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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The poetry of Yang Wan-Li Schmidt, Jerry Dean 1975

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THE  POETRY OF YANG WAN-LI  by JERRY D. SCHMIDT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y M.A.,  of C a l i f o r n i a ,  University  Berkeley,  1968 1970  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  t h e Department of Asian  We a c c e p t required  THE  this  Studies  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH August, 1975  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y  shall  I f u r t h e r agree for  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t  freely  that permission  British  available  for  of  the  requirements  Columbia, reference  for e x t e n s i v e copying o f  I agree  for  that  and study. this  thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  representatives.  It  thesis for financial  is understood gain s h a l l  w r i t ten pe rm i ss i on .  Department o f The  University  Asian  Studies  of British  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  September 9,  1975  Columbia  that  not  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  be allowed without my  Abstract  (1127-1206)  Yang W a n - l i historians  and  shlh  of the  to  poets  as  largely  erary  by  done by  the  b e g i n w i t h an  contribution  particular  attention  emphasizing  to the  not  limited  merely  to a study  personal nature  played  life  and  The  poetry  by  European  litera-  Chinese  lit-  methodology literature  Ch'an (Zen)  as an  enlightenment.  of e a r l i e r  unadorned  verse.  of  is his "live  poetry  poets  The  caused  and  11  the  important his  on Yang's t h e o r y l e d him  outlook  him  of  to view the  which r e s u l t s to r e j e c t  to advance the  most c o n c r e t e method"  f o r the  to explore the  is  literature.  process  Such a theory  imitation  us  i n particular,  h i s Ch'an b a c k g r o u n d intuitional  political  life,  Buddhism i n d e t e r m i n i n g toward  life,  However, t h e b i o g r a p h y  o f Yang's o f f i c i a l  major s e c t i o n f o c u s e s  how  o f Yang W a n - l i ' s  of h i s poetry allows  his attitudes  next  e r a t u r e and of  attempts  to Chinese  influence that his  works.  i n n e r w o r k i n g s o f h i s mind, and,  on  study  of t r a d i t i o n a l  extensive account  upon h i s l i t e r a r y  role  present  literary  outstanding  c a s e w i t h most s t u d i e s on n o n - E u r o p e a n  c a r e e r had  very  Chinese  t h r e e most The  tools  r a t h e r than  by  Westerners.  I paying  of the  unique  utilizing  criticism,  i s the  one  twelfth century.  e x p l o r e Yang W a n - l i ' s  ture  as  critics  i s regarded  from  litwriting  sudden  thoughtless  idea of  natural,  e x p r e s s i o n o f Yang's  ( h u o - f a ) . a p o e t i c method  theory which  includes doxical and  such  language,  poetry  was  with  the Buddhist  utmost  importance  d e s c r i b e s h i s f a m i l y and He and  is particularly the l i f e  humor,  theme o f  illusion  and  Confucian bureaucrat  f o r h i s p o e t r y , and  lower  i n h i s verse  also  he f r e q u e n t l y  of s o c i a l  society.  criticism  classes.  However, t h e most common s u b j e c t o f Yang's l i t e r a r y tions tic  i s nature,  interests  nature  p o e t r y has  contemporaries', poetry  are  painting. be  is  connected  like  scientific,  changes  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  Ch'an B u d d h i s t  animals,  the  to the v i s u a l  estheYang's  in  nature Chinese  i s found  mysticism.  the p a i n t i n g analytical  crea-  a r t of h i s  i n n o v a t i o n s i n Yang's  poetry,  with  the  of h i s p e r i o d .  to contemporary  Yang's l a n d s c a p e  c u l t u r e as a  to  His  of the p e r i o d ,  tendencies  of  the  whole.  I conclude  w i t h a study  literature.  verse are analyzed evolution  striking  compared  on p l a n t s and  poets  similarities  the  i n harmony w i t h  Chinese  which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  p a i n t e r s and  great  and  easily  intimately  poetry  a tendency  of both  of  of h i s  his general relationship with  original  of the  theory  m a j o r themes  t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e body  However, Y a n g ' s c a r e e r a s a  of the  para-  language.  t o e x p l o r e some o f t h e  poetry, f i n d i n g  i s concerned  reality.  and  g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f Yang's l i t e r a r y  I proceed  Yang W a n - l i ' s  illuslonistic  sudden e n l i g h t e n m e n t ,  of c o l l o q u i a l  this  practice,  iconoclasm,  s u r p r i s e and  e x t e n s i v e use After  and  elements as  The and  o f Yang W a n - l i ' s  i n f l u e n c e s of e a r l i e r  the  traditional  of h i s s t y l e are found Iii  t o be  position poets  in  on h i s  opinions concerning erroneous.  Yang's  the poetry  is  compared and  prominent  contrasted  shih poets  Finally,  I give  on l a t e r  p o e t s and  w i t h t h e work o f t h e two  of h i s period,  a brief  account  critics.  iv  most  P a n C h ' e n g - t a and L u  o f Yang W a n - l i ' s  Yu.  influence  Table of Contents Introduction  1  Biography  5  Yang Wan-li's Theory of Poetry  134  The L i v e Method 1.  Background  172  2.  Unconventionality  3.  I l l u s i o n i s t i c and P a r a d o x i c a l Language  186  4.  S u r p r i s e and Sudden Enlightenment  196  5.  Humor  205  6.  C o l l o q u i a l Language  212  .  178  Major Themes 1.  I l l u s i o n and R e a l i t y  2.  The World of  3.  217  .  Man  a.  Family and C h i l d r e n  b.  The S c h o l a r Poet's P l a c e i n S o c i e t y  c.  S o c i a l C r i t i c i s m and Peasant L i f e  229 . .  243  . . .  263  The World of Nature a.  Nature i n General  282  b.  Landscape  294  c.  Animals  330 349  d. P l a n t s v  4.  The Transcendance of Sorrow  360  Influence 1.  Yang's Masters  382  2.  Yang and H i s Contemporaries  407  3.  Posterity  429  Bibliography  434  Abbreviations  453  vi  Introduction The  p o e t r y o f Yang W a n - l i  been almost literature. published tury, a  n e g l e c t e d by W e s t e r n h i s t o r i a n s  concerning Chinese  blank.  literature  literature  most  The t r e m e n d o u s body  o f many s c h o l a r s  important f a c t o r .  and f i l l  medieval  of material  of c l a s s i c a l  i s almost  i s no d o u b t  Chinese  times.  likely  history  one  antiquarian  i s probably the  However, a s r e s e a r c h on l a t e r  of Chinese l i t e r a r y  early  language  but the generally  p r o g r e s s e s , Western s c h o l a r s w i l l periods  of Chinese  b e f o r e the t e n t h cen-  i n the c l a s s i c a l  the reasons f o r t h i s n e g l e c t ,  interests  t o a n age w h i c h h a s  A l t h o u g h a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f m a t e r i a l h a s been  post-T'ang  total  of  totally  belongs  discover  literature  that  the l a t e r  a r e just as r i c h as a n c i e n t  This d i s s e r t a t i o n  i s an attempt t o  i n one o f t h e many gaps i n o u r knowledge o f t h e h i s t o r y o f  C h i n e s e p o e t r y , t h e s o u t h e r n Sung d y n a s t y  d u r i n g the t w e l f t h  century. The of  twelfth  century, i n which  Yang W a n - l i  t h e most p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d s i n C h i n e s e  ophy  Chu H s i was c o m p l e t i n g h i s s y n t h e s i s  which into  would  exert a strong influence  modern t i m e s .  graphy  The a r t s  culture.  of neo-Confucianism,  on C h i n e s e  thought  had e n t e r e d one o f t h e i r most g l o r i o u s a g e s ,  witnessed  the p e r f e c t i o n  1  was one  In p h i l o s -  o f C h i n e s e p a i n t i n g and  c e r a m i c s o f t h e C h i n e s e were p r i z e d Poetry  lived,  and i m i t a t e d  o f a new f o r m ,  down  calli-  and t h e  a l l over Asia.  t h e t z ' u , and  2 c o l l o q u i a l drama and All  s h o r t s t o r i e s were g r a d u a l l y  of these i n n o v a t i o n s i n the c u l t u r a l f i e l d  by  an  unprecedented  science  and  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h and  new  tempted  culture,  spirit  and  throughout  o f t h e age  many modern c r i t i c s  stood  by  tend  have f e l t  original  to minimize  the  creation  original  To  study  the poetry  of  Chinese Not  culture  o n l y have we  lationship  to other c u l t u r a l  approach  little  literary  by  Chinese  because  we  haps, not as h e l p f u l f o r the m e t h o d o l o g y and  terminology  felt  been d e e p l y  that  study  background  and,  poet, active  and i n some  medicine.  other areas  poetry  tools  in i t s rebut  The  gen-  by  reader  the  will  of the Western  these t o o l s are,  by  our  influenced  critics.  of Chinese  employed  to  extreme.  use made o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  critic,  an  under-  just a  sciences or  phenomena o f h i s age,  literary  approach  of r e l i g i o n  Yang W a n - l i ' s  t o Y a n g ' s works h a s  methods u t i l i z e d find  treated  i n the  of  p u r s u i t s w i t h an  i n i s o l a t i o n from  seems a b s u r d  milieu  not  o f works i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s ,  o f s u c h men  Although  artistic  i n the realms  r e s e a r c h i n the n a t u r a l  have a t -  works a r e b e s t  age was  his literary  career, speculation  philosophy,  eral  combined  living.  cultural  and  of Yang W a n - l i ' s  from  to the i n -  analytical  t h a t Yang W a n - l i ' s  poet  frequently  political  cases,  The  in isolation  poetry  i n w h i c h he was  r e f e r e n c e to the i n t e l l e c t u a l  o f h i s age. f o r he  advance i n  t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n we  a u t h o r i n f a v o r o f a more f o r m a l l s t i c , p o e t r y , we  supported  a startling  poetry d i d not develop  t o r e l a t e Yang's h i g h l y  novative  were  technology.  Yang W a n - l i ' s this  evolving.  per-  literature  critics  o f Yang  as  the  Wan-li's  3 own  literary  we  tradition.  continually  employ  the  l y z e Tang's works, not by  that philosophy  age  utilized  found an  terminology  but a l s o  in their  o f Yang's " l i v e  out  t h a t the n a t i v e Chinese  and,  of Western l i t e r a t u r e  proved  We  writings.  do  We  but  have  to  only  say,  negate  to p o i n t  i s of great u t i l i t y  indeed, might h e l p  j u s t as  of h i s  than,  not wish  criticism  tradition  literature,  critics  method" more f r u i t f u l  u s e f u l n e s s of Western l i t e r a r y  study  own  of h i s p o e t i c "imagery."  Chinese  deeply i n f l u e n c e d  b e c a u s e most o f t h e  the  studying  discover that  o f Ch'an B u d d h i s m t o a n a -  o n l y b e c a u s e Yang was  Ch'an l a n g u a g e  a study  analysis  Thus, t h e r e a d e r w i l l  i n the  Western methodology  so v a l u a b l e t o r e s e a r c h i n c e r t a i n a r e a s  of  in  has  Chinese  literature. Anyone w i s h i n g g r e a t debt Although only  to the  to understand  r e s e a r c h done by  h i s book Yang W a n - l i  meant a s a s e l e c t i o n  ginning  the study  Yang W a n - l i ' s  poetry  Chou J u - c h ' a n g I n t h i s  Hsftan C h i ^  ^  Chinese  field.  ^  is  o f h i s works f o r r e a d e r s who  of c l a s s i c a l  owes a  poetry,  are  be-  i t contains a  huge amount o f v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s e r i o u s s c h o l a r . Chou's i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r due  to the  ideological  cussion  of the " l i v e  of  problem.  this  t o Yang's p o e t r y  p r o b l e m s o f modern C h i n a ,  method" was  an  inspiration  lowed h i s e l u c i d a t i o n  mentary  allusions on  or unusual  individual  but h i s standards  of d i f f i c u l t  we  limited  but h i s  dis-  to f u r t h e r  H i s f o o t n o t e s t o t h e poems s e l e c t e d  m o d e l f o r o t h e r s c h o l a r s t o i m i t a t e , and  literary  i s somewhat  are  have u s u a l l y  study a  fol-  p o i n t s i n t h e poems s u c h  language.  Not  only  i s h i s com-  poems o f t h e g r e a t e s t a i d t o t h e  of s e l e c t i o n are very  high.  as  Although  reader we  4 have  translated  many poems by Yang W a n - l i n o t c o n t a i n e d i n  Chou's  selection,  poetry  i n each major c a t e g o r y ,  poems t r a n s l a t e d  h i s book c o n t a i n s most o f Y a n g W a n - l i ' s  here  best  and, hence, the m a j o r i t y of  a l s o a p p e a r i n Chou's  work.  The m a j o r d e f e c t o f Chou J u - c h ' a n g ' s book i s t h a t t h e "Marxist" fluence ever, in  a p p r o a c h he f r e q u e n t l y u s e s o b s c u r e s  t h a t Ch'an B u d d h i s m had on Yang W a n - l i ' s  i t i s most l i k e l y  Ch'an was  all  a result  intellectuals  research  t h a t Chou's s i l e n c e  of the p o l i t i c a l  i n modern  on C h i n e s e  individual to  the strong i n -  China.  Buddhist  poems a t t e s t ,  on Yang's  pressures  Chou had done  philosophy  poetry.  anti-Buddhist  dently  of the present  h i s e f f o r t s were n o t c o m p l e t e l y  most r e c e n t  reprint  on Yang W a n - l i ' s  o f h i s work o m i t s  poetry  entirely.  on  extensive  as h i s f o o t n o t e s to  b u t , p e r h a p s , he f e l t  sentiments  interest  that bear  i t more  g l o s s o v e r Yang's B u d d h i s m i n o r d e r n o t t o o f f e n d  ally  How-  prudent  the gener-  government.  Evi-  s u c c e s s f u l , f o r the h i s introductory  essay  Biography  Yang W a n - l i ^  ^  ^  , whose s t y l e  ^  ., was  born i n C h i - s h u i ^ ^  in  t h e y e a r 1127, t h e f i r s t  was  o f modern  poets  time.  y e a r of the r e i g n ;  one y e a r family  Many  two y e a r s  j u n i o r to Lu  j u n i o r t o Pan C h * e n g - t a r ^  was  n o t of p e a s a n t  A  ^  lowest l o c a l  immediately  ginning  under the emperors T ' a i T s u A M (976-998),  shocks f r o m  throne, Hui  The l a s t  Isung.f|^  totally  structing  was  Yang's quite  s t r o n g be-  (960-976) and T ' a i had w e a t h e r e d  a  series  b e t w e e n r e f o r m e r s and  emperor on t h e n o r t h e r n Sung  (1101-1126), was  a fine  painter  but i n the p o l i t i c a l  K u i Tsung s p e n t huge  around  two  o f t h e K h i t a n T a r t a r s and a  effective  of the a r t s ,  inept.  gardens  ^  seen  on t h e n e x t  From a r e l a t i v e l y  t h e Sung d y n a s t y  the L i a o dynasty  h i s patronage  he was  history.  out c o n t e s t of p a r t y s t r i f e  conservatives.  for  of C h i n e s e  effects  years  l o n g drawn  Although  p r e c e d i n g Y a n g ' s b i r t h had  hundred  of  Yu^^^and  o c c u p i e d more t h a n t h e  e v e n t s w h i c h had d i s a s t r o u s  ^  t h e same  positions.  The y e a r s political  *  first  of the g r e a t -  s t o c k , h i s background  humble, f o r none o f h i s a n c e s t o r s had  TsungA  of the  o f t h e s o u t h e r n Sung were b o r n a t a b o u t  T h u s , Yang was  ^  Klangsl province  s o u t h e r n Sung emperor Kao T s u n g , ^ % est  T'ing-hsiu  the c a p i t a l  city  sphere  sums o f money  located  in  noted  con-  i^]  modern K ' a i - f e n g  5^  •  l u x u r y n e c e s s i t a t e d was popular  The h i g h t a x a t i o n which the  partially  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s e r i e s of  u p r i s i n g s , the most s e r i o u s of which was  Pang La ^  , a Manlchaean who  court  the r e v o l t of  vowed to k i l l  the  corrupt  o f f i c i a l i n charge of Hui Tsung's gardening p r o j e c t s .  2  L u c k i l y f o r the Sung empire, the L i a o r u l i n g house a l s o reached i t s n a d i r a t t h i s time. house, T'ien Tso  Ti ^  ^  f a l c o n r y as Hui Tsung was  to gardening and  as a d d i c t e d  l o n g ago  prized falcons.^  r a c e , the Ju-chen-^a r t s of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  p i r e , and badly  , who  impunity i n e a r l i e r  vj|  ^  have g i v e n him  the t i t l e  dynasty, and T'ai T s u ^  proved h i s c l a i m to i m p e r i a l t i t l e  Tsung was  to r e c a p t u r e  by  the  the L i a o  Wanem-  they were himself  Chinese h i s t o r i a n s .  In 1120  T'ai  Tsu  by d e f e a t i n g the L i a o  occupying t h e i r northernmost c a p i t a l c i t y  Upon h e a r i n g Hui  , attacked  The f o l l o w i n g year A-ku-ta d e c l a r e d Chin ^  years.  the l e a d e r of the  when the L i a o attempted to punish him,  beaten.^  en-  Tartar  were not yet corrupted  In the year 1114  c l a n , A-ku-ta jp*j  emperor of the new  and  Although  l o s t the m a r t i a l v i g o u r which had  them to a t t a c k the Sung w i t h  ^  to  sent embassies to  Into the power vacuum which r e s u l t e d , stepped a new  yen  the  p o s s i b l y a more masculine sport than gardening,  the K h i t a n had abled  l a s t emperor of  ( 1 1 0 1 - 1 1 2 5 ) , was  ^  f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s each year to buy f a l c o n r y was  The  had  again  Shang-ching  of the Chin v i c t o r i e s over the L i a o dynasty,  overjoyed.  Numerous attempts by  t e r r i t o r y l o s t to the L i a o had  the Sung army  f a i l e d , but  now  7 the Sung government had a new little in  expense and  effort.  means of i n c r e a s i n g i t s land w i t h  The  two most powerful  individuals  the Sung government a t the time were the eunuch T'ung Kuan and  the man  he had recommended to the emperor, the prime  m i n i s t e r T s ' a i Ching ^  vj  Both of these men  urged  the  em-  p e r o r to form an a l l i a n c e w i t h the Chin a g a i n s t the L i a o , and so a l r e a d y i n 1118  ambassadors had been d i s p a t c h e d by the sea In 1120  r o u t e to the north.°" they succeeded ing  more ambassadors were sent, and  i n c o n c l u d i n g a t r e a t y w i t h the Chin.  Accord-  to the terms of the t r e a t y , the Chin were supposed to  a t t a c k the L i a o middle  c a p i t a l of Chung-chlng  the Sung would a s s a u l t Yen-ching ceeded  jji*.  "J^  .  , while I f the armies  i n overthrowing the L i a o , the Sung government would be  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the r e t u r n of c e r t a i n Chinese t e r r i t o r i e s to  suc-  the K h i t a n d u r i n g the F i v e D y n a s t i e s and would pay  lost  the  y e a r l y t r i b u t e , which they had g i v e n the L i a o , to the Chin.7 The Chin T a r t a r s were i n t e l l i g e n t enough to scent a good d e a l , and Liao.  i n the f o l l o w i n g year they began t h e i r a t t a c k on the  In 1122  they were a b l e to take the middle  c a p i t a l Chung-  c h i n g , f o r c i n g the emperor T ' l e n Tso T i to take f l i g h t . ^ w h i l e , Hui Tsung had  sent the eunuch T'ung Kuan to a t t a c k Yen-  c h i n g , but the Sung army was ended i n t o t a l f a i l u r e , 9 was  Mean-  so f e e b l y l e d that the campaign  and a second  campaign l a t e r t h a t y e a r  even more d i s a s t r o u s , r e s u l t i n g i n thousands of c a s u a l t i e s  and a d i s o r d e r l y r e t r e a t .  The Chin armies d i d not g i v e the  1 0  Chinese another chance to blunder, f o r they soon occupied ching with l i t t l e  trouble.  1 1  Yen-  8 By t h i s time the Chin T a r t a r s were f u l l y aware of the comp l e t e impotence of the Sung m i l i t a r y . served  ob-  the t r e a t y w i t h the Sung government a t l e a s t on the s u r -  f a c e and promptly was  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they  turned over the land promised  earlier.  Peace  maintained f o r a couple of y e a r s , but the Chin found  a  casus b e l l i when a former L i a o g e n e r a l surrendered to the Sung and  used h i s border post as a base f o r a t t a c k s a g a i n s t the  Chin.  Although the Sung government executed him when the  , c  Chin complained,  found many Chinese m i l i t a r y men and  their attack i n 1125.  the Chin launched  w i l l i n g to cooperate w i t h them,  as t h e i r armies neared K ' a i - f e n g , Hui Tsung a b d i c a t e d the  throne to h i s crown p r i n c e , who Tsung $X  ^  ,  In 1126  was  g i v e n the t i t l e  the Chin armies  surrounded  the c a p i t a l K ' a i - f e n g ,  that no a s s i s t a n c e was  o t h e r Sung armies, the Sung government was a very shameful  peace w i t h the Chin.  Chin army, the Sung had hundred thousand silver. ^ 1  Ch'ln  1 3  and when i t became apparent  forced  coming from to conclude  In o r d e r to buy  o f f the  to make an immediate present of  two  t a e l s of gold and f o u r m i l l i o n t a e l s of  N e v e r t h e l e s s , once the Chin army had l i f t e d i t s  s i e g e , another Chin army appeared The  They  Chinese government was  treaty i n e f f e c t i v e .  and demanded more ransom.  f u r i o u s and d e c l a r e d the peace  In the e i g h t h month of 1126,  sent one more army, and tured K ' a i - f e n g c i t y . 5 1  the Chin  i n the e l e v e n t h month, the army The  cap-  emperor Ch'ln Tsung p e r s o n a l l y  went to the Chin camp to beg f o r mercy, but the Chin kept p r i s o n e r , and  i n the second  month of 1127  him  the people of K ' a i -  9 feng of  paid  gold  an a d d i t i o n a l  and a m i l l i o n  were s t i l l  ransom o f o v e r s e v e n t y  taels  dissatisfied,  of s i l v e r . ^  thousand  taels  However, t h e C h i n  1  and i n t h e f o u r t h month t h e y  forced  t h e r e t u r n e d emperor H u i T s u n g , C h ' i n T s u n g , t h e empress, and about  t h r e e thousand  cials  t o r e t u r n w i t h t h e i r army b a c k n o r t h .  empire  had c e a s e d The  Chinese  the n i n t h  that  emperor.  troubled  However, i n t h e same y e a r the i m p e r i a l  the family  about  Yang's y o u t h ,  was l i t t l e  except  disorder.  K i a n g s i l a y f a r from  indirectly  troubled  village  suffer  the l i f e  ^  thousand though  of e x i l e from h i s did,  o f a r e f u g e e a s Lu Yu d i d .  times, escaping from  1 8  n o r d i d he  L u Y u was b o r n on  p r o v i n c e , w h i c h was one  and he summed  p e r i e n c e s y e a r s l a t e r when he w r o t e ,  the  by t h e d i s o r d e r s o f  t h e main t h e a t e r o f b a t t l e ,  as H s i n C h ' i - c h i ^ ^  t h e main b a t t l e f i e l d s ,  cer-  due t o t a x i n c r e a s e s and f i s c a l  t h e banks o f t h e H u a i R i v e r i n K i a n g s u of  It  Although  we c a n be q u i t e  Yang d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e t h e b i t t e r n e s s  native  throne i n  y e a r t h a t Yang W a n - l i was b o r n .  the period  and  The n o r t h e r n Sung  i n a u g u r a t i n g t h e s o u t h e r n Sung d y n a s t y .  we know v e r y l i t t l e tain  offi-  o v e r r a n n o r t h C h i n a and s e t up a  son o f H u i Tsung ascended  was i n t h i s  and h i g h  1  as puppet  thereby  relatives  to e x i s t . 7  Chin quickly  official  Nanking,  other imperial  up h i s c h i l d h o o d ex-  "When a c h i l d ,  I died ten  the b a r b a r i a n s o l d i e r s . " 9 1  Al-  Y a n g W a n - l i was r e a r e d i n p o v e r t y , he d i d n o t s u f f e r  trauma o f w a r f a r e , a f a c t  h a p p i e r o u t l o o k on l i f e poraries .  which p a r t i a l l y  when compared  explains h i s  t o many o f h i s contem-  10 A l t h o u g h Yang's f a m i l y was t h e r e had fore, in  he  been o f f i c i a l s pursued  the y e a r  a  1154  education from  his first  o b t a i n i n g h i s c h l n - s h i h degree twenty-eight. shih  i n the  The  spend  an  same y e a r , and  extended  c l o s e and As was  time.  Inspector t] / away f r o m hundred  claimed  early  a t the r e l a t i v e l y  of time  that  his family.  of  the  chln-  they  beto  was  m i l e s s o u t h o f C h i - s h u i , so he  years.  in local  govern-  term as  Finance  his first  E v e n s o , K a n - c h o u was  2 1  life,  t o g e t h e r , t h e y were q u i t e  h i s three year  at Kan-chou^V^j  and  t h e y were n e v e r a b l e  given a position and  Thereage,  a l a r g e number o f poems i n l a t e r  passed,  that  young age  Ch'eng-ta passed  Although  2 0  t h e c u s t o m , Yang was  ment s o o n a f t e r he  an  i t i s quite l i k e l y  interval  exchanged  he  success i n o f f i c i a l  famed p o e t Pan  came f r i e n d s a t t h i s  poor,  i n t h e Yang c l a n p r e v i o u s l y .  classical  he had  fairly  lengthy  stay  n o t more t h a n  a  c o u l d have f r e q u e n t l y  gone home t o see h i s p a r e n t s . After Y a n g was  the customary  transferred ? 4 ^<  Ling-ling^  ->fl-J  Yung-chou ^ former now  one,  but  Yang was  western  .  three years  o f s e r v i c e a t Kan-chou,  to the p o s t of A s s i s t a n t , w h i c h was T h i s was  i t was  stationed  no  under the  a slightly  sudden r i s e  Sub-prefect  jurisdiction  higher post  t o fame and  of  of  than  the  f o r t u n e , and  f a r away f r o m h i s f a m i l y , i n s o u t h -  Hunan p r o v i n c e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  three years  that  Y a n g s p e n t a t L i n g - l i n g were among t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  in his  political  atten-  tion. 1161  and  The was  literary  c a r e e r , so t h e y  most i m p o r t a n t  h i s meeting  with  event  deserve  i n Yang's l i f e  our f u l l  d u r i n g the  year  t h e famous Sung g e n e r a l Chang Chun  11 ^-j^  , but before we can f u l l y  understand the impact t h i s  meeting had on Yang, we must review the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the southern Sung and e x p l a i n how pp mote Hunan by 1161.  Chang Chun had ended up i n r e -  Although Kao Tsung had come to the throne i n 1127, the Chin T a r t a r s had not l e t him r e s t e a s i l y .  While s t i l l a t  Nanking, Kao Tsung appointed L i Kangy^ ter,  h i s prime m i n i s -  and L i soon was making every e f f o r t f o r a recovery w i t h a  f a i r degree of success due to the a c t i v i t i e s of the Sung gene r a l Tsung Tse K'ai-feng. of  , who was based near the former c a p i t a l  U n f o r t u n a t e l y Kao Tsung f e l l  a group of o f f i c i a l s who  under the i n f l u e n c e  c o u n s e l l e d appeasement, and  after  L i Kang r e s i g n e d , the emperor moved h i s r e s i d e n c e to Yang-chou ^"j  T h i s was  Chin armies.  the s i g n a l f o r renewed  a s s a u l t s by the  The p a c i f i s t s hampered Tsung Tse's e f f o r t s a t  defence, and i n e a r l y 1129,  h i s p o s i t i o n became so p r e c a r i o u s  t h a t Kao Tsung was f o r c e d to r e t r e a t from Yang-chou a c r o s s the Yangtze R i v e r to Hang-choujj^J-y4j  , where he prepared to s e t  PA  up h i s c a p i t a l .  But h i s a c t i o n s were premature, f o r the  Chin continued t h e i r a s s a u l t , and i n the t w e l f t h month they took Hang-chou and l a i d chou  -Jl-J *  n  i t waste. 5 2  Kao Tsung escaped to Ming-  Ghekiang but was pressed so hard he had to es-  cape by sea to Wen-cho u -y§g_ il'J ,  i n southern Chekiang p r o v i n c e .  The Sung dynasty seemed to be drawing to a c l o s e . Kao Tsung was  saved w i t h a s e r i e s of b r i l l i a n t  maneuvers by a group of new In  1130 Han Shih-chung  g e n e r a l s who  Jj^ j^,  military  appeared j u s t i n time.  met the Chin army and navy  12 i n a b a t t l e on the Yangtze i n which he attempted to stop the Chin from c r o s s i n g back n o r t h . greatly  Although Han was  defeated,  he  i n c r e a s e d Chin f e a r s of being cut o f f from t h e i r supply  l i n e s i f they should venture  too f a r south of the Y a n g t z e . ? 2  Meanwhile, the renowned Chinese r i s e n to prominence, and 1:133  and  1134,  1135  the now  g e n e r a l Ytteh F e l ^ ^  had  when the enemy's armies came south i n  the Chinese  s u c c e s s f u l l y h e l d them back.  c o n f i d e n t Chinese  g e n e r a l s p e t i t i o n e d Kao  to renew the a t t a c k a g a i n s t the n o r t h , but Kao Perhaps, the reason Kao r e c a p t u r i n g n o r t h China was  Tsung was  In Tsung  Tsung hesitated. ® 2  not very i n t e r e s t e d i n  that such a success would  almost  i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n the r e t u r n of h i s f a t h e r Hui Tsung and p r e v i o u s emperor Ch'in Tsung, who  were now  the  c a p t i v e s i n the north.  There o b v i o u s l y could not be three emperors of China a t the same time, and  so Kao  Tsung was  w i l l i n g to f o r g e t the Chin's  t o h i s f i l i a l p i e t y as l o n g as they kept Hui Tsung and Tsung f a r away from the Chinese may  e x p l a i n why  Kao  capital.  Tsung e a s i l y f e l l  Ch'in  Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  under the s p e l l of the  p a c i f i s t prime m i n i s t e r Ch'in K u e i ^ t r e a t y w i t h the  insult  , who  advised a peace  Chin.  Nonetheless,  Kao  Tsung had need of h i s new  w h i l e l o n g e r , because widespread b a n d i t r y plagued ment south of the Yangtze. Chttn a l l played an important  Ylieh P e l , Han  generals a the  govern-  Shih-chung, and  r o l e i n suppressing these  Chang  bandits  i n the hope t h a t peace i n the south would l a y the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the recovery of the n o r t h . ment was  But the most s t a r t l i n g  develop-  Ytteh P e l ' s c o u n t e r - a t t a c k a g a i n s t the Chin which  13 f o l l o w e d upon the a n t i - b a n d i t campaign.  In 1140 Ytteh P e l  pushed n o r t h d e f e a t i n g enemy army a f t e r army and e v e n t u a l l y camped w i t h i n range of the n o r t h e r n Sung c a p i t a l K ' a i - f e n g . ^ 2  Y e t i n the same year Ch'in Kuei commanded Yffeh to g i v e up the campaign and r e t u r n south.^°  In 1141 both Ytteh P e l and Han  Shih-chung were ordered to the c a p i t a l , where Ytteh P e l was murdered a t the i n s t i g a t i o n of the prime m i n i s t e r Ch'in K u e i . ^ In one  1  the same year Ch'in Kuei encouraged Kao Tsung to submit t o of the most h u m i l i a t i n g t r e a t i e s i n Chinese h i s t o r y .  Be-  s i d e s r e q u i r i n g the Sung government to pay a huge indemnity i n s i l k c l o t h to the Chin every year, the t r e a t y recognized the Chin o c c u p a t i o n of n o r t h China and put the Sung i n the p o s i t i o n of  a v a s s a l s t a t e w i t h regard to the C h i n . ^  2  During the f i f t e e n odd years of Ch'in Kuei's c o n t r o l of the Sung government, most of the famous g e n e r a l s were e l i m i n ated one by one, and the war party among the o f f i c i a l s rapidly liquidated.  was  In f a c t , the only g e n e r a l of prominence  who remained a f t e r these purges was Chang Chtin, and he was a l ready an o l d man when Yang met him i n 1161 .  Chang had probably  been spared because he was not among the most prominent and a g g r e s s i v e of the Sung g e n e r a l s , but even so he had met w i t h difficult  times under the r e i g n of Kao Tsung.  When he was  about to r e t u r n to h i s n a t i v e Szechwan to go i n t o mourning f o r his  mother, there was an i n a u s p i c i o u s a s t r o l o g i c a l c o n f i g u r a -  t i o n , and the government asked  f o r o p i n i o n s from  officials.  Chang Chtin s a i d t h a t although there had been peace w i t h the Chin f o r a few y e a r s , the enemy would soon seek an excuse to  14  attack  t h e Sung, and t h e government s h o u l d  prepare  immediately.  When Chang's o p i n i o n s became known t o t h e appeasement they  attacked  such  preposterous  it  him v i o l e n t l y ,  c l a i m i n g he was i n s a n e  thoughts.  I n a d d i t i o n , they  w o u l d be d a n g e r o u s t o a l l o w  to think  maintained  that  Chang t o r e t u r n t o Szechwan,  w h i c h was so f a r away f r o m t h e c e n t r a l might  party,  government t h a t he  c a u s e d i s o r d e r by e x p r e s s i n g h i s d i s a p p r o v a l o f c u r r e n t  policy.  Therefore,  i t was d e c i d e d  t h a t he s h o u l d  be s e n t t o  Y u n g - c h o u i n Hunan p r o v i n c e , where he c o u l d mourn h i s m o t h e r for  the required three years  porters  and be k e p t  away f r o m h i s s u p -  i n Szechwan.  When Yang W a n - l i h e a r d  t h a t such  a famous man was l i v i n g  s o n e a r t o h i m , he was eager* t o meet Chang, f o r a l t h o u g h t h e old  g e n e r a l was t e m p o r a r i l y  fluential However, virtual course  a n d c o u l d be o f u s e t o a young o f f i c i a l Chang was n o t a n easy  exile, with  after  man t o v i s i t ,  In f a c t ,  three personal v i s i t s  by  t h e man whom he saw, and he p r o b a b l y  young l o c a l  h i g h e r r e s p e c t than their  official.  Yang f a i l e d  t o see  Yang was e x t r e m e l y  any o f t h e o t h e r  meeting,  held  impressed  statesmen of h i s day.  mind."54  changed t h e name o f h i s s t u d y  o r S i n c e r e S t u d i o , and i n l a t e r  consent  Chang Chttn i n  Chang e n c o u r a g e d Yang t o " s t u d y  i n t e n t i o n and u p r i g h t  mediately  since h i s  Yang w r o t e h i m a number o f l e t t e r s d i d Chang  see t h i s  sincere  because  as Yang.  t o t h e g e n e r a l ' s h o u s e , and  to  During  such  he had c l o s e d h i s d o o r and r e f u s e d a l l i n t e r -  the outside world.  Chang a f t e r only  o u t o f f a v o r , he was s t i l l i n -  ^  s  a  r e  sult,  with a  Yang i m -  t o Ch' e n g - c h a i l\  times  he used  the study's  15 name a s h i s h a o .  In a d d i t i o n  Chang Chun i m p r e s s e d cal  situation  on Yang t h e u r g e n c y  t h e camp o f t h o s e who  the  Chin  of the present  convictions, supported  strenuous  resistance against  Tartars.  views  at this  under the i n f l u e n c e ling,  time, hut h i s l i t e r a r y of another f r i e n d  serving  on Yang's  activities  came  T e - t s a o JJ?,  i n minor l o c a l  a l t h o u g h H s i a o had t o l e a v e L i n g - l i n g  poem w h i c h Yang w r o t e t o H s i a o  after  i n Reply  to the J u d i c i a l  V u l g a r t h i n g s n e a r my e y e s After  to o f f i c i a l  O f f i c e r Hsiao  o n l y i n c r e a s e my  o u r p a r t i n g , how e m a c i a t e d  I still  s p u r my  crawl i n pursuit  I'm n o t y e t s a t i s f i e d  being  rT  i n 1162, Yang spoke o f i n later years.  Y a n g e x p r e s s e s h i s new commitment  ^ 'Z  p o s t s , and  t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p with great tenderness shortly  poli-  he made w h i l e a t L i n g -  n a m e l y , t h e s o u t h e r n Sung p o e t H s i a o  B o t h Yang and H s i a o were  Sent  politi-  he was h e n c e f o r t h f i r m l y  Chang Chun e x e r t e d t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e tical  studies,  i n C h i n a , and a l t h o u g h we do n o t know a n y t h i n g o f  Yang's p r e v i o u s p o l i t i c a l in  t o u r g i n g on Yang's  my f r i e n d of your  their  In a  parting,  life:  Te-tsao's sleep;  Rhymes  a  h a s become.  gallop;  1 3  j u s t another duck i n the w a t e r '  0  D e s p i t e Yang's e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s a m b i t i o n s f o r o f f i c e , the p r i n c i p a l the year is  influence  of Hsiao  on Yang was n o t p o l i t i c a l , f o r  1162 was one o f i n n o v a t i o n f o r Yang t h e p o e t ,  too. I t  n o t c e r t a i n how l o n g Yang had b e e n w r i t i n g p o e t r y a t t h i s  t i m e , a n d , a l a s , we  s h a l l never  know, b e c a u s e  Yang burned  over  16 a thousand  of h i s e a r l i e r works i n 1162, and a l l of h i s s u r -  v i v i n g poetry comes from a f t e r t h i s date.36  P r e v i o u s to 1162  Yang had expended h i s p o e t i c t a l e n t s i n i m i t a t i n g the verse of the K i a n g s i s c h o o l , which had formed around Huang T ' i n g - c h i e n ^  (1045-1105) i n n o r t h e r n Sung times and remained  p o p u l a r i n Yang's youth.  Yang h i m s e l f came from E i a n g s i as  many of the major poets of the p e r i o d d i d , and the s t y l e undoubtedly had an i r r e s i s t a b l e a t t r a c t i o n to him w h i l e he was still  young.  Although we have no way of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the  c o n v e r s a t i o n s between the young poets Yang and Hsiao, we can be c e r t a i n t h i s f r i e n d s h i p was one of the major f a c t o r s which led  to Yang's r e j e c t i o n of the e a r l i e r K i a n g s i s t y l e .  ing  to Yang, t h e i r very f i r s t  Accord-  meeting i n v o l v e d the w r i t i n g of  poetry:  I first  got t o know him a t L i n g - l i n g .  As soon as we  t a l k e d , our minds were i n a c c o r d , so I c a r r i e d my bedding beds.  to h i s l o d g i n g , where we s l e p t on opposite A t the time, the weather was hot and Tung-fu  [Hsiao Te-tsao] wanted to s e t o f f e a r l y i n the morning.  A t the f i f t h watch he got up before me, and  blowing on the lamp so i t f l i c k e r e d , he scratched his  head as i f he were occupied w i t h something.  I  got up to watch him and saw he was composing a poem as a p a r t i n g g i f t . to  him.  I a l s o wrote a poem i n answer  Tung-fu was so d e l i g h t e d he s a i d :  f r i e n d s i s l i k e g e t t i n g engaged. a s i d e a p i e c e of paper! " ^  "Making  Each of us has put  17 Hsiao  Te-Tsao's  p o e t r y was s i m i l a r  to the f r e e r  style  w h i c h emerged a f t e r Y a n g ' s b u r n i n g o f h i s e a r l i e r w o r k s , a n d the  southern  Sung p o e t  and c r i t i c  L i u K'o-chuang^J  (1187-1269) c o n s i d e r e d t h e s t y l e o f t h e two p o e t s t o be q u i t e similar:  "Hsiao  Te-tsao's  'mechanism' was s i m i l a r  Wan-li,  yet h i s talent  thought  was more f o r c e d . " 3 ®  Yang's e a r l i e s t Liu  i s comparing  tells but  t o Yang  was more s p a r i n g t h a n Yang w h i l e h i s  surviving  Nothing  c o u l d be more f o r c e d  p o e t r y , so h e r e  i ti s likely  than  that  H s i a o ' s v e r s e w i t h t h e l a t e Yang W a n - l i .  us t h a t he somewhat r e g r e t t e d  t h e a c t was s y m b o l i c  burning h i s youthful  of the dramatic  Yang works,  changes i n h i s l i f e  d u r i n g h i s stay a t L i n g - l i n g . D e s p i t e Y a n g ' s new p o l i t i c a l thought  of h i s family  d r e w t o a c l o s e he  I  Receive  commitment, he  back a t C h l - s h u i ,  constantly  and a s t h e y e a r  1162  wrote:  a L e t t e r f r o m my  During holidays,  Old Parents  i t ' s hard  Though I f r e q u e n t l y  t o be a  get l e t t e r s  (First  poem o f two)  traveler,  from  home.  My m o t h e r a s k s when I ' l l come b a c k ; What a r e b o t h o u r t h o u g h t s I  force  It  myself  i n c r e a s e s my  Formerly,  like?  t o d r i n k w i n e , y e t how c a n I f i n i s h i t ? sorrow  and c a n n o t  when I was p o o r ,  eliminate i t .  b e f o r e becoming an  official,  39 How  c o u l d f a t h e r and s o n be s e p a r a t e d  This f e e l i n g  of i s o l a t i o n  and l o n e l i n e s s  then?  reached  a high  point  1 when Y a n g s e t o u t f r o m L i n g - l i n g Year  t o r e t u r n home f o r t h e New  holidays:  On  t h e day b e f o r e New Y e a r ' s  s t o p f o r t h e n i g h t a t Crooked at  t h e Govern The  Peace  Whirlpool City  and s l e e p  Monastery  river's  broad,  through  cotton;  t h e wind  Sandbanks a r e many, b e a c h e s When was t h e c i t y  E v e , g o i n g home by b o a t , I  biting,  so c o l d  i t goes  few; o u r boat goes  e v e r f a r away, b u t o u r b o a t  upstream. can't  approach i t ; Yet  i n my mind lamp's  At  night  I've a l r e a d y a r r i v e d  by t h e s i d e  of the  light.  I p u t up i n a n a n c i e n t t e m p l e ,  sloshing  t h r o u g h mud t o e n t e r ; When t h e damp k i n d l i n g insects A  cold  But  at least  city  While  this  i s better  s p a r s e boat people  this  i t sounds  how c a n I g e t t o s l e e p ?  t h a n g a z i n g a t t h e sky  matting.  s i n g and s h o u t ,  celebrating  t h e New  Could  this  like,  I bear t o t e l l  After  Year  p o e t ' s knees a r e bent as h i g h as h i s c h i n .  When I r e t u r n home, i f my c h i l d r e n a s k me what was  like  chirping.  window, f r e e z i n g w a l l s ,  under The  catches f i r e ,  them a b o u t  my f e e l i n g s  tomorrow?^  t h e h o l i d a y s , Yang d i d n o t h a v e t o p a r t  0  from h i s  19 family  immediately,  because  t i m e a f t e r New Y e a r .  he moved them t o L i n g - l i n g  H i s term  and  he p r o b a b l y  joy  w i t h them b e f o r e h i s r e p l a c e m e n t  replacement and  thought  of o f f i c e  t h a t he would have l e i s u r e came.  no s o o n e r had they  serious  case  duction  t o a poem w r i t t e n a t t h i s  istrate  of Ling-ling,  left  of typhoid f e v e r .  t o en-  Unfortunately the  I suddenly  the f a r t h e r  As Y a n g t e l l s time:  us i n t h e i n t r o -  "After  I quit  a s mag-  came down w i t h t y p h o i d . A l days,  I was l i k e  a man  I went t h e h e a v i e r i t g o t .  changed d o c t o r s , c o n s u l t i n g D o c t o r  a f t e r n i n e d a y s I was w e l l .  To add t o h i s  t h a n he came down w i t h a v e r y  I c o n s u l t e d a d o c t o r f o r twenty  carrying a load;  long  time  was d e l a y e d by a number o f months, and h i s p a r e n t s  misery,  I  was up i n t h e s p r i n g  c h i l d r e n had t o r e t u r n home b e f o r e he d i d .  though  some-  Then  T'ang K u n g - l i a n g , and  I thanked  him w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  poem:"  You  size  up d i s e a s e s a s y o u would  You  use m e d i c i n e s  as i f h i t t i n g  L i k e Hual-yln y o u have a hundred hundred  battles;  Like Yu-chi you f i r e Old  size  up a n enemy;  a bull's-eye. victories  ina  a  a hundred  T'ang, y o u r method  times without a  miss.  1 5  of p u l s e - t a k i n g i s b r i l l i a n t ,  exalted; If  y o u examine a man, how c o u l d t h e d i s e a s e urchins  It  escape?  0  ^  1  was f o r t u n a t e t h a t Yang had r e c o v e r e d f r o m  t y p h o i d so  20 q u i c k l y , f o r great p o l i t i c a l changes were i n the a i r , and an undreamed  of opportunity f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e had come to him.  To understand history.  these  changes, we must go back a few years i n  L a r g e l y due to the appeasement  p o l i c i e s of Kao Tsung,  t h e r e were n e a r l y twenty years of peace between the Chin and Sung governments.  However, i n the year 1149, a w i l d and i r -  r e s p o n s i b l e r u l e r by the name Wan-yen L i a n g a l s o known as F e i Tiy|j\ dynasty.  , came to the throne  In 1161 he attacked  the Sung without  camped h i s huge army a t T s ' a i - s h l h ^ ^ R i v e r i n Anhwei.  %J  The f i r s t  Jfcj  , who i s  of the Chin p r o v o c a t i o n and  , n o r t h of the Yangtze  Sung army sent to meet him ran i n  r e t r e a t before even g i v i n g b a t t l e , but the r e o r g a n i z e d army managed to stop the Chin from c r o s s i n g the r i v e r .  The  result  of t h i s d e f e a t f o r the Chin was t h a t c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l s  set up  another lings.  emperor and Wan-yen L i a n g was a s s a s s i n a t e d by h i s under4 2  D e s p i t e t h i s minor v i c t o r y , Kao Tsung was t i r e d  of the  changes of f o r t u n e of an Imperial l i f e , and i n 1163 he a b d i cated the throne Hsiao  Tsung^  i n f a v o r of h i s son;, who was the next (1163-1190).  w i t h h i g h hopes, f o r the new s o n a l i t y from h i s f a t h e r . Hsiao  Yang obviously heard  emperor  the news  emperor had a very d i f f e r e n t  per-  The recent v i c t o r y had encouraged  Tsung i n t o t h i n k i n g that there was hope a f t e r a l l of g a i n -  i n g back the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the empire. reason f o r Yang's  joy was that Hsiao/  Yet the g r e a t e s t  Tsung had r e c a l l e d  mentor Chang Chlin and made him commander over the whole g i c Yangtze and Huai R i v e r a r e a s . ^  Most important  Chang had s t r o n g l y recommended Yang to the c e n t r a l  Yang's strate-  of a l l , government,  21 and  a s s o o n a s he had r e c o v e r e d  out f o r t h e c a p i t a l and  then  proceed  out from  I  city.  fully  from  He i n t e n d e d  on a l e i s u r e l y  trip  t y p h o i d , Yang s e t  to v i s i t  h i s home  to Hang-chou.  first  When he s e t  L i n g - l i n g he w r o t e :  thought  o f r e t u r n i n g home day a f t e r d a y , j u s t  empty  talk; Yet  At  now t h e o a r s r e a l l y  I still  midnight  a r e d i p p i n g i n the water's  can hear  t h e drums o f t h e p r e f e c t  tower; By  tomorrow m o r n i n g I o u g h t t o h a v e l o s t  Yung-chou's  mountains  Meanwhile, apace.  the plans  t o a t t a c k t h e C h i n were  Chang Chlin a p p o i n t e d  t h e two g e n e r a l s L i H s i e n - c h u n g , to l e a d  armies,  advancing  t h e r e was i n i t i a l and  i n the f i f t h  confusion in and  northward success,  modern K i a n g s u . " ^  t h e c o u n t e r - a t t a c k ground  suggesting  sins. heard  t h e Sung,  Anhwel p r o v i n c e .  t h e two g e n e r a l s a r g u e d  Although  continuously,  T a r t a r s took advantage of the  t h e Sung a r m i e s  a proclamation blaming and  through  month, t h e C h i n  to d e l i v e r  developing  a crushing defeat a t P u - l i  Chang Chun was I m m e d i a t e l y to a h a l t .  demoted  The emperor s e n t down  himself f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n the warfare  t h a t t h e d e f e a t was a p u n i s h m e n t f o r h i s own  Sometime s h o r t l y  a f t e r h i s departure  from  o f t h e most r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s and w r o t e :  Ling-ling,  Yang  22 A f t e r Reading the Proclamation (Two Don't read For  poems o f T h r e e )  the Proclamation  o f Wheel  i t makes a man's t e a r s d r i p  emperors t h i r s t  What c r i m e  after  talented helpers.  still  i s l  c  o u r example;^  r e c o v e r f r o m Goose G a t e ' s t r o u b l e s .  T h i s d i s o r d e r commenced on t h e day o f my Yet  I am a b o u t  The  Central Plain  Just  We  to reach  Frontier  haven't  he c o n t i n u e d  encountered  d o n ' t be so s e l f - r i g h t e o u s .  built  a Metal  Tower,  n  t o r e s t r e n g t h e n Yen.^-  on h i s r o u t e  to the c a p i t a l  ^  city,  Yang  t h e g e n e r a l L i H s i e n - c h u n g , who had b e e n s e n t , i n after  L i H s i e n - c h u n g ' s s t o r y was p a r t i c u l a r l y  c a u s e he had been i n t h e m i l i t a r y to  war a t t h e age o f s e v e n t e e n .  by  the Chin  and  f o r sorrow.8  ruler;  immediately Fu-li.  service.^  i n o u r dreams;  i s a source  Y e t we a r e a l r e a d y a s p i r i n g  As  only  i s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  you o f f i c i a l s , still  exists  e  nativity,  t h e age o f s t r o n g  still  the Southern  His Highness All  b  do o u r b o y s o f good f a m i l y h a v e ?  w i s h t o make D a n g e r o u s P o r d  We w i l l  a  barbarians,  They know who t h e i r g r e a t g e n e r a l I  Tower,  down.  H e a v e n , y o u make room f o r t h e s e So  of Self-Censure  over  two h u n d r e d  the debacle of t r a g i c , be-  since following h i s father When t h e f a m i l y was  o f h i s r e l a t i v e s were  L i b a r e l y managed t o e s c a p e w i t h a f e w f r i e n d s  captured  slaughtered, to the  H s i - h s i a fa J |  kingdom.  from r e t u r n i n g to  d e l i v e r a stunning  met  him,  the d e j e c t e d  the  road  had  kept  the  battle  The  to the H s i - h s i a . ?  the  on h i s way  old general  of F u - l i .  As  officers,  who  army  to h i s  exile:  L i Hsien-chung,  storehouses  a result  an  he  who  to h i m s e l f  caused  s c a t t e r e d , and  Li  When Y a n g  4  h i s t r e a s u r i e s and  to  If a  defeat  to prevent  L i managed t o r a i s e  g e n e r a l was  I met  ment among t h e exiled  H s i - h s i a attempted  t h e Sung, b u t  and  On  The  at  resenthe  was  Ch'ang-sha.  covetous general military  books do  i s worthy not  of  employ,  misunderstand  a  the  present. I o n l y mourn s u r r e n d e r e d Mountain;  b e g r u d g e s g o l d f o r war  Why  i s he  He  admires  My  exiled Chu a  p o s i t i o n were now impotent  future. found  to the  Yfln  alone,  completely  to r e s i s t  P e r h a p s , he  the  hooves?  0  Chia Y i ;  speak?  i t slowly  to  myself. ® 4  t h a t h i s hopes f o r h i g h d a s h e d and  Chin  d  e  me  I chant  realized  steeds'  same p r e f e c t u r e a s  scholar l i k e  poem f i n i s h e d ,  Yang o b v i o u s l y  Ear  D  Who  Where can  was  armor h i g h as B e a r  the  central  official  government  c h a l l e n g e a t l e a s t f o r the  even began t o have d o u b t s a b o u t h i s  p o e t i c i n n o v a t i o n s , f o r s e v e r a l d a y s l a t e r he  near new  wrote:  24 Spending Thin clouds blind  the N i g h t a t  t h e b e a u t i f u l moon,  But  t h e wind becomes h e r m e t a l  I'm  traveling  b e c a u s e I'm  But what b u s i n e s s do Why  does the  cold  Tu-hsi  the  eye-scraper,  engaged w i t h my c l o u d s have  could people  Can  we  My  like  c a l l s me  traveling?  me?  us f o r g e t  s t o p t h e autumn f r o m  s h o r t lamp d o e s n ' t  F o r he  work,  of such a n i g h t  Meet o n l y w i t h a t r a v e l e r l i k e How  a  our  emotions;  m a k i n g us  understand  t o r e c i t e a new  0  sad?  anything,  0  poem.^^  Sometime i n t h e t w e l f t h month o f t h e y e a r , Yang reached had  the c a p i t a l  city  been demoted, he  still  c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t , and authorities. was of  the l a r g e s t one  city  managed  t o recommend Yang t o  i n the world  However, he  i n a number o f e x c u r s i o n s t o c e r t a i n L a k e , w h i c h were p r a c t i c a l l y visit.  A b o u t West Lake he  Misty  bays;  i n the the  Hang-chou i t p r o b a b l y  big cities,  and  excess  he d i d n o t  Year f e s t i v i t i e s  did  J o i n h i s new  sights  obligatory  such as  t h e West  f o r a young poet  sideways,  which  friends  wrote:  b o a t s , h o r i z o n t a l and  port  position  with a population i n  the d a z z l i n g New  witnessed.  Chang Chun  official  Yang d i d n o t l i k e  poems a b o u t  certainly  he  Although  h e l d an  the time Yang v i s i t e d  million.5°  w r i t e any he  At  o f Hang-chou.  finally  l i e i n willow  to  2 5  Cloudy How  m o u n t a i n s a p p e a r and  could  disappear  midst  willow  c l i m b i n g a m o u n t a i n e q u a l w a n d e r i n g by  rows.  this  lake? For  i n the h e a r t  of the  mountains I wantt^  Due the p o s t time  was  of  month o f official  moon o f t h e New i l l , so he  of  rice;  career, f o r shortly  m a t t e r how  good  mean t o  he  d i d not  before  the  r a i n and  first  miles  on  the path  plotting  home:  for five  pecks  and the  waits,  so  I should  s p r i n g scenery  go  home.  i s , what does  plum f l o w e r s  o n l y make me  home h i s f a t h e r was  sad.^  2  a l r e a d y d e a d , and  Yang  the l o n g three y e a r mourning p e r i o d p r e s c r i b e d  and  the government.  home, he  was  Chun had  a l s o passed  A f t e r a few  away s o o n a f t e r Yang had  Yang wrote t h r e e f u n e r a r y  by  months o f m o u r n i n g a t  f u r t h e r grieved to hear that h i s teacher  realized  seem  me?  When Y a n g r e t u r n e d  viously  some-  a  No  society  offered  /jfx  Nevertheless,  q u i c k l y s e t out  old f a t h e r waits  commenced  Chang Chun, Y a n g was  Y e a r , Y a n g r e c e i v e d news t h a t h i s f a t h e r  My  Fine  of  1164.  I have come a t h o u s a n d  it  a l l the  I n s t r u c t o r of L i n - a n Fu  f o r higher  very  see  1  good o f f i c e s  i n the f i r s t  fated full  t o the  l a k e , I can  left  the  odes t o h i s o l d t e a c h e r ,  but  Chang capital. he  ob-  t h a t h i s f u t u r e h o p e s f o r a c a r e e r were dimmed  c o n s i d e r a b l y i n  any  case,  he  could  take  no  new  post  until  26 the  three year  p e r i o d was  Throughout t h e r e s t except his  f o r a few f u n e r a r y  neighbors  beginning he  who l e f t  o f t h e y e a r Yang wrote v e r y  f e w poems  odes and p a r t i n g poems t o c e r t a i n o f  the v i l l a g e  to o f f i c i a l  posts.  By t h e  o f 1 1 6 5 , h i s s o r r o w had l i g h t e n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , and  began t o take  spots  finished.  a number o f s h o r t t r i p s  i n Kiangsi province.  to various  One day w h i l e  enjoying  beauty such  a n ex-  c u r s i o n he w r o t e :  While  I Am R i d i n g a P a l a n q u i n  of  Book  My  Holding to I  books,  She  eyes  t u r n hazy at a l l ,  ting  into  at  practice  had p r o b a b l y  I  h i s new  i s jealous  stand  two l i n e s Yang  them one by  suggest  i d e a of w r i t i n g  discovered while  t h e same time  But  t h e s p r i n g wind  of the period  In the l a s t  about  them, f o r  first.  b l o w s open t h e p a g e s and f l i p s  poem and o t h e r s  Te-tsao.  myself  me;  This  he  forcing  t h e books o u t b u t d o n ' t r e a d  F o r no r e a s o n of  I g e t on t h e c a r t ,  Turns t h e Pages  go o u t t o t h e m o u n t a i n s ;  spread my  t h e Wind  still  one"5^  t h a t Yang was simple  put-  poetry,  at Ling-ling with  o f a poem he w r o t e  to a  Hsiao. friend  states:  up and s e a r c h f o r a v e r s e a w h i l e ,  the verse  i s i n the mountains b e f o r e  my  which  eyes.55  27 Despite Y a n g had and  on  not  one  this  greater feeling  totally  r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f to h i s f a t h e r ' s death,  o f h i s s h o r t e x c u r s i o n s he  On A long pavilion, This I  is still  still and  My  of n a t u r a l n e s s i n h i s poetry,  t h e Road  to  wrote:  Hao-ytian  a short p a v i l i o n ,  the  road  remember t h e  I traveled  sky was  three or as a  cold,  five;  boy.  the  sun  small  yellow;  f a t h e r walked  Today  I am  the  not  i n front, while  sad  I looked  on  b e c a u s e I have r e a c h e d  i n back.  the  end  my  old  of  road;  L i k e a s i c k goose, I f l y a l o n e h a v i n g  lost  gander. For  three years tree  for  he  office  c a p i t a l had  new  of the  midst  the  pine  travels w i l l  begin  again.56  travels  i n Kiangsi,  must s o o n make a n o t h e r  attempt  to  win  c e n t r a l government.  In f a c t ,  he  left  Y e a r o f 1167. completely  arrived The from  w i t h the  Chinese  had  political  situation  t h e heyday  C h i n government. aroused  Chi-  i n Hang-chou sometime  The  i n the  of Chang Chun.  t h e r o u t o f F u - 1 1 , t h e Sung emperor had  peace t r e a t y  attack  my  o f t h e y e a r and  changed  after  doors  t a l k i n g about h i s l o c a l  i n the  t o t h e New  Shortly  on,  not merely  s h u i a t t h e end close  time  knew t h a t he  public  c l o s e d my  wind;  From t h i s  Y a n g was  I've  feeble  signed  a  counter-  a c e r t a i n degree of r e s p e c t  28 among t h e C h i n , the  f o r t h e Sung government no l o n g e r had t o use  l a n g u a g e o f a v a s s a l s t a t e when r e f e r r i n g  rulers.  Nevertheless,  t o pay was  q u i t e huge.  precipitated warnings  next  a violent  concerning  t h e r e was  the y e a r l y indemnity  virtual  forty  Chang  Chun's  fall  to the  Chin  w h i c h t h e Sung had  f r o m f a v o r had n o t  purge of the pro-war f a c t i o n ,  t h e C h i n were  p e a c e between  some y e a r s .  unheeded  by H s i a o  but  their  T s u n g , and  t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s f o r t h e  A l l t h e same, a r d e n t  patriots  sent  up  c o u n t l e s s m e m o r i a l s t o t h e emperor u r g i n g a t t a c k , b u t Yang learned  the r e s u l t  official  of these  he b e f r i e n d e d  labors after  i n the  talking  to a minor  capital:  A C o l o p h o n on t h e M e m o r i a l o f Ten Thousand Words by the  F u - k a n Wei  His  Chih-yao from  s h o r t lamp m i d s t  A traveler with Why  take  Yang government  of t h i s  quickly realized  early we  find  snow;  t o eat.*  a  5  up m e m o r i a l s w i t h  age r e s p e c t  only Master F i c t i o n !  t h a t he c o u l d n o t o b t a i n a  until  increasingly frequent  0  central  capital,  d i s c u s s i n g the  I t a l s o seems t h a t h i s  i n Ch'an B u d d h i s m was  poems o f t h e p e r i o d .  i n the  autumn o f t h e y e a r ,  s i t u a t i o n with f r i e n d s .  interest  is like  sword, he h a s no f i s h  under the c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g  y e t he r e m a i n e d t h e r e political  his hair  cries?  t h e men  post  the r a i n ,  the t r o u b l e of sending  mournful Truly  long  Szechwan  renewed  references  at this  time, f o r  t o Buddhism i n the  I n one poem t o a f r i e n d  Yang a l l u d e s t o  29 "Questions This  is a  the ^ a  and  a n s w e r s i n t h e monk's room, t h e  specific  reference  Lin-chid^. ^ jjf  or, l i t e r a l l y ,  question  designed cursive i.e., with  Sect  Ch'an B u d d h i s t s  'public case.'  t h e monk a n s w e r s him  to destroy thought.  "roared," a  of  t o t h e method o f  stick.  the  concept  Lin-chi at their  By  the  drastic  off  a friend  official  To  step  and  They n e v e r  C h i - s h u i he  he  may  seemed  concerned  Yang r e m a i n e d  me  were beyond h i s  from  the  reached  considered  remote, so  sending the  remote; I became  sad.^9  i n C h i - s h u i f o r the next  already  reached  and  t h e age  two  of  his  w a i t i n g f o r an  op-  He  outstanding  accomplishments i n e i t h e r l i t e r a t u r e  h i s name, so when h i s e y e s began t o f a i l  traught:  them  reach:  portunity.  to  had  t h a t both  beginning,  meeting f r i e n d s , w r i t i n g poetry, had  in dis-  However, when to f e e l  asks  shouted,  have e v e n  o f f i c i a l d o m o r Buddhism, b o t h  recklessly  life,  and  by  kung-an  pummeled  home he  8  statement  inherent  a t times  t i m e Yang r e t u r n e d  monastic l i f e  select  and  used  student  a bewildering  o f b e c o m i n g a monk.  from  known as  When t h e  of d u a l i t y  students  roars."5  teaching  masters a l s o f r e q u e n t l y  the d e p t h of h i s d e p r e s s i o n , the  with  lion  years  of f o r t y  he  or  without politics  became  dis-  any  B e c a u s e o f My I'm  o l d , and  After a l l , Ink  A g i n g E y e s I Gave up  b o o k s no  my  l o n g e r h a v e any  eyes a l r e a d y  s o l d i e r s are  not  After  snow, t h e f r o s t  While  chanting  small  son  Reciting  By  the  signed  see  poetry,  my  livelihood.  my  hat  just  himself  to  the  1166  in  strength;  lies  crooked.  lazy;  l e s s o n s a t n i g h t , he  Year of  raises a racket  came a l o n g  possibility  On  A l l hope o f h i g h  the n i g h t  of  the f i r s t  writing auspicious  inside  them i n o r d e r  year.  We  long  call  poem a b o u t  this  moon, o u r  i n t o the  shape o f  expressions,  to d i v i n e our  in  full  jest.  purpose!^  already  reany-  t o s u c h g r e a t men  as  futile:  village  has  cocoon  w h i c h we  a  fibers  then  l u c k f o r the  "cocoon d i v i n a t i o n . "  this  Last year at f i r s t  full  on  m i g h t n e v e r be  p o s i t i o n seemed e q u a l l y  custom of g r i n d i n g r i c e and  Yang had  t h a t he  t h i n g more t h a n a m i n o r p o e t l o o k i n g up Tu F u .  place;  flowers.  increases  knows I'm  t i m e New  Sighed  f r i e n d s t o ones d e a t h ;  C a s s i a wine seems t o be  My  Books and  place  coming  I wrote  a  a  moon I r e s i d e d a t  Three  Thoroughfares;^ Braving  the  myself This year  rain,  I looked  at  the  lamps, f o r c i n g  t o make m e r r y . at f u l l  moon t i m e ,  I'm  living  a t home  again,  0  31 And  our  Across  village the  and  doesn't  creek  drums,  i n the  I wonder i f t h e r e  The  c h i l d r e n cook  And  i n the m i d d l e ,  My  b u s h s h r i n e , a few  rain,  flutes  still  jade  are  rice  they  any  revelers  i n t o cocoon  hide  lucky  out.  threads  words,  praying  secret.  little post  While to All  just  0  Yet  in  even have l a m p s ,  son  Implores  t h a t he  will  get  an  official  early,  the  little  be  good.  his life  girls  just  ask  t h i s m a s t e r has  f o r the  laughed  silk  a t the  harvest  children's  foolishness, But  on  this  occasion  even I p l a y  I d o n ' t d e s i r e t o p l a n t my Palace, Nor  do  legs  Gardens.  s e t up  a nest  want t o r e c i t e  Tu F u ' s  And  able  fill  heart  i n the  child. Golden  Flower  i n the  Imperial  Grove  e  I only  I n my  a  d  I wish to  be  like  to  e a t my  I know t h e  seven-character  a l l the  year  poems,  long.  cocoon d i v i n a t i o n doesn't  always  come t r u e , But,  when i n my I'm  Yet ing tion  drunkeness,  wild with  the  last  joy!  line  I get  fortune,  6 1  of the  poem, i n a d d i t i o n t o d i s p l a y -  a warm s e n s e o f humor, b e t r a y s t o o f f i c i a l d o m , and  a good  Yang's c o n t i n u i n g a s p i r a -  despite h i s frequent  protestations  to  32 the c o n t r a r y , i n 1169  he wrote:  G a z i n g A f a r on a n Autumn  Evening  During the r i c h h a r v e s t of our v i l l a g e , I hear the sound of people l a u g h i n g and The  creek's mist i s redder, damper a t  The p i n e ' s sun y e l l o w e r and Since we Why  talking.  evening;  l i g h t e r as i t s e t s .  are not deep i n t o autumn,  i s the a i r so pure already?  I shouldn't he i d l e much l o n g e r ; Soon I ' l l  go hunting f o r honor and fame.62  Yang d i d not have to go to the c a p i t a l to seek "honor and fame," f o r i n the beginning of 1170,  he was  appointed  which was  not much  over a hundred m i l e s to the n o r t h of C h i - s h u i .  A c c o r d i n g to  Tang's b i o g r a p h e r s , he was  adopted  a model governor and  a  p o l i c y of l a i s s e z - f a i r e toward the people i n h i s d i s t r i c t . When people owed tax money to the government, Yang d i d not send  c o l l e c t o r s i n t o the c o u n t r y s i d e to f o r c e c o l l e c t i o n  merely  d i s p l a y e d the names of o f f e n d e r s i n the market p l a c e  and f i l l e d  h i s tax quota without  However, Yang d i d not e n t i r e l y found  but  causing any  enjoy h i s new  undue t r o u b l e . work, f o r he  i t so time-consuming t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s w r i t i n g .  In the middle of h i s t r a v e l s about the d i s t r i c t b u s i n e s s he wrote:  on  official  P a s s i n g West  I n one y e a r  I've t r o d d e n  Mountain  the road  a  p a s t West M o u n t a i n  twice; West M o u n t a i n l a u g h s  a t me,  so he s h o u l d  know enough  to s a y : " I n y o u r b r e a s t y o u have a h u n d r e d black i n k dust, But  you don't the  Out  g a l l o n s o f r e d and  1 3  even h a v e h a l f  a line  equal  p e a r l c u r t a i n i n the r a i n . ' "  t o "wind  0  o f p o l i t e n e s s I buy wine and t h a n k West M o u n t a i n :  "I'm  g r a t e f u l f o r your mountain scenery, g i v e n me a  Yet  f o r you've  lift.  my t e m p l e h a i r s a r e t u r n i n g w h i t e f r o m  collecting  taxes, And  even i f d u s t  filled  up my w h o l e b r e a s t , when would  I have time t o worry about  it? ^" 6  Y a n g h a d no d e s i r e t o c o n t i n u e another,  and h i s a m b i t i o n s  were c l e a r l y  order  t o g a i n a t t e n t i o n , he b u s i e d  large  treatise  titled ing  "A P o l i c y  chapters  (3)  "The S o u r c e o f Government,"  of the Ruler,"  after  ( 2 ) "The C o n d i t i o n s ( 4 ) "Talent,"  ( 6 ) "A D i s c u s s i o n o f  In  preparing a w h i c h he e n It i s interesti n h i s work.  t o each of the twelve  "The Way  of Ministers,"  6 4  s u b j e c t s Yang d i s c u s s e d  (1)  cussion  chapters  o f a Thousand P r e c a u t i o n s . "  were d e v o t e d  post  s e t on H a n g - c h o u .  himself with  on government i n t h i r t y  t o note the various  Three  i n one l o c a l  topics: of the State,"  ( 5 ) "A D i s -  Generals,"  (?)  "A  D i s c u s s i o n of S o l d i e r s , "  (9)  " S e l e c t i n g Laws,"  cials," not  (12)  (10)  (8)  "Penal  "Controlling  Laws,"  (11)  "Government o f t h e P e o p l e . "  capital,  p r i m e m i n i s t e r Ch'en C h u n - o h ' i n g ' ^ y f ^  post  Therefore,  i n the  "Excess  was  and  long  he  time,  had he  looked  t e n t h month, Y a n g was  left  A Proclamation and  so  I Set  forward  Peng-hsin  to a post a t the  with  Compels me  considerable  to P i l l  my  Post  o f f from Ming-shan Post  were  the  extremely given  o f P r o f e s s o r o f t h e D i r e c t o r a t e o f E d u c a t i o n )£] ^  Although  Offi-  Yang's e f f o r t s  b u r i e d i n t h e mass o f p a p e r w o r k a t t h e  pressed.  Officials,"  imthe  t ^ j ~t •  capital for a trepidation:  a t the  Station in  Academy the  Morning Several A  shops, as  thousand  M a r k s on The  frosty  ice s t i l l  grass  mediocre, s p o t , my  Everything  i n the  not  Before capital,  we  i t would  Thousand P r e c a u t i o n s " cally the  I f i t my  expressed  flowers.  position at  city  is  early  to f o l l o w the  course  be  best  court; white.  wonderful,  r e t u r n i n g home  o f Yang's l i f e  to l o o k a t h i s " P o l i c y  in greater detail,  alter his political  ideas  into  temples are a l r e a d y  proceed  together;  waves;  turns  capital  as good a s  close  yet i n disarray.  bear  itself  Spot a f t e r  But  the  peaks, ordered  the  Ordinary,  i f scattered yet  views f o r the  f o r he rest  i n t h i s document h e l p  us  of  a  d i d not  drasti-  of h i s l i f e , to  in  understand  and  35 Yang's subsequent c a r e e r . supported  do n o t have  any  ments d i s p l a y s a g r e a t tary  features  rather legalist  this  o f Yang's d i s c u s s i o n  s t a n d w h i c h he  Wang A n - s h i h  takes.  One  Yang  s e t of docu-  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p o l i t i c a l  remarkable s i m i l a r i t y  low  striking novelty,  p r o b l e m s o f t h e s o u t h e r n Sung d y n a s t y .  startling  a  Although the p o l i c i e s which  and  mili-  o f t h e most  of p e n a l law i s the In t h i s  regard  he  shows  t o t h e famous n o r t h e r n Sung r e f o r m e r  ^  (1021-1086),  a f i g u r e who  was  held i n  e s t e e m by more o r t h o d o x C o n f u c i a n s s u c h a s Chu H s i b u t  whom Yang  admired  intensely.  With regard  to punishments  Yang  wrote:  I have heard t h a t limits. wishing ally it  the humanity  I f h i s humanity  humanity  not being l i m i t e d .  limit,  to r e v e r t  Yet, isn't  humanity  i t will  and  revert.  c a u s e s harm, of the  when s o m e t h i n g I f one  end up d o i n g harm. o f h i s humanity  setting  Therefore,  world without l i m i t , there  actu-  but a f a u l t  Certainly,  limits  i s humane  t h e mind  w h i c h h a s no l i m i t  He  does  but a r i s e s  limits  within ones  and h a r m i n g  o f t h e sage l o v e s  yet i n giving  i s a limit.  T h i s harm  will  i n o r d e r to p e r f e c t  b e t t e r than not s e t t i n g  humanity?  world  though  t h e n upon r e a c h i n g a n e x t r e m i t y , he  come f r o m o u t s i d e  it.  I f h i s humanity  of the humanity,  r e a c h e s an e x t r e m i t y ,  not  d o e s n o t have l i m i t s ,  the w o r l d .  i s not a f a u l t  have  must have i t s  t o be humane t o a l l t h e w o r l d , he w i l l  harm a l l  without  o f a Sage  h i s humanity  ones  the to the  e x t e n d s i t w i t h h i s mind  but r e s t r a i n s  i t w i t h humanity  that  sets  limits.  that  with  h i s humanity has l i m i t s b u t  w h i c h he p r a c t i c e s h u m a n i t y h a s no  In a n c i e n t was a b o u t king,  Therefore,  t i m e s when t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r o f C r i m i n a l s t o complete a case,  and t h e k i n g w o u l d  to attend  limits.  the hearing.  he would  command  the three  t h e p u n i s h m e n t , t h e k i n g would  and  the I n v e s t i g a t o r of Criminals  to the  ministers  When t h e y were a b o u t  out  impossible!"  report  to carry  s a y , "Pardon him!" would  The k i n g would a g a i n  say, " I t i s  s a y , "Pardon him!"  and  t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r o f C r i m i n a l s would a g a i n s a y ,  "It  i s impossible!"  I f he had p a r d o n e d  times but the I n v e s t i g a t o r agree, would this  t h e n t h e y would  of Criminals  The k i n g  t h e n c a n c e l h i s b a n q u e t s and n o t make merry on account.  Criminals wished  Now, d e s p i t e  three  fourth  times,  t h e h o n o r o f t h e Son o f by t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r o f  a l t h o u g h t h e Son o f H e a v e n  t o s a v e t h e man, he would w a t c h h i m d i e i n  end w i t h o u t  after  three  intervening.  When t h e y d i d n o t a g r e e  p a r d o n s , why d i d n o t he p a r d o n t h e man a  time?  I f they d i d n o t agree a f t e r  four  d o n s , why d i d he n o t p a r d o n t h e man numerous Or  r a t h e r , when t h e y d i d n o t a g r e e a f t e r  why d i d he n o t p a r d o n t h e man h i m s e l f , he . ity  three  d i d not f i n a l l y  e x e c u t e t h e man.  H e a v e n , i f he were opposed  the  t h e man  have t o l i s t e n  times?  one p a r d o n ,  and why d i d  to the I n v e s t i g a t o r of Criminals?  . . T h i s was s i m p l y of a sage.  par-  because pardoning  The p a r d o n i n g  b e c a u s e h u m a n i t y must h a v e  i s limited  limits.  6 6  i s t h e humanto three  times,  37 I f Yang W a n - l i ' s a t t i t u d e t o Wang A n - s h l h ' s a t t i t u d e resemblance cated. first  i n the military  In g e n e r a l ,  toward  toward  law, there  p o l i c i e s which  the m i l i t a r y  corresponds  i s even a  closer  t h e two men  advo-  policy  o f t h e Sung f r o m t h e  emperor T ' a i T s u onward d i s p l a y e d  a marked d i s l i k e f o r  professional military  men and l a r g e  v i e w s were no d o u b t  due t o f e a r  those which  t h e T'ang e m p i r e  brought  standing armies.  of m i l i t a r y  power d u r i n g result  the F i v e D y n a s t i e s .  o f such m i l i t a r y  contemplated  revolts  to ruin  T s u h i m s e l f had w i t n e s s e d and u t i l i z e d  the  punishments  Such such as  and w h i c h T ' a i  to b r i n g himself to  By t h e t i m e o f Wang A n - s h i h ,  t h i n k i n g was c l e a r  the continuous defeats  t o anyone who  o f Sung a r m i e s a t t h e  h a n d s o f t h e L i a o and H s i - h s i a , w h i l e by t h e t i m e o f Y a n g Wanl i  a drastic  national  pose  change o f m i l i t a r y  survival.  policy  was i m p e r a t i v e f o r  To c o u n t e r t h e m i l i t a r y  o f t h e p a o - c h i a was t o c r e a t e a c l a s s  similar  to the f u - p l n g  of m i l i t a r y  conquest  o f S o l d i e r s " Yang  I have heard  ^+  o f t h e T'ang d y n a s t y .  that  but also  I f one i n s i s t s  t h i n k about  because  farmers  i n the early  years  In h i s " D i s c u s s i o n  one who p l a n s f o r t h e w o r l d  it.  cannot  c a n n o t be o v e r c a u t i o u s  on d o i n g s o m e t h i n g b e -  c a u s e he i s g r e e d y f o r p r o f i t , not  of s o l d i e r  writes;  be g r e e d y f o r p r o f i t , a b o u t harm.  so e f f e c t i v e  t h r e a t Wang A n - s h i h  when harm comes, he w i l l  I f one i n s i s t s  on d o i n g  something  he i s o v e r c a u t i o u s a b o u t harm, he w i l l  certainly  lose  some p r o f i t .  "The  law o f r u r a l  practice. but  Men who d i s c u s s t h i s a l l s a y : soldiers  The p e o p l e  cannot  be p u t i n t o  take p l e a s u r e i n farming  t h e y do n o t t a k e p l e a s u r e i n b e c o m i n g  I f y o u t a k e what t h e y d e s i r e f r o m  them and f o r c e  them t o do what t h e y do n o t d e s i r e , h a v e t h e harm o f d i s t u r b i n g into  habit.  When d e f e n d i n g , t h e y w i l l  attacking  soldiers  they w i l l  of f a i l u r e . "  /iz  ^ 2  soldiers  C*  1111  disperse,  registered  of the various d i s t r i c t s P a c i f i c a t i o n Army."  t h e y mean by " d i s t u r b i n g how t h e C h i n d y n a s t y  a  They  And y e t , t h e so t h i s  i s what  They a l s o s e e  i s what  they  o n l y know o f t h i s and n o t h one c a n p a c i f y t h e  them, and one c a n s u c c e e d  . . .  . . I f a h u n d r e d men h o l d i n g weapons a t t a c k a  the t i g e r w i l l  called  I n t h e end i t  so t h i s  They do n o t know t h a t  people without d i s t u r b i n g  .  them  s e t up s o l d i e r s whom t h e y  was u s e l e s s and was d i s b a n d e d ,  without f a i l u r e  the r u r a l  the p e o p l e . "  t h e "Army o f t h e H e a v e n l y M a j e s t y . "  3  Ching-t'ang's  and c a l l e d  c o u l d n o t make a l i v e l i h o o d ,  i n g more.  when  r u n , and t h e n y o u have t h e harm  dynasty  mean by " f a i l u r e . " *  To make  i s not according to t h e i r  T h e s e men s e e how S h i h  the " M i l i t a r y people  then you w i l l  the people.  farmers  soldiers.  tiger,  w i n , b u t i f a s i n g l e man c a r r y i n g a  hoe  meets w i t h a t i g e r ,  t h e man w i l l w i n .  not  because the hundred  men a r e weak o r t h e s i n g l e  is  strong . . .  This i s man  The s i n g l e man o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n i n  w h i c h he w i l l will  surely  tion  of l i f e ,  Therefore, ancient  surely  live.  d i e , and t h i s  T h e s e h u n d r e d men o c c u p y a  so how c o u l d t h e y  times  employed d e a t h  with l i f e .  seek l i f e  because o f death?  it  posi-  obtain victory?  t h o s e who were good a t u s i n g s o l d i e r s i n  seek l i f e  the  i s t h e r e a s o n he  law of r u r a l  Don't  soldiers  t o seek l i f e the people  and d i d n o t  of the f r o n t i e r -  N e v e r t h e l e s s , when p u t t i n g  into  practice  on t h e f r o n t i e r ,  a b s o l u t e l y must n o t be done by t h e o f f i c i a l s .  the  officials  do i t , t h e n  if  i t i s privately  If  the o f f i c i a l s  there w i l l  done, then  do i t , t h e n  be t r o u b l e , b u t  there w i l l  s o m e t h i n g , b u t i f i t i s done p r i v a t e l y , know where t o l o o k .  ies  and c o u n t i e s a l o n g t h e H u a l  r u f f i a n s from we s h o u l d and  the  secretly  remit  their  frontier  come  suspect  t h e enemy  people  not to prevent  the l o c a l Also,  s e a r c h f o r t h o s e who a r e t a l e n t e d and r e w a r d i n g  t a x e s and l e v i e s  them.  A t times  slightly,  t o reward will  their merit.  we  o r on present  H o p e f u l l y , the  t a k e p l e a s u r e i n war, and i f one  t h e r e i s a n emergency, t h e enemy w i l l south.  will  o r d e r t h e commander-  g r o u n d s o f u s i n g them t o e l i m i n a t e b a n d i t s ,  .them w i t h a p o s t  day  should  happiness.  g a t h e r i n g f o r c e s and c a r r y i n g arms.  strong, honoring  should  We  be  t h e enemy w i l l  not  If  not e a s i l y  (TO  The  practicality  but  i n any e v e n t ,  o f Y a n g ' s p r o g r a m was somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c a l , such a p o l i c y  would p r o b a b l y  never  g a i n much  f a v o r w i t h t h e i m p e r i a l h o u s e , b e c a u s e t h e Sung emperors had  40 labored  hard  t o e l i m i n a t e any m i l i t a r y  c l e a r memory o f t h e numerous p e a s a n t o u t d u r i n g Kao T s u n g ' s Yang was f u l l y tween t h e p e o p l e ject the  i n rather  rivals,  and t h e y had a  rebellions  t h a t had  broken  reign.  aware o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  e x i s t i n g be-  and t h e g o v e r n m e n t , and he w r o t e o f t h i s  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l language  sub-  i n h i s "Government o f  People:"  I have h e a r d but  the people a r e the l i f e  t h e enemy o f t h e o f f i c i a l s .  delight The  that  of the p r i n c e  rise  and f a l l  what e v i l  o f t h e empire  do t h e o f f i c i a l s  the people hate  them?  of  Y e t i f they  the people.  subordinates w i l l  behind while merit e n t i c e s  no  from  of the state.  this alone.  do toward  Yet,  the people they  do n o t t r e a t be w i t h o u t  have f a u l t .  that  a r e enemies  the people as  m e r i t , and t h e i r  Fault  drives  them f r o m  ahead.  them  from  Although  t o be enemies o f t h e p e o p l e ,  way o u t . F o r t h i s  are the  and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e  I t i s not that  enemies t h e g r e a t ones w i l l  t h e y do n o t w i s h  The o f f i c i a l s  but the d i s t r e s s  dynastic fortunes a l l arise  of the state  they  have  r e a s o n , when a new p o l i c y i s  f o r m i n g and t h e emperor h a s a n i d e a b u t h a s n o t y e t decided,  the o f f i c i a l s  e m p e r o r h a s a command yet,  the o f f i c i a l s  officials precede  a l l agree  a l l agree  w i t h him.  When t h e  but has n o t put i t i n t o  a l l precede  him.  practice  The r e a s o n t h e  w i t h t h e emperor's d e c i s i o n and  t h e emperor's p r a c t i c e s  i s n o t because  they a r e  41 p r a i s i n g what what  i s of b e n e f i t  i s unbeneficlal  n o t p r a i s e what  i s unbeneficlal  what  i s beneficial who  have m e r i t . beneficlal fault  to the people.  i s beneficial  what  w h i l e men  p r a i s e what  to  this  merit,  they w i l l  The p e o p l e  certain  i t i s not  subsequently  "The p e o p l e have a l l p a i d  6 9  to apply h i s ideas  empire:  I have h e a r d y e a r was  b u t d i d anyone t e l l  that  the r i s i n g  brought  H i s Majesty  t h e c o u r t was  t a x e s as t h i s .  certainly  i t . Not o n l y do  of the  on by l o c a l  administered the "equal g r a i n purchase"  knew t h a t  a l l the  say t h a t  do n o t r e p o r t  i n t h e Sung  Lin Bandits last  t o the people  the government  g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n Yang p r o c e e d s  On t h e s t r e e t s  in  are without  and a s k s  locality,  t h e emperor s a y i n g :  r e c e n t events  who  praise  i t , but the o f f i c i a l s  with p l e a s u r e ! "  After  who  When t h e c o u r t i n t e n d s t o t a k e  good, b u t t h e o f f i c i a l s  cheat  Men  do  but p r a i s e  are not n e c e s s a r i l y  i t i s good.  they n o t r e p o r t  i s i t they  i s unbeneficlal  some money beyond t h e q u o t a  answer t h a t  praise  r e a s o n , p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e un-  to the people  i n a certain  they  to the people  to the people  For this  Why  to the people?  o f t h e emperor.  officers  to the people;  this?  a  officers  poorly,  A l l the empire  i n t e n d i n g to eliminate  such  N e v e r t h e l e s s , I have a l s o h e a r d  commanderles  o f K i a n g s l , a commandery  that A,  w h i c h does n o t produce that  silk,  i t d e s i r e s t o buy s i l k f r o m  what d o e s t h i s mean?  starts  business with  T h i s i s why  ginnings.  Now  amount a s t h e i r not  being  not  acquiesce  the people the o f f i c i a l s .  o f commandery  [normal]  w i t h money.  a r e punished  People  who do  by t h e o f f i c i a l s .  are being reproved  the s o - c a l l e d  i n standard  these  uniforms  taxes.  Now  0  commandery. the  silk  tion.  d  officials  1 3  tax" i s also  we a l s o demand  c r u e l ex-  i n c l u d e d i n the standard silk  of the neighboring  of s i l k  c o u r t o r among  t h e more c o r r u p t l o c a l  i n Hang-chou s h o r t l y  quickly  became i n v o l v e d i n t h e s w i r l  that year Hsiao  with  exac-  Yet the  know.7°  arrived  In  levy along  stand f o r t h i s ?  Yang's p o l i c i e s were n o t c a l c u l a t e d the  the so-called  taxes a r e a f o u r - f o l d  can t h e p e o p l e  do n o t l e t y o u  commandery.  i s already i n -  In a d d i t i o n ,  These t h r e e t y p e s  of the standard How  "equal buying"  taxes.  Sup-  f o r not paying  a c t i o n s a r e b e i n g made f o r t h e n e i g h b o r i n g  "Huai  B  taxes, y e t the people a r e  t h e i r normal taxes, but i n r e a l i t y  cluded  con-  [ f o r s i l k ] a c c o r d i n g t o t h e same  compensated  they  But  a Sage i s c a r e f u l a b o u t be-  the v a r i o u s c i t i e s  are being l e v i e d  Moreover,  B.  o u t as " b u s i n e s s " b u t ends up b e i n g  fiscation.  posedly  to the court  commandery  There i s n o t h i n g  d e s p i s e more t h a n d o i n g It  has said  to win him f r i e n d s i n officials,  a f t e r New Y e a r ' s  Tsung a t t e m p t e d  o f 1 1 7 1 , he  of the c a p i t a l ' s  to appoint  so when he  politics.  h i s son-in-law  43  ^°  YttehJ^L  Chang  Many o f f i c i a l s r o a r ensued.  a  n  i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the m i l i t a r y .  thought Chang was incompetent and a p u b l i c upThe o p p o s i t i o n centered around Chang  who was the son of Yang's mentor Chang ChUn.  ShihJ^^j  Although Chang  S h i h was not a great m i l i t a r y l e a d e r l i k e h i s f a t h e r , he supp o r t e d the same forward p o l i c y a g a i n s t the Chin, which had l e d his  f a t h e r to d i s g r a c e . ^H"  w  n  e  r  e  k  e  w  a  s  In the c a p a c i t y of L e c t u r e r i n W a i t i n g  supposed to d i s c u s s new p o l i c i e s i n the  presence of the emperor, Chang v i o l e n t l y attacked the a p p o i n t ment of Chang Ylieh, which he f e l t would only add to the m i l i t a r y c o n f u s i o n of the dynasty. were a l r e a d y  unpopular with the emperor, Chang was appointed  Governor of Ylian-chou 3 ^ Hj %  governmentYang and  Since Chang S h l h ' s war p o l i c i e s  t o remove him from the c e n t r a l  Immediately came to Chang Shlh's defence,  i n a memorial Yang sent to the emperor he dared to imply  t h a t Hsiao Tsung wished t o demote Chang S h i h to avenge Chang Yiieh.  Yang was no doubt paying back a debt of g r a t i t u d e he  owed to Chang ChUn, but h i s a c t i o n s were a l s o motivated by the p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s which we have a l r e a d y seen expressed i n h i s treatise. Chang Ylieh was f i n a l l y S h i h l e f t f o r Ylian-chou.  confirmed i n h i s new post and Chang  I t i s somewhat p u z z l i n g that Yang was  not  demoted along w i t h him, but Yang's biography t e l l s us that  his  s p i r i t e d defence of Chang Shih won the poet much a d m i r a t i o n  among other o f f i c i a l s , and Hsiao Tsung probably d i d not t h i n k i t worth h i s t r o u b l e t o d i s t u r b someone i n such a low p o s i t i o n as  Yang and thereby e x c i t e more p u b l i c d i s a p p r o v a l .  44 After his  life  this  was  initial  relatively  t h e n i n t h month o f Assistant  of t h e  w h i c h he  with  of  4^  a g a i n promoted .  Y a n g was  mostly  produced  to the  and  years.  post ^  he  of  ij£  held  •  In  Executive  ^  In  this  I n t h e f o u r t h month o f o f C o n s t r u c t i o n J'-^-  p o s t s were e v e n r e m o t e l y  post  and  the  t h r e e y e a r s he  -/^  powerful,  of  i n the  he  "ij and docu-  a b s o l u t e l y no  spent  of  1173  t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f government  p a p e r w o r k , Yang had  poems w o r t h y  Luckily  court r i t u a l s ,  ^  in this  to poetry no  promoted  Imperial S a c r i f i c e s  busied with  Immersed  devote  was  to V i c e - d i r e c t o r  None o f t h e s e  ments.  he  two  t h a t of R i g h t E x e c u t i v e of the M i n i s t r y  -J-^  Personnel  to  1172  Court  i n Yang's c a r e e r i n Hang-chou,  u n e v e n t f u l f o r the n e x t  oversaw c e r t a i n  simultaneously  was  storm  time  capital  notice.  f o r the h i s t o r y  of C h i n e s e  literature,  Yang  was  v  appointed  G o v e r n o r o f Chang-chou  the f i r s t  month o f  C h a n g - c h o u , he  was  In  the y e a r  In  the morning  the  evening  even envy  Think of r  in  already very  I left  I slept on  at  by  tired  boat  province i n  of o f f i c i a l  life:  Governor of  Chang-chou.  a t D r a g o n M o u n t a i n and  T'ung-lu.  the roads,  (Second  I have n e v e r  the mountain people  t h e day  i n Puklen  When Y a n g s e t o u t f o r h i s p o s t i n  chla-wu I s e t out as  Racing about I  1174.  Vtj  who  live  o f two  g o t any so  poems) peace;  leisurely.  when I r e t u r n t o m o u n t a i n s and  live  peace;  Then I can f o r g e t foreverl7  2  r a c i n g and  running about  in  on  roads  45 In f a c t ,  Yang n e v e r d i d go t o Chang-chou, b e c a u s e he  g a v e up h i s p o s t and r e t u r n e d Although refusal  Yang may  from o f f i c i a l strong.  service,  According  to C h i - s h u i i n s t e a d .  h a v e been p a r t i a l l y  of the governorship  motivated  other motives  seem  much more d e s i r a b l e p o s t , t h e more e c o n o m i c a l l y much more c o n v e n i e n t c i t y . W h e n  after h i s return  b e c a u s e Ch'ang-chou was  i n maintaining  At t h i s  nine years  likely  o l d , and he most  mediately,  and Y a n g  spent  instructions.  t o engage  ficial.  During  references lighted  granted  time  located i n  resigned  the  this  he was  only  capital  transfer, forty-  i n o r d e r t o en-  t h e government d i d n o t a g r e e the next  He had  o f money d u r i n g h i s y e a r s ford  , a  t h e government t o g i v e h i m t h e p o s i t i o n he d e s i r e d .  However,  further  governor-  o f K i a n g s i and a l s o  contacts with  not immediately  he p u t i n h i s r e s i g n a t i o n .  courage  that h i s  Chang-chou t o C h ' a n g - c h o u ^ -^-j  advanced p r o v i n c e  Y a n g was  retire  t o h a v e been e q u a l l y  t o a poem he w r o t e s h o r t l y  be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m  in his  o f Chang-chou by a d e s i r e t o  t o C h i - s h u i , v a r i o u s f r i e n d s had recommended ship  suddenly  to t h i s  two y e a r s  earned  at Chi-shui waiting  a fairly  i n the c a p i t a l ,  s i z e a b l e amount  and he c o u l d now a f -  i n some o f t h e d e l i g h t s p r o p e r t h e two y e a r s  to gardening  B o a t , w h i c h he had  of retirement,  to a s c h o l a r o f there are frequent  p r o j e c t s , and Yang was  by a s m a l l l i b r a r y  pavilion  constructed  called  the f i r s t  change im-  particularly  de-  t h e Snow A n g l i n g  year  back i n C h i - s h u i :  46 I Sleep Exhausted a t Snow A n g l i n g Boat  3,  I made a small study, which was shaped l i k e a boat,  so I named i t Snow A n g l i n g Boat.  reading there, I f e l l ly  a breeze  entered  While I was  a s l e e p from exhaustion.  the door and s t i r r e d  Sudden-  up the over-  whelming f r a g r a n c e of some plum f l o w e r s i n a vase. I was s t a r t l e d awake and wrote t h i s s h o r t poem.  A s m a l l p a v i l i o n , b r i g h t window, I c l o s e the door h a l f way; Reading books, I f a l l a s l e e p , F o r no reason a t a l l ,  zzzzzzz, zzzzzzz.  I'm d i s t u r b e d by these plum  flowers, Who blow t h e i r perfume a t me on purpose and r u i n my sweet dreams.  15  ?4  This p e r i o d of l e i s u r e a l s o allowed Yang to continue h i s s t u d i e s of Ch'an Buddhism, which had occupied to  h i s poetic writing.  When he mailed  a poem to an o l d f r i e n d  who was s e r v i n g i n Kuang-tung, Yang wrote: l e f t me i t ' s been e x a c t l y three y e a r s . cuss poetry  and expound on C h ' a n ? " ^  Yang Wan-li had s t a r t e d to completely of  second p l a c e only  "Since my f r i e n d  With whom can I d i s Most s i g n i f i c a n t of a l l , r e j e c t the bookishness  the s c h o l a r t r a d i t i o n , an a t t i t u d e which harmonized  Ch'an t e n e t s :  with  Reading While  r e a d i n g books,  But w o r k i n g  I don't  tire  of t o i l ,  t o o h a r d makes me t i r e d  I'd  best  And  t h e books  s i t m e d i t a t i n g w i t h my  When I f e e l And  Books  and I w i l l  like  suddenly  it,  and d i z z y .  books;  both f o r g e t  words.  a  I open t h e p a g e s ,  I arrive  a t the Spring  I say I'm e n l i g h t e n e d ,  o f t h e Hundred  Sages.  b u t t h e r e n e v e r was any e n l i g h t e n -  ment ; I speak no  of mystery, mystery.  When I f i n d All  I feel  but from the b e g i n n i n g there's  been  D  something i s total  that harmonizes  w i t h my mind,  delight.  Who i s i t t h a t makes t h i s p l e a s u r e ? It  i s neither  I n o r i s i t Heaven.  I l a u g h a t m y s e l f , I ' v e n e v e r been I throw  t h e book down a t t h e f o o t  D e s p i t e Yang W a n - l i ' s new f o u n d  right; o f my  pillow!^  e n l i g h t e n m e n t , he was  rapidly  becoming  d e p r e s s e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s  delay  i n con-  firming  h i m i n h i s new p o s t , and a s t h e y e a r 1176 came t o a n  end he w r o t e :  A Rainy Night It's  late  i n t h e y e a r , so how c a n I l a c k  My poem c o m p l e t e , The  fireflys'  I just  lights  emotions?  chant i t a l o n e .  are cold  and t u r n i n g  pale;  48 The autumn r a i n becomes h e a v i e r toward evening. Accompanying my o l d age, my poverty's s t i l l  i n good  health, So why would my wine want to keep back my sadness. The c h i r p i n g bugs accompany  the f a l l i n g  leaves;  a  They beat out a rhythm and s i n g a song f o r me.77  Yang's f r i e n d s i n the court must have p r e v a i l e d  over h i s  enemies, f o r i n the f o u r t h month of 1178, Yang s e t out from C h i - s h u i to become the governor of Ch'ang-chou.  Just a f t e r h i s  d e p a r t u r e Yang encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s which were symbolic of the problems he a n t i c i p a t e d  i n h i s new  position:  On the tenth day of the f o u r t h month of t i n g - y u I went to my post a t P i - l i n g , and when t r a v e l i n g by boat was hampered  by the wind, so I spent the n i g h t a t the mouth  of the Chou-po  fiiver.  (Second poem of two)  Ten m i l e s of r i v e r t r a v e l i s one day's voyage; . S i n c e l e a v i n g the mountains, i t seems the n o r t h wind's mad  a t us.  On the east window, the water's r e f l e c t i o n , on the west window, the moon; Together they shine on t h i s s l e e p l e s s man  i n the b o a t . 7  8  Yang's premonitions were q u i t e c o r r e c t , because he was so busy w i t h paperwork and t r i f l i n g d u t i e s that he had p r a c t i c a l l y no time f o r w r i t i n g p o e t r y .  Yang had f r e q u e n t l y worried about  49 these ally  o c c a s i o n a l f a l l o w p e r i o d s i n h i s w r i t i n g and t h e g e n e r s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f h i s poems.  chou g r e a t l y the  exaggerated  my p o s t ,  venue, a s s o c i a t i n g Yang W a n - l i literary already the  realized  reached  great poet.  o n l y w i t h r e d and b l a c k i n k . " ? a man  caught  Ch'an  9  i n a s p i r i t u a l and  i n Ch'ang-chou.  t h a t h i g h p o s i t i o n was n e v e r  t h e age o f f i f t y  He  probably  t o be h i s , and so Yang had  by now, and a l t h o u g h he had  p o e t r y , he s t i l l  obviously d i d not qualify  Tu Pu had d i e d when he was f i f t y - e i g h t .  spiritual  c r i s e s f r e q u e n t l y l e a d t o sudden  similar  to the profound  Never-  o f 1178,  and s u d d e n n e s s , was  sudden e n l i g h t e n m e n t  of a  monk:  On New Y e a r s and  lacking  day.  Suddenly  then very writing and  Day o f wu-hsUt (1178) I was on v a c a t i o n , official  they  vious  I wrote poetry  I was a s i f e n l i g h t e n e d  joyful.  brush  business,  while  I tried  I orally  came g u s h i n g  grinding.®  0  having  my  on t h i s I was  son h o l d the  composed  f o r t h without  . . .  as  "conver-  and Yang was no e x c e p t i o n , f o r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  had a n e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h i n i t s d e p t h  closely  the l o c a l r e -  c l a i m t o fame w h i c h he had was h i s p o e t r y .  theless,  he  us: " i n  i n C h i n g - c h ' i , and a s s o o n a s  l a w s u i t s and a r r a n g e d  was s u r e l y  w r i t t e n much f i n e  sions,"  I read  c r i s i s when he a r r i v e d  only  already  a  t h i s p r o b l e m , f o r he t e l l s  summer I went t o my p o s i t i o n  I reached  H i s new p o s i t i o n i n Ch'ang-  s e v e r a l poems,  any o f t h e p r e - ,  50 Yang W a n - l i had e x p e r i e n c e d a p r o f o u n d poetic  c r e a t i v i t y , f o r In the s i n g l e y e a r  poems t h a n he had i n t h e l a s t this  great burst  with local  of w r i t i n g  government.  awakening o f h i s  1178,  he w r o t e  e i g h t y e a r s o f h i s l i f e , and  came w h i l e he was b u s i l y  I n a poem w r i t t e n  engaged  soon a f t e r h i s e n -  l i g h t e n m e n t , Yang d e s c r i b e s t h e new ease w h i c h writing  more  he f e l t i n  verse:  Drinking One by one I r e c i t e  Late  t h e poems, one by one I copy  I have a cup o f w i l d  v e g e t a b l e s and some  them;  mountain  dainties, too. The  s p r i n g almost doesn't  brace  this  man's  drunkeness fti  When t h e moon a r r i v e s  Yang W a n - l i ' s  a t the t i p top branch  poetic  of t h e plums.  e n l i g h t e n m e n t had b e e n p r e c e d e d  much g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f Oh'an, a s we have a l r e a d y s e e n . though  i t would  spiritual  level  was o n l y p a r t  be h a z a r d o u s i n 1178,  of a deeper  Al-  t o make a n e s t i m a t e o f Yang's  i t seems t h a t h i s p o e t i c spiritual  d o e s n o t i n f o r m us d e f i n i t e l y  by a  enlightenment.  enlightenment Though he  o f a sudden a w a k e n i n g i n t h e  Buddhist  s e n s e , a poem he w r o t e  i n t h e same y e a r d e s c r i b e s a  mystical  experience of the Buddhist  variety:  While  on  V a c a t i o n , I Read  Pavilion Since  on a C l e a r  I brought  A y e a r has My But If  my  c h i l d r e n are  Formerly  I was  really  bad, of  joy.  sick,  surely  crying.  sighing  I was  never  full;  t h i s autumn i t ' s n o t h u n g e r t h a t b o t h e r s  I n mc.rning And  poor,  get  Chlng-ch'l,  passed.  are always devoid  s e r v a n t s don't  Then my  But  f a m i l y to govern  residence isn't  feelings  Planting  Morning  a l r e a d y suddenly  official my  my  Books i n A b u n d a n t  I get  up w i t h a book i n my  climb to the p a v i l i o n  Traces  o f dew,  Winds and Suddenly Can't  s t a r s and  a i r , no I feel  stand  sleeve,  to enjoy  moon s t i l l  remain;  old sick robes  of  through  body linen.  How  c o u l d I get  The  m o r n i n g c o o l n e s s i s what I t r e a s u r e !  yesterday's  White b i r d s f a r o f f l o o k l i k e poets  like  The  t r e e s t u r n s my  chanting.  Fragrance  o f l o t u s e s i c e s my  Suddenly,  where have h a p p i n e s s  My  body, t o o , ' d i s a p p e a r s  My  c h i l d r e n don't  heat?  butterflies;  B l a c k l o c u s t s hum c o l o r of pine  myself.  windows o r s h u t t e r s .  my  these  quickly  me.  spirit  t o snow;  gall. and  sorrow  gone?  completely.  understand  anything, Op  For  they  call  me  t o come home and  eat b r e a k f a s t .  52 The  " o l d , s i c k body" o f w h i c h Yang s p e a k s  the  B u d d h i s t s say  In  a flash  scends  s u f f e r s f r o m o l d age,  o f i n t u i t i o n Yang l e a v e s t h i s  the d u a l i t y  between h a p p i n e s s and  Yang's c h i l d r e n ment t o a t t e n d fast,  that  t o more p r a c t i c a l  m a t t e r s such as  government, and h i s worldly  body  death.  b e h i n d and  of  m a t t e r s such as  enlighten-  eating  q u e s t s were l i m i t e d  a poem he w r o t e  shortly  were s t i l l  tran-  sorrow.  caring f o r his family  problems  which  s i c k n e s s , and  him from h i s s t a t e  suggests that h i s s p i r i t u a l  practical the  calling  i s t h e body  break-  by  more  by w o r k i n g f o r  afterward hints  f a r f r o m an  ideal  solution:  My How  could food  But my  Cries  i n Want o f Pood  I I g n o r e o u r emperor's k i n d n e s s g i v i n g and  young  Morning  Son  warmth?  a  s o n , used  a f t e r morning  to p o v e r t y , i s always I h e a r him  J u s t when t h e c o o k i n g g r a i n  Nevertheless,  starving.  pursuing.  i s almost done!  0  8  ^  as t h e f o o t n o t e shows, t h e l a s t  In f a c t  f o r t h e Ch'an B u d d h i s t t r u e  ment c o n s i s t s  i n the r e a l i z a t i o n  identical  that  and  as the l i f e and, was  the l i f e  that  The  i n d e e d , o f most o t h e r C h i n e s e the legendary f i g u r e  illusion  of the o r d i n a r y  of the e n l i g h t e n e d .  1 3  crying  poem s u g g e s t s t h e d r e a m - l i k e n a t u r e o f t h e o f f i c i a l was  us  ideal  and  world  line  career  reality  are  i s t h e same  o f t h e Ch'an  a rich  Yang  enlighten-  s c h o o l s of B u d d h i s t  of V i m a l a k i r t i ,  of the  merchant  school thought who  53 lived  fully  i n the world  understanding  of the Buddhist  of  Buddha, who engaged  It  was a t a b o u t t h i s  the  truth  o f a c t i o n and y e t p o s s e s s e d  of this  d o c t r i n e than  p e r i o d i n Yang's l i f e when he r e a l i z e d  Vimalakirtl  i n my b u s i n e s s ,  Using To A  In  t h e wind  send  ideal:  collection  I naturally  of poetry,  have  leisure.  bird  the green  mountain.  one o r two v o l u m e s ;  My l i b r a r y ,  three  When I f e e l  like  Yet  say I'm i n t h e w o r l d  leisure,  work,  the white  calling  o r f o u r rooms. i t , I can w r i t e  Yang's c o n d i t i o n h i s l e i s u r e  his  Holidays  I bother  a letter  I still  t h e monk d i s c i p l e s 8  t h e h o l i d a y s I'm n o t w i t h o u t  Yet  richer  i n c o n s t a n t m e d i t a t i o n and f a s t i n g . ^  Approaching In  a  poetry, of d u s t !  8 5  i s h i s b u s i n e s s and h i s b u s i n e s s ,  and he i s b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f t h e w o r l d o f  dust. In  the f i r s t  Intendant tung  culty  sf- V j » J  .Jk-  .  He l e f t  "At t h i s  of w r i t i n g  time,  poetry  Immediately  8 6  I d i d not f e e l  very  and an a d -  not only d i d I n o t f e e l  but also  of being a governor."  o f Kuang-  Ch'ang-chou  w i t h both h i s accomplishments as a poet  ministrator: ficulty  was a p p o i n t e d  f o r E v e r Normal G r a n a r i e s , T e a , and S a l t  province/^  satisfied  month o f 1179 Y a n g W a n - l i  the d i f -  the d i f f i -  However, Yang d i d n o t s e t o u t  f o r K u a n g - t u n g , f o r he w i s h e d  t o r e t u r n home  first,  54  and  so i n t h e t h i r d  Chi-shui. Fan  On  t h e way  Ch'eng-ta,  Kiang-su fertile  month he  who  he  was  stopped  living  province at this period  o v e r two  to v i s i t  i n the  time.  f o r Yang and  hundred  began a l e i s u r e l y  The  within  poems, w h i c h he  journey  b a c k to  his friend,  the  city  o f Suchow i n  trip  w e s t was  less  later  an  extremely  t h a n a y e a r he sent to Fan  poet  wrote  f o r the  poet's approval. Sometime i n t h e e a r l y remained  f o r the r e s t  continuously. for on  after  t h e New  Years's  perilous  number o f s t a g e s by  passed  any Yet  not  able to stay i d l e  celebrations journey  gorges  of 1 1 8 0 ,  to pass  on h i s way  he  writing  f o r long,  Yang s e t  south t o Canton.  l a n d , Y a n g had  dangerous r i v e r  Having  home where  o f t h e y e a r e n j o y i n g h i m s e l f and  However, he was  t h e l o n g and  highly  summer Y a n g a r r i v e d  forth  Besides  through  a series  a of  south;  a l l the dangerous r a p i d s ,  I can't  stand  more;  suddenly  I am  startled  by  sheer c l i f f s ,  azure,  precipitous. Undying  thousand  year old trees  B r u s h i n g a g a i n s t the r a c i n g lakes.  not  T'ang t i m e s , Yang f e l t  alien  world:  c u r r e n t s of thousand  yard  8 7  A l t h o u g h K u a n g - t u n g was in  h a n g u p s i d e down,  so t e r r i f y i n g  t h a t he  had  a p l a c e as  e n t e r e d a new  i t had and  been  somewhat  5 5  Passing In the  the c r i e s  single  not a  come h e r e ,  southerner,  so what can  bemoan h i s f a t e  in  o f Sung i n t e l l e c t u a l s ,  a manner t y p i c a l to explore  turn  even t h e i r h e a r t s a r e  s o u t h , Yang d i d n o t  c l i m a t e and  boat  a  I n c o n t r a s t t o most T'ang p o e t s who  out  reed  of p a r t r i d g e s , the mountain peaks  When s o u t h e r n e r s I'm  our  horizontal.  greener,  But  ( F i f t h poem o f s i x )  shadow o f a b a n y a n t r e e ,  lies Midst  Chen-yang Gorge  the unusual  I  do?  8 8  served  i n the  upon a r r i v a l he  broken;  deep  i n Canton,  immediately  n a t u r a l phenomena o f t h e  set  tropical  utilize  t h i s new  material f o r h i s poetry.  t h e most d e l i g h t f u l  products  of Kuang-tung Is the l i c h e e ,  One  of and  j u d g i n g by  t h e number o f poems Y a n g w r o t e a b o u t t h i s f r u i t ,  considered  e a t i n g i t t o be  On  spot  Then suddenly purple  While How  of the h i g h p o i n t s of h i s  t h e E i g h t h o f t h e F o u r t h Month I E a t New  A little  Its  one  of r o u g e d y e s i t s stems' red covers  j a d e bones a r e a s  i t s snow w h i t e  could I bear  Still  i t s green  flesh  But  touching this  i n t h e noon  icy pellet  i t s f l a v o r a l o n g w i t h wine i s hard  I fear  their  to p i e c e s ! !  sweet c h i l l 8 9  a  s l e n d e r as a c l o v e ,  i s cool  T h i s o l d g l u t t o n wants t o e a t  Lichees  completely.  oh my to  t h r e e hundred will  f r e e z e my  he  visit:  edges,  robe  and  heat. palm?**  forget! lichees, intestines  56 Yang's p e a c e f u l c a r e e r a s a p r o v i n c i a l d i s t u r b e d , f o r i n 1181 u n d e r t h e command  h i s a r e a was i n v a d e d  official  90  of a bandit  g o v e r n m e n t f o r c e s t h e r e , he marched  these years largely  t h e r e were numerous p o p u l a r  south.  defence  and t h e t r i b u t e  much aware o f t h e e x p l o s i v e s i t u a t i o n  totally  faithful  to the c e n t r a l  h i s new p o s t a s J u d i c i a l with  in  charge  seen,  Yang h i m s e l f  which e x i s t e d i n  and a l t h o u g h  he was  g o v e r n m e n t , he must h a v e a c Intendant  o f Kuang-tung ^  considerable trepidation,  of suppressing  government  expenses f o r n a t i o n -  to the Chin T a r t a r s .  c o u n t r y s i d e , a s we h a v e a l r e a d y  cepted  During  due t o t h e e x c e s s i v e t a x a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l  was v e r y the  clashing  u p r i s i n g s i n the south,  w h i c h was n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e huge m i l i t a r y al  soon  by r e b e l f o r c e s  S h e n ' s u p r i s i n g had begun i n C h ' a o - c h o u , b u t a f t e r with  was  the r e v o l t .  ji  f o r he was now  I t i s worth n o t i n g that  two  o f t h e o t h e r most famous p o e t s  of the p e r i o d , Hsin  Ch'i-chi  and  P a n C h ' e n g - t a had t o engage i n s i m i l a r d i s t a s t e f u l  military  operations against l o c a l general d i s l i k e can  easily  of w a r f a r e  understand  written while  bandits.  When we t a k e  c u r r e n t among most Sung l i t e r a t i ,  Yang's s e n t i m e n t s  engaging  i n t o mind t h e  i n the hazardous  expressed journeys  i n a poem during the  campaign:  A Bamboo B r a n c h Song o f Gorge M o u n t a i n When t o r t o i s e s  and f i s h  reach here,  they  Monastery always  a  turn  .back; Not  only  tortoises  and f i s h ,  even t h e c r a b s a r e w o r r i e d I  we  57 Then why d o e s t h i s  p o e t make l i g h t  He goes t o S h a o - c h o u t o c l a s h w i t h against  s a n d b a n k s and smash  rocks  The h a r d s h i p s his  of h i s o l d l i f e ?  of the m i l i t a r y  campaign r e m i n d e d Yang o f  former hardships as a youth: •  When y o u n g I  I was p o o r and l o w l y ;  d i d n ' t have l a n d  W i t h my w r i t i n g And  • •  b i g enough  b r u s h plow I t i l l e d  I  paper  my c r i e s  •  •  o f h u n g e r c o u l d n ' t be h e a r d ,  was so used t o h u n g e r , I j u s t d i d n ' t c r y .  I have been r a c i n g What h a s a l l t h i s  swiftly toil  My h a i r h a s t u r n e d And  f o rthirty  w h i t e by f o l l o w i n g  my f a c e h a s b l a c k e n e d  My l i f e  i s as f r a g i l e  V a s t waves w h i r l  If  our single  i s preserved,  What c a n t h e power o f man •  If  we m i g h t s u s p e c t  a good d e a l  roads,  leaf  Rapids;  of s i l k . of a boat;  upon gods and s p i r i t s . i t will  be by a c c i d e n t ;  accomplish?^  2  •  we were n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h Yang's  life, Yet  •  all?  f r o m wind and snow.  as a strand  c r y t o heaven and c a l l my l i f e  years;  and l a b o r g o t me a f t e r  As n i g h t a p p r o a c h e s I'm a t W h i t e Sand  I  fields,  I drew b l a c k w a t e r f r o m my p o o l o f i n k . •  If  t o s e t up a n a w l .  usual  t h a t he i s o n l y  optimistic  o u t l o o k on  engaging i n s e l f - p i t y .  o f h i s f r u s t r a t i o n was no d o u b t due t o a  feel-  58 ing  t h a t he was now i n t h e same c a t e g o r y  had  d e c l a r e d a n enemy o f t h e p e o p l e His Confucian  background  ment t h a t had a p p o i n t e d tory  officials  i n his earlier writings.  r e q u i r e d him t o serve  the govern-  i n a poem he w r o t e o n l y a few months  t h e one a b o v e :  The I n my l i f e But  journey  How am I d i f f e r e n t Do I t i r e  O l d Road  I ' v e grown t i r e d  on t h i s  of traveling  I'm so happy from  of idleness,  When I am engaged  other take  by  road,  I couldn't refuse.  men,  joy i n d r i v i n g myself  i n traveling  on t h e k i n g ' s  on?  business,  F o r g e t t i n g my body, how c a n I be s e l f - c o n s c i o u s ? B a n d i t s f r o m F u k i e n h a v e e n t e r e d my It  i s important allowed  that these  The  people  c r e e p i n g v i n e s n o t be  their  c a p s s h o o t up;  cherish feelings f o r requiting  campaign l a s t e d  t h e state.93  o n l y a few months, and Yang was  s u c c e s s f u l i n r o u t i n g the r e b e l armies. fight  department;  t o grow.  O f f i c i a l s a r e so a n g e r e d And  he  h i m t o h i s p o s t , and Yang's c o n t r a d i c -  e m o t i o n s c a n be s e e n  after  as those  drew t o a c l o s e Yang w r o t e :  totally  Shortly before the  59 I Send  Out a Command t o Summon t h e S o l d i e r s  o f A l l t h e Commanderies  The F u k i e n b a n d i t s l e e r e d Yet  a t Kuang-tung  by m o r n i n g t h e s o u t h e r n s o l d i e r s had a l l gone  Our a r m i e s ' c r y s h a k e s t h e c l i f f s Our  i n the e v e n i n g ,  b a n n e r s ' shadows d e l i g h t  east.  and v a l l e y s ;  i n the f r o s t y  T h o s e l e o p a r d s and t i g e r s f l o c k e d  a  wind.  together from  all  quarters, B u t t h e S p e a r Comet was c l e a r e d As f o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t Our  superficial  In s p i t e while  his  He  campaigns, h i s v i c t o r y  Yang was q u i c k l y  intending  recalled  f o r service  t o s t o p a t h i s home i n K i a n g s i  Yang's  refuse  three years.  heard of i n the cen-  back t o on t h e way.  the expected three  than a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s death. post  offered  stopped a l l l i t e r a r y  After his father's  isolated  h i m a s would  activity  f o r the  d e a t h Yang had w r i t t e n  q u i t e a number o f poems and even t a k e n s h o r t Now he r e m a i n e d  felt  o b s e r v a t i o n o f h i s mother's  the o f f i c i a l  c u s t o m a r y , b u t he a l s o  Chi-shui.  A  b e c a u s e i n t h e s e v e n t h month o f  was much s t r i c t e r  N o t o n l y d i d Yang  next  When t h e emperor  h i s mother d i e d , and he now began  mourning p e r i o d  1 5  was o f i m m e d i a t e  and a t t h e end o f 1181, he headed  y e a r s ' mourning p e r i o d .  be  career.  never reached the c a p i t a l ,  1182,  reporting.9  o f w h a t e v e r m i s g i v i n g s Yang m i g h t h a v e  government,  Hang-chou,  one l a u g h .  them,  i s hardly worth  to h i sp o l i t i c a l  exploits,  tral  merit  on t h e m i l i t a r y  advantage  rats like  away w i t h  trips  away f r o m  a t home and d i d n o t e v e n  60 engage  In correspondence  difficult  to account  with h i s friends.  I t seems somewhat  f o r Yang's g r e a t e r s t r i c t n e s s  of b e h a v i o r  a f t e r h i s m o t h e r ' s d e a t h , f o r he s p o k e o f h i s f a t h e r much more frequently now  i n h i s v e r s e than h i s mother.  a relatively  play  famous  a g r e a t e r degree  scure  man,  and  of f i l i a l  P o s s i b l y , Yang  society piety  expected  t h a n d u r i n g h i s more  1184 Yang's m o u r n i n g came t o a n end, and  e l e v e n t h month he was  appointed A s s i s t a n t  i n t h e new  p o s t was  t o send  w h i c h had r e c e n t l y scholars  digies,  shaken the c a p i t a l .  natural disasters  government was  and was  such  e v e n t s as a s i g n  date  of heaven.  criticize  that  Hence,  first  to an  Although  i n Sung t i m e s d i d n o t b e l i e v e  the c e n t r a l  of the Minimportant  up a m e m o r i a l i n t h e  month o f 1185 by r e q u e s t o f t h e emperor due  to  ob-  i n the  Officer His  ened  him t o d i s -  youth. In  act  was  afraid  earthquake most  enlight-  i n omens and  extremely  that  fifth  sensitive  t h e p e o p l e would  the i m p e r i a l  house had l o s t  t h e emperor u s u a l l y  h i s f a u l t s when some d i s a s t e r  requested  pro-  to take t h e manofficials  occurred i n order to  show h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p e o p l e ' s w e l f a r e and w i l l i n g n e s s t o correct  any p e r s o n a l s h o r t c o m i n g s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r heaven's  anger. In  h i s m e m o r i a l Yang warned  government was  too  s h o u l d renew  t h e emperor t h a t  i t shostilities  t h e Sung  with the Chin before i t  late:  N o r t h and S o u t h have been a t p e a c e f o r more t h a n years.  But i f one day t h e y  out o f f r e l a t i o n s ,  thirty  the f e e l -  61 ings  of the barbarians w i l l  will  say:  five  chiefs fighting  calamity Han  "They a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m f o r the throne  as the Hsiung-nu  t o j u d g e , and some the calamity of or from  when t r o u b l e d  by t h e J o u -  I f , however, none o f t h e s e t h i n g s come  a  some w i l l  s a y , "They w i l l  s a y , "They w i l l they  t h e same  by t h e E a s t e r n  o r t h e N o r t h e r n Wei when d i s t r e s s e d  jan."  It  be h a r d  really  not dare  fear  i s rumored  fear  u s , " and o t h e r s  to plot  that  they a r e r e p a i r i n g  are conscripting  soldiers  t h e p e o p l e and i n c r e a s i n g d i s p a t c h c a v a l r y  and  stables.  springs.  very  tight,  impressed  ward he was promoted £  slightly  and  their  our spies are not  preparedness  Tsung and h i s p a c i f i s t  D e s p i t e Yang's f u t i l e  nel  so t h a t  f o r greater military  by H s i a o  were d u l y  secretive  and made new.  to enter.95  Yang's c a l l nored  and b u i l d -  registering wells  where t h e y a r e r e p a i r e d  i n t e n t i o n s a r e extremely  restrictions able  They a r e a l s o  from  They a p p r o p r i a t e s e a - g o i n g v e s s e l s and  move them i n l a n d Their  canals  M o r e o v e r , t o t h e n o r t h and s o u t h o f  b  the Y e l l o w R i v e r they  ing horse  Do  a g a i n s t us?  t h e w a l l s and moats o f P i e n - c h i n g and o p e n i n g in Hai-chou.  will  a g a i n s t us."  us and d a r e n o t p l o t  i n the s t r e e t s  true,  call  was t o t a l l y i g -  court.  t o arms t h e p r o p e r  authorities  by t h e p o e t ' s p a t r i o t i s m and; soon to O f f i c e  Chief of the M i n i s t r y  afterof Person-  I n t h i s p o s i t i o n he managed t o e x e r t a greater influence  on p o l i c y .  A c c o r d i n g t o Yang's  62 biography,  s h o r t l y a f t e r Yang had been promoted, the prime  m i n i s t e r Wang Huai j£.  3^  asked Yang:  "What i s the most im-  p o r t a n t t h i n g w i t h which a prime m i n i s t e r ought to concern himself?"  In t r u e Confucian f a s h i o n Yang i s supposed to have an-  swered:  "Talented men!"96  When Wang pressed Yang f u r t h e r  about which i n d i v i d u a l s were most t a l e n t e d , Yang submitted a list  of s i x t y names, which i s s t i l l preserved i n h i s  works. it was  In a d d i t i o n to naming o l d f r i e n d s such as Hsiao  of  Te-tsao,  i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the f i r s t name on the Chu H s l J ^ -Jj^  , the famous neo-Confucian  Although Yang and did  complete  Chu were not extremely  exchange a few poems, and  Chang Chtin's son Chang S h i h .  neo-Confucian  philosopher.97  close friends,  Chu h i m s e l f was  list  they  a very good f r i e n d  Yang had been i n t e r e s t e d i n  thought f o r some years,98 but the main reason he  recommended Chu H s i f o r h i g h p o s i t i o n was  the Sung p h i l o s o p h e r ' s  Impeccable standard of conduct and p o s s i b l y more important, Chu's o p p o s i t i o n to southern Sung p a c i f i s m . In  1186  Yang Wan-li was  promoted f o u r times, and when he  obtained the p o s i t i o n of Reader i n Waiting to the Crown P r i n c e $~  *  the p u r p l e f i s h  h  e  w  a  s  sash.  n  o  n  o  r  e  d  He was  by the emperor p r e s e n t i n g him now  on reasonably i n t i m a t e terms  w i t h the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y and h i g h o f f i c i a l s , and we are assured t h a t the crown p r i n c e was  d e l i g h t e d when Yang read to him  from  the memorials of the famous T'ang prose s t y l i s t Lu Chlh | ^ ^  .  A c t u a l l y , Yang's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the upper c r u s t of Sung so-r c l e t y had an extremely d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on h i s p o e t r y . was  now  He  away from the n a t u r a l surroundings which were the usual  m a t e r i a l of h i s v e r s e , and while Yang was  i n the c a p i t a l ,  he  wrote  a host of extremely  insipid  poems c e l e b r a t i n g v a r i o u s  court  events o r mourning the demise of c e r t a i n h i g h  function-  aries . We  could  a l m o s t a c c u s e Yang o f s y c o p h a n c y  i n some o f  t h e s e poems, a l t h o u g h , o f c o u r s e , s u c h h a c k work was of  officials  do  not  close  to the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y .  e x p r e s s Yang's t r u e f e e l i n g s  i n g work composed a t t h i s  Written the  on P o r t r a i t  Grand  Recorded Insignia"  Onwards.  S p r i n g days  can be  s u c h poems  seen from  the  follow-  time:  o f t h e Duke o f C h ' l a p  E m p r e s s , Shown t o me the E n t i r e  That  expected  by  Ts'ao  Welcoming  Chung-pen;  I  P a i n t i n g from "Ordering the I m p e r i a l  a  are long i n f r o n t  of Palace of V i r t u e  and  Longevity;** When f l o w e r s b l o o m i n s i d e fragrant, The  Grand  too.  Sovereign nourishes h i s s p i r i t  Empyrean, So men  the p a l a c e , the o u t s i d e i s  up  i n the  Jade  0  o f t h e c a p i t a l have n o t gazed  on h i s p u r e  light  a long time. T h i s morning insignia  we  suddenly  One  shout  from  the  imperial  and  yellow tent  chariots  heaven.  o f "Make way!"  Ice melts i n the Heavenly upper  them p u t t i n g  i n order,  K i n g f i s h e r f l o w e r banners descend  see  stories.  and  a myriad  Street,  but  men  look  on;  snow r e m a i n s  on  Prom t h e n o r t h comes y e t a n o t h e r r e d Eight It  phoenix  bells,  parasol,  t h r e e c o u r s e r s , and  g o l d e n hub  seems t h e M o t h e r o f J a s p e r P o o l i s i n t h i s  With her phoenix and The  slippers,  carriage**  robes cut from  cloud  mist.  Grand  S o v e r e i g n gazes a t h e r , h i s heavenly  countenance  beaming;  I n t h e s p r i n g wind flowers This  rosy  caps.  returning  o f Grand  Empress  hundred  Tz'u-ning's  s o n a s t h e y were b e f o r e , no  equal i n a  ages.  c l o u d s and  damp;  the  chariot;  thousand Arboreal  states,  dance.  i s a portrait  M o t h e r and  of myriad  frontier  snows, t h e b a n n e r s '  feet  e  I m p e r i a l w i l l o w s and  p a l a c e plums, t h e i r  cold  shadows  sparse. All  a l o n g , t h e T z ' u - n i n g Empress has sandy  She  wastes;  begged to  geese  trust.  What man  b e e n c u t o f f by  t o send a l e t t e r ,  but geese  are hard  f  i s t h i s who  welcomes back  her b l a c k steed  chariot? . A descendant Ts'ao Originally But  of the M a r t i a l  Emperor o f Wei,  General  Hsfln.S t h e g e n e r a l was  only  a broad-robed  s u d d e n l y h e a v i n g h i s s h o u l d e r s , he drew a stone  bow.  scholar, five  65 W i t h o n l y a s a l u t e t o t h e Khan, who He  brought  back, h e r  as b r e a k i n g a His merit for And  He  f o l l o w s t h e Red  waxing h i s p a i r  of  t o the  Don't you  see  get out  I tell  you  the  a simple  their  pacifist  poem had  taken  done,  he  Ch'in f a m i l y  place  current circumstances.  satire  o f Kao on Kao  Tsung and  by  such  The  Tsung's f i l i a l  forty-three to p u b l i s h  poem seems t o piety,  but  Tsung's h y p o c r i t i c a l  even s u g g e s t s  time,  and  Hsiao  t h a t Kao Kao  c o u r t was  i t is  concern Tsung  Tsung  was  was  Tsung would  a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t h i s own  s i n i s t e r deeds of Ch'in K u e i ,  1187  north  too.  appeasement p a r t y a t the the  the  j  i n the  offended  n  i  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Yfleh P e l ' s d e a t h .  admit  Immortal,  o f S o u t h M o u n t a i n and  i n r e t i r e m e n t a t the  In  Pine  o f t h e way?3  celebration  a bitter  been d e e p l y The  sport  l a n g would have been v e r y f o o l i s h  f o r h i s f a t h e r Hui  merely  only  QQ y  events  poem u n d e r t h e  directly  i t was  the Prime M i n i s t e r of the  glaring!  earlier,  actually  easily  t h a t when Ylieh P e l ' s work was  didn't  Although  be  south  boots.  Mountain,  k  his  but  w i t h a l a u g h he  is  as  him,  of North  years  carriage,  boy,  branch.  covers a l l the world,  floats  But  compassionate  seemed a s m a l l  have father.  certainly  not about  to  the very  architect  of  policies. t h e r e was  a s e r i o u s drought,  and  the  emperor r e -  66 quested second In  important memorial  of  so Yang W a n - l i  s i n c e h i s appointment  t h i s work, he d i d n o t d i s c u s s m i l i t a r y  trated was  advice from h i s o f f i c i a l s ,  more on i n t e r n a l  caused  a f f a i r s but  passage  yang  Yang s t a t e d  between h e a v e n  and  earth:  p e r v e r s e v a p o r then?  p e o p l e ' s s i g h s i s extremely minute t o be h e a r d  that  The  sound  but  i t is  by a u g u s t H e a v e n .  The  sufficient  to r e a c h the e x a l t e d  r e a s o n why  such a p e r v e r s e vapor has  t h e v a p o r s between h e a v e n  and  When someone l o v e s  God.  and  This  been f o r m e d  ably  because  w a r d s and  sighs?  t h e g r a c e f r o m above d o e s  the f e e l i n g s from  and  e a r t h have been c u t  the people l i k e Your  s u c h t h i n g s a s h a t r e d and  are  i s the  Highness  c a r e s f o r t h e p e o p l e l i k e Y o u r H i g h n e s s , how  t h e r e be  of  people's  thoughts of h a t r e d a r e extremely h i d d e n but they  off.  concen-  by a " p e r v e r s e v a p o r " w h i c h b l o c k e d up t h e  sufficient  why  capital.  drought  But what i s t h i s the  to the  the  the  t h e y l n and  policy.  s e n t up  can  I t i s prob-  n o t f l o w down-  below do n o t p e n e t r a t e  wards  . . . Above t h e r e i s a p r i n c e who  tion,  y e t t h e p e o p l e do n o t r e c e i v e h i s t r u e k i n d n e s s .  Above  t h e r e i s a p r i n c e who  the  lightens  up-  examines p u n i s h m e n t s ,  p e o p l e do n o t o b t a i n h i s deep  love.  taxa-  but  1 0 0  Y a n g c o n t i n u e s t o say t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e emperor r e m i t s t a x e s and  makes l a w s  cause the  to b e n e f i t  of c o r r u p t  t h e p e o p l e , a l l i s t o no  officials.  emperor h i m s e l f  avail  Yang d i d n o t d a r e d i r e c t l y  i n s u c h d o c u m e n t s , b u t a s we  beattack  have seen i n  the poem above, he was f u l l y aware of the h y p o c r i s y p e r i a l family  67 of the im-  itself.  In the t e n t h month of 1187 Yang was promoted to V i c e d i r e c t o r of the Imperial  Library^'  J£  -||  , a post In  which he was i n charge of documents f o r that branch of the government.  In the same month the r e t i r e d  whom Yang despised  emperor Kao Tsung,  so much, passed away, and s i n c e Hsiao Tsung  wished t o observe the three year mourning p e r i o d , he sent down a decree which i n e f f e c t handed over power to the Crown P r i n c e f o r the d u r a t i o n . sing A f f a i r s ^ was  ^>  ^  to the decree a H a l l f o r  Discus-  was s e t up, i n which the Crown P r i n c e  to d e c i d e a l l p o l i t i c a l matters i n the presence of the  o f f i c i a l s already nized and  According  s e r v i n g i n the c o u r t .  recog-  the i n e p t i t u d e of the f u t u r e emperor Kuang Tsung  protested  required  ^  s t r o n g l y that the urgency of n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s  the presence of Hsiao Tsung i n s t a t e d e c i s i o n s .  Yang's p r o t e s t s were ignored, post  Yang probably  When  he attempted to r e s i g n from h i s  but to no a v a i l . As  court  the y e a r 1188 wore on Yang became f u r t h e r embroiled i n  strife.  In the t h i r d month of the year a H a n - l i n Academy  s c h o l a r Hung M  a  i  ^  suggested that a number of dead  t a r y and p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s who had l i v e d d u r i n g Kao  Tsung should  the  temple of the deceased emperor.  mili-  the r e i g n of  be allowed to enjoy s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g s i n When Yang saw t h a t h i s  master Chang ChQh was not Included  i n the l i s t  came outraged and immediately  up a memorial a t t a c k i n g Hung  Mai  sent  f o r h i s a r b i t r a r y and d i c t a t o r i a l conduct.  of names, he be-  Even worse,  Yang Wan-li b l u n t l y s a i d that Hung Mai's a c t i o n s were no d i f -  68 ferent  from " c a l l i n g  particularly  serious f o r not  c h a r a c t e r but Prince  and  vellian  It also  Hsiao  ascertain sented  When Chao.  heir,  the l o y a l t y  \]q  Kao^Jj  said  judged  undependable,  nate  them.  In a d d i t i o n  rightful  Yang had  h i s t o r i a n s have The t o have  judged  emperor H s i a o  said:  and  Chao q u i c k l y  that  that Hsiao  Tsung  Chao p r e a horse,  u n h e a l t h y p l a c e as Hai-nan,  not a  animal horse  proceeded  Hung M a i  to  assassi  to the n o t o r i o u s  t h e Crown P r i n c e was  not  Tsung  Chinese  was  as e v i l  where he  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Sung d y n a s t y  banishment  and  Tsung  was  supposed  have  more  for?"  civilized,  a grudging appreciation  Chtin would  t h e main s t r u g g l e was  enjoy  o f d i s s e n s i o n was anti-war parties  not over whether  the I m p e r i a l s a c r i f i c e s , the c o n t i n u i n g f i g h t i n the c o u r t .  and  an  d i e of  Yang's a u d a c i t y . Actually,  1 0 2  ex-  to such  would h o p e f u l l y  malaria.  t o have had  is  t a k e me  Yang c o u l d  or at l e a s t  as  the  be.  f l e w i n t o a r a g e .and  of Chinese h i s t o r y  i s said  him.  of r u l e r does W a n - l i  t h e e x e c u t i o n e r ' s axe  Hsiao  a ruse to  i t was  C h ' i n S h i h Huang t o  "What k i n d  I n a l e s s humane age  that  the  throne i n  n  a s t a g and  to comparing  suggested  s u c c e s s o r and  o  to put  a l l t h e c o u r t i e r s what t h e  t h e a n i m a l was  were  Chao Kao,  said  Crown  plotted  c o u r t i e r s around  t h e p r i n c e w i t h a s t a g and  Those who  jt-  Mai's  , t h e MachlaT  he d e c i d e d t o u t i l i z e  of the  whereupon t h e p r i n c e a s k e d  pected  s l a n d e r e d both the  prime m i n i s t e r of the Ch'in dynasty  of the r i g h t f u l  was.  o n l y d i d i t defame Hung  indirectly  Tsung.  T h i s a c c u a s a t i o n was  1 0 1  son o f C h ' i n S h i h Huang Jj>  second place  a stag a h o r s e . "  the r e a l  between t h e p r o -  R e f u s i n g the s a c r i f i c e s  Chang cause and to  of  69 Chang Chlin was a blow to the p r e s t i g e of the advocates of m i l i t a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t the Chin. Tsung h i m s e l f had i n i t i a t e d  We must remember that Hsiao  Chang Chlin s u n s u c c e s s f u l counter1  a t t a c k , and although i t s f a i l u r e f o r c e d the emperor i n t o the pacifist  camp, he very l i k e l y  held a s e c r e t a d m i r a t i o n f o r men  l i k e Yang Wan-li.  Thus, i n the f o u r t h month of 1188, Yang was  appointed  of Yun-chou £ | HJ  governor  near modern Kao-an yhj  N  i n southern K i a n g s i p r o v i n c e . Before we t r a c e the subsequent events i n Yang's p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r , we should say something about h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e c a p i t a l from  1184-88.  i n the  Although Yang spent much of h i s time  a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h h i g h o f f i c i a l s and the I m p e r i a l f a m i l y , he a l s o renewed c o n t a c t s w i t h a number of o l d acquaintances and made new  friendships.  (1127-1194) dates from  1178, but the two poets do not seem to  have been on very c l o s e terms u n t i l Yang's r e s i d e n c e i n the capital.  They exchanged a l a r g e number of poems a t t h i s  time,  so one suspects that Yang was i n f l u e n c e d by Yu Mou's views on literature.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y very few of Yu Mou's poems have been  handed down to p o s t e r i t y , d e s p i t e l a t e r c r i t i c s r a t i n g him as one of the f o u r best poets of the southern Sung, so t h a t we have p r a c t i c a l l y no way to determine  e x a c t l y what Yu's i n -  f l u e n c e was. 03 1  Yang met another l i t e r a r y  great d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and  Yang's l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the f i e r y p a t r i o t poet Lu Yu l e f t an I n d e l i b l e impression on h i s v e r s e .  The f i r s t  poem Yang  wrote to Lu Yu dates from 1186, although the two poets had c e r t a i n l y known one another much e a r l i e r .  Yang's f r i e n d s h i p  with  Lu was  much more dramatic than h i s r e l a t i o n w i t h Yu, as we  see i n a poem w r i t t e n s h o r t l y a f t e r Yang and Lu renewed  can  their  friendship:  A Cloud and Dragon Song i n Pun Master-cloud Yang was And  from Inky P o o l ,  of Lu  a  b  Scholar-dragon Lu from In the C l o u d s .  Heaven was  Yu  0  j e a l o u s of t h e i r c l e v e r words,  So she kept them a p a r t , never l e t t i n g them meet. We  meet a g a i n suddenly  i n Ch'ang-an  I t must have been three thousand How  Market;  d  years s i n c e we p a r t e d .  many times have the Queen Mother's peach fallen?  blossoms  6 5  The handle of the B i g D i p p e r i s r o t t e n , the M i l k y Way  dry.  The h a i r on our temples has turned to s i l k as white as snow; Two  o l d men  s t a r e a t each other, f a c e s red as cinnabar.  I beg to ask:  "Since our p a r t i n g , where have you gone?"  "The Wei r i v e r f l o w s e a s t , but I have gone up west." Your golden s e a l b i g as a d i p p e r , how worth?  now?  sack l i k e a mountain, how  of ending h i s c h a n t i n g ;  only f e a r s no wind or moon i n the world.  Don't you see that the Han Marquis Had  many poems i n  h  A poet i s never a f r a i d He  much cash i s i t  8  Your brocade it  f  of L e v e l F o r d *  s c h o l a r caps and c h a r i o t awnings f l o a t i n g l i k e i n h i s eastern p a v i l i o n ? ^  clouds  71 And  haven't you  Had  nobles  and  racing  about?  But  now  these  seen a t the  m i n i s t e r s surround  When can And  Grinding We'll  even d e e r  o r sheep c l i m b i n g t h e i r  i t s bark i n t o  The  of  dying  "One  verse!  cup,  t o go one  And  what m a t t e r s  the  already  falls?  tailor  can  belonged  fortified  creasingly  mist.  into  now; no  0  travelers  p  and  see  p o s t s he  m  smoke and  the Shang-ssu F e s t i v a l ,  one  at  cup  once:  more!"^  t h e fame o f my  c a p i t a l , f o r Lu  Tree;  n  i f Jade Mountain f a l l s  poem we  and  k  can weave c l o u d b r o c a d e  t h e r e w i t h you  cup,  cares  various local  Yu  yet.  Who  From the in  mounds.  the S u n - r i s e  p a p e r and  l o o m we  Though i t ' s a l r e a d y  I'm  stars  terraces  s e a plums o f Lone Peak h a v e a l l opened  have gone  stars  you^  w e ' l l chop up  With the heavenly lines  the  ink-stone water i n t o water  sickles,  beat  generals  i n worship l i k e  climbing their  I c l i m b Mount L u w i t h  t u r n our  great  too,  there aren't pavilions  the  c l o u d s have d i s p e r s e d and  scattered, And  same t i m e  over poetry  t h a t Yang was  only v i s i t e d was  not?  r  t o me? "^ 10  not  a b l e t o see  Lu  Hang-chou on h i s way  h o l d i n g a t the  to the pro-war f a c t i o n ,  h i s f o r m e r v i e w s and  or  time.  Although  h i s contact with  political  common i n h i s v e r s e f o r t h e n e x t  dally to Yang Lu  themes became i n few  years.  72 One of the g r e a t e s t r e s u l t s of the many f r i e n d s h i p s Yang made or renewed d u r i n g these y e a r s was a g r e a t Increase i n the fame of h i s p o e t r y .  H i s renown as a poet was a l s o helped a l o n g  by the r e c o g n i t i o n he achieved i n the Kuang-tung  m i l i t a r y cam-  p a i g n s , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the f i r s t t i o n of works he had p r i n t e d was  the Nan-hal Ohi pjr]  collecify  ^  or C o l l e c t i o n of the South Seas, which Yang wrote w h i l e a t Canton.  Yang's works had  c i r c u l a t e d among h i s f r i e n d s i n man-  u s c r i p t form f o r a number of y e a r s , but he waited u n t i l u n t i l he had t h i s f i r s t  collection printed.  Obviously the r e -  c e p t i o n was good, f o r i n 1187 Yang p u b l i s h e d the Chi ^ ' j ^  j[|  1186  Chlng-ch'1  w r i t t e n w h i l e he was governor of Ch'ang-chou  and the H s l Kuei Chi  i|  the c a p i t a l to C h i - s h u i i n 1179.  , which recorded h i s t r i p from In 1188 Yang f e l t  sufficient-  l y brave to p u b l i s h h i s more y o u t h f u l poems w r i t t e n between 1162 and 1177, which he e n t i t l e d  Chiang Hu Chi £X  ^  ^  or  C o l l e c t i o n of R i v e r s and Lakes.  Yang Wan-li d i v i d e d h i s v a r i -  ous c o l l e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s i n h i s p o l i t i c a l life,  and he was very c a r e f u l to arrange the works i n s t r i c t  c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, a p r a c t i c e which he never abandoned.  The  g r e a t c a u t i o n which he and h i s descendants used i n e d i t i n g h i s complete works i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g e n e r a l l y c o n d i t i o n of the t e x t which s u r v i v e s .  good  A f t e r these f i r s t  p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s came out, the demand f o r Yang Wan-li's poetry was  s t r o n g enough to enable him to p u b l i s h a l l  subsequent  col-  l e c t i o n s as soon as the poems were completed. When Yang Wan-li set out f o r Yun-chou i n 1188, he does not seem to have f e l t any p a r t i c u l a r d i s g r a c e , and i n f a c t ,  he  73 was  deeply  relieved.  He i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n home t o C h i - s h u i  first,  and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e s t  and r e l a x a t i o n a f t e r t h e  hectic  life  him t o w r i t e :  of the c a p i t a l  Sleeping A  single  leaf  boat  inspired  on t h e B o a t shakes  a t Noon  unsteadily;  D a z e d , my w o n d e r f u l t h o u g h t s a r e p e n e t r a t i n g . I  change i n t o a L a c q u e r  And  f l y into  There  Garden  butterfly 3  the Great Locust P a l a c e .  i s w i n e t o tempt and l e a d  me on,  But  no t e a t o r o b o r a t t a c k me.  All  my l i f e  So  I haven't  now I c a n s e t t l e  As  l a x e d , and he d i d n o t even  the  local  and  frequently  period.  enough,  the account midst  one c a n i m a g i n e ,  After arriving  slept  Yang's r e t u r n  trip  sights.  was e x t r e m e l y r e -  He renewed h i s i n t e r e s t s  time.  i n Ch'an B u d d h i s m  compares h i m s e l f t o a B u d d h i s t monk d u r i n g  rainbows  to the c a p i t a l ,  Yang  this  wrote:  O f f T s e n g Wu-yi t o Become a H i s t o r i a n race i n the water  o f Lucky  My home was t o t h e west o f t h e w a t e r , t i m e s we t h o u g h t ordered  1 0 5  i n Yttn-chou, Yang s p e n t much o f h i s t i m e e n j o y i n g  Sending  At  the s p l a s h of o a r s !  r e a c h h i s new p o s t u n t i l w i n t e r  When s e n d i n g o f f a f r i e n d  Jade  1 3  of each  carriages;  Pattern  yours  Rlver;  a  to the east.  o t h e r , and i m m e d i a t e l y  74 On  a d j o i n i n g c o u c h e s we l i s t e n e d night's  t o p i n e wind  i n the  rain.  Meanwhile, as poor o f f i c i a l s ,  we s c a t t e r e d o u r s e p a r a t e  way s; I  was a s o u t h f l y i n g h o n k e r , y o u a n o r t h f l y i n g  T h i s morning the post  r i d e r k n o c k s on t h e w a t c h  goose. tower  gate: "There's I  hear  a guest,  a guest,  who's come t o s e e y o u ! "  t h a t y o u a r e t a k i n g y o u r f a m i l y t o t h e emperor's  capital; B e a t i n g drums, y o u s e t o f f on b o a t ,  travelling  up t o  heaven. Still  y o u were a b l e t o go o u t o f y o u r way by s e v e r a l  miles To  come and v i s i t  Two p o e t Midst  t h i s monk i n h i s h e r m i t a g e  immortals  red peonies,  purple  reside i n the Imperial green  Secretariat  1 3  moss, and t h e shadows o f  myrtles.  If  they  a s k y o u what t h i s  As  t h e day g e t s l a t e never  of K i a n g s l .  m o u n t a i n monk i s d o i n g :  and o r i o l e s  s i n g , he s l e e p s and  wakes up!  The  p e a c e o f mind w h i c h Y a n g a c h i e v e d  med  up i n a poem he w r o t e  shortly  a t Yttn-chou  after  i s best  sum-  sending h i s f r i e n d o f f :  75 I R e s t a t Noon i n Ylin M o n a s t e r y I d o n ' t come t o Ylin M o n a s t e r y B u t whenever I come, i t ' s The wind And  falls  blows  B o t h -my While The  nice.  from the f o r e s t ' s  cap and  sound  often,  always  t h e bamboo r o o t s '  orioles  so  grass  s a n d a l s , above  and m a g p i e s ,  of the c i t y  But i f you l i s t e n  In d i s a r r a y .  and  left  i s really  quietly,  tranches,  and  below, a r e right,  not very  cool,  chatter.  close,  even d i s t a n t  sounds  c a n be  heard. As  I s i t on t h e s t o n e b e n c h ,  And  t h e moss p a t h i s a s p u r e a s i f swept.  I t r y to write But  i t becomes warm,  t h e word " s a d " i n t h e a i r ,  I've a l r e a d y  forgotten  i t s radical!  What's more, I've even f o r g o t t e n So how  could  I still  When s t r a n g e r s  come t o t a l k  for  W a n - l i hoped  the r e s t  abdicated  Yang  emperor  W a n - l i was  Imperial  Library  t h e n i n t h month.  itself,  too l a z y  affairs, to laugh!  t h e w o r l d would  but p o l i t i c a l  l e a v e him  called -Ja  H s i a o Tsung  o f t h e Crown P r i n c e , who  Kuang T s u n g  (1190-95)*  S i x months  back t o the c a p i t a l as D i r e c t o r H  The f i r s t  alone  events a l t e r e d h i s  I n t h e s e c o n d month o f 1189,  the throne i n f a v o r  came t h e new  of worldly  just  that  of h i s l i f e ,  plans f o r retirement.  sadness  remember o l d age?  I want t o l a u g h , y e t I'm  Yang  a  » and he a r r i v e d  now  be-  later of the  a t Hang-chou i n  i m p o r t a n t a c t w h i c h Yang  performed  76 upon r e a c h i n g in  Kiangsl  hsl  Tap  the  c a p i t a l was  p r i n t e d , and  Yuan C h i  51  he  enjoying  considerable  t o w h i c h he capital the  returned  i n 1188.  The  Empress L i v ^ p her  h u s b a n d , and  i n an  sow  dissension  claiming other  attempt  to  consolidate  Tsung w i s h e d  the  incompetent,  and  decisions.  Un-  her  his retired  internal dissension was  of the  appointed  d i d not court,  capital  on a l e n g t h y  voyage.  must e x p l a i n t h e d i p l o m a t i c  Sung c o u r t  and  the  Chin.  need  C h i n e s e and  an-  and  To  so he  According  the  Chin  Y e a r ' s Day  and  welcome and Yu-ch'ing^  and  concerned. Sung s h o u l d  to the  was  5lJ>}  t w e l f t h month t o  to  duties  the  i t was  was  congratulate  new  Chin, diplo-  stipulated  exchange a m b a s s a d o r s on  New  Yang's f u n c t i o n was Chin,  leave  southern  t e r m s as f a r as  ambassador f r o m the , who  able  terms of the  Nevertheless,  up  the  u n d e r s t a n d Yang's  equal  imperial birthdays.  e n t e r t a i n the  caught  r e l a t i o n s between t h e  T a r t a r s were on  m a t i c p r o t o c o l was  the  father,  Accompanying  p e a c e t r e a t y a f t e r Chang Chun's campaigns a g a i n s t  that  her  tried  with  t o be  because i n  Welcoming and Chin,  the  of  power, she  t o r e p l a c e h i s so„n  f o r Yang W a n - l i , he  t w e l f t h month, he  we  left  heir.  the  the  had  b e t t e r than that  between Kuang Tsung and  that Hsiao  Luckily in  totally  hardly  now  political situation  t h a n when he  emperor was  d i s c r e t i o n was  the  A l t h o u g h Yang was  a poet, the  much t e n s e r  written Chlang-  o r C o l l e c t i o n of  t e n t h month.  new  had  t o h i s new  a c t u a l l y made a l l p o l i t i c a l  fortunately,  to  }%J d£  fame as was  poems he  wrote a p r e f a c e  ya  K i a n g s i Hermitage i n the  t o have t h e  to  P'ei-man  t o a r r i v e i n Hang-chou i n Kuang Tsung on  the  New  Year.  77 Yang's m i s s i o n  was e x t r e m e l y  s m a l l e s t mistake o r unintended cuse f o r Chin m i l i t a r y for  t h e Sung c o u r t .  i n 1170.  slight  could  actions or at least  Yang's c l o s e f r i e n d ,  t a , had a h a r r o w i n g K'ai-feng  sensitive,  experience  t h e p o e t F a n Ch'eng-  to present  f o r a change o f p r o t o c o l , t h e C h i n  furiated  by F a n ' s d i s r e g a r d  his  g r o u n d , and t h e C h i n  the  poet's p e t i t i o n ,  ing  report  on t h e s p o t .  emperor f i n a l l y  only  expected  t o meet t h e C h i n  t h e H u a i R i v e r boundary northward crossed  t h a t he came  Fan bravely  stood  gave i n and r e c e i v e d  r u l e r made a v e r y  government.  Y a n g d i d n o t have t o t r a v e l  a private  emperor was so i n -  of normal procedures,  but the Chin  t o t h e Sung  reprimand  when he went on a m i s s i o n t o  When F a n a t t e m p t e d  to o r d e r i n g Fan executed  even t h e  be v i e w e d a s a n exa stiff  petition  close  because  threaten-  1 0 8  i n enemy t e r r i t o r y  b u t was  a m b a s s a d o r a f t e r he had  between t h e two s t a t e s .  crossed  Yang's  trip  f r o m Hang-chou s t a r t e d o u t a u s p i c i o u s l y , and a s he  t h e Y a n g t z e R i v e r he w r o t e :  Crossing  the Yangtze  River  a  ( S e c o n d Poem o f Two) Heaven made t h i s n a t u r a l moat t o p r o t e c t t h e s k i e s o f It's  equal  t o Y a o - h a n , a p a s s where two c a n h o l d  hundred.  Wu;  offa  c  T h i s t e n thousand m i l e  silver  r i v e r d r a i n s i n t o the  jasper sea, And  a p a i r of jade  B a n n e r s and f l a g s  pagodas o u t l i n e M e t a l on t h e o t h e r  shore,  Mountain.  d  Huai-nan i s c l o s e ;  e  b  78 Drums and of  trumpets b l a r e midst f r o s t ;  the  On  the R i v e r  surface,  journey  across  the the  river,  dynasties  upon the  Y a n g t z e R i v e r as  of  barbarian  doing  river  be  Y a n g had  A  navigated warned  the  i s just  o f v a s t waves i n an  but  a  Yang was  the  Chin  poet  c e l e b r a t i o n of a obviously  j u s t as could  w a r s h i p s , and  right;  instant.^  had  the  cross  also  we  Sung government a b o u t  the  relied themselves Sung  easily  naval  seen  prepara-  tions. When he  passed  Kua-chou o r M e l o n  Passing  Sad  a t n i g h t f r o m wind  Melon I s l a n d  and  I s l a n d Yang w r o t e :  Market  waves, I c a n ' t  a  get  to  peaceful,  W i t h a few  m e t a l gong, we're a t t h e  strokes  on  the  everything's  sleep;  A dawn c r o s s i n g , p u r e and  at  ease. river  port; A  single sail the  Huai.  Pi-li's  horses  full  of f r o s t y  are dead, not  A-liang's  tower has  N o r t h and  S o u t h have r e s t e d  now,  s u n l i g h t , our  boat goes  even t h e i r bones a r e  c o l l a p s e d , now  only  wild  up  left;  fields.  t h e i r arms f o r t h i r t y  was  could  have a l r e a d y Chin  "  pleasant  southern so  1 0 C  aware t h a t  a " n a t u r a l moat" t o p r o t e c t  invasions,  that  by  wind  the N o r t h - s o u t h P e r i o d  from northern now.  f o r the  poem seems t o be  southern  also  God,  c r o s s a thousand a c r e s  the  north  frontier.  Many t h a n k s t o I  a l l calm  0  years  1 3  how  " 79 So  mulberry ;t o  Once a g a i n He r e f e r s  patches  heaven.  there  and wheat mounds grow a l l t h e way  1 1 0  i s a deceptive aura  o f p e a c e a b o u t Yang's poem.  t o the u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts  of the Chin  to cross the  Y a n g t z e and c o n q u e r t h e Sung and r e m i n d s h i s r e a d e r has  been peace f o r t h i r t y y e a r s  severely and  criticized  t h e enemy.  Sung c o m p l a c e n c y d u r i n g  militia  i t was c l e a r  t h i s mock p e a c e ,  As  t h e poet  i n agricultural  that h i s plans f o r t r a i n i n g  had been c o m p l e t e l y passed  there  Y e t Yang had  from the complete a b s o r p t i o n of the peasants  pursuits,  he  with  that  a  peasant  ignored.  the s t r a t e g i c  bridge  over  the Yangtze  wrote:  Gazing  Today But  A f a r a s my B o a t P a s s e s Y a n g t z e  t h e H u a i ' s bank i s c a l l e d  i n olden  times,  southern  domain.  Bridge  our northern  8 ,  frontier,  t h e H u a i bank was s e t down a s 0  Nowhere i n t h i s  l e v e l w a s t e i s t h e r e any r a m p a r t a t a l l ;  Beyond  o f b r a n c h e s on t h e d i s t a n t  the t i p s  trees i s  simply sky. Whoever won o r l o s t  on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d s  of past or  present? Are  the strategic  p o i n t s of Chinese  and b a r b a r i a n s  only  m o u n t a i n s and  rivers?  The  S i x Dynasties  c a n n o t be l i g h t l y  For  t h e h e r o e s Wang Tao and H s l e h Hsuan were n o t j u s t a n  accident!  c  1  1  1  ridiculed  or slandered,  80 He c a r e f u l l y noted  the p e a c e f u l atmosphere and even more im-  p o r t a n t the t o t a l l a c k of m i l i t a r y f o r t i f i c a t i o n s i n such an important  area.  The h i g h p o i n t of the poem i s h i s suggestion  t h a t the Sung dynasty  had done even worse than the southern  d y n a s t i e s i n t r a i n i n g and using good g e n e r a l s . a f t e r the North-south  Period c e r t a i n l y  Historians  " r i d i c u l e d " the southern  d y n a s t i e s f o r the ineptness of t h e i r r u l e r s and m i l i t a r y weakness, y e t when Yang suggested  that the Sung dynasty  was even  weaker, he was i n s u l t i n g the Sung emperors almost as auda^ ciously  as when he suggested  that Kao Tsung was another  Ch;',in  S h i h Huang. Yang f i n a l l y  reached  the boundary on the Huai R i v e r , and  now h i s mood was much t e n s e r than  before:  On F i r s t E n t e r i n g the Huai R i v e r As  soon as our boat l e a v e s the sandbanks of F l o o d  Lake,  3  We a r r i v e a t the Huai R i v e r , and my mood i s no l o n g e r good .  b  Why i s i t t h a t only the Sang-kan R i v e r i s f a r away?  0  E v e r y t h i n g n o r t h of midstream i s as f a r as the ends of  Although  heaven.  1 1 2  Yang was not a n o r t h e r n e r , he f e l t  the same f r u s t r a -  t i o n as such n o r t h e r n poets as Lu Yu and Hsin C h ' i - C h i , when he realized  t h a t he d i d not have the freedom to v i s i t  of Chinese c u l t u r e i n the n o r t h :  >  the homeland  81 Boats from But  the  r a c e away f r o m  the  They  go  g u l l s and b a c k and  about a t  about  egrets aren't  1 1  changed  the  our  t o i n d i g n a t i o n and background  country's  a n g e r when  of the  Han  might;  Sung  fiasco:  8.  two  p r i m e m i n i s t e r s Chao Tung, and  built  the  Imperial  foundation.  he  Shih-chung  the  a f o o t the  flying  ^  political  proclaimed  constraint;  to south,  C h ' i , Yiieh P e l , Chang Chiin, and  Within  other,  trouble's in  u n d e r any  f o r t h from north  ease.  This f r u s t r a t i o n  While  each  making.  Only  Liu  shores  when t h e i r waves c l a s h t o g e t h e r , the  thought  two  Chang ChUn  1 3  l o n g H u a i d i v i d e s us  into  North  and  South; My  t e a r s moisten for  this?  Y a n g W a n - l i was we  find  trast  not  cal  an  effusive  poet,  and  t h e word " t e a r s " even m e n t i o n e d  t o T'ang and  of rage  blunders  earlier  poets  who  to dry  their  eyes.  o v e r what he of the  by  Ch'in  after  Kuei  the  I blame  southern  Sung.  emperor Kao they  had  rare  i n h i s verse,  that  i n con-  Yang's " t e a r s " were the  unforgivable  politi-  Three of the g e n e r a l s Han  T s u n g and  served  i t i s very  were f o r e v e r r e a c h i n g f o r  considered  m e n t i o n e d , L i u C h ' i , Ytteh P e l , and eliminated  should  1 1 4  t h e i r handkerchiefs tears  t h e autumn w i n d — w h o  out  he  S h i h - c h u n g , were a l l the prime m i n i s t e r  their  usefulness  in  con-  82 solidating  the  emperor's p o s i t i o n  Yang's t e a c h e r , had g i v e n him  by  Hsiao  w h i c h he  had  Tsung.  Yang c l e a r l y  us f r o m  any  v?hen on  lost  account  the r e t u r n  felt  journey  had he  the  Chang  inept  of China  could to the  of the demeaning the  Chin  stirred  stopped  ChUn,  support  knew whom he  half  t o f o l l o w while welcoming  However, t h e shame w h i c h he and  south.  been d i s g r a c e d a f t e r  blame f o r t h e d i s a s t e r w h i c h had Yang s p a r e s  i n the  rituals  ambassador.  his entire  at  Chin.  being,  Chin S h a n ^  ^  o r M e t a l M o u n t a i n , a famous s c e n i c wonder w i t h many s p l e n d i d Buddhist  monasteries,  After  East  t h e Snow S t o p s  of Scorched  Metal.Mountain southern Heaven took Joining It And  Yang  wrote:  I Climb  M o u n t a i n , west  opens t h e  the waters  them i n t o  d r a i n s beneath  If How It  a rock,  force one  Mountain,  a  the  dipper.  this  of t h r e e r i v e r s one  river  comes f r o m a b o v e t h e n i n e  Meeting  of M e t a l  empyrean a s h i g h a s  the nine  When i t meets a peak, t h a t  The  M e t a l M o u n t a i n a t Dawn  that  rock  o f h e a v e n and  Metal  One  speck  Not  one  pebble  lakes,  Yangtze.  heavens levels  of the  earth.  peak i m m e d i a t e l y  a t you,  who  0  snaps;  crumbles.  earth collects  in this dares  river;  resist?  Mountain?  stands mid-stream alone  Not  five  name t h e  immediately  o f i t s waves b e a t s  strong is this  we  and  In the  of d u s t f o l l o w s the f o l l o w s the  sea  upper  reaches.  sea wind  tide  away.  dancing;  b  83 On  i t s f o u r s i d e s i t has  Floating  no  stem, b e n e a t h no  i n the v o i d , i t l e a p s f o r t h  river's  root;  to r e s t  i n the  heart.  G o l d e n p a l a c e s and B e a t i n g drums and  s i l v e r look-outs clanging bells  rise  on  are heard  i t s peak; a l l over  China. The  poet  treads  And  h e a v e n ' s wind  Not  for this Floating jade-boat  Surely  the  Surely  Metal  on  snow t o come f o r t h i s p u r e blows h i m  cup;  Great  right  up  J a d e Peak do  the  excursion;  coral  I d r i n k from  R i v e r i s ashamed  M o u n t a i n mourns f o r  of  us!  us!  1 1  5  i n n o c e n t l y enough a s a p o w e r f u l  of  scenery  one  outstanding  reads  the  tains feel  last  be  was  clearly  their  swept away by  lines,  around  one  the  realizes  g i v e n an  incompetent  island,  it  emperors.  cords  when  of the  Metal  the Yangtze R i v e r , but  to the  capital  a b o u t New  assignment as R e v i s e r of the  Secretariat. was  but  t h a t even t h e mounSung  Mountain  t h e Sung  Year of  could  dynasty  necessary  Since Hsiao to f i n i s h  or " v e r i t a b l e  reign.  In the  pleted,  and  Tsung had  and  a l r e a d y had  abdicated  the  r e c o r d s " of h i s l o n g twenty-seven  requested  Tsung's C a l e n d a r  was  in  throne,  p r e p a r a t i o n s of the h i s t o r i c a l  e i g h t h month H s i a o  Yang was  1190  V e r i t a b l e Records  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p o s t he the  description  doomed.  Yang r e t u r n e d was  found  a r e v u l s i o n f o r the d i s g u s t i n g d e f e a t  a r m i e s l e d by not  two  my  e  Y a n g ' s poem s t a r t s the  tower.  re-  year Com-  to w r i t e a p r e f a c e , which  was  84 one  o f h i s d u t i e s as a h i s t o r i a n .  c o u r t found  o u t , and  an  i n t h e Board  official  part  insult  ment f r o m viously  o f R i t e s , who  him  write  t o Yang, and  no  requested  i n t h e end  an  retireob-  his  request-  Yang d i d n o t  t o be  vexed  and  i f he  one  writings. 317  dynasty  d i d not  What d i d he t o 323,  and  still  was  much a s H s i a o  the f i r s t  from  Chiang-tung  of s c h o l a r s ,  that?"  1 1 6  he  h i s son  Hsiao ^  who  When H s i a o  doing here?"  was  Kuang  When Kuang Tsung  in his  continued:  official  Yuan T i , who  reigned  emperor o f t h e e a s t e r n C h i n  of the Chinese dynasty  Tsung had  failed  T s u n g ' s d i s p l e a s u r e was  b u t he was  emperor.  understand,  mean by  scholars  a c c o r d i n g t o C h i n e s e h i s t o r i a n s was r e s p o n s i b l e  the f a i l u r e  prevented  of the  7\J  Hsiao  court h i s t o r i a n s ,  i s r e p o r t e d to have asked  t o C h i n Yuan T i %  compared me  the  name on t h e l i s t  T s u n g , "What i s Yang W a n - l i Tsung a c t e d as  Government o f  by  p r e s e n t t h e book t o t h e r e t i r e d  extremely  Hsiao  take  central authorities  Sagely  completed  appointed  Yang W a n - l i ' s  for  to  Yang's f a c e by p e r s o n a l l y  t h e e l e v e n t h month The  Y a n g W a n - l i was  from  right  to  the p r e f a c e .  T s u n g saw  "He  the  commission  T h i s a c t i o n was  immediately  t o s t a y i n the government, but  was  would  he  no  the  c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s competence t o f u l f i l l  Kuang T s u n g saved  In  and  had  Calendar.  the government, because  had  duties. ing  Yang's s u p e r i o r s changed  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the  intended  However, Yang's enemies a t  taking part  a l s o demoted  to reconquer  north  to c o u n t e r - a t t a c k the so g r e a t t h a t n o t  Tartars.  o n l y was  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n ceremonies  to A s s i s t a n t  if^ i t  §j  ^  Fiscal  China  Yang but  Intendant f o r  Unperturbed  by  a l l these  85 blows Yang p u b l i s h e d h i s s i x t h volume of poetry and headed to h i s new  post.  Yang had had held  totally  already reached  g i v e n up any  earlier.  was  of s i x t y - t h r e e , and  pursued  work was  c e r t a i n l y p r e f e r a b l e to the  i n the c a p i t a l , because although  based i n Nanking, he had  to t r a v e l c o n t i n u o u s l y around  b e a u t i f u l c o u n t r y s i d e near Nanking, and he was  when Yang s e t out f o r Nanking one  of h i s f r i e n d s  t h a t the only reason he wanted to go to the new  In 1192  In f a c t ,  post was  hi©  be1 1 7  not to stay i n Nanking f o r l o n g , f o r subsequent  events got him i n t r o u b l e w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s a g a i n .  the court decided  backed by i r o n coinage i o d i s extremely  to begin c i r c u l a t i n g a paper currency  i n the Chiang-nan r e g i o n .  and  i n 1024  known to mankind.  the Sung i s s u e d the f i r s t  paper  At f i r s t Sung monetary i n n o v a t i o n s  were c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d , but a f t e r the f a l l Sung, Chinese  The Sung per-  well-known f o r i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n n o v a t i o n s i n  the monetary f i e l d , currency  the  joked w i t h  cause he "lacked a C o l l e c t i o n of East of the Y a n g t z e . "  political  he  i n s p i r e d to w r i t e  much poetry about the n a t u r a l wonders to be seen t h e r e .  Yang was  he  ambitions f o r h i g h o f f i c e he might have  Yang's new  c a r e e r t h a t he had  the age  of the n o r t h e r n  f i n a n c e s were thrown i n t o a f a i r l y  f o r a w h i l e , although business continued  chaotic state  to t h r i v e i n the b i g  merchant c i t i e s a l o n g the Yangtze. One  of the most s e r i o u s problems of Sung f i s c a l p o l i c y  was  the great demand i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s such as Japan f o r Chinese copper cash.  In a d d i t i o n to u s i n g paper money as a  replacement  f o r copper cash, the Sung government attempted to s o l v e t h i s problem by minting c o i n s i n other metals and  encouraging  the  86 use of g o l d government  d u s t and issued  silver  large  ingots.  quantities  areas  i n t h e hope o f c r e a t i n g an  inner  c o p p e r c a s h economy and  import  C h i n e s e c o p p e r , and  by  the  Chiang-nan  economy, and  region,  issued  and  possibly  to b r i n g  law,  t h e new  of a l l m i l i t a r y nan.  The  i n the Huai a r e a ,  greatly  distressed,  to commercial  t h e new  sent  p e r s o n n e l and  payment was  up a m e m o r i a l  rate  o f exchange  use i n the Chiang-nan posed  to f o r b i d  In e f f e c t ,  t o be  that  a r e a , and,  rather  A c c o r d i n g to the  iron  salaries  i n Chiang-  c o i n a g e was  i n fact,  a  The  only  not i n general  t h e government p r o -  o t h e r than i n the Huai  supposed  salar-  to e s t a b l i s h  c o p p e r money.  t h e government o f f i c i a l s would  i n p a p e r c u r r e n c y w h i c h was  but  equal to the former  between i r o n and  i t s circulation  in protest.  be used f o r p a y i n g t h e  t h e government was  p r o b l e m w i t h t h e s y s t e m was  i n the Chiang-  t h e government i n -  government o f f i c i a l s  supposed  iron  because h i s  activities  circulation.  c u r r e n c y would  by  When Yang  paper currency i t s e l f  t h e money i n t o  but  o f t h e s o u t h e r n Sung  o f paper c u r r e n c y backed  immediately  i n copper cash, since  fixed  up  to p r e v e n t the f l o w of  useful  the h e a r t l a n d  he was  related he  to  a paper c u r r e n c y backed  e x t r e m e l y q u e s t i o n a b l e means by w h i c h  tended  pay  s t a t e s which wished  s o u t h e r n Sung t i m e s t h e g o v e r n -  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  Yang d i d n o t a t t a c k  ies  was  r e g i o n was  closely  the  1 1  of t h i s p o l i c y ,  work was  new  between  a more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m t h a n i n b o r d e r p l a c e s .  heard  the  barrier"  Chin. ®  Such a s t r a t e g y  nan  "iron  i r o n money i n t h e H u a i R i v e r r e g i o n  copper c a s h to the  was  o f i r o n money i n b o r d e r  foreign  ment went a s t e p f u r t h e r and with  I n n o r t h e r n Sung t i m e s t h e  be r e c e i v i n g t o be b a c k e d  region. their by  iron,  87 but in  which they  could  Chiang-nan.  such  a  only  change i n t o  Yang W a n - l i c l e a r l y  the copper cash  recognized  the danger of  policy:  The  Huai area  use  t h e new p a p e r c u r r e n c y ,  will can  i s using iron  be t h e same a s h a v i n g be e x c h a n g e d .  [the  coinage, having iron  being  nan  i r o n money  currency  currency  currency  cash f o r which i t  T h i s i s t h e same a s a m o t h e r  separated  paper  from each o t h e r .  currency]  Y e t , i n Chiang-  i s p r o h i b i t e d , and when t h e new  i s put into  the m i l i t a r y  and so i f t h e y  paper  i r o n money] and I t s c h i l d \ [ t h e  not  people  circulation, will  paper  I do n o t know what  do i f t h e y  take  the paper  and exchange i t a t t h e m a r k e t .  I f they  want t o exchange i t f o r c o p p e r money, c e r t a i n l y one  will  copper cash].  [ a form of paper currency I f they  money, t h e r e w i l l  coinage  n o t be one p i e c e o f i r o n I f there  t h e new p o l i c y  without  called  a  would  i s p a p e r money  mother.  f o r paying  w i t h a f o r m o f money w h i c h was w i t h o u t result  money f o r  f o r w h i c h i t c a n be e x c h a n g e d , i t  t h e same a s a c h i l d  In essence,  b a c k e d by  want t o exchange i t f o r i r o n  w h i c h i t c a n be e x c h a n g e d . without  no  g i v e them a n y , s i n c e i t i s n o t " c a p i t a l  paper currency"  is  current  be c o m p l e t e  value  economic d i s o r d e r .  1 1 9  government  servants  t o them, and t h e When t h e measure b e -  came l a w , Yang W a n - l i r e f u s e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e g o v e r n m e n t and  as a r e s u l t ,  he o f f e n d e d  the prime m i n i s t e r .  orders,  88 I n t h e e i g h t h month o f 1192 h e was i m m e d i a t e l y t o K a n - c h o u , b u t he r e f u s e d request  f o r r e t i r e m e n t , w h i c h was g r a n t e d .  N a n k i n g he p u b l i s h e d entitled  i n Chi-shui before  s i n c e he a l r e a d y  Yang  and s e n t  Before  he  ina  left  t h e poems w h i c h h e h a d w r i t t e n t h e r e and  them C o l l e c t i o n f r o m E a s t  Yang a r r i v e d  serving  t o t a k e h i s new p o s t  transferred  was s i x t y - f i v e ,  t h e government.  of the Yangtze  the beginning  Jjj^ ^  .  o f autumn, and  he had no f u r t h e r i n t e n t i o n o f  S h o r t l y a f t e r he a r r i v e d  b a c k home,  wrote:  Watering  a P o t o f Calamus and N a r c i s s u s  When I r e - r e a d But  o l d poems, t h e y  after finishing and  Flowers  become new a g a i n ,  them, I'm so drowsy  I stretch  yawn.  Innumerable f l o w e r s i n t h e p o t complain  of t h e i r  thirst, But  this  o l d f e l l o w o n l y wants t o be a l a z y  Although political  saw  d i d not please him.  had to  take  i n the c a p i t a l Two y e a r s  carefully,  a f t e r he l e f t  t o watch  and what he s e r v i c e , the  Tsung d i e d , and h i s s o n Kuang T s u n g , who  an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e hatred  f o r h i s father, refused  p a r t i n any o f t h e f u n e r a l c e r e m o n i e s f o r t h e d e p a r t e d  emperor. r$j^  situation  emperor H s i a o  developed  1 2 0  Yang was now i n r e t i r m e n t , he c o n t i n u e d  the  retired  man.  1 2 1  The p r i m e m i n i s t e r a t t h e time  and a p o w e r f u l  official  Han  Chao Ju-ytt  T'o-choujj?Jj. ^i^U  t o g e t h e r w i t h Kao Tsung's Empress Wu  ^  ^  , and t h e y  conspired s e t up  89 Kuang Tsung's s o n as t h e  f o r c i n g Kuang Tsung i n t o an was  a direct  Han  Ch'iJ-j^  ial  line  man,  and  gained  3^  f  d  a n  emperor.  before  into  two  given high  office  was  T ' o - c h o u was  an  the  first by  thoughts of the  l e d by  Ohu  patterned pected,  Han  after  Chu  t o have c l o s e  access  northern  ambitious  of o f f i c e  In the  they  capital  had  patron  finally  Hsl's  second group, which  r e f o r m s o f Wang A n - s h l h . and  t o p e r s u a d e N i n g T s u n g t o e l i m i n a t e Han  of  Ch'eng Y i ^ f .  s a i n t s i n Chu  The  H s l s o o n c l a s h e d w i t h Han,  been  were p r o p o n e n t s  Sung p h i l o s o p h e r  of the  power  T'o-chou, a d a p t e d a more l e g a l i s t i c  the  and  had  in a bitter  H s i , who  Chao J u - y l i , and  become one  by  imper-  1 2  s y n t h e s i s of neo-Confuclanism.  favored  t o t h e Sung  c e n t r a l government. ^  scholar o f f i c i a l s  was  T'o-chou official  extremely  p a r t i e s w h i c h were engaged  The  had  able  Han  1 2 2  Sung  l o n g he f o r c e d Chao J u - y l i o u t  struggle.  , who  allied  so he was  complete c o n t r o l over  formed  great  h i s l a m l l y was  Han  Meanwhile, the  the  early retirement.  d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e famed n o r t h e r n  through marriage,  t o t h e new  T s u n g ( 1 1 9 5 - 1 2 2 5 )  emperor K i n g  As  approach  could  when Chu  be  ex-  attempted  T ' o - c h o u f r o m power, 1 Ph.  the  p h i l o s o p h e r was  Ju-yli's paign  expulsion  quickly d r i v e n from o f f i c e .  i n 1i95,  Han  ly the  included a l l neo-Confucianists  i n d i v i d u a l who In the  o r Wei  charge of " F a l s e L e a r n i n g "  1195  court.  disagreed Han  was  w i t h Han  The  already  an  e x c u s e he  cam-  used was  Hsueh^ ^  , which  f o l l o w i n g Chu  Hsi.  T'o-chou's  However,  policies.  so he  could  be  any  1 2 5  t o r e c a l l Yang W a n - l i  o l d man,  an  obvious-  s o o n expanded t o i n c l u d e  T'o-chou attempted  Yang was  A f t e r Chao  T'o-chou s t a r t e d a g e n e r a l  to e l i m i n a t e a l l o p p o s i t i o n .  a t t a c k on ."False L e a r n i n g "  ^  to  trusted  90 not  to  c a u s e any  tellectuals tability nessed  political with  Chu  hatred the  serving  i n the  the  undue t r o u b l e , under him  eyes of  wide  H s i , and  We by  the  post,  but  o f w h i c h was .  Han  if  the  of  reported record  for  on  the  and  ceiving  them.  and  in  Chi-shui.  Yang's r e f u s a l o f  b u r d e n on  written  many  Yang i s  records  prized  i f written payment  wrong a b o u t  Han  re-  i n the  p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n Yang r e f u s e d T'o-chou's a c t i o n s .  this  acquain-  ;  ethically  post  the  abandoned, but  i n exchange f o r s u c h a s e r v i c e  e x t r e m e d i s t a s t e f o r Han  govern-  government  f i g u r e , Yang must have r e c e i v e d  the  |3p  Garden  t o commemorate  be  men  impor-  o f Han's r e q u e s t ,  Yang had  nothing  two  govern-  most  p r o j e c t s o f h i s f r i e n d s and  T h e r e was  Intense  began s p e n d i n g  can  and  received  of h i s S o u t h e r n  office  1 2 6  an  b r e a k between t h e  s u c h documents were h i g h l y  public office  o f Sung s c h o l a r s ,  Yang's  s l i g h t e d by  When i n f o r m e d  construction  a famous l i t e r a r y some o f  remained  a r e c o r d "*£J  wit-  thinkers  developed  acceptance f o r t h i s  written!"  had  Thus, when he  power, Han  "The  respec-  Yang's r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f f e r e d Yang W a n - l i a h i g h  garden.  since  respected  noted  and  construction  t o have s a i d :  various  who  a number o f p r o j e c t s , t h e  to gain  so he  c a n n o t be  tances, by  felt  o l d p o e t would w r i t e  opening  for  o l d age  gained  the  wished  ment f i n a n c e s ,  officials  a n o t h e r e v e n t made t h e  ment f u n d s l a v i s h l y tant  scholar  T'o-chou's p o l i c i e s .  A f t e r he  needed famous i n -  his rule greater  t i m e Yang had  T'o-chou p r o b a b l y  permanent.  |f]  this  badly  to g i v e  have a l r e a d y  summons, Yang p l e a d e d Han  Han  s c a l e purges of h i g h l y  figures.  f o r Han  other  and  never  was  at  Chi-shui  in virtual  his  forgave  insult. M e a n w h i l e , Yang l i v e d  view  isolation  91 taking  o c c a s i o n a l e x c u r s i o n s around  still  busily writing poetry.  years  o f r e t i r e m e n t was g a t h e r e d  son, by  t h e nearby  The p o e t r y  c o u n t r y s i d e and  of these  time.  major l i t e r a r y  Yang was f u l l y figures  from i n c r e a s i n g l y  fourteen  t o g e t h e r posthumously  b u t a l l o f Yang's e a r l i e r works had a l r e a d y  this  last  by Yang's  been p r i n t e d  aware t h a t he was one o f t h e  o f h i s p e r i o d , and a l t h o u g h  he s u f f e r e d  bad h e a l t h i n h i s s e v e n t i e s , h i s p o e t i c  put h a r d l y diminished  at all.  When he was s e v e n t y - e i g h t  outyears  o f a g e he w r o t e :  A f t e r a r e l a p s e o f bladder d i s e a s e the d o c t o r says should  a v o i d w r i t i n g because i t s t r a i n s  when I g e t up i n t h e m o r n i n g  I  my h e a r t y s o  I warn m y s e l f .  (Second  Poem o f Two)  Recklessly So  addicted to poetry,  I beg f o r g i v e n e s s f r o m o r i o l e s and f l o w e r s my b i t t e r  By  this  why do t h e y  time  to stop  t o T'ao Yuan-ming o r H s i e h  come l o o k i n g f o r me a t n i g h t i n my  i t seems t h a t t h e o l d p o e t  the normal concerns  i n vain;  chant.  I d o n ' t owe any d e b t s So  I weary my h e a r t  of the world,  had t o t a l l y  and a l t h o u g h  Ling-yun, dreams?  transcended  Han T'o-chou's  a t t a c k s a g a i n s t h i m were g r o w i n g i n s e v e r i t y , Yang l i v e d state  o f near p e r f e c t detachment. The  reaffirmed middle  ina  reason  f o r Yang W a n - l i ' s  the V i m a l a k l r t l  age.  References  peace  o f mind  i s t h a t he had  i d e a l w h i c h he had d i s c o v e r e d i n  to V i m a l a k i r t i  become more common i n  1 2  ?  92 his  later  given  poetry  and  expression  the  i n a number o f  The I f you It's  moon and  pure  d o n ' t we  ciating  p a i n w i t h good humor:  feet  allowed  start  exhausted  t h e w h o l e day,  b a n i s h my  depression.  Flowers  fill  my  I have passed Who  eyes,  three  would know my  If people in  saw  Idleness,  me  wind,  face  approach to l i f e  my  Idleness  t o t h e Realm o f  S u c h an  ill,  layman i s  o u t s i d e t h e Mundane Realm.  What day  While  of the Buddhist  poems:  Realm of  want t o h o l d  not  Bright  philosophy  one  another?  Yang t o b e a r  hurting again.  1 2 8  the  most  After  excru-  I sit  I w r i t e the f o l l o w i n g to  and  snow c o v e r s my  o r f o u r more y e a r s  a i l i n g l e g s keep me crouching,  they'd  say  head;  i n uncertainty. from  walking;  I was  sitting  meditation!  When I d r o p my  f a n by  the  t a b l e s i d e I'm  too l a z y  to  p i c k i t up, So  how  can  I p o s s i b l y s e a r c h f o r my  book b e n e a t h  world  of f l y i n g  the  window? Men  of the  But  I'm  envious  are always envious of w a l k i n g  men,  who  immortals,  seem i m m o r t a l s  to  me!  93 Yang's i l l n e s s of  Vimalaklrti,  visit  and f r i e n d s came t o  h i m he w r o t e :  But  grave  illness  as soon as M a n j u s r l the  to  r e m i n d e d h i m o f t h e famous malady  and when some r e l a t i v e s  Vimalaklrti's  The  obviously  baleful  was n o t easy  asked  malady.  t h e q u e s t i o n , he  one o f h i s d i s c i p l e s ill.  to v i s i t  t h e Buddha  Vimalaklrti,  cently  fallen  However, when a l l o f Buddha's  refuse  t o go o u t o f f e a r t h a t t h e sage w i l l  ferior  knowledge o f B u d d h i s t  knowledge, M a n j u s r i , Buddha, M a n j u s r i , mansion g i v e s r i s e culminates his  explanation  philosophy,  agrees to lead  them.  to a profound asking  attempting  who h a s r e disciples,  expose t h e i r i n -  the bodhlsattva of The a s s e m b l y  and t h e numerous d i s c i p l e s  i n Manjusri  lost  1 5 0  V l m a l a k i r t i - n i r d e s a - s u t r a s t a r t s with send  to cure,  of the  at Vimalaklrti's  d i s c u s s i o n o f Buddhism, w h i c h  each of the b o d h i s a t t v a s  o f t h e meaning o f n o n - d u a l i s m .  to give  Each provides  a  complex a n s w e r , b u t when i t i s V i m a l a k l r t i ' s t u r n t o s p e a k , he remains s i l e n t . Vimalaklrti Buddhists, abled  1 5 1  This i s the "thunderous silence*' of  so o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o by Ch'an and o t h e r and i t i s t h i s  Yang t o t r a n s c e n d  realization  the w o r r i e s  of n o n - d u a l i t y  and i l l n e s s e s  Chinese which en-  of h i s l a t e r  years. Han the  T ' o - c h o u had f i n a l l y  central  e l i m i n a t e d a l l o f h i s enemies i n  g o v e r n m e n t , b u t s i n c e he was n o t a b l e  ceptance from the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , way  he p o s s i b l y f e l t  to gain a c t h a t the only  t o c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o s i t i o n was t o engage i n m i l i t a r y a d -  4 Sung 9  ventures. for  There had  been peace now  over t h i r t y y e a r s , and  between the Chin and  there were no overt a c t i o n s by  Chin government that would suggest  the  a resumption of h o s t i l i t i e s .  When a Chinese ambassador returned from the Chin c o u r t , he r e ported  t h a t the Chin government was  the country was  i n a s t a t e of d i s a r r a y and  r i p e f o r i n v a s i o n , because the Chin armies were  busy i n the n o r t h f i g h t i n g o f f the r i s i n g power of the Mongols. By  1204  Han  T'o-chou had  i n v a s i o n and had m a r t i a l bravery.  s t a r t e d massive p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r an  posthumously e n f e o f f e d Ylieh P e l to encourage The  g e n e r a l Wu  Hsi ^  flf*^  Szechwan i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the Chinese  was  o t h e r a c t i o n s of Han  sent to  onslaught. ^ 1  Yang's f a m i l y h i d a l l news of these war  afraid  1  preparations  and  T'o-chou from Yang, because they were  t h a t such news might harm the o l d poet, whose h e a l t h had  become i n c r e a s i n g l y f r a i l .  In 1205  Han  summoned Yang back to  the c a p i t a l once again, but i n s t e a d of merely p o l i t e l y r e f u s i n g on grounds of h e a l t h , Yang sent a r e p l y a c c u s i n g Han of  undermining the s e c u r i t y of the s t a t e and  t o r o u s conduct.  Yang's memorial was  T'o-chou  engaging i n  suppressed  trai-  by Han's  friends. In 1206  the b i g moment came, and Han  T'3o-chou gave the  o r d e r s to begin the a t t a c k a g a i n s t the Chin.  At f i r s t  Chinese armies were s u c c e s s f u l , but the Chin had Sung i n t e n t i o n s as e a r l y as 1205, prepared, Han  All  so t h a t the Sung armies met  T'o-chou's t r u s t e d g e n e r a l Wu  armies and  and  requested  the  gotten wind of  they were extremely  several serious defeats.  H s i surrendered  to the  to be e n f e o f f e d as k i n g of Szechwan.  of these d i s a s t r o u s setbacks had  well  Chin 1  been hidden from Yang  9 5  "Wan-li  by  h i s f a m i l y , but  relative,  who  had  recently  Y a n g o f a l l t h a t had Yang's biography his  voice.  He  one  day  in''-the f i f t h  returned from  happened b e f o r e  says  called  plans  has  to endanger the n a t i o n ' s a l t a r s . p a t h f o r me  he  wrote:  Although  lost  power  f o u r t e e n words t o p a r t w i t h h i s w i f e and brush f e l l ,  and  he  passed  probably  manufactured  dramatic  effect,  have hastened a military  by  1 5  Yang's demise.  s e l f - s e e k i n g nature  Yang had  r e d and  And  the w i l d  of e i g h t y , he  written  account  f o r the  b u t he was  sake  the  of easily  leave They a s k  the  Chin.  e i g h t h of the f i f t h  month,  w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s h o r t poem:  Flowers t h e mud  care about people  who  to  dust,  pity  f l o w e r s don't  say  a word when  they  tree,  the y e l l o w  a-  the  flowers. Though t h e f a l l i n g  was  certainly  p r e p a r a t i o n and  p u r p l e b l o s s o m s t u r n t o mud, wind d o e s n ' t  can  his writing  of Han's p l a n s f o r a t t a c k i n g t h e  Palling The  this  I  always been i n f a v o r of  o f Sung m i l i t a r y  b e f o r e Yang d i e d on  a t t h e age  Although  have  T ' o - c h o u ' s campaign c o u l d  of n o r t h China,  ware o f t h e p o o r s t a t e  had  children,  Yang's b i o g r a p h e r s  a n g e r a t Han  reconquest  Shortly  away." ^  and  I still  state.  Then a f t e r he  him.  'Han  monopolized  to avenge the  engage i n l o n e i n d i g n a t i o n . '  1206,  stop  s u p e r i o r , m o b i l i z e d t h e army t o harm t h e p e o p l e ,  a h e a d , t h e r e i s no only  He  distant  informed  so m o u r n f u l l y  f o r p a p e r and  T'o-chou i s a t r a i t o r o u s m i n i s t e r , . w i t h no  capital,  the f a m i l y c o u l d  t h a t Yang " c r i e d  repeatedly  the  month, a  orioles  to t e l l  the s p r i n g .  1 5 6  96  T h i s work c o u l d p r o p e r l y be like  the f l o w e r s of l a t e  regarded  s p r i n g he was  resistible  f o r c e s of n a t u r e ,  expression  of h i s e n t i r e  Yang was his  a v e r y modest  he  was  structure.  In the y e a r  the  lished  i t under the  tion  published tion hao  1208  title  under the  Yang's e l d e s t had  son  written after  T'ui Hslu  ChjL ig_ ^  or  Literary  gathered  to-  1192  pub-  ^  and  or  Collec-  the v a r i o u s c o l l e c t i o n s  t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l of h i s prose  title  death  Ch' e n g - c h a l  C h l ^  ^J- j |  works or  hundred  A l t o g e t h e r there are about  poems i n t h i s  writings  comprise  ern  edition.  SPTK  about  Yang's d i s l i k e subsequent  events.  Sung g o v e r n m e n t was peace head quite  terms from  collection,  the  and  e i g h t hundred  f o r Han  twenty  T ' o - c h o u was  After  the m i l i t a r y  badly  s h a k e n and  Chin.  The  fully  angry  at this  suggestion,  o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t the empress had operation  taken  an  enemy.  prose  confirmed of  1206,  T'o-chou a s k e d  C h i n government demanded  b e f o r e p e a c e c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d , and so he  Han  planned  was  o f a number o'f h i g h o f f i c i a l s  t o Han, at  Ning and  by the  for Han's  naturally  further  I n t h e mean t i m e  extreme d i s l i k i n g  two  p a g e s i n t h e mod-  disaster  Han  and  Yang's  t h r e e thousand  Yang's c o m p l e t e  of  Collec-  Works o f t h e S i n c e r e S t u d i o , t h e name d e r i v i n g f r o m Ch'eng-chal.  an  with h i s nature i t  W e n - c h i e h jC. £|  Somewhat l a t e r  Y a n g ' s p o e t r y were p u t  on a s  P o u r y e a r s a f t e r Yang's  1  p o e t r y Yang W a n - l i  of Retirement.  lived  of C h i - s h u i , where  In k e e p i n g  g i v e n t h e posthumous t i t l e  gether  the i r -  life.  buried i n h i s native v i l l a g e  is  Frugal.  swept away by  y e t h i s p o e t r y has  tomb s u r v i v e s t o t h i s d a y .  and  a s Yang's swan s o n g , f o r  military Tsung's  w i t h the  c o u r t , she  co-  encouraged  97 Ning  Tsung t o do  his  empress, and  his  way  by  away w i t h h i m .  m o r n i n g i n 1207  one  t o c o u r t , he  met  t h e emperor t o k i l l  concluded special  w i t h the  clear  when Han  with a party  him.  C h i n , and  I n 1208  1 5 8  Han  a humiliating  The  hordes.  Although  Yang W a n - l i ' s  c h a r a c t e r s h o u l d be  to assess  now,  i t i s customary  the moral  qualities  judgements a r e f r e q u e n t l y q u i t e u n r e l i a b l e , seem out conduct  of t h e p l a c e t o v e n t u r e in his public  w h i c h was  seems t o h a v e  expected  extremely  retired  from  any  strings  treasury  instead.  of cash,  of moral  b u t he  1 4 0  left  We  criticism  corrupt  government i s a f a v o r i t e  a man  In  accounts  for his failure  s h o r t , Yang W a n - l i  came c l o s e  to  the money i n t h e  a s an  extremely  Confucian  to r i s e  to l i v i n g  ten  public simple,  considered critic  of  Yang's  in office  up  he  Wan-li's  cliche,  t o any  he  i t during three  outspoken  f r a n k n e s s f r e q u e n t l y harmed h i s advancement tially  entitled  o f government p o l i c i e s w h i c h he  describing  car-  office  When  have f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d Yang  Although  not  Yang's  f o r high  enlarge or decorate  wrong.  Such  a public  propriety.  H i s home i n C h i - s h u i was  t h e Yang f a m i l y d i d n o t  fearless  a m b i t i o n s he had  s t r o n g sense  i t was  i n Sung t i m e s ,  h i s p o s i t i o n a t N a n k i n g , he was  thousand  generations.  man  Sung  bio-  i t does  o p i n i o n s about  educated  was  reasonably  Though Yang p u r s u e d  o f any  controlled  w i t h an  and  life.  a few  until  subject.  but  seat  sent i n a  In Chinese  of the  on  peace  southern  seventy-two y e a r s  K u b l a i Khan's  t o t h e r e a d e r by  oblige  were  T'o-chou's head was  to s u r v i v e another  to  T'o-chou was  by  graphies  eer,  happy  of s o l d i e r s who  1  c o u r t managed out  T s u n g was  t o t h e C h i n I m p e r i a l c o u r t . 39  case  snuffed  Ning  high to the  and  par-  position. Confucian  98 ideal  in his public But  a s we  philosophy near few  It  doesn't  as  ledge  Yang's l i f e ,  matter  the world  the  rich  the  cares  Confucian  rarely  very  while  means t h e  seems t o have Ch'an i d e a l ,  have s a i d  living  little  an  i n her  out,  of age,  ing  and  first  cook a bowl o f r i c e  she  t o o k any  she  continued  she would  t o p l a n t hemp by bore  why  d i d n o t have a wet  ren?" *^  2  and  child  of  Yang's e l d e s t devoted  get  right. up  very  so  Yang  transcend  o u t s i d e of i t . children.  Al-  hand and  to nurse  nurse,  she  early  over  i n the  own  children.  replied: to nurse  of p u b l i c  was  morn-  servant  weave h e r  her  and  before  eighty years old,  Chang-QU-^was  h i m s e l f to a l i f e  Chinese  clothes.  three daughters,  s t a r v i n g people son  he  E v e n when she  g r u e l f o r her  Yang f o u r sons and  t o a l l o w anyone e l s e  u s i n g the  a know-  i n f l u e n c e on h i s l i f e  When she was  refused she  to  quite usual f o r  own  years  she  managed  b o t h w i t h i n and  important  food h e r s e l f .  A  i n i t s midst.  a b o u t Yang's w i f e and  interesting figure  Altogether  reached  t o h i s sons f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s p o e t r y ,  However, she was  only  too.  I n d i a n merchant, possessed  seventy  poet  no  s t a y s home o r g o e s  m e n t i o n s h i s w i f e , w h i c h was  poets.  1  of the  scholar bureaucrat,  of t h i s w o r l d ,  t h o u g h Yang r e f e r s  feel  he  by  wrote:  w h e t h e r one  transcend  and  was  o f B u d d h i s m s u p e r i o r t o Buddha's monk d i s c i p l e s ,  We  a  Confucianism  d i e d , Yang  Vimalakirtl,  Wan-li, the  seen,  In the r e a l i z a t i o n  b e f o r e he  F o r you  Just  have  t h a t guided  perfection years  life.  When  "How my  but  asked  would own  also a  service.  she  I  childgood He  was  just  as f r u g a l  still his  as h i s f a t h e r ,  a v e r y p o o r man i n s p i t e  9%, and when C h a n g - j u d i e d , he was o f many o p p o r t u n i t i e s  p o c k e t s w i t h b r i b e s a s many c o n t e m p o r a r y  Yang W a n - l i ' s h i g h  sense o f m o r a l i n t e g r i t y  members o f h i s f a m i l y .  to line  officials  did.  1 4 5  was s h a r e d by a l l  100  References to the page numbers of Yang Wan-li's poems are as f o l l o w s .  The f i r s t  number r e f e r s to the chtian and  numbers i n the Ssu Pu Ts' ung K'an  ^  f'J  e d i t i o n of the Oh' eng  ji.  .  The  ( a b b r e v i a t e d SPTK) 12? CGG)fj^  Chai Chi ( a b b r e v i a t e d  second number i s t h a t of the chttan and  the Ssu Pu P e l Yao  page  ( a b b r e v i a t e d SPPY) W  ^  page i n  fj| -J-  edition.  I f a t h i r d number appears, i t i s the page number of the poem i n Chou Ju-ch'ang's Yang Wan-li Hsuan Chi ( a b b r e v i a t e d YWLHC) y^j  %  iL.  compared and  j|  •  The  t e x t s of SPTK and  a l l s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n t s noted.  i n g , the readings  SPPY have been Generally  of SPTK have been accepted  i n preference  SPPY, s i n c e SPTK i s a copy of a Sung e d i t i o n , and i a b l y i n t r o d u c e s e r r o r s due  to mlsreadings  speakto  SPPY i n v a r -  of c h a r a c t e r s  and  r e l i a n c e on l a t e r e d i t i o n s of Yang Wan-li's works.  1  Other than the p o e t i c and  f o r Yang Wan-li's l i f e jj?  ^  , chuan 4 3 3 -  H s i a Ching-kuan ^  M M JL  ^  H $•  ^ '  n  i s h i s biography  ,  contained  A l s o u s e f u l i s a nlen-p' u ^ ^  0 9 0 8  i n Sung Shih ^  , Wan »  r e  P r  Yu Wen  Taipei,  K^u 1965.  Hui Yao  to i n t e r n a l evidence  i n Hu M i n g - t ' i n g %  %  l \ i  chtian 9 , no.  #j  in  ^  flfj  i n the poems.  7 - 8 , p. 51-60,  ^  ^  by r e -  Another nlen-p'u  "Yang Wan-li Shih P'ing  ," Ta Lu Tsa Chih  Chu  H s i a Ching-kuan  c o r r e c t s a number of minor e r r o r s In Yang's biography ference  source  * | j , Yang Ch'eng-chal Shih Hsflan  ^ 0  prose works, the main  fa  2fe  c o n t a i n s some v a l u a b l e  Shu  ^ ,  information  101 but  i s mainly based on H s i a ' s work.  Weng T'ung-wen's  R e p e t o l r e des date des hommes c e l e b r e s des Sung, a Sung p r o ject publication, |J[ no.  r e f e r s to another nlen-p u by T s ' u i  i n Chiang H s i Chlao Ytt Yfleh K'an r j _ \h ^ 19, but t h i s work has not been a v a i l a b l e  ~^  to me.  Chi ^2. ^ Chou J u -  ch'ang's f o o t n o o t e s to Yang's a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l poems a l s o  con-  t a i n a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n , and I have made use of them where n e c e s s a r y .  O C i t a t i o n s are not g i v e n f o r minor  d e t a i l s from Yang's c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y 2  P 1 Yflan-^  (abbreviated ^  ordered poems and t h e i r p r e f a c e s .  , H s l n Chlao Hsu Tzu Chih T'ung Chien  HTCTC)|lj4l i f  Taipei,  biographical  ^ z&l$L$!e.  1961 , p. 2424.  I have r e l i e d  throughout f o r the p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y  5  I b l d . , 2358.  4  I b i d . , 2360.  5  I b l d . , 2419.  6  I b i d . , 2396.  7  I b l d . , 2421-2422.  8  I b i d . , 2438.  9  I b i d . , 2444.  1 0  Ibld.,  2451 .  1 1  Ibid.,  2454.  1 2  I b i d . , 2488.  1 3  Ibid.,  1 4  I b i d . , 2507.  1 5  I b i d . , 2555-  2496.  , Shih Chieh Shu  Ohli-S.  on the HTCTC  of the p e r i o d .  102 l 6  Ibid.,  2565.  1 7  Ibid.,  2568.  1  Lo,  ®A  good biography of H s i n C h ' i - c h i i s contained i n I . Y.  Hsin C h ' l - c h l .  Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., New York, 1971,  H s i n ' s youth i s d e a l t w i t h i n pp. 22-25.  19  S P P Y , Lu Yu,||-  i a t e d LFWCC)^!: &  , Lu Fang Weng Ch'flan C h i (abbrev-  ifi ± y  ^  , 65-6a.  20 Fan  Ch'eng-ta's biography i s found i n chuan 386 of the  Sung Shih ( a b b r e v i a t e d S S ) . Ju-ch'ang )£] irjr Jen  il>  There i s a good biography i n Chou  , Fan Ch'eng-ta S h i h Hsflan  Min Wen Hsfleh Ch'u Pan She A  / \ / JL  it  H\  H k 4^  A  t^*L~,  ,  Peking, 1959, pp. 251-61. 2 1  For  a l l official titles  I have depended on E . A. Kracke,  T r a n s l a t i o n of Sung C i v i l S e r v i c e T i t l e s . P a r i s , 1957.  Chang Chita's biography appears i n chuan 361 of SS. Yang Wan-li h i m s e l f wrote an e x t e n s i v e account of Chang's which i s recorded i n CCC, 115-1001-13.  23  H T C T C , 2635-  2 4  Ibld.,  2777.  2 5  Ibld.,  2809.  2 6  I b i d . , 2817.  2 7  Ibid.,  2828-2831.  life,  103 2 8  Ibid.,  2 9  Ibid.,  3 0  Ibid.,  5 1  3161-3162. 3261.  3261-3262.  I b i d . , 3300.  Helmut Wilhelm doubts the p u r i t y  of Ylieh  F e l ' s motives f o r reconquering n o r t h China, and suggests that Kao  Tsung and Ch'ln K u e l k i l l e d Yiieh to prevent the ascendance  of m i l i t a r y power.  Wilhelm's argument would, of course, cause  one to q u e s t i o n the e n t i r e pro-war f a c t i o n . war f a c t i o n c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y  However, the p r o -  of Confucian s c h o l a r  officials,  who had nothing to g a i n from a m i l i t a r y takeover, so I suspect the  t r a d i t i o n a l v i l i f i c a t i o n of Ch'in Kuel may be much c l o s e r  to the t r u t h .  See Helmut Wilhelm, "From Myth to Myth:  The  Case of Ytteh F e l ' s Biography," A r t h u r Wright ed., Confucianism and Chinese C i v i l i z a t i o n . Hew York, 1964,  Ibid.,  3 3  s s , 5433-c. I b i d . , 5594-c.  35i - 4 a.  3296-3299.  3 2  3 4  pp. 225-226.  a ;  1-1 a; 1 .  An a l l u s i o n to Tu Fu's poem: " I f there a r e no v u l g a r t h i n g s near my eyes/ feels light." Fu (abbreviated  Though extremely s i c k , my body  See A Concordance  to the Poems of Tu  T F ) , Harvard-Yenchlng I n s t i t u t e S l n o -  l o g l c a l Index S e r i e s ,  Supplement  No. 14, r e p r .  Taipei,  1966, 356/29/7. b.  Ll-k'uai l i t e r a l l y  means 'to pass over c l o d s ' and refers  to a horse that runs s w i f t l y .  Yang i s s a y i n g t h a t h i s  t a l e n t s a r e no match f o r Hsiao c.  Te-tsao.  A r e f e r e n c e t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n concerning poetry between Hsieh A n ^  Jfc  and Wang H u i - c h i h J J . ^ f x . 2 ^ ,  Wang compared poor poetry water, and Yang f e e l s  to a duck f l o a t i n g i n the  t h a t h i s own verse has n o t  r i s e n above m e d i o c r i t y .  He a l s o has ambitions t o  r i s e above the m e d i o c r i t y of h i s c u r r e n t o f f i c i a l  5 6  Y a n g d e s c r i b e s h i s burning  of the e a r l i e r poems i n  a preface to h i s e a r l i e s t c o l l e c t i o n .  3 7  58  See COC, 8 0 , 672-a.  C C C , 8*1t-676b. SPTK, L i u K'e-chuangjj  Sheng l a Ch'flan  5  post  Ohi^^"J  \\  h %A  , Hou T s un f  ^  ,  Hsien 174-1557a.  9 i _ 7 a ; i-4b.  4 0  1 -7b;  1 5 a ; 11 .  4 1  1 - 1 2 a ; 1-9a.  a. Marquis of H u a i - y i n i s the t i t l e great m i l i t a r y  strategist  of Han H s l n j ^ .  i n S h i h Chi ^  ,  of the e a r l y Han, who  e v e n t u a l l y r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t L i u Pang. is  ^  H i s biography  |£y , chuan 9 2 .  b. Y u - c h i was a famous a r c h e r of the Chou  dynasty.  c. The d i s e a s e u r c h i n s a r e the I l l n e s s e s which  plagued  Duke Ching of T s i n d u r i n g the S p r i n g and Autumn P e r i o d . When the duke c a l l e d  i n a good p h y s i c i a n , the two boys  105 were f r i g h t e n e d and diaphragm and died.  See  escaped  to "the r e g i o n above the  below the h e a r t . "  Tso Ohuan, H\  The duke  subsequently  ^  HTCTC, 3597. 4 3  Ibid.,  3664-3665.  44  1 - 1 2 b ; 1-10a. That i s , the r e f l e c t i o n of the moon i n the water.  In  Yang's poetry t h i s image i s f r e q u e n t l y a symbol f o r the emptiness of phenomenal e x i s t e n c e , but here i t does not seem to have any  45  HTCTC, 3668-3669-  46  1 - 1 3 b ; 1-11a;  special  significance.  16.  Here Yang i s comparing Hsiao Tsung's P r o c l a m a t i o n of S e l f - c e n s u r e to a p r o c l a m a t i o n i s s u e d by Han Wu a f t e r he became d i s g u s t e d w i t h m i l i t a r y h i s campaigns a g a i n s t the Hsiung-nu.  reverses i n  Yang i s en-  couraging Hsiao Tsung not to adopt a s i m i l a r featist  ence to Wen Before Wen t o l d , and  i s a refer-  Wang X Wang went out h u n t i n g he had h i s f o r t u n e  the soothsayers answer was:  "What you  c a t c h w i l l not be a dragon, not a deer, not a  t i g e r , and not a bear. a man  de-  attitude.  F e l - p ' i l i t e r a l l y means 'not a bear' and  will  Ti  What you w i l l  catch w i l l  to a i d you i n becoming a hegemon."  be  106 Wen  Wang s u b s e q u e n t l y  Lfl Shang w h i l e Allusion  on t h e h u n t .  t o a poem by Tu F u :  general the  is/  Fearing  plngjj^  Z  of l i v e s  Chfln i s more p o p u l a r  \^  period  of e.  with  h i s men.  at  that  Ch'UChang  See TF, 87/l6b"/l2.  the extremely  i n w h i c h he was f i g h t i n g  T i %J  difficult  t o r e s t o r e t h e Han  a f t e r Wang Mang's u s u r p a t i o n .  Yang i s com-  t h e Han r e s t o r a t i o n t o t h e hoped f o r r e c o v e r y  the n o r t h from the b a r b a r i a n s . Tuan H u i - t s u n g  managed t o o b t a i n m e r i t  fighting  Goose Gate i n modern S h a n s i ,  Yang i s comparing  Chang Chun  f.  The age o f s t r o n g  s e r v i c e was  g.  A t Yang's t i m e t h e n o r t h e r n Sung was  l o c a t e d roughly  Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n comparing the  will  t h e emperor K u a n g W u  R e f e r e n c e t o a Han g e n e r a l who  I.e.,  1  Yang i s i m p l y i n g  passed d u r i n g  dynasty paring  Ch tl-ping,"  that their general  The name o f a p l a c e where •7\j  their  a s t h e Han g e n e r a l Huo  was.  N  "They a s k who  i t i s Huo  soldiers are afraid  be w a s t e f u l  d.  met h i s f u t u r e m i n i s t e r  the  ^ barbarians  d e s p i t e h i s o l d age.  t o t h e o l d Han  general.  forty.  frontier  of the  on t h e s o u t h e r n  i n e a r l y Chou t i m e s .  limits  weakness.  of  Yang i s  the former s t r e n g t h of the Chinese  present  southern  with  107 A tower b u i l t by the k i n g of the s t a t e of Yen  during  the Warring S t a t e s P e r i o d to a t t r a c t t a l e n t e d  offic-  i a l s to h i s c o u r t .  Yang i s c r i t i c a l of H s i a o Tsung's  s e l e c t i o n of o f f i c i a l s  i n h i s confidence,  who  have  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m i l i t a r y d i s a s t e r . Yang means t h a t s i n c e Hsiao Tsung has not s e l e c t e d worthy o f f i c i a l s , he  yet  should not be worry-  i n g about reconquest of the n o r t h but should the 4  7ss,  4 8  court i n order  first.  5446a.  2 - 1 5 a ; 2-2a; The  put  22.  word chung i s used here i n the sense of ' s u i t a b l e .  When t h i s sentence i s read  together with  the  the poem becomes somewhat p u z z l i n g , f o r t h e r e  title, i s no  h i n t of malfeasance on the p a r t of L i Hsien-chung d u r i n g the campaign, and,  i n f a c t , the SS  him as the only hero of the m i l i t a r y According  debacle.  to the SS account, L l r e f u s e d to d i s t r i b u t e  the booty to h i s o f f i c e r s , thereby among them, and  t h i s i s probably  causing  However, i f  L i had  engaged i n any  unlawful a c t i v i t i e s ,  ficult  to e x p l a i n how  he was  appointed  5446-b.  i t Is d i f -  to a major  m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n soon a f t e r h i s temporary SS,  resentment  what Yang means by  d e s c r i b i n g the g e n e r a l as "covetous."  See  paints  disgrace.  When t h e Han m i l i t a r y the  a r m o r was p i l e d  See  Pan Ku3Ji  Shu  Chu j'^j ^  N i a o,  l e a d e r Li;u P ' e n - t z u  as h i g h as Bear E a r Mountain.  Q  , Han Shu /aj  r e  s h o r t f o r yao n l a o  a famous h o r s e  surrendered,  P r  j j l » Taipei,  vj£ j|, £  i n ancient  times.  K  "  a l M l n  720-d.  i s t h e name o f One o f L i H s i e n -  c h u n g ' s g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m s was t h a t t h e c i v i l ities  d i d n o t g i v e h i m enough money  paign Li  S  author-  t o r u n h i s cam-  effectively.  H s i e n - c h u n g was e x i l e d  t o Ch'ang-sha  j u s t as  t h e Han s c h o l a r C h l a Y i , who was a v i c t i m  of court  intrigues. The  s t o r y o f Chu Ylin Jj^. ^  Confucian  scholars.  minister hold  Chu Ylin c r i t i c i z e d  o f Han Ch'eng T i  of the r a i l i n g  ordered  i s a favorite  ^  i n t h e c o u r t when t h e emperor  h i m t o be d r a g g e d away.  Ylin f o r h i s f o r t h r i g h t  punishing not  him.  When t h e r a i l i n g  criticism  Ch'eng T i o r d e r e d  in  the f u t u r e .  Unfortunately  so  open-minded and r e f u s e d criticisms.  and awarded  instead of  that the r a i l i n g  be r e p a i r e d , so he would n o t i g n o r e  chung' s  the prime and g r a b b e d  b r o k e , t h e emperor awoke t o h i s f a u l t s Chu  with  Hsiao  to l i s t e n  criticism  T s u n g was n o t to L i Hsien-  109 4 9  2-l6b;  2-5b.  The c h i n p i or metal eyescraper was an  instrument  used i n a n c i e n t I n d i a f o r eye o p e r a t i o n s such as removing c a t a r a c t s .  The wind scrapes the eyes of  the moon; i . e . , the wind blows clouds away from the moon's d i s k . A l l u s i o n to the S h i h Shuo H s l n Ytt:  "The sages f o r -  get f e e l i n g s and i n f e r i o r men are not up to f e e l i n g s . P e e l i n g s concentrate  i n people  S h i h Shuo Bis i n Yfl j£  |fe i kf\  A l l u s i o n t o a poem by Han Yfcl: eight feet, needlessly long/ two f e e t ; convenient Han Yfi M  ^  like  us."  See SPTK,  , 104-b. "The l o n g lamp i s The s h o r t lamp i s  and b r i g h t . "  , Chu Wen Kung Chlao  See SPTK, Ch'ang L i Hsien 4i -5  5-59b.  The s h o r t lamp i n Han Yfl's poem i s one used  by a poor s c h o l a r before he o b t a i n s a h i g h  5°Por an account  position.  of Hang-chou s h o r t l y a f t e r Yang's  time w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n problem, see Jacques Gernet D a l l y L i f e i n China  on the Eve  of the Mongol I n v a s i o n . New York, 1962, 22-58.  5 2-I8b; 2-6a. 1  52  2 - 1 9 b ; 2-6b. The f i v e pecks of r i c e i s Yang's o f f i c i a l s a l a r y * a r e f e r e n c e t o T"ao Ch'ien's r e f u s a l t o compromise h i m s e l f f o r such a p a l t r y  amount.  1 10 532-21a; 2-8b. 5-  ^2-23b; 2-11a.  55  2 - 2 3 a ; 2-1 Ob.  56  4-35»; 4-1b  57  4 - 3 8 b ; 4-5a; 49.  ai  The s h o r t lamp I s one used by a s c h o l a r who has not obtained h i g h  b.  position.  A l l u s i o n to P e n g H s U a n ^ P e r i o d who served  x  fj^  of the Warring S t a t e s  under Meng Ch'ang Chfln^_  of the s t a t e of C h ' l .  When he f i r s t  ^  became a r e -  t a i n e r o f the p r i n c e , he was not h i g h l y valued and played h i s l o n g sword s i n g i n g that he wished to r e t u r n home because he had no f i s h i n h i s f o o d . See Ssu-ma Ch'ien  £] \  K a i Ming Shu ChU, T a i p e i , c.  , Shih Chi ^  ,  198-c.  Reference to Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju's "Tzu-hsu. Fu"  %U  famous-poem the  or "Prose-poem of Master F i c t i o n . "  The work i s n a r r a t e d by a f a n c i f u l c h a r a c t e r Master F i c t i o n and d e s c r i b e s the wonders of the I m p e r i a l h u n t i n g parks  i n extravagant  language.  Yang  suggests  t h a t only such u n r e a l i s t i c w r i t i n g i s a p p r e c i a t e d by the present  58 _3 . _ 4  9a  4  government.  6 a #  59  4 - 3 9 b ; 4-6b.  6o  4 - 4 3 b ; 4-10a.  111 6  l  5 - 4 6 a ;  5-2b;  53.  SPPY h a s  'auspicious  •ancient expressions'  expressions'  o f t h e SPTK.  Since  v e r s i o n makes more s e n s e i n t h e c o n t e x t worcls ^  £e  a r e repeated  SPTK t e x t i s p r o b a b l y in a.  We f i n d  of  a reference  the f i r s t  and  corrupted  due t o s i m i l a r i t y  to a similar  full  moon, p e o p l e  put paper l o t s  See  custom i n t h e  " i n the c a p i t a l  or strips  on t h e n i g h t  make f l o u r  cocoons  o f wood w i t h  official  the pastry.  c h o o s e them and u s e them t o t e l l  their  People  fortunes."  YWLHC, p . 5 3 .  San-ch'ti o r Three T h o r o u g h f a r e s i s Ch'li-chou i n modern C h e k i a n g  The e x a c t  province.  significance  o f t h e word  c l e a r and t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s a  d.  and t h e  i n the eighth l i n e , the  p o s i t i o n s w r i t t e n on them i n t o  c.  t h e SPPY  shape o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r s .  T ' l e n Pao Y i S h i h :  b.  f or ^ | ^  "brush  ts'ung  explanations  i s not a s t o what  shrine" i s .  Name o f a p a l a c e  o f t h e Han d y n a s t y ,  which a t the  t i m e o f t h e emperor Ch'eng T i was used a s a l e c t u r e hall. to e.  Yang means t h a t he d o e s n ' t h a v e any a m b i t i o n s  pursue a l i t e r a r y  A hunting located  career i n the court.  p a r k o f t h e Han emperor Wu T i , w h i c h was  west o f t h e c a p i t a l  Ch'ang-an.  The p a r k was  1 12 the  s u b j e c t o f a famous p o e t i c a l work by t h e Han  c o u r t poet  Ssu-ma  62  5 - 5 0 b ; 5-7a.  65  6 - 5 5 b ; 6-5b; 57-  a.  Hsiang-ju.  West M o u n t a i n o r H s i Shan i s i n t h e w e s t o f H s i n - c h i e n C o u n t y j t t l  b.  of Kiangsi province.  Yang i s s a y i n g t h a t he i s o n l y  concerned  p a p e r work o f a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l . times  official  with the  In ancient  documents were w r i t t e n o u t w i t h  b l a c k and r e d i n k .  c.  I n o t h e r w o r d s , Y a n g i s so o c c u p i e d duties  t h a t he c a n n o t  write lines  Wang P o ' s " I n t h e e v e n i n g , rolled  pearl  by  a s famous a s curtains are  up i n t h e West M o u n t a i n r a i n . " >f#  Wang Po  official  , Wang T z u A n C h i J  See SPTK, J ^  ^  ,  2-31b. d.  In t h i s  line  t h e word  'how', w h i c h i s Sung  6 4  The  65  6 - 5 6 a ; 6-6a.  6 6  6  are  treatise  appears  t u d o e s n o t mean ' a l o n e ' b u t colloquial.  i n CCC, 87-724-774.  C C C , 89-763.  ^The  pao-chla  s y s t e m and o t h e r r e f o r m s  o f Wang  t r e a t e d i n James L i u , R e f o r m i n Sung C h i n a ,  Press,  C a m b r i d g e , Mass.,  1959.  An-shih  Harvard  U.  DO  a.  C C C , 88-75 A  S h i h Ching-t'ang was  the founder of the L a t t e r Chin  dynasty of the F i v e D y n a s t i e s P e r i o d . the  S h i h set up  M i l i t a r y P a c i f i c a t i o n Army i n 943.  Shlh-chln  l i t e r a l l y means the 'Chin dynasty of S h i h . ' tf.  Because of peasant u n r e s t , the name of the army  was  changed to Army of Heavenly Majesty the f o l l o w i n g year.  One y e a r l a t e r the Chin dynasty was destroyed  by the K h l t a n .  a.  69  C C C , 89-770.  7 0  Ibid.,  .  89-771.  The L i n B a n d i t s were peasant r e b e l s who 1165  i n Hunan p r o v i n c e .  which was  revolted i n  The equal g r a i n purchase,  one of the main causes of d i s c o n t e n t ,  a government program which was  supposed  to buy  from the peasants to feed m i l i t a r y and c i v i l sonnel.  was grain  per-  F r e q u e n t l y l o c a l o f f i c i a l s d i d not pay  the  peasants f o r the g r a i n but pocketed the government's money. b.  The equal buying was  s i m i l a r to the equal g r a i n pur-  chase but i t e n t a i l e d o f f i c i a l purchase of s i l k Instead of g r a i n . c.  T h i s was a s i l k tax supposedly l e v i e d for  soldiers stationed  River region.  to buy  uniforms  on the f r o n t l i n e s i n the Huai  11 d.  The p e a s a n t s together,  had t o pay f o u r k i n d s  (1)  the standard (3)  purchase tax, (4)  t h e new s i l k  neighboring  land  of taxes a l -  tax,  the Huai uniform tax levied  commandery.  over-simplification,  (2)  the equal  t a x , and  f o r t h e sake o f t h e  T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , an  b e c a u s e many o t h e r  t a x e s were  levied.  S S , 5585-b.  7 1  7 2  7 5  74  6 - 6 l a ; 7-4a. S e e CCC, 7-65a. 7 - 6 6 a ; 7-8b; 63. I n t h e p r e f a c e SPPY  a.  has-ib  The name o f Y a n g ' s s t u d y Tsung-ylian's snow."  line:  f or  o f SPTK.  i s a reference to L i u  "I fish  alone  In the cold  See SPTK, L i u T s u n g - y u a n ^ ?  , Chu —  Shih Y i n Pien  T'ang L i u H s i e n  \  X J I ^  The b.  pi  Literally,  Sheng C h i |£_  ) \1P  M  i s to catch  nothing.  "dream s o u l . "  75  7 - 7 2 b ; 8-6b.  76  7 - 6 9 b ; 8-3b. f o r SPPY's  F o r g e t t i n g words was a n i d e a l Ch'an B u d d h i s t s . not  ^  45-218a.  object of the f i s h i n g  SPTK h a s @ £ j a.  river'  . of both  I f o l l o w SPPY. T a o i s t s and  Ch'an was t h e d o c t r i n e w h i c h d o e s  " s e t up words ^  *^  ."  115 One of the b a s i c t e n e t s of the Ch'an Buddhists i s that enlightenment i s n o t h i n g s p e c i a l or s e c r e t . See  p. 152.  7 - 7 0 a ; 8-4b; 65.  77  The word chlang i s used i n the r a t h e r unusual sense of  'together with' or 'accompany.'  78  8-75h; 9-la.  79  CCC,  80-672.  Idem 9-6a.  8l  8-80b;  82  9-88b; 10-6a. of  85  SPTK i s an obvious m i s p r i n t f o r ^  11-106b; 12-6b;  95-  The emperor's kindness i s Yang Wan-li's  official  s a l a r y , which was considered a p r i v i l e g e by  of SPPY.  conferred  the emperor.  For  ch'ang c h l see T'ao Ch'ien's poem " D r i n k i n g Wine":  "Formerly I  s u f f e r e d from always s t a r v i n g /  So  I  threw away my plow and l e a r n e d t o be an o f f i c i a l . " SPTK, T'ao C h ' i e n f l j  See  Ming c w ^  5i  fij m ^ ^  , Chien Chu T'ao Yuan  •- 5  34a  T h i s l i n e seems to r e f e r to the famous T'ang ch'uan ch'i of  story Chen Chung Chl j ^ j  |£y , which t e l l s  a poor man named Lu Sheng who met a T a o i s t magician  116 In an Inn w h i l e t r a v e l i n g .  The T a o i s t gave Lu Sheng  a p i l l o w , which he claimed would grant a l l wishes to the p o s s e s s e r .  A t t h a t moment the magician was  cooking g r a i n f o r d i n n e r , and Lu Sheng f e l l on the p i l l o w . married his  asleep  Lu Sheng dreamed t h a t he was  to a b e a u t i f u l wife and a f t e r o b t a i n i n g  c h i n - s h i h degree, he e v e n t u a l l y became prime  m i n i s t e r , d y i n g a t the age of e i g h t y with many prosperous o f f s p r i n g . inn  When he awake, he eraw t h a t the  hadn't changed and t h a t the g r a i n had not  cooked y e t , but even so, Lu Sheng r e f u s e d to believe  e v e r y t h i n g had been a dream.  the s t o r y was the ephemeral nature and the f o l l y  8 4  of human l i f e  of seeking h i g h p o s i t i o n and r i c h e s .  T h e s t o r y of V i m a l a k l r t i i s contained  k l r t i - n l r d e s a - s u t r a or ^ It  The p o i n t of  Jjf it. ^\  tfa &  i n the VlmalaIn Chinese.  i s t r a n s l a t e d w i t h copious a n n o t a t i o n s i n E . Lamotte,  L'enselgnement de V i m a l a k l r t i . Louvain, 1962.  a.  85  1 1 - 1 0 3 b ; 12-3b.  86  C C C , 80-672.  8 7  15-1 1a;  l6-5a.  8 8  15-1 1b;  l6-5b.  A  A  The p a r t r i d g e adds to the melancholy of the t r a v e l e r , because i t i s supposed to cry - / j ^ 'you can't go on.'  -^g itJ o r  117  89 _ 43b; 15  1  SPTK has a.  l6-7a. T  f o r SPPY's 3  ^)  In the f i r s t  line.  The green robe i s the c o l o r of the unripe l i c h e e .  b.  the  first  the  second l i n e the e n t i r e f r u i t  In  l i n e only p a r t of the l i c h e e i s r i p e , but i n i s ripe.  The l i c h e e seems to have a c o o l i n g e f f e c t when one eats i t i n a t r o p i c a l  90  HTCTC, 3945.  91  16-I50a;  a.  climate.  1 8-1 b.  A bamboo branch song i s a form of f o l k song ^popular i n Szechwan which was l a t e r u t i l i z e d  first by upper  c l a s s poets to d e s c r i b e r u r a l s c e n e s , a f t e r L i u Y l i - h s i composed  imitations.  92  16-I53a;  l8-4b.  95  1 7 - 1 5 8 a ; 19-4a. SPTK has  f o r <fj  of SPPY i n the t h i r d  line.  SPPY seems to make b e t t e r sense here. 94  1 7 - 1 5 8 a ; 19-4b.  a.  The Pukien b a n d i t s a r e Shen Shih's t r o o p s .  b.  The Spear Comet's appearance was supposedly a s i g n of revolt.  95  a.  C C C , 62-500b. During the middle of the f i r s t  century B. C. there  were f i v e r i v a l shan-yu or c h i e f s f i g h t i n g f o r the  118 Hsiung-nu l e a d e r s h i p .  The E a s t e r n Hu were a s e r i o u s  menace to the Hsiung-nu a t the beginning of t h e i r p e r i a l p e r i o d and  a l s o a t v a r i o u s l a t e r times.  Jou-jan were a group of nomadic t r i b e s who difficulties  to the n o r t h e r n Wei.  im-  The  gave g r e a t  Yang i s r e f e r r i n g  to the r e c u r r i n g border problems of the Chin T a r t a r s , who b.  now  had  to fend o f f the r i s i n g power of the Mongols.  P i e n - c h i n g i s the name of the n o r t h e r n Sung c a p i t a l and  southern  c a p i t a l of the subsequent Chin, modern  day  K'al-feng.  Hai-chou i s the area around the L i a o  E l v e r b a s i n i n modern L i a o - n i n g .  9 6  S S , 5595-a.  97;  9 8  C h u H s i ' s biography  i n chuan 429  neo-Confucian t a i n e d i n CCC,  i n t e r e s t s , but h i s most  work i s h i s Yung Yen  SS.  chuan 91-94.  1 9 - l 8 3 a ; 21-10a; In the second  with  important  or T a l k of the Mean, con-  U n l i k e Chu H s i , Yang's poetry  or no s p e c i f i c a l l y neo-Confucian  9 9  of  Y a n g wrote a commentary on the I Chlng i n l i n e  n o r t h e r n Sung neo-Confucian  little  i s found  has  content.  131.  l i n e SPPY has  of the SPTK, and  i n the  fif-  I have f o l l o w e d the SPTK readings i n a l l these a.  cases.  The Duke the emperor Hui Tsung i n t o c a p t i v i t y and  who later  followed escaped  119 back t o the southern attack  Sung t o e n c o u r a g e Kao T s u n g t o  t h e C h i n T a r t a r s and r e s c u e H u i T s u n g .  the p a c i f i s t i c  sentiment  i n the c o u r t , Ts'ao's  was i g n o r e d and he was demoted. managed ceased  advice  L a t e r when C h ' i n  t o b r i b e the Chin  H u i Tsung's c o f f i n  Due t o  t o send  Kuei  the de-  b a c k t o t h e Sung, T s ' a o Hslin  was a p p o i n t e d  ambassador t o C h i n t o r e c e i v e t h e c o f f i n  and  back t h e s t i l l  accompany  living  T s ' a o Chung-pen i s a n o b s c u r e surely is  a descendant  Hsien-jen  o f Kao T s u n g .  Individual,  o f T s ' a o Hstln.  T'ai-hou  wife  the wife  of H u i Tsung. b u t he was  The "Grand  Empress"  o f H u i T s u n g and m o t h e r  Note t h a t t h e events  poem o c c u r r e d f o r t y - t h r e e y e a r s  described i n the  before  t h e poem i t -  s e l f was w r i t t e n .  The  "Palace  o f V i r t u e and L o n g e v i t y " was Kao T s u n g ' s  r e s i d e n c e a f t e r he a b d i c a t e d The  "Great  Sovereign"  The  Mother o f J a s p e r P o o l  but a c t u a l l y  i n f a v o r of Hsiao  i s the r e t i r e d  Tsung.  emperor Kao T s u n g .  i s t h e m y t h i c a l H s i Wang Mu,  Yang means t h e r e t u r n i n g empress o f H u i  Tsung.  Reference  t o t h e empress' r e t u r n f r o m  cold  of the b a r b a r i a n  This  i s an a l l u s i o n  t h e Han d y n a s t y carried  Chin.  to the story  who was c a p t u r e d  o f f beyond  the northern  o f Su Wu,  a poet of  by t h e H s i u n g - n u and  the northern f r o n t i e r .  When Han  120 Chao T i asked f o r Su Wu  to be sent back, the Hsiung-nu  c h i e f t a i n refused to acknowledge the poet was alive.  L a t e r a Chinese ambassador t r i c k e d  still  the Hsiung-  nu c h i e f t a i n by s a y i n g that when the emperor was ing  i n the i m p e r i a l park, he shot a w i l d goo&e w i t h a  note from Su Wu  s t a t i n g he was  s t i l l alive.  nu were then f o r c e d to r e t u r n him. p r e s s had t r i e d was g.  hunt-  The Hsiung-  Obviously the  to get through to her son Kao  em-  Tsung but  unsuccessful.  A l l u s i o n to Tu Pu's poem "Presented to Ts'ao  Pa":  " G e n e r a l , you are a descendant of the M a r t i a l Emperor of  Wei."  See TP, 121/12/24.  Although he had the same  surname, Ts'ao Hsun was not a descendant of the r e nowned Ts'ao Ts'ao of the Three Kingdoms. merely comparing h.  their valor.  The Red Pine Immortal was had a t t a i n e d  Yang i s  a mythological figure  Immortality by T a o i s t yoga and  who  alchemy.  Ts'ao Hsfln i s o b v i o u s l y t h i n k i n g of r e t i r i n g to the hills. 1.  Waxing of boots i s an a l l u s i o n to the biography of Juan Pu |7/J ^. nature.  i n the Chin Shu:  Someone went to v i s i t Pu and saw him j u s t as  he was waxing h i s s a n d a l s . know how  "Pu loved sandals by  Pu sighed s a y i n g ,  'I don't  many sandals I can wear i n one l i f e . ' "  retirement.  See  121 j.  The  great p a t r i o t i c g e n e r a l of the southern  Yiieh P e l , was K u e i , who i f he  Sung,  murdered by the prime m i n i s t e r Ch'in  f e a r e d that Ytieh would become too  succeeded i n t a k i n g back the n o r t h e r n  l o s t to the Chin T a r t a r s .  powerful territory  Yang i s a d v i s i n g Ts'ao Hslin  to remove h i m s e l f from p o l i t i c s before he becomes powerful k.  enough to arouse the envy of a Ch'in  A l l u s i o n to Tu Pu's  s a t i r e on another  m i n i s t e r of T'ang times:  "Be  Kuei.  e v i l prime  c a r e f u l not to get  too  c l o s e i n f r o n t , because the prime m i n i s t e r i s g l a r i n g . " See  TP 26/4/26.  1 0 0  CCC,  1 0 1  SS,  62-505a. 5595-b.  102 , idem. T  1 0 5  I 0 4  m  Y u Mou's biography  1 9 - I 8 3 b ; 21-10b; SPPY has  i s i n SS,  389-  135-  for  more l i v e l y  chttan  of SPTK.  i s considerably  i n i t s meaning, so I have accepted  the proper r e a d i n g .  t h i s as  In the f o u r t h l i n e , SPPY.has  I n p l a c e of SPTK's a.  The  t i t l e of the poem r e f e r s to the f r e q u e n t  the two  characters ^  kuan i s Lu b.  and  i n the poem.  use of Lu  Wu-  Yu.  Yang Tzu-yffn or Master-cloud t h i n k e r Yang Hslung.  Yang i s the Han  Confucian  Inky P o o l i s a p l a c e where the  famed c a l l i g r a p h e r Wang H s i - c h i h was  supposed to have  122 practiced  h i swriting.  However, t h e r e seems t o be no  c o n n e c t i o n between Yang H s i u n g Yfln-chien o r I n the Clouds County lung  or Scholar-dragon  Yang Hsiung  Lu, the Chin dynasty  t h e poem Yang W a n - l i  anachronism  o f Sung  thousand  armored  the R i v e r .  be and K'ai  that  bore f r u i t  only  t h e r e was once i n  years. o f t h e n o r t h e r n Wei emperor  "Yli-wen T ' a i s e n t t h e g r e a t m e t r o p o l i s  Chao K u e l and L i a n g Y d w i t h two cavalry  t o h i m and c a r r i e d  He s a i d  t o L i a n g Yfl:  e a s t , b u t I am g o i n g  turn  T h i s i s a common  poets.  to the annals  commandants  the  t h e name o f t h e c a p i t a l  Ch'ang-an.  peach t r e e  H s i a o Wu T i :  of  uses  t o t h e H s i Wang Mu, i n whose r e a l m  a miraculous  Allusion  corresponds to  t h e c a p i t a l was a t Hang-chou d u r i n g t h e  t h e T'ang d y n a s t y ,  Allusion  poet Lu  respectively.  s o u t h e r n Sung, Yang s t i l l  three  Sung-chiang  a n d L u Y u t o L u Ylin b e c a u s e o f t h e i d e n t i t y  t h e surnames,  Although  of  i s i n modern  Pool.  o f K i a n s u p r o v i n c e and was t h e home o f L u S h i h  In  of  and Inky  t o my a n c e s t r a l  because o f your  up w e s t .  temples  merit.'  h i s v a s s a l s streamed  t h e emperor  over  'This water flows t o I f I can ever r e -  i n Lo-yang a g a i n , i t w i l l The t e a r s o f t h e emperor  down.it  M i n g Shu ChU, 2 7 5 8 a .  thousand  123 g. .. The s e a l i s one of an o f f i c i a l  i n government.  A big  s e a l i s the s i g n of h i g h o f f i c e . h.  Reference to the biography of L i Ho i n the T'ang  Shu:  "Every day a t dawn he went out r i d i n g a weak horse, f o l l o w e d by a s m a l l female s l a v e w i t h an o l d brocade sack on her back.  When he thought of a poem, he  wrote I t down and tossed i t i n t o the sack.  As  as he went home, i n the evening, he completed  soon the poem."  , K ' a i Ming Shu Chfl, 4104-d. his  Lu Yu was  noted f o r the immense q u a n t i t y of  p o e t r y , and he l e f t more poetry than any  other  poet of the Sung dynasty. 1.  , a prime  A l l u s i o n to Kung-sun Hung  ^  i s t e r of the Han dynasty.  During h i s age,  custom to choose  min-  i t was  the  the prime m i n i s t e r only from the  n o b i l i t y , but Kung-sun Hung had no noble t i t l e when he was  s e l e c t e d f o r the p o s t , so he was  e n f e o f f e d as P ' i n g - c h l n Hou j.  k.  or Marquis  Immediately of L e v e l F o r d .  A c c o r d i n g to Kung-sun Bung's biography i n the Han "He  b u i l t an e a s t e r n p a v i l i o n to a t t r a c t worthy  Han  Shu. K ' a i Ming Shu Chfl, 504-c.  Shu: men."  From the biography of Huai-nan Wang i n the S h i h Chih. Wu  Tzu-hsu* remonstrated w i t h Fu-ch'a,  s t a t e Wu, so Wu  but Fu-ch'a  Tzu-hsfl s a i d :  the k i n g of the  would not l i s t e n to h i s a d v i c e "Today I see deer wandering  the t e r r a c e s of Ku-su."  on  He meant t h a t i f the k i n g  124 d i d not f o l l o w h i s a d v i c e , the s t a t e would be overthrown and deer would wander about the c a p i t a l c i t y Ku-su. 1.  See Shih C h l , K ' a i Ming Shu Chfl, 260-cd'.  Mount Lu i s one of the foremost holy mountains of China and l i e s  m.  Pu-sang was  i n northern Kiangsi province.  the t r e e from which the sun r i s e s ,  a c c o r d i n g to p o p u l a r Chinese mythology. n.  Allusion  to L i Po's l i n e s :  of white s i l k /  "His h a n d w r i t i n g on a f o o t  Looks as i f . the sky had dropped i t s  c l o u d brocade."  See Hanabasu  Hidekl  Hi Hyaku K a s h l Sakuin ( a b b r e v i a t e d LP)-^rl!) | A 1% i|  J |  , Kyoto, 1957, 632.04.  o.  Located a t Hang-rchou' s West Lake.  p.  The Shang-ssu F e s t i v a l was the  This l i n e i s a d i r e c t  r.  An a l l u s i o n  quote from L i Po.  to L i Po's poem:  i t s e l f , nobody  a.  j  ssu  day i n  t h i r d l u n a r month.  q.  1 0 5  the f i r s t  pushed i t ! "  See LP,  815.02.  "Jade Mountain f e l l  by  See LP, 207.28.  2 4 - 2 2 9 b ; 27-3a. Lacquer Garden i s the p l a c e where Chuangtze became an official. was  Chuangtze s t a t e s t h a t once he dreamed he  a butterfly  d e c i d e i f he was  but af tier he awakened he could not Chuangtze dreaming he was a  butterfly  125  or a b u t t e r f l y dreaming Nan Hua Chen Chlng ^ b.  he was Chuangtze.  -^rj|  See SPTK,  » l-26ab.  Great Locust Palace I s a r e f e r e n c e to the T'ang s t o r y Nan K o T''al Shou Chuan 1  jjfj jjfy A ^ ^  a c e r t a i n Ch'un-yu Fen>.|- ^ ^  slept  i n  w h l c n  under a l o c u s t  t r e e and dreamed he entered the t r e e , which was a c t u a l l y a huge p a l a c e .  Both a l l u s i o n s h e i g h t e n the sense of the  dream-like nature of the phenomenal w o r l d .  1° 25-236b; 27-lOa. 6  a.  Chl-wen or Lucky P a t t e r n i s another name f o r the Kan R i v e r of K i a n g s i .  b. 107  The two Immortals  a r e probably Tu Mou and Lu Tu.  25-237b; 27-lla.  a.  By f o r g e t t i n g the h e a r t o r mind r a d i c a l of the Chinese c h a r a c t e r f o r sadness, Tang has a t t a i n e d  the Ch'an  s t a t e of mindlessness o r wu-hsln. 1 0 8  S e e SS, 54Q1 f o r a f u l l  109 7-255a; 2  a.  account.  29-4a; 170.  The ordinary name i n Chinese f o r the Tangtze R i v e r is  Ch'ang Chiang and only the s e c t i o n near Tang-chou  i s known as the Tangtze. b.  A l l u s i o n t o the biography of K ung Fan J/j 1  the Nan S h i h :  in  "When the S u i army was about t o f o r d  the Tangtze, a l l the o f f i c i a l s  [ o f Ch'en] r e q u e s t e d  to make defense p r e p a r a t i o n s , but Fan sent up a memorial  saying:  'The Tangtze R i v e r i s t h e moat o f  heaven and has been a boundary  l i n e since  antiquity.  126 How  w i l l the b a r b a r i a n army be a b l e to f l y a c r o s s ? " 1  , K ' a i Ming Shu Subsequently, the Ch'en dynasty S u i armies.  was  Chu,  2729-b.  destroyed  by  the  In Yang's time the Sung government s i m i -  l a r l y depended on the Yangtze R i v e r as a n a t u r a l defense c.  line.  Yao-han i s the famous Han-ku Pass i n modern Honan p r o v i n c e , which f o r m e r l y was  an Important pass pro-  t e c t i n g the c e n t r a l r e g i o n i n Han A very  and  T'ang  times.  s m a l l f o r c e i n c o n t r o l of the pass could hold  o f f a l a r g e army and  p o s s e s s i o n of the pass was  d e c i s i v e i n determining  often  the outcome of p o l i t i c a l  s t r u g g l e s i n Chinese h i s t o r y . d.  A s t r a t e g i c mountain l o c a t e d i n the Yangtze R i v e r west of Chenkiang i n modern Kiangsu p r o v i n c e .  e.  In other words, the enemy armies of the Chin T a r t a r s are  f.  On  j u s t a c r o s s the  the s u r f a c e the l a s t two  thanking  l i n e s seem to be merely  the r i v e r god f o r making the weather good so  t h a t the poet if  river.  the poet  can c r o s s e a s i l y , but I t i s obvious  can c r o s s so e a s i l y  i n good weather, the  enemy can c r o s s j u s t as e a s i l y and empire.  that  a t t a c k the Sung  127'  °27-255b; 29- a; 172. A  Kua-chou or Melon I s l a n d i s to the southwest of Yang-chou i n Kiangsu p r o v i n c e and was a s t r a t e g i c p o i n t i n the southern Sung dynasty. Pi-li  i s another name f o r the n o r t h e r n Wei emperor  T ' a i Wu of  T i , who attempted  to d e f e a t the Sung dynasty  the North-south P e r i o d .  He a t t a c k e d as f a r south  as Kua-chou and then was defeated by the g e n e r a l Shen P'u~jkS-*JA - l i a n g i s the Chin emperor P e l T i , who l e d an exp e d i t i o n a g a i n s t the southern Sung i n 1161.  Upon  a t t e m p t i n g to c r o s s the Yangtze R i v e r a t T s ' a i - s h l h , he was defeated by the Sung navy and a s s a s s i n a t e d by his  own troops i n a m i l i t a r y  Yang's f o o t n o t e t o the poem:  coup.  A c c o r d i n g to  " I n the h s l n - s s u y e a r  (1161), Wan-yen L i a n g [ P e l T i ] came south r a i d i n g and b u i l t a tower f a c i n g the r i v e r .  He was a s s a s s i n a t e d  i n i t a c c o r d i n g to the l o c a l people."  !  27-255b; 29-4a; 173. SPPY has ^ obvious  for  of SPTK i n the f o u r t h l i n e , an  error.  In Sung times a b r i d g e was b u i l t on Yangtze Ford south of modern Yang-chou.  F o r obvious reasons the b r i d g e  was an important p o i n t i n the Chinese defences.  128 b;.,  In early not  Chou t i m e s  extend  south  Sung d y n a s t y of  the area  was s o u t h  The s o u t h e r n  s y s t e m whereby  to t h e i r  as a d i f f e r e n t  "domains" s u r r o u n d e d rings.  the country distance  Each i n c r e a s e i n d i s t a n c e of f i v e  h u n d r e d 11 was t a k e n  tric  territory  domain o r f u i s a  regions according  from the c a p i t a l .  these  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  t o an a n c i e n t  was d i v i d e d i n t o  culture did  o f t h e H u a i R i v e r , so t h e s o u t h e r n  t h e Chou k i n g s .  reference  of Chinese  d i v i s i o n , so  the c a p i t a l  like  A l t o g e t h e r t h e r e were n i n e  domains, the n i n t h r e a c h i n g  the l i m i t  concen-  of these,  of Chinese  civilization. c.  Wang Tao and H s i e h Hsllaii were the  eastern Chin dynasty  North-south  Period.  two famous g e n e r a l s o f  a t the beginning  of the  H s i e h Hsuan i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e -  nowned a s t h e commander o f t h e C h i n a r m i e s a t t h e battle  o f F e i - s h u i where he d e f e a t e d  b a r b a r i a n k i n g Fu Chien, conquest.  s a v i n g China  Yang i m p l i e s t h a t a l t h o u g h  a.  from  barbarian  everyone  looks  down upon t h e e a s t e r n  C h i n a s a p e r i o d o f weakness,  at  had two famous g e n e r a l s  least  that dynasty  Wang Tao and H s i e h H s l i a n .  112  the northern  badly  governed  kills  the great generals  The Sung d y n a s t y  such as  i s so  i t cannot produce g r e a t g e n e r a l s but i t has such  a s Yueh P e l .  27-257a; 29-5b; 175T h i s l a k e i s i n t h e west o f K i a n g s u  province.  129 b.  Yang i s unhappy because he i s on the border between the Chin and Sung.  c.  Sang-kan i s the name of a r i v e r which r i s e s i n Shansi, passes to the southwest of Peking, and then e n t e r s the sea near T i e n t s i n .  A t the time the area was occupied  by the Chin f o r c e s , but f o r m e r l y i t had been on the northern f r o n t i e r .  1 1 3  1 1  Idem.  ^ ' A l l f o u r of the men mentioned were famous g e n e r a l s a t a  the beginning of the southern Sung and were g r e a t l y f e a r e d by the Chin. k'Both Chao Teng and Chang Chun became prime m i n i s t e r s i n 1135 d u r i n g the r e i g n of Kao Tsung, but they were removed from t h e i r h i g h p o s i t i o n s a f t e r Ch'in Kuel came to power.  5  28-26lb;  30-1b; 178. for  a.  Chiao Shan or Scorched  i n the t i t l e . Mountain l i e s to the n o r t h -  east of modern Chenkiang i n Kiangsu p r o v i n c e w h i l e Chin Shan or Metal Mountain i s opposite to the n o r t h west of Chenkiang. b.  There a r e many d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of what the three r i v e r s and f i v e l a k e s r e f e r t o , but here Yang means all  of the sources of the Yangtze's water.  130 The  nine lands are  This l i n e to  the  and  the nine l e v e l s  t h e one  s i g h t s and  Monastery  o r C h i n Shan S s u , worship  A  cup  jade-boat  necessarily  be  is  very  merely  made o f  two  and  jade.  and  Floating  Intended  period  f o r him.  J a d e i s an  both.  was  wine i n the  murdered  by  was  end  the  h i s own  defeated  crossing.  satires,  important  Sung, and  by  In the  and  we  watered  and  presence  of  "ashamed"  of  ambassador  should  f o r the border  to  this  look f o r a Metal  Mountain  defense  C h i n emperor F e i T i had  troops near  the mountain  of  the  been  after  t h e Sung n a v y w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g J u n g C h a i S u l P i we  of the Shao-hsing  horses  more  must k e e p i n mind  message i n t h i s work.  southern  he  However, we  poem w h i l e he was  are p o l i t i c a l  extremely  and i t  The  b e c a u s e many o f h i s poems o f  deeper p o l i t i c a l  not  beauties of Metal Mountain,  d o e s n o t d r i n k any  C h i n , and  would  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s t h a t Yang i s  t h a t Yang wrote t h i s the  centers  times.  possible interpretations,  of these  "sad"  Mountain  of the major  the mountain, the mountain should f e e l him  refer  Mountain.  d e s c r i b i n g the  s i n c e he  one  i n Sung  p o s s i b l e the poet  superficial  i t most l i k e l y  I s a l a r g e w i n e cup  name f o r M e t a l  T h i s poem has  underworld.  s o u n d s o f t h e famed M e t a l  of Buddhist  old  proceding  of the  read:  p e r i o d , [ F e i T i ] herded  them a t t h e R i v e r .  "At  a the  his  L a t e r , when  131 he d i e d of h i m s e l f [ i . e . , a t the hands of h i s t r o o p s ] , i t was  decreed  own  that Ma-tang, T s ' a i - s h i h ,  and Metal Mountain should be i n v e s t e d as the three water strongholds  ...  At the time when Wan-yen  L i a n g occupied the Huai R i v e r , . . . p r a y e r s were s a i d to the Great R i v e r that i f i t d i d not l e t the b a r b a r i a n s get a c r o s s , a memorial would be sent to Invest i t as a T i ['god']." Jung Chal S u l £ijj|. ^  See Hung  ^  T a i p e i , 1955* v o l . 1, p. 93.  up  Maif^i^  » Commercial P r e s s , Thus, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y  that Yang i s making f u n of the i m p e r i a l c o u r t ' s impotence i n the f a c e of the enemy and  the s t u p i d i t y  of  r e l y i n g on the " s p i r i t u a l power" of the Yangtze R i v e r and Metal Mountain to r e s i s t the Chin T a r t a r s .  The  danger to the n a t i o n would be even a g r e a t e r reason f o r M e t a l Mountain to be "ashamed" and  l t 6  -4f  C h a n g Tuan-yljjk. ^ i n Ts' ung Shu  Chl Ch eng 1  » Kuei E r h Chi "If ^  c i a l P r e s s , Shanghai, 1937,  cussed and  1 1 7  C C C , 81-675b.  1 l 8  S e e HTCTC, p. 4080.  i n Robert  "sad."  ^  ')cjj  J|  , Commer-  45-a.  The problem of i r o n money i s d i s -  H a r t w e l l , "A R e v o l u t i o n i n the Chinese  Coal I n d u s t r i e s During the Northern  A s i a n S t u d i e s , no. 21  ^  (1961-62), pp.  Iron  Sung," The J o u r n a l of  153-162.  132 11  9CCC,  70-596.  120  3 8 - 3 5 8 b ; 39-1 a.  121  H T C T C , 4107-4108.  1 2 2  Ibid.,  4109-4111.  l 2 5  Ibid.,  4125-  1 2 4  Ibld.,  4118  l 2 5  Ibid.,  4131.  t 2 6  S S , 5595-b.  1 ?42-402b; 42-8b; 241. 2  i.  T'ao Yuan-mlng or T'ao Ch'ien and Hsien Llng-ytin were the  two most famous poets of the North-south P e r i o d .  They e s p e c i a l l y appealed to Yang because they were i a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g r e a t I n t e r e s t i n nature i n l a t e r Chinese p o e t r y .  128  12q  38-359b; 39-2b. 4 2 _ 4 0 0 b ; 42-6b.  1304 _4Q . 2  0b  42-6b.  T a i s h o Shlnshu DalzokyS  l 5 1  M  4>\ 7\ $\ &  ( a b b r e v i a t e d Taisho)  l 3 l Mo Chi eh Suo Shuo Chlng gfe. ^  , no. 475, v o l . 14, p. 551-c  r*\  132  "Flowers" r e f e r t o b l u r r e d v i s i o n .  H T C T C , 2214.  I 5 3  lbid.,  4216.  1 5 4  Ibid.,  4241 .  1 5 5  SS,  5595b.  1364 _4 . 42-14a; 243. 2  07d  1 Tk  133 1  ^7A  p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e tomb  1 5 8  HTCTC,  4269.  1 3 9  Ibid.,  4275-  l 4 o  Luo  T a - c h i n g Jjj.  i n P i C h i Ha l a o  A  Ji  i s contained  i n YWLHC.  . Ho L i n Y j  L u ^ ^ ^ .  Shuo Ta Kuan Hsfl P i e n ^  H s i n H s i n g S h u ChiH r e p r .  £frj^.J^  ^  4, p . 5, p . 2294a. l4l  38-360a; 39-2b.  l 4 2  l 4  Ho  L i n Yit L u , chuan 4, p . 5.  3i em. a  f£>/> , Taipei,  2?J$^fo  1962,  chuan  Yang W a n - l i ' s  In vate  our study  life,  Theory  of Poetry  o f Yang W a n - l i ' s  political  we h a v e a l r e a d y  touched  upon t h e e x t r e m e  of  Ch'an B u d d h i s m t o h i s s p i r i t u a l  In  t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f Yang's t h e o r y  shall in  certainly earlier in  and l i t e r a r y  s e e t h a t Ch'an B u d d h i s m p l a y e d  forming  h i s v i e w s on t h e w r i t i n g  Chinese  poets,  development.  of l i t e r a t u r e ,  an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t of poetry.  b u t one e n c o u n t e r s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  much C h i n e s e  v e r s e , because  t o any p a r t i c u l a r  pret  poetry  we  role  B u d d h i s m was  extreme  inspired  difficulties  between B u d d h i s m and p o e t r y i n Chinese  poets  rarely  school of philosophy.  and f r e q u e n t l y i s .  s u c h a n image a s f a l l i n g  A r e we  limited  them-  The g r e a t e s t  c o n f u s i o n a r i s e s when we d e a l w i t h what a p p e a r s nature  importance  one o f t h e m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h  defining  selves  c a r e e r and p r i -  t o be p u r e  justified  to i n t e r -  p l u m f l o w e r s a s a symbol  of the  impermanence o f s a m s a r a , o r a r e we r e a d i n g t o o much i n t o t h e poem when we make s u c h a n a s s e r t i o n ? gives  us a n answer t o s u c h  when p o e t s tical  q u e s t i o n s , and o n l y  composing " p o e t r y  poems I n a f a i r l y  picture poets  started  The C h i n e s e  talks"  poet  rarely  i n Sung  times,  and l i t e r a r y  cri-  l a r g e q u a n t i t y , c a n we g e t a v e r y  of the views of poetry which the p r i n c i p a l  clear  Chinese  held. Although  the founders  s e c t s had l i v e d Buddhism reached  o f t h e v a r i o u s Ch'an  i n t h e T'ang d y n a s t y ,  i n many r e s p e c t s Ch'an  i t s h i g h p o i n t I n Sung t i m e s .  134  Buddhist  One o f o u r  135 most important sources of Ch'an h i s t o r y , The Record  of the  T r a n s m i s s i o n of the Lamp of the Chlng Te Era {Chlng Te Ch'uan  Lu)-<r  Teng  , was compiled about  two most widely used kung-an ^ of the Green C l i f f  respectively.  c o l l e c t i o n s , The Records  ( P i Yen Lu) ^  out a Gate (Wu Men K u a n ) ^ 1228,  ^  1004, whereas the  ^  and the Pass  ; J j'jtj  Even the c o l l e c t e d  With-  , were w r i t t e n i n 1125 and  sayings (yfl-lu)  Sjfc  of the T'ang masters were f r e q u e n t l y r e - e d i t e d by Sung w r i t e r s and  q u i t e o f t e n d i d not r e c e i v e t h e i r f i n a l form u n t i l Sung  times.  Most important of a l l ,  i t was i n Sung times that Ch'an  Buddhism deeply i n f l u e n c e d the i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c of the Chinese educated  c l a s s e s and, thus, served as a s t i m u l u s  to much of what was f i n e s t Su Shih ^  i n Chinese  culture.  (1036-1101), the foremost poet of the  n o r t h e r n Sung dynasty, was s t r o n g l y ideas.  life  i n f l u e n c e d by Buddhist  In a poem presented when sending o f f a Ch'an master,  Su wrote of the i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n between the Buddhist mystic a l experience and the c r e a t i o n of p o e t r y :  If you want to make the words of your poetry miraculous, Don't d e s p i s e emptiness  and t r a n q u i l i t y .  When t r a n q u i l , you can comprehend the m u l t i t u d e of movements; Empty, you r e c e i v e the myriad  realms.  E x p e r i e n c i n g the world, you walk amidst  men;  Contemplating your body, you l i e on a cloudy range. . In s a l t y and sour are mixed a host of p r e f e r e n c e s ,  136 But  i n t h e i r middle  Poetry  and t h e dharma d o n ' t  So I s h o u l d  Su  Shih's  his  there's a great f l a v o r ,  a s k yo'u a b o u t  o b s t r u c t one  these  e m p h a s i s on e m p t i n e s s  words.  (sunyata)  n o t i o n t h a t an u l t i m a t e u n i t y l i e s  the world fically o f my  are d e f i n i t e l y  Ch'an.  another,  1  and t r a n q u i l i t y  behind  and  t h e phenomena o f  i n s p i r a t i o n but not s p e c i -  However, when he ways, "Good poems b u r s t o u t  mouth, who  theory  of Buddhist  everlasting  of poetry  can choose them?"  2  one s u s p e c t s  that h i s  h a s b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Ch'an n o t i o n o f  spontaneity. Nevertheless,  i t was  not u n t i l  the generation  f o l l o w i n g Su S h i h t h a t t h e Ch'an B u d d h i s t closely  linked  definite  was  who  to the p o e t i c c r e a t i v e process.  ( d . 1135) definitely  t h e same a s Ch'an  Studying study Before  seems  was  Su S h i h  showed  t o h a v e b e e n one o f t h e e a r l i e s t  stated that the process  of studying  meditation:  poetry, you should  be l i k e  one s t a r t i n g t o  Ch'an:  y o u a r e e n l i g h t e n e d , y o u must m e d i t a t e  various But  experience  poets  s i g n s o f Ch'an i n f l u e n c e , b u t one o f h i s p u p i l s Han  C h l i J ^ j poets  of  on  methods.  one day when y o u a r e e n l i g h t e n e d  to the true  dharma e y e , Then t r u s t i n g y o u r h a n d , y o u draw i t o u t and a l l t h e stanzas  a r e ready-made.  5  poetry  137 F u r t h e r , he i s supposed to have s a i d :  "The  Way  of poetry i s  l i k e the Buddha dharma, f o r i t ought to be separated i n t o great and  s m a l l v e h i c l e s and a heterodox,  the knowing can speak of t h i s . " Buddhist  4  demon e x t e r n a l path.  Only  In connection w i t h Han  Chu's  c o n c e p t i o n of p o e t r y , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t  Su S h i h c o n s i d e r e d him to be c l o s e i n s t y l e to the T'ang poet Oh'u  Kuang-hsl"^||j  %J  4\  the c r i t i c Lu Pen-chung ^  , a Buddhist nature poet. >*•  \j?  ( c a . 1119)  Later,  i n c l u d e d Han  Chu  i n the K i a n g s i School of poets l e d by Huang T ' i n g - c h i e n , but Han  h i m s e l f f i n a l l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h Lu's  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and  the  Ch'an element i n h i s theory of poetry seems to j u s t i f y Han's o p i n i o n t h a t he d i f f e r e d from the K i a n g s i poets.5 Another n o r t h e r n Sung poet Wu  K'ovjz  ( c a . 1126)  saw  the poet's process of c r e a t i o n as s i m i l a r t o Ch'an e n l i g h t e n ment :  Studying poetry i s e n t i r e l y l i k e s t u d y i n g the p r a c t i c e of Ch'an: The bamboo bed,  the m e d i t a t i o n cushion, one  can't  count the y e a r s . F i n a l l y when you comprehend i t a l l y o u r s e l f , You e a s i l y draw I t f o r t h and are  Here a g a i n we  see the concept  t h a t the c r e a t i o n of poetry i s a  n a t u r a l a c t which becomes almost reached  the l e v e l of  Yang Wan-li's  transcendant.  e f f o r t l e s s a f t e r one  has  enlightenment. own  development as a poet bears a marked  138 resemblance to the s p i r i t u a l progress of the T'ang and  Sung p e r i o d s .  of the great Ch'an masters  Although t h e i r f i n a l  ment i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as sudden, i t was ceded by r i g o r o u s d i s c i p l i n e and masters. enabled and  study  enlighten-  frequently  pre-  under a number of  F o r Yang, the path to the f i n a l enlightenment, which him  to r i s e above the m e d i o c r i t y  c r e a t e a new  s t y l e , was  of h i s y o u t h f u l verse  as p a i n f u l as the Clr?an  student's  s u b j e c t i o n to the master's b e w i l d e r i n g paradoxes and  irrational  beatings:  I first  learned poetry from the gentlemen of K i a n g s i ,  f o l l o w i n g which I s t u d i e d the f i v e c h a r a c t e r r e g u l a t e d Then I s t u d i e d the seven c h a r a c t e r chueh-chu of Wang An-shih X  ~£  and  finally,  But  the more e f f o r t I made i n studying, the l e s s I  wrote.  I s t u d i e d chueh-chu from the T'ang p o e t s .  Once I sighed about t h i s to L i n Kuang-ch'ao , and  L i n s a i d , "When you  carefully, i t is d i f f i c u l t do you  choose so  to o b t a i n t h i n g s , so  expect your works not to be few?"  s a y i n g , "Poets probably  have d i f f e r e n t  from the same source, and this!"  -"jsz  how  I sighed  'diseases'  s u r e l y I am not alone  in  Thus, from the s p r i n g of t l n g - y u i n the  Ch'un-hsi p e r i o d  (1177) a l l the way  jen-wu (1162), I had  w r i t t e n only f i v e hundred  eighty-two poems; so few I went to my reached my  back to the  they were!  and  In the summer,  p o s i t i o n i n Chlng-ch'i and  post, I read l a w s u i t s and  year  as soon as I  arranged  the  139 l o c a l revenue, a s s o c i a t i n g only w i t h red and b l a c k i n k . Ideas f o r poems went back and f o r t h i n my  b r e a s t from  time to time, but although I wanted to w r i t e , I d i d n ' t have any l e i s u r e . I was  On New  Year's Day  of wu-hsfl (1178),  on v a c a t i o n and l a c k i n g o f f i c i a l  wrote poetry on t h i s day. lightened  Suddenly,  business, I  I was  as i f en-  (wu), and a t that moment, I took l e a v e of  the T'ang poets, Wang An-shih, Oh'en S h i h - t a o , and all  the gentlemen ;Of K i a n g s i and d i d n ' t dare to study  any  of them.  my  I was  then very j o y f u l .  I tried  son h o l d the w r i t i n g brush w h i l e I o r a l l y  s e v e r a l poems, and any  having  composed  they came gushing f o r t h without  of the p r e v i o u s g r i n d i n g . ^  7  Again and a g a i n , we read of s i m i l a r experiences i n the Ch'an literature.  The monk L i n g - y u ^  founders of the Kuei-yang 5 ^ age of f i f t e e n and  (771-853),  "j?^  one of the  Sect l e f t h i s f a m i l y a t the  spent e i g h t y e a r s " s t u d y i n g the s u t r a s and  v l n a y a ( d i s c i p l i n e ) of the Great and Small V e h i c l e " b e f o r e he was 5  brought to sudden enlightenment by h i s master )L  '  8  the Y f l n - m e n ^  S i m i l a r l y Wen-yen x. /J  (d.9^9), the founder of  Sect, made an exhaustive study of the  v l n a y a under under h i s f i r s t  t e a c h e r Chih-ch'eng  he reached sudden enlightenment  In  flj  Pal-chang  ^  before  under h i s l a t e r master Mu-chou  two poems w r i t t e n i n 1166,  over ten y e a r s before h i s  p o e t i c enlightenment, Yang touches on a number of the i d e a s  140 that  became i m p o r t a n t  poems a r e o f l i t t l e in  a style  imitative  later  literary  Although  s i n c e they  these  are s t i l l  they  written  can serve as a  c a n d i s c u s s t h e b a s i c i d e a s o f Yang's  of poetry:  In In  value  of the K i a n g s i poets,  f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h we theory  i n h i s poetry.  studying poetry  Answer  to L i T ' i e n - l i n  one must  be p e n e t r a t i n g and  free;  Then t r u s t i n g h i s hand, one i s l o n e and e x a l t e d . The r o b e And In  and b e g g i n g  a hill your  o r mountain i s j u s t  own  lines—"the  Beyond w o r d s , y o u r What t h e n Frosty  crab with a l i t t l e  The dharma  of poetry  All  i s add y o u r  Finally I want  to share  hair.  grass";  a  like? wine  i s hard own cedar  e n l i g h t e n e d , how  [i.e.,  dregs.  f o r h e a v e n t o keep  we  labor. tree;  0  is i t still  t h e e a s t o r west  a peach f l o w e r ?  jade w i t h  d  you  a r e a s f a r a p a r t a s t h e n o r t h and s o u t h  Are  you w i l l i n g  t o come and t a l k  s i t a s i d e on a w h i t e  the f i r s t  secret;  a wine c u p ] ,  But  We'll  p o o l has  i s the d e l i c i o u s  y o u do  one  eyes a r e a l l i n d i s o r d e r . ^  When i n m e d i t a t i o n — a  In  bowl a r e t i m e l e s s ,  two l i n e s  this  seagull  of our f i r s t  over with  sandbank.^  shores. me?  01  poem, Yang i s s a y i n g t h a t  141 once the poet i s e n l i g h t e n e d , i . e . , " p e n e t r a t i n g and f r e e , " o b t a i n s h i s own nature.  independent  s t y l e which comes to him as i f by  We have a l r e a d y noted that Yang found w r i t i n g more  n a t u r a l a f t e r he had been e n l i g h t e n e d and was pendent on h i s o l d masters.  Now  no l o n g e r de-  the w r i t i n g of poetry i s c a  n a t u r a l a c t that the poet h i m s e l f cannot  control:  Prom t h i s time on, every a f t e r n o o n when the had d i s p e r s e d and the c o u r t y a r d was a f a n and paced  i n the back garden.  officials  empty, I c a r r i e d Ascending  a n c i e n t c i t y w a l l , I gathered l y s i u m and mum  he  or p u l l e d a t f l o w e r s and bamboos.  the  chrysanthe-  The  myriad  phenomena came t o me and presented me w i t h p o e t i c material.  Although I would wave them away, they  wouldn't l e a v e me.  Before I had time to r e q u i t e  those i n f r o n t , the ones from behind were a l r e a d y p r e s s i n g me.*'  1  The i d e a t h a t , a f t e r a poet i s e n l i g h t e n e d , poetry comes to him o f i t s e l f without any s p e c i a l e f f o r t i s f o r c e f u l l y expressed i n a l a t e r poem of Yang's w r i t t e n i n  R e f i n i n g l i n e s , how  1190:  could one be without f u r n a c e and  mallet? But a l i n e Is not completed  e n t i r e l y because  T h i s o l d f e l l o w doesn't hunt f o r the p o e t r y ; The poetry comes h u n t i n g f o r h i m !  12  of them.  142 Thus, but  the poet  must go t h r o u g h a t r y i n g  once he h a s p a s s e d  writing  of verse  The  refers  the  master's  symbolized  line  of the f i r s t  teaching  a r c h Hui-neng Southern the  ^  \\  School  any  mention  t h a t Hui-neng  down t h e r o b e . " 1 3 student  be  represented  i h  e  to l a t e r  flower  to h i s d i s c i p l e s ,  Concerning  (1184-1260), a u t h o r  Yellow-faced  this  master of the  of poetry,  i s no need  t o hand  o f t h e dharma f r o m which could  o f a robe  or pegging  not  by b e i n g  the only  bowl.  h i s sole  d i s c i p l e to ij^  jJp  says:  Gautama, a c t i n g a s i f t h e r e into  trans-  by s h o w i n g a  s t o r y , t h e Sung monk H u i - k ' a i  o f t h e Wu Men Kuan  teacher  adequately  Buddha f i r s t  t o Mahakasyapa merely  people  we  of the  upon w h i c h M a h a k a s y a p a p r o v e d  n e a r h i m , f o r c e d good  about  t o t r a n s m i t h i s robe to  there  process  of the teaching  patri-  what Y a n g w r i t e s  Ch'an t r a d i t i o n ,  t h e Ch'an t e a c h i n g  understanding  to the s i x t h  " t h e r o b e may n o t be handed  transmission  by t h e g i f t  begging  of the robe i s  on t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e v e r s e  mitted  smile.  refused  claiming that  was a m y s t e r i o u s  According  f^.  In l i n e with  pupil,  the master's  (638-713), t h e f i r s t  P a t r i a r c h , Bodhidharma, then  to  enlightened  with  by Hung-Jen  . . . I f y o u depend  First  of t r a n s m i t t i n g  o f t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e method  of h i s d i s c i p l e s ,  down  tradition  the student  o f Ch'an.  impossibility  should  poem " I n A n s w e r t o L l T ' i e n -  The most famous t r a n s m i s s i o n  secret transmission  "refining,"  of l e a r n i n g , the  to a p a r t i c u l a r l y  by p r e s e n t i n g  of  n a t u r a l a c t f o r him.  t o t h e Ch'an B u d d h i s t  b o w l and r o b e . the  the stage  i s an e n t i r e l y  third  lin"  beyond  period  were no one  s l a v e r y , and h a n g i n g  143 up a sheep's head, s o l d dog meat i n s t e a d , t h i n k i n g extraordinary had  t h i s was.  smiled, then how  But  i f at that time everybody  could he have t r a n s m i t t e d  t r e a s u r e of the t r u e dharma eye, had  not smiled, how  the  or i f Mahakas"yapa  could he have t r a n s m i t t e d  t r e a s u r e of the true dharma eye?  I f he  the  says there  i s a t r a n s m i s s i o n of the true dharma eye,  then t h a t  yellow-faced  country  bumpkins. then why  old geezer would be cheating  But  i f he  says there i s no  transmission,  d i d he approve of Mahakasyapa  alone? * 1  4  H u i - k ' a i agrees with Hul-neng that the Ch'an student become attached  to any  should  not  p a r t i c u l a r method or teacher, f o r the  s e c r e t s of Ch'an cannot be t r a n s m i t t e d Yang uses these  how  i n such a  way.  ideas developed by the Ch'an  as a d e v i c e to a t t a c k the t h o u g h t l e s s so popular  told  s t r u g g l e d i n h i s youth to r i d h i m s e l f of the i n -  he  f l u e n c e of the K i a n g s i poets, and the few w r i t e r s who  was  Yang has  at t h i s time he was  opposed to the i m i t a t i o n of  K i a n g s i s t y l e represented (1045-1105)•  age.  earlier  poets t h a t was us how  i n h i s own  i m i t a t i o n of  Buddhists  most prominently  by Huang  already  one  of  the T'ing-chlen  I n c r e a s i n g l y from the time of Su Shih onwards,  the Sung poets had  been moving away from the  natural simplicity  of the e a r l i e r n o r t h e r n Sung poets such as  Ou-yang H s i u %X  f|)  (1007-1072) and Mel Y a o - c h ' e n J ^  (1002-1060) to a more a r t i f i c i a l poetry t e n s i v e use  comparatively  of l i t e r a r y a l l u s i o n and  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  c a r e f u l p o l i s h i n g of  C/£ exthe  144 poetic  line,  jjti-  a  s  a  and t h e l a t e r  poets  s e t up t h e T'ang p o e t  model f o r i m i t a t i o n .  Tu P u  Huang T ' i n g - c h i e n h i m s e l f  wrote:  To  c r e a t e words o n e s e l f i s most d i f f i c u l t .  When Tu P u  w r o t e p o e t r y o r Han Y u w r o t e p r o s e , n o t one c h a r a c t e r was  without a source.  I t i s p r o b a b l y because  men r e a d few b o o k s t h a t  they  t h e s e words t h e m s e l v e s . who were s k i l l e d  said  though  they  Han o r T u c r e a t e d  Those men o f a n c i e n t  I n l i t e r a t u r e were t r u l y  r e f i n i n g and s m e l t i n g t h e m y r i a d  later  times  capable of  manifestations. A l -  t o o k t h e a n c i e n t s ' o l d t a l k and made i t  e n t e r t h e i r b r u s h and i n k , i t was l i k e  a pill  m a g i c e l i x i r w h i c h c o u l d t o u c h i r o n and change  of the i t to  g o l d . 15  Thus, w i t h t h e K i a n g s i poets matter  o f "making t h e o l d i n t o To  such a view  I am ashamed For  the writing  o f p o e t r y became a  t h e new."  o f l i t e r a t u r e , Yang  retorted:  o f t h o s e who t r a n s m i t s e c t s and s c h o o l s ,  e a c h a u t h o r h a s h i s own i n d i v i d u a l  Don't r e s t your f e e t and  Huang T i n g - c h i e n ' s 1  Ch'en S h i h - t a o ' s f e n c e ;  S t i c k y o u r head and  beneath  style.  Hsieh  o u t beyond  Ling-yun!  T 6 ;  the ranks  o f T'ao Yuan-mlng  145 This  i s n o t t o say t h a t Yang was opposed  the a n c i e n t s . lightenment stage,  We have a l r e a d y  only a f t e r  t o a l l i m i t a t i o n of  s e e n how he a c h i e v e d  studying e a r l i e r poets.  h i s own e n -  In the l e a r n i n g  i t was q u i t e p e r m i s s i b l e t o s e t up a p a r t i c u l a r  o n e ' s m o d e l a s l o n g a s one d i d n o t become " a t t a c h e d " model.  A f t e r Yang W a n - l i  abandoned  poet as  to that  the K i a n g s i poets,  Huang  T ' i n g - c h l e n and Ch'en S h i h - t a o , he i m i t a t e d Wang A n - s h i h , and in  l a t e r years  On  t h e boat  After It's I  the only  not that t h i s  o l d f e l l o w doesn't  s i n c e one c a n n o t  one w i s h e s t o r e a c h f u l l  should  e a t i n the morning,  Wang But  1 7  become a t t a c h e d  enlightenment,  t o Wang  An-shih  he h a s t o p a s s  enables  me t o m e d i t a t e  a r e t h e T'ang p o e t s — o n e more  even p a s s  Upon f i r s t  An-shih.  from  poets:  A f t e r Wang A n - s h i h There s t i l l  poets:  i s poetry;  I r e a d Wang  t a k e Wang's chtieh-chU f o r b r e a k f a s t !  Wang t o t h e T'ang  One  t h i n g t o k e e p me a l i v e  r e a d i n g t h e T'ang p o e t s ,  Nevertheless, if  he p r e f e r r e d Wang t o o t h e r n o r t h e r n Sung  beyond  receiving  t h e T'ang  instruction  and p e n e t r a t e , barrier! ^ 1  poets  I meditated  under  An-shih,  i n t h e end, I e n t r u s t e d m y s e l f  to the l a t e  T'ang  F r o m them t h e Kuo F e n g i s n o t f a r away; When y o u ' v e g r a s p e d  t h e mechanism i t ' s s i m p l e . '9 1  poets.  146 According beyond  t o t h e Wu  Men  the b a r r i e r s  process  of  Kuan, " t o r e a l i z e  of the p a t r i a r c h s . "  Ch'an i l l u m i n a t i o n  obtained  Ch'an m a s t e r s as a m e t a p h o r f o r t h e the  poet  ing  o f one  is  not  a t t a i n s h i s own  the  study  of  s i m i l a r process  illumination  g o a l , f o r as  must  by  t h e Wu  Men  pass  Thus, Yang u s e s  2 0  by  p o e t i c master a f t e r another.  the f i n a l  Ch'an one  the  the  whereby  mastering  the  The  of  masters  Kuan f u r t h e r  teaches  study  teach-  us:  The  g r e a t Way  Yet  thousands of roads  Once one He  has  passed  too, f r e e s himself individual  You  ask  T h e r e ' s no  The  result  earlier poetry he  As  this  barrier,  between h e a v e n and  earth. "  beyond  of h i s m a s t e r s ,  the b a r r i e r  2 1  i m i t a t i o n s and  Yang h i m s e l f  dharma, no  b o w l , and  i s t h a t he  as a continuous o f one  he,  creates his  explains:  no  robe I  2  2  o f Yang's u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o become a t t a c h e d  In the preface say s:  enter i t .  what t h e dharma o f good p o e t r y i s ;  poetic style  tired  gates,  of h i s e a r l i e r  style.  me  no  penetrated  walks alone  When t h e p o e t  own  has  has  process  s t y l e , he  to  any  came t o v i e w t h e w r i t i n g o f of development,, and  longed  as  soon  as  t o move on t o newer g r o u n d .  o f h i s c o l l e c t i o n Nan  Hal  C h i Yang  All  my  life  I have loved to w r i t e p o e t r y .  At  first  I loved i t , but l a t e r I d e s p i s e d i t . By the jen-wu y e a r of the Shao-hsing changed and again. iod  I was  p e r i o d (1162) my  poetry  d e l i g h t e d , but soon d e s p i s e d i t  By the keng-yin y e a r of the Oh'ien-tao per-  (1170) my  poetry changed a g a i n , and by  the  t l n g - y u year of the Ch'un-hsi p e r i o d (1177), poetry  my  changed once more . . . When L i u Huan of  Oh'ao-yang was  governor  requested from me  of Ch'ing-yuan county,  a so-called  he  C o l l e c t i o n of the  South Seas (Nan Hal Chi) of f o u r hundred poems. By the time I saw him a g a i n i n the c a p i t a l , L i u r e quested him.  i t u n f l a g g i n g l y and  Alas!  c o n t i n u e my not.  I was  a b l e to g i v e i t to  I am a l r e a d y o l d and  I don't know, i f I  present p o e t r y , whether I can change or  Yu Mou  used to say to me,  your poems change, they advance." but I don't know i f they s t i l l  My  "Each time  poems can change,  can advance.  o t h e r day when I see t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , w i l l l i g h t e d w i t h i t or w i l l  When i n 1190 ^  My  X  I despise  it?  he prefaced h i s c o l l e c t i o n  if  2  this  de-  Ch'ao T ' l e n Hsu  Chi  Yang wrote:  Ch'eng-ta y^J  poetry had  I be  3  e l d e s t son Chang-ju showed i t to the two  Pan  Some  A»  and Yu Mou  changed a g a i n , although  myself. "^ 2  who  gentlemen  thought  my  I wasn't aware of  148 All  throughout  striving  Yang's work we  t o change and  c u l a r master The  or  last  translated  never  see a r e s t l e s s  two  above  b e c o m i n g a t t a c h e d t o any  lines  of the f i r s t  u n t i l we  realize  of t r u e poetry to " f r o s t y  refers  t o t h e famous d o c t r i n e  (837-908). p o e t s and  the l a t e  Sung p o e t s .  held  the  parti-  poem we not  comparison  c r a b " cooked  T'ang c r i t i c  have seem t o  of  beyond  o f extreme i m p o r t a n c e Su S h i h and  to Master  the  i n "wine d r e g s " flavor"  S s u - k ' u n g T ' U E ] :L  I n h i g h r e g a r d by  In h i s " L e t t e r  S s u - k ' u n g T'u  that  of the " f l a v o r  T h i s d o c t r i n e was was  critical  ("In Answer t o L i T ' i e n - l i n " ) do  flavor  by  forever  style.  make much s e n s e  advanced  mind  /§  to  later  other northern  L i Discussing Poetry"  writes:  Prose  is difficult,  but p o e t r y  There  have been many m e t a p h o r s f o r t h i s f r o m a n c i e n t  t o modern t i m e s , b u t in  "flavor"  I t h i n k one  b e f o r e one  south of the r i v e r s  are not  sour, but  further. isn't  Or  salty,  and  further.  That  to r e l i e v e [eating  i t i s merely  sourness,  s o u r and  of b r i n e ,  o f Hua  t h e i r hunger but  and  To  sustenance.  i t i s not  they a r e merely  them] i s b e c a u s e  saltiness  s e r v e as  of p i c k l e s ,  t h e men  discerning  mountains [South China]  i n the case but  must be  difficult.  can d i s c u s s p o e t r y .  a r e many t h i n g s w h i c h w i l l example, i n t h e c a s e  i s even more  salty  that  For these  that i t  nothing  [ n o r t h e r n e r s ] use  theft immediately  t h e y know t h a t  there  nothing  i t i s not and  the  desist  beyond  they are d e f i c i e n t  these  their  i n what i s  1 49 p u r e and d e l i c i o u s . mountains not  T h a t t h e men o f t h e r i v e r s and  [ t h e s o u t h e r n e r s ] a r e used t o them and c a n -  discriminate  [them f r o m o t h e r f o o d ] i s u n d e r -  standable .' 5 2  Later of  i n t h e same l e t t e r , S s u - k ' u n g  poetry  by s a y i n g he "knows t h e e x c e l l e n c e  Yang a p p l i e d study  Ssu-k'ung  L i ' s knowledge  beyond  flavor."  T'u's c o n c e p t t o a l l s c h o l a r l y  i n general:  In  reading  flavor. flavor  b o o k s , one must know o f t h e f l a v o r  One who d o e s n o t know o f t h e f l a v o r and s a y s ,  " I can read  poem o f t h e Kuo F e n g thistle purse."  obtains eating not  states,  beyond beyond  b o o k s , " i s wrong. "Who  A  says that the  i s b i t t e r ? / I t i s sweet a s t h e s h e p h e r d ' s I t a k e t h i s a s my method f o r r e a d i n g  When one e a t s  This  T'u p r a i s e s  the b i t t e r e s t  the sweetest t h i n g  thing  books.  u n d e r h e a v e n , he  under heaven.  The a c t o f  i s t h e same i n men, b u t what i s o b t a i n e d i s  t h e same! 26  I d e a c a n be s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d  As f o r t h e poems o f t h e K i a n g s i Kiangsi  to poetry:  school,  the poetry i s  [ s t y l e ] , but not a l l of the poets [ o f t h i s  school] are from Kiangsi.  What do I mean by " t h e  poets are not a l l from K i a n g s i ,  b u t t h e poems a r e  1 50  Kiangsi?" am  I am  I joining  joining  them a l l t o g e t h e r .  them t o g e t h e r ?  t h e i r form.  Su S h i h s a i d ,  lichee,"  "Tu F u ' s  and  J^L him  book."  at that  swer h i m  time  f o r they  fused.  I f we  speak of f o r m  [ H s i e h Y i and  the  Hsieh's  j^j  ; the  Shih-ch'uan similar and is  and  different  are not  are n a t u r a l l y  similar and  similar  for  the  Hung  to the  two  f$ JJJL t h r e e Hung's  Ch'u]?^ similar  t o Hsfl  » < i Hsu* F u  i s not  a n  but  from  s i m i l a r i t i e s and too!  con-  Kao-  to the  K'o]J^j^_  nothing else.  cooking a r i s e s  S o u r and  salty  l^if^  the  same h a n d .  This  are  seafood  the m i r a c l e of  com-  are  seasoning One  can  d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s , but  seek  one  can  2 7  i s t r u e w i t h many o f t h e  criticism,  and  t o S h a n - k u [Huang T ' i n g - c h i e n ] .  and  them  are  n o t h i n g more,  t h r e e Hung's a r e n o t  delicacies,  anare  of s t y l e  d i f f e r e n t l y , w h i l e m o u n t a i n and  forget  still  t o Ch'en Hou-Shan [ C h ' e n S h i h - t a o ] fj^  flavor  As  and  [Hsfl F u ] 4%  even l e s s  bined  heard  o f t h o s e who  so t h e y  i s not  Hsieh  [Hung P'eng, Hung Yen, >/x  Ch'ien's  -Hz.  Ho] |Jq 4")  Hsieh's  people  the f l a v o r  s i m i l a r i t y i n form  [Kao  today,  the f a u l t  discuss  Tzu-mlen  Ssu-ma  the  w h i l e p r e t e n d i n g to  reject  "k  not  mussel i s l i k e  o n l y were t h o s e who  confused  T h i s i s not  confused,  two  "The  i n agreement, but  confused.  With t h e i r f l a v o r ,  poems a r e l i k e  Not  W i t h what  i t i s quite d i f f i c u l t  concepts  of Chinese  to d e f i n e the  literary  e x a c t meaning of  151 the  i d e a " f l a v o r beyond f l a v o r "  and  Tang Wan-li,  flavor  and  y e t T a n g ' s c o n t r a s t o f outward  g i v e s us a h i n t  as  Tang's i d e a of a f l a v o r to  the  es  yet  t e r m s and  the poet  can  beyond f o r m  meant.  "flavor" cannot  o n l y be  i s only an  pinned  Then what i s p o e t r y ?  who  o f words and  that  who  meaning. ing, one  But  sweets?  they  taste  left?"  At f i r s t  they  slandered  like  Duke Su,  are  As f o r b i t t e r  i t s sweetness  i s just  ex-  that  one  "But  else."  I  but  I say  then? tea?  Duke Su  Formerly  "Have  i n the  tea, people  him,  is  Poetry,  when Duke  satirized  end,  a l l com-  i t s bitterness  i s incomparable.  this."  still  doesn't  sweet, but  before  mean-  t h a t when  I say, Who  say  the  meaning, the p o e t r y  where i s t h e p o e t r y  the  but  ac-  intuited  d o e s away w i t h words and  of i t s b i t t e r n e s s  exhausted, too,  when one  sour.  I say  stress-  explained:  does away w i t h  ever t a s t e d sweets or b i t t e r  like  be  " I t i s the  nothing  i s good a t p o e t r y  "But  objected  words, but Tang  d o e s away w i t h w o r d s .  d o e s away w i t h words and  plain  I t m i g h t be  else."  t h e n where i s t h e p o e t r y  exists. you  nothing  akin  i s inexpressible i n  down o r r a t i o n a l l y  e x t o l s t h e meaning and  one  speaking,  e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e and  [some s a y : ]  i s good a t p o e t r y  t h e n he  and  T'u  with  i s closely  o f t h e poem i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n  be p r e c i s e l y  tolling  intuited.  form  Generally  i n poetry  i s a p r i s o n e r of form  t h a t p o e t i c form  tual  t o what he  Ch'an c o n t e n t i o n t h a t u l t i m a t e t r u t h  rational that  i n the w r i t i n g s of Ssu-k'ung  Pao today,  and  152 i f we l o o k a t h i s poem, there a r e no words of s a t i r e , and we can't see the meaning of h i s s a t i r e .  He wrote:  "Two men f o l l o w each other/Who has made t h i s d i s a s t e r ? " When he caused Duke Pao to hear of t h i s [Duke Pao t h o u g h t ] , "He has not even r e f e r r e d to me but i f i t i s n ' t me,  then who i s i t ? "  Gh the o u t s i d e he d i d n ' t  dare be angry, but i n s i d e , he was d y i n g of shame.  The second of the two e a r l y l i t e r a r y  28  c r i t i c a l poems of  Yang which we t r a n s l a t e d above, i s not so r i c h i n concepts as the f i r s t ,  but i t s f i r s t  line,  "The dharma of poetry i s hard  f o r Heaven to keep s e c r e t , " i s d e r i v e d from one of the key concepts of Ch'an Buddhism.  The Ch'an s c h o o l s t r e s s e s that  there  i s n o t h i n g s e c r e t about the Buddhist t e a c h i n g s , f o r once a person has l i f t e d  the v e i l of i l l u s i o n , there i s no mystery  left.  With regard to the supposedly s e c r e t t r a n s m i s s i o n of the dharma from Buddha to Mahakasyapa, the T'ang Ch'an Master Tao-ying ^Jj^ ^  (d.901) s a i d :  " I f you don't understand, i t remains a  s e c r e t of the World Honored One, but i f you do understand, i t becomes the unkept s e c r e t of Mahakasyapa." ' 29  Fo-kuo /'^ /  ?  (d.1135) commented, "The Tathagata had a s e c r e t , but Mahakasyapa d i d not keep i t ;  that Mahakasyapa d i d not keep the s e c r e t was  the Buddha's r e a l s e c r e t .  What i s not kept s e c r e t i s a s e c r e t ,  but what i s kept s e c r e t i s not a secret." ®' When Yang Wan-li 3  was awakened, he wrote:  Suddenly, I d i d n ' t f e e l the d i f f i c u l t y poetry.  of w r i t i n g  I t was probably because the poet's " d i s e a s e "  153 was  about to leave my  body.  At t h i s  time, not only  did  I not f e e l the d i f f i c u l t y of w r i t i n g poetry,  but  a l s o I d i d not f e e l the d i f f i c u l t y of b e i n g a magistrate.  The next year on the l a s t  when my  replacement  and  tried  in a total  came, I matched t a l l i e s to l e a v e  to c o l l e c t  my  manuscripts  together.  With-  of f o u r t e e n months, I had w r i t t e n f o u r  hundred and ninety-two to  of the second month  poems.  I have not yet dared  show them to anyone, but t h i s year when I f i l l e d  a post as a p u b l i c bureau o f f i c i a l ,  my  old  friend  Chung.Chiang-chih sent a l e t t e r from the Huai R i v e r to me w r i t i n g : governor. ing,  Formerly,  but the present  you had no d i f f i c u l t y i n govern[replacement's]  difficulties Why  p u b l i s h your poems from Ching-ch'i?"  With one  When Yi-hsttan  don't  you laugh,  sent them to him. 3-1  ^  , the founder  Ch an Buddhism, was , he was  of  C h l n g - c h ' l changed i t s  w i l l be more than ten times g r e a t e r .  I copied and  of  "Recently  beaten  of the L i n - c h i j ^  ^  Sect  s t u d y i n g under the master Huang-po  three times, having asked  the Buddha's t e a c h i n g s .  But a f t e r he had  l i g h t e n e d , he s t a t e d to Ta-yfl "K  $1  the t r u e meaning  been f u l l y  en-  , "There i s n o t h i n g much  'NT  to Buddha's t e a c h i n g . " 32 n o t h i n g mysterious One  similarly,  to Yang Wan-li there  was  or d i f f i c u l t about the w r i t i n g of p o e t r y .  of the most s t r i k i n g  p r o o f s that Yang d i d not  con-  s i d e r the c r e a t i o n of poetry to be d i f f i c u l t i s the tremendous number of poems he wrote, over four:.thousand  two  hundred,  second  only  1210).  to h i s contemporary  When one  compares t h i s  poems, a t most, p r e s e r v e d poetry  collections,  pecially his  when we  We  c a u s e he  had  the f i f t e e n that his of  time  t h a t Yang b u r n e d 1162,  to  preceding  onward, Yang was  face  he  deeply  r e m a i n e d w i t h him  more t h a n  two  ticed  poetry,  already  eighty-two  concerned had  (1162) thousand  and  thirty-  with  the  Nan  Hai  his l i f e C h i , he  to the present, one  my  q u a n t i t y Of imitation  poems i n t h e  and  1182  h i s e l d e s t son,  to  continual  i n the  proudly  1184,  he he  Ch'ao T ' l e n  Chlj^j  C h a n g - j u begged me any  poetry  not  practice  for  three years will  I said,  ritual, one  decay.  then  in  did  not  C h a n g - j u , must h a v e  no-  preface  (1188):  saying, "Father, you  f o r a l o n g time,  Somewhat s t a r t l e d  poetry  X ^  alto-  was  h i s f a t h e r ' s r e s t l e s s n e s s f o r Yang w r i t e s i n h i s  the  pre-  writes:  poems a r e  hundred.When  from  be-  From  discarded his  throughout  of  poems i n  Yang's o b s e s s i o n w i t h  mourning f o r h i s mother's death w r i t e any  was  wrote f o u r hundred ninety-two  "From t h e y e a r j e n - w u  es-  h i s p o e t i c enlightenment.  to h i s f o u r t h c o l l e c t i o n ,  gether  i n T'ang  g r e a t l y dismayed  hundred  s p a c e o f f o u r t e e n months.  creativity  to  when he  p o e t i c p r o d u c t i o n , f o r a f t e r he  short  s e v e r a l hundred  over a thousand  Y a n g was  written "only" f i v e  e a r l i e r poets,  yfy  i t i s , Indeed, a s t a g g e r i n g f i g u r e ,  realize  years  Lu Y u ^ ;  number t o t h e  s e e n t h a t i n 1177  have  friend  f o r i n d i v i d u a l authors  poems w r i t t e n p r e v i o u s  five.  and  1 54 (1125-  so now  you  have n o t can w r i t e  " I f f o r three years ritual  will  be  some."  one  does  r u i n e d , and  does not  'compose' poems,  I t would  be  best  written  then  to f o l l o w your  if  advice."  On t h a t day  I started  to make a d r a f t on  the  s u b j e c t of the c h i n - s h l h examination.  On the twenty-  seventh  called  duty.  I was  a post and was  Ten days l a t e r , I s t a r t e d  c a p i t a l and felt  presented  on my  to  my  journey to the  I only wrote some twenty odd poems, but I  they were somewhat awkward and d i d not convey  my  meaning, because I probably had not f o r g o t t e n my sorrow yet  Yang recovered forms us: to  q u i c k l y , f o r i n a p r e f a c e w r i t t e n i n 1190  "Prom the year  jen-wu (1162) to now,  three thousand poems i n a l l of my  he i n -  there are c l o s e  seven c o l l e c t i o n s . " " 3 5  A p p a r e n t l y , many l a t e r c r i t i c s d i d not agree w i t h Yang's c o n c e p t i o n of poetry as something simple f o r the e n l i g h t e n e d , for  many of them attacked what they considered the e x c e s s i v e  q u a n t i t y of poetry which Yang preserved  i n h i s complete works.  T y p i c a l of these c r i t i c s i s the Ch'ing poet Yeh H s l e h ^ who  ^  wrote:  C o l l e c t i o n s of poetry and  prose which emphasize quantity  w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be bad.  The  i m p e r i s h a b l e works worthy  to  be handed down from the a n c i e n t s are not so because  of  quantity. |^  poems of Su Wu ^  ~jf\^  and  w i l l l a s t f o r a thousand ages.  Men  of l a t e r  The few  times g r a d u a l l y p r i z e d and  Po C h u - y i ^ l  L i Ling  q u a n t i t y , and Yuan Chen -7\ji^. w i t h t h e i r C o l l e c t i o n of the  Ch'ang Ch' i n g P e r i o d (Ch'ang Ch' i n g Chi) were the f i r s t  to  156 "overflow  the goblet."  Within  sixty  or  with  seventy sixty  thirty  per cent.  I f they  o r seventy  per cent,  per cent l e f t  famous w o r k s .  these one  rich  . . .  I f we v i e w i t  way, what use i s t h e r e i n q u a n t i t y ? ^  only a poet's  early  d i d not agree  "masterpieces"  are significant,  showed t h e famous p o e t  should poetry  Prom t h e c o n c e p t  f o r when  Yu Mou a f e w l i n e s  be ot  one f o r m  only?  from  What a shame  t h a t Ch'an t e a c h i n g i s n o t h i n g  or  mysterious,  of  t h e e n l i g h t e n e d man do n o t d i f f e r f r o m  one c a n l o g i c a l l y  conclude  I n t h e Wu Men Kuan we r e a d : 'What i s t h e Way  o r d i n a r y mind  miraculous  firewood."'39  like?'  i s t h e Way. V"®' 5  w r o t e i n a poem a p p r o v e d and  view  them!" 3 7  burned  ch'tian,  with this  p o e t r y w h i c h he had b u r n e d , Y u Mou s i g h e d and r e -  "Why  man.  Of what  two w r o t e , t h e r e i s h a r d l y one poem o r e v e n  Yang W a n - l i  ary  i n poems,  and Chou P i - t a .  O b v i o u s l y , Yang's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  you  the twenty o r  Of t h e Sung a u t h o r s  l i n e t h a t c a n be a p p r o v e d  this  plied,  had done away  would a l l be o u t s t a n d i n g and  none exce.eded Yang W a n - l i  the  collection]  t h a t w h i c h i s d e c a d e n t and v u l g a r c o m p r i s e s  this  that  [this  that the a c t i v i t i e s those  of the o r d i n -  "Chao-chou asked  Han-  Nan-ch'uan a n s w e r e d , 'The - jj. The T'ang l a y m a n P'ang  by h i s m a s t e r :  function are l i k e Similarly,  difficult  1toa^f,&.  " S p i r i t penetration  c a r r y i n g w a t e r and m o v i n g  t h e p o e t who h a s r e a c h e d  s t a g e need n o t s e a r c h o u t h i s themes i n u n u s u a l  the highest  of abstruse  157 subjects,  but f i n d s h i s t o p i c s f o r poetry  We h a v e a l r e a d y poetry yard  d u r i n g h i s spare himself  the  themes  time.  i n h i s study,  merely walking  One d o e s n o t w r i t e  and o r d i n a r y  To  poetry  by l o c k a l l of  required:  appoint  them;  dis-  a  the r a i n ' s aspect are  i n t h e back-  t r a v e l provides  Mountain t h o u g h t s and r i v e r f e e l i n g s don't  For  objects.  s e e n t h a t when Y a n g had awakened, he f o u n d  came t o h i m n a t u r a l l y w h i l e  ing  i n ordinary  and t h e c l e a r w e a t h e r ' s manner  always wonderful.  c l o s e y o u r d o o r and h u n t f o r l i n e s method  i s not the  of poetry;  O n l y when y o u ' r e t r a v e l i n g do t h e l i n e s  come o f  themselves.^O  Since of  itself  poetry  through ordinary  l e s s and n a t u r a l . influence of  i s not the r e s u l t  of intense  experiences,  How much t h e c u l t  effort  t h e i d e a l poem i s a r t -  o f t h e unadorned was t h e  o f Ch'an B u d d h i s m o r o f even more a n c i e n t  the Chinese  is difficult  t o s a y , b u t Yang h i m s e l f  a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the simple description  and u n a d o r n e d .  of a small r u r a l  and comes  tendencies had a  T y p i c a l i s Yang's  i n n he s t o p p e d a t d u r i n g  one o f h i s  journeys:  When I g e t o f f my p a l a n q u i n Opening i t s door, Inside  there's  I arrive  I find  a new i n n ;  a t a small  a s i n g l e yew t a b l e ,  strong  side-room,  1 58 And  two r u s h mats f a c i n g  The r a f t e r  each  bamboos a r e g r e e n  other, with t h e i r  joints  remaining; The e a v e s ' I  rushes  the  still  h a v e b u t one r e g r e t a b o u t  Where t h e p a p e r s  Everything  white,  were  bearing t h e i r roots.  the b r i g h t  joined, i t s t i l l  i n t h e s m a l l room i s c o m p l e t e l y  scar l e f t  by g l u i n g p a p e r s  window— has a s c a r .  a  4  1  n a t u r a l except f o r  t o g e t h e r t o make a window p a n e .  Such an o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y  a s s u n n i n g h i s c l o t h e s made Y a n g  write:  A t h i g h n o o n I s u n my  c l o t h e s , i n the a f t e r n o o n  fold  them up; In  a cloth-covered willow basket  My w i f e and c h i l d r e n "Who  i n the world  of themselves  even i n j e s t , idea  a s on t h e same l e v e l w i t h  there?"  4 2  common  servants  i n harmony  even w h i l e  living  with the i n com-  and n a t u r a l n e s s .  many  o f Yang's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  love of s i m p l i c i t y  d i d not agree  with  i n p o e t r y , and t h e e n t i r e K i a n g s i g r o u p ,  a g a i n s t whom Yang had r e v o l t e d opposed  servant over  b u t Y a n g ' s poem i s c o m p l e t e l y  simplicity However,  another.  o f Y a n g ' s p e r i o d wp.uld h a v e l i k e d t o  t h a t one c a n be a c r e a t i v e p o e t  plete  his  l a u g h and a s k one  i s that bare-footed  Pew g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s think  I c a r r y them b a c k home.  t o Yang's a r t l e s s n e s s .  i n h i s youth,  stood  diametrically  I n two poems w r i t t e n i n p r a i s e  159 of  the  both  northern  criticized  vanced  Sung p o e t the  h i s theory  Chang L e l J ^  a t t i t u d e o f Huang T ' l n g - c h i e n  of the  naturalness  I n f r o n t o f Huang T ' l n g - c h i e n , speak of And  later,  He  would h a v e f o u n d  one  had  two  they  verse:  "rinsing  to  the  well,"  works,  but  what  that!  h i s group only  knew enough  c l e v e r t u r n of phrase o r  were i n c a p a b l e  treasure"  h i s complete  another n a t u r a l treasure,  i s t h a t Huang and  Chang's p o e t r y .  "natural  madel[Huang] read  [Huang] know o f  praise a particularly that  ad-  flowers."  If  Yang's p o i n t  also  [Chang L e i ] d a r e d  [Huang] h i g h l y p r a i s e d h i s l i n e s  did  of  o f good  and  poetry,  "sweeping  but  ( 1 0 5 2 - 1 1 1 2 ) , Yang  of g r a s p i n g  the  usage o f  "natural  words,  treasure"  T h a t Y a n g meant Chang's a r t l e s s n e s s i s made even c l e a r e r i n t h e  first  to  of  by the  poems:  Lately  I've  being He  come t o l o v e  the Pat  I m m o r t a l ' s poems f o r  so n a t u r a l ;  never embroidered  or painted,  much l e s s  carved  or  engraved. Spring flowers,  autumn moon, t h e w i n t e r ' s  I n e v e r h e a r s t a l e words f r o m him,  I  i c e and  j u s t h e a r naturae !  I n o t h e r w o r d s , Chang L e i c h o s e h i s themes f r o m t h e j e c t s a r o u n d him  and  d i d not  snow;  engage i n g a t h e r i n g  4  natural  stale  words  3  ob-  160 from  o l d b o o k s and s t r i n g i n g  them t o g e t h e r w i t h  Among t h e p o e t s and c r i t i c s Yang W a n - l i , around  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  inspired  z>%^ I^J.  Y  e  n  by Ch'an i d e a s  was Yen Y t f J ^ SJ=J  1200), author of the highly  Hua  influential  Having  At and  studied  h i m by i n -  (t'i) t'1  of (after  us a b o u t  h i s process of enlightenment:  chfleh-chtl f r o m t h e T'ang p o e t s .  he abandoned  produced  the forms  of the v a r i o u s poets  h i s own " m e c h a n i s m . "  4 4  A l t h o u g h Y e n Y3 d o e s n o t a c k n o w l e d g e any d e b t Wan-li's views them and d i r e c t necessity  on l i t e r a t u r e , influence  t o Yang  t h e r e i s much i n common b e t w e e n  s h o u l d n o t be r u l e d  o u t . About t h e  o f enlightenment, Yen s a y s :  I n g e n e r a l , t h e way o f Ch'an l i e s  i n m i r a c u l o u s en-  l i g h t e n m e n t , and t h e way o f p o e t r y a l s o aculous  enlightenment.  lies  The power o f Meng  i n mir-  Hao-jan's  s c h o l a r s h i p was f a r b e l o w Han Yft, b u t t h a t h i s p o e t r y went beyond Han Yu" s was e n t i r e l y lous  Shih  he s t u d i e d Wang A n - s h l h and Ch'en S h l h - t a o  finally last,  Lang  t o Yang's p o e t r y , Yen r e p e a t s  what Yang h a s a l r e a d y t o l d  and  Ts'ang  g i v e n t h e name C h ' e n g - c h a l  Y a n g ' s hao C h ' e n g - c h a l )  At f i r s t  (flourished  and h o n o r s  c l u d i n g h i s p o e t r y a s one o f t h e m a j o r s t y l e s verse.  after  c o n s i d e r e d Yang Wan-11 t o be one o f t h e  most i m p o r t a n t p o e t s o f C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e  Chinese  rhymes.  enlightenment.  t i o n and b a s i c  type.  Only 4 5  due t o h i s m i r a c u -  enlightenment  i s the voca-  161 Y e n a l s o a g r e e d w i t h Yang i n c r i t i c i z i n g formalism  of the K i a n g s i  the a r t i f i c i a l i t y  poets:  The p o e t r y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s d y n a s t y followed  t h e T'ang p o e t s  Huang T ' i n g - c h i e n f i r s t to  After the  Another  point  particularly  forced  them t h e K i a n g s i  i n h i s labors. and a l l w i t h i n  school.  one c h o o s e s w i d e l y f r o m  and  a f t e r a l o n g t i m e he i s n a t u r a l l y  the F l o u r i s h i n g shall  them i n h i s b r e a s t , e n l i g h t e n e d and  one o f t h e f i r s t  sword."  critics  4 7  t o p u t so much  T'ang, and h e r e he d i f f e r e d  s e e , Yang was much more d e e p l y  T'ang p o e t s t h a n Y e n YlS's m a s t e r s  stress  f r o m Yang W a n - l i , indebted t o the  Tu F u and L i Po.  The  i n p o e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s between Yang and Yen i s o f  minor importance,  difference  can o c c u r :  " t h e sudden g a t e " o r  straight with a single  Yen Yfl was  fairly  T'ang and " f e r m e n t s "  . . . This i s called  "entering  difference  i s the  t h e famous p o e t s o f  Flourishing  late  4 6  sudden e n l i g h t e n m e n t  the  a s we  Huang  on w h i c h Yang Wan-11 and Yen Yti a g r e e d  a t t h e s t a g e where  enters  for  t h e i r own o p i n i o n s  of s t u d y i n g the g r e a t poets of the past i n o r d e r t o  Finally,  on  expressed  their rules flourished  seas c a l l e d  necessity arrive  that,  still  . . . B u t when Su S h i h and  make poems, t h e T'ang s t y l e was a l t e r e d ;  T ' i n g - c h i e n was  and  but i t i s a s s o c i a t e d  between t h e i r v i e w s  w i t h a profound  a s t o t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h  162 sudden enlightenment  i s to be o b t a i n e d .  Yang h e l d that  imita-  t i o n i s a l l o w a b l e and even necessary, but that the poet should view the o b j e c t of h i s i m i t a t i o n to be merely a b a r r i e r  •fjjj)  (kuan)  which i s to be passed when he reaches a c e r t a i n degree  enlightenment.  of  Yang c e r t a i n l y had p r e f e r e n c e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l  poets, but he never attempted  to f i t the p o e t i c c r e a t i o n s of  Chinese l i t e r a t u r e i n t o a r i g i d h i e r a r c h y as Yen Yfl' does:  In the Ch'an s c h o o l , there are a Great and V e h i c l e , a n o r t h and orthodox Path.  Small  south s e c t , and a heterodox  Those who  study must f o l l o w the h i g h -  est V e h i c l e and r e a l i z e the c o r r e c t dharma eye thus, be e n l i g h t e n e d to the Supreme T r u t h . of the sravaka and the pratyeka-buddha dox.  and  and,  The  fruits  are not o r t h o -  D i s c u s s i n g poetry i s l i k e d i s c u s s i n g Ch'an.  The poetry of Han,  Wei,  are the Supreme T r u t h .  Chin and F l o u r i s h i n g T'ang The poems from the T a - l i per-  i o d [766-780] onward are Small V e h i c l e Ch'an and have a l r e a d y f a l l e n i n t o the second of the Late T'ang are the f r u i t pratyeka-buddha.  truth.  Studying the poetry of Han,  s t u d y i n g the poetry from a f t e r T a - l i , sect.  The poems  of the sravaka and  and F l o u r i s h i n g T'ang, one i s i n the L i n - c h i  Ts'ao-tung  they  Wei, sect;  one i s i n the  AA  Yang Wan-li s t r o n g l y emphasized  that each author has h i s own  s t y l e which sets him a p a r t as an i n d i v i d u a l and,  thus, he would  have found a r i g i d d i v i s i o n of poets i n t o v a r i o u s s e c t s  ex-  163 tremely who  distasteful.  As  t r a n s m i t s e c t s and Yang W a n - l i  had  said:  " I am  had  first  o f T'ang t i m e s .  studied h i s near  only  t h e n moved on  There does not  b u t Yen  Yu  s e t up a d e f i n i t e  which the a s p i r i n g  Studying principal correct, lofty  o f Han  and  through  the  of the  Oh'u  must  through  of the F l o u r i s h i n g  and  must  be  Tz'u  thor-  cessful  i n your  correct  path.  Tu F u a r e  Although  study, a t l e a s t  you  from  the  ferment you  Wu  Then to  be  learn  famous them i n  naturally  may  not  be  you w i l l  not  lose  are  sucthe  4 9  I n h i s Yuan S h i h ^ , o f Yen  T'ang and  then  Su  read.  j u s t a s modern men  a f t e r a l o n g time, enter.  be  the f o u r Yueh-fu  thoroughly  works o f L i Po and  past:  the  n i g h t as a b a s i s ;  L a t e r , choose w i d e l y  b r e a s t and,  t h i s aspect  must a l l be  and  classics.  enlightened  the authors  A n c i e n t Poems, and  Wei  perused  masters  must r e a d  par-  c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r in  f i v e - c h a r a c t e r poems o f L i L i n g and  collected  your  one  au-  modern t o more a n c i e n t  up h i s g o a l s , he  i t m o r n i n g and  t h e two  the  to I m i t a t e the  ought t o make u n d e r s t a n d i n g  in setting  reciting  The  study  contemporaries,  I n e n t e r i n g t h e g a t e , he  the Nineteen  poems. and  thing. and  should  one  . . . First  oughly, read  poet  poetry,  those  seem t o h a v e been any  t i c u l a r d e s i g n i n t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n from authors,  ashamed f o r  schools."  t h e K i a n g s i s c h o o l , and thors  he  Yeh  H s i e h :|~  Yii's l i t e r a r y  violently  attacked  c r i t i c i s m w i t h arguments  that  Y a n g would h a v e  seoonded:  When Y e n Yii s a y s understanding, ing,  that i n studying poetry  he i s c o r r e c t .  he o u g h t t h e n  t o spread  one s h o u l d  When one h a s out i n f r o n t  understand  of himself  t h e poems o f Han, W e i , and t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s , w i t h t h e c o m p l e t e poems o f T'ang and S u n g . then be  certainly  "trusting  t h e hand  t h e Way."  T'ang, t h e n  man i s a b l e  i s used  to hearing  a great  i n hordes,  t o f o l l o w them.  Why  f o r understanding  that  i f one d o e s n o t h a v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  ing  T'ang, t h e r e  demons. he  does n o t hurry  was t h i s  talk  thought!-5"°  then  even i f  i n t h e f o o t s t e p s o f Han, W e i , and  T'ang, a l l p o e t r y  Flourishing  i f he  i s no p l a c e where t h e r e a r e no p o e t r y  p r a j n a , and he w i l l and  then  I think  t h e Han, W e i , and F l o u r i s h -  I f one d o e s have u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  Flourishing  f o r even a  b e f o r e he c a n do t h a t ?  s t e p by s t e p a f t e r  thorough  d o e s he need t o  wait  hastens  boy o r a  i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n -  This i s l i k e  t o w h i c h t h e masses t h r o n g  blind  that i snot  even a f i v e - f o o t  t u t o r of three f a m i l i e s  i t f o r a long time.  fare  should  which i s c a l l e d  t o p i c k out n o t h i n g  a b o u t t h i s and h a s b e e n s k i l l e d ing  will  B u t i f one s p e a k s o f t h e Han, W e i , and  Flourishing village  along  He  be a b l e t o know, h i m s e l f , what  c h o s e n and on what he c a n r e l y ,  be  demons w i l l  turn  Into  n o t do any harm t o t h e Han, W e i ,  T'ang.  How m i s l e a d i n g  and  perverse  o f Y e n Y u and how c o n t r a d i c t o r y was h i s  165 For  Yang W a n - l i , t h e m a j o r  his  selection  masters, was  of masters,  fault  o f Yen  b u t t h a t he d i d n o t  r e m a i n i n g a t t a c h e d t o them.  "Hlnayana"  and  Yu would  Yang W a n - l i  In t h i s  "Mahayana."  not l i e i n  transcend h i s r e s p e c t , Yen  Yu  166  1  ^  SPTK, Su S h i h J |  , ^ h i Chu Pen L e i Tung. P\, Hslen  Sheng. Shih (abbreviated T P H S S ) ^ ohflan 21, p.  jL  a  Ibid.,  5  Han Chli j£|  18, 337-b. , L i n g Yang Hslen Sheng Shih f^J§)  , Yao T a i Shen Shih e d i t i o n , 4  » Chung Hua Shu Chli ^  ^  %J  1910, chuan 1, p. 8-b.  i,  Wei C h ' i n g - c h i h ^ i ^  *\  §  391- .  2  i  ^ s? #1-|T*4 $J3- fjf  » Shih Jen Ytt Hsieh |2j -j|  , Shanghai, 1 9 5 9 ,  /kj  chuan 5. p. 122. 5  s  -^ | l^li t  J[  Kuo S h a o - y f l ^  7  'I  , Chung Kuo Wen Hstleh P ' l P'ing  l&jf^i^  . P- 214.  6  S h i h Jen YU Hsieh, 1 , 8 .  7  CCC, 80-672.  °Taisho, Ching Te Ch'uan Teng Lu ( a b b r e v i a t e d CTCTL) ^ 9  10  '  n  0  *  2076,'vol.  ^  5 1 , P. 264-b.  I b i d . , p. 356-b.  4 - 3 4 - b ; 4-1 b; 42.  a . "The p o o l has grass" i s an a l l u s i o n to Hsieh  Llng-jrun's  famous l i n e "The p o o l bears s p r i n g g r a s s e s " i n h i s poem "Teng Ch'ih Shang Lou" ^ e d  *  J  Shihj>  %h ^%  *  C n  7 ^ s- lg\ %  ^  . " See Ting Pu-pao  ' flan n San Kuo Chin Nan P e l Ch'ao H a  |f) JU  Shu Chli r e p r . , T a i p e i ,  1*1  , Shih  1962, v o l . 2, p. 638.  Chieh  167 "Eyes a l l i n d i s o r d e r " i s from Chuang-tzu, " P ' i e n Mu"