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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Unlocking the word-hoard: a survey of the criticism of old English poetic diction and figuration with… Gilbart, Marjorie Anne 1967

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UNLOCKING THE WORD-HOARD: A SURVEY OF THE CRITICISM OF OLD ENGLISH POETIC DICTION AND FIGURATION, WITH EMPHASIS ON BEOWULF by MARJORIE ANNE GILBART B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1967 1 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a l ] a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n - f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of ENGLISH! The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date ABSTRACT In t h i s t h e s i s I attempt t o t r a c e the development of the c r i t i c i s m of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n from the e a r l i e s t g e n e r a l comments to the p r e s e n t d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s . To do so, I have examined as many statements as p o s s i b l e on these two s p e c i f i c a r e a s as w e l l as many on Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e i n g e n e r a l . Because d i c t i o n and f i g u r -a t i o n were among the l a s t a s p e c t s of Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y t o r e c e i v e s e r i o u s c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n , i t has not been easy t o l o c a t e comments made p r i o r t o the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C h a p t e r I c o v e r s most of the s e e a r l i e s t comments, none of which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e today. The Anglo-Saxon p e r i o d l e f t a few vague h i n t s ; the M i d d l e E n g l i s h p e r i o d l e f t v i r t u a l l y none; and a l t h o u g h the R e n a i s s a n c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e -s e r v a t i o n of most of the O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c m a n u s c r i p t s , i t was more concerned w i t h the r e l i g i o n and h i s t o r y of the p e r i o d than w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e . The l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t n e s s e d a f l u r r y of i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l s c h o l a r s h i p , but the r e s t of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y made l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t comment. C h a p t e r I I shows how the study of p h i l o l o g y , engendered l a r g e l y by C o n t i n e n t a l s c h o l a r s , was the s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t development i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i r s t a d e q u a t e l y e d i t e d t e x t s . However, most n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s e i t h e r d i d not go beyond p h i l o l o g y t o p o e t i c language or devoted t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i i t o the h i s t o r i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l background of the p o e t r y , t r e n d s which were i n k e e p i n g w i t h the n e o - c l a s s i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C h a p t e r I I I shows how the study of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e g a i n e d momentum as soon as E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s c h o l a r s approached the s u b j e c t and i s o l a t e d i t from the g e n e r a l study of Old Germanic l i t e r a t u r e s . However, i t was hampered somewhat by the l a c k of c o n s i s t e n t and e f f e c t i v e c r i t i c a l terms and methods. Perhaps the most u s e f u l accomplishments of t h i s p e r i o d (1881-1921) are the source l i s t s and c a t a l o g u e s , which s u p p l y s o l i d background m a t e r i a l , and the n o t i c e a b l e improvement i n a t t i t u d e toward the p o e t r y . C h a p t e r I V shows how the i n t e r e s t i n p o e t i c language a f t e r the f i r s t was e v e n t u a l l y was f e l t i n a number of impor-t a n t s t u d i e s of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n d u r i n g the 1920's. On the assumption t h a t O l d E n g l i s h poems were c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n s , c r i t i c s began t o study them f o r t h e i r l i t e r a y m e r i t s and t o pass some s o r t of judgment on t h e i r a r t i s t i c achievement. I n a d d i t i o n , the work of J. R. R. T o l k i e n was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r redeeming the l i t e r a r y . i e p u t a t i o n of Beowulf, and, by e x t e n -s i o n , much o t h e r O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . C h a p t e r V shows how much was l e a r n e d d u r i n g the 1950's about the n a t u r e of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n . The o r a l -f o r m u l a i c t h e o r y , once i t was m o d i f i e d , p r o v i d e d a r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the development of many i d e n t i c a l and s i m i l a r l i n e s i n O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . Other d i c t i o n s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i i i t h a t o f Brodeur, showed t h a t i n s p i t e o f t r a d i t i o n a l language, o r i g i n a l i t y was more than p o s s i b l e , as w i t n e s s e d i n the com-pounds and v a r i a t i o n s of Beowulf. O t h e r s t u d i e s showed t h a t much of the p o e t i c d i c t i o n which was e a r l i e r c a l l e d m e t a p h o r i c a l i s r e a l l y e i t h e r l i t e r a l o r , i f f i g u r a t i v e , metonymical. Yet o t h e r s t u d i e s found i n Beowulf the f i g u r a t i o n and symbolism of r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . Thus by the 1960's c r i t i c s were a b l e t o approach Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y almost as c o n f i d e n t l y as t h e y would approach any o t h e r p e r i o d of E n g l i s h p o e t r y . The two appendices t o the t h e s i s c oncern the d e v e l o p -ment of a t t i t u d e and comment about two i m p o r t a n t O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c d e v i c e s : the ken n i n g and v a r i a t i o n . Appendix A shows the growth of p r e c i s i o n i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of Old Norse p o e t i c a p p e l l a t i o n s , and appendix B shows the importance of v a r i a t i o n as a key t o Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e . Both t h e s e a p p e n d i c e s s u p p o r t the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t methods and i n f o r m a t i o n i n Ol d E n g l i s h s t u d i e s are adequate enough now t h a t the j o b of: f u l l p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m i s p o s s i b l e . i v PREFACE My o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s was to p r e s e n t a survey of the c r i t i c i s m of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e . However, months of r e a d i n g r e v e a l e d the h i t h e r t o unsuspected scope of the t o p i c , and I was o b l i g e d t o prune i t r a t h e r d r a s t i c a l l y . F i r s t , I r e s t r i c t e d i t t o c r i t i c i s m i n E n g l i s h , except f o r p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t n o n - E n g l i s h works (the d e c i s i o n here was a l s o p r a c t i -c a l i n t h a t much f o r e i g n c r i t i c i s m , e s p e c i a l l y of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n ) . Second, I e x c l u d e d c r i t i c i s m of metre, except where i t i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f s t u d i e s of d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n . C o p i o u s amounts have been and s t i l l are b e i n g w r i t t e n on the n a t u r e of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c rhythm; and s i n c e the r e s u l t s are l a r g e l y i n c o n c l u s i v e , and s i n c e some e x c e l l e n t summaries of the problem are a v a i l a b l e , , ^ i t seemed unn e c e s s a r y to t h r a s h out the problem a g a i n . F i n a l l y , I l i m i t e d the survey t o works on Beowulf, except where o t h e r poems have been the f i r s t t o a t t r a c t new, or r e l a t i v e l y new, c r i t i c a l methods. The m otive here i s l a r g e l y a e s t h e t i c , to a v o i d as much as p o s s i b l e monotonous r e i t e r a t i o n of the same t h e o r i e s , s i n c e f o r the most p a r t new methods were a p p l i e d f i r s t t o Beowulf and then to o t h e r Old E n g l i s h poems. K a l u z a , A S h o r t H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h V e r s i f i c a t i o n , from  the E a r l i e s t Times to the P r e s e n t Day, t r a n s . A. C. Dunstan (London: George A l l e n , 1911). Jakob S c h i p p e r , A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h V e r s i f i c a t i o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1910). John C o l l i n s Pope, The Rhythm of Beowulf (New Haven: Y a l e Univ. P r e s s , 1942). I a l s o w i s h to thank Dr. P. M. Swan of the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n s , and e s p e c i a l l y my t h e s i s d i r e c t o r , Dr. M e r e d i t h Thompson, bo t h f o r h i s k i n d a d v i c e and encouragement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s and f o r h i s t e a c h i n g me through c l a s s e s and seminars how to l o v e the b e a u t i e s of O ld E n g l i s h p o e t r y . TABLE OF CONTENTS Ghapter .Page INTRODUCTION 1 I. THE EARLIEST COMMENTS: 650-1786 6 II . EARLY CRITICISM AND THE INTEREST IN BEOWULF: 1786--1881 28 I I I . THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN ENGLISH CRITICISM OF OLD ENGLISH POETIC STYLE: 1881-1921 65 IV. 'STANDARD TEXTS AND THE BEGINNING OF LITERARY EVALUATION: 1921-1953 107 A. Klaeber and the Concentration on Text and Style: 1922-1935 . . . . . . . . 108 B. Tolkien and Literary Evaluation: 1936-1953 135 V. DETAILED CRITICISM AND THE EMERGENCE OF AN OLD ENGLISH AESTHETIC: 1953-1965 \ ." 159 SOME CONCLUSIONS 214 SOURCES CONSULTED . . . 223 APPENDIX A: THE PROBLEM OF OLD NORSE POETIC APPELLATIONS 237 APPENDIX B: A NOTE ON VARIATION 249 INTRODUCTION The s t u d y of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n i s now a f u l l y developed branch of Anglo-Saxon s t u d i e s , and i t i s my i n t e n t i o n in- t h i s t h e s i s t o r e v i e w the p a i n f u l p r o c e s s by which i t has reached t h i s l e v e l of d e v e l o p -ment. Summaries of O l d E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p are not new. As e a r l y as 1807 James Ingram p r e s e n t e d a s h o r t e u l o g y on the v a l u a b l e work of h i s predecessors.''" J.M. Kemble p r e s e n t e d i n o 1834 a b r i e f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of s c h o l a r s h i p , as d i d I s a a c 3 D i s r a e l i i n 1841. Joseph Bosworth p r e s e n t e d a b i b l i o g r a p h y of work t o date i n f o o t n o t e s t o h i s D i c t i o n a r y , 1838;^ and most e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n c l u d e d some s o r t of b i b l i o g r a p h y or r e v i e w of s c h o l a r s h i p . P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t works- of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y are R i c h a r d Wulker's G r u n d r i s s z u r G e s c h i c h t e d e r a n q e l s a c h s i s c h e n  L i t e r a t u r , 1885, which c o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e b i b l i o g r a p h i e s and summaries of c r i t i c i s m , and the two s t u d i e s of O l d E n g l i s h metre by K a l u z a , 1894, and Schipper," 1895. The f i r s t p a r t of the ^An I n a u g u r a l L e c t u r e on the U t i l i t y of Anglo-Saxon  L i t e r a t u r e ( O x f o r d ) . ' o The Gentleman's Magazine, V o l . I n.s;', p. 392. o A m e n i t i e s of L i t e r a t u r e , new ed. B. D i s r a e l i , V o l . I (London, 1859). ^A D i c t i o n a r y of the Anglo-Saxon Language (London). 2 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y saw a f e r v o u r of s c h o l a r s h i p summary: T i n k e r ' s c r i t i c a l b i b l i o g r a p h y of Beowulf t r a n s l a t i o n s , 1903; E l e a n o r Adams' complete r e v i e w of Old E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p t o the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 1917; R.W. Chambers' s t u d i e s of W i d s i t h and Beowulf, 1912 and 1921,- t o l i s t o n l y a few of the most s i g n i f i -c a n t . But c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent i s any s u r v e y of d i c t i o n and imagery--even ann o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h i e s of the p e r i o d tended t o i g n o r e t h e s e s u b j e c t s , u n l e s s a work were p r e d o m i n a t e l y devoted t o e i t h e r o r b o t h . A c t u a l l y , f o r c r i t i c a l comment p r i o r t o 1920 t h i s d e f i c i e n c y i n b i b l i o g r a p h i e s has been a s e r i o u s h a n d i c a p t o r e -s e a r c h . I t has not been p o s s i b l e t o l o o k a t e v e r y t h i n g w r i t t e n on O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , so t h a t much m a t e r i a l , i g n o r e d or m i s l e a d -i n g l y d e s c r i b e d i n b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , I have d i s c o v e r e d o n l y by a c c i d e n t a l c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e or by l e a f i n g t h rough a v a i l a b l e books. H e u s i n k v e l d and Basche^ p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h a t t h e y tend to l i s t o n l y the most r e c e n t , not the o r i g i n a l , p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s . There i s a sore need f o r a f u l l b i b l i o g r a p h y of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m . More r e c e n t l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s , s h o r t summaries of d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n have appeared, but none of any scope; the f u l l e s t , by S t a n l e y G r e e n f i e l d , surveys o n l y the ~> A r t h u r H. H e u s i n k v e l d and Edwin J . Basche, A B i b l i o -g r a p h i c a l Guide t o O l d E n g l i s h , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa H u m a n i s t i c S e r i e s , IV, 5 (Iowa C i t y : Iowa U n i v . , 1931). 3 b r o a d e s t developments.^ Even the work c l o s e s t i n s p i r i t t o my t h e s i s , " C r i t i c a l E s t i m a t e s of Beowulf from the E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y t o the P r e s e n t , " i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n m a t e r i a l and has been of l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e t o me, l a r g e l y because i t attempts t o ig n o r e s c h o l a r s h i p and t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n l y on c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l of the whole poem and i t s l a r g e r p a r t s . There i s y e t t o be pub-l i s h e d any f u l l account of the c r i t i c i s m of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c language. I n a way, t h e n , my t h e s i s w i l l resemble a c r a z y - q u i l t , an arrangement of b i t s of m a t e r i a l — m u c h c u t from new s t u f f , some from o l d and ready-made i t e m s . As f o r d e s i g n , i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the c r i t i c i s m f a l l s i n t o r a t h e r neat c h r o n o l o g i c a l b l o c k s . For example, the a t t i t u d e s and comments r e g a r d i n g Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y u n t i l the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y group themselves i n t o u n i t s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g those g e n e r a l l y a s s i g n e d t o E n g l i s h l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , even though the o p i n i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e two groups may d i f f e r . S i m i l a r l y , the c r i t i c i s m s i n c e 1880 a l s o d i v i d e s i t s e l f i n t o l o g i c a l segments, a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n key p u b l i c a -t i o n s : F.B. Gummere's 1881 d i s s e r t a t i o n , The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor; R. W. Chambers' book, Beowulf, an I n t r o d u c t i o n ( w i t h i m p o r t a n t s u b d i v i s i o n s i n 1922 w i t h K l a e b e r ' s e d i t i o n of Beowulf, and i n 1936 w i t h T o l k i e n ' s l e c t u r e , "Beowulf: The Monsters and the ^A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y of O l d E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (New York: New York U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 69-79. W i l l i a m F l o y d Helmer, D i s s . U n i v . of P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1963. 4 C r i t i c s " ) ; and F.P. Magoun's 1953 e s s a y , "The O r a l - F o r m u l a i c C h a r a c t e r of Anglo-Saxon N a r r a t i v e P o e t r y . " That t h e r e i s r e -markably l i t t l e o v e r l a p p i n g of these d i v i s i o n s i s owing i n p a r t , no doubt, t o the r e l a t i v e s m a l l n e s s of the O l d E n g l i s h c r i t i c a l community and t o the f a c t t h a t O l d E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p even now seems t o r e l y on the surges of energy g e n e r a t e d by c e r t a i n g i f t e d s c h o l a r s . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o i n d i c a t e somewhat the scope of the terms I have used i n the t i t l e . " C r i t i c i s m " I do not use t o mean p o e t i c t h e o r y i n i t s a b s t r a c t - p h i l o s o p h i c a l sense. U n t i l r e c e n t l y O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y has been to o i m p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d t o make most t h e o r e t i c a l comment more th a n s p e c u l a t i v e . B e s i d e s , " c r i t i c a l t h e o r y " i m p l i e s l a r g e r i s s u e s than the machinery of p o e t r y . Thus " c r i t i c i s m " here w i l l c o n s i s t of much b a s i c s c h o l a r s h i p and i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e a t t i t u d e as w e l l as comment, s i n c e the vague remarks s c a t t e r e d t hroughout the p e r i o d from 650 t o 1786 are a lmost meaningless w i t h o u t some i n d i c a t i o n of e i t h e r why or how t h e y are t y p i c a l or e x c e p t i o n a l i n the g e n e r a l development of O l d E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p and c r i t i c i s m . W i th the advent of s t u d i e s of Germanic p h i l o l o g y , myth and h i s t o r y d u r i n g the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y , d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n g r a d u a l l y came under s c r u t i n y , so t h a t by the end of the c e n t u r y t h e y had more or l e s s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own c r i t i c a l c o n t i n u i t y . " D i c t i o n " I use i n i t s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d sense of s e l e c -t i o n of words, s p e c i f i c a l l y as t h e y are used i n p o e t r y t o c r e a t e images and a c h i e v e c e r t a i n e m o t i o n a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f e c t s . 5 " F i g u r a t i o n " I use as b r o a d l y as p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e a l l t r o p e s and s y n t a c t i c a l f i g u r e s . On the whole, however, i t has been d i f f i c u l t t o draw l i n e s between these v a r i o u s elements of s t y l e , j u s t as i t has been d i f f i c u l t t o draw l i n e s between elements of s t y l e and o t h e r f a c e t s of c r i t i c i s m - - f o r example, between s t u d i e s of d i c t i o n and pure p h i l o l o g y , between l a r g e r s y n t a c t i c a l phenomena and s p e c i f i c a l l y p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s , between f i g u r a t i v e language, symbolism and o v e r - a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n many cases my s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l may appear q u i t e a r b i t r a r y ; but I have t r i e d t o choose a s u f f i c i e n t l y broad and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e range t o g i v e as complete and coherent a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e of the development i n s t u d i e s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n a n d ' f i g u r a t i o n . 6 CHAPTER I THE EARLIEST COMMENTS: 650-1786 The T e u t o n i c t r i b e s w hich invaded and s e t t l e d E n g l a n d from the m i d d l e of the f i f t h century' brought w i t h them a f l o u r -i s h i n g o r a l p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , one cannot know e x a c t l y ' w h a t t h i s p o e t r y was l i k e , f o r i t i s w i t h o u t contem-p o r a r y r e c o r d or comment. O n l y a f t e r the C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of England and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the L a t i n a l p h a b e t d i d the A n g l o -Saxons r e c o r d t h e i r n a t i v e p o e t r y . But C h r i s t i a n - L a t i n l e a r n i n g a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a new r h e t o r i c and a new s e t of p o e t i c themes t o those poets who r e c e i v e d a f o r m a l monastic e d u c a t i o n . The e x a c t r e l a t i o n between the n a t i v e and c l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n v o c a b u l a r y and r h e t o r i c w i l l p r o b a b l y remain an i n s o l u b l e c r i t i c a l problem (.although comparison w i t h L a t i n p o e t r y and the p o e t r y of o t h e r T e u t o n i c languages shows the O l d E n g l i s h t o be p r e d o m i n a t e l y Germanic i n i t s form and d e v i c e s ) ; f o r the Anglo-Saxons l e f t o n l y the most i n c i d e n t a l of t h e o r e t i c a l comment r e g a r d i n g the d i c t i o n and f i g u r e s of t h e i r n a t i v e p o e t r y and the a d a p t a t i o n of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the p o e t r y of the new f a i t h . O b v i o u s l y the " n a t i v e p o e t i c was e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g and p o p u l a r - - f o r f o u r hundred y e a r s the Anglo-Saxons produced a body of p o e t r y a m a z i n g l y homogeneous i n i t s s t y l e , and employing the words and f i g u r e s of the pagan Germanic t r a d i t i o n . They f r e e l y 7 paraphrased and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h i s p o e t i c the S c r i p t u r e s , S a i n t s ' l i v e s and a l l e g o r i e s of the new r e l i g i o n , and even adopted c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a l l i t e r a t i v e r h e t o r i c t o p r o v i d e the i m p r e s s i v e cadences of l a t e r h o m i l e t i c p r o s e , such as t h a t of A E l f r i c (995?-1020). That the n a t i v e p o e t r y was w e l l - l o v e d and the man admired and esteemed who c o u l d compose i t s k i l f u l l y , i s seen i n the wi d e - s p r e a d p r a c t i c e of the c r a f t of p o e t r y and the p a r t i c u l a r l y honoured p o s i t i o n of the scop, or c o u r t poet. W i d s i t h , the wandering scop, bestowed w i t h g i f t s i n r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s t a l e n t s ; Deor, the u n f o r t u n a t e scop, r e p l a c e d i n h i s l o r d ' s f a v o u r by a n o t h e r ; the scop of H e o r o t , s i n g e r of songs and c h i e f t e l l e r of l a y s - - t h e s e are a l l men who f o r m a l l y p r a c t i c e d the c r a f t of song and s t o r y . But o t h e r s d i d so i n f o r m a l l y - -p o s s i b l y the w a r r i o r s g a t h e r e d i n Heorot a f t e r the d e s t r u c t i o n of G r e n d e l , Caedmon's f e l l o w s p a s s i n g the harp a t an e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and even the monks i n the monasteries.-'- A l s o some of the most i m p r e s s i v e persons of the Anglo-Saxon p e r i o d p r a c t i c e d the n a t i v e p o e t i c a r t . The l e a r n e d A l d h e l m (6409-709) was s k i l l e d i n n a t i v e p o e t r y and used h i s t a l e n t s t o win the f a v o u r of h i s f l o c k by s t a n d i n g on a b r i d g e and s i n g i n g i n m i n s t r e l f a s h i o n a f t e r Mass.^ -'-Native p o e t r y was so p o p u l a r i n the m o n a s t e r i e s t h a t i n 797 A l c u i n (735-804) wrote t o Hygebald,- B i s h o p of L i n d i s f a r n e : "When p r i e s t s d i n e t o g e t h e r l e t the word of God be r e a d . I t i s f i t t i n g on such o c c a s i o n s t o l i s t e n t o a r e a d e r , n o t to a h a r p i s t , t o the d i s c o u r s e s of the f a t h e r s , not t o the poems of the heathen. What has I n g e l d t o do w i t h C h r i s t 9 " (Quoted i n H. Munro Chadwick, The H e r o i c Age [Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1926], p. 4 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m of Malmesbury, q u o t i n g from the now-lost 8 The V e n e r a b l e Bede (673?-735) i n e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r y Northumbria and K i n g A l f r e d i n m i d - n i n t h c e n t u r y Wessex are both r e p u t e d to 3 have l o v e d and been e x p e r t i n the p r a c t i c e of v e r n a c u l a r p o e t r y . F i n a l l y , of c o u r s e , the o l d n a t i v e v e r s e was s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l -l o v e d t o be c o p i e d as l a t e as the e a r l y e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y and t o p r o v i d e models of e x p r e s s i o n f o r a poem i n the Old E n g l i s h C h r o n i c l e as l a t e as 1065 and even f o r a few t w e l f t h c e n t u r y poems. But p o p u l a r as t h i s v e r n a c u l a r p o e t r y was, no one d u r i n g the Anglo-Saxon p e r i o d e v e r committed t o paper i t s ' ' p o e t i c rule's, 4 the p r i n c i p l e s c o n t r o l l i n g i t s d i c t i o n and f i g u r e s . C e r t a i n l y bOPks were s t u d i e d and books were w r i t t e n on metre and r h e t o r i c : Aldhelm's L e t t e r t o A c i r c i u s , 695 (a t r e a t i s e on L a t i n m e t r e ) , and Bede's De A r t e M e t r i c a and De Schematibus e t T r o p i s , a l l of w h i c h , a l t h o u g h t h e y a t t e s t t o an i n t e r e s t i n the f o r m a l i t i e s of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , are concerned w i t h L a t i n metre and r h e t o r i c , n o t a t a l l w i t h those of n a t i v e E n g l i s h p o e t r y . Thus one must conclude t h a t c r i t i c i s m and p o p u l a r p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e d two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n s . O l d E n g l i s h w r i t i n g s themselves throw out s u g g e s t i v e h i n t s about the p r i n c i p l e s of p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n . Bede w r i t e s Handboc of K i n g A l f r e d (C. E. W r i g h t , The . C u l t i v a t i o n of Saga i n Anglo-Saxon England [ E d i n b u r g h : O l i v e r and Boyd, 1939], pp. 21-3). ^The o n l y v e r n a c u l a r poem of Bede's which i s e x t a n t i s the f i v e - l i n e death-bed song r e c o r d e d by h i s d i s c i p l e C u t h b e r t ; a l -though K i n g A l f r e d i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l poems, none can a b s o l u t e l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o him. 4The S k a l d s k a p a r m a l p a r t of the Prose Edda of S n o r r i 9 of Caedmon, the I l l i t e r a t e s t a b l e - h a n d who would f l e e e n t e r t a i n -ments when he saw the h a r p coming, l e s t he be c a l l e d upon to make v e r s e s w i t h the r e s t of the company, and who one n i g h t r e c e i v e d the g i f t w hich made him e a r l i e s t among s i n g e r s of C h r i s t i a n p o e t r y i n E n g l i s h . From Bede's account we l e a r n t h a t t o the words which came to Caedmon i n h i s dream he "sona monig word i n baet i l c e gemet. Gode wyrcTes songes togebeodde. We a l s o l e a r n t h a t Caedmon was not a l e t t e r e d poet who t r a n s l a t e d the B i b l e , but an o r a l s i n g e r to-whom the S c r i p t u r e s were i n t e r p r e t e d , and who i n t u r n r u m i n a t e d over what he had l e a r n e d so t h a t the n e x t day he might d e l i v e r p a r a p h r a s e d v e r s i o n s of them, d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d and extempore, "mid ba maestan s w e t n i s s e ond i n b r y d n i s s e geglaencde" i n E n g l i s h s c o p g e r e o r d e , the language of c o u r t l y p o e t r y . ^ S t u r l u s s o n (1179-1241)- c o n t a i n s the most i m p o r t a n t e a r l y account of the d i c t i o n and f i g u r e s of e a r l y Germanic p o e t r y , s p e c i f i c a l l y o f t h a t o r n a t e (almost baroque) a r t of the Old I c e l a n d i c s k a l d . W hile i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e and e f f e c t s k a l d i c p o e t r y d i f f e r s from e a r l i e r I c e l a n d i c and Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y , the c a t e g o r i e s which S n o r r i d e t e r m i n e s f o r the s k a l d i c d i c t i o n are a l l found i n Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y . However, the a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the O l d I c e -l a n d i c terms to O l d E n g l i s h has not met w i t h u n i v e r s a l c r i t i c a l agreement. See below, appendix A. -'The O l d E n g l i s h V e r s i o n of Bede's E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y  of the E n g l i s h P e o p l e , ed. and t r a n s . Thomas M i l l e r , The E a r l y E n g l i s h T ext S o c i e t y , o r i g i n a l s e r i e s No. 96, p a r t 1, s e c t i o n 2 (London: O x f o r d Univ. P r e s s , 1959), p. 344. ^ I b i d . , p. 342. For a d i s c u s s i o n of Caedmon as an o r a l s i n g e r , see F. P. Magoun, J r . , "Bede's S t o r y of Caedmon: The Case H i s t o r y of an Anglo-Saxon O r a l S i n g e r , " Speculum, XXX (1955), 49-63; d i s c u s s e d below, chapt. V, p. 166. 10 The n a t u r e of t h i s scopqereorde and the s k i l l s v a l u e d i n a ' l a y - c r a f t y * man are b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n the passage i n Beowulf i n w hich the w a r r i o r s e n t e r t a i n themselves w h i l e r e t u r n i n g from G r e n d e l ' s mere: Hwilum c y n i n g e s pegn, guma g i l p h l a e d e n , g i d d a gemyndig, se #e e a l f e l a ealdgesegena worn gemunde, word 5ber f a n d so^e gebunden; secg e f t ongan slcf Beowulfes s n y t t r u m s t y r i a n ond on sped wrecan s p e l gerade wordum w r i x l a n ; ^ Here a k i n g ' s thane, a p p a r e n t l y , but not c e r t a i n l y , the scop him-s e l f , c o u l d draw from a t r a d i t i o n a l body of m a t e r i a l and themes and f i n d o t h e r words w i t h which t o frame a t a l e of the r e c e n t e x p l o i t s of Beowulf, i n the same impromptu manner as Caedmon p r a i s i n g the K i n g of Heaven or W i d s i t h e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of the g r a c i o u s and g o l d - a d o r n e d queen E a l h h i l d . The Beowulf poet here p r a i s e s the s k i l l i n v o l v e d i n l i n k i n g and v a r y i n g words--o b v i o u s l y the most d i s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t of the p o e t i c d e l i v e r y — but u n f o r t u n a t e l y he does not t e l l us what the l i n k s and v a r i a -t i o n s a r e , or how t h e y f u n c t i o n . Honoured though t h e scop was i n a r i s t o c r a t i c Anglo-Saxon s o c i e t y , and p o p u l a r though h i s p o e t r y and i t s r e l i g i o u s c o u n t e r p a r t were, we f i n d no f u r t h e r contemporary comment on the p r i n c i p l e s of Old E n g l i s h d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n ; the r e s t we must deduce from the poems t h e m s e l v e s . ' F r . K l a e b e r , ed., Beowulf and the F i g h t a t F i n n s b u r q , 3rd ed. ( B o s t o n : Heath, 1950), 11. 867-73. A l l r e f e r e n c e s t o Beowulf, W i d s i t h , Deor and' F i n n s b u r q w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n . R e f e r e n c e s t o a l l o t h e r Old E n g l i s h poems w i l l be from George P. Krapp and E l l i o t t V. K. Dobbie, eds., The Anglo-Saxon P o e t i c  R e c o r d s , 6 v o l s . (New York: Columbia U n i v . P r e s s , 1931-53); 11 One wonders how much of the t r a d i t i o n a l d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n used i n the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , even p r i o r t o the Norman Conquest, was f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d by w r i t e r s and s c r i b e s , s i n c e t h e s e a s p e c t s of the p o e t r y went i n t o r a p i d d e c l i n e a f t e r 8 1 0 6 6 . I n 1 0 6 5 the C h r o n i c l e poem The Death of Edward s t i l l c o n t a i n s the p o e t i c e p i t h e t , a l t h o u g h much reduced i n f r e -quency and e f f e c t i v e n e s s ; but by 1100 the poem Durham l a c k s the d i s t i n c t i v e and v a r i e d p o e t i c compound, a l t h o u g h i t i s c o m p l e t e l y n a t i v e i n o t h e r a s p e c t s of s t y l e . S i m i l a r l y , two t w e l f t h cen-t u r y poems, Grave (c. 1 1 5 0 ) and the W o r c e s t e r Fragments (c. 1 1 7 0 ) are f u l l y i n the n a t i v e a l l i t e r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n and y e t a l l but l a c k t h e p o e t i c and a r c h a i c compounds ( o n l y eorcThus, which i s found a l s o i n Layamon's B r u t , i s from the O l d E n g l i s h ) . ^ F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of the d e c l i n e of the d i c t i o n and f i g u r e s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s seen i n Henry of Huntingdon's c l a i m to p r e s e n t i n h i s H i s t o r y (c. 1 1 2 5 - 1 1 3 0 ) a word-for-word t r a n s -l a t i o n of Brunanburh "so t h a t we may l e a r n from the w e i g h t of the words the w e i g ht of t h e deeds and s p i r i t of t h a t r a c e . " ^ h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d ASPR. L i n e r e f e r e n c e s w i l l f o l l o w each q u o t a t i o n i n the t e x t and u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d w i l l be from Beowulf. 8 I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t not o n l y were the more c o l o u r f u l a s p e c t s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e - - t h e p o e t i c com-pound and v a r i a t i o n - - t h e f i r s t t o go out o f p r a c t i c e , t h e y were a l s o about the l a s t to be a d e q u a t e l y s t u d i e d and under-st o o d by l a t e r s c h o l a r s ; see appendix B, below. 9 j . P. Oakden, A l l i t e r a t i v e P o e t r y i n M i d d l e E n g l i s h : A  Survey of T r a d i t i o n s , V o l ! I T ( M a n c h e s t e r : U n i v . o f Manchester P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 1 6 9 . l u H e n r i c i A r c h i c i a c o n i H u n t i n d o n i e n s i s , H i s t o r i a r u m L i b r i  Octo (London, 1 5 9 6 ) , l e a f 204 [ m i s p r i n t f o r 203J , . A l l q u o t a t i o n s 12 However, Henry seems r e l u c t a n t t o c a l l Brunanburh a poem, but r a t h e r "Somewhat i n the manner of song" ("quasi c a r m i n i s modo"); he remarks on "the s t r a n g e words and f i g u r e s used" ( " e x t r a n e i s t a m v e r b i s quam f i g u r i s u s i " ) ; and he does not g i v e a word-for-word t r a n s l a t i o n . I n s t e a d , he wrongly t r a n s l a t e s c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i o n s (or t r a n s l a t e s them a c c o r d i n g t o the usage of h i s day) and g e n e r a l l y omits the most d i s t i n c t i v e O l d E n g l i s h r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e — v a r i a t i o n . Examples of f a u l t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of secqa swate as 'the men sweated' and g l a d o f e r qrundas as 'cheered the depths.' As f o r v a r i a t i o n , "and h i s b r o b o r eac / Eadmund a e b e l i n g " (11. 2-3) he s i m p l i f i e s to " and h i s b r o t h e r Edmund." S i m i l a r l y , the v a r i a t i o n o f both s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i n S w i l c e pa gebrobor begen aetsomme c y n i n g and a e b e l i n g , cyddfe sohten We s seaxena l a n d . (11. 5 7 - 9 ) he s i m p l i f i e s to " a f t e r w a r d s b o t h b r o t h e r s r e t u r n e d t o Wessex." He a l s o r educes the b e a s t s of b a t t l e theme to a s i m p l e enumera-t i o n of b e a s t s , w i t h a l l v a r i a t i o n o m i t t e d except hyrned nebban. A k i t e appears ( a p p a r e n t l y a t r a n s l a t i o n f o r earn a e f t a n h w i t ) , a l s o a dog ( a p p a r e n t l y a t r a n s l a t i o n of d e a r ) . F i n a l l y , the h i g h l y p o e t i c f i g u r e f o r sward, hamora l a f a n , i s l o s t c o m p l e t e l y i n some c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g "the s u r v i v o r s of the house of the dead Edward." Thus such d i f f i c u l t i e s as Henry e n c o u n t e r e d i n h i s ' t r a n s l a t i o n ' bear e l o q u e n t w i t n e s s t o the d e c l i n e i n the under-. from Henry are from the bottom r e c t o and t o p v e r s o of t h i s l e a f ; aby c o r r u p t i o n s of L a t i n are due t o the e d i t i o n used; the t r a n s -l a t i o n s a re by P. M. Swan, U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan. 13 s t a n d i n g of Old E n g l i s h language and f i g u r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e Brunanburh i s not b a s i c a l l y a complex poem. A l t h o u g h e x t e r n a l c r i t i c a l comment on O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s v i r t u a l l y l a c k i n g d u r i n g the M i d d l e E n g l i s h p e r i o d , the a l l i t e r a t i v e p o e t r y which o c c u r s s p o r a d i c a l l y a t t h i s time shows i n v a r y i n g degrees the p e r s i s t e n c e of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . However, even the h i g h l y a l l i t e r a t i v e Layamon's B r u t of the e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y , i n s p i t e of the nominal and a d j e c t i v a l compounds. These are much l e s s f r e q u e n t i n Layamon than i n Beowulf, are no more c o l o u r f u l o f t e n than s i m p l e words and are i n many cases d e r i v e d from O l d E n g l i s h prose r a t h e r than p o e t r y (e.g., a l d o r f a e d e r , wunderweorc). The B r u t c o n t a i n s some compounds which d e r i v e from the O l d E n g l i s h t r a d l d i t i o n ( e . g . , eor^hus and g o l d f a h ) , but i t does not c o n t a i n the kenning type of compound such as beaduleoma. C e r t a i n p o e t i c words f o r ' k n i g h t ' and 'sea' o c c u r d u r i n g the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a l l i t e r a t i v e r e v i v a l : r e n k , segqe, wye, f r e k e , gome, f l o d and brymme, a l l of which have p o e t i c e q u i v a l e n t s i n O l d E n g l i s h . ^ 2 B u ^ o n -^ne whole, the Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c p e r s i s t s l o n g e s t i n b a s i c a l l i t e r a t i o n (C. L. Wrenn su g g e s t s p r o b a b l y as a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of p e r s i s t e n t l a n g -uage h a b i t s and speech p a t t e r n s - ^ ) ? r a t h e r than i n the d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n . n O a k d e n , pp. 131-2. 1 2 I b i d . , pp. 183-5. 1 3"On the C o n t i n u i t y of E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " A n g l i a , LXXVI (1958), 51-2. 14 Thus Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y as such faded from men's minds as the language was f o r g o t t e n and as the m a n u s c r i p t s were g r a -d u a l l y pushed back f u r t h e r i n t o the dark c o r n e r s of m o n a s t i c l i b r a r i e s . E a r l y Anglo-Saxon s c h o l a r s , t o be s u r e , b e l i e v e d i n the l e g e n d t h a t the minks of T a v i s t o c k Abbey f o r m a l l y t r i e d t o p r e s e r v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the Anglo-Saxon language."'" 4 However, l a t e r s t u d e n t s d i s m i s s the e v i d e n c e f o r such a t r a d i t i o n 15 as too f l i m s y t o be of consequence. I t took the combined e f f e c t s of the R e n a i s s a n c e , the r e f o r m a t i o n of the E n g l i s h c h u r c h and the d i s s o l u t i o n of the m o n a s t e r i e s to see t h a t the m a n u s c r i p t s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y were e v e n t u a l l y "brought owte of d e a d e l y darkenes t o l y v e l y l i g h t e . . . t o r e c y v e l i k e thankes o f the p o s t e r i t e , " 1 6 and t o r e c e i v e the slow p r o c e s s e s of s c h o l a r -s h i p w h i c h would e v e n t u a l l y make the p o e t r y once more c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . One must not u n d e r e s t i m a t e the r e l i g i o u s and p a t r i o t i c z e a l of the m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; f o r i n the absence of a p u r e l y l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t i n n a t i v e a n t i q u i t i e s , one must g i v e c r e d i t to the h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s of such g r e a t James Ingram, An I n a u g u r a l L e c t u r e on the U t i l i t y of  Anglo-Saxon L i t e r a t u r e ( O x f o r d , 1807) , p~. 5~! - ^ E l e a n o r Adams, O l d Enqli.sh S c h o l a r s h i p i n England  from 1566-1800, Y a l e S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , V o l . LV (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v. P r e s s , 1917), pp. 21-3. John L e l a n d , The Laboryeuse J o u r n e y of John L e l a n d , quoted i n R o b i n F l o w e r , "Lawrence N o w e l l and the D i s c o v e r y of England i n Tudor Times," P r o c e e d i n g s of the B r i t i s h Academy, XXI (1935), 47-8/ 15 a n t i q u a r i a n s and c o l l e c t o r s as John L e l a n d (1506-1552), Lawrence N o w e l l (d. 1576), Matthew Parker (1504-1575) and S i r R o b e r t Bruce C o t t o n (1571-1631), who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e s e r v i n g most o f the p o e t i c documents we now have. R e l i g i o n and p a t r i o t i s m (not l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y ) b e i n g the c h i e f m o t i v e s f o r c o l l e c t i n g the m a n u s c r i p t s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the f i r s t O l d E n g l i s h p u b l i c a t i o n s were of a n o n - l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r ^ and t h a t Henry of Huntingdon's comment on the s t r a n g e words and f i g u r e s of Brunanburh a p p a r e n t l y passed u n n o t i c e d a f t e r the 1596 e d i t i o n of h i s H i s t o r y . I n s p i t e of the l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n n a t i v e l i t e r a r y a n t i q u i t i e s d u r i n g most of the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a c t i v i t y i n o t h e r a n t i q u a r i a n f i e l d s r e s u l t e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s d i c t i o n a r i e s and e t y m o l o g i e s , i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an A n g l o -Saxon l e c t u r e s h i p a t Cambridge i n 1639, 1 9 and i n the p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1643 of Bede's E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y and The Anglo-Saxon  C h r o n i c l e , making a v a i l a b l e Caedmon's Hymn and the v a r i o u s poems of the C h r o n i c l e • Then i n 1651 the g r e a t Dutch p h i l o l o g i s t 17 The f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of A n g l o - S a x o n m a t e r i a l s was by Matthew P a r k e r , A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , A T e s t i m o n i e of  A n t i g u i t y (1566 or 1567). The volume c o n t a i n s , a l l i n O l d E n g l i s h , the Cr e e d , the Lord's P r a y e r , some S c r i p t u r e s , some e p i s t l e s and a h o m i l y , and was i n t e n d e d to support A n g l i c a n d o c t r i n a l views ( H a r r i s o n Ross S t e e v e s , Learned S o c i e t i e s and E n g l i s h L i t e r a y S c h o l a r s h i p i n Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d  S t a t e s [New York: Columbia Univ. P r e s s , 1913], pp. 8-9). . 1 8 See above, pp. 11-12. - ^ A c t u a l l y , no l e c t u r e was ever d e l i v e r e d , p r o b a b l y because no adequate grammar or d i c t i o n a r y was a v a i l a b l e f o r the s t u d e n t s (Adams, p. 52). D e t a i l e d accounts' of the s c h o l a r s h i p o f t h i s p e r i o d can be found i n Adams, chapt. I I and S t e e v e s , chapt. I I . 16 F r a n c i s c u s J u n i u s (1597-1677) d i s c o v e r e d i n the l i b r a r y of A r c h b i s h o p U s s h e r a codex of O l d E n g l i s h poems on O l d Testament s u b j e c t s , which he d i d not doubt were the u t t e r a n c e s of the poet Caedmon, t o whom Bede had r e f e r r e d . J u n i u s ' p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s codex i n 1655 marks the f i r s t r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t achievement i n the h i s t o r y of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p , s i n c e i t made a v a i l a b l e one of the l a r g e s t b o d i e s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s codex, e s p e c i a l l y the Genesis B p o r t i o n , and P a r a d i s e L o s t , i n which are found many p a r a l l e l s of s p i r i t , imagery and e l e v a t i o n of s t y l e , has l o n g i n t r i g u e d s c h o l a r s j ^ O but of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h i s p r e -s e n t s t u d y i s the f a c t t h a t M i l t o n i n h i s H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n makes one of the f i r s t p u b l i s h e d comments i n E n g l i s h on the d i c t i o n and f i g u r e s of an O l d E n g l i s h poem, Brunanburh. M i l t o n seems t o have u n d e r s t o o d something of O l d E n g l i s h p r o s e , f o r he r e f e r s t o the 'Saxon A n n a l i s t ' as a source f o r h i s h i s -t o r y . He was a l s o aware of the e x i s t e n c e of p o e t r y among the . Anglo-Saxons, r e f e r r i n g b o t h t o Caedmon's m i r a c l e and t o 9 1 A l f r e d ' s s k i l l i n ' S a x o n ' p o e t r y j but he does not seem t o r e c o g n i z e Brunanburh as p o e t r y , a l t h o u g h he n o t i c e s an a b r u p t change i n s t y l e a t t h i s p o i n t i n the C h r o n i c l e : ^ L i t t l e can be d e t e r m i n e d o t h e r t h a n the f a c t t h a t M i l t o n c o u l d not have read the p u b l i s h e d J u n i u s codex and t h a t he and J u n i u s may have been a c q u a i n t e d ( j . W. L e v e r , " P a r a d i s e L o s t and the Anglo-Saxon T r a d i t i o n , " Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , X X I I I [ 1 9 4 7 ] , 106). 2 1 J o h n M i l t o n , The U n c o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , V o l . X V I I I of The Works (New. York: Columbia U n i v . P r e s s , 1938), p. 139. 17 The Saxon A n n a l i s t wont t o be sober and s u c c i n c t , whether the same or a n o t h e r w r i t e r , now l a b o r i n g under the we i g h t of h i s Argument, and o v e r - c h a r g ' d , runs on a sudden i n t o such e x t r a v a g a n t f a n s i e s and metaphors, as bare him q u i t e beyond the scope of b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d . Huntingdon, though h i m s e l f peccant enough i n t h i s k i n d , t r a n s c r i b e s him word f o r word as a Pastime t o h i s R e aders. I s h a l l o n l y summe up what of him I can a t t a i n . . . . 2 2 O b v i o u s l y M i l t o n ' s comment on " e x t r a v a g a n t f a n s i e s and metaphors" i s l i t t l e more than Henry of Huntingdon t r a n s l a t e d , but i t i s r e -markable t h a t t h i s e a r l y comment saw the d i c t i o n and imagery as b a s i c t o the problem of comprehension and t h a t the comment was made by one of the g r e a t E n g l i s h p o e t s . One can t o r t u r e o n e s e l f w i t h s p e c u l a t i o n s on what M i l t o n might have s a i d about O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y had he been a b l e t o un d e r s t a n d the language more f u l l y . S i n c e the time of J u n i u s , i n t e r e s t was g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g i n the l i t e r a r y a n t i q u i t i e s of N o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s ; b u t ' u n f o r -t u n a t e l y f o r the st u d y of O l d E n g l i s h , the i n t e r e s t began t o f o c u s on S c a n d i n a v i a n a n t i q u i t i e s , a f o c u s due i n l a r g e p a r t t o the i n f l u e n c e of the D a n i s h s c h o l a r and p h y s i c i a n Olaus Wormius (1598-1654), whose L i t e r a t u r a R u n i c a (1636*-1651) made a v a i l a b l e names, forms and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of e a r l y I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y . The prose Edda of S n o r r i S t u r l u s s o n was p u b l i s h e d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r by R e s e n i u s , a n o t h e r D a n i s h s c h o l a r . S i n c e t h e r e was no com-p a r a b l e a r s p o e t i c a f o r O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t the r u l e - l o v i n g Augustan temperament s h o u l d be a t t r a c t e d 2 2 T h e H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , V o l . X of The Works (New York: Columbia U n i v . P r e s s , 1932), p. 233; c f . Henry of Huntingdon above, pp. 11. 18 t o a l i t e r a t u r e w i t h i t s own s e t of r u l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s , such as S i r W i l l i a m Temple, were a t -t r a c t e d t o the h e r o i c s p i r i t of e a r l y S c a n d i n a v i a n p o e t r y , Uj e s p e c i a l l y as d i s p l a y e d i n "The Death Song of Ragnar Lodbrog." S i n c e the o n l y O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y p u b l i s h e d to date ( e x c e p t f o r the ' i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e ' Brunanburh) appeared t o be l i t t l e more than p o e t i c a l paraphrases of t h e . O l d Testament, a s u b j e c t f a m i l i a r t o everyone, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , r e a l l y , t h a t a t t e n -t i o n was f o c u s e d on the more e x c i t i n g and comprehensible l i t e r a -t u r e of a n c i e n t S c a n d i n a v i a . Thus-, s i g n i f i c a n t though the essays of S i r W i l l i a m Temple might be ('Of H e r o i c V i r t u e , ' 1686 or 1687, and'Of Poetry,'' 1689) i n the development of i n t e r e s t i n N o r t h e r n l i t e r a t u r e , t h ey are of m i n i m a l i n t e r e s t h e r e . Temple's comments on p o e t i c s t y l e are concerned m a i n l y w i t h the hundred-odd 'Runes' o f ' G o t h i c ' p o e t r y ( i . e . the v a r i o u s a l l i t e r a t i v e l i n e p a t t e r n s o f , m a i n l y , I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e ) , not w i t h O l d E n g l i s h d i c t i o n and imagery. - . I t seems i r o n i c t h a t the g r e a t e s t surge of Anglo-Saxon s c h o l a r s h i p between the s i x t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s s h o u l d " C o n t i n u i n g i n the e r r o r begun by Wormius, Temple b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l m e d i e v a l r e c o r d s and sagas were o r i g i n a l l y i n runes ( E t h e l Seaton, L i t e r a r y . R e l a t i o n s of E n g l a n d and S c a n d i n a v i a i n the S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y [ O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1935], p. 229). He a l s o uses the term ' G o t h i c ' i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o l i t i c a l sense of a l l Germanic t r i b e s , not i n i t s e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a e s t h e t i c sense (Samuel K l i g e r , The Goths i n England [Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1952], pp. 1-4). He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t rhymes were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o l a t e r L a t i n by b a r b a r i c 'Runers' and t h a t the word'rhyme' was d e r i v e d from 'rune' r a t h e r than from rhythmus ('Of P o e t r y , ' F i v e M i s c e l l a n e o u s E s s a y s , ed. Samuel H o l t Monk [Ann A r b o r : U n i v . of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1963], p. 190). On the whole, however, Temple's essays are c o l o u r e d by h i s s t r o n g l y n e o - c l a s s i c a l o u t l o o k . 19 occur a t the h e i g h t of the Augustan p e r i o d . But such a c o i n c i -dence more th a n e x p l a i n s why the energy of the O x f o r d group of a n t i q u a r i a n s v i r t u a l l y was exhausted w i t h the death of i t s l e a d e r , George H i c k e s . A f t e r a l l , the q u a r r e l s between the ' a n c i e n t s ' and the 'moderns' d i d not concern the a n c i e n t v e r n a c u l a r . T h i s Ox-ford group produced an amazing amount of work i n most phases of Anglo-Saxon s t u d i e s , much of which i s e x t r e m e l y impor-t a n t t o the subsequent h i s t o r y of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t u d i e s , but l i t t l e of which i s concerned w i t h p o e t i c s t y l e , and even l e s s w i t h d i c t i o n and imagery. The impetus t o t h i s surge of Anglo-Saxon s t u d i e s was George H i c k e s ' I n s t i t u t i o n e s Grammaticae A n g l o - S a x o n i c a e e t Moeso-G o t h i c a e , 1689, a much-needed, comprehensive Old E n g l i s h grammar, which was, a l t h o u g h r e p u t e d l y not g r e a t i n i t s e l f , i n f l u e n t i a l enough t o a t t r a c t t o H i c k e s an a r d e n t group of s c h o l a r s . 2 4 But whatever the shortcomings of t h i s book, i t p r o v i d e d an i m p o r t a n t statement of the g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s g o v e r n i n g the O l d E n g l i s h language, even though n o t h i n g i s s a i d of the f u n c t i o n of t h i s language i n p o e t r y . A c t u a l l y , one of the few comments on p o e t i c language i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y came from Edward T h w a i t e s , who wrote t o H i c k e s c o n c e r n i n g J u d i t h sometime between 1689 and 1698: 94 I t s c a t a l o g u e of m a n u s c r i p t s l i s t s o n l y f o u r items f o r C o t t o n V i t e l l i u s A 15, J u d i t h b e i n g the o n l y poem (p. 175). D o u b t l e s s t h i s one poem was noted because of J u n i u s ' e a r l y t r a n s c r i p t of o n l y t h i s p a r t of the codex (ASPR, V o l . I V , p. x x i i ) . The O l d E n g l i s h grammar p a r t of the I n s t i t u t i o n e s was not appre-c i a b l y a l t e r e d f o r H i c k e s ' 1705 Thesaurus• 20 I have seen J u n i u s ' copy of i t , w c^ seems r a t h e r t o be a sermon t h a n a fragment of S c r i p t u r e . The n a r r a t i v e i s much of the same na t u r e w i t h Caedmon, i n whom I have sometime thought t h e r e was an a f f e c t e d o b s c u r i t y , and a s o r t of P o e t i c k madness...But I began t o su s p e c t i t t o be the n a t u r a l u n a f f e c t e d Language of some P e o p l e . . . 7-^ However, such a p a s s i n g remark does l i t t l e more than c o n f i r m the Henry of H u n t i n g d o n - M i l t o n a t t i t u d e towards the language of Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y . Humphrey Wanley i s perhaps the b e s t remembered of the O x f o r d S a x o n i s t s , f o r h i s s k i l f u l p a l e o g r a p h y 2 ^ r e s u l t e d i n a compendious c a t a l o g u e c o m p r i s i n g the second volume of H i c k e s ' Thesaurus, 1705. I t c o n t a i n s not o n l y the b a s i c t e x t of the F i n n s b u r h 27 Fragment, but the famous f i r s t n o t i c e of Beowulf, " t r a c t a t u s n o b i l i s s i m u s P o e t i c e s c r i p t u s . . . q u i Poetseos A n g l o - S a x o n i c a e egregium e s t exemplum." 2® But Wanley d e s c r i b e s the poem as an account of the wars of Beowulf the Dane a g a i n s t the K i n g of the Swedes, a d e s c r i p t i o n j u s t i f i a b l y blamed f o r d i s c o u r a g i n g i n t e r e s t i n Beowulf as p o e t r y . I t a p p a r e n t l y was a d u l l document 2^Quoted i n Samuel K l i g e r , "The N e o - C l a s s i c a l .View of O l d E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " JEGP, XLIX (1950), 520. 2^Wanley was the f i r s t t o n o t i c e Caedmon 1s hymn i n Smith's Bede m a n u s c r i p t , and to draw H i c k e s ' a t t e n t i o n t o 'Beowulph' sometime around 1700 (Kenneth Sisam, "Humphrey Wanley," S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y of O l d E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e [ b x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1953], p. 276). 27 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was l e f t u n t r a n s l a t e d and sandwiched between two I c e l a n d i c poems t h a t were t r a n s l a t e d (W. P. K e r , "The L i t e r a r y I n f l u e n c e of the M i d d l e Ages," Cambridge H i s t o r y  of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . X, p. 252). 2®Quoted i n Chauncey B. T i n k e r , The T r a n s l a t i o n s of Beowulf; A C r i t i c a l B i b l i o g r a p h y (New York; 1903), pp. '7-8,. 21 on S c a n d i n a v i a n h i s t o r y , not an e x c i t i n g h e r o i c poem. H i c k e s ' own views i n the Thesaurus a l s o had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e f o r about a c e n t u r y , but h i s remarks on p o e t i c s t y l e were m a i n l y f o c u s e d on metre. He o n l y i n d i r e c t l y t r e a t s d i c -t i o n , by d i v i d i n g O l d E n g l i s h as a language i n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s : pure ' B r i t i s h Saxon,' i n c l u d i n g Caedmon, Bede and the C o t t o n G o s p e l s (up t o the D a n i s h i n v a s i o n ) ; the degenerate 'Dani-Saxon,' i n c l u d i n g most of the prose and p o e t r y (from the D a n i s h t o Norman C o n q u e s t s ) ; and 'Semi-Saxon' (from the Norman Conquest u n t i l Henry I I . ) . W i t h modern i n f o r m a t i o n on d a t i n g , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t " s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s encouraged t h i s d i v i s i o n . I n 1715 E l i z a b e t h E l s t o b , a n i e c e of Dr. H i c k e s and an a c t i v e member of the O x f o r d ' S a x o n i s t s , ' produced her E n g l i s h a d a p t a t i o n of H i c k e s ' Grammar^ w i t h "A Defense of the Study of N o r t h e r n A n t i q u i t i e s . " T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d the f i r s t work i n E n g l i s h on the study of Anglo-Saxon; and a l t h o u g h i t i s more concerned w i t h the l i n g u i s t i c v a l u e of s t u d y i n g the 'Mother I t was t h i s d i v i s i o n which caused H i c k e s t o c h a l l e n g e the i d e a t h a t the J u n i u s codex was r e a l l y the work of Caedmon. He c l a i m e d t h a t i t was the work of an i m i t a t o r and he used as argument t h r e e p o i n t s , here summarized by Henry M o r l e y : "the want of v e r b a l correspondence between the l i n e s i n A l f r e d ' s v e r s i o n of Bede and the opening l i n e s of the P a r a p h r a s e ; h i s own i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the d i a l e c t of the Paraphrase i s t h a t of e x t a n t v e r s e s on a v i c t o r y of A t h e l s t a n e i n 938, and on the death of Edward i n 975; and h i s i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the Paraphrase was f u l l of D a n i s h i d i o m s , i n d i c a t i n g the language of a Northum-b r i a n who wrote a f t e r the l o n g o c c u p a t i o n of t h a t p r o v i n c e by the Danes." ( E n g l i s h W r i t e r s : An Attempt towards a H i s t o r y of  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . I I [.London, 1888], p. 110). c S USome e i g h t grammars d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y can be t r a c e d to H i c k e s ' I n s t i t u t i o n e s (Adams, p. 9 2 ) . 22 Tongue' th a n w i t h the p l e a s u r e s of the p o e t r y , M i s s E l s t o b ' s r e l a t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y t o the beauty of O l d E n g l i s h r e s u l t s i n a few remarks on s t y l e . N o t a b l e i s her e l o q u e n t and f e m i n i n e defense of the sound of the language: I n ever p e r c e i v ' d i n the Consonants any Hardness, but such as was n e c e s s a r y t o a f f o r d S t r e n g t h , l i k e the bones i n a human body, which y i e l d i t Firmness, and S u p p o r t . So t h a t the w o r s t t h a t can be s a i d on t h i s o c c a s i o n of our F o r e f a t h e r s i s , t h a t they spoke as t h e y f o u g h t , l i k e Men.31 Her remarks on O l d E n g l i s h P o e t i c s t y l e seem t o go f u r t h e r than those of H i c k e s i n showing a f e e l i n g f o r the p o e t r y , but are a g a i n m a i n l y concerned w i t h metre and a vague p e r c e p t i o n of a l l i t e r a t i o n . However, M i s s E l s t o b a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t the v i v i d imagery and i n v e r s i o n s , the "many b o l d F i g u r e s and f r e q u e n t t r a n s p o s i t i o n of words," of I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y (as d e s c r i b e d by Wormius) a l s o a p p l y t o O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . A g a i n one can see the dominance of S c a n d i n a v i a n l i t e r a t u r e i n the s c h o l a r s h i p of t h i s p e r i o d . A s i d e from t h i s e a r l y f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y , the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s b a r e r of O l d E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n g e n e r a l t h a n any o t h e r p e r i o d s i n c e the r e d i s c o v e r y of the m a n u s c r i p t s . A f t e r the d e a t h of H i c k e s i n 1715 the O x f o r d group g r a d u a l l y d i s b a n d e d , 31 The Rudiments of Grammar f o r the E n g l i s h - S a x o n Tongue  w i t h an A p o l o g y f o r the Study of N o r t h e r n A n t i q u i t i e s (London, 1715), pp. x - x i . • I b i d . , p. 68. 23 and l i t t l e of i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y was produced. I n 1726 Thomas Hearne p u b l i s h e d an e d i t i o n of Maldon, f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e the m a n u s c r i p t was among those d e s t r o y e d i n the d i s a s -t r o u s C o t t o n l i b r a r y f i r e of 1731. In 1741 t h e r e i s one f a v o r a b l e , but vague and u n q u a l i f i e d , comment ( a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d t o t a l l y from H i c k e s and E l i z a b e t h E l s t o b ) on Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e i n the anonymous P o l i t e Correspondence. One of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the work speaks of the d i f f i c u l t d i c t i o n of 'Saxon' p o e t r y and the u n s e t t l e d metre, but he p r a i s e s the charm of the ' P o e t i c k S p i r i t 1 which i s r e v e a l e d when one i s . f a m i l i a r w i t h the p o e t r y . 0 0 O t h e r w i s e , n o t h i n g of d i r e c t impor-tance t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say why Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a t u r e was so n e g l e c t e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . One cannot h e l p f e e l i n g t h a t had the c r i t i c s of the day u n d e r s t o o d Old E n g l i s h as w e l l as t h e y d i d Greek or L a t i n , perhaps the p o l i t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y man of l e t t e r s would have found something t o admire i n the f o r -m u l a i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the h e r o i c s o c i e t y r e v e a l e d i n Beowulf. Or perhaps poets l i k e James Thomson (1700-1748) who c o u l d w r i t e of the ' c i r c l i n g f l o o d ; ' ' b i l l o w y foam,' 'dark'brown water' o r ' t r e m b l i n g stream,' would have found a k i n d r e d s p i r i t i n the poet who wrote of f l 5 d e s wylm, qeofon ybum w e a l , flodybum, wado  w e a l l e n d e , and f e a l o n e f l o d - - i n s p i t e of the d i f f e r e n t motives f o r 3 3 A l a n Duguld M c K i l l o p , "A C r i t i c of 1741 on E a r l y P o e t r y , " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , XXX (1933), 511. 5 24 these synonyms and p e r i p h r a s e s . But i n s t e a d , l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t i n t h i n g s of the past was i n s p i r e d by tho u g h t s of the C e l t i c b a r d , the S c a n d i n a v i a n s k a l d and the middle E n g l i s h m i n s t r e l , not the Anglo-Saxon scop. P a r t i c u l a r l y p e r v a s i v e i s the i n f l u e n c e of Wormius' I c e l a n d i c s t u d i e s , t h e y i n s p i r e d Thomas Gray's t r a n s l a t i o n s from the O l d Norse, the paraphrases of Thomas Warton, S r . (1748) and the F i v e P i e c e s of R u n i c P o e t r y of B i s h o p P e r c y (1763). They a l s o i n s p i r e d P e r c y ' s a n a l y s i s of O l d E n g l i s h metre34 a n d Thomas Warton, J r . ' s t e r r i b l y d i s t o r t e d remarks i n the i n t r o d u c -t o r y e s s a y t o h i s H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h P o e t r y . In t h i s e s s a y Warton attem p t s to a t t r i b u t e almost e v e r y t h i n g t o S c a n d i n a v i a n s o u r c e s : he says H o l o f e r n e s i n J u d i t h i s c a l l e d B a l d o r , r a t h e r b a d l y m i s t a k i n g the word b a l d o r (11. 9, 49, 334) f o r the name of a S c a n d i n a v i a n god h a r d l y comparable w i t h H o l o f e r n e s ; he says t h a t the G e n e s i s poet "adopts many images and e x p r e s s i o n s used i n the v e r y sublime d e s c r i p t i o n of the E d d i e h e l l " ; and even the "extraneous words" and "uncommon f i g u r e s " of which Henry of Huntingdon c o m p l a i n e d , Warton s a y s , a re " a l l s c a l d i c e x p r e s s i o n s or a l l u s i o n s . " Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y Warton d i d not know what he was 3^A1though P e r c y ' s statement of the n a t u r e of a l l i t e r a -t i v e v e r s e , 1765, i s based on the I c e l a n d i c , i t makes the a p p r o p r i a t e analogy t o the Old E n g l i s h ("on the A l l i t e r a t i v e M e t r e , w i t h o u t Rhyme, i n P i e r c e Plowman's V i s i o n s , " R e l i q u e s  of A n c i e n t E n g l i s h P o e t r y , V o l . I I [ E d i n b u r g h , 1858], pp. 216-7). I n s p i t e of the b r e v i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s of P e r c y ' s scheme f o r Anglo-Saxon metre, one i s i n c l i n e d t o agree w i t h Jakob S c h i p p e r 25 t a l k i n g about; and i n any c a s e , he was a p p a r e n t l y h o s t i l e t o the a l l i t e r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n and c o n s i d e r e d t h a t n o t h i n g of p o e t i c a l v a l u e remained i n Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a t u r e . Even h i s famous f o o t n o t e drawing a t t e n t i o n t o Beowulf i s no more than a t r a n s -37 l a t i o n of Wanley. As f o r the d i c t i o n of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g was s a i d d u r i n g these years.°^ Perhaps the most i n t e r -e s t i n g comment comes from Thomas T y r w h i t t , who d i s m i s s e s e a r l y t h e o r i e s of O ld E n g l i s h metre and g i v e s the language c r e d i t f o r making the p o e t r y d i f f e r e n t from the p r o s e : I c o n f e s s m y s e l f unable t o d i s c o v e r any m e t r i c a l d i s -t i n c t i o n of the Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y from p r o s e , except a g r e a t e r pomp of d i c t i o n , and a more s t a t e l y k i n d of m a r c h . . . I t i s p l a i n t h a t a l l i t e r a t i o n must have had v e r y p o w e r f u l charms f o r the ears of our a n c e s t o r s , as we f i n d t h a t Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y , by the h e l p of t h i s e m b e l l i s h m e n t a l o n e , even a f t e r i t had l a i d a s i d e the pompous p h r a s e o l o g y , was a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f , w i t h o u t rhyme or metre, f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s . 3 9 t h a t i t i s "remarkably correct™ (A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h V e r s i f i -c a t i o n [ O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1910], pp. 20-1). O R Thomas Warton, The H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h P o e t r y , r e v . ed. [ R i c h a r d P r i c e ] , V o l . 1 (London, 1824), p. x x x i x . °^A. M. K i n g h o r n , "Warton's H i s t o r y and E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , XLIV (1963), 200. "The c u r i o u s r e a d e r i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a D a n i s h Saxon poeniy c e l e b r a t i n g the wars which Beowulf, a noble Dane descended from the r o y a l stem of S c y l d i n g e , waged a g a i n s t the K i n g s of Swedeland" (Warton, p. 2 n . ) . °°Thomas Gray mentions c e r t a i n l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s i n „hi/s essay on metre and rhyme (e.g. he sees the M i d d l e E n g l i s h y _ - p r e f i x as "the o l d Anglo-Saxon augment" ge- and the M i d d l e E n g l i s h 26 "Pompous p h r a s e o l o g y " and "more s t a t e l y k i n d of march" are d e c i d e d l y vague as c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s , but T y r w h i t t must have been r e f e r r i n g t o the Old "En g l i s h p o e t i c .compound and v a r i a t i o n , which e v e n t u a l l y d e c l i n e d i n f r e q u e n c y and c o l o u r toward the end of the Anglo-Saxon p e r i o d . Thus from the O l d E n g l i s h p e r i o d u n t i l the end of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n l y the most g e n e r a l of comments had been : made on O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , i t s s t y l e and language. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t most of the m a n u s c r i p t s had been a v a i l a b l e f o r about 250 y e a r s , i t i s remarkable t h a t l i t t l e p r o g r e s s was made beyond the c o l l e c t i n g and c a t a l o g u i n g of r e l i c s , the o c c a s i o n a l p u b l i -c a t i o n of a p o e t i c m a n u s c r i p t and a few debates about the natu r e of the metre. O b v i o u s l y d e t e r r e n t t o the development of i n t e r e s t was the absence of an O l d E n g l i s h S n o r r i or A r i s t o t l e ; but even more th a n t h a t , n o t h i n g i n O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y had f i r e d the i m a g i n a t i o n of c r i t i c s and s c h o l a r s . Maldon and Beowulf, the two works most l i k e l y t o i n s p i r e i n t e r e s t , were e i t h e r p u b l i s h e d l a t e or u n i m p r e s s i v e l y d e s c r i b e d . But i n 1786 two w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d e vents took p l a c e which were e v e n t u a l l y t o have i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s on the stu d y of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y of Beowulf: S i r W i l l i a m Jones d i s c o v e r e d t h a t S a n s k r i t and Old - i n t e r m i n a t i o n s as the Anglo-Saxon i n f i n i t i v e e n d i n g ) ; but he seems t o r e t a i n the Saxon-Danish c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n (Poems, L e t t e r s and E s s a y s , ed. John D r i n k w a t e r , Everyman's L i b r a r y , No. 628 [London: Dent, 1955], pp. 328-9). 39"An E s s a y on the Language and V e r s i f i c a t i o n of Chaucer," i n G e o f f r e y Chaucer, The C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s , ed. Thomas T y r w h i t t , V o l . I ( E d i n b u r g h , 1860), p. l x i i . P e r s i a n were i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o L a t i n , Greek and C e l t i c , d i s c o v e r y which s t a r t e d the e v o l u t i o n of the Indo-European t h e o r y of r a c e and language; and Grimur .Jonsson T h o r k e l i n (1752-1829) t r a v e l l e d t o E n g l a n d t o make t r a n s c r i p t s of the Beowulf m a n u s c r i p t . 28 CHAPTER I I EARLY CRITICISM AND THE INTEREST IN BEOWULFi 1786-1881 A l t h o u g h T h o r k e l i n ' s m i s s i o n t o E n g l a n d and J o n e s ' l i n -g u i s t i c d i s c o v e r i e s make 1786 an i m p o r t a n t y e a r i n O l d E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p , n e i t h e r event had any n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m f o r a t l e a s t two decades. G e n e r a l l y , O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y remained i n a c t i v e c r i t i c a l l y from the time of T y r w h i t t u n t i l 1801 when George E l l i s p u b l i s h e d an e d i t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n of Brunanburh i n the second e d i t i o n of h i s Specimens of the E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t s . ^ T h i s marks the f i r s t attempt to p r e s e n t an O l d E n g l i s h poem i n an a n t h o l o g y of E n g l i s h p o e t r y and a l s o r a i s e s s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g i s s u e s . F i r s t , i t abandons Anglo-Saxon types and p r i n t s the p o e t r y i n modern o r t h o g r a p h y ( r e t a i n i n g o n l y the d i g r a p h ae), a f a c t o r p o s s i b l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n making the t o p i c more a t t r a c t i v e t o the g e n e r a l r e a d e r t h a n the pseudo-manuscript types which were h i t h e r t o used. Second, E l l i s g i v e s a p a r a l l e l l i t e r a l t r a n s l a -t i o n , not i n L a t i n but i n E n g l i s h , thus showing some language d e r i v a t i o n s . However, most of h i s comments on s t y l e echo those of T y r w h i t t , E l l i s ' o n l y a d d i t i o n b e i n g t o note the i n v e r s i o n s and a b r u p t t r a n s i t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , r a t h e r than t r y t o a n a l y z e these d e v i c e s , he a t t r i b u t e s them t o ' a r t i f i c i a l o b s c u r i t y . ' •'•It i s found i n the " H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h of the r i s e and p ro-g r e s s of t h e . E n g l i s h P o e t r y and Language," an i n t r o d u c t o r y essay which is..not c o n t a i n e d i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n of 1790. 29 When one l o o k s a t even the f i r s t few l i n e s of E l l i s ' t e x t and l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n , one ceases t o wonder why no s e r i o u s work was done on the s t y l e of Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y . N e a r l y a l l the g r o s s e r r o r s i n t h i s t e x t and m o d e r n i z a t i o n obscure the p e r i p h r a s t i c and f i g u r a t i v e d i c t i o n and the d e v i c e of v a r i a t i o n . F o r example, beorna beah g i f a i s modernized as, 'of Barons the b o l d c h i e f , ' and e a f o r e n Edwardes a s , 'as a f o r e n i n Edward's days.' bord weal appears as heord w e a l , which not o n l y de-s t r o y s the a l l i t e r a t i o n w i t h Brunanburh, but obscures the image of a w a l l of s h i e l d s . The n e x t h e m i s t i c h , g i v e n as heowan  h e a t h o - l i n d g a , w i t h i t s p o e t i c v a r i a t i o n and metonymical com-pound, i s w r o n g l y r e n d e r e d , 'they hew the l o f t y o nes. 1 F i n a l l y , the well-known kenning hamora l a f u m i s c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d , s i n c e the t e x t i s wrongly p r i n t e d ha mera l a f u m and modernized a s , 'the marches ( b o r d e r s ) t h e y l e a v e . ' ^ What E l l i s ' work does i s to i l l u m i n a t e the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of the p a l e o -g r a p h e r , l i n g u i s t and p o e t i c c r i t i c ; f o r u n t i l a fundamental q u e s t i o n l i k e the f r e q u e n c y of a l l i t e r a t i o n was d e c i d e d , a word l i k e heord would seem a c c e p t a b l e . A l s o , u n t i l one knew what t o e x p e c t of a ianguage g r a m m a t i c a l l y , p e c u l i a r r e a d i n g s l i k e ha  mera l a f u m would go u n c h a l l e n g e d . p Most of the anomalous r e a d i n g s i n t h i s e d i t i o n are found i n C o t t o n T i b e r i u s B i v , the most c a r e l e s s and c o r r u p t of the Brunanburh m a n u s c r i p t s and one which E l l i s c l a i m s t o have con-s u l t e d (ASPR, V o l . V I , pp. x x x i v - x x x v ) . 3 George E l l i s , Specimens of the E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t s , [2nd ed.] (London, 1801), pp. 14-31. 30 I f E l l i s e n c o u n t e r e d such d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h Brunanburh, a r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d poem, i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t h i s t o r i a n Sharon T u r n e r (1768-1847) had t r o u b l e w i t h Beowulf, when he f i r s t d i s c u s s e d the poem i n h i s H i s t o r y of the A n g l o -Saxons (1799-1805), a work which went through many e d i t i o n s . E l l i s ' t r e a t m e n t of Brunanburh seems t o i n d i c a t e i n c r e a s e d a t t e n -t i o n t o O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y ; but t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the power and grandeur of Beowulf, a l b e i t d i m l y p e r c e i v e d a t f i r s t , was r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t i m u l a t i n g the stu d y of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . But u n f o r t u n a t e l y , d u r i n g the f i r s t decades of the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y Beowulf was approached by men l i k e T u r n e r i m p r o p e r l y equipped t o d e a l w i t h the c o m p l e x i t y of the p o e t r y , however 4 s k i l l e d t h e y may have been i n r e a d i n g prose documents. I n the f i r s t e d i t i o n of h i s H i s t o r y , Turner t r e a t s Beowulf o n l y b r i e f l y ; h i s remarks on s t y l e c o n s i s t of n o t i n g abundant speeches and R. ' o c c a s i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n . ' B e f o r e T u r n e r ' s t h i r d e d i t i o n appeared, T h o r k e l i n ' s e d i t i o p r i n c e p s of Beowulf was p u b l i s h e d , i n 1815, the r e s u l t of much hard work and f r u s t r a t i o n . Commissioned by the D a n i s h government t o i n v e s t i g a t e a supposed monument of D a n i s h h i s t o r y , T h o r k e l i n had t r a v e l l e d t o England t o make a t r a n s c r i p t of the Beowulf m a n u s c r i p t and had a l s o employed a s c r i b e t o make a second t r a n s c r i p t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , on the eve of p u b l i c a t i o n , most 4 J o h n E a r l e , t r a n s . , The Deeds of Beowulf ( O x f o r d , 1892), pp. x v i - x v i i . R Chauncey B. T i n k e r , The T r a n s l a t i o n s of Beowulf: A C r i t i c a l B i b l i o g r a p h y , Y a l e S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , XVI (New York, 1903), pp. 11-2. 31 of the papers were d e s t r o y e d i n the bombardment of Copenhagen (1807), and a g r e a t l y d i s h e a r t e n e d T h o r k e l i n was f i n a l l y per-suaded t o resume the work which r e s u l t e d i n the 1815 e d i t i o n . The t e x t and i t s L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n are n o t o r i o u s l y i n a c c u r a t e , c o n t a i n i n g n e a r l y a l l the e r r o r s known to s c r i b e s and e d i t o r s and some u n b e l i e v a b l e r e a d i n g s l i k e Hwaet weqar Dena.^ Nor d i d T h o r k e l i n r e c o g n i z e the s e a - b u r i a l of S c y l d or such o b v i o u s names as Hengest (mentioned f o u r t i m e s ) and Sigemund (mentioned t w i c e ) . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t n o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e about p o e t i c d i c t i o n c o u l d come from a t e x t so f a u l t y . Only two k i n d t h i n g s can be s a i d about t h i s e d i t i o n : i t was the f i r s t e d i t i o n of the complete poem, and the t r a n s c r i p t s p r o v i d e u s e f u l r e a d i n g s f o r p a r t s o f the m a n u s c r i p t which have s u b s e q u e n t l y d e t e r i o r a t e d . An anonymous r e v i e w of T h o r k e l i n ' s e d i t i o n I n Dansk L i t -t e r a t u r - T i d e nde , 1815, by a man a p p a r e n t l y u s i n g o n l y the L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n , p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l p o i n t s s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d t o s t y l e : the c r i t i c n o tes the r e p e t i t i o n i n the speeches, he suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of an E n g l i s h r e d a c t o r j o i n i n g s e v e r a l s k a l d i c l a y s and e l a b o r a t i n g on the speeches and on the p i e t y , and he comments on the s i m i l a r i t i e s o f v e r s e forms and v o c a b u l a r y among the N o r t h e r n l a n g u a g e s . ^ L i k e T h o r k e l i n , Sharon Turner was m o t i v a t e d i n h i s work by p a t r i o t i s m and the i d e a of n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . I t i s a p i t y 6 I b i d . , p. 20. ^ F r a n k l i n C o o l e y , " E a r l y D a n i s h C r i t i c i s m o f Beowulf," ELH, V I I (1940), 52-3. 32 t h a t the e a r l i e s t E n g l i s h s t u d y of Beowulf s h o u l d have beien i n -c l u d e d i n a work on the h i s t o r y , laws and g e n e r a l c u l t u r e of the p e r i o d such a p o s i t i o n tends t o emphasize the h i s t o r i c a l r a t h e r t h a n the l i t e r a r y m e r i t of the poem. A l t h o u g h T u r n e r ' s work on the l i t e r a t u r e i s l i m i t e d and T u r n e r h i m s e l f s hares the n e o - c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r i c a l v i e w t h a t O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y was rude and b a r b a r i c , he has a s u r p r i s i n g amount to say about the d i c t i o n Q and imagery. F i r s t , he c l a i m s t h a t i t i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y l i n k e d w i t h modern E n g l i s h p o e t r y : " i t was p r e p a r i n g t o assume the s t y l e s , the measures and the s u b j e c t s , which i n subsequent ages were so h a p p i l y d i s p l a y e d as t o deserve the n o t i c e of the l a t e s t p o s t e r i t y " ; 9 such a statement a p p a r e n t l y r e v e r s e s Warton's o p i n i o n t h a t O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y bears no resemblance t o modern E n g l i s h p o e t r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , T u r n e r i s too o f t e n w i l l i n g t o d i s m i s s as obscure the p a r t s which he does not u n d e r s t a n d , and t h e s e p a r t s f r e q u e n t l y c o n t a i n the r i c h e s t patches of p o e t r y * He a l s o makes such huge e r r o r s as c a l l i n g S c y l d ' s f u n e r a l - s h i p a war-s h i p and the noun h i l d e the name of a war goddess. But h i s few t r a n s l a t e d p o r t i o n s of Beowulf show some attempt t o reproduce the p e r i p h r a s t i c c h a r a c t e r of the o r i g i n a l , f o r example, 'the Q A f t e r the t h i r d e d i t i o n , 1820, T u r n e r made no f u r t h e r changes i n h i s H i s t o r y beyond f b o t n o t e s of r e c o g n i t i o n ( T i n k e r , p. 10) . g Sharon T u r n e r , The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons, 5 t h ed. V o l . I l l .(London, 1828), pp. 262-3. 33 'the w e l l - b o u n d t i m b e r ' and 'the w a r r i o r d i r e c t e d the sea-s k i l l e d men.'^ I n h i s comments on s t y l e Turner c o n s t a n t l y mentions the p r i m i t i v e n e s s of the age t h a t produced i t . F i r s t , he sees the 'metaphor,' r e p e t i t i o n and v a r i a t i o n as d i r e c t r e s u l t s of the Anglo-Saxon i m a g i n a t i o n and f e e l i n g : the i m a g i n a t i o n e x e r t e d i t s e l f i n f o r m i n g those a b r u p t and i m p e r f e c t h i n t s o r fragments of s i m i l e s which we c a l l metaphors: and the f e e l i n g e x p r e s s e d i t s emotions by t h a t redundant r e p e t i t i o n of p h r a s e s , which though i t added l i t t l e t o the meaning of the poet's l a y , was y e t the emphatic e f f u s i o n of h i s h e a r t , and e x c i t e d c o n s e n t i n g sympathies i n t h o s e t o whom i t was addressed. T h i s h a b i t of p a r a p h r a s i n g the s e n t i m e n t i s the g r e a t p e c u l i a r i t y of the Anglo-Saxon mind. ^ Thus Turn e r observes most of the main f e a t u r e s of the p o e t i c d i c -t i o n , a l t h o u g h he h o l d s a d i s t i n c t l y n e o - c l a s s i c a l v i e w of meta-phor and v a r i a t i o n and l o a d s h i s comments by u s i n g such words as ' i m p e r f e c t 1 and 'redundant. 1 And l i k e most h i s t o r i a n s and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y he does not pass beyond g e n e r a l comment i n t o s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m . Word arrangement and g r a m m a t i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s e l i c i t from Turner the c r i t i c i s m t h a t the p o e t i c language of the A n g l o -12 Saxons i s 'barbarous,' ' h a l f - f o r m e d 1 and o b s c u r e , and comparable to a c h i l d ' s f i r s t u t t e r a n c e s - - f i r s t nouns, then v e r b s and pro-nouns. I n a d d i t i o n , he c l a i m s t h a t Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s " w i t h -out p a r t i c l e s , w i t h o u t c o n j u g a t i o n s and d e c l e n s i o n s , w i t h g r e a t 1 0 I b i d . . p. 294. 1 1 I _ b i d . , p. 264. 1 2 I b i d . . p. 273. c o n t r a c t i o n of- phrase, w i t h abrupt t r a n s i t i o n s . . . . " O n l y an ig n o r a n c e of O l d E n g l i s h grammar c o u l d r e s u l t i n the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p o e t r y l a c k s g r a m m a t i c a l i n f l e c t i o n s ; so i t i s q u i t e l o g i c a l , t h e n , t h a t T u r n e r found a h i n d r a n c e t o c l a r i t y i n the absence of p a r t i c l e s , "those a b b r e v i a t i o n s of language which are the i n v e n t i o n of man i n the more c u l t i v a t e d ages of s o c i e t y , and which c o n t r i b u t e t o e x p r e s s our meaning more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g l y , and t o make i t more c l e a r l y understood."-'- 4 I t i s p o s s i b l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n a l s o t h a t Turner c o n s i d e r s J u d i t h (which he r e c o g n i z e s as a l a t e r poem) a more r e s t r a i n e d , p o l i s h e d and comprehensible work than most o t h e r O l d E n g l i s h 15 poems. C e r t a i n l y , J u d i t h i s an example of e n e r g e t i c , c o h erent n a r r a t i v e v e r s e , as w e l l as b e i n g a f a m i l i a r s t o r y ; i t does not p r e s e n t n e a r l y the problems of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t something as fr a g m e n t a r y and u n f a m i l i a r a s , say, F i n n s b u r h does. But one s u s p e c t s t h a t T urner's p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n of judgment i s h i s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d • t h e work, a s u s p i c i o n c o n f i r m e d i n h i s statement t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o e t i c e p i t h e t s and a l l u s i o n s a l s o t h w a r t c l a r i t y and i n d i c a t e b a r b a r i t y : I n p r o s e , and i n c u l t i v a t e d p o e t r y , e v e r y c o n c e p t i o n of the a u t h o r i s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d and f u l l y made o u t . I n b a r b a r i c p o e t r y , and i n Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y , we have 1 3 I b i d . 1 4 I b i d . , p. 268. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 309. 35 most commonly a b r u p t , i m p e r f e c t h i n t s , i n s t e a d of r e g u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n or n a r r a t i o n . 1 ° T u r n e r even says t h a t the p o e t i c compound and p e r i p h r a s i s show p o v e r t y of mind or p o v e r t y of v o c a b u l a r y . The p e r i p h r a s i s , he c l a i m s , i s m erely an e x t e n s i o n of a h a b i t of ' p i l i n g on' e p i t h e t s , f o r i n s t a n c e i n , g r e e t i n g a c h i e f t a i n w i t h the i d e a of i n c i t i n g l i b e r a l i t y . - ^ A l t h o u g h he does not pursue t h i s i d e a , T u r n e r here suggests t h a t e p i t h e t s are v a r i e d and are meant t o d e s c r i b e many a s p e c t s of a t h i n g , not m erely t o r e p e a t the same i d e a . Of 'metaphor' and d i c t i o n i n g e n e r a l , he says t h a t " u n t i l new words are d e v i s e d , the o l d names of r e a l t h i n g s are n e c e s s a r i l y , though v i o l e n t l y a p p l i e d , " and t h a t the s t r o n g h e r o i c f e e l i n g of the p o e t r y i s e x p r e s s e d i n v i o l e n t words r a t h e r than by r e a l e f f u s i o n of d e t a i l or genuine emotion.-'- 9 A l t h o u g h T u r n e r was m i s l e d and f a u l t y i n some of h i s c r i t i c i s m s , he had more t o say on the d i c t i o n of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y and l e s s on the rhythm than most e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s ; and he i m p l i e d , even i f a c c i d e n t a l l y , some i m p o r t a n t e v a l u a t i o n s of d i c t i o n and imagery. However, he was l i m i t e d by h i s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the t e x t and by a condescending n e o - c l a s s i c a l a t t i t u d e : 1 6 I b i d . , p. 269. 1 7 I b i d . , pp. 270-1. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 273. 1 9 I b i d . , pp. 275-6. 36 In thus c o n s i d e r i n g our a n c i e n t p o e t r y as an a r t i f i c i a l and m e c h a n i c a l t h i n g c u l t i v a t e d by men c h i e f l y as a t r a d e , we must not be c o n s i d e r e d as c o n f o u n d i n g i t w i t h those d e l i g h t f u l b e a u t i e s which we now c a l l p o e t r y . . . True p o e t r y i s the o f f s p r i n g of c u l t i v a t e d mind... Hence, a l l t h a t we owe t o our Anglo-Saxon a n c e s t o r s i s , t h a t , by a c c i d e n t or d e s i g n , they p e r p e t u a t e d a s t y l e of c o m p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t from the common language of the c o u n t r y . . . . 0 At l e a s t he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the language of O l d E n g l i s h prose and p o e t r y were v e r y d i f f e r e n t , but the n e g a t i v e n a t u r e of h i s recom-mendation would h a r d l y i n s p i r e l o v e r s of o l d p o e t r y t o seek out f u r t h e r p o e t i c b e a u t i e s i n Beowu'lf. The main i m p l i c a t i o n of T u r n e r ' s essay i s t h a t Beowulf i s a v a l u a b l e source of h i s t o r i c a l -c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , even" i f h a r d l y w o r t h the name of p o e t r y . The most e n c o u r a g i n g advance i n O l d E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s an essay by R i c h a r d P r i c e i n h i s e d i t i o n of Warton's H i s t o r y . P r i c e s c o r n s the p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f ' c o n f u s i o n s and a n o m a l i e s ' e r r o n e o u s l y p e r p e t u a t e d by such men as Turner, and he a t t e m p t s t o come t o g r i p s w i t h the t e x t . To an a r d e n t p h i l o l o g i s t , he s a y s , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g more i n t e r e s t i n g and s t r i k i n g "than the o r d e r and r e g u l a r i t y p r e -s e r v e d i n Anglo-Saxon c o m p o s i t i o n , the v a r i e t y of e x p r e s s i o n , the i n n a t e r i c h n e s s , and p l a s t i c power w i t h which the language i s endowed." P r i c e i s a l s o the f i r s t E n g l i s h c r i t i c t o a p p l y r u l e s of metre to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t e x t . For example, 2 0 I b i d . . pp. 274-5. 2 1 [ R i c h a r d i R r i c e ] , " E d i t o r ' s P r e f a c e , " Thomas Warton, The H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h P o e t r y , r e v . ed., V o l . I (London, 1824), p. (112). 37 he quotes T u r n e r ' s t e x t and t r a n s l a t i o n o f Beowulf, l i n e s 527-8: " G i f t h u G r e n d l e s d e a r s t I f thou d a r e s t the G r e n d e l N i g h t longne The space of a l o n g n i g h t F y r s t n e anbidan a w a i t s t h e e . " 2 2 S i m p l y by r e c o g n i z i n g g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , he i s a b l e to make sense o f the passage and r e s t o r e the a l l i t e r a t i o n : " G i f t h u G r e n d l e s d e a r s t I f thou d a r e s t G r e n d l e s ( e n c o u n t e r . . . ) N i g h t longne f y r s t (A) n i g h t l o n g space Nean b i d a n Near abide."23 A l t h o u g h the example does not p e r t a i n t o the imagery o r d i c t i o n of the poem, i t shows p r o g r e s s i n the st u d y of the t e x t and concern f o r grammar, w i t h o u t which r e a s o n a b l e s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s i s i m p o s s i b l e . P r i c e ' s e d i t i o n o f The B a t t l e of Brunanburh (1824) i s an almost u n b e l i e v a b l e improvement over E l l i s ' . I n h i s no t e s P r i c e d i s c u s s e s s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of d i c t i o n and u n d e r l i n e s the i m p o r t a n c e of p a y i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o g r a m m a t i c a l i n f l e c -t i o n s , "a p r a c t i c e almost w h o l l y d i s u s e d s i n c e the days of H i c k e s . " 2 ^ He makes s p e c i f i c c o r r e c t i o n s i n meaning, by warn-i n g a g a i n s t the u n t h i n k i n g use of ' o v e r - l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s ' : f o r example, swat means 'blood, ' n o t 'sweat,.'' H i s a t t e n t i o n t o 2 2 I b i d . . p. ( H Q ) n . 2 3 I b i d -2 4 I b i d . , p. I x x x v . 38 grammar a l s o e n a b l e s him t o spot the m e t a p h o r i c a l n a t u r e of hamora-lafurn meaning 'swords' and t o p o i n t out a n o t h e r i n -stance of t h i s f i g u r e i n Beowulf (1 , 2829): "a s i m i l a r phrase i n I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y would o c c a s i o n no d i f f i c u l t y . " 2 ^ I n h i s note on dinqes-mere (which he admits he does not f u l l y under-stand) he suggests the phrase "would t h e n be a 'kenningar n a f n ' g i v e n t o the ocean from the c o n t i n u a l c l a s h i n g of i t s waves," and p a r a l l e l i n c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h w i g e s - h e a r d . 2 ^ A l t h o u g h k e n n i n g a r n a f n means 'surname,' P r i c e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n seems t o s u i t the t r a d i t i o n a l ide-a'of k e n n i n g . I b e l i e v e t h i s i s the f i r s t i n s t a n c e of an O l d Norse term b e i n g a p p l i e d t o an example of Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n , a l t h o u g h E l i z a b e t h 27 E l s t o b had noted p a r a l l e l s of e f f e c t and s p i r i t . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of P r i c e ' s work i s the m e t i c u l o u s -ness w i t h which he compares c e r t a i n l i n e s I n Brunanburh w i t h s i m i l a r terms and h e m i s t i c h s i n o t h e r poems, e s p e c i a l l y Beowulf, J u d i t h and MaIdon. He i s a l s o the f i r s t c r i t i c t o p o i n t out s i m i l a r i t i e s between the !beast' passages i n Brunanburh and 28 J u d i t h and t o suppose a common s o u r c e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t P r i c e seems u n c o n s c i o u s l y t o be l a y i n g the f o u n d a t i o n f o r s t u d i e s of f o r m u l a i c d i c t i o n . A l s o i n r e l a t i o n t o d i c t i o n he n, 2 ^ I b . i d . , pp. xcv n . - x c v i 2 ^ I b i d . , p. x c v i i i n.j see appendix A. 2 ? S ee above, chapt. I , p. 22. 2 ^ P r i c e , p. c n. 3 9 notes t h a t i t i s "a common p r a c t i c e of Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y t o u n i t e , by a l l i t e r a t i o n , l i n e s ( i . e . h e m i s t i c h s ) w h o l l y uncon-nec t e d by the s e n s e . . . . " 2 9 On the whole, t h e n , P r i c e ' s approach t o O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s i n f i n i t e l y more s y s t e m a t i c and t e x t - c e n t r e d than h i t h e r t o was the p r a c t i c e . He q u e s t i o n s m a t t e r s of t e x t , s u p p o r t s h i s c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h examples from o t h e r poems, and uses grammar, syntax and c e r t a i n f i g u r a t i v e d e v i c e s t o e x p l a i n a r e a s of doubt. A l t h o u g h he s t i l l makes e r r o r s (he i n s i s t s t h a t heabo means ' h i g h ' ) , the number of • p o i n t s he c l a r i f i e s by g r a m m a t i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s , make t h i s e d i t i o n the f i r s t u s e f u l one, i n the modern sense. In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n P r i c e noted t h a t the work of John J o s i a s Conybeare was on the eve of p u b l i c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h Conybeare prepa r e d much of the work i n The I l l u s t r a t i o n s of  Anglo-Saxon P o e t r y b e f o r e 1820, i t was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1826, posthumously by h i s b r o t h e r . One cannot then l o o k f o r 30 any i n f l u e n c e from P r i c e , nor much from G r u n d t v i g . A l t h o u g h Conybeare's i s the f i r s t book i n E n g l i s h t o d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y , i t says v e r y l i t t l e about d i c t i o n and imagery. I t c o n t a i n s an i m p o r t a n t e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n of Beowulf, w i t h p a r t i a l t e x t t r a n s l a t e d i n t o b o t h L a t i n and modern E n g l i s h ) and summaries of the p a r t s f o r which the t e x t i s not g i v e n . But 2 9 I b i d . , p. xc n. ^ A l t h o u g h G r u n d t v i g ' s f i r s t works on Beowulf appeared i n 1817 and 1820, t h i s D a n i s h s c h o l a r a p p a r e n t l y had l i t t l e i n -f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h c r i t i c s of h i s day; see below, p. 42. 40 l i k e T u r n e r , Conybeare r e l i e s r a t h e r h e a v i l y on the a c c u s a t i o n of ' o b s c u r i t y ' whenever he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y . F o r example, h i s t r e a t m e n t of the haunted mere passage ( h a l f -modernized and h a l f - s u m m a r i z e d ) o n l y p i c k s up the atmosphere 31 of t e r r o r , the d e t a i l s b e i n g b a d l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . As p r o f e s s o r of Anglo-Saxon a t O x f o r d , Conybeare had ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y the m a n u s c r i p t s of the B o d l e i a n and C o t t o n l i b r a r i e s and took s e v e r a l t r i p s t o E x e t e r t o peruse the p o e t i c codex t h e r e . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the E x e t e r Book con-s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n of the I l l u s t r a t i o n s ; b u t , r a t h e r t y p i c a l l y of f i r s t e x a m i n a t i o n s , two of the most i n t e r -e s t i n g poems, The S e a f a r e r and The Wanderer 5 are o v e r l o o k e d . A l s o i m p o r t a n t are h i s essays on Anglo-Saxon metre, w i t h com-32 mentary by the e d i t o r . Much of the g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n these e s s a y s i s s t i l l v a l i d , but the e r r o r s i n d e t a i l o n l y go t o show how much p h i l o l o g i c a l s tudy was needed b e f o r e the c r i t i c i s m of any area of p o e t i c s t y l e c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r o g r e s s . I n h i s comments on s t y l e Conybeare abandons the t h r e e d i v i s i o n s of 1Saxon' p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the one. between 'pure Saxon 1 and 'Dano-Saxon.' I n s t e a d , he sees the d i f f e r e n c e as a m a t t e r of e l e v a t i o n of s t y l e : 3 1 john J o s i a s Conybeare, I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Anglo-Saxon  P o e t r y , ed. W i l l i a m D a n i e l Conybeare (London, 1826), pp. 183-4. 32conybeare's e s s a y s on metre, w i t h a l l t h e i r f a u l t s , r e p r e s e n t the f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c l o o k a t O l d E n g l i s h s c a n s i o n and a f f i r m " t h a t Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y does r e a l l y d i f f e r from t h e i r prose by the usage of m e t r i c a l d i v i s i o n s , and t h a t the g e n e r a l rhythm and cadence of t h e i r v e r s e i s not a l t o g e t h e r u n d i s c o v e r a b l e " (Conybeare, p. v i i ) . 41 I t [pure 1 Saxon'] c o n s i s t s i n the absence of p o e t i c a l ornament and d i c t i o n . When an a u t h o r from the n a t u r e of h i s s u b j e c t (as A l f r e d i n the v e r s i o n ...of B o e t h i u s ) or from h i s i n c a p a c i t y f o r any t h i n g b e t t e r , w r i t e s i n a s t y l e l i t t l e e l e v a t e d above the o r d i n a r y t e n o u r of p r o s e , t h e y s e l e c t him as one of the s p r i n g heads of 'the pure w e l l of Saxon u n d e f i l e d . ' Thus a t e d i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n of Durham, whi c h has n o t h i n g of p o e t r y e x c e p t the m e t r i c a l a r r a n g e -ment, i s p r a i s e d as genuine and s t e r l i n g ; but i f the bard s h o u l d attempt the i n v e r s i o n s and f i g u r e s of a l o f t i e r s t r a i n , he i s i m m e d i a t e l y s e t down as a Dano-Saxon. 3 3 Not o n l y does Conybeare end f o r e v e r the a r t i f i c i a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n of Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y , he a l s o attempts g e n e r a l e v a l u a -t i o n s of v a r i o u s poems. In m a t t e r s of p o e t i c d i c t i o n and v a r i a t i o n he s i m p l y g i v e s c r e d i t t o T u r n e r ' s 'complete' s t u d y , a l t h o u g h he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f the f i r s t t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o "an a r t i f i c i a l arrangement o f . t h e s e v e r a l phrases or c l a u s e s of which the sentence i s c o n s t i t u t e d . . .termed.. . P a r a l l e l i s m " ' : (so c a l l e d by B i s h o p Lowth i n d i s c u s s i n g s a c r e d Hebrew p o e t r y ) . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t the d e v i c e i s too f r e q u e n t l y used t o be a c c i d e n t a l and t h a t i t appears most f r e q u e n t l y i n poems on s c r i p t u r a l s u b j e c t s ; thusshe i m p l i e s a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of the S c r i p t u r e s on the s t y l e of Old E n g l i s h r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . On the whole, Conybeare made an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the study J°Ibid., p. 185. 3 4 F o r example, he p r a i s e s the s t y l e of Beowulf: i t s c h a r a c t e r s are s u s t a i n e d ; the speeches are n a t u r a l and a p p r o p r i a t e ; the n a r r a t i v e i s not so r e p e t i t i o u s , i n f l a t e d or a m b i t i o u s as t h a t of the Caedmonian poems, and i t i s s u p e r i o r t o the 'almost u n i n t e l l i g i b l e r h a p s o d i e s of the Edda.' ( I b i d . , p. 8 1 ) . I b i d . , pp. x x v i i i - x x i x . 42 of Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y , and h i s work was c o n s u l t e d by E n g l i s h c r i t i c s t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . He may have missed some i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s and had an i n c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Beowulf, but he o b v i o u s l y had a f e e l i n g f o r the p o e t r y and some i n s i g h t i n t o i t s mechanics. A l t h o u g h the D a n i s h s c h o l a r N i k o l a i F r e d e r i k S e v e r i n G r u n d t v i g (1783-1872) p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t work on Beowulf i n 1817 and a D a n i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n 1820, these e a r l y works had no s e r i o u s i n f l u e n c e on the E n g l i s h c r i t i c s mentioned above. He i s p r e s e n t e d here because h i s i n f l u e n c e i s f e l t much l a t e r , and m a i n l y by s c h o l a r s on the C o n t i n e n t ; G r u n d t v i g ' s remarks on the s t y l e - o f Beowulf are b r i e f ; but h i s d i s c o v e r y i n 1817 t h a t H y g e l a c of Beowulf and C h o c h i l a i c u s . o f Gregory of Tours were one and the same, i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t o mark the b e g i n n i n g of modern - Beowulf c r i t i c i s m . A l t h o u g h the l i n g u i s t i c knowledge -which went i n t o - f o r m i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o an a c c u r a t e s t u d y of p o e t i c d i c t i o n , the h i s t o r i c a l emphasis of the d i s c o v e r y was e x t r e m e l y u n f o r t u n a t e t o the study of the p o e t r y as p o e t r y , s i n c e i t s e t - c r i t i c s , t o p o u r i n g t h r o u g h g e n e a l o g i e s , c h r o n i c l e s and sagas f o r . h i s t o r i c i t y and a n a l o g u e s . A l l the same., G r u n d t v i g v a l u e d the p o e t r y more h i g h l y than d i d most of h i s E n g l i s h c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and s c o r n e d E n g l i s h c r i t i c s f o r n e g l e c t i n g the p o e t r y of t h e i r p a s t . 3 6 - The most J D a v i d J . Savage, "Grundtvig: A Stimulus to Old English S c h o l a r s h i p , " P h i l o l o q i c a . eds. Thomas A. K i r b y and Henry B o s l e y Woolf ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1949), p. 277. 43 i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t of h i s 1817 s t u d y i s the s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n he g i v e s t o Beowulf, s i m i l a r t o , but a n t e d a t i n g by more than a c e n t u r y , t h a t proposed i n 1936 by J . R. R. T o l k i e n . G r u n d t v i g sees the u n i t y of the poem i n the b a l a n c e between the two g r e a t p a r t s of man's s t r u g g l e , s i n c e G r e n d e l r e p r e s e n t s the e v i l s p i r i t of t i m e , the dragon the e v i l s p i r i t of n a t u r e . . . . B u t i f the monster s t o r i e s are not r o o t e d and grounded, so t o speak, i n the h i s t o r i c a l m a t t e r which they are meant t o c a r r y and l i f t w i t h them, t h e i r worth cannot be reckoned a t a v e r y h i g h f i g u r e , whereas i f t h e y are so r o o t e d and grounded, i f we must f i n d i t r e a s o n a b l e t h a t Denmark i n a s p e c i a l way i s l i n k e d t o h i s t o r y and the l a n d of the Geatas t o n a t u r e , then the monster s t o r i e s become temporary shadows, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h a t e p i c t a l e w hich the h i s t o r y of the N o r t h , seen i n the l i g h t of t r u t h , r e a l l y makes, and t h e n the poem as a whole r e c e i v e s a t r u e m y t h i c a l m e a n i n g . 3 7 He a l s o c o n s i d e r s the poem the work of a c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y a r t i s t , whose i n f e r i o r h a n d l i n g of the dragon e p i s o d e i s due t o qo a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c E n g l i s h want of t a s t e . Nor does G r u n d t v i g ' s p r a i s e f o r the poem change i n 1820, where he r e f e r s t o i t a s : a work of a r t b o l d l y l a i d o u t , b e a u t i f u l l y e x p r e s s e d , and i n many ways g l o r i o u s l y e x e c u t e d , but n e v e r t h e l e s s h a l f -m i s c a r r i e d i f t a k e n as a u n i t . . . . i n my o p i n i o n the poem de s e r v e s and r e q u i r e s . . . a d e t a i l e d and thorough s t u d y . " G r u n d t v i g ' s w h o l e h e a r t e d p r a i s e of the poem's a r t i s t i c m e r i t i s a r e f r e s h i n g change a f t e r the begrudging compliments p a i d by ^ T r a n s l a t e d and quoted i n Kemp Malone, " G r u n d t v i g as Beowulf c r i t i c , " RES, X V I I ( A p r i l , 1941), 132. 3 8 I b i d . , pp. 132-3. 39 Quoted i b i d . , p. 133. 44 more n e o - c l a s s i c s c h o l a r s . He p r a i s e s the r e s t r a i n t of the imagery and compares i t f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t of Old I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y : The poet's s t y l e , f i n a l l y , must be c a l l e d e x c e l l e n t . The n a r r a t i v e i s f r e e and f u l l , w i t h o u t the German p r o l i x i t y , and w i t h o u t the c r y p t i c b r e v i t y so o f t e n found i n the poems of the Edda; i t has the f l o w e r s of t h e t o r i c [ s i c ) w i t h o u t swarming w i t h f a r - f e t c h e d comparisons l i k e the l a t e r I c e l a n d i c v e r s e . I f one adds t o t h i s the poem's r e s t r a i n t , i t s warmth of f e e l i n g i n many passages, and i t s r e l i g i o u s f undamental t o n e , t h e n one must avow t h a t the poem i n e v e r y way i s a r emarkable monument of o l d e n t i m e s . 4 0 Why G r u n d t v i g ' s e a r l y o p i n i o n s , so s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h modern c r i -t i c a l a t t i t u d e s , f a i l e d t o become p o p u l a r i s h ard t o say. P e r -haps the f a c t t h a t he wrote i n D a n i s h r e s t r i c t e d e a r l y a v a i l -a b i l i t y of h i s work, but more than l i k e l y h i s v o i c e was t o o weak i n the g e n e r a l clamor of p h i l o l o g y and r a c e h i s t o r y . I t was S i r W i l l i a m J o n e s ' l i n g u i s t i c d i s c o v e r i e s of 1786 which s t a r t e d the e v o l u t i o n of the Indo-European t h e o r y of r a c e and language, w i t h i t s f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s i n l i t e r a r y and l i n g u i s t i c t h o u g h t . In a d d i t i o n , H e r d e r , F. W o l f , Lachmann and the Grimm b r o t h e r s were engaged i n e x p l a i n i n g and a n a l y z i n g b a l l a d s , e p i c s and myth::studies which r e a d i l y e v o l v e d i n t o the e t h n i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s which permeated the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The development of c omparative p h i l o l o g y and o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s , w i t h which the name Grimm i s 4 0 Q u o t e d i b i d . , p. 134. 45 e s p e c i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d , i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e knowledge of cognates and d e r i v a t i o n s must i n v a r i a b l y l e a d t o c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , not o n l y of the language i t s e l f , but of what the a r t i s t i s d o i n g w i t h the language. U n d e r s t a n d -i n g p h i l o l o g y , a s c h o l a r would see l e o d e as a cognate of the German l e u t e , not as a d e r i v a t i v e of ' l a d ' as E l l i s e a r l i e r d i d . 4 - ^ i t h a s a l r e a d y been shown how P r i c e ' s a t t e n t i o n t o the d e t a i l s of language l e d t o a q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l v e r s i o n of Brunanburh; b u t , t h e n , P r i c e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o the o p i n i o n of Grimm. Showing the growing i n t e r e s t i n p h i l o l o g y are R. K.Rask's A n q e l s a k s i s k S p r o q l a e r e , 1817, the f i r s t adequate grammar of O l d E n g l i s h , 4 2 Thorpe's E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of Rask, 1831, and J.M. Kemble's f i r s t e d i t i o n of Beowulf, 1833, a v a s t improvement over t h a t of T h o r k e l i n . But the event which r e a l l y changed E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p was the argument engendered by Kemble's r e -v i e w i n The Gentleman's Magazine of Thorpe's A n a l e c t a A n q l o -S a x o n i c a , 1834. T h i s q u a r r e l drew the b a t t l e l i n e s d e c i s i v e l y between the 'Old' and 'New S a x o n i s t s , ' t h a t i s between the 'amateur' gentleman s c h o l a r and the demanding s p e c i a l i s t c r i t i c . The o p i n i o n s a i r e d i n The Gentleman's Magazine of 1834 are h a r d l y what one would e x p e c t of a gentleman. With sometimes 4 1 S e e E l l i s , p. 18 n. 4 2 R a s k ' s Grammar a l s o c o n t a i n s the f i r s t a d e q u a t e l y -e d i t e d p o r t i o n of Beowulf (11. 53-114) ( C o o l e y , p. 6 6 ) . d e v a s t a t i n g r h e t o r i c Kemble p r a i s e s the s y s t e m a t i c method of Thorpe's book, c r i e s out f o r a good d i c t i o n a r y and v i r t u a l l y damns the work of the ' i l l u s t r i o u s o b s c u r e s ! of O x f o r d f o r d o i n g n o t h i n g but p e r p e t u a t e the e r r o r s made one hundred y e a r s e a r l i e r by H i c k e s . 4 3 A chorus of i r a t e g e n t l e m e n 4 4 then p r o -t e s t Kemble's h a r s h words, r e m i n d i n g him of the h a n d i c a p s i n e a r l y s c h o l a r s h i p and a c c u s i n g him o f o v e r l y heavy and u n t h i n k i n g r e l i a n c e on German and Danish s c h o l a r s , 4 ^ Whatever the c o m p l a i n t s of the 'Old S a x o n i s t s , ' the new methods, i n s p i r e d by German s c h o l a r s , were t o dominate the c r i t i c i s m of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y f o r the n e x t f i f t y y e a r s and even beyond. The most i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t of these new s t u d i e s was, of c o u r s e , the a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o the adequate e d i t i n g of the p o e t i c t e x t s , s i n c e no s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m can e x i s t i f c r i t i c s do not u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s o u r c e s . The most u n f o r t u n a t e a s p e c t of t h i s G e r m a n - o r i e n t a t e d c r i t i c i s m , however, was t h a t i t tended t o d i s r e g a r d the p o e t r y a l t o g e t h e r , t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n l y on the p h i l o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e , and t o become i n v o l v e d i n s i d e i s s u e s of myth, analogues and h i s t o r i c i t y . 4 3 T h e Gentleman's Magazine, V o l . I n.s. (1834), 392; V o l . I I n.s. (1834), 602-4. 4 4 T h e a r t i c l e s are s i g n e d o n l y by i n i t i a l s : I . J . , T. W. K. N. and B. I . J . i s p r o b a b l y James Ingram, R a w l i n s o n i a n P r o f e s s o r of Anglo-Saxon, 1803-8, F e l l o w and l a t e r P r e s i d e n t of T r i n i t y ; T. W. i s p o s s i b l y Thomas W r i g h t , an e a r l y A n g l o -Saxon s c h o l a r ; and B., who t r i e d t o mediate i n the q u a r r e l , i s p r o b a b l y Bosworth>K. N. I have been unable t o t r a c e . 4 5 G e n t l e m a n ' s Magazine, V o l . I I n.s., pp. 140, 364, 483, 594. 47 The f i r s t few y e a r s a f t e r the q u a r r e l saw the appearance of some i m p o r t a n t E n g l i s h works. I n 1835 Kemble brought out an Improved second e d i t i o n o f Beowulf. A l t h o u g h h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks are m a i n l y concerned w i t h m a t t e r s of p h i l o l o g y and h i s t o r y , h i s c o l l e c t i o n and comparison of heabo- compounds, T i n k e r s a y s , " l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n of a l l modern s t u d i e s on the O l d E n g l i s h c o m p o u n d . H o w e v e r , by the time of h i s Beowulf t r a n s l a t i o n (1837), Kemble had embarked on a study of mytho-l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and seemed t o f o r g e t t h a t he was d i s -c u s s i n g p o e t r y . I n 1838 t h r e e works were p u b l i s h e d , a l l s i g n i f i c a n t f o r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . Edwin Guest's a m b i t i o u s and compre-h e n s i v e H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Rhythms was t o become a s t a n d a r d work on metre i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and c o n t a i n s a f u l l acount of Old E n g l i s h v e r s e and metre. I t s weakest p o i n t i s Guest's i n a c c u r a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of word s t r e s s . Joseph Bosworth's D i c -t i o n a r y of Anglo-Saxon was a b a d l y needed a i d t o the increased.'. U n d e r s t a n d i n g of Old E n g l i s h , and has, i n r e v i s e d e d i t i o n s , r e -mained a s t a n d a r d w o r k . 4 7 L a s t , Henry Wadsworth L o n g f e l l o w ' s l o n g essay on Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y , which appeared anonymously i n the N o r t h 4 6 T i n k e r , p. 34. 4 7 T h e l a t e r r e v i s i o n s and supplements (1882-1920) by T. N. T o l l e r have made t h i s the most comprehensive of O l d E n g l i s h d i c -t i o n a r i e s . Commonly c a l l e d B o s w o r t h - T o l l e r , i t i s a b a s i c t o o l i n any c r i t i c i s m o f O ld E n g l i s h p o e t i c language. 48 American Review, made the s u b j e c t w i d e l y known i n America. 4^* B e f o r e t a k i n g up h i s p r o f e s s o r i a l d u t i e s a t H a r v a r d i n 1836, L o n g f e l l o w j o u r n e y e d f o r s t u d y purposes t o Europe, where he met and r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from Bosworth, a t t h a t time p r e p a r i n g h i s d i c t i o n a r y . L o n g f e l l o w was not a g r e a t A n g l o -Saxon s c h o l a r — h i s work i s n e a r l y c o m p l e t e l y d e r i v a t i v e — b u t h i s v a l u e l i e s i n h i s p l e a f o r the r o m a n t i c beauty, "the dark chambers and m o u l d e r i n g w a l l s of an o l d n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , a l l w e a t h e r - s t a i n e d and i n r u i n s . H e i s s i m l a r l y e l o q u e n t on the s u b j e c t of Beowulf, which he c a l l s 'a s i m p l e , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n a r r a t i v e , ' ^ 0 and on the s u b j e c t of i t s s t y l e : The s t y l e l i k e w i s e i s s i m p l e , — perhaps one s h o u l d say a u s t e r e . The b o l d metaphors which c h a r a c t e r i z e n e a r l y a l l t he-Anglo-Saxon poems we have r e a d , are f o r the most p a r t w a n t i n g i n t h i s . The a u t h o r . . . i s t o o much i n e a r n e s t t o m u l t i p l y e p i t h e t s and gorgeous f i g u r e s . 1 Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y L o n g f e l l o w u n d e r s t o o d l i t t l e about the s t y l e of Beowulf, a l t h o u g h he d i d n o t i c e i t s r e s t r a i n t , as compared w i t h o t h e r O l d E n g l i s h poems. As f o r the s t y l e b e i n g s i m p l e and s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d , the s c h o l a r s on the c o n t i n e n t were s t a r t i n g to d i s s e c t Beowulf t o prove e x a c t l y the c o n t r a r y . 4^The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t mention of Anglo-Saxon i n N o r t h America c o n s i s t e d of two a r t i c l e s by Henry Wheaton i n the N o r t h  American Review, O c t o b e r , 1831. These were summary-type book r e v i e w s of Thorpe's t r a n s l a t i o n of Rask's Grammar and of Conybeare's I l l u s t r a t i o n s . 4 ^ H e n r y W. L o n g f e l l o w , The Poets and P o e t r y of Europe, r e v . ed. ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1871), p. 1. 5 Q I b i d . , p. 4. 5 1Ibjd,. 49 Back i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Herder had s a i d , "Read Homer as i f you were s i n g i n g i n the s t r e e t s ! " ^ 2 T h i s , combined w i t h the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of 'popular p o e t r y 1 l i k e O s s i a n , s t i m u l a t e d c r i t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y German, t o debate the q u e s t i o n of ' f o l k e p i c . ' Need a poem have a s i n g l e p oet, or may i t be the c o l l e c t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n of a people? From t h i s query e v e n t u a l l y arose the t h e o r y t h a t f o l k e p i c s c o u l d be d i s s e c t e d t o show t h e i r b a l l a d o r i g i n . F r i e d e r i c h Wolf f i r s t a p p l i e d the method t o Homer. Then Lachmann a p p l i e d i t t o German l i t e r a t u r e , n o t a b l y the N i e b e l u n q e n l i e d , and, as James Routh d e s c r i b e s i t , 'the i n f e c t i o n * spread t o the s t u d y of a l l Germanic l i t e r a t u r e . ^ 3 j n 1840 L u d v i g E t t m i i l l e r produced the f i r s t s t u d y of the ' i n n e r h i s t o r y ' of Beowulf, a s t u d y e n f o r c e d i n 1869 by K a r l M u l l e n h o f ' s p e r s u a s i v e l y d e t a i l e d breakdown of the poem i n t o i t s c o n s t i t u e n t l a y s , a d d i t i o n s and i n t e r p o l a t i o n s , and f i n a l l y r e n d e r e d almost r i d i c u l o u s by the s t r o p h i c a n a l y s i s of Herman M o l l e r . An example of the d i f f i -c u l t i e s c r e a t e d by the d i s s e c t i n g s c h o o l ( o r l i e d e r t h e o r i e ) i s E t t m u l l e r ' s d i v i s i o n of the s i m i l e i n Beowulf, l i n e s 1 6 0 8 f f . He r e g a r d s the f i r s t p a r t , "baet h i t eal. gemealt I s e g e l i c o s t , " as the o r i g i n a l and the r e s t , "cTonne f o r s t e s bend Faeder onlaeted",/ onwinde w a e l r a p a s . . . . " as C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p o l a t i o n . ^ 4 -^Quoted i n F r a n c i s B. Gummere, ed., O l d E n g l i s h B a l l a d s ( B o s t o n , 1899), p. x l i i . ^ 3James Edward Routh, J r . , Two S t u d i e s on the B a l l a d Theory  of the Beowulf ( B a l t i m o r e , 1905), p. 5. 5 4 F r a n c i s B. Gummere, The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor ( H a l l e , 1881), p. 7. 50 These s t u d i e s are o n l y i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o d i c t i o n , but the a n a l y s e s of f o l k e p i c s i n t o c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s r e l i e d h e a v i l y on l i n g u i s t i c e v i d e n c e t o uncover a v a r i e t y of d i a l e c t forms and a r c h a i s m s . However, u s e f u l as t h i s a s p e c t of the l i e d e r  t h e o r i e may have been, the emphasis on l a c k of s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y s e r i o u s l y hampered p r o g r e s s i n the a p p r e c i t a i o n of Beowulf as p o e t r y ; who wanted t o waste time on a p o o r l y planned poem? 5 5 Perhaps the g r e a t e s t amount of s t y l i s t i c c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was done on metre. In a d d i t i o n t o the 'two b e a t ' t h e o r i e s p r e v a l e n t i n England s i n c e the time of H i c k e s and based on the I c e l a n d i c metres made known by Wormius, t h e r e d e v e l o p e d a ' f o u r b e a t ' t h e o r y . T h i s t h e o r y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the h e m i s t i c h o r i g i n a l l y had f o u r , n o t two, s t r e s s e s and t h a t s t r o n g s y l l a b l e s w h i c h do not c a r r y a l l i t e r a -t i o n are the O l d E n g l i s h v e s t i g e s of t h i s fundamental i n d o -European r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n . 5 0 A c t u a l l y , metre was so e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t by the 1880's Edouard S i e v e r s c o u l d p r e s e n t a f u l l a n a l y s i s and 5 5 W i l l i a m F l o y d Helmer, " C r i t i c a l E s t i m a t e s of Beowulf from the E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y t o the P r e s e n t " ( d i s s . U n i v . of P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1963), pp. 18-9. A l b e r t B. Lord (The S i n g e r  of T a l e s [Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1960], c h a p t . I ) r e v i e w s the r e l a t i o n of the b a l l a d t h e o r y t o d i c t i o n ; Routh, chapt. I r e v i e w s the major c r i t i c i s m of t h i s s c h o o l . 5 o T h e ' f o u r b e a t ' t h e o r y was u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d by c r i t i c s e n d o r s i n g the l i e d e r t h e o r i e , the f i r s t b e i n g Lachmann i n h i s 1833 l e c t u r e 'Uber das H i l d e b r a n d s l i e d . ' Lachmann i s 51 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f i v e m e t r i c a l t y p e s which have s i n c e been o n l y m o d i f i e d r a t h e r than f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d . But perhaps the most p r o l i f i c c r i t i c i s m of O ld E n g l i s h p o e t r y l a y i n the e x t r i n s i c areas of myth and h i s t o r y . I t has a l r e a d y been noted t h a t n a t i o n a l i s t i c i n t e r e s t s were a g r e a t s t i m u l u s t o e a r l y Beowulf s c h o l a r s h i p ; but the r a c e - c o n s c i o u s -ness of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t , i n s p i r e d p a r t l y by s t u d i e s of o r a l and m y t h i c o r i g i n s of b a l l a d and e p i c , tended t o r e i n -f o r c e the emphasis on e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and make s u b o r d i n a t e the s tudy of the p o e t r y i t s e l f . J . M. Kemble, l i k e G r u n d t v i g i n h i s l a t e r work, was much concerned w i t h the m y t h i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Beowulf,57 but t h i s l i n e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was pursued more on the C o n t i n e n t than i n E n g l a n d . Most E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m of the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y seems t o r e f l e c t the "Germanic con-c e p t i o n t h a t l i t e r a t u r e i s the o r g a n i c c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l mind, the e x p r e s s i o n of a c e r t a i n s o c i e t y , age, and n a t i o n a l a c c r e d i t e d w i t h the f i r s t attempt t o e x p l a i n the r h y t h m i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a l l i t e r a t i v e v e r s e (Max K a l u z a , A S h o r t H i s t o r y of  E n g l i s h V e r s i f i c a t i o n , t r a n s . A. C. Dunstan (London: George A l l e n , 19111, pp. 2 1-2). I n a d d i t i o n , the ' f o u r b e a t ' s c h o o l tended t o t h e i d e a t h a t the time between s t r e s s e s was e q u a l , a t h e o r y w h i c h f i t t e d i n w e l l w i t h t h a t of sung b a l l a d o r i g i n . The 'two b e a t ' s c h o o l , on the o t h e r hand, tended more t o the i d e a t h a t metre was not r e g u l a r and s i n g a b l e , a t h e o r y which f i t t e d i n b e t t e r w i t h i d e a s of s i n g l e a u t h o r s h i p , w r i t t e n o r i g i n and C h r i s t i a n i n f l u e n c e . These are g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , of c o u r s e , bu t t h e y r e p r e s e n t the e a r l i e s t s t a g e s of a s c h i s m which has always e x i s t e d between groups of Beowulf c r i t i c s . 5 7 M o s t f r e q u e n t l y s t u d i e s of myth saw i n the names Beowulf, S c y l d and S c e f i n g remnants of o l d n a t u r e myths, and from t h e r e i t was but a s h o r t s t e p t o a v a r i e t y of o f t e n f a n t a s t i c n a t u r e a l l e g o r i e s . 52 s p i r i t . " ^ 8 xhe tendency t o vi e w o l d l i t e r a t u r e as a r e p o s i t o r y of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was not new t o E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m , but thr o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t a l l but o b l i t e r a t e d any o t h e r k i n d of c r i t i c i s m of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . Remarks on s t y l e are almost t o t a l l y l a c k i n g . O n l y I s a a c D i s r a e l i i s the apparent e x c e p t i o n , a l t h o u g h most of h i s b r i e f summary of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e (1841) seems t o be d e r i v e d from T u r n e r : The t o r t u o u s i n v e r s i o n of t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n o f t e n l e a v e s an ambiguous se n s e : t h e i r p e r p e t u a l p e r i p h r a s i s ; t h e i r a b r u p t t r a n s i t i o n s ; t h e i r pompous i n f l a t i o n s , and t h e i r e l l i p t i c a l s t y l e ; and not l e s s t h e i r p o r t e n t o u s meta-p h o r i c a l nomenclature where a s i n g l e o b j e c t must be r e c o g n i z e d by twenty d e n o m i n a t i o n s , not always a p p r o -p r i a t e , and t o o o f t e n c l o u d e d by the most remote and dark a n a l o g i e s . . . . But D i s r a e l i ' s remarks are made s u s p e c t by h i s i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t k enning (which he c a l l s an 'obscure c o n c e i t 1 ) from the death song of Ragner Lodbrog i s of the same o r d e r as the Anglo-Saxon 'dark a n a l o g i e s . ' 0 0 I n s p i t e of h i s g e n e r a l i n a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between s t y l e s , D i s r a e l i does c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the more 'sublime c r e a t i v e power' shown i n the Eddas: 5 8 W i l l i a m K. Wimsatt, J r . , and C l e a n t h B r o o k s , L i t e r a r y  C r i t i c i s m : A S h o r t H i s t o r y (New York: Knopf, 1957), p. 531. 5 ^ I s a a c D i s r a e l i , A m e n i t i e s of L i t e r a t u r e , new ed. B. D i s r a e l i , V o l . I (London, 1859), p. 32. 6 0 I b i d . , p. 32 n. 53 An Anglo-Saxon poem has the appearance of a c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t h i n t s r a t h e r than p o e t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s , c u r t and e j a c u l a t i v e : a p a u c i t y of o b j e c t s y i e l d s but a p a u c i t y of e m o t i o n s , t o o vague f o r d e t a i l , t o o a b r u p t f o r deep p a s s i o n , t o o poor i n f a n c y t o s c a t t e r the imagery of poesy. The Anglo-Saxon b e t r a y s i t s c o n f i n e d and monotonous g e n i u s : we are i n the f i r s t age of a r t , when p i c t u r e s are but monochromes of a s i n g l e c o l o u r . Hence, i n the whole map of Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c r i m i n a t e one w r i t e r from a n o t h e r . A p a r t from the i n t e r e s t i n g comment t h a t O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y marks the b e g i n n i n g of a r t , D i s r a e l i b e t r a y s a g a i n the n e o - c l a s s i c bend of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s , who c o u l d see l i t t l e m e r i t i n the d e v i c e s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . S i n c e O l d E n g l i s h was not c o n s i d e r e d worthy of a t t e n t i o n as p o e t r y , t h e n , i t i s perhaps f o r t u n a t e t h a t i t s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r a r e a s . The remarks which D i s r a e l i d i r e c t s a t Beowulf, i n t e r e s t -i n g l y enough, do not get i n v o l v e d i n m y t h o l o g i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . Indeed he d e r i d e s Kemble f o r r a d i c a l l y a l t e r i n g h i s o p i n i o n s between h i s f i r s t and second e d i t i o n s . Beowulf may be a god or a n o n e n t i t y , but the poem which r e c o r d s h i s e x p l o i t s must a t l e a s t be t r u e , t r u e i n the manners i t p a i n t s and the emotions which the poet r e v e a l s — the emotions of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . " 2 D i s r a e l i t o o p r a i s e s Beowulf as an h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l document. I b i d . , p. 35. I b i d . , p. 52. 54 D i e d r i c h Wackerbarth perhaps i s more t y p i c a l of E n g l i s h i n t e r e s t s of the time i n the p r e f a c e t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Beowulf. H i s remarks on s t y l e are r e s t r i c t e d t o a few comments on t r a n s l a t i o n , w h i l e h i s comments on the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l background take most of the room. Next, Benjamin Thorpe says a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g about s t y l e ; but one of h i s s t a t e m e n t s , I t h i n k t y p i f i e s the a t t i t u d e of the major s c h o l a r s of h i s day: As a monument of language the poem of Beowulf i s h i g h l y v a l u a b l e , but f a r more v a l u a b l e i s i t as a v i v i d and f a i t h f u l p i c t u r e of o l d N o r t h e r n manners and usages, as t h e y e x i s t e d i n the h a l l s of the k i n g l y and the n o b l e a t the remote p e r i o d t o which i t r e l a t e s . 0 4 A p h i l o l o g i c a l monument! an h i s t o r i c a l document!--but not a poem, even though he c a l l s G r e n d l e ' s mere 'a h i g h l y p o e t i c de-s c r i p t i o n . ' 0 ^ Only i n h i s notes and g l o s s a r y does Thorpe seem t o r e c o g n i z e the scope of the d i c t i o n , w i t h the compounds l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y t o base-word. However, much as t h i s may r e p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i n language s t u d y , i t seems more l i k e l a n -guage s t u d y f o r i t s own sake than f o r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p o e t r y . o 3 A . D i e d r i c h W a ckerbarth, t r a n s . , Beowulf: An E p i c Poem (London, 1849). o 4 B e n j a m i n Thorpe, ed., The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, the Scop or Gleeman's T a l e , and the F i g h t a t F i n n e s b u r g , 2nd. ed. (London, 1875), pp. i x - x . I b i d . , p.. x x v i . 55 N e v e r t h e l e s s , one cannot deny the importance of t e x t u a l s t u d i e s ; and no m a t t e r what e x t r a v a g a n c e s of emendation even-t u a l l y d e v e l o p , r e l i a b l e t e x t s , d i c t i o n a r i e s and g l o s s a r i e s are e s s e n t i a l t o a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m . Any b i b l i o g r a p h y w i l l show the g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n of German s c h o l a r s i n t h i s f i e l d , w i t h the names G r e i n , Heyne and Wulcker foremost among e d i t o r s of Anglo-Saxon poetry.^° The i n f l u e n c e of these g r e a t s c h o l a r s and t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s was e x t e n s i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y so t h e i r s c h o l a r l y methods. P r i o r t o the 1834 q u a r r e l a n t i q u a r i a n groups i n E n g l a n d tended t o a t t r a c t the 'gentleman,' the d i l e t t a n t e , the amateur, and t o f l o u r i s h o n l y as l o n g as the f o u n d i n g members were around t o g i v e them energy. But i n 1842, s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by German p r i n c i p l e s of s c h o l a r s h i p , the P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y was formed, i t s p r i m a r y purpose t o i n v e s t i g a t e the h i s t o r y and s t r u c t u r e of language. Most of the s i g n i f i c a n t names i n mid-n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Anglo-Saxon s c h o l a r s h i p were among the e a r l y and c o n s t i t u e n t members: Bosworth, Kemble, Thorpe, E l l i s , Sweet and F u r n i v a l . The S o c i e t y was a l s o the s p r i n g b o a r d f o r the f o u n d i n g i n 1864 of the E a r l y E n g l i s h T ext S o c i e t y , a s o c i e t y w hich has done more t h a n any o t h e r t o make a v a i l a b l e and promote knowledge of b oth O l d and M i d d l e E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . Nor was the ^ I n d e e d the G r e i n - W u l c k e r B i b l i o t h e k der anqelsa'chsischen  P o e s i e (1883) remained a s t a n d a r d work u n t i l the appearance of the Anglo-Saxon P o e t i c R e c o r d s . 6 7 H a r r i s o n Ross S t e e v e s , Learned S o c i e t i e s and E n g l i s h  L i t e r a r y S c h o l a r s h i p i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s 56 r e s u r g e n t i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s r e s t r i c t e d t o E n g l a n d . I n 1868 the American P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , based on i t s E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t , was founded t o i n v e s t i g a t e the whole f i e l d of p h i l o l o g y ; and i n 1884 the Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n took 68 over the work i n modern p h i l o l o g y . A l l these p u b l i c a t i o n s , of c o u r s e , p r o v i d e d a means by which O l d E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p c o u l d be w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d . German p r i n c i p l e s of s c h o l a r s h i p were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g Anglo-Saxon i n t o the c u r r i c u l a of the u n i v e r s i t i e s , w i t h an emphasis on p h i l o l o g y w h i c h has o f t e n been lamented. But h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s were becoming s t r o n g e r and more complex t o o a f t e r 1 8 6 0 , w h i l e r e m a i n i n g f i r m l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c and n e o - c l a s s i c . N o t a b l e here i s the H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e of H i p p o l y t e Adolphe T a i n e , 1 8 6 4 , which e x h i b i t s T a i n e ' s d i c t u m t h a t the c h a r a c t e r and s t y l e of a w r i t e r grow out of h i s s o c i a l and n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t H o w e v e r , on the s u b j e c t of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y he o b v i o u s l y shares a not uncom-mon G a l l i c b e l i e f t h a t the T e u t o n i c r a c e s are f a r more e m o t i o n a l and f a r l e s s r e a s o n a b l e t h a n the L a t i n r a c e s . H i s whole e s s a y on O l d E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e i s c o l o u r e d by h i s view t h a t the Anglo-Saxons were, l i k e a l l T e u t o n i c t r i b e s , a race (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 1 4 8 . R e f e r e n c e s t o c l a s s i c a l p h i l o l o g y were abandoned i n 1 8 7 8 . 6 8 I b i d . , pp. 2 0 4 - 6 . 69 J . S c o t t C l a r k , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " t o H i p p o l y t e Adolphe T a i n e , H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s . Henry Van Laun, r e v . ed., V o l . I (New Y ork, 1 9 0 0 ) , p. v i i i . 57 of b r u t a l , b l o o d - t h i r s t y , g l u t t o n o u s b a r b a r i a n s , w i t h a s t r o n g sense of freedom and g i v e n t o g r e a t d i s p l a y s of courage and l o y a l t y . He speaks of ' p o e t i c s e n t i m e n t ' and the l a c k of a r t or t a l e n t e x h i b i t e d i n the 'confused mass' of d e t a i l s . He remarks on the g r o t e s q u e , remote and r e p e t i t i o u s imagery and the l a c k of r e a s o n a b l e a n a l y s i s . But i n h i s comments on v a r i a t i o n he i n t r o d u c e s some new and e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o the p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n : Time a f t e r time they r e t u r n t o and r e p e a t t h e i r i d e a : "The sun on h i g h , the g r e a t s t a r , God's b r i l l i a n t c a n d l e , the noble c r e a t u r e ! " Four t i m e s s u c c e s s i v e l y t h e y employ the same t h o u g h t , and each time under a new a s p e c t . A l l i t s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s r i s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b e f o r e the b a r b a r i a n ' s eyes...The s u c c e s s i o n of thought i n the v i s i o n a r y i s not the same as i n a r e a s o n i n g mind. One c o l o r i n d u c e s a n o t h e r ; from the sound he passes t o sound; h i s i m a g i n a t i o n i s l i k e a diorama of u n e x p l a i n e d p i c t u r e s . H i s phrases r e c u r and change; he e m i t s the word t h a t comes t o h i s l i p s w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n ; he l e a p s over wide i n t e r v a l s from i d e a t o i d e a . 7 ! T a i n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the p o e t r y , w i t h i t s v i v i d and a s s o c i a -t i v e imagery, compressed and a l l u s i v e s t y l e i s q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e , b u t h e does not pass from g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o a n a l y s i s . C h a r l e s Pearson s h a r e s somewhat t h i s v iew i n h i s h i s t o r y (1869), commenting on the p e c u l i a r s u i t a b i l i t y of imagery ( e s p e c i a l l y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ) t o the savage temperament. ^ O n l y W. W. Skeat seems t o i g n o r e t h i s 'mood and gloom and 7 0 T a i n e , pp. 4 1 , 47-8. 7 l I b i d . , pp. 54-5. 7 2 C h a r l e s H. P e a r s o n , H i s t o r y of E n g l a n d d u r i n g the E a r l y  and M i d d l e Ages, V o l . I (London, 1867), p. 296. 58 p a s s i o n ' o u t l o o k i n a b r i e f a r t i c l e s p e c i f i c a l l y devoted t o the " P o e t i c D i c t i o n of the Anglo-Saxons," (1869). He n o t i c e s : the i n v e r s i o n of word o r d e r ; "numerous e p i t h e t s and e q u i v a l e n t e x p r e s s i o n s " ; "an abundance of names f o r the same o b j e c t " ; and "a c u r i o u s chopping up of sentences i n t o p i e c e s of the same m e t r i c a l l e n g t h . " Much of t h i s has been observed by e a r l i e r c r i t i c s , but never i n t h i s c l e a r , r e a s o n a b l e f a s h i o n . Regard-i n g the abundance of e q u i v a l e n t e x p r e s s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r man, sword, and s h i p , Skeat suggests many were p i c k e d o n l y t o s a t i s f y a l l i t e r a t i o n , an a t t i t u d e s t i l l w i d e l y h e l d among O l d E n g l i s h c r i t i c s . He i s a l s o among the f i r s t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t 73 sense as w e l l as sound pauses a t the c a e s u r e . A l t h o u g h Henry Sweet (1871) r e t a i n s the tone of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y i n h i s comments, he sees v a l u e i n the p o e t r y as p o e t r y , and v i v i d n e s s and i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the na t u r e d e s c r i p -t i o n s , "not i n f e r i o r t o the most p e r f e c t examples of d e s c r i p t i v e p o e t r y i n modern E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e perhaps the h i g h e s t 74 p r a i s e t h a t can be g i v e n . " He n o t i c e s the major f e a t u r e s of the s t y l e , but h i s remarks on the s i m i l e show c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s over e a r l i e r work and c o r r e c t l y a p p l y the term 'kenning': E v e r y t h i n g t h a t r e t a r d s the a c t i o n or obscures the main s e n t i m e n t of the poem i s a v o i d e d , hence a l l s i m i l e s are e x t r e m e l y r a r e . I n the whole poem of Beowulf t h e r e are s c a r c e l y h a l f a dozen of them, and these are of the '°Walter W. S k e a t , " P o e t i c D i c t i o n of the Anglo-Saxons," A S t u d e n t ' s Pastime ( O x f o r d , 1896), pp. 50-1. 7 4 H e n r y Sweet, " S k e t c h of the H i s t o r y of Anglo-Saxon P o e t r y , " i n Thomas Warton, H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h P o e t r y , ed. W. . 59 s i m p l e s t c h a r a c t e r , such as comparing the s h i p t o a b i r d . Indeed, such a s i m p l e comparison as t h i s i s a l m o s t e q u i -v a l e n t t o the more u s u a l 'kenning' (as i t i s c a l l e d i n I c e l a n d i c ) such as ' b r i m f u g o l , ' where, i n s t e a d of com-p a r i n g the s h i p . t o a . b i r d , the poet s i m p l y c a l l s i t a s e a - b i r d , p r e f e r r i n g the d i r e c t a s s e r t i o n t o the i n d i r e c t c omparison. Such e l a b o r a t e comparisons as are found i n Homer and h i s Roman i m i t a t o r are q u i t e f o r e i g n t o the s p i r i t of N o r t h e r n p o e t r y . 7 5 T h i s comment c e r t a i n l y a p p l i e s t o Beowulf but w i t h l i m i t a t i o n s : one s h o u l d not assume t h a t a l l N o r t h e r n p o e t r y i s not complex, s i n c e the s k a l d i c kenning i s as e l a b o r a t e i n i t s own way as the Homeric s i m i l e ; s i m i l a r l y , Sweet f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e the r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t of v a r i a t i o n . ( s e e appendix B ) . G e n e r a l l y by the 1870's comment on Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y was r e a s o n a b l y mature, a l t h o u g h most of i t was s t i l l German. In 1875 the f i r s t a r t i c l e r e s t r i c t e d t o m a t t e r s of s t y l e appeared: R i c h a r d H e i n z e l ' s Uber den S t i l d e r a l t q e r m a n i s c h e n  P o e s i e , an a n a l y s i s of the o r i g i n s and forms of the v a r i o u s s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of a n c i e n t Germanic p o e t r y . B e i n g the f i r s t e s s a y of i t s k i n d , H e i n z e l ' s work became a p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e f o r most s t y l i s t i c s t u d i e s of the f o l l o w i n g decades. I t i s worth n o t i n g , however, t h a t i t c o v e r s a l l Germanic p o e t r y , not Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y i n p a r t i c u l a r . L a t e r c r i t i c i s m of H e i n z e l ' s work i n d i c a t e s t h a t problems arose through t o o g r e a t a t t e n t i o n t o the common f e a t u r e s of Indo-European l i t e r a t u r e s and inadequate' Carew H a z l i t t , V o l . I I (London, 1871), pp. 6-7. 7 5 I b i d . , p. 6. 60 e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s . To g e n e r a l i z e a b i t ; German c r i t i c i s m of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y seemed t o be mrore concerned w i t h pagan Germanic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common t o a l l T e u t o n i c l i t e r a t u r e s than w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s which made Ol d E n g l i s h d i s t i n c t i v e . The advent of s e r i o u s E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m of s t y l e overcame t h i s d e f i c i e n c y , a l t h o u g h f o r many y e a r s t o come, O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m would be r e s t r i c t e d by the s t r o n g n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t e n t i o n t o pagan Germanic c u l t u r e . Thomas A r n o l d p r a i s e s the work of the German s c h o l a r s i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n of Beowulf i n 1876. A r n o l d ' s comments ar e most i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f f o r m u l a i c d i c t i o n and t h e i r comparison of the language of Beowulf and Homer. He o bserves the r e c u r r e n c e of s e v e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n some or a l l of t h e major n a r r a t i v e poems, e.g., b a n - l o c a , 7 ^ and he o b s e r v e s t h a t the p a u c i t y of a r t i c l e s i n Beowulf and the c o l o u r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n s of arms, b u i l d i n g s and c l o t h e s , r e -semble the d i c t i o n of Homer. 7 7 A r n o l d a l s o sees Beowulf as much e a r l i e r t h a n I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y and o t h e r O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , i n w h i c h o c c u r c e r t a i n " f a n c i f u l and sometimes f a r f e t c h e d synonyms." F i n a l l y , . h e suggests the poem was w r i t t e n by a "churchman i n a  l a y mood. He d e l i g h t s i n the c o n c r e t e ; l o v e s p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , 7 6 T h omas A r n o l d , ed., Beowulf: A H e r o i c Poem of the E i g h t h  C e n t u r y (London, 1876), p. x v i . 7 7 I b i d . , pp. X I X - x x . t h i n g s , p a s s i o n s , a d v e ntures."78 A s i d e from these few comments on d i c t i o n and imagery, A r n o l d i s m a i n l y concerned w i t h the e x t r i n s i c i s s u e s of the poem. The l a s t c r i t i c t o be noted i s Bernhard t e n B r i n k , whose comments a n t i c i p a t e the b e s t work of the l a s t decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B a s i c a l l y , t e n B r i n k endorses the t h e o r y t h a t r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t the tone of the p o e t r y . He p r a i s e s the a r t of " f i n d i n g s a y i n g s r i g h t l y bound" and the s k i l l and v a r i e t y of the o r a l p o e t i c a r t . 7 ^ He n o t i c e s how the poet can d w e l l on a minor f e a t u r e such as the coming of w i n t e r , and v e r y j u s t l y observes the i n d i r e c t - c o n c r e t e n a t u r e of e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e 'to bear weapons' i n s t e a d of the a b s t r a c t - d i r e c t 'to go.' S i m i l a r l y , he suggests t h a t much of what we c o n s i d e r f i g u r a -t i v e language was not f e l t t o be such by the Anglo-Saxons, and t h a t the r a r i t y of s i m i l e i n O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y was due t o an absence of r e p o s e , s i n c e s i m i l e r e q u i r e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t e n B r i n k , a more l e i s u r e d pace than he a t t r i b u t e s t o O l d E n g l i s h . 80 p o e t r y . H i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e p e t i t i o n , v a r i a t i o n and p a r a l l e l -ism of e p i t h e t s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r and c o n c i s e : 7 8 I b i d . , p. x x x i i i . ^ B e r n h a r d t e n B r i n k , H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s . Horace M. Kennedy, V o l . I (London: G. B e l l , 1914), pp. 6-7, 13. 8 0 I b i d . , pp. 18-9. 62 Sensuous and f i g u r a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n seems c r y s t a l l i s e d i n p i c t u r e s q u e e p i t h e t s , and p r i n c i p a l l y i n s u b s t a n t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s w h ich, making prominent a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a q u a l i t y of the person or t h i n g meant, are put a p p o s i t i v e l y b e s i d e the r e a l d e s i g n a t i o n , and o f t e n t a k e i t s p l a c e . There i s an e s p e c i a l abundance of the s e e x p r e s s i o n s per-t a i n i n g t o the ocean and the sea-voyage, o r t o war and the r e l a t i o n of the c h i e f t a i n to h i s men. He a l s o n o t i c e s t h a t d w e l l i n g on a s u b j e c t tends t o slow down the a c t i o n and t h a t the l a c k of t r a n s i t i o n between a p p o s i t i v e s and the presence of p a r a l l e l i s m c u r t a i l s u b t l e t y of thought and g e n e r a l c l a r i t y . N o n e t h e l e s s , t e n B r i n k p r a i s e s the p o e t r y : The s t y l e of the Old E n g l i s h epos y i e l d s the g e n e r a l im-p r e s s i o n b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s s p e c i e s of p o e t r y . The u n i f o r m s t a t e l y movement of the r h y t h m i c a l language, the br o a d , f o r m u l a - l i k e p e r i o d s , which r e c u r e s p e c i a l l y a t the d e s i g n a -t i o n of time or of the b e g i n n i n g of a speech, the fond l i n g e r i n g over d e t a i l s , the e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f o c c u r r e n c e s t h a t are not e s s e n t i a l t o the a c t i o n - - a l l t h i s i s s t r i k i n g l y s u g g e s t i v e of Homer. But the l a c k i n the Old E n g l i s h e p i c of the c l e a r n e s s and f i n e completeness of the Homeric, i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y made good by the g r e a t e r d i r e c t n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n . The poet's e x c i t e m e n t i s not seldom i m p a r t e d t o the l i s t e n e r ; i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t seem to j u s t i f y i t , t h i s i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e . Thus the por-t r a y a l s of b a t t l e s , a l t h o u g h i n f i n i t e l y p o o r e r i n c a s t and a r t i s t i c g r o u p i n g , a l t h o u g h much l e s s r e a l i s t i c t han the Homeric d e s c r i p t i o n s , are y e t , a t t i m e s , s u p e r i o r t o them, i n so f a r as the demoniac rage of war e l i c i t s from the Germanic f a n c y a crowding a f f l u e n c e of v i g o r o u s scenes, h a s t i l y , p r o j e c t e d , i n g l a r i n g l i g h t s or grim h a l f - g l o o m , and makes us f e e l as i f we were i n the m i d s t of the t u m u l t . Nor must we f o r g e t t h a t the modes of e x p r e s s i o n we have t r i e d t o a n a l y s e , are i n a h i g h degree adapted t o the e l e g i a c mood, which o n l y too o f t e n f l o w e d from the s o f t m e l a n c h o l y of the Old E n g l i s h temperament, and which r e a d i l y l e d t o d i g r e s s i o n and r e f l e c t i o n . They are a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n s . 8 2 x I b i d . , p. 19. 2 I b i d . , p. 21. 63 W i th t e n B r i n k , t h e n , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t Old E n g l i s h s c h o l a r -s h i p has reached a stage where m o d e r a t e l y r e l i a b l e e v a l u a t i o n s can be made. Rene W e l l e k summarizes b e t t e r than I p o s s i b l y c o u l d the i m p o r t a n c e of what has been a c c o m p l i s h e d s i n c e 1533: One of the f i r s t t a s k s of s c h o l a r s h i p i s the assembly of i t s m a t e r i a l s , the c a r e f u l undoing of the e f f e c t s o f t i m e , the e x a m i n a t i o n as t o a u t h o r s h i p , a u t h e n t i c i t y , and d a t e . Enormous acumen and d i l i g e n c e have gone i n t o the s o l u t i o n of t h e s e problems; y e t the l i t e r a r y s t u d e n t w i l l have t o r e a l i z e t h a t these l a b o r s are p r e l i m i n a r y to the u l t i m a t e t a s k of s c h o l a r s h i p . O f t e n the impor-tance of t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t , s i n c e w i t h o u t them, c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and h i s t o r i c a l under-s t a n d i n g would be h o p e l e s s l y handicapped.83 However, i t took over t h r e e hundred y e a r s f o r the fundamentals of Old E n g l i s h p o e t r y t o be d e a l t w i t h . Should one assume, t h e n , a p a u c i t y of acumen and d i l i g e n c e among e a r l y s c h o l a r s ? I n p a r t , such an assumption would be r e a s o n a b l e ; but m a i n l y the n e g l e c t was due to l a c k of i n t e r e s t , l a c k of knowledge, or a c o m b i n a t i o n of the two. The s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h cen-t u r i e s were i n t e r e s t e d , r a t h e r s e l f i s h l y , . - i n s u p p o r t i n g v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s by means of a n c i e n t E n g l i s h p r e c e d e n t . The g r e a t a c t i v i t y of H i c k e s ' O x f o r d group e x i s t e d almost i n s p i t e of the i n t e n s e l y n e o - c l a s s i c t a s t e of the p e r i o d . The remainder of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y seemed t o c a r e n o t h i n g about Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a t u r e - - e v e n 8 3 R ene W e l l e k and A u s t i n Warren, Theory of L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, 1956) , p~! 45~! 64 a f t e r i n t e r e s t was aroused i n o t h e r a r e a s of N o r t h e r n l i t e r a -t u r e . When f i n a l l y the poems came t o c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n , i t i s t o the g r e a t shame of the E n g l i s h t h a t most of the s i g n i f i -c a n t e a r l y s c h o l a r s h i p was a c c o m p l i s h e d by n o n - E n g l i s h c r i t i c s . I t i s l i t t l e wonder, t h e n , t h a t t h e s e same c r i t i c s were i n t e r e s t e d i n the poems more as documents of p h i l o l o g y , h i s -t o r y and mythology, than as r e l i c s o f a stage of n a t i o n a l l i t e r a r y development. 65 CHAPTER I I I THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN ENGLISH CRITICISM OF OLD ENGLISH POETIC STYLE: 1881-1921 C h a p t e r I I showed t h a t Anglo-Saxon s t u d i e s d e v e l o p e d v e r y s l o w l y , t h a t p o e t r y was the l a s t b r anch t o r e c e i v e a t t e n -t i o n , and t h a t no book or a r t i c l e s p e c i f i c a l l y devoted t o p o e t i c s t y l e appeared u n t i l 1875, and even t h i s was not r e s -t r i c t e d t o O ld E n g l i s h p o e t r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , much was l e a r n e d about th e p o e t i c d i c t i o n t h r ough s t u d i e s of s t r u c t u r e , metre, d a t i n g and t e x t ; and one i s reminded t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s of s t y l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y d i c t i o n , l e d Edouard S i e v e r s t o propose i n 1875 t h a t the G e n e s i s B . p o r t i o n of the J u n i u s Book was a t r a n s l a -t i o n from O l d Saxon,^ an h y p o t h e s i s d r a m a t i c a l l y v e r i f i e d i n 1894 by the d i s c o v e r y i n the V a t i c a n L i b r a r y of an O l d Saxon fragment c o n t a i n i n g some t w e n t y - f i v e l i n e s which c o r r e s p o n d t o o the Anglo-Saxon. C o n s i d e r i n g the" German d o m i n a t i o n of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Anglo-Saxon s c h o l a r s h i p , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the f i r s t work concerned e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n s h o u l d be by an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e r s o n , an American, •'•Sievers observed t h a t c e r t a i n compounds o c c u r r e d i n G e n e s i s B but e i t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y or not a t a l l i n G e n e s i s A ( e . g . , of names f o r God, ' r u l i n g God' o c c u r s t w i c e i n B and not i n A, e t c . ) S i e v e r s a l s o p r e s e n t e d p a r a l l e l O l d E n g l i s h and O l d Saxon l i n e s as f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e ( e . g . , ' w e o l l him on innan hyge ym h i s h e o r t a n , ' G e n e s i s 353, and 'thes u u e l l im an innan h u g i urn i s h e r t a , ' H e l i a n d 3688) (summarized i n Henry M o r l e y , E n g l i s h W r i t e r s : An A ttempt towards a H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a -t u r e , V o l . I I [London, 1888J, pp. 102-5). 2ASPR, V o l . I , p. x x v . 66 F r a n c i s B. Gummere. B a s i c a l l y , Gummere's d i s s e r t a t i o n , The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor, r e f u t e s H e i n z e l ' s views about f i g u r a -t i o n i n O l d Germanic p o e t r y and about the temperament r e q u i r e d f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of the s i m i l e . I t a l s o c h a l l e n g e s a t e n -dency t o compare too c l o s e l y the l i t e r a t u r e s of the v a r i o u s •Indo-European and Germanic languages. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o the metaphor, as the t i t l e s t a t e s , but concerns s i m i l e , p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , metonymy and symbolism. I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d Gummere's a n a l y s i s of the O l d E n g l i s h 'metaphor,' one must r e a l i z e t h a t , l i k e most of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , he approaches the s u b j e c t of f i g u r a t i v e l a n -guage from a c l a s s i c a l d i r e c t i o n ; t h a t i s , he be*gins h i s d i s -c u s s i o n from a c l a s s i c a l v i e w of s i m i l e and metaphor as c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . However, he f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e s the type of temperament r e q u i r e d t o produce the s i m i l e . H e i n z e l b e l i e v e d t h a t the s i m i l e (which o c c u r s i n the Vedas and O l d Norse) and the metaphor were b a s i c a l l y v e h i c l e s f o r sensuous e x p r e s s i o n and were common t o the Indo-European l a n g u a g e s , and t h a t the r e s t r i c t e d use of the s e f i g u r e s i n O l d E n g l i s h was due t o the s o f t e n i n g e f f e c t of C h r i s t i a n i t y . 3 Gummere, however, r e f u t e s t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . F i r s t , he s a y s , i t assumes t h a t the p o e t i c 3 H . van der Merwe S c h o l t z , The Kenning i n Anglo-Saxon and  O l d Norse P o e t r y ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1929), p. 20. 67 of the Anglo-Saxons was i n a p e r i o d of d e c l i n e and amenable t o change a t the time of C h r i s t i a n c o n t a c t ; but s i n c e such was not the case (the n a t i v e p o e t i c remained s t r o n g f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s ) , one must conclude t h a t the T e u t o n i c p o e t r y brought t o E n g l a n d i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y was a l r e a d y u n f r i e n d l y t o the s i m i l e . ^ Second, Gummere notes t h a t s i m i l e s are more f r e q u e n t i n l a t e r C h r i s t i a n O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y , a f a c t s u g g e s t i n g f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , he c o n c l u d e s , one s h o u l d not assume t h a t t h e . s i m i l e was a common Indo-European f i g u r e nor attempt t o account f o r i t s absence i n O l d E n g l i s h ; r a t h e r , one s h o u l d have t o e x p l a i n i t s presence i n O l d Norse and t h e Vedas. Next, Gummere t r i e s t o show the development of f i g u r a -t i v e l a nguage, the key t o which i s the metaphor, "the c o r n e r -stone of a l l p o e t i c a l s t y l e . I t l i e s a t the b e g i n n i n g of a l l t r o p e s , "between the v a r i a t i o n , which i s s y n t a c t i c a l , and the s i m i l e , which i s a t r o p e . . . " 7 At t h i s p o i n t he makes a d i s t i n c -t i o n between the c o n s c i o u s metaphor ( e s s e n t i a l l y a s h o r t e n e d s i m i l e and i n v o l v i n g the c o n s c i o u s r e c o g n i t i o n of the s i m i l a r i t i e s between o r d i n a r i l y d i s s i m i l a r o b j e c t s ) and the un c o n s c i o u s metaphor (one o b j e c t seen q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n terms of a n o t h e r ) : 4 F r a n c i s B. Gummere, The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor ( H a l l e , 1881), p. 4. 5 I b i d . , pp. 6-7. 6 I b i d . , p. 11. 7 I b i d . , p. 12. 68 I n t h i s way the d e l i b e r a t e metaphor presupposes a gap be-tween the c o n c r e t e and the a b s t r a c t , between animate and i n a n i m a t e and the l i k e . B e f o r e t h a t , one cannot t a l k of c o n s c i o u s metaphors, but o n l y of picturesque c o n f u s i o n of names. The advanced st a g e s of the metaphor become p o s s i b l e as soon as c o n c r e t e may be e x p r e s s e d by a b s t r a c t , and t h e r e v e r s e . . . . But the i n c r e a s e of me n t a l a c t i v i t y i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e of p o e t i c a l v i v i d n e s s . 8 E a r l y metaphors, t h e n , a re i n t e n s e and b r i e f , e.g., hior o d r y n c u m  s w e a l t . 'he d i e d of sword d r i n k s . ' Such f i g u r a t i o n t h e n came under the i n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t i a n l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y the hymns, and deve l o p e d I n t o extended metaphor, s i m i l e and a l l e g o r y . Gummere c l a s s i f i e s Anglo-Saxon metaphors a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n a t u r e , a system w h i c h i s c r i t i c a l l y more v a l u a b l e than f o r m a l d i v i s i o n s , and y e t which f a l l s s h o r t of s u g g e s t i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n . However, i t was not the c r i t i -c a l h a b i t o f the day t o go beyond a n a l y s i s i n t o the e v a l u a t i o n of s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s . The f o u r major d i v i s i o n s a r e : I ) o n e c o n c r e t e o b j e c t e x p r e s s e d i n terms of a n o t h e r ; I I ) an a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s e d by an a b s t r a c t ; I I I ) a c o n c r e t e o b j e c t e x p r e s s e d by an a b s t r a c t t h o u g h t ; IV) an a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s e d by a c o n c r e t e . These groups are f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d , e.g., ; ' g r e a t e r e x p r e s s e d by l e s s , ' e t c . , but t h e s e are mer e l y d e s c r i p t i v e d i v i s i o n s . Group I , Gummere sa y s , are used f o r v i v i d n e s s , but i n some cases he f e e l s the terms may not be f e l t t o be m e t a p h o r i c a l . For i n s t a n c e , h r o f and h l e o are g e n e r a l l y used l i t e r a l l y i n 8 I b i d . , p. 13. 69 Beowulf and f i g u r a t i v e l y i n the r e l i g i o u s poems 9 (he does not see h r an-rade as l i t e r a l ) ; and banhus may not be a f u l l y con-s c i o u s metaphor. C e r t a i n f i g u r e s l i k e n a e g l e d bord Gummere sees c o r r e c t l y as synechdoche r a t h e r than metaphor, and he ob-serves- t h a t f r e q u e n t synechdoche f o r c e r t a i n o b j e c t s was p a r t of v a r i a t i o n . " I t was e v i d e n t l y a canon of Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y , n e c e s s i t a t e d by i t s many r e p e t i t i o n s , t o i n v e n t a l l p o s s i b l e names f o r one and the same t h i n g . " ^ A l t h o u g h he does not d e v e l o p t h i s i d e a , Gummere has n o t i c e d an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of v a r i a t i o n . He a l s o c l a i m s t h a t a mixed metaphor such as h i l d e l e o m a b i t a n (1523) a t t e s t s t o the s h o r t l i f e of the metaphor.^"'" He does not c o n s i d e r an e x p r e s s i o n l i k e f l o t a  f a m i q h e a l s as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ; but when p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a -t i o n i s added, "the approach t o r e a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i s _ v - 12 i n c r e a s e d , " as i n l a d a n l i q e s . F i n a l l y , he t r e a t s the e l a b o r a t e , s u s t a i n e d metaphors, w h i c h , he c l a i m s , " b e t r a y t h e i r f o r e i g n o r i g i n a t s i g h t " ; but o d d l y enough, the s u s t a i n e d 1 l e g e r b e d d e . . . s w e f e ^ ' metaphor of l i n e 1007, he c o n s i d e r s 13 merely f o r t u i t o u s . 9 I b i d . p . 22. 10 I b i d . 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . 1 3 I b i d . p-. .25. pp. 24-5, pp. 25-6. pp. 27-8, 70 Group I I Gummere d i s m i s s e s as r a r e and u n i m p o r t a n t ; Group I I I i s a l s o f a i r l y i n f r e q u e n t . T h i s l a t t e r group, he n o t e s , o f t e n approaches p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , s i n c e "an a b s t r a c t thought was almost as v i v i d and r e a l t o the Anglo-Saxon poet as the c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i t s e l f . " - ' - 4 Gummere a l s o puts i n t o t h i s group examples o f metonymy, e.g., fyrbendum f a e s t . Group IV i s the most numerous, but modern c r i t i c s would be wont to q u e s t i o n the f i g u r a t i v e n e s s of some of the examples, e.g., s i d r a sorqa ( l . 149), bolqenmod ( l . 7 0 9 ) , and sawlberende ( l . 1004).15 N o n e t h e l e s s , of a l l the examples g i v e n , t h e s e are the l e a s t l i k e l y t o have been f e l t f i g u r a t i v e l y by the An g l o -Saxons. S i n c e the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o the metaphor, Gummere b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e s o t h e r t y p e s of f i g u r a t i o n . He sees t r a c e s of a l l e g o r y i n Beowulf and notes the immense p o p u l a r i t y of t he d e v i c e i n s a c r e d L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . - ' - 0 Next he d i s c u s s e s and c a t e g o r i z e s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , g i v i n g as examples, s e f a hwette ( l . 4 9 0 ) , f y r s t fordf qewat ( l . 210), and holtwudu h e l p a n ( l . 2 3 4 0 ) , I 7 not a l l of which appear t o me to be p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . As f o r the s i m i l e , Gummere i s r a t h e r l i k e t e n B r i n k i n h i s odd l 4 I b i d . , p. 33. 1 5 I b i d . , pp. 36-44. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 44. ^ 7 I b _ i d . , pp. 45-8. 71 b e l i e f that simile requires greater control than the Anglo-Saxon poet could bring to his subject. If one adds to this idea his observation that metaphor i s frequently mixed and that conscious metaphor i s rare, i t i s l i t t l e wonder that Gummere concludes: A mere glance at the above l i s t s w i l l show how l i t t l e the s t r i v i n g after a r t i s t i c unity, a f t e r consistent carrying out of a metaphor, had place with them....To demand the A. S. poetry to be consistent i n t h i s respect is to demand i t not to be itself.-'- 8 F i n a l l y , Gummere b r i e f l y looks at the metaphorical (or symbolic) use of colour, noting that day and night (the most s t r i k i n g feature of Nature, myth and l i t e r a t u r e ) have no uniform moral connotations. In order to d i s t i n g u i s h between the 'heathen' Beowulf and the other e p i c a l Old English poems, Gummere explores the moral and psychological connotations of the words' f o r darkness and l i g h t . In both Beowulf and the Caedmon poems there i s psychological colour d i s t i n c t i o n , but moral d i s t i n c t i o n (absent i n mythology) i s also lacking i n Beowulf. ^  For example, deorc in Beowulf i s a purely physical term, whereas i n Caedmonian and Cynewulfian poems i t i s asso-ciated with death. I cannot agree with Gummere, though, that deorc deaSscua (1. 160) i s a purely l i t e r a l term concerning on Grendel's nocturnal v i s i t a t i o n s ; ^ i t i s too close to a thoroughly Ch r i s t i a n passage for the tone to change so abruptly. However, t h i s Christian passage (11. 168-88) was i n Gummere's 1 8 I b i d . , P- 53. 1 9 I b i d . , P- 55. 2 0 I b i d . , P- 56. 72 day generally thought to be an int e r p o l a t i o n . Aside from i t s position as a f i r s t study, Gummere's di s s e r t a t i o n makes important contributions to the understand-ing of f i g u r a t i o n , i t s scope and type, even though one might wish for a d i f f e r e n t sort of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , or for some acknowledgement of a r t i s t r y in the poetry. However much Gummere is aware of the C h r i s t i a n background of Old English poetry, he b a s i c a l l y assumes that Beowulf i s heathen and more clos e l y related to pagan mythology than to C h r i s t i a n doctrine. He also gives t a c i t approval to theories of oral o r i g i n through the persistent implication that the poetry i s on the threshold of a r t . 2 1 In his 1887 a r t i c l e on Anglo-Saxon poetic s t y l e , Albert Tolman, l i k e Gummere, r e s i s t s Heinzel's tendency to view the 2 Sanskrit Vedas as the prototype of a l l Indo-European l i t e r a t u r e . Tolman's long, comprehensive essay represents the f i r s t attempt in English, since the improvement of basic texts, to present an appreciative summary of Anglo-Saxon poetic s t y l e , though much of i t i s apparently derived from Heinzel and Wilhelm Bode (Die  Kenningar in der anqels'achsischen Dichtunq, 1886). Although somewhat outside the scope of t h i s study, one should note that Such an attitude was common among scholars of the day, but was by no means exclusive. For example, John Earle's l i t t l e book, Anglo-Saxon Literature (London, 1884), while i t says noth-ing about s t y l e , unhesitatingly places a l l Old English poetry in the L a t i n - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n and even suggests that Beowulf could be considered a moderate and u n i f i e d allegory, (pp. 134-5). 2 2 A l b e r t H. Tolman, "The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry," PMLA, III (1887), 19. 73 Tolman lays stress on the importance of metre i n Old English poetic s t y l e . He does not wish to say that the metre caused the style--he assumes common cause—but he credits the exigencies of stress and a l l i t e r a t i o n with making the verse intense and vigorous and with giving weight to substantives. "The verse demands strong nouns, adjectives, and verbs; and these, of necessity, state the thought with brevity and power/" To t h i s 'remorseless' energy1 of the metre he also attributes the necessity for 'repetition of thought with v a r i a t i o n of expression' and for the short, f o r c i b l e metaphor. 2 4 In his essay Tolman handles the two main aspects of poetic d i c t i o n , the poetical synonym and figures of speech. Like Bode, Tolman uses the term 'kenning' broadly to include a l l synonyms and epithets; however, he t r i e s to correct Bode's unclear d i s t i n c t i o n between the kenning and the l i t e r a l expression. Tolman's treatment of the poetical synonym i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g . He tends to see i t as a substitution for the metrically-weak pronoun, and his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of synonyms i s according to form rather than function, e.g., for 'ocean' he finds forty-two simple and compound nouns i n Beowulf 2 3 I b i d . , p. 22. 24 Ibid., pp. 24, 28. 2 5 I n Bode's study (summarized by Tolman, p. 26) the kenning was divided into f i v e main d i v i s i o n s : those portraying subjects d i r e c t l y and f u l l y , those conveying the idea by synecdoche, those embodying a d e f i n i t i o n , the metaphorical, and the episodic or a l l u s i v e . See also below, appendix A. 74 and ten examples, of noun plus genitive.26 He also observes that t h i s device i s r e s t r i c t e d to poetry and may be used in a stock manner. In his discussion of f i g u r a t i o n Tolman elaborates only s l i g h t l y on Gummere (he does, however, emend Gummere's general use of the word 'metaphor' to the more correct term ' t r o p e ' ) , 2 7 agreeing that the poets were not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e l f -conscious to create conscious metaphor, simile and allegory. The mixing of metaphors attests to the fa c t that the Anglo-Saxons were barely conscious of them.28 Here I think Tolman has things backwards, since a mixed metaphor i s more l i k e l y to be a moribund metaphor than an i n c i p i e n t or l i v i n g one. Certainly, i f the poet were barely conscious of his metaphor he would use an appropriate term; and the l i v i n g metaphor poses no problem of usage since i t s meaning i s f r e s h . 2 9 The next most important study of the compound and epithet, and one which has r e a l l y not been superseded, i s J . W. Rankin's systematic and exhaustive study of the sources of the Old English kenning. Nor does Rankin use the term 2 6Tolman, pp. 26-7. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 30. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 31. 2 9 l am reminded here of George Orwell's essay, " P o l i t i c s and the English Language," i n which the point i s made clear that mixing of metaphors results from laziness and a thoughtless reliance on the ready-to-hand phrase. Also,W. M. Hart makes this point clear i n 1907 when he notes the fading of metaphor and per-s o n i f i c a t i o n i n an expression l i k e qufr-wine and the approaching decadence of poetic style i n the mixed metaphor beado-leoma bitani 75 k e n n i n g i n a narrow sense, "but s i m p l y as a c o n v e n i e n t d e s i g n a t i o n of a m e t a p h o r i c a l , a p e r i p h r a s t i c , o r a more o r l e s s complex term employed i n Anglo-Saxon poems i n s t e a d of the s i n g l e , s p e c i f i c name f o r a person or t h i n g . " 3 0 R a n k i n t r i e s m a i n l y t o f i n d the sources f o r r e l i g i o u s k ennings i n a wide s e l e c t i o n of L a t i n r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r s . Those f o r which he f i n d s no L a t i n p a r a l l e l s and so u r c e s he compares w i t h o t h e r Germanic languages i n an attempt t o determine whether t h e y are of n a t i v e or common Germanic o r i g i n . Whatever argument one may d i r e c t a g a i n s t such a method of f i n d i n g sources is" answered by R a n k i n h i m s e l f : I need h a r d l y add t h a t such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of kennings as borrowed, n a t i v e , or common Germanic, i s n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l y t e n t a t i v e and a m a t t e r of p r o b a b i l i t i e s . One c o u l d n o t make a d e f i n i t e , s harp c l a s s i f i c a t i o n even i f he c o u l d determine and s h o u l d s t u d y c a r e f u l l y e v e r y b i t of L a t i n t h a t the Anglo-Saxon a u t h o r s were a c q u a i n t e d w i t h . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , a L a t i n e q u i v a l e n t does not i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e n e c e s s a r i l y mean a d i r e c t L a t i n s o u r c e ; and s e c o n d l y , the amount of Germanic p o e t r y w h i c h can be p o s i t i v e l y s a i d t o have been u n i n f l u e n c e d by C h r i s t i a n and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i s o b v i o u s l y t o o s m a l l t o w a r r a n t one i n making a s t r i c t l y c a t e g o r i c a l c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n on the b a s i s of o r i g i n s . 3 ^ I n a d d i t i o n , R a n k i n notes the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d e t e r m i n i n g sources f o r such common-place o b j e c t s and i d e a s as Men, Human ( B a l l a d and E p i c : A st u d y i n the Development of the N a r r a t i v e  A r t , H a r v a r d S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y and L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . X I TJCambridge, 1907], p. 177). 3 0James W a l t e r R a n k i n , "A Study of the Kennings i n A n g l o -Saxon P o e t r y , " JEGP, V I I I ( 1 9 0 9 ) , 357. 31 ° I b i d . , pp. 366-7; : as examples of L a t i n terms w i t h O l d Eng-l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s he g i v e s : g l o r i o s u s r e x , omnipotens a u c t o r , c a e l i dominus, p a s t o r b e n i g n n s . l u x a e t e r n a e g l o r i a , n f T ^ T ^ p r i n c e p s (pp. 374-86). ~ gj-onae 76 Body, Live, Die, etc. Unfortunately for the, student of Beowulf, i t i s these, not the r e l i g i o u s kennings, which con-s t i t u t e the bulk of the poetic 'synonyms.' I do not wish to get too deeply involved i n the tenuous problem of sources, but fortunately Rankin makes several useful general observations i n his lengthy analysis. For example, over half of a twenty-two page l i s t of Latin terms f o r the Deity are marked as having an 'equivalent term' or a term of 'similar import' i n Anglo-Saxon, quite an impres-sive l i s t of p a r a l l e l s . As for Anglo-Saxon adaptation of the Latin, Rankin observes that v a r i a t i o n from the Latin o r i g i n a l may be due to the demands of a l l i t e r a t i o n , so that weoroda  dryhten might become weoroda scyppend were a word beginning i n sc required. Rankin considers t h i s type of substitution an extremely plausible solution to much of the v a r i a t i o n from the 32 Latin o r i g i n a l s . S i m i l a r l y , he maintains that a l l i t e r a t i o n would account f o r many additions to the o r i g i n a l ; e.g., heahenqla cyninq i s simply a v a r i a t i o n of the simpler enqla cvninq, and certain added words l i k e siqe or beod become l i t t l e 33 more than intensives. While this theory might explain the practice i n some poems, i t i m p l i c i t l y denies the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i s t i c selection of d i c t i o n . 3 2 I b i d . , p. 396. 33 Ibid., p. 397; this point i s l a t e r corroborated by Robert Diamond (The Diction of the Anglo-Saxon Metrical Psalms. [The Hague: Mouton, 1963] ). 77 In Rankin's comparison of two l i s t s of Anglo-Saxon terms, one for the Deity and one for earthly r u l e r s , several i n t e r e s t i n g points emerge. Even i f one presumes the word for earthly r u l e r was transferred to the Deity, evidence suggests that a Latin equivalent was necessary to sanction the term. Thus beodcyninq, used frequently to designate an earthly king, i s applied only once to the Deity. S i m i l a r l y dryhten wereda, frequently applied to the Deity, only once designates an earthly r u l e r (Beowulf, 1. 2186). 3 4 Also, one notes that beam i s used more frequently than sunu i n epithets for Beowulf, whereas the reverse i s true for Hrothgar, Hygelac and Wiglaf. The frequent application of beam to Christ supports Rankin's guess that the term had special (less commonplace) 35 connotations. Rankin next presents l i s t s of Anglo-Saxon kennings, indicating the occurrence of similar and equivalent Latin terms. Few of the terms for Deity are taken from Beowulf, but most ( l o g i c a l l y enough) have Latin p a r a l l e l s , as do a l l the d o c t r i n a l terms. P a r a l l e l s do e x i s t i n Beowulf between terms for the d e v i l and terms for the monsters, but Rankin 37 admits the d i f f i c u l t y of determining influence here. However, 3 4Rankin, pp. 404-5; Rankin's suggestion that the term applies to God i s unacceptable; one must, I think, see the term as a s c r i b a l error for Wedera, as Klaeber does i n his e d i t i o n , p. 207. 3 5Rankin, p. 409. 3 6 I b i d . , pp. 410-22. 37 Ibid.., IX (1910), 59n. 78 of the terms f o r Men, Body, L i v e , Speak, e t c . and Sea, E a r t h , Sun, S t a r s , v e r y few from Beowulf have L a t i n p a r a l l e l s . F i n a l l y , R a n k i n suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of C e l t i c i m a g i n a t i o n i n f l u e n c i n g the kennings f o r 'sea' and n o t e s t h a t O l d Saxon non-r e l i g i o u s k ennings are s i m p l e r than t h o s e i n Old E n g l i s h . 3 8 On the whole, R a n k i n ' s l i s t s p r e s e n t c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e f o r the i n f l u e n c e of L a t i n on c e r t a i n a r e a s of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n . However, the l i s t s a l s o show c o n c l u s i v e l y how r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t h i s i n f l u e n c e was f e l t i n the h e r o i c Beowulf. These, t h e n , are the major works on Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c d i c t i o n i n t h i s e a r l y surge of E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s h i p , b a s i c a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e and c l a s s i f y i n g s o r t s of s t u d i e s , but e s s e n t i a l t o a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p o e t i c d i c t i o n . One f u r t h e r s tudy d e s e r v e s p a s s i n g mention. 0. F. Emerson a t t e m p t s , w i t h -out much s u c c e s s , t o r e s o l v e the problem of ' t r a n s v e r s e ' or ' c r o s s e d ' a l l i t e r a t i o n b y ' m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t s and t o see whether i t was a d e l i b e r a t e d e v i c e . However, he i s f o r c e d t o c o n c l ude t h a t m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o o f i s h o p e l e s s , even though s u b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e would c o n f i r m the d e v i c e t o be 39 d e l i b e r a t e : i t would be r e c o g n i z e d by the e x p e r i e n c e d e a r . Meanwhile, the Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c f o r m u l a was a t t r a c t -i n g a t t e n t i o n , m o s t l y by German c r i t i c s , and i n 1905 F r . K l a e b e r 3 8 I b i d . , pp.-75, 82. 3 9 o i i v e r F a r r a r Emerson, " T r a n s v e r s e A l l i t e r a t i o n i n T e u t o n i c P o e t r y , " JEGP I I I ' (1900-1.)., 127-37. 79 notes a few formulas and attempts to explain t h e i r function. For example, the 'ubiquitous' qefraeqn formulas seem to emphasize f a c t , introduce sections, point out great persons and events or progress i n narrative, or simply add variety (e.g., the adorning of Heorot, 1. 74, and Beowulf's swimming endurance, 1. 575). On the other hand, hyrde i c serves prac-t i c a l l y as a t r a n s i t i o n , comparable to 'further.' Klaeber also notes that these and other formulas can admit of i n d i v i -d u a l i z a t i o n . 4 0 In addition, several general works; around the turn of the century mention formulas i n conjunction with oral o r i g i n s . John Earle (1884) sees them as r e l i c s of heathen antiquity;"^ W. J. Courthope (1895) emphasizes t h e i r Homeric quality; z W. P. Ker i n his three related works (1897, 1904, 1912) refers 43 to them rather uncharitably as 'well-worn epithets'; H. M. Chadwick (1911) points out several cognate p a r a l l e l s i n other Germanic languages, and observes at some length that such formulas are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l o r a l heroic poetry, from 4 0 F r . Klaeber, "Studies in the Textual Interpretation of Beowulf," Modern Philology III (1905/6), 243-4. 4 l E a r l e , p. 68. AO W. J . Courthope, A History of English Poetry, V o l . I (London, 1895), p. 89. 43 W. P. Ker, Epic and Romance: Essays on Medieval L i t e r a -ture (New York: Dover, 1957), p. 137; cf. W. P. Ker, E n g l i s h "  Literature Medieval (London: William and Norgate, [1912J), p. 42, and The Dark Ages (New York: Mentor Books, 1958), p. 153. Homer to the modern Serbo-Croations; 4 4 W. MacNeille Dixon 45 (1912) extends this l a s t analogy to include the Russians. But b r i e f notice was a l l that the formula received i n English; c r i t i c s appeared much more concerned with the h i s t o r i c a l aspects of l i t e r a t u r e than with the nature of poetic language. Perhaps the most interesting studies of Old English d i c t i o n and imagery are those which derive from the 'mood and gloom and passion' c r i t i c i s m of the mid-nineteenth century. While these studies come closest to a t o t a l view of the poetry, they are fraught with the d i f f i c u l t i e s attending subjective appreciation and are hampered by a lack of c r i t i c a l method for r e l a t i n g poetic technique to the feelings which motivated the poet or which the audience derived therefrom. Such a deficiency shows i n part the e f f e c t of h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m , although occasionally the terms of psychology are introduced. F. A. March (1882) examines the world of Beowulf by means of i t s presentation of sense impressions, or images i n the broad sense of the word. He notices the absence of taste images, except f o r the dragon s n i f f i n g around the barrow. For sight images March concentrates mainly on those of colour and points out (as D i s r a e l i e a r l i e r did, in a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t 4 4H. Munro Chadwick, The Heroic Age (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1926), pp. 75, 102. 4.5 ^°W. MacNeile Dixon, English Epic and Heroic Poetry (London: Dent, 1912), p. 34. 4 ^ F . A. March, "The World of Beowulf," Transactions and  Proceedings of the American P h i l o l o g i c a l Association, XIII (1882), x x i i . c o n t e x t ) 4 7 that colour per se i s lacking. "It i s the great expanse of a white and dark world not yet t i n t e d , " 4 8 into which man brings the occasional b i t of v a r i a t i o n in such terms as fah and blodfah. But sound images are the most impressive, March claims; laughter, the bellow of pain, the sound of the harp, the roar of the funeral p y r e — a n d a l l are sounds which emanate not from the inanimate world, but from men and t h e i r 49 creations and from beasts. Such an enumeration of sense impressions shows at least one c r i t i c ' s s e n s i b i l i t y and con-tra s t s markedly with e a r l i e r remarks about barbarous war-whoops. March even suggests that in parts the poet showed- a cultivated, even a r t i f i c i a l , love of the picturesque, although his taste . .. 50 and imagination were sporadic. In 1899 William Mead appears to develop March's sugges-tions by investigating with some thoroughness the actual f r e -quency of colour words. His results end forever the careless comment that Old English poetry i s colourful and show instead that i t r e l i e s heavily on mixed colours such as fealu and brun. Green, the favorite Old English colour, i s found almost 51 exclusively i n r e l i g i o u s poetry, e s p e c i a l l y Genesis. Red, the 4 7 S e e above, chapt. I I , p. 52. March, p. x x n . 49 Ibid., pp. x x i i - x x m . -•^Ibid., p. x x m . 5 1 W i i l i a m E. Mead, "Color in Old English Poetry," PMLA, XIV (1899), 201. 82 next most common colour, i s infrequently used and never in heroic poetry (blod and swat only suggest the c o l o u r ) . ^ 2 Yellow, the next most common, occurs only four times as gealo, three of these conventionally; however, gold has some colour sense, and fealo covers a broad range of yellowish-brown , 53 colours. In contrast to the paucity of colour words, Mead l i s t s the plethora of words for l i g h t and dark--one l i n e out of thirty-seven he finds contains a l i g h t or dark image, with the frequency higher in r e l i g i o u s poetry. Mead here expands on Gummere's suggestions about light-dark symbolism. 'Dark' words are about half as frequent as ' l i g h t ' words, and are more d i f f i c u l t to determine exactly; both are used symbolically in r e l i g i o u s poetry. It i s interesting to note that he i n -cludes famig in the 'white' group, and sees sweart as sym-54 b o l i c a l l y applied to the d e v i l in a l l poems except Beowulf. Mead concludes that Old English poets showed "a fondness for mixed and neutral colours," and that when colour occurs i t i s 55 used conventionally. Albert Tolman looks at the s p i r i t of Anglo-Saxm poetry— i t s freedom from sensuousness, i t s i d e a l i z a t i o n and i t s 5 2 I b i d . , pp. 195-7. 5 3 I b i d . , pp. 198-200. 5 4 ° Ibid., pp. 173-86, passim. 5 5 I b i d . , pp. 189-206. 83 seriousness noting that nothing i s g r o s s . 5 0 Battle i s not a delight i n carnage, but a delight i n the battle preparation, which i s depicted in " s t r i k i n g g e n e r a l i t i e s and powerful metaphors." The poet seems more concerned with 'poetical 57 values' than with "dry f a c t s , ' i n his descriptions. A l l this i s part of the generalizing tendency which Tolman finds in Old English poetry, a tendency which i s compatible with the seriousness and melancholy of the poetry, for example in the large gnomic generalizations. Also, he notes, the epithet and r e p e t i t i o n are admirably suited to the caressing of tender and melancholy thoughts, producing such a r t i s t i c , elegiac pathos as that i n The Wanderer. It i s very s a t i s f y i n g to see the attitude to Old English poetry gradually improving and to see c r i t i c s favorably comparing i t s best examples with modern works. Although this favorable attitude does not suffuse a l l the c r i t i c i s m of the period (a l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n such as J. J . Jusserand, for example, returns to the rather reactionary attitudes of T a i n ^ p ^ there i s a s u f f i c i e n t amount of genuine appreciation to permit the study to progress. Stopford Brooke (1892), for example, 5 oTolman, p. 42. 5 7 I b i d . , pp.42-3. 5 8 I b i d . , p. 59. 5 ^ J . J . Jussera . People, Vol. I (London, 1895), pp. 42-72. nd, A Literary History of the English 84 devotes two volumes to early English l i t e r a t u r e , one of the f u l l e s t treatments of the subject to date. Anglo-Saxon poetry may not be the f i n e s t poetry, he confesses, but much of i t i s remarkable and i t i s national poetry. Much of Brooke's book covers the f a m i l i a r ground of myth and history, but i t also includes essays on the major features of Anglo-Saxon c u l -ture and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the poetry. C l e a r l y the most interesting and valuable study in the book i s Brooke's discussion of terms for 'seaj! A shoal of simple terms express i n Beowulf the e a r l i e s t sea-thoughts of the English. But, s t i l l uncontent, the singers compounded these simple terms with other words, in order more f u l l y to image forth the manifold impres-sions they had received of the doing Lsic] of the great waters This statement of Brooke's contains a wealth of important c r i -t i c a l comment: the assumption the poetry was o r a l ; the impli-cation of impressionistic technique; and, above a l l , the intimation that the language was an expanding and creative thing. Brooke takes a l l the simplices for 'sea' in Beowulf, and for each he attempts to determine both the connotation of the word and the aspect of the sea to which i t r e f e r s . For example, he says that lagu seems to apply to the sea as 'the 6°Stopford A. Brooke, The History of Early English L i t e r a -ture , V o l . I (London, 1892), p p . v i - v i i . 6 1 I b i d . , p. 224. 85 great Pool' and i s never compounded to suggest agitated water. He also rejects garsecg as a mythical compound equivalent to Poseidon. 0 2 But in spite of his concentrated attempts to determine i n d i v i d u a l word connotations and i n spite of his conclusion that the terms are more 'pictures' than words, Brooke decides that i n a sea passage such as that i n Unferth's challenge, the terms are used i n d i f f e r e n t l y : "they have be-come, i t seems, mere poetic interchanges. It i s too much the 63 fate of words o r i g i n a l l y individual and noble." It i s inter e s t i n g here that Brooke i s concerned with the potential realism of the terms, and not with t h e i r f i g u r a t i o n ; but one step further might have shown him a sort of development, a pro-gression i n poetic i n t e n s i t y , and not a haphazard arrangement of terms. 0 4 That Brooke f a i l e d to perceive the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i s remarkable when one considers his atten-tion to the connotations of words i n compounds and his opinions 6 2 I b i d . , pp. 204-5, 226. 6 3 I b i d . , p. 228. o 4 L i n e s 507-15 show a progression in the poetic in t e n s i t y of 'sea' words (I use here Brooke's own meanings and connota-t i o n s ) : the denotative simplex sae followed by the denotative combination deop waeter; then the poetic simplex sund and the archaic compound eaqorstfeam with i t s connotations of some-thing l i v i n g ; then the periphrastic merestraeta with i t s suggestions of a set distance for swimming; and f i n a l l y garsecg, the great all-encompassing ocean. A si m i l a r progression can be worked out for 'waves' i n lines 515-9. about the importance of the sea to the Anglo-Saxons.65 How-ever, he makes the f i r s t step necessary i n the appreciation of the poetic power of the language: he goes beyond glossary meanings into the emotional connotations and subtle shades of meaning with which the language of a l l serious poetry i s endowed. But Brooke i s b a s i c a l l y a scholar of his time and seems reluctant to penetrate the language deeply enough to determine the existence of consistent a r t i s t i c merit. F. A. Blackburn's 1897 a r t i c l e on Chri s t i a n colouring in Beowulf i s mainly concerned with the 'Christian interpola-tions'; however, Blackburn raises,the question of shades of meaning i n certain terms. Considering the Christian adoption of heathen terms l i k e Easter and H e l l , he says, and the paral-l e l s between certain Anglo-Saxon and Latin words (e.g., aelmihtig and omnipotens), i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the older or more recent meanings of these terms were foremost i n the poet's mind. Nevertheless, after discussing the Chri s t i a n a l l u s i o n s i n Beowulf, Blackburn concludes that the poem existed as a whole without C h r i s t i a n a l l u s i o n s , and that except for two 'interpolated passages' (11. 90-113 and 1261-6) a l l C h r i s t i a n references are of a colourless, Old Testament sort, "made to suggest C h r i s t i a n ideas by s l i g h t changes such 6 5Brooke, pp. 230-40. F. A. Blackburn, "The Chri s t i a n Coloring i n the Beowulf, PMLA, XII (1897), 206-7. as a copyist could e a s i l y make." Of course, this i s not possible: wyrd seems to be the only word for 'fate' in Old English poetry; and since epithets for God are numerous and participate in many a l l i t e r a t i o n s , i t would be impossible to substitute wyrd without a l t e r i n g both the meaning and the a l l i t e r a t i v e patterns of the poem. One must conclude that the C h r i s t i a n colouring i s more fundamental than mere s c r i b a l substitutions. Two a r t i c l e s of 1905 deal with nature in Anglo-Saxon poetry. Elizabeth Hanscom seems only to elaborate on the studies of Brooke and Mead, but her case for the 'feeling for nature,' offers some insight into Old English poetic imagery. She observes p a r t i c u l a r l y the objective character of the nature imagery, and, l i k e Gummere, she concludes that an awareness of resemblances led to much concrete f i g u r a t i o n . 0 8 She also notices that winter i s the only season which e l i c i t s from the Anglo-Saxons r e a l l y f o r c e f u l and v i v i d descriptions, so much so that the word i t s e l f became a synechdoche for 'year'.^ She notices that descriptions of vegetation are either d e r i -vative (as i n Phoenix) or i n d e f i n i t e (except for the apple in Genesis); that a few trees are named s p e c i f i c a l l y , but that woods (especially that overhanging the mere) are usually o 7 I b i d . , p. 217. o 8 E l i z a b e t h Deering Hanscom, "The Feeling for Nature in Old English Poetry," JEGP, V (1903-5), 461. o 9 I b i d . , pp. 440-6. 88 described i n l i t t l e d e t a i l . S i m i l a r l y , l i t t l e i s said about h i l l s or mountains, but a great deal i s said about storms, mists and f o u l weather. On the whole, an a r t i c l e l i k e this i s of limited value i n a discussion of d i c t i o n and imagery, but i t serves the important function of c l a s s i f y i n g and defining certain areas upon which l a t e r c r i t i c s can erect t h e i r 7 1 g l i t t e r i n g structures of poetic analysis. The most remarkable study during t h i s entire period is W. M. Hart's Ballad and Epic, a systematic and sensitive appraisal of Beowulf, disguised as a study in the development of l i t e r a r y form. Hart's thesis is that Beowulf, as an epic, "stands at the beginning of the poetry of a r t . " 7 2 This state-ment summarizes, more e f f e c t i v e l y than most l i s t s of f a c t s , the peculiar position which Beowulf holds in English l i t e r a r y h i s -tory, i t s delicate position between a fluctuating oral t r a d i t i o n and a permanent lettered t r a d i t i o n . In his essay Hart studies in d e t a i l those features of l i t e r a r y style which distinguish the 7 ^ I b i d . , passim. 7^The other a r t i c l e on nature (Frederic W. Moorman, "The Interpretation of Nature i n English Poetry from Beowulf to Shakespeare," Quellen und Forschunqen, XCV [Strassburg, 1905]) i s almost e n t i r e l y derivative; however, i t treats Beowulf as part of English l i t e r a t u r e and emphasizes the imagination and close observation i n the descriptive passages; Moorman com-pares the art in the mere description with the art of Homer, but says that i t lacks the s i m p l i c i t y and succinctness of the c l a s s i c a l master. Hart, p. 2. 89 epic type from the ballad'; p r i n c i p a l l y , the slower narrative pace, emotional appeal and the emphasis on realism and d e t a i l . However, one should note that Hart has reservations about Beowulf 1s position at the start of the poetry of a r t : " i t i s c l e a r l y unsafe to i n s i s t much upon the conscious narrative art of the poet." 7 4 It seems to me that c r i t i c s of this period i n s i s t too much on the consciousness of the poet's method, approaching the subject with an intensely c l a s s i c a l view of a r t i s t i c creation. A more romantic view would consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i s t i c ends achieved by un- or semi-conscious i n s p i r a t i o n , whether of the Muse or of Caedmon's angel. What makes Hart's study d i f f e r e n t from the other history and genre studies of his day, i s i t s concentration on style and structure rather than on content (although content is not i g -nored) and i t s constant reference to the actual language" of the text. Thus instead of saying simply that the sword was the most important weapon to the Anglo-Saxons, Hart constructs an elaborate composite description of an Anglo-Saxon sword from nearly every descriptive epithet in Beowulf: i t s chain h i l t (1. 1563), i t s gold adornments (11. 1677, 1900), i t s runic markings (1. 1695); the use of the f i l e in i t s manufacture (fela l a f e , 1. 1032); i t s in d i v i d u a l name (Hrunting, Naegling), i t s role as a b a t t l e - f r i e n d (1. 1810); i t s value as an heirloom 7 3 I b i d . , p. 156. 7 4 I b i d . , p. 197. 90 or r e l i c of mysterious o r i g i n (enta aer-geweorc, 1. 1681), 75 etc. Although Hart's essay does not methodically discuss: 1) d i c t i o n , 2) f i g u r a t i o n , i t makes clear that f i g u r a t i o n occurs occasionally, that most of the language i s d i r e c t l y de-s c r i p t i v e and that the various terms are not re p e t i t i o u s . Hart's discussion of emotional appeal in Beowulf leads to several important observations on d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n . F i r s t , the feature of the comitatus most emphasized i s that of friendship,as seen i n the frequency of the word wine in phrases and compounds dealing with the relat i o n s h i p between the leader and his men.7^ Next, the constant mention of father-son relationships, p a r t i c u l a r l y before speeches, Hart suggests, may have an aesthetic function, "not so much to convey information as to enhance the dignity and formality of the dialogue, and to add to i t s sonorous e f f e c t by giving each 7 7 time the speaker's whole name." Such a love of sonorous names may also be seen i n the r e p e t i t i o n of Aeschere's name, in what Hart c a l l s an 'envelope f i g u r e ' ( i . e . , the enclosing of a l o g i c a l thought group by the re p e t i t i o n of a key word or idea). 7 5 I b i d . , pp. 176-7. 7 ^ I b i d . , p. 164; however, Hart f a i l s to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of wine being used i r o n i c a l l y by Beowulf of Unferth, 7 7 I b i d . , p. 161. 78 Ibid., p. 164; see also Adeline B a r t l e t t , Lhe Larger  Rhetorical Patterns in Anglo-Saxon Poetry- (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1935); discussed below, chapt. IV, p. 132. 91 Hart also observes that "the idea of an inner, s p i r i t u a l part of man was continually in the poet's mind," a f a c t seen - 79 in the frequent use of such words as sawol, heorte and mod. The poet's concern with mental states i s noticeable, for example, i n lines 710-90 (the f i g h t with Grendel), a passage apparently concerned with action. Of the 162 h a l f - l i n e s in th i s passage Hart notes that 65 deal e n t i r e l y or predominately with the mental states of either the antagonists or the on-lookers. This, Hart concludes, i s part of the poet's method — 80 to describe something by i t s e f f e c t on others. The most frequent method by which the poet presents these mental states i s by d i r e c t epithet (e.g., gryre-leod'), by using an adjective as a noun,81 by parentheses (e.g., him waes sefa geomor, 1.2632) or occasionally by a sentence or clause. Hart even admits, cautiously, that among these various expressions there i s a Qp " p o s s i b i l i t y of nicety of application"; for example, on mere  staredon (1. 1603) he considers p o e t i c a l l y appropriate and com-parable i n emotional impact with Keats' use of the word 'stare' in the sonnet on Chapman's Homer; wyn-le"as wic (1. 821) he 79Hart, p. 170. 8 0 I b i d . , pp. 214-7. 8 1 — — Hart ; ,s example (p. 219), sae-mebe (1. 325) i s glossed by Klaeber as an adjective, and there seems no reason to suppose i t to be used otherwise. 8 2 H a r t , p. 219 n. considers akin to the pathetic f a l l a c y of the romantics. Also contributing to the emotional impact of the style i s the poet's a b i l i t y to transfer his mood to the reader by enumeration of external objects, as i n the lament of the l a s t survivor, i n which the poet "enumerates results merely, known causes, attendant circumstances." 8 4 There is also r i c h suggestiveness i n the sight and sound d e t a i l s as the Geats march to Heorot. What Hart finds most remarkable i s that this emotional impact occurs i n spite of the conventional and general nature of the language. For example, the hero i s seen i n t y p i c a l terms of valour, e.g., eafocT and e l l e n ; character i s described by vague epithet, e.g., fr5d and god; the great antagonists are seen i n vague, but e f f e c t i v e terms, e.g., ma~ere mearc-stapa and fea-sceaft quma. "What mystery there i s , then, i n the concep-ti o n of Grendel i s not due to the conscious e f f o r t of the poet; i t i s rather the mystery of the vague and i l l - d e f i n e d . " 8 5 This l a s t statement i s exceedingly i l l o g i c a l , since the vague and i l l - d e f i n e d may indeed be the poet's intention and can be an e f f e c t i v e l i t e r a r y device. In his comments on the 'formal' description of the mere Hart once more emphasizes the vagueness and mystery. 8 3 I b i d . , jp. 220-1. 8 4 I b i d . , p. 201. 8 5 I b i d . , pp. 179, 181. 93 Only s l i g h t l y more s p e c i f i c and c o n c r e t e , he s a y s , i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the j o u r n e y t o the mere, which, : l i k e most of the d e s c r i p t i o n s , i s i m p r e s s i v e f o r i t s u n i t y of e f f e c t r a t h e r than f o r i t s l o g i c a l o r d e r . o u Oddly enough, H a r t has e l s e -where commented on the f a c t t h a t the e p i c as type i s never i n a h u r r y , t h a t i t l i n g e r s over and e l a b o r a t e s items and p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s of t a b l e a u x r a t h e r than r a p i d a c t i o n : 8 7 But i n the mere s e t - p i e c e he f i n d s no system; i n the j o u r n e y t o the mere he f i n d s a h u r r i e d c o l l e c t i o n of u nordered d e t a i l s ; and i n the j o u r n e y t o Denmark he f i n d s the e m b a r k a t i o n r e p e a t e d t h r e e times, . i n s t e a d of w hich i t i s a g r a p h i c a l l y v i s u a l i z e d de-s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n s e t t i n g s a i l , ; . Such an over-s i g h t does not* seem i n keeping w i t h c r i t i c i s m t h a t can r e c o g -n i z e the v a r i a t i o n of b oth f a c t s and phrases i n r e p e t i t i o n of the same i n c i d e n t s . 8 8 H a r t a l s o f i n d s t h a t r e p e t i t i o n and d i a l o g u e r e v e a l some i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of s t y l e . F i r s t , r e p e t i t i o n can be used to a n t i c i p a t e t h i n g s - - a s o r t of d r a m a t i c i r o n y , s i n c e the c h a r a c t e r s themselves are kept i g n o r a n t . 8 9 Second, even when d i a l o g u e r e p e a t s the n a r r a t i v e , the d e t a i l s are changed and g i v e n i n b r i e f e r and more g e n e r a l t e r m s . 9 0 ( S i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n 8 6 I b i d . , pp. 223-4. 8 7 T ^ I b i d . , P- 186. 8 8 l b i d . , P- 195. 8 9 I b i d . , P- 197. 9 0 I b i d . , P- 193. 94 i s made between a l l primary and secondary material, a strong case against the ballad theory of epic o r i g i n : primary pas-sages are given in r e l a t i v e l y concrete and elaborate terms, secondary passages i n r e l a t i v e l y general and b r i e f terms.)9-'-S p e c i f i c matters of d i c t i o n and fig u r a t i o n are not Hart's concern i n t h i s essay and receive only passing notice. However, th i s study i s obviously an important step in the increased appreciation of Beowulf. Hart has made s i g n i f i c a n t progress i n pointing out various types of expression and es p e c i a l l y i n seeing a r e l a t i o n between the form and content of the poem. What weaknesses the essay possesses, are due, I f e e l , to Hart's apologetic caution l e s t he give the poem more credi t than i s due for a r t i s t i c success. Old English s y n t a c t i c a l f i g u r a t i o n has never attracted a great deal of c r i t i c a l attention, in spite of i t s importance. Albert Tolman is the f i r s t English c r i t i c to present a sys-tematic review of the various fiqurae i n Anglo-Saxon poetry, but as usual his discussion tends to be merely d e s c r i p t i v e . Parallelism, he states quite obviously, i s created by r e p e t i t i o n and v a r i a t i o n and occurs frequently enough to be considered a deliberate device, for example i n the ship's 92 getting ready to s a i l to Denmark. Like most of his pre-decessors Tolman bemoans the paucity of t r a n s i t i o n a l devices 9 1 I b i d . , p. 189. 9 2Tolman, p.. 32. 95 and notes several grammatical p e c u l i a r i t i e s which contribute to disconnectedness, not the least of which i s parataxis (by which the poet expresses i n independent clauses what we are 93 used to expressing subordinately). Perhaps one reason neither Brooke nor Hart could detect development or climax in certain highly descriptive passages i s found in Tolman's blunt statement that absence of l o g i c a l sequence i s a feature of the s t y l e : A mass of s t r i k i n g d e t a i l s are brought out in consecu-tive sentences, which d e t a i l s are not consecutive in t h e i r appearance or occurrence....It i s always the t o t a l e f f e c t that i s sought, and t h i s i s often secured to a wonderful degree. 9 4 F i n a l l y , Tolman does not seem to appreciate the parenthetical remark as a s t y l i s t i c feature when he notes the j a r r i n g e f f e c t 95 of the abrupt t r a n s i t i o n at l i n e 1605, where the action s h i f t s in the middle of the l i n e from the watchers on the shore to the melting of the magic sword. This slowness to accept syntactic p e c u l i a r i t i e s , as compared with other aspects of s t y l e , was probably responsible for the slow development of t o t a l appreciation. But gradually' c r i t i c s began to understand the features of poetic syntax. In 1892 John Earle argues that inversions are a p a r t i c u l a r 9 3 I b i d . , p. 36. 9 4 I b i d . , p. 37. 9 5 I b i d . , 96 s y n t a c t i c a l device. However, he attributes the poet's tendency to i n s e r t a parenthesis between announcing a set speech and giving the speech, to what he c a l l s the 'rambling' character of the "genuine and unsophisticated E p i c . " 9 ^ In 1905, a year of intensive work on s y n t a c t i c a l r h e t o r i c , George Krapp examines i n d e t a i l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of this parenthetical device alluded to by Earle, and blames poorly edited texts for obscuring a c l e a r l y defined feature 97 of Old English poetic s t y l e . He notices two types of paren-t h e s i s : the type noticed by Earle, and a type of which healwudu dynede (1. 1317) i s an example. He c a l l s them exclamatory because t h e i r brevity, position and content suggest emphatic r e c i t a t i o n . 9 8 Krapp finds thirty-nine instances of t h i s device i n Beowulf, ten of which precede d i r e c t discourse, and a l l but one of which (1. 3056) begin with the second 99 hemistich. He l o g i c a l l y concludes that to place such a parenthesis in the f i r s t hemistich was considered bad s t y l e : and t h i s rule, i t may be observed, was quite i n harmony with the general f e e l i n g for metrical e f f e c t which always 9^John Earle, trans., The Deeds of Beowulf (Oxford, 1892), p. L. 97 George P h i l i p Krapp, "The Parenthetical Exclamation in Old English Poetry," Modern Language Notes, XX (1905), 33. 9 8 I b i d . " i b i d . , pp. 34-5, 97 strove to make the second h a l f - l i n e fixed and emphatic, the f i r s t h a l f - l i n e r e l a t i v e l y free and light.-'- 0 0 The device, he concludes, was a regular feature of the style and may have originated i n the supposedly energetic oral delivery of the scop: "as an occasion for a gesture or a shout, as a stimulus to arouse the flagging attention, or as an i n d i -cator of something important to follow." 1 0-'- Krapp has thus presented a f u l l , self-contained study of a poetic device and has presented i t with the cautious meticulousness of a good editor. In the same year another future editor, Fr. Klaeber attacks a number of e d i t o r i a l - s t y l i s t i c problems. However, of the seven syntactic p e c u l i a r i t i e s he observes none i s what would be calle d a 'fi g u r e , 1 except insofar as any rearrange-ment of words for special e f f e c t might be so termed. He notes the use of the comparative when no comparison takes place, and also the accumulation of comparatives for emphasis (e.g., 11. 951 f f . ) . 1 0 2 Variation he c a l l s "the very soul of 1 03 the Old English poetical s t y l e , and he explains certain of i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a general noun can vary with a s p e c i f i c 1 0 0 I b i d . , p. 35. 1 0 1 I b i d . , p. 37. 1 0 2 K l a e b e r , "Textual Interpretation," p. 257. 1 0 3 I b i d . , p. 237. 98 i n f i n i t i v e phrase and be governed by the same verb (e.g., 'bearhtm ongeaton,/ guc&iorn galan,' 11. 1431 f . ) ; equivalent terms i n v a r i a t i o n may be i n d i f f e r e n t grammatical forms (e.g., 'mearum ridan,/ beornas on blancum,' 11. 855 f . ) ; variations may be accumulated for emphasis; i t i s often d i f f i -c u l t to t e l l the number of separate items; e t c . " ^ 4 This does not begin to cover the r h e t o r i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l notes which Klaeber makes; but they are extremely important, text-oriented observations of s t y l i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s and a necessary foundation f o r a complete understanding of s t y l e . Although the larger problems of structure are not the concern of t h i s paper, James Routh b r i e f l y shows i n his 1905 attack on the ballad theory, how the larger elements are related to the smaller elements of s t y l e . Aside from maintain-ing that the digressions and episodes are a r t i s t i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d , Routh claims that t r a n s i t i o n between episodes was as unnecessary as between sentences: As he massed sentences, and even parts of the same sentence b a r a t a c t i c a l l y , so he put i n his narratives whole sections which to us appear i r r e l e v a n t , but which to his audience were clear enough i n import. 1 0 4 I b i d . , pp. 237-42. -•-^James Edward Routh, J r . , Two Studies on the Ballad  Theory of the Beowulf (Baltimore, 1905), p. 56. 99 Thus 1905 has seen improvement i n the a t t i t u d e t o and u n d e r * s t a n d i n g o f s y n t a c t i c d e v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the p a r e n t h e s i s . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r , however, t h a t a l t h o u g h c r i t i c s and s c h o l a r s have by t h i s time d i s c o v e r e d a number of i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e , t h e r e i s no sense of t h e i r h a v i n g any c o n s i s t e n t method or approach t o the study of Old Eng-l i s h p o e t r y . I t i s a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t t hey are n o t , f o r the most p a r t , the source of the mainstream o f c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n . That i s t o be found i n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s and genre s t u d i e s , as w e l l as i n p r e f a c e s t o e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n s of Beowulf. I n most c a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y up u n t i l 1910, the h i s t o r i c a l emphasis i n Beowulf c r i t i c i s m c o n t i n u e s . The e a r l i e s t of t h e s e l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s , Henry M o r l e y ' s E n g l i s h W r i t e r s (1888), i s perhaps the most complete and b e s t i n f o r m e d . I t seems p r i m a r i l y - ' a r e v i e w of the major s c h o l a r s h i p and c r i t i c a l debates t o date-; but h a p p i l y , a l t h o u g h he spends most of h i s time on the h i s t o r i c a l environment of the l i t e r a t u r e , M o r l e y r e a l i z e s the l i t e r a r y v a l u e of O ld E n g l i s h p o e t r y : A s t u d e n t of geography might w i s e l y s tudy w i t h the keenest i n t e r e s t i t s [ W i d s i t h ] l o n g r e c i t a l s of the names of t r i b e s . But i n d o i n g so he would be s t u d y i n g geography, not l i t e r a t u r e . The s t u d e n t of l i t e r a t u r e asks how the o l d gleeman shaped i t to d e l i g h t and t e a c h ; out o f what forms o f l i f e i t a r o s e ; and t o what forms of l i f e i t added s t r e n g t h and p l e a s u r e . He does not s i t a t the t a b l e of a poet bent upon d e s t r u c t i v e d i s t i l l a t i o n of the ban-quet spread on i t . 1 0 6 l° 6Morley, V o l . I I , p. 31. 100 However, antagonistic as this statement i s to the excesses of e x t r i n s i c c r i t i c i s m , i t i s obvious that Morley regards the h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l background as of f i r s t importance; he de-votes only a few pages to the c r a f t of the scop. Sounding rather l i k e Matthew Arnold ('On the Study of C e l t i c Literature') Morley writes of the p r a c t i c a l mind and plain speech., of ' F i r s t - E n g l i s h ' and notes the absence of the gay ] 07 wit and ornament which characterize C e l t i c l i t e r a t u r e . Even the f i v e similes which occur i n Beowulf are, Morley says, 108 'natural expressions' rather than 'added ornaments.' F i n a l l y , Morley's comments on the poetic compound seem to derive almost completely from Gummere's Anglo-Saxon Metaphor, with i t s d i s -109 t m c t i o n between the unconscious and conscious metaphor. The great scholar, W. P. Ker, i n his 1897 book Epic and  Romance has l i t t l e to say about d i c t i o n , e t C i , and even that i s almost as uncharitable as accusing Beowulf of having a cheap f a i r y - t a l e p l o t . ^ " ^ Unfortunately, Ker mentions the weak rather than the strong points of Old English poetic s t y l e : "the decline of Old English poetry i s shown by an increase of diffuseness and insipidity";'''"'""'' "the tendency in England was to 1 0 7 I b i d . , p. 42. 1 Q 8 I b i d . , p. 43. 109 x *Ibid., pp. 43-4. •^°Ker, Epic and Romance, p. 134. 1 1 1 I b i d . , p. 136. 101 make use of the well-worn epithets... the d u l l e r kind of Anglo-Saxon poetry is put together as Latin verses are made in school, 1 1 9 --an old-fashioned metaphor i s a l l the more esteemed for age." Not even to suggest that a l l poems were not the same i s unfair to Beowulf. One might suggest that the theore t i c a l approach of t h i s book was not concerned with s t y l e . However, Ker does not appreciably modify his attitude in either The Dark Ages (1904) or English Literature Medieval (1912), in both of which he speaks disparagingly of the ready-made d i c t i o n and unoriginal ornaments. Three general l i t e r a r y historians at the turn of the century are either reserved and h o s t i l e to or ignorant of the subject. W. J . Courthope (1894) believes in an oral genesis and considers metaphor and formula are influenced by the demands 113 of a verse to be chanted. George Saintsbury considers Old English poetry vastly overrated and describes the caesura and 114 pa r a l l e l i s m as "the most natural note of half c i v i l i z e d poetry." Richard Garnett (1903) seems to enjoy the powerful description of Grendel, but says that the poet "labored under the disad-vantages of paucity of impressions and ideas, d i c t i o n unrefined 1 1 2 I b i d . , p. 137. 1 1 3Courthope, p. 89. 1 1 4George Saintsbury, A Short History of English  Literature (London: MacMillan, 1913), pp. 9, 36. by study and p r a c t i c e , and a cramping sy,stem of v e r s i f i c a t i o n . " H 5 And so the a t t i t u d e c o n t i n u e d i n t o the new c e n t u r y and i n t o the major works. Not one o f the f i v e c r i t i c s who sub-m i t t e d a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o O l d E n g l i s h t o the Cambridge  H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e — S a i n t s b u r y , • Chadwick, B e n t i n c k S m i th, Westlake or B r a d l e y - - h a s more than a p a s s i n g g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n t o make on s t y l e . Nor does Henry B r a d l e y c o r r e c t t h i s d e f i c i e n c y i n h i s a r t i c l e on Beowulf f o r the e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n of the E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . To him Old E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m b e g i n s w i t h the d i s c o v e r y o f the i d e n t i t y of H y g e l a c : "the c r i t i c i s m o f the O l d E n g l i s h e p i c has t h e r e f o r e f o r n e a r l y a c e n t u r y been j u s t l y r e g a r d e d as i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the i n v e s t i -g a t i o n o f German a n t i q u i t i e s . "H6 F i n a l l y , i t has a l r e a d y been seen, H. M. Chadwick's i n t e r e s t (1911) l i e s i n the con-cept of o r a l p o e t r y . H 7 But not a l l comment i s so n e g a t i v e ; most of the t r a n s -l a t o r s and e d i t o r s of Beowulf approach t h e i r s u b j e c t w i t h g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t and e n thusiasm. O n l y C l a r k H a l l i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n o f h i s p r o s e t r a n s l a t i o n (1901) echoes some n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t i t u d e s i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the' g r e a t e r l u c i d i t y 118 and sense of sequence of l a t e r O l d E n g l i s h poems. Most of 115 i J - ~ m c h a r d G a r n e t t , E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : An I l l u s t r a t e d  R e cord. V o l . I (New Y o r k , 1903), p. 16. 1 1 6 V o l . I I I . -^ 7See above, p. 7 9 . l i 8 J o h n R. C l a r k H a l l , t r a n s . , Beowulf and the F i g h t a t  F i n n s b u r g ; A T r a n s l a t i o n i n t o Modern E n g l i s h Prose (London. 1901) , p~! x v i i i . ! 103 Clark Hall's introduction i s derivative, but he notes that l i t o t e s and metaphor are the favorite figures (he c a l l s a kenning a poetical synonym) and comments that some of the variations for death are very b e a u t i f u l . Three years l a t e r C. G. Child praises the l i t e r a r y value of Beowulf and s i g n i f i -cantly remarks: "the study of myths...while of great interest and value, contributes l i t t l e or nothing toward increased 1 1 9 appreciation of the i n t e r e s t and beauty of the poem." He draws attention to s p e c i f i c meaning, praises the variety of expressions for king and warrior. His attitude to the poetical synonym i s moderate and objective; and above a l l , he considers Beowulf a piece of conscious art "to s a t i s f y a 190 d e f i n i t e a r t i s t i c i deal."-F. B. Gummere in 1909 also states; " i t s art i s highly developed." 1 2 1 Like Hart, Gummere sees Beowulf as a l i t e r a r y 122 creation at the s t a r t of the poetry of a r t . As support for this theory of a r t i s t i c intent, Gummere elsewhere observes that v a r i a t i o n of repeated or p a r a l l e l elements marks the 123 beginning of a r t i s t r y i n poetry. It i s also worth noting that he has c l a r i f i e d his terminology since 1881 and now sees 1 1 9 Clarence G r i f f i n Child, trans., Beowulf and the  Finnesburh Fragment (Boston, 1904), p. x. Ibid., p. xx. 1 9 1 Francis B. Gummere, trans., The Oldest English Epic (New York, 1909), p. 3. 192 It i s interesting to note that most of the unfavorable c r i t i c i s m above came from c r i t i c s endorsing the oral theory of 104 kennings as a pa r t i c u l a r branch of metaphor. F i n a l l y , W. J . Sedgefield (1910) maintains a favorable attitude to the poem. In the introduction to his e d i t i o n of Beowulf he devotes reasonable attention to poetic d i c t i o n and style and gives less space to myth and history. However, l i k e many introductions, i t i s quite d e r i v a t i v e . Sedgefield merely elaborates on the emotional quality of the poem; but he i s the f i r s t c r i t i c (examined here) to draw e x p l i c i t attention to the Anglo-Saxon preference f o r a l l u s i o n over d i r e c t statement and for negative over positive statement (consequently, Sedgefield concludes, l i t o t e s i s a frequent figure and simile lare)."*" 2 4 He finds that the large store of equivalent expressions, the stock phrases (which he c a l l s kennings) and the periphrases are 125 a l l used with moderation i n Beowulf. Between 1914 and 1921 work on Old English was much re-duced, doubtless because of the war, although a moderate amount of textual c r i t i c i s m continued to appear. One should note here that i n matters of text some c r i t i c s (especially o r i g i n (doubtless heirs of the lay-theory dissectors), whereas the emerging favorable c r i t i c i s m comes from those who consider the poem a lettered work. 1 2 3 T h e Beginnings of Poetry (New York 1908), p. 214. As a point of inte r e s t , Gummere finds one hundred d i f f e r e n t appellations for Beowulf and f i f t y - s i x f o r Hrothgar (Transla-t i o n , p. 18). 124W. J. Sedgefield, ed., Beowulf, 2nd ed. (Manchester: Univ. of Manchester, 1913), p. x x i i i . 125 Ibid., pp. x x i i i - x x i v . 105 German) were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y making rather extravagant emenda-126 tions, a 'rage' which Klaeber e a r l i e r attacked. Frederick Tupper, J r . indicates some of the s t a r t l i n g abuses made by "destructive c r i t i c s eager to replace the version of the manu-sc r i p t by (theirj own a r b i t r a r y suggestions." For example, as late as 1910 Trautman could emend the highly imaginative dea£wang ruddon (Andreas, 1. 1003) to the almost incomprehen-v — 1 O R sible and c e r t a i n l y unnecessary deaowoman budon, which, i f nothing else, shows the editor's i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the poetry. And i t i s just as impossible to discuss poetry properly with a f a u l t i l y emended text as with an improperly understood one. It i s hard to generalize about th i s period, 1881-1921, but perhaps the most important thing i s that the study of Old English poetry gradually became repatriated to English speaking countries and that consequently (or coincidentally) the emphasis on l i t e r a r y features gradually increased as English and American c r i t i c s took over from the Germans. The metaphor, kenning and variation; received the most attention; but none of the terms was very c l e a r l y or consistently defined or applied. Attempts were made to determine word connotation, and a considerable amount was discovered about sources and analogues, but no con-sistent method controlled these studies. F i n a l l y , however, 1 9 6 ""•-^"Textual Interpretation," p. 235. 1 2 7 " T e x t u a l C r i t i c i s m as a Pseudo-Science," PMLA, XXV (1910), 166. 128 Ibid., pp. 172-3. 106 af t e r the long reign of the h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c s , with t h e i r t a c i t approval of oral theories of o r i g i n , came c r i t i c s who emphasized style and assumed that Old English poetry came of a lettered background. With th i s encouragement and support, by 1921 c r i t i c s no longer f e l t obliged to apologize for the study of Old English poetry. CHAPTER IV STANDARD TEXTS AND THE BEGINNINGS OF LITERARY EVALUATION: 1921-1953 The foregoing chapter showed how a lack of co-ordina-t i o n i n scholarship resulted in sporadic studies and inconsis-tent attitudes from 1881-1921, even though by the end of the period praise of style was becoming more common. The most d i s -tinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s next period i s a c o l l e c t i n g and synthesizing of scholarship and the production of standard reference works and e s p e c i a l l y of standard texts. A l l six volumes of The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records appeared between 1931 and 1953, an indispensable, scholarly e d i t i o n of a l l Old English poetry, with textual matters of prime importance. The period i s also bordered by two of the most important editions of Beowulf, those of Klaeber (1922) and Wrenn (1953) with th e i r f u l l notes, bibliographies and c r i t i c a l apparatus. In addition, the Methuen Old English l i b r a r y published a series of c a r e f u l l y edited texts, with glossaries, for students. F i n a l l y , books appeared on several aspects of poetic c r i t i c i s m ; most have not been superseded; many are s t i l l being printed. The work which signals the beginning of the period i s R. W. Chambers' Beowulf: An Introduction (1921). Like Chambers" e a r l i e r work on Widsith (1912), this book i s an admirable and valuable account of the history, mythology, dating and struc-ture of the poem (complete with o r i g i n a l texts of analogues), but what l i t t l e i s said about d i c t i o n , imagery and f i g u r a t i o n 108 i s m e r e l y i n c i d e n t a l t o d i s c u s s i o n s o f d a t i n g and s t r u c t u r e and not s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o r e v i e w h e r e . Nor do t h e second and t h i r d e d i t i o n s of the book ( i n s p i t e o f C. L. Wrenn's r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s ) overcome t h i s d e f i c i e n c y (1932, 1959). As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o 'Beowulf the Poem' i t i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . Not so, however, are the two i n f l u e n t i a l works which I have chosen t o head the s u b - s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r . A. K l a e b e r and the C o n c e n t r a t i o n on Text and S t y l e : 1922-1935 A l t h o u g h much of what K l a e b e r says about s t y l e i n the comprehensive i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n of Beowulf (1922) i s b a s i c a l l y not new, i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s an a d m i r a b l y c l e a r and c o n c i s e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of O l d Eng-l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e , w i t h some new s u g g e s t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s . For example, most of what he has t o say about the a r t of the e p i c ( e . g . , the g e n e r a l i z i n g a l l u s i v e s t y l e of e p i s o d i c and sub-o r d i n a t e m a t e r i a l , the f o r m a l d i g n i t y of the speeches) seems i n d e b t e d t o H a r t ' s monograph B a l l a d and E p i c ; however, K l a e b e r n o t i c e s t h a t speeches b e g i n and end w i t h a f u l l l i n e , ! u n l i k e most s e n t e n c e s which end w i t h the c a e s u r a . S i m i l a r l y , h i s sta t e m e n t s about the s u b j e c t i v e impact of the poem ( e . g . , m e n t a l s t a t e s , the e m o t i o n a l q u a l i t y and l a c k of c l e a r v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n d e s c r i p t i o n s ) echo t h o s e of H a r t ; however, K l a e b e r goes 2-Fr. K l a e b e r , ed., Beowulf and the F i g h t a t F i n n s b u r q , 3rd ed. (Bos t o n : Heath, 1950) , p. Tv~. 109 further to suggest that aspects of nature may be symbolic of certain emotions. 2 Much of what Klaeber has to say about d i c t i o n i s also not b a s i c a l l y new, but many- of his judgments are. F i r s t , he emphasizes "the creative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the a l l i t e r a t i v e s t y l e , " as t e s t i f i e d i n the abundance of compounds, which are the most s i g n i f i c a n t element of the d i c t i o n . Indeed, by reason of i t s wealth, variety, and picturesque-ness of expression the language of the poem i s of more than ordinary i n t e r e s t . A host of synonyms enliven the narrative, notably i n the vocabulary pertaining to kings and retainers, war and weapons, sea and seafaring. Generously and withal j u d i c i o u s l y the author employs those picturesque circumlocutory words and phrases known as 'kennings,' which, emphasizing a certain q u a l i t y of a person or thing, are used in place of the pl a i n , abstract designation, e.g., helmberend...or such as involve meta-phorical language, l i k e rodores candel.... The note of approbation here, p a r t i c u l a r l y Klaeber's awareness of both the r e s t r a i n t and the creative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the language of Beowulf, establishes a new tone for the c r i t i c i s m of Old English poetic d i c t i o n . One should also note that he uses the term 'kenning' to denote any poetic periphrasis and that 4 he observes i t s usual form to be the compound. Klaeber also draws attention to the conventional nature of the d i c t i o n of Beowulf, a subject hitherto merely alluded 2 I b i d . , p. l x . q Ibid., p. l x i i i . 4 I b i d . , p. l x i v ; see appendix A. 110 to, usually by unsympathetic c r i t i c s . He observes the "large stock of formulas, set combinations of words, phrases of tran-s i t i o n , and similar stereotyped elements."° His remarks here mainly repeat the conclusions of his own 1905 a r t i c l e . Although Klaeber sees the qefraeqn formulas as unmistakable evidence of the oral origins of the poetry, he obviously considers the formulas to be part of a "vast store of ready forms" which could be "added to and varied at w i l l , " and the poem to be the work of a lettered a r t i s t . 7 Most of Klaeber's material on fi g u r a t i o n i s also derived from e a r l i e r scholarship, except that he places greater emphasis on the figure of l i t o t e s . In addition, he observes that "there i s an organic r e l a t i o n between the r h e t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and certain narrower l i n g u i s t i c facts as well as the broader s t y l i s t i c features and p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the narrative." Thus t a u t o l o g i c a l compounds l i k e deacfcwealm, redundant combinations l i k e beqa qehwaebres, v a r i a t i o n , and repetitions in t e l l i n g the story are, he claims, "only d i f -Q ferent manifestations of the same general tendency." S i m i l a r l y the indirectness of l i t o t e s i s "similar in kind to the author's veiled allusions to the conduct of Hrothulf and to the remarkable reserve practised i n the Christian interpre-, g t a t i o n [sic] of the story." 5 I b i d . , p. l x v i . °Fr. Klaeber, "Studies in the Textual Interpretation of Beowulf." Modern Philology, III (1905/6), 235-65, 445-65; discussed above, chapt. I l l , p. 7 9 . I l l Klaeber does not suggest the poet sat down and deliber-ately arranged t h i s balanced st y l e , but he does say that the style of Beowulf "goes f a r beyond the l i m i t s of primitive art" - - i n spite of the 'natural' expression evidenced i n the frequent, p a r a t a x i s . 1 0 Evidence of a r t i s t i c judgment, he says, can be seen i n the e f f e c t i v e grouping of compounds, even i n a single l i n e (e.g., 'nydwracu nipgrim, nihtbealu mast,' 1. 193); i n the r e p e t i t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e s (e.g., 11. 196f. and 7 8 9 f . ) ; 1 1 i n the accumulation of v a r i a t i o n for emphasis; and i n the possible Latin influence of such figures as antithesis (e.g., 11, 183 f f . ) ; and so o n . 1 2 Obviously Klaeber thinks highly of the range and ver-s a t i l i t y of the poetic art of Beowulf, and his study marks a s i g n i f i c a n t stage in the development of the appreciation of Old English poetry. Our f i n a l judgment of the style of Beowulf cannot be doubtful. Though lacking in l u c i d i t y , proportion, and f i n i s h of form as required by modern taste or by 7 Klaeber, E d i t i o n , pp. l x v i - l x v i i . Q Ibid., p. lxv. g 7 I b i d . , p. l x v i . 1 Q I b i d . , p. l x v i i ; c f . S. O. Andrew, Postscript on Beowulf (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1948); discussed below, p. 145 ^ s e waes mancynnes maegenes strengest on baem daeg pysses l i f e s (11. 196 f.) se be manna waes maegene strengest on paem daeg pysses l i f e s (11. 789 f.) 1 9 x ^ I b i d . , p. l x v i i i . 112 Homeric and V e r g i l i a n standards, the poem exhibits admirable technical s k i l l in the adaptation of the available means to the desired ends. It contains pas-sages which in t h e i r way are nearly perfect, and strong, noble l i n e s which t h r i l l the reader and linger i n the memory. The patient, loving student of the o r i g i n a l no longer feels c a l l e d upon to apologize for Beowulf as a piece of l i t e r a t u r e . I 3 Nor i s value judgment a l l Klaeber has to offer. I have l e f t to the l a s t one of the most important contributions of this e dition, a glossary in which words predominantly or exclusively poetic are marked, i n which words exclusive (and almost exclusive) to Beowulf are marked, and i n which parts of speech and li n e r e f e r -ences are given for every occurrence of a word. One cannot underestimate the value of this to e f f i c i e n t and r e l i a b l e poetic analysis. With general information having gone about as far as i t could for the present, the next few years see a concentration on p a r t i c u l a r issues of s t y l e , predominantly on matters of d i c -t i o n . One should note in advance that a l l the c r i t i c s assume that Beowulf i s a lettered rather than an oral composition, a l l seem influenced to a greater or less degree by Klaeber and none seem constrained to apologize for the poetry — that day seems gone, one hopes, forever. 1 3 I b i d . ^ 4 c f . J . B. Bessinger, A Short Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon Poetry (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, I960); discussed below, chapt. V, p. 190. Henry C e c i l Wyld (1925) i s unreserved in his praise of the imagination and s e n s i b i l i t y in Old English poetry, and con-cludes that the poets "are i n the true great lin e of English p o e t s . " 1 5 He finds part of this continuity of the national genius i n the poet's use of words or phrases de l i b e r a t e l y be-cause they d i f f e r from everyday words (e.g., 'zephyr' and 'steed,' to use two modern examples). Nor does Wyld consider that the use of t r a d i t i o n a l or conventional d i c t i o n precludes poetical•value--even cliches may express genuine emotion and produce d e l i g h t . 1 0 However, where ancient poetry i s concerned, he says, the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s in grasping the precise shade of meaning, i n understanding what emotional e f f e c t the word may have had f o r the Anglo-Saxon audience. 1 7 Thus i he t r i e s to derive help from etymology: for example, holm occurs in place names usually near or surrounded by water and holmr i n Norse means 'sea isla n d , ' so that the Old English word carries with i t the idea of a l o f t y , mounted slope. However, Wyld admits that this method may be misleading since the poet may have used a word ignorant of i t s o r i g i n . 1 8 Wyld then states that usage 1 5Henry C e c i l Wyld, "Diction and Imagery in Anglo-Saxon Poetry," Essays and Studies, XI (1925), 91. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 54. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 55. 1 8 I b i d . 114 and association must reveal much about the l i f e of the words, and that grouping words into associations must be a necessary step i n 1 9 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Of course, such a method requires a great deal of subjective judgment; but considering the trends of modern Beowulf c r i t i c i s m , I believe Wyld was working i n a profitable d i r e c t i o n . Wyld's second concern i s with the Old English metaphor-i c a l expressions, which Quiller-Couch had called (1916) "the besetting s i n of the Anglo-Saxon gleeman": 2 0 Now the Anglo-Saxon poet undoubtedly does very often avoid c a l l i n g a spade a spade. The question therefore arises whether a spade i s , under a l l possible circum-stances, the best name for a spade, or whether in a pa r t i c u l a r passage a poet does or does not secure a better poetical r e s u l t by c a l l i n g i t something else. Wyld here seems to ignore a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of variation-; . that a spade is. often c a l l e d a spade, as well as many other descrip-tive and poetic things; e.g., i n li n e s 207-28 a ship i s called a bat, sundwudu, f l o t a , nacan, wudu bundenne, f l o t a famiqheals, wundenstefna, saewudu--an impressive c o l l e c t i o n of names rang-ing from the l i t e r a l simplex bat to the highly poetic f l o t a  fgmiqheals. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 56. 2 0 S i r Arthur Quiller-Couch, On the Art of Writing (New York: Capricorn Books, 1961), p. 195. 2 1.Wyld, p. 57. 115 Using rather debatable and unreliable subjective c r i t e r i a of judgment, Wyld finds two d i s t i n c t classes i n the Anglo-Saxon 'metaphor'; poetic set phrases which lack v i t a l i t y and add nothing to the stock of beautiful images, e. g., ganotes baeb and swanrad; and those whose beauty and truth are impressive, e.g., sealtyd'a gewealc and waegholm. 2 2 He praises the descrip-tive value of certain adjectives l i k e fealu or sidne (with sae) and the 'poetic genius' of a sustained metaphor such as 23 weallfaestan and meretorras multon i n Exodus. S i m i l a r l y , Wyld finds "nothing of great poetic value" i n terms l i k e waeqflota and brimwudu, but praises expressions l i k e I s i g and utfCTs and fsmig scip, as well as a l l the language and devices used to describe the crossing to Denmark. If one may draw conclusions from these evaluations, i t would appear that Wyld b a s i c a l l y prefers, to use Gummere's d i v i s i o n s , the conscious rather than the unconscious metaphor. That i s , he admires an Old English f i g u r a t i v e compound i f i t i s a sustained metaphor or appropriately modified, for example, "se brimhengest bridles 24 ne gymed" (Runic Poem, 1. 66), in which the image of the ship as a s t a l l i o n i s sustained beyond the single compound. However, he c r i t i c i z e s brimhengest used alone, considering i t a l i f e l e s s periphrastic epithet. Even here one can see the 2 2 I b i d . , p. 58. 2 3 I b i d . , pp. 50-60. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 63. 116 persistence in scholarship of c l a s s i c a l concepts of f i g u r a t i o n . Nonetheless, Wyld's study i s valuable i n i t s sttempt to evaluate Old English poetry as poetry and i n i t s attempt to use word connotations and r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l as principles of evaluation. Whether or not one agrees with Wyld's p a r t i c u l a r judgments, one must admit that he is evolving p o t e n t i a l l y useful methods for approaching Old English poetic d i c t i o n and imagery. The section on Old English l i t e r a t u r e which Emile Legouis contributed to the History of English Literature (1926) also shows the growing inte r e s t i n poetic language. In his observation that Old English i s an i n f l e c t e d language and lacks l o g i c a l grammatical p a r t i c l e s , Legouis i s somewhat l i k e French c r i t i c s of the nineteenth century; but i n his attempt to relate the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the language to the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of s t y l e , he goes f a r beyond t h e i r limited judgments. F i r s t , he notes that the e f f e c t of an i n f l e c t e d language i s to cause the place of words to be s t r i c t l y governed by the needs of the a l l i t e r a t i v e l i n e or the exigencies of emphasis. There i s an abundance of separate, d i s -connected words i n apposition, with something of the e f f e c t of superimposed i n t e r j e c t i o n s . ^ Second, he shows that the absence of suffixes and prefixes permits the abundant compounding of words, such as the prosaic 2 o E m i l e Legouis, The Middle Ages and the Renascence:  650-1660, trans. Helen Douglas Irvine, V o l . I of Emile Legouis and Louis Cazamian, A History of English Literature (London: Dent, 1926), p. 10. 11,7 rod-faestnen for 'crucify' and s t a e f - c r a e f t i g for 'a man learned i n l e t t e r s . ' 2 ^ * In poetry per se Legouis remarks on the use of compounds for ornament and recognizes the aesthetic function of 'accumu-lated periphrases,' or v a r i a t i o n : "to show a quality of the subject-matter and throw i t into r e l i e f , or, more frequently, for pure love of these terms, or again, for the sake of a l l i t e r a -t i o n . " 2 7 He also l i m i t s the meaning of the term 'kenning' to metaphorical expressions, such as 'jewels of the head 1 for 'eyes,' i n which the i d e n t i t y of the object must be guessed, somewhat i n the manner of a r i d d l e . 2 8 However, Legouis observes, as did many of his predecessors, that Old English metaphors "hardly ever make the consecutive and extensive comparisons which are born of imagination and reason."^ 7 He also notices that the s i m i l a r i t y of style i n a l l the poems can be monotonous and that the t r a d i t i o n a l form can "give an a i r of grandeur to p a r t i c u l a r poems, but imprison and r e s t r i c t i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . " 3 0 Although Legouis retains the rather neo-classic attitude frequently held by l i t e r a r y h i storians, he has, l i k e Wyld, 2 6 I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . , p. 11. 2 8 I b i d . ; see appendix A. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 11 3 0 I b i d . , p. 12. 11& suggested that the same poetic style may be used with varying degrees of success. W. W. Lawrence expands on this idea in his b r i e f remarks on the style of Beowulf (1928). Old English poetic s t y l e , he says, f a r from being i n any way primitive...was over-elaborate, on i t s way to decadence. V a r i a t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n were too f r e e l y and too mechanically employed; set epic phraseology too often took the place of i n s p i r a t i o n . The art of the singer was coming to resemble that of a worker i n mosaic, placing i n new combinations pieces read/ to his hand...Beowulf, the f i n e s t example of this poetry, shows less exaggeration i n r h e t o r i c a l a r t i f i c e s , but enough to bear witness to t h e i r dangers. Although derived to a large extent from popular sources...it is...the product of an ars poetica of settled p r i n c i p l e s and careful development. Moreover, i t i s highly sophisticated and a r i s t o -c r a t i c , e s s e n t i a l l y a courtly epic. 1 Lawrence has here summarized and judged the most s a l i e n t features of the Old English d i c t i o n . In the Klaeber Miscellany of 1929 are several extremely important essays on d i c t i o n . The f i r s t , by Helen Buckhurst, i s a response to Wyld's plea for a whole a r t i c l e on the sea op and ships. Her a r t i c l e concerns only the words f o r sea, and some of her conclusions and methods are remarkably 'modern.' For the twenty-four simplices which she gathers (including garsecg and the doubtful eolet) she states that i n choosing a synonym f o r 'sea' the poet could choose one of broader meaning 3 1 W i l l i a m Witherle Lawrence, Beowulf and Epic Tradition (New York: Hafner, 1963), p. 4. 3 2Wyld, p. 63. 119 (water in general) or one of more s p e c i f i c meaning (channel or wave) and that i n most cases the o r i g i n a l meaning of the word i s s t i l l d i s c e r n i b l e , i f only through a cognate language l i k e Old Norse. 3 3 Such a study c e r t a i n l y opens up the p o s s i b i l i t y of finding a r t i s t i c description i n Old English poetry, for lan-guage analysis i s basic to a f u l l appreciation of the device of v a r i a t i o n . Like Wyld, Miss Buckhurst shows how e f f e c t i v e l y adjec-tives can be used i n description. For example fealu,she says, i s frequently used, both conventionally and v i v i d l y , to describe "heaving water under a rainy and sunless sky." 3 4 And, l i k e Legouis, she sees the 'kenning' i n i t s narrow metaphorical sense: when the adjective rather than the noun carries the idea of the sea (e.g., deop qedraeg or famqe felds) "the phrase i s a true : kenning i 1 , 3 5 Miss Buckhurst also divides the compounds and phrases for sea according to function, not to form: 1) those simple and numerous terms which singly denote sea (e.g., lagustream) and which retain t h e i r o r i g i n a l , non-figurative force; 2) terms i n which a new element i s introduced (she 3 3 H e l e n Therese McMillan Buckhurst, "Terms and Phrases for the Sea i n Old English Poetry," Studies i n English Philology  i n Honor of Frederick Klaeber (Minneapolis: Univ of Minnesota Press, 1929, pp. 106-8; e.g., stream o r i g i n a l l y meant 'current' but i n Old English the p l u r a l is used to mean 'sea' (cf. Old Norse straumr); brim and i t s p l u r a l are commonly used f o r 'sea' and o r i g i n a l l y had the sense of ' s u r f or 'surge' (cf. Old Norse brim) (ibid.) 3 4 I b i d . , p. 108. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 110; see appendix A. detects eleven d i f f e r e n t areas of emphasis), and yet the sea i t s e l f , by one of i t s many names, i s s t i l l retained (e.g., floda beqong or the more p i c t o r i a l waeteres hrycq); 3) the 'kennings,' "condensed metaphorical, p i c t o r i a l , or f i g u r a t i v e expressions," quite a rare occurrence i n Old English poetry, where the poet seemed to prefer the 'half-kenning, 1 " i n which the metaphorical element i s for the most part absent...!' 3^ In t h i s respect, and i n the absence of mythological kennings, Oil English poetry avoids the elaborateness of Old Norse. Certainly, t h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i c l e i n the objec-tive method with which i t treats the material, in i t s drawing together suggestions e a r l i e r made by Gummere and Klaeber, and in i t s clear grouping and d e f i n i t i o n s . I t pursues Wyld's suggestion of using etymology i n the appreciation of poetic language, shows how d i f f e r e n t Old English and Old Norse can be, and emphasizes the p o s s i b i l i t y that the poet may use his creative imagination. Three other a r t i c l e s i n the Klaeber Miscellany concern d i c t i o n and imagery, the least f l a t t e r i n g being that of F. P. Magoun. Magoun concludes that because Beowulf contains the same word as the f i r s t element in more compounds than does the Elder Edda, then the Beowulf poet was less s k i l f u l and resource-37 f u l than his Scandinavian counterpart(s). W. F. Bryan,on 3 6 I b i d . , pp. 110-18. 3 7 F r a n c i s P. Magoun, J r . , "Recurring F i r s t Elements in Different Nominal Compounds i n Beowulf and the Elder Edda" Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1929), pp. 73-8. 121 the other hand, does not compare the two languages, but instead shows that f i r s t elements of compound folk-names i n Beowulf (except those for which the poet i s i n no way responsible, l i k e Healf-Dene) are not used mechanically, but are used appropriately (e.g., both occurrences of Sae-Geatas, 11. 1850, 1986, concern either exploits or exchange of g i f t s across the sea), and possibly even i r o n i c a l l y (e.g., Gar-Dene, 1. 601 and Siqe-Scyldinqas, 1. 597, in Beowulf's cutting reply to Unferth). Bryan also suggests that the demands of a l l i t e r a -t i on enslaved the Beowulf poet no more than rhyme enslaves a modern poet, and that qeardaqum was probably chosen to f i t — 39 Gar-Dene, not the other way round. Thus Bryan concludes that no aspect of the poet's a r t i s t r y i s "more notable than his sure mastery of such stubborn material as folk and 4 . - • i »40 national names." J . R. Hulbert also advances the case for the a r t i s t i c merit of Old English poetic d i c t i o n . In 1932 he sees d e f i n i t e value i n Bryan's approach, whether or not one accepts the entire theory, 4^ and suggests that the only re a l conclusion to be drawn from Magoun's a r t i c l e i s that Old English and Old 3 8 W i l l i a m Frank Bryan, "Epithetic Compound Folk-Names i n Beowulf" (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1929), pp. 127, 128. 3 9 I b i d . , p. 123. 4 Q I b i d . , p. 134. 4"*"Godfiid Storms (Compounded Names of Peoples i n Beowulf [utrecht-Nijmegen: Dekker en van de Vegt, 1957J) praises Bryan's a r t i c l e for i t s treatment of d i c t i o n when studies of the poem as a work of art were lacking. Norse styles are d i f f e r e n t . ^ Also favoring the view of con-scious a r t i s t r y i s Hulbert's own a r t i c l e on the haunted mere in the Klaeber Miscellany. After presenting the evidence for the two cases regarding this descriptive set-piece that the poet v i s u a l i z e d nature, and that the account i s a compilation from d i f f e r e n t sources--Hulbert concludes that the l a t t e r theory i s inadmissable and that the former must be modified: It i s surely obvious that the choice of those d e t a i l s was determined not by the desire to suggest a d e f i n i t e mental picture but by the desire to arouse a certain emotion, to get a certain t o n e . 4 3 Considering the frequent attention given by c r i t i c s to the emotional impact of the poem, i t seems inevitable that the imagery should be studied in d e t a i l for i t s emotional e f f e c t . From some of the above a r t i c l e s one might conclude that there have been tendencies both to compare Old English poetry with i t s Old Norse counterparts and to make value judgments on the use of the poetic language. H. van der Merwe Scholtz cer-t a i n l y continues in the former tendency i n his f u l l work on kennings; but i n spite of his claim to treat the kennings accord-ing to what they mean, not according to t h e i r structure, he r e a l l y ends up grouping and labeling them in a d i f f e r e n t way. 4<J. R. Hulbert, "A Note on Compounds in Beowulf," JEGP, XXXI (1932), 504, 505. 43 James R. Hulbert, "A Note on the Psychology of the Beowulf Poet" (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1929), p. 193. 126 Although van der Merwe Scholtz' study i s the f u l l e s t account of the kenning in English, i t i s a strangely unsatisfying work, mostly because Scholtz seems to be more concerned with sources than with actual practice and with knocking down other c r i t i c s ' theories than with c l e a r l y formulating his own. However he makes several points that are new and impor-tant. F i r s t , he emphasizes the importance of the psychological attitude to language which denies that two words can be absolute synonyms. Cyninq and beodcyninq may mean the same thing, he says, but one should not ignore the significance of emotional colouring of words—think of a foreigner t r y i n g to speak English and the amusement he frequently causes. 4 4 Admittedly, some words may be chosen only for t h e i r a b i l i t y to f i t a l l i t e r a t i o n , but such a conclusion i s v a l i d only after examining the kenning i n i t s context. For example, he says, the expressions sinces brytta and goldwine gumena (11.1169-74) may have been chosen because they a l l i t e r a t e d , but they could hardly have been better chosen to show the Queen's appeal to Hrothgar's l i b e r a l i t y . 4 5 Scholtz also firmly denies that the great number of synonyms i n the language led to t h e i r use by the poet: " i t i s more l i k e l y that a great many of them are 4 4H. van der Merwe Scholtz, The Kenning in Anglo-Saxon  Poetry (Oxford: Blackwell, 1929), pp. 8-10 4 5 I b i d . , pp. 11-15 indebted f o r t h e i r existence to the requirements of the poet." 4^ In his d e f i n i t i o n of the kenning Scholtz takes Snorri's three categories for substantives and interprets them thus: 1) words i n th e i r l i t e r a l sense, 2) the ukennt  h e i t i (also called nafn and h e i t i ) , 3) the kenning, h e i t i and kennt heiti,. He notices the ambiguity of the term h e i t i y and defines the kenning as a periphrastic expression of at least two words either compounded or separate. 4 7 He has apparently, then, used the authority of Snorri to confirm the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the term, although to do so he seems to have gathered a l l the terms i n group 3 together as kennings. But Scholtz also counts certain single words as kennings, since he claims that unity of meaning i s the distinguishing feature of the kenning and that in some cases there i s no semantic d i f -ference between compound and simple expressions (e.g., hyrde 48 i s a simple version of folces hyrde). Nor does Scholtz agree that the component parts of every kenning must be used i n a f i g u r a t i v e sense: " i t would...be more correct to regard kennings as words and phrases used i n a figu r a t i v e or spe c i a l i z e d , as opposed to the l i t e r a l or general sense of such words and phrases. 4 9 Thus i t i s not absolutely clear what Scholtz does mean by 'kenning. 1 4 6 I b i d . , p. 12. 4 7Ibid.» p. 37; see Appendix A. 4 8 I b i d . , p. 43. 49 Ibid., p. 47. 125 The matter i s somewhat clearer when he shows that the kenning i s a substitute for a noun which s t y l i s t i c a l l y goes beyond apposition and v a r i a t i o n . Apposition, he says, probably began i n the poet's wish for clearer designation of his r e f e r -ent, whatever the s p e c i f i c motive; i n apposition the syntactic r e l a t i o n i s clear: both words refer to the same object and 50 stand i n juxtaposition, whether i n normal or inverted order. V a r i a t i o n marks the next stage; here the apposition i s separated from i t s r e l a t i v e word by one or more intervening words, these too i n either normal or inverted order. F i n a l l y the one word i s omitted and the other carries the entire mean-ing of the conception, standing alone as a kenning. This happens over a period of time, since " i f two expressions are repeatedly' used i n the same syntactic r e l a t i o n , the one gradually assimi-p. i lates the meaning of the other." x Really what Scholtz i s pro-posing here i s a gradual accretion of associations to a word. In his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the kennings themselves, Scholtz groups them according to concept ( i . e . , sea, ship, etc.) but sub - c l a s s i f i e s them according to form. For one word kennings for''sea' he l i s t s grund and holm, since t h e i r poetic meanings d i f f e r from those of prose. For compound kennings he l i s t s waegholm, garsecg, hronrad, etc. For phrases he finds three formal types: substantive plus substantive (e.g., ganotes baeb), adjective plus substantive (e.g., seo fealu f l o d ) , and substantive 5 Q I b i d . , pp. 54-8, 115-23. 5 1 I b i d . , p. 124. 126 p l u s p a r t i c i p i a l phrase (e.g., earcTe ycfum cteaht). e t c . Waeter compounds he r e j e c t s f o r b e i n g too l i t e r a l . ^ 2 However, I cannot h e l p wondering why he t r e a t s f l o d as p a r t of a ken-n i n g p h r a s e , y e t not as a kenning s i m p l e x . What S c h o l t z says about the a c t u a l comparison of Old E n g l i s h and Old Norse i s not o f concern h e r e , except f o r a few con c l u s i o n s . . F i r s t , the O l d E n g l i s h k e n n i n g shows the o l d e s t s tage i n the development of the k e n n i n g . Second, i t i s usu-a l l y s i m p l e and o b v i o u s i n b o t h form and meaning. L a s t , i t seems m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o e x p r e s s a concept as v i v i d l y and e m p h a t i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e . ^ 3 I n t h e meantime work was c o n t i n u i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Beowulf and the c l a s s i c a l e p i c s and between O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y g e n e r a l l y and c l a s s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . S i n c e the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c r i t i c s had observed p a r a l l e l s of s i t u a t i o n and m o t i f i n Beowulf and Homer, but the r e c e n t emphasis on l e t t e r e d r a t h e r t h a n o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n l e d to i n c r e a s e d a t t e n -t i o n t o L a t i n s o u r c e s . K l a e b e r had produced a German a r t i c l e on Beowulf and the A e n e i d (1911), and A. S. Cook produced a s e r i e s o f • a r t i c l e s - on c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s , among the l a s t of which were th o s e i n 1924 and 1926. I n the 1924 a r t i c l e Cook makes a case f o r the rhyming phrase f l o d b l o d e weol ( l . 1422) b e i n g d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Aldhelm's rhyming phrase of s i m i l a r °^Ibid.. pp. 65-6. 5 3 I b i d . , pp. 179-80. 127. 54 meaning and context cruenta... .fluenta. Certainly such l i n -g u i s t i c p a r a l l e l s are the most convincing method of determining influence, i f i t e x i s t s . Cook's 1926 a r t i c l e simply concerns 55 the s i m i l a r i t i e s of speech formularies i n Homer and Beowulf. The whole question of the influence of one work or writer upon another i s d i f f i c u l t at the best of times. Finding p a r a l l e l s i s an interesting sort of academic parlour game, but with the number of factors involved one usually cannot prove anything. As I mentioned above, indisputable p a r a l l e l s of phrasing are perhaps the only p a r a l l e l s which can indicate positive influence, Rene Wellek states quite impressively the major p i t f a l l s of parallel-hunting i n general: F i r s t of a l l , p a r a l l e l s must be r e a l p a r a l l e l s , not vague s i m i l a r i t i e s assumed to turn, by mere m u l t i p l i -cation, into proof. Forty zeroes s t i l l make zero. Furthermore, p a r a l l e l s must be exclusive p a r a l l e l s ; that i s , there must be reasonable certainty that they cannot be explained by a common source, a certainty attainable only i f the investigator has a wide knowledge of l i t e r a -ture or i f the p a r a l l e l is a highly i n t r i c a t e pattern rather than an isolated "motif" or word.^6 T. B. Haber ostensibly bears in mind such cautionary remarks as he compares Beowulf with the Aeneid: " i t must always be admitted that any s p e c i f i c point referred to may f i n d i t s 5 4 A l b e r t Stanburrough Cook, "Beowulf 1422," Modern Lan-guage Notes, XXXIX (1924), 79. 5 5 A l b e r t Stanburrough Cook, "The Beowulf ian Macfelode, " JEGP, XXV (1926), 1-6. 5 oRene Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1956), p. 248. explanation i n unadulterated Germanic t r a d i t i o n . " However, at times he either ignores or denies the Germanic t r a d i t i o n . For example, he considers that Beowulf's funeral shows non-Germanic influence, but he seems to forget that i t has many resemblances to A t t i l a ' s funeral as described by Jordanes. Also the absence of the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e i n both Latin and Beowulf does not necessarily prove a non-Germanic i n f l u e n c e . ^ 8 Nevertheless, perhaps the length of Beowulf was inspired by the length of the Aeneid: there i s no poem of comparable length and theme extant i n the Germanic t r a d i t i o n , and Haber supplies copious evidence for the wide a v a i l a b i l i t y of V i r g i l (much moreso than Homer) i n England during the seventh and eighth centuries.59 However, widespread knowledge and imitation of V i r g i l i n the early Middle Ages no more proves influence than the supremacy of Shakespeare today proves his influence on modern drama. The Latinisms i n the poetic style are p o t e n t i a l l y more convincing of Latin influence, although these could come from other than the Aeneid and could even be common Germanic lan-guage features: the use of the passive voice where the active would be appropriate, the use of l i t o t e s , anaphora, polysyndeton ^7Tom Burns Haber, A Comparative Study of the "Beowulf" and the "Aeneid" (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1931), p . v i i ^ 8 I b i d . , chapt. I l l , passim.; Lichtenheld's test shows that the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e i s more frequent in l a t e r Old English poetry. Ibid., chapt. II, passim. 129 Latin loan words, etc. Haber also weakens his argument con-siderably by suggesting that kennings and the tendency to stock phrases, two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i c t i o n most firm l y rooted in the Germanic oral t r a d i t i o n , show V i r g i l i a n influence: "the p o s s i b i l i t y that Old English kennings may derive from c l a s s i c a l models i s strengthened by the fact that many Latin authors in England showed an especial r e l i s h for the decorative value of separate compound words." 0 1 Also p o t e n t i a l l y more convincing of influence are actual p a r a l l e l s of phraseology,-of which Haber notes the following: iren and ferrurn for "sword1; rumheort and . maqnanimuus; garsecg and Neptune; 'famigheals f l o t a fugle g e l l c o s t 1 and a s i m i l a r bird simile i n Aeneid Book IV, lines 211-6.° 2 This l a s t being one of the rare Beowulf similes, the p o s s i b i l i t y of influence here i s quite strong. On the whole, however, isol a t e d words and phrases prove l i t t l e . Even less do the larger issues of motif and sentiment show conclusive influence. Certainly, the Beowulf poet may have come in contact with the Aeneid, but I prefer to see i t working a more subtle influence on Beowulf than Haber implies:- that o 0 I b i d . , pp. 33-44. o l I b i d . , pp. 66-67 n. Here Haber seems to ignore that the c l a s s i c a l device of pronominatio (or antonomasia), a device used with some frequency i n the Aeneid, i s inspired by a wish to avoid mention of the referent, a rather precious motive and quite d i f f e r e n t from the Anglo-Saxon desire to describe in d e t a i l as many aspects of the referent as possible; see [Cicero], Ad  C. Herennium de Ratione Dicendi (Rhetorica ad Herennium). trans. Harry Caplan (London: Heinemann, 1954), p. 335. o 2Haber, pp. 72-5. 130 certain Latin figures and phrases, similar to those already i n the native poetic or appealing e s p e c i a l l y to the Anglo-Saxon poet, would gradually enter the vocabulary and rhetoric of a sensitive and creative a r t i s t . Like J . R. R. Tolkien, I prefer to see the imitation and reminiscences due to fundamen-t a l s i m i l a r i t i e s in poetic temperament.^0 Of course a study such as Haber 1s assumes that Beowulf was a let t e r e d rather than an oral composition, as does John Beaty's study of the 'echo-word.1 This technique Beaty der.-scribes as the "rep e t i t i o n of a word fo r the pleasure of echoing i t s i d e n t i c a l sound i n a d i f f e r e n t meaning, connotation or association"; l i k e a l l i t e r a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n and epithet, i t is just another way i n which 'word ober fand so^e gebunden.... , t j 4 Beaty finds f i v e types of echo words in some si x t y examples i n Beowulf (no further than seventeen l i n e s apart and not includ-ing natural r e p e t i t i o n ) . One type, for example, e n t a i l s the re p e t i t i o n of a word with a d i f f e r e n t meaning, connotation or association., such as on bearm scipes (1. 35) and him on be arm  laeg (1. 40). Another type involves a word being the name, or part of the name, of a person, such as qaras(1• 328) and HrocFgares ( l . 355).^° Such a device i s cer t a i n l y quite J . R. R. Tolkien, "Beowulf: The Monsters and the C r i t i c s , " An Anthology of Beowulf C r i t i c i s m , ed. Lewis E. Nicholson (Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1963), p. 74; hereafter this volume w i l l be referred to as Beowulf Anthology. 64 John 0. Beaty, "The Echo-Word i n Beowulf with a Note on the Finnsburg Fragment," PMLA, XLIX (1934), 366. 6 5 l b i d - > PP. 367-71. 131' impressive. I prefer, however, to view i t as a mark of the poet's natural s e n s i t i v i t y to sound associations than to a deliberate setting down of similar sounds. Indeed, i t i s not the sort of device which would appeal to the eye anyway. Adeline B a r t l e t t also examines the text c a r e f u l l y for what she c a l l s 'larger r h e t o r i c a l patterns,' i . e . , certain patterned repetitions of sound or of matter. In j u s t i f y i n g her topic she observes, (.quite correctly, that the work on Old English poetic style since 1880 has been concerned with one work, one figure (usually the kenning) or one aspect (mainly metre), and that often the writers have been preoccupied with sources or comparisons with other languages. But of Anglo-Saxon poetry as a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous and r e l a t i v e l y independent body of verse i t is perhaps true that l i t t l e has been written; and even less has been written that i s concerned primarily with i t s s t y l e . D D This i s b a s i c a l l y so, except that in the same year (1935) Edith E. Wardale published her Chapters on Old English Literature, the f i r s t comprehensive work on Old English f o r a number of years and the f i r s t to abandon the h i s t o r i c a l - e t h n o l o g i c a l orientation and to treat a l l the l i t e r a t u r e as a body, poetry and prose. Unfortunately, the section on style i s extremely 6 7 b r i e f , and i s completely derivative. D O A d e l i n e Courtney B a r t l e t t , The Larger Rhetorical  Patterns in Anglo-Saxon Poetry (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1935), p. 5. 6 7 E. E. Wardale, Chapters on Old English Literature (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965), pp. 14-8. 13 2 Although Miss B a r t l e t t claims not to be concerned with the sources of the devices of her study, i t i s obvious that , she leans to the idea of c l a s s i c a l influence. Her book isolates and describes those verse paragraphs i n Old English poetry which have a recognizable r h e t o r i c a l structure, most of which i s apparent when the poetry i s read aloud. The design of the poem, she says, may at times be a r b i t r a r y and whimsical, but i t is there. In this 'book e p i c , 1 as she c a l l s Beowulf, "each verse pattern i s a panel or section of the storied tapestry."^ 8 In Anglo-Saxon poetry Miss B a r t l e t t discovers six main patterns: the Envelope pattern, the P a r a l l e l pattern, the Incremental pattern, the Rhythmical pattern, the Decorative Inset and the Conventional Device. F i r s t , the Envelope pattern i s one which has words and/or ideas repeated at both beginning and end of the unit, simple examples being lines 767-70 (•Dryhtsele dynede...Reced hlynsode') and lines 1323-9 ('Dead 69 i s AEschere...swylc AEschere waes 1). In addition, she finds c h i a s t i c patterns and verbal echoes and concludes: "Anglo-Saxon verse i s genuine poetry, written by men who knew what they were doing. It i s quite true that Anglo-Saxon verse i s f u l l of verbal t r i c k e r y , echoes, puns of a sort, crisscross 6 8 B a r t l e t t , p. 7. By 'book epic' I take Miss B a r t l e t t to mean that Beowulf was a conscious a r t i s t i c creation composed by a le t t e r e d poet, and not simply the record of an oral per-f ormance. 6 9 I b i d . , pp. 9, 10. 133 patterns of phrasing." 7 0 On evidence from the Anglo-Saxon period i t s e l f , we know there was a great fondness f o r riddles and puns, i n L a t i n a t l e a s t . A P a r a l l e l pattern Miss B a r t l e t t l i m i t s to complete sen-tences at least three l i n e s i n length. A The 'Repetition p a r a l l e l pattern 1 seems to be found only i n religious poetry, and contains a series of repeated thoughts. The more common 'Balance pattern' has members which are not even approximately si m i l a r i n content, but which are p a r a l l e l i n form and which constitute a related group of thoughts or images. Most came only i n pairs (e.g., '-£)a" waes on uhtan.. pa was aefter wiste, 1 11. 126-9), but those groups with anaphora, e s p e c i a l l y hwllum and sum have more members. 7 2 Not only i s a passage such as li n e s 2016-24 7 3 marked by anaphora, i t i s f u l l of other verbal t r i c k s , Miss B a r t l e t t points out: the neat p a r a l l e l of Wealhtheow cheering the qeonqe (1. 2018) and Freawaru bearing 7 0 I b i d . , pp. 17-8. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 30. 7 2 I b i d . , pp. 33-4. 7 3 - - -Hwilum maeru cwen, f r i ^ u s i b b f o l c a f l e t e a l l geondhwearf, baedde byre geonge; oft hio beahwrioran secge (sealde), aer hie to setle_geong. Hwilum f o r (djugucfe dohtor Hrod'gares eorlum on ende ealuwaege baer, pa i c Freaware f l e t s i t t e n d e nemnan hyrde, paer hio (nae)gled sine haeleSum sealde. (11. 2016-24) the ale cup to the duqu£e (1. 2020); and the echoes i n qeonqe - geonq (11. 2018, 2019)and f l e t - f l e t s i t t e n d e (11. 2017, 2022). In a l l cases other words could have been chosen, but the poet chose to play with words. 7 4 She con-cludes the chapter with the 'Antithesis p a r a l l e l pattern,' a most elaborate example of which i s found i n lines 183-8 ('Wa biS baem...Wel biS baem... 1), 7 5 The remaining patterns are a l l related to o v e r - a l l structure more than to matters of d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n . The 'Incremental pattern 1 treats such devices as the r e p e t i t i o n of com i n the stages of Grendel's coming. The 'Rhythmical pattern' i s the name Miss B a r t l e t t gives to the patterns of expanded, or hypermetric, l i n e s . The 'Decorative Inset' i s akin to the d i l a t i o n of decadent c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c , she claims, i s not an i n t r i n s i c part of the narrative, and may be homiletic, elegiac, runic, etc. (e.g., 'Wyrd oft neredV unfaegne eor\, >^onne his e l l e n deah!) (1. 572 f . ) . Last* the 'Conventional device' includes such devices as the opening formula i n the f i r s t l i n e of Beowulf. A l l these patterns, Miss B a r t l e t t concludes, are chosen for the sake of ornament and often f i t content. She also defends the r i g h t to f i n d Latihisms i n Old English s t y l e , by the rather weak argument that no one objects to the f a c t i n Milton: My assumption would stress the position of Anglo-Saxon at the head of the long l i n e of English l i t e r a t u r e , and would not admit her position as simply that of a 7 4 B a r t l e t t , p. 35. 135 renegade daughter of the Germanic family who unfortunately married a decadent Mediterranean.'" Thus Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m has v i r t u a l l y reversed the trends of the nineteenth century, as an increasing number of c r i t i c s unearth the immense potential of the poetic language and bring to bear modern c r i t i c a l methods. B. Tolkien and L i t e r a r y Evaluation: 1936-1953 However, J. R. R. Tolkien found a great gap i n the appre-c i a t i o n of Old English poetry, at least i n the appreciation of B e o w u l f — n o one seemed to think i t had the substance of a poem, even though i t had the trappings. Thus Tolkien's famous B r i t i s h Academy lecture of 1936 i s not directed so much at resuscitating the reputation of the style (or form) but at resuscitating the reputation of the poem i t s e l f , to show that i t i s worthy of the form. Such a work i s of d i r e c t importance to the d i c t i o n and imagery, since studies of poetic mechanics can become f u t i l e unless they are directed toward the t o t a l appreciation of the poem. Tolkien's chief point where style e x p l i c i t l y i s concerned, i s to state that fundamentally a l l Old English poetry has the same d i g n i f i e d verse: 7 5 I b i d . , pp. 44-5. 7 6 I b i d . , p. 112. 136 In them there i s well-wrought language, weighty words, l o f t y sentiment, precisely that which we are t o l d i s the r e a l beauty of Beowulf, Yet i t cannot, I think, be disputed, that Beowulf i s more bea u t i f u l , that each lin e there i s more s i g n i f i c a n t (even when, as sometimes hap-pens, i t i s the same l i n e ) than i n the other long Old English poems.7' Log i c a l l y , then, the merit of Beowulf must l i e in i t s theme and s p i r i t : "Beowulf i s indeed the most successful Old English poem because i n i t the elements, language, metre, theme, structure, are a l l most nearly i n harmony." 7 8 Thus Tolkien emphasizes Beowulf's importance not as an h i s t o r i c a l document, but as poetry quite independent of such 79 things as the i d e n t i t y of Hygelac. B a s i c a l l y Tolkien returns to Gummere's idea of a poet-monk, imbued with the new learning and conditioned by the old culture, creating the long poem Beowulf. For Tolkien sees the poem as a balance between Ch r i s t i a n and pagan. To him the Grendels and the dragon are s t i l l actual physical foes against which the hero must struggle and which he must slayj but they also take on the symbolic cast of the forces of darkness and unreason against which mortal man t r a g i c a l l y struggles to maintain himself i n l i g h t and reason. But i t does not, Tolkien i n s i s t s , over-balance into the abstrac-8 0 t i o n of medieval allegory. He also t r i e s to determine the 77 Tolkien, pp. 61-2. 78 Ibid., pp. 83-4. 79 Ibid p. 54. 80 Ibid p. 66. • » 137, degree of symbolism which can be attached to certain words which have both pagan and Ch r i s t i a n associations. Grendel i s partly an accursed outcast of Cain's kin, almost a Christian d e v i l , enemy of God (a febnd on h e l l e , h e l l i s h enemy); but he i s also enemy of man, a mere-dwelling monster which skulks about the moors. 8! otlher terms l i k e l o f and dom also have not quite assumed f u l l C h ristian connotation. Actually, one might extend Adeline B a r t l e t t ' s tapestry metaphor here: the warp threads were spun i n Germania and some of the woof i n the C h r i s t i a n c l o i s t e r . This symbolic approach ultimately had influence on Beowulf c r i t i c i s m , but of more immediate influence was Tolkien's theory of the poem's structure, i t s balance "of two moments'In a great l i f e , r i s i n g and setting; an elaboration of the ancient and intensely moving contrast between youth and age, f i r s t achievement and f i n a l d eath." 8 2 The poem's two halves, he states,balance l i k e the halves of a metrical l i n e . 8 8 S l l b i d . , pp. 88-91. 8 2 I b i d . , p. 81. 8 3 I b i d . , p. 83. By 1938 the influence of Tolkien i s f e l t i n Joan Blomfield's essay, "The Style and Structure of Beowulf" (Review of English Studies, XIV, 396-403) i n which style i s used as a key to the discussion of structure. Miss Blomfield notices the p a r a l l e l s between the larger and smaller s t y l i s t i c elements (cf. Klaeber), and i n her praise of the "sure construc-tion of the poem" she reaches v i r t u a l l y the same conclusions as Tolkien. A further and almost r a d i c a l extension of Tolkien's attitude towards a r t i s t i c unity l i e s i n a series of a r t i c l e s by Adrien Bonjour (see Twelve 'Beowulf Papers: 1940-1960 [Geneva: Droz, 1962J and The Disqressions i n 'Beowulf.' Medium AEvum Monographs, V [Oxford: B a s i l BlackwellT '1950J). These 138' C. C. Batchelor, however, appears to be unfamiliar with Tolkien's essay and states his intention to show "from the int e r n a l evidence of the vocabulary and style i n the Beowulf that the whole i s e s s e n t i a l l y C h r i s t i a n , " and that Klaeber did 84 not go f a r enough. Unlike Tolkien, Batchelor considers that the large border-line vocabulary i s used i n i t s C h r i s t i a n rather than i t s pagan sense: When we consider how much of the poem i s taken up with heroic episodes, the vocabulary i s f a r more deli b e r a t e l y , more professionally, C h r i s t i a n than would be supposed. It i s the language of a tolerant enthusiast, an earnest convert to a simple f a i t h . . . . 8 ^ But t h i s r e l i g i o n , Batchelor argues, i s Pelagian rather than Augustinian (which he uses as an argument' fo r northern compo-si t i o n ) . Batchelor believes that a good ten percent of the voca-bulary (excluding deofel and epithets f o r God) are conditioned by C h r i s t i a n compassion, and that many of these words take on Ch r i s t i a n connotations when used c o l l e c t i v e l y but remain uncoloured when used separately. It i s unfortunate, I think, that he i l l u s t r a t e s his case by means of the highly C h r i s t i a n and confusing passage, l i n e s 170-88, using i t to show how the deal mainly with the larger problems of Beowulf: suspense and fore-Shadowing.,; ; repetitions i n the narrative, and the a r t i s t r y of the episodes and digressions. 8 4 C . C. Batchelor, "The Style of the Beowulf: A Study of the Composition of the Poem," Speculum, XII (1937), 331. 8 5 I b i d . , p. 332. 139 tone depends on such words as wraec, qastbona, helle sawle, f r o f r e , etc. 8° But I think Batchelor has made an important point i n observing the cumulative e f f e c t of word connotations and also i n noticing how t h i s vocabulary of C h r i s t i a n compas-sion decreases as the poem progresses. Possibly, Batchelor suggests, i n trying to write an epic modelled on Homer or V i r g i l , the poet simply grew t i r e d before reaching the end. Also of interest here is Batchelor*s observation that the epic v a r i a t i o n , "hardly one of the graces of the poem," is also reduced as the poem progresses. This fact leads Batchelor to conclude that the decline i n v a r i a t i o n marks the 87 growing s k i l l and r e s t r a i n t of the poet. However, I think Batchelor is relying too much on personal taste in t h i s evalua-t i o n , since his s t a t i s t i c s show the greatest amount of v a r i a -t i o n i n the passages of greatest poetic i n t e r e s t : the v i s i t a t i o n of Grendel, the Unferth intermezzo, the coming of and battle with Grendel*s dam, etc. And besides, as Batchelor himself acknowledges, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e at times between va r i a t i o n and enumeration. OQ The interest i n C h r i s t i a n and c l a s s i c a l influence continues through the spotty c r i t i c i s m of the 1940's; and in 8 6 I b i d . , pp. 337 - 8 . 8 7 B a t c h e l o r , pp. 341-2. 8 8James R. Hulbert ("Beowulf and the C l a s s i c a l Epic," Modern Philology, XLIV D-946], .65-75) shows the extent to which the reputation of Beowulf has developed. Here Hulbert favourably compares i t with Homer, because of the a l l u s i v e complexity which he finds i n the Beowulf episodes and the 140. spite of Tolkien's reluctance to c a l l Beowulf an allegory, c r i t i c s begin to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of treating the poem as an allegory i n the medieval, p a t r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n of symbolic interpretation of Scriptures and c l a s s i c a l writings. Many of the interpretations gained strength from Levin Schticking's i t e r a t i o n of Bernard Shaw: "the existence of a discoverable and p e r f e c t l y d e f i n i t e thesis i n a poet's work by no means depends on the completeness of his own i n t e l l e c t u a l con-sciousness of i t . " 8 9 Hrothgar's sermon, Heremod's pride, the mere as h e l l , Grendel as the foe of God, Beowulf as the saviour and del i v e r e r — a l l lead j u s t i f i a b l y to such suggestions as Marie Hamilton makes i n 1946: the f i g u r a t i v e conception of Grendel and his abode owes much to semi-Biblical'monsters and i s part of the medieval t r a d i t i o n , related to St. Augustine's City of God. 9 0 However, she continues, i n spite of the blend of C h r i s t i a n e l e -91 ment and adventure story, Beowulf i s s t i l l not an allegory, an opinion substantiated i n 1951 by Morton Bloomfield. Bloomfield examines the p o s s i b i l i t y of Unferth Cun-peace 1) being equated with Discordia; but although he rejects the idea of seeing the Beowulf-Unferth r e l a t i o n purely as an a l l e g o r i c a l contest between Concord and Discord, "such concepts were i n the greater dignity of the speeches and motivation of the northern hero. 8 9Quoted i n Levin L. Schucking, "The Ideal of Kingship i n Beowulf," Beowulf Anthology, p. 35. 90 Marie Padgett Hamilton, "The Religious P r i n c i p l e in Beowulf," Beowulf Anthology, pp. 114, 118-9. 141-poet's mind...The story was coloured by the a l l e g o r i c a l pattern.*' 9 2 Reluctant as one might be to accept Christian interpre-tations of Beowulf, D. W. Robertson claims i n his a r t i c l e on medieval garden imagery to clear up a number of 'inconsis-tencies' i n the description of the haunted mere by extending the idea of psychological fear to include moral fear i n the theological sense. Grendel's mere contains many of the images of the e v i l garden (Cupidity) deprived of the warmth and l i g h t of C h r i s t i a n Charity. The evidence i s remarkably convincing: the mere suddenly becomes l i g h t (11. 1570 f f . ) when the source of e v i l i s s l a i n , the trees are frost-covered although i t i s probably not winter, there are moral implications i n the hart preferring death to the eternal damnation of refuge i n e v i l , and f i n a l l y there are serpents around the mere. 9 3 Certainly these few a r t i c l e s show the modifications of Tolkien and the successful inroads being made by the f i g u r a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y . To return to narrower aspects of f i g u r a t i o n : i n 1937 the figure of l i t o t e s , long alluded to, f i n a l l y receives the attention of a f u l l a r t i c l e . Frederick Bracher attempts to define, describe and suggest sources f o r this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 9 1 I b i d . , p. 135. 92 Morton W. Bloomfield, "Beowulf and Christian Allegory: An Interpretation of Unferth," Beowulf Anthology, p. 162. go D. W. Robertson, J r . , "The Doctrine of Charity i n Medieval Literary Gardens: A Topical Approach Through Sym-bolism and Allegory," Beowulf Anthology, pp. 184-6. 142 Old English device. F i r s t , he observes that i t takes the form of understatement by negation rather than by the use of a weaker word, and that i t i s frequently ' a d j e c t i v a l . 1 But a l l negatives are not understatement; and sine the context must determine the intention, Bracher treats only clear cases of understatement (e.g., 'no his l l f g e d a l / s a r l i c (auhte secga aenegum,1 1. 841 f.) and omits cases i n which a negative word . 94 has i t s own positive force (e.g., undyrne). Bracher argues that a comparison of the prose and poetry versions of Boethius shows that only the poetic version con-tains clear examples of understatement, the o r i g i n a l Latin hav-ing none. 9 5 Bracher concludes that "understatement i s a de f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Old English poetic s t y l e . " 9 0 He also gives a frequency table f o r the figure, which roughly shows i t to be greater i n the early pagan and heroic poems, t h e i r l a t e r imitations, and i n Ch r i s t i a n e p i c s . 9 7 Both these factors, as well as the presence of understatement i n Old Saxon and Old Norse, lead Bracher to the conclusion that i t was a common device i n Germanic a l l i t e r a t i v e poetry. Also suggesting pagan Germanic o r i g i n of understatement, i s that i t can produce 9 4 F r e d e r i c k Bracher. "Understatement i n Old English Poetry," PMLA, LII (1937), 915-7. 9 5 I b i d . , pp. 918-9. 9 6 I b i d . , p. 920. 9 7 I b i d . , p. 921. 143 s t r i k i n g r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t s , but that i n l a t e r poetry i t often 98 appears mechanical and conventional. In determining the function of understatement, Bracher modifies a l l previous suggestions and t r i e s to f i n d the chief reason f o r each incidence, the most s t r i k i n g being those directed with h o s t i l e intent against v i l l a i n s (e.g., 'ne gefeah he baere faeh&e, 1. 109). Nor does Bracher e n t i r e l y dismiss the p o s s i b i l i t y of humorous understatement, although admittedly what might be so considered i s of a very grim and unsophisticated sort, as i n l i n e 841f. (quoted above). Most commonly, under-statement i s of the 'not so bad' sort and i s used f o r emphasis (e.g., Beowulf's not needing to be ashamed of the g i f t s , 1. 99 1025 f . ) . F i n a l l y , Bracher concludes that f o r the most part, understatement i s "motivated by a regard f o r politeness and decorum" and i s occasionally used euphemistically. For the most part the years during and immediately follow-ing the war produced l i t t l e Old English scholarship. The only major work on style during the period was J . C. Pope's Rhythm  of B e o w u l f , a serious reappraisal of Sievers 1 f i v e types, 9 8 I b i d . " i b i d . , pp. 122-5. ^ 0 0 I b i d . , pp. 925-6; see also B. J . Timmer ("Irony i n Old English Poetry," English Studies, XXIV [1952], 171-5) who rejects the idea of l i t o t e s being taken humorously by the Anglo-Saxons. He also points out the dramatic irony i n Wealhtheow's speech to Hrothgar. 1 0 1(New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1942). 144 which Pope f i t s into an isochronous system of scansion. It has received wide, though not complete, acceptance as an explanation of poetic rhythm and exerts some influence on subsequent d i c t i o n studies. Two works on syntax also appear during the 40's, both t e c h n i c a l l y oriented, but of importance to s t y l e . In 1943 Kemp Ma lone shows the three main stages i n the h i s t o r i c development of the run-on l i n e . The thulas of Widsith are, he claims, an example of the oldest l i n e a r verse, which consists of 102 end-stopped l i n e s and one-or two-line sentences. Beowulf i s an example of the c l a s s i c or middle s t y l e , which consists of three to seven-line units and many natural divisions coming at 103 mid-line ( f i t s , however, end with the f u l l l i n e ) . Judith i s an example of the f i n a l stage, i n which there are no very clear-cut units and sentences begin and end i n mid-line i n a l l but a 104 few cases. Malone l a t e r uses these s t y l i s t i c observations as part of his a r t i c l e i n Albert C. Baugh's A Lit e r a r y History  of England (1948). 1 0 5 In 1948 S. 0. Andrew combines the findings of two e a r l i e r s t u d i e s 1 into a study of the style of Beowulf. The lO^Kemp Malone, " P l u r i l i n e a r Units i n Old English Poetry," Review of English Studies, XIX (1943), 203. 103 Ibid., pp. 202-3. 1 0 4 I b i d . , pp. 203-4. 1 0 5(New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1948). 1 Q o T h e Old English A l l i t e r a t i v e Measure (Croydon, 1931) and Style and Syntax i n Old English (Cambridge, 1940). 145 emphasis of Postscript on 'Beowulf i s on e d i t o r i a l matters concerning scansion, punctuation and sentence relationships; and many of the views on syntax and metre have not met with general c r i t i c a l acceptance. However, i t shows that such a fundamental matter as syntax can influence the s t y l e . The d i f f i c u l t y i n appreciating differences i n Old English word order l i e s i n the f a c t that most people are not 'fluent* enough i n the language to detect the subtleties of changes i n word order, a s i t u a t i o n aggravated by the r e l a t i v e l y small amount of work done i n the f i e l d . Andrew re-examines several aspects of style on the assumption that Old English poetic syntax follows the same rules of word order as does prose: the common order (in p r i n c i p a l clauses), the conjunctive order (after conjunctives and r e l a t i v e s ) , and the demonstrative order (in p r i n c i p a l clauses headed by a demonstrative adverb),1° 7 Part of Andrew's attack concerns the ambiguity of an expression l i k e se baet which can be either r e l a t i v e or conjunctive: editors have a habit of punctuating as i f they were p r i n c i p a l clauses, many clauses which have conjunctive order, p a r t i c u l a r l y when these precede the clauses to which they are (according to 108 Andrew) subordinate. In a bj[ clause l i k e that i n l i n e 461 the subordinate reading seems quite l o g i c a l ( i . e . , 'When the 1° 7S. 0. Andrew, Postscript on Beowulf (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1948), p. 1. 1 0 8 I b i d . . p. 2. 14B Weder f o l k c o u l d not keep Ecgtheow because of h i s war t e r r o r , t h e n he sought the D a n i s h f o l k ' ) * But the bj| c l a u s e i n l i n e 730 ('ba h i s m5d a h l O g 1 ) g a i n s n o t h i n g by b e i n g r e a d s u b o r -109 d i n a t e l y . Andrew a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t l a c k of s u b o r d i n a -t i o n causes a l l examples of the ba...ba c o r r e l a t i v e t o d i s a p p e a r . 1 1 0 And so on; he p r e s e n t s many examples. I n s p i t e of the abundant e v i d e n c e he o f f e r s , I wonder whether a t t i m e s Andrew does not s a c r i f i c e sense t o a d e s i r e f o r t o t a l l y c o n s i s t e n t s y n t a x and whether i t i s even v a l i d t o e x p e c t t h e s y n t a x of prose and p o e t r y t o be the same. I am reminded here of A l b e r t B. Lord's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s y n t a x of o r a l p o e t r y (and whether o r a l l y composed or n o t , Beowulf i s c l o s e enough t o the o r a l t r a d i t i o n f o r the s i n g e r t h e o r y t o be p e r t i n e n t ) : the f u t u r e s i n g e r d e v e l o p s a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i n sung s t o r i e s the o r d e r of words i s o f t e n not the same as i n e v e r y d a y speech. V e r b s may be p l a c e d i n u n u s u a l p o s i -t i o n s , a u x i l i a r i e s may be o m i t t e d , cases may be used s t r a n g e l y . He i s impressed by the s p e c i a l e f f e c t which r e s u l t s , and he a s s o c i a t e s t h e s e s y n t a c t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s w i t h the s i n g i n g of t a l e s . 1 1 1 However, Andrew's whole concept of p e r i o d i c sentences e f f e c t i v e l y d e n i e s one of the most f r e q u e n t l y observed f e a t u r e s of o r a l p o e t r y - - p a r a t a x i s - - a n d seems t o p l a c e Beowulf w i t h i n a 1 Q 9 l b i d . , pp. 5-6-. . 1 1 0 I b i d . , p. 9. 1 1 1 A l b e r t B. L o r d , The S i n g e r of T a l e s (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v . P r e s s , 1960), p. 32. 147> developed lettered t r a d i t i o n at some distance from the oral t r a d i t i o n . In his discussion of co-ordinate clauses Andrew treats both parataxis and asyndeton, although he i s mainly concerned with such e d i t o r i a l matters as punctuation; i t s frequent misuse, he claims, breaks up "a periodic structure into a sequence of short, disconnected p r i n c i p a l clauses" and leaves 119 many "supposed p r i n c i p a l clauses without a subject." Andrew bases th i s attack on two 'rules' of co-ordinate ond-clauses: they are normally asyndetic; and i f the subject i s not changed, 113 i t i s not expressed. He also maintains that parataxis, " i n which a co-ordinate clause is idi o m a t i c a l l y used to indicate subordination to the sentence before," i s subject to the same rules as other co-ordinate clauses and as well has the verb stand f i r s t i n i t s c l a u s e . ^ 4 It seems that Andrew ignores the p o s s i b i l i t y that the poet may have worked f o r a special e f f e c t by repeating the subject i n a co-ordinate clause or by omitting i t i n an asyndetic p r i n c i p a l clause. However, th i s point i s minor compared with the close examination of the text which he forces one to undertake. Andrew b r i e f l y applies his s y n t a c t i c a l theories to a few aspects of Old English poetic s t y l e . Most important, these theories allow for a great variety of sentences and clauses, 112 Andrew, p. 58. 113 Ibid p. 47. 114 Ibid p. 50. 148 e s p e c i a l l y an abundance of temporal clauses, which create an i n -115 teresting and vigorous narrative s t y l e . Thus he sees the e f f e c t i v e use of periodic sentences at points of t r a n s i t i o n (e.g., i n 11. 99-104 the swa of the p r i n c i p a l sentence sums up the previous action, while the oft £aet of the subordinate l i f t clause carries the action forward). This type of sentence, he claims, produces an e f f e c t of retardation, whereas "the simple device of a sequence of short asyndetic p r i n c i p a l sen-tences"-^ 7 produces the contrary e f f e c t of r a p i d i t y (e.g., 11. 320 f f . , the Geats' march to Heorot). He also observes that gnomic generalities (e.g., 11. 478 f . , 'God eabe maeg / bone dolscea&an daeda getwaefan!') tend to close and dismiss one incident and form a bridge to the next.-^ 8 In his remarks on s p e c i f i c figures of speech Andrew mainly describes t h e i r s y n t a c t i c a l form, not t h e i r a r t i s t i c function. For example, he notes that parallelism, "by which the idea i n one sentence i s repeated i n d i f f e r e n t words, some-times with an added d e f i n i t i o n , i n a second," i s a common r h e t o r i c a l device and can admit of several variations (e.g., 1 1 5 I b i d . , p. 86. !!^Swa &a_drihtguman dreamum l i f d o n , e a d i g l i c e , o5 Saet_an ongan fyrene fre(m)man feond on h e l l e ; (11. 99-102). 1 1 7 I b i d . , pp. 90-1. " ^ 8 I b i d . , p. 93. 119 negative second element, c h i a s t i c arrangement, e t c . ) . Last, Andrew treats anaphora, which he claims should always have a sense of climax (lacking in alleged examples of the device i n Beowulf). Also, since Andrew maintains that ba...ba constructions are usually correlative and that baet...baet constructions (e.g., 11. 771 f f . ) frequently have a subordinate second element, one cannot look f o r anaphora here. He concludes "that anaphora was not a r e a l figure of speech i n Beowulf." x 2 Q Thus, no matter how much one agrees or disagrees with Andrew's theories, they force one seriously to re-examine t r a d i t i o n a l ideas about s t y l e , and they are a reminder that Old English poetic evaluation i s not t o t a l l y free yet from fundamental language problems. In a way Caroline Brady's a r t i c l e does the same sort of thing, with regard to the d i c t i o n . In 1940 J . R. R. Tolkien observed that the 'descriptive compound' swanrad meant 'swan-r i d i n g , ' not 'swan-road,' that i s , the open area, not the 121 beaten path, upon which the swan r i d e s : seemingly a t r i v i a l point, but one which makes considerable difference to the f i g u r a t i v e or l i t e r a l nature of the d i c t i o n . In 1952 Caroline Brady investigates the meaning and use of -rad compounds i n Old English prose and verse, discovering f i v e senses f o r the word, a l l of which concern journey, r i d i n g or r o l l i n g movement, 122 none of which means 'road.' 1 1 9 I b i d . , pp. 95-6. 1 2 0 I b i d . , p. 98. 150 In defining the several-rad compounds used i n poetry, she does not propose to f i n d any one sense f o r a l l the compounded uses of t h i s element, either l i t e r a l l y or f i g u r a t i v e l y , but to treat each i n terms of i t s context. Brimrad, she claims, i s not a ta u t o l o g i c a l compound, but a word emphasizing "the r i s i n g and f a l l i n g of rushing, r o l l i n g water," with no hint of meaning - 123 'road 1 (cf. streamrad). Hronrad she c a l l s a defining p e r i -phrasis, a compound having a l i t e r a l meaning within i t s e l f by virtue of the exactness and l i t e r a l n e s s of the f i r s t of i t s parts, the exactness and l i t e r a l n e s s of the second of i t s parts as limited by the f i r s t , and the l i t e r a l and l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n between i t s parts, but r e f e r r i n g to something which stands outside of i t s e l f and depending upon i t s context f o r f u l l meaning.124 Si m i l a r l y , both swanrad and seqlrad are l i t e r a l defining p e r i -phrases, one emphasizing the ease of crossing the sea, the other 125 simply stating where ships move about. The growing tendency to view Old English poetic d i c t i o n as more l i t e r a l than meta-phorical i s thus confirmed by an a r t i c l e which pays close atten-t i o n to both etymology and context. 1 9 1 J . R. R. Tolkien, "Prefatory Remarks," John R. Clark H a l l , trans., Beowulf and the Finnesburg Fragment, rev. ed. C. L. Wrenn (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1954), p. x i i i . 122 Caroline Brady, "The Old English Nominal Compounds i n -rad." PMLA, LXVII (1952), 548. 1 2 3 I b i d . , pp. 556, 564. 1 2 4 I b i d . , p. 560. 1 2 5 I b i d . , pp. 563-4, 568. 151> Quite c l e a r l y , then, the scholarship since Tolkien, l i k e that of the period a f t e r Klaeber, shows concern f o r the a r t i s t r y of the poetry, expanding into concern for larger issues. But unlike the period from about 1915 to 1935 (Legouis and Edith Wardale excepted) t h i s post-Tolkien period sees once again the compilation of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s and Old English period studies, as well as some fine introductions to editions and t r a n s l a t i o n s . B a s i c a l l y these remarks are b r i e f syntheses of e a r l i e r scholarship, but t h e i r informed and favorable attitude to Old English poetic style contrasts sharply with the attitude of a comparable body of material writ ten between 1880 and 1910. Renwick and Orton i n 1939 make ju s t such a succinct objective account: Since a l l i t e r a t i o n requires a r i c h vocabulary, the exploitation of vocabulary was a great part of Old English r h e t o r i c . The i n f l e c t e d language made possible a rhetoric of parallelism...The e f f e c t seems monotonous, but the monotony i s due l a r g e l y to our ignorance of the imaginative heraldry as well as of the imaginative pro-cesses of our forefathers. The so-called synonyms of Old English poetry are concise descriptions or a l l u s i o n s , and t h e i r choice and t h e i r placing i n r e l a t i o n to one another can be made to y i e l d expressive variety of tone x 2 o R o b e r t Woodward ("Swanrad i n Beowulf," Modern Language  Notes. LXIX [1954] , 544-6) suggests that swanrad i s r e a l l y a double kenning, by virtue of the extra kenning i n 'swan1; for evidence he shows how fugle g e l i c o s t follows soon after swanrad i n Beowulf; thus the fugle must be a swan, the swan a ship, and a l l swanrad references must denote the sea. 152 and that counterpoint of meanings by which figures of rhetoric enrich the sense with crosslights and super-imposed images.!27 In addition to noticing the importance of understanding the people who wrote the poetry, Renwick and Orton notice that the •synonyms' can both be e f f e c t i v e l y chosen and ordered, or simply be items of fixed rhetoric.''' 2 8 J. R. R. Tolkien i n 1940 i s equally enthusiastic about the potential of the poetic language and presents an almost c l a s s i c review of the major s t y l i s t i c features. He emphasizes . the d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n determining the f u l l significance and precise meaning of many Old English terms, e s p e c i a l l y words 129 that are unique or a r c h a i s t i c , and d i s t i n c t l y poetic com-— 130 pounds and expressions such as swanrad and onband beadurune, expressions of great colour and compactness. Apparently new i s Tolkien's clear d i v i s i o n of the compound into three classes according to semantic function: those which resolve to a single meaning (e.g. mundbora), natural descriptive compounds i n which the two terms retain t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y (e.g. healsbeag), and x27W. L. Renwick and Harold Orton, The Beginnings of  English Literature to Skelton, 1509 (London: Cresset, 1939), p. 77. 1 2 8 I b i d . , p. 78. x 2 9 E v e n the e a r l i e s t Anglo-Saxon c r i t i c i s m drew attention to a number of archaic words i n the vocabulary of Old English poetry; but few scholars have gone further than to note the d i g n i f i e d tone, the venerable r i n g , which these words create aid to point out examples, such as mece. Most translators discuss them b r i e f l y as a problem i n tr a n s l a t i o n . But to my knowledge no thorough or systematic study has been made of the archaisms i n Old English poetic d i c t i o n . the poetic class of 'kenning* (e.g., beodoleoma, qoldwine)131 (apparently applied to the poetic compound i n general). Gavin Bone, a scholar with a fine ear f o r Old English poetry, says i n 1943 that he l i k e s Old English poetry because of i t s language (even though he devotes most of his discussion of d i c t i o n to the poor use of stock e p i t h e t s ) . B u t he praises the d i c t i o n of Beowulf, finding the kennings and com-pound epithets better chosen, fresher and more inventive than in other Old English poems. Like Tolkien, he finds the same 133 lines used better i n Beowulf than elsewhere. Bone also suggests that the e f f e c t of the imagery of Beowulf i s 'impressionistic' and that the emotional ef f e c t i s derived from the r i c h word rather than what he c a l l s the 'mot juste' (although I wonder i f the r i c h word could not also be the 'mot j u s t e 1 ) . Words l i k e 'icy' and 'wan' simply enforce by 134 poetic associations feelings of misery and eeriness. Thus Bone emphasizes the emotional suggestiveness of the vocabulary. Kemp Malone's chapters on Old English i n Baugh's A L i t e r a r y History of England (1948) may well be compared with the a r t i c l e s i n the CHEL to show the change of emphasis from 13°Tolkien, "Prefatory Remarks," p. x i i i . 131 Ibid., p. xxvi. l 3 2 G a v i n Bone, ed., Anglo-Saxon Poetry: An Essay with  Specimen Translations i n Verse (Oxford: Clarendon, 1950). 133 Gavin Bone, trans., Beowulf i n Modern Verse with an  Essay and Pictures (Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1946), pp. 4-5. 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 11-2. 154 from ' h i s t o r i c a l ' to ' l i t e r a r y . ' Basing much of his comment on 135 his own theory of p l u r i l i n e a r units and run-on l i n e s , Malone tends to view Old English poetic style h i s t o r i c a l l y , from i t s stark beginnings to i t s decadent conclusion. He also adds a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r v a r i a t i o n : inner, in which the varied information i s given i n the same sentence; and outer, i n which the varied information i s given i n another sentence. i 3° How-ever, he retains the general d e f i n i t i o n of a kenning as a two-member circumlocution f o r a noun, which he distinguishes from I 0 - 7 the h e i t i , or "one-term substitute f o r an ordinary noun." x o' Malone thus emphasizes the difference between the vocabulary of prose and that of poetry, but he maintains at a l l times a c a r e f u l l y objective view of his subject. Not so George K. Anderson, who dismisses the whole mat-ter of poetic d i c t i o n i n a few curt and not very f l a t t e r i n g words. 1 3 8 Perhaps the most useful part of his book, The L i t e r -ature of the Anglo-Saxons, as f a r as t h i s study i s concerned, is his suggestion that modern s o c i o l o g i c a l , psychoanalytic, economic, h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c a l methods may be 1 3 5 S e e above, p. 144.. 1 3 6Kemp Malone, "The Old English Period (to 1100)," i n Albert C. Baugh, ed., A L i t e r a r y History of England (New York: Appelton-Century-Crofts, 1948), pp. 28-9. 1 3 7 I b i d . , pp. 29-30; see Appendix A. x 3 8George K. Anderson, The Literature of the Anglo-Saxons (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1949), pp. 49-50. 156 applied to the poetry, a poetry of which some passages f a l l into 139 place i n the t r a d i t i o n of English l e t t e r s . In 1953 appeared the two most recent editions of Beowulf. E l l i o t t Dobbie's e d i t i o n , l i k e a l l volumes i n the Anglo-Saxon  Poetic Records, i s not concerned with poetic s t y l e . However, C. L. Wrenn i n the introduction to his edition devotes a separate section to 'Verse-Techniques,' two parts of which concern d i c t i o n and s t y l e . His remarks on the wealth of synonyms and poetic language are a l l f a m i l i a r , but a few of his statements on the compound and kenning clear up some hazy issues. F i r s t , he notices that the bulk of the words unique to Beowulf are compounds. Second, he distinguishes between the descriptive epithet (e.g., hrinqed stefna) and the kenning, or 'condensed simile' (e.g., mere-henqest).-*-40 F i n a l l y , Wrenn praises the refinement and n o b i l i t y of tone and the l i t e r a l appropriateness of the poetic periphrases."'"4''" His concluding statement that Beowulf i s a great poem marks the progression of favorable attitude, even since Tolkien. These l a s t comments show that c r i t i c s are f a i r l y f u l l y agreed that Old English poetic d i c t i o n has potential f o r t r u l y beautiful poetic expression, potential best r e a l i z e d i n Beowulf. However, the basic attitude to the style has not changed r a d i c a l l y since Klaeber i n 1922, nor the attitude to Beowulf 1 3 9 I b i d . , pp. 407-8. 1 4 0C. L. Wrenn, ed., Beowulft With the Finnesburq Frag-ment (London: Harrap, 1953), p. 81; see Appendix A. 1 4 1 I b i d . , p. 83. 158 since Tolkien i n 1936. On the assumption that Beowulf was a let t e r e d poem, c r i t i c s were gradually accumulating more i n f o r -mation and discovering more subtle beauties of expressions. However, attitudes do not remain constant; and so, a f t e r t h i r t y years, c r i t i c s begin to challenge the precepts of the e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m . F i r s t , T. M. Gang t r i e s to shed some l i g h t "on what i s legitimate and what i s not i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m of Beowulf,"^ 4 2 and accuses Tolkien of aiming his c r i t i c a l remarks at twentieth century taste, instead of taking the poem's h i s t o r i c a l audience into account. He attacks both Tolkien's symbolic interpretation (Grendel and the dragon, he says, are quite d i f -f e r e n t l y handled by the poet: epithets and tone are d i f f e r e n t and moral disapprobation i s lacking f o r the dragon) and also 143 the analogy between structure and metre. Adrxen Bonjour, of course, r e p l i e s with his usual unstinting praise of the poem and a defense of the symbolic theory. Although J . C. van Meurs' a r t i c l e does not appear u n t i l 1955, i t makes a suitable end to the scholarship of this period, 1 4 2T. M # Gang, "Approaches to Beowulf," Review of English  Studies, III n.s. (1952), 1. 1 4 3 I b i d . , p. 6. 144 Adrien Bonjour, "Monsters Crouching and C r i t i c s Ram-pant, or the Beowulf Dragon Debated," Twelve 'Beowulf Papers: 1940-1960 (Geneva: Droz, 1962), pp. 97-106; hereafter t h i s volume w i l l be referred to as Bonjour Anthology. 157, since van Meurs seems unacquainted with Magoun's oral-formu-l a i c theory. The a r t i c l e i s a sort of c a v e a t — f i r s t against Tolkien's symbolic interpretation and views on structure, 145 which he compares to Mullenhof's nature-allegory theories. Second, i t warns that the "over-subtle modern theories of per-fect a r t i s t i c unity" are as inadequate as the old patchwork theories f o r gaining a true perspective of Beowulf as a poem."''40 Third, although i n t e r n a l evidence i s a l l one can r e a l l y go on in such an isolated work as Beowulf, external h i s t o r i c a l factors 147 must be taken into account, as Dorothy Whitelock has done. However, he finds that the Christian element as stressed by Klaeber and Batchelor i s 'highly d o u b t f u l . ' 1 4 8 F i n a l l y , he states that i n the matter of o r i g i n a l i t y of s t y l e , d i c t i o n and imagery, Wyld's study showed "how l i t t l e can be achieved in t h i s d i r e c t i o n , " and that c r i t i c s should consider Chadwick's theories or oral composition instead of trying to analyze the poem accord-149 ing to modern c r i t e r i a . Here van Meurs has attacked the assumption underlying a l l the c r i t i c i s m of this period--that Beowulf i s a conscious lettered composition which deserves i 4 5 J . C. van Meurs, "Beowulf and L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , " 'Neophiloloqus, XXXIX (1955), 155-6. 1 4 6 I b i d . , p. 121. '~'47The Audience of 'Beowulf (Oxford: Clarendon, 1951). 148 x °Van Meurs, pp. 121-2. 1 4 9 I b i d . , pp. 120-7. 158 appropriate c r i t i c a l appraisal. In spite of the improved attitude to the poem as a whole, r e a l appreciation i s s t i l l perhaps shackled, as M. H. S c a r g i l l puts i t , by "the dragon's curse of philology."150 There i s s t i l l the f e e l i n g that much i s to be learned about the nature and meaning of the various Old English poetic devices, even though much has been learned about t h e i r frequency and appearance. As Wellek and Warren summarize the s i t u a t i o n : medieval l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y English medieval l i t e r a t u r e ...with the possible exception of Chaucer—has scarcely been approached from any aesthetic and c r i t i c a l point of view. The application of modern s e n s i b i l i t y would give, a d i f f e r e n t perspective to much Anglo-Saxon poetry...±51 It r e a l l y i s remarkable that i n spite of a l l the scholarly e f f o r t of the preceding 150 years, a close l i t e r a r y view of a text of Old English poetry, with an organized attempt at aesthetic evaluation i s s t i l l lacking. One might well wonder i f the external factors involved i n understanding the poetry are so great that f u l l c r i t i c i s m of Old English poetry w i l l ever remain an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . 1 5 0M. H; S c a r g i l l , "'Gold Beyond Measure': A Plea f o r Old English Poetry," JEGP, LII (1953), 293. 151 Ren§ Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1956),p. 34. 159 CHAPTER V DETAILED CRITICISM AND THE EMERGENCE OF AN OLD ENGLISH AESTHETIC: 1953-1965 Perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l ( c e r t a i n l y the most contro-v e r s i a l ) single essay on Old English poetic d i c t i o n i s that of F. P. Magoun, J r . , "The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry," 1953. The idea of Old English poetry being o r a l l y composed i s not new--it was fundamental not only to the ballad theory, but basic to the views of such men as ten Brink and H. M. Chadwick. In comparing the l i t e r a t u r e of various •heroic ages,' Chadwick observed (1911) that the formulaic poetry of the Anglo-Saxons resembled that of the s t i l l - l i v i n g oral heroic l i t e r a t u r e of the Serbo-Croatians. He noticed the freedom of v a r i a t i o n which the singer enjoyed, and he noticed that certain singers handled certain themes or set pieces better than others. 1 However, Chadwick's views had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the Anglo-Saxon scholarship covered in the previous chapter, pro-bably because of the pre v a i l i n g assumption that Beowulf and most Old English poems were l i t e r a r y compositions. Neverthe-less, Chadwick continued his investigations; and other scholars entered the f i e l d , notably Millman Parry, who studied the oral style of the Homeric epics. Then during the 30's Parry and AH. Munro Chadwick, The Heroic Age (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1926), p. 102. 160 his student, A. B. Lord, collected over twelve thousand texts of Yugoslavian oral epics, and the study gained momentum--and documents. Like the Wolf-Lachmann-Mullenhof progression of the 2 early nineteenth century, i t was only a matter of time before someone applied the oral-formulaic theory to Old English poetry, and that person was Magoun. Although c r i t i c s from Klaeber to Wrenn observed many formulas and repeated phrases throughout the corpus of Old English poetry, and commented on the more s k i l f u l use made of them by the Beowulf poet, they did not attempt to explain them or to evolve a theory as to t h e i r o r i g i n and function. Here l i e s the greatest achievement of the oral-formulaic t h e o r y -i t s fundamental work i n explaining Old English poetic d i c t i o n and making possible some illuminating c r i t i c i s m . However, i t took several years f o r the oral-formulaic theory and the conscious a r t i s t r y theory to reach a working compromise. The thesis of the oral-formulaic theory i s that "the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of a l l o r a l l y composed poetry i s i t s t o t a l l y formulaic character," and, conversely, that the recurrence i n a given poem of an appreciable number of formulas or formulaic phrases brands the l a t t e r as o r a l , j u s t as lack of such repetitions marks a poem as composed i n a lettered t r a d i t i o n . Oral poetry...is composed e n t i r e l y of formulas, large and small, while l e t t e r e d poetry i s never formulaic.... 3 ^Adrien Bonjour, "Beowulf and the Beasts of Battle," Bonjour Anthology, pp. 135-6. Francis P. Magoun, J r . , "The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry," Beowulf Anthology, p. 190. 162 Certainly the l a s t statement appears f a l l a c i o u s when one con-siders the signatures of Cynewulf, translations such as the Riddles and Psalms, and late heroic poems l i k e Brunanburh and Maldon, presumably l e t t e r e d imitations of e a r l i e r heroic poetry. Nor i s Magoun's explanation of Cynewulf p a r t i c u l a r l y convincing: If...the narrative parts of his poem prove on testing to be formulaic, one must assume that these parts at l e a s t he composed i n the t r a d i t i o n a l way. That he subsequently got them written down, whether d i c t a t i n g to himself, as i t were, or to another person...is beside the point. In any event there would be no c o n f l i c t with, or contradic-t i o n to, t r a d i t i o n . 4 What then is_ a l i t e r a r y poet? Magoun leaves too many terms vague, too many questions begged. It i s not clear whether by oral poetry Magoun means poetry a c t u a l l y o r a l l y composed, as a Bosnian coffee-house singer would compose f o r a recording machine, or whether he means poetry composed i n the oral t r a d i t i o n , which merely assumes that oral composition was s t i l l strong i n the society as a whole and was exerting influence on l i t e r a t e poets, who could, nevertheless, compose at l e i s u r e . Given the strength of the oral t r a d i t i o n and the great expense and trouble of manu-sc r i p t writing (even though fresh ink was 'erasable'), i t i s possible that even le t t e r e d poets would revise l i t t l e beyond a word or phrase. It i s possible too that revi s i o n as one thinks 4 I b i d . , p. 212. 162 of modern poets' r e v i s i o n (e.g., Yeats) would not even be considered. Parry's d e f i n i t i o n of a formula, as quoted by Magoun, i s also rather vague: "a group of words which i s regularly employed under the same metrical conditions to express a given esse n t i a l idea."^ In addition, groups of words which "are of the same type and conform to the same verbal and grammatical pattern as the various other verses associated with them..."0 are c a l l e d formulaic phrases, or 'systems.' I t also seems too easy f o r Magoun to assume one hundred percent formulaic con-struction of Old English narrative poetry and to blame the incomplete corpus,of Old English manuscripts f o r his i n a b i l i t y to f i n d p a r a l l e l s . For instance, about seventy percent of Beowulf li n e s and sixty-one percent of Cynewulf's l i n e s are •demonstrably formulaic.* 7 The re s t , then, he concludes, are formulas f o r which no p a r a l l e l s have been found. Certainly one cannot deny that the oral formulaic theory i s well substantiated and does not r e l y on abstract D I b i d . , p. 194; i n 1955 Magoun revised the d e f i n i t i o n to read, "a word or group of words..." ("The Theme of the Beasts of Battle i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry," Neuphiloloqische  Mitteilunqen, LVI, 81). 6Magoun, "Oral Formulaic," p. 195; an example of a system i s thoroughly handled by Robert Creed ("The Andswarode-System in Old English Poetry," Speculum, XXXII [1957], 523-8); here Creed examines the twelve instances of the him x andswarode system and notes the p r i n c i p a l v a r i a t i o n of f i t t i n g andswarode into a single measure rather than a f u l l hemistich; he sug-gests that the system served as a sort of quotation mark to the l i s t e n e r s ; however, Creed makes the formula seem r i g i d and uncreative. Magoun, "Oral-Formulaic," pp. 195, 200 n 163 theory, nor deny that i t explains the recurrence i n various poems of lines that are s i m i l a r and i d e n t i c a l . It even sug-gests an explanation f o r the wide d i v e r s i t y of rhythms within Sievers 1 f i v e basic types. If one assumes that certain pat-terns of stress and unstress were euphonious to the Anglo-Saxon ear and others were not, then the formula and the f i v e types must have developed simultaneously, each helping to l i m i t and define the other. Magoun explains the development of the Old English formula by using Parry's explanation for the Homeric formula: If the phrase i s so good p o e t i c a l l y and so useful metri-c a l l y that i t becomes in time the one best way to express a certain idea i n a given length of verse...it has won a place for i t s e l f i n the oral d i c t i o n as a formula. But i f i t does not s u i t i n every way, or i f a better way of f i t t i n g the idea into the verse and sentence i s found, i t i s straightway forgotten or l i v e s only f o r a short time. Carried to extremes this resembles the development of sophistic rhetoric as described by C. S. Baldwin, i n which certain devices and e f f e c t i v e or harmonious sentence terminations evolved into a sort of formulaic r h e t o r i c . 9 ^Quoted i b i d . , p. 192. 9 , ,The improvisation was mainly of s t y l e . It consisted i n fluency of rehandling of variations upon themes, and i n patterns, so common as to constitute a stock i n trade. It permitted the use over and over again not only of stock examples and i l l u s t r a -tions, but of successful phrases, modulated periods, even whole descriptions. It was the art of the technician, not a composer. Memory, too, thus trained, was no longer the orator's command of his material; i t was the actor's command of words. Though a sophist might, indeed, be a thinker, he hardly needed to be for the purposes of his oratory. His fluency was t y p i c a l l y not in seizing and carrying forward ideas and images, but i n readiness 16a Although one cannot draw an exact p a r a l l e l between the c l a s s i c a l art of oratory and the Germanic art of story t e l l i n g , some of Magoun*s comments imply Baldwin's conclusions about the lack of thought required in sophistic oratory and rest on the assumption that because oral poetry was impromptu, i t could not be o r i g i n a l , imaginative or a r t i s t i c . Granted, he vaguely d i s -tinguishes the good 'singer' from the bad: a good singer i s one able to make better use of the common fund of formulas than the i n d i f f e r e n t or poor singer, though a l l w i l l be drawing upon e s s e n t i a l l y the same body of material.1° But he does not show where the d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s and e s s e n t i a l l y contradicts the b e l i e f of Tolkien and others that the Beowulf poet could use the same lines better.'''''" Magoun i l l u s t r a t e s his theory by presenting formulaic analyses of Beowulf, l i n e s 1-25 and Christ and Satan, l i n e s 512-35, as well as a detailed commentary on the Beowulf formulas, Here he shows that l i n e s l b , 6b, l i b , 16a and 19a "are something more than mere repeats and form part of larger formulaic systems to express the same, or almost the same, idea or used to f i t some larger rhythmical-grammatical pa t t e r n . " I 2 Thus on qear-daqum i s one phase of a system on x daqum (to mean "long ago') to draw upon a store." (Charles Sears Baldwin. Medieval  Rhetoric and Poetic [New York: MacMillan, 1928J, pp. 15-16.) 1 0Magoun, "Oral Formulaic," p. 191. 11 See above, chapt IV, p. 136. 1 2 I b i d . , pp. 195-6. 165 with aer, eald or fyrn as possible substitutes, and "more than 13 useful i n meeting the exigencies of a l l i t e r a t i o n . " Quite possibly i n this case there i s l i t t l e difference of meaning between the variable members and that a l l i t e r a t i o n is_ the c r i t e r i o n ; t h i s would be supported by the f a c t that the subject of a sentence would be more l i k e l y to control a l l i t e r a t i o n than would part of an adverbial phrase. But I think Magoun under-rates the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i s t r y among descriptive epithets and kennings. Kennings, he states, l i k e the rest of oral poetic lan-guage, developed slowly and must be t r a d i t i o n a l . 1 4 Thus the •non-Christian 1 kenning hran-rade (1. 10a) belongs to the f o r -mulaic system on (ofer, geond) x -rade, x being any monosyllabic f i r s t element. However, Magoun sees "no r e a l difference of meaning and none i n meter" between on swanrade, ofer hran-rade and on seql-rade: the singers are presumably concerned not primarily with some refinement of imagery produced by varying the f i r s t elements hran, seql, and swan--something f o r which an oral singer could scarcely have time--but with r e c a l l i n g a formula expressing the fundamental idea i n question with a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t a l l i t e r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . 1 ^ If t h i s be the case, the poet i s redundant i n having both swan and segl, since they a l l i t e r a t e i d e n t i c a l l y . Obviously a case 1 3 I b i d . , p. 196. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 199. 1 5 I b i d . 166 can be made f o r the role of connotation i n such word c h o i c e . ^ Nor i s the pressure of time so important as Magoun suggests. Here two analogous situations present themselves: the public speaker and the student writing an essay examination, presuming both are talented, creative, well-trained and have not pre-written t h e i r material. In neither case i s there time f o r re v i s i o n , and yet i n both cases these good performers w i l l show great s k i l l in d i c t i o n and rhetoric and present in t e r e s t i n g and persuasive material. It i s a matter of s e n s i t i v i t y , talent and t r a i n i n g . Although Magoun b r i e f l y suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of di s t i n g u i s h -17 ing the styles of in d i v i d u a l Old English poets, the o r a l -formulaic theory as he f i r s t presents i t i n this essay implies a certain r i g i d i t y i n the style of Old English poetry and d i s -courages theories of a r t i s t r y , conscious or otherwise. Understandably enough, Magoun follows up this i n i t i a l study with a case history of Caedmon (1955), the i l l i t e r a t e stable-hand who overnight learned to turn Scripture into beautiful poetry, and who was obviously an 'oral singer.' Since a l l but three h a l f - l i n e s of Caedmon's Hymn are 1 ft demonstrably formulaic, and since formulas take long to develop, Magoun asks i f Ch r i s t i a n poetry existed before Caedmon, l^See Adrien Bonjour, "On Sea Images i n Beowulf," Bonjour Anthology, discussed below, pp.171-2. •^Magoun, "Oral Formulaic,"pp. 216. l 8 F r a n c i s p. Magoun, J r . , "Bede's Story of Caedmon: The Case History of an Anglo-Saxon Oral Singer," Speculum, XXX (1955), 54. or whether Caedmon invented the formulas he u s e s . 1 9 Surely, i f Caedmon were as great a poet as Bede says he was, he must have done something imaginative and fresh to have acquired a legen-dary reputation; he must have created some new phrases which lesser poets would adopt unthinkingly. Furthermore, a study such as Rankin'-s 2 0 with i t s long l i s t s of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l para-l l e l s suggests how the r e l i g i o u s formula may have begun. Also i n 1955 Magoun explores another aspect of o r a l -poetry-^-the formulaic theme. Lord defined the theme as "a subject unit, a group of ideas," b u i l t up of formulas, regularly employed i n a l l oral poetry, and used as a sort of 91 set-piece f o r such things as battles and feasts. As i l l u s -t r a t i o n Magoun chooses a theme early recognized as recurrent i n Anglo-Saxon pOetry--the image of the wolf, eagle and raven gathering at the battle-place. He finds twelve examples of the theme i n nine poems covering the entire Old English period, and concludes the device to be ornamental rather than e s s e n t i a l . However, there are the seeds of contradiction i n his f i n a l state-ment that: "the formulas and formulaic systems w i l l be seen to divide up i n two ways, those p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to the pQ subject matter or the theme and those of general usefulness.'" 1 0 The l i n e between the essential and relevant can be very vague. 1 9 I b i d . , pp. 57-8. 9 0 "See above, chapt. I l l , pp. 74-8. 2 1Magoun, "Beasts" p. 82. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 83. 168 Presumably independently, Stanley Greenfield also studies the formulaic theme i n the same year; but he shows, fo r the f i r s t time,that formulaic d i c t i o n does not preclude aesthetic p o s s i b i l i t i e s : the importance of ascertaining conventional patterns i n Old English poetry l i e s , of course i n the basis such patterns es t a b l i s h for the further investigation of the aesthetic values of individual poems.24 The primary value of the formula and convention, Greenfield concludes, i s that the associations of other contexts "lend extra-emotional meaning to i n d i v i d u a l words and phrases," a l -though eventually exact denotation may be l o s t : o r i g i n a l i t y i n the handling of conventional formulas may be defined as the degree of tension between the i n -herited body of meanings i n which a p a r t i c u l a r formula participates and the s p e c i f i c meaning of that formula in context.5 He reviews the key phrases and rhythm patterns of the exile theme: the status aspect, the key formula being wineleas  wrecca (or guma or haele); the deprivation aspect, the formula being a word fo r 'property' plus the past p a r t i c i p l e of a verb of deprivation, (e.g., winemaegum bidroren, Seafarer, 1.16); etc. In this study of the imagery of e x i l e , then, Greenfield 2 3 I b i d . , p. 90. 2 4 S t a n l e y B. Greenfield, "The Formulaic Expression of the Theme of 'Exile' i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry," Speculum, XXX (1955), 205. 2 5 I b i d . 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 201-2. 169 has made the f i r s t steps toward an aesthetic of Old English poetry, based on the oral-formulaic theory. In 1959 Robert Creed attempts on the basis of o r a l -formulas to make, or remake rather, an Anglo-Saxon poem. His attitude towards formulas resembles the more r i g i d aspects of Magoun1s o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e : the degree of schematization of his d i c t i o n suggests that the singer of Beowulf did not need to pause i n his r e c i t -ing or writing to consider what word to put next. His d i c t i o n was one which...did his thinking and his poetizing f o r him, at lea s t when he had completely mastered that d i c t i o n and i t s ways. 2 7 The formula, he emphasizes, i s a useful item to the singer, not jus t a memorable sound; and, as he concludes i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e , "the singer of Beowulf i s a subtle worker not with words but with formulas." 2 8 By this statement I take Creed to mean that the formula was to the poet what a single word or idiom i s to the ordinary prose speaker. To i l l u s t r a t e his case, that one may examine "the system or entire group of formulas from among which he [the poetj chose at a given point i n his poem," 2 9 Creed unmakes 2 7Robert P. Creed, "The Making of an Anglo-Saxon Poem," ELH, XXVI (1959), 446. Robert P. Creed, "The Singer Looks at his Sources," Comparative Literature, XIV (1962), 52. Here Creed compares the v i c t o r y song aft e r Grendel's death with that sung about Odysseus in the h a l l of King Alcinous, i n which both poets look to the primary sources of songs and comment on t h e i r composition. 2 9Creed, "Making an A. S. Poem," p. 447. 170 and remakes li n e s 356-9 of Beowulf, to "approximate what the singer himself might have done in a d i f f e r e n t performance of 30 - -the same t a l e . " For example, he suggests that eode ba might have served as well as hwearf bjJ, since hwearf anticipates the a l l i t e r a t i o n f o r Hrothgar; that o f o s t l i c e would have served as well as hraedllce, since speed i s i n c i d e n t a l to the passage; 31 and that the epithet se. ealdor would serve for Hrothgar. A Much of t h i s analysis i s probably quite j u s t i f i a b l e , given the lesser metrical importance of verbs and adverbs, but one can raise the following arguments against Creed's substitutions: there i s a s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y of ambiguity i n se ealdor; the adverb of quickness emphasizes the excitement of Beowulf's a r r i v a l ; hwearf s p e c i f i c a l l y shows Wulfgar turning from Beowulf to Hrothgar. One also wonders exactly what Creed means when he says eald and unhar as a reim-formel i s ornamental only and 32 "can hardly claim to be the type of formula par excellence." Aft e r juggling and substituting formulaic elements, Creed emerges with the following remade version of lines 356-9: Eode pa of o s t l i c e jpaer se ealdor saet har and hlqe-frod mid his haelecfa gedryht; eode hilde-deor baet he on heor<5e gestSd frean Scieldinqa; cdfie he baes folces beaw 3 3 3 Q I b i d . , pp. 447-8. 3 1 I b i d . , p. 448-448n. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 450. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 453; the o r i g i n a l text runs thus: Hwearf ba hraedllce fcaer Hroo'gar saet eald ond anhar mid his eorla gedriht;_ eode e l l e n r S f , b a e t he for eaxlum gestod Deniga frean; cube he dugu#e be"aw. 17P. In addition to the passages c r i t i c i z e d above, one might wish to question the new anaphora achieved by eode...eode, the implica-tions of war i n haelecfa and hilde-deor, and the rather u n a r i s t o c r a t i c f o l c e s . It i s l i t t l e wonder that Creed prefers the o r i g i n a l version, concluding "that simple use of formulaic d i c t i o n i s no guarantee of aesthetic success," and that the Beowulf poet chose the best of a l l possible formula combina-t i o n s . 3 4 In spite of the r i g i d i t y and laboriousness implied by Creed's a r t i c l e , i t i s possible to see a modification of the o r i g i n a l oral-formulaic theory to allow f o r s t y l i s t i c successes. One can also conclude that the Beowulf poet could think c r e a t i v e l y , regardless of the practice of other poets, and could choose the appropriate word. This modified point of view was probably achieved i n part by the c r i t i c a l reaction against Magoun's o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e . Among the f i r s t and most v i o l e n t antagonists was Adrien Bonjour, long an extreme advocate of the a r t i s t r y of Beowulf. Although his 1955 a r t i c l e does not r e f e r to Magoun, ^ i t i s i n e f f e c t a reply to Magoun's dismissal of the connotative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the kenning. Bonjour chooses two pairs of 'sea' words to 3 4 I b i d . , p. 454. 3 5 I t is based on Caroline Brady's 1952 A r t i c l e , "The Synonyms for 'Sea' in Be owulf." 3 oSee above, p. 165. 172 tes t the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i c t i o n discrimination on the part of the Beowulf poet. In both pairs he chooses: swanrad—hranrad, qanotes baeb--yff-qewinn, the members (according to Sievers 1 system) are metrical equivalents (an important consideration in the refutation of Magoun). A l l these words i n Beowulf Bonjour concludes are properly chosen for t h e i r contexts: swanrad'. (1. 200) and ganotes baeb (1. 1861) have both connotations and contexts of peace, or at least absence of struggle; ycT-gewinn has connotations of turbulence and i s associated with the mere (1. 1434) and with the sea near the dragon's barrow (1. 2412); hronrgd has connotations of vastness and i s associated with Scyld's empire ( l . 10). In a l l these passages "the Beowulf poet d e l i c a t e l y varies his synonyms to use t h e i r associational powers i n accordance with the prevailing mood or t o n a l i t y of the respective passages."37 Bonjour even suggests an associa-t i o n between the might and sovreignity of the whale and of Scyld, and proposes that the gannet be considered as a symbol of peace. 3 8 Another form of c r i t i c i s m comes in 1956 from Claes Schaar, who attacks as 'dogmatic' and •unattractive' Magoun's premise that written poetry i s never formulaic, and as i l l o g i c a l the conclusion that " a l l formulaic poetry is o r a l . " 3 9 Is one 3 7Bonjour, "Sea Images," p. 119. 38. Ibid., pp. 116, 118. ^Claes Schaar, "On a Diction," Neophilologus, XL (1956), 302-3. on Claes Schaar, "On a New Theory of Old English Poetic 173 to assume that formulas went into disuse with the advent of writing? How does one explain the formulaic nature of Cynewulf's signatures, obviously leisured compositions? He reminds c r i t i c s that the recognizable foreign influence ( c l a s s i c a l , p a t r i s t i c , apocryphal) and non-formulaic s i m i l a r i t i e s i n structure and d i c t i o n indicate d i s t i n c t l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of l i t e r a r y imitation by one poet from another.^ However, the theory of conscious 41 line-borrowing having l a r g e l y been discredited, Schaar seems to present his a r t i c l e more as a caveat against the potential dogmatism of the oral-formulaic theory than as a d e f i n i t e statement of imitative borrowing. In 1957 Bonjour r e p l i e s both to Van Meurs 4 2 and to Magoun. In the f i r s t a r t i c l e i t i s in t e r e s t i n g to see Bonjour's concern with c r i t i c a l methods, as he defends his own method and Tolkien's interpretation against Van Meurs' attack--why should i t be i l l o g i c a l f o r a c r i t i c to t r y to explain why he finds a poem a work of art? Why should not opinion be as p r o f i t a b l y divided over Beowulf as over works of Shakespeare? Surely i t i s better, Bonjour concludes, to attempt bold, stimulating c r i t i c i s m than simply to plod along i n well-worn ways "snugly safe from a l l s n a r e s . " 4 3 40 Ibid., p. 310.. 4 x S e e Robert E. Diamond, "Theme as Ornament in Anglo-Saxon Poetry," PMLA, LXXVI (1961), 268. 42 See above, Chapt. IV, p. 157. 4 3 Adrien Bonjour, "Beowulf and the Snares of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , " Bonjour Anthology, p. 128. 174 The other a r t i c l e i s also concerned with c r i t i c a l method. Since he recognizes that the singer theory cannot be ignored, Bonjour attempts to reconcile the two points of view by examining the several occurrences of the beasts of battle theme and by maintaining that a great poet w i l l have the uni-versal q u a l i t i e s of s u b j e c t i v i t y and imagination (no weaker a premise, he claims, than 'taking a cue' f o r Anglo-Saxon from , 44 modern Serbo-Croatian p r a c t i c e ) , In order to prove that the beast theme i s more than a mere embellishment (as Magoun stated), Bonjour t r i e s to trace i t s probable development: i t begins i n the fact that carrion animals clear a wae lstowe: then i t becomes associated with the grimness of battle and heightens the r e a l i s t i c element (as i n Brunanburh); f i n a l l y a scop may have the idea of foreshadowing doom by presenting i t before the battle (as i n MaIdon, shortly a f t e r Byrhtnoth's proud challenge.)^ The Beowulf poet, however, never uses the theme i n connection with battles actually described, but only once, doubtless to presage doom, i n l i n e s 3025 f f . Such res-t r a i n t shows the poet's o r i g i n a l i t y i n "the i n d i r e c t use of a conventional theme," 4 o a use with aesthetic and emotional e f f e c t . "Here, indeed the beasts of battle are b r i e f l y turned into a symbol of the ultimate triumph of death, the common 4 4Bonjour, "Beasts," p. 136. 4 5 I b i d . , pp. 138, 140. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 141. destiny of dynasties, and the f i n a l fate of men."47 A conven-t i o n a l theme gains beauty and o r i g i n a l i t y : " i f ever one can speak of the alchemy of genius i t i s h e r e . " 4 8 So, whether let t e r e d or unlettered, the poet showed either calculated or i n s t i n c t i v e aesthetic s k i l l i n holding off the beast of battle theme u n t i l i t s associations would have the greatest emotional e f f e c t . Quite c l e a r l y c r i t i c s are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of a word's context and i t s connotations, although a c r i t i c l i k e Robert Diamond i s much more cautious and reminds men l i k e Bonjour that Old English poetry i s d i f -ferent i n kind from modern p o e t r y . 4 9 Therefore, Diamond returns to the idea of the theme as an ornamental convention, s l i g h t l y looser and more f l e x i b l e than the formula, i n his discussion of the 'set-pieces' and sub-themes of sea-crossing themes, a l l of which are heavily formulaic. However, he makes value judgments on the use of this theme, noting e s p e c i a l l y the detached f e e l i n g i n St. Helen's crossing to the Holy Land (the d e t a i l s show l i t t l e close knowledge of the sea) and the masterful control of material i n Andreas. 5 0 Like Bonjour, Godfrid Storms finds a r t i s t r y i n Beowulf and uses the association of words i n context to t r y to reconcile 4 7 I b i d . , p. 142. 4 8 I b i d . , p. 144. 4 9Diamond, "Theme as Ornament," p. 461. 5 0 I b i d . , pp. 463-4, 467. 178 a r t i s t i c intent with the oral theory: f o r i f the poet i s to be vindicated from the charge of being at times a mere v e r s i f i e r , who chose his compounds to f i l l the needs of a l l i t e r a t i o n and metre, every singlyCsic] compound must be s i g n i f i c a n t and sensible at every single occurrence,,51 Storms owes much to Bryan's 1929 a r t i c l e on compound f o l k -names ;5'2 and he t r i e s to show, and claims success i n so doing, that the twenty-nine occurrences of some f i f t e e n compound names are j u s t i f i e d ; not only so f a r as sense and metre i s concerned, but also as to poetic connotation and a r t i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . If we bear i n mind that Beowulf was composed extempore, and Magoun's analysis of the making a p r e - l i t e r a r y , oral verse i s f u l l y convincing, then the author's u n f a i l -ing choice of the r i g h t word at a moment's notice cannot but excite our imagination.53 This a r t i c l e shows, I believe, the excesses to which context-association can be c a r r i e d , f o r example i n Storms' discussion of Nor$-Dene. His case f o r Gar-Dene i s persuasive enough: each occurrence (11. 1, 601, 1856-, 2492) appropriately suggests the warlike character of the Danes and may even suggest that the gar was t h e i r s p e c i f i c weapon, as the seax was of the Saxons. 5 4 But the explanation f o r Nor^-Dene ( l . 783) seems at best over-subtle. (The North Danes guard the north wall of 5 xGodfrid Storms, Compounded Names of Peoples i n Beowulf, (Utrecht-Nijmegen: Dekker en van de Vegt, 1957), p. 6. 5 2See above, Chapter IV, p. 122. 53storms, Compound Names, p. 22. 54lbid., p. 8. 177, Heorot, the d i r e c t i o n Grendel goes to return home, i . e . , to h e l l ; Germanic h e l l and medieval H e l l were considered to be i n the north.)55 It should now be clear that most claims f o r the a r t i s t r y of Old English poetic d i c t i o n apply to Beowulf, and that most claims to the contrary apply to Old English poetry i n general. A. G. Brodeur's book The Art of Beowulf i s no exception. Brodeur's intention i s to examine what makes the Beowulf poet's work incomparable i n the corpus of Old English poetry, why i t surpasses the others i n i t s dignity, beauty, n o b i l i t y of thought and mastery of form.^° In debating Magoun's theory that formulaic poetry cannot be written, Brodeur l i k e others, draws attention to Cynewulf and e s p e c i a l l y to Brunanburh, which was 'obviously' written by an educated man and yet which i s one of the most t o t a l l y formulaic of Old English poems: but the language of Beowulf i s , i n my opinion, not t o t a l l y formulaic, nor comparable i n i t s load of f o r -mula, with most other Old English narrative poems.... The structure and the style of the poem, no less than i t s incomparably r i c h and sensitive d i c t i o n , a t t e s t that the poet was a man of cultivated taste as well as an accomplished scop. He possessed a highly developed sense of form, which shows i t s e l f i n his language as well as i n the structure of his work. The t r a d i t i o n a l scop, unlettered as he was, was a trained and sophisticated 55ibid., : pp. 14-17. 56 Arthur G i l c h r i s t Brodeur, The Art of Beowulf (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1959), p. 4. 178 a r t i s t : within the b r i e f l i m i t s of lay and poetic eulogy he was a f i n i s h e d craftsman. The poet of Beowulf was enabled, by his experience with non-English sacred and profane learning, and compelled by the greater scope and range of his work, to exceed the lim i t a t i o n s of the modes and forms which he had inherited from Germanic a n t i q u i t y . 5 7 Thus Brodeur fig h t s Magoun's implication that the vocabulary of Beowulf contains l i t t l e or nothing o r i g i n a l . Nonetheless, Brodeur recognizes that Beowulf i s highly t r a d i t i o n a l : " i t i s the element we may safely presume to be o r i g i n a l that determines the quality of the d i c t i o n and style..." Since, says Brodeur, the substantive i s the major element of Old English poetic vocabulary, l o g i c a l l y t h i s o r i g i n a l element l i e s i n the use of the substantive compound. Of 903 ' d i s t i n c t substantive compounds' i n Beowulf, 518 occur i n no other extant text and 578 occur only once in Beowulf. Also, even though the adjective i s second i n importance to the noun, some 150 adjec-t i v e compounds are peculiar to Beowulf. However, most of the numerous noun and adjective simplices are found i n prose, except f o r a few simplex nouns which are r e s t r i c t e d to poetic use. The verbs, on the other hand, are rarely r e s t r i c t e d to poetic use and r a r e l y carry the poetic e f f e c t , although some are e f f e c t i v e l y chosen.^ 9 I think here that Brodeur under-estimates s l i g h t l y the poetic potential of the verb. At random I have opened Beowulf at lines 723-75, and I meet several verbs which i n context have considerable power: stOd, qefenq, 5 7 I b i d . t pp. 4-5. 5 8 I b i d . , p. 6. 17,9 slat-bat-dranc (especially e f f e c t i v e i n sequence), fleon, burston, dynede and hlynsode. But Brodeur i s nevertheless right i n saying that the substantive carries the main load. Resemblances between the compounds of a l l long Old English narrative poems, including Beowulf,suggest, says Brodeur, a large t r a d i t i o n a l vocabulary. But Beowulf 1s o r i g i n a l i t y l i e s in i t s number of exclusive compounds. In Beowulf 115 base-words form more compounds than i n a l l other Old English poems, whereas i n a l l other Old English poems only 143 base-words form more compounds than in Beowulf. Also, 52 base-words have compounds only in Beowulf and have a wide range of concepts, whereas 56 base-words form a much larger corpus of compounds i n poems other than Beowulf. However, these tend to be of a more abstract nature (e.g., -craeft, -cwalu, - l i f u , -sorg, -ffrymn) than those forming compounds peculiar to Beowulf (e.g., - h i l t , - i r e n , -spreot, -steng, -sweord). The natural argument here i s that Beowulf i s the only poem of i t s size and theme and that there i s no other work extant with which i t may be p r o f i t a b l y compared. I t seems l o g i c a l that i t 1 60 should have more 'weapon' compounds than other poems. The big difference between Beowulf and other Old English poems l i e s i n the concrete precision of i t s vocabulary: "most of the compounds which designate objects, persons, or actions in sharp, s p e c i f i c terms occur more frequently in Beowulf than 5 9 I b i d . , pp. 7-8. 6°Ibid., pp. 9-10 e l s e w h e r e . " D l Brodeur here d e v e l o p s h i s argument a l o n g the l i n e s s uggested by C a r o l i n e Brady to. show t h a t the v o c a b u l a r y i s l a r g e and precise,°2 j _ n S p j _ t e of the t r a d i t i o n a l and con-v e n t i o n a l n a t u r e of the poem. A l s o l i k e M i s s Brady's work i s Brodeur's i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t he n a t u r e o f the p o e t i c v o c a b u l a r y and h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the Beowulf poet tends t o a p p l y words more l i t e r a l l y and w i t h g r e a t e r r e s t r a i n t t h a n some o t h e r p o e t s . For example, the Beowulf poet uses the l i t e r a l compound brimwylm ( l . 1494) and the f i g u r a t i v e breostwylm ( l . 1877), but he a v o i d s an a r t i -f i c i a l compound such as heafodwylm f o r ' t e a r s ' ( E l e n e , 1. 1132) A l t h o u g h the compounds i n Beowulf are f r e q u e n t l y f i g u r a t i v e , t h e y are more o f t e n metonymical t h a n m e t a p h o r i c a l , w i t h the p o e t i c q u a l i t y d e t e r m i n e d u s u a l l y by the l i m i t i n g word. Sim-p l i c e s , Brodeur s t a t e s , are p r i m a r i l y p o e t i c or common s t o c k ; t h e y may be l i t e r a l , m e t a p h o r l o r o s r m e t o n y m i c : mece and sweord are b o t h l i t e r a l , but the former i s an a r c h a i s m r e s t r i c t e d t o p o e t i c usage; f l o t a . l i n d , and aesc t e l l something of the m a t e r i a l s or f u n c t i o n of the r e f e r e n t ; brand m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s u g g e s t s t h a t swords g i v e o f f t h e i r own l i g h t , a s i m p l e x s i m i l a r i n e f f e c t t o the compound beado-leoma.°4 6 l I b i d . , p. 10. See above, chapt. IV, pp. 149-50. 6 3 I b i d . , p. 12. 64 I b i d . , p. 15; f o r Brodeur's d i s c u s s i o n of the kenn i n g see below, p. 198 and appendix A. C r i t i c s as early as W. M. Hart noticed the i d e a l i z i n g generalizing and suggestive nature of - Beowulf. Brodeur now shows (by means of many s t r i k i n g and appropriate examples) how these tendencies a f f e c t the poetic d i c t i o n . Although Brodeur does not discount the pressures of metre and a l l i t e r a t i o n , 6 5 he finds i n Beowulf that the compounds and appellative combina tions play a more important role than mere periphrastic 66 synonyms. For example, he shows how the words for ' c o r s l e t 1 i n l i n e s 321-328a can achieve special e f f e c t s : gucfoyrne i s a l i t e r a l compound; hrinqiren i s a metonymical compound t e l l i n g of the garment's construction; gryreqeatwum i s also l i t e r a l but highly emotional; byrnan i s a l i t e r a l simplex; and gucfeearo i s also l i t e r a l , but t e l l s of the s k i l l required i n fashioning the c o r s l e t and i t s function as a war garment. Here i t i s possible to see the poet trying to savor a l l the t y p i c a l aspects of a t h i n g . ^ S i m i l a r l y , the mood of horror surrounding the mere comes, he notes, not from extravagant adjectives, but from adjectives c a r e f u l l y selected, "not so much to portray a p a r t i c u l a r landscape as to suggest, v i v i d l y and powerfully, the p e r i l and horror to which the hero and his companions must expose themselves.... Jl°8 j n e moor i s myrce, the paths nearwe, enge and uncuS; the mere i s dreoriq and 65lbid., p. 16. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 21. ^ I b i d . , p. 23. ^ 8 I b i d . , p. 26. 182 gedrefed; only wynleas i s at a l l an unusual adjective. A l l t o l d , then, the poet kept close to his t r a d i t i o n a l patterns, but f e l t free to coin compounds, create images, expand the word-hoard whenever he f e l t "the need f o r a language capable of express-ing the thought and f e e l i n g of p o e t s . " 0 9 Brodeur i s one of the few c r i t i c s i n the past f i f t e e n years to treat v a r i a t i o n , the most important r h e t o r i c a l device of Old English poetry, and again his discussion i s well-docu-mented and persuasive. He defines v a r i a t i o n as: "a double or multiple statement of the same concept or idea i n d i f f e r e n t words, with a. more or less perceptible s h i f t i n s t r e s s . . . " 7 0 He also makes clear the difference between v a r i a t i o n (elements i n a series which have the same referent) and enumeration (elements i n a series which do not have the same referent.) In the approach of the Geats to Heorot, l i n e s 320-31, va r i a t i o n works within enumeration to present a t o t a l image, and the l a s t l i n e acts as a summation. The poetry of the passage has a v i v i d e f f e c t , just as the marching men described have an e f f e c t on Wulfgar; here the poet shows his great focusing and emotive power.72 69 Ibid., P. 37. 7 0 I b i d . , P- 40. 7 1 I b i d . , P« 41. 72ibid. f PP . 42 18-3 Brodeur points out a number of scenes r i c h i n v a r i a t i o n : Hrothgar's sermon, the presentation of the golden h i l t , the Unferth incident, the terrors wrought by Grendel, a l l scenes which appeal to the emotions. "The primary vehicle of emotion i s v a r i a t i o n . " 7 3 Klaeber e a r l i e r stated that v a r i a -tion retards action; and Brodeur expands th i s idea to show that action scenes are among the passages containing l e a s t v a r i a t i o n . Direct reportage and intimate speeches (e.g., Beowulf-Wiglaf) 1 contain simple and rare v a r i a t i o n , whereas formal speeches, (e.g., Beowulf-Wulfgar)are f u l l of v a r i a t i o n . 7 4 Brodeur thus concludes that v a r i a t i o n developed as an ornament of s t y l e , but was used by the Beowulf poet with s k i l l and imagination to mark a dominant mood, a s i g n i f i c a n t s i t u a t i o n , or to l i n k a s i t u a t i o n with what precedes and f o l l o w s . 7 ^ It i s r e a l l y impossible to underestimate the value of Brodeur's study and the long-range influence i t i s certain to have on studies of d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n , not only f o r Beowulf, but f o r a l l Old English poetry. He has c e r t a i n l y presented indisputable s t a t i s t i c s f o r the a r t i s t r y of the d i c t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y has observed this d i c t i o n to be of a precise and rather l i t e r a l nature, and arranged i n v a r i a t i o n 7 3 I b i d . , p. 51. 74 Ibid., pp. 60-1. 75 Ibid., p. 69; i n the remainder of his book Brodeur discusses structure, design, a n t i c i p a t i o n , irony, contrast, C h r i s t i a n elements, etc., and shows that a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l Old/English poetic devices are given fresh l i f e by the Beowulf poet. Also, i n appendix C Brodeur discusses the r e l a t i o n of v a r i a t i o n to parallelism and enumeration. 184' f o r maximum e f f e c t . However, Brodeur's emphasis on a written o r i g i n , i n spite of his acknowledgement of the strong t r a d i t i o n -a l element, met with reaction from some c r i t i c s supporting the theory of oral o r i g i n ; and i n the following few years c r i t i c s attempt to resolve the two theories to achieve a workable poetic f o r the l i t e r a t u r e . In a review of The Art of Beowulf, John C. McGalliard points out that the recent publication of Lord's The Singer of  Tales (1960) should help resolve many of the differences between the two extreme positions (the wholly formulaic, or the 7 ft lettered and learned). Certainly, i t helps to c l a r i f y a number of misunderstandings regarding oral poetry i n general. F i r s t , i t shows that the o r a l poet, usually i l l i t e r a t e , learns the language of poetry gradually, as a c h i l d learns to speak a language: he l i s t e n s and absorbs, he 'apprentices' or practices, and f i n a l l y he performs before a c r i t i c a l audience. 7 7 The language he has learned i s the s p e c i a l language of poetry. He has not memorized a fixed form, but has absorbed a long t r a d i t i o n of formulas, which at the end of his t r a i n i n g he can combine and remodel. Learning new songs i s a matter of learning new names and themes. Some singers can repeat a story (in t h e i r own words) immediately a f t e r hearing i t ; others less confident or less s k i l f u l require time to think and p r a c t i c e . 7 8 It i s 7 6 John C. McGalliard, "The Complex Art of Beowulf," Modern Philology, LIX (1961/2), 277. 7 7 A l b e r t B. Lord, The Singer of Tales (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1960), p. 21. 185 clear, then, that a r t i s t i c intention i s not foreign even to the genuine oral singer. Lord also shows that i n d i v i d u a l singers have t h e i r own styles and that i n d i v i d u a l style can develop up to a point, as i t does i n everyday speech. The future singer hears and absorbs the d i f f e r e n t patterns of syntax and t r i c k s of s t y l e ; "there i s no r i g i d i t y i n what he h e a r s . " 7 9 He works in "a grammar super-imposed, as i t were, on the grammar of the language concerned.... The formulas are phrases and clauses and sentences of this specialized poetic grammar."0 These statements certainly! modify e a r l i e r implications that oral formulas were mechanical and uncreative things. On larger issues, Lord points out that the poetic grammar is one of parataxis and that the singer's sense of balance i s 81 shown i n patterns of a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance and parallelis m . The oral epic singer must have s k i l l i n describing heroes, horses, etc., descriptions which become elaborated into themes and are used with discrimination ( i . e . , omitted, treated b r i e f l y or elaborated) by each in d i v i d u a l singer. The most talented singer which Lord and Parry heard could take a tale he had 78 Ibid., pp. 22, 26. 7 9 I b i d . , p. 33. SOibid., pp. 35-6. Q 1 Ibid., p. 56; t h i s 'grammar of parataxis' gives weight to the general c r i t i c a l misgivings about the theories of S. 0. Andrew; see above, Chapt. IV, pp. 146-8. 186 j u s t heard and make i t much longer and r i c h e r by such ornamenta-t i o n , as well as by adding d i s t i n c t i v e human touches f o r depth of f e e l i n g . 8 2 In a l l , the singer has the end i n mind and has a basic, f l e x i b l e form f o r the theme. These themes not only mark a singer's s t y l e ; they also have strong associative tendencies. 8 3 However, leisure is of no advantage to the oral singer; i f he has to slow down for d i c t a t i n g he loses his place instead of seeking (as a let t e r e d poet would) the exact word. If any-thing, time i s a hindrance. 8 4 This leads Lord to discuss the ' t r a n s i t i o n a l ' technique between oral and written poetry, a p o s s i b i l i t y he firml y denies. Oral poetry i s predominantly formulaic, written poetry non-formulaic. It i s not possible for one poet to think (this seems the key word) i n both techniques OK at once, although i t is. possible f o r a poet to compose o r a l l y i n his youth and to write when he i s older* (an inter e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the Beowulf poet). F i n a l l y , Lord states that a gi f t e d singer has s u f f i c i e n t mastery over his poetic form to 8 2 L o r d , p. 78. 8 3 I b i d . , pp. 93, 96-7. 8 4 I b i d . , pp. 127-8. OR I f i n d these ideas hard to reconcile with the findings of Robert E. Diamond (The Diction of the Anglo-Saxon Metrical  Psalms [The Hague: Mouton, 1963J, p. 6) , that a random 305 l i n e s from the Paris Psalter, obviously written compositions, are 49.5% demonstrably formulaic. 187. break i t at w i l l and use non-formulaic expressions. Here he appears to contradict his e a r l i e r statement that o r i g i n a l i t y and finesse of expression are not sought af t e r , even though the opportunity e x i s t s . It i s obvious that among oral singers, as among lettered poets, genius w i l l transcend t r a d i t i o n and 'ru l e s . 1 With such a j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the potential i n oral poetry f o r a r t i s t r y of expression, i t seems r e l a t i v e l y f u t i l e to quibble further about whether Beowulf was a lettered com-position or dictated by an oral poet. Reconciliation of quite a d i f f e r e n t sort comes i n 1961 with William Whallon's a r t i c l e , "The Diction of Beowulf." Studies of appropriateness of d i c t i o n are untenable, Whallon says, unless one denies that the language i s formulaic. What Whallon does i s to compare the Beowulf kenning with the 88 Homeric epithet and to emend Magoun's theory by showing that "Beowulf and the Homeric epics are not formulaic to the same e x t e n t . " 8 9 Over-all design, he i n s i s t s , i s not incompatible 8 6 L o r d , p. 131; c f . p. 44. 8 7Robert D. Stevick ("The Oral-Formulaic Analyses of Old English Verse," Speculum, XXXVII [1962], 382-9) also recognizes the great help of The Singer of Tales. He reviews the various oral-formulaic analyses and makes an interesting analogy with jazz improvisation; i t i s also inte r e s t i n g to compare the singer theory with Paul Baum's ultra-conservative view of the ivory-towered poet ("The Beowulf Poet," Beowulf Anthology, pp. 353-65). Q Q Both terms are used i n t h e i r broadest sense. 8 9 W i l l i a m Whallon, "The Diction of Beowulf," PMLA,, LXXVI (1961), 309. 188-with the singer theory; formulas can be b e a u t i f u l l y used, but they develop to show the ideal and important q u a l i t i e s of things, unlike nonce words which are chosen for d i s t i n c t i v e delineation. Formulas are p o t e n t i a l l y , i f not always, accur-a t e . 9 0 Also, i n analyzing Old English and Homeric formulas for s h i e l d , sea, boat and hero (Beowulf and Odysseus), Whallon considers inspection of repeated l i n e s only inadequate; "for a stock of line-fragments would be s u f f i c i e n t to permit the poet to extemporize with deftness i f they provided f o r prosodic needs." 9 x B a s i c a l l y Whallon observes that the Homeric epics have a much higher percentage of indispensable epithets ( i . e . , epithets which f i l l d i s t i n c t i v e metrical functions) than does Beowulf; and he concludes that Beowulf d i c t i o n "lacks the economy expected from a formulaic language that i s highly go developed." 7' 1 S i m i l a r l y , personal epithets i n Homer are exclu-sive to certain characters and vary f o r prosodic rather than semantic reasons, whereas i n Beowulf several epithets have the same metrical function and several characters may share the same epithet. For example, ma"ere beoden i s applied seven times to Beowulf, f i v e times to Hrothgar, and once each to Heremod and Heardred. S i m i l a r l y febecempa (11. 1544, 2853) i s m e t r i c a l l y equivalent to folces hyrde (11. 1849, 2644), but 9 0 I b i d . , p. 310. 9 1 I b i d . , p. 311. 9 2 I b i d . , p. 318. 189 the former applies both to Beowulf and Wiglaf and the l a t t e r to Hygelac and Beowulf. 9 3 Certainly such examples show a d i f -ference i n type and function of epithet, but Whallon concludes: the f i n a l poet may have shown ingenuity and s k i l l i n the construction of the plot and i n the characterization, but i t appears certain that f o r the language he r e l i e d upon a f a m i l i a r idiomatic style which had not become so perfected as to become invariable. Further centuries of poetizing i n the same t r a d i t i o n might have augmented the language with useful formulas i t lacked, and might also have limited the use of certain d i s t i n c t i v e kennings for the epic hero; further centuries could at l e a s t have cast many replaceable kennings into oblivion.94 How accurate Whallon 1s theory might be as f a r as the development of poetic language i s concerned, I am not prepared to say; nevertheless, i t does permit agreement between the oral-formulaic theory and Brodeur's statement that the language of Beowulf i s not completely formulaic. Like Lord's view of the oral singer, t h i s theory leaves l a t i t u d e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and the creative, and v i r t u a l l y resolves the major difference of opinion on Old English poetic d i c t i o n . Many poets may have used the conven-tions mechanically and i n a r t i s t i c a l l y , but there was ample room for the expression of poetic genius. Of in t e r e s t at this point i s the publication of J . B. Bessinger's Short Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon Poetry (1960), a small book based on the Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records and aimed 9 3 I b i d . 9 4 I b i d . at the student rather than the advanced scholar. It i s by no means an exhaustive dictionary: i t covers only "the c r u c i a l 40 percent of the poetic vocabulary" 9^ a n d does not define any compound words but those "which seem important enough to be considered v i r t u a l l y as parent or primary words" (e.g., wls-dom). The p r i n c i p l e here of l i s t i n g only the separate parts of compound words i s useful, and i n t e n t i o n a l l y so, in helping the student appreciate the creative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the language and the f u l l e f f e c t of any new compound he might encounter. Such an aid to poetic c r i t i c i s m i s denied by the blanket d e f i n i t i o n s given i n , say, Klaeber's glossary to Beowulf. Si m i l a r l y , the frequency ratings which Bessinger gives for each entry are of c r i t i c a l value, although one might wish fo r l i n e references as well. However, such i s the role of a concordance and quite beyond the scope of a short dictionary. Of p a r t i c u l a r use and inte r e s t i s Bessinger 1s section on compounding and modification. Much of t h i s is purely descrip-t i v e , showing the way i n which suffixes and prefixes a l t e r the meaning of root words, or showing the way i n which various parts of speech compound fo r certain grammatical functions (e.g., noun plus noun makes a noun, mod-craeft, e t c . ) . 9 7 But he also classes the compounds according to function: ta u t o l o g i c a l 9 5 J . B. Bessinger, A Short Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon  Poetry (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1960), p. v. 9 6 l b i d . * p. v i i i . 9 7 I b i d . , p. i x . 19! (e.g., daed-weorc); rhyming, to i n t e n s i f y separate elements (e.g., word-hord); l i t e r a l (e.g., d r i n c - f a e t) ; f i g u r a t i v e , in varying degrees of elaborateness (e.g., mere-hraegel); ambi-guously l i t e r a l or f i g u r a t i v e (e.g., b a n - f a e t ) . 9 8 In spite of the l i v e l y concern about the nature of Old English poetic d i c t i o n , c r i t i c s s t i l l devote time to the study of f i g u r a t i v e language: allegory, symbol, simile, metaphor, and, of course, the kenning. The foregoing chapter of t h i s thesis showed that studies of the Christian element increased af t e r Klaeber's suggestions, and yet that studies of allegory were kept cautious by Tolkien's warning. In addition, the early 1950's saw increased output of work on the 'elegiac' poems, The Seafarer and The Wanderer. The most important of these essays, as f a r as the present study i s concerned, i s E. G. Stanley's careful study i n 1956 of Old English figurative, language. At a l l times Stanley i s aware of the extreme d i f f i c u l t y inherent i n Old English figu r a t i v e d i c t i o n : " i t i s not possible to be sure i f the figure was not as r e a l to the Anglo-Saxon as the r e a l i t y that gave r i s e to the f i g u r e . " " This attitude, which modifies Stanley's treatment of a l l figures, i s strongly reminiscent of such an early c r i t i c as F. B. Gummere.'''00 go 7 Ibid., p. v i i i . 9 9 E . G. Stanley, "Old English Poetic Diction and the Interpretation of The Wanderer, The Seafarer and The Peni-tent's Prayer," Anqlia, LXXIII (1955/6), 414. 1 0 0 S e e above, Chapt. I l l , pp. 66-71. 192 Stanley begins his study with the simile, since i t e x p l i c i t l y makes comparisons and since i t s 'extensive' use i n Old English shows that the Anglo-Saxons were accustomed to f i g u r a t i v e thought. He shows how the simile ranges from the rate and simple one-word similes of Beowulf, through the more complex (e.g., the Panther l i k e Joseph's coat) and abstract (e.g.,. Satan's words l i k e poison), to the long simile which explains the allegory of Phoenix. "This gives some j u s t i f i c a -t i o n to the b e l i e f that much of what might appear r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r poems was capable of f i g u r a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " x 0 x Stanley concludes that the Anglo-Saxons showed great f a m i l i a r i t y with the simile, both translated and o r i g i n a l . Although some similes may have been o r i g i n a l , allegory seems to have been almost completely borrowed (nonetheless the Anglo-Saxons obviously understood the device). Stanley also shows here how close the f i g u r a t i v e i s to the r e a l , f o r example i n the common image of the wounds of s i n (as i n Hrothgar's sermon, l i n e s 1744 f f . ) . The wounds are at once f a c t and f i c -t i o n , r e a l and a l l e g o r i c a l , seem to be founded i n Anglo-Saxon disease charms, and i l l u s t r a t e that the powers of darkness, 102 both pagan and C h r i s t i a n , use the same weapons against humanity. Such a c r i t i c a l remark i s very much i n keeping with the balance urged by Tolkien. Stanley further queries the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c t and fi g u r e , as he discusses the nature of a flower image: 1 0 1 S t a n l e y , p. 415. 193 few w i l l deny that with the old poets the processes of nature may be symbols of th e i r moods: but i t i s not the flower that gives the thought; with the Old English poets i t i s the thought that gives the flower. And the flower that i s born of the mood may take on s u f f i c i e n t concreteness to appear capable of existence without and outside the mood. 1 0 3 Metaphor and the poetic circumlocution also raise ques-tions of l i t e r a l n e s s : how f a r , f o r example, does an expression l i k e freofruwebbe r e t a i n the fi g u r a t i v e sense of weaving? The word 'weallan' and the related 'wylm' us e f u l l y i l l u s -t rate the nature of some OE. metaphorical d i c t i o n . The words used l i t e r a l l y can ref e r to either water or f i r e , the surge of ocean or the surge of flames. Both meanings can be used f i g u r a t i v e l y , and are often combined. 'Weallan' and 'seoban' are very similar in meaning and usage. Since the surging blood of wounds or flood of tears are l i t e r a l , i t i s not always possible to estimate the extent of fac t and figure i n what may at f i r s t sight appear a fi g u r a t i v e use; often, however, the device of var i a t i o n makes i t cer-t a i n that the OE. poet f e l t he was using an image. 1 0 4 For example, morborbed stred seems related to the common sleep-death f i g u r e , but 'fetters of f r o s t ' may simply have been an Anglo-Saxon explanation of the fac t of water s o l i d i f y i n g . 1 0 5 Central to Old English poetry are metaphors f o r moods and abstraction. But Stanley points out that Old English nature description, even when i t provides a setting f o r action, i s not so much a symbol of a state of mind as i t is evoked by a state 1 0 2 I b i d . , pp. 421-2. 1 0 3 I b i d . , p. 427. 1 0 4 I b i d . , pp. 430-1. 1 Q 5 I b i d . , pp. 431, 432. 194 of mind with which i t i s a s s o c i a t e d . T h u s , the word 'association' enters the study of f i g u r a t i o n , j u s t as i t entered that of d i c t i o n ; and Stanley elaborates on i t s relevance to the metaphor and investigates the p o s s i b i l i t y of symbolism. For example, the special misery and t e r r o r of the early morn-ing finds expression i n morqenceald (1. 3022) and morgenlong  daeg (1. 2894). This l a s t ' i l l o g i c a l ' combination "conveys with great economy how the lonely fear of early morning i s extended into the day as the band of nobles sat, grieving i n t h e i r hearts, waiting f o r news of Beowulf.... 1 1 x 0 7 In this way the misery of morning extends the t e r r o r of night and shadow, for which the Anglo-Saxons had a large and often symbolic voca-bulary (e.g., deorc deabscua, 1. 160, sceaduqenqa, 1. 703). Similar associations of misery came from 'cold,' e s p e c i a l l y when combined with the darkness or connected with the sea. Stanley reviews several scenes of desolation and i n a l l finds the e f f e c t of misery predominant over realism, although i n many cases i t i s impossible to say whether the symbolic or fac-tual element was foremost i n the poet's mind. "The narrative c a l l s f o r a description of scenery and the conventions of OE. poetic d i c t i o n enable the poet to advance out of i t and by 108 means of i t to the symbolic description of a state of mind." 1 0 6 I b i d . , pp. 433-4. l° 7Ibid., p. 435. 1 0 8 I b i d . , p. 439. 195» In such a way I s i q (1. 33) may mean l i t t l e more than winterceald and be a method of evoking sorrow. Like Bonjour, Stanley also sees a theme l i k e the beasts of battle beginning i n f a c t and gradually accruing associations. Stanley concludes his section on d i c t i o n by pointing out the concrete nature of poetic imagery. At f i r s t glance i t might appear that decision regarding the degree of f i g u r a t i o n i n Old English poetry had not pro-gressed much since Gummere's inquiries in 1881. Certainly i t w i l l always be d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to know f o r certain; but Stanley has progressed considerably i n bringing into focus the d i v i d i n g l i n e between f a c t and fi g u r e . H. G. Wright (1957) i n d i r e c t l y substantiates what Stanley has said, by noting the p a r a l l e l occurrences of good, l i g h t and joy; e v i l , darkness and sorrow, and the poet's a r t i s t i c use of these images i n contrast 109 to one another, for example, the bright revelry of the mead-h a l l followed by the stealthy approach of Grendel under cover of night. Although the old horse of the kenning has been frequently flogged, three more c r i t i c s take further whacks at i t . I s s h i k i Masako's 1958 study deserves only passing notice of his use of the term. Kennings, he says, are "unusual alterna-tive words or metaphorical e x p r e s s i o n s " x x 0 — a very broad 1 0 9 H e r b e r t G. Wright, "Good and E v i l ; Light and Darkness; Joy and Sorrow in Beowulf," Beowulf Anthology, pp. 257-67. ± x 0 I s s h i k i Masako, "The Kennings i n Beowulf," Studies in  English Grammar and L i n g u i s t i c s : A Miscellany in Honour of  Takanobu Osuka (Tokyo: Kenkyusha ,1958), p. 257. 19'6 d e f i n i t i o n . I s s h i k i ' s paper i s larg e l y derivative, although he does consider the kenning from two angles: the morphological ( i . e . , according to formal ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) and the semantic Recording to degree of f i g u r a t i o n ) . Douglas C. C o l l i n s considers the kenning to be e s s e n t i a l l y a metaphorical e x p r e s s i o n . x x x On the basis of the oral-formulaic theory C o l l i n s attempts to evaluate the kenning, reaching con-112 elusions often s i m i l a r to those of H. C. Wyld. He reasons that since the Anglo-Saxon probably had no clear idea of what a kenning was, the f a i r e s t way of appraising what i t meant to the Anglo-Saxon poet i s to examine the more pedestrian passages. He i s quite right in questioning whether halgo heafde gimmas is an honest improvement over heafodgimmum as a kenning for 113 'eyes'; but i t seems to me that judging a l l kennings i n th i s way is rather l i k e judging the heroic couplet by the practice of a third-rate Augustan poet. I also f e e l that C o l l i n s under-estimates the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of scholarship when he says: Whether or not one word in a pair of apparent synonyms has an emotional colouring and was therefore d e l i b e r a t e l y preferred i t i s impossible to say since we have no know-ledge of spoken Anglo-Saxon. Doubtless i t is impossible to say for certain, but much can be revealed by conscientious l i t e r a r y and l i n g u i s t i c archaeology. x x xDouglas C. C o l l i n s , "Kenning i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry," Essays and Studies, XII n.s. (1959), 1. 1 1 2 S e e above, chapt. IV, pp. 113-115. 113 C o l l i n s , pp. 2-3. 197 However, C o l l i n s 1 case i s directed mainly at Old English Ch r i s t i a n poetry. He questions how much of what Chri s t i a n poets took over from the e a r l i e r poetry was f u l l y understood, how much of i t was mere formula. He reminds c r i t i c s that much of the l i t e r a t u r e i s genuinely of Christian genesis and i s not re-worked pagan themes, also that kennings have t h e i r foundation in • c o l l o q u i a l speech' and cannot be judged i n terms of 'poetic thought* or ' l i t e r a r y language.* A X^ One set of kennings inspires a new; pagan vocabulary i s e a s i l y adapted to Christian s i t u a t i o n s . For example, mihtiqa cyning, a kenning e a s i l y transposed to God, adds t l r to become t l r meahtiq cyning (Christ., 1. 1165) "without producing so f a r as one can judge any additional e f f e c t . " x x o C o l l i n s concludes, doubtless with some j u s t i c e , that the more 'prosaic' kennings have l o s t t h e i r o r i g i n a l force and have become simply ready-to-hand synonyms, out of which only a professional minstrel of exceptional 117 a b i l i t y could make anything. Of course A. G. Brodeur discusses j u s t such a g i f t e d poet, as has already been shown. He has shown that the Beowulf poet could take a convention and give i t new l i f e . Brodeur also shows f o r Beowulf, as Stanley showed f o r other poetry, that the f i g u r a t i v e language was founded on concrete 1 1 4 I b i d . , p. 2. l x 5 I b i d . , pp. 8-10; see also Marjorie Daunt, "Old English Verse and English Speech Rhythm," Transactions of the P h i l o l o g i c a l Society, 1946 (London, 1947). 1 1 6 C o l l i n s , p. 13. 1 1 7 I b i d . , pp. 13-14. 198 imagery. But Brodeur goes further to show that much of the 118 f i g u r a t i v e language of Beowulf i s ac t u a l l y metonymy not metaphor, and that i t i s simple and restrained. We find....that, broadly speaking, many of the compounds i n Beowulf are l i t e r a l , or embody simple figures; whereas a disproportionately large number of the com-pounds formed on the same base-words i n other poems are f i g u r a t i v e , and often embody strained figures; the lan-guage of Beowulf i s ri c h e r , and at the same time more temperate, than that of most other[01d English] poems, x" It should now be obvious to c r i t i c s that the various Old English poems are d i f f e r e n t and that the features of one cannot neces-s a r i l y be evaluated according to the practice i n another poem. It i s also patently clear that comparison of poems should y i e l d good r e s u l t s . Perhaps Brodeur's most s a t i s f y i n g contribution to the study of the kenning i s his attempt to define the term. He c l e a r l y defines the several categories of Old Norse poetic d i c t i o n and follows Andreas Heusler i n l i m i t i n g the kenning to those periphrastic appellations i n the base-word of which a person or thing i s i d e n t i f i e d with something which i t actually i s not, except i n a very special and a r t i f i c i a l sense: i n a s p e c i a l l y conceived r e l a t i o n which the poet imagines between It and the sense of the l i m i t i n g element.-*-20 x x 8 B r o d e u r , chapt. 1, appendix B. 1 1 9 I b i d . , p. 270. 1 2 0 I b i d . , p. 18, see appendix A, below. 199 Old English poetic appellations f i t a l l the Old Norse cate-gories. The great d i s t i n c t i o n between Old English and Old Norse kennings i s the s i m p l i c i t y and transparency of the r 121 former. Brodeur also contradicts former analyses of kennings, compounds and combinations according to formal c r i t e r i a by stating that Icelandic rhetoricians make no d i s t i n c t i o n between the compound (e.g., ycfaewinn) and the combination of noun and l i m i t i n g genetive (e.g., yoa gewinn ) . x ^ After such a clear statement of the c r i t i c a l terminology of d i c t i o n and f i g u r a -t i o n , i t seems impossible that c r i t i c s w i l l henceforth accept looser d e f i n i t i o n s . Figuration of a much broader sort i s the concern of Bernard Huppe, who investigates the influence of St. Augustine on Old English poetry. "Aesthetic pleasure derives, according to Augustine [in De_ Doctrina Christiana] , from the very disco-very of hidden meanings; the quality of the pleasure has a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the d i f f i c u l t y of the ambiguities to be re-solved."-'- 2 3 Huppe provides quantities of evidence to show that early C h r i s t i a n - L a t i n writers endorsed the theory of figura-t i v e , a l l u s i v e , enigmatic and periphrastic l i t e r a t u r e and that C h r i s t i a n poets expected t h e i r audience to be f a m i l i a r with 124 doctrine and symbol. 1 2 1 I b i d . , Appendix A, pp. 247-53. 1 2 2 I b i d . , p. 248. x 2 3 B e r n a r d F. Huppe, Doctrine and Poetry: Augustine's  Influence on Old English Poetry (New York: State U n i v . o f 20Q On t h e s u b j e c t of i n d i v i d u a l poems, Huppe c l a i m s t h a t "Bede's c o n t r a s t between Caedmon's songs and the l y i n g songs of o t h e r s suggests t h a t Bede thought of Caedmon as the f i r s t i n E n g l a n d t o c a l l the p o e t i c d i c t i o n o f h i s a n c e s t o r s out of-f o r e i g n bondage back i n t o the s e r v i c e of the M a s t e r . " Huppe m a i n t a i n s t h a t the Hymn i s a l l u s i v e and e n i g m a t i c and i n the A u g u s t i n i a n t r a d i t i o n . He a l s o c o n c l u d e s from a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of l i n e s 116-125 of G e n e s i s t h a t the " c a r e f u l employment of f i g u r e and e p i t h e t " shows t h a t the poet was more th a n a " w r i t e r of verbd,s:eL. p a r a p h r a s e , " and t h a t the poem stands a t the b e g i n n -126 i n g of m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h B i b l i c a l symbolism a t the c o r e . Huppe f i n a l l y proposes t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of Beowulf would show t h a t t h i s g r e a t poem i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the A u g u s t i n i a n -127 Caedmonian t r a d i t i o n . The b e g i n n i n g s of such a s t u d y are seen i n F a t h e r McNamee's a r t i c l e , "Beowulf—An A l l e g o r y of S a l v a t i o n ? " (1960). Here F a t h e r McNamee shows t h a t many p a r t s of Beowulf have t h e o l o g i c a l p a r a l l e l s w h i c h would p l a c e i t i n the f i g u r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n of the t i m e s . However, he c o n c l u d e s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know the poet's i n t e n t i o n . "But t h i s much at l e a s t i s t r u e : i f one were t o i n v e n t a s t o r y whose e v e r y d e t a i l was d e s i g n e d New York, 1959), p. 24. 1 9 4 I b i d . , c h a p t . I I , I I I , passlm. 1 2 5 I b i d . , p. 117. 1 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 147, 209. 1 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 232-3. 202 to a l l e g o r i z e the story of salvation, one could not improve very much on the Beowulf as i t s t a n d s . 1 1 x 2 8 To an inexper-ienced c r i t i c l i k e myself these p a t r i s t i c - t h e o l o g i c a l argu-ments are very persuasive, but there i s always the uncomfor-table f e e l i n g that one i s being coerced into accepting a 'new orthodoxy' of interpretations as a r b i t r a r y and ephemeral as the nature a l l e g o r i e s of the nineteenth century. Kemp Malone's views on symbolism are considerably more secular and moderate, tending rather to the attitudes and suggestions of Grundtvig and Tolkien, although not ignoring recent C h r i s t i a n views. Malone suggests that certain symbols may be interpreted in Beowulf: Heorot becomes a symbol of imperial power and worldly glories (with the paved street and tesselated f l o o r being "symbols of the high c i v i l i z a t i o n that 129 marked the Danish court"); Grendel i s the outlaw who w i l l not l i v e and l e t l i v e (as an inhabitant of h e l l on earth he wars against the earthly paradise of Heorot); the mere i t s e l f i s modelled on Chri s t i a n descriptions of H e l l ; the dragon repre-sents the destructive forces of nature; Beowulf i s the ide a l hero, a great servant to his people and to others, a man of 130 great physical strength and of great s p i r i t u a l capacity. 1 2 8M. B. McNamee, "Beowulf—An Allegory of Salvation?" Beowulf Anthology, pp. 349-50. x 2 9Kemp Malone, "Symbolism i n Beowulf; Some Suggestions," English Studies Today, Second Series, ed. G. A. Bonnard (Bern: Francke Ve-rlag, 1961), p. 84. 202 C e r t a i n l y with Malone one f e e l s a much greater sense of c r i t i c a l balance and perspective. It has thus been shown that a r t i s t r y i s possible i n f o r -mulaic poetry and that considerable f i g u r a t i o n i s also possible. But "what kinds of excellence are possible i n an art b u i l t on formulas?" asks Robert Creed early i n 1961. Since invention of theme and formula are rare, according to the formulaic theory, one can hardly praise a p a r t i c u l a r passage f o r i t s s i n g u l a r i t y of phrasing; so Creed returns to the idea of word-association and connotation, p a r t i c u l a r l y where themes are concerned. Extremely important to oral art i s the hypothesis that the poet has an immediately responsive audience. In addition, Creed maintains, there i s no r e a l distance between occurrences of a given theme, however f a r apart they appear i n a written text; and herein l i e s the solution to the problem— there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l instances of a tltoeme since a l l are counterpointed against former performances 131 of the same theme. Thus the singer can manipulate both his formulas and his audience. In analyzing l i n e s 1769-81 (the end of Hrothgar's ser-mon), Creed points out and names a l l the formulas and 'systems! in the passage and suggests some intere s t i n g possible c r i t i c a l approaches. F i r s t , he says, a 'new' c r i t i c , "struck by the pattern created b r i e f l y but sharply by about half a dozen words i n t h i s passage," might interpret as follows: l 3 1 R o b e r t Creed, "On the P o s s i b i l i t y of C r i t i c i z i n g Old English Poetry," Texas Studies i n Literature and Language, III (1961), 99-101. 203 Hrothgar i d e n t i f i e s himself as the householder who has locked his home securely only to suffe r house-breaking (ham-s5cn l a t e r occurs as a l e g a l term f o r the offense) and the cares of the bereft householder. What i s per-haps more s i g n i f i c a n t than the emerging metaphor i t s e l f i s the f a c t that i t works out, and works subtly through the passage, c o n t r o l l i n g i t as s k i l f u l l y as any sub-merged metaphor controls the thoughts of a poet able to chart his course on p a p e r . x 3 2 In such an interpretation, of course, i t i s important to under-stand the associations of the words. To show how f a r word-association can enrich the meaning and emotional e f f e c t of the poem, Creed notices that certain •formulas' found i n t h i s passage are also found near the beginning of the poem, thereby uniting Beowulf's salvation of the Danes with Scyld's e a r l i e r c o n s o l a t i o n . 1 3 3 S i m i l a r l y , the adverb singales (1. 1777) announces the change of seasons in the Finn episode (1. 1135) and is again connected with Grendel (1. 190). Such association emphasizes Hengesf's savage desire. Creed even suggests that Hrothgar 1s speech i s not only an oral theme but an archetypal moment, a moment which creates the archetypal rhythm of sorrow followed by joy, of death and b i r t h , of winter and spring. Hrothgar i s the king wounded i n spirit....who endured twelve long years.... to be saved at l a s t by the d i v i n e l y appointed youth.... 132 Ibid., p. 104; the interpretation i s based on such key words as beleac, ebel, ingenga, socne. x 3 3 I b i d . , p. 105; under wolcnum (11. 170, 8); manigum  maeqba (1. 1771), monegum maegbum (1. 5). 1 3 4 I b i d . , p. 106. 2©4 The conclusion to be drawn from t h i s present a r t i c l e of Creed's i s that c r i t i c i s m of Old English poetry must and can use a com-bination of methods. Certainly Creed's proposals are no more insupportable than si m i l a r studies of modern American l i t e r a t u r e , Margaret E. Goldsmith defends (1962) the C h r i s t i a n approach to Beowulf rather as Adeline B a r t l e t t defended the 135 ri g h t to f i n d Latinisms in the r h e t o r i c . Her aim i s "to show that Beowulf is a poem of the s p i r i t , achieving i t s effects f o r the most part by poetic, not homiletic, techniques." The heroic combats, she says, t y p i f y man's contest with the 137 forces of darkness. Like many c r i t i c s of the time, Miss Goldsmith concentrates on what the audience might know, a trend 138 growing since Dorothy Whitelock's The Audience of Beowulf, and supported by studies such as those of Huppe and Lord. Always Hrothgar's sermon serves as fodder f o r the C h r i s t i a n c r i t i c , and Miss Goldsmith uses the s p i r i t u a l armor described i n l i n e s 1724-60 to contradict Tolkien; the tragic irony of the l a s t episode is that Beowulf's shield and byrnie are not of God 1 39 and are consequently inadequate against the dragon. ° 7 1 3 5 S e e above, chapt. IV, p. 134. x 3 o M a r g a r e t E. Goldsmith, "The C h r i s t i a n Perspective i n Beowulf," Comparative Lite r a t u r e. XIV (1962), 71. 1 3 7 I b i d . , p. 75. 1 3 8 ( O x f o r d : Clarendon, 1951). 1 "39 • • Goldsmith, p. 85. In keeping with the p a t r i s t i c exegeses of the early C h r i s t i a n period, she is able to interpret Beowulf i n three ways: l i t e r a l l y ( h i s t o r i c a l f i g h t with a giant and a dragon), t r o p o l o g i c a l l y (moral f i g h t with envy, hate and 205 Ralph W. V. E l l i o t t proposes to answer Creed's ques-tio n about kinds of excellence by showing (1962) the excel-lence of the highly formulaic Maldon, i n which every speech, action and a l l u s i o n i s directed at the theme of heroic 140 obedience. Brodeur noticed how mood influenced the choice and combination of d e t a i l s , and E l l i o t t shows how the Maldon poet creates v a r i a t i o n within formulas, and fresh contexts f o r f a m i l i a r phrases and images. For example, i n AElfnScf and Wulmaer begen lagon, 6a onemn hyra frean feorh gesealdon. Hi bugon ba fram beaduwe be baer bSon noldan: baer wearo Oddan beam aerest on fleame, (183-6) the l i n e s are a l l formulaic; but there i s a sharp contrast, obviously a r t i s t i c , between the men who f a l l (11. 183-4) and the men who f l e e (11. 185-6)." L 4 1 Above a l l , E l l i o t t notiees the brevity, urgency and lack of the 'grand s t y l e 1 p r o l i x i t y of Beowulf and concludes that Maldon i s the work of a lettered poet working i n an old t r a d i t i o n and treating a theme p a r t i -142 c u l a r l y suited to his s e n s i b i l i t y as an a r t i s t . • greed), anagogically (eschatalogical f i g h t with Cain and the Ancient Serpent). Even i f the poem was not o r i g i n a l l y intended to have such f i g u r a t i v e interpretations, the men who were responsible f o r recording i t may have evolved very similar interpretations to j u s t i f y the preservation of a favourite poem. The theory i s c e r t a i n l y i n t r i g u i n g . 1 4 0 R a l p h W. V. E l l i o t t , "Byrhtnoth and Hildebrand: A Study i n Heroic Technique," Comparative Literature, XIV (1-962) 56. 1 4 1 I b i d . , p. 63. l 4 2 l b i d . , pp. 60, 69-70. 206 James L. Rosier shows what can be done with word association i n the c r i t i c i s m of Beowulf by examining the enig-matic Unferth as part of a design f o r treachery. F i r s t he deter-mines what Unferth a c t u a l l y does i n the poem. Next he suggests that his t i t l e of bvle i s probably a pejorative one since Latin prose glosses of the word and the Old Norse cognate 143 bulr a l l have pejorative associations. 4 - F i n a l l y he examines in d e t a i l the six contexts i n which Unferth occurs. He notes that Unferth's 'battle-runes' (1. 501) break hall-joys just as the death of Aeschere and the tension regarding the fate of Heorot d o . x 4 4 Then the a l l u s i o n to the treachery of Hrothulf (11. 1017-9) i s rei t e r a t e d immediately prior to mention of Unferth at the king's feet and of his f r a t r i c i d e (11. 1154-5). Also by being a kin-slayer and being consigned, according to Beowulf, to He l l (11. 587-8), Unferth can be associated with Grendel, descendant of Cain, inhabitant of h e l l . x 4 5 Rosier presents other more subtle p a r a l l e l s , but these are enough to show the results possible by association of images. Association can work i n d i c t i o n also, as Rosier shows in an a r t i c l e on the use of hands and feasts. He notices that twenty out of a t o t a l t h i r t y - f i v e words fo r 'feast' are con-centrated i n lines 1-790 and serve to reinforce the design for J- 4 3James L. Rosier, "Design f o r Treachery: the Unferth Intrigue," PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 2-3. 1 4 4 I b i d . t p. 4. 1 4 5 I b i d . , p. 7. 207, t e r r o r of the Grendel episode: the feasting h a l l thanes are juxtaposed with the feast of Grendel, who i s i r o n i c a l l y c a l l e d a hall-thane; Beowulf's early f i g h t with the nickers i s a r t i s t i c a l l y rendered i n terms of feasting, and Beowulf's k i l l i n g them i s metaphorically described as a putting to sleep aft e r a feast (11. 562-4); Hygelac metaphorically dies of 146 sword-drinks (1. 2358). Si m i l a r l y the naming of Hondscio i s possibly a re s u l t of association i n a context containing 147 several references to 'hand' (including q l o f ) . Rosier also notices the i r o n i c e f f e c t of certain s i m i l a r i t i e s of language: the v i s i t a t i o n of Grendel (healbeqn) on Heorot (hrofsele) and that of Beowulf (by association, aqlaeca) on the mere-dwelling (niffsele); ba com i s used of Grendel's approach (11. 710-20) and of the warriors' return from the mere (11. 1623-44); both 148 the mere and Heorot are cleansed (11. 825, 1620). One might debate the significance of joa. com being repeated, but there i s l i t t l e doubt that Rosier has found a profitable method of approaching the d i c t i o n and imagery of Old English poems, namely by studying the extent and appropriateness of certain image groups and certain repeated expressions. It has already been mentioned that the various branches of s t y l i s t i c c r i t i c i s m are beginning to unite to the common end of evaluating the poetry as a whole. No longer i s i t s u f f i c i e n t x 4 uJames L. Rosier, "The Uses of Association: Hands and Feasts i n Beowulf," PMLA LXXVIII (1963), 9-10. 1 4 7 I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 1 4 8 I b i d . , p. 12. 208 to make card catalogues of devices and features; they must be viewed as essential parts of the whole poem. Three further studies, two concerning metre, show the results of such united application of p r i n c i p l e s . It was obvious that the o r a l - f o r -mulaic theory was c l o s e l y associated with theories of metre (notably those of J . C. P o p e ) 1 4 9 and that the r e l a t i o n s h i p proved f r u i t f u l to an understanding of both. In 1963 Lewis Nicholson uses the idea of f u l l - v e r s e and measure f o r -mulas (over-lapping, juxtaposed or extended analogously from normal formulas) to explain the 'hypermetric l i n e , ' perhaps the most s a t i s f y i n g explanation to date of this s t y l i s t i c i - •* 150 p e c u l i a r i t y . Randolph Quirk, on the other hand, unites metre and formula with the idea of associative d i c t i o n to show, rather te c h n i c a l l y , how 'word ocfer fand. ' The formula, he;says: i s a habitual c o l l o c a t i o n , m e t r i c a l l y defined, and i s thus a s t y l i z a t i o n of something which i s fundamental to l i n g u i s t i c expression, namely the expectation that a sequence of words w i l l show l e x i c a l congruity, together with (and as a condition of) l e x i c a l and grammatical complementarity. Quirk argues that certain words, such as mod and maeqen develop strong thematic connections and frequently become a l l i t e r a t i v e l 4 9 T h e Rhythm of Beowulf (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1942) l 5°Lewis E. Nicholson, "Oral Techniques i n the Composition of Expanded Anglo-Saxon Verse," PMLA, LXXVIII (1963), 287-92. Randolph Quirk, "Poetic Language and Old English Metre^," Ea r l y English and Norse Studies, Presented to Hugh Smith i n 209 co l l o c a t i o n s . A l l i t e r a t i o n also connects h a l f - l i n e s to involve the poet i n 'extended collocations,' such as: "Wid i s cfes Weston wrae cse t l a f e l a " (Guthlac 1. 296) or "mid hondum con hearpan gretan" (Maxims I. 1. 170). It may therefore be f a i r l y claimed that an expectation of the congruous and complementary, expressed through recurrent coll o c a t i o n s , i s b u i l t into the poetic system of Old English, and i t may be supposed that this is close to the starting point i n estimating the o r i g i n a l audience's pleasurable experience, as i t i s close to our st a r t i n g point i n c r i t i c i s m of the poetry today. There i s evidently a prime s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the propriety of l i k e belonging with l i k e , of t r a d i t i o n a l correspondences being observed. x53 Thus Quirk attempts to reconcile formula and poetic experience by showing how words 'interanimate' each other;,for instance, over half the occurrences of the name Grendel are linked with words of fierceness such as quifand gryre, so that l e x i c a l connection i s expected. Thus grimre gucf(1. 527) may be con-nected with Beowulf's s k i l l s i n the past, but i t i s l e x i c a l l y connected with the threat of G r e n d e l . x o 4 Although these units are usually expected to be comple-mentary, they may take part i n v a r i a t i o n ; e.g., the metrical dependence of maeqnes and Metodes ('modgan maegnes Metodes hyld 1. 670) attributes Beowulf's might to the Lord's favour. The Honour of his S i x t i e t h Birthday, eds. Arthur Brown and Peter Foote (London: Methuen, 1963), pp. 150-1. 1 5 2 I b i d . , p. 152. 1 5 3 I b i d . , p. 153. 1 5 4 I b i d . , pp. 155-6. 210 poet may also exploit the incongruous when congruity i s expected, as in qoldwine and geomor ('goldwine Geata. Him waes geomor sefa, 1 1. 2419); or to achieve a poignant e f f e c t as in sarigne sang and sunu ('sarigne sang bonne his sunu hangaci, * 1. 2447); or a s i n i s t e r e f f e c t as i n geweox.. .willan and waelfealle ('ne geweox he him to wil l a n ac to waelfealle,' 1. 1711); or i r o n i c antithesis as in fercloca f r e o r i q and foldan ('fercfloca f r e o r i g nalaes foldan blaed,' Wanderer, 1. 32). Also, words, metre, and si t u a t i o n conjoin f o r powerful e f f e c t , ' as i n Byrhtnoth's reply to the Vikings. Quirk supplies many examples of these collocations, which "form a c r i t i c a l under-current of a kind which notably enriches Beowulf from time to time and which i s prominent among features making i t a great 1 5 6 poem."-1- The formula, Quirk concludes, i s the necessary s t a r t -ing point f o r the study of Old English poetry, but one must go beyond, to expectations and associations which make the poetry 157 "disturbing and r i c h l y suggestive." F i n a l l y , Godfrid Storms t r i e s to arrive at a f u l l connota-t i v e meaning f o r the language of lines 1399-1417, the search for the mere. To do so, he c l a r i f i e s his attitude to 'tradition* and 'formula,' both of which, he f e e l s , too often imply emptiness 158 and meaninglessness. Less gift e d poets need such a t r a d i t i o n , 155 Ibid., passim., 1 5 6 I b i d . , p. 166. 1 5 7 I b i d . , p. 171. J- J OG. Storms, "The Subjectivity of the Style of Beowulf," but i n the Beowulf passage under discussion, "we f i n d many conventional elements but each word f i t s exactly into the context and adds something to the description." Take away the t r a d i t i o n a l elements, there i s swift movement and a f e e l i n g of t e r r o r created by highly poetic v a r i a t i o n ; there i s the contrast of brightness and beauty i n the description of horse and armor; there i s intense emotional colouring i n the tracks l An through the dark woods, with no mention of the monster. Storms i s aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n deciding the emotive connotation of Old English words, but he attempts to determine both the objective emotional meaning ( i . e . , emotive sense d i r e c t l y conveyed) and the subjective emotional colouring ( i . e . , from context, i n which even the objective quality may a l t e r , as i n sarcasm). Thus ofer myrcan mor has both objec-tive connotations of general darkness and gloom, and subjective connotations concerning the death of Aeschere and the outcome of the j o u r n e y . a D x Sawolleasne also has both colourings: objectively i t denotes an absence of something; subjectively i t has an i n t e n s i f y i n g function. Here Storms reviews a l l the -leas compounds i n Beowulf and concludes that the poet has shown remarkable s e n s i t i v i t y i n the emotional contexts f o r e a c h . 1 0 2 Studies i n Old English Literature i n Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur ([Eugene^]: Univ. of Oregon Books, 1963), 171. 1 5 9 I b i d . , p. 172.' 1 6 0 I b i d . , pp. 173-4. 1 6 1 I b i d . , p. 174. 162 Ibid., pp. 175-83. 212 Regarding c r i t i c a l method, Storms attacks the card-indexing sort of studies which were current around the turn of the century. Such studies were too mechanical and ignored the poetic significance of a device such as v a r i a t i o n . Storms also shows that etymology can help in poetic appreciation. For instance he notes an etymological connection between enqe and the German anqst, a Latin root of which means Ho choke 1 or press together. One i s reminded here of Wyld's hesitation about r e l y i n g on word or i g i n s : one must be sure that such meanings were known to the Anglo-Saxons. Nevertheless, Storms has shown that a study of the associative richness of the poetic language can be very rewarding and can help to establish the position of Old English poetry i n the history of English 164 l i t e r a t u r e . Since 1963 the production i n Old English s t y l i s t i c c r i t i c i s m has been much reduced. The major problems of d i c t i o n and imagery seem to have been resolved. Certainly the o r a l -formulaic theory revealed much about the nature of the d i c t i o n , whether or not one believes that Beowulf i s an oral composition. In addition, the drawbacks of this theory have been well modified by the proponents of 'high a r t . ' Actually, the general conclusion which one can draw from the period i s that Old.English poetry, Beowulf i n p a r t i c u l a r , has at l a s t taken i t s 1 6 3 I b i d . , p. 185. 1 6 4 I b i d . , p. 186. 213 legitimate place in English l i t e r a r y history. The texts are r e l i a b l e , the devices are understood and well-delineated, the history and culture of the period have been quite thoroughly studied. Wellek and Warren say: "The work of art i s . . . a whole system of signs, or structure of signs, serving a s p e c i f i c aesthetic purpose." x°5 Recent Beowulf c r i t i c s now understand the meaning of the signs well enough to advance theories about the aesthetic purpose. They have brought decades of s t y l i s t i c study together and have emerged with some sound methods by which they can evaluate the a r t i s t i c achievement of Old English poetry. x o 5 R e n g Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, J956), p. 129. 214 SOME CONCLUSIONS The main conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing survey i s that the c r i t i c i s m of Old English poetic d i c t i o n and f i g u r a t i o n i s now s u f f i c i e n t l y developed that the results are no longer mere l i t e r a r y , c u r i o s i t i e s , but aids to the complete appreciation of an important and beautiful body of poetry. But such a l e v e l of development has not been attained without much d i f f i c u l t y , since "the ordering and establishing of evidence""'' necessary before any poetry can be viewed c r i t i -c a l l y has i n the case of Old English encountered centuries of obstacles which do not normally obstruct the c r i t i c i s m of other periods of English poetry: Old English poetry lacked the continuity of a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n ; i t lacked an exclusive ars poetica to provide the key of understanding; and i t f a i l e d , for one reason or another, to inspire early c r i t i c a l - l i t e r a r y c u r i o s i t y . In the f i r s t place, i t took nearly three centuries for the materials to be collected; f o r , although the bulk of the poetic manuscripts were catalogued by 1705, the beautiful poems of the V e r c e l l i Book were not even discovered u n t i l 1822. And even then, most of the manuscripts were quite i n c i d e n t a l l y collected along with the r e l i g i o u s and h i s t o r i c a l documents which constituted the main antiquarian interest of the AThe terms used by Wellek and Warren in t h e i r Theory of  Literature (New York: Harvest Book, 1956), chapter 6. 215 Renaissance. Thus the f i r s t e s s e n t i a l , the c o l l e c t i n g and recognizing of the texts, took an unnaturally long time to accomplish. Achieving the second essential to c r i t i c i s m , r e l i a b l y edited texts, took equally long, since the whole corpus of Old English poetry was not adequately edited i n English u n t i l the f i n a l volume of the Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records appeared in 1953, almost three centuries a f t e r Junius published (1655) the f i r s t e d i t i o n of the codex which bears his name, an e d i t i o n which i t s e l f appeared more than one hundred years after the f i r s t Old English manuscripts were rediscovered. In addition, the neo-classical tastes of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries must have recoiled at the clumsy, foreign-looking types i n which Old English manuscripts were f i r s t pub-li s h e d . F i n a l l y , p rior to the nineteenth century, scholars generally had l i t t l e idea of l i n g u i s t i c development and were also unable to appreciate the marked difference between the language of Old English prose and that of Old English poetry. The work of such early scholars as Thorkelin and Turner bears witness to this f a i l i n g . Although in recent years i t has become fashionable in Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m to deplore "the dragon's curse of philology" and the attendant curses of myth and history, philology was nevertheless the key to the Old English word-hoard during the nineteenth century. One cannot deny that these issues tended to dominate Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m and, in 216 many cases, to ignore the poetry altogether, as Tolkien per-suasively discusses i n his l i t t l e allegory about the tower from which the owner could see the sea. But i f I may expand th i s l i t t l e allegory a b i t - - c e r t a i n l y pushing over the tower to look at the s o i l beneath i t i s rather hard on the tower and probably does not reveal much useful information about i t . But the tower had been long deserted and was i n a shocking state of d i s r e p a i r . The few early adventurers who t r i e d to climb i t stumbled on broken s t a i r s i n the dark, fearing that the damaged stonemasonry, f u l l of cracks, would never hold the weight of t h e i r c r i t i c a l methods. The few who made i t to the top were so blinded by the dark and choked by the dust they could barely take i n the view. Others climbed part way and retreated; and yet others said: "This tower i s too shaky; l e t us leave i t to decay as i t should. Besides, i t i s a very crude tower, b u i l t by i l l - b r e d barbarians, you know!" But stonemasons from the neighboring town of Philology were ca l l e d in and brought with them torches, went inside the tower and by the l i g h t of t h e i r torches saw that many stones had to be replaced. I t took much labor and debate i n some cases to put the f a l l e n stones back i n th e i r o r i g i n a l places; but always the stonemasons proceeded upwards, repairing as they went, occasionally stopping to rearrange stones, since t o r c h l i g h t i s not very bright. Some stonemasons, to be sure, became so engrossed i n the structure of the stones themselves that they did not ascend f a r , but instead ran around the neigh-bourhood comparing them to a l l the other stones they could f i n d . F i n a l l y , they said: "But what kind of tower i s this? It is s t i l l rather dark and ugly and d i r t y . " So they c a l l e d various experts from the neighboring states of Paleography, Mythology and History. They debated a great deal about the stones and took rubbings and scrapings and chipped away at the old mortar and learned much about the people who b u i l t the tower, but they did not fi n d out much about the tower i t s e l f . Some experts became so fascinated with the sweepings and scrapings that they took them home for a better look, since the l i g h t i n the tower was s t i l l dim. Then f i n a l l y some architects from the next town, Poetry, who had spent t h e i r l i v e s building new towers and refur-bishing old ones at home, came on t h i s isolated tower accident-a l l y . Some said: "What an ugly tower. I much prefer a Grecian or Georgian design!" Others stayed and said: "What an in t e r e s t -ing tower, how dingy and badly designed, what a challenge!" So they c a l l e d in e l e c t r i c i a n s , who, with much d i f f i c u l t y , wired the tower so that everyone could see by the new bright l i g h t . Then came charwomen with miracle detergents to scrub clean the stones. F i n a l l y , the new owners arrived and said: "The view i s great, and we never before realized the beauty of the stone-work i n thi s tower—the stones have lovely colours and shapes and are arranged in a subtle and int r i g u i n g manner. We l i k e t h i s tower very much." But i t i s s t i l l an old tower, and one wonders just how comfortable the new tenants w i l l be. To what extent can a modern student enjoy Old English poetry as poetry and to what extent can c r i t i c a l methods evolved for more modern poems be applied? Up to a point, 218 p r e v a i l i n g tastes through the past few centuries have influenced the speed and d i r e c t i o n with which the preliminary operations were accomplished. Certainly the peculiar mixture of c l a s s i -cal scholarship, romantic and n a t i o n a l i s t i c sentiment, the concept of progress, and the taste for regular metre and unextra-vagant d i c t i o n i n poetry must have influenced the nineteenth century to view Old English poetry as h i s t o r i c a l documents and l i n g u i s t i c r e l i c s which did not r e a l l y deserve the name of poetry. The romantic a t t r a c t i o n of the past drew the scholars of the past, not the c r i t i c s of l i t e r a t u r e . In most cases, then, the influence of prevailing culture on Old English poetic c r i t i -cism u n t i l the late nineteenth century tended, i f anything, to be negative. Even during the late nineteenth and early twen-t i e t h centuries when Old English poetic d i c t i o n came under scrutiny, i t suffered from the same c o n f l i c t which prevailed i n most l i t e r a r y f i e l d s at the time, that between uncertain new methods and uncreative old methods. Nevertheless, the source studies, analogues, catalogues, c l a s s i f i e d l i s t s and type studies which appeared at the time constituted valuable, i f uninspired, background material to l a t e r studies of d i c t i o n and imagery. And, of course, l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m at the turn of the century was by and large h i s t o r i c a l i n emphasis. However, shortly after the war, the language and imagery of poetry came into i t s own with such c r i t i c s as T. S. E l i o t and I. A. Richards. I do not think one can go so far as to suggest that these c r i t i c s d i r e c t l y influenced the development 21:9 of Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m , but t h e i r type of c r i t i c i s m must have had some influence on the way in which scholars approached Old English poetry, a sort of c r i t i c a l Z e i t g e i s t . This c r i t i c a l trend came fortunately at a time when Old English texts were r e l i a b l e enough to be subjected to concentrated semantic study, so that one finds Wyld, Bryan, and Helen Buck-hurst attempting to determine shades of word meanings and to evaluate the style of Old English poetry by means of language studies. In addition, with new theories of poetic craftsman-ship emphasizing language rather than metre, i t i s not unnatural that c r i t i c i s m of Old English poetic style should also focus more on poetic language than on metre, a d i s t i n c t reversal of nineteenth century tendencies. F i n a l l y , the emergence of p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c i s m was exactly what was needed for Old English poetry. For, useful as h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m i s in Anglo-Saxon studies, the danger was that the poetry would be compJetely swamped by the study of e x t r i n s i c matters. However, Old English poetry, notably Beowulf, had so suffered at the hands of th e o r e t i c a l c r i t i c s such as W. P. Ker, that Tolkien's B r i t i s h Academy lecture was a well-timed, badly-needed defense which resuscitated the poem as an object worthy of l i t e r a r y attention. Nevertheless, the New C r i t i c s of the 30's and 40"s, probably because of inadequate background, did not concern themselves with Old English poetry. Even today, the profitable application of some Neo-C r i t i c a l p r i nciples to Old English poetry seems very much second-hand: as i f the Old English scholar and the l i t e r a r y 0 220 c r i t i c were two d i f f e r e n t pypes of p e o p l e . C e r t a i n l y , W. K. Wimsatt's i n f o r m e d defense of O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c v a r i a -t i o n (1954) i s a r e m a r k a b l e e x c e p t i o n t o the g e n e r a l t r e n d i n comprehensive c r i t i c a l works. A l s o , Wimsatt's concern w i t h v a r i a t i o n as a f e a t u r e of E n g l i s h l i t e r a r y s t y l e c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e of t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s , who b e g r u d g i n g l y a l l o t t e d O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y space, s e e m i n g l y o n l y because of i t s h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . The q u e s t i o n remains to be answered whether O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y can ever be s u b j e c t e d t o the same c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s as modern E n g l i s h p o e t r y , or whether i t must always remain the e x c l u s i v e concern of Anglo-Saxon s c h o l a r s . Recent d e v e l o p -ments i n the study of. Old E n g l i s h p o e t i c s t y l e have h e l p e d make O l d E n g l i s h p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s more g e n e r a l l y compre-h e n s i b l e : the o r a l - f o r m u l a i c t h e o r y h e l p s g r e a t l y to e x p l a i n the o r i g i n and development of the k i n d of p o e t i c language the c r i t i c must cope w i t h ; B r odeur's A r t of Beowulf p r e s e n t s an a e s t h e t i c f o r O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y t h rough an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the elements of v e r b a l o r i g i n a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e v a r i a t i o n ; and s t u d i e s of word a s s o c i a t i o n i n c r e a s e our awareness of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r i c h n e s s o f the p o e t r y . C e r t a i n l y the New C r i t i c i s m , a t l e a s t the more extreme a t t i t u d e s of t h a t s c h o o l , would meet w i t h f a i l u r e i f a p p l i e d t o O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y . As e a r l y as 1824 R i c h a r d P r i c e saw the f a l l a c y of i n t e r p r e t i n g O l d E n g l i s h p o e t r y a c c o r d i n g t o the meaning of d e r i v a t i v e words; ee appendix B. 221: thus interpretations based on verbal ambiguity could lead to gross d i s t o r t i o n s of the text. Robert Creed's "On the Possi-b i l i t y of C r i t i c i z i n g Old English Poetry" (1961), shows to some extent the ri s k s involved in applying the New C r i t i c i s m , which i n i t s extremes ignores a l l but the poem i t s e l f . It takes only a small book l i k e Dorothy Whitelock's The Audience  of Beowulf to show just how dependent Old English c r i t i c i s m i s on such externals as h i s t o r i c a l background. Old English poetry b a s i c a l l y demands too much ground-work f o r i t ever to become the property of a l l general l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s . For the language, t r a d i t i o n and culture of Old English poetry are so far removed from our own that they must be learned from the beginning, without even the aid of a long t r a d i t i o n of scholarship. A student may pick up Shakespeare, Pope, Eliot--even Chaucer--and derive some sort of poetic experience before he commences a close scholarly analysis. Not so for Beowulf. Herein l i e s the major handicap to progress i n Old English poetic criticism; for the size of the reward, many c r i t i c s f i n d the quest too d i f f i c u l t . But the quest i s not now so d i f f i c u l t as i t once was; and the reward, as Brodeur has shown, can be worth the e f f o r t . However, there i s s t i l l basic work to be done before aesthetic c r i t i c i s m can be f u l l y exercised. Foremost among items required i s a concordance to the poetry, which Magoun pleaded for nearly ten years ago. There i s also s t i l l plenty of room for the more pedestrian jobs of image-counting and word-classifying, 222 i f only to confirm, as some c r i t i c s have already begun to do for Beowulf, that the poet's talent and s k i l l have provided the poem with the patterns of imagery and patterns of sound which belong to f i r s t - r a t e poetry, quite independent of such ques-tions as when i t was composed, how h i s t o r i c a l l y accurate i t i s , and whether i t was the creation of an oral or lettered poet (almost as immaterial a question as whether Shakespeare wrote Shakespeare). C r i t i c s and scholars have, indeed, reached the point where they can, l i k e the Beowulf poet himself, praise the man who was able "snyttrum styrian / and on sped wrecan spel gerade." 223 SOURCES CONSULTED Editions Used Klaeber, Fr., ed. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburq, 3rd ed. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1950. Krapp, George P. and E l l i o t t V. K. Dobbie, eds. 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Essays and Studies, XI (1925), 49-91. 233 Books and A r t i c l e s on H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l Background Adams, Eleanor N. Old English Scholarship in England from  1566-1800. Yale Studies i n English, LV. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1917. Atkins, J . W. H. English Literary C r i t i c i s m : The Medieval  Phase. London: Methuen, 1952. Baldwin, Charles Sears. Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic. New York: MacMillan, 1928. Bede, The Venerable. The Old English Version of Bede?s " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l History of the English People," ed. and trans. Thomas M i l l e r . The Early English Text Society, o r i g i n a l series No. 96, pt. 1, section 2. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959. Bennett, J . A. W. "Hickes's 'Thesaurus': A Study in Oxford Book-Production." English Studies, I n.s. (1948), 28-45. Chadwick, H. Munro. The Study of Anglo-Saxon, 2nd. ed. Nora K. Chadwick. Cambridge: Heffer, 1955. [Cicero]. Ad C. Herennium de Ratione Dicendi (Rhetorica ad Herennium), trans. Harry Caplan. London: Heinemann, 1954. Cleasby, Richard and Gudbrand Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English  Dictionary, 2nd. ed. S i r William A. Craigie. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962. Cooley, Franklin. "Early Danish C r i t i c i s m of Beowulf." ELH, VII (1940, 45-7. . "William Taylor of Norwich and Beowulf." Modern Language Notes, LV (1940), 210-11. Crawford, S. J . Anglo-Saxon Influence on Western Christendom, 600-800. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1933. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, trans. Willard R. Trask. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1953. Dickins, Bruce. " J . M. Kemble and Old English Scholarship." Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy, XXV (1939), 51-84. Flower, Robin. "Lawrence Nowell and the Discovery of England i n Tudor Times." Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy,XXI (1935), 47-73. 234 The Gentleman's Magazine. Vol. I n.s. (Jan.-June, 1834). V o l . II n.s. (July-Sept., 1834). Gordon, E. V. An Introduction to Old Norse, 2nd. ed. rev. A. R. Taylor. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962. Gray, Thomas. Poems, Letters and Essays, ed. John Drinkwater. Everyman's Library, No. 628. London; Dent, 1955. Gummere, Francis B. The Beginnings of Poetry. New York, 1908. . ed. Old English Ballads. Boston, 1899. Helmer, William Floyd. " C r i t i c a l Estimates of Beowulf from the E a r l y Nineteenth Century to the Present." Diss. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1963. Henrici Archidiaconi Huntindoniensis. Historiarum L i b r i Octo. London, 1596. Hollander, Lee M. The Skalds: A Selection of Their Poems, With Introductions and Notes. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1945. Ker, W. P. "Literary Influence of the Middle Ages." CHEL. Vo l . X, pp. 245-73. Kinghorn, A. M. "Warton's History and Early English Poetry." English Studies, XLIV (1963), 197-204. Kliger, Samuel. The Goths in England. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1952. „ «jhe Neo-Classical View of Old English Poetry." JEGP, XLIX (1950), 516-22. 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New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1956. Whitelock, Dorothy. Changing Currents i n Anglo-Saxon Studies: An Inaugural Lecture. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1958. Wimsatt, W. K. J r . The Verbal Icon: Studies in the Meaning of  Poetry. New York: Noonday Press, 1964. . and cieanth Brooks. Literary C r i t i c i s m : A Short History. New York: Knopf, 1957. Woolf,. Henry Bosley. "Longfellow's Interest in Old English." P h i l o l o g i c a : The Malone Anniversary Studies, eds. Thomas A. Kirby and Henry Bosley Woolf. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1949, pp. 281-89. Wrenn, C. L. "On the Continuity of English Poetry." Anglia, LXXVI (1958), 41-59. 23)7 APPENDIX A THE PROBLEM OF OLD NORSE POETIC APPELLATIONS Since the f i r s t f l i c k e r s of Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m i n the late seventeenth century, i t has been the practice to apply the s t y l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s of Old Norse poetry to Old English poetry, e s p e c i a l l y the principles set down i n Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda. Although t h i s practice was doubtless reinforced by the absence of an equivalent poetic f o r Old English, and although metre was the main area of the poetry which concerned the eighteenth century, nevertheless i n 1715 Elizabeth Elstob made the vague but correct analogy between the "many bold Figures" which Ole Worm reported existed i n Old Norse, and the equivalent expressions i n Old English."'' Later, during the nineteenth century, as Old English language studies became increasingly frequent, greater attention was paid to the terminology for the poetic language, with kenning (the word given to the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c device of the highly substantive skaldic verse) being the f i r s t Old Norse term to be applied. But two questions immediately a r i s e : what does th i s term mean, and to what extent i s i t v a l i d to apply Snorri's t r e a t i s e on skaldic d i c t i o n to the poetry of a d i f f e r e n t c u l -ture which was e a r l i e r by several centuries? The fac t that skaldic poetry was d i f f e r e n t , not only from the poetry of other •'•Elizabeth Elstob, The Rudiments of Grammar f o r the English-Saxon Tongue with an Apology f o r the Study of Northern  A n t i q u i t i e s (London, 1715), p. 68. ' .238 Old Germanic cultures, but from the e a r l i e r Old Norse poetry of the Edda s'hould, I think, caution one against a wholesale adoption of the terms. I think also that the discrepancy between verse based, as Old English poetry i s , on the device of va r i a t i o n and verse based on nominal t r i c k s and puzzles, as skaldic verse i s , has contributed to the unclear application of Old Norse terms to Old English poetry. B a s i c a l l y , scholars have been unclear as to whether a kenning i s so named because i t i s metaphorical, because i t i s compounded, or because i t acts as a nominal substitute. I pro-pose here to present three views of Snorri's categories, then to look at a few comments on the terms as they are used speci-f i c a l l y i n Old Norse studies, and f i n a l l y to l i s t chronologically some of the most important uses of the terminology i n Old English c r i t i c i s m . In a l l cases I s h a l l give the quotations or close paraphrases of each c r i t i c ' s attitude, and i n most cases I s h a l l add a summary comment. I. Views of Snorri's Categories for the Substantive i n Poetic D i c t i o n . A. Snorri Sturluson, The Prose Edda. The three types of 'skaldic metaphor' are: 1) c a l l i n g everything by i t s name 2) substitution 3) periphrasis (p. 96) trans. Arthur G i l c h r i s t Brodeur (New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1929). 239 The Old Norse equivalents are not given i n this t r a n s l a t i o n . B. H. van der Merwe Scholtz, The Kenning i n Anglo-Saxon and  Old Norse Poetry. 3 Snorri's three categories of the substantive are: 1) a l l nouns or expressions i n t h e i r ordinary, l i t e r a l sense. 2) ukennt h e i t i , often call e d nafn or h e i t i 3) kenning, h e i t i and kennt h e i t i (p.35~l H e i t i , unlike words of group 1), are found i n poetry only. The h e i t i may be a kenning as well as a general term f o r group 2). Frequent usage probably caused the h e i t i to lose much of t h e i r f i g u r a t i v e meaning, so that they became ukennt h e i t i , the opposite of kennt h e i t i . (pp. 36-9) Kenning seems to be used as a general term f o r group 3), and h e i t i i s by no means c l e a r l y defined. C. Arthur G i l c h r i s t Brodeur, The Art of Beowulf. Brodeur l i s t s the following appellations: 1) okent h e i t i , "an unqualified simplex denoting a per-son or thing." It may be l i t e r a l , e.g., scip, or f i g u r a t i v e , e.g., ceol. ' 2) "compound or combinatory appellations which may substitute for the l i t e r a l word f o r a concept or accompany i t i n v a r i a t i o n . " a) kenning: c a l l s the referent "something which i t a c t u a l l y i s not" (e.g., beadoleoma). D) kent h e i t i : " c a l l s the referent something which i t i s " (e.g., wegflota). c) vi^kenning: i s a variety of kent h e i t i , i n which the base-word i s always a term of ownership or family r e l a t i o n s h i p (e.g., mago Healf denes.). (pp. 247-53) Brodeur has not made separate categories f o r the prosaic and the poetic simplices, but his d e f i n i t i o n s are c e r t a i n l y less ambiguous than those of Scholtz. 3(Qxford: Blackwell, 1929). 4(Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1959). 240 I I . Some Statements and Definitions from Scholars of Old Norse. A. Lee M. Hollander, The Skalds: A Selection of t h e i r Poems, With Introductions and NotesT^ The kenning i s "always an implied simile." (p. 12) "The s t r i k i n g difference [between skaldic and other kennings] is that i n Skaldic poetry the replacement of nouns by a circumlocution i s raised to a p r i n c i p l e . . . so that in extreme cases v i r t u a l l y nothing i s mentioned by i t s own name or designated by an everyday word." (p. 13) It i s not clear whether Hollander r e a l l y considers the kenning as metaphorical, since he gives as example 'dispenser of ring s . ' However, he minimizes i t s importance as a substitute expression i n a l l but skaldic poetry. B. Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary." Kenning i s defined as "a poetical periphrasis or descrip-t i v e name...The ancient circumlocutions were either drawn from mythology...or from the thing i t s e l f (sann-kenning), as to c a l l the breast the mind's abode...'.' (p. 336) H e i t i i s defined as "'a noun, a denomination...ukennd h e i t i , simple nouns, opp. to kenningar, circumlocutions or metaphors...." (p. 253) It i s not absolutely clear whether 'circumlocutions or meta-phors' i s to be taken i n series with 'kenningar' or i n apposition. The decision would make a difference to the actual application of the term. C. E. V. Gordon, An Introduction to Old Norse. "The kenning i s l o g i c a l l y (although not always i n a r t i s t i c e f fect) a metaphor; the term i s derived from the use of a verb kenna.. .jwhichl means 'to express or des-cribe one thing by means of another.'" (p. xl) 5(Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1945). "2nd ed. S i r William A. Craigie (Oxford: Clarendon, 1962). 72nd ed. rev. A. R. Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon, 1962). 241 The emphasis here i s on the f i g u r a t i v e , but Gordon does not discuss other Old Norse poetic terms. From these three sources, then, one cannot derive a consistent meaning f o r kenning; the term seems to be as vaguely applied in Old Norse as in Old 'English c r i t i c i s m . I I I . A Chronological L i s t of Definitions by Old English Scholars. 1824 Richard Price, "Editor's Preface. «8 "If 'dinges-mere' be the genuine reading, i t must be considered as a p a r a l l e l phrase with 'wiges-heard, hordes-heard,' etc., where two substantives are united i n one word, the former of which stands i n the genitive case with an adjective power....'Dinges-mere' would then be a 'kenningar nafn' given to the ocean from the continual clashing of i t s waves. For i t w i l l be remembered that the l i t e r a l import of 'mere' i s a mere or lake, and t h i s could not be applied to the I r i s h channel, without some qualifying expression." (p. x c v i i i n.) Although kenningar nafn means 'surname,' Price emphasizes here the structure and metaphorical nature of what i s now known simply as a kenning. 1871 Henry Sweet, "Sketch of the History of Anglo-Saxon Poetry." 9 "In the whole poem of Beowulf there are scarcely half a dozen of them [similes}, and these of the simplest character, such as comparing the ship to a b i r d . Indeed, such a simple comparison as t h i s i s almost equivalent to the more usual 'kenning' (as i t i s c a l l e d in Icelandic), such as 'brimfugol,' where, instead of com-paring the ship to a bird, the poet simply c a l l s i t a sea-bird, preferring the d i r e c t assertion to the i n d i r e c t comparison." (p. 6) °Thomas Warton, The History of English Poetry, rev. ed. [Richard P r i c e ] , Vol. I (London, 1824). ~^ 9Thomas Warton, History of English Poetry, ed. W. Carew Haz-l i t t , V ol. II (London, 1871). 242 Thus Sweet emphasizes the metaphorical nature of the kenning. 1887 Albert H. Tolman, "The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. , , x U "The synonyms, epithets, Kenningar, whether replacing pronouns or mere appositions and s y n t a c t i c a l l y super-fluous, are a central feature of A.-S. poetry." (p. 25) Tolman also uses the term generally to include unusual poetic expressions, and he i m p l i c i t l y stresses the substituting function. 1907 Walter Morris Hart, Ballad and Epic: A Study in the  Development of the Narrative Art. "This same personification fgud'-wine] of the sword (and again with faded metaphor or kenning) occurs... when i t i s said that the battle-gleam refused to bite " (p. 177) Hart i s quite vague about the kenning, but apparently recog-nizes i t by i t s f i g u r a t i v e nature. 1909 James Walter Rankin, "A Study of the Kennings i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry."12 "The word kenning i s used...as a convenient designation of a metaphorical, a periphrastic, or a more or less complex term employed in the Anglo-Saxon poems instead .of a single, s p e c i f i c name f o r a person or thing." (p. 357) This can be considered the ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' or broad meaning of the term kenning. 1922 Fr. Klaeber, ed., Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg.l 3 "Generously and withal j u d i c i o u s l y the author employs these picturesque circumlocutory words and phrases 1 QPMLA, III (1887) . H a r v a r d Studies i n Philology and Literature, XI (Cambridge, 1907). 1 2JEGP, VIII (1909). 1 3 3 r d ed. (Boston: Heath, 1950). 243 known as 'kennings,* which, emphasizing a certain quality of a person or thing, are used i n place of the plain, abstract designation, e.g., helmberend .. .ycta gewealc, or such as involve metaphorical language, l i k e rodores candel.•.beadolgoma." (p. l x i i i ) "The kennings very often take the form of compounds." (p. l x i v ) Klaeber thus emphasizes the substituting rather than the f i g u r a t i v e function of the kenning. 1929 H. van der Merwe Scholtz, The Kenning in Anglo-Saxon  and Old Norse Poetry. A kenning i s a periphrastic expression of at least two words either compounded or separate. (p. 37) 'Unity of meaning' i s the most d i s t i n c t i v e feature of the kenning; thus single words which may be considered e l l i p t i c a l forms of a two-part kenning (e.g., goldwine, hleo, hyrde as terms for 'king') are included as kennings. (pp. 42-5) "The kenning i s a conventional compound or phrase, generally consisting of two substantives the l i t e r a l meanings of which hardly enter the conscious mind." (p. 57) That the kenning i s a f i g u r a t i v e use of a phrase is only partly true (mythological kennings are not so). "Generally speaking, i t would..be more correct to regard kenningar as words and phrases used i n a f i g u r a -ti v e or a spe c i a l i z e d , as opposed to the l i t e r a l or general sense of such words and phrases." (p. 4 7 J -"The v a r i a t i o n i s an expression added to another term f o r explanatory reasons or purposes of emphasis. This i s not the case with the kenning. It i s not an a u x i l i a r y term placed in apposition to another, but a substitute f o r that term i t s e l f which, accordingly, does not appear at a l l in the sentence." (p. 52) The h e i t i are found in poetry only. There i s fundament-a l l y no difference between the kenning and the h e i t i , except possibly the words under h e i t i have l o s t to a large extent t h e i r f i g u r a t i v e meaning. (pp. 37-8) Scholtz is simply not clear about either the structure of the metaphorical nature of the kenning or the exact nature of the 244 h e i t i . He does, however, emphasize the substituting role of the kenning. 1929 Helen Buckhurst, "Terms and Phrases for the Sea in Old English Poetry." 1 4 True kennings are "condensed metaphorical, p i c t o r i a l , or f i g u r a t i v e expressions." (p. 110) The true kenning, i . e . , condensed metaphor, i s quite rare i n Old English. More common i s the 'half-kenning. 1 (p. 116) 1940 J. R. R. Tolkien, "Prefatory Remarks." 1 0 "In this class [the 'poetic c l a s s ' ] , sometimes called by the Icelandic name 'kenning' (description), the compound offers a p a r t i a l and often imaginative or f a n c i f u l description of a thing, and the poets may use i t instead of the normal 'name.'" (p. xxv) TolkieHcd'oesr ndtsemphasize the f i g u r a t i v e nature of the kenning and only suggests that substitution was one of i t s r o l e s . 1948 Kemp Malone, "The Old English Period (to 1100)." "Stereotypes of another kind were the kennings, a ch a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of Old Germanic poetic d i c t i o n . These arose as variations, but in many cases became so fa m i l i a r that they could be used without previous men-The h e i t i i s "a one-term substitute f o r an ordinary noun," e.g., 'ash' to mean 'spear'; and l i k e the kenning i t arose from v a r i a t i o n . (p. 30) Malone's examples are not r e s t r i c t e d to metaphorical expres-sions, and he places great emphasis on the substituting function and two-term structure. x Studies i n English Philology in Honor of Frederick Klaeber, eds. Kemp Malone and Martin B. Ruud (Minneapolis: Univr; of Minnesota Press, 1929). 15 John R. Clark H a l l , trans Beowulf and the Finnesburg 24S 1953 C. L. Wrenn, ed., Beowulf, with the Finnesburq  Fragment. x 7 The kenning i s loosely defined as "the poetic interpre-tation or description of a thing or thought by means of a condensed si m i l e , " which i n Old English i s usually a compound. It i s d i s t i n c t from a 'descriptive epithet' (e.g., hringed-stefna) by the presence of an inherent or condensed simile ("e.g., mere-hengest). (p. 81') 1959 Masako I s s h i k i , "The ;Kennings in Beowulf." x 8 "Kennings are unusual alternative words or metaphorical expressions." (p. 257) 1959 Douglas C. C o l l i n s , "Kenning i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry." x "In essence a kenning i s a metaphorical expression." (p. 1) 1959 Arthur G i l c h r i s t Brodeur, The Art of Beowulf. "The kenning i s indeed a metaphor; but i t i s not d i r e c t or a j u s t metaphor. It depends for i t s e f f e c t not upon the l i s t e n e r ' s recognition that a given thing i s so l i k e that with which i t i s i d e n t i f i e d that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has immediate poetic truth; i t depends upon the hearer's a b i l i t y and willimgness to see l i k e -ness within unlikeness, and the unlikeness must seem to be dissipated through the l i m i t i n g word, which expresses an area, or a condition, within which l i k e -ness may be imagined....A metaphor i s a kenning only i f i t contains an incongruity between the referent and the meaning of the base-word; i n the kenning the l i m i t i n g word i s essential to the figure because with-out i t incongruity would make any i d e n t i f i c a t i o n impossible." (pp. 250-1) Fragment, rev. ed. C. L. Wrenn (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1954). x U A Literary History of England, ed. Albert C. Baugh (New York: Appelton-Century-Crofts, 1948). x 7(London: Harrap, 1953). 1 8 Studies in English Grammar and L i n g u i s t i c s : A Miscellany i n Honor of Takanobu Osuka, eds. Kazuo Araki et a l ~ (Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1958). 246 "Those periphrases which are not kennings, but which possess the same structure as the kenning, and which i d e n t i f y the referent as something which i s is_, may best be c a l l e d by the Old Icelandic term kend h e i t i . " (p. 251) "Too much emphasis has been placed upon substitution as an e s s e n t i a l character of the kenning; i t i s most commonly a substitution in Old Norse, but not in Old English." (p. 252) Thus Brodeur narrowly defines the Old Norse poetic appellations, notably r e s t r i c t i n g the metaphorical meaning of the kenning and minimizing i t s importance as- a substitute expression. From the above l i s t s one can conclude that i t i s j u s t i f i -able to apply Old Norse terms to Old English poetry, that i t i s necessary to adjust them s l i g h t l y because of the dominant Old 2 0 English device of v a r i a t i o n , and that precision i n t h e i r application has paralleled the general understanding of Old English poetic d i c t i o n . During the nineteenth century scholars only infrequently used the term kenning; and when they did so, they either emphasized the metaphorical nature of the device or used i t simply as a convenient appellation for the d i s t i n c -t i v e Old English poetic compound. This l a t t e r use of the term i s s t i l l convenient; and in spite of l a t e r refinements of Old Norse poetic terminology, i t remains the ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' or common meaning. However, nineteenth century scholars had other ways of describing Old English poetic compounds and phrases. Sharon Turner, for example, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the 'eight' .^Essays and Studies, XII n.s. (1959). 2°See Appendix B. 247 periphrases' for God i n Caedmon's Hymn and the 'metaphorical 21 periphrasis' of c a l l i n g Noah's ark a 'sea^-house,1 thereby suggesting two d i f f e r e n t kinds of poetic expression. Isaac D i s r a e l i referred to periphrases and 'obscure conceits,' but for the most part nineteenth century c r i t i c s referred to 'metaphors.' F. B. Gummere's The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor 2 3 shows that the term was very loosely applied and was l i t t l e more than a convenient designation for unusual or fi g u r a t i v e poetic lan-guage. With the early twentieth century the use of 'metaphor' in t h i s context declined, and kenning came to mean roughly the same thing. At th i s time the ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' meaning became firmly rooted, the meaning which i s used as late as 1959 by 24 I s s h i k i and 1961 by William Whallon. However, during the 1920's two alternative views of the kenning gained i n impor-tance. F i r s t , in comparing the Old Norse and Old English kenning, van der Merwe Scholtz emphasized i t s role as a substitute expression, a role acknowledged by Tolkien, en-dorsed by Malone, but c r i t i c i z e d by Brodeur as being r e a l l y xThe History of the Anglo-Saxons, 5th ed., Vol III (London, 1828), pp. 267-8. 2 2Amenities of Literature, new ed. B. D i s r a e l i , Vol.1 (London^ 1859), p. 32, 32 n.; see above, p. 52. 2 3 ( H a l l e , 1881); see above, pp. 66-71. 2 4"The Diction of Beowulf," PMLA, LXXVI (1961), 309-19; see above p. 187. 24a a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y t o the Old Norse k e n n i n g . Then Helen B u c k h u r s t began t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e , as Turner had done a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r , between l i t e r a l and m e t a p h o r i c a l p o e t i c compounds, a p p l y i n g k e n n i n g t o o n l y the l a t t e r . C a r o l i r e Brady's 1952 a r t i c l e on -rad compounds was i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r l i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the l i t e r a l d e f i n i n g p e r i p h r a s i s and the m e t a p h o r i c a l 25 p e r i p h r a s i s , a l t h o u g h M i s s Brady d i d not use the term k e n n i n g . C. L. Wrenn a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the k-enninq and the m e r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e e p i t h e t . Thus Brodeur's d i s t i n c t i o n s i n 1959 were not r e a l l y new. What t h e y d i d p r i m a r i l y was t o e x p l a i n i n almost m e t i c u l o u s d e t a i l the areas covered by the Old Norse terms, i n c l u d i n g kend h e i t i , h e i t i and ukend h e i t i , terms o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y and i n c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d p r e v i o u s l y . As i n a l l cases when r e f i n e -ments are made i n method and t e r m i n o l o g y , i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o use kenning l o o s e l y w i t h o u t c o n f u s i n g those t o whom i t means something more s p e c i f i c . ( T h i s problem w i l l not l i k e l y occur w i t h the terms which have more r e c e n t l y e n t e r e d the v o c a b u l a r y of Old E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m . ) N o n e t h e l e s s , kenning has over a number of y e a r s been used l o o s e l y - - a n d c o n v e n i e n t l y so. My o n l y s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t the more p e d a n t i c usage be c a l l e d 'kenning, narrow s e n s e 1 and the more g e n e r a l be c a l l e d 'kenning, broad sense.' In t h i s way one might, I b e l i e v e , overcome t o some e x t e n t the problem of Old Norse p o e t i c a p p e l l a t i o n s . 25"The Q i d E n g l i s h Nominal Compounds i n - r a d , " PMLA LXVII (1952), 538-71; see above pp. 149-S-O. 2.49 APPENDIX B A NOTE ON VARIATION Probably the r e a l key to the Old English poetic word-hoard i s v a r i a t i o n , which Klaeber c a l l s "the very soul of the Old English poetical s t y l e . " 1 However, l i k e his predecessors and many of his followers, Klaeber either did not appreciate f u l l y the poetic function of this device, or simply took i t for granted. As I have been preparing this paper, the fact has become increasingly clear that v a r i a t i o n , i t s recognition, understanding and appreciation, i s basic to the development of Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m . In turn, appreciation of va r i a t i o n depends almost t o t a l l y on a minute knowledge of language, the emotional and notional meanings of a l l the words used. For i t i s impossible to t e l l whether v a r i a t i o n has been made for maximum ef f e c t u n t i l one understands f u l l y a l l i t s parts. Has the poet worked fo r climax, emphasis, i r o n i c a n t i t h e s i s , hyperbole, etc. i n his use of variation? Nor need such an approach r e s u l t in over-subtle theories, since s k i l f u l constructions can be obtained in unrevised or impromptu work by an a r t i s t of words, that i s , by a poet endowed with an intense and inherent f e e l i n g for delicate shades of word connotation, for the impressive ordering of words, and for the subtle way i n which words in close proximity interact with one another to produce a cumulative •'•Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg, 3rd ed. (Boston: Heath, 1950), p. lxv. 250 e f f e c t . Of course, I am here r e f e r r i n g only to the best passages of Old English poetry, since much v a r i a t i o n , I am sure, i s no more than gratuitous ornamentation. The history of the c r i t i c i s m of v a r i a t i o n i s i n t e r e s t -ing enough to isolate i n summary, since development in the appreciation of this device has paralleled the development of Old English poetic c r i t i c i s m i n general. The ' c l a s s i c a l ' style of Beowulf shows the f u l l e s t use of va r i a t i o n ; even Bede i n his Latin version of Caedmon's hymn i s able to exploit the richness of v a r i a t i o n while ostensibly offering only the sense of the poem. The use of the device declined somewhat by the end of the Old English period, and by the early thirteenth century Henry of Huntingdon, purporting to give a word-for-word tr a n s l a t i o n of Brunanburh, consistently ignores variant expressions and gives almost a straight prose account of the b a t t l e . 2 The e a r l i e s t c r i t i c a l comments of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries seem to ignore v a r i a t i o n completely and discuss or allude only to metre, metaphor and a l l i t e r a t i o n . Thus by E l l i s ' e d i t i o n of Brunanburh in 1801 l i t t l e progress had been made i n the appreciation of v a r i a t i o n . C r i t i c s simply did not understand that the multiple expressions _ 2 H i s toriarum L i b r i Octo (London, 1596), leaf 204 (misprint for 203J. See above, pp. 11-12. 251 illuminated d i f f e r e n t aspects of a thing and were not mere re p e t i t i o n or enumeration. Sharon Turner b r i e f l y implies that the p i l i n g on of epithets i s more than mere r e p e t i t i o n , but he 3 does not develop the idea. However, nineteenth century textual c r i t i c i s m and language studies made i t possible to f i n d a mean-ing for and to confirm the grammatical relationships between variant poetic expressions, so that even by 1824 Richard Price's t r a n s l a t i o n of Brunanburh shows progress i n the under-standing of v a r i a t i o n . 4 As a r t i s t i c evaluation began to creep into the h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m of the l a t e r nineteenth century, v a r i a t i o n also began to a t t r a c t comment. For example, Taine sees i t as a confused mass of highly v i s u a l i z e d but disorganized d e t a i l s , the pro-duct of an u n c i v i l i z e d mind. And Ten Brink states that the abundant appositional and substitute expressions describe various aspects of a thing. Thus by the late nineteenth cen-tury at least the f i r s t l e v e l of understanding of v a r i a t i o n was reached, even though none of the c r i t i c s , including Henry Sweet, seemed to recognize that epic v a r i a t i o n i s a retarding device i n Beowulf, j u s t as the epic simile is in Homer. 3The History of the Anglo-Saxons, 5th ed. Vol. I l l (London, 1828), pp. 270-1. See above, p. 33. 4 I n Thomas Warton, The History of English Poetry, rev. ed. [Richard P r i c e ] , V o l . I (London, 1824), p. (112). -'History of English Literature, trans. Henry Van Laun, rev. ed.,Vol. I (New York, 1900), pp. 54-5. See above, p. 57. History of English Literature, trans. Horace M. Kennedy, Vol. I (London, G. B e l l , 1914), p. 19. See above, p. 62. 252 But the lack of c r i t i c a l method at the turn of the cen-tury was paralleled by a misunderstanding of the function of v a r i a t i o n and by an i n a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between sequence and v a r i a t i o n or between enumeration and v a r i a t i o n (not an easy d i s t i n c t i o n at the best of times). Tolman, l i k e e a r l i e r c r i t i c s speaks of 'a mass of s t r i k i n g d e t a i l s ' without sequence. Gummere views i t as 'repetition' and ' a l l possible names for one and the same t h i n g . ' 8 Brooke, in spite of attempts to find connotations for variant expressions, s t i l l sees them as used car e l e s s l y and i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . 9 S i m i l a r l y , although Hart i s able to appreciate the multiple impressions and d e t a i l s provided by v a r i a t i o n and i s able to recognize the epic retarding devices i n Beowulf, he cannot see the s a i l i n g to Denmark as more than a hurried c o l l e c t i o n of unordered d e t a i l s . x 0 Even i n the early 1920's Klaeber v i r t u a l l y ignores the application of the device; and Wyld, influenced no doubt by his oddly subjective view of Old English figurative language, seems unaware that Old English v a r i a t i o n i s more than mere substitution, or not c a l l i n g a spade a spade. x x And of course, general c r i t i c s , such as the antagonistic Quiller-Couch, see i t 7"!he Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry," PMLA,III (1887), p. 37. See above, p. 95. 8The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor (Halle, 1881), p. 25. See above, p. 69. 9 / The History of E a r l y English Literature, Vol. I (London, 1892), p. 228. See above, p. 85. x Q B a l l a d and Epic: A Study i n the Development of Narrative  Art (Cambridge, Mass., 1907), p. 195. See above, p. " 253 as l i t t l e more than the 'besetting s i n ' of c a l l i n g things 'out of t h e i r r i ght names. , x 2 The assorted d i c t i o n studies of the late 1920's pro-vided some important ground work for studies of v a r i a t i o n , but for the most part, a general lack of development in c r i t i c i s m of style (aside from the study of various r h e t o r i c a l and sound patterns) was paralleled by a lack of s i g n i f i c a n t com-ment on v a r i a t i o n . Even i n his introduction to the Clark H a l l t r a n s l a t i o n of Beowulf, Tolkien does not give v a r i a t i o n i t s due, s p l i t t i n g i t up between his discussions of d i c t i o n and metre. x o Kemp Malone also gives v a r i a t i o n short s h r i f t i n a rather cold and a n a l y t i c a l description of i t s appearance, but not of i t s functions.^ 4 However, in the 1950's the great surge of interest i n Old English poetic d i c t i o n was most markedly paralleled by an increased appreciation of and pene-t r a t i o n into the whole matter of v a r i a t i o n , so that even an im-portant general c r i t i c l i k e W. K. Wimsatt can write: There are places i n Beowulf where one might attribute a v a r i a t i o n to metrical or a l l i t e r a t i v e necessity. But surely not here i n these eight ways of naming the boat. Cll. 1906-1919J. Nor was the poet here merely af r a i d of a taboo, scrupulously observing a school-boy's rule against using the same word in so many sentences or l i n e s . . .. x x " D i c t i o n and Imagery i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry," Essays and  Studies, XI (1925), 49-91. See above, p. 114. x 2 0 n the Art of Writing, new ed. (New York: Capricorn Books, 1961), p. 195. x 3(George Allen and Unwin, 1963). 254 He was delighted with the boat. He was eager to t e l l about i t , as much about i t as possible while t e l l i n g what i t d i d . l o The oral-formulaic theory also, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s discussion of themes, shows something about the nature and development of v a r i a t i o n . But perhaps the most important study of va r i a t i o n i s found i n The Art of Beowulf. Here Brodeur summarizes the nature and occurrence of v a r i a t i o n : i t s focusing power, i t s retarding e f f e c t , i t s emotional potential, i t s formality 1 A and dig n i t y , etc. With this study of v a r i a t i o n and the more recent studies on verbal interaction (mostly influenced by Brodeur), the key to Old English poetic d i c t i o n and f i g u r a -t i o n has been found. It i s now possible to judge the e f f e c t i v e -ness with which the poet has varied words and thus more f u l l y to appreciate and evaluate the poetry as a whole. i 4 I n Albert C. Baugh, ed. A Li t e r a r y History of England (New York: Appelton-Century-Crofts, 1948), pp. 28-9. See above, p. 154. 1 5The Verbal Icon (New York: Noonday Press, 1964), pp. 190-1. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1959), Chapt. I I . 

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