UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Reversal and nonreversal shifts in Indian and white children Kee, Herbert William 1966

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REVERSAL AND NONREVERSAL SHIFTS IN INDIAN AND WHITE CHILDREN  by HERBERT WILLIAM KEE B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto (York U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in the Department of Psycho logy  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1966  the  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s requirements Columbia, for  thesis in partial  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  available  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  representatives.  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r  financial  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n  Department o f  ^^x^t^dL*?^ ---  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  (L&^Jl  \H LC  N  ABSTRACT T h i s study was designed t o e x p l o r e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of the t i o n s h i p between language and c o g n i t i o n . lation with populations d e f i c i e n t tion  rela-  Comparisons of a normal popu-  in v e r b a l a b i l i t y  r e l e v a n t t o the q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h i s  provide  relationship.  informa-  In  this  r e s p e c t , B . C . Indian c h i l d r e n were an a p p r o p r i a t e group f o r comparison w i t h normal w h i t e c h i l d r e n s i n c e they are a p p a r e n t l y d e f i c i e n t v e r b a l development.  It was c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h w h i l e  in  t o determine i f  there  a r e c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between Indian and white c h i l d r e n and i f a r e , t o determine i f  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s can be a t t r i b u t e d  ences in v e r b a l a b i l i t y verbal mediation  in the form of v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n .  differ-  Evidence of  i s assumed t o be e x e m p l i f i e d in the r e l a t i v e l y  ease of e x e c u t i n g a R o v e r a NR s h i f t . d e s i g n i n v o l v i n g age (7,8,9), s h i f t white),  to  A total  ( R - N R ) , and e t h n i c group  inter-  However, n i n e t e e n  white c h i l d r e n was  initially  tested.  f a i l e d to  learn the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to c r i t e r i o n w i t h i n  l i m i t of one hundred t r i a l s . was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Indian and t h r e e wht+e c h f f d p e n  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e  A n a l y s e s were conducted f o r the  s e l f - s e l e c t e d sample of f o r t y - e i g h t  On o r i g i n a l  differences or interactions  the proportions  resulting  Indian and f o r t y - e i g h t  dren who succeeded in a t t a i n i n g the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n  shift,  (Indian-  and e t h n i c g r o u p .  of s i x t y - s e v e n Indian and f i f t y - o n e  to the s h i f t t a s k .  greater  In a 3 x 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l  i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t  a c t i o n between s h i f t  there  white  chil-  and who went on  l e a r n i n g , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r t h i s s e l f - s e l e c t e d sample.  On the  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t o n l y f o r the s h i f t  factor,  iii with  the R s h i f t  f o r both e t h n i c whites NR  performance being groups.  s u p e r i o r t o MR s h i f t  performance  T h e r e w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  i n o v e r a l l performance o r i n t h e r e l a t i v e  Indians  difficulty  and  o f R and  shifts. Supplementary analyses  differences. consistent  were p e r f o r m e d t o e x p l o r e  I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e w h i t e c h i l d r e n w e r e  i n t h e speed w i t h  crimination  and s h i f t w h i l e ,  not.  Indian  Those  which they  learned  On t h e b a s i s o f  relatively dis-  c h i l d r e n were  in original  w h e r e a s t h o s e who w e r e " s l o w "  became " f a s t " on t h e s h i f t .  possible  both t h e o r i g i n a l  in c o n t r a s t , the Indian  c h i l d r e n who w e r e " f a s t "  " s l o w " on t h e s h i f t ,  card  other  learning  in original  became  learning  post-experimental  s o r t and v e r b a l i z a t i o n t e s t s , i t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e s h a p e  d i m e n s i o n was more s a l i e n t t h a n t h e s i z e d i m e n s i o n and t h a t children  were n o t as s u c c e s s f u l  i n g i v i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e  Indian  overt  label  to the t r i a n g l e concept. The action  specific  between s h i f t  general,  criterion  that there  w o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t  and e t h n i c g r o u p was n o t s u p p o r t e d .  t h e r e s u l t s from t h e supplementary analyses  significantly  Indian  hypothesis  more  Indian  than white c h i l d r e n f a i l e d  suggested that there  and w h i t e c h i l d r e n .  a mediational  deficiency  inter-  However, i n  and t h e f a c t  that  t o reach t h e f i r s t  wore c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s  between  T h e r e was no s p e c i f i c e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these  differences.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page C h a p t e r I.  I introduction:  ...............  - Language and Thought - R e v e r s a l and N o n r e v e r s a l M e d i a t i n g Responses  Chapter II.  Chapter I I I .  I 2  Shifts,  and 5  - The Indians of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A Subc u l t u r e f o r Study  12  - Tho H y p o t h e s i s  13  Method:  15  - Subjects  15  - Design  15  - Apparatus  16  - Procedure  17  Results:  ,...  - Original - Shi f t  21  Learning  21  Learning  - Card S o r t and  ,  22  Verbalization  Analyses  27  C h a p t e r IV.  Di s c u s s i o n :  29  C h a p t e r V.  Summary:  39  Bi b I i o q r a p h y : Appendix:  ,  t  41 45  V  L I S T OF TABLES Page Table  I.  Table 2.  Table  3.  Table 4.  Table 5.  Mean age ( i n y e a r s - m o n t h s ) o f o f w h i t e and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n  each age  16  Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f c r i t e r i o n on o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g . Anova o f t r i a l s learning.  to  criterion  on  trials  to ..  21  original 22  Means and s t a n d a r d c r i t e r i o n on s h i f t  deviations learning  Anova o f learning  criterion  trials  group  to  of  trials  to ,  for  23  shift ....  24  Table 6.  A n o v a o f t r i a l s t o c r i t e r i o n on s h i f t learning f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s as " f a s t " o r " s l o w " l e a r n e r s on t h e b a s i s o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g ( a g e f a c t o r c o l l a p s e d ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25  Table 7.  F r e q u e n c i e s o f I n d i a n and w h i t e c h i l d r e n i n b o t h s h i f t c o n d i t i o n s who s o r t on t h e b a s i s o f s h a p e o r n o t on t h e f i r s t s o r t .  27  Frequencies of Indian v e r b a l i z e d o r did not "triangle"  28  Table 8.  Table 9.  and w h i t e c h i l d r e n who v e r b a l i z e the concept  F r e q u e n c i e s o f I n d i a n and w h i t e c h i l d r e n i n b o t h s h i f t c o n d i t i o n s who s o r t on t h e b a s i s o f : both dimensions (shape o r s i z e f i r s t ) , shape o r s i z e o n l y , o r h a p h a z a r d l y .  45  v i L I S T OF FIGURES OR ILLUSTRATIONS Pa< Figure  I.  F i g u r e 2.  Figure 3.  Figure 4,  E x a m p l e s o f a r e v e r s a l and n o n r e v e r s a l ( f r o m K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r , 1962, p . 5)  shift  A s i n g l e u n i t and m e d i a t i o n a l S - R a n a l y s i s o f a r e v e r s a l and n o n r e v e r s a l s h i f t (from K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r , 1962, p . 6) Mean t r i a l s t o c r i t e r i o n on s h i f t l e a r n i n g a s a f u n c t i o n o f a g e , e t h n i c g r o u p and s h i f t Mean t r i a l s t o c r i t e r i o n f o r f a s t and s l o w I n d i a n ( s h i f t col lapsed)  ....6  8  ,.,...24  b e f o r e and a f t e r s h i f t and w h i t e c h i l d r e n .26  vi i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v i c e , s u p p o r t Dr, at  R.  Knox a r e g r a t e f u l l y  some p o i n t  expert Belyea,  typing  in the  acknowledged. were:  and s e c r e t a r i a l  Vivian  which the This  and m a t e r i a l s ;  experiment study  S t o r m and  contributed  L e e and P a t W a l d r o n w i t h  technical  and t h e  Dr. T.  O t h e r s who a l s o  a s s i s t a n c e ; Warren B e l l ,  a n d Tom J a c k s o n w i t h t h e i r  cerning apparatus  Storm.  study  and p a t i e n c e o f  advice  principals  Professor E.S.  in matters of  their  the  con-  schools  was c o n d u c t e d .  was s u p p o r t e d  by NIH MH G r a n t  10260-01  to  Dr. T.  F.  in  CHAPTER I IMTRODUCTION A l t h o u g h an I n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p l a n g u a g e and c o g n i t i v e little  concensus concerning the  promising, the  development  but  as y e t ,  developmental  tions.  Of  immediate  Is g e n e r a l l y  nature of  controversial  study of  this  is a stage  responses, although  as m e d i a t o r s  between e x t e r n a l  and K e n d l e r ,  1962;  Also,  it  Implies  I m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s and How v a l i d  furnish  Is m e d i a t i o n relevant  of  evidence to  research of  (NR) s h i f t s ,  support  the  is s i g n i f i c a n t  language in c o g n i t i v e  while  to assess t h e i r  responses  hypothesis  for  thoroughly.  I  It  serve  solving  In  The  evident. certain  verbal?  Is made by H . H .  proponents of  the  involving  present a substantial  the t h e o r e t i c a l  development.  work  behaviour  n e c e s s a r I Iy  verbal  there  mediation  necessarily verbal.  from s t u d i e s  p o s i t i o n of  situa-  (Kendler  i n many p r o b l e m  foremost  they  in  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s has  Information  Employing Inferences  (R) and n o n r e v e r s a l  deficiency  assumes t h a t  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  K e n d l e r and T . S . K e n d l e r , among t h e position.  It  is  Is  learning  I s s u e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e MDH a r e q u i t e  problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s ?  tion  problem  a v a i l a b l e , do n o t  1962).  Is e s s e n t i a l  that mediation  is the mediatlonal  One a t t e m p t t o  Reese,  of  is  One  i n human d e v e l o p m e n t ,  and o v e r t  Implications.  d o e s o c c u r and t h a t m e d i a t i o n tasks.  early  stimuli  K u e n n e , 1946;  i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n s and  relationship.  Is t h e m e d i a t l o n a l  relatively  of  acknowledged, there  in a v a r i e t y  (MDH), w h i c h p r o p o s e s t h a t in which v e r b a l  development  approach t o t h i s  mediation  interest  between t h e  mediation.  conception of  would t h e r e f o r e  media-  reversal amount  Their the  role  be  worth-  2 The p r i m a r y ourDose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e s c r i b e a study in which cross-cultural  comparisons on R and NR s h i f t  the f o l l o w i n g  introductory  v i d e d by a review of the  performance are made.  s e c t i o n , a g e n e r a l framework w i l l language-thought  be p r o -  i s s u e and a d i s c u s s i o n of  the  S u b s e q u e n t l y , the r e l e v a n c e , r a t i o n a l e , e v i d e n c e , and c r i t i c i s m s  MDH.  of R and NR s h i f t  studies will  be d i s c u s s e d .  s i n g l e u n i t (S-R) and m e d i a t i o n a l  (two-stage)  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , interpretations  of  d i f f e r e n c e s and e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e f o r and a g a i n s t m e d i a t i o n will  In  be c o n s i d e r e d .  children will  F i n a l l y , the reasons f o r s t u d y i n g B . C .  theory  Indian  be o u t l i n e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y , the h y p o t h e s i s of  experiment w i l l  shift  the  be made e x p l i c i t .  Language and Thought To say t h a t  language and c o g n i t i o n are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d does not  e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . are q u a l i t a t i v e  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , we o b s e r v e t h a t  d i f f e r e n c e s between younger and o l d e r c h i l d r e n  there in p e r -  formance on- a number o f c o g n i t i v e t a s k s and t h a t t h i s performance proves c o n c o m i t a n t l y w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n of  language; but we cannot  make c a u s a l I n f e r e n c e s on the b a s i s of such o b s e r v a t i o n s . s c h o o l s of thought seek t o c l a r i f y tion relationship.  Im-  Two d i v e r g e n t  the n a t u r e of the l a n g u a g e - c o g n i -  One c l a i m s t h a t the development of c o g n i t i o n .depends  upon the development of  language.  The o t h e r proposes t h a t  e x p r e s s e s changes o c c u r r i n g in n o n - l i n g u i s t i c c o g n i t i v e P i a g e t , one of the foremost exponents of the  language  development.  l a t t e r p o s i t i o n , has  p r e s e n t e d much e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n s t h a t " l a pensde precede le langage " ( P i a g e t , tially  1954, p. 54) and t h a t  " a symptom of u n d e r l y i n g o r i e n t a t i o n "  language Is e s s e n -  ( F l a v e l l , 1963, p. 271)  3  A more s p e c i f i c statement  i s g i v e n by Bel I i n :  . . . T h e Geneva group i s committed t o the view t h a t v e r b a l p r o c e s s e s become a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h l o g i c a l thought o n l y a f t e r the development o f ( n o n v e r b a l ) i n f r a l o g i c a l and l o g i c a l schema (Bel I i n , 1965, p. 319). Q u i t e s i m i l a r l y , a c c o r d i n g t o B r u n e r (1964) •number of r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t s ,  in h i s review o f a  language i s t h e u l t i m a t e s t a g e i n a p r o g r e s -  s i v e development of t h e v a r i o u s modes by which e x p e r i e n t i a l t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d , i n t e g r a t e d , and t r a n s f o r m e d .  It  Is the  by which the c h i l d i s " r e l e a s e d from immediacy" ( B r u n e r , 14) and e n a b l e d t o engage in s y m b o l i c c o g n i t i v e  informa-  1964, p.  activity.  In c o n t r a s t , the o t h e r s c h o o l o f thought emphasizes the of  tool  Importance  language in the developmental a s p e c t s of both c o g n i t i v e and p h y s i c a l  activity  ( K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r , 1962; K o s t y u k , 1959; M u l l e r  1951; Reese,  1962; and o t h e r s ) .  L u r i a f o r example, draws a t t e n t i o n  the importance of t h i s a b s t r a c t i n g and g e n e r a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n language  jn« Humphrey to  of  .. . . . . 11 becomes a l s o a means whereby he (the c h i l d ) o r g a n i z e s h i s own e x p e r i e n c e and r e g u l a t e s h i s own actions. So the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y i s mediated through words ( L u r i a , 1957, p. 116; a l s o L u r i a , 1959). S i m i l a r l y , L i u b l i n s k a y a concludes t h a t , The i n t r o d u c t i o n of language i n t o the p r o c e s s of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e - s t r u c t u r e s the whole a c t i v i t y of t h e a n a l y z e r and the whole p r o c e s s of sense perception...Simple differentiating — discriminating — t u r n s i n t o a r e a s o n i n g o p e r a t i o n , t h a t of compari n g . The c h i l d l e a r n s t o i s o l a t e common and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s i n two s i m i l a r s t i m u l i ( L i u b l i n s k a y a , 1957, p. 2 0 0 ) .  One o f the outgrowths of the emphasis upon language i s the MDH. To r e i t e r a t e , the MDH p u r p o r t s t h a t r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y ment, t h e r e  i s a s t a g e a t which v e r b a l  do not s e r v e as m e d i a t o r s .  in human d e v e l o p -  responses, although a v a i l a b l e ,  Two major s o u r c e s of e v i d e n c e a r e germane  4 to t h i s  hypothesis.  involves the  study of  t i o n of  language.  provide  information  these w i l l  The f i r s t , children  To a l a r g e e x t e n t , that  is  directly  evidence furnishes  Indirectly  pertinent  in o r d e r t o  t o t h e MDH.  determine  determine  in c o g n i t i o n .  aphasics  (Humphrey,  I960)  also  cognitive  be c o n s i d e r e d  Here,  l i n e of  and  language a r e r e l a t e d have  in if  to  language they  defi-  investigated 1964; Schuel I  s t u d i e s , deaf  research,as yet  t o t h e MDH, l i e s it  related to  differences  children  Some o f  these  cognitive  in the  functioning  will  of  use o f  cross-cultural  example, to  determine  these  language as a c o g n i t i v e  tool.  and t o  conare  approach poses a problem because i n f e r e n c e s about the  to mediation, yet  differences  study of  guite  see i f  t a s k employed must a l l o w relation  for  u n e x p l o r e d , but  i n p e r f o r m a n c e on v a r i o u s t a s k s  the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  confounding e f f e c t s  in the  w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e  be i n d i c e s o f  its  deficient  various  later.  sidered to  l a n g u a g e and  and  ( C a m p i o n e , Hyman ,and Z e a m a n , 1 9 6 5 ; Mi I gram  there- are c u l t u r a l • d i f f e r e n c e s  the c o g n i t i v e  is both d i r e c t l y  1 9 6 4 ; Zeaman and H o u s e , 1 9 6 3 ) .  pertinent  Methodologically,  of  i n v o l v e s the examination of  For example, studies  children  1963 and  comparisons.  approach  The s e c o n d m a j o r  deficiencies exist, in  this  t h e MDH; many  later. that  acquisi-  1 9 5 1 , C h . V I M ; J e n k i n s and S c h u e l l ,  A third possible  if  It  to  the  1964; K a t e s , Kates.,and M i c h a e l , 1962; S o l o v ' y e v ,  and r e t a r d e d  conceivably  detail  and a f t e r utilizing  relevant  1959) and i n c o n c e p t - f o r m a t i o n  1961 and  and F u r t h ,  studies  from p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n ,  least supposedly a r e ,  how d e f i c i e n c i e s  ciencies  and J e n k i n s ,  if  during,  information  populations that a r e , or at  (Furth,  before,  be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r  source of  do, to  as i s a p p a r e n t  in the  preclude the  use o f  potentially  languages t h e m s e l v e s .  It  5 is  in t h i s  r e s p e c t t h a t t h e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e  R and NR s h i f t s Reversal  a r e m a d e , a s s u m e s an i m p o r t a n t  and N o n r e v e r s a l  The t y p i c a l of  presenting  the  stimuli  Shifts,  procedure of  a two-choice  vary  studies  simultaneously  After  criterion,  the  interruption  the subject  learns the  Initial  sion  reinforced.  in o r i g i n a l  level  learning  t h e NR s h i f t  w i t h i n the  (the  discrimination)  Precisely which a s h i f t  I, p.  what p r e d i c t i o n s is  S-R o r  single-unit  theory  an R s h i f t  i n t h e NR s h i f t  were p r e v i o u s l y  learning,  w h e r e a s none o f  the  time of (Hunt,  the  dimension is  a r e made a s t o t h e  Is more e a s i l y a c q u i r e d t h a n  in o r i g i n a l  "correct"  the  correct  learning.  response is stronger  attainment  of  to  a  without  the  reievanf  in  predimen-  Irrelevant  reinforced  in  6).  responses  the  "shifted"  retative  l e a r n e d d e p e n d s upon t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  On one h a n d , s t r i c t  reinforced  is  same o r o r i g i n a l l y a level  (see F i g u r e  1  dimensions  In t h e R s h i f t ,  of  Subjects  discrimination  In c o n t r a s t , initial  the  consists  Usually,  dimensions.  on one o f  in subsequent p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  negative  shift  learning task.  response-reinforcement contingency  viously is  R and NR s h i f t s  a l o n g two b i n a r y level  which  Responses  involving  discrimination  ease w i t h  role.  and M e d i a t i n g  a r e rewarded f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o one each p a i r .  relative  Therefore, the  in  i n a NR t h a n  1962).  for  the  Also,  habit  adopted.  the  correct  original R shift  was e v e r  strength  i n an R s h i f t first  with  t h a t t h e NR  s i n c e some o f  responses i n t h e  the c r i t e r i o n  1 9 6 2 ; K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r ,  position  predicts  reinforced  ease  at  of the  discrimination  where t h e  number  of  ' Some s t u d i e s , e . g . , Camp i one et_ aj_. ( 1 9 6 5 ) p r o v i d e o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e v a r i o u s s h i f t s ' w h i c h , f o r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , n e e d n o t be discussed.  6 First Discrimination  Fig.  I.  Second Discrimination  Examples of a r e v e r s a l and n o n r e v e r s a l s h i f t (from K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r , 1962, p. 5 ) .  a s s o c i a t i o n s between i n i t i a t i n g  stimuli  is c a l c u l a t e d , "reversal s h i f t s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be more d i f f i c u l t 259).  and o v e r t t e r m i n a t i n g responses  a f f e c t more a s s o c i a t i o n s and  than n o n - r e v e r s a l s h i f t s "  ( G o s s , 1961, p.  On the o t h e r hand, the t w o - s t a g e m e d i a t i n g response t h e o r y  advanced p r i m a r i l y by H.H. K e n d l e r and T . S . K e n d l e r In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h R and NR s h i f t s , p r e d i c t s t h a t where m e d i a t i o n does o c c u r , R s h i f t s are e a s i e r t o  l e a r n than NR s h i f t s .  may be u t i l i z e d  in both o r i g i n a l  l e a r n i n g and t h e R s h i f t .  a new mediated response d i f f e r i n g in o r i g i n a l  K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r , 1962). t h a t the g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y  However,  f r o m , and r e p l a c i n g the one employed  l e a r n i n g , must be a c q u i r e d in a  the NR s h i f t more d i f f i c u l t  of p a r t i a l  H e r e , the same mediated response  NR s h i f t .  This renders  where m e d i a t i o n i s o p e r a t i n g (Hunt, One o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s  interpretation  in NR s h i f t s can be accounted f o r  reinforcement ( i . e . ,  "fortuitous"  1962; Is  i n terms  r e i n f o r c e m e n t on one  7 level  of  the  irrelevant  becomes r e l e v a n t Studies tempt t o  but  I960).  jects  that  in  l e a r n i n g and t h e  shift  for  both  relevant  interpretations  (1964),  of  shift  learning  (1965).  Another  They a t t r i b u t e a p r i n c i p a l —• i n e f f e c t ,  the  l i k e cue-producing verbal initiating 1964).  role to  in terms  terminating  It  important  to  verbal  and concept  equivalent  of  is  the responr-  r e s p o n s e s , can s e r v e as m e d i a t o r s and o v e r t  is  the  of  This proposes t h a t perceptual  stimuli  mediation  position.  be-  responses (Marsh,  note t h a t these and  of  and more  F i n a l l y , there  necessarily incompatible with, the  suggest  interpretation  "internal"  approach.  mediation  (1952)  the  (1962),  i s made by Zeaman and H o u s e ( 1 9 6 3 )  perceptual  complementary t o ,  the  would  than  f o r example,  p r o p o s e d by W y c k o f f  or observing responses.  are not  this  c a n be e x p l a i n e d  "external" orienting  pretations  (although  performance other  and Y o u n i s s ( 1 9 6 4 ) ,  response theory  1964; M c C o n n e l l ,  be-  may e v e n a i d some s u b -  H o u s e and Zeaman  b e t w e e n R and NR s h i f t s  selective attention  tween o v e r t  in  l e a r n i n g . ( K e n d l e r e_t  dimension  approach are p o s s i b l e .  (1965).  It  at-  R and NR s h i f t s ) ,  r e v i e w e d by S t o l l n i t z  R and NR s h i f t  ses,  one d i m e n s i o n  and p r o b a b l y c o m m u n i c a t e s t o  s o m e t h i n g h a s been c h a n g e d .  differences  Mackintosh  by e l i m i n a t i n g  (I960)  destroys the c o n t i n u i t y  the observing  of  and K e n d l e r , K e n d l e r , a n d W e l l s  however,  mediation  recently  shift).  This manipulation,  M i l g r a m and F u r t h that  level  shift  Me<jf I a t i o n a l verbal  l e a r n i n g , which  i 956) o r  f o c u s s i n g upon t h e  be c o n s t a n t  i n t h e NR  objection  learning  in o r i g i n a l  (Buss,  tween o r i g i n a l subject  (1956)  with t h i s  either original a I.,  negative  by B u s s  deal  dimension  fn  inter-  f a c t may be  Both the  S-R and t h e m e d i a t e d - r e s p o n s e S-R p o s i t i o n s  diagramatically  represented  In F i g u r e 2 .  It  is  are  interesting  to  note  SINGLE UNIT THEORY  Reversal  Shift  Nonreversal  Shift  -ae  I arge  sma I I  b I ack  MED I ATIONAL THEORY  R  S  r  s i ze.  s i ze  I arcie  S\ /  Rsma I  s i ze  R  I arqe  s i ze  Rw h i t e Sbright-  briqhtness  ness  b lack  Fig.  2.  A s i n g l e u n i t and m e d i a t i o n a l S - R a n a l y s i s o f a r o v e r s ? I and n o n r e v e r s a l s h i f t ( f r o m Ken.-Mer and KenHlor-, 1952, p. 6 ) .  in passing t h a t the mediating (usually ber of  assumed t o  explanatory  behavior,  e.g.,  Kendler,  1962).  Support tial.  Mussen,  be v e r b a l ) constructs  Hull's  for  the  for  cue-producing  "pure  response " r  is e s s e n t i a l l y the evoked t o  stimulus  hypothesis of  example, states  account  act''  verbal  s"  analogue of  for  (Hunt,  - -  more  a num-  complex  1 9 6 2 ; K e n d l e r and  mediation  is quite  substan-  that:  S k i l l in concept formation is c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of language, p a r t i c u l a r l y to l a b e l l i n g . A f t e r he h a s l e a r n e d t h e names o r l a b e l s a p p l i e d t o o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s , a c h i l d i s l i k e l y to r e a c t in the same way t o a I I s t i m u l i h a v i n g t h e same l a b e l s . This i s known a s v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n o r m e d i a t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Numerous e x p e r i m e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t s u c h m e d i a t i o n i s of paramount importance in c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , t h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g ( M u s s e n , 1 9 6 3 , D. 3 7 ) .  9 Some o f  the experiments  (1962),  who f i n d s  tion but  corroboration  is a function also  results  of  age  in s t u d i e s of of  mediation  other  the  reviewed by  hypothesis  not o n l y  In R and NR s h i f t  to  the  1961; M a r s h ,  Reese  that verbal  and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  also testify  l i n e of  are  studies,  sets.  importance of  1964).  research evidence  media-  The  verbal  However, the  most  is presented  by  Kendlers. Using the  shift  K e n d l e r s and o t h e r s ences through learned Reese,  age  1962).  methodology find  levels  (Kendler,  phylogenetic the  for  level  1961; L a c e y ,  c o n c e r t e d and c o n s i s t e n t the  by M u s s e n  transposition  studies  (Goss,  to  referred  H.H.,  in a s e r i e s of  that there in the  experiments,  are p r o g r e s s i v e l y  1965; K e n d l e r ,  (Kendler,  changes appear t o  changing  differ-  e a s e w i t h w h i c h R and NR s h i f t s K e n d l e r , and L e a r n a r d ,  They s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s scale  the  H.H.,  with the  1962;  extend through  1965; K e n d l e r , T . S . ,  be c o n c o m i t a n t  are  1961)  development  of  the  and  that  verbal  2 facility. subjects 1956);  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , (rats)  (2)  initial  l e a r n MR s h i f t s  children  at  discrimination  children  who  learn  children  who  learn the  the  NR c o n d i t i o n  aged c h i l d r e n  there  more r e a d i l y  pre-school quickly  slowly,  better  in the  discrimination  NR s h i f t  faster  (I)  infra  R shifts  in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h  ( K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r ,  learn the  than  and k i n d e r g a r t e n  perform  initial  is evidence t h a t :  human  (Kelleher,  age who  learn  the  similarly-aged R condition  slowly  1959); a l s o , (Kendler et  perform (3) a_L .  while better  in  nursery-school I960),  while  _ H.H. Kendler (1965), however, c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t the simple c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s u c h c h a n g e s be a t t r i b u t e d o n l y t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v e r b a l l a b e l s . C o n f r o n t e d w i t h a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s ( t o be m e n t i o n e d l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r ) , he c o n t e n d s t h a t o b s e r v i n g r e s p o n s e and s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t h e o r i e s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s own interpretations.  10 older  kindergarten  and f i n a l l y ,  (4)  l e a r n NR s h i f t s  and f i r s t  college students (Buss,  Although these tion  for  tive,  although  for  1 9 5 3 ; K e n d l e r and D ' A m a t o ,  findings  somewhat  1964).  provide  Furthermore,  to  501).  They o b j e c t  e s t a b l i s h a case f o r  grate or at  seems,  indeed, to  study of  attempts tual  to  (1963)  issue" (1962),  1962;  (1963)  of  Kendlers'  hypothesis  ( Y o u n i s s and in h i s  attempt  makes no e f f o r t  the major  base t h e i r  In a r e v i e w o f dispel  to  and r e s e a r c h .  t h e o r i e s of  inteSince  development,  apparent  c r i t i c i s m s on e v i d e n c e this  common n o t i o n s  and h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s  and he c o n c l u d e s  a complex  nega-  t h e MDH p o s i -  deficiency  P i a g e t ' s theory  He a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e  despite the  by  be a s e r i o u s o m i s s i o n .  deaf.  refute or  deficits.  tween deaf tasks  the  substantia-  Y o u n i s s and F u r t h  t h a t Reese  r e p r e s e n t s one of  Y o u n i s s and F u r t h the  aspects of  mediated S-R t h e o r y ,  l e a s t take account of  t h e Geneva s c h o o l this  the  they  1955).  are contradicted  d a t a and d e s c r i b e t h e m e d i a t i o n a l  1963, p.  more e a s i l y t h a n  response i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  of  faster,  ( I s s a c s and D u n c a n ,  criticisms.  (MDH) a s , " a n o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n Furth,  they  some o f  example, dispute mediational  R shift  reasonably convincing  isolated, results  are s u s c e p t i b l e to other  and R e e s e ' s  learn the  learn R s h i f t s  m e d i a t e d - r e s p o n s e S-R t h e o r y ,  O'Connell, tion  grade c h i l d r e n  is  evidence, Furth regarding  little  or  (1964)  verba I-concep-  no d i f f e r e n c e  i n p e r f o r m a n c e on c e r t a i n  lack of  from  be-  conceptual  a language system in deaf  that:  (a) Language does not i n f l u e n c e i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p ment i n any d i r e c t , g e n e r a l , o r d e c i s i v e w a y . ( b ) The i n f l u e n c e o f l a n g u a g e may be i n d i r e c t o r s p e c i f i c and may a c c e l e r a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t : by p r o viding the opportunity for additional experience t h r o u g h g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s and by f u r n i s h i n g r e a d y s y m b o l s ( w o r d s ) and l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . ( F u r t h , 1 9 6 4 , p . 160)  subjects,  11 Thus, The a b i l i t y f o r i n t e l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o r i s s e e n a s l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f l a n g u a g e and m a i n l y s u b j e c t to the general experience of . l i v i n g (Furth, 1 9 5 4 , p . 162) Furth's  case,  as B l a n k  however,  (1965)  points  specially-trained Kates et  aj_.  is  not  out,  of  the  from non-verbal conception,  pretations of  of  subjects.  a dissociation  note  is t h e i r  deaf  and h e a r i n g  even t h e  finding  differences  are  With  separate  Piaget's  attenuate  to the  interin  if  favor but  Of e s p e c i a l  any,  a g e , e d u c a t i o n , and e x p e r i e n c e  in v e r b a l i z a t i o n  that  verbal  determine,  cognition.  a r e few d i f f e r e n c e s ,  a  processes of  rejected  language does n o t  and p o s s i b l y m o d i f i e s  adults.  advocate  between t h e  for  subjects  Consistent with  in c o g n i t i o n  Here,  that there  deaf  Consequently, deterministic  language  infIuences,Iimits,  In d o i n g s o , t h e y  upon p e r f o r m a n c e .  and v e r b a l i z a t i o n .  some f o r m o f  in which  p r o c e s s e s m u s t be a b l e t o  demonstrate  role of  escape c r i t i c i s m ,  do p o s s e s s  also present evidence  influences  the  often  (1963)  a more m o d e r a t e p o s i t i o n .  rather  deaf  system.  cognitive  they  categorization  the  as t o  verbal  a r e compared w i t h h e a r i n g the t e s t s  so c o m p e l l i n g  between then,  point of  Insig-  ni f i c a n c e . Studies of s i n c e they verbal  deal  respect,  mediation  deaf  provide  with a population  responses.  dc_ p o s s e s s o t h e r this  the  However, effective  s t u d i e s of  position.  it  an i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t does not  is e s s e n t i a l  forms of  the  deaf  source of  to  information  p o s s e s s a command o f remember t h a t t h e  deaf  l a n g u a g e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  do n o t  clearly  r e f u t e the  verbal  In  12 The  Indians  of  Within the  B.C.  S r i t i s h Columbia: A Sub-Culture for  the  normative  Indians,  in t h e i r  high  social  lack of  deviance.  to  determine  the  of  childhood  learning,  the  dominant  factors  society  observed that  of  as a s u b - c u l t u r a l  problem both rate of  framework  it  group,  success  constitute  is  to  this  during  B.C. Indian c h i l d r e n  a major  i n a s s i m i l a t i o n and  problem  is the general  It  in academic e n d e a v o u r s .  is generally relatively  poor  functioning  motivational, ted  of  verbal  with which verbal of  conceptual  employed a t  is  mediational  reflects  e n c o u r a g e s and f a c i l i t a t e s fostering  of  and c o n c e p t s .  schools)  the  same  and  setting,  suppose t h a t the  whether o r not  learning of  relatively  and  have  not  effectiveness  in the  solution  such m e d i a t i o n  is  milieu  concepts, e . g . ,  involving  investiga-  use o f  situations  degree t o which the c u l t u r a l  the  effec-  Storm (1964),  hypotheses are u t i l i z e d  in f a c t ,  the  academic  v a r i a b l e s h a v e been  in p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  games, t o y s , o r a c t i v i t i e s In t h e  their  attendance  v a r i a b l e s such as t h e  reasonable to  p r o b l e m s , and  all,  in the  w i t h t h e more  Cameron and S t o r m ( 1 9 6 5 ) ,  hypotheses It  commonly with  Their  residential  in a formal  and p e r s o n a l i t y  However, s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e  been s t u d i e d .  of  university.  Indian c h i l d  emotional,  mediational  in  w h i c h may be i n t e r f e r i n g  the  by Cameron ( 1 9 6 4 ) ,  others.  yet  factors  course,  is  area  T h e y a r e , on  achieve superior grades.  (except, of  few p r o c e e d t o  Among t h e tive  rarely  norms  compare f a v o r a b l y  a v e r a g e , o n e o r two y e a r s o l d e r t h a n t h e w h i t e c h i l d r e n g r a d e and e v e n t h e n  their  investigation  instilled.  do n o t  social  in  c h i l d h o o d t h a t the  a r e most e f f e c t i v e l y  white Canadian counterparts  white Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ,  One p o s s i b l e a r e a f o r  relevant  for  the  Study  in  the  choices, strategies,  cuIturaI Iy-impoverished  environment  13 of  the  predominantly  occasions to  rural  stimulate  Indians,  B.C.  such conceptual  there  appear to  be few  development.  The H y p o t h e s i s The h y p o t h e s i s o f will  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  in s h i f t Indian  learning,  children  c h i l d r e n of require this  study  i s t h a t on a  R-NR  interaction  between s h i f t  and c u l t u r a l  i.e.,,  will  (in  r e q u i r e more t r i a l s  to  criterion  h y p o t h e s i s , a number o f  relating  be no d i f f e r e n c e s  this  hypothesis to  that  is evidence of  Indian  children  In a d d i t i o n made w i t h form o f  to  regard to  the  to  interaction  for  ought  to  children.  In  learning.  questions of  i s assumed t h a t  l a n g u a g e and m e d i a t i o n ,  that this  mediation  However,  is  of  relatively Indian  unspecified since  both  is a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the  performance  is simply  it  perform,  absolute  same f o r  less  for  be  The  example, that given  and e t h n i c g r o u p , t h e is the  must  hypothesis.  children will  is p o s s i b l e , for  it  and  deficient.  how t h e  performance  to  is v e r b a l ;  the  It  in  e x e c u t i n g a R as compared  specificity  predicted  will  advancing  Furthermore,  mediation;  the  difference Indian  and  difference the  Indian  chil-  children.  Using younger c h i l d r e n sively  children  in o r i g i n a l  lack of  shift.  white  Indian  shift,  white  the  b e t w e e n R and NR s h i f t dren than  the  than  qualifications  between s h i f t  children.  groups  these assumptions, certain  b e t w e e n R and NR s h i f t white  criterion  there  It  the  know e x a c t l y  e s p e c i a l l y on t h e  task,  a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made.  are v e r b a l l y  interaction  is d i f f i c u l t  to  than white  i s assumed: t h a t the g r e a t e r ease of  a NR s h i f t  shift  t h e m o s t c l e a r - c u t c a s e ) on a R  same a g e , b u t on a NR s h i f t ,  fewer t r i a l s  there will  it  the  this  provide the  between t h e ages o f ideal  four  and m o s t d i r e c t  and s e v e n  test  of  the  incluhypo-  14 thesis  since the postulated  mediational (Kendler  responding  1965;  are o p e r a t i n g , shift  with  younger not  readily  situation obtained  most c h i l d r e n  is, then, from t h e to  the  compared  verbal  by  Unless other  sort  of  white  that  children,  hypotheses  Indian' c h i l d r e n Indian  whereas the  demonstration  children  failure  to  successfully  although  and  Indian  children  age i s  Indian  children ability  it  are to  in n i n e o r even the  would c a s t doubt that  However, t h i s  o l d e r age g r o u p s  for  are formally  proposed.  employ  Demonstration the  mediate, both  possibility  that  abilities.  The  upon t h i s  Indian  of  in  children  latter never  l a s t c o n c l u s i o n would -reconfirmation.  i n c l u d e d as a t h r e e - 1 eve I led f a c t o r ,  theses concerning  range.  never s u c c e s s f u l l y learn to  likelihood  learn to mediate.  examination of  c a n be  never s u c c e s s f u l l y  in d e v e l o p i n g the  mediation only  are  ideal  i n t h e s e v e n - t o - n i n e age  in developing mediational  increase the  The  i n any a g e g r o u p w o u l d e l i m i n a t e  demonstrate mediation  possibility  the  are slow  Unfortunately,  investigation.  and n i n e y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n w o u l d s u p p o r t  Indian  age e x e c u t e a R  In p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .  children of  factors  N e v e r t h e l e s s , some i n f o r m a t i o n  children  age  y e a r o l d age c a t e g o r y  is a l s o conceivable that  that  quire  this  possibility  possibility  eight  school-kindergarten  1962).  four-to-six  precluded.  it  to  mediational  mediation  nursery  e a s e t h a n a NR s h i f t .  In t h e  study of  from s i n g l e u n i t to  beyond s i x y e a r s o f  greater  children  learn to mediate, slow,  is around the  available for  In a d d i t i o n  transition  K e n d l e r , and K e n d l e r ,  relatively  Indian  age o f  Thus,  no e x p l i c i t  hypo-  CHAPTER I I METHOD Subjects A t o t a l of s i x t y r - s e v e n Indian c h i l d r e n and f i f t y - o n e w h i t e were t e s t e d .  children  N i n e t e e n of the s i x t y - s e v e n Indian c h i l d r e n and t h r e e  the f i f t y - o n e w h i t e c h i l d r e n f a i l e d t o reach the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n c o n s e c u t i v e o r f o u r t e e n o u t of hundred t r i a l s . experiment.  fifteen  T h e r e f o r e , they c o u l d not be i n c l u d e d in the  T h i s means t h a t f o r t y - e i g h t  learning task.  complete  Indian and f o r t y - e i g h t  white  l e a r n i n g t a s k and went on  The Indian sample, g e n e r a l l y one o r two  academic y e a r s behind the white s a m p l e , was drawn from t h r e e schools (Alberni  (ten  r e i n f o r c e d responses) w i t h i n one  c h i l d r e n s u c c e s s f u l l y completed t h e o r i g i n a l t o the s h i f t  of  parochial  Indian R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l , M i s s i o n Indian R e s i d e n t i a l  S c h o o l , and S t . P a u l ' s  Indian Day S c h o o l ) and one s e c u l a r school  ( S o u t h l a n d s Elementary S c h o o l ) w h i l e the w h i t e sample was drawn  from  two s e c u l a r s c h o o l s (Lord K i t c h e n e r Elementary School and Southlands Elementary S c h o o l ) . Design Each e t h n i c group was composed of t w e n t y - f o u r f o u r females d i s t r i b u t e d  males and t w e n t y -  e q u a l l y among the t h r e e age l e v e l s .  Thus,  e x c e p t f o r grade l e v e l , the two groups were matched f o r age and s e x . P r i o r t o the e x p e r i m e n t , each c h i l d was a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r the R o r the MR g r o u p .  Except f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the e t h n i c - a g e b o u n d a r i e s and  the sex b a l a n c e , t h e s e assignments were random. groups of e i g h t c h i l d r e n  in a 3 x 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l  e t h n i c group ( I n d i a n - w h i t e ) , group  i s shown i n T a b l e  There were t h e n ,  and s h i f t  I. 15  (R-NR).  twelve  d e s i g n : age ( 7 , 8 , 9)  The mean age of each  16  TABLE I MEAN AGE ( I N YEARS-MONTHS) OF EACH AGE GROUP OF WHITE AND INDIAN CHILDREN  Age G r o u p  White  1 nd i an  7  6-1 1  7-2  8  8-1  8-3  9  9-1  9-2  Apparatus Stimuli  w e r e p r e s e n t e d on a w i d e s c r e e n d i r e c t l y  r e s p o n s e box by a t i m e r - c o n t r o l l e d 35 mm L e i c a response box, approximately  24 i n c h e s a c r o s s ,  above t h e  slide projector. twelve  h o u s e d a m a r b l e m a g a z i n e and a m a r b l e e j e c t i o n  the o u t s i d e ,  a small  inches  from t h e  base of  mounted a b o u t e i g h t e e n a  plastic  through ejection  tray  a slot  i n t o which marble edge of  d e v i c e c o n s i s t e d of  two c i r c u i t s  f r o n t of  the  the  box.  i n c h e s a p a r t on t h i s  at the top  a s i n g l e marble) of  the  the width of  attached to  box,  a small  metal  t h e arm o f  protruded  platform.  On  about  Between t h e  eight  cup  k e y s was  c o u l d be d i s p e n s e d  E s s e n t i a l l y , the (just  a six volt  was made by a " c o r r e c t "  device.  l a r g e enough t o  solenoid.  response, the  marble  the  immediate  cup t o t h e i r  reinforcement.  original  A  spring  activated  returned  hold  When o n e solenoid  arm p u l l e d t h e cup w i t h t h e m a r b l e o v e r a h o l e w h e r e t h e m a r b l e was l e a s e d a s an  ten  Two r e s p o n s e k e y s w e r e  reinforcements  the t r a y .  The  i n c h e s d e e p , and  inches h i g h ,  platform  plywood  both the  p o s i t i o n w h e r e a n o t h e r m a r b l e was f e d  rearm and  into  the  17  cup  from t h e magazine.  t e l e g r a p h key c i r c u i t ) enabled E_ t o c o n t r o l  A p a i r o f k n i f e s w i t c h e s (one s w i t c h f o r each o p e r a t e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r  (E_) on each t r i a l  the reinforcement contingencies.  Procedure: Each s u b j e c t  (S_) was t e s t e d I n d i v i d u a l l y  p r o v i d e d by t h e s c h o o l . quent  interruptions  Unfortunately,  by t h e E in a room  in some of the s c h o o l s , f r e -  occurred during t e s t s e s s i o n s .  Ss who, as a  consequence, were r e j e c t e d , a r e not I n c l u d e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n in any part of t h i s as  study,  I.e.,  they a r e not  Included among t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d  f a i l i n g t o reach e i t h e r t h e f i r s t o r t h e second c r i t e r i o n .  Follow-  ing some I n t r o d u c t o r y remarks which were d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h and  t o arouse c u r i o s i t y , each S_ was g i v e n a c a n d y , s e a t e d in  of the a p p a r a t u s , and g i v e n t h e f o l l o w i n g  rapport  front  instructions:  Guess what w e ' r e g o i n g t o do? We're g o i n g t o p l a y a game i n which you can win some more o f t h o s e c a n d i e s . Do you see t h e s e two b u t t o n s ( k e y s ) ? What do you t h i n k happens when you p r e s s one of them? (S_ was then encouraged t o p r e s s each key t w i c e immediately  received a marble.  i n a row; each time he  He was then asked t o t r y  each key t w i c e  a g a i n ; t h i s t i m e , he r e c e i v e d no m a r b l e s . ) Sometimes they work and sometimes they don't.' The game is t o f i n d out how they work in o r d e r t o g e t as many marbles as you c a n . At t h e end o f t h e game we w i l l see how many marbles y o u ' v e won and t r a d e t h e marbles f o r packages o f candy. If you h a v e n ' t won very many, you might not win any c a n d y ; b u t , i f you win l o t s of m a r b l e s , y o u ' l l get a whole package of c a n d y ; and If you win l o t s and l o t s of m a r b l e s , y o u ' l l g e t t w o p a c k a g e s , O.K.? (Every S_ r e c e i v e d t w o p a c k a g e s , of c o u r s e , r e g a r d l e s s o f the number o f marbles.) (S_ was then informed t h a t a p a i r o f p i c t u r e s w o u l d be p r o j e c t e d onto t h e s c r e e n and was g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the e f f e c t  that  18  p r e s s i n g the the  l e f t button corresponded w i t h s e l e c t i n g the s t i m u l u s on  l e f t s i d e of the s c r e e n w h i l e the same was t r u e of the r i g h t  He was then q u e s t i o n e d t o determine If were u n d e r s t o o d .  i n s t r u c t i o n s to t h i s  JE then t u r n e d the p r o j e c t o r  side.  point  on.)  The name of t h i s game i s c a l l e d , " P i c k the w i n n i n g p i c t u r e every t i m e " . One of t h e s e p i c t u r e s i s a winning p i c t u r e ; the o t h e r i s a l o s i n g one.. If you p i c k the w i n n i n g o n e , y o u ' l l get a m a r b l e , but i f you p i c k the l o s i n g o n u , you w o n ' t g e t a n y t h i n g . Remember, i f you p i c k the winning p i c t u r e , y o u ' l l g e t a m a r b l e , but i f you p i c k the l o s i n g o n e , you w o n ' t get a n y t h i n g . Which one do you t h i n k Is the winner? Try i t o n c e . You o n l y g e t one t r y u n t i l the p i c t u r e i s changed. (Invariably,  S_ r e c e i v e d a marble on h i s f i r s t  Now I'm g o i n g t o change the p i c t u r e . p i c k the w i n n i n g one a g a i n .  selection.) See i f you can  (In t h i s second p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r e - t e s t s t i m u l i , o n l y t h e of the same p r e v i o u s s t i m u l i  was r e v e r s e d .  peated the second p r e s e n t a t i o n e x a c t l y were  merely a l t e r n a t i n g .  t h a t he was supposed t o  If  position  A t h i r d presentation  in o r d e r t o determine i f  rethe c h i Id  the c h i l d d i d a l t e r n a t e , he was t o l d  look a t the p i c t u r e s c a r e f u l l y and t o  the w i n n i n g ones - - not j u s t t o s w i t c h from s i d e t o  pick  side.)  Do you t h i n k you can p i c k the winning p i c t u r e s and win a marble e v e r y t i m e ? Now I'm going t o show you some more p i c t u r e s , p i c t u r e s t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t from these. Look c l o s e l y and t r y t o p i c k the winning one every time so t h a t you can get l o t s of candy l a t e r on. But remember, j u s t one t r y each time the p i c t u r e i s changed. (The experiment was then begun and no o t h e r words were s a i d by E_ e x c e p t f o r a reminder every ten t r i a l s , t h a t S_ c o u l d win a marbie every time If  he t r r e d and t h a t he would have t o  carefully  lock a t the  pictures  in o r d e r t o f i n d out what the winning p i c t u r e was.)  19 As in e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , the p a i r e d d i s c r i m i n a n d a in t h i s e x p e r i ment in both o r i g i n a l  l e a r n i n g and s h i f t  l e a r n i n g were v a r i e d s i m u l -  t a n e o u s l y a l o n g two b i n a r y d i m e n s i o n s : shape ( t r i a n g l e  and square)  and s i z e ( l a r g e and s m a l l ) ' . I n c l u d i n g the c o n t r o l s f o r p o s i t i o n , t h e r e were f o u r p o s s i b l e types of s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n s : r i g h t ; small t r i a n g l e small t r i a n g l e  left,  large t r i a n g l e  l a r g e square r i g h t ;  r i g h t ; and small square l e f t ,  The same p r e s e n t a t i o n never o c c u r r e d t w i c e  l e f t , small square l a r g e square  large t r i a n g l e  interval,  i.e.,  w i t h no pause between t r i a l s .  stimuli  right.  in s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s  each t y p e of p r e s e n t a t i o n appeared once every f o u r t r i a l s . no i n t e r t r i a l  left,  and  There was  were p r e s e n t e d one a f t e r  another  S t i m u l i were exposed f o r a r e l a t i v e l y  2 f i x e d p e r i o d of between e i g h t and t e n s e c o n d s . well w i t h i n t h i s  interval  Ss u s u a l l y responded  a f t e r the f i r s t few t r i a l s .  F o r the e x -  c e p t i o n s who r e q u i r e d more time d u r i n g t h e e a r l y t r i a l s , the exposure p e r i o d was augmented t e m p o r a r i l y For a l l  by E_.  S_s, responses t o t r i a n g l e s  warded In the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k .  ( l a r g e and s m a l l ) were r e Upon a t t a i n i n g  of e i t h e r ten c o n s e c u t i v e o r f o u r t e e n out of f i f t e e n s e s , the r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n t i n g e n c i e s were s h i f t e d  the  criterion  " c o r r e c t " respon-  (without notice  'Because i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t the s h i f t was o v e r s i m p l i f i e d o r t h a t the R and NR s h i f t s were perhaps d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by drawing a t t e n t i o n t o e i t h e r the new o r the remaining dimension (as the case may b e ) , m e t h o d o l o g i e s s i m i l a r t o t h e s e proposed by Buss (1956) and K e n d l e r e_t aj_. (I960) t o c o n t r o l f o r p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t were not adopted.  ? "A f i x e d s t i m u l u s exposure i n t e r v a l , as opposed t o the s e l f - p a c e d i n t e r v a l in some o t h e r s t u d i e s , was u t i l i z e d in o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e , p r o c e d u r e ; which method i s employed appears t o be of l i t t l e c o n s e quence s i n c e Bourne, Guy, Dodd, and J u s t e s e n (1965) do f i n d t h a t t h e r e are ho d i f f e r e n c e s between the two modes o f c o n t r o l l i n g the d u r a t i o n of s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n s .  20 o r I n t e r r u p t i o n of procedure) t o squares ( l a r g e o r s m a l l ) f o r the R groups o r smaI I f i g u r e s criterion  ( t r i a n g l e s o r s q u a r e s ) f o r the NR g r o u p s . The  f o r the s h i f t t a s k was the same as t h a t f o r the f i r s t  task.  F o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n of the e x p e r i m e n t , Ss were c o n g r a t u l a t e d on t h e i r s u c c e s s , t o l d t h a t they would r e c e i v e two packages of c a n d y , and asked t o p l a y one more game - - a ' c a r d game" c o n s i s t i n g s i m p l y !  of two s e t s of the f o u r d i s c r i m i n a n d a ( l a r g e t r i a n g l e s ,  large squares,  small t r i a n g l e s , small s q u a r e s ) t h a t were scrambled by E_ in S_'s presence.  S_ was then asked t o " p u t a l l  g e t h e r i n t o one p i l e and put a l l Into another p i l e " .  If  the p i c t u r e s t h a t belong t o -  the o t h e r s t h a t a l s o belong  S_ were a b l e t o do t h i s the c a r d s were a g a i n  scrambled and he was a g a i n asked t o put the c a r d s t o g e t h e r separate p i l e s , d i f f e r e n t the f i r s t time.  together  i n t o two  from the way he p l a c e d the c a r d s t o g e t h e r  In both c a s e s , S_was asked why the c a r d s went t o g e -  t h e r a f t e r he had s o r t e d them.  Ss t h a t were unable t o v e r b a l i z e the  l e v e l s of the dimensions in g i v i n g t h e i r  reasons were then a s k e d ,  "What do you c a l l t h i s ? " o r "What does t h i s  remind you o f ? " f o r each  of the d i s c r i m i n a n d a . All  Ss were f i n a l l y  requested t o pledge s e c r e c y , a t  least  until  everyone had had a chance t o p l a y t o game, and then were awareded t h e i r two packages of candy.  CHAPTER  I II  RESULTS Original  Learning:  Nineteen out of one w h i t e  children  w i t h i n the shift.  limit  Their  in o r i g i n a l  significant  al  and f i v e  reach c r i t e r i o n  failing  to  not  differ  reach the  Of t h e  were n i n e y e a r s o l d . regard to  school o r sex f o r  errors  to  criterion.  number o f  nineteen  the t r i a l s  of  the  will  3 x 2 x 2  be r e p o r t e d .  was  Indian  were e i g h t  years  distribution-  these Ss,  trials  to c r i t e r i o n  However, because the  a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h m e a s u r e was e m p l o y e d , o n l y  of  of  criterion  T h e r e w e r e no o t h e r  the  performance  proportions  first  fifty-  learning)  proceed to  e l e v e n were seven y e a r s o l d ; t h r e e  A n a l y s e s w e r e made on b o t h t h e number o f  (in o r i g i n a l  between t h e  (z = 4 2 . 2 9 , p < . 0 0 f ) .  differences with  the  and t h r e e o u t o f  and s o d i d n o t  The d i f f e r e n c e  children  rejected,  children  were e x c l u d e d from t h e a n a l y s i s o f  learning.  highly  Indian  one h u n d r e d t r i a l s  results  and w h i t e  old,  failed to  of  Indian  children  sixty-seven  results the  and did  analyses  The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s .  g r o u p s on o r i g i n a l  learning are presented  In  Table  2. TABLE 2 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF T R I A L S TO CRITERION ON O R I G I N A L LEARNING NC)NREVERSAL  REVERSAL AGE  1ndian X  SD  White  1ndI an  Wh i t e X  SD  X  SD  X  SD  7  42.0  36.3  27.5  17.5  41.4  30.0  36.3  22.6  8  28.1  17.3  26.1  15.7  47.3  28.0  45.5  21.6  9  33.0  19.1  35.4  29.6  31.3  25.3  30 ."|  27.7  21  22 The t h r e e - w a y  a n a l y s i s of  variance  i n T a b l e 3 y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  (fixed  effects  main e f f e c t s  or  n o d e I)  summarized  interactions  in  the  TABLE 3 ANOVA OF T R I A L S TO CRITERION ON O R I G I N A L LEARNING  Source  df  MS  F  2  199.82  <  |  1  326.34  <  |  1  1,046.76  A X B  2  237.59  A X C  2  1,073.89  B X C  1  25.01  <  |  A X 8 X C  2  175.40  <  |  Error  84  622.89  Total  95  A  (age)  B (ethnic C  group)  (shift)  discrimination learning  first  no way d o e s t h i s  legitimately  no d i f f e r e n c e s on o r i g i n a l Indian  children  three out of Shift  failed  to  task.  It  allow the  1 .68  1 .72  is e s s e n t i a l  t o note t h a t  conclusion that there  learning s i n c e nineteen out reach the  f i f t y - o n e white  first  children  criterion,  failed  to  of  in  were  sixty-seven  whereas  only  do s o .  Learning: With  trials  to  regard to  shift  learning, only  criterion  b e t w e e n R and MR s h i f t s  three-way  a n a l y s i s of  variance.  teraction  b e t w e e n e t h n i c g r o u p and s h i f t  the  differences  i n number  were s i g n i f i c a n t  The h y p o t h e s i s o f  in  a significant  was w i t h o u t s u p p o r t  of  the in-  within  23 the  context  reiterated children  of  the  particular  t h a t the  substantially  in a t t a i n i n g  criterion  conseguent e x c l u s i o n further the  standard  the  a n a l y s i s of  in the  of  deviations  illustrates the  from t h e  consideration  interpretation  body o f  these  for  data analyzed.  greater  on t h e  shift  failure  initial  task,  It  rate  each of  relationships  the  and t h e i r  twelve  for  among  Indian  rejection  their from  complicate  T a b l e 4 g i v e s t h e means and s u b - g r o u p s and F i g u r e  among t h o s e m e a n s .  v a r i a n c e summary  be  discrimination,  a n a l y s e s , must n e c e s s a r i l y results.  must  shift  3  Table 5 presents  learning.  TABLE 4 MEANS AMD STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF T R I A L S TO CRITERION ON SHIFT LEARNING  !  REVERSAL  NONREVERSAL  |  AGE 1nd i an  Wh i t e X  !  i 1  X  SD  !  7  30.8  28.9  31.1  28.4  |  8  20.8  14.4  23.6  30.9  |  9  15.8  5.7  17.1  8.4  SD  l  Indian X  White SD  X  SD  47.6  33.4  49.8  33.9  33.8  32.8  45.3  35.7  44.1  35.0  54.9  32.6  1.  t  • 1  i  A number o f Fivel,  1961)  lar  slowly.  ( e . g . , K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r ,  differentiate  discrimination tion  studies  guickly  and c h i l d r e n  Preliminary  relationships  might  between c h i l d r e n who  i n s p e c t i o n of  exist  who l e a r n t h e  learn the the  in t h e s e d a t a .  1959; O s i e r  initial  and  initial discrimina-  data suggested that Dichotomizing the  simifour  24  i  J-H  ,  1_  7  8  9  Age G r o u p Fig.  3 .  Mean t r i a l s function of  t o c r i t e r i o n on s h i f t l e a r n i n g a g e , e t h n i c g r o u p , and s h i f t  as a  TABLE 5 ANOVA OF T R I A L S TO C R I T E R I O N FOR S H I F T LEARNING  Source  df  MS  A  2  702.89  < 1  1  560.67  < 1  1  12,376.04  e  2  79.57  < 1  A X C  2  643.64  < 1  B X C  1  260.04  < 1  A X B X C  2  35.32  < 1  Error  84  818.53  Tota 1  95  (age)  B (ethnic C  (shift)  A X  ***  group)  p <.00l  F  15.12***  25 ethnic-shift  s u b - g r o u p s on t h e  basTs o f  original  c o l l a p s i n g o v e r a g e , and s u b s e q u e n t l y p e r f o r m i n g of  variance  ( f i x e d e f f e c t s model)  second c r i t e r i o n , 6 were f o u n d .  the  rather  Here the  learning  a three-way  u s i n g number o f  interesting  differences  speed,  trials  to  r e s u l t s presented  between s h i f t s  analysis the  in Table  were a g a i n , s i g -  TABLE 6 ANOVA OF T R I A L S TO CRITERION ON S H I F T LEARNING FOLLOWING C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF SUBJECTS AS "FAST'''' OR "SLOW"  LEARNERS  ON THE B A S I S OF O R I G I N A L LEARNING ( AGE FACTOR C O L L A P S E D ) .  df  Source  F  MS  I  1 ,426.04  1  560.67  1  12,376.04  17.64***  A X B  1  7,597.04  10.83***  A X C  1  7 0 4 . 17  B X C  1  260.04  < 1  A X B X C  I  215.10  < 1  Error  88  701.54  TotaI  95  A ("fast"  -  B (ethnic  group)  C  ***  '"slow")  (shift)  p <  nificant;  2.03 < 1  .001  but t h e r e  was a l s o a h i g h l y  significant  e t h n i c g r o u p and " t y p e " o f  learner,  i.e.,  c l a s s i f i e d on t h e  speed of  original  basis of  interaction  "slow" or  "fast"  learning.  between  as  The m e a n i n g  26 of  this  result  i s c o n v e y e d i n F i g u r e 4.  It  s h o u l d be n o t e d  that  60 - r  50  Mean TriaIs to C r i t e r i on  -  "slow"  40 -•  'fast"  wh i t e  -  Indian  30 "slow" "fast"  I ndian whi t e  20  10 •-  -t-  1  OrfginaI Learning  Fig.  4.  Mean t r i a l s t o c r i t e r i o n b e f o r e a n d a f t e r s h i f t f a s t a n d s l o w I n d i a n and w h i t e c h i l d r e n ( s h i f t coI I a p s e d ) .  F i g u r e 4 i s not Rather,  it  speed of It  is  an i l l u s t r a t i o n  included to  original  of  the  l e a r n i n g , speed of  in speed of  shift,  the  Indian  learning  on t h e  first  on t h e  shift.  on t h e  first  shift  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  l e a r n i n g , and e t h n i c  c h i l d r e n were r e l a t i v e l y  c h i l d r e n were n o t .  who w e r e " s l o w " on t h e became " f a s t "  shift  in both the  for  r e s u l t s presented in Table 6.  d e p i c t more c l e a r l y t h e  is apparent that while the white  tent  Shlft L e a r n Ing  initial In f a c t ,  discrimination the  Indian  consisand  Indian  c h i l d r e n who w e r e  task demonstrated negative t r a n s f e r  the  children  task demonstrated p o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r  whereas the  group.  and "fast"  and became " s l o w "  27 Card S o r t and V e r b a l i z a t i o n A n a l y s e s : The number of cases in the  Indian sample f o r both the c a r d s o r t  and v e r b a l i z a t i o n a n a l y s e s was reduced from the o r i g i n a l a v a r i e t y of  reasons, e . g . ,  Initially, all  interruptions,  N of 48 f o r  l a c k of t i m e , and the  like.  c h i l d r e n who d i d a c a r d s o r t were c l a s s i f i e d  into  one of f i v e c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o how they s o r t e d the  discriminanda.  The c a t e g o r i e s were: both dimensions u s e d , shape f i r s t ;  shape o n l y ;  both dimensions u s e d , s i z e f i r s t ;  s i z e o n l y ; and h a p h a z a r d .  A  complete summary of the f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h which Ss in each group were classified  i s p r e s e n t e d in the A p p e n d i x .  The most p e r t i n e n t  of  these  f i n d i n g s have been condensed t o T a b l e 7 b e l o w , which p r e s e n t s the f r e q u e n c i e s of  Indian c h i l d r e n and w h i t e c h i l d r e n  ( i n both R and NR  TABLE 7 FREQUENCIES OF INDIAN AND WHITE CHILDREN IN BOTH SHIFT CONDITIONS WHO SORT ON THE BASIS OF SHAPE OR NOT ON THE FIRST SORT  Not Shape ( S i z e ,  Shape  Haphazard 1y) I nd i an  shifts)  Reversa1  19  2  Nonreversa1  13  10  Reversa1  19  5  Nonreversa1  18  6  who f i r s t s o r t e d the d i s c r i m i n a n d a by shape o r not  o t h e r means such as s i z e o r h a p h a z a r d l y . Indian and w h i t e c h i l d r e n  in the R s h i f t  It  i.e.,  is evident that  c o n d i t i o n and the  both  white  some  28 children  i n t h e NR s h i f t  binomial  probabilities  tions  <.0I).  a slight the  in.  for  A c a l c u l a t i o n of of  the  the  x  the o t h e r  the  triangle.  the  children what  children  2  showed o n l y  (p <.05)  condition  for how  they  t h e t e n NR I n d i a n sorted  in t h i s  s i x who s o r t e d by s i z e  data  indicated the to  label,  The c h i - s g u a r e a n a l y s i s o f  triangle,  *  propor-  indicated that  shift  four of  ability  c h i l d r e n who e i t h e r  the concept of  condition  (The  were Ss  manner.  reduces  .16).  verbalization  more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f  and t h e w h i t e  Indian  b a s e d on t h e  2  NR s h i f t  by s h a p e .  between  The s i g n i f i c a n t  however,t'hat  significance to  Inspection of  concept of  in the  s o r t e d was r e l a t e d t o  s h o u l d be n o t e d ,  level  these differences  by s h a p e .  s o r t e d h a p h a z a r d l y ; none o f  the  sorted predominantly  each of  children  sort  x sort matrix  children  (It  for  Indian  tendency to  shift  Indian  The  condition  a s shown  need f o r  i n some w a y ,  the  number o f  v e r b a l i z e d o r d i d not  a the Indian  verbalize '  i n T a b l e 8, y i e l d s h i g h l y  significant  TABLE 8 FREQUENCIES OF INDIAN AND WHITE CHILDREN WHO VERBALIZED OR. DID NOT V E R B A L I Z E THE CONCEPT " T R I A N G L E "  Indian  White  . .  ,,  25  2  Verba Ii zed Triangle Did not Verbalize T r i angIe x  2  results children the  = 3 3 . 3 7 , p <.001  beyond t h e  .001  (Idf)  level,  indicating  v e r b a l i z e d the concept of  Indian  children  did  not.  that while  triangle  almost a l l  white  i n some a c c e p t a b l e w a y ,  CHAPTER  IV  DISCUSSION One i m p o r t a n t relevance to  for  learn the  difference  between t h e two e t h n i c g r o u p s w i t h  subsequent comparisons concerns the initial  discrimination.  Indian  c h i l d r e n , compared w i t h t h r e e  failed  to  the  reach c r i t e r i o n  forty-eight  criterion  Indian  of  the  population of  original  first  Indian  learning, there  the R s h i f t shift.  If  mediation,  Indian  relatively  greater  in the R s h i f t  would appear t h a t both the  were a l i k e  ability,  children  unrepresentative  d i d not  initial i.e.,  appear to  c h i l d r e n who  On t h e  did  shift,  there  both  groups,  for  relative the  Indian  to  and t h e  regard to  be d e f i c i e n t  perfor-  use o f  discrimination  with  In  e a s e t h a n t h e NR  c a n be t a k e n a s e v i d e n c e o f  in m e d i a t i o n a l  ultimately  be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t .  w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s .  learn the  Indian  and w h i t e  successfully will  c h i l d r e n who w e r e a b l e t o  these  a sample  first  children.  s u p e r i o r performance  it  children,  respect,  c o m p r i s e d t h e g r o u p t h a t was  was l e a r n e d w i t h  then  white  In t h i s  between t h e e t h n i c g r o u p s , but  mance i n t h e NR s h i f t  failed  sixty-seven  fifty-one  learning.  children, constituted  criterion  w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s  out of  who  c h i l d r e n who s u c c e s s f u l l y r e a c h e d t h e  The c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e reach the  Nineteen out of  in o r i g i n a l  and who t h e r e f o r e  compared t o t h e w h i t e  children  much  in  verbal white  adequately  t h e MDH, verbal  mediation. At a q u a l i t a t i v e were c o n s i d e r a b l y  level,  less verbal  c h i l d r e n were e x t r e m e l y  it  was o b s e r v e d t h a t  than white  reluctant  to  children.  The  children Indian  engage in c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h  E_ and a l m o s t n e v e r s p o n t a n e o u s l y v e r b a l i z e d t h e i r  29  Indian  feelings  about  the the  30 task o r the  rules  as the white  for  out of  to  in the  twenty-five  the concept of allowed). verbal  skill  the  i s not  To a c e r t a i n  thirty-nine d i d not  this  verbalization tests. Indian  c h i l d r e n , only  verbalize "triangle"  (e.g.,  there  an a p p a r e n t o r "tent",  not,  overt  in  however, t h a t v e r b a l i z a t i o n  there  label  i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a h i g h occur.  was  for were  level  of  (It  s h o u l d be  necessarily  equivalent  G  i s not  two  latitude  " t e e p e e " , and " h a t "  necessary for mediation f  In  mediation.) There  i s a l s o some e v i d e n c e t o  d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t one of  m e n s i o n s was more s a l i e n t t h a n t h e o t h e r  and t h a t t h i s  h a v e had e f f e c t s  different  upon  Indian  upon w h i t e  performance.  forced  responding to the  for  Subsequently, "square", size,  "small".  children  R shift  while  conditions  of  experiment, extent,  r e s p o n s e s as a c c e p t a b l e o r lack of  "triangle"  In s h o r t ,  cautioned, to  of  the  T h e r e f o r e , even though c o n s i d e r a b l e  in c l a s s i f y i n g  indication  of  children  some a c c e p t a b l e m a n n e r .  a clear  the course of  post-experimental  out  f o r t y - e i g h t white  was a l l o w e d  during  children occasionally did.  was a l s o r e f l e c t e d contrast  winning  performance  To r e c a p i t u l a t e  shape, " t r i a n g l e " ,  Ss w e r e r e i n f o r c e d  NR s h i f t  Ss w e r e  sorted predominantly  in t h e R s h i f t  the  white  on t h e  condition  Indian  for  reinforced  On t h e c a r d s o r t ,  shape w h i l e t h e  briefly,  children  p l a y e d a more m o d e r a t e t e n d e n c y t o  Ss w e r e  in o r i g i n a l  in both  shape.  The  a l s o s o r t e d c l e a r l y on t h e i n t h e NR s h i f t  both e t h n i c g r o u p s were r e i n f o r c e d o n l y  for  rein-  learning.  responding to  children  b a s i s of  do s o .  effects  responding to the for  condition  Since the  di-  s a l i e n c e may  from the all  the  shape, the shift  Indian basis dis-  R shift  Ss o f  responses to the  shape  51 dimension, the s h a p e was n o t  result  that the  unexpected.  However, the  Ss was u n e x p e c t e d , a l t h o u g h Here,  it  in both  might  d i m e n s i o n s and b e c a u s e t h e  shape.  and c l e a r l y that the  case f o r  alternative  to  follows the  behaviour of the  size  the  have s o r t e d  case  white  for  the  children.  with greater  ability.  that  reinforced  by s i z e  Indian  Thus i t  and w h i t e  rather  children is  apparent  dimension.'  somewhat more  Indian  recently  complicated  children  Both e t h n i c groups executed the  e a s e t h a n t h e NR s h i f t .  this  Ss.  d i m e n s i o n was t h e more  Ss w o u l d  was e v i d e n c e o f  It  is possible that  mediation;  whereas f o r  by  t h e NR  Indian  b e c a u s e t h e Ss w e r e  a p I a u s i b I e , ' a I though  interpretation  in m e d i a t i o n a l  children,  the  Ss s o r t e d  s h a p e d i m e n s i o n was more s a l i e n t t h a n t h e s i z e  From t h i s  alike  t h e NR s h i f t  T h i s was n o t e n t i r e l y not the  sorting  R shift  l e s s so in t h e c a s e of  h a v e been e x p e c t e d t h a t  l e a r n e d o n e , more o f than  preponderance of  for  Indian  are  R  shift  the  white  children, 2  this  merely  reflected  other  words,  shift  more f o r  the e f f e c t s  of  s a l i e n c e on t h e  s a l i e n c e may h a v e had t h e e f f e c t the  by d e c r e a s i n g t h e  Indian  c h i l d r e n than  difference  for  of  the  between t h e e t h n i c  shifts.  facilitating white  the R  children,  groups with  This finding is consistent with results obtained ( 1 9 6 5 ) and S t e v e n s o n and Odom ( 1 9 6 5 ) .  In  recently  there-  respect by Lee  2 The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f s a l i e n c e i s a s f o l l o w s : The s e v e n - t o - n i n e y e a r e l d g r o u p o f w h i t e c h i l d r e n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e K e n d l e r s and o t h e r s , was a l r e a d y p a s t t h e s t a g e o f t r a n s i t i o n , i . e . , i t was a t t h e s t a g e i n w h i c h S s , a s an age g r o u p , u n e q u i v o c a l l y l e a r n a R s h i f t w i t h r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r e a s e t h a n a NR s h i f t , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e y o u n g e r t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e i n w h i c h n e i t h e r a R o r NR s h i f t i s l e a r n e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r e a s e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e w h i t e c h i l d r e n i n t h e R s h i f t had l i t t l e t o g a i n a s a r e s u l t of the g r e a t e r s a l i e n c e of shape. In c o n t r a s t , t h e r e was some g u e s t i o n as t o the m e d i a t o n a l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e Indian c h i l d r e n . If t h e y were d e f i c i e n t i n t h e a b i l i t y t o m e d i a t e — a p o s s i b i l i t y s u g g e s t e d by t h e i r l a c k o f v e r b a l f a c i l i t y — t h e n t h e y s t o o d t o b e n e f i t more f r o m t h e g r e a t e r s a l i e n c e o f s h a p e t h a n d i d t h e w h i t e c h i l d r e n .  32 t o eas'fc o f  learning R s h i f t s .  Even the  if  shift,  the  Indian  there  children.  This  "type" of  i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y were not is  learner  learning).  The  c h i l d r e n were s i m i l a r t o t h e  i n d i c a t e d by an i n t e r a c t i o n ( a s c l a s s i f i e d on t h e  Indian  children  shift  in o r i g i n a l  became " f a s t "  white to  [earning  whereas the  c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r  shift  learning.  O'Connell, their  performance  1965, p.  They p e r f o r m e d  during  the  Even  In t h e  framework of  tive  attention  to e x p l a i n .  of  its  other  or observing  At b e s t , only  learning  c h i l d r e n who were In c o n t r a s t ,  o r slow from  and  "slow" the  original  c o l l e g e Ss u s e d by  are consistently shift  good o r p o o r  In  period" (O'Connell,  children  i s an u n u s u a l  novelty,  theoretical  demands  perplex-  replication.  p o s i t i o n s , e . g . , the  response t h e o r y , the  and  this  result  is  selec-  difficult  very tenuous s p e c u l a t i o n which  follows  offered.  An e r r o r shifted  at the  shift  concepts" or that  p.  260).  It  negative transfer in the  up" o r  fast  white  original  in o r i g i n a l  l i k e the white  "...Ss  Indian  w h i c h , by v i r t u e  slow  speed of  shift.  a c q u i s i t i o n and t h e  ing f i n d i n g  1961,  on t h e  to the  on  149).  The p e r f o r m a n c e o f  c a n be  Indian  children  between e t h n i c group  b a s i s of  consistently  who f o u n d t h a t h i s  identical  who w e r e " f a s t "  became " s l o w " on t h e  white  may s e r v e a s a c u e e i t h e r "the  c o n c e p t s have not  is c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the (i.e.,  t h o s e who w e r e f a s t  second d i s c r i m i n a t i o n )  "learn  how t o  Indian  learn",  d i d not  in e f f e c t ,  in a c q u i s i t i o n ,  but  have enough t i m e t o  t h e y may h a v e been  the  shift  p r o d u c e d by t h e  (Goss,  Ss who showed  c o n c e p t had n o t y e t  error  "E_ h a s  been l e a r n e d "  on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e c o r r e c t first  that  been  "warm  operating  learned;  may h a v e s e r v e d no c u e  or,  function  33 whatsoever.  In c o n t r a s t ,  it  is conceivable that the  who showed p o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r "learn shift  how t o  learn".  d i d have s u f f i c i e n t  F o r t h e s e S_s, t h e  first  may h a v e s i g n a l l e d a c h a n g e i n t h e  Indian  opportunity  error  Unfortunately,  o p e r a t e d on t h e  the c r i t i c a l  b a s i s of  reinforcement  We w i l l Indian  the present  children with  such c o n s i d e r a t i o n must t a k e of  sixty-seven  Indian  while only three out primary  concern of  (related  children  this  to mediational  Ss w e r e r e j e c t e d "triangle", trials  for  within  hundred t r i a l s  f a i l e d to white  section will ability)  of  unless they  limit  of  of  Ss (who o r d i n a r i l y  The f o r m e r p o s s i b i l i t y hypothesis of  the assumption t h a t the  reached c r i t e r i o n  original  (1959)  between  ability.  Any  that nineteen  out  first  criterion  f a i led t o  do s o .  The  characteristics Indian S s .  respond to the  fourteen out of If  this  concept,  fifteen  limit  of  one  (and  this  in t h i s  w o u l d h a v e been  o r t h e y would have c o n t i n u e d  study.  T h e r e f o r e , the  Indian  c h i l d r e n would  r e s p e c t , were  be. e x p l o r e d .  In t h e i r  experiment,  l i k e the slow  implications have learners  An e x p e r i m e n t by K e n d l e r and  provides a possible basis for  learning.  rejected)  i s b o t h more p l a u s i b l e and more  nineteen  prev'.ously considered) w i l l Kendler  not,  had been e x t e n d e d , t h e r e w o u l d h a v e been two p o s s i b l e  have r e a c h e d c r i t e r i o n  the  or  one h u n d r e d t r i a l s .  would e v e n t u a l l y  relevant to  nineteen  were a b l e t o  the  fail.  reach the children  the  outcomes, e i t h e r  to  fact  be w i t h t h e  ten consecutive t r i a l s  the  differences  account the  o-f f i f t y - o n e  Indians  children did  regard to mediational  into  another  time.  now c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n  and w h i t e  the  contingency  q u e s t i o n a s t o why t h e  these factors while white  i s not e a s i l y answered at  to  p r o d u c e d by  and t h e y w o u l d h a v e c h a n g e d a c c o r d i n g l y by r e s p o n d i n g t o concept.  children  slow  interpreting l e a r n e r s of  speed of kindergarten  34 age f o u n d t h e HR s h i f t easier. or at  The i m p l i c a t i o n  l e a s t were  ability  easier while  In  i.e.,  the  age r a n g e .  for  children  different  an  between speed o f  was f o u n d . cally  t h a t the  their  hypothetical  shift  performance.  Indian  it  reach the  the population with  to  proceed to  collected  for  the s h i f t .  the  p a t e d t h a t s o many However, t h e r e It  interaction  replicated.  were n o t  data of  Indian  of  Indian  i s of  a t the  c h i l d r e n who  interest  time,  c h i l d r e n would f a i l  fact  t h a t more  Indian  in  Indian  tested  possible relevance to that  failure  Ss s i n c e ,  that  ability.  in  to  it  itself.  was n o t  reach  com-  failed  d a t a were  not  antici-  criterion.  i s one v e r y p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e  i s b a s e d on t h e  group  unrepresentative  adequate v e r b a l i z a t i o n o r s o r t i n g  rejected  Instead,  unequivo-  t h o s e c h i l d r e n who w e r e  pronortion This  be-  difference  forty-eight  respect to mediational  substantial  Unfortunately,  different  l e a r n i n g and e t h n i c  criterion  p e r f o r m a n c e and a s w e l l , t h e the  was n o t  appears t h a t the  How-  different  c h i l d r e n were n o n - m e d i a t o r s o r  first  We h a v e c o n s i d o r e d t h e  p a r i s o n of  S e c o n d l y , the  original  Indian  account.  i n c l u s i o n w o u l d h a v e made a c r u c i a l Also,  were  age r a n g e .  i s no s p e c i f i c e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i n g  nineteen  c h i l d r e n who d i d  on s h i f t  particular  into  l e a r n i n g and s h i f t  Thus, there  the  interpretation  a c q u i s i t i o n may h a v e  age r a n g e s .  original  of  in t h i s  learning during  tween speed of interaction  l e a r n e r s , they  K e n d l e r s were d e a l i n g w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l l y  Speed o f  implications  capacity,  more n o n - m e d i a t o r s among  t w o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s h o u l d be t a k e n First,  fast  full  p r e s e n t s t u d y , one  are p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  c h i l d r e n t h a n among w h i t e ever,  to the  shift  l e a r n e r s had n o t y e t d e v e l o p e d ,  developing to  compared t o t h e  relation  w o u l d be t h a t t h e r e  l e a r n e r s found the R  the slow  in the p r o c e s s of  to mediate,  non-mediators.  was t h a t  fast  failures.  c h i l d r e n than white  children  35 d i d not  v e r b a l i z e , the t r i a n g l e  "triangle" original for of  was t h e  positive  learning.  the t r i a n g l e failures  among  Indian  "triangle"  may r e s i d e  Indian  the  children  common i n a b i l i t y in the  children,  rejected  children  triangle.  rejected  These o b s e r v a t i o n s Indian  or not,  Furthermore,  lead to the  W i l s o n (1952)  She f i n d s  Indian  that  d a t a , however, s t i l l  for  deficiency.  the  in the  language t o the  a crucial  test  school  of  Important  thought role  of  relegated  mental  the general  from t h i s  The  majority even  Especially taught Indian  in grade o n e .  for  factors, this  the  the  l o w e r on  The  the  reasons  implications An i s s u e  a less c r i t i c a l ,  p o s s i b l e , but  The  and  raised  relationship  cognition.  e.g.,  Raven's  ability.  thought  the  possibility.  between  assigned  d e v e l o p m e n t by m a k i n g  antecedent of  language t o  by p o s t u l a t i n g  study.  One s c h o o l o f  in c o g n i t i v e  n e c e s s a r y and d e t e r m i n i n g  major  the nineteen  l e a v e open t h e q u e s t i o n o f  development. role  label  verbalize  been  by more g e n e r a l  concerned the nature of  l a n g u a g e and c o g n i t i v e  formally  score s i g n i f i c a n t l y  research generated  introduction  The  children,  ago and u s u a l l y  We t u r n now t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the avenues of  a  suggestion t h a t the performance of  Progressive Matrices, a non-verbal present  of  w e r e g e n e r a l l y one o r  p r o v i d e s some s u p p o r t  children  In  proportion  children to  eleven of  c h i l d r e n may h a v e been a f f e c t e d  intelligence.  Ss  higher  learning.  same-aged w h i t e  were seven y e a r s o f  all  since  academic t r a i n i n g .  s e v e n y e a r o l d g r o u p , many had n o t y e t  the concept of  for  in the  Indian  of  important  unavailability  in o r i g i n a l among  is  stimulus  apparent  factor  two o r t h r e e g r a d e s b e h i n d t h e in the  This  c o n c e p t may h a v e r e s u l t e d  the  the  (reinforced)  In e f f e c t ,  reason f o r  of  concept.  language  other  although  not necessary.  still  36 dependence of first  l a n g u a g e on c o g n i t i v e  position  advanced e v i d e n c e t o  the  importance of  the  latter  position  In a p p a r e n t l y context  ences between  for  study  present  ability.  Also,  populations.  children  It  h?y.  often  shift  be d e f i c i e n t  seemed a p p r o p r i a t e in s h i f t  attributed to  ability.  differences  in m e d i a t i o n a l  We a d d r e s s e d o u r s e l v e s t o t h r e e  can t h e y  differences  thought  between  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  mediation?  What a r e t h e  this  be an a p p r o p r i a t e  been f o u n d t o  methodology  Indian  of  development  was w i t h i n  p r o v i d e d a t e c h n i q u e whereby d i f f e r e n c e s  cognitive  proponents  differ-  i n p e r f o r m a n c e on R and NR  c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d t o  the  while  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e  and w h i t e  s i n c e they  1 he  t h e MDH ( w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s  p r e s e n t e d ovi'dence such as c o g n i t i v e  Indian  Indian  support  Proponents of  r e s p o n s e s as m e d i a t o r s )  language-deficient  t h a t the  shifts.  verbal  development.  in  verbal  since  it  performance might  r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s : Are and w h i t e  group  children?  in  l a n g u a g e and t h e  implications  of  this  study  for  there  If  differences  there  use o f  the  be  are,  verbal  language  -  controversy?  It  is apparent that there  between  Indian  ability  to  and w h i t e  reach the  of  shift  learning  of  population  tion,  there  Thus,  in  probably  children  first  relative  differences.  if  (2)  speed of  to  study t h a t c o g n i t i v e  (I)  l e a r n i n g , are  regard to  differences  the t h i r d q u e s t i o n , there development  in  v e r b a l i z a t i o n , and ( 3 )  original  However, w i t h  i s no s p e c i f i c e v i d e n c e f o r  relation  differences  sample d i f f e r e n c e s  criterion, to  are c o g n i t i v e  the in  evidence  second quesmediation.  i s no e v i d e n c e  d e p e n d s on p r i o r  speed  language  in  this  development.  T h e need f o r dimensions  is  replication  indicated.  with control  Furthermore,  hypothesis a d e q u a t e l y , a study of age r a n g e finding  is necessary.  o u t more a b o u t  c h i l d r e n who f a i l hand,  especially In t h e  shift  performance.  supplying  (1962),  labels  children  and s l o w  learn the relation study,  to  we a t t e m p t e d  (to  been done  it  in o t h e r  - ' v e r b a I i z a b i I i ty''"' o f  the  in v e r b a l  on t h e  to  relate  if  this  T h i s might facilitates  K e n d l e r (1964)  take the  of  latter meaningfuIness  For example,  i s no r e a d i l y  to  if  the white  thereby  children  facilitate  no a t t e m p t t o  tend t o  their  w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g  a s s i g n some s o r t  performance)  apply a label  t o the  of  w h i l e the  unfamiliar,  label  Indian r  Liss  manipulating  this  the manipulation  form  performance,  o r of  In e f f e c t ,  with  employ  s t u d i e s , e . g . , Got I i n and  learning studies.  it  the  other  to  for  label,  toward  behaviour.  where both e t h n i c g r o u p s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s t i m u l u s available  year  verbalization  w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e  stimulus.  w o u l d be a n a l o g o u s t o  original  a l s o be d i r e c t e d  and v e r b a l i z a t i o n  variable.  determine  the  four-to-six  discrimination  sorting  In c o n t r a s t ,  nonsense s y l l a b l e s  in the  stimulus  l e a r n e r s on o n e h a n d , and  first  K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r ( 1 9 6 1 ) ,  manipulation of  fast  s a l i e n c e of  in o r d e r t o t e s t  Other research might  a s an i n d e p e n d e n t  as has a l r e a d y  the  in  present  verbalization of  to  for  which  there  determine  anyway  (and  c h i l d r e n make  ' low-verba I i zab I e "  referent. O n l y t h e most t e n t a t i v e study with  both w i t h respect to  of  the  to  light  respect to Indian-white  difficulties  c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn l a n g u a g e and c o g n i t i v e differences.  It  development  is evident  encountered that c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t are not  apparent  from the  and  f r o m some  research  from the  present  brings  study of  a  33 single cultural  group.  However,  h y p o t h e s e s c a n be g e n e r a t e d as a r e s u l t , our  the  knowledge.  basis for  it  is also evident  t h a t many  from t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , genuine c o n t r i b u t i o n s  fruitful  providing,  and a d v a n c e s  in  CHAPTER V SUMMARY T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f tionship lation tion  between  with  populations  deficient  relevant to the q u a l i f i c a t i o n  respect,  B.C.  w i t h normal verbal  Indian  white  to  ences  in verbal  verbal  design  of  this  s i n c e they  it  between  Indian  in the  form o f  provide  for  this comparison  deficient  in  determine  if  of  and e t h n i c  sixty-roven  tested.  f a i l e d to  learn the  to  mediation.. in the  Evidence  relatively  In a 3 x 2 x 2  significant.  s e l f - s e l e c t e d sample of d r e n who s u c c e e d e d to the s h i f t  task.  differences or  and f i f t y - o n e Indian  discrimination  to c r i t e r i o n  (Indian-  forty-eight  interactions  the  Indian first  criterion  only  children  within  the  the proportions  resulting white  and who went  were nc  for the  chilon  significant  s e l f - s e l e c t e d sample.  main e f f e c t 39  white  and f o r t y - e i g h t  learning, there  for this  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  inter-  c h i l d r e n was  between t h e s e  A n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d f o r  On o r i g i n a l  greater  factorial  white  and t h r e e  The d i f f e r e n c e  in a t t a i n i n g  of  group.  Indian  one hundred t r i a l s .  there  differ-  ( R - N R ) , and e t h n i c g r o u p  However, n i n e t e e n first  there  c h i l d r e n and i f  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d verbal  popu-  informa-  In  was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t  initially  was h i g h l y  and w h i t e  be e x e m p l i f i e d  shift  to  rela-  a normal  relationship.  are apparently  these differences  age ( 7 , 8 , 9 ) ,  between s h i f t  l i m i t of  ability  was c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h w h i l e  i s assumed t o  involving  A total  shift,  in verbal  e x e c u t i n g a R o v e r a NR s h i f t .  white), action  if  ability  mediation  ease of  It  differences  determine  Comparisons of  c h i l d r e n , w e r e an a p p r o p r i a t e g r o u p  children  development.  are c o g n i t i v e are,  l a n g u a g e and c o g n i t i o n .  the  On t h e  shift  factor,  40 with the R s h i f t for  both e t h n i c g r o u p s .  whites NR  performance being s u p e r i o r to  in o v e r a l l  NR s h i f t  T h e r e w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s  performance o r  in the  relative  performance  between  Indians  difficulty  of  and  R and  shifts. S u p p l e m e n t a r y ana I y s e s - were p e r f o r m e d t o e x p l o r e o t h e r  differences. consistent  It  was f o u n d t h a t t h e  in the  speed w i t h which they  crimination  and t h e  not.  Indian  Those  " s l o w " on t h e  shift  while,  shift.  in c o n t r a s t ,  and v e r b a l i z a t i o n  On t h e  tests,  it  d i m e n s i o n was more s a l i e n t t h a n t h e  to the t r i a n g l e  as s u c c e s s f u l  the  significantly criterion Indian  basis of  children learning  in o r i g i n a l  size  d i m e n s i o n and t h a t  in g i v i n g  were became  learn-  post-experimental  an a p p r o p r i a t e  shape Indian  overt  more  w o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t supported.  label  Indian  than white  children.  deficiency  w  e r  e  ehildren cognitive  failed to  fact  reach the  differences  of  these  in that first  between  T h e r e was no s p e c i f i c e v i d e n c e t o  interpretation  inter-  However,  f r o m t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n a l y s e s and t h e  suggested that there  a mediational  in o r i g i n a l  and e t h n i c g r o u p was n o t  results  and w h i t e  Indian  dis-  concept.  between s h i f t  general,  the  was a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e  The s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e action  relatively  learned both the o r i g i n a l  w h e r e a s t h o s e who w e r e " s l o w "  on t h e  c h i l d r e n were not  c h i l d r e n were  c h i l d r e n who w e r e " f a s t "  shift,  i n g became " f a s t " card sort  white  possible  differences..  support  41 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bel I i n ,  H. L e a r n i n g and o p e r a t i o n a l c o n v e r g e n c e i n l o g i c a l t h o u g h t development. J . e x p . c h i Id P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 5 , _2_, 3 1 7 - 3 3 9 .  Blank, Marion. Use o f t h e d e a f i n P s y c h o l . B u l l . , 1965, 6 3 , Bourne,  language s t u d i e s : 442-444.  a reply  to  Furth.  L . E . , J r . , G u y , D ; E . , O o d d , D . H . , and J u s t e s e n , D . R . Concept i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : T h e e f f e c t s o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h and i n f o r m a t i o n a l components of the I n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 5 , 69_, 6 2 4 - 6 2 9 .  B u s s , A . H . R i g i d i t y a s a f u n c t i o n o f r e v e r s a l and n o n r e v e r s a l shifts in the l e a r n i n g of s u c c e s s i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1953", 45_, 7 5 - 8 1 . Buss,  A . H . R e v e r s a l and n o n r e v e r s a l s h i f t s partial reinforcement eliminated. 52, 162-166.  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The r o l e o f a t t e n t i o n i n r e t a r d a t e discrimination learning. In N . R . E l l i s ( E d . ) , Handbook i n m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c y : P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h . N . Y . : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1963, P p . 159-223.  45 APPENDIX  I  TABLE 9 FREQUENCIES OF INDIAN AND WHITE CHILDREN IN BOTH SHIFT CONDITIONS WHO SORT ON THE B A S I S O F : BOTH DIMENSIONS (SHAPE OR S I Z E F I R S T ) , SHAPE OR S I Z E ONLY, OR HAPHAZARDLY  REVERSAL  INDIAN  NONREVERSAL  WHITE  INDIAN  WHITE  8  1 1  5  12  1 1  8  8  6  I  4  4  4  Only  0  1  2  2  Haphazard  1  0  4  0  24  23  24  Both Dimensions u s e d : Fi r s t .  Shape  used  Shape O n l y Both Dimensions used: First Size  Total  Size  used  21  

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