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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A review of selected research related to the use of techniques of adult education Stott, Margaret Muir 1966

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A REVIEW OF SELECTED RESEARCH RELATED TO THE USE OF TECHNIQUES IN ADULT EDUCATION by Margaret Muir S t o t t B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 195& A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s (Adult Education) i n the F a c u l t y o f Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s „ I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . -Department o f fl(V<-~y £ 0 u c ^ T i o A / The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date K f\\ , t q £ £ > ABSTRACT OF THESIS The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was to review the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h on techniques f o r a d u l t education and to develop a scheme by which such techniques could be c l a s s i f i e d i n a l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t . The r e s e a r c h reviewed was r e s t r i c t e d t o th a t l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g only to edu c a t i o n a l programmes designed and con-ducted w i t h a d u l t s . The f i n d i n g s of the s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s on each technique were summarized and the technique was placed i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. Many of the e x i s t i n g research s t u d i e s are not comparable w i t h each other, because of poor re s e a r c h designs and the a f f e c t t h a t they were not conceived under the same t h e o r e t i c a l framework so t h a t s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s were not c o n t r o l l e d . Research s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h c e r t a i n techniques were p a r t i c u l a r l y scarce such as those concerned w i t h Information techniques l i k e the l e c t u r e , form, panel, debate, symposium and d i a l o g u e . The bulk of the re s e a r c h tended to be con-cerned w i t h techniques i n v o l v i n g l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as group d i s c u s s i o n and s k i l l p r a c t i c e . I n the case of c e r t a i n techniques no v a l i d r e s e a r c h was found. In a d d i t i o n t o r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g to techniques, the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of techniques f o r ad u l t education was a l s o examined and the Newberry system was adopted as the most v a l i d f o r purposes of t h i s study. This system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n produces a two dimensional s c a l e which placed a technique i n terms of the degree of l e a r n e r Involvement on the one hand, and ascending measures of concreteness of subject matter on the other. On the basis of the resear c h reviewed, each technique considered has been placed i n a c e l l on the Newberry S c a l e . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. Coolie Verner f o r his help i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . PURPOSE OP THE THESIS 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . Purpose of the Thesis 3 I I I . D e f i n i t i o n s 3 IV. Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 5 V. P l a n of the Thesis 15 I I . DEVELOPING A CLASSIPICATION SCHEME 18 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 18 I I . Summary 38 I I I . A REVIEW OP THE RESEARCH ON TECHNIQUES 41 I . The Lecture Technique 41 Organ i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 41 Research Designs of the Studies 43 F i n d i n g s 65 Processes 65 Information 70 A t t i t u d e 78 Adoption 86 I I A . The Lecture Technique Used as a Standard 87 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 87 D e s c r i p t i o n 87 F i n d i n g s 90 Processes 90 Information 91 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) A t t i t u d e 91 Problem-Solving 93 Adoption 93 Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the Lecture Technique 94 D e s c r i p t i o n 94 R e s u l t s 96 I I . THE DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUE 99 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 99 I I I A . THE PROCESS DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUE 100 Research Design of the Study 100 Findings 102 Adoption 102 I I I B . THE RESULT DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUE 103 Research Design of the Study 103 F i n d i n g s 104 Adoption 104 I I I . THE PRACTICE TECHNIQUE 106 Organ i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 106 Research Designs of the Studies 107 F i n d i n g s 111 Processes 111 S k i l l 112 Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the P r a c t i c e Technique 114 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) D e s c r i p t i o n 114 Res u l t s 115 IV'. THE ROLE-PLAYING TECHNIQUE 116 I n t r o d u c t i o n 116 Research Design of the Study 118 Find i n g s 120 Processes 120 Adoption 121 V. THE CRITIQUE TECHNIQUE 121 Org a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 121 Research Designs of the Studies 123 Findings ' 137 Processes 137 Information 146 Problem-Solving 148 A t t i t u d e 149a Adoption 149a Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the C r i t i q u e Technique 149a D e s c r i p t i o n l49a R e s u l t s 152 VI. GROUP DISCUSSION 154 I n t r o d u c t i o n 154 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) VIA. THE GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE WHEN CENTRED AROUND OUTSIDE INFORMATION 15©" O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 156 Research Designs of the Studies 157 F i n d i n g s 170 Processes 170 Leadership 176 P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n 179 F r i e n d s h i p s 183 Information 183 Mental S k i l l s 187 A t t i t u d e Change 190 Adoption: 192 Reading 192 Community A c t i v i t y 193 Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the Group D i s c u s s i o n Technique Centred Around Outside Information ' 194 D e s c r i p t i o n 194 Res u l t s 200 VLB. THE CASE DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE 205 Research Design of the Study 205 Findings 208 A t t i t u d e 208 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) VIC. THE PERMISSIVE GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE 211 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 211 Research Designs of the Experiments 212 F i n d i n g s 224 Processes 224 Information 231 A t t i t u d e 234 Adoption 237 Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the Permissive Group D i s c u s s i o n Technique 238 D e s c r i p t i o n 238 R e s u l t s 244 VID. THE GROUP DISCUSSION-DECISION TECHNIQUE 247 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n 247 Research Designs of the Studies 248 Fin d i n g s ' 261 Processes 261 Problem-Solving 262 Adoption 266 Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the Group D i s c u s s i o n - D e c i s i o n Technique 280 D e s c r i p t i o n 280 R e s u l t s 284 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) V I I . CONJUNCTION OP TECHNIQUES 289 O r g a n i z a t i o n of tne S e c t i o n 289 Research Designs of the Studies 290 Findings 299 Processes 299 Information 313 S k i l l s 314 A t t i t u d e and Adoption 315 IV. FURTHER SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME AND ANALYSIS OF FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS 319 .1 . INTRODUCTION 319 I I . FURTHER SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME 319 I I I ' . SUGGESTED DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 330 IV. SUMMARY 335 BIBLIOGRAPHY 33b LIST OP PIGUKES FIGURE PAGE 1 The Newberry Scale A Scale i'or C l a s s i f y i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Techniques According -co the Degree of A b s t r a c t i o n from D i r e c t Experience of Content and Degree of Overt P a r t i c i -p a t i o n of the Student i n the Learning Experience. 23 2 Developing the Newberry S c a l e . 36 3 Lecture Technique Placed According t o the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Experience. 40 4 Demonstration Techniques Placed According t o the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Experience. 10^ 5 P r a c t i c e Techniques Placed According to the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Experience. 117 6 R o l e - P l a y i n g Technique Placed According to the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Experience. 122 7 R e s u l t s of the S t e i n Experiment. 138 8 C r i t i q u e Techniques Placed Accox'ding t o the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Expex-ience. 1^3 9 Group D i s c u s s i o n Techniques Centred Around Outside Information Placed According to the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Experience. 204 10 Case D i s c u s s i o n Technique Placed According to the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning S i t u a t i o n . 210 Permissive Group D i s c u s s i o n Technique Placed According to the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning S i t u a t i o n . Group D i s c u s s i o n - D e c i s i o n Technique Placed According t o the Q u a l i t i e s of the Learning Experience. A Scale f o r C l a s s i f y i n g E ducational Techniques According t o Degree of A b s t r a c t i o n from D i r e c t Experience of Content and Degree of Overt P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Student i n the Learning Experience. CHAPTER I PURPOSE OP THE THESIS I . INTRODUCTION The emphasis that our western s o c i e t y has placed on c o n t r o l of the p h y s i c a l environment Is perhaps unique i n the h i s t o r y of man. I t has been s a i d that In the p h y s i c a l sciences knowledge doubles every ten years and 90 per cent of a l l the s c i e n t i s t s who have l i v e d are l i v i n g now. The r a d i c a l advances i n technology which occur d a i l y and which we accept as a normal part of l i f e imply a need f o r many s o c i a l changes which because they are dependent on the a t t i -tude and value systems of the human mind do not come about e a s i l y . This can be perceived i n s t u d i e s of p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s which may have eagerly accepted the t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances of the west but have not developed the o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s or more b a s i c a l l y the philosophy of l i f e which would enable them t o develop a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y of t h e i r own. Thus we l i v e i n a s o c i e t y where t e c h n o l o g i c a l and concommitant s o c i a l change are part of the environment. Technology appears to forge ahead almost under i t s own Impetus whereas great e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d to solve some of the s o c i a l problems created by such change. For inst a n c e : medical 2 science has learned how to save thousands of l i v e s , but man i s l e f t with the problem of an ever-growing human population and vast numbers of people i n small areas; technology has provided the means for great mobility v i a the j e t , the car and the t r a i n but society faces the problem of changing family patterns where r e l a t i v e s are often hundreds of miles apart and i n s t i t u t i o n s have to be evolved to care f o r the aged, the needy, and the mentally i l l ; technology advances at such a pace that many jobs are continuously being taken over by machines creating a need f o r large numbers of people to learn new jobs p e r i o d i c a l l y . If such a society i s to remain integrated there must be opportunities f o r adults to acquire new learning throughout l i f e . During the l i f e span of the present adult population the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l setting has been perceived primarily as the sole province of the young of the society. The edu-cation of adults however, has been recognized increasingly i n our modern i n d u s t r i a l society as that society has created the need f o r i t . Philosophically, as a society, we subscribe to the democratic p r i n c i p l e which implies that while we can provide the occasion and the opportunities f o r adult learning i t i s l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l to take advantage of such opportunity v o l u n t a r i l y . This implies also that the actual learning s i t u a t i o n w i l l be conducted so as to encourage the learner to 3 t h i n k independently. Thus, the a u t h o r i t a r i a n and persuasive use of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s have no place w i t h i n the democratic framework. I I . PURPOSE OP THE THESIS In order to advance any f i e l d of knowledge system-a t i c a l l y i t i s necessary to review i t s r e s e a r c h p e r i o d i c a l l y to i t e m i z e what i s known and to determine where f u r t h e r r e -search i s needed. Such a summation and a n a l y s i s of e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s a conceptual framework i n order t h a t the known and the unknown components of knowledge i n a f i e l d can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d recognized and ordered s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o review e x i s t i n g research per-t a i n i n g to the techniques of adult education and t o assess whether the r e s u l t s can be c a t e g o r i z e d under any conceptual scheme which would be u s e f u l t o the p r a c t i s i n g adult educator. This would enable him t o s e l e c t techniques according to h i s s p e c i f i c g o a l f o r l e a r n i n g . Furthermore such an a n a l y s i s w i l l i n d i c a t e those areas i n which substantive knowledge about techniques i s scant or wanting. I I I . DEFINITIONS In a n a l y z i n g research i n a d u l t education i t becomes apparent immediately that the terms 'method' and 'technique' are used interchangeably when i n f a c t they describe d i s c r e t e processes. For purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , the p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s proposed by Verner (86) are employed. H defi n e s method as: ...the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a p o t e n t i a l body of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the purpose of c r e a t i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r systematic l e a r n -ing among a p r e s c r i b e d but not n e c e s s a r i l y f u l l y i d e n t i -f i e d p u b l i c . (86 p.22) Technique, i n t u r n , i s defined as: ...the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g among a p a r t i c u l a r and p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d body of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n and the m a t e r i a l t o he learned. (86 p.22) The terms method and technique w i l l be used i n t h i s t h e s i s as de f i n e d here except i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e where the terms w i l l be used as the reviewer has used them when d i s c u s s i n g each review and according to Verner when d i s cussing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i n d i n g s f o r the present t h e s i s . Other terminology which w i l l be used i n a p r e c i s e manner i n t h i s study w i l l a l s o be defined here. Devices are d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the Verner terminology from methods and techniques: Devices may be defined as the equipment u t i l i z e d or the c o n d i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent t o extend or increase the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the techniques employed i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . (86 p.22). The term agent or ed u c a t i o n a l agent w i l l be used i n t h i s t h e s i s t o designate the i n d i v i d u a l who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The term teacher i s 5 c o n s c i o u s l y avoided here si n c e i t f a i l s to describe the p r e c i s e nature of the r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n an adult l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The term l e a r n i n g w i l l be used as defined by Praser (32) Learning i s a process whereby c o r r e c t responses are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a continuously adaptive p a t t e r n , and i n c o r r e c t or badly timed responses are e l i m i n a t e d or r e a d j u s t e d . (32 p.25) The act of i n t e g r a t i n g i m p l i e s t h a t f o r l e a r n i n g to occur the l e a r n e r must be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g concepts, value systems and motor r e a c t i o n s to accommodate new i n f o r m a t i o n . This process w i l l r e q u i r e greater or l e s s e r e f f o r t on the p a r t of the l e a r n e r depending on whether the new m a t e r i a l i s i n harmony or c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s e x i s t i n g con-c e p t u a l f i e l d and whether he has the i n t e l l e c t u a l and motor equipment to d e a l w i t h i t . IV. REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Reviews of rese a r c h on methods and techniques a p p l i -cable t o a d u l t education are a recent phenomenon, the e a r l i e s t discovered having been w r i t t e n i n 1942. The f i r s t reviews were pub l i s h e d i n the f i e l d s of psychology and speech. Prom the m i d - f i f t i e s on, such reviews were w r i t t e n w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e s of s o c i a l psychology, s o c i o l o g y , speech, education and a d u l t education. 6 I t w i l l be the purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n to consider these reviews of the research i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order w i t h the f o l l o w i n g questions i n mind where a p p l i c a b l e : how many s t u d i e s are reported and w i t h i n what d i s c i p l i n e were they c a r r i e d out? were the s t u d i e s i n c h i l d or a d u l t education? how v a l i d were the research procedures? how was the review organized? What methods and techniques were studied? was e f f e c t i v e n e s s judged by a t t i t u d e change, in f o r m a t i o n gained, s k i l l s or some other c r i t e r i a ? i s there a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme which would be workable i n terms of the l e a r n i n g goal of the agent e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t i n the review? Two areas i n which techniques have been s t u d i e d w i l l be l e f t out: these are s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g to techniques under the correspondence method which have been adequately d e a l t w i t h already by Tucker and Bradt (84) and s t u d i e s u s i n g h i g h school and c o l l e g e youth as subjects s i n c e there i s much doubt t h a t the f i n d i n g s of such s t u d i e s can apply unequivo-c a l l y to adult education. Brunner ( 2 0 ) , D i e t r i c k ( 2 9 ) and Verner (87) s t a t e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e s e r v a t i o n s on t h i s p o i n t as f o l l o w s : I t must be pointed out t h a t the methods, techniques and m a t e r i a l s of adult education should be developed e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e i r use w i t h a d u l t s i n mind. High school procedures and m a t e r i a l s were found i n a p p r o p r i -ate again and again by both the Army and Navy. ( 2 0 p.148) Not only has most of the research been done i n a c o l l e g e s i t u a t i o n , but the youthfulness and general g r a d e - o r i e n t a t i o n of the m a j o r i t y of samples make i t d i f f i c u l t to apply the f i n d i n g s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e t o the a d u l t education s i t u a t i o n . ( 2 9 p . I l l ) 7 I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t there are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of methods between adult and pre-adult l e v e l s . This assumption i t s e l f has not been t e s t e d and i t discounts any important p s y c h o - s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e that may develop. The acceptance and adoption s t u d i e s have emphasized the important i n f l u e n c e exerted by p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s and tend t o support t h i s r e s e r v a t i o n . ( 8 7 p.266) In a review of the research Dickens and Heffernan ( 2 8 ) c i t e the f i n d i n g s of three e a r l i e r surveys of experimental r e s e a r c h on group d i s c u s s i o n . A l l experimental work w i t h i n the p e r i o d of 1934-46 i s encompassed w i t h i n t h i s review. The reviewers discovered t h a t the r e s e a r c h had been pursued a l -most e x c l u s i v e l y i n the f i e l d s of psychology ( f i f t e n s t u d i e s 1 9 2 4 - 3 4 , f i v e s t u d i e s 1934-46) and speech (twenty-three s t u d i e s 1934-46). The authors note that the p s y c h o l o g i s t s , not being p r a c t i t i o n e r s of d i s c u s s i o n tended to set up a r t i f i c i a l and u n l i f e l i k e s i t u a t i o n s and have concentrated on the e f f e c t s of d i s c u s s i o n w h i l e overlooking the process e n t i r e l y . Researchers i n the f i e l d of speech on the other hand, set up s t u d i e s which were not r i g o r o u s l y enough con-t r o l l e d to be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound. Ninety per cent of the s t u d i e s i n both f i e l d s have been c a r r i e d out w i t h high school or c o l l e g e students as s u b j e c t s and as a consequence almost the e n t i r e bulk of t h i s research i s l i m i t e d i n i t s a p p l i -c a t i o n to academic s i t u a t i o n s . In the o p i n i o n of the authors the number one need f o r research regarding d i s c u s s i o n i s the development and v a l i d a t i o n of new experimental t o o l s , the f e e l i n g being that 8 i t w i l l be impossible to b u i l d good study designs u n t i l b e t t e r measurement techniques have been constructed. According to t h i s review the most thoroughly covered areas of res e a r c h i n d i s c u s s i o n have been the e f f e c t s of d i s -c u s sion on problem s o l v i n g , and on a t t i t u d e change and com-parisons between l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h regard t o the amount of infor m a t i o n acquired from each. However no means of c l a s s i f y i n g techniques according to the g o a l f o r l e a r n i n g i s o f f e r e d . In a 1949 review K e l t n e r (48) a s s e r t s that A l l t h a t can be attempted here i s a b r i e f running account of t y p i c a l s t u d i e s i n s e v e r a l areas of r e -search, i n d i c a t i n g the type of problem studied and the p r i n c i p a l conclusions reached. (48 p.91) He r e p o r t s forty-one items, not a l l of which can be regarded as research s t u d i e s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the f i n d i n g s of s t u d i e s u s i n g both p r e - a d u l t s and a d u l t s as s u b j e c t s . There i s no c r i t i c i s m of r e s e a r c h procedures. This review seems to be concerned mainly w i t h s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g to the dynamics of a d i s c u s s i o n group and w i t h a t t i t u d e change and mental s k i l l s as products of the d i s c u s s i o n group. The research i s r e -ported under s e c t i o n s on: 1) group process and e f f e c t s , 2) the work-group conference, 3) methods i n i n d u s t r y , the armed f o r c e s and r a d i o , 4) f i l m forums, 5) d i s c u s s i o n i n the classroom, 6) l e a d e r s h i p , 7) b i b l i o g r a p h i e s . No means of c l a s s i f y i n g techniques according to g o a l i s o f f e r e d . 9 In a 1950 review of the research on methods of adult education Sheats and McLaughlin (69) p o i n t to the general areas i n which research has been c a r r i e d out. They rep o r t s i x t y - n i n e s t u d i e s and r e p o r t s covering the pe r i o d from 1945 t o 1950, the m a j o r i t y of which have used a d u l t s as s u b j e c t s . New techniques d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s review are r o l e - p l a y i n g , socio-drama and P h i l l i p s 66. This i s a u s e f u l review i n that i t has included many s i g n i f i c a n t s t u d i e s on a v a r i e t y of techniques. The authors c l a s s i f y the research according t o the s i z e of the group w i t h which a method or technique i s used. In an Extension S e r v i c e c i r c u l a r C r i l e (25) reviews research on meetings w i t h i n the Federal Extension s e r v i c e . A. v a r i e t y of techniques used w i t h i n the meeting method such as demonstration, f i l m - d i s c u s s i o n , and d i s c u s s i o n are reported. Many of the s t u d i e s are concerned w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n p atterns r e l a t e d to the method and hence are I r r e l e v a n t to the present review. The c h i e f c r i t e r i o n of the success of the method i s whether new p r a c t i c e s advocated at meetings were adopted. The review Is organized i n t o s e c t i o n s on: 1) adult and youth meetings, 2) a g r i c u l t u r e and home economic meetings, 3) a g r i -c u l t u r a l meetings, 4) home economics meetings and 5) 4H club meetings. Hence, the se c t i o n s concerned w i t h s t u d i e s of ad u l t s can e a s i l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . The review i s not p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h 10 techniques and no means of c l a s s i f y i n g them i s o f f e r e d . Verner i n a 1959 review (87) r e p o r t s the f i n d i n g s of f o r t y - e i g h t s t u d i e s on e x h i b i t s , b u l l e t i n s and readings, as w e l l as on meetings. According to the typology Verner has since developed the f i r s t three c a t e g o r i e s do not apply to the study of methods and techniques. There i s nothing d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to techniques i n the review of the r e -search on meetings, however the f i n d i n g t h a t the ed u c a t i o n a l meeting i s a very e f f e c t i v e method i n r u r a l adult education i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e s e a r c h on techniques under t h i s method should prove u s e f u l . Two f u r t h e r s e c t i o n s of the report d e a l w i t h e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s and st u d i e s of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g method. The former mentions l e c t u r e and correspondence techniques and the l a t t e r deals w i t h f i n d i n g s of st u d i e s regarding the s o c i a l group w i t h which a method i s l i k e l y to be e f f e c t i v e . Adoption seems to be the measure of e f f e c t i v e n e s s here. Brunner (20) devoted two chapters of h i s book to stud i e s on methods and techniques. The f i r s t of these chapters (pp.142-162) deals mainly w i t h research on meetings using adoption as a c r i t e r i o n of e f f e c t i v e n e s s , but s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h r o l e - p l a y i n g and w i t h l e c t u r e are a l s o mentioned. A t o t a l of twelve s t u d i e s are considered. The second of these chapters (pp.162-176) deals w i t h research on d i s c u s s i o n summarizing a t o t a l of s i x t e e n s t u d i e s mainly using adult samples. 11 Brunner's c r i t i c i s m of s t u d i e s on d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t most have used l e s s than s c h o l a s t i c r i g o r i n seeking t o I d e n t i f y the s i t u a t i o n s i n which d i s c u s s i o n can be used most a p p r o p r i a t e l y . He mentions that he can f i n d no s t u d i e s : i n which the appropriateness of d i s c u s s i o n i n widely d i f f e r e n t a d u l t education s i t u a t i o n s and among people of widely d i f f e r e n t experiences and a b i l i t i e s was evaluated. (20 p.169) The review i s organized under two major headings, l e c t u r e versus d i s c u s s i o n and the d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r . Under l e c t u r e versus d i s c u s s i o n Brunner r e p o r t s research on d i s c u s s i o n - d e c i s i o n groups compared w i t h l e c t u r e groups and l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n groups. Some of the s t u d i e s reported used pre-'adults as s u b j e c t s . Several s t u d i e s are concerned w i t h the e f f e c t of d e c i s i o n - d i s c u s s i o n and study d i s c u s s i o n on o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e change. Under the s e c t i o n on l e a d e r -ship Brunner r e p o r t s s t u d i e s aimed at uncovering the most e f f e c t i v e type of d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r s h i p . The Verner con-cept u a l scheme i s discussed i n t h i s overview. D i e t r i c k (29) i n a review of the l i t e r a t u r e compares the f i n d i n g s on l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n . Included i n t h i s survey of 185 research r e p o r t s , are many st u d i e s using c o l l e g e students as s u b j e c t s . D i e t r i c k shares the concern recorded ten years e a r l i e r by Dickens and Heffernan (28) that s t u d i e s should meet c e r t a i n methodological and measurement standards 12 before the f i n d i n g s can be considered v a l i d . His compre-hensive review g i v e s much food f o r thought as to the v a l i d i t y and area of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s of many s t u d i e s reviewed. He comments: I t i s important t o keep i n mind, however, that these inferences assume c o m p a r a b i l i t y f o r the s t u d i e s from which they are drawn. As we have seen, there i s l i t t l e evidence to warrant such an assumption. Indeed, i n view of the general l a c k of agreement and frequent f a i l u r e to c o n t r o l a number of v a r i a b l e s which may have s e r i o u s l y a l t e r e d the f i n d i n g s , one must e x e r c i s e ex-treme caution i n e v a l u a t i n g t h i s divergent body of research. (20 pp.110-111) He attempts to def i n e the d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e •methods' and organizes h i s review around these d e f i n i t i o n s , p o i n t i n g out that there has been l i t t l e consensus on the d i s -c u s s i o n process among those who have designed s t u d i e s on d i s -c u s s i o n . Question and answer, the quiz s e s s i o n , the l e c t u r e and reading q u i z , buzz s e s s i o n s , seminars, group-centred and leader-centred d i s c u s s i o n groups, c o l l e c t i o n s of persons who a c t u a l l y work as i n d i v i d u a l s and the " t r u e " (as defined by D i e t r i c k ) d i s c u s s i o n 'method' have a l l been subjected t o research under the t i t l e of d i s c u s s i o n . D i e t r i c k (20) con-s i d e r s two elements necessary f o r true discussion: " 1 ) the primary exchange i s between the students; 2) the most a c t i v e r o l e played by the i n s t r u c t o r i s that of provocative moderator." (20 p.91) However he f i n d s that by s e l e c t i n g s t u d i e s according to these c r i t e r i a • he would: "exclude numerous stud i e s whose i n f e r e n t i a l value l i e s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to f u r t h e r the i n t e -g r a t i o n of otherwise c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s . " (20 p.91) Consequently he excludes only those s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h a) buzz groups and b) c o l l e c t i o n s of persons who a c t u a l l y work as i n d i v i d u a l s . Regarding the c l a s s method and l e c t u r e technique he incl u d e s a l l s t u d i e s which f i t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : About a l l t h a t can be s a i d i s that the experimenters appear to have conceived the l e c t u r e to be a more or l e s s continuous o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n and ideas by the teacher w i t h l i t t l e or no a c t i v e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n by the members of the c l a s s . (20 pp.91-92)* D i e t r i c k notes that s t u d i e s comparing the e f f i c a c y of l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n can be cate g o r i z e d i n t o three major c l a s s e s of research according t o the c r i t e r i o n used t o eval u -ate the study. These are 1) the a c q u i s i t i o n of Information, 2) the r e t e n t i o n of info r m a t i o n , and 3) a t t i t u d i n a l change r e s u l t i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s u b - c r i t e r i o n of some of the stu d i e s on which D i e t r i c k r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s i s the power of the 'method' to develop c e r t a i n mental a b i l i t i e s i n p a r t i c i -pants. Thus D i e t r i c k has d e r i v e d a means f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g these s t u d i e s according to the l e a r n i n g goal achieved while n o t i n g t h a t present research may not be comparable under any de posto f a c t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. * D i e t r i c k quotes t h i s passage from T.P. S t o v a l l , "Classroom Methods. 11. l e c t u r e vs d i s c u s s i o n , " 12. D e l t a  Kappan, 39•* 255-258, p.255. March, 1955. 14 Goulette (36) includes a chapter on methods and techniques i n h i s review of the research undertaken i n the armed f o r c e s on the education of a d u l t s . His review i s organized under the Verner conceptual scheme which s i m p l i f i e s the l o c a t i o n of s t u d i e s of primary concern f o r techniques. The f i f t e e n s t u d i e s on techniques have been c a r r i e d out under the c l a s s method, the major method used by the armed f o r c e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the technique was o f t e n judged by s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n , although i n f o r m a t i o n gained and a t t i t u d e change are a l s o c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n some s t u d i e s . Conclusions Most s t u d i e s i n ad u l t education and other f i e l d s con-cerned w i t h the l e a r n i n g process, w h i l e u s i n g the terms, method and technique synonymously, have been p r i m a r i l y de-signed to study methods. Often the researcher has f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e w i t h any c l a r i t y the technique used to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the method. One task of t h i s reviewer, t h e r e -f o r e , w i l l be to analyse s t u d i e s on method t o determine i f they i n d i c a t e any f i n d i n g s f o r techniques, and to examine research s p e c i f i c a l l y on techniques. As has been observed i n the reviews considered here the v a l i d i t y of a great amount of research undertaken to date i s questionable due t o the number of unconsidered and un-c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s at play i n a l a r g e number of study designs. A scheme whereby techniques can be c l a s s i f i e d 15 according to t h e i r inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and the g o a l f o r l e a r n i n g should g i v e a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s f o r assessing s t u d i e s already completed and f o r p l a n -ning good designs f o r s t u d i e s to be undertaken i n the f u t u r e . I t should a l s o provide a b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g which s t u d i e s are comparable. The need f o r a conceptual framework w i t h i n which the research can be i n t e g r a t e d i s remarked by D i e t r i c k (29): The general area l a c k s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which i n t e g r a t e s v arious r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , r e s o l v e s the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s that e x i s t , and provides a b a s i s f o r t r a n s l a t i n g what has been found i n one s i t u a t i o n to other education s e t t i n g s . . . . Thus, wh i l e we have at hand numerous pieces of i n f o r m a t i o n suggesting problems explored i n the present instance we l a c k an e m p i r i c a l l y based frame of reference w i t h i n which the e n t i r e research problem can be formulated. (29 p . I l l ) V. PLAN OP THE THESIS Since Verner (85) has o f f e r e d a conceptual scheme or 'frame of reference' under which Newberry has subsumed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r techniques, chapter three w i l l be devoted to an e x p o s i t i o n of the Verner d e f i n i t i o n of adult education and an examination of the Newberry c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n scheme i n the l i g h t of theory and research to see i f i t can be v a l i d a t e d , developed or r e f u t e d . I f i t i s t e n t a -t i v e l y v a l i d a t e d or developed by e x i s t i n g research a p p l i c a b l e to the theory then chapter f o u r w i l l be devoted to r e p o r t i n g the r e s e a r c h on techniques, t o s t a t e the known e f f e c t i v e n e s s 16 of each according to the goal f o r l e a r n i n g and to place i t on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c a l e . Studies on each technique w i l l be w r i t t e n up under two general headings: Research Design and F i n d i n g s . Under the former heading a d e s c r i p t i o n of the technique as used i n the study, the sample, methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s w i l l be in c l u d e d . The data f o r a l l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r technique w i l l be compiled under the same s e c t i o n both f o r research design and f i n d i n g s . Under the l a t t e r heading f i n d i n g s on the i n t e r n a l process of the technique, the technique's e f f i c i e n c y i n ac h i e v i n g the l e a r n -ing goals of in f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n and comprehension, command of motor s k i l l s and mental s k i l l s , problem-solving, a t t i t u d e change and adoption of new p r a c t i c e s w i l l be inclu d e d . Consequently the reader w i l l be able t o check c o m p a r a b i l i t y of s t u d i e s f o r h i m s e l f . F i n a l l y , unless there i s only one study on the technique, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the technique based on research w i l l be included i n a summary along w i t h a sketch of the areas of l e a r n i n g f o r which i t has been shown e f f i c i e n t . An attempt w i l l then be made to point out f u t u r e needs f o r research and to place the technique on the Newberry s c a l e . The p l a n w i l l be to begin w i t h techniques at the passive symbolic v e r t e x of the s c a l e and move towards i n t e r -mediatory techniques such as d i s c u s s i o n to d i s c u s s i o n d e c i s i o n 17 at the a c t i v e , c o n c r e t e v e r t e x . I f a study deals w i t h more than one technique i t w i l l be placed under the technique i t c h i e f l y deals w i t h . Most s t u d i e s comparing techniques have used one more or l e s s as a standard by which to t e s t the other. For instance many experiments have t e s t e d d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e techniques i n the same experiment using l e c t u r e as a standard by which to t e s t the value of d i f f e r e n t kinds of group d i s c u s s i o n f o r a c h i e v i n g d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g g o a l s . These s t u d i e s w i l l be w r i t t e n up i n f u l l under the appropriate s e c t i o n on group d i s c u s s i o n . However the f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t to the l e c t u r e technique w i l l be c i t e d i n the s e c t i o n on the l e c t u r e . The two exceptions t o t h i s p r a c t i c e w i l l be the L i v e r i g h t (53) and Andrew (3,4) s t u d i e s . L i v e r i g h t (53) hypothesized an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between content and teaching s t y l e which has relevance f o r d i f f e r e n t areas of the Newberry s c a l e and w i l l be brought i n where r e l e v a n t ; Andrew (3*4) t e s t s both l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n techniques separately w i t h the same experiment and her study w i l l be mentioned i n both s e c t i o n s . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been l o c a t e d which de a l w i t h a c o n j u n c t i o n of techniques under a method and as a p o i n t of i n t e r e s t these w i l l be i n c l u d e d . Chapter f o u r w i l l be used to summarize the r e s u l t s and to p o i n t out f u t u r e needs f o r research and theory. CHAPTER I I DEVELOPING A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME INTRODUCTION In order to i d e n t i f y and c l a s s i f y techniques f o r adult education i t i s necessary to construct the t h e o r e t i c a l framework i n which they operate. Such a t h e o r e t i c a l frame-work has been o u t l i n e d by Verner (86) i n h i s theory of adu l t education processes. The f i r s t step i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of such a t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s the p r e c i s e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of adult education i t s e l f . This Verner does i n h i s statement: Adult education i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between an e d u c a t i o n a l agent and a l e a r n e r i n which the agent s e l e c t s , arranges and continuously d i r e c t s a sequence of pr o g r e s s i v e tasks t h a t provide systematic e x p e r i -ences to achieve l e a r n i n g f o r p a r t i c u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r whom such p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such a c t i v i t i e s i s s u b s i d i a r y and supplemental t o t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n -a l r o l e i n s o c i e t y . (86 p.10) Wit h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n two aspects of process, method and technique-, . emerge which are i n t u r n def i n e d by Verner i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.* Method, then, may be defined as the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a p o t e n t i a l body of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the purpose of c r e a t i n g an i n -s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r systematic l e a r n i n g among a p r e s c r i b e d but not n e c e s s a r i l y f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d p u b l i c . (86 p.22) *These d e f i n i t i o n s have already been c i t e d i n chapter one and are repeated here f o r purposes of developing the argument. 19 The methods of adult education describe the ways of o r g a n i z i n g people f o r l e a r n i n g such as a c l a s s , a d i s c u s s i o n group, a meeting, or correspondence and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . Technique i s defined as: the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g among a p a r t i c u l a r and p r e c i s e l y defined body of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n and the m a t e r i a l t o be learned. (86 p.22) Techniques, on the other hand, are v e h i c l e s through which the agent f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the context of the method. Lecture, group d i s c u s s i o n , r o l e - p l a y i n g , panels and forums are techniques under t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . A v a r i e t y of techniques may be subsumed under a given method according to the agent's d e c i s i o n as to which w i l l best f a c i l i t a t e the type of l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e d . The c l a s s method f o r example, lends i t s e l f to the use of the l e c t u r e , group d i s c u s s i o n and panel techniques,among o t h e r s . The d i s c u s s i o n group method on the other hand lends i t s e l f to case study, group d i s -c u ssion and r o l e - p l a y i n g techniques. Thus a technique i s the element i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n a d u l t education which allows f o r continuous r e -s t r u c t u r i n g of the process i n view of the l e a r n e r ' s response and the l e a r n i n g g o a l . Since the achievement of l e a r n i n g more e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i s the u l t i m a t e f u n c t i o n of a technique i t i s necessary to consider l e a r n i n g as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r by 20 F r a s e r (32): l e a r n i n g i s a process whereby c o r r e c t responses are c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a continuously adaptive p a t t e r n and i n c o r r e c t or badly timed responses are e l i m i n a t e d or adjusted. (32 p.25) This would mean tha t the l e a r n e r must r e c e i v e i n f o r -mation as t o the c o r r e c t response and perform the a c t i v i t y of i n t e g r a t i n g I t i n t o h i s present c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . Thus r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and the act of i n t e g r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n are dual f a c e t s of every l e a r n i n g experience f o r the l e a r n e r . I t would appear t h e r e f o r e t h a t each d i s c r e t e technique must make p r o v i s i o n f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of inf o r m a t i o n and simultaneously a s s i s t i n the act of i n t e g r a t i n g the i n f o r -mation acquired. The g r e a t e r the agent's understanding of how i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n t e g r a t e d the b e t t e r he w i l l be able to c o n t i n u a l l y r e s t r u c t u r e the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the technique so tha t "he s e l e c t s , arranges and continuously d i r e c t s the sequence of pro g r e s s i v e tasks t h a t provide system-a t i c experiences to achieve l e a r n i n g " , (86 p.10) I t seems un-l i k e l y , however, that each technique would f u l f i l the c r i t e r i a of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r the act of i n t e -g r a t i n g i t to the same degree. Depending on the l e a r n i n g g o a l some techniques might place g r e a t e r emphasis on i n f o r -mation and others on I n t e g r a t i o n . A f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of l e a r n i n g has been d i s -cussed but so f a r s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g goals have not been mentioned. Verner (86) discusses three goals of a d u l t s i n seeking l e a r n i n g experiences: to acquire i n f o r m a t i o n , t o 21 acquire a s k i l l , and t o apply knowledge.(86 p.56) The present w r i t e r would expand these to say: to acquire and comprehend i n f o r m a t i o n : to acquire mental and motor s k i l l s ; and to apply knowledge to s o l v e problems, to change a t t i t u d e s and to adopt new p r a c t i c e s . A s c a l e f o r c l a s s i f y i n g techniques according t o the q u a l i t y of the l e a r n i n g experience would have to provide some sequence f o r p l a c i n g techniques according to the c r i t e r i a of p r o v i d i n g f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and the act of i n t e g r a t i n g i t . The Newberry s c a l e i s an attempt to provide a means of sequencing techniques according to these c r i t e r i a and the g o a l f o r l e a r n i n g . As such i t w i l l be presented as published i n Verner (85) along w i t h the r a t i o n a l e supporting i t . The present w r i t e r w i l l then attempt to analyse and s u b s t a n t i a t e the s c a l e f u r t h e r since due t o Newberry's untimely death he was not able to f i n i s h work on t h i s scheme. The Newberry s c a l e as presented i n Verner (85 p<»22) and reproduced i n Figure I i s a two dimensional s c a l e , one dimension of which i s concerned w i t h the degree of overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l e a r n e r i n the l e a r n i n g experience, the hypothesis being t h a t the l e a r n e r must be ego-involved i n the task before he w i l l make the e f f o r t t o i n t e g r a t e new i n f o r -mation and t h i s ego-involvonent i s more l i k e l y to occur w i t h overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The second dimension of the s c a l e i s 22 th a t of content or Information, and the s c a l e progresses from h i g h l y symbolic content a b s t r a c t e d from l i f e experience to h i g h l y concrete content p e r t a i n i n g to immediate r e a l l i f e experience. Concreteness of subject matter would a l s o appear t o f a c i l i t a t e ego-involvement since i t i s e a s i e r f o r most persons t o become i n v o l v e d i n something they understand and i t i s g e n e r a l l y e a s i e r t o understand the concrete than the a b s t r a c t . The assumption i s th a t as the sc a l e progresses outward from the ve r t e x of h i g h l y symbolic content and l i t t l e overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n provided f o r the ego becomes more deeply i n v o l v e d dependent on the dual phenomena of gr e a t e r concret-ness and gr e a t e r overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n and thus the p a r t i c i -pant i s more l i k e l y t o engage i n the a c t i v i t y of i n t e g r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; I f one of the dimensions of the square remains constant w h i l e the other progresses eg. l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n but g r e a t e r concreteness of content as when a l e c t u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by charts or more concrete s t i l l by a f i l m the l e a r n e r i s s t i l l g iven a one-sided opportunity t o become more ego-involved and consequently t o see g r e a t e r a p p l i c a -b i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n . A b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s might be expected t o become l e s s a b s t r a c t i n the mind of the l e a r n e r when there i s high p a r t i c i p a t i o n so t h a t he can r e l a t e p r i n c i p l e s to h i s own experience and t h i s too i s accounted f o r on the s c a l e . Hence the s c a l e would appear t o provide a means f o r s e l e c t i n g a technique according t o the inherent FIGURE I * THE NEWBERRY SCALE A SCALE FUR CLASSIFYING EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUES ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF ABSTRACTION FROM DIRECT EXPERIENCE OF-CONTENT AND DEGREE OF OVERT PARTICIPATION OF THE STUDENT IN THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE DEGREE OF ABSTRACTION OF CONTENT Degree of P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Student i n the Learning Experience Permitted, r e q u i r e d or Encouraged 1, A b s t r a c t 2. Semi-Abstract 3. Somewhat Re-moved from D i r e c t Experience 4. D i r e c t Experience 5. Concrete D i r e c t Experience A. Pa s s i v e : No p a r t i c i -p a t i o n necessary, no p r o v i s i o n f o r any overt student p a r t i c i p a t i o n Lecture Lecture w i t h V i s u a l Aids Demons t r a t i o n F i l m B. L i m i t e d overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n pro-vided f o r some Lecture w i t h question t o answer Lecture forum Panel Dialogue F i l m forum e t c . C. Lim i t e d P a r t i c i -p a t i o n provided f o r a l l or most students D. F u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n provided f o r a l l students (grou p d i s c u s s i o n c epending on conter t ) c a r r y i n g out an experiment on p r o j e c t under s u p e r v i s i o n E. F u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n necessary f o r a l l students group d e c i s i o n f o r purposes of d e c i s i o n -making *The Newberry Scale reproduced from Verner (85<yii) w i t h s l i g h t r e v i s i o n s . ro 24 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the technique. In terms of the l e a r n i n g g o a l i t would seem l o g i c a l t h a t d i r e c t change i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i s more l i k e l y to occur w i t h h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n and concrete subject matter whereas gr e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s of information w i l l be a s s i m i l a t e d when the s t r e s s i s on d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . Hence Verner (85) s t a t e s : the u t i l i t y of the t a b l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the p o s i t i o n of such conventional classroom techniques as the l e c t u r e , the r e c i t a t i o n , and w r i t t e n assignment a l l of which f a l l w i t h i n the most a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i e s and w i t h -i n the three lowest p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . From t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the t a b l e i t would appear l i k e l y t h a t classroom techniques would tend to be l e s s e f f i c i e n t i n promoting behavioural changes i n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s than those which are l e s s a b s t r a c t , and more conducive to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . (85 P.23) Consequently i t would appear t h a t the Newberry s c a l e o f f e r s a means of c l a s s i f y i n g techniques according t o the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the technique and the l e a r n i n g goal which can be achieved through each. Verner (85) s t a t e s t h a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme should conform to c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a : (1) i t must be a p p l i c a b l e to a l l techniques (2) I t must c l a s s i f y techniques according t o r e a l d i f f e r -ences i n the techniques themselves (3) I t must be f r e e of value judgments s t a t e d or i m p l i e d (4) The system must have p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the s e l e c t i o n of techniques f o r use w i t h p a r t i c u l a r groups, f o r s p e c i f i c purposes and under given con-d i t i o n s . (85 P.20) I t w i l l be w e l l t o see i f the sc a l e s a t i s f i e s these c o n d i t i o n s a f t e r examining the evidence. 25 The assumption of the Newberry s c a l e i s that ego-involvement of the l e a r n e r can be achieved through making the content r e a l t o h i s experience and p r o v i d i n g oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r him to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l e a r n i n g . Once the l e a r n e r i s ego-involved he w i l l a c t i v e l y engage i n l e a r n i n g . Are there f a c t o r s other than concreteness of subject matter and degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n provided which i n f l u e n c e the degree of ego-involvement? The personal q u a l i t i e s of both agent and l e a r n e r would seem t o be important i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as the q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between them. I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note i n the experiments t o be examined whether the agent i n h i s r o l e of continuously s t r u c t u r i n g the process i s more s u c c e s s f u l as a sympathetic or an unsympa-t h e t i c f i g u r e . I t seems l o g i c a l t h a t the q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n -ship between agent and l e a r n e r or l e a r n e r s would have to be f r i e n d l y and sympathetic i n order that the l e a r n e r be f r e e to b r i n g up h i s r e a l problems w i t h the m a t e r i a l i n an atmosphere of t r u s t . A l s o i t appears l o g i c a l t h a t the l e a r n e r ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , motor and mental s k i l l s , value system and a t t i t u d e s based thereon would a f f e c t the l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y to become ego-involved i n the l e a r n i n g and consequently h i s engagement i n the t a s k . M a t e r i a l which i s h i g h l y symbolic to some might be a great d e a l more concrete to others w i t h previous l e a r n i n g i n the f i e l d ; f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l which 26 threatens the value systems of some might he non-threatening to others and so on. Thus the agent must he able t o judge the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r group and use the technique or techniques i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n which w i l l provide them w i t h the opportunity t o l e a r n . Mental c a p a c i t y and motor s k i l l s may be regarded as f a i r l y s t a t i c "givens" w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n e r and l e a r n i n g experiences may be planned around these l i m i t a t i o n s but there has been some research which suggests past l i f e experiences r e s u l t i n g i n values and a t t i t u d e s may be subjected t o 're-education' i n the terms of Kurt Lewin and i t i s i n connection w i t h t h i s area t h a t "concrete" and "sym-b o l i c 1 1 content take on a new meaning. There seems to be evidence that values and a t t i t u d e s a f f e c t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t ' s o c i a l r e a l i t y ' i s j u s t as meaningful t o the a d u l t as what might be considered the more o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y of the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s . In f a c t i t would seem t h a t even o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Consequently i t would appear t h a t the agent must consider how to make contents " s o c i a l l y concrete", as w e l l as o b j e c t i v e l y concrete to the p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h a t the Newberry s c a l e must accommodate d i f f e r i n g degrees of s o c i a l concreteness i f i t i s to be u s e f u l f o r l e a r n i n g t e c h -niques where the g o a l i s value and a t t i t u d e change or a c t i o n dependent on such change. Asch (5) t e s t e d whether the p e r c e p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s 27 on matters of f a c t can be changed by group i n f l u e n c e s . In a well-designed experiment, he t e s t e d the consistency w i t h which one c o l l e g e student continued to assess the l e n g t h of a l i n e c o r r e c t l y when the remaining s i x to e i g h t i n each group had p r e v i o u s l y conspired to agree w i t h each other on an i n c o r r e c t measure f o r the l i n e . He found t h a t two t h i r d s of the judgements of the experimental subjects were c o r r e c t and independent of the m a j o r i t y , w h i l e the remaining one t h i r d were i n f l u e n c e d i n a pro m a j o r i t y d i r e c t i o n . This was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the c o n t r o l group who wrote t h e i r answers and thus were not submitted to group pressures. Asch (5) v a r i e d t h i s experiment i n a number of ways to study the extent of group pressures on the i n d i v i d u a l i n f a c t u a l questions and concludes: One f a c t c o n s t a n t l y reappears i n these obs e r v a t i o n s . As soon as a person i s i n the midst of a group he i s no longer i n d i f f e r e n t t o i t . He may stand i n a wholly unequivocal r e l a t i o n t o an object when alone, but as soon as the group and i t s d i r e c t i o n are present he ceases to be determined s o l e l y by h i s own coordinates. In some way he r e f e r s the group to him-s e l f and himself to the group. He might r e a c t t o the group i n many d i f f e r e n t ways: he might adopt i t s d i r e c t i o n , compromise w i t h i t , or oppose i t ; he might even decide t o d i s r e g a r d i t One can make a more s p e c i f i c a s s e r t i o n about t h i s responsiveness to the group: i f c o n d i t i o n s permit the i n d i v i d u a l moves toward the group. (15 p.483) He r e p o r t s an e a r l i e r experiment by S h e r i f * who *The m a t e r i a l discussed here i s from Asch's exami-n a t i o n of S h e r i f ' s experiment. : Muzaf<er S h e r i f , "A Study of Some S o c i a l Factors i n P e r c e p t i o n , " Archives of Psychology, No. 187, 1935. 28 sought to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f l u e n c e of a group on the judge-ment of an i n d i v i d u a l when the o b j e c t i v e f a c t was open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S h e r i f used the phenomenal that when a s t a t i o n a r y l i g h t i s observed i n a dark room a f t e r the f i r s t few seconds i t appears to move. S h e r i f discovered t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s examining t h i s occurrence separately tended to judge the movement around a c e n t r a l tendency and these judge-ments remained f a i r l y constant on successive days. A l s o there were c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n judgements of d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . When S h e r i f placed two or three i n d i v i d u a l s whose previous judgements were c o n s i s t e n t and v a r i e d considerably from each other i n the same group he found that each person changed h i s judgements towards a judgement common to a l l . In f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s , these persons kept the judge-ments they had formed i n the group. S p e r l i n g * i n a study to f u r t h e r S h e r i f ' s experiment found t h a t when two subjects were put together one of whom had been i n s t r u c t e d to give judgements w i t h i n a c e r t a i n extreme range, the other was found t o move i n the d i r e c t i o n of these judgements but t o a l i m i t e d extent. No subject *This experiment i s a l s o discussed as examined i n Asch. H.G. S p e r l i n g , "An Experimental Study of Some Psycho-l o g i c a l Factors i n Judgment". M.A. Thesis, Graduate F a c u l t y , New School f o r S o c i a l Research, 1946, unpublished. 29 moved even 50 per cent of the way between her own i n i t i a l judgement and t h a t of the stooge. These f i n d i n g s seem to i n d i c a t e that whenever the observed event i s o b j e c t i v e or i l l u s o r y i n d i v i d u a l s i n a group acknowledge the perceptions of others to v a r y i n g degrees i n making t h e i r assessment of the s i t u a t i o n . Even i f t h e i r judgement does not change to agree w i t h that of the group, the i n d i v i d u a l evaluates the judgement of the group and r a t i o n a l i z e s h i s own i n comparison w i t h i t . In other words r e a l i t y c o n s i s t s not only i n the o b j e c t i v e or non-objective f a c t but i n other persons'perception of i t . I t might be s a i d t e n t a t i v e l y on the b a s i s of these two experiments t h a t the l e s s o b j e c t i v e the phenomenon the more the p e r c e p t i o n of others i s seen as a f a c t o r t o be considered. Consequently the agent must be aware that the p e r * c e p t i o n of the l e a r n e r i s a f f e c t e d by the group perceptions and t h a t , i n the act of i n t e g r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n the l e a r n e r i s a f f e c t e d by h i s p e r c e p t i o n of group p e r c e p t i o n and t h i s i s t r u e t o a l i m i t e d extent w i t h f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l and pro-g r e s s i v e l y more so w i t h m a t e r i a l open to d i s p u t e , t h a t i s m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g to a t t i t u d e s and values. Thus ' s o c i a l r e a l i t y ' would have to be accounted f o r i n making the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n concrete. The power of group l i f e over i n d i v i d u a l value systems seems t o be demonstrated through other s t u d i e s 30 where i n d i v i d u a l s changed t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s to conform w i t h that of a group they a s p i r e d to j o i n . Newcomb (64) f o r inst a n c e , s t u d i e d women c o l l e g e students over t h e i r f o u r year p e r i o d on the Bennington College campus. He discovered that despite the p o l i t i c a l l y c o n servative backgrounds from which they came, the g i r l s who became a c t i v e i n c o l l e g e l i f e changed t h e i r b e l i e f s to the p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l views which p r e v a i l e d among c o l l e g e f a c u l t y and the student l e a d e r s . Moreover he found t h a t those who never accepted the predominant c o l l e g e philosophy were more s t r o n g l y t i e d t o t h e i r f a m i l y groups and tended to be outcasts i n the c o l l e g e f r a t e r n i t y . Apparently, even when an i n d i v i d u a l i s compulsorily placed i n a group demonstrating strong a t t i t u d e systems he i s i n f l u e n c e d to change h i s a t t i t u d e s i n the d i r e c t i o n of those demonstrated by the group. Katz and L a z a r s f e l d (47) r e p o r t that the :, a t t i t u d e s towards readiness f o r combat were found to vary among green s o l d i e r s according t o the d i v i s i o n s to which they were j o i n e d . * F o r t y - f i v e per cent of s o l d i e r s i n d i v i s i o n s composed completely of "green" s o l d i e r s reported readiness to enter b a t t l e whereas only 28 per cent of "green" s o l d i e r s who were sent as combat *This evidence comes from a report by Samuel S t o u f f e r - e t a l . The American S o l d i e r : Studies i n S o c i a l Psychology i n World War I I ( V o l s . I and I I ) , P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949. 31 replacements to veterans d i v i s i o n s so r e p o r t e d . S t o u f f e r argues t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of the second group were changed by the combat veterans, only 15 per cent of whom st a t e d they were ready f o r combat. Although these s t u d i e s are not concerned w i t h how the agent s t r u c t u r e s change i n an educational s e t t i n g they demonstrate the i n f l u e n c e that group values have over those who, are placed i n a new s i t u a t i o n i n which group l i f e r e v e a l s strong value systems. I t would seem t h a t acceptance i n the new group and acceptance of i t s b e l i e f s and values are con-comitant .• Therefore i t appears t h a t by s i m u l a t i n g the r e a l l i f e context i n the midst of which a t t i t u d e s and values are developed and changed the e d u c a t i o n a l agent may provide a concrete s i t u a t i o n where i n d i v i d u a l s may examine t h e i r a t t i -tudes i n the midst of r e a l l i f e p ressures. The d i f f e r e n c e between the e d u c a t i o n a l and the r e a l l i f e environment i s t h a t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g the agent attempts t o organize the d i s c u s s i o n so t h a t group members may examine the t o t a l i t y of t h e i r concerns about a subject before making the d e c i s i o n to change and encourages an atmosphere of t r u s t and respect and acceptance of d i f f e r e n c e so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are f r e e to examine a l l t h e i r concerns before making a d e c i s i o n to change. In r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s the i n d i v i d u a l may o f t e n change s o l e l y due to h i s d e s i r e to j o i n or remain i n a group and without 32 systematic examination of the problem. Kurt Lewin (52) hypothesized t h a t a t t i t u d e change r e -s u l t i n g i n new p r a c t i c e s to which the i n d i v i d u a l was p r e v i o u s l y a n t a g o n i s t i c or I n d i f f e r e n t could only occur when the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n v o l v e d i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g h i s own b e l i e f s . He s t a t e s : A f a c t o r of great importance i n b r i n g i n g about a change i n sentiment i s the degree to which the i n d i v i d u a l be-comes a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the problem... Lacking t h i s involvement, no o b j e c t i v e f a c t i s l i k e l y t o reach the s t a t u s of a f a c t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l concerned and t h e r e -f o r e i n f l u e n c e h i s s o c i a l conduct. (52 p.28) He was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n new l e a r n i n g which r e q u i r e d u n l e a r n i n g of ideas p r e v i o u s l y h e l d . He considers th a t the 're-educative process' as he c a l l s i t and which he d e f i nes as a 'change i n c u l t u r e ' : a f f e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l i n three ways. I t changes h i s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e , the way he sees the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l worlds, i n c l u d i n g a l l h i s f a c t s , concepts, be-l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t modifies h i s valences and values and these embrace both h i s a t t r a c t i o n s and aversions to groups and group standards, h i s f e e l i n g s i n regard to s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s , and h i s r e a c t i o n t o sources of approval or d i s a p p r o v a l . And i t a f f e c t s motoric a c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g the degree of the individual's c o n t r o l over h i s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l movements. (52 p.24) He hypothesized t h a t f o r such i n d i v i d u a l s t o become ego-involved to the point where they a c t i v e l y engaged i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r own c o g n i t i v e p a t t e r n to i n t e g r a t e new l e a r n i n g they must do so i n a n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g where they would be presented w i t h the k i n d of a t t i t u d e s they meet i n d a i l y l i f e and he constructed experiments to t e s t t h i s 33 hypothesis. A l l p o r t ( l ) supports Lewin's t h e o r i e s and considers t h a t i n order f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to engage i n an a c t i v i t y t o the extent that he d e s i r e s to change he must be 'ego-i n v o l v e d ' i n the a c t i v i t y and ego involvement occurs i n a s e t t i n g which i s s o c i a l l y r e a l to the i n d i v i d u a l . He comments on Lewin's s t u d i e s i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n : As members of t h i s s o c i e t y have shown group d e c i s i o n , open d i s c u s s i o n and the r e t r a i n i n g of leaders i n accordance w i t h democratic standards y i e l d remarkable r e s u l t s . One of Lewiris s t u d i e s i n t h i s connection i s e s p e c i a l l y r e v e a l i n g . People who l i k e a c e r t a i n food are r e s i s t a n t to pressure put upon them i n the form of persuasion and request, hut when the i n d i v i d u a l him-s e l f as a member of a group votes, a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n , to a l t e r h i s food h a b i t s , h i s eagerness to reach h i s goal i s independent of h i s personal l i k e or d i s l i k e . (1 P.148) He concludes Such f i n d i n g s add up to the simple p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t people must have a hand i n saving themselves; they cannot or w i l l not be saved from the o u t s i d e . (1 p.148) I t would appear that t h i s ' s e l f - s a v i n g ' must take place i n a s o c i a l s e t t i n g where i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group have r e a l l i f e a t t i t u d e s and values to face i n making the change. As the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e s i n changing group values and sees others changing w i t h him he i s r e a l l y h e l p i n g e s t a b l i s h a new s o c i a l r e a l i t y . By t h i s means a reference group i s created t o which he can r e f e r back as a standard i n f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s change i n value system i s i n -volved. 34 Consequently the term concrete when used i n con-n e c t i o n w i t h the Newberry s c a l e should be expanded i n meaning to incorporate s o c i a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l concreteness. When in f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g i s the object and no change i n the a t t i t u d e or values of the i n d i v i d u a l i s immediately r e q u i r e d e g o - i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not necessary. From the Asch experiment we see however th a t even where data i s not open to dispute the i n d i v i d u a l may take congizance of the group i n h i s acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of i t . However the agent must be aware that o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n to one group does not n e c e s s a r i l y appear o b j e c t i v e to another group. For example, f o r p r e j u d i c e d persons the f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n that b r a i n s i z e s of d i f f e r e n t races are equivalent may not be accepted as such since such acceptance would demand change i n the t o t a l c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s of such persons. There-f o r e the agent must be able to diagnose the a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i s audience before he can determine that i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t may be e a s i l y absorbed as o b j e c t i v e by one group may threaten the whole value s t r u c t u r e of another and t h e r e f o r e demand a great d e a l of e g o - i n v o l v i n g d i s c u s s i o n on a t t i t u d e s concerning the i n f o r m a t i o n . At the i n f o r m a t i o n end of the s c a l e the agent gets l i t t l e or no feedback as to whether the i n d i v i d u a l i s l e a r n i n g ; consequently he may have to know more about the a t t r i b u t e s of h i s audience t o begin w i t h or juxtapose i n f o r m a t i o n techniques w i t h other techniques 35 which do provide feedback. Through techniques at the h i g h l y concrete and p a r t i c i p a t i o n end of sc a l e the agent may judge when in f o r m a t i o n techniques w i l l be u s e f u l ; he may achieve the l e a r n e r involvement through the use of such techniques and then use t h i s involvement. Where l e a r n e r s are already i n v o l v e d i n a subject they can absorb a great d e a l through i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g techniques. Both poles of the Newberry s c a l e are necessary f o r whil e the a b s t r a c t , low p a r t i c i p a t i o n pole has l e s s immedi-ate and obvious r e s u l t s such techniques may give the p a r t i c i -pant the opportunity t o r e a d j u s t c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s to accommodate them at h i s own pace. The appropriate use of such techniques however would presume high knowledge of the subject's c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e on the part of the agent where-as the use of techniques at the other end of the s c a l e might provide the agent w i t h such knowledge. The d e c i s i o n which provides f o r highest p a r t i c i p a t i o n and greatest concreteness at the end of the s c a l e can only be used f o r goals which do not r e q u i r e great changes i n the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l since such techniques do not allow time f o r r e -f l e c t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r all-embracing change. While the con-cre t e end of the s c a l e e l i m i n a t e s the problem of t r a n s f e r f o r I t provides a l l but a r e a l l i f e context, the presence of an agent who attempts t o broaden and deepen the concerns w i t h FIGURE 2 DEVELOPING THE NEWBERRY SCALE active participant highly concrete context of s o c i a l r e a l i t y . 37 the s i t u a t i o n as they might occur i n r e a l l i f e , being the only d i f f e r e n c e , the opposite end of the s c a l e may r e q u i r e an act of imagination on the p a r t of the l e a r n e r and w i l l only be meaningful i f he can f i t the new m a t e r i a l i n t o previous l e a r n i n g . A great d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n has centred around the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n i n g techniques which achieve c e r t a i n l e a r n i n g g o a l s . However the goals themselves have not been discussed i n any d e t a i l . From the d i s c u s s i o n of the Lewin (52), A l l p o r t ( l ) theory i t becomes apparent t h a t goals achieved at the h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n concrete end of the s c a l e are a t t i t u d e change and adoption whereas informa t i o n gains would be sought from techniques at the opposite p o l e . Thus i n examining the research we can t e s t whether behavioural change i s best f a c i l i t a t e d , as Verner (86 p.23) suggests by techniques at the concrete, h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n pole of the s c a l e whereas i n f o r m a t i o n gains are g r e a t e s t at the d i a g o n a l -l y opposite p o l e . Excessive a t t e n t i o n has perhaps been p a i d to the extremes of the Newberry s c a l e and l i t t l e t o ascending or descending order of techniques w i t h i n i t . These " i n t e r i o r techniques" would i n c l u d e d i f f e r e n t types of group d i s c u s s i o n , r o l e - p l a y i n g , case study, s k i l l p r a c t i c e , e t c . The hoped f o r r e s u l t from such techniques might be i n f o r m a t i o n gains and comprehension, a t t i t u d e change and mental and motor s k i l l s . 38 I t would seem to the present w r i t e r t h a t mental and motor s k i l l s are acquired through the process of i n t e g r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and techniques such as d r i l l and p r a c t i c e have been developed f o r t h i s purpose. I n d i v i d u a l techniques would appear to lend themselves p r i m a r i l y to the i n f o r m a t i o n end of the s c a l e since there i s l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r change i n the context of s o c i a l r e a l i t y w i t h i n them. However some i n d i v i d u a l techniques provide f o r h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n and concreteness of both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l r e a l i t y such as i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s i o n over volunteer work or i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n and these would be placed at the appropriate p o i n t i n the s c a l e . I I . SUMMARY A development and v a l i d a t i o n of the Newberry s c a l e f o r a d u l t education techniques has been discussed i n t h i s chapter. This a n a l y s i s has been based on theory and r e s e a r c h . I t would seem that the Newberry s c a l e s a t i s f i e s the Verner c r i t e r i o n f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. The s c a l e i s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l techniques. I t c l a s s i f i e s techniques according to r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the techniques themselves (degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n allowed f o r or r e q u i r e d and concrete-ness of the s i t u a t i o n ) . I t i s f r e e of value judgements but c l a s s i f i e s of the techniques a t d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s on the s c a l e according to the area of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t would enable the agent to select the technique appropriate to a p a r t i c u l a r learning goal with a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e i n mind. The scale enables the agent to use i n d i v i d u a l tech-niques to achieve minor learning goals and to use a con-junction of techniques to achieve major learning goals. CHAPTER I I I A REVIEW OP THE RESEARCH ON TECHNIQUES The next task of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be to summarize res e a r c h on each technique, i n d i c a t e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g goals and to place i t on the s c a l e according to the degree of overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n allowed w i t h -i n the technique and the concreteness of the content. I . THE LECTURE TECHNIQUE Organization of the S e c t i o n The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the s t u d i e s to be reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s i s that they do not lend themselves to a pleasant means of c o n s i s t e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n under each t e c h -nique. This i s perhaps due t o the f a c t t h a t they have not been conceived under a constant conceptual framework or even w i t h i n the same d i s c i p l i n e . The s t u d i e s i n the l e c t u r e s e c t i o n lend themselves t o o r g a n i z a t i o n according t o the l e a r n i n g g o a l sought and w i l l be d e a l t w i t h here i n terms of these goals i n order of i n f o r m a t i o n and comprehension, mental s k i l l s and problem s o l v i n g , a t t i t u d e s and adoption. Thus the Newman and Highland (65)* Beecroft and Annesy (12), Trenamen (83)> Andrew (4), Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d (43), H i l l (41), Wiedenhammer (88) and L i v e r i g h t (54) s t u d i e s were concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l FIGURE 3 LECTURE TECHNIQUES PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES OF THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE Degr« ie of A b s t r a c t i o n Degree of P a r t i c i p a t i o n 1. Abstract 2. Semi-Abst r a c t 3. Somewhat Removed 4. D i r e c t Experience 5. Concrete, Real L i f e Overt P a r t i c i p a t i o n only p o s s i b l e through f a c i a l expression, gestures, e t c . Trenamen-tape-recorded speech Findings of i n t e r e s t t o l e c t u r e Carlson Devices i n Newman and Highland. Monitors i n room to keep students motivated but no p a r t i c i p a t i o n on 1 content. Palmer and Verner. H i l l - l a r g e c l a s s . Hearne,lecture alone con-c r e t e subject Staudohar and Smith f i l m and l e c t u r e . McGuiness, Lana and Smith Lew i n Coch and French Levine and B u t l e r Bond Li m i t e d p r o v i s i o n f o r overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r some Lecture-Newman and Highland -blackboards questions Beecroft and Annesey repe-t i t i o n s and questions. H i l l - small c l a s s . Hearne -l e c t u r e p l u s d i s c u s s i o n Lecture and f i l m s t r i p s -Hearne Lim i t e d p r o v i s i o n made f o r overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l and more i n -tense p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r some Hovland I -f i l m and p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r a c t i c e L e v i and Higgins Soffen 42 a c q u i s i t i o n ; Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d (44), Cathcart (23), T h i s t l e w a i t e and Kamentzy (80) Staudohar and Smith (76) w i t h a t t i t u d e change and Hearne (40) w i t h adoption. There are a l s o a number of s t u d i e s i n which the l e c t u r e technique i s used as a standard and the f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t t o the l e c t u r e w i l l be included at the end of t h i s s e c t i o n and a l s o i n the summary on the l e c t u r e technique. Most of the s t u d i e s concerned w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n -g i v i n g type techniques t e s t one or more devices used as a technique. These s t u d i e s are included here because without them there would be v i r t u a l l y no research a p p l i c a b l e t o the l e c t u r e technique. The use of the l e c t u r e technique i n our s o c i e t y i s an accepted f a c t and apparently there i s no f e l t need f o r research to e s t a b l i s h i t s areas of e f f i c i e n c y ; many devices however attempt to incorporate the f u n c t i o n of the agent and are being t e s t e d to prove t h e i r v a l i d i t y . Devices used without the presence of an agent to change the process i f i t i s not ac h i e v i n g the intended r e s u l t can be used f o r the di s s e m i n a t i o n of inf o r m a t i o n and hence throw some l i g h t on the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n when inf o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n i s the g o a l . They are t h e r e f o r e reviewed here w i t h the observation t h a t a l a r g e gap i n research r e l a t i n g t o techniques has already been noted. Research Designs of the Studies 43 Newman and Highland (65) undertook a study t o t r y and compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r informa t i o n l e a r n i n g of f o u r d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. The experiment c o n s i s t s i n f o u r treatments of the l e c t u r e technique, three of which are r e a l l y d evices, but these incorporate f e a t u r e s which may be used w i t h i n a technique by the agent and hence w i l l help expand the d i s c u s s i o n . The d i f f e r e n t treatments were t e s t e d w i t h i n a five-day course e n t i t l e d '"Principles of Radio." In the f i r s t treatment the students were taught the f i v e day course by one of two i n s t r u c t o r s who were r a t e d w e l l above average i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a b i l i t y by t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . Devices such as blackboards, demonstration and instruments were used t o supplement the l e c t u r e . Students were f r e e to ask questions when they d i d not understand the p r e s e n t a t i o n . The l e c t u r e technique was used i n conjunction w i t h a quiz technique which remained constant f o r a l l treatments i n t h i s experiment and hence should not a f f e c t t h e i r c o m p a r a b i l i t y . The quiz was a ten minute r e c a l l type q u i z and i n the f i r s t treatment was f o l l o w e d by a c r i t i q u e of the quiz by the i n s t r u c t o r . When used i n co n j u n c t i o n w i t h the quiz the l e c t u r e was presumably more e f f e c t i v e than when used alone si n c e the quiz provided f o r overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n and hence ego involvement. The recorded lessons which were used i n two other treatments were developed through planning and 44 a d m i n i s t e r i n g the re c o r d i n g to a t r i a l group and then r e -planning and r e a d m i n l s t e r i n g on the b a s i s of r e s u l t s achieved from the i n i t i a l t r i a l . Considerable r e v i s i o n and r e t e s t i n g went i n t o the development of these recorded lessons and the authors have described the i n t e r i o r s t r u c t u r e of t h i s device r a t h e r completely. I t i n c l u d e s : expression of the same idea i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways; summarizing statements; v e r b a l i l l u s t r a t i o n ; c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e ; short sentences; non-t e c h n i c a l language; and consistency i n use of ref e r e n c e . There were pauses at the end of each paragraph t o allow students to catch up on no t e - t a k i n g and there were three one-minute breaks during the les s o n s , an antimonotony device. Narrators were changed a f t e r each seven paragraphs a p p r o x i -mately. The r e c o r d i n g a l s o included f o u r short summaries f i v e to ten minutes i n l e n g t h which were gi v e n at the begin-ning of each day on the m a t e r i a l presented the previous day^1 The second treatment was organized as f o l l o w s . The f i r s t f i v e minutes were devoted to the workbooks which were handed each student. These workbooks were d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s f o r each l e s s o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n contained a short summary of the m a t e r i a l t o be covered i n the l e s s o n ; ,the second s e c t i o n included a d e f i n i t i o n of the words to be used; and the t h i r d s e c t i o n presented i l l u s t r a t i o n s which would be r e f e r r e d to during the course of each l e s s o n . Copies of f i v e o z a l i d p a r t s of a r a d i o r e c e i v e r were included 45 at the back of the workbook. The tape recorder l e s s o n which took t h i r t y or f o r t y - f i v e minutes i n time was then presented. At the end of the l e s s o n the students were given f i v e minutes t o look at the notes they had taken during the p e r i o d and then a r e c a l l quiz was administered. Students were a l -lowed t o keep t h e i r quiz paper and were given a sheet c o n t a i n -ing the answers. A f t e r they had looked these over both papers were c o l l e c t e d . The t h i r d treatment was a supervised reading d e v i c e . This treatment was the same as the previous treatment except t h a t i n s t e a d of recorded lessons p a r t i c i p a n t s were presented w i t h a note book c o n s i s t i n g of mimeographed copies of the r e -corded l e s s o n s . F o r t y - f i v e minutes of each l e s s o n was spent i n studying t h i s work book and students were encouraged to take notes and review the le s s o n as time permitted. The f o u r t h treatment was the same as the second t r e a t -ment, th a t i s , i t was a recorder workbook treatment except t h a t the diagrams presented at the end of the workbook i n the second treatment were given as s l i d e s i n t h i s treatment. Each s l i d e appeared on the screen f o r the e n t i r e time t h a t reference was made to i t duri n g the tape. The use of a day-l i g h t screen allowed students to take notes during the course of each l e s s o n . Monitors were present during each of the device t r e a t -ments. They were members of the p r o j e c t s t a f f and t h e i r f u n c t i o n was t o keep the men motivated t o perform as w e l l as 46 they could and to maintain d i s c i p l i n e i n the classroom. They administered the exams and operated the tape recorder and answered questions other than questions on the content. Thus they p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l e d the r o l e of an edu c a t i o n a l agent. There was a ten-minute break between periods and a twenty-minute break i n the middle of each morning throughout the course. A l l c l a s s e s i n the experiment met f o r a t o t a l of 22 periods and a l l periods were held i n the morning, f i v e p eriods were held on each of the f i r s t f o u r days and two on the l a s t days. Each c l a s s was approximately f i f t y minutes long. The sample f o r the experiments c o n s i s t e d of 417 a i r -men aw a i t i n g attendance at the Airmen E l e c t r o n i c s Funda-mental Course, K e s s l e r A i r Force Base. A l l treatment groups were matched on the e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n a p t i t u d e index score, as was a c o n t r o l group of l 6 l airmen who were given no t r a i n i n g . The data was analyzed only f o r s i x t y - f o u r students i n each of the four-treatment groups. Only the per-formance scores of students i n the l a s t two c l a s s e s taught by the i n s t r u c t o r were used f o r a n a l y s i s . The data was c o l -l e c t e d through an exam of 117 items chosen from an o r i g i n a l 205 items on the b a s i s of an item a n a l y s i s and was administered to students i n a l l experimental groups and the c o n t r o l group at the end of the fi v e - d a y course. A n a l y s i s of variance was 47 a p p l i e d to the examination scores to measure the equivalence of the treatments f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n . B e ecroft and Annesey (12) undertook to t e s t whether increased r e p e t i t i o n of major p o i n t s w i t h i n l e c t u r e s on elementary e l e c t r i c i t y increased achievement f o r students and low ap t i t u d e students i n p a r t i c u l a r . A study undertaken p r i o r to t h i s experiment revealed t h a t t w e n t y - f i v e major p o i n t s i n the three hours of i n s t r u c t i o n normally devoted t o the subject i n a two-week course on Wheel V e h i c l e Mechanics were presented w i t h a high degree of s t a b i l i t y . Each p o i n t was mentioned once, f o l l o w e d by an analogy or anecdote r e l a t e d to the p o i n t , and reviewed again at the end of the l e s s o n e i t h e r by the i n s t r u c t o r himself or by a student i n answer to qu e s t i o n i n g by the i n s t r u c t o r . The experimental l e c t u r e s were constructed along the same l i n e s w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r immediately repeated the statement a f t e r each of these p o i n t s . Ten successive c o n t r o l c l a s s e s r e -c e i v i n g standard i n s t r u c t i o n and seven successive e x p e r i -mental c l a s s e s composed the sample, data being analysed only f o r U.S. and R.A. students who were White P i p e l i n e C o n t i n e n t a l r e s i d e n t s . When adjusted f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n ap t i t u d e e x p e r i -mental and c o n t r o l groups were comparable. The data were c o l l e c t e d through m u l t i p l e choice t e s t items administered as r e g u l a r end-of-phase exams two days and twenty-four days a f t e r the course. A d i f f e r e n t e i g h t items on each exam 48 referred t o the experimental m a t e r i a l . The data were analysed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Trenamen (83) conducted a s e r i e s of f i v e experiments to d i s c o v e r l i s t e n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h and preference f o r d i f f e r e n t lengths of r a d i o t a l k s . While a device r a t h e r than a technique i s being t e s t e d here the f i n d i n g s should be use-f u l to the agent concerned w i t h the amount of in f o r m a t i o n which can be absorbed through any p a r t i c u l a r l e c t u r e . Two r a d i o t a l k s were used i n the experiment each of which f e l l i n t o three separate though not independent p a r t s of about f i f t e e n minutes each. According t o a board of seven judges who composed a marking s c a l e there were f i v e major p o i n t s i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the f i r s t t a l k on China and Communism, two i n the second and f i v e i n the t h i r d . There were f i f t y major and minor p o i n t s i n the t a l k . The second t a l k e n t i t l e d •The Nature of the U n i v e r s e 1 t o t a l l e d seventy-three p o i n t s f o r f o r t y - f i v e minutes suggesting that t h i s t a l k was more compressed than the t a l k on China. The p o p u l a t i o n from which the sample of experiments one t o three was s e l e c t e d c o n s i s t e d of persons i n v i t e d by the p r i n c i p l e s of the C i t y L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e , Morely Coll e g e , the Mary Ward Settlement. There were a l s o some readers from the Leyton P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n experiment one. Only students who had not p r e v i o u s l y heard these broadcasts were i n v i t e d . The samples of e x p e r i -ments one to three were l a i d out on a L a t i n square p l a n 49 according t o age groups and ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , each t r e a t -ment group placed i n a separate s t u d i o and broadcast a segment or segments of the t a l k according to the p l a n . In experiment one the sample which was comprised of 103 a d u l t students was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e treatment groups: Group A heard the f i r s t f i f t e e n minutes of the t a l k , Group B heard the f i r s t and second f i f t e e n minutes of the t a l k , Group C heard a l l three f i f t e e n minute s e c t i o n s of the t a l k , Group D heard the second two f i f t e e n minute s e c t i o n s of the t a l k and Group E heard only the l a s t f i f t e e n minute s e c t i o n of the t a l k . The data was c o l l e c t e d through a " f r e e l y w r i t t e n r e c a l l " t e s t of the t a l k immediately a f t e r the experiment. P a r t i c i p a n t s were a&ced only t o w r i t e down i n t h e i r own words and i n any order as much as they could remember of the important p o i n t s of the t a l k . The data was analyzed by reference to a l i s t of important p o i n t s i n the s c r i p t which had been agreed upon by seven independent judges and weighed f o r r e l a t i v e importance so t h a t twelve p o i n t s earned three marks each, f i v e p o i n t s earned two marks each, and the r e s t earned one mark each. In experiment two the data was c o l l e c t e d by means of a r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t which was composed from the o r i g i n a l im-portant p o i n t s as agreed upon by the judges, eight important p o i n t s being used f o r each of the f i f t e e n minute s e c t i o n s of the t a l k . These were w r i t t e n out as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n the speaker's own words, w i t h two e x t r a statements added, 50 one i n c o r r e c t and one c o r r e c t though not mentioned by the speaker. L i s t e n e r s were asked t o judge the correctness of twenty-four such statements immediately f o l l o w i n g the t a l k . The instrument f o r data c o l l e c t i o n i n the t h i r d experiment was an ordinary school examination type of open que s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e composite questions f o r each f i f t e e n minute s e c t i o n of the t a l k . In experiment f o u r the data were c o l l e c t e d through f o u r exam type questions f o r each f i f t e e n minutes of the t a l k , p a r t i c i p a n t s being given t e n , twenty, or t h i r t y minutes to answer the questions a f t e r hearing f i f t e e n , t h i r t y or f o r t y - f i v e minutes of the t a l k r e s p e c t i v e l y . Most p a r t i c i -pants had j u s t f i n i s h e d as the time was up. Part of t h i s sample c o n s i s t e d i n members of a c l a s s i n Astronomy whose scores were shown separately from those of the other students. In experiment f i v e a s mall group of adult students were asked to complete a m u l t i p l e choice t e s t on the t a l k on astronomy one week a f t e r l i s t e n i n g t o the t a l k . The t e s t c o n s i s t e d of seven questions based on the f i r s t f i f t e e n minute p e r i o d of the t a l k . Andrew (4) i n an experiment t e s t i n g the workshop method sought to d i s c o v e r the e f f i c a c y of the l e c t u r e and group d i s c u s s i o n techniques f o r conveying i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . Pour information g i v i n g types, two techniques and two devices were d i r e c t e d to the t o t a l 51 workshop on separate occasions and the r e s u l t s compared. The l e c t u r e techniques i s described only as a l e c t u r e on psycho-sexual development. The panel d i s c u s s i o n c o n s i s t e d i n a group of l a y people p r e s e n t i n g a pamphlet c a l l e d "How to L i v e w i t h C h i l d r e n " . The f i l m used was The Face of Youth. Two recordings from the e n q u i r i n g parent s e r i e s e n t i t l e d "Dealing w i t h D e s t r u c t i v e n e s s " and "Moral T r a i n i n g of C h i l d r e n " were used. The data was c o l l e c t e d by a questio n -n a i r e administered at the beginning and end of the workshop and analysed by use of sets of t e s t items on in f o r m a t i o n introduced to the workshop by the d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g techniques. The comparison was based on the mean e f f e c t i v e n e s s index f o r each set of items covered by the technique. The purpose of the Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d experiment (43) was t o teach the pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the alpha-bet and of numerals so that p a r t i c i p a n t s could go on to f u r t h e r e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . The teaching was accomplished through a device, f i l m s t r i p s , so constructed t h a t the f i r s t frames showed the nature and importance of the phonetic alpha-bet f o l l o w e d by i n d i v i d u a l frames showing each l e t t e r and i t s phonetic name i l l u s t r a t e d by a p i c t u r e and accompanied by sound e f f e c t s and n a r r a t i o n intended to help the student form an a s s o c i a t i o n between the l e t t e r and the name. Each s i x 52 frames were f o l l o w e d by a review frame g i v i n g a l i s t of the preceding phonetic names, twenty-six frames and fo u r review l i s t s a l l t o l d were used which i n t u r n were f o l l o w e d by a complete review of the alphabet, a d i g r e s s i o n on the pro-n u n c i a t i o n of numerals and another complete review l i s t t h i s time on the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of numerals i n t u r n f o l l o w e d by another complete review l i s t g i v e n i n scrambled order. In the experimental groups the l e t t e r s i n the review questions were f o l l o w e d by question marks and the group was asked t o r e c a l l and pronounce the phonetic names whereas the c o n t r o l groups, the audience,viewed the f i l m s t r i p s but remained p a s s i v e . A f u r t h e r c o n d i t i o n of the experiment was that h a l f the men under each treatment were t o l d there would be an immediate r e c a l l t e s t a f t e r the f i l m s t r i p . Hovland hypothized t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups would l e a r n more be-cause t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was engaged through overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l e a r n i n g and that p r i o r knowledge of an exam would *< motivate p a r t i c i p a n t s t o l e a r n more. The sample was 742 armed s e r v i c e r e c r u i t s w i t h no previous m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g who were passing through an i n i t i a l centre i n a few days. The men were randomly assigned to s i x t e e n audience groups of approximately f i f t y persons each. The name and s e r i a l number of each man was recorded so tha t i n f o r m a t i o n concerning h i s years of schooli n g and h i s AGCT score could be obtained from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e s . The 53 experimenter was then able to equate the l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t groups and to analyze the value of increased overt audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n on men of d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y as measured by the AGCT and years of s c h o o l i n g . The data were c o l l e c t e d through o r a l and w r i t t e n t e s t s . F i v e men w i t h roughly equivalent e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds were s e l e c t e d from each of the s i x t e e n audience groups, a card w i t h the l e t t e r stamped on i t i n l a r g e type and allowed f i f t e e n seconds t o respond o r a l l y w i t h the c o r r e c t phonetic name. The r e s t of the men i n each group were given a mimeographed sheet of the l e t t e r s w i t h blanks beside each l e t t e r f o r w r i t i n g i n the phonetic names. F i v e d i f f e r e n t t e s t s were used w i t h equal frequency i n t h i s p a r t of the experiment and the data were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . H i l l (41) i n a study the major purpose of which was to compare the d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e techniques w i t h regard to a c h i e v i n g the goals of i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g , mental s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e change compared ( i n appendix E) two v a r i a t i o n s of the l e c t u r e technique and r e s u l t s . These w i l l be d i s -cussed here although the major purpose of._the H i l l study w i l l be discussed under the s e c t i o n on the group d i s c u s s i o n t e c h -nique. Although he does not describe the l e c t u r e technique he s t a t e s that the l e c t u r e r s s e l e c t e d f o r the experiment ivere considered good classroom teachers who were anthro-p o l o g i s t s and experienced members of the U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y . 54 These teachers were popular w i t h students and, when approached, evinced some i n t e r e s t i n the re s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The two v a r i a t i o n s of the technique are described as one l a r g e (233 students) and two small (twenty students) c l a s s e s . The r e -search design of t h i s study w i l l be given i n the s e c t i o n on the Study-discussion techniques. The purpose of the Wiedenhammer (188) study was to a s c e r t a i n r e a c t i o n t o troop i n f o r m a t i o n meetings. The te c h - ' nique c o n s i s t e d i n a t a l k and or f i l m f o l l o w e d by open d i s -c u s s i o n . The leader of these programs was e i t h e r an e n l i s t e d man or an o f f i c e r . The sample included 4727 e n l i s t e d men and 1219 o f f i c e r s and was s e l e c t e d as a random sample from s i x t y - f i v e army i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n a l l p a r t s of the world. P i f t y - s i x per cent of e n l i s t e d men had completed high school and 20 per cent of these had some c o l l e g e . Ninety-three per cent of o f f i c e r s had completed high school and 70 per cent of these had some c o l l e g e . The data was c o l l e c t e d by means of a ques t i o n n a i r e administered i n an in f o r m a l group s e t t i n g . L i v e r i g h t (54) undertook a major work on voluntary a d u l t education t o t e s t h i s hypothesis that teaching s t y l e and content areaare interconnected. He developed a framework f o r examining i n f o r m a l adult education programs and t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p i n order t o study and compare d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of l e a d e r s h i p i n connection w i t h content. The sample con-s i s t e d of s e v e r a l hundred volunteer leaders i n fourteen 55 d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a l a d u l t education programs. Only leaders who had been a c t i v e i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r program f o r one year or more were s e l e c t e d , and only those who were comfort-a b l e , happy, and s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r r o l e were observed. The data were c o l l e c t e d through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r -views, and group i n t e r v i e w s and were s t a t i s t i c a l l y t r e a t e d . This study i s i n c l u d e d here because i t i s concerned w i t h a number of i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g techniques at the content end of h i s continuum which could conceivably be used i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h one another to meet the goal of the agent. This study w i l l be discussed again,at other p o i n t s i n t h i s t h e s i s where the m a t e r i a l i s r e l e v a n t . The f o l l o w i n g three experiments: Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d (44), Cathcart (23) and T h i s t l e w a i t e and Kamentzy (80) use the l e c t u r e technique to seek to persuade. Nevertheless they are reported here because the f i n d i n g s throw.rs.omei.light on how the democratic process can be f u l -f i l l e d or denied w i t h v a r i o u s audiences when the l e c t u r e technique i s used to convey in f o r m a t i o n on c o n t r o v e r s i a l matters. The purpose of the Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d (44) experiment was t o d i s c o v e r whether when the m a j o r i t y of the evidence supports the t h e s i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i t i s more e f f e c t i v e to present only the side supporting the t h e s i s or t o present both sid e s of the question when the g o a l i s 56 a t t i t u d e change f a v o u r i n g the t h e s i s . In t h i s experiment two r a d i o t r a n s c r i p t s were composed of commentators' a n a l y s i s on the P a c i f i c war and the attempt was to convince audience i t would be a drawn out war. A l l m a t e r i a l s were o f f i c i a l r e l e a s e s from the American O f f i c e of War Information and the War Department. The f i r s t treatment e n t i t l e d "One Side" was f i f t e e n minutes long and included d i s c u s s i o n of the dis t a n c e problems and l o g i s t i c s i n the P a c i f i c , resources and stock-p i l e s i n the Japanese Empire s i z e and q u a l i t y of the main bulk of the Japanese army t h a t had not yet been i n b a t t l e and the determination of the Japanese people. The second treatment e n t i t l e d "Both Sid e s " ran f o r nineteen minutes during which the same m a t e r i a l was presented i n e x a c t l y the same way the f o u r e x t r a minutes being devoted to c o n s i d e r i n g arguments on the other side of the p i c t u r e i n c l u d i n g U.S. advantages and Japanese weaknesses, previous progress of the U.S. despite a two-front war, the U.S. a b i l i t y to concen-t r a t e on Japan a f t e r V-E day and Japanese sh i p p i n g l o s s e s and manufacturing i n f e r i o r i t y . The experimenters s t a t e that p r i n c i p l e s f o l l o w e d i n the development of t h i s second s c r i p t were as f o l l o w s : the major arguments on the opposed side should be given at the beginning i n order to i n d i c a t e to the o p p o s i t i o n that t h e i r p o i n t of view would not be neglected; appeals to the motives of the opposed p o i n t of view should be giv e n e a r l y ; opposed arguments that could not be r e f u t e d 57 should be given f a i r l y e a r l y ; r e f u t a t i o n of arguments of the opposed p o i n t of view should be attempted only when obviously compelling and s t r i c t l y f a c t u a l r e f u t a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e ; an unrefuted opposed argument should be f o l l o w e d by an un-c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o s i t i v e argument. The sample came from nine quarter-master t r a i n i n g companies during the f i r s t few weeks of A p r i l 1945. I n t e r -company d i f f e r e n c e was c o n t r o l l e d , one-half of the sample were new r e c r u i t s and one-half were veterans being t r a i n e d f o r reassignment. A p r e t e s t o s t e n s i b l y surveying the p o i n t of view of veterans being discharged and redeployed t o the P a c i f i c war was conducted w i t h the experimental sample to d i s c o v e r t h e i r estimates of the l e n g t h of the war w i t h Japan and the frequency of various arguments f o r a short or long war, the i n f o r m a t i o n so gained being used as a b a s i s f o r the con-s t r u c t i o n of s c r i p t s i n which the greatest weight was attached to countering arguments which were o f f e r e d most h e a v i l y by the men. This p r e t e s t was c a r r i e d out i n d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g s w i t h d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t e r i n g personnel and w i t h f o r m a l l y d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e blanks than the post t e s t of the experiment. The f i n a l sample of those present at both pre and post meetings c o n s i s t e d i n 625 men, 214 i n each e x p e r i -mental group and 197 i n the c o n t r o l group. A week a f t e r the before survey the t r a n s c r i p t was 58 presented i n o r i e n t a t i o n meetings as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n of the t o p i c . The message was heard i n platoon s i z e groups and the d i s c u s s i o n was to be conducted by second l i e u t e n a n t s w i t h previous teaching experience. A f t e r the t r a n s c r i p t was played the men were given a short q u e s t i o n n a i r e as an a f t e r measure. I t was through t h i s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e that the data was c o l l e c t e d . The f o l l o w i n g group d i s c u s s i o n was not part of the experiment. I t i s important to note that the speech was incorporated i n t o a de v i c e . The data was analyzed by matching the before and a f t e r q u estionnaires on the basis of personal h i s t o r y and handwriting, and examined f o r the net e f f e c t of the message, i n terms of one-half year estimates of f u r t h e r d u r a t i o n of the war. Results were given i n terms of the net p r o p o r t i o n who changed. Gathcart (23) used f o u r treatments of a twenty-minute speech on the "Abolishment of C a p i t a l Punishment" designed t o t e s t the hypothesis that when attempting to win b e l i e f a speaker must use adequate evidence and a u t h o r i t y i n support of h i s premise. A l l v a r i a t i o n s of the speech which was taped and played t o d i f f e r e n t treatment groups, i n t r o -duced the problem, demonstrated the need f o r change and pointed the way t o s o l u t i o n . Speech A c o n s i s t e d i n g e n e r a l -i z e d statements; speech B i n the same statements supported by evidence which was n e i t h e r l i n k e d to a source nor documented; speech C i n speech B w i t h documentation f o r most p o i n t s 5 9 p r o v i d i n g the name or document quoted w i t h place and date, Speech D i n speech C plus the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the source or a u t h o r i t y documented. Again a device r a t h e r than a t e c h -nique i s being t e s t e d here. The sample was composed of students i n beginning and advanced p u b l i c speaking c l a s s e s at Evanston Township High School, northwestern U n i v e r s i t y School of Speech, and the U n i v e r s i t y College of Northwestern A d u l t evening c l a s s e s . The chi-Square Test f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the three populations i n terms of o r i g i n a l o p i n i o n , readiness t o s h i f t , sex r a t i o , e d u cational l e v e l , and school represented. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d only i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of o r i g i n a l o p i n i o n which was s i g n i f i -cant w i t h regard to sex. Each treatment-group c o n s i s t e d of approximately eighty-one persons composed of a random sample of the three school p o p u l a t i o n s . The data was c o l l e c t e d by means of the Woodward o p i n i o n s h i f t o r, a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e instrument f o r measur-in g q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the amount or degree to which an a u d i t o r has s h i f t e d an a t t i t u d e or o p i n i o n . This form was adminis-t e r e d before and a f t e r the speech w i t h each p a r t i c i p a n t r a t i n g h i s o p i n i o n of the speech on a one to ten-point s c a l e f o r the f a c t o r s of evidence, argument, c l a r i t y of ideas, v o c a l d e l i v e r y , l i v e l i n e s s , and speaker's competence. The data were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . 60 T h i s t l e w a i t e and Kamentzy (80) undertook an e x p e r i -ment t o determine whether, i n order to create o p i n i o n change favourable t o the t h e s i s of a communication i t i s b e t t e r to e x p l i c i t l y deny or r e f u t e opposed arguments or t o avoid so doing and where counter arguments are given whether i t i s b e t t e r to elaborate them or t o avoid so doing. Pour t r e a t -ments of a l e c t u r e , the t h e s i s of which was th a t the Korean war should not be l i m i t e d to the Korean pe n i n s u l a were placed on tape and presented w i t h s l i d e s . Consequently we are a l s o d e a l i n g w i t h devices i n t h i s experiment. Program one, en-t i t l e d " R e f u t a t i o n w i t h E l a b o r a t i o n of Counter Arguments" acknowledged counter arguments to the t h e s i s and f o l l o w e d each by a statement of f a c t s supporting the counter-argument. A f t e r t h i s came one or more statements e x p l i c i t l y denying the v a l i -d i t y or adequacy of the counter argument and a p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a c t s supporting the t h e s i s . Program Two e n t i t l e d " R e f u t a t i o n Sans E l a b o r a t i o n of Counter Argument" was i d e n t i -c a l t o Program One except t h a t the l e c t u r e r omitted a l l f a c t s supporting the counter argument. Program Three e n t i t l e d "No R e f u t a t i o n w i t h E l a b o r a t i o n " was a l s o the same as Program One except t h a t the counter arguments were not r e f u t e d , r a t h e r n o n - r e f u t i v e statements were given which d i d not deny the v a l i d i t y of the counter argument but attempted to convey t h a t counter arguments notwithstanding there were other arguments to consider. Program Four e n t i t l e d "No R e f u t a t i o n 61 without E l a b o r a t i o n " , was i d e n t i c a l w i t h Program Three except t h a t no counter arguments were g i v e n . The experimental messages were developed on the b a s i s of a pre-study w i t h 230 r e c r u i t s at the Sampson A i r Force Base i n New York. Seven hundred and f i f t y r e c r u i t s i n t h e i r t w e l f t h day of t r a i n i n g at the Sampson A i r Force Base New York comprised the e x p e r i -mental group. The data were c o l l e c t e d through a before q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered one week p r i o r to the experiment and an a f t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered immediately a f t e r the experiment. Both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n s i s t e d i n f i f t e e n key items. The post experimental t e s t a l s o included a group of r e a c t i o n items of two k i n d s , one type designed to measure the tendency of the sample to discount the message they had j u s t heard and the second type t o d i s c o v e r what the p a r t i c i -pant i d e n t i f i e d as the speaker's main c o n c l u s i o n . These a t t i t u d e items were again administered to some of the a i r f o r c e r e c r u i t s twenty-one days l a t e r . Scaleogram a n a l y s i s was used t o determine whether s c a l e s producing n e a r l y p e r f e c t r e p r o d u c t i b i l i t y could be obtained. The s c a l e so developed proved r e l i a b l e from .96 to .99 l e v e l of confidence f o r the f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e p r o d u c t i b i l i t y on a t t i t u d e s towards the Korean war. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the speeches i n chang-ing a t t i t u d e s towards the Korean war was measured through comparing p o s t - t e s t scores of each experimental group w i t h the p o s t - t e s t score of the c o n t r o l or pre-study groups. The 62 treatment groups were found t o d i f f e r from each other on i n i t i a l favourable a t t i t u d e . Therefore the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was done p r i m a r i l y on treatment groups which could be matched f o r p r e t e s t scores and whenever more than two i n d i v i d u a l s from d i f f e r e n t groups could be matched on pre-treatment score they were s e l e c t e d according t o a t a b l e of random numbers. The purpose of the Staudohar and Smith (80) e x p e r i -ment was to see i f a l e c t u r e used w i t h a f i l m to focus on data r e l a t i v e to d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e change would r e s u l t i n gre a t e r favourable a t t i t u d e change than when the f i l m was used alone. This experiment i s a l s o i n the area of per-suasion r a t h e r than education but the r e s u l t s may p o i n t t o the value of f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l experimentation i n t o such a combination. A commercial motion p i c t u r e w i t h scenes u s e f u l t o the formation of d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e s towards d i s c i p l i n e i n the armed s e r v i c e s was used and three l e c t u r e treatments were developed to focus the audience's a t t e n t i o n on the r e l e v a n t p o i n t s i n these scenes: the f i r s t a p r e - f i l m l e c t u r e p o i nted out what r e c r u i t s should observe i n the f i l m ; the second, a post f i l m l e c t u r e pointed out what r e c r u i t s should have observed; and the t h i r d c o n s i s t i n g i n two short l e c t u r e s was used pre and post f i l m t o serve the purposes of both treatments one and two. A l l l e c t u r e s were d e l i v e r e d somewhat i n f o r m a l l y from notes by an A i r Force o f f i c e r who was wearing 63 campaign ribbons to add p r e s t i g e to the l e c t u r e . The word l e v e l of the l e c t u r e s was evaluated as f a i r l y easy by means of a P l e s c h Reading E Score. The sampling u n i t was not the i n d i v i d u a l but the f l i g h t which averaged f i f t y - f i v e airmen. The sample c o n s i s t e d of f o u r groups w i t h f o u r f l i g h t s i n each group assigned by a t a b l e of random numbers. Three of the groups were submitted to one of the experimental t r e a t -ments and the f o u r t h was used as a c o n t r o l which saw the f i l m and f i l l e d out the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . The men i n the sample were i n the second week of b a s i c t r a i n i n g . The data was c o l l e c t e d by a s i x t e e n item q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed through p r e - t e s t and found to have an i n t e r n a l consistency of .46 by Kuder-Richardson formula 20. S i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e toward d i s c i p l i n e was found t o e x i s t between groups and the t t e s t was t h e r e f o r e used to compare groups. Hearne (40) undertook a study of techniques used i n farm meetings w i t h reference t o t h e i r e f f e c t s on adoption. He studied the l e c t u r e used alone and supplemented by devices or other techniques. The l e c t u r e technique i s de-s c r i b e d as a l e c t u r e given by the county agent on the subject of ( l ) Growing Healthy Chicks, (2) Summer Management of Growing P u l l e t s , and (3) Spring and Summer feeding of the d a i r y cow, a l l f a i r l y concrete s u b j e c t s . Compared w i t h the l e c t u r e used alone were a l e c t u r e supplemented w i t h i l l u s -t r a t i v e c h a r t s , a l e c t u r e used i n conjunction w i t h a s u i t a b l e 64 f i l m s t r i p showing c o n d i t i o n s i n the area; and a l e c t u r e f o l l o w e d by a t a l k by the l o c a l leader on a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t g i v i n g h i s or her expectations of the program. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 310 a d u l t s i n attendance at a t o t a l of t h i r t y - f o u r meetings. One meeting was held i n the s p r i n g of 1929, twenty-four meetings were held i n the s p r i n g of 1930, and nineteen meetings were held i n the sp r i n g of 1932. The survey party were able t o i n t e r v i e w an average of 9.1 persons who had attended each meeting, 75.5 per cent of the 310 farms represented were operated by owners and the remaining 24.5 per cent by tenants. The average farm s i z e was 159 acres and was i n the ei g h t counties of M i s s o u r i where the meetings were h e l d , and represented a l l v a r i e t i e s of land and road c o n d i t i o n s i n t h a t area from the rough Ozark Mountain h i l l s to the M i s s i s s i p p i and M i s s o u r i bottom lands. Twenty-five poi n t s i x per cent of those present at p o u l t r y meetings reported p o u l t r y as one of the main sources of t h e i r income while 84.8 per cent of those present at d a i r y meetings reported the same c o n d i t i o n . The data was c o l l e c t e d by a survey party of f i f t e e n members of the s t a t e extension s e r v i c e and two members of the United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . These persons had forms through which they r e -corded the data and the in t e r v i e w s were held from the time of the meeting t o three or f o u r months a f t e r i t . Information was obtained from each interviewee as to what new p r a c t i c e s 65 he was u s i n g r e g a r d l e s s of the source of i n f o r m a t i o n . Hearne developed an index of adoption by combining two sets of percentages: the percentage of farmers exposed to the techniques who were i n f l u e n c e d by them and the percentages of p r a c t i c e s changed per farm which could be a t t r i b u t e d t o attendance at a meeting. Taking the l e c t u r e technique as a base of one hundred he compared i t s r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h that of the conjunction of l e c t u r e and other techniques. Findings Processes. Few researchers have examined the i n -t e r n a l processes of the technique they were using c l o s e l y and r e l a t e d such processes to the r e s u l t s of the technique. Where t h i s has been done i t can provide h e l p f u l leads f o r the agent as he attempts to work s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h i n the t e c h -nique to achieve the l e a r n i n g g o a l . I t seems u s e f u l where there i s a l a r g e concern t h e o r e t i c a l l y or experimentally w i t h such processes to r e p o r t the f i n d i n g s on process i n a separate s e c t i o n . Of course such d i v i s i o n i s a r t i f i c i a l s i nce the agent i s concerned w i t h processes i n r e l a t i o n to r e s u l t s . How ever such d i v i s i o n w i l l g ive o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r more compre-hensive examination of processes than might be p o s s i b l e i n a combined s e c t i o n . Trenamen's (83) f i n d i n g s suggest that the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n a speech i s a l a r g e f a c t o r i n how 66 much the l i s t e n e r s are able to remember. The t a l k on China contained only two t h i r d s the number of p o i n t s contained i n the t a l k on astronomy and those who l i s t e n e d t o the l a t t e r t a l k even though they were a l s o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an astronomy c l a s s , remembered l e s s than those who l i s t e n e d to the former t a l k . The c h i e f g a i n i n l e a r n i n g was from the f i f t e e n - m i n u t e to the t h i r t y - m i n u t e l e v e l , and a f t e r the t h i r t y - m i n u t e l e v e l the a s s i m i l a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s gave out a l t o g e t h e r . L i s t e n e r s i n a l l f i v e experiments p r e f e r r e d the t h i r t y - m i n u t e t a l k suggesting s u b j e c t i v e preference and a b i l i t y to a s s i m i -l a t e are connected. S l i g h t l y over two-thirds of the l i s t e n -i n g group were i n t e r e s t e d i n each phase of the t a l k on China i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the speaker was able to maintain an equal l e v e l of i n t e r e s t throughout the t a l k , a f a c t which the experimenter considers lends v a l i d i t y t o the forementioned r e s u l t s on preference f o r l e n g t h of t a l k and i n f o r m a t i o n remembered. H i l l (41) found d i f f e r e n c e s i n technique processes f o r the d i f f e r e n t s i z e d l e c t u r e c l a s s e s . The i n s t r u c t o r s i n the two small c l a s s e s asked an average of 3»3 questions per c l a s s meeting and an average of 9.3 p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t e d questions or comments to the i n s t r u c t o r i n the course of each meeting. The observers considered that t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n provided some opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to a f f e c t the conduct of the l e c t u r e . Wo f i g u r e s are given to i n d i c a t e the 67 amount of i n t e r a c t i o n that took place i n the large lecture classes and we may therefore i n f e r that i n t e r a c t i o n was p r a c t i c a l l y n i l . Participants of the t o t a l study (see findings i n group-discussion section) stated a preference f o r a combin-ation of lecture and discussion techniques and i n view of t h i s the author compared group s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s nearest approximation of the i d e a l , that i s , the small lecture group with group s a t i s f a c t i o n with pure lecture and pure group d i s -cussion and found that the group stating i t was "completely s a t i s f i e d " with the series was s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger f o r small lecture classes than f o r either large lecture classes or discussion groups. He points out that i n comparing lecture groups further t e s t i n g would be required to determine whether th i s difference was due to "audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n " that i s the process used within the technique, or group size but since discussion groups and small lecture classes were approximately the same size the difference here i s l i k e l y attributable to technique. The r e s u l t s showed that i n the small lecture classes 4.6 per cent developed new friendships with other class members while i n the large lecture classes 8.3 per cent r e -ported forming new friendships with other course members. This might indicate that course participants developed t h e i r own means of engaging themselves i n the learning experiences since i t seems l i k e l y that p a r t i c i p a n t s discussed course 68 material with the friends they made. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to examine t h i s phenomenon further to see i f such associ-ations account f o r any of the r e s u l t s f o r information-giving techniques used over a period of time and i f the findings can help the agent i n any way better plan the learning experience. Wiedenhammer (88) found 58 per cent of e n l i s t e d men i n the sample would have attended the meetings vo l u n t a r i l y and 18 per cent would have stayed away i f given a choice. Detailed analysis showed that e n l i s t e d men who found the topic i n t e r e s t i n g also f e l t they got a l o t from the topic and found meetings worthwhile. The meetings were apparently geared to those of lowest formal education f o r those i n the categories of grade school or some high school consistently reacted most favourably to questions asking whether they learned i n t e r e s t i n g information or found the meeting worth-while whereas those who had f i n i s h e d high school and p a r t i c u -l a r l y those who had some college education were less enthusiastic. The experimenter found that 71 per cent of the e n l i s t e d men preferred a t a l k followed by open discussion whereas 13 per cent preferred a t a l k only. F i f t y - s i x per cent of t h i s population considered that the r i g h t amount of time was being spent on discussion whereas 28 per cent thought too l i t t l e and 8 per cent thought too much time was devoted to i t . Thirty-nine per cent of those who attended college said they 69 would p r e f e r more d i s c u s s i o n whereas only 19 per cent of those who had only gone to grade school wished more d i s c u s s i o n . I t might be noted that group d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s context may mean anything from open forum to small f a c e - t o - f a c e groups. Forty-seven per cent of respondees found lectures sometimes worthwhile, whereas 20 per cent gave t h i s response f o r group d i s c u s s i o n . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h an e n l i s t e d man as leader was l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n the choice of an o f f i c e r whereas d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h an o f f i c e r was l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n a choice of any competent person. In the main u n i t o f f i c e r s agreed w i t h e n l i s t e d men and so f i n d i n g s of t h i s s e c t i o n would be a p p l i c a b l e to o f f i c e r s . L i v e r i g h t (54) found two i d e n t i f i a b l e extreme leader-ship s t y l e s , namely the group o r i e n t e d and the content o r i e n t -ed. Agencies concerned w i t h d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n or teaching s k i l l s a t t r a c t c ontent-oriented i n d i v i d u a l s a s 1 voluntary l e a d e r s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the content o r i e n t e d leader i n a voluntary s e t t i n g which a f f e c t the process are as f o l l o w s : he can be described as a q u i e t set demanding person who i s concerned w i t h the subject matter and i n g e t t i n g s p e c i f i c tasks accomplished; h i s manner i s d i s t a n t , c o o l and impersonal; the m a t e r i a l s are a major c a r r i e r of program and are used to present f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n . The responses of leaders i n content-oriented programs to the question "What i s your g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n teaching," showed s a t i s f a c t i o n 70 i n personal achievement and i n g e t t i n g s p e c i f i c tasks accomplished. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group a t t r a c t e d to the content-oriented program are th a t they have never met as a group before and do not u s u a l l y know each other outside the program. They do not have any set r o l e s before the program begins and probably do not communicate w i t h one another outside the program. They may come from widely d i f f e r e n t o c cupational groups and d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l back-grounds w i t h varying previous educational l e v e l . Where the aim of the program i s understanding or comprehension of the subject matter and there i s low group cohesion the e x p e r i -menter suggests that the content o r i e n t e d teaching approach may be best i n i t i a l l y and t h a t group i n t e r a c t i o n and develop-ment may be encouraged over a p e r i o d of time. 1 Information. The f i n d i n g s of the Newman and Highland (65) experiment were th a t the amount learned by a l l f o u r experimental groups was appre c i a b l e and t h a t the o v e r a l l per-formance of students i n each group was e q u i v a l e n t . Students w i t h d i f f e r e n t a p t i t u d e l e v e l s d i d eq u a l l y w e l l under each method of i n s t r u c t i o n . However, while students under a l l f o u r treatments d i d eq u a l l y w e l l on the f i r s t and second p a r t s of the exam students i n the i n s t r u c t o r group d i d b e t t e r on the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the exam which was based on the f i n a l t h i r d of the course. This d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence f o r the recorder workbook and the recorder 71 s l i d e treatments but not f o r the supervised reading t r e a t -ment. The experimenters consider the r e s u l t s can be ge n e r a l i z e d to a p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r to the one used i n t h i s study, t a k i n g a compulsory course and te s t e d by an immediate r e c a l l exam. Hypotheses suggested by the authors which might be t e s t e d as to why the mass media methods were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the f i r s t two t h i r d s of the course but were l e s s e f f e c t i v e f o r the l a s t t h i r d a r e : that by t h i s time the novelty of the mass media devices had worn o f f ; t h a t no p r o v i s i o n s were made w i t h i n the devices f o r answering questions and cumulative e f f e c t of unanswered questions might be expected t o show by t h i s time; that the e a r l y s e c t i o n s of the recorded m a t e r i a l were subjected t o much r e v i s i o n whereas the l a s t p a r t of the course was not so i n t e n s e l y r e v i s e d and t h e r e f o r e may not have been as w e l l s t r u c t u r e d . Beecroft and Annesey (12) found that the mean achievement of students i n the c l a s s e s w i t h increased repe-t i t i o n was r e l i a b l y higher at the .01 l e v e l of confidence than those i n the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s at both t e s t i n g times. A l -though the d i f f e r e n c e s i n achievement were small they were f a i r l y evenly spread out over v a r i o u s t e s t items and on h a l f the items the experimental group was s u p e r i o r . Under t h i s change i n the l e c t u r e technique 10 per cent more of the low apt i t u d e students met the c r i t e r i a of passing the exam, or 72 s t a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , the performance of a man w i t h an a p t i t u d e area 8 score of eighty given experimental i n s t r u c t i o n was as good as a man w i t h an a p t i t u d e area 8 score of ninety given c o n t r o l i n s t r u c t i o n . Beecroft (13) i n a review of r e s e a r c h summarizes the r e s u l t s of a number of experiments u s i n g high school, e l e -mentary school, c o l l e g e , and armed s e r v i c e s samples. He concludes t h a t although some lessons are learned b e t t e r w i t h one o v e r a l l technique of p r e s e n t a t i o n than another (e.g. f i l m versus l e c t u r e ) , there i s no c l e a r evidence that one method of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s s u p e r i o r t o another. Secondly he concludes t h a t e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n seems to depend l a r g e l y on f a c t o r s t h a t are i n t e r n a l t o a l e s s o n r a t h e r than on the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n . Factors such as r e p e t i t i o n of p o i n t s w i t h i n a l e s s o n , t e l l i n g students s p e c i f i c a l l y what they are t o l e a r n , and summaries of p r i n c i p l e p o i n t s are a l l apt t o produce e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . Trenaman (83) found i n general t h a t as the l e n g t h of the t a l k increased the amount of infor m a t i o n remembered de-creased. In experiment one whereas 30 per cent of a f i f t e e n -minute t a l k was r e c a l l e d , 18 to 20 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes of a t h i r t y - m i n u t e t a l k was r e c a l l e d and only 13 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes of a f o r t y - f i v e minute t a l k was r e c a l l e d . In experiment two he found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences i n the scores f o r each f i f t e e n minutes of those who had 73 heard f i f t e e n , t h i r t y or f o r t y - f i v e minutes of the t a l k . These f i n d i n g s apparently c o n t r a d i c t the f i n d i n g s of experiment one. However the author considers t h a t the t e s t was probably too easy i n that p a r t i c i p a n t s could recognize the c o r r e c t statement because the wording was the same even though they d i d not e n t i r e l y grasp the meaning of the communication. I n experiment three members of the audience who l i s t e n e d to the f i r s t f i f t e e n minutes r e c a l l e d 42.6 per cent of the t e s t c o r r e c t l y , those who l i s t e n e d to the f i r s t t h i r t y minutes of the t a l k r e c a l l e d 37.7 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes of the t e s t c o r r e c t l y and those who l i s t e n e d t o the whole f o r t y -f i v e minutes r e c a l l e d 22.5 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes c o r r e c t l y . These percentages are considerably b e t t e r than the percentages f o r experiment one; although the f i n d i n g s were d e r i v e d from the same marking s c a l e and the students were drawn from the same sources and were s i m i l a r i n age and educ a t i o n a l background. The author suggests that the aided-r e c a l l type of question used here enables the examinee to remember whole areas of m a t e r i a l which he does not r e c a l l under the f r e e r e c a l l method of examination. Aided r e c a l l appears t o more nea r l y approach the r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n where the i n d i v i d u a l i n d i s c u s s i n g w i t h other people i s aided i n the r e c a l l of m a t e r i a l . The f i n d i n g s f o r non members of the astronomy c l a s s i n experiment f o u r were that the sample which had heard the f i r s t f i f t e e n minutes of the t a l k r e c a l l e d 74 28.2 per cent of that f i f t e e n minutes, those who had heard t h i r t y minutes r e c a l l e d 19.4 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes and those who had heard the whole f o r t y - f i v e minutes r e c a l l e d seventeen per cent of each t h i r d of the t a l k . Since the same type of exam was used i n t h i s experiment as i n experiment three the author places assurance i n these f i n d i n g s . Members of the astronomy c l a s s i n t h i s experiment r e c a l l e d 40.6 per cent of the questions f o r the f i r s t f i f t e e n minutes, 20.7 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y minutes and 19.9 per cent of each f i f t e e n minutes f o r the f o r t y - f i v e minutes. The f i n d i n g s of experiment f i v e on r e c a l l a f t e r a week were that those who heard the f i r s t f i f t e e n minutes of the t a l k only r e c a l l e d 56 per cent of the t o t a l p o s s i b l e ; thbse hearing the f i r s t t h i r t y minutes r e c a l l e d 42 per cent and those hearing the whole f o r t y - f i v e minutes r e c a l l e d 25 per cent which d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t by a n a l y s i s of v a r i -ance. Since the t e s t was based on the f i r s t f i f t e e n minutes of the t a l k only these r e s u l t s would i n d i c a t e according t o the experimenter t h a t there i s a r e a l r e d u c t i o n i n l i s t e n e r grasp of a t a l k as the t a l k lengthens and t h i s r e d u c t i o n ex-ceeds the normal f o r g e t t i n g curve. Consequently the r a t e of r e c a l l a f t e r t h i r t y minutes i s so low as t o be uneconomical. A b i l i t y t o r e c a l l was a f f e c t e d by ed u c a t i o n a l background i n a l l cases and s i g n i f i c a n t l y favours those w i t h higher 75 educational backgrounds. The d i f f e r e n t r e c a l l questions have been examined i n some d e t a i l here because the r e s u l t s make apparent that the findings of the experiment depend to a large extent on the instrument used and the experimenter evaluates the d i f f e r e n t instruments i n a manner that may be useful f o r future r e-searchers concerned with information giving techniques. It should be noted that these experimental r e s u l t s apply to a voluntary audience and are supported i n trend by a delayed r e c a l l test of one week. Andrew (4) found that records, lecture, f i l m and panel discussion i n that order were e f f e c t i v e i n creating knowledge of c h i l d development concepts with a voluntary audience on a near immediate r e c a l l t e s t . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the re s u l t s f o r records and lecture and the r e s u l t s from panel discussion did not d i f f e r from the control which was not subjected to any technique. Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d (43) i n t h e i r experiment on the re s u l t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning phonetic alphabet and numerals found, when the sample was tested o r a l l y without regard to education, i n t e l l i g e n c e or motivation, that the experimental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the control group at the .01 l e v e l of confidence f o r the thi r t e e n more d i f f i c u l t names and at the .07 l e v e l 76 of confidence f o r the t h i r t e e n l e a s t d i f f i c u l t names. When the t e s t was announced i n advance the c o n t r o l group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the c o n t r o l group when the t e s t was not announced i n advance at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. There was a d i f f e r e n c e of 18.1 per cent between the c o n t r o l and experimental groups i n the non-motivated t h a t i s , not Informed of f o l l o w i n g exam a n a l y s i s and of only 5.2 per cent under the motivated a n a l y s i s . These r e s u l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .04 l e v e l of confidence and i n d i c a t e according to the authors t h a t a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n Is most necessary when p a r t i c i p a n t s are l e a s t motivated t o l e a r n . The f i n d i n g s of the w r i t t e n t e s t were p a r a l l e l those of the o r a l t e s t i n a l l cases, the only d i f f e r e n c e being that the average number of phonetic names answered c o r r e c t l y was higher f o r the w r i t t e n t e s t under a l l c o n d i t i o n s and the d i f f e r e n c e s between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups were s m a l l e r . The e x p e r i -menters conducted a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s t o d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n -s h i p of m o t i v a t i o n versus non-motivation f o r l e a r n i n g w i t h r e l a t i o n to those of higher i n t e l l i g e n c e as judged by p o s i t i o n on the AGCT scores of f o u r or f i v e as again s t those of lower i n t e l l i g e n c e as judged by p o s i t i o n s on the AGCT scores of one, two and t h r e e . In general they found t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n technique tended t o enable men under a l l c o n d i t i o n s to l e a r n as much as i s normally achieved under only* the most favour-able c o n d i t i o n s ; t h a t i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was found to help most 77 of those who needed help most, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l i t t l e a b i l i t y or m o t i v a t i o n . In the authors' opinions these f i n d i n g s may be g e n e r a l i z e d to a sample s i m i l a r t o the one studi e d i n l e a r n -i n g m a t e r i a l of simple p a i r s a s s o c i a t i o n such as vocabulary or nomenclature, r e c o g n i t i o n of a i r c r a f t type e t c . f o r a compulsory l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and an immediate r e c a l l exam! The authors hypothesize that although the f a c t o r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r a c t i c e and m o t i v a t i o n through a knowledge of an exam may have been analyzed s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s experiment, they g a i n r e s u l t s through the same inner mechanism. Since i t appears l i k e l y i n t y p i c a l human l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s that m o t i v a t i o n a l procedures are s u c c e s s f u l because they create i n c e n t i v e i n the i n d i v i d u a l to p r a c t i c e . Nothing i s learned without p r a c t i c e . The l e a r n e r i n h i s d e s i r e not to appear s t u p i d may apply himself more eagerly when he r e a l i z e s t h a t he has t o perform a c t i v e l y i n the group or t h a t h i s knowledge w i l l be t e s t e d immediately f o l l o w i n g the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The authors suggest t h a t the present f i n d i n g s f i t i n w e l l w i t h t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n since a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n seen as a m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r was l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g l e a r n i n g when another m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r was introduced as w e l l . I t would appear t h a t these f i n d i n g s and the hypothesis based on them lend weight t o Newberry's s c a l e which attempts to g a i n the a c t i v e engagement of the l e a r n e r through ego-involvement which i n t u r n i s achieved through overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In 78 t h i s experiment a c t i v e engagement of the l e a r n e r i s a l s o achieved through announcing a t e s t which may i n some sense have the e f f e c t of making the l e a r n i n g t a s k more concrete. H i l l (41) found the mean improvement score i n terms of a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l concepts f o r both l a r g e and small l e c t u r e c l a s s e s was 1.2 so group s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h technique was not r e f l e c t e d i n i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g . T h i s t l e w a i t e and Kamentzy (80) discovered t h a t students who were subjected to treatments i n v o l v i n g r e f u -t a t i v e arguments i n the t a l k on Korea tended to have a g r e a t e r number of c o r r e c t responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e asking the speaker's main p o i n t . However t h i s t rend d i d not d i f f e r r e l i a b l y from chance, and i n t h i s m i l i t a r y s e t t i n g the students may have had other o r i e n t a t i o n l e c t u r e s which would enable them to grasp the message. No s i g n i f i c a n t trend was found to e x i s t f o r i n i t i a l l y opposed or i n i t i a l l y favourable r e c r u i t s w i t h regard to r e f u t i v e or n o n - r e f u t i v e treatments i n accomplishing the goal of comprehension of the message. A t t i t u d e . H i l l (41) compared l a r g e and s m a l l l e c t u r e c l a s s e s f o r a t t i t u d e change and, i n g e n e r a l , the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e change was not g r e a t e r f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s m a l l l e c t u r e groups. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g i s accounted f o r by g r e a t e r group i n t e r a c t i o n outside the course f o r members of l a r g e l e c t u r e groups and i s not a f u n c t i o n of 79 w i t h i n technique process i t s e l f . There would seem to be room f o r more re s e a r c h here. Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d s ' (44) f i n d i n g s were that the programs on the Korean war r e s u l t e d i n a net p r o p o r t i o n of two f i f t h s of the men i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r estimates of d u r a t i o n of war i n the P a c i f i c , w i t h men i n both experimental treatments changing s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the c o n t r o l group. T h i r t y - s i x per cent of the men i n i t i a l l y opposed to the experimental message changed t h e i r view on hearing the program which gave one s i d e only whereas 48 per cent changed when both s i d e s were s t a t e d , a d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t at the .04 of confidence. Of men who i n i t i a l l y favoured the experimental message 50' per cent changed favourably a f t e r hearing the one-sided view whereas only 23 per cent changed a f t e r hearing the two-sided view, a d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t at the .02 l e v e l of confidence. There-f o r e i t would appear t h a t the program f a v o u r i n g one p o i n t of view only was more e f f e c t i v e f o r those who were i n i t i a l l y f avourable to t h a t p o i n t of view. Those whose education was l e s s than high school graduation changed more favourably as a r e s u l t of the one-sided p o i n t of view, a f i n d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Those who had h i g h school or b e t t e r education were more l i k e l y to change to the advocated view when both s i d e s of the question were presented, a f i n d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .06 l e v e l of confidence. When both education and i n i t i a l estimates of the l e n g t h of the P a c i f i c War were 80 considered i t was found t h a t men of the lower e d u c a t i o n a l group opposed to the communication changed more though non-s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a favourable d i r e c t i o n when both s i d e s were presented. Those w i t h higher education changed more i n a favourable d i r e c t i o n when both p o i n t s of view were presented, a d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t at the .06 l e v e l of confidence f o r the i n i t i a l l y opposed, and at the .02 l e v e l of confidence f o r the i n i t i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e . An i n c i d e n t a l f i n d i n g which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t due to small sample s i z e was t h a t the omission of the t o p i c of Russian a i d i n the P a c i f i c seemed to support the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i f a p r e s e n t a t i o n advocating a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of view purports t o d i s c u s s both s i d e s of the question i t must Include a l l the counter arguments or e l s e the p r e s e n t a t i o n may boomerang by not l i v i n g up t o i t s apparent promise of i m p a r t i a l l y and complete-ness. The advantages of the 'both s i d e s ' program was found t o be l e s s f o r those who considered the ignored argument an important one. The r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment would seem to I n d i c a t e t h a t , i f the purpose of general education i s t o create inde-pendent t h i n k e r s , i t i s t o some extent being f u l f i l l e d f o r those of higher education appear l e s s open to persuasion whether i n i t i a l l y favourable or opposed to the case made In the l e c t u r e . However p a r t i c i p a n t s under both treatments changed In a favourable d i r e c t i o n : t h i s r e s u l t could be due to s e v e r a l f a c t o r s ; the message made sense; or the men were 81 able t o see the d e s i r e d outcome due to the f a c t t h a t much grea t e r time was g i v e n t o the favoured p o s i t i o n . Prom the adu l t educator's p o i n t of view these f i n d i n g s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a poorly-educated p a r t i c i p a n t group i s e a s i l y swung by persuasion and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r developing t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s are needed before i n d i v i d u a l s are able to judge the v a l i d i t y of propaganda. Cathcart (23) found t h a t a l l f o u r v a r i a t i o n s of the speech i n t r o d u c i n g the problem of c a p i t a l punishment produced p o s i t i v e s h i f t s of o p i n i o n on the Woodward Opinion S h i f t Form. Speeches B (supporting evidence n e i t h e r l i n k e d to a source nor documented) and Speech D (supporting evidence documented and p r o v i d i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of source or a u t h o r i t y documented) had i d e n t i c a l mean s h i f t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than zero at the .05 l e v e l of confidence though not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the mean s h i f t of Speech C (Speech B w i t h documentation f o r most p o i n t s p r o v i d i n g the name or document quoted w i t h place and date,) which i n t u r n d i d not produce a gre a t e r mean s h i f t than Speech A ( g e n e r a l i z e d statements). The author notes t h a t the s h i f t which occurs appears to be a f u n c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l o p i n i o n of the a u d i t o r , h i s proneness to s h i f t and h i s judgment of the value of the argument r a t h e r than of sex, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , speech t r a i n i n g or subject matter knowledge. I t was the gr e a t e r s h i f t on the part of the group o r i g i n a l l y opposed t o the message which accounted 82 f o r the r e s u l t s . The normal assumption would appear t o be tha t the speeches would change o p i n i o n i n an ascending order of documentation and since t h i s i s not the case f u r t h e r experimentation might be r e q u i r e d to t e s t whether t h i s i s due to a variance i n homogeneity of treatment populations or a f u n c t i o n of the treatment i t s e l f . I t might be worth i n v e s t i -g a t i n g whether the same c o n d i t i o n s apply t o a message r e -l a t i n g to matters of f a c t that i s would students change a t t i t u d e s more r e a d i l y t o conform w i t h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i f the sources of such i n f o r m a t i o n were w e l l documented? T h l s t l e w a i t e and Kamentzy (80) found t h a t the experimental communications were e f f e c t i v e at the .001 l e v e l of confidence i n every case c r e a t i n g favourable o p i n i o n s h i f t toward U.S. P o l i c y i n Korea. A f t e r three weeks the s h i f t remained s i g n i f i c a n t t o the .02 l e v e l of confidence f o r groups one ( r e f u t a t i o n w i t h e l a b o r a t i o n of counter arguments); t o the .04 l e v e l of confidence f o r group two ( r e f u t a t i o n sans e l a b o r a t i o n of counter arguments); t o the .01 l e v e l of confidence f o r group three (no r e f u t a t i o n w i t h e l a b o r a t i o n of counter arguments) and at the .001 l e v e l of confidence f o r group f o u r (no r e f u t a t i o n sans e l a b o r a t i o n of counter arguments.) The experimenters surmised th a t the r e f u t i t i v e t r e a t -ments might evoke d i s c o u n t i n g r e a c t i o n s i n which case the a t t i t u d e change r e s u l t i n g would be l e s s than where d i s c o u n t i n g 83 r e a c t i o n were not evoked. However a c o n t r a d i c t o r y surmise was t h a t i f the primary e f f e c t of r e f u t a t i o n was t o increase comprehension of the speaker's main p o i n t then a t t i t u d e change would be g r e a t e r than w i t h r e f u t i t i v e than .with .non-r e f u t i t i v e treatment. T h e i r f i n d i n g s were t h a t n e i t h e r i n i t i a l l y opposed nor i n i t i a l l y favourable r e c r u i t s showed gre a t e r tendency toward d i s c o u n t i n g the message w i t h r e f u t i -t i v e or n o n - r e f u t i t i v e treatment. E l a b o r a t i o n or non-e l a b o r a t i o n treatments a l s o had no e f f e c t on r e s u l t s i n terms of d i s c o u n t i n g r e a c t i o n s w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found even when the i n i t i a l l y opposed and the i n i t i a l l y f a vourable groups were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . A f u r t h e r hypothesis was t h a t members of a group who discount a persuasive t a l k w i l l be l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by the t a l k than those who do not discount i t . I t was necessary to adjust each c l a s s to a common p r e t e s t score base to t e s t t h i s hypothesis and the data of f o u r of the e i g h t groups d i d not meet the necessary assumption of homogeneity of v a r i a n t s and r e g r e s s i o n s . However the r e s u l t s of the other f o u r groups were found to confirm the hypothesis f o r adjusted means of groups w i t h h i g h and low d i s c o u n t i n g scores at the .005 l e v e l of confidence. In view of the f i n d i n g s i t would be i n t e r e s t -i n g t o know what f a c t o r s do account f o r i n d i v i d u a l s d i s -counting a persuasive t a l k and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h might be d i r e c t e d along these l i n e s because i t might provide 84 i n f o r m a t i o n on how the mind of the p a r t i c i p a n t works. The n o n - r e f u t i t i v e treatments had a greater immedi-ate e f f e c t on favourable a t t i t u d e change than the r e f u t i t i v e treatments s i g n i f i c a n t to the .02 l e v e l of confidence which was r e t a i n e d at the three week, post t e s t s i g n i f i c a n t at the .08 l e v e l of confidence. The n o - e l a b o r a t i o n of counter-argument treatments w i t h or without r e f u t a t i o n were s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g favourable a t t i t u d e change among i n i t i a l l y opposed r e c r u i t s than the e l a b o r a t i o n t r e a t -ments at the .01 l e v e l of confidence on immediate post t e s t and at the .04 l e v e l of confidence on the three week post t e s t . However those i n i t i a l l y favourable t o the communication showed a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d towards changing t h e i r a t t i -tudes even more favourably when counter arguments were ela b o r a t e d . The experimenters a l s o hypothesized that where other t h i n g s are equal a t t i t u d e change w i l l be g r e a t e r among persons who comprehend the intended c o n c l u s i o n than among those where comprehension i s l i m i t e d . The unadjusted mean post t e s t score of the h i g h comprehension groups was found t o exceed those of the low comprehension groups i n seven of the e i g h t programs. The o v e r a l l t rend here was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. This evidence could s i g n i f y t h a t under persuasion p a r t i c i p a n t s change to conform w i t h the i n t e n t of the message 85 as they perceive i t w h i l e p o s s i b l y remaining untouched at deeper l e v e l s . ' Perhaps t h i s i s a hypothesis worth t e s t i n g . This experiment was c a r r i e d out i n a s i t u a t i o n compulsory f o r the sample and the f i n d i n g s that change i n a favourable d i r e c t i o n were gr e a t e r f o r a l l w i t h the no r e f u t a t i o n t r e a t -ments and f o r the opposed w i t h the no e l a b o r a t i o n treatments would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the aim of propaganda was l a r g e l y f u l f i l l e d i n t h i s experiment. These f i n d i n g s appear to be at variance w i t h the Hovland Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d (44) r e -s u l t s that those of higher e d u c a t i o n a l background and those i n i t i a l l y opposed changed more when both sid e s of the argument were represented. These r e s u l t s could be a f u n c t i o n of experience or previous e d u c a t i o n a l background of the two populations and i n d i c a t e t h a t f u r t h e r research i n t h i s area might prove f r u i t f u l to a d u l t educators i n order to i n d i c a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s most open to persuasion and the k i n d of e d u c a t i o n a l experience necessary to give them the s k i l l s f o r independent t h i n k i n g . Staudohal and Smith (76) found t h a t t h e i r A i r Force sample increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the c o n t r o l group i n favourableness of a t t i t u d e toward d i s c i p l i n e when subjected to any of the l e c t u r e treatments. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found among r e s u l t s f o r any of the l e c t u r e groups. I t might be remarked that the a u d i t o r s were new d r a f t e e s under compulsory m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and the i n t e n t of the 86 message was very c l e a r . F urther experimentation would seem necessary to determine whether the long term r e s u l t s of such a program produced p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s or whether persuasion i s e f f e c t i v e when a c t i o n based on w e l l thought out p r i n c i p l e s i s necessary. I t appears t h a t persuasion was e f f e c t i v e i n ac h i e v i n g the researchers goal i n these experiments at l e a s t f o r c e r t a i n samples on immediate and short term r e c a l l . I t would be worthwhile t e s t i n g how long term such r e s u l t s are and whether they can stand the t e s t s of l i f e as w e l l as opinions which are formed a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . Adoption. Hearne (40) found t h a t when the l e c t u r e technique was supplemented by other techniques g r e a t e r adoption of new p r a c t i c e s r e s u l t e d . Using the index of adoption w i t h the l e c t u r e as a base of one hundred he found l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n (probably questions and answers) r e -s u l t e d i n an index of 121; l e c t u r e and l o c a l leader i n an index of 128; l e c t u r e and ch a r t i n an index of 142 and l e c t u r e and f i l m s t r i p i n an index of 155. Consequently i t would appear t h a t a concrete l e c t u r e can r e s u l t i n changed a c t i o n p a t t e r n s when the l e a r n i n g group i s i n v o l v e d i n the subject matter at hand and when they already have a t t i t u d e s conducive to change. ( I t i s assumed here that farmers would be i n v o l v e d i n the subject matter and t h a t t h e i r attendance at meetings would be i n d i c a t i v e of the d e s i r e to engage i n b e t t e r farming 87 p r a c t i c e s ) . In t h i s case the l e a r n e r ' s ego would appear to be engaged through h i s occupation, a f a c t o r outside the c o n t r o l of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n but one of which the agent can recognize and make use. IIA . THE LECTURE TECHNIQUE USED AS A STANDARD Orga n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n The s t u d i e s i n which the l e c t u r e technique was used as a standard a l s o lend themselves to o r g a n i z a t i o n by l e a r n -in g g o a l . The H i l l ( 4 l ) , Carlson (22) and Palmer and Verner (66) s t u d i e s were concerned mainly w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n ; the L e v i and Higgins (50) experiment w i t h problem-solving; the McGuiness, Lana and Smith (60) and Soffen (71) experiments w i t h a t t i t u d e change, and the Lewin (53)> Coch and French (24) Levine and B u t l e r (51) and Bond (17) experiments w i t h adoption. These experiments w i l l be discussed f u l l y under the appropriate s e c t i o n on group d i s -c u s s i o n but the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l e c t u r e technique and the f i n d i n g s connected w i t h i t w i l l be w r i t t e n up here and i n -corporated i n t o the summary on the technique. D e s c r i p t i o n The l e c t u r e as used i n the H i l l (41) study has been described e a r l i e r as a p r e s e n t a t i o n by teachers w e l l l i k e d by t h e i r c o l l e g e students and experts i n t h e i r subject f i e l d . C a r l s o n (22) described the l e c t u r e as a method 88 appropriate to very l a r g e audiences of students where students d i d not c o n t r i b u t e to the development of concepts presented f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n but were able to take notes. In the Palmer and Verner (66) experiment c a r e f u l l y constructed l e c t u r e s of f o r t y - f i v e minutes d u r a t i o n were presented without i n t e r r u p t i o n from the group f o l l o w e d by f i v e minute question p e r i o d . This sequence d i f f e r e d from normal procedure f o r the sample from the a i r f o r c e school where l e c t u r e s were u s u a l l y i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h questions. In the L e v i and Higgins (50) experiment the l e c t u r e technique was used to provide a c r i t i q u e on previous crew problem s o l v i n g . An e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e which i s presented i n o u t l i n e i n the s e c t i o n on was given t o each crew member l i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which previous research had shown to be important i n the perform-ance of group t a s k s . The i n s t r u c t o r then e x p l a i n e d , i n general terms, the meaning of each item on the l i s t , p o i n t i n g out t h a t they had proved v a l i d p o i n t s to consider i n success-f u l group problem s o l v i n g of va r i o u s k i n d s . He went on t o diagnose and evaluate the crews' performance u s i n g t h i s r a t i n g s c a l e and suggesting ways of improving group procedures and performance. He encouraged questions and answered them thoroughly. The McGuiness, Lana and Smith (60) experiment was con-cerned w i t h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an i n f o r m a t i o n device ( f i l m ) 89 used alone, as compared w i t h i t s j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h per-missive group d i s c u s s i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n type was a device of concrete nature which allowed f o r no audience p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , hut which might he the near equivalent of a co n c r e t e l y i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e which allowed f o r no p a r t i c i p a n t -i n s t r u c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n . Three f i l m s are shown at bi-weekly i n t e r v a l s : these NFB f i l m s were e n t i t l e d The P e e l i n g of Re- j e c t i o n , The P e e l i n g of H o s t i l i t y and Breakdown. I n a second part of the experiment new groups saw only one of the three f i l m s . S offen (71) i n i t i a l l y d e s cribed the l e c t u r e treatment as two l e c t u r e s , c a r e f u l l y prepared and w e l l presented. As a r e s u l t of the f i n d i n g s of h i s study S o f f e n remarks t h a t the advantages of the l e c t u r e technique are t h a t an a u t h o r i t a t i v e person who has something to say can prepare h i s m a t e r i a l w i t h maximum opportunity f o r q u a l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y w h i l e the l i s t e n i n g group: " i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e c e p t i v e , i t recognizes the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the l e c t u r e r " (71 p.32). Lewin (53) describes the l e c t u r e technique simply as l e c t u r e w i t h the use of c h a r t s . These l e c t u r e s seem t o have been twenty-five t o t h i r t y minutes l o n g . The group was very s m a l l . Coch and French (24) de s c r i b e the technique used w i t h i n t h e i r c o n t r o l group as a l e c t u r e given by the time study man on the changes to be made. This p r e s e n t a t i o n was f o l l o w e d by 90 questions. Levine and B u t l e r (51) s t a t e the sup e r v i s o r s i n t h e i r experiment were given a d e t a i l e d l e c t u r e on the theory of employee performance r a t i n g . The l e c t u r e provided background m a t e r i a l on wage a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and job e v a l u a t i o n and pointed out e r r o r s i n previous employee r a t i n g s i n t e r p r e t i n g reasons f o r t h e i r occurrence. The l e c t u r e was i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h graphs and f i g u r e s . F i n a l l y i t was c l a r i f i e d t hat each r a t e r was to r a t e i n d i v i d u a l performance and not the d i f f i c u l t y of the job. This p r e s e n t a t i o n was f o l l o w e d by a question and answer p e r i o d where completed answers were g i v e n . This s e s s i o n took one and one-half hours. In the Bond experiment (17) the l e c t u r e was set up as a twenty-minute t a l k w i t h a ten minute question p e r i o d at the end. The i n v e s t i g a t o r i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f as a member of the Duluth Health department and an a u t h o r i t y on the s u b j e c t . The l e c t u r e was seen as an i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g technique and only i n f o r m a t i o n questions were answered during the l e c t u r e . Findings Processes. Palmer and Verner (66) found t h a t i f p a r t i c i p a n t s had to choose one of the l e c t u r e or group d i s -c u s s i o n techniques they would choose the l e c t u r e although they expressed a preference f o r j o i n t use of the techniques. Bond (16) found t h a t the l e c t u r e treatments i n t h e i r 91 experiment seemed to produce a good response and there was considerable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h e r s e l f as a l e c t u r e r . Information. H i l l ( 4 l ) found l e c t u r e and group d i s -c u s sion techniques e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g the g o a l of i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n . However p r o f e s s i o n a l s learned more under the l e c t u r e treatment. Carlson (22) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two techniques f o r any measures, one of which was i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n while Palmer and Verner (66) found that the p i l o t t r a i n e e s under the l e c t u r e treatment had s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r scores on an immediate r e c a l l end of course examination. A t t i t u d e . H i l l ' s (41) f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t l e c t u r e members were not so homogeneous i n a t t i t u d e s at the t e n t h meeting as were d i s c u s s i o n members and those most a u t h o r i -t a r i a n e t h n o c e n t r i c and l a c k i n g i n t o l e r a n c e f o r ambiguity had stayed w i t h the program whereas, such persons tended to drop out under the group d i s c u s s i o n treatment. Moreover o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e change was e q u i v a l e n t i n the two groups. McGuiness, Lana and Smith (60) discovered that f i l m plus group d i s c u s s i o n d i d not have any g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on a t t i t u d e change than a f i l m alone used only once or three times on separate meeting n i g h t s . They found t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n had tended towards p r o f e s s i o n a l judgments i n i t i a l l y and hypothe-cated t h a t such a p o p u l a t i o n would change l i t t l e as a r e s u l t of a short term l e a r n i n g experience and t h a t since they were 92 already sympathetic to p r o f e s s i o n a l judgments i n the f i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n alone would create f u r t h e r change i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The experimenters suggest t h a t r e s e a r c h - t e s t i n g , long-term r e c a l l might prove f r u i t f u l s ince i n experimen-t a t i o n w i t h h i g h school students i t was found t h a t a t t i t u d e changes r e s u l t i n g from the combination of f i l m p l u s d i s -c u s sion were r e t a i n e d b e t t e r a t one month p o s t - t e s t than a t t i t u d e change r e s u l t i n g from f i l m alone. Soffen (71) found t h a t new leaders improved s i g n i f i -c a n t l y towards i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n goals i n a d u l t education as a r e s u l t of two l e c t u r e s e s s i o n s . As a group experienced leaders d i d not improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g . I t would seem t h e r e f o r e that s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i -tude change can occur from l e c t u r e . The experimenter remarks t h a t a t t i t u d e change i n t h i s case may have been dependent on a body of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on a d u l t education o b j e c t i v e s f o r a group of leaders of v a r y i n g types of a d u l t education programs would appear to be ego i n v o l v e d i n the m a t e r i a l and eager to consider the i n f o r m a t i o n and change ideas on the b a s i s of i t . These f i n d i n g s suggest again t h a t i f an i n d i v i -d ual i s already ego-involved i n the l e a r n i n g he w i l l change a t t i t u d e s as a r e s u l t of the l e c t u r e technique. On the b a s i s of L i v e r i g h t ' s (54) theory Soffen (71) hypothesized that there would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between program type i n which the leader was f u n c t i o n i n g and the technique from which he le a r n e d . 93 Although no leaders improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of case d i s c u s s i o n , he found t h a t f o u r of the nine new l e a d e r s from i n f o r m a l programs d i d not improve under the l e c t u r e technique. This i s i n t e r e s t i n g because a l l nine new leaders from v o c a t i o n a l and u n i v e r s i t y programs showed improvement under the l e c t u r e technique. The f i n d i n g s may t h e r e f o r e give some t e n t a t i v e support to L i v e r i g h t ' s (54) theory and suggest f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h along the l i n e s of p e r s o n a l i t y and program type would prove f r u i t f u l . Problem S o l v i n g . L e v i and Higgins (50) found the l e c t u r e c r i t i q u e of previous group problem-solving e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e w i t h s t r u c t u r e d group d i s c u s s i o n i n c r e a t i n g b e t t e r i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s to a f u r t h e r problem-solving t e s t . Adoption. Lewin (53) found l e c t u r e almost t o t a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e f o r s t i m u l a t i n g the adoption of new meat-serving p a t t e r n s , and about one t h i r d as e f f e c t i v e as group d i s -c u s s i o n - d e c i s i o n f o r a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r consumption of f r e s h m i l k and one h a l f as e f f e c t i v e f o r a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r con-sumption of evaporated m i l k . Levine and B u t l e r (51) found tha t the l e c t u r e had p r a c t i c a l l y no e f f e c t on foreman's employee r a t i n g s , w h i l e Bond (17) found l e c t u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e than group d i s c u s s i o n d e c i s i o n i n c r e a t i n g adoption of new p r a c t i c e s . At the time of the second f o l l o w -up she found j u s t l e s s than a t h i r d of those subjected to the l e c t u r e treatment reported p r a c t i s i n g the three c r i t e r i a 94 measures. Experimental v a r i a b l e s were found to have s i g n i f i -cant r e l a t i o n s h i p s to reported adoption of p r a c t i c e s and co n t r i b u t e d t o the above r e s u l t s . These were: reading an a r t i c l e ; seeing a f i l m demonstrating performance of the suggested p r a c t i c e s ; knowing persons who had had cancer; and, Join i n g ; i n a spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n on the subject w i t h another member a f t e r the meeting. Even w i t h these c o n c r e t i z lngi devices the l e c t u r e treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e than group d i s c u s s i o n d e c i s i o n Coch and French (24) found that the o l d p a t t e r n of h o s t i l i t y and r e s i s t a n c e t o change was r e t a i n e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s under the l e c t u r e t r e a t -ment, t h a t there was a high drop-out and tha t r e s u l t i n g p r o d u c t i o n i n u n i t s per hour was w e l l below that of the experimental groups; yet when the remaining members of t h i s group were reassembled a f t e r two and one h a l f months and subjected to the experimental treatment they recovered t h e i r o l d e f f i c i e n c y r a t i n g and moved to a new standard. Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the Lecture Technique D e s c r i p t i o n . The l e c t u r e technique may be described as the a c t i o n of an ed u c a t i o n a l agent i n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l t o a p r e s c r i b e d body of students where questions, u s u a l l y concerned w i t h c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the sub-j e c t matter are sometimes encouraged during the course of the p r e s e n t a t i o n or immediately f o l l o w i n g i t . In i t s i d e a l ,95 form the l e c t u r e allows f o r a t h o u g h t f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n of a subject by a well-informed i n d i v i d u a l who may r e s t r u c t u r e the p r e s e n t a t i o n as questions or even f a c i a l expression of the l e a r n e r s i n d i c a t e the need f o r restatement or a l t e r a t i o n . A l e c t u r e may be made concrete t o the experience of the a u d i t o r s by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l devices such as c h a r t s , f i l m s , records and so on. Use of appropriate devices would imply knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s on the part of the agent and th e r e f o r e i t i s suggested t h a t t h i s technique might be used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n con j u n c t i o n w i t h other techniques which r e q u i r e higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the l e a r n e r thus g i v i n g the agent g r e a t e r feedback as to the requirements of an i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . The r e -search reviewed here would suggest t h a t the optimum l e n g t h f o r a l e c t u r e i n terms of l i s t e n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and p o i n t s remembered would be one-half hour and tha t approximately eighteen major and minor p o i n t s could be discussed i n t h i s time. R e p e t i t i o n w i t h i n the l e c t u r e r e s u l t s i n g r e a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g and other p r a c t i c e s suggested by a review of the re s e a r c h are t h a t m a t e r i a l should be summarized f r e q u e n t l y and students informed of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l e c t u r e . L i v e r i g h t (54) would consider the l e c t u r e appeals t o a l a r g e heterogeneous audience but H i l l ' s (4l) f i n d i n g s suggest some p a r t i c i p a n t s may r e s i s t such i m p e r s o n a l i t y by forming more f r i e n d s h i p s . The l e c t u r e used w i t h small groups 96 appears to encourage more qu e s t i o n i n g and i s p r e f e r r e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s t o e i t h e r l e c t u r e or d i s c u s s i o n i n the extreme form. Hovland, Lumsdaine and S h e f f i e l d ' s (43) f i n d i n g s suggest that the agent may provide f o r a c t i v e engagement of the p a r t i c i p a n t i n the l e a r n i n g process by r e q u i r i n g overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n and by announcing a t e s t . I t might be t e n t a -t i v e l y remarked t h a t where a l l p o i n t s of view on a contro-v e r s i a l subject are presented, comprehension of the m a t e r i a l improves. These experiments would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t those w i t h b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l background and higher i n t e l l i g e n c e are most able t o b e n e f i t from the technique i n i t s a b s t r a c t form and those w i t h lower e d u c a t i o n a l background and low i n t e l l i g e n c e l e a r n more when p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n c r e t i z i n g devices are b u i l t i n . R e s u l t s . Lecture and l e c t u r e type devices r e s u l t i n appreciable i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g where p a r t i c i p a n t s are en-r o l l e d i n a compulsory course and subjected t o an immediate r e c a l l or short term exam. Information g i v i n g d e v i c e s , used alone, would appear to produce the same r e s u l t s at l e a s t on a short term b a s i s as a technique s t r u c t u r e d by an education-a l agent. This suggests the e s s e n t i a l l a c k of responsive i n t e r a c t i o n between agent and l e a r n e r at t h i s end of the Newberry continuum f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a p r a c t i c e or t e s t v a r i e t y can be b u i l t i n t o the d e v i c e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n which r e q u i r e s the agent t o continuously r e s t r u c t u r e the technique 97 i n view of the l e a r n e r ' s comprehension cannot he a n t i c i p a t e d i n a predeveloped device. Lecture and group d i s c u s s i o n appear t o be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r a c h i e v i n g the goal of in f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n although l e c t u r e appears t o be more e f f e c t i v e f o r those w i t h a high l e v e l of formal education. The f i n d i n g s some of the a t t i t u d e experiments suggest t h a t use of the l e c t u r e technique f o r the goal of changing a t t i -tudes i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the democratic philosophy. The experiments i n d i c a t e on short-term r e c a l l exams w i t h com-pulsory audiences t h a t those w i t h l e a s t education change most i n the d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n as the r e s u l t of persuasion. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h o s e w i t h low education who were i n i t i a l l y opposed t o the message, change more favourably when both sides of the argument are g i v e n , i n d i c a t i n g perhaps t h a t they have learned independent t h i n k i n g s k i l l s outside the auspices of formal education. Further experimentation i n t o the long term e f f e c t s of propaganda w i t h compulsory or non-compulsory audiences as compared to the di s s e m i n a t i o n of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the t o p i c combined w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r uncensored i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the t o p i c by the l e a r n e r might provide more i n f o r m a t i o n on how a t t i t u d e changes which r e s u l t i n changed a c t i o n come about and a t t a i n a degree of permanence i n the mind of the l e a r n e r . There i s some suggestion i n the re s e a r c h t h a t persons whose a t t i t u d e s deviate from the group norm are more l i k e l y to continue 98 attendance at l e c t u r e than at group d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s . I t might a l s o be s t a t e d t h a t when p a r t i c i p a n t s are r e c e p t i v e to and have v o l u n t a r i l y sought in f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s are already i n the same d i r e c t i o n as those of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d they w i l l change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s f u r t h e r toward p r o f e s s i o n a l as a r e s u l t of the l e c t u r e treatment. The Hearne (40) experiment seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the l e c t u r e used w i t h devices which make i t concrete f o r the audience at hand can be used to achieve changes i n p r a c t i c e . I t would seem t h a t t h i s can occur where the a t t i t u d e s of the audiences are favourable to the idea of new p r a c t i c e s - i n t h i s case a b e t t e r l i v e l i h o o d was i n v o l v e d , farmers are accustomed to changing p r a c t i c e s t o achieve b e t t e r production- and the major requirement i s in f o r m a t i o n on how such changes can be accomplished. The r e s u l t s from the adoption experiments designed p r i m a r i l y to t e s t group d i s c u s s i o n - d e c i s i o n and us i n g l e c t u r e as a standard suggest that l e c t u r e i s t o t a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l i n some cases and achieves up t o 30 per cent e f f i c i e n c y i n others. I t was apparent that where c o n c r e t i z i n g devices were used w i t h the technique adoption increased and when higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n came about spontaneously a f t e r meetings adoption a l s o i n -creased. More research i s needed to determine i n what s i t u a t i o n s l e c t u r e can be used to achieve the goals of a t t i -tude change and adoption. 99 The l e c t u r e , and other i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g techniques appear to have been the dominant techniques used w i t h i n the formal e d u c a t i o n a l system and as such the l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s obtained from t h e i r use have not been questioned. As a consequence there i s not much research concerned w i t h the areas of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l e c t u r e technique whereas there i s a great deal of research on group d i s c u s s i o n and di s c u s s i o n - t y p e techniques. In some of the re s e a r c h on d i s -c u s sion the l e c t u r e technique i s used as a standard. There i s a great need f o r res e a r c h on the goals which the agent can hope t o achieve through the use of l e c t u r e and l e c t u r e type techniques i n adu l t education s i t u a t i o n s . I I . THE DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUE Organization of the S e c t i o n Only one study concerned w i t h demonstration tech-niques was discovered. Prom p e r u s a l of t h i s study i t appears t h a t there are two types of demonstration technique: process demonstration and r e s u l t demonstration, the f i r s t of which i s concerned w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n to demon-s t r a t e a new p r a c t i c e and the second w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g on the r e s u l t s which a new p r a c t i c e would e f f e c t . Consequent l y the study w i l l be w r i t t e n up i n two s e c t i o n s according to the technique used w i t h the research design given i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n on process demonstration. Since there i s only one study reviewed here there w i l l be no summarizing s e c t i o n . 100 I I I A . THE PROCESS DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUE Research Design of the Study Moeckel (63) i n an e x p l o r a t o r y study sought t o d i s -cover "promising p r a c t i c e s " c o n s i s t i n g i n techniques or sub-techniques f o r i n d i v i d u a l on-farm i n s t r u c t i o n . Consequently the demonstration techniques d e a l t w i t h here are i n d i v i d u a l techniques. Process demonstration i s i m p l i c i t l y r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t l y d escribed i n the study and would seem t o c o n s i s t i n the agent's a c t i v i t y i n performing some task w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t so that the p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n s how to perform the task . The study was conducted i n two phases. The f i r s t phase was concerned w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g i f there were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n tea c h i n g p r a c t i c e s between the 148 teachers of v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e i n Michigan schools f o r the year 1957 and a s e l e c t e d sample of seventy outstanding teachers of adu l t farmer courses i n the t h i r t e e n s t a t e s of the c e n t r a l r e g i o n of the U.S. as s e l e c t e d by the head s t a t e s u p e r v i s o r s of a g r i c u l t u r e . A c h e c k l i s t of 125 p r a c t i c e s which had been p r e t e s t e d seven times was sent to the sample and was returned by 78 per cent of the Michigan teachers and 80 per cent of the outstanding teachers. S t a t i s t i c a l compari-sons were made between the two groups f o r the number of teachers who had used each p r a c t i c e , f r e q u e n t l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y 101 or never. Those who considered a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t i v e were compared. There were found to he s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the two groups of teachers f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t p r a c t i c e s . A l l of these had "been used by a higher percentage of out-standing teachers and were evaluated by them at a l e v e l s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher at the .01 t o ,05 l e v e l of confidence than by the Michigan teachers. A l i s t of twenty of these p r a c t i c e s was compiled f o r use i n the second phase of the study according to the f o l l o w -in g c r i t e r i a : fewer than three-eighths of the Michigan teachers had used them but those who had considered them e f f e c t i v e while two t h i r d s or more of the outstanding teachers had used them and two t h i r d s or more of these con-s i d e r e d them e f f e c t i v e ; they were e a s i l y d e f i n e d and de-s c r i b e d and would not r e q u i r e new or unusual teaching s k i l l s ; and they were f a i r l y s p e c i f i c i n nature so t h a t the teacher could e a s i l y r e c a l l t h e i r use and e f f e c t on the a d u l t farmer. Ten of these p r a c t i c e s were s e l e c t e d to be t e s t e d according t o t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y w i t h teachers at a summer conference. The sample of the second phase of the study c o n s i s t e d of 95.6 per cent or f o r t y - t h r e e of the teachers present at t h i s summer workshop; 75.5 per cent or t h i r t y - s e v e n teachers who were not at the conference but who had returned the i n i t i a l c h e c k l i s t by m a i l and ten teachers who had not taught d u r i n g the 1957-58 school year. In t h i s second phase of the study 102 each teacher s e l e c t e d three or f o u r promising p r a c t i c e s to t e s t and r e c e i v e d a l i s t of suggestions e a r l y i n the f a l l on how to perform these promising p r a c t i c e s . A follow-up l e t t e r was sent l a t e r i n the f a l l as an a d d i t i o n a l impulse to a c t i o n . The data was c o l l e c t e d through an e v a l u a t i o n form sent by m a i l on May 28, 1959 t o the eighty-two p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers, accompanied by an explanatory l e t t e r . Of these 84 per cent or s i x t y - n i n e r e p o r t e d . The data was analysed through summarizing the promising p r a c t i c e s according to a t a b l e and a n a l y s i n g the r e s u l t s s t a t i s t i c a l l y by the student " t " d i s t r i b u t i o n . F i n d i n g s Adoption. A p r a c t i c e which had the s i g n i f i c a n t advantage, according to teacher e v a l u a t i o n , of the farmer l e a r n i n g more and adopting more p r a c t i c e s was: "to a s s i s t the a d u l t farmer to conduct t r i a l p l o t s on h i s farm". Most teachers a l s o considered the farmers responded w e l l t o the use of t h i s p r a c t i c e . The p r a c t i c e "to analyse w i t h the a d u l t farmer the i n s t r u c t i o n of a previous a d u l t c l a s s as i t r e l a t e d to h i s own farm" had the s i g n i f i c a n t advantage t h a t farmers adopted more p r a c t i c e s . Most teachers found t h a t the farmer responded w e l l to,and learned more from,this p r a c t i c e . From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i t appears t h a t process 103 demonstration can be considered very c l o s e t o p r a c t i c e t e ch-niques. However where p r a c t i c e seems t o i n d i c a t e a s s i m i -l a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n by the l e a r n e r w i t h continuous d i r e c t i o n by the agent the very word demonstration i n process demonstration seems to imply that the l e a d e r s h i p i s i n the hands of the agent and he i s conducting the v a r i o u s stages of the l e a r n i n g task so the l e a r n e r may see how i t i s done. Consequently l e s s continuous p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t of the l e a r n e r would seem t o be necessary than f o r p r a c t i c e techniques. The f a c t that the process demonstration was used here as an i n d i v i d u a l technique appears i n c i d e n t a l to the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n the r e a l elements of which would seem to be t h a t i t was used i n a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n f o r the farmer and h i s m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n was hig h because i t was p o s s i b l e to gear the demonstration to h i s own needs on h i s own farm. Ob-v i o u s l y a great d e a l more re s e a r c h would be u s e f u l on t h i s technique to e s t a b l i s h i t s area of e f f e c t i v e n e s s by more o b j e c t i v e means. I I I B . THE RESULT DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUE Research Design of the Study The r e s u l t demonstration according t o t h i s study might be described as an i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g technique t o show, g r a p h i c a l l y , the r e s u l t s which can be achieved through v a r y i n g 104 types of e f f o r t . There i s h i g h i n t e r a c t i o n between agent and l e a r n e r i n order t h a t the l e a r n e r may understand the example. Fi n d i n g s Adoption. The experimenter found f o u r v a r i a t i o n s of the r e s u l t demonstration technique which i n the i n s t r u c t o r s 1 eyes l e d to the f u l f i l m e n t of c e r t a i n l e a r n i n g g oals, the most o b j e c t i v e of which was adoption. The p r a c t i c e t o "Analyse the a d u l t farmers DH 1A, s o i l t e s t , or other farm r e c o r d s " had the s i g n i f i c a n t advantage of the farmer r e -sponding w e l l and adopting more farm p r a c t i c e s . Most of the teachers f e l t the farmers learned more under t h i s p r a c t i c e . The promising p r a c t i s e "Use l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n standards to a s s i s t the a d u l t farmer to evaluate h i s business" had the s i g n i f i c a n t advantages of the farmer responding w e l l t o the p r a c t i c e . Most teachers a l s o f e l t the farmers adopted more p r a c t i c e s . The promising p r a c t i c e "Take the a d u l t farmer to observe a new p r a c t i c e of another farmer"; had the s i g n i f i -cant advantage according to teachers of the farmer l e a r n i n g more and adopting more new p r a c t i c e s . The p r a c t i c e of t a k i n g c o l o r e d s l i d e s or snapshots of the approved p r a c t i c e s being adopted by the a d u l t farmer t o show "before" and " a f t e r " e f f e c t s i n c l a s s r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n and i n farmers responding w e l l . FIGURE 4 DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUES PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES OF THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D i r e c t Exp. l e c t u r e 1 2 L i m i t e d P a r t i c i -p a t i o n poss. f o r some and prov. made f o r a l l -Result Demon-s t r a t i o n 3 L i m i t e d prov. necessary f o r most or a l l students Process Demon-s t r a t i o n 4 5 d e c i s i o n 106 Although t h i s study r e l i e s on teacher e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the technique r a t h e r than more o b j e c t i v e measures i t provides u s e f u l m a t e r i a l and suggests areas where f u r t h e r study might be f r u i t f u l . I I I . THE PRACTICE TECHNIQUE Org a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n The p r i n c i p a l o b ject of the p r a c t i c e technique i s to teach s k i l l s . Two of the experiments i n t h i s s e c t i o n Draegert (31), and Mason (58) deal w i t h t r a i n i n g men to l i s t e n i n n o i s e ; one experiment, B a i r and Hollander (8) deals w i t h good and poor i n s t r u c t o r s as seen by/ s u c c e s s f u l candidates, and one, Townsend (82) w i t h the e f f e c t of "packaging" a number of experimentally proven p r a c t i c e tech-niques a g a i n s t a package of more t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e tech-niques used as a c o n t r o l . The Draegert (31)* B a i n and Hollander (8), and Townsend (82) experiments de a l w i t h more than one p r a c t i c e technique and w i t h more than one technique. They are nevertheless included here because they d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h p r a c t i c e techniques, however, the f i n d i n g s may be somewhat skewed by the f a c t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g tech-niques were used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h them. 107 Research Designs of the Studies In the Draegert (31) experiment the object was to teach a s k i l l , and p r a c t i c e techniques were used w i t h a s s o c i a t e d techniques such as example and demonstration which f a c i l i t a t e s k i l l l e a r n i n g . One p r a c t i c e technique c o n s i s t e d i n d r i l l i n noise of words w i t h l o t i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y and a second p r a c t i c e technique c o n s i s t e d i n d r i l l w i t h i n t e r -phone messages i n n o i s e , w i t h the monitor c r i t i c i z i n g unclear speech. The procedure i n both cases was f o r one man t o read a word and then request a l i s t e n e r to read i t back. I f the reported word was i n c o r r e c t the speaker s a i d i t again. Each speaker read twelve d i f f e r e n t words. The experimenter used the l e c t u r e to introduce a c l a s s p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n . The l e c t u r e c o n s i s t e d i n a five-minute t a l k on the need f o r c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n when speaking i n n o i s e . The sample c o n s i s t e d of se v e n t y - f i v e student p i l o t s . The data was c o l l e c t e d through two types of measure: one introduced as a s p e c i a l e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t e d i n pre and post t r a i n i n g records made by the students on one c i r c u i t . The experimenters then made r e c o r d -ings of these l i s t s i n such a way tha t the f i r s t and l a s t speakings of each word by each speaker were p a i r e d . The p a i r e d words of each speaker were played to a panel of nine judges, f o u r of whom were s p e c i a l i s t s i n speech t r a i n i n g to see i f they could detect a d i f f e r e n c e between the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n s . The second c o n s i s t e d i n a standard 108 word i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y t e s t w i t h m u l t i p l e choice forms and a s p e c i a l t e s t of twelve " d i f f i c u l t " one s y l l a b l e words c o n t a i n -i n g one or more of the s i b i l a n t sounds and r a t e d of low i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y v alue. These data were analysed s t a t i s t i c a l l y a ccording t o mean g a i n by the " t " t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The Mason (58) experiment was designed to t e s t how men are t r a i n e d t o l i s t e n to n o i s e . Three treatments of the p r a c t i c e technique were used i n t h i s experiment. In t r e a t -ment A a hand microphone was used and a monitor spoke over the interphone: "number i s .....", i n an aeroplane type n o i s e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s wrote the word as they heard i t a f t e r which the monitor held up a word card showing the c o r r e c t word. A f t e r t h i s the monitor repeated the word so the men could g a i n a d d i t i o n a l cues to i t s r e c o g n i t i o n . Treatment B was the same as treatment A w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the monitors who gave the l i s t e n i n g t r a i n i n g were f o u r of the e i g h t speakers who recorded the l i s t e n i n g t e s t used pre and post t r a i n i n g . Treatment C, was a l s o the same as the treatment A except t h a t the t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s contained one h a l f the words used i n the t r a i n i n g t e s t before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g . These were g i v e n f i v e times each d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g and were i n t e r s p e r s e d randomly w i t h other words. About one t h i r d of i n s t r u c t o r time was spent on these f a m i l i a r words. The t r a i n i n g took place over three t r a i n i n g hours w i t h 480 words presented each t r a i n i n g hour. The 109 sample c o n s i s t e d of 155 A i r cadets i n the experimental group and f i f t y men i n a c o n t r o l group. T h i r t y - e i g h t men were assigned t o each of the three experimental treatments. The data were c o l l e c t e d through a d m i n i s t e r i n g the same i n t e l l i g i -b i l i t y t e s t before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g and analysed by examining f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e the adjusted mean gains of the d i f f e r e n t treatment groups. B a i r and Hollander (b) were concerned w i t h the e f f e c t s of teacher behaviour on l e a r n i n g and t e s t e d t h i s through a course i n which d i f f e r e n t techniques were used. Since the object of the course was to teach s k i l l s , p r a c t i c e was the main technique. F l y i n g p r a c t i c e and d r i l l are d i s -cussed. The l e c t u r e technique and process demonstration w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n were a l s o used. Cadets who s u c c e s s f u l l y completed b a s i c f l i g h t t r a i n i n g i n the e a r l y f a l l of 1951 composed the sample of the experiment. The data were c o l l e c t e d through an assessment form which asked cadets to evaluate c e r t a i n of t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s . Cadets were not r e q u i r e d to give t h e i r names or the names of the i n s t r u c t o r s about whom they were w r i t i n g . They were asked to t h i n k of t h e i r best and worst I n s t r u c t o r s and name one i n c i d e n t which i l l u s t r a t e d the a t t i -tudes and behaviour which had caused them to form t h e i r o p i n i o n of the i n s t r u c t o r . The data were analyzed by cate-g o r i z i n g the best and worst behaviours and c o n s t r u c t i n g a frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n on these c a t e g o r i e s . Only the major 110 c a t e g o r i e s were i n c l u d e d . The Townsend (b2) experiment t e s t e d i n a f l i g h t t r a i n i n g course, a c o n j u n c t i o n of techniques which had been proven t o be s u p e r i o r i n u n i v e r s i t y l a b s , classrooms, and i n d u s t r y . The techniques employed and the p r i n c i p l e s on which they were b u i l t w i l l be quoted verbatim from Townsend: 1. D i s t r i b u t e d P r a c t i c e P r a c t i c e on any one mancevre or s k i l l was d i s t r i b u t e d over the l a r g e r p a r t of the primary t r a i n i n g course than i s normally the case on Primary P i l o t T r a i n i n g . This was based on the p r i n c i p l e that p r a c t i c e d i s -t r i b u t e d over a f a i r l y long time i s more e f f e c t i v e than p r a c t i c e concentrated on a short p e r i o d of time. 2. Overlearning which means, by d e f i n i t i o n , con-t i n u e d p r a c t i c e past the p o i n t where o s t e n s i b l y acceptable performance has been reached. Such con-tinuous p r a c t i c e i s a means of making use of normally unproductive time. 3. I n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n of Manoevres The student v e r b a l i z e s the complete requirements of a given manoevre. This i s a form of a n t i c i p a t o r y t r a i n i n g d u r i n g b r i e f i n g s . 4. T a l k i n g the Students Through The emphasis i s on r e c o g n i t i o n by the students of p e r c e p t u a l s i g n a l s or cues to be used by the student i n determining whether h i s performance on the manoevre i s c o r r e c t . The students are taught; to recognize e r r o r s i g n a l s and then t a l k e d through appropriate c o r r e c t i o n s . 5. Proper Set. Defined i n p i l o t ' s language as "keep-in g ahead of the a i r c r a f t " . The student t a l k e d the i n s t r u c t o r through various manoevres g i v i n g him i n -s t r u c t i o n s p r i o r to the time an item of performance was a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d . This type of p r a c t i c e made i t p o s s i b l e f o r an i n s t r u c t o r t o determine whether or not a student was capable of planning ahead of per-formance requirements. I l l 6. T r a i n i n g f o r T r a n s f e r . The students a t t e n t i o n i n p r a c t i c e was d i r e c t e d towards n o t i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s between c e r t a i n procedures. The author remarks t h a t these techniques were supported by the use of devices which enabled the i n s t r u c t o r s to see where most p r a c t i c e was needed. (82 p.13) The experimental sample c o n s i s t e d of c l a s s 53 H through 53 M i n the Primary P i l o t T r a i n i n g Program at the Goodfellow A i r Force Base and the c o n t r o l sample c o n s i s t e d of c l a s s e s 53 D through G. The two groups were comparable i n terms of p i l o t s t a n i n e , radar observer s t a n i n e , o f f i c e r q u a l i t y s t a n i n e , age and education i n years. Neither group possessed previous f l y i n g t r a i n i n g . The data were c o l l e c t e d by e v a l u a t i n g the performance of the students i n the two groups at f o u r p o i n t s d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g according to o b j e c t i v e type r e s e a r c h f l i g h t checks administered by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d check p i l o t s . These check p o i n t s were: the eighteen hour and the s i x t y hour p o i n t s of f l i g h t t r a i n i n g i n a 130 hour program, the completion of the instrument phase of the program and the completion of the t o t a l program. Fi n d i n g s Processes. In the B a i r and Hollander (8) experiment the s u c c e s s f u l candidates' a p p r a i s a l of v b e s t and worst i n s t r u c t o r s " appear to r e l a t e to the i n s t r u c t o r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s which were c a r r i e d through whichever technique the i n s t r u c t o r was u s i n g to achieve s k i l l or i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g . Seventy-five per cent of the s u c c e s s f u l cadets s a i d t h a t t h e i r 112 best i n s t r u c t o r went out of h i s way to help the cadet and showed a personal i n t e r e s t i n them; 43 per cent noted that the i n s t r u c t o r had patience, he remained t o l e r a n t , calm and composed and 36 per cent noted that he used good i n s t r u c t i o n -a l techniques, he had adequate knowledge of the subject matter and was able to get i t across. There was no mention of any s p e c i f i c techniques. The worst i n s t r u c t o r on the other hand was noted f o r v e r b a l l y a s s a u l t i n g cadets i n 61 per cent of the r e p o r t s meaning t h a t he l o s t h i s temper and swore or screamed at the cadets; 37 Per cent noted that t h e i r worst i n s t r u c t o r was i n d i f f e r e n t , he showed l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the cadet and i n h i s r o l e as i n s t r u c t o r and 18 per cent f e l t the i n s t r u c t o r used poor i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, t h a t he d i d not know the subject matter and was unable t o get i t a c r o s s . In the Townsend (82) experiment two i n s t r u c t o r s were used f o r every s i x students i n the " s p e c i a l package" program. The two members of the t e a c h i n g team v a r i e d i n rank and experience. Prom the r e s u l t s of the experiment the author concludes that the d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and experience of the teaching team ensure more e f f e c t i v e b r i e f i n g s i n the f l i g h t i n s t r u c t i o n and t h a t by sharing i n s t r u c t i o n standard-i z a t i o n i s ensured. S k i l l , Draegert (31) found t h a t the experimental group improved t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n of words on the standard 113 t e s t to a l e v e l s i g n i f i c a n t l y above that of the c o n t r o l group at the one per cent l e v e l of confidence. A l l judges were able to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n c e i n pr o n u n c i a t i o n of words by the speaker as untrained and t r a i n e d , t o a s i g n i f i -cant degree. However the judges considered some of the twelve speakers had not improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g . The f i n d i n g s of the Mason (58) experiment were th a t there were s i g n i f i c a n t Improvements i n l i s t e n e r performance i n noise under each of the three experimental treatments. The adjusted mean g a i n of the c o n t r o l group which was sub-j e c t e d only t o pre and post t e s t was 6.7; the adjusted mean ga i n of the general t r a i n i n g group was 8.2; the adjusted mean g a i n of the group f a m i l i a r w i t h f o u r of the speakers was 10.9 and the adjusted mean g a i n of those f a m i l i a r w i t h h a l f the words was 21.7. These f i n d i n g s would seem t o i n d i -cate that those subjected to three hours of general l i s t e n i n g t r a i n i n g d i d very l i t t l e b e t t e r than those subjected only to pre and post t e s t s and tha t t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g attempts are very much l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than t r a i n i n g i n the a c t u a l words that w i l l be used. The f i n d i n g s i n the Townsend (82) experiment favour the techniques used i n the " s p e c i a l package" primary p i l o t t r a i n i n g program. At the eighteen hour and s i x t y hour checks the mean e r r o r scores of the experimental group were 51.59 114 per cent and 47.53 Per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y , whereas that of conventionally t r a i n e d groups were 59.56 per cent and 49.32 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mean e r r o r scores f o r the instrument and f i n a l checks were 30,00 per cent and 29.80 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the experimental group and 43.64 per cent and 37.56 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the c o n t r o l group. Of those the experimental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to the c o n t r o l group f o r the eighteen hour, and the instrument and f i n a l checks. Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the P r a c t i c e Technique D e s c r i p t i o n . As desc r i b e d by the experimenters i n t h i s s e c t i o n a p r a c t i c e technique provides the student w i t h the opportunity t o develop s k i l l s through a conscious and continuous e f f o r t to a s s i m i l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the agent on h i s degree of mastery of a task he i s t r y i n g t o perform. The k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between i n s t r u c t o r and student i s an important f a c t o r i n student e v a l u a t i o n of the technique: s u c c e s s f u l students perceive a f r i e n d l y and h e l p f u l a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of i n s t r u c t o r s t o be as important as i n s t r u c t o r knowledge of content. Pew experiments have d e a l t w i t h i n s t r u c t o r student r e l a t i o n s h i p s yet t h i s might be an element of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n which a f f e c t s the degree of l e a r n i n g and i s constant f o r any technique. C o n t i n u i t y of i n s t r u c t o r s and a small group 115 r e l a t i o n s h i p seems to have been an important f a c t o r i n the Townsend (82) experiment. I t would appear that the q u a l i t y and d u r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p between agent and student and i t s e f f e c t on the l e a r n i n g goal merit f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A m u ltitude of devices which simulate the r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n are needed f o r the p r a c t i c e technique. The samples of these experiments have been p i l o t t r a i n i n g groups i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there i s a need f o r experimentation w i t h a wide v a r i e t y of the general p o p u l a t i o n as samples f o r voluntary s k i l l l e a r n -i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Group s i z e was u s u a l l y s m all t o a l l o w f o r continuous e v a l u a t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s performance and to a l l o w each i n d i v i d u a l use of devices necessary f o r the development of the s k i l l . R e s u l t s . The r e s u l t s of these experiments i n d i c a t e t h a t performance does improve w i t h p r a c t i c e . Mason's (58) f i n d i n g s show that i n terms of s k i l l l e a r n i n g t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g attempts are very much l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than t r a i n i n g f o r the exact s i t u a t i o n , a f a c t which may i n d i c a t e to edu-cat o r s t h a t l e a r n i n g w i t h i n r e a l - l i f e or simulated r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s has a great d e a l more value than i n s i t u a t i o n s which hypothesize " t r a n s f e r " . The combination of p r a c t i c e techniques used i n the Townsend experiment seem to i n d i c a t e that continuous conscious mental e f f o r t to t r a n s l a t e i n f o r -mation i n t o motor s k i l l s r e s u l t s i n s u p e r i o r performance. [ FIGURE 5 PRACTICE TECHNIQUES PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES OF THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE 1 1 2 ' 3 4 Simulated 5 Real L i f e < -2 3 4 Mas Draegert on 5 Towns end 117 These r e s u l t s are a p p l i c a b l e to a very l i m i t e d audience and the r e s u l t s f o r p r a c t i c e techniques alone may he skewed due t o the f a c t t h a t other techniques were included i n the experiments. Townsend 1s (82) experiment i n p a r t i c u l a r however t e s t s t h i s type of technique over a f a i r l y long p e r i o d . There i s a need f o r more experimentation on p r a c t i c e techniques t e s t i n g the best way t o teach d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s and u s i n g o b j e c t i v e means of e v a l u a t i o n . IV. THE ROLE-PLAYING TECHNIQUE I n t r o d u c t i o n R o l e - p l a y i n g can be used as a copy of r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s through which the agent can evaluate group processes i n a simulated r e a l l i f e s e t t i n g and draw t e n t a t i v e conclusions concerning what behaviour would be i n a r e a l l i f e s e t t i n g . I t i s used i n t h i s way i n the Maier (55* 56) and Solem (72) ex-periments. In t h i s case i t i s a t o o l through which the agent evaluates l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than a technique through which he seeks to achieve a l e a r n i n g g o a l . R o l e - p l a y i n g may a l s o be used as a technique through which the agent causes the p a r t i c i p a n t t o enact behaviours which w i l l give him p r a c t i c e i n a near r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n , e l i m i n a t i n g , to a considerable degree the problem of t r a n s f e r . Mann (57) i n a review of the r e s e a r c h on r o l e - p l a y i n g d e f i n e s r o l e - p l a y i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 118 A r o l e - p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n i s defined here as a s i t u a t i o n i n which an i n d i v i d u a l i s e x p l i c i t l y asked to take a r o l e not normally h i s own, or i f h i s own In a s e t t i n g not normal f o r the en-actment of h i s r o l e . (57> P.227) Thus where the agent's goal i s examination of a t t i t u d e s the agent may use r o l e - p l a y i n g t o cause the p a r t i c i p a n t to place himself i n another person's shoes i n order to understand the a t t i t u d e s which cause the behaviours he i s being asked to act out. R o l e - p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g technique a l s o provides the agent w i t h continuous feedback as to how the p a r t i c i p a n t has i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g and enables him t o continuously r e -d i r e c t the process to achieve h i s goal f o r l e a r n i n g . Research Design of the Study Only one experiment concerned w i t h r o l e - p l a y i n g was found. In the French (33) experiment r o l e - p l a y i n g was used to help t r a i n e r s of green scoutmasters recognize the problems of these new scoutmasters. A group of f i v e men i n -volved i n the t r a i n i n g each took turns p l a y i n g the t r a i n e r while the others played green scoutmasters. During the r o l e -p l a y i n g sessions the experimenter adopted three d i f f e r e n t r o l e s according to the requirements of the s i t u a t i o n as he saw i t . These were: th a t of a green scoutmaster to t e s t the person a c t i n g as t r a i n e r ; t h a t of a coach g i v i n g on the spot i n s t r u c t i o n while hardly i n t e r r u p t i n g the flow of t r a i n i n g ; t h a t of a d i s c u s s i o n leader f o r a d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n of e v a l u a t i n g what took place during the r o l e - p l a y i n g . 119 The r o l e - p l a y i n g technique was used w i t h i n the course method c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e meetings of two and one-h a l f hours each on f i v e consecutive days. R o l e - p l a y i n g was used f o r one and one h a l f meetings i n conjunction w i t h other techniques. These were: demonstration of the d e s i r e d l e a d e r -ship q u a l i t i e s by the experimenter; group d i s c u s s i o n l e d by the experimenter; and on the job t r a i n i n g . The r e s u l t s were f o r t h i s c o n j unction of techniques taken as a group. How-ever since the other techniques were placed i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the r o l e - p l a y i n g technique i t seems f a i r to compile the r e s u l t s under r o l e - p l a y i n g since t h i s i s the only study t h a t provides any data on the technique. The sample c o n s i s t e d of f i v e scout t r a i n e r s at an i n s t i t u t e or course conducted by Bavelas, the data was c o l l e c t e d by pre-course, during course and post course obser-v a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r scoutmaster s i n g l e d out f o r e x p e r i -mental t e s t i n g . On pre-course observation the leader under study was found to l e c t u r e c o n s i s t e n t l y a l l o w i n g l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h himself and none among the members of the group. He was found to consider the scoutmasters on an i n f e r i o r l e v e l to himself and by the end of the course a l l but two had dropped out. This t r a i n e r , Smith, was a l s o observed by the experimenter during the course of the i n s t i t u t e . The f i r s t meeting of Smith's second course was observed by the e n t i r e i n s t i t u t e and the second, t h i r d , 120 fourth and f i f t h meetings by the experimenter. The data was analysed through the experimenter's observation. Findings Processes. The experimenter found that i n the second and t h i r d meetings of the post t r a i n i n g course conducted by Smith he used a wide variety of techniques which had been used i n the i n s t i t u t e and created a d i f f e r e n t atmosphere from his p r e - i n s t i t u t e course. In the fourth meeting he re-gressed but i n the f i f t h meeting he returned part way to the techniques and sub-techniques used i n the i n s t i t u t e . From the r e s u l t s of t h i s exploratory experiment the experimenter formed c e r t a i n hypotheses on the nature of r o l e -playing which could be tested i n further experimentation. He f e e l s that role-playing eliminates, to a large extent, the problem of transfer since, i n role-playing the trainee i s p r a c t i s i n g what he w i l l do l a t e r on. However i t provides d i s t i n c t advantages over learning i n a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n since participants are not "playing f o r keeps" and therefore both they and the agent are free to experiment i n a variety of forms they would not use otherwise. Also the t r a i n e r gets immediate feedback of behaviour and he can af f e c t the process at any stage to move towards the learning goal. FIGURE 6 ROLE-PLAYING TECHNIQUE PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES OF THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE *• 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 r o l e -playing French F u l l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 5 122 Adoption. French's (33) experiment i n d i c a t e s that some behaviour change i n terms of l e a d e r s h i p patterns may be expected t o r e s u l t from use of the r o l e - p l a y i n g technique. Mann (57)* from the s t u d i e s he has reviewed, using mostly undergraduates, t h i n k s the evidence suggests t h a t r o l e - p l a y i n g may produce behavioural and p e r s o n a l i t y change although no degree of confidence can be attached t o these f i n d i n g s . He a l s o suggests t h a t the e f f e c t of r o l e - p l a y i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e l a t e d to h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s p o s i t i o n i n the r o l e - p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n . These suggestions a l s o provide p o t e n t i a l hypotheses on which to base f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . V. THE CRITIQUE TECHNIQUE Org a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n This s e c t i o n contains s t u d i e s which t e s t the value of feedback or c r i t i c i s m f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , s k i l l performance or problem-solving types of l e a r n i n g . The S t e i n (77) and Stone (78) s t u d i e s are concerned w i t h feedback on inf o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g ; The I r w i n (45) study w i t h c r i t i q u e process r e l a t e d to s k i l l performance and the Torrance (8 l ) and L e v i and Higgins (50) s t u d i e s w i t h problem-solving. Research Designs of the Studies 123 The purpose of the S t e i n experiment (77) was to d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t on i n f o r m a t i o n - l e a r n i n g o f N t e s t i n g the audience before a f i l m showing with,or without,immediate knowledge of r e s u l t s . Two f i l m s , one e n t i t l e d Measuring  Instruments and the other e n t i t l e d Weather Study were used. The exam as used here i s not a technique f o r both the exam and the feedback are incorporated i n t o a device and no i n t e r a c t i o n between the agent and the l e a r n e r i s needed f o r d i r e c t i o n of the l e a r n i n g . However the feedback which i s b u i l t i n t o the device,could e a s i l y occur between the agent and the student i n another s e t t i n g . Therefore the f i n d i n g s are r e l e v a n t f o r techniques. The exams considered were p r e - f i l m exams which con-s i s t e d of e i t h e r i d e n t i c a l or comparable items t o the post f i l m and d e l a y e d - r e c a l l exams. Three l e v e l s of knowledge of r e s u l t s were give n : no knowledge of r e s u l t s ; p a r t i a l know-ledge of r e s u l t s ; and complete knowledge of r e s u l t s . Know-ledge of r e s u l t s under these l a s t two c o n d i t i o n s was e f f e c t e d by the use of a punchboard device f o r marking answers. Under the partial-knowledge of r e s u l t s treatment the t r a i n e e by punching a punchboard could d i s c o v e r whether h i s answer was c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t . Under the complete knowledge of r e s u l t s treatment the same punchboard was used 124 but the t r a i n e e couflid punch u n t i l he found the c o r r e c t answer to an item. The sequence of items on the p r e - f i l m t e s t was e i t h e r ordered or random, t h a t i s the questions were ordered as items appeared i n the f i l m or, they were random, the questions being sequenced according to a t a b l e of random numbers. The seven treatments were s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s : Group LIST OP EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS Order of P r e - t e s t & Method Questions P o s t - t e s t IE IBM sheet 2E Punchboard 3E Punchboard 4E IBM sheet 5E Punchboard 6E Punchboard 7E Punchboard No knowledge of Ordered r e s u l t s P a r t i a l knowledge " of r e s u l t s Complete knowledge " of r e s u l t s No knowledge of " r e s u l t s P a r t i a l knowledge " of r e s u l t s Complete knowledge " of r e s u l t s P a r t i a l knowledge Random of r e s u l t s I d e n t i c a l Comparable ( 7 7 P. ) These exam treatments were compared w i t h the l e a r n i n g e f f e c t s of showing the f i l m once, or twice without a pre-l i m i n a r y t e s t . 125 The sample c o n s i s t e d of approximately 6034 U.S.N, seamen r e c r u i t s at the Great Lakes Naval T r a i n i n g base. A f t e r a t t r i t i o n of various kinds 1853 r e c r u i t s remained i n the Measuring Instruments study and 1547 i n the Weather Study. About 1800 men had been used to t e s t the comp a r a b i l i t y of the pre- and post- f i l m t e s t s f o r the two s t u d i e s . There were seventeen treatment groups f o r each f i l m , each con-s i s t i n g of two i n t a c t naval companies of s i x t y to eighty men. These groups were equated on the b a s i s of navy general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t scores. N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found to e x i s t on G.C.T. through a n a l y s i s of var i a n c e , however the co-variance technique was used to adjust group experiment-a l v a r i a b l e mean scores f o r the small d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t d i d e x i s t on the matching v a r i a b l e C.G.T. The data was c o l l e c t e d through the p r e - t e s t exam and the p o s t - t e s t and delayed r e c a l l exams administered one week l a t e r . There was no mention t h a t the sample was p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an experiment or tha t they would r e t u r n f o r a delayed r e c a l l t e s t . Pour p r o c t o r s were i n charge of the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . The data were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The Kuder-Richardson formula 20 was used f o r p o s t - f i l m t e s t scores and was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. V a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s was t e s t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g the C.G.T. w i t h p o s t - t e s t scores and was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence by the Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . The Pearson t e s t was found 126 t o be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence f o r mechanical a p t i t u d e scores c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p o s t - f i l m t e s t scores. The analyzed data were e x h i b i t e d i n graph form. The Stone (78) experiment was conducted to answer the f o l l o w i n g questions w i t h regard to a c r i t i q u e of performance on a previous exam: i f both p o s i t i v e and negative i n f o r m a t i o n are given i n a c r i t i q u e i s t h i s too much m a t e r i a l f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t to handle? would negative i n f o r m a t i o n compete w i t h r a t h e r than supplement p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i x a t i o n process? does negative i n f o r m a t i o n given alone help f i x a t e the r i g h t response? and, are the optimal con-d i t i o n s f o r producing temporary and permanent changes the same or d i f f e r e n t ? Several v a r i e t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i q u e i n a group s e t t i n g were used to t e s t these questions. The c r i t i q u e s were based on performance i n a previous exam and the c o n d i t i o n s were as f o l l o w s . C o n d i t i o n TSO, the c o n t r o l : the students were informed of t h e i r i n i t i a l score o n l y . Condition W: f o r the items each student missed the question and the a l t e r n a t e chosen by him were read to him. No in f o r m a t i o n w i t h respect to other a l t e r n a t e s was given . C o n d i t i o n We: t h i s was the same as c o n d i t i o n W except t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to reading the i n -c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e , prepared m a t e r i a l was a l s o read which ex-p l a i n e d t o the student why h i s choice was i n c o r r e c t . This e x p l a n a t i o n d i d not inc l u d e the c o r r e c t answer (here the 127 experimenter recognizes some contamination of the c o n d i t i o n may have occurred since the c r i t i q u e s were given i n a group and some student i n t e r a c t i o n could not be e l i m i n a t e d ) . Con-d i t i o n R: f o r each i n c o r r e c t item the student was read the question and the c o r r e c t answer which was exp l a i n e d : no reference was made to the student's i n c o r r e c t answer. Con-d i t i o n W and R: the student was read the question f o r each item missed, h i s answer and why i t was wrong, and the c o r r e c t answer and why i t was r i g h t . The m a t e r i a l f o r each c r i t i q u e was prepared p r e v i o u s l y and was read to students i n d i v i d u a l l y i n groups of eight persons. F i v e t o f i f t e e n minutes was devoted t o each student according t o the number of mistakes he made. Readers were i n s t r u c t e d not to attempt any answers to students' questions except by re - r e a d i n g the m a t e r i a l which a p p l i e d t o the que s t i o n . The sample c o n s i s t e d of s i x successive c l a s s e s of about f o r t y students each on the bombs, fuses and racks s e c t i o n of the course f o r cadets i n t r a i n i n g f o r r a t i n g s as B26 a i r c r a f t observers at the Mather A i r Force Base. The exam t y p i c a l l y produced a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of e r r o r scores w i t h a median of eig h t out of f o r t y wrong. F a i l i n g students were e l i m i n a t e d from the study. The sub groups used i n the experiment were matched on the b a s i s of t o t a l scores on the exams taken e a r l i e r that day. Each of the f i v e sub groups 128 was then d i v i d e d i n t o matched halves f o r purposes of r e t e s t , one-half w i t h i n twenty-four hours and the other h a l f t h i r t y days l a t e r . I t was p o s s i b l e to match the halves almost p e r f e c t l y , person f o r person and there was never more than one e r r o r d i f f e r e n c e between matched s u b j e c t s . The data was analysed through a treatment X l e v e l s a n a l y s i s of variance f o r the o v e r a l l performance on the r e t e s t as measured by t o t a l e r r o r s . A l s o a more r e f i n e d e r r o r a n a l y s i s was used through which the experimenter could examine whether o r i g i n a l t e s t e r r o r s were repeated, c o r r e c t e d or changed to new e r r o r s on r e t e s t . Chi square comparisons were used between c o n d i t i o n s f o r these three measures. I r w i n (45) r e p o r t s two separate experiments, the second intended to f u r t h e r the f i n d i n g s of the f i r s t . The f i r s t experiment* was designed to t e s t student r e a c t i o n to i n s t r u c t o r p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m w i t h i n a c r i t i q u e . The c r i t i q u e s were held the day a f t e r each t r a i n i n g mission be-tween the seven-man i n s t r u c t o r and the eleven-man student crews t o c r i t i q u e student performance on the t r a i n i n g m i s s i o n . The f i r s t part of the two-hour c r i t i q u e was devoted t o a general c r i t i c i s m on performance of the student crew as a u n i t , *This experiment was summarized i n tne re p o r t of experiment two. T.A. I r w i n , A P r e l i m i n a r y Study of Methods f o r Conducting  the P o st-Mission C r i t i q u e i n a Combat Crew T r a i n i n g  S i t u a t i o n . ^Lackland A i r Force Base, Texas. Human Resources Research Center, June 1953. (Research B u l l e t i n 53-16).3 129 a f t e r which i n s t r u c t o r s met w i t h students i n t h e i r s p e c i a l -t i e s to d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c problems. The sample was twelve i n s t r u e t o r - s t u d e n t crews from a c l a s s at the Lackland A i r Force Base i n Texas. The data were analyzed through obser-v a t i o n of the f i r s t , f o u r t h , s i x t h , and e i g h t h c r i t i q u e s . S p e c i a l l y prepared forms were used to code student and i n -s t r u c t o r r e a c t i o n s . Sound recordings were a l s o made of the c r i t i q u e s and a set of c a t e g o r i e s which were thought to be important were developed and c r i t i q u e behaviour noted accord-i n g t o these c a t e g o r i e s . The data were analyzed by comparing d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r i t i q u e behaviour w i t h student r e -a c t i o n , i n s t r u c t o r p e r c e p t i o n of student r e a c t i o n , and f o u r measures of student performance. The purposes of the second experiment were t h r e e -f o l d : (1) t o d i s c o v e r i f the i n s t r u c t o r t r a i n i n g course helped modify i n s t r u c t o r behaviour i n c r i t i q u e s i n the d i r e c t i o n advocated during the t r a i n i n g ; (2) whether c r i t i q u e s so l e d were more e f f e c t i v e than c r i t i q u e s l e d by untrain e d i n s t r u c t o r s , and (3) t o d i s c o v e r what i n s t r u c t o r behaviour was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r student r e a c t i o n and a t t i t u d e change. These three aspects of the second experiment w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as 2A, 2B, and 2C r e s p e c t i v e l y . In experiment 2A the l e a d e r s 1 t r a i n i n g sessions were conducted i n f i v e meetings u s i n g the group d i s c u s s i o n t e c h -nique. P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to b r i n g t h e i r own problems 130 which were incorporated i n t o the agenda. One of the meetings was devoted t o the d i s c u s s i o n of a pamphlet e n t i t l e d Suggestions f o r Conducting C r i t i q u e s . The f i n a l meeting centred on an e v a l u a t i o n of a re c o r d i n g of one of the t r a i n -i n g groupte own previous c r i t i q u e s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of s i x t e e n i n s t r u c t o r crews, s e l e c t e d randomly from each of the f o u r t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n s . Each crew c o n s i s t e d of an i n s t r u c t o r p i l o t , n a v i g a t o r , bombard-i e r , radar operator, f l i g h t engineer, r a d i o operator, and gunner. The data were c o l l e c t e d by four t r a i n e d observers who used a re c o r d i n g form which included the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : e x p l a n a t i o n , i n i t i a t i n g t o p i c , p r a i s e , s p e c i f i c p r a i s e , p r a i s e w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n , p r a i s e i n v o l v i n g comparison w i t h previous performance, p r a i s e i n v o l v i n g comparison w i t h a standard; c r i t i c i s m , other c a t e g o r i e s on c r i t i c i s m p a r a l l e l i n g those on p r a i s e , a category f o r r e l a t i v e l y l e s s important t o p i c s , and one f o r r e l a t i v e l y more important t o p i c s . These observers a l s o obtained a sound r e c o r d i n g of each c r i t i q u e as i n the f i r s t experiment. The i n t e r - o b s e r v a t i o n agreement was found to be high except f o r c e r t a i n measures which had to be r e j e c t e d . The sample f o r experiment 2B was s i x t r a i n e d and s i x unt r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r crews and twelve student crews and f o r 2C the same twelve student crews. In experiment 2B a v a r i e t y of forms were used to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c r i t i q u e . These were "student r e a c t i o n t o c r i t i q u e " ; 131 " i n s t r u c t o r p e r c e p t i o n of favourable student r e a c t i o n s c a l e " ; and a s e r i e s of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s which had been found to be r e l a t e d t o crew performance i n a c t i v e s e r v i c e . For e x p e r i -ment 2C a number of measures to evaluate performance were used which I r w i n notes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low t o moderate r e l i a b i l i t y and l a c k of common va r i a n c e . The data were analyzed through appropriate s t a t i s t i c a l techniques. Torrance ( 8 l ) s t a t e s that the purpose of h i s e x p e r i -ment was to t e s t f o u r separate means of conducting c r i t i q u e s on a problem-solving e x e r c i s e designed to help a i r crews f u n c t i o n b e t t e r as groups. Under the f i r s t treatment which he described as un-s t r u c t u r e d , n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n or crew-centred the e x p e r i -menter t r i e d to s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n and to encourage the members to evaluate but d i d not c o n t r i b u t e to the e v a l u a t i o n and r e f e r r e d a l l questions back to the group. Under the second c r i t i q u e e n t i t l e d d i r e c t i v e or expert the locus of c r i t i c i s m r e s t e d w i t h the experimenter. He r a t e d the crew on a set of t h i r t e e n r a t i n g s c a l e s i n d i c a t i n g poor procedures, and p r e s e n t i n g ways of improving procedure. He analyzed the way i n which the crew had reached I t s d e c i s i o n and how the members had worked together to carry out the d e c i s i o n ; he was t a c t f u l i n the way he gave advice and he accepted and answered questions as an expert. The c o n t r o l group was given a t e s t which kept them busy f o r the f i f t e e n - m i n u t e c r i t i q u e 132 period, and then administered the second problem-solving t e s t . A fourth group was a l l o t t e d f i f t e e n minutes f o r a s e l f c r i t i q u e and the f i f t h treatment i s described as a structured non-authoritarian c r i t i q u e in which the experi-menter guided the group i n evaluating t h e i r performance on a previous test by reference to a set of t h i r t e e n r a t i n g scales and aided them i n discovering better ways of perform-ing the task, but the content of the evaluation came from the crew. The sample consisted of f i f t y - s e v e n combat a i r crews undergoing t r a i n i n g at the strategic a i r command su r v i v a l a i r school at Stead A i r Force Base, Nebraska. Most crews were eleven-men B-29 crews, but a few ten-men b-50 crews and fifteen-men b-36 crews were included. Most of these crews had been together f o r four months and each had i t s own a i r commander. Each crew was oriented regarding the nature and purpose of the tes t , and then each crew member was asked to evaluate his own crew's performance on the l a s t mission. A f t e r t h i s the f i r s t of two problem-solving tests was ad-ministered. The purpose of both tests was to test common sense judgments,and the problem situations presented were f a i r l y common place and could be solved on the basis of know-ledge gained from every day l i f e . However, the situations presented were too complex to be solved by l o g i c a l reasoning within the time l i m i t and thus required the examinees to sort 133 out the most c r i t i c a l of s e v e r a l elements i n the s i t u a t i o n . A f t e r the f i r s t of these t e s t s each man was asked to make a p o s t - t e s t e v a l u a t i o n of the crew's performance on the l a s t m i s s i o n . This was fo l l o w e d by a f i f t e e n - m i n u t e c r i t i q u e on the s o l u t i o n s a r r i v e d at i n the f i r s t problem-solving t e s t . A f t e r t h i s the second problem-solving t e s t was administered. The experimenters compiled a set of f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e s to evaluate q u a l i t y of s o l u t i o n i n the problem-solving t e s t s and u s i n g these s c a l e s evaluated the s o l u t i o n i n terms of t h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The data was analyzed by computing a problem-solving score f o r each crew on each problem-solving t e s t u s i n g the s c o r i n g formula provided w i t h the t e s t . A performance r a t i n g f o r each of the problem-solving t e s t s was a r r i v e d at by adding the t h i r t e e n r a t i n g s made by the examiner to the problem-solving score. In order to hold the r a t i n g s and scores constant f o r the f i r s t problem-solving t e s t an a n a l y s i s of * covariance was c a r r i e d out on both r a t i n g s and scores. Thus the experimenter was able t o t e s t whether variance i n the second score and r a t i n g was due to the method of conducting the problem-solving c r i t i q u e . In order to study the e f f e c t s of s t r u c t u r e d versus non-structured treatments Torrance ( 8 l ) compared j o i n t l y the crews which had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the unstructured non-a u t h o r i t a r i a n c r i t i q u e and those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 134 s e l f c r i t i q u e , both group d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d i r e c t i v e or expert c r i t i q u e (a l e c t u r e ) and i n the s t r u c t u r e d n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n c r i t i q u e (a group d i s c u s s i o n ) . A n a l y s i s of covariance showed that the variance due t o s t r u c t u r e was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 per cent l e v e l of confidence f o r both r a t i n g s and scores. A n a l y s i s of co-variance a l s o revealed t h a t v a r i a t i o n due t o d i f f e r e n t experimenters was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r e i t h e r r a t i n g s or scores. The experimenter f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d r e l a t i v e improvement i n performance which could be a t t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n t d i s c u s s i o n techniques used. Each crew was ranked from one to f i f t y - s e v e n on each of f o u r v a r i a b l e s which i n -cluded pre and post r a t i n g s and pre and post scores. The crews were then d i v i d e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s of most improved and the l e a s t Improved and a t - t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was a p p l i e d to the d i f f e r e n c e In c r i t i q u e type f a l l i n g i n t o each category. L e v i and Higglns (50) conducted an experiment t o determine whether the types of c r i t i q u e found e f f e c t i v e i n the Torrance (81) experiment would improve i n d i v i d u a l per-formance and whether o f f i c e r s d i f f e r e d from airmen i n Im-provement. A second purpose of the experiment was to d i s c o v e r whether Torrance's (81) r e s u l t s a p p l i e d when the second problem-solving t e s t was d i f f e r e n t i n ki n d from the 135 f i r s t . Under treatment A the experimenter gave out evalu-a t i o n form c o n s i s t i n g of e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ! which research had shown to be important i n the performance of group t a s k s . He o u t l i n e d the meaning of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r e s s e d t h e i r importance w h i l e encouraging members to evaluate t h e i r own group performance i n terras of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He accepted questions but r e f e r r e d them back t o the group. Under treatment B the same e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e was given out and the experimenter made the same p o i n t s as i n treatment A regarding the importance of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the s u c c e s s f u l performance of group t a s k s . He then analyzed and evaluated previous crew per-formance i n terms of the r a t i n g s c a l e suggesting ways f o r f u t u r e improvement. He encouraged questions and answered them thoroughly. Two c o n t r o l groups were used i n the e x p e r i -ment. One was g i v e n the s u r v i v a l problem-solving t e s t and the i n d i v i d u a l s u r v i v a l problem and the second was given only the i n d i v i d u a l s u r v i v a l problem. The sample c o n s i s t e d of f o r t y - s i x B-29 and B-50 a i r -crews t o t a l l i n g 481 men who were t a k i n g advanced s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g at the S.A.C. Advance S u r v i v a l School. Two hundred and ten of the subjects were o f f i c e r s and 2?1 were airmen. Under the study design each crew was o r i e n t e d regarding the nature and the purpose of the t e s t . The problem-solving t e s t , a l s o administered i n the Torrance ( 8 l ) experiment, was 136 then presented to each group. The crew had t o solve s i x t e e n long and complicated problems i n a short time and the only p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n was to d i v i d e up the problems f o r sub-groups t o s o l v e . This was f o l l o w e d by f i f t e e n - m i n u t e c r i t i q u e s i n the d i f f e r e n t treatment groups. A f t e r the c r i t i q u e a " s u r v i v a l problem" was administered to each crew and each crew member was asked t o o u t l i n e i n w r i t i n g h i s s o l u t i o n to the problem. A problem-solving achievement score was computed f o r each crew on the p r e l i m i n a r y problem-solving t e s t "The I n t e l l e c t u a l Talent's Test 701-X" and a t - t e s t f o r s i g n i f i -cance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r between crew d i f f e r e n c e s . There was found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n i t i a l problem-s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s t o the problem which f o l l o w e d the c r i t i q u e were analyzed on the ba s i s of content of s o l u t i o n f o r each s u r v i v a l problem. These i n d i -v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s were then scored by one of the authors on a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e f o r each of the group performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used as the basis f o r c r i t i c i s m i n both Torrance (81) and L e v i and Higgins (50) experiments. The mean t o t a l score of subjects of d i f f e r e n t groups were com-pared by the use of t - t e s t s f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The co-e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between two a n a l y i s t s on the f i v e -p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e was found t o be .84, 137 Findings Processes. S t e i n (77) concludes from h i s f i n d i n g s that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a p r e - f i l m t e s t depends on two f a c t o r s which are: g i v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s items i n the p r e - f i l m t e s t i d e n t i c a l to those i n the p o s t - f i l m t e s t ; and g i v i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t the c o r r e c t answer to each item immediately a f t e r they have t r i e d t o answer I t . The author does not compare experimental treatments w i t h each other but from h i s summarizing graph (see Figure 7) i t appears that i f a pre-f i l m t e s t dependent on the dual f a c t o r s of complete knowledge of r e s u l t s and i d e n t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t o a post f i l m t e s t i s s u p e r i o r on immediate and long term r e c a l l t o showing a f i l m twice then I t i s e q u a l l y s u p e r i o r t o a l l other treatments t e s t e d here except f o r treatmente IE and 2E i n the Weather f i l m and treatment IE only i n the Measuring Instruments f i l m which, f o r some reason, though considerably i n f e r i o r t o treatment 3E, was s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than showing the f i l m t w i c e . Some of the r e s u l t s appear i l l o g i c a l and suggest t h a t f u r t h e r research might be advantageous. For instance f o r the Measuring Instruments f i l m treatment IE i s s u p e r i o r to t r e a t -ment 2E though treatment IE gives no knowledge of r e s u l t s and 2E p a r t i a l knowledge and f o r both f i l m s the scores are lowest f o r treatment 6E which g i v e s complete knowledge of r e s u l t s although Items on pre-and p o s t - t e s t s are comparable r a t h e r than I d e n t i c a l . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note In FIGURE 7* RESULTS OF THE STEIN EXPERIMENT 138 Legend Ml - Measuring Instruments W - Weather Immediate r e c a l l - - Delayed r e c a l l IE 3l *fE 51 BE ?E F i l m F i l m Once Twice Group The immediate and delayed r e c a l l adjusted mean scores f o r groups IE - 7E " f i l m once", and " f i l m t w i c e " f o r each r e p l i c a t i o n . (77 ) 139 connection w i t h Trenamen's (83) f i n d i n g s t h a t although the f i n d i n g s f o r each f i l m are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h each other, the o v e r a l l r e c a l l f o r the Weather f i l m i s about ten p o i n t s lower than f o r the Measuring Instruments f i l m , causing one to wonder i f the former f i l m contains more i n f o r m a t i o n . Stone (78) found t h a t the two treatments which i n -cluded p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n showed marked improvements over the other three treatments on immediate r e c a l l and the r e s u l t s f o r the two former treatments vary l i t t l e from each other. This Is shown through the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . Means and A n a l y s i s of Variance of the One-Day Retest E r r o r s TSO W We R W & R  Mean E r r o r s 6.09 4.95 4.50 2.68 2.55 The f i n d i n g s at the t h i r t y - d a y r e t e s t are somewhat d i f f e r e n t . At t h i s stage there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e d u c t i o n of e r r o r scores f o r treatment groups taken t o -gether and the c o n t r o l , or no c r i t i q u e . Only the W & R t r e a t -ment showed Improved performance over the o r i g i n a l t e s t and although t h i s improvement was n o n - s i g n i f l e a n t the W & R c o n d i t i o n had s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer r e p e a t i n g e r r o r s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more co r r e c t e d e r r o r s than the c o n t r o l on the t h i r t y - d a y r e t e s t . The W & R was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r t o other treatment groups nor they t o each othernor to the c o n t r o l as Is shown by the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . 140 Means and A n a l y s i s of Variance of the Thirty-Day Groups Retest T o t a l E r r o r s TSO W We R W & R Mean E r r o r s 8.41 7.91 7.73 7.82 6.77 Through examination of the repeated e r r o r s , c o r r e c t e d e r r o r s and new e r r o r s the experimenter found that the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of the R c o n d i t i o n has changed f o r every measure. In view of t h i s f i n d i n g he r e t e s t e d the h a l f of each isubgroup which had been t e s t e d a f t e r one day at the t h i r t y - d a y l e v e l . He thus had two groups t o compare at the t h i r t y - d a y l e v e l , one of which had a l s o been t e s t e d at the one-day l e v e l (RTi,30) and one (RT,30) of which had not. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t s when the one-day r e t e s t group was again r e t e s t e d at the t h i r t y - d a y l e v e l . Means and A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Retest of T o t a l E r r o r s of* the Day-One Group TSO W We R W & R Mean E r r o r 7.71 7.81 7.76 5.71 6.00 The f i n d i n g s were t h a t f o r both RT^,30 groups and RT,30 groups the r e s u l t s were n e a r l y the same f o r a l l t r e a t -ments but the R c o n d i t i o n . For the R c o n d i t i o n the r a t i o between the two groups was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .02 l e v e l of confidence. 141 The author considers that t h i s data would imply that where p o s i t i v e information alone i s given i n connection with wrong answers (R treatment) that greater loss of desired knowledge r e s u l t s at the thirty-day l e v e l than where negative information alone i s given and p a r t i c u l a r l y where negative and p o s i t i v e information are given. However t h i s d e t e r i o r -ation of correct Information on the part of the R group can he largely prevented by submitting t h i s group to a retest at the one-day l e v e l . The author suggests that his findings provide hypotheses which should be tested by further studies. These are that: where p o s i t i v e feedback only, and p o s i t i v e and negative feedback, are tested f o r r e s u l t s , both being the same age and strength, the l a t t e r w i l l be found more ef-f e c t i v e i n creating retention of f a c t s ; and that given the p o s i t i v e feedback only c o n d i t i o n , i t w i l l be found that r e -tention of f a c t s i s improved by additional practice of the correct responses shortly following the i n i t i a l feedback. Although the data does not support either of these hypotheses d i r e c t l y , the experimenter considers that compari-sons across groups support one or other or both of these hypotheses better than they support the alternative,that the observed differences can be attributed only to chance. Irwin (45) i n his f i r s t experiment found that while r e s u l t s with regard to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of instructor 142 p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m were not c l e a r - c u t students seemed t o accept c r i t i c i s m b e t t e r when I n s t r u c t o r s r e f e r r e d p r e c i s e l y t o the behaviour which they were c r i t i c i s i n g . The study a l s o suggested t h a t when the i n s t r u c t o r s explained the reasons f o r the c r i t i c i s m the students were able t o accept i t more r e a d i l y . Furthermore, students reacted n e g a t i v e l y to long c r i t i q u e s . In Experiment Two A, he found that, i n comparison w i t h c o n t r o l groups l e d by unt r a i n e d leaders, experimental groups l e d by t r a i n e d leaders had g r e a t e r student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h a t i n s t r u c t o r p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m was explained i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of cases and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more time was devoted to important t o p i c s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t o p i c s were discussed than was the case w i t h c o n t r o l groups. In both Experiment One and Experiment Two i t was 1 : found t h a t more p r a i s e i n the c r i t i q u e produced more favour-able student r e a c t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n of p r a i s e s t o p r a i s e s and c r i t i c i s m v a r i e d widely and was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the mean crew r a t i n g by i n s t r u c t o r s . Thus, crews r a t e d as below average by t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s were subjected t o three or f o u r times as much c r i t i c i s m as those p o s i t i v e l y r a t e d . Since, as the author p o i n t s out, at t h i s l e v e l a i r f o r c e personnel are h i g h l y educated and h i g h l y s e l e c t e d the f a c t t h a t an i n s t r u c t o r has to c r i t i c i z e , as w e l l as p r a i s e , probably should not a f f e c t h i s r a t i n g of the crew 143 s e v e r e l y and h i s r a t i n g of the crew should not a f f e c t h i s c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e toward them to these p r o p o r t i o n s . In general terms t h i s f i n d i n g appears to i n d i c a t e t h a t i n s t r u c t u r i n g a c r i t i q u e on group performance the agent must become aware of the elements which r e s t r i c t h i s a b i l i t y t o operate o b j e c t i v e l y w i t h i n the technique. Since i n the B a l r and Hollander (8) experiment the authors discovered t h a t s u c c e s s f u l candidates r a t e d low, i n s t r u c t o r s who concentrated on c r i t i c i s m r a t h e r than on c o n s t r u c t i v e remarks, f u r t h e r experimentation might be d i r e c t e d to the e f f e c t on perform-ance of v a r y i n g amounts of i n s t r u c t o r p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m . I n experiments Two B and G i n s t r u c t o r p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o inter-crew co-o r d i n a t i o n measures so t h a t a higher r a t i o of p r a i s e r e l a t e d t o previous performance or t o a standard was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r e a t e r number of p o s i t i v e personal r e l a t i o n s In the crew. A higher r a t i o of p r a i s e to p r a i s e plus c r i t i c i s m was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a higher number of inter-communications among the crew. I r w i n (45) a l s o found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p i n both s t u d i e s between a greater number of c r i t i c i s m s and a higher p r o p o r t i o n of p r a i s e s t o p r a i s e s and c r i t i c i s m s and poorer radar bomb scores, more p r a i s e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h lower, b e t t e r c o n t r o l time e r r o r s . He can f i n d no apparent e x p l a n a t i o n f o r these r e s u l t s . The f i n d i n g t h a t performance of the experimental 144 group was a f f e c t e d i n terms of inter-phone crew c o - o r d i n a t i o n measures where there was g r e a t e r o v e r a l l a n t i c i p a t i o n and fewer p o s i t i v e personal r e l a t i o n s i n the experimental than the c o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e s according to the experimenter, t h a t perhaps, where Informed conversation takes place i n the c r i t i q u e , there i s no need f o r i t i n f l i g h t . Consequently, such c r i t i q u e s may f r e e airmen t o concentrate on t h e i r jobs i n f l i g h t . The number of i n s t r u c t o r c r i t i c i s m s was found to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the number of p o s i t i v e personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a c t i o n and the author hypothesized t h a t crews are encouraging themselves when i n s t r u c t o r s are neg a t i v e . When g r e a t e r time was spent on l e s s important t o p i c s lower I n s t r u c t o r r a t i n g s and lower crew cross know-ledge (meaning crew members1 knowledge of each other's s p e c i a l t i e s ) but b e t t e r radar bomb scores and c o n t r o l time e r r o r s r e s u l t e d . When more time was spent on Important t o p i c s i n s t r u c t o r r a t i n g of the crew was b e t t e r and crew cross know-ledge was b e t t e r but there was no r e l a t i o n t o radar bomb score or c o n t r o l time e r r o r . Since the instruments used t o measure student perform-ance i n experiments Two B and Two C were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low to moderate r e l i a b i l i t y t h i s f a c t o r may account f o r the p e c u l i a r f i n d i n g s a s s o c i a t i n g b e t t e r radar bomb score and b e t t e r c o n t r o l time e r r o r w i t h what would appear t o be poor d i s c u s s i o n process. 145 Crew cross knowledge was a l s o n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o student t a l k i n g time. I r w i n (45) hypothesizes t h i s may mean t h a t crews which t a l k p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s d u r i n g the c r i t i q u e l e a r n more about each other's s p e c i a l t i e s . Or i t might mean tha t crews lower i n cross knowledge at the end of the c r i t i q u e were a l s o lower i n cross knowledge at the beginning and t h a t they made good use of the c r i t i q u e t o seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n . This may a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t g r e a t e r student t a l k i n g time i n d i c a t e s l e s s important t o p i c s are being d i s c u s s e d . Some type of a n a l y s i s which would i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these f i n d i n g s t o each other i s i n d i -cated. In experiment One there was found to be a c o n s i s t e n t though not s i g n i f i c a n t t rend a s s o c i a t i n g student p a r t i c i -p a t i o n and favourable student r e a c t i o n . I n Experiment Two the c o r r e l a t i o n was p r i m a r i l y not s i g n i f i c a n t and there d i d not seem t o be any p a r t i c u l a r t rend between student p a r t i c i -p a t i o n and favourable student r e a c t i o n , i n s t r u c t o r p e r c e p t i o n of favourable student r e a c t i o n and student a t t i t u d e change, w i t h r e l a t i o n t o student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One i n s t r u c t o r crew got b e t t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p u t t i n g the student crew more or l e s s on t r i a l which might account f o r l a c k of favourable r e -a c t i o n t o higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In both s t u d i e s i t was found t h a t a gr e a t e r per-centage of student t a l k i n g time was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of good student response t o the 146 c r i t i q u e one. I t was a l s o found t h a t more time taken u n t i l the f i r s t s t u d e n t - i n i t i a t e d t o p i c was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o b e t t e r crew r a t i n g by I n s t r u c t o r s . I f student t a l k i n g time and student p a r t i c i p a t i o n are the same t h i n g , or comparable, then, even though student t a l k i n g time r e s u l t s i n l e s s cross-knowledge, I t creates favourable student r e a c t i o n ( d i s c o u n t i n g the crew which p a r t i c i p a t e d because they were put on t r i a l by the i n s t r u c t o r crew). Since i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of good student r e -sponse was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t might appear t h a t n e i t h e r student s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the course nor i n s t r u c t o r p e r c e p t i o n of good student r e a c t i o n are good i n d i c a t o r s t h a t good d i s c u s s i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e . I t appears t h a t some form of a n a l y s i s such as the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s used by Davis (27),could have been used t o t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s i n t h i s experiment. Since the f i n d i n g s are apparently independent of each other and, i n some cases, even seem to be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h each other the agent has l i t t l e o p portunity t o p l a n a l e a r n i n g t a s k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , on the basi s of these r e s u l t s . However, Irwin's (45) r e s e a r c h should prove very u s e f u l i n g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r study i n the area of c r i t i q u e process and r e s u l t s . Information. S t e i n (77) found t h a t a p r e - f i l m t e s t which has i d e n t i c a l ordered items to a p o s t - f i l m t e s t and 147 which gives p a r t i c i p a n t s the complete answers to questions a f t e r they have attempted to answer them, produces s i g n i f i -c a n t l y b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n i n g on both immediate and one-week-delayed t e s t s , than a f i l m shown once or twice i n immediate succession. He found t h a t f o r the experimental group both the upper and lower 30 per cent i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , as t e s t e d by the C.G.T.,were s u p e r i o r to those submitted to one showing of the f i l m o nly. Moreover,content l e a r n i n g of m a t e r i a l not covered i n the pre-f11m t e s t was as great f o r those who took the p r e - f i l m t e s t as f o r those who saw the f i l m alone. The patterns of scores f o r the two d i f f e r e n t f i l m s were h i g h l y s i m i l a r . Stone (78) found that by the F t e s t of a n a l y s i s of variance of group means each treatment group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y over zero at the .01 l e v e l of confidence at the one-day r e t e s t . A l s o the two treatments c o n t a i n i n g p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n showed marked improvement over the other three treatments at t h i s r e t e s t . The only treatment which showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement over the c o n t r o l at the t h i r t y - d a y r e t e s t was the W & R treatment i n which the student was given f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n as to why each i n c o r r e c t answer was i n c o r r e c t and what the c o r r e c t answer was. However,this treatment was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r t o other e x p e r i -mental treatments. The treatment f o r which p o s i t i v e feedback 148 alone was given produced r e s u l t s equivalent t o those of treatment W & R when submitted to a one-day r e t e s t . Problem-Solving. Torrance ( 8 l ) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the expert c r i t i q u e and the s t r u c t u r e d non-a u t h o r i t a r i a n c r i t i q u e i n i n s t i t u t i n g behaviour change i n problem-solving. The expert c r i t i q u e produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r problem-solving r e s u l t s at the .001 l e v e l of c o n f i -dence i n comparison w i t h the n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n c r i t i q u e ; at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h no c r i t i q u e ; and at the .02 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h the s e l f - c r i t i q u e w h i l e the >i expert and s t r u c t u r e d n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n c r i t i q u e s taken together were s u p e r i o r t o the other three treatments at the .02 l e v e l of confidence. The unstructured n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n c r i t i q u e and the s e l f - c r i t i q u e appeared t o have no s u p e r i o r i t y over no c r i t i q u e . However, the experimenter comments that, i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , some of the crews making the most outstanding improvement were s e l f - c r i t i q u e crews. This f i n d i n g was not par t of the experiment. He concludes t h a t In s i n g l e - t r i a l , immediate-performance c r i t i q u e s most crews r e q u i r e enough s t r u c t u r e to assure that the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l cover the r e l e -vant m a t e r i a l . L e v i and Higgins (50) found t h a t both the s t r u c t u r e d permissive c r i t i q u e and the expert c r i t i q u e r e s u l t e d In problem-solving scores and r a t i n g s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the two c o n t r o l group s o l u t i o n s at the .01 l e v e l of 149 confidence. I t should be kept i n mind t h a t these f i n d i n g s are f o r a problem-solving t e s t , d i f f e r e n t i n ki n d from the p r e l i m i n a r y problem-solving t e s t and i n d i v i d u a l i n nature. Hence these r e s u l t s extend the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s of the Torrance (81) experiment. L e v i and Higgins (50) f u r t h e r found t h a t the o f f i c e r s of the two experimental groups had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than the o f f i c e r s of the c o n t r o l groups ranging from .01 t o .001 l e v e l s of confidence. Airmen of the e x p e r i -mental group a l s o had higher mean scores than airmen of the c o n t r o l group. Further, the o f f i c e r s of the two experimental groups r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than the airmen of the same groups, w h i l e the o f f i c e r s and airmen of the two c o n t r o l groups r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r mean scores. The f a c t t h a t the o f f i c e r s l e a r n t more than the airmen would seem t o i n d i -cate t h a t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r i s a f f e c t i n g both the l e c t u r e and the s t r u c t u r e d group d i s c u s s i o n process. The experimenters suggest that the airmen do not pay as much a t t e n t i o n as o f f i c e r s to the c r i t i q u e because they are ac-customed t o g e t t i n g the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r o f f i c e r s . This i m p l i e s t h a t the airmen d i d not engage them-selves i n the l e a r n i n g t o the same extent as d i d o f f i c e r s who f e l t the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r problem-solving performance. This would lend support t o the t h e o r e t i c a l framework sub-s t a n t i a t i n g the Newberry s c a l e since i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the 149a I n d i v i d u a l must be ego-involved before he w i l l l e a r n . A t t i t u d e . I r w i n (45) found t h a t the r e s u l t s of Experiment 2B were t h a t the experimental and c o n t r o l groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of student r e a c t i o n , i n i n s t r u c t o r p e r c e p t i o n of favourable student r e a c t i o n or student a t t i t u d e change. Adoption. There were no d e f i n i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between experimental treatment and performance measure i n the Ir w i n (45) study. I t should be noted however that h i s f i n d -ings or l a c k of f i n d i n g s may be due, i n p a r t , t o the f a c t t h a t i n both experimental and c o n t r o l groups I n s t r u c t o r s were both t r a i n e d and untrained w i t h the balance In each group towards the experimental or c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . Torrance ( 8 l ) i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n based on h i s e x p e r i -ment but which was not p a r t of i t found that the crews making the most outstanding improvement i n p r a c t i c e were s e l f -c r i t i q u e crews. Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the C r i t i q u e Technique D e s c r i p t i o n . As described by the experimenters i n t h i s s e c t i o n the c r i t i q u e technique c o n s i s t s i n the p r o v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t o r feedback on i n f o r m a t i o n , s k i l l or problem-s o l v i n g l e a r n i n g . This r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that the c r i t i q u e i s most s u c c e s s f u l In a c h i e v i n g short-term i n f o r m a t i o n or problem-solving goals when used as an Information technique 150 w i t h the d i r e c t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g i n the hands of the i n s t r u c t o r . Ego-involvement may have been achieved outside the context of a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d c r i t i q u e through previous l e a r n e r involvement i n a t e s t of some s o r t and d e s i r e t o know the r e s u l t s . However, there seems to be some extra-experimental evidence i n the Torrance (81) experiment th a t crew s e l f - c r i t i c i s m may be more e f f e c t i v e than leader c r i t i c i s m when the g o a l i s b e t t e r group performance and when the crew has worked together three t o f o u r months previous to the experiment. I t would appear t h a t immediate and complete feedback as to the c o r r e c t answer on exam items i s the most ^ e f f e c t i v e way t o get improved r e s u l t s when the g o a l i s a higher number of c o r r e c t answers and the pre- and p o s t - t e s t are i d e n t i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d . However the f i n d i n g s are somewhat unexpected when there i s no feedback, p a r t i a l feedback or complete feed-back w i t h n o n - i d e n t i c a l items on pre- and p o s t - t e s t s and suggest t h a t i n some cases there i s g r e a t e r l e a r n i n g from the former than the l a t t e r . Further experimentation w i t h these r e s u l t s would seem e s s e n t i a l f o r purposes of comparing d i f f e r e n t treatments w i t h each other. At the present time the only p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n which can be drawn i s t h a t a c r i t i q u e g i v i n g complete knowledge of r e s u l t s on an i d e n t i c a l -item t e s t to a p o s t - f i l m t e s t i s s u p e r i o r on Immediate and one-week r e c a l l t o showing a f i l m t w i c e . From the Stone (78) 151 experiment i t seems tha t feedback i n d i c a t i n g why wrong answers were wrong and feedback i n d i c a t i n g both why wrong answers are wrong and why r i g h t answers are r i g h t , achieve s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s at the t h i r t y - d a y r e t e s t l e v e l t o c r i t i q u e s g i v i n g p o s i t i v e feedback alone. However when p o s i t i v e feed-back alone i s given t h i s can be f r o z e n by a one-day r e t e s t so t h a t r e s u l t s of the t h i r t y - d a y l e v e l are e quivalent to r e -s u l t s f o r a p o s i t i v e and negative feedback. I t seems t h a t i n s t r u c t o r p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m i s r e -l a t e d to student r e a c t i o n , but how r e a c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o performance i s not known. P r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m w i t h i n c r i t i q u e i s a l s o d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to performance but the r e -l a t i o n s h i p s were n o n - l o g i c a l on the b a s i s of the present evidence and more experimentation i n t o the i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n s among c r i t i q u e process, student r e a c t i o n and crew performance i s i n d i c a t e d . However the f a c t t h a t crews r a t e d low by the i n s t r u c t o r s were subjected t o a great d e a l more c r i t i c i s m than h i g h l y r a t e d crews, I n d i c a t e s t h a t f u t u r e study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between amount of i n s t r u c t o r c r i t i c i s m and con-sequent crew performance might prove u s e f u l . I t would be a p i t y i f c r i t i c i s m a f f e c t s performance adversely when p i l o t crews have been h i g h l y p r e - s e l e c t e d f o r a b i l i t y t o perform. Apparently i n s t r u c t o r t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s i n s u p e r i o r d i s c u s s i o n i n terms of time devoted to important t o p i c s and more t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d . The evidence a l s o suggests t h a t there i s an 152 inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of problems r e l a t e d to f l i g h t covered i n the c r i t i q u e and crew i n t e r a c t i o n i n f u t u r e f l i g h t s suggesting, according to I r w i n , t h a t such d i s c u s s i o n f r e e s the crew of problem-solving during f l i g h t and enables them to get on w i t h the t a s k . The s i z e of group f o r the c r i t i q u e s on performance was very s m a l l but f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n a l feedback device was very l a r g e . The sample was l i m i t e d t o a i r f o r c e and seamen and f u r t h e r experimenta-t i o n on c r i t i q u e s w i t h other groups might prove f r u i t f u l . There was no I n v e s t i g a t i o n of process i n group problem-s o l v i n g c r i t i q u e s . Such I n t r a problem-solving processes might w e l l be the subject of f u r t h e r i n q u i r y . R e s u l t s . The r e s u l t s f o r the f i r s t three s t u d i e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n are c l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h process and therefore, summarized under the d e s c r i p t i o n of the technique. Findings of the Torrance (81) and L e v i and Higgins (50) experiments i n d i c a t e t h a t a s t r u c t u r e d i n f o r m a t i o n -g i v i n g c r i t i q u e produces the best r e s u l t s when the c r i t i q u e c r i t i c i z e s immediately p r i o r group problem-solving perform-ance and the r e s u l t s are judged e i t h e r on an immediate group p o s t - t e s t , which Is the same i n k i n d as the p r e - t e s t , or an immediate I n d i v i d u a l p o s t - t e s t , d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d from the pre-t e s t . However Torrance ( 8 l ) found t h a t some of the crews making the most outstanding improvement on long-term perform-ance were those who c r i t i c i z e d themselves though, as FIGURE 8 CRITIQUE TECHNIQUES PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES OF THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE A b s t . Semi-abst. Somewhat removed R e l a t i n g t o d i r e c t exp. Real l i f e content L i t t l e p a r t i c i p a n t . 1.." 2. 3. 4. 5. 2. 3. S t e i n Stone Torrance ) L e v i & /) li H l g g i n s ) c t u r e 4. Torrance ) L e v i & ) g i Hlg g i n s ) d3 I r w i n oup s c u s s i o n F u l l p a r t i c i p a n t 5. 154 remarked on e a r l i e r , t h i s f i n d i n g was e x t r a experimental. I t i m p l i e s f u r t h e r experimentation might produce i n t e r e s t i n g and v a l u a b l e r e s u l t s . The p a u c i t y of experiments i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s much room f o r f u r t h e r experimenta-t i o n Into the process and r e s u l t s of feedback techniques. In p a r t i c u l a r there i s a need f o r t e s t i n g the long-term r e s u l t s of such techniques f o r a l l types of l e a r n i n g 1 . V I . GROUP DISCUSSION I n t r o d u c t i o n The group d i s c u s s i o n technique i s one of the most popular techniques i n a d u l t education. I t has been s t u d i e d more e x t e n s i v e l y than has any other s i n g l e technique but the r e s u l t s of such researc h are v a r i e d and do not supply any c l e a r cut answers to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the technique as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l process. The group d i s c u s s i o n technique should not be con-fused w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n group method. The method i s a way of o r g a n i z i n g people f o r l e a r n i n g . Verner (85) d e s c r i b e s the d i s c u s s i o n group as: a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n which conforms to the character-i s t i c s and s o c i e t a l processes of a group so t h a t l e a r n i n g i s achieved i n the group as a u n i t as w e l l as by i n d i v i d u a l members. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g i s shared by the group members and the 155 agent. The d u r a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y w i l l vary w i t h the nature of the content and the purposes of the group. (85 P.15) As a technique f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , group d i s c u s s i o n has been defined i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Anderson (2) analysed statements about group d i s c u s s i o n by twenty authors and con-cluded t h a t d i s c u s s i o n c o n s i s t s i n : t h a t process of sh a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and op i n i o n which occurs when members of a group t h i n k and t a l k together i n a l o g i c a l manner about a mutual problem under the d i r e c t i o n of a lea d e r . (2 p.23) In s p i t e of h i s d e f i n i t i o n Anderson in c l u d e s as group d i s c u s s i o n a v a r i e t y of r e l a t e d techniques such as: question and answer f o r l a r g e i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g s e s s i o n s , panel d i s -c u s s i o n , lecture-forum techniques and, indeed, appears to r e f e r very l i t t l e to the small f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c u s s i o n s i t u a t i o n s which normally c h a r a c t e r i z e d i s c u s s i o n . The r e s e a r c h reviews here are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by con-f u s i o n and divergence w i t h respect t o the process of group d i s c u s s i o n . These s t u d i e s tend t o concentrate on the goals sought r a t h e r than on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the process, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s summary w i l l r e p o r t the research from the p o i n t of view of the g o a l s . These goals are grouped as f o l l o w s : t o achieve the a c q u i s i t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n and the development of mental a b i l i t i e s ; 156 to f a c i l i t a t e group performance of s k i l l s ; t o change a t t i t u d e s ; to change behavior. Group d i s c u s s i o n concerned w i t h the f i r s t two of these goals might be termed Group D i s c u s s i o n Centred Around  Outside Information; w i t h the t h i r d goal Permissive or Group-Oriented Group D i s c u s s i o n , and w i t h the f o u r t h Group  D i s c u s s i o n - D e c i s i o n . The s t u d i e s of group d i s c u s s i o n reported here have used the technique w i t h i n the s e t t i n g of a v a r i e t y of methods ranging from the c l a s s t o the d i s c u s s i o n group. Many s t u d i e s p u r p o r t i n g t o use group d i s c u s s i o n a c t u a l l y used other techniques. VIA. THE GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE WHEN CENTRED AROUND OUTSIDE INFORMATION Org a n i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n The s t u d i e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n f a l l i n t o three sub-c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t seven s t u d i e s namely: Kaplan (46), H i l l (41), Hadlock (37), B r i l h a r t (19), Davis (26), Davis (27) and L i v e r i g h t (54) are concerned w i t h the group d i s -c u s s i o n technique as used w i t h i n the d i s c u s s i o n group method which Is sometimes c a l l e d Study-Discussion. The group d i s -c u s s i o n technique under t h i s method i s used c o n s i s t e n t l y 157 w i t h c e r t a i n devices over a p e r i o d of t e n or more meetings w i t h a volunteer leader u s u a l l y i n charge. The method, s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n seems to appeal to a somewhat s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e and hence i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare the r e s u l t s f o r these s t u d i e s w i t h the r e s u l t s f o r the Wllsey (89) study of group d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e used f o r three meetings and the C a r l s o n (22) and Palmer and Verner (66) s t u d i e s which compare group d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the l e c t u r e technique i n a c h i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g goals f o r a compulsory audience f o r a six-week t r a i n i n g course and a five-week's course r e s p e c t i v e l y . Research Designs of the Studies The purpose of the Kaplan study (46) was to d i s c o v e r whether p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d i s c u s s i o n group a f f e c t e d i n t e l -l e c t u a l growth;-* c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n or continued study. The s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n programs used were World A f f a i r s , a r e Your  A f f a i r s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Humanities, Ways of Mankind, and World P o l i t i c s . F i v e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s c o l l e c t e d the data i n d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e random sample of 150 p a r t i c i p a n t s and f i f t y l e a d e r s of study-d i s c u s s i o n groups meeting i n a d u l t education centres i n the Los Angeles area. Data were gathered a l s o from the d i r e c t o r s of t e s t centres, through observation of group meet-ing s , and through documentary data on f i l e at the c e n t r e s . 158 The data were analysed i n percentages o n l y . H i l l (41) sought t o compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a l a y - l e d d i s c u s s i o n method u s i n g the group d i s c u s s i o n technique w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y l e d c l a s s method us i n g the l e c t u r e technique w i t h regard t o : the development of mental a b i l i t i e s or s k i l l s , changes i n values, i n t e r e s t , or a t t i t u d e s , and i n -creased knowledge. He de s c r i b e s group d i s c u s s i o n as used w i t h i n the Ways of Mankind program i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: The Ways of Mankind, when conducted as a d i s c u s s i o n program c o n s i s t s of eleven two-hour s e s s i o n s , each one being focused on a p a r t i c u l a r subject by the presenta-t i o n of a ha l f - h o u r r e c o r d i n g . The readings are d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s which are organized around the problems dramatized i n the r e c o r d i n g s . P a r t i c i p a n t s are ex-pected to read t h i s m a t e r i a l p r i o r t o the meeting of the d i s c u s s i o n group. The us u a l procedure i s f o r p l a y i n g of the record to proceed any d i s c u s s i o n . The leader then opens the d i s c u s s i o n by reference to the re c o r d i n g or the reading m a t e r i a l . A c a r e f u l l y pre-pared d i s c u s s i o n guide i s a v a i l a b l e f o r the leader's use. (41 p.7) This study i n v o l v e d only the Wa^ B of Mankind study d i s c u s s i o n program sponsored by the Extension D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles, and the sample i n -cluded twelve d i s c u s s i o n groups ranging i n s i z e from twenty-f i v e to twenty-eight p a r t i c i p a n t s . The l e c t u r e groups con-s i s t e d of one l a r g e group of 233 and two sm a l l groups of twenty persons each. Pour hundred and eighty f o u r of the 576 completed the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e and 288 of the p o s s i b l e 576 completed the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e . To c o l l e c t h i s data, 159 the experimenter administered two qu e s t i o n n a i r e s which i n -cluded s i x a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , u s i n g one at the f i r s t meeting of each group and one at the t e n t h meeting. Personal i n t e r -views and the d i r e c t observation of study groups were a l s o used i n c o l l e c t i n g the data. F i f t y per cent of the p a r t i c i -pants were present at the t e n t h meeting of the course and the favourable b i a s t h a t may have r e s u l t e d from t h e i r response should have been p a r t i a l l y or wholly c o r r e c t e d by the r e -sponses of Vthe sample chosen f o r the second wave of I n t e r -views which included both those who had dropped out and those who had stayed In the program. S p e c i f i c a l l y two d i s c u s s i o n groups were chosen f o r the post i n t e r v i e w s , one of which had maintained a h i g h l e v e l of attendance, and the attendance l e v e l of the other had dropped t o l e s s than 25 per cent of the o r i g i n a l group. Hadlock (37) and B r i l h a r t (19) were i n t e r e s t e d to see i f mental a b i l i t i e s could be developed through group d i s -c u s s i o n . Hadlock (37) s t a t e d t h a t h i s purpose was to d i s -cover i f i n d i v i d u a l s increase i n a b i l i t y to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n groups on World P o l i t i c s . The d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g was used f o r the study notes: "The process of t h i n k i n g may be s a i d to be c r i t i c a l when the person c o n s c i o u s l y s t r i v e s t o a r r i v e at conclusions which can withstand the examination of other 160 minds"* or, as the experimenter paraphrases i t i n simpler language, "The process of a r r i v i n g at conclusions a f t e r con-s i d e r i n g known f a c t s about a problem." (37 p.2) The method r a t h e r than the technique i s described here, but the statement gives some idea of the technique. The method c o n s i s t s i n a s e r i e s of meetings i n which p a r t i c i -pants are urged to a c t i v e l y engage i n an exchange of ideas. There were two d i s c u s s i o n leaders per group who had p r e v i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n world p o l i t i c s d i s c u s s i o n groups and were t r a i n e d on the recommendation of f e l l o w p a r t i c i -pants. The o r i g i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d of f i f t y - f o u r p a r t i c i p a n t s from s i x d i f f e r e n t World P o l i t i c s study d i s -c u s s i o n groups. The age of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from twenty to s i x t y years, and the ed u c a t i o n a l background from l e s s than highschool t o Ph.D. l e v e l . As a measure of the k i n d of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n the experiment, the e x p e r i -menter s t a t e s he found from t e s t s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were as good at reading and b e t t e r at vocabulary than c o l l e g e s e n i o r s . The data were c o l l e c t e d through standardized t e s t s administered before and a f t e r the program. These included a t e s t of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ; an E n g l i s h t e s t to measure the l e v e l of comprehension and vocabulary i n reading; and *This d e f i n i t i o n comes from I n s t r u c t o r ' s Manual f o r the -Test of C r i t i c a l T hinking. (The American Council of Education: Washington, 1951). 161 Sanford's and Older's Short A u t h o r i t a r i a n Scale d e r i v e d from the B e r k l e y P S c a l e . The c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t e s t was a l s o administered t o a c o n t r o l group i n order to assess the e f f e c t of t a k i n g the t e s t t w i c e . The second or post s e r i e s was administered only to those who had attended seven or more sessions of the program. The f i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d i n the t h i r t y - e i g h t persons who completed pre-and p o s t - s e r i e s of t e s t s . The data were examined by s u b j e c t i n g the t e s t s t o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , i n order to measure the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t scores. The c e n t r a l purpose of B r l l h a r t ' s (19) study was: "to d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between modes of e v a l u a t i o n and as s o c i a t e d behaviour of p a r t i c i p a n t s In study d i s c u s s i o n courses." (19 p.257) The meaning of t h i s statement i s c l a r i f i e d by the author who de f i n e s e v a l u a t i n g as: "The e n t i r e process of p e r c e i v i n g , I n t e r p r e t i n g and judg i n g . I t inc l u d e s l e v e l s of a c t i v i t y both conscious and unconscious." (19 P.257) A d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between c o n d i t i o n a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . C o n d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n means t h a t the subject d i f f e r e n t i a t e s what he i s saying about a subject from ever y t h i n g t h a t could be s a i d , t h a t he recognizes h i s personal involvement i n the subject matter and the l i m i -t a t i o n s of h i s knowledge. Un c o n d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n means t h a t the subject i d e n t i f i e s what he i s saying about the subject w i t h everything t h a t could be s a i d , he o v e r s i m p l i f i e s 162 problems and does not recognize the personal q u a l i t y of h i s own s o l u t i o n s . The sample groups c o n s i s t i n g of two American Foreign  P o l i c y groups, and two Great Western F a i t h groups, one Economic Reasoning group, and one Ways of Mankind group, were chosen according t o t h e i r time and place of meeting and were l o c a t e d between seventy and 120 m i l e s from the Pennsylvania State campus. The data were c o l l e c t e d through observing, where p o s s i b l e , the I n i t i a l two, the middle two, and f i n a l two meetings of each group. Observers used the Ba l e s I n t e r -a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s form r e v i s e d t o i n c l u d e c a t e g o r i e s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d the c o n d i t i o n a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l evalu-a t i n g behaviours of p a r t i c i p a n t s . These c a t e g o r i e s of c o n d i t i o n a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n are termed the Index of C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n . F u r t h e r data was c o l l e c t e d through a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Watson-Glazer C r i t i c a l Thinking A p p r a i s a l Test and through i n t e r v i e w s . The data were analyzed by d e s c r i p t i v e and non parametric s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons. The , experimenter took the Spearman C o r r e l a t i o n f o r a l l persons between rank on the Index of C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n , and the Watson-Glazer p r e - t e s t score, and found t h a t i t was .20 which i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t but occurred I n the expected d i r e c t i o n . He concludes t h a t i n the main these t e s t s can be s a i d t o i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t ways of e v a l u a t i n g behaviour. Two s t u d i e s (26,27) f o r which Davis of the N a t i o n a l 163 Opinion Research Centre was Senior Research O f f i c e r , were concerned w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study d i s c u s s i o n program sponsored by the Great Books Foundation. Some f i n d i n g s from these s t u d i e s are r e l e v a n t t o examination of research on techniques and w i l l be discussed here. Davis (26) describes the technique used i n the Great Books 1 d i s c u s s i o n program as group d i s c u s s i o n based on p r e s c r i b e d readings. These readings are arranged i n y e a r l y u n i t s and one group may car r y on f o r s e v e r a l years i f i t so d e s i r e s . The sample f o r the f i r s t study (26) was a p r o b a b i l i t y sample drawn from G;reat Books' d i s c u s s i o n groups which were meeting i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas and c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e metro-p o l i t a n areas t h a t comprised the n a t i o n a l Opinion Research Centre's primary sampling u n i t s i n November and December of 1957. The sample aimed at 50 per cent of f i r s t - y e a r group p a r t i c i p a n t s , 30 per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s from years two to f o u r , and 20 per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s from years f i v e or more. With respect t o the areas from which the sample was taken, the author f e e l s t h a t the data tended t o over-estimate the p r o p o r t i o n of Jews, Democrats, and non-married i n the program. I n a general d e s c r i p t i o n of the k i n d of p a r t i c i p a n t a t t r a c t e d t o the Great Books' study d i s c u s s i o n program, he s t a t e s t h a t they tend t o be: h i g h l y educated, q u i t e married; somewhat female; d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l men, and women w i t h w h i t e - c o l l a r husbands; Inf r e q u e n t l y ' i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' ; under-mobile; p o s s i b l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i r r e l i g i o u s ; 164 p o s s i b l y underproportionately C a t h o l i c ; s o c i a b l e ; j o i n i n g Republicans and Democrats. (26 p.25) Davis (26) found h i s sample could be described as an: " e l i t e of t a l e n t , t e c h n i c a l s k i l l and. i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g " (26 p.26) but not as people of great power i n s o c i e t y or as the i v o r y tower concept of the i n t e l l e c t u a l . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n other study d i s c u s s i o n programs considered hex*e would a l s o meet the c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , hence i t can be seen th a t study d i s c u s s i o n programs and the group d i s c u s s i o n t e c h -nique as used w i t h i n i t appeal to a somewhat s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e . The author c o l l e c t e d h i s data by a qu e s t i o n n a i r e and analysed them mainly by percentages; however i n some cases advanced s t a t i s t i c a l techniques and t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were used. The purpose of D a v i s 1 (27) second study was to d i s -cover why some great books groups r e t a i n t h e i r membership wh i l e others l o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s . R e t e n t i o n of membersnip would seem t o be one measure of whether the technique used by the agent was meeting the needs of the l e a r n e r s , consequently t h i s study i s r e l e v a n t to a review of the research on t e c h -niques. The data from the previous study were u t i l i z e d and new data was c o l l e c t e d by qu e s t i o n n a i r e s sent t o l e a d e r s , and i n f o r m a l questions t o community co-ordinators of the program. By means of these l a s t two procedures he was able to determine the c o n t i n u i n g s t a t u s i n the program of 92 per cent of the 1909 members of 172 d i s c u s s i o n groups used i n 165 the o r i g i n a l sample. P a r t s of the o r i g i n a l data were r e -analyzed and the author s t a t e s t h a t by usi n g the a c t u a l drop-out data and the s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l on t h i s m a t e r i a l he gained a much more adequate p i c t u r e of the program. The data were analyzed through a complex s t a t i s t i c a l technique known as c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . Through t h i s procedure each respondent r e c e i v e d two scores f o r each v a r i a b l e s t u d i e d , f o r Instance, each male was coded not only as a male but a l s o i n terms of the p r o p o r t i o n of members of h i s group who were male. By an a l y z i n g the data f o r men and women separately i t was p o s s i b l e t o look f o r the e f f e c t s of sex as an i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e , and a l s o the e f f e c t s of the sex composition of the groups. The dependent v a r i a b l e was not the s t r u c t u r e or p a t t e r n of i n t e r - a c t i o n of the group at a given time, but r a t h e r i t s l o s s or r e t e n t i o n of membership over a p e r i o d of a year. L i v e r i g h t (54) f u r t h e r d e f i n e s the d i s c u s s i o n method as used by the Great Books foundation and i n d i c a t e s how the technique i s s t r u c t u r e d w i t h i n the method. He notes: t h a t the concern of the program i s w i t h the thoughts and ideas of great t h i n k e r s ; i t i s broad i n regard to the ideas of men s t u d i e d but l i m i t e d t o readings about them; there i s some concern w i t h a p p l y i n g the ideas given t o contempory problems, but the main focus i s on understanding the concepts themselves. The program i s c/omplex i n terms of the ideas d i s -cussed but r i g i d i n the type of l e a d e r s h i p allowed. The program and the l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e Is f i x e d by the Foundation and there i s very l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n allowed. (54 P.39) 166 Wilsey (89) i n v e s t i g a t e d three l e v e l s of group d i s -c u s s i o n t r a i n i n g to d i s c o v e r whether the l e v e l of t r a i n i n g a f f e c t e d the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n learned about the s u b j e c t ; the amount of in f o r m a t i o n learned about the group d i s c u s s i o n process; the a c t u a l process of group d i s c u s s i o n ; the a c t i o n p a t t e r n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s regarding the s u b j e c t ; and the observed s a t i s f a c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h the process. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were given m a t e r i a l on sa f e t y education and on how t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n group d i s c u s s i o n i n advance of the experiment, so the devices used were a constant f a c t o r . Three of the nine Home Demonstration clubs used i n the e x p e r i -ment had had three of t h e i r members t r a i n e d as a le a d e r s h i p team i n a seven and one-half hour l e a d e r s h i p course i n which emphasis was placed on the d u t i e s of the l e a d e r , co-leader and observer i n the group d i s c u s s i o n process. Three other clubs had had almost a l l t h e i r members (a few d i d not go to t r a i n i n g session) t r a i n e d as r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t h i r d group of three clubs had r e c e i v e d no t r a i n i n g . The sample c o n s i s t e d of three urban, three r u r a l and three mixed urban and r u r a l Home Demonstration clubs t o t a l l i n g 139 members i n a s i n g l e county. The membership i n the mixed urban and r u r a l clubs c o n s i s t e d of young women whose age averaged i n the mid-twenties whereas the average age of those i n the other s i x groups was the m i d - t h i r t i e s . Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , one on home sa f e t y knowledge and 167 one on the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of group d i s c u s s i o n were administered at the beginning and end of the three meetings. A non-language i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t was administered a l s o t o check the mental a b i l i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The author found t h a t p r i o r t o the experiment the three p l a c e - o f - r e s i d e n c e groups were from the same p o p u l a t i o n i n terms of mental a b i l i t y scores, group d i s c u s s i o n knowledge and home sa f e t y knowledge. The author observed the group d i s -c u s s i o n meetings and measured the q u a l i t y of d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a r a t i o s c a l e . P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o evaluated the process by means of a form. At most of the twenty-seven meetings held under the experiment the attendance ranged from nine t o seventeen w i t h extremes of f o u r t o twenty-four. Each club had three meetings on home s a f e t y knowledge and covered the same m a t e r i a l . The data were analyzed by a n a l y s i s of variance and co-variance techniques. The Chi-Square Test of K inde-pendent samples and the t - t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e were a l s o used. The r e s u l t s were presented g r a p h i c a l l y . The C a r l s o n (22) experiment compared l e c t u r e and group d i s c u s s i o n f o r t e a c h i n g a t e s t and measurements'course where the c r i t e r i a of success were: o v e r a l l achievement, I n f o r -mation, a b i l i t y t o apply i n f o r m a t i o n , mathematical s k i l l s developed, and degree or i n t e r e s t f o r f u r t h e r study t h a t was creat e d . He describes h i s use of the group d i s c u s s i o n t e c h -nique as being d i r e c t e d by the i n s t r u c t o r who developed the 168 subject around student c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The l e c t u r e technique was t e s t e d i n a l a r g e s e c t i o n and In s m a l l e r c l a s s e s compa-r a b l e i n s i z e t o those used f o r the group d i s c u s s i o n technique. The study design provided f o r s i x i n s t r u c t o r s In the e x p e r i -ment each of whom used l e c t u r e and group d i s c u s s i o n techniques separately and two combinations of the techniques during a s i x week A i r Force I n s t r u c t o r s 1 course. The sample, n e a r l y a l l male, was found t o be comparable i n terms of a p t i t u d e , m i l i t a r y rank, previous teaching experience, l e v e l of c i v i l i a n s c h o o l i n g , t r a i n i n g i n mathematics and former t r a i n -i n g i n t e s t s and measurements. The data were c o l l e c t e d through subject matter t e s t s ; comprehensive achievement t e s t s ; and an i n t e r e s t Inventory. P r o f e s s i o n a l educators acted as observers t o the d i f f e r e n t sessions to r e p o r t the success of each i n s t r u c t o r i n pursuing the l e c t u r e technique, the d i r e c t e d d i s c u s s i o n technique and the treatments In which the techniques were used c o n j o i n t l y . The data was analyzed through an a n a l y s i s of variance and co-variance and standard d e v i a t i o n s . Palmer and Verner (66) hypothesized t h a t there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l of confidence In student achievement as a r e s u l t of courses u s i n g l e c t u r e , group d i s c u s s i o n , and combined l e c t u r e and group d i s c u s s i o n techniques. The authors s t a t e t h a t the content of the group d i s c u s s i o n s used In t h e i r experiment 169 came from extensive o u t - o f - c l a s s reading, however, no i n d i c a t i o n of the way i n which the d i s c u s s i o n process was d i r e c t e d i s gi v e n . The l e c t u r e technique c o n s i s t e d i n a f o r t y - f i v e minute p r e s e n t a t i o n by the i n s t r u c t o r without i n t e r r u p t i o n f o l l o w e d by a five-minute question p e r i o d . This was a d e v i a t i o n from normal c l a s s procedure where l e c t u r e s were i n t e r r u p t e d by frequent questions. The l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n periods were conducted by g i v i n g each technique one h a l f of the c l a s s p e r i o d . Sometimes the l e c t u r e technique was used f i r s t and sometimes the group d i s -c u s s i o n technique was used f i r s t . The techniques were t e s t e d w i t h i n s i x c l a s s e s , two t o each treatment, i n a course on A v i a t i o n Physiology. Classes were f i f t y minutes i n d u r a t i o n and h e l d each day, f i v e days a week f o r f i v e consecutive weeks. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the three groups showed no s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n i t i a l a p t i t u d e when t e s t e d by the v e r b a l and q u a n t i t a t i v e s e c t i o n s only of the A i r Force O f f i c e r Q u a l i f y i n g Test. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 130 o f f i c e r s and cadets nineteen t o twenty-seven years o l d whose ed u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were hig h school t o c o l l e g e graduation. A l l were comparable i n terms of minimal mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . They had r e c e i v e d the same academic, f l i g h t m i l i t a r y and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , and a l l were volunteers f o r p i l o t t r a i n i n g . The data were c o l l e c t e d through a f i f t y - i t e m t r u e or f a l s e t e s t which was administered 170 on the f i r s t and l a s t days of the course. The data were analyzed through the t - t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , which was a p p l i e d t o the scores achieved by the three groups. In order to d i s c o v e r which technique appealed most to students the primary p i l o t - t r a i n i n g , school,standard form f o r w r i t t e n c r i t i q u e of courses was administered and two Items on t h i s form were s c a l e d f o r the purposes of study. Later an o r a l c r i t i q u e was conducted t o d i s c o v e r why p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n meetings. Findings Processes. Almost two t h i r d s of the respondents i n the Kaplan (46) study f e l t t h a t the most important d i f f e r -ences i n viewpoint were g e n e r a l l y developed i n the group d i s -cussions whereas one t h i r d d i d not t h i n k so; a m a j o r i t y f e l t t h a t e i t h e r a few or up t o 50 per cent of the group members dominated the d i s c u s s i o n w h i l e others spoke l i t t l e ; 75 per cent f e l t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed t h e i r views f r e e l y whereas 25 per cent f e l t they d i d not; 60 per cent reported t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was b e t t e r In l a t e than e a r l y meetings. The i n t e r v i e w e r s who observed the groups i n a c t i o n noted that one t h i r d to one h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s shared i n the d i s c u s s i o n f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y and t h a t eighty per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n was q u i t e r e g u l a r i n one or two groups. A general o b s e r v a t i o n was t h a t i n too many groups the lea d e r s 171 wanted p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any cost r e g a r d l e s s of the q u a l i t y of d i s c u s s i o n . Three of the f i v e observers reported t h a t there was much l e s s tendency f o r groups t o go o f f on a tangent i n l a t t e r as opposed to former meetings. I t was r e -ported t h a t i n two or three groups there was e x c e l l e n t pro-g r e s s i o n i n terms of developing ideas t o t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n and i n comparing and b u i l d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . H i l l (41) In comparing the group d i s c u s s i o n technique w i t h the l e c t u r e technique, found t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of p a r t i c i p a n t s thought that d i s c u s s i o n was more i n f o r m a l , l e s s academic and t h a t i t allowed f o r more interchange of views than d i d the l e c t u r e . B r i l h a r t (19) through use of h i s adaptation of the Bales I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s uncovered a syndrome of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which occurred w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h group i n d i c e s of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n and when a hi g h p r o p o r t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c e s of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n increased from e a r l y t o l a t e meetings. These are: a h i g h degree of s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h the l e a d e r s h i p ; meetings t h a t l a s t almost the f u l l two hours; a low number of scores per minute; d i s c u s s i o n of from seven to twelve t o p i c s per meeting; and a h i g h pro-p o r t i o n of the t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o the readings. I n d i v i d u a l group d i s c u s s i o n s however were found to vary widely on the index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n from t o p i c t o t o p i c . In f u r t h e r a n a l y s i n g the d i s c u s s i o n process, the experimenter notes t h a t 172 d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the o p i n i o n p r e v i o u s l y expressed i n the d i s c u s s i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n f o l l o w e d by agree-ment and l e s s o f t e n f o l l o w e d by disagreement, than were I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s w i t h the o p i n i o n p r e v i o u s l y expressed. He th e r e f o r e hazards the guess t h a t g i v i n g and w i t h h o l d i n g of support may be the major source of the Increase i n i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c e s of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n which occurred i n most groups. When considered as a g r o u p , p a r t i c i p a n t s who increased t h e i r index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n showed a considerably higher percentage of requests f o r e v a l u a t i o n and procedural sug-ges t i o n s than those whose index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n de-creased, which perhaps i n d i c a t e s t h a t the change i s a l s o due to i n i t i a l q u a l i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t a l s o suggests that where the leaders encourage the group t o evaluate the d i s c u s s i o n and to c o n t r o l the fl o w of d i s c u s s i o n the group w i l l improve i n i t s a b i l i t y t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y . The author a l s o noted t h a t the k i n d of e v a l u a t i n g done by non-leaders appeared r e l a t e d t o the s t r u c t u r i n g of the questions by the le a d e r . Davis (27) was i n t e r e s t e d i n the process of group d i s c u s s i o n and examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s o c i a l r o l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s t o t h e i r group d i s c u s s i o n behaviour. The qu e s t i o n n a i r e used i n Davis's second study i d e n t i f i e d three b a s i c group d i s c u s s i o n r o l e s which could be described as an inst r u m e n t a l r o l e , a j o k e r r o l e , and a harmonizer r o l e . 173 Each respondent was asked to s t a t e whether he f u l f i l l e d any of these f u n c t i o n s i n h i s group, and a l s o t o s t a t e what two persons i n the group f u l f i l l e d each of these r o l e s . The i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t was considered as a perspn who sought to p u l l the threads of the d i s c u s s i o n together and r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n t viewpoints, t o introduce new ideas and opinions f o r the r e s t of the group t o d i s c u s s , t o request c l a r i f i c a t i o n of problems di s c u s s e d , and to ask f o r d e f i n i t i o n s of terms and po i n t out l o g i c a l problems. The j o k e r was conceived of as one who joked and kidded and found the humorous i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the d i s c u s s i o n . The harmonizer was described as a person who made t a c t f u l comments to h e a l r i f t s which arose during the course of the d i s c u s s i o n . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s area were th a t men tend t o perform the instrumental and the jo k e r r o l e s more o f t e n than women, and tha t women tend t o be the harmonizers more o f t e n than men, but t h a t married persons tend to be harmonizers more o f t e n than unmarried persons. The author considers the p o s s i b i l i t y that the f i n d i n g s may be the r e s u l t of the s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s named i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , but st a t e s that even so these r o l e s appear t o be r e l a t i v e l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n any group, and that persons who de-s c r i b e d themselves as f u l f i l l i n g any of these f u n c t i o n s was so described by others In most cases. Other f i n d i n g s were t h a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r o l e s was not a f f e c t e d by the age or s i z e of the group, and persons p l a y i n g any of the 174 d e s c r i b e d r o l e s had a b e t t e r chance than p r o b a b i l i t y of p l a y i n g any other of the described r o l e s . I n summarizing Davis (27) s t a t e s t h a t the kinds of r o l e s played In the group had no a f f e c t on drop-outs, but t h a t the more members who were a c t i v e i n the d i s c u s s i o n , the b e t t e r the r e t e n t i o n of a c t i v e and i n a c t i v e members. A l s o w i t h i n groups of a given l e v e l of a c t i v i t y those members who were named by other members as p l a y i n g an a c t i v e r o l e were more l i k e l y t o stay w i t h the program. Another f a c t o r favour-ably a f f e c t i n g r e t e n t i o n was a l a r g e amount of outside contact among group members, f o r groups hig h on outside contacts had higher a c t i v i t y l e v e l s . In order to organize h i s f i n d i n g s the author r e l a t e d a l l the v a r i a b l e s found t o a f f e c t r e -t e n t i o n of membership i n a group t o each other. I t seems tha t outside c o n t a c t s , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and p o l i t i c a l d i v e r s i t y , taken together create a c t i v i t y ; moderate s o c i a b i l i t y outside the group leads t o a c t i v i t y , and I n t e r e s t i n l o c a l a f f a i r s leads to gr e a t e r a c t i v i t y . In t u r n a c t i v i t y leads t o i n t e l -l e c t u a l changes i n c u r r i n g increased i n f o r m a t i o n , and g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y and Increased i n f o r m a t i o n both l e a d to g r e a t e r r e -t e n t i o n of membership. Another c h a i n of v a r i a b l e s a l s o a f f e c t s g r e a t e r group r e t e n t i o n d i r e c t l y . The number of P r o t e s t a n t s i n a group a f f e c t s d i r e c t l y h i g h s t a t u s of members, ed u c a t i o n a l homogeneity, and democratic m a j o r i t y which three f a c t o r s i n t u r n a f f e c t r e t e n t i o n . I t would appear then that t h i s 175 r e s e a r c h g i v e s the e d u c a t i o n a l agent considerable m a t e r i a l t o analyze i n terms of any group d i s c u s s i o n he may wish to carry out. I f the p a r t i c i p a n t s are l i k e the sample here de-s c r i b e d he may be able t o b e t t e r p r e d i c t the success of using group d i s c u s s i o n as a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be e s t a b l i s h e d between the l e a r n e r and what i s to be learned where the g o a l i s t o \ g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . Davis (27) s t a t e s t h a t although he has discovered a l o t about the e f f e c t s of a c t i v i t y and where i t comes from he doesn't know what i t i s . He q u e r i e s : does i t tap the sheer d e c i b e l volume of the d i s c u s s i o n ; evenness of p a r t i c i p a t i o n against domination by a few members or whether i t i s an index of some s u b t l e i n t e r -p ersonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as group cohesion or i n t e g r a t i o n of r o l e s t r u c t u r e . (27 p.217) While B r i l h a r t (19) d i d not i n v e s t i g a t e the a f f e c t of outside r e l a t i o n s h i p s among group members on the group d i s -c u s s i o n process he d i d note t h a t there were i n t e n s i v e and complex extra-group r e l a t i o n s h i p s among h i s p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h a t almost a l l the s i l e n t members were c l o s e l y a s s o c i -ated w i t h some more vo c a l member. He discovered that men were more l i k e l y than women to be chosen as f u t u r e l e a d e r s , s i n c e s i x men and two women were chosen as f u t u r e l e a d e r s , and there were more women than men i n the program. He made no comparison of the d i s c u s s i o n p r o f i l e of men or women how-ever, and we do not know whether t h i s i s a carry-over from r o l e s i n the s o c i e t y , or whether i t i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the 176 way p a r t i c u l a r men and women p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i s c u s s i o n process. Davis (27) found t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of group members named as a c t i v e l y p l a y i n g one or more of the b a s i c r o l e s , j o k e r , i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t and harmonizer was a f f e c t e d by a set of compositional v a r i a b l e s . The personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t increase the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a person w i l l be named as a c t i v e . A l s o k i n s h i p r o l e s seem t o a f f e c t the a c t i v i t y l e v e l and the q u a l i t y of d i s -c u s s i o n through t r a n s f e r r i n g i n t o the sm a l l group p a t t e r n s of i n t e r a c t i o n learned i n f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . Sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and the r o l e s of husband and w i f e , a f f e c t the be-haviour of persons i n the group, hence i t would appear t h a t the composition of the group w i l l a f f e c t the success of the technique. He concludes t h a t r o l e performance I n the d i s -c u s s i o n i s l e s s a f f e c t e d by the i n t e r n a l aspects of the group than by the r o l e the p a r t i c i p a n t s p l a y In the l a r g e r s o c i e t y In terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each other as men and women, and i n terms of t h e i r o utside acquaintance and s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h each other. Leadership. Lay l e a d e r s h i p i s used almost e x c l u s i v e l y In study d i s c u s s i o n programs and i t has been a concern of the researchers as t o how such l e a d e r s h i p can be most e f f e c t i v e . The r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area should be most u s e f u l t o the agent i n l e a r n i n g how to s t r u c t u r e the process t o achieve best r e s u l t s . 177 Kaplan (46) found t h a t c o l l e g e graduates were con-s i d e r e d more e f f e c t i v e leaders than non-college graduates by a 10 per cent margin. Non-college graduates were more c r i t i c a l of the l e a d e r s h i p of the group than were c o l l e g e graduates and p r e f e r r e d strong l e a d e r s h i p and subject matter s p e c i a l i s t s w h i l e c o l l e g e graduates f e l t l e s s dependent on the le a d e r . Twenty-four per cent of the t o t a l group approved of the way the leader focused the d i s c u s s i o n and kept i t on the t r a c k whereas 35 per cent d i d not; 15 per cent thought the leader s t i m u l a t i n g and thought-provoking w h i l e 12 per cent considered t h i s a weak p o i n t ; 14 per cent f e l t t h a t leader d i d not dominate or assume too much c o n t r o l and 11 per cent t h a t he d i d ; 23 per cent l i k e d the way the leader secured broad p a r t i c i p a t i o n whereas 4.7 per cent thought the leader was too c o n t r o l l i n g and t a l k e d too much and 15 per cent f e l t the leader d i d not know enough about the subject matter. On the subject of improving the l e a d e r s h i p 41 per cent f e l t there should be competent w e l l - t r a i n e d leaders who would g i v e more d i r e c t i o n t o the subject matter. B r i l h a r t (19) asked h i s sample t o designate those persons whom they would suggest as f u t u r e leaders and the i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s of those so designated were then examined by the Bales I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s form. He found t h a t , i n general a person chosen as a f u t u r e l e a d e r , had t o p a r t i c i -pate i n the d i s c u s s i o n f r e q u e n t l y , have a h i g h index of 178 c r i t i c a l evaluation, and do considerable organizing and requesting of evaluation. Those so chosen had more than twice the percentage of requests f o r evaluation, asked f o r information more frequently, made two and a h a l f times as many procedural suggestions and disagreed i n the discussion more frequently than those not chosen as future leaders. A combination of low p a r t i c i p a t i o n and low index of c r i t i c a l evaluation almost c e r t a i n l y guaranteed that a p a r t i c i p a n t would not be selected as a future leader. He also inquired into what type of p a r t i c i p a n t s were most desirable as future discussants and discovered that those chosen as future d i s -cussants p a r t i c i p a t e d more often i n the discussions than the average; whereas those rejected as future discussants p a r t i c i p a t e d l e s s than the average. Davis (27) discovered that le,ader t r a i n i n g and accept-ance or r e j e c t i o n of discussion techniques recommended by the Great Books Foundation had no r e l a t i o n s h i p to drop out when controlled f o r content, a c t i v i t y , and s o c i a b i l i t y . However there was some evidence that when the members wanted the leaders to use a s p e c i f i c technique and the leader did not do so the rate of drop-out was higher. Liveright (54), i n h i s analysis of leadership s t y l e s required f o r d i f f e r e n t learning purposes, found that there are a number of programs i n which the goal i s to both change attitudes and to convey information. He terms t h i s an 179 •understanding program' and c i t e s Great Books as an example. He notes t h a t t h i s type of program r e q u i r e s a mixed l e a d e r -ship s t y l e which moves from c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p i n i t i a l l y t o group-oriented l e a d e r s h i p l a t e r a l l y i n order to develop the cohesive p o t e n t i a l of the group. Strengthen-ing group cohesion appears to he d e s i r a b l e because, as the membership becomes b e t t e r acquainted they w i l l w ish t o i n f l u -ence program g o a l s , use t h e i r own resources, and emphasize problem-solving r a t h e r than i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g content. I f the l e a d e r s h i p techniques are not f l e x i b l e the n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e d increase of group cohesion w i l l be discouraged and many members w i l l drop out of the program. He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t some of the o l d e r Great Books ( f i v e - t o ten-year) groups are much more group o r i e n t e d i n emphasis than f i r s t year groups which would suggest t h a t such movement and change should be b u i l t Into programs of t h i s type. P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the technique may not be a good i n d i c a t o r of the value of the technique f o r l e a r n i n g but i t w i l l show what i s acceptable to p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n the Kaplan (46) study p a r t i c i p a n t s most l i k e d the exchange of views and subject matter provided by the d i s -c u s s i o n w h i l e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n and s o c i a l aspects were a l s o l i k e d by s i g n i f i c a n t percentages. Twenty to 30 per cent of respondents l i k e d m a t e r i a l s , l e a d e r s h i p and 180 Inadequacy of other p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a s t . Eighty per cent s a i d the program f u l f i l l e d or p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l e d t h e i r expectations w i t h more men than women i n the f u l f i l l e d c a te-g o r i e s . The author found t h a t there was a great d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the d i f f e r e n t programs. Seventy per cent of world p o l i t i c s p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d yes t h e i r expectations had been met; as d i d 56.7 per cent of Ways of Mankind; 15 per cent of world a f f a i r s and 32.8 per cent of humanities p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r e s t of the answers f e l l Into the p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d or not s a t i s f i e d c ate-g o r i e s . Leaders' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the m a t e r i a l s provided them v a r i e d c o nsiderably and correspond w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e v a l u a t i o n s of how w e l l t h e i r expectations f o r the program were s a t i s f i e d . Almost 100 per cent were s a t i s f i e d w i t h World P o l i t i c s m a t e r i a l s ; 50 per cent w i t h Ways of Mankind; 33 per cent w i t h World A f f a i r s are Your A f f a i r s and 25 per cent w i t h the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Humanities. In the H i l l (41) study many d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t hat the t a l k was t r i v i a l at times, others f e l t they were not able t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i s c u s s i o n as much as they wanted t o , and 78 per cent f e l t t hat on at l e a s t one occasion, one or very few members dominated the group. T h i r t y - f i v e per cent of those i n the l e c t u r e group asked f o r combined l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n i n the f u t u r e and 22.9 per cent 181 of the d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s asked f o r combined l e c t u r e -d i s c u s s i o n i n the f u t u r e . H i l l ( 4 l ) i n comparing the use of i d e n t i c a l devices i n conjunction w i t h the group d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e techniques found that 56 per cent of the d i s -c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s reported that the recordings o f t e n pro-vided the theme f o r the d i s c u s s i o n , and some evidence was found that reading m a t e r i a l had a s l i g h t l y more important r o l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n than f o r l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c h i e f use of recordings under the l e c t u r e technique, was to i l l u s -t r a t e a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n or p r o p o s i t i o n forwarded by the l e c t u r e r . When Palmer and Verner (66) analysed the data from the two s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s i t was evident that the l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n group was b e t t e r s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t s technique than the other two groups. In the o r a l c r i t i q u e the students s t a t e d that they wanted a l e c t u r e f o r at l e a s t p a r t of the c l a s s p e r i o d i n order t o make sure of covering the important m a t e r i a l , t h a t they wished an opportunity t o p a r t i c i p a t e but i f they had to choose between in f o r m a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n they would choose the former. They f e l t the group d i s c u s s i o n technique u s i n g outside readings r e -quir e d too much e x t r a work and they p r e f e r r e d a change of pace t o break the monotony of l e c t u r e or d i s c u s s i o n alone. B r i l h a r t (19) found that group improvement In the index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n was not r e l a t e d to group s a t i s f a c t i o n 182 w i t h the course, but i t was r e l a t e d t o the number of i n d i -v i d u a l s who improved t h e i r Index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n w i t h -i n the group and i n group s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l e a d e r s h i p . Davis (27) discovered, however, that s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the program i s a f a c t o r i n r e t e n t i o n . He r e p o r t s t h a t when a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the group r e p o r t s favourable e f f e c t s from the program there i s l i k e l y t o be b e t t e r r e t e n t i o n , and there i s b e t t e r r e t e n t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who re p o r t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the program. Wilsey's (89) f i n d i n g s on the group d i s -c u s s i o n process were that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group d i s c u s s i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the group process, and there was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between attendance at the d i s c u s s i o n sessions and preference f o r the group d i s -c u s sion process. He found t h a t groups w i t h l e a s t t r a i n i n g i n group d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e s t preference f o r the technique although no respondents wished to go back to the former l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g method. He found that untrained clubs d i d not carry on group d i s c u s s i o n at as high a l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n as e i t h e r of the other two l e v e l s of t r a i n -i n g i n group d i s c u s s i o n . These f i n d i n g s are i n t e r e s t i n g because the author was working w i t h groups, the members of which l i v e d i n the same county and at the very l e a s t knew each other through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the same club and at most may have been high cohesive groups. 183 F r i e n d s h i p s . Kaplan (46) and H i l l (41) both r e p o r t f i n d i n g s on the growth of f r i e n d s h i p s as a r e s u l t of the d i s c u s s i o n process. T h i r t y per cent of Kaplan's (46) sample reported t h a t they had made new f r i e n d s i n the group whom they were c u r r e n t l y v i s i t i n g and 6 per cent s a i d they were now much c l o s e r f r i e n d s w i t h people they had known p r e v i o u s l y . In the H i l l (4l) study 37 per cent of d i s -c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s reported new f r i e n d s h i p s as an outcome of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; whereas only 6.9 per cent of l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s made new f r i e n d s . The m a j o r i t y of new f r i e n d s reported by the d i s c u s s i o n group p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d i n the same general area as they d i d themselves. Information. In s t a t i n g how they b e n e f i t e d from the program of the p o p u l a t i o n of the Kaplan (46) study brought out the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : they f e l t t h a t they had enriched t h e i r general knowledge, learned d i s c u s s i o n techniques, and become more t o l e r a n t of the opinions of others i n that order of p r i o r i t y . Approximately 30 per cent f e l t they had learned a great d e a l about the t o p i c , 63 per cent that they had learned something and 9 per cent that they had learned very l i t t l e or n o t h i n g . Non-college graduates f e l t t h a t they learned more than d i d c o l l e g e graduates. H i l l (41) found t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence between l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n sup-populations w i t h r e -gard to i n f o r m a t i o n acquired as judged by knowledge of 184 a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l concepts on the p o s t - t e s t . On the p r e - t e s t the l e c t u r e p o p u l a t i o n had a s l i g h t l y higher average score than the d i s c u s s i o n p o p u l a t i o n ; on the p o s t - t e s t t h i s s i t u a t i o n was reversed, although the d i f f e r e n c e i n g a i n was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . This may be accounted f o r by the f i n d i n g t h a t those present at the t e n t h meeting of the d i s c u s s i o n groups had higher p r e - t e s t scores i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l concepts than those who were not present at the t e n t h meeting. This r e l a t i o n s h i p does not seem to hold f o r members present at the tenth/meeting of the l e c t u r e c l a s s . The author suggests t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n d i s c u s s i o n groups attendance i s r e l a t e d to previous knowledge of the subject by p a r t i c i p a n t s . He s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t , although the f i n d i n g s are only suggestive, the d i s c u s s i o n method appears to be e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r females, n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and those who have never been to c o l l e g e . The Kaplan (46) study found t h a t those who have never been to c o l l e g e pre-f e r r e d strong l e a d e r s h i p and subject matter s p e c i a l i s t s . I f the f i n d i n g s of the two s t u d i e s are comparable I t would seem t h a t those who have not been to c o l l e g e l e a r n most i n f o r -mation from the technique which i s l e a s t acceptable to them. Males and o l d e r persons acquired knowledge equa l l y w e l l from group d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e techniques, however, p r o f e s s i o n -a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l e c t u r e c l a s s e s Improved t h e i r t e s t scores more than those i n d i s c u s s i o n groups. 185 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n the f i r s t Davis (26) study i n c l u d e d a t e s t of general knowledge i n the l i b e r a l a r t s and i t was found t h a t w h i l e a l i t t l e more than o n e - t h i r d scored eleven or more of the cartoon quizes c o r r e c t a f t e r the f i r s t year, t w o - t h i r d s scored these c o r r e c t l y a f t e r three or more years. I n the f i r s t year group non-college p a r t i c i p a n t s had only 11 per cent above the median on the t e s t whereas 76" per cent of the graduate students were above the median. With a d d i t i o n a l years of exposure t o Great Books the o r i g i n a l formal education of p a r t i c i p a n t s had a d i m i n i s h i n g e f f e c t on cartoon q u i z scores. The researcher discovered however th a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t number of low scorers dropped out of the program. I n s p i t e of t h i s t r e n d , however, the data gives reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t exposure to Great Books leads t o increase i n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the l i b e r a l a r t s . When t h i s f i n d i n g i s r e l a t e d to H i l l ' s (41) f i n d i n g , t h a t those present at the t e n t h meeting of d i s c u s s i o n groups had higher pre-t e s t scores than those absent, i t adds support t o H i l l ' s (41) conjecture t h a t attendance i n s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n groups i s r e l a t e d t o previous knowledge of the subject by p a r t i c i p a n t s . The group d i s c u s s i o n process as used i n Great Books does not lead to a g r e a t e r g e n e r a l i z e d a e s t h e t i c t a s t e i n the l i b e r a l a r t s , as t e s t e d by music s o p h i s t i c a t i o n which i s u n r e l a t e d to the program, or by poetry which i s r e l a t e d . Davis (27) a l s o r e p o r t s from h i s second study t h a t there seems t o be a 186 process whereby s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n outside the groups l e a d t o a hig h p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l i n the d i s c u s s i o n s , and t h i s i n t u r n leads to favourable i n t e l l e c t u a l changes as measured by i n f o r m a t i o n gained. Wilsey (89) found t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d i n the adjusted means of safety scores f o r h i s t h r e e -l e v e l of t r a i n i n g groups. The s i x club s which had l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains i n group d i s c u s s i o n knowledge than the un t r a i n e d group, and the three clubs i n which most group members were t r a i n e d had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains than the group i n which only the l e a d e r s h i p team was t r a i n e d . He found t h a t there was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between mental a b i l i t y and l e v e l of d i s c u s s i o n knowledge, however, three younger clubs composed of mixed r e s i d e n t i a l groups made s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains i n group d i s c u s s i o n knowledge than the other two r e s i d e n t i a l groups. This would appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t youth and v a r i e t y i n f l u e n c e d the amount of group d i s c u s s i o n knowledge gained. He concludes t h a t l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g i n group d i s c u s s i o n processes may not be worth w h i l e where the primary g o a l i s in f o r m a t i o n g a i n i n the subject matter since i t does not i n f l u e n c e the amount of in f o r m a t i o n gained on immediate r e c a l l . C a rlson (22) found t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a l l f i v e c r i t e r i a measures e x i s t e d between members of i l e c t u r e groups, members of d i s c u s s i o n groups and members of 187 j o i n t l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n groups. These r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r f o r students of a l l three a b i l i t y l e v e l s . In the Palmer and Verner (66) p r e - t e s t the l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n group scored highest f o l l o w e d by the group d i s -c u s s i o n and then the l e c t u r e groups. While the d i f f e r e n c e between the l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n and the l e c t u r e groups was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between e i t h e r of these groups and the d i s c u s s i o n group. The p o s t - d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the three groups which de-notes a g a i n i n achievement by the l e c t u r e group over the other two groups. These r e s u l t s were confirmed i n tha t the l e c t u r e group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher score on the f i f t y -item m u l t i p l e choice t e s t administered at the end of the course t o determine minimal content r e q u i r e d by the A i r Force. This t e s t a l s o showed a g a i n i n achievement by the l e c t u r e group. The authors note that these r e s u l t s were i n terms of immediate r e c a l l f o r student volunteers who had high moti-v a t i o n to complete a demanding course. Mental S k i l l s . Leaders i n the Kaplan (46) study s t a t e d t h a t as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n group members ap-peared able t o t h i n k and express themselves more c l e a r l y . Hadlock's (37) concern was t o t e s t whether p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i s World P o l i t i c s d i s c u s s i o n groups had improved In t h e i r a b i l i t y to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y , as defined by h i s study. He 188 found t h a t both the experimental and the c o n t r o l group showed an increase i n t h i s s k i l l , however, i n the case of the e x p e r i -mental group t h i s increase was s i g n i f i c a n t to the .01 per cent l e v e l of confidence, whereas f o r the c o n t r o l group i t was s i g n i f i c a n t only t o the 10 per cent l e v e l of confidence making the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i n an increased a b i l i t y to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o the 5 per cent of confidence. He concludes t h e r e f o r e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n -crease i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t e s t scores r e s u l t e d from p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the study d i s c u s s i o n program. Furthermore, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the changed c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g scores between f i v e d i f f e r e n t age groups s t u d i e d . To t e s t the e f f e c t s of i n i t i a l education on the development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g through the program Hadlock (37) d i v i d e d h i s sample i n t o f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l groups, beginning w i t h group one composed of i n d i v i d u a l s who had l e s s than two years c o l l e g e education, and moving t o group f o u r which contained only those w i t h graduate or p r o f e s s i o n a l degrees beyond a baccalaureate degree. He found t h a t the mean i n -crease In c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g scores of these f o u r groups d i d not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the mean of the e n t i r e group. The mean of group one, however, was very much l e s s than t h a t of the other groups. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found be-tween the means of the scores of group one and group f o u r . When the s i x study d i s c u s s i o n groups used In the experiment were compared w i t h each other, f o r changed c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g 189 scores, no d i f f e r e n c e was found t o e x i s t between t h e i r means. A f u r t h e r f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d that there was no s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e between the changed c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g scores f o r those who were c l a s s i f i e d as most' a u t h o r i t a r i a n and those c l a s s i f i e d as l e a s t a u t h o r i t a r i a n . B r i l h a r t (19) found t h a t a l l the groups under study showed a r i s e i n the index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n from e a r l y t o l a t e meetings, and, when only non-leaders' scores were considered, f i v e of the s i x groups s t i l l showed t h i s r i s e . A l l group i n d i c e s of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n f o r non-leaders rose from middle t o l a t e meetings. However he s t a t e s t h a t t h i s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h confidence since there was wide s h i f t s i n attendance from meeting to meeting. A more c e r t a i n f i n d i n g i s t h a t f o r t h i r t y members who attended seven or more meetings and f o r whom at l e a s t ten scores were recorded i n the c a t e g o r i e s of c o n d i t i o n a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n , at both e a r l y and l a t e meetings,an increase i n the index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i -dence was recorded, u s i n g the Wilcoxon Matched P a i r s Signed-Ranks Test. Wide d i f f e r e n c e i n changed index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n were found among members of d i f f e r e n t groups, which i n d i c a t e s , according t o the experimenter that v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t g r e a t l y the degree to which t h i s g o a l of l i b e r a l a dult education i s achieved i n a p a r t i c u l a r study d i s c u s s i o n group. 190 A t t i t u d e Change. Some of the s t u d i e s sought to d i s c o v e r whether a t t i t u d e change i s e f f e c t e d through study-d i s c u s s i o n programs. Kaplan (46) found t h a t 10 to 15 per cent f e l t they developed new concepts or a t t i t u d e s through d i s c u s s i o n and a s i m i l a r percentage changed c e r t a i n of t h e i r views based on the i n f o r m a t i o n gained i n d i s c u s s i o n or be-came more aware th a t there was more than one s o l u t i o n t o most problems. To the qu e s t i o n : 'do you t h i n k t h a t members become more open-minded? 1, an average of over 50 per cent from the sample i n a l l programs f e l t t h a t they had; 10 per cent s a i d some had and 12 per cent s a i d the members of t h e i r groups had been open-minded from the beginning w h i l e 20 per cent f e l t i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o say. These f i g u r e s again d i f f e r e d a great d e a l according to program. P a r t i c i -pants i n the study of World P o l i t i c s apparently became more open-minded i n 70 per cent of the cases and they were r e -ported as l e a s t open-minded i n i t i a l l y . Perhaps t h i s i n d i -cates t h a t i n a c o n t r o v e r s i a l program l a c k of open-mindedness i s more evident or t h a t b e t t e r m a t e r i a l s draw out d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o i n t of view b e t t e r , causing p a r t i c i p a n t s to see the v a l i d i t y of arguments other than t h e i r own. H i l l (41) found members of both l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n groups t o be s l i g h t l y l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c , more t o l e r a n t of ambiguity, and more convinced of the e f f i c a c y of democratic procedures as r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , however, these changes i n 191 a t t i t u d e were not s i g n i f i c a n t . I t was found that the s m a l l e r d i s c u s s i o n groups concluded w i t h g r e a t e r a t t i t u d e homogeneity w i t h regards to ethnocentrism than d i d the l a r g e r d i s c u s s i o n groups or l e c t u r e c l a s s e s but t h i s d i d not hold f o r the measures of t o l e r a n c e , ambiguity, or democracy. I t was a l s o found t h a t a t t i t u d e homogeneity as measured by the average vari a n c e , decreased f o r c e r t a i n groups which would i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r c e r t a i n types of a t t i -tudes the s o c i a l f o r c e s i n a group may i n f l u e n c e members d i f f e r e n t l y depending on t h e i r o r i g i n a l a t t i t u d e . A compari-son of those present at the t e n t h meeting i n d i s c u s s i o n groups w i t h those not present revealed s m a l l , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , but c o n s i s t e n t i n p a t t e r n i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t drop-outs were more a u t h o r i t a r i a n , more et h n o c e n t r i c and l e s s t o l e r a n t of ambiguity than those who continued i n the program. There was no comparable p a t t e r n of drop-outs f o r l e c t u r e p a r t i c i -pants. H i l l (41) considers that these f i n d i n g s provide some support f o r the hypothesis t h a t s o c i a l pressure a f f e c t s attendance i n d i s c u s s i o n groups more so than i n l e c t u r e groups. Since the d i s c u s s i o n process a l s o seemed to d i s -courage those w i t h the lowest scores on a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l concepts on the p r e - t e s t one wonders i f there might be some c o r r e l a t i o n here between a t t i t u d e and knowledge of anthro-p o l o g i c a l concepts. 192 A f i n d i n g , apparently r e s u l t i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program, was tha t f o r d i s c u s s i o n group members there was a small but s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the development of negative a t t i t u d e s towards a d u l t education, whereas Wilsey (89) found t h a t the sma l l e r the amount of t r a i n i n g a group had i n group d i s c u s s i o n the more favourable the op i n i o n of i t s members towards t h a t technique. He concludes t h a t those who know l i t t l e about the group d i s c u s s i o n process may be i n c l i n e d t o overlook i t s disadvantages, and not to recognize t h a t group d i s c u s s i o n may have negative i n f l u e n c e s . H i l l (41) a l s o remarked th a t l a c k of experience w i t h group d i s -c u s s i o n may have caused p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y f avourable towards a d u l t education, p r i o r t o the program. Davis (26) i n h i s f i r s t study found no evidence that members change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to l a r g e s c a l e Ideals i n the course of a Great Books program. Those I d e a l s t e s t e d were hedonism, contemplation, group a f f i l i a t i o n and outward a c t i v i t y . R e l i g i o u s trends appeared to be i n the d i r e c t i o n of g r e a t e r acceptance of l i b e r a l and s c e p t i c a l a t t i t u d e s t o r e l i g i o n without g i v i n g up p r i o r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . Adopt i o n : Reading. With regard to reading h a b i t s 42 per cent of respondents i n the Kaplan (46) study s a i d the program had caused them t o change t h e i r reading h a b i t s where-as 57 per cent i n d i c a t e d t h e i r reading h a b i t s had not changed. T h i r t y - t h r e e per cent of the leaders f e l t t h a t 193 p a r t i c i p a n t s had changed t h e i r reading h a b i t s as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. In the H i l l (41) study p a r t i c i p a n t s under both techniques f e l t t h e i r reading p a t t e r n s were i n f l u e n c e d by the program; approximately 30 per cent f e l t they were i n f l u e n c e d i n the type of reading m a t e r i a l they now sought and others f e l t they read more c r i t i c a l l y as a r e s u l t of the program. Hadlock (37) found t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n reading l e v e l of comprehension, as a r e s u l t of the program. Davis (26) s t a t e s t h a t h i s data suggest t h a t i n advanced years the program does le a d to q u a n t i t a t i v e increase i n hours per week i n se r i o u s reading, both i n great books m a t e r i a l and s e l f - s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s , but tha t the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y of the readings i s not r e l a t e d t o exposure t o the program. Community A c t i v i t y . Another area i n v e s t i g a t e d was the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program on community a c t i v i t y . Kaplan (46) found t h a t only 5 per cent reported any new community a c t i v i t y as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n a d i s c u s s i o n group. I n i n t e r v i e w s f o l l o w i n g the program H i l l (41) found more d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s aware of community is s u e s than he had found i n pre-program i n t e r -views. He remarks th a t d i s c u s s i o n groups were l o c a t e d i n community f a c i l i t i e s whereas l e c t u r e groups were u n i v e r s i t y centred so t h a t t h i s e f f e c t may r e s u l t from the op e r a t i o n of the method r a t h e r than the technique used w i t h i n i t . No 194 g r e a t e r involvement i n community issues was rep o r t e d . Davis (26) i n h i s f i r s t study discovered t h a t h i s sample was h i g h l y i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l a c t i v i t y and that t h i s involvement showed l i t t l e change as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s -c u s s i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s I n d i c a t e d that they f e l t exposure had a f f e c t e d t h e i r understanding of l o c a l i s s u e s and problems, but i n terms of the i n d i c e s of i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t y the author found no strong t r e n d s . Summary D i s c u s s i o n of the Group D i s c u s s i o n Technique  Centred Around Outside Information D e s c r i p t i o n . According t o the research examined, group d i s c u s s i o n i s a technique i n which the agent s t r u c t u r e s the l e a r n i n g so that p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r i b u t e to the develop-ment of the subject matter through face to face discourse w i t h each other and the agent i n a small group. This tech-nique d i f f e r s from a forum or a question and answer s e s s i o n i n t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n i n the l a t t e r Is almost e x c l u s i v e l y between the qu e s t i o n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t and the agent f o r pur-poses of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . I n group d i s c u s s i o n the exchange u s u a l l y occurs among p a r t i c i p a n t s and the development of the subject matter comes through the s t r u c t u r i n g of group; the suggested s t r u c t u r e of the d i s c u s s i o n depends upon the sponsors of the method - i t can be extremely f l e x i b l e when sponsored by u n i v e r s i t y extension departments or can have a 195 more r i g i d format as sponsored by the Great Books Foundation; the technique i s used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the t e n to twenty meetings h e l d under the method. Since group d i s c u s s i o n i s o f t e n a new technique t o the p a r t i c i p a n t ^ i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note Kaplan's (46) f i n d i n g s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d i s c u s s i o n appears to improve from e a r l y t o l a t e meetings and up t o 80 per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be achieved. Group a b i l i t y to remain on the t o p i c a l s o appears t o improve from e a r l y t o l a t e meetings. The agent has been provided w i t h a means of t e s t i n g the success of h i s use of the technique when the goal i s develop-ment of mental a b i l i t i e s through a p p l i c a t i o n of the syndrome discovered by B r i l h a r t (19) to c o r r e l a t e w i t h h i g h group i n d i c e s of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of i n d i -v i d u a l i n d i c e s of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g from e a r l y t o l a t e meetings. B r i l h a r t (19) discovered as w e l l many s p e c i f i c v a r i a t i o n s of group d i s c u s s i o n process which r e -s u l t e d i n increased a b i l i t y t o evaluate c r i t i c a l l y , I t appears from D a v i s 1 (27) study t h a t g r e a t e r d i s c u s s i o n a c t i v i t y leads to gre a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n gained through the d i s -cussion, and although the author i s not able t o say what a c t i v i t y i s , he has i s o l a t e d f a c t o r s which create a c t i v i t y . I t would be an i n t e r e s t i n g study f o r the f u t u r e to see whether the k i n d of a c t i v i t y which c o r r e l a t e s w i t h g r e a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n i s the e v a l u a t i n g k i n d of a c t i v i t y 196 which B r i l h a r t (19) has found to develop mental s k i l l s . A f u r t h e r f i n d i n g by Davis (27) might help the agent f o r e c a s t the k i n d of d i s c u s s i o n he w i l l be able t o develop w i t h i n the group. This i s tha t r o l e performance w i t h i n the group appears t o be h i g h l y dependent on the r o l e s of the p a r t i c i -pants i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y ; t h e r e f o r e group composition i n terras of p r o p o r t i o n of men to women, husbands to wives and the number of people who know and s o c i a l i z e w i t h each other outside the group may a f f e c t the k i n d and amount of d i s -c u s s i o n which takes p l a c e . Some researchers have been concerned w i t h p a r t i c i -pant's s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n method, and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , the group d i s c u s s i o n technique. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e r e f o r e , to note B r i l h a r t ' s (19) discovery t h a t group improvement i n the index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n was not r e l a t e d to group s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the course but t o group s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l e a d e r s h i p and t o the number of i n d i v i d u a l s who improved t h e i r index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . Davis (27), however, discovered t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a f a c t o r i n r e t e n t i o n i n which case p a r t i c i p a t i o n s a t i s f a c t i o n might s t i l l be a f a c t o r f o r the agent t o keep i n mind. Since Wilsey (89) s t u d i e d e x i s t e n t groups of Home-makers Clubs we may assume t h a t they were to some degree co-hesive groups and t h a t members knew and had contact w i t h each other outside the c l u b . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h e r e f o r e to note 197 t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n of members i n the d i s c u s s i o n nor t h e i r attendance at meetings c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the group d i s c u s s i o n process. B r i l h a r t ' s (19) d i s -covery t h a t i n t e n s i v e and complex extra-group r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h a t almost a l l s i l e n t members were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some more vo c a l member and Davis' (27) f i n d i n g t h a t the more members who were a c t i v e i n a d i s c u s s i o n the b e t t e r r e t e n t i o n of a c t i v e and i n -a c t i v e members and a c t i v i t y i n the group i n t u r n was r e l a t e d t o a l a r g e number of contacts outside the group would seem t o r e l a t e to Wilsey's (89) f i n d i n g s . Taken together these r e s u l t s suggest t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the process and r e -t e n t i o n i n the group were r e l a t e d to a sense of group membership i n these s t u d i e s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d i s -cover whether the same r e s u l t s i n terms of mental a b i l i t i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n would be achieved through group d i s -c u s s i o n w i t h non-cohesive groups. I t might be pointed out t h a t we have no i n d i c a t i o n s of whether extra-group contacts made a d i f f e r e n c e t o group process or l e a r n i n g i n the H i l l (41), Kaplan (46), or Hadlock (37) s t u d i e s . How b i g a f a c t o r i s t h i s i s i n both extending and l i m i t i n g what can be achieved through group d i s c u s s i o n and how can the agent l e a r n t o use t h i s aspect of ' s o c i a l r e a l i t y ' i n a c h i e v i n g the l e a r n i n g goal? There has been l i t t l e d i r e c t study of l e a d e r s h i p i n 198 the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s of s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n c o l l e g e graduates would appear to be p r e f e r r e d as leaders by members of groups i n the Kaplan (46) study and members who c o n t r i b u t e d to the d i s c u s s i o n f r e q u e n t l y , organized and requested e v a l u a t i o n and had a h i g h index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n were l i k e l y to be chosen by other members of the group as f u t u r e leaders i n the B r i l h a r t (19) study. Hence i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o i n v e s t ! gate whether c o l l e g e graduates demonstrate these q u a l i t i e s to a higher degree than other p a r t i c i p a n t s . D a v i s 1 (27) f i n d i n g t h a t the leader's acceptance and use of d i s c u s s i o n techniques taught by the Great Books Foundation d i d not a f f e c t drop-out; but t h a t h i s acceptance and use of s p e c i f i c techniques which the members d e s i r e d t o see used d i d a f f e c t drop-out. This would seem to o f f e r some v e r i f i c a t i o n f o r L i v e r i g h t ' s (54) hypothesis t h a t l e a d e r s h i p techniques i n Great Books programs should become I n c r e a s i n g l y f l e x i b l e t o f i t i n w i t h the d e s i r e s of members f o r i n c r e a s i n g group cohesion as the years progress. Wilseys' (89) d i s c o v e r y t h a t groups i n which three or more persons had re c e i v e d l e a d e r s h i p and p a r t i c i p a n t t r a i n i n g c a r r i e d on more e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n than groups not so t r a i n e d , i n d i c a t e s t h a t there need be no stereotypes concern-i n g the number of t r a i n e d leaders i n group d i s c u s s i o n when each leader has a d i f f e r e n t task t o perform i n the d i s c u s s i o n . Kaplan's (46) f i n d i n g s t h a t there was v a r i e d 199 s a t i s f a c t i o n on the p a r t both of p a r t i c i p a n t s and leaders w i t h the m a t e r i a l s used i n the programs he s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t perhaps the k i n d of content ( c o n t r o v e r s i a l s i n c e World P o l i t i c s m a t e r i a l s were p r e f e r r e d by a l a r g e margin) and the way i n which the m a t e r i a l s are prepared has considerable e f f e c t on the success of the technique. H i l l (41) found t h a t i d e n t i c a l devices were used as the content b a s i s of d i s -c u s s i o n i n the d i s c u s s i o n groups and only as a i d s t o the l e c t u r e r i n the c l a s s s i t u a t i o n . Therefore i t would seem th a t research i s needed as to the kinds of m a t e r i a l s and the type of p r e p a r a t i o n which would gi v e the best bas i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n groups and c o n t r i b u t e to the e d u c a t i o n a l goals of the agent i n l e a d i n g the d i s c u s s i o n . The authors of the r e s e a r c h reported here are r e -markably s i l e n t on the subject of the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l set-up of t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n groups, however, group d i s c u s s i o n s are u s u a l l y set up i n a c i r c u l a r f a s h i o n so t h a t every person can see every other . Many of these programs take place i n the l i v i n g rooms of members which lends a c a s u a l , Informal a i r t o the l e a r n i n g . Comfortable s e a t i n g , ample space and proper he a t i n g are about the only p h y s i c a l requirements. The leader u s u a l l y s i t s as a member of the group and r e q u i r e s no s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n , though i f devices are to be used he should check to see t h a t e l e c t r i c a l equipment i s working and p r o p e r l y set up before the time of meeting. 200 R e s u l t s . The evidence would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t where the a c q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i s the goal, group d i s -c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e techniques are e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a voluntary s i t u a t i o n . However, H i l l ' s (41) f i n d i n g t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s gained more under l e c t u r e technique may be r e l e v a n t to the Palmer and Verner (66) f i n d i n g t h a t the l e c t u r e group gained s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n f o r m a t i o n since the p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s study was h i g h l y educated i f not p r o f e s s i o n a l . H i l l ' s ( 4 l ) s u s p i c i o n t h a t i n group d i s c u s s i o n attendance i s r e l a t e d to previous knowledge of the subject by p a r t i c i p a n t s coupled w i t h Davis' (27) f i n d i n g that there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t tendency f o r those w i t h low scores on the l i b e r a l a r t s q u i z t o drop out of- the program suggest t h a t other techniques may be s u p e r i o r t o group d i s -c ussion f o r those w i t h l i t t l e i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . This would seem to be borne out by the preference of those w i t h lower education f o r strong l e a d e r s h i p and subject matter s p e c i a l i s t s . The s t a t e d preference of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l s t u d i e s where the ques t i o n was asked f o r a combination of l e c t u r e and group d i s -c u s s i o n would seem to i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e f o r new in f o r m a t i o n t o be put across i n the most e f f i c i e n t way p l u s an opportunity t o i n t e g r a t e the m a t e r i a l . In the case of s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n programs i t might I n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s wish a f a c e - t o -face contact w i t h the agent f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n a l areas of the program r a t h e r than a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h devices which 201 cannot answer subject-matter questions. I t i s important t o note t h a t a l l these s t u d i e s t e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n were concerned w i t h immediate r e c a l l o n l y . Perhaps f u t u r e t e s t i n g of the r e s u l t s achieved through use of the two techniques should be concerned w i t h long-term r e c a l l . I f the g o a l of the agent i n u s i n g the group d i s c u s s i o n technique i s to develop mental s k i l l s i n the l e a r n e r s , according to the f i n d i n g s of Hadlock (37) and B r i l h a r t (19). he can expect some degree of success. Those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Hadlock (37) experiment increased t h e i r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y over the c o n t r o l group and those at the highest education l e v e l increased t h e i r scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than those at the lowest l e v e l . B r i l h a r t (19) found t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who attended seven out of ten meetings and who t a l k e d enough to have a minimum score on the index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n , increased t h e i r index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Since wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n changed index of c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n appeared among members of d i f f e r e n t groups i t seems t h a t the f a c t of group d i s c u s s i o n alone does not produce t h i s change. Factors such as group composition may i n f l u e n c e the process and so a f f e c t the r e s u l t a n t l e a r n i n g . I t would appear t h a t there i s room f o r a great d e a l more experimentation i n t o how mental a b i l i t i e s can be developed through the use of group d i s c u s s i o n . I t would appear a l s o t h a t there Is a great d e a l of 202 room f o r f u r t h e r experiment i n the area of group d i s c u s s i o n technique where a t t i t u d e change i s the g o a l . I t i s important t o d i s c o v e r not only i f a t t i t u d e s can be changed through general d i s c u s s i o n i n the area of the l i b e r a l a r t s but what k i n d of a t t i t u d e s w i l l change and to what degree. H i l l ' s (41) f i n d i n g t h a t members of both l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n groups were s l i g h t l y though n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c , more t o l e r a n t of ambiguity and more convinced of the e f f i c a c y of democratic procedures than they had been p r e v i o u s l y , would suggest th a t group d i s c u s s i o n may not be more e f f e c t i v e than l e c t u r e i n ac h i e v i n g broad a t t i t u d e changes. I n t h a t l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h more r i g i d views d i d not drop out of the program as they tended to i n d i s c u s s i o n groups, i t appears tha t l e c t u r e i s perhaps more e f f e c t i v e f o r t h i s g o a l . On the other hand the f i n d i n g t h a t a t t i t u d e homogeneity decreased i n some d i s c u s s i o n groups over the course of the program may i n d i c a t e t h a t many l a y leaders were not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the s o c i a l pressures to which d i s c u s s a n t s were subjected i n group d i s c u s s i o n and t h e r e f o r e d i d not s t r i v e hard enough t o create an atmosphere i n which views widely d i v e r g i n g from the norm were acceptable. I t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o t e s t how p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i s c u s s i o n groups can become more t o l e r a n t of d i v e r s i t y and a l s o t o t e s t whether the changed a t t i t u d e s of l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s bear up t o problem s i t u a t i o n s i n r e a l l i f e e q u a l l y w e l l . 203 Since f i n d i n g s from H i l l (41) and Davis (27) suggest t h a t those w i t h i n i t i a l l y low knowledge of subject matter tend t o drop out of the program i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d i s c o v e r through a f u r t h e r study whether l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n and more a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s e x i s t together and f u r t h e r , where the a c q u i s i t i o n of more in f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f e f f e c t e d a t t i t u d e change i n content areas on the l i b e r a l a r t s . The f a c t t h a t both group d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s changed though n o n - s i g n i f l e a n t l y t o more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s would suggest th a t t h i s i s so. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the trend towards more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s i n the l e c t u r e groups was accounted f o r by the change i n those who began as l e a s t l i b e r a l i n which case the s i t u a t i o n i n which such persons are allowed t o move at t h e i r own pace without any s o c i a l pressures other than those they choose themselves outside the group might be the best way t o provide f o r a t t i t u d e growth of such person. FIGURE 9 GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES CENTRED AROUND OUTSIDE INFORMATION PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES - OF THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE T ' ~ ""— 1. 1. A b s t r a c t 2. Semi-Abst r a c t 3. Somewhat Removed 4. R e l a t i n g t o D i r e c t Exp. 5. Real L i f e Content • 2. 3. Li m i t e d part necessary f o r a l l or most students 4. Opportunities f o r extensive and sustained p a r t i c i p a t i o n Greal Dav: Liv< Car] Pain Vi Books s H i l i r i g h t Kapl son B r i : er & Had! rner an hart ock Wilsey 5. F u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n TO O 205 VLB. THE CASE DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE Research Design of the Study There Is only one study which deals w i t h case d i s -c u s s i o n and i t i s concerned w i t h the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the case d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e techniques f o r changing a t t i t u d e s among volunt e e r leaders towards the core o b j e c t i v e s of a d u l t education. Further o b j e c t i v e s of the experiment are to t e s t whether experienced l e a d e r s , presumably more com-mi t t e d to a d u l t education o b j e c t i v e s i n i t i a l l y r e t a i n t h i s advantage a f t e r t r a i n i n g of both themselves and inexperienced l e a d e r s , and t o t e s t hypothesis suggested by L i v e r i g h t ' s (54) work t h a t l e a d e r s who volunteer f o r Informal type programs w i l l respond b e t t e r to t r a i n i n g under an info r m a l technique whereas, conversely, l e a d e r s who choose to lead i n a more formal program type w i l l respond b e t t e r t o t r a i n i n g under more formal techniques. The case d i s c u s s i o n technique i s described by Soffe n (71) as two l e v e l s of group d i s c u s s i o n . The f i r s t stage c o n s i s t s i n e i g h t or nine persons seated around a t a b l e who are given a problem drawn from the f i e l d and are asked to di s c u s s d i f f e r e n t issues w i t h respect t o the problem and, i f p o s s i b l e a r r i v e at consensus concerning the s o l u t i o n . The second l e v e l of d i s c u s s i o n occurs when a f t e r f i f t e e n or twenty minutes the group i s asked to r e p o r t on the course of 206 d i s c u s s i o n t o the t o t a l group and s t a t e the c o n c l u s i o n , i f any, which was reached. This i s f o l l o w e d by general d i s -c u s s i o n of the repo r t c o n t r o l l e d by the agent f o r time and t r a f f i c i n order t o d i r e c t the t h i n k i n g of the group t o -wards the p r i n c i p l e s i m p l i c i t i n the d i s c u s s i o n and t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e g r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n t o p a r t i c i p a n t s ' t h i n k i n g . The l e c t u r e technique i s described i n Chapter Three under the s e c t i o n on Lecture Technique Used As A Standard. The experimenter i n d i c a t e s t h a t two l e c t u r e s c a r e f u l l y pre-pared and w e l l presented were gi v e n . The two t r a i n e r s used f o r each technique were s e l e c t e d as p r e f e r r e d from a l i s t of those who e x c e l l e d at each technique: the experimenter had meetings w i t h the t r a i n e r s to make sure t h a t they would cover the same m a t e r i a l . However i t appears t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s were ex-p l i c i t l y s t a t e d through the l e c t u r e but i n the case d i s -c u s sion an attempt was made to e l i c i t the p r i n c i p l e s from the group through problem-solving d i s c u s s i o n . Each technique was t e s t e d at two meetings h e l d a week apart. The sample was drawn from p r a c t i s i n g adult leaders who volunteered f o r t r a i n i n g but who had l i m i t e d time f o r t r a i n i n g . I t represented p a i d and unpaid, part-time leaders whose main p r o f e s s i o n was not ad u l t education and who had not had p r o f e s s i o n a l courses i n a d u l t education. They were drawn 207 from three types of co-operating agencies: p u b l i c and v o c a t i o n a l schools; u n i v e r s i t y evening programs f o r a d u l t s and i n f o r m a l programs such as those of the volunteer s o c i a l agencies. These leaders were a t t r a c t e d t o the t r a i n i n g program through i d e n t i c a l form l e t t e r s , sent out by t h e i r sponsoring agency. Two hundred and f o r t y - t w o responded from 402 l e t t e r s sent, but e i g h t y - e i g h t of these were unable t o a t t e n d . The c o n t r o l group was s e l e c t e d from them. A second l e t t e r i n -formed would-be p a r t i c i p a n t s of time, place and t r a i n e r s . Eighty-two r e g i s t e r e d f o r the program held on two consecu-t i v e Mondays and seventy-two f o r t h a t on two consecutive Wednesdays. Of these, eighteen f i l l e d a l l the t e s t i n g r e -quirements f o r the l e c t u r e group, twenty-nine f o r the case-study group and twenty-two f o r the c o n t r o l group. The p o p u l a t i o n was assigned to groups by chance modified by a b i l i t y t o attend two consecutive Monday or Wednesday n i g h t s . The groups were matched, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , t o i n c l u d e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l ) men and women, 2) the three program types and 3) leaders w i t h no experience and those w i t h one or more years of experience. An instrument was developed t o t e s t a t t i t u d e toward core o b j e c t i v e s of a d u l t education as measured by p r o f e s s i o n -a l t h i n k i n g . Eighteen p r o f e s s i o n a l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the pre-t e s t of t h i s instrument and twenty-four i n the f i n i s h e d 208 standard. The answers were found t o c l u s t e r around a median w i t h a f a i r degree of homogeneity. When t h i s i n s t r u -ment was administered, at the f i r s t meeting f o r each of the two groups, o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s were given t o the e f f e c t t h a t there were no " c o r r e c t " answers to these questions but r a t h e r t h a t the qu e s t i o n n a i r e sought a r e f l e c t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s of those present. A r e a c t i o n sheet was f i l l e d i n by p a r t i c i p a n t s at the end of the second meeting and they were t o l d t h a t they would be asked t o respond to another instrument i n f o u r months. An explanatory l e t t e r was sent to p o s s i b l e persons f o r the c o n t r o l group a f t e r which appointments were made by phone f o r each person to f i l l i n a twenty minute q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o r e t e s t e d i n f o u r months time. The data were analysed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . F i n d i n g s A t t i t u d e . Soffen (71) notes t h a t the f i n d i n g s of the study may be g e n e r a l i z e d t o the k i n d of part-time lea d e r s who make themselves a v a i l a b l e f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n -i n g . New leaders improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y towards p r o f e s s i o n -a l a t t i t u d e s i n adul t education as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n two l e c t u r e s e s s i o n s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t improve-ment among those who attended the case d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n 209 r e g a r d l e s s of program type or experience l e v e l , nor was there any improvement i n the c o n t r o l group. The author considers that these r e s u l t s which favour the l e c t u r e technique i n promoting i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a d u l t education goals suggest t h a t a t t i t u d e change i n t h i s case i m p l i e s a body of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l as a p r e l i m i n a r y t o problem-solving, and an immediate d i r e c t attempt at problem-s o l v i n g through the case d i s c u s s i o n technique only r e s u l t s i n confusion. He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the k i n d of freedom of expression needed f o r good case d i s c u s s i o n i s perhaps not l i k e l y t o occur among persons who although working i n the same agency may not know each other w e l l . The l e a r n e r , according to the experimenter, may w e l l be expending h i s energy on p r o t e c t i n g himself whereas i n the l e c t u r e group he i s n ' t exposed i n the same way. A l s o , In the o p i n i o n of the present w r i t e r , the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t may w e l l be more open t o l e a r n i n g i n a f i e l d i n which he i s already I n t e r e s t e d and i n which he has a ba s i s f o r I n t e g r a t i n g new ideas. The experimenter suggests f u r t h e r t h a t the s i z e of the group may have been a f a c t o r i n the case d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n since there were f o r t y - e i g h t persons at the f i r s t meeting, a l -though only t h i r t y - t h r e e at the second. This may have meant there were too many persons i n the plenary s e s s i o n s . With regard to h i s t h i r d hypothesis concerning program type and l e a r n i n g from l e c t u r e or case study technique FIGURE 10 CASE DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE PLACED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITIES OF THE LEARNING SITUATION 1 2 3 4 5 < 2 3 Soffen l e c t u r e 4 So f f e n case d i s c u s s i o n 5 211 i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the f i n d i n g t h a t although a l l nine new leaders from v o c a t i o n a l and u n i v e r s i t y programs improved under the l e c t u r e technique only f i v e of nine from i n f o r m a l programs improved. Even though no leaders improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of case d i s c u s s i o n i t perhaps i n d i c a t e s along L i v e r i g h t ' s (54) l i n e s t h a t leaders a t -t r a c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t program types l e a r n i n d i f f e r e n t ways and suggests t h a t f u r t h e r experimentation i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n might produce i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . VIC. THE PERMISSIVE GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE Organ i z a t i o n of the S e c t i o n As was s t a t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n on Group D i s c u s s i o n Technique, permissive group d i s c u s s i o n i s concerned w i t h a t t i t u d e change or adoption as the g o a l . The experimenters In t h i s area seem to be extremely u n c e r t a i n of the technique both of the goals which can be achieved by use of i t and of the processes which are used w i t h i n i t to achieve these g o a l s . The s t u d i e s presented here are organized according to the c h i e f i n t e r e s t of the experimenter. The McGuiness and W i l l a r d (61) study i s concerned w i t h process and the Perkins (67) study w i t h process and i n f o r m a t i o n . L i v e r i g h t (54) i s concerned w i t h process and a t t i t u d e change or adoption. Andrew (3,4) i s concerned w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and comprehension and McGuiness, Lana and Smith (60), McGuiness {59), 212 Shapiro (68), and McKinely (62), w i t h a t t i t u d e s whereas the main i n t e r e s t of the Gordon (35)* Harvey and Simmons (39)* and Keneally (49) experiments i s adoption of p r a c t i c e s . Research Designs of the Experiments McGuiness and W i l l a r d ( 6 l ) s t a t e t h a t the purpose of t h e i r experiment i s t o d i s c o v e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s who v o l u n t a r i l y enter i n t o group d i s c u s s i o n i n a permissive s e t t i n g . They developed a ques t i o n n a i r e which sought i n f o r m a t i o n on the age, sex, marltlal,'status and number of c h i l d r e n of p a r t i c i p a n t s , on t h e i r socio-economic s t a t u s , on t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n area, and on t h e i r group a f f i l i a t i o n . A s e r i e s of experiments was conducted u s