 73.3 0.535 33.79 692 22 1C F 10.56 142.5 78.1 0.548 42.55 605 67 04 F 10.56 144.1 75.3 0.523 40.46 253 28 02 F 10.58 137.1 72.6 0.529 26.25 4 56 00 F 10.59 141.3 73.8 0.522 32.21 287 5 02 F 10.62 128.5 6 8.3 0.5 32 26.44 490 8 03 F 10.65 123.8 66.1 0.534 25.45 485 74 03 F 10.70 128.6 65.8 0.5.12 27.94 314 71 02 F 10.80 133.3 70.1 0.526 25.61 599 70 04 F 10.80 140. 8 74.6 0.529 36.70 491 33 03 F 10.84 143.6 74.8 0.521 34.85 295 11 02 F 10.89 140.8 73.6 0.522 34.10 691 34 10 F 10.94 145.5 79.3 0.530 59.25 294 10 02 F 11.00 131.8 71.3 0.541 28.45 307 10 02 F 11.08 127.1 69.8 0.550 24.24 343 3 02 F 1-1.12 135.5 74.0 0.530 31. 86 306 41 02 F 11.13 143.5 75.8 0.528 32.85 510 75 03 F 11.16 143. 5 75.1 0.524 35.35 301 71 02 F 11.19 140.6 76.6 0.544 30.65 18 62 00 F 11.20 148.1 78.6 0.530 41.49 514 64 03 F 11.27 151.5 78.0 0.515 40.26 508 59 03 F 11.28 144.5 75.8 0.525 36.96 312 68 02 F 11.29 151.5 78.6 0.5.19 35.90 687 7 10 F 11.32 137.6 72.1 0.524 32.85 6 02 14 04 F 11.32 145.6 78.0 0.535 34.10 7 62 00 F 11.33 142.1 76.5 0.538 38.90 492 13 03 F 11.33 142.3 74.8 0.526 31.55 685 45 10 F 11.39 148.5 76.8 0.518 38.61 333 5 02 F 11.41 144.3 74.3 0.516 32.41 608 30 04 F 11.42 145.1 78.1 0.539 33.15 305 5 02 F 11.51 13 8.0 73.8 0.535 30.65 12 65 00 F 11.54 151.3 82. 1 0.543 45.85 5 62 00 F 11.54 142.3 75.1 0.527 32.45 30 3 28 02 F 11.55 135. 8 74.6 0.534 34.61 533 57 03 F 11.6.1 146.1. 75.6 0.517 34.61 310 58 02 F 11.62 144.8 76.5 0.528 36.61 309 68 02 F 11.72 13 £. 3 73.1 0.529 33.66 686 34 10 F 11.73 152.0 78.8 0.519 35.44 16 38 00 F 11.73 142.8 76.6 0.537 48.75 531 16 03 F 11.75 144.0 76.3 0.530 35.31 194 60 01 F 11.77 147.8 79.1 0.536 40.46 187 12 01 F 11.81 124.5 67.6 0.544 23.14 181 56 01 F 11.83 147.5 76.8 0.521 37.16 688 34 10 F 11.87 147.6 77.6 0.526 36.30 CODE RES- RES I-NUMBER ERVE DENCE 526 57 03 532 8 03 517 38 03 603 70 04 515 21 03 297 5 02 318 10 02 190 38 01 601 42 04 319 15 02 302 41 02 600 30 04 189 38 01 3 62 00 518 74 03 729 34 10 717 34 10 15 38 00 722 7 10 177 60 01 623 14 04 33 0 3 02 184 24 01 326 5 02 17 62 00 493 57 03 619 69 04 2 38 00 523 57 03 19 65 GO 339 3 02 618 30 04 520 38 03 335 28 02 528 73 03 195 20 01 320 10 02 331 3 02 334 5 02 611 37 04 325 5 02 193 60 01 727 34 10 11 62 00 316 3 02 525 50 03 180 77 01 9 38 00 5 07 8 03 6 88 00 32 8 28 02 217 23 01 720 22 10 715 34 10 317 43 02 SEX AGE STANDING (YRS) HEIGHT (CM) F 11.87 152.6 F 11.89 149.6 F 11.94 140.5 F 11.98 145.8 F 12. 01 145.5 F 12.02 145.1 F 12.04 144. 5 F 12.07 14 2.3 F 12.09 140. 8 F 12.12 146.3 F 12.16 142.5 F 12.18 146.6 F 12.20 147.1 F 12.23 143.3 F 12.31 141.0 F 12.35 153.8 F 12.50 143.5 F 12.54 137.6 F 12.55 148.1 F 12. 57 145.6 F 12.61 151.8 F 12.62 142.8 F 12.67 154.5 F 12.70 155.5 F 12.77 156.3 F 12.78 151.0 F 12.79 157.8 F 12.83 146. 8 F 12.84 159.1 F 12.85 156.1 F 12.87 150.3 F 12.87 163.3 F 12.88 153.8 F 12.90 144.1 F 12.92 153.1 F 12.96 140.5 F 12.98 144.3 F 12.98 150.3 F 12.98 145.1 F 13.01 146.1 F 13.02 139.6 F 13.04 148.5 F 13.07 145.3 F 13.12 14 7.1 F 13. 13 148.6 F 13.19 153.5 F 13.19 14 7.5 F 13.22 149.3 F 13.22 153.6 F 13.23 134.1 F 13.24 162.8 F 13.28 155.6 F 13.29 15C.8 F 13.32 154.3 F 13.34 138.5 SITTING SIT/ST WEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (KG) (CM) 83.6 0.548 49.94 78.6 0.525 37. 91 75.8 0.540 36.15 78.1 0.536 35.71 77.8 0.53 5 32.85 76.6 0.528 32.49 77.6 0.53 8 36.30 72.6 0.511 39.71 74.3 0.528 35.31 76.3 0.522 36.50 74.8 0.526 32.45 78.8 0.538 34.85 77.5 0.526 38.61 79.0 0.5 51 41.14 72.8 0.516 36.10 8-1.1. 0.527 48.91 75.1 0.523 40.55 71.6 0.521 34.69 78.5 0.530 38.50 78.1 0.536 37.55 80.3 0.529 45.65 80.6 0.564 38.70 78.0 0.505 51. 5.0 81. 0 0.521 50.09 82.3 0.527 54.45 78.6 0.521 47. 81 84.8 0.537 49.50 80.3 0.548 39.91 84.6 0.531 52.69 84.6 0.542 43.14 81.1 0.540 34.65 85.3 0.522 53.75 83.8 0.546 47.45 76.1 0.52 8 34.69 81.6 0.533 45.76 73.6 0.525 31.04 78.6 0.545 42. 94 81.3 0.541 41.95 73.3 0.505 30.60 78.1 0.535 38.19 73.3 0.525 29.04 81.3 0.548 40.70 76.3 0.525 38.30 80.8 0.550 42. 11 77.8 0.524 30.69 78.6 0.513 39.64 74. 6 0.506 3 7.84 83.5 0.559 41.95 82.1 0.535 50.01 69.6 0.519 29.11 84.5 0.519 52.14 83.1 0.534 49. 19 83.1 0.5.51 51.15 81.3 0.527 42.59 72.6 0.525 32.30 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST WEIGH" JMBER ERVE DENCE iYRS) HEIGHT HEIGHT RATI G IKGI (CM) (CM) 527 33 03 F 13,35 15 7.3 75.6 0.506 45.76 617 70 04 F 13.40 158.8 87.1 0.549 53.75 3 24 11 02 F 13.41 146.1 77.6 0.531 33.90 621 67 04 F 13.46 154.1 79.5 0.516 47.26 524 50 03 F 13.46 160,8 84.5 0.525 53.86 322 63 02 F 13.46 145.6 75.6 0.520 35.90 730 34 10 F 13.48 152.6 78.6 0.515 41. 80 530 13 03 F 13.51 159.1 84.5 0.531 54.05 346 73 02 F 13.51 161.3 84.6 0.524 52.69 182 35 01 F 13.54 142.0 76.1 0.536 40. OG 14 6 00 F 13.58 149.8 79.8 0.533 44.75 341 68 02 F 13.55 153.3 82.0 0.53 5 40.15 716 34 10 F 13.62 158.1 81.6 0.517 57.31 343 68 02 F 13.62 135.6 74.1 0.531 33.44 583 74 03 F 13.65 157,6 84.6 0.5 37 48. 8G 213 18 01 F 13.69 155.5 85.0 0.547 48.05 529 21 03 F 13. 74 155.5 83.1 0.521 49. 5 C 321 28 02 F 13.79 144.8 77.0 0.53 2 40.15 723 34 10 F 13.80 156.5 81.1 0.518 49.06 210 18 01 F 13.81 156.3 82.3 0.527 52.14 329 11 02 F 13.83 157.6 82,0 0.520 54.05 368 3 02 F 13.85 154.1 80.1 0.519 45.61 192 60 01 F 13.89 145.6 76.8 0.52 7 3 8.70 13 65 00 F 13.90 157.1 86.5 0.551 52.80 357 5 02 F 13.51 148.0 78.6 0.531 38.15 613 70 04 F 13.97 152.5 81.1 0.532 45.21 337 3 02 F 14.01 155.8 82.0 0.526 42.90 625 69 04 F 14.03 152.8 81.8 0.536 44. 75 225 60 01 F 14.0 3 145.8 80.0 0.534 40.50 579 44 03 F 14.05 152. 8 79,8 0.522 45.06 327 41 02 F 14.06 155.1 82.1 0.530 47.54 3 72 68 02 F 14.06 153.0 84.3 0.552 45.30 353 71 02 F 14.09 155, 8 85.3 0.534 43.34 522 21 03 F 14.12 15 7.6 85.3 0.541 48.51 350 68 02 F 14.17 149,8 77.6 0.518 36.19 235 24 01 F 14.18 158, e 81.8 0.515 44. S5 363 11 02 F 14.20 156,1 82.1 0.526 47.26 574 1 03 F 14.25 163.8 88.3 0.540 67.14 10 62 00 F 14.26 155,1 84.1 0.542 45.85 3 5 5 4 02 F 14.26 149.8 80.0 0.534 50.16 201 18 01 F 14.29 155.1 81.5 0.525 40.04 610 70 04 F 14.30 161.1 85.6 0.532 49.15 3 67 3 02 F 14.3 0 150.8 77.3 0.5.13 37.91 205 9 01 F 14.32 157.1 86.5 0.550 45. 96 719 25 10 F 14.35 145. 5 79.1 0.530 45.25 234 18 01 F 14.41 163.6 81.5 0.498 47.41 615 70 04 F 14.46 157.5 84.6 0.537 46.35 345 41 02 F 14.46 153.6 79.3 0.516 49.39 352 5 02 F 14,48 15 8.3 84.3 0.533 45.50 33 8 11 02 F 14.51 153.1 79.6 0.521 48.25 254 5 02 F 14.52 159.1 83*1 0.523 40.00 332 10 02 F 14.52 150. 3 81.6 0,544 50. 8 0 22 8 62 01 F 14.5 5 156.3 80.1 0,512 50.80 8 23 CO F 14.56 145.6 83.3 0,557 47.10 340 68 02 F 14.58 154.1 80.5 0.522 40. 04 CODE RES-NUMBER ERVE 185 60 718 22 620 70 580 21 521 50 724 34 200 39 222 4 0 622 69 624 69 232 60 351 11 216 55 220 12 336 15 212 49 344 3 173 20 207 40 72 8 58 206 9 202 38 175 60 348 41 581 6 609 36 174 24 229 38 366 73 577^ 19 575 16 198 23 3 59 10 349 68 22 6 60 616 42 371 5 726 34 224 60 347 5 614 70 369 11 219 60 223 60 358 11 731 34 360 5 626 70 578 57 519 21 36 5 5 356 5 362 43 230 60 214 27 RESI- SEX AGE DENCE CYRS) 01 F 14o60 10 F 14.61 04 F 14.65 03 F 14.69 03 F 14.73 10 F 14.76 01 F 14.82 01 F 14.89 04 F 14.90 04 F 14.90 01 F 14.91 02 F 14.92 01 F 14.97 01 F 14.97 02 F 15.02 01 F 15.03 02 F 15.05 01 F 15.06 01 F 15.10 10 F 15.12 01 F 15.15 01 F 15.18 10 F 15.34 02 F 15.35 03 F 15.39 04 F 15.40 01 F 15.45 01 F 15.45 02 F 15.47 03 F 15.55 03 F 15.55 01 F 15.57 02 F 15.61 02 F 15.61 01 F 15.61 04 F 15.65 02 F 15.70 10 F 15.74 01 F 15.74 02 F 15.79 04 F 15.81 02 F 15.84 01 F 15.88 01 F 15.91 02 F 16.00 10 F 16.03 02 F 16.04 04 F 16.05 03 F 16.0 5 03 F 16.10 02 F 16.14 02 F 16.14 02 F 1-6.15 01 F 16.18 01 F 16.18 iC SITTING (EIGHT HEIGHT {CM) (CM) 147.0 79.3 155.6 87.6 160.6 84.3 152.3 81.8 159.6 82.8 159.0 83.5 157.3 85.3 159.6 85.0 154.0 82.8 155.5 83.1 167.5 88.1 156.6. 86.1 161.8 85.8 151.5 79.6 155.3 71.6 163.0 87.5 156.8 86. 0 154.5 81.1 153.5 8 5.0 167.5 88.5 154.1 81.1 14 6.5 79.6. 155.6 83.1 149.1 82.8 159.6 82.6 156.0 84.6 15 2.8 81.0 154.8 82.5 164.3 87.1 164. 6 87.5 156.6 82.8 151.6 84.5 146.3 79.6 157.8 84.1 152.1 82. 5 152.0 82.1 162.1 83.6 158.3 85.1 154.3 80.8 157.8 81.3 150.8 8 2.8 165.6 86.3 152.1 83.1 156.5 84.1 151.3 82.5 159.5 85.8 154.1 83.6 148.8 78.6 162.8 86. 8 148.5 81.6 154.3 80.8 148.6 81.6 153.8 82.6 149.5 82.6 154.8 82.6 SIT/ST WEIGHT 109 RATIO {KG) 0.539 45.21 0.563 59.71 0.525 54.34 0.538 48.99 0.519 48.71 0.52 5 68.20 0.542 50.64 0.532 59.95 0.538 50.60 0.535 51.81 0.52 7 57.44 0.550 48.99 0.530 54.01 0.526 41.21 0.461 45.61 0.537 64.31 •0.5.48 60.10 0.526 52.29 0,554 50.09 0.528 47.19 0.526 50.75 0.544 45.14 0.5.3 5 54.01 0.556 54.21 0.518 60.46 0.542 50.25 0.5.30 51.59 0.5.33 48.51 0.531 60.50 0.5.31 52,76 0.528 50.01 0.557 56.41 0.544 48.55 0.533 48.7.1 0.542 50.7.1 0.541 46.71 0.516 43.01 0.537 46,05 0.523 46.31 0.515 40.26 0. 549 54. 14 0.521 55.66 0.546 50.20 0.538 51.11 0.545 46.16 0.538 48.40 0.543 53.55 0.528 46.75 0.533 46.79 0.550 43.89 0.524 49.19 0.550 45.61 0.537 49.94 0.553 44.90 0.534 49.30 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE STANDING SITTING SIT/ST WEIGH JM8ER ERVE DENCE (YRS J HEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO (KG) (CM) (CM) 203 38 01 F 16.22 143.0 77.8 0.544 47.70 221 20 01 F 16.23 155.8 83.6 0.537 42.3 5 72 5 34 10 F 16.24 154.3 81.3 0.527 51.90 233 18 01 F 16.30 155.1 85.1 0.545 60.1C 218 56 01 F 16.33 167.6 87.1 0.520 57.20 370 76 02 F 16.38 159.3 85.6 0.537 46.75 231 60 01 F 16.35 155.5 84.1 0.541 56.69 215 18 01 F 16.47 160.3 90.0 0.561 65.05 227 39 01 F 16.47 162.5 89.1 0.549 56.80 21 23 CO F 16.52 151.0 84. 1 0.557 55.75 364 68 02 F 16.57 152.1 82.8 0.545 47.85 576 57 03 F 16.59 166.6 86.1 0.517 55.86 197 65 01 F 16.71 163.5 88.1 0.539 62.46 612 70 04 F 16.78 156.8 84.6 0.540 57.79 361 28 02 F 16.85 155.1 84.6 0.546 53.00 208 56 01 F 16.89 155.1 83.6 0.5 25 52.01 584 33 03 F 16.91 152.6 79.6 0.522 51. 15 721 25 10 F 16.93 155.6 84.0 0.526 54.01 209 12 01 F 16.93 157.3 85.0 0.540 56.45 Ill APPENDIX B SKINFOLD THICKNESSES (sorted according to sex and age) Code Number 411 78 71 390 407 656 68 408 378 383 410 76 84 385 406 73 659 666 409 81 541 384 74 404 395 387 658 75 413 419 417 83 53 9 412 386 63 394 416 418 414 536 392 415 393 87 661 660 376 70 389 69 537 402 400 Bes- Besi- Sex Age * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * erve dence (yrs) Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (ram) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 3 02 n 6.00 7. 1 173 3.9 133 4.8 4.2 55 01 M 6.02 9.5 189 6. 1 164 8.5 6.9 60 01 M 6.08 6. 8 170 4.4 142 4.3 4.5 3 02 M 6.09 7.4 175 4. 1 137 5.0 4.4 43 02 M 6. 10 5.4 156 4.0 135 4.0 6.3 34 10 H 6.13 7. 8 178 5. 1 152 5.6 5.6 23 00 M 6. 14 5. 8 161 4.6 145 4.8 5.2 5 02 M 6. 15 5.2 154 3.9 133 3.9 4.0 43 02 fl 6.19 6.4 167 4.5 144 4.3 7.3 5 02 M 6.25 6.2 165 4.3 140 4.3 4.2 76 02 M 6. 40 5.0 151 4.2 139 3.1 4.6 38 01 H 6.41 8.0 180 5.2 154 6.0 6. 1 55 01 M 6.44 10.4 194 6.2 165 6.5 7.1 76 02 M 6.49 5.4 156 4.6 145 3.4 4.8 76 02 M 6.61 5.4 156 3,6 126 3.5 4.3 38 01 M 6.63 7.0 172 4.4 142 5.0 5.0 7 10 M 6.65 7. 6 177 5.0 151 4.4 5.4 25 10 M 6.65 6.6 169 5.3 155 3.9 4.8 3 02 6.66 9.3 188 5.4 156 3.8 5. 8 65 01 M 6.70 10. 2 193 6.0 163 7.1 10.3 42 03 M 6.72 7.5 176 6.0 163 4.7 8.0 3 02 M 6.75 9.4 189 5.5 157 3.9 5. 9 60 01 a 6.77 8.3 182 6.0 163 6w1 6. 8 63 02 B 6.81 7.4 175 5.2 154 5.0 7.2 2 02 H 6.82 5.9 162 4.5 144 5.3 5.0 3 02 M 6.87 5. 1 152 4.0 135 3.5 4.5 88 10 H 6.89 8.2 181 4.2 139 4.9 4.8 24 01 M 6.97 7.9 179 4.8 148 4.5 5.2 3 02 M 7.03 4.8 148 3.7 128 3.3 4.3 76 02 M 7.11 3.3 118 4. 1 137 3. 1 4.8 5 02 M 7. 15 5.0 151 4.3 140 3.9 4. 2 55 01 E 7. 17 5. 5 157 4.7 147 3.0 4.5 32 03 H 7. 19 7.0 172 4.8 148 5.0 4.8 5 02 7.20 5.0 151 3.6 126 3.5 4. 1 5 02 B 7.20 5.9 162 4.0 135 3.9 4.4 62 00 7. 35 7.5 176 5.4 156 5.7 6.0 10 02 E 7.44 4. 1 137 4.6 14 5 3.8 4.6 10 02 M 7.44 4. 0 135 4.4 142 3.5 4.4 5 02 M 7.45 3.6 126 4.0 135 3.0 4. 1 71 02 M 7.47 6.4 167 4.2 139 4.6 4. 3 1 03 H 7.52 6.4 167 5.0 151 4.0 5.2 71 02 a 7.56 6.6 169 4.4 142 4.5 4.9 11 02 M 7.65 4.9 150 4. 1 137 3.0 3.7 11 02 H 7.74 5.5 157 4.2 139 3.1 4.0 12 01 M 7.87 5.9 162 5.8 161 5.4 5.5 26 10 M 7.89 6.5 168 5.2 154 4.2 6.0 26 10 M 7.89 7.0 172 4. 9 150 4.3 6.0 5 02 H 7.90 5. 8 161 4.4 142 4.2 4.6 38 00 .H 7.94 8.5 183 6.0 163 6.1 8.4 43 02 H 7. 96 7.2 174 5.6 158 5.1 5.4 46 00 M 7.96 5. 1 152 4.4 142 4.9 5.8 21 03 M 8.01 10. 1 192 6.4 167 6.0 7.0 28 02 M 8.07 7.8 178 4. 1 137 4.5 5.2 3 02 M 8.08 6.8 170 5.4 156 3.5 4.7 Code Bes- Resi Sex Age * * * * Skinfold Thickness * 4 * * imber erve dence (yrs) Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 53 8 16 03 M 8.12 5. 1 152 4.5 144 4.0 4.4 399 3 02 M 8. 13 6. 0 163 4.4 142 4.1 3.9 544 74 03 M 8.13 7.6 177 6.1 164 7.0 6.0 657 25 10 M 8.14 6. 2 165' 4.8 148 4.5 5.6 67 6 00 M 8.15 7.3 175 5. 8 161 7.3 6.0 72 38 01 M 8.16 5.5 157 4.4 142 4.0 4. 4 85 65 01 M 8. 17 6. 9 171 5.2 154 6.8 6.5 77 60 01 M 8. 18 8.0 180 5.4 156 6,4 7.3 377 28 02 M 8.25 5.6 158 4. 6 145 3.2 4.2 60 38 00 M 8.30 5. 8 161 5. 1 152 3.4 5. 8 667 34 10 H 8. 31 8. 0 180 5.4 156 4.7 5.2 669 34 10 M 8.36 7.7 178 6.3 166 5.0 7.4 662 58 10 8.39 8.9 186 5. 1 152 6.3 5.5 397 43 02 M 8.40 6.3 166 4.4 142 3.4 5.0 79 55 01 M 8.40 7, 5 176 5.4 156 5. 1 5.7 54 3 73 03 M 8.41 6,6 169 5.3 155 4.4 5.6 374 71 02 M 8.44 6.3 166 4.8 148 5.1 4.9 86 55 01 M 8.48 7.0 172 5.3 155 6.4 5.4 379 68 02 M 8.50 6. 1 164 5.4 156 3.9 5.9 540 74 03 M 8.58 11.6 200 7.7 178 6.8 7.9 542 59 03 8.67 5.6 158 4.9 150 5.6 5.5 82 60 01 a 8.70 11.0 197 7. 2 174 7.2 10.6 40 3 5 02 8.80 4.4 142 4.0 135 2.5 4.4 545 33 03 M 8.87 8.4 182 5. 1 152 4.8 5.6 664 34 10 a 8.97 4.6 145 4.5 144 3.4 5.3 54 62 00 M 8.99 10.5 194 7. 8 178 7.0 7.9 102 24 01 M 9.0 3 6. 1 164 5.1 152 3.2 4.7 551 57 03 M 9.04 8.3 182 6.6 169 3.3 5.3 373 43 02 M 9.05 6. 1 164 5.4 156 4.4 4.6 553 1 03 H 9.09 7.2 174 5.0 151 3.7 4. 9 66 5 7 10 M 9.10 6.3 166 4.6 145 3.4 5.4 57 65 00 M 9.12 8.3 182 6.0 163 5.7 6.6 405 10 02 M 9. 13 6. 8 170 5.3 155 4.0 5.9 80 60 01 B 9.14 8.1 180 5. 2 154 4.9 6.8 61 38 00 M 9. 14 5. 1 152 4.2 139 2.9 4.4 550 57 03 & 9.18 5. 4 156 5.8 161 3.6 4.8 673 45 10 M 9.31 6.3 166 4.2 139 3.9 5.0 396 5 02 M 9.33 3.4 121 4.0 135 3,0 3.5 388 5 02 M 9.37 5.5 157 5.6 158 5.0 7.2 380 2 02 M 9.43 7.0 172 5.8 161 - 4.1 7.7 62 38 00 H 9.45 10.5 194 6.0 163 7.2 9.6 552 16 03 M 9.46 4.8 148 4.4 142 2.9 5. 1 56 56 00 H 9.48 8.0 180 5.5 157 5.0 5.1 668 34 10 M 9,55 9.4 189 5.7 160 4.8 7.0 65 62 00 M 9.55 6.2 165 5.8 161 4.8 6.1 92 18 01 H 9.59 6.5 168 4.8 148 3.8 5.2 672 37 10 M 9.59 7.3 175 7.2 174 5.2 8.6 436 4 3 02 M 9.59 5.3 155 4.9 . 150 4.2 5.4 375 5 02 H 9.64 5.6 158 4.4 142 3.6 4.5 663 34 10 H 9.65 8.2 181 6.7 170 4.0 9.4 671 26 10 H 9.65 9.2 187 4.6 145 5.0 6.3 382 3 02 A 9.66 5.9 162 4.4 142 5.0 4.7 535 8 03 « 9.70 6.6 169 4.9 150 5.1 5.2 401 28 02 9.72 8.6 184 5.9 162 6.0 8. 1 113 Code Pes- Resi- Sex Age Number erve deuce (yrs) 9 1 38 01 M 9.82 420 5 02 B 9.86 429 63 02 H 9.87 64 38 00 M 9.89 549 57 03 M 9.96 39 23 00 M 10.00 534 21 03 M 10.00 422 41 02 10.01 391 41 02 a 10.02 708 34 10 E 10.05 670 34 10 M 10.05 398 68 02 M 10. 10 110 18 01 M 10.11 55 72 00 .(1 10.13 95 60 01 M 10.20 58 38 00 X 10. 22 59 65 00 M 10. 23 631 69 04 M 10.24 431 3 02 M 10.28 108 60 01 H 10.37 435 41 02 tt 10.41 548 57 03 H 10. 43 49 9 00 M 10.45 40 62 00 M 10.45 104 12 01 M 10.46 445 3 02 M 10.46 714 34 10 M 10.51 107 60 01 M 10.56 450 41 02 tt 10.64 709 34 10 M 10.65 704 34 10 a 10.69 425 11 02 M 10.70 36 56 00 fl 10.77 434 43 02 H 10.78 430 5 02 M 10.83 424 43 02 a 10.84 121 60 01 M 10.88 106 60 01 M 10.92 710 34 10 M 10. 93 94 31 01 B 10.98 51 46 00 M 10.99 446 28 02 M 10.99 105 35 01 M 10.99 96 24 01 H 11.03 9 3 35 01 fl 11.03 437 28 02 H 11.04 454 5 02 M 11.06 702 26 10 M 11.12 97 60 01 M 11.14 444 3 02 H 11.14 555 21 03 H 11.16 98 55 01 JS 11.23 66 29 00 a 11.26 119 38 01 a 11.27 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 6.4 167 4.2 139 3.6 4.4 7.5 176 5.9 162 6.3 8.6 7.8 178 4.9 150 3.5 6.7 8. 6 184 7.4 175 6.9 13.4 6.3 166 5.3 155 4.6 5.5 9.0 186 6,0 163 5.1 6.4 6.3 166 4.9 150 3.0 4.2 5.2 154 6,2 165 4.5 6.2 5. 1 152 5.0 151 3.5 5.4 9.0 186 5.6 158 4.4 7.4 7.4 175 6.0 163 5.0 8,9 11.3 198 5.9 162 5.5 8.4 6. 1 164 5. 1 152 4.3 6.4 15.4 214 10.2 193 10.8 15.6 6.2 165 4.8 148 4.0 5.2 9.0 186 6.4 167 7.2 6.0 10. 1 192 6.2 165 6.9 8.4 6.6 169 6.4 167 5.4 5.4 5.5 157 4.3 140 3.0 4.0 9. 8 191 5.5 157 5.8 5.9 5. 6 158 5.0 151 4.2 4.3 11.3 198 9.4 189 7.3 10.3 7.9 179 6.2 165 5.6 10.0 6.6 169 4.8 148 4.9 5.0 10.0 192 7. 1 173 5.8 5.7 6. 0 163 4.6 145 6.3 5.2 8.0 180 6.0 163 5.4 6.0 8.5 183 6.0 163 6.2 6.3 6.2 165 5. 1 152 4.5 5.3 7.7 178 6.3 166 4.8 7.6 8.3 182 6.0 163 '4.4 6,2 4.7 147 4.4 142 3.4 6.1 10.0 192 7.3 175 6.6 12.5 5.0 151 5. 2 154 3.6 5.7 8.4 182 5.6 158 3.6 5.7 7.2 174 5.7 160 5.2 5.2 9.5 189 6.4 167 8.3 8.9 7.2 174 5.7 160 4.4 5.7 8.4 182 7.6 177 5.5 6.5 6.2 165 5.4 156 3.3 5. 3 8. 8 185 6.0 163 5.4 8.4 8.5 183 7.0 172 5.7 8.8 9.7 190 6.2 165 6.1 6.3 6. 1 164 4.3 140 2.8 4.7 6.5 168 4.7 147 4.3 4.3 4.2 139 4. 3 140 3.0 4.5 6.9 171 5.3 155 6.2 6. 1 6.2 165 5.0 151 4.4 6. 3 9.4 189 6.4 167 6.9 7.4 8.4 182 6.2 165 5.0 5.7 5. 3 155 4.6 145 4.0 4.8 10.2 193 8.0 180 6.0 8. 3 10. 3 193 8.2 181 9.6 10.2 7. 1 173 5.4 156 6.2 5.7 Code Number 421 554 50 573 45 2 63 2 120 42 5 3 556 113 423 101 432 448 449 428 31 546 90 52 89 706 433 112 55 8 628 627 123 707 443 115 117 711 118 705 116 567 440 560 427 426 693 699 465 103 471 451 629 43 630 700 479 43 9 Res- Resi- Sex Age * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * erve dence (yrs) Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 5 02 B 11.28 7. 1 173 5.8 161 3.5 6.7 8 03 B 11.32 7.8 178 5.5 157 4.1 6.6 38 00 B 11.33 8.3 182 6.2 165 6.6 9.0 50 03 M 11.33 6.7 170 6.0 163 4.4 6.2 3 02 M 11.37 5.0 151 4. 2 139 4.3 4.5 69 04 B 11.39 8.4 182 6.3 166 6.1 7. 9 65 01 M 11.40 8.9 186 5.8 161 7.7 7.6 23 00 M 11.41 6.6 169 5.6 158 4.6 6.8 38 00 H 11.41 10. 3 193 6.2 165 8.4 7.5 15 03 H 11.46 5.6 158 4.8 148 2.8 6.0 31 01 M 11.48 8.5 183 7.3 175 7.0 9.4 10 02 B 11.49 5. 1 152 4.3 140 3.3 4.4 60 01 M 11. 57 5.6 158 4.2 139 2.6 4.2 5 02 M 1 1.58 4.9 150 5. 8 161 4.0 5.7 11 02 B 11.58 6.5 168 4.8 148 4.1 7. 1 5 02 B 11.58 8.6 184 7.3 175 4.4 7.8 73 02 B 11.61 6.2 165 5.6 158 4.5 5.2 38 00 B 11.63 9.4 189 7.5 176 7.2 14.4 57 03 B 11.63 9.2 187 7.3 175 6.0 7.6 55 01 B 11.72 7. 1 173 6.0 163 4.2 6. 2 9 00 B 11.75 9.0 186 9. 1 187 7.8 14.2 65 01 B 11.77 6.6 169 4.6 145 3.2 4.2 34 10 M 11.85 13.5 207 10.6 195 7.3 8.4 10 02 B 11.94 6. 1 164 4.8 148 3.9 5.6 60 01 M 11.94 10.2 193 6.3 166 7.5 7.7 33 03 B 11.94 7.8 178 7.0 172 4.8 9.3 69 04 B 11.95 6.7 170 7.0 172 4.8 6.8 36 04 B 12.01 10.4 194 7.0 172 4.8 7.5 60 01 n 12.04 6.4 167 4.9 150 5.0 5.5 22 10 B 12.13 7.0 172 6.5 168 5.3 7.6 68 02 B 12. 14 7.7 178 5.9 162 5.1 6.2 61 01 M 12.15 6.0 163 4.7 147 5.7 4.2 55 01 B 12.20 7.5 176 6. 1 164 5.1 7.7 45 10 B 12.21 5.4 156 5.7 160 3.4 6.6 55 01 B 12. 23 11.0 197 7.5 176 5.6 6.4 34 10 B 12.28 8.4 182 8.7 184 6.8 10.7 66 01 M 12.29 8.9 186 7.8 178 8.0 7. 1 16 03 M 12.31 7. 1 173 7.2 174 5.0 9.1 5 02 M 12.33 4.5 144 4.6 145 3.4 4.8 1 03 M 12.37 8.2 181 7. 1 173 5.0 9.5 5 02 B 12.41 7.4 175 6.6 169 6.1 8.6 5 02 B 12.42 8.7 184 5.8 161 5.8 6.8 34 10 B 12.45 4.1 137 4.7 147 3.0 4.9 88 10 B 12.46 10.6 195 8.3 182 8.2 12. 3 11 02 M 12.47 6.9 171 5.4 156 3.5 5.7 55 01 B 12.51 6.5 168 5.0 151 3.3 4.9 68 02 B 12.52 9.2 187 8. 2 181 4.3 10.4 68 02 B 12.54 4.5 144 4.9 150 2.9 5.2 70 04 B 12.62 8.2 181 7.0 172 4.8 7.4 27 00 B 12.64 5.2 154 5. 6 158 4.1 » 6.4 30 04 B 12.64 5.3 155 6.0 163 4.8 6.6 34 10 M 12.66 8.4 182 5. 2 154 6.0 7.8 4 02 M 12.69 5.0 151 5.5 157 3.3 6.0 73 02 M 12.69 6.2 165 5.5 157 6. 1 5.9 Code Res- Resi- Sex Age Number erve dence (yrs) 565 57 03 M 12.71 473 5 02 M 12.71 698 58 10 M 12.73 561 21 03 M 12.73 438 71 02 M 12.77 568 75 03 H 12.78 703 37 10 M 12.82 447 41 02 M 12.82 695 34 10 M 12.82 88 65 01 H 12.85 634 69 04 M 12.93 3 2 38 00 M 12.97 547 48 03 M 12.98 712 34 10 .H 12.99 647 30 04 a 12.99 694 34 10 H 13.00 696 34 10 13.05 713 34 10 H 13.07 99 60 01 a 13.12 633 30 04 J3 13.14 57 2 16 03 H 13.14 35 56 00 M 13. 15 474 10 02 M 13. 15 453 71 02 M 13.15 747 22 10 M 13.26 442 11 02 H 13.30 697 34 10 M 13. 30 141 55 01 M 13.31 640 69 04 H 13.31 743 34 10 •M 13.33 37 62 00 M 13.34 559 74 03 M 13.36 134 55 01 H 13.38 566 16 03 a 13.41 648 30 04 H 13.46 124 60 01 H 13.50 466 5 02 M 13.51 122 31 01 M 13.51 441 61 02 fl 13.53 114 38 01 R 13.53 111 55 01 M 13.59 562 21 0 3 M 13.65 154 38 01 M 13.70 462 3 02 M 13.71 639 70 04 M 13.76 564 6 03 M 13.80 459 5 02 H 13.80 46 3 5 02 M 13.81 476 5 02 fl 13.85 100 38 01 fl 13.88 470 28 02 M 13.91 646 42 04 fl 13.98 156 60 01 M 14.02 483 71 02 M 14.06 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 7.6 177 5. 8 161 4.0 6.4 8.0 180 8.3 182 6.2 9.8 6,0 163 5.4 156 3.3 6.0 6.5 168 5. 8 161 4.0 7. 1 5. 9 162 5. 2 154 3.5 6.3 17.3 220 14. 4 211 11.6 22. 4 6.5 168 7.4 175 4.5 8.5 8.5 183 6. 0 163 6.0 8.6 9. 2 187 6.6 169 5.5 8.0 7.5 176 6. 1 164 4.4 7. 1 9.2 187 9.2 187 5.6 15.8 6. 3 166 5. 5 157 3.9 6.5 7.7 178 6.6 169 4.0 9.3 6.0 163 5. 8 161 3.4 7.0 9.3 188 8.3 182 6.3 8.3 5.7 160 5. 1 152 3.4 6.8 6.5 168 6. 1 164 4.8 6.9 6.5 168 5. 1 152 4.2 5.3 7.6 177 6.9 171 6.7 7.6 6.3 166 5. 1 152 3.2 5.8 4,7 147 5.3 155 3.9 6.5 5,9 162 6.0 163 4.8 7.5 5.5 157 5.3 155 3.4 5.6 10.4 194 7. 8 178 7.8 13.6 7.0 172 8.0 180 3.6 7.6 5.5 157 4.9 150 3.6 4.6 6,2 165 5.4 156 3.9 6.4 7.2 174 5. 8 161 5.5 6.6 6.4 167 8.4 182 4.4 9.3 6.6 169 6.5 168 4.2 7.9 6.9 171 7.6 177 6.6 11.5 7.7 178 7.3 175 5.0 7.3 7.2 174 6. 4 167 4.3 7.6 6.6 169 5. 2 154 3.4 5.5 6. 1 164 5.9 162 3.7 6.0 7. 5 176 6. 1 164 5.2 7.8 6.3 166 5.9 162 3.1 5.6 9.2 187 6.9 171 6.7 8. 1 7. 5 176 5,4 156 4.0 6.8 10.4 194 8. 0 180 7.4 9.0 8.7 184 7.6 177 6.3 9.5 8.6 184 7. 2 174 4.7 9.6 6.7 170 5.0 151 4.8 4.9 8. 4 182 6.9 171 5.6 7.8 4.4 142 5.4 156 3.0 5.2 5.2 154 4. 8 148 3.1 5.7 7.6 177 6.4 167 5.1 9.9 8. 1 180 7, 2 174 4.7 7.8 4.3 140 7.2 174 3.5 8.7 6.8 170 5.4 156 3.7 5.4 7,2 174 5.7 160 5.2 7.2 6.7 170 5. 1 152 3.3 5.7 8. 8 185 8.5 183 6.7 9.5 6.9 171 6, 0 163 3.0 6. 1 Code Bes- Besi- Sex Age * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Number erve dence (yrs) Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 145 60 01 M 14.08 7.3 175 5.3 155 4.0 6. 1 30 23 00 M 14.08 5.0 151 5. 3 155 4.5 5.7 461 5 02 M 14.09 4.8 148 5. 6 158 3.4 7.2 748 34 10 M 14. 11 11.4 199 8.0 180 7.1 11.0 484 28 02 M 14. 12 5.6 158 5.1 152 2.9 5.4 571 57 03 M 14. 16 8.0 180 6. 2 165 4.0 10.3 749 7 10 M 14. 20 7.0 172 5.7 160 4.0 7.0 742 34 10 H 14.24 6.4 167 6.2 165 4.3 6.4 478 28 02 M 14. 25 6. 4 167 5. 7 160 3.9 6.2 155 60 01 M 14.30 7. 0 172 6.3 166 4.6 5.0 635 30 04 fl 14.30 7.8 178 5.8 161 5.5 6.8 569 57 03 M 14.32 11.5 199 10.4 194 4.4 18.2 649 30 04 fl 14. 34 4.5 144 5.4 156 3.3 5.4 588 57 03 M 14.34 8. 8 185 8.0 180 4.1 8. 3 458 3 02 H 14.36 5.3 155 5. 3 155 3.0 4.4 563 21 03 M 14.39 10. 6 195 9. 1 187 6.0 11.0 744 34 10 M 14.41 7.7 178 7.2 174 5.7 10.0 641 70 04 M 14.48 6.2 165 6. 6 169 3.9 7. 2 741 22 10 M 14.51 6.4 167 6.8 170 3.6 7.0 638 70 04 M 14.58 5.0 151 5. 3 155 3.7 6.0 557 16 03 M 14.59 7.4 175 7.2 174 3.7 6.9 701 34 10 M 14.59 6.7 170 6.5 168 4.4 6. 1 472 5 02 fl 14.62 7.6 177 5.5 157 3.6 7.0 133 77 01 M 14.64 8.6 184 7.6 177 5.1 9.0 151 54 01 M 14.66 7. 3 175 6.7 170 4.0 5.5 457 5 02 M 14.69 5. 8 161 6.0 163 6.1 6. 8 750 34 10 M 14.71 6. 3 166 8.2 181 4.4 8.0 642 37 04 M 14.72 5. 8 161 5.4 156 4.3 6. 1 469 54 02 fl 14.78 6. 3 166 6. 4 167 4.0 9.9 593 8 03 H 14.86 8.1 180 7.7 178 5.5 10.0 139 38 01 a 14.87 4.7 147 4.8 148 3.9 4.6 456 5 02 M 14.88 8.9 186 8.0 180 5.6 10.6 '146 12 01 a 14.88 5.3 155 5.4 156 3.7 6. 1 140 18 01 14.96 9.2 187 5.3 155 5.0 7.0 33 23 00 M 14.98 7.0 172 5.3 155 10.7 15.8 570 50 03 fl 14.99 6.0 163 5.7 160 3.5 7.8 464 5 02 H 15.04 4.5 144 6. 0 163 3.0 7.0 651 30 04 fl 15.05 4.3 140 6.3 166 3.7 6. 2 467 5 02 M 15. 10 4. 8 148 6.1 164 3.3 5.6 652 42 04 M 15. 11 5.7 160 6.9 171 3.8 7.3 596 16 03 H 15. 14 6.2 165 7. 2 174 3.4 6.4 460 88 02 M 15.18 6.2 165 6.5 168 4.2 5.7 598 21 03 M 15.20 6.5 168 6.9 171 4.4 13.4 148 51 01 M 15.25 5. 2 154 6.0 163 3.5 6. 1 637 70 04 fl 15.26 6.4 167 6. 8 170 4.3 13.3 597 38 03 M 15.33 6.3 166 7. 1 173 3.5 6.2 734 34 10 M 15. 33 6. 0 163 7.9 179 3.8 6.6 7 39 34 10 M 15.38 5.4 156 7.0 172 3.8 7. 1 590 57 03 M 15. 39 4.4 142 6.2 165 3.5 6.3 138 49 01 M 15.42 5.8 161 5. 2 154 3.5 5.2 34 23 00 M 15.44 4. 8 148 8.0 180 4.2 13.0 153 62 01 M 15.46 6.2 165 6.5 168 3.2 9.3 149 60 01 fl 15.47 9.0 186 9.6 190 5.2 9.6 477 5 02 M 15.49 6.2 165 7.2 174 4.1 8. 8 Code Res- Resi- Sex Age Number erve dence (yrs) 152 39 01 M 15.54 480 5 02 H 15.57 650 70 04 M 15.58 482 4 02 M 15.59 468 71 02 M 15.61 736 34 10 H 15.62 587 38 03 M 15.70 733 34 10 H 15.70 455 41 02 M 15.73 589 33 03 M 15.76 74 0 22 10 M 15.91 481 41 02 M 15.92 135 66 01 M 16.00 644 36 04 a 16.01 591 57 03 a 16.02 751 45 10 a 16.03 645 69 04 M 16.08 745 22 10 M 16.09 753 57 10 M 16. 18 475 63 02 M 16.30 595 16 03 M 16. 32 737 16 10 fl 16.35 594 57 03 H 16.37 752 16 10 M 16.42 643 36 04 n 16.43 735 34 10 & 16.44 586 21 03 M 16.45 754 57 10 M 16.50 147 39 01 H 16.55 585 21 03 M 16. 56 131 9 01 M 16.57 129 38 01 M 16.62 157 60 01 H 16.71 755 21 10 M 16.72 655 69 04 B 16.75 636 70 04 H 16.75 127 23 01 M 16.76 653 36 04 « 16.78 126 23 01 H 16.85 592 38 03 H 16. 87 654 36 04 H 16.88 323 21 02 H 16.92 142 55 01 .H 16. 92 137 18 01 M 16.93 160 38 01 F 6.01 270 3 02 F 6.05 269 43 02 .F 6.09 262 2 02 F 6.10 28 1 68 02 3? 6.12 488 74 03 F 6.20 268 63 02 F 6.21 159 65 01 F 6.26 265 28 02 F 6.27 245 71 02 F 6.28 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra [mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 5, 8 161 8.0 180 3.6 6.6 8.6 184 8.2 181 5.9 10.2 6.0 163 6.9 171 4.4 13.4 5.5 157 5.8 161 3.3 5.3 5. 5 157 5.9 162 3.7 5.9 5.5 157 6.2 165 3.3 6.8 6. 1 164 7.0 172 3.3 6.3 6.5 168 7.2 174 4.7 8. 5 5.4 156 4.6 145 2.7 4.8 5.6 158 6.8 170 3.7 7. 2 4.3 140 5.7 160 3.0 5.0 7.3 175 7.6 177 4.3 9.5 7.9 179 12.6 204 4.5 11.3 5.0 151 6. 8 170 4.1 6.5 7.3 175 7,3 175 3.6 12.2 8.0 180 8. 8 185 4.5 7.7 5.6 158 7.3 175 4.0 8.0 5.2 154 7.2 174 3.6 5.3 7. 6 177 7.2 174 4.7 8. 1 6. 4 167 7.8 178 3.2 7.6 5.6 158 7.1 173 3.5 9.6 5.4 156 7.0 172 3.8 9.4 7. 5 176 7. 1 173 4.6 8.0 5.5 157 7.0 172 3.4 9. 5 6.7 170 8.2 181 3.6 7.2 5. 8 161 7.6 177 3.2 7.0 5. 1 152 6.4 167 3.3 5.0 7.4 175 7.4 175 3.7 12. 3 6.6 169 6. 8 170 4,3 9.4 4.8 148 6.8 170 3.3 7.4 7.4 175 7.0 172 5.2 6.2 6.7 170 5.3 155 4.5 5.7 7.3 175 8.2 181 4.5 11.0 5.0 151 6.3 166 3.2 4.9 5.5 157 7.4 175 4,0 8.0 6.6 169 4.9 150 3.4 5. 0 6.5 168 6.8 170 3.4 6.6 6.7 170 8.2 181 3.6 7.2 7.6 177 6.7 170 3.8 7.6 5.7 160 7.5 176 3.6 6.2 5. 1 152 6.7 170 4.0 6.6 4. 8 148 6.8 170 3.3 7.5 7.0 172 7.0 172 4.2 7. 3 6. 2 165 8.8 185 3.5 7.8 8.0 180 5.2 154 7.2 6.0 5.0 151 4.4 142 3.4 4.6 6.9 171 6.2 165 6.1 6.0 9.0 186 6.4 167 4.6 6. 3 5.0 151 4.5 144 3.6 4.4 8. 1 180 5.6 158 6.0 9.5 5. 8 161 4.5' 144 4.8 5. 8 6.4 167 5.0 151 5.0 6.1 6. 2 165 4.2 139 5.0 4.0 7.3 175 4.7 147 5.1 4.8 Code Bes- Hesi- Sex Age Number erve deuce (yrs) 267 3 02 F 6.32 501 74 03 F 6.33 171 60 01 F 6.42 237 3 02 F 6.42 489 16 03 F 6.54 263 5 02 F 6.54 266 3 02 F 6.55 286 41 02 F 6.59 243 11 02 F 6.60 272 63 02 F 6.64 264 28 02 F 6.64 280 43 02 F 6.64 38 23 00 F 6.66 283 71 02 F 6.66 676 25 10 F 6*67 238 3 02 F 6.68 246 5 02 F 6.73 261 10 02 F 6.74 29 65 01 F 6.89 163 55 01 F 6.94 500 1 03 F 6.97 164 55 01 F 7.03 257 5 02 F 7. 17 258 5 02 F 7. 17 682 34 10 F 7.26 284 5 02 F 7.27 48 7 13 03 I 7.29 158 65 01 F 7. 34 256 68 02 F 7. 38 166 24 01 F 7.38 244 68 02 F 7.47 678 34 10 F 7.50 506 57 03 F 7.51 275 5 02 F 7.56 168 38 01 F 7.58 259 11 02 F 7.59 172 60 01 F 7.65 250 71 02 F 7.68 276 3 02 F 7.74 260 3 02 F 7.74 680 7 10 F 7.82 44 23 00 F 7. 84 46 38 00 F 7.84 677 34 10 F 7.89 249 76 02 F 7.90 47 38 00 F 7.95 253 2 02 F 7.96 502 8 03 F 7.98 170 12 01 F 8.01 279 11 02 F 8.11 274 5 02 F 8. 16 162 60 01 F 8. 17 27 8 28 02 F 8.18 239 5 02 F 8.23 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 8. 2 181 5.1 152 6.1 5.1 7.0 172 6.5 168 8.6 7.0 6. 9 171 5.0 151 6.2 6.8 6.6 169 5.4 156 4.5 5.3 6.6 169 6.2 165 5.1 7.4 6. 3 166 7.6 177 6.6 9. 1 7.2 174 6. 1 164 5.0 5.6 7.2 174 4.9 150 5.0 6.9 5.5 157 3.7 128 3.8 4. 2 6. 8 170 4.6 145 4.8 5.9 4.5 144 3.7 128 3.8 4.0 7.9 179 6.3 166 6.5 6. 8 6.5 168 6.5 168 5.6 7.5 8.7 184 5. 1 152 5.3 7.6 8.6 184 4.7 147 5.4 7.0 10.0 192 6.5 168 4.7 6. 3 7.7 178 6. 2 165 5.0 5.7 6.4 167 5. 2 154 4.4 5. 3 9.7 190 5.9 162 8.8 10.6 9. 1 187 7.0 172 6.2 9.7 10. 2 193 7.6 177 6.4 7.7 6.0 163 4.8 148 7.0 5. 3 4. 5 144 5.1 152 3.6 5.0 4.4 142 5.0 151 3.5 4.9 10.0 192 7.0 172 7.0 9.9 11.0 197 7.7 178 5.6 7.1 6.6 169 5.6 158 5.8 8.3 9.0 186 5.4 156 6.0 7.5 3.4 121 6. 1 164 2.3 5.2 4.4 142 4.5 144 4.6 5.4 8.3 182 6.4 167 5.1 7.0 9.0 186 5.6 158 6.1 5. 8 9.3 188 8.2 181 7.6 9.6 8.2 181 6.0 163 6.3 8.0 9. 8 191 6.5 168 5.6 9.2 12.0 201 7.8 178 5.7 7. 1 6.2 165 4.9 150 6.6 6.1 11.8 201 8.3 182 8.3 9.3 8.4 182 7.4 175 5.2 8.0 7.4 175 7.3 175 5.1 7.9 8.2 181 5.4 156 5.1 5.9 9.4 189 7.6 177 7.2 11.4 6.5 168 6.5 168 8.2 11.6 5. 8 161 5. 2 154 3.2 6. 2 8.0 180 6.6 169 5.7 7.4 6.6 169 6.0 163 6.2 7.2 7.2 174 5.0 151 4.0 5. 2 10. 2 193 7.8 178 8.4 8.0 6. 1 164 4.5 144 5.2 6.2 10.2 193 7.2 174 4.8 7.3 5. 4 156 5.2 154 3.7 5. 1 7.4 175 5. 1 152 6.1 4. 8 9.1 187 6.3 166 6.9 8.5 6.6 169 6.0 163 5.0 6.3 code Res Resi Sex Age * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * imber erve dence (yrs) Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 251 61 02 F 8.26 10. 8 196 6.4 167 4.0 8.4 674 32 10 F 8.27 6.9 171 5. 1 152 3.7 5. 4 247 3 02 F 8.28 8.2 181 6.0 163 7.2 7.7 248 10 02 F 8.29 6.0 163 5. 4 156 4.5 6.7 24 65 00 F 8.31 6.9 171 6. 2 165 7.0 12.0 511 42 03 F 8.32 9.2 187 8.6 184 7.4 8.9 27 62 00 F 8.36 7. 8 178 5.8 161 5.3 6.8 679 34 10 F 8.41 8.0 180 4.8 148 3.8 4.6 675 45 10 F 8.42 8.2 181 5.0 151 5.1 5.2 164 55 01 F 8.4 3 7.0 172 5.5 157 6.8 6. 8 241 28 02 F 8. 47 6.2 165 4, 2 139 4.0 5.0 23 6 11 02 F 8.5 3 6. 1 164 4.4 142 3.8 4.2 505 15 03 F 8.62 6.7 170 5. 7 160 5.6 7.4 254 41 02 F 8.66 6.0 163 4.4 142 3.4 4. 4 271 88 0 2 F 8.67 9.4 189 7.5 176 5.8 8.2 285 5 02 F 8.67 8. 8 185 8.4 182 6.2 7.6 176 51 10 F 8.68 6.3 166 5. 2 154 4.1 3. 1 683 25 10 F 8.70 7.7 178 5.0 151 4.6 6.8 169 60 01 F 8.71 6. 8 170 4.0 135 5.1 4.2 509 32 03 F 8.74 9. 2 187 5.4 156 5.0 7.0 681 34 10 F 8.75 5.5 157 4.9 150 4.1 5.5 282 68 02 F 8.80 4.0 135 4.0 135 3.5 3.7 28 56 00 F 8.93 8.0 180 7.4 175 7.2 8. 3 499 57 03 F 8.97 9.6 190 7.4 175 5.9 8.4 161 55 01 F 8.99 7.2 174 5.5 157 6.5 5.5 604 14 04 F 9.02 10.1 192 7. 8 178 7.0 12. 8 20 3 8 00 F 9.03 11.0 197 8.8 185 10.0 14.0 41 72 00 F 9.07 12. 0 201 8.2 181 11.6 16. 5 25 23 00 F 9.08 8.6 184 7.9 179 9.8 12.0 296 41 02 F 9.12 9.6 190 6.6 169 4.3 10.2 273 3 02 F 9. 17 6.4 167 6.5 168 4.5 9.4 188 12 01 F 9. 19 6.0 163 4.6 145 5.2 4.7 311 43 02 F 9.19 7.3 175 6.4 167 5.2 7. 1 304 5 02 F 9.25 7.2 174 6.2 165 4.3 7.6 495 42 03 F 9. 26 10.4 194 10.4 194 7.1 9.8 242 5 02 F 9.30 6.0 163 5. 1 152 5.0 6.5 167 38 01 F 9.31 8.0 180 7.0 172 7.7 9.5 277 3 02 F 9.31 5.5 157 4.4 142 4.3 3. 8 291 10 02 F 9.41 7.2 174 5.4 156 4.9 9.0 252 10 02 F 9.43 5. 2 154 5.8 161 2.9 6.7 179 39 01 F 9.45 12.2 202 7.6 177 10.9 11.0 48 23 00 F 9.47 8.2 181 7.5 176 9.8 10.0 292 10 02 F 9.48 7.4 175 5.5 157 3.8 7.2 191 3 8 01 F 9.56 14.8 212 13.5 207 11.0 17. 0 315 11 02 F 9.56 6.4 167 6. 2 165 4.4 6.0 516 50 03 F 9.60 11.3 198 9.5 189 6.6 7.7 290 3 02 F 9.60 8. 8 185 6.7 170 6.4 9.2 23 5 3 00 F 9.76 10.0 192 5. 6 158 8.1 8.7 313 71 02 F 9.77 11.0 197 10.6 195 10.9 9.5 289 11 02 F 9.82 4.7 147 5.7 160 4.5 6.1 684 34 10 F 9.83 9.0 186 6. 6 169 7.0 7.6 607 14 04 F 9.83 7.0 172 7.5 176 5. 1 9.8 497 32 03 F 9.89 8. 8 185 6.2 165 6.4 8.0 300 3 02 F 9.92 9.0 186 9.0 186 6.7 12.9 Code Ees- Besi- Sex Age Number erve dence (yrs) 512 75 03 F 9.95 494 21 03 F 9.96 298 3 02 F 9.97 496 59 03 F 10.02 498 50 03 F 10.03 685 34 10 F 10.06 26 56 00 F 10.08 308 5 02 F 10. 17 503 52 03 F 10. 17 606 69 0 4 F 10.21 295 41 02 F 10. 26 690 •7 10 F 10.27 22 23 00 F 10. 29 486 1 03 I 10.30 1 65 00 F 10.37 505 16 03 F 10.43 183 38 01 F 10.44 288 5 02 F 10.44 513 73 03 F 10. 52 186 12 01 F 10. 52 178 62 01 F 10.55 692 22 10 F 10.56 605 67 04 F 10.56 293 28 02 F 10.58 4 56 00 F 10.59 287 5 02 F 10.62 490 8 03 F 10.69 485 74 03 F 10.70 314 71 02 F 10.80 599 70 04 F 10.80 491 33 03 F 10. 84 299 11 02 F 10.89 691 34 10 F 10.94 294 10 02 F 11.00 307 10 02 F 11.08 343 3 02 F 11. 12 306 41 02 F 11.13 510 75 03 F 11.16 301 71 02 F 11.19 18 62 00 F 11.20 514 64 03 F 11.27 508 59 03 F 11.28 312 68 02 F 11.29 687 7 10 F 11.32 602 14 04 F 11.32 7 62 00 F 1 1. 33 492 13 03 F 11.33 689 45 10 F 11.39 333 5 02 F 11.41 608 30 04 F 11.42 305 5 02 F 11.51 12 65 00 F 11.54 5 62 00 F 11.54 30 3 28 02 F 11.55 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 8.6 184 8.6 184 7.4 8.9 10.6 195 9.9 191 6.1 11.2 7.0 172 5.4 156 4.8 6.7 7.6 177 7.6 177 8.0 8.9 8.7 184 5.8 161 6.2 8.7 11.1 197 11.0 197 7.0 15.0 8.4 182 7.7 178 7.5 10.5 9.2 187 7.0 172 6.6 8. 1 12.0 201 8.0 180 6.5 10.2 6.6 169 5.7 160 5.2 5.6 9.0 186 7.8 178 6.5 10.9 7.8 178 6. 1 164 3.4 5. 8 6. 2 165 5.0 151 7.8 7.4 9.0 186 5.4 156 4.7 6. 1 10.2 193 8.4 182 6.3 12. 9 5. 7 160 5.6 158 3.5 6.4 6. 8 170 6.2 165 4.2 5.9 5.6 158 4.7 147 4.5 6.4 7.6 177 8.6 184 7.4 8.9 7.0 172 4. 8 148 3.8 5.8 8. 2 181 6.7 170 5.2 9.3 9.9 191 10.4 194 7.4 12.7 8.5 183 7.4 175 6.4 9.3 7. 1 173 4. 5 144 3.9 4.6 7. 8 178 6.5 168 7.8 10.6 6.4 167 5.9 162 5.2 10.1 7.0 172 5.0 151 5.4 6.4 9, 8 191 8.4 182 6.1 10.5 8.4 182 6.3 166 6.3 8.8 6.9 171 6.5 168 5.0 8.2 9.9 191 8.0 180 6.7 10.2 9. 3 188 6.0 163 4.7 9.6 15.6 214 13. 7 208 12.0 22.0 5.9 162 5.7 160 6.2 9.0 4.9 150 5.4 156 3.0 5.8 8. 9 186 6.0 163 5.9 6.5 8. 5 183 5.0 151 4.8 7.4 10. 8 196 6.3 166 6.4 13.2 6.7 170 5.4 156 4.8 8.0 6.7 170 7.3 175 6.6 10.8 10.3 193 6.5 168 6.3 9.7 6.7 170 6.9 171 6.6 10.0 6.6 169 5.9 162 7.4 7. 1 9.3 188 7.8 178 4.9 7.2 6. 0 163 5.3 155 4.4 6.7 9.5 189 7.0 172 7.7 10.4 7.0 172 5.7 160 3.7 8.4 10. 1 192 8.6 184 6.9 10.5 5. 4 156 4.9 150 4.7 5.0 7.0 172 6.9 171 5.5 7.9 8.2 181 6. 4 167 4.9 9.4 12. 5 203 8.7 184 9.6 14.0 6.6 169 4.4 142 4.0 4.6 8. 8 185 7.3 175 4.4 9.5 Code Bes- Resi Sex Age * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * amber er ve dence (yrs) Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 533 57 03 F 11.61 7.6 177 5.9 162 5.3 9.4 310 5 8 02 F 11.62 6.5 168 8.0 180 5.6 9.7 30 9 68 02 F 11.72 6.3 166 5.6 158 4.5 8.4 686 34 10 F 11.73 5.4 156 6.3 166 3.5 9.6 16 38 00 F 11.73 15. 8 215 13.6 208 8.6 24.0 531 16 0 3 F 11.75 7.6 177 7.0 172 5.8 8.2 194 60 01 F 11.77 13.5 207 7.5 176 8. 1 12.5 187. 12 01 F 11.81 6. 6 169 5.0 151 3.7 4.8 181 56 01 F 1 1.83 7. 1 173 5.0 151 4.4 4.3 688 34 10 F 11.87 7.8 178 6.2 165 4.2 7.8 526 57 03 F 11.87 8. 1 180 8.2 181 6.4 7.7 532 8 03 F 11.89 9.4 189 7.4 175 6.0 10.5 517 38 03 F 11.94 8.6 184 8. 2 181 6.1 9.7 603 70 04 F 11.98 6. 0 163 6. 1 164 3.1 7.4 515 21 03 F 12.01 6. 0 163 5.6 158 4.8 9. 1 297 5 02 F 12.02 3.8 131 5.5 157 3.4 5.4 318 10 02 F 12.04 6.0 163 6.3 166 5.2 7.9 190 38 01 F 12.07 10. 4 194 8.7 184 5.5 10.7 601 42 04 F 12.09 11.7 200 9.3 188 7.6 10.9 319 15 02 F 12. 12 11.6 200 10.5 194 8.5 7.8 30 2 41 02 ' F 12.16 5. 9 162 5.1 152 3.5 7.3 600 30 04 F 12.18 5. 6 158 4.6 145 3.0 4.6 189 38 01 F 12.20 7.7 178 5.9 162 4.3 7.5 3 62 00 F 12. 23 9.6 190 8.5 183 7.4 16. 1 518 74 03 F 12.31 10. 1 192 9.3 188 7.5 10.7 729 34 10 F 12. 35 10.0 192 10.5 194 6.7 11.8 717 34 10 F 12. 50 8.8 185 8.5 183 7.6 12.0 15 38 00 F 12.54 7.5 176 6.0 163 7.2 8.2 722 7 10 F 12.55 9.2 187 9. 4 189 7.5 11.5 177 60 01 F 12.57 10.2 193 7.0 172 9.6 9.2 623 14 04 F 12.61 9.8 191 9. 3 188 7.3 13.5 330 3 02 F 12.62 8.3 182 6.0 163 5.5 7.9 184 24 01 F 12.67 10. 8 196 10.5 194 5.0 23.0 326 5 02 F 12.70 8. 1 180 9. 1 187 5. 1 10.0 17 62 00 F 12.77 13.8 208 10.3 193 14.4 23.0 493 57 03 F 12.78 10.7 195 8.9 186 6.7 13.2 619 69 04 F 12.79 12.0 201 8.8 185 9.3 10. 6 2 38 00 F 12.83 9.2 187 9.3 188 6.2 18.0 52 3 57 03 F 12.84 11.0 197 9.4 189 4.6 9.7 19 65 00 F 12.85 7.7 178 6.4 167 7.8 8. 5 339 3 02 F 12.87 7.8 178 8.0 180 6.6 8. 2 618 30 04 F 12.87 10.2 193 11.3 198 8.4 15.7 520 38 03 F 12. 88 8.9 186 11.8 201 6.5 12.5 335 28 02 F 12.90 5.6 158 5.5 157 5.8 5.1 528 73 03 F 12.92 10. 5 194 7. 9 179 6.0 8. 0 195 20 01 F 12.96 9.8 191 8.4 182 5.3 9.3 320 10 02 F 12.98 6.9 171 8.6 184 6.3 14.2 331 3 02 F 12.98 9. 3 188 8.5 183 8.0 8.9 334 5 02 F 12.98 8.5 183 5. 5 157 5.6 6.5 611 37 04 1 13.01 8.8 185 9.0 186 7.3 11.1 325 5 02 F 13.02 6.5 168 5.8 161 4.8 11.5 19 3 60 01 F 13.04 8. 2 181 7. 2 174 6.4 7.7 727 34 10 F 13.07 9. 3 188 7.8 178 6. 1 11.3 1 1 62 00 F 13.12 8.8 185 9. 6 190 6.4 13.2 Code Res- Resi- Sex Age Number erve dence (yrs) 316 3 02 F 13. 13 525 50 03 F 13. 19 180 77 01 F 13. 19 9 3 8 00 F 13. 22 507 8 03 F 13. 22 6 88 00 F 13.23 328 28 02 F 13.24 217 23 01 F 13.28 720 22 10 F 13.29 715 34 10 F 13. 32 317 43 02 F 13.34 527 33 03 F 13. 35 617 70 04 F 13.40 324 1 1 02 F 13.41 621 67 04 F 13.46 524 50 0 3 F 13. 46 322 63 02 F 13.46 730 34 10 F 13.48 530 13 0 3 F 13.51 346 73 02 F 13. 51 182 35 01 F 13.54 14 6 00 F 13.58 341 68 02 F 13.59 716 34 10 F 13.62 343 68 02 F 13.62 583 74 03 F 13.69 213 18 01 F 13.69 529 21 03 F 13.74 321 28 02 F 13.79 723 34 10 F 13.80 210 18 01 F 13.81 329 1 1 02 F 13.83 368 3 02 F 13.85 192 60 01 F 13.89 13 65 00 F 13.90 357 5 02 F 13.91 613 70 04 F 13.97 337 3 02 F 14.01 625 69 04 F 14.03 225 60 01 F 14.03 579 44 03 F 14.05 327 41 02 F 14.06 372 68 02 F 14.06 353 71 02 F 14.09 522 21 03 F 14. 12 350 68 02 F 14. 17 235 24 01 F 14.18 363 11 02 F 14. 20 574 1 03 F 14.25 10 62 00 F 14.26 355 4 02 . F 14.26 201 18 01 F 14.29 610 70 04 F 14.30 367 3 02 F 14.30 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 6.0 163 5.0 151 4.2 6.0 7. 0 172 6.6 169 6.0 9.2 8.3 182 7. 8 178 6.5 8. 9 9.5 189 8.6 184 6.7 11.4 17. 0 219 10.0 192 10.3 14.7 6.2 165 5.4 156 6.7 6.9 9.8 191 11.0 197 7.0 14.0 13. 1 206 9.2 187 5.6 19.6 11.0 197 10. 2 193 6.2 15. 1 8.6 184 7. 2 174 6.3 8.0 5.3 155 7.5 176 5.6 7.4 8.8 185 5.9 162 5.0 7.8 15.0 213 13.0 205 9.4 22.0 7.4 175 6.2 165 4.7 6.2 9.7 190 10.0 192 6.4 15.0 14. 6 211 9.7 190 8.7 13. 2 5.7 160 4.4 142 4.4 5. 2 10.0 192 8. 1 180 5.4 11.5 12.0 201 10. 0 192 12.2 13. 4 8. 1 180 12.9 205 7.0 13. 0 13. 2 206 11.5 199 8.0 9.5 13.0 205 12.5 203 9.2 19.2 8.2 181 8.3 182 6.0 12.2 14.6 211 17. 9 221 6.2 22.0 10. 0 192 8.5 183 6.1 11.0 10.4 194 13. 1 206 6.8 18.5 9.8 191 7. 3 175 7.0 16.3 9.0 186 8.0 180 4.6 8.2 10.3 193 10.5 194 6.0 15.0 10.5 194 8.7 184 5.2 11.4 14.6 211 14. 4 211 10.0 15.0 13.1 206 11.8 201 8.2 16. 1 11.0 197 7.3 175 7.3 8.0 8.9 186 8. 5 183 5.7 9.4 13.0 205 10.8 196 9.6 28.0 6.8 170 7.3 175 3.4 11.0 6.7 170 7.7 178 6.4 14. 5 9.9 191 10. 4 194 7.1 10.5 8.6 184 10.0 192 7.7 15.6 11.0 197 9.0 186 10.5 17.2 9.6 190 6.6 169 8.1 9.0 9.4 189 7.7 178 7.5 13.8 9.6 190 8.7 184 7.8 10.0 10.0 192 6.9 171 6.5 8.7 11.0 197 9.0 186 9.2 12. 6 5.5 157 5. 2 154 4.5 7.0 8. 8 185 7.4 175 7.8 7.6 10. 3 193 7.2 174 6.2 9.0 18.2 222 20.3 227 17.3 22. 5 7.8 178 8.2 181 6.2 10.6 11.8 201 8.5 183 9.3 12.6 11.0 197 9.5 189 6.6 10.3 11.2 198 9.3 188 6.3 14.9 7.7 178 6.7 170 6.3 8.3 Code Res- Resi- Sex Age Number erve dence (yrs) 205 9 01 F 14. 32 719 25 10 F 14.35 234 18 01 F 14.41 615 70 04 F 14.46 345 41 02 F 14.46 352 5 02 F 14.48 338 11 02 F 14.51 354 5 02 F 14. 52 33 2 10 02 F 14.52 228 62 01 F 14.55 8 23 00 F 14.56 340 68 02 F 14.58 185 60 01 F 14.60 718 22 10 F 14.61 620 70 04 F 14.65 580 21 03 F 14. 69 521 50 03 F 14.73 724 34 10 F 14.76 20 0 39 01 F 14.82 222 40 01 F 14.89 622 69 04 F 14.90 624 69 04 F 14.90 232 60 01 F 14.91 351 11 02 F 14.92 216 55 01 F 14.97 220 12 01 F 14.97 336 15 02 F 15.02 212 49 01 F 15.03 344 3 02 F 15.05 173 20 01 F 15.06 207 40 01 F 15. 10 728 58 10 F 15. 12 206 9 01 F 15.15 20 2 38 01 F 15. 18 175 60 10 F 15.34 348 41 02 F 15.35 581 6 03 F 15.39 609 36 04 F 15.40 174 24 01 F 15.45 229 38 01 F 15.45 366 73 02 F 15.47 577 19 03 F 15.55 575 16 03 F 15.55 198 23 01 F 15.57 359 10 02 F 15.61 349 68 02 F 15.61 226 60 01 F 15.61 616 42 04 F 15.65 371 5 02 F 15.70 726 34 10 F 15.74 224 60 01 F 15.74 347 5 02 F 15.79 614 70 04 F 15.81 369 11 02 F 15.84 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra124 (ram) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 9. 3 188 12.0 201 6.2 10.0 9.4 189 7.5 176 4.5 11.5 11.6 200 10.0 192 11.7 14.8 7.7 178 5.3 155 3.8 6.6 7.2 174 10.0 192 5.1 9. 1 7.3 175 5.7 160 6.0 10.5 8. 1 180 9.0 186 5.7 10.4 6.3 166 6.7 170 5.3 6.8 7. 7 178 12. 1 202 4.4 14. 5 10.0 192 7.8 178 6.5 12.0 9.0 186 12. 2 202 9.2 26.0 8.3 182 6.5 168 5.7 8.5 14. 0 209 15.0 213 9.2 20. 2 14.6 211 13. 6 208 8.0 23.0 11.0 197 10.0 192 7.0 14.0 9.5 189 9.5 189 8.7 13.5 9.1 187 9. 2 187 6,7 12. 0 18.4 223 27.0 241 18.6 22.0 12.2 202 8.0 180 5.8 8. 5 13.2 206 12.4 203 12.6 22, 0 11.2 198 12.0 201 8.2 14.0 13.5 207- 14.5 211 7.7 17.7 13.6 208 12. 4 203 7.3 19.0 11.0 197 9.8 191 5.8 13.3 16.4 217 10.4 194 10.2 16. 1 9.2 187 6. 1 164 7.9 10.1 8.0 180 7.4 175 5.2 9.7 18.2 222 21. 1 229 9.0 31.0 15.6 214 16. 1 216 10.6 15.8 \ 12. 9 205 17. 1 219 9.6 22.0 13.6 208 11.0 197 6.8 15.5 9.2 187 7. 8 178 3.5 12.8 8. 8 185 14. 6 211 11.2 18. 2 11.6 200 9. 2 187 6.6 8.2 11.5 199 16.8 218 7.2 18.2 16.8 218 18.0 221 9.3 21. 1 14.4 211 12.2 202 6.6 18.0 11.6 200 15. 3 214 9.5 14.0 13.4 207 16. 8 218 8.4 21.3 13.5 207 11.6 200 9.2 17.0 13. 2 206 12.8 205 8.0 20.7 16. 5 217 13.3 207 9.4 17.0 7.9 179 10.0 192 6.0 11.7 14. 3 210 12. 4 203 7.4 19, 2 12.4 203 14.6 211 6.7 20.0 10.0 192 7.5 176 6.0 11.0 13.6 208 11.5 199 6.2 17.9 11.0 197 7.7 178 11.7 15. 8 5.8 161 5.8 161 4.5 6,9 6.6 169 8.4 182 5.7 11.6 12.9 205 7.7 178 5.9 14.6 7.4 175 6.9 171 3.1 8. 3 10.6 195 15.3 214 9.4 23.5 9.4 189 12. 0 201 7.7 16.4 Code Res Resi Se.s : age itnber erve dence (yrs 219 60 01 F 15.88 223 60 01 F 15.91 358 11 02 F 16.00 731 34 10 F 16.03 360 5 02 F 16.04 626 70 04 F 16.05 57 8 57 03 F 16.05 519 21 03 F 16.10 365 5 02 F 16.14 356 5 02 F 16. 14 362 43 02 F 16. 15 230 60 01 F 16.18 214 27 01 F 16.18 20 3 38 01 F 16.22 221 20 01 F 16.23 725 34 10 F 16. 24 233 18 01 F 16.30 218 56 01 F 16.33 370 76 02 F 16.38 231 60 01 F 16.39 215 18 01 F 16.47 227 39 01 F 16.47 21 23 00 F 16.52 364 68 02 F 16.57 576 57 03 F 16.59 197 65 01 F 16.71 612 70 04 F 16.78 361 28 02 F 16.85 208 56 01 F 16.89 584 33 03 F 16.91 721 25 10 F 16.93 209 12 01 F 16.93 * * * * Skinfold Thickness * * * * Triceps Subscapular Biceps Supra (.mm) log (mm) log (mm) iliac (mm) 13. 2 206 10.0 192 10.4 19.0 11.0 197 11.0 197 10.2 18.8 10.4 194 10.0 192 5.3 13.8 11.4 199 9.7 190 6.2 13.7 16.0 216 11.0 197 8.4 17.0 9.2 187 8. 1 180 6.7 10.3 10.0 192 7.6 177 5. 1 10.6 10.5 194 9. 5 189 7. 1 10. 2 7.0 172 8. 1 180 6.4 8.4 8.0 180 9. 8 191 6.7 13.0 10.6 195 12. 3 203 6.7 20.0 9.5 189 7.7 178 7.4 11.0 8. 8 185 9. 0 186 6.9 15. 6 12. 5 203 17.7 221 7.8 21.0 8.4 182 8. 2 181 7.0 9. 1 16. 2 216 18.0 221 6.2 23.2 13. 8 208 13.8 208 10,5 18. 8 11.0 197 8.5 183 6.1 14.4 9.2 187 10.9 196 6.6 14. 5 12.4 203 14.0 209 10.8 23.4 15, 1 213 19.0 224 7.7 33. 0 8.9 186 11. 0 197 8.2 12.6 10.5 194 11.5 199 10.8 24.0 7.9 179 7.5 176 6.1 13.4 14. 2 210 12.4 203 8.0 15.3 18.6 223 15.0 213 10.5 27.0 18.7 223 11.7 200 11.6 20.8 12.0 201 13. 2 206 7.3 20.0 10. 5 194 5.9 162 3.2 24.6 11.6 200 11.7 200 6.8 17.8 10.6 195 13.7 208 5.5 21.4 11.0 197 11.3 198 7.3 15.6 APPENDIX C A-RM CIRCUMFERENCE, UPPER ARM MUSCLE DIMENSIONS AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE (vsorted according to sex and age) CODE RES RESI SEX AGE ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD ItfBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC 0.1 AM CIRC AREA CIRC (MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 411 3 02 M 6o CO 150 40 127 1256 47.9 78 55 01 M 6.02 185 49 155 18 85 50.3 71 60 01 M 6.08 173 48 151 1809 51.5 390 3 02 M 6.09 156 42 132 1385 48.3 407 43 02 H 6.10 185 53 168 2206 50.0 656 34 10 H 6.13 168 45 143 1590 48.6 68 23 CO M 6.14 160 45 141 1550 48.8 40 6 5 02 H 6.15 150 42 133 138 5 48.1 378 43 02 M 6.15 190 54 169 2290 50.0 383 5 02 M 6.25 158 44 138 1520 49.4 410 76 02 V> 6.40 160 45 144 1590 49.1 76 38 01 M 6.41 • 195 54 169 2250 52.3 84 55 01 M 6.44 186 48 153 1809 52.0 385 76 02 M 6.45 162 46 145 1661 49.1 406 76 02 M 6.61 17 7 50 160 1963 51.7 73 38 01 M 6.6 3 164 45 142 1590 52.3 659 7 10 M 6.65 176 48 152 1809 49.8 666 25 10 M 6.65 188 53 167 2206 52.4 4G5 3 02 ¥, 6.66 165 43 135 1452 48.7 81 65 01 M 6. 70 195 53 166 2206 50.4 541 42 03 M 6.72 193 53 169 2206 52.3 3 84 3 02 M 6.75 168 44 138 1520 48.8 74 60 01 M 6.77 183 49 156 1885 53.8 404 63 02 M 6.81 178 49 154 1885 51.6 395 2 02 M 6.62 165 46 146 1661 49.5 387 3 02 « 6.67 152 43 135 1452 51.1 658 88 10 K 6.89 166 44 140 1520 51.2 75 24 01 M 6.57 190 52 165 2123 53.1 413 3 02 M 7.03 150 42 134 13 85 51.1 415 76 02 N 7.11 170 50 159 1963 49.0 417 5 02 M 7.15 168 48 152 1809 49.3 83 55 01 M 7.17 165 48 .151 1805 45.5 535 32 03 M 7.15 171 47 149 1734 52.8 412 5 02 M 7.20 150 42 134 1385 47.6 386 5 02 M 7.20 156 43 137 1452 47.7 63 62 00 M 7.35 188 52 164 2123 51.0 394 10 02 M 7.44 165 48 152 1805 49.2 416 10 02 N 7.44 162 47 149 1734 48.9 418 5 02 M 7.45 150 44 138 1520 47.0 414 71 02 M 7.47 171 48 150 18C9 50.6 536 1 03 H 7.52 178 50 157 1963 51.6 392 71 02 M 7. 56 176 49 155 1885 51.6 415 11 02 M 7.65 170 49 154 1885 50.2 393 11 02 M 7.74 173 49 155 1885 51.2 87 12 01 M 7.87 183 52 164 2123 52.6 661 26 10 K 7.89 176 49 155 1885 51.7 660 26 10 M 7. 85 183 51 161 2042 51.9 376 5 02 M 7.50 189 54 170 2250 51.0 70 38 00 M 7.54 185 50 158 1963 52.5 389 43 02 M 7.56 180 50 157 1563 50.8 65 46 00 M 7.56 175 50 158 1963 52.0 537 21 C3 M 8.01 192 51 160 2042 53.2 402 28 02 M 8.C7 191 52 166 2123 53.2 400 3 02 H 8.08 183 51 161 2042 51.5 538 16 03 M 8.12 177 51 160 2042 50.3 CODE RES RESI SEX ACE IMBER ERVE DENCE (VRS; 399 3 02 M 8.13 544 74 03 M 8.13 657 25 10 M 8.14 67 6 00 M 8.15 72 38 01 K 8.16 8 5 65 01 N 6.17 77 60 01 M 8.18 377 28 02 K 8.25 60 38 00 M 8.30 667 34 10 fs 8.31 665 34 10 M 8.36 662 58 10 M 8.3 5 397 43 02 M 8.40 79 55 01 M 6.40 543 73 03 M 8.41 374 71 02 M 8.44 86 55 01 M 6.48 379 68 02 M 8.50 540 74 03 M 8.58 542 59 03 M 8.67 82 60 01 M 8.70 403 5 02 M 8.SO 545 33 03 M 8.8 7 664 34 10 M 8.97 54 62 00 M 8.55 102 24 01 M 9.03 551 57 03 M 5.04 373 43 02 M 5.C5 553 1 03 M 9.09 66 5 7 10 M 5.10 57 65 00 M 5. 12 405 10 02 M 9.13 80 60 01 M 5.14 61 38 00 M 9.14 550 57 03 M 5.18 673 45 10 M 5.31 396 5 02 M 9.33 388 5 02 M 5.37 380 2 02 M 9.43 62 38 00 M 9.45 552 16 03 M 5. 46 56 56 00 M 9.48 668 34 10 5.55 65 62 00 M 9.55 92 18 01 M 9.59 672 37 10 H 5.55 436 43 02 M 5.55 375 5 02 P 9.64 663 34 10 M 5.6 5 671 26 10 M 5.65 382 3 02 M 9.66 53 5 8 03 M 5.70 401 28 02 M 9.72 91 38 01 f 5.82 420 5 02 M 5.8 6 ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD 128 ;IRC DI AM CIRC AREA CIRC MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 173 49 154 1885 50.2 187 51 163 2042 53.0 184 52 164 2123 51.5 180 49 157 18 85 55.5 176 50 158 1963 56.5 188 52 166 2123 52.2 203 56 177 2463 54.4 180 51 162 2042 50.8 156 56 177 2463 52.3 174 47 148 1734 51.2 170 46 145 1661 50.8 173 46 145 1661 53.2 189 53 169 2206 51.0 153 53 169 2206 53.7 151 54 170 2290 50.8 182 51 162 2042 50.2 184 51 162 2042 52.1 185 52 165 2123 51.5 211 55 174 2375 52.9 153 55 175 2375 54.2 200 52 165 2123 53.1 166 48 152 1809 51.4 197 54 170 2250 54.8 159 46 144 1661 51.3 220 5 9 187 2733 53.8 204 58 184 2642 54.0 208 5 7 181 2551 55.5 175 49 155 1885 51.4 191 53 168 2206 52.7 196 56 176 2463 51.8 198 54 171 2290 52.0 199 56 177 2463 52.8 150 52 164 2123 53.4 170 49 153 1885 50.6 202 5 8 185 2642 53.5 153 55 173 2375 52.6 177 52 166 2123 53.3 190 54 172 2290 50.7 184 51 162 2042 52.2 190 49 157 1885 51.5 165 47 149 1734 50.6 212 59 186 2733 54.2 194 52 164 2123 52.5 193 55 173 2375 54.5 154 55 173 2375 52.8 210 59 187 2733 55.9 210 61 193 2922 53.6 183 52 165 2123 52.8 202 56 176 2463 53.0 190 51 161 2 042 51.0 177 50 158 1963 50.6 153 54 172 2250 51.8 206 56 178 2463 53.2 150 54 169 2290 55.5 200 56 176 2463 54.0 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE JMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS1 429 63 02 M 9.8 7 64 3 8 GO Ns 9,89 549 5 7 03 M 9.96 39 23 00 M 10.00 534 21 03 M 10.00 422 41 02 M 10.01 391 41 02 M 10.02 708 34 10 W 1C.C5 670 34 10 M 10.05 398 68 02 K 10.10 110 18 01 M 10.11 55 72 CO M 10. 13 95 60 01 M 10.20 58 38 CO M 10.22 59 65 00 M 10.23 631 69 04 ft 10.24 431 •a 02 M 10.28 108 60 01 M 10.37 43 5 41 02 M 10.41 548 57 03 M 10.43 49 9 CO M 10.45 40 62 CO M 10.45 104 12 01 M 10.46 445 3 02 H 10.46 714 34 10 M 10. 51 107 60 01 M 10.56 45 0 41 02 K 10.64 709 34 10 M 10.65 704 34 10 K 10.69 425 11 C2 M 10.70 36 56 00 M 10.77 434 43 02 M 10.78 430 5 02 M 10. 83 424 43 02 M 10.84 121 60 01 K 10.88 106 60 01 M 10.92 710 34 10 H 10.93 94 31 CI M 10.98 51 46 CO M 10.99 446 28 02 M 10.99 105 3 5 01 M 10.99 96 24 01 M 11.03 93 35 01 K 11.03 43 7 28 02 M 11.04 454 5 02 M 11.06 702 26 10 M 11.12 9 7 60 01 M 11.14 444 3 02 K 11.14 555 21 03 M 11.16 98 55 01 M 11.23 66 29 00 K 11.26 119 38 01 M 11.27 421 5 02 M 11.28 554 8 C3 K 11.32 50 38 CO M 11.33 ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD 129 ;IRC DI AM CIRC AREA CIRC MM) {MM ) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 185 51 160 2042 54.6 185 50 157 1963 53.2 196 56 176 2463 52.0 210 57 181 2551 54.5 165 46 145 1661 51.2 203 59 186 2733 53.7 178 51 161 2042 52.3 193 52 164 2123 53.0 194 54 170 2290 53. 7 196 51 160 2042 53.5 181 51 161 2042 51.6 248 63 199 3117 54.0 180 51 160 2042 54.4 193 52 164 2123 51.3 212 57 180 2551 52.7 206 58 185 2642 54.2 182 52 164 2123 52.2 190 50 159 1963 52.2 187 53 169 2206 54.2 233 62 197 3019 55.6 221 62 196 3019 53.5 182 51 161 2042 52.8 223 60 191 2827 54.6 187 53 168 2206 53.4 196 54 170 2290 54.1 200 55 173 2375 53.2 197 56 177 2463 52.5 190 52 16 5 2123 52.6 200 55 173 2375 52.9 200 58 185 2642 54.4 214 5 8 182 2642 53.3 211 62 195 3019 54.7 211 58 184 2642 52.6 192 53 169 2206 52.8 218 59 188 2733 56.0 208 59 185 2733 51.2 196 53 169 2206 54.2 172 48 152 1809 50.2 210 58 182 2642 55.2 196 53 169 2206 54.3 199 53 168 2206 54.3 199 57 179 2 551 52.3 183 51 162 2042 53.0 185 54 171 2290 53.8 203 57 181 25 51 53.7 195 55 175 2375 53.5 2C9 57 179 2551 57.6 201 55 174 23 75 54.6 185 53 168 2206 50.4 209 56 176 2463 53.0 197 52 164 2123 55.2 192 54 169 2290 55.8 197 55 174 2375 51.1 186 51 161 2042 54.4 210 58 183 2642 55.0 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD IMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC 01 AM CIRC AREA CIRC 1 MM) (MM) (MM) (MM#*2) (CM) 573 50 03 M ll. 3.3 2G6 58 184 2642 53.0 452 3 02 M 11.37 180 52 164 2123 53.0 632 69 04 M. 11.35 210 58 183 2642 53.8 120 65 01 M 11.40 210 5 7 182 2551 55.0 42 23 GO M 11.41 183 51 162 2042 51.0 53 38 00 M 11.41 223 60 190 2827 56.0 556 15 03 M 11.46 193 55 175 2375 54.9 113 31 01 K 11.48 212 58 185 2642 54.9 423 10 02 M 11.49 186 54 169 2290 54.4 101 60 01 M 11.5.7 186 53 168 2206 52. G 432 5 02 M 11.58 178 51 162 2042 51.0 448 11 02 M 11.5.8 193 54 172 2250 54.6 445 5 02 M 11.58 204 56 176 2463 54.2 428 73 02 M 11.61 194 55 174 2375 54.7 31 38 00 M 11.63 22 0 60 190 28 27 54.8 546 57 03 H 11.63 234 65 205 3318 56.7 90 55 01 M 11.72 207 58 184 2642 53. 8 52 9 00 M 11.75 228 63 199 3117 55.2 89 65 01 M 11.77 224 64 203 3216 52.7 706 34 10 M 11.85 215 54 172 2250 53.2 433 10 02 M 11.54 182 51 162 2042 52.2 112 60 01 M 11.54 208 56 175 2463 55.0 558 33 03 M 11.54 210 59 185 2733 55.0 62 6 69 04 M 11.55 214 61 192 2922 53.3 627 36 04 M 12.01 203 54 170 2250 56.5 123 60 01 M 12. 04 195 55 174 23 75 52.6 707 22 10 K 12.13 222 63 200 3117 54.4 443 68 02 M 12.14 189 52 164 2123 53. 0 115 61 01 M 12.15 185 52 166 2123 54.1 117 55 01 M 12. 2 0 228 65 204 3318 54.5 711 45 10 M 12.21 206 60 189 2827 51.8 118 55 01 ft 12.23 218 58 183 2642 55.4 705 34 10 M 12.28 211 58 184 2642 55.1 116 66 01 M 12.25 203 55 175 2375 52.6 567 16 03 K 12.31 218 62 195 3019 53.5 440 5 02 M 12.33 203 60 188 2827 53.5 560 1 03 ¥< 12.37 223 62 197 3019 53.7 427 5 02 M 12.41 220 62 196 3019 54.9 426 5 02 M 12.42 211 58 183 2642 52.2 693 34 10 f, 12.45 192 57 179 2551 51.0 699 88 10 M 12.46 227 61 153 2 522 54.1 465 11 02 M 12.47 217 62 195 3019 54.1 103 55 01 M 12.51 203 58 182 2642 54.8 471 68 02 M 12.52 232 64 203 3216 55.8 451 68 02 M 12.54 203 60 188 28 27 55.6 625 70 04 Vi 12.62 248 70 222 3848 54.8 43 27 00 M 12.64 210 61 153 2922 51.6 630 3 0 04 Vi 12.64 223 65 206 3318 57.2 700 34 10 M 12.66 218 60 191 2827 58.6 479 4 02 M 12.69 213 62 197 3015 99. 9 435 73 02 M 12.69 226 65 206 3318 55.0 565 57 03 M 12.7.1 216 61 192 2922 56.5 473 5 02 M 12.71 244 69 218 3739 55.7 698 58 10 K 12.73 2G5 59 186 2733 52.5 561 21 03 M 12.73 2 06 59 185 2733 55. 3 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD IMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC DI AM CIRC AREA CIRC (MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 438 71 02 M 12. 7.7 196 56 177 2463 5-1.8 568 75 03 M 12.78 276 70 221 3848 57.0 703 3 7 10 M 12.8 2 230 66 209 3421 55.0 447 41 02 M 12.82 218 60 191 2827 56.0 €95 34 10 K 12.82 218 60 189 2827 57.8 88 65 01 M 12. £5 22 5 64 201 3216 52.7 634 69 04 M 12.92 256 72 227 4071 57.7 32 38 CO M 12.97 200 57 180 2551 51.8 547 48 03 M 12.98 2 04 57 179 2551 55.5 712 34 10 M 12.99 212 61 193 29 22 57.2 647 30 04 M 12.99 236 65 206 3318 58.2 694 34 10 M 13.00 195 56 177 2463 51.4 696 34 10 M 13.05 194 55 173 2375 55.0 713 34 10 M 13.07 182 51 161 2042 53.8 99 60 01 M 13.12 210 59 186 2733 54.2 633 30 04 13.14 220 63 200 3117 53.0 572 16 03 M 13.14 203 59 188 2733 55.8 3 5 56 CO M 13.15 212 61 193 2922 56.9 474 10 02 M 13.15 194 56 176 2463 53.8 453 71 02 M 13.15 218 58 185 2642 56.6 74 7 22 „ 10 K 13.26 232 66 210 3421 54.6 442 11 02 M 12.30 197 57 179 2551 53.0 697 34 10 M 13.30 197 56 177 2463 55.0 141 55 CI 13.31 216 61 193 2922 54.3 640 69 04 M 13.21 242 70 221 3848 54.4 743 34 10 K 13.33 230 66 209 3421 56. 5 3 7 62 00 M 13.34 242 70 220 3848 57.2 559 74 03 M 13.36 225 63 200 3117 55.8 134 55 01 M 13.38 233 66 210 3421 55.2 566 16 03 M 13.41 206 58 185 2642 54.5 648 30 04 M 13.46 233 68 213 3631 57.1 124 60 01 M 13.50 219 62 195 3019 54.7 466 5 02 M 13.51 199 57 179 2551 54.0 122 31 01 M 12.51 190 51 161 2042 54.3 441 61 02 M 13.53 210 59 186 2733 51.7 114 38 01 M 1.3.5.3 230 62 197 3019 51.7 111 55 01 H 13.59 217 60 189 2827 54.0 562 21 03 M 13.65 225 63 197 3117 54.5 154 38 01 M 13.7.0 206 58 184 2642 57.2 462 3 02 M 13.71 227 63 200 3117 56.9 639 70 C4 M 12.76 212 63 198 3117 54.1 564 6 03 M 13.80 212 62 195 3019 54.8 459 5 02 N. 13.80 223 63 199 3117 55.3 463 5 02 M 13.81 233 66 207 3421 56.3 476 5 02 M 13.85 245 73 231 4185 56.1 100 38 01 M 13.88 223 64 201 3216 53.5 470 28 02 M 13.91 223 63 200 3117 57.6 646 42 04 M 13.9.8 215 61 193 2922 53.3 156 60 01 M 14.02 230 64 202 3216 55.6 483 71 02 M 14.06 208 59 186 2733 54,1 145 60 01 M 14.08 220 62 197 3019 56.5 30 23 CO M 14.0 8 210 61 194 2922 53.3 461 5 02 M 14.09 226 67 210 3525 54.2 748 34 10 M 14.11 270 74 234 4300 57.7 484 28 02 M 14.12 216 63 198 3117 57.4 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE IMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS1 571 57 03 M 14.16 745 7 10 M 14.20 742 34 10 M 14.24 478 28 02 M 14.25 155 60 01 M 14.30 635 30 04 M 14.30 565 57 03 K 14.32 64S 30 04 K 14.34 588 57 03 M 14.24 45 e 3 02 M 14.36 563 21 03 M 14.35 744 34 10 M 14.41 641 70 04 M 14.48 741 22 10 M 14.51 638 70 04 M 14.58 557 16 03 M 14.55 701 34 10 M 14.59 472 5 02 M 14.62 133 77 01 M 14.64 151 54 01 M 14.66 457 5 02 K 14.65 750 34 10 M 14.71 642 37 04 M 14.72 469 54 02 M 14.78 593 8 03 M 14.86 135 38 01 N 14.87 456 5 02 M 14.8 8 146 12 01 M 14.8 8 140 18 01 M 14.56 33 23 00 M 14.5 8 570 50 03 M- 14.55 464 5 02 M 15.04 651 30 04 M 15.05 467 5 02 K 15.10 652 42 04 M 15.11 596 16 03 K 15.14 460 88 02 K 15. 18 598 21 03 M 15.20 148 51 01 M 15.25 637 70 04 M 15.26 597 38 03 M 15.22 734 34 10 M 15.33 735 34 10 M 15.38 590 57 03 M 15.39 13 £ 49 01 K 15.42 34 23 CO M 15.44 153 62 01 M 15.46 145 60 01 M 15.47 477 5 02 M 15.49 152 39 01 M 15.54 480 5 02 M 15.57 650 70 04 K 15.58 482 4 02 M 15.55 468 71 02 M 15.61 736 34 10 M 15.62 ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD 132 ;IRC OIAM CIRC AREA CIRC MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2 ) (CM) 2 33 66 2 07 3421 56.7 215 61 193 2922 55.8 215 62 154 3019 55.5 208 59 187 2733 54.8 215 61 193 2922 55.8 246 70 221 3848 59.6 260 71 223 3959 59.9 231 65 216 3739 57.9 236 66 208 3421 56.6 212 62 195 3019 53.7 210 56 176 2463 54.7 243 69 218 3729 54.5 221 64 201 3216 55.2 239 69 218 3739 55.8 223 65 207 3318 55.8 243 69 219 3739 55.8 210 60 188 2827 54.7 203 57 179 2551 54.0 155 53 167 22 06 51,5 245 70 222 3848 57.7 244 71 225 3959 55.8 248 72 228 4071 56. 6 205 59 186 2733 53.9 228 66 208 3421 56.0 255 73 229 4185 58.4 186 54 171 2290 54.6 242 68 214 3631 56.6 205 59 188 2733 53.4 225 62 196 3019 54.3 267 77 245 4656 59.5 226 65 207 3318 54.7 226 67 211 3525 57.0 256 77 242 4656 59.3 210 62 194 3019 55.6 258 76 240 4536 59.0 244 71 224 3955 55.0 228 66 208 3421 57,8 233 67 212 3525 53.9 236 69 219 3739 54.8 223 64 202 3216 53.7 256 75 236 4417 55.9 245 71 2 26 3959 57,0 233 68 216 3631 57.3 247 74 233 43CG 58.5 211 61 192 2922 53,9 275 82 259 5281 57,5 225 65 205 3318 54.4 252 71 223 3955 55.9 253 74 233 43 00 56.3 283 84 264 5541 57.9 221 61 193 2922 55.6 233 68 214 3631 54.7 244 72 226 4071 57.4 213 62 195 3019 55.9 268 79 250 4901 59.5 CODE RES- R NUMBER ERVE D 587 38 733 34 455 41 585 33 740 22 481 41 135 66 644 36 591 57 751 45 645 69 745 22 753 57 475 63 595 16 737 16 594 57 75 2 16 643 36 73 5 34 586 21 754 57 147 39 585 21 131 9 129 38 15 7 60 755 21 655 69 636 70 127 23 653 36 126 23 592 38 654 36 323 21 142 55 137 18 160 3 8 270 3 269 43 262 2 281 68 48e 74 268 63 159 65 265 28 245 71 267 3 501 74 171 60 237 3 489 16 263 5 266 3 SI SEX AGE ARM NCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 03 M 15.70 234 10 M 15.70 248 02 M 15.73 222 03 15.76 2 57 10 M 15. SI 265 02 M- 15.92 218 01 M 16.00 270 04 M 16.01 250 03 M 16.02 277 10 M 16.03 226 04 M 16.08 264 10 16.09 250 10 n 16. 18 250 02 M 16.30 205 03 M 16.32 23 8 20 M 16.35 251 03 M 16.37 240 10 M 16.4 2 240 04 M 16.43 258 10 K 16.44 260 03 M 16.45 236 10 M 16.50 280 01 M 16.55 228 03 M 16.56 258 01 K 16.57 230 01 M 16.62 225 01 M 16.71 255 10 K 16.72 240 04 M 16.75 273 04 ¥. 16.75 250 01 M 16.76 260 04 M 16.78 260 01 H 16.85 253 03 M 16.87 244 04 M 16.88 261 02 K 16.92 263 01 M 16. 92 257 01 M 16.93 265 01 F 6.01 175 02 F 6.05 156 02 F 6.09 180 02 F 6.10 170 02 F 6 .12 157 03 F 6.20 174 02 F 6.21 180 01 F 6.26 175 02 F 6.27 160 02 F 6.28 161 02 F 6.3 2 160 03 F 6.33 174 01 F 6.42 158 02 F 6.42 163 03 F 6.54 162 02 F 6.54 180 02 F 6.55 171 UPPER ARM MUSCLE 01 AM CIRC AREA (MM) (MM) (MM**2) 68 214 3631 72 227 4071 65 205 3318 76 239 4536 80 251 5026 62 195 3019 78 245 4778 74 234 4300 80 254 5026 63 200 3117 78 246 4778 74 233 4300 71 226 3959 58 184 2642 70 220 3848 74 234 4300 68 216 3631 70 222 3 848 75 236 4417 76 241 4536 70 219 3848 81 256 5153 65 207 3318 77 242 4656 65 206 3318 64 203 3216 73 23 2 4185 71 224 3959 81 255 5153 72 229 40 71 76 239 4536 76 238 4536 72 229 4071 71 226 3959 77 244 4656 78 247 4778 74 235 4300 78 245 4778 47 149 1734 44 140 1520 50 158 1963 45 141 1590 44 141 1520 47 148 1734 51 161 2042 49 154 1885 44 140 1520 43 138 1452 42 134 1385 48 152 1809 43 136 1452 45 142 1590 44 141 1520 50 160 1963 47 148 1734 HEAD 133 CIRC (CM) 58.2 57.8 55.7 58.3 58. 1 56.5 56.1 58.9 58.3 57.1 59.0 56.6 58.8 54. 8 58.8 57. 0 58,3 58.7 57.0 58.7 56.9 58.3 57.8 58.3 55.8 55.6 57.0 57.5 59.9 54.8 56.0 5-7* 0 56.1 59.7 59,0 59.0 58.3 59.5 50.2 49.4 50.8 50.1 49.4 49.0 '5-1.1 48.1 48.7 48.7 48.0 49.1 48.6 49.5 47.8 48.4 47.6 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE JMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS 286 41 02 F 6o59 243 11 02 F 6.60 272 63 02 F 6.64 264 28 02 F 6.64 280 43 02 F 6.64 38 23 00 F 6.66 283 71 02 F 6.66 676 25 10 F 6.67 23 8 3 02 F 6.66 246 5 02 F 6.73 261 10 02 F 6.74 29 65 01 F 6.89 163 55 01 F 6.94 500 1 03 F 6.5 7 164 55 01 F 7.03 257 5 02 F 7.17 258 5 02 F 7.17 682 34 1G F 7 . 26 284 5 02 F 7.27 48 7 13 03 F 7.25 158 65 01 F 7.34 256 68 02 F 7.38 166 24 01 F 7.3 6 244 68 02 F 7.47 67 8 34 10 F 7.50 506 57 03 F 7. 51 275 5 02 F 7.56 168 38 01 F 7.58 259 11 02 F 7.59 172 6 0 01 F 7.65 250 71 02 F 7.6 8 276 3 02 F 7.74 26 0 3 02 F 7.74 680 7 10 F 7.82 44 23 00 F 7.84 46 38 00 F 7. 84 677 34 10 F 7.69 249 76 02 F 7.90 47 38 CO F 7.55 253 2 02 F 7.56 502 8 03 F 7.98 170 12 01 F 8.01 279 11 02 F 8.11 274 5 02 F 8.16 162 60 01 F 8.17 278 28 02 F 8.18 239 5 02 F 8.23 251 61 02 F £o 26 674 32 10 F 8.27 247 3 02 F 6.28 248 10 02 F 8.29 24 65 00 F 8.3 1 511 42 03 F 8.32 27 62 00 F 8.36 679 34 10 F 8.41 ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAO 134 :IRC DIAM CIRC AREA CIRC [ MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 149 40 126 1256 47.3 154 43 136 1452 51.7 178 49 156 1885 50.1 151 43 136 1452 50.7 184 50 159 1963 51.8 168 46 147 1661 46.3 158 41 130 1320 47.3 169 45 141 1550 50. 5 170 44 138 1520 50.1 173 47 148 1734 4 7.6 160 44 139 1520 49.1 208 56 177 2463 51.6 190 51 161 2042 51.8 193 51 160 2042 50.8 175 49 156 1885 51.3 159 46 144 1661 48.9 160 46 146 1661 49.8 193 51 161 2042 50.6 184 47 149 1724 50. 5 188 53 167 2206 50.3 190 51 161 2042 50.5 162 48 151 1809 49.0 170 49 156 1885 48.6 183 49 156 1885 50.9 182 48 153 1809 51.5 203 55 173 2375 55.8 195 53 169 2206 51.8 198 53 167 2206 52.0 182 45 144 1550 51.0 173 48 153 1809 50.1 195 50 157 1963 51.6 186 50 159 1963 51.5 185 51 161 2042 50.4 183 50 157 1963 49.9 187 50 157 1563 50.0 190 53 169 2206 51.4 161 45 142 1590 47.8 178 48 152 1809 51.3 176 49 155 1885 50.3 165 45 142 1590 49.8 189 49 156 1865 51.2 150 54 170 2250 52.5 192 50 159 1963 51.5 160 45 143 1550 49.4 182 50 158 1963 51.6 194 52 165 2123 52.0 169 47 148 1734 50.6 186 48 152 1809 50.7 173 48 151 1809 50.3 160 42 134 1385 51.0 180 51 161 2042 50.4 188 52 166 2123 52.3 215 59 186 2733 52.0 199 55 174 2375 50.4 180 49 154 1885 47.6 CODE RES- R NUMBER ERVE D 675 45 164 55 241 28 236 11 505 15 254 41 271 88 285 5 176 51 683 25 165 60 505 32 681 34 282 68 28 56 499 57 161 55 604 14 20 38 41 72 25 23 296 41 273 3 188 12 311 43 304 5 495 42 242 5 167 38 277 3 291 10 252 10 179 39 48 23 292 10 191 38 315 11 516 50 290 3 23 53 313 71 289 11 684 34 6 07 14 497 32 300 3 512 75 494 21 298 3 496 59 498 50 685 34 26 56 308 5 5 03 52 SI SEX AGE ARM NCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 10 F 8.42 196 01 F 8.43 180 02 F 8.47 183 02 F €.53 175 03 F 8.62 185 02 F 8 .66 170 02 F 8.67 207 02 F 8.67 194 10 F 8.68 169 10 F e.7o 165 01 F 8.71 173 03 F 8.74 175 10 F 8.75 188 02 F 8.80 173 00 F 8.53 194 03 F €.57 190 01 F 8.99 179 04 F 5.02 208 00 F 9.03 222 GO F 9.07 238 CO F 5.0 8 195 02 F 9.12 192 02 F 5.17 194 01 F 9.19 187 02 F 9.19 185 02 F 9.25 194 03 F 9.26 208 02 F 9.30 166 01 F 9.31 195 02 F 9.31 168 02 F 9.41 205 02 F 5.43 170 01 F 9.45 212 GO F 5.47 240 02 F 9.4 8 183 01 F 9.56 240 02 F 9.56 170 03 F 9.60 200 02 F 9.60 187 CO F 9.76 198 02 F 9.77 210 02 F 9.82 190 10 F 9.83 197 04 F 9.83 192 03 F 9.89 195 02 F 9.92 180 03 F 9.55 215 03 F 5.56 202 02 F 9.97 187 03 F 10.02 197 03 F 10.03 180 10 F 10.06 195 CO F 10oC.£ 212 02 F 10.17 210 03 F 10.1.7 223 UPPER ARM MUSCLE DIAM CIRC AREA (MM) (MM) (MM#*2) 54 170 2290 50 158 1963 52 163 2123 49 155 1885 52 163 2123 48 151 1809 56 177 2463 52 166 2123 47 149 1734 44 140 1520 48 151 1809 46 146 1661 54 170 2290 51 160 2042 53 168 2206 50 159 1963 49 156 1885 56 176 2463 59 187 2733 63 200 3117 53 167 22 06 51 161 2042 55 173 2375 53 168 2206 51 162 2042 54 171 2290 55 175 2375 46 147 1661 54 169 2290 47 150 1734 58 182 2642 48 153 1809 55 173 2375 68 214 3631 50 159 1963 61 193 2922 47 149 1734 52 i64 2123 50 159 1963 53 166 2206 55 175 237 5 55 175 2375 53 168 2206 54 170 2290 53 167 2206 48 151 1809 59 187 2733 5 3 168 2206 52 165 2123 55 173 23 75 48 152 1809 50 160 1963 59 185 2733 57 181 2551 58 185 2642 HEAD 135 CIRC (CM) 50.0 49.0 52.6 50.9 52.2 50.5 52.6 49.3 49.3 50.8 51.4 52.0 52.2 51.3 52.8 53.8 51.2 51.5 53. 5 53.4 50.9 50.9 51.4 53.8 52.8 50.4 53.2 50.1 54.0 48.3 51.1 47.8 52.5 50.4 52.8 54.5 52.3 53.1 50.5 51.0 53.6 52.0 52.8 51.7 52.5 51.7 52.0 53.2 51.5 52.3 50.8 52.0 54.9 52.8 52.9 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE IMBER ERVE DENCE (YPS) 606 69 C4 F 10.21 295 41 02 F 10.26 690 7 10 F 10.27 22 23 00 F 10.25 486 1 03 F 10.30 1 6 5 00 F 10.37 505 16 03 F 10.43 183 38 01 F 10.44 288 5 02 F 10.44 513 73 03 F 10.52 186 12 01 F 10.52 178 62 01 F 10.55 692 22 10 F 10.56 605 67 04 F 10.56 293 28 02 F 10.58 4 56 00 F 10.59 287 5 G2 F 1C.62 490 8 03 F 10.69 48 5 74 03 F 10.7.0 314 71 02 F 10.80 599 70 04 F 10.80 491 33 03 F 10.84 299 11 02 F 10.89 691 34 10 F 10.54 294 10 02 F 11.0.0 307 10 02 F 11. 08 343 3 02 F 11.12 306 41 G2 F 11.13 510 75 03 F 11..1.6 301 71 02 F 11.19 18 62 00 F 11.2.0 514 64 03 F 11.27 508 59 03 F 11.28 312 68 02 F 11.25 687 7 10 F 11.32 602 14 04 F 11.32 7 62 00 F 11.33 492 13 03 F 11.33 689 45 10 F 11.35 333 5 02 F 11.41 608 30 04 F 11.42 305 5 02 F 11.51 12 65 00 F 11.54 5 62 CC F 11.54 303 28 02 F 11.55 533 57 03 F 11.61 310 58 02 F 11.62 309 68 02 F 11.72 686 34 10 F 11.73 16 38 00 F 11. 73 531 16 03 F 11.75 194 60 01 F 11.77 187 12 Gl F 11.81 181 56 01 F 11.83 688 34 10 F 11.8.7 ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD 136 ;IRC Dl AM CIRC AREA CIRC MM) (MM) i MM) (MM**2) (CM) 183 51 162 2042 49.9 192 52 163 2123 51«4 193 53 168 2206 54,0 183 52 163 2123 50.6 197 53 168 2206 51.8 212 57 179 2551 54.5 193 55 175 2375 51.1 196 55 174 2375 51.7 177 50 159 1963 50.3 215 60 191 2827 52.0 192 54 170 2290 50.2 206 57 180 2551 50.8 231 63 199 3117 55.3 221 61 194 2922 55.3 179 49 156 1885 5 0.7 205 5 7 180 2551 52.8 183 51 162 2042 51.8 191 53 169 2206 51.1 201 54 170 2250 52.3 184 50 157 1963 50.3. 214 61 192 25 22 53.8 213 57 181 2551 53.8 208 56 178 2463 51.8 274 71 2 24 35 59 56.6 157 56 178 2463 52.4 174 50 158 1563 45. 2 196 53 168 2206 52.7 197 54 170 2250 52.6 213 57 179 2551 50.8 183 51 161 2042 51.0 205 58 183 2642 53.5 215 58 182 2642 54.0 206 58 184 2642 52.8 154 55 173 2375 51.7 211 5 7 181 25 51 .51.7 189 54 170 2250 52.2 237 65 207 3318 52.6 196 55 174 2375 52.7 210 56 178 2463 53.2 193 56 176 2463 53.7 214 61 192 2922 55.8 200 55 174 23 75 52.2 235 62 195 3019 54.0 215 61 194 2922 52.8 213 59 185 2733 54.0 200 56 176 2463 52.6 211 60 190 2827 52.1 199 57 179 2551 53.0 197 57 180 2551 53.0 265 68 215 3631 56.8 200 56 176 2463 54.3 224 57 181 25 51 54.8 179 50 158 1963 51.4 210 59 187 2733 54.7 198 5 5 173 23 75 54.2 CODE RES- R NUMBER ERVE 0 526 57 532 8 517 38 603 70 515 21 297 c 318 10 190 38 601 42 319 15 302 41 600 30 189 38 3 62 518 74 729 34 717 34 15 38 722 7 177 60 623 14 33 0 3 184 24 326 5 17 62 493 57 619 69 2 38 523 57 19 65 339 3 618 30 520 38 335 28 528 73 195 20 320 10 331 3 334 5 611 37 325 5 153 60 727 34 11 62 316 3 525 50 180 77 9 38 507 8 6 88 328 28 217 23 720 22 715 34 317 43 SI SEX AGE ARM NCE (YRS) CIRC (MM) 03 F 11.87 247 03 F 11.89 211 C3 F 11.94 218 04 F 11.58 210 03 F 12.01 192 02 F 12.02 186 02 F 12.04 216 01 F 12.07 225 04 F 12.09 217 02 F 12.12 214 02 F 12.16 249 04 F 1-2.1.8 186 01 F 12.20 208 00 F 12.23 219 03 F 12.31 223 10 F 12.35 236 10 F 12.50 225 CC F 12.54 220 10 F 12.55 206 CI F 12.57 228 04 F 12.61 227 02 F 12.62 217 01 F 12.67 248 02 F 12.70 240 00 F 12.77 268 03 F 12.78 238 04 F 12.79 234 CC F 12.83 222 03 F 12.84 252 00 F 12.8.5 225 02 F 12.87 150 04 F 12.87 235 03 F 12.88 223 02 F 12.90 2C4 03 F 12.52 227 01 F 12.56 203 02 F 12.58 236 02 F 12.58 218 C2 F 12.58 188 04 F 13.01 230 C2 F 13.02 190 01 F 13.04 216 10 F 13.0.7 208 CC F 13,12 230 02 F 13.13 178 03 F 13.19 202 01 F 13.19 222 CC F 12.2 2 227 03 F 13.2 2 257 GO F 13.23 203 02 F 13,24 238 01 F 13.28 233 10 F 12.25 244 10 F 13.32 212 C2 F 13.34 192 UPPER ARM MUSCLE DIAM CIRC AREA (MM) (MM) (MM**2) 70 221 3848 57 181 2551 60 190 2827 60 191 2 827 55 173 2375 55 174 2375 62 197 3019 61 192 2922 57 180 2551 56 177 2463 73 230 4185 53 168 2206 58 183 2642 60 188 2827 60 191 2827 65 204 3318 62 197 3019 62 196 3019 56 177 2463 62 195 3019 62 196 3019 60 190 2827 68 214 3631 68 214 3631 71 224 3959 6 5 204 3318 62 196 3019 61 193 2922 69 217 3739 63 200 3117 52 165 2123 64 202 3216 62 195 3019 59 186 2733 61 194 2922 54 172 2290 68 214 3631 60 188 2827 51 161 2042 64 202 3216 53 169 2206 60 190 2827 56 178 2463 64 202 3216 50 159 1963 57 180 2551 62 195 3019 62 197 3019 64 203 3216 58 183 2642 65 207 3318 61 191 2922 66 209 3421 58 184 2642 55 175 2375 HEAD 137 CIRC (CN) 55.0 54.8 55.5 54.1 54.2 50.4 52.8 56.3 52,6 53. 8 53.2 52,8 53.6 54.0 53.3 56.6 55.0 52.9 54.6 54.3 53.9 53,7 55,5 54.9 54,2 55.3 53.3 53.1 55.5 53.5 54.7 57.0 56.8 54.8 55,3 5-1.0. 54. 8 56.0 53.6 53.9 50.9 55.5 53.8 54,1 50.4 52.6 54.7 53. 2 56.9 50.6 56.4 53.5 55.0 54.2 55.4 CODE RES RESI SEX ACE ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD IMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC CI AM CIRC AREA CIRC I MM) (MM) (MM) (MH**2) (CM) 527 33 03 F 13,35 226 63 198 3117 54.2 617 70 04 F 13,40 246 63 198 3117 54.6 224 11 02 F 13 .41 200 56 176 2463 55,0 621 67 04 F 12.46 233 64 202 3216 56.0 524 50 03 F 13.46 2 53 65 207 3318 56.7 222 63 02 F 13.46 192 55 174 2375 53.6 730 34 10 F 12.48 206 55 174 2375 54.1 530 13 03 F 13.51 271 74 233 4300 56.3 346 73 02 F 13.51 236 67 210 3525 55.2 182 35 01 F 12.54 233' 60 191 2827 52.5 14 6 00 F 13.58 240 63 199 3117 52.8 341 68 02 F 12.59 208 58 182 2642 54.8 716 34 10 F 12.62 262 68 216 3631 57.0 243 68 02 F 13.62 213 57 181 2551 52.4 583 74 03 F 13.69 230 62 197 3019 56.6 213 18 01 F 13.69 240 66 209 3421 58.3 529 21 03 F 13.74 222 61 193 2922 54.7 321 28 02 F 13.79 221 60 188 2827 53.9 72 2 34 10 F 13.80 225 61 192 25 22 5 5.2 210 18 01 F 12.81 245 63 • 199 3117 55.3 329 11 02 F 13.83 250 66 208 3421 57.4 368 3 02 F 13.85 224 60 189 2827 54.7 192 60 01 F 13.89 218 60 190 2827 54.8 13 65 00 F 13.90 265 71 2 24 3959 54.2 357 5 02 F 13.91 220 63 198 3117 54.5 613 70 04 F 13.57 228 65 206 3318 54,9 337 3 02 F 14.01 215 58 183 2642 54.9 625 69 04 F 14.03 231 64 203 3216 53.7 225 60 01 F 14.03 228 61 193 2922 53.2 579 44 03 F 14.05 230 63 199 3117 54.9 327 41 02 F 14.06 228 63 198 3117 55.4 372 68 02 F 14.06 220 60 189 2827 56.9 353 71 02 F 14.09 208 56 176 2463 53.8 522 21 03 F 14.12 226 60 191 2827 54.8 350 68 02 F 14.17 186 53 168 2206 52.5 235 24 01 F 14.18 223 62 195 3019 55.0 363 11 02 F 14.20 233 63 200 3117 56.2 574 1 03 F 14.25 275 69 217 3739 57,2 10 62 00 F 14.26 230 65 205 3318 53.7 355 4 02 F 14.26 236 63 198 3117 56.8 201 18 01 F 14.29 234 63 199 3117 52.9 610 70 04 F 14.30 230 62 194 3019 56.1 367 3 02 F 14.30 206 57 181 2551 54.2 205 9 01 F 14.32 235 65 205 3318 54.6 719 25 10 F 14.35 230 63 200 3117 53.0 234 18 01 F 14.41 226 60 189 2827 53.0 615 70 04 F 14.46 223 63 198 3117 52.9 345 41 02 F 14.46 230 66 207 3421 55.7 352 5 02 F 14.48 210 59 187 2733 54.0 338 11 02 F 14.51 227 64 201 3216 54.8 354 5 02 F 14.52 207 59 187 2733 53.3 332 10 02 F 14.52 256 73 231 4185 53.1 228 62 01 F 14.55 245 67 213 . 3525 53,3 8 23 CO F 14.56 248 69 219 3739 53.5 340 6 8 02 F 14.58 210 58 183 2642 54.7 CODE RES RESI sex AGE ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD IMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC DI AM CIRC AREA CIRC • (MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 185 60 01 F 14.60 223 56 179 2463 54.5 718 22 10 F 14.61 266 70 220 3848 55.7 £20 70 04 F 14.65 243 66 208 3421 55,6 580 21 03 F 14.65 243 67 213 3525 53.9 521 50 03 F 14.73 223 61 154 . 2922 53.9 724 34 10 F 14.76 275 69 217 3739 57.1 200 39 01 F 14. 82 246 66 207 3421 53.8 222 40 01 F 14.89 , 267 71 225 3959 58.2 622 69 04 F 14.50 242 65 206 3318 53.0 624 69 04 F 14.90 246 64 203 3216 55.0 232 60 01 F 14.91 250 65 207 3318 56.6 351 11 02 F 14.52 236 64 201 3216 56.2 216 55 01 F 14.97 255 64 203 3216 55.2 22 0 12 01 F 14.57 221 61 192 2922 56.4 336 15 02 F 15.02 220 62 194 3019 55.2 212 49 01 F 15.03 278 70 220 3848 56.3 344 3 02 F 15.C5 266 69 216 3739 57,1 173 20 01 F 15.0.6 240 63 199 3117 56.0 207 40 01 F 15.10 247 65 204 3318 55.7 728 58 10 F 15.12 214 58 185 2642 55.2 206 9 01 F 15.1.5 259 73 231 4185 55.0 202 38 01 F 15.18 248 67 211 3525 54,2 175 60 10 F -15.34 233 62 196 3019 57.0 348 41 02 F 15.35 250 62 197 3019 56.7 £81 6 03 F 15.35 269 71 223 3959 56.0 609 36 04 F 15.40 253 68 216 3631 55. 5 174 24 01 F 15.45 234 61 191 29 22 55.5 229 38 01 F 15.45 236 61 193 2922 56.6 366 73 02 F 15.4.7 256 68 214 3631 56.8 577 19 03 F 15.55 257 65 205 3318 55.4 575 16 03 F 15.55 236 67 211 3525 55.0 198 23 01 F 15.57 277 73 232 4185 55.5 359 10 C2 F 15.61 250 67 211 3525 52.4 349 68 02 F 15.61 239 66 207 3421 55.1 226 60 01 F 15.61 260 69 217 3 739 56.5 616 42 04 F 15.65 230 62 195 3019 55.0 371 5 02 F 15.70 207 60 188 2 827 53. 6 72 6 34 10 F 15.7.4 202 57 181 2551 54,6 224 60 CI F 15.7.4 235 61 194 2922 55,9 347 5 02 F 15.79 228 65 204 3318 53,8 614 70 04 F 15.81 263 73 229 4185 55*7 365 11 02 F 15.84 240 66 210 3421 56.8 219 60 01 F 15.8.8 250 66 208 3421 54.8 223 60 01 F 15.51 245 66 210 3421 55.2 358 11 02 F 16.00 238 65 205 3318 54.2 731 34 10 F 16.03 232 62 156 3015 54.0 360 5 02 F 16.04 273 70 222 3848 55.5 626 70 04 F 16.05 252 71 223 3959 52.6 5 78 57 03 F 16.05 220 60 183 2827 55.1 519 21 03 F 16.10 225 61 192 2922 55.8 365 5 02 F 16.1.4 . 238 68 216 3631 54.4 3 56 5 02 F 16,1.4 240 68 214 3631 52.6 362 43 02 F 16.15 266 74 232 4300 55.3 230 60 01 F 16.18 226 62 196 3019 57.0 214 27 01 F 16.18 240 67 212 3525 52.6 CODE RES RESI SEX AGE ARM UPPER ARM MUSCLE HEAD IMBER ERVE DENCE (YRS) CIRC DI AM CIRC AREA CIRC (MM) (MM) (MM) (MM**2) (CM) 203 38 01 F 16,22 256 68 216 3631 56.1 221 20 01 F 16,23 202 55 175 2375 54.2 725 34 10 F 16,24 233 57 182 2551 53.6 233 18 01 F 16,30 267 71 223 3959 58.6 218 56 01 F 16.33 265 73 230 4185 56.3 37C 76 02 F 16.38 236 65 207 3318 54.8 231 60 01 F 16.35 253 68 214 3631 56.2 215 18 01 F 16.47 283 74 235 4300 58.4 227 39 01 F 16.47 265 75 237 4417 55.4 21 23 00 F 16.52 267 74 234 4300 53.3 364 68 02 F 16.57 243 69 218 3739 53.9 576 57 03 F 16.55 244 63 199 3117 53.0 197 65 01 F 16.71 270 67 211 3525 55.0 612 70 04 F 16.78 271 67 212 3525 55.0 361 28 02 F 16. 85 263 71 225 3959 55.2 208 56 01 F 16.89 246 67 213 3525 56,6 584 3 3 03 F 16.51 252 68 215 3631 55.3 721 25 10 F 16.93 246 67 212 3525 56.1 209 12 01 F 16.93 258 71 223 39 59 55.9 

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