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Bacchus in Latin love-elegy 1966

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BACCHUS IN LATIN LOVE-ELEGY by Joan Ruth Sandilands (B.A., A l b e r t a , 1 9 6 2 ) A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of C l a s s i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree of Master of A r t s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1 9 6 6 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x - t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n - c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e i i ABSTRACT The aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s , by means of a close exa- mination of the evidence presented by the t e x t s , t o analyse the ways i n which T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid t r e a t the god Bacchus and,by so doing, t o d i s c o v e r why Bacchus be- comes f o r them a patron of poetry. Chapter I , the i n t r o d u c t i o n , , deals b r i e f l y w i t h the l i t e r a r y background and s e t s the l i m i t s of the study. Chapters I I , I I I and IV analyse the appearances of the god i n the poetry of T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid respec- t i v e l y : the T i b u l l a n Bacchus i s p r i m a r i l y a patron of v i t i - c u l t u r e and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poetry and Amor because of t h i s b a s i c r o l e ; P r o p e r t i u s i s more concerned w i t h the god's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Ariadne and the Maenads and develops a complex exemplum f o r h i s a f f a i r w i t h Cynthia using these as major c h a r a c t e r s ; Ovid makes frequent use of ideas concerning Bacchus developed by the other two poets but adds nothing r e a l l y new t o the concept of the god as patron of poetry. Chapter V, the c o n c l u s i o n , summarizes the f i n d i n g s of these three chapters and on the b a s i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , f i r s t , makes a general statement about the use of myth i n each of the three poets and,second, answers the o r i g i n a l question: T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid are p e r s o n a l l y i n - volved i n t h e i r p oetry, not only as poets but a l s o as l o v e r s ; thus Bacchus, because of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Ariadne and the Maenads, because of h i s powerful and avenging nature and i i i because of h i s a b i l i t y (through wine) to f r e e them from the p a i n of an unhappy love a f f a i r , i s t h e i r s p e c i a l patron. An appendix d e a l i n g w i t h Bacchic iconography i n L a t i n l o v e - elegy i s added. i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r wishes t o express her g r a t i t u d e t o Pr o f e s s o r H.G. Edinger f o r h i s advice and encourage- ment i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s study and t o Pr o f e s s o r M.F. McGregor f o r h i s c a r e f u l c r i t i c i s m s of i t . V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CJ C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l CIL Corpus Insc r i p t i o n u m Latinarum TAPA Transactions of the American P h i l o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n v i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . Bacchus i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . 10 I I I . Bacchus i n the Poetry of P r o p e r t i u s 22 IV. Bacchus i n the Poetry of Ovid 49 V. Conclusion 83 APPENDIX: Bacchic Iconography i n L a t i n Love- Elegy 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY 98 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o di s c o v e r and analyse the ways i n which T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid employ the f i g u r e of Bacchus i n t h e i r e l e g i e s , and, i n so doing, t o a s c e r t a i n why, f o r these t h r e e , Bacchus becomes a patron of poetry. The method used i s t o deal only w i t h the t e x t s of the three poets. The h i s t o r y of e r o t i c elegy, from Greece through A l e x a n d r i a t o Rome, i s long and complex; however, concern f o r the development o f the form i s outside the sphere off t h i s study. The very nature of L a t i n l ove-elegy makes an e x c l u s i v e method p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l i d . I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid were i n some ways the h e i r s of the Alexandrian e l e g i a c poets, p a r t i c u l a r l y of Callimachus and P h i l e t a s , as w e l l as of e a r l i e r Greek w r i t e r s such as Mim- nermus. P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid themselves speak of these as t h e i r masters: P r o p e r t i u s i n 2.1.39-42 (Callimachus); 2.34. 31-32 ( P h i l e t a s and Callimachus); 3.1.1-6 (Callimachus and P h i l e t a s ) ; 3-3.51-52 ( P h i l e t a s ) ; 3.9.43-44 (Callimachus and P h i l e t a s ) ; and Ovid i n Amores 2.4.19-20 (Callimachus); Ars Amatoria 3*329-331 (Callimachus, P h i l e t a s , Anacreon and Sappho); Remedia Amoris 381 (Callimachus) and 759-762 ( C a l l i - machus, P h i l e t a s and Anacreon); T r i s t i a 1.6.1-3 ( P h i l e t a s and Antimachus) and 2.363-368 (Anacreon, Sappho and C a l l i - machus); E p i s t u l a e ex Ponto 3«l«57ff. ( P h i l e t a s ) . 2 A study of these passages does not, however, c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n what respect the L a t i n poets considered themselves indebted to the A l e x a n d r i a n s . I n d i s c u s s i n g P r o p e r t i u s 1 references t o Callimachus, Luck remarks, ...whenever P r o p e r t i u s mentions Callimachus, he sees i n him e i t h e r a model of s t y l e , or the e l e g i a c poet, or...a love poet i n the vaguest sense of the word. Never, as w i t h others (see 2.34.&5ff.) does he connect C a l l i - machus w i t h one woman.^ A f t e r examining Ovid's references t o the same poet, Luck s t a t e s h i s c o n c l u s i o n , a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t could s a f e l y be a p p l i e d t o the other A l e x a n d r i a n poets as w e l l : Whatever Callimachus' i n f l u e n c e on the L a t i n e l e g i a c poets may have been - and i t should not be underestimated - he became more and more a "great name," a " c l a s s i c " whom one p r a i s e d almost mechanically...Callimachus may have w r i t t e n personal l o v e e l e g i e s , but i f there was one t h i n g he could not supply, i t was the f r e s h experience t h a t makes the L a t i n elegy what i t i s . Thus, i t i s c l e a r t h a t , although there were l i n k s be- tween the A l e x a n d r i a n and the Roman e l e g i a c poets, neverthe- l e s s , because we know so l i t t l e about the former, and because the references i n the l a t t e r are vague, an approach t h a t considers the L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y almost a separate phenomenon i s j u s t i f i a b l e . Our knowledge of the Roman predecessors of T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid i s a l s o extremely scanty. There i s , o f 1 Georg Luck, The L a t i n Love Elegy (London, 1959), p. 27. 2 I b i d . , p. 29- 3 course, one exception to t h i s statement. The importance of C a t u l l u s ' r o l e i n s e p a r a t i n g Roman from Alexa n d r i a n e r o t i c elegy, i n "making L a t i n elegy what i t i s , " i s d i f f i c u l t t o overestimate. Kenneth Quinn's term, "the C a t u l l a n r e v o l u - 3 t i o n , " i s most apt. Although the poet was thoroughly fami- l i a r w i t h the e l e g i e s and epigrams of the A l e x a n d r i a n s , never- t h e l e s s he l i v e d and wrote i n a Roman environment. This en- vironment made no s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the new d i r e c t i o n imparted,to L a t i n poetry by C a t u l l u s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . C a t u l l u s ' s o c i e t y was a changing oner Greek i n f l u e n c e i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e r i t y and'the consequent extension of l e i s u r e time among the upper c l a s s e s i n Rome made p o s s i b l e the k i n d of f a s h i o n a b l e l i t e r a r y c i r c l e that produced the nugae. The poetae n o v i adopted these " t r i f l e s " 4 and made them the b a s i s of a new and s e r i o u s k i n d of poetry. I n so doing, the new poets were going against the mainstream of L a t i n poetry: t h e i r predecessors and most of t h e i r con- temporaries held the o p i n i o n t h a t worthwhile poetry must be, i f nothing e l s e , u s e f u l , i . e . , i t should have a p a t r i o t i c or moral b a s i s o f some k i n d . P r o s p e r i t y and the i n f l u e n c e of Greek c u l t u r e , combined w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g independence of women and e a r l y , arranged marriages, brought about a change i n the Roman a t t i t u d e t o l o v e . Among the upper c l a s s e s , love a f f a i r s outside marriage became more and more common and were t r e a t e d more and more s e r i o u s l y . 3 The C a t u l l a n R e v o l u t i o n (Melbourne, 1959) 4 Cf. Quinn, op. c i t . , p. 24. 4 I t i s necessary to understand these changes i n Roman society as well as "the unique stature of a single very 5 i n d i v i d u a l poet" in order to appreciate the reasons behind Quinn 1s ...three ingredients involved i n the reshaping of t r a d i t i o n that produced the Catullan revo- l u t i o n . F i r s t l y , the poet becomes an indepen- dent personality who forces his personality i n - to his poetry. Secondly, the poet abandons the service of the community f o r a more e s o t e r i c , more purely poetic kind of poetry. T h i r d l y , the unit becomes the short poem, intensely personal and s t r u c t u r a l l y sophisticated.^ The love e l e g i s t s who followed Catullus were, then, a discrete group: l i k e the Alexandrian poets, they wrote elegiac poetry about love. But, whereas Callimachus and Philetas dealt with the loves of mythological characters or perhaps with t h e i r own a f f a i r s i n an almost objective way, the intensely personal and autobiographical q u a l i t y of the L a t i n poetry set i t apart. The profound influence of the poet Catullus and the changes taking place i n his society succeeded i n bringing about a revolution i n L a t i n poetry that made L a t i n love-elegy something quite d i f f e r e n t 7 from i t s Greek "models." 5 Quinn, op. c i t . , p. 85. 6 I b i d . , p. 26. , 7 Cf. Brooks O t i s , V i r g i l , a Study i n C i v i l i z e d Poetry (Oxford, 1963), p. 32. Otis emphasizes the r81e of Gallus as innovator. He states here that Gallus "fused Catullus' subjective passion, the poet's own love experience, with the stock themes of H e l l e n i s t i c amatory epigram and the mytho- l o g i c a l learning of Alexandrine verse." In view of our lack of d i r e c t evidence, however, I think i t dangerous to suppose that Gallus "invented" and the others merely followed his lead. Surely T i b u l l u s and Propertius were just as capable of innovation as he. 5 Finally, a study of these poets as a definite "group" is ju s t i f i e d by the very fact that Tibullus, Propertius and Ovid were practically contemporaries, belonged to approximately the same social class and consequently, lived and worked in a similar atmosphere. During the amazingly short period of about sixty years, these poets began, ex- perimented with and "perfected" Latin love-elegy: Catullus died about 54 B.C., Propertius began to publish about 29 B.C. and Tibullus probably published between 23 and 19 B.C.; the f i r s t edition of Ovid's Amores appeared soon after 16 B.C. 8 Ovid's exile in 7 A.D. marked the end of love-elegy in Rome. It might be argued that a consideration of the rSle of Bacchus in Latin love-elegy i s merely a review of common- places. Among the predecessors of the Latin poets, Bacchus 9 appears, often with Ceres, as a patron of viticulture; very frequently he i s associated with wine, and as such hailed 10 as a source of good cheer and release from care; likewise, 8 Note that Ovid himself thought of the Latin elegiac poets as a discrete group. See Amores 3«9.6lff.; T r i s t i a 4. 10.45ff. and T r i s t i a 5.1.17-20. 9 Cf. Callimachus, Hymn 6.69-71, translated by A.W. Mair (Callimachus. Hymns and Epigrams; Lvcophron. Aratus, The Loeb Classical Library, London and Cambridge, Mass. I960). Lucretius, De Rerum Natura 4.1168; 5.14; 5.742-743, trans- lated by W.H.D. Rouse (The Loeb Classical Library, London and New York 1924). 10 Cf. Ion of Chios, Elegiac Poems 1, translated by J.M. Edmonds (Elegy and Iambus...with the AnacreonteaT v . l . The Loeb Classical Library, London and Cambridge, Mass. 19ol). Greek Anthology, Bk. 9.403, 524; Bk. 11.55, 57, translated bv W.R. Paton (The Greek Anthology, v. 3 and 4, The Loeb Classical Library, London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958). 6 11 the wine god o f t e n appears i n a context i n v o l v i n g l o v e . F i n a l l y , the e a r l i e r poets connected Bacchus w i t h poetry a) because as the god of wine he was thought capable of b r i n g i n g about the ki n d of "madness" that the ancients 12 as s o c i a t e d w i t h both poetry and prophecy and b) because of 13 h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h drama and the dithyramb. So i t might seem t h a t the L a t i n e l e g i a c poets, i n making use of a l l these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of Bacchus, are merely repe a t i n g c l i c h e s handed down t o them by t h e i r pre- 11 Cf. Anacreon, Bk. 1.2, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Lyra Graeca f v. 2, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958). Euenus, E l e g i a c Poems 2, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Elegy and Iambus.... v. 1, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1961). Bacchylides 70. 6-10, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Lyra Graeca. v. 3» The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge. Mass. 1958;. Ana- creontea 4, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Elegy and Iambus.... v. 2 ? The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1961J. Ion of Chios 1, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Lyra Graeca. v. 3> The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958). Solon 26, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Elegy and Iambus.... v. 1, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cam- bri d g e , Mass. 1961). Greek Anthology. Bk. 10.18, t r a n s l a t e d by W.R. Paton (The Greek Anthology, v. 4, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 195°). 12 For a study o f t h i s s o r t of reference i n both Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e see Art h u r P. McKinlay, "Bacchus as I n s p i r e r of L i t e r a r y A r t , " CJ 49 (1953) 101-110. See a l s o A l i c e S p e r d u t i , "The Divin e Nature of Poetry i n A n t i q u i t y , " TAPA 81 (1950) 209-240. Note e s p e c i a l l y pp. 221-223. 13 Cf. A r c h i l o c h u s 77, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Elegy and Iambus.... v.2, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1961). Callimachus, Epigram 10, t r a n s l a t e d by A.W. M a i r (Callimachus.... The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 19o0). Simonides 177, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Lyra Graeca. v. 2, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958). B a c c h y l i d e s , 14.48-51, t r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds (Lyra Graeca. v. 3, The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958). Callimachus, Epigram 9, t r a n s l a t e d by A.W. M a i r , (Callimachus.... The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cam- bri d g e , Mass. I960). L u c r e t i u s , De Rerum Natura 1.923. 7 decessors. My purpose i s to show that t h i s i s not e n t i r e l y so, that T i b u l l u s , Propertius and Ovid see i n t h i s god and in the legends surrounding him a unique s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r them, as Roman elegiac poets wr i t i n g of love. The importance of Catullus i n d i r e c t i n g the course of L a t i n love poetry i n general has been stressed. Like- wise, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Catullus' treatment of the legend of Theseus, Ariadne and Bacchus (64. 50-264) affected the l a t e r poets. However, whereas Catullus merely observes the d i s - traught Ariadne (although the poet's personality i s by no 14 means absent from h i s description), T i b u l l u s , Ovid and espec i a l l y Propertius apply t h i s legend to themselves and to t h e i r own love a f f a i r s . The influence of environment upon a poet can e a s i l y be exaggerated. I t i s noteworthy however, that i n I t a l y during the f i r s t century B.C. Bacchus became an increa- singly f a m i l i a r deity. He was es p e c i a l l y popular i n the vine- r i c h area of Campania, as the god of wine, the protector of 15 wine-merchants and of v i t i c u l t u r e i n general. In addition, a more Hellenic Bacchus made his appearance i n I t a l y during t h i s century, due pri m a r i l y to growth i n Graeco-Oriental prestige, more d i r e c t contact between Rome and the East and the i n f l u x into Rome of thousands of o r i e n t a l artisans 16 and slaves. I t i s probable that groups of devotees to the c u l t 14 Cf. Quinn, op. c i t . , p. 50, and O t i s , op. c i t . , pp. 28-29. 15 Cf. CIL 1.281; 5.5543; 6.467 and 8826. 16 Cf. Adrien Bruhl, Liber Pater (Paris, 1953), p. 122. 8 of t h i s H e l l e n i c d e i t y e x i s t e d at Rome durin g the Augustan 17 age and were known t o the e l e g i a c poets. Most important, however, i s the f a c t t h a t d u r i n g the l i v e s of the e l e g i a c poets Rome was f i l l e d w i t h Bacchic works of a r t . B r u h l s t a t e s , Ses s t a t u e s , chefs-d'oeuvre de l ' a r t h e l l e n i q u e , achetees ou p i l l e e s en Grece, ornent l e s e d i f i c e s p u b l i c s , l e s j a r d i n s , l e s demeures des p a r t i c u - l i e r s . Des pe i n t u r e s murales representent l e s episodes du mythe dionysiaque.18 I n t r o d u c i n g h i s chapter "Bacchus dans l ' a r t d e c o r a t i f de Pompei et de Rome," he cl a i m s , I I n'est pas exagere de d i r e que beaucoup de Romains, a Rome et dans l e s c i t e s p r o v i n c i a l e s v i v a i e n t dans una ambiance dionysiaque.19 I t i s obvious t h a t the e l e g i a c poets, e s p e c i a l l y P r o p e r t i u s 20 and Ovid, were f a m i l i a r w i t h such works of a r t . I n t h i s connection, a study of Bacchic iconography found i n the works of the three poets i s appended to t h i s paper. Thus, we have placed the L a t i n e l e g i a c poets i n a " s e t t i n g : " they were i n some ways the h e i r s of the A l e x - andrian poets, but were separated from them by the " C a t u l l a n r e v o l u t i o n , " a r e v o l u t i o n i n v o l v i n g both profound s o c i a l changes and the outstanding genius of one man; they were 17 B r u h l , op. c i t . , p. 136, considers i t u n l i k e l y t h a t i n the time of Augustus there was a temple t o Bacchus on the V i a Sacra. Note, however, the s u s p i c i o u s evidence o f Amores 3.8.51-52: [qua. l i c e t , adfectas caelum quoque: templa Q u i r i n u s , Ehwald, brackets these l i n e s p r e c i s e l y on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l grounds. 18 I b i d . . p. 119. 19 I b i d . . p. 142. 20 See, f o r example, P r o p e r t i u s 3.9.9-16. / L i b e r et A l c i d e s et modo Kenney, f o l l o w i n g 9 contemporaneous, and i n t h e i r hands L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y de- veloped, was p e r f e c t e d and d i e d ; i n t h e i r treatment of Bacchus, they were preceded by a long l i n e of w r i t e r s using the va r i o u s r o l e s of the god i n such a way as t o make them a l - most commonplace; f i n a l l y , i n the Rome of Augustus, a l l three poets must have been f a m i l i a r w i t h Bacchus both as a d e i t y worshipped by devout f o l l o w e r s and as,the subject of numerous works of a r t . With regard to t h i s " s e t t i n g , " however, There i s no such t h i n g as an " i n f l u e n c e " i n the a b s t r a c t , and any p a r t i c u l a r " i n f l u e n c e " of t r a - d i t i o n , of environment, or of personal exper- ience, e x i s t s only i n the i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e d and i s determined by h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , which i s passive onl y i n grammar and i n h i s t o r i e s of l i t e r a t u r e , but i n f a c t i s the a c t i v e element i n a complex i n which the brute event i s the passive m a t e r i a l that gains form, s i g n i f i c a n c e and e f f i c a c y only according to the way i n which the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l f a s h i o n s i t . 1 The aim of t h i s paper i s , then, through a c l o s e ex- amination of the evidence presented by the poems themselves, to analyse the ways i n which T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid t r e a t the god Bacchus. By means of t h i s examination of t h e i r v a r i o u s approaches t o a narrow area of mythology, i t i s hoped th a t a broader understanding of the p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s of each of these three poets may be achieved. 21 H.F. C h e r n i s s , "Me ex V e r s i c u l i s meis parum P u d i - cum," C r i t i c a l Essays on Roman L i t e r a t u r e . Elegy and L y r i c , ed. J.P. S u l l i v a n (London, 1962), p. 25. I t a l i c s are mine. 10 CHAPTER I I BACCHUS IN THE CORPUS TIBULLIANUM 1 I n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . the f i g u r e of Bacchus appears i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t forms. For T i b u l l u s (Books 1 and 2) h i s primary r o l e i s t h a t of an a g r i c u l t u r a l god, a patron of v i t i c u l t u r e . This Bacchus occupies a p o s i t i o n among the simple and very Roman d e i t i e s who appear so o f t e n i n T i b u l l u s ' r u s t i c "dream world." Frequently the god i s seen i n combination w i t h Ceres, the two a c t i n g as co-patrons of the most important branches of I t a l i a n a g r i c u l t u r e , v i t i - c u l t u r e and grain-growing. C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l god i s a l e s s Roman Bacchus, whom the poet t h i n k s of, as a craftsman: Bacchus invented v i t i c u l t u r e and the science of wine-making and taught these t o mankind. Then, as i t s i n v e n t o r and propa- g a t o r , the god i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h wine and w i t h i t s e f f e c t s on human beings. I n t h i s r o l e , Bacchus has c e r t a i n powers i n the realm of Amor. The Bacchus of Greek myth i s a l s o present i n the Corpus. Adventures of the H e l l e n i c Dionysus are used t o p a r a l l e l or to i l l u s t r a t e p o i n t s i n s e v e r a l poems. In h i s b a s i c r o l e , as Roman god o f v i t i c u l t u r e , Bacchus i s seen f i r s t i n 1.9.33-34, a poem addressed t o the boy Marathus, i n which the poet chides him f o r h i s f a i t h - 1 With the exception of the Panegyricus M e s s a l l a e . the whole of the Corpus w i l l be considered i n t h i s paper. Be- side s the works of T i b u l l u s , the c o l l e c t i o n probably i n c l u d e s poems by v a r i o u s members of the c i r c l e of M e s s a l l a . 11 l e s s n e s s : non t i b i s i pretium Campania t e r r a d a r e t u r , non t i b i s i B a c c h i cura Falernus ager. In 2.1.3-4, a prayer t o a g r i c u l t u r a l gods on the occasion of the Roman Ambarvalia, Bacchus and Ceres are invoked t o - 2 gether: Bacche, u e n i , dulcisque t u i s e cornibus uua pendeat, et s p i c i s tempora cing e , Ceres. F i n a l l y , i n 2.3.63-64, the poet, lamenting the f a c t t h a t Nemesis has gone away t o the country, curses the country- s i d e : et t u , Bacche t e n e r , iucundae c o n s i t o r uuae., t u quoque deuotos, Bacche, r e l i n q u e l a c u s . T i b u l l u s t h i n k s of t h i s Bacchus almost as one of those simple Roman d e i t i e s , l i k e the Lares and Penates, whom he c o n t r a s t s w i t h f o r e i g n gods i n 1.3.27-34: 3 nunc, dea, nunc succurre m i h i (nam posse mederi p i c t a docet t e m p l i s multa t a b e l l a , t u i s ) ut mea uotiuas persoluens D e l i a uoces ante sacras l i n o t e c t a f o r e s sedeat bisque d i e r e s o l u t a comas t i b i d i c e r e laudes i n s i g n i s t u r b a debeat i n P h a r i a . at m i h i contingat p a t r i o s c elebrare Penates reddereque antiquo menstrua t u r a L a r i . The "Roman-ness" of t h i s Bacchus i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n 1.10. T i b u l l u s ( l i n e s 15-16) prays to the Lares t o de- l i v e r him from the h o r r o r s of war, then adds th a t f a i t h was stronger when a wooden f i g u r e of the god stood i n a simple s h r i n e . L i n e s 21-22, because of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to 2.1.3-4, suggest t h a t , f o r the poet, some ki n d of a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s 2 Note how o f t e n T i b u l l u s d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s of grain-growing and v i t i c u l t u r e , and so between the patrons of each: see 1.10.21-22 and 35; 2.1. 45-48; 2.3.61-64; 2.5.84-86. 3 I.e., I s i s . 12 between Bacchus and the Lares: hie p l a c a t u s e r a t , seu quis l i b a u e r a t uuam seu dederat sanctae s p i c e a s e r t a comae. For T i b u l l u s , then, Bacchus i s b a s i c a l l y a simple, r u s t i c d e i t y who, along w i t h other Roman gods of the country- 4 s i d e , watches over the farmer and h i s l a b o u r s . The b i r t h d a y poem t o M e s s a l l a (1.7) i l l u s t r a t e s the poet's concept of Bacchus as craftsman and shows the de- velopment from t h i s idea to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the god w i t h wine and i t s e f f e c t s . T i b u l l u s , i n order t o demonstrate the vastness of h i s patron's conquests, begins w i t h a l i s t of r i v e r s , c o u n t r i e s and c i t i e s . H is l i s t culminates w i t h the N i l e , and he i s thus prompted to t e l l , i n l i n e s 29-36, 5 about the Egyptian god, O s i r i s : primus a r a t r a manu s o l l e r t i f e c i t O s i r i s et teneram f e r r o s o l l i c t a u i t humum, primus inexpertae commisit semina t e r r a e pomaque non n o t i s l e g i t ab a r b o r i b u s . hi e d o c u i t teneram p a l i s adiungere uitem, hie uiridem dura caedere f a l c e comam: i l l i iucundos primum matura sapores expressa i n c u l t i s uua d e d i t pedibus. Thus, Osiris-Bacchus i s , f o r the poet, a craftsman who i n- vented the plough, a g r i c u l t u r e , v i t i c u l t u r e and,- f i n a l l y , wine-making, and who taught these s k i l l s t o men. Note, however, t h a t , although the god r e t a i n s many of h i s r u s t i c 4 Note a l s o the a s s o c i a t i o n between Bacchus/wine and the Roman shepherd god, P a l e s , i n 2.5.87-88 and between Bacchus and the r u s t i c P r iapus i n 1.4.7. 5 The equation Osiris-Bacchus had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the time of Herodotus. See 2.42: deovc; yap fir] ov rove; avTovc; anavrEQ dfj-OLOOQ Alyvurioi jrifiovTou, nXrjv "ICTLOQ TC KXXL 'OcrCPLOQ, rbv Sr\ ALOVVCTOV eivou ~k£yov<ri. 13 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T i b u l l u s here considers him not one of the gods of the I t a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e , but a f o r e i g n d e i t y from Egypt. In l i n e s 37-38, the poet s t a t e s t h a t wine, the f i n a l i ssue of Bacchus 1 kindness t o mankind, i n t u r n taught men new s k i l l s : i l l e l i q u o r d o c u i t uoces i n f l e c t e r e cantu, mouit et ad c e r t o s n e s c i a membra modos. Bacchus, then, by means of h i s g i f t of wine, was the o r i - g i n a t o r of poetry and of the dance. L i n e s 39-42 i l l u s t r a t e the f i n a l step i n t h i s d e v e l - opment : Bacchus et a g r i c o l a e magno confecta labore pectora t r i s t i t i a e dissoluenda d e d i t : Bacchus et a d f l i c t i s requiem mortalibus a d f e r t , crura l i c e t dura compede puls a sonent. "Bacchus" i n l i n e s 39 and 41 can mean only the e f f e c t of wine upon care-worn men, i.e., t o r e l e a s e them from sadness, d i s - 6 t r e s s and p a i n . 6 Here i s demonstration of a technique common i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the Augustan Age. Names of d e i t i e s who had long since ceased t o have r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e become, i n l i t e r a t u r e , "equal" to t h a t area or commodity over which they p r e s i d e . Thus A p o l l o becomes a synonym f o r poetry, Mars f o r war, Minerva Tor craftsmanship, and so on. Cf. W.W. Fowler, Roman Ideas of D e i t y i n the L a s t Century Before the C h r i s t i a n Era (London. 1914). P . 134 f f . Other i l l u s - t r a t i o n s of t h i s technique a p p l i e d t o Bacchus are seen i n 2.5.87-88: ac madidus baccho sua f e s t a P a l i l i a p astor concinet: a s t a b u l i s tunc p r o c u l este l u p i , and i n 3.6.57-58: Naida Bacchus amat:cessas, o l e n t e m i n i s t e r ? temperet annosum Marcia lympha merum. where Naida i s simply "water" and Bacchus "wine." The process i s c a r r i e d to such an extreme t h a t among the e l e g i a c poets 14 The poem c e l e b r a t i n g the Ambarvalia at the beginning of Book 2 a l s o r e v e a l s , although l e s s e x p l i c i t l y , the r o l e of Bacchus as inventor-teacher. Here, however, the god appears i n a more Roman g u i s e , i n the midst of a Roman r e - l i g i o u s ceremony. The poet de s c r i b e s the r u s t i c f e s t i v a l r the l a y i n g aside of work, the n e c e s s i t y of sexual abstinence preceding the ceremonies, c l e a n s i n g r i t e s and, f i n a l l y , the b r i n g i n g out of wine. A toa s t t o M e s s a l l a f o l l o w s , and T i b u l l u s asks h i s patron t o i n s p i r e him w h i l e he pays t r i b u t e to r u s t i c gods. Then begins a k i n d of " h i s t o r y of mankind," i n which the poet s t a t e s t h a t man learned a l l h i s s k i l l s from r u s t i c gods ( l i n e s 37-50): r u r a cano r u r i s q u e deos. h i s u i t a m a g i s t r i s desueuit querna p e l l e r e glande famem: a ki n d of m e t r i c a l formula f o r "wine" develops:an a d j e c t i v e ( u s u a l l y multo) w i t h an e p i t h e t of Bacchus i n the a b l a t i v e : T i b u l l u s 1.2.3: neu quisquam multo percussum tempora baccho . P r o p e r t i u s 1.3.9: e b r i a cum multo traherem u e s t i g i a Baccho . 2.33b.35: me miserum, ut multo n i h i l est mutata Lyaeo • 3.5.21: me iuuat et multo mentem u i n c i r e Lyaeo . Ovid, Ars Amatoria 3.645: f a l l i t u r et multo cu s t o d i s cura Lyaeo . S i m i l a r l y , T i b u l l u s 3.2.19: et primum annoso spargent c o l l e c t a lyaeo . P r o p e r t i u s 2.3.17: quantum quod p o s i t o formose s a l t a t Iaccho . Ovid, Amores 2.11.49: i l l i c a dposito n a r r a b i s multo Lyaeo . 15 i l l i compositis primum docuere t i g i l l i s exiguam u i r i d i fronde operire domum: i l l i etiam tauros primi docuisse feruntur seruitium et plaustro supposuisse rotam. turn uictus abiere f e r i , turn consita pomus, turn bibit inriguas f e r t i l i s hortus aquas, aurea turn pressos pedibus dedit uua liquores mixtaque securo est sobria lympha mero. rura ferunt messes, c a l i d i cum sideris aestu deponit flauas annua terra comas, rure leuis uerno flores apis ingerit alueo, compleat ut dulci sedula melle fauos. Following this, in lines 51-58, as in 1.7.35-38, is a description of the beginnings of music, poetry and drama: agricola adsiduo primum satiatus aratro cantauit certo rustica uerba pede et satur arenti primum est modulatus auena carmen, ut ornatos diceret ante deos, agricola et minio suffusus, Bacche, rubenti primus inexperta duxit ab arte choros. huic datus a pleno memorabile munus o u i l i dux pecoris curtas auxerat hircus opes. Thus, in both 1.7 and 2.1, Tibullus associates the god Bacchus with poetry, drama and the dance. This associa- tion is based not so much on the complex link between the Greek Dionysus and highly developed Athenian drama as on the simple fact that these art-forms had their origins in rustic festivals and were aided in their development by the unsophisticated god who invented viticulture, taught i t to men and offered them wine, the f i n a l product of that science. The notion arrived at in 1.7, that Bacchus is capable of releasing men from their cares by means of his g i f t of Wine, appears also in 1.2 and in the sixth poem of the group by "Lygdamus." In both, i t is important to note that Bacchus is invoked by the poet-lover who has been wronged in some / 16 way, and who seeks r e l e a s e from the consequent p a i n . 1.2 begins as a p a r a c l a u s i t h y r o n . L i n e s 1-4 are note- worthy: Adde merum uinoque nouos compesce d o l o r e s , occupet ut f e s s i lumina u i c t a sopor: neu quisquam multo percussum tempora baccho e x c i t e t , i n f e l i x dum r e q u i e s c i t amor. Here there seems to be a k i n d of p r o g r e s s i o n , from merum. pure, unmixed wine, through uino, i n t h i s instance perhaps w i n e - d r i n k i n g , to baccho. the e f f e c t s of t h a t d r i n k i n g . I t i s bacchus, then, the e f f e c t of t h a t commodity over which the god p r e s i d e s , t h a t r e l e a s e s the poet from h i s unhappiness at being separated from h i s m i s t r e s s . S i m i l a r l y , i n 3*6.1-6, Lygdamus c a l l s upon L i b e r , the god of the v i n e , to r e l i e v e h i s love-sorrows by means of the f r u i t of t h a t v i n e : Candide L i b e r ades: s i c s i t t i b i mystica u i t i s semper, s i c hedera tempora u i n c t a f e r a s : a u f e r et ipse meum patera medicante dolorem: saepe tuo c e c i d i t munere u i c t u s Amor. care puer, madeant generoso pocula baccho, et nobis prona funde Fa l e r n a manu. L i b e r i s capable of overcoming Amor (the pain caused by an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r ) by means of h i s patera medicante. h i s munere, h i s generoso pocula baccho. This idea i s s t r e n g - thened i n l i n e s 13-20, where the poet speaks of i l l e deus. i . e . , Amor, as a god who tames the s o u l of the l o v e r and makes him submit to the w i l l of a g i r l . Now, however, i t i s Amor who i s t o be conquered by an even stronger power. In a d d i t i o n t o h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine, the 17 legends surrounding Bacchus are used i n 3.6 t o b r i n g the god i n t o the realm of Amor. In l i n e s 23-24, the poet warns h i s f r i e n d s t h a t , unless they d r i n k wine r a t h e r than pocula s i c c a ( l i n e 18), the same vengeance may f a l l on them as f e l l on Pentheus at the hands of Agave. Then, i n l i n e s 25-28, he i m p u l s i v e l y prays that t h i s vengeance be brought upon h i s f a l s e m i s t r e s s , but q u i c k l y revokes h i s prayer: quales h i s poenas q u a l i s quantusque minetur, Cadmeae matris praeda cruenta docet. sed p r o c u l a nobis h i e s i t t i m o r , i l l a q u e , s i qua e s t , quid ualeat l a e s i s e n t i a t i r a d e i . quid precor a demens? u e n t i temeraria uota, a e r i a e et nubes d i r i p i e n d a f e r a n t . The poet uses the myth of Ariadne, Theseus and Bacchus i n l i n e s 37-44 as an exemplum of h i s own s i t u a t i o n : quid queror i n f e l i x ? turpes d i s c e d i t e curae: o d i t Lenaeus t r i s t i a uerba p a t e r . Gnosia, Theseae quondam p e r i u r i a l i n g u a e f l e u i s t i ignoto s o l a r e l i c t a mari: s i c c e c i n i t pro te doctus, M i n o i , C a t u l l u s i n g r a t i r e f erens impia f a c t a u i r i . uos ego nunc moneo: f e l i x , quicumque dolore a l t e r i u s d i s c e s posse cauere tuom. Lygdamus rel a p s e s i n t o complaints about h i s sad l o t , but Pater Lenaeus loathes sad words such as he, abandoned by Neaera, and Ariadne, abandoned by Theseus, have used. Bacchus brought joy again t o Ariadne, and w i l l a l s o t o Lygdamus. The poet then warns h i s f r i e n d s not t o be deceived by f a l s e l o v e r s , as he and Ariadne were. In these two poems we see Bacchus as the god of wine, the r e l e a s e r from cares and as the Dionysus of Greek myth, f i r s t as avenger of those who refuse t o partake o f h i s munus, then as the rescuer and l o v e r of Ariadne. I n a l l these, lo- ne i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h the f i g u r e of the poet as l o v e r : he r e l e a s e s the poet from the sorrows t h a t unhappy love a f f a i r s b r i n g , and he act s as the patron and avenger of the poet as the wronged l o v e r . The connection of Bacchus w i t h the lover-poet appears, although s u p e r f i c i a l l y , i n 1.4. Here the poet, unsuccess- f u l i n h i s a f f a i r w i t h the boy Marathus, addresses P r i a p u s , the r u s t i c god of f e r t i l i t y , and, i n l i n e 3> asks him, quae tua formosos c e p i t s o l l e r t i a ? . . . I n l i n e 7 Priapus i s c a l l e d B a c c h i . . . r u s t i c a p r o l e s . I t i s notable t h a t Priapus i s here a praeceptor amoris. an expert i n the a f f a i r s of l o v e , and i n t h i s context i s addressed as B a c c h i . . . p r o l e s . L a t e r i n the same poem ( l i n e s 37-38) Priapus warns the poet not t o d e l a y i n h i s c o u r t i n g , f o r youth i s gone q u i c k l y : s o l i s aeterna est Baccho Phoeboque iuuentas: nam decet intonsus c r i n i s utrumque deum. The>,mere f a c t t h a t Bacchus and Phoebus, the usual patron of poetry, are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , and t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n occurs i n a poem about l o v e , i s noteworthy. Here they are c i t e d as the conventional r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of e t e r n a l youth and are held up to the poet as a con t r a s t t o h i s own m o r t a l i t y . I t i s , however, i n the f o u r t h poem of Book 3 that the most i n t e r e s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n between Bacchus and Phoebus i s . s e e n . Lygdamus describes a dream i n which Phoebus has 19 appeared to him, t e l l i n g him that Neaera p r e f e r s another man. The god gives the poet a warning to take to Neaera ( l i n e s 79-80): hoc t i b i coniugium p r o m i t t i t D e l i u s ipse ; f e l i x hoc alium desine u e l l e uirum. The opening l i n e s (43-48) of Phoebus' speech are e s p e c i a l l y remarkable: " s a l u e , cura deum: casto nam r i t e poetae Phoebusque et Bacchus Pieri d e s q u e fauent: sed p r o l e s Semelae Bacchus doctaeque sorores d i c e r e non norunt quid f e r a t hora sequens: at m i h i fatorum leges aeuique f u t u r i euentura p a t e r posse uidere d e d i t . " The poet i s addressed as cura deum because (nam) Phoebus, Bacchus and the Muses r i g h t l y ( i . e . , c u s t o m a r i l y , t r a d i t i o n - a l l y ) watch over (favour, i n c l i n e towards, h e l p , p r o t e c t ) the casto poetae. perhaps, i n t h i s case, the "innocent" poet, i n t h a t he i s being wronged by the g i r l who, because she has given h e r s e l f t o another man, has broken the foedus between the l o v e r s , and i s t h e r e f o r e no l o n g e r c a s t a . The atmosphere of the poem i s such t h a t the poet must have been t h i n k i n g of h i m s e l f only s e c o n d a r i l y as a poeta. and p r i m a r i l y as a wronged l o v e r , the idea i m p l i c i t i n the a d j e c t i v e casto. F u r t h e r , i t i s s a i d t h a t Phoebus, Bacchus and the Muses "poetae fauent." The e s s e n t i a l meaning of fauent, t h a t of p r o t e c t i n g and h e l p i n g , expresses more a p p r o p r i a t e l y the a t t i t u d e of these gods towards an innocent v i c t i m than t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the poet as c r e a t o r and craftsman. The same sentiment, i n ,a more general form, appears i n 2.5, a poem w r i t t e n on the occasion of Messalinus* i n s t a l l a t i o n 20 as a p r i e s t of A p o l l o . Near the end of the poem ( l i n e s 105- 106) T i b u l l u s prays t o A p o l l o t o l e t bows and arrows disappear and unarmed Love wander f r e e over the e a r t h . He i s then reminded of the f a c t t h a t , s i n c e Cupid took to c a r r y i n g arrows, many have s u f f e r e d from these weapons. I n l i n e s 109-112, we l e a r n that the poet has been e s p e c i a l l y a f f l i c t e d : et m i h i praecipue, iaceo cum saucius annum et (faueo morbo cum iuuat ipse dolor) usque cano Nemesim, si n e quo uersus m i h i n u l l u s uerba potest i u s t o s aut r e p e r i r e pedes. The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s (113-116) warn Nemesis to beware of h u r t i n g the p o e t - l o v e r : at t u , nam diuum seruat t u t e l a poetas. praemoneo, u a t i parce, p u e l l a , s acro, ut Messalinum celebrem, cum praemia b e l l i ante suos currus oppida u i c t a f e r e t . I n both these poems, then, the gods are considered not r e a l l y the sources of a poet's i n s p i r a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , but h i s p a r t i c u l a r patrons as a wronged l o v e r . I t i s i n t h i s context i n 3.4.43-44 that Bacchus j o i n s the usual patrons of poetry, A p o l l o and the Muses. A l i n k e x i s t s between t h i s Bacchus and t h a t o f 3*6, where the poet beseeches the god to take vengeance upon h i s m i s t r e s s f o r her d e c e i t ( l i n e s 25-26) and uses the analogy between the Bacchus-Ariadne myth and h i s own s i t u a t i o n ( l i n e s 37-44). Thus, i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . the f i g u r e of Bacchus i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the poet i n two ways: besides the f a c t t h a t he, Bacchus, through h i s g i f t of wine, i s the i n v e n t o r of po- e t r y , he i s e s p e c i a l l y the patron of the poet as l o v e r , i n 21 t h a t , again through t h i s g i f t , he provides a r e l e a s e from the cares of an unhappy l o v e , and appears, i n the two episodes s e l e c t e d from h i s m y t h i c a l adventures, as the sa v i o u r and avenger of the wronged l o v e r . 22 CHAPTER I I I BACCHUS IN THE POETRY OF PROPERTIUS In the poetry of P r o p e r t i u s , v a r i o u s f a c e t s of the com- p l e x f i g u r e of Bacchus are more s u c c e s s f u l l y fused than i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . The poet r a r e l y uses Bacchus t o mean simply wine, or tha t god who i s patron of v i t i c u l t u r e , or tha t god who loved Ariadne; i n almost every i n s t a n c e , P r o p e r t i u s seems to have had i n mind a s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y who i s at once the god of wine, the l o v e r of Ariadne and the leader and "hyp- n o t i z e r " of the Maenads. Nevertheless, a c e r t a i n change and expansion i n the poet's concept of the god are n o t i c e a b l e as one reads through the poetry. As the a f f a i r w i t h Cynthia progresses and as at the same time P r o p e r t i u s gains awareness of h i m s e l f as a poet, a change appears i n h i s poetry: Books 1 and 2 deal almost en- t i r e l y w i t h h i s love f o r C y n t h i a ; near the end of Book 2, how- ever, as t h e i r l i a i s o n s t a r t s to d i s s o l v e , P r o p e r t i u s combines h i s philosophy as a l o v e r w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s as a poet. This combination of t o p i c s occupies the poet's mind t o an i n c r e a s i n g degree throughout Book 3, u n t i l f i n a l l y , i n Book 4, Cynthia has been a l l but di s c a r d e d , and the poet, having worked through to another area of i n t e r e s t , turns t o e n t i r e l y new s u b j e c t - matter. As P r o p e r t i u s ' poetry changes and develops, h i s concept of the god Bacchus does l i k e w i s e . I n the f i r s t two books, whi l e the poet i s completely i n v o l v e d w i t h h i s m i s t r e s s , ) 23 Bacchus appears c h i e f l y as the god of wine and the l o v e r of Ariadne, although even here there are h i n t s of a deeper s i g - n i f i c a n c e . Near the end of Book 2, when P r o p e r t i u s becomes more concerned w i t h the p o e t i c a l s i d e of h i s r o l e as l o v e r - poet, a complex s y n t h e s i s takes p l a c e : j u s t as Bacchus makes h i s " m i s t r e s s , " Ariadne, leader of the Maenads, so now Pro- p e r t i u s admits Cynthia t o the f r o n t ranks of the chorus of Muses. Bacchus, l e a d e r of the Maenads, furthermore, fuses w i t h A p o l l o , leader of the Muses and patron of poetry; t h i s composite f i g u r e of Bacchus/Apollo l e a d i n g and having power over the Maenads/Muses serves P r o p e r t i u s w e l l i n the develop- ment of h i s t h e o r i e s as a poet of l o v e . F i n a l l y , i n Book 3 and e s p e c i a l l y i n Book 4, where Pro- p e r t i u s r e a l i z e s that the e l e g i a c metre may be put t o uses other than love poetry, Bacchus i s r e t a i n e d as a k i n d of ab- s t r a c t patron of elegy, u no longer i n union w i t h , but i n con- t r a s t t o , A p o l l o , the patron of more " s e r i o u s " poetry. In order t o understand the P r o p e r t i a n Bacchus, and how t h i s complex f i g u r e grows and changes, i t w i l l be necessary to d i s c o v e r and to analyse the ways i n which P r o p e r t i u s uses Bacchus i n i n d i v i d u a l poems. In 1.3> the poet describes h i s r e t u r n from a d r i n k i n g p a r t y and h i s d i s c o v e r y of Cynthia asleep. The atmosphere of the f i r s t p a r t of the poem i s one of d e s i r e heightened by i n t o x i c a t i o n , an atmosphere i n which the f i g u r e of Bacchus i s present j u s t below the surface as a k i n d of m o t i v a t i n g 24 f o r c e . The poem opens wi t h three s i m i l e s , two of which i n - volve Bacchic legend: Q u a l i s Thesea i a c u i t cedente c a r i n a languida d e s e r t i s Cnosia l i t o r i b u s ; , q u a l i s et accubuit primo Cepheia sorano l i b e r a iam d u r i s c o t i b u s Andromede; nec minus a s s i d u i s Edonis f e s s a c h o r e i s q u a l i s i n herboso c o n c i d i t Apidano. N e i t h e r the reference t o Ariadne nor t h a t t o the Maenad mentions Bacchus d i r e c t l y , yet he i s i m p l i c i t i n both: the next step i n the Ariadne-Theseus legend i s the a r r i v a l of Bacchus; l i k e w i s e , Bacchus i s the cause of the Maenad's fre n z y and her consequent exhaustion. The d e l i b e r a t e choice of these two episodes d i s p l a y s aspects of Bacchus t h a t are p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to t h i s poem: f i r s t , and most simply, he i s the l o v e r of Ariadne; second, h i s a b i l i t y t o i n s p i r e a k i n d of r e l e a s e from i n h i b i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t caused by i n t o x i c a t i o n i s i m p l i e d i n the p i c t u r e of the Maenad exhausted by constant dancing. So a l s o has P r o p e r t i u s , Cynthia's l o v e r , been r e l e a s e d from h i s i n h i b i t i o n s by Bacchus. I n l i n e 9, however, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t the god has wielded h i s power over P r o p e r t i u s not by means of h i s t h y r s u s , as w i t h the Maenad, but by means of h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine: e b r i a cum raulto traherem u e s t i g i a Baccho, et quaterent sera nocte facem p u e r i . 1 The most obvious connection among Ariadne, Andromeda, the Maenad and Cynthia i s the f a c t t h a t a l l are s l e e p i n g the sleep of the exhausted. P r o p e r t i u s i s l e d from A r i a d - ne to Andromeda, however, by the u n d e r l y i n g theme of rescue: Bacchus i s about to rescue Ariadne, Perseus has already f r e e d Andromeda (and, l i k e Bacchus, has f a l l e n i n love w i t h her whom he saves), and P r o p e r t i u s i s on the verge of " r e s c u i n g " C y n t h i a . For a s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n between Andromeda and Ariadne c f . Heroides 18.151-154. 25 I n these two l i n e s , the Bacchic images used thus f a r i n the poem f a l l i n t o one: as Bacchus, l e a d i n g the t h y r s u s - bearing Maenads, who have become " i n t o x i c a t e d " because of h i s power over them, came i n triumphal p r o c e s s i o n t o Ariadne, deser- t e d by the hard-hearted Theseus, so P r o p e r t i u s , under the i n - fluence of Bacchus/wine, comes, accompanied by the troop of young boys w i t h t o r c h e s , to Cyn t h i a , whom he h i m s e l f had "a- bandoned" e a r l i e r . The f a c t t h a t P r o p e r t i u s here and elsewhere i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the f i g u r e of Bacchus w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. I n l i n e s 13-16, et quamuis d u p l i c i correptum ardore iuberent hac Amor hac L i b e r , durus uterque deus, subiecto l e u i t e r positam temptare l a c e r t o osculaque admota sumere t et arma t manu, the poet r e f e r s to L i b e r . The reader a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h i s name a l l the a t t r i b u t e s brought t o mind by the imagery of the previous l i n e s . Now, however, P r o p e r t i u s emphasizes the f a c t t h a t Bacchus' primary r6le i n the poem i n v o l v e s h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine and h i s consequent a b i l i t y to produce i n t o x i c a t i o n . The meaning of these l i n e s i s , then, 2 t h a t d e s i r e (Amor) i s i n t e n s i f i e d by i n t o x i c a t i o n ( L i b e r ) . The connection between Bacchus, the god of wine, and Amor i s explored from two p o i n t s of view i n 2.33b. Here Pro- p e r t i u s s c o l d s Cynthia f o r d r i n k i n g and gambling f a r i n t o the n i g h t , and so paying l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o him. He blames wine 2 Cf. Ovid, Amores 1 .6.59-60. 26 f o r t h i s , and i n l i n e s 27-28 curses i t s i n v e n t o r : a pereat, quicumque meracas r e p p e r i t uuas corrupitque bonas nectare primus aquas ! That the poet has Bacchus i n mind i s i n d i c a t e d by the f i r s t of the f o l l o w i n g three examples of beings who have been de- stroyed or i n j u r e d because of wine: I c a r e , C e c r o p i i s merito i u g u l a t e c o l o n i s , pampineus n o s t i quam s i t amarus odor I The m y t h i c a l I c a r u s , an Athenian, r e c e i v e d Dionysus g r a c i o u s l y , and so was given the v i n e . He made wine and gave i t t o some of h i s countrymen, who, becoming i n t o x i c a t e d , be- 3 l i e v e d they were poisoned and k i l l e d him. In the f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t , E u r y t i o n the centaur and Polyphemus are c i t e d as examples of the harmfulness of wine- d r i n k i n g . F i n a l l y , i n l i n e s 33-34, P r o p e r t i u s sums up the reasons why he, as a po e t - l o v e r , considers wine i n j u r i o u s : uino forma p e r i t , uino corrumpitur aetas, uino saepe suum n e s c i t arnica uirum. At l i n e 35, however, the poet a b r u p t l y changes h i s tone: a f t e r preaching about the harmfulness of wine, he suddenly r e - a l i z e s t h a t , i n the case of h i s C y n t h i a , wine i s h u r t i n g her not at a l l , and t h a t she i s as b e a u t i f u l as ever: me miserum, ut multo n i h i l e s t mutata Lyaeo I iam bibe: formosa es: n i l t i b i uina nocent, cum tua praependent demissae i n pocula s e r t a e , et mea deducta carmina uoce l e g i s . Here Lyaeus, an e p i t h e t of Bacchus, i s synonymous w i t h uinum and merum used elsewhere i n the poem. 3 Cf. Ap o l l o d o r u s , The L i b r a r y 3.14.7. 27 Lines 37-38 perhaps i n d i c a t e why the poet has changed h i s mind so suddenly: Cynthia has turned from c a s t i n g d i c e to reading h i s poetry. The sense seems to be, "wine i s bad when i t takes your a t t e n t i o n from me, but good when i t prompts you t o read my poetry." Thus wine, i n s t e a d of being an enemy, as i t was i n the f i r s t h a l f of the poem, becomes an a l l y t o the l o v e r as poet. L i n e s 39-44, l a r g i u s e f f uso madeat t i b i mensa F a l e r n o , spumet et aurato m o l l i u s i n c a l i c e . n u l l a tamen l e c t o r e c i p i t se s o l a l i b e n t e r : est quiddam, quod uos quaerere cogat Amor, semper i n abs e n t i s f e l i c i o r aestus amantis: eleuat assiduos copia longa u i r o s , seem at f i r s t glance t o be unconnected w i t h what has gone before. However, the same a l l i a n c e between L i b e r ( i n t o x i c a - t i o n ) and Amor (desire) t h a t was seen i n 1.3 i s i m p l i c i t here. The l i n e s mean: l e t Cynthia enjoy her wine; the consequent i n t o x i c a t i o n , together w i t h Amor ( d e s i r e ) , w i l l b r i n g her to me sooner or l a t e r . I s h a l l cease t o "nag" her as I have been doing, s i n c e women are l e s s favourable to e x c e s s i v e l y p e r s i s t e n t s u i t o r s . I n 2.33b the poet has explored two f a c e t s of the f i g u r e of Bacchus i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine: f i r s t , w i t h a k i n d of tongue-in-cheek a t t i t u d e , the no t i o n t h a t Bacchus/wine i s an enemy to Love, second, and more s i n c e r e l y , the idea t h a t Bacchus i s i n r e a l i t y an a l l y t o Amor (a) because, under the in f l u e n c e of wine, h i s m i s t r e s s has pleased him by reading h i s poetry, and (b) because, as i n 1.3, d e s i r e i s i n t e n s i f i e d 28 by i n t o x i c a t i o n . I n 3.17 we f i n d yet another demonstration of the f a c t t h a t f o r P r o p e r t i u s , Bacchus i s very much i n v o l v e d i n the sphere of Amor. The poem i s i n the form of a prayer addressed to Bacchus i n which the poet pleads to be set f r e e from the p a i n t h a t h i s m i s t r e s s has apparently caused him by some arrogant a c t i o n ( c f . l i n e y. insanae V e n e r i s . . . f a s t u s ; and l i n e 41: s e r u i t i o . . . s u p e r b o ) . L i n e 4, curarumque tuo f i t medicina mero, l i n e 6, t u u i t i u m ex animo d i l u e , Bacche, meo, i n which d i l u e must r e f e r t o wine, and l i n e s 9-11, hoc m i h i , quod ueteres c u s t o d i t i n ossibus i g n i s , funera sanabunt aut tua uina malum, semper enim uacuos nox s o b r i a torquet amantis, make i t c l e a r t h a t the poet has i n mind the Greek Dionysus, the i n v e n t o r and propagator of v i t i c u l t u r e , and t h a t he ex- pects r e l i e f to come through the god's g i f t of wine. I n l i n e s 13-20 P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s t h a t , i f the god grants him s l e e p , he w i l l , i n h i s honour, p l a n t vines and make wine. As a poet, he w i l l a l s o t e l l of the h e r o i c adventures of Bacchus. In the f o l l o w i n g l i s t ( l i n e s 21-28), w i t h the exception of the a l l u - s ions to h i s b i r t h and to h i s triumphant journey to I n d i a , a l l the legends mentioned have to do w i t h Dionysus as the god of the v i n e . L i n e s 29-38 describe the appearance of the god and some of the aspects of h i s c u l t ; t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , together w i t h l i n e s 21-28, makes i t s t i l l more obvious that P r o p e r t i u s 29 has i n mind the H e l l e n i c god who introduced v i t i c u l t u r e to mankind. Besides addressing Bacchus as the god of v i t i c u l t u r e , however, P r o p e r t i u s prays to him because, as the l o v e r of Ariadne, he should be e s p e c i a l l y sympathetic to the s u f f e r i n g poet: as Ariadne was abandoned by the c r u e l and arrogant Theseus, and subsequently rescued by Bacchus, so P r o p e r t i u s has been badly t r e a t e d by h i s m i s t r e s s , and pleads f o r comfort 4 from t h a t god ( l i n e s 3-8): t u potes insanae Veneris compescere f a s t u s , curarurnque tuo f i t medicina mero. per te iunguntur, per t e soluuntur amantes: t u u i t i u m ex animo d i l u e , Bacche, meo. te quoque enim non esse rudem t e s t a t u r i n a s t r i s l y n c i b u s ad caelum uecta Ariadna t u i s . However, whereas Ariadne was f r e e d from her p a i n by the a r r i v a l and l o v e of Bacchus, P r o p e r t i u s asks f o r d e l i v e r a n c e from h i s p a i n by the god's g i f t of wine. Thus, i n these l i n e s , Bacchus has a double i d e n t i t y : t h a t of wine and t h a t of the l o v e r and rescuer of Ariadne. In both these r o l e s , he i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y addressed by the s u f f e r i n g poet. Line 5 i s noteworthy: the idea that wine j o i n s l o v e r s i s seen a l s o i n 1.3.13-18, where L i b e r i s an a l l y of Amor. Bacchus a l s o s e t s l o v e r s f r e e , however, (a) from the hurts which they i n f l i c t upon each other and (b) from attachment 4 I t i s remarkable t h a t P r o p e r t i u s here compares him- s e l f to the female partner i n a m y t h o l o g i c a l l o v e a f f a i r . S i m i l a r r e v e r s a l s appear at 2.27.13-16, where the poet i s comparable to E u r y d i c e , h i s m i s t r e s s t o Orpheus; and at 1.11.23, where the poet, addressing C y n t h i a , uses Andro- mache's words t o Hector ( c f . I l i a d 6.429). 30 t o each other, s i n c e , as we saw i n 2.33b*34, uino saepe suum n e s c i t arnica uirura. 2.33b indeed seems an expansion ( i n reverse) of 3.17.5: per t e iunguntur, per te soluuntur amantes. I n tha t poem, P r o p e r t i u s f i r s t dwells on the f a c t t h a t wine i s harmful to Love; i n the second h a l f of the poem, however, he i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s i n t r u t h an a l l y . A n a l y s i s of the manner i n which P r o p e r t i u s uses the f i g u r e of Bacchus i n these three poems makes c l e a r the f a c t t h a t the poet i s here concerned with Bacchus p r i m a r i l y i n - s o f a r as t h a t god has c e r t a i n powers i n the realm of Amor and i s t h e r e f o r e an appropriate "patron" of the poet as l o v e r . I n a l l three poems, the god appears i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine* we l e a r n t h a t wine o f t e n i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e , and i n some circumstances prompts the poet's m i s t r e s s t o please him by reading h i s poetry; on the other hand, i t may a l s o cause a g i r l t o ignore her l o v e r ; f i n a l l y , wine i s capable of r e l e a s i n g l o v e r s from the d i s t r e s s t h a t an unhappy a f f a i r i n v o l v e s . I t i s obvious i n 1.3 and i n 3»17 t h a t Bacchus' r o l e as l o v e r o f Ariadne i s important t o the poet's understanding of the god's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Amor. Indeed, Ariadne alone i s an important f i g u r e . She i s used s e v e r a l times as an example of the " j i l t e d " l o v e r : i n 2.24b.43, where P r o p e r t i u s warns Cynthia t h a t only he i s tru s t w o r t h y , i n 1.3.1-2, where C y n t h i a , abandoned by P r o p e r t i u s , i s compared t o Ariadne abandoned by Theseus, and i m p l i c i t l y i n 3.17, where P r o p e r t i u s , 31 t r e a t e d h a r s h l y by C y n t h i a , i s comparable to the mistreated 5 heroine. Ariadne i s an important f i g u r e i n the t r a n s i t i o n i n P r o p e r t i u s ' poetry from pure and simple love-elegy to poetry i n which he combines h i s r o l e as l o v e r w i t h t h a t as poet. In order t o understand t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , and Ariadne's place i n i t , i t w i l l again be necessary t o consider i n d i v i d u a l poems. 2.30 presents s e v e r a l t e x t u a l problems. P.J. Enk d i - v i d e s the poem i n t o 1-12 (30a) and 13-40 (30b). 30b i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s i n q u i r y . L i n e s 19-22 c o n t a i n 6 d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t have been much discussed; Enk's s o l u t i o n i s most p l a u s i b l e . He accepts the reading of N f o r l i n e 19 (non tamen immerito) and takes the f o l l o w i n g i n f i n i t i v e s as i n f i n i t i v e s of exclamation. He then understands the poem i n t h i s way: 5 Perhaps of l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e are 2.14.7-8, where Ariadne's joy at seeing Theseus s a f e l y through the l a b y r i n t h i s equated w i t h the poet's joy i n h i s m i s t r e s s , and 3*20. 17-18, i n which Ariadne i s c a l l e d upon t o witness a l o v e r s ' oath. Nevertheless, these l a s t two instances add t o the evidence t h a t f o r P r o p e r t i u s , as a poet of l o v e , the myth of Ariadne i s s i g n i f i c a n t . 6 See P.J. Enk, Sex. P r o p e r t i i Elegiarum. L i b e r Se- cundus. v . 2 (Leyden, 1962), pp. 3 8 1 - 3 8 2 .H.E. B u t l e r and E.A. Barber, The E l e g i e s of P r o p e r t i u s (Oxford, 1933), p. 245, c l a i m t h a t the reading of N (non tamen immerito) "has been declared u n i n t e l l i g i b l e by the m a j o r i t y of e d i t o r s . " Then, t a k i n g the reading nunc t u (or nunc iam) dura paras (LPf and the m a j o r i t y of l a t e r MSS), they s t a t e , " . . . i t i s at l e a s t p o s s i b l e to secure some sense by two very s l i g h t changes, num ( S c a l i g e r ) f o r the opening nunc, and dure (c) f o r dura. The poet addresses someone (perhaps h i m s e l f ) : 'Hard-hearted, do you make ready t o cross the Phrygian seas?' &c. The l i n e s w i l l then r e f e r to a l o v e r , perhaps the poet h i m s e l f , who meditates j o i n i n g the P a r t h i a n campaign." 32 13-18 Per me l i c e t morosi senes i s t a n o s t r a c o n v i v i a v i t u p e r e n t , nos, mea v i t a , nostro modo vivamus. 19-22 Quae non sine causa d i c o . Debeone Phrygias per undas i r e e t a l t e r n a caede communes spargere Penates? 23-24 Pudeatne me arnica mea con- tentum v i v e r e ? 25-36 L i b e a t t i b i , C y n t h i a , mecum r o r i d a antra tenere. I l l i c v i d e b i s Musas i n s c o p u l i s haerentes, audiesque eas amores I o v i s et ipsarum Musarum canentes. 37-40 Et cum Musae t i b i locum dabunt i n parte choreae suae et Bacchus i^earox^poc; e r i t , m i h i ex hedera coronam imponi sinami, nam sine t e , Cy n t h i a , ingenium n i h i l v a l e t . 7 A c l o s e r study of l i n e s 13-25 rev e a l s a t h r e e - f o l d c o n t r a s t . L i n e s 13-14, i s t a senes l i c e t accusent c o n u i u i a d u r i : nos modo propositum, u i t a , teramus i t e r , c o n t r a s t the harshness of s t e r n o l d men w i t h the chosen way of l i f e ( c o n u i u i a ) o f P r o p e r t i u s and Cyn t h i a . L i n e s 15-18, i l l o r u m a n t i q u i s onerantur l e g i b u s aures: h i e l o cus est i n quo, t i b i a docta, sones, quae non i u r e uado Maeandri i a c t a n a t a s t i , t u r p i a cum f a c e r e t P a l l a d i s ora tumor, co n t r a s t the sounds t h a t f a l l on the ears of these o l d men ( i . e . , l e g a l d i s p u t e s , s e n a t o r i a l debates) w i t h the sounds appropriate t o the l o v e r ' s way of l i f e (i.e.» music of the t i b i a ) . F i n a l l y , l i n e s 19-23, [ non tamen immerito ! Phrygias nunc i r e per' undas et petere Hyrcani l i t o r a nota maris, spargere et a l t e r n a communis caede P e n a t i s et f erre ad p a t r i o s praemia d i r a Lares I] una contentum pudeat me uiuere arnica? c o n t r a s t the way of l i f e t hat s t e r n e r men f o l l o w - m i l i - t a r y or commercial a c t i v i t i e s i n f a r - o f f places - w i t h t h a t of the l o v e r - a quiet e x i s t e n c e w i t h o n l y one concern: h i s m i s t r e s s . 7 Enk, op. c i t . . p. 386. 33 The reader i s thus immediately introduced t o two e l e - ments present i n the l i f e of the poet: l o v e , and t h i n g s appropriate t o l o v e , music and poetry (the o r i g i n s of which are i m p l i e d i n the legend about Minerva). L i n e s 25-40 continue and explore the a s s o c i a t i o n be- tween poetry and l o v e : ... l i b e a t t i b i , C y n t h i a , mecum r o r i d a muscosis antra tenere i u g i s . i l l i c a s p i c i e s s c o p u l i s haerere Sorores et canere a n t i q u i d u l c i a f u r t a I o v i s , ut Semela e s t combustus, ut est deperditus I o , denique ut ad Troiae t e c t a u o l a r i t a u i s . quod s i nemo e x s t a t q u i u i c e r i t A l i t i s arma, communis culpae cur reus unus agor? nec t u V i r g i n i b u s r e u e r e n t i a moueris ora; hie quoque non n e s c i t quid s i t amare chorus; s i tamen Oeagri quaedam compressa f i g u r a B i s t o n i i s o l i m rupibus a c c u b u i t . hie u b i t e prima statuent i n parte choreae, et medius docta cuspide Bacchus e r i t , turn c a p i t i sacros p a t i a r pendere corymbos: nam s i n e t e nostrum non u a l e t ingenium. F i r s t , the poet asks h i s m i s t r e s s to l i v e w i t h him i n dewy caverns on mossy r i d g e s , i . e . . Mount H e l i c o n . Then he speaks of the Muses, the patronesses of poetry, whom they w i l l see c l i n g i n g to the crags, s i n g i n g of the sec r e t l o v e s of Jove. The poet then t e l l s h i s m i s t r e s s t h a t she w i l l not d i s t u r b the decorum of the Muses, s i n c e they a l s o are no strangers t o l o v e . The poem reaches i t s climax w i t h the statement t h a t the Muses w i l l place Cynthia i n the f r o n t ranks of t h e i r dance; the poet's love and the source of h i s i n s p i r a t i o n are one, and, w i t h Cynthia's admittance t o the number of the Muses, a synt h e s i s i s achieved. I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t P r o p e r t i u s w i l l a l l o w h i m s e l f to assume 34 the badge of the poet: the crown of i v y , a p l a n t sacred t o 8 Bacchus. I n t h i s context, i . e . . a k i n d o f s y n t h e s i s of p o e t i c a l theory w i t h the philosophy of the l o v e r , i t i s Bacchus who appears as l e a d e r of the Muses. I t w i l l be remembered th a t 9 i n legend Bacchus became the f o s t e r l i n g of the Muses a f t e r h i s second b i r t h , from the t h i g h of Zeus. However, the e p i - t h e t Movo-ayirrjc, i s u s u a l l y a p p l i e d t o A p o l l o , and i t i s A p o l l o whom P r o p e r t i u s a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the Muses i n most other instances (e^g., 1.2.27-28; 1.8b.41-42; 2 . 1 . 3 - 4 ) . The e p i t h e t i s t r a n s f e r r e d to Bacchus probably because of 10 the a n c i e n t a s s o c i a t i o n of the two gods at D e l p h i . Here the f e s t a l year was d i v i d e d between A p o l l o and Dionysus; A p o l l o , surrounded by the Muses, appeared on the east pediment of 11 the temple, Dionysus, surrounded by the Maenads, on the west. P r o p e r t i u s has, however, chosen Bacchus as ixovo-rxyerriQ f o r reasons more s u b t l e t h a t these. We noted t h a t at 2 .3.17-18, quantum quod p o s i t o formose s a l t a t Iaccho, e g i t ut euhantis dux Ariadna choros, 8 Cf. 2 . 5 . 2 5 - 2 6 . 9 Cf. I l i a d 6 . 1 3 2 : the Muses are ^jaivo^ivoio AIOOVVCTOLO TLdfivcc^* 10 Cf. L.R. F a r n e l l , C u l t s of the Greek S t a t e s , v.5 (Oxford, 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 1 4 5 . 11 F a r n e l l , l o c c i t . . c i t e s a Naxian i n s c r i p t i o n of the Roman p e r i o d i n which Dionysus i s c a l l e d Mova-ayirrjc. Note a l s o t h a t P l u t a r c h , I s . and 0 s . 3 5 , and E at D e l p h i 9 , speaks of the a s s o c i a t i o n between A p o l l o and Dionysus. 35 the poet r e f e r s t o Ariadne as leader of the Maenads. Thus a kind of extended s i m i l e develops: as Ariadne, the "mis- t r e s s " of Bacchus, i s made le a d e r of the chorus of Maenads, so Cynthia, the m i s t r e s s of P r o p e r t i u s , i s made l e a d e r of the chorus of Muses. Between Bacchus and the Maenad, Ariadne, there e x i s t s the same r e l a t i o n s h i p as e x i s t s between Pro- p e r t i u s and the Muse, Cynthia: l o v e . No such r e l a t i o n s h i p between A p o l l o and a Muse i s evident i n the poetry of Pro- p e r t i u s . The poet has d e l i b e r a t e l y confused Bacchus w i t h A p o l l o and Maenads w i t h Muses i n order t o achieve h i s purpose: the combination of h i s r o l e as a l o v e r w i t h t h a t as poet. There i s a d d i t i o n a l evidence i n 2.30b f o r the syn- t h e s i s between Maenads and Muses. Cuspide i n l i n e 38 i s the t h y r s u s , by means of which the god s t r u c k d i v i n e mad- ness i n t o h i s f o l l o w e r s . I n t h i s case, however, i t i s c a l l e d docta. perhaps because the chorus t h a t Bacchus leads i s one not p r i m a r i l y of f r e n z i e d Maenads, but one composed a l s o o f the Learned S i s t e r s . The most noteworthy evidence, however, i s found i n 3.3* Here P r o p e r t i u s imagines h i m s e l f on Mount H e l i c o n , and describes h i s plan t o attempt s e r i o u s poetry ( l i n e s 1- 12). Phoebus, the usual patron of poetry, appears, r i d i - c ules h i s d e c i s i o n and t e l l s P r o p e r t i u s to confine h i m s e l f to h i s customary love poetry ( l i n e s 13-26). He then con- ducts the poet t o the d w e l l i n g of the Muses; the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n ( l i n e s 27-36) i s remarkable: 36 hie erat a f f i x i s u i r i d i s spelunca l a p i l l i s , pendebantque cauis tympana pumicibus, o r g i a Musarum et S i l e n i p a t r i s imago f i c t i l i s et cal a m i , Pan Tegeaee, t u i ; et Veneris dominae uol u c r e s , mea tu r b a , columbae ti n g u n t Gorgoneo punica r o s t r a l a c u ; diuersaeque nouem s o r t i t a e i u r a P u e l l a e exercent teneras i n sua dona manus: haec hederas l e g i t i n t h y r s o s , haec carmina n e r u i s a p t a t , at i l i a manu t e x i t utraque rosam. There are s e v e r a l Bacchic elements present here: f i r s t , tympana are instruments more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r - 12 g i a s t i c c u l t s , such as those of Cybele and Bacchus, than w i t h the more r e s t r a i n e d c u l t o f A p o l l o and the Muses. Next, the basic meaning of the word o r g i a i s n o c t u r n a l 13 r i t e s i n honour of Bacchus. The poet, furthermore, speaks of S i l e n i p a t r i s i m a g o / f i c t i l i s . S i l e n u s , about the middle of the s i x t h century B.C., becomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Dionysus, and accompanies him on h i s adventures along w i t h the r e s t of h i s entourage. He i s o f t e n portrayed as an e x c e s s i v e l y drunk and somewhat lecherous o l d man. In the S a t y r - p l a y s , however, he develops i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t s and becomes the 14 teacher of Dionysus. The f a c t t h a t S i l e n u s i s here c a l l e d pater i n d i c a t e s 12 Cf. 3.17.33 and Ovid, Heroides 4.48, Ars Amatoria 1.538. 13 A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y , e d i t e d by Lewis and Short (Ox- f o r d , 1962), s.v. o r g i a . What P r o p e r t i u s means by o r g i a Musarum i s , however, d i f f i c u l t t o determine. Cf. s i m i l a r p u z z l i n g expressions i n C a t u l l u s 64.259: obscura c a v i s . . . o r g i a c i s t i s ; T i b u l l u s 1.7.48: o c c u l t i s c o n scia c i s t a sac- r i s . Both these expressions appear i n Bacchic s e t t i n g s . C f., however, Georgics 2.476: quarum ( i . e . , Musarum) sacra f e r o . 14 The Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y , e d i t e d by Cary, Denniston, Duff, Nock, Ross, S c u l l a r d (Oxford, 1949), s.v. S a t y r s and S i l e n i . Cf. V i r g i l , Eclogue 6. 37 t h a t the poet has i n mind h i s i d e n t i t y as a respected member of the Bacchic entourage, and as teacher of Dionysus, r a t h e r than as a drunken and lecherous o l d man. P r o p e r t i u s t e l l s us, f i n a l l y , t h a t among the Muses one i s occupied i n g a t h e r i n g i v y f o r the t h y r s u s , the s t a f f of Bacchus. Thus i t becomes s t i l l c l e a r e r t h a t the poet has fused 15 Muses w i t h Maenads; indeed, the d w e l l i n g he d e s c r i b e s resembles a Maenad ncamp n more than i t does the home of the Muses. 3.13.61-62 should be noted i n connection w i t h the s y n t h e s i s between Bacchus and A p o l l o and the Maenads and Muses: c e r t a loquor, sed n u l l a f i d e s ; neque enim I l i a quondam uerax Pergameis Maenas habenda m a l i s . Here the p o i n t of comparison i s p r i m a r i l y one of f r e n z i e d appearance. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , however, Cassandra received her i l l - f a t e d g i f t o f prophecy from A p o l l o ; i t was he who made her uerax. Thus we see again the f u s i o n of Bacchus and A p o l l o : Cassandra, made a seer by A p o l l o , the god of prophecy as w e l l as of poetry, i s compared to the f r e n - z i e d Maenad, d i s c i p l e of Bacchus. We have seen th a t P r o p e r t i u s , t o achieve h i s own purposes, has used the Bacchus-Ariadne-Maenad combination as an exemplum of h i s own p o s i t i o n w i t h Cynthia and the Muses. 15 Note t h a t other ancient authors confuse Muses w i t h Maenads. Cf. Sophocles, Antigone 962; P l u t a r c h , Symposiacs 8, Proem. P r o p e r t i u s , however, fuses the two f o r a very d e f i n i t e a r t i s t i c purpose. 38 That the poet takes the next l o g i c a l s t ep, i.e., i d e n t i f i - c a t i o n of h i m s e l f w i t h the f i g u r e of Bacchus/Apollo, can a l s o be demonstrated. I n the f i r s t f i v e poems of Book 3, P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s h i s credo as a p o e t - l o v e r . This s u i t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t three poems, i s i n many ways an expansion of 2.30b, a kind of synthesis of p o e t i c a l theory w i t h the philosophy of the l o v e r . Here, however, the poet becomes more and more aware o f h i s r o l e not merely as a poet of love but as a w r i t e r of elegy. In 3*1 P r o p e r t i u s i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h h i s iden- t i t y as a poet. He d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s w r i t i n g i n the t r a - d i t i o n of the Alexa n d r i a n e l e g i a c poets, Callimachus and P h i l e t a s . He c o n t r a s t s the f i n e n e s s of elegy (e.g., tenu- a s t i s i n l i n e 5, exactus t e n u i pumice i n l i n e 8, m o l l i a i n l i n e 19) w i t h the heaviness ( i m p l i e d i n moratur i n l i n e 7 and dura i n l i n e 20) of h e r o i c poetry t h a t deals w i t h m i l i - t a r y a f f a i r s . The image th a t f o l l o w s i n l i n e s 9-12 i s noteworthy: quo me Fama l e u a t t e r r a s u b l i m i s , et a me nata c o r o n a t i s Musa triumphat e q u i s , et mecum i n c u r r u p a r u i uectantur Amores, scriptorumque meas turba secuta r o t a s . Here the poet p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f as g o d - l i k e , and bearing c e r t a i n resemblances t o Bacchus/Apollo, l e a d e r of the t r i - 16 umphal procession of Maenads/Muses. The a me...nata Musa i s perhaps C y n t h i a , whom he has made h i s ten t h Muse (2. 16 Cf. 1.3.9-10 (see p. 25 above) and 4.1.136 39 30b.37). The presence of Amores i n the next l i n e lends weight to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Thus these l i n e s carry- out the s y n t h e s i s put forward i n 2.30b: Bacchus/Propertius leads a band of Maenads/Muses, one of whom i s h i s m i s t r e s s , Ariadne/Cynthia. In the second h a l f of the poem, P r o p e r t i u s d e c l a r e s t h a t , although h i s contemporaries refuse t o grant him r e c o g n i t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a f t e r he has d i e d , he and h i s poetry w i l l become famous. He uses Homer as an example and c i t e s t a l e s t h a t would be unknown but f o r the I l i a d and Odyssey and t h a t , w i t h the passage of time, have brought fame to t h e i r author. So a l s o w i l l he, P r o p e r t i u s , by means of h i s poetry, g a i n i m m o r t a l i t y . In 3.1 then, the poet s t a t e s t h a t he i s a w r i t e r of elegy; he goes on to c l a i m that poetry has the power to b r i n g fame to i t s author, i f not at once, then c e r t a i n l y a f t e r h i s death. 3.2 continues w i t h the idea t h a t poetry i s of use to i t s author, but narrows i t down to the realm of the poet as l o v e r ( c a r m i n i s . . . n o s t r i . . . i n orbem. l i n e 1), i . e . . poetry i s u s e f u l i n winning the favour of a g i r l . P r o p e r t i u s , i n l i n e s 3-8, c i t e s examples of the power of poetry. L i n e s 9-10 r e t u r n t o the n o t i o n t h a t poetry i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l t o him i n the sphere of love: miremur, nobis et Baccho et A p o l l i n e d e x t r o , turba puellarum s i mea uerba c o l i t ? Again P r o p e r t i u s has u n i t e d Bacchus w i t h A p o l l o , the major 40 reason f o r the union being t h a t both gods are i n c o n t r o l of a turba puellarum, Bacchus of the Maenads, A p o l l o of the Muses. The poet has, moreover, i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h these two: as Bacchus/Apollo leads and i s worshipped by the crowd of Maenads/Muses, so he, P r o p e r t i u s the poet, because these gods favour him, i s worshipped by a crowd of g i r l s . I n l i n e s 15-16, at Musae comites et carmina cara l e g e n t i , et defessa c h o r i s C a l l i o p e a meis,-*-' the poet moves d i r e c t l y i n t o the sphere of the god, and, inst e a d of being surrounded merely by a crowd of g i r l s , he i s , l i k e A p o l l o , accompanied by the Muses. Thus, besides adopting the f i g u r e of Bacchus/Apollo, which, because of i t s - r e l a t i o n s h i p to Ariadne and the Maenads/Muses, i s one p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate t o him as a poet of l o v e , P r o p e r t i u s has a l s o i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h i s f i g u r e because i t i s surrounded by a crowd of wor- 18 s h i p p e r s , j u s t as he i s , or at l e a s t would l i k e t o be. In 3*4 and 3»5 P r o p e r t i u s makes use of h i s s y n t h e s i s of Muses and Maenads i n a d i f f e r e n t way. These form a 17 Cf. l i n e 16 to 1.3.5* nec minus a s s i d u i s Edonis f e s s a c h o r e i s . Though here the Maenad/Muse i s wearied by dancing presumably i n s p i r e d by Bacchus, i n 3.2.16 the Muse/Maenad i s not wearied by dancing i n s p i r e d by P r o p e r t i u s . 18 Cf. 3.17.22 where a t h i r d turba puellarum i s connected w i t h Bacchus, the nymphs from Mt. Nysa, who, according to one legend, were h i s nurses and who here become h i s f o l l o w e r s , i . e . , Maenads. 41 p a i r w i t h i n the s u i t e of poems at the beginning of Book 3. 3*4, a propempticon addressed to Augustus Caesar before the P a r t h i a n campaign of 20 B.C., begins: arma deus Caesar d i t e s meditatur ad Indos, et f r e t a gemmiferi f i n d e r e c l a s s e maris. The c o n t r a s t between these two l i n e s and the beginning of 3.5, p a c i s Amor deus e s t , pacem ueneramur amantes, makes c l e a r the point of the two poems: Caesar the god i s concerned w i t h war and booty, but, sin c e Amor i s a god of peace, and the poet i s a f o l l o w e r of Amor, h i s concern i s peace. At 3.5.19-22, a f t e r he has "preached" on the f o o l i s h - ness of war and plu n d e r i n g , P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s : me iuuat i n prima c o l u i s s e Helicona iuuenta Musarumque c h o r i s i m p l i c u i s s e manus: me iuuat et multo mentem u i n c i r e Lyaeo, et caput i n uerna semper habere ro s a . Here again we see the union i n the poet's mind between the Muses and the Maenads: he claims t h a t i t pleases him t o take p a r t i n the dance of the Muses, and that i t a l s o pleases him t o " f e t t e r h i s mind w i t h much Lyaeus." Line 21 i s u s u a l l y taken t o mean: i t pleases me t o become i n t o x i c a t e d , i . e . , wine befuddles one's mind, "puts i t i n chains," and so makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a man t o t h i n k c l e a r l y . However, the e x p r e s s i o n mentem u i n c i r e i s strange; u s u a l l y ( c f . 1.3 and 3.17) wine i s thought of as a r e l e a s e r of t e n s i o n - the opposite of the. idea i n u i n c i r e . Might t h i s l i n e not mean: i t pleases me to have my mind under the c o n t r o l of Bacchus 42 as a god of poetry, j u s t as the Maenads (whose dance I j o i n ) are spellbound by him? Mentem u i n c i r e i m p l i e s a l o s s of the power of reason, and, as happens to the Maenads, an abandonment t o the emotions and passions. P r o p e r t i u s i s perhaps saying here t h a t , whereas the w r i t i n g of h e r o i c epic r e q u i r e s calm r a t i o n a l thought, h i s k i n d of poetry, i . e . . love poetry, i s w r i t t e n more under the i n f l u e n c e of j u s t 19 such passion as overcomes the Maenads. The poet's idea of the kin d of i n f l u e n c e the god Bacchus has over the Maenads i s shown a l s o i n 3.8, i n which P r o p e r t i u s s t a t e s t h a t he p r e f e r s an angry m i s t r e s s because the degree of a woman's v i o l e n c e i s a measure, of her l o v e . Lines 11-18 l i s t examples of behaviour t h a t i n d i c a t e s t r u e passion; l i n e 14 contains a s i m i l e of i n t e r e s t : seu s e q u i t u r medias, Maenas ut i c t a , u i a s . Here the choice of the p a r t i c i p l e i c t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the poet t h i n k s of the Maenad as "smit t e n " by the power of Bacchus, and so spellbound, w i t l e s s . Thus f a r i t has been shown tha t Bacchus i n h i s iden- t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine and as the l o v e r of Ariadne i s a f i g u r e e s p e c i a l l y appropriate t o P r o p e r t i u s the l o v e r . Next we saw how P r o p e r t i u s combines Bacchus w i t h A p o l l o as lea d e r of the Muses i n order to create an appropriate patron f o r him- t s e l f as a poet who combines p o e t i c a l t h e o r i e s w i t h h i s philosophy as a l o v e r ; the r e s u l t i n g synthesis between 19 Cf. 3.24.19-20, where P r o p e r t i u s , f i n a l l y renouncing Cy n t h i a , declares h i m s e l f a d i s c i p l e of Mens Bona. Cf. a l s o Ovid, Amores 1.2.31. 43 Muses and Maenads has been demonstrated. P r o p e r t i u s a l s o i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the f i g u r e of Bacchus/Apollo because these two gods are surrounded by, and e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over, a turba puellarum f as he a l s o does by means of h i s poetry. A f u r t h e r development of t h i s idea i s the comparison t h a t P r o p e r t i u s makes between h i m s e l f and the Maenad: both are i n f l u e n c e d by the power of Bacchus - the Maenad by means of a blow from the t h y r s u s , and he, the p o e t / l o v e r , by means of Bacchus/wine. I t i s thus c l e a r why P r o p e r t i u s , i n Books 1,2 and 3, has adopted Bacchus as h i s patron. I n these books he has f i r s t of a l l d e a l t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h l o v e . He has then developed a f u s i o n between h i s i d e n t i t y as a l o v e r and h i s i d e n t i t y as a poet. In Book 4, P r o p e r t i u s almost completely d i s c a r d s h i s r o l e as a l o v e r . Nevertheless, Bacchus i s r e t a i n e d as h i s patron. The f i g u r e of the god appears, however, i n a d i f f e r - ent l i g h t . At the beginning of Book 4, P r o p e r t i u s declares t h a t he has decided t o w r i t e a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of verse. 4.1.1-54 deal w i t h the legendary h i s t o r y of Rome: i t s r u s t i c begin- n i n g s , i t s e a r l y simple government and r e l i g i o n and, "un- c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , " i t s Trojan o r i g i n s . The legends enumerated i n these l i n e s are confused and o f t e n u n r e l a t e d ; probably the poet means them as a l i s t of t o p i c s t h a t he intends to pursue i n h i s new r o l e as a " s e r i o u s " poet. At the end of the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the poem ( l i n e s 69- 44 70), he sums up h i s i n t e n t i o n s : sacra diesque canam et cognomina p r i s c a locorum: has meus ad metas sudet oportet equus. These l i n e s , together w i t h l i n e 64, i n which the poet r e - f e r s t o h i m s e l f as the Roman Callimachus, i n d i c a t e t h a t P r o p e r t i u s plans t o w r i t e poetry s i m i l a r t o the A e t i a of Callimachus, i . e . , he does not intend to devote h i m s e l f to s e r i o u s e p i c . but w i l l continue t o w r i t e e l e g i a c poetry t h a t w i l l , however, d i f f e r i n subject matter from what he has formerly w r i t t e n ; i n s t e a d of d e a l i n g w i t h l o v e , h i s new poetry w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e "holy r i t e s and days, and the ancient names of p l a c e s . " In the l i g h t of t h i s i n t e n t i o n , the meaning of l i n e s 55-64 becomes c l e a r e r : optima nutricum n o s t r i s lupa M a r t i a rebus, q u a l i a creuerunt moenia l a c t e tuo ! moenia namque p i o coner disponere uersu: e i m i h i , quod nostro est paruus i n ore s o n u s i sed tamen exiguo quodcumque e pectore r i u i f l u x e r i t , hoc p a t r i a e s e r u i e t omne meae. Ennius h i r s u t a cingat sua d i c t a corona: mi f o l i a ex hedera p o r r i g e , Bacche, t u a , ut n o s t r i s tumefacta superbiat Umbria l i b r i s , Umbria Romani p a t r i a C a l l i m a c h i ! Thus P r o p e r t i u s , s t i l l an e l e g i a c poet, c o n t r a s t s h i s " f i n e " poetry t o the "rough" verse of Ennius, a w r i t e r of e p i c . He uses as a metaphorical p o i n t of comparison the k i n d of crown appropriate to each of them: the " p r i c k l y " garland (of l a u r e l or myrtle?) to Ennius, the s o f t , p l i a b l e crown of i v y t o h i m s e l f . Here, then, i t seems t h a t the poet invokes Bacchus p r i m a r i l y because i v y , the k i n d of p l a n t he needs f o r h i s 45 comparison, i s sacred to tha t god. Hertzberg apparently agrees t h a t i t i s the nature of i v y r a t h e r than the god Bacchus w i t h which the poet i s concerned; Hi r s u t a e coronae dum m o l l i u s f o l i u m opponere poeta v u l t , sponte se pra e b u i t hedera, cujus sequax natura v e l i n proverbium a b i i t . Hederam suam Bacchus sequutus e s t . Quern deum - ut poetarum et elegiacorum patronum h i e quoque, quamvis n majora ausurus, j u r e P r o p e r t i u s veneratur. I t i s noteworthy that i n Horos' r e p l y to the poet's d e c l a r a t i o n , i t i s A p o l l o , not Bacchus, who i s c i t e d as the patron of serious poetry (see l i n e s 73 and 133-134). L i n e s 135-136, at t u f i n g e elegos, f a l l a x opus: haec tua c a s t r a I - s c r i b a t ut exemplo cetera turba tuo, together w i t h the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , make i t c l e a r that Pro- p e r t i u s i s to continue to w r i t e elegy t h a t deals w i t h l o v e . I t i s i m p l i e d , then, that A p o l l o , whose sphere of i n f l u e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y s e r i o u s poetry, has forbidden P r o p e r t i u s en- trance to h i s realm, and th a t P r o p e r t i u s must r e t u r n to th a t k i n d of poetry over which a l e s s severe god (Bacchus?) pre- s i d e s . 4.6 i s the t h i r d of P r o p e r t i u s ' a e t i o l o g i c a l poems. I t was probably w r i t t e n i n conjunction w i t h a c e l e b r a t i o n 21 of the l u d i quinquennales e s t a b l i s h e d by Augustus i n 28B.C. 20 G u i l . Hertzberg, Sex. A u r e l i i P r o p e r t i i Elegiarum. v.3 ( H a l l e , 1845), p. 404. 21 K.P. Ha r r i n g t o n , The Roman E l e g i a c Poets (New York, 1914), p. 355: "As the submission of the Sycambri (v. 77) took place i n 16 B.C., i t appears probable that P r o p e r t i u s timed t h i s poem to be a part of the f o u r t h c e l e b r a t i o n o f these games." 46 t o honour A p o l l o , under whose patronage the v i c t o r y at Actium had been won. The poem opens w i t h a formula t r a d i t i o n a l at the be- gin n i n g of a s a c r i f i c e : Sacra f a c i t uates: s i n t ora f a u e n t i a s a c r i s , et cadat ante meos i c t a iuuenca focos. Here the uates i s P r o p e r t i u s h i m s e l f , and the s a c r i f i c e he i s about to o f f e r i s h i s poem. Probably other poets were composing works i n v a r i o u s metres f o r the occasion. I n view of t h i s , l i n e s 3 - 4 , s e r t a P h i l i t e i s c e r t e t Romana corymbis et Cyrenaeas urna m i n i s t r e t aquas, mean t h a t he, w r i t i n g e l e g y , intends t o compete w i t h poets who are w r i t i n g i n metres more commonly used f o r poetry of t h i s k i n d , i . e . . poetry c o n t a i n i n g elements of e p i c : i n - vo c a t i o n ( l i n e s 1 1 - 1 4 ) , h e r o i c subject matter, a speech of the god ( l i n e s 5 5 - 6 8 ) , and d e s c r i p t i o n of a c e l e b r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g poets who s i n g of the great deeds of Augustus ( l i n e s 6 9 - 8 6 ) . L i n e i 10 lends weight t o the idea t h a t P r o p e r t i u s i n - tends t o use the e l e g i a c metre f o r a purpose not usual i n Rome. He i s thus t r a v e l l i n g a nouum i t e r . The poet has thus i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h Callimachus and P h i l e t a s , e l e g i a c poets who have f o r t h e i r i n s i g n i a the i v y wreath of Bacchus. At l i n e 6 9 , having completed h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of how Phoebus won h i s temple, P r o p e r t i u s launches on a d e s c r i p - t i o n of the f e s t i v i t i e s t h a t f o l l o w the sacred ceremonies. 47 A p o l l o sheds h i s r o l e as w a r - l i k e patron of Augustus, and i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h music and poetry: b e l l a s a t i s c e c i n i : citharam iam p o s c i t A p o l l o u i c t o r et ad p l a c i d o s e x u i t arma choros. The banquet then begins, and wine i s served t o a company th a t apparently c o n s i s t s only of poets. P r o p e r t i u s then prays ( l i n e s 75-76), ingenium p o s i t i s i r r i t e t Musa p o e t i s : Bacche, so l e s Phoebo f e r t i l i s esse tuo. H.E. B u t l e r , reading p o t i s i n l i n e 75, t r a n s l a t e s : Let the 22 Muse s t i r poets th a t are now f i r e d w i t h wine. I f , however, p o s i t i s i s r e t a i n e d , l i n e 75 must mean: Let the Muse s t i r poets who have seated themselves (at the banquet), i . e . . who are i n attendance here. With e i t h e r r e a d i n g , the p r i - mary meaning of Bacche i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e i s wine, i n t o x - i c a t i o n , o r , more bro a d l y , the r e v e l r y connected w i t h a d r i n k i n g p a r t y , and Phoebo means simply "the w r i t i n g of poetry." L i n e 76 i s then a k i n d of metaphorical paraphrase of l i n e 75, and the two together mean tha t w i n e / i n t o x i c a t i o n / r e v e l r y a c t s as a spur to the ingenium of the poet. A more s u b t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these l i n e s i s t o be found by a r e t u r n to the beginning of the poem. Could not Bacche be an echo of P h i l i t e i s . . . c o r v m b i s ( l i n e 3), and the l i n e mean: the poets whose badge i s the i v y , and 22 P r o p e r t i u s , t r a n s l a t e d by H.E. B u t l e r (The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , London and Cambridge, Mass., 1962). I disagree w i t h B u t l e r , S e x t i P r o p e r t i . Opera Omnia (London, 1905), p. 370, where he s t a t e s that " p o s i t i s NLF i s meaningless." B u t l e r and Barber, op. c i t . , p. 359, make ' no comment on the reading of the l i n e . 48 whose patron i s Bacchus, i . e . . the e l e g i s t s , are "a b l e " t o produce verse that meets w i t h the requirements of Phoebus, the patron of more se r i o u s poetry. P r o p e r t i u s i s s t a t i n g t h a t he has succeeded i n what he s t a r t e d out t o do, i . e . . produce an e l e g i a c poem i n a s e r i o u s v e i n , p r a i s i n g A p o l l o on the occasion of one of h i s f e s t i v a l s . 4 9 CHAPTER IV BACCHUS IN THE POETRY OF OVID Bacchus' appearance i n the poetry of Ovid i s s i m i l a r t o that i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . Whereas P r o p e r t i u s ex- p l o r e s the legends surrounding the god and emerges w i t h a complex f i g u r e p e c u l i a r l y adapted t o a c e r t a i n r6le i n h i s p o e t i c scheme, both T i b u l l u s and Ovid, although aware of va r i o u s f a c e t s of the god, use these f a c e t s e x c l u s i v e of one another: Bacchus i s at one time simply equal t o wine, at another simply the patron of v i t i c u l t u r e or the l o v e r of Ariadne. The repeated use of these one-sided i d e n t i f i c a - t i o n s of the god make h i s appearances seem t r i t e . I n Ovid's poetry, s i n c e i t s volume i s so much gr e a t e r than t h a t o f the Corpus. these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s become almost f o r m u l a i c : the frequent use of the Maenad as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of f r e n - z i e d madness i s an example. Except f o r P r o p e r t i u s ' unique development of ideas concerning Bacchus, almost a l l the b a s i c concepts i n v o l v i n g the god t h a t are used by the other two poets appear and reappear i n Ovid's verse: Bacchus i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h wine 1 and as such considered both an a l l y and an enemy of Amor; he i s the l o v e r of Ariadne and so the patron of the poet as l o v e r ; he i s the patron of v i t i c u l t u r e ; he i s the l e a d e r 1 I t i s noteworthy, however, t h a t , whereas both T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s d i s c u s s the a b i l i t y of wine to r e l i e v e the pain of an unhappy love a f f a i r (see T i b u l l u s 1.2 and 3.6; Proper- t i u s 3.17), Ovid never does so. Perhaps t h i s i s because he was never so deeply i n v o l v e d as t o be r e a l l y i n j u r e d by a c r u e l m i s t r e s s . 50 of the Maenads; f i n a l l y , he becomes a patron of poetry: the power of h i s thyrsus over the Maenads i s compared t o h i s power over poets, and, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses, he becomes the p e c u l i a r patron o f the poet as l o v e r . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Bacchus* onl y r e a l appearance as patron of poets i s i n Ovid's love poetry. Ovid, perhaps because he i s the l a s t i n the l i n e of L a t i n love e l e g i s t s , s t a t e s many of these ideas e x p l i c i t l y , whereas T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s merely imply them. An ex- ample i s the n o t i o n t h a t , s i n c e Bacchus loved Ariadne, he i s t h e r e f o r e a god who favours l o v e r s . In order t o d i s c o v e r how Ovid understands the f i g u r e of Bacchus, i t w i l l again be necessary t o analyse the appear- ance of the god i n i n d i v i d u a l poems. An e p i t h e t of Bacchus meaning simply "wine" appears i n Amores 2.11. Ovid laments the f a c t t h a t Corinna i s about to leave on a sea voyage. He warns her of the dangers i n - v o l v e d , pretends t h a t she has already gone and, i n l i n e s 37- 56, a n t i c i p a t e s her r e t u r n . Imagining a " r e c e p t i o n " on the shore, he s t a t e s i n l i n e s 49-50, i l l i c adposito n a r r a b i s multa Lyaeo paene s i t ut mediis obruta navis a q u i s . The b a s i c meaning of adposito...Lyaeo i s simply "the wine having been served." The a b l a t i v e a b s o l u t e , however, per- haps contains a c a u s a l sense. I f t h i s i s so, then the n o t i o n that wine r e l a x e s a person and loosens h i s tongue i s a l s o present. The choice of the e p i t h e t Lyaeus [Avaioc. D e l i v e r e r , 51 from Aa5cu) i s then p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . Amores 1.6 i s a p a r a c l a u s i t h y r o n addressed t o Corinna's doorkeeper. I n l i n e s 33-38 the poet t e l l s the j a n i t o r t h a t he should be admitted because he has not come accompanied by s o l d i e r s or under arms; h i s e s c o r t , he e x p l a i n s i n l i n e s 37-33, i s a harmless one: ergo Amor et modicum c i r c a mea tempora uinura mecum est et madidis l a p s a corona comis. The poet has come t o Corinna's door from a d r i n k i n g p a r t y . The a s s o c i a t i o n between wine and love t h a t i s i m p l i e d here i s mentioned again i n l i n e s 59-60: the poet, so f a r unsuc- c e s s f u l i n h i s attempts t o persuade the j a n i t o r to open the door, has j u s t threatened him w i t h v i o l e n c e , and e x p l a i n s t o him t h a t , nox et Amor uinumque n i h i l moderabile suadent: i l i a pudore uacat, L i b e r Amorque metu.2 Here L i b e r i s p r a c t i c a l l y synonymous w i t h uinum i n the pre- vious l i n e . Perhaps the idea of i n t o x i c a t i o n i s added. For Ovid as w e l l as f o r P r o p e r t i u s , then, an a l l i a n c e e x i s t s between Amor and Bacchus/wine. Ovid has, however, broadened the terms of the a l l i a n c e : P r o p e r t i u s t h i n k s o f Bacchus as an a l l y of Amor p r i m a r i l y because i n t o x i c a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e ; Ovid s t a t e s t h a t d e s i r e a s s i s t e d by i n - t o x i c a t i o n makes the poet f e a r l e s s i n o b t a i n i n g the object of t h a t d e s i r e . I n Ars Amatoria Ovid f r e q u e n t l y f i n d s occasion t o deal w i t h the place of the wine god i n the realm o f Amor. In 2 C f . P r o p e r t i u s 1.3.13-16. 52 Book 1, l i n e s 229-230, he s t a t e s t h a t banquets o f f e r oppor- t u n i t i e s t o the l o v e r : besides wine, Love may be found t h e r e . Li n e s 231-236 are a p i c t o r i a l development o f t h i s n o t i o n : saepe i l l i c p o s i t i t e n e r i s adducta l a c e r t i s purpureus Bacchi cornua p r e s s i t Amor, uinaque cum b i b u l a s sparsere C u p i d i n i s a l a s , permanet et capto s t a t g r a u i s i l l e l o c o , i l l e quidem pennas u e l o c i t e r e x c u t i t udas, sed tamen et s p a r g i pectus Amore nocet. Cupid embraces the horns of Bacchus, i . e . , Love and wine are both present at c o n v i v i a ; when wine drenches Cupid's wings, the god of love i s forced t o stand s t i l l , i . e . . under the in f l u e n c e of wine, Love remains present and takes possession of the banqueters; although Cupid q u i c k l y shakes the wine from h i s wings, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n so doing, he " s p r i n k l e s " the guests w i t h h i s "power" and so captures them. Line s 237-246 l i s t other i n f l u e n c e s o f wine over men: uina parant animos faciuntque c a l o r i b u s aptos; cura f u g i t multo d i l u i t u r q u e mero. tunc ueniunt r i s u s , turn pauper cornua sumit, turn d o l o r et curae rugaque f r o n t i s a b i t . tunc a p e r i t mentes aeuo r a r i s s i m a nostro s i m p l i c i t a s , a r t e s e x c u t i e n t e deo. i l l i c saepe animos iuuenum rapuere p u e l l a e , et Venus i n u i n i s i g n i s i n igne f u i t . h i e t u f a l l a c i nimium ne crede lucernae: i u d i c i o formae noxque merumque' nocent. Here Ovid summarizes ideas about wine th a t are found s c a t t e r e d 3 throughout the works o f T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s . By so l i s t i n g them, he makes these seem conventional and almost 3 .For l i n e s 237 and 243-44 c f . P r o p e r t i u s 1.3.13ff.» l i n e s 245-46 c f . P r o p e r t i u s 2.33b.33-34, l i n e s 237-240 c f . P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.4-7, T i b u l l u s 1.7.39-42, 1.2.1-4 and 3.6. 1-8, although here, whereas Ovid i s concerned simply w i t h the r e l e a s e from sorrow and car e s i n g e n e r a l , the other two are seeking r e l e a s e from p a i n caused by l o v e . 53 f o r m u l a i c . Ovid's main p o i n t i s , however, t h a t at banquets one f i n d s wine, which, because i t i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e ( l i n e s 237, 243-44), and r e l e a s e s men from c a r e s (238-240) and from c r a f t i n e s s (241-42), i s an a l l y of Amor. Nev e r t h e l e s s , he warns h i s reader, t h a t under the i n f l u e n c e of wine, he may misjudge feminine beauty. Book 3 of Ars Amatoria i s addressed t o the poet's feminine audience. Here a l s o Bacchus/wine has a part t o pl a y . I n l i n e s 645-646 Ovid e x p l a i n s t h a t Bacchus i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine i s u s e f u l i n d e c e i v i n g husbands: f a l l i t u r et multo c u s t o d i s cura Lyaeo, i l i a u e l Hispano l e c t a s i t uua i u g o i Wine, even i n f e r i o r Spanish wine, befuddles the w i t s of a g i r l ' s bodyguard, and so enables her t o escape h i s custody. In l i n e s 761-762 the poet r e t u r n s t o the theme of Book 1. 231-252: a p t i u s est deceatque magis potare p u e l l a s : cum Veneris puero non male, Bacche, f a c i s . For g i r l s as w e l l as f o r men, then, Bacchus/wine i s an a l l y of Amor. Again, however, as i n 1.245-246, Ovid warns, i n l i n e s 765-766, t h a t wine may a l s o be harmful t o a g i r l who. wishes t o make a good impression upon a pros p e c t i v e l o v e r : turpe iacens m u l i e r multo madefacta Lyaeo: digna est concubitus q u o s l i b e t i l i a p a t i . In the instances discussed above, Ovid has used Bacchus and Lvaeus t o mean simply uinum or merum. As such, the god i s i n v o l v e d i n the realm of Amor, both as a l l y and as enemy. For both T i b u l l u s and P r o p e r t i u s the a s s o c i a t i o n o f 54 Bacchus w i t h Ariadne i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o the connection be- tween Bacchus and Amor. Whether or not t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has the same s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Ovid i s now t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . In Amores 1.7 the poet repents of having s t r u c k Corinna. He s t a t e s t h a t he t o r e at her h a i r , and that even so dishe - v e l l e d she was b e a u t i f u l . He then compares her to three f i g u r e s of mythology, the second of whom i s Ariadne ( l i n e s 15-16): t a l i s p e r i u r i promissaque uelaque Thesei f l e u i t p r a e c i p i t e s Cressa t u l i s s e Notos. The comparison i s based p r i m a r i l y on the f a c t t h a t both Ariadne and Corinna, although they appear t e a r f u l and d i - s h e v e l l e d , are nevertheless appealing. A l s o , however, Ovid m i s t r e a t i n g Corinna i s i m p l i c i t l y compared to the c r u e l Theseus. Ariadne, then, i s here a example both of beauty and of an abandoned woman. The goddess appears s i m i l a r l y i n Ars Amatoria 3«35-36, where Ovid e x p l a i n s t h a t , although men are d e c e i t f u l , women are not; Ariadne again serves as an example: quantum i n t e , Theseu, uolucres Ariadna marinas p a u i t i n ignoto s o l a r e l i c t a l o c o . The most d e t a i l e d p o r t r a y a l of t h i s Ariadne, i . e . . a d i s - t r a u g h t , almost w i l d l o o k i n g g i r l , c r u e l l y deserted and f r a n - t i c a l l y lamenting her l o s s , appears i n Heroides 10, Ariadne t o Theseus. Another v e r s i o n of Ariadne, however, a l s o appears i n the poetry of Ovid. Heroides 6 i s addressed by Hypsipyle to Jason. I n l i n e s 113-116, she pleads her cause by c i t i n g her d i s t i n g u i s h e d 55 ancestry: s i te n o b i l i t a s generosaque nomina tangunt - en, ego Minoo nata Thoante feror I Bacchus avus; Bacchi coniunx redimita corona praeradiat s t e l l i s signa minora sui s . Hypsipyle has mentioned her grandmother, Ariadne, the Bacchi coniunx ? i n order to contrast the s i t u a t i o n of the goddess with her own. Whereas she, Hypsipyle, has been deceived and abandoned by Jason, Ariadne was loved and rewarded with immortality by Bacchus. In Heroides 18, Leander to Hero, Ariadne appears i n a s i m i l a r l i g h t . Leander claims, i n l i n e s 147-160, that he needs no guidance from the stars to f i n d his way to Hero: his love w i l l keep him on course. Lines 151-154 l i s t three constellations that he discards as navigational aids: Andromedan a l i u s spectet ciaramque Coronam quaeque micat gelido Parrhasis Ursa polo; at mihi, quod Perseus et cum love Liber amarunt, indicium dubiae non placet esse viae. Because Bacchus loved Ariadne, he made a con s t e l l a t i o n of 4 her crown. Likewise, i n Heroides 15.23-26, Sappho to Phaon, the poetess notes that Bacchus loved Ariadne, even though she was unfamiliar with l y r i c poetry: sume fidem et pharetram-fies manifestus Apollo, accedant c a p i t i cornua-Bacchus e r i s : et Phoebus Daphnen, et Gnosida Bacchus amavit, nec norat l y r i c o s i l i a v e l i l i a modos. Thus f o r Ovid, Ariadne, besides being an example of beauty and of desertion, because of her rel a t i o n s h i p with Bacchus, 4 Further reference to Ariadne's crown i n t h i s con- nection i s seen at F a s t i 5.345-346 and Metamorphoses 8.176-182. 56 i s also an example of a well-treated and well-loved mistress. These two facets of Ovid's Ariadne are combined i n Ars Amatoria 3.157-158. Here, as i n Amores 1.7.15-16, the example of the goddess i s used p r i m a r i l y to demonstrate that even a careless appearance can be a t t r a c t i v e : talem te Bacchus Sat y r i s clamantibus 'euhoe' s u s t u l i t i n currus, Cnosi r e l i c t a , suos. The f a c t that Ovid sees Ariadne from these two points of view? a), as a distraught, forsaken woman and b) as the w e l l - treated "mistress" of Bacchus, i s further i l l u s t r a t e d i n F a s t i 3.459-516, where the poet explains the o r i g i n of the con s t e l l a t i o n c a l l e d Ariadne's crown: Bacchus, returned from his conquests i n the East, has "taken up" with a captive Indian princess. Ariadne laments that she has again been deceived, and, as before, t e a r f u l l y paces the shore with dishevelled h a i r ( l i n e s 469-470). Bacchus, hearing her com- p l a i n t s , consoles her by granting her immortality, by allowing her to share his name, i . e . , she w i l l now be c a l l e d Libera, 5 and by making a co n s t e l l a t i o n from her crown. A s i m i l a r combination of the two Ariadnes appears, i n detailed fashion, i n Ars Amatoria 1.525-564. The poet begins, i n l i n e s 525-526, by stat i n g e x p l i c i t l y and succinctly what was i m p l i c i t i n T i b u l l u s and Propertius, i . e . . that Bacchus loved Ariadne, and, having f e l t love, therefore favours lovers: 5 I t i s noteworthy that i n t h i s passage Bacchus i s associated with the same kind of love-games dealt with i n the Amores and Ars Amatoria. He i s here hardly a god, but simply a lover faced with a jealous and demanding mistress. 57 ecce, suum uatem L i b e r uocat; h i e quoque amantis adiuuat et flaramae, qua c a l e t i p s e , f a u e t . I n l i n e s 527-536 Ovid p i c t u r e s Ariadne as i n Heroides 10: a g i r l abandoned, d i s h e v e l l e d and f r a n t i c a l l y t e a r f u l . Here, however, the s t o r y progresses. L i n e s 537-564 t e l l of the a r r i v a l of Bacchus i n h i s tiger-drawn car w i t h h i s c o l o u r - f u l entourage of Maenads, Sat y r s and the drunken o l d S i l e n u s . The god embraces Ariadne and t e l l s her she s h a l l be h i s w i f e ; her wedding g i f t s h a l l be the metamorphosis of her crown i n t o a c o n s t e l l a t i o n . At l i n e 565 the poet r e t u r n s t o h i s theme of a d v i s i n g the l o v e r ; Bacchus remains, but i n a d i f f e r e n t r o l e : ergo, u b i c o n t i g e r i n t p o s i t i t i b i munera B a c c h i atque e r i t i n s o c i i femina parte t o r i , Nycteliumque patrem nocturnaque sacra precare ne iubeant c a p i t i uina nocere tuo. From Bacchus, then, the l o v e r of Ariadne, Ovid has turned again t o Bacchus i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine. There f o l l o w s a d i s c u s s i o n of the ways i n which wine may be u s e f u l or harmful t o the l o v e r ' s campaign. The poet has thus s t a t e d c l e a r l y what T i b u l l u s and Pr o p e r t i u s merely imply: t h a t Bacchus has a place i n the realm of Amor a) because he loved Ariadne and b) because of h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine. Ovid makes use of the "adventures" of the H e l l e n i c Dionysus i n a l l h i s poetry. S i n c e , however, the main concern of t h i s study i s l o v e - e l e g y , h i s treatment of these legends i n h i s other poetry i s not of primary importance here. Par- t i c u l a r l y i n F a s t i and Metamorphoses, when the poet i s merely 58 t e l l i n g a s t o r y f o r i t s own sake, there i s no need to search f o r depths of meaning i n h i s treatment of Bacchus. Neverthe- l e s s , i t w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e t o consider the way i n which Ovid handles these legends, i n order t o d i s c o v e r the c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s of the f i g u r e t h a t emerges. I t may then be e a s i e r t o understand how and why, i n Ovid's l o v e - e l e g i e s , Bacchus be- comes a patron of poetry. In Amores 1 . 2 Ovid s t a t e s t h a t he has f a l l e n i n l o v e : he i s a v i c t i m of Cupid. He describes a t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n , l e d by the god of love ( l i n e s 2 3 - 4 8 ) , i n which he, Cupid's pr i s o n e r - o f - w a r , takes p a r t . As the procession moves along, Cupid wounds s p e c t a t o r s w i t h h i s arrows and so overcomes them w i t h l o v e . T h i s p i c t u r e b r i n g s t o the poet's mind the t r i ^ umphant procession of Bacchus i n t o I n d i a ( l i n e s 4 7 - 4 8 ) : t a l i s e r a t domita Bacchus Gangetide t e r r a : t u g r a u i s a l i t i b u s , t i g r i b u s i l l e f u i t . Another comparison i n v o l v i n g Bacchus' triumph over I n d i a appears at Ars Amatoria 1.189-190. Here Ovid has been e x p l a i n i n g t h a t p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e s , such as Augustus' s t a g i n g of the b a t t l e of Salamis i n 2.B.C., are appropriate places f o r m i s t r e s s - h u n t i n g . He i s then reminded t h a t Augustus i s about to launch a campaign against the P a r t h i a n s , l e d by the youth- f u l Gaius Caesar. The combination o f youth and conquest „, b r i n g s t o mind f i r s t the i n f a n t Hercules crushing the snakes, and then the young Bacchus triumphing over I n d i a : nunc quoque q u i puer es, quantus turn, Bacche, f u i s t i cum t i m u i t thyrsos I n d i a u i c t a tuos? 59 S i m i l a r l y , i n F a s t i 3.713-790, where Ovid deals with a f e s t i v a l of Bacchus, i t i s t h i s f o r c e f u l , conquering side of the god's personality to which the reader i s f i r s t i n t r o - duced. Lines 715-718 describe his f i e r y , unnatural b i r t h , l i n e s 719-724 allude to his triumphs i n the East and to the legends of Pentheus, Lycurgus and the pirates who were turned into dolphins. In explaining that Bacchus was the f i r s t to off e r s a c r i f i c e to Ju p i t e r , the poet again has occasion ( l i n e s 729-732) to mention his conquest of India. The de- r i v a t i o n of libamina and l i b a from Liber and t h e i r connection with s a c r i f i c e s are then discussed; the amusing story of the discovery of honey follows. Here Bacchus appears f i r s t as a d u t i f u l subject of Jup i t e r , i n that he i n i t i a t e s s a c r i f i c e to him, and, secondly, as a kindly sort of father f i g u r e , when he laughingly shows Silenus how to treat his bee-stings (759-760). Lines 771-790 attempt to explain why the toga l i b e r a i s given to boys on the occasion of the L i b e r a l i a . , Bacchus appears here f i r s t as an example of eternal youth ( l i n e s 773- 775), then, again, as a father who nat u r a l l y protects sons ( l i n e s 775-776), then i n association with l i b e r t a s ( l i n e s 777- 778) and f i n a l l y , i n l i n e s 7^9-790, again addressed as pater as a kindly figure who favours the poet. In Metamorphoses. more than i n F a s t i , i n which Bacchic episodes are used to explain various natural or r e l i g i o u s 6 For the kindness of Bacchus c f . Metamorphoses 7. 359-360, 9.132-135 (here note also his paternity) and 7. 294-296. / 60 phenomena, Ovid n a r r a t e s these adventures per se and i n much greater d e t a i l . I n Book 3, l i n e s 261-315, the poet t e l l s of Juno's wrath because o f Semele's pregnancy, the revenge she obtains by c o n t r i v i n g her d e s t r u c t i o n , the encasement of the unborn c h i l d i n the t h i g h of Jove and Bacchus' i n f a n c y , f i r s t under the p r o t e c t i o n of Ino, then under t h a t of the nymphs of Nysa. In the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s (316-510) Ovid moves through a succession of t a l e s , each l i n k e d w i t h the other; the whole s e c t i o n d i s p l a y s a k i n d of r i n g composition by means of which the poet r e t u r n s t o a Bacchic adventure i n l i n e 511. A f t e r the s a f e t y of the i n f a n t Bacchus i s assured, Jove re l a x e s and enters i n t o a good-humoured argument w i t h Juno ( l i n e s 316-322). The prophet T i r e s i a s i s asked t o a r b i t r a t e the d i s p u t e , and there f o l l o w s the s t o r y of how he obtained h i s g i f t o f prophecy ( l i n e s 322-338). T i r e s i a s ' f o r e t e l l i n g of the f a t e of Narcis s u s i s then mentioned, and the poet goes on t o n a r r a t e i n d e t a i l the s t o r y of N a r c i s s u s ( l i n e s 339-510): the love t h a t the nymph Echo had f o r him, h i s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h h i s own r e f l e c t i o n , and f i n a l l y h i s death and Echo's p i t y and lamentation f o r him. At l i n e 511 the reader i s reminded t h a t the preceding t a l e was prompted by mention of T i r e s i a s ' pro- phecy; from here the poet moves t o another of the seer's warnings: the one given t o Pentheus. I n t h i s way Ovid re t u r n s t o Bacchus» The s e c t i o n might be diagrammed i n t h i s way: 61 1. Bacchus' b i r t h (he i s the c h i l d of Semele) ( l i n e s 261-315). 2. Argument between Jove and Juno ( l i n e s 316-322). 3. T i r e s i a s ' g i f t o f prophecy ( l i n e s 322-338). 4. Narcissus/Echo ( l i n e s 339-401)* 5. N a r c i s s u s ' i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h h i m s e l f ( l i n e s 402-501). 6. N a r c i s s u s ' death and Echo's sorrow ( l i n e s 502-510). 7. T i r e s i a s ( l i n e s 511-512). 8. Pentheus ( l i n e s 513-527). 9. Bacchus ( p r o l e s Semeleia. L i b e r ) ( l i n e s 528-end) The s t o r y of Pentheus, together w i t h the "enclosed" episode of Bacchus changing the p i r a t e s i n t o d o l p h i n s , d i s - plays two seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the god. F i r s t , Pentheus, l e a r n i n g of the a r r i v a l of Bacchus and h i s throng, c h a r a c t e r i z e s the god as no i s y but f r a u d u l e n t , effeminate, s o f t and y o u t h f u l ; he c o n t r a s t s these t r a i t s w i t h the customary down-to-earth m i l i t a r i s m , courage, pat- r i o t i s m , adventurous s p i r i t , experience and general m a n l i - ness of the Theban populace ( l i n e s 531-563). He then sends h i s servants t o b r i n g Bacchus t o him. They r e t u r n w i t h a votary of the god, Acoetes, who t e l l s how he became devoted to the new c u l t ( l i n e s 582-691): on h i s way t o Delos he was dr i v e n o f f course and landed on the i s l a n d of Chios. There one of h i s crew discovered a youth whom Acoetes b e l i e v e d t o be more than m o r t a l . The crew sco f f e d at t h i s i d e a , and, when the boy asked t o be taken t o Naxos, deceived him by pretending t o make f o r t h a t i s l a n d , but r e a l l y s a i l i n g i n another d i r e c t i o n . When Bacchus discovered the deception, 62 he d i s p l a y e d h i s t r u e nature: the ship was made t o stand s t i l l , i v y appeared on the o a r s , the decks and the s a i l s , and the god assumed h i s customary i n s i g n i a - the garland of i v y , the thyrsus and h i s f e l i n e companions. The s a i l o r s were changed t o d o l p h i n s , w i t h the exception of Acoetes, who had remained l o y a l t o Bacchus throughout. In Acoetes' t a l e , Bacchus appears f i r s t almost as Pentheus has p i c t u r e d him i n the preceding speech: y o u t h f u l , effeminate, b e a u t i f u l and weak (note e s p e c i a l l y l i n e s 607- 609). However, when i t becomes obvious t h a t the boy i s i n r e a l i t y a god, h i s powerful and demanding nature comes t o the f o r e . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r f a c e t of Bacchus' nature t h a t domi- nates the r e s t of Book 3« Pentheus imprisons Acoetes, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of t o r t u r i n g him, but the p r i s o n e r escapes mi- r a c u l o u s l y . No longer t r u s t i n g h i s servants, Pentheus then goes to Cithaeron i n search o f the god. He i s there t o r n to pieces by the Maenads, maddened by the power of Bacchus and l e d by Pentheus' mother, Agave. In t h i s whole episode, Ovid has made the reader aware of two aspects of the " p e r s o n a l i t y " of Bacchus. The s t o r y of h i s b i r t h ( l i n e s 261-315) i s one of both v i o l e n c e (Juno's wrath, Semele's d e s t r u c t i o n , Bacchus' second b i r t h from the t h i g h of h i s f a t h e r ) and gentleness ( h i s i n f a n c y w i t h Ino, the care t h a t the nymphs of Nysa bestowed upon him by h i d i n g him i n t h e i r cave and n o u r i s h i n g him w i t h milk). L i k e w i s e , i n the speech of Acoetes, Bacchus appears f i r s t t o be s o f t , 63 y o u t h f u l and e f f e m i n a t e l y weak. However, the end of Acoetes* t a l e and the c r u e l f a t e of Pentheus make c l e a r the super- n a t u r a l power, the demanding nature and the r u t h l e s s n e s s of the god. A s i m i l a r combination of t r a i t s appears i n Ovid's treatment of the god i n Book 4 o f Metamorphoses. Here too there appears a k i n d of r i n g composition, although l e s s complex than t h a t noted i n Book 3" 1. A p r i e s t announces t h a t everyone i s t o cease work i n order to c e l e b r a t e a f e s t i v a l of Bacchus. The daughters of Minyas refuse ( l i n e s 1-10). 2. L i s t of Bacchus' e p i t h e t s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and accomplishments ( l i n e s 11-32). 3. The daughters of Minyas amuse themselves as they weave by t e l l i n g s t o r i e s ( l i n e s 32-388): i . Pyramus and Thisbe ( l i n e s 55-166). i i . The Sun and Leucothoe ( l i n e s 167-270). i i i . Cupid and Salmacis* ( l i n e s 271-388). 4. A l c i t h o e and her s i s t e r s continue t o weave ( l i n e s 389-390). 5. Bacchic m i r a c l e : because they w i l l not submit to him, Bacchus changes the s i s t e r s i n t o bats. The d i v i n i t y of the god i s then acknowledgedthroughout Thebes ( l i n e s 391-418). In l i n e s 18-30, a l i s t o f the god's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and accomplishments, indeed almost a prayer, both f a c e t s of the god's p e r s o n a l i t y are mentioned: he i s d e c e p t i v e l y young and weak, but, i n r e a l i t y , powerful and r u t h l e s s l y 7 c r u e l t o those who refuse t o submit t o him: t u puer aeternus, t u formosissimus a l t o c o n s p i c e r i s caelo; t i b i , cum sine cornibus adstas, 7 Cf. Metamorphoses 4.604-614 64 virgineum caput e s t ; o r i e n s t i b i v i c t u s , adusque decolor extremo qua t i n g u i t u r I n d i a Gange. Penthea t u , venerande, bipenniferumque Lycurgum s a c r i l e g o s mactas Tyrrhenaque raittis i n aequor corpora, t u biiugum p i c t i s i n s i g n i a f r e n i s c o l l a premis lyncum. bacchae s a t y r i q u e sequuntur, quique senex f e r u l a t i t u b a n t i s e b r i u s a r t u s s u s t i n e t et pando non f o r t i t e r haeret a s e l l o . quacumque i n g r e d e r i s , clamor i u v e n a l i s et una femineae voces inpulsaque tympana palmis concavaque aera sonant longoque foramine buxus. As at the end of Book 3, i t i s the l a t t e r side of the god's c h a r a c t e r t h a t comes to the f o r e i n l i n e s 391-418, where he changes the s i s t e r s to bats and so commands the respect of a l l Thebes. At the beginning of Book 11 Bacchus appears i n a d i f - f e r e n t l i g h t . L i n e s 1-66 t e l l how the Maenads c r u e l l y mur- dered Orpheus. The savagery and r u t h l e s s n e s s of these f o l l o w e r s o f Bacchus, presumably maddened by him, at f i r s t seems a r e f l e c t i o n upon the ch a r a c t e r of the god. I t has been shown, a f t e r a l l , t h a t Ovid's Bacchus i s a god unmerci- f u l towards those who refu s e t o submit t o him. However, i n l i n e s 67-70 i t becomes c l e a r t h a t Bacchus had no p a r t i n the s l a y i n g o f Orpheus, t h a t Orpheus indeed was h i m s e l f a f o l l o w e r of the god: non inpune tamen scelus hoc s i n i t esse Lyaeus, amissoque dolens sacrorum vate suorum p r o t i n u s i n s i l v i s matres Edonidas omnes, quae vi d e r e nefas, t o r t a r a d i c e l i g a v i t . The f a c t t h a t Orpheus i s here r e f e r r e d to as sacrorum vate suorum. i . e . . poet/prophet of the sacred r i t e s of Bacchus, and i n l i n e s 92-93 as he who taught the r i t e s of Bacchus to Midas, i n d i c a t e s some l i n k i n the poet's mind between 65 Bacchic legend and the myth of Orpheus th a t i n v o l v e s the o r i g i n s of music and poetry. The almost human s e n s i t i v i t y combined w i t h d i v i n e j u s t i c e t h a t Bacchus d i s p l a y s i n g r i e v i n g over Orpheus and punishing h i s s l a y e r s are f u r t h e r shown i n the f o l l o w i n g episodes: i n l i n e s 100-101 he r e j o i c e s t h a t S i l e n u s , h i s f o s t e r - f a t h e r , has been returned to him and rewards Midas w i t h a d i v i n e g i f t . I n l i n e 105 he again g r i e v e s t h a t Midas has asked f o r such a f o o l i s h g i f t and, i n l i n e s 135-136, shows kindness and mercy by r e l i e v i n g the k i n g of h i s t e r r i b l e power. The f i g u r e t h a t emerges from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Ovid's use of Bacchic adventures i s one that combines many q u a l i t i e s . Bacchus i s a conquering, triumphant god, super- n a t u r a l l y powerful and r u t h l e s s towards those who remain un- responsive t o t h i s power. H i s y o u t h f u l and effeminate appea- rance i s , however, deceptive. I n a d d i t i o n , the Ovidian Bacchus possesses s e v e r a l very human q u a l i t i e s : he i s j u s t , i k i n d , m e r c i f u l , p a t e r n a l and capable of f e e l i n g both j o y and g r i e f . C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the god's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h wine and w i t h h i s adventures as the Greek Dionysus, the i n - ventor and propagator o f v i t i c u l t u r e , i s h i s appearance i n the poetry of Ovid as simply an a g r i c u l t u r a l god, a p r o t e c t o r of the v i n e . I n t h i s connection, the Ovidian Bacchus bears many resemblances t o the f i g u r e so o f t e n seen i n the works of T i b u l l u s ( c f . 1.9.33-34, 2.1.3-4, 2.3.63-64). 66 In Amores 3.2.43-57 Ovid describes a procession i n which f i g u r e s of the gods are c a r r i e d around the course immediately before a race. Bacchus appears i n t h i s procession ( l i n e 53) i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Ceres, the goddess who pro- t e c t s g r a i n crops: r u r i c o l a e C e r e r i teneroque a d s u r g i t e Baccho«r S i m i l a r l y , i n Ars Amatoria 3.101-102 the poet, a d v i s i n g h i s feminine readers t o care f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance, c i t e s as a p a r a l l e l w e l l - c a r e d - f o r v i n e y a r d s , which L i b e r w i l l favour w i t h good v i n t a g e , and w e l l - c u l t i v a t e d s o i l , which w i l l bear high-standing crops: o r d i o r a c u l t u : c u l t i s bene L i b e r ab uuis p r o u e n i t , et c u l t o s t a t seges a l t a s o l o . Bacchus appears, again i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Ceres, as patron o f v i t i c u l t u r e i n F a s t i 1.353-360. Ovid, d e a l i n g w i t h the o r i g i n s o f animal s a c r i f i c e , has j u s t explained t h a t the sow i s s a c r i f i c e d t o Ceres because t h a t animal rooted up her newly planted g r a i n ; l i k e w i s e , the goat i s slaughtered 8 i n honour o f Bacchus because he n i b b l e d at the vi n e : sus dederat poenas: exemplo t e r r i t u s huius palmite debueras a b s t i n u i s s e , caper, quem spectans a l i q u i s dentes i n v i t e prementem t a l i a non t a c i t o d i c t a dolore d e d i t : "rode, caper, vitem ! tamen h i n c , cum s t a b i s ad aram i n tua quod s p a r g i cornua p o s s i t , e r i t . " verba f i d e s s e q u i t u r r noxae t i b i deditus h o s t i s s p a r g i t u r adfuso cornua, Bacche, mero. The a s s o c i a t i o n of Bacchus w i t h wine i s im p l i e d i n the episode i n v o l v i n g P r i a p u s , the nymph L o t i s , and the ass 8 For t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n between Bacchus and Ceres i n Metamorphoses see 8.274 and 13.639. 67 of S i l e n u s , described i n F a s t i 1.391-440. The occasion of the i n c i d e n t i s f e s t a c o r y m b i f e r i . . . B a c c h i ( l i n e 393) and at l i n e 403 the god i s s a i d t o have provided wine f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n : v i n a dabat L i b e r , t u l e r a t s i b i quisque coronam. A s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i s mentioned at F a s t i 3*407-414, where Ovid d e s c r i b e s the o r i g i n of the c o n s t e l l a t i o n V i n - demitor: at non e f f u g i e t Vindemitor: hoc quoque causam unde t r a h a t s i d u s , parva docere mora e s t . Arapelon intonsura s a t y r o nymphaque creatum f e r t u r i n I s m a r i i s Bacchus amasse i u g i s : t r a d i d i t huic vitem pendentem e frondibus u l m i , quae nunc de p u e r i nomine nomen habe't. dum l e g i t i n ramo p i c t a s temerarius uvas d e c i d i t : araissum L i b e r i n a s t r a t u l i t . L i k e w i s e , at F a s t i 3.765-766, where Ovid e x p l a i n s why i t i s t h a t an o l d woman makes the honey-cakes s a c r i f i c e d to Bacchus on the occasion o f the L i b e r a l i a , the reason he 9 gives i n v o l v e s the god's connection w i t h wine: cur anus hoc f a c i a t , quaeris? v i n o s i o r aetas haec est et gravidae munera v i t i s amat. So, then, i n a l l these instances Bacchus appears as a patron god of v i t i c u l t u r e , not, as before (see above pages 49-53), i d e n t i f i e d w i t h wine, but now invoked as i n - ventor, propagator and p r o t e c t o r of the v i n e and so of wine-making and wine i t s e l f . For P r o p e r t i u s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Bacchus and the Maenads proved to be an important one w i t h regard t o t h a t poet's adoption of Bacchus as h i s patron. In the 9 Cf. Metamorphoses 11.125 68 poetry of Ovid the treatment of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not ne a r l y so complex, but i t i s nevertheless s i g n i f i c a n t . F i r s t of a l l , Ovid makes use of the Maenad alone, simply on the b a s i s of appearance, to serve as an example 10 o f a woman d i s h e v e l l e d yet l o v e l y . I n both cases a com- p a r i s o n i s made p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of l o o s e , streaming h a i r . Amores 1.9 explores the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the l i f e o f the l o v e r and th a t of the s o l d i e r . I n l i n e s 33-40 the poet c i t e s examples of legendary m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s who have been i n f l u e n c e d by lo v e ; l i n e s 37-38 t e l l o f Cassandra and Aga- memnon: summa ducum, A t r i d e s u i s a Priameide f e r t u r Maenadis e f f u s i s o b s t i p u i s s e c o m i s . ^ l The Maenad appears s i m i l a r l y i n Amores 1.14.21-22, where Ovid chides Corinna f o r so t r e a t i n g her h a i r t h a t i t t has f a l l e n out. He r e c a l l s t h a t , although her h a i r was of no d e f i n i t e c o l o u r , yet i t was f i n e and very l o n g , easy to dress and a t t r a c t i v e when l o o s e . This l a s t brings t o mind the p i c t u r e of the weary Maenad: turn quoque er a t n e c l e c t a decens, ut Thra c i a Bacche, cum temere i n u i r i d i gramine l a s s a i a c e t . The loose h a i r of the Maenad, which provides the b a s i s f o r comparison i n these two s i m i l e s , i s mentioned as the only a t t r i b u t e of the Bacchanals i n Ars Amatoria 1.541, where Ovid describes the a r r i v a l of Bacchus and h i s troop on 10 Cf. h i s use of Ariadne f o r the same purpose (see pp. 53-54 above). 11 Cf. P r o p e r t i u s 3.13.61-62. 69 12 Naxos: ecce, Mimallonid.es s p a r s i s i n terga c a p i l l i s . Ovid's most frequent use of the f i g u r e of the Maenad, however, i n v o l v e s the f a c t t h a t she has been smitten by the power of Bacchus and so maddened and for c e d t o rush about f r e n z i e d . I n each of the f o l l o w i n g instances the Maenad appears i n a s i m i l e ; the frequent use of the p a r t i - c i p l e c o n e i t a and verb forms w i t h s i m i l a r meanings such as actae (Heroides 4.47), e g i t (Heroides 13.34) and i c t a (Ars Amatoria 2.3&0), and the m e t r i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n these l i n e s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r Ovid the Maenad i s merely a type. t o be used almost f o r m u l a i c a l l y , whenever f r e n z y or madness i s mentioned i n connection w i t h a woman: Heroides 4.47-48: nunc f e r o r , ut Bac c h i f u r i i s E l e l e i d e s actae, quaeque sub Idaeo tympana c o l l e movent. Heroides 10.47-48: aut ego d i f f u s i s e r r a v i s o l a c a p i l l i s , q u a l i s ab Ogygio c o n c i t a Ba'ccha deo. Heroides 13.33-34: ut quas pampinea t e t i g i s s e B i c o r n i g e r h a s t a , c r e d i t u r , hue i l l u c , qua f u r o r e g i t , eo. Ars Amatoria 1.311-312: i n nemus et s a l t u s thalamo r e g i n a r e l i c t o f e r t u r , ut Aonio c o n c i t a Baccha deo. Ars Amatoria 2.379-380: i n ferrum flammasque r u i t positoque decore f e r t u r , ut A o n i i cornibus i c t a d e i . 12 Cf. Heroides 10.47-48 70 Ars Amatoria 3.709-710: nec mora, per medias p a s s i s furibunda c a p i l l i s e u o l a t , ut t hyrso c o n c i t a Baccha, u i a s . A l i n e s i m i l a r t o these occurs at F a s t i 3*764 where Ovid e x p l a i n s why i t i s t h a t a woman should knead the cakes s a c r i f i c e d to Bacchus: femineos thyrso c o n c i t a t i l l e choros. Again, note the verb c o n c i t a t . The Maenads, aroused t o an extreme form of t h i s Bacchic f r e n z y , appear i n Metamorphoses 11.1-66. Here they c r u e l l y murder Orpheus and are subsequently punished by Bacchus. The k i n d o f madness t h a t possesses the Maenads i s described i n l i n e s 13-14: sed enim temeraria crescunt b e l l a modusque a b i i t insanaque regnat E r i n y s . Thus f o r Ovid, the Maenad i s , f i r s t of a l l , an example of d i s h e v e l l e d beauty. More important, however, i s t h a t she appears as an archetype of the person made w i t l e s s and f r e n z i e d by the power of a god over her. In Ovid's treatment of the adventures of the H e l l e n i c Dionysus the powerful, triumphant and r u t h l e s s l y demanding nature of the god stands out. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , com- bined w i t h h i s a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e a profound i n f l u e n c e over the minds of h i s f o l l o w e r s , the Maenads, are s i g n i f i c a n t t o the poet's adoption o f t h a t god as a patron of poetry. At the beginning of Book 3 of Amores Ovid describes h i s " i n t e r v i e w " w i t h Roman Tragedy, who urges him t o abandon love-p o e t r y and take up more s e r i o u s work. El e g y , on the 71 other hand, reminds the poet of her usefulness to, him i n the past and i n s i s t s t h a t he owes a l l e g i a n c e to her. Ovid beseeches Tragedy to grant him a short time i n which to continue w i t h love-poetry; a f t e r t h i s he w i l l devote him- s e l f to a grandius...opus ( l i n e s 70). I n l i n e s 23-24 Tragedy s t a t e s , tempus erat t h y r s o pulsum g r a u i o r e moueri; cessatum s a t i s e s t : i n c i p e maius opus. The most obvious meaning of these l i n e s i s t h i s : the t h y r s o . . . grauiore i s the s t a f f belonging t o the H e l l e n i c Dionysus w i t h whom the o r i g i n s of drama are a s s o c i a t e d ; the Muse i s here a d v i s i n g the poet to stop wasting h i s time w i t h l o v e - poetry, t o y i e l d t o the power of the god of drama and to begin w r i t i n g tragedy. However, i n view of Ovid's concept of the power of Bacchus over h i s f o l l o w e r s (a power e x e r c i s e d by means of h i s t h y r s u s ) , an a d d i t i o n a l and simpler meaning becomes c l e a r . The poet i s comparing the v o c a t i o n of the poet v;toW the mad- ness induced by Bacchus i n h i s f o l l o w e r s . As a poet he has ipso f a c t o been smitten by the t h y r s u s , perhaps even by a thyrsus g r a u i s . The comparative of the a d j e c t i v e s i s thus explained: a l l poets are under the power of the Bacchic t h y r s u s , but i n order t o w r i t e a s e r i o u s work, i . e . . a maius opus, i n t h i s case, a tragedy, one must be touched by a thyrsus g r a u i o r . At the end o f Book 3, h i s r e s p i t e ended, Ovid b i d s f a r e w e l l to the poetry of love and announces th a t he i s now 72 determined t o begin w r i t i n g more s e r i o u s l y . L i n e s 17-18 answer 3*1.23-24: c o r n i g e r i n c r e p u i t t h y r s o grauiore Lyaeus: pulsanda est magnis area maior equis. In the f i r s t poem the Muse s t a t e s t h a t the time has come f o r him t o be smitten by a thyrsus g r a u i o r ; here Ovid confesses t h a t he has been touched by such a t h y r s u s , that he has now y i e l d e d to i t s power and must t h e r e f o r e begin a more se r i o u s t a s k . The meaning of thyrso g r a u i o r e i n l i n e 17 i s thus e x a c t l y t h a t o f 3.1.23. There i s perhaps, i n a d d i t i o n , an imp l i e d comparison between t h i s and the aurea...signa of Venus, mentioned i n l i n e 16. I n F a s t i Ovid invokes Bacchus three times, apparently as patron of poetry: 3.713- 714: T e r t i a post Idus l u x est celeberrima Baccho: Bacche, fave v a t i , dum tua f e s t a cano. 3.789-790: mite caput, p a t e r , hue placataque cornua v e r t a s et des ingenio v e l a secunda meo. and 6.483-484: Bacche, racemiferos hedera r e d i m i t e c a p i l l o s , s i domus i l i a tua e s t , d i r i g e v a t i s opus. I n each of these instances the poet prays t o Bacchus before or j u s t a f t e r he has d e a l t w i t h m a t e r i a l concerning t h a t god: 3.714- 715 and 3.789-790 come at the beginning and end of a s e r i e s of Bacchic adventures, the c e n t r a l s t o r y being Bacchus* dis c o v e r y of honey and S i l e n u s * subsequent misadventure; 6.483-484 preface a long e x p l a n a t i o n of the f e a s t and temple 73 of Mater Matuta, whom Ovid i d e n t i f i e s w i t h Ino, s i s t e r of Seraele and foster-mother of the i n f a n t Bacchus. In s e v e r a l other instances i n F a s t i Ovid prays f o r i n s p i r a t i o n t o the god whose s t o r y he i s about t o t e l l or has j u s t t o l d : 1.467-468 (Carmentis); 4.1-18 (Venus); 4. 723-724 and 729-730 ( P a l e s ) ; 4.807-808 ( Q u i r i n u s ) ; 5.377-378 ( F l o r a ) ; 6.249-250 ( V e s t a ) ; 6.652 (Minerva). This f a c t lessens the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i n the three examples above Bacchus i s being invoked as a s p e c i a l patron of poetry. However, there i s d i r e c t evidence elsewhere i n h i s poetry that Ovid does t h i n k of Bacchus as a god who pre- side s over h i s a r t . F i r s t , as does P r o p e r t i u s i n Book 4 ( c f . above pp. 43-48), Ovid considers the i v y wreath as 13 an i n s i g n e belonging t o the poet. This i s c l e a r from F a s t i 5.79-80: tunc s i c , neglectos hedera r e d i m i t a c a p i l l o s , prima s u i c o e p i t C a l l i o p e a c h o r i , - ^ Amores 3.9.61-62: obuius huic uenies hedera i u u e n a l i a c i n c t u s tempora cum Caluo, docte C a t u l l e , tuo, and Ars Amatoria 3.411-412: nunc hederae sine honore i a c e n t operataque d o c t i s cura u i g i l Musis nomen i n e r t i s habet. However, whereas P r o p e r t i u s ( c f . 4.1.61-62 and 4.6.3-4) seems t o t h i n k of i v y as the p a r t i c u l a r badge of the e l e g i a c 13 That he a s s o c i a t e s t h i s p l a n t w i t h Bacchus i s ob- vious from F a s t i 1.393, 3.767-770 and 6.483. 14 The words n e g l e c t o s . . . c a p i l l o s together w i t h the f a c t t h a t the Muse wears the Bacchic i v y are perhaps an echo of the Muse-Maenad combination found i n the poetry o f Pro- p e r t i u s . 74 poet, Ovid considers i t the mark of poets i n general: he speaks of i t i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C a l l i o p e , a Muse whose sphere i s u s u a l l y e p i c poetry, w i t h T i b u l l u s , an e l e g i a c poet, and w i t h Ennius, a w r i t e r of Roman e p i c . More s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t Bacchus appears i n Ovid's poetry i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses. In Heroides 15, Sappho to Phaon, the poetess claims i n her favour the f a c t t h a t she i s s k i l l e d i n her a r t . In l i n e s 23-28 she speaks of Daphne and Ariadne, both l a c k i n g t h i s s k i l l , but nevertheless loved by A p o l l o and Bacchus: sume fidem et pharetram - f i e s manifestus A p o l l o , accedant c a p i t i cornua - Bacchus e r i s : et Phoebus Daphnen, et Gnosida Bacchus amavit, nec norat l y r i c o s i l i a v e l i l i a modos; at m i h i Pegasides blandissima carmina d i c t a n t ; iam c a n i t u r t o t o nomen i n orbe meum. The a s s o c i a t i o n here among A p o l l o , Bacchus and the Muses as patrons of poetry i s a loose one. Nevertheless, Ovid i m p l i e s t h a t a l l three are connected i n some way w i t h lyricos...modos. the blandissima carmina t h a t Sappho wrote. Most important, however i s t h a t Bacchus appears w i t h the two customary patrons of poetry i n a context that i n v o l v e s l o v e : the l o v e of A p o l l o f o r Daphne, of Bacchus f o r Ariadne and, i n the background, the unrequited love of Sappho f o r Phaon. Bacchus appears s i m i l a r l y i n Amores 1.3» Here Ovid pleads h i s case before h i s m i s t r e s s , j u s t as Sappho does before Phaon i n Heroides 15. In l i n e s 5-10 the poet s t a t e s t h a t he l a c k s d i s t i n g u i s h e d ancestry and wealth. However, 75 i n l i n e s 11-12, he claims t h a t he has other q u a l i t i e s : at Phoebus comitesque nouem u i t i s q u e r e p e r t o r hac f a c i u n t et me qu i t i b i donat Amor • • • • Bacchus, the u i t i s . . . r e p e r t o r , again appears w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses i n a s e t t i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s Amor. Both these instances r e c a l l Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m 3.4.-43- 44: " s a l u e , cura deum: casto nam r i t e poetae Phoebusque et Bacchus Pi e r i d e s q u e fauent." Here fauent i s very s i m i l a r i n meaning t o hac f a c i u n t i n Amores 1.3.12: both imply t h a t these gods do not so much i n s p i r e and teach the poet as they " i n c l i n e towards" him as a l o v e r . Thus i n a l l three i n s t a n c e s , Bacchus appears i n asso- c i a t i o n w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses i n a context t h a t i n v o l v e s l o v e . Furthermore, i n each the poet i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f not only as a l o v e r but as a l o v e r who has e i t h e r been wronged or must prove h i m s e l f i n some way to h i s would-be p a r t n e r . In Ars Amatoria 3 Ovid again invokes Bacchus as h i s patron together w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses. I t can be shown tha t the god appears here i n a context s i m i l a r to that de- s c r i b e d above. In l i n e s 329-33$ the poet urges h i s feminine readers t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h poetry i n order t o impress prospective l o v e r s . He l i s t s s u i t a b l e poets and t h e i r works and i n l i n e s 339-346 expresses a wish t h a t he may be included among these: f o r s i t a n et nostrum nomen m i s c e b i t u r i s t i s nec mea L e t h a e i s s c r i p t a dabuntur aquis 76 atque a l i q u i s d i c e t ' n o s t r i lege c u l t a raagistri carmina, quis partes i n s t r u i t i l l e duas, deue t r i b u s l i b r i s , t i t u l o quos s i g n a t AMORUM, e l i g e , quod d o c i l i m o l l i t e r ore l e g a s , u e l t i b i composita cantetur EPISTULA uoce; ignotum hoc a l i i s i l l e nouauit opus.' Ovid thus p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f not only as a poet of l o v e , but a l s o as praeceptor amoris. I n t h i s context, then, he prays t o h i s patrons i n l i n e s 347-348 t o grant h i s wishes: o i t a , Phoebe, u e l i s , i t a uos, p i a numina uatum i n s i g n i s cornu Bacche nouemque deae I The context of t h i s i n v o c a t i o n i s one that i n v o l v e s the poet not simply as l o v e r but as a teacher of l o v e . I n t h i s i n - stance i t i s not the poet who must prove h i m s e l f t o h i s m i s t r e s s , but h i s feminine readers who are being taught how t o please p r o s p e c t i v e l o v e r s . Thus, f o r both "Lygdamus" and Ovid, Bacchus i s p e c u l i a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i n - volve these gods not so much as the sources of p o e t i c i n s - p i r a t i o n and s k i l l but as patrons of the poet as the l o v e r ( o r , f o r Ovid, as the praeceptor amoris) who has e i t h e r been wronged or must prove h i m s e l f to h i s partner ( o r , again f o r Ovid, who i s teaching others how t o prove themselves). The conjecture was put forward ( c f . above p. 20) t h a t f o r "Lygdamus" t h i s Bacchus i s l i n k e d to the f i g u r e that appears i n 3.6.23-26: quales h i s poenas q u a l i s quantusque minetur, Cadmeae m a t r i s praeda cruenta docet. Sed p r o c u l a nobis h i e s i t t i m o r , i l l a q u e , s i qua e s t , quid u a leat l a e s i s e n t i a t i r a d e i . Here Bacchus, who took vengeance upon the unsubmissive Pen- theus, i s asked t o punish the poet's u n f a i t h f u l m i s t r e s s . 77 L a t e r i n the poem, i n l i n e s 37-40, a p a r a l l e l i s i m p l i e d be- tween the s i t u a t i o n of Ariadne and tha t of the poet: quid queror i n f e l i x ? turpes d i s c e d i t e curae: o d i t Lenaeus t r i s t i a uerba p a t e r . Gnosia, Theseae quondam p e r i u r i a l i n g u a e f l e u i s t i ignoto s o l a r e l i c t a mari. Bacchus, then, because he t r a d i t i o n a l l y takes vengeance upon those who refuse t o submit to him and a l s o because he rescued Ariadne, c r u e l l y abandoned by Theseus, i s an appro- p r i a t e patron f o r the poet as a wronged l o v e r : h i s m i s t r e s s refuses t o comply w i t h h i s wishes and has apparently f o r - saken him. In the poetry of Ovid both the vengeful nature o f Bacchus and h i s i d e n t i t y as the l o v e r of Ariadne are s t r e s s e d much more s t r o n g l y than i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m . These, together w i t h other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Ovidian Bacchus, may, as i n the Corpus. be l i n k e d t o tha t f i g u r e t h a t appears w i t h A p o l l o and the Muses as patron of the lover-poet. The f o r c e f u l , conquering nature of the god and h i s a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e the minds of h i s f o l l o w e r s emerged from our i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Ovid's use of Dionysiac adven- tures and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Bacchus w i t h the Maenads. S u r e l y these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are appropriate to a god who favours poets wishing to impress or prove themselves to pros p e c t i v e l o v e r s ? I n a d d i t i o n , the god's j u s t i c e , k i n d - ness, mercy, pat e r n a l i s m and s e n s i t i v i t y , which emerged i i from the same i n v e s t i g a t i o n , are f i t t i n g t r a i t s f o r a patron of wronged l o v e r s . 7« I t i s necessary, before concluding t h i s chapter, to consider b r i e f l y a poem completely outside the sphere of lov e - e l e g y , but nevertheless important w i t h regard to Ovid's conception of Bacchus. T r i s t i a 5.3 i s addressed to Bacchus on the occasion of the L i b e r a l i a . Ovid r e c a l l s that on t h i s day poets cus- t o m a r i l y meet to p r a i s e Bacchus; he laments t h a t he i s no longer among them ( l i n e s 1-8): i l i a d i e s haec e s t , qua te ce l e b r a r e poetae, s i modo non f a l l u n t tempora, Bacche, s o l e n t , festaque o d o r a t i s innectunt tempora s e r t i s , et dicunt laudes ad tua v i n a tuas. i n t e r quos, memini, dum me mea f a t a s inebant, non i n v i s a t i b i pars ego saepe f u i , quem nunc suppositum s t e l l i s Cynosuridos Ursae i u n c t a tenet c r u d i s Sarmatis ora G e t i s . The poet then c o n t r a s t s the ease of h i s former l i f e w ith the hardship of h i s present e x i s t e n c e ; he wonders about the cause of h i s punishment, and, i n l i n e s 15-16, complains t h a t , what- ever the cause, Bacchus should have supported him: t u tamen e s a c r i s hederae c u l t o r i b u s unum numine debueras s u s t i n u i s s e tuo. However, Ovid continues, perhaps what the Fates decree i s outside the power of even the gods. He r e f l e c t s that Bacchus, at f i r s t m o r t a l , earned i m m o r t a l i t y by h i s f a r - f l u n g con- quests, and tha t t h i s l o t was ordained f o r him by the Parcae at h i s b i r t h . A comparison f o l l o w s between the hardship that Bacchus endured and what the poet i s now enduring. L i n e s 31-34 r e i t e r a t e the complaint t h a t the god has f a i l e d to provide a s s i s t a n c e : ut tamen a u d i s t i percussum fulmine vatem, admonitu m a t r i s condoluisse potes, 79 et potes a s p i c i e n s circum tua sacra poetas "n e s c i o q u i s n o s t r i " d i c e r e " c u l t o r abest." The poem continues w i t h a prayer f o r a i d , a l i s t of "bene- d i c t i o n s 1 1 i n v o l v i n g Bacchic adventures and, i n l i n e s 43-44, a f i n a l request f o r a s s i s t a n c e : hue ades et casus r e l e v e s , pulcherrime, n o s t r o s , unum de numero me memor esse tuo. Ovid then pleads w i t h h i s f e l l o w poets to make the same p e t i t i o n and to remember him at t h e i r f e a s t , provided t h a t he has i n j u r e d none of them i n any way. He concludes w i t h two wishes ( l i n e s 57-58): s i c i g i t u r dextro f a c i a t i s A p o l l i n e carmen: quod l i c e t , i n t e r vos nomen habete meum. Adrien B r u h l , using t h i s poem as primary evidence, s t a t e s , " . . . i l a p p a r a i t que de v e r i t a b l e s c o n f r e r i e s d i o - nysiaques ont e x i s t e a Rome parmi l e s poetes de c e t t e epoque. He examines v a r i o u s instances i n which Ovid c i t e s Bacchus 16 "...comme l e dieu qui i n s p i r e l e s poetes:" Ars Amatoria 17 3.347-348, Amores 3.15-17, F a s t i 3.714 and 6.483. He then works through T r i s t i a 5.3 and concludes, from the r e l i g i o u s nature of i t s language, " I I e s t done c l a i r que l e s poetes 18 ont forme un groupement de c u l t o r e s L i b e r i . " B r u h l makes c l e a r i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s chapter t h a t 15 B r u h l , op. c i t . . p. 141. 16 Loc. c i t . 17 In connection w i t h these l a s t two c i t a t i o n s c f . above p. 72. 18 Op. c i t . . p. 142. 80 although the poets may have formed such a group, they were not n e c e s s a r i l y i n i t i a t e s of the Bacchic c u l t . He s t a t e s : P l u s i e u r s d'entre eux voyaient en Bacchus l e di e u q u i l e s i n s p i r a i t avec A p o l l o n et l e s Muses et rendaient hommage a sa puissance. l i s se r e u n i s s a i e n t pour chanter sa g l o i r e en v i d a n t des coupes l e j o u r des L i b e r a l i a , a i n s i qu'en temoigne Ovide. En ce sens, l e s poetes sont bien des c u l t o r e s L i b e r i . des f i d e l e s du d i e u au t h y r s e , l e u r p r o t e c t e u r , mais i l ne f a u d r a i t pas l e s prendre pour de v e r i t a b l e s i n i t i o s . ' Even though Ovid twice r e f e r s to h i m s e l f as a c u l t o r of Bacchus ( l i n e s 15 and 34) and once simply as unum de numero...tuo ( l i n e 44), i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n f e r from these l i n e s , as B r u h l seems to do, that the poets have un i t e d i n order t o worship the god as the source of t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n , or as the patron of t h e i r a r t i n any way. The L i b e r a l i a seem o r i g i n a l l y t o have been a f e s t i v a l devoted t o an I t a l i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l d e i t y and may, even at t h i s time, have d i s - played few c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the worship of the H e l l e n i c Dionysus other than those connected w i t h h i s i d e n t i t y as a god of v i t i c u l t u r e . Indeed, i n Ovid's own d e s c r i p t i o n of the L i b e r a l i a . i n F a s t i 3*713-791, the poet begins by " d e c l i n i n g t o t e l l o f " e x p l o i t s o f the H e l l e n i c d e i t y i n t order t o e x p l a i n the p e c u l i a r customs belonging t o the Roman f e s t i v a l . Perhaps the poets, along w i t h many other "worshippers," were a t t r a c t e d to the f e s t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d because they i n c l u d e d , as Ovid i m p l i e s i n l i n e s 3-4 of T r i s t i a 5*3 , 19 On. c i t . , p. 144. 20 Cf. W.W. Fowler, The Roman F e s t i v a l s (London, 1925), * 54-55 and J.G. F r a z e r , The F a s t i of Ovid, v. 3 (London, 20 pp. 131-133. 81 r e v e l r y and w i n e - d r i n k i n g , p u r s u i t s dear t o such poets; the mere f a c t that they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these may have promp ted Ovid t o r e f e r to h i m s e l f and h i s companions as c u l t o r e s of the god. Whatever the nature of the god i n whose honour the L i b e r a l i a were c e l e b r a t e d , Ovid, i n T r i s t i a 5.3, has i n mind not an I t a l i a n god of v i t i c u l t u r e , but the Greek Dionysus. I n a d d i t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t f o r Ovid there i s some connec- t i o n between h i m s e l f 'as a poet and t h i s god, he addresses Bacchus here because a) he i s w r i t i n g on the date of the L i b e r a l i a , a f e s t i v a l t h a t he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the Greek 21 Dionysus, and b) Bacchus i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y powerful god 22 whose i n t e r c e s s i o n he desperately needs. These l a s t two motives are perhaps the stronger ones, and Ovid i s exag- g e r a t i n g the l i n k between Bacchus and poet i n order t o make h i s p l e a even more compelling. The t h e s i s t h a t Ovid i s not addressing Bacchus here as a s p e c i a l patron of p o e t i c a r t i s strengthened by l i n e s 9-10, 21 Cf. Ovid's i n v o c a t i o n of gods whose f e a s t days he i s d e a l i n g w i t h i n F a s t i . See above p. 73« 22 Cf. above p. 65 f o r Ovid's conception of the power of Bacchus and note the use of adventures here that i n v o l v e f o r c e and power, e.g.. conquests i n the East ( l i n e s 21-24) and the legends of Lycurgus ( l i n e 39) and Pentheus ( l i n e 40). Cf. a l s o Ovid's n o t i o n t h a t Bacchus i s patron of poets who have been wronged (see above pp. 75-77). In t h i s case he has been wronged not by a d e c e i t f u l m i s t r e s s but by the Emperor Augustus. 82 quique p r i u s mollem vacuamque l a b o r i b u s e g i i n s t u d i i s vitam Pieridumque choro, i n which he a s s o c i a t e s h i s (presumably p o e t i c ) s t u d i e s w i t h the Muses, and l i n e 57, s i c i g i t u r dextro f a c i a t i s A p o l l i n e carmen, where he prays t h a t h i s f e l l o w poets may compose under A p o l l o ' s favour. M. B r u h l i s perhaps c o r r e c t i n p o s t u l a t i n g the existence of a k i n d o f Bacchic f r a t e r n i t y among the poets at Rome. However, -I deny t h a t , on the evidence of T r i s t i a 5.3, we can s t a t e that the purpose of t h i s f r a t e r n i t y was t o worship ,f l e di e u du v i n couronne de l i e r r e dont i l s recevaient 23 1* i n s p i r a t i o n . " 23 B r u h l , op. c i t . , p. 142. I t a l i c s are mine 83 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION We have discovered and analysed the ways i n which Bacchus appears i n the poetry of T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid. Some general conclusions may now be st a t e d both about the L a t i n e l e g i a c poets as a group and about each of the poets i n t h a t group. A l l three poets a s s o c i a t e the f i g u r e of Bacchus w i t h wine, and i t i s i n h i s r o l e as wine-god th a t he most f r e - quently appears. T i b u l l u s a r r i v e s at t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n from h i s b a s i c concept of the god as a patron of v i t i c u l t u r e . Bacchus f o r him i s a r u s t i c and Roman d e i t y who not only p r o t e c t s the vine and the farmer who tends t h a t v i n e , but who a l s o invented v i t i c u l t u r e and taught i t t o mankind. The T i b u l l a n Bacchus i s thus a craftsman, a r o l e assigned to him by n e i t h e r of the other two poets. The f i n a l product of the god's c r a f t i s wine. Once t h i s l i n k i s created, T i b u l l u s ' Bacchus takes on two more r o l e s r a) he becomes the in v e n t o r of music, poetry and the dance, since i t i s under the i n - fluence of wine th a t men f i r s t attempted these and b) through h i s g i f t of wine he r e l e a s e s men from p a i n and d i s t r e s s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , f r e e s the l o v e r from sorrow caused by an unhappy love a f f a i r . In the poetry of P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid we f i n d no such l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n of ideas . Both simply adopt the con- v e n t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Bacchus as the god of wine and 84 make him, as such, assume var i o u s f u n c t i o n s i n the realm of Amor: as i n the poetry of T i b u l l u s , wine has the power t o r e l e a s e men from t h e i r cares. Whereas T i b u l l u s and Pro- p e r t i u s , however, apply t h i s power of r e l e a s e p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h a t kind of pain caused by a c r u e l m i s t r e s s , Ovid never does so. P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid t h i n k of Bacchus/wine as an am- biguous f i g u r e who i s both an a l l y and an enemy t o Amor. He i s an a l l y because i n t o x i c a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s d e s i r e and ( f o r Ovid) makes the l o v e r f e a r l e s s i n o b t a i n i n g the ob- j e c t of t h a t d e s i r e . Ovid a l s o considers wine u s e f u l i n dec e i v i n g husbands. On the other hand Bacchus opposes Amor because ( f o r P r o p e r t i u s ) wine mars beauty and makes h i s m i s t r e s s i n a t t e n t i v e ; Ovid b e l i e v e s t h a t too much wine i s harmful to Amor because i t d u l l s one's power t o judge beauty. The absence of a l l these ideas from the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f o r these poets the proper s e t t i n g f o r l o v e i s a n a t u r a l and innocent one, free from any a r t i f i c i a l a i d or d e t r a c t i o n . The e l e g i s t s make s e l e c t i v e use of the many legends surrounding the f i g u r e of Bacchus. From the mass of Bacchic myth they a b s t r a c t three m o t i f s t h a t are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g - n i f i c a n t f o r them as poets of l o v e : a) the r e l a t i o n s h i p be- tween Bacchus and Ariadne, b) the conquering, vengeful nature of the god and c) h i s c o n t r o l over h i s female com- panions, the Maenads. A l l three poets, Ovid e x p l i c i t l y , the others i m p l i c i t l y , 85 s t a t e t h a t , because Bacchus rescued and loved Ariadne, he i s t h e r e f o r e sympathetic to the l o v e r , e s p e c i a l l y i f he (the l o v e r ) has been abandoned or hurt i n any way, as Ariadne was by Theseus. In the Corpus and i n the poetry of Ovid the l i n k between Bacchus and Ariadne i s combined w i t h the r o l e of the god as avenger. Thus he becomes a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e patron of the poet as the wronged l o v e r . Whereas i n the Corpus T i b u l l i a n u m Bacchus i s patron of the poet only as l o v e r , f o r P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid Bacchus has a p a r t t o p l a y i n the sphere of poetry per set both compare the r e l a t i o n s h i p between themselves and t h e i r voca- t i o n as poets w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a Maenad and Bacchus. Ovid, perhaps w i t h the Greek Dionysus, patron of drama, i n mind, t h i n k s o f h i m s e l f as smitten w i t h the thyrsus of Bacchus; P r o p e r t i u s goes s l i g h t l y f a r t h e r and i m p l i e s t h a t , whereas the Maenad i s i c t a because of a blow from the t h y r s u s , he i s so because of the i n f l u e n c e of wine. Both P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid s t a t e t h a t i v y , a p l a n t sacred to Bacchus, i s the i n s i g n e of poets; Ovid claims i t as the badge of a l l poets, P r o p e r t i u s as t h a t of only the e l e - giac poet. In Book 4, where i v y i s s e v e r a l times connected w i t h e l e g i a c poets and poetry, P r o p e r t i u s i m p l i e s a d i s - t i n c t i o n between Bacchus as patron of elegy and A p o l l o as patron of more se r i o u s poetry. In the above comparison of the v a r i o u s Bacchic r o l e s as seen i n each of the three poets no mention i s made of 86 P r o p e r t i u s * unique s y n t h e s i s of Bacchus and A p o l l o , Maenad and Muse, Ariadne and C y n t h i a , because, o b v i o u s l y , there i s nothing i n the other two poets w i t h which i t may be com- pared. The complex processes i n v o l v e d i n the s y n t h e s i s and 1 P r o p e r t i u s * motives f o r developing i t defy condensation here. C e r t a i n conclusions w i l l be drawn below, however, from the very e x i s t e n c e of the phenomenon i n h i s poetry. Using the knowledge gained from the a n a l y s i s of the ways i n which each of the three poets employs the f i g u r e of Bacchus, we may now make c e r t a i n observations on t h e i r use of mythology i n g e n e r a l . T i b u l l u s * m y t h o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s are sparse, mainly decorative and very o f t e n based on Roman r a t h e r than Greek myth; the T i b u l l a n Bacchus, f o r example, i s much more Roman than the same f i g u r e i n e i t h e r of the other two poets. The p a u c i t y and nature of the a l l u s i o n s are due not t o an i n - f e r i o r knowledge of mythology but simply t o the very nature of T i b u l l u s * poetry: i t i s l u c i d , develops l o g i c a l l y , and expresses q u i t e simple emotions; the reader i s able to pe- n e t r a t e T i b u l l u s * thought at one glance because he says everything he has to say on the surface of h i s poetry. L i k e w i s e , T i b u l l u s * a l l u s i o n s to myth can be understood w i t h l i t t l e e f f o r t . They " o f f e r no p a r t i c u l a r p u z z l e s . . . l a c k 2 depth, and f a i l t o suggest extensions." The overt development 1 The reader may r e t u r n t o pp. 34-37. 2 J.P. E l d e r , " T i b u l l u s : Tersus atque elegans," J.P. S u l l i v a n , ed., C r i t i c a l Essays on Roman L i t e r a t u r e ; Elegy and L y r i c (London, 1962), pp. 69 and 74. 37 of the f i g u r e of Bacchus from h i s r o l e as a god of v i t i - c u l t u r e t o h i s r o l e i n the spheres of poetry and love i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the c l a r i t y and l o g i c w i t h which T i b u l l u s presents h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s . Thus, because of the nature of h i s poetry, there i s simply no need f o r T i b u l l u s t o d i s p l a y the e r u d i t i o n t h a t we f i n d i n the poetry of P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid. In some r e s p e c t s , Ovid's poetry i n general and h i s use of myth i n p a r t i c u l a r bear c e r t a i n resemblances to those of T i b u l l u s . In comparison t o P r o p e r t i u s , both are f a c i l e r eading; Ovid's w i t and u r b a n i t y , of course, d i f f e r r a d i - c a l l y from T i b u l l u s ' r u s t i c i t y and p l a c i d c l a r i t y . Both, however, use mythology p r i m a r i l y f o r d e c o r a t i o n ; here the s i m p l i c i t y , sparseness and l u c i d i t y of T i b u l l u s ' a l l u s i o n s d i f f e r from the abundance and e r u d i t i o n of Ovid's. Never- t h e l e s s , i n both poets, the k e r n e l of the a l l u s i o n i s usu- a l l y c l o s e to the surface and r a r e l y i n v o l v e s more than a s u p e r f i c i a l understanding of the myth. U n l i k e T i b u l l u s , Ovid makes use of c e r t a i n aspects of the same myth so o f t e n that he develops what are almost formulas. The use of the Maenad as a stock i l l u s t r a t i o n of f r e n z i e d madness i s an example. L i k e Ovid's, P r o p e r t i u s ' m y t h o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s are frequent and ofte n obscure. But whereas Ovid and T i b u l l u s use mythology p r i m a r i l y as a means of d e c o r a t i o n , P r o p e r t i u s employs i t f o r a d i f f e r e n t purpose. In our examination of P r o p e r t i u s ' treatment of Bacchic 88 myth, we noted two phenomena not found i n the works of the other two poets. F i r s t , P r o p e r t i u s ' a l l u s i o n s u s u a l l y operate on v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f o r example, i n 3 1.3.9-10, e b r i a cum multo traherem u e s t i g i a Baccho, et quaterent sera nocte facem p u e r i , although at f i r s t glance Baccho i n l i n e 9 seems to mean only "wine," we discovered that u n d e r l y i n g t h i s dominant idea i s the whole complex of the god's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Ariadne and the Maenads. Second, only P r o p e r t i u s changes and expands the r o l e of the god as h i s poetry changes and expands. These unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P r o p e r t i u s ' use of Bacchic myth are symptoms o f the f a c t t h a t mythology, i n s t e a d of being merely d e c o r a t i v e , i s , f o r him, t r u l y f u n c t i o n a l . A.W. A l l e n , using 1.3 as the b a s i s f o r h i s remarks, e x p l a i n s P r o p e r t i u s ' technique i n t h i s way: In t h i s elegy, the m y t h o l o g i c a l examples have been used t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n t r a s t between two elements i n a s i t u a t i o n - between the tem- porary impulses of the poet and the o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r s which determine h i s conduct. Realism provides terms f o r d e s c r i b i n g what i s temporary, mythology f o r d e s c r i b i n g what i s permanent. In using myth as a symbol of what has more than merely temporary v a l i d i t y , P r o p e r t i u s i s ex- p l o i t i n g the c e n t r a l a r t i s t i c value which myth- ology presented t o the poet w r i t i n g of personal experience. P r o p e r t i u s very f r e q u e n t l y presents an exam- ple as p a r a l l e l to h i s own s i t u a t i o n , and thus shows that h i s p r i v a t e experience i s conson- ant w i t h , or j u s t i f i e d by, u n i v e r s a l human experience.^" 3 Cf. above pp. 24-25. 4 "Sunt Qui Propertium M a l i n t , " J.P. S u l l i v a n , ed., C r i t i c a l Essays on Roman L i t e r a t u r e . Elegy and L y r i c (London, 1962), p. 134. 89 A l l e n a l s o s t a t e s , The reader has t o perceive i n the m y t h o l o g i c a l example not only the p a r t i c u l a r f a c t but a l s o the general idea which i s i m p l i c i t l y contained i n i t , and f u r t h e r , he has t o r e a l i z e the a p p l i - c a t i o n of t h i s general idea t o the case before him.-> Thus, P r o p e r t i u s , the only one of the three poets who discusses the nature and p r i n c i p l e s of h i s a r t , uses Bacchic myth (expanding and v a r y i n g i t s l i g h t l y as h i s ideas emerge) as a k i n d of a l l - p e r v a s i v e exemplum of h i s philosophy as a p o e t - l o v e r . He combines the f i g u r e s of A p o l l o and the Muses w i t h h i s major c h a r a c t e r s , Bacchus, Ariadne and the Maenads, and superimposes the whole complex upon h i s own s i t u a t i o n as a poet i n love w i t h C y n t h i a . Once t h i s syn- t h e s i s has been achieved, P r o p e r t i u s then explores v a r i o u s aspects of i t , s h i f t i n g i t s components to achieve s e v e r a l kinds of emphasis; f o r example, the poet h i m s e l f , at d i f f e r e n t times, takes on the r o l e s of Bacchus, of Ariadne, of Theseus and of the Maenad. Besides g i v i n g i t permanent v a l i d i t y , P r o p e r t i u s * technique lends a r e l i g i o u s atmosphere to h i s p o e t i c a l 6 philosophy. "His idea of the poet i s a s a c e r d o t a l one" and h i s constant f u s i o n o f myth and r e a l i t y serves t o underline t h i s i d e a . We have thus discovered v a r i a t i o n s among the three poets i n t h e i r manner of t r e a t i n g myth. A common element 5 On. c i t . . p. 137. 6 Luck, op. c i t . , p. 115. 90 i s present, however. The f a c t t h a t a l l three adopt Bacchus as t h e i r patron f o r more or l e s s the same reasons w i l l serve to demonstrate t h i s . Whereas A p o l l o and the Muses had been the conventional patrons of poetry from time immemorial (and no one seemed to wonder why), f o r the e l e g i a c poets, Bacchus, because of h i s personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h i s a c t i o n s , had earned h i s p o s i t i o n ; he i s thus a much more human d e i t y than the o t h e r s . The whole question of Bacchus' r o l e as t h e i r patron revolves around the f a c t t h a t these poets are p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r poetry, and are i n v o l v e d not only as poets but as l o v e r s . T i b u l l u s , P r o p e r t i u s and Ovid are aware th a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y Bacchus has a place i n the realm of poetry because of h i s l i n k s w i t h drama and w i t h wine as a source 7 of i n s p i r a t i o n . N e v ertheless, he i s t h e i r s p e c i a l patron because of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Ariadne and the Maenads, because of h i s powerful and avenging nature and because of h i s a b i l i t y (through wine) t o f r e e them from the p a i n caused by an unhappy love a f f a i r . Thus we see t h a t , u n l i k e those who preceded them, the L a t i n e l e g i s t s , because of the very personal nature of t h e i r poetry, apply myth d i r e c t l y t o themselves. The A l e x a n d r i a n poets and C a t u l l u s place themselves i n t h e i r poetry as (sometimes sympathetic) observers of myth. But the l a t e r poets, e s p e c i a l l y P r o p e r t i u s , place themselves i n s i d e the 7 Cf, above p. 6. 91 myth so t h a t they become p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t s a c t i o n : they, w i t h Ariadne, r e c e i v e from Bacchus h e l p , v i n d i c a t i o n or re^ lease from p a i n . So, then, although these poets i n h e r i t e d from t h e i r 8 predecessors a mass of m y t h o l o g i c a l conventions, they use these conventions i n a new way, by c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t i n g from c e r t a i n myths those aspects a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s . To what extent t h i s f u s i o n of personal and conventional m o t i f s permeates L a t i n l o v e - e l e g y has been p a r t i a l l y demonstrated by t h i s study of Bacchus. Although P r o p e r t i u s uses the technique most advantageously, i t may be s a i d of a l l three poets t h a t t h e i r " e x c e l l e n c e l i e s i n 9 t h e i r l i v e l y personal r e a l i z a t i o n of convention." 8 Cf. above pp. 5-6. 9 A l l e n , op. c i t . , p. 146. 1 92 APPENDIX BACCHIC ICONOGRAPHY IN LATIN LOVE-ELEGY The L a t i n e l e g i s t s are f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l appearance of Bacchus. The most d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e i s , of course, found i n the poetry of Ovid, and the l e a s t d e t a i l e d i n tha t of T i b u l l u s . Frequently mentioned aspects of the god's appearance are the thyrsus t h a t he c a r r i e s and the garlands (of e i t h e r i v y or vine leaves) that he wears. P r o p e r t i u s speaks of the thyrsus t w i c e : at 2.30b.3$, where he c a l l s i t docta cuspide. and at 3*3.35, where, d e s c r i b i n g the va r i o u s tasks of the Muses-Maenads, he s t a t e s t h a t one of them hederas l e g i t i n t h y r s o s . At Amores 3.1.23 and 3.15.17 Ovid r e f e r s to the thyrsus as p a r t of the equipment of Bacchus, patron of drama. I t appears a l s o at Ars Amatoria 3.710, F a s t i 3.764, and Meta- morphoses 3*542. Ovid twice speaks of the thyrsus as a 1 spear or j a v e l i n covered w i t h vine leaves: Heroides 13*33, pampinea...hasta; and Metamorphoses 3*667, pampineis... velatum frondibus hastam. I t i s c l e a r t h a t both P r o p e r t i u s (3*3*35) and Ovid (Ars Amatoria 1.190 (note the p l u r a l , t h y r s o s ) ; Metamorphoses 3.542, 3*712, 4.7 and 11.28) p i c t u r e the thyrsus as the property not only of the god, but a l s o of h i s f o l l o w e r s . 1 Cf. P r o p e r t i u s * cuspide, 2.30b.3#. 93 Three terms recur i n the poets' d e s c r i p t i o n s of the garlands t h a t Bacchus wears round h i s head. A l l r e f e r to wreaths made of hedera. i v y ( T i b u l l u s 3.6.2; P r o p e r t i u s 4. 1.62; Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.664 (here the i v y i s not worn by Bacchus, but covers the oars of the s h i p whose crew the god changes t o d o l p h i n s ) ; and F a s t i 6.483). Ovid describes the garlands as racemifer. c l u s t e r - b e a r i n g (Metamorphoses 3« 666; F a s t i 6.483). This term could r e f e r t o e i t h e r c l u s t e r s of grapes or c l u s t e r s o f i v y b e r r i e s . A s i m i l a r word, used by a l l the poets, i s corymbus. a c l u s t e r of flowers or f r u i t , i n t h i s case, probably a c l u s t e r o f i v y b e r r i e s ; T i b u l l u s 1.7.45; P r o p e r t i u s 2.30b.39 and 3.17.29 (where the garland seems t o be worn on the neck); Ovid. Metamorphoses 3.665 (where the c l u s t e r s cover the s a i l s of the ship) and F a s t i 1.393 ( f e s t a c o r y m b i f e r i . . . B a c c h i ) . The poets use se v e r a l l e s s s p e c i f i c terms t o r e f e r to these garlands: u a r i i f l o r e s ( T i b u l l u s 1.7.45), molles coronae (Ovid, Meta- morphoses 3*555) and simply f r o n s (Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 542 and F a s t i 3.481-82). P r o p e r t i u s alone mentions the m i t r a as Bacchus' head- gear: 3.17.30 and 4.2.31. Both T i b u l l u s and Ovid describe the god as unshorn: T i b u l l u s 1.4.38, intonsus c r i n i s ; Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.13> indetonsus Thyoneus. Besides garlands, long h a i r ( f o r T i b u l l u s and O v i d ) , and perhaps a m i t r a ( f o r P r o p e r t i u s ) , a l l three poets t e l l us t h a t Bacchus has horns on h i s head: T i b u l l u s 2.1.3; P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.19; Ovid, Heroides 13.33 ( B i c o r n i g e r ) and 94 15.24; Amores 3.15.17 ( c o r n i g e r ) : Ars Amatoria 1.232, 2.380 and 3.34$; Metamorphoses 4.19; F a s t i 3.499 and 3.7$9. Each of the poets makes one reference t o some ki n d of garment worn by Bacchus: T i b u l l u s i n 1.7.46-47, fusa sed ad teneros l u t e a p a l l a pedes et T y r i a e uestes... P r o p e r t i u s i n 3.17.32, et f e r i e s nudos ueste f l u e n t e pedes, Ovid i n Metamorphoses 3*556, purpuraque et p i c t i s intextum v e s t i b u s aurum. I f we combine these three d e s c r i p t i o n s , the outcome i s a barefoot f i g u r e , dressed i n a l o n g , f l o w i n g , gold-embroi- dered (hence T i b u l l u s ' l u t e a ? ) robe. I t i s noteworthy,that a l l the poets, perhaps w i t h a marble statue i n mind, r e f e r to Bacchus as candidus ( T i b u l l u s 3.6.1; P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.29 (although he speaks only o f h i s neck); and Ovid, F a s t i 3.772). This a d j e c t i v e i s perhaps connected, however, w i t h the y o u t h f u l , almost effeminate appearance of the god emphasized i n the poetry of Ovid and mentioned b r i e f l y i n th a t of T i b u l l u s . For both poets he i s tener ( T i b u l l u s 2.3.63; Ovid, Amores 3.2.53); T i b u l l u s speaks of h i s aeterna...iuuentas (1.4.37), w h i l e Ovid claims at F a s t i 3.773-774 that ...ipse puer semper iuvenisque v i d e r i s , et media est aetas i n t e r utrumque t i b i . Ovid describes the god as puero...inermi (Metamorphoses 3.553), puer aeternus...formosissimus (Metamorphoses 4.18) and simply puer (Ars Amatoria 1.189 and Metamorphoses 3*607). 9 5 He goes even f u r t h e r and r e f e r s to Bacchus' virginea...forma (Metamorphoses 3.607) and virgineum caput (Metamorphoses 4 . 2 0 ) . Ovid p i c t u r e s the god r i d i n g i n a currus (Ars Amatoria 1 . 5 4 9 and 5 5 9 ; 3.158). The c h a r i o t i s sometimes drawn by- t i g e r s (Ars Amatoria 1 . 5 5 0 and 559) or lynxes (Metamorphoses 4 . 2 5 ) who are c o n t r o l l e d by r e i n s (Ars Amatoria 1 . 5 5 0 , aurea l o r a ; Metamorphoses 4 . 2 4 , p i c t i s f r e n i s ) . Whether being used to p u l l the c h a r i o t or not, t i g e r s (Amores 1 . 2 . 4 8 ; Metamorphoses 3 . 6 6 8 ) , lynxes ( P r o p e r t i u s 3 . 1 7 . $ ; Ovid, Meta- morphoses 3 * 6 6 8 ) and panthers (Metamorphoses 3 . 6 6 9 ) are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Bacchus. Of the three poets, Ovid gives the most complete de- s c r i p t i o n of the f o l l o w e r s of Bacchus. T i b u l l u s makes no mention of them at a l l . P r o p e r t i u s uses only three words to describe the Maenad, none of which are v i s u a l l y s p e c i f i c : she i s f e s s a ( 1 . 3 . 5 ) , i c t a ( 3 . 8 . 1 4 ) and saeua^ ( 3 . 2 2 . 3 3 ) . He r e f e r s t o 2 the Maenads as a group only as turba puellarum ( 3 . 2 . 1 0 ) . Besides the Maenads, Bacchus* entourage includes the s a t y r s and S i l e n u s . Ovid describes h i s s a t y r s only as leues (Ars Amatoria 1 . 5 4 2 ) and i n Venerem...prona iuventus 3 ( F a s t i 1 . 3 9 7 ) . S i l e n u s i s e b r i u s and senex (Ars Amatoria 1 . 5 4 3 ; . Metamorphoses 4 . 2 6 ; note a l s o s e n i o r . F a s t i 1 . 3 9 9 ) . Because of h i s drunkenness, s e n i l i t y and w i l d p u r s u i t of the 2 For Ovid's p i c t u r e of the Maenad see above ppi 67-70. 3 Note a l s o Ars Amatoria 1.54$ and 3.157; Metamorphoses 4.25. 96 bacchae (e.g., Ars Amatoria 1.545-548), he has d i f f i c u l t y - keeping h i s seat on h i s a s e l l u s (e.g., Ars Amatoria 1.543- 547; Metamorphoses 4.27). The unfortunate a s e l l u s i s once described as long-eared ( a u r i t o . Ars Amatoria 1.547), but i s i n v a r i a b l y pandus. "sway-backed" (Ars Amatoria 1.543; Meta- morphoses 4.27; F a s t i 1.399 and 3.749). P r o p e r t i u s does not mention the s a t y r s , and S i l e n u s appears only as S i l e n i p a t r i s i m a g o / f i c t i l i s (3.3.29-30), a s o r t o f wall-plaque i n the d w e l l i n g of the Muses-Maenads. In t h i s same passage (3.3*30), the poet ^ w r i t e s o c a l a m i , Pan Tegeaee, t u i . Ovid a l s o a s s o c i a t e s Pan, or ra t h e r Pans, w i t h Bacchus. They, along w i t h the s a t y r s , some r a t h e r vague river-goddesses, S i l e n u s and P r i a p u s , gather t o c e l e - brate • f e s t a c o r y m b i f e r i . . . B a c c h i ( F a s t i 1.393-400). I t i s worthwhile to note the var i o u s kinds of musical instruments t h a t the f o l l o w e r s of Bacchus use. Those that appear most f r e q u e n t l y are tympana. defined as drums, t i m - 4 b r e l s , tambours, tambourines ( P r o p e r t i u s 3*17*33 (they are mollia...tympana) and 3*3*28; Ovid, Ars Amatoria 1*538 ( a d t o n i t a . . . p u l s a manu); Metamorphoses 3*537 ( i n a n i a ) , 4*29 (inpulsaque...palmis ) . 4*391, and 11.17) and cymbala, cymbals, "an instrument c o n s i s t i n g of two hollow p l a t e s of 5 b r a s s , which emit a r i n g i n g sound when str u c k together" 4 Lewis and Shor t , op. c i t . ? s.v. tympanum. 5 Ibid.» s.v. cymbalum. 97 6 ( P r o p e r t i u s 3.17.36 ( r a u c a ) ; Ovid, Ars Amatoria 1.537). 7 I n a d d i t i o n , we hear of the t i b i a , a pipe or f l u t e ( T i b u l l u s 1.7.47; Ovid, Metamorphoses 3*533 (adunco t i b i a cornu. a f l u t e of crooked horn), 4*392 (where e x a c t l y the same phrase recurs) and 11.16 ( i n f r a c t a B e r e c y n t i a t i b i a cornu). Pro- p e r t i u s twice a s s o c i a t e s w i t h Bacchus the calamus. reed pipes belonging t o Pan (3*3*30 and 3*17.34). A boxwood pipe or f l u t e appears at Metamorphoses 4.30: longo foramine buxus. 6 Ovid, perhaps w i t h cymbala i n mind, remarks t h a t i n Bacchus 1 entourage, aerane tantum/aere r e p u l s a v a l e n t (Meta- morphoses 3*532-533); concavaque aera sonant (Metamorphoses 4.30) and, i n the same m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n , tinnulaque aera sonant (Metamorphoses 4*393). He speaks a l s o of a e r i f e r a e . . . manus ( F a s t i 3.740). I n these instances the poet i s probably t h i n k i n g of a brassy sound r a t h e r than o f a s p e c i f i c i n - strument. 7 Lewis and Short, op. c i t . . s.v. t i b i a BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ancient Authors and Texts C i t e d Anacreon. L y r a Graeca. T r a n s l a t e d by J.M. Edmonds. V o l . 2. The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . London and Cambridge, Mass. 1958. Anacreontea. 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