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Techniques of humour in the works of John Steinbeck Payerle, Cornell Stephen 1966

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TECHNIQUES OP HUMOUR IN THE WORKS OP JOHN STEINBECK by CORNELL STEPHEN PAYERLE B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department of ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives* It is understood that copying or publ i -cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of English  The University of Brit ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date December 3, 1965 i i ABSTRACT An a n a l y s i s o f John S t e i n b e c k ' s humour l e a d s t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a u t h o r and h i s c a r e e r . S t e i n b e c k u ses humour most o f t e n t o c h a r a c t e r i z e , t o c o n t r o l h i s d i s t a n c e f rom h i s m a t e r i a l , t o i n t e n s i f y h i s s e r i o u s p a s s a ge s , and t o s a t i r i z e . The s t udy o f h i s humour h e l p s t o s o l v e t h e p rob l ems p r e s e n t e d i n h i s w r i t i n g . H i s v a r i e t y o f f o rms , a r e s u l t o f h i s v e r s a t i l i t y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , i s t o some e x t e n t d e t e r m i n e d by h i s o s c i l l a t i o n between humorous and s e r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The f l u c t u a t i o n between s e r i o u s and humorous works depends t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on h i s deg ree o f c o n c e r n f o r h i s s u b j e c t , w h i l e t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s w r i t i n g , as w e l l as t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f h i s humour, i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o h i s deg ree o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s . C h a p t e r One i s a s t a t e m e n t o f the c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour. I n C h a p t e r Two the t r a d i t i o n o f Ame r i c an humour i s c o n s i d e r e d . The s hap i n g o f t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s seen as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l humour. The t h r e e ma in n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s a re t r a c e d t h rough f r om the Amer i c an R e v o l u t i o n t o t h e t ime o f Mark T w a i n , when t h e y emerged as e l ement s o f s o c i e t y . These e l ement s a re t r a c e d t h r o u g h t o the p r e s e n t day w i t h emphas i s on S t e i n b e c k ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f them i n h i s c r e a t i o n o f humour. C h a p t e r Three d e f i n e s t he q u a l i t i e s found i n humour, t h e n i s o l a t e s humour f r om r e l a t e d modes. A d e f i n i t i o n o f g e n e r a l i i i a r ea s o f humour i s f o l l o w e d by a d e f i n i t i o n o f l i t e r a r y fo rms dependent on humour and by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r the c r e a t i o n o f humour. C h a p t e r P o u r , a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e humour i n S t e i n b e c k ' s wo rk s , a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i t y o f the humour and t o d i s c o v e r what t y p e s o f humour p r e d o m i n a t e . S t e i n b e c k ' s c o m b i n a t i o n o f t he g e n e r a l a rea s o f humour, h i s use o f a v a r i e t y o f l i t e r a r y f o r m s , and h i s u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s a re d i s c u s s e d . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t s a t i r e i s t h e most p e r s i s t e n t and t he most s u c c e s s f u l e lement i n h i s humour. C h a p t e r F i v e d e a l s w i t h S t e i n b e c k ' s u ses o f humour: t o c h a r a c t e r i z e , t o c o n t r o l t he d i s t a n c e f r om h i s m a t e r i a l , t o i n t e n s i f y the f o r c e o f s e r i o u s p a s s a g e s , and t o s a t i r i z e . I n C h a p t e r S i x the c h r o n o l o g y o f the work s , b o t h f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n , i s t r a c e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the p a t t e r n o f h i s humour. I s s ue s w h i c h a re s e r i o u s bu t no t c r u c i a l he t end s t o t r e a t humorou s l y , w h i l e t ho se w h i c h are u r g e n t he t r e a t s s e r i o u s l y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he s u c ce s s o f t he w r i t i n g , t h e s ucce s s o f t h e humour, and t he a u t h o r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s i s examined . I n C h a p t e r Seven a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s are r e a c h e d . The f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the q u a l i t y o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g a re d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o h i s degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s . When he i s remote f r om h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h e r e i s a d e c l i n e b o t h i n h i s a r t i s t r y and i n t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s humour. I t i s n a t u r a l f o r h im t o v i e w h i s m a t e r i a l h umo rou s l y , bu t c r u c i a l i s s u e s demand s e r i o u s t r e a t m e n t . A l t h o u g h h i s t endency t o e xpe r imen t caused h i m i v t o t r e a t a wide range o f t o p i c s , S t e i n b e c k w r i t e s b a s i c a l l y about A m e r i c a . He e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f t h r o u g h a n a t u r a l sense o f humour y e t h i s w r i t i n g p e r t a i n s t o t he Amer i c an scene i n a way i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s c o n c e r n as a h u m a n i s t . V CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i C h a p t e r One: C r i t i c a l Remarks on S t e i n b e c k ' s Humour . . . . 1 C h a p t e r Two: The Amer i c an T r a d i t i o n o f Humour 21 C h a p t e r T h r e e : D e f i n i t i o n s 42 C h a p t e r P o u r : An A n a l y s i s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s Humour 62 C h a p t e r F i v e : S t e i n b e c k ' s Uses o f Humour 100 C h a p t e r S i x : A C h r o n o l o g i c a l S tudy o f S t e i n b e c k ' s Humour 113 C h a p t e r Seven: C o n c l u s i o n 130 N o t e s : C h a p t e r One 135 C h a p t e r Two 138 C h a p t e r Three 139 C h a p t e r Pou r 140 C h a p t e r F i v e 143 C h a p t e r S i x 144 C h a p t e r Seven 145 Append i x I: Key t o A b b r e v i a t e d T i t l e s 146 B i b l i o g r a p h y 147 TECHNIQUES OP HUMOUR IN THE WORKS OP JOHN STEINBECK C h a p t e r One C r i t i c a l Remarks on S t e i n b e c k ' s Humour "Myths f o rm q u i c k l y , and I want no t a g o f h u m o r i s t on me, n o r any o t h e r k i n d , w r o t e John S t e i n b e c k t o h i s agents s h o r t l y a f t e r s u c ce s s came t o h i m t h r o u g h T o r t i l l a F l a t . I n t he f o l l o w i n g t h i r t y y e a r s , S t e i n b e c k ha s r e t a i n e d h i s t a g l e s s s t a t u s by w r i t i n g t e n n o v e l s , f o u r p l a y - n o v e l e t t e s , a number o f s h o r t s t o r i e s , f i v e d o c u m e n t a r i e s , dozens o f a r t i c l e s and war communiques, and t h r e e f i l m s c r i p t s . The w ide range o f f o r m and t he v e r s a t i l i t y w i t h i n each f o rm a l l o w h im o n l y t h e t a g o f e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t , t o wh i ch he u n d o u b t e d l y wou ld no t o b j e c t . Ye t i n a l l h i s v a r i e t y and v e r s a t i l i t y t h e r e i s t h e b a s i c theme o f c o n c e r n f o r a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s wh i ch e n t i t l e s h im a l s o t o the t a g o f h u m a n i s t . And bound t o h i s humanism i s h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c humour w h i c h appear s so o f t e n i n h i s work, y e t f l u c t u a t e s so v i o l e n t l y b o t h i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y t h a t i t h a s no t been c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p o r t a n t t o m e r i t e x t e n s i v e s t u d y . S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i n i t he i s as v e r s a t i l e as i n h i s f o r m . He can s u s t a i n i t t h r o u g h o u t an e n t i r e n o v e l , as he does i n T o r t i l l a F l a t , Cannery Row, Sweet Thu r sday , and The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV, use i t t o c o u n t e r p o i n t s e r i o u s X e v e n t s , as i n Of M i c e and Men, o r i s o l a t e i t i n s h o r t pa s sages w i t h i n a s e r i o u s n a r r a t i v e , as i n The Red Pony. He can use humour t o r i d i c u l e modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , as i n Canne ry Row and 2 The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV, t o a s s i s t i n c r e a t i n g a f u l l c h a r a c t e r , as he does w i t h Doc i n Cannery Row and w i t h E t h a n Hawley I n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t , t o e s t a b l i s h d i s t a n c e between h i m s e l f and s u b j e c t s w h i c h he i s i n danger o f s e n t i m e n t a l -i z i n g , as he does w i t h t h e p a i s a n o s I n T o r t i l l a F l a t , and t o r e n d e r i m p e r s o n a l m a t e r i a l more p a l a t a b l e , as he does w i t h h i s b i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s i n Sea o f C o r t e z . Ye t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour c r e a t e s more t h a n mere i n t e r e s t , f o r i t p r o v i d e s s o l u t i o n s t o some o f t h e p rob l ems e v i d e n t i n t h e body o f h i s work . H i s humour seems t o f o l l o w no v i s i b l e t r e n d . A l t h o u g h i t o c c u r s i n f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s f i r s t t h r e e n o v e l s , i t domina te s T o r t i l l a F l a t , t h e n appear s and d i s a p p e a r s s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t p a t t e r n . T h i s f l u c t u a t i o n o f t one between t h e s e r i o u s and t h e humorous i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f h i s works r e l a t e s t o t h e p rob lems a r i s i n g ou t o f h i s v e r s a t i l i t y o f f o r m , w h i c h has caused many c r i t i c s t o v i ew S t e i n b e c k as a ' s i n g l e work s u c c e s s ' who cashed i n on t h e t o p i c a l c o n t e n t o f The Grapes o f W r a t h . A few see h i s v e r s a t i l i t y as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he ha s n o t f ound t he r i g h t medium t h r o u g h wh i ch 2 t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f . There i s a g r e a t d e a l o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y , no t o n l y i n the q u a n t i t y o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour, bu t a l s o i n t he q u a l i t y . A t t i m e s i t i s s u p e r b , as i n Cannery Row and Of M i ce and Men, y e t i t can be n a u s e a t i n g l y a d o l e s c e n t , as i n h i s j u v e n i l i a w r i t t e n i n u n i v e r s i t y , and i n The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV . A l s o , t h e r e i s o f t e n a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he q u a l i t y o f humour and t he s u c ce s s o f t he work i t s e l f , as i n the s u c c e s s f u l Of M i ce and 3 Men, and the u n s u c c e s s f u l The Moon i s Down, and between t he q u a n t i t y o f humour and S t e i n b e c k ' s a t t i t u d e toward h i s m a t e r i a l . L i t t l e has been o f f e r e d t o e x p l a i n t h e f l u c t u a t i o n o f q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f h i s humour. There has b e e n , o f c o u r s e , a g r e a t d e a l o f c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f S t e i n b e c k ' s wo rk s , y e t t h e r e has b e e n , n o t h i n g , no t even an a r t i c l e , d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h h i s humour. Most c r i t i c a l comments on h i s humour a re i n c i d e n t a l t o o t h e r a rea s o f s t u d y . T h i s i s odd , c o n s i d e r i n g the amount o f h i s w r i t i n g t h a t i s humorous. Pe rhaps the e x p l a n a t i o n can be f ound i n E . B. W h i t e ' s s t a t emen t c o n c e r n i n g t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward humour: " i f a t h i n g i s f unny i t can be presumed t o be someth ing l e s s t h a n g r e a t , because i f i t were t r u l y g r e a t i t wou ld be w h o l l y s e r i o u s . " Most c r i t i c s seem t o agree w i t h W h i t e ' s s t a t e m e n t , a l t h o u g h a f ew , l i k e P e t e r L i s c a and Warren F r e n c h , have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t S t e i n b e c k u se s humour s k i l f u l l y f o r pu rpo se s o t h e r t h a n mere e n t e r t a i n m e n t . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t more a t t e n t i o n h a s n o t been p a i d t o S t e i n b e c k ' s humour, f o r an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t he humorous i n h i s w r i t i n g l e a d s t o a f u l l e r a p p r e c i -a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p r ob l ems c o n c e r n i n g h i s work . I t i s most c o n v e n i e n t t o c o n s i d e r S t e i n b e c k ' s works a c c o r d i n g t o f i v e c h r o n o l o g i c a l phases i n o r d e r t o s t u d y t he c r i t i c i s m o f h i s humour. The f i r s t phase i n c l u d e s h i s a d o l e s c e n t w r i t i n g and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o " f i n d h i m s e l f , " wh i ch ended w i t h t he w r i t i n g o f The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven ( 1932 ) . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s p e r i o d i s To a God Unknown (1933 ) , w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d a f t e r , b u t w r i t t e n b e f o r e , The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven. The e i g h t i n s i g n i f i c a n t 4 poems p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Mon te rey Beacon under the pseudonym, Amnes ia G l a s s c o c k , i n J a n u a r y , 1935, must a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p e r i o d . The second pha se , f r om T o r t i l l a F l a t (1935) t o The Moon i s Down (1942 ) , c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f s o c i a l p r o t e s t . I n t he t h i r d , f r om Cannery Row (1945) t o The Wayward Bus (1947 ) , S t e i n b e c k s t r u g g l e s t o w i t h s t a n d m a t e r i a l i s m i n t h e f a c e o f p r o s p e r i t y . The f o u r t h pha se , f r om B u r n i n g B r i g n t (1950) t o The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV ( 1957 ) , i s t he d e c l i n e o f h i s a r t i s t r y . A r e t u r n t o h i s e a r l i e r a r t i s t i c s u c c e s s i s p r o m i s e d i n t h e l a s t pha se . I n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t (1961) he i " a t t e m p t s a comeback t o s e r i o u s a d u l t f i c t i o n . " 4 The o t h e r work i n t h i s phase i s T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y i n S ea r ch o f A m e r i c a (1962 ) , w h i c h i s n o t e x a c t l y " s e r i o u s a d u l t f i c t i o n , " bu t wh i ch i s w r i t t e n w i t h more a s s u r ance t h a n most o f h i s work of t h e p r e v i o u s p h a s e . There i s l i t t l e c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f the humour i n S t e i n b e c k ' s f i r s t p ha se . H i s a d o l e s c e n t w r i t i n g s , c o n s i s t i n g 5 o f two s t o r i e s and t h r e e poems i n S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y p e r i o d i c a l s a re men t i oned by L i s c a as b e i n g comic s a t i r e . L i s c a goes on t o say t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s " i n t e r e s t i n b u r l e s q u e and s a t i r e i s c a r r i e d i n t o some o f [ h i s ] mature w o r k — C a n n e r y Row, The Grapes o f W r a t h . . . , The Wayward Bus , Sweet Thu r sday , and e s p e c i a l l y ' S t . K a t y t h e V i r g i n ' ; bu t i t becomes a s t r a t e g i c humor, d e v o i d o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e p r e c i o s i t y and d e v e l o p e d i n te rms o f e a r t h y r e a l i s m o f s y m b o l i c r e f e r e n c e . " The re a re few comments on the humour o f S t e i n b e c k ' s e a r l y n o v e l s . Warren F r e n c h speaks o f " t h e s a t i r i c i n t e n t i o n s o f Cup o f G o l d , The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven, and pe rhap s even To a God 5 7 Unknown. " I n d i s c u s s i n g Cup o f G o l d ( 1929 ) , H a r r y T h o r n t o n Moore s t a t e s : "The p o r t r a i t [ o f Morgan] i s no t done w i t h o u t humor, and [he] seems an a m u s i n g l y r o m a n t i c l i a r . " 8 " S t . K a t y t h e V i r g i n " was a l s o w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1936 . L i s c a c a l l s i t " a g o l i a r d i c f a r c e i n t h e b e s t f a b l i a u t r a d i t i o n . . . . T h e s t o r y i s r i f e w i t h h i l a r i o u s p a r o d i e s o f m e d i e v a l a r g u m e n t s . " (WWJS, p. 94) F r e n c h speaks o f i t as " w r i t t e n i n t h e mannered, f a c e t i o u s s t y l e [ S t e i n b e c k ] abandoned w i t h t h e coming d e p r e s s i o n . I t i s pe rhap s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t he abandoned t h i s s t y l e , f o r he e x c e l s as a s a t i r i s t . . . . T h e s t o r y c u l m i n a t e s i n a c y n i c a l b u r l e s q u e o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e d i e n c e . " (p . 8 7 f . ) F . W. Watt says I t i s an " a t t e m p t i n the b e a s t - e p i c g e n r e , u s i n g t h e l i c e n c e o f t h a t f o r m i n m a t t e r s o f f a n t a s y and s a t i r e . . . . T h e bawdry and b u f f o o n e r y r e l a t e most o b v i o u s l y , howeve r , t o t he r e l a x e d m o r a l i t y and t he m o c k - h e r o i c t one o f T o r t i l l a F l a t . " The o n l y o t h e r c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e t o S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i n t h i s phase i s t o the poems p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Mon te rey  Beacon , w h i c h L i s c a f e e l s were " i n t he same v e i n as h i s S t a n f o r d p i e c e s . " (SHC, p . 11) S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i n t he second phase o f h i s w r i t i n g evoked a g r e a t d e a l o f comment. The s u r p r i s i n g change f rom the s e r i o u s t one o f h i s f i r s t t h r e e n o v e l s t o t h e humorous tone o f T o r t i l l a  F l a t gave r i s e t o much d i s c u s s i o n . More has been w r i t t e n on t h e humour i n t h i s n o v e l t h a n on t h a t i n any o f h i s o t h e r w o r k s . The comments v a r y f r o m " r o c o c o comedy, i r o n i c and r o m a n t i c , o r n a t e and m a n n e r e d , " 1 0 and " g ay , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , c h a r m i n g , " 1 1 t o " d r o l l y , , as i t i s w r i t t e n , [ i t ] i s p r i m a r i l y a 6 t r a g e d y , a da rk e p i c o f t he d e f e a t o f t he a n a r c h i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y . " ( F r e n c h , p . 61) T h i s l a s t i s q u a l i f i e d by the s t a t e m e n t : " Y e t i t i s comic s i n c e s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n o f d i s o r d e r i s a s t e p toward the t r i u m p h o f o r d e r . " Odd ly enough, t h e o n l y o t h e r m e n t i o n o f T o r t i l l a F l a t as a t r a g i c o m e d y i s made by S t e i n b e c k h i m s e l f when 12 he r e f e r s t o " i t s t r a g i c o m i c t h e m e . " Moore, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o v e l , f e e l s t h a t S t e i n b e c k " had n e v e r so f u l l y e x h i b i t e d h i s own comic t a l e n t . . . . T o r t i l l a F l a t i s a new k i n d o f A m e r i c a n comedy, conce rned w i t h ' n a t i v e s ' o f an u n u s u a l k i d n e y , the p a i s a n o s . " (p . 3 5 f . ) L i n c o l n G i bb s c a l l s t he n o v e l " a n e x t r a -v aganza , w i t h a good d e a l o f s l a p s t i c k comedy, a t o u c h o f pa r ody (o f the M o r t e d ' A r t h u r ) , and many examples o f t he a u t h o r ' s 13 i n n u e n d o . " Many c r i t i c s agree t h a t T o r t i l l a F l a t i s a mock-14 e p i c ba sed on M a l o r y ' s Mor te d ' A r t h u r . Some c r i t i c s see t h e humour of T o r t i l l a F l a t as u n s u c c e s s f u l . To A l f r e d K a z i n , t h e p a i s a n o s a r e " h a r d t o t a k e " because of " t h e i r u n d i l u t e d c u t e n e s s . " (p. 398) Maxwe l l Ge i smar f e e l s t h a t t h e humour ha s a " f a i n t l y a d o l e s c e n t t o n e , " and t h a t S t e i n b e c k " g l i d e s r a t h e r too e a s i l y a l o n g t h e s u r f a c e o f i t s p a i s a n o l i f e . E ven t h e e p i c o f ' t a l l - t a l e s , ' as i n ' J o h n H e n r y ' i t s e l f , has b e n e a t h i t t h e u n d e r t o n e s of t r a g e d y and human l o s s , and f o r the most p a r t S t e i n b e c k a v o i d s t h i s i n h i s n a r r a t i o n . " However, he i s more t o l e r a n t when he goes on t o say t h a t the n o v e l i s r e m i n i s c e n t " o f a merger o f t he f o l k e p i c s o f John Henry and P a u l Bunyan, f u s i n g t h e n e g r o ' s ease w i t h t h e l u m b e r j a c k ' s e x p l o i t s . " 1 5 But many c r i t i c s p r a i s e S t e i n b e c k ' s change t o the humorous 7 v e i n . F r e d e r i c C a r p e n t e r s t a t e s t h a t where "Cup o f G o l d had f a i l e d t h r o u g h l a c k o f a sense o f humor, T o r t i l l a F l a t succeeds t h r o u g h p o s s e s s i o n o f t h i s q u a l i t y . " (SHC, p . 74) F r e n c h says t h a t " s o c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s c r i t i c s m i s s e d i t s i r o n i c humor and a t t a c k e d i t as a s e n t i m e n t a l d e f e n s e o f vagabondage . " (p . 23) Watt f e e l s t h a t S t e i n b e c k "expanded i n t o t he comic w i t h a b u r s t o f ene r gy w h i c h s ugge s t s a l o n g - s u b d u e d a t t i t u d e and a new c o n f i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e c h n i q u e and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . " (p. 38) B a r k e r F a i r l e y s t a t e s t h a t the s u cce s s o f t n e n o v e l stems i n p a r t f r om t h e s t y l i z e d s p e e c h , w h i c h h e l p s " t o c r e a t e p o e t i c i l l u s i o n i n w h i c h t h e l ow and even v u l g a r comedy of t he t a l e s becomes p l a u s i b l e . " He c o n t i n u e s t h a t most " w r i t e r s o f comedy- -and t h i s book a l one among t he S t e i n b e c k ach ievement s i s e s s en t i a l l y c o m e d y - - c u l t i v a t e some e l a b o r a t i o n o f speech so as t o c o v e r o v e r what s h o u l d no t be c l e a r l y s een . S t e i n b e c k a c h i e v e s a s i m i l a r 16 e f f e c t by s i m p l i f y i n g [ t h e l anguage o f t h e p a i s a n o s ] . " Beach r e f e r s t o s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s as b e i n g f u n n y . He sees the e p i s o d e o f t he vacuum c l e a n e r and t h e s t o r y of t he P i r a t e as s u ch , bu t he makes an i m p o r t a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n when he c o n t i n u e s : " The re i s much more t h a n humor h e r e , and t he book shows t h r oughou t a genu ine l o v e f o r t h e charm a n d ' v i r t u e o f t h e s e c h i l d l i k e p a i s a n o s . . . . [ S t e i n b e c k ] has i n v e s t e d h i s t a l e w i t h t h e t e n d e r p a t ho s o f d i s t a n c e . " (SHC, p. 89) L i s c a and T . K. Wh ipp le a l s o comment on t h e d i s t a n c i n g e f f e c t o f t he n o v e l ' s humour. L i s c a f e e l s t h a t t he humour i n h e r e n t i n " t h e b u r l e s q u e o f e p i c l anguage and a c t i o n . . . e n a b l e s the a u t h o r t o keep h i s c h a r a c t e r s a t an a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e . " (WWJS, p . 91) W h i p p l e , t h e f i r s t t o have spoken o f 8 t h i s a s p e c t , says o f S t e i n b e c k ' s s t y l e : " P r o p e r d i s t a n c e . . . i s t h e s e c r e t o f [ i t s ] e f f e c t — t o p l a c e p e o p l e no t t oo c l o s e o r t o o f a r away . . . .De tachmen t , o f c o u r s e , i s t he e s s e n t i a l . " (p. 274) C r i t i c s see a number o f s t r a i n s i n t h e humour o f T o r t i l l a P l a t . Watt p l a c e s i t i n t he v e i n o f f o l k - h u m o u r , (p . 51) Some see i n i t e l ement s o f t he p i c a r e s q u e . G i bb s f i n d s i t a n , e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s f o rm when he s a y s , " I t i s a l a t e a d d i t i o n t o p i c a r e s q u e f i c t i o n ; i n s t e a d o f a s i n g l e t h i e f , i t r e p r e s e n t s a f r a t e r n i t y o f r a s c a l s and a s lum commun i t y . " (SHC, p . 95) J o s eph P o n t e n r o s e ob se r ve s t h a t i n T o r t i l l a F l a t " S t e i n b e c k ' s b i o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w becomes e x p l i c i t , and f o r t he f i r s t t i m e he makes d e l i b e r a t e , 17 i f humorous, use o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f the g roup as o r g a n i s m . " Edw in Burgum says o f t h i s n o v e l and of Canne ry Row t h a t the mood m igh t be d e f i n e d " a s t h e Amer i c an p i c a r e s q u e , i f t h e emphas i s were not l e s s on t he sha rpnes s o f w i t i n t h e s e vagabonds t h a n on 18 a s e n t i m e n t a l a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r c a r e f r e e way o f l i f e . " Beach f i n d s i t " a v e r y s k i l l f u l b l e n d o f s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s o f comic w r i t i n g ; i t r e c a l l s Don Q u i x o t e and G i l B i a s and A n a t o l e F r a n c e and C h a r l e s Lamb. " (SHC, p . 86) F r e n c h says, ' - 'L ike Mark Twa in , bu t l e s s o b v i o u s l y , [ S t e i n b e c k ] i s b u r l e s q u i n g r a t h e r t h a n r e t e l -l i n g c h i v a l r i c l e g e n d s ; and T o r t i l l a F l a t . . . c a r r i e s on and c l a r i f i e s t he s a t i r i c a l i n t e n t i o n s of Cup o f G o l d , The P a s t u r e s  o f Heaven, and pe rhap s even To a God Unknown." (p . 56) The s a t i r e o f T o r t i l l a F l a t has been r e c o g n i z e d by many c r i t i c s . G i b b s speaks o f t h e n o v e l as " a j o l l y s a t i r e o f r e s p e c t a b l e s o c i e t y . " (SHC, p . 96) L i s c a sees the humour o f v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s as " l i g h t s a t i r e on s o c i a l c u s t o m s , " and " a 9 s a t i r e on the c o n v e n t i o n a l p r e s t i g e v a l u e o f p o s s e s s i o n s . " (WWJS, p p . 83 , 85) F r e n c h , who e x t o l s S t e i n b e c k f o r h i s s a t i r e , s a y s , "H i s d e s i r e t o s a t i r i z e p r e t e n t i o u s m i d d l e - c l a s s m e d i o c r i t i e s a c c o u n t s f o r S t e i n b e c k ' s e x a g g e r a t e d bu t somewhat t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k p r a i s e o f t h e p a i s a n o s . . . ; t h i s s a t i r e , however , i s s p o r a d i c and a c t u a l l y i n c i d e n t a l t o t he ma in t e n o r o f t he w o r k . " (p . 56) He goes on t o say t h a t some o f t h i s i n c i d e n t a l s a t i r e i s d i r e c t e d a t t he o r g a n i z e d c h u r c h . Then he a l l u d e s t o the n o v e l ' s d o u b l e -edged s a t i r e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t : The t a r g e t o f most o f t he s a t i r e i s t he v e r y g roup S t e i n b e c k has been accu sed o f g l a m o u r i z i n g - - t h e i n d o l e n t b a r b a r i a n s who hope t o e n j o y b e n e f i t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h o u t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t . . . . T h e p o i n t o f T o r t i l l a F l a t i s p a r t i a l l y t h a t t he way o f l i f e o f t he se "bums" i s i n some ways s u p e r i o r t o t h e average A m e r i c a n ' s and t h a t we m i gh t l e a r n someth ing f rom them; bu t i t i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y a wa rn i n g t h a t t he s i m p l e , c l o s e - t o - n a t u r e l i f e t h a t some men t h i n k t h e y l o n g f o r i s n o t t he answer t o s o c i e t y ' s p rob lems e i t h e r , (p . 56f.T S t e i n b e c k ' s n e x t n o v e l , I n Dub ious B a t t l e . ( 1 9 3 6 ) c o n t a i n s such l i t t l e humour t h a t no one speaks o f i t . F o n t e n r o s e ob se r ve s o f t he n o v e l : "He re was no charm o r q u a i n t n e s s , h e r e were m i s e r i e s and s t r u g g l e s a lmos t u n r e l i e v e d by a humorous t o u c h . " (p . 42) I t appear s t h a t , f o r most c r i t i c s , the humour i n Of M i ce and Men (1937) ha s been overshadowed by i t s p a t h o s . The g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t oward t h e n o v e l e t t e i s v o i c e d by Beach when he says t h a t i t i s " i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t v e i n , as f a r as p o s s i b l e f r om the g e n t l e comedy o f T o r t i l l a F l a t . Of M i ce and Men i s a t r a g i c s t o r y o f f r i e n d s h i p among m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s . " (SHC, p . 90) Rascoe i s a p p a l l e d by 1 1 1 ^ t h e a u d i e n c e ' s r e a c t i o n t o t he p l a y v e r s i o n . He w r i t e s t h a t " a d i s t r e s s i n g l y l a r g e p a r t o f the a u d i e n c e . . . t o o k t h e t r a g i c , h e a r t - b r e a k i n g l i n e s o f George and L e n n i e t o be comedy. They 10 l a u g h e d o u t r a g e o u s l y when t e a r s s h o u l d have been s t r e a m i n g down t h e i r f a c e s . They appeared t o t h i n k t h a t t he l u m b e r i n g , d i m w i t t e d , p a t h e t i c L e n n i e was supposed t o be f u n n y . " (SHC, p. 5 9 f . ) I t i s t r u e t h a t L e n n i e i s no t meant t o be f u n n y , bu t the e p i s o d e s w h i c h S t e i n b e c k c r e a t e s around h im r a n k among the most humorous i n l i t e r a t u r e , and i t i s h a r d t o b lame t he aud i ence f o r l a u g h i n g . Watt comes n e a r e s t t o s t a t i n g t he p r o b l e m when he ob se r ve s t h a t " t h e r i s i b l e and g r o t e s q u e e l emen t s o f t e n make i t h a r d t o a c c e p t L e n n i e as t he symbol o f t h e ' m a s s e s ' o r ' g r oup -man ' he i s i n t e n d e d t o b e . " ( p . 62) Burgum sees i n t he n o v e l " t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t he p i c a r e s q u e t r a d i t i o n when i t comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n s e n s i t i v e n e s s t o t he p l i g h t o f t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d . " (SHC, p . 112) As u s u a l , F r e n c h d i s a g r e e s w i t h t he g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . He f e e l s t h a t , d e s p i t e " t h e g r i m e v e n t s i t c h r o n i c l e s Of M i ce and Men i s n o t a t r a g e d y , bu t a c o m e d y — w h i c h , i f i t were Shake spea rean , we wou ld c a l l a ' d a r k c o m e d y ' — a b o u t t h e t r i u m p h o f t he i n d o m i t a b l e w i l l t o s u r v i v e . " (p . 76) L i t t l e ha s been s a i d of humour i n The Long^ V a l l e y (1938) and The Grapes o f Wrath ( 1939 ) . I n The Long V a l l e y t h e r e i s l i t t l e humour e x c e p t f o r " S t . K a t y the V i r g i n , " wh i ch was w r i t t e n app ro r x i m a t e l y s i x y e a r s b e f o r e the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t he c o l l e c t i o n . The o n l y c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r humour i n t h e book i s t o "The H a r n e s s , " w h i c h Ge i smar f e e l s " a c h i e v e s a g enu i ne f o l k humor . " 19 ( p . 263) The few i n s t a n c e s o f humour i n "The Red Pony " r e c e i v e no comment w h a t s o e v e r . The re I s enough humour i n The Grapes o f  Wrath t o have e l i c i t e d more c r i t i c a l comment t h a n i t h a s . L i s c a , when d i s c u s s i n g a l a t e r work, makes a p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e 11 f o l k humour o f t h e n o v e l . (WWJS. p . 287) Watt sees i n i t "some o f t h e e a r t h y humour o f T o r t i l l a F l a t , wh i ch i s one o f t h e t h i n g s t h e Ok i e s and the p a i s a n o s have i n common." (p. 63) F r e n c h r e f e r s t o " t h e d e f t use o f b i t t e r s a t i r e i n . . . t h e i n t e r - c h a p t e r s . " (p . 121) S t e i n b e c k h i m s e l f comments on t h e s a t i r e , n o t s p e c i f i c -a l l y i n The Grapes o f W r a t h , b u t i n i t s e a r l i e r f o r m , announced under t he t i t l e , L ' A f f a i r e L e t t u c e b u r g . He wro te t o h i s p u b l i s h e r : " I t i s bad because i t i s n ' t h o n e s t . . . . I n s a t i r e you have t o 20 r e s t r i c t t he p i c t u r e and I j u s t c a n ' t do s a t i r e . " T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t emen t by a w r i t e r who has u sed s a t i r e e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r o b l i q u e l y i n more t h a n h a l f o f h i s work . The l a s t work o f f i c t i o n i n t h i s p e r i o d i s t he p l a y - n o v e l e t t e , The Moon i s Down, w h i c h a l s o drew l i t t l e c r i t i c a l comment on i t s humour, even though i t c o n t a i n s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount. The o n l y comment i s made by L i s c a who, i n s p e a k i n g o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n between Ann i e and Jo seph c o n c e r n i n g the t r i a l o f A l e x Morden, s a y s , " I s t h i s supposed t o be comic r e l i e f ? The scene i s s i m p l y i n c r e d i b l e . " (WWJS. p . 195) The n o v e l i s a f a i l u r e , and L i s c a ' s comment on t h e humour v o i c e s t h e g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n t o the e n t i r e work . In 1942 , a t t he end o f t h i s pha se , A l f r e d K a z i n made a g e n e r a l s t a t emen t about S t e i n b e c k ' s wo r k s , n o t i n g t h a t he had " t h e n e c e s s a r y detachment and s low c u r i o s i t y t o app roach the modern s o c i a l s t r u g g l e as a t r a g i c o m e d y o f an ima l i n s t i n c t s , w h i c h . . . m e a n t an a rou sed compas s i on , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he p a i n t h a t the human a n i m a l can s u f f e r and the m i s t a k e s he can make . " (p . 395) W i t h l e s s s t r e s s on t h e a n i m a l i t y of S t e i n b e c k ' s 12 f i g u r e s , t h i s would be a f a i r l y accurate e s t i m a t i o n of the second phase of h i s work. The t h i r d phase begins w i t h a s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t i n the previous phase. Cannery Row i s w r i t t e n i n a humorous v e i n much l i k e t hat of T o r t i l l a F l a t , and there i s considerable comment on i t s humour. Again there are the extreme views: Bergum f e e l s that here Steinbeck "lapsed i n t o the amiable s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of T o r t i l l a F l a t . " (SHC, p. 105) and Malcolm Cowley sees the novel as 21 a v i c i o u s attack on the middle c l a s s . Steinbeck h i m s e l f c a l l s i t a " ' p r e t t y mixed-up book 1" with " ' p r e t t y general r i b b i n g i n 22 i t . 1 " Most c r i t i c s see more than s u p e r f i c i a l humour i n the n o v e l . L i s c a s t a t e s that i t i s i n no sense a r e p e t i t i o n of T o r t i l l a Flat....The experience of [the i n t e r v e n i n g tenj years i s i n Cannery  Row and accounts f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n tone between the two books. The detached, amused acceptance of the paisanos of T o r t i l l a F l a t g ives way i n Cannery Row to an a c t i v e championing of Mac [ s i c ] and the boys. [SHC, p. 17) Yet he sees a number of p a r a l l e l s between the two novels. He observes that the s t r u c t u r e of both novels i s loose and e p i s o d i c . . . . A l s o both novels have as p r o t a g o n i s t s a t i g h t l i t t l e group w i t h i t s own moral standards; and...in both novels t h i s group i s made up not so much of s o c i a l outcasts as of i n d i v i d u a l s who have r e t r e a t e d from s o c i e t y . In both novels the s t r u c t u r e and mores of t h i s l i t t l e group serve as commentaries on the s t r u c t u r e and mores of that s o c i e t y which they have abandoned. (WWJS, p. 54) George S n e l l sees Cannery Row as a r e t u r n to Steinbeck's "most s a t i s f a c t o r y manner,...the great d i s t i n c t i o n and r e a l value [of which] l i e i n the warm humanity s u f f u s i n g i t , and the humor— 23 Di c k e n s i a n , but w i t h twentieth-century frankness." Watt speaks of i t as "a book which on the surface i s the most gay, 13 irresponsible and rollicking of a l l Steinbeck's novels...[but] the discrepancy between surface gaiety and the underlying moods... is great." (p. 79) He sees i t as "a satire, at times a vicious satire, on contemporary American l i f e , " delivered by the vehicle of "broad comedy, bawdiness, and gaiety." (pp. 80, 84) The intensity of the satire in Cannery Row is indicated by Malcolm Cowley's suggestion that i t might be a "'poisoned cream • 24 puff.'" Steinbeck's own remarks about the novel are contra-dictory. In 1945 he said of Cowley's comment that, had he reread i t , "'he would have found out how very poisoned i t was.'" In the same year he wrote that "'people are rushing to send i t overseas to soldiers. Apparently they think of i t as a r e l i e f from war.'" Yet in 1953 he wrote that i t was "'a kind of nostalgic thing written for a group of soldiers who had said to me "Write some-thing funny that isn't about the war."'"25 The tone of the novel i t s e l f indicates that the earlier statements are the more accurate. French assesses the novel correctly in the statement: "The enemy Steinbeck attacks—the destructive force that preys' on the world—is...respectability: the desire to attain an unnatural security for one's self by ruthlessly disregarding the feelings of others." (p. 120) I n The Pearl (1947) there i s l i t t l e that can be called humorous. The bitter satire, presented through the doctor, the priest and the pearl buyers, i s not discussed in any of the c r i t i c a l works. The humour in The Wayward Bus has occasioned a few c r i t i c a l comments. Bernard De Voto says that "as narrative i t is superb...as comedy i t is excellent; as novel i t is 14 26 s a t i s f y i n g and no m o r e . " I n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e n o v e l , C a r l o s B ake r f e e l s t h a t S t e i n b e c k i s p r e v e n t e d " f r o m s w i n g i n g c o m p l e t e l y o v e r i n t o savage i n d i g n a t i o n . . . [ b y ] a s a v i n g sense o f humor and a 27 deep sense o f p i t y . " F o r L i s c a t he n o v e l c o n t a i n s a " t e r r i b l e S w i f t i a n humor . " (WWJS, p . 287) Watt n o t e s t he d i v e r s i t y o f e l ement s i n the n o v e l : " s a t i r i c , i r o n i c , r o m a n t i c , c om i c , p a t h e t i c , b a t h e t i c . " (p . 91) Near the end o f t h i s phase o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g , a number o f g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g h i s humour were made. H a r r y S l o chower f i n d s t h a t h i s "work i s , on the w h o l e , f i l l e d w i t h 2 8 chee r and humour . " S n e l l sees S t e i n b e c k s i m i l a r t o D i c k e n s i n , among o t h e r t h i n g s , h i s " l o v e o f e x a g g e r a t i o n and a r e s u l t i n g humor, and a b a s i c s e n t i m e n t a l i s m wh i ch r e s u l t s i n t h e g r a v e s t weakness o f b o t h [ a u t h o r s ] . " (p . 1 8 7 f . ) I t was a l s o a t t h i s t ime t h a t c r i t i c s began t o c l a s s i f y S t e i n b e c k ' s wo r k s . L i s c a ob se r ve s t h a t by 1947 c r i t i c s had begun t o c l a s s i f y them i n t o t h r e e m a i n a r e a s : s o c i a l p r o t e s t ( I n Dub ious B a t t l e , Of M i ce and Men, The Grapes o f Wra th , The F o r g o t t e n V i l l a g e ) ; q u a i n t and p i c t u r e s q u e comedy ( T o r t i l l a F l a t , Cannery Row); and s i m p l e r u r a l l i f e (The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven, The Long V a l l e y , The  P e a r l . The Red P o n y ) . Cup o f G o l d and To a God Unknown were c o n v e n i e n t l y f o r g o t t e n . Because The Wayward Bus d i d n o t seem t o f i t i n t o any o f t h e s e a r e a s , . . . m o s t c r i t i c s seemed c o n f u s e d about the book . (WWJS, p . 2 3 1 f . ) There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e comment on S t e i n b e c k ' s humour d u r i n g t h e phase o f h i s d e c l i n e , f o r i n t h i s p e r i o d he p roduced two ex tended works o f h u m o u r — t h e comedy, Sweet Thur sday • (1954), and t h e s a t i r e , The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV. N e i t h e r o f t he o t h e r two works o f t h i s p e r i o d , t h e p l a y - n o v e l e t t e , B u r n i n g B r i g h t and t h e a m b i t i o u s n o v e l , E a s t o f Eden (1952 ) , evoked comment on 15 humour. I n t h e ca se o f B u r n i n g B r i g h t t h i s I s so because t h e r e 0 9 i s o n l y one m i n o r s t a t emen t i n i t t h a t can be c a l l e d humorous. There i s some humour i n E a s t o f Eden , b u t n o t h i n g has been s a i d o f i t , p r o b a b l y because i t seems t o have l i t t l e b e a r i n g on t h e g r e a t m o r a l theme g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e n o v e l . The one comment w h i c h does b e a r on t h e s t u d y o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i s made by A r t h u r M i z e n e r , who says t h a t most o f t he c h a r a c t e r s " a r e c o m i c - s t r i p i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s m o r a l . " He continues: There i s e v i d e n c e even i n E a s t o f Eden o f what i s q u i t e c l e a r f r om S t e i n b e c k ' s e a r l i e r work, t h a t so l o n g as he s t i c k s t o a n i m a l s and c h i l d r e n and t o s i t u a t i o n s he can see t o some pu rpo se f r om t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f h i s a lmos t b i o l o g i c a l f e e l i n g f o r t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f l i f e he can r e l e a s e the c o n s i d e r a b l e t a l e n t and s e n s i t i v i t y w h i c h a re n a t u r a l l y h i s . As soon as he t r i e s t o see a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e u s u a l way and t o f i n d t he f a m i l i a r k i n d o f m o r a l i n i t , t h e i n s i g h t and t a l e n t cease t o work and he w r i t e s l i k e the a u t h o r of any t h i r d - r a t e b e s t - s e l l e r . 3 0 Sweet Thur sday g e t s l i t t l e p r a i s e f r om c r i t i c s , e i t h e r f o r theme o r f o r humour. L i s c a g i v e s t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward i t when he s a y s , " Becau se Sweet Thur sday was w r i t t e n i n the s p i r i t o f modern m u s i c a l comedy, i t i s u n r e w a r d i n g t o s u b j e c t I t t o t ho se c r i t e r i a o f f o r m a l a n a l y s i s a p p l i e d t o m a j o r l i t e r a t u r e . " (WWJS, p . 278) T e d l o c k and W i c k e r s f e e l t h a t i t "seems t o have i m p r e s s e d most r e v i e w e r s as a d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e v e r s i o n t o t h e v e i n o f T o r t i l l a F l a t and Cannery R o w . . . . E v e n a r e v i e w e r who was w i l l i n g t o acknowledge t h a t S t e i n b e c k knew t h e p e o p l e he was w r i t i n g about and had the g i f t f o r l ow comedy, t a l k e d o f a r o m a n t i c s t r e a k t h a t was p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o b e i n g c u t e and t h a t was saved 31 o n l y by t h e rowdy humor and the s a t i r e . " F r e n c h adm i t s the n o v e l ' s f a i l u r e , wh i ch he a t t r i b u t e s t o S t e i n b e c k ' s l o s s o f c o n t a c t w i t h h i s C a l i f o r n i a e x p e r i e n c e , b u t , as u s u a l , r e s p e c t s i t s s a t i r e , ( p . 162) Watt a l s o sees t he n o v e l as i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . F o r h i m i t s " b i t t e r - t a s t i n g amora l humour" i s i n t h e same mood as Cannery Row, ( p . 15) but i n s t e a d o f t h e " c u t t i n g edge " o f t he e a r l i e r n o v e l t h e r e i s " a k i n d o f zany m u s i c a l comedy c h a r m . " ( p . 101) He f e e l s t h a t " t h e w o r l d o f Sweet Thur sday does no t e x i s t on t h e same l e v e l o f r e a l i t y as t he e a r l i e r work , where such p l a y f u l n e s s would be out o f t h e q u e s t i o n . " (p. 100) Not a l l o f t he c r i t i c i s m o f Sweet Thur sday i s a d v e r s e , howeve r . C h a r l e s Me t zge r v i ews t h e n o v e l as a modern p a s t o r a l i n w h i c h S t e i n b e c k ' s a t t i t u d e " i s e s s e n t i a l l y t he e x p a n s i v e , t h e g e n e r o u s , t h e a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e . . . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p a s t o r a l . " ' Hugh Holman sees i t as n o t m e r e l y a "m i no r ep i s ode i n an e r r a t i c c a r e e r . " He f e e l s t h a t "however t h i n and u n c o n v i n c i n g i t s c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n i s , [ i t ] does make an emphat i c and c l e a r - c u t s t a t emen t o f S t e i n b e c k ' s g r e a t e s t s i n g l e theme; t he common bonds of human i t y and l o v e w h i c h make goodness and h a p p i n e s s p o s s i b l e . " He s t a t e s f u r t h e r , and t h i s i s a l s o i n S t e i n b e c k ' s f a v o u r , t h a t " t h e tone o f h a l f - d i s pa r ag ing b a n t e r o f t e n seems d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the a u t h o r 33 h i m s e l f . " I t i s Ho lman, t o o , who s t a t e s most s u c c i n c t l y t he e x t e n t o f S t e i n b e c k ' s v e r s a t i l i t y . "He ha s appeared to be a n a t u r a l i s t . . . and a c e l e b r a t o r of t he s i m p l e j o y s of l i f e ; t he a u t h o r o f e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l p ropaganda and of m y s t i c a l l y s y m b o l i c and wry comic p a r a l l e l s . . . a w r i t e r o f p i c a r e s q u e comedy o r o f r o m a n t i c p a r a b l e s . " ( p . 18) The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV m e r i t s and r e c e i v e s even l e s s p r a i s e t h a n Sweet T h u r s d a y . L i s c a sees i t as f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e 17 o f S t e i n b e c k ' s s t a t e of d e c l i n e . (WWJS, p. 288) H a r r y Tho rn t on Moore, i n h i s r e v i e w , c a l l s i t " a g e n t l e comedy s u p e r f i c i a l l y amusing f o r a w h i l e ; bu t l o n g b e f o r e i t s . . . l a s t page, i t b e g i n s t o p a l l . " He goes on t o say t h a t i t i s "masquerad ing as e p i g r a m , " and, " [ a ] s f o r s a t i r e , s u r e l y S t e i n b e c k i s t o o s o f t - h e a r t e d f o r 34 t he medium.!'* Ano the r r e v i e w e r s t a t e s : "The s a t i r i c l a p s e s i n t o "55 t he p o n t i f i c a l . " To Woodress, " i t i s a j o ke c a r r i e d on much t o o l o n g and a t the l e v e l o f a c o l l e g e humor m a g a z i n e . " (p . 395) I n compar ing the humour o f t he n o v e l t o t h a t i n the body o f S t e i n b e c k ' s wo rk s , L i s c a says t h a t i t " i s not t h a t b u r l e s q u e humor o f T o r t i l l a F l a t , t h a t R a b e l a i s i a n humor o f w S t . Ka t y t he V i r g i n , ' t h a t f o l k humor o f The Grapes o f Wra th , t h a t t e n d e r humor o f Cannery Row, t h a t t e r r i b l e S w i f t i a n humor o f The Wayward  Bu s ; and i t i s n o t h i n g as g ood . I t i s a sophomor ic humor o f g r o t e s q u e i m p r o b a b i l i t y and w o r d p l a y . " (WWJS, p . 287) F o n t e n r o s e ob se r ve s t h a t i n " t h i s comedy, . . . f a r c e , p u n c t u a t e d w i t h sententious s t a t e m e n t s , f r e q u e n t l y descends t o s l a p s t i c k . " (p . 130) I n s p e a k i n g o f b o t h Sweet Thur sday and P i p p i n , he says t h a t t h e " two e x t r a v a g a n z a s may . . . be c o n s i d e r e d mere j e u x d ' e s p r i t s i n wh i ch t he g a i e t y seems r a t h e r f o r c e d . " (p . 132) Not a l l c r i t i c s are h a r s h i n e v a l u a t i n g P i p p i n . Watt c a l l s i t a " s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l comedy, . . . [wh i ch ] p e r m i t s a number o f s a t i r i c a l t h r u s t s . " (p . 101) F o r h im the " v e i n o f b r oad comedy [wh i ch r un s t h r ough T o r t i l l a F l a t , Canne ry Row and Sweet  Thu r sday ] comes more f u l l y t o t h e s u r f a c e t h a n b e f o r e , but t h e j g r e a t e r f l u e n c y a n d ' s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h i s book h a r d l y compensates f o r t h e l o s s i n e a r t h i n e s s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n genu ine i d i o m . " 18 (p . 102) F r e n c h d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n t h a t P i p p i n i s t he l o w e s t p o i n t o f S t e i n b e c k ' s c a r e e r , s a y i n g t h a t " i t r e p r e s e n t s . . . a p e r c e p t i b l e change f o r t he b e t t e r . " He s t a t e s : The n o v e l shows a g a i n , as The Wayward Bus h a d , t h a t S t e i n b e c k cannot q u i t e square h i s n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p e o p l e a re s i m p l y what t h e y a re w i t h h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l d e s i r e t h a t t h e y improve t h e m s e l v e s . He has s t i l l no t d e c i d e d whether h i s p r i m a r y a l l e g i a n c e i s t o s c i e n c e or s a t i r e . Bu t i n P i p p i n [ s i c ] he comes c l o s e r t h a n i n any o f h i s p r e v i o u s books t o r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t s i n c e men a re what t h e y a r e , t hey must become c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t u s and change, i f t hey can at a l l , a f t e r r e c o g n i z i n g where t h e y a re s t a r t i n g f r o m . (p. 1 6 8 f . ) Of the two books i n t he l a s t phase o f S t e i n b e c k ' s work, o n l y The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t can be c l a s s e d as f i c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i t has r e c e i v e d more c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n than T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y , w h i c h i s v i ewed g e n e r a l l y as one o f " t h e d u l l e s t t r a v e l o g u e s e v e r t o a c q u i r e the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y o f a h a r d c o v e r . " Most A m e r i c a n c r i t i c s showed l i t t l e l i k i n g f o r The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t , b u t Eu ropean c r i t i c s had much more e n t h u s i a s m f o r i t — e n o u g h t o f i n d i n i t the b a s i s f o r award ing S t e i n b e c k the Nobe l P r i z e f o r L i t e r a t u r e . The f a c t t h a t i t i s a savage s a t i r e on Amer i c an m o r a l i t y may accoun t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n . The r e v i e w e r f o r H a r p e r ' s Magaz ine f e e l s t h a t the book has " t h e tone and atmosphere o f l i g h t h e a r t e d suburban d o m e s t i c comedy, q u i t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s e r i o u s n e s s 38 o f t he t h e m e . " G r a n v i l l e H i c k s speaks o f t he p r o t a g o n i s t as 39 " o f t e n amusing i n a w h i m s i c a l w a y . " F o n t e n r o s e say s t h a t S t e i n b e c k "seems t o be t r y i n g t o o h a r d f o r p r o f u n d i t y o r b e a u t y o r humor, o f t e n de s cend i ng t o t h e m e r e l y t a s t e l e s s . " (p . 137) But n o t a l l A m e r i c a n c r i t i c i s m i s a d v e r s e . One r e v i e w e r s t a t e s : " W i t h h i s t e c h n i q u e o f u n d e r s t a t e m e n t and h i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n s i d i o u s deve lopment o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g s t a n d a r d s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e , t h e a u t h o r adds c o n s i d e r a b l y t o h i s s t a t u r e as an a u t h o r i t a t i v e commentator on A m e r i c a n l i f e . H i s new n o v e l i s c e r t a i n t o be r a t e d w i t h h i s f i n e s t w o r k . 4 0 N e i t h e r a re a l l Eu ropean c r i t i c s f a v o u r a b l e . The r e v i e w e r f o r The L i s t e n e r c a l l s i t " a n e l a b o r a t e l y p r e t e n t i o u s and p o r t e n t o u s pa r ody o f a l l t he o t h e r books about t h e l i t t l e m a n . " 4 1 A no the r E n g l i s h c r i t i c w r i t e s , unde r t h e d e r o g a t o r y t i t l e , " L o o k i n g A f t e r Number One, " t h a t " t h e r e a d e r c o u l d w e l l have been s p a r e d . . . a t l e a s t some o f [ t h e ] c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h the g r o c e r i e s , " b u t concedes t h a t " M r . S t e i n b e c k has one o r two good comic s c e n e s . " 4 ^ The r e v i e w e r f o r Time and T i d e p r a i s e s S t e i n b e c k , g i v i n g the g e n e r a l Eu ropean a t t i t u d e i n h i s s t a t e m e n t : " t h e warm human i t y and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l h u m o u r . . . e l e v a t e s each i n d i v i d u a l page a n d . . . s e r v e s t o b r i n g h i s 43 c h a r a c t e r s so v i v i d l y t o l i f e . " The Swed i sh Academy chose S t e i n b e c k f o r t he 1962 N o b e l P r i z e i n L i t e r a t u r e " p r i n c i p a l l y f o r h i s n o v e l The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t . . . w h i c h marked a r e t u r n a f t e r two decades t o t he ' t o w e r i n g s t a n d a r d 1 he had s e t w i t h The  Grapes o f W r a t h . . . a n d o t h e r works o f t h a t p e r i o d . " The award was p r e s e n t e d f o r h i s " ' r e a l i s t i c and i m a g i n a t i v e w r i t i n g s 144 d i s t i n g u i s h e d . . . b y a s y m p a t h e t i c humor and a s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n . " 1 The l i t t l e t h a t ha s been s a i d o f t he humour i n T r a v e l s w i t h  C h a r l e y i s n o t c o m p l i m e n t a r y . Woodress c a l l s i t " a n e m b a r r a s s i n g book f o r anyone f o n d o f t he e a r l y S t e i n b e c k , " and f e e l s i t i s " a w i t t y , e n t e r t a i n i n g , b u t s h a l l o w t r a v e l o g u e , . . . a p o t - b o i l i n g d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . " ( p . 397) P o n t e n r o s e d e s c r i b e s i t as " a s e r i e s 20 o f s e l e c t e d i n c i d e n t s and e n c o u n t e r s , sometimes e n t e r t a i n i n g o r a m u s i n g . " (p . 138) One c r i t i c says o f C h a r l e y , "He i s an a r r e s t i n g dog , bu t h i s u r i n a t i n g h a b i t s a re h a r d l y cause f o r 45 humble p h i l o s o p h i z i n g . . . . T h u s h u m i l i t y becomes a b s u r d i t y . " The book i s p r a i s e d by o n l y a few c r i t i c s , e l i c i t i n g such 46 47 comments as " p u r e d e l i g h t , " " a f i n e , g e n e r o u s , l o v i n g b o o k , " and "mov ing a l o n g w i t h S t e i n b e c k i n t h i s mood i s a v e r y p l e a s a n t 48 e x p e r i e n c e . " The r e v i e w e r f o r The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement says t h a t S t e i n b e c k "becomes t he c h i e f c h a r a c t e r o f h i s T r a v e l s , C h a r l e y i s h i s P o o l , . . . [ i n t h i s ] s k e t c h o f a w r i t e r i n s e a r c h o f m a t e r i a l . " T h i s c r i t i c has the i n s i g h t t o say t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s " d e e p e s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f modern A m e r i c a w i l l p r o b a b l y no t be p u t on p a p e r u n t i l he has had more t ime t o d i g e s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e s 49 f o r f u t u r e n o v e l s . " The a t t i t u d e o f c r i t i c s t oward S t e i n b e c k ' s humour has v a r i e d f r om a n i m o s i t y t o p r a i s e . Y e t d i s c u s s i o n o f i t i s a lways s econda r y t o c r i t i c i s m o f o t h e r a s p e c t s o f h i s work . The c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f humour i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n , b o t h a r t i c l e s and book s , i s h a r d l y m e n t i o n e d . The humour i n t h e s e a l o n e r e v e a l s a g r e a t d e a l about t h e i r a u t h o r . A s t udy o f the humour i n the body o f S t e i n b e c k ' s work, b o t h f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n , l e a d s t o g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the au t ho r whose " c a r e e r has been one o f t h e most b a f f l i n g i n r e c e n t l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . " (Holman, p. 18) 21 C h a p t e r Two The A m e r i c a n T r a d i t i o n o f Humour J u s t as i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n I n w h i c h an a u t h o r i s w r i t i n g I n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y a s s e s s h i s wo r k s , so i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t u d y t h e t r a d i t i o n o f humour w h i c h l i e s b e h i n d an a u t h o r b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o a n a l y z e h i s humour. John S t e i n b e c k , b o r n e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e the d e a t h o f Mark Twa i n , A m e r i c a ' s g r e a t e s t h u m o r i s t , v i ewed A m e r i c a f o r a lmos t f o r t y y e a r s f r o m i t s most s o u t h w e s t e r n s t a t e , 1 w r i t i n g i n s i m p l e , r u r a l te rms and w i t h an e a r t h y , n a t u r a l humour. As a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y C a l i f o r n i a n w r i t e r , he was a b l e t o draw on a lmos t two hundred y e a r s o f t r a d i t i o n a l A m e r i c a n humour b a s e d , f o r t he most p a r t , on t h e w r i t i n g o f f o r m e r r e g i o n a l I s t s whose l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n e d t he " A m e r i c a n sense o f humor . " F o r where Eu ropeans f e l t t h a t s i m p l e humour connoted a l a c k o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , Amer i can s e x t o l l e d s i m p l e humour as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t he new c o u n t r y ' s u n p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s . And the d o w n - t o - e a r t h a t t i t u d e , t h e " u n i q u e Q a t t r i b u t e , f ound i n [ A m e r i c a ] . . . a l o n e , " grew ou t of a d e s i r e t o shed a l l t r a c e s o f Eu r opean pompousness. I t can be s a i d t h a t the f o r c e s wh ich shaped the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a a l s o shaped i t s humour. The A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n s e r v e d t o b r e a k a l l p o l i t i c a l t i e s between B r i t a i n and A m e r i c a and t o g i v e i ndependence t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . N a t u r a l l y t i e s o t h e r t han p o l i t i c a l were b r o k e n and i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t a humour d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t f rom t h a t i n B r i t a i n s h o u l d emerge i n t he new c o u n t r y . I n humour, as i n so many o t h e r s p h e r e s , t he Amer i can s b r o ke away 22 f r om B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n i n an a t tempt t o become n a t i o n a l and o r i g i n a l . Con s t ance Rourke sees the s hap i n g o f n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l humour i n t h e new c o u n t r y : By the end o f the R e v o l u t i o n t he s m a l l U n i t e d S t a t e s had emerged as B r o t h e r J o h a t h o n , an o u t - a t - e l b o w s New E n g l a n d c o u n t r y boy w i t h s h o r t c o a t - s l e e v e s , s h runken t r o u s e r s , and a b l a n k c o u n t e n a n c e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s o f i n f l a t e d t r i u m p h the q u i e t , u n c o u t h Yankee l a d was o f t e n i n n o c e n t l y p u t f o r w a r d as a n a t i o n a l symbol [ f o r ] by a sudden s t i l l agreement t he unformed A m e r i c a n n a t i o n p i c t u r e d i t s e l f as homely and c o m i c . " 3 T h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t u r e o f t h e A m e r i c a n w h i c h was c r e a t e d o r i g i n a l l y i n a .pu re a t t empt a t s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , underwent change and a d d i t i o n due i n p a r t t o a need f o r r e t a l i a t i o n a g a i n s t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t he Amer i c an p r e s e n t e d by p e o p l e o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t t he u n f l a t t e r i n g p i c t u r e wh i ch t h e B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r gave c t o t h e w o r l d . The more t he B r i t i s h l a b e l l e d t he Amer i can p l a i n , u n c u l t u r e d and i l l - m a n n e r e d / the more t h e A m e r i c a n s nee red at t h e o l d - c o u n t r y c i t i z e n s f o r t h e i r pompousness and p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s . G r a d u a l l y a change took p l a c e . Not o n l y d i d the Amer i can b e g i n t o admit h i s p l a i n n e s s and l a c k o f c u l t u r e , b u t he g r a d u a l l y became p roud o f i t and , f i n a l l y , i n s i s t e d upon i t as a n a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e . T h i s change was i n p a r t a f f e c t e d b y , and i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , t he emergence o f t he Yankee as a d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r . At f i r s t he was m e r e l y a Yankee J o n a t h o n , but as he i n s i s t e d e ve r l o u d e r on h i s own u n i q u e n e s s he became the l o q u a c i o u s Yankee o f R o u r k e ' s apt d e s c r i p t i o n : He was c o n s i s t e n t l y a m y t h i c a l f i g u r e ; he appeared i n t he fo rms o f e x p r e s s i o n t a k e n by myth, i n c y c l e s o f s h o r t t a l e s , f a b l e s and p l a y s . P l a i n and pawky, he was an i d e a l image, a s e l f - i m a g e , one o f t h o s e symbols wh i ch p e o p l e s s p o n t a n e o u s l y adopt and by wh i ch i n some measure t hey l i v e . O v e r - a s s e r t i v e y e t q u i e t , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , f u l l o f odd new 23 b i a s e s , he t a l k e d — t h i s m y t h i c a l c r e a t u r e : t h a t was one s e c r e t o f h i s p o w e r . . . . H i s s l a n t i n g d i a l e c t , homely metaphor , t he p e n e t r a t i n g rhy thms o f h i s s peech , gave a f i l l i p t oward the u p s e t of o l d and r i g i d b a l a n c e s ; c r e a t i n g l a u g h t e r , he a l s o c r e a t e d a f r e s h sense o f u n i t y . He r i d i c u l e d o l d v a l u e s ; t he p e r s i s t e n t c o n t r a s t w i t h the B r i t i s h showed p a r t o f h i s i n t e n t i o n ; t o some e x t e n t he c r e a t e d new ones . He was a symbol o f t r i u m p h , o f a d a p t a b i l i t y , o f i r r e p r e s s i b l e l i f e — o f many q u a l i t i e s needed t o i n d u c e c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n among new and unamalgamated p e o p l e , (p . 3 0 f . ) The Yankee, r e c r e a t e d by d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s , appeared i n v a r i o u s f o r m s . There were s u g g e s t i o n s o f t he t ype i n B e n j a m i n 4 • F r a n k l i n ' s Poo r R i c h a r d and most o f t he a lmanacs o f t he l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e Yankee t r a i t s i n a n e c d o t a l f o r m . (NAH, pp . 18, 19) F o l l o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t he l o c a l Yankee c r e a t e d by Yankee H i l l — G e o r g e Hande l H i l l (Rourke , p . 1 8 ) - -t h e r e was Seba Sm i th ' ' s p o l i t i c a l l y s a t i r i c J a c k Downing, (NAH, p . - 3 9 f . ) Thomas C h a n d l e r H a l i b u r t o n ' s C a n a d i a n v e r s i o n o f t he Yankee—Sam S l i c k o f The C l o c k m a k e r , (NAH, p . 43) James R u s s e l l L o w e l l ' s H e z e k i a h B i g l o w , (NAH, 4 3 f . ) and dozens of l e s s e r - k n o w n f i g u r e s . From an embodiment o f g e n e r a l Ame r i c an t r a i t s , the Yankee f i g u r e g r a d u a l l y e v o l v e d i n t o two oppo s i n g s t r a i n s . The s o p h i s t i c a t e d c l a s s , emerg ing i n t h e c i t i e s , r e j e c t e d the c o a r s e , homely t r a i t s , c o n s i d e r i n g them a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o r u r a l p e o p l e . The c o n t e s t , t h e n , s h i f t e d i t s emphas i s f r o m an o p p o s i t i o n between A m e r i c a n and B r i t i s h t o one between the r u r a l and t h e u r b a n i n A m e r i c a . The appearance o f t h e Yankee a l s o underwent change. He exchanged h i s threadbare j a c k e t f o r a b l u e c o a t w i t h l o n g t a i l s , h i s s h runken p a n t s f o r r e d and w h i t e s t r i p e d t r o u s e r s , and he wore a t a l l w h i t e h a t . As h i s c hang i n g n a m e s — B r o t h e r J o n a t h o n , J o n a t h o n S l i c k , Sam S l i c k , Sam P a t c h - - i n d i e a t e , the o r i g i n a l 24 Yankee f i n a l l y emerged as U n c l e Sam. W h i l e the Yankee c h a r a c t e r was e v o l v i n g i n the E a s t , a new n a t i o n a l f i g u r e was b e i n g c r e a t e d f u r t h e r i n l a n d . " L i k e t he Yankee i n t he R e v o l u t i o n t he backwoodsman had l e a p t up out o f war as a n o t i c e a b l e f i g u r e - - t h e War o f 1812; i n t h e s c a t t e r e d w e s t e r n c o u n t r y h i s p o r t r a i t had t a k e n shape s l o w l y . " (Rourke, p . 3 5 f . ) He had t a k e n shape s l o w l y f o r the s hap i n g p r o c e s s had i n v o l v e d t he s l ow b l e n d i n g o f s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s : the K e n t u c k y p i o n e e r , t h e f l a t b o a t m a n , and the westward-mov ing f r o n t i e r s m a n . He was u n l i k e t he Yankee i n appearance f o r he wore " b u c k s k i n s h i r t and l e g g i n g s , m o c c a s i n s and f u r c ap , w i t h a r i f l e on h i s s h o u l d e r . " (Rou rke , p . 3 4 f . ) But he e q u a l l e d , i f no t e x c e l l e d , t h e Yankee i n l o q u a c i o u s n e s s : S t r e n g t h was h i s o b s e s s i o n — s i z e , s c a l e , power: he seemed o b l i g e d t o shout t h e i r symbols as i f a f t e r a l l he were no t w h o l l y s e c u r e i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n . He shou ted as though he were i n t o x i c a t e d by s h o u t i n g . He shou ted i n r i t u a l , as though the emot ion s by w h i c h he was moved were b e n d i n g h im t o some p r i m i t i v e c e l e b r a t i o n . (Rourke, p . 3 6 f . ) T h i s f i g u r e , l i k e t h e Yankee, appeared i n many v a r i a t i o n s and under many names. There were D a n i e l Boone and Davy C r o c k e t t , a c t u a l men who became l e g e n d a r y f r o n t i e r f i g u r e s i n t h e i r own l i f e t i m e . James Fen imore C o o p e r ' s L e a t h e r s t o c k i n g was ano the r f r o n t i e r s m a n . An account o f M ike P i n k , "known i n l e g e n d as the f i r s t f l a t b o a t m a n who d a r e d t o t a k e a b r o a d h o r n o ve r t h e F a l l s o f t h e O h i o , " (Rou rke , p . 53) w i l l s e r v e t o show not o n l y how the boatman was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the f r o n t i e r s m a n f i g u r e bu t a l s o t o i n d i c a t e how a r e a l man c o u l d be changed i n t o a l e g e n d w h i c h , v a r i e d and e m b e l l i s h e d ' , e v o l v e d i n t o my th . 25 M i ke P i n k p a s s e d i n t o l e g e n d n o t o n l y because o f h i s e a r l y e x p l o i t s on t he r i v e r s bu t because he was t he l a s t o f t he b o a t m e n . . . . He was i n f a c t a M i s s i s s i p p i r i v e r - g o d , one o f t ho se m ino r d e i t i e s whom men c r e a t e i n t h e i r own image and m a g n i f y t o m a g n i f y t h e m s e l v e s . G r a d u a l l y he grew s u p e r -s i z e d . . . . H e became Mike P i n c h , M i ke P i n x , M ike Wing, i n a hund red m ino r t a l e s . D r i v e n a t l a s t f r om the M i s s i s s i p p i , he moved i n t o t h e unknown r e g i o n s o f t he f a r t h e r West, a c h i e v i n g t he f i n a l g l o r y o f h e r o e s , a d e a t h wrapped i n my s te r y , , i n d e e d many d e a t h s , f o r the t r u e s t o r y was l o s t , and o t h e r s sp rang u p . (Rou rke , p . 5 4 f . ) As the Yankee s y m b o l i z e d t h e s p i r i t o f t he new c o u n t r y f r e e d f r o m B r i t i s h t i e s , so t he backwoodsman s t ood f o r t he s p i r i t o f a new c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h a t w h i c h , as i t moved w e s t , s e ve red bonds w i t h E a s t e r n A m e r i c a . B o t h s u p p l i e d l a u g h t e r and c r e a t e d t h e sense o f u n i t y needed i n t h e e xpand i n g c o u n t r y . B u t t h e r e was s t i l l a n o t h e r f a c e t i n t h e new s o c i e t y wh i ch f i g u r e d i m p o r t a n t l y i n the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of A m e r i c a . T h i s was t h e Neg ro . "The Negro was t o be seen everywhere i n the Sou th and i n the new Sou thwes t , on s m a l l fa rms and g r e a t p l a n t a t i o n s , on r o ad s and l e v e e s . He was o f t e n an a l l bu t e q u a l member o f many p i o n e e r i n g e x p e d i t i o n s . He b e c a m e . . . a dominant f i g u r e i n s p i t e o f h i s c o n d i t i o n , and commanded a d e f i n i t e p o r t r a i t u r e . " (Rou rke , p . 79) T h i s p o r t r a i t , when i t was d rawn, combined t he n a t u r a l t r a i t s o f t h e Negro i n t he Sou th w i t h t r a i t s a t t r i b u t e d t o h i m by n o r t h e r n e n t e r t a i n e r s such as J i m Crow R i c e , who opened the way t o Negro m i n s t r e l s y . (Rourke , p . 80) C o n s e q u e n t l y , t he Negro appeared e i t h e r as a c o m i c a l o u t c a s t ( J im Crow, Dan T u c k e r ) , o r as a f o l k s y p h i l o s o p h e r l i k e J o e l C h a n d l e r H a r r i s 1 U n c l e Remus. I n e i t h e r c a s e , the a p p e a l o f t h e Neg ro , as a n a t i o n a l f i g u r e , l a y i n h i s p r i m i t i v e q u a l i t i e s — h i s s p i r i t u a l s , h i s b i r d and an ima l f a b l e s , h i s mode o f s t o r y - t e l l i n g , and h i s s i m p l i c i t y o f l i f e . 26 Tha t t he t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s tended t o m e r g e — t h e Yankee w i t h t h e backwoodsman, the Yankee w i t h the Negro , and t h e Negro w i t h t he backwoodsman (Rourke , p p . 72 , 80, 8 5 ) - - i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y had s t r o n g f a c t o r s i n common. A l l t h r o e used v e r n a c u l a r s peech ; e x a g g e r a t i o n was n a t u r a l t o them a l l ; each p r o v i d e d r e a d y m a t e r i a l f o r s a t i r e . Thus , l i t e r a r y p i e c e s d e a l i n g w i t h any o f the t h r e e were l i k e l y t o c o n t a i n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o l l o q u i a l i s m , e x a g -g e r a t i o n and s a t i r e , f o r t h e s e were t h e common e l e m e n t s . Hosea B i g l o w b e g i n s a l e t t e r : MR. EDITER, As i wuz k i n d e r p r u n i n r o u n d , i n a l i t t l e n u s s r y s o t ou t a y e a r o r 2 a go , the D b a i t i n t h e s e n n i t cum i n t e r my m ine . An so i t ook & Sot i t t o wut I c a l l a n u s s r y r i m e . I hev made sum onnab le Gent lemun speak i n a K i n d uv P o e t i k u l l i e s en se , and C o l o n e l C r o c k e t t speaks thus i n h i s stump s peech : " Y e s , g e n t l e m e n , he may g e t some v o t e s by g r i n n i n g , f o r he can out g r i n me, and you know I a i n ' t s l o w - - a n d t o g p rove t o you t h a t I am n o t , I w i l l t e l l you an a n e c d o t e . " I n t h e s e examp le s , c o l l o q u i a l speech and s a t i r e are e v i d e n t . I n the s t o r i e s o f U n c l e Remus, w i t h t h e i r d i a l e c t o f the S o u t h e r n -p l a n t a t i o n N e g r o - - " a n d w i d d a t B r e r R a b b i t g a l l o p o f f home. En B r e r Pox a i n ' t neve r k o t c h ' Im y e t , en w ' a t ' s m o ' , honey , he a i n ' t g w i n e t e r " — i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be aware o f the a l l e g o r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s b e f o r e the s a t i r e can be a p p r e c i a t e d . A l t h o u g h e x a g g e r a t i o n can be found i n i s o l a t e d pas sages i n s t o r i e s o f t he Yankee, t h e backwoodsman o r t he Negro , i t i s u s u a l l y d i s c o v e r e d t o be such an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t he t a l l t a l e t h a t t h e two have become a lmos t synonymous. I t i s the t a l l t a l e , t h e n , w h i c h combines the e l ement s common t o the t h r e e Amer i can c h a r a c t e r s f o r i t u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s d i a l e c t and s a t i r e as w e l l as 27 e x a g g e r a t i o n . The f i r s t r e c o r d e d examples o f t he Amer i can t a l l t a l e a re i n a book by the Reverend Samuel P e t e r s who, d u r i n g the R e v o l u t i o n , w ro te what he termed a h i s t o r y of C o n n e c t i c u t . S i n c e the Wes te rn t a l l t a l e d i d no t r i s e t o i t s peak u n t i l t h e p e r i o d f r om 1835 t o 1860, " P e t e r s s t and s as someth ing of a p r o p h e t , " who was aware t h a t " s u c h humor was d e s t i n e d t o f l o u r i s h on any new Amer i c an - f r o n t i e r . " (Rourke , p. 33) F o r , as D a n i e l Hof fman i n t i m a t e s , " t h e t a l l t a l e was one o f t h e "metaphor s o f swagger ing s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and i n d o m i t a b l e m a s t e r y o f f a t e " wh i ch gave e x p r e s s i o n t o " t h e u n r e f i n e d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ene rgy of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e — b a r b a r o u s and Q b e s t i a l as i t sometimes w a s . " E v i d e n c e t h a t i t was l i n k e d t o t h e g a r d e n myth a re t h e i n f l a t e d r e p o r t s by Wes te rn s e t t l e r s o f t he f e r t i l i t y o f t h e s o i l o r o f t he e x ce s s o f game i n t h e i r f r o n t i e r r e g i o n s . (Hof fman, p p . 17 , 18) A v a r i e t y o f a t t i t u d e s and c o n -v i c t i o n s a re r e f l e c t e d i n t he a d a p t a b l e t a l l t a l e . W i t h a t ouch o f i r o n y t o i n d i c a t e t he s u p e r i o r i t y o f the s e t t l e r , i t became a hoax o r a p r a c t i c a l j o k e , thus i m p l y i n g a s o r t of i n i t i a t i o n f o r t h e newcomer, o r , i t c o u l d t a k e t h e f o rm of the n o o d l e s t o r y — a n e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t he s c o r n of t he s e t t l e d f a r m e r f o r the newcomer— o r i t c o u l d be a r e v e r s e d t a l l t a l e w h i c h e x a g g e r a t e d t he f a c t s o f a d v e r s i t y . Sometimes i t was t he c a t a l o g u i n g of a man ' s f e a t s o f s t r e n g t h o r endu r ance . (Hof fman, p p . 20-23) Some s t r e s s e d the s u p e r n a t u r a l ; (Rourke , p . 67) o t h e r s were more p r o s a i c . But wha teve r f o rm t h e y t o o k , " w i t h i n t h e s e t a l e s c h a r a c t e r and c u s t o m . . . w e r e p o r t r a y e d w i t h such c l o s e and r e a d y d e t a i l as t o p r o v i d e something of a r e c o r d o f the t ime and p l a c e . " (Rourke, p. 69f.) 28 I n W a l t e r B l a i r ' s ter ras , t h e t a l l t a l e may be seen as t h e f i c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e wh i ch r e v e a l e d the Amer i c an scene and c h a r a c t e r . He sums up the s i t u a t i o n as i t was e a r l y i n A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e : Even a f t e r t he w r i t e r s o f A m e r i c a became s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a c h e d . . . b e f o r e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w r i t i n g s o f Ame r i c an h u m o r i s t s c o u l d appea r , two deve lopment s were n e c e s s a r y ; t h e deve lopment of p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e comic p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e A m e r i c a n scene and Amer i c an c h a r a c t e r , and t he deve lopment o f a f i c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e w h i c h wou ld r e v e a l them. Somehow Amer i c an a u t h o r s had t o become aware o f n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s f o r humorous l i t e r a t u r e ; somehow they had t o l e a r n how t o e x p l o i t them. (p. 16) Tha t t h e t a l l t a l e was a p o p u l a r mode of e x p r e s s i o n i s a t t e s t e d t o by i t s wide u s e , f o r i t appeared no t o n l y i n o r a l l i t e r a t u r e b u t a l s o i n t he works of e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t e r s such as 9 10 11 N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, Herman M e l v i l l e , B r e t H a r t e and J a c k 12 London . Even t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d Henry James i n c l u d e s , i n h i s 13 p o r t r a i t o f an A m e r i c a n , " a n e c d o t e s of w e s t e r n l i f e " and a " r e l i s h f o r u n g r a m m a t i c a l c o n v e r s a t i o n . " (The A m e r i c a n , p . 64) At one p o i n t i n The A m e r i c a n , the p r o t a g o n i s t de fend s t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t r u e t a l l - t a l e f a s h i o n : he f i n a l l y b r o k e ou t and swore t h a t t h e y were the g r e a t e s t c o u n t r y i n the w o r l d , t h a t t h e y c o u l d p u t a l l Europe i n t h e i r b r e e c h e s ' p o c k e t s , and t h a t an Amer i c an who spoke i l l o f them ought t o be c a r r i e d home i n i r o n s and c o m p e l l e d t o l i v e i n B o s t o n , (p . 41) I t was Mark Twa in , however , who b e s t e x p l o i t e d n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s f o r humorous l i t e r a t u r e . Not o n l y i s h i s " N o t o r i o u s Jumping P r o g o f C a l a v e r a s C o u n t y " among the be s t - known o f Ame r i c an t a l l t a l e s bu t he a l s o u ses t he t a l l - t a l e i n g r e d i e n t s s e p a r a t e l y i n v a r i o u s wo r k s . There i s t he pu re s a t i r e o f " F a c t s C o n c e r n i n g t he Recen t R e s i g n a t i o n " and e x a g g e r a t i o n l i k e t h a t i n " O l d Times on 29 t h e M i s s i s s i p p i " : "I c o u l d have hung my h a t on my eye s , t h e y 14 s t u c k ou t so f a r . " And a g r e a t p e r c e n t a g e o f h i s wo r k s , t he n o v e l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , a re w r i t t e n i n d i a l e c t . Kenne th S. L y n n , i n h i s s t udy o f S ou thwe s t e r n humour, f o l l o w s t he example o f Rourke i n v i e w i n g humour i n terms o f c h a r a c t e r 15 t y p e s . H i s f i r s t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s between t h e Gent leman and the C lown and he e x p l a i n s t h a t " t h e h u m o r i s t s o f t he Sou thwes te rn t r a d i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d t hemse l ve s as S e l f - c o n t r o l l e d Gent lemen who were o u t s i d e and above t h e backwoods w o r l d [ o f the C lown] t hey d e s c r i b e d . " (p . 155) A l t h o u g h Lynn goes on t o show t h a t ou t o f " t h e crowd o f l i t e r a r y C l o w n s . . . t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s e m e r g e d " — t h e C o n f i d e n c e Man, t he S o l d i e r , and t h e M i g h t y Hun te r (pp. 77, 86 , 8 8 ) — he r e f e r s t o the more g e n e r a l C l own f i g u r e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Mark T w a i n . F o r Twa in n o t o n l y f u s e d " t h e Gent leman and t h e C l own o f the Sou thwes te rn t r a d i t i o n i n t o a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r , " (p . 148) bu t he " e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o n c e -d e s p i s e d v o i c e o f t h e C lowns as' the n a r r a t i v e s t y l e o f an e n t i r e n o v e l . " ( p . 219) I t i s t h e backwoodsman, t h e n , i n the f o rm o f a r a gged boy, whose v o i c e becomes t h e n a r r a t i v e s t y l e o f an e n t i r e n o v e l , f o r t he n o v e l r e f e r r e d t o i s The Adven tu re s o f H u c k l e b e r r y  F i n n . And i t was i n h i s w r i t i n g o f t h i s n o v e l t h a t Twa in u t i l i z e d a l l h i s n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s t o r e f l e c t what was u n i q u e l y A m e r i c a n i n humour. F o r H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n not o n l y c o n t a i n s a l l t h e elements f ound i n t he t a l l t a l e bu t i t b r i n g s t o g e t h e r , i n one work, t he t h r e e ma in n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s . As t y p e s , Tom Sawyer, H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n and J i m are no t so s i m p l e as t h e o r i g i n a l Yankee, backwoodsman and Negro becau se , 30 due t o T w a i n ' s t r e a t m e n t , each has e v o l v e d i n t o a more complex b e i n g . A l t h o u g h Tom and Huck s y m b o l i z e the d i f f e r e n c e between the u r b a n and the r u r a l , t h e o p p o s i t i o n i s s l i g h t and more emphas i s i s p l a c e d on t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n and on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o c i e t y . Tom, as the Yankee, i s a c c e p t e d . b y s o c i e t y . He i s a f o r m a l i s t who depends on book l e a r n i n g f o r h i s r e a s o n i n g . Huck, as the backwoodsman, i s an o u t c a s t who depends on h i s n a t i v e w i t and i n s t i n c t i v e t h i n k i n g . H u c k ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h w i t c h c r a f t and f o l k mag ic i n d i c a t e s t h a t some o f the p r i m i t i v i s m o f t he f r o n t i e r s m a n has been r e t a i n e d . J i m , as Negro and s l a v e , a l s o sha re s i n t h e p r i m i t i v e mind and has a d e t a i l e d knowledge o f n a t u r e . He h a s , however , s u rpa s s ed the Negro o f e i t h e r t he m i n s t r e l s y o r of t he S o u t h e r n p l a n t a t i o n f o r h e , " w i t h a l l h i s l i m i t a t i o n s , c o u l d p i e r c e w i t h h i s t h o u g h t . . t o the v e r y 16 co r e o f the p r o b l e m . " Through the t h r e e books i n w h i c h t h e y appear (The Adven tu re s o f Tom Sawyer, The A d v e n t u r e s o f H u c k l e -b e r r y F i n n , and Tom. Sawyer Abroad) Tom, Huck and J i m can be r e c o g n i z e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h r e e ma in s t r a i n s i n Amer i c an i d e n t i t y wh i ch have endured t o t h e p r e s e n t . A l t h o u g h Twa in p r e s e n t s the Yankee, the backwoodsman,and the Negro as r e a l p e o p l e , n o t h i n g o f t h e i r s y m b o l i c q u a l i t y i s l o s t . " [ T ] h e r o m a n t i c escape f r om t h e commonplace i n t o t he f a r a w a y and l o n g ago by w h i c h Tom Sawyer makes l i f e i n h i s humdrum h a m l e t a s e r i e s o f adven tu rou s s u r p r i s e s " (Hof fman, p. 325) i s t he k i n d o f escape u sed by p e o p l e t o o p e d e s t r i a n t o b r eak o p e n l y w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y . Twain shows t h i s same e lement i n t he l a r g e r u n i t o f t he G r a n g e r f o r d f a m i l y , who " i n s o f a r as t h e y 31 a c t o u t i n t he r e a l m o f m o r a l c h o i c e s t h e r o m a n t i c n o t i o n s o f Tom S a w y e r ' s d a y d r e a m s . . . i n d i c t t hemse l ve s and t h e i r c u l t u r e f o r t h e i r l a c k o f f o r g i v e n e s s , t h e i r f a i l u r e t o l o v e . " (Hoffman, p. 328) L ynn sees " t h e s e m i - r e b e l l i o n o f Tom Sawyer [ i n Tom- S a w y e r ] . . . a s t h e means of i n i t i a t i n g h im i n t o the t r i b e a n d . . . t h e a d u l t u n i v e r s e . " (p . 196) Tom, t h e n , I s t he man who a c c e p t s s o c i e t y as i t i s , becomes a p a r t of i t and t h e n l i v e s a c o n v e n t i o n a l l i f e . Huck, on the o t h e r h a n d , i s the i n d i v i d u a l who l i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own c o n v i c t i o n s and i n s t i n c t s . I f he i s c l a s s e d as an o u t s i d e r by s o c i e t y , i t i s because he has chosen t h a t p o s i t i o n f o r h i m s e l f ; i t has no t been imposed . B o t h Hof fman and L ynn i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e two e l e m e n t s : "Tom, and Tom ' s f a m i l y , a r e the w o r l d o f c o n v e n t i o n , r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , and s t a t u s f r o m w h i c h Huck had f l e d i n t he b e g i n n i n g . . . . [ A ] m o n g t h e s e g e n t e e l p e o p l e o f good i n t e n t i o n s bu t a r t i f i c i a l i m p u l s e s , t h e r e i s o n l y one d e f e n c e . And t h a t i s t o f l e e a g a i n " ; (Hoffman, p. 348) and " [ s ] u c h i s t h e f i r m n e s s o f Tom's commitment t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g t h a t when. . .Huck F i n n wou ld grow d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h r e s p e c t a b i l i t y he wou ld n o t even ask h i s o l d f r i e n d t o r u n away w i t h h i m . " (Lynn, p . 196) Huck i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e f u l l meaning of l i f e d u r i n g h i s t r i p d o w n - r i v e r w i t h J i m on t he r a f t . H i s a c cep t ance o f r e a l i t y and h i s r e s p e c t f o r i t g i v e h i m a " s e c r e t wi sdom" and a f r eedom w h i c h Tom w i l l n e ve r be ab l e t o s h a r e . (Hoffman, p . 330) Huck i s u n w i l l i n g t o compromise h i s f reedom i n o r d e r t o con fo rm t o c o n v e n t i o n . As Twa in p r e s e n t s t he s i t u a t i o n i n H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n , " t h e r e a l i t y w h i c h Huck r e spec t s ' . ' i s t he d i g n i t y of the Negro. 32 (Hof fman, p . 349) As Hof fman o b s e r v e s , "One of t h e g r and i r o n i e s o f t h i s book i s t h a t w h i l e i t seems t o show Huck p r o t e c t i n g J i m , J i m i s a l s o t a k i n g c a r e of Huck a l l a l o n g . " ( p . 333) T h i s v i e w , as a p p l i e d t o p a s t N e g r o - w h i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i s one w h i c h has been s t r e s s e d i n r e c e n t e s s a y s and t a l k s about the Amer i c an 17 N e g r o . Bu t J i m r e p r e s e n t s more t h a n the Neg ro . He I s the e lement o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y w h i c h I s k e p t i n s l a v e r y , i n one f o rm o r a n o t h e r , by f o r c e s beyond h i s c o n t r o l . He i s the u n d e r d o g . I f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t (Huck) t r i e s t o p r o t e c t h i m , he i s i n r e a l i t y b e i n g t a k e n c a r e o f i n t u r n , f o r i t i s the underdog who, as v i c t i m o f t he i n s e n s i t i v i t y o f c o n v e n t i o n a l man (Tom), a l l o w s Huck t o be v i ewed g e n e r o u s l y as a " r o m a n t i c o u t c a s t . " (Hof fman, p . 330) S i n c e Tom, Huck and J i m are humorous c h a r a c t e r s , whethe r t a k e n i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t Mark Twa in was a b l e t o e x p l o i t h i s m a t e r i a l s s u c c e s s -f u l l y . B u t , a f t e r h i s t r e a t m e n t of t h e Yankee, backwoodsman and Neg ro , the t h r e e emerged no t so much as c h a r a c t e r s , bu t as e l ement s o f a complex s o c i e t y . And s i n c e the t i m e o f Twa i n , t he emphas i s ha s n o t been on t h e t y p e so much as on t h e more complex e l e m e n t s . E a ch e l e m e n t , as i t emanates f r om T w a i n , has p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l f o r l i t e r a t u r e b o t h s e r i o u s and humorous. ' , As, has been shown, t he t r a i t s o f t h e t h r e e f i g u r e s were b e g i n n i n g t o merge b e f o r e Twa i n began w r i t i n g . Thus shrewdness and p ragmat i sm were a t t r i b u t e d t o b o t h the Yankee and t he b a c k -woodsman; t he backwoodsman and the Negro b o t h p o s s e s s e d p r i m i t i v -i s t i c q u a l i t i e s and were w e l l - v e r s e d i n mag ic and the ways o f 33 n a t u r e ; the Negro and t he Yankee s ha red a c u l t u r a l atmosphere f r om w h i c h t he backwoodsman had w i t h d r a w n . The m a i n o p p o s i t i o n , however , was between the Yankee and the backwoodsman. A f t e r T w a i n , many o f the o l d o p p o s i t i o n s — o f E a s t and West, c u l t u r e and r oughne s s , e d u c a t i o n and i g n o r a n c e , c i t y and c o u n t r y — p e r s i s t e d , b u t t h e r e were new ones added. The Toms were c o n v e n t i o n a l and c a u t i o u s where t he Hucks were i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and w i l f u l . The Toms h i d mi sdeeds b e h i n d p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s ; t h e Hucks were o p e n l y h o n e s t about e v e r y t h i n g , even t h e i r d i s h o n e s t y . The Tom f i g u r e was the common man, t he Huck f i g u r e was t he n o n - c o n f o r m i s t . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o the underdog u n d e r l i n e s t h e i r g e n e r a l o p p o s i t i o n . The J ims were t r e a t e d as human b e i n g s and f r i e n d s by the Huck s , and as o b j e c t s f o r r i d i c u l e and contempt by t he Toms. I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f h u m o r i s t s i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , N o r r i s Y a t e s c o n t i n u e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f Rourke (and L y n n ) , s t a t i n g i n h i s , i n t r o d u c t i o n : "The c l o s e s t t h i n g t o a ' k e y * t h a t can be f ound t o t h e p r i n t e d humor o f t h i s p e r i o d i s t he n l 9 h u m o r i s t s ' use o f c h a r a c t e r t y p e s . " He d e a l s w i t h t h r e e t y p e s , t h e r u s t i c s age , the r e s p e c t a b l e c i t i z e n , and the L i t t l e Man. ( p . 12) These t h r e e can be r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d as v e r s i o n s o f t he Tom f i g u r e f o r each r e p r e s e n t s a t y p e who i s mak ing h i s way t h r o u g h l i f e w i t h i n t he c o n f i n e s of c o n v e n t i o n and the emphas i s , i n each c a s e , i s o n . t h e u r b a n f o r even t he sage, o r c r a c k e r -b a r r e l p h i l o s o p h e r , has moved i n t o town. The evo l vement i n the i m a g i n a r y common man as summarized by Y a t e s , i s comparab le t o t h e evo l vement o f the Yankee i n t o the Tom f i g u r e : 34 E c o n o m i c a l l y t h i s common man o f the myth has become l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t ; s o c i a l l y he has l o s t g r ound , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y he f e e l s l e s s s e c u r e . I n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y he was e i t h e r a b l e n d o f Poo r R i c h a r d and Honest Abe o r such a p l a i n b u t w e l l - t o - d o bu s i ne s sman as Henry James 1 C h r i s t o p h e r Newman; i n e i t h e r case he tended, t o be s e l f - m a d e , s e l f -emp loyed , and s e l f - r e l i a n t ; he l i v e d i n , o r a t l e a s t came f r o m , a r u r a l a r e a , and, f o r b e t t e r o r wo r se , he was an a c t i v e c i t i z e n and v o t e r . By t he m i d d l e o f t he t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y he had become a s a l a r i e d , w h i t e - c o l l a r hack who s t i l l owned h i s own home b u t no t h i s b u s i n e s s , who l i v e d i n t he c i t y o r commuted f r o m a s ubu rb , and whose r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e community and the S t a t e was m a i n l y t h e p a s s i v e one o f consumer, b o t h o f goods and o f p ropaganda . Mo reove r , he e x p e r i e n c e d much c o n f u s i o n o f v a l u e s and at t i m e s even doubted h i s own i d e n t i t y . As a c i t i z e n he had sh runk ; as a p e r s o n a l i t y he was t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , ( p . 3 8 f . ) There i s a l o n g l i s t o f works w h i c h use the common man as m a t e r i a l f o r humour. S i n c l a i r L e w i s ' s B a b b i t t i s p r o b a b l y t he b e s t known of t h e e a r l i e r works a l t h o u g h John K e n d r i c k Bang s , a t t he t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y , " w r o t e much o f h i s work f r o m the s t a n d -p o i n t of t h e f a i r l y w e l l - t o - d o suburban h o u s e h o l d e r . . . . [ a n d w i t h ] e a r l i e r humorists o f s u b u r b i a , i n c l u d i n g F r e d e r i c k Swartwout C o z z e n s . . . . [ a n d ] Hayden C a r u t h , . . . a n t i c i p a t e d t h e humor about s u b u r b i a by I r v i n S. Cobb, Robe r t B e n c h l e y , James T h u r b e r , and E . B. W h i t e , among o t h e r s . " ( Y a t e s , p . 5 3 f . ) 'Among o t h e r s ' c o u l d i n c l u d e H. L . Mencken and R i n g L a r d n e r , who b o t h t r e a t e d common man s a t i r i c a l l y , and Don M a r q u i s who u sed a s m a l l - t o w n c h a r a c t e r t o s a t i r i z e " t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t he s m a l l - t o w n env i ronment t h a t had ex tended t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n t o the c i t y . " ( Y a t e s , p . 197) C o m i c - s t r i p c h a r a c t e r s such as Dagwood Bumstead, Henry T r e m b l e c h i n and Mr . M i l q u e t o a s t a re w i t h i n t h e same t r a d i t i o n . Pe rhap s because the Huck f i g u r e , t h e n o n - c o n f o r m i s t o r i n d i v i d u a l i s t , was s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r more s e r i o u s f i c t i o n , no d e f i n i t e humorous t r e n d o f l i t e r a t u r e d e v e l o p e d d i r e c t l y ou t o f 35 i t . The t y p e has f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n ' W e s t e r n * s t o r i e s where t h e cowboy i s h e r o . A c c o r d i n g t o J . P r ank D o b i e , t h e "cowboy became the be s t - known o c c u p a t i o n a l t y p e t h a t A m e r i c a has g i v e n the w o r l d . " B u t , a l t h o u g h the " t r a i l d r i v e r s o f open range d a y s . . . f e l t the u rge t o r e c o r d e x p e r i e n c e s more s t r o n g l y t h a n t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s , " (Dob ie , p . 90) t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f the range w i l l n o t mature u n t i l i t can " i n c l u d e keene r s e a r c h i n g s f o r meanings and h a r d e r s t r u g g l e s f o r human t r u t h s . " (Dob ie , p . 92) The ' W e s t e r n ' has n o t p r o v i d e d t h e p r o p e r m a t e r i a l f o r humorous l i t e r a t u r e b u t has r a t h e r been m o n o p o l i z e d by t h e mov ie s o r ha s gone i n t o s u b - l i t e r a t u r e . The t r a d i t i o n s i n t he ' W e s t e r n ' w h i c h c o u l d have been u sed by l i t e r a r y h u m o r i s t s - - t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t he cowboy and h i s h o r s e , t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o s t i t u t e i n t h e West, t h e o p p o s i t i o n between the cowboy and t h e d u d e — were q u i c k l y e x p l o i t e d by t he mov ie -maker s t h e m s e l v e s . In f a c t , B l a i r ' s c h a p t e r on Pecos B i l l , 2 1 a l o n e , i s p r o o f t h a t range l i f e was b a r e l y i n e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e i t was seen as r i p e f o r p a r o d y . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o t r a c e t h e Huck t r e n d i n l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine o t h e r avenues . W. M. F r o h o c k speaks o f a s p e c i a l k i n d o f humour i n A m e r i c a . I t i s a humour n a t i v e t o ou r e a r t h and d e e p r o o t e d i n h i s t o r y . I t s m a t e r i a l i s t he man who has been l e f t b e h i n d i n t h e r u s h t o d e v e l o p our f r o n t i e r s , t h e man who s t a y e d i n one p l a c e , ou t o f and away f r o m t h e m a i n c u r r e n t of ou r d e v e l o p i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n , so l a r g e l y un touched by what we t h i n k o f as p r o g r e s s t h a t h i s f o l k w a y s and mores seem t o u s , a t t h e i r b e s t , q u a i n t and a l i t t l e e x o t i c — a n d , a t t h e i r w o r s t , d e g e n e r a t e . 2 2 Here i s t he s ou rce f o r the humour o f some of the w r i t i n g o f 36 E r s k i n e C a l d w e l l , E u d o r a W e l t y , * W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , and 26 Tennessee W i l l i a m s . The c h a r a c t e r s a re r u r a l and s i m p l e . They are humorous because they a re o u t s i d e the norms of a c c e p t e d s o c i e t y . They are no t underdogs because t h e y are no t n e c e s s a r i l y o p p r e s s e d . They a re p e o p l e whose ways a re i n c o n g r u o u s t o t h o s e o f s o c i e t y and a re t h e r e f o r e seen as e x o t i c . A l s o , t h e y appear remote i n t ime as w e l l as i n p l a c e . They are i d e a l i z e d as p r i m i t i v e s and are t h e r e f o r e spa red c o n s i d e r a t i o n as o u t c a s t s . One o f t h e c l e a r e s t examples o f t he i d e a l i z a t i o n i s the case o f t h e h i l l b i l l y o f the H a t f i e l d - M c C o y t r a d i t i o n . Add t o t h i s t y p e o f m a t e r i a l a l l ways o f l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y r u r a l , w h i c h seem p e c u l i a r , or a t l e a s t ou t o f the o r d i n a r y t o the common man, and t h e f i e l d o f t he Huck t r e n d i s o u t l i n e d . W r i t i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o the underdog has been l i m i t e d m o s t l y t o t r a c t s and o t h e r s o c i a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n . I nvo l vement w i t h h i s s u b j e c t u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t s the a u t h o r ' s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y and the work t end s t o d i d a c t i c i s m , p r e s c r i p t i o n , o r s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . H a r r i e t Beeche r S t o w e ' s U n c l e Tom's C a b i n s u f f e r e d f rom t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n as d i d R i c h a r d W r i g h t ' s N a t i v e Son. A l s o , the w r i t e r se ldom g a i n s the detachment n e c e s s a r y f o r a humorous t r e a t m e n t . T h i s , t h e n , i s t he Amer i c an t r a d i t i o n o f humour. The f i g u r e s o f t he Yankee, the backwoodsman and t h e Negro domina ted the scene u n t i l t he t i m e of Mark T w a i n . Twa in u sed t h e t r a i t s o f t he t h r e e f o r h i s more complex Tom, Huck and J i m f i g u r e s , and t he se e v o l v e d , a f t e r T w a i n , i n t o the common man, u s u a l l y u r b a n , t he n o n -c o n f o r m i s t , u s u a l l y r u r a l , and the unde rdog , u s u a l l y t r e a t e d s e r i o u s l y . 37 The a r e a o f t h e underdog i s one J ohn S t e i n b e c k has chosen i n w h i c h t o e x p l o i t h i s n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s f o r humorous l i t e r a t u r e . Where C a l d w e l l , W i l l i a m s and o t h e r s w ro te of n o n - c o n f o r m i n g p e o p l e who were l o o k e d upon g o o d - n a t u r e d l y by the r e s t o f s o c i e t y , S t e i n b e c k ' s c o n c e r n i s f o r the g r o u p , o r the i n d i v i d u a l , d e s p i s e d , even abused by s o c i e t y . H i s c o n c e r n has been such t h a t he has 27 ea rned f o r h i m s e l f a r e p u t a t i o n o f champion o f the unde rdog . He has n o t g a i n e d t h i s r e p u t a t i o n , however , s o l e l y because o f h i s humorous wo r k s . Of the n o v e l s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the unde rdog , two a re e x t r e m e l y s e r i o u s . S t e i n b e c k has u sed the underdog as s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n s e v e r a l n o v e l s . The p a i s a n o s o f T o r t i l l a F l a t a re " c l e a n of c o m m e r c i a l i s m , f r e e o f the c o m p l i c a t e d sys tems of Ame r i c an b u s i n e s s " and l i v e i n t h e p a r t o f Mon te rey where " t h e s t r e e t s a re i n n o c e n t o f a s p h a l t and t he c o r n e r s f r e e o f s t r e e t l i g h t s , " and t h e y a re s co rned by b o t h E n g l i s h and S p a n i s h f o r t h e y speak the l anguage o f b o t h w i t h a p a i s a n o a c c e n t . (TF, p. 3) I n I n Dub ious B a t t l e , S t e i n b e c k " t r i e d t o make a m e a n i n g f u l p a t t e r n ou t o f t he b e h a v i o u r o f i i 29 e x p l o i t e d men who were not a b l e t o speak f o r t h e m s e l v e s . " I n The Grapes o f Wrath t h e c h a r a c t e r s a re p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t he m i g r a n t wo rke r s i n C a l i f o r n i a whom he saw as " b a d g e r e d , t o rmen ted and 30 h u r t . . . t o r m e n t e d and s t a r v e d . " Mack and the boys o f Cannery  Row and Sweet Thu r sday a re t hough t o f by t he r e s t o f Monte rey as " no - good s , c o m e - t o - b a d - e n d s , b l o t s - o n - t h e - t o w n , t h i e v e s , r a s c a l s , bums. " (CR, p . 278) Of t h e s e n o v e l s , T o r t i l l a F l a t , Cannery Row, and Sweet Thur sday a re h i g h l y amus ing , The Grapes o f Wrath c o n t a i n s some humour, and I n Dub ious B a t t l e I s c o m p l e t e l y s e r i o u s . 38 But S t e i n b e c k does no t r e s t r i c t h i s humorous w r i t i n g s t o t h e f i e l d o f t he underdog a l o n e . Doc, i n Cannery Row and Sweet Thu r sday , e x h i b i t s the q u a l i t i e s o f t he Huck f i g u r e . The Wayward  Bus and The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t use the common man t o s a t i r i z e modern u rban s o c i e t y . I t i s i n the a r e a o f t he unde rdog , however , t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i s most s u c c e s s f u l and t h i s i s due , i n p a r t , t o h i s a b i l i t y t o e l e v a t e h i s c h a r a c t e r s , t h r o u g h humour, t o t h e l e v e l o f the Huck f i g u r e . Thus, i n o r d e r to a s s e s s h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e unde rdog , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o examine h i s c oncep t o f the Huck f i g u r e , who i s h i s i d e a l man. F r e n c h sees the S t e i n b e c k h e r o as " t h e man who i s ab2e t o do h i s j o b e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l , " w i t h " emphas i s p l a c e d upon s k i l l and c r a f t s m a n s h i p . " (p . 78) He o b s e r v e s t h a t " a f f e c t i o n , s k i l l and r e s p e c t have been t he t r a i t o f a l l the r e a l l y h e r o i c men i n h i s n o v e l s — D o c t o r B u r t o n i n I n Dub iou s B a t t l e , S l i m i n Of M i ce and Men, Tom Joad i n The Grapes o f Wra th , Mayor Orden i n The Moon I s Down, Doc i n Cannery Row, and Juan C h i c o y i n The Wayward B u s . " ( p . 149) To t h i s l i s t may be added B i l l y Buck o f The Red Pony, Lee o f E a s t o f Eden and even Joe S a u l o f B u r n i n g B r i g h t . Bu t F r e n c h goes even f u r t h e r and p l a c e s Doc o f Canne ry Row as the s p e c i f i c S t e i n b e c k h e r o : Doc i s t h e man who s u r v i v e s , the h e r o i c f i g u r e . Doc i s n o t p e r f e c t ; he i s n o t i n f a l l i b l e . . . . D o c i s a man who has l e a r n e d t h a t l o v e b r i n g s s u f f e r i n g , b u t he i s one who has l e a r n e d t o f i n d compensa t i on f o r the f r a i l t i e s o f human n a t u r e and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , (p . 135) I n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n , t o o , S t e i n b e c k ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f i g u r e s d i s c l o s e what he v i ews as i d e a l . The most i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e i s h i s c l o s e f r i e n d , Ed R i c k e t t s , who c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h h im on 39 Sea o f C o r t e z ( 1941 ) . F r e n c h l i n k s R i c k e t t s t o S t e i n b e c k ' s f i c t i o n a l work: The a d m i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s Doc; and i t i s e n t i r e l y c l e a r f r om the e s s a y " A b o u t Ed R i c k e t t s " [ i n L S C j . . . t h a t Doc i n Cannery Row i s a p i c t u r e o f R i c k e t t s , t o whom S t e i n b e c k d e d i c a t e d t he book . The i n f l u e n c e o f R i c k e t t s on S t e i n b e c k ' s whole l i f e and work i s i n c a l c u l a b l e , b u t c e r t a i n l y Cannery  Row makes i t c l e a r t h a t S t e i n b e c k r e g a r d e d R i c k e t t s as t h e most n e a r l y i d e a l f i g u r e he had m e t — t h e h e r o i c symbol o f human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s w i s e l y u t i l i z e d , (p. 136) The R i c k e t t s - D o c f i g u r e , t h e n , ( o b v i o u s , a l s o , i n t h e p o r t r a y a l of Doc B u r t o n i n I n Dub iou s B a t t l e and D r . P h i l l i p s i n "The Shake " ) r e p r e s e n t s S t e i n b e c k ' s i d e a l man. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g how the a u t h o r c r e a t e s humour by u s i n g t h i s f i g u r e as h i s r e f e r e n c e p o i n t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f ano the r f i g u r e w h i c h e l i c i t s S t e i n b e c k ' s a d m i r a t i o n s e r v e s t o add t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s concept o f i d e a l man: Around the c o r n e r f rom where I l i v e a bar row man has h i s p o s t . He c l e a n s the s t r e e t and p i c k s up pape r s i n the p a r k . He l i v e s a c o m f o r t a b l e and s u c c e s s f u l l i f e . A t n i g h t he s l e e p s under t h e ba r row and when i t r a i n s he d rapes a w a t e r -p r o o f cove r o ve r t he h a n d l e s t o make a s h e l t e r . H i s f r i e n d s v i s i t h im under h i s ba r row and sometimes t h e y p l a y c a r d s . The postman d e l i v e r s m a i l t o t h e b a r r o w . The ba r row man has a lways a b o t t l e o f wine u n c o r k e d i n h i s s h o u l d e r bag and a p i e c e o f b r e a d and cheese f o r h i s f r i e n d s . H i s eye i s mer ry and h i s nose i s n o t p a l e . I n the g r e a t w o r l d he wou ld be c o n s i d e r e d a f a i l u r e and someth ing o f a r a s c a l , f o r t he w o r l d o f p r o p e r t y c o n s i d e r s i t a s i n t o be c o n t e n t w i t h o u t t h i n g s . . . . M y man has a p p a r e n t l y g i v e n up t h i n g s he can do w i t h o u t f o r o t h e r s t h a t a re more i m p o r t a n t . I admire h i m . 1 The ba r r ow man i s n o t o p p r e s s e d y e t S t e i n b e c k ' s r e a s o n s f o r a d m i r i n g h im c l o s e l y r e semb le t h e r ea son s a t t r i b u t e d t o h im by Beach f o r a d m i r i n g t h e u n d e r d o g - - " b e c a u s e o f h i s many v i r t u e s . And t h e n , because i n h im the p r i m a r y human i m p u l s e s a re l e s s o v e r l a i d w i t h d i s g u i s e , and s t a n d out i n s t a r k s i m p l i c i t y . " (p. 87) The Huck f i g u r e and the J i m f i g u r e , t h e n , share t r a i t s w h i c h 40 S t e i n b e c k a d m i r e s . They a re n o n - m a t e r i a l i s t i c and u n p r e t e n t i o u s as opposed t o the g r a s p i n g , h y p o c r i t i c a l Tom f i g u r e s who a r e t a r g e t s f o r many o f h i s s a t i r i c a l a t t a c k s . Bu t S t e i n b e c k ' s Huck f i g u r e i s i d e a l because he i s s k i l f u l i n h i s own j o b , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t bu t n o t m a t e r i a l i s t i c , neve r l o s e s s i g h t o f t he impo r t ance o f t h e r e s t o f h u m a n i t y , and, a l t h o u g h r a r e l y a humorous f i g u r e , p o s s e s s e s an awareness wh i ch a l l o w s a humorous o u t l o o k . J u s t as Doc f u n c t i o n s as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i n Cannery Row and Sweet Thu r sday , a l l o w i n g Mack and the>boys t o be p r e s e n t e d humorou s l y i n t h e i r c o n t r a s t t o h i m , so the Huck f i g u r e f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t S t e i n b e c k ' s works as a c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r o f the i d e a l . W i t h t he i d e a l i n m ind , c h a r a c t e r s and a c t i o n s g e n e r a t e humour i n an amount d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r d e v i a t i o n f r om i t . And by u s i n g the Huck f i g u r e as a s t a n d a r d , S t e i n b e c k i s a b l e t o a c h i e v e humour i n a number o f ways . H i s Huck f i g u r e c a n , h i m s e l f , be amusing i n h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . By d e t e r m i n i n g h i s own p o s i t i o n between t he o t h e r two f i g u r e s , t h a t i s , by r e m a i n i n g above the J i m l e v e l and by r e j e c t i n g the Tom p o s i t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t he Huck f i g u r e t o comprehend f u l l y t h e i n c o n g r u i t i e s p r e s e n t i n b o t h , and t h e r e f o r e he i s a b l e h i m s e l f t o p roduce humour i n t e n t i o n -a l l y . I t i s t h i s v e r y awarenes s , f o r example , wh i ch moves Tom Joad out o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f the underdog t o t h a t o f the Huck f i g u r e . I n h i s r ough j o k i n g w i t h the one -eyed mechan ic he r e v e a l s h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o t h t he opp re s s ed man and h i s h a r s h e m p l o y e r . (G_W, p . 245) A n o t h e r s ou rce o f humour f o r the Huck f i g u r e i s the e x h i b i t i o n by h im of the l e s s i d e a l a t t r i b u t e s 41 o f the J i m f i g u r e , such as D o c ' s s h i f t l e s s manner o f h o u s e k e e p i n g . The J i m f i g u r e i s humorous when he i s e l e v a t e d t o the l e v e l o f t he Huck f i g u r e , f o r , a f t e r a l l , Danny and h i s p a i s a n o s , Mack and h i s boys a re p r e s e n t e d as s k i l f u l i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n (which i s t o s t a y i d l e ) , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t (they s t e a l what t h e y need) and n o n - m a t e r i a l i s t i c ( t hey l a c k p o s s e s s i o n s ) . The J i m f i g u r e a l s o s e r v e s t o c r e a t e humour when he a s p i r e s t o t h e l e v e l of the Tom f i g u r e , as when a p a i s a n o woman pushes a vacuum c l e a n e r a l t h o u g h she has no e l e c t r i c i t y (TP, p . 51) or when one of M a c k ' s boys i s w o r r y - r i d d e n about becoming p r e s i d e n t of t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . (ST, p . 140) The Torm f i g u r e , a l o n e , g e n e r a t e s humour, u s u a l l y s a t i r e , as i s t he case w i t h E t h a n Hawley i n The W i n t e r of Our  D i s c o n t e n t . And when he a t t e m p t s t o assume the Huck r o l e , l i k e the b u s i n e s s man who condescends t o r i d e on a bus i n o r d e r t o " s ee the c o u n t r y b e t t e r t h a t way" and t o " s e e what t he p e o p l e , the r e a l p e o p l e , [ a r e ] t a l k i n g a b o u t , " (WB, p . 247) he i s i n v a r i a b l y f u n n y . S t e i n b e c k ' s s u cce s s w i t h humour, t h e n , depends not so much on t h e v a r i e t y o f h i s comic f i g u r e s as on the v a r i e t y o f ways i n w h i c h he m a n i p u l a t e s t h e l e v e l s o f the t h r e e ma in c h a r a c t e r s i n Ame r i c an humorous f i c t i o n - - t h e common man, the non - con fo rm i s t ; , and t he unde rdog . Not o n l y has he "become aware of n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s f o r humorous l i t e r a t u r e " and l e a r n e d "how t o e x p l o i t t h e m „ " 3 2 b u t he ha s h a n d l e d them m e a n i n g f u l l y w i t h i n the A m e r i c a n t r a d i t i o n . S t e i n b e c k ' s humour, l i k e h i s w r i t i n g g e n e r a l l y , has an " i n d e l i b l e A m e r i c a n s t amp . " (Moore, p . 87) 42 C h a p t e r Three D e f i n i t i o n s B e f o r e an a u t h o r ' s humour can be d i s c u s s e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine humour i n g e n e r a l terms and t o d e f i n e i t s many a s p e c t s . The pu rpo se o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e l i n e a t e t h e terms u sed i n the a n a l y s i s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour. T h i s i s done by d e f i n i n g the q u a l i t i e s p r e s e n t i n humour, by i s o l a t i n g i t f r om r e l a t e d modes, by d e f i n i n g the g e n e r a l a r ea s w i t h i n wh i ch a w r i t e r ' s a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e humour may be a s s e s s e d , and by d e f i n i n g the l i t e r a r y fo rms w h i c h depend c h i e f l y on humour and t h e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t h r o u g h w h i c h humour can be c r e a t e d . Among t h o s e who s t u d y humour as a phenomenon t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the b a s i s of humour i s i n c o n g r u i t y . James S u l l y speaks o f t h e German p h i l o s o p h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y o f K a n t , and t h e i r " I n t e l l e c t u a l Theo r y , o r Theory of C o n t r a r i e t y , o r I n c o n g r u i t y . " 1 He r e f e r s more d e f i n i t e l y t o S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s t h e o r y o f i n c o n g r u i t y , where i n " ' e v e r y i n s t a n c e . . . t h e phenomenon o f l a u g h t e r i n d i c a t e s t h e sudden p e r c e p t i o n o f an i n c o n g r u i t y between a c o n c e p t i o n . . . a n d a r e a l o b j e c t , wh i ch i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d o r ' t h o u g h t ' t h r o u g h . . . t h i s c o n c e p t i o n . " 1 (p . 130) C h a r l e s D a r w i n , c o n s i d e r i n g l a u g h t e r w h i c h r e s u l t s f r om a l u d i c r o u s i d e a , e x p l a i n s t h e cause as " s o m e t h i n g u n e x p e c t e d — a n o v e l o r i n c o n g r u o u s i d e a wh ich b r e a k s t h r ough an h a b i t u a l t r a i n of t h o u g h t " ; 2 and f o r W i l l i a m H a z l i t t , "the e s sence o f the l a u g h a b l e . . . i s t he i n c o n g r u o u s , the d i s c o n -n e c t i n g one i d e a f r om a n o t h e r , as t he j o s t l i n g o f one f e e l i n g a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . " S tephen Leacock u se s the te rm f r e e l y i n b o t h 43 h i s a n a l y s e s o f humour, s t a t i n g t h a t "humour f i n d s i t s b a s i s i n 4 the i n c o n g r u i t y o f l i f e i t s e l f . " E ven t h e c o m p l i c a t e d machine t h e o r y o f H e n r i B e r g s on can be r e d u c e d t o a s i m p l e t h e o r y o f i n c o n g r u i t y , f o r " [ s ] o m e t h i n g m e c h a n i c a l e n c r u s t e d on t h e l i v i n g " can be seen as m e r e l y t h a t wh i ch i s i n c o n g r u o u s t o the n a t u r a l p r o c e s s o f l i f e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d , t h e n , t h a t i n c o n g r u i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f humour. A l t h o u g h humour i s a lways based on i n c o n g r u i t y , i n c o n g r u i t y i s n o t a lways humorous. F o r examp le , g u i l l o t i n i n g i s n o t humorous though i t i s i n c o n g r u o u s t o n a t u r e t h a t a man ' s head be s e ve r ed f rom h i s body . T h e r e f o r e i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t some f u r t h e r q u a l i t y i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o r e n d e r t h e i n c o n g r u i t y humorous. T h i s q u a l i t y i s d e a l t w i t h by Sigmund F r e u d i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t he e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f the I n d i v i d u a l when humour a r i s e s : " t h e p l e a s u r e . . . o f humor [ o r i g i n a t e s ] f r o m an economy o f e x p e n d i t u r e o f f e e l i n g . " T h i s i s a p o i n t wh i ch i s d e a l t w i t h a t more l e n g t h by B e r g s o n , who speaks o f l a u g h t e r as b e i n g accompanied by " ab sence o f f e e l i n g " and f u r t h e r , t h a t " [ i ] n d i f f e r e n c e I s i t s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r l a u g h t e r has no g r e a t e r f o e t han e m o t i o n . " (p . 63) S i n c e h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f humour i n v o l v e s m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f l i f e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t he s h o u l d see a c e r t a i n u n n a t u r a l n e s s o r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f emot ion s i n the i n d i v i d u a l engaged i n humour and t h a t two o f h i s e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r l a u g h t e r s h o u l d be " [ u n s o c i a b i l i t y i n t h e p e r f o r m e r and i n s e n s i b i l i t y i n the s p e c t a t o r . " (p . 1 5 4 f . ) Max Eastman s t i p u l a t e s t h a t t he " f e e l i n g s a r ou sed i n t he p e r s o n who i s e x p e c t e d t o l a u g h must n o t be t o o s t r o n g and d e e p . " The o p i n i o n t h a t humour I s d i v o r c e d f r o m 44 emot i on i s i n c l u d e d i n a lmos t any w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t o f humour, whethe r i t appear i n d e f i n i t e te rms such as Edmund B e r g l e r ' s " l a u g h t e r i s an a n t i d o t e t o i n n e r e m o t i o n s , " 8 o r Suzanne L a n g e r ' s o b l i q u e c o n c e r n w i t h how comedy u ses u n r e a l i s t i c e f f e c t s " t o c l e a r t h e way f o r i t s h u m o r . " 9 Humour, t h e r e f o r e , i s based on i n c o n g r u i t y and a r i s e s when t h e aud i ence i s k e p t f r om e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . Even g u i l l o t i n i n g can be amusing i f p r e s e n t e d I n a manner wh i ch d i s t a n c e s the a u d i e n c e s u f f i c i e n t l y f r om the h o r r o r . C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e t e l l s o f a pantomime i n w h i c h an i n v e t e r a t e t h i e f , whose appearance and a c t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d i n a h i g h l y exaggerated way, was condemned t o t h e g u i l l o t i n e : A f t e r s t r u g g l i n g and b e l l o w i n g l i k e an ox t h a t s c e n t s t he s l a u g h t e r - h o u s e , a t l a s t P i e r r o t bowed t o h i s f a t e . H i s head was s e v e r e d f r o m h i s n e c k — a g r e a t r e d and w h i t e h e a d , w h i c h r o l l e d n o i s i l y t o r e s t i n f r o n t o f t h e p r o m p t e r ' s b ox , showing t he b l e e d i n g d i s k o f t he neck , t he s p l i t v e r t e b r a e and a l l t h e d e t a i l s o f a p i e c e o f b u t c h e r ' s meat j u s t d r e s s e d f o r t he c o u n t e r . And t h e n a l l o f a sudden, t h e d e c a p i t a t e d t r u n k , moved by i t s i r r e s i s t i b l e o b s e s s i o n w i t h t h e f t , jumped t o i t s f e e t , t r i u m p h a n t l y ' l i f t e d ' i t s own head as though i t was [ s i c ] a ham or a 1 C b o t t l e o f w i n e , a n d . . . p r o c e e d e d t o s t u f f i t i n t o i t s p o c k e t ! Here pantomime and h y p e r b o l e have p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y d i s t a n c e . I n c o n g r u i t y , t h e n , i s a lway s humorous u n l e s s the aud i ence i s t o o e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the v i c t i m t o g a i n s u f f i c i e n t detachment t o be aware o f t he i n c o n g r u i t y . Y e t the most h o r r i f y i n g i n c o n -g r u i t y can be made humorous t h r o u g h adequate d i s t a n c i n g . I t i s t he f u n c t i o n o f t h e h u m o r i s t t o c r e a t e t h i s d i s t a n c e . A long w i t h the n e c e s s a r y q u a l i t i e s o f i n c o n g r u i t y and de tachment , t h e r e i s a lway s i m p l i c i t i n humour t he r e s u l t a n t q u a l i t y o f c o r r e c t i o n . The e x a m i n a t i o n of any j o k e o r humorous 45 p i e c e r e v e a l s t h a t someth ing o r someone i s u s u a l l y the b u t t o f t he l a u g h t e r . F o r m e r e l y t o l a u g h a t someone i m p l i e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r i s c o n t r a r y t o the e x p e c t e d , t h a t the i n c o n g r u i t y between h i s b e h a v i o u r and the norm i s t h e cause f o r m i r t h . C o n t a i n e d i n humour, t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f a c o r r e c t i o n . Even when humour, o p e r a t i n g i n a h i g h l i t e r a r y s en se , f u l f i l l s an a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n , the a t tempt t o c o r r e c t i s s t i l l i n h e r e n t i n t he work . F o r examp le , when t h e r e a d e r l a u g h s a t t he a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o f t he p a i s a n o s i n T o r t i l l a F l a t , he i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e y do not l i v e a c c o r d i n g t o t he a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . Pe rhaps Be r g son i s most s u c c e s s f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g the c o r r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f humour: " L a u g h t e r . . . d o e s no t b e l o n g t o t h e p r o v i n c e o f e s t h e t i c s a l o n e , s i n c e u n c o n s c i o u s l y . . . i t pu r s ue s an u t i l i t a r i a n aim o f g e n e r a l imp rovemen t . " (p. 73) P u r s u i n g t h e u t i l i t a r i a n a spec t o f a r t , Be r g son c o n t i n u e s : j u s t because l a u g h t e r aims a t c o r r e c t i n g , i t i s e x p e d i e n t t h a t t he c o r r e c t i o n s h o u l d r e a c h as g r e a t a number o f p e r s o n s as p o s s i b l e . T h i s i s t he r e a s o n comic o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t i n c t i v e l y p r o c e e d s t o what i s g e n e r a l . I t c h o o s e s . . . p e c u l i a r i t i e s t h a t a re h e l d i n c o m m o n . . . . [ I t ] c r e a t e s works w h i c h d o u b t l e s s b e l o n g t o a r t I n t h a t t h e i r o n l y v i s i b l e aim i s t o p l e a s e , b u t w h i c h w i l l be f ound t o c o n t r a s t w i t h o t h e r works o f a r t by r e a s o n o f t h e i r g e n e r a l i t y , and a l s o o f t h e i r s c a r c e l y c o n f e s s e d o r s c a r c e l y c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t i o n t o c o r r e c t and i n s t r u c t , ( p . 170) B a s i c t o t he i m p l i c i t c o r r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f humour i s t he t h e o r y t h a t humour stems f r om f e e l i n g s o f a g g r e s s i o n . F r eud r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i o n between a g g r e s s i o n and humour when he s t a t e s t h a t " t r a n s f e r r i n g i n t o a comic s i t u a t i o n . . . i s a good a i d i n a g g r e s s i o n , i n t h e s e r v i c e o f w h i c h p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e 46 comic i s wont t o p l a c e i t s e l f . " (CTP, p . 73) Edmund B e r g l e r s t a t e s t h a t a l l fo rms o f humour a re " d i r e c t e d at one s p e c i f i c i n n e r d a n g e r : t he a c c u s a t i o n by i n n e r c o n s c i e n c e t h a t one i s a l o v e r o f t he p l e a s u r e - i n - d i s p l e a s u r e p a t t e r n - - p s y c h i c masoch i sm. T h e . . . e g o ' s answer i s s p e c i o u s a g r e s s i o n . " (p . x ) B e r g l e r ' s t h e s i s i s t h a t humour r e p l a c e s the f e e l i n g o f a g g r e s s i o n as the weapon u sed a g a i n s t t he u n c o n s c i o u s s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n o f m a s o c h i s m — t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n b y p s e u d o - a g g r e s s i o n f o r a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e s . The t h e o r y t h a t humour r e p l a c e s a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e s can be a p p l i e d o u t s i d e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p s y che t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s t o h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . The f e e l i n g o f anger can be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h open a g g r e s s i o n o r t h r o u g h humour. F o r example , when S t e i n b e c k became i n c e n s e d a t t h e i n t r u s i o n i n t o h i s p r i v a c y caused by a l i b r a r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , he d i d no t answer w i t h i n v e c t i v e bu t w r o t e : Name: John E r n s t A l c i b r a d e s S o c r a t e s S t e i n b e c k . B o r n : L e s b o s , Magna G r a e c a , 1902 . F a t h e r : He rodo tu s Xenophon S t e i n b e c k . Mo the r : G h l o e M a t h i l d e L o p e z . . . . W r i t i n g s : The Uns t rung H a r p i e . Donohoe, 1 9 0 6 . . . . B a r n a c l e s ( B a l l i n a d a e ) . Monograph. 2 v o l s . . . . Bugs, a C r i t i c a l S t udy . Morb ide P r e s s . 1 1 T h i s c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e must have been more g r a t i f y i n g t o S t e i n b e c k h i m s e l f t h a n had he answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a r s h l y , and i t d o u b t l e s s i m p r e s s e d t h e l i b r a r y o f f i c i a l s more t h a n a more d i r e c t o b j e c t i o n wou ld have done . The f a c t t h a t a g g r e s s i o n I s t he source, and c o r r e c t i o n i s t h e a im, o f humour i s most c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d i n m i l i t a n t humour such as s a t i r e , i n w h i c h t h e w r i t e r a t t e m p t s t o c o r r e c t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f manners w h i c h have angered h im by r e n d e r i n g them l a u g h a b l e t h r o u g h r i d i c u l e . One o f t he d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i s c u s s i n g an a u t h o r ' s humorous 47 w r i t i n g i s t h a t t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l vagueness s u r r o u n d i n g t h e meanings o f te rms r e l a t e d t o humour. Some d e f i n e r s a re r e l u c t a n t t o commit t h e m s e l v e s t o d e f i n i t e s t a t emen t s about t he v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f humour, g i v i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f r e l a t e d modes r a t h e r 12 t h a n d e f i n i t i o n s . Some d e a l w i t h t h e t e rm ' humour 1 i n a r e s t r i c t e d s en se , s e p a r a t i n g i t f rom such terms as ' w i t , ' ' s a t i r e , ' 1 and ' i r o n y . , X , J Such a r e s t r i c t e d use stems f rom the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y meaning o f t h e wo rd , when i t was used t o d i s t i n g u i s h between two modes o f amusing w r i t i n g - - w i t and humour. Humour c o n s i s t e d o f the t o l e r a n t , s y m p a t h e t i c awareness o f human n a t u r e as opposed t o w i t , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t he i n t e l l e c t u a l , i n t o l e r a n t a p p r a i s a l o f h u m a n i t y . 1 4 However, t h r o u g h u sage , the te rm •humour' has come t o i n c l u d e a n y t h i n g t h a t p r o voke s amused 15 l a u g h t e r . I n t h i s way i t i n c l u d e s t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y meanings o f b o t h humour and w i t , and i t i s w i t h t h i s i n c l u s i v e meaning t h a t the te rm i s h e r e a p p l i e d t o S t e i n b e c k ' s w o r k s . The g e n e r a l l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e usage has added t o the c o n f u s i o n o f meanings i n an a r e a where t h e r e has a lways been much o v e r l a p p i n g o f t e r m s . Because t h e r e i s d i s a g r eemen t about meanings even among e s t a b l i s h e d d e f i n e r s , t he d e f i n i t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a re a s y n t h e s i s o f d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n I n a number o f wo r k s . The ma in works c o n s u l t e d a r e : S h i p l e y ; T h r a l l and H i b b a r d ; N o r t h r o p P r y e , 16 17 Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m ; and L e a c o c k , Humour and Human i t y . There has been much c o n f u s i o n between the meanings of comedy and humour. Comedy i s b r o a d l y a p p l i e d t o works i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s e x p e r i e n c e f r u s t r a t i o n o r d i s c o m f i t u r e w h i c h does no t i n v o l v e t h e emot ion s o f the a u d i e n c e . I n t he c l i m a x t h e 48 p r o t a g o n i s t becomes i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s s o c i e t y a f t e r h a v i n g g r a d u a l l y overcome a l l o b s t a c l e s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f humour i n t h a t t h e r e i s an absence of e m o t i o n . However, i t d i f f e r s i n t h a t humour does no t n e c e s s a r i l y d e a l w i t h cha rac te r s , and a l s o i t does n o t depend on t h e outcome o f t h e a c t i o n , wh i ch i s o f l e s s impo r t ance t h a n t h e l a u g h - p r o v o k i n g q u a l i t y . The dependence o f comedy on outcome i m p l i e s c o n s i d e r a b l e d u r a t i o n , whereas w i t h humour t h e a c t i o n can be o f e x t r e m e l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n . The emphas i s o f comedy, t h e n , i s on p l o t , w h i l e the emphasis o f humour i s on mood. Humour may be , and o f t e n i s , f ound i n modes o t h e r t h a n comedy. F o r examp le , a p i e c e o f s e r i o u s w r i t i n g may have a s h o r t humorous e p i s o d e w i t h i n i t . Such i s t he case i n S t e i n b e c k ' s a r t i c l e on t he s h e l l i n g of Dover by t h e Germans, i n w h i c h , i n the m i d d l e o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e h o r r o r o f the d e s t r u c t i o n , he t e l l s o f an o l d man whose r o s e bush has been damaged. The man " l o o k s a t the F r e n c h c o a s t , where f i v e hundred men and a g r e a t tube o f s t e e l and h i g h e x p l o s i v e and c h a r t s and p l a n s , m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a e , u n i f o r m s , t e l e p h o n e s , shouted o r d e r s , are out t o b r e a k a man ' s r o s e b u s h . " (OW, p. 4 8 f . ) F u r t h e r m o r e , comedy need not a lways depend on t h e sense o f humour, t h a t i s , t he a b i l i t y t o d i s c e r n t h e i n c o n g r u o u s . F o r example , melodrama can be c a l l e d comedy w i t h o u t humour i n t h a t the a c t i o n a lways t u r n s ou t w e l l f o r t he p r o t a g o n i s t s a l t h o u g h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s are no t i n t e n d e d t o be amus ing . ( F r y e , p . 40) The two terms o v e r l a p o n l y i n t h e a r e a i n wh i ch comedy i s amus ing. The s tudy h e r e i s n o t o f t h e comedy i n S t e i n b e c k ' s wo rk s , bu t o f t he humour, w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i n th is case,it i n c l u d e s a l l o f t he comedy, goes 49 beyond i t t o i n c l u d e a l l pa s sages t h a t r e v e a l i n c o n g r u i t y and a re p r e s e n t e d w i t h de tachment . The t e rm ' c o m i c ' s h o u l d be d e f i n e d h e r e a l s o . When used as t he ' c o m i c mode ' i t r e f e r s t o comedy, b u t the word ' c o m i c ' i t s e l f has become synonymous w i t h ' h u m o r o u s . ' The t e rm ' c o m i c r e l i e f r e f e r s t o the s p e c i f i c u se o f humour i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n e f f e c t . I t may, as t h e t e rm s u g g e s t s , r e l i e v e the t e n s i o n o f s e r i o u s w r i t i n g . I n such ca se s i t c o n s i s t s u s u a l l y o f s h o r t pa s sages wh i ch a re i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e ma in p l o t . However, i t may a l s o i n t e n s i f y pa tho s o r t r a g e d y t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t . T h i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t s when t he humorous pa s sage s a re an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p l o t . E a c h t i m e the s e r i o u s tone i s resumed a f t e r a humorous i n t e r l u d e , the surge of e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n i s i n c r e a s e d b y t he c o n t r a s t . I t i s t h e l a t t e r use of comic r e l i e f on w h i c h S t e i n b e c k depends i n h i s f i c t i o n . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o a s se s s a w r i t e r ' s a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e humour, i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r h i s humour, i n i t i a l l y , i n g e n e r a l t e r m s . Humour f a l l s n a t u r a l l y i n t o f o u r l a r g e a r e a s : l a n g u a g e , 1 8 i d e a , s i t u a t i o n , and c h a r a c t e r . The q u a l i t y and deg ree of humour depend l a r g e l y on an a u t h o r ' s s k i l l i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e humour i n any one o f t he se a r e a s , and on h i s a b i l i t y t o combine t h e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . Humour o f l anguage a r i s e s when t h e r e i s i n c o n g r u i t y i n t he u se o f w o r d s . I t i n c l u d e s pun s , w h i c h evoke humour by the i n c o n g r u o u s meanings o f p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r words ; t he i n t e n t i o n a l use o f m i s s p e l l i n g , o f bad grammar, and o f d i a l e c t ; and t h e sudden use o f an i n c o r r e c t wo rd , o r the sudden use of a c o r r e c t 50 word when i t i s n o t e x p e c t e d . S t e i n b e c k se ldom uses puns , b u t i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h a r l e y ' s f i t f u l s l e e p on t he n i g h t a f t e r h a v i n g e n c o u n t e r e d a number o f b e a r s , he w r i t e s : " h i s f e e t were mak ing r u n n i n g g e s t u r e s and h i s body j e r k e d and h i s eyes were wide open , bu t i t was o n l y a n i g h t b e a r . " (TC, p . 165) I t i s i n t e n t i o n a l m i s s p e l l i n g when M r s . M a l l o r y s a y s , " ' y o u b e g r u t c h me # 1 . 9 8 . ' " (CR, p . 293) Much o f the humour o f T o r t i l l a F l a t stems f r o m the s t y l i z e d d i a l e c t o f t h e p a i s a n o s . M i s u se and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a word , and a l s o bad grammar, are seen i n t h e d i a l o g u e : " J u s t because he d o e s n ' t r u n no dame naked t h r ough t h e s t r e e t s . . . y o u t h i n k D o c ' s c e l e b r a t e . " . . . " T h a t ' s when you c a n ' t g e t no d a m e . " . . . "I t hough t i t was a k i n d of p a r t y . " (CR, p . 291) And when Mack speaks o f " ' I and t h e b o y s , ' " (CR, p . 295) i n s t e a d o f t h e e x p e c t e d 'Me and t h e b o y s , ' he i s a t t e m p t i n g t o be c o r r e c t where t h e r e a d e r does no t e x p e c t c o r r e c t n e s s . Humour o f i d e a r e s u l t s f r om the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n o f i n c o n g r u o u s c o n c e p t i o n s . An example o f t h i s i s s een i n t h e e p i s o d e i n w h i c h t h e p r o s t i t u t e s a t D o r a ' s B e a r F l a g R e s t a u r a n t , i n o r d e r t o a t t e n d D o c ' s p a r t y , change f r om " t h e l o n g b e a u t i f u l d r e s s e s w h i c h were t h e i r u n i f o r m s " t o s t r e e t d r e s s e s . (CR, p. 349) Here i t i s t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between the i d e a t h a t g i r l s u s u a l l y •dress u p ' t o go t o a p a r t y , and t h e i d e a t h a t D o r a ' s g i r l s , because o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , must ' d r e s s down ' i n o r d e r t o be a p p r o p r i a t e l y d r e s s e d f o r t h e o c c a s i o n . Humour of I d ea i s a l s o f ound i n t h e t a l l t a l e , where the i n c o n g r u i t y l i e s n o t so much between t h e e x p e c t e d and t h e p r e s e n t e d ( the s u r p r i s e i s l o s t 51 a f t e r the f i r s t e x a g g e r a t i o n ) , as between t h e c o n c e p t i o n the t e l l e r has o f h i m s e l f and the c o n c e p t i o n h i s l i s t e n e r ha s o f h i m . Humour o f s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s when an a c t i s i n cong ruou s t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . I t i s humorous t h a t M r s . M a l l o r y wants c u r t a i n s when h e r home i s a b o i l e r wh i ch has no windows. (CR, p . 293) Not o n l y i s h e r y e a r n i n g f o r c u r t a i n s i n c o n g r u o u s t o the s u r r o u n d i n g s w h i c h a l l o w no p l a c e f o r h e r t o hang them, b u t a l s o h e r b o u r g e o i s p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s i s i n c o n g r u o u s t o the e x t r e m e l y humble c o n d i t i o n o f h e r home. Humour o f c h a r a c t e r a r i s e s f rom t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between a p e r s o n ' s p h y s i o l o g y o r p s y c h o l o g y and t he norm. A c h a r a c t e r can be humorous i f someth ing i s u n n a t u r a l i n h i s appearance o r c l o t h i n g , o r i f h i s m e n t a l i t y i s i n c o n g r u o u s t o h i s p o s i t i o n i n l i f e . Thus , Do r a i s d e s c r i b e d as " a g r e a t b i g woman w i t h f l a m i n g orange h a i r and a t a s t e f o r N i l e g r e e n e v e n i n g d r e s s e s , " (CR, p . 279) and H a z e l , who i s u n a b l e t o count h i s own t o e s c o r r e c t l y , e n r o l l e d t h r o u g h the G . I . b i l l " a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a f o r t r a i n i n g i n a s t r o p h y s i c s b y mak ing a check mark on an a p p l i c a t i o n . " (ST, p . 4) B o t h Mack and P i l o n a re humorous because o f t h e i r m e n t a l i t y a l s o , b u t a re o p p o s i t e t o H a z e l i n t h a t t h e y a re m e n t a l l y f a r more competent t han i s e x p e c t e d f rom t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . Of t h e s e f o u r a r e a s , none p r oduce s b e t t e r humour t h a n the o t h e r s . However, a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r more o f them i n c r e a s e s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f humour. F o r examp le , the e p i s o d e i n w h i c h P i l o n opens a few s m a l l h o l e s i n the f e n c e between Danny ' s y a r d and M r s . M o r a l e s ' c h i c k e n y a r d (TF, p . 9) i s i n t e n s e l y humorous 52 because S t e i n b e c k combines i n i t t h e f o u r a r e a s . The speech o f P i l o n i s the o v e r l y c o r r e c t p s e u d o - d i a l e c t w h i c h S t e i n b e c k g i v e s t h e p a i s a n o s ; t h e r e i s i n c o n g r u i t y between the p r e s e n t e d c oncep t o f P i l o n 1 s k i n d l i n e s s t owa rd t he hens ( i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the weeds wou ld make good n e s t s and i n mak ing t r a p s t o sna re t h e r o o s t e r s w h i c h m i gh t b o t h e r them) and the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t he e x p e c t s t o g e t eggs and r o o s t e r s f o r t he t a b l e ; the s i t u a t i o n i s humorous i n t h a t t h e f t i s made no t o n l y t o appear a c c i d e n t a l , b u t a l s o t o be an a c t of k i n d n e s s ; and t he humour o f P i l o n 1 s c h a r a c t e r emerges t h r ough t he d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he mas te rm ind who can l a y such e l a b o r a t e p l a n s f o r such a n e f a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n . Much o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour shows e l ement s o f l i t e r a r y fo rms t h a t depend m a i n l y on humour. These i n c l u d e t r a g i c o m e d y , p i c a r e s q u e , t a l l t a l e , and f a b l i a u . I n t r a d i t i o n a l t r a g i c o m e d y t h e p l o t , theme and s u b j e c t m a t t e r appear t o l e a d t owa rd a t r a g i c c o n c l u s i o n , b u t an u n e x p e c t e d comic r e v e r s a l b r i n g s about a f a v o u r a b l e outcome f o r t he p r o t a g o n i s t s . I n modern u sage , however , any work i s c a l l e d t r a g i c o m e d y when s e r i o u s and humorous e p i s o d e s combine, r e g a r d l e s s o f t he outcome. B o t h T o r t i l l a F l a t and Of M i ce and Men can be c o n s i d e r e d as t r a g i c o m e d i e s . The p i c a r e s q u e i s a c h r o n i c l e o f a rogue who l i v e s by h i s w i t s and who, as a s o c i a l p a r a s i t e , s a t i r i z e s the s o c i e t y he e x p l o i t s . I t i s e p i s o d i c i n s t r u c t u r e , and i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s t i c -a l l y p r e s e n t e d . T o r t i l l a F l a t , Canne ry Row, and Sweet Thur sday show e lement s o f t he p i c a r e s q u e i n t h e ' g r o u p - r o g u e ' a s p e c t o f t he p a i s a n o s and t he boys f r o m t h e P a l a c e F l o p h o u s e , i n t he s o c i a l s a t i r e t h e s e g r o u p - r o g u e s convey , and, e x c e p t f o r Sweet 53 Thu r sday , i n t h e i r e p i s o d i c s t r u c t u r e s . T a l l t a l e s a re a p a r t o f f o l k l o r e ( the l e g e n d s and t a l e s t r a d i t i o n a l t o a c u l t u r e ) i n w h i c h b o t h c h a r a c t e r and i n c i d e n t a re g r o s s l y e x a g g e r a t e d by a n a r r a t o r . The humour h e r e a r i s e s m o s t l y ou t o f t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between t h e a c c e p t e d i d e a o f a s t o r y - t e l l e r and t h e a u d a c i t y o f t he l i e s t o l d b y t h e t e l l e r o f t a l l t a l e s . There a re e l emen t s o f t a l l t a l e i n Sweet Thur sday when Mack and Doc r e m i n i s c e about t h e p a s t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e when t h e y speak of Lee Chong. "They v o l l e y e d Lee Chong back and f o r t h , and t h e i r memories b u i l t v i r t u e s t h a t would have s u r p r i s e d h i m , and c l e v e r n e s s and b e a u t y t o o . W h i l e one t o l d a f i n e t a l e o f t h a t m e r c a n t i l e Chinaman t h e o t h e r w a i t e d i m p a t i e n t l y t o t op t h e s t o r y . . . . I n such a way are t h e gods c r e a t e d . " ( p . 5) A f o rm o f comic s h o r t t a l e wh i ch f l o u r i s h e d i n m e d i e v a l t i m e s and i s l i t t l e seen i n modem w r i t i n g s i s t h e f a b l i a u . I t was u s u a l l y i n v e r s e and p r e s e n t e d l o w e r - c l a s s c h a r a c t e r s i n themes w h i c h were bawdy s a t i r e s r i d i c u l i n g such t h i n g s as t h e c l e r g y and womanhood. " S t . K a t y t he V i r g i n , " i n i t s bawd ines s and i n i t s heavy s a t i r e o f t h e c h u r c h and v i r g i n i t y , shows a s t r o n g r e s emb l ance t o the f a b l i a u . The t e c h n i q u e s t h r o u g h w h i c h a w r i t e r may c r e a t e humour can be g rouped i n t o two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : t h a t w h i c h I s h a r m l e s s and t h a t w h i c h i s u sed as a weapon. I n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f humour, P r eud makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between " t e n d e n c y w i t , " w h i c h stems f rom the u n c o n s c i o u s i m p u l s e s o f a g g r e s s i o n , and " h a r m l e s s 19 w i t , " w h i c h m e r e l y r e l e a s e s the i m p u l s e o f p l a y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x t e n d F r e u d ' s d e f i n i t i o n s t o humour i n g e n e r a l ; t hu s " t e n d e n c y 54 w i t " becomes a p a r t o f ' t e n d e n c y ' or ' m i l i t a n t ' humour, wh i ch i s u sed as a weapon, and " h a r m l e s s w i t " becomes a p a r t o f ' h a r m l e s s ' o r ' i n n o c u o u s ' humour, w h i c h m e r e l y e n t e r t a i n s . I n m i l i t a n t humour t h e l a u g h t e r becomes d e r i s i v e and i s d i r e c t e d a t a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t w h i c h becomes the b u t t o f t h e humour. I n g e n e r a l , m i l i t a n t humour t end s t o be more e n t e r t a i n i n g t h a n i nnocuous humour because i t n o t o n l y g i v e s a d e f i n i t e pu rpo se t o the humour, bu t i t a l s o a p p e a l s t o the l a t e n t p s e u d o - a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s o f an a u d i e n c e . S t e i n b e c k ' s t e c h n i q u e s of humour wh i ch are innocuous i n c l u d e r e p e t i t i o n , r e v e r s a l , h y p e r b o l e , m e i o s i s , s e l f -d e p r e c a t i o n , a n t i c l i m a x , t h e g r o t e s q u e , f a r c e , s l a p s t i c k , f o l k humour, c r ude humour, w i t , and i r o n y . H i s t e c h n i q u e s o f humour w h i c h are m i l i t a n t a re s a t i r e and s a r ca sm, wh ich a re r e l a t e d t o i r o n y , and b u r l e s q u e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s mock e p i c and p a r o d y . When w i t and s l a p s t i c k a re m i l i t a n t t hey become, i n e f f e c t , s a t i r e . R e p e t i t i o n i s one o f the most common means o f c r e a t i n g humour. I t a lways l e a d s f i n a l l y t o l a u g h t e r because i t i s i n c o n g r u o u s t o t he n a t u r a l p r o c e s s o f t he l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l f r om b i r t h t o d e a t h . (Be rg son , p . 118) The r e p e a t e d hoodw ink i n g o f T o r r e l l i by t h e p a i s a n o s i n t e n s i f i e s the humour o f s i t u a t i o n i n T o r t i l l a F l a t . R e v e r s a l g e n e r a t e s humour by p r e s e n t i n g t h e -o p p o s i t e t o t h a t w h i c h i s e x p e c t e d . S t e i n b e c k u se s r e v e r s a l i n t h e s i m i l e wh i ch d e s c r i b e s C h a r l e y ' s r e a c t i o n to "mounta i n s o f manu re . " " C h a r l e y moved about s m i l i n g and s n i f f i n g e c s t a t i c a l l y l i k e an Amer i c an woman i n a F r e n c h per fume s h o p . " (TC, p. 127) The r e v e r s a l , o f c o u r s e , l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t C h a r l e y i s a F r e n c h p o o d l e s n i f f i n g Amer i c an manure. R e v e r s a l a l s o r e s u l t s when a 55 s e r i e s o f r e p e t i t i o n s i s i n t e r r u p t e d by an unexpec ted change, as when S t e i n b e c k r e p e a t e d l y emphas i ze s C h a r l e y ' s l o v e f o r t r e e s , t h e n t e l l s how he s co rned a g i a n t redwood f o r a h a z l e n u t b u s h . (TC, p . 189) H y p e r b o l e can be humorous o r s e r i o u s , bu t the modern t endency i s t o v i ew i t i n a humorous l i g h t . '.I/hen u sed by i t s e l f , however , t he humour i s u s u a l l y o f a l ow q u a l i t y . Thus t a l l t a l e s a r e n o t v e r y f unny i n t h e i r c o n t e n t a l o n e . The e x a g g e r a t i o n must be combined w i t h t he a u d a c i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r b e f o r e t h e t a l e becomes h i l a r i o u s . S t e i n b e c k u ses e x a g g e r a t i o n by i t s e l f , w i t h poor e f f e c t , i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s h u n t i n g j a c k e t , w h i c h had " a game p o c k e t i n t h e r e a r b i g enough t o smuggle an I n d i a n p r i n c e s s i n t o a Y . M . C . A . " (TC, p . 39) He i s more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t he d e s c r i p t i o n o f the h a l f - w i t ' s t r i a l i n E a s t of Eden , when the judge s a y s , " ' H e wou ld have a d m i t t e d c l i m b i n g t h e g o l d e n s t a i r s and c u t t i n g S t . P e t e r ' s t h r o a t w i t h a b o w l i n g b a l l . " 1 (p . 89) Here t he e x a g g e r a t i o n i s more humorous because i t i s combined w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . The re i s s u g g e s t i o n o f f o l k humour i n the s ta tement i t s e l f , and o f r e v e r s a l i n t h a t a judge wou ld make i t . There i s a l s o s a t i r e i n t he s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s p r o s e c u t e an i n n o c e n t p e r s o n i n o r d e r t o appease t h e p u b l i c . The o p p o s i t e t o h y p e r b o l e i s m e i o s i s , o r u n d e r s t a t e m e n t , a f o rm of i r o n y wh ich d e l i b e r a t e l y m i n i m i z e s , u s u a l l y f o r humorous e f f e c t . An example of m e i o s i s i s s een i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Wide I d a , who s p r a i n e d h e r s h o u l d e r when she th rew ou t a d runk . (ST, p. 38) S e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o m e i o s i s i n t h a t i t d e l i b e r a t e l y m i n i m i z e s . I t i s m o t i v a t e d by the need t o de fend 56 o n e s e l f f rom the r i d i c u l e o f o t h e r s . By d e r i d i n g t h e s e l f , one a t t e m p t s t o p r e c l u d e a t t a c k f r om o t h e r s . I t i s most o f t e n humorous because t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between t he e x p e c t e d ego i sm and t h e a c t u a l d e p r e c a t i o n i s se ldom p a i n f u l . An example o f t h i s i s H a z e l ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t he i s n o t good enough t o be p r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . (ST, p . 175) A n t i c l i m a x , the sudden de scen t f r o m the s e r i o u s t o the t r i v i a l , can be u sed i n t e n t i o n a l l y t o p roduce humour o r s a t i r e . The passage f rom Once There Was a War, wh i ch d e s c r i b e s the accumu-l a t i o n o f men and m a t e r i a l s wh ich " a r e ou t to b r e a k a man ' s r o s e b u s h , " i s a n t i c l i m a c t i c , as i s t h e one f r om Cannery Row; " S i l e n t e a r l y morn i ng dogs pa rade m a j e s t i c a l l y p i c k i n g and c h o o s i n g j u d i c i o u s l y whereon t o p e e . " (p . 310) The g r o t e s q u e i n v o l v e s t h e m i x t u r e o f fo rms to p roduce extreme d i s t o r t i o n . T h i s m i x t u r e i s o f t e n o f human and an ima l shapes o r t r a i t s , o r a m i x t u r e o f g r i m and humorous i n c i d e n t s . The g r o t e s q u e u s u a l l y p r o v o k e s humour because o f t h e ext reme i n c o n g r u i t y , bu t as a r e s u l t o f the f r e q u e n t p r e s e n c e o f g r i s l y e v e n t s , i t o f t e n i s a g r i m humour. The re i s t h e e lement o f the g r o t e s q u e i n the i n c i d e n t o f C y r u s T r a s k mourn ing h i s w i f e . Whenever the baby c r i e d he gave i t a r a g soaked i n w h i s k e y . "The baby was drunk f o r two days and a h a l f . " (EE, p . 16) A t y p e of humour w h i c h depends on v i o l e n t a c t i o n f o r i t s e f f e c t , w i t h no appea l t o t h e i n t e l l e c t , i s l ow comedy. F a r c e and s l a p s t i c k a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d fo rms o f l ow comedy. In b o t h , t h e no rma l s t a n d a r d s of m o t i v a t i o n a r e i g n o r e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n maximum humorous e f f e c t . A l s o , b o t h p r e s e n t f l a t c h a r a c t e r s who 57 r e p e a t e d l y stumble i n t o r i d i c u l o u s s i t u a t i o n s . They d i f f e r i n t h a t the emphas i s i n f a r c e i s on e x a g g e r a t e d c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s , i n s l a p s t i c k on e x a g g e r a t e d p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e . When t he f o c u s i s p r i m a r i l y on c h a r a c t e r the f a r c e i s termed bu f f oone r y . The f a r c i c a l e l emen t i n " S t . K a t y t he V i r g i n " i s e v i d e n t i n the pa s sage c o n c e r n i n g K a t y ' s c o n c e p t i o n and motherhood : The b o a r was s t e r i l e f r om t h a t day o n . . . . B u t K a t y s w e l l e d up a n d . . . h a d h e r l i t t e r . She c l e a n e d them a l l up and l i c k e d them o f f t h e way y o u ' d t h i n k motherhood had changed h e r ways. When she g o t them a l l d r y and c l e a n , she p l a c e d them i n a row and a t e e v e r y one o f them. (LV, p . 191) S l a p s t i c k r e l i e s e n t i r e l y on p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e to p roduce humour. Here the humour i s g e n e r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between t h e e x a g g e r a t e d v i o l e n c e and t h e accustomed ca lmness of e ve r yday l i v i n g . A l t h o u g h s l a p s t i c k can appear b r u t a l , t he aud i ence i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a c h e d by the knowledge t h a t the v i c t i m a lways l e a p s up u n s c a t h e d . Much o f the e f f e c t o f s l a p s t i c k stems f r o m the s u b c o n s c i o u s a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e s o f t h e a u d i e n c e , wh i ch i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the a g g r e s s o r . The s e r i e s o f f i g h t s between Danny and P i l o n , i n wh i ch "Danny l o s t a t o o t h , and P i l o n had h i s s h i r t t o r n o f f , . . . [ a n d t h e j g i r l s s t ood s h r i e k i n g by and k i c k e d w h i c h e v e r man happened t o be down , " i s an example o f s l a p s t i c k , f o r t h e b r u t a l i t y o f t h e f i g h t becomes humorous when i t i s r e v e a l e d t h a t i t i s p r o p e r e t i q u e t t e f o r a p a i s a n o h o s t t o e n t e r t a i n h i s g u e s t w i t h a good f i g h t . (TP, p . l l f . ) A l t h o u g h t he v i o l e n c e o f s l a p s t i c k suggests a f o rm o f m i l i t a n t humour, i t i s u s u a l l y w i t h o u t m o t i v a t i o n and w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e . When the v i o l e n c e i s d i r e c t e d i n a s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n t e n t t o r i d i c u l e , i t becomes m i l i t a n t , b u t i s t h e n a f o r m of s a t i r e . 58 P o l k humour c o n s i s t s o f f o l k l o r e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e i n c o n g r u i t i e s of human b e h a v i o u r . The i n c o n g r u o u s i n f o l k l o r e I s nearly always humorous because o f the remoteness e f f e c t e d by t h e c o u n t l e s s r e t e l l i n g s . Tom J o a d ' s anecdote about W i l l i e and the h e i f e r i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i v e of f o l k humour. (GW, p . 94) C rude humour may be seen as r e l a t e d t o f o l k humour i n t h a t i t I s e x p r e s s e d i n common l a n g u a g e , a r i s e s out of e ve r yday e v e n t s , and f o r m s p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , the most n a t u r a l way f o r H a z e l t o d e s c r i b e the s t i n k bugs i s t o say t h e y have " t h e i r a s se s up i n t he a i r . " (CR, p . 288) W i t i s a h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l f o rm o f humour wh i ch c o n s i s t s o f a c l e v e r a s s o c i a t i o n o f i d e a and e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o p roduce s u r p r i s e t h r ough i t s u n e x p e c t e d n e s s . E t h a n Hawley i s w i t t y when he d e s c r i b e s t he m e t i c u l o u s l y p u n c t u a l bank manager: "Then h i s b a l a n c e whee l s t a r t e d and he t i c k e d o f f t o the b a n k . " (WD, p . 255) I r o n y a l s o demands a h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l aud ience w h i c h can d i s c e r n t he i n c o n g r u i t y between t h e a t t i t u d e i m p l i e d , w h i c h may be i n t e n t i o n a l o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l , and t h a t wh i ch i s e x p r e s s e d . U n l i k e w i t , I r o n y i s o f t e n n o t humorous, f o r i t depends less on detachment than' on i n c o n g r u i t y a l o n e . When t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t de tachment , t he i r o n y i s humorous. There i s f i n e humorous i r o n y , i n t e n d e d by S t e i n b e c k , bu t no t by h i s c h a r a c t e r , i n t he p r o s t i t u t e ' s comment about h e r wedding d r e s s : " ' G r andma l e f t i t t o Mama, and Mama l e f t i t t o me....We a i n ' t none o f us needed i t . ' " (ST, p . 117) The fo rms o f m i l i t a n t humour w h i c h S t e i n b e c k uses a re few compared t o h i s many forms o f i nnocuou s humour. They i n c l u d e 59 o n l y s a t i r e , s a r ca sm, and t h e two k i n d s o f b u r l e s q u e , mock e p i c and p a r o d y . S a t i r e i s a f o r m o f i r o n y w h i c h d i f f e r s i n t h a t i t i s a lway s m i l i t a n t . I t i s t h e means o f r e d u c i n g a s u b j e c t t o t he r i d i c u l o u s so t h a t i t becomes t he o b j e c t o f s c o r n , contempt o r amusement. I t s weapon i s l a u g h t e r w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t a b u t t o u t s i d e o f t h e work i t s e l f . S t e i n b e c k s a t i r i z e s a c e r t a i n t y p e o f e n t h u s i a s t i c a r t i s t when he w r i t e s : " I t i s n o t known whethe r H e n r i was a good p a i n t e r o r no t f o r he t h r ew h i m s e l f so v i o l e n t l y i n t o movements t h a t he had v e r y l i t t l e t ime l e f t f o r p a i n t i n g o f any k i n d . " (CR, p. 332) Sarcasm i s a f o rm o f i r o n y w h i c h r e q u i r e s l i t t l e i n t e l l e c t t o d i s c e r n , f o r t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between i m p l i c a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n i s v e r y o b v i o u s . I t s aim I s t o i n f l i c t p a i n t h r o u g h t h e c a u s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s p r a i s e g i v e n under t he p r e t e x t o f p r a i s e . I t i s an u n r e f i n e d f o rm o f humour, and i t i s g r a t i f y i n g t h a t S t e i n b e c k u se s i t v e r y r a r e l y . One o f t he few i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h he speaks s a r c a s t i c a l l y i s when he ob se r ve s o f t he M e x i c a n c h i l d r e n : "The p o o r l i t t l e savages seem not t o have l e a r n e d t he g r e a t p r i n c i p l e o f c h e a t i n g one a n o t h e r . " (SC, p . 112) The te rm ' b u r l e s q u e 1 i s g e n e r a l l y u sed t o i n c l u d e a l l l i t e r a r y fo rms i n wh i ch i n s t i t u t i o n s , a c t i o n s , p e r s o n s o r o t h e r l i t e r a r y works a re r i d i c u l e d t h r o u g h i n c o n g r u o u s i m i t a t i o n . I t t a k e s two f o r m s : h i g h b u r l e s q u e , i n w h i c h a t r i v i a l s u b j e c t i s t r e a t e d i n e l e v a t e d t e r m s , and l o w b u r l e s q u e , i n w h i c h a s e r i o u s s u b j e c t i s t r e a t e d i n a r i d i c u l o u s manner. A l l fo rms o f b u r l e s q u e a re s a t i r i c i n t h e i r t endency t o r i d i c u l e a s u b j e c t . Whatever S t e i n b e c k has w r i t t e n i m i t a t i v e l y has been h i g h b u r l e s q u e . 60 Mock e p i c i s a f o r m o f h i g h b u r l e s q u e i n w h i c h i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r s and t r i v i a l e p i s o d e s a re r i d i c u l e d by b e i n g t r e a t e d i n t h e e l e v a t e d s t y l e o f an e p i c . In T o r t i l l a F l a t , S t e i n b e c k g e n t l y r i d i c u l e s t h e p a i s a n o way o f l i f e by t r e a t i n g i t i n t he e p i c s t y l e o f M a l o r y ' s Mor te d 1 A r t h u r . Ano the r f o rm o f h i g h b u r l e s q u e i s p a r o d y . I t i s a lways m i l i t a n t f o r , a l t h o u g h i t does n o t a t t a c k i t s s u b j e c t , i t d e r i d e s t he s t y l e o f a s p e c i f i c a u t ho r by i m i t a t i n g h i s work , r e p l a c i n g t h e o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t w i t h t r i v i a l m a t e r i a l s . I n h i s e a r l y poem, " I f E d d i e Guest Had W r i t t e n t he Book o f J o b : HAPPY B IRTHDAY ' " , S t e i n b e c k r i d i c u l e s G u e s t ' s s e n t i m e n t a l s t y l e and f o r c e d rhyming by such l i n e s a s : Ne i ghbo r Job was a man o f Uz ; He s t o o d f o r t h e b e s t i n L i f e . He h a t e d S i n , and he wore a g r i n Whenever he b e a t h i s w i f e . . . . 2 ! A l t h o u g h t h e y have been d e f i n e d , the v a r i o u s k i n d s o f humour cannot a lways be i s o l a t e d and c a t e g o r i z e d . There i s a lmos t a lways some o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g o f t e c h n i q u e s i n any humorous e p i s o d e . F o r examp le , s a t i r e i s bounded on one ext reme by w i t , w h i c h i s a h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l f o rm o f humour, and on t he o t h e r by I n v e c t i v e , w h i c h i s a c o m p l e t e l y humour l e s s weapon used as p u r e d e n u n c i a t i o n . ( F r y e , p . 224) H y p e r b o l e i s se ldom u sed a l o n e , bu t i s u s u a l l y accompanied by r e p e t i t i o n o r a r e v e r s a l i n t he fo rm o f an u n e x p e c t e d u n d e r s t a t e m e n t . Thus, when a t e r m i s u s e d , i t a p p l i e s most o f t e n t o the a s p e c t o f humour w h i c h i s emphas i zed i n an e p i s o d e o r passage and r a r e l y t o the pu re f o rm o f t h a t a s p e c t . 61 The te rms d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a re d e f i n e d i n accordance w i t h t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o S t e i n b e c k ' s humour. C e r t a i n te rms r e l a t i n g t o humour, such as t r a ve s t y and lampoon, have not been men t i oned because S t e i n b e c k has neve r u sed them. Humour i t s e l f ha s been d e f i n e d as a n y t h i n g w h i c h evokes amused l a u g h t e r . I t i s ba sed on i n c o n g r u i t y and depends f o r i t s e f f e c t on s u f f i c i e n t detachment o f t h e a u d i e n c e ' s emot ions t o f i l t e r o u t the p a i n f u l and t h e h o r r i f y i n g . A l s o , a lways i m p l i c i t i n humour i s t he q u a l i t y o f c o r r e c t i o n , w h i c h i s a lmos t i m p e r c e p t i b l e i n i nnocuous humour b u t h i g h l y e v i d e n t i n m i l i t a n t humour. The c r e a t i o n o f humour i s m o t i v a t e d by i m p u l s e s o f a g g r e s s i o n w h i c h t a ke the more r e w a r d i n g and s a f e r f o r m o f humour; t h a t i s , humour i s a f o r m o f p s e u d o - a g g r e s s i o n . Through t he a p p l i c a t i o n o f t he se a s p e c t s o f humour t o S t e i n b e c k ' s work s , and t h r o u g h t he a p p r a i s a l o f h i s a b i l i t y t o combine t h e v a r i o u s a r ea s o f humour, as w e l l as h i s use o f l i t e r a r y fo rms and t e c h n i q u e s o f humour, a r e l a t i o n -s h i p can be e s t a b l i s h e d between h i s humour and t h e body o f h i s w r i t i n g , and some c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn abotft h i s a t t i t u d e s toward w r i t i n g , t oward s o c i e t y and t owa rd h u m a n i t y . 62 C h a p t e r Pour An A n a l y s i s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s Humour The most s a t i s f a c t o r y way i n w h i c h t o e v a l u a t e S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i s t o c o n s i d e r a number o f spec imens o f each t y p e s e l e c t e d f rom d i f f e r e n t s t a ge s o f h i s c a r e e r . An a t t empt i s made t o i n d i c a t e t he f r e q u e n c y w i t h wh i ch he makes use o f each t ype and the deg ree o f s u c ce s s he a c h i e v e s w i t h e a c h , o r , as i n some c a s e s , t h e v a r y i n g deg ree s o f s u cce s s w i t h i n each t y p e . From such an a n a l y s i s i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e what e l emen t s o f humour a re most p e r s i s t e n t i n h i s w r i t i n g . I t i s no t i m p o r t a n t t o d i s c u s s s e p a r a t e l y t h e f o u r g e n e r a l a r e a s o f humour i n r e l a t i o n t o S t e i n b e c k ' s work, f o r any example o f humour f a l l s i n t o e i t h e r humour o f l a n g u a g e , o f i d e a , o f s i t u a t i o n o r o f c h a r a c t e r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , however , t o l o o k a t the e p i s o d e s i n w h i c h he combines s e v e r a l , o r a l l , o f t h e s e a r e a s , f o r such c o m b i n a t i o n r e s u l t s i n some o f h i s b e s t humour and shows t h e d e l i b e r a t e c a r e w i t h w h i c h he p r oduce s humour. I n t h e e p i s o d e i n w h i c h Danny g i v e s Sweets Rami rez t h e vacuum c l e a n e r , (TF, p p . 50-54) seen by Beach as one of the most humorous i n t h e n o v e l , (SHC, p . 88) S t e i n b e c k u se s a l l f o u r a rea s o f humour. The re i s humour o f l anguage i n the p a i s a n o s ' d i a l e c t , as t h e r e i s i n a l l t he e p i s o d e s o f T o r t i l l a F l a t . Humour o f i d e a i s i n t he f a c t t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n wh i ch g i v e s Sweets t he h i g h e s t s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i n e l e c t r i c i t y - f r e e T o r t i l l a F l a t i s an e l e c t r i c vacuum c l e a n e r . Humour o f i d e a i s compounded when i t i s l e a r n e d t h a t t h e vacuum c l e a n e r has no m o t o r . There i s humour o f s i t u a t i o n 63 i n t h a t Danny w i n s h i s ' l a d y ' w i t h a u s e l e s s symbol of m a t e r i a l i s m . Humour o f c h a r a c t e r i s a ppa ren t i n b o t h Sweets and P i l o n . Sweets c a p i t a l i z e s on t h e u s e l e s s g i f t t o e f f e c t h e r s o c i a l e l e v a t i o n by i n c l u d i n g " t h e sweep i ng -mach i ne " c o n s t a n t l y i n h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n , (p . 51) P i l o n i s h i s u s u a l r a t i o n a l s e l f when he a d v i s e s Danny, " ' I f t h a t l a d y d i d n o t have t h e sweep ing -mach ine , she wou ld no t want t h o s e w i r e s . . . . T h e r e f o r e , . . . t h e t h i n g t o do i s t o remove t h e s w e e p i n g - m a c h i n e . . . a n d i n r e t u r n you can t a k e t he l a d y a p r e s e n t o f a g a l l o n o f w i n e . " 1 (p. 53) I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r an a u t h o r t o combine t he f o u r a rea s w i t h o u t g i v i n g t h e appearance o f h a v i n g c o n t r i v e d the humour, y e t S t e i n b e c k combines t he f o u r a rea s s u c c e s s f u l l y a number o f t i m e s i n t h e t h r e e humorous n o v e l s , T o r t i l l a F l a t , Cannery Row and Sweet Thu r sday . I n Cannery Row he makes use o f t he f o u r a rea s i n t he e p i s o d e o f t h e f r o g h u n t . (pp. 307 -309, 311-315) The re i s humour o f l anguage i n M a c k ' s " ' I and t h e C a p t a i n , ' " ( p . 309) and H u g h i e ' s " « I and h i m , " ' ( p . 307) n o t o n l y because o f a t t e m p t e d c o r r e c t n e s s bu t a l s o because o f t h e r e p e a t e d use o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n . There a r e many i n s t a n c e s o f humour of i d e a i n t h e e p i s o d e : t h r o u g h h i s pu r cha se o f t he f r o g s Doc w i l l , i n e f f e c t , f i n a n c e t h e p a r t y t o be g i v e n f o r h i m ; t he C a p t a i n ' s w i f e I s away because she i s i n p o l i t i c s , (p . 312) and when a f i r e starts i n h e r c u r t a i n s i t i s p u t ou t w i t h the a i d o f h e r s m a l l t o w e l s ; ( p . 314) t h e C a p t a i n i s w i l l i n g t o abandon h i s p o s s e s s i o n s i n o r d e r t o l i v e w i t h Mack and t he boys i n t he P a l a c e F l o p h o u s e . The e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y humorous i n t h a t f i v e men f l o u n d e r t h r o u g h the f r o g pond a t 64 n i g h t i n h a p h a z a r d o r g a n i z a t i o n a i d e d by the owner o f the pond, who a f t e r w a r d s a i d s them a g a i n i n l a y i n g s i m i l a r waste t o h i s own home. The c h a r a c t e r s o f b o t h Mack and the c a p t a i n add much t o t h e humour o f the e p i s o d e : Mack i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l i c i t -a t i o n o f t h e c a p t a i n , and t he c a p t a i n i n h i s r e v e r s a l f r om a u t o c r a t i c l andowner t o e n v i o u s o u t s i d e r . F o l l o w i n g the f r o g h u n t , S t e i n b e c k a g a i n u t i l i z e s a l l f o u r a rea s o f humour i n t h e e p i s o d e i n v o l v i n g t h e use o f t h e f r o g s as c u r r e n c y a t Lee C h o n g ' s g r o c e r y , (p . 3 2 4 f . ) Here humour o f l anguage i s i n c r e a s e d by Lee C h o n g ' s d i a l e c t , " 'We g o t see f l o g . 1 " ( p . 324) The v e r y i d e a t h a t f r o g s can be sound c u r r e n c y w i t h a s e t v a l u e i s amus ing . The s i t u a t i o n becomes humorous when E d d i e buys " two f r o g s 1 w o r t h o f B u l l Durham, " and Jones i s o u t r a g e d when t h e p r i c e o f C o c a -C o l a goes up " f r o m one t o two f r o g s . " (p . 325) Mack a g a i n c o n t r i b u t e s t o humour o f c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h i s i n t e n s i f i e d by Lee C h o n g ' s s t r o n g sense o f m e r c a n t i l i s m . A l t h o u g h Sweet Thu r sday r e c e i v e d l i t t l e p r a i s e f r om c r i t i c s , much o f i t s humour i s e x c e l l e n t . I n a number o f e p i s o d e s S t e i n b e c k u se s t h r e e o r f o u r o f the a rea s w i t h h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s . In t he ep i s ode i n wh i ch H a z e l c o n f e s s e s t h a t he cannot become p r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (p . 175) t h e r e i s humour o f l anguage i n t he i n c o r r e c t grammar o f Mack and H a z e l ; humour o f i d e a i n t h a t t he most d u l l - w i t t e d o f t he boys c o u l d a s p i r e s e r i o u s l y t o t h e p r e s i d e n c y , and t h a t he came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n by h i m s e l f t h a t t h e t a s k was t o o g r e a t f o r h i m ; humour o f s i t u a t i o n I n t h a t H a z e l r e a l i z e s t he e n o r m i t y o f the j o b when he becomes m e n t a l l y f a t i g u e d w i t h w o r k i n g ou t D o c ' s e m o t i o n a l 65 p r o b l e m ; humour of c h a r a c t e r i n H a z e l ' s h e l p l e s s n e s s and i n M a c k ' s t e n d e r c o n c e r n f o r h i m . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , a f t e r c omb in i ng t he f o u r a rea s o f humour so s u c c e s s f u l l y i n h i s f i r s t t h r e e humorous n o v e l s , S t e i n b e c k does no t a t t empt t o combine them i n h i s f o u r t h humorous work, The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV. T h i s l a c k o f c o m b i n a t i o n e x p l a i n s p a r t l y t h e n o v e l ' s f a i l u r e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a re o t h e r , more i m p o r t a n t r e a s on s w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . I t i s even more s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s most s u c c e s s f u l c o m b i n a t i o n o f t he f o u r a rea s a p p e a r s , no t i n any o f h i s humorous n o v e l s , bu t i n Of M i c e and Men, wh i ch i s g e n e r a l l y v a l u e d f o r i t s s e r i o u s -ne s s o f theme. } Pe rhaps t h e most i n t e n s e l y humorous e p i s o d e i n a l l o f h i s work i s t h a t i n w h i c h Aunt C l a r a and t he g i g a n t i c r a b b i t c o n f r o n t L e n n i e . (MM, p . 2 0 5 f . ) Here S t e i n b e c k u t i l i z e s a l l f o u r a rea s o f humour and t h e i n c o n g r u i t y i n each i s so g r e a t t h a t t he combined e f f e c t p r oduce s one o f t h e f u n n i e s t e p i s o d e s i n A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e . The i n c o n g r u i t y i n t he l anguage a r i s e s f r o m the f a c t t h a t n o t o n l y do b o t h Aunt C l a r a and t h e r a b b i t speak i n L e n n i e ' s v o i c e bu t a l s o t h a t t h e i r admonishments a re t h o s e r e p e a t e d o f t e n by Geo rge . What c o u l d be more i n c o n g r u o u s t h a n s t a r c h e d l i t t l e Aunt C l a r a s a y i n g , " ' H e wou lda t o o k h i s pay a n ' r a i s e d h e l l i n a w h o r e h o u s e , ' " and the huge r a b b i t s a y i n g , " ' Y o u a i n ' t w o r t h a g r e a s e d j a c k - p i n t o ram you i n t o h e l l . " ? (p. 205) There i s i n c o n g r u i t y I n t h e i d e a t h a t L e n n i e seeks peace o f mind t h r o u g h u s i n g the dead Aunt C l a r a and a n o n - e x i s t e n t r a b b i t t o c a s t i g a t e h i m s e l f . I n c o n g r u i t y o f i d e a i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h a t a l i t t l e o l d l a d y and a huge r a b b i t can pop out o f L e n n i e * s 66 s e m i - v a c a n t head and use G e o r g e ' s p r o f a n e e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h such e a s e . The i n c o n g r u i t y o f s i t u a t i o n i s seen i n , t h e e n t i r e t y o f t he argument between L e n n i e and t he r e a l i s t i c f i g u r e s o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . Humour o f c h a r a c t e r i s f ound n o t so much i n L e n n i e , f r om whom the aud i ence i s n e v e r d e t a c h e d q u i t e enough t o e scape the p a t h o s , b u t i n Aunt C l a r a and t he r a b b i t . The i n c o n g r u i t y between the c h a r a c t e r s o f L e n n i e ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and t h e r e a l Aunt C l a r a and t h e r e a l r a b b i t s i s so g r e a t t h a t b o t h become e x t r e m e l y humorous c h a r a c t e r s w i t h i n t h e i r v e r y s h o r t p r e s e n t a t i o n . By comb in i ng the l a r g e i n c o n g r u i t i e s o f each o f t he se f o u r a r e a s , S t e i n b e c k succeeds i n p r e s e n t i n g an e x t r e m e l y i n cong ruou s e p i s o d e w h i c h i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y humorous because t h e aud ience i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a c h e d f r om i t s p a t h o s . He a c h i e v e s t h i s d e t a c h -ment by p r o j e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s of L e n n i e ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r ough Aunt C l a r a and the r a b b i t . By p r e s e n t i n g t he se c o n f l i c t i n g f a c e t s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , S t e i n b e c k succeeds i n r e l e a s i n g h i s a u d i e n c e f r om the e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t wh ich he has b u i l t t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l and t o w h i c h he r e t u r n s i n t he n e x t and f i n a l e p i s o d e . I t i s a mark o f h i s c r a f t s m a n s h i p t h a t he i s a b l e t o d i s t a n c e h i s a ud i ence f r o m the e p i s o d e i t s e l f w i t h o u t d e t a c h i n g i t c o m p l e t e l y f r o m t h e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h L e n n i e , thus r e t a i n i n g a s t r a i n o f p a t h o s t h r o u g h o u t t h e humorous e p i s o d e . I n v i e w o f t he f a c t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o combine t h e f o u r a rea s o f humour and s t i l l r e t a i n n a t u r a l n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n , S t e i n b e c k a t t a i n s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n r e l a t i v e l y o f t e n . H i s c o m b i n a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e r i c h e s t 67 humour i n h i a canon . A l t h o u g h S t e i n b e c k does no t w i s h t o be l a b e l l e d a h u m o r i s t , he e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f l i t e r a r y fo rms w h i c h depend m a i n l y on humour. Throughout h i s c a r e e r he has u t i l i z e d some f o r m o f t r a g i c o m e d y , p i c a r e s q u e , t a l l t a l e , and f a b l i a u . H i s f i r s t n o v e l w h i c h e x h i b i t s t r a i t s o f t r a g i c o m e d y i s T o r t i l l a F l a t , where the e x t r e m e l y humorous p l o t and a c t i o n a re r e s o l v e d w i t h t h e h e r o ' s d e a t h . The t r a g i c r e v e r s a l h e r e i s pe rhap s the weakes t p a r t o f t he n o v e l , f o r S t e i n b e c k f o r f e i t s t h e predominat ing l i g h t n e s s o f tone w h i c h i s t h e d e l i g h t o f t he book. He i s more s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s n e x t a t tempt a t t r a g i c o m e d y . I n Of M i ce and  Men, w h i c h i s pe rhaps h i s f i n e s t p i e c e o f w r i t i n g , he c a r e f u l l y b a l a n c e s t h e humorous and t he p a t h e t i c . F o r examp le , t he p r o g r e s s i o n f r om t h e d e a t h o f t h e mouse (p . 159) t o t h e d e a t h o f t he pup (p . 197) t o the d e a t h o f C u r l e y ' s w i f e (p . 200) i s p a r a l l e l e d by t he i n c r e a s i n g l y humorous r e c o u n t i n g o f t he p a t h e t i c dream o f t he t i n y r a n c h , f i r s t by George t o L e n n i e , (p . 1 6 3 f . ) t h e n a g a i n by George t o L e n n i e i n C a n d y ' s p r e s e n c e , (p . 184) and f i n a l l y by L e n n i e t o C r o o k s , (p . 190) The dream i s p r e s e n t e d i n humorous t e r m s , and t he n e g a t i o n o f i t , i n the f o rm o f L e n n i e ' s u n i n t e n t i o n a l h a r m f u l n e s s , i s p r e s e n t e d i n s e r i o u s t e r m s . The dream and t h e n e g a t i o n merge i n the f i n a l s cene , where the Luge r i n G e o r g e ' s hand e l i m i n a t e s t h e detachment w h i c h h a d , up t o t h i s p o i n t , made t he r e c o u n t i n g of the dream humorous. S t e i n b e c k ' s o n l y o t h e r a t tempt a t t r a g i c o m e d y i s i n t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l The Moon i s Down. Here t h e f a i l u r e i s no t so much i n t h e m i s m a t c h i n g o f t o n e s , f o r t he n o v e l can b e a r t he 68 c o n t r a s t o f humour and p a t h o s , b u t r a t h e r i n t he f a c t t h a t S t e i n b e c k was h i m s e l f a s t r a n g e r t o h i s m a t e r i a l . The comb ina t i on o f humour and p a t h o s s u f f e r s f r om t h e r e s u l t a n t s t i f f n e s s wh i ch p e r v a d e s the e n t i r e n o v e l . The e l ement s o f t he p i c a r e s q u e i n T o r t i l l a F l a t , Canne ry Row and Sweet Thur sday have a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . 1 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s p i c a r o s t e n d toward t he ' g r o u p - r o g u e ' r a t h e r t han t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e r o g u e - h e r o and h i s a c c o m p l i c e . 2 T h i s i s an e f f e c t o f h i s group-man t h e o r y , wh i ch he h e l d as e a r l y as h i s w r i t i n g o f "The L e a d e r o f t h e P e o p l e , " i n w h i c h t h e o l d man s a y s , " ' I t w a s n ' t I n d i a n s t h a t were i m p o r t a n t , n o r a d v e n t u r e s , no r even g e t t i n g out h e r e . I t was a whole bunch o f p e o p l e made i n t o one b i g c r a w l i n g b e a s t . . . . E v e r y man wanted someth ing f o r h i m s e l f , bu t the b i g b e a s t t h a t was a l l o f them wanted o n l y 4 w e s t e r i n g . ' " (LV, p . 302) Of h i s f o u r p r i m a r i l y humorous n o v e l s , t h e n , t h r e e show e lement s o f t he p i c a r e s q u e w i t h g r oup - r o gue p i c a r o s , a f a c t t h a t r e v e a l s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s s e r i o u s w r i t i n g on h i s humorous w o r k s . Odd ly enough, a l t h o u g h T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y i s no t f i c t i o n , t h e r e a re t r a c e s o f t he p i c a r e s q u e i n i t . S t e i n b e c k can be seen as a rogue who e x p l o i t s s o c i e t y by t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h i t anony-mou s l y , g a r n e r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r h i s book, w i t h C h a r l e y as h i s a c c o m p l i c e . The f a c t t h a t he named h i s p i c k - u p t r u c k " R o c i n a n t e , " a f t e r Don Q u i x o t e ' s h o r s e , i n d i c a t e s t h a t he r e a l i z e s t h a t he may be " t r a v e l l i n g about the c rowded, mechan i zed a t om i c a g e . . . , bu t s p i r i t u a l l y l i v i n g i n a p a s t e r a w h i c h he has i d e a l i z e d . " ( F o n t e n r o s e , p. 138) A l s o , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t he t i t l e was 69 sugge s ted t o h im by R o b e r t L o u i s S t e v e n s o n ' s p i c a r e s q u e , T r a v e l s  w i t h a Donkey, a book e n j o y e d by J u n i u s M a l t b y i n The P a s t u r e s o f  Heaven. A l t h o u g h the t a l l t a l e i s one o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f Amer i c an humour, t h e r e i s no i n s t a n c e i n wh i ch S t e i n b e c k u se s i t i n i t s pu re f o r m . Any pa s sage t h a t i s s u g g e s t i v e o f t he t a l l t a l e r e v e a l s t he absence o f one o r more o f i t s e l e m e n t s . The example 5 a l r e a d y c i t e d f r o m Sweet Thu r sday i s no t a t a l l t a l e bu t t h e accoun t o f how no rma l e v e n t s a r e e x a g g e r a t e d by Doc and Mack, w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t such s t o r i e s c a n , i n t i m e , become m y t h i c a l t a l l t a l e s . I n T o r t i l l a F l a t D a n n y ' s g l o r i o u s end i s p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f t h e t a l l t a l e , b u t w i t h t he apo l ogy t h a t " t h e r e p u t e d prowess o f Danny may be somewhat o v e r s t a t e d . One t e n t h o f i t wou ld be an o v e r s t a t e m e n t f o r anyone i n the w o r l d . " ( p . 94) Here i t i s t he p r o c e s s by wh i ch f a c t u a l e v e n t s can e v o l v e i n t o m y t h i c p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t i s s t r e s s e d , r a t h e r t h a n t he t a l l t a l e i t s e l f . The s h o r t s t o r y , " J ohnny B e a r , " (LV, pp. 145-168) has i n g r e d i e n t s o f t he t a l l t a l e , bu t ;emphas i s i s no t on Johnny B e a r ' s t remendous m i m i c k i n g a b i l i t y b u t on t h e d i s a s t r o u s d i s c l o s u r e s r e s u l t i n g f r om t h i s a b i l i t y . H i s g r e a t prowess a t m i m i c k i n g i s s i m i l a r t o the m a t c h l e s s a b i l i t i e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l t a l l t a l e h e r o e s , and t he s t o r y i s s i m i l a r t o the t a l l t a l e i n i t s f ramework o f n a r r a t i o n . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e humour i n " J ohnny B e a r , " f o r i t i s i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s n o t e x a g g e r a t i n g Johnny B e a r ' s a b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no i n c o n g r u i t y i n n a r r a t i o n . The i n i t i a l humour wh i ch a r i s e s f r o m the e x a c t n e s s o f t h e m i m i c k i n g q u i c k l y v a n i s h e s as the 70 n a r r a t o r and the r e a d e r become i n v o l v e d w i t h the h o r r o r o f t he s i t u a t i o n . I n " S t . K a t y t h e V i r g i n , " t he s t o r y o f a C h r i s t i a n sow, t h e r e a re t r a c e s o f t a l l t a l e e l ement s i n t he i m p r o b a b i l i t y o f e v e n t s i n such pa s sage s a s , " [ K a t y ] s a t by beds o f p a i n and h e r dea r g o l d e n eyes b r o u g h t r e l i e f t o t h e s u f f e r e r s , " and " [ s h e ] spun l i k e a t o p on t he t i p o f h e r t a i l f o r one hou r and t h r e e -q u a r t e r s . " (LV, p . 198) The a ccoun t i n Cannery Row o f J o s h B i l l i n g s * d e a t h (pp. 303-304) a l s o shows t r a c e s o f t he t a l l t a l e , f o r i t i s t he e x a g g e r a t e d account o f t he d e a t h o f a f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . I t i s odd t h a t a modern A m e r i c a n au t ho r would w r i t e a s t o r y p a t t e r n e d on t he f a b l i a u , y e t S t e i n b e c k ' s f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l humorous s t o r y , " S t . K a t y the V i r g i n , " i s l a r g e l y i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n . I t i s a bawdy s t o r y w h i c h s a t i r i z e s o r t h o d o x r e l i g i o n and v i r g i n i t y , and t a k e s p l a c e i n m e d i e v a l I r e l a n d . I t d i f f e r s f r om t h e f a b l i a u i n t h a t i t i s i n p r o s e , and a l s o i t i n c o r p o r a t e s e l ement s o f the f a b l e i n t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s an a n i m a l w h i c h has human a t t r i b u t e s . I n t he s t o r y , t he o n l y t r a c e s o f t he Amer i c an t r a d i t i o n a r e seen i n t h e t a l l t a l e e l ement s and i n the p r e d o m i n a t i n g r u r a l humour. As i n e v e r y o t h e r a s p e c t o f h i s w r i t i n g , S t e i n b e c k ' s s u cce s s i n t he use o f humorous l i t e r a r y fo rms does no t f o l l o w any d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n . H i s a t t e m p t s a re g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , y e t t h e r e a re l a p s e s , such as i n The Moon i s Down, where he f a i l s w i t h t r a g i -comedy a f t e r u s i n g i t w i t h g r e a t s u c ce s s i n Of M ice and Men. I t seems t h a t h i s p a s s i o n f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n p r e c l u d e s evo l vement t oward p e r f e c t i o n i n any l i t e r a r y f o r m , whether humorous o r 71 o t h e r w i s e . I n o r d e r t o g a i n humorous e f f e c t , S t e i n b e c k u t i l i z e s a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s , most o f w h i c h t a k e t he f o rm o f i nnocuou s humour. Through r e p e t i t i o n he o f t e n i n t e n s i f i e s the humour o f t h i n g s w h i c h are a l r e a d y f u n n y , as he does t h r o u g h M a c k ' s r e p e a t e d " ' I and t h e b o y s , " 1 (CR, ST) and t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o b s t i n a n c y o f t h e Hansen Sea-Cow (a t h i n l y - d i s g u i s e d s u b s t i t u t e f o r ' J o h n s o n Sea -Hor se 1 ) , t he o u t b o a r d motor w h i c h i s i n i t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d as r e f u s i n g t o r u n : " ( a ) when t he waves were h i g h , (b) when t he w i nd b l e w , (c ) at n i g h t , e a r l y m o r n i n g , and e v e n i n g , (d) i n r a i n , dew o r f o g , (e) when t h e d i s t a n c e t o be c o v e r e d was more t h a n two hundred y a r d s . " (SC, p . 21) O c c a s i o n a l l y S t e i n b e c k depends on r e p e t i t i o n t o p r o voke humour where i t wou ld no t e x i s t o t h e r w i s e . F o r examp le , t he f i r s t use o f " ' A n ' l i v e o f f t h e f a t t a  t h e l a n . . . . A n ' have r a b b i t s ' " i s p a t h e t i c coming f r om t h e huge h a l f - w i t , L e n n i e . (MM, p . 163) Y e t L e n n i e ' s e n thu s i a sm f o r the dream becomes h i l a r i o u s t h r o u g h t h e numerous r e p e t i t i o n s and does n o t l o s e i t s humour u n t i l t h e l a s t s cene , where the pa tho s o f t he s i t u a t i o n overcomes t h e detachment p r o v i d e d by t h e r e p e t i t i o n . The humour w h i c h S t e i n b e c k p r o d u c e s t h r o u g h r e p e t i t i o n i s u s u a l l y good , a l t h o u g h i n The Moon i s Down and The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , e s p e c i a l l y o f Madame Orden, A n n i e , (MD) and E t h a n Haw ley , (WD) becomes t i r e s o m e . S t e i n b e c k p r oduce s some v e r y f i n e humour t h r o u g h r e v e r s a l . When no one i n t he P a l a c e F l o p h o u s e u n d e r t a k e s t o h o u s e - b r e a k M a c k ' s puppy, " she began t o t r a i n h e r s e l f . She g o t d i s g u s t e d w i t h w e t t i n g t h e f l o o r and t o o k t o g o i n g o u t s i d e . " (CR, p . 342) 72 I n d e s c r i b i n g the i n v e t e r a t e c r i m i n a l , J o s eph and Mary R i v a s , S t e i n b e c k w r i t e s : "He s t a r t e d a g a i n on h i s c a r e e r and took a wrong t u r n i n g , f o r he f e l l under the i n f l u e n c e o f a . . . p r i e s t . . . . A l t h o u g h Jo seph and Mary r e a l i z e d he c o u l d neve r g e t r i c h i n t h i s j o b , he t o o k a c e r t a i n p l e a s u r e i n b e i n g p a r t l y l e g a l . I t gave h im the s a t i s f a c t i o n most p e o p l e f i n d i n s i n . " (ST, p . 9) H i s use o f r e v e r s a l does n o t a lways r e s u l t i n such l i g h t humour. He o f t e n manages, t h r o u g h t h i s d e v i c e , t o change a s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t i n t o g r o t e s q u e humour. An example o f t h i s i s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f H u b e r t Van D e v e n t e r , " a f l o r i d , h u n t i n g man who spent s i x months ou t o f e v e r y y e a r t r y i n g t o shoo t some k i n d o f c r e a t u r e o r o t h e r . Three months a f t e r t he wedding he sho t h i m s e l f . " (PH, p . 64) S t e i n b e c k o f t e n u se s s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n i n b o t h h i s f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n . J i m Ca sy r e p e a t e d l y d e p r e c a t e s h i m s e l f f o r s h i r k i n g h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a p r e a c h e r by s e d u c i n g the young women o f h i s f l o c k , (GW) and Mack admi t s h i s s e l f i s h m o t i v e s i n t h r o w i n g a p a r t y f o r Doc . (CR, p . 308) I n Sweet Thur sday H a z e l i n s i s t s t h a t he i s n o t good enough t o be p r e s i d e n t of t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , (p . 175) By r i d i c u l i n g h i m s e l f i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n , S t e i n b e c k i n f u s e s h i s work w i t h an i n t i m a c y w h i c h g e n e r a t e s an a p p e a l i n g warmth o f humour. I n Sea o f C o r t e z he s a y s , " I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o say how bad our moving p i c t u r e s w e r e — o n e f i l m l a b o r a t o r y has been eage r t o have a copy o f t he f i l m , f o r i t embodies i n a few thousand f e e t , so t h e y s ay , e ve r y s i n g l e t h i n g one s h o u l d no t do w i t h a c a m e r a . " (p . 225) Wh i l e o v e r s e a s d u r i n g t h e war he w r o t e : "What t he c o r r e s p o n d e n t r e a l l y saw was d u s t . . . . He l a y on h i s s tomach, i f he had any s en se , and watched ant s 73 c r a w l i n g among t h e l i t t l e s t i c k s on t h e sand dune, and h i s nose was so c l o s e t o t h e an t s t h a t t h e i r p r o g r e s s was i n t e r f e r e d w i t h by i t . " (OW, p . 157) I n A R u s s i a n J o u r n a l he admi t s h i s meanness when he shocks R o b e r t Capa by t e l l i n g h i m , u n t r u t h f u l l y , t h a t t h e r e i s a b a l d spo t on t h e back o f h i s h e a d . ( p . 143) In one o f h i s a r t i c l e s he says t h a t by mov ing t o New Yo r k he "had become g a f i f t h - r a t e c e l e b r i t y , " and i n ano the r he adm i t s h i s t h e f t o f 7 a s m a l l p i e c e o f d r i l l c o r e . I n T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y he s a y s , "My knowledge o f Canuck F r e n c h d e r i v e s f r om m o t i o n p i c t u r e s u s u a l l y w i t h N e l s o n Eddy and J e a n e t t e MacDona ld , and i t c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f ' B y g a r . 1 " (p . 64) I t appear s t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h u m i l i t y a l l o w s h im g r e a t ease and n a t u r a l n e s s i n h i s use o f s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n . S t e i n b e c k ' s s u c c e s s i n h i s use o f m e i o s i s as a humorous d e v i c e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t he same cause w h i c h r e s u l t s i n h i s s u c c e s s f u l u se o f s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n . The two a re r e l a t e d i n t h a t t h e y are g e n e r a t e d by t h e a u t h o r ' s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h u m i l i t y . B o t h s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n and m e i o s i s t end t o m i n i m i z e o r t o u n d e r -s t a t e e ven t s o r d e t a i l s t h e r e b y l e n d i n g a r e s t r a i n t wh i ch r e s u l t s i n s u b t l e humour. The humour i s a lways s u c c e s s f u l i n t h o s e e p i s o d e s wh i ch depend on m e i o s i s . F o r i n s t a n c e , when the P i r a t e b r o u g h t h i s packages o f f o o d t o D a n n y ' s hou se , t h e p a i s a n o s " r e c e i v e d h i s b o u n t y and made use o f i t : f r e s h f i s h , h a l f p i e s , un touched l o a v e s o f s t a l e b r e a d , meat t h a t r e q u i r e d o n l y a l i t t l e soda t o t a k e the g r e e n o u t . They began r e a l l y t o l i v e . " (TF, p. 35) Yi/hen Mack and the^boys are d r i v i n g t o t he f r o g h u n t , " E d d i e h i t [ a r o o s t e r ] w i t h o u t r u n n i n g t o o f a r o f f t h e r o a d . " (CR, p . 305) 74 I n t he s a l e o f r a f f l e t i c k e t s f o r t he P a l a c e F l o p h o u s e , " W h i t e y No. 2 ' s method was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i r e c t . The f i r s t man t o r e f u s e h im go t a r o c k t h r ough h i s w i n d s h i e l d , and t h e news t r a v e l e d . " (ST, p. 89) S t e i n b e c k u ses h y p e r b o l e f a i r l y o f t e n , though no t as f r e q u e n t l y as he does t he d e v i c e s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . He i s r a r e l y s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i t , e x c e p t i n a few i n s t a n c e s , as i n The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven, where " M a r i a t ugged a t t h e r e i n s as though she was [ s i c ] p u l l i n g up a t h u n d e r o u s l y g a l l o p i n g s t e e d . ' S t eady , L i n d o ! Be c a l m ! ' she c a l l e d . A t t h e l i g h t e s t p r e s s u r e o f t he r e i n s , L i n d o t u r n e d t o s t o n e , " (p . 118) and i n Cannery Row, where Mon te rey i s d e s c r i b e d as " a c i t y w i t h a l o n g and b r i l l i a n t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . I t remembers w i t h p l e a s u r e and some g l o r y t h a t R o b e r t L o u i s S t e ven son l i v e d t h e r e . " ( p . 303) The f o rme r succeeds because t h e e x a g g e r a t i o n i n M a r i a ' s v o i c e i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t h e h o r s e ' s l e t h a r g y . The l a t t e r , though i n t h e a u t h o r ' s own v o i c e , succeeds because o f t h e s a t i r e w h i c h t he h y p e r b o l e c o n v e y s . Most o f t he e x a g g e r a t i o n S t e i n b e c k u se s i s i n h i s own v o i c e , and when p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s way i t i s u s u a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . He d e s c r i b e s t h e S a l i n a s V a l l e y as " t h a t r e g i o n wh i ch heaven u n s u c c e s s f u l l y i m i t a t e d , " (EE, p. 134) F a u n a ' s f u r - p i e c e as two mar ten s " t h a t were b i t i n g each o t h e r ' s heads o f f , " (ST, p . 93) and a r e n t e d R o l l s Royce as " a l i t t l e 8 younger t h a n Stonehenge and i n a l i t t l e b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n . " I n T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y he u ses a g r e a t d e a l o f v e r y p o o r e x a g g e r -a t i o n , such a s : " I f t h e o t h e r t i r e b l e w , t h e r e we we re , on a wet and lonesome r o a d , h a v i n g no r e c o u r s e e x c e p t t o b u r s t i n t o 75 t e a r s and w a i t f o r d e a t h , " (p. 184) and "The owner was a g i a n t w i t h a s c a r r e d f a c e and an e v i l w h i t e eye . I f he were a h o r s e I w o u l d n ' t buy h i m . " ( p . 185) I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S t e i n b e c k p e r s i s t s i n u s i n g e x a g g e r a t i o n i n a way w h i c h r e s u l t s i n humour o f p o o r q u a l i t y , f o r he u se s i t i n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t t o r e i n f o r c e t he lame humour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f E t h a n Haw ley . Such pas sages a s , " s i n c e i t had no owner I t ook i t f o r ou r s t a r . I tamed i t and t u r n e d i t back t o f a t t e n , " ( p . 49) sugges t t h a t S t e i n b e c k r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y o f t he d e v i c e . Y e t he c o n t i n u a l l y mars h i s humour by u s i n g h y p e r b o l e i n h i s own v o i c e . A l t h o u g h he makes r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e u se of a n t i c l i m a x , S t e i n b e c k c r e a t e s e x c e l l e n t humour t h r o u g h h i s a n t i c l i m a c t i c p a s s a g e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , James F l o w e r s a y s , "I t h i n k t h e r e f o r e I a m . . . a t l e a s t I t h i n k I am," (CG, p . 76), George B a t t l e d i e d a t " s i x t y - f i v e . . . o f o l d age and a c o u g h , " (PH, p . 13) and Mr . H a r t l e y " d i d n ' t l i k e t o work a t n i g h t because o f h i s eyes and because he Q l i k e d t o l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o . " A f t e r he how led "menaces a t t h e German E m p i r e , " P i l o n , f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f the wa r , "marched about Oregon w i t h the i n f a n t r y . " (CR, p. 4) I n The Wayward Bus t h e r e i s a f i n e p i e c e o f a n t i c l i m a x when L o u i s , a f t e r p r e e n i n g h i m s e l f t o a t t r a c t C a m i l l e Oaks, " s t e p p e d t h r ough the door o f t he washroom w i t h a k i n d o f l o r d l i n e s s , and t h e n had t o back up because two men c a m e . . . c a r r y i n g a l o n g c r a t e . . . [ m a r k e d ] MOTHER MAHONEY'S HOME-BAKED P I E S . " (p. 99) I n A R u s s i a n J o u r n a l , S t e i n b e c k t e l l s o f a p o c k e t k n i f e t h a t had a b l a d e t o t a ke c a r e o f n e a r l y a l l p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e w o r l d , and some s p i r i t u a l o ne s . I t 76 was equ i pped w i t h b l a d e s t h a t were s c i s s o r s , w i t h b l a d e s t h a t were f i l e s , a w l s , c a n - o p e n e r s , b e e r - o p e n e r s , c o r k s c r e w s , t o o l s f o r r emov ing s t o n e s f r om a horse ' s f o o t , a b l a d e f o r e a t i n g and a b l a d e f o r murder , a screw d r i v e r and a c h i s e l . . . . We had i t n e a r l y two months , and the o n l y t h i n g we eve r d i d w i t h i t was t o c u t s au sage , (p . 1 4 4 f . ) One o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g i s t he ease w i t h w h i c h he p r e s e n t s t h e g r o t e s q u e . The one i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h he f a i l s w i t h i t i s i n " F i n g e r s o f C l o u d , " i n w h i c h t h e i n c i d e n t o f t h e h o r s e heads i n t h e f i r e b a r r e l f a i l s t o g e n e r a t e the humour t h a t he p r e sumab l y i n t e n d e d . 1 ^ By t he t ime he wro te The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven, h i s h a n d l i n g o f t he g r o t e s q u e had improved enough t o e n a b l e h im t o d e s c r i b e even d e a t h w i t h de tachment . The dea th s o f b o t h H u b e r t Van D e v e n t e r and John B a t t l e are p r e s e n t e d w i t h humorous i r o n y , (pp. 64, 14) I n the same n o v e l he d e s c r i b e s A l l e n Hueneke r , who " n o t o n l y w a l k e d l i k e an ape, he l o o k e d l i k e an a p e . . . A l l e n was so shy and so h o r r i f i e d a t h i s appearance t h a t he t r i e d t o grow w h i s k e r s t o c o v e r up h i s f a c e b u t t h e c o a r s e , s pa r ce s t u b b l e grew i n t h e wrong p l a c e s and o n l y i n t e n s i f i e d h i s s i m i a n a p p e a r a n c e . " (p . 117) The humour i n t h i s g r o t e s q u e d e s c r i p t i o n i s n o t e v i d e n t u n t i l i t i s r e v e a l e d t h a t h i s " w i f e had m a r r i e d h im because she was t h i r t y - s e v e n , and because A l l e n was t h e o n l y man o f h e r a c q u a i n t a n c e who c o u l d n o t p r o t e c t h i m s e l f . " Detachment f r om t h e p a t h o s o f A l l e n ' s appearance i s c o m p l e t e d when i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s w i f e i s j e a l o u s t o the p o i n t o f f a b r i c a t i n g s t o r i e s o f h i s prowess w i t h women, (p . 118) The g r o t e s q u e n e s s o f Johnny B e a r , who " l o o k e d l i k e a g r e a t , s t u p i d , s m i l i n g b e a r , " (LV, p . 148) and c o u l d m im ick p e r f e c t l y a n y t h i n g he had h e a r d , i s humorous u n t i l t he h o r r i f y i n g imp l i ca t i on s 77 o f h i s a b i l i t y a re d i s c o v e r e d . There i s an e lement o f t he g r o t e s q u e i n t h e s t o r i e s t h e p a i s a n o s t e l l one a n o t h e r . The s t o r y o f T a l l Bob Smoke (TP, p . 7 7 f . ) and t he one o f O ld Man Ravanno (TP, p p . 78-81) are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e d a r k humour o f t h e p a i s a n o s , d e s c r i b e d by J e s u s M a r i a a s , " ' w h e n you open y o u r mouth t o l a u g h , s ometh ing l i k e a hand squeezes you r h e a r t . ' " (TP, p . 78) The a c coun t o f t he c o r p o r a l whose baby d i e d b e f o r e he c o u l d grow up t o be a g e n e r a l and s t e a l as many w i ve s as he w i s h e d , i s a l s o i n t h i s same da r k v e i n o f humour. (TF, p p . 57-59) S t e i n b e c k ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t he g r o t e s q u e i n The Moon i s  Down i s e x t r e m e l y p o o r . Ann i e says o f A l e x Morden, who i s t o be e x e c u t e d , " ' T h e y ' v e g o t no r i g h t t o t r y h i m . He gave M o l l y a b i g r e d d r e s s f o r h e r b i r t h d a y , ' " (p . 232) and Madam O r d e n ' s g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n a f t e r h e r husband i s condemned t o d e a t h i s t h a t he wear h i s c h a i n o f o f f i c e , (p . 268) Such scenes f a i l because o f the ext reme f r i v o l i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e y t r e a t s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t S t e i n b e c k d i d no t i n t e n d t h e s e pa s sage s t o be g r o t e s q u e , and t h a t t h e y have become so as a r e s u l t of the g e n e r a l awkwardness p r e v a l e n t t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l . S t e i n b e c k i s more s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e o c c a s i o n a l i n s t a n c e s o f t he g r o t e s q u e i n h i s l a t e r w o r k s . I n The Wayward Bus t he s t o r y J uan t e l l s B reed about t he M e x i c a n woman and Pancho V i l l a (p . 183) i s s i m i l a r i n t one t o t h e s t o r y o f O l d Man Ravanno i n T o r t i l l a F l a t . The i n c i d e n t of the d runken baby i n E a s t o f Eden ha s a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . 1 1 I n "How Mr. Hogan Robbed a Bank " an amateur f o r t u n e t e l l e r , who adm i t s t h a t she i s o f t e n wrong, p r o p h e s i e s t h a t " M r s . W i n k l e was g o i n g on a t r i p t o Europe and 78 t he n e x t week M r s . W i n k l e g o t a f i s h b o n e i n h e r t h r o a t and choked t o d e a t h . " 1 2 A l t h o u g h much o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour r e s e m b l e s l ow comedy i n t h a t h i s humorous c h a r a c t e r s a re o f t e n s i m p l e , uneduca ted o u t -c a s t s , i t i s se ldom t h a t he employs f a r c e and s l a p s t i c k . There a re e l ement s o f f a r c e i n h i s e a r l i e s t s h o r t s t o r i e s , " A d v e n t u r e s i n Arcademy" and " F i n g e r s o f C l o u d . " These a re poo r a t t empt s a t s a t i r e i n w h i c h t he humour i s e n t i r e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . I n t he f o r m e r t h e r e i s a t t empted f a r c e t h r o u g h o u t , f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s a re o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l and no m o t i v a t i o n i s apparent i n any o f the a c t i o n . In t he l a t t e r , G e r t i e ' s d e c i s i o n s appear t o be u n m o t i v -a t e d , and the r e a s o n f o r P e d r o ' s k e e p i n g h o r s e heads i n t he f i r e b a r r e l i s no t e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n t he c o n t e x t . I n " S t . K a t y t he V i r g i n " t h e humour i s s u c c e s s f u l , f o r the a c t i o n i s b o i s t e r o u s and f a s t - m o v i n g , and the f a r c e i s g i v e n d i r e c t i o n by t h e s a t i r e . The o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l n a t u r e o f the c h a r a c t e r s i s e v i d e n c e d by K a t y ' s move f r om i n e x p l i c a b l e badness t o i n e x p l i c a b l e goodnes s , and the m o t i v a t i o n s f o r h e r a c t i o n s a r e c o n t r i v e d . T o r t i l l a  F l a t , Cannery Row and Sweet Thur sday r e s e m b l e f a r c e i n t h e i r s e r i e s o f e x a g g e r a t e d e v e n t s , b u t i n t h e s e the a c t i o n i s a lways m o t i v a t e d and t he c h a r a c t e r s , at l e a s t i n t h e l a s t two, a re f a i r l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , Joe E l e g a n t ag rees t o h e l p H a z e l w i t h h i s P r i n c e Charming costume and H a z e l ' s a r r i v a l a t t h e masquerade seems m e r e l y f a r c i c a l , f o r he wears a s u i t o f " l o n g g r a y u n d e r w e a r . . . . T h e d rop s e a t o f the costume had been removed and i n i t s p l a c e , r i g h t on the e s s e n t i a l s u r f a c e o f H a z e l h i m s e l f , was p a i n t e d a b u l l ' s eye i n c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s 79 o f r e d and b l u e . " (ST, p . 127) That Joe E l e g a n t was m o t i v a t e d t o d r e s s H a z e l i n such a manner i s e v i d e n t f r om t h e f a c t t h a t he i s a homosexua l , f r om the n a r r a t o r ' s comment, " J o e E l e g a n t had worked a l l day t o g e t h i s revenge on m a n k i n d , " (p . 127) and f rom M a c k ' s i n s t a n t a p p r a i s a l o f J o e ' s i n t e n t i o n , (p . 128) The f a r c e i n The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t he a d o l e s c e n t a t t e m p t s i n S t e i n b e c k ' s c o l l e g e s t o r i e s . I t f a i l s b e cau se , as w i t h the o t h e r fo rms o f humour i n the n o v e l , i t i s imposed on t h e n a r r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a r i s i n g ou t o f i t . S t e i n b e c k employs s l a p s t i c k more o f t e n t h a n f a r c e . He uses i t s u c c e s s f u l l y i n h i s humorous n o v e l s i n i n s t a n c e s where p e o p l e g e t t h o r o u g h l y b e a t e n f o r humorous e f f e c t . I n T o r t i l l a F l a t t h e p a i s a n o s b r u t a l l y b e a t P o r t a g e e Joe f o r s t e a l i n g t h e P i r a t e ' s t r e a s u r e , t h e n , a f t e r the pun i shment i s i n f l i c t e d , t e n d e r l y d r e s s h i s wounds and keep h i s w ine j a r f u l l . (p . 6 4 f . ) I n Cannery Row t h e r e i s the f i g h t d u r i n g the f i r s t p a r t y w h i c h makes a shambles o f D o c ' s l a b o r a t o r y , (p . 328) t h e subsequent b e a t i n g o f Mack by Doc , (p . 330) and the f i n a l b a t t l e a t the second p a r t y when the t u n a b o a t crew i n s u l t D o r a ' s g i r l s by c a l l i n g them whores d u r i n g t h e i r o f f h o u r s , ( p . 357) I n Sweet Thu r sday H a z e l h i t s Mack so h a r d w i t h an oaken s t a v e " t h a t h i s p a n t s s p l i t , " (p. 142) and Doc succeeds i n w i n n i n g Suzy o n l y because H a z e l b r e a k s h i s arm w i t h an i n d o o r b a l l b a t . (p . 1 6 9 f . ) The few pa s sage s o f s l a p s t i c k i n The Moon i s Down, such as the one i n w h i c h Ann ie th rows b o i l i n g wa te r on t he s e n t r i e s , (p. 220) are u n s u c c e s s f u l . Though amusing i n t h e m s e l v e s , i n c o n t e x t t h e i r humour l o s e s s t r e n g t h because o f t h e immediacy o f the s i t u a t i o n . The s l a p s t i c k i n The Sho r t 80 R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV f a i l s f o r t he same r e a s o n as does the f a r c e . Such pa s sages a s , " M i s s P r a n c e , r e p r e s e n t i n g J o a n o f A r c , s t ood b e s i d e the t h r o n e . . . u n t i l she f a i n t e d f r om h e a t and the w e i g h t o f h e r a rmor . She c r a s h e d w i t h t he sound of f a l l i n g k i t c h e n w a r e d u r i n g t he r o y a l o a t h , " (p . 73) i n d i c a t e the c o n t r i v e d a s p e c t o f t h e s l a p s t i c k as w e l l as i t s a d o l e s c e n t t o n e . S t e i n b e c k ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r u r a l l a b o r e r s o f many n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n t he S a l i n a s V a l l e y a f f o r d e d h im c o n t a c t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f f o l k humour, and t r a c e s o f i t a re f ound i n many o f h i s n o v e l s . The s t o r y o f T a l l Bob Smoke and the one o f O ld Man Ravanno (TP, p p . 77-81) a re s u g g e s t i v e of f o l k humour i n t h e i r u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r e a t m e n t o f i n c o n g r u o u s human b e h a v i o u r . The a ccoun t o f the c o r p o r a l and the d y i n g baby a l s o shows e l ement s o f f o l k humoxir. (TF, p p . 57-59) The l a s t two were s t o r i e s S t e i n b e c k had h e a r d f r om M e x i c a n l a b o u r e r s when he worked i n 15 a suga r m i l l . The s t o r y t o l d by Juan C h i c o y about Pancho V i l l a and the widow r e v e a l s t he same h a r s h e l emen t s o f f o l k humour e v i d e n t i n the p a i s a n o s ' s t o r i e s . (WB, p . 183) S t e i n b e c k makes use o f t h i s s t o r y a g a i n i n The f J i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t i n o r d e r t o s a t i r i z e p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e t oward money, ( p . 177) These s t o r i e s a l l have i n common the g r i m humour o f the g r o t e s q u e . The s t o r y o f W i l l i e and the h e i f e r i n The Grapes of Wra th (p . 94) shows e l ement s o f f o l k humour i n a l i g h t e r v e i n , as does the s t o r y o f t he f i n d i n g o f T u l a r e c i t o i n t h e e a r l y n o v e l , The P a s t u r e s  o f Heaven , (p . 4 8 f . ) I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s S t e i n b e c k ' s humour w i t h o u t g i v i n g some c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o h i s use o f c r u d i t y , f o r c r u d i t y i s 81 n a t u r a l i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f many o f the t y p e s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s f i c t i o n . I n The Grapes o f Wrath Grampa f e e l s he i s s t i l l f u l l m a p i s s a n ' v i n e g a r , (p . 107) and when c o r r e c t e d about h i s open f l y he s h o u t s , " 'Why , I ' l l go a r o u n ' a - h a n g i n ' ou t i f " I w a n t a J ' " (p. 125) Tom - says t o t h e one -eyed man o f h i s open s o c k e t , " ' Y a s t i c k i n ' i t out l i k e a c o w ' s a s s . . . . T e l l 'em y a d o n g ' s growed sence you l o s ' y o u r e y e . ' " ( p . 245) The abundance o f c r u d i t y caused much i n d i g n a t i o n o v e r t he p u b l i c a t i o n o f the n o v e l , r a i s i n g such o b j e c t i o n s a s , " I t has Tobacco Road l o o k i n g as pu re as C h a r l o t t e B r o n t e , when i t comes t o ob scene , v u l g a r , l e w d , s t a b l e l a n g u a g e . " When A l i c e C h i c o y c o m p l a i n s , " ' [ I ] t ' s my t i m e . . . a n d t h e n t h i s t o o t h a c h e , ' J uan a d v i s e s h e r , ' Take y o u r s e l f a s l u g o f l i q u o r . . . . T h a t ' 1 1 be good f o r b o t h e n d s . ' " (TO, p . 127) D u r i n g t he t r i p , annoyed w i t h Van B r u n t ' s c o n t i n u a l t a u n t s about l o s s o f t he f r a n c h i s e f o r t he bu s , C h i c o y t e l l s h i m , " ' I can t h i n k where I wou ld p u t t h a t f r a n c h i s e , r o l l e d up and t i e d w i t h ba rbed w i r e . ' " (WB, p . 207) Adam T ra s k r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f and C h a r l e s as two ' " ' l o n e l y o l d f a r t s w o r k i n g our t a i l s o f f . ' " (EE, p. 104) S t e i n b e c k ' s n o s t s u b t l e use of c rude humour i s i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n between Danny and P i l o n . "He re we s i t , " [Danny] began a t l a s t , " - - b r o k e n - h e a r t e d , " P i l o n added r h y t h m i c a l l y . "No, t h i s i s no t a poem, " Danny s a i d . (TP, p . 7) H e r e , humour i s d e r i v e d f r o m the c r u d i t y c o n t a i n e d i n the r e s t o f t he w e l l - k n o w n v e r s e wh i ch r ema in s un spoken . D e s p i t e the ^ p r e v a l e n c e o f c rude humour i n h i s work , S t e i n b e c k u se s i t t o convey t he e a r t h i n e s s n a t u r a l t o many o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , n o t m e r e l y t o c r e a t e s e n s a t i o n a l i s m . 82 Most o f t he w i t used by S t e i n b e c k i s i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n . Pa s sages such as P i p p i n ' s remark t o h i s w i f e , " ' D o n o t l e t u s , l i k e the A m e r i c a n s , h e a r the hens c r o w i n g , ' " (SEP, p. 29) and E t h a n H a w l e y ' s q u i p w h i l e p u t t i n g on h i s t i e , " ' B e w i t h you i n a c o u p l e o f t i e - t y i n g m o m e n t s , 1 " (WD, p. 68) are lame a t t empt s a t w i t , as a re most o f t h e w i t t y pa s sages i n h i s f i c t i o n . However, h i s w i t i s more s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n . I n h i s war c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s he w r i t e s o f t he I t a l i a n r e a c t i o n t o d e f e a t as " e n t h u s i a s m a t b e i n g c o n q u e r e d . " (OW, p . 171) Of t h e A r a b s ' r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d , he c omp l a i n s t h a t t h e y wou ld n o t appear " j u s t r e l a x e d and l o o k i n g A r a b . . . . [ E ] i t h e r t h e y had seen t o o many H o l l y w o o d f i l m s o f V a l e n t i n o as an A r a b , o r V a l e n t i n o had s t u d i e d A rabs under t h e impac t o f t he camera . We n e v e r caught them any o t h e r way e x c e p t l o o k i n g s t e r n l y o f f s t a g e , a lways i n p r o f i l e and a lways n o b l e . " (OW, p. 189) Much o f t h e w i t i n h i s a r t i c l e s i s e x c e l l e n t . I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e t r a f f i c i n Rome he s a y s , " A t s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s , b e a u t i f u l p o l i c e m e n s tood on boxes and e x e c u t e d b a l l e t movements wh i ch had no e f f e c t on the 1 7 t r a f f i c , e x c e p t t o s l ow i t down a l i t t l e . " I n t h e same a r t i c l e he w r i t e s , "The Communists had p r e p a r e d a r i o t i n [ G e n e r a l R i d g e w a y ' s ] h o n o u r , " and l a t e r , " W r i t e r s a r e t a k e n s e r i o u s l y i n I t a l y and a r e a c c o r d e d t h e same r e s p e c t t h a t L a n a T u r n e r ' s 19 l e g s g e t i n our c o u n t r y . " When he i s i n danger o f b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d t o a d u e l , he s a y s , "I remembered the s t o r y of how Abraham L i n c o l n was once c h a l l e n g e d and chose cow manure a t f i v e p a c e s . I d e c i d e d t o bo r row the weapon, w i t h f u l l c r e d i t t o L i n c o l n . " 2 0 I n ano the r a r t i c l e he says o f c r i t i c s , "I d o n ' t 83 t h i n k c r i t i c s s h o u l d change; o n l y ou r a t t i t u d e toward them. Poor t h i n g s , nobody r e v i e w s t h e m . " 2 1 I n "Random Thoughts on Random Dogs " he w r i t e s , "We b r e e d C o l l i e s w i t h t h e i r heads so op l o n g and nar row t h a t t hey can no l o n g e r f i n d t h e i r way home. " He speaks o f h i s two sons as " w e l l equ ipped i n d e l i n q u e n c y , " 2 3 and d e s c r i b e s t he o c e a n - g o i n g d e r r i c k , CUSS I, as h a v i n g " t h e 24 s l e e k r a c e l i n e s o f an outhouse s t a n d i n g on a ga rbage s cow. " The r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n b o t h the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f w i t between S t e i n b e c k ' s f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i n h i s f i c t i o n he i s r e s t r i c t e d t o c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n , whereas i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n he i s u s i n g h i s own v o i c e . I n h i s e a r l i e r works h i s c h a r a c t e r s a re t o o u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o be c a p a b l e o f w i t t i c i s m . H i s f i r s t c h a r a c t e r who i s w i t t y i s L e e , i n E a s t o f Eden . I n t h e i n c i d e n t where Samuel H a m i l t o n t e l l s Adam T r a s k the t r u t h about h i s w i f e , c o n s i d e r i n g i t as ' m e d i c i n e ' f o r Adam, Lee adheres t o t he metaphor by s a y i n g , " I ' m no a n t i d o t e . . . . I t ' s t r u e . " (p. 306) Here t h e w i t i s i n good t a s t e , f o r Lee i s a s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r w i t h a q u i c k sense o f humour. Bu t i n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t t he c h a r a c t e r s a re u n i n t e r e s t i n g , and S t e i n b e c k h e l p s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e them by i n c l u d i n g poo r examples o f w i t i n t h e i r d i a l o g u e . He i s s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t he c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , but t h e w i t i s c o n s e q u e n t l y v e r y p o o r . I n most ca se s the w i t i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l . S i n c e S t e i n b e c k r e l i e s a g r e a t d e a l on the i r o n i c mode i n h i s f i c t i o n , i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t much o f h i s humour i s i r o n i c . H i s humorous i r o n y f i r s t appeared i n The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven. A l t h o u g h t he e n t i r e n o v e l i s i r o n i c i n t o n e , the i r o n y i s s e r i o u s 84 r a t h e r t h a n humorous. The few i n s t a n c e s o f humorous i r o n y o c c u r m a i n l y i n the c h a p t e r p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Lopez s i s t e r s . A f t e r e i t h e r gave h e r s e l f t o a cu s t omer , " she went d i r e c t l y t o the l i t t l e p o r c e l a i n V i r g i n , now c o n v e n i e n t l y p l a c e d i n t he h a l l t o be a c c e s s i b l e f r om b o t h bedrooms, and p r a y e d f o r f o r g i v e n e s s . " (p . 113) The humour o f M r s . H u e n e k e r ' s j e a l o u s y o f h e r husband i s a l s o i r o n i c , f o r " e ve r yone i n t he P a s t u r e s o f Heaven knew how shy and t e r r i f i e d t he u g l y l i t t l e man w a s . " ( p . 118) I n T o r t i l l a  F l a t t he c o n t i n u a l r a t i o n a l i z i n g of the p a i s a n o s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e Lopez s i s t e r s . I t i s i r o n i c a l l y humorous when Danny " f o u n d a keg o f c oppe r s h i n g l e n a i l s , l o s t by the C e n t r a l S upp l y Company. He had judged them j e t s a m because no member o f t he company was anywhere n e a r . " (p . 49) There i s i r o n y i n the a t t i t u d e o f t h e M a y o r ' s w i f e i n The Moon i s Down when she w o r r i e s about p rob l ems o f e t i q u e t t e i n t h e f a c e o f c o n q u e s t , (pp. 215-217) and i n C o l o n e l L a n s e r ' s l o o k o f h e l p l e s s n e s s when Ann ie th rows b o i l i n g w a t e r a t h i s s o l d i e r s , (p . 220) H e r e , a g a i n , the humour f a i l s because o f i t s t r i v i a l n a t u r e . In Cannery Row much of t h e humour i s i n t h e i r o n i c v e i n . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t Mack and the boys c a t c h f r o g s t o s e l l t o Doc i n o r d e r t o g e t money t o g i v e Doc a p a r t y , (p . 3 0 7 f . ) and t h a t H e n r i " s c u l p t u r e s " a t h i r t y -f i v e - f o o t b o a t , neve r i n t e n d i n g t o move i t f r om i t s cement f o u n d a t i o n s among t he p i n e t r e e s , (p . 332) I t i s l a t e r r e v e a l e d , i n Sweet Thu r sday , t h a t H e n r i was t o o a f r a i d of t he ocean eve r t o use the b o a t . (p. 3) There a re r a r e examples o f humorous i r o n y i n E a s t o f Eden such as when Ka te check s h e r s e l f f r om c a l l i n g h e r son , C a l , a 1 s o n - o f - a - b i t c h . ' (p. 512) 85 I n Sweet Thur sday S t e i n b e c k uses humorous i r o n y more t h a n i n any o t h e r n o v e l . The e n t i r e e p i s o d e i n w h i c h Jo seph and Mary R i v a s grows ma ra j uana i n t h e Los Ange le s P l a z a i s r i c h i n i r o n y . He g e t s the j ob as g a r d e n e r t h r o u g h a p r i e s t , t h e n c u l t i v a t e s ma ra j uana i n the p u b l i c P l a z a w h i l e t he p o l i c e a re s e a r c h i n g t h r oughou t S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a f o r the s o u r c e . Nor i s i t the p o l i c e who d i s c o v e r t he o p e r a t i o n , but a t h i r t e e n - y e a r - o l d g i r l who i s the head o f h e r " B e g i n n i n g B o t a n y " c l a s s . To c u l m i n a t e the i r o n y , t he p o l i c e a re p o w e r l e s s t o a c t f o r f e a r o f r i d i c u l e , f o r the ma ra juana "had been p l a n t e d and n u r t u r e d by a c i t y employee, f r e s h e n e d w i t h c i t y w a t e r , and n u r t u r e d w i t h c i t y manu re . " (p. 10) There i s s i m i l a r humour i n F a u n a ' s t r a i n i n g h e r p r o s t i t u t e s i n e t i q u e t t e , (p . 62) and I n h e r p r i d e i n t h e g o l d - s t a r g i r l s who have m a r r i e d w h i l e a c t i v e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , (p . 75) A l s o , t h e r e a re many i n s t a n c e s o f f i n e humorous i r o n y i n s m a l l i n c i d e n t s , such as when a " s e a g u l l w i t h a b r o k e n w i ng engaged [ H a z e l ' s ] k i n d l y i n t e r e s t . He chased i t , t r y i n g t o h e l p i t , u n t i l i t swam t o sea and d r owned . " (p . 48) There i s l i t t l e humorous i r o n y i n S t e i n b e c k ' s l a t e s t wo rk s , f o r t he i r o n y becomes m i l i t a n t , and t h e r e f o r e s a t i r i c . There a re o n l y a few i n s t a n c e s o f i r o n y i n The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV, and t h e s e l a c k s u b t l e t y . F o r example , C h a r l e s M a r t e l s e l l s " a L o u i s Qu inze make-up;box'to an e l d e r l y l a d y t o u r i s t f o r whom i t had no p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . " (p . 21) A l s o , P i p p i n i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d , even by the queen, when he r e p l a c e s h i s r e g a l c l o t h i n g w i t h o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s , ( p . 112) I n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t a l l the i r o n y i s m i l i t a n t . There i s s a t i r i c i n t e n t even i n t h e i r o n i c C h r i s t i a n 86 names o f the p r o t a g o n i s t and h i s s on , f o r S t e i n b e c k , i n r e c a l l i n g 25 t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r o , E t h a n A l l e n , makes a s a t i r i c t h r u s t a t modern A m e r i c a by j u x t a p o s i n g i t s m o r a l l a x i t y w i t h p a s t i n t e g r i t y . S t e i n b e c k o f t e n c r e a t e s humour t h r o u g h t he i r o n i c naming o f p l a c e s and c h a r a c t e r s . The re i s s u b t l e i r o n y i n t he name o f D o r a ' s b r o t h e l i n two r e s p e c t s , b o t h i n the p a t r i o t i c " B e a r F l a g " and i n i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as a " r e s t a u r a n t . " (CR, ST) I t i s i r o n i c t h a t a f l o p h o u s e i s c a l l e d " P a l a c e , " (CR, ST) and t h a t D o c ' s s m a l l ma r i ne l a b o r a t o r y s h o u l d bea r t h e i m p o s i n g name, "We s t e r n B i o l o g i c a l L a b o r a t o r i e s . " (ST, p. 37) There i s i r o n y i n naming a d i m - w i t t e d v a g r a n t " H a z e l , " (CR, ST) and an i n v e t e r a t e c r i m i n a l " J o s e p h and M a r y , " (ST) and i n c hang i n g " F l o r a , " t h e name o f t h e madame o f a house w h i c h c a t e r s t o t he a n i m a l i n s t i n c t s of men, t o " F a u n a . " (ST, p . 3) C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e r e a re a number o f h i s f i c t i o n a l works 26 wh i ch c o n t a i n l i t t l e or no humorous i r o n y , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S t e i n b e c k makes c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f i t i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n . In Once There Was a War he w r i t e s o f B i g T r a i n M u l l i g a n : " S h o u l d h i s o f f i c e r be f a i n t w i t h h u n g e r , M u l l i g a n has a p i e c e o f c h o c o l a t e t o t i d e the c a p t a i n o v e r . What d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the c h o c o l a t e b e l o n g e d t o the c a p t a i n i n t h e - f i r s t p l a c e . . . ? The f a c t o f the m a t t e r i s t h a t when he needs h i s own c h o c o l a t e M u l l i g a n i s happy t o g i v e h i m half ' o f i t . " ( p . 104) A s i m i l a r e p i s o d e i s t he one i n w h i c h Bugs c a r r i e s the huge m i r r o r on h i s back t h r o u g h the e n t i r e S i c i l i a n campa ign , o n l y t o have i t f a l l and s h a t t e r the f i r s t t ime he hangs i t I n a room. (p . 1 6 9 f . ) O c c a s i o n a l l y S t e i n b e c k u se s humorous i r o n y i n h i s a r t i c l e s . 87 I n d e s c r i b i n g a s t r i k e i n S a l i n a s , he t e l l s o f t he s t r i k e - b r e a k e r who, s u s p e c t i n g Communist a g i t a t i o n , p u b l i c l y bu rned a l l t he l i t t l e r e d f l a g s f ound on the h i ghway , o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t 27 t hey b e l o n g e d t o t h e s u r v e y crew o f the Highway Commi s s i on . When w r i t i n g about l i f e i n s u r a n c e , S t e i n b e c k i s aware o f h i s own i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n . The e x p e c t e d f o c u s f o r humour h e r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n s u r e d p e o p l e a re more v a l u a b l e when they are d e a d . Of h i s own case he w r i t e s : "The b e s t i n s u r a n c e I c an l e a v e i s a l o n g l i s t o f c o p y r i g h t s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s t o the advantage o f my h e i r s and dependents t o keep me a l i v e and w e l l PR and w o r k i n g . " I n T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y he w r i t e s o f a F i l i p i n o who t o l d o f a charm a w i t c h d o c t o r had g i v e n h im t o ward o f f e v i l s p i r i t s . The man d i d no t know t h e meaning o f the words , w h i c h we re : ' " I n nomine F a t r i s e t F i l l i i e t S p i r i t u s S a n c t i . ' " ( p . 61) I n most ca se s when S t e i n b e c k i s i r o n i c , he i s s u c c e s s f u l , whether i t I s humorous or s e r i o u s . H i s one n o t i c e a b l e f a i l u r e i s i n The Moon i s Down, where the i r o n y h i n g e s on t r i v i a l i t i e s , and so has l i t t l e i m p a c t . A t t i m e s h i s i r o n y v e r g e s on s a t i r e . F o r i n s t a n c e , H a z e l ' s a t tempt t o h e l p t he s e a g u l l (ST, p . 48) s ugge s t s a s a t i r i c comment on p e o p l e who, i n a t t e m p t s t o h e l p o t h e r s , u n w i t t i n g l y do them ha rm. E x c e p t f o r a few i n s t a n c e s , t he i r o n y i n h i s l a s t two n o v e l s i s e n t i r e l y m i l i t a n t . A l t h o u g h S t e i n b e c k uses o n l y a few forms o f m i l i t a n t humour, he uses them, e s p e c i a l l y s a t i r e , w i t h such f r e q u e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a t i t i s t h e m i l i t a n t a s p e c t o f h i s work w h i c h p r e d o m i n a t e s . The o t h e r forms he uses a re mock e p i c and p a r o d y , 88 w h i c h are fo rms o f h i g h b u r l e s q u e . H i s one ex tended expe r imen t w i t h t h e mock e p i c p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l , a l t h o u g h one o f t he weaknesses o f T o r t i l l a F l a t i s t h a t t h e p a r a l l e l s between i t and Mor te d ' A r t h u r a re no t drawn c l e a r l y enough t o a s su re the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o u t the a u t h o r ' s e x p l a n a t o r y p r e f a c e . Yet t he n o v e l as a whole was s u c c e s s f u l enough t o b r i n g h i m fame. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o no te t h a t t h o s e c r i t i c s who see T o r t i l l a F l a t as a s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d a d m i r a t i o n f o r t he p a i s a n o s ' c a r e f r e e 29 way o f l i f e do not c o n s i d e r t h a t , by d e s c r i b i n g t he p a i s a n o s i n m o c k - h e r o i c t e r m s , S t e i n b e c k d i s c l a i m s t h e i d e a l i t y o f t h e i r 30 way o f l i f e . He s a t i r i z e s n o t o n l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , w h i c h he does t h r o u g h s u b j e c t m a t t e r , bu t a l s o t h e p a i s a n o s t h e m s e l v e s , as w e l l as t h o s e who seek v i r t u e t h r ough p r i m i t i v i s m , by emp loy i ng t h e mock-hero ic f o r m . I n a more r e s t r i c t e d sense S t e i n b e c k has employed mock - ep i c t e c h n i q u e s i n v a r i o u s s h o r t e p i s o d e s i n h i s wo rk s . In Chap te r Two o f Canne ry Row he u se s m o c k - h e r o i c terms t o d e s c r i b e Lee Chong as " a n A s i a t i c p l a n e t h e l d t o i t s o r b i t by the p u l l o f Lao Tze and h e l d away f r om Lao Tze by t he c e n t r i f u g a l i t y o f abacus and ca sh r e g i s t e r . " (p . 278) He goes on t o d e s c r i b e Mack and t h e boys as " t h e B e a u t i e s , t he V i r t u e s , and G r a c e s . I n the w o r l d r u l e d by t i g e r s w i t h u l c e r s , r u t t e d by s t r i c t u r e d b u l l s , scavenged by b l i n d j a c k a l s , Mack and t he boys d i n e d e l i c a t e l y w i t h the t i g e r s , f o n d l e t he f r a n t i c h e i f e r s , and wrap up t he crumbs t o f e e d t he sea g u l l s . " (p. 278) The f r o g hunt i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n s i m i l a r t e r m s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h : " D u r i n g the m e l l e n n i a t h a t f r o g s and men have l i v e d i n t he same w o r l d , i t i s p r o b a b l e 89 t h a t men have hun ted f r o g s . . . . T h e man w i t h n e t o r bow or l a n c e o r gun c r e e p s n o i s e l e s s l y , as he t h i n k s , toward the f r o g . " (p. 313) I n Sweet Thu r sday , the new e r a d e s c r i b e d i n "Hoop tedood le ( 1 ) " i s g i v e n i n m o c k - h e r o i c t e r m s : "Here were p r o d i g i e s and p o r t e n t s . . . . A s i x - l e g g e d c a l f was b o r n i n Ca rme l V a l l e y . A c l o u d d r i f t i n g i n fo rmed t h e l e t t e r s 0-N i n the sky o ve r Mon te rey . Mushrooms grew out o f t h e c o n c r e t e f l o o r o f t he basement o f the M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h . " (p . 12) E t h a n H a w l e y ' s r e a c t i o n t o h i s son 's b a t h i s i n m o c k - e p i c l a n g u a g e : " ' Somewhere you w i l l f i n d a mule has f o a l e d and a new comet come i n t o t he s k y . ' " (WE), p. 264) The few p a r o d i e s w h i c h S t e i n b e c k has w r i t t e n are r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r humour. They a re found o n l y i n t he e a r l i e s t phase o f h i s w r i t i n g , bu t t h e y a re the b e s t o f h i s e a r l y work. Of h i s c o l l e g e w r i t i n g , t h e o n l y p i e c e s wo r thy o f n o t i c e a re the two p a r o d i e s , " I f E d d i e Gues t had W r i t t e n the Book o f J o b : HAPPY BIRTHDAY!" and i t s companion poem, " I f John V .A. Weaver Had W r i t t e n K e a t s ' Sonnet i n t h e Amer i c an Language: ON LOOKING AT A NEW BOOK BY HAROLD BELL WR IGHT . " 3 1 The c l e v e r n e s s o f the p a r o d y i n t h e s e s a t i r i c poems l i e s i n S t e i n b e c k ' s a b i l i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e f o r m , tone and t y p e o f c o n t e n t of the o r i g i n a l s . The o n l y o t h e r p l a c e i n w h i c h he uses pa rody i s i n " S t . K a t y t h e V i r g i n , " i n w h i c h , as L i s c a n o t e s , he p a r o d i e s m e d i e v a l arguments w i t h h i l a r i o u s e f f e c t . (WWJS, p . 94) A l s o , t he e p i s o d e i n wh i ch K a t y t w i r l s on h e r t a i l i n f r o n t o f the a l t a r (LV, p . 198) s ugge s t s a p a r o d y o f A n a t o l e P r a n c e ' s "Our L a d y ' s J u g g l e r , " i n w h i c h t h e V i r g i n i s more p l e a s e d by B a r n a b y ' s j u g g l i n g , t h e o n l y o c c u p a t i o n a t wh i ch he i s p r o f i c i e n t , t h a n 90 32 w i t h t he g r e a t g i f t s o f t h e o t h e r monks. I n h i s r e v i e w o f The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV, H a r r y T h o r n t o n Moore sugge s t s t h a t S t e i n b e c k i s t oo s o f t - h e a r t e d t o be a 33 s a t i r i s t , y e t S t e i n b e c k ' s work c o n t a i n s more e l ement s of s a t i r e t h a n o f any o t h e r s t r a i n o f humour. A l t h o u g h h i s c o l l e g e w r i t i n g s a re poo r a t t empt s a t s a t i r e , t h e y are n e v e r t h e l e s s i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s t endency t oward s a t i r e i n h i s subsequent wo r k s . I n Cup o f G o l d , wh i ch C a r p e n t e r f i n d s a f a i l u r e because i t l a c k s humour, (SHC, p . 74) t he o n l y humour o f any consequence i s t he s a t i r e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l emphas i s by t he E n g l i s h m i l i t a r y on f o r t i t u d e and r e p u t a t i o n , (pp. 139-141) Most o f t h e humour i n S t e i n b e c k ' s f i r s t t h r e e n o v e l s i s i n The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven, and t h e r e much o f i t i s s a t i r i c . Throughout t he n o v e l t h e r e a r e numerous s m a l l s a t i r i c t h r u s t s p o i n t i n g out g e n e r a l weaknesses i n s o c i e t y . F o r i n s t a n c e , " T . B . A l l e n ' s ' t h e y s a y ' was h i s p r o t e c t i o n . He u sed i t as newspapers use the word ' a l l e g e d ' , " (p . 17) In d e s c r i b i n g S h a r k ' s l e d g e r f o r t u n e , S t e i n b e c k i n d i c a t e s t h e weakness o f man who p r e t e n d s power t h r o u g h the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f money, (p . 33) The i n c i d e n t c o n c e r n i n g Robb i e M a l t b y ' s new c l o t h e s i s an i n d i c t m e n t o f the community w h i c h i n s i s t s on t he c o n v e n t i o n a l way o f l i f e and i s , a t t h e same t i m e , a de fence o f the M a l t b y s i n t h e i r humorous u n c o n c e r n f o r m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , (p . 106) "54 Through t he d o u b l e - e d g e d s a t i r e o f T o r t i l l a F l a t , S t e i n b e c k i n d i c t s n o t o n l y t h e s o c i e t y wh i ch s c o r n s the l i f e o f t he p a i s a n o s , b u t a l s o t he p r i m i t i v i s t i c l i f e o f the p a i s a n o s t h e m s e l v e s . The succe s s o f t he n o v e l can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t he s k i l l w i t h w h i c h he 91 d i v i d e s h i s s a t i r e . He a t t a c k s s o c i e t y t h r o u g h c o n t e n t , showing by D a n n y ' s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h h i s houses the bu rden o f o w n e r s h i p . Y e t t h r ough t he m o c k - h e r o i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p a i s a n o s he i n d i c t s t he i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r way o f l i f e . There are no i n d i v i d u a l s a t i r i c pa s sages i n Of M ice and Men. However, t he e n t i r e n o v e l , i n w h i c h t h e u l t i m a t e i d e a l i s t o t e n d r a b b i t s , can be seen as a s a t i r e on the Amer i c an Dream. The s a t i r e i n The Grapes o f Wrath i s f ound m a i n l y i n t he e a r l y c h a p t e r s where S t e i n b e c k a t t a c k s r e v i v a l i s t r e l i g i o n s t h r o u g h Casy and i n the i n t e r c h a p t e r s , i n wh i ch S t e i n b e c k d i r e c t s a number o f a t t a c k s a t u n s c r u p u l o u s b u s i n e s s men such as l a n d o w n e r s , (Chap te r F i v e ) c a r s a l e smen , (Chap te r Seven) and second-hand d e a l e r s . (Chap te r N i n e ) L i k e T o r t i l l a F l a t , b o t h Canne r y Row and Sweet Thursday c o n t a i n d o u b l e - e d g e d s a t i r e . Mack and the boys a re p r e s e n t e d i n a manner wh i ch condemns t he c o n v e n t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f s o c i e t y , y e t the s y m p a t h e t i c p o r t r a y a l o f Doc s e r v e s t o debunk any i d e a l i z a t i o n o f p r i m i t i v i s m . A l s o , l i k e T o r t i l l a F l a t , b o t h a t t a c k s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s . In Cannery Row, h y p o c r i s y i s t he t a r g e t i n the d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e r e a r e n t r a n c e p r o v i d e d by the Bear F l a g f o r " t h e c i t y o f f i c i a l s and p rom inen t b u s i n e s s men, " (p . 315) and a d v e r t i s i n g i s a t t a c k e d when the f l a g - p o l e s k a t e r i s u sed by Ho lman ' s Depar tment S t o r e t o promote " a w h i t e s a l e , a remnant s a l e , an aluminum s a l e , and a c r o c k e r y s a l e a l l . . . a t the same t i m e . " (p. 322) The d e s c r i p t i o n o f H e n r i s e r ve s as a s a t i r e on the modern a r t i s t : " R e g u l a r l y - he r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t outworn t e c h n i q u e s and m a t e r i a l s . One season he threw out p e r s p e c t i v e . Ano the r yea r he abandoned 92 r e d , even as the mother o f p u r p l e . F i n a l l y he gave up p a i n t e n t i r e l y . " (p . 332) Government i s s a t i r i z e d Y i r hen D o r a f i n d s h e r s e l f " e n t a n g l e d i n t h a t c u r i o u s enigma w h i c h s a i d t he b u s i n e s s was i l l e g a l and t h e n t a xed h e r f o r i t . " ( p . 315) I n Sweet  Thur sday S t e i n b e c k s a t i r i z e s the F r e u d i a n w r i t e r i n h i s p o r t r a y a l o f Joe E l e g a n t who t y p e s h i s m a n u s c r i p t on g r e e n pape r u s i n g g r een t y p e w r i t e r r i b b o n . " The re w a s n ' t a c h a r a c t e r i n the who le o f The P i Root o f Oedipus who w o u l d n ' t have made the o b s e r v a t i o n w a r d . " ( p . 158) S t e i n b e c k d e r i d e s a l s o the p o p u l a r i z e d w r i t e r i n t h e p a s s a g e : "The p i l e o f g r e e n m a n u s c r i p t was t h r e e i n c h e s t h i c k , and Joe E l e g a n t was b e g i n n i n g t o p l a n h i s pho tog r aph f o r the back o f the d u s t c o v e r ; open c o l l a r , he t h o u g h t , and a s m a l l , wry s m i l e , and one hand r e l a x e d i n f r o n t o f h im w i t h an open p o i s o n r i n g on the t h i r d f i n g e r . He knew wh i ch r e v i e w e r s he c o u l d depend on and why . " (p. 159) S t e i n b e c k f o c u s e s on f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s when t he c o u n t r y c l u b d i s m i s s e s Wh i tey No. 2 as c a d d i e because he r e f u s e d t o j ' O i n t he members i n t a k i n g a l o y a l t y o a t h not t o d e s t r o y the U n i t e d S t a t e s government , ( p ; 65) The i n t e r - c h a p t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h " T h e ' G r e a t Roque War" (pp. 35-37) and "The P a c i f i c Grove B u t t e r f l y F e s t i v a l " (pp . 170-173) s e r ve t o convey S t e i n b e c k ' s s a t i r i c a t t i t u d e toward p r e t e n t i o u s r e s p e c t -a b i l i t y . The s a t i r e o f Canne ry Row i s more p ronounced t h a n t h a t o f i t s s e q u e l , Sweet Thu r sday , because i t i s i n Cannery Row t h a t the ma in c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s are i n i t i a l l y s e t up, and because i n Sweet Thur sday t h e r e i s more c o n c e n t r a t i o n on p l o t . M a l c o l m C o w l e y ' s comment t h a t Cannery Row m igh t be a " p o i s o n e d cream p u f f " 3 5 i s a p t , f o r t he n o v e l i s an e x c e l l e n t s a t i r e w e l l 93 d i s g u i s e d as p l e a s a n t e n t e r t a i n m e n t . The re i s a s a t i r i c tone t h r oughou t The Wayward Bus w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t c o n v e n t i o n a l i s m . S t e i n b e c k ' s f e e l i n g a g a i n s t c lubmen i s s een i n h i s B a b b i t t - l i k e p o r t r a y a l o f the s e l f -r i g h t e o u s E l l i o t t P r i t c h a r d . (p . 39-43) The s a t i r e i s ex tended when P r i t c h a r d i s the o n l y one o f the pa s senge r s who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n H o r t o n ' s " ' L i t t l e Wonder A r t i f i c i a l Sore F o o t . ' " ( p . 4 5 f . ) The t o u r i s t i s s a t i r i z e d t h r o u g h M r s . P r i t c h a r d who " d i d n ' t want t o go t o M e x i c o . She j u s t wanted t o come back t o h e r f r i e n d s h a v i n g been t o M e x i c o . " ( p . 64) E a s t o f Eden c o n t a i n s o n l y a few i n s t a n c e s o f s a t i r e , such as when t he l a z y daydreamer , Joe H a m i l t o n , ' b e c o m e s s u c c e s s f u l i n a d v e r t i s i n g , where h i s f a u l t s a re seen as v i r t u e s , ( p . 277) and when the w h o r e m a s t e r ' s b u s i n e s s s u f f e r s because " t h e decay o f m o r a l i t y among g i r l s d e a l t t he whorehouse i t s d e a t h b l o w . " (p. 90) The e p i s o d e o f Adam T r a s k ' s d i s a s t r o u s e x p e r i m e n t o f s h i p p i n g l e t t u c e i n a r e f r i g e r a t e d b o x - c a r may be seen as a s a t i r e on t he b u s i n e s s man. No one w i s h e d t o i n v e s t i n the scheme u n t i l t he outcome became known. When h i s v e n t u r e f a i l e d , t he b u s i n e s s men were q u i c k t o condemn h i m as a f o o l . ( pp . 437-439) I n h i s l a s t two n o v e l s S t e i n b e c k i s more s a t i r i c t han he has e ve r b e e n . A l t h o u g h T o r t i l l a F l a t , Cannery Row and Sweet  Thu r sday a re p r i m a r i l y s a t i r i c , t he s a t i r e i n them i s no t as c o n c e n t r a t e d as t h a t i n The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV and The  W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t . I n t he se l a s t two he i s mak ing s p e c i f i c a t t a c k s on the A m e r i c a n m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . I n P i p p i n he u t i l i z e s a h y p o t h e t i c a l F r e n c h s i t u a t i o n i n o r d e r 94 t o p o i n t ou t weaknesses i n A m e r i c a n p o l i c y . Through the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f monarchy i n P r a n c e , he i s a b l e t o d i a gno se an A m e r i c a n r e a c t i o n t o i t : " ' I t i s the n a t u r e o f Ame r i c an f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o d i s t r u s t l i b e r a l governments and s t r o n g l y t o f a v o r the more a u t h o r i t a r i a n , w h i c h i t c o n s i d e r s the more r e s p o n s i b l e . ' " (p . 58) A l s o , the k i n g ' s f i r s t a c t i s " to r e q u e s t a s u b s i d y f o r h i s government f r om A m e r i c a f o r the pu rpo se o f mak ing P rance s t r o n g a g a i n s t Communism, and an e q u a l s u b s i d y f r om the Communist n a t i o n s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f w o r l d p e a c e . " (p. 59) When P i p p i n ' s U n c l e C h a r l e s a d v i s e s h i m , he s t a t e s h i s i d e a s f o r p r o c e d u r e i n A m e r i c a n t e r m s , where d e t a i l s o f o f f i c e o r p a r t y a r e t u r n e d o v e r " ' t o one o f the g r e a t a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c i e s . ' " He s ugge s t s t h a t someth ing s i m i l a r c o u l d be e f f e c t e d i n P r a n c e : " ' I f such a company can merchand i s e a p r e s i d e n t and a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , why no t a k i n g ? . . . I n f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s t h e i r p o l i c y d e r i v e s no t f r om some d i s i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c s e r v a n t , b u t f r om d o i n g the most p r o f i t a b l e b u s i n e s s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l i t y i n q u e s t i o n . ' " (p . 64) T h i s s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l s the one i n S t e i n b e c k ' s a r t i c l e , "Mad i s on Avenue and t h e E l e c t i o n , " where he d i s c u s s e s the announcement, " a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c i e s w i l l a g a i n d e s i g n t h e i r P r e s i d e n t i a l campaigns i n 1 9 5 6 . " The s t o r y o f P i p p i n i n P r ance a l l o w s S t e i n b e c k t o r i d i c u l e many A m e r i c a n t r a i t s and p r a c t i c e s . News cove rage i s b e l i t t l e d when "The New Yo rk D a i l y News f r o n t page c a r r i e d a h e a d l i n e , o f wh i ch each l e t t e r was f o u r i n c h e s h i g h , t h a t r e a d : FROGS CROWN P I P . " (p. 72) He d e r i d e s t he p r e s t i g e sought" t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n wh i ch prompts Tod Johnson t o a t t e n d " f o u r u n i v e r s i t i e s — P r i n c e t o n f o r c l o t h e s , 95 H a r v a r d f o r a c c e n t , Y a l e f o r a t t i t u d e , and the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a f o r manne r s . " (p. 83) He r i d i c u l e s t he Amer i c an p a t t e r n w h i c h demands t h a t " t h e f a m i l y expand t o a d y n a s t y , " (p. 82) and t he A m e r i c a n - l i k e beau t y c o n t e s t w h i c h causes P i p p i n t o l a m e n t , " 'The F o l i e s Be r ge re i s h o l d i n g a c o m p e t i t i o n . . . .They are c h o o s i n g a K i n g ' s M i s t r e s s . ' " (p . 62) The i d e a o f u s i n g F r a n c e as a f ramework f o r a s a t i r e on A m e r i c a i s a c l e v e r one, bu t the humour i s u n s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e , as L i s c a p o i n t s o u t , i t i s sophomor ic i n i t s " g r o t e s q u e i m p r o b a b i l i t y and w o r d p l a y . " (WWJS, p . 287) The f a c t t h a t S t e i n b e c k s u b t i t l e s t he n o v e l "A F a b r i c a t i o n " i s no t s u f f i c i e n t excuse f o r t he c o n t r i v e d q u a l i t y o f t he work. I n h i s a t t empt a t s o p h i s t i c a t e d humour, he has c o n c e n t r a t e d on s a t i r e a t t he expense o f s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r s , t h e t h i n g s w i t h w h i c h he had been t he most f a m i l i a r i n t he p a s t . I t i s n e c e s s a r y o n l y t o compare s a t i r i c p a s s a ge s , one f r om The Wayward Bus , t he o t h e r f r om P i p p i n , t o a p p r e c i a t e the d i f f e r e n c e i n s u b t l e t y . Mr . P r i t c h a r d c o n t e m p l a t e s t he word " R e p e n t " w h i c h i s p a i n t e d on t he h i g h c l i f f nea r the s t r a n d e d b u s . " ' Somebody went t o a l o t o f t r o u b l e , ' he s a i d , ' a l o t o f t r o u b l e . ' And he wondered who had f i n a n c e d such a v e n t u r e . " (WB, p. 271) O b l i q u e r e v e l a t i o n s such as t h i s c o n t r i b u t e t o the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e t ype o f man who i s b e i n g s a t i r i z e d . B u t , when Tod Johnson c o n f i d e s t o P i p p i n t h a t '• 'Americans t a l k sex i n t h e o f f i c e and b u s i n e s s I n t he b e d r o o m , ' " (SRP, p . 105) the comment, a l t h o u g h s a t i r i c , i s a mere f l i p p a n c y l a c k i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n t o the c o n t e x t and i n c l u d e d f o r i t s own s a ke . The s a t i r e o f The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t i s more s u c c e s s f u l 96 t h a n t h a t o f The S ho r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV. The f a c t t h a t the s a t i r e i s conveyed m a i n l y t h r o u g h t he c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f E than Hawley and a r i s e s f r om a r i c h e r p l o t and s e t t i n g r e s u l t s i n a s u b t l e t y w h i c h i s l a c k i n g i n P i p p i n . H e r e , most o f the s a t i r i c pa s sages have m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , E t h a n e x p l a i n s t o h i s son t h a t p i r a c y i s " ' b i g g e r and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d now. They c a l l i t d i p l o m a c y 1 " ; ( p . 71) the t e l l e r says o f t h e b a n k e r , " ' F a t h e r Bake r g e n u f l e c t s and opens the s a f e and we a l l bow down t o the G r e a t God C u r r e n c y 1 " ; ( p . 132) and E t h a n c o n s i d e r s "how p h i l a n t h r o p i c t h e t a k i n g o f a p r o f i t can b e . " (p . I l l ) However, t he f o r c e o f t h e s a t i r e i s no t d e r i v e d f r om such I s o l a t e d passages , b u t f r o m the n o v e l i n i t s t o t a l i t y . The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t i s E t h a n H a w l e y 1 s s t o r y and h i s i s the v o i c e o f the L i t t l e Man, t h e c l e r k i n a s m a l l u r b a n g r o c e r y s t o r e . Even the lame sense o f humour wh i ch S t e i n b e c k a t t r i b u t e s t o E t h a n adds t o t he s a t i r e . Here E t h a n i s as c o n v e n t i o n a l as i n h i s m o r a l s . A l t h o u g h he i s c o n s t a n t l y ha rangued by h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n f o r h i s l a c k o f money and p o s i t i o n , he s t r u g g l e s t o do good i n t he u p r i g h t New E n g l a n d t r a d i t i o n . That t h e n o v e l i s a s a t i r e on t he L i t t l e Man, t he v i r bonus , i s conveyed i n t h e r e v e r s a l o f E t h a n ' s a t t i t u d e . Through d i s h o n e s t y and t r e a c h e r y he g a i n s w e a l t h and a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n i n t he t own . But t h e L i t t l e Man who has come t o t h e p o i n t where he r e a l i z e s he must become d i s h o n e s t i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n p r e s t i g ' e and r e s p e c t i s overwhelmed t o f i n d t h a t t he younger g e n e r a t i o n a l r e a d y o p e r a t e s under t h i s c o n v i c t i o n . F o r E t h a n d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s son c h e a t e d i n w r i t i n g t he e s s ay , "I Love A m e r i c a , " and the b o y ' s a t t i t u d e i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s 97 r e t o r t t o h i s f a t h e r , " ' E v e r y b o d y does i t . . . . E v e r y b o d y r i g h t t o the t o p - - j u s t r e a d t h e p a p e r s . You g e t t o f e e l i n g h o l y , j u s t r e a d t he p a p e r s . I b e t you t ook some i n you r t i m e , because t h e y a l l d o . ' " ( p . 277) S t e i n b e c k ' s comment i n "Our R i g ged M o r a l i t y " makes an a p p r o p r i a t e s y n o p s i s o f t he s t a t emen t made i n t h i s n o v e l o f t he A m e r i c a n s i t u a t i o n : "We c a n ' t e x p e c t t o r a i s e our c h i l d r e n t o be good and h o n o r a b l e men when the c i t y , t he s t a t e , the government , the c o r p o r a t i o n s a l l o f f e r h i g h e r rewards f o r c h i c a n e r y and d e c e i t t h a n f o r p r o b i t y and t r u t h . " Bu t t he p r o b l e m i s one w h i c h has conce rned S t e i n b e c k f o r a l o n g t i m e , f o r he a t t r i b u t e s a d e t a i l e d i r o n i c s t a t emen t o f i t t o Doc i n Canne ry Row: "The t h i n g s we admire i n men, k i n d n e s s and g e n e r o s i t y , opennes s , h o n e s t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f e e l i n g , are the c o n c o m i t a n t s o f f a i l u r e i n our s y s t em. And t ho se t r a i t s we d e t e s t , s h a r p n e s s , g r e e d , a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s , meanness, e g o t i s m and s e l f - i n t e r e s t , a re t h e t r a i t s of s u c c e s s . And w h i l e men admire the q u a l i t y o f t he f i r s t t h e y l o v e the p roduce o f t h e s e c o n d . " (p. 336) S t e i n b e c k ' s i n c l i n a t i o n t owa rd s a t i r e i s e v i d e n t i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n as w e l l as I n h i s f i c t i o n . There i s a sheep hun t i n Sea o f C o r t e z f rom wh i ch t he o n l y g a i n i s a h a n d f u l of d r o p p i n g s p i c k e d up by one o f the I n d i a n s . To s a t i r i z e b i g game h u n t i n g , S t e i n b e c k t e l l s o f how he had h i s sha re o f t he d r o p p i n g s mounted as a p r i z e d t r o p h y , (p . 1 6 6 f . ) I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Once There  Was a War, he s a t i r i z e s b u r e a u c r a c y i n t he p a s s a g e : "Once when I f e l t a l i t t l e b r u i s e d by c e n s o r s h i p I s en t t h r ough H e r o d o t u s ' s account o f the b a t t l e o f S a l a m i s f o u g h t between the Greeks and P e r s i a n s i n 480 B .C . , and s i n c e t h e r e were p l a c e names i n v o l v e d , a l b e i t c l a s s i c a l ones , t h e Navy cen so r s k i l l e d t h e whole s t o r y . " 98 ( p . x i v f . ) He r i d i c u l e s b l i n d p a t r i o t i s m i n s p e a k i n g o f t he "huge and g a s s y t h i n g c a l l e d t h e War E f f o r t . [ M j o s t s t r o n g o f a l l i n d i s c i p l i n e . . . w e r e the war -minded c i v i l i a n s , t h e Non -combatant Commandos o f t he S t o r k C l u b , o f Time Magaz ine and The New Y o r k e r , t o j e r k a c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n t o l i n e o r sugges t t h a t he be removed f r om t h e a r e a as a danger t o t h e War E f f o r t . " (OW, p . x i ) Commenting on t h e f u t u r e th ruways a c r o s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s , he o b s e r v e s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y " i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d r i v e f r om New Yo rk t o C a l i f o r n i a w i t h o u t s e e i n g a s i n g l e t h i n g . " (TC, p . 8 9 f . ) I n h i s a r t i c l e s he u ses s a t i r e i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s i n c l u d i n g t e l e v i s i o n shows and M c C a r t h y i s m , H o l l y w o o d c e l e b r i t i e s , c o m p a r i s o n o f n a t i o n a l 40 41 42 4"5 f i s h i n g h a b i t s , E n g l i s h c u i s i n e , s o c i a l s t a t u s , money, e l i g i b i l i t y f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 4 4 The ease w i t h w h i c h S t e i n b e c k f a l l s i n t o the s a t i r i c a l vein;, and the s u c ce s s he g e n e r a l l y has w i t h i t , p r o v e s M o o r e ' s c r i t i c i s m of S t e i n b e c k t o be m i s l e a d i n g . He i s no t too s o f t - h e a r t e d f o r s a t i r e , e x c e p t when, i n a cco rdance w i t h h i s b i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s , he i s d e a l i n g w i t h n a t u r a l weaknes se s . F o r he i s v i c i o u s l y s a t i r i c i n h i s i n d i c t m e n t o f t ho se who a re i n s e n s i t i v e t o the s u f f e r i n g o f o t h e r s and o f t h o s e who imp inge on the r i g h t s of o t h e r s . The v a r i e t y o f fo rms t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s humour t a k e s shows h im t o be as v e r s a t i l e i n i t as he i s i n f o rm and s u b j e c t . H i s f r e q u e n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f humour o f l a n g u a g e , of i d e a , o f s i t u a t i o n and o f c h a r a c t e r r e s u l t s i n some superb humorous e p i s o d e s . He has e x p e r i m e n t e d , f o r the most p a r t s u c c e s s f u l l y , w i t h a number o f l i t e r a r y forms wh i ch depend m a i n l y on humour, and he u t i l i z e s 99 a w ide range o f t e c h n i q u e s t o c r e a t e humour. The t endency i n h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e toward h u m i l i t y appear s i n h i s w r i t i n g as s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n , and t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f humorous i r o n y i n h i s work. Y e t the most p e r s i s t e n t and most s u c c e s s f u l e lement i n h i s humour i s t h a t w h i c h i s m i l i t a n t , and o f t h i s , i n b o t h h i s f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n , s a t i r e i s t he most dom inan t . Even i n h i s humorous n o v e l s , where he u t i l i z e s many fo rms o f humour, s a t i r e i s t he most p e r v a s i v e . 100 C h a p t e r F i v e S t e i n b e c k ' s Uses o f Humour A l t h o u g h much o f S t e i n b e c k ' s work i s s a t i r i c , t h e r e a re a c t u a l l y f o u r ma jo r ways i n w h i c h he u ses humour. F o r h i m , humour i s a means t o a i d i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f h i s f i c t i o n a l f i g u r e s , t o c o n t r o l h i s d i s t a n c e f r om h i s m a t e r i a l , t o i n t e n s i f y , t h r o u g h comic r e l i e f , h i s s e r i o u s w r i t i n g , and t o comment on s i t u a t i o n s i n need o f c o r r e c t i o n . There i s no doubt t h a t ano the r i n t e n t i o n o f h i s humour i s t o e n t e r t a i n , f o r t h e r e are many humorous pa s sages wh i ch s e r v e no o t h e r f u n c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f D o c ' s b i r t h d a y c a k e : " T h i s cake was no t f o r t u n a t e , f o r . . . [ t h e pup] a te what she c o u l d o f i t , was s i c k i n i t , and f i n a l l y c u r l e d up i n i t s s t i l l warm d o u g h . " (CR, p. 327) The e n t e r t a i n m e n t v a l u e o f t h e e n t i r e n o v e l , Sweet Thu r sday , i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t i t was e a s i l y c o n v e r t e d t o t h e p o p u l a r m u s i c a l comedy, P i p e Dream. (WWJS, p . 277) Through a humorous p o r t r a y a l o f t r a i t s , r e a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s , S t e i n b e c k s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s a number o f h i s f i g u r e s . Most o f t he c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t he p a i s a n o s i s e f f e c t e d t h r o u g h humour. As e a r l y as The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven, where he p o r t r a y e d t h e Lopez s i s t e r s , he r e a l i z e d t he humour i n h e r e n t i n t he p a i s a n o way o f l i f e . He p r e s e n t s t he t r a i t o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n t h e s i s t e r s ' s e x u a l encouragement o f t h e i r r e s t a u r a n t c u s t o m e r s , (p . 113) I n T o r t i l l a F l a t he c h a r a c t e r i z e s r e p e a t e d l y t h r ough t h i s t r a i t when P i l o n c o n v i n c e s h i m s e l f t h a t t o k i l l t h e r o o s t e r he d e s i r e s t o e a t i s an a c t o f k i n d n e s s : 101 P i l o n mused, " Poo r l i t t l e b a r e f o w l . How c o l d i t must be f o r you i n t he e a r l y m o r n i n g , when the dew f a l l s and the a i r grows c o l d w i t h t he dawn. The good God i s no t a lways so good t o l i t t l e b e a s t s . " And he t h o u g h t , "Here you p l a y i n the s t r e e t , l i t t l e c h i c k e n . Some day an a u t o m o b i l e w i l l r u n ove r y o u ; and i f i t k i l l s y ou , t h a t w i l l be t he b e s t t h a t can happen . I t may o n l y b r e a k you r l e g o r y ou r w i n g . Then a l l o f y o u r l i f e you w i l l d r a g a l o n g i n m i s e r y . L i f e i s t o o h a r d f o r y ou , l i t t l e b i r d . " (p. 9 f . ) The p a i s a n o c a r e f r e e a t t i t u d e t oward m o r a l i t y i s conveyed i n t h e ca se o f M a r i a and Rosa Lopez and i n t h a t o f t he r e s i d e n t s o f T o r t i l l a P l a t . M a r i a and Rosa s i m p l y go t o the V i r g i n t o ask f o r g i v e n e s s f o r g i v i n g t hemse l ve s t o cu s tomer s t o promote the s a l e o f t h e i r c o o k i n g , a f t e r h a v i n g d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s t o be pe rmanent . (PH, p. 113) The g a l l a n t l e c h e r y o f Danny and h i s f r i e n d s , p r e s e n t e d i n such humorous t e r m s , e s t a b l i s h e s t h e i r c h a r a c t e r as n a i v e and a p p e a l i n g . Most o f t he few i n s t a n c e s o f humour i n The Red Pony s e r ve t o c h a r a c t e r i z e Jody T i f l i n . When the pony b i t h i m , Jody " r e g a r d e d h i s b r u i s e d f i n g e r s . ' W e l l , ' he s a i d w i t h p r i d e — ' W e l l , I guess he can b i t e a l l r i g h t . 1 " (p . 109) When h i s mother s c o l d e d h i m f o r h u r t i n g t h e dog , " J o d y f e l t m e a n . . . , so he t h rew a r o c k a t M u t t . " ( p . 123) L e n n i e ' s e n t h u s i a s m and s i m p l i c i t y are shown t h r o u g h humorous r e p e t i t i o n , and G e o r g e ' s p a t h e t i c p o s i t i o n as L e n n i e ' s g u a r d i a n i s emphas i zed humorou s l y t h r o u g h c r u d i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n i n such pa s sages as Aunt C l a r a ' s " ' H e wou lda t ook h i s pay a n ' r a i s e d h e l l i n a whore h o u s e . . . . Y o u ' 1 1 j u s ' s t i c k around a n ' s tew t he b ' J e s u s o u t a George a l l t he t i m e . ' " (MM, p . 205) Grampa Joad i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d m a i n l y t h r o u g h humour, and much o f C a s y ' s c h a r a c t e r 102 i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h humorous pa s sages such a s , " ' A n 1 h e r e w i t h a l l t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on me I ' d j u s t g e t 'em f r o t h - i n 1 w i t h t h e H o l y S p e r i t , a n ' t h e n I ' d t a k e 'em ou t i n t he g r a s s . " 1 (GW, p . 30) S t e i n b e c k i s u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s a t tempt t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h r o u g h humour i n The Moon i s Down. H i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e p e o p l e and t he s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n the s t i l t e d h a n d l i n g o f such c h a r a c t e r s as Mayor Orden,who, w h i l e w a i t i n g t o r e c e i v e t he c o n q u e r o r s , i s " ' e v e n more u p s e t about h a v i n g h i s eyebrows trimmed t h a n h i s e a r s ' " ; (p . 213) Madame Orden, who, i n t he same s i t u a t i o n , w o r r i e s about e t i q u e t t e ; ( p . 215) and A n n i e , who th rows b o i l i n g w a t e r on the enemy s e n t r i e s , (p . 220) Perhaps t h e o n l y p l a c e i n t h i s n o v e l where S t e i n b e c k i s s u c c e s s f u l w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t h r o u g h humour i s i n t he case o f J o s e p h , b u t he i s m e r e l y a s t e r e o t y p e o f the m e t i c u l o u s , p e r v e r s e b u t l e r . He i s d e s c r i b e d as h a b i t u a l l y s c o w l i n g " a t f u r n i t u r e , e x p e c t i n g i t t o be i m p e r t i n e n t , m i s c h i e v o u s , o r d u s t y . I n a w o r l d where Mayor Orden was the l e a d e r o f men, Jo seph was the l e a d e r o f f u r n i t u r e , s i l v e r , and d i s h e s . " (p . 212) I n Cannery Row and Sweet Thu r sday , most o f t he f i g u r e s a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h humour. Mack and the boys a re p r e s e n t e d e n t i r e l y i n humorous t e r m s . Even t h e i r d e p r e s s i o n i s made f u n n y . A f t e r the f i r s t d e v a s t a t i n g p a r t y a t D o c ' s l a b o r a t o r y , a " b l a c k g loom s e t t l e d over t he P a l a c e F l o p h o u s e . . . . Hugh ie and Jones s a t f o r a w h i l e s t a r i n g i n t o space and t h e n m o r o s e l y t h e y went o v e r t o t h e Hed iondo Cannery and a p p l i e d f o r j o b s and go t them. H a z e l f e l t so bad t h a t he wa l ked t o Monte rey and p i c k e d a f i g h t w i t h a s o l d i e r and l o s t i t on p u r p o s e . " (CR, p. 334) 103 A t t i m e s S t e i n b e c k u ses even t h e most m i no r humorous i n c i d e n t s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e . When Mack f e l t p a r t i c u l a r l y d e p r e s s e d , "he went out o f h i s way t o k i c k a d a n d e l i o n f l o w e r . " (ST, p . 56) D o r a and Fauna a re a lways p r e s e n t e d humorou s l y a l s o . D u r i n g " t h e b u s i e s t t ime the g i r l s o f t h e B e a r F l a g e ve r h a d , " Do r a ob se r ved t h a t " s he c o u l d have used t h e t o t a l membership o f the o l d l a d i e s ' home. " (CR, p p . 315, 316) When Dora d i e d , the Bea r F l a g was t a k e n o v e r by h e r s i s t e r , Fauna , who "came down f r om San F r a n c i s c o , where f o r some y e a r s she had been r u n n i n g a M i d n i g h t M i s s i o n . . . a t a p r o f i t . She had been a s i l e n t p a r t n e r a l l a l o n g . . . a n d c o n t i n u e d , a f t e r h ou r s at l e a s t , t o t r a n s f o r m t h e Bear F l a g i n t o a k i n d o f f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l f o r g i r l s . " (ST, p . 3) U n l i k e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , Doc, as t h e Huck f i g u r e , i s p re sen ted m a i n l y i n s e r i o u s terms as when he f i n d s t he dead g i r l f l o a t i n g i n t he ocean , (CR, 321) and i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l m u s i c . (CR, p . 353) Y e t S t e i n b e c k p o r t r a y s h i m o f t e n i n humorous t e r m s . F o r examp le , "Doc t i p s h i s h a t t o dogs as he d r i v e s by and the dogs l o o k up and s m i l e a t h i m , " (CR, p . 284) and when he o r d e r s a b e e r m i l k shake he e x p l a i n s he has " ' a b l a d d e r c o m p l a i n t . . . . B i p a l y c h a e t o r s o n e c t o m y , the d o c t o r s c a l l i t . I 'm supposed t o d r i n k a b e e r m i l k shake. D o c t o r ' s o r d e r s . ' " (CR, p . 320) As t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r o f Cannery Row and Sweet Thu r s day , Doc i s p o r t r a y e d , a l s o , t h r o u g h h i s r e a c t i o n s t o t he humorous a s p e c t s o f t he o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . F o r example , when H a z e l asks t he q u e s t i o n about t he s t i n k bugs , " ' w h a t t hey go t t h e i r a s se s up i n t h e a i r f o r ? ' " D o c ' s answer 104 r e v e a l s a g r e a t d e a l o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y : " ' I t h i n k t h e y ' r e p r a y i n g . . . . [ T ] h e r e a l l y i n c r e d i b l y r e m a r k a b l e t h i n g i s t h a t we f i n d i t r e m a r k a b l e . We can o n l y use o u r s e l v e s as y a r d s t i c k s . I f we d i d someth ing as i n e x p l i c a b l e and s t r a n g e w e ' d p r o b a b l y be p r a y i n g - - s o maybe t h e y ' r e p r a y i n g . ' " (CR, p. 2 8 8 f . ) A l s o , Doc s e r v e s t o p o i n t up the humour i n the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . " F o r , as Huck f i g u r e , he i s S t e i n b e c k ' s i d e a l man and the o t h e r c h a r a c -t e r s , i n c o n t r a s t , appear i n cong ruou s and t h e r e f o r e humorous. S t e i n b e c k u ses s a t i r e i n The Wayward Bus t o b r i n g out M r . P r i t c h a r d * s c h a r a c t e r as a c o n v e n t i o n a l c lubman, and i n The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV t o p o r t r a y C h a r l e s M a r t e l as a shrewd b u s i n e s s man. The e n t i r e n o v e l , The W i n t e r o f Our  D i s c o n t e n t , h i n g e s on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f E t h a n Hawley , who i s p o r t r a y e d m a i n l y t h r o u g h h i s i n s i p i d sense o f humour wh ich a l l o w such i nane te rms o f endearment f o r h i s w i f e a s : ' M i s s Mousy , ' ' r a b b i t f o o t l i n g m i n e , ' ' r u m p l e d d u c k , ' 'duck b l o s s o m , ' ' P i g e o n f l a k e , ' ' i n s e c t - w i f e , ' and ' c a r o t e n e . ' One o f the most I n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i h i s use o f i t t o e s t a b l i s h the s p e c i f i c d i s t a n c e he w i she s t o p l a c e between h i m s e l f and h i s m a t e r i a l . He o f t e n uses humour t o p r e s e n t , i n a d e t a c h e d way, s u b j e c t s w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y become s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d , and c o n v e r s e l y , t o p e r s o n a l i z e o b j e c t s and a n i m a l s wh i ch wou ld o t h e r w i s e r e m a i n i m p e r s o n a l . He uses humour t o o b j e c t i f y m a i n l y i n T o r t i l l a F3a t , Canne ry Row and Sweet  Thu r sday , where h i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o s e n t i m e n t a l i z e the p a i s a n o s and Mack and the boys i s checked by t h e humorous t r e a t m e n t o f them. Those c r i t i c s who c a l l t he two e a r l i e r n o v e l s s e n t i m e n t a l 105 seem t o o v e r l o o k S t e i n b e c k ' s h umo rou s l y o b j e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f - t h e c h a r a c t e r s he i s a ccu sed o f s e n t i m e n t a l i z i n g . The humour o f T o r t i l l a F l a t i s a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s ed by b o t h Wh ipp le and L i s c a who f e e l t h a t i t keeps t h e c h a r a c t e r s at a p r o p e r d i s t a n c e . There i s some t r u t h i n t h e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t Sweet .Thursday i s s e n t i m e n t a l f o r i n t h i s e l e g y o f t h e R i c k e t t s - D o c f i g u r e , S t e i n b e c k canno t r e f r a i n f rom c o n c l u d i n g t h e s t o r y w i t h a p i c t u r e o f Doc, " d r i v i n g o f f i n t h e sun se t w i t h h i s p r i n c e s s by h i s s i d e . " (Watt , p . 101) He s t i l l manages t o o b j e c t i f y Mack and t h e boys bu t Doc, who r e p r e s e n t s , , i n Cannery Row, the S t e i n b e c k h e r o , 4 t he man who i s e x t r e m e l y p r o f i c i e n t i n h i s o c c u p a t i o n , d e g e n e r a t e s i n t o a comic f i g u r e once h i s s e l f - r e l i a n c e has t u r n e d i n t o a need f o r c o m p a n i o n s h i p . S t e i n b e c k i s h i m s e l f t oo i n v o l v e d w i t h the memory o f R i c k e t t s , and he f a i l s i n h i s a t tempt t o o b j e c t i f y Doc . There a re many i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h S t e i n b e c k uses humour t o b r i n g i m p e r s o n a l s u b j e c t s c l o s e r t o h i s a u d i e n c e . I n h i s n o n -f i c t i o n he o f t e n g i v e s m e c h a n i c a l o b j e c t s an a lmos t human c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h humorous p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . H i s e x t e n s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e "Hansen S e a - C o w , " 5 i n such pa s sages a s : " I t h a t e d Tex, s e n s i n g pe rhaps t h a t h i s knowledge of mechan i c s was c a p a b l e o f d i a g n o s i n g i t s s h o r t c o m i n g s , " (SC, p. 21) i s one o f h i s f i n e s t examples o f humorous p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . S t e i n b e c k shows h i s a t t a chmen t t o v a r i o u s o l d a u t o m o b i l e s t h r o u g h the same d e v i c e . He says o f a c a r w h i c h i n e x p l i c a b l y s t opped at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s : "I t h i n k i t had a ne rvous b r e a k d o w n . " H i s o l d Model T i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g " an i n t e l l i g e n c e no t e x a c t l y 106 m a l i c i o u s , b u t . . . l o v i n g a p r a c t i c a l j o k e . . . . I t r a n p e r f e c t l y when I was i n b l u e j e a n s , bu t l e t me p u t on my b e s t s u i t and a w h i t e s h i r t , and maybe a g i r l b e s i d e me, and t h a t c a r i n v a r i a b l y 7 b r o k e down i n the g r e a s i e s t p o s s i b l e manne r . " I n t he same a r t i c l e he d e s c r i b e s a n o t h e r c a r w h i c h w a i t e d u n t i l he was d r i v i n g h i s mother home f rom the s t a t i o n b e f o r e i t spewed out g t h e co rnmea l he was u s i n g as a r a d i a t o r s e a l . S t e i n b e c k p e r s o n a l i z e s no t o n l y m e c h a n i c a l o b j e c t s , bu t a l s o e n t i r e i m p e r s o n a l e v e n t s . F o r example , the d e s c r i p t i o n s 9 o f the Sea-Cow and t h e humour o f o t h e r m i n o r p a s s a ge s , combined w i t h h i s c a s u a l n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , s e r ve t o make more p a l a t a b l e 1C t he i m p e r s o n a l s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s he p r e s e n t s i n Sea o f C o r t e z . He u se s humour i n a s i m i l a r manner i n h i s a r t i c l e , " H i g h Drama o f B o l d T h r u s t Through Ocean F l o o r . " The s c i e n t i f i c p r o j e c t o f d r i l l i n g t h r o u g h t he ocean f l o o r f o r sample c o r e s o f s t r a t a i s humanized by S t e i n b e c k ' s humorous d e s c r i p t i o n as w e l l as by h i s i n f o r m a l n a r r a t i o n . He d e p i c t s t he b a r g e , CUSS I, i n a number o f humorous ways: " I t wadd led l i k e a d u c k , " (p. I l l ) " [ l u r c h e d ] l i k e an o l d sow, " (p . 118) and l o o k e d l i k e " a n outhouse s t a n d i n g on a garbage s cow. " ( p . I l l ) He d e s c r i b e s t h e s torms humorous l y i n p e r s o n a l t e r m s . When he asks f o r h i s eggs s t r a i g h t up, the cook r e p l i e s , " ' B e t t e r have 'em s c r amb led so I can keep them i n t h e p a n . ' " ( p . 118) The v i o l e n c e o f the s t o rm i s p o r t r a y e d t h r ough t h e a c t i o n o f a c h a i r w h i c h "came up f i g h t i n g and t r i e d t o b e a t i t s way t o f reedom t h r o u g h an i r o n b u l k h e a d . We l a s s o e d i t g o i n g b y , th rew i t and t i e d i t down. " (p . 118) S t e i n b e c k i s e x t r e m e l y s k i l f u l i n h i s use o f humour t o 107 humanize a n i m a l s . H i s f i r s t a t t e m p t , i n " A d v e n t u r e s i n Arcademy," i s u n s u c c e s s f u l , but t he humorous p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the bad sow i n " S t . K a t y the V i r g i n ' . 1 i s w e l l h a n d l e d . I n T o r t i l l a F l a t t h e P i r a t e ' s dogs a r e ' ' h umorou s l y p r e s e n t e d as a lmos t human companions o f t h e i r m a s t e r , f o r t h e y a re " v e r y r e s p e c t f u l t oward h i m , and v e r y s o l i c i t o u s f o r h i s h a p p i n e s s . " (p . 29) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n t h i s n o v e l S t e i n b e c k u se s humour a t t imes t o i n c r e a s e and a t t i m e s t o d i m i n i s h t he d i s t a n c e f rom h i s s u b j e c t . In The Red Pony he p r e s e n t s " t h e b i g s e r i o u s dog " i n humorous t e r m s , n o t o n l y t h r o u g h i t s name, " D o u b l e t r e e M u t t , " b u t a l s o by g i v i n g i t a c h a r a c t e r i n s uch pa s sages a s , "No m a t t e r where he was h u r t , Mu t t l i m p e d . " (p. 123) In Canne ry Row he goes so f a r as t o a t t r i b u t e d i a l o g u e t o t h e c a p t a i n ' s p o i n t e r i n t he pa s s age : "Among h e r l e g s t he b i g f a t w i e n e r pups n u z z l e d and bumped f o r m i l k and t h e b i t c h l o o k e d p a t i e n t l y up i n t o M a c k ' s f a c e s a y i n g , •You see how i t i s ? I t r y t o t e l l h im b u t he d o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . ' " (p . 311) I n a number o f h i s n o v e l s S t e i n b e c k uses comic r e l i e f t o i n t e n s i f y t h e h a r s h a s p e c t s o f h i s work. He does t h i s most e x t e n s i v e l y i n Of M i ce and Men, i n wh i ch the humorous p o r t r a y a l o f t he dream i s a coun te r theme w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e s , t h r ough i t s c o n t r a s t , t he p a t h o s o f t h e main theme. The few i n s t a n c e s o f humour i n The Red Pony s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e the i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h J o d y , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e f o r c e o f t he pa t ho s i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e . The humorous a n t i c s o f Grampa Joad i n The Grapes o f  Wrath a re i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o t he b l e a k n e s s of t he exodus , and c o n s e q u e n t l y emphas ize the d e s o l a t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y S t e i n b e c k 108 a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e n s i f y t h e pa t ho s o f The Moon i s Down t h r o u g h t h e use o f humour i n such pas sages as A n n i e ' s " ' I t e l l y ou , J o s e p h , t h i n g s can go t o o f a r — t r a m p l i n g i n and ou t a l l h o u r s o f t he n i g h t , s h o o t i n g p e o p l e . ' " (p . 232) However, t he humorous pa s sages are so u n r e a l i n t h e i r t r i v i a l i t y t h a t t h e y d e t r a c t f r o m , r a t h e r t h a n emphas i ze , t he p a t h o s . Pe rhaps he r e a l i z e d t he f a i l u r e o f comic r e l i e f i n t h i s n o v e l , f o r i t i s t h e l a s t t ime he makes use o f i t . I n Cannery Row S t e i n b e c k v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y u ses c o n t r a s t o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e f r om comic r e l i e f . I n s t e a d of u s i n g humorous pa s sage s t o emphas i ze p a t h o s , h e r e he o c c a s i o n a l l y abandons the humorous tone and f o c u s e s on i n t e n s e l y h a r s h i n c i d e n t s . I n t he m i d d l e o f the humorous d e s c r i p t i o n o f Mon te rey t h e r e i s t he c h i l l i n g account o f W i l l i a m ' s s u i c i d e : " H i s hand r o s e and the i c e p i c k snapped i n t o h i s h e a r t . I t was amazing how e a s i l y i t went i n . " And i m m e d i a t e l y t he c a s u a l , p a r t l y humorous t one o f t h e n a r r a t i v e r e t u r n s : " W i l l i a m was t he watchman b e f o r e A l f r e d came. Eve ryone l i k e d A l f r e d . He c o u l d s i t on t he p i p e s w i t h Mack and the boys any t i m e . " ( p . 281) S i m i l a r l y , t he humorous d e s c r i p t i o n o f Lee Chong i s i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e account o f Horace A b b e v i l l e ' s s u i c i d e , w h i c h t he n a r r a t o r admi t s "has n o t h i n g to do w i t h t he s t o r y . " (p . 276) A f t e r g i v i n g up h i s o l d warehouse t o s e t t l e h i s deb t w i t h Lee Chong, Ho race "went a c r o s s the l o t and p a s t the c y p r e s s t r e e and a c r o s s t he t r a c k and up t h e c h i c k e n wa l k and i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g t h a t had been h i s , and he s ho t h i m s e l f on a heap o f f i s h m e a l . " (p . 276) A l s o , t h e r e i s t h e s t a r t l i n g d i s c o v e r y by Doc when he " g e n t l y r e a c h e d down and p a r t e d t h e 109 brown a l g a e . Then he grew r i g i d . A g i r l ' s f a c e l o o k e d up a t h im, a p r e t t y , p a l e g i r l w i t h d a r k h a i r . The eyes were open and c l e a r and t h e f a c e was f i r m and the h a i r washed g e n t l y about h e r h e a d . The body was out o f s i g h t , caught i n the c r e v i c e . " (p . 321) I t i s as though S t e i n b e c k , aware o f t h e sense o f u n r e a l i t y c r e a t e d by h i s humorous t o n e , a t t e m p t s t o anchor h i s n o v e l t o r e a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e s e v i v i d i n c i d e n t s w h i c h he i n t r o d u c e s w i t h such s h o c k i n g a b r u p t n e s s . Tha t S t e i n b e c k ' s e x t e n s i v e use o f humour i n a n o v e l r e s u l t s i n an u n r e a l i t y o f tone i s e v i d e n c e d i n T o r t i l l a F l a t . Bu t i n T o r t i l l a F l a t i t was h i s i n t e n t i o n t h a t t he s t o r y have an u n r e a l , f a i r y - t a l e q u a l i t y i n o r d e r t o convey i t s p a r a l l e l t o t h e A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d . A l s o , t he p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p a i s a n o l i f e , i n i t s remotenes s f rom the town of Mon te rey and f r om the Amer i can scene i n g e n e r a l , b e n e f i t e d f r om the d r e a m - l i k e t r e a t m e n t . Canne ry Row, howeve r , where t he l i f e o f one Amer i c an s t r e e t i s c e n t r a l t o the s t o r y , demanded a more acute sense of a c t u a l i t y w h i c h was p r o v i d e d by S t e i n b e c k i n two ways. Not o n l y d i d he i n f u s e " t he n o v e l w i t h s h o r t g r i p p i n g i n c i d e n t s s i m i l a r t o t he ones men t i oned above, bu t he a l s o i n t e r p o l a t e d s e r i o u s c h a p t e r s such as the one p e r t a i n i n g t o t he o l d Chinaman who d i s a p p e a r e d each n i g h t be tween t h e p i l i n g s o f t he w a t e r f r o n t and appeared each morn ing w i t h h i s b a s k e t heavy and d r i p p i n g , (Chap te r IV) and t he one d e s c r i b i n g t h e g o p h e r ' s u n s u c c e s s f u l a t tempt t o e s t a b l i s h h i s home i n the -vacant l o t . (Chapte r XXXI) The s e r i o u s c h a p t e r s , a c t u a l l y o u t s i d e the movement of the n a r r a t i v e , impose r e a l i t y on t h e Cannery Row s e t t i n g . A l s o , l i k e the i n t e r p o l a t e d I 110 c h a p t e r s wh i ch u n i v e r s a l i z e t h e p l i g h t o f the Joad f a m i l y i n The Grapes o f Wra th , t h e y expand and e n r i c h the e v e n t s o f t he s t o r y . I n Sweet Thu r sday , where such s e r i o u s i n t e r p o l a t i o n s a re m i s s i n g , t h e tone o f u n r e a l i t y i s as b l a t a n t as t he f a i r y - t a l e m o t i f i n h e r e n t i n t h e Snow Wh i te masquerade p a r t y a t t he P a l a c e F l o p h o u s e . Two c h a p t e r s do appea r , "The G r e a t Roque War" (Chap te r 8) and "The P a c i f i c Grove B u t t e r f l y F e s t i v a l , " (Chapte r 38) w h i c h a re i r r e l e v a n t t o t he ma in p l o t , bu t t h e y a re h i g h l y humorous t hemse l v e s and t h e r e f o r e s e r ve m e r e l y t o i n t e n s i f y t he u n r e a l i t y . Thus, Sweet Thu r sday , a l t h o u g h i t s humour i s as s u c c e s s f u l as t h a t o f Cannery Row, i s I n no way comparab le t o t he e a r l i e r n o v e l i n a r t i s t i c q u a l i t y . I n The S h o r t R e i g n o f  P i p p i n IV t h e r e i s no a t tempt t o anchor t he h y p o t h e t i c a l e v e n t s t o any sense o f p r o b a b i l i t y , because t h e s t o r y , s u b t i t l e d "A F a b r i c a t i o n , " i s i n t e n d e d t o be mere c o n j e c t u r e . The n o v e l , however , i s no t so s u c c e s s f u l as T o r t i l l a F l a t , w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n s i n t e n d e d u n r e a l i t y . The f a i l u r e o f P i p p i n , t h e n , cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o t he l a c k of, b a l a n c e between r e a l i t y and u n r e a l i t y . I t i s , r a t h e r , the r e s u l t of S t e i n b e c k ' s a t tempt a t a s o p h i s t i c a t e d , u r b a n humour, w i t h wh i ch he was, a t t h a t t i m e , l e s s s k i l f u l t h a n w i t h t h e r o b u s t , e a r t h y humour of t he t h r e e e a r l i e r n o v e l s . I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t th'e humour w h i c h p r e d o m i n a t e s i n S t e i n b e c k ' s work i s m i l i t a n t . 1 1 Through h i s u se o f humour as a means o f d e r i s i o n , he i s showing the need f o r c o r r e c t i o n , and s a t i r e i s h i s ma in weapon. A l t h o u g h some o f h i s s a t i r e i s I l l d i r e c t e d a t m a t t e r s o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e , such as f i s h i n g , f o o d , 12 and t e l e v i s i o n , i t i s , f o r t h e most p a r t , d i r e c t e d a t i s s u e s w h i c h cause m a j o r c o n c e r n t o t h e h u m a n i s t . He i s c once rned w i t h such i s s u e s as p o l i t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n , ' ' ' 3 i n c o m p e t e n t b u r e a u c r a c y , 1 4 15 1 fi h y p o c r i s y i n r e l i g i o n , m o r a l d e g e n e r a t i o n , m a t e r i a l i s m and 17 s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . A t t i m e s he t r e a t s an u n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e I n o r d e r t o use i t I n h i s a t t a c k a g a i n s t a ma jo r one, as when h i s s a t i r e on t e l e v i s i o n s e r v e s as a means t o i n d i c t 18 M c C a r t h y i s m . Much o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g r e v e a l s h i s v i t a l c o n c e r n o ve r c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s . He i s c once rned w i t h l a b o u r c r i s e s i n "Dub iou s B a t t l e i n C a l i f o r n i a , " 1 9 I n Dub ious B a t t l e , t he c o l l e c t i o n o f newspaper r e p o r t s e n t i t l e d T h e i r B l o o d i s 20 S t r o n g , and The Grapes o f W r a t h . He v o i c e s h i s d i s t u r b a n c e o ve r t h e i g n o r a n c e w h i c h l e a d s t o d i s a s t r o u s h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n The F o r g o t t e n V i l l a g e , o v e r c r i m e among t e e n a g e r s i n "Some Thoughts on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y , " and o v e r t he Negro p r o b l e m i n " A tque V a l e " 2 2 and T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y , (p . 255) That t h e s e c o n c e r n s a re v o i c e d , no t i n t h e s a t i r i c v e i n b u t w i t h g r i m s e r i o u s n e s s , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f S t e i n b e c k ' s r e a c t i o n t o m a t t e r s o f such c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . I t appear s t h a t when he i s f a c e d w i t h c r u c i a l m a t t e r s demanding u r g e n t s o l u t i o n , such as s t a r v a t i o n 23 o f l a b o u r e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n C a l i f o r n i a , dea th s o f M e x i c a n c h i l d r e n because t h e i r p a r e n t s have a s u p e r s t i t i o u s 24 f e a r o f m e d i c i n e , (FV) and abuse o f Negro c h i l d r e n i n A r kan sa s , he i s t oo i n v o l v e d t o p r e s e n t them w i t h any h i n t o f l i g h t n e s s , b u t a t t a c k s w i t h s e r i o u s d i r e c t n e s s . S a t i r e , w h i c h he f i n d s t o o i n d i r e c t a method i n t h e s e c a s e s , he u ses t o t r e a t p r ob l ems 112 w h i c h , though o f t e n s e r i o u s , a re not o f a c r u c i a l n a t u r e . F o r h i m , s a t i r e i s an e f f e c t i v e weapon a g a i n s t t he p e r e n n i a l s o c i a l , m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l i n j u s t i c e s wh i ch do no t r e q u i r e immed ia te s o l u t i o n . In t he one c a s e , h i s r e a c t i o n i s one o f d i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n w h i l e i n the o t h e r , h i s d e s i r e t o c o r r e c t t a k e s the f o rm o f p s e u d o - a g g r e s s i o n w h i c h f i n d s o u t l e t i n the use of s a t i r e . Thus, S t e i n b e c k ' s use o f s a t i r e may be seen as one o f t h e means t o e x p l a i n t h e f l u c t u a t i o n between h i s humorous and non-humorous work s , an a s p e c t o f h i s w r i t i n g w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t he f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . The uses S t e i n b e c k makes o f humour show t h a t he i s no t w r i t i n g m e r e l y t o e n t e r t a i n b u t t h a t he i s m a n i p u l a t i n g h i s humorous m a t e r i a l f o r a r t i s t i c and h u m a n i s t i c p u r p o s e s . He i s u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s u se o f humour t o c h a r a c t e r i z e f i g u r e s and t o i n t e n s i f y t h e h a r s h n e s s i n h i s s e r i o u s works t h r o u g h comic r e l i e f , and he a lways succeeds i n h i s use o f s e r i o u s pa s sages w i t h i n a humorous work t o combat u n r e a l i t y . The s k i l f u l ways i n wh i ch he u se s humour t o p e r s o n a l i z e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l and t o humanize non-human s u b j e c t s , and a l s o t o d i s t a n c e p e r s o n a l m a t e r i a l , have become r e c o g n i z a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i s w r i t i n g . H i s s t a t u r e as a h u m a n i s t , e s t a b l i s h e d by h i s s y m p a t h e t i c t r e a t -ment o f t he human c o n d i t i o n , has been i n c r e a s e d by h i s r e p e a t e d u se o f s a t i r e as a c o r r e c t i v e weapon. 113 C h a p t e r S i x A C h r o n o l o g i c a l S tudy o f S t e i n b e c k ' s Humour A c h r o n o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f S t e i n b e c k ' s c a r e e r i s made h e r e t o d e t e r m i n e the p a t t e r n o f humour t h r o u g h o u t h i s work. The q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of humour i n each work i s c o n s i d e r e d and r e l a t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t he work as a w h o l e . I n determin ing t he p a t t e r n , humour o f h i s n o n - f i c t i o n i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d , no t f o r i t s q u a l i t y b u t f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t s u p p l i e s i n r e g a r d t o t h e f l u c t u a t i o n f rom humorous t o s e r i o u s wo r k s . S t e i n b e c k ' s r e l a t i o n t o h i s m a t e r i a l i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d , f o r the degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y he has w i t h h i s s u b j e c t has a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the s u c c e s s o f t h e humour. The works a re d e a l t w i t h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g r a t h e r t h a n t he da te of p u b l i c a t i o n f o r much o f h i s work , e s p e c i a l l y t h e e a r l i e r w r i t i n g , was n o t p u b l i s h e d f o r some t i m e a f t e r i t was c o m p l e t e d . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s f i r s t a t t e m p t s a t w r i t i n g 1 2 were humorous w o r k s . I n t h e s a t i r i c a l s t o r i e s and t he v e r s e s w h i c h he wro te d u r i n g h i s c o l l e g e y e a r s , he a t t empt s n o t h i n g beyond humour. A l t h o u g h t h e y f a i l because o f h i s a d o l e s c e n t humour, t h e i r m i l i t a n t a s p e c t i n d i c a t e s one o f t he ma jo r t r e n d s i n h i s l a t e r work . H i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e a u t h o r s he was i m i t a t i n g a c coun t s f o r t he f a c t t h a t t he p a r o d i e s a re t h e b e s t o f t h e s e e a r l y w r i t i n g s . In t h e f i r s t t h r e e n o v e l s t h a t he p u b l i s h e d , a r e l a t i o n s h i p can be seen between t he q u a l i t y o f ' the f i c t i o n , t he amount o f humour, and h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l . The f i r s t t w o , w h i c h he w r o t e , Cup o f G o l d and To a God 114 Unknown, are u n s u c c e s s f u l p r i m a r i l y because t h e y are the a u t h o r ' s a t t e m p t s t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . I n Cup o f G o l d t h e e v e n t s , s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r s a re u n f a m i l i a r . E ven t he t i m e ( t he s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) i s r e m o t e . I n To a God Unknown most o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a re u n f a m i l i a r t o S t e i n b e c k , f o r the Waynes a re newcomers f r om Vermont . The C a l i f o r n i a n s e t t i n g and such l o c a l c h a r a c t e r s as J u a n i t o and the p a i s a n o s who come t o J o s e p h Wayne ' s f i e s t a a re f a m i l i a r t o t h e a u t h o r bu t t h i s f a m i l i -a r i t y i s o f f s e t by the s t r a i n e d a t t e m p t s a t symbo l i sm t h r o u g h o u t t he n o v e l w h i c h cu rb the ease o f t he w r i t i n g . Here t h e r e a re no a t t e m p t s a t humour. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t d i s m a n t l i n g t h e s t a t u e s o f t h e p o r t a b l e a l t a r c o u l d be humorous f o r he " d i d i t w e l l , g e n u f l e c t i n g b e f o r e each one b e f o r e he took i t down and unsc rewed i t s h e a d . " (p . 85) Y e t S t e i n b e c k makes no more of t he i n c i d e n t t h a n t o p r e s e n t i t as d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n , l e a v i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l humour and s a t i r e undeve l oped w i t h i n the s e r i o u s c o n t e x t . W i t h The P a s t u r e s of Heaven, however , S t e i n b e c k a r r i v e d a t t h e s t y l e w h i c h marks t h e f i n e s t o f h i s l a t e r wo r k s . Here he shows f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h b o t h c h a r a c t e r and s e t t i n g , and t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement i n the w r i t i n g as w e l l as an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f humour, w h i c h i s s u c c e s s f u l . I t a ppea r s , t h e n , t h a t when a t ease w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l , S t e i n b e c k t end s no t o n l y t o w r i t e b e t t e r , b u t t o use more humour. A l t h o u g h t he f i r s t t h r e e p a r t s o f The Red Pony were p u b l i s h e d i n n o v e l f o rm i n 1937, and were i n c l u d e d i n The Long V a l l e y i n 1938, t h e f i r s t two , "The G i f t " and "The G r e a t M o u n t a i n s , " were s e p a r a t e l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1933 . (WWJS, p . 9 2 f . ) H e r e , a g a i n , 115 S t e i n b e c k i s f a m i l i a r w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s and s e t t i n g f o r he i s d e s c r i b i n g the S a l i n a s V a l l e y where he grew up, and r e a l p e o p l e w i t h whom he was i n c o n t a c t a l l h i s l i f e . The w r i t i n g h e r e i s e x c e l l e n t , and m e r i t s C a r p e n t e r ' s r ema rk : "These s t o r i e s . . . announce t he l i t e r a r y m a t u r i t y o f t h e a u t h o r . " (SHC, p . 77) The humour, a l s o , i s o f h i g h q u a l i t y . I t i s n o t the q u a n t i t y o f humour w h i c h i s n o t e w o r t h y , f o r t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e of i t , bu t t he ease w i t h w h i c h i t a r i s e s out o f t h e m a t e r i a l s of t h e s t o r y . I t I s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t he f i c t i o n i n t h a t i t f u n c t i o n s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t he c e n t r a l f i g u r e , J o d y . I t s amount i s i n k e e p i n g b o t h w i t h t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f J o d y ' s c h a r a c t e r as a young boy among a d u l t s , and w i t h h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b i r t h and d e a t h . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t most o f t he s t o r i e s i n The Long V a l l e y were a l s o w r i t t e n about t h e t ime t h a t the f i r s t p a r t s o f The Red  Pony appea red . (WWJS. p . 9 2 f . ) E x c e p t f o r " S t . K a t y t he V i r g i n , " t h e s e s t o r i e s a re v e r y s i m i l a r t o The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven as f a r as c h a r a c t e r s and s e t t i n g a re c o n c e r n e d . L i f e i n t he S a l i n a s V a l l e y i s r e n d e r e d i n r e a l i s t i c e p i s o d e s wh i ch l e a v e l i t t l e room f o r humour. S t e i n b e c k ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l r e s u l t s i n s t o r i e s w h i c h a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , e x c e l l e n t , and t h e l i t t l e humour t h a t t h e r e i s a p a r t f r om The Red Pony i s i n " Johnny B e a r " and i s o f h i g h q u a l i t y . " S t . K a t y t he V i r g i n " i s a c o m p l e t e l y humorous r e t u r n t o the s a t i r e o f h i s j u v e n i l i a . Here t h e s a t i r e i s f a r more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n i n t h e c o l l e g e s t o r i e s , e l i c i t i n g t h e comment f r om F r e n c h : " I t i s p e r h a p s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t he abandoned t h i s s t y l e , f o r he e x c e l s as a s a t i r i s t . " ^ S t e i n b e c k made ano the r r e t u r n t o t h e s a t i r e o f h i s j u v e n i l i a , t h i s t ime 116 i n the e i g h t u n s u c c e s s f u l poems p u b l i s h e d i n 1935 under t he pseudonym, Amnes ia G l a s s c o c k . T o r t i l l a F l a t was one o f S t e i n b e c k ' s works w n i c h was no t p u b l i s h e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r i t was w r i t t e n . He f i n i s h e d i t about the t ime o f t he p u b l i c a t i o n o f the f i r s t two p a r t s o f The  Red Pony. (WWJS, p. 92) I n . i t s c r e a t i o n , he was a b l e t o w r i t e w i t h more ease t h a n eve r b e f o r e , f o r no t o n l y were the p a i s a n o s and t he C a l i f o r n i a s e t t i n g f a m i l i a r t o h i m , b u t he had a l r e a d y t r e a t e d b o t h t he c h a r a c t e r s and t h e s e t t i n g f i c t i o n a l l y i n To a God Unknown, The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven and The Red Pony. The e v e n t s , t o o , were f a m i l i a r ones , f o r the l i f e o f Danny was based on t h a t o f a f o rmer Monte rey p a i s a n o c a l l e d Benny. S t e i n b e c k ' s d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e book t o Susan G rego r y , a cknow ledge s h i s deb t t o h e r f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n . (Moore, p . 3 6 f . ) T o r t i l l a F l a t i s humorous i n i t s e n t i r e t y , and the humour i s o f h i g h q u a l i t y . The s a t i r e o f the e a r l i e r works i s r e f i n e d i n t o the s u b t l e , d o u b l e - e d g e d s a t i r e w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d at t h e s o c i e t y wh i ch s c o r n s the p a i s a n o s as w e l l as a t t h e p a i s a n o s t hemse l ve s and t h e c a r e f r e e , i r r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e t h a t t h e y l e a d . H e r e , S t e i n b e c k ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l r e s u l t s i n an a r t i s t i c s u c ce s s as w e l l as i n a g r e a t d e a l o f v e r y f i n e humour. I t i s no wonder t h a t Watt, when s p e a k i n g o f t h e n o v e l , sees S t e i n b e c k as expand ing " i n t o t h e comic w i t h a b u r s t o f energy w h i c h s u g g e s t s . . . a new c o n f i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e c h n i q u e a n d ' s u b j e c t m a t t e r . " (p . 38) A f t e r the humorous, l i g h t l y s a t i r i c T o r t i l l a F l a t , S t e i n b e c k w r o t e the g r i m l y a u s t e r e I n Dub ious B a t t l e . The change i n tone 117 between t h e s e two n o v e l s i s t he most r a d i c a l i n a l l t he c h r o n o l o g y o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w o r k s . I n Dub iou s B a t t l e i s a v i o l e n t n o v e l o f p r o t e s t c o n t a i n i n g o n l y t he b a r e s t t r a c e o f h u m o u r . 5 The s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r s and e ven t s o f t he n o v e l were f a m i l i a r t o S t e i n b e c k , and he had w r i t t e n e a r l i e r o f l a b o u r a g i t a t i o n i n "The R a i d . " 6 T h i s i s t h e f i r s t n o v e l i n wh i ch he was e n t i r e l y f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l and y e t i n t r o d u c e d no humour. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t he l a c k o f humour l i e s i n h i s t e n d e n c y , d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t o t r e a t m a t t e r s o f u r g e n c y w i t h s e r i o u s d i r e c t n e s s . F o r h i m , t he i s s u e s a t s t a k e w i t h t he f r u i t p i c k e r s were c r u c i a l . A l t h o u g h he p r e s e n t e d t he p r ob l em t h r o u g h the medium o f t he n o v e l , he was t o o c once rned w i t h t he u r gency o f t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n t o use even m i l i t a n t humour. I n Of M i ce and Men S t e i n b e c k a g a i n p r e s e n t s c h a r a c t e r s ' a n d s e t t i n g f a m i l i a r t o h i m . Moore comments on the n o v e l : "A w r i t e r deep i n t h e l o r e o f h i s own p e o p l e f e e l s ( i n many ca se s u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) a f o l k w a y s c o m p u l s i v e : the a c t u a l and m y t h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f h i s p e o p l e h e l p s t o g e n e r a t e h i s m a t e r i a l . Bu t t he f i n a l s h a p i n g o f i t depends upon the a r t i s t ' s own v i s i o n ; " ( p . 50) T h i s comment i s a t e l l i n g one i n v i ew o f the use of humour i n t h e n o v e l . Pe rhaps S t e i n b e c k f e l t t he t e n s i o n between t h e a c t u a l and t he m y t h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t he s t o r y o f L e n n i e and George , b u t i t was h i s own v i s i o n wh i ch shaped the m a t e r i a l i n t o a f i n e b a l a n c e between t h e s e r i o u s and the humorous v e i n s . F o r i n Of M i ce and Men, t h e m y t h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e dream i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n humorous terms w h i l e t he a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h p a r a l l e l s i t i s t r e a t e d i n s e r i o u s t e r m s . The two are so 118 b a l a n c e d t h a t each comments on and i n t e n s i f i e s t he o t h e r . The r e s u l t i s e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y i n t h e humour as w e l l as i n t he w r i t i n g as a w h o l e . A l t h o u g h the n o v e l appear s between Q S t e i n b e c k ! s two m a j o r n o v e l s o f s o c i a l p r o t e s t i t i s no t a p r o t e s t n o v e l , b u t t he mov ing p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f men. Because he i s n o t d e a l i n g w i t h p r ob l ems of g r e a t u rgency , S t e i n b e c k i s a t l e i s u r e t o c o u n t e r p o i n t t he s e r i o u s w i t h t h e humorous.< Immed i a t e l y a f t e r he f i n i s h e d Of M i ce and Men, S t e i n b e c k 9 w r o t e a number o f a r t i c l e s on t he l a b o u r c r i s e s i n C a l i f o r n i a . " D u b i o u s . B a t t l e i n C a l i f o r n i a " and the s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s e n t i t l e d "The H a r v e s t G y p s i e s , " (WWJS, p. 144) l a t e r c o l l e c t e d unde r t h e t i t l e , T h e i r B l o o d i s S t r o n g , 1 0 a re f a c t u a l a c coun t s o f t h e h a r d s h i p s and i n j u s t i c e s s u f f e r e d by the m i g r a t o r y wo rke r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The u r gency o f t h e s i t u a t i o n p r o v o k e d S t e i n b e c k t o a g g r e s s i v e t r e a t m e n t s i m i l a r t o I n Dub ious B a t t l e , where he was t o o c once rned w i t h t he p r ob l ems t o t r e a t them w i t h any h i n t o f humour. By the t i m e o f t he w r i t i n g o f The Grapes o f Wra th , S t e i n b e c k had g r e a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s . He had known m i g r a n t l a b o u r e r s a l l h i s l i f e , had worked w i t h them, and had w r i t t e n about them i n n o v e l s and a r t i c l e s . T h e i r B l o o d i s S t r o n g p r e s e n t s t he s p e c i f i c p r ob l em f a c i n g t h e m i g r a n t s f r om the c e n t r a l s t a t e s . I m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e s t a r t i n g The Grapes o f Wra th , S t e i n b e c k had t r a v e l l e d w i t h m i g r a n t s f r om Oklahoma, and had l i v e d and worked w i t h them a f t e r t h e y a r r i v e d i n C a l i f o r n i a . (WWJS, p . 143) The humour i n the n o v e l , c e n t e r e d around Tom J o a d , Casy and 119 Grampa, and p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s a t i r e o f t he i n t e r - c h a p t e r s , a r i s e s w i t h n a t u r a l ease out o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o no te t h a t t he humour appear s e a r l y i n the n o v e l , b e f o r e t h e Joads a r r i v e i n C a l i f o r n i a . S t e i n b e c k i s n o t p r i m a r i l y c once rned w i t h t h e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f Oklahoma f o r , a l t h o u g h i t means t h a t the p e o p l e must l e a v e t h e i r homes, t h e y s t i l l have hope f o r work and l a n d i n C a l i f o r n i a . H i s c o n c e r n i s o v e r the u r gency o f t he s i t u a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a , where the m i g r a n t s are f a c e d w i t h d e p r i v a t i o n , p e r s e c u t i o n and s t a r v a t i o n . I n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e n o v e l , as i n "Dub iou s B a t t l e i n C a l i f o r n i a , " T h e i r B l o o d i s S t r o n g , and I n Dub iou s B a t t l e , t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t absence o f humour. Where T h e i r B l o o d i s S t r o n g i s t he j o u r n a l i s t ' s i n d i c t m e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a f o r b e i n g " s o s t u p i d , so v i c i o u s and so g r eedy t h a t i t cannot f e e d and c l o t h e the men and women who h e l p t o make i t t he r i c h e s t a r e a i n t he w o r l d , " 1 1  The Grapes o f Wrath i s t he a r t i s t ' s i n d i c t m e n t o f a s o c i e t y w h i c h a l l o w s g r o s s i n j u s t i c e t o a p a r t o f i t s e l f . S t e i n b e c k ' s n e x t two wo r k s , The F o r g o t t e n V i l l a g e and Sea o f C o r t e z , a re n o n - f i c t i o n . I n b o t h he i s f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l . He was i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e M e x i c a n v i l l a g e w h i c h he s t u d i e d f o r s e v e r a l months , and he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the ma r i ne b i o l o g y e x p e d i t i o n i n t o the G u l f o f C a l i f o r n i a . I n t h e s e works the amount o f humour i n d i c a t e s h i s deg ree o f i n v o l v e m e n t . The F o r g o t t e n V i l l a g e i s a documentary p o r t r a y i n g t he c r i t i c a l s t a t e o f i g n o r a n c e and s u p e r s t i t i o n i n t he Mex i c an v i l l a g e . H i s c o n c e r n o ve r t h e immed ia te dange r , e s p e c i a l l y t o c h i l d r e n , o f d i s e a s e i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e s e r i o u s , 120 d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t wh i ch i s d e v o i d o f humour. On t he o t h e r h and , h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t he l e i s u r e l y , s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n e y i n que s t o f ma r i ne spec imens c o n t a i n s a g r e a t d e a l o f u n p r e t e n t i o u s humour w h i c h a r i s e s n a t u r a l l y ou t o f t h e e v e n t s o f t he t r i p . B e f o r e t he U n i t e d S t a t e s e n t e r e d t he war , S t e i n b e c k had s t a r t e d t o w r i t e the p l a y - n o v e l e t t e , The Moon i s Down. (WWJS, p. 186) E x c e p t f o r t he u n s u c c e s s f u l Cup o f G o l d , t h i s was the f i r s t n o v e l i n w h i c h he was u n f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r s , s e t t i n g and e v e n t s . And t h e f a i l u r e o f the work, as w e l l as of the humour, a t t e s t s t o h i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n why he u ses so much humour i n t h i s n o v e l . Up t o t h i s p o i n t he d i d no t w r i t e humorou s l y u n l e s s he was a t ease w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l , no r d i d he use humour when he was conce rned w i t h a c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , i n The Moon i s Down he i s n o t a t ease and the s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n o f h o s t a g e s by an i n v a d e r must s u r e l y have s t r u c k h im as c r u c i a l . Pe rhaps he f e l t t h a t t h e e x t r e m e l y o b j e c t i v e r e n d e r i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l , r e s u l t i n g f r o m h i s own remotenes s f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n and h i s a t t empt t o r e m a i n u n b i a s e d , demanded the p e r s o n a l i z i n g e f f e c t o f humour. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t he humour o n l y adds t o t he remotenes s and u n r e a l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t . Bombs Away (1942) and h i s war c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s (1943) , c o l l e c t e d unde r the t i t l e , Once There Was a War ( 1958 ) , a re f a c t u a l a c coun t s o f wa r t ime s i t u a t i o n s . In b o t h c a s e s , S t e i n b e c k was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l because o f h i s p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i -p a t i o n . The f o rme r i s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , humou r l e s s account o f t he t r a i n i n g o f bomber c r ews , and t h e l a t t e r i s m a i n l y t he 121 d e s c r i p t i o n , o f t e n humorous, o f human r e a c t i o n s t o the demands o f wa r . In Once There Was a War, as i n The Moon i s Down, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n the p r e s e n c e o f so much humour, a l t h o u g h t h i s t i m e i t i s o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y , r i s i n g n a t u r a l l y out o f e v e n t s wh i ch he w i t n e s s e d . P e r h a p s , a g a i n , he f e l t t h a t humour wou ld p e r s o n a l i z e the c o l d n e s s o f war . Or pe rhaps h i s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t " o u r s p e c i e s has l e a r n e d n o t h i n g , can as a r a c e l e a r n n o t h i n g — t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e of t e n t hou sand y e a r s has made no i m p r e s s i o n 12 on t h e i n s t i n c t s o f t h e m i l l i o n y e a r s t h a t p r e c e d e d , " d u l l e d t he edge o f the u r g e n c y , mak ing h im f e e l t h a t war i s a n a t u r a l , unchangeab l e p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f the human r a c e . B e f o r e t h e war- had ended S t e i n b e c k a g a i n s u r p r i s e d c r i t i c s by a r a d i c a l change i n h i s w r i t i n g . W i t h t h e appa ren t r e t u r n t o the l i g h t humour o f T o r t i l l a F l a t i n h i s second humorous n o v e l , Cannery Row, he seemed t o nega te t h e p r e v i o u s t e n y e a r s o f h i s s o c i a l p r o t e s t and c o n c e r n w i t h t he war . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t he w ro te the n o v e l because he was d e j e c t e d by t he war , (WWJS, p. 197) b u t a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e work r e v e a l s t h a t i t i s no t m e r e l y e s c a p i s t l i t e r a t u r e . S t e i n b e c k ' s anger w i t h the comp lacency ove r t h e war p rompted t h i s condemnat ion o f 13 r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and i n s e n s i t i v i t y . I n Cannery Row S t e i n b e c k i s v e r y c l o s e t o h i s m a t e r i a l . The re i s no doubt t h a t much of t he n o v e l i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . F r e n c h sees i t as " a n a t tempt t o r e c a p t u r e . . . t h e l i f e w i t h Ed R i c k e t t s i n the t h i r t i e s . " (p . 27) The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The Log f r o m t h e Sea o f C o r t e z (1951) , e n t i t l e d "About Ed R i c k e t t s , " r e v e a l s t he s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between R i c k e t t s and Doc . The m a t e r i a l , t h e n , was e x t r e m e l y 122 f a m i l i a r t o S t e i n b e c k . Humour r i s e s as n a t u r a l l y out of t he m a t e r i a l as i t does i n T o r t i l l a F l a t , bu t h e r e t h e n o v e l i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e s e r i o u s i n t e r - c h a p t e r s w h i c h s e r v e n o t o n l y t o c o n t r a s t t h e humour bu t a l s o t o comment on t he a c t i o n t h r o u g h -o u t . S t e i n b e c k may have been c o n s c i o u s o f a t endency i n Cannery  Row s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n T o r t i l l a F l a t and the o p p o s i t e t o t h a t wh i ch f a c e d h im i n The Moon i s Down. Because o f h i s g r e a t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l , he u sed humour t o o b j e c t i f y i t . However, t h e r e was the danger t h a t u n r e l i e v e d humour would r e s u l t i n t he d r e a m - l i k e t o n e of T o r t i l l a F l a t . The d e v i c e o f s e r i o u s i n t e r - c h a p t e r s gave h im a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g h i s m a t e r i a l and a n c h o r i n g i t t o r e a l i t y . The n o v e l i s as s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s humour as i t i s i n i t s a r t i s t r y . W i t h The P e a r l , wh i ch was w r i t t e n i n 1945, ( F r e n c h , p . I l l ) S t e i n b e c k r e t u r n s t o the s i m p l e , s e r i o u s s t y l e o f most of the s t o r i e s i n The Long V a l l e y . The o n l y humour i s the v e r y b i t t e r s a t i r e , p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e a c t s o f t h e d o c t o r and the p r i e s t , a g a i n s t p e o p l e whose a t t i t u d e changes toward someone who ha s become s udden l y w e a l t h y . And t he p o r t r a y a l o f t h e p e a r l b u y e r s i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t he s a t i r e a g a i n s t u n s c r u p u l o u s b u s i n e s s men 14 i n The Grapes o f W r a t h . I n The Wayward Bus S t e i n b e c k moves f r om t h e s e r i o u s tone o f The P e a r l t o a sha rp s a t i r e on r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , i n s e n s i t i v i t y and p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s . He i s a g a i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s o f h i s C a l i f o r n i a b a c k g r o u n d , and t h e humour i s n a t u r a l t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s . The o b j e c t s o f h i s a t t a c k are no t m a t t e r s o f u r g e n c y , and t h e r e f o r e he f e e l s a t ease t o t r e a t them s a t i r i c a l l y . 123 When he f i n i s h e d . The Wayward Bus , S t e i n b e c k became concerned w i t h the c o l d war , and o r g a n i z e d a t r i p t o R u s s i a w i t h t he p h o t o g r a p h e r , R o b e r t Capa, i n o r d e r t o see t h e p e o p l e as human b e i n g s r a t h e r t h a n as a p o t e n t i a l enemy. The outcome o f the v i s i t was A R u s s i a n J o u r n a l , a l e i s u r e l y , n a t u r a l , o f t e n humorous accomnt o f t he e ven t s o f t he t r i p . A g a i n he e f f e c t e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r by s e e k i n g d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h many a s p e c t s o f R u s s i a n l i f e . A f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e war , S t e i n b e c k t r a v e l l e d a g r e a t d e a l , s pend ing l i t t l e t ime i n C a l i f o r n i a , and i n 1950 he s e t t l e d 15 p e r m a n e n t l y i n New Y o r k . The move i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n two ways . I t s ugge s t s t h a t s u c ce s s was f i n a l l y t e m p t i n g h i m away f r om h i s e a r l i e r h u m i l i t y t o the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f u r b a n i t y . Bu t more i m p o r t a n t , i t i s o l a t e d h im f r om the m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h i c h he was most f a m i l i a r , and out o f wh i ch he had c r e a t e d h i s f i n e s t wo r k s . A f t e r The Wayward Bus , o n l y two o f h i s n o v e l s , Sweet Thu r sday and E a s t o f Eden , u t i l i z e t h e C a l i f o r n i a m a t e r i a l s , and t h e i r poo r q u a l i t y may be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o t h e d i s t a n c e he p l a c e d between h i m s e l f and h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . I n t r y i n g t o u n i v e r s a l i z e h i s b i o l o g i c a l v i e w s i n the p l a y -n o v e l e t t e , B u r n i n g B r i g h t , S t e i n b e c k abandoned any a t tempt t o d e a l w i t h what had been l o n g f a m i l i a r t o h i m . The s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s have been u n i v e r s a l i z e d out o f any sense o f r e a l i t y . Even t he l a n g u a g e , u s u a l l y a mark o f S t e i n b e c k ' s r e a l i s m , h e r e appear s as " a k i n d o f i n c r e d i b l e h a sh o f r e a l i s m , c o i n e d a r c h a i s m s , and p o e t i c r h e t o r i c . " (WWJS, p . 256) The f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no t r a c e o f humour i n t h e n o v e l i s i n d i c a t i v e o f 124 h i s l a c k o f ease and a s s u r a n c e . E a s t o f Eden , on wh i ch he worked i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r f i v e y e a r s , i s S t e i n b e c k ' s most a m b i t i o u s n o v e l . That t he work i s g e n e r a l l y v i ewed as a f a i l u r e i s due t o h i s i n s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l o ve r h i s d i v e r s m a t e r i a l s . (WWJS, p . 263) A l t h o u g h he i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t he s e t t i n g , and many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s are members o f h i s own f a m i l y , h i s w r i t i n g , as L i s c a p o i n t s o u t , i s o f t e n e x t r e m e l y awkward. (WWJS, p p . 269-271) Perhaps t h e awkwardness c an be e x p l a i n e d by t he f a c t t h a t S t e i n b e c k , i n t h i s n o v e l , moved away f rom h i s u s u a l n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 16 e x i s t e n c e , r e p l a c i n g i t w i t h a m o r a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e wh i ch mars t he smoothness o f t he n a r r a t i v e . The r e s u l t a n t l a c k of ease may account f o r the s u r p r i s i n g l y s m a l l amount o f humour i n a n o v e l o f such l e n g t h , e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e w o f t he f a c t t h a t i t i s a l e i s u r e l y s t o r y o f t h e p a s t , r a t h e r t h a n a f i c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t o f u r g e n t , con tempora ry i s s u e s such as I n Dub iou s B a t t l e and The Grapes o f W r a t h . Sweet Thur sday i s t he l a s t o f S t e i n b e c k ' s n o v e l s t o d e a l w i t h the f a m i l i a r c h a r a c t e r s and s e t t i n g o f C a l i f o r n i a . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s a s e q u e l t o Cannery Row and even u se s t h e same f ramework , i t c o n f i r m s h i s move away f r om n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . Here he o f f e r s n o t h i n g as a r e p l a c e m e n t . A l s o , as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e l a c k of s e r i o u s i n t e r -c h a p t e r s , wh i ch added such r e a l i s m t o Canne ry Row, l e a v e s Sweet  Thu r sday n o t h i n g bu t a f l i m s y p l o t u n f o l d i n g i n a d r e a m - l i k e a tmosphere . Not even t he "common bonds o f h u m a n i t y , " seen i n t he n o v e l by Holman, (p . 19) no r t h e " e x p a n s i v e , the gene rou s , 125 t h e a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e , " a t t r i b u t e d by Metzger, ( p . 116) save t h e n o v e l a r t i s t i c a l l y . Y e t , a l t h o u g h Sweet Tnur sday i s a f a i l u r e as a n o v e l , i t s humour i s l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l . S t e i n b e c k succeeds i n h i s u se o f humour t o o b j e c t i f y Mack and t h e boys a l t h o u g h he i s l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e ca se o f Doc . The s a t i r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s s u c c e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t r e l a t e d t o Jo seph and Mary, Wh i tey No. 2 and Joe E l e g a n t . (WWJS, p. 278) I t c an be argued t h a t h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l a l l o w e d S t e i n b e c k ease w i t h humour, where o t h e r f a c t o r s mar red the a r t i s t i c q u a l i t y o f h i s work . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , t o n o t e t h a t Sweet Thu r sday i s h i s o n l y f a i l u r e i n wh i ch humour s u c c e e d s . I t i s o b v i o u s , even f r om t h i s s h o r t c h r o n o l o g y , t h a t S t e i n b e c k ' s work was d e t e r i o r a t i n g . F r e n c h sees the d e t e r i o r a t i o n b e g i n n i n g w i t h The P e a r l , ( p . 137) a l t h o u g h L i s c a i s p r o b a b l y more a c c u r a t e when he c l a i m s i t began j u s t a f t e r The Wayward Bu s . (WWJS, p. 288) The d e c l i n e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o two m a j o r c a u s e s : t h e dea th o f Ed R i c k e t t s i n 1948, and t he move away f r o m t h e f a m i l i a r C a l i f o r n i a s e t t i n g o f h i s b e s t w o r k s . (WWJS, p p . 291, 289) I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t R i c k e t t s 1 d e a t h a c c o u n t s , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , f o r S t e i n b e c k ' s abandonment o f h i s b i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s and t h a t i t d e p r i v e d h i m , as F r e n c h o b s e r v e s , o f a " t u t o r and c r i t i c . " ( p . 161) F r e n c h s p e c u l a t e s t h a t " i f R i c k e t t s were s t i l l i n f l u e n c i n g S t e i n b e c k , he m i gh t work more c a r e f u l l y and be l e s s p o n t i f i c a l . " ( p . 161) The move to New Y o r k b r ough t "change o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s — f r o m p l a i n p e o p l e , bums, and p a i s a n o s t o Broadway, H o l l y w o o d , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t i e s . " (WWJS, p.289) 126 The e f f e c t o f t he l o s s o f t he o l d c o n t a c t s on the q u a l i t y o f S t e i n b e c k ' s humour i s e v i d e n t i n the f a c t t h a t , e x c e p t f o r Sweet Thu r sday , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e s u c c e s s f u l humour i n h i s f i c t i o n a f t e r The Wayward Bu s . S t e i n b e c k r e a c h e d the l o w e s t p o i n t o f h i s d e c l i n e i n t h e w r i t i n g o f The S ho r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV . I t i s h i s f i r s t ma jo r a t t empt a t s o p h i s t i c a t e d , u r b a n humour, and t he r e s u l t i s d i s a s t r o u s . The q u a l i t y o f t h e humour i s a c c u r a t e l y e v a l u a t e d by L i s c a i n h i s comment: "He re a t l a s t S t e i n b e c k has come f u l l c i r c l e , back t o t he t o p i c a l s a t i r e o f h i s j u v e n i l i a — t h e s h o r t s t o r i e s and poems p u b l i s h e d . . . w h i l e he was an u n d e r g r a d u a t e , and the e i g h t poems p u b l i s h e d i n The Mon te rey B e a c o n . " (WWJS, p . 286) The n o v e l s t and s as e v i d e n c e o f S t e i n b e c k ' s dependence on f a m i l i a r i t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n o r d e r t o p roduce e i t h e r good w r i t i n g o r good humour. The s a t i r e i n t he n o v e l i s w e l l d i r e c t e d , and h i s s a t i r e o f A m e r i c a n p o l i t i c s t h r o u g h a f a b r i c a t e d F r e n c h s i t u a t i o n i s a c l e v e r d e v i c e . But i n h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s a t i r e , S t e i n b e c k has f o r f e i t e d t h e r i c h n e s s o f s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n wh i ch gave h i s e a r l i e r s a t i r e i t s s u b t l e t y . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t he f o r c e o f t he s a t i r e i s weakened by t h e b l a t a n t , a d o l e s c e n t t o n e . S i n c e 1941 S t e i n b e c k has w r i t t e n a l a r g e number o f s h o r t p i e c e s . Of t h e s e , f i v e a re s h o r t s t o r i e s i n wh i ch t h e r e i s l i t t l e h u m o u r . 1 7 The s t o r y o f g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i s "How Mr . Hogan Robbed a B a n k , " f o r i t i s t he b a s i s o f E t h a n H a w l e y ' s c o n t e m p l a t e d bank r o b b e r y i n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t . The 127 r e m a i n i n g s h o r t p i e c e s a re a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n , f o r t h e most p a r t , 18 a f t e r S t e i n b e c k moved t o New Y o r k . These a r t i c l e s , a l t h o u g h 19 condemned by some c r i t i c s as mere " p o t b o i l e r s , " r e v e a l two a s p e c t s o f S t e i n b e c k as a w r i t e r . W h i l e i n some he t r e a t s t r i v i a l s u b j e c t s , i n many he i s s e r i o u s l y conce rned w i t h c o n -tempora ry i s s u e s o f g r e a t u r g e n c y . The c r i t i c s who condemn h im f o r n e g l e c t o f h i s a r t f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e the h u m a n i s t i c impu l s e w h i c h m o t i v a t e s h im to s e r i o u s j o u r n a l i s m , t he i m p u l s e w i t h o u t wh i ch h i s f i n e s t works wou ld no t have been p r o d u c e d . The second a s p e c t r e v e a l e d by the a r t i c l e s r e l a t e s t o h i s use o f humour. In most ca se s when he i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , he t r e a t s h i s s u b j e c t s t h r o u g h some f o r m o f humour. S i n c e many o f the s e r i o u s a r t i c l e s a re c o r r e c t i v e i n t h e i r i n t e n t , t he humour o f t e n t a k e s the f o r m o f s a t i r e . The f a c t t h a t he f a l l s e a s i l y i n t o t he humorous v e i n i n so many a r t i c l e s sugges t s t h a t h i s n a t u r a l t endency i s t oward humour. I t can be s a i d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s humour p r e s e n t i n h i s w r i t i n g u n l e s s he i s i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h an u r g e n t q u e s t i o n , o r u n l e s s he cu rb s i t f o r d r a m a t i c e f f e c t , as he does i n many o f the s t o r i e s i n The Long V a l l e y . A f t e r m o r e ' t h a n a decade o f d e c l i n e , S t e i n b e c k r e t u r n e d t o the h i g h q u a l i t y o f h i s b e s t w r i t i n g . The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t " i n d i c t s money v a l u e s and m i d d l e - c l a s s m o r a l i t y i n a way r e m i n i s c e n t ' 20 o f the e a r l i e r S t e i n b e c k . " A l t h o u g h i n an e n t i r e l y new u rban 21 t o n e , t he n o v e l i s w r i t t e n w i t h t he ease and a s s u r ance o f the C a l i f o r n i a wo r k s . The p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t S t e i n b e c k 128 has f i n a l l y become c o m p l e t e l y f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s new s u r r o u n d i n g s . The s a t i r e on A m e r i c a n m o r a l i t y , p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f E t h a n ' s succumbing t o t e m p t a t i o n , i s s u b t l e y h a n d l e d . The humour o f E t h a n ' s c h a r a c t e r , however , i s e x t r e m e l y p o o r , b u t S t e i n b e c k i s u s i n g poo r humour i n t e n t i o n a l l y , and w i t h e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s , t o c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s p r o t a g o n i s t . The a r t i s t i c s ucce s s o f the n o v e l i s a t t e s t e d t o by t he f a c t t h a t S t e i n b e c k was 22 awarded t he N o b e l P r i z e f o r L i t e r a t u r e on i t s m e r i t s . Perhaps t he g r e a t e s t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g i s h i s f i n a l work, T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y . The r e t u r n to e x c e l l e n c e p r o m i s e d i n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t i s s h a t t e r e d by t he " p o t b o i l i n g d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " 2 3 o f the t r a v e l o g u e . The two p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e book a re t h a t S t e i n b e c k i s s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g f i r s t - h a n d m a t e r i a l , and t h a t he i s w r i t i n g w i t h an ease and a s su rance r e m i n i s c e n t o f h i s e a r l i e r w o r k s . The q u a l i t y o f t he humour, however , i s more comparab le t o t h a t o f P i p p i n , and * h i s j u v e n i l i a , t h a n t o h i s b e t t e r humorous wo rk s . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o S t e i n b e c k ' s d e c l i n e o f h u m i l i t y wh i ch i s more e v i d e n t i n C h a r l e y t h a n i n any o t h e r work . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a re s t i l l many pas sages o f s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n , such as "I was b o r n l o s t , " ( p . 70) t he se a re o f f s e t by a new n o t e o f p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s i n t he pas sages about h i s c a b i n b o a t , F a y r e E l e y n e , (pp . 12-16) h i s i m p r e s s i v e s t o c k o f l i q u o r i n R o c i n a n t e , (p . 25) and about h i m s e l f : "I have a lways l i v e d v i o l e n t l y , d runk h u g e l y , e a t e n t o o much or no t a t a l l . . . . I ' v e l i f t e d , p u l l e d , chopped, c l i m b e d , made l o v e w i t h j o y and t a k e n my hangover s as a consequence , no t 129 as a p u n i s h m e n t . . . . M y w i f e m a r r i e d a man . " ( p . 20) The humble man who, i n 1935, w r o t e , "We ' ve gone t h r ough t o o damn much t r y i n g t o keep t h e work h o n e s t and i n a s t a t e o f improvement t o l e t i t s l i p now i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l i t t l e m i s e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y , " may have been p r e d i c t i n g h i s own c o u r s e as he c o n t i n u e d , " I t has r u i n e d eve ryone I know."24 The c h r o n o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f S t e i n b e c k ' s works r e v e a l s a number o f t h i n g s about h i s humour. To a g r e a t e x t e n t , t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s w r i t i n g depends on h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s . W i t h f a m i l i a r i t y comes an ease o f e x p r e s s i o n wh i ch g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s the use o f humour. There i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t he deg ree o f f a m i l i a r i t y and the q u a l i t y o f t he humour. H i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o humour i n much o f h i s n o n - f i c t i o n , where he i s s p e a k i n g i n h i s own v o i c e , r e v e a l s h i m t o be an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a n a t u r a l l y humorous o u t l o o k . However, a b a s i c d u a l i t y i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o i n c i d e n t s and c o n d i t i o n s h i n d e r s h im f r o m b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y humorous. A l t h o u g h h i s n a t u r a l o u t l o o k prompts h im t o t r e a t g e n e r a l t o p i c s h u m o r o u s l y , h i s s t r o n g sense o f what i s j u s t demands t h a t he t r e a t u r g e n t i s s u e s w i t h s e v e r i t y , as he does i n The Grapes o f Wra th , I n Dub ious B a t t l e , and i n many a r t i c l e s . I t i s t h i s d u a l i t y w h i c h e x p l a i n s much o f the o s c i l l a t i o n between t he s e r i o u s and humorous i n h i s work. I t i s t h i s d u a l i t y , a l s o , wh i ch has p r e v e n t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f any p a t t e r n i n t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f h i s wo rk s , f o r h i s r e a c t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y , have been dependent on t he deg ree o f c o n c e r n w h i c h p rovoked them. 130 C h a p t e r Seven C o n c l u s i o n Throughout h i s c a r e e r , John S t e i n b e c k has r e f l e c t e d many f a c e t s o f t he Amer i can s c e n e . B e g i n n i n g as a r e g i o n a l i s t i n t h e most s o u t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , he c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r s , e ven t s and f o l k l o r e o f h i s immediate l o c a l e . Not o n l y d i d he e x p l o i t t he m a t e r i a l s a t hand bu t he i n f u s e d h i s w r i t i n g w i t h a home ly , n a t u r a l humour i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e sphere o f A m e r i c a he was r e p r e s e n t i n g . A f t e r h i s move t o New Y o r k , t h e remotenes s f r om h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e i n h i s a r t i s t r y and i n the q u a l i t y o f t he humour i n h i s f i c t i o n . G r a d u a l l y , however , as he accustomed h i m s e l f t o h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , he began t o l o o k t o t he new l o c a l e f o r m a t e r i a l . That h i s u t i l i z a t i o n o f immed ia te m a t e r i a l s has improved h i s w r i t i n g i s e v i d e n c e d i n The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t , n i s f i r s t n o v e l s e t i n E a s t e r n A m e r i c a . A l t h o u g h a new t y p e o f u r b a n humour has appeared i n h i s a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , he has n o t y e t been s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i t i n an ex tended work . S t e i n b e c k , d i v i d e d as he has been be tween C a l i f o r n i a and New Y o r k , has e x p e r i e n c e d , i n many ways , t h e most marked ext remes i n what i s A m e r i c a n . He has no t o n l y moved f r om west t o e a s t and f r o m s ou th t o n o r t h , b u t he has l e f t the r u r a l f o r t h e u r b a n , t h e s i m p l e f o r t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d . More t h a n t h a t , c e l e b r i t i e s and o t h e r moneyed p e o p l e have r e p l a c e d t h e r a n c h e r s , m i g r a n t s and bums as h i s f r i e n d s . H i s has been a r e v e r s e p r o c e s s o f t he e x p a n s i o n 131 o f Amer i can c i v i l i z a t i o n westward wh i ch c a r r i e d w i t h i t , i n i t s e vo l vement i n l i t e r a t u r e , a p a r a l l e l evo l vement i n humour. Were he a b l e t o embrace t h e new w i t h o u t r e l i n q u i s h i n g t he o l d , h i s p r e s e n t o u t l o o k c o u l d encompass a w i d e r r ange o f Ame r i c an a t t i t u d e s . F o r t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t i t i s n a t u r a l f o r S t e i n b e c k t o v i e w h i s m a t e r i a l s h u m o r o u s l y . H i s n o n - f i c t i o n r e v e a l s t h i s t e n d e n c y . Where A m e r i c a n humour moved away f rom t h e s o p h i s i c a t i o n and t he p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s o f B r i t i s h humour toward the s i m p l e , down-t o - e a r t h humour o f the backwoods, S t e i n b e c k began w i t h the e a r t h y humour o f t h e West and moved toward t h e u r b a n humour o f t h e E a s t . I f h i s own humour has sunk t o t he l e v e l o f t h a t a t t r i b u t e d t o E t h a n Hawley , t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no r e t u r n t o h i s f o rme r p e r f o r m a n c e . However, i f he i s a b l e somehow t o i n -c o r p o r a t e the k i n d o f humour he w r i t e s i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n i n t o a n o v e l as p o w e r f u l l y mature as The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t , h i s humour w i l l a g a i n p l a y as i n t e g r a l a p a r t i n h i s f i c t i o n as i t d i d i n h i s f o rme r s u c c e s s e s . I n t h e use o f c h a r a c t e r , t o o , S t e i n b e c k has r e v e r s e d the d i r e c t i o n o f t he p r o c e s s t a k e n by Amer i c an humour g e n e r a l l y f o r he began w i t h c o n c e r n f o r t h e underdog and ha s moved, s i n c e g o i n g E a s t , t o s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e L i t t l e Man. A l t h o u g h S t e i n b e c k has d e a l t w i t h c h a r a c t e r s w i t h i n t h e A m e r i c a n c o n v e n t i o n , he has no t a lways d e a l t w i t h them i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l way. F o r he ha s u sed the t h r e e ma in n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s — t h e Yankee, t he backwoodsman, and t h e N e g r o — w h i c h e v o l v e d i n A m e r i c a n humour, b u t 132 has m a n i p u l a t e d them i n such a way t h a t each s e r v e s t o comment on , and expand, t he p o s i t i o n o f t h e o t h e r t w o . Because S t e i n b e c k has e x p e r i m e n t e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n h i s w r i t i n g , he has p roduced an a p p e a l i n g v a r i e t y b o t h i n a r t i s t r y and i n humour. Pe rhaps t h e most r e w a r d i n g e f f e c t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n has had on n i s humour r e s u l t e d f r om h i s c o n c e r n f o r the unde rdog . By t r e a t i n g t he J i m f i g u r e s w i t h a warm sympathy he e v o l v e d a t e n d e r k i n d o f humour, f i n e l y b a l a n c e d t o a v o i d e i t h e r p i t y o r f l i p p a n c y , a humour wh i ch communicates b o t h the h u m i l i t y and t h e d i g n i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s . H i s a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e a humour t h a t a r i s e s n a t u r a l l y o u t o f h i s m a t e r i a l s a c coun t s f o r t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t he humour i n h i s C a l i f o r n i a n o v e l s . I t i s t he same k i n d o f humour f ound i n much o f t h e n o n - f i c t i o n , where the a u t h o r i s h i s most n a t u r a l s e l f . A g a i n , i f S t e i n b e c k were a b l e t o encompass b o t h t h e o l d and t he new s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , he c o u l d pe rhaps i n f u s e h i s new u r b a n humour w i t h t h e b e s t e l ement s o f h i s r u r a l humour and t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e a new v a r i e t y . I f h i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d humour were tempered w i t h the h u m i l i t y and n a t u r a l n e s s f ound i n h i s n o n -f i c t i o n and i n h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l s , he wou ld pe rhap s be s u c c e s s f u l i n c r e a t i n g a humour i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s new i n t e r e s t i n t h e Tom f i g u r e . J u s t as S t e i n b e c k ' s p o s i t i o n , f i r s t as C a l i f o r n i a n and t h e n as New Y o r k e r , a c coun t s f o r h i s d u a l i t y i n c u l t u r a l climate, so the d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o v a r i o u s i s s u e s r e v e a l s h i s d u a l i t y i n p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s . He i s n a t u r a l l y humorous and tends t o t r e a t even c h r o n i c i l l s w i t h a m i l i t a n c y couched i n humorous t e r m s . 133 When h i s c o n c e r n i s w i t h i s s u e s wh i ch a r e no t c r u c i a l , he u s u a l l y a t t e m p t s t o c o r r e c t t h r ough s a t i r e . I t i s the s t rongest s i n g l e e l ement v i s i b l e i n h i s humour, and v a r i e s f r om t h e g e n t l e mock ing i n T o r t i l l a F l a t t o t h e s ha rp i n d i c t m e n t o f The Wayward Bus t o t h e c o l d , a lmos t humou r l e s s a t t a c k s i n The P e a r l . F o r t he most p a r t he i s s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s s a t i r e , e x c e p t when he a l l o w s i t t o become t o o b l a t a n t , as he does i n The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV. A w r i t e r se ldom r e a c h e s f u l l s t a t u r e w i t h o u t i m p r e s s i n g upon h i s a ud i ence c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n h i s c r a f t wh i ch become h i s own t r a d e m a r k . J u s t as t he t e r s e , o b j e c t i v e s t y l e deno te s Hemingway ' s work, and the l o n g , c o n v o l u t e d s en tence s i d e n t i f y F a u l k n e r ' s s t y l e , so the way i n wh ich humour i s u sed c h a r a c t e r i z e s much o f S t e i n b e c k ' s wo rk . A l t h o u g h h i s use o f humour f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and f o r i n t e n s i f y i n g pa tho s a re no t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t s , h i s u se o f s h o r t , h a r s h , s e r i o u s e v e n t s t o a v o i d t he u n r e a l i t y wh i ch o f t e n r e s u l t s f r om an u n i n t e r r u p t e d use o f humour has become r e c o g n i z a b l y h i s own. Even more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y S t e i n b e c k i a n are t he ways i n wh i ch he u ses i t t o p e r s o n a l i z e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . These u se s o f humour, combined w i t h h i s o b j e c t i v e s t y l e and h i s c h o i c e o f u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d s u b j e c t s , a re t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s work. S i n c e t h e s u c c e s s o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g i s so dependent on h i s g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , i t may be s a i d t h a t he i s t r u l y a r e g i o n a l i s t as f a r as h i s e a r l i e r works a re c o n c e r n e d . S t e i n b e c k , who f ound f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s a n e c e s s i t y i n o r d e r t o g a i n ease i n w r i t i n g , f a c e d t h e same p r o b l e m i n h i s c r e a t i o n o f 134 humour. F o r the most p a r t , t h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e q u a l i t y o f t he humour and t he q u a l i t y o f t he work wh i ch c o n t a i n s i t . F o r a man who n a t u r a l l y t end s t o humour, and who c r e a t e s humour b e s t when he i s f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r s , and e ven t s i t i s n a t u r a l t o hope t h a t he may c r e a t e a g r e a t n o v e l o f t h e E a s t , c o n t a i n i n g superb humour. S t e i n b e c k , however , has a lways been an u n p r e d i c t a b l e w r i t e r . I n v i e w o f h i s d u a l i t y o f r e a c t i o n t o v a r i o u s c r i s e s , and i n v i e w o f h i s a b i l i t y t o f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h f a c t s o f u r g e n t i s s u e s , i t i s j u s t as j u s t i f i a b l e t o p r e d i c t t h a t h i s n e x t n o v e l w i l l be a s e v e r e i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f the Negro i n A m e r i c a , an i s s u e f o r w h i c h he has a l r e a d y shown g r e a t c o n c e r n i n " A tque V a l e " and T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y . A l t h o u g h h i s t endency t o e x p e r i m e n t has caused h im t o t r e a t a w ide range o f t o p i c s , " S t e i n b e c k w r i t e s about A m e r i c a , wh i ch has a lways d i s t i n g u i s h e d h im f rom a g r e a t many o t h e r A m e r i c a n w r i t e r s . " ^ And a l t h o u g h he e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f o f t e n t h r o u g h h i s n a t u r a l sense o f humour, h i s w r i t i n g p e r t a i n s t o the Amer i c an scene i n a way w h i c h i n d i c a t e s h i s c o n c e r n as a h u m a n i s t . W i th such c o n c e r n i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t he does no t w i s h t o be t agged as a h u m o r i s t , f o r he i s f i r s t o f a l l a h u m a n i s t — a human i s t who u t i l i z e s h i s humour t o v o i c e h i s c o n c e r n f o r h u m a n i t y . 135 NOTES C h a p t e r One 1 As s t a t e d i n P e t e r L i s c a , The Wide Wor l d o f John S t e i n b e c k (New B r u n s w i c k , N. J . , 1 958 ) , p . 109. C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as WWJS. 2 WWJS. p . 1 5 . The c r i t i c s c i t e d a r e : M a x w e l l Ge i sma r , C l a u d e E. J o n e s , Edmund W i l s o n , and Edward Wagenknecht. The same a c c u s a t i o n i s made by A l f r e d K a z i n , On N a t i v e Grounds (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 394. "Some Remarks on Humor, " i n The Comic i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , e d s . John J . Enck , E l i z a b e t h . T . P o r t e r , and A l v i n W h i t l e y (New Yo r k , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 1 03 . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be c i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as CTP. * James Woodress , " J o h n S t e i n b e c k : Hostage t o F o r t u n e , " The Sou th A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y , L X I I I (Summer, 1 9 6 4 ) , 395. The phases o f S t e i n b e c k ' s w r i t i n g a re ba sed p a r t i a l l y on Wood re s s ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 5 The s t o r i e s a r e : " F i n g e r s o f C l o u d , " The S t a n f o r d S p e c t a t o r , I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 2 4 ) , 149, 161 -164 ; " A d v e n t u r e s i n A rcademy, " I b i d . , I I , ( June , 1 9 2 4 ) , 279, 291 . The poems a r e : " I f E d d i e Gues t Had W r i t t e n t he Book o f J o b : HAPPY BIRTHDAYI " , " I f John V. A. Weaver Had W r i t t e n K e a t s ' Sonnet i n t h e Amer i c an Language: ON LOOKING AT A NEW BOOK BY HAROLD BELL WRIGHT," " S t udy o f a Ve ry Fem in i ne O b i t u a r y E d i t o r , " S t a n f o r d L i t , I (March, 1 926 ) , 9 4 - 95 . 6 " J o h n S t e i n b e c k : A L i t e r a r y B i o g r a p h y , " i n S t e i n b e c k and  H i s C r i t i c s , ed s . E. W. T e d l o c k , J r . and C.V. W i c k e r ( A l buque rque , N. M . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 6. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be c i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as SHC. 7 J ohn S t e i n b e c k (New Y o r k , 1 961 ) , p . 56 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as F r e n c h . 8 The Nove l s o f J ohn S t e i n b e c k : A F i r s t S tudy ( Ch i c a go , 1939 ) , p . 16 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as Moore . 9 S t e i n b e c k (London, 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 4 5 . 1 0 T. K. W h i p p l e , " S t e i n b e c k : Through a G l a s s , Though B r i g h t l y , " The New R e p u b l i c , XCVI (Oc tobe r 1 2 , 1 938 ) , 274. 1 1 B u r t o n R a s c o e , " J o h n S t e i n b e c k , " i n SHC, p . 57 . 1 2 F rom a l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n 1934 t o h i s a g e n t s , as quo ted i n WWJS, p . 76 . 136 1 3 " J o h n S t e i n b e c k : M o r a l i s t , " i n SHC, p . 9 5 . 14 L i s c a , WWJS, p. 77; F r e n c h , p . 59 ; Wat t , p . 4 1 ; F r e d e r i c I. C a r p e n t e r , " J o h n S t e i n b e c k : Amer i c an D r eame r , " i n SHC, p . 74; Jo seph Warren B e a c h , " J o h n S t e i n b e c k : Journeyman A r t i s t , " i n SHC, p . 86 ; L e w i s G a n n e t t , " J o h n S t e i n b e c k ' s Way o f W r i t i n g , " i n SHC, p . 27. W r i t e r s i n C r i s i s ( B o s t o n , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 2 52 f . 1 6 " J o h n S t e i n b e c k and t he Coming L i t e r a t u r e , " Sewanee Rev i ew, L ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 4 2 ) , 148 . 1 7 J ° h n S t e i n b e c k : An I n t r o d u c t i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (New Y o r k , 1 963 ) , p. 3 3 . 1 8 "The S e n s i b i l i t y o f John S t e i n b e c k , " i n SHC, p . 106 . 19 The f i r s t two p a r t s o f The Red Pony were p u b l i s h e d as s h o r t s t o r i e s i n 1933 , t h e t h i r d I n 1937 . The n o v e l e t t e was s e p a r a t e l y p u b l i s h e d i n a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n (699 c o p i e s ) i n 1937, t h e n c o l l e c t e d i n The Long V a l l e y i n 1938. (WWJS, p p . 9 2 f . , 310) PO As s t a t e d i n G a n n e t t , i n SHC, p . 32 . PI As s t a t e d i n F r e d e r i c k B r a c h e r , " S t e i n b e c k and the B i o l o g i c a l V iew o f Man, 1 1 i n SHC, p . 1 95 . pp 6 6 As s t a t e d i n G a n n e t t , i n SHC, p . 36 . 23 " J o h n S t e i n b e c k : R e a l i s t i c Whimsy, " The Shapers o f A m e r i c a n  F i c t i o n : 1798-1947 (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 1 9 6 f . 2 4 As s t a t e d i n WWJS, p . 1 98 . 2 5 As s t a t e d i n WWJS, p . 1 98 . 2 6 " J o h n S t e i n b e c k ' s Bus R i d e i n t o t h e H i l l s , " New Yo r k H e r a l d  T r i b u n e Weekly Book Rev i ew, F e b r u a r y 16 , 1947, p . 2. 27 "M r . S t e i n b e c k ' s C r o s s - S e c t i o n , " The New Yo rk Times Book  Rev i ew, F e b r u a r y 16 , 1947, p . 1 . 28 "The P romi se o f A m e r i c a : J ohn S t e i n b e c k , " No V o i c e i s  W h o l l y L o s t (London, 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 246. 2 9 F r i e n d E d , i n r e f e r r i n g t o h i s unbo rn t w i n s , s a y s , "I t h i n k t h e y p l a y v o l l e y b a l l . " (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 115 . 3 0 " I n t h e Land o f N o d , " The New R e p u b l i c , CXXV I I (Oc tober 6, 1 9 5 2 ) , 2 2 f . 3 1 " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " SHC, p . x x x v i i i f . 137 32 " S t e i n b e c k ' s V e r s i o n o f the P a s t o r a l , " Modern F i c t i o n  S t u d i e s , V I (Summer, 1 9 6 0 ) , 116 . 3 3 "A Narrow-Guage D i c k e n s , " The New R e p u b l i c , CXXX (June 7, 1 954 ) , 1 9 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as Ho lman. 34 " S t e i n b e c k t he S o f t - H e a r t e d S a t i r i s t , " The New R e p u b l i c , CXXXVI (May 27, 1 957 ) , 24. 3 5 " I f I Were K i n g , " T ime, LX I X ( A p r i l 15 , 1 9 5 7 ) , 126 . " T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y , by John S t e i n b e c k , " T ime, Canada e d . , LXXX (August 10 , 1 962 ) , 62 . 3 7 " Awa rd s : The N o b e l P r i z e i n L i t e r a t u r e , " W i l s o n L i b r a r y  B u l l e t i n , XXXV I I (December, 1962 ) , 3 2 1 . P a u l P i c k r e l , "The New B o o k s , " H a r p e r ' s Magaz i ne , CCXX I I I ( J u l y , 1 9 6 1 ) , 9 1 . . 5 9 "Many - S i ded M o r a l i t y , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, X L I V (June 24, 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 1 . 4 0 " N o t e s on C u r r e n t B o o k s , " V i r g i n i a Q u a r t e r l y Rev i ew, XXXV I I ( W i n t e r , 1 961 ) , c x i i . 4 1 Bu rn s S i n g e r , "New N o v e l s , " The L i s t e n e r , LXV (June 29, 1 9 6 1 ) , 1145 . The Times L i t e r a r y Supp lement , J u l y 7, 1961 , p . 413 . 4 3 P e t e r H a r c o u r t , " S t e i n b e c k ' s F a b l e s , " Time and T i d e , X L I I (June 22, 1 961 ) , 1 031 . 44 "Award s : The Nobe l P r i z e i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 3 21 . 4 5 W i l l i a m R i v e r s , "The P e r i p a t e t i c P o o d l e , " S a t u r d a y Rev iew, XLV (September 1, 1 962 ) , 3 1 . AC E r i c F. Goldman, " S t e i n b e c k ' s A m e r i c a , Twenty Y e a r s A f t e r , " The New Yo r k Times Book R e v i e w , J u l y 29, 1962, p . 5. 4 7 N i c h o l a s W o l l a s t o n , " I n C o n t i n e n t s and I s l a n d s , " The  S p e c t a t o r , CC1X (October 1 9 , 1 962 ) , 604. 4 8 L e w i s G a n n e t t , "F rom C o a s t t o C o a s t He Met No S t r a n g e r s , " New Y o r k H e r a l d T r i b u n e Weekly Book Rev i ew , J u l y 29, 1962. p . 3 . 4 9 " E x p l o r i n g Home," The Times L i t e r a r y Supp lement , November 2, 1962, p . 843 . 138 C h a p t e r Two 1 S t e i n b e c k was b o r n F e b r u a r y 27, 1902, i n S a l i n a s , C a l i f o r n i a . H i s home was i n C a l i f o r n i a u n t i l 1942 . ( F r e n c h , p p . 20, 26, 28) 2 Edmund B e r g l e r , L a u g h t e r and the Sense o f Humor (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 204. A m e r i c a n Humor: A S t udy o f the N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r (New Yo rk , 1 9 3 1 ) , p. 1 2 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as R o u r k e . 4 W a l t e r B l a i r , N a t i v e Amer i c an Humor (1800-1900) (New Y o r k , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 18 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as NAH. James R u s s e l l L o w e l l , " Pa s sage s f r o m t h e B i g l o w P a p e r s , " i n NAH, p . 2 45 f . g James S. F r e n c h , " C r o c k e t t ' s Coon S t o r y , " i n NAH, p. 282. 7 J o e l C h a n d l e r H a r r i s , " U n c l e Remus ' s S o u t h e r n Negro S t o r i e s , " i n NAH, p . 505 . 8 Form and F a b l e i n A m e r i c a n F i c t i o n (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1 3 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as Ho f fman . 9 N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, The B l i t h e d a l e Romance (New Yo r k : D e l l , 1 9 60 ) , p . 9 1 f . 1 0 Herman M e l v i l l e , Moby D i c k (New Y o r k , 1 930 ) , p . 9 1 f . 1 1 "The Luck o f R o a r i n g Camp," i n NAH, p p . 469 -477 . I P c Smoke B e l l e w (New Y o r k , 1 9 1 2 ) , p p . 255-323. 13 The Amer i c an ( Bo s t on , 1 8 7 7 ) , p . 4 2 . 14 " O l d Times on t h e M i s s i s s i p p i , " i n The P o r t a b l e Mark Twain (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 117 . 15 Mark Twa in and S o u t h w e s t e r n Humor ( Bo s t on , 1 9 5 9 ) . 16 B l a i r , Hor se Sense i n A m e r i c a n Humor (New Y o r k , 1962) , p. 215. 1 7 e . g . , James B a l d w i n , F i r e Next Time (New Y o r k : D e l l , 1 9 64 ) , p . 137. 18 Mark T w a i n , The Adven tu re s o f Huck leber ry F i n n (London, 1884 ) . The e a r l y passage"^ "Tom. . .wanted t o t i e J i m t o t he t r e e f o r f u n , " (p . 9) f o re shadows Tom's l a t e r l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r J i m when he c a r r i e s ou t e l a b o r a t e p l a n s f o r h i s e scape r a t h e r t h a n i n f o r m h im t h a t he has been s e t f r e e . (pp. 346-409) 139 19 The A m e r i c a n H u m o r i s t ; C o n s c i e n c e o f the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y (Ames, Iowa, 1964 ) , p . 12 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as Y a t e s . ' 20 L i f e and L i t e r a t u r e o f t h e Southwest ( D a l l a s , 1 952 ) , p.- 89 . C i t e d h e n c e f o r t h as D o b i e . 21 B l a i r , T a l l T a l e A m e r i c a ; A Legenda r y H i s t o r y o f Our  Humorous He roe s (New Y o r k . 1 9 4 4 ) . p p . 1 85 - 202 . 2 2 " E r s k i n e C a l d w e l l — T h e Dangers o f A m b i g u i t y , " N o v e l o f  V i o l e n c e i n A m e r i c a , r e v . e d . ( D a l l a s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 106 . 23 "Ho r se T h i e f , " S t o r i e s by E r s k i n e C a l d w e l l (New Yo r k , 1 944 ) , p p . 1 0 - 1 6 . OA "Why I L i v e a t t h e P . O . , " A C u r t a i n o f Green (New Y o r k , 1 941 ) , p p . 89 -110 . PS As I L a y D y i n g (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 6 ) . 26 27 Wagons F u l l o f C o t t o n ( N o r f o l k , Conn, 1 9 5 3 ) . 27 " S t e i n b e c k i s f ond o f t h e u n d e r d o g , " (Beach, i n SHC, p . 87) " he has gone f a r t h e r t h a n any o t h e r A m e r i c a n w r i t e r towards b e i n g t h e p o e t o f ou r d i s p o s s e s s e d , " (Moore, p . 72) and he has shown " o u t r a g e d compas s i on f o r t he v i c t i m s o f c h a o t i c f o r c e s . " ( F r e n c h , p . 74) 28 Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o S t e i n b e c k ' s p u b l i s h e d works w i l l be made by a b b r e v i a t e d t i t l e s . The k e y t o t he t i t l e s and e d i t i o n s i s g i v e n i n Append i x I, p . 1 46 . 29 J o s e p h Henry J a c k s o n , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n The S h o r t N o v e l s  o f John S t e i n b e c k (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . i x . 30 « "Dub iou s B a t t l e i n C a l i f o r n i a , " The N a t i o n , C X L I I I (September 12 , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 304. 3T John S t e i n b e c k , " D i s c o v e r i n g the P e o p l e o f P a r i s , " H o l i d a y , XX (Augus t , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 36 . 32 See above, p . 28 . C h a p t e r Three 1 James S u l l y , An E s s a y on L a u g h t e r (London, 1 902 ) , p . 1 25 . 2 "The E x p r e s s i o n o f Emo t i on s i n Man and A n i m a l s , " i n OTP, p. 32. "On W i t and Humour, " i n CTP, p . 1 7 . 140 4 Humour (London, 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 1 7 . 5 H e n r i B e r g s o n , " L a u g h t e r , " i n Comedy, e d . W y l i e Sypher (Garden C i t y , N.Y., 1 956 ) , p . 84 . 6 " W i t and I t s R e l a t i o n t o t h e U n c o n s c i o u s , " i n CTP, p . 8 0 . 7 The Sense o f Humor (New Y o r k , 1 9 2 2 ) , p . 92 . 8 B e r g l e r , p . 197 . Q Suzanne L a n g e r , " P e e l i n g and F o r m , " i n CTP, p . 8 5 . 10 "On the E s s ence o f L a u g h t e r , " i n CTP, p . 2 7 . 1 1 As s t a t e d i n Lawrence C l a r k P o w e l l , "Toward a B i b l i o g r a p h y o f John S t e i n b e c k , " C o l o p h o n , N.S. I l l (Autumn, 1938 ) , 566. 12 H. W. F o w l e r , A D i c t i o n a r y o f Modern E n g l i s h Usage, r e v . e d . ( O x f o r d , 1 957 ) , p . 240; S tephen L e a c o c k , Humour and Human i ty (London, 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 1 5 . 13 F o w l e r , p i 241; W. P. T h r a l l and A d d i s o n H i b b a r d , A Handbook  t o L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 229. 1 4 Based on T h r a l l and H i b b a r d , p . 226. Based on Jo seph T. S h i p l e y , D i c t i o n a r y o f Wor l d L i t e r a t u r e , r e v . e d . ( P a t t e r s o n , N . J . I 9 6 0 ) , p . 213 . 1 6 ( P r i n c e t o n , N. J . , 1 9 5 7 ) . 17 Other works c o n s u l t e d a r e : B e r g s o n ; B e r g l e r ; F o w l e r ; L e a c o c k , Humour; W i l l i a m F. P r y , Sweet Madness: A S tudy o f Humor ( P a l o A l t o , C a l i f . , 1 9 6 3 ) ; Dan S. N o r t o n and P e t e r s Ru sh t on , A G l o s s a r y o f L i t e r a r y Terms, r e v . by M. H. Abrams (New York , 1961) T O Based on L e a c o c k , Humour and Human i t y , p p . 3 2 - 1 5 1 . 19 As s t a t e d i n Ea s tman , p . 194 . 20 See above, p . 4 8 . 21 S t a n f o r d L i t , I (March , 1 9 2 6 ) , 94, l i n e s 1 -4. C h a p t e r Pour 1 See above , C h a p t e r T h r e e , p . 52 . 2 e . g . , Don Q u i x o t e and Sancho Panza ; Tom Jones and P a r t r i d g e . 141 3 A c c o r d i n g t o L i s c a , "The L e a d e r o f t he P e o p l e " was p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n around t he t ime o f T o r t i l l a F l a t , w h i c h was f i n i s h e d i n 1933 . (WWJS, p . 105) 4 I E » QR> § T , SRP. 5 See above, C h a p t e r T h r e e , p . 5 3 . "Mak i ng o f a New Y o r k e r , " New Yo rk Times Magaz i ne , F e b r u a r y 1, 1953, P a r t I I , p . 27. 7 " H i g h Drama o f B o l d T h r u s t Through Ocean F l o o r , " L i f e , L ( A p r i l 14 , 1961 ) , 122 . 8 "I Go Back t o I r e l a n d , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXXXI ( J anua r y 3 1 , 1 953 ) , 4 9 . 9 "The Time the Wolves A te t h e V i c e - P r i n c i p a l , " '47, The Magazine  o f the Y e a r , I (March , 1 947 ) , 26 . 1 0 The S t a n f o r d S p e c t a t o r , I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 924 ) , 164 . 11 See above, C h a p t e r T h r e e , p . 56 . 1 2 "How Mr. Hogan Robbed a B a n k , " The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , CXCV I I (March, 1 9 5 6 ) , 59 . 13 The S t a n f o r d S p e c t a t o r , I I ( June , 1 9 2 4 ) , 279, 291 . 14 I b i d . . I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 2 4 ) , 149, 161 -164 . 15 „ From a l e t t e r by S t e i n b e c k , as quo ted by L i s c a , WWJS, p . 173. 16 W. M. H a r r i s o n , e d . Oklahoma C i t y T imes , quo ted by M a r t i n S t a p l e s S h o c k l e y , "The R e c e p t i o n o f The Grapes o f Wrath i n Ok lahoma, " i n SHC, p. 234. 17 " D u e l W i t h o u t P i s t o l s , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXXX (August 23, 1952), 13. 18 L o c . c i t . 1 9 I b i d . , p . 14 . 2 0 I b i d . , p . 1 5 . 21 " C r i t i c s — F r o m a W r i t e r ' s V i e w p o i n t , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XXXV I I I (August 27, 1 9 5 5 ) , 28. 2 2 S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XXXV I I I (Oc tobe r 8, 1 955 ) , 1 1 . 2 3 " C o n v e r s a t i o n a t Sag H a r b o r , " H o l i d a y , XXIX (March, 1961) , 60. 2 4 ,. " H i g h Drama o f B o l d T h r u s t Through Ocean F l o o r , " p . 1 1 1 . 142 25 There i s no doubt t h a t S t e i n b e c k was aware o f t he d o u b l e i r o n y i n u s i n g t h e name E t h a n A l l e n . A l l e n , t h e l e a d e r o f t he Vermont " G r e e n M o u n t a i n B o y s , " i s g e n e r a l l y r e v e r e d as one o f A m e r i c a ' s g r e a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r o e s . The common a t t i t u d e i s i n d i c a t e d by Herman M e l v i l l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n : " A l l e n . . . h a d a p e r s o n l i k e the B e l g i a n g i a n t s ; moun ta i n mus i c i n h im l i k e a S w i s s ; a h e a r t plump as Coeur de L i o n ' s . . . . H e was f r a n k , b l u f f , compan ionab le as a Pagan, c o n v i v i a l , a Roman, h e a r t y as a h a r v e s t . H i s s p i r i t was e s s e n t i a l l y W e s t e r n . " ( I s r a e l P o t t e r (New Y o r k , 1 963 ) , p . 1 9 8 ) . I n a c t u a l i t y , E t h a n A l l e n became d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y government and, d e s p i t e h i s e a r l i e r l o y a l t y , c o n s p i r e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h t o make Vermont a B r i t i s h p r o v i n c e . ( " A l l e n , E t h a n , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . v o l . 1, 1965, p. 642) 2 6 These i n c l u d e CG, TGU, DB, MM, L V , GW, P, WB, BB, WD, and u n c o l l e c t e d s h o r t s t o r i e s . 27 " A lway s Someth ing t o Do i n S a l i n a s , " H o l i d a y , X V I I ( June, 1 955 ) , 153 , 156 . pg "The E a s i e s t Way t o D i e , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, X L I (August 23, 1 9 5 8 ) , 37 . P9 Burgum, i n SHC, p . 106; R a s c o e , i n SHC, p. 58; S n e l l , p. 187f.; S t a n l e y Edga r Hyman, "Some Notes on John S t e i n b e c k , " i n SHC, p. 157 . 30 The c r i t i c s who r e c o g n i z e t h a t S t e i n b e c k i s no t a d v o c a t i n g p r i m i t i v i s m a r e : L i s c a , WWJS, p. 8 1 ; F r e n c h , p . 23; G i b b s , i n SHC, p . 96; Beach , i n SHC, p p . 8 7 - 8 9 . Woodburn 0 . Ross c a l l s T o r t i l l a F l a t p r i m i t i v i s t i c , b u t q u a l i f i e s h i s s t a t emen t by s a y i n g , "An i m p o r t a n t r e s e r v a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e v e r y tone o f t h e book. S t e i n b e c k e n t e r s a k i n d o f d i s c l a i m e r by w r i t i n g i n a m o c k - h e r o i c v e i n . " ( " John S t e i n b e c k : E a r t h and S t a r s , " i n SHC, p . 1 7 4 ) . C a r p e n t e r a l s o sees S t e i n b e c k i n sympathy w i t h t he p r i m i t i v i s m o f t h e p a i s a n o s , b u t goes on t o say t h a t he r e c o g n i z e s t h e need f o r " p u r p o s e f u l and r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n , " (SHC, p. 7 4 f . ) 31 S t a n f o r d L i t , I (March, 1 9 2 6 ) , 9 4 f . 32 33 34 35 36 Mother o f P e a r l (London, 1 924 ) , p . 93 . See above, C h a p t e r One, p . 1 7 . See above, p . 88 . See above, C h a p t e r One, p . 1 3 . S a t u r d a y Rev i ew , XXXIX (March 3 1 , 1 956 ) , 1 1 . 3 7 John S t e i n b e c k and A d l a i S t e v e n s o n , "Our R i g ged M o r a l i t y , " C o r o n e t , L X V I I (March, 1 9 6 0 ) , 147 . 143 "How t o T e l l Good Guys f r om Bad G u y s , " The R e p o r t e r , X I I (March 10 , 1 9 5 5 ) , 4 2 - 4 4 . 39 "Mak i ng o f a New Y o r k e r , " p . 67. 40 " P i s h i n g i n P a r i s , " Punch . CCXXVI I (August 25, 1 9 5 4 ) , 248-249. 4 1 "The V e g e t a b l e War , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XXXIX ( J u l y 21 , 1 956 ) , 3 4 - 3 5 . "My War w i t h t he O s p r e y s , " H o l i d a y . XX I (March, 1 9 5 7 ) , 165 . 4 3 "The S e c r e t Weapon We Were A f r a i d t o U s e , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXXXI ( J anua r y 10 , 1 9 5 3 ) , 9 . 44 " A Game o f H o s p i t a l i t y , " S a t u r d a y Rev iew, XL ( A p r i l 20, 1957) , 24. C h a p t e r F i v e 1 See above, C h a p t e r One, p . 7 f . Burgum, i n SHC, p . 106 ; Ra s coe , i n SHC, p . 58; Holman, p . 20. 2 3 Holman, p . 20 ; P o n t e n r o s e , p . 1 2 7 f . ; F r e n c h , p . 158; Wa t t , p . 1 0 1 . 4 See above, C h a p t e r Two, p . 38 . 5 SC, p p . 20 - 22 , 57, 70, 7 5 f . , 79 . 6 " D u e l W i t h o u t P i s t o l s , " p . 1 3 . 7 "A Model T Named » I t , « " F o r d T imes , LXV ( J u l y , 1 9 5 3 ) , 36 . 3 I b i d . , p . 3 7 f . T h i s i n c i d e n t i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n " J a l o p i e s I C u r s e d and L o v e d , " H o l i d a y , XV I ( J u l y , 1 954 ) , 4 5 . 9 e . g . , T e x ' s h a t r e d o f d i s h w a s h i n g , p . 83 ; S p a r k y ' s i n s t i n c t f o r mak ing s p a g h e t t i on Thu r sday s and Sundays , p . 218; S p a r k y ' s a c c i d e n t a l h a r p o o n i n g o f a b a t , p . 2 35 f . 1 0 These t h e o r i e s i n c l u d e : n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l o r " i s " t h i n k i n g , p . 135 ; t h e g roup f u n c t i o n i n g as a s u r v i v a l u n i t , wh i ch i s r e l a t e d t o h i s " g r oup -man " t h e o r y , p . 2 4 0 f . ; t h e b e l i e f t h a t o r n a m e n t a t i o n o f a s p e c i e s l e a d s t o e x t i n c t i o n , wh i ch he r e l a t e s t o the human r a c e , p . 88 . 1 1 See above, C h a p t e r P o u r , p . 99 . 12 See above, C h a p t e r P o u r , p . 98 . 144 1 3 „ " C o n v e r s a t i o n at Sag H a r b o u r , " p p . 60 -61 , 129 -131 , 133; " M a d i s o n Avenue and the E l e c t i o n , " p . 1 1 ; "Our R i gged M o r a l i t y , " p p . 1 44 - 147 . 1 4 „ "A Game o f H o s p i t a l i t y , " p. 24; OW, p . x i v f . 15 m TP , p . 72 ; GW, p . 30 ; WD, p . 1 01 ; TC, p . 7 8 f . 16 „ "Our R i g ged M o r a l i t y , " p p . 144 -147 . 1 7 2Z> CR, WB, ST. 18 "How t o T e l l Good Guys f rom Bad G u y s , " p p . 4 2 - 4 4 . 19 The N a t i o n , C X L I I I (September 1 2 , 1936 ) , 302 -304 . 20 __ I n A Companion t o The Grapes o f Wra th , e d . Warren F r e n c h (New Y o r k , 1 963 ) , p p . 53 - 92 . 21 S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XXXV I I I (May 28, 1955 ) , 22 . 22 I b i d . , X L I I I ( J u l y 23, 1 9 6 0 ) , 1 3 . 23 "Dub ious B a t t l e i n C a l i f o r n i a " and T h e i r B l o o d i s S t r o n g . 24 " A t q u e V a l e , " p . 1 3 . C h a p t e r S i x " F i n g e r s o f C l o u d " and " A d v e n t u r e s i n A r cademy. " 2 " I f E d d i e Gues t Had W r i t t e n t h e Book o f J o b " and " I f John V. A. Weaver Had W r i t t e n K e a t s ' Sonnet i n the A m e r i c a n L anguage . " 3 L i s c a s t a t e s t h a t e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r S t e i n b e c k had w r i t t e n a t l e a s t t h r e e n o v e l s wh i ch were n o t p u b l i s h e d , as w e l l as numerous v e r s i o n s o f b o t h Cup o f G o l d and To a God Unknown. (SHC, p . 7, WWJS, p . 26) 4 See above, C h a p t e r One, p . 5. 5 There i s some humour i n t he pa s sage i n w h i c h t he r e p u t a t i o n o f J i m ' s f a t h e r i s d i s c u s s e d : " ' h e c o u l d l i c k f i v e cops w i t h h i s b a r e h a n d s . 1 " The humour l i e s i n the r e v e r s a l o f J i m ' s answer, "*I gues s he c o u l d , bu t e v e r y t ime he went ou t he met s i x . " 1 (p. 8) 6 A s h o r t s t o r y f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1934. (WWJS, p . 92) 7 See above, C h a p t e r F i v e , p . l l l f . 8 IDB and GW. 145 g S t e i n b e c k comp le ted t h e MS o f MM i n September, 1936. The a r t i c l e s were p u b l i s h e d i n September and Oc tobe r o f t he same y e a r . (WWJS, p p . 130 , 312) 10 11 12 A Companion t o The Grapes o f Wra th , p . 52 . I b i d . , p . 92 . Prom a l e t t e r by S t e i n b e c k t o h i s p u b l i s h e r s , quo ted i n WWJS, p . 179 . 13 F r e n c h , p . 130 . F r e n c h argues t h a t such pa s sage s as the one i n w h i c h the c u r i o u s man q u e s t i o n s Doc about t he g i r l ' s body on t h e r e e f (CR, p . 322) a r e v i c i o u s a t t a c k s on i n s e n s i t i v i t y . 14 See above, C h a p t e r P o u r , p . 9 1 . 15 16 17 L i s c a , i n SHC, p . 20. M i z e n e r , p . 2 2 f . "How E d i t h M c G i l l i c u d d y Met Robe r t L o u i s S t e v e n s o n , " Ha rpe r ' s  Maga z i ne , CLXXX I I I (Augus t , 1 941 ) , 252-258, ( c o l l e c t e d i n PS, p p . 5 59 - 571 ) ; "The Time t h e Wolves A te t he V i c e - P r i n c i p a l , ^ ' 4 7 , The Magaz ine o f t h e Y e a r , I (March, 1 9 4 7 ) , 26 -27 ; " M i r a c l e o f T e p a y a c , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXX I I~ fDecember 25, 1 948 ) , 22 - 23 ; " H i s Father, " R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t , LV (September, 1 9 4 9 ) , 1 9 - 2 1 ; "How Mr. Hogan Robbed a b a n k , " The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , CXCV I I (March, 1 956 ) , 5 8 - 6 1 . 18 The a r t i c l e s most p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s t u d y have been ment i oned p r e v i o u s l y . 1 9 F r e n c h , p . 30 ; Woodress , p . 386. 2 0 Woodress , p . 395 . 21 Not o n l y i s t h e tone new t o S t e i n b e c k bu t a l s o t h i s i s h i s f i r s t e x tended use o f a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r . I n WD E t h a n Hawley n a r r a t e s e i g h t e e n o f t h e n o v e l ' s t w e n t y - t w o c h a p t e r s . The s h o r t s t o r i e s , " J ohnny B e a r " (LV, p p . 145-168) and " B r e a k f a s t , " (LV, p p . 89-92) a re t o l d i n t he f i r s t p e r s o n , as a re p a r t s o f EE . 22 See above, C h a p t e r One, p . 1 9 . 23 Woodress, p . 397. 24 From a l e t t e r t o h i s a g e n t s , as quoted i n WWJS, p . 109 . C h a p t e r Seven 1 H a r r y G o l d e n , i n "Have We Gone S o f t ? " ( " A m e r i c a - - 1 9 6 0 , A Sympos ium" ) , The New R e p u b l i c , C X L I I ( F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1960 ) , 14 . 146 APPENDIX I Key t o A b b r e v i a t e d T i t l e s BB B u r n i n g B r i g h t . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1950 . CG Cup o f G o l d . New Y o r k : , P . P . C o l l i e r , 1936. CR Canne ry Row, i n The S h o r t Nove l s o f John S t e i n b e c k . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1953, p p . 2 71 - 361 . § 2 E a s t o f Eden . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1952. GW The Grapes o f Wra th . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1939. 3DB I n Dub i ou s B a t t l e . New Y o r k : P .P . C o l l i e r , 1936 . LSC The Log f rom the Sea o f C o r t e z . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1951 . LV The Long V a l l e y . New Y o r k : P. P. C o l l i e r , 1938 . MD The Moon i s Down, i n The S h o r t N o v e l s , p p . 209 -269 . MM Of M i c e and Men. i n The S h o r t N o v e l s , p p . 155 -208 . OW Once There Was a War. New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1958. P The P e a r l , i n The S h o r t N o v e l s , p p . 363 -407 . PH The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven. London : E r n e s t Benn, 1933 . PS The P o r t a b l e S t e i n b e c k . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1943. R J A R u s s i a n J o u r n a l . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1948. RP The Red Pony. i n The S h o r t N o v e l s , p p . 1 03 - 153 . SC Sea o f C o r t e z . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1941 . ( I n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Edward R i c k e t t s . ) SRP The S h o r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV. New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1957. ST Sweet T h u r s d a y . New Y o r k : Bantam Books , 1 961 . TC T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y i n S e a r c h o f A m e r i c a . M o n t r e a l : Bantam Books , 1963 . TP T o r t i l l a F l a t , i n The S h o r t N o v e l s , p p . 1 - 101 . TGU To a God Unknown. New Y o r k : Bantam Books , 1 960 . WB The Wayward Bus . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1947 . WD The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1961 . 147 BIBLIOGRAPHY WORKS BY STEINBECK N o v e l s and C o l l e c t i o n s o f F i c t i o n B u r n i n g B r i g h t . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1950 . Canne r y Row, i n The S h o r t N o v e l s o f John S t e i n b e c k , p p . 271 -361 . Cup o f G o l d . New Y o r k : P . F . C o l l i e r , 1936 . E a s t o f E d e n . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1952. The Grapes o f Wra th . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1939. I n Dub iou s B a t t l e . New Y o r k : P . F . C o l l i e r , 1936. The Long V a l l e y . New Y o r k : P . F . C o l l i e r , 1938 . The Moon i s Down, i n The S h o r t N o v e l s o f John S t e i n b e c k , pp. 209-269. Of M i c e and Men, i n The S h o r t N o v e l s o f John S t e i n b e c k , p p . 155-208. The P a s t u r e s o f Heaven. London : E r n e s t Benn, 1933 . The P e a r l , i n The S h o r t N o v e l s o f " John S t e i n b e c k , p p . 363 -407 . The P o r t a b l e S t e i n b e c k . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1943. The Red Pony, i n The S h o r t N o v e l s o f John S t e i n b e c k , p p . 1 03 - 153 . The S h o r t N o v e l s o f John S t e i n b e c k . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1953 . The Sho r t R e i g n o f P i p p i n IV. New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1957 . Sweet Thu r sday . New Y o r k : Bantam Books , 1961 . To a God Unknown. New Y o r k : Bantam Book s , 1960 . T o r t i l l a F l a t , i n The S h o r t N o v e l s o f J ohn S t e i n b e c k , p p . 1 - 101 . The Wayward Bu s . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1947 . The W i n t e r o f Our D i s c o n t e n t . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1 961 . 148 S h o r t F i c t i o n " A d v e n t u r e s i n Arcademy: A J o u r n e y i n t o t h e R i d i c u l o u s , " The  S t a n f o r d S p e c t a t o r . I I ( June, 1 924 ) , 279, 291 . " F i n g e r s o f C l o u d : A S a t i r e on C o l l e g e P r o t e r v i t y , " The S t a n f o r d  S p e c t a t o r , I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 924 ) , 149, 161 -164 . " H i s F a t h e r , " R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t , LV (September, 1 949 ) , 1 9 - 2 1 . "How E d i t h M c G i l l i c u d d y Met R o b e r t L o u i s S t e v e n s o n , " H a r p e r ' s  Magaz i ne , CLXXX I I I (Augus t , 1 941 ) , 252 -258 . "How Mr. Hogan Robbed a B a n k , " The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , CXCVI I (March, 1 956 ) , 5 8 - 6 1 . "The M i r a c l e o f T e p a y a c , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXX I I (December 25 , 1 9 4 8 ) , 2 2 - 2 3 . "The Time t he Wolves A t e the V i c e P r i n c i p a l , " ' 4 7 , The Magaz ine  o f t he Y e a r , I (March, 1 947 ) , 26 -27 . Ve r s e " A t r o p o s : S tudy o f a Ve ry F e m i n i n e O b i t u a r y E d i t o r , " S t a n f o r d  L i t , I (March, 1 9 2 6 ) , 95 . " B a u b l e s , " Mon te rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 5, 1 935 ) , 7 . " F o u r Shades o f Navy B l u e , " Monte rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 26, 1 935 ) , 1 2 . "The G e n i u s , " Mon te rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 26, 1 935 ) , 1 2 . " I f E d d i e Guest Had W r i t t e n t h e Book o f J o b : HAPPY BIRTHDAY!", S t a n f o r d L i t , I (March , 1 9 2 6 ) , 94 . " I f John V. A. Weaver Had W r i t t e n K e a t s ' Sonnet i n t h e A m e r i c a n Language: ON LOOKING AT A NEW BOOK BY HAROLD BELL WRIGHT," S t a n f o r d L i t . I (March, 1 9 2 6 ) , 94. " I v a n h o e , " Monte rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 26, 1 935 ) , 1 2 . "Mammy," Monte rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 5, 1 935 ) , 7 . "Thought s on S e e i n g a S t e v e d o r e , " Mon te rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 26, 1 9 3 5 ) , 1 1 . "To C a r m e l , " Monte rey Beacon , I ( J anua r y 5, 1 9 3 5 ) , 7 . "The V i s i t o r , " Monte rey Beacon . I ( J anua r y 5, 1 9 3 5 ) , 7. 149 S e p a r a t e l y P u b l i s h e d N o n - F i c t i o n Bombs Away. New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1942. The F o r g o t t e n V i l l a g e . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1941 . The Log f r om t he Sea o f C o r t e z . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1951 . Once There Was a War. New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1958 . A R u s s i a n J o u r n a l . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1948 . Sea o f C o r t e z ( i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Edward R i c k e t t s ) . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1 941 . T h e i r B l o o d i s S t r o n g , i n A Companion t o The Grapes o f Wrath, e d , Warren F r e n c h . New Y o r k : V i k i n g , 1963 . T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y i n S e a r c h o f A m e r i c a . M o n t r e a l : Bantam Book s , 1963 . F i l m S c r i p t s L i f e b o a t . 1944. A Meda l f o r Benny ( i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h J a c k Wagner ) , i n B e s t  F i l m P l a y s — 1 9 4 5 , e d s . John Gas sner and D u d l e y N i c h o l s . New Y o r k : C rown, 1946. V i v a Z a p a t a ! 1950 . A r t i c l e s " A c c e p t a n c e Speech f o r t he N o b e l P r i z e , " Vogue, CXL I (March 1, 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 6 . " A lway s Someth ing t o Do i n S a l i n a s , " H o l i d a y , X V I I ( June , 1 955 ) , 58 -59 , 152 -153 , 156 . " A tque V a l e , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew , X L I I I ( J u l y 23, 1 9 6 0 ) , 1 3 . L a t e r p u b l i s h e d as " B l a c k Man ' s I r o n i c B u r d e n . " " B l a c k Man ' s I r o n i c B u r d e n , " Negro H i s t o r y B u l l e t i n , XXIV ( A p r i l , 1 9 61 ) , 146 , 156 . " C o n v e r s a t i o n a t Sag H a r b o r , " H o l i d a y , XX IX (March, 1 9 6 1 ) , 6 0 - 6 1 . 150 "«D» f o r D a n g e r o u s , " M c C a l l ' s , LXXXV ( O c t o b e r , 1 957 ) , 57, 82 , 8 4 . "The D e a t h o f a R a c k e t , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew. XXXV I I I ( A p r i l 2, 1 955 ) , 26 . " D i s c o v e r i n g t he P e o p l e o f P a r i s , " H o l i d a y , XX (Augus t , 1956 ) , 36. "Dub iou s B a t t l e i n C a l i f o r n i a , " The N a t i o n , C X L I I I (September 1 2 , 1 936 ) , 302 -304 . " D u e l W i t h o u t P i s t o l s , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXXX (August 23, 1 9 5 2 ) , 1 3 - 1 5 . "The E a s i e s t Way t o D i e , " S a t u r d a y Rev iew, X L I (August 23 , 1 958 ) , 1 2 , 37 . " P i s h i n g i n P a r i s , " Punch , CCXXVI I (August 25 , 1 954 ) , 248-249. "A Game o f H o s p i t a l i t y , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XL ( A p r i l 20, 1957 ) , 24. " H i g h Drama o f B o l d T h r u s t Through Ocean F l o o r , " L i f e , L ( A p r i l 14, 1 961 ) , 111 -118 , 120 -122 . "How t o T e l l Good Guys f r om Bad G u y s , " The R e p o r t e r , X I I (March 10, 1955) , 4 2 - 44 . "I Go Back t o I r e l a n d , " C o l l i e r ' s , CXXXI ( J anua r y 3 1 , 1953), 48-50. " I n a R a d i o B r o a d c a s t Beamed, " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew , XXXV I I I (November 26, 1955 ) , 8 - 9 . " J a l o p i e s I C u r s e d and L o v e d , " H o l i d a y , XV I ( J u l y , 1 9 5 4 ) , 4 4 - 4 5 , 8 9 - 90 . "The J o a n i n A l l o f U s , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XXXIX ( J anua r y 14 , 1956) , 1 7 . " M a d i s o n Avenue and the E l e c t i o n , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew, XXXIX (March 3 1 , 1 956 ) , 1 1 . " M a i l I ' v e S e e n , " S a t u r d a y Rev i ew , XXXIX (August 4 , 1956 ) , 1 6 . 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