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The administration of justice in the three higher criminal courts of Vancouver Litsky, Herman Harry 1965

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THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE I N THE THREE HIGHER CRIMINAL COURTS OF VANCOUVER  by HERMAN LITSKY  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1965  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  In the  requirements  British  mission  for  Columbia, I  available  for  for  an  reference  be  without  of my  this  written  Department  by  for  ^ 7  the  study,  the  of  Head  I  of  i s understood financial  Columbia,  the  Library  this  of  ^  in partial  degree at  permission*  The U n i v e r s i t y .of B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  that  and  It  thesis  thesis  advanced  copying  granted  representatives.  cation  this  agree  extensive  p u r p o s e s may his  presenting  thesis my  make i t  agree for  that  or  c o p y i n g or  shall  not  of  of • freely per-  scholarly  Department  that  gain  University  shall  further  fulfilment  be  by publi-  allowed  ii  ABSTRACT  The o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l a i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l a w c o u r t s and a l l i e d m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i n t h e t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s o f Vancouver: 1. The County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l C o u r t . 2. The Supreme C o u r t . 3 . The Court o f A p p e a l . Most o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s s t u d y was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e judges and s t a f f o f t h e s e c o u r t s . I n t h e p a s t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e has h a r d l y been c o n s i d e r e d a s u b j e c t b y l e g a l w r i t e r s a s e v i d e n c e d b y the p a u c i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e Canadian f i e l d . Some w r i t e r s have i n c l u d e d t h e system o f c o u r t s b u t n e c e s s a r i l y c o u l d not g i v e i t much space; o t h e r s presumed t h a t t h e r e a d e r was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . The s t u d y o u t l i n e s t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e c o u r t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e judges and s t a f f a t t a c h e d t o them. The s t u d y a l s o o u t l i n e s t h e p r o c e s s o f t r i a l s o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e M a g i s t r a t e ' s Court and c u l minating i n the three higher c o u r t s .  garding  F i n a l l y , some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations a r e made r e some o f t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s now e x i s t i n g i n t h e s e t h r e e c o u r t s .  The w r i t e r ' s s i n c e r e i m p r e s s i o n , h a v i n g had a l e g a l background, i s t h a t t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r needs a knowledge o f t h e p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , how i t r e a l l y works, and what c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s have been made t o improve i t . Law t r e a t e d as s a c r o s a n c t , i s o l a t e d from t h e s o c i e t y i t s e r v e s , must succumb t o a more modern approach.. To some e x t e n t , t h i s means t h a t l a w y e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s and o t h e r people concerned w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e must l o o k c r i t i c a l l y a t i t s p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e . Only t h r o u g h knowledge and m u t u a l endeavor b y those i n v o l v e d w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e c a n t h e r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s be p r o t e c t e d . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l arouse some i n t e r e s t and t h a t o t h e r s w i l l c a r r y o u t e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i n t h e near f u t u r e .  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I .  The Nature o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e  Some c o n c e p t i o n s on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e . Historical d e t e r m i n a n t s r o o t e d i n t h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m . The d i v i s i o n o f l a w . E s t a b l i s h m e n t and j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s o f Canada under t h e B r i t i s h North America A c t . S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of the courts o f Canada. The h i s t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia j u d i c i a l system.  Chapter I I .  Page  1  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e i n the M a g i s t r a t e ' s Court and t h e P r o c e d u r a l P r o c e s s t o t h e H i g h e r C r i m i n a l Courts  The M a g i s t r a t e ' s Court i n Vancouver. The p r o s e c u t o r i n the M a g i s t r a t e ' s C o u r t . The o l i c e Court C l e r k . The p r o c e d u r a l p r o c e s s o f c r i m i n a l c h a r g e s i n the M a g i s t r a t e ' s C o u r t . B a i l p  Chapter I I I .  The Three H i g h e r C r i m i n a l C o u r t s i n Vancouver  The j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e c o u r t s . The judges o f t h e t h r e e c o u r t s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f o f the t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s i n Vancouver. The - c l e r k s o f t h e t h r e e c r i m i n a l c o u r t s . The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r o f t h e t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s . The r o l e o f t h e p r o s e c u t o r i n t h e t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s . Number and d i s p o s i t i o n o f cases t r i e d i n t h e t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s i n Vancouver (1961-1964). The Vancouver Court House; "The E d i f i c e o f J u s t i c e " : Chapter TV.  13  The P r o c e s s o f T r i a l i n the Three Higher i n a l Courts.  27  Crim-  The County Court J u d g e s C r i m i n a l C o u r t . The Supreme Court ( C r i m i n a l J u r y T r i a l s ) . The Court o f A p p e a l 1  Chapter V.  56  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e - Some C o n c l u s i o n s , Recommendations and P e r s p e c t i v e s  G e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations. of j u s t i c e - some p e r s p e c t i v e s  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 68  Appendices; I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.  System o f C o u r t s E x e r c i s i n g C i v i l J u r i s d i c t i o n i n Canada. System o f C o u r t s E x e r c i s i n g C r i m i n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n i n Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia County C o u r t D i s t r i c t s . J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Procedure i n Vancouver C r i m i n a l C o u r t s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f o f the Three H i g h e r C r i m i n a l C o u r t s i n Vancouver. Questionnaire. Bibliography.  Photographs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  The The The The The The  Court House. County Court J u d g e s C r i m i n a l C o u r t . ' Supreme C o u r t ( C r i m i n a l A s s i z e s ) . Court o f A p p e a l . J u r y Room. Court R e p o r t e r ' s O f f i c e . 1  CHAPTER I  THE NATURE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE  1.  Some Conceptions on Administration of Justice The major purpose of government i s the maintenance of law  order and the administration of j u s t i c e .  and  The administration of justice i s  largely a function of the courts, which interpret and enforce the law the r i g h t s of parties under i t .  and  Other agencies involved i n the adminis-  t r a t i o n of justice are the p o l i c e , prisons, and probation and parole services. Nowhere more than the courts does government touch the l i f e of the people more intimately and nowhere i s i t more important that the governing process r e f l e c t e f f i c i e n c y and common sense.  Indeed, i f we seek to pre-  serve free government i n Canada we must make the administration of justice a concomitant of good government.  The nature of the task has been w e l l stated  1  by Roscoe Pound:  "Let us think of the administration of justice as a great task, or rather a great series of i n t e r r e l a t e d tasks withi n a j u d i c i a l framework. The problem of law i s not one of abstract harmonizing of human w i l l s , i t i s one of concrete securing or r e a l i z i n g of human i n t e r e s t s . " The administration of justice may  be defined as the maintenance of  right within a p o l i t i c a l community by means of the force of the State, and through the instrumentality of the State's j u d i c i a l t r i b u n a l s . By d e f i n i t i o n , then, the law consists of the authoritative rules which judges apply i n the administration of j u s t i c e , to the exclusion of t h e i r own free w i l l and d i s c r e t i o n . For good and s u f f i c i e n t reasons the courts which administer justice are constrained to walk i n predetermined  1.  P i r s i g , Maynard, Cases on J u d i c i a l Administration, West Publishing Minnesota, 1946, page 5.  Co.,  - 2 paths.  They a r e not s t r i c t l y a t l i b e r t y t o do t h a t w h i c h seems r i g h t and  j u s t i n t h e i r own e y e s .  They a r e u s u a l l y bound b y precedent and an a u t h o r i t a -  t i v e c r e e d w h i c h t h e y must a c c e p t and a c t upon.  The l a w , i s t h e r e f o r e , t h e  wisdom and j u s t i c e o f the community, f o r m u l a t e d f o r the a u t h o r i t a t i v e  direct-  i o n o f t h o s e t o whom t h e community has d e l e g a t e d i t s j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n .  Jus-  t i c e i s t h e end, l a w and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e m e r e l y the i n s t r u m e n t s and t h e means b y w h i c h j u s t i c e i s c a r r i e d o u t . 2.  H i s t o r i c a l D e t e r m i n a n t s Rooted i n t h e E n g l i s h  System  Canadian law and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e x c e p t as m o d i f i e d by s t a t u t e and t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f l a w i n t h e C i v i l Code o f Quebec, has a h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l opment r e l a t e d t o t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s where much o f t h e Canadian s t a t u t e l a w i s based d i r e c t l y on t h e s t a t u t e law o f E n g l a n d .  Canadian c r i m i n a l l a w , a l -  though i t has been c o d i f i e d f o r o v e r 80 y e a r s , f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the E n g l i s h l a w on w h i c h i t i s founded.  Any r e p o r t o f cases d e c i d e d i n any one o f t h e Can-  a d i a n p r o v i n c e s ( e x c e p t Quebec) o r an A p p e a l t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada, i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e c i t a t i o n o f English authorities. That t h e l a w o f Canada s h o u l d have been so c l o s e l y m o d e l l e d on that of England i s o n l y n a t u r a l .  Our development  a s an i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l  and i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r y has t a k e n p l a c e l a r g e l y d u r i n g the l a s t 70 y e a r s . England has been a l e a d e r i n commerce, i n d u s t r y and w o r l d t r a d e f o r c e n t u r i e s and so has developed a system o f law g o v e r n i n g t h e s e g r e a t f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y w h i c h Canada adopted as i t s own model s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  The  J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , o r t h e f i n a l c o u r t o f A p p e a l i n a l l c i v i l cases u n t i l 1950 and i n a l l c r i m i n a l c a s e s u n t i l 1931, was a p o w e r f u l agency i n m a i n t a i n i n g and i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e l e g a l system i n Canada and E n g l a n d , and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g mature and t e s t e d r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have been adopted by Canada t o s u i t i t s s p e c i a l needs.  - 3It i s right, however, that the legal connection with England i n the administration of justice be severed. Canadian courts have reached a period of autonomy, and are no longer in the adolescent stage.  But Can-  adians continue to acknowledge and use the English model of justice to their advantage. Justice Rand of the Supreme Court of Canada stated: "Thus i t i s seen, by a course of empirical modifications, we have exemplified the basic methods of common law development from England; distrusting logic in i t s elf has l e f t to experimental reason the task of giving formulation to the ever growing needs of people i n a legal framework of friendship, mutual respect, and a transcending allegiance to newly arising conceptions of civilization."-'In passing, i t can also be stated that the principal differences between the administration of justice in Canada and the United States have sprung from differences i n attitude and outlook of their respective people. The differences have been shaped by the divergent pressures of the p o l i t i c a l and economic history, most decisive of which has been the fact that Canada, in contradistinction, was granted independence from Great Britain without revolution. 3.  The Division of Law In order to make clearer the administration of justice, i t i s nec-  essary to consider the two divisions of law, c i v i l and criminal. By definition, Popple states a crime i s an act or mission prohibited by the superior power i n a state under penalty of fine, imprison2 ment or other punishment. 1. 2.  Further,, by corollary, c i v i l cases, mean that  Rand, I., "Some Aspects of Canadian Constitutionalism," Canadian Bar Review, Volume 38, May, I960, page 148. Popple, A., Criminal Procedure and Practise. Carswell Company, Toronto, 1955, p. 1.  part of a country's law which i s not criminal.  The dichotomy here i s really  criminal and non-criminal, so that c i v i l cases must be distinquished by setting the boundary of the criminal law.  This division of the.law into c i v i l  and criminal gives us the only two catagories for the administration of justice, where as a general rule c i v i l cases are dealt with by one hierarchy of courts and criminal cases by another. Any attempt to define a crime i n terms of acts or omissions leads to considerable d i f f i c u l t y .  If for instance, the driver of one car reck-  lessly comes into collision with another car, damaging i t and injuring the driver, we find that the same act of reckless driving i s a crime under the Criminal Code and also a tort ( c i v i l wrong independent of contract).  The  distinction, then, i s not necessarily between acts, but between legal proceedings that are brought, either c i v i l or criminal.  If proceedings against the  reckless driver are aimed at punishing him, then these proceedings are criminal, whereas proceedings that aim at compensating the injured person are civil.  Criminal proceedings, usually called a "prosecution" cannot (with cer-  tain exceptions) result i n any pecuniary gain to the person injured.  There-  fore, most criminal acts are also c i v i l wrongs. When the act i s both a crime and a c i v i l wrong, there i s no reason why both a prosecution and a c i v i l action should not be brought.  The proceedings, however, w i l l be quite different,  coming before a separate hierarchical structure of courts. 4.  Establishment and Jurisdiction of the Courts of Canada under the British North America Act. The federal distribution of legislative power and responsibilities  in Canada i s one of the facts of l i f e i n the many important social, p o l i t i c a l , economic and cultural problems of Canada. Over the whole range of actual and  - 5potential law-making the constitution distributes powers and responsibilities by two l i s t s or catagories of classes — one l i s t for the federal parliament and the other for each of the provincial legislatures."'" In the realm of criminal law under the British North America Act the federal parliament i s given power under Section 91 (Class 27)? "The Criminal Law, except the Constitution of Courts of Criminal jurisdiction, but including procedures i n Criminal matters." Thus the procedural aspects of criminal law, as well as the substantive law are within the exclusive conpetence of the federal government. The provinces, under Section 92 (Class 14), have exclusive control over: "The administration of justice, i n the province, including the Constitution, Maintenance and Organization of Provincial Courts, both of C i v i l and Criminal Jurisdiction, and including Procedure i n C i v i l Matters i n these Courts." Thus, the criminal law, i n i t s widest sense i s reserved for the exclusive authority of the federal government and the administration of i t i n the provincial sphere.  In the main, the Criminal Code of Canada, defines  the powers as laid down by the federal government but no doubt this plenary power given by Section 91 (27) of the B.N.A. act does not deprive the provinces of their right under Section 92 (15) of affixing penal sanctions to their own competent legislation, such as in the case of provincial penalties under liquor, t r a f f i c , and municipal acts. This supplementary power of affixing penalties to legislation does, at times, create some overlapping and ambiguity in the area of criminal law.  1.  British North America Act. 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, C.3, Section 91 & 92.  Justice Rand defined a crime constitutionally as follows: "A crime i s an act which the law, with appropriate penal sanctions, forbids; but as a prohibition, i s not enacted in a vacuum. We can properly look for some e v i l , injurious, or undesirable effect upon the public interest which the law i s directed. That effect may be i n relation to social, economic or p o l i t i c a l interests; and the legislature has i n mind to suppress the e v i l and to safeguard the interest threatened. 1,1  In essence, whenever an act i s considered a crime the federal government must put i t to a test to consider whether i t f a l l s under the scope of i t s criminal law power, otherwise the province w i l l have exclusive jurisdiction. 5.  Structural Analysis of the Courts of Canada. As previously indicated, the division of law into c i v i l and criminal  matters are dealt with i n separate hierarchical court systems. get  In order to  a-general conception of these courts, the total Canadian court system,  both criminal and c i v i l , w i l l be reviewed prior to an analysis of the administration of the three higher criminal courts i n Vancouver —  the Supreme Court,  County Court Judge's Criminal Court, and the Court of Appeal. The Supreme Court of Canada, which was established i n 1875, i s the highest court i n the land. A l l courts beneath i t are bound by its decisions on appeal. It exercises appellate jurisdiction i n a l l causes, c i v i l and criminal, that originate i n any of the courts of the ten provinces. The next court, which i s the highest court i n the respective provinces, i s the Court of Appeal. These courts also hold appellate jurisdiction in a l l c i v i l and criminal cases where appeals from this court go to the Supreme Court of Canada. Next, i n descending order and forming the base of the national pyra-  1.  Laskin, Bora - Canadian Constitutional Law, Toronto, page 825.  Carswell Company, I960,  - 7 mid of courts are the various provincial courts beginning with the Supreme Court of each province to the County Courts to a variety of minor or inferior courts. (see  In c i v i l cases the line of descending order i s distinct and uniform  Appendix I ) .  Also i n c i v i l cases, the only federal court that has been  created by parliament i s the Exchequer Court, from which appeal normally lies to the Supreme Court of Canada (see Appendix I ) .  There i s no concurrent jur-  isdiction between the provincial courts and the Exchequer Courts. The Exchequer court i s a specialized tribunal i n which a l l cases involving the federal government are considered. In criminal cases, the structure of the court system i s somewhat different as i t descends from the Court of Appeal of the province. This structure i s determined by the nature of the crime and the election ,the accused may make as to which court he prefers to be heard i n (see Appendix II).  This area w i l l be discussed i n more detail at a later stage but at  this juncture i t may be stated that i t i s quite conceivable that the County Court and the Supreme Court i n criminal matters could have equal jurisdiction unlike those cases considered c i v i l l y where the Supreme Court i s superior to the County Court. For a nation organized on a federal basis the Canadian court system is a relatively simple one.  The judicial lines of descending order on appeal  are clear cut from the higher to the inferior courts. 6.  The History of the British Columbia Judicial System (a) Before Confederation The researcher for the "beginning of things" relating to the admin-  istration of justice i n the region west of the Rocky Mountains finds himself, somewhat to his surprise, i n the city of Montreal at the opening of the last  - 8 century.  The courts of Upper and Lower Canada were given j u r i s d i c t i o n to t r y  persons accused of crime i n the Indian t e r r i t o r i e s north and west of the two Canadas.  T r i a l s took place i n Montreal and Toronto, but the annals are  s i l e n t as t o the exercise of j u r i s d i c t i o n by the Canadian courts i n any case beyond the Rockies."  1  In 1849 the Crown was empowered to make provision f o r the administ r a t i o n of justice on Vancouver Island and t o establish courts with such j u r i s d i c t i o n i n matters c i v i l and criminal and, subsequently, judges were appointed.  In 1853 the governor of Vancouver Island undertook to e s t a b l i s h  the Supreme Court of C i v i l J u s t i c e .  There are no published reports of l i t i g a -  t i o n i n those e a r l y days, and there are only occasional glimpses of j u d i c i a l trials.  The e a r l y s e t t l e r s seemed to be i n constant feud with the o f f i c e r s  of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the nature of many court cases were l i b e l proceedings and u n f a i r p r a c t i c e s . Meanwhile, the rush of gold-seekers to the upper reaches of the Fraser River had necessitated the establishment i n 1858 of a new colony on the mainland.  In 1859, Governor Douglas constituted the Supreme Court of  C i v i l Justice of B r i t i s h Columbia and ordained that i t should have complete cognizance of a l l pleas whatsoever, and j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a l l cases c i v i l as well as criminal a r i s i n g within the colony of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  For 36 years, S i r Matthew Begbie, "The hanging Judge", was the most outstanding figure i n the j u d i c i a l history of the West at t h i s time.  It i s  d i f f i c u l t to overrate the worth of h i s service t o the administration of just i c e t o t h i s province.  Holding court with more or l e s s r e g u l a r i t y on the  Lower Mainland, f i r s t at Fort Langley, l a t e r at New Westminster,  1.  Doughty, Arthur, Canada and i t ' s Provinces, Toronto, 1914, page 390.  Volume 22,  he journeyed  Edinburgh Press,  from time t o time into the mining camps of the i n t e r i o r with his prophetic legal books slung behind him on horseback. He was, indeed, the f i r s t c i r c u i t court judge i n criminal assizes. He seemed to i n t u i t i v e l y have appreciated the s p i r i t of the West and t o have known just where to draw the line between licence that i s seemingly inseparable from l i f e i n mining and logging camps and the lawlessness that i s the duty of courts to suppress.  Lawlessness he  did suppress, and with a thoroughness which made his name synonymous with law and order throughout the province. On November 17, 1866, the two colonies were united under the name of B r i t i s h Columbia. The two courts, however, were not at once amalgamated. In ,1869, the name of the island court was changed to the Supreme Court of Vancouver Island, and i t s Chief Justice was t o be known as the Chief Justice of Vancouver Island, while the mainland-court was to be known as the Supreme Court of the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, and i t s judge was to be styled the Chief Justice of the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The two chief justices were empowered to act for each other on request.  Provision was also made that  upon the death or resignation of either of them the two courts should be merged into one and that the surviving or continuing Chief Justice should be the Chief Justice of B r i t i s h Columbia. In the following year, the contemplated merger took place. (b) After Confederation This was the position when B r i t i s h Columbia entered Confederation on July 20, 1871. The Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia possessed the usual wide jurisdiction of a superior court at common law and i n equity.  Until  1879 the judges had had almost complete control of the court's procedure, being expressly empowered to make "Rules of the Court".  In 1879 the provincial legis-  - 10 lature took from the judges the power and conferred i t upon the LieutenantGovernor- in-council . At the same time they made provision for dividing the province into judicial districts, a decentralizing measure which, as the judges  complained,  would send some of them into banishment to remote sections of the interior. It may be added that to this day the procedure and practice of the Courts i n British Columbia are i n the hands of the Lieutenant-governor-incouncil, subject of course to any express provision the legislature may from time to time see f i t to make  This decentralizing policy embarked upon i n  1879 has had no real practical function, since the various federal governments have refused to recognize the right of a province to affix conditions to the place of residence of the judges, whose appointments rest with the federal authorities under the British North America Act. As early as I860, provision was made for Magistrates courts throughout the province for rendering the administration of justice i n minor criminal cases for "more speedy and certain justice."  In 1866, local magistrates  also held courts for the recovery of small debts, and from this has gradually grown the present system of Small Debts Courts. In 1867, the English acts respecting county courts were adopted i n British Columbia so far as applicable, and this policy has been followed to the present time.  County Court practice as well as Supreme Court practice,  as previously indicated, follows i n the main the English model. In 1907, the work of the Supreme Court had so increased i n volume that i t was deemed necessary to establish a Court of Appeal for the province. Theretofore, the judgments of single judges were subject to review before the f u l l court, comprised of not less than three other judges of the Supreme  1.  IBID, p. 394.  - 11 Court. Appeals from the various county courts were also heard by the same tribunal.  However, .with the establishment of the Court of Appeal as a dis-  tinct court, the judges of the Supreme Court of British Columbia dealt with cases i n their jurisdiction, with appeals from their court going to the Court of Appeal. At the present time, therefore, the courts of the province i n the order of authority are as follows: 1. The Court of Appeal of British Columbia, consisting of the Chief Justice and 8 Puisne (Junior) Justices who are called "Justices of Appeal".  It has general jurisdiction throughout the province as an appellate  court only holding court i n Vancouver and Victoria. 2. The Supreme Court of British Columbia, consisting of a Chief Justice and 14 Puisne (junior) Justices who are called Judges of the Supreme Court.  It has, like the Court of Appeal, general jurisdiction throughout  the province but holds court i n the nine county districts at various assizes, although i t s central site i s Vancouver. 3. The County Courts of which there are nine i n British Columbia are composed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7• 8. 9.  The The The The The The The The The  County County County County County County County County County  Court Court Court Court Court Court Court Court Court  of Victoria. of Nanaimo. of Vancouver. of Westminster. of Yale. of Cariboo. of Prince Rupert. of East Kootenay. of West Kootenay.  (see Appendix III for map outlining county d i s t r i c t s ) . 4.  Small Debts Courts i n the various county d i s t r i c t s .  In addition to these regularly constituted courts there are magistrates and justices scattered throughout the 9 judicial or county districts  - 12 exercising jurisdiction under the Criminal Code of Canada as well as the provi n c i a l Summary Conviction Act.  CHAPTER II THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN THE MAGISTRATE'S COURT AND THE PROCEDURAL PROCESS TO THE HIGHER CRIMINAL COURTS In order to envisage the administration of justice i n the higher courts i n Vancouver, i t i s f i r s t necessary to have some knowledge of the Magistrate's Courts, both from an administrative and procedural aspect.  It i s  necessary to understand how various charges of crimes against an accused are channelled from this judicial focal point to either the County Court Judge's Criminal Court, Supreme Court, or Court of Appeal. It i s not the purpose of this study to analyze i n great detail the administration of this court. Yet, i t i s important to realize that justice is meted out more i n this judicial medium i n Vancouver than the three other criminal courts put together.  Approximately 90$ of a l l criminal cases i n  Vancouver are tried and concluded i n the Magistrate's court. 1. The Magistrate's Court i n Vancouver The judiciary of this court i n the Vancouver area consists of a senior magistrate and 8 junior magistrates. The magistrates are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor i n Council and are paid their salaries by the City of Vancouver. There are 8 courts functioning every day - 5 criminal courts and 3 t r a f f i c courts. Recently, night courts have been introduced and to date have proved to be quite successful i n facilitating the administration of justice . Other than the senior magistrate, a l l the magistrates move from court to court on a rotation basis about every 2 months. Court commences usually at 9*30 a.m. with the overnight offenders heard f i r s t . morning, there i s only one court.  On Saturday  -14In addition to these courts, 2 by-law courts s i t on Wednesday afternoon, and the magistrates attend these courts. The by-law offences which come up i n these courts include almost every by-law offence except traffic . Another court, known as the Private Prosecution Court i s also held on Wednesday afternoon.  Cases under the Dominion Tax Act and under special  federal statutes, are taken by private prosecutors appointed by the particular government offices dealing with the matter to handle the cases.  Also  included i n that court are certain other prosecutions, as for example, under the Dentistry Act which i s a provincial statute. 2.  The Prosecutor i n the Magistrate's Court The role of the prosecutor i n the police courts i s primarily to  see that a l l the facts, whether they are for or against the accused, are either put before the court or made available for counsel to do so.  It i s  not unusual for cases to be discussed i n considerable detail with defense counsel, each exchanging evidentiary facts i n order to facilitate the flow of justice by developing the crux of the legal case to be heard.  Ideally,  the prosecutor must do his best to ensure the fairest possible t r i a l for those who are accused.  It i s not enough that justice be done; i t must also appear  to be done. The office of the City Prosecutor includes 17 lawyers, a l l employed by the City of Vancouver. The City Prosecutor's staff handles not only a l l cases coming before the Magistrate's court but also handles a l l criminal prosecutions i n the County Court Judge's Criminal Court i n the County of Vancouver. Further, 2 of the staff are engaged exclusively at the Vancouver Family and Children's Court.  - 15-  Every crime that i s committed i n Vancouver has i t s investigation; consequently every case that involves a charge against an accused goes through the hands of the prosecutor. The most serious cases are usually brought to one of the prosecutors by the police for advice on various phases of the investigation where necessary.  Subsequently, the prosecutor inter-  views the witnesses and f i n a l l y prosecutes the case i n the f i r s t instance in the police court. For further clarification i n the area of criminal prosecution the Attorney-General's department has to be considered. The Attorney-General is the chief law enforcement officer i n the province. His staff consists of the Deputy Attorney-General, a General Counsel, Inspector of Legal Offices, Legislative Counsel, Departmental Solicitor and several assistant solicitors and one or two assistant Departmental Solicitors. The Attorney-General i s not i n any way responsible for the Vancouver Police Court prosecutors, nor are the prosecutors responsible to him i n the administration of their work. But i t i s also obvious that since the Attorney-General i s the chief law enforcement officer i n the province, the Vancouver prosecuting office look to him for assistance and instructions i n d i f f i c u l t cases. If the Attorney-General decides that something i s to be done by way of prosecution, he communicates with the prosecutors who handle the case in a collaborative fashion. It i s the function of the Attorney-General's department to administer the prosecution of criminal cases throughout the province, except where cities retain their own f u l l time prosecutors. Under the Attorney*General's department come the policing of the province i n conjunction with the Assistant Commissioner of the R.C.M.P. The Attorney-General's  - 16department covers the prosecution of t r i a l s i n County Courts but an arrangement has been made between the province and the c i t y f o r the work to be done by the c i t y prosecutor's o f f i c e . The Attorney-General, as w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l at a l a t e r stage, i s also responsible f o r a l l assize courts prosecutions (jury t r i a l s i n County Court Judge's Criminal Court and the Supreme Court) as w e l l as the Court of Appeal. 3.  The Police Court Clerk The police court clerk has a p o s i t i o n comparable to the r e g i s t r a r of  the higher criminal courts.  His function i s to see that a l l documents f o r a l l  cases prosecuted i n the police court are properly entered and set up f o r that purpose and are c o r r e c t l y brought before the court during the hearings, and that other documents are properly made up and put before magistrates f o r s i g nature a f t e r the hearing.  They are then forwarded to other courts where t h i s  i s necessary, or f i l e d i n such a way that years and years l a t e r , they can be produced and r e s u l t s checked i f necessary. His s t a f f f o r the criminal courts consists of approximately 20 people.  They comprise clerks and court reporters during the s i t t i n g s of the  Magistrate's Courts and make up l i s t s f o r the court hearings. as w e l l are cashiers t o take f i n e s and b a i l set by the courts.  On the s t a f f There i s also  a j u s t i c e of the peace on duty 24 hours a day, so that charges may be l a i d , and f o r the f i x i n g of b a i l and f o r the releasing of prisoners. 4.  Police Administration of Vancouver Police administration i n Vancouver as an important concomitant of  the administration of justice i s conducted under the control of the Board of Police Commissioners which consists of the Mayor, and 3 commissioners. The  -17police commission employ the police department, the police court clerk and his  s t a f f , and the c i t y prosecutor and his s t a f f .  Salaries are paid by the  City of Vancouver from budgets submitted by the Board of Police Vancouver i s policed by approximately 800 o f f i c e r s .  Commissioners. The adminis-  t r a t i o n i s composed of the Chief of P o l i c e , Deputy Chief, Superintendent of the  Detective Branch, Uniform Branch, and T r a f f i c Department.  Under these  men are Inspectors; 2 with the T r a f f i c Department, 3 with the Criminal Investigation Department, and about a dozen i n the Uniform Branch.  Under each  of these Inspectors who work s h i f t s p o l i c i n g the c i t y 24 hours a day, are sergeants, and under the sergeants are constables and detectives. In addition to the general divisions mentioned, there are squads: gambling, morality, l i q u o r , stolen auto, second-hand, fraud, cheques, missing persons, burglary, homicide and robbery. The T r a f f i c , Detective and Uniform d i v i s i o n s receive work through the  Report Centre. The T r a f f i c Office handles a l l matters of t r a f f i c , such  as accident reports, i n q u i r i e s r e l a t i n g t o t r a f f i c , and the laying of charges i n t r a f f i c matters.  Each Detective Branch i s responsible f o r investigation  of serious crimes and the Uniform Branch generally supervises the c i t y and handles the cases which do not require too much i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Each of these  branches come t o the prosecutor f o r advice. 5.  The Procedural Process of Criminal Charges i n the Magistrate's Court As indicated, a l l criminal cases come before the magistrate i n the  f i r s t instance. the  A l l criminal cases, that i s a l l those that are outlined under  Canadian Criminal Code, any f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l statute, or any by-law  i n the c i t y where an offence has been committed within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the  C i t y of Vancouver, whether i t i s a parking offence or a murder charge,  -recommences i n the Magistrate's court. Similarly with other jurisdictions, the original hearings or appearances are held here.  There are certain exceptions,  but they are quite rare. Here i s the heart and nerve centre of the criminal legal process i n which medium the case i s f u l l y determined or channelled to a higher court depending on the nature of the crime, whether indictable or summary conviction. In a l l criminal matters appearing before the Magistrate i t i s of the utmost importance to differentiate between summary conviction offences and indictable offences since each classification involves a different approach to which court the accused w i l l be heard i n . Generally speaking summary conviction offences are those of a less serious nature than indictable ones. As the name implies, summary conviction offences are dealt with in a rather speedy manner without having to go through a long form of various court hearings to the County Court Judge's Criminal Court or Supreme Court. In many instances, a knowledge of the procedural process involved in the administration of justice i s extremely important when ah accused's liberty i s at stake.  Frequently, many cases can be lost on procedural  errorsj the lack of judgment on the part of defence counsel as to what court the case should be heard i n could be detrimental to his client. With this background of the Magistrate's court the writer w i l l attempt to outline the jurisdictional processes available to an accused appearing before the Magistrate on a summary conviction or indictable offence. (Refer to Appendix IV for i t ' s structural analysis).  The procedure may be broken down into five categories: (l)  Summary Conviction Offences under By-Laws and Provincial Statutes (see Appendix IV). '  The provisions of the Summary Convictions Act of the province sets out i n detail, a l l the procedural points which arise i n connection with the prosecution of such summary conviction offences. A l l municipal by-laws, and a l l provincial statutes such as the Motor Vehicle Act, the Government Liquor Act and the Social Assistance Act are dealt with i n this category. The accused has no election to be heard i n another court. The Magistrate's Court has exclusive jurisdiction. fore the magistrate by summons or warrant. he pleads guilty or not guilty.  The accused i s brought be-  The charge i s read to him and  If he pleads not guilty, the Crown calls i t s  witnesses. The prosecutor examines his witnesses one by one and then the accused or his counsel has the right after the prosecutor to cross-examine them. At the conclusion of the Crown's case, the defence calls his witnesses which are examined by him and then cross-examined by the prosecutor. After the evidence i s i n , the defence counsel then addresses the court (Magistrate's) in an effort to secure an acquittal for his client. the prosecutor very seldom replies.  As a matter of practice,  After the defence has made i t ' s argument,  the magistrate then acquits the accused or convicts him. If the accused has been convicted, he has a right to launch an appeal.  In the City of Vancouver the appeal lies to the County Court.  There  are two types of appeal; one, by t r i a l de novo (a new t r i a l ) to the County Court, or secondly, by stated case (on apoint of law) to the Supreme Court. From these courts, the case can be further appealed to the Court of Appeal of British Columbia on a point of law only, not on the facts of the case.  - 20(2) Summary Conviction Offences under Part 24 of the Criminal Code of Canada and other Federal Statutes (see Appendix IV) Cases such as common assault, vagrancy, unlawful assembly, indecent exposure, come under this category. The procedure i n court i s practically the same as the procedure under the provincial summary conviction offences No. ( l ) .  There i s no right  for the accused as to how he w i l l be tried and must be tried by magistrate. The right to be tried by jury has gone through a long historical process and eventually divested i t s e l f from this category. Appeals, similarly, are taken the same way to the County or Supreme Court and ultimately to the Court of Appeal, i f necessary. (3)  Indictable Offences Triable Summarily under Section 467 of the Criminal Code of Canada (see Appendix IV)  There are certain indictable offences that are triable like the summary conviction offences i n 1 and 2 categories.  At one time i n history,  every indictable offence was triable by a magistrate with the consent of the accused.  This has, over the years, been modified.  Now those offences  listed i n Section 467 such as theft under $50.00 and assault are triable within the absolute jurisdiction of the magistrate just like summary conviction offences.  The accused has no right to choose his mode of t r i a l .  The appeal, i f there i s one, for a l l indictable offences, whether under this section or not, is to the Court of Appeal of British Columbia. (4) Indictable Offences which are Triable with the Consent of the Accused, (see Appendix IV) The next class of indictable offences are those which are triable with the consent of the accused.  This includes offences such as robbery,  forgery, theft over $50.00, and perjury. In actuality the accused has the right to elect one of three modes  - 21of t r i a l .  The accused has the r i g h t to e l e c t to be t r i e d by the magistrate i  he f i r s t appears before, a County Court judge i n his c r i m i n a l court, or by a judge and jury (Supreme Court). If the accused e l e c t s to be t r i e d by the magistrate or by a County Court judge, i t i s important to note that they have the same powers i n sentencing as a judge and jury i n the Supreme Court.  For example, i n a charge  of breaking and entering a dwelling house a magistrate or a County Court judge, i f elected f o r t r i a l by the accused, may sentence to l i f e imprisonment just the same way as a judge i n the Supreme Court. A hypothetical case under t h i s indictable category w i l l serve to demonstrate the right of e l e c t i o n to either of the three modes of t r i a l by the accused. election.  The accused comes before the magistrate on the day of his  The charge i s read to him, following which, a f t e r the magistrate  has explained the charge, the accused i s given the e l e c t i o n .  It i s t h i s :  "You have the option t o e l e c t t o be t r i e d by a magistrate without a jury or you may elect to be t r i e d by a judge without a jury or you may elect to be t r i e d by a court composed of a judge and jury.  How do you elect to be t r i e d ? "  It i s the magistrate's duty to explain that e l e c t i o n to the accused so he w i l l understand i t , following which he i s then asked as to how he wishes to be t r i e d . so,  I f the accused decides t o be t r i e d by the magistrate and states  he i s asked to plead g u i l t y or not g u i l t y .  I f he elects t o be t r i e d by  magistrate and pleads g u i l t y , the f a c t s of the case are given to the magistrate who then hears anything the accused may  say i n mitigation of sentence, and  then he either sentences the accused or c a l l s f o r a report on him by the Probation Service, e s p e c i a l l y i f the accused i s a f i r s t offender. If the accused e l e c t s to be t r i e d by the magistrate and pleads not  - 22 g u i l t y , the t r i a l proceeds as i n any o t h e r case a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e . I f the accused i s c o n v i c t e d and i s sentenced, he has the r i g h t t o a p p e a l t o the Court o f A p p e a l as i n a l l o t h e r i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s , b o t h to  c o n v i c t i o n or t o s e n t e n c e .  S i m i l a r l y the Crown has t h e r i g h t t o  i f he i s a c q u i t t e d , t o t h e Court o f  as  appeal  Appeal.  I f t h e accused e l e c t s on the charge t o be t r i e d i n a h i g h e r c o u r t (County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l C o u r t , o r by a judge and  j u r y i n Supreme  Court), a p r e l i m i n a r y hearing before the magistrate i s h e l d .  A preliminary  h e a r i n g i s n o t h i n g more t h a n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the f a c t s upon w h i c h an i n f o r m a t i o n and c o m p l a i n t  has been l a i d f o r an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e .  The  prin-  c i p a l o b j e c t i s h o l d i n g i t t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e i s a prima f a c i e case a g a i n s t the p e r s o n charged b e f o r e a Court h a v i n g a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y t h a n t h a t of the m a g i s t r a t e . The  f o l l o w i n g i s a s h o r t summary of what happens d u r i n g a p r e l i m i n -  ary hearing i n Magistrate's court: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7« 8. 9. 10.  11. 12. 13.  Magistrate takes his seat. Reads charge t o the a c c u s e d . Swears the w i t n e s s f o r p r o s e c u t i o n . Witness f o r p r o s e c u t i o n g i v e s evidence. W i t n e s s i s cross-examined by defence c o u n s e l . M a g i s t r a t e r e a d s "statement" o f accused, i f any. M a g i s t r a t e a s k s accused i f he w i s h e s t o say a n y t h i n g i n answer to i t . Accused asked i f he w i s h e s t o g i v e evidence by h i m s e l f o r by witnesses. Accused and w i t n e s s g i v e e v i d e n c e and are cross-examined by prosecution. A f t e r a l l e v i d e n c e i s i n , the M a g i s t r a t e commits f o r t r i a l t o a h i g h e r c o u r t i f t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence t o support the c a s e . He t h e n g i v e s t h e a c c u s e d h i s r i g h t o f e l e c t i n g h i s court again. Commitment t o the h i g h e r c o u r t i s s i g n e d and handed t o the p o l i c e . D e p o s i t i o n s and e x h i b i t s sent t o t h e C l e r k of t h e C o u r t . C o m m i t t a l r e p o r t e d t o the Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l .  U s u a l l y , the M a g i s t r a t e , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y w i l l commit the accused  - 23. -  for  t r i a l because charges a r e not l a i d without  o f f i c e r s and the p r o s e c u t i o n .  The evidence  c a r e f u l thought b y p o l i c e  i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y e n q u i r y does  not have t o be c o n c l u s i v e f o r c o n v i c t i o n b u t m e r e l y s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant t h e accused  i n g o i n g b e f o r e the c o u r t and l e t t i n g a judge w i t h j u r y , o r judge  without  jury, t o decide. (5)  The  I n d i c t a b l e O f f e n c e s T r i a b l e o n l y by a Judge and J u r y , (see Appendix IV) next  c a t e g o r y o f i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s a r e those which a r e t r i -  able o n l y by a judge and j u r y . of  These o f f e n c e s are s e t out i n S e c t i o n  413  the C r i m i n a l Code and i n c l u d e t h e most s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s such as t r e a s o n ,  s e d i t i o n , murder, and r a p e .  I n e v e r y one o f these  offences, although the  o r i g i n a l h e a r i n g must be h e l d b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e , t h e t r i a l i s always h e l d b e f o r e a judge and j u r y .  I n these i n s t a n c e s , a p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g i s a l s o  held. By way o f summary o f what has been c o n s i d e r e d i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t t e r s have been d e a l t w i t h : 1. of  Summary c o n v i c t i o n cases under p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and P a r t 24  the C r i m i n a l Code t h a t are d e a l t w i t h a M a g i s t r a t e 2.  Three t y p e s o f i n d i c t a b l e  only.  offences.  (a) those d e a l t w i t h under S e c t i o n 467 o f t h e Code where t h e accused has no r i g h t o f e l e c t i o n and must be t r i e d b y magistrate . (b) those o f f e n c e s under S e c t i o n 413 o f t h e Code where t h e accused a g a i n has no r i g h t o f e l e c t i o n b u t must be t r i e d b e f o r e a judge and j u r y . ( c ) a l l t h e r e s t o f t h e i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s i n which the accused has t h e r i g h t t o be t r i e d by the M a g i s t r a t e i f he d e s i r e s o r by a County Court Judge without a j u r y o r whether he wishes t o be t r i e d by a judge w i t h a j u r y . I n the l a t t e r two i n s t a n c e s , the accused has a p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g and then i s committed t o t h e h i g h e r c o u r t s . In conclusion, i t i s extremely  important  to r e a l i z e that the smallest  - 24 t r a f f i c case and most serious murder charge commence their judicial process i n the Magistrate's Court.  The evidence and procedure i n either t r i a l i s equally  important i n carrying out the due process of law and the administration of justice i n terms of an accused's liberty.  On the whole the rules of evidence  and procedure i n criminal cases are meant to protect the accused and i n most instances competent counsel i s a necessary prerequisite for justice. The accused who i s not legally represented i n the Magistrate's Court, and i s not sufficiently acquainted with criminal procedure, can be at a distinct disadvantage although the Magistrate, as part of his judicial role, w i l l advise the undefended accused i n procedural areas. This description reflects a relatively complex system i n the administration of justice.  Many laymen have lamented the complexity of i t at times,  but i t must be remembered that precedent for this system of justice has been established over hundreds of years for one function alone — to protect the liberty of the individual.  But this philosophy, of course, should not mask  its deficiencies. Possibly i n this connection one could not do better than refer to Viscount Sankey, Lord Chancellor of England i n 1935 when he said: "It must be remembered that the whole policy of English criminal law as being to see that i n the case of the prisoner every rule i n his favor i s observed and that no rule i s broken so as to prejudice his chances of being f a i r l y tried. The sanction for the observance of the rules of evidence i n criminal cases i s that, i f they are broken i n any case, a conviction may be quashed. It i s often better that one guilty man should escape than the general rules evolved by the dictates of justice for the conduct of criminal prosecutions should be disregarded and discredited." 6. Bail  • '; . ; The granting of b a i l pending t r i a l i s a most instrumental factor i n  - 25 -  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e .  S i n c e an accused  i s presumed i n n o c e n t  until  c o n v i c t e d , and s i n c e the o b j e c t o f k e e p i n g him i n c u s t o d y u n t i l t h e t r i a l i s t o ensure he b e i n g p r e s e n t a t t h e t r i a l , c a r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n by t h e magist r a t e i s o f prime i m p o r t a n c e .  Thus a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s must be t a k e n i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e c i d i n g whether an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r b a i l w i l l be a l l o w e d or d i s m i s s e d .  I n so many cases i t has been h e l d t h a t b a i l s h o u l d be c o n s i d -  ered i n the l i g h t o f the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (1) (2)  the nature o f the a c c u s a t i o n . t h e n a t u r e o f t h e evidence s u p p o r t i n g t h e a c c u s a t i o n .  (3)  t h e s e v e r i t y o f punishment w h i c h t h e c o n v i c t i o n might  entail.  I t i s s a i d t h a t since there are c e r t a i n crimes which are not l i k e l y to be r e p e a t e d pending t r i a l , t h e r e s h o u l d be no g e n e r a l o b j e c t i o n t o b a i l being granted.  B u t t h i s t y p e o f crime does n o t i n c l u d e h o u s e b r e a k i n g  which  can be r e p e a t e d and f r e q u e n t l y i s r e p e a t e d b y t h e accused w i t h c r i m i n a l r e cords f o r such o f f e n c e s . Another m a t t e r w h i c h s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e g r a n t i n g o f b a i l i s whether o r n o t t h e accused has any d e f e n s e .  I n cases where a p e r s o n i s  caught i n t h e a c t o r where t h e r e i s some s t r o n g o r cogent e v i d e n c e  against  him, b u t t h e r e has been d e l a y i n t h e t r i a l , i t has been h e l d t h a t b a i l be granted. I n q u e s t i o n s o f a p p e a l o f a case from t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f a m a g i s t r a t e , g r e a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h e accused's p r e v i o u s r e c o r d . Many m a g i s t r a t e s deem i t i n a d v i s a b l e t o r e l e a s e a man on b a i l pending  appeal,  especially i n serious offences. When a m a g i s t r a t e has d e c i d e d on t a k i n g b a i l i n w h i c h he i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do s o , i t i s u s u a l l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t he f i x a sum h a v i n g r e g a r d n o t o n l y t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e , b u t a l s o w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e means o f  - 26 the accused  i n b e i n g a b l e t o put up t h e amount s e t . I n essence, b a i l  should  not be p r o h i b i t i v e and should be kept w i t h i n r e a c h o f the a c c u s e d . In b a i l , t h e accused e n t e r s i n t o a r e c o g n i z a n c e w i t h o r without  (a f o r m a l promise)  s u r e t i e s i n such amounts t h a t t h e m a g i s t r a t e sees f i t .  In  p r a c t i c e t h e m a g i s t r a t e u s u a l l y asks t h e p r o s e c u t i o n i f t h e y oppose b a i l , and i f t h e r e i s o b j e c t i o n b a i l i s seldom g r a n t e d .  G e n e r a l l y , the p r o s e c u -  t i o n g i v e s v e r y l i t t l e r e a s o n f o r t h i s o b j e c t i o n . • The f a c t t h a t a p e r s o n accused o f t h e f t has not h e l p e d t h e p o l i c e t o r e c o v e r the s t o l e n p r o p e r t y i s an e x c e l l e n t r e a s o n , from t h e p o l i c e p o i n t o f view, f o r opposing  bail.  I f b a i l i s r e f u s e d b y t h e m a g i s t r a t e o r where b a i l i s f i x e d but the Grown i s not s a t i s f i e d ,  an a p p l i c a t i o n may be made t o a judge  o f the  Supreme c o u r t t o a l l o w b a i l o r v a r y the amount o f b a i l f i x e d by t h e m a g i s t r a t e .  CHAPTER I I I  THE THREE HIGHER CRIMINAL COURTS IN VANCOUVER  1.  The J u r i s d i c t i o n of the Three Courts The County Court Judge s Criminal Court of Vancouver i s a court of 1  record of i n f e r i o r j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r the County of Vancouver.  I t i s a creature  of p r o v i n c i a l statute-'-and has the lowest importance i n terms of j u r i s d i c t i o n i n comparison with the other 2 courts. Unlike the other 2 courts, the County Court's j u r i s d i c t i o n must be proved at a criminal t r i a l , since i t i s not a superior court which has j u r i s d i c t i o n anywhere i n the province and i s not r e s t r i c t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r j u d i c i a l county. As previously indicated, there are 9 j u d i c i a l counties or d i s t r i c t s , each of which has a County Court which has o r i g i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n c i v i l and criminal matters, but only within i t s own j u d i c i a l boundaries.  I t hears  cases of an indictable nature where the accused has the right of e l e c t i o n to be t r i e d by a judge without jury which i s the County Court Judge s Criminal 1  Court.  I t also has appellate j u r i s d i c t i o n i n summary conviction offences  in cases appealed from Magistrate's Court.  (See Appendix I V ) .  The Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia, the next court i n the judici a l ascendancy, i s the highest t r i a l court i n the province.  I t i s a superior  court of record and i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i s constituted by statute ?•  Unlike the  County Court, i t has plenary j u r i s d i c t i o n i n any part of the province i n a l l types of case, whether c i v i l or criminal, except those criminal cases which are to be heard i n the f i r s t instance by a Magistrate.  (See Appendix IV).  Similar to the County Court, i t has o r i g i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ; that i s , i t can  1.  2.  County Court Act, Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, c. S I . Supreme Court Act. Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, c. 374.  hear cases i n the f i r s t instance. Since i t has plenary jurisdiction and can hear cases arising i n any of the 9 judicial counties, i t i s necessary for the Supreme Court to try cases i n these counties. This i s carried out by the method of "assize courts", that i s , judges of the Supreme Court go on circuit throughout the province on a regular basis and hold court i n a particular county at a particular time. There are no Supreme Court judges, per se, resident i n the area outside of Vancouver and Victoria, thus necessitating these scheduled circuits. The Court of Appeal of British Columbia i s also a superior court of record and as such has plenary jurisdiction i n a l l matters, both c i v i l and criminal coming before i t i n the province. It i s also e stablished by statute but the distinct difference between this court and the other courts i n the province i s that i t has no original jurisdiction.  It cannot hear a case i n  the f i r s t instance and has only appellate jurisdiction, hearing cases that are being appealed from the lower courts. Appeals l i e to the Court of Appeal: (a) from every verdict by a Supreme Court assize. (b) from every verdict by a Magistrate's Court. (c)  from every verdict by a County Court Judge's Criminal Court.  (d)  on any point of law appealed from the County Court under the  Summary Convictions Act (see Appendix IV). 2. The Judges of the Three Courts (a) Their appointment, salary, tenure, etc. There are presently 16 County Court Judges appointed for the province of British Columbia, 5 of whom are resident i n Vancouver and administer-  1. Court of Appeal Act, Revised Statutes of British Columbia, I960, c. 82.  -29i n g j u s t i c e i n the County of Vancouver i n b o t h c i v i l and c r i m i n a l c a s e s . T h i s group i s composed o f a s e n i o r County Court judge and f o u r j u n i o r I n the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia, They c o n s i s t o f a C h i e f J u s t i c e , s t y l e d "The Court", and 14 p u i s n e  (junior) justices.  t h e r e are 15  judges.  judges.  C h i e f J u s t i c e o f the Supreme  The  C h i e f J u s t i c e and t h e o t h e r  judges of the c o u r t have p l e n a r y power t o hear cases i n any p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e as c i r c u i t c o u r t judges i n a s s i z e c o u r t s . The  Court o f Appeal, the h i g h e s t p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t , c o n s i s t s o f a  C h i e f J u s t i c e , who puisne  i s s t y l e d "The  (junior) justices.  and precedence  The  C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia",  C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia  C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbiaj rank and precedence between themselves  The  next a f t e r the  the J u s t i c e s of the Court o f A p p e a l have  next a f t e r the C h i e f J u s t i c e o f the Supreme Court a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s e n i o r i t y o f appointment.  the judges o f the Supreme Court i n s e n i o r i t y o f  i s governed  8  rank  over a l l o t h e r judges o f the c o u r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  C h i e f J u s t i c e o f the Supreme Court has rank and precedence  The  has  and  and  Next come  appointment.  appointment and the c o n t r o l of the judges o f these t h r e e c o u r t s  by the Judge's A c t , a f e d e r a l s t a t u t e A l l  the judges o f these  3 c o u r t s are a p p o i n t e d f e d e r a l l y b y the Governor G e n e r a l and t h e i r are s e t u n i f o r m l y a c r o s s Canada.  salaries  By s t a t u t e , t h e y must have a t l e a s t  years o f p r a c t i c e as a b a r r i s t e r i n the p r o v i n c e b e f o r e the  appointment.  At p r e s e n t , a County Court Judge r e c e i v e s a s a l a r y o f a n n u a l l y from the f e d e r a l government.  $16,000.00  The p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o  t o e a c h County Court judge an honorarium  of  $1,000.00  10  allots  each y e a r .  It i s i n -  t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h s a l a r i e s have doubled  s i n c e 1952,  there  1.  8.  Judge's A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1963,  c.  has  -30been no n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f County Court Judges, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Vancouver a r e a .  R e c e n t l y , t h e r e has been one a d d i t i o n a l  appointment  but h i s d u t i e s w i l l not i n v o l v e t h e j u d i c i a l t a s k s o f a f u l l - t i m e j u d g e .  Un-  l i k e t h e Supreme C o u r t j u d g e s , t h e County Court Judges do not t r a v e l o u t s i d e t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n and, g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , a r e not e n t i t l e d t o t r a v e l l i n g expenses e x c e p t t h o s e approved b y t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f t h e p r o v i n c e . The a n n u a l s a l a r i e s o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia  and t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e as f o l l o w s : (a)  The C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  $25,000.00  (b)  A j u s t i c e o f t h e Court o f A p p e a l .  $21,000.00  (c)  The C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e Supreme C o u r t . of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  $25,000.00  (d)  A judge o f t h e Supreme C o u r t .  $21,000.00  The p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o a l l o t s a n n u a l l y a $1500.00 honorarium t o t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s and $1000.00 t o t h e o t h e r judges o f b o t h c o u r t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t s a l a r i e s i n 1952 f o r t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s and t h e judges; were $16,000.00 and $14,400.00, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Since then,  the appointments i n each c o u r t have d o u b l e d , u n l i k e t h e s t a t i c s i t u a t i o n on the County C o u r t l e v e l . T r a v e l l i n g a l l o w a n c e s are p r o v i d e d f o r a judge o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l o r Supreme Court i n a t t e n d i n g c o u r t a t e i t h e r one o f t h e C i t i e s o f V i c t o r i a o r Vancouver u n l e s s he r e s i d e s i n e i t h e r o f them.  T r a v e l l i n g costs  are a l s o a l l o t t e d t o Supreme Court judges who go out on c i r c u i t . A l l judges o f t h e 3 c o u r t s , on r e s i g n a t i o n a f t e r 15 y e a r s s e r v i c e or a t t h e compulsory r e t i r e m e n t age o f 75, r e c e i v e an a n n u i t y not e x c e e d i n g 2/3 o f t h e i r s a l a r y based on t h e l a s t y e a r ' s s a l a r y o f t h e i r  service.  A judge who i s f o u n d b y t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l , upon t h e r e p o r t o f  -31the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e o f Canada, t o be i n c a p a c i t a t e d o r incompetent e x e c u t i o n o f h i s d u t i e s , can be removed.  The  i n the  judge concerned, however, i s  g i v e n r e a s o n a b l e n o t i c e t o defend h i s p o s i t i o n .  He o r h i s c o u n s e l can c r o s s -  examine w i t n e s s e s and can b r i n g i n evidence on h i s b e h a l f . removal, the case i s u s u a l l y heard by a commission  In questions of  made up o f one  judges o f the Supreme Court o f Canada o r o f the Exchequer  o r more  Court o f Canada.  I t i s i n d e e d a r a r i t y , however, t h a t a judge i s e v e r removed under t h e s e circumstances. A judge may  take a l e a v e o f absence  but, i f i t i s longer than  30  days he must o b t a i n the a p p r o v a l o f the L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l . judge must devote h i m s e l f e x c l u s i v e l y t o j u d i c i a l d u t i e s .  He cannot become  d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y a manager o f any c o r p o r a t i o n o r b u s i n e s s . act as an a r b i t r a t o r o r commissioner  A  He  cannot  w i t h o u t the consent o f the L i e u t e n a n t -  Governor- i n - C o u n c i l .  I f a p p o i n t e d , he r e c e i v e s no r e m u n e r a t i o n as an a r b i t -  r a t o r o r commissioner  except f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e s ,  (b)  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work i n the t h r e e C o u r t s  C r i m i n a l cases a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e a County Court judge i n Vancouver are a l l o c a t e d b y a j u d i c i a l schedule c a l l e d the " r o t a " . pared by the s e n i o r County Court Judge who  This rota i s pre-  d i s t r i b u t e s the work l o a d t o the  j u n i o r judges and h i m s e l f on a two week r o t a t i o n b a s i s .  That i s , each  judge  w i l l i n v o l v e h i m s e l f w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f case f o r two weeks such as c r i m i n a l j u r y t r i a l s ,  c r i m i n a l non-jury t r i a l s ,  from summary c o n v i c t i o n o f f e n c e s , o r chamber m a t t e r s .  c r i m i n a l appeals A f t e r the two week  p e r i o d t e r m i n a t e s , the judges r o t a t e t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s or c a t e g o r i e s o f cases and each judge r e c e i v e s a new meaning " t o r o t a t e " .  one.  Hence the term " r o t a " i s d e r i v e d ,  - 32As well as each County Court Judge being allocated a case category, a l l the 5 judges i n Vancouver (County of Vancouver) are responsible for a l l c i v i l cases that appear i n their jurisdiction and these are distributed amongst them depending on the pressure of work in criminal cases. It must be remembered that a l l criminal cases take precedence over c i v i l cases i n order to safeguard the liberty of the individual.  A l l County Court judges  must take their turn i n adjudicating cases i n the Powell River Court House, since the County of Vancouver is responsible for this newly formed court district on the mainland. In addition to the aforementioned responsibilities, the senior County Court judge has the added task of hearing two other classes of cases: one, i f there i s the necessity of a recount after an election, and two, i n the event of a medical inquiry, he acts as chairman i n a professional complaint . Early i n 1964, because of the growing pressure of work i n the Supreme Court, the provincial government transferred to the County Court the jurisdiction to try criminal offences, except capital cases, by way of jury t r i a l .  This, naturally, w i l l also increase the work load of the  County Court judges.  One County Court judge indicated that i t i s impera-  tive that at least another judge be appointed to handle this additional burden i n Vancouver.  He indicated that Vancouver i s the second largest jud-  i c i a l county i n Canada but has had only one judge added to i t s number i n the 40 years he has served as a police magistrate and County Court Judge. With this recent delegation to the County Court, i t now means an accused who elects jury t r i a l might appear i n either the County Court or Supreme Court on a l l but major offences, such as murder, treason, or rape.  -33 " L e g a l spokesmen s t a t e t h e accused a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e a M a g i s t r a t e does n o t have a c h o i c e o f c o u r t s when he chooses t o e l e c t t o be t r i e d b y a judge and j u r y , b u t i s a r r a i g n e d i n e i t h e r t h e County C o u r t o r Supreme C o u r t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e s s u r e o f work. T h i s m a t t e r o f d e l e g a t i n g t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Supreme Court to  t h e County Court i n j u r y t r i a l s has n o t y e t been c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y  sub-  s t a n t i a t e d and a t p r e s e n t one o f t h e Supreme Court judges o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia i s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l e g a l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s a c t i o n i n t r o d u c e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government.  A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , however, j u r y t r i a l s a r e g o i n g  on i n t h e County Court and 5 months o u t o f t h i s y e a r has been a l l o t e d f o r them. As i n t h e o t h e r two c o u r t s , t h e County Court s i t s c o n t i n u o u s l y h e a r i n g cases e x c e p t f o r t h e l o n g v a c a t i o n ( J u l y and A u g u s t ) p l u s C h r i s t m a s and New Y e a r , e x c e p t f o r emergency s i t u a t i o n s . The work l o a d i n t h e Supreme Court i s a l s o a l l o c a t e d b y means o f a "rota".  I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e o f the Supreme Court o f  B r i t i s h Columbia d i s t r i b u t e s t h e work amongst t h e 14 judges and h i m s e l f , much t h e same as i n t h e County C o u r t .  Most o f t h e judges a l t e r n a t e  their  main d u t i e s between V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, t h e c e n t r e s o f most t r i a l s h e l d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n b o t h c i v i l and c r i m i n a l c a s e s . In a d d i t i o n t o t r i a l s h e l d i n Vancouver  and V i c t o r i a , t h e Supreme C o u r t  judges go o u t on c i r c u i t s t o t h e v a r i o u s county d i s t r i c t s , h o l d i n g a s s i z e s , each judge a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r i n o r d e r t o c o v e r t h e c o u n t i e s adeq u a t e l y and r e g u l a r l y . for  The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f the p r o v i n c e f i x e s t h e date  t h e s i t t i n g o f an a s s i z e c o u r t i n a n y c o u n t y d i s t r i c t .  The t r i a l i s  u s u a l l y h e l d i n t h e town o f t h e c o u n t y d i s t r i c t where t h e r e i s a Supreme Court r e g i s t r y .  -34For  many y e a r s t h e C i t y o f Vancouver had two a s s i z e s , one i n the  s p r i n g , the second i n the f a l l . continuous because  Now,  the a s s i z e s i n the Vancouver a r e a are  o f the g r e a t number o f c a s e s .  As i n t h e County Court,  t h e y r u n t h r o u g h t h e year except f o r the l o n g v a c a t i o n , and even t h e n , some judges work through the summer months. t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia (Kamloops, Vernon,  S i m i l a r l y , assizes held i n the i n -  have i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y .  The Yale County c i r c u i t  and P e n t i c t o n ) used t o have a judge come from Vancouver  once a y e a r t o hear accumulated  cases.  Now  judges take t h e i r t u r n i n con-  t i n u o u s r o t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o c o v e r these a r e a s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work i n t h e Court o f Appeal o f B r i t i s h f o l l o w s i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n as i n the o t h e r two c o u r t s . J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia taking h i s j u d i c i a l rounds.  Columbia  Here, t h e C h i e f  a s s i g n s d a i l y d u t i e s t o the 8 judges as w e l l as There a r e 3 d i v i s i o n s  ( o r s e c t i o n s ) o f the  Court o f Appeal, 2 i n Vancouver and 1 i n V i c t o r i a .  A l l appeals t o t h i s  court from anywhere i n t h e p r o v i n c e a r e heard i n these 3 d i v i s i o n s .  Although  the Court o f A p p e a l i s not as h e a v i l y p r e s s e d as the Supreme Court i n t h e o v e r a l l work l o a d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a t l e a s t two o f the d i v i s i o n s go on c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the Vancouver a r e a , w i t h the V i c t o r i a d i v i s i o n used as an e x p e d i ency when t h e two d i v i s i o n s i n Vancouver a r e working a t c a p a c i t y . U n l i k e t h e Supreme Court o f B r i t i s h Columbia, more time i s spent in  c r i m i n a l matters than i n c i v i l ,  and f o r t h i s r e a s o n , most c r i m i n a l  appeals take p l a c e i n Vancouver i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the appearance the accused, s i n c e s e c u r i t y f a c i l i t i e s are not adequate  of  i n V i c t o r i a t o de-  t a i n those a p p e a l i n g a c o n v i c t i o n o r sentence w h i l e i n p r i s o n and not out on bail.  I n o r d e r t o handle some o v e r f l o w of c a s e s , b o t h c i v i l  and c r i m i n a l ,  t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one judge r e s i d e n t i n V i c t o r i a . The  judges o f the Court o f Appeal p r e s i d e over a case i n a quorum  of  t h r e e i n o r d i n a r y a p p e a l s , c i v i l o r c r i m i n a l , w i t h the m a j o r i t y (two o f  the t h r e e ) c a r r y i n g the d e c i s i o n .  I n s e r i o u s cases under a p p e a l such  as  murder o r r a p e , a quorum o f f i v e , w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f t h r e e , i s u s e d .  A  quorum o f t h r e e judges a l t e r n a t e between V i c t o r i a and Vancouver t o cover a l l three d i v i s i o n s .  C o n c e i v a b l y , t h e r e c o u l d be a p p e a l s g o i n g on i n a l l  t h r e e d i v i s i o n s c o n c u r r e n t l y , i n v o l v i n g a l l nine judges of the Court o f Appeal.  The  Court o f Appeal judges do not go out on c i r c u i t s ; a l l cases are  heard i n Vancouver or V i c t o r i a , w i t h t h e i r quorum of judges a l t e r n a t i n g  by  means of a j u d i c i a l schedule prepared by the C h i e f J u s t i c e . 3.  The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f of the Three The  Higher C r i m i n a l C o u r t s i n Vancouver.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f o f the Vancouver C o u r t d i s t r i c t i s a h i g h l y  e f f i c i e n t and i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e .  Lawyers and  judges a l i k e r e l y h e a v i l y on the e v e r y day r o u t i n e o f t h e c l e r i c a l Without  staff.  t h e i r knowledge and a s s i s t a n c e , j u s t i c e would become an empty p l a t i t -  ude . A l l members o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f are c i v i l s e r v a n t s employed by the p r o v i n c i a l government and a t t a c h e d t o t h e Department o f the A t t o r n e y General.  A l l are governed  by the C i v i l S e r v i c e Act of the P r o v i n c e .  The  L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e s c o u r t r e g i s t r i e s i n a l l the 9 j u d i c i a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  a t such p l a c e s as he t h i n k s i t would  be more e f f i c i e n t t o c a r r y out the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s o f the c o u r t s . the d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver, t h e r e i s one couver Court House. r e g i s t r i e s , depending i n these  In  c o u r t r e g i s t r y s i t u a t e d i n the Van-  Other d i s t r i c t s throughout  the p r o v i n c e have one o r more  on the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n o f towns and p o p u l a t i o n  districts. The  c l e r i c a l s t a f f i s managed b y a Court R e g i s t r a r a p p o i n t e d  by  -. 36 the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council  (see Appendix V) for the County of Van-  couver. The Registrar, who is a barrister, exercises certain quasi-judicial functions, both statutory and upon reference from the judges of the three courts i n both c i v i l and criminal matters.  His office i s responsible to the  Inspector of Legal Offices who i n turn i s responsible directly to the AttorneyGeneral of the province.  A good deal of the Registrar's duties and powers are  delegated to his staff. Just below him i n line is the Deputy Registrar who is also a barrister whose function i s to assist the Registrar i n any matter he may so delegate to him.  Next, i n the administrative structure, comes the Administrative  Officer, whose function i s to account for funds paid into court and the preparation of statistical data for provincial and federal departments relevant to the administration of justice i n Vancouver. Reporting to the Administrative Officer i s the Chief Clerk who supervises the various clerks working in both c i v i l and criminal departments. In addition to the staff of the Vancouver Court registry there i s a Sheriff's Office and Court Reporter's Office (see Appendix V).  The per-  sonnel involved i n these two areas do not come under the responsibility of the Court Registrar, but are appointed separately as c i v i l servants and as such are directly responsible to the  Attorney-General.  The Sheriff i s an officer of both the County and Supreme Court who is required to obey and carry out the lawful orders of these courts and the judges. He attends and keeps order i n criminal t r i a l s and serves a l l c i v i l processes, executes writs and warrants, and empanels juries for c i v i l and criminal t r i a l s .  The Sheriff's Office i s composed of the Sheriff, Deputy-  Sheriff, two Junior Sheriffs and 10 Sheriff's officers.  In criminal t r i a l s ,  - 37the S h e r i f f i s an o f f i c e r o f t h e c o u r t i n c r i m i n a l a s s i z e s h e l d i n Vancouver, and t h e D e p u t y - S h e r i f f i s an o f f i c e r o f t h e c o u r t i n County Court  criminal  matters. The Court R e p o r t e r ' s O f f i c e i n t h e Vancouver C o u r t R e g i s t r y i s t h e busiest area.  The d u t i e s o f an o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e r i s t o a t t e n d and t r a n s c r i b e  a l l t h e e v i d e n c e a t e v e r y t r i a l i n t h e Supreme C o u r t , whether c i v i l o r c r i m i n a l , e v e r y c r i m i n a l t r i a l i n t h e County C o u r t , and when r e q u i r e d b y t h e p r e s i d i n g judges, i n the Court o f Appeal.  The o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e r a l s o a t t e n d s  e v e r y e x a m i n a t i o n f o r d i s c o v e r y , and e v e r y p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g o f an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e and e v e r y c r i m i n a l a p p e a l t o t h e County C o u r t .  There a r e 15  o f f i c i a l Court r e p o r t e r s i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i e f R e p o r t e r i n t h e Vancouver d i s t r i c t - a l l are c i v i l servants responsible t o the Attorney-General.  The  C h i e f R e p o r t e r a s s i g n s o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e r s t o t h e v a r i o u s c o u r t s and a l s o sends some o f them t o o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e when judges o f t h e Supreme Court a r e on c i r c u i t i n A s s i z e C o u r t s . The O f f i c i a l R e p o r t e r uses e i t h e r a m e c h a n i c a l s h o r t h a n d machine c a l l e d the stenotype ,,  ,,  o r uses t h e r e g u l a r method o f w r i t i n g s h o r t h a n d . A l l  r e p o r t e r s t a k e d i c t a t i o n between 150-250 words p e r m i n u t e , t h e speed depending  on t h e c e l e r i t y o f t h e w i t n e s s ' s s t a t e m e n t s and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e  lawyer.  A f t e r t h e t r i a l , t h e c o u r t r e p o r t e r d i c t a t e s h i s shorthand onto a  tape w h i c h i s t h e n t r a n s c r i b e d b y a s e c r e t a r y . Along w i t h t h i s r e g u l a r s t a f f i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e there are v a r i o u s s e c r e t a r i e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e judges o f t h e t h r e e c o u r t s who a r e also c i v i l servants. for the Chief J u s t i c e .  I n t h e Court o f A p p e a l , t h e r e i s a p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y There a r e two o t h e r s e c r e t a r i e s t h a t a c t i n a p o o l f o r  the r e m a i n i n g A p p e a l Court j u d g e s .  The s e c r e t a r y handles a l l p e r s o n a l c o r r e s -  - 38 pondence, screens a l l c a l l s and v i s i t o r s .  She also types judgments from  notes that have been prepared by the judges of the Court.  In the Supreme  Court, s i m i l a r l y , the Chief Justice retains a secretary f o r his own  duties  while there i s a pool of 4 secretaries covering the duties of the remaining  judges.  On the County Court l e v e l there i s 1 secretary serving a l l  the 5 County Court Judges. F i n a l l y , there i s also attached to these three Courts, These e l d e r l y gentlemen are " j u d i c i a l v a l e t s " attending to the  ushers. miscellaneous  requests of the judges as w e l l as escorting the judge i n and out of the t r i a l room. 4.  The Clerks of the Three Criminal Courts As indicated, there are various clerks attached to the c i v i l or  criminal aspects of the administration of j u s t i c e .  The w r i t e r w i l l only  deal with those clerks whose duties are mainly of criminal nature but i t i s important to remember that the Court Registrar i s responsible f o r a l l c l e r i cal a c t i v i t i e s that are c a r r i e d on his r e g i s t r y , whether c i v i l or c r i m i n a l . No evaluation of the administration of justice i n the three  higher  criminal courts could be complete without a c a r e f u l analysis of the function and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Clerk i n each of these courts.  These Clerks  have no l e g a l t r a i n i n g but an adequate formal education i s a prerequisite plus a very thorough and s p e c i a l knowledge of practice and procedure i n criminal law. ence .  This cannot be acquired except through many years of experi-  No license or c e r t i f i c a t e i s required by the Clerk but he must have  special aptitudes and a b i l i t i e s to exercise sound judgment and a great deal of tact i n dealing with a large number of lawyers who these courts.  seek to appear before  - 39 " I t would be a most d i f f i c u l t t a s k , as d i s c o v e r e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h them, t o e v a l u a t e the day by day a c t i v i t i e s of t h e s e c l e r k s , t a s k s w h i c h are so v a r i e d and s p e c i a l i z e d , t h a t even many l a w y e r s of l o n g s t a n d ing  i n c r i m i n a l p r a c t i c e r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e i r knowledge o f p r o c e d u r e . G e n e r a l l y speaking however, the County C o u r t C r i m i n a l C l e r k ,  who  a l s o a c t s as c l e r k i n a p p e a l s t o t h e County Court from summary c o n v i c t i o n s , r e c e i v e s and r e c o r d s a l l documents and e x h i b i t s .  These documents r e q u i r e  s p e c i a l p r o c e s s i n g i n accordance w i t h t h e C r i m i n a l Code of Canada and e s t a b l i s h e d procedure.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e County Court C r i m i n a l C l e r k f u n c -  t i o n s as a c l e r k i n a l l County Court j u r y t r i a l s i n v o l v i n g t h o s e cases t h a t have been d e l e g a t e d b y t h e Supreme C o u r t . S i m i l a r l y the C l e r k o f the Supreme Court ( C r i m i n a l A s s i z e s ) has s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of t h i s c o u r t .  He has care  and c u s t o d y of a l l c r i m i n a l e x h i b i t s and r e c o r d s and i s s u e s documents p e r t a i n i n g t o l e g a l proceedings.  I n a d d i t i o n he s u p e r v i s e s t h e County  Court  Criminal Clerk. The C l e r k o f t h e Court o f A p p e a l ( c r i m i n a l ) has a most v a r i e d senior p o s i t i o n .  and  I n c l u s i v e o f t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f documents i n r e f e r e n c e t o  a p p e a l s , he makes c a r e f u l s t a t i s t i c s e v e r y two months showing the d i s p o s i t i o n of each a p p e a l .  These l i s t s are d e l i v e r e d t o a l l the A p p e a l Court j u d g e s ,  Supreme Court j u d g e s , and t h e County Court judges i n the Vancouver  area.  Copies are s e n t t o V i c t o r i a and New Westminster R e g i s t r i e s and t o the wardens i n the v a r i o u s p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e p r o v i n c e . I n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y some of the main f u n c t i o n s and  responsibil-  i t i e s of these t h r e e c l e r k s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c r i m i n a l c o u r t s , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  s e p a r a t e l y completed b y them.  (See Appendix V I ) .  -  40  -  I n e v a l u a t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i t can be s t a t e d t h a t the c l e r k s  are most v e r s a t i l e and e f f i c i e n t and have almost complete c o n t r o l o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o u r t s , c l e r i c a l l y speaking.  A l t h o u g h t h e y have no r e a l s i g n -  i n g a u t h o r i t y and are r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e judges, work w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f d e l e g a t e d q u e s t i o n 12  discretionary authority.  they  As noted by  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , any e r r o r made by a lawyer o r judge i n a  document and o v e r l o o k e d  b y the c l e r k c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s de-  l a y i n j u s t i c e and a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the r i g h t s o f p a r t i e s . three c l e r k s i s s u e a l l p r o c e s s e s , ments and p r o c e e d i n g s ,  I n g e n e r a l , the  a r r a i g n p r i s o n e r s , record v e r d i c t s , judg-  enter appeals,  file  c o n v i c t i o n s and o r d e r s , and p e r -  form a l l m i n i s t e r i a l a c t s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y out the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the courts.  Every  c l e r k i s a u t h o r i z e d t o take  and a d m i n i s t e r  oaths, and g i v e  v e r i f i c a t i o n r e s p e c t i n g the s e r v i c e o r a t t e s t a t i o n o f any p r o c e s s  of the  Court. The answers f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e are some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e f i c i e n c i e s , however.  There are no s t a f f meetings and t h e r e seems t o be a  l a c k o f d e f i n i t i v e p r o c e d u r a l p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n manual f o r m . t h e i r procedure i s c o n s t a n t l y changed and adapted by t h e p r o v i n c e judges,  So much o f and the  t h a t o n l y t h e t h r e e c l e r k s o f the c o u r t s and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s seem  t o have any complete grasp o f the p r a c t i c e s and procedures, unwritten.  much of which i s  The R e g i s t r a r has i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s p o l i c y i s t o s h i f t h i s  p e r s o n n e l and not t o "pigeon-hole"  them, but from o b s e r v a t i o n i t appears  t h a t o n l y t h e most q u a l i f i e d e n t e r i n t o the c r i m i n a l aspect  o f c l e r i c a l work  and must remain f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e t h e y can show any g r e a t i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r t a s k s .  efficiency  The t h r e e c l e r k s made no comment as t o the  cramped f a c i l i t i e s t h e y work i n .  A l l t h r e e conduct t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n a  - hi s m a l l room which not o n l y i n c l u d e s the c l e r i c a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f t h e i r  courts,  but t h e y a l s o share t h i s a r e a w i t h the C l e r k o f the A d m i r a l t y C o u r t . 5.  The P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r o f the Three Higher C r i m i n a l C o u r t s The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , as an appointee t o the c o u r t from the  Depart-  ment o f the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , i s another h i g h l y e s s e n t i a l member of the admini s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e  (see Appendix V ) .  H i s d u t i e s are as e q u a l l y , i f not  more i m p o r t a n t , t h a n t h e c l e r k s o f the c r i m i n a l c o u r t s .  Upon c o n v i c t i o n ,  the c o u r t knows the c h a r a c t e r o f the crime and as such has weighed the ence t o b r i n g about a c o n v i c t i o n . c h a r a c t e r o f the c r i m i n a l .  evid-  But t o render a sentence i t must know the  In t h i s r e s p e c t the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r e n d e r s a  pre-sentence r e p o r t t o the c o u r t . The pre-sentence r e p o r t , which i s b a s i c a l l y a s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d , i s t o the judge as an x - r a y i s t o the surgeon.  No  p h y s i c i a n would p r e s c r i b e a treatment without a d i a g n o s i s and y e t d i f f i c u l t y i s s t i l l encountered i n the c o u r t s i n g e t t i n g some judges t o make use of the pre-sentence r e p o r t .  T h i s h e s i t a t i o n i s not so p r e v a l e n t i n the Vancouver  a r e a , e i t h e r on the M a g i s t r a t e o f h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t l e v e l , i n i n s t a n c e s where a f i r s t  offender i s involved.  especially  T h i s i s an enigma more  p e c u l i a r t o the r u r a l a r e a s where p r o b a t i o n has not as y e t developed t o a satisfactory  level.  P r o b a t i o n i n the c r i m i n a l c o u r t s has two main f a c e t s : sentence r e p o r t and the c o u r t may  supervision.  the p r e -  A f t e r a f i n d i n g of g u i l t i s r e g i s t e r e d ,  o r d e r a pre-sentence r e p o r t b e f o r e pronouncing  sentence.  F o r t u n a t e l y , the Supreme C o u r t , County C o u r t , and Court of Appeal i n c r i m i n a l cases make f a i r l y good use o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n the Vancouver d i s t r i c t . One  judge o f the Court o f A p p e a l i n d i c a t e d he r a r e l y d e c i d e s on an a p p e a l  from sentence o f a lower c o u r t u n l e s s a pre-sentence r e p o r t has been prepared,  - 42 e s p e c i a l l y i n i n s t a n c e s where f i r s t  offenders are i n v o l v e d .  I t i s very  d o u b t f u l whether any c o u r t would r e f u s e t h e request o f defence such a r e p o r t .  counsel f o r  At t h e same time, i t i s d i s t u r b i n g t o note from o b s e r v a t i o n  and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h o t h e r lawyers t h a t many p r a c t i c i n g c r i m i n a l law lawyers are not t o o f a m i l i a r w i t h such a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e .  Others m e r e l y  have  a hazy c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n and r e l e v a n c y . The for  pre-sentence  the conduct  r e p o r t s u p p l i e s guidance  t o the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  o f t h e p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d as w e l l as a s s i s t i n g t h e c o u r t t o  reach a n e q u i t a b l e and j u s t d i s p o s i t i o n .  One common f a l l a c y i s t h e propos-  i t i o n t h a t o n l y m a t t e r s advantageous t o the c o n v i c t e d person s h o u l d appear i n the r e p o r t .  A l l p o s s i b l e f a c t s p r o and con should be e n t e r e d i n t o such a  r e p o r t f o r p r e c i s e l y t h e same r e a s o n a l l f a c t s a r e e n t e r e d d u r i n g the t r i a l . Any t h i n g o f an adverse made known t o him b e f o r e sentence ity  n a t u r e t o the c o n v i c t e d person must be i s passed  so t h a t he may have t h e opportun-  o f q u e s t i o n i n g such m a t e r i a l i f he d e s i r e s .  Any procedure  l e s s than t h i s  b r i n g s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o " s t a r chamber" tice .  jus-  The m a t e r i a l i n t h i s r e p o r t i s i n the g e n e r a l nature o f c h a r a c t e r  evidence and t h e r e f o r e does not have t o be proved w i t h the same weight as evidence l e a d i n g t o c o n v i c t i o n or a c q u i t t a l ; i t i s , however, e s s e n t i a l t h a t it  s h o u l d be open t o c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  Copies o f the r e p o r t are g i v e n t o  the Crown c o u n s e l and c o u n s e l f o r t h e accused, as w e l l a s t h e Bench i n o r d e r to  agree  o r disagree with i t s content. The t r i a l  c o u r t now d e c i d e s whether i t w i l l o r d e r the c o n v i c t e d  person f i n e d , i n c a r c e r a t e d , o r p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n . the pre-sentence the accused  I n the Court o f Appeal,  r e p o r t may be used t o v a r y t h e sentence  appealed from.  i s p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n the p a s s i n g o f sentence  If  i s "suspended" and  the c o n v i c t e d person s i g n s a r e c o g n i z a n c e t o abide by such c o n d i t i o n s as t h e  When a person i s released on probation the second facet comes into play, namely, supervision.  This supervision i s probably the most exacting  of a l l Social Work practise because i t undertakes Social Work i n an authoritarian setting.  If the probationer abides by the terms of his recognizance,  there i s no difficulty; i f he violates a term, the probation officer has a mandatory duty to report such violation to the court. It then rests with the court whether or not the probationer w i l l be charged with a violation. One probation officer i s usually allocated by the Probation Service to serve the three higher criminal courts i n Vancouver; by comparison, the Magistrate Courts are served by 8 probation officers.  The follow-  ing i s a break-down of the number of pre-sentence reports prepared for the three higher criminal courts i n Vancouver between the years I960 - 1964:* Table A  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964  County Court (Criminal)  15  10  16  15  15  Supreme Court  8  4  7  7  3  75  50  32  27  30  Court  Court of Appeal *  Source  -  Provincial Probation Service  By comparison, an o f f i c i a l of the Provincial Probation Service i n dicated to the writer that the Vancouver Magistrate Courts average between 500 and 600 reports a year. These figures coincide with the fact that most criminal cases are dispensed with i n the lower courts. Further, i n appeals from sentence to the Court of Appeal, many of the cases have had pre-sentence  - 44 -  reports prepared i n the lower court.  In these instances a further report  i s not usually requested by the Court of Appeal; the report of the lower court i s merely transferred with the transcript of evidence i n the case. Nevertheless, there i s s t i l l some evidence that a paucity of reports are being prepared f o r the Supreme and County Courts. Table A clearly i n dicates a decline since I960 i n Court of Appeal pre-sentence reports. Some court o f f i c i a l s explained that cases i n these courts are of a more serious nature, which f o r some inexplicable reason seems to minimize the need for reports i n determining sentence. I t i s the writer's contention, however, that much depends on the attitude of the judge and whether he has confidence i n the competence of the Probation Service and understands i t s purpose. Under Section 638 of the Criminal Code, an accused i s e l i g i b l e for suspended sentence and probation i f he has had no previous convictions.  He  i s also e l i g i b l e i n cases where there has been one previous conviction but that i t took place more than 5 years before the time of the present offence or f o r any offence which i s not related i n character to the present conviction.  To a great extent, this section has minimized the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r many  offenders to be placed on probation. But even i f an accused i s not e l i g i b l e for probation, i t should not negate the need f o r a report.  Judges and coun-  sel alike should realize that i t i s not solely the function of a probation officer to prepare a report for the purpose of recommending probation; his function as an officer of the court i s also to assist the judge i n determining a sentence which would be most f a i r to the individual as well as act as a deterrent for further offences. A pre-sentence report i s an integral factor i n determinating sentence, and without a report, the judge can be at a disadvantage i n sentencing the offender.  - 45 6.  The Role o f t h e P r o s e c u t o r i n t h e Three Higher C r i m i n a l C o u r t s At t h e v e r y o u t s e t , i t must be i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e purpose o f a  p r o s e c u t o r a p p e a r i n g i n a n y t r i a l c o u r t i s not t o o b t a i n c o n v i c t i o n i n c r i m i n a l proceedings.  N o r , i n any c a s e , s h o u l d i t be p e r m i t t e d even t o  appear t h a t such i s h i s a i m . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h i s , be kept uppermost i n t h e mind when one c o n s i d e r s t h e wide d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers he has i n t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s o f i n s t i t u t i n g , c o n d u c t i n g and d i s c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e e d i n g s i n c r i m i n a l cases. for  H i s prime purpose i s t o p r e s e n t a l l t h e f a c t s f a i r l y ,  both  and a g a i n s t t h e accused i n o r d e r f o r t h e t r i a l c o u r t t o make a j u s t  d e c i s i o n i n t h e m a t t e r concerned.  His f u n c t i o n i s a matter o f p u b l i c duty  which s h o u l d e x c l u d e any n o t i o n o f w i n n i n g o r l o s i n g a c a s e . The B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t o f 1867 p r o v i d e s t h a t c r i m i n a l l a w , except t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e c r i m i n a l c o u r t s , b u t i n c l u d i n g t h e procedure i n c r i m i n a l m a t t e r s , i s w i t h i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e f i e l d o f t h e Dominion, t h a t i s , f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y . The p r o v i n c e s , o n t h e o t h e r hand, and t h i s o f course i n v o l v e s t h e p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and p r o s e c u t o r , have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e i n the province.  The A t t o r n e y -  G e n e r a l o f Canada has t h e r e g u l a t i o n and conduct o f a l l l i t i g a t i o n  for or  a g a i n s t t h e Crown o r any p u b l i c department, i n r e s p e c t o f any s u b j e c t w i t h i n the a u t h o r i t y o r j u r i s d i c t i o n o f Canada.  B u t , a s i t has been i n d i c a t e d , t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e i s a p r o v i n c i a l m a t t e r , and t h e r e f o r e f a l l s w i t h i n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and t h e p r o s ecutor . I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t the d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , and o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o s e c u t o r a r e such as t o be capable o f b e i n g made an accommodating i n s t r u m e n t , i f d i s c r e t i o n i s used f o r c o n v i c t i o n s sake alone.  The n a t u r e o f t h e o f f i c e o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l r e q u i r e s t h a t  politi-  - 46 cal, personal and private consideration shall be set aside so far as the exercise of the discretionary power which i s inherent i n his office i s conceived.  This discretion must be exercised solely upon grounds calculated to  maintain, promote and defend the common good. In determining whether a prosecution should be launched and carried through to a determination of the merits, prosecuting counsel must consider society as a whole. He must keep i n mind the standard of proof required i n a criminal case.  Failure to do this would result i n an injustice to the  person who has been put on t r i a l i n the form of insufficient evidence. The standard of proof, where the evidence i s not wholly circumstantial, is that the accused must be proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. So to commence a prosecution or permit i t to continue i n the face of these requirements where the evidence forthcoming i s not so, would be a "fishing expedition" by the prosecutor i n the hope that sufficient evidence would somehow turn up during the t r i a l . Generally speaking, the prosecutor has no greater legal rights than any other barrister.  He i s but another integral part i n the administra-  tion of justice i n the three higher criminal courts i n Vancouver (see Appendix V).  Some people claim the prosecutor may be the "thirteenth" jury man.  This i s probably overstating the case, but some writers have considered this not so stark an exaggeration.  Further, p o l i t i c a l patronage can play a for-  midable part i n the appointment of prosecutors as indicated by one County Court judge. In the City of Vancouver, the Attorney-General's Department appoints prosecutors to the three higher criminal courts. The Magistrate's court uses  1.  Turner, K., "The Role of Crown Counsel i n Canadian Prosecutions", Canadian Bar Review, 1962, Volume 40, pages 439-463.  - 47 p r o s e c u t o r s r e t a i n e d by t h e c i t y .  I n p r a c t i c e , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  pays a s t i p e n d t o c i t y p r o s e c u t o r s t o conduct cases i n t h e County C o u r t Judge's C r i m i n a l C o u r t , i n c l u d i n g cases o f a p p e a l f r o m M a g i s t r a t e ' s C o u r t . Otherwise  t h e government, i n a c t u a l i t y , makes appointments t o o n l y t h e Supreme  Court c r i m i n a l a s s i z e s , and the Court o f A p p e a l .  Most o f t h e p r o s e c u t o r s  a p p o i n t e d t o t h e s e two h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s are i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e do c o n s i d e r a b l e defense work i n t h e i r own  and  right.  W i t h r e s p e c t t o appointment of crown c o u n s e l i n c r i m i n a l a s s i z e s , the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l u s u a l l y a p p o i n t s a s e n i o r and j u n i o r c o u n s e l on a 2 month's b a s i s t o handle a l l the c r i m i n a l cases a p p e a r i n g i n the Vancouver area.  I n a l l , over a p e r i o d o f t e n months, he a p p o i n t s 5 s e n i o r and 5 j u n i o r  c o u n s e l a t two month i n t e r v a l s .  The  j u n i o r and s e n i o r c o u n s e l work t o g e t h e r  or i n d i v i d u a l l y depending on the n a t u r e of the c a s e , the e x p e r i e n c e of couns e l , and t h e p r e s s u r e o f work.  S e n i o r c o u n s e l a p p o i n t e d t o the Supreme  Court a s s i z e s are p a i d $100.00 f o r each day i n c o u r t , w h i l e j u n i o r s are p a i d $50.00 f o r e a c h day i n c o u r t .  I n a d d i t i o n , a $50.00 f l a t f e e f o r p r e -  p a r i n g cases i s a l s o p a i d t o each c o u n s e l .  I n t h e o p i n i o n o f one  prosecutor,  t h i s f l a t f e e i n p r e p a r a t i o n of cases i s much t o o low and has not been changed f o r a g r e a t number of y e a r s .  F o r i n s t a n c e , i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f murder  c a s e s , t h e p r e l i m i n a r y work o u t s i d e o f c o u r t may  t a k e somewhere between  40-50 hours and y e t c o u n s e l would r e c e i v e the maximum f l a t r a t e o f $50.00. O n l y one crown c o u n s e l i s a p p o i n t e d t o t h e Court o f A p p e a l , a l s o on a 2 month's b a s i s , a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h o t h e r c o u n s e l o v e r t h i s 10 month period. The  crown c o u n s e l , however, i n the Court o f Appeal i s r e t a i n e d on  a h i g h e r s t i p e n d t h a n i n t h e Supreme C o u r t .  He i s u s u a l l y p a i d $100.00 f o r  - 48 each day i n c o u r t and i s a l l o w e d $10.00 f o r each o r d e r drawn.  I t i s conceiv-  a b l e t h a t a crown c o u n s e l i n t h e Court o f A p p e a l c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n s i x t o e i g h t a p p e a l s i n one c o u r t d a y . Most c o u n s e l a p p o i n t e d as p r o s e c u t o r s i n any o f t h e two c r i m i n a l c o u r t s u s u a l l y b e g i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g as j u n i o r c o u n s e l , and when t h e y improve t h e i r s k i l l a r e promoted t o t h e s e n i o r p o s i t i o n .  There i s an element o f  p o l i t i c a l p a t r o n a g e , b u t on t h e whole, t h o s e who a r e a p p o i n t e d a r e f u l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r these p o s i t i o n s . 7.  Number and D i s p o s i t i o n o f Cases T r i e d i n t h e Three H i g h e r C r i m i n a l C o u r t s i n Vancouver (1961-1964) * '  Year  Table B County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l Court T o t a l Persons T r i e d Found Not Found G u i l t y Guilty  Proceedings Stayed  1961  65  26  22  17  1962  82  52  10  20  1963  114  59  23  32  1964  103  47  26  30  *  Source - Vancouver  Court R e g i s t r y . Table C  Supreme Court ( C r i m i n a l A s s i z e s ) Year  T o t a l Persons T r i e d  Found G u i l t y  1961  44  25  9  10  1962  68  38  16  14  1963  89  48  25  16  1964  99  42  32  25  Found Not P r o c e e d i n g s Guilty Stayed  - 49 -  Table D Court of Appeal (Criminal) Year  Total Cases Heard  Appeals Allowed from Sentence  Appeals Allowed from Conviction  Dismissed  1961  470  140  47  283  1962  447  93  25  329  1963  525  127  39  359  1964  445  118  17  310  * Source - Vancouver Court Registry The above tables do not include cases where offender pleads guilty or where a case i s abandoned before t r i a l or appeal. In analyzing the tables one may question the relatively minimal number of criminal cases dealt with i n the Supreme Court and County Court Judge's Criminal Court.  There are two important reasons for this situation.  Firstly, as indicated before, 90$ of a l l criminal cases are tried i n the Magistrate's Court, whether of summary conviction or indictable nature. Secondly, criminal cases form only a small part of the judge's work load in both courts. C i v i l actions are by far the most onerous task, especially in the Supreme Court.  For example, i n 1964, figures obtained from the Van-  couver Court Registry indicated a new high i n c i v i l actions where 4000 were commenced i n the Supreme Court. commenced i n the County Court.  In the same year, 3741 c i v i l actions were Of the 4000 c i v i l actions i n the Supreme  Court, over 800 reached the t r i a l stage; similarly over 700 went to t r i a l in the County Court of Vancouver. Further, the judges of the Supreme Court hear matters i n Divorce and Matrimonial Causes which totalled 1350 i n 1964.  - 50 -  Inclusive to a l l this, hundreds of non-litigious orders are made by both courts ranging from administration of estates to bankruptcy. In the Court of Appeal, Table D clearly indicates the reverse s i t uation to that evidenced i n the other two courts.  Here the proportion of  criminal appeals to those of c i v i l are much higher where, for example i n 1964, 445 criminal appeals were considered i n comparison to only 55 c i v i l appeals i n the same period.  On the whole, the work load of the Court of  Appeal, s t a t i s t i c a l l y speaking, i s relatively lighter than the other courts. However, the principles of law enunciated by judges i n the Court of Appeal in respect to cases appearing before them must be judged carefully as they become patterns of precedent to be followed i n future cases by the lower courts.  In many instances several weeks elapse, especially i n c i v i l cases,  before a written judgment i s handed down by them. 8. The Vancouver Court House — "The Edifice of Justice" One cannot discuss the administration of justice i n Vancouver without considering the physical plant in which i t operates. To one who has roamed through i t s corridors as a member of the legal profession i t i s vividly clear that this "edifice of justice", symbolized by the lions of justice on i t s front steps, has not kept up with thetimes i n terms of structural convenience. Doing justice does not only depend on dispensing justice according to the due process of the law, but i t may also be dependent on the court room design where the uncomfortable and austere environment may compress the public's thoughts to incorrect aspects of the administration of justice. Then, too, i t must not be forgotten that the administration of justice i s dependent i n a large measure upon the work done outside the court room. There must, therefore, be adequate provision made for accommodation  - 51 for  court o f f i c i a l s ,  such as c l e r k s , c o u r t r e p o r t e r s , s h e r i f f s and  as w e l l as the j u d i c i a r y .  secretaries,  A r e g i s t r a r o r a c l e r k i n a crowded o f f i c e  be e x p e c t e d t o do f a u l t l e s s work and when f i l i n g arrangements  cannot  are not p r o p e r l y  l a i d o u t , t h e chances i n f i l e s b e i n g m i s l a i d are g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . There must not o n l y be adequate and c o m f o r t a b l e space f o r t h e admini s t r a t i v e s t a f f but a l s o f o r the p u b l i c .  There must be adequate  facilities  i n t h e way o f w a i t i n g rooms and e x a m i n a t i o n rooms f o r w i t n e s s e s o r c l i e n t s . There must be p r o p e r p r o v i s i o n f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e j u r y from t h e p u b l i c and the rooms t o w h i c h j u r i e s r e t i r e s h o u l d be c o m f o r t a b l e and soundproof enough so as t o be s e g r e g a t e d from the main c o u r t room.  J u r i e s are f a l l i b l e and  so  the a u s t e r i t y and s e v e r i t y o f i t s q u a r t e r s c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t the v e r d i c t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h e a c c o u s t i c s i n a c o u r t house. T r i a l s under our system o f l a w are v i v e voce p r o c e e d i n g s and a r e h e l d i n public.  T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e j u d g e , j u r y , and c o u n s e l  t o hear e v e r y word t h a t i s spoken, v e r y o f t e n b y persons whose e n u n c i a t i o n i s not always p e r f e c t , i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e p u b l i c t o hear t h e evidence, a l s o . The p r e s e n t Court House i n Vancouver may be c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of t h e p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t s .  (See photograph l ) .  The Court House was  first  b u i l t i n 1911 d u r i n g t h e Bowser government a t a time when i t was so roomy t h a t i t c o u l d a l s o house s e v e r a l government departments. 9th,  1911, t h a t t h e new b u i l d i n g was  the f i r s t c o u r t s i t t i n g s were h e l d .  I t was on  October  i n f o r m a l l y opened t o the p u b l i c  and  L a t e r t h a t y e a r , t h e Duke o f Connaught,  t h e n G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , d e c l a r e d t h e b u i l d i n g open a t a ceremony a t t e n d e d b y thousands.  The b u i l d i n g was what i s now  the G e o r g i a S t r e e t Wing.  The Robson  S t r e e t Wing, connected by an o v e r p a s s , was opened two y e a r s l a t e r . U n t i l t h e n , the c i t y ' s Court House was a t V i c t o r y Square i n a b u i l d -  -  ing since demolished.  52  -  Before that, the Court House was on Water Street near  Carroll, then the center of a young and bustling city. Vancouver's present Court House, which occupies a f u l l city block bounded by Georgia, Howe, Robson and Hornby, was i n i t s early days also the headquarters for a number of government departments other than the justice division.  Since then, these departments have been removed and the court  house i s used entirely by the various law divisions, c i v i l , criminal, probate, and admiralty.  It also includes the Land Registry of Vancouver.  The Court House was not. too well designed i n the f i r s t place. It is a beautiful building of Romanesque granite but i s not i n the least functional for present needs. There has been a good deal of renovation within the last ten years to keep up with the growing number of cases but with l i t t l e success.  The Court House has an awe-inspiring rotunda which takes up a great  deal of space that could conceivably be used for clerical staff accommodation. As the population grows, so does the administration of justice.  Lit-  igation and crime have their own mounting graphs, just like home building and business or anything else i n a growing population. The Court House, i n the words of one high o f f i c i a l , "Has done a good job. But when i t was built, there were 4 judges.  Now there are 30."  The present building holds 11 court rooms, 3 of which are used primarily for criminal t r i a l s i n the 3 higher courts. Each judge of the 3 courts has his own private chambers. The court rooms are f a i r l y spacious but convey the antiquated symbolisms of a by-gone judicial era. The furniture, carpets, and hangings which are s t i l l very evident today were obtained from Liberty's i n London 50 years ago. One striking characteristic i s the box-type structure called the  - 53 -  " p r i s o n e r ' s dock" i n t h e County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l Court and Supreme Court.  The v e r y appearance  a man who  of t h i s e n c l o s u r e b e l i e s t h e f a c t t h a t i n i t s i t s ,  i s presumed i n n o c e n t i n the eyes o f h i s p e e r s .  The Supreme C o u r t ' s  "dock" i s even more s i n i s t e r i n t h a t a f l i g h t o f s t a i r s l e a d down from i t d i r e c t l y below t h e c o u r t ' s f l o o r t o a c e l l a r e a where the p r i s o n e r i s det a i n e d i n t h e event he has t o be h e l d o v e r n i g h t . I n a d d i t i o n t o the c o u r t rooms and the j u d g e s ' p r i v a t e chambers, the Court House p r o v i d e s accommodation f o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , b o t h c i v i l and c r i m i n a l .  The c l e r k s o f the t h r e e c r i m i n a l c o u r t s are l o c a t e d i n  one room w h i c h i s f a i r l y c o n g e s t e d .  There are some f a c i l i t i e s f o r w i t n e s s  rooms f o r t h e County Court and t h e Supreme Court but no f a c i l i t i e s are maint a i n e d i n the C o u r t o f A p p e a l .  The Vancouver R.C.M.P. Detachment a c t s as  the c h i e f c u s t o d i a n f o r p r i s o n e r s brought t o t r i a l and has i t s o f f i c e s i n the Court House, a l s o .  The accused a p p e a r i n g i n t h e s e h i g h e r c o u r t s has  no  f a c i l i t i e s e x c e p t f o r t h e c e l l s under t h e Supreme C o u r t , u n l e s s he i s r e t u r n e d t o the Vancouver  Police Station,  t e n t i a r y , o r when he i s out on  O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, t h e B.C. F e d e r a l P e n i -  bail.  I n r e s p e c t t o j u r y accommodation, t h e r e i s o n l y one main j u r y room which l e a d s out from the Supreme C o u r t . (See photograph 5 ) .  I t i s s m a l l and q u i t e i n c o n v e n i e n t .  There are no f a c i l i t i e s f o r j u r o r s i n the event the  trial  t a k e s a few days and t h u s accommodation has t o be p r o v i d e d f o r them i n a nearby h o t e l . There are two l i b r a r i e s s i t u a t e d i n t h e Court House; t h e Law L i b r a r y and t h e Judges' L i b r a r y .  Society  The Law S o c i e t y L i b r a r y c o n t a i n s over  20,000 law books and r e t a i n s a s t a f f of two f u l l time l i b r a r i a n s w i t h a p a r t time a s s i s t a n t , a l l employed by t h e Law S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  L i b r a r y i s a v a i l a b l e f o r l a w y e r s d u r i n g t r i a l s and a l s o l a w y e r s have r e a d y  - 54 access t o i t i n p r e p a r a t i o n of cases. law l i b r a r i e s a c r o s s Canada.  The  The L i b r a r y ranks v e r y h i g h w i t h o t h e r  Judges' L i b r a r y i s used e x c l u s i v e l y b y  judges f o r any j u d i c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n i n a d j u d i c a t i n g c a s e s . of  I t has a c o n t e n t  5,000 b o o k s . The Court House and t h e p r o p e r t y i t i s on i s owned by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Government.  The c o s t s o f p r o s e c u t i n g c r i m i n a l t r i a l s are d e f r a y e d by the  P r o v i n c i a l Government, a l s o .  The c o s t s i n c l u d e f e e s f o r Crown c o u n s e l and  a n c i l l a r y c o s t s such as p r e p a r i n g c o u r t documents, examining w i t n e s s e s b e f o r e a t r i a l , and p a y i n g  jurymen.  No b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e Court House's i n a d e q u a c i e s c o u l d be g i v e n t h a n t o quote the a c r i d a d m o n i t i o n s o f a l e a d i n g Vancouver b a r r i s t e r  who  has f o r many y e a r s t r i e d cases i n t h e v a r i o u s c i v i l and c r i m i n a l courts:"*" "The o l d Court House i s h o p e l e s s l y i n a d e q u a t e t o i t s p r e s e n t demands. About 95% of the s i g n i f i c a n t l i t i g a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia goes on i n the b u i l d i n g but the b u i l d i n g r e p r e s e n t s about 5% o f the f a c i l i t i e s f o r such l i t i g a t i o n . Commodious c o u r t f a c i l i t i e s have f a r s i g h t e d l y been b u i l t a l l o v e r B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e the war — e x c e p t i n Vancouver. Often t h e r e are not enough c o u r t rooms t o handle the b u s i n e s s o f t h e day. P u b l i c h e a r i n g s must t a k e p l a c e i n t h e judge's o f f i c e . There i s no p l a c e f o r many w i t n e s s e s t o s i t and w a i t t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . J u r i e s d e l i b e r a t e i n d i r t y cramped q u a r t e r s o r around an o l d s t e n o g r a p h e r ' s desk i n some o v e r s i z e d c l o s e t . Judges are doubled up i n t h e i r o f f i c e s o r s t u c k i n some musty g a r r e t . The c i v i l s e r v a n t s , who p e r f o r m i n t h e b u i l d i n g w i t h i n c r e d i b l e c h e e r f u l n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y , do so i n p o s i t i v e l y P i c k w i c k i a n s u r r o u n d i n g s . The e v e r growing law l i b r a r y has l o n g ago s p i l l e d out i n t o t h e c o r r i d o r . The t i r e d e l e v a t o r s have no f u t u r e . The b a r r i s t e r s accommodation: 197 s k i n n y l o c k e r s f o r 1100 b a r r i s t e r s jammed i n a room, 25' x 40'j one 8' x 8' "John" h o u s i n g one, each, 50 y e a r o l d s i n k , u r i n a l and t o i l e t ( w i t h seat f a l l i n g o f f ) t o the same 1100 stalwarts. Hundreds o f thousands o f d o l l a r s have been t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o the o l d C o u r t House i n t h e p a s t decade i n a f u t i l e attempt t o keep the p a t i e n t a l i v e . The o l d g i r l i s now s u p e r s a t u r a t e d . I f the b u i l d i n g i s r e t a i n e d , hundreds o f thousands more w i l l be spent i n t h e next decade t o s i m p l y m a i n t a i n i t 1.  Plommer, R., "An Open L e t t e r t o t h e Court House", The Advocate. Volume 22, J a n u a r y , 1964, p. 18.  - 55 a g a i n s t t h e ravages o f t i m e . " He f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g d e s i g n i s h o p e l e s s l y i n e f f i c ient.  I t s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n embodies a l l t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y  had t o o f f e r .  I t i s n o t and cannot be v e n t i l a t e d , h e a t e d , l i g h t e d o r sound-  proofed e f f e c t i v e l y o r economically.  I t i s a d i r t y b u i l d i n g ; t h i s i s not  the c r i t i c i s m o f t h e j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f — i t s  age, c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n  s i m p l y put c l e a n l i n e s s , sweetness and l i g h t beyond r e a c h . P r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t h a t an annex t o t h e Vancouver Court House w i l l p r o b a b l y be b u i l t a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t , j u s t south o f t h e p r e s e n t site.  A l r e a d y t h i s p r o p e r t y i s b e i n g l e v e l l e d and has been purchased  the c i t y b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. ever.  from  An annex may not be t h e answer, how-  I t must be remembered t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e d by t h e Court House  w i l l double i n t h e next 15 y e a r s .  T h i s f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e annex c a n  o n l y be a t e m p o r a r y f a c i l i t y and t h a t t h e r e i s need f o r a n e n t i r e l y new Court House. Lengthy s t u d i e s have been made by Committees o f t h e Law S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  j u d g e s , and t h e Vancouver B a r A s s o c i a t i o n . A l l have  recommended a new Court House, b u t so f a r these recommendations have n o t borne  fruit. To conclude t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Court House t h i s l e a d i n g b a r r i s -  ter  o f f e r s h i s s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem: "To t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c - go and l o o k f o r y o u r s e l f , have a good poke around, serve on a j u r y , have a l a w s u i t i f nece s s a r y . Look a t t h e new t e r r a z z o f l o o r i n t h e e n t r a n c e and t h e n l o o k a t a l l t h e o t h e r f l o o r s . C o n s i d e r i f your money i s b e i n g e f f i c i e n t l y spent - your t a x money and y o u r l e g a l f e e s . C o n s i d e r i f you a r e g e t t i n g t o p q u a l i t y justice."  1.  IBID, p. 1 9 .  CHAPTER IV  THE  1.  PROCESS OF TRIAL IN THE THREE HIGHER CRIMINAL COURTS  The County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l C o u r t . The p r o c e s s o f t r i a l i n t h i s c o u r t i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same a s t h a t  h e l d b e f o r e a M a g i s t r a t e i n t h e lower c o u r t and thus t h e r e i s no need t o r e i t e r a t e t h e procedure which has been o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I .  I t has been seen  t h a t cases t r i e d b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e , and i n t h i s case b e f o r e a County Court Judge, i n v o l v e o f f e n c e s of an i n d i c t a b l e nature o f which the accused had a r i g h t o f e l e c t i o n t o be heard b e f o r e a M a g i s t r a t e , County Court judge  without  j u r y (County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l Court), o r judge and j u r y (Supreme C o u r t ) . In t h e l a t t e r two i n s t a n c e s , the a c c u s e d has a p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g and t h e n i s committed t o the h i g h e r c o u r t i n accordance w i t h h i s e l e c t i o n . The County C o u r t , s i n c e t h e r e c e n t d e l e g a t i o n b y the Supreme Court of  i t s c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , c a n a l s o hear c r i m i n a l j u r y t r i a l s .  The p r o c e d -  ure here i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same a s i n the Supreme Court which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d next i n d e t a i l . 2.  The Supreme C o u r t ( C r i m i n a l J u r y T r i a l s ) . The p r o c e s s o f t r i a l b y j u r y w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y as  i t t r u l y e x e m p l i f i e s the system o f B r i t i s h j u s t i c e  so w e l l known and adopted,  w i t h some s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s , on the North American  continent.  I t i s the  foundation of the j u d i c i a l process i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e .  For  t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e , t r i a l procedure and p r a c t i c e i n t h i s c o u r t s h o u l d be made e v i d e n t t o t h e r e a d e r who i n e v i t a b l y d e a l s w i t h t h e c o u r t i n one c a p a c i t y o r another i n h i s l i f e t i m e .  (a) Time and Date of T r i a l . As indicated, jury t r i a l s have precedence over other t r i a l s j accordingly, defence counsel and the accused are expected to be ready to proceed on the date and at the time stipulated by Crown counsel, who fixes a date for the various t r i a l s .  The usual starting time i s 11 a.m. but, i n certain cases,  the judge, or Crown counsel, fixes the starting time for any particular t r i a l , or any particular day of the hearing at 10:30 a.m. (h) Calling of Case. By the time the case i s scheduled to commence, the Sheriff w i l l have checked the jury panel to ensure that a l l are present or that the absentees are accounted for, and he w i l l have the jury seated i n the Courtroom. He then escorts the judge into Court.  As soon as the judge indicates that he i s  ready, the clerk of the Court reads the indictment. The Attorney-General authorizes Crown counsel to act as his agent i n preferring Indictments, and quite often Crown counsel w i l l lay a new indictment i n place of the charge which was before the Court at the preliminary hearing, or i n place of the indictment which the Attorney-General has forwarded with the brief. (c)  Reading of Charge. The Clerk of the Court then reads the charge (or charges, as the  case may be) to the accused and takes his plea. (d) Empanelling the Jury. If the accused pleads "Not guilty" the Clerk of the Court then addresses the accused, even i f the accused i s represented by counsel, and advises him that the names he i s about to c a l l are the names of the jurors, and that i f the accused intends to challenge any of the jurors, he must do so before  - 58 t h e y are sworn.  T h i s statement  t o the accused f o l l o w s a s t a n d a r d form  and  e i t h e r i s r e a d o r i s s t a t e d from memory. I f the accused  i s not r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l , the judge, a t t h i s  time, e x p l a i n s , g e n e r a l l y , t o the a c c u s e d h i s r i g h t s r e g a r d i n g c h a l l e n g e as set out i n S e c t i o n 538 The  and f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s of the Code.  C l e r k of the Court t h e n b e g i n s t o s e l e c t the names o f the  o r s b y p i c k i n g c a r d s from a box, juror.  jur-  each c a r d b e a r i n g the name and number of a  Before commencing t o c a l l the names, the C l e r k a d v i s e s the  jury  p a n e l t h a t , as each name i s c a l l e d , t h e person c a l l e d s h o u l d answer h i s ( o r her) name and come t o the f r o n t of the Courtroom. C l e r k g e n e r a l l y c a l l s 12 t o 20 around the c o u n s e l t a b l e .  names.  They l i n e up  I n t h e A s s i z e C o u r t , the shoulder t o shoulder  Once t h e r e i s a s u f f i c i e n t number of j u r o r s  called  t o the f r o n t of the Courtroom, t h e C l e r k b e g i n s t o r e c a l l the names i n the o r d e r i n which t h e y were c a l l e d o r i g i n a l l y . c o u n s e l ( o r the accused  As each name i s c a l l e d ,  defence  i f he i s not r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l ) must i n d i c a t e  whether he a c c e p t s o r r e j e c t s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r j u r o r b y s t a t i n g "Content" "Challenge".  I f the defence  a c c e p t s a j u r o r by s a y i n g "Content",  Crown  c o u n s e l t h e n i n d i c a t e s whether he w i l l accept or r e j e c t the j u r o r by "Content",  or  stating  o r "Stand a s i d e " . The  number of c h a l l e n g e s which any accused may  i c u l a r case i s s e t out i n S e c t i o n 542  o f the Code.  are j o i n t l y charged and t r i e d , each accused  have i n any p a r t -  I f two  or more accused  i s e n t i t l e d t o the  of c h a l l e n g e s as he would have had i f he had been t r i e d a l o n e . i f the accused would be e n t i t l e d t o twelve would be e n t i t l e d t o the are two men  charged  same number F o r example,  c h a l l e n g e s i f t r i e d a l o n e , he  same number i f t r i e d j o i n t l y .  still  Accordingly, i f there  j o i n t l y w i t h the same o f f e n c e , and i f t h i s o f f e n c e would  e n t i t l e each o f them t o twelve  c h a l l e n g e s , t h e y w i l l have a t o t a l of twenty-  -  four challenges.  59 -  The u s u a l procedure  s e l v e s r e g a r d i n g the c h a l l e n g e s .  i s f o r defence  c o u n s e l t o agree among them-  G e n e r a l l y , one defence  t o exhaust h i s c h a l l e n g e s b e f o r e t h e o t h e r defence  c o u n s e l w i l l agree  c o u n s e l uses any o f h i s .  Crown c o u n s e l may stand a s i d e up t o f o r t y - e i g h t p r o s p e c t i v e  jurors.  G e n e r a l l y , Crown c o u n s e l w i l l stand a s i d e a l l those people who have s e r v e d on the immediately  p r e c e d i n g j u r y i n o r d e r t o a v o i d working any undue h a r d -  s h i p on any p a r t i c u l a r  person.  I f the j u r y i s not empanelled b y the time t h e C l e r k has r e c a l l e d most o f the names o f t h e people who a r e i n the f r o n t o f the Courtroom, he w i l l c a l l f u r t h e r j u r o r s t o the f r o n t o f the Courtroom. I f a j u r o r i s challenged, the S h e r i f f , o r the S h e r i f f ' s immediately  d i r e c t s him t o r e t u r n t o h i s seat i n the Courtroom.  officer, I f Crown  c o u n s e l stands him a s i d e , t h e S h e r i f f d i r e c t s him t o stand a t the o t h e r s i d e of t h e Courtroom. those  (e)  As soon as t h e j u r y i s empanelled, the S h e r i f f  directs  standing aside t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r seats.  Choosing  the J u r y Foreman.  Some judges i n s t r u c t t h e C l e r k t o r e q u e s t the members of the j u r y t o p i c k a foreman as soon as the twelve  j u r o r s have t a k e n the o a t h .  Other  judges i n f o r m the j u r o r s t h a t i n a few moments he w i l l be a d j o u r n i n g t h e Court i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may hang up t h e i r c o a t s and hats and g i v e messages t o t h e S h e r i f f , and t h a t w h i l e t h e y a r e d o i n g t h i s , t h e y s h o u l d choose a foreman.  I n the A s s i z e Court, the foreman s i t s i n t h e f r o n t row i n the c h a i r  n e a r e s t t h e f r o n t o f t h e Courtroom. I f t h e j u r y s e l e c t a foreman as soon as t h e y a r e empanelled, the foreman moves t o h i s s e a t .  The C l e r k t h e n r e - r e a d s t h e i n d i c t m e n t and puts  the p r i s o n e r i n charge o f the j u r y , q u o t i n g o r r e c i t i n g from memory a s t a n d ard  statement.  - 60 -  I f the j u r o r s choose t h e i r foreman d u r i n g the adjournment, the C l e r k does not r e - r e a d the charge and put the p r i s o n e r i n charge o f the  jury  u n t i l the resumption o f the C o u r t .  (f)  Balance o f J u r y P a n e l . As soon as t h e j u r y i s empanelled,  and those j u r o r s who  were s t o o d  a s i d e r e t u r n t o t h e i r s e a t s , the judge g e n e r a l l y i n f o r m s the j u r y t h a t hew i l l be h a v i n g a s h o r t adjournment i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may  hang up t h e i r c o a t s  and h a t s and g i v e messages t o the S h e r i f f f o r d e l i v e r y t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r employers.  He w i l l p o i n t out t h a t t h e y w i l l not be kept t o g e t h e r d u r i n g any  adjournments and t h a t t h e y w i l l be f r e e t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes a t the c l u s i o n o f e v e r y day's h e a r i n g except i n s e r i o u s c a s e s .  con-  He w i l l p o i n t out,  a l s o , t h a t t h e y must not d i s c u s s the case w i t h anyone w h i l e the case i s i n p r o g r e s s and t h a t t h e y must d e c i d e the case s o l e l y on the e v i d e n c e which t h e y hear i n t h e Courtroom.  I f the foreman has not a l r e a d y been chosen, the  judge w i l l t e l l the j u r y t h a t t h e y are t o choose t h e i r foreman w h i l e the Court i s a d j o u r n e d . The should r e t u r n .  judge w i l l txhen ask Crown c o u n s e l when the balance o f the p a n e l As soon as Crown c o u n s e l has a d v i s e d the Court when he r e -  q u i r e s the j u r y t o r e t u r n , the judge w i l l d i r e c t the S h e r i f f t o announce the date and time i n open Court and w i l l t h e n announce an adjournment f o r t e n or fifteen  (g)  minutes.  Trial. A f t e r the adjournment, or a f t e r the accused has been put i n charge  of the j u r y ( i f the j u r y d i d not choose  t h e i r foreman u n t i l the  the Crown c o u n s e l makes h i s opening a d d r e s s t o the j u r y .  The  adjournment),  l e n g t h o f the  address and the e x t e n t t o which Crown c o u n s e l d i s c u s s e s the f a c t s which he  - 61 proposes t o adduce i n e v i d e n c e w i l l depend on the n a t u r e o f t h e case and i t s complexity.  Some Crown c o u n s e l a d v i s e t h e j u r y o f t h e name o f each w i t n e s s ,  but i n d i c a t e m a i n l y what t h e e v i d e n c e w i l l b e . Crown c o u n s e l s h o u l d n o t mention any evidence t o t h e j u r y which he knows v a i l be c o n t e n t i o u s and may not be a d m i s s i b l e , a s , f o r example, i n c u l p a t o r y ( i n c r i m i n a t i n g ) statements by the a c c u s e d . At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f Crown c o u n s e l ' s opening a d d r e s s , he c a l l s the w i t n e s s e s who a r e t o t e s t i f y .  I f any c o u n s e l has any o b j e c t i o n t o a n y  e v i d e n c e w h i c h i s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d and w i s h e s t o submit a n argument as t o the a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e v i d e n c e , he s h o u l d a s k t h a t t h e j u r y be e x c l u d e d d u r i n g t h e argument.  I f Crown c o u n s e l seeks t o i n t r o d u c e i n c u l p a t o r y s t a t e -  ments b y the a c c u s e d , he s u g g e s t s t o t h e j u d g e , j u s t a s t h e w i t n e s s i s about t o g e t t o t h i s p a r t o f h i s t e s t i m o n y , t h a t t h e j u r y be e x c l u d e d i n o r d e r t h a t the judge may r u l e on the a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e v i d e n c e .  A f t e r the j u r y r e -  t i r e s t o t h e J u r y Room, t h e Crown proceeds t o c a l l w i t n e s s e s i n t h e within a t r i a l .  trial  At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h e testimony of the witnesses c a l l e d  by the Crown t h e judge a d v i s e s t h e accused t h a t he has t h e r i g h t t o t e s t i f y on t h e t r i a l w i t h i n a t r i a l and t o c a l l w i t n e s s e s a s t o t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e case.  I f t h e a c c u s e d , o r h i s c o u n s e l , i n d i c a t e s t h a t he does n o t w i s h t o  g i v e e v i d e n c e o r c a l l w i t n e s s e s , t h e judge w i l l a s k f o r s u b m i s s i o n s b y couns e l as t o the a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f t h e statement. At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e C w n ' s t e s t i m o n y , defence c o u n s e l may r0  make a M o t i o n f o r a d i r e c t e d v e r d i c t .  T h i s M o t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s made i n t h e  absence o f t h e j u r y . I f defence c o u n s e l does n o t make such a M o t i o n , o r i f t h e judge r e j e c t s h i s M o t i o n , defence c o u n s e l must t h e n i n d i c a t e whether he i n t e n d s to c a l l evidence o r not.  I f he e l e c t s t o c a l l e v i d e n c e he may, i f he w i s h e s ,  - 62 -  make an o p e n i n g statement t o t h e j u r y a l o n g t h e same l i n e s as t h a t made b y Crown C o u n s e l .  Whether defence c o u n s e l makes an opening statement depends  on defence c o u n s e l and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a s e .  (h)  There i s no s e t p r a c t i c e .  Addresses b y C o u n s e l . At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e c a s e , c o u n s e l a d d r e s s e s the j u r y .  If  defence c o u n s e l has c a l l e d a n y e v i d e n c e , he must address t h e j u r y f i r s t . I f he does not c a l l any e v i d e n c e , Crown c o u n s e l must a d d r e s s t h e j u r y f i r s t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , Crown c o u n s e l has t h e r i g h t o f r e p l y , b u t i n p r a c t i c e t h i s r i g h t i s never e x e r c i s e d . N e i t h e r c o u n s e l s h o u l d e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n d u r i n g h i s a d d r e s s as t o the  g u i l t o r innocence o f t h e a c c u s e d , nor s h o u l d he d w e l l on t h e l a w . H i s  main f u n c t i o n i s t o d i s c u s s t h e e v i d e n c e and suggest t h e i n f e r e n c e s w h i c h c o u l d and s h o u l d be drawn from t h e e v i d e n c e .  Of c o u r s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y i n  many c a s e s f o r him t o r e f e r t o t h e l a w g e n e r a l l y , b u t o n l y i n s o f a r as i t a s s i s t s t h e j u r y t o u n d e r s t a n d c o u n s e l ' s s u b m i s s i o n on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  evidence. Judges t r y t o arrange t h e a d d r e s s e s so t h a t one f o l l o w s t h e o t h e r ,  s i n c e i t i s n o t r e a l l y f a i r t h a t c o u n s e l s h o u l d a d d r e s s t h e j u r y and t h a t h i s a d v e r s a r y s h o u l d have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o address the j u r y on the f o l l o w i n g day. (i)  Judge's Charge• At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e two a d d r e s s e s o f c o u n s e l , t h e judge w i l l  charge t h e j u r y , o u t l i n i n g t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e case and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v e r d i c t t h e y may c o n s i d e r .  I n c o m p l i c a t e d c a s e s , many judges p r e f e r t o have  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n s i d e r h i s n o t e s o v e r n i g h t b e f o r e c h a r g i n g t h e j u r y , o r at  l e a s t f o r one o r two h o u r s .  At. t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e judge's c h a r g e , he d i r e c t s t h e j u r y t o r e t i r e , b u t n o t t o c o n s i d e r t h e case u n t i l such t i m e as he had had a n opport u n i t y t o hear s u b m i s s i o n s from c o u n s e l i n t h e j u r y ' s absence. the  As soon a s  j u r y has r e t i r e d t o t h e J u r y Room, t h e judge a s k s c o u n s e l i f t h e y have  any s u b m i s s i o n s . There i s no s e t p r a c t i c e a s t o w h i c h c o u n s e l he a s k s f i r s t , though v e r y o f t e n judges a s k Crown c o u n s e l f i r s t .  At t h i s time, e i t h e r  coun-  s e l may make a s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e judge r e g a r d i n g h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e l a w and on t h e f a c t s , o r t h e absence o f i n s t r u c t i o n on law and on f a c t s .  It i s  f o r t h e judge t o d e c i d e whether he w i l l r e c a l l t h e j u r y and d i r e c t i n a c c o r d ance w i t h t h e r e q u e s t o f c o u n s e l .  I f he d e c i d e s not t o r e c a l l t h e j u r y , he  w i l l so a d v i s e c o u n s e l a t t h e end o f c o u n s e l ' s s u b m i s s i o n and he w i l l  instruct  the S h e r i f f o r h i s o f f i c e r t o go i n t o t h e J u r y Room and t e l l the j u r y t h e y may commence t h e i r (j)  deliberations.  Adjournments t h r o u g h o u t t h e T r i a l . G e n e r a l l y , t h e judge w i l l a d j o u r n f o r t e n minutes o r so a f t e r e a c h  hour o f t h e t r i a l i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e j u r y a r e s t .  At t h e close o f the hear-  i n g e a c h day the judge g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t s t h e j u r y n o t t o d i s c u s s t h e case w i t h anyone. I f the jury r e t i r e s t o deliberate  a t any t i m e r e l a t i v e l y near t h e  luncheon adjournment o r t h e a f t e r n o o n adjournment, t h e judge d i r e c t s t h e S h e r i f f t o e n q u i r e whether t h e y w i l l want l u n c h o r d i n n e r , as i t t a k e s about an hour t o o b t a i n t h i s f o r t h e j u r y .  (k)  Exhibits. E x h i b i t s a r e e n t e r e d n u m e r i c a l l y , e x c e p t t h o s e w h i c h a r e t o be  marked f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . These a r e marked w i t h a l e t t e r f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . When photographs a r e f i l e d a s e x h i b i t s , t h e Crown g e n e r a l l y produces  - 64 -  10 c o p i e s o f the photograph - one f o r the f i l e ,  one f o r t h e judge, one f o r  Crown c o u n s e l , one f o r defence c o u n s e l and s i x f o r the j u r y .  One o f t h e  photographs i s marked w i t h t h e number, say, f o r example ( l ) and Crown c o u n s e l asks t h a t t h e R e g i s t r a r mark the n i n e r e m a i n i n g c o p i e s ( l a ) , ( l b ) , e t c . same procedure  The  i s f o l l o w e d w i t h o t h e r documents and papers o f which t h e r e i s  more t h a n one copy, f o r example, maps o r f i n g e r p r i n t  charts.  G e n e r a l l y , i f an accused i s c o n v i c t e d , the judge w i l l remand him i n c u s t o d y f o r sentence, a l t h o u g h he may, o f c o u r s e , sentence  immediately  or he may a l l o w h i s b a i l t o continue and r e l e a s e him pending the i m p o s i t i o n of  3.  sentence.  The Court o f A p p e a l . The  p r o c e s s of h e a r i n g an a p p e a l i n the Court o f Appeal i s l e s s  complex t h a n the p r o c e s s evidenced i n the t r a d i t i o n a l t r i a l by j u r y .  An  a p p e a l , i n e s s e n c e , i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a r e h e a r i n g o f t h e c a s e , b u t t h i s i s a v e r y m i s l e a d i n g term.  The Court o f Appeal does not a c t u a l l y hear the  case a g a i n i n the sense o f l i s t e n i n g t o w i t n e s s e s .  The evidence t h a t i s  c o n s i d e r e d i s i n t h e form o f a t r a n s c r i p t p r e p a r e d b y a c o u r t r e p o r t e r from the lower c o u r t s .  I t i s these t r a n s c r i p t s and the procedure t o be o u t l i n e d  h e r e i n t h a t make up the p r o c e s s o f a h e a r i n g i n the Court o f A p p e a l . In t h e case o f a n a p p e a l from sentence, f o r example, an a p p e l l a n t w i s h i n g t o v a r y o r reduce h i s sentence, the a p p e l l a n t must o b t a i n l e a v e from a s i n g l e Appeal Court judge.  I n p r a c t i c e , he appears b e f o r e the judge  i n h i s p r i v a t e chambers w i t h c o u n s e l , i f r e p r e s e n t e d , about an hour b e f o r e the a p p e a l h e a r i n g .  The Appeal Court judge t h e n s c r e e n s the nature o f t h e  a p p e a l b y l o o k i n g a t the evidence i n the t r a n s c r i p t a l o n g w i t h a pre-sentence report prepared by a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  I f there i s s u f f i c i e n t  justification  -  6  5 -  t o hear t h e case i n open c o u r t , t h e judge i n h i s d i s c r e t i o n w i l l g r a n t l e a v e to appeal.  The h e a r i n g of t h e a p p e a l t h e n t a k e s p l a c e b e f o r e a quorum o f  t h r e e judges o f t h e Court o f Appeal, o r i n s e r i o u s cases such as murder, b e f o r e a quorum o f f i v e  judges.  I t has been common p r a c t i c e s i n c e 1 9 5 9 f o r  many sentenced t o p r i s o n t o l a u n c h an a p p e a l w i t h i n t h e 3 0 day l i m i t  from  c o n v i c t i o n as a matter o f r o u t i n e s i n c e t h e p e r i o d of t h e i r o r i g i n a l  sentence  c o n t i n u e s t o r u n a l t h o u g h t h e y are a p p e a l i n g t h e c a s e .  I n p r i o r years the  o r i g i n a l sentence, i f appealed, would r u n from r e f u s a l o r d i s m i s s a l o f t h e appeal.  T h i s i n v a r i a b l y " c l o g s " the schedule o f the Court o f Appeal w i t h  c r i m i n a l a p p e a l s , many b y " j a i l h o u s e l a w y e r s " , without j u s t i f i c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the o p i n i o n o f one judge.  I t has been e s t i m a t e d b y one judge o f t h e  Court o f A p p e a l t h a t 5 0 p e r cent o f t h e cases appealed from sentence have no merit at a l l ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n i n s t a n c e s where the c o n v i c t e d p e r s o n appears w i t h -  out c o u n s e l .  One judge i n d i c a t e d , however, t h a t i f an a p p e a l appears t o be  e x t r e m e l y f r i v o l o u s , t h e y have i n c r e a s e d t h e sentence t o a c t as a d e t e r r e n t f o r other offenders launching s i m i l a r f r i v o l o u s appeals. The p r o c e s s o f t r i a l i s f a i r l y simple whether i t i s an a p p e a l from c o n v i c t i o n or sentence.  The a p p e l l a n t , o r h i s c o u n s e l , i n d i c a t e s t o the  c o u r t t h e nature o f h i s a p p e a l , g i v i n g grounds ( r e a s o n s ) why i t i s b e i n g sought.  These grounds have, b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g , been d i s t r i b u t e d amongst  the judges and the respondent  (Crown C o u n s e l ) .  S i m i l a r l y Crown C o u n s e l has  d i s t r i b u t e d h i s m a t e r i a l i n d i c a t i n g why t h e a p p e a l s h o u l d be d i s m i s s e d .  The  grounds o f a p p e a l may be based on m a t t e r s o f f a c t o r p o i n t s o f law which the a p p e l l a n t w i l l attempt t o i n d i c a t e were s e t t l e d e r r o n e o u s l y i n t h e c o u r t below.  C o u n s e l does t h i s b y r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t  of evidence o f t h e lower c o u r t .  A f t e r o u t l i n i n g the reasons f o r a p p e a l , the  c o u n s e l f o r the a p p e l l a n t t h e n c i t e s p r i n c i p l e s o f law from cases t o c o r r o b o r -  - 66 -  ate  h i s argument. When t h e a p p e l l a n t ' s argument i s completed the quorum o f judges  w i l l q u e r y any p o r t i o n o f t h e a p p e l l a n t ' s argument by q u e s t i o n i n g h i s c o u n s e l or d i r e c t i n g him t o a p o r t i o n o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t and r e q u e s t i n g f u r t h e r ication.  clarif-  A t the end o f t h e a p p e l l a n t ' s s u b m i s s i o n s , t h e judges u s u a l l y have  a " w h i s p e r i n g " conference i n open c o u r t amongst t h e m s e l v e s .  At t h i s  juncture,  t h e y may n o t a c c e p t f u r t h e r argument and d i s m i s s the a p p e a l i n d i c a t i n g t h e a p p e l l a n t ' s case d i d not w a r r a n t f u r t h e r d e l i b e r a t i o n . I n most i n s t a n c e s , however, the respondent his  (Crown C o u n s e l ) makes  r e p l y t o t h e a p p e l l a n t ' s case i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , o u t l i n i n g h i s a r g u -  ment why t h e a p p e a l s h o u l d be d i s m i s s e d and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g h i s p o s i t i o n by l e g a l p r e c e d e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s . At t h e end o f b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f argument t h e c o u r t may t h e n reserve t h e i r d e c i s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n cases i n v o l v i n g complicated p o i n t s of c r i m i n a l law.  However, the u s u a l p r a c t i c e i s t o d i s p e n s e w i t h the h e a r i n g  the same day, as the p r i s o n e r i s r a r e l y out on b a i l i n c r i m i n a l c a s e s i n t h e Court o f A p p e a l , t h u s making i t n e c e s s a r y t o come t o a j u s t d e c i s i o n as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  However, i t has been known t h a t c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s i n  t h i s c o u r t have been r e s e r v e d a month o r more because of c o m p l i c a t e d l a w . The judge on h e a r i n g t h e a p p e a l may: (a) A l l o w t h e a p p e a l b y a c q u i t t i n g t h e p e r s o n , i f i t i s an a p p e a l from c o n v i c t i o n .  Seldom i s one a c q u i t t e d t o go f r e e as i n E n g l a n d ; i n most  i n s t a n c e s t h e v e r d i c t o f t h e l o w e r c o u r t i s quashed, and a new t r i a l i s a l l o w e d . (b) A l l o w t h e a p p e a l from sentence and reduce i t a c c o r d i n g l y i f i t was t o o h a r s h i n the f i r s t (c)  instance.  Dismiss appeals.  - 67 -  (d)  Refuse t o a l l o w an a p p e a l and a l s o s u b s t i t u t e an even h i g h e r  s e n t e n c e , i f so w a r r a n t e d b y t h e j u d g e s .  CHAPTER V THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE SOME CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES  1.  G e n e r a l C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations The p r i n c i p l e theme the w r i t e r has endeavoured t o e x h i b i t  throughout  t h e s t u d y i s t o b r i n g an a i r of wholesome a n a l y s i s t o the p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e i n Vancouver.  I n e s s e n c e , t h e s t u d y lias i n d i c a t e d t h a t  law  and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a sound t r a d i t i o n a l development r e l a t e d t o t h e E n g l i s h system p r i m a r i l y due t o h i s t o r i c a l t i e s i n commerce and i n d u s t r y d u r ing  the p a s t 70 y e a r s .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e c o u r t s  i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and p r a c t i c a l system w h i c h has been developed the E n g l i s h m o d e l .  The  from  s t u d y surveyed t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e i n t h e  M a g i s t r a t e ' s c o u r t , o u t l i n i n g how a l l c r i m i n a l cases are c h a n n e l l e d f r o m t h i s j u d i c i a l f o c a l p o i n t t o the t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s .  The  proced-  u r a l p r o c e s s e s t o t h e h i g h e r c o u r t s i n d i c a t e d a r a t h e r complex system, a l though i t was  i n d i c a t e d t h a t much o f i t s c o m p l e x i t y was developed  over hun-  dreds o f y e a r s f o r one f u n c t i o n a l o n e , t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l before the c o u r t s . In  s p e c i f i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g t h e t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s the  s t u d y i n d i c a t e d c e r t a i n i n a d e q u a c i e s w h i c h i n v a r i a b l y a f f e c t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e and u l t i m a t e l y , the i n d i v i d u a l .  For a c o n c l u d i n g summary  the w r i t e r w i l l r e v i e w these main a r e a s and make c e r t a i n recommendations. (a)  The b e g i n n i n g of any s u b s t a n t i a l charge i n t h e p r e s e n t admin-  i s t r a t i o n w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e a c r i t i c a l l o o k a t some o f i t s j u d i c i a l isms i n t h e l i g h t o f modern r e a l i t i e s . w i t h the  anachron-  Because of t h e d a i l y p r e - o c c u p a t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e t h e r e i s a tendency t o r e g a r d t h e p r e s e n t  - 69 -  structure sacrosanct.  As e v i d e n c e d b y t h i s s t u d y , t h e Court House, t h e  p h y s i c a l p l a n t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i n Vancouver,  has o u t l i v e d  i t s u s e f u l n e s s . The t o t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u f f e r s because o f inadequate f a c i l i t i e s b o t h f o r c o u r t p e r s o n n e l and l i t i g a n t s a l i k e .  The l e g a l l o n g  v a c a t i o n s o f J u l y and August i s a n o t h e r t h o r n i n t h e s i d e o f good a d m i n i s t r a tion.  T h i s h o l i d a y was o r i g i n a l l y adapted t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a n e a r -  l i e r e r a where the work l o a d o f judges was l e s s demanding.  At the present  time c i v i l and c r i m i n a l c a s e s cannot be h a n d l e d a d e q u a t e l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r iod  because o f t h i s p r o c e d u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n .  F u r t h e r , t r a d i t i o n a l pomp and  a u s t e r e and complex procedure i n t h e c o u r t s do v e r y l i t t l e t o promote t h e due p r o c e s s o f t h e l a w . A c r i t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i s e s now e x i s t i n g i s c e r t a i n l y needed. (b)  The p r e s e n t s t u d y has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s an e x t r e m e l y  heavy work l o a d o f c i v i l and c r i m i n a l cases c a r r i e d b y t h e 15 Supreme Court judges.  T h i s has been a l l e v i a t e d t o some e x t e n t t h r o u g h r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n  by d e l e g a t i n g c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t o t h e County C o u r t i n t r y i n g c a s e s where an accused e l e c t s t o be t r i e d b y a judge and j u r y . however, t h a t a s t i l l b e t t e r apportionment  I t i s recommended,  o f the cases between the two  c o u r t s be c o n s i d e r e d where e q u a l powers be g i v e n t o the County Court judge, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e Supreme Court j u d g e s , when i n t e r viewed, were n o t i n a c c o r d w i t h t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n .  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the  Supreme C o u r t ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o the County Court judges i n each o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s o u t s i d e o f Vancouver would c e r t a i n l y e l i m i n a t e t h e need to  send Supreme Court judges o u t on c r i m i n a l a s s i z e s .  T h i s would  invariably  a l l o w them t o c o n c e n t r a t e on o n l y t h o s e c r i m i n a l cases a p p e a r i n g i n t h e Vancouver j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h u s f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f t r i a l s and e l i m i n a t i n g  - 70 much of the d e l a y and b a c k l o g o f work. (c)  I t has been i n d i c a t e d i n the s t u d y t h a t the c l e r k s o f the  t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s are h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t p e r s o n n e l , w o r k i n g q u i t e independently  w i t h wide d i s c r e t i o n a r y d u t i e s .  However, as a framework f o r  f u r t h e r changes, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must t a k e a l o n g and  searching look at  the p r o c e d u r a l p o l i c i e s c a r r i e d out by the c l e r i c a l s t a f f .  The  questionnaire  completed by the t h r e e c r i m i n a l c l e r k s f o r t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e  are  no s t a f f meetings and a l a c k o f d e f i n i t i v e p r o c e d u r a l p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n manual f o r m .  Much o f t h e procedure t h a t has been i n t r o d u c e d o r amended i s  u n w r i t t e n and known o n l y by the c r i m i n a l c l e r k s .  There i s a l s o a tendency on  the p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the C o u r t R e g i s t r y t o " p i g e o n h o l e " v a r i o u s c l e r k s , thus r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g experiences c i v i l f i e l d s of  t o e i t h e r the c r i m i n a l o r  law.  I t i s recommended t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g course be developed f o r a l l c l e r k s i n the Court R e g i s t r y w i t h s t a f f m e e t i n g s made compulsory i n order t o i n v o l v e the t o t a l c l e r i c a l s t a f f i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . t h e r , modern management methods o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d be t o a s s i s t the f l o w o f c l e r i c a l work i n the (d)  Fur-  introduced  court.  As p r e v i o u s l y s t r e s s e d , t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r has an  f u n c t i o n i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f h i s r e p o r t s f o r the C o u r t .  important  What i s more impor-  t a n t i s t h a t he i s a v i t a l l i n k between the p r o f e s s i o n of S o c i a l V«ork and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e where h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g a f a i r sentence i n each p a r t i c u l a r c a s e .  enable the judge  The  c o u r t must have  adequate i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the i n t e l l i g e n t s e n t e n c i n g o f c o n v i c t e d p e o p l e . f o r t u n a t e l y , as i n d i c a t e d i n the s t u d y , many judges and c o u n s e l s t i l l do f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e o f a good p r o b a t i o n r e p o r t and  the  consequently  Unnot  - 71 t h e y a r e not u t i l i z i n g t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e s u f f i c i e n t l y .  I t i s recom-  mended t h a t t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Branch o f t h e Department o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and t h e c o u r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n cooperate  i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e important f u n c t i o n  o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n the t h r e e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l c o u r t s . (e)  L e g a l e d u c a t i o n has n e g l e c t e d some v e r y i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l i n  r e s p e c t t o t h e appointment o f j u d g e s .  As a l a w s t u d e n t and l a w y e r , t h e w r i t e r  was e x p e c t e d t o know something o f t h e system o f l a w c o u r t s and j u r i s p r u d e n c e . T h i s i n v a r i a b l y i n v o l v e d a h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s b u t made l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e t o the importance der.  o f s e n t e n c i n g and i t s e f f e c t on t h e o f f e n -  Judges, l i k e l a w y e r s , a l s o a r e l a c k i n g t h i s academic r e q u i s i t e .  It is  recommended t h a t a judge, when j u d i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d , be r e q u i r e d t o undertake some o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f s e n t e n c i n g i n c r i m i n a l l a w .  F u r t h e r , a judge  s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f p u r s u i n g independent s t u d i e s a t a U n i v e r s i t y o f h i s c h o i c e w i t h f u l l expenses p a i d t o e v a l u a t e j u d i c i a l systems i n other c o u n t r i e s .  A c r i m i n a l t r i a l , p r o p e r l y conducted,  i s one o f t h e b e s t  p r o d u c t s o f our l e g a l system, p r o v i d e d one w a l k s out o f c o u r t b e f o r e  sentence  i s g i v e n ; i f one remains t o t h e end, he may f i n d i t t a k e s f a r l e s s time and e n q u i r y t o s e t t l e a man's p r o s p e c t s i n l i f e t h a n i t has t a k e n t o f i n d o u t whether he t o o k a s u i t c a s e o u t o f a parked 2.  automobile.  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e - Some P e r s p e c t i v e s Far t o o o f t e n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i s considered as i f i t  were a c l o s e d m e t a p h y s i c a l system composed s o l e l y o f l a w y e r s and j u d g e s .  It  i s hoped t h a t i t i s o b v i o u s b y now f r o m what has been r e v i e w e d t h a t t h e admini s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f law i s a complex o f many e l e m e n t s .  C e r t a i n l y , one may  argue t h a t t h e l e g a l system appears t o be a s t a t i c model c o n s i s t i n g o f c l o s e d rules.  I n many r e s p e c t s , t h i s i s t r u e due t o t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e law toward  c o n s e r v a t i s m and r i g i d i t y .  Y e t , one must c o n s i d e r a t t h e same time t h e n a t u r e  - 72 of t h e j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s ,  the range of p o s s i b l e f a c t s i t u a t i o n s , the d i s c r e t -  i o n a r y powers of judges and  c l e r k s a l i k e , and the r e s u l t a n t impact of t h e s e  on i n d i v i d u a l s i n the c o u r t s .  The  inference u s u a l l y conjured  up by laymen  t h a t law i s a s t a t i c model i s a t t i m e s a most i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t i o n l e g a l system we  represent  the  l i v e under.  It i s misleading and r u l e s .  of  t o i n f e r t h a t law i s s o l e l y dependent on p r e c e d e n t s  L e g a l p r e c e d e n t s and r u l e s are not s e l f - c o n t a i n e d dogma.  They  c l u s t e r s of v i b r a n t i d e a s which e n t e r i n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s e s of law i n t h e course of e v a l u a t i n g the m e r i t s of each c a s e , and w h i c h , i n t u r n , s e t s t a n d a r d s f o r f u t u r e c a s e s .  The  administra-  t i o n of j u s t i c e , l i k e the l e g a l r u l e s i n which i t i s expressed, i s an openended system, and as such i s e v e r e x p a n d i n g , c o n t r a c t i n g and r e f o r m i n g  under  the m e r i t s of each case i t e n t e r t a i n s and t h e s o c i e t y t o w h i c h i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e . By a n a l o g y , t h i s i s what i s r e f e r r e d t o as the h o m e o s t a t i c b a l a n c e i n S o c i a l Work.  Law  and  i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have such a b a l a n c e , a l s o .  Law  is  not a bundle o f r u l e s w i t h r i g i d l i n g u i s t i c b o u n d a r i e s but an e v e r f l u c t u a t i n g and m a t u r i n g system c o n s t a n t l y s e l f - e v a l u a t i n g and f o r m i n g b e t t e r p a t t e r n s  of  maturity. Y e t , however f l e x i b l e and f u n c t i o n a l the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f may  justice  be t h e r e are i n d e e d c e r t a i n a r e a s of i t t h a t r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e v i s i o n .  I t i s i n these f o l l o w i n g a r e a s t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e i m p l a n t s poor p u b l i c image t h a t i n e v i t a b l y does i n j u s t i c e t o the t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f (a)  a of  justice.  Common C o u r t e s y and the  Court.  I n the County Court and Supreme Court i n Vancouver, where the most s e r i o u s of a l l c r i m i n a l t r i a l s are h e l d , one would e x p e c t the mantle o f cence and  c o u r t e s y , w h i c h ought t o c l o a k a l l men  a c c u s e d o f c r i m e , t o be  inno-  - 73 clearly visible.  Yet, i n many instances this mantle i s nowhere to be seen.  Often, one of the chief reasons for i t s absence i s the manner i n which the man charged with a crime i s presented to the court. Throughout the t r i a l , because of long established tradition, the man accused i s accorded a "vantage point" i n his own proceedings from an enclosed box-type structure labelled "the prisoner's dock",  (see photographs  2 and 3). The very appearance of this enclosure belies the fact that i n i t sits a man who i s presumed innocent i n the eyes of his peers.  Rather, i t  conveys the distinct impression that i n i t sits a most dangerous man who must be effectively confined for the safety of a l l around him.  This " t r i a l c e l l "  is usually placed separate and apart from the counsel table, and i s far enough away from the seats occupied by the jurors so that they w i l l have a f u l l view of this purportedly innocent man.  To add to this "aura of inno-  cence" sturdy sheriffs as well as the R.C.M.P. are i n close attendance. While many aspects of the administration can be sharply criticized, this i s one feature of the system that i s the epitome of injustice. courts the man charged i s seated beside his counsel —  In American  so should i t be i n our  courts i n order to be f a i r and judicious. Further, i n a great number of cases, the man charged i s not i n a financial position to be released on b a i l prior to his t r i a l .  In these c i r -  cumstances the accused i s often seen handcuffed to an officer of the court while being escorted through the halls of the Court House i n f u l l view of the public. Another aspect of courtroom procedure which greatly weakens the presumption of innocence i s the loss of identity by the accused while a jury i s being empanelled.  Prospective jurors are paraded before the accused.  The court clerk intones the following words of gentle introduction, "Prisoner,  - 74 look at the juror; juror look at the prisoner". The prisoner with his counsel can then accept or challenge the prospective member of the jury.  In  this area, i t seems that courtesy and dignity i n the possession of the law is plucked from the man's identity.  In a brusque and austere manner the law  seems to transform the man on t r i a l , whose liberty i s at stake, into "the prisoner", with a l l the unfortunate innuendoes i t connotes. The "cult of the robe" i s another traditional prototype which bears criticism.  It has been the opinion of lawyers that the average citizen i s  "scared s t i f f " when he walks into a court room and i s faced with the judicial attire of both counsel and judge.  The chances of discovering the truth, as  one lawyer indicated, are diminished due to the witness being emotionally upset by the "strange language, unintelligible legal argument and costumes not dissimilar to that of Mandrake, the Magician".  1  In other words, the truth  is more likely to come out i n a relaxed and dignified atmosphere than i n the strange and austere surroundings accentuated by gowned lawyers and judges. Appearing i n business suits i s already a practise in Magistrate's Court as well as i n the chambers of judges.  This, seemingly, could also be considered  in the three higher courts. No better summation of this problem could be made than Br. Eliot Slater's statement: "Pomp and spectacle do of course play a part i n the process of l i f e . There is no section of the community which does not make use of ceremony, on ceremonial occasions. But most professions put aside frippery, the chains, the hoods, the wands of office, when they get down to the daily tasks; and the way the legal profession clings to this sort of nonsense i s anachronistic. It has a number of bad effects. By overawing the simple and inexperienced witness, i t saps his confidence and increases his tendency to confusion. The  1.  Bouck, John, "Some Observations on Legal Reform," The Advocate, Volume 22, March, 1964, page 50.  - 75 o t h e r v i c t i m i s t h e judge h i m s e l f who i s seldom able t o r e s i s t the s u g g e s t i o n , d a i l y r e i n f o r c e d over the y e a r s , t h a t he i n h i s p r o p e r p e r s o n i s something above the common run o f humanity, "-l(b)  Appointment and T r a i n i n g of Judges i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Justice.  I t i s no s e c r e t t h a t p o l i t i c s has a l o t t o do w i t h the s e l e c t i o n o f judges.  People a r e not s u r p i s e d when y e a r a f t e r y e a r v a c a n c i e s on the Bench  are f i l l e d by f a i t h f u l p o l i t i c a l p a r t y workers. There  i s t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e o f the f e d e r a l government i n power  t o hand out j u d g e s h i p s as plums t o p o l i t i c a l l y f a i t h f u l members of the p a r t y . Race, r e l i g i o n , o c c u p a t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n are a l s o  important  f a c t o r s ; u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s e are sometimes more important t h a n  qualifications  and competence ?" A p r o v i n c i a l survey was  t a k e n i n 1952  of the p o l i t i c a l  connections  3 of lawyers who m a t e r i a l was  were l a t e r e l e v a t e d t o the Bench.  revealed.  Out o f 26  Some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g  judges a p p o i n t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  22  were more or l e s s a c t i v e s u p p o r t e r s o f the p a r t y i n power a t Ottawa a t the time o f t h e i r appointments; of the o p p o s i t i o n .  2 were regarded as n e u t r a l and 2 were s u p p o r t e r s  In Alberta, i n the  same survey, a l l 22 a p p o i n t e d were  regarded as s u p p o r t e r s of the p a r t y i n power, and i n Saskatchewan a l l 33 were s i m i l a r l y q u a l i f i e d . out the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s .  S i m i l a r i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e s were t a b u l a t e d t h r o u g h The r e s u l t s are b e l i e v e d t o be a c c u r a t e enough t o  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s t r u t h i n the p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t the way  1. 2. 3.  for a  lawyer  S l a t e r , D r . S l i o t , "The J u d i c i a l P r o c e s s and the Ascertainment o f F a c t " , 24 Modern Law Review, 1961, page 722. Katz, Sidney, "Do Cur C o u r t s Dispense True J u s t i c e ? " , MacLean s, August, 1959, page 14. S c h m i t t , G i l b e r t , "Canadian P o l i t i c i a n s and the Bench", Saturday N i g h t , J u l y 19, 1952, page 7. 1  - 76 to become a judge i s to support actively one of the major parties and hope that i t w i l l be i n power at Ottawa when he i s at his prime. This i s not to say that those lawyers appointed because of certain political affiliations are not competent judges; i n fact, many have turned out to be quite outstanding.  It i s , however, evident that there is the  danger i n overlooking highly qualified people who would otherwise be excellent judges, except for the fact they were not of the same p o l i t i c a l faction at the time of appointment or do not take an interest i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e . A l l things being equal between two prospective appointees, i t i s more l i k e l y that the criterion of p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n would be the deciding factor. Certainly, i t i s evident that party politics should not be the basic criterion i n determining appointment and that some equitable system should be devised i n choosing the most qualified person. Another area of contention i s the previous experience of judges before being appointed to the Bench and i t s effect on the administration of justice.  Since Confederation the federal government has appointed as judges  many lawyers who have spent their lives doing the work of solicitors, some of whom have never acted as counsel i n criminal matters.  In many instances  the appointee, having put on his robe, has found himself dealing with branches of criminal law and evidence of which he has retained only a faded memory from student days.  The result i s that for the f i r s t two or three years he  is under a severe handicap and strain. It has been suggested that arrangements be made for a newly appointed judge, before he assumes his duties, to s i t on the Bench with an experienced judge, while he i s presiding over criminal t r i a l s .  1.  1  After six  Chitty, T., "The Training of Judges", Chitty's Law Journal. Volume 12, May, 1964, page 189.  - 77 months o f such e x p e r i e n c e and a d v i c e from t h e judges w i t h whom he w i l l have been s i t t i n g , work o f a j u d g e .  he w i l l have had a t l e a s t a r u d i m e n t a r y t r a i n i n g i n the Nor would i t be d i f f i c u l t t o a r r a n g e t h a t a new a p p o i n t e e  t o t h e Bench, b e f o r e he assumes h i s d u t i e s , be g i v e n n o t o n l y i n s t r u c t i o n s by a s e n i o r judge, b u t a l s o a c q u i r e s p e c i a l knowledge t h r o u g h c o u r s e s i n b e h a v i o u r i a l s c i e n c e s , so n e c e s s a r y i n d e t e r m i n i n g sentences f o r an o f f e n d e r . Presumably,  such a t r a i n i n g course c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d b y the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ,  or perhaps be a r r a n g e d b y t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e o f the Supreme C o u r t and Court o f Appeal. I d e a l l y , t h e n , c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s h o u l d n o t c a l l f o r o v e r l y complex and profound l e g a l p r o c e s s e s .  I t s h o u l d not be a m a t t e r o f m y s t e r i o u s t a b o o s  and t r a d i t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a s p e c i a l c l a s s .  I n a democracy such as we  p r o f e s s t o have, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e s h o u l d be a m a t t e r o f l o g i c and good sense, d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t the i n d i v i d u a l from t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e s t a t e and t h e s t a t e from the e x c e s s e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Law i s n o t a s c i e n c e , b u t a m i x t u r e o f a r t , s c i e n c e , and p h i l o s o p h y w i t h t h e emphasis on t h e i n f i n i t e i t y and s o c i a l needs.  v a r i a t i o n s o f human b e h a v i o u r , human m o r a l -  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e d i r e c t concern of e v e r y p e r s o n ,  p r o f e s s i o n a l and l a y a l i k e , t o t a k e an a c t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e p a r t i n making h i m s e l f more knowledgeable  w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e .  Appendix I. SYSTEM OF COURTS EXERCISING CIVIL JURISDICTION IN CANADA CIVIL MATTERS  Supreme Court of Canada  Exchequer Court of Canada  Court of Appeal  Supreme Court of British Columbia  C i v i l Jurisdiction of Magistrate's & Family Courts.  SYSTEM OF COURTS EXERCISING CRIMINAL JURISDICTION IN CANADA Appendix I I  CRIMINAL MATTERS  I.  Indictable  Offences:  Supreme Court of Canada  Court o f Appeal of B. C. Supreme Court of B r i t i sh Columbia  IZZ Family & Juvenile  II.  County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l - Court  Courts  M a g i s t r a t e ' s Court  Summary C o n v i c t i o n O f f e n c e s :  Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia y County Court M a g i s t r a t e ' s Court  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  COUNTY  COURT  DISTRICTS Appendix I I I  UNITED  STATES  JURISDICTIONAL PROCEDURE IN VANCOUVER CRIMINAL COURTS  Appendix TV  C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada-  encel listed I Offences P a r t f 24-Summary C o n v i c t i o n s _ j Code^Section, n  Common A s s a u l t Vagrancy  Creating a Disturbance, e t c .  T r i a l Before M a g i s t r a t e Only  County Court  Supreme Court (<j>n law onlV)  Appeal  T h e f t (under $50 )  Murder  Assault  Rape  U n l a w f u l Assembly  Indictable Offences Code S e c listed - tion  Manslaughter Treason  Possession o f Stolen Property • etc.  etc.  Judge & J u r y  T r i a l before Magistrate Only  Only  Government L i q u o r Act Motor V e h i c l e A c t  Robbery Forgery Abortion  Social Assistance Act M u n i c i p a l By-law  Perjury etc.  L. By M a g i s t r a t e OR ?. County Court Judge's C r i m i n a l Court OR \. Judge & J u r y (Supreme  Ai i p e a l  Court o f Appeal . o f B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l Summary Convictions Act-  Preliminary Enquiry. E l e c t i o n b y the Accused o f the Three Modes o f T r i a l  Preliminary Enquiry  T r i a l by  A l l Other I n d i c t a b l e Offences...  Health Act  T r i a l Before M a g i s t r a t e Only Appeal  County  Supreme  Court  Court  Court)  ( i n law o n l y ) Appe a l  Appeal  Appeal  (on law o n l y )  Court o f Appeal o f B. C.  Appeal  A jpeal  Court o f Appeal o f B.C. (on law o n l y )  Appendix V Attorney General  Sheriff's Office  Crown Prosecutor  oecretarial Staff & Ushers f o rJudges o f -the t h r e e c o u r t s .  -  Inspector - of Legal Offices  '.  Court Reporter's  O f f i de  Probation Officer  Registrar of Vancouver  Deputy  Registrar  administrative Officer  Court o f Appeal Principal Clerk  —(£i±aioaiJ  Supreme C o u r t Senior Clerk (Criminal)  County Court Judges' Clerk (Criminal)  ADMINISTRATIVE S T A F F OF THE THREE HIGHER C R I M I N A L COURTS I N VANCOUVER  APPENDIX VI  QUESTIONNAIRE County C o u r t Clerk  Criminal  Supreme Court Clerk .  Criminal  Court o f A p p e a l Criminal Clerk-  1.  L i s t employees you super-; vise. |  4 Junior clerks,  4 Junior Clerks. County C o u r t C r i m i n a l C l e r k .  2 Senior c l e r k s , 1 Steno;  2.  What i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n t o those supervised?  None,  How t o r e c o r d and i s s u e documents i n County C o u r t C r i m i n a l p r o c e e d ings.  G e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s covering d a i l y d u t i e s i n Court o f A p p e a l and d i c t a t i o n o f a l l correspondence.  3.  Who a r e y o u r  Supreme C o u r t C r i m i n a l C l e r k C h i e f C l e r k , R e g i s t r a r and S e n i o r County C o u r t Judges.  C h i e f C l e r k , R e g i s t r a r , and C h i e f J u s t i c e o f Supreme C o u r t ,  C h i e f C l e r k , R e g i s t r a r , and Chief J u s t i c e o f Court o f Appeal.  Sometimes i n s t r u c t e d by C h i e f C l e r k t o cover c i v i l proceedings.  Very l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n .  Very l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n .  supervisors'  What i n s t r u c t i o n s do you r e c e i v e f r o m your s u p e r visors ~~5~. V«ho c h e c k s y o u r work?  No one - I n i t i a l s o f c l e r k i n d i c a t e No one - I n i t i a l s o f c l e r k i nt o Judge document i s r e a d y t o s i g n , d i c a t e s t o judge document i s j ready t o be s i g n e d by h i m .  Do your d u t i e s i n c l u d e recommendations r e g a r d i n g ! the work o f o t h e r employees? 7.  No,  Yes.  | No one - i n i t i a l s o f c l e r k j i n d i c a t e s t o judge document | i s r e a d y t o be s i g n e d b y I him. No.  I s y o u r work c o v e r e d by a h o f f i c e manual o r o t h e r written instructions?  No p o l i c y manual;governed by C r i m i n a l Mo p o l i c y manual; governed Code, S t a t u t e s , and R u l e s o f C o u r t , b y C r i m i n a l Code, S t a t u t e s , and Rules o f C o u r t .  No p o l i c y manual; governed by C r i m i n a l Code, S t a t u t e s , and R u l e s o f C o u r t .  What s t a n d a r d s have been * e s t a b l i s h e d f o r y o u r work?  E f f i c i e n c y and a c c u r a c y i m p o r t a n t  E f f i c i e n c y and a c c u r a c y i m p o r t a n t  E f f i c i e n c y and a c c u r a c y important .  What d e c i s i o n s do you make without r e f e r r i n g t o a higher a u t h o r i t y ?  A l l decisions required.in the operation of the Court.  A l l decisions required i n the operation of the Court.  A l l decisions required i n the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Court  1  Countv C o u r t C r i m i n a l Clerk  Supreme C o u r t C r i m i n a l Clerk  .L.  Court o f Appeal Criminal Clerk,  10. What k i n d o f d e c i s i o n s are r e f e r r e d t o a h i g h e r authority?  R e f e r m a t t e r s t o a judge when w i t ness o r c o u n s e l n o t p r e s e n t a t a designated time.  12. Vihat k i n d o f e r r o r s c o u l d be made i n y o u r work and what would be t h e consequence o f these e r r o r s ?  1. C o u l d n e g l e c t t o make a n o t a t i o n i n j u d g e ' s d i a r y ; so judge would not be a v a i l a b l e i n m a t t e r . 2. C o u l d n e g l e c t t o i n f o r m RCMP r e g a r d i n g c r i m i n a l records which m i g h t n e c e s s i t a t e adjournment o f case . 3. C o u l d l o s e e x h i b i t s o f a case w h i c h m i g h t r e n d e r an a c q u i t t a l . 4. C c u l d n e g l e c t t o phone c o u n s e l r e g a r d i n g t r i a l w h i c h would i n volve considerable l o s s o f time. 5. C o u l d o v e r l o o k a n e r r o r on any l e g a l farm o r o r d e r w h i c h c o u l d l e a d t o a n a c q u i t t a l o r l e s s e r sentence I  1. To l o s e o r m i s p l a c e a n e x h i b i t 1. A l l o r d e r s and judgements w h i c h c o u l d d e l a y o r hamper a must be c o m p l e t e l y c o r r e c t trial. as v a r i o u s p r i s o n a u t h o r 2. To p u t i n c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on i t i e s depend on them i n i n assize court schedule, c e r t i f i c a t e ' t e r p r e t i n g court's d i r e c t of s e n t e n c e w a r r a n t s of Committal ion . o r C o n v i c t i o n forms c o u l d d e l a y 2. I n a l l c r i m i n a l a p p e a l s , justice. the r i g h t s o f a l l p a r t i e s 3. C o u l d n e g l e c t t o phone c o u n s e l c o u l d be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d of t r i a l date. i f e r r o r s were made. 4. Could w i t n e s s documents w i t h i n c o r r e c t d a t e , w h i c h c o u l d cause ! undue d e l a y o r a c q u i t t a l .  13. L i s t t h e persons with whom you have p e r s o n a l cont a c t as p a r t o f y o u r j o b .  1. Crown: p r o s e c u t o r - b y p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w and phone t o s e t t r i a l date a n d o u t l i n e e x h i b i t s . 2. J u d g e s - t o s e t t r i a l d a t e s i n person. 3. Lawyers - b y phone and i n p e r son r e g a r d i n g t r i a l d a t e s . 4. P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r - b y phone and i n p e r s o n r e g a r d i n g p r e - s e n t ence r e p o r t . 5. Warden a t O a k a l l a , Haney & B.C. P e n i t e n t i a r y - by phone c o n firming t r i a l dates t o f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s f e r of prisoners. °« R-C.M.P. - by phone o r d e r i n g c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s and t o a r r a n g e for prisoners attending court.  1. Crown C o u n s e l - b y p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t o s e t t r i a l d a t e and outline exhibits. " ^ 2* Judges - t o s e t t r i a l d a t e s i n person. 3. Lawyers - a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n - , i n g t o t r i a l i n p e r s o n and b y phone. 4. P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r - b y p e r s o n a l interview regarding pre-sentence r e p o r t . 5. V/arden a t O a k a l l a , Haney & B.C. P e n i t e n t i a r y - b y t e l e p h o n e and m a i l c o n f i r m i n g t r i a l d a t e s to f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s f e r o f p r i s oners . 6- R.C.M.P. - by p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w r e g a r d i n g 'records and prisoners. (cont'd)  Froposed changes i n r e g u l a t i o n s o r court procedures a r e reviewed b y the R e g i s t r a r o r t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e .  '.L i s t s o f - h e a r i n g d a t e s f o r appeals prepared a r e submitted t o Chief Justice f o r appeal.  1. Judges & M a g i s t r a t e s by m a i l f o r r e p o r t s and t h e r e s u l t s o f appeal. 2. L e g a l P r o f e s s i o n - p e r s - ' o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and t e l e phone t o a r r a n g e a l l m a t t e r s to do w i t h c r i m i n a l a p p e a l s . 3. R.C.M.P. - p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w and t e l e p h o n e t o arrange f o r p r i s o n e r s t o a t t e n d c o u r t and t o b r i n g records. It. O f f i c i a l i n charge o f Records O f f i c e , O a k a l l a , B.C. P e n i t e n t i a r y , & Haney Correctional Institution by t e l e p h o n e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on p r i s o n e r s , * (cont'd;  County C o u r t Clerk 13.  Criminal  Supreme C o u r t Clerk 1  (continued)  Criminal  Court c f Appeal Criminal Clerk.  5. P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r ^. * ^ ^ ^ ^ o u - w i . s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t o a d v i s e o f t r i a l s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and 8. O f f i c i a l C o u r t R e p o r t e r s - b y 8. O f f i c i a l C o u r t R e p o r t e r s - b y { t e l e p h o n e f o r r e p o r t s on personal interviews regarding t r i a l s appellants. 6. Judges o f C o u r t o f Appeal - i n person re daily trials.  I 7. S h e r i f f o f V a n c o u v e r - b y p e r -  lit. D e s c r i b e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n ; I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n about C r i m i n a l or r e c e i v e d f r o m g e n e r a l pub- T r i a l s and g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s covl i c i n connection w i t h your e r e d b y t h e C r i m i n a l Code, S t a t u t e s , work. and P r e c e d e n t .  Same,  ^^.^.^.^i  ! I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o p u b l i c •• on a p p e a l p r o c e d u r e o f ' t r i a l s 'and t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n ,  JPress, and r a d i o a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h !information regarding t r i a l s . 15. Do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c y and regulations?  No.  16. Does y o u r j o b r e q u i r e y o u j Y e s ; - F r e q u e n t l y l a w y e r s a r e to e x p l a i n p o l i c i e s o r r e g u l a - s s i s t e d i n completing v a r i o u s tions to others? forms. a  17. What documents o r c o r r e s - No s i g n i n g a u t h o r i t y e x c e p t b y Regpondence do vou s i g n ? i s t r a r o r Deputy R e g i s t r a r . 18. ing  L i s t some abnormal workconditions.  19. L i s t a n y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g methods o f work i n your d e p a r t m e n t .  Same. No, b u t my o p i n i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e R e g i s t r a r o r C h i e f J u s t i c e when r u l e s a r e b e i n g r e v i s e d .  Yes; - F r o c e d u r e & p r a c t i s e (forms). are e x p l a i n e d t o l a w y e r s . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n Summary C o n v i c t i o n A c t and o t h e r S t a t u t e s t o County C o u r t C l e r k . Same  Search f o r o l d r e c o r d s . j At times i t i s necessary t o search C a r r y i n g c r i m i n a l e x h i b i t s o f v a r - j d u s t y r e c o r d s and t o handle e x h i b ious weights - outboard motors, i t s which c o u l d be d a n g e r o u s , i . e . cases o f l i q u o r , f i r e a r m s . f i r e a r m s , d y n a m i t e , a c i d and b l a s t I i n g caps.  No a d v e r s e comments.  No, b u t s u g g e s t i o n s a r e j submitted t o the Chief J u s t i c e when r u l e s a r e b e i n g revised.  No adverse comments,  Y e s ; - P r o c e d u r e and p r a c t i s e developed through the years are i n t e r p r e t e d - f o r lawyers,  bame  Normal.  No a d v e r s e comments,  Appendix V I I  BIBLIOGRAPHY Bouck, John.  "Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on L e g a l Reform".  The Advocate. Volume 22,  March, 1964, pages 50-53. B r i t i s h Columbia:  Court o f A p p e a l A c t . R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  B r i t i s h Columbia:  County Court A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h  B r i t i s h Columbia:  Supreme C o u r t A c t , S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i960, c.374.  I960, c.82.  I960, c . S l  Canada:  B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , 1867,  Canada:  J u d g e s A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1963,  30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , C . 3 , S e c t i o n 91 & 92.  1  C h i t t y , T., "The T r a i n i n g o f Judges". 1964, p. 189. Doughty, A r t h u r . Katz, Sidney. Laskin, Bora.  pages 390-397.  Volume 22.  Edinburgh Press,  "Do Our C o u r t s D i s p e n s e True J u s t i c e ? " , Macleans, August,  p. 14-16.  Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law..  C a r s w e l l Company, i960.  P i r s i g , Maynard, Cases on J u d i c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M i n n e s o t a , 1946. Plommer, R.  c.8.  C h i t t y ' s Law J o u r n a l . Volume 12, May,  Canada and i t s P r o v i n c e s .  T o r o n t o , 1914,  Columbia,  "An Open L e t t e r t o t h e Court House".  1959,  Toronto.  West P u b l i s h i n g Co., The Advocate, Volume 22,  January, 1964, pages 18-19. P o p p l e , A.  C r i m i n a l Procedure and P r a c t i s e .  C a r s w e l l Company, T o r o n t o ,  Rand, I . "Some A s p e c t s o f Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m " . Volume 38, May, I960, pages 148-186. Schmitt, G i l b e r t . 19, Slater, Dr. E l i o t .  "Canadian P o l i t i c i a n s and t h e Bench". 1952, pages 7-9.  Canadian B a r Review, Saturday Night, J u l y  "The J u d i c i a l P r o c e s s and t h e A s c e r t a i n m e n t " .  Law Review. 1961,  pages 722-731.  1955.  24 Modern  T u r n e r , K. "The Role o f Crown C o u n s e l i n Canadian P r o s e c u t i o n s " , Canadian B a r Review. 1962, Volume 40, pages 439-463.  Photograph  1 -  The  Court House.  Photograph 2  -  The County Court Judge s Criminal Court. T  Photograph 3  -  The Supreme Court ( C r i m i n a l A s s i z e )  Photograph 4  The Court of Appeal  P h o t o g r a p h 5 - The  J u r y Room  Photograph 6  The  Court R e p o r t e r ' s Office  

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