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A taxonomic phonological analysis of Tagalog and Pampango Natividad, Pablo Evangelista 1967

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A TAXONOMIC PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OP TAGALOG AND PAMPANGO by Pablo E v a n g e l i s t a N a t i v i d a d M.A., Centro E s c o l a r U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 ^ 8 A Thesis Presented i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s i n the Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1 9 6 7 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y avail able f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission-for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of CLASSICS The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 28, 1967 ABSTRACT This study i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the phonology of Tagalog and Pampango, two of the major P h i l i p p i n e l a n -guages. The c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n deals both w i t h the segmental and the suprasegmental phonemes. They are analyzed as to t h e i r form, s t r u c t u r e , and d i s -t r i b u t i o n . Tagalog and Pampango phonemes are described u s i n g conventional taxonomic phonemes and allophones. The extent of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two languages w i t h regard to phonology i s discussed to p o i n t out the problems and the places where they w i l l occur f o r Pampango l e a r n e r s of Tagalog. The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y f o r the Pampango l e a r n i n g Tagalog segmental phonemes i s that he may confuse /'/ and /h/. There are cases where he seems to s u b s t i t u t e /»/ f o r /h/, although a c t u a l l y he does not produce the g l o t t a l sound but a "breathy g l o t t a l stop." He f i n d s f i n a l /o/ and /u/ d i f f i c u l t because he makes no d i s t i n c -t i o n between these two sounds. He uses them interchanges ably f a v o r i n g the higher vowel /u/. A l l Tagalog diphthongs are missing from Pampango and they c o n s t i t u t e a r e a l l y tremendous problem f o r the Pampango l e a r n e r . The problem i s so great that he should be t a u g h t as a top p r i o r i t y the di p h t h o n g s / i w / , /ey/, /ay/» /aw/, and / u y / which a r e to be c l a s s e d as new c a t e g o r i e s f o r a Pampango l e a r n e r of T a g a l o g . E x t e n s i v e d r i l l s h o u l d be g i v e n on the s e i t e m s . The r i s i n g - f a l l i n g p i t c h p a t t e r n / 2 3 1 / of Taga l o g w i l l p r o b a b l y be a s e r i o u s problem f o r Pampangos because of the tendency t o r e p l a c e i t by / 2 1 3 / o r a t b e s t / 2 1 2 /. Much d r i l l s h o u l d be g i v e n t o Pampango s t u -d ents i n t h i s a r e a because they are l i k e l y t o c a r r y over t h e i r i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n s p e a k i n g T a g a l o g . I n g e n e r a l , 'the p r o n u n c i a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y o f Pampangos l e a r n i n g Tagalog w i l l a r i s e from the s y s t e m a t -i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e between the two la n g u a g e s , such as d i f f e r e n c e s between the phonemic i n v e n t o r i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p h o n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f phonemes which a r e b e i n g l e a r n e d by the s t u d e n t s , and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the phonemes which o c c u r i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED . . 1 The Problem 3 Statement of the Problem 3 Importance o f the Study 5 D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms Used 6 Sources of Data 8 Method o f Study 8 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Remainder of the T h e s i s . . 10 I I . TAGALOG PHONOLOGY 11 The Tag a l o g Vowels 13 The Tagalog Diphthongs 30 The Tag a l o g Consonants 32 V o i c e l e s s Stops 33 V o i c e d Stops 3& N a s a l s 40 A s s i m i l a t i o n 42 L a t e r a l 43 T r i l l 44 Semivowels 46 F r i c a t i v e s 48 G l o t t a l Stop 50 V CHAPTER PAGE Consonant C l u s t e r s . . . . 51 S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e 5 5 T a g a l o g Suprasegmental Phonemes 5 8 S t r e s s 5 8 P i t c h 6 2 J u n c t u r e 6 7 Rhythm 6 9 I I I . PAMPANGO PHONOLOGY 7 0 The Pampango Vowels 70 Pampango Vowel-Semivowel Sequences . . . . 8 3 The Pampango Consonants 8 5 V o i c e l e s s Stops 8 5 G l o t t a l Stop- 8 8 V o i c e d Stops 8 9 F r i c a t i v e s 9 3 N a s a l s 9 5 L a t e r a l 9 7 P l a p . 9 8 Semivowels 9 9 Consonant C l u s t e r s 101 S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e 102 Pampango Suprasegmental Phonemes 104 v i CHAPTER . PAGE S t r e s s 104 P i t c h 105 J u n c t u r e 108 Rhythm 10 9 IV. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OP TAGALOG AND PAMPANGO PHONOLOGY . . . . . . . 110 Tagalog and Pampango Sound Systems Compared 110 Consonants, Vowels, Diphthongs 112 The G l o t t a l Stop /'/ and / h / 114 / r / 115 / a / ,. 116 / o / and / u / 116 Diphthongs 117 /bdg/ 118 / p t k / 118 /mnn/ 118 /!/ 119 / y / and /w/ 119 Consonant C l u s t e r s 119 I n t o n a t i o n Systems 119 S t r e s s 121 Rhythm 122 v i i CHAPTER PAGE V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 124 Consonants 124 V o w e l s 125 Diphthongs 126 Stress 126 I n t o n a t i o n 126 Rhythm 126 Conclusions 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY 130 SYMBOLS USED IN THE ANALYSIS SYMBOL EXPLANATION G l o t t a l Stop C^J V o i c e d fvlj V o i c e l e s s CJ P r i m a r y S t r e s s C*J Tense Vowel Ccj Lax Vowel C-J L e n g t h C.J S y l l a b l e Boundary CVJ R i s i n g J u n c t u r e CiJ P a l l i n g J u n c t u r e C\J S u s t a i n e d J u n c t u r e CJ Low P r o n t Tense Unrounded CJ Consonant CJ Vowel LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 . Map o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s Showing t h e Speech Communities o f Tagalog and Pampango k 2. Map o f the P h i l i p p i n e s Showing the D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the E i g h t Major Languages . 9 3 . T a g a l o g Vowel Chart 1 5 4 . T a g a l o g Diphthongs 3 1 5 . Consonant Chart o f Tagalog 3 ^ 6 . Pampango Vowel Chart . . . . . . 7 1 7 . Consonant Chart o f Pampango 8 6 8 . A Two-Dimensional Schematic Arrangement of the S t r u c t u r e s o f Tag a l o g and Pampango Sounds 1 1 3 CHAPTEE I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED One of t h e b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g Taga-l o g p r o n u n c i a t i o n t o s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e x h a u s t i v e com-p a r i s o n o f the sound system o f Tagalog w i t h the sound system o f the language o f the l e a r n e r . T h i s means t h a t b e f o r e a t e a c h e r a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h T a g a l o g p r o n u n c i a t i o n t o s t u d e n t s i n , say, the P a n g a s i n a n r e g i o n , o r t h e V i s a -y a n i s l a n d s , o r the B i c o l p e n i n s u l a , she must f i r s t f a m i l -i a r i z e h e r s e l f w i t h the sound system o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r v e r n a c u l a r area.and compare i t w i t h t h a t o f T a g a l o g . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s o b v i o u s . Such a comparison w i l l r e v e a l what sounds o f Tagalog a r e d i f f e r e n t from, o r are not found i n , the l e a r n e r ' s own language, and as a conse-quence, w i l l p rove d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s l e a r n e r . The t e a c h -e r can t h e n c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s e d i f f i c u l t sounds and base h e r d r i l l m a t e r i a l on them. I n t h i s way she saves p r e c i o u s time which she o t h e r w i s e would have used i n t e a c h i n g sounds a l r e a d y known and mastered. Most programs f o r t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s i n second l a n -guage t e c h n i q u e s make r a t h e r s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n f o r a c -q u a i n t i n g the t e a c h e r - t o - b e w i t h the methods of comparing l a n g u a g e s , even to the p o i n t o f r e q u i r i n g h e r t o do a 2 c e r t a i n amount of c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s on her own. Unfor-t u n a t e l y , however, the a n a l y s i s i s not done i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l nor i s i t pursued f a r enough to provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the d i s t r i b u t i o n problems. Hence the r e s u l t i n g a n a l -y s i s cannot be used as a b a s i s f o r judging the phonologi-c a l problems of her students. This study, t h e r e f o r e , i s an attempt to make a pho-n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Tagalog and Pampango, two of the major P h i l i p p i n e languages. Both languages belong to the Indonesian or Western branch of the Malayo-Polynesian (or Austronesian) f a m i l y of languages. Spoken by 4 , 0 6 8 , 5 6 5 1 people, Tagalog was chosen as the b a s i s of the P i l i p i n o N a t i o n a l Language, now being taught i n the schools. As i n the case w i t h a l l languages, Tagalog and. Pampango are spoken i n a v a r i e t y of d i a l e c t s i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s , each d i a l e c t having i t s own p e c u l i a r and d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The a n a l y s i s of Tagalog described here i s mainly based on Tagalog as spoken i n Manila, Quezon C i t y , and Pasay C i t y . These c i t i e s c o n s t i t u t e one s i n g l e speech community of Tagalog, the d i a l e c t w i t h which the w r i t e r i s most conversant. The sound system i s approximately Census of the P h i l i p p i n e s , 1 9 3 9 , V o l . I I , (Mani-l a : Bureau of P r i n t i n g ) , p. 3 3 3 • 3 i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t t a u g h t i n the s c h o o l s . Pampango, on the o t h e r hand, i s spoken i n Pampanga and i n T a r l a c , two a d j a c e n t p r o v i n c e s i n C e n t r a l Luzon. The p e o p l e who speak i t i n T a r l a c a r e found m o s t l y i n t h e s o u t h e r n , e a s t e r n , and c e n t r a l towns which a r e n e a r the p r o v i n c e o f Pampanga. The d i a l e c t chosen as the b a s i s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t h a t o f Pampango spoken i n t h e c a p i -t a l town of T a r l a c , i n the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f the p r o v -i n c e , F i g u r e 1. T h i s s t u d y w i l l t r y t o a n a l y z e the p h o n e t i c e l e -ments of the two languages as t o t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y and d i f -f e r e n c e , t h a t i s , the segmental and suprasegmental phor--nemes w i l l be d e s c r i b e d as t o t h e i r form, s t r u c t u r e , and d i s t r i b u t i o n . I . THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem. S t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g Taga-l o g , n a t i v e o r n o n - n a t i v e t o the language, have c o m p l a i n -ed of i t s d i f f i c u l t y as a s u b j e c t . There must be many causes r e l a t i v e t o t h i s c o m p l a i n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s of th e o p i n i o n t h a t two of t h e p r i n c i p a l causes a r e ( l ) t h a t the m i s t a k e s o f the l e a r n e r r e s u l t from h i s tendency t o t r a n s f e r the sounds and p a t t e r n s of h i s own language over t o the t a r g e t language; and ( 2 ) t h a t when a m i s t a k e o c c u r s 4 5 no attempt i s made to examine the s t r u c t u r e s of the two languages i n order to f i n d the poin t of c o n f l i c t t h a t accounts f o r the mistake. This study i s the r e f o r e design-ed w i t h three purposes i n mind: 1 . To describe and analyze the phonology of Taga-l o g and Pampango. 2. To determine the extent of the d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween the two languages w i t h regard to phonol-ogy. 3 . On the b a s i s of these analyses, to p o i n t out the problems and the places where they w i l l occur f o r Pampango l e a r n e r s of Tagalog. Importance of the Study. This study i s intended to help those s k e p t i c a l about the theory of a p p l i e d l i n g u i s -t i c s to understand and appreciate the p o i n t s of emphasis i n the teaching of Tagalog as part of the language a r t s program i n P h i l i p p i n e . s c h o o l s ; to provide textbook w r i t -ers w i t h a sound theory on which to base m a t e r i a l s and s e r i e s of lessons aimed at enabling the student to over-come h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l e a r n i n g Tagalog. The h i e r a r c h i -c a l arrangement revealed i n t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s w i l l f u r t h e r provide an understanding of how much e f f o r t w i l l be needed to overcome the s a i d d i f f i c u l t i e s . 6 I I . DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED For purposes of t h i s study the f o l l o w i n g terms are used w i t h the meanings hereby defin e d : Phonological a n a l y s i s i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the phonic elements and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n according to t h e i r 2 f u n c t i o n i n the language. Con t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s i s the method of u t i l i z i n g the processes of comparison, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , and s e l e c -t i o n of the elements under examination w i t h an eye to p l a c i n g them together i n such a way that t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s are obvious. I t i s the contrast between the student's l a n -guage and the ta r g e t language (that i s , the one he sets 3 out to l e a r n ) , determined by a n a l y s i s . Phonology i s a cover term embracing phonetics and phonemics. I t s h a l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as a study which sets out to determine the phonetic d i s t i n c t i o n s i n a given l a n -4 guage and e s t a b l i s h the system of phonemes. ^ Andre' M a r t i n e t , Elements of General L i n g u i s t i c s (London: Faber and Faber L t d . 196"4~X> p.54. 3 Carter V. Good and Douglas E. Scates, Methods of  Research: E d u c a t i o n a l , P s y c h o l o g i c a l , S o c i o l o g i c a l (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954), p. 277. 4 Wilson F r a n c i s , The Structures of American E n g l i s h (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 195^), p. 244. 7 Phonetics i s the study which deals w i t h sound f e a -t u r e s or q u a l i t i e s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o speech 5 sounds, or phones. Phonemics i s the study which deals w i t h the organ-i z a t i o n of the phones i n t o groups or f a m i l i e s , c a l l e d phonemes, whose members are the minimal s i g n i f i c a n t 6 sounds of speech. Morphophonemics i s the a l t e r n a t i o n of phonemes w i t h i n a given morpheme. I t bridges the gap between the 7 morphological and the phonemic l e v e l s of a language. D i s t r i b u t i o n r e f e r s to the whole set of environ-ments i n which a l i n g u i s t i c form, i n c l u d i n g a speech 8 sound, appears. A n a t i v e speaker of a language i s a person who has spoken the language since b i r t h . In t h i s t h e s i s an informant i s the n a t i v e speaker of a language who su p p l i e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the language being s t u d i e d . \ I b i d . 6 I b i d . . Robert A. H a l l J r . , Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: A D i v i s i o n of C h i l t o n Company, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 3 8 . Q H. A. Gleason J r . , An I n t r o d u c t i o n to D e s c r i p t i v e  L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1 9 5 5 ) » P • 5 6 . I 8 Q The major languages among the eighty-nine spoken i n the P h i l i p p i n e s are Tagalog, Sugbuhanon (Cebuano), Samar-Leyte, B i k o l , I l o k o , Pangasinan, Pampango, and H i l i -gaynon, Figure 2 . Sources of Data. The corpus f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Tagalog and Pampango was, obtained from the f o l l o w i n g n a t i v e speakers (the informants) who have u t t e r e d the items found i n the t e x t , and a number of speakers on tape r e c o r d i n g s : 1 . Tagalog - Mrs. Candida N. P r o t a c i o , P i l i p i n o Supervisor, D i v i s i o n of Quezon C i t y . 2. Pampango - Mrs. L i b r a d a Limjoco-Coquia, Teacher, Eulogio Rodriguez J r . High School, Quezon C i t y . Mrs. Corona Simbul, Teacher, Eulogio Rodriguez J r . High School, Quezon C i t y . Other sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e the a r t i c l e s by Ca y a r i , Reyes and Paterno, and stud i e s conducted by R. P. S t o c k w e l l , T. Anderson and I . Tabasondra. Method of Study. The method used i n t h i s study i s c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Samples of utterances i n both Tagalog and Pampango were examined and described ^ P h i l i p p i n e Bureau of Census, Handbook of P h i l i p - pine S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 5 9 (Manila, Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1 9 o 0 ) , Table 1 3 , p. 1 3 . M A P »pT . i s P H I L I P P I N E Map of Ihe Philippines show'mej the di'str\buUon -the. eight 10 to determine the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of the pho-nology. For t h i s procedure, there were two checks made: every c i t e d utterance was checked with at l e a s t one n a t i v e speaker to determine whether he would accept i t as a p o s s i b l e utterance or whether i t could be e l i c i t e d from him or not. The s i g n i f i c a n t sounds and sound f e a -tures of the language v/ere l i s t e d and a l l p o s s i b l e v a r i -ants of each phoneme were described. The sounds observed were c l a s s i f i e d and represented w i t h a set of graphic symbols having a one-to-one correspondence w i t h the sound i t represents. The Tagalog and Pampango segmental and suprasegmental phonemes were c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of form, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and arrangement. Then Tagalog was compared wi t h Pampango from the standpoint of phonology. Organization of Remainder of the Thesis. The data gathered are presented, described, and summarized i n Chapters I I and I I I of t h i s work. The c o n t r a s t i v e analy-s i s i s described i n Chapter IV, and the f i f t h and l a s t chapter gives the summary and conclusions based on the a n a l y s i s of the problem and the data presented. CHAPTER II TAGALOG PHONOLOGY Taga log has the f o l l o w i n g phonemes: twenty-one segmental phonemes, s i x t e e n consonant sounds and f i v e vov/el sounds, / p , b, t , d, k, g, ' ( g l o t t a l s t o p ) , h, s, m, n, * j , 1, r , w, y ; i , e, a , o, u / ; two phonemes of s t r e s s , p r imary / ' / » and weak (unmarked); th ree phonemes o f p i t c h , low / l / , . mid / 2 / , and h i g h / 3 / > t h ree t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s : r i s i n g j u n c t u r e / ] / , f a l l i n g j unc tu re / ! / , and s u s t a i n e d j u n c t u r e / I / ; a phoneme of l e n g t h , r e p r e s e n t e d by / • / » and a phoneme of i n t e r n a l open j u n c t u r e , t r ane s c r i b e d by a space. The symbols chosen to r e p r e s e n t the vowels and consonants of Taga log are a l l drawn from the w r i t i n g t r a -d i t i o n of P h i l i p p i n e languages w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the g l o t t a l s t o p . Th i s consonant i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Taga log i n a v a r i e t y of ways: ( l ) a t the b e g i n n i n g of words and b e -tween vowels i t may be p r e s e n t e d by i m p l i c a t i o n ; (2) w i t h i n a word when i t f o l l o w s a consonant, i t i s r e p r e -sented by a hyphen; (3) a t the end of a word i t may not be r e p r e s e n t e d at a l l , or i t may be s i g n a l l e d by some k i n d o f accent mark on the l a s t vowel , depending on the s t y l e of w r i t i n g . The g l o t t a l stop i s r e p r e s e n t e d c o n s i s -t e n t l y by one symbol i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , a r a i s e d comma. Vowel l e n g t h i s represented by a dot a f t e r the vowel. Examples of the g l o t t a l stop i n various p o s i t i o n s are: ( 1 ) ako /•a 'koh/ • I ' oo /' o'oh/ 'yes' a a l i s / ' a ' a ' l i s / ' w i l l l eave' (2.) nag-aral /nag1»aral/ 'studied' pag-uho /pag'u'ho'/ 'pouring g r a i n s ' p a g - i b i g / p a g 1 > i b i g / 'love' ( 3 ) luha / ' l u h a ' / 1 tears'• bat a / ' b a t a ' / ' c h i l d ' baga /'baga'/ 'lung' baga /ba'ga'/ 1 tumor' b a l i / b a ' l i ' / 'broken* I t ' w i l l be n o t i c e d that f i n a l / h / i s w r i t t e n i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e of Tagalog. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s of words: ganda /gan'dah/ 'beauty' gandahan /ganda'han/ 'beautify' luha / ' l u h a ' / 'tears' luhaan / l u h a " a n / ' t e a r f u l ' b a l i k / b a ' l i k / 'return' b a l i k a n / b a l i ' k a n / 'to r e t u r n ' The s u f f i x / - a n / i s added to the stem, and an a l -t e r n a t e s u f f i x form /-han/ i s unne c e s s a r y i n the case o f words l i k e gandahan, because the / h / i s a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n on the base form. The a n a l y s i s which i n -c l u d e s i n i t i a l and f i n a l o c c u r r e n c e s o f the g l o t t a l s t o p and / h / makes p o s s i b l e a v e r y s i m p l e and c o n s i s t e n t s t a t e -ment o f Taga l o g s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e , i . e . , /CVC/. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l under the s e c t i o n s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e . THE TAGALOG VOWELS H i s t o r i c a l l y T agalog had a t h r e e - v o w e l s e t / i / , / a / , / u / w i t h l o w e r a l l o p h o n e s o f the two h i g h vowels d i s t r i b u t e d so t h a t the lo w e r a l l o p h o n e o c c u r r e d i n any s y l l a b l e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g a j u n c t u r e , and w i t h the l o w e r i n g e x t e n d i n g back t o t h e nex t s y l l a b l e i f i t was s e p a r a t e d from the l a s t one o n l y by a /'/• A c c o r d i n g t o B l o o m f i e l d 1 Tagalog has a t h r e e - v o w e l s e t , a l l o w i n g each phoneme a range a l l the way from p o s i -t i o n s of h i g h vowels t o p o s i t i o n s o f l o w e r mid v o w e l s . C a y a r i s t a t e s t h a t the phoneme / i / has two submembers "^Leonard B l o o m f i e l d . Language, (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 0 5 . 14 / i / and /e/. / i / high, f r o n t close unrounded a l t e r n a t e w i t h /e/ mid f r o n t close unrounded vowel i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n - ( l a l a k i - l a l a k e ) 'man', ( b i b i - bibe) 'duck', (ubi - ube) 'yam1, (gabi - gabe) 'taro tuber p l a n t ' , / u / has two submembers: /u/ and /o/. /u/ a l t e r n a t e s w i t h /o/ i n w o r d - f i n a l s y l l a b l e s - ( p u t u l - p u t o l ) ' c u t t i n g ' ; 2 (baku-bako) 'rugged'; (sapul-sapol) ' s i n c e ' . But i n a great many Tagalog words, / i / and /u/ do not a l t e r n a t e w i t h /e/ and /o/. Informant-opinions f o r the present work would not a l l o w such v a r i a t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i o n s i n a l l cases, so i t was necessary to conclude that there are now f i v e vowel phonemes, /e/ and /o/ along w i t h the o r i g -i n a l three, Figure 3 * There are, i t would appear, d i a l e c t s w i t h only three vowels i n some provinces. Apparently the speech-community on which t h i s study i s based does not belong i n t h i s category. Since the present d e s c r i p t i o n of Tagalog phonology i s aimed toward a comparison w i t h the phonology of Pampango, i t i s obvious that the b a s i s of comparison should be those of Tagalog speakers who make f i v e v o c a l i c d i s t i n c t i o n s . Tagalog vowels are g e n e r a l l y of uniform l e n g t h . ^Remedios M . Cayari, "The Phonemes of Tagalog'", The P h i l i p p i n e J o u r n a l of Science, (June, 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 249-255. . F r o n t STRESSED C e n t r a l Back Unrounded Unrounded Rounded H i g h i Mid e Low u a UNSTRESSED High Mid Low F r o n t  Unrounded I e C e n t r a l Back  Unrounded Rounded V. 0 a FIGURE 3 Tagalog Vowel Chart 16. Lengthened v a r i a n t s , however, may occur under strong s t r e s s . A l l vowels take on nasal c o l o r a t i o n before a nas a l consonant. Regardless of q u a l i t y or segmental environment, Tagalog vowels are tense under strong s t r e s s , l a x under weak. They are pronounced w i t h the tongue, jaw, and l i p s i n p r a c t i c a l l y the same p o s i t i o n from the beginning to the end of the vowel. In the f o l -lowing d e s c r i p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l vowels, t h e r e f o r e , no s p e c i a l d i a c r i t i c s w i l l be used to i n d i c a t e degree of tenseness. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i v e vowels, with examples, f o l l o w s : s t r e s s except i n a f i n a l s y l l a b l e and end of a word, and a f t e r a g l o t t a l .stop. i s a p i l a s p i t o /Jx' sah_7 / " • " p i l a s ^ /JpitohJ7 / ' i ' s a h / / ' p i l a s / / ' p i t o h / ' w h i s t l e ' r i p one tibagan / T t i b a g a n J 7 / ' t i b a g a n / place of exca-v a t i o n k i l o s /Jkilos_7 / ' k i l o s / 'movement' 17 bihis ^ b i h i s j 7 / 'bihis/ 'the dress one wears' bilang ^ b i l a n J 7 /•bilan/ • numb er * bisa ^ b i s a ' J ? /'bisa'/ 'efficacy' d i l a /J&lla'J / • d i l a ' / 'tongue' giting / ' g i t i n / 'heroic quality' sibol / Tsibol_J7 / ' s i b o l / 'bud* higing / • h i g i n / 'tone' h i l i g ^ A h i l i g J 7 / ' h i l i g / 'inclination' minimo /7"minimQh_J7 /'minimoh/ 'minimum' libangan /"*~libanan_7 /'libanan/ 'recreation' libingan /^Libinan_7 /'libinan/ 'burial ground' limi ^ l i m l ' _ 7 / ' l i m i ' / 'attend to reflecr-tively' libot ^ l i b o t j ? / ' l i b o t / 'environment' ripa o ^ f r i p a h j 7 /'ripah/ 'lottery' (b) C~1*J i s lower high front unrounded slightly raised •under stress in a f i n a l syllable and before a glottal stop. imbi ^im*bi*h_7 /'im'bih/ 'mean' imp is </»"imlpi*s_7 /'impis/ 'deflated' i s i s ^ " i ' s i * s _ 7 / ' i ' s i s / ' scrubbing' a l i g i ^ a l i ' g i * h 7 /> a l i 1 g i h / ' fat' 18 p i i t / p i '*L*t_7 / p i " i t / ' cornered' t a k i p /ta'ki*p_ 7 / t a ' k i p / 'cover' t i i m /J± * >i*m_7 / t i *»im/ ' g r i t t i n g ' t h e t e e t h k a s i /ka'si*h_7 / k a ' s i n / 'because' k u l i g /ku»li*g_7 / k u ' l i g / 'young p i g ' b a i t ^ba'»'i*t_7.- • / b a " i t / 'goodness' b a l i k / b a 'li*k _ 7 / b a ' l i k / 'return' b i l k ^ b i " i * k _ 7 / b i ' " i k / 'young p i g 1 b i l b i l ^ b i l ' b i * l _ 7 / b i l ' b i l / 'dropsy 1 s a i d ^ s a " i * d _ 7 /sa'»id/ 'exhausted' sungkit /sun»ki*t_7 / s u n ' k i t / 'hook f o r p i c k i n g f r u i t s ' mandin /man'di*n_7 /man'din/ "apparently* l i g p i t / T i g ' p i * t _ 7 / l i g ' p i t / 'put away' H i t / T i " i * t _ 7 /li»'it/ 'smallness' l a i n g /Ta"i*n _ 7 / l a " i n / ' d r i e d ' l a s i n g /Ta' si*n_J7 / l a ' s i n / 'drunk' l a w i t /Ta'wi*t_7 / l a * w i t / ' s t i c k i n g out' (c) Lower h i g h f r o n t l a x unrounded </~*l_7 v a r i e s f r e e l y w i t h h i g h f r o n t l a x unround Z~i_7 under weak s t r e s s except b e f o r e / y / and / n / where C\J o c c u r s , and except i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e s where o n l y ^~I_7 o c c u r s . 19 i l a l i m / 7 i ' l a l l m _ 7 /'I'lalim/ ' b o t t o m ' a n i m £Ji a n l m J 7 / ' ' a n i m / ' s i x ' a t i n / * ' a t i n / ' o u r s ' p a n i g ^ p a n i g j ? / ' p a n i g / ' p a n e l ' t u b i g ^ t u b i g j ? / ' t u b i g / ' w a t e r ' t u l i n / ^ t u l i n_7 / • t u l i n / ' s p e e d ' k a n i n ^ k a n i n J 7 / ' k a n i n / ' c o o k e d r i c e ' k a p i t 7^kapit_7 / ' k a p i t / ' h o l d ' k a t i ^ " k a t r h j 7 / ' k a t i l l / ' l o w t i d e ' . k i k i l / ' k i k i l / " ' f i l e ' b i b i ,Abibrh._7 / ' b i b i h / ' d u c k ' b a h i d ^ b a h i d J T " / ' b a l i i d / ' s t a i n ' b a t i s / ' b a t i s / ' s p r i n g o f w a t e r ' d a p i t ^ " d a p i t j 7 / ' d a p i t / ' s o l e m n r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y ' g a l i t / f g a l i t J / ' g a l i t / • a n g e r ' s i g a s i g / s i 'gasrg_7 / s i ' g a s i g / ' p e r s i s t e n c e ' s i p i n g Z j s i p r n _ 7 / ' s i p i n / ' s e a t e d n e x t t o e a c h o t h e r ' l a b i s / ' l a b i s / ' e x c e s s i v e ' i s t u p a d o / T s t u ' p a d o h / 7 / i s t u ' p a d o h / ' a d i s h ' k a n i y a / k a n i ' y a h_7 / k a n i ' y a h / ' h i s o r h e r ' b a l i n g ^ b a l i n _ 7 / • b a l i n / ' t u r n ' d a i n g / ' d a i n / ' d r i e d f i s h ' 20 dormitoryana /dormitor'yanahT/dormitor'yanah/ 'female resident o f a dormitory' mahiya /frmahiyah__7' /' mahiyah/ ' magi c' The four allophones of / i / are i n completely non-contrastive distribution, partially i n free variation and partially i n complementary distribution. /u/. The phoneme /u/ i s best considered next because o f the similarity o f its allophonic alignment t o that o f / i / . /u/ shows three allophonic variants: Z"*u_7> /~u*_7, and . These allophones have distributions similar with those o f / i / . (a) /u/ is a high tense rounded vowel under stress, except in a final syllable. pugad /fpugad.J7' /'pugad/ 'nest' pula ^pula'_7 /'pula'/ 'adverse criticism' puri /fpurihj 7 /'purih/ 'honor' tunay /'tunay/ 'true' kunat /'kunat/ 'resiliency' kupi /ku'pl'J7" /ku'piV 'folded' buliawi ^buhawlhj 7 /•buhawih/ 'waterspout * buho /Jbuho'J7 /'buho'/ 'a species of bamboo' 21 bunot /7"bunot_7 / 'bunot/ 'uprooting' dukot /'dukot/ 'kidnapping' dulang / ' d u l a n / 'low t a b l e ' gulok / " ^ g u l o k j 7 / ' g u l o k / 'bolo' sugo ^ s u g o ' J 7 /'sugo'/ 'delegate' s u l a t / r s u l a t _ 7 / ' s u l a t / ' l e t t e r ' h ugis /Thugis__7 / ' h u g i s / 'shape' mulawin /^mulawin/7" /'mulawin/ 'molave t r e e ' musika ^musikah/ 7 /'musikah/ 'music' numero /jmrneroh/ /'numeroh/ 'number' nguso / j n u s o ' J /'nuso'/ 'the l a b i a l c i r c l e ' lugay ^ " l u g a y j 7 / ' l u g a y / ' f a l l e n o f f r u t a / ' r u t a h / 'route' yumi /Jyvcx±'J /'yumi'/ 'tenderness' (b) £~u*_J : i s a lower hig 5I1 back tense rounded vowel, s l i g h t l y r a i s e d under s t r e s s i n a f i n a l s y l l a b l e . I t i s i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n with /~u_7 a f t e r a l a b i a l conso-nant. uguk /Ju' gu*k_7 /'uguk/ ' s t u p i d ' puso / Tpu*so , _7 /'puso'/ 'heart' p u t i k / ' p u t r k / or ^ p u ^ t i k / 7 , / ' p u t i k / 'mud' tugun / t u ' gu*n_J7 /tu'gun/ ' r e p l y ' tayud /ta'yu*d_J7 / t a ' y u d / ' f a b r i c ' krus /kru*s_7 / k r u s / 'cross' 22 kuyum /k.u' yu*m__7 /ku1yum/ 'closed' balun /ba'lu*n_/ /ba'lun/ 'balloon' bambu /bam'bu*h7 /bam'bull/ * club or cudgel baul /ba"u*l_7 /ba*'ul/ 'chest• bukas /frbu*kas_7 /'bukas/ 'tomorrow' bukud ^bu'ku*d_7 /bu'kud/ 'separate' gulgul /gul'gu*l_7 /gul»gul/ •by-product' suksok /suk'su*k_7 /suk'suk/ 'inserted in a scabbard' sumpong /s"iim'pu*n_7 /sum'pun/ 'whim' (c) Z~u_7 a high back lax rounded vowel varies freely with lower high back lax rounded /~~\i_J under weak stress except in final syllables, puntas ,/pun'tas_7 / p u n'tas/ 'lace' pusakal /pusa'kal_7 /pusa'kal/ 'completely addict-' ed' puthaw /put'haw^ /put'haw/ 'small axe' tugnas /Tug'nas_7 /tug'nas/ 'melted' tundo /tun1do' _J /tun'do'/ 'prick' kutob /ku'tob_7 or /ku'tob/ /ku'tob/ 'pulsation' bubong Zbu'bon__7' /bu'bon/ 'roof bugnos /bug'nos_/7 or /^bug'nos/7 /bug'nos/ 'disen-tangle ' 2 3 bukal /bu'kal_7 /bu'kal/ * spring' durog /du'rog^/ or /du'rog/ /du1 'rog/ 'crushed to pieces' gukgok /guk'gok_7 or /g\*k'gok7 /guk'gok/ 'grunt of pigs' gulugod /gulu'gody7 or /gulu'god/7 /gulu'god/ 'spine' glinting /gun'tinJ7 /gun'tin/ ' scissors' gup i t /gu'pit_7 /gu'pit/ ' cut» subyang /sub'yan_7 /sub'yan/ ' splinter' sumbat /sum'bat_7 / sum'bat/ 'reproof' supling /s"up'lin_7 /sup'lin/ 'progeny' suson /su' s on_J7 /su'son/ 'second layer* hungkoy /Eun'koyJ7 /hun'koy/ 'winnowing bellows' muntik /mun' tik_J7 /mun'tik/ 'almost' musmos /mus'mos_7 /mus'mos/ 'immature of mind' lumpiya /lumpi 'ya^7 /lumpi'ya'/ 'meat and vegetables packed in starch wrapper' lunot /Tu'not_7 /lu'not/ 'overripe' lupig Zru'pig_7 /lu'pig/ •vanquished' I n f i n a l s y l l a b l e s / u / a l t e r n a t e s m o r p h o p h o n e -m i c a l l y w i t h / o / m o r e f r e q u e n t l y a n d r e g u l a r l y t h a n d o e s / i / w i t h / e / . 24 /a/. The phoneme /a/, the most common of Tagalog vowels, shows three allophonic variants: low central tense unrounded /f~a_7; low front tense unrounded /~a_7; and higher low central lax unrounded £~a*J\ (a) Low central unround occurs under stress except before /y/ and /w/ i n the same syllable. It i s the same under weak stress except when the weak stressed syllable i s flanked on both sides by syllables of stronger stress, either £~yJ or £ x ] . iyak /'i'yak/ 'cry* abala /Jaba'lah_7 /'aba'lab/ 'busy' aklas /Jak'lasJ 7 /'ak'las/ ' strike' agahas /7aga'has__7 /'aga'has/ 'sound or noise' paniki / Tpaniki ,_7 /'paniki'/ 'bat* parang ^paran_7 /'paran/ 'meadow' kasal /ka'sal_7 /ka'sal/ 'wedding ceremony' balangkas /balan'kas_7 /balan/kas/ 'framework' bukal /bu'kal_7 /bu'kai/ 'natural; inherent dilag /di'lag_7 /di'lag/ 'splendor' gansal /gan1 sal_J7 /gan'sal/ 'odd number' sahod /jQah.o6\_J /'sahod/ 'receptacle' hagkan /hag'kanJT /hag'kan/ 'to kiss' hiyas / h i ' y a s j 7 /hi'yas/ 'gem' makina ^makinahy7 /'makinah/ 'machine' 25 n a r i r i t o £^nax i r i t oh_7 / • n a r i r i t o h / 'here' labak ^"lahak_7 / l a ' b a k / 'depression on the surface < the ground' lamay £~'lamay _J /'lamay/ 'night v i g i l ' l a n t a / " i a n f t a h _ 7 / i a n ' t a h / 'withered' (b) Z~a__7 low f r o n t tense unrounded under s t r e i before / y / and /w/ i n the same s y l l a b l e . balangay /bala'nay7 /bala'nay/ 'sudden death' kampay ^fkam»pay_7 /kam'pay/ •gesture of the hands' galamay ^"gala'mayj^ /gala'may/ •legs of a crab kaway /7"ka'way_7 / k a 1 way/ 'waving of the hand' la n t a y Z"lan»tay_7 / l a n ' t a y / 'pure' mamay /~ma'may_7 /ma'may/ ' nurse' pangimay ^fpani'may_7 /pani'may/ 'anaesthesia' balangaw /~bala'naw_7 /bala'naw/ 'rainbow' balaraw bala'raw^J 7 /bala'raw/ 'dagger• g a l aw / g a ' l a w j 7 /ga'law/ 'movement' dalaw / Tdalaw 7 /' dalaw/ ' v i s i t ' d i l aw ^•"di'law_7 / d i 'lav// 'yellow' h i law <f"hi'law_7 / h i ' lav;/ 'uncooked' 26 /e/. Mid front tense unrounded C~e*J varies freely with higher mid front tense unrounded Je/J in a l l positions except before /y/. Before /y/ under any stress, slightly raised higher-mid front unrounded £~e*-_J occurs as i n /keAy'lan_J7 /key'lan/ 'when'; /me^y'ronJT/mey'ron/ 'have'; /pe^y'netahJ7 /pey'netah/ 'comb'. The difference i n the tenseness of the allophones of this vowel under different stresses i s not noticeable. alero / ra'le*roh_7 /'a'leroh/ 'eaves' pekas /Tpe*kas_/7 /'pekas/ 'freckles' tela /Jte*lah7 or /Jtelah/ /'telah/ 'fabric' termino /JXe*vmlno]i/ or /7'^ e r ml 1' 1 0ly 7' / 'terminoh/ 'term' keso /'kesoh/ 'cheese' ketong /Jk.e*ton_y /'keton/ 'leprosy' babae /ba'ba'e*hJ7 /ba'ba'eh/ 'woman' depensa /de 'pe^nsah/7 /de'pensah/ 'defence' dwende (/Tdwe*ndeh_7 /'dwendeh/ 'dwarf' gera /7ge*rah_J7 /'gerah/ ' war' sebo ^ s e ^ b o h j 7 /'seboh/ 'tallow' selang ^se^lanJZ /'selan/ 'delicacy' heko /7he*kohJ7 /'hekoh/ 'dark sauce hepe ^ h ^ p e h j ^ /'hepeh/ 'chief' hero ^he^roh^/ /'heron/ 'brand' 2? mediko /Jme*dikoh_7 /'medikoh/ ' p h y s i c i a n 1 metodo ^me*todoh_7 /'metodoh/ 'method' metro /'me*troh_7 /'metroh/ 'meter' l e t r a < / f r l e * t r a h _ y r / ' l e t r a h / ' l e t t e r ' r e b e r e b e / / r e ^ b i r e b i h / 7 / ' r e b i r e b i h / ' h a s t i l y ' T a g a l o g vowels / i / and / e / are phonemes and a t the same time a l l o p h o n e s o f the o t h e r h a l f o f the p a i r . I n the Tagalog words /Jmesah/ ' t a b l e ' and /Jja±sahJ_ 'mass', / e / and / i / are d i s t i n c t phonemes s i n c e t h e i r a l t e r n a t i o n produces a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning. But i n many cases the a l t e r n a t i o n of / e / and / i / does not make any d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning. The words / r d i n i h / r a n d ^dinejF meaning 'here' are b o t h u n d e r s t o o d t o mean 'here' and can be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , i n the same way as / T a ' l a k i h / o r /Ta.'lakeh__7 would not make any d i f f e r e n c e t o a T a g a l o g s p e a k e r . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case / e / and / i / a r e a l l o p h o n e s i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n of the phonemes / i / and / e / . /o/. The a l l o p h o n e s of t h i s phoneme are not p h o n o l o g i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e . Mid back t e n s e rounded /~o*_J7 and h i g h e r low back t e n s e rounded £\J a r e i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n under any s t r e s s , ubos /Ju'bo*s_7 /'u'bos/ ' a l l e a t e n ' 28 u l o l /Ju' 101_J7 / ' u ' l o l / 'crazy' usb ong /'"us ' bo n.__/ /'us'bon/ 'sprout' pohas /JvohasJ? /'pohas/ 'sheet' posporo /rpo*sparoh7' /'posporoh/ 'match' pulo /j?u'lo*'_7 / p u ' l o ' / ' i s l a n d ' tokwa ^7to*kwab7 /'tokwah/ 'pressed soy-bean' topo /jto^ohj' /'topoh/ ' c a l l f o r time out' k o l e r a /f»"ko*lerah7 / ' k o l e r a h / 'cholera' komika /7"komikali_7 /'komikah/ 'comic' b a l u k t o t /baluk'to*t7 / b a l u k ' t o t / 1 curved' balugbog /balug'bog/ /balug'bog/ 'nape of fowls' bapor /ba •po*r_7' /ba'por/ 'ship' b o l a ^ b o n a h j 7 / ' b o l a h / ' b a l l * b o r l a s /*borlas_7 / ' b o r l a s / 1 t a s s e l ' doon / d o ' b n j 7 /do "on/ 'there' sobre // Tsobreh_7 /'sobreh/ 'envelope' molde //moldeh^J 7 /'moldeh/ 'mold* n i t o / n i ' t o * h _ / / n i ' t o h / •of t h i s ' ninuno /ni*nuno*^7 / n i 'nunoV 'ancestor' noo /no "a h_7 /no "oh/ •forehead' l o n a / j l l o n a h j / ' l o n a h / 'canvasr ' look /to " o k j 7 / l o "ok/ 'bay' l o t e ^ l o t e h j 7 / ' l o t e h / 'parcel of land' ronda /jro*ndah_7 /'rondah/ ' p a t r o l • 29 M i n i m a l c o n t r a s t s among a l l the vowels of Tagalog a r e abundant. A few i n v o l v i n g c o n t r a s t of /o/ w i t h one of the vowels a r e l i s t e d below: /Jhoteh/ / ' b o t e h / ' b o t t l e ' /Jbotohj/'botoh/ 'vote' / / p a l a h / / ' p a l a h / ' s h o v e l ' ^Apalohy 7 / ' p a l o h / 'mast* ^ " l a h a d / / ' l a h a d / 'opening' ^ l a h o d y 7 , / ' l a h o d / 'mucus-/ / h i l a h / / ' h i l a h / ' p u l l ' like substance' ^"hilohT" /'hiloh/ 'dizzi-ness ' /da'lahT" /da'lah/ 'bring' /da'loh/7 /da'loh/ 'attend-ance / / k a s a h / / ' k a s a h / ' f i r m ' / / k o p a i i / /'kopah/ ' cup' / / k a s o h / / ' k a s o h / 'case i n c o u r t ' / /kopah/ /kopoh/ ' a l l t a k e n ' //baso-h/" / ' b a s o h / ' g l a s s ' (/Tbusoh7' /'busoh/ 'sea d i v e r ' //hab an/ 7 /'haban/ ' w h i l e ' / U i a b o n / /'habon/ 'tem-p o r a r y ' /Jgalas/ / ' g a l a s / 'of t a s t e ' / / g a l o s / 7 /bu'ni^y 7' / b u ' n i ' / ' too t h l e s s ' / b u ' n . 0 ^ 7 /JYIULQ'J / ' h u l o ' / 'source / T h u l a j / 7 o f a stream' / ' g a l o s / ' s c r a t c h ' / b u ' n o s k u l l 1 / ' h u l a ' / ' g u e s s ' 30 Sub-minimal contrasts are al s o found i n Tagalog as i l l u s t r a t e d below: / ^ p i h o h / /-Jpihoh/ ' f i x e d ' / Tpaho_]/ 7 /'paho'/ 'one of the mango v a r i e t y ' /Jlako'J/ / ' l a k o ' / 'merchan- /J'Lo'k.dYi/ /'lokoh/'crazy' d i s e being peddled" /Jdayoh/' /'dayoh/ ' stranger '^daya^T - /'daya'/' d e c e i t ' / g u ' l o n / /gu'lon/ " r o l l i n g ' /Tgulan/ /'gulan/'age ' THE TAGALOG DIPHTHONGS The vowels of Tagalog are c l a s s i f i e d as simple vowels and diphthongs. The simple vowels are those pro-nounced with the v o c a l organs remaining more or l e s s i n one p o s i t i o n throughout the utterance of the vowel sound. A diphthong i s defined as a bi n a r y nucleus that f u n c t i o n s l i k e a simple vowel. They are complex vowels made up of simple vowels g l i d i n g i n t o /y/ or /w/ i n the same s y l l a b l e . The diphthongs found i n Tagalog are /ey, ay, oy, uy, aw, iw/. The diphthong /uy/ i n unstressed p o s i t i o n may take a lower v a r i a n t /y/. I n most unstressed s y l l a b l e s i n r a p i d speech, Tagalog /ay/ w i t h i n phrases a l t e r n a t e s v/ith /ey/, sometimes w i t h /e/. In the production of T a g a l o g /oj/f the tongue s t a r t s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n f o r / o / and n o r m a l l y moves up t o the p o s i t i o n f o r / y / . F r o n t C e n t r a l Back H i g h i w uy Mid ey oy Low ay aw FIGURE k T a g a l o g Diphthongs The T a g a l o g d i p h t h o n g s (shown i n sc h e m a t i c form i n F i g u r e k) are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: s i s i w / 1 s i s i w / ' c h i c k ' g i l i w / ' g i l i w / ' d a r l i n g ' b a l i w / b a ' l i w / ' c r a z y ' r e y n a / ' r e y n a h / * queen 1 may /mey/ 'there i s , a r e ' pe y n e t a / p e y ' n e t a h / ' s h e l l comb' k a y l a n / ' k e y l a n / o r / ' k e l a n / 'when t a y k a / ' t e y k a h / o r / ' t e k a h / 'wait i n a y / ' i ' n a y / 'mama' bahay /'bahay/ 'house' 32 pugay /'pugay/ 'to s a l u t e or greet' suv/ay /su'way/ •disobedience' t a g l a y / t a g ' l a y / 'borne' sakay /sa'kay/ 'passenger' sab aw /sa'baw/ 'broth' h i law / h i ' l a w / 'uncooked' hikaw /'hikaw/ 'earrings' gusilaw / g u ' s i l a w / 'eyeshade' bingaw /bi'naw/ 'notch' s i l a w / s i ' l a w / 'glare' hoy /hoy/ 'an answer to a c a l l ' l u y l o y / l u y ' l o y / 'hanging l o o s e l y ' baboy /'baboy/ 'pig' b i l o y / ' b i l o y / 'dimples' siyukoy / s i ' y u k o y / 'merman' aruy /'a'ruy/ 'ouch' •kasuy /ka'suy/ 'cashew' THE TAGALOG CONSONANTS L i k e those of most other languages, the consonants of Tagalog can be grouped w i t h equal ease i n t o e i t h e r "orders" or " s e r i e s " . The b a s i s of the grouping, i n other words, can be e i t h e r the point or the manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n . The Tagalog consonantal system lends 33 i t s e l f to arrangement i n t o f i v e orders — b i l a b i a l , d e n t a l , p a l a t a l , v e l a r , and g l o t t a l — and seven s e r i e s — v o i c e l e s s stop, voiced stop, n a s a l , f r i c a t i v e , t r i l l , and semivowel. As i n the case of the vowels, a chart can be set up r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of the a r t i c u l a -t i o n s of the various consonants (Figure 5)• In such a chart, the h o r i z o n t a l dimension represents the v a r i o u s p o i n t s of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; and the v e r t i c a l dimension, the d i f f e r e n t manners of a r t i c u l a t i o n , beginning w i t h stops and ending w i t h semivowels. V o i c i n g may be considered as a t h i r d dimension,normally shown-by the symbols v l f o r v o i c e l e s s sounds, and vd f o r voiced sounds. Vo i c e l e s s Stops. The v o i c e l e s s stops of Tagalog are /p/, / t / , and /k/. The most common v a r i a n t of each i s an unaspirated tense stop - b i l a b i a l . i n the case of /p/, d e n t a l i n the case of / t / , and v e l a r i n that of /k/. Tagalog /p, t , k/ are unaspirated, whether i n s t r e s s e d or unstressed s y l l a b l e s . The allophones have u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . The phoneme /k/ shows one allophone: a back v e l a r v o i c e l e s s s p i r a n t , o c c u r r i n g i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y . The i n t e r v o c a l i c c o n d i t i o n i s met wherever the f l a n k i n g segmental phonemes are vowels, regardl e s s of the presence of open juncture between 34 Manner of Po i n t of A r t i c u l a t i o n A r t i c u l a t i o n L a b i a l Dental P a l a t a l Velar G l o t t a l Stops v l P t k > vd b d S F r i c a t i v e v l s h Nasals vd m n L a t e r a l vd 1 T r i l l vd r Semi-vowels v l w y FIGURE 5 Consonant Chart of Tagalog one of the vowels and /k/. The Tagalog v o i c e l e s s stops occurs i n a l l three p o s i t i o n s i n words as i l l u s t r a t e d below: p i k o t / ' p i k o t / 'besieged; ambush' pekas /'pekas/ ' f r e c k l e s ' pako /•pako'/ ' n a i l ' paha / ' p a h a l i / ' g i r d l e ; band' poso / •posoh/ 'dug-out' pugon /pu'gon/ 's t o v e ' pungay /'punay/ 'lambency of the eyes' p u r i / ' p u r i h / 'honor' posporo / • p o s p o r o h / 'match' pumpon /pum'pon/ 'bouquet' hagap /'hagap/ • g e n e r a l n o t i o n ' 1 s a l a p / • s a l a p / ' s m a l l f i s h i n g n e t ' l u p a l o p / l u ' p a l o p / 'any p l a c e o r l a n d ' t i b a y / ' t i b a y / ' enduring s t r e n g t h ' t i m o g / ' t i m o g / 'south' tema /'temah/ 'theme' tab as /' t a b a s / ' s t y l e of c u t ' t a l i / ' t a l i ' / ' t w ine' tabo / • t a b o ' / 'coconut s h e l l scoop' tomo /'tomoh/ 'volume' t o r e / ' t o r e h / 'tower' tukod / ' t u k o d / 'prop; b r a c k e t ; s u p p o r t t u l o g / • t u l o g / ' s l e e p ' ' t i k t i k / t i k ' t i k / ' d e t e c t i v e ' t u g t o g / t u g ' t o g / 'sound of music' l a p a t / ' l a p a t / ' w e l l a d j u s t e d ' 36 b a l a t / b a ' l a t / ' s k i n ' kamot /'kamot/ ' s c r a t c h ' kabag /ka'bag/ 'gas p a i n ' k o l a / ' k o l a h / ' g l u e ' kupas /ku ' p a s / ' d i s c o l o r e d ' k i k i l / ' k i k i l / • f i l e ' k imkim / k i r n ' k i r n / ' h e l d i n the f i s t ' kadkad /kad'kad/ 'spread out* k a k a / ' k a k a h / ' e l d e s t u n c l e or aunt' kakak / ' k a k a k / ' c a c k l i n g of hens, ducks kokak /'kokak/ 'cr y of t h e f r o g * kugkog /kug'kog/ 'echo of sound t h r o u g h w a t e r ' s a l a k s a k / s a l a k ' s a k / 'puncture' hay ok /ha'yok/ 'weak w i t h hunger' l a g o k / l a ' g o k / 'gulp' V o i c e d S t o p s , /b, d, g/ are v o i c e d l e n i s u n a s p i r a t e d s t o p s . The a l l o p h o n e s / f " b _ / , / ~ d _ / , and Z~g_/, exce p t f o r the v i b r a t i o n o f the v o c a l bands thr o u g h o u t t h e i r a r t i c u l a t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d i n p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r v o i c e l e s s c o u n t e r p a r t s , / b / i s b i l a b i a l , / d / i s d e n t a l and / g / v e l a r . The a r t i c u l a t i o n of / g / i s not as f a r back as /k/. A l l the t h r e e o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y . 37 The phoneme / d / i s r a t h e r r a r e i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , because o f f r e q u e n t morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n with / r / i n t h a t p o s i t i o n , / d / and / r / a l t e r n a t e f r e e l y a f t e r . pause o r open j u n c t u r e i n almost a l l n a t i v e words: sa.daan / s a 'da'an/ o r / s a 'r a ' a n / 'on the r o a d ' ; d a d a t i n g / ' d a d a t i n / o r / ' d a r a t i n / 'coming'; padaan /pa'da'an/ o r / p a ' r a ' a n / 'may I p a s s ' . I n some words formed by a f f i x a t i o n , the i n i t i a l /~d_7 o f the r o o t changes t o CxJJ when the p r e f i x ends w i t h a vo w e l . S i m i l a r l y , f i n a l /~^_Z becomes Z~r_J7 when the s u f f i x added s t a r t s w i t h a vo w e l . P r e f i x /J&xXoJ / ' d i t o h / 'here' / d i ' l a g / 7 - / d i ' l a g / ' s p l e n d o r ' ^ d a m o t / /'damot/ ' s t i n g i n e s s ' /dag'dag/ / d a g ' d a g / ' a d d i t i o n ' S u f f i x /maxi'Md/ /man'hid/'numbness 1 /""palad/ / ' p a l a d / ' l u c k ' : /pa'ritohT" /pa'ritoh/ 'to come here' : /mari'1ag/ /mari'1ag/ 'lustrous beauty" : /iia'ramo*t7 /ma'ramot/ • stingy' : /parag'dag/ /parag'dag/ 'ask for an addition' : /man'hiring /man'hirin/ 'get numb' : /pala'rin/ /pala'rin/ 'to be lucky' 38 l a k a d / 7 / p a ' l a k a d / ' p o l i c y ' : / p a l a ' k a r i n y 7 / p a l a ' k a r i n / ' a l l o w e d to go' The /b, d, g/ s e r i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: b i k a s / ' b i k a s / ' p o s t u r e ' b i h o n / ' b i h o * n / 'white r i c e n o o d l e s ' bent a / ' b e n t a h / ' s a l e s ' b a t a k / ' b a t a k / ' p u l l ' ' basag / b a ' s a g / 'broken' babae /ba'ba'eh/ 'woman * babag /'babag/ ' c o l l i s i o n ; i m p a c t ' baboy /'baboy/ ' p i g ' t a l a b / t a ' l a b / ' c u t t i n g t h r o u g h 1 i g i b / ' i ' g i b / 'a t r i p o f water c a r r y i n g d i k i n / d i ' k i n / 'pot s u p p o r t ' d i g a / ' d i g a h / ' i d l e t a l k ' dako /'dakoh/ ' d i r e c t i o n ' d a l i / ' d a l i ' / ' i n c h ' dote / ' d o t e h / 'dowry' d u l o / ' d u l o h / * end' dagdag /dag*dag/ ' a d d i t i o n ' t a d y a k / t a d ' y a k / 'backward k i c k ' t adyang / t a d ' y a n / ' r i b s ' tab ad / t a ' b a d / 'process of b l o o d l e t t i n g t a d t a d / t a d ' t a d / 'minced' g i l i n g / ' g i l i n / 'grinding' gahi /•gahiV 'mark of breakage' gala /ga'laV 'having the wanderlust' gatas /'gatas/ 'milk' gatong /'gaton/ 'fuel 1 goto /'gotoh/ 'ox or cow tripe' lagi /'lag!'/ 'always' haging /'hagin/ 'buzzing sound' hagis /'hagis/ 'throw; cast' hagad /'hagad/ 'pursuer' hagok /'hagok/ 'snore' lagom /'lagom/ 'all-inclusive' bagbag /bag'bag/ 'broken up' lapag /la'pag/ 'the space below1 sipag /'sipag/ 'industriousness' matyag /mat'yag/ 'to observe1 Some m i n i m a l c o n t r a s t s between the v o i c e d s t o p s and t h e i r v o i c e l e s s c o u n t e r p a r t s f o l l o w : A / A / / ' p a h i d / ' w i p i n g o f f vs / ' b a h i d / ' s t a i n ' / ' p a l i n / ' s l o p e ' v s / ' b a l i n / ' t u r n ' / ' p a l a ' / 'grace' vs / ' b a l a ' / ' t h r e a t ' / p a 'nas/ ' t i r e d n e s s ' vs /ba'nas/ ' s u l t r i n e s s ' / pan'law/ 'gloomy' vs /ban'law/ ' f i r s t r i n s i n g ' ko / p a n ' t a y / 'same h e i g h t ' vs / b a n ' t a y / 'guard' / V / t a 1 ' a n / 'long l i n e s v s /da'»an/ 'way' f o r i n l a n d w a t e r -f i s h i n g * Aa'gaV ' i n c i s i o n ' vs /da'ga7 ' r a t 1 / t a ' h a s / ' d i r e c t ' vs /da'has/ ' f o r c e ' / t a ' k i p / 'cover' vs / d a ' k i p / ' a r r e s t e d ' / ' t a k O h / ' s t o p p e r ' vs /'dakoh/ ' d i r e c t i o n 1 /ta'moh/ ' a c q u i r e ' vs /da'moh/ ' g r a s s ' / p a n 1 t a y / 1 same h e i g h t ' vs /pan'day/ ' b l a c k s m i t h ' / ' h i l o t / 'midwife' vs / ' h i l o d / ' s c r u b b i n g o f s k i n ' A / /g/ / ' k a y a / • a b l e ' vs /»gaya/ ' i m i t a t i o n ' / ' b a l a k / ' p l a n ' vs / ' b a l a g / ' t r e l l i s ' / ' k a y a s / 'act of s h a v i n g vs /* g a y a s / ' i n l a i d work' " off» / k a ' h o l / 'bark o f the vs / g a ' h o l / ' l a c k i n g i n t; dog' / k a *pok/ ' c o t t o n ' vs /ga'pok/ ' r o t t e n i n s i d N a s a l s . The n a s a l s e r i e s /m/, / n / , and / n / are v o i c e d n a s a l c o n t i n u a n t s , t h a t i s , i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n the a i r - s t r e a m escapes f r e e l y t h r o u g h the nose w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n o r a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n , /m/ i s b i l a b i a l . I t i s produced v/ith t h e l i p s f o r m i n g a c l o s u r e ; the s o f t p a l a t e i s l o w e r e d ; the tongue g e n e r a l l y a n t i c i p a t e s o r r e t a i n s the p o s i t i o n o f the a d j a c e n t v o w e l , / n / i s d e n t a l . I t i s produced v/ith t h e t i p of the tongue a g a i n s t the back of \ the upper teeth,.' / n / i s v e l a r . A c l o s u r e i s formed i n the mouth between the back o f the tongue and the velum, a d d i n g the resonance o f the n a s a l c a v i t y t o t h a t of the pharynx and t h a t s m a l l p a r t of the mouth chamber b e h i n d the v e l a r c l o s u r e , /m/, / n / , and / n / d i s t r i b u t e s i m i l a r l y i n a l l t h r e e p o s i t i o n s , i n i t i a l , m e d i a l , and f i n a l . When i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , t h ey a r e a l l u n r e l e a s e d . I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w : naman mnuno namnam n u n a l m a l i k m a t a mamad Brunt i maginoo madia lagom imp ok /mad'la'/ ' a l l ; everyone' /'magino'oh/ 'gentleman' /im'pok/ ' s a v i n g s ' /malik'mat a h / ' t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n ' /ma'mad/ ' s o f t e n e d and s w o l l e n /'lagom/ ' a l l - i n c l u s i v e ' /nam'nam/ 'savor' / n i ' n u n o ' / ' a n c e s t o r ' /na'man/ ' a l s o ; t o o ' / n u ' n a l / 'mole' / m u n ' t i V ' s m a l l ' 42 1 al'amunan / l a l a' munan/ s a l o n / s a ' l o n / n g i k i / ' n i k i h / n g a l a n / 1 n a l a n / n g a l o t / n a ' l o t / n g i t n g i t / n i t ' n i t / ngongo /'nono'/ nguynguy / n u y 1 n u y / d a i n g /da * i n / kambing n i n g n i n g l a l a n g /kam'bin/ / n i n ' n i n / / l a ' l a n / l a g u n l o n g / l a g u n ' l o n / sakong / ' s a k o n / * t h r o a t ' ' l a r g e h a l l ' ' c h i l l s * * name' 'crushed by chewing' 'rage; f u r y ' 'one who speaks as i f the nose i s c l o s e d ' * s u l k y ' ' l a m e n t a t i o n ' 'goat' ' b r i l l i a n c e ' ' r use; t r i c k ' ' r u m bling sound o f f a l l -i n g w a t e r s ' ' h e e l bone" A s s i m i l a t i o n . T a g a l o g n a s a l s /m/, / n / , and / n / a l t e r n a t e b e f o r e l a b i a l s t o p s , d e n t a l s t o p s , and v e l a r s t o p s . Thus, any o f the n a s a l consonants may t e n d t o be-come /m/ b e f o r e /p, b/; / n / b e f o r e / t , d, 1, r , s/ and / n / b e f o r e /k, g, h, y, w/. A s s i m i l a t i o n s may o c c u r w i t h i n words and word b o u n d a r i e s but are more g e n e r a l l y observed i n the former case. Morphemes / a n / and / ' b a r o ' / 43 morphophonemically becomes /am'baro'/ 'the d r e s s ' ; mor-phemes /bu'kan/ and / b i ' b i g / becomes / b u k a m b i ' b i g / ' f a v o r i t e e x p r e s s i o n ' ; morphemes / l a ' b i n / and /dala'wah/ becomes / l a b i n d a l a * w a h / ' t w e l v e ' . L a t e r a l . The phoneme / l / i s a v o i c e d l a t e r a l , a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h the tongue t i p t o u c h i n g the a l v e o l a r r i d g e . The tongue i s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t and f l a t from the t i p t o the r o o t , / l / i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same whether a l o n e v / i t h a vowel o r f o r m i n g a c l u s t e r w i t h consonants l i k e , /p, b, k, g/ i n l o a n words. I t o c c u r s i n a l l t h r e e p o s i t i o n s i n words. They are i l l u s t r a t e d below. The Taga l o g / l / i s o f a " l i g h t " , f r o n t resonance t y p e : / l a ' b a k / l a b a k l a b a n o s l a k a s l a g i m l a h o k l a l i m k l i m a d a l a g a l a l a k i / l a b a ' n o s / / l a ' k a s / / l a ' g i m / / l a ' h o k / / ' l a l i m / / ' k l i m a h / / d a ' l a g a h / / l a ' l a k i h / • d e p r e s s i o n on the s u r f a c e of the ground' ' r a d i s h ' ' s t r e n g t h ' 'gloom' 'm i x t u r e ' 'depth' ' c l i m a t e ' 'unmarried woman' 'man' 4 4 p l a k a / ' p l a k a h / • r e c o r d ' k l a s e / ' k l a s e l i / ' c l a s s ' b l a k b o r d / ' b l a k b o r d / ' b l a c k b o a r d a r e g l a d o / a r i g ' l a d o h / ' f i x e d ' g l o b o / ' g l o b o h / 'globe' b l o k e / ' b l o k e h / • b l o c k ' g l o r y a / ' g l o r y a h / ' g l o r y ' t u l o y / t u ' l o y / 'come i n * k a l y e / ' k a l y e h / ' s t r e e t ' mahal /ma'hal/ ' e x p r e s s i v e k a s a l / k a ' s a l / 'wedding' bawal / ' b a w a l / * f o r b i d d e n ' T r i l l . / r / i s a v o i c e d a p i c o - a l v e o l a r t r i l l . The t i p o f the tongue i s r a i s e d and l i g h t l y touches the a l v e -o l a r r i d g e as the o u t - g o i n g b r e a t h stream s e t s i t i n t o momentary v i b r a t i o n . The s o f t p a l a t e i s r a i s e d . At the b e g i n n i n g of s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , a t the end o f words, and a t the end of s y l l a b l e s f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r s y l l a b l e s t a r t i n g w i t h a consonant, / r / t a p s the a l v e o l a r r i d g e p r o d u c i n g a sound t h a t i s a l i t t l e l o n g e r and a more n o t i c e a b l e v i b r a t i o n . P r e c e d i n g a s h o r t u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a -b l e , i t may be l i t t l e more t h a n a s i n g l e t a p . I n i s o l a t -ed T a g a l o g words, i t o c c u r s m o s t l y i n m e d i a l p o s i t i o n , n e v e r i n i t i a l l y o r f i n a l l y , e x c ept i n p r o p e r names and l o a n words. I n consonant c l u s t e r s , / r / i s g e n e r a l l y a t r i l l , t h a t i s , a s u c c e s s i o n o f t a p s by the t i p of the tongue on the a l v e o l a r r i d g e . The phoneme i s i l l u s t r a t -ed below: r i l e s / ' r i l e s / ' r a i l s of t r a i n r e g a l o / r e ' g a l o h / ' g i f t ' r e g l a / ' r e g l a h / ' r u l e ' r e h a s / ' r e h a s / ' r a i l i n g ' r e t o / ' r e t o h / ' c h a l l e n g e ' r a h a / ' r a h a h / ' r a j a h ' d r i l / ' d r i l / ' s t r o n g c l o t h ' k r i m e n / ' k r i m e n / 'crime' k r i s / ' k r i s / 'Malayan dagger p r i t o / ' p r i t o h / • f r i e d ' k apre / ' k a p r e h / ' e v i l g e n i e ' premyo /'premyoh/ ' p r i z e ' preno / ' p r e n o h / 'brakes' l i b r e / ' l i b r e h / ' f r e e ; g r a t i s ' sobre / ' s o b r e h / 'envelope' r e s e r b a / r i ' s e r b a h / ' r e s e r v e ' drama /'dramah/ ' p l a y ' grado / ' g r a d o h / ' c l a s s mark' dragon / d r a ' g o n / 'dragon' t r a p o / ' t r a p o h / ' c l e a n i n g rug* 46 grano / ' g r a n o h / ' g r a i n ' t r a h e / ' t r a h e h / ' s u i t o f c l o t h e s ' l i t r o / ' l i t r o h / • l i t e r ' t o r t a / • t o r t ah./ ' f u l l - s i z e d omelet r u l e r / ' r u l e r / ' r u l e r ' s enactor / s i n a ' d o r / ' s e n a t o r ' mayor /ma'yor/ • e l d e r ' Semivowels. Tagalog has two semivowels or g l i d e s , / y / and /w/. The phoneme / y / i s produced w i t h the f r o n t p a r t o f the tongue r a i s e d toward the h a r d p a l a t e . The l i p s are unrounded o r i n a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n depending upon the f o l l o w i n g sound. The velum i s r a i s e d . I t o c c u r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and m i d d l e of words i n the s y l l a b l e -i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , and g e n e r a l l y o n l y b e f o r e C&J, /T°J7> a n d Z~u_7' I n l o a n v/ords i t o c c u r s b e f o r e /~e__7. yabag /ya'bag/ 'sound of f o o t f a l l ' yabo /ya'boh/ ' f r u i t f l e s h ' y a k a l / y a ' k a l / 'lumber' yamot /ya'mot/ 'annoyance' yap os / y a ' p o s / 'embrace' yoyo / ' y o y o ' / 'toy' yuko /yu'ko'/ ' w i t h bowed head' yugto / y u g ' t o ' / ' d i v i s i o n o r a c t i n a stage p l a y ' 47 y u p i yungib / y u ' p i V / y u ' n i b / 1 dent 'cave' yema y e r o yeso y e l o Loan Words /'yemah/ ' y o l k ' / ' y e r o h / ' g a l v a n i z e d i r o n ' / ' y e s o h / ' c h a l k ' / ' y e l o h / ' i c e ' /w/ i s produced w i t h the l i p s rounded and th e back o f the tongue a r c h e d toward the velum v/hich i s r a i s e d , /w/ o c c u r s o n l y b e f o r e </~a_J7 and Z~"i_7 a t the b e g i n n i n g and i n the m i d d l e o f words, and b e f o r e Z~e_J7 i n l o a n words. I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w . v/ika . tav/id w i s i k w i l i g v/indang welga tawa v/awa / ' v / i k a ' / / ' t a v / i d / / w i * s i k / / w i * l i g / / w in'dan/ / ' w e l g a h / /*tawah/ /'wawa'/ 'language' ' c r o s s i n g o r a c t o f c r o s s i n g ' ' s p r i n k l e d s o f t l y * 'water s p r i n k l e d on ' c l o t h * ' t o r n t o s h r e d s ' ' s t r i k e ' ' laugh' 'mouth of a r i v e r ' tawad tawag wagas waliak wakas w a l a w a r i was t o /'tawad/ /'tawag/ /wa'gas/ /wa'hak/ /wa'kas/ / w a ' l a ' / / ' w a r i ' / / w a s ' t o ' / ' f o r g i v e n e s s ' ' c a l l ; summons' 'pure 1 'rent o r r i p p e d l o n g i -t u d i n a l l y ' 1 end 1 'none' ' i t seems' ' c o r r e c t ' F r i c a t i v e s . Tagalog has two f r i c a t i v e phonemes / s / and / h / . I n the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f / s / , the tongue b l a d e i s r a i s e d toward the a l v e o l a r r i d g e , the s i d e s o the tongue come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the gums, but the b l a d e i s f r e e , / s / may t h e r e f o r e be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s h a l l o w - g r o o v e a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e , / s / i s u n r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d below: sab ad sab aw s a g l i t s a k d a l sakim p a s a / s a ' b a d / /sa'baw/ / s a g ' l i t / / s a k ' d a l / / s a ' k i r n / / p a ' s a h / ' i n t e r r u p t i o n i n some one's speech' ' b r o t h ' ' i n s t a n t moment' 'very' ' a v a r i c i o u s ; s e l f i s h ' ' b r u i s e ' 49 s a s a pasag t a s a k l a b as paspas t a s t a s V s a ' s a / p a ' s a g / / ' t a s a k / / l a 'bas/ / p a s ' p a s / / t a s ' t a s / 'nipa palm' 'w i g g l e ' 'stab w i t h a p o n i a r d ' ' o u t s i d e ' 'gust of wind' ' u n s t i t c h e d ' / h / i s a g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e . The v o c a l bands do not v i b r a t e b u t are brought c l o s e t o g e t h e r . As the b r e a t h i s e x h a l e d , a s l i g h t f r i c t i o n a l sound i s a u d i b l e . I t o c c u r s a t the beginning,...middle, and end o f words. h a b o l / ' h a b o l / •hurry t o o v e r t a k e h a g i b i s / h a ' g i b i s / ' r a p i d i t y ' h alaw /ha 'lav// ' s e l e c t e d ' h a n i p / ' h a n i p / ' c h i c k e n f l e a ' hangad /ha'nad/ 'purpose' h a p d i / h a p ' d i ' / ' e x c r u c i a t i n g p a i n s a h i g / s a ' h i g / " f l o o r ' p i h i k a n / p i ' h i k a n / ' f a s t i d i o u s ' m a s a h i s t a / m a s a ' h i s t a h / 'masseur' m a h a r l i k a / m a h a r ' l i k a h / 'noble' paha /'pahah/ 'straw' p a h a l a g a / p a h a l a ' g a h / ' e v a l u a t i o n ' taho / t a ' h o h / ' g i n g e r t e a ' G l o t t a l Stop /»/ . I n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the g l o t t a l s t o p the g l o t t i s between the v o c a l bands i s t i g h t l y c l o s e d , s t o p p i n g the a i r column coming from the l u n g s . The a i r p r e s s u r e below the g l o t t i s i s r e -l e a s e d by the sudden s e p a r a t i o n o f the v o c a l bands. The g l o t t a l sound o c c u r s a t the b e g i n n i n g , w i t h i n , o r a t the end of a word as the f o l l o w i n g examples show: I n i t i a l l y : i b i g /'»ibig/ 'wish, want aso / 1 ' a s o h / 'dog' ora s / ' 1 o r a s / •hour' M e d i a l l y : paa /pa''ah/ •f o o t * saad / s a ' ' a d / ' s t a t e d ' paano / p a 1 ' a n o h / 'how' F i n a l l y : h i n d i / h i n ' d i V 'no; n o t ' baha /ba'ha'/ • f l o o d ' akma /ak'ma'/ • f i t t e d ' The g l o t t a l s t o p i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n w o r d - f i n a l ' 3 p o s i t i o n as shown by the m i n i m a l p a i r s below : /'bagah/ 'glowing c o a l ' vs /'baga'/ ' l u n g s ' / ' b a t a h / 'bathrobe' vs / ' b a t a ' / ' c h i l d ' / p i ' l i h / ' t w i s t e d ' vs / p i ' l i ' / ' s e l e c t e d ' The o r t h o g r a p h i c form, o f these p a i r s i s the same: baga, baga, e t c . 51 / p u ' t i h / ' p i c k i n g flow- vs / p u ' t i ' / 'white' ers by c u t t i n g ' / s a ' l a h / 'interwoven s t r i p s vs / s a ' l a ' / 'broken* of bamboo' / s a ' l o h / 'cupping support' vs / s a ' l o ' / 'mechanical from under' catch' In a stream of speech the w o r d - f i n a l g l o t t a l stop i s g e n e r a l l y weakened or l o s t , unless i t i s i n sentence i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n . The l o s s of the g l o t t a l stop lengthens the vowel before i t . The lengthened vowel o f t e n changes to a higher v a r i a n t i f i t i s /o/. Umupo ka. //"umu'pu kah/ /'umu'pukali/ ' s i t down' Hindi na. / h i n ' d i nah/ / h i n ' d i n a h / 'never mind' Uuwi s i y a . /f'u'u'wi s i ' y a h / /»u'u'wisiyah/ 'he i s going home' CONSONANT CLUSTERS Tagalog consonant c l u s t e r s occur i n i t i a l l y , medi-a l l y , and f i n a l l y . Their occurrence i s mostly i n loan words which have become an i n t e g r a l part of the language. The i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s found i n Tagalog are: / p i , p r , pw, py, t s , t r , tw, t y , k l , k r , ky, b l , b r , bw, by, dr, dy, g l , gr, gy, sw, sy, hw, hy, nw, ny, ny, lw, 52 l y , rw, r y / . Examples of the c l u s t e r s summarized above appear below: A V plaka /'plakah/ •disk' plorera /'plorerah/ 'flower base /pr/ premyo /'premyoh/ 'prize ' prenda /'prendah/ 'pledge' /pw/ pwede /'pwedeh/ 'possible' pwesto /'pwestoh/ ' s t a l l ' A y / pyano /'pyanoh/ 'piano' pyansa /'pyansah/ 'bail'' A s / tsuper /'tsuper/ * chauffeur' tseke /'tsekeh/ 'check' / t r / trahe /'traheh/ 'suit' trapo /'trapoh/ 'rug' /tw/ twid /'twid/ ' straight' twerka /'twerkah/ 'nut' /ty/ 1 tyan /'tyan/ •belly* tyaga Aya'gaY 'enduring' A i / klabo /'klaboh/ 'cloves' klase /'klaseh/ 'class' /kr/ kris / ' k r i s / 'dagger' krema /'kremah/ 'cream' A y / kyapo /'kyapo'/ 'v/ater plant 5 3 / b l / bloke /'blokeh/ •block' blusa /'blusah/ 'blouse' /br/ braso /'bras oh/ ' arm' brilyo /'brilyoh/ 'lustre' /bw/ bwag /'bv/ag/ 'demolished' bwis /'bwis/ " tax' /by/ bya /'bya'/ 'a kind of fish byahe /'byaheh/ 1 t r i p ' /dr/ dragon /dra'gon/ 1 dragon' drama /'dramah/ 'drama' /ay/ dyan /'dyan/ 'there' dyanitor /'dyanitor/ 'janitor' /gV globo /'globoh/ 'globe' glorya /'gloryah/ •glory' /gr/ grab a /'grabah/ 'gravel' grasa /'grasah/ 'grease' /gy/ gyera /'gyerah/ ' war' / sw/ swelas /* swelas/ ' sole' sweldo /'sweldoh/ 'salary' /sy/ sya /'syah/ 'he or she' /hw/ hwes /'hwes/ 'judge * hwisyo /'hwisyoh/ ' t r i a l ' /hy/ hya /'hya'/ 'shame' /nw/ nweb e /'nweb eh/ 'nine' A y / nya / 1 n y a h / ' h i s o r her* nyaw /'nyaw/ 'meow' Aw/ lwag / ' l w a g / ' s p a c i o u s n e s s l w a l h a t i / l w a l ' h a t i ' / ' g l o r y ' A y / l y a b e h / ' l y a b e h / 'wrench' Aw/ rweda /'rwedah/ 'wheel' r w i n a / ' r w i n a h / ' r u i n s ' A y / r y a n / ' r y a n / ' t h e r e ' The m e d i a l and f i n a l consonant c l u s t e r s found T a g a l o g a r e : /ks, ns , r d / . I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w : A s / e k s t r a / ' ' e k s t r a h / ' e x t r a ' e k s k l u s i b o A e k s ' k l u s i b o h / ' e x c l u s i v e ' e k s k u r s i y o n / ' e k s k u r s i ' y o h / ' e x c u r s i o n ' e k s p r e s / ' e k s ' p r e s / ' e x p r e s s ' eksponente / ' e k s p o ' n e n t e h / ' exponent' e k s p l o t a s y o n / ' e k s p l o t a s ' y o n / • e x p l o i t a t i o n A s / i n s t r u m e n t o A i n s t r u ' m e n t o h / ' i n s t r u m e n t ' i n s t i t u s y o n / ' i n s t i t u s ' y o n / ' i n s t i t u t i o n ' i n s t r u k s i y o n / ' i n s t r u k s i ' y o n / ' i n s t r u c t i o n ' i n s p i r a s y o n / ' i n s p i r a s ' y o n / ' i n s p i r a t i o n ' i n s t a l a s y o n / ' i n s t a l a s ' y o n / ' i n s t a l l a t i o n i n s t i n t o / ' i n s ' t i n t o h / • i n s t i n c t ' i n s t i t u t o / ' i n s t i ' t u t o h / ' i n s t i t u t e ' 55 / r d / k a r d / k a r d / ' c a r d ' SYLLABLE STRUCTURE The s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e i n Tagalog i s / ( C ) C V ( C ) ( C ) / The symbols e n c l o s e d i n p a r e n t h e s i s may or may not o c c u r . When two s y l l a b l e s a r e combined i n a s i n g l e word, the s t r u c t u r e i s /CV(C)CV/. The Tagalog s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n has CV(C) s t r u c t u r e where CV never o c c u r s i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . Thus, no u t t e r a n c e i n Tagalog b e g i n s o r ends w i t h a v o w e l : / p r a . ' n e . l a h / ^ ' f l a n n e l ' , / k a . ' t a s / ' j u i c e ' , / ' b a . l a h / ' b u l l e t ' , / ' l u . h a ' / ' t e a r s ' , / ' t r a i t / ' ' t r u c k ' . The Tagalog s y l l a b l e can be d e f i n e d then as the domain o f a s i n g l e s t r e s s , may b e g i n w i t h a consonant o r w i t h a consonant c l u s t e r , and may end v/ith n o t more th a n two consonants. I t c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e vowel and r e q u i r e s a f i n a l consonant i n a l l f i n a l s y l l a b l e s . A s i n g l e i n t e r -v o c a l i c consonant i s always p a r t o f the s y l l a b l e o f the vowel t h a t f o l l o w s i t : / ' h u . l a ' / 'guess', / l a . ' g o k / ' g u l p ' , / ' l o . t e h / ' p a r c e l o f l a n d ' , / ' s i . n o h / 'who', / ' s i . n e h / 'cinema', / ' t u . k o d / 'prop', / " u . t o s / The dot on the b a s e l i n e i n d i c a t e s s y l l a b l e boundary. Word f i n a l / h / and /'/ are dropped i n u t t e r a n c e m e d i a l p o s i t i o n . 5 6 'command.', / ' k a . t i g / ' o u t r i g g e r ' , /bu. ' k a l / ' i n h e r e n t ' . When one o f the s y l l a b l e c l u s t e r s o c c u r s i n t e r v o -c a l l i c a l y , the f i r s t consonant ends one s y l l a b l e and the second b e g i n s the n e x t . Thus /'ek'semah/ 'eczema' i s s y l l a b i f i e d /'ek.'se.mah/; /'ek'samen/ ' e x a m i n a t i o n ' becomes /'ek.'sa.men/; / ' e k s i b i s ' y o n / ' e x h i b i t i o n ' -/ ' e k . s i . b i s . ' y o n / ; /'eksami'nadoh/ ' i n v e s t i g a t o r ' -/'ek.sa.mi.'na.doh/; /'ek'semted/ 'exempted' —-/'ek.'sem.ted/. Three o r f o u r consonant i n t e r v o c a l i c sequences s p l i t i n t o a s y l l a b l e - f i n a l consonant c l u s t e r and a s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l c l u s t e r o r s i n g l e consonant. Thus /'»ekstrah/ ' e x t r a ' i s s y l l a b i f i e d / ' > e k s . t r a h / ; / ' ' e k s p r e s / 'express' - / " e k s . p r e s / ; / ' e k s p l o s ' y o n / ' e x p l o s i o n ' - / ' e k s . p l o s . ' y o n / ; / ' e k s p o ' n e n t e h / 'exponent' i s s y l l a b i f i e d / ' eks.po.'nen.teh/. I f two consonants t h a t cannot form a c l u s t e r o c c u r i n t e r v o -c a l l i c a l y , the f i r s t i s s y l l a b l e - f i n a l , the second s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l : / b a k ' l a d / ' f i s h c o r r a l ' - / b a k . ' l a d / ; / t a g ' h o y / 'lament' - / t a g . ' h o y / ; /bug'bog/ ' n o i s y c l u b b i n g ' - /bug.'bog/; / s i n t a m ' l a y / ' l a c k o f i n t e r e s t 1 - / s i n . t a r n . ' l a y / . When i n w o r d - f o r m a t i o n a f f i x e s o r r e d u p l i c a t i v e 5 7 s y l l a b l e s a re added to a r o o t , the s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n i s as i n a s i m p l e word: / ' a k ' l a t a n / ' l i b r a r y ' i s s y l l a b i -f i e d / > a k . ' l a . t a n / ; / t a k ' b u h a n / 'running a r a c e ' / t a l c . ' b u . h a n / ; /'a'mihan/ ' n o r t h wind' - / ' a . 'mi.han/; / ' i n u ' m i n / ' d r i n k ' - / ' i . n u . ' m i n / ; / ' a ' a k ' y a t / ' w i l l c l i m b * - / ' a . ' a k . ' y a t / ; /pa'pasok/ ' w i l l go t o s c h o o l ' - /pa.'pa.sok/. When vowels would o t h e r w i s e meet, they are sepa-r a t e d by the n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e i n t e r v o c a l i c g l o t t a l s t o p : / m a ' a ^ a r i ' / ' p o s s i b l e ' i s s y l l a b i f i e d as / l a . ' a , " a . r i ' / > /pa''alam/ 'good-bye' - /pa.''a.lam/; /ma'a'noh/ 'some-t h i n g ' i n d e f i n i t e which may not be u n d e r s t o o d between s p e a k e r s ' - /ma.'a. 'noh/; / g a ^ a n o h / 'how much' -/ga.''a.noh/; /baba'eh/ 'female' - /ba.ba'.'eh/. When a word i s doubled o r when words come t o g e t h e r i n a p h r a s e , the word d i v i s i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d as a s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n . Doubled words and compound words are s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d : / ' a ' k a y ' a k a y / 'led-by the hand', i . e . /'a.'kay. 'a.kay/; /ba'kubako'/ 'crooked', i . e . /ba.'ku.ba.ko'/» / ' p a t a y p a t a y / ' s l u g g i s h ' , i . e . / ' p a . t a y . p a . t a y / ; /'bahay-kuboh/ ' s m a l l house' (compound of bahay 'house' and kubo ' s m a l l ' ) , i . e . /'ba.hay.ku.boh/; /'a'nak'araw/ ' a l b i n o ' (compound o f anak ' o f f s p r i n g ' and araw 'sun'), i . e . / > a. 'nak.'a.raw/. 58 TAGALOG SUPRASEGMENTAL PHONEMES I n a d d i t i o n t o the vowels and consonants, the i n v e n t o r y o f elements t h a t make up the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the Tagalog and Pampango languages must i n c l u d e phonemes o f s t r e s s , p i t c h , and j u n c t u r e . The a l l o p h o n e s o f the vowel and consonant phonemes a r e the segments of sound w h i c h o c c u r s e q u e n t i a l l y t o make up morphemes and word-forms i n the language u t t e r e d . The f e a t u r e s of s t r e s s , p i t c h , and j u n c t u r e , o c c u r a l o n g v/ith the vowels and consonants, o f t e n c o i n c i d i n g v/ith o r mar k i n g o f f l o n g e r s t r e t c h e s o f speech. S t r e s s , p i t c h , and j u n c t u r e a re so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e s e n t one w i t h -out d i s c u s s i n g a l l t h r e e . STRESS A sound o r s y l l a b l e which i s s t r e s s e d i s one i n th e a r t i c u l a t i o n of which t h e r e i s expended a r e l a t i v e l y 5 g r e a t e f f o r t and mu s c u l a r energy. Tagalog has two de-gree s o f s t r e s s : p r i m a r y and weak. P r i m a r y s t r e s s e d s y l -l a b l e s a r e marked w i t h the symbol /'/ b e f o r e the s y l l a -b l e ; w e a k - s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s a r e unmarked. P h o n e t i c a l l y JA. C. Gimson, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P r o n u n c i a t i o n  o f E n g l i s h (London: Edward A r n o l d P u b l i s h e r s L t d . ) , p. 2 1 7 . 59 there i s a t h i r d degree of s t r e s s , midway between primary and weak. This secondary degree of s t r e s s , which l a c k s phonemic s t a t u s , i s a conditioned v a r i a n t of weak stress, o c c u r r i n g only i n closed s y l l a b l e s not followed by junc-t u r e . The secondary accent has an intermediate degree of s t r e s s and o r d i n a r i l y l a c k s the p i t c h - r i s e . Thus, the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of /'batah/ 'robe' i s s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d and the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of /ba'tah/ 'endure' has second-ary s t r e s s : /~,ba" tah_7\ In Tagalog, one of the main components of s t r e s s i s vowel l e n g t h . A s t r e s s e d vowel i s pronounced longer than the same vowel unstressed. The p o s i t i o n of the p r i -mary s t r e s s very o f t e n determines the meaning to be assigned to a word. The phonemic character of Tagalog s t r e s s may be demonstrated by such p a i r s as the f o l l o w -i n g : aso /'>asoh/ 'dog' vs kulob / ' k u l o b / 'pro- vs ducing more heat' b i l o g / ' b i l o g / 'round- vs aso /'a'soh/ 'smoke' kulob / k u ' l o b / 'what-ever ' b i l o g / h i ' l o g / 'round' ness baba /'baba'/ 'chin' vs baba /ba'ba'/ 'descent' baga /'bagah/ 'glow- vs baga /ba'gah/ ' p a r t i c l e i n g c o a l " used i n questions' 60 b a t a k / ' b a t a k / ' p u l l * vs buhay /'buhay/ ' l i f e * vs bukas / ' b u k a s / 'tomor- vs row d a l i t / ' d a l i t / ' s l i c e ' v s g a l a n g / ' g a l a n / ' r e - vs s p e c t f u l ' g u l o n g / ' g u l o n / ' r o l l - vs i n g ' s a l a / ' s a l a h / ' e r r o r ' vs h a b o l / ' h a b o l / 'hurry vs to o v e r t a k e ' l i s o / ' l i s o h / ' s i m p l e ' v s l a k a d / ' l a k a d / 'walk' vs b a t a k / b a ' t a k / ' s t r e t c h e d ' buhay /bu'hay/ ' a l i v e ' bukas / b u ' k a s / 'open' d a l i t / d a ' l i t / 'psalm* g a l a n g / g a ' l a n / ' w r i s t * g u l o n g ' / g u 1 1 o n / * whee1" s a l a / s a ' l a h / ' i nterwoven s t r i p s of bamboo' h a b o l / h a ' b o l / ' c l o s e l y a t t a c h e d ' l i s o / l i ' s o h / ' b e w i l -dered ' l a k a d / l a ' k a d / 'bare-f o o t e d ' A l l T a g a l o g f u l l - w o r d bases have a t l e a s t one s t r o n g - s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e ; the g r e a t m a j o r i t y have o n l y one. Some Tagalog f u n c t i o n words and a f f i x e s have s t r o n g s t r e s s , o t h e r s weak. Except i n a l i m i t e d number of s i n -g l e - w o r d u t t e r a n c e s , s t r o n g s t r e s s i n Tagalog seems t o o c c u r c o n s i s t e n t l y i n two p l a c e s , the p e n u l t i m a t e and the f i n a l s y l l a b l e s . 61 saing t u l o g magsaing matulog Mario Santos Verbs (roots) / ' s a i n / 'cook by steam' / ' t u l o g / 'sleep' With p r e f i x /mag'sain/ 'to cook' /ma'tulog/ 'go to sleep' Proper names /"maryoh/ 'name of a boy' /'santo s / 'surname' In some words, the strong s t r e s s occurs on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e and when used i n connected speech, these words u s u a l l y are i n p r e - j u n c t u r a l p o s i t i o n . I l l u s t r a -t i o n s f o l l o w : s i l a k i t a magaspang malakas l u g l o g i s d a maglako / s i ' l a h / 'they' / k i ' t a h / 'you and I' /magas'pan/ 'coarse' /mala'kas/ / l u g ' l o g / /'is'daV ' strong' 'noodles dipped i n b o i l i n g stock' ' f i s h ' /magla'ko'/ 'peddle around' 6 2 magsuklay /magsuk'lay/ 'to comb' I f a s y l l a b l e has a word s t r e s s i n c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f words and a g l o t t a l s t o p i s l o s t i n the p h r a s e , the whole group i s o f t e n spoken v/ith one p r i m a r y w o r d - s t r e s s . The l o s s of t h e g l o t t a l s t o p i s compensated f o r by the l e n g t h e n i n g o f the vowel b e f o r e i t . S u s i i t o . / ' s u s i h ' i t o h / 'This i s a key.' B a t a s i y a . / ' b a t a h s i y a h / 'He i s young.' Puso n i y a . /'pusoh n i y a h / 'Her h e a r t . ' PITCH P i t c h i s o f t e n c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s t r e s s . P i t c h i n v o l v e s the m u s i c a l tone o f the v o i c e and the p o i n t s a t wh i c h changes i n t h i s tone o c c u r . Tagalog has t h r e e c o n t r a s t i n g l e v e l s of p i t c h : low, mid, and h i g h , o r / l / , / 2 / , and / 3 / » The b e g i n n i n g o f a sentence o r an i s o l a t e d phrase i s a r b i t r a r i l y marked w i t h / 2 / u n l e s s the f i r s t s y l l a b l e c a r r i e s p r i m a r y s t r e s s . P i t c h / 3 / i s c o i n -c i d e n t w i t h p r i m a r y s t r e s s i n most phonemic p h r a s e s . The end u n i t o f a phonemic s t r e s s p a t t e r n may come down t o / l / , as i n a d e c l a r a t i v e s t a t e m e n t , o r i t may end i n p i t c h / 2 / or / 3 / , as i n q u e s t i o n s o r s e r i e s . A v e r y common p i t c h p a t t e r n i n Tagalog i s / 2 3 l / , i l l u s t r a t e d by se n t e n c e s l i k e t he f o l l o w i n g : (The p e r i o d 63 a t the end o f t h e phonemic phrase i n d i c a t e s the end o f p h o n a t i o n . P i t c h l e v e l s are s c h e m a t i c a l l y shown i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n by an o v e r l i n i n g i n which a h i g h e r l i n e i n d i c a t e s a h i g h e r p i t c h ) . 2 2 3 1 Mataba s i L i n d a . / m a t a ' b a ' s i ' l i n d a h . / ' L i n d a i s s t o u t . ' mata'ba' s i ' l i n d a h A6 2 2 3 1 Maputi s i M a r i o , / m a p u ' t i ' s i 'maryoh./ 'Mario i s f a i r -c omplexioned.' m a p u ' t i ' s i 'maryoh. J, 2 2 3 1 Kumakain s i B o n i . /ku'maka'in s i ' b o n i h . / 'Boni i s e a t i n g . ' ku'maka'in s i 'bonih. i-P a t t e r n s o f t h i s k i n d have a d i s c e r n i b l e meaning, though t h i s meaning i s o f t e n n o t as o b v i o u s and c o n c r e t e as the l e x i c a l meaning o f words. N o n e t h e l e s s , the o n l y Por the symbol / [ / e t c . , see p. 6 7 . 64 l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e t h a t marks the above u t t e r a n c e s as st a t e m e n t s and the f o l l o w i n g ones as q u e s t i o n s i s a pho-n o l o g i c a l one, namely the p i t c h p a t t e r n : 2 1 3 Mataba s i L i n d a ? /mata'ba' s i ' l i n d a h ? / 'Is L i n d a s t o u t ? ' mata'ba' s i ' l i n d a h ? 2 1 3 M a p u t i s i M a r i o ? / m a p u ' t i ' s i 'maryoh?/ 'Is M a r i o f a i r -c omplexioned?' t mapu'ti' s i 'maryoh ? 2 1 3 Kumakain s i B o n i ? /ku'makaln s i ' b o n i h ? / 'Is B o n i e a t i n g ? ' i I • ku'makaMn s i 'bonih ? Yes/Ho Q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s answerable by 'yes' o r 'no' i n Tagalog t a k e one o f the f o l l o w i n g p i t c h p a t -t e r n s : 1. /2312/ 2 3 2 1 2 S i I\Tena ba s i y a ? / s i 'nenah ba s i ' y a h ? / 'Is she Hena?' 6 5 s i 'nenah ba si'yah? t 2 . / 3 2 1 2 / 3 2 1 2 K i l a l a mo ba ako? / k i l a ' l a h moh bah 'a'koh?/ 'Do you know "me?* k i l a ' l a h moh bah 'a'koh? 3 . / 3 1 2 / 3 1 2 Totoo ba? /to'to'oh bah?/ 'Is i t t r u e ? ' to'to'oh bah? 4 . / 2 3 / 2 3 Kami ? /ka'min?/ 'We ?' ka'mih?^ In Tagalog, the f i n a l r i s i n g juncture i s r e l a t i v e -l y short and the l a s t s y l l a b l e i s slowed down s l i g h t l y . S p e c i f i c Questions. S p e c i f i c questions i n Tagalog take the / 3 2 l / or / 2 3 2 1 / p i t c h p a t t e r n s . Normally they begin high or have t h e i r r i s e on the f i r s t s t r essed s y l l a -66 b l e as i l l u s t r a t e d below: 1. / 3 2 1 / 3 2 1 K a i l a n s i y a dumating? / k a ' i ' l a n s i ' y a h duma'tin?/ 'When d i d he a r r i v e ? ' i k a ' i ' l a n s i ' y a h duma'tin^ 2 . / 2 3 2 1 / 2 3 2 1 Saan s i y a pupunta? /sa'»an si ' y a h 'pupuntah?/ 'Where i s he going?' sa''an s i ' y a h 'pupuntah?^ Commands. P i t c h patterns f o r commands i n Tagalog are o f t e n the same as that of s p e c i f i c questions, i . e . , / 3 2 1 / or / 2 3 2 1 / . Requests. The i n t o n a t i o n f o r requests i n Tagalog which i s considered the most p o l i t e i s the yes/no ques-t i o n i n t o n a t i o n , although the voice does not r i s e as high at the end as i t would normally do i n a yes/no question, thus: / 2 3 1 2 / 2 3 1 2 H a l i k a nga. / h a ' l i k a h rja ./ 'Come here' 67 J 1 /s h a ' l i k a h na'. t 2 3 1 2 Bigyan mo nga ng t u b i g . /big'yan moh na' ng 'tubig./'Give him water.' ' 1 ! : — r big'yan moh na* ng 'tubig. 1 JUNCTURE. Juncture phenomena are the p honological e f f e c t s of the t r a n s i t i o n between sounds or between sound and s i -lence. In the continous f l o w of speech, there are pauses or s l i g h t delays, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y o c c u r r i n g at the end of sentences. The e f f e c t s of these pauses on the p i t c h or s t r e s s patterns can be conveniently subsumed under the phenomena of juncture. I f the v o i c e i s cut o f f on a l e v e l p i t c h , o r d i n a r i l y i n d i c a t e d by a comma i n t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t i n g , the o v e r l i n i n g i s broken to i n d i c a t e t h i s f e a -ture which marks the end of a phrase. At the end of a sentence there i s a t r a n s i t i o n from sound to s i l e n c e which may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r i s e i n p i t c h w i t h a f a d i n g i n t o s i l e n c e , symbolized by / T / , or by a f a l l i n p i t c h w i t h a f a d i n g i n t o s i l e n c e , symbolized by / I / . I t might be p o s s i b l e to symbolize these p i t c h changes by merely changing the l e v e l of the o v e r l i n i n g , 68 b u t t h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l l e v e l s o f p i t c h w h i c h would not be w e l l - d e f i n e d , s i n c e the r i s e o r f a l l u s u a l l y does not c o i n c i d e w i t h p i t c h l e v e l s e s t a b -l i s h e d a t any o t h e r p o i n t i n the u t t e r a n c e . A l s o the num-b e r of p i t c h l e v e l s would have t o be i n c r e a s e d by a t l e a s t two, v/hich would add c o m p l e x i t y t o the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n w i t h no c o r r e s p o n d i n g advantage. The f o l l o w i n g sen-t e n c e s i n Tagalog show a c o n t r a s t i n meaning t h a t i s de t e r m i n e d by the s e l e c t i o n of one or a n o t h e r o f t h e t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s : 1. L a l a k a d k a . / l a ' l a k a d k a h . / 'You w i l l go.'(Command) — i l a ' l a k a d kah. vs — i J l a ' l a k a d kah? ' W i l l you g o ? ' ( I n q u i r y ) 2 . Umalis s i y a . / ' u m a ' l i s si'yah./'He a r r i v e d . ' ( U n e x p e c t -e d l y ) i ' u m a ' l i s s i ' y a h . vs — 1 T >uma'lis s i ' y a h ? 'He a r r i v e d ? ' ( S u r p r i s e d ) 69 3 . B u l o k i y a n . / b u ' l o k ' i ' y a n . / 'That's r o t t e n . ' (Im-p l i e s Don't eat i t . ) b u ' l o k ' i ' y a n . ^ vs ~ 1 f b u ' l o k ' i ' y a n ? 'Is t h a t r o t t e n ? ' ( D i s b e l i e f ) RHYTHM. I n terms of the r a t h e r a r t i f i c i a l dichotomy u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , Tagalog i s a s y l l a b l e - t i m e d r a t h e r than a s t r e s s - t i m e d language, t h a t i s , i t s s y l l a b l e s tend t o be of r o u g h l y e q u a l d u r a t i o n and almost e q u a l empha-s i s . T a g a l o g rhythm i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : ] ( 1 ) S t r o n g e r s t r e s s e s do not o c c u r a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . ( 2 ) There i s no r e g u l a r v a r i a t i o n i n l e n g t h as t h i s i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the type of consonant which f o l l o w s the vowel and by s t r e s s . ( 3 ) Two c o n t i g u o u s s y l l a b l e s are never b o t h under s t r o n g s t r e s s . CHAPTER I I I PAMPANGO PHONOLOGY Pampango has twenty-one segmental phonemes: /p, t , k, » ( g l o t t a l s t o p ) , b, a , g, m, n, n, s, h, 1, r , y, w, i , e, a, o, u/. S u p r a s e g m e n t a l l y , i t has t h r e e phonemes of s t r e s s , p r i m a r y /'/, secondary a n d weak (unmark-ed.). I t has f o u r l e v e l s o f p i t c h , u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d from l o w e s t t o h i g h e s t as / l / , / 2 / , /3/> a n & / 4 / . Pampango f u r t h e r has t h r e e t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s , r i s i n g j u n c t u r e / t / , f a l l i n g j u n c t u r e /W> a n < i s u s t a i n e d j u n c t u r e /!/. THE PAMPANGO VOWELS The d i a l e c t of Pampango on which t h i s s t u d y i s based has f i v e v o c a l i c phonemes: / i / , / e / , / a / , /o/, and / u / . T h i s d i a l e c t has a s s i m i l a t e d p a r t o f the S p a n i s h phonemic system a l o n g w i t h the u s u a l mass of S p a n i s h vo-c a b u l a r y . These v o c a l i c phonemes are p r e s e n t e d below, w i t h t h e c h a r t a r r a n g e d i n such a way as t o show the p a r t of the tongue and tongue p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e d f o r each vowel ( F i g u r e 6). There a re two vowels i n h i g h p o s i t i o n , / i / and / u / ; two i n mid p o s i t i o n / e / and /o/; and one vowel i n low p o s i t i o n , / a / . Front  Unrounded High i Mid e Low Front Unrounded i e High Mid Low STRESSED Central  Unrounded a UNSTRESSED Cent r a l Unrounded Back  Rounded u o Back Rounded FIGURE 6 Pampango Vowel Chart 72 A few general observation about the vowels of Pampango w i l l obviate a good deal of r e p e t i t i o n i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l phonemes. A l l Pampango vowels are preceded by a non-phonemic g l o t t a l stop /~'_7 i n absolute i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n or a f t e r a pause. G l o t t a l onset also occurs between i d e n t i c a l vov/els, i n e i t h e r open or close t r a n s i t i o n , but here the g l o t t a l stop v a r i e s f r e e l y w i t h zero, and a s i n g l e , lengthened vowel i s the r e s u l t . A f t e r a n o n - i d e n t i c a l vowel, i n e i t h e r open or close t r a n s i t i o n , g l o t t a l onset v a r i e s f r e e l y w i t h n o n - g l o t t a l onset. The sequence consonant + /f~,_7+ vowel occurs only where there i s open juncture a f t e r the consonant. Thus, the occurrence of a g l o t t a l between a consonant and a vowel i s a sure s i g n of the presence of open juncture. Pampango vov/els are g e n e r a l l y of uniform l e n g t h . Lengthened v a r i a n t s , however, may occur under strong s t r e s s , while before pause, and as the r e s u l t of the f u s i o n of i d e n t i c a l vowels described above, lengthening i s o b l i g a t o r y . Regardless of segmental environment, Pampango vov/els vary from tense to l a x . The d e t a i l s of the f i v e vowels, w i t h examples, f o l l o w : / i / . The phoneme / i / i s a high f r o n t tense 73 unrounded v o w e l . The f r o n t p a r t of the tongue i s r a i s e d v e r y c l o s e t o the p a l a t e . The t i p touches the i n n e r s u r -f a c e o f the l o w e r f r o n t t e e t h . The l i p s a re i n n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n w i t h the c o r n e r s o f the mouth drawn hack a l i t -t l e , / i / v a r i e s from t e n s e t o l a x , the l a t t e r / I / , u s u -a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s . I t o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y as i l l u s t r a t e d below: ipan /Jl 'pan_7 /'i'pan/ 'tooth' indu /Tin 1 duh_7 /'in'dun/ 'mother' isipan / J l ' sipan/ /'i'sipan/ 'thought' itsura / J i t ' surah/ /'it'surah/ 'appearance' i t u / J l ' t V L h _ J /'i'tuh/ 'this' ipus ^l'pus_7 /'i'pus/ 1 servant' ipas /Jl'vas// /'i'pas/ 'cockroach' ika /Jl'kahJ/ /'i'kah/ 'you' iya /Ji'yahJ /'i'yah/ 'he, she' i l a / J l ' l a h J . / ' i ' l a l i / 'they' i c i /JlxW J / ' i ' k i ' / ' t a i l ' baquit /ba'klt_/ /ba'kit/ ' why' t a l i l i s / t a l l ' l i s / / t a i i ' l i s / 'abscond' tinipun / J l 'nipun/ /ti'nipun/ 'accumulate' dictan /JdlktanJ? /'diktan/ 'dictate' misoso /ml'sosoh/ /mi'sosoh/ ' dip' parati /pa'ratih/ /pa'ratih/ 'always; ever 74 sican /7sikan_7 /'sikan/ 'force' putacti /putak' t i h / /putak'tih/ 'hornet' susi /'susi'/ 'key' l o t i ^Alotih,/ / ' l o t i h / •lot* atsi / J a t ' sihJ7 /'at »sih/ 'madam' gawi /ga'wi'J 7 /ga'wi'/ 'manners p i s t i /pis 'tih_7 / p i s ' t i h / 'plague• mabandi /maban'dih/ /maban' dih/ 'magnate panalalaqui /panala'lakih/ /panala'lakih/ 'manhood' /u/. The phoneme /u/ shows the following a l l o -phonic variants: /~u_/, /~u*__/, and /~u_J7. Characteris- •' t i c a l l y , /~u_7 i s a high tense rounded vowel under stress except i n a f i n a l syllable. The lips are rounded consid-erably and the back of the tongue i s raised. The phoneme, which occurs in a l l positions, i s illustrated below: utang / S u t a n J 7 /''utan/ •debt' mu /-w_7 /mu'/ 'only' uran /J'uranJ/ /''uran/ 'rain• ulas /J'ulas_J /''ulas/ 'blanket' upaya /*'upayah/ /''upayah/ 'authority' uling /J'ulinJT" / ' ' u l i n / 'charcoal' ulina /^'ulinah-J 7 /''ulinah/ 'because of him' supot //supotJT" /'supot/ 'bag' 75 s u l u c ^ s u l u ^ k j 7 " 1 / • s u l u k / 1 c o r n e r 1 ulunan /Jv,' lunan_J7 /'u'lunan/ ' p i l l o w ' uculuna /Mzku'lu*nah7 /' uku 1 l u n a l i / 'he t h i n k s ' apulo / 7 a'pulo , _ J 7 / ' a ' p u l o V 'ten' walu / Twaluh_7' /'waluh/ ' e i g h t ' yamu /^yamuh^/ /ya 1muh/ 'only' puso / ^ p u s o ' J 7 /'puso'/ 'heart' i t u r u /Jl'turu'^JT- / ' i ' t u r u ' / 'guide' l u c s o / J l u k s u ^ J 7 / ' l u k s u h / »jump' t u t u /*"tutuh_7 /'•tutuh/ ' f i c t i t i o u s masalusu /masa'lusuhT' /masa'lusuh/ ' f a s t * t a l a t u r u / T a l a' turu^ 7 / t a l a ' t u r n ' / ' f a c u l t y ' magulu /ma' guluh__7 /ma'guluh/ 'd i s o r d e r * /~u*_7is a lower h i g h hack tense round vowel usu-a l l y i n open s y l l a b l e s . This v a r i a n t occurs i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l s y l l a b l e s and i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h the main member /JVL/J a f t e r a l a b i a l consonant, menabu /mena 'bu*h_7" /mena'buh/ marayu /mara'yu*h_/ /mara'yuh/ mama cb un /raamak'b u*n7 /mamak'b un/ sepu /se'pu^h/T - /se'puh/ ' f a i l u r e ' ' f a r * 'erupt' ' end' Por t h i s v a r i a n t see s e c t i o n /Ju.*_J. 76 sulu /su' lu*h_7 /su'luh/ 'light' a l i s t u /Talis ' tu*h7/'alis ' tuh/ 'agile' magulu /magu*lu*h7 /magu'luh/ tayug /ta'yu*g_7 /ta'yug/ us tu /Jus'tu*h7 /us'tu*h/ busbus /bus'bu^s/7 /bus 'bus/ sico /si'ku*h7 /si'kuh/ burarul /bura'ru*l7 /bura'rul/ puntu /frpu*ntuh7' /'puntuh/ meyanu /meya 'nu^ly /meya'nuh/ ipabalu / Tipaba'lu*h7 /'ipaba'luh/ 'acquaint' laru /Ta"ru*>_7 /l a ' r u V " ' o i l ' liraus /l±,^u*s/r /li'mus/ 'alms' casamut /kasa'mu*t7 /kasa'mut/ 'among' .tacut //ta'ku*^ /ta'kut/ 'afraid' simbulu /^'imbu'lu*h7' /simbu'luh/ 'emblem' Z~"^-_7 i s a nigh back lax round vowel. I t varies freely with lower high back lax round /Ju_J under weak stress except i n fi n a l syllables. 'problematical' 'height' 'adequate' 'opening' 'elbow' 'kite' 'accent' 'abstract' lumacad /Tu'makad/ /lu'makad/ maulit /ma'u'lit/ /ma'u'lit/ alulud /7"alu'lud7 /alu'lud/ tup ar an Z3%P a ' ranT" / t up a' ran/ •hike' 'hardheaded' 'gutter' ' f u l f i l l ' mumuna /mu.' munah/ /mu'munah/ ' f i r s t ' tumbuc /turn 'bukT" / turn 'buk/ •f i s t * tarucan /Taru'kan/ /taru'kan/ 'explore' pabula Apabulah/ - / 'pabulah/ 'fable' sucdulan /^uk'dulan/ /suk'dulan/ 'extreme' sugud /su'gud_7 /su'gud/ ' exert' matulid /matu'lid/7 or /matu'lid/7 /matu'lid/ sacuna caluguran mutus suculan i b a l u k t u t bucu mamulaclac calucu i bucud minuran right' /saku'na^/ /saku'na'/ 'disaster' . /kalugu'ran/ /kalugu'ran/ 'dear' /mu'tus/ /mu'tus/ 'command' /s'uku'lanT' /suku'lan/ ' c e l l ' /7"ibaluk'tut/ /'ibaluk'tut/ 'carve' /bu'kuh_/ /bu'kuh/ 'node' /mWulak'lak/ /mamulak'lak/ 'bloom' /kalu'kuh/ or /kalu'kuh/ /kalu'kuh/ 'blaze /bu'kud^ /bu'kud/ 'aside' /minu'ran/ /minu'ran/ 'recoil' / a / . There are r e a l l y no c e n t r a l vowels i n Pampango. The only one which comes close to being a cen-t r a l vowel i s the phoneme / a / . The main member i s a low c e n t r a l - r e t r a c t e d l a x unrounded vowel. The c e n t r a l p a r t i s very s l i g h t l y r a i s e d . The t i p of the tongue does not t o u c h the l o w e r f r o n t t e e t h . I t o c c u r s i n a l l t h r e e p o s i -t i o n s i n words - i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h //~a_J. acu /7a'kuh_7 /'a'kuh/ * I ' lona /Jlonan_J /'lona/ 'canvass' candila /J:an'dila_yr /kan'dila'/ 'candlelight ala /J^la'J />a'la'/ 'none' sabagal /sa'bagal/ /sa'bagal/ 'handicap' api /Ja'pih/ /'a'pih/ •fire' s enyas /Jsenyas/ /'senyas/ 'hint' abut /^"a*but_7 /'a'but/ 'reach' cabayu /^ ca'bayuhT' /ka'bayuh/ 'horse' atin / J a ' t i n J 7 /'a'tin/ 'have' larawan /To.' rawan/ la'rawan/ 'image' ari Ua'vV J / ' a ' r i ' / 'king' marinat /ma' rinatT" /ma'rinat/ 'insanitary' pabaya /paba'yajy7" •/paba'ya'/ 'lax* akit ^"a'kit_7 /'a'kit/ 'see' parnaso /jpar'nasohT" /par<'nasoh/ 'literature' dacal /da'kalj 7 /da'kal/ 'manifold' lamesa /Ta'mesah7 /la'mesah/ 'table' laman / T a 1 raan_J7 /la'man/ 'meat' salapi /sala'jai^T" /sala'pi'/ 'money' ngara /^ a'rahT" /rja' rah/ 'they said 1 taba /ta'ba.1/ /ta'ba'/ ela /JQ ' lah_7 /'e'lah/ carela /Tkarelah._J7 /'karelah/ obra /rob'rahJ7' /'ob'rah/ ' l a r d ' •not'' 1 t h e i r s ' * o c c u p a t i o n ' The low c e n t r a l vowel / a / has an a l l o p h o n e w h i c h i s r a i s e d t o £j\J v/hen i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . V anam /JanamJ/ /' anann/ * s i x ' raangan /JmananJ /'manan/ 'eat' danum aba </d3*num_7' /da'num./ / 8 * b a h _ 7 /a'bah/ 'water' ' oh' / e / . / e / i s a mid f r o n t l a x unround v o w e l . The f r o n t of the tongue i s s l i g h t l y r a i s e d towards the p a l -a t e , but i s much l o w e r t h a n / i / . The t i p o f the tongue i s a g a i n s t the i n n e r s u r f a c e o f the lov/er f r o n t t e e t h . The l i p s a r e unrounded w i t h the c o r n e r s o f the mouth s l i g h t l y drawn back. I t o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y i n words. e r a n / T ' e r a n _ / /'»eran/ ' s t a i r s ' eyu / ^ e ' y u h _ / /'e'yuh/ 'do n o t ' epidemya /^"epi 'demyah/ / ' e p i 'demyah/ 'epidemic' e n a b a l u / ^ e n a b a ' l u h / / ' e n a b a ' l u h / 'does not know' ebun /7*'ebun_/ /''ebun/ 'egg'. 80 esquela /Je s ku' we 1 ah_7 /'esku'welah/ 'school * ebus /Je'husJ /'e'bus/ 'coconut leaves' ela /J'elahj7 /' »elah/ 'not' emu /J' emuh_7 /'»emuh/ •yours' mete /jmetehJJ /'meten/ 'dead'" tete /JtetehJ/ /'teteh/ 'bridge' sesen /Jsesen_J /'sesen/ 'attend' leguan /le'guwan_7" /le'guwan/ 'beauty' lasenggu /la,' s enguhJT" /la'senguh/ ' drunkard' indredus /Jin'dredus_7 /'in'dredus/ 'gossip' sucle /suk'leh_7 /suk'leh/ 'comb' bale /Ja'leh_j /ba'leh/ 'house' tagurnpe /ta'gumpeh_7 /ta'gumpeh/ 'victory' pile /Jl 'lehJ7 /pi '1 eh./ 'lameness' dase /da' s eh_7 / da 'seh./ •mat' bule /bu»leh_7 /bu'leh/ 'pea' tiwase /Tiwa1 seh_7 /tiwa'seh/ 'peaceful' Pampango vowels / i / and /e/ alternate in medial and f i n a l position in some words. These, I believe are dialectal alternations: /leu'marih_7 and /ku'mareh_/r 'lady sponsor in baptism'; /f rbakit_7 and /JhaketJ/ 'why'; /Ta'lakih/ 7 and /Ta'lakeh/' 'man'; /Tmekenih_7 and 8 1 </ Tmekeneh_7 r 'come h e r e ' , the l a t t e r used w i t h a very-s l i g h t s h i f t i n i n t o n a t i o n . These forms can be used i n -t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h o u t any d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning. But i n c e r t a i n u t t e r a n c e s / i / cannot a l t e r n a t e v/ith / e / . These words must have / e / , n e v e r / i / : /J-metehJ not /Jmetlhy 'deceased'; / Tmarineh__7 not /7"marinih_7 'shame'. So w h i l e t h e r e i s morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n between members of the s e t i n a l i m i t e d number of l e x i c a l i t e m s , the phonemic s t a t u s of / e / and / i / i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a n -guage as a whole. /o/. /of i s a mid back t e n s e round v o w e l . The tongue i s r e t r a c t e d and the back p a r t i s r a i s e d . The l i p s a r e rounded. I t i s always a b i t l o w e r t h a n i t s Tagalog c o u n t e r p a r t . I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s phoneme, which o c c u r s i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , f o l l o w : o r a s /J* oras_7 / ' ' o r a s / 'time' o b r a obrah_7 /''ob r a h / ' o c c u p a t i o n oyan C> oyan_7 /' *oyan/ 'here i s ' o r en oren__7 / ' ' o r e n / 'there a r e ' o r e n i C' o r e n i h / r / ' ' o r e n i h / 'here a r e ' obat ^ ' o b a t _ 7 / " o b a t / ' v/hy' o y t a /J'ojtahJ / " o y t a h / ' t h e r e ' b o t i A"botih_7 / ' b o t i h / ' b o t t l e * 82 pota /po ' tahJ7 /po 1tah/ 'later nocarin . /JnokarinJ 7 /'nokarin/ 'where' bosnan /hos 'nan_7 /bos'nan/ 'deduct * mar o c /ma1rok_7 /ma'rok/ •foul* aldo /al' dohJ7 / a l ' dob,/ «day'" maco /ma1 koh_J7 /ma'koh/ 'go away' erano U1 eranoh/- /'»eranoh/ 'no more' daralo ^daraloh/ /'daraloh/ 'to v i s i t ' paro /Jpaxoh/J /'paroh/ 'shrimp' repaso /re'pasoh/7 /re 'pasoh/ 'review' sabo /s"a'boh_7 /sa'boh/ 'broth' yero /JyerohJ /'yeroh/ 'galvanized iron cayo /JXayohJ /'kayoh/ •cloth' Minimal contrasts among a l l the vowels of Pampango are found i n the present corpus. Illustrations follow: /'mintah/ /•birah/ /'biru'/ / s i ' l u ' / /'misah/ A i ' s a h / / i / 'went' vs /'mant ah/ 'to let go' vs /'barah/ 'joke' vs /'baru'/ 'ribbon' vs /sa'lu'/ A / •mass' ' one' vs /'musah/ vs /'u'sah/ /a/ 'sheet' 'yardstick' 'dress' 'breast' A / 'mus e' 'deer' / ' b i k a s / /'mesah/ / s e ' l u ' / / • b a l a h / / s a ' l i ' / / b u ' l a ' / / ' a ' l a ' / / ' p a t u h / / ' d u l a n / • p o s t u r e ' vs / e / • t a b l e ' /V 'person's name' / a / ' b u l l e t ' / a / ' t w i s t ' v s 'bubbles' vs 'none' 'drake' / ' b u k a s / vs /'masah/ vs / s u ' l u ' / vs / ' b o l a h / / s u ' l i V / b u ' l u ' / / m a ' l a ' / 'mirade' vs /mu'la'/ vs vs 'low t a b l e ' vs / ' u ' l a ' / / ' p u t u h / / ' d u l u n / 'tomorrow' / a / 'dough' / u / 'lamp' /of ' b a l l ' M 'buy' 'a k i n d o f bamboo' 'the v e r y b e g i n n i n g ' •prophecy' 'bread' 'to go t o market * PAMPANGO VOWEL-SEMIVOWEL SEQUENCES I f a d i p h t h o n g i s d e f i n e d as a p h o n e m i c a l l y s i m p l e b u t p h o n e t i c a l l y complex v o c a l i c u n i t , i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n Pampango t h a t can p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d a d i p h t h o n g . Pampango, however, has a v a r i e t y 84 o f vowel-semivowel and semivowel-vowel sequences. I f t h e r e a r e sequences o f /ey/, /ay/, and / o y / i n Pampango, such sequences o c c u r o n l y as v a r i a n t s of / e / , / a / , and /o/. I n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w , the sequences d i s t r i b u t e i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . /w+V/ /y+v/ wido / 1 w i d o h / ' i n c l i n a t i o n ' wa /wah/ 'yes' banwa /ban' wah/ ' s k y 1 wakas /wa'kas/ ' end' w a l i / w a ' l i h / 'younger s i s t e r wawa /wa'wa'/ ' s a l i v a ' y e l o / ' y e l u h / ' i c e ' yamu /'yamuh/ 'o n l y ' yanamu / y a * namuh/ • l a s t l y ' m e y a r i / m e ' y a r i ' / ' f i n i s h e d ' senyas / ' s e n y a s / ' s i g n a l ' yoduan /yo'duwan/ 'pass i t ov e r ' b a y l i / ' b e y l i h / , /'be : l i h / 'dance' k a y l i / ' k e y l i h / , / ' k e l i h / • l e f t ' " m a y l i / ' m e y l i h / , /'me : l i h / ' l a u g h i n g ' c a y a r i a n / k e y a r i " a n / , / k e y a r i ' ' a n / ' l a s t ' 85 THE PAMPANGO CONSONANTS There are s i x t e e n consonants i n the Pampango sound system. The consonant phonemes may be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: stops and continuants. The stops i n c l u d e a v o i c e l e s s unaspirated s e r i e s /p, t , k, '/» and a voiced s e r i e s /b, d, g/. The continuants i n c l u d e two v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / s / and /h/; a voiced nasal s e r i e s /m, n, n/; a voiced l a t e r a l / l / ; a flapped v i b r a n t / r / , and two sem-ivowels /w, y/ as summarized i n Figure 7. The consonants are discussed i n the order i n which they are presented i n the chart beginning w i t h the stops and ending w i t h the semivowels. V o i c e l e s s Stops,.' The v o i c e l e s s o r a l stops of Pampango are /p, t , k/. /p/ i s b i l a b i a l . The v o i c e l e s s breath i s stopped completely and i s released as the l i p s move to the p o s i t i o n of the next sound. I t i s an unaspi-rated f o r t i s stop, / t / i s dental and i s pronounced v/ith the tongue t i p behind the upper f r o n t t e e t h . The velum i s r a i s e d , and l i k e /p/ the compression of the breath stream i s strong, /k/ i s a dorso-velar stop. The back of the tongue i s brought i n t o contact w i t h the velum which i s r a i s e d , b l o c k i n g and compressing the breath stream. The phonemes /p, t , k/ occur i n a l l p o s i t i o n s 8 6 Manner of Point of A r t i c u l a t i o n A r t i c u l a t i o n L a b i a l Dental P a l a t a l V e l a r G l o t t a l v l Stops P t k > vd b d g F r i c a t i v e s v l s (h) Nasals vd m n L a t e r a l vd 1" Flap vd r Semi- v l Vowels w y FIGURE 7 Consonant Chart of Pampango i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y . The Pampango v o i c e l e s s stop s e r i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: pacu /'paku'/ ' n a i l * paras /'paras/ 'pungent' p a l a c u l / p a l a ' k u l / 'ax' paro /'paroh/ 'shrimp * puru /'puruh/ 'pure' /-P-/ maputla /ma'putla'/ •pale * sap ad /sa'pad/ • f l a t ' t a p a l / ' t a p a l / 'patch' ampun /am'pun/ 'and, a l s o gapus /'gapus/ 'hogtie' /-P/ i s i p /' > i s i p / 'think' / t - / t a l b o g / t a l ' b o g / 'to soak' t a l i / ' t a l i ' / 'to t i e ' tabing- / ' t a b i n / 'screen' tanaman /'tanaman/ 'plant' tumud /'tumud/ 'town' A-/ Jaulut / k u ' l u t / ' c u r l y ' cabal en /kaba'len/ 'townmate' 88 cap at ad /kapa * t a d / ' s i s t e r or b r caluguran /kalu'guran/ ' f r i e n d ' c a r i n /ka * r i n / 'there' c a r e l a / k a ' r e l a h / ' t h e i r s ' /-k-/ l a l a q u i / l a ' l a k i h / 'boy' d i c u t / 1 d i k u t / 'grass' p a l a c u l / p a l a ' k u l / *ax* sacup /sa'kup/ 'subordinate' dacal / d a ' k a l / 'many' /-k/ manuc /ma' nuk/ 'hen' anac /'a'nak/ »child' The G l o t t a l Stop,./>/. In the production of the g l o t t a l stop the breath stream i s wholly occluded by the v o c a l bands and the a i r below the g l o t t i s i s exp e l l e d by t h e i r sudden s e p a r a t i o n . This stop occurs as a d i s t i n c -t i v e sound before and a f t e r a vowel at the beginning, i n the middle and at the end of words. M e d i a l l y the g l o t t a l stop a l t e r n a t e s w i t h zero. The g l o t t a l stop i s l o s t mor-phophonemically before other words i n a sequence. The 89 phoneme i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: I n i t i a l l y : a t s i / ' a t ' s i h / 'madam' a l u a g i /'al'wagih/ 'carpenter' u l a s / ' u ' l a s / 'blanket * M e d i a l l y : paniucad /pa'niyukad/ 'meter' pipainawan /pipa''inawan/ 'lodge' t a u l i / t a " u l i ' / 'tardy' F i n a l l y : i c i / ' i k i ' / ' t a i l ' " baru /'baru'/ 'dress' b i r u / ' b i r u ' / 'joke' pacu /'paku'/ ' n a i l ' babi /'babi V 'pig' maputla /maput'la'/ 'pale' s a l i / ' s a i l ' / 'to buy' / m u ' l i V 'go home' but /mu'li neh/ 'she w i l l home' /ku'ku'/ ' f i n g e r n a i l ' but / i n ku'ku nah/ 'her f i n -g e r n a i l ' Voiced Stops. The voiced stops /b, d, g/ c o r r e -spond i n p o s i t i o n to /p, t , k/. /b/ i s b i l a b i a l , / d / i s dental and / g / v e l a r . They are f u l l y l e n i s stops. M e d i a l l y , / d / a l t e r n a t e s f r e e l y w i t h / r / a f t e r a vowel of a p r e f i x or a r e d u p l i c a t i o n : / d a ' k a l / 'many' 90 : /'dadakal/ or / ' d a r a k a l / ' g e t t i n g many'; /da'lundon/ 'dark' : /meda'lundon/ or /mera'lundon/ ' g e t t i n g dark'; / ' d a k i t / ' f e t c h ' : / d a ' d a k i t / or / d a ' r a k i t / ' f e t c h someone'. In simple word forms, / d / r a r e l y occurs i n t e r v o -c a l i c a l l y , except ( l ) i n proper names as i n Rodolfo, Candida, and (2) i n l o a n words such as /masku'laduh/ 'hefty'; /ban'didoh/ 'bandit'. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the voiced stops i s unre-r s t r i c t e d . The s e r i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: I n i t i a l l y : biyabas b i s a bagu bale dacal dapot dusug ginapos gamat garnitan gapus M /bi'yabas/ / ' b i s a ' / /'baguh/ / b a ' l e h / / d / / d a ' k a l / /da'pot/ /'dusug/ / g / /gi'napos/ /ga'mat/ /ga'mitan/ /'gapus/ 'guava' ' l i k e ' 'new' 'house' 'plenty' 'but * 'move' 'handcuffed' 'hand' 'use' 'to hogtie gamusan gunutan M e d i a l l y : b a b i cumbira imbentu debotu gabun comandanti t a n d a m e d a l i a agad dagdag l a g y u F i n a l l y : manib panganib l u b t u l i d 91 /ga'musan/ 'scratch.' / g u ' n u t a n / 'to p u l l t h e h a i r ' A / / ' b a b i ' / • p i g ' /kumb i ' r a h / ' i n v i t a t i o n / i m ' b e n tuh/ ' i n v e n t i o n ' / d e ' b o t u h / 'devotee' /ga'bun/ ' s o i l * A / /kuman'dantih/ 'major' / t a n ' d a V 'mark' /me'dalyah/ 'medal' A A /a'gad/ 'soon* /dag'dag/ 'something added' / l a g ' y u ' / 'name' A / /'manib/ ' j o i n ' / p a ' n a n i b / ' p e r i l ' / l u b / ' i n s i d e ' A / / t u ' l i d / ' i n l i n e v/i 92 t a l a c a d / t a ' l a k a d / ' r i s e 1 bay ad /'bay ad/ ' r e m i t t a n c e maglakad /magia'kad/ ' h i k e ' / g / damulag /da'mulag/ 'carabao' s i n a g / ' s i n a g / 'gleam' l a b a g / l a ' b a g / ' i l l e g a l * tay u g / ' t a y u g / ' h e i g h t ' Some m i n i m a l c o n t r a s t s between the v o i c e d s t o p s and t h e i r v o i c e l e s s c o u n t e r p a r t s f o l l o w : /p/ / ' p u s a ' / / ' l a p i s / / t a ' l a n / / t a ' k a l / / b u ' k u t / / ' b a k a i i / / ' k u l a t / / k u ' l u t / ' c a t ' vs ' p e n c i l ' vs A / ' h o l d ' vs 'measured'vs 'not vs • s t r a i g h t * A / * cow' 'smear' vs ' c u r l y ' vs / ' b u s a ' / / ' l a b i s / / d a ' l a n / / d a ' k a l / /bu'kud/ vs /'bagah/ / ' g u l a t / / g u ' l u t / A / 'popcorn' ' i n e x c e s s ' A / 1 r o a d ' 'many' 'one o n l y ' / g / 'glowing ember' ' s u r p r i s e ' 'back 1 93 F r i c a t i v e s . / s / i s a v o i c e l e s s grooved f r i c a t i v e . I n the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f / s / , the tongue b l a d e i s r a i s e d toward the a l v e o l a r r i d g e , the s i d e s o f t h e b l a d e b e i n g -c l o s e r t o the r i d g e t h a n t h e somewhat depr e s s e d c e n t e r . The t e e t h are brou g h t almost t o g e t h e r so t h a t when the b r e a t h i s f o r c e d o u t , the t e e t h p r o v i d e s p a r t i a l o b s t r u c -t i o n , p r o d u c i n g the s i b i l a n c e . / s / i s always f o r t i s show-i n g t he form £~s_J i n a l l p o s i t i o n s as i l l u s t r a t e d b e l -l o w : / a - / s i l i d / s i ' l i d / 'room' senyas / ' s e n y a s / 1 s i g n a l ' sabo /sa'b o h / 'soup or b r o t h ' s a l i / ' s a l i h / 'to buy' s a l o l / s a ' l o l / 'pants' sap ad ./sa 'pad/ ' f l a t ' " s u l o / s u ' l o ' / ' t o r c h ' / - B - / p i s t a / p i s 1 t a h / ' h o l i d a y * c a l a s a n / k a l a ' s a n / 'demolish' n a s a / ' n a s a ' / ' d e s i r e ' p a s i s / ' p a s i s / "a pass o r p e r m i t 7-s/ i t a s / ' i ' t a s / ' h o i s t ; l i f t * l olf matas /ma'tas/ ' m a j e s t i c ' o r a s / ' o ' r a s / 'hour' p a t u s / ' p a t u s / ~ 'shoe' / h / i s a v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e w i t h the v o c a l bands brought c l o s e t o g e t h e r . I t o c c u r s o n l y i n l o a n v/ords (but not c o n s i s t e n t l y ) and i s v e r y l i m i t e d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . The Pampango /~*h_7 sound i s d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y as a phoneme. Pampango sp e a k e r s do not produce the sound n a t i v e l y , and f o r them, t h e r e i s a tendency to pronounce / t i n ' d a h a n / ' s t o r e ' as / t i n ' d a ' a n / . Pampango educated speakers t r y i n g t o produce the sound te n d t o make t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t y : t h e y produce the g l o t t a l s t o p /»/ and the / h / sound i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n when / h / i s supposed to o c c u r i n a word, and o f t e n add / h / sound b e f o r e any vowel sound when i t i s not needed: f o r /halim'bawa'/ they say /'alim'bawa'/ 'example'; f o r / b i ' h a s a h / - / b i ' a s a h / 'wise'; f o r / t u k ' s u h a n / -/ t u k ' s u ' a n / ' j o k e ' ; f o r /ma'hanin/ - /ma''anin/ 'windy'; f o r / ' l i h i m / - / ' l i ' i m / ' s e c r e t ' . I n l o a n v/ords the / h / sound does n o t appear . 'before' 1 ••• / i / and i s seldom found s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l . I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w : h e p i / ' h e p i h / ' c h i e f 95 b i h e l y a / b i ' h e l y a h / • f a s t i n g ' b i r h e n / b i r " h e n / ' v i r g i n ' l i h a / 1 l i h a h / ' s a n d p a p e r ' p a l i h a n / p a l i ' h a n / • a n v i l ' t i h o / t i ' l i o V ' p l a t e o f g o l d ' k u t e h o / k u ' t e h o h / ' c o m p a r i s o n ' h u w e s / h u ' w e s / ' j u d g e ' Nasals. There are three n a s a l consonants i n Pampango /m/, /n/, and /n/. They correspond i n a r t i c u -l a t o r y p o s i t i o n to the stops /b/, /d/, and / g / previous-l y d e s c r i b e d , /m/ i s b i l a b i a l . I t i s produced w i t h the l i p s c losed; the velum i s lowered, a l l o w i n g the breath stream to escape through the nose, /n/ i s d e n t a l . The t i p of the tongue i s placed against the back surface of the upper f r o n t t e e t h , /n/ i s v e l a r . The back of the tongue i s r a i s e d to come i n contact w i t h the velum which i s lowered. Pampango /m/, /n/, and /n/ have one form each /T"m_7» Z~n_7> a n d C^J r e s p e c t i v e l y , /m/, /n/, and / n / d i s t r i b u t e i n a l l three p o s i t i o n s , i n i t i a l , medial, and f i n a l . The s e r i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: / m/ minum /mi'num/ 'drink' manyaman /man'yaman/ ' d e l i c i o u s ' mata /ma'tah/ * eye' malagu /mala'gu'/ ' b e a u t i f u l ' maragul /mara'gul/ 'big' metun /'metun/ ' one' garni t /'garnit/ 'equipment' kama /'kamah/ •bed' dumaya /du'maya'/ •bleed' l a l a m / l a ' l a m / 'under' manamdam /manam'dam/ 'borrow' n i n u / n i * nub/ ' who' napun / 'napim/ 'yesterday' n a s i / ' n a s i h / ' r i c e ' n u c a r i n / n u ' k a r i n / 'where' mana /'manah/ 'i n h e r i t a n c leparan / l e ' p a r a n / 'width' amucan /amu'kan/ 'wheedle' c a p i l a n / k a ' p i l a n / 'when' pantalan / p a n t a ' l a n / 'wharf' ngeni /'nenin/ 'now' ngan /'nan/ 'whole' s i n g s i n g / s i n ' s i n / ' r i n g ' q u i l i n g a n / k i ' l i g a n / 'favor' bengi / ' b e n i ' / 'night' pamangampi /pama'nampih/ ' f a v o r i t i s m cabang /'kaban/ 'while' 9 7 timbang nung / t i m ' b a n / /nun/ •weight' 'whether 1 L a t e r a l . The phoneme / l / i s a v o i c e d l a t e r a l . I t i s a r t i c u l a t e d by p l a c i n g the t i p o f the tongue on the a l v e o l a r r i d g e . B o t h s i d e s o f the tongue a re l o w e r e d . The Pampango / l / has a " l i g h t " , f o r w a r d resonance r a t h e r t h a n the "dark", r e t r a c t e d sound. I t o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y as i l l u s t r a t e d below: / I - / / - I - / / - I / l a l a m / ' l a l a m / 'under' l a g y u / l a g ' y u ' / 'name' l a l a q u i / l a ' l a k i h / 'b oy; man' l a s u / ' l a s u h / ' r i b b o n ' l u a / ' l u ' a ' / ' t e a r s ' l u n u s / ' l u n u s / 'mercy' m a l a r u / m a l a ' r u ' / ' o i l y ' mala /'malah/ 'mystery' a l a / ' a ' l a ' / 'none' d u l a n g / d u ' l a n / ' t a b l e ' q u i l u b / k i ' l u b / ' i n s i d e ' magulu /magu'luh/ ' i n t r i c a t e masalusu / m a s a ' l u s u ' / • f a s t * c a l u g / k a ' l u g / ' j o l t i n g ' m a g a l t a l / m a g a l ' t a l / ' i t c h y ' 98 mabagal g u l g u l s a r u l /ma'bagal/ / g u l ' g u l / / s a ' r u l / 'slow' 'disarranged 'hoe' F l a p , / r / i s an a l v e o l a r f l a p . I t i s produced by an energetic s i n g l e bouncing of the t i p of the tongue against the hard p a l a t e . I t i s p a r t i a l l y v oiced. Pampango / r / has two allophones, a s i n g l e r e t r o f l e x a l v e o l a r tap /^~*r_7 found i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , and a r e t r o f l e x a l v e o l a r m u l t i t a p t r i l l /JvJJ found i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . In i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , the two allophones occur i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n v/ith a preference f o r the mu l t i t a p t r i l l i n absolute i n -i t i a l p o s i t i o n and the s i n g l e tap i n c l u s t e r s . I t seems probable that /~~r_J7and /~d_J7 were f o r -merly v a r i a n t s of a s i n g l e phoneme, wit h £~T_JOC cur r i n g i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , both £~v_J and /~d_7 as fre e v a r i a n t s p r e - p a u s a l l y , and only £~&JJ elsewhere, / r / and / d / a l -ternate i n word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : /'detah/ and / ' r e t a h / 'those'. The phoneme / r / occurs i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y i n v/ords. I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w : / r - / r e l o s / r e ' l o s / 'watch* marinat rosas c a n n / ' r o s a s / / k a ' r i n / /mari'nat/ 'there pink' i n s a n i t a r y 99 cumbira /kumbi ' r a i l / • i n v i t a t i o n p a r a d a / p a ' r a d a h / 'review' maracap /ma'rakap/ 'caught' maragul / m a r a ' g u l / • b i g ' c a s i r a n / k a s i ' r a n / ' d e f e c t ' t u p a r a n / t u ' p a r a n / • f u l f i l ' marangal / m a r a ' n a l / 'honorable' i p a r a p a t / ' i p a ' r a p a t / ' a s s i g n ' c a r a t i g / k a 1 r a t i g / ' a d j a c e n t ' m i t u r u / m i ' t u r n ' / 'impart' d u r u t - d u r u t / d u ' r u t - d u r u t / ' l i n g e r i n g ' Semivowels. Pampango has two semivowels o r g l i d e s , /w/ and / y / . /w/ i s b i l a b i a l . I t o c c u r s o n l y i n i t i a l l y and m e d i a l l y , / y / i s a l v e o p a l a t a l . I t o c c u r s i n i n i t i a l and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s . I l l u s t r a t i o n f o l l o w s : /w-/ wido wa wacas w a l i w a l u wapin wawa /'widoh / /wah/ /wa *kas/. / w a ' l i h / / w a ' l u h / / ' w a p i n / /'wawa'/ 'lov e f o r ' 'yes' ' end' •younger b r o t h e r ' ' e i g h t ' 'of c o u r s e ' ' s a l i v a ' 100 /-w-/ iwagwag gawa paraanaliv/a catimav/an s a l i w a n cunwari cawayan / y - / y e i u y e r u yabut y a c u yamu yanamu y a p i n y a t s a yoduan / - y - / pabaya manaya i y a n dumayu umuyutan gayunman p i y a b a y a n /' lwag'wag/ /ga'wa'/ /pamana'1iwa'/ /kati'mawan/ / s a ' l i w a n / /kun'war!'/ /ka'wayan/ / ' y a l u h / / ' y e r u h / / 'yabut/ /'yakuh/ /' yamuh/ / y a' namuli/ / ' y a p i n / / y a t ' s a h / /yo'du'an/ /pa'baya'/ /ma'naya'/ / ' i ' y a n / /du'mayuh/ /'umu'yutan/ /ga'yunman/ / p i y a 'bayan/ ' b r a n d i s h ' • a c t ' ' e v o l u t i o n ' 'freedom' ' a c q u i r e s ' ' pretend' 'bamboo' ' i c e ' ' g a l v a n i z e d i r o n ' 't o hand * ' I ' ' o n l y ' ' l a s t l y ' ' c e r t a i n l y ' 'throw' 'pass i t o v e r ' 'wayward' 'wai t 1 • t h i s ' 'withdraw' 'wheedle' 'tempt' 'amalgamate' 101 CONSONANT CLUSTERS Pampango consonant c l u s t e r s o c c u r m o s t l y i n l o a n words. Some have e s t a b l i s h e d so w i d e l y i n the language t h a t f o r most speakers they are used as Pampango words w i t h o u t any c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n . No two con-s o n a n t s c l u s t e r m e d i a l l y . I n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , t h ey must be d i v i d e d by p l u s j u n c t u r e i n t o a f i n a l consonant f o l l o w -ed by an i n i t i a l consonant. Thus, "buntuc" 'head' must be s p l i t s y l l a b i c a l l y / b u n . ' t u k / j " t i n t a " ' i n k ' / t i n . .'.tab/ and " g u l g u l " ' d i s a r r a n g e ' / g u l . ' g u l / ; " c a b l i " ' c a b l e ' / ' k a b . l i h / . Examples of c l u s t e r s o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y appear below: / p r / / ' p r e n d a h / ' c o l l a t e r a l / ' p r a y l e h / • f r i a r ' /'premyuh/ ' p r i z e ' /pru'webah/ 'pro o f ' /pw/ / ' p w e r t u h / ' p o r t ' /py/ /'pyanuh/ 'piano' /'pyansah/ 'bond' /'pyabayan/ 'combine' / t r / / ' t r a t u h / ' treatment' / ' t r e n / ' t r a i n * /' t r i y a n i g u l o h / ' t r i a n g l e ' 1 0 2 A y / / • t y o h / ' u n c l e ' / k r / / k r i s t i 'yanuh/ ' C h r i s t i a n ' / ' k r u s / ' c r o s s ' /kw/ /'kwadruh/ 'frame' / ' k w a l t a h / 'money' /'kwerdas/ ' s t r i n g o r c A V / 'blondeh/ 'blond' / ' b l u s a h / 'blouse 1 A y / / ' b y u l i n / ' f i d d l e ' / ' b y a s a h / ' r e s o u r c e f u l /'byahe'/ ' t r i p ' /'byuduh/ 'widower' A y / /dya'manteh/ 'diamond' / g r / / ' g r a d u h / ' r a t i n g ' / sw/ /'swab eh/ ' m i l d ' A y / / ' m y e r k u l e s / 'Wednesday' A y / /'nyebeh/ 'snow' SYLLABLE STRUCTURE Pampango s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of vowel n u c l e u s , s i m p l e o r complex, preceded by an i n i t i a l consonant and i n word i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n , o p t i o n a l l y f o l l o w e d by f i n a l consonant. E x c e p t f o r l o a n words t h e r e a r e no consonant c l u s t e r s w i t h i n the s y l l a b l e . Consonant c l u s t e r s o c c u r o n l y a c r o s s s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r i e s . 103 The minimum s y l l a b l e i n Pampango i s CV. S i n c e the l o n g e s t p e r m i t t e d i n i t i a l c l u s t e r i s two consonants, the maximum s y l l a b l e i n Pampango i s CCV. Combinations of a semivowel and a vowel have been n o t e d i n the c o r p u s : / y a n / ' t h a t ' ; /ban'wan/ 'sky'; / m e ' y a r i ' / ' f i n i s h e d * ; /wah/ 'yes'. When s y l l a b l e -i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s o c c u r i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , the f i r s t conso-nant ends one s y l l a b l e and the second b e g i n s the n e x t . Vowel c l u s t e r s w i t h i n o r between s y l l a b l e s do not o c c u r i n Pampango. One-morpheme words have the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e s : CVC /nan/ ' a l r e a d y ' ; /wah/ 'yes' CVCVC . / d a ' l o h / ' c a l l e r ' ; / s i ' l o h / / c l u m s y ' ; / ' n a s a ' / ' d e s i r e ' ; / ' s ebuh/ 'grease'; / s u ' l u ' / ' l i g h t ' ; / ' m i t a s / 'ascend'; / ' t u b u d / 'as s emblyman'; /* b u r a n / ' c a n c e l ' ; / s i ' l a b / ' c o n f l a g r a t i o n ' ; / b i ' g u ' / ' d e s p a i r ' ; /bu'kud/ ' e x c l u -s i v e CVCCVC . / p a s ' l u h / ' g a l v a n i z e d i r o n ' ; /kam'bin/ ' k i d * ; / p a n ' t e n / ' l e v e l ' / b a k ' l a s / ' l o o s e n ' ; / ' d i m l a h / 1 0 4 ' c o l d ' ; /'sobrah/ 'excess'; /'banteh/ 'guard'; /'pulsuh/ 'pulse' CVCCVC .... /sad'sad/ 'ashore'; /buntuk/ 'head'; /bus'bus/ 'hole'; / g a s ' t u s / 'expense'; /'lundag/ 'leap'; /'senyas/ ' h i n t ' ; /bun'dull/ 'mountain' PAMPANGO SUPRASEGMENTA1 PHONEMES  STRESS Pampango has three phonemes of s t r e s s : primary /'/, secondary / A/, and weak (unmarked). The components of s t r e s s i n Pampango seem to be leng t h and i n t e n s i t y . The p o s i t i o n of primary s t r e s s very of t e n determines the meaning to be assigned to a word. The phonemic char-a c t e r of Pampango s t r e s s may be demonstrated by such p a i r s as the f o l l o w i n g : /'sayah/ ' s k i r t ' vs /sa'yah/ ' f e s t i v i t y ' / ' b a l a t / ' b i r t h - vs / b a ' l a t / ' s k i n ' mark' /'pakuV /'kukuV n a i l ' cough' vs vs /pa'ku'/ /ku'ku'/ ' f i n g e r n a i l ' ern 105 PITCH Pampango i n t o n a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d as the f l u c t u -a t i n g tone p a t t e r n accompanying the word u t t e r e d by a speaker. This sentence melody i s coordinated with the l e x i c a l s t r e s s on the words i n the sentence. There are four l e v e l s of p i t c h i n Pampango i n d i -cated by the symbols / l / , / 2 / , /3/> and /k/ w i t h / l / the lowest l e v e l of r e l a t i v e p i t c h and / 2 / , / 3 / > and /k/ s u c c e s s i v e l y higher l e v e l s . These p i t c h e s are r e l a -t i v e w i t h i n the phonemic phrase and are used to i n d i -cate the i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n . In general, Pampango i n t o n a t i o n tends to go up at the end of the utterance. The normal statement pat-t e r n i n Pampango i s / 2 1 3 / i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g sentences: Statement. 2 1 3 Mataba ya i Linda , /mata'ba' ya i ' l i n d a h / 'Linda i s st o u t . ' mata'ba' ya i 'lindah 2 " 1 3 Maputi ya i Mario, /mapu'ti* ya i 'maryoh/ 'Mario i s fair-complexioned.' 106 mapu'ti y a i 'maryoh 2 " 2 1 - 3 Mamangan y a i B o n i . /ma'manan y a i ' b o n i h / 'Boni i s e a t i n g . ' ma'manan y a i '.bonih Q u e s t i o n s . I n t e r r o g a t i v e s e n t e n c e s e x p e c t i n g answers e i t h e r a f f i r m i n g o r d e n y i n g the q u e s t i o n c o n s i s t o f a r i s e from a l e v e l 1 tone on the p e n u l t i m a t e s y l l a b l e o f t h e u t t e r a n c e t o a l e v e l 3 o r 2 tone on the u l t i m a t e . The l o c a t i o n o f the l e x i c a l s t r e s s does not a f f e c t the p a t -t e r n . The normal Pampango yes/no q u e s t i o n t a k e s one o f the f o l l o w i n g i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s : 1. /3213/ 3 2 1 . . 3 I y a i Nena? / ' i ' y a h i 'nenah?/ 'Is she Nena?' ' i ' y a h i 'nenah? 1 2. /2312/ 2 3 1 2 K a k i l a l a mo ko? / k a k i ' l a l a h moh k o h ? / 'Do you know me? 107 3. A 3 / Tutu p i n ? 4. /213/ I kami? k a k i ' l a l a h moh koh? / 1 3 / ' t u t u h p i n ? / ' t u t u h p i n ? 21 3 / ' i k a ' m i h ? / 'Is i t t r u e ? ' We?' 'ika'mih? T S p e c i f i c Q u e s t i o n s . S p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n Pampango use the /2321/ o r / 2 3 l / i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s . N o r m a l l y the p i t c h r i s e s w i t h s t r o n g e r s t r e s s and f a l l s w i t h weaker s t r e s s . Some i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w : _ f — 1 _ t .2 3 2 1 / m i T M / n y 1 F u c a r i n y a munta? / h u ' k a r i n yah 'muntah?/ 'Where i s he g o i n g ? ' ' 1 1 2 J l G a p i l a n y a d i n a t a n g ? / k a ' p i l a n yah d i n a ' t a r j ? / 'When d i d he a r r i v e ? 1.08 Requests. The i n t o n a t i o n f o r request i n Pampango i s / 2 3 2 / or / 2 1 3 / as shown by the f o l l o w i n g examples: 1 . / 2 3 2 / 2 3 2 Mekeni. /me'kenih./ 'Come here.' /me'kenih. 2 . / 2 1 2 3 / ( 2 1 2 3 Diyan men danum. /di'yan men da'num./ 'Give him water.' , r — ' t /di'yan men da'num. JUNCTURE. Pampango has three t e r m i n a l junctures, r i s i n g / t / , f a l l i n g /!/, and sustained''juncture /I/. Further d i s c u s -s i o n of these junctures i s not attempted here since i t w i l l create l i t t l e or no problem i n the t r a n s f e r to Tagalog. The f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t i n g sentences as i n Tagalog show a contrast i n meaning determined by the te r m i n a l juncture. I /mun'tah kah./ 'You w i l l go.' (Command) 1 0 9 1 f /mun'tah kah? / ' W i l l you go?' ( I n q u i r y ) / d i n a ' t a n y a h . / 'He a r r i v e d . ' ( U n e x p e c t e d l y ) / d i n a ' t a n y a h ? / 'He a r r i v e d ? ' ( S u r p r i s e d ) ( I m p l i e s 'Don't eat i t ' ) ( I m p l i e s 'Don't eat i t ' ) RHYTHM Pampango s y l l a b l e s are of r e g u l a r l e n g t h , l i k e T a galog i t i s s y l l a b l e - t i m e d . Pampango v e r y r a r e l y has tv/o c o n t i g u o u s s y l l a b l e s b o t h under s t r o n g s t r e s s . Tagalog has no reduced vov/els but as e a r l i e r n o t e d Pampango / a / does have an a l l o p h o n e C&JJ i n a r e s t r i c t -ed d i s t r i b u t i o n . The Pampango speaker tends t o use f u l l vov/els a l l of about e q u a l d u r a t i o n and emphasis. •I. / s i ' r a * neh yan./ 'That's r o t t e n . ' -t. / s i ' r a ' neh y a n ? / 'Is t h a t r o t t e n ? ' CHAPTER IV COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OP TAGALOG AND PAMPANGO PHONOLOGY TAGALOG AND PAMPANGO SOUND SYSTEMS COMPARED Ce r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n sounds and i n t o n a t i o n pat-terns e x i s t between Tagalog and Pampango, and since s t u -dents speaking the l a t t e r language and l e a r n i n g Tagalog manifest a ' f o r e i g n accent', that seldom f a i l s to come to the a t t e n t i o n of Tagalog l i s t e n e r s , these d i f f e r e n c e s are d i s t r a c t i n g to the primary purpose of communication, which should d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n to what i s s a i d , not to how i t i s s a i d . I t would, t h e r e f o r e , be a reasonable i d e a l to attempt to teach Tagalog sounds and i n t o n a t i o n patterns c o r r e c t l y . In order to do t h i s the teacher must be aware of the systems of Tagalog and the n a t i v e language of her p u p i l s , so that she can ( l ) model the Tagalog utterances c o r r e c t l y i n the event she does not speak the language n a t i v e l y , and (2) o f f e r other s p e c i f i c guidance to the p u p i l s she i s teaching whenever they use t h e i r native---^"' language patterns while speaking Tagalog. In the comparison of the sound s t r u c t u r e s of Tagalog and Pampango i t was necessary to f i n d out which sounds Tagalog and Pampango have i n common, which sounds I l l a r e s i m i l a r , and which a r e d i f f e r e n t . As Lado d e f i n e s i t , "two sounds are s i m i l a r i f they have the same f e a t u r e s o f sound which are found to be s i g n i f i c a n t p h o n e t i c compo-n e n t s o f phonemes."^ Among the s e f e a t u r e s are ( l ) v i b r a -t i o n o f the v o c a l chords v e r s u s n o n - v i b r a t i o n ; ( 2 ) a i r stream f l o w i n g t h r o u g h the mouth, nose or b o t h ( o r a l , n a s a l , n a s a l i z e d ) ; ( 3 ) v a r i o u s k i n d s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n and v a r i o u s p o i n t s of a r t i c u l a t i o n . A f t e r the sounds b e i n g compared are shown as the same, s i m i l a r o r d i f f e r e n t , t h e y are then grouped i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . To a r r i v e a t the h i e r a r c h y o f d i f f i c u l t y , t he segmental phonemes i n the t a r g e t language, w h i c h i n t h i s case i s Tagalog, were a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r from the most d i f f i c u l t t o the e a s i e s t . A knowledge of t h i s h i e r a r c h y o f d i f f i c u l t y i s i m p e r a t i v e i f we w i s h t o p r e d i c t the e r r o r s t h a t a Pampango l e a r n e r o f Tagalog would be l i k e l y t o commit, and t o know which i t e m s need more i n t e n s i v e d r i l l t h a n the o t h e r s . Below a r e two c a t e g o r i e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f i c u l t y : 1. New c a t e g o r y - sounds or groups o f sounds wh i c h e x i s t as phonemes i n the t a r g e t language, Robert Lado, L i n g u i s t i c s A c r o s s C u l t u r e s ( M i c h i g a n : The U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , .1957 )> P« 9 . 112 but no s i m i l a r sounds e x i s t as phonemes or as allophones i n the n a t i v e language. 2. Transfer or r e i n t e r p r e t e d category - sounds or groups of sounds which e x i s t as phonemes i n the n a t i v e language,but the phonetic r e a l i z a -t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t from those i n the ta r g e t language; hence the n a t i v e sounds may i n t r u d e i n the targ e t language. In the l i g h t of these p o i n t s , i t can be s a f e l y s a i d that the most d i f f i c u l t problems which the d i f f e r -ence i n phonemic inventory between Tagalog and Pampango presents to the Pampango l e a r n i n g Tagalog are the f r i c a -t i v e problem, the t r i l l problem, the c e n t r a l vowel prob-lem, the back vowel problem, and the diphthong problem. Consonants, Vowels, Diphthongs Below are p a r a l l e l charts of Tagalog and Pampango sounds, Figure 8. The chart i s presented i n three columns: the s t r u c t u r e of Tagalog sounds i n column one, the s t r u c -ture of Pampango sounds i n column three, and between them i n column two i s a p i c t u r e of the c o n f l i c t of systems which r e s u l t s when the sounds of Pampango are superim-posed on the s t r u c t u r e of Tagalog. Each column i n the chart i s presented i n a sche-113 Structure of Tagalog Sounds • • H Q 0 0 0 0 0 H 0 H 0 0 0 0 • • • Q uy ay i w Pampango Sounds Superimposed on Tagalog Structure 0 0 H Q 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 H 0 0 • 0 H 0 • u aw Structure of Pampango Sounds 0000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 8. A Two-Dimensional Schematic Arrangement of the Structures of Tagalog and Pampango Sounds He-matic arrangement to show both the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i -l a r i t i e s of the languages being analyzed. The rows i n each of the three columns represent the d i f f e r e n t sounds: stops, f r i c a t i v e s , n a s a l s , l i q u i d s , and semivowels. Then f o l l o w a b l o c k of simple vowels and two blocks of diph-thongs. The f i l e s of each column represent the p o s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n , from l a b i a l , to d e n t a l , to p a l a t a l , v e l a r and g l o t t a l . A heavy l i n e around a block i n the middle column shows "cases v i d e s " or holes i n the p a t t e r n of Pampango, as compared to Tagalog. Since such holes or gaps have a tendency to become f i l l e d , the symbols i n such blocks represent the most l i k e l y s u b s t i t u t e a v a i l a b l e from the Pampango in v e n t o r y . A double l i n e around a block i n d i -cates a d i f f e r e n c e i n the phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n of the sounds which w i l l prove to be of considerable d i f f i c u l t y to Pampango l e a r n e r s of Tagalog. The G l o t t a l Stop />/ and /h/. A Pampango l e a r n e r of Tagalog has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h these sounds. The /'/ sound occurs i n a l l p o s i t i o n s but there are some cases where a Pampango speaker tends to s u b s t i t u t e t h i s sound /'/ f o r an / h / as i n the Tagalog words hulaan /hu'la'an/ 'guess' and mahinhin /mahin'hin/ 'modest'. A Tagalog 115 l i s t e n e r v/ould h e a r / ' u ' l a ' a n / and / m a ' i n ' ' i n / from a Pampango speaker because he i s n o t a c t u a l l y p r o d u c i n g the /»/ sound but a "br e a t h y g l o t t a l s t o p " . But v e r y r a r e l y o r not a t a l l does a Pampango s u b s t i t u t e an / h / f o r a />/ except i n v e r y few l o a n words. The l e t t e r h i n S p a n i s h , a f t e r which the Pampango o r t h o g r a p h y i s p a t t e r n e d , i s not sounded i n the spoken language. A Pampango speaker l i k e w i s e does n o t sound the phoneme / h / i n h i s speech even v/hen he sees i t i n w r i t t e n form. Tagalog i n i t i a l o r m e d i a l / h / i s dropped o r r e -p l a c e d by a n o t h e r sound; t h u s : h a n g i n / ' h a n i n / 'wind' i s /»anin/; h a r a n a / h a ' r a n a h / 'serenade' i s / ' a ' r a n a h / ; mahaba /ma'haba'/ ' l o n g ' - /ma'kaba'/; bahay /'bahay/ 'house' - /'ba'eh/; h a l u s 'almost' - / ' a l u s / . / r / . B o t h Tagalog and Pampango have phonemic / r / , b ut p h o n e t i c a l l y t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e i n common betv/een Tagalog / r / and Pampango / r / except i n v i b r a t i o n . Tagalog / r / i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e v e r a l f l a p s o r t a p s . At the b e g i n -n i n g o f s t r e s s e d ' s y l l a b l e s , a t the end of words, and a t the end o f s y l l a b l e s b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s t a r t i n g v/ith a consonant, the Tagalog / r / t a p s the upper gum r i d g e s e v e r a l t i m e s , w h i l e the Pampango / r / i s o f t e n e q u a l t o a s i m p l e v i b r a t i o n o f a t r i l l , sometimes t o a v e r y s h o r t s t o p . 116 / a / . The a l l o p h o n e of the Pampango low c e n t r a l vowel / a / i s //B_J when i h . u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . Pampango C&J •> w h i c h i s a r a i s e d c e n t r a l v o w e l , i s c l e a r l y bound up v/ith s t r e s s . The /~a_7 sound v / i l l not be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o p r o -nounce f o r most speakers of Pampango because t h e i r l a n -guage has a s i m i l a r sound and a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n wort't make any d i f f e r e n c e i n Ta g a l o g . / o / and /VL/. Tagalog / o / and / u / are c o n s i d e r e d d i s t i n c t phonemes except i n a case v/here t h e vowel / o / precedes a g l o t t a l sound a t the end o f a word. The d i s a p -pearance o f the g l o t t a l s t o p i n r a p i d c o n v e r s a t i o n r e -s u l t s i n the r a i s i n g of the vowel p r e c e d i n g i t ; thus i f a word ends i n / o ' / as i n i l a y o / ' i l a ' y o ' / 'take' 1 away', the / o / becomes / u / v/hen a word f o l l o w s i t as i n I l a y o mo / ' i l a ' y u h moh/ 'take away'. Pampango sp e a k e r s make no d i s t i n c t i o n between th e s e two sounds so t h a t the Tagalog / o / and / u / may be used by them i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Pampango spe a k e r s f a v o r the h i g h e r vov/el; thus they t e n d t o p r o -nounce Tagalog v/ords h a v i n g m e d i a l and f i n a l / o / sound w i t h a /VL/ sound: lagom /'lagom/ ' a l l i n c l u s i v e ' i s /'lagum/; p a t o / ' p a t o h / 'duck' - / ' p a t u h / ; s i p i l y o / s i ' p i l y o h / 'brush' - / s i ' p i l y u h / ; t a o / ' t a ' o h / ' m o r t a l 117 - /'ta'uh/; karo /'karoh/ 'car' - /'karuh/. Diphthongs. Pampango does not have the f o l l o w i n g diphthongs /iw/, /ey/, /ay/, /aw/, and /uy/. They are the r e f o r e c l a s s e d as new categories f o r a.Pampango l e a r n -er of Tagalog. Por the new diphthong sounds, Pampango l e a r n e r s of Tagalog s u b s t i t u t e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) / i w / replaced by / i / or / i ' / g i l i w ' d a r l i n g ' / ' g i l i ' / f o r / ' g i l i w / s i s i w 'chick' / ' s i s i ' / f o r / ' s i s i w / paksiw ' f i s h steeped i n vinegar' / p a k ' s i ' / f o r /pak'siw/ b a l i w 'crazy' / b a ' l i / f o r / b a ' l i w / a l i w 'entertainment' /»a'li/ f o r / ' a ' l i w / (b) /ey/ replaced by /e/ reyna 'queen' /'renah/ f o r /'reynah/ may 'there i s ' /meh/ f o r /mey/ peyneta 'comb' /pe'netah/ f o r /pey'netah/ (c) /ay/ replaced by /e/ bahay 'house'' /'baeh/ f o r /'bahay/ tag l a y 'borne' /tag'1eh/ f o r / t a g ' l a y / sakay 'passenger' /sa'keh/ f o r /sa'kay/ inay 'mama' / ' i ' n e h / f o r / ' i ' n a y / 118 (d) /aw/ replaced by /o/ h i lav/ 'uncooked' / h i ' l o h / f o r / h i ' l a w / s i l a w 'to be dazzled' / s i ' l o h / f o r / s i " l a w / sabaw 'broth' /sa'boh/ f o r /sa'bav// gusilaw 'eyeshade' / g u s i ' l o h / f o r / g u s i ' l a w / bingaw 'notch' /bi'noh/ f o r /bi'naw/ (e) /uy/ replaced by /u'/ aruy 'ouch' / ' a ' r u ' / f o r /'a'ruy/ kasuy 'cashew' /ka'su'/ f o r /ka'suy/ tsapsuy 'chopsuey' / ' t s a p s u ' / f o r /'tsapsuy/ wansuy 'parsley' /wan'su'/ f o r /wan'suy/ /bdg/. With the b i l a b i a l s , dentals and v e l a r s the d i f f e r e n c e between Tagalog and Pampango i s almost n e g l i -g i b l e . Pampango l e a r n e r s of Tagalog w i l l have no d i f f i -c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g these sounds. /ptk/. These phonemes are s i m i l a r i n p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n i n both Tagalog and Pampango. They d i s t r i b -ute s i m i l a r l y i n the two languages, i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and f i n a l l y . They w i l l not cause d i f f i c u l t y . /mnn/. They are s i m i l a r i n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Tagalog and Pampango. A Pampango speaker w i l l have no s p e c i a l problem w i t h these consonants. 119 / l / . They a r e v e r y s i m i l a r p h o n e t i c a l l y i n b o t h languages and w i l l not c r e a t e a problem. / y / and /w/. P r e v o c a l i c a l l y they a r e i d e n t i c a l i n b o t h Tagalog and Pampango. P o s t v o c a l i c a l l y , they do no t form d i p h t h o n g s i n Pampango as they do i n Tagalog / i w / , /ey/, /ay/, /aw/, and /uy/. Consonant C l u s t e r s . I n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n T agalog and Pampango share a number o f consonant c l u s t e r s , and th e s e can be ex p e c t e d t o cause the Pampango no d i f f i c u l t y . New c l u s t e r s i n Tagalog, e s p e c i a l l y those o c c u r r i n g medi-a l l y and f i n a l l y , do r e q u i r e t e a c h i n g . But g e n e r a l l y , some c l u s t e r s and c l u s t e r t y p e s m i l be e a s i e r f o r t h e Pampan-gos t o l e a r n due t o the e x i s t e n c e o f the c l u s t e r o r c l u s -t e r t y p e s i n l o a n words used w i d e l y i n t h e i r language. I n t o n a t i o n Systems S m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the i n t o n a t i o n systems^ 6'f T a g a l o g and Pampango. B o t h languages have s i m i l a r t y p e s o f f i n a l r i s i n g j u n c t u r e . The r i s e i n . b o t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t and the l a s t s y l l a b l e i s slowed down s l i g h t l y . T a g a l o g / f / and Pampango / T / a r e i d e n t i c a l f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , as can be n o t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g e q u i v a l e n t s e n t e n c e s : 1 2 0 Tagalog Pampango 1. mala'kin'bah ' i ' y a n f mara'gul yah 'i'yanT 'Is that b i g ? ' i — i • 1—r 2 . k i l a ' l a h moh s i ' y a h 1 k a k i l a ' l a h meh ' 'Do you know "him?' _ | 1 1 I * i 'Ion maya'muh i n me'Ion' r 3 . mata'mis an me'Ion maya'muh i n me'Ion' 'Is the melon sweet?' Information questions are commonly pronounced i n Tagalog on the p a t t e r n / 3 2 1 / or / ? 3 2 1 /, which i s almost e x a c t l y d u p l i c a t e d i n Pampango. Hence, a Pampango w i l l have no problem i n l e a r n i n g the Tagalog p a t t e r n f o r t h i s type of question, /my s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e can be heard e a s i l y and c o r r e c t i o n s should not be d i f f i c u l t . This can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g almost but not quite equivalent sentences: Tagalog Pampango 1 . sa''an kah 'pupuntah 1 'nukah mun'tahf 'Where are you going?' 2 . kay'lan kah duma'^'tin 1 k a p i ' l a n kah dina'tan-l 'When di d you a r r i v e ? ' 1 2 1 3 . mag' kanoil * i ' t oh ^ mag1 kanuh yah ' i ' n i h J ' How much i s t h i s ? ' The normal statement p a t t e r n i n Tagalog i s / 2 3 1 / • This r i s i n g - f a l l i n g p a t t e r n w i l l present d i f f i c u l t y f o r Pampango speakers because t h e i r language uses a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n . Pampango has a / 2 1 3 / i n t o n a t i o n . Much d r i l l on t h i s d i f f e r e n c e should be given to Pampango speakers be-cause they are l i k e l y to carry over t h e i r i n t o n a t i o n p a tterns i n speaking Tagalog. S t r e s s . Stress i n both Tagalog and Pampango i s ch a r a c t e r i z e d by a lengthening of the st r e s s e d s y l l a b l e but i n Pampango t h i s lengthening seems to be a l i t t l e more prominent, and of greater d u r a t i o n . In Tagalog l e n g t h i s conditioned almost e n t i r e l y by s t r e s s . Note the f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t s : Tagalog Pampango 'ak'lat ' a k * - l a t 'book' 'tu*big 'tu* * b i g 'water' 'ba* toh 'ba* • tuh 'stone' ' l o * r o l i 'lo *•ruh •parrot' 'da*mit 'da*'mit 1 c l o t h e s ' 'nob *yoh 'nob * *yuh 'bridegroom 122 The l e n g t h o f the i n t o n a t i o n p h r a s e i n Pampango seems t o he somewhat s h o r t e r t h a n i n T a g a l o g , t h a t i s , t h e r e a r e more f r e q u e n t phrase b o u n d a r i e s , o r j u n c t u r e s , w i t h i n s e n t e n c e s . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Pampango pronun-c i a t i o n , when superimposed on Tagalog, c o n t r i b u t e s t o the Tagal o g s p e a k e r ' s judgment t h a t the Pampango p r o n u n c i a -t i o n has a s i n g - s o n g e f f e c t . T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g : T a g a l o g mey magan'darj 'baro' I s i 'nenah. 'Nena has a b e a u t i f u l d r e s s . ' Pampango ' • a t i n yarj I m a s a n ' t i n 'baru' I s i 'nenah. Taga l o g 'a'nohlan g u s t o h moh? 'What do you want?' Pampango na nun I b u ' r i h I moh? Rhythm. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e rhythm of Pampango and t h a t o f Tagalog i s almost n e g l i g i b l e . Pampango and Tagalog s y l l a b l e s a re o f more o r l e s s e q u a l 123 d u r a t i o n . More than i n Tagalog, Pampango s t r e s s - c o n t r a s t s are sometimes n e u t r a l i z e d to favor the r e g u l a r rhythmic a l t e r n a t i o n of strong and weak s t r e s s e s . There are no ph r a s a l r e s t r i c t i o n s upon Tagalog and Pampango s t r e s s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The important f a c t s about t h i s study on the taxon-omic phon o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Tagalog and Pampango may be summarized as f o l l o w s : Consonants. The Tagalog sound system has s i x t e e n consonantal sounds, of which seven are stops, tv/o are f r i c a t i v e s , three are n a s a l s , two are g l i d e s or semivow-e l s , one i s a l a t e r a l , and one a t r i l l . A l l of these con-sonants are found i n Pampango. The Tagalog stops are e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r to t h e i r Pampango counterparts, w i t h the exception of the g l o t t a l stop £~>JJ. In the production of Tagalog g l o t t a l stop, the v o c a l bands are t i g h t l y c losed, stopping the a i r c o l -umn from the lungs. I t i s produced w i t h considerable more energy i n i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n than Pampango £~> J because the Pampango speaker does not a c t u a l l y produce the Z~'_7 sound but a "breathy g l o t t a l stop." The three nasals are produced more or l e s s i d e n -t i c a l l y w i t h t h e i r Pampango counterparts. They occur i n s i m i l a r phonetic environments. /~~rJ7 i n Tagalog i s always an a p i c o - a l v e o l a r 125 t r i l l r e g a r d l e s s o f environment. I t does n ot o c c u r i n w o r d - i n i t i a l o r w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n except i n l o a n words. I n Pampango i t i s an a l v e o l a r f l a p . The l a t e r a l </f~l_7 i s g e n e r a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d on the a l v e o l a r r i d g e r e g a r d l e s s of p h o n e t i c environment f o r b o t h . The two g l i d e s /~*w_7 and Z~~y_7 i n Tagalog o c c u r i n s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l and s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n s .• Z~y_Z o c c u r s a t the b e g i n n i n g and i n the mi d d l e of v/ords i n the s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n and g e n e r a l l y b e f o r e /f~a__7, </~~o__7, and £~VL_7 and b e f o r e <ff~e_7 o n l y i n l o a n words. /~w_J o c c u r s o n l y b e f o r e /~a_7 an& Z~i_7 a ^ ^ n e b e g i n n i n g and i n the middle o f words, and b e f o r e £~&_J i n l o a n v/ords. Pampango semi vov/els /JwJJ. and CJJ o c c u r s i n i n i -t i a l p o s i t i o n o n l y , a p a r t from the c o m b i n a t i o n f p o y j . There are two f r i c a t i v e s Z~h_7 and C^J. Tagalog /Js_y i s e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r t o Pampango </~s_7^ n e v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e £~h._J i s s t a b l e i n Ta g a l o g but d i f f i -c u l t t o c l a s s i f y as a phoneme i n Pampango. Vov/els. There a re f i v e vowels i n Tagalog g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Pampango. I n b o t h l a n -guages, the vowels a r e monophthongal, even when t h e y a re l e n g t h e n e d i n p r o d u c t i o n . Pampango speakers tend t o r e -p l a c e T a g a l o g f i n a l / o / by the h i g h e r t e n s e vowel /T"u__7. 126 Diphthongs. There are s i x diphthongs i n Tagalog: zTey_7> C^lJ > C&lJ, £°y£> £^J and £™J. The l a s t f o u r occur only i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n and £ey_7" and £uy£/ i n medial p o s i t i o n . Pampango does not have the f o l l o w i n g Tagalog diphthongs: £eyJJ, Z~uy_7, zTay_7> £ i w j 7 , and /~aw_7. S t r e s s , Tagalog s t r e s s , of which there are only the strong and the we alt forms, i s s i g n a l l e d p r i m a r i l y by lengthening of the vowel i n the s y l l a b l e . Strong s t r e s s g e n e r a l l y occurs on the penultimate and f i n a l s y l l a b l e s of i s o l a t e d words and phrases. Pampango has three l e v e l s of s t r e s s . I n t o n a t i o n . The p i t c h phonemes and p i t c h con-t r a s t s of Pampango may be t r a n s f e r r e d to Tagalog i n t a c t w i t h a l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n the r i s i n g - f a l l i n g p a t t e r n . Rhythm. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the rhythm of Pampango and that of Tagalog are n e g l i g i b l e as the s y l l a b l e s are of more or l e s s equal d u r a t i o n , that i s , the d u r a t i o n of the s y l l a b l e s does not vary w i t h t h e i r phonemic composition nor wi t h the suprasegmental e n v i -ronment . 127 CONCLUSIONS The foregoing d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t s to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. B a s i c a l l y , there are more s i m i l a r i t i e s than d i f f e r e n c e s i n the form, s t r u c t u r e , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the phonemes i n Tagalog and Pampango, but i t can be s a f e -l y p r e d i c t e d that phonemic contrasts based on sounds which are p h o n e t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t both i n Tagalog and i n Pampango w i l l be more r e a d i l y acquired than sounds where the phonetic data does not serve to r e i n f o r c e and empha-s i z e the phonemic c o n t r a s t . I t can be p r e d i c t e d also that the phonemic con t r a s t s which w i l l be hardest to acquire w i l l be those i n which the Pampango can use p a r t , but only p a r t of the a l l o p h o n i c m a t e r i a l of Pampango. 2. The pr o n u n c i a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y of Pampangos l e a r n i n g Tagalog w i l l a r i s e from the systematic d i f f e r -ences i n phono l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e between the two languages, such as d i f f e r e n c e s between the phonemic i n v e n t o r i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n the phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n of phonemes which are being learned by the students, and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of phonemes which occur i n both l a n -guages . 128 3. Teachers and t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s s h o u l d be aware o f the f a c t t h a t the l e a r n i n g o f a second language i s i n f l u e n c e d by the h a b i t s one has formed i n h i s f i r s t l a n g u a g e , t h a t i s , the l e a r n e r tends t o produce the second language i n the image o f h i s n a t i v e l anguage. I n v i e w of t h i s , t h e m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n the second language s h o u l d be based on a s y s t e m a t i c comparison be-tween the n a t i v e language of the l e a r n e r and the t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . A com p a r a t i v e and c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the two languages w i l l b r i n g out the p o i n t s o f s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e between the two. Where the two languages a r e a l i k e , the h a b i t s i n the f i r s t language w i l l h e l p i n l e a r n i n g the second, where t h e y d i f f e r , t he h a b i t s o f the n a t i v e tongue w i l l h i n d e r o r a c t as a r o a d b l o c k i n l e a r n i n g the t a r g e t l anguage. That b e i n g the case, the m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d c o n s i d e r p r o b a b l e p o i n t s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s and f o c u s more a t t e n t i o n upon them i n o r d e r t o f o r e s t a l l t he f o r m a t i o n o f wrong language h a b i t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the comparison o f the s t u d e n t ' s n a t i v e language and the language to be l e a r n e d f u r n i s h e s a b a s i s f o r b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g problems i n v o l v e d , p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t e s t s f o r d i a g n o s t i c and e v a l u a t i o n 129 p u r p o s e s . I t i s not o n l y p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t a r e a s of i n t e r f e r e n c e as w e l l as f a c i l i t a t i o n between the two l anguages but a l s o t o r a n k i n t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f ease and d i f f i c u l t y . Teachers w i t h a knowledge of such p r o b -lems can be e x p e c t e d t o g u i d e t h e i r s t u d e n t s b e t t e r . They w i l l u n d e r s t a n d the cause o f an e r r o r and be b e t t e r a b l e t o p r e p a r e c o r r e c t i v e d r i l l s . k. R e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s can be much more e f f i c i e n t -l y a t t a c k e d i f t hey are t a k e n up one a t a t i m e , a t l e a s t a t the b e g i n n i n g . 5. The t e x t b o o k w r i t e r must p r o v i d e the a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s aimed a t e n a b l i n g the s t u d e n t t o overcome h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s . H i s t a s k i s to o r g a n i z e the problems l i s t -ed i n the a n a l y s i s i n t o a s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s of a p p r o x i -m a t e l y e q u a l d i f f i c u l t y . Then, the completed l e s s o n must be i n t e r p r e t e d by the t e a c h e r t o a c l a s s t r y i n g t o l e a r n T a g a l o g . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be aware of a l l the problems which o r i g i n a t e from the n a t i v e language of the s t u d e n t s as p r o v i d e d by the c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 3 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bl o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Language. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1 9 6 4 . B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Tagalog Texts w i t h Grammatical A n a l y s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Studies i n Language 'and L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . 3 , No. 3 , 1 9 1 ? . P r a n c i s , Nelson W. The Structure of American E n g l i s h . New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1 9 5 8 . . Gimson, A. C. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Pronunciation of  E n g l i s h . London: Edward Arnold, 1 9 6 2 . Gleason, H.A. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1 9 6 1 . H a l l , Robert A. Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s • P h i l a d e l p h i a : C h i l t o n Company, 1 9 6 4 . Heffner, R - M. S. General Phonetics. Madison: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1 9 6 4 . Jones, D a n i e l . The Phoneme: I t s Nature and Use. Cambridge: W. Heffner & Sons L t d . , 1 9 5 0 . . . Lado, Robert. L i n g u i s t i c s Across Cu l t u r e s . Ann Arbor, Michigan: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1 9 5 7 • Malmberg, B e r t i l . Phonetics. New York: Dover P u b l i c a -t i o n s Inc., 1 9 6 3 . M a n a l i l i , Bienvenido M. and Tamayo, J.P. E n g l i s h -P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 4 . M a r t i n e t , Andre. Elements of General L i n g u i s - t i c s . London: Paber and Paber L t d . , 1 9 6 4 . P i k e , Kenneth L. Phonetics. Ann Arbor,: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1 9 6 4 . Quezon C i t y : Pressman 1 3 2 Thomas, C h a r l e s Kenneth. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Phonet-i c s of American E n g l i s h . New York: The Ronald P r e s s Company, 1 9 5 8 . B. PUBLICATIONS OP THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Bureau o f P r i n t i n g , Handbook o f P h i l i p p i n e S t a t i s t i c s . P h i l i p p i n e Bureau o f Census, M a n i l a , I 9 6 0 . H e m p h i l l , R o d e r i c k J . Background Readings i n Language  Te a c h i n g . PCLS Monograph S e r i e s Number 1 . Pasay C i t y , P h i l i p p i n e s : P h i l i p p i n e C e nter f o r Language Study, 1 9 6 1 . I n s t i t u t e o f N a t i o n a l Language, R e p u b l i c o f the P h i l i p p i n e s , An E n g l i s h - Tagalog D i c t i o n a r y . M a n i l a : Bureau o f P r i n t i n g , i 9 6 0 . S u r i a n ng Wikang Pambansa, R e p u b l i k a ng P i l i p i n a s , B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa. M a y n i l a : Kawanihan ng Palimbagan, 1 9 5 0 . S u r i a n ng Wikang Pambansa, Republika, ng P i l i p i n a s , T a l a h u l u g a n a n g P i l i p i n o - I n g l e s . M a y n i l a : Kawanihan ng Palimbagan, 1 9 6 6 . Wolfenden, Elmer. A Re-Statement of Tagalog Grammar. P u b l i s h e d J o i n t l y i n O b s e r v a t i o n . o f the Jose R i z a l Centenary by Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s and the I n s t i t u t e o f N a t i o n a l Language. M a n i l a , 1 9 6 1 . C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Anderson, Tommy Ray. "A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s of Cebuano-V i s a y a n and E n g l i s h . " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 6 5 . S t o c k w e l l , Robert P. "A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h and T a g a l o g . " U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 24, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 5 9 . 133 D. PERIODICALS Cay a r i , Remedios M. "The Phonemes of Tagalog." The  P h i l i p p i n e Journal of Science, June, 1956, 85,2. Tabasondra, Iluminada S. "Pampango Consonants and Vowels and Their Influence on E n g l i s h as Spoken by Pampangos i n T a r l a c . " P h i l i p p i n e J o u r n a l f o r Language Teaching, October, 1962, pp. 1-6. 

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