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Residence on the margin of the central business district : a case study of apartment development in the… McAfee, Rosemary Ann Pickard 1967

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RESIDENCE ON THE MARGIN OF THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE WEST END OF VANCOUVER, B.C. By ROSEMARY ANN PICKARD MCAFEE B.A., University of British Columbia, 1962 A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1967 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. April 28, 1967. ABSTRACT The growth in numbers of large apartment buildings adjacent to the urban core in the period 1955 - 1965 provides striking evidence of a recent change in urban residential structure. Several hypotheses have been advanced in this thesis and tested in the West End of Vancouver, British Columbia. The research indicates a close correlation between recent high-rise construction and the increasing numbers of persons, in both relative and absolute terms, who form small household units and have few family responsibilities. Such persons are either young adults or elderly retired individuals. In either case the common requirements of a small dwelling unit and available out-of-home activities are noted. The adjacent location of the Central Business District appears c r i t i c a l to the si t i n g of a concentration of high-rise apart-ment buildings. Both reasons given by West End apartment dwellers for their residence within the West End and their recorded activity patterns indicate the strong drawing force of the Central Business District employment, shopping, entertainment and recreation services. Indeed, daily activity patterns of the West End apartment dweller indicate few connections outside the West End - Central Business area. Thesis research indicates that periods of apartment growth appear closely related to government legislation, new techniques in construction and to available capital. - i i i -Three theories proposed in previous investigations of central residential areas are negated by thesis research: 1) . Public redevelopment schemes have not initiated West End apartment construction. Private developers have seen the market for middle-income residences adjacent to the core and have exploited i t without public redevelopment capital being necessary. 2) . High-rise construction does not necessarily involve an increase in population density adjacent to the core. Within the limited area of the West End different regional demographic patterns are noted. Regions of previously existing high-density converted buildings have not experienced major increments in the total population as apartments replace earlier multi-family dwellings. The only areas to show appreciable gains were those in which apartments replaced earlier single family homes. Clearly population growth is related to past land use rather than to only recent apartment construction. 3) . Apartment residents were noted to be persons who had lived, at least for the previous fifteen years, in central city locations. Few were returnees from suburbia, as indicated by previous authors. Data for this thesis was drawn from three sources: existing literature on urban residential locations, questionnaire study of West End apartment residents, and from apartment developers. - i v -Based upon this study of inner-city residences, several inferences have been drawn that relate both to future West End development and to urban residential theory. Within the West End, apartments locate adjacent to the maximum number of amenities. The lack of views and adjacent park areas in the central region of the West End have discouraged private high-rise investment. Some alternate land use, possibly town-house or senior citizen projects,could be instituted to revitalize the central area. Two models of inner-city residences are presented. One defines the characteristics of the inner-city high-rise dweller, the other, the sequent occupance of the area. Three stages of inner-city residential growth are noted: a period of upper and middle-income single family home settlement; conversion of single family homes into multi-family dwellings for a l l income levels; private redevelopment of the area for middle-income oriented apartments. The forces influencing this change were urban core location and expansion, transportation changes, available land, available capital, and the period of settlement. During the past fifteen years the construction of middle-income high-rise apartments adjacent to the urban core has been noted in Vancouver, as in other North American c i t i e s . The i n i t i a l demand for this form of accommodation and i t s continued expansion are related to the expanding segment of the population who desire residences adjacent to urban core activity. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. TWO THOUSAND STOREYS IN TEN YEARS Presentation of Hypotheses 3 The Study Area 4 Significance of the West End as an Apartment Area.. 7 Regionalization of the West End 11 Sources of Data 14 Thesis Organization 15 II. THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF THE WEST END Changing Form and Function 18 Situation in Relation to Greater Vancouver 19 Sequent Occupance of the West End—Changing Land use Single Family Period 1889 - 1910 20 Converted House Period 1910 - 1955 24 Changing Demographic Pattern Changing Composition of the Population 30 Changing Financial Structure 40 III. WHY HIGH-RISE APARTMENTS ? Theoretical Explanations for Apartment Development Existing Literature Related to Primary Hypotheses.57 Existing Literature Related to Sub-Hypotheses ... 65 Empirical Evidence for Apartment Development Questionnaire Survey of West End Apartment Dwellers 68 Evidence from Public and Private Developers 83 IV. AN ANALYSIS OF THE REASONS FOR WEST END APARTMENT CONSTRUCTION Why Two Thousand Storeys in Ten Years? An Increase in the Demand Group 100 The Catalysts -- Public Policy, Private Developers and Technological Change 103 Why Apartment Concentration in the West End? Adjacent Location of the Central Business District 104 The Lack of Returnees from Suburbia 106 - v i -CHAPTER PAGE V. IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEST END STUDY Implications to the West End 110 Implications to Urban Theory Model of the Occupancy Group. ...»»,... 115 Model of Residential Growth Patterns Adjacent to the Urban Core 115 Presentation of Hypotheses 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY 122 APPENDIX A. Sample Questionnaire 130 - v i i -LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Significance of the West End as an Apartment Area, 1900 - 1960 16 II. Population Changes within the West End, 1941 - 1961 . 35 III. Average Number of Persons Per Household 38 IV. West End Households by Number of Persons ............ 38 V. Length of Occupancy Within the West End 39 VI. Percentage of the Population in Each Income Bracket . 40 VII. Per Capita Income of West End Residents 42 VIII. Changes in the Labor Force, 1951 - 1961 42 IX. Labor Force of the West End, 1951 - 1961 43 X. Employed West End Residents by Occupation, 1900-1961. 44-XI. Percentage of the Vancouver Population in Various Age Brackets, 1941 - 1961 54 XII. West End Resident Marital Status 54 XIII. West End Unemployment Numbers, 1951 - 1961 55 XIV. West End Age-Sex Distribution, Comparison Between Questionnaire and Census Material 68 XV. Number of Persons Per Household, Comparison between Questionnaire and Census Material 69 XVI. Comparison of Questionnaire and Census Occupational Data 70 XVII. Comparison Between Census and Questionnaire Occupancy Data , 70 XVIII. Reasons for Moving to the West End 71 XIX. Work Locations of Questionnaire Respondents 73 - v i i i -TABLE PAGE XX. Last Shopping Locations Recorded in Questionnaire ... 77 XXI. Reasons for Choice of Particular Apartment Block .... 78 XXII. Average Number of Moves Since 1950 79 XXIII. Type of Accommodation by Average Rent Per Month ..... 87 XXIV. Percentage of Vacant Suites 88 XXV. Apartment Amenities 94 XXVI. Length of Occupancy 101 XXVII. Percentage of Suites by Size 109 - ix -LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1. The West End Situation 5 2. Vancouver Apartment Distribution, 1965 6 3. Location of West End Apartment Construction Pre 1916, 1916 - 1930, 1931 - 1949, 1950 - 1963.. 9 4. Location of West End Apartment Construction,1964-1966 and West End Apartment Density, 1966 10 5. West End Regions 12 6. West End Land Use Change, 1890 - 1966 21 7. West End Topography 23 8. Concentration of Remaining Converted Dwellings ..... 27 9. West End Land Use , 1966 29 10. West End Population Density 36 11. Location of Persons employed in Service, Finance, and Trade Occupations and location of Unemployed.. 46 12. Location of " E l i t e " Residences, 1908 - 1959 51 13. Location of Employment for Apartment Dwellers 72 14. Location of Entertainment and Recreation 74 15. Location of Food, Clothing, and Furniture Shopping.. 76 16. Past Residence of Apartment Dwellers 80 17» Location of Past Residence by Age 81 18. West End Zoning 34 19. West End Land Values, 1966 90 20. West End Lot Size 92 21. Location of Removal of Original Structures 93 22. Location of Lower Mainland Population 105 23. Vancouver Postal Zones 131 - xi -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Picture of the West End, 1947 1 2. Picture of the West End, 1965 2 3. West End Apartments, Suite Construction 1900-1966... 8 4. Age Groups; West End, Vancouver, British Columbia, and Canada, 1961 32 5. West End Age-Sex Pyramids, 1941 - 1961, Location of Census Tracts 33 6. West End Population, 1921 - 1961 34 7. West End Occupational Classes, 1961 45 8. Suites Completed, 1962 - 1966 I l l 9. Suites Completed in Vancouver Area, 1962 - 1966 .... 112 - x i i -ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writer wishes to thank Dr. Walter Hardwick of the University of British Columbia Geography Department for his guidance throughout thesis research and writing. CHAPTER I TWO THOUSAND STOREYS IN TEN YEARS CHAPTER I TWO THOUSAND STOREYS IN TEH YEARS Reflecting an increase in population and a change in its composition within cities new forms of residential accommodation have evolved* One of the most outstanding is the high-rise apartment building*" located adjacent to the Central Business District in many North American cities. This form of residence reflects both an increased demand for housing by an expanding urban population and changing l i f e styles. Inner-city apartments, once an important aspect of urban housing, were eclipsed by centrifugal forces of suburban-ization. In the last decade a return to urban core living has contributed to changes in the skyline and the economic and social character of cities. Existing literature in the field of urban Geography offers few theoretical explanations for inner-city high-rise apartment development. Some writers have identified the region adjacent to the 2 urban core as a transition zone. None have centered their research on this area. In this thesis one of the major uses of this area is considered and several hypotheses are put forward to account for the changing forms of residential living on the edge of downtown. Three primary hypotheses are advanced. One argues that there is an increasing number of people, in relative and absolute terms, who both desire and can afford apartment accommodation close to the core. The second suggests that the adjacence of the Central Business District is c r i t i c a l to the s i t i n g of high-rise apartment blocks. The third hypothesis is that changes in technology within the construction industry have permitted new scale economics of apartment construction and thus have contributed to the expansion of this type of dwelling. Three secondary hypotheses, advanced by previous investigat-ions of high-rise apartment development are tested in this study. The f i r s t notes that the ava i l a b i l i t y of government capital plays a major role in re-developing areas adjacent to the urban core. The second 3 sub-hypothesis states that people returning from suburbia make up a significant proportion of the residents in areas adjacent to the urban core. The third sub-hypothesis argues that as high-rise apartments are built adjacent to the urban core there w i l l be a corresponding increase in population density in this region. The Study Area Vancouver, British Columbia, provides a location to test these hypotheses of inner-city residential growth. In the Vancouver metropolitan area nearly five hundred persons become apartment dwellers every month. In 1961 there were twenty-five thousand apartment dwellers in Vancouver; in 1966 there were f i f t y thousand. Prior to 1965 there was a steady increase in the number of suites under construction in Vancouver city. Housing stati s t i c s from 1966 indicated 4 a decrease in the rate of new construction. This decline was not localized and did not indicate a lack of demand but rather reflected W e s t V a n c o u v e r THE WEST END — SITUATION "THE N O R T H S H O R E " N o r t h V a n c o u v e r WEST END CENTRAL BUSINESS AREA BRIDGE m 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 miles - A P A R T M E N T D I S T R I B U T I O N -1 9 6 5 • 1 , 0 0 0 NUMBER 0 7 , 0 0 0 S U | F T E S •1 4 , 0 0 0 . - 7 -the shortage of mortgage money common to a l l parts of North America. The most recent figures available indicate apartment construction is again on the increase in the Vancouver area.^ The region adjacent to the Western side of Vancouver's Central Business District has accounted for most of the apartment growth. In this region -- The West End -- are localized more than forty per cent of apartments in the Vancouver area, based upon both 6 total apartment floor space and numbers of suites (note map 2). It is upon this area this study is focused. The one mile square area is bounded by Burrard Street on the east, a major downtown throughway; on the west by Stanley Park, a centrally-located recreation area; and on the north and south by the waterfronts of Coal Harbour and English Bay. Within the West End resides six per cent (25,500) of the total population of Vancouver c i t y . With the exception of the ribbon shopping streets and a business area along the northern waterfront the predominant use of the West End is residential (see map 9 ). The pace of change has not affected the West End evenly. For discussion purposes five sub-regions are identified: 1) Stanley Park-Beach Avenue; 2) South Davie; 3) Eastern; 4) Central; 5) Commercial. As illustrated on map 5, the f i r s t three sub-areas hold most of the high-rise apartments while the central area has many rooming houses and detached single-family dwellings. Although an increase in the rate of apartment construction has occurred in the past fifteen years, the demand for apartment-type 1,100 1,000 800 CO LJ co li_ o or LJ CD 3 600 .. 400 200 .. 0 1900 WEST END APARTMENTS SUITE CONSTRUCTION 1900-1966 Entered by date building permit issued 1910 i i 1920 1930 1940 1950 | 1700 I960 plus MAP 3 n Mr A j j c._n CZ.J cz] CZTTJ c _ i • cm C : ~ J C°'I.'±D C„_Z APARTMENT CONSTRUCTION 1916 -1930 West End APARTMENT CONSTRUCTION 1931 - 1949 West End v I I I I I (TZI I I I I I I • CCD CZD mm i i.i i_czc3.c=ri cznscrc: ;•—lira—i II i;i liczjfrzrjcazi; OCJ • — i i 1 r r n C = J c m c m i • • II I I C Z J P O O I I I I 1 CMZJ 1 C D C X I 1 = = = r~m pno cm czi • B i; I I I I i i i i i a i i rw~i • • i L U L U C X C 3 APARTMENT CONSTRUCTION 1950 -1963 West End MAP k i 11 i c n c n c n .1 IJ I .CO COSCn ji—ijC^ajczzifjijcm-; CZZZ1L: ECO C O CO CZJ C33 • c n C E C O C J CO : c o c n c n :J c n c n « n i 1 1 — ~ i c n c n c n r~~i i 1 c n c n c n c n c n c n ra~i c n e t c n r w i c n c n c n i n r a n  c m c n ra i i •/, i c i i P i F ^ n r APARTMENT CONSTRUCTION 1964 -July 1966 Completed • Under construction West E n d 0 VI* M l'4 c >c =3 i 11 1 c n c n c n lri I I I.I i i ijtssa ;i—ill iii 1 ;i i j i — 1 | — r p s a ,.h„.- s i^ffSZol ill iSc^^jr^jfcjtr^jjww^JtiliiB&oaa Z3 sra i 11 11 i c n c n c n M paw&8a3 c z rasa i ™ n I 11 11 11 i Baaaa rigjgsagi i K53 I I I ! I I CH E233 K885S • KZ8 gag sraraa i 11 i i i c n r i ta&sa I I C  I I tOOOOQTO c n cm c n Essa i " " " " 11 i c n c n c n n a i . 11 i | I Eisrre ES3 I I I ETma EES] I c n c n c n i i mMm NUMBER OF SUITES PER CITY BLOCK More than 200 gggg 100 " 199 ED Less than 100 West E n d APARTMENT DENSITY BY NUMBER OF SUITES „ - 11 -accommodation within the West End is not new ( figure 3).^ The f i r s t apartment building permit was issued in 1900. Between 1900 and 1910 a (map 3) a number of apartments were built at scattered locations. The majority were concentrated close to the expanding urban core. Only four buildings were constructed in what is today's major apart-ment area -- the Stanley Park - Beach Avenue zone. > Construction of apartments was encouraged by zoning regulations instituted as a result of a report by HarlandBartholomew and Associates 9 / > presented in 1928. However, the anticipated growth in apartment construction had to wait twenty-five years. Then, as illustrated by figures 1 and 2, the landscape changed r a d i c a l l y . ^ Though apartments have been constructed throughout the West End since 1950, concentrations of high-rise blocks are noted near Stanley Park and English Bay. Whereas blocks built before World War II were attracted to vacant land -- mainly in the center of the peninsula— by the 1950's any new building required demolition of existing s t r u c t u r e s S i t e s near the park or beaches, which would appeal to tenants, were chosen for renewal (note map 21). The 1965 photograph indicates that apartment construction has definitely concentrated as close as possible to Stanley Park and the English Bay waterfront; central areas remain as converted rooming houses. Five sub-areas can now be identified within the West End, areas in which the size, density and price of apartments vary. The Stanley Park - Beach Avenue area has been transformed into the major high-rise region. A few older homes are found but the MAP 5 APARTMENT AREAS 1. Stanley Park -Beach Ave. 2. South Davie 3. Eastern Non - apartmenf areas 4. CENTRAL 5. COMMERCIAL West End 1 2 REGIONS A M - 13 -remainder of the land is almost entirely u t i l i z e d for apartments. The majority of the buildings have been constructed since 1950. This is a region of high land values and rents, and low vacancy rates, Many environmental amenities for view and recreation associated with Stanley Park and the English Bay waterfront attract a large population (maps 4, 10). The South Davie area has fewer amenities. Consequently, land values and rents are lower than in the adjacent Stanley Park -Beach Avenue area. There is a greater mix of land uses in the Davie area with commercial streets, converted houses, low apartments, and recent high-rise blocks throughly interspersed. As distance from the waterfront increases the vacancy rates increase and the general attractiveness of the area decreases. The Eastern Apartment area was the focus of original apartment construction. This area shows many characteristics of apartment development of a generation ago. Most of the existing buildings are low, two storey "walk-ups". Accommodation is geared to lower income families, the buildings offering few of the amenities of more recent apartment areas. The main advantage of this area is that i t is within walking distance of the Central Business District employ-ment. The advantages of such proximity have prompted some recent construction. The Converted House region in the central portion of the peninsula has not yet attracted the apartment developer. This area reflects the dominant land use of the West End prior to World War II. - 14 -Most of the residential accommodation available in this area is in the form of low rent converted frame houses. Few of the original homes have been demolished. The few single-family homes remaining in the area are located on small ( thirty-three foot) lots. This is the area of lowest rents, highest transiency, and the greatest number of old-age pensioners. There are no parks or views to brighten the area. The Northern Commercial Region was i n i t i a l l y the f i r s t class single-family residential area. During the past sixty years i t has changed from a single-family area to a converted rooming house zone, and recently to a commercial office-block extension of the expanding 12 central core. Sources of Data Three sources of data have been gathered for analysis of the thesis hypotheses. Studies of urban structure already set forth by such theorists as E.W. Burgess, Homer Hoyt, W.H. Whyte and E.M. 13 Hoover are reviewed. Since such authors did not center an entire work on inner city residences, their comments are somewhat general. Primary data for the West End study was obtained from both apartment tenants and developers. A pilot survey was mailed to tenants in three sample buildings in February 1964. Based on this information and discussions with several apartment managers and owners a question-naire was mailed to the occupant of every twentieth suite in May 1964. Only designed apartments received questionnaires; the converted suite dwellers were not included. A fifty-three per cent response was - 15 -received on the f i r s t mailing. Since replies were well distributed through the West End, and showed l i t t l e difference from the pilot 14 survey, non-respondents were not recontacted. One limitation of much of the s t a t i s t i c a l data available on population characteristics of the West End is the date of publication. At time of writing the 1966 census material had not 15 been published, thus most figures relate to 1961. The following chapters of this thesis w i l l describe and analyse the West End apartment development. Chapter II w i l l focus on the changing character of the West End. The increase in the numbers of persons who both desire and can afford good-quality apartment accommodation w i l l be documented and the changing patterns of land use and situation of the West End w i l l be discussed in relation to capital investment, residential development in other areas of Greater Vancouver and the expanding Central Business Area. Chapter III draws ideas from existing theories of urban development, empirical data obtained through questionnaire survey of West End apartment residents and interviews with developers to explain the concentration of high-rise apartments adjacent to the urban core. In Chapter IV a c r i t i c a l analysis of the reasons for apartment development w i l l be presented. The relative significance of these ideas w i l l be weighed and their inter-relationships discussed. In conclusion, the thesis w i l l indicate the implications of the findings both to the West End and to urban growth in general. - 16 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I 1. In this thesis, the term apartment refers to a building originally designed to contain three or more self-contained dwelling units. The term converted house is a designed single-family dwelling changed to multi-family use, 2. E.W. Burgess, "The Growth of the City" The City University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1925. Homer Hoyt, several articles on city development. E.M. Hoover and R. Vernon, Anatomy of a  Metropolis , Harvard University Press, 1959. W.H. Whyte, "Are Cities Unamerican" The Exploding Metropolis, Fortune Magazine Editors, New York, 1957. 3. Suburbia - - i n this thesis the term "suburbia" refers to a l l areas of the Lower Mainland outside the boundaries of Vancouver City proper, the University Endowment Lands and New Westminster City limits ( note map 1). 4. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Housing Statistics, June 16, 1966. 5. "New Apartment '.late Increases", Vancouver Province , April 4, 1967, p. 16. Figures compiled by Central Mortgage and Housing indicate Apartment construction jumped 165 per cent in February 6. Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends issues 1959 - 1966. 1967. TABLE I THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WEST END AS AN APARTMENT AREA Percentage of total Vancouver Apartment floor space located in the West End. Pre 1916 357, 31% 407. 397. 1916 - 1930 1931 - 1945 1946 - 1960 Note also figures 8 and 9. 7. Data for figure 3, West End Apartment Construction, was obtained from unpublished records of building permits maintained by the Vancouver City Planning Department. - 17 -8. Land use change data was obtained by checking Vancouver City Directories from 1900 - 1966. Directories indicate the location and use of each building in the area. Additional data was obtained from Vancouver City Planning Department maps of apartment construction. 9. Harlan<iBartholomew and Associates, A Plan for the City of  Vancouver. Saint Louis Publishing, 1929. 10. Figures 1 and 2 are copies of pictures taken by the Vancouver Real Estate Board. 11. F i r s t structures to be removed were converted houses, however, in the future older apartments, particularly the one to three storey blocks adjacent to Stanley Park w i l l be removed for large scale apartment construction. 12. While the West End is mainly zoned for multi-family residences, commercial zones are found north of Georgia Street and along Denman, Robson, Alberni and Georgia Streets and a l l but three blocks of Davie Street. Much of the area zoned for commercial usage is not under intensive commercial development. Central Business District functions are found in the commercial area -- north of Alberni Street. There office buildings, some ship yards and such entertainment f a c i l i t -ies as night clubs, restaurants, and hotels offer attractions to the entire Lower Mainland population. Of the total 35,000 feet of frontage along Davie, Denman and Robson Streets currently zoned commercial, only about 20,000 feet are actually being used for commercial purposes. These streets are characterized by "commercial sprawl" as commercial establishments have been built between older houses. The types of shops vary. Robson street between Bute and Burrard Streets supplies imported goods, foods, and restaurants to the wide Vancouver market. Davie and Denman Streets supply the everyday needs of the West End resident. Denman has stationery shops, jewellers, repair shops, dry cleaners, women's specialty shops, beauty, food stores, banks and the only movie theatre in the West Enid. A new super-market on Davie and Bidwell is located on the ground floor of a high-rise block. 13. Note t i t l e s presented in footnote 2. 14. In the Questionnaire survey fifteen per cent of the West End apartment dwellers received a mail copy. The questionnaire sample was obtained by picking at random a number from one to twenty. Every twentieth suite received a copy. Questionnaires were marked in order to indicate location of response. A copy of the questionnaire appears in the appendix. 15. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Population Characteristics by Census  Tracts. Vancouver 1961 Population Bulletin CT 22, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1962. CHAPTER II THE CHANGING_CHARACTER OF THE WEST END CHAPTER II THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF THE WEST END The West End has undergone changes in both form and function over the past sixty-five years. An analysis ofthe changing structural forms, from single-family dwellings in the early years, through conversions of these i n i t i a l dwellings into multi-family use, to the 1 recent purpose-designed apartment buildings , is presented to justify choosing the West End as a sample study area for the analysis of high-rise apartment construction. The changing function of the West End is shown by the changing demographic patterns in the area. S t a t i s t i c a l data can be presented to support the primary hypothesis that an increase in the number of persons who both desire and can afford high-rise apartment accommodation, as a proportion of the total population, has led to a concentration of high-rise apartments in the area of Vancouver adjacent to the Central Business Di s t r i c t . Changing Form and Function As a background to the present land uses in the West End, (map 9) i t is necessary to relate the West End to the development of the larger Vancouver metropolitan area. The documentation for this section of Chapter II was obtained through personal interviews, news-paper accounts, and other published sources. Vancouver City Directories were checked from early listings in the late nineteenth century to the present to determine the types of buildings, and the dates of 2 construction and demolition on each site. Data on the dates of - 19 -conversions from single to multiple dwelling units is also indicated in these directories. Dr. D.P. Kerr's work, Vancouver -- A Study in Urban Geography , gives a good general picture of the settlement of 3 the West End prior to 1943. Information on the apartment growth comes from Vancouver City Planning Department records and reports and from a recent study by students of the School of Community and Regional 4 Planning at the University of British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia, is one of North America's youngest and most rapidly growing urban areas. Since 1920 this western port has experienced a fourfold increase in population. The two cities of Vancouver and New Westminster have expanded to form a conurbation of more than 850,000 people, covering most of the western portion of the Lower Fraser Valley. Downtown Vancouver is located on Burrard Peninsula (see map 1), the site of the original settlement. It is bounded on the north by Burrard Inlet, a deep water harbour, which was a major factor in the early rise of a city at this location; on the south by a lesser water-way, False Creek; and on the West by the West End apartment area."* Residential di s t r i c t s spread south to the Fraser River, along the north shore of the Inlet, and eastward towards New Westminster and Burnaby. The West End li e s on the western end of a ridge which connects Burrard Peninsula with Stanley Park. The ridge has i t s high-est points in the eastern half of the West End, with elevations to 240 feet above sea level. The ridge slopes down to the west. The western - 20 -half of the peninsula is less than 160 feet above sea level. The slopes afford views of English Bay, Stanley Park, and across Burrard Inlet to the North Shore Mountains( note map 7 ). The early town of Vancouver, located to the east of the present Central Business District core, boomed with the extension of the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Burrard Inlet Harbour in 1885. Among the inducements to the Canadian Pacific Railway to extend its r a i l head to the Burrard Inlet site,near the developing city of Vancouver, was the donation by Vancouver landowners of part of their holdings to the railway. Among those who donated land were three who 6 owned the 550 acres of the West End area. The Single Family Period 1889 - 1910 The i n i t i a l location and subsequent spread of middle and upper income housing within the West End can be explained by the location of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the topography of the West End area, the location of the Central Business D i s t r i c t , and the limited-modes of transportation available in the late nineteenth century. Original land grants to the Canadian Pacific Railway made available West End land for settlement by company o f f i c i a l s . However, since the railway had other land available within the Vancouver area, this was not the major reason for better quality housing locating in the West End. \ L A N D U S E T Y P E S Single family homes First class [,.•;;;{ Second class M u l t i - f a m i l y dwellings Converted Designed C o m m e r c i a l & I n d u s t r i a l EM B o u n d a r y o f W e s t E n d ON WEST END LAND USE CHANGES 1890-1966 - 22 -Topography was an important reason for the location of early settlement in the West End area. The landforms appear to have both directed and restrained settlement. The West End was one of the few areas which could be reached from the Vancouver core without the necessity of a bridge. It was not u n t i l bridges permitted settlement south-west of False Creek (1912) and on the North Shore slopes (1925), that alternate quality residential sites were easily accessible. Topography played a part in encouraging the uneven distribut-ion of higher income residents within the West End. The bluff over-looking Coal Harbour, from which views of mountains, water, and trees were available, was one of the areas deeded to the railway. Canadian Pacific Railway o f f i c i a l s chose this site as an ideal location for residences. Later, other view locations overlooking English Bay and Stanley Park were settled by persons desiring pleasant residential sites. Areas in the central part of the peninsula, which lacked adjacent park or beach f a c i l i t i e s , were the last to be settled. Undoubtedly, the location of the Central Business District adjacent to the West End was a prime locational factor in early settle-ment. The majority of West End residents in this i n i t i a l period were 7 employed in the downtown area, many in higher income occupations. The eastern section of the West End was only a ten minute walk from the center of the downtown area at Granville and Hastings Street. The extension of street car lines along Pender, Robson, and Denman, between 1899 and 1910, brought the whole West End within a ten minute ride of the downtown core. Since the journey to work was short, MAP 7 C O N T O U R L I N E S I N F E E T est End I 1 r 1/16 1/8 1/4 mi les 1/2 TOPOGRAPHY AM - 24 -many middle-income persons settled in the previously unattractive central part of the West End. These smaller homes were part of a general boom of construction and land speculation in the Vancouver area which started in the period between 1907 - 1910. By 1910 the West End had been completely settled. During this period the f i r s t apartment, the Manhattan, on Robs'on Street, was bu i l t . Thus was taken the f i r s t step towards what was predicted by a writer to be the "ultimate destiny of the West End -- apartments and hotels".^ Thus the i n i t i a l settlement of the West End was stimulated by i t s location in relation to the developing core of Vancouver, the nearby work and shops generated by the core, the transportation routes radiating from the core and the topography of the area. This early settlement pattern is shown on map 6 as a gradual movement from east to west a"s transportation routes were extended and more land u t i l i z e d for homes. The West End began to change in character after 1910 when the Central Business District pushed westward into the established residential areas of the West End. The resulting commercial land use was not compatible with a better quality residential area. Converted House Period 1910 - 1955 The second phase in the sequent occupance of the West End was the period of conversions of the i n i t i a l single family homes into multi-family dwellings. The reasons for the land use change appear to have been: lack of zoning regulations which permitted an unrestricted expansion of the Central Business District; improvements in transportat-ion which f a c i l i t a t e d the opening up of new residential areas; and need for residences occasioned by World War II. - 25 -Westward movement of the commercial core and the increased employment in the Central Business District resulted in a mixture of land uses within the West End which were not compatible with a quality single family residential area. The f i r s t dwellings to be converted to multi-family use were those located in the eastern section, near the expanding Central Business Di s t r i c t . Between 1905 - 1925 only fifty-eight buildings were converted. Batween 1926 - 1935, 143 9 conversions took place. Again, these were largely in the present commercial zone. With the expanding business d i s t r i c t more jobs were available in the core. Many of those who worked in the core desired residence within walking distance of their employment. The quickest and cheapest way to provide additional accommodation was by converting existing single family homes into multi-family use. The lack of zoning regulations prior to 1927 also permitted 10 unrestricted building of commercial establishments in the West End. The few remaining undeveloped lots, and new lots created by the sub-division of larger estates, made space available for commercial build-ing. As the population of the West End increased, so did the need for a variety of services to supply the residents. Small shops were built in front gardens of homes, increasing the mixture of land uses. The improvement of transportation in the area surrounding the original center of Vancouver encouraged the movement outward to new residential areas. The North Shore, Shaughnessy, and West Point Grey areas became alternate single family settlement locations to the West End. - 26 -The West End example indicates that persons seeking better quality residential locations do not stay in one area u n t i l i t is completely u t i l i z e d before opening alternate residential areas, nor do they necessarily attempt to maintain a region as a better quality residential area. The West End relinquished i t s function as the major fir s t - c l a s s residential area as soon as bridges and the automobile made areas further from the expanding core accessible. Data available on the residential locations of the " e l i t e " citizens of Vancouver, when plotted over time, offers some interesting insights into the evolution of the city. ^ It appears from information on the movement of Vancouver's " e l i t e " , obtained while researching this thesis, that i t is new people coming to the city or the offspring of the "old guard" who locate in the new prestige residential areas. Many, once settled, w i l l maintain their single family home in the old area i f some amenities remain. This trend was shown in the West End by the early movement of upper income persons away from the eastern and interior portions of the West End. The Stanley Park and English Bay areas remained as f i r s t class residential regions u n t i l the i n i t i a l " e l i t e " died. Their offspring did not attempt to retain the f i r s t - c l a s s 12 residential area as occurred in New York's Park Avenue. The main period of conversions coincides with World War II. War industries in False Creek, Coal Harbour and on the North Shore required labor. Other demands for rooms or suites came from families of armed forces personnel stationed on the West Coast. Many of the persons moving to Vancouver during this period required transient accommodation adjacent to their employment. The West End was an ideal MAP 8 C o a I H a r b o u r Zl c i i i l i i i l _Ei-:-:-:i;?3 o( d i i c o j l l ~ L i Millie Albe' n i • c i « — m H I S CZILJ H I Robvon i i i i pjlij IB H H u r t .J i l l ' B a r e l a ] 11 NUMBER OF DWELLINGS (per city block) More than 20 1 0 - 1 9 Less than 10 | 1 West End ' 1 6 1 8 I 4 m i le s 1 2 C O N C E N T R A T I O N O F R E M A I N I N G C O N V E R T E D D W E L L I N G S - 1 9 6 4 AM - 28 -region to supply this demand. The extent of the housing shortage was shown by the number of homes which took roomers during the war 13 years but which returned to single-family homes following the war. In the five years between 1936-1940,555 single-family dwellings became 14 rooming houses or were converted into suites. There was no regional concentration of conversions; a l l areas were subject to the transition, though less occurred in the two blocks west of Stanley Park where some larger single-family homes were maintained by descendants of prominent families. Most of the " e l i t e " residences in the remainder of the area, because of their large size, were converted into rooming houses.*"' Thus within a period of f i f t y years, the predominant land use in the West End changed from exclusively single-family residences 16 to a higher density transient area based on converted rooming houses. This the the background to the apartment pattern outlined in Chapter I. The extent to which these patterns of the changing character of land use adjacent to the core have been noted in other Worth American urban core studies w i l l be analysed in later chapters. - 30 -The Changing Demographic Pattern With the change in land use there has been a related change in the demographic patterns within the West End. The main hypothesis of this thesis states that the reason for the increase in inner city middle-income apartment accommodation i s the increasing numbers of persons who both desire*^ and can afford this type of accommodation. This section of the thesis w i l l document the change in the segment of the population attracted to apartment accommodation in terms of numbers, age, sex, and household character. These figures w i l l be related to the demand for apartments and the increased a b i l i t y of persons to afford this type of accommodation. Data on the characteristics of the West End population is 18 available in reasonable detail since 1941. L i t t l e accurate information has been located for the years prior to this date. Another limitation is the unavailability of the 1966 census data at the time of writing. 19 The 1941 census treats the West End as a single unit. Later census boundaries break the area west of Burrard Street into four dis t r i c t s 20 (notepage 33). Since the census divisions correspond in only a general way to the West End regions shown on map 5, regional names, with the census tract numbers on brackets, have been used where pos-21 sible to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons. The census divisions, when graphed, give some visual distortion. The census data shows ages 0-25 and 65 - 69 grouped in five year intervals while ages 25 - 64 are grouped in ten year intervals. Over seventy is classed as one group. Despite these visual distortions some general patterns do emerge. - 31 -Over the past twenty years, the Vancouver area has experienced an increase in the numbers of elderly persons and should expect in the next ten years a major increase in the numbers of "young adults", ages 22 19 - 24, as a proportion of the total population. City Planning Department projections indicate that the number of persons in the older 23 age groups w i l l continue to increase rapidly. From 1961 to 1981, the projected total increase in Vancouver's population is thirteen per cent, from 385,000 to 435,000 people. The number of people in the retirement age bracket is expected to increase thirty-two per cent from 53,200 to 70,500 people. The implications to the West End of this changing composition of the population can be seen in the age-sex patterns, declining house-hold size and length of occupancy figures. The West End has experienced a change in the composition of the population during the past twenty years. In comparison with the averages given on figure 4 for Vancouver, British Columbia and 24 Canada , the West End shows a disportionately low number of children but a large number of persons in the ages between 25 - 35 and over f i f t y - f i v e . The large number of young adults and elderly people w i l l be explained by the predominant type of accommodation -- apartments --and the nearby out-of-home entertainment and recreation attractions desired by the person without a family. The number of children has been decreasing as changing land uses and the general lack of park f a c i l i t i e s make the region undesirable for family l i f e . This decrease can also be attributed to the apartment growth since many blocks w i l l not permit children. / / — / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / y ..15 m 20% x CD to CO CD CL •-10 - 5 0 70-h 69-65 64-55 54-45 44-35 34-25 24-20 !9-i5 9-5 4 -0 West End City of Vancouver YEARS B.C. Canada Q co 73 CD O CD Q CD 3" C_ Q 6 ' Z3 > CD m CD 33 O T J C O FIGURE 5 C o o l H o . b o n Csvitus Tracts West E n d 0 I 16 1 I 1956 AGE-SEX PYRAMIDS West End CENSUS TRACT ZZI ™ =L M Z> " 1 [ •—r- —•r— 1 600 400 200 0 2O0 400 600 NUMBER OF PEOPLE 1941 55 WEST END AGE-SEX PYRAMIDS 1941 - 1961 800 400 0 400 900 1951 ~r — r I ' 1 1! I 4000 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1600 1200 800 400 »0 1956 CZ ZOOO l€O0 COO 600 400 0 400 800 1200 I6C0 2000 1961 Z Z ? 2000 1800 1200 6O0 400 0 400 800 1200 1600 2OO0 NUMBER O F P E O P L E 1961 AGE - SEX PYRAMIDS West End CENSUS TRACT JI • 70 JE3 600 400 200 0 200 400 600 NUMBER OF PEOPLE FIGURE 6 3000, West End POPULATION /92I-I966 J 2 % 2500 2000 LJ _ J 0_ oisoo o ujiooo] C D 500 Census tract 4 3 110 a: UJ > ZD . O 16 O < > o 4 LJ e> < H 2 L J C J Q_ 1921 1931 1941 195! 1961 10 1971 AM 1 - 35 -While there has been a definite increase in the proportion of two segments of the population figure 6 shows that the West End has not experienced a steady growth in the total population. The West End example indicates that there cannot be a direct correlation drawn between an expanding Central Business District and an increasing population in residential areas adjacent to the core. The West End experienced a rapid rise in population during the 1940's, due to the 25 overcrowding occasioned by World War II. Following the war years, the population declined as alternate housing became available. The West End population began to rise again only with the increased demand for central city residences by elderly and young persons. 26 TABLE II POPULATION CHANGES WITHIN THE WEST END 1941 - 1961 Percentage change 1941 - 51 1951 - 56 1956 - 61 West End -7.2% -2% 8.4% Census Tract #1 -16.2 12.1 4.0 #2 4.4 -8.7 ' 44.0 #3 -2.5 0.9 3.6 #4 -11.0 12.3 -10.0 Within the West End, the Stanley Park-South Davie Area and the Eastern Apartment - Commercial Zones (census tracts 2 and 4) show the greatest changes. The Commercial and Eastern Apartment Areas (census tract 4) were,in 1941, the most heavily populated regions of the West End. Since 1941 these areas have steadly declined in populat-ion from a high of 7,545 in 1941 to a low of 5,361 in 1961. This decline in population can be attributed to the change in land use MAP 10 3oE E Z 3 mm 3 8 o b > Q " 2 ^ j ^ ^ s ^ j ^ ^ H o I ' O ^ ^ j . „ 3 mm mmi t ^ s E S S E S S S !^x>i ^ ESE3 EZ3 Bore toy mm F ^ ^ I mm F^^I F ^ l EZZ3 EE 3 L T 3 N el ton  Comox 0 O V i c 1961 N I G H T P O P U L A T I O N people per block E D Less than 100 E 3 100 - 199 ES23 200 - 299 E23 300 - 399 More than 400 West End 0 1 16 > 8 1 4 1 2 mi les POPULATION DENSITY A M - 37 -which has occurred particularly in the Commercial Zone. Here, commercial functions have replaced rooming houses and early apartments. In fact, the area north of Georgia is defined on most city maps as part of the Central Business District. The Stanley Park - South Davie Areas (census tract 2) have shox^ n the opposite growth pattern. Here the population has risen steadily as single family homes are removed for apartment construction. This increase has been most noticeable since 1956. The Central Converted Area (tracts 1 and 2) has remained quite stable. In this area the dense rooming house concentration has remained. Future population predictions rest on the permitted floor 27 space ratio. Under the present floor space ratio the population of the West End could reach 66,000 but a recommended reduction by one-third in the present floor space ratio Ttfould give an approximate maximum population of 44,000. The future population w i l l depend mainly upon the continued demand for apartment accommodation near the central core. 28 In the West End,the average number of people per household has been f a l l i n g , and is well below the Vancouver average (note table III). There has been a corresponding decline in the percentage of the 29 West End residents forming part of a family unit from sixty-five per cent in 1951 to less than f i f t y per cent in 1961. Again declines can be related to changing use of the West End land. As apartments become more numerous, families move to other residential locations. 30 The apartment dx^ellers, being mainly single persons or childless couples, comprise small household units. The most pronounced declines have been in the Commercial Area, where accommodation has declined. - 38 -TABLE III 31 AVERAGE NUMBER OF PERSONS PER HOUSEHOLD 1951_-_1961 West End Vancouver City 1951 3.0 3.3 1956 2,2 3.2 1961 2.0 3.1 NUMBER OF PERSONS PER HOUSEHOLD IN_THE_WE3T END Census Tract 1951 1956 1961 1 3.2 1.8 2.0 2 3„8 2.5 2.1 3 3.0 2.4 2.1 4 3.0 2.0 1.9 TABLE IV 32 WEST_END_HOUSEHOLDS BY_NUMBER OF_PERSONS Size of 1951 1956 1961 Household Total West End 6,959 9,925 10,818 population 1 person 1,578(22.67.) 4,058(41.0%) 4,257(39.0%) 2-3 persons 3,873(55.0%) 4,921(50.0%) 5,582(51.0%) 4-5 persons 656( 9„4%) 526( 5.3%) 575( 5.3%) 6-9 persons 525( fi„3%) 258( 2.6%) 349( .5%) 10 or more persons 327( 4.7%) 162( 1.7%) 55( .5%) - 39 -Frequent change of residence i s a characteristic of West End residents. The 1961 census indicates a higher percentage of short term residents in the West End and a correspondingly higher percentage of long term residents in the Vancouver area. TABLE V 33 LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY WITHIN THE WEST END 1961 Length of Occupancy West End Census Tracts 1 2 3 4 Less than one year 33% 307o 357o 337o 337o One - two years 24.6 24 28 23 22 Three - five years 20 20 18 20 22 Six - ten years 12 12 10 13 13 More than ten years 10 14 8 11 10 1007, 1007o 1007o 1007c 1007. Over the past fifteen years there has been l i t t l e change in the average length of occupancy. The similarity of the figures is not surprising since both the rooming houses of 1951 and the apartments of 1961 catered to the same type of person -- the transient. The decrease in the numbers of persons remaining in their present residence over five years is probably an indication of the reduction in the numbers of single home property owners with the removal of older homes. Within the West End, the Stanley Park - Beach Avenue area (tract 2) shows a slight deviation from the West End average. Here the numbers of persons with a length of occupancy less than two years can be explained by the number of buildings constructed in this area which are less than five years old. - 40 -Thus the general demographic changes in Vancouver's population are represented in the West End by the increasing numbers of unattached persons, either aged 20 - 30 or over sixty years. Later chapters w i l l consider why these segments of the population form the main market for apartment accommodation. The number of persons who can afford better quality accommodation is increasing in the Vancouver area. TABLE VI 34 PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION IN EACH INCOME BRACKET Amount 1951 1961 Vancouver West End Vancouver West End Under $1,000 17% 20% 13.5% 12% $1,000-1,999 30 40 12.5 13 $2,000-2,999 34 23 18 22 $3,000-3,999 11 7.8 20 25 $4,000 or more 5.2 3.7 36 23 $4,000-5,999 (20) $6,000 or more (8) Table VI shows that the proportion of the total Vancouver population earning more than $4,000 per year has risen from 5.2 per 35 cent in 1951 to 36 per cent in 1961. Because of the demographic character of the West End residents census information on incomes is d i f f i c u l t to apply. The stated income of a single individual does not necessarily indicate the type of accommodation he can afford. Young adults ( 20-30 years old ) can spend a high proportion of their income on accommodation i f they do not have family responsibilities. In many cases two or more wage earners live together, producing a combined income which w i l l permit good quality accommodation. - 41 -The other major segment of the West End population includes persons not in the active labor force but living on retirement savings. " In the West End there are a wide range of incomes from small pensions to large private means. In the main, the concentration of apartments has attracted a large number of more affluent residents. The elderly population is distributed among a l l income groups but because of cheap accommodation in the older homes there tends to be a heavier concentration of old people l i v i n g on pensions in the central area." Detailed employment data is available only for 1951 and 1961. Some attempts have been made to classify the 1900 and 1910 labor force but the results are highly questionable when used for comparative 37 purposes. Table VIII shows that there has been no marked increase in the total labor force with the apartment construction, other than that brought about by the general population increase. Within the four census tracts there have, however, been marked differences. The decline in numbers of employed persons noted in the Northern Commercial area (census tract 4) can be explained by the decline in accommodation available with the commercial expansion of the Central Business Di s t r i c t . The greatest increase in employed persons can be correlated to the major apartment building region, the Stanley Park - South Davie area ( tract 2). The decline in the percentage of males in the West End labor force may be explained by the growing popularity of the area as a residence for working g i r l s . The male -female ratio for the West End is 45:55 compared with 49:51 for the Vancouver city area. Of the present West End population above the age of fifteen, 59.5 per cent are in the labor force either presently employed or - 42 -Date 1951 Males Females 1961 Males Females TABLE VII PER CAPITA INCOME OF WEST END RESIDENTS 1951 - 1961 38 Median Earnings Vancouver West End $2,351 1,359 3,979 2,266 $2,202 1,408 3,704 2,583 $2,226 1,359 3,809 2,674 Census tracts 2 3 $2,328 1,497 4,098 2,727 $2,171 1,536 3,620 2,503 $2,083 1,208 3,291 2,429 TABLE IX CHANGES IN THE LABOR FORCE 1951 - 1961 WEST END 39 West End Labor Force Males Females TOTAL 1951 6,991 6,213 13,204 1961 7,307 6,794 14,102 Growth Rate 4.5% 9.2 6.7% Census Tracts 1 2 3 4 2,846 2,731 3,991 3,636 3,256 3,770 4,046 3,030 14.5% 37 1.4 -16.7 - 43 -TABLE VIII LABOR FORCE OF 1 THE WEST END 1951 - 1961 40 1951 • 1961 Total West End population above 15 years old Males 9,337 10,646 Females 12,811 13,140 Total 22,148 23,786 Total in Labor Force Males 6,991 7,308 Females 6.213 6,794 TOTAL 13,204 14,102 Total not in Labor Force Males 2,346 3,338 Females 6,598 6,346 TOTAL 8,944 9,684 Total above 65 years old 4,653 5,992 Total labor Force looking Males 290 816 for work Females 163 258 TOTAL 462 1;Q74 Total Labor Force employed Males 6,692 6,492 Females 6,050 6,536 TOTAL 12,742 13,028 - 44 -looking for a job. The remaining 40.5 per cent of the adult populat-ion are housewives, retired persons, high school or university students. Of the 40.5 per cent who are not employed, 62 per cent (5,992) are over 41 the sixty-five year retirement age. This is an increase,of ten per cent in the number of retired people in the area since 1951. Since 1951 there has also been a marked increase in the numbers of both males and females l i v i n g in the West End while looking for employment. Seventy per cent of the 1,074 persons looking for work at the 1961 census resided in the Central Apartment and Converted House areas, (see map 11). These two regions contain fifty-four per cent of the total West End population. There is a definite orientation toward "white collar" jobs among West End residents. TABLE X EMPLOYED WEST END RESIDENTS 42 BY OCCUPATIONS 1900 - 1961 Occupation Date 1900 1910 1951 1961 Managerial 11.57, 10 % 7.87, 9.37o Professional & Technical 11.5 18 11.5 14.5 Clerical 12 15.5 24 28 Sales 16 19 -- 8.9 Service & Recreational 20 11.5 18.5 19.1 Transport & Communication 3 6 7.3 4.2 Primary 3.5 11 1.9 1.5 Crafts 15.5 7 14.5 12.0 Labours 1.7 .7 3.9 2.2 Commerce and Finance 10.5 The increasing size of the Central Business District and the expanding importance of the Vancouver area as a service and'trade center means that the market for homes to house persons in the middle 43 income levels is increasing. The professional, technical, c l e r i c a l , FIGURE 7 O C C U P A T I O N A L C L A S S E S MALE & F E M A L E S •WEST END M A L E MM F E M A L E • E X P R E S S E D A S A P E R C E N T A G E O F V A N C O U V E R C I T Y MAP 11 - 47 -service and recreation occupations account for sixty-one per cent of the working West End residents. Since 1951 there has been an increase in these "white collar" workers and a decline in the numbers of "blue collar" residents. This may be representative of the decline in the amount of lower-price rooming house accommodation available in the West End and the associated increase in the number of higher priced apartments, Data from the Dominion Bureau of Statistics ,which divides the labor force into primary, manufacturing, construction, transport, finance, service and governmental occupations, is available for the 4 4 f i f t y - s i x ennumeration areas of the West End. There is a close relat-ionship between the newer Stanley Park and South Davie apartment areas and the location of persons engaged in finance and trade occupations. The lowest density of those employed in primary industries, manufacturing and construction is in these two apartment areas. Highest densities of the latter three occupations occur in the Northern Commercial Area and the Central Converted Area.(see map 11). In summary, the data available on the population characteris-tics of the West End residents shows that, while there are some general si m i l a r i t i e s , there are s t i l l definite regional differences. In general, this zone on the margin of Vancouver's Central Business District is characterized by a decreasing number of family units, a high degree of transience, and a decline in the number of children and of people per household. There is generally an increase - 48 -in the absolute population and in the rate of population growth among elderly, retired and "white collar" residents. Despite these similarities there appear to be regional differences which generally reflect the type of accommodation available. The zones of newer apartments, especially adjacent to Stanley Park and south of Davie Street (much of census tracts 2 and 3), are character-ized by a larger percentage of those in the labor force being currently employed, and holding "white collar" jobs in trade and finance. In contrast, the older rooming house areas in the center of the peninsula have more people looking for jobs and a larger number of "blue col l a r " workers. "The buildings in this particular part (central area) of the West End, are, for the most part, boarding houses or poor grade accommodation. These are surrounded by a congested d i s t r i c t of low rental housing. Although some of the people take up residence in this locale because of its proximity to the city's business section, the people liv i n g in this v i c i n i t y are here, in the main, because housing is less expensive." ^ There has been a definite change in the characteristics of the population in the West End with the change in type of accommodation available. During the early period, upper class persons resided in single family homes. During the converted house period, many lower income persons moved into cheaper accommodation. The present apart-ments are again attracting a middle and upper middle income person to the West End. This has resulted in a definite regional distinction between the remaining lower income-oriented converted house areas and the apartment dwellers along the outer ring of the peninsula. - 49 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER II 1. Purpose-designed refers to buildings specifically constructed as apartments, in contrast to converted structures which were i n i t -i a l l y built for some other form of residence. 2. Vancouver city directories include: Henderson's Vancouver Directory 1399 - 1932 Henderson Printing Company, Vancouver, editions 1399 through 1932. Vancouver City Directory British Columbia Directories, Vancouver, 1949 - 1966. Vancouver and New Westminster Directory Wrigley Directories Ltd., Vancouver, 1933. 3. Donald Kerr, Vancouver -- A study in Urban Geography unpublished Master of Arts Thesis, University of Toronto, 1943. 4. School of Community and Regional Planning, An Urban Renewal Study  For the West End of Vancouver, B.C. Student Project 1, Community and Regional Planning Studies, University of British Columbia, December 1963. 5. The i n i t i a l location of the West End, on the Xijestern edge of the Vancouver city center, was the basis for the name -- "The West End". 5. Prior to the extension of the Canadian Pacific Railway to the coast, the West End had played only a minor part in the settlement of the developing Vancouver. The West End was surveyed in 1859 as part of a general coastal survey for the location of government defense sites. In 1862 a disappointed gold miner, John Morton, was attracted to the West End by reports of coal outcroppings. He and two friends, William Hailstone and Sam Brighouse, preempted the entire 550 acre West End area, then Lot 185, for $1.01 per acre. In 1862 Morton settled on what isto day the 1000 Block West Hastings, adjacent to the present Marine Building. He called Lot 135 "the City of Liver-pool" after his home town and farmed the area adjacent to his cabin. The long transportation haul to market made farming in this location unprofitable so in 1864 Morton leased the land and moved out of the West End. In 1863 the f i r s t land survey of the Burrard Peninsula was made by the Royal Engineers. In 1882 the West End was la i d out in blocks, even though the area had yet to be cleared. Morton, Brig-house and Hailstone, having sold 200 acres of the West End by 1334 offered the C.P.R. one third of the remaining 350 acres. The C.P.R. put the land up for sale in 1887. Lots ranged in price from $350.00 to $1,000.00... In 1838 clearing started in the West End. 7. See income - occupation data on Table X. 8. A.W. Lyle (Ed.) The West Ender Souvenier Edition, 1853 - 1958. - 50 -9. Data on dates of conversions was obtained from Vancouver City Directories, noted in footnote 2. Such directories indicate roomers, boarders, or converted suites. Due to the data source such works are liable to error. 10. Note comments in Chapter III related to Map 18. 11. The 1908 "E l i t e Directory of Vancouver" shows eighty-six per cent of those l i s t e d were residents of the West End, six per cent were residents of the downtown area and the remainder, were scattered in the Point Grey, Kitsilano, and East End sections of Vancouver. Those livi n g in the West End were scattered throughout the area, though map 12 shows fewer resided in the southeastern portion of the West End. About 1910 Shaughnessy was opened as a f i r s t class residential area. The e l i t e directory of 1927 shows only twenty-one per cent of those l i s t e d as residing in the West End. The majority of the e l i t e now lived in the Shaughnessy, Point Grey, and South West Marine Drive areas or on the North Shore. 1908 - 1914 Comparison of persons listed as " e l i t e " Remained in the same address in the West End 487. Moved to another address within the West End 22% Moved to another address outside the West End 307, Of those who moved out of the West End: To Shaughnessy 627, Kitsilano 18% Point Grey 12% Other areas 97. 1908 - 1927 Comparison of movements of " e l i t e " l i s t e d in both 1908 and 1927 directories. Remained in the same address in the West End 277. Moved to another address within the West End 267» Moved to another address outside the West End 477. Of those who moved out of the West End: To Shaughnessy 45% South West Marine 15% Point Grey 12.5% Other 27.5% With the death of many of the older " e l i t e " , the West End declined steadily as a place of residence for the upper classes. In 1940 only fourteen per cent were listed as residing there. This total declined to nine per cent in 1950 and to five per cent in 1959. Most of those l i s t e d in 1959 were livi n g in newer apartments. 12. Note comments on the Park Avenue study in Chapter III. MAP 12 Vancouver Within West End 86% Greater Vancouver 14% LOCATION OF "ELITE" RESIDENCES West End LOCATION OF "ELITE" RESIDENCES 11 11 Ll L _ J L-d C_J L_E) I ZU c 3 C 1940 Who's Who in B.C. Within West End 12% Greater Vancouver 8 8 % West End LOCATION OF "ELITE" RESIDENCES CuZ] • I 1 I 1 E U D Cm I ! czzi cm i 1 LTZZJ cm cm i 1 r~r~i 1 = 1 cm i 11 1 i—I cm i 1 i '• cm cn cm cm cm i i i i cm cm cm r- i mm cm m cm mm i i i i czi cm i i cm cm cm i 1 cm cm cm cm 1959 Social Register of Canada Within West End 5 % Greater Vancouver 95 1^ West End LOCATION OF 'EL ITE" RESIDENCES! - 52 -13. This trend was noted in a Vancouver City Directory study of conversions for thesis research. 14. Some data is available on the composition of the West End populat-ion from a 1941 Dominion Bureau of Statistics census of Social areas of Vancouver and from a West End survey conducted by the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies. In 1941 about 2,000 family units were located in the West End. The total population was 25,729. This would indicate a large number of single persons, not considered as a family unit. The age- sex pyramid (note figure 5) shows quite a different pattern to the present with more children and fewer elderly persons. School records showed a considerable amount of movement. In one year the d i s t r i c t recorded sixty-eight per cent of the pupils had moved out of the area (thirty-one per cent to other parts of Vancouver, twenty-two per cent to other parts of British Columbia and twelve percent out of province). Considerable inter-peninsula movement was also recorded. Much of this movement might be expected as many families moved into the area only to be near war industries. Many settled in the West End for a few months before choosing a permanent home in another part of Vancouver. Some of the outward movement represented families not wishing to rear children in the rapidly changing area. As at present, there were no large rac i a l groups other than those of British origin, who accounted for seventy-five per cent of the total population. Fewer widows or widoxjers than at present were recorded, with most being married (forty-nine per cent) or single (forty-five per cent). During the 1940's many were s t i l l attracted to the West End for the same reasons the early e l i t e had lived there -- the parks, beaches and easy access to the downtown. 15. During World War II the.Central Converted Zone was the 'most congested low-rent area. In the present South Davie apartment area, many older residents remained in their homes and sublet one or two floors. These homes charged higher rents because of less crowded, better quality accommodation. The highest priced rooming house accommodation was in the present Stanley Park Apartment area, where the park could be advertised as an amenity. In the present Commercial Zone the population density remained high. Some better quality rooming houses were maintained on Georgia Street, but the quality deteriorated rapidly towards the northern shore-line. 16. The rooming house function of the West End has remained to the present. The most recent survey of rooming houses, conducted in 1951 by the Vancouver Housing Association indicated the continued importance of the central portion rooming houses. The survey showed that eighty per cent of the families without children had lived less than six months in their present accomm-odation. Only one such family had lived in the same rooming house for more than three years. The majority of the tenants - 53 -(seventy-two percent) were highly mobile single or childless married couples. ' Most rooming houses were s t i l l owner occupied with roomers being kept to bring in additional revenue. 17. Desire, refers to the accommodation needs of the small household with few family responsibilities. 18. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Population and Housing Character- i s t i c s by Census Tracts, Vancouver 1951, Population Bulletin, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1952. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Social Areas Census 1941 Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1942. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Population Characteristics of  Census tracts , Vancouver 1956 Population Bulletin 4-14, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1952. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Population and Housing Character-i s t i c s by Census Tracts, Vancouver, 1961 Population Bulletin Ct 22, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1953. Future footnotes drawn from these sources w i l l be indicated by the term Census material and the date of data. 19. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics Social Area Census 1941 gives some general data on the total population of the area, age-sex distributions, language, years of schooling, rac i a l origin, marital status, place of birth and period of immigration. 20. The 1951 census defines four census areas for the West End. This census includes data on age-sex, marital status, origin, language, religion, years of schooling, households, families, occupied dwellings and dwelling characteristics. The 1956 census covered only age, sex, marital status, households and families for the four West End census tracts. The most complete coverage of the West End, available at the time of writing, is the 1961 census. This census included the 1951 topics plus employment character-i s t i c s , occupation and income. Unpublished 1961 data on the block-by-block population, number of households and occupation data for the 103 enumeration areas of the West End has been used. 21. See map 5 and Figure 5: Census tracts 1,2,3, and 4 do not closely relate to regions of the West End as defined by this thesis. Census tract one: Relates reasonably closely to the Central Converted Zone. Six blocks ofthe Stanley Park Apartment area are also included. Census tract two: Half of this tract is part of the Stanley Park- Beach Avenue Apartment area with part of the Central Converted Zone and the South Davie Apartment areas included. - 54 -Census tract three: Most of this tract is either the Central Converted Zone or the Beach Avenue Apartment area. Census tract four: The northern section of this tract is the Commercial zone while the southern section is the Eastern apartment area. TABLE XI PERCENTAGE OF THE VANCOUVER CITY POPULATION IN VARIOUS AGE BRACKETS 1941 - 1961 CENSUS DATA Age 1941 1951 1961 0 - 14 17.5% 21 % 23.4% 15 - 19 0 5.1 6.4 20 - 24 8.9 7 6.3 25 - 34 17.5 17 13 35 - 54 27.1 27 27.2 55 - 64 12.5 10.5 9.7 65 plus 3.7 13 14 23. Vancouver City Planning Department, Vancouver's Changing Populat-ion Vancouver, June 1964, p.3. 24. Comparison between Vancouver and Canadian population trends from Commercial Newsletter, 1961. 41.9 7» Canadian Population less than 20 years old. 29.67o Vancouver's population less than 20 years old. 7.67» Canadian population over 65 years of age. 13.8% Vancouver's population over 65 years of age. 25. Between 1929 - 1941 the West End population rose fifty-four per cent from 16,700 to 25,729. 26. 1941 - 1961 Census Material. 27. Floor Space Ratio: Building Floor Space — Apartment site 28. Household: a group of persons occupying one dwelling unit. Dwelling unit: structurally separate set of living quarters. 29. Family unit: husband and wife plus children or a parent l i v i n g in the same dwelling. 30. TABLE XII _WEST END MARITAL STATUS_(_IN PER CENTJ 1941 1951 1956 1961 Single 44.2% 37.4% 38.0% 40.0% Married 49.5 46.2 46.4 47 Widowed 4.5 12.5 12.5 13 Divorced 1.3 2.5 2.2 n/a - 55 -31. 1951 - 1961 Census Material. 32 - 34. 1951 - 1961 Census Material 35. Vancouver Public Library figures (compiled from Dominion Bureau of Statistics data on the Consumer Price Index) give a comparison of dollar values (based on 1949 = 100 ). 1949 = C.P.I. 100 $1*00 1951 = 11 113.2 .88 c 1961 = " 129.2 .77 c 1966 = " 143.9 .70 c 36. E. Andresson, Local Recreation Resources for the Aged Unpublished Master of Social Work Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1959, p. 81*. 37. 1900 - 1910 data included in Chapter II was obtained from occupation listings in the Vancouver City Directories. 38 • 1951 - 1961 Census Material. 39. 1951 - 1961 Census Material. 40. 1951 - 1961 Census Material. 41. 1951 - 1961 Census Material TABLE XIII WEST_ENDJJNEMPLOYMENT NUMBERS 1951_-_1961 1951 1961 Increase Males 299 816 175% Females 163 258 58.5% 462 1,074 42. 1900 - 1910 material from Vancouver City Directories 1951 - 1961 Census Material. 43. In the years between 1951-1961 there was a sixty-three per cent increase in the service and trade segments of the Vancouver labor force. 44. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Occupation, LaborForce, and  Population for Census Tracts 1,2,3,4, 1961 Vancouver Unpublished data, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1961. 45. F.A. Hutchinson, Casework Service in a Neighbourhood House, Master of Social Work Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1952, p.7. CHAPTER III WHY HIGH - RISE APARTMENTS? CHAPTER III WHY HIGH-RISE APARTMENTS? Explanations for high-rise apartment construction adjacent ti> the urban core come from theoretical and empirical sources. Existing literature in the f i e l d of urban geography offers Some theoretical explanations: for inner city high-rise apartments. Many writers have identified the region adjacent to the urban core- as a distinct entity. None of the writers,'•however centered an entire work on this region. The region adjacent to the urban core is usually mentioned in connection with urban core studies. This "lack of\emphasis on areas similar in character to the West End is ample-justification for oinvest-igating, in the.detail 1 of a thesis, the importance arid interrelationships of this region: in the total urban area. Existing literature offers data pertinent to the primary hypothesis that i t has been an increase in the proportion of the pop- . ulation who both desire and can afford apartment accommodation that . has prompted recent construction. The significance of the urban core's centripetal p u l l , the stimulus of public redevelopment schemes and the return of suburbanites to central areas are themes proposed in recent literature. Empirical data has been collected from two sources - - a quest-ionnaire survey of West End apartment dwellers* and interviews with developers of apartment accommodation. The former source provided data - 57 -needed to analyse the relationship between the West End, the inner urban core and suburban regions of the larger metropolitan area. Apartment residents provided considerable information from which one can infer judgements on the reasons why persons desire this form of accommodation. Interviews with apartment developers examined their contribution in the fields of public redevelopment schemes and tech-nological change as proponents of apartment growth. Theoretical Explanations for Apartment Development Existing literature offers insights into two of the primary hypotheses of this thesis: the increasing segment of the population who desire and can afford apartment accommodation, and the importance of the location of the Central Business District in the siting of inner-city apartments. Three secondary hypotheses of this thesis -- the importance of the return from suburbia, the place of government re-development in encouraging the construction of apartments adjacent to the urban core and the relationships between apartment growth and population increase were proposed on the basis of their appearance in urban literature. Apartment complexes adjacent to the urban core have been noted in most North American c i t i e s . Such authors as Hoover, Hoyt, Bartholomew, Whyte and Anderson have presented, in previous studies, data related to the characteristics of the inner-city apartment dweller ?" - 58 -"It is clear that the balancing of access and convenience (of central areas) against the desire for space and other amenities ( of suburbia ) works out differently for individuals who have different tastes and housing needs -- and different levels of income to satisfy them." ^ Similar distinctive characteristics of job type, income level and age composition were noted in Chapter"II. Several sources stress the lack of dependent children as a characteristic of the apartment dweller. "Probably the most important single determinant is the presence or absence of children in the household. "Apartment li v i n g seems to be favoured by families without children and by non-family groups. In Metropolitan Toronto as a whole, 77.3 per cent of a l l households have no children, and apartment occupancy averages 2.19 persons per unit, or about half that of other accommodations. Within 5 miles of the city centre, about 90 per cent of a l l house-holds consist of childless families or non-family groups." 5 "Families which are not oriented exclusively to-ward home and child rearing, but have either career, social or cultural interests might be expected to find central housing preferable. This housing w i l l most probably be in apartments." ^ Hoover and Vernon identified, in a study of New York, the significance of income to potential apartment dwellers. "The inner part of the core -- Manhattan and parts of adjacent counties -- is peopled mainly by two contrasting types of households. F i r s t , there is a preponderant mass of bottom income unskilled manual and service workers, including most of the region's members of "disadvantaged" recent immigrant groups. They are there because of the supply of obsolete, dilapidated, and highly compressed housing; because their jobs are mainly in Manhattan and nearby heavy industry zones, and the subway affords cheap access; because they are excluded from most inner ring sub-urbs by social counter-pressure as well as by lack of rock-bottom housing; and because they find some community solidarity and better job opportunity with the focal cluster and i t s huge and variegated labour market. The other conspicuous element in the inner-- 59 -core consists of wealthy and mainly childless people in the professional and executive categories who value quick access to their Manhattan jobs and also the many avocational attractions of the region's center, and who have been able to afford the high costs of luxury apartment redevelopment." 7 The prestige value of inner-city apartments has also been noted by Hoyt and Anderson when explaining characteristics of the inner-city apartment dweller. Homer Hoyt, one of the early theorists on urban growth, identified as part of his 1939 hypothesis on the relationship between transportation and the sector development of residential d i s t r i c t s , the existence of upper class residences adjacent to the urban core. In delineating patterns of movement of residential rental neighbourhoods, he pointed out that de-luxe high-rent apartments tended to locate near the business center in old residential regions of such metropolitan areas a New York's Park Avenue. "When the high-rent single family home areas have moved far out in the periphery of the cit y , some wealthy families desire to live in a colony of luxurious apartments close to the business center." Anderson pointed out similar data with relation to mass trans-portation. He determined that with mass transportation reducing the cost of single family homes, many of those in the higher socio-economic brackets are looking to higher priced luxury apartments to maintain prestige. "One of the most d i f f i c u l t factors to assess in determining the housing trend is fashion and prestige value. In the late forties and early f i f t i e s i t became fashionable to move to the suburbs .... Now, liv i n g in a luxury uptown apartment seems to be the thing to boast about. - 60 -In total the characteristics of the apartment dweller are indicated by Whyte. "A picture of those likely downtown residents that is remarkably consistent emerges from separate studies of Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, Cleveland, Baltimore and other areas. They are childless smaller households with the head working downtown or not in the labor force, aged 35 or over, having an income of over $5,000 per year; and more than half are employed in the professional, technical or managerial categories."10 Another l i s t i n g of the inner-city population mentions the intellectuals, professionals, students and entertainers who live near cultural f a c i l i -ties; the unmarried or childless who desire to be near work and enter-tainment, the immigrants and the downward mobile of the lower classes.*^ While a l l writers bring out the characteristics of persons who desire inner-city accommodation, most f a i l to identify the increase of this type of person as a proportion of the total population. One of the few articles to indicate this phenomenon appeared in the Bank of Montreal Business Review: "The proportion of apartments ... though varying from year to year, has been considerably higher in recent years than i t was in the early f i f t i e s . The growing popularity of apartments can be attributed to a variety of factors, some of which are related to the increased mobility of the population. For example, the practice among some large companies of moving administrative employees from one city to another no doubt discourages many families from investing in a home. In addition, i t would appear that the time and cost of transportation and the desire to take adv-antage of the social and cultural f a c i l i t i e s provided by the city have to some extent offset the appeal of l i f e in the suburbs,^ The most important factor, however, has been a population mix that favours apartment li v i n g . Apartments are best suited, both in terms of space and cost, to young families with no children or only one child, older couples whose family are no longer liv i n g at - 61 -home, and no-family households. During the f i f t i e s the number of households belonging to these categ-ories grew rapidly and this trend is li k e l y to continue for several years. The children born in the post-war baby boom are already approaching marry-ing age. They w i l l represent a strong demand for apartments during the next few years, and their younger brothers and sisters w i l l continue to swell the ranks of apartment seekers in the late 1960's and into the 1970's. 1 2 The importance of the Central Business District as a factor in the location of high-rise apartments was considered by E.W. Burgess and J.F. Kain. The f i r s t theories which discussed central city residences were proposed in the 1920's as part of the broader consideration of the evolution of c i t i e s . Writing in 1925, E.W. Burgess suggested the effect of an expanding urban core on adjacent land uses in part of his broader 13 concentric ring theory of urban growth. The core was the -entral Business District. Surrounding the Central Business District he noted a zone of transition into which industry and business were pushing. Residences in the zone of transition were characterized by converted buildings in the form of rooming houses. Surrounding the zone of transition were the zones of working men's homes, and the zone of better residences which included both single family and high class apartments. Beyond the city limits was the commuter's zone of spotty development along lines of rapid transit. A significant feature of Burgess rs theory was the continual invasion of one circle into another through expansion of the Central Business District outward. This invasion was accompanied by continual changes in land use. It has been shown that in the early development - 62 -of the West End a similar progression of land use changes occurred with the movement westward of Vancouver's Central Business District. The recent trend toward the upgrading of residential accommodation within the West End is of a type not envisioned by Burgess. The pull of activities generated within the urban core as a reason for adjacent residential accommodation is noted by J.F. Kain. He indicates employment opportunities are the major explanation for inner city apartments. Kain feels that patterns of interaction between people are many, but those which relate to locations within the city can be dealt with effectively in terms of the various systems of action which operate in the urban setting, such as the daily routine movement of a person (journey to work, to social a c t i v i t i e s , food marketing, apparel shopping etc.). Some conclusions have been reached by Kain concerning the relationship between the journey to work and residence. "It is my contention that for the majority of urban households the sum of transportation costs to points other than work or within the immediate residential area is small.... The journey to work costs are large and significant."-'-^ Therefore he concludes that position of work is the major locational factor, with the exception of households without a member in the labor force, in which case other destinations such as frequent trips to cultural and recreational centers are important. In relation to income end distance to work, "Workers employed in higher income occupations and working in inner rings tended to make longer journeys to work and reside in outer rings. Lower income workers made shorter journeys to work and resided within the work place ring or nearby rings." 15 - 63 -The Canadian Builder presents a similar picture for eastern Canada: "In large and small c i t i e s , people are finding travelling to and from work or entertainment costly and a real chore. The demand to be nearer these f a c i l i t i e s is growing rapidly. Rental unit builders are catering to this demand....As development proc-eeds, the single family housebuilder is being forced further and further away from the core of business activities while the apartment builder is moving closer because of his a b i l i t y to take advantage of redevelopment schemes initiated by himself or by public authorities." 16 "The advantages of an intown location are: proximity to work, downtown shopping, amusement and cultural centers; and avoidance of lost hours spent driving to and from suburban areas on congested highways. In-town locations generally appeal to those who have no children or those whose children have grown up and established their own homes. The locations also appeal to single men and women and to transients whose residency is for a limited period." 17 The significance of government urban renewal schemes is indic-ated by most studies of central urban areas. "In the 1920's most of our (United States) apartments were located in the downtown areas close to the CBD. Later in this period, a tendency emerged for new construction to move further out in the direction of suburban housing growth, but s t i l l within what would be classed as the city proper. The builders were looking for lower-cost land in a more residential type of environment. The new apartments were then luxury type, high rise buildings; no low-cost or garden types were bui l t . In the late 1930's ....The requirement for low land coverage and minimum rentals in apartment housing forced a movement to the suburbs. Even with the disadvantages of distance from work and time lost in travel the suburban type of community l i f e appeals to families with children and to parents who are in the age bracket seeking recreation and social a c t i v i t i e s . " 18 "In the past fifteen years the second stage of the transition has begun. Frightened by declining central city populations and declining revenues in the central business d i s t r i c t , municipal governments are turning increasingly to urban renewal. Slum housing^s being des-troyed to be replaced by relatively high rental housing in high rise apartments." 19 - 64 -Hoover states that: "A renewal of the area occurs, which often depends upon public intervention. New multi-family housing either in the form of subsidized medium or low income units or unsubsidized luxury are built."20 Only luxury housing apparently can bring the returns needed to pay back private development costs. "Because of both the intensive use of the land by multi-family structures and the high rents charged, i t pays to wreck existing structures." 2 1 Hoover and Vernon indicated, as part of their sequence of five stages through which inner city residential areas are expected to pass, the importance of public intervention in urban renewal. Stage I - Single family homes Stage II - A transition stage in which increased construction (in many cases in the form of apartments) permits an increasing population density. Stage III - A downgrading of the area as old homes are adapted for a greater density than originally^ planned. Stage IV - A thinning out of the area with a decline in the household size. There is increased vacancy and decreased construction. Stage V - Lastly, a renewal of the area occurs, which often depends upon public intervention. New multi-family housing -either in the form of subsidized medium and low income units or unsubsidized luxury units is b u i l t . The West End f i t s into part of this general picture. Two exceptions, however, stand out: stages II and III were shown in Chapter - 65 -to have been reversed and, secondly, there has not been the construct-ion of publicly subsidized housing. Previous literature has indicated a divergence of opinion on the importance of persons returning from suburban locations as a per-centage of the inner city apartment market. This argument was the basis for proposing, as a secondary hypothesis to this thesis, to investigate the extent to which West End apartments draw persons from suburban residences to inner city homes. The effect of the increasing areal expansion of North American cities with both the use of private automobiles and rapid transit is suggested as the cause for the "return from suburbia". Charles C. Colby, writing in 1933, introduced the ideas of "centrifugal forces which impel functions to migrate from the central zone of a city outward... (and) the second (set of) powerful centripetal forces which hold certain 00 functions in the central zone and attract others to i t . Though much of Colby's work centered on the effect of increased land costs and congestion of inner city areas on business offices and industry, his theories have some application to residential development. The ava i l a b i l i t y of low cost transportation outward from the Central Business District has both caused and f a c i l i t a t e d the centrifugal spread of urban areas during the twentieth century. The result of this urban growth has been an increased journey to work and central city entertainment for the suburban dweller. Colby suggests that this incon-venience has created a centripetal "inward movement in or near the central zone (due to) site attraction, functional magnetism, prestige 0 3 and the human equation." The human equation refers to the choice - 66 -of some people not to commute to work and entertainment. This idea of movement outward and inward of people for residence has been discus-sed by other writers. A survey done in the mid 1950's by FORTUNE magazine and ACTION (American Council to Improve Our Neighbourhoods) sampled more than six hundred central city residents in Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York to find out what kind of people they were, where they had come from and why. One of the major findings was the surprisingly large proportion of ex-suburbanites. "Of these city dwellers, 41 per cent had lived in the suburbs at some time in the past, and 10 per cent had moved directly from the suburbs." Other findings dealt with the character of the inner city apartment dweller and his reasons for moving into the central area. W.H. Whyte, in analysing the data gathered by the FORTUNE survey stated that: "There are definite signs of a small but significant move back from suburbia.... It is from suburbia, perhaps that the greatest increment in the city market w i l l come. Of the returnees the largest single group are upper-income people whose children have married, and while such people have long been the best prospects for luxury apartment houses, there are indications that their numbers can increase much more than the real estate men expect." 25 Some recent articles have questioned the extent of this in-ward movement. "Spot surveys have seemed to indicate that for a l l the outward f l i g h t of families, a return to the citi e s was in the making ....That such individual cases exist there can be no doubt. But their total effect on the major trends has been so insignificant as to be lost in the tidal wave of outward movement."^ - 67 -Data available from West End residents (presented later in this chapter) indicates an apparent lack of "returnees from suburbia" within the West End. The relationship between increasing population density adjacent to the urban core and the construction of inner city apartments has been indicated by Hoover. He, as previously mentioned, suggested that as renewal occurs in areas adjacent to the urban core, "Quality and the effective use of space are improved, but the overall population density of the area may not change much." 2 7 The correlations between population increase and apartment construction w i l l be discussed in Chapter IV to test^he validity of Hoover's obser-vations when applied to the West End. In total, while providing the basis for several of the secondary hypotheses of this thesis, existing literature on middle-income apartment areas adjacent to the urban core is limited. This lack of investigation into one of the most significant trends in recent urban development indicates the need for extensive research on this section of the c i t y . - 68 -Empirical Evidence for Apartment Development Empirical data available from the apartment resident provides the basis for hypotheses concerning the general characteristics of the apartment dweller, the significance of a suburban location as a past residence and the importance of residential locations adjacent to the Central Business District. This material was obtained from a mail questionnaire during the summer of 1964. A copy of the questionnaire, distributed to every twentieth suite in the West End, appears in the appendix. The primary thesis hypothesis states that there are an increasing number of persons who both desire and can afford apartment accommodation. Questionnaire responses indicate that West End apart-ment dwellers can be divided by age and occupation into two classes --the young working adult, and the elderly, retired person. In both cases one characteristic is common --. the lack of family responsibilit-ies, particularly the lack of dependent children. Questionnaire returns indicate the characteristics of the apartment dweller. Census data is presented for comparison between the apartment dweller and the total West End demographic figures. TABLE XIV 28 WEST END AGE-SEX DISTRIBUTION CCMPARISON_BETWEENJ^^ MA TERIAL_( 19612. Age Questionnaire Males Census Questionnaire Females Census 0 - 1 9 6.2% 1.0% 6.0% 9.8% 20- 24 10 6.5 10 9.6 25- 34 33 20.3 35 15.4 35- 44 12.5 14.5 8.5 13.3 45- 54 3.3 14.2 13 15.3 55- 64 7.5 10.3 10 13 65- 69 2.5 6.5 8.5 7.5 70 plus 18.5 17 23 17.5 - 69 -From Table XIV i t appears that the apartment dwellings house the elderly West End women and young adults while the rooming houses, converted suites, and single family homes cater more to families with children and to persons in the 35 - 54 age group. Marital status of the questionnaire respondents closely follows the census, with an equal distribution of married and single persons. The number of persons per apartment is almost exclusively between one and three. In the census some larger households are recorded these are li k e l y residents of the converted and single family dwellings. TABLE XV 29 NUMBER IN HOUSEHOLD Number of Persons Questionnaire Census 1 457. 407. 2 - 3 547. 527. More than 3 17. 97. If the apartment dweller is in the labor force, he is likely in the middle income bracket. The recorded income is higher than the West End average. This is expected since the most expensive accommod-ation in the area is of the apartment type (persons also may tend to exaggerate when the reply is not for income tax purposes). The apart-ment population is heavily oriented toward "white collar" -- c l e r i c a l , professional, and technical -- jobs. There were few craftsmen, laborers, or primary industry workers compared with the census data. This would indicate that the "blue collar" workers live in the rooming houses rather than the higher priced apartments. Only one respondeat l i s t e d himself as reemployed and looking for work. - 7 0 -TABLE XVI 3 0 COMPARISON OF CENSUS AND_QUESTIONNALRE_OCCUPATIONAL DATA 1 9 6 1 Occupation Questionnaire Census Clerical 3 4 7 , 2 8 7 , Professional & Technical 2 4 1 4 . 5 Service 6c Recreation 1 3 1 9 . 1 Sales 1 2 8 . 9 Managerial 9 9 . 3 Transport & Communications 7 4 . 2 Primary- 2 1 . 5 Craftsmen, production 0 1 2 . 0 Laborers 0 2 . 2 Converted house owners and single family residence dwellers increase the average number of years of occupancy in one location within the West End. Questionnaire respondents indicated a shorter period of residence than did the 1 9 6 1 census data. TABLE XVII COMPARISON BETWEEN CENSUS AND QUESTIONNAIRE OCCUPANCY DATA Length of Occupancy Less than 1 year One to three years Three to five years Six to ten years More than ten years Questionnaire 1 4 . 5 7 . ) f i r c<7 5 1 ) 6 5 , 5 / ° 1 8 1 0 . 5 6 . 0 3 1 1 9 6 1 Census 3 3 7 , ) 2 4 . 6 ) 2 0 1 2 1 0 5 7 . 6 7 . There is a definite decrease in the average number of moves since 1 9 5 0 as the age of the respondent increases. In to t a l , the questionnaire indicates the apartment population can be classified into two groups, differentiated by employment status but joined by common lack of family responsibility. - 71 -The location of the Central Business District is crucial to the location of high-rise apartment blocks since i t is the person with few family responsibilities who desires the urban amenities afforded by the Central Business Area. Questionnaire respondents indicated attract-ions in the central urban area were the variety of job prospects and the adjacent shopping, entertainment and recreational services available. Questionnaire respondents were asked to indicate by f i r s t , second, third and, i f applicable, fourth choice, their reasons for moving into a West End apartment. TABLE XVIIi 32 REASONS FOR MOVING INTO THE WEST END AREA Males Females Close to work 56.57. 267, Close to shops 8 26 Close to entertainment 11^27 H^34 Close to recreation 16( 23( Other reasons 9 14 In total, closeness to work accounts for forty-five per cent of the f i r s t choice reaions for West End residence. As second choice, forty-six per cent indicated adjacent shopping f a c i l i t i e s . Entertain-ment and recreation were generally the third or fourth choice. Many gave such reasons for living in the West End as "feels like home", "like the area", "like the type of l i f e the people l i v e " , "ajways lived in the West End". Some people just summed up a l l their reasons by the word "central". The questionnaire indicated the importance of adjacent work locations, particularly among male respondents. Forty-two per cent 33 of the questionnaire respondents were in the labor force. Map 15 L O C A T I O N O F W O R K 20 10 % 5 P e r c e n t a g e o f W e s t E n d a p a r t m e n t dwellers e m p l o y e d b y z o n e E m p l o y e d within W e s t E n d D a t a f rom Quest ionnai re AM - 73 -indicates the high percentage of these persons working either in the West End, the Central Business D i s t r i c t , or adjacent Kitsilano area 34 ( postal zone 9). Of the eight per cent who work out of Vancouver city, many commute to Richmond and the Sea Island Airport. They work a number of consecutive days and then have a series of days off to live in town. Many of the others who work outside the central core are members of a household with two persons in the labor force -- the second member (often a wife) working in the West End or Central Business Area. TABLE XIX WORK_LOCATIONS_OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDENTS Core Area 79% Central Business District 40 West End (postal zone 5) 26 Kitsilano 13 Suburban Vancouver City 13 Outside Vancouver City 8 Fifty-four per cent of the respondents walk or take the bus to work. This indicates that, for some, either the lower cost or the convenience of getting to work from a nearby residence is important. Most persons who chose closeness to entertainment and recreat-ion as the prime reason for livi n g in the West End were persons not in the labor force. In locations favoured by West End residents for recreation 35 and entertainment there is a similarly close connection between the West End and the Central Business District. Map 14 shows that forty-six per cent of a l l locations noted for entertainment outside the apartment were in the central area. The two types of entertainment most popular were movies and the legitimate theatre. Other locations lis t e d were the West End (Georgia Street nightclubs, Gordon Neighbourhood House, the MAP 14 - 75 -Bay Theatre, and the Art Gallery) fourteen per cent; and other parts of Vancouver ( such as the University of British Columbia) eleven per cent. Most indicated their frequency of v i s i t s to entertainment f a c i l i t i e s were less than to recreational ones. For most, their major entertainment was in the apartment -- television watching. Seventy-one per cent of a l l recreation of West End apartment dwellers is within the West End. Local recreation f a c i l i t i e s include Stanley Park for tennis, bowling, golf and- walking; adjacent beaches for summer swimming and apartment block recreation rooms. Older persons stressed the beaches and Stanley Park for walking. Recreation locations on South West Marine Drive, the University Endowment Lands, the local golf courses (postal zones 16,13,9 and 8) and the North Shore Mountains were used by thirteen per cent of the respondents. Sixteen per cent said they participated in no form of recreation. Females , rather than males, indicated the importance of adjacent shopping areas. There exists a close relationship, already noted in other sectors, between the West End apartment dweller and Central Business District shops. Map 15 indicates that ninety-two percent of a l l respondents made their last purchase of groceries in a West End shop. The major grocery areas recorded were along Denman, Robson and Davie Streets. Last purchase, not from a West End store, was usually made near the persons employment or on the way home from work. Clothing shopping is done mainly in the Central Business District — the nearest available clothing store area. Many li s t e d the Hudson^ Bay Company Store at Georgia and Granville -- the nearest - 77 -department store to the West End -- as their last place of purchase. Five per cent l i s t e d the last clothing purchase from within the West End. The majority of these were women who probably patronize the small women's specialty shops. Furniture shopping was less heavily concentrated in the Central core. Eighty-two per cent of those replying to the question-naire purchased their newest furniture in the Central Business Di s t r i c t . The Kitsilano-Broadway area (postal zone 9) 6.5%per cent, and Kerris-dale (postal zone 13), 3.3 per cent, were most frequent choices after the Central Business Di s t r i c t . Stores mentioned in these latter purchases were Danish, Maple and other specialty shops. It appears then, that for specialty items, the West End resident may not patronize 36 the closer stores. Many older residents did not record a last purchase of furniture but noted that they had brought such items from an earlier home. TABLE XX LAST_SHOPPING LOCATIONS REC0RDED_IN QUESTIONNAIRE Type Areas Percentage Groceries Denman, Davie, Robson Streets 92 °L Near Work Location 8 Clothes Central Business District 90 West End (postal zone 5) 5.7 Furniture Central Business District 82 Postal Zone 9 6.5 Postal Zone 13 3.3 In general, when shopping, the West End resident follows patterns which are closely related to convenience and to the locations which offer the greatest range of merchandise, both of which are in - 78 -the adjacent Central Business District. Only one person mentioned the West Vancouver Park Royal shopping center. A survey by University of British Columbia students in the Park Royal Center during the summer . 37 of 1964 noted a similar lack of West End residents. Lack of accommodation elsewhere does not seem to be s i g n i f i c -ant in choice of a West End apartment. Few indicated the West End offered the only apartment which f i t their individual space require-ments, though many did indicate that the West End presented the greatest variety in one location. The reason apartment dwellers chose their particular block was because the suite f i t t e d their personal space requirements. Second reason given by most men was the view, and by women, the rent. With increasing age, the respondent tended to place a greater emphasis on view, nearness to recreation (Stanley Park or Gordon Neighbourhood House) and to a bus line. Younger persons stressed the size of the suite. The fact that the apartment was "modern" was frequently l i s t e d as the reason for f i n a l choice of suite. TABLE XXI REASONS FOR CHOICE OF PARTICULAR APARTMENT BLOCK Male Female Rent 15.5% 22.3% View 27 17.5 Nearness to Friends 5.8 12.5 Size of Suite 34.6 37.2 Other 17.0 10.0 - 79 -Thus, the responses to the questionnaire indicate that the apartment dwellers of the West End maintain a very close connection with the Central Business District and have few normal linkages with the larger city area. The high-rise dwellers live in the West End because of close work, shops, entertainment, recreation and a wide variety of accommodation from which to choose. Earlier in this chapter, evidence, based on urban literature, suggested that one hypothesis which could be advanced concerning the apartment dweller was the increased demand from persons who had lived in suburban locations for this inner city residential location. Quest-ionnaire evidence questions this hypothesis. The location of past residence shows a slightly different pattern for different age groups (see map 17). The general trend is for movement within the city of Vancouver during the past fifteen years. Only sixteen per cent of those aged twenty to forty-four moved directly from outside Greater Vancouver to an apartment in the West End. Of a l l moves recorded by respondents since 1950 (see map 16), the majority were moves within the West End, Central Business and adjacent Kitsilano areas. Only 6.2 per cent had at any time lived in suburban Vancouver. Twenty per cent had at some time lived within the Vancouver City limits but outside the central West End - Kitsilano core. TABLE XXII AVERAGE NUpER_0F MOVES SINCE 1950 Age Average number of moves 20 - 28 years 2.5 29 - 44 2.6 45 - 60 2.0 61 plus 1.5 LOCATION OF RESIDENCE Prior to living in West End 107, 2 0 % No move in lost ten years: 19% - y / , y ^ , , Os A M - 82 -The majority of last moves were recorded from a central Vancouver City location to the present apartment. Twenty-eight per cent in the twenty to twenty-eight age group last lived in the Point Grey area (zone 8), presumably while attending- university. The predominant type of past residence was, in a l l age groups, an apartment. Single family residences as an immediate past location were only important in the age groups under twenty-eight and above sixty-one. Few of the respondents planned to move during the next year. Those who did indicate a move were going either to a more modern apart-ment or out of the Vancouver area. Only one couple planned to move to a single family home in suburban Vancouver. In summation, the location of past residence maintains the theme of a close attachment between the West End and the Central Core. In total, more than forty per cent of recorded past moves have been within the central core of Vancouver, while less than six per cent have lived in suburban Vancouver. Reasons why suburban areas of Vancouver account for such a small percentage of moves w i l l be discus-sed in the conclusions. - 83 -Evidence From Public and Private Developers Apartment developers offer insights into the changes in technology within the construction industry which have permitted new scale economics of construction in apartment development and into the role which government capital, in the form of redevelopment schemes, has played within the West End. Developers can be divided into two classifications -- the public and the private developer. As w i l l be shown, the contribution of each of these two groups has been very different within the West End. Public developers, in this thesis, refers to the government plan-ning and legislative bodies which influence land use. Thus far, public capital has ttot been used for apartment construction within the West 38 End. Public policy has been limited to setting out guide lines for private capital developments. The main public guidance has taken the form of zoning regul-ations . The general concept which has guided the location of apartment 39 zones in Vancouver was set by the 1930 zoning by-laws. Though there have been several boundary changes since that date, the general pattern has remained unchanged. The 1930 concept was based on the premise that cit i e s grow outward from the center, producing a need for a concentration of residences in or near this central zone. The West End thus presented an ideal apartment location. MAP 18 C o o l H o r b o u r o. a. • vJ.UJJJ.ll llJUiLLjJ uJILUJjj lliiiJJJiJ ^ ^ (Dna CJTIIDID umnni innm) nmm ^  s s s s s s s i2':t, nnm iirrrrnrnMm\...imriTin..[mmi rrnminrnm G eor g io ...... 7777A *V7/////0* ^ iESSSLD i anuxiia -imnrai ^taiin^ifflii|.iiniD \mm !iiniiTmiiDp.Liii.auy? ••/<MA j.;:-;-:-:-:-;! II. |l IvXisal t i ^ i i J td i&y fc:v:vJ fc:::i:^;:s b ^ v X v < i i vc : : :%v : : : ^ K - J X U I - J J S • 'p _i • H o n i£!3 ciLviid EvX:^ I! 2ssn3 mm mm ESSD mm mm smm £p±3 ESSI ma mm smm mmk mm mm • omm mm 8333 SSS3 SSSXSI Nehon ES5S2 fcSi-S! llJlS2±i3 £i£-;2] £32 E£&;!53 E5SS:i-:::-SD &!£S:*; E ~ ~ Co mo x y. — ~ mm mm E S M mm jsm wz§ mm mm m®fa AMSS zmm ESSS zm ssss mm ftssmm mm£ Pend r ell r i ^ v ^ q mum flmiTu mm'm mum fagpnn wmm x fnTriTrri (rrrrrrmi mm sm ESSJ nwrrn (nrnfffrrm imnnina &/,- %mm mm ^mm® mm mma mmm £ 3, EH Multiple dwelling district RM 4 iTTTT) Commercial C 3 ESS Commercial C 5 Commercia 1 C M 1 Commercial C M 2 m 1 n d r u s t r i a l m S c h o o l m Ho rwood Pacif ic West End I 2 ZONING A M - 85 -Most regulations imposed since 1930 have been related to site coverage, floor space ratio and height. Between 1931 - 1955 the permitted site coverage was reduced to between f i f t y and seventy-five per cent lot coverage; though one building had ninety per cent coverage. The 1956 zoning plan increased the floor space ratio permit-40 ted in the West End to 3.0 and to 3.5 on corner sites. Maximum height restrictions were raised to eighty feet, or over with the approval of the Technical Planning Board. At present, the highest block rises thirty-two storeys and contains three hundred suites. These changes in building regulations had a marked effect on the West End. The present density regulations, and the high land costs are encouraging the construction of a large number of suites in high-rise buildings. These new high-rise blocks have a lower land coverage than the early apartments. Because of this , the lighting and views between buildings have been improved. A number of reports on apartments in the Vancouver area have been the basis for recent apartment legislation. "The main purpose of the new legislation w i l l be to give architects , engineers, developers, and the builders as wide a scope as possible within the confines of sound overall city planning."^! Two concepts for apartment location -- either a concentration near the center or a dispersion throughout the city area -- have been 42 investigated. Current recommendations suggest that the main concent-ration remain near the city center but that citizens be given the opportunity for apartment living in suburban areas. - 86 -A maximum density of 350 people per acre is suggested for the West End. This is the maximum density allowed in any area of the city. "This is an outstanding location for multiple dwellings and an extensive apartment development w i l l result in this d i s t r i c t which w i l l add great value to the city." ^3 To encourage private apartment development within the West End a bonus system for building has been established. Developers with special ideas to improve the urban setting may obtain permission to build larger buildings than the actual site might suggest. Other than these building and zoning policies, public developments have not taken place in the West End. Private capital has been responsible for the growth of the West End as the major apartment area in the city. Private apartment developers l i s t both encouraging and deterring factors to inner-city apartment construction. The main factors encouraging the recent high-rise apartment construction are the present and potential market for this form of accommodation, the expected revenues, and the technological changes which have made possible economical higher construction. Deterrent factors mentioned by developers are the increasing land values, the unavailability of capital and the considerable number of costly amenit-ies desired by the tenant. The potential market has been investigated by many developers to determine the most successful apartment locations. - 87 -"Mr Block said the company decided to enter the apartment f i e l d on the basis of its own research and a study on population growth and apartment demand conducted in the city for Block Brothers by Watts Marketing Research L t d . " ^ "Research of Block Brothers indicates that two population bulges are appearing over the next ten years in the 15 to 30 years and the over 50 year age groups, in fact even in the 45 year group. Upon examination of the West End in preparing for our Beach Avenue project, we found a dramatic preponderance of these two age groups, in fact the middle age group was almost non in the West End. The West End is an excellent sampling of what type of people desire apartments." Reasonable incomes can be expected from apartment blocks i f vacancy rates can be kept low. The rents charged in the West End apartments are generally above the Vancouver average. This reflects the higher land prices and the desirability of the location. Of the three apartment areas within the West End, the lower rents are found in the older buildings, especially in the Eastern Apartment Area. For the West End the most frequent rents are: TABLE XXIII 46 TYPE_0F ACCOMMODATION BY_AVERAGE_RENT PER MONTH Average rent Size of Suite Apartment type per month Bachelor Frame $ 80.00 High-rise 95.00 One Bedroom Frame 100.00 High-rise 120.00 Two Bedroom Frame 135.00 High-rise 175.00 The advantages of the type of amenities offered by West End apartment blocks and the central location appear to counteract the higher rents since, with the exceptions of survey data from 1960, 1965 and May 1966, the vacancy rates in the West End were below the city average. - 88 -TABLE XXIV 47 PERCENTAGE OF VACANT SUITES 1959 - 1966 May 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 2.3 3.4 4.2 4.3 3.7 4.3 4.1 1.6 1.9 3.7 4.0 4.0 2.9 3.1 4.7 2.0 West End During the eight years for which data on vacancy rates are available, i t is only in bachelor size suites that the area has remained constantly below the Vancouver average number of vacant suites. The explanation for this can be related to the average size of households discussed earlier in this chapter. With the increased demand for apartment accommodation, apartment projects are becoming larger. Fifteen years ago a large development contained f i f t y suites; today the large developments range from 200 - 300 units. Technological changes are permitting these larger developments, Earlier builders were restricted to either small, s p l i t level apart-ments of wood frame or four to six sterey concrete blocks containing fewer than thirty suites. These were the high-rise buildings prior to 1956. The recent high-rise apartments are of pre-cast concrete and steel construction. New l i f t s , outside surfacers, changing construct-^ ion materials and larger overhead cranes, developed during the past few years, have contributed to the construction of these high-rise blocks. In many new blocks plate floors (slabs of reinforced concrete supported on columns with no beams or projections), in which the slab top forms a floor and the bottom forms the ceiling of the suite below, - 89 -are cutting construction costs. The cost is cut since a l l the ceiling needs is paint, and the floor, a carpet. Sample costs of some of the larger complexes in the West End are: Three tower Beach Avenue block complex $6,000,000 Two towers Pendrell-Nicola-Cardero 3,000,000 General construction costs are at present $12.50 - $15.00 per foot in concrete buildings and $10.00 - 12.00 for frame apartment construct-48 ion. Most apartment developers are planning projects to attract the middle income wage-earner. The "luxury" apartments are built to excess in the Vancouver area, according to reports in the Apartment 49 Owner and Builder. "The volume market which can support a major apart-ment project, at high levels of occupancy, is a middle income group which can afford between $80.00 and $100.00 a month rent (this would represent between 25 and 30 per cent of their gross wages)." 50 General advantages to West End apartment locations were summed up by a report on a proposed $55,000,000 apartment develop-ment in the Coal Harbour area as being: an excellent view, Coal Harbour and Stanley Park recreation, location within a convenient distance of the downtown core and the chance to rebuild a generally rundown area."'''" Among the deterrents noted by apartment developers are high land costs ( see map 19). The highest land values are found in the most recent apartment areas -- the Stanley Park-Beach Avenue complex and the South Davie area. Questionnaire answers indicated that people want choice view locations, where land and taxes cost more. Suitable sites are scarce in good d i s t r i c t s , but there is no alternative. MAP 19 " ^ S S S B i l l B B l l l L A N D \ A L U E S per front f o o t $ 1,150-1,375 720-800 per square foot 9.00-10.50 5.50 " 6.00 650-750 tyZfy 7.00-8.00 720-820 : : 5 50 "6.25 West End 0 ' 1 6 1 8 m i l e s AM - 91 -A good apartment building in a poor d i s t r i c t would be unsuccessful. The West End has, on the average the highest land values in the Vancouver area."^ During the past few years the trend has been towards assembly of smaller sites. Of the total 1,790 residential lots in the West End, sixty-six per cent have a street frontage of thirty-three feet or less (see map 20). The remaining lots are mainly sixty-six feet wide. When mapped the location of sixty-six foot lots closely relates to the belts of apartments and, near Stanley Park and South of Davie Street, to the locations of previous large homes. "Properties that are deep and wide are invariably sought out (for apartments), and this has resulted in the replacement of many old... mansions, as well as the f i l l i n g in of irregular parcels which had previously been neglected." ->3 Despite rising property values, some speculative investments, high-density apartment zoning and some expectations of a freeway through the area, ownership of land has remained f a i r l y well dispersed. Many of the land holders are owners of the remaining converted and single family dwellings, who are holding on, hoping for good bids from apartment developers. In comparison to the Vancouver city area, apartment developers point out the higher cost of West End sites. Though land costs are less in suburban Vancouver, the lack of orientation of the potential apartment tenant toward these suburban areas encourages investment in a central s i t e . MAP 20 LOT FRONTAGE SIZE Lots with 33 frontage or less Lots larger than 33' frontage • West End 12 LOT FRONTAGES A M MAP 21 K S S 3 & v £ 3 CIUSB mm EH3 Y///////A l/<fes E S S vzzzm Kgsss rXin;:n C U D L U D L U I L D s.x<vi K;!£l523 S M S £ 5 3 7/7///, E Z 3 LLUII] S S S m& mm. mm sss^  ESSI ZT/A E S 3 E S V S ° u E S 3 cJSSSJZHID o&S3 Wml&ZZ S S S I Z^/7Z7A^/////Zh / -n i • t r ^ ^ v i of7 , ////A77A C/////////A ? K o b i o [I B a r t !a> V/m S 5 £ 2 3 L \ \ \ v w ffiX 22^2 f S S S C H E ) C K Z S ISS23 £5222 E S S S ^ 2 . ^ £ 2 3 tel IS) i C o fn O K ' 21 • J l \ \ \ \ s v E I V . ' . T . V . V , : . ! . . L _ ^ A - W - ^ _ X X J ^ D o . i e mm m& ssa 'mm B u f n a b y ~ 3 ^ ::/::/:3 ^MJ(3 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGIONAL BUIUDINGS REMOVED PER BLOCK! 0 - 24 % 25-49% 50 " 74 % 75-99% 100% ( 1 1 ] W W N\\\\ West End I 16 1 8 1 4 REMOVAL OF ORIGIONAL S T R U C T U R E S FOR NEW BUILDINGS - 9 4 -Even with high land costs, the high-rise apartments have some of the lowest land costs per dwelling unit in Vancouver. This has been accomplished by increasing the number of dwelling units per high-rise block to the maximum permitted in order to increase revenue. In terms of costs and revenues to the city, the West End makes a'profit', and w i l l continue to do so as long as the school costs remain low. A considerable cost to the developer is the number of amenit-ies desired by the apartment dwellers. "Apartment tenants of today and tomorrow w i l l be looking for more amenities so that they don't feel that they are holed into concrete j a i l s with l i t t l e outside space and few recreational f a c i l i t i e s . ' "People want hotel lavishness in the new high-rise apartments but the volume of the market of bachelors, working g i r l s , recently married, working and retired couples cannot afford to pay hotel-like prices." The West End shows a trend toward more amenities in order to attract the central city dweller. TABLE XXV APARTMENT AMENITIES 5 6 Amenity Percentage of West End blocks with amenity Percentage of Vancouver blocks with amenity Balcony Pool Wall-to-wall carpets Intercom at entrance 1 4 . 8 % 2 . 0 1 6 . 2 7 o 1 . 5 2 . 4 2 . 1 7 . 9 3 . 1 - 95 -A similar stress on amenities has been noted in eastern c i t i e s : "In most instances the new housing is designed to attract middle income residents rather than lower income residents. High rise construction permits high densities ... forced by high land values.... In many cases the appeal is not size of dwelling unit but rather the equipment with which the dwelling is furnished." 57 Thus information from literature, the apartment dweller and the apartment developer contribute reasons for inner city apart-ment construction. Chapter IV w i l l weigh the significance of these reasons in the West End example. - 9b -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER III 1. Note comments related to questionnaire survey methods included in Chapter I. 2. See footnote 2 Chapter I 3. E.M. Hoover and R. Vernon, Anatomy of a Metropolis Harvard University Press, 1959, p.145. 4. Ibid., p. 165. 5. Donald Kerr and Jacob Spelt, The Changing Face of Toronto Geographical Branch, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Memoir II, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1965, p.115. 6. E.G.H. Lyman, Family Li f e in an Apartment Environment Master of Arts Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1959, p.6. 7. E.M. Hoover and R. Vernon, op. c i t . , p. 173. 8. Homer Hoyt, op.cit., p. 506 9. T.R. Anderson, "Social and Economic Factors Affecting the Location of Residential Neighbourhoods", Papers of the Regional Science  Association, Vol. 9, 1962, p. 166. 10. W.H. Whyte Jr. "Are Cities Un-American", The Exploding Metropolis Editors of Fortune, Doubleday & Company Inc., New York, 1957, p.13. 11. H.J. Gans, The Urban Villagers The Free Press, New York, 1962. 12. Bank of Montreal, "The Housing Market" Bank of Montreal Business  Review, Montreal, May 31, 1963, p.3. 13. E.W. Burgess, "The Growth of the City", The City R.E. Park, E.W. Burgess, R.D. McKenzie, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1925, p.p. 47 - 62. 14. J.F. Kain, "The Journey to Work as a Determinant of Residential Location", Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science  Association, Vol. 9, International Academic Printing Company, Toyko, 1962, p. 138. 15. Ibid., p. 139. 16. C l i f f o r d Fowke, "Trends in Apartments", Canadian Builder, Vol. XIV, Number 2, February 1964, p.26. - 97 -17. J.M. Mowbray, "Apartments in Central Areas", Urban Land, Vol.21, Number 1, January 1962, p. 1. 18. M.C. McFarland, The Challenge of Urban Renewal, Urban Land Institute, Technological Bulletin Number 34, Washington, 1958, p. 46. 19. Ibid.. p. 52. 20. E.M. Hoover and R. Vernon, op,cit., p. 196. 21. Ibid.. p. 203 22. Charles C. Colby, "Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces in Urban Geography", Readings in Urban Geography Harold Mayer and Clyde Kohn, University of Chicago Press, 1959, p. 287. 23. Ibid.. p. 293 24. W.H. Whyte Jr., op. c i t . 25. Ibid., p. 10. 26. E.M. Hoover and R. Vernon, op.cit. , p. 224, 27. Ibid, p. 194 28. 1961 Census Material and Questionnaire. 29. 1961 Census Material and Questionnaire. 30. 1961 Census Material and Questionnaire. 31. 1961 Census Material and Questionnaire. 32. 1961 Census Material and Questionnaire. 33. Note tables VIII and IX. 34. The Questionnaire asked respondents to indicate location of past residence, work, and shopping by postal zone. In this thesis, where area names correspond to postal zones the area name w i l l be used with the postal zone in brackets. Map 23 indicates locations of postal zones. 35. Recreation: refers to active participation by the respondent. Entertainment: refers to spectator sports, movies, theatres, at which the respondent was not an active participant. Note map 14. 36. This finding is substantiated by Roger Leigh's findings in Specialty Retailing: A Geographical Analysis B.C. Geographical Series, Tantalus Research Limited, Vancouver, 1966. - 98 -37. Survey done by Education 404, Geography Methods Class, University of British Columbia, under the direction of Mr. Angus Gunn, at Park Royal Shopping Center, of Friday and Saturday shoppers in July 1964. 38. This policy appears to be changing. Recent newspaper articles have indicated the possibility of senior citizen's projects in the central area of the West End. 39. Vancouver Technical Planning Board, Apartment Zoning and Suburban  Commercial Centers Part A -- Apartment Zoning, December 1964, p.7. 40. Floor Space Ratio: Relationship between floor space of building and size of site ( i.e. F.S.R. 3 means permitted floor space is three times the size of the building s i t e ) . 41. W.E. Graham, "Changes Proposed in Vancouver's Zoning Regulations" Journal of Commerce, April 24, 1965, Vancouver, p. 46. 42. Vancouver Technical Planning Board, Apartment Zoning and Suburban  Commercial Centers, op. c i t . , p . l . 43. W.E. Graham, op. c i t . 44. Journal of Commerce op. c i t . p. 38. Block Brothers is one of the largest Real Estate - Apartment Development firms in Vancouver. 45. Ibid. , p. 61. 46. Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends Vancouver, May 1966 p. B.9. 47. Ibid. , p. B. 4. 48. Vancouver Real Estate Board, op. c i t . p. B.5. 49. Apartment Owner and Builder, Arthur Lowe and Associates , Toronto, February 1961. 50. Dick Dolman, "Apartments Pop up Despite Vacancies", Vancouver  Province, July 20, 1962, p. 13. 51. One example of a proposed large scale apartment development is the "Coal Harbour Project". This particular development, f i r s t proposed in 1963 by Webb and Knapp of Canada Limited, has had some serious f inancial\problems , which have resulted in the take-over of the plans by a new company, Harbour Park Development Limited. The project calls for the development of land between Georgia Street and Coal Harbour, from the Bayshore Inn to Stanley Park. The total scheme is estimated to cost $55 million. The site is twenty-eight acres, of which seven acres is land and the rest i s * at present;below high tide. The project has started with some - 99 -demolition of existing structures, and i t is expected to take at least ten years to complete. The fi n a l scheme w i l l house about 7,500 people in 3,200 suites, in fourteen twenty to twenty-five story apartment blocks. Associated shopping and recreational f a c i l i t i e s are to be included. 52. Vancouver Real Estate Board, op. c i t . , p. B. 11. 53. E.T. Rashleigh, "Observations on Canadian Cities 1960 - 61", Plan Canada Vol. 3, September 1962, Number 2, University of Toronto Press, p. 71. 54. Journal of Commerce op. c i t . , p. 43. 55. Bud Elsie , "Easy Living of High Rise Blocks Finds Ready Takers" Vancouver Province, April 11, 1964, p. 5. 56. Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends, 1964. 57. T.R. Anderson, op. c i t . , p. 166. CHAPTER IV AN ANALYSIS OF THE REASONS FOR WEST END APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER IV AN ANALYSIS OF THE REASONS FOR WEST END APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT This thesis has presented the background documentation of apartment growth in the West End area and has suggested, from three points of view, the reasons for this construction. Two questions must be answered — why has this boom in apart-ment construction, documented over the past fifteen years, taken place and,secondly, why has the location of new apartments been concentrated within the West End area? Reasons for the increase in the rate of apartment construction are found in census data, existing theories of urban growth and from the comments made by developers. Why the West End, in particular, was the scene of most of the apartment construction is explained by the comments of the apartment residents, developers, and to some extent, by existing theory. Why 2 , 000 storeys in ten years? This thesis suggests that the reason for the increase in apartment construction has been the increase in the segment of the general population who desire and can afford apartment accommodation. The increase is not due to a "new idea" in l i f e styles, public subsidy or "returnees from suburbia" as have been suggested by other writers. - 101 -A model of the occupancy group for apartment accommodation can be established from thesis research. The main characteristic of the occupancy group is the lack of family responsibilities. This lack of family responsibilities has produced a segment of the pop-ulation which requires a limited amount of l i v i n g space. The lack of family also permits a frequent movement of residence. Apartment accommodation caters to both these requirements.* This desire for frequent movement is shown by the West End census data. In the 1961 census thirty-three per cent of the West End population was recorded as l i v i n g in their present dwelling less than one year. TABLE XXVI 2 LENGTH_0F OCCUPANCY ^ WEST_ENDJ^ND_VANCOUVERjC ITY Time 1961 1951 in years. West End Vancouver West End Vancouver Less than one 33% 18% 32% 37% One - two 24.6 17 Three - Five 20 20 One - four 38 34 Over five 30 29 Six - Ten 12 18 Over ten years 10 27 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % Apartments in Vancouver offer ease of movement because few require leases and most are supplied with major appliances. Suites are rented on a monthly basis, meaning a lack of legal or financial ties i f an individual desires to move. - 102 -The occupancy group divides into two segments -- the young adult and the elderly. Both lack family responsibilities, desire a particular location of accommodation for only short periods of time, and do not wish to own property. In the former case, property requires an outlay beyond the means of the person starting a career. In the latter case, age makes more d i f f i c u l t the maintenance of a home and 3 garden. The increase in the percentage of these two segments of the population as part of the total population has been documented in Chapter II. The most outstanding increase which has affected the Vancouver area is that of elderly persons, who comprised eight per cent of the population in 1941 and fourteen percent in 1961. Graphs 8 and 9 show the increase in apartment construction relates to the increase in both the elderly population and the young adults over the past twenty-five years. The lack of census data prior to this date prevents earlier correlations. Comparing the Vancouver example with earlier established North American or European cities is d i f f i c u l t . Trends such as inner-city apartment li v i n g were already established elsewhere in the world prior to the growth of Vancouver. In the i n i t i a l stages of the sequent occupance of the Vancouver area apartments were an accepted form of accommodation. According to records of the early 1910*s many of the people l i v i n g in the f i r s t apartments were elderly middle and upper middle income persons who desired to live adjacent to the urban core. The fact that apartments were built within the West End when - 103 -there was s t i l l space close to the urban core for single family home construction indicates that there was a demand for apartment type accommodation. It cannot be said that within the Vancouver area apartments are a new " l i f e style" of the 1960's, rather the only change i s in the intensity of construction during this decade. Public policy, private developers and technological change can be considered only as catalysts to apartment growth. Many studies stress the place of public redevelopment in 4 providing recent apartment accommodation. This is not the case in the West End. Public policy has permitted development but has actually done l i t t l e to aid the apartment growth. Private developers, while supplying the apartments, have done so only because they believed that there was an established demand."* Most companies have researchecijthis demand and realized the cause and probable continuance of the need for apartments. In fact, developers expect the crest of the population bulge of the two occupying segments of the population to be between 1969 and 1971. Technological change has permitted higher buildings and thus larger blocks. The question remains as to whether the need for new equipment forced the invention or the invention permitted the development. This researcher tends to place the technological change in the place of a catalyst. Technological change would not have occurred had there not been an expanding need! - 104 -Thus i t does not appear that apartments being built created the desire of people to li v e in them. Rather the desires of the apartment demand segment of the population encouraged construction. This i s substantiated by the West End example. In the West End, apartment developers found i t necessary to build on higher cost sites because the tenants demanded the views and parks associated with these locations. The demand for such "extras" as pools, games rooms, and balconies has to be met by the developer i f he wishes to realize a profit on his apartment investment. The reason why f i f t y per cent of Vancouver's apartments have been located in the West End area can be explained by the one word --CENTRAL. The occupancy group, being non-family centered, orient their interests outside the immediate home. The West End is situated adjacent to the main area of Vancouver for employment, entertainment , and shopping -- the Central Business D i s t r i c t . The desire by both segments of the demand group for these central activities explains the favourable location of the West End as an apartment area. Reasons given by apartment dwellers for their residence location within the West End were brought out in Chapter III. The reasons indicate the different interests of the two segments of the occupying group. Younger apartment dwellers stress the location near work while older persons, not in the labor force, stressed adjacent entertainment and shopping a c t i v i t i e s . PERCENTAGE OF LOWER MAINLANC POPULATION • I % • 5% ^ 10% Vancouver City total 4 9 % - 106 -The demand for accommodation adjacent to employment areas is shown by questionnaire responses. Forty-five per cent of a l l respondents said the reason they moved to the West End was the near-ness of employment. Various writers have discussed this relationship between work and residence. In the case of the West End, the general premise of work as a deciding factor in location of residence is substantiated. The West End example negates several theories of apartment development in inner-city locations. Information on past residences of the West End people shows that i t is not "returnees from suburbia" who are creating the apartment demand; In comparison to eastern cities, where a considerable number of new apartment dwellers were returnees from suburban locations, most of the West End apartment dwellers have never lived outside the central city. A large proportion of the respondents to the West End questionnaire indicated that a l l their past moves were within Vancouver city limits. This West End difference can be explained in a number of ways. One answer is the length of time Vancouver has been established. In comparison to eastern North American cities,where earlier surveys were made, suburban Vancouver has been settled only in the past twenty years. The total percentage of the population in suburban Vancouver, as shown on map 22, is s t i l l small — less than thirty-five per cent. Original settlers in suburban areas (who likely moved outward to acquire larger land holdings on which to raise their families) have children who are s t i l l of dependent age. Thus the adults from suburban areas have generally not reached that stage in their lives when they - 107 -desire to move into an in-town apartment, as the need of a single family home to accommodate children has not ceased. Intervening apartment opportunities may also account for the small number of persons moving into the West End from suburban areas. Some new apartments are located in New Westminster, and near shopping centers in Oakridge, Kerrisdale and West Vancouver. A l l these apartment blocks are located between suburban Vancouver and the West End. Research is needed to indicate whether adults leaving suburban areas are locating in these blocks, which are nearer to old friends and yet within a close bus ride of shops or the downtown core. Because of these intervening opportunities i t is hard to determine whether in Vancouver "the greatest increment in the inner city residential market w i l l be supplied by returnees from suburbia"^ as Whyte predicted for Eastern North American c i t i e s . Apartment growth in the West End can not be attributed to government policies. Slum clearance has had no place in the West End. Though conditions in some areas did deteriorate following World War II they never approached those of an actual slum. This can be explained by the topography of the Vancouver area. The Central Business Di s t r i c t , located on a narrow peninsula, provided two distinct areas for residences on the margin of the urban core. The business d i s t r i c t , i t s e l f , separated these two areas. The i n i t i a l decision of upper income persons to settle in the West End caused speculation and higher land values than on the eastern margins of the core. In the lower priced eastern areas, many of the incoming Chinese,and later Italians, settled. This eastern area degenerated into a lower class zone, while - 108 -the West End was able to maintain slightly higher rents and better conditions, even during the depression and post war years. Neither lack of available land for apartments in other sections of the city nor zoning regulations prohibiting dispersed apartments, restricted apartment buildings to the West End. City planning policy has tended to permit apartmentsin several areas of the city in order to f u l f i l l accommodation needs. In summation, the boom of apartment construction can be attributed to the increase in the occupancy group as a proportion of the total population. The concentration of apartments in the West End, an area adjacent to the urban core, can be explained by the character of the occupying group -- persons who desire central city employment and social contacts. - 109 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER IV 1. In the West End area the majority of dwelling units are one bedroom suites. TABLE XXVII PERCENTAGE J)F SUITESJBY SIZE Size West End Vancouver Bachelor (Studio) 1 29.0% 20.8% One Bedroom 57.6 63.2 Two Bedroom 11.8 14.6 2. 1951 - 1961 Census Material 3. "Young and old have the same problems in a sense in that they must limit their expenses. They do i t by livi n g close to the core to be part of the community and to be within easy reach of employment opportunities." J.R. Nicholson, "The Western Apartment Market" Journal of  Commerce, Vancouver, April 24, 1965, p.61. 4. E.M. Hoover and R. Vernon, op.cit., p.196. 5. Journa1 of Commerce, op.cit. , p. 10. 6. W.H. Whyte, Exploding Metropolis , op.cit. , p.10. 7. Ibid, p.10. CHAPTER V IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEST END STUDY CHAPTER V IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEST END STUDY Based upon this study of inner-city residences several inferences can be drawn that relate both to future West End develop-ment and to urban residential theory. There should be a continued demand for multi-family accommodation adjacent to the urban core. This thesis verifies the hypothesis that the location of high-rise apartments adjacent to the urban core is related to the increasing proportion of the populat-ion who both desire and can afford this type of accommodation. As a proportion of the total population, individuals with these traits are expected to increase over the next few years. The implications of this thesis to the West End concern the continued demand for accommodation within this favourable area.''' The attractions of adjacent work, entertainment and shops draw persons to West End residences. Suburban apartment sites in most cases do not have the variety of urban amenities which attract the single person. However, the West End may not maintain the rate of apartment construction reached during the past few years. The questionnaire survey indicated that, for an apartment to attract the desired middle income clientele, special amenities, such as view, adjacent work, FIGURE 8 SUITES COMPLETED 1962 63 64 65 66 may AM FIGURE 9 SUITES COMPLETED VANCOUVER 962 - 1966 2,500 T 1,500 1 500 I WEST END EAST HASTINGS Z.. — • x K I T S - p 0 | N T G R £ : Y 1 „•: S. GRAN - OAK KITS-POINTG KERRI SDALE MA R POLE 1962 63 64 65 may 66 AM - 113 -shops, and entertainment are required. The greater the number of these amenities the better the chance the apartment building w i l l attract tenants. The uneven distribution of apartments within the West End substantiates this hypothesis. Newer, high-rise apartments form a ring around the West End leaving, like a "hole in a doughnut", a region which has not yet proved attractive for apartment construction. A l l sites in the West End have a close proximity to work and shops. The Central region does have land for redevelopment but has not attracted the high-rise developer. The question arises as to why there has been a shying away from i t by major developers. The reason seems to be the avai l a b i l i t y of alternate inner-city sites with view and recreational amenities beyond the West End. Recent building reports indicate the increasing construction of apartments in the 2 Kitsilano, South Granville and West Vancouver areas. These regions have the amenities of local recreation and view and are only a few minutes travel time away from the Central Business D i s t r i c t . Thus i t appears that the central portion of the West End is being bypassed at the present as apartment developers, unable to locate in the most desirable areas of the West End, choose to retain the importance of amenities and build in alternate regions near the urban core. The present central converted house area seems unlikely to attract private capital while alternate view sites remain. At present this central area i s zoned for high density residence (note map 18). - 114 -In terms of present trends in apartment location, i t seems more advisable to encourage renovations of the central West End along lines other than high-rise apartments. Several alternatives are possible. 1 ) This is an area where government money might be placed to provide subsidized housing for the elderly. It has the advantage of lower land costs and is close to public transportation and to shops and cultural centers. 2) A greater diversity of residential type could be encouraged. There are central city oriented persons who desire town-house or single family homes adjacent to the urban core. Such schemes in the central portion of the peninsula might f u l f i l l this need. 3) At present a number of odd-size, thirty-three foot lots remain between larger apartment blocks. Such lots could provide local green areas. Private capital is unlikely to provide the i n i t i a t i v e since the returns would not warrant the financial outlay. This may be the place for public redevelopment schemes to be instituted within the West End. As yet public capital has not been used to redevelop the West End. The provision of green spaces might be one type of land u t i l i z a t i o n which w i l l await public capital. With increases in population there w i l l come an associated increase in shopping f a c i l i t i e s within the West End featuring service and convenience goods. - 115 -Empirical data has indicated the close ties between the West End and the urban core in a l l phases of day to day activity --work, shopping, entertainment and recreation. As the population of the West End increases the added demands for these activities in the urban core w i l l retain the urban core as a viable unit, operating, in part, as a local shopping center for the West End resident. Implications to Urban Residential Theory This study has added to urban residential theory by providing two models; one of the apartment occupancy group, the other of the pattern of residential growth adjacent to the urban core; and secondly, by investigating several hypotheses in the sample study area. A model of the apartment occupancy group was presented in Chapter IV. The typical apartment dweller was identified as a person with few family responsibilities, either a young working adult or elderly retired person. A model of residential development adjacent to the urban core can be presented. Based on thesis study three stages of sequent occupance are identified: Stage 1 - Period of upper and middle income single-family  home settlement. The centripetal pulls both of people and capital toward the developing city draw people to residences near the core. Better quality homes locate in view locations with middle income homes f i l l i n g up remaining land. - 116 -Stage 2 - Conversion of single-family homes into multi-family dwellings for a l l income levels. Centrifugal forces of increasing congestion, rising land prices, ageing buildings, new residential areas and cheap transportation encourage people to move outward from original settlement areas. Homes remaining in central regions now attract lower income persons. However, high land values remain due to proximity to central services. In order to covEr costs single family dwellings are converted into multi-family lower income residences."^ £tage 3 - Private Redevelopment of area for Middle income  oriented high-rise apartments. Re-established centripetal pulls encourage a rebuilding in areas adjacent to the urban core. These centripetal pulls are the continued Central Business District employ-ment,^ the increasing entertainment and shopping f a c i l i t i e s of the core, and the increasing commuting distances to new land for suburban residences as less land is available within city limits. In the West End the third period of development started in the late 1950's. By this date, the population in Vancouver, as in other North American c i t i e s , had sprawled outwards. But suburban housing, with i t s unstable market values.and commuting problems had begun to reach a practical limit. With increasing population new livi n g space had to be found. One method of providing such additional accommodation is by making a more intensive use of the land. This trend manifested i t s e l f in the West End, as, (with few exceptions) in other North American c i t i e s , by the growth of high-rise apartments catering to middle and upper income residents, on the margin of Central Business areas. - 117 -The urban forces which affected this sequence of settlement appear to have been urban core location and expansion, transportation changes, available land, available capital and the period of settlement. Even though three stages of growth can be identified i t must be noted that an even development did not occur adjacent to the urban core. This thesis has shown considerable differences among the five regions delineated in this study: Stanley Park - Beach Avenue area, South Davie Area, Eastern Apartment area, Central Converted House area and the Northern Commercial zone. The thesis has upheld three hypotheses and negated three. Apartment development is seen to be a result of the increased demand of those who can afford this type of residence to li v e adjacent to the urban core. This location in relation to the Central Business Di s t r i c t , with i t s multitude of a c t i v i t i e s , is the c r i t i c a l factor drawing persons to reside on the margin of the Central Business area. Technological change and private capital are seen by the thesis to be only catalysts to development rather than guiding forces. This thesis negates the role of public redevelopment as a necessity for rebuilding of rundown areas. Private capital, given the incentive of high returns , is shown as capable of i n i t i a t i n g re-development. Thus the emphasis placed by both Homer Hoyt and E.M. Hoover on- subsidized urban renewal in core residential areas is not substantiated by the West End study. - 118 -Apartment residents are not returnees from suburbia, as W. Whyte postulated. In the Vancouver region this may be a result of the recent settlement of the metropolitan area. Most suburban locations have not been established long enough for the f i r s t generation to desire to move because dependent children are s t i l l maintained in the family home. Secondly, the apartments which have been built in suburban areas may receive the few persons who desire to leave the single family home situation. These apartments are near past activities and friends. The inner city apartment dweller seems to be, at least for the past fifteen years of his l i f e , central city oriented. The West End example indicates that increasing apartments do not necessarily indicate an increase in residential density. Rather, what must be considered is the changing types of land use. South of Davie Street there has been l i t t l e change in population density with new apartments since the previous land use was high density rooming houses.^ In contrast, there has been an increase in population density adjacent to Stanley Park, where multi-family apartments have replaced single family homes. Thus this thesis has demonstrated that areas adjacent to the urban core are ideally situated to supply residential locations for an expanding portion of the total population -- those who desire residences adjacent to central activity. The explanation of why during the past sixty years of settlement the West End has been desired and why apartment growth can be predicted can be summed up hy the words of one respondent to the questionnaire when she wrote " i t is central". ) - 119 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER V Vancouver City Planning Department Reports substantiate this statement. "A report prepared by the Technical Planning Board, dated December 11, 1965, entitled "Apartment Zoning and Suburban Commercial Centers" estimated that the number of apartment units in the city w i l l increase from about 22,000 in 1961 to about 61,500 in 1981 or about 2,000 units annually. Of the 22,000 apartment units in the city in 1961, 8400 or 38 per cent were located in the West End on 70 acres of land.... The portion of the city's 20 year apartment growth which w i l l locate in the West End between 1961 and 1981 w i l l be influenced by many factors, put particularly by the evolving amenity of the West End as a place in which to l i v e . Assuming between 30 - 40 per cent of the city's 20 year apart-ment growth occurs in the West End, the number of units would increase from 8,450 in 1961 to about 20,000 to 24,000 by 1981 or an average rate of about 600 to 800 annually." Vancouver Technical Planning Board, Proposed Revisions to  Apartment Zoning Regulations, Report #4, May 1965, p. 15. A similar report was prepared by Larry Smith, An Economic  Analysis for Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One -- Preliminary Report, Vancouver July 1963. He said the future of apartments in the West End would be due to: redevelopment of the Central Business Dist r i c t ; an increase in employment in the Central Business Dist r i c t ; trends toward a higher percentage of "white collar" workers;- increase in older and younger age groups who have a need and a desire to live close to the Central Business District; rising income patterns; increased travel time between employment, entertainment and shopping in the Central Business District and outlying areas; and future high land costs in outer suburban areas which tend to impose marked restrictions on the number of single family units constructed and thus encourage the development of "close-in" multi-family units. "The population of metropolitan Vancouver is forecast to increase from 790,000 in 1961 to 1,280,000 in 1981. This suggests that at least 130,000 new dwelling units w i l l be required in the twenty year period.... During the twenty year period, perhaps 10,000 new apartment units may be built in the West End, and the remaining 25,000 in other areas of the city . " Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends  in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1964, Vancouver, 1964, p. B.2. - 120 -2. " One reason for the sudden upswing in apartment construction was the city's decision to extend areas available for apartment construction, primarily in the Kerrisdale, Kitsilano, Marpole and South Granville areas." Bud Elsie, "Easy living of High Rise Blocks Finds Ready Takers" Vancouver Province. Ap r i l 11, 1964, p.5. There is municipal competition also, with West Vancouver offering certain incentives to attract tax producing apartments in lieu of the industry she lacks. 3. In the West End the length of this i n i t i a l period was limited to fifteen years, a much shorter time span than in many eastern North American c i t i e s . Since Vancouver developed during the early 1900's rapid transit lines into surrounding areas were available at an early date. After 1910, Vancouver residents were not restricted to l i v i n g within walking distance of their employment. 4. The f i r s t major retreat from the West End was the movement of many of the " e l i t e " to newly opening residential areas. The West End did not show a marked decline in population as many new arrivals, looking for jobs in the rapidly developing ' West Coast lumber and trans-shipment center or in war industries, moved into the West End. 5. More office employment has become available within the West End as the commercial zone north of Georgia Street and along the eastern end of Robson Street has become part of Vancouver's expanding Central Business Di s t r i c t . There office buildings and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s have replaced earlier residences. The area now functions as an employment and entertainment locale for the West End. Most currently proposed new Central Business District office buildings w i l l be located in this area. "The sudden surge appears to be following a pattern established in other North American c i t i e s ; a boom in apartment block construction followed one or two years later by a boom in downtown building." Bud Elsi e , "Downtown Stirs Anew" Vancouver Province, June 19, 1965, p.5. 6. "One of the most striking changes that have taken place in Metropolitan Toronto over the last decade is the great increase in the number of apartment buildings. Until the late 1940's Toronto was predominantly a city of detached and semi-detached homes.... It should be noted that the widely assumed id e n t i f i c -ation of apartment livi n g with residence close to the downtown areas does not hold true for Metropolitan Toronto.... Almost half, 49 per cent, of a l l apartment dwellers in Metropolitan Toronto li v e beyond the 5 mile radius...." D. Kerr and J. Spelt, The Changing Face of Toronto op.cit., p. 117. - 121 -"Ottawa's growth pattern is definitely turning inward after ten years of subdivision girdling in the suburbs. Construction is going up, instead of out, in what some people c a l l "subdivis-ions in the sky". Apartments are blossoming everywhere as more and more people show a marked preference for accommodation near their work. Blocks of big old houses are giving way to apart-ments and office buildings." Tom Kerr, "Uptown Building Boom Mixed Blessing For City", Ottawa Journal August 12, 1963, p. 3. 7. Population totals have actually dropped where the change has been from residential to commercial uses. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bartholomew, Harland. Land Uses in American Cities. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955. British Columbia and Yukon Directory. Vancouver: Sun Directories Limited, editions 1934 through 1948. El i t e Directory of Vancouver 1908. Vancouver: Thompson Company Limited, 1908. 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" High Rent Apartments in the Suburbs", Urban Land, Vol. 20 ( October 1961 ) Number 9, Urban Land Institute, p . l . McCarty, H.H. "A Functional Analysis of Population Distribution" Geographical Review, Vol. 32 ( April 1942) New York: American Geographical Society, p. 282. Montreal, Bank of. "The Housing Market',' Bank of Montreal Business Review, Montreal,May 31, 1963. Mowbray, J.M. "Apartments in Central Areas',' Urban Land, Vol, 21 (January 1962), Number 1, Urban Land Institute, p. 1. Nenno, Mary. "Unmet Housing Needs", Journal of Housing, Vol. 18, (March 1961) number 3, p. 15. Newcomb, R. "Changing Forceswhich Affect City Growth", Urban Land, Vol. 18 (October 1959), Number 9, p. 1. Nicholas, R. Ed. "Residential Development Densities',' Journal of the Town Planning Institute, Vol. 47 (January 1961), Number 1, London: Town Planning Institute. Ontario Planning, "Mobility -- Some Facts and Suggestions", Vol. 5. (January 1958), Number 1, p . l . Pickard, J.P. "Metropolitan Area Growth in the United States',1  Urban Land, Vol. 20 ( February 1961) Number 2, Urban Land Institute, p. 3. Potvin, A. G. "The House in i t s new Setting", Habitat, Vol. July -August 1962, Central Mortaged and Housing Corporation, Murray Printing Limited, p. 17. Ramsey, C.E."Condominiums -- New Look in Co-Ops," Urban Land, Vol. 21, (May 1962), Number 5, Urban Land Institute. Rashleigh, E.T. "Observations on Canadian Cities 1960-1961", Plan Canada, Vol. 3 ( September 1962), Number 2, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. D. ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Burgess, E.W. "The Growth of the City',' The City. Park, R.E., Burgess, E.W. and McKenzie, R.D., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925, p.p. 47 - 62. Gans, H.J. "Uraanism and Suburbanism as Ways of Life : A Re-evaluation of Definitions", Human Behaviour and Social Process. Rose, A. (ed.) Boston: Houghton Miffin Co., 1962, p. 625. - 127 -Harris, CD. and Ullman, E.L. "The Nature of Cities", Readings in Urban Geography. Mayer, H.M. and Kohn, C.F. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, p. 277. Hauser, P.M. " The Changing Population Pattern of the Modern City" Cities and Society. Patt, P.M. and Reiss, A.J. I l l i n o i s : The Free Press of Glencoe, 1951, p. 157. Hoyt, Homer. "The Pattern of Movement of Residential Rental N^dTh-bourbaods", Readings in Urban Geography, Mayer H.H. and Kohn, C.F. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, p. 499. . "The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighbourhoods in American Citi e s " , Readings in Urban Geography. Mayer, H.M. and Kohn, C.F. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, p. 506. Whyte, W.H. Jr. "Are Cities Un-American1,' The Exploding Metropolis. New York: Fortune Magazine, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957, p . l . E. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Andresson, E. "Local Recreational Resources for the Aged." Unpublished Master of Social Work Thesis, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1959. Baycroft, B.W. "Casework in a Neighbourhood Housed Unpublished Master of Social Work Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1952. Brooks, F.G.H. "Vancouver's Origins'.' Unpublished B.A. thesis, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1952. Bulmer, G.A. , Ross, D.N. and Webb, E.J. "Discussion of School Building Development in the City of Vancouver as i t is related to the Pattern of Settlement'.' Unpublished Student Essay, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1956. Clark, "The Dynamics of Rental Housing Areas in The United States Central Cities 1940 - 1960." Microfilm, Doctoral thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1962. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. "Occupations, Labor Force, and Population for Vancouver Census Tracts 1, 2, 3', 4, 1961." Unpublished data, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, 1961. Gomery, Darrel. "A History of Early Vancouver" Unpublished B.A. Thesis The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1936. Hutchinson, F.A. "Casework Service in a Neighbourhood House". Unpublished Social Work Thesis, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1952. - 128 -Kerr, D.P. "Vancouver -- A Study in Urban Geography',' Unpublished Master of Arts Thesis, University of Toronto, Ontario, 1943. Lort, Ross. "Old Houses and Buildings in Vancouver". Unpublished address to the Vancouver Department of Labor, March 1960. Lyman, E.G.H. "Family Life in an Apartment Environment", Unpublished Master of Arts Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1959. Pickard, R.A. (McAfee). "Program II", Unpublished paper presented to the Department of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, March 1963. Roy, P.E. " Rise of Vancouver as a Metropolitan Centre 1886 - 1929" Unpublished B.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia History Department, 1960. F. NEWSPAPERS Bower, Rudy. "Heyday of the West End',' Vancouver Province, May 30, 1942, p. 3. Dolman, Dick. "Apartments Pop Up Despite Vacancies", Vancouver  Province, July 20, 1962, p. 13. Elsie, Bud. "Big Project Near Park Starts Soon", Vancouver Province, March 15, 1963. . "Downtown Stirs Anew',' The Vancouver Province, June 19, 1965, p. 5. . "Easy living of High Rise Blocks Finds Ready Takers", Vancouver Province. Ap r i l 11, 1964. Journal of Commerce Weekly. "High Rise Supplement',' Journal of Commerce, Vancouver, April 24, 1965. Kerr, Tom. "Uptown Building Boom Mixed Blessing For City',' Ottawa  Journal, August 12, 1963, p.3. Lyle, A.W. (Ed). The West Ender Souvenir Edition 1858 - 1958. Vancouver, 1958. McKenzie, Art. "The West End Story", Vancouver Province, January 26, 1966, p. 17. - 129 -Ottawa Journal. "Apartment and Town Register", Apartment Edition, July 30, 1963. Vancouver Province. "Exotic Bargains Offered" February 18, 1955, p.5. . " New Apartment Rate Increases". April 14, 1967, p. 16. Wayman, Tom. "Apartment Building Boom Continues", Vancouver Sun, June 20, 1964. APPENDIX - 130 -APPENDIX A. COPY OF LETTER SENT WITH QUESTIONNAIRE Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C., May 1964. Dear ; The movement of people, such as yourself, into the West End area has been increasing during the past few years. As part of a graduate thesis I am analysing this movement to determine what attractions the West End has for residents. In addition I wish to analyse the connections which exist between the West End and other parts of the Lower Mainland in terms of work, shopping and leisure time activities of the present West End residents. Only one person can offer this information, the apartment dweller such as yourself. Thus I aim seeking your assistance. The information you give w i l l be confidential. I w i l l in no way use your name, suite number or apartment block name to indicate my source of information. You were selected by a process of sampling. From your answers, the movements of other residents in the area w i l l be inferred. Such sampling methods are only valid i f a l l questionnaires are returned. Please answer the enclosed questionnaire and return i t in the stamped self-addressed envelope. Thank you for your help, without which i t would be impossible to analyse trends in the movement of people in the West End. Yours truly, Ann McAfee, Graduate Student, U.B.C. Vancouver Postal Zone map included: instructions to respondent were to use postal zone numbers to answer questions A,B, and D. - 132 -UBC URBAN STUDY OF WEST END APARTMENT DWELLERS (Copy of Questionnaire) Please answer and return in the enclosed envelope to Ann McAfee, Department of Geography, U.B.C. The word apartment refers to the apartment, suite or room which you rent or own. No questions ask you for information about persons other than those livi n g in your individual household. A. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT APARTMENT OCCUPANTS Person Age Sex Marital Occupation Place of Travel Status work (by zone) to work by Head of Household  Others B. ADDRESS INFORMATION a) Size of apartment: Bachelor ... ,One Bedroom ...,Two Bedroom More than two bedroom .... b) Do you rent ... or own ... your apartment? i f rent: What is the rent for your apartment per month $ . c) Date you moved to your present apartment . d) Previous addresses since 1950. (Please f i l l in the following table starting with last address and working back to 1950.) Year of PREVIOUS ADDRESSES Type of Dwelling Move out City or Town Name Postal Zone (Apartment ,single . (Vancouver) family, converted) e) Do you plan to move during 1964? Yes .... No .... i f yes, to what area do you plan to move and why? - 133 -C. ADVANTAGES OF WEST END APARTMENTS a) Indicate in order of importance ( 1, 2, 3, etc.) the reasons you had for moving to the West End. Leave blank any reasons which do not apply to you. Convenience to work " shops " " entertainment " " recreation Others b) Indicate in order of importance the reasons you had for moving to your particular apartment. rent view near to friends size Other D. ACTIVITY PATTERNS Please f i l l in the following: Type of Trip Store Name Store Location Last Purchase of Groceries Last Purchase of Clothing Last Purchase of Furniture Frequency of Type of Activity Location v i s i t s per month Usual Entertainment (movies, spectator sports)  Usual Recreation (tennis, golf, swimming etc.)  E. INCOME What is the gross income for a l l persons living in your apartment? per year: Under $3,000 ... $ 3,000 - 5,999 ... $6,000 - 7,999... $8,000 - 9,999 ... Over 10,000 .... 


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