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Bacchus in Latin love-elegy Sandilands, Joan Ruth 1966-12-31

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BACCHUS IN LATIN LOVE-ELEGY by Joan Ruth S a n d i l a n d s (B.A., A l b e r t a , 1 9 6 2 )  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f Classics  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e standard required  from c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e  degree o f Master o f Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia April, 1966  In  presenting  requirements Columbia, for  the  c i a l  Head  gain  Department The  of  shall  thesis  in  p a r t i a l  advanced  degree  at  the  that  the  Library  study.  I  t h i s  thesis  of my  that  f u r t h e r  Department  copying not  be  or  or  for by  8,  of  allowed  B r i t i s h  Canada  shall agree  his  without  Columbia  f u l f i l m e n t  U n i v e r s i t y  make  i t  that  s c h o l a r l y  p u b l i c a t i o n  of  U n i v e r s i t y  Vancouver Date  and  copying  understood  an  agree  reference  tensive by  I  for  t h i s  of  f r e e l y  a v a i l a b l e  may  representatives. of  this  thesis  my  w r i t t e n  the  B r i t i s h  permission  purposes  of  for  for be It  exgranted is  f i n a n -  permission.  ii  ABSTRACT  The aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s , by means o f a c l o s e exam i n a t i o n o f t h e evidence p r e s e n t e d by the t e x t s , t o a n a l y s e t h e ways i n w h i c h T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d t r e a t t h e god Bacchus and,by so d o i n g , t o d i s c o v e r why  Bacchus be-  comes f o r them a p a t r o n o f p o e t r y . Chapter I , the i n t r o d u c t i o n , , deals b r i e f l y w i t h the l i t e r a r y background and s e t s the l i m i t s o f the Chapters  study.  I I , I I I and IV a n a l y s e the appearances o f the  god i n t h e p o e t r y o f T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d  respec-  t i v e l y : the T i b u l l a n Bacchus i s p r i m a r i l y a p a t r o n o f c u l t u r e and  viti-  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o e t r y and Amor because o f  t h i s b a s i c r o l e ; P r o p e r t i u s i s more concerned  w i t h the god's  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A r i a d n e and t h e Maenads and d e v e l o p s  a  complex exemplum f o r h i s a f f a i r w i t h C y n t h i a u s i n g t h e s e a s major c h a r a c t e r s ; O v i d makes f r e q u e n t use o f i d e a s Bacchus developed r e a l l y new  concerning  by the o t h e r two p o e t s but adds n o t h i n g  t o the concept  o f t h e god as p a t r o n o f p o e t r y .  C h a p t e r V, the c o n c l u s i o n , summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a p t e r s and on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , f i r s t , makes a g e n e r a l statement  about the use o f myth i n  each o f the t h r e e p o e t s and,second, answers the  original  q u e s t i o n : T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid a r e p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p o e t r y , not o n l y as poets but a l s o as t h u s Bacchus, because o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A r i a d n e the Maenads, because o f h i s p o w e r f u l and avenging  lovers; and  nature  and  iii  because o f h i s a b i l i t y (through wine) t o f r e e them from the p a i n o f an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r , An a p p e n d i x d e a l i n g w i t h B a c c h i c e l e g y i s added.  i s t h e i r s p e c i a l patron.  iconography i n L a t i n l o v e -  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h e r g r a t i t u d e t o Professor  H.G. E d i n g e r f o r h i s a d v i c e and encourage-  ment i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s s t u d y and t o P r o f e s s o r McGregor f o r h i s c a r e f u l c r i t i c i s m s o f i t .  M.F.  V  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  CJ CIL TAPA  Classical Journal Corpus I n s c r i p t i o n u m L a t i n a r u m T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e American Association  Philological  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III. IV. V.  PAGE 1  Introduction Bacchus i n t h e Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m .  10  Bacchus i n t h e P o e t r y o f P r o p e r t i u s  22  Bacchus i n t h e P o e t r y o f O v i d  49  Conclusion  83  APPENDIX: B a c c h i c I c o n o g r a p h y i n L a t i n L o v e Elegy BIBLIOGRAPHY  92 98  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d i s c o v e r and a n a l y s e the ways i n which T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid employ t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus i n t h e i r e l e g i e s , a n d , i n so d o i n g , t o a s c e r t a i n why, f o r these t h r e e , Bacchus becomes a p a t r o n o f poetry. The method used i s t o d e a l o n l y w i t h t h e t e x t s o f t h e three poets.  The h i s t o r y o f e r o t i c e l e g y , from Greece  A l e x a n d r i a t o Rome, i s l o n g and complex; however, for this  through  concern  t h e development o f the form i s o u t s i d e t h e sphere off study. The  v e r y n a t u r e o f L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y makes an e x c l u s i v e  method p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l i d .  I t i scertain that Tibullus,  P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d were i n some ways t h e h e i r s o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a n e l e g i a c p o e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f C a l l i m a c h u s and P h i l e t a s , a s w e l l as o f e a r l i e r Greek w r i t e r s such as Mimnermus.  P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d t h e m s e l v e s s p e a k o f t h e s e a s  t h e i r m a s t e r s : P r o p e r t i u s i n 2.1.39-42 ( C a l l i m a c h u s ) ;  2.34.  31-32 ( P h i l e t a s and C a l l i m a c h u s ) ; 3.1.1-6 ( C a l l i m a c h u s and P h i l e t a s ) ; 3-3.51-52 ( P h i l e t a s ) ; 3.9.43-44 ( C a l l i m a c h u s and P h i l e t a s ) ; and O v i d i n Amores 2.4.19-20 ( C a l l i m a c h u s ) ; A r s Amatoria  3*329-331 ( C a l l i m a c h u s , P h i l e t a s , Anacreon and  Sappho); Remedia Amoris 381 ( C a l l i m a c h u s ) and 759-762  (Calli-  machus, P h i l e t a s and A n a c r e o n ) ; T r i s t i a 1.6.1-3 ( P h i l e t a s and Antimachus) and 2.363-368 (Anacreon,  Sappho and C a l l i -  machus); E p i s t u l a e ex Ponto 3«l«57ff. ( P h i l e t a s ) .  2  A s t u d y o f these passages does n o t , however, c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n what r e s p e c t the L a t i n p o e t s c o n s i d e r e d  themselves  indebted to the A l e x a n d r i a n s . In discussing Propertius  1  references to Callimachus,  Luck r e m a r k s , ...whenever P r o p e r t i u s mentions C a l l i m a c h u s , he sees i n him e i t h e r a model o f s t y l e , o r the e l e g i a c p o e t , o r . . . a l o v e poet i n the vaguest sense o f t h e word. N e v e r , as w i t h o t h e r s (see 2.34.&5ff.) does he connect C a l l i machus w i t h one woman.^ A f t e r examining  O v i d ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o the same p o e t , Luck  states h i s conclusion, a conclusion that could s a f e l y  be  a p p l i e d t o t h e o t h e r A l e x a n d r i a n poets as w e l l : Whatever C a l l i m a c h u s ' i n f l u e n c e on the L a t i n e l e g i a c p o e t s may have been - and i t s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d - he became more and more a " g r e a t name," a " c l a s s i c " whom one p r a i s e d almost m e c h a n i c a l l y . . . C a l l i m a c h u s may have w r i t t e n p e r s o n a l l o v e e l e g i e s , but i f t h e r e was one t h i n g he c o u l d not s u p p l y , i t was the f r e s h e x p e r i e n c e t h a t makes the L a t i n e l e g y what i t i s . Thus, i t i s c l e a r t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were l i n k s tween the A l e x a n d r i a n and t h e Roman e l e g i a c p o e t s ,  be-  neverthe-  l e s s , because we know so l i t t l e about the f o r m e r , and because the r e f e r e n c e s i n the l a t t e r a r e vague, an approach t h a t c o n s i d e r s the L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y almost a s e p a r a t e phenomenon is  justifiable. Our knowledge o f the Roman p r e d e c e s s o r s o f T i b u l l u s ,  P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y s c a n t y .  There i s , o f  1  Georg L u c k , The L a t i n Love E l e g y (London, 1959), p.  2  I b i d . , p.  29-  27.  3  c o u r s e , one  exception  to t h i s statement.  The  importance  o f C a t u l l u s ' r o l e i n s e p a r a t i n g Roman from A l e x a n d r i a n  erotic  e l e g y , i n "making L a t i n e l e g y what i t i s , " i s d i f f i c u l t overestimate.  3  to  Kenneth Quinn's t e r m , "the C a t u l l a n r e v o l u -  t i o n , " i s most a p t .  A l t h o u g h the poet was  l i a r w i t h the e l e g i e s and  thoroughly  fami-  epigrams o f the A l e x a n d r i a n s ,  never-  t h e l e s s he l i v e d and w r o t e i n a Roman environment. T h i s  en-  vironment made no s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the new d i r e c t i o n i m p a r t e d , t o L a t i n p o e t r y by C a t u l l u s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . C a t u l l u s ' s o c i e t y was  a changing oner Greek i n f l u e n c e  i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e r i t y and'the consequent extension  o f l e i s u r e time among t h e upper c l a s s e s i n Rome  made p o s s i b l e the k i n d o f f a s h i o n a b l e produced the nugae.  The  literary circle  poetae n o v i adopted t h e s e  that  "trifles" 4  and made them the b a s i s o f a new I n so d o i n g , the new of L a t i n poetry:  and  serious kind of  poetry.  p o e t s were g o i n g a g a i n s t the mainstream  t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s and most o f t h e i r con-  t e m p o r a r i e s h e l d the o p i n i o n t h a t w o r t h w h i l e p o e t r y must be, i f nothing  e l s e , u s e f u l , i . e . , i t s h o u l d have a p a t r i o t i c  o r m o r a l b a s i s o f some k i n d . P r o s p e r i t y and the i n f l u e n c e o f Greek c u l t u r e , combined w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g independence o f women and  e a r l y , arranged  m a r r i a g e s , brought about a change i n the Roman a t t i t u d e t o love.  Among the upper c l a s s e s , l o v e a f f a i r s o u t s i d e  marriage  became more and more common and were t r e a t e d more and more seriously. 3  The  4  C f . Quinn, op.  Catullan Revolution c i t . , p.  (Melbourne, 24.  1959)  4  It  i s necessary  t o understand these  changes i n Roman  s o c i e t y as w e l l as "the unique s t a t u r e o f a s i n g l e v e r y 5 i n d i v i d u a l poet" i n order t o a p p r e c i a t e the reasons  behind  Quinn s ...three i n g r e d i e n t s i n v o l v e d i n the r e s h a p i n g o f t r a d i t i o n t h a t produced the C a t u l l a n revolution. F i r s t l y , the poet becomes an independent p e r s o n a l i t y who f o r c e s h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i n to h i s poetry. Secondly, t h e poet abandons the s e r v i c e o f the community f o r a more e s o t e r i c , more p u r e l y p o e t i c k i n d o f p o e t r y . T h i r d l y , the u n i t becomes the s h o r t poem, i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d . ^ 1  The  l o v e e l e g i s t s who f o l l o w e d C a t u l l u s were, then,  a d i s c r e t e group: l i k e t h e A l e x a n d r i a n elegiac poetry about love.  poets, they wrote  B u t , whereas Callimachus and  P h i l e t a s d e a l t w i t h the l o v e s o f m y t h o l o g i c a l or perhaps w i t h t h e i r own a f f a i r s way,  characters  i n an almost o b j e c t i v e  the i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l q u a l i t y  of the L a t i n p o e t r y s e t i t a p a r t .  The profound i n f l u e n c e  o f the poet C a t u l l u s and t h e changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i s s o c i e t y succeeded i n b r i n g i n g about a r e v o l u t i o n i n L a t i n p o e t r y t h a t made L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t 7 from i t s Greek "models."  5  Quinn, op. c i t . , p. 85.  6  I b i d . , p. 26.  ,  7 C f . Brooks O t i s , V i r g i l , a Study i n C i v i l i z e d P o e t r y (Oxford, 1963), p. 32. O t i s emphasizes the r81e o f G a l l u s as i n n o v a t o r . He s t a t e s here t h a t G a l l u s "fused C a t u l l u s ' s u b j e c t i v e p a s s i o n , the poet's own l o v e experience, w i t h the stock themes o f H e l l e n i s t i c amatory epigram and the mythol o g i c a l l e a r n i n g o f Alexandrine verse." I n view o f our l a c k o f d i r e c t evidence, however, I t h i n k i t dangerous t o suppose t h a t G a l l u s " i n v e n t e d " and t h e others merely f o l l o w e d h i s l e a d . S u r e l y T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s were j u s t as capable o f i n n o v a t i o n as he.  5  F i n a l l y , a study of these poets as a d e f i n i t e  "group"  i s j u s t i f i e d by the very fact that T i b u l l u s , Propertius and Ovid were p r a c t i c a l l y contemporaries, belonged to approximately the same s o c i a l class and consequently, l i v e d and worked i n a similar atmosphere.  During the amazingly  short period of about sixty years, these poets began, experimented with and "perfected" L a t i n love-elegy: Catullus died about 54 B.C.,  Propertius began to publish about 29  and Tibullus probably published between 23 and 19 B.C.; f i r s t e d i t i o n of Ovid's Amores appeared soon after 16  B.C. the  B.C. 8  Ovid's e x i l e i n 7 A.D. marked the end of love-elegy i n Rome. I t might be argued that a consideration of the rSle of Bacchus i n L a t i n love-elegy i s merely a review of commonplaces.  Among the predecessors of the L a t i n poets, Bacchus  9  appears, often with Ceres, as a patron of v i t i c u l t u r e ; very frequently he i s associated with wine, and as such hailed as a source of good cheer and release from care;  10  likewise,  8 Note that Ovid himself thought of the L a t i n elegiac poets as a discrete group. See Amores 3«9.6lff.; T r i s t i a 4. 10.45ff. and T r i s t i a 5.1.17-20. 9 Cf. Callimachus, Hymn 6.69-71, translated by A.W. Mair (Callimachus. Hymns and Epigrams; Lvcophron. Aratus, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library, London and Cambridge, Mass. I960). Lucretius, De Rerum Natura 4.1168; 5.14; 5.742-743, translated by W.H.D. Rouse (The Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library, London and New York 1924). 10 Cf. Ion of Chios, Elegiac Poems 1, translated by J.M. Edmonds (Elegy and Iambus...with the Anacreontea v . l . The Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library, London and Cambridge, Mass. 19ol). Greek Anthology, Bk. 9.403, 524; Bk. 11.55, 57, translated bv W.R. Paton (The Greek Anthology, v. 3 and 4, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library, London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958). T  6  the wine god o f t e n appears i n a c o n t e x t i n v o l v i n g  love.  11  F i n a l l y , t h e e a r l i e r p o e t s connected Bacchus w i t h p o e t r y a) because as t h e god o f wine he was t h o u g h t c a p a b l e o f b r i n g i n g about t h e k i n d o f "madness" t h a t t h e a n c i e n t s 12 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both p o e t r y and prophecy and b) because o f  13 h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h drama and t h e d i t h y r a m b . So i t might seem t h a t t h e L a t i n e l e g i a c p o e t s , i n making use o f a l l t h e s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f B a c c h u s , a r e merely repeating  c l i c h e s handed down t o them by t h e i r p r e -  11 C f . A n a c r e o n , Bk. 1.2, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( L y r a G r a e c a v . 2, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1 9 5 8 ) . Euenus, E l e g i a c Poems 2, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( E l e g y and Iambus.... v. 1, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1 9 6 1 ) . B a c c h y l i d e s 70. 6-10, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( L y r a G r a e c a . v . 3» The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge. Mass. 1958;. Anac r e o n t e a 4, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( E l e g y and Iambus.... v. 2 The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1961J. I o n o f C h i o s 1, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( L y r a G r a e c a . v. 3> The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1 9 5 8 ) . S o l o n 26, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( E l e g y and Iambus.... v. 1, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Camb r i d g e , Mass. 1 9 6 1 ) . Greek A n t h o l o g y . Bk. 10.18, t r a n s l a t e d by W.R. P a t o n (The Greek A n t h o l o g y , v. 4, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 195°). f  ?  12 F o r a s t u d y o f t h i s s o r t o f r e f e r e n c e i n b o t h Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e see A r t h u r P. M c K i n l a y , "Bacchus as I n s p i r e r o f L i t e r a r y A r t , " CJ 49 (1953) 101-110. See a l s o A l i c e S p e r d u t i , "The D i v i n e N a t u r e o f P o e t r y i n A n t i q u i t y , " TAPA 81 (1950) 209-240. Note e s p e c i a l l y pp. 221-223. 13 C f . A r c h i l o c h u s 77, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( E l e g y and Iambus.... v . 2 , The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1961). C a l l i m a c h u s , E p i g r a m 10, t r a n s l a t e d by A.W. M a i r ( C a l l i m a c h u s . . . . The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1 9 o 0 ) . S i m o n i d e s 177, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( L y r a G r a e c a . v . 2, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1 9 5 8 ) . B a c c h y l i d e s , 14.48-51, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds ( L y r a G r a e c a . v . 3, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1 9 5 8 ) . C a l l i m a c h u s , E p i g r a m 9, t r a n s l a t e d by A.W. M a i r , ( C a l l i m a c h u s . . . . The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Camb r i d g e , Mass. I 9 6 0 ) . L u c r e t i u s , De Rerum N a t u r a 1.923.  7  decessors.  My purpose i s t o show t h a t t h i s i s not e n t i r e l y  so, t h a t T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s  and Ovid see i n t h i s god and  i n the legends surrounding him a unique s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r them, as Roman e l e g i a c poets w r i t i n g o f l o v e . The  importance o f C a t u l l u s i n d i r e c t i n g the course  of L a t i n l o v e p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l h a s been s t r e s s e d .  Like-  wise, i n p a r t i c u l a r , C a t u l l u s ' treatment o f the legend o f Theseus, Ariadne and Bacchus  (64. 50-264)  a f f e c t e d the l a t e r  poets.  However, whereas C a t u l l u s merely observes the d i s -  traught  Ariadne (although the poet's p e r s o n a l i t y i s by no  14 means absent from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n ) , T i b u l l u s , Ovid and especially Propertius t h e i r own l o v e The  a p p l y t h i s legend t o themselves and t o  affairs.  i n f l u e n c e o f environment upon a poet can e a s i l y  be exaggerated.  I t i s noteworthy however, t h a t i n I t a l y  d u r i n g the f i r s t  century B.C. Bacchus became an i n c r e a -  singly familiar deity.  He was e s p e c i a l l y popular i n the v i n e -  r i c h area o f Campania, as t h e god o f wine, the p r o t e c t o r o f  15 wine-merchants and o f v i t i c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l .  In addition,  a more H e l l e n i c Bacchus made h i s appearance i n I t a l y  during  t h i s c e n t u r y , due p r i m a r i l y t o growth i n G r a e c o - O r i e n t a l p r e s t i g e , more d i r e c t contact between Rome and t h e East and the i n f l u x i n t o Rome o f thousands o f o r i e n t a l a r t i s a n s  16  and  s l a v e s . I t i s probable t h a t groups o f devotees t o the c u l t  pp.  14 C f . Quinn, op. c i t . , p. 50, and O t i s , op. c i t . , 28-29.  6.467  15  C f . CIL 1.281; 5.5543;  and 8826.  16  C f . A d r i e n B r u h l , L i b e r P a t e r ( P a r i s , 1953), p. 122.  8  of  t h i s H e l l e n i c d e i t y e x i s t e d a t Rome d u r i n g t h e Augustan 17  age and were known t o t h e e l e g i a c p o e t s . Most i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e l i v e s o f the e l e g i a c p o e t s Rome was f i l l e d w i t h B a c c h i c works of  a r t . Bruhl states, Ses s t a t u e s , c h e f s - d ' o e u v r e de l ' a r t h e l l e n i q u e , a c h e t e e s ou p i l l e e s en G r e c e , o r n e n t l e s e d i f i c e s p u b l i c s , l e s j a r d i n s , l e s demeures des p a r t i c u liers. Des p e i n t u r e s murales r e p r e s e n t e n t l e s e p i s o d e s du mythe d i o n y s i a q u e . 1 8  I n t r o d u c i n g h i s c h a p t e r "Bacchus dans l ' a r t d e c o r a t i f de Pompei e t de Rome," he c l a i m s , I I n'est pas exagere de d i r e que beaucoup de Romains, a Rome e t dans l e s c i t e s p r o v i n c i a l e s v i v a i e n t dans una ambiance d i o n y s i a q u e . 1 9 It  i s obvious that t h e e l e g i a c poets, e s p e c i a l l y P r o p e r t i u s 20  and O v i d , were f a m i l i a r w i t h such works o f a r t .  In this  c o n n e c t i o n , a s t u d y o f B a c c h i c i c o n o g r a p h y found i n t h e works of  t h e t h r e e p o e t s i s appended t o t h i s  paper.  Thus, we have p l a c e d t h e L a t i n e l e g i a c p o e t s i n a " s e t t i n g : " t h e y were i n some ways t h e h e i r s o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a n p o e t s , b u t were s e p a r a t e d from them by t h e " C a t u l l a n r e v o l u t i o n , " a r e v o l u t i o n i n v o l v i n g both profound  social  changes and t h e o u t s t a n d i n g g e n i u s o f one man; t h e y were 17 B r u h l , op. c i t . , p. 136, c o n s i d e r s i t u n l i k e l y t h a t i n t h e t i m e o f Augustus t h e r e was a temple t o Bacchus on t h e V i a S a c r a . Note, however, t h e s u s p i c i o u s e v i d e n c e o f Amores 3.8.51-52: [qua. l i c e t , a d f e c t a s caelum quoque: t e m p l a Q u i r i n u s , / L i b e r e t A l c i d e s e t modo Kenney, f o l l o w i n g Ehwald, b r a c k e t s t h e s e l i n e s p r e c i s e l y on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l grounds. 18  I b i d . . p. 119.  19  I b i d . . p. 142.  20  See, f o r example, P r o p e r t i u s 3.9.9-16.  9 contemporaneous,  and i n t h e i r hands L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y de-  v e l o p e d , was p e r f e c t e d and d i e d ; i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f Bacchus, t h e y were preceded by a l o n g l i n e o f w r i t e r s u s i n g the v a r i o u s r o l e s o f t h e god i n such a way as t o make them a l most commonplace; f i n a l l y , i n the Rome o f A u g u s t u s , a l l t h r e e p o e t s must have been f a m i l i a r w i t h Bacchus b o t h as a d e i t y worshipped by devout f o l l o w e r s and a s , t h e s u b j e c t o f numerous works o f a r t . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s " s e t t i n g , " however, There i s no such t h i n g as an " i n f l u e n c e " i n the a b s t r a c t , and any p a r t i c u l a r " i n f l u e n c e " o f t r a d i t i o n , o f environment, o r o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r ience, e x i s t s only i n the i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e d and i s determined by h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , w h i c h i s p a s s i v e o n l y i n grammar and i n h i s t o r i e s o f l i t e r a t u r e , but i n f a c t i s t h e a c t i v e element i n a complex i n w h i c h the b r u t e event i s t h e passive m a t e r i a l t h a t g a i n s form, s i g n i f i c a n c e and e f f i c a c y o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o the way i n w h i c h the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l f a s h i o n s i t . 1  The aim o f t h i s paper i s , t h e n , t h r o u g h a c l o s e exa m i n a t i o n o f the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by the poems t h e m s e l v e s , t o a n a l y s e t h e ways i n w h i c h T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d t r e a t the god Bacchus.  By means o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r  v a r i o u s approaches t o a narrow a r e a o f mythology, i t i s hoped t h a t a b r o a d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f each o f t h e s e t h r e e p o e t s may be a c h i e v e d .  21 H.F. C h e r n i s s , "Me ex V e r s i c u l i s meis parum P u d i cum," C r i t i c a l E s s a y s on Roman L i t e r a t u r e . E l e g y and L y r i c , ed. J.P. S u l l i v a n (London, 1962), p. 25. I t a l i c s a r e mine.  10  CHAPTER I I BACCHUS IN THE CORPUS TIBULLIANUM 1 In  t h e Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus  i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t forms. his  F o r T i b u l l u s (Books 1 and  2)  p r i m a r y r o l e i s t h a t o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l god, a p a t r o n  of v i t i c u l t u r e .  T h i s Bacchus o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n among  the s i m p l e and v e r y Roman d e i t i e s who T i b u l l u s ' r u s t i c "dream w o r l d . "  appear so o f t e n i n  F r e q u e n t l y t h e god i s seen  i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h C e r e s , t h e two a c t i n g as of  appears  co-patrons  the most i m p o r t a n t branches o f I t a l i a n a g r i c u l t u r e ,  viti-  c u l t u r e and g r a i n - g r o w i n g . C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l god i s a l e s s Roman Bacchus, whom t h e poet t h i n k s of, as a c r a f t s m a n : Bacchus i n v e n t e d v i t i c u l t u r e and t h e s c i e n c e o f wine-making and t a u g h t t h e s e t o mankind.  Then, as i t s i n v e n t o r and  propa-  g a t o r , t h e god i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h wine and w i t h i t s e f f e c t s on human b e i n g s .  I n t h i s r o l e , Bacchus has c e r t a i n powers  i n the r e a l m o f Amor. The Bacchus o f Greek myth i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e Adventures to  Corpus.  o f t h e H e l l e n i c D i o n y s u s a r e used t o p a r a l l e l o r  i l l u s t r a t e p o i n t s i n s e v e r a l poems. I n h i s b a s i c r o l e , as Roman god o f v i t i c u l t u r e ,  Bacchus i s seen f i r s t i n 1.9.33-34, a poem addressed t o t h e boy M a r a t h u s , 1  i n which t h e poet c h i d e s him f o r h i s f a i t h -  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e P a n e g y r i c u s M e s s a l l a e . the whole o f t h e Corpus w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s paper. Bes i d e s t h e works o f T i b u l l u s , the c o l l e c t i o n p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e s poems by v a r i o u s members o f the c i r c l e o f M e s s a l l a .  11  lessness: non t i b i s i p r e t i u m Campania t e r r a d a r e t u r , non t i b i s i B a c c h i c u r a F a l e r n u s a g e r . I n 2.1.3-4, a p r a y e r t o a g r i c u l t u r a l gods on the o c c a s i o n o f the Roman A m b a r v a l i a , Bacchus and Ceres are invoked t o 2 gether: Bacche, u e n i , d u l c i s q u e t u i s e c o r n i b u s uua pendeat, e t s p i c i s tempora c i n g e , C e r e s . F i n a l l y , i n 2.3.63-64, the p o e t , l a m e n t i n g the f a c t t h a t Nemesis has gone away t o t h e c o u n t r y , c u r s e s t h e  country-  side: et t u , Bacche t e n e r , iucundae c o n s i t o r uuae., t u quoque d e u o t o s , Bacche, r e l i n q u e l a c u s . T i b u l l u s t h i n k s o f t h i s Bacchus a l m o s t as one o f t h o s e s i m p l e Roman d e i t i e s , l i k e the L a r e s and P e n a t e s , whom he c o n t r a s t s w i t h f o r e i g n gods i n 1.3.27-34:  3  nunc, dea, nunc s u c c u r r e m i h i (nam posse m e d e r i p i c t a docet t e m p l i s multa t a b e l l a , t u i s ) u t mea u o t i u a s p e r s o l u e n s D e l i a uoces ante s a c r a s l i n o t e c t a f o r e s s e d e a t b i s q u e d i e r e s o l u t a comas t i b i d i c e r e l a u d e s i n s i g n i s t u r b a debeat i n P h a r i a . at m i h i c o n t i n g a t p a t r i o s c e l e b r a r e Penates reddereque a n t i q u o menstrua t u r a L a r i . The i n 1.10.  "Roman-ness" o f t h i s Bacchus i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d T i b u l l u s ( l i n e s 15-16) p r a y s t o the L a r e s t o  de-  l i v e r him from the h o r r o r s o f war, t h e n adds t h a t f a i t h was s t r o n g e r when a wooden f i g u r e o f t h e god s t o o d i n a s i m p l e shrine.  L i n e s 21-22, because o f t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o 2.1.3-4,  suggest t h a t , f o r the p o e t , some k i n d o f a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s 2 Note how o f t e n T i b u l l u s d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s o f g r a i n - g r o w i n g and v i t i c u l t u r e , and so between the p a t r o n s o f each: see 1.10.21-22 and 35; 2.1.  45-48; 2.3.61-64; 2.5.84-86. 3  I.e.,  Isis.  12  between Bacchus and t h e L a r e s : hie  p l a c a t u s e r a t , s e u q u i s l i b a u e r a t uuam seu d e d e r a t s a n c t a e s p i c e a s e r t a comae.  F o r T i b u l l u s , t h e n , Bacchus i s b a s i c a l l y a s i m p l e , r u s t i c d e i t y who, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r Roman gods o f t h e c o u n t r y -  4 s i d e , watches o v e r t h e f a r m e r and h i s l a b o u r s . The b i r t h d a y poem t o M e s s a l l a (1.7)  i l l u s t r a t e s the  p o e t ' s concept o f Bacchus as c r a f t s m a n and shows t h e development  from t h i s i d e a t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e god  w i t h wine and i t s e f f e c t s .  T i b u l l u s , i n o r d e r t o demonstrate  the vastness o f h i s patron's conquests, begins w i t h a l i s t of  r i v e r s , c o u n t r i e s and c i t i e s .  H i s l i s t culminates with  the N i l e , and he i s t h u s prompted t o t e l l , i n l i n e s 29-36,  5 about t h e E g y p t i a n god, O s i r i s : primus a r a t r a manu s o l l e r t i f e c i t O s i r i s et teneram f e r r o s o l l i c t a u i t humum, primus i n e x p e r t a e commisit semina t e r r a e pomaque non n o t i s l e g i t ab a r b o r i b u s . h i e d o c u i t teneram p a l i s a d i u n g e r e u i t e m , hie u i r i d e m dura caedere f a l c e comam: i l l i iucundos primum matura sapores e x p r e s s a i n c u l t i s uua d e d i t p e d i b u s . Thus, O s i r i s - B a c c h u s i s , f o r t h e p o e t , a c r a f t s m a n who i nv e n t e d t h e p l o u g h , a g r i c u l t u r e , v i t i c u l t u r e and,- f i n a l l y , wine-making, and who t a u g h t t h e s e s k i l l s t o men.  Note,  however, t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e god r e t a i n s many o f h i s r u s t i c 4 Note a l s o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between Bacchus/wine and the Roman shepherd god, P a l e s , i n 2.5.87-88 and between Bacchus and t h e r u s t i c P r i a p u s i n 1.4.7. 5  The e q u a t i o n O s i r i s - B a c c h u s had been e s t a b l i s h e d  by t h e t i m e o f H e r o d o t u s . See 2.42: deovc; yap fir] ov rove; avTovc; anavrEQ dfj-OLOOQ Alyvurioi jrifiovTou, nXrjv "ICTLOQ TC KXXL 'OcrCPLOQ, rbv Sr\ ALOVVCTOV eivou ~k£yov<ri.  13  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T i b u l l u s here c o n s i d e r s him not one o f t h e gods o f t h e I t a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e , but a f o r e i g n d e i t y from Egypt. I n l i n e s 37-38, the poet s t a t e s t h a t w i n e , t h e f i n a l issue of Bacchus  1  k i n d n e s s t o mankind, i n t u r n t a u g h t  men  new s k i l l s : i l l e l i q u o r d o c u i t uoces i n f l e c t e r e c a n t u , mouit e t ad c e r t o s n e s c i a membra modos. Bacchus, t h e n , by means o f h i s g i f t o f w i n e , was t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f p o e t r y and o f t h e L i n e s 39-42 i l l u s t r a t e  dance. the f i n a l step i n t h i s d e v e l -  opment : Bacchus e t a g r i c o l a e magno c o n f e c t a l a b o r e pectora t r i s t i t i a e dissoluenda dedit: Bacchus e t a d f l i c t i s requiem m o r t a l i b u s a d f e r t , c r u r a l i c e t dura compede p u l s a sonent. "Bacchus" i n l i n e s 39 and 41 can mean o n l y the e f f e c t o f wine upon care-worn men, t r e s s and p a i n .  6  i.e., t o r e l e a s e them from s a d n e s s , d i s -  6 Here i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a t e c h n i q u e common i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e Augustan Age. Names o f d e i t i e s who had l o n g s i n c e ceased t o have r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e become, i n l i t e r a t u r e , " e q u a l " t o t h a t a r e a o r commodity over w h i c h t h e y p r e s i d e . Thus A p o l l o becomes a synonym f o r p o e t r y , Mars f o r war, M i n e r v a T o r c r a f t s m a n s h i p , and so on. C f . W.W. F o w l e r , Roman Ideas o f D e i t y i n t h e L a s t C e n t u r y B e f o r e the C h r i s t i a n E r a (London. 1914). P . 134 f f . Other i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e a p p l i e d t o Bacchus a r e seen i n 2.5.87-88:  and  ac madidus baccho sua f e s t a P a l i l i a p a s t o r concinet: a s t a b u l i s tunc p r o c u l este l u p i ,  i n 3.6.57-58:  N a i d a Bacchus amat:cessas, o l e n t e m i n i s t e r ? temperet annosum M a r c i a lympha merum. where N a i d a i s s i m p l y "water" and Bacchus "wine." The p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d t o such an extreme t h a t among t h e e l e g i a c p o e t s  14  The poem c e l e b r a t i n g t h e A m b a r v a l i a a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Book 2 a l s o r e v e a l s , a l t h o u g h l e s s e x p l i c i t l y , t h e r o l e o f Bacchus as i n v e n t o r - t e a c h e r .  H e r e , however, t h e god  appears i n a more Roman g u i s e , i n t h e m i d s t o f a Roman r e ligious  ceremony.  The poet d e s c r i b e s t h e r u s t i c f e s t i v a l r t h e l a y i n g a s i d e o f work, t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s e x u a l a b s t i n e n c e p r e c e d i n g t h e ceremonies, c l e a n s i n g r i t e s and, f i n a l l y , t h e b r i n g i n g out of wine.  A t o a s t t o M e s s a l l a f o l l o w s , and T i b u l l u s a s k s  h i s p a t r o n t o i n s p i r e him w h i l e he pays t r i b u t e t o r u s t i c gods.  Then b e g i n s a k i n d o f " h i s t o r y o f mankind," i n w h i c h  the poet s t a t e s t h a t man l e a r n e d a l l h i s s k i l l s from r u s t i c gods ( l i n e s  37-50):  r u r a cano r u r i s q u e deos. h i s u i t a m a g i s t r i s d e s u e u i t querna p e l l e r e g l a n d e famem:  a k i n d o f m e t r i c a l f o r m u l a f o r "wine" d e v e l o p s : a n a d j e c t i v e ( u s u a l l y multo) w i t h an e p i t h e t o f Bacchus i n t h e a b l a t i v e : T i b u l l u s 1.2.3: neu quisquam m u l t o percussum tempora baccho . P r o p e r t i u s 1.3.9: e b r i a cum m u l t o t r a h e r e m u e s t i g i a Baccho . 2.33b.35:  me miserum, u t m u l t o n i h i l e s t mutata Lyaeo •  3.5.21:  me i u u a t e t m u l t o mentem u i n c i r e Lyaeo .  O v i d , A r s A m a t o r i a 3.645: f a l l i t u r e t m u l t o c u s t o d i s c u r a Lyaeo . S i m i l a r l y , T i b u l l u s 3.2.19: e t primum annoso s p a r g e n t c o l l e c t a l y a e o . P r o p e r t i u s 2.3.17: quantum quod p o s i t o formose s a l t a t I a c c h o . O v i d , Amores 2.11.49: i l l i c a d p o s i t o n a r r a b i s m u l t o Lyaeo .  15  i l l i compositis primum docuere t i g i l l i s exiguam u i r i d i fronde operire domum: i l l i etiam tauros primi docuisse feruntur seruitium et plaustro supposuisse rotam. turn uictus abiere f e r i , turn consita pomus, turn b i b i t inriguas f e r t i l i s hortus aquas, aurea turn pressos pedibus dedit uua liquores mixtaque securo est sobria lympha mero. rura ferunt messes, c a l i d i cum s i d e r i s aestu deponit flauas annua t e r r a comas, rure l e u i s uerno f l o r e s apis i n g e r i t alueo, compleat ut d u l c i sedula melle fauos. Following t h i s , i n l i n e s 51-58, as i n 1.7.35-38, i s a description of the beginnings of music, poetry and drama: a g r i c o l a adsiduo primum satiatus aratro cantauit certo r u s t i c a uerba pede et satur a r e n t i primum est modulatus auena carmen, ut ornatos diceret ante deos, a g r i c o l a et minio suffusus, Bacche, rubenti primus inexperta duxit ab arte choros. huic datus a pleno memorabile munus o u i l i dux pecoris curtas auxerat hircus opes. Thus, i n both 1.7  and 2.1, T i b u l l u s associates the  god Bacchus with poetry, drama and the dance.  This associa-  t i o n i s based not so much on the complex l i n k between the Greek Dionysus and highly developed Athenian drama as on the simple fact that these art-forms had t h e i r origins i n r u s t i c f e s t i v a l s and were aided i n t h e i r development by the unsophisticated god who men  invented v i t i c u l t u r e , taught i t to  and offered them wine, the f i n a l product of that science. The notion arrived at i n 1.7,  of releasing men  from t h e i r cares by means of his g i f t of  Wine, appears also i n 1.2 by "Lygdamus."  that Bacchus i s capable  and i n the sixth poem of the group  In both, i t i s important to note that Bacchus  i s invoked by the poet-lover who  has been wronged i n some  16 /  way, and who 1.2  seeks r e l e a s e from the consequent p a i n .  b e g i n s as a p a r a c l a u s i t h y r o n .  L i n e s 1-4  are note-  worthy: Adde merum uinoque nouos compesce d o l o r e s , occupet u t f e s s i l u m i n a u i c t a sopor: neu quisquam m u l t o percussum tempora baccho e x c i t e t , i n f e l i x dum r e q u i e s c i t amor. Here t h e r e seems t o be a k i n d o f p r o g r e s s i o n , from merum. p u r e , unmixed w i n e , t h r o u g h u i n o , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e  perhaps  w i n e - d r i n k i n g , t o baccho. t h e e f f e c t s o f t h a t d r i n k i n g .  It  i s bacchus, t h e n , the e f f e c t o f t h a t commodity over w h i c h the god p r e s i d e s , t h a t r e l e a s e s t h e poet from h i s unhappiness at being separated  from h i s m i s t r e s s .  S i m i l a r l y , i n 3*6.1-6, Lygdamus c a l l s upon L i b e r , the god o f t h e v i n e , t o r e l i e v e h i s l o v e - s o r r o w s  by means  of the f r u i t of t h a t v i n e : Candide L i b e r ades: s i c s i t t i b i m y s t i c a u i t i s semper, s i c hedera tempora u i n c t a f e r a s : a u f e r e t i p s e meum p a t e r a medicante dolorem: saepe t u o c e c i d i t munere u i c t u s Amor. care p u e r , madeant generoso p o c u l a baccho, e t n o b i s p r o n a funde F a l e r n a manu. L i b e r i s c a p a b l e o f overcoming Amor ( t h e p a i n caused by an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r ) by means o f h i s p a t e r a m e d i c a n t e . h i s munere, h i s generoso p o c u l a baccho. T h i s i d e a i s s t r e n g thened i n l i n e s 13-20, where the poet speaks o f i l l e i . e . , Amor, as a god who  tames t h e s o u l o f t h e l o v e r and makes  him submit t o the w i l l o f a g i r l . Now, who  deus.  however, i t i s Amor  i s t o be conquered by an even s t r o n g e r power. In a d d i t i o n t o h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with wine, the  17  legends s u r r o u n d i n g Bacchus a r e used i n 3.6 i n t o the r e a l m o f Amor.  t o b r i n g the god  I n l i n e s 23-24, the poet warns h i s  f r i e n d s t h a t , u n l e s s t h e y d r i n k wine r a t h e r t h a n p o c u l a s i c c a ( l i n e 1 8 ) , the same vengeance may Pentheus a t the hands o f Agave.  f a l l on them as f e l l  on  Then, i n l i n e s 25-28, he  i m p u l s i v e l y p r a y s t h a t t h i s vengeance be brought upon h i s f a l s e m i s t r e s s , but q u i c k l y revokes h i s p r a y e r : q u a l e s h i s poenas q u a l i s quantusque m i n e t u r , Cadmeae m a t r i s praeda c r u e n t a d o c e t . sed p r o c u l a n o b i s h i e s i t t i m o r , i l l a q u e , s i qua e s t , quid ualeat l a e s i s e n t i a t i r a d e i . q u i d p r e c o r a demens? u e n t i t e m e r a r i a u o t a , a e r i a e e t nubes d i r i p i e n d a f e r a n t . The poet uses the myth o f A r i a d n e , Theseus and Bacchus i n l i n e s 37-44 as an exemplum o f h i s own  situation:  quid queror i n f e l i x ? turpes d i s c e d i t e curae: o d i t Lenaeus t r i s t i a uerba p a t e r . G n o s i a , Theseae quondam p e r i u r i a l i n g u a e f l e u i s t i ignoto sola r e l i c t a mari: s i c c e c i n i t pro t e d o c t u s , M i n o i , C a t u l l u s i n g r a t i referens impia f a c t a u i r i . uos ego nunc moneo: f e l i x , quicumque d o l o r e a l t e r i u s d i s c e s posse cauere tuom. Lygdamus r e l a p s e s i n t o c o m p l a i n t s about h i s sad l o t , but P a t e r Lenaeus l o a t h e s sad words s u c h as he, abandoned by Neaera, and A r i a d n e , abandoned by Theseus, have used. Bacchus brought j o y a g a i n t o A r i a d n e , and w i l l a l s o t o Lygdamus. The poet t h e n warns h i s f r i e n d s not t o be d e c e i v e d by f a l s e l o v e r s , as he and A r i a d n e were. In  t h e s e two poems we see Bacchus as t h e god o f w i n e ,  the r e l e a s e r f r o m c a r e s and as the Dionysus o f Greek myth, f i r s t as avenger o f t h o s e who  r e f u s e t o p a r t a k e o f h i s munus,  t h e n as t h e r e s c u e r and l o v e r o f A r i a d n e .  In a l l these,  lo-  ne i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h t h e f i g u r e o f t h e poet as l o v e r : he r e l e a s e s t h e poet from t h e sorrows t h a t unhappy l o v e a f f a i r s b r i n g , and he a c t s as t h e p a t r o n and avenger o f t h e poet a s the wronged l o v e r . The  c o n n e c t i o n o f Bacchus w i t h t h e l o v e r - p o e t a p p e a r s ,  a l t h o u g h s u p e r f i c i a l l y , i n 1.4.  Here t h e p o e t ,  unsuccess-  f u l i n h i s a f f a i r w i t h t h e boy M a r a t h u s , a d d r e s s e s P r i a p u s , the r u s t i c god o f f e r t i l i t y , and, i n l i n e 3> a s k s h i m , quae t u a formosos c e p i t s o l l e r t i a ? . . . In l i n e 7 Priapus i s called Bacchi...rustica proles. I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t P r i a p u s i s here a p r a e c e p t o r a m o r i s .  an e x p e r t  i n t h e a f f a i r s o f l o v e , and i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s a d d r e s s e d as B a c c h i . . . p r o l e s . L a t e r i n t h e same poem ( l i n e s 37-38) P r i a p u s warns the poet n o t t o d e l a y i n h i s c o u r t i n g , f o r y o u t h i s gone quickly: s o l i s a e t e r n a e s t Baccho Phoeboque i u u e n t a s : nam d e c e t i n t o n s u s c r i n i s utrumque deum. The>,mere f a c t t h a t Bacchus and Phoebus, t h e u s u a l  patron  o f p o e t r y , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , and t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n occurs  i n a poem about l o v e , i s noteworthy.  Here t h e y a r e c i t e d as t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e t e r n a l y o u t h and a r e h e l d up t o t h e poet as a c o n t r a s t t o h i s own m o r t a l i t y . I t i s , however, i n t h e f o u r t h poem o f Book 3 t h a t t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n between Bacchus and Phoebus is.seen.  Lygdamus d e s c r i b e s a dream i n w h i c h Phoebus has  19  appeared t o him, t e l l i n g him t h a t Neaera p r e f e r s man.  another  The god g i v e s the poet a w a r n i n g t o t a k e t o Neaera  (lines  79-80): hoc t i b i coniugium p r o m i t t i t D e l i u s i p s e ; f e l i x hoc a l i u m d e s i n e u e l l e u i r u m . The  o p e n i n g l i n e s (43-48) o f Phoebus' speech a r e  especially  remarkable: " s a l u e , c u r a deum: c a s t o nam r i t e poetae Phoebusque e t Bacchus P i e r i d e s q u e f a u e n t : sed p r o l e s Semelae Bacchus doctaeque s o r o r e s d i c e r e non norunt q u i d f e r a t h o r a sequens: at m i h i fatorum l e g e s aeuique f u t u r i euentura p a t e r posse u i d e r e d e d i t . " The poet i s addressed  as c u r a deum because (nam)  Phoebus,  Bacchus and t h e Muses r i g h t l y ( i . e . , c u s t o m a r i l y , t r a d i t i o n a l l y ) watch over ( f a v o u r , i n c l i n e t o w a r d s , h e l p , p r o t e c t ) the c a s t o p o e t a e . p e r h a p s , i n t h i s c a s e , the  "innocent"  p o e t , i n t h a t he i s b e i n g wronged by the g i r l who, she has g i v e n h e r s e l f t o a n o t h e r man, between the l o v e r s , and  because  has broken the foedus  i s t h e r e f o r e no l o n g e r c a s t a .  The atmosphere o f t h e poem i s such t h a t the poet must have been t h i n k i n g o f h i m s e l f o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y as a  poeta.  and p r i m a r i l y as a wronged l o v e r , the i d e a i m p l i c i t i n the a d j e c t i v e c a s t o . F u r t h e r , i t i s s a i d t h a t Phoebus, Bacchus and the Muses "poetae f a u e n t . "  The  e s s e n t i a l meaning o f f a u e n t ,  t h a t o f p r o t e c t i n g and h e l p i n g , e x p r e s s e s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y the a t t i t u d e o f t h e s e gods towards an i n n o c e n t v i c t i m t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the poet as c r e a t o r and The 2.5,  same s e n t i m e n t ,  than  craftsman.  i n ,a more g e n e r a l f o r m , appears i n  a poem w r i t t e n on the o c c a s i o n o f M e s s a l i n u s *  installation  20  as a p r i e s t o f A p o l l o .  Near t h e end o f the poem ( l i n e s 105-  106) T i b u l l u s p r a y s t o A p o l l o t o l e t bows and arrows d i s a p p e a r and unarmed Love wander f r e e over the e a r t h .  He i s t h e n  reminded  o f t h e f a c t t h a t , s i n c e C u p i d took t o c a r r y i n g a r r o w s , many have s u f f e r e d from t h e s e weapons.  I n l i n e s 109-112, we l e a r n  t h a t the poet has been e s p e c i a l l y a f f l i c t e d : e t m i h i p r a e c i p u e , i a c e o cum s a u c i u s annum e t ( f a u e o morbo cum i u u a t i p s e d o l o r ) usque cano Nemesim, s i n e quo u e r s u s m i h i n u l l u s uerba p o t e s t i u s t o s a u t r e p e r i r e pedes. The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s (113-116) warn Nemesis t o beware o f h u r t i n g the p o e t - l o v e r : a t t u , nam diuum s e r u a t t u t e l a p o e t a s . praemoneo, u a t i p a r c e , p u e l l a , s a c r o , u t Messalinum c e l e b r e m , cum praemia b e l l i ante suos c u r r u s o p p i d a u i c t a f e r e t . I n b o t h t h e s e poems, t h e n , t h e gods are c o n s i d e r e d not r e a l l y the s o u r c e s o f a p o e t ' s i n s p i r a t i o n and  technical  s k i l l , but h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a t r o n s a s a wronged l o v e r .  It is  i n t h i s c o n t e x t i n 3.4.43-44 t h a t Bacchus j o i n s the u s u a l p a t r o n s o f p o e t r y , A p o l l o and t h e Muses.  A l i n k e x i s t s between  t h i s Bacchus and t h a t o f 3*6, where t h e poet beseeches t o t a k e vengeance upon h i s m i s t r e s s f o r h e r d e c e i t  t h e god  (lines  25-26) and uses t h e a n a l o g y between t h e B a c c h u s - A r i a d n e myth and h i s own s i t u a t i o n ( l i n e s 37-44). Thus, i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e poet i n two ways: b e s i d e s t h e f a c t  that  he, B a c c h u s , t h r o u g h h i s g i f t o f w i n e , i s the i n v e n t o r o f poe t r y , he i s e s p e c i a l l y t h e p a t r o n o f the poet a s l o v e r , i n  21  t h a t , a g a i n through t h i s g i f t , he p r o v i d e s a r e l e a s e from the c a r e s o f an unhappy l o v e , and a p p e a r s , i n t h e two e p i s o d e s s e l e c t e d from h i s m y t h i c a l a d v e n t u r e s , as t h e s a v i o u r and o f t h e wronged l o v e r .  avenger  22  CHAPTER I I I BACCHUS IN THE POETRY OF PROPERTIUS  I n t h e p o e t r y o f P r o p e r t i u s , v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h e comp l e x f i g u r e o f Bacchus a r e more s u c c e s s f u l l y f u s e d than i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . The poet r a r e l y uses Bacchus t o mean s i m p l y w i n e , o r t h a t god who i s p a t r o n o f v i t i c u l t u r e , o r t h a t god who l o v e d A r i a d n e ;  i n almost every i n s t a n c e , P r o p e r t i u s  seems t o have had i n mind a s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y who i s a t once t h e god o f w i n e , t h e l o v e r o f A r i a d n e and t h e l e a d e r and "hypn o t i z e r " o f t h e Maenads. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a c e r t a i n change and e x p a n s i o n i n t h e p o e t ' s concept o f t h e god a r e n o t i c e a b l e as one r e a d s through t h e poetry.  As t h e a f f a i r w i t h C y n t h i a p r o g r e s s e s  and as a t t h e  same time P r o p e r t i u s g a i n s awareness o f h i m s e l f as a p o e t , a change appears i n h i s p o e t r y : Books 1 and 2 d e a l a l m o s t ent i r e l y w i t h h i s l o v e f o r C y n t h i a ; n e a r t h e end o f Book 2, howe v e r , as t h e i r l i a i s o n s t a r t s t o d i s s o l v e , P r o p e r t i u s combines h i s p h i l o s o p h y as a l o v e r w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s as a p o e t . combination  o f t o p i c s occupies  This  t h e p o e t ' s mind t o an i n c r e a s i n g  degree t h r o u g h o u t Book 3, u n t i l f i n a l l y , i n Book 4, C y n t h i a has been a l l b u t d i s c a r d e d , and t h e p o e t , h a v i n g worked t h r o u g h t o a n o t h e r a r e a o f i n t e r e s t , t u r n s t o e n t i r e l y new s u b j e c t matter. As P r o p e r t i u s ' p o e t r y changes and d e v e l o p s , h i s concept o f t h e god Bacchus does l i k e w i s e . I n t h e f i r s t two books, while the poet i s completely  involved with his mistress, )  23  Bacchus appears c h i e f l y as the god o f wine and the l o v e r o f A r i a d n e , a l t h o u g h even here t h e r e are h i n t s o f a d e e p e r s i g nificance.  Near the end o f Book 2,  when P r o p e r t i u s becomes  more concerned w i t h the p o e t i c a l s i d e o f h i s r o l e as l o v e r p o e t , a complex s y n t h e s i s t a k e s p l a c e : j u s t a s Bacchus makes his  " m i s t r e s s , " A r i a d n e , l e a d e r o f t h e Maenads, so now  Pro-  p e r t i u s a d m i t s C y n t h i a t o the f r o n t r a n k s o f t h e chorus o f Muses.  B a c c h u s , l e a d e r o f the Maenads, f u r t h e r m o r e ,  fuses  w i t h A p o l l o , l e a d e r o f the Muses and p a t r o n o f p o e t r y ; composite f i g u r e o f B a c c h u s / A p o l l o  this  l e a d i n g and h a v i n g power  over the Maenads/Muses s e r v e s P r o p e r t i u s w e l l i n t h e  develop-  ment o f h i s t h e o r i e s as a poet o f l o v e . F i n a l l y , i n Book 3 and e s p e c i a l l y i n Book 4, p e r t i u s r e a l i z e s t h a t the e l e g i a c metre may  where P r o -  be put t o uses  o t h e r than l o v e p o e t r y , Bacchus i s r e t a i n e d as a k i n d o f  ab-  s t r a c t p a t r o n o f e l e g y , no l o n g e r i n u n i o n w i t h , but i n conu  t r a s t t o , A p o l l o , the p a t r o n o f more " s e r i o u s " p o e t r y . In  o r d e r t o understand  the P r o p e r t i a n Bacchus, and  how  t h i s complex f i g u r e grows and changes, i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y  to  d i s c o v e r and t o a n a l y s e the ways i n which P r o p e r t i u s uses Bacchus i n i n d i v i d u a l poems. In  1.3>  the poet d e s c r i b e s h i s r e t u r n from a d r i n k i n g  p a r t y and h i s d i s c o v e r y o f C y n t h i a a s l e e p .  The  atmosphere  o f the f i r s t p a r t o f t h e poem i s one o f d e s i r e h e i g h t e n e d i n t o x i c a t i o n , an atmosphere i n w h i c h the f i g u r e o f Bacchus i s p r e s e n t j u s t below the s u r f a c e as a k i n d o f m o t i v a t i n g  by  24  force.  The  poem opens w i t h t h r e e s i m i l e s , two  volve Bacchic  of which i n -  legend:  Q u a l i s Thesea i a c u i t cedente c a r i n a languida d e s e r t i s Cnosia l i t o r i b u s ; , q u a l i s e t a c c u b u i t primo C e p h e i a sorano l i b e r a iam d u r i s c o t i b u s Andromede; nec minus a s s i d u i s E d o n i s f e s s a c h o r e i s q u a l i s i n herboso c o n c i d i t A p i d a n o . N e i t h e r the r e f e r e n c e t o A r i a d n e nor t h a t t o t h e Maenad mentions Bacchus d i r e c t l y , y e t he i s i m p l i c i t i n b o t h : next s t e p i n the A r i a d n e - T h e s e u s l e g e n d  the  i s the a r r i v a l o f  Bacchus; l i k e w i s e , Bacchus i s the cause o f the Maenad's f r e n z y and h e r consequent e x h a u s t i o n .  The  o f t h e s e two  o f Bacchus t h a t a r e  episodes d i s p l a y s aspects  d e l i b e r a t e choice  p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s poem: f i r s t , and most s i m p l y , he i s the l o v e r o f A r i a d n e ;  second, h i s a b i l i t y t o i n s p i r e a  k i n d o f r e l e a s e from i n h i b i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t caused by i n t o x i c a t i o n i s i m p l i e d i n the p i c t u r e o f the Maenad exhausted by c o n s t a n t  dancing.  So a l s o has P r o p e r t i u s , C y n t h i a ' s  been r e l e a s e d from h i s i n h i b i t i o n s by Bacchus.  In l i n e  lover, 9,  however, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e god has w i e l d e d h i s power over P r o p e r t i u s not by means o f h i s t h y r s u s , as w i t h  the  Maenad, but by means o f h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine: e b r i a cum raulto traherem u e s t i g i a Baccho, e t q u a t e r e n t s e r a n o c t e facem p u e r i .  1 The most o b v i o u s c o n n e c t i o n among A r i a d n e , Andromeda, the Maenad and C y n t h i a i s the f a c t t h a t a l l a r e s l e e p i n g the s l e e p o f the e x h a u s t e d . P r o p e r t i u s i s l e d from A r i a d ne t o Andromeda, however, by the u n d e r l y i n g theme o f r e s c u e : Bacchus i s about t o r e s c u e A r i a d n e , P e r s e u s has a l r e a d y f r e e d Andromeda (and, l i k e B a c c h u s , has f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h her whom he s a v e s ) , and P r o p e r t i u s i s on t h e v e r g e of " r e s c u i n g " C y n t h i a . F o r a s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n between Andromeda and A r i a d n e c f . H e r o i d e s 18.151-154.  25  I n t h e s e two l i n e s , t h e B a c c h i c i n t h e poem f a l l  images used t h u s f a r  i n t o one: as B a c c h u s , l e a d i n g t h e t h y r s u s -  b e a r i n g Maenads, who have become " i n t o x i c a t e d " because o f h i s power o v e r them, came i n t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n t o A r i a d n e , t e d by t h e h a r d - h e a r t e d  deser-  Theseus, so P r o p e r t i u s , under t h e i n -  f l u e n c e o f B a c c h u s / w i n e , comes, accompanied by t h e t r o o p o f young boys w i t h t o r c h e s , t o C y n t h i a , whom he h i m s e l f had " a bandoned" e a r l i e r .  The f a c t t h a t P r o p e r t i u s h e r e and elsewhere  i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus w i l l be d e a l t with i n greater d e t a i l l a t e r i n this  chapter.  I n l i n e s 13-16, e t quamuis d u p l i c i correptum a r d o r e i u b e r e n t hac Amor hac L i b e r , durus u t e r q u e deus, s u b i e c t o l e u i t e r p o s i t a m temptare l a c e r t o o s c u l a q u e admota sumere t e t arma t manu, t h e poet r e f e r s t o L i b e r .  The r e a d e r a s s o c i a t e s w i t h  this  name a l l t h e a t t r i b u t e s brought t o mind by t h e imagery o f the previous l i n e s .  Now, however, P r o p e r t i u s emphasizes  the f a c t t h a t Bacchus' p r i m a r y r 6 l e i n t h e poem i n v o l v e s his  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine and h i s consequent a b i l i t y t o  produce i n t o x i c a t i o n .  The meaning o f t h e s e l i n e s i s , t h e n ,  2 t h a t d e s i r e (Amor) i s i n t e n s i f i e d by i n t o x i c a t i o n The  (Liber).  c o n n e c t i o n between B a c c h u s , t h e god o f w i n e , and  Amor i s e x p l o r e d from two p o i n t s o f v i e w i n 2.33b.  Here P r o -  p e r t i u s s c o l d s C y n t h i a f o r d r i n k i n g and gambling f a r i n t o t h e n i g h t , and so p a y i n g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o him. He blames wine 2  C f . O v i d , Amores 1 . 6 . 5 9 - 6 0 .  26  for  t h i s , and i n l i n e s 27-28 c u r s e s i t s i n v e n t o r : a p e r e a t , quicumque meracas r e p p e r i t uuas c o r r u p i t q u e bonas n e c t a r e primus aquas !  That t h e poet has Bacchus i n mind i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f i r s t of t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e examples o f b e i n g s who have been des t r o y e d o r i n j u r e d because o f wine: Icare, Cecropiis merito iugulate colonis, pampineus n o s t i quam s i t amarus odor I The m y t h i c a l I c a r u s , an A t h e n i a n , r e c e i v e d D i o n y s u s g r a c i o u s l y , and so was g i v e n t h e v i n e .  He made wine and gave i t t o  some o f h i s countrymen, who, becoming i n t o x i c a t e d , be-  3 l i e v e d t h e y were p o i s o n e d and k i l l e d him. In  t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t , E u r y t i o n t h e c e n t a u r and  Polyphemus a r e c i t e d as examples o f t h e h a r m f u l n e s s o f winedrinking.  F i n a l l y , i n l i n e s 33-34, P r o p e r t i u s sums up t h e  r e a s o n s why h e , as a p o e t - l o v e r , c o n s i d e r s wine u i n o forma p e r i t , u i n o c o r r u m p i t u r a e t a s , u i n o saepe suum n e s c i t arnica u i r u m . At  injurious:  l i n e 35, however, t h e poet a b r u p t l y changes h i s t o n e :  a f t e r p r e a c h i n g about t h e h a r m f u l n e s s o f w i n e , he s u d d e n l y r e a l i z e s t h a t , i n t h e case o f h i s C y n t h i a , wine i s h u r t i n g h e r not  a t a l l , and t h a t she i s as b e a u t i f u l as e v e r : me miserum, u t m u l t o n i h i l e s t mutata Lyaeo I iam b i b e : formosa e s : n i l t i b i u i n a n o c e n t , cum t u a praependent demissae i n p o c u l a s e r t a e , et mea deducta carmina uoce l e g i s .  Here L y a e u s , an e p i t h e t o f B a c c h u s , i s synonymous w i t h and merum used e l s e w h e r e i n t h e poem.  3  C f . A p o l l o d o r u s , The L i b r a r y 3.14.7.  uinum  27  L i n e s 37-38 perhaps i n d i c a t e why t h e poet has changed h i s mind so suddenly: C y n t h i a h a s t u r n e d from c a s t i n g d i c e to reading h i s poetry.  The sense seems t o b e , "wine i s bad  when i t t a k e s y o u r a t t e n t i o n from me, b u t good when i t prompts you t o r e a d my p o e t r y . "  Thus w i n e , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g an enemy,  as i t was i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the poem, becomes an a l l y t o t h e l o v e r as p o e t . L i n e s 39-44, l a r g i u s e f f u s o madeat t i b i mensa F a l e r n o , spumet e t a u r a t o m o l l i u s i n c a l i c e . n u l l a tamen l e c t o r e c i p i t se s o l a l i b e n t e r : e s t quiddam, quod uos quaerere cogat Amor, semper i n a b s e n t i s f e l i c i o r a e s t u s a m a n t i s : eleuat assiduos  copia longa u i r o s ,  seem a t f i r s t g l a n c e t o be unconnected w i t h what has gone before.  However, t h e same a l l i a n c e between L i b e r ( i n t o x i c a -  t i o n ) and Amor ( d e s i r e ) t h a t was seen i n 1.3 i s i m p l i c i t The  here.  l i n e s mean: l e t C y n t h i a e n j o y her w i n e ; t h e consequent  i n t o x i c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h Amor ( d e s i r e ) , w i l l b r i n g h e r t o me sooner o r l a t e r .  I s h a l l cease t o "nag"  h e r as I have  been d o i n g , s i n c e women a r e l e s s f a v o u r a b l e t o e x c e s s i v e l y persistent  suitors.  I n 2.33b t h e poet has e x p l o r e d two f a c e t s o f t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine: f i r s t , w i t h a k i n d o f tongue-in-cheek a t t i t u d e , t h e n o t i o n t h a t Bacchus/wine i s an enemy t o L o v e , s e c o n d , and more s i n c e r e l y , t h e i d e a t h a t Bacchus i s i n r e a l i t y an a l l y t o Amor (a) because, under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f w i n e , h i s m i s t r e s s has p l e a s e d him by r e a d i n g h i s p o e t r y , and (b) because, a s i n 1.3, d e s i r e i s i n t e n s i f i e d  28  by i n t o x i c a t i o n . I n 3.17  we  f i n d yet another demonstration of the f a c t  t h a t f o r P r o p e r t i u s , Bacchus i s v e r y much i n v o l v e d i n the o f Amor.  The  sphere  poem i s i n the form o f a p r a y e r a d d r e s s e d t o  Bacchus i n w h i c h the poet p l e a d s t o be s e t f r e e from the t h a t h i s m i s t r e s s has a c t i o n ( c f . l i n e y.  apparently  caused him by some  i n s a n a e V e n e r i s . . . f a s t u s ; and  seruitio...superbo).  Line  pain  arrogant  line  41:  4,  curarumque tuo f i t m e d i c i n a mero, line  6, t u u i t i u m ex animo d i l u e , Bacche,  i n w h i c h d i l u e must r e f e r t o w i n e , and  meo, lines  9-11,  hoc m i h i , quod u e t e r e s c u s t o d i t i n o s s i b u s i g n i s , f u n e r a sanabunt aut t u a u i n a malum, semper enim uacuos nox s o b r i a t o r q u e t a m a n t i s , make i t c l e a r t h a t the poet has  i n mind the Greek D i o n y s u s ,  the i n v e n t o r and p r o p a g a t o r o f v i t i c u l t u r e , and  t h a t he  p e c t s r e l i e f t o come t h r o u g h the god's g i f t o f wine. 13-20  P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s t h a t , i f the god  g r a n t s him  he w i l l , i n h i s honour, p l a n t v i n e s and make wine.  ex-  In  lines  sleep, As a p o e t ,  he w i l l a l s o t e l l o f the h e r o i c a d v e n t u r e s o f Bacchus.  In  following l i s t  allu-  ( l i n e s 21-28), w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  s i o n s t o h i s b i r t h and  o f the  the  to h i s triumphant journey to I n d i a , a l l  the l e g e n d s mentioned have t o do w i t h D i o n y s u s as the god  of  the v i n e .  and  L i n e s 29-38 d e s c r i b e the appearance o f the god  some o f the a s p e c t s o f h i s c u l t ; t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h l i n e s 21-28, makes i t s t i l l more o b v i o u s t h a t  Propertius  29  has i n mind the H e l l e n i c god who  introduced v i t i c u l t u r e to  mankind. B e s i d e s a d d r e s s i n g Bacchus as the god o f v i t i c u l t u r e , however, P r o p e r t i u s p r a y s t o him because, as the l o v e r o f A r i a d n e , he s h o u l d be e s p e c i a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o the s u f f e r i n g poet: as A r i a d n e was  abandoned by t h e c r u e l and a r r o g a n t  Theseus, and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e s c u e d by Bacchus, so P r o p e r t i u s has been b a d l y t r e a t e d by h i s m i s t r e s s , and p l e a d s f o r comfort 4 from t h a t god ( l i n e s 3-8): t u p o t e s insanae V e n e r i s compescere f a s t u s , curarurnque tuo f i t m e d i c i n a mero. p e r t e i u n g u n t u r , p e r t e s o l u u n t u r amantes: t u u i t i u m ex animo d i l u e , Bacche, meo. t e quoque enim non esse rudem t e s t a t u r i n a s t r i s l y n c i b u s ad caelum u e c t a A r i a d n a t u i s . However, whereas A r i a d n e was  f r e e d from h e r p a i n by the  a r r i v a l and l o v e o f Bacchus, P r o p e r t i u s a s k s f o r d e l i v e r a n c e from h i s p a i n by t h e god's g i f t o f wine.  Thus, i n t h e s e  l i n e s , Bacchus has a double i d e n t i t y : t h a t o f wine and t h a t o f t h e l o v e r and r e s c u e r o f A r i a d n e .  I n both these r o l e s ,  he i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y a d d r e s s e d by the s u f f e r i n g p o e t . L i n e 5 i s noteworthy: t h e i d e a t h a t wine j o i n s l o v e r s i s seen a l s o i n 1.3.13-18, where L i b e r i s an a l l y o f Amor. Bacchus a l s o s e t s l o v e r s f r e e , however, (a) from the h u r t s which t h e y i n f l i c t upon each o t h e r and (b) from  attachment  4 I t i s remarkable t h a t P r o p e r t i u s here compares hims e l f t o the female p a r t n e r i n a m y t h o l o g i c a l l o v e a f f a i r . S i m i l a r r e v e r s a l s appear a t 2.27.13-16, where t h e poet i s comparable t o E u r y d i c e , h i s m i s t r e s s t o Orpheus; and a t 1.11.23, where t h e p o e t , a d d r e s s i n g C y n t h i a , uses Andromache's words t o H e c t o r ( c f . I l i a d 6.429).  30  t o each o t h e r , s i n c e , as we saw i n 2.33b*34, u i n o saepe suum n e s c i t arnica uirura.  2.33b i n d e e d seems an e x p a n s i o n ( i n r e v e r s e ) o f 3.17.5: per t e i u n g u n t u r ,  p e r t e s o l u u n t u r amantes.  I n t h a t poem,  P r o p e r t i u s f i r s t d w e l l s on t h e f a c t t h a t wine i s h a r m f u l t o Love; i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e poem, however, he i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s i n t r u t h an a l l y . A n a l y s i s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h P r o p e r t i u s uses t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus i n t h e s e t h r e e poems makes c l e a r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e poet i s here concerned w i t h Bacchus p r i m a r i l y i n s o f a r as t h a t god has c e r t a i n powers i n t h e r e a l m o f Amor and  i s t h e r e f o r e an a p p r o p r i a t e  "patron"  o f t h e poet as l o v e r .  I n a l l t h r e e poems, t h e god appears i n h i s  identification  w i t h wine* we l e a r n t h a t wine o f t e n i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e , and i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s prompts t h e p o e t ' s m i s t r e s s t o p l e a s e him by r e a d i n g h i s p o e t r y ;  on t h e o t h e r hand, i t may a l s o  cause a g i r l t o i g n o r e h e r l o v e r ; f i n a l l y , wine i s capable o f r e l e a s i n g l o v e r s from t h e d i s t r e s s t h a t an unhappy a f f a i r involves. It  i s o b v i o u s i n 1.3 and i n 3»17 t h a t Bacchus' r o l e  as l o v e r o f A r i a d n e i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p o e t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e god's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Amor. i s an i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e . example o f t h e " j i l t e d " warns C y n t h i a  Indeed, Ariadne alone  She i s used s e v e r a l t i m e s as an l o v e r : i n 2.24b.43, where P r o p e r t i u s  t h a t o n l y he i s t r u s t w o r t h y ,  i n 1.3.1-2, where  C y n t h i a , abandoned by P r o p e r t i u s , i s compared t o A r i a d n e abandoned by Theseus, and i m p l i c i t l y i n 3.17, where P r o p e r t i u s ,  31  t r e a t e d h a r s h l y by C y n t h i a , i s comparable t o t h e m i s t r e a t e d 5  heroine. A r i a d n e i s an i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n P r o p e r t i u s ' p o e t r y from pure and s i m p l e l o v e - e l e g y t o p o e t r y i n w h i c h he combines h i s r o l e as l o v e r w i t h t h a t as p o e t . In  o r d e r t o understand  t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , and A r i a d n e ' s p l a c e  i n i t , i t w i l l a g a i n be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r i n d i v i d u a l poems. 2.30 p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l t e x t u a l problems. v i d e s t h e poem i n t o 1-12  (30a)  and 13-40  great s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s inquiry.  P . J . Enk d i -  (30b).  30b i s o f  L i n e s 19-22 c o n t a i n  6 d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t have been much d i s c u s s e d ; i s most p l a u s i b l e . (non tamen immerito)  Enk's s o l u t i o n  He a c c e p t s t h e r e a d i n g o f N f o r l i n e and t a k e s t h e f o l l o w i n g  as i n f i n i t i v e s o f e x c l a m a t i o n .  19  infinitives  He t h e n understands  t h e poem  i n t h i s way: 5 Perhaps o f l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e 2.14.7-8, where A r i a d n e ' s j o y a t s e e i n g Theseus s a f e l y t h r o u g h t h e l a b y r i n t h i s equated w i t h t h e p o e t ' s j o y i n h i s m i s t r e s s , and 3*20. 17-18, i n w h i c h A r i a d n e i s c a l l e d upon t o w i t n e s s a l o v e r s ' o a t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e l a s t two i n s t a n c e s add t o t h e evidence t h a t f o r P r o p e r t i u s , as a poet o f l o v e , t h e myth of Ariadne i s s i g n i f i c a n t . 6 See P . J . Enk, Sex. P r o p e r t i i E l e g i a r u m . L i b e r Secundus. v . 2 (Leyden, 1962), pp. 3 8 1 - 3 8 2 . H . E . B u t l e r and E.A. B a r b e r , The E l e g i e s o f P r o p e r t i u s ( O x f o r d , 1933), p. 245, c l a i m t h a t t h e r e a d i n g o f N (non tamen immerito) "has been d e c l a r e d u n i n t e l l i g i b l e by t h e m a j o r i t y o f e d i t o r s . " Then, t a k i n g t h e r e a d i n g nunc t u ( o r nunc iam) dura paras ( L P f and the m a j o r i t y o f l a t e r MSS), t h e y s t a t e , " . . . i t i s a t l e a s t p o s s i b l e t o secure some sense by two v e r y s l i g h t changes, num ( S c a l i g e r ) f o r t h e opening nunc, and dure ( c ) f o r d u r a . The poet addresses someone (perhaps h i m s e l f ) : 'Hard-hearted, do y o u make ready t o c r o s s t h e P h r y g i a n s e a s ? ' &c. The l i n e s w i l l t h e n r e f e r t o a l o v e r , perhaps t h e poet h i m s e l f , who m e d i t a t e s j o i n i n g t h e P a r t h i a n campaign."  32  13-18 P e r me l i c e t m o r o s i senes i s t a n o s t r a c o n v i v i a v i t u p e r e n t , nos, mea v i t a , n o s t r o modo vivamus. 19-22 Quae non s i n e causa d i c o . Debeone P h r y g i a s p e r undas i r e e t a l t e r n a caede communes spargere P e n a t e s ? 23-24 Pudeatne me arnica mea c o n tentum v i v e r e ? 25-36 L i b e a t t i b i , C y n t h i a , mecum r o r i d a a n t r a t e n e r e . I l l i c v i d e b i s Musas i n s c o p u l i s h a e r e n t e s , audiesque eas amores I o v i s e t ipsarum Musarum c a n e n t e s . 37-40 E t cum Musae t i b i locum dabunt i n p a r t e choreae suae e t Bacchus i^earox^poc; e r i t , m i h i ex hedera coronam imponi sinami, nam s i n e t e , C y n t h i a , ingenium n i h i l v a l e t . 7 A c l o s e r s t u d y o f l i n e s 13-25 r e v e a l s a t h r e e - f o l d c o n t r a s t . L i n e s 13-14, i s t a senes l i c e t a c c u s e n t c o n u i u i a d u r i : nos modo p r o p o s i t u m , u i t a , teramus i t e r , c o n t r a s t t h e h a r s h n e s s o f s t e r n o l d men w i t h t h e chosen way  of l i f e  ( c o n u i u i a ) o f P r o p e r t i u s and C y n t h i a .  Lines  15-18, i l l o r u m a n t i q u i s onerantur l e g i b u s aures: h i e l o c u s e s t i n quo, t i b i a d o c t a , sones, quae non i u r e uado M a e a n d r i i a c t a n a t a s t i , t u r p i a cum f a c e r e t P a l l a d i s o r a tumor, c o n t r a s t t h e sounds t h a t f a l l on t h e e a r s o f t h e s e  old  men ( i . e . , l e g a l d i s p u t e s , s e n a t o r i a l debates) w i t h t h e sounds a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l o v e r ' s way o f l i f e of the t i b i a ) .  (i.e.» music  F i n a l l y , l i n e s 19-23,  [ non tamen immerito ! P h r y g i a s nunc i r e per' undas et petere Hyrcani l i t o r a nota maris, s p a r g e r e e t a l t e r n a communis caede P e n a t i s e t f e r r e ad p a t r i o s praemia d i r a L a r e s I] una contentum pudeat me u i u e r e arnica? c o n t r a s t t h e way o f l i f e t h a t s t e r n e r men f o l l o w - m i l i t a r y o r commercial a c t i v i t i e s  i n f a r - o f f places - with that  o f t h e l o v e r - a q u i e t e x i s t e n c e w i t h o n l y one concern: h i s mistress.  7  Enk, op. c i t . . p. 386.  33  The  r e a d e r i s thus i m m e d i a t e l y  ments p r e s e n t  i n t r o d u c e d t o two e l e -  i n t h e l i f e o f t h e poet:  l o v e , and t h i n g s  a p p r o p r i a t e t o l o v e , music and p o e t r y ( t h e o r i g i n s o f w h i c h a r e i m p l i e d i n t h e legend about M i n e r v a ) . L i n e s 25-40 c o n t i n u e and e x p l o r e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between p o e t r y and l o v e : ... l i b e a t t i b i , C y n t h i a , mecum r o r i d a muscosis antra tenere i u g i s . i l l i c a s p i c i e s s c o p u l i s haerere Sorores e t canere a n t i q u i d u l c i a f u r t a I o v i s , ut Semela e s t combustus, u t e s t d e p e r d i t u s I o , denique u t ad T r o i a e t e c t a u o l a r i t a u i s . quod s i nemo e x s t a t q u i u i c e r i t A l i t i s arma, communis c u l p a e c u r r e u s unus agor? nec t u V i r g i n i b u s r e u e r e n t i a moueris o r a ; h i e quoque non n e s c i t q u i d s i t amare c h o r u s ; s i tamen O e a g r i quaedam compressa f i g u r a B i s t o n i i s olim rupibus accubuit. h i e u b i t e prima s t a t u e n t i n p a r t e c h o r e a e , e t medius d o c t a c u s p i d e Bacchus e r i t , turn c a p i t i s a c r o s p a t i a r pendere corymbos: nam First,  s i n e t e nostrum non u a l e t ingenium.  t h e poet a s k s h i s m i s t r e s s t o l i v e w i t h him i n dewy  c a v e r n s on mossy r i d g e s , i . e . . Mount H e l i c o n . speaks o f the Muses, t h e p a t r o n e s s e s will  Then he  o f p o e t r y , whom t h e y  see c l i n g i n g t o t h e c r a g s , s i n g i n g o f t h e s e c r e t l o v e s  of Jove.  The poet t h e n t e l l s h i s m i s t r e s s t h a t she w i l l n o t  d i s t u r b t h e decorum o f the Muses, s i n c e t h e y a l s o a r e no strangers t o love.  The poem r e a c h e s i t s c l i m a x w i t h t h e  statement t h a t the Muses w i l l p l a c e C y n t h i a i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s o f t h e i r dance; t h e p o e t ' s l o v e and t h e s o u r c e o f his  i n s p i r a t i o n a r e one, and, w i t h C y n t h i a ' s a d m i t t a n c e t o  the number o f t h e Muses, a s y n t h e s i s i s a c h i e v e d .  I tisat  t h i s p o i n t t h a t P r o p e r t i u s w i l l a l l o w h i m s e l f t o assume  34  the badge o f t h e poet: t h e crown o f i v y , a p l a n t s a c r e d 8 Bacchus.  to  In t h i s context, i . e . . a kind o f synthesis of p o e t i c a l t h e o r y w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y  o f the l o v e r , i t i s Bacchus  appears as l e a d e r o f the Muses.  who  I t w i l l be remembered t h a t 9  i n l e g e n d Bacchus became the f o s t e r l i n g o f the Muses a f t e r h i s s e c o n d b i r t h , from the t h i g h o f Zeus. thet  However, the  i s u s u a l l y a p p l i e d t o A p o l l o , and  Movo-ayirrjc,  epi-  i t is  A p o l l o whom P r o p e r t i u s a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the Muses i n most other instances  ( e ^ g . , 1.2.27-28; 1.8b.41-42;  2.1.3-4).  The e p i t h e t i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o Bacchus p r o b a b l y  because o f 10  the a n c i e n t a s s o c i a t i o n o f the two gods a t D e l p h i . f e s t a l y e a r was  d i v i d e d between A p o l l o and  Here the  Dionysus; A p o l l o ,  surrounded by the Muses, appeared on t h e east pediment o f 11 the t e m p l e , D i o n y s u s , surrounded by t h e Maenads, on the w e s t . P r o p e r t i u s has, however, chosen Bacchus as f o r r e a s o n s more s u b t l e t h a t t h e s e .  We  ixovo-rxyerriQ  noted t h a t a t  2.3.17-18, quantum quod p o s i t o formose s a l t a t I a c c h o , e g i t ut e u h a n t i s dux A r i a d n a c h o r o s , 2.5.25-26.  8  Cf.  9  Cf. I l i a d  6.132:  the Muses are  ^jaivo^ivoio  AIOOVVCTOLO  10 C f . L.R. F a r n e l l , C u l t s o f the Greek S t a t e s , ( O x f o r d , 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 145.  v.5  11 F a r n e l l , l o c c i t . . c i t e s a Naxian i n s c r i p t i o n of the Roman p e r i o d i n w h i c h D i o n y s u s i s c a l l e d Mova-ayirrjc. Note a l s o t h a t P l u t a r c h , I s . and 0 s . 3 5 , and E a t D e l p h i 9 , speaks o f the a s s o c i a t i o n between A p o l l o and D i o n y s u s .  TLdfivcc^*  35  the poet r e f e r s t o A r i a d n e  as l e a d e r o f the Maenads.  a k i n d o f extended s i m i l e d e v e l o p s :  Thus  as A r i a d n e , the "mis-  t r e s s " o f B a c c h u s , i s made l e a d e r o f the chorus o f Maenads, so C y n t h i a , the m i s t r e s s o f P r o p e r t i u s , i s made l e a d e r o f the chorus o f Muses.  Between Bacchus and the Maenad, A r i a d n e ,  t h e r e e x i s t s t h e same r e l a t i o n s h i p as e x i s t s between P r o p e r t i u s and the Muse, C y n t h i a : l o v e .  No such r e l a t i o n s h i p  between A p o l l o and a Muse i s e v i d e n t i n the p o e t r y o f P r o pertius.  The  poet has d e l i b e r a t e l y confused  Bacchus w i t h  A p o l l o and Maenads w i t h Muses i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e purpose: the c o m b i n a t i o n as  his  o f h i s r o l e as a l o v e r w i t h t h a t  poet. There i s a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e i n 2.30b f o r the  t h e s i s between Maenads and Muses.  Cuspide i n l i n e 38  the t h y r s u s , by means o f w h i c h the god ness i n t o h i s f o l l o w e r s .  synis  s t r u c k d i v i n e mad-  I n t h i s c a s e , however, i t i s c a l l e d  d o c t a . perhaps because the chorus t h a t Bacchus l e a d s i s one not p r i m a r i l y o f f r e n z i e d Maenads, but one  composed  a l s o o f the L e a r n e d S i s t e r s . The most noteworthy e v i d e n c e , 3.3*  however, i s found i n  Here P r o p e r t i u s imagines h i m s e l f on Mount H e l i c o n ,  and d e s c r i b e s h i s p l a n t o attempt s e r i o u s p o e t r y ( l i n e s 12).  Phoebus, the u s u a l p a t r o n of p o e t r y , a p p e a r s ,  1-  ridi-  c u l e s h i s d e c i s i o n and t e l l s P r o p e r t i u s t o c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o h i s customary l o v e p o e t r y ( l i n e s 13-26).  He t h e n con-  d u c t s the poet t o the d w e l l i n g o f the Muses; the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n ( l i n e s 27-36) i s r e m a r k a b l e :  36  hie erat a f f i x i s u i r i d i s spelunca l a p i l l i s , pendebantque c a u i s tympana p u m i c i b u s , o r g i a Musarum e t S i l e n i p a t r i s imago f i c t i l i s e t c a l a m i , Pan Tegeaee, t u i ; et V e n e r i s dominae u o l u c r e s , mea t u r b a , columbae t i n g u n t Gorgoneo p u n i c a r o s t r a l a c u ; d i u e r s a e q u e nouem s o r t i t a e i u r a P u e l l a e e x e r c e n t t e n e r a s i n sua dona manus: haec hederas l e g i t i n t h y r s o s , haec carmina n e r u i s a p t a t , a t i l i a manu t e x i t u t r a q u e rosam. There a r e s e v e r a l B a c c h i c tympana are i n s t r u m e n t s  elements p r e s e n t  here:  first,  more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r -  g i a s t i c c u l t s , such as t h o s e o f C y b e l e and B a c c h u s ,  12  than  w i t h t h e more r e s t r a i n e d c u l t o f A p o l l o and the Muses. N e x t , the b a s i c meaning o f the word o r g i a i s n o c t u r n a l  13 r i t e s i n honour o f Bacchus.  The p o e t , f u r t h e r m o r e ,  of S i l e n i p a t r i s i m a g o / f i c t i l i s . o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C.,  speaks  S i l e n u s , about the middle  becomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h D i o n y s u s ,  and accompanies him on h i s a d v e n t u r e s a l o n g w i t h the r e s t o f h i s entourage.  He i s o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as an e x c e s s i v e l y  drunk and somewhat l e c h e r o u s  o l d man.  I n the S a t y r - p l a y s ,  however, he d e v e l o p s i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t s and becomes t h e  14 teacher of Dionysus. The f a c t t h a t S i l e n u s i s here c a l l e d p a t e r i n d i c a t e s 12  C f . 3.17.33 and O v i d , H e r o i d e s 4.48, A r s A m a t o r i a 1.538.  13 A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y , e d i t e d by L e w i s and S h o r t (Oxf o r d , 1962), s.v. o r g i a . What P r o p e r t i u s means by o r g i a Musarum i s , however, d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . C f . s i m i l a r p u z z l i n g e x p r e s s i o n s i n C a t u l l u s 64.259: o b s c u r a c a v i s . . . o r g i a c i s t i s ; T i b u l l u s 1.7.48: o c c u l t i s c o n s c i a c i s t a s a c r i s . B o t h t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s appear i n B a c c h i c s e t t i n g s . C f . , however, G e o r g i c s 2.476: quarum ( i . e . , Musarum) s a c r a f e r o . 14 The O x f o r d C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y , e d i t e d by C a r y , D e n n i s t o n , D u f f , Nock, R o s s , S c u l l a r d ( O x f o r d , 1949), s.v. S a t y r s and S i l e n i . C f . V i r g i l , E c l o g u e 6.  37  t h a t the poet has  i n mind h i s i d e n t i t y as a  member o f the B a c c h i c  e n t o u r a g e , and  r a t h e r t h a n as a drunken and  respected  as t e a c h e r  lecherous  old  of Dionysus,  man.  P r o p e r t i u s t e l l s u s , f i n a l l y , t h a t among the Muses i s occupied i n gathering  one  i v y f o r the t h y r s u s , t h e s t a f f o f  Bacchus. Thus i t becomes s t i l l c l e a r e r t h a t t h e poet has 15 Muses w i t h Maenads;  i n d e e d , the d w e l l i n g he  r e s e m b l e s a Maenad c a m p n  n  fused  describes  more t h a n i t does the home o f  the Muses.  3.13.61-62 s h o u l d be noted i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s y n t h e s i s between Bacchus and A p o l l o and t h e Maenads and Muses: c e r t a l o q u o r , sed n u l l a f i d e s ; neque enim I l i a quondam u e r a x Pergameis Maenas habenda m a l i s . Here t h e p o i n t o f comparison i s p r i m a r i l y one appearance.  of f r e n z i e d  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , however, C a s s a n d r a  received  her i l l - f a t e d g i f t o f prophecy from A p o l l o ; i t was made h e r u e r a x .  Thus we  he  who  see a g a i n the f u s i o n o f Bacchus  and A p o l l o : C a s s a n d r a , made a s e e r by A p o l l o , the god prophecy as w e l l as o f p o e t r y ,  of  i s compared t o the f r e n -  z i e d Maenad, d i s c i p l e o f Bacchus. We  have seen t h a t P r o p e r t i u s , t o a c h i e v e h i s  p u r p o s e s , has  own  used the Bacchus-Ariadne-Maenad c o m b i n a t i o n  as an exemplum o f h i s own  p o s i t i o n with Cynthia  and  the Muses.  15 Note t h a t o t h e r a n c i e n t a u t h o r s confuse Muses w i t h Maenads. C f . S o p h o c l e s , A n t i g o n e 962; P l u t a r c h , Symposiacs 8, Proem. P r o p e r t i u s , however, f u s e s the two f o r a v e r y d e f i n i t e a r t i s t i c purpose.  38  That the poet t a k e s t h e n e x t l o g i c a l s t e p , i . e . , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of himself w i t h the f i g u r e of Bacchus/Apollo,  can  a l s o be demonstrated. I n t h e f i r s t f i v e poems o f Book 3, P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s his  c r e d o as a p o e t - l o v e r .  This s u i t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the  f i r s t t h r e e poems, i s i n many ways an e x p a n s i o n o f 2.30b, a kind o f synthesis o f p o e t i c a l theory w i t h the philosophy of the l o v e r .  H e r e , however, t h e poet becomes more and  more aware o f h i s r o l e not m e r e l y as a poet o f l o v e but as a w r i t e r o f e l e g y . I n 3*1  P r o p e r t i u s i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h h i s i d e n -  t i t y as a p o e t .  He d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s w r i t i n g i n t h e t r a -  d i t i o n of the Alexandrian e l e g i a c poets, Callimachus  and  Philetas.  tenu-  He c o n t r a s t s t h e f i n e n e s s o f e l e g y ( e . g . ,  a s t i s i n l i n e 5, i n l i n e 19)  exactus  t e n u i pumice i n l i n e 8, m o l l i a  w i t h the heaviness  and dura i n l i n e 20) tary affairs.  ( i m p l i e d i n moratur i n l i n e 7  of heroic poetry that deals with  The image t h a t f o l l o w s i n l i n e s 9-12  mili-  is  noteworthy: quo me Fama l e u a t t e r r a s u b l i m i s , e t a me n a t a c o r o n a t i s Musa t r i u m p h a t e q u i s , e t mecum i n c u r r u p a r u i u e c t a n t u r Amores, s c r i p t o r u m q u e meas t u r b a s e c u t a r o t a s . Here t h e poet p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f as g o d - l i k e , and b e a r i n g c e r t a i n resemblances t o B a c c h u s / A p o l l o ,  leader of the t r i -  16 umphal p r o c e s s i o n o f Maenads/Muses.  The a me...nata Musa  i s perhaps C y n t h i a , whom he has made h i s t e n t h Muse  16  C f . 1.3.9-10 ( s e e p. 25 above) and 4.1.136  (2.  39  30b.37).  The  presence o f Amores i n the n e x t l i n e  lends  w e i g h t t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Thus these l i n e s carryout the s y n t h e s i s put f o r w a r d i n 2.30b: B a c c h u s / P r o p e r t i u s l e a d s a band o f Maenads/Muses, one  o f whom i s h i s m i s t r e s s ,  Ariadne/Cynthia. I n the second h a l f o f the poem, P r o p e r t i u s  declares  t h a t , although h i s contemporaries refuse to grant recognition, nevertheless, p o e t r y w i l l become famous. and  him  a f t e r he has d i e d , he and  He uses Homer as an example  c i t e s t a l e s t h a t would be unknown but f o r the  and Odyssey and  Iliad  t h a t , w i t h the passage o f t i m e , have brought  fame t o t h e i r a u t h o r .  So a l s o w i l l he, P r o p e r t i u s ,  means o f h i s p o e t r y , g a i n I n 3.1  his  by  immortality.  t h e n , the poet s t a t e s t h a t he i s a w r i t e r o f  e l e g y ; he goes on t o c l a i m t h a t p o e t r y has  the power t o  b r i n g fame t o i t s a u t h o r , i f not a t once, t h e n c e r t a i n l y a f t e r h i s death. 3.2  continues  w i t h the i d e a t h a t p o e t r y  i s o f use  to  i t s a u t h o r , but narrows i t down t o the r e a l m o f t h e poet as l o v e r ( c a r m i n i s . . . n o s t r i . . . i n orbem. l i n e 1), poetry  i s u s e f u l i n w i n n i n g the f a v o u r o f a g i r l .  i n l i n e s 3-8, 9-10  Propertius,  c i t e s examples o f the power o f p o e t r y .  r e t u r n t o the n o t i o n t h a t p o e t r y  t o him  i.e..  Lines  i s especially useful  i n the sphere o f l o v e :  miremur, n o b i s et Baccho e t A p o l l i n e d e x t r o , t u r b a p u e l l a r u m s i mea uerba c o l i t ? A g a i n P r o p e r t i u s has  u n i t e d Bacchus w i t h A p o l l o , the major  40  r e a s o n f o r the u n i o n b e i n g t h a t both gods a r e i n c o n t r o l o f a t u r b a p u e l l a r u m , Bacchus o f t h e Maenads, A p o l l o o f the Muses.  The poet h a s , moreover, i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f  w i t h t h e s e two: a s B a c c h u s / A p o l l o l e a d s and i s worshipped by the crowd o f Maenads/Muses, so he, P r o p e r t i u s t h e p o e t , because t h e s e gods f a v o u r him, i s worshipped by a crowd o f girls. I n l i n e s 15-16, a t Musae c o m i t e s e t carmina c a r a l e g e n t i , e t d e f e s s a c h o r i s C a l l i o p e a meis,-*-' t h e poet moves d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e sphere o f t h e god, a n d , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g surrounded m e r e l y by a crowd o f g i r l s , he i s , l i k e A p o l l o , accompanied by the Muses. Thus, b e s i d e s a d o p t i n g t h e f i g u r e o f B a c c h u s / A p o l l o , w h i c h , because o f i t s - r e l a t i o n s h i p t o A r i a d n e and t h e Maenads/Muses, i s one p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o him a s a poet o f l o v e , P r o p e r t i u s h a s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h i s f i g u r e because i t i s surrounded by a crowd o f wor-  18  s h i p p e r s , j u s t a s he i s , o r a t l e a s t would l i k e t o be. I n 3*4 and 3»5 P r o p e r t i u s makes use o f h i s s y n t h e s i s o f Muses and Maenads i n a d i f f e r e n t way.  These form a  17 C f . l i n e 16 t o 1.3.5* nec minus a s s i d u i s E d o n i s f e s s a c h o r e i s . Though here t h e Maenad/Muse i s w e a r i e d by d a n c i n g presumably i n s p i r e d by Bacchus, i n 3.2.16 t h e Muse/Maenad i s not w e a r i e d by d a n c i n g i n s p i r e d by P r o p e r t i u s . 18 C f . 3.17.22 where a t h i r d t u r b a p u e l l a r u m i s connected w i t h Bacchus, the nymphs from Mt. Nysa, who, a c c o r d i n g t o one l e g e n d , were h i s n u r s e s and who here become h i s f o l l o w e r s , i . e . , Maenads.  41  p a i r w i t h i n t h e s u i t e o f poems a t t h e b e g i n n i n g 3.  3*4,  o f Book  a propempticon a d d r e s s e d t o Augustus C a e s a r  before  the P a r t h i a n campaign o f 20 B.C., b e g i n s : arma deus C a e s a r d i t e s m e d i t a t u r ad I n d o s , et f r e t a gemmiferi f i n d e r e c l a s s e maris. The  c o n t r a s t between t h e s e two l i n e s and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  3.5, p a c i s Amor deus e s t , pacem ueneramur amantes, makes c l e a r t h e p o i n t o f t h e two poems: C a e s a r t h e god i s concerned w i t h war and b o o t y , b u t , s i n c e Amor i s a god o f peace, and t h e poet i s a f o l l o w e r o f Amor, h i s concern i s peace. At 3.5.19-22, a f t e r he has "preached" on t h e f o o l i s h ness o f war and p l u n d e r i n g , P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s : me i u u a t i n prima c o l u i s s e H e l i c o n a i u u e n t a Musarumque c h o r i s i m p l i c u i s s e manus: me i u u a t e t multo mentem u i n c i r e Lyaeo, e t caput i n uerna semper habere r o s a . Here a g a i n we see t h e u n i o n i n t h e p o e t ' s mind between t h e Muses and t h e Maenads: he c l a i m s t h a t i t p l e a s e s him t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e dance o f t h e Muses, and t h a t i t a l s o him t o " f e t t e r h i s mind w i t h much Lyaeus."  pleases  L i n e 21 i s  u s u a l l y t a k e n t o mean: i t p l e a s e s me t o become i n t o x i c a t e d , i . e . , wine b e f u d d l e s  one's mind, " p u t s i t i n c h a i n s , " and  so makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a man t o t h i n k c l e a r l y .  However,  the e x p r e s s i o n mentem u i n c i r e i s s t r a n g e ; u s u a l l y ( c f . 1.3 and  3.17) wine i s thought o f as a r e l e a s e r o f t e n s i o n - t h e  o p p o s i t e o f the. i d e a i n u i n c i r e . M i g h t t h i s l i n e n o t mean: i t p l e a s e s me t o have my mind under t h e c o n t r o l o f Bacchus  42  as a god o f p o e t r y , j u s t as t h e Maenads (whose dance I join) are spellbound  by him?  Mentem u i n c i r e i m p l i e s a l o s s  o f t h e power o f r e a s o n , and, a s happens t o t h e Maenads, an abandonment t o t h e emotions and p a s s i o n s .  Propertius i s  perhaps s a y i n g here t h a t , whereas t h e w r i t i n g o f h e r o i c e p i c r e q u i r e s calm r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t , h i s k i n d o f p o e t r y , i . e . . l o v e p o e t r y , i s w r i t t e n more under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f j u s t 19 such p a s s i o n a s overcomes t h e Maenads. The p o e t ' s i d e a o f t h e k i n d o f i n f l u e n c e t h e god Bacchus has o v e r t h e Maenads i s shown a l s o i n 3.8, i n w h i c h P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s t h a t he p r e f e r s an angry m i s t r e s s because t h e degree o f a woman's v i o l e n c e i s a measure, o f h e r l o v e . l i s t examples o f b e h a v i o u r t h a t i n d i c a t e s t r u e line  Lines 11-18 passion;  14 c o n t a i n s a s i m i l e o f i n t e r e s t : seu s e q u i t u r medias, Maenas u t i c t a , u i a s .  Here t h e c h o i c e o f t h e p a r t i c i p l e i c t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e poet t h i n k s o f t h e Maenad as " s m i t t e n " by t h e power o f Bacchus, and so s p e l l b o u n d , w i t l e s s . Thus f a r i t has been shown t h a t Bacchus i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine and a s t h e l o v e r o f A r i a d n e i s a f i g u r e e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o P r o p e r t i u s t h e l o v e r . Next we saw how P r o p e r t i u s combines Bacchus w i t h A p o l l o a s l e a d e r o f the Muses i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e p a t r o n f o r himt  s e l f as a poet who combines p o e t i c a l t h e o r i e s w i t h h i s philosophy  a s a l o v e r ; t h e r e s u l t i n g s y n t h e s i s between  19 C f . 3.24.19-20, where P r o p e r t i u s , f i n a l l y r e n o u n c i n g C y n t h i a , d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f a d i s c i p l e o f Mens Bona. C f . a l s o O v i d , Amores 1.2.31.  43  Muses and Maenads has been demonstrated.  Propertius also  i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e f i g u r e o f B a c c h u s / A p o l l o because t h e s e two  gods a r e surrounded by, and e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l o v e r ,  a turba puellarum  as he a l s o does by means o f h i s  f  poetry.  A f u r t h e r development o f t h i s i d e a i s the comparison t h a t P r o p e r t i u s makes between h i m s e l f and the Maenad: both are i n f l u e n c e d by the power o f Bacchus - the Maenad by means o f a blow from t h e t h y r s u s , and he, the p o e t / l o v e r , by means o f Bacchus/wine. I t i s t h u s c l e a r why  P r o p e r t i u s , i n Books 1,2  has adopted Bacchus as h i s p a t r o n .  and  3,  I n t h e s e books he  f i r s t of a l l dealt e x c l u s i v e l y with love.  He has  has  then  developed a f u s i o n between h i s i d e n t i t y as a l o v e r and  his  i d e n t i t y as a p o e t . I n Book 4, P r o p e r t i u s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y r o l e as a l o v e r . patron. ent  The  Nevertheless,  discards his  Bacchus i s r e t a i n e d as h i s  f i g u r e o f the god a p p e a r s , however, i n a  differ-  light. At the b e g i n n i n g  has d e c i d e d  o f Book 4, P r o p e r t i u s d e c l a r e s t h a t  to w r i t e a d i f f e r e n t kind of verse.  d e a l w i t h the l e g e n d a r y  4.1.1-54  h i s t o r y o f Rome: i t s r u s t i c  n i n g s , i t s e a r l y s i m p l e government and r e l i g i o n and, chronologically," i t s Trojan o r i g i n s .  The  begin"un-  l e g e n d s enumerated  i n t h e s e l i n e s a r e c o n f u s e d and o f t e n u n r e l a t e d ;  probably  the poet means them as a l i s t o f t o p i c s t h a t he i n t e n d s pursue i n h i s new At the end  he  to  r o l e as a " s e r i o u s " p o e t .  of the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f the poem ( l i n e s  69-  44  7 0 ) , he sums up h i s i n t e n t i o n s : s a c r a d i e s q u e canam e t cognomina p r i s c a locorum: has meus ad metas sudet o p o r t e t equus. These l i n e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h l i n e 64,  i n which t h e p o e t r e -  f e r s t o h i m s e l f as the Roman C a l l i m a c h u s , Propertius plans to w r i t e poetry Callimachus,  indicate that  s i m i l a r t o the A e t i a of  i . e . , he does not i n t e n d t o devote h i m s e l f  s e r i o u s e p i c . but w i l l  continue  to write elegiac  to  poetry  t h a t w i l l , however, d i f f e r i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r from what he has  formerly w r i t t e n ; instead of dealing with love, h i s  new  poetry w i l l  i n v e s t i g a t e " h o l y r i t e s and d a y s , and  a n c i e n t names o f  the  places."  I n t h e l i g h t of t h i s i n t e n t i o n , the meaning o f l i n e s  55-64 becomes c l e a r e r : optima n u t r i c u m n o s t r i s l u p a M a r t i a r e b u s , q u a l i a c r e u e r u n t moenia l a c t e tuo ! moenia namque p i o coner d i s p o n e r e uersu: e i m i h i , quod n o s t r o e s t paruus i n ore s o n u s i sed tamen e x i g u o quodcumque e p e c t o r e r i u i f l u x e r i t , hoc p a t r i a e s e r u i e t omne meae. E n n i u s h i r s u t a c i n g a t sua d i c t a corona: mi f o l i a ex hedera p o r r i g e , Bacche, t u a , ut n o s t r i s t u m e f a c t a s u p e r b i a t Umbria l i b r i s , Umbria Romani p a t r i a C a l l i m a c h i ! Thus P r o p e r t i u s , s t i l l an e l e g i a c p o e t , c o n t r a s t s h i s " f i n e " p o e t r y t o the "rough" v e r s e o f E n n i u s , a w r i t e r o f e p i c . He uses as a m e t a p h o r i c a l crown a p p r o p r i a t e (of  p o i n t of comparison the k i n d  t o each o f them: the " p r i c k l y "  of  garland  l a u r e l o r m y r t l e ? ) t o E n n i u s , the s o f t , p l i a b l e crown  of i v y t o  himself.  Here, t h e n , i t seems t h a t the poet i n v o k e s Bacchus p r i m a r i l y because i v y , the k i n d o f p l a n t he needs f o r h i s  45  comparison, i s s a c r e d t o t h a t god.  Hertzberg  apparently  agrees t h a t i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f i v y r a t h e r t h a n t h e god Bacchus w i t h w h i c h t h e poet i s concerned; H i r s u t a e coronae dum m o l l i u s f o l i u m opponere p o e t a v u l t , sponte se p r a e b u i t h e d e r a , c u j u s sequax n a t u r a v e l i n p r o v e r b i u m a b i i t . Hederam suam Bacchus sequutus e s t . Quern deum - u t poetarum et e l e g i a c o r u m patronum h i e quoque, q u a m v i s majora a u s u r u s , j u r e P r o p e r t i u s v e n e r a t u r . n  I t i s noteworthy t h a t i n Horos' r e p l y t o t h e p o e t ' s d e c l a r a t i o n , i t i s A p o l l o , n o t Bacchus, who i s c i t e d as t h e patron  o f serious poetry  ( s e e l i n e s 73 and 133-134).  L i n e s 135-136, a t t u f i n g e e l e g o s , f a l l a x opus: haec t u a c a s t r a I s c r i b a t u t exemplo c e t e r a t u r b a t u o , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , make i t c l e a r t h a t  Pro-  p e r t i u s i s t o continue  love.  t o w r i t e elegy that deals with  I t i s i m p l i e d , t h e n , t h a t A p o l l o , whose sphere o f i n f l u e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y s e r i o u s p o e t r y , has f o r b i d d e n P r o p e r t i u s e n t r a n c e t o h i s r e a l m , a n d t h a t P r o p e r t i u s must r e t u r n t o t h a t k i n d o f p o e t r y o v e r w h i c h a l e s s s e v e r e god (Bacchus?) p r e sides. 4.6 i s t h e t h i r d o f P r o p e r t i u s ' a e t i o l o g i c a l poems. I t was p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a c e l e b r a t i o n  21 o f t h e l u d i q u i n q u e n n a l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by Augustus i n 28B.C. 20  G u i l . Hertzberg,  21  K.P. H a r r i n g t o n , The Roman E l e g i a c P o e t s  v.3 ( H a l l e , 1845), p. 404.  Sex. A u r e l i i P r o p e r t i i E l e g i a r u m . (New Y o r k ,  1914), p. 355: "As t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e S y c a m b r i ( v . 77)  took p l a c e i n 16 B.C., i t appears p r o b a b l e t h a t P r o p e r t i u s t i m e d t h i s poem t o be a p a r t o f t h e f o u r t h c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e s e games."  46  t o honour A p o l l o , under whose patronage t h e v i c t o r y a t A c t i u m had been won. The poem opens w i t h a f o r m u l a t r a d i t i o n a l a t t h e beginning of a s a c r i f i c e : Sacra f a c i t uates: s i n t ora f a u e n t i a s a c r i s , e t cadat a n t e meos i c t a i u u e n c a f o c o s . Here t h e u a t e s i s P r o p e r t i u s h i m s e l f , and t h e s a c r i f i c e he i s about t o o f f e r i s h i s poem.  Probably other poets  were composing works i n v a r i o u s metres f o r t h e o c c a s i o n . I n view o f t h i s , l i n e s 3 - 4 , s e r t a P h i l i t e i s c e r t e t Romana corymbis e t Cyrenaeas urna m i n i s t r e t aquas, mean t h a t h e , w r i t i n g e l e g y , i n t e n d s t o compete w i t h p o e t s who a r e w r i t i n g i n metres more commonly used f o r p o e t r y o f t h i s k i n d , i . e . . p o e t r y c o n t a i n i n g elements o f e p i c : i n vocation (lines  11-14),  o f t h e god ( l i n e s  h e r o i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a speech  55-68),  and d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c e l e b r a t i o n  i n v o l v i n g p o e t s who s i n g o f t h e g r e a t deeds o f Augustus (lines  69-86).  L i n e i 10 lends weight t o the idea t h a t P r o p e r t i u s i n tends t o use t h e e l e g i a c metre f o r a purpose not u s u a l i n Rome.  He i s t h u s t r a v e l l i n g a nouum i t e r .  The poet has t h u s i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h C a l l i m a c h u s and P h i l e t a s , e l e g i a c p o e t s who have f o r t h e i r  insignia  the i v y w r e a t h o f Bacchus. A t l i n e 6 9 , h a v i n g completed h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f how Phoebus won h i s t e m p l e , P r o p e r t i u s l a u n c h e s on a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f e s t i v i t i e s t h a t f o l l o w t h e s a c r e d ceremonies.  47  Apollo  sheds h i s r o l e as w a r - l i k e p a t r o n o f A u g u s t u s ,  i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h music and  and  poetry:  b e l l a s a t i s c e c i n i : c i t h a r a m iam p o s c i t A p o l l o u i c t o r e t ad p l a c i d o s e x u i t arma c h o r o s . The  banquet t h e n b e g i n s , and wine i s s e r v e d t o a company  t h a t apparently c o n s i s t s only of poets.  Propertius  then  p r a y s ( l i n e s 75-76), ingenium p o s i t i s i r r i t e t Musa p o e t i s : Bacche, s o l e s Phoebo f e r t i l i s esse t u o . H.E.  B u t l e r , r e a d i n g p o t i s i n l i n e 75,  Muse s t i r p o e t s t h a t are now  t r a n s l a t e s : Let  the  22  f i r e d w i t h w i n e . I f , however,  p o s i t i s i s r e t a i n e d , l i n e 75 must mean: L e t the Muse s t i r p o e t s who who  have s e a t e d t h e m s e l v e s ( a t the b a n q u e t ) , i . e . .  are i n attendance here.  With e i t h e r reading,  the  pri-  mary meaning o f Bacche i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e i s w i n e , i n t o x i c a t i o n , o r , more b r o a d l y , the r e v e l r y connected w i t h  a  d r i n k i n g p a r t y , and Phoebo means s i m p l y "the w r i t i n g o f poetry."  L i n e 76 i s then a k i n d o f m e t a p h o r i c a l p a r a p h r a s e  o f l i n e 75,  and  the two  t o g e t h e r mean t h a t  r e v e l r y a c t s as a s p u r t o the  wine/intoxication/  ingenium o f the  poet.  A more s u b t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e l i n e s i s t o found by a r e t u r n t o the b e g i n n i n g o f the poem.  Could  not Bacche be an echo o f P h i l i t e i s . . . c o r v m b i s ( l i n e and  the l i n e mean: the p o e t s whose badge i s the  be  ivy,  3), and  22 P r o p e r t i u s , t r a n s l a t e d by H.E. B u t l e r (The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass., 1962). I d i s a g r e e w i t h B u t l e r , S e x t i P r o p e r t i . Opera Omnia (London, 1905), p. 370, where he s t a t e s t h a t " p o s i t i s NLF i s m e a n i n g l e s s . " B u t l e r and B a r b e r , op. c i t . , p. 359, make ' no comment on the r e a d i n g o f the l i n e .  48  whose p a t r o n  i s Bacchus, i . e . . t h e e l e g i s t s , a r e " a b l e " t o  produce v e r s e t h a t meets w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f Phoebus, the p a t r o n o f more s e r i o u s p o e t r y .  Propertius i s stating  t h a t he has succeeded i n what he s t a r t e d out t o do, i . e . . produce an e l e g i a c poem i n a s e r i o u s v e i n , p r a i s i n g A p o l l o on t h e o c c a s i o n o f one o f h i s f e s t i v a l s .  49  CHAPTER IV BACCHUS IN THE POETRY OF OVID  Bacchus' appearance  i n the poetry o f Ovid i s s i m i l a r  t o t h a t i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . Whereas P r o p e r t i u s exp l o r e s the l e g e n d s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e god and emerges w i t h a complex f i g u r e p e c u l i a r l y adapted t o a c e r t a i n r 6 l e i n h i s p o e t i c scheme, b o t h T i b u l l u s and O v i d , a l t h o u g h aware o f v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f the god, use t h e s e f a c e t s e x c l u s i v e o f one a n o t h e r : Bacchus i s a t one t i m e s i m p l y e q u a l t o w i n e , a t another simply the patron o f v i t i c u l t u r e or the l o v e r o f Ariadne.  The r e p e a t e d use o f t h e s e o n e - s i d e d  t i o n s o f the god make h i s appearances  identifica-  seem t r i t e .  I n Ovid's  p o e t r y , s i n c e i t s volume i s so much g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f the Corpus. t h e s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s become a l m o s t f o r m u l a i c : t h e f r e q u e n t use o f t h e Maenad as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f f r e n z i e d madness i s an example. E x c e p t f o r P r o p e r t i u s ' unique development o f i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g Bacchus, almost a l l t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s  involving  the god t h a t a r e used by t h e o t h e r two p o e t s appear  and  r e a p p e a r i n O v i d ' s v e r s e : Bacchus i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h wine 1 and as such c o n s i d e r e d b o t h an a l l y and an enemy o f Amor; he i s t h e l o v e r o f A r i a d n e and so t h e p a t r o n o f the poet as l o v e r ; he i s the p a t r o n o f v i t i c u l t u r e ; he i s the l e a d e r 1 I t i s n o t e w o r t h y , however, t h a t , whereas b o t h T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s d i s c u s s t h e a b i l i t y o f wine t o r e l i e v e the p a i n o f an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r (see T i b u l l u s 1.2 and 3.6; P r o p e r t i u s 3.17), O v i d never does s o . Perhaps t h i s i s because he was n e v e r so d e e p l y i n v o l v e d as t o be r e a l l y i n j u r e d by a cruel mistress.  50  o f t h e Maenads; f i n a l l y , he becomes a p a t r o n o f p o e t r y : the power o f h i s t h y r s u s o v e r t h e Maenads i s compared t o h i s power o v e r p o e t s , and, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A p o l l o and t h e Muses, he becomes t h e p e c u l i a r p a t r o n o f the poet lover.  as  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Bacchus* o n l y r e a l appearance  as p a t r o n o f p o e t s i s i n O v i d ' s l o v e p o e t r y . O v i d , perhaps because he i s t h e l a s t i n the l i n e o f L a t i n l o v e e l e g i s t s , s t a t e s many o f t h e s e i d e a s e x p l i c i t l y , whereas T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s merely i m p l y them.  An  ex-  ample i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t , s i n c e Bacchus l o v e d A r i a d n e , he i s t h e r e f o r e a god who  favours lovers.  I n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r how  O v i d understands  the f i g u r e  o f B a c c h u s , i t w i l l a g a i n be n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e t h e  appear-  ance o f the god i n i n d i v i d u a l poems. An e p i t h e t o f Bacchus meaning s i m p l y "wine" appears i n Amores 2.11.  O v i d laments t h e f a c t t h a t C o r i n n a i s about  t o l e a v e on a sea voyage.  He warns h e r o f t h e dangers i n -  v o l v e d , p r e t e n d s t h a t she has a l r e a d y gone and, i n l i n e s 56, a n t i c i p a t e s h e r r e t u r n .  37-  I m a g i n i n g a " r e c e p t i o n " on t h e  s h o r e , he s t a t e s i n l i n e s 49-50, i l l i c a d p o s i t o n a r r a b i s m u l t a Lyaeo paene s i t ut m e d i i s o b r u t a n a v i s a q u i s . The b a s i c meaning o f a d p o s i t o . . . L y a e o h a v i n g been s e r v e d . "  The  i s s i m p l y "the wine  a b l a t i v e a b s o l u t e , however, p e r -  haps c o n t a i n s a c a u s a l sense.  I f t h i s i s s o , t h e n the n o t i o n  t h a t wine r e l a x e s a p e r s o n and l o o s e n s h i s tongue i s a l s o present.  The c h o i c e o f the e p i t h e t Lyaeus [Avaioc.  Deliverer,  51  from Aa5cu) i s t h e n p a r t i c u l a r l y Amores 1.6 doorkeeper.  appropriate.  i s a p a r a c l a u s i t h y r o n addressed t o Corinna's  I n l i n e s 33-38 t h e poet t e l l s t h e j a n i t o r t h a t  he s h o u l d be a d m i t t e d because he has n o t come accompanied by s o l d i e r s o r under arms; h i s e s c o r t , he e x p l a i n s i n l i n e s  37-33, i s a harmless one: ergo Amor e t modicum c i r c a mea tempora uinura mecum e s t e t m a d i d i s l a p s a corona comis. The  poet has come t o C o r i n n a ' s door from a d r i n k i n g p a r t y .  The  a s s o c i a t i o n between wine and l o v e t h a t i s i m p l i e d here i s  mentioned a g a i n i n l i n e s 59-60: t h e p o e t , so f a r unsucc e s s f u l i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o persuade t h e j a n i t o r t o open t h e d o o r , has j u s t t h r e a t e n e d him  h i m w i t h v i o l e n c e , and e x p l a i n s t o  that, nox e t Amor uinumque n i h i l m o d e r a b i l e suadent: i l i a pudore u a c a t , L i b e r Amorque metu.2  Here L i b e r i s p r a c t i c a l l y synonymous w i t h uinum i n t h e p r e vious l i n e .  Perhaps t h e i d e a o f i n t o x i c a t i o n i s added.  F o r O v i d as w e l l as f o r P r o p e r t i u s , t h e n , an a l l i a n c e e x i s t s between Amor and Bacchus/wine.  O v i d has,  however,  broadened t h e terms o f t h e a l l i a n c e : P r o p e r t i u s t h i n k s o f Bacchus as an a l l y o f Amor p r i m a r i l y because i n t o x i c a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e ; O v i d s t a t e s t h a t d e s i r e a s s i s t e d by i n t o x i c a t i o n makes t h e poet f e a r l e s s i n o b t a i n i n g t h e o b j e c t of that d e s i r e . I n A r s Amatoria Ovid f r e q u e n t l y f i n d s occasion t o deal w i t h t h e p l a c e o f t h e wine god i n t h e r e a l m o f Amor. I n  2 C f . P r o p e r t i u s 1.3.13-16.  52  Book 1, l i n e s 229-230, he s t a t e s t h a t banquets  offer  oppor-  t u n i t i e s t o t h e l o v e r : b e s i d e s w i n e , Love may be found t h e r e . L i n e s 231-236 a r e a p i c t o r i a l development o f t h i s n o t i o n : saepe i l l i c p o s i t i t e n e r i s adducta l a c e r t i s purpureus B a c c h i cornua p r e s s i t Amor, uinaque cum b i b u l a s s p a r s e r e C u p i d i n i s a l a s , permanet e t c a p t o s t a t g r a u i s i l l e l o c o , i l l e quidem pennas u e l o c i t e r e x c u t i t udas, sed tamen e t s p a r g i p e c t u s Amore n o c e t . C u p i d embraces t h e horns o f Bacchus,  i . e . , Love and wine a r e  b o t h p r e s e n t a t c o n v i v i a ; when wine drenches C u p i d ' s the god o f l o v e i s f o r c e d t o s t a n d s t i l l ,  wings,  i . e . . under t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f w i n e , Love remains p r e s e n t and t a k e s p o s s e s s i o n of t h e b a n q u e t e r s ; a l t h o u g h C u p i d q u i c k l y shakes t h e wine from h i s w i n g s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n so d o i n g , he " s p r i n k l e s " t h e g u e s t s w i t h h i s "power" and so c a p t u r e s them. L i n e s 237-246 l i s t o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s o f wine o v e r men: u i n a p a r a n t animos f a c i u n t q u e c a l o r i b u s a p t o s ; c u r a f u g i t multo d i l u i t u r q u e mero. tunc u e n i u n t r i s u s , turn pauper cornua s u m i t , turn d o l o r e t curae rugaque f r o n t i s a b i t . t u n c a p e r i t mentes aeuo r a r i s s i m a n o s t r o s i m p l i c i t a s , a r t e s e x c u t i e n t e deo. i l l i c saepe animos iuuenum r a p u e r e p u e l l a e , et Venus i n u i n i s i g n i s i n i g n e f u i t . h i e t u f a l l a c i nimium ne crede l u c e r n a e : i u d i c i o formae noxque merumque' n o c e n t . Here O v i d summarizes i d e a s about wine t h a t a r e found  scattered  3 t h r o u g h o u t t h e works o f T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s .  By so  l i s t i n g them, he makes t h e s e seem c o n v e n t i o n a l and a l m o s t  3 .For l i n e s 237 and 243-44 c f . P r o p e r t i u s 1.3.13ff.» l i n e s 245-46 c f . P r o p e r t i u s 2.33b.33-34, l i n e s 237-240 c f . P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.4-7, T i b u l l u s 1.7.39-42, 1.2.1-4 and 3.6. 1-8, a l t h o u g h h e r e , whereas O v i d i s concerned s i m p l y w i t h t h e r e l e a s e from sorrow and c a r e s i n g e n e r a l , t h e o t h e r two a r e s e e k i n g r e l e a s e from p a i n caused by l o v e .  53  formulaic.  O v i d ' s main p o i n t i s , however, t h a t a t banquets  one f i n d s w i n e , w h i c h , because i t i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e  (lines  237, 243-44), and r e l e a s e s men from c a r e s (238-240) and from c r a f t i n e s s (241-42), i s a n a l l y o f Amor.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he  warns h i s r e a d e r , t h a t under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f w i n e , he may misjudge feminine beauty. Book 3 o f A r s A m a t o r i a i s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e p o e t ' s f e m i n i n e a u d i e n c e . Here a l s o Bacchus/wine has a p a r t t o play.  I n l i n e s 645-646 O v i d e x p l a i n s t h a t Bacchus i n h i s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine i s u s e f u l i n d e c e i v i n g husbands: f a l l i t u r e t m u l t o c u s t o d i s c u r a Lyaeo, i l i a u e l H i s p a n o l e c t a s i t uua i u g o i Wine, even i n f e r i o r S p a n i s h w i n e , b e f u d d l e s t h e w i t s o f a g i r l ' s bodyguard, and so e n a b l e s h e r t o escape h i s c u s t o d y . I n l i n e s 761-762 t h e poet r e t u r n s t o t h e theme o f Book 1.  231-252: a p t i u s e s t deceatque magis p o t a r e p u e l l a s : cum V e n e r i s puero non male, Bacche, f a c i s . For  g i r l s a s w e l l a s f o r men, t h e n , Bacchus/wine i s an a l l y  o f Amor.  A g a i n , however, a s i n 1.245-246, O v i d warns, i n  l i n e s 765-766, t h a t wine may a l s o be h a r m f u l t o a g i r l who. w i s h e s t o make a good i m p r e s s i o n upon a p r o s p e c t i v e l o v e r : t u r p e i a c e n s m u l i e r multo madefacta Lyaeo: digna est concubitus q u o s l i b e t i l i a p a t i . I n t h e i n s t a n c e s d i s c u s s e d above, O v i d has used Bacchus and Lvaeus t o mean s i m p l y uinum o r merum.  As s u c h , t h e god  i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e a l m o f Amor, b o t h a s a l l y and a s enemy. For  b o t h T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f  54  Bacchus w i t h A r i a d n e i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e c o n n e c t i o n between Bacchus and Amor.  Whether o r n o t t h i s  association  has t h e same s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r O v i d i s now t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I n Amores 1.7 t h e poet r e p e n t s o f h a v i n g s t r u c k C o r i n n a . He s t a t e s t h a t he t o r e a t h e r h a i r , and t h a t even so d i s h e v e l l e d she was b e a u t i f u l . f i g u r e s o f mythology,  He t h e n compares h e r t o t h r e e  t h e second o f whom i s A r i a d n e  (lines  15-16): t a l i s p e r i u r i promissaque uelaque T h e s e i f l e u i t p r a e c i p i t e s Cressa t u l i s s e Notos. The  comparison  i s based p r i m a r i l y on t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h  A r i a d n e and C o r i n n a , a l t h o u g h t h e y appear t e a r f u l and d i shevelled, are nevertheless appealing.  A l s o , however, O v i d  m i s t r e a t i n g C o r i n n a i s i m p l i c i t l y compared t o t h e c r u e l Theseus.  A r i a d n e , t h e n , i s here a example b o t h o f beauty  and o f an abandoned woman. The goddess appears s i m i l a r l y i n A r s A m a t o r i a 3«35-36, where O v i d e x p l a i n s t h a t , a l t h o u g h men a r e d e c e i t f u l , women are n o t ; A r i a d n e a g a i n s e r v e s a s an example: quantum i n t e , Theseu, u o l u c r e s A r i a d n a pauit i n ignoto sola r e l i c t a loco.  marinas  The most d e t a i l e d p o r t r a y a l o f t h i s A r i a d n e , i . e . . a d i s t r a u g h t , almost w i l d l o o k i n g g i r l , c r u e l l y d e s e r t e d and f r a n t i c a l l y l a m e n t i n g h e r l o s s , appears to  i n H e r o i d e s 10, A r i a d n e  Theseus. Another v e r s i o n o f A r i a d n e , however, a l s o appears i n  the p o e t r y o f O v i d . H e r o i d e s 6 i s addressed by H y p s i p y l e t o J a s o n .  In lines  113-116, she p l e a d s h e r cause by c i t i n g h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d  55  ancestry: s i t e n o b i l i t a s generosaque nomina tangunt en, ego Minoo nata Thoante f e r o r I Bacchus avus; Bacchi coniunx r e d i m i t a corona praeradiat s t e l l i s signa minora s u i s . Hypsipyle has mentioned her grandmother, Ariadne, the Bacchi coniunx  ?  i n order t o contrast the s i t u a t i o n o f the goddess  w i t h her own. Whereas she, Hypsipyle, has been deceived and abandoned by Jason, Ariadne was loved and rewarded w i t h immortality by Bacchus. In Heroides 18, Leander t o Hero, Ariadne appears i n a similar light.  Leander claims, i n l i n e s 147-160, t h a t he  needs no guidance from the s t a r s t o f i n d h i s way t o Hero: h i s love w i l l keep him on course.  Lines 151-154 l i s t three  c o n s t e l l a t i o n s t h a t he discards as n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s : Andromedan a l i u s spectet ciaramque Coronam quaeque micat g e l i d o P a r r h a s i s Ursa polo; at m i h i , quod Perseus e t cum love L i b e r amarunt, indicium dubiae non p l a c e t esse v i a e . Because Bacchus loved Ariadne, he made a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f 4 her  crown. L i k e w i s e , i n Heroides 15.23-26, Sappho t o Phaon, the  poetess notes that Bacchus loved Ariadne, even though she was u n f a m i l i a r w i t h l y r i c poetry: sume fidem e t pharetram-fies manifestus A p o l l o , accedant c a p i t i cornua-Bacchus e r i s : et Phoebus Daphnen, et Gnosida Bacchus amavit, nec norat l y r i c o s i l i a v e l i l i a modos. Thus f o r Ovid, Ariadne, besides being an example o f beauty and o f d e s e r t i o n , because o f her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Bacchus, 4 Further reference t o Ariadne's crown i n t h i s conn e c t i o n i s seen a t F a s t i 5.345-346 and Metamorphoses 8.176-182.  56  i s a l s o an example o f a w e l l - t r e a t e d and w e l l - l o v e d m i s t r e s s . These two f a c e t s of Ovid's Ariadne are combined i n Ars Amatoria 3.157-158.  Here, as i n Amores 1.7.15-16, the  example o f the goddess i s used p r i m a r i l y t o demonstrate that even a c a r e l e s s appearance can be a t t r a c t i v e : talem t e Bacchus S a t y r i s clamantibus 'euhoe' s u s t u l i t i n currus, Cnosi r e l i c t a , suos. The f a c t that Ovid sees Ariadne from these two p o i n t s o f view a), as a d i s t r a u g h t , forsaken woman and b) as the w e l l ?  t r e a t e d " m i s t r e s s " of Bacchus, i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n F a s t i 3.459-516, where the poet explains the o r i g i n of the c o n s t e l l a t i o n c a l l e d Ariadne's crown: Bacchus, returned from h i s conquests i n the East, has "taken up" with a captive Indian p r i n c e s s .  Ariadne laments that she has again been  deceived, and, as before, t e a r f u l l y paces the shore w i t h d i s h e v e l l e d h a i r ( l i n e s 469-470).  Bacchus, hearing her com-  p l a i n t s , consoles her by granting her immortality, by a l l o w i n g her t o share h i s name, i . e . , she w i l l now be c a l l e d L i b e r a ,  5 and by making a c o n s t e l l a t i o n from her crown. A s i m i l a r combination o f the two Ariadnes appears, i n d e t a i l e d f a s h i o n , i n Ars Amatoria 1.525-564.  The poet begins,  i n l i n e s 525-526, by s t a t i n g e x p l i c i t l y and s u c c i n c t l y what was i m p l i c i t i n T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s , i . e . . that Bacchus loved Ariadne, and, having f e l t l o v e , therefore  favours  lovers: 5 I t i s noteworthy that i n t h i s passage Bacchus i s associated w i t h the same kind of love-games d e a l t with i n the Amores and Ars Amatoria. He i s here hardly a god, but simply a l o v e r faced w i t h a jealous and demanding m i s t r e s s .  57  e c c e , suum uatem L i b e r u o c a t ; h i e quoque amantis a d i u u a t e t flaramae, qua c a l e t i p s e , f a u e t . I n l i n e s 527-536 O v i d p i c t u r e s A r i a d n e a s i n H e r o i d e s 10: a g i r l abandoned, d i s h e v e l l e d and f r a n t i c a l l y t e a r f u l . however, the s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s .  Here,  L i n e s 537-564 t e l l o f the  a r r i v a l o f Bacchus i n h i s t i g e r - d r a w n c a r w i t h h i s c o l o u r f u l entourage o f Maenads, S a t y r s and the drunken o l d S i l e n u s . The god embraces A r i a d n e and t e l l s h e r she s h a l l be h i s w i f e ; h e r wedding g i f t s h a l l be t h e metamorphosis o f h e r crown i n t o a c o n s t e l l a t i o n . At l i n e 565 t h e poet r e t u r n s t o h i s theme o f a d v i s i n g t h e l o v e r ; Bacchus r e m a i n s , but i n a d i f f e r e n t  role:  e r g o , u b i c o n t i g e r i n t p o s i t i t i b i munera B a c c h i atque e r i t i n s o c i i femina p a r t e t o r i , Nycteliumque patrem nocturnaque s a c r a p r e c a r e ne i u b e a n t c a p i t i u i n a nocere t u o . From Bacchus, t h e n , t h e l o v e r o f A r i a d n e , O v i d has t u r n e d a g a i n t o Bacchus i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h w i n e .  There  f o l l o w s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e ways i n which wine may be u s e f u l o r h a r m f u l t o t h e l o v e r ' s campaign. The poet has t h u s s t a t e d c l e a r l y what T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s merely i m p l y : t h a t Bacchus has a p l a c e i n t h e r e a l m o f Amor a) because he l o v e d A r i a d n e and b) because o f h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine. O v i d makes use o f t h e " a d v e n t u r e s " o f t h e H e l l e n i c Dionysus  i n a l l h i s poetry.  S i n c e , however, t h e main c o n c e r n  of t h i s study i s l o v e - e l e g y , h i s treatment of these  legends  i n h i s o t h e r p o e t r y i s not o f p r i m a r y importance h e r e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n F a s t i and Metamorphoses, when t h e poet i s m e r e l y  58  telling for  a s t o r y f o r i t s own  sake, t h e r e i s no need t o s e a r c h  depths o f meaning i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f Bacchus.  l e s s , i t w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e way  Neverthe-  i n which Ovid  handles these legends, i n order t o d i s c o v e r the c h a r a c t e r i s tics  o f t h e f i g u r e t h a t emerges.  u n d e r s t a n d how and why,  I t may  t h e n be e a s i e r t o  i n O v i d ' s l o v e - e l e g i e s , Bacchus be-  comes a p a t r o n o f p o e t r y . I n Amores 1 . 2 O v i d s t a t e s t h a t he has f a l l e n i n l o v e : he i s a v i c t i m o f C u p i d . led  He d e s c r i b e s a t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n ,  by t h e god o f l o v e ( l i n e s  prisoner-of-war, takes part.  23-48),  i n w h i c h he, C u p i d ' s  As t h e p r o c e s s i o n moves a l o n g ,  C u p i d wounds s p e c t a t o r s w i t h h i s arrows and so overcomes them with love.  T h i s p i c t u r e b r i n g s t o t h e p o e t ' s mind t h e t r i ^  umphant p r o c e s s i o n o f Bacchus i n t o I n d i a ( l i n e s t a l i s e r a t domita Bacchus G a n g e t i d e tu grauis a l i t i b u s , t i g r i b u s i l l e A n o t h e r comparison  terra: fuit.  i n v o l v i n g Bacchus'  I n d i a appears a t A r s A m a t o r i a 1.189-190.  47-48):  triumph over  Here O v i d has been  e x p l a i n i n g t h a t p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e s , such as Augustus' of  t h e b a t t l e o f S a l a m i s i n 2.B.C., a r e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s f o r  mistress-hunting. to  staging  He i s t h e n reminded t h a t Augustus  i s about  l a u n c h a campaign a g a i n s t t h e P a r t h i a n s , l e d by t h e y o u t h -  f u l Gaius Caesar.  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f y o u t h and conquest  „,  b r i n g s t o mind f i r s t the i n f a n t H e r c u l e s c r u s h i n g the s n a k e s , and t h e n t h e young Bacchus t r i u m p h i n g o v e r I n d i a : nunc quoque q u i puer e s , quantus turn, Bacche, cum t i m u i t t h y r s o s I n d i a u i c t a t u o s ?  fuisti  59  S i m i l a r l y , i n F a s t i 3.713-790, where Ovid deals w i t h a f e s t i v a l of Bacchus, i t i s t h i s f o r c e f u l , conquering side of the god's p e r s o n a l i t y to which the reader i s f i r s t  intro-  Lines 715-718 describe h i s f i e r y , unnatural b i r t h ,  duced.  l i n e s 719-724 a l l u d e to h i s triumphs i n the East and t o the legends of Pentheus, Lycurgus and the p i r a t e s who were turned i n t o dolphins.  I n e x p l a i n i n g that Bacchus was the f i r s t t o  o f f e r s a c r i f i c e t o J u p i t e r , the poet again has occasion ( l i n e s 729-732) t o mention h i s conquest o f I n d i a .  The de-  r i v a t i o n o f libamina and l i b a from L i b e r and t h e i r connection with s a c r i f i c e s are then discussed; the amusing s t o r y o f the discovery o f honey f o l l o w s . Here Bacchus appears f i r s t as a d u t i f u l subject o f J u p i t e r , i n t h a t he i n i t i a t e s s a c r i f i c e t o him, and, secondly, as a k i n d l y s o r t of f a t h e r f i g u r e , when he l a u g h i n g l y shows S i l e n u s how to t r e a t h i s bee-stings (759-760). Lines 771-790 attempt t o e x p l a i n why the toga l i b e r a i s given t o boys on the occasion of the L i b e r a l i a . , Bacchus appears here f i r s t as an example o f e t e r n a l youth ( l i n e s 773775),  then, again, as a f a t h e r who n a t u r a l l y p r o t e c t s sons  ( l i n e s 775-776), then i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l i b e r t a s ( l i n e s 777778) and f i n a l l y , i n l i n e s 7^9-790, again addressed as pater as a k i n d l y f i g u r e who favours the poet. In Metamorphoses. more than i n F a s t i , i n which Bacchic episodes are used t o e x p l a i n v a r i o u s n a t u r a l or r e l i g i o u s 6 For the kindness of Bacchus c f . Metamorphoses 7. 359-360, 9.132-135 (here note a l s o h i s p a t e r n i t y ) and 7.  294-296.  /  60  phenomena, O v i d n a r r a t e s t h e s e a d v e n t u r e s p e r se and i n much greater d e t a i l .  I n Book 3, l i n e s 261-315, t h e p o e t t e l l s o f  Juno's w r a t h because o f Semele's pregnancy, t h e revenge she o b t a i n s by c o n t r i v i n g h e r d e s t r u c t i o n , t h e encasement  o f the  unborn c h i l d i n t h e t h i g h o f Jove and Bacchus' i n f a n c y , f i r s t under t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f I n o , t h e n under t h a t o f t h e nymphs o f Nysa. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s (316-510) O v i d moves t h r o u g h a s u c c e s s i o n o f t a l e s , each l i n k e d w i t h t h e o t h e r ; t h e whole s e c t i o n d i s p l a y s a k i n d o f r i n g c o m p o s i t i o n by means o f which t h e poet r e t u r n s t o a B a c c h i c a d v e n t u r e i n l i n e 511. A f t e r t h e s a f e t y o f t h e i n f a n t Bacchus i s a s s u r e d , J o v e r e l a x e s and e n t e r s i n t o a good-humoured argument w i t h Juno ( l i n e s 316-322).  The p r o p h e t T i r e s i a s i s asked t o a r b i t r a t e  the d i s p u t e , and t h e r e f o l l o w s t h e s t o r y o f how he o b t a i n e d h i s g i f t o f prophecy ( l i n e s 322-338).  Tiresias'  foretelling  o f t h e f a t e o f N a r c i s s u s i s t h e n mentioned, and t h e poet goes on t o n a r r a t e i n d e t a i l t h e s t o r y o f N a r c i s s u s ( l i n e s 339-510): t h e l o v e t h a t t h e nymph Echo had f o r him, h i s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h h i s own r e f l e c t i o n , and f i n a l l y h i s d e a t h and Echo's p i t y and l a m e n t a t i o n f o r him. A t l i n e 511 t h e r e a d e r i s reminded t h a t the p r e c e d i n g t a l e was prompted by mention o f T i r e s i a s ' p r o phecy; from here t h e poet moves t o a n o t h e r o f t h e s e e r ' s w a r n i n g s : t h e one g i v e n t o P e n t h e u s . r e t u r n s t o Bacchus» t h i s way:  I n t h i s way O v i d  The s e c t i o n might be diagrammed i n  61  1. Bacchus' b i r t h (he i s t h e c h i l d o f Semele) ( l i n e s 261-315). 2. Argument between Jove and Juno ( l i n e s 316-322). 3. T i r e s i a s '  g i f t o f prophecy ( l i n e s  4. N a r c i s s u s / E c h o  322-338).  ( l i n e s 339-401)*  5. N a r c i s s u s ' i n f a t u a t i o n  w i t h h i m s e l f ( l i n e s 402-501).  6. N a r c i s s u s ' death and Echo's s o r r o w ( l i n e s 502-510). 7. T i r e s i a s  ( l i n e s 511-512).  8. Pentheus ( l i n e s 513-527). 9. Bacchus ( p r o l e s S e m e l e i a . L i b e r ) ( l i n e s 528-end) The  s t o r y o f Pentheus, together w i t h the "enclosed"  e p i s o d e o f Bacchus c h a n g i n g t h e p i r a t e s i n t o d o l p h i n s , p l a y s two s e e m i n g l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  dis-  o f t h e god.  F i r s t , P e n t h e u s , l e a r n i n g o f t h e a r r i v a l o f Bacchus and h i s t h r o n g , c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e god as n o i s y b u t f r a u d u l e n t , e f f e m i n a t e , s o f t and y o u t h f u l ; he c o n t r a s t s t h e s e w i t h t h e customary down-to-earth m i l i t a r i s m , riotism,  adventurous s p i r i t , e x p e r i e n c e  traits  courage, pat-  and g e n e r a l  ness o f t h e Theban p o p u l a c e ( l i n e s 531-563).  manli-  He t h e n sends  h i s s e r v a n t s t o b r i n g Bacchus t o h i m . They r e t u r n w i t h a v o t a r y o f t h e god, A c o e t e s , who t e l l s how he became devoted t o t h e new c u l t  ( l i n e s 582-691): on h i s way t o D e l o s he was  d r i v e n o f f course and l a n d e d one  on t h e i s l a n d o f C h i o s .  There  o f h i s crew d i s c o v e r e d a y o u t h whom A c o e t e s b e l i e v e d t o  be more t h a n m o r t a l .  The crew s c o f f e d a t t h i s i d e a , a n d ,  when t h e boy asked t o be t a k e n t o Naxos, d e c e i v e d  him by  p r e t e n d i n g t o make f o r t h a t i s l a n d , b u t r e a l l y s a i l i n g i n another d i r e c t i o n .  When Bacchus d i s c o v e r e d t h e d e c e p t i o n ,  62  he d i s p l a y e d h i s t r u e n a t u r e : t h e s h i p was made t o s t a n d still,  i v y appeared on t h e o a r s , t h e decks and t h e  sails,  and the god assumed h i s customary i n s i g n i a - t h e g a r l a n d of  i v y , t h e t h y r s u s and h i s f e l i n e companions.  The  sailors  were changed t o d o l p h i n s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f A c o e t e s , had remained l o y a l t o Bacchus  who  throughout.  In A c o e t e s ' t a l e , Bacchus appears f i r s t almost  as  Pentheus has p i c t u r e d him i n t h e p r e c e d i n g speech: y o u t h f u l , e f f e m i n a t e , b e a u t i f u l and weak (note e s p e c i a l l y l i n e s 609).  607-  However, when i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t t h e boy i s i n  r e a l i t y a god, h i s p o w e r f u l and demanding n a t u r e comes t o t h e fore. It  i s t h i s l a t t e r f a c e t o f Bacchus' n a t u r e t h a t domi-  n a t e s t h e r e s t o f Book 3«  Pentheus i m p r i s o n s A c o e t e s , w i t h  t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t o r t u r i n g him, but t h e p r i s o n e r escapes miraculously.  No l o n g e r t r u s t i n g h i s s e r v a n t s , Pentheus t h e n  goes t o C i t h a e r o n i n s e a r c h o f t h e god. to  He i s t h e r e t o r n  p i e c e s by t h e Maenads, maddened by t h e power o f Bacchus  and l e d by Pentheus' In  mother, Agave.  t h i s whole e p i s o d e , O v i d has made t h e r e a d e r aware  of two a s p e c t s o f t h e " p e r s o n a l i t y " o f Bacchus.  The  story  of h i s b i r t h ( l i n e s 261-315) i s one o f b o t h v i o l e n c e (Juno's w r a t h , Semele's d e s t r u c t i o n , Bacchus' second b i r t h from  the  t h i g h o f h i s f a t h e r ) and g e n t l e n e s s ( h i s i n f a n c y w i t h I n o , t h e c a r e t h a t t h e nymphs o f Nysa bestowed upon him by h i d i n g him i n t h e i r cave and n o u r i s h i n g him w i t h milk).  Likewise,  i n the speech o f A c o e t e s , Bacchus appears f i r s t t o be  soft,  63  y o u t h f u l and e f f e m i n a t e l y weak.  However, t h e end o f A c o e t e s *  t a l e and t h e c r u e l f a t e o f Pentheus make c l e a r t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l power, t h e demanding n a t u r e and t h e r u t h l e s s n e s s o f the  god. A s i m i l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t r a i t s appears  i n Ovid's  t r e a t m e n t o f t h e god i n Book 4 o f Metamorphoses. Here t o o t h e r e appears a k i n d o f r i n g c o m p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h l e s s complex t h a n t h a t noted i n Book  3"  1. A p r i e s t announces t h a t everyone i s t o cease w o r k i n o r d e r t o c e l e b r a t e a f e s t i v a l o f Bacchus. The d a u g h t e r s o f M i n y a s r e f u s e ( l i n e s 1-10). 2. L i s t o f Bacchus' e p i t h e t s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s accomplishments ( l i n e s 11-32).  and  3. The d a u g h t e r s o f M i n y a s amuse t h e m s e l v e s as t h e y weave by t e l l i n g s t o r i e s ( l i n e s 32-388): i . Pyramus and T h i s b e ( l i n e s 55-166). i i . The Sun and Leucothoe ( l i n e s 167-270). i i i . C u p i d and S a l m a c i s * ( l i n e s 271-388). 4. A l c i t h o e and h e r s i s t e r s c o n t i n u e t o weave ( l i n e s 389-390).  5. B a c c h i c m i r a c l e : because t h e y w i l l n o t submit t o him, Bacchus changes t h e s i s t e r s i n t o b a t s . The d i v i n i t y of t h e god i s t h e n acknowledgedthroughout Thebes ( l i n e s 391-418). In  l i n e s 18-30, a l i s t o f t h e god's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , of  i n d e e d almost a p r a y e r , both f a c e t s  t h e god's p e r s o n a l i t y a r e mentioned:  he i s d e c e p t i v e l y  young and weak, b u t , i n r e a l i t y , p o w e r f u l and  ruthlessly  7  c r u e l t o t h o s e who  r e f u s e t o submit t o him:  t u puer a e t e r n u s , t u f o r m o s i s s i m u s a l t o c o n s p i c e r i s c a e l o ; t i b i , cum s i n e c o r n i b u s a d s t a s ,  7  Cf. Metamorphoses 4.604-614  64  v i r g i n e u m caput e s t ; o r i e n s t i b i v i c t u s , adusque d e c o l o r extremo qua t i n g u i t u r I n d i a Gange. Penthea t u , venerande, b i p e n n i f e r u m q u e Lycurgum s a c r i l e g o s mactas Tyrrhenaque raittis i n aequor corpora, t u biiugum p i c t i s i n s i g n i a f r e n i s c o l l a p r e m i s lyncum. bacchae s a t y r i q u e s e q u u n t u r , quique senex f e r u l a t i t u b a n t i s e b r i u s a r t u s s u s t i n e t e t pando non f o r t i t e r h a e r e t a s e l l o . quacumque i n g r e d e r i s , clamor i u v e n a l i s e t una femineae voces i n p u l s a q u e tympana p a l m i s concavaque a e r a sonant longoque f o r a m i n e buxus. As a t t h e end o f Book 3, i t i s the l a t t e r s i d e o f t h e god's c h a r a c t e r t h a t comes t o the f o r e i n l i n e s 391-418, where he changes the s i s t e r s t o b a t s and so commands t h e r e s p e c t o f a l l Thebes. At  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Book 11 Bacchus appears i n a d i f -  ferent l i g h t . dered Orpheus.  L i n e s 1-66  t e l l how t h e Maenads c r u e l l y mur-  The s a v a g e r y and r u t h l e s s n e s s o f t h e s e  f o l l o w e r s o f Bacchus, presumably maddened by him, a t f i r s t seems a r e f l e c t i o n upon t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e god.  I t has  been shown, a f t e r a l l , t h a t O v i d ' s Bacchus i s a god u n m e r c i f u l towards t h o s e who r e f u s e t o submit t o him.  However, i n  l i n e s 67-70 i t becomes c l e a r t h a t Bacchus had no p a r t i n t h e s l a y i n g o f Orpheus, t h a t Orpheus i n d e e d was h i m s e l f a f o l l o w e r of t h e god: n o n inpune tamen s c e l u s hoc s i n i t esse L y a e u s , amissoque d o l e n s sacrorum v a t e suorum p r o t i n u s i n s i l v i s matres E d o n i d a s omnes, quae v i d e r e n e f a s , t o r t a r a d i c e l i g a v i t . The f a c t t h a t Orpheus i s here r e f e r r e d t o as sacrorum v a t e suorum. i . e . . p o e t / p r o p h e t o f t h e s a c r e d r i t e s o f Bacchus, and i n l i n e s 92-93 as he who t a u g h t t h e r i t e s o f Bacchus t o M i d a s , i n d i c a t e s some l i n k  i n t h e p o e t ' s mind  between  65  Bacchic  l e g e n d and t h e myth o f Orpheus t h a t i n v o l v e s t h e  o r i g i n s o f music and p o e t r y . The  a l m o s t human s e n s i t i v i t y combined w i t h d i v i n e  j u s t i c e t h a t Bacchus d i s p l a y s i n g r i e v i n g o v e r Orpheus and punishing  h i s s l a y e r s a r e f u r t h e r shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  episodes:  i n l i n e s 100-101 he r e j o i c e s t h a t S i l e n u s , h i s  f o s t e r - f a t h e r , has been r e t u r n e d with a divine g i f t .  t o him and rewards M i d a s  I n l i n e 105 he a g a i n g r i e v e s t h a t M i d a s  has asked f o r such a f o o l i s h g i f t and, i n l i n e s 135-136, shows k i n d n e s s and mercy by r e l i e v i n g t h e k i n g o f h i s t e r r i b l e power. The  f i g u r e t h a t emerges from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o  O v i d ' s use o f B a c c h i c qualities.  a d v e n t u r e s i s one t h a t combines many  Bacchus i s a c o n q u e r i n g , t r i u m p h a n t god, s u p e r -  n a t u r a l l y p o w e r f u l and r u t h l e s s towards t h o s e who remain unresponsive  t o t h i s power.  H i s y o u t h f u l and e f f e m i n a t e  rance i s , however, d e c e p t i v e .  appea-  I n a d d i t i o n , the Ovidian  Bacchus p o s s e s s e s s e v e r a l v e r y human q u a l i t i e s : he i s j u s t , i  k i n d , m e r c i f u l , p a t e r n a l and c a p a b l e o f f e e l i n g b o t h j o y and  grief. C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e god's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  wine and w i t h h i s a d v e n t u r e s a s t h e Greek D i o n y s u s , t h e i n ventor  and p r o p a g a t o r o f v i t i c u l t u r e , i s h i s appearance i n t h e  p o e t r y o f O v i d as s i m p l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l g o d , a p r o t e c t o r o f the v i n e .  I n t h i s connection,  t h e O v i d i a n Bacchus b e a r s  many resemblances t o t h e f i g u r e so o f t e n seen i n t h e works  of T i b u l l u s ( c f . 1.9.33-34, 2.1.3-4, 2.3.63-64).  66  I n Amores 3.2.43-57 O v i d d e s c r i b e s  a procession i n  w h i c h f i g u r e s o f t h e gods a r e c a r r i e d around t h e course immediately before a race.  Bacchus appears i n t h i s  procession  ( l i n e 53) i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C e r e s , t h e goddess who p r o t e c t s g r a i n crops: r u r i c o l a e C e r e r i teneroque a d s u r g i t e  Baccho«  r  S i m i l a r l y , i n A r s A m a t o r i a 3.101-102 t h e p o e t , his  advising  f e m i n i n e r e a d e r s t o c a r e f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance,  c i t e s as a p a r a l l e l w e l l - c a r e d - f o r  vineyards,  which L i b e r  w i l l f a v o u r w i t h good v i n t a g e , and w e l l - c u l t i v a t e d s o i l , which w i l l bear high-standing crops: o r d i o r a c u l t u : c u l t i s bene L i b e r ab u u i s p r o u e n i t , e t c u l t o s t a t seges a l t a s o l o . Bacchus a p p e a r s , a g a i n i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C e r e s , a s p a t r o n o f v i t i c u l t u r e i n F a s t i 1.353-360.  Ovid, dealing  the o r i g i n s o f a n i m a l s a c r i f i c e , has j u s t e x p l a i n e d the  with  that  sow i s s a c r i f i c e d t o C e r e s because t h a t a n i m a l r o o t e d  up h e r newly p l a n t e d  g r a i n ; l i k e w i s e , t h e goat i s s l a u g h t e r e d 8 i n honour o f Bacchus because he n i b b l e d a t t h e v i n e : sus d e d e r a t poenas: exemplo t e r r i t u s h u i u s p a l m i t e debueras a b s t i n u i s s e , c a p e r , quem s p e c t a n s a l i q u i s dentes i n v i t e prementem t a l i a non t a c i t o d i c t a d o l o r e d e d i t : " r o d e , c a p e r , v i t e m ! tamen h i n c , cum s t a b i s ad aram i n t u a quod s p a r g i cornua p o s s i t , e r i t . " v e r b a f i d e s s e q u i t u r r noxae t i b i d e d i t u s h o s t i s s p a r g i t u r a d f u s o c o r n u a , Bacche, mero. The  a s s o c i a t i o n o f Bacchus w i t h wine i s i m p l i e d i n  the e p i s o d e i n v o l v i n g P r i a p u s ,  8  t h e nymph L o t i s , and t h e a s s  F o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n between Bacchus and C e r e s i n  Metamorphoses see 8.274 and 13.639.  67  o f S i l e n u s , d e s c r i b e d i n F a s t i 1.391-440. The the i n c i d e n t i s  occasion  of  f e s t a c o r y m b i f e r i . . . B a c c h i ( l i n e 393) and  a t l i n e 403 the god  i s s a i d t o have p r o v i d e d wine f o r the  celebration: v i n a dabat L i b e r , t u l e r a t s i b i quisque coronam. A s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i s mentioned a t F a s t i 3*407-414, where Ovid d e s c r i b e s the o r i g i n o f the c o n s t e l l a t i o n V i n demitor: a t non e f f u g i e t V i n d e m i t o r : hoc quoque causam unde t r a h a t s i d u s , p a r v a docere mora e s t . Arapelon intonsura s a t y r o nymphaque creatum f e r t u r i n I s m a r i i s Bacchus amasse i u g i s : t r a d i d i t h u i c v i t e m pendentem e f r o n d i b u s u l m i , quae nunc de p u e r i nomine nomen habe't. dum l e g i t i n ramo p i c t a s t e m e r a r i u s uvas d e c i d i t : araissum L i b e r i n a s t r a t u l i t . L i k e w i s e , a t F a s t i 3.765-766, where O v i d e x p l a i n s  why  i t i s t h a t an o l d woman makes the honey-cakes s a c r i f i c e d to Bacchus on the o c c a s i o n o f the L i b e r a l i a , the r e a s o n he  9 g i v e s i n v o l v e s the god's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h wine: c u r anus hoc f a c i a t , q u a e r i s ? v i n o s i o r a e t a s haec e s t e t g r a v i d a e munera v i t i s amat. So, t h e n , i n a l l these i n s t a n c e s Bacchus appears a s a p a t r o n god o f v i t i c u l t u r e , n o t , as b e f o r e  (see above  pages 49-53), i d e n t i f i e d w i t h w i n e , but now  invoked as i n -  ventor, propagator  and p r o t e c t o r o f the v i n e and so o f  wine-making and wine  itself.  F o r P r o p e r t i u s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Bacchus and the Maenads proved t o be an i m p o r t a n t  one w i t h r e g a r d t o  t h a t p o e t ' s a d o p t i o n o f Bacchus as h i s p a t r o n .  9  C f . Metamorphoses 11.125  I n the  68  poetry o f Ovid the treatment o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not n e a r l y so complex, b u t i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  significant.  F i r s t o f a l l , O v i d makes use o f t h e Maenad  alone,  s i m p l y on t h e b a s i s o f appearance, t o s e r v e a s a n example  10 o f a woman d i s h e v e l l e d y e t l o v e l y .  I n both cases a com-  p a r i s o n i s made p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f l o o s e , hair.  Amores 1.9 e x p l o r e s  streaming  t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e l i f e  o f t h e l o v e r and t h a t o f t h e s o l d i e r .  I n l i n e s 33-40 t h e poet  c i t e s examples o f l e g e n d a r y m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s who have been i n f l u e n c e d by l o v e ; l i n e s 37-38 t e l l o f C a s s a n d r a and Agamemnon: summa ducum, A t r i d e s u i s a P r i a m e i d e f e r t u r Maenadis e f f u s i s o b s t i p u i s s e c o m i s . ^ l The Maenad a p p e a r s s i m i l a r l y i n Amores 1.14.21-22, where O v i d c h i d e s C o r i n n a f o r so t r e a t i n g h e r h a i r t h a t i t t  has f a l l e n o u t . He r e c a l l s t h a t , a l t h o u g h h e r h a i r was o f no d e f i n i t e c o l o u r , y e t i t was f i n e and v e r y l o n g , easy t o d r e s s and a t t r a c t i v e when l o o s e .  T h i s l a s t b r i n g s t o mind  t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e weary Maenad: turn quoque e r a t n e c l e c t a decens, u t T h r a c i a cum temere i n u i r i d i gramine l a s s a i a c e t . The l o o s e h a i r o f t h e Maenad, which p r o v i d e s for  Bacche, the basis  comparison i n t h e s e two s i m i l e s , i s mentioned as t h e  o n l y a t t r i b u t e o f t h e B a c c h a n a l s i n A r s A m a t o r i a 1.541, where O v i d d e s c r i b e s t h e a r r i v a l o f Bacchus and h i s t r o o p on  10  Cf. h i s use o f A r i a d n e f o r t h e same purpose ( s e e  pp. 53-54 above).  11 C f . P r o p e r t i u s 3.13.61-62.  69  Naxos:  12  e c c e , Mimallonid.es s p a r s i s i n t e r g a c a p i l l i s . Ovid's most f r e q u e n t use o f t h e f i g u r e o f t h e Maenad, however, i n v o l v e s t h e f a c t t h a t she has been s m i t t e n by t h e power o f Bacchus and so maddened and f o r c e d t o r u s h about f r e n z i e d . Maenad appears  I n each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e s t h e i n a s i m i l e ; t h e f r e q u e n t use o f t h e p a r t i -  c i p l e c o n e i t a and v e r b forms w i t h s i m i l a r meanings such a s a c t a e ( H e r o i d e s 4.47), e g i t ( H e r o i d e s 13.34) and i c t a ( A r s A m a t o r i a 2.3&0), and t h e m e t r i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e s e l i n e s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r O v i d t h e Maenad i s m e r e l y a t y p e . t o be used almost f o r m u l a i c a l l y , whenever f r e n z y o r madness i s mentioned  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a woman:  H e r o i d e s 4.47-48: nunc f e r o r , u t B a c c h i f u r i i s E l e l e i d e s a c t a e , quaeque sub Idaeo tympana c o l l e movent. H e r o i d e s 10.47-48: aut ego d i f f u s i s e r r a v i s o l a c a p i l l i s , q u a l i s ab Ogygio c o n c i t a Ba'ccha deo. H e r o i d e s 13.33-34: ut  quas pampinea t e t i g i s s e B i c o r n i g e r h a s t a , c r e d i t u r , hue i l l u c , qua f u r o r e g i t , eo.  Ars A m a t o r i a 1.311-312: i n nemus e t s a l t u s thalamo r e g i n a r e l i c t o f e r t u r , u t A o n i o c o n c i t a Baccha deo. A r s A m a t o r i a 2.379-380: i n f e r r u m flammasque r u i t p o s i t o q u e decore f e r t u r , ut A o n i i cornibus i c t a d e i .  12  C f . H e r o i d e s 10.47-48  70  A r s A m a t o r i a 3.709-710: nec mora, p e r medias p a s s i s f u r i b u n d a c a p i l l i s e u o l a t , ut t h y r s o c o n c i t a Baccha, u i a s . A l i n e s i m i l a r t o t h e s e o c c u r s a t F a s t i 3*764 where O v i d e x p l a i n s why  i t i s t h a t a woman s h o u l d knead t h e  cakes  s a c r i f i c e d t o Bacchus: femineos t h y r s o c o n c i t a t i l l e A g a i n , note t h e v e r b  choros.  concitat.  The Maenads, a r o u s e d t o an extreme form o f t h i s B a c c h i c f r e n z y , appear i n Metamorphoses 11.1-66.  Here t h e y c r u e l l y  murder Orpheus and a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y p u n i s h e d by B a c c h u s . The k i n d o f madness t h a t p o s s e s s e s t h e Maenads i s d e s c r i b e d i n l i n e s 13-14: sed enim t e m e r a r i a c r e s c u n t b e l l a modusque a b i i t insanaque r e g n a t E r i n y s . Thus f o r O v i d , t h e Maenad i s , f i r s t o f a l l , an example o f d i s h e v e l l e d beauty.  More i m p o r t a n t , however, i s  that  she appears as an a r c h e t y p e o f t h e p e r s o n made w i t l e s s  and  f r e n z i e d by t h e power o f a god over h e r . I n O v i d ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f the H e l l e n i c Dionysus t h e p o w e r f u l , t r i u m p h a n t and r u t h l e s s l y demanding n a t u r e o f t h e god s t a n d s o u t .  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , com-  b i n e d w i t h h i s a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e a profound i n f l u e n c e over the minds o f h i s f o l l o w e r s , t h e Maenads, a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e p o e t ' s a d o p t i o n o f t h a t god as a p a t r o n o f p o e t r y . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Book 3 o f Amores O v i d d e s c r i b e s h i s " i n t e r v i e w " w i t h Roman Tragedy, who  urges him t o abandon  l o v e - p o e t r y and t a k e up more s e r i o u s work.  E l e g y , on the  71  o t h e r hand, reminds the poet o f her u s e f u l n e s s to, him  in  the p a s t and  Ovid  i n s i s t s t h a t he owes a l l e g i a n c e t o h e r .  beseeches Tragedy t o g r a n t him a s h o r t t i m e i n w h i c h t o c o n t i n u e w i t h l o v e - p o e t r y ; a f t e r t h i s he w i l l devote hims e l f to a grandius...opus ( l i n e s  70).  I n l i n e s 23-24 Tragedy s t a t e s , tempus e r a t t h y r s o pulsum g r a u i o r e m o u e r i ; cessatum s a t i s e s t : i n c i p e maius opus. The  most o b v i o u s meaning o f t h e s e l i n e s i s t h i s : the  g r a u i o r e i s the s t a f f b e l o n g i n g  thyrso...  t o the H e l l e n i c D i o n y s u s  w i t h whom the o r i g i n s o f drama are a s s o c i a t e d ; the Muse i s here a d v i s i n g the poet t o s t o p w a s t i n g  h i s time w i t h l o v e -  p o e t r y , t o y i e l d t o the power o f the god o f drama and t o writing  begin  tragedy.  However, i n v i e w o f O v i d ' s concept o f the power o f Bacchus o v e r h i s f o l l o w e r s (a power e x e r c i s e d by means o f h i s t h y r s u s ) , an a d d i t i o n a l and The  s i m p l e r meaning becomes c l e a r .  poet i s comparing the v o c a t i o n o f t h e poet v;toW the mad-  n e s s induced by Bacchus i n h i s f o l l o w e r s .  As a p o e t he  i p s o f a c t o been s m i t t e n by the t h y r s u s , perhaps even by thyrsus g r a u i s .  The  has a  c o m p a r a t i v e o f the a d j e c t i v e s i s t h u s  e x p l a i n e d : a l l p o e t s are under t h e power o f the  Bacchic  t h y r s u s , but i n o r d e r t o w r i t e a s e r i o u s work, i . e . . a maius opus, i n t h i s c a s e , a t r a g e d y ,  one must be touched  by a t h y r s u s g r a u i o r . A t t h e end o f Book 3,  h i s r e s p i t e ended, O v i d b i d s  f a r e w e l l t o the p o e t r y o f l o v e and announces t h a t he  is  now  72  determined  t o b e g i n w r i t i n g more s e r i o u s l y .  L i n e s 17-18  answer 3*1.23-24: c o r n i g e r i n c r e p u i t t h y r s o g r a u i o r e Lyaeus: p u l s a n d a e s t magnis a r e a m a i o r e q u i s . I n t h e f i r s t poem t h e Muse s t a t e s t h a t t h e time has come f o r him t o be s m i t t e n by a t h y r s u s g r a u i o r ; here O v i d  confesses  t h a t he has been touched by such a t h y r s u s , t h a t he has now y i e l d e d t o i t s power and must t h e r e f o r e b e g i n a more s e r i o u s task.  The meaning o f t h y r s o g r a u i o r e i n l i n e 17 i s t h u s  e x a c t l y t h a t o f 3.1.23. i m p l i e d comparison  There i s perhaps,  i n a d d i t i o n , an  between t h i s and t h e a u r e a . . . s i g n a o f  Venus, mentioned i n l i n e 16. I n F a s t i O v i d i n v o k e s Bacchus t h r e e t i m e s , a p p a r e n t l y as p a t r o n o f p o e t r y : 3.713- 714:  T e r t i a p o s t Idus l u x e s t c e l e b e r r i m a Baccho: Bacche, f a v e v a t i , dum t u a f e s t a cano. 3.789-790:  m i t e c a p u t , p a t e r , hue p l a c a t a q u e cornua v e r t a s e t des i n g e n i o v e l a secunda meo. and  6.483-484:  B a c c h e , r a c e m i f e r o s hedera r e d i m i t e c a p i l l o s , s i domus i l i a t u a e s t , d i r i g e v a t i s opus. I n each o f t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e poet p r a y s t o Bacchus b e f o r e o r j u s t a f t e r he has d e a l t w i t h m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g t h a t god: 3.714- 715 and 3.789-790 come a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f a s e r i e s o f B a c c h i c a d v e n t u r e s , t h e c e n t r a l s t o r y b e i n g Bacchus* d i s c o v e r y o f honey and S i l e n u s * subsequent  misadventure;  6.483-484 p r e f a c e a l o n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f e a s t and temple  73  o f M a t e r M a t u t a , whom O v i d i d e n t i f i e s w i t h I n o , s i s t e r o f Seraele and f o s t e r - m o t h e r o f the i n f a n t Bacchus. In  s e v e r a l o t h e r i n s t a n c e s i n F a s t i Ovid p r a y s f o r  i n s p i r a t i o n t o t h e god whose s t o r y he i s about t o t e l l o r has j u s t t o l d : 1.467-468 ( C a r m e n t i s ) ; 4.1-18 (Venus); 4.  723-724 and 729-730 ( P a l e s ) ; 4.807-808 ( Q u i r i n u s ) ; 5.377-378 ( F l o r a ) ; 6.249-250 ( V e s t a ) ; 6.652 ( M i n e r v a ) .  This fact  l e s s e n s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i n t h e t h r e e examples above Bacchus i s b e i n g i n v o k e d a s a s p e c i a l p a t r o n o f p o e t r y . However, t h e r e i s d i r e c t e v i d e n c e elsewhere  in his  p o e t r y t h a t Ovid does t h i n k o f Bacchus a s a god who p r e s i d e s over h i s a r t . (cf.  F i r s t , a s does P r o p e r t i u s i n Book 4  above pp. 43-48), O v i d c o n s i d e r s t h e i v y w r e a t h a s  13 an i n s i g n e b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p o e t .  T h i s i s c l e a r from  F a s t i 5.79-80: tunc s i c , n e g l e c t o s hedera r e d i m i t a c a p i l l o s , prima s u i c o e p i t C a l l i o p e a c h o r i , - ^ Amores 3.9.61-62: o b u i u s h u i c u e n i e s hedera i u u e n a l i a c i n c t u s tempora cum C a l u o , docte C a t u l l e , t u o , and A r s A m a t o r i a 3.411-412: nunc hederae s i n e honore i a c e n t operataque d o c t i s c u r a u i g i l M u s i s nomen i n e r t i s habet. However, whereas P r o p e r t i u s ( c f . 4.1.61-62 and 4.6.3-4) seems t o t h i n k o f i v y a s the p a r t i c u l a r badge o f t h e e l e g i a c  13 That he a s s o c i a t e s t h i s p l a n t w i t h Bacchus i s obv i o u s from F a s t i 1.393, 3.767-770 and 6.483. 14 The words n e g l e c t o s . . . c a p i l l o s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Muse wears t h e B a c c h i c i v y a r e perhaps an echo o f the Muse-Maenad c o m b i n a t i o n found i n the p o e t r y o f P r o pertius.  74  p o e t , O v i d c o n s i d e r s i t the mark o f p o e t s i n g e n e r a l :  he  speaks o f i t i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C a l l i o p e , a Muse whose sphere i s u s u a l l y e p i c p o e t r y , w i t h T i b u l l u s , an e l e g i a c p o e t , and w i t h E n n i u s , a w r i t e r o f Roman e p i c . More s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t Bacchus appears i n O v i d ' s p o e t r y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses. In Heroides  15,  Sappho t o Phaon, the p o e t e s s c l a i m s i n  her f a v o u r t h e f a c t t h a t she i s s k i l l e d i n her a r t .  In l i n e s  23-28 she speaks o f Daphne and A r i a d n e , both l a c k i n g t h i s s k i l l , but n e v e r t h e l e s s l o v e d by A p o l l o and Bacchus: sume f i d e m e t pharetram - f i e s m a n i f e s t u s A p o l l o , accedant c a p i t i cornua - Bacchus e r i s : e t Phoebus Daphnen, e t G n o s i d a Bacchus a m a v i t , nec n o r a t l y r i c o s i l i a v e l i l i a modos; at m i h i P e g a s i d e s b l a n d i s s i m a carmina d i c t a n t ; iam c a n i t u r t o t o nomen i n orbe meum. The  a s s o c i a t i o n here among A p o l l o , Bacchus and the Muses as  p a t r o n s o f p o e t r y i s a l o o s e one.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Ovid i m p l i e s  t h a t a l l t h r e e are connected i n some way w i t h  lyricos...modos.  the b l a n d i s s i m a carmina t h a t Sappho w r o t e . Most i m p o r t a n t , however i s t h a t Bacchus appears w i t h the two customary p a t r o n s  of p o e t r y i n a c o n t e x t t h a t i n v o l v e s  l o v e : the l o v e o f A p o l l o f o r Daphne, o f Bacchus f o r A r i a d n e and, i n t h e background, t h e u n r e q u i t e d l o v e o f Sappho f o r Phaon. Bacchus appears s i m i l a r l y i n Amores 1.3»  Here Ovid  p l e a d s h i s case b e f o r e h i s m i s t r e s s , j u s t as Sappho does b e f o r e Phaon i n H e r o i d e s  15.  I n l i n e s 5-10  the poet s t a t e s  t h a t he l a c k s d i s t i n g u i s h e d a n c e s t r y and w e a l t h .  However,  75  i n l i n e s 11-12, he c l a i m s t h a t he has o t h e r q u a l i t i e s : at Phoebus comitesque nouem u i t i s q u e r e p e r t o r hac f a c i u n t e t me q u i t i b i donat Amor • •••  Bacchus, the u i t i s . . . r e p e r t o r , a g a i n appears w i t h A p o l l o and t h e Muses i n a s e t t i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s Amor. Both t h e s e i n s t a n c e s r e c a l l Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m 3.4.-43-  44: " s a l u e , c u r a deum: c a s t o nam r i t e poetae Phoebusque e t Bacchus P i e r i d e s q u e f a u e n t . " Here f a u e n t i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n meaning t o hac f a c i u n t i n Amores 1.3.12: both i m p l y t h a t t h e s e gods do not so much i n s p i r e and t e a c h t h e poet as t h e y " i n c l i n e towards"  him  as a l o v e r . Thus i n a l l t h r e e i n s t a n c e s , Bacchus appears i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses i n a c o n t e x t t h a t i n v o l v e s love.  Furthermore,  i n each the poet i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f not  o n l y as a l o v e r but as a l o v e r who  has e i t h e r been wronged  o r must prove h i m s e l f i n some way  t o h i s would-be p a r t n e r .  In Ars Amatoria  3 O v i d a g a i n i n v o k e s Bacchus as h i s  p a t r o n t o g e t h e r w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses.  I t can be shown  t h a t the god appears here i n a c o n t e x t s i m i l a r t o t h a t des c r i b e d above.  I n l i n e s 329-33$ the poet urges h i s f e m i n i n e  r e a d e r s t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h p o e t r y i n o r d e r t o prospective lovers.  impress  He l i s t s s u i t a b l e p o e t s and t h e i r works  and i n l i n e s 339-346 e x p r e s s e s a w i s h t h a t he may among t h e s e : f o r s i t a n e t nostrum nomen m i s c e b i t u r i s t i s nec mea L e t h a e i s s c r i p t a dabuntur a q u i s  be i n c l u d e d  76  atque a l i q u i s d i c e t ' n o s t r i l e g e c u l t a raagistri c a r m i n a , q u i s p a r t e s i n s t r u i t i l l e duas, deue t r i b u s l i b r i s , t i t u l o quos s i g n a t AMORUM, e l i g e , quod d o c i l i m o l l i t e r ore l e g a s , u e l t i b i composita c a n t e t u r EPISTULA uoce; ignotum hoc a l i i s i l l e n o u a u i t opus.' O v i d t h u s p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f not o n l y as a poet o f l o v e , but a l s o as p r a e c e p t o r a m o r i s . his  I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e n , he p r a y s t o  p a t r o n s i n l i n e s 347-348 t o g r a n t h i s w i s h e s : o i t a , Phoebe, u e l i s , i t a uos, p i a numina uatum i n s i g n i s c o r n u Bacche nouemque deae I  The c o n t e x t o f t h i s i n v o c a t i o n i s one t h a t i n v o l v e s t h e poet not s i m p l y as l o v e r but as a t e a c h e r o f l o v e . s t a n c e i t i s not the poet who  must prove h i m s e l f t o h i s  m i s t r e s s , but h i s f e m i n i n e r e a d e r s who to  In this i n -  are b e i n g t a u g h t  how  please prospective l o v e r s . Thus, f o r b o t h "Lygdamus" and O v i d , Bacchus i s p e c u l i a r l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A p o l l o and t h e Muses i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i n v o l v e t h e s e gods not so much as the s o u r c e s o f p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n and s k i l l (or,  but as p a t r o n s o f the poet as t h e l o v e r  f o r O v i d , as the p r a e c e p t o r amoris) who  has e i t h e r been  wronged o r must prove h i m s e l f t o h i s p a r t n e r ( o r , a g a i n f o r O v i d , who The for  i s t e a c h i n g o t h e r s how t o prove c o n j e c t u r e was  themselves).  put f o r w a r d ( c f . above p. 20)  that  "Lygdamus" t h i s Bacchus i s l i n k e d t o t h e f i g u r e t h a t  appears i n 3.6.23-26: q u a l e s h i s poenas q u a l i s quantusque m i n e t u r , Cadmeae m a t r i s praeda c r u e n t a d o c e t . Sed p r o c u l a n o b i s h i e s i t t i m o r , i l l a q u e , s i qua e s t , quid ualeat l a e s i s e n t i a t i r a d e i . Here Bacchus, who  t o o k vengeance upon the u n s u b m i s s i v e  Pen-  t h e u s , i s asked t o p u n i s h the p o e t ' s u n f a i t h f u l m i s t r e s s .  77  L a t e r i n t h e poem, i n l i n e s 37-40, a p a r a l l e l i s i m p l i e d between t h e s i t u a t i o n o f A r i a d n e  and t h a t o f t h e poet:  quid queror i n f e l i x ? turpes d i s c e d i t e curae: o d i t Lenaeus t r i s t i a uerba p a t e r . G n o s i a , Theseae quondam p e r i u r i a l i n g u a e f l e u i s t i ignoto sola r e l i c t a  mari.  B a c c h u s , t h e n , because he t r a d i t i o n a l l y t a k e s vengeance upon those who r e f u s e t o submit t o him and a l s o because he r e s c u e d A r i a d n e , c r u e l l y abandoned by Theseus, i s an approp r i a t e p a t r o n f o r t h e poet a s a wronged l o v e r : h i s m i s t r e s s r e f u s e s t o comply w i t h h i s w i s h e s and has a p p a r e n t l y  for-  saken him. I n t h e p o e t r y o f O v i d both t h e v e n g e f u l n a t u r e o f Bacchus and h i s i d e n t i t y as t h e l o v e r o f A r i a d n e  are stressed  much more s t r o n g l y t h a n i n t h e Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m .  These,  t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e O v i d i a n B a c c h u s , may, as i n t h e Corpus. be l i n k e d t o t h a t f i g u r e t h a t appears w i t h A p o l l o and t h e Muses a s p a t r o n o f t h e l o v e r - p o e t . The  f o r c e f u l , conquering  n a t u r e o f t h e god and h i s  a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e minds o f h i s f o l l o w e r s emerged from o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o O v i d ' s use o f D i o n y s i a c  adven-  t u r e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Bacchus w i t h t h e Maenads. S u r e l y t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o a god who f a v o u r s p o e t s w i s h i n g t o impress o r prove t h e m s e l v e s t o prospective lovers?  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e god's j u s t i c e , k i n d -  n e s s , mercy, p a t e r n a l i s m and s e n s i t i v i t y , w h i c h emerged i  i  from t h e same i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a r e f i t t i n g t r a i t s f o r a p a t r o n o f wronged l o v e r s .  7«  It  i s necessary, before concluding t h i s chapter, t o  c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y a poem c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e t h e sphere o f l o v e - e l e g y , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t w i t h r e g a r d t o Ovid's c o n c e p t i o n o f Bacchus. T r i s t i a 5.3 the L i b e r a l i a .  i s addressed  t o Bacchus on t h e o c c a s i o n o f  O v i d r e c a l l s t h a t on t h i s day poets  cus-  t o m a r i l y meet t o p r a i s e Bacchus; he laments t h a t he i s no l o n g e r among them ( l i n e s 1-8): i l i a d i e s haec e s t , qua t e c e l e b r a r e p o e t a e , s i modo non f a l l u n t tempora, Bacche, s o l e n t , f e s t a q u e o d o r a t i s i n n e c t u n t tempora s e r t i s , et d i c u n t l a u d e s ad t u a v i n a t u a s . i n t e r quos, memini, dum me mea f a t a s i n e b a n t , non i n v i s a t i b i p a r s ego saepe f u i , quem nunc suppositum s t e l l i s C y n o s u r i d o s Ursae iuncta tenet c r u d i s Sarmatis ora G e t i s . The poet t h e n c o n t r a s t s t h e ease o f h i s former l i f e w i t h t h e h a r d s h i p o f h i s p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e ; he wonders about t h e cause o f h i s punishment, and, i n l i n e s 15-16, c o m p l a i n s  t h a t , what-  ever t h e cause, Bacchus s h o u l d have s u p p o r t e d him: t u tamen e s a c r i s hederae c u l t o r i b u s unum numine debueras s u s t i n u i s s e t u o . However, O v i d c o n t i n u e s , perhaps what t h e F a t e s decree i s o u t s i d e t h e power o f even t h e gods. at f i r s t  m o r t a l , earned  He r e f l e c t s t h a t Bacchus,  i m m o r t a l i t y by h i s f a r - f l u n g  con-  q u e s t s , and t h a t t h i s l o t was o r d a i n e d f o r him by t h e Parcae at h i s b i r t h .  A comparison f o l l o w s between t h e h a r d s h i p  t h a t Bacchus endured and what t h e poet i s now e n d u r i n g . L i n e s 31-34  r e i t e r a t e t h e c o m p l a i n t t h a t t h e god has f a i l e d  to provide a s s i s t a n c e : ut tamen a u d i s t i percussum f u l m i n e vatem, admonitu m a t r i s c o n d o l u i s s e p o t e s ,  79  et p o t e s a s p i c i e n s c i r c u m t u a s a c r a p o e t a s "nescioquis n o s t r i " dicere " c u l t o r abest." The  poem c o n t i n u e s w i t h a p r a y e r f o r a i d , a l i s t o f "bene-  dictions  1 1  i n v o l v i n g B a c c h i c a d v e n t u r e s and,  i n l i n e s 43-44,  a f i n a l request f o r a s s i s t a n c e : hue ades e t casus r e l e v e s , p u l c h e r r i m e , unum de numero me memor esse t u o .  nostros,  O v i d t h e n p l e a d s w i t h h i s f e l l o w p o e t s t o make the same p e t i t i o n and t o remember him a t t h e i r f e a s t , p r o v i d e d  that  he has  with  i n j u r e d none o f them i n any way.  He c o n c l u d e s  two w i s h e s ( l i n e s 57-58): s i c i g i t u r d e x t r o f a c i a t i s A p o l l i n e carmen: quod l i c e t , i n t e r vos nomen habete meum. A d r i e n B r u h l , u s i n g t h i s poem as p r i m a r y states, " . . . i l  evidence,  a p p a r a i t que de v e r i t a b l e s c o n f r e r i e s d i o -  n y s i a q u e s ont e x i s t e a Rome p a r m i l e s p o e t e s de c e t t e epoque. He examines v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s i n which O v i d c i t e s Bacchus 16  "...comme l e d i e u q u i i n s p i r e l e s p o e t e s : " 3.347-348, Amores 3.15-17, F a s t i 3.714 works t h r o u g h T r i s t i a 5.3  Ars Amatoria 17  and 6.483.  and c o n c l u d e s ,  from the  n a t u r e o f i t s l a n g u a g e , " I I e s t done c l a i r que  He  then  religious  l e s poetes  18  ont forme un groupement de c u l t o r e s L i b e r i . " B r u h l makes c l e a r i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r 15  B r u h l , op. c i t . . p.  16  Loc. c i t .  141.  17 I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e l a s t two above p. 72. 18  Op.  c i t . . p.  142.  citations cf.  that  80  a l t h o u g h t h e p o e t s may have formed such a group, t h e y were not n e c e s s a r i l y i n i t i a t e s o f t h e B a c c h i c c u l t .  He  states:  P l u s i e u r s d ' e n t r e eux v o y a i e n t en Bacchus l e d i e u q u i l e s i n s p i r a i t avec A p o l l o n e t l e s Muses et r e n d a i e n t hommage a sa p u i s s a n c e . l i s se r e u n i s s a i e n t pour c h a n t e r sa g l o i r e en v i d a n t des coupes l e j o u r des L i b e r a l i a , a i n s i qu'en temoigne O v i d e . En ce s e n s , l e s poetes sont b i e n des c u l t o r e s L i b e r i . des f i d e l e s du d i e u au t h y r s e , l e u r p r o t e c t e u r , mais i l ne f a u d r a i t pas l e s p r e n d r e pour de v e r i t a b l e s i n i t i o s . ' Even though O v i d t w i c e r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f as a c u l t o r o f Bacchus ( l i n e s 15 and 34) and once s i m p l y as unum de numero...tuo ( l i n e 44), i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n f e r from t h e s e l i n e s , as B r u h l seems t o do, t h a t t h e p o e t s have u n i t e d i n o r d e r t o w o r s h i p t h e god as t h e s o u r c e o f t h e i r o r as t h e p a t r o n o f t h e i r a r t i n any way.  The  inspiration, Liberalia  seem o r i g i n a l l y t o have been a f e s t i v a l devoted t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l d e i t y and may,  Italian  even a t t h i s t i m e , have d i s -  p l a y e d few c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e H e l l e n i c Dionysus o t h e r t h a n t h o s e connected w i t h h i s i d e n t i t y as a god o f v i t i c u l t u r e .  20  Indeed, i n O v i d ' s own  description  o f t h e L i b e r a l i a . i n F a s t i 3*713-791, t h e poet b e g i n s by " d e c l i n i n g t o t e l l o f " e x p l o i t s o f the H e l l e n i c d e i t y i n t  o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e p e c u l i a r customs b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Roman festival. Perhaps the p o e t s , a l o n g w i t h many o t h e r " w o r s h i p p e r s , " were a t t r a c t e d t o the f e s t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d because t h e y i n c l u d e d , as O v i d i m p l i e s i n l i n e s 3-4 o f T r i s t i a 5*3  19  On. c i t . , p.  ,  144.  20 C f . W.W. F o w l e r , The Roman F e s t i v a l s (London, 1925), * 54-55 and J.G. F r a z e r , The F a s t i o f O v i d , v. 3 (London, pp.  131-133.  81  r e v e l r y and w i n e - d r i n k i n g , p u r s u i t s dear t o such p o e t s ; the mere f a c t t h a t t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e may have promp t e d O v i d t o r e f e r t o h i m s e l f and h i s companions as c u l t o r e s o f t h e god. Whatever t h e n a t u r e o f t h e god i n whose honour t h e L i b e r a l i a were c e l e b r a t e d , O v i d , i n T r i s t i a 5.3,  has i n mind  not an I t a l i a n god o f v i t i c u l t u r e , but the Greek D i o n y s u s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t f o r O v i d t h e r e i s some connect i o n between h i m s e l f 'as a poet and t h i s god, he a d d r e s s e s Bacchus here because a) he i s w r i t i n g on t h e date o f t h e L i b e r a l i a , a f e s t i v a l t h a t he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e Greek  21  D i o n y s u s , and b) Bacchus  i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y p o w e r f u l god  whose i n t e r c e s s i o n he d e s p e r a t e l y needs.  22  These l a s t  two  m o t i v e s a r e perhaps t h e s t r o n g e r ones, and O v i d i s exagg e r a t i n g t h e l i n k between Bacchus and poet i n o r d e r t o make h i s p l e a even more c o m p e l l i n g . The t h e s i s t h a t O v i d i s not a d d r e s s i n g Bacchus  here  as a s p e c i a l p a t r o n o f p o e t i c a r t i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by l i n e s  9-10, 21 C f . Ovid's i n v o c a t i o n o f gods whose f e a s t days he i s d e a l i n g w i t h i n F a s t i . See above p. 73« 22 C f . above p. 65 f o r O v i d ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f the power o f Bacchus and note t h e use o f a d v e n t u r e s here t h a t i n v o l v e f o r c e and power, e.g.. conquests i n t h e E a s t ( l i n e s 21-24) and t h e l e g e n d s o f L y c u r g u s ( l i n e 39) and Pentheus ( l i n e 40). C f . a l s o O v i d ' s n o t i o n t h a t Bacchus i s p a t r o n o f p o e t s who have been wronged (see above pp. 75-77). I n t h i s case he has been wronged not by a d e c e i t f u l m i s t r e s s but by t h e Emperor A u g u s t u s .  82  quique p r i u s mollem vacuamque l a b o r i b u s e g i i n s t u d i i s vitam Pieridumque choro, i n w h i c h he a s s o c i a t e s h i s (presumably p o e t i c ) s t u d i e s w i t h the Muses, and l i n e  57,  s i c i g i t u r d e x t r o f a c i a t i s A p o l l i n e carmen, where he p r a y s t h a t h i s f e l l o w p o e t s may Apollo's  compose under  favour.  M. B r u h l i s perhaps c o r r e c t i n p o s t u l a t i n g t h e of a kind o f Bacchic  existence  f r a t e r n i t y among t h e p o e t s a t Rome.  However, -I deny t h a t , on the e v i d e n c e o f T r i s t i a 5.3,  we  s t a t e t h a t t h e purpose o f t h i s f r a t e r n i t y was t o w o r s h i p ,f  l e d i e u du v i n couronne de l i e r r e dont i l s r e c e v a i e n t  23 1* i n s p i r a t i o n . "  23  B r u h l , op. c i t . , p. 142.  I t a l i c s a r e mine  can  83  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION  We have d i s c o v e r e d and a n a l y s e d t h e ways i n which Bacchus appears i n t h e p o e t r y o f T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid.  Some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may now be s t a t e d b o t h about  the L a t i n e l e g i a c p o e t s as a group and about each o f t h e p o e t s i n t h a t group. A l l t h r e e p o e t s a s s o c i a t e t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus w i t h w i n e , and i t i s i n h i s r o l e as wine-god t h a t he most f r e quently appears.  T i b u l l u s a r r i v e s a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n from  h i s b a s i c concept o f t h e god as a p a t r o n o f v i t i c u l t u r e . Bacchus f o r him i s a r u s t i c and Roman d e i t y who n o t o n l y p r o t e c t s t h e v i n e and t h e f a r m e r who t e n d s t h a t v i n e , b u t who a l s o i n v e n t e d v i t i c u l t u r e and t a u g h t  i t t o mankind.  The  T i b u l l a n Bacchus i s t h u s a c r a f t s m a n , a r o l e a s s i g n e d t o him by n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two p o e t s . god's c r a f t i s wine.  The f i n a l product  o f the  Once t h i s l i n k i s c r e a t e d , T i b u l l u s '  Bacchus t a k e s on two more r o l e s r a) he becomes t h e i n v e n t o r o f m u s i c , p o e t r y and t h e dance, s i n c e i t i s under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f wine t h a t men f i r s t a t t e m p t e d t h e s e and b) t h r o u g h h i s g i f t o f wine he r e l e a s e s men from p a i n and d i s t r e s s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , f r e e s t h e l o v e r from s o r r o w caused by an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r . I n t h e p o e t r y o f P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d we f i n d no such l o g i c a l progression of ideas.  Both s i m p l y adopt t h e con-  v e n t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Bacchus as t h e god o f wine and  84  make him, as such, assume v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s i n t h e r e a l m o f Amor: as i n t h e p o e t r y o f T i b u l l u s , wine has t h e power t o r e l e a s e men from t h e i r c a r e s .  Whereas T i b u l l u s and P r o -  p e r t i u s , however, a p p l y t h i s power o f r e l e a s e  particularly  t o t h a t k i n d o f p a i n caused by a c r u e l m i s t r e s s , O v i d n e v e r does s o . P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d t h i n k o f Bacchus/wine as an ambiguous f i g u r e who i s both an a l l y and an enemy t o Amor. He i s an a l l y because i n t o x i c a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e and ( f o r Ovid) makes t h e l o v e r f e a r l e s s i n o b t a i n i n g t h e object of that desire. d e c e i v i n g husbands.  O v i d a l s o c o n s i d e r s wine u s e f u l i n On t h e o t h e r hand Bacchus opposes  Amor because ( f o r P r o p e r t i u s ) wine mars beauty and makes h i s m i s t r e s s i n a t t e n t i v e ; O v i d b e l i e v e s t h a t t o o much wine i s h a r m f u l t o Amor because i t d u l l s one's power t o judge beauty.  The absence o f a l l t h e s e i d e a s f r o m t h e Corpus  T i b u l l i a n u m i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f o r t h e s e p o e t s the p r o p e r s e t t i n g f o r l o v e i s a n a t u r a l and innocent one, f r e e from any a r t i f i c i a l a i d o r d e t r a c t i o n . The  e l e g i s t s make s e l e c t i v e use o f t h e many l e g e n d s  surrounding  t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus.  From t h e mass o f B a c c h i c  myth t h e y a b s t r a c t t h r e e m o t i f s t h a t a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  sig-  n i f i c a n t f o r them as p o e t s o f l o v e : a) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Bacchus and A r i a d n e , b) t h e c o n q u e r i n g , nature  vengeful  o f t h e god and c) h i s c o n t r o l o v e r h i s female com-  p a n i o n s , t h e Maenads. A l l three poets, Ovid e x p l i c i t l y , the others  implicitly,  85  s t a t e t h a t , because Bacchus r e s c u e d  and  loved Ariadne,  he  i s t h e r e f o r e s y m p a t h e t i c t o the l o v e r , e s p e c i a l l y i f he ( t h e l o v e r ) has been abandoned o r h u r t i n any way, A r i a d n e was  by Theseus.  I n the Corpus and  as  i n the  poetry  o f O v i d the l i n k between Bacchus and A r i a d n e i s combined w i t h the r o l e o f the god as a v e n g e r .  Thus he becomes a  p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e p a t r o n o f the poet as the wronged lover. Whereas i n t h e Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m Bacchus i s p a t r o n  of  the poet o n l y as l o v e r , f o r P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d Bacchus has a p a r t t o p l a y i n the sphere o f p o e t r y per set b o t h compare the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r v o c a t i o n as p o e t s w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a Maenad Bacchus.  and  O v i d , perhaps w i t h the Greek D i o n y s u s , p a t r o n  drama, i n mind, t h i n k s o f h i m s e l f as s m i t t e n w i t h the o f Bacchus; P r o p e r t i u s goes s l i g h t l y f a r t h e r and  of thyrsus  implies  t h a t , whereas the Maenad i s i c t a because o f a blow from the t h y r s u s , he i s so because o f the i n f l u e n c e o f w i n e . B o t h P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d s t a t e t h a t i v y , a p l a n t t o Bacchus, i s the i n s i g n e o f p o e t s ;  sacred  O v i d c l a i m s i t as  the badge o f a l l p o e t s , P r o p e r t i u s as t h a t o f o n l y t h e e l e giac poet.  I n Book 4, where i v y i s s e v e r a l t i m e s connected  w i t h e l e g i a c p o e t s and p o e t r y , P r o p e r t i u s i m p l i e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between Bacchus as p a t r o n p a t r o n o f more s e r i o u s  o f e l e g y and A p o l l o  as  poetry.  I n the above comparison o f t h e v a r i o u s B a c c h i c  roles  as seen i n each o f the t h r e e p o e t s no mention i s made o f  86  P r o p e r t i u s * unique s y n t h e s i s o f Bacchus and A p o l l o , Maenad and Muse, A r i a d n e and C y n t h i a , because, o b v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the o t h e r two poets w i t h w h i c h i t may pared.  The  be com-  complex p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the s y n t h e s i s and  1 P r o p e r t i u s * motives f o r developing i t defy condensation  here.  C e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be drawn below, however, from t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the phenomenon i n h i s p o e t r y . U s i n g the knowledge g a i n e d from the a n a l y s i s o f t h e ways i n w h i c h each o f the t h r e e p o e t s employs the o f B a c c h u s , we may  now  figure  make c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s on  their  use o f mythology i n g e n e r a l . T i b u l l u s * m y t h o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s are sparse, mainly d e c o r a t i v e and v e r y o f t e n based on Roman r a t h e r than Greek myth; t h e T i b u l l a n Bacchus, f o r example, i s much more Roman t h a n the same f i g u r e i n e i t h e r o f the o t h e r two p o e t s .  The  p a u c i t y and n a t u r e o f the a l l u s i o n s a r e due not t o an i n f e r i o r knowledge o f mythology but s i m p l y t o the v e r y  nature  of T i b u l l u s * p o e t r y : i t i s l u c i d , develops l o g i c a l l y , e x p r e s s e s q u i t e s i m p l e emotions; n e t r a t e T i b u l l u s * thought  and  the r e a d e r i s a b l e t o pe-  a t one g l a n c e because he  says  e v e r y t h i n g he has t o say on the s u r f a c e o f h i s p o e t r y . L i k e w i s e , T i b u l l u s * a l l u s i o n s t o myth can be understood l i t t l e effort.  with  They " o f f e r no p a r t i c u l a r p u z z l e s . . . l a c k  2 d e p t h , and f a i l t o suggest 1  The r e a d e r may  extensions."  The  o v e r t development  r e t u r n t o pp. 34-37.  2 J.P. E l d e r , " T i b u l l u s : T e r s u s atque e l e g a n s , " J.P. S u l l i v a n , ed., C r i t i c a l Essays on Roman L i t e r a t u r e ; Elegy and L y r i c (London, 1962), pp. 69 and 74.  37  o f t h e f i g u r e o f Bacchus from h i s r o l e a s a god o f v i t i c u l t u r e t o h i s r o l e i n t h e spheres o f p o e t r y and l o v e i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e c l a r i t y and l o g i c w i t h which T i b u l l u s presents h i s mythological a l l u s i o n s .  Thus, because o f t h e  n a t u r e o f h i s p o e t r y , t h e r e i s s i m p l y no need f o r  Tibullus  t o d i s p l a y t h e e r u d i t i o n t h a t we f i n d i n t h e p o e t r y o f Propertius  and O v i d .  I n some r e s p e c t s , O v i d ' s p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l and h i s use  o f myth i n p a r t i c u l a r b e a r c e r t a i n resemblances t o t h o s e  of T i b u l l u s .  I n comparison t o P r o p e r t i u s ,  r e a d i n g ; O v i d ' s w i t and u r b a n i t y ,  both a r e f a c i l e  o f course, d i f f e r  c a l l y from T i b u l l u s ' r u s t i c i t y and p l a c i d c l a r i t y .  radiBoth,  however, use mythology p r i m a r i l y f o r d e c o r a t i o n ; here t h e s i m p l i c i t y , s p a r s e n e s s and l u c i d i t y o f T i b u l l u s '  allusions  d i f f e r from t h e abundance and e r u d i t i o n o f O v i d ' s . theless,  i n both p o e t s , t h e k e r n e l  Never-  o f t h e a l l u s i o n i s usu-  a l l y c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e and r a r e l y i n v o l v e s s u p e r f i c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e myth.  more t h a n a  Unlike Tibullus,  Ovid makes use o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e same myth so o f t e n t h a t he d e v e l o p s what a r e a l m o s t f o r m u l a s .  The use o f t h e  Maenad a s a s t o c k i l l u s t r a t i o n o f f r e n z i e d madness i s an example. Like Ovid's, Propertius' f r e q u e n t and o f t e n o b s c u r e .  mythological a l l u s i o n s are B u t whereas O v i d and T i b u l l u s  use mythology p r i m a r i l y a s a means o f d e c o r a t i o n ,  Propertius  employs i t f o r a d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e . In our examination o f Propertius'  treatment o f Bacchic  88  myth, we noted two phenomena n o t found i n t h e works o f t h e o t h e r two p o e t s .  F i r s t , Propertius' allusions usually  o p e r a t e on v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f o r example, i n  3 1.3.9-10, e b r i a cum m u l t o traherem u e s t i g i a Baccho, e t q u a t e r e n t s e r a n o c t e facem p u e r i , a l t h o u g h a t f i r s t g l a n c e Baccho i n l i n e 9 seems t o mean o n l y "wine," we d i s c o v e r e d t h a t u n d e r l y i n g t h i s dominant i d e a i s t h e whole complex o f t h e god's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o A r i a d n e and the Maenads.  Second, o n l y P r o p e r t i u s changes and expands  the r o l e o f t h e god as h i s p o e t r y changes and expands. These unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P r o p e r t i u s ' use o f B a c c h i c myth a r e symptoms o f t h e f a c t t h a t mythology, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g m e r e l y d e c o r a t i v e , i s , f o r him, t r u l y  functional.  A.W. A l l e n , u s i n g 1.3 as t h e b a s i s f o r h i s r e m a r k s , e x p l a i n s P r o p e r t i u s ' technique  i n t h i s way:  I n t h i s e l e g y , t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l examples have been used t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n t r a s t between two elements i n a s i t u a t i o n - between t h e temp o r a r y i m p u l s e s o f t h e poet and t h e o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r s which determine h i s conduct. Realism p r o v i d e s terms f o r d e s c r i b i n g what i s temporary, mythology f o r d e s c r i b i n g what i s permanent. I n u s i n g myth as a symbol o f what has more t h a n merely temporary v a l i d i t y , P r o p e r t i u s i s exp l o i t i n g t h e c e n t r a l a r t i s t i c v a l u e w h i c h mytho l o g y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e poet w r i t i n g o f p e r s o n a l experience. P r o p e r t i u s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t s an examp l e as p a r a l l e l t o h i s own s i t u a t i o n , and t h u s shows t h a t h i s p r i v a t e e x p e r i e n c e i s consonant w i t h , o r j u s t i f i e d by, u n i v e r s a l human experience.^"  3 C f . above pp. 24-25. 4 "Sunt Q u i P r o p e r t i u m M a l i n t , " J . P . S u l l i v a n , e d . , C r i t i c a l E s s a y s on Roman L i t e r a t u r e . E l e g y and L y r i c  (London, 1962), p. 134.  89  Allen also states, The r e a d e r has t o p e r c e i v e i n the m y t h o l o g i c a l example not o n l y t h e p a r t i c u l a r f a c t but a l s o the g e n e r a l i d e a w h i c h i s i m p l i c i t l y c o n t a i n e d i n i t , and f u r t h e r , he has t o r e a l i z e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l i d e a t o the case b e f o r e him.-> Thus, P r o p e r t i u s , t h e o n l y one o f the t h r e e p o e t s  who  d i s c u s s e s t h e n a t u r e and p r i n c i p l e s o f h i s a r t , uses B a c c h i c myth (expanding  and v a r y i n g i t s l i g h t l y as h i s i d e a s emerge)  as a k i n d o f a l l - p e r v a s i v e exemplum o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y a poet-lover.  He combines the f i g u r e s o f A p o l l o and  as the  Muses w i t h h i s major c h a r a c t e r s , Bacchus, A r i a d n e and Maenads, and  superimposes the whole complex upon h i s  s i t u a t i o n as a poet i n l o v e w i t h C y n t h i a .  Once t h i s  the own syn-  t h e s i s has been a c h i e v e d , P r o p e r t i u s t h e n e x p l o r e s v a r i o u s aspects of i t ,  s h i f t i n g i t s components t o a c h i e v e s e v e r a l  k i n d s o f emphasis; f o r example, the poet h i m s e l f , a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , t a k e s on t h e r o l e s o f B a c c h u s , o f A r i a d n e , o f Theseus and o f the Maenad. B e s i d e s g i v i n g i t permanent v a l i d i t y , P r o p e r t i u s * t e c h n i q u e l e n d s a r e l i g i o u s atmosphere t o h i s p o e t i c a l 6  philosophy.  " H i s i d e a o f the poet i s a s a c e r d o t a l one"  and h i s c o n s t a n t f u s i o n o f myth and r e a l i t y s e r v e s t o underline t h i s idea. We poets  have thus d i s c o v e r e d v a r i a t i o n s among the  i n t h e i r manner o f t r e a t i n g myth.  137.  5  On.  6  L u c k , op. c i t . , p.  c i t . . p.  115.  three  A common element  90  i s p r e s e n t , however.  The  f a c t t h a t a l l t h r e e adopt Bacchus  as t h e i r p a t r o n f o r more o r l e s s the same r e a s o n s w i l l s e r v e t o demonstrate t h i s . Whereas A p o l l o and t h e Muses had been t h e  conventional  p a t r o n s o f p o e t r y from time immemorial (and no one t o wonder why),  seemed  f o r the e l e g i a c p o e t s , Bacchus, because  o f h i s p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h i s a c t i o n s , had  earned  h i s p o s i t i o n ; he i s thus a much more human d e i t y t h a n  the  others.  patron  The whole q u e s t i o n o f Bacchus' r o l e as t h e i r  r e v o l v e s around t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e p o e t s are p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p o e t r y , and a r e i n v o l v e d not o n l y as but as l o v e r s .  poets  T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and O v i d a r e aware t h a t  t r a d i t i o n a l l y Bacchus has a p l a c e i n the realm o f p o e t r y because o f h i s l i n k s w i t h drama and w i t h wine as a  source  7 of i n s p i r a t i o n .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he i s t h e i r s p e c i a l p a t r o n  because o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A r i a d n e and t h e Maenads, because o f h i s p o w e r f u l and a v e n g i n g n a t u r e and because o f h i s a b i l i t y ( t h r o u g h wine) t o f r e e them from the p a i n caused by an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r . Thus we  see t h a t , u n l i k e t h o s e who  preceded them, the  L a t i n e l e g i s t s , because o f the v e r y p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e i r p o e t r y , a p p l y myth d i r e c t l y t o t h e m s e l v e s .  The  Alexandrian  p o e t s and C a t u l l u s p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r p o e t r y  as  (sometimes s y m p a t h e t i c )  later  o b s e r v e r s o f myth.  But the  p o e t s , e s p e c i a l l y P r o p e r t i u s , p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s i n s i d e the 7  Cf, above p.  6.  91  myth so t h a t t h e y become p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t s a c t i o n : t h e y , w i t h A r i a d n e , r e c e i v e from Bacchus h e l p , v i n d i c a t i o n o r re^ l e a s e from p a i n . So, t h e n , a l t h o u g h t h e s e p o e t s i n h e r i t e d from 8  their  p r e d e c e s s o r s a mass o f m y t h o l o g i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s , t h e y use t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s i n a new way, by c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t i n g from c e r t a i n myths those a s p e c t s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r situations.  own  To what e x t e n t t h i s f u s i o n o f p e r s o n a l and  c o n v e n t i o n a l m o t i f s permeates L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y has been p a r t i a l l y demonstrated  by t h i s s t u d y o f Bacchus.  Although  P r o p e r t i u s uses t h e t e c h n i q u e most a d v a n t a g e o u s l y , i t may be s a i d o f a l l t h r e e p o e t s t h a t t h e i r " e x c e l l e n c e l i e s i n  9 t h e i r l i v e l y personal r e a l i z a t i o n of convention."  8  C f . above pp.  5-6.  9  A l l e n , op. c i t . , p.  146. 1  92  APPENDIX BACCHIC ICONOGRAPHY IN LATIN LOVE-ELEGY  The L a t i n e l e g i s t s a r e f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c a l appearance o f Bacchus.  The  most d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e i s , o f c o u r s e , found i n t h e p o e t r y o f O v i d , and t h e l e a s t d e t a i l e d i n t h a t o f T i b u l l u s . F r e q u e n t l y mentioned a s p e c t s o f t h e god's appearance are t h e t h y r s u s t h a t he c a r r i e s and t h e g a r l a n d s i v y o r v i n e l e a v e s ) t h a t he wears.  (of e i t h e r  P r o p e r t i u s speaks o f  the t h y r s u s t w i c e : a t 2.30b.3$, where he c a l l s i t d o c t a c u s p i d e . and a t 3*3.35, where, d e s c r i b i n g t h e v a r i o u s  tasks  o f the Muses-Maenads, he s t a t e s t h a t one o f them hederas l e g i t i n thyrsos. At Amores 3.1.23 and 3.15.17 O v i d r e f e r s t o t h e t h y r s u s as p a r t o f t h e equipment o f Bacchus, p a t r o n o f drama. I t appears a l s o a t A r s A m a t o r i a 3.710, F a s t i 3.764, and Metamorphoses 3*542.  O v i d t w i c e speaks o f t h e t h y r s u s as a  1 s p e a r o r j a v e l i n covered w i t h v i n e l e a v e s : H e r o i d e s 13*33, pampinea...hasta; and Metamorphoses 3*667, p a m p i n e i s . . . v e l a t u m f r o n d i b u s hastam. I t i s c l e a r t h a t b o t h P r o p e r t i u s (3*3*35) and O v i d ( A r s A m a t o r i a 1.190  (note t h e p l u r a l , t h y r s o s ) ; Metamorphoses  3.542, 3*712, 4.7 and 11.28) p i c t u r e t h e t h y r s u s as t h e p r o p e r t y n o t o n l y o f t h e god, b u t a l s o o f h i s f o l l o w e r s . 1  C f . P r o p e r t i u s * c u s p i d e , 2.30b.3#.  93  Three terms r e c u r i n t h e p o e t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e g a r l a n d s t h a t Bacchus wears round h i s head.  A l l refer to  wreaths made o f hedera. i v y ( T i b u l l u s 3.6.2; P r o p e r t i u s 4. 1.62;  O v i d , Metamorphoses 3.664 (here t h e i v y i s n o t worn  by Bacchus, b u t c o v e r s t h e o a r s o f the s h i p whose crew t h e god changes t o d o l p h i n s ) ; and F a s t i 6.483).  Ovid d e s c r i b e s  the g a r l a n d s a s r a c e m i f e r . c l u s t e r - b e a r i n g (Metamorphoses 3« 666; F a s t i 6.483).  T h i s term c o u l d r e f e r t o e i t h e r c l u s t e r s  o f grapes o r c l u s t e r s o f i v y b e r r i e s .  A s i m i l a r word, used  by a l l t h e p o e t s , i s corymbus. a c l u s t e r o f f l o w e r s o r f r u i t , i n t h i s case, probably a c l u s t e r o f i v y b e r r i e s ; T i b u l l u s 1.7.45; P r o p e r t i u s 2.30b.39 and 3.17.29 (where t h e g a r l a n d seems t o be worn on t h e n e c k ) ; Ovid. Metamorphoses 3.665 (where t h e c l u s t e r s c o v e r t h e s a i l s o f the s h i p ) and F a s t i 1.393 ( f e s t a c o r y m b i f e r i . . . B a c c h i ) .  The p o e t s use  s e v e r a l l e s s s p e c i f i c terms t o r e f e r t o t h e s e g a r l a n d s : u a r i i f l o r e s ( T i b u l l u s 1.7.45), m o l l e s coronae  (Ovid, Meta-  morphoses 3*555) and s i m p l y f r o n s ( O v i d , Metamorphoses 3. 542 and F a s t i 3.481-82). P r o p e r t i u s a l o n e mentions t h e m i t r a as Bacchus' headgear: 3.17.30 and 4.2.31.  B o t h T i b u l l u s and O v i d d e s c r i b e  the god as unshorn: T i b u l l u s 1.4.38, i n t o n s u s c r i n i s ; Metamorphoses 4.13>  Ovid,  i n d e t o n s u s Thyoneus.  B e s i d e s g a r l a n d s , l o n g h a i r ( f o r T i b u l l u s and O v i d ) , and perhaps a m i t r a ( f o r P r o p e r t i u s ) , a l l t h r e e p o e t s  tell  us t h a t Bacchus has horns on h i s head: T i b u l l u s 2.1.3; P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.19; O v i d , H e r o i d e s 13.33 ( B i c o r n i g e r ) and  94  15.24; Amores 3.15.17 ( c o r n i g e r ) : A r s A m a t o r i a 1.232, 2.380 and 3.34$; Metamorphoses 4.19; F a s t i 3.499 and 3.7$9. Each o f t h e p o e t s makes one r e f e r e n c e t o some k i n d o f garment worn by Bacchus:  T i b u l l u s i n 1.7.46-47,  f u s a sed ad t e n e r o s l u t e a p a l l a pedes et T y r i a e u e s t e s . . . P r o p e r t i u s i n 3.17.32, e t f e r i e s nudos u e s t e f l u e n t e pedes, O v i d i n Metamorphoses 3*556, purpuraque e t p i c t i s i n t e x t u m v e s t i b u s aurum. I f we combine t h e s e t h r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e outcome i s a barefoot f i g u r e , dressed i n a l o n g , f l o w i n g , gold-embroidered (hence T i b u l l u s ' l u t e a ? ) r o b e . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y , t h a t a l l t h e p o e t s , perhaps w i t h a marble s t a t u e i n mind, r e f e r t o Bacchus as c a n d i d u s  (Tibullus  3.6.1; P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.29 ( a l t h o u g h he speaks o n l y o f h i s n e c k ) ; and O v i d , F a s t i 3.772).  T h i s a d j e c t i v e i s perhaps  c o n n e c t e d , however, w i t h t h e y o u t h f u l , almost e f f e m i n a t e appearance o f t h e god emphasized i n t h e p o e t r y o f O v i d and mentioned  b r i e f l y i n that of T i b u l l u s .  F o r b o t h p o e t s he i s  t e n e r ( T i b u l l u s 2.3.63; O v i d , Amores 3.2.53); T i b u l l u s  speaks  o f h i s a e t e r n a . . . i u u e n t a s (1.4.37), w h i l e O v i d c l a i m s a t F a s t i 3.773-774 t h a t . . . i p s e puer semper i u v e n i s q u e v i d e r i s , e t media e s t a e t a s i n t e r utrumque t i b i . O v i d d e s c r i b e s t h e god as p u e r o . . . i n e r m i (Metamorphoses 3.553), puer a e t e r n u s . . . f o r m o s i s s i m u s (Metamorphoses 4.18) and s i m p l y puer ( A r s A m a t o r i a 1.189 and Metamorphoses 3*607).  95  He goes even f u r t h e r and r e f e r s t o Bacchus' v i r g i n e a . . . f o r m a (Metamorphoses 3.607) and v i r g i n e u m caput (Metamorphoses 4.20)  .  O v i d p i c t u r e s t h e god r i d i n g i n a c u r r u s ( A r s 1.549  and 5 5 9 ; 3.158).  tigers  1.550  (Ars Amatoria who  4.25)  The  c h a r i o t i s sometimes drawn byand 559) or l y n x e s (Metamorphoses  a r e c o n t r o l l e d by r e i n s ( A r s A m a t o r i a  1.550,  a u r e a l o r a ; Metamorphoses 4 . 2 4 , p i c t i s f r e n i s ) . b e i n g used t o p u l l the c h a r i o t o r n o t , t i g e r s Metamorphoses morphoses  lynxes (Propertius  3.668),  3*668)  Amatoria  and p a n t h e r s  Whether  (Amores  O v i d , Meta-  3.17.$;  (Metamorphoses  1.2.48;  3.669)  are  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Bacchus. Of the t h r e e p o e t s , O v i d g i v e s the most complete s c r i p t i o n o f the f o l l o w e r s o f Bacchus.  de-  T i b u l l u s makes no  mention o f them a t a l l . P r o p e r t i u s uses o n l y t h r e e words t o d e s c r i b e the Maenad, none o f which are v i s u a l l y s p e c i f i c : she i s f e s s a (1.3.5),  icta  (3.8.14)  and saeua^  (3.22.33).  He r e f e r s t o 2  the Maenads as a group o n l y as t u r b a p u e l l a r u m  (3.2.10).  B e s i d e s t h e Maenads, Bacchus* entourage i n c l u d e s t h e s a t y r s and S i l e n u s . leues (Ars Amatoria  Ovid d e s c r i b e s h i s s a t y r s o n l y as 1 . 5 4 2 ) and i n Venerem...prona i u v e n t u s  3  (Fasti  1.397).  S i l e n u s i s e b r i u s and senex ( A r s  1.543;.  Metamorphoses  4.26;  Amatoria  note a l s o s e n i o r . F a s t i  1.399).  Because o f h i s drunkenness, s e n i l i t y and w i l d p u r s u i t o f t h e  4.25.  2  F o r O v i d ' s p i c t u r e o f the Maenad see above p p i 67-70.  3  Note a l s o A r s A m a t o r i a  1.54$  and  3.157; Metamorphoses  96  bacchae ( e . g . , A r s A m a t o r i a 1.545-548), he has d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g h i s seat on h i s a s e l l u s ( e . g . , A r s A m a t o r i a 1.543547; Metamorphoses 4.27). The u n f o r t u n a t e d e s c r i b e d as l o n g - e a r e d  a s e l l u s i s once  ( a u r i t o . A r s A m a t o r i a 1.547), b u t i s  i n v a r i a b l y pandus. "sway-backed" ( A r s A m a t o r i a 1.543; Metamorphoses 4.27; F a s t i 1.399 and 3.749). P r o p e r t i u s does n o t mention t h e s a t y r s , and S i l e n u s appears o n l y as S i l e n i p a t r i s i m a g o / f i c t i l i s (3.3.29-30), a sort o f wall-plaque  i n t h e d w e l l i n g o f t h e Muses-Maenads.  I n t h i s same passage (3.3*30), t h e poet ^ w r i t e s o  calami,  Pan Tegeaee, t u i . O v i d a l s o a s s o c i a t e s P a n , o r r a t h e r Pans, w i t h Bacchus.  They, a l o n g w i t h t h e s a t y r s , some r a t h e r  vague r i v e r - g o d d e s s e s ,  S i l e n u s and P r i a p u s , g a t h e r t o c e l e -  • f e s t a c o r y m b i f e r i . . . B a c c h i ( F a s t i 1.393-400).  brate  I t i s worthwhile t o note the various kinds o f musical instruments  t h a t t h e f o l l o w e r s o f Bacchus u s e . Those t h a t  appear most f r e q u e n t l y a r e tympana. d e f i n e d a s drums, t i m -  4 b r e l s , tambours, tambourines  ( P r o p e r t i u s 3*17*33 ( t h e y a r e  m o l l i a . . . t y m p a n a ) and 3*3*28; O v i d , A r s A m a t o r i a 1*538 ( a d t o n i t a . . . p u l s a manu); Metamorphoses 3*537 ( i n a n i a ) , 4*29 ( i n p u l s a q u e . . . p a l m i s ) . 4*391, and 11.17) and cymbala, cymbals, "an i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t i n g o f two h o l l o w p l a t e s o f  5 b r a s s , w h i c h emit a r i n g i n g sound when s t r u c k  4  L e w i s and S h o r t , op. c i t .  5  Ibid.» s.v. cymbalum.  ?  together"  s.v. tympanum.  97  ( P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.36 ( r a u c a ) ; O v i d , A r s A m a t o r i a  1.537).  6  7  I n a d d i t i o n , we hear o f t h e t i b i a , a p i p e o r f l u t e  (Tibullus  1.7.47; O v i d , Metamorphoses 3*533 (adunco t i b i a c o r n u . a f l u t e o f crooked h o r n ) , 4*392 (where e x a c t l y t h e same phrase r e c u r s ) and 11.16  ( i n f r a c t a Berecyntia t i b i a cornu).  Pro-  p e r t i u s t w i c e a s s o c i a t e s w i t h Bacchus t h e calamus. r e e d p i p e s b e l o n g i n g t o Pan (3*3*30 and 3*17.34).  A boxwood p i p e o r  f l u t e appears a t Metamorphoses 4 . 3 0 : l o n g o foramine  buxus.  6 O v i d , perhaps w i t h cymbala i n mind, remarks t h a t i n B a c c h u s entourage, aerane tantum/aere r e p u l s a v a l e n t (Metamorphoses 3*532-533); concavaque a e r a sonant (Metamorphoses 4.30) a n d , i n t h e same m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n , t i n n u l a q u e a e r a sonant (Metamorphoses 4*393). He speaks a l s o o f a e r i f e r a e . . . manus ( F a s t i 3.740). I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e poet i s p r o b a b l y t h i n k i n g o f a b r a s s y sound r a t h e r than o f a s p e c i f i c i n strument. 1  7  L e w i s and S h o r t , op. c i t . . s.v. t i b i a  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Anacreon. 2.  A n c i e n t A u t h o r s and T e x t s C i t e d  L y r a Graeca.  T r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds. 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