UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The love theme in Gottfried's Tristan und Isolde and its treatment in German literature from the romantics… Lenos, Maria Helene 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A8 L46.pdf [ 7.73MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093619.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093619-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093619-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093619-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093619-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093619-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093619-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093619-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093619.ris

Full Text

THE LOVE THEME IN GOTTFRIED'S TRISTAN AND ISOLDE AND ITS TREATMENT IN GERMAN LITERATURE FROM THE ROMANTICS TO WAGNER by MARIA H. LENOS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Zagreb, 194-3 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of GERMAN We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1967 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r re ference and Study. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex tens i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.iJs r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s fo r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on . Department of German  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date September 28, 1967 A B S T R A C T Although there are s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s of the s t o r y of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e b e f o r e G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g none has s u r v i v e d i n more than fragmentary form, s i n c e they l a c k e d appeal to f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . The v e r s i o n par e x c e l l e n c e Is that by G o t t f r i e d . His method of w r i t i n g In a l l e g o r i e s and symbols, which he uses t o convey to h i s s e l e c t audience of edele herzen the deeper meaning of h i s words, has g i v e n r i s e to many c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s . The c o n t r a d i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the most noted s c h o l a r s are b r i e f l y touched upon and an attempt i s made to o f f e r a more balanced approach to G o t t f r i e d ' s i d e a l of l o v e . The l a t e r medieval c o n t i n u a t i o n s by U l r i c h von Turheim and H e i n r i c h von F r e i b e r g are c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to each other as w e l l as t o G o t t f r i e d . Only the E i l h a r t v e r s i o n , e n t i r e l y based on e f f e c t i v e n a r r a -t i o n of outer a c t i o n , remained popular. T h i s was put i n t o prose by an unknown author i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century and became known as the Prose Romance. In i t the o l d c o u r t l y e p i c was reduced to a s t o r y f o r entertainment and i t s s t y l e consequently a l t e r e d to s u i t the l e v e l of the r e a d e r s . The Prose Romance of the s i x t e e n t h century became the source f o r Hans Sachs who r e t o l d the T r i s t a n legend i n s i x M e i s t e r l i e d e r and one drama (1553)- H e r e a f t e r the legend seemed f o r g o t t e n f o r two c e n t u r i e s u n t i l the - i i i German Romantic Movement r e v i v e d i n t e r e s t i n i t i n the course of i t s g e n e r a l emphasis on the German c u l t u r a l and l i t e r a r y p a s t . S e v e r a l attempts were made by the Romantics t o c r e a t e independent v e r s i o n s i n s p i r e d by G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n and under the i n f l u e n c e of the c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s of S c h l e g e l and o t h e r s . The attempts at l i t e r a r y v e r s i o n s of the T r i s t a n -theme by August Wilhelm. von S c h l e g e l , K a r l P h l l i p p Conz, Wilhelm Wackernagel and F r i e d r i c h Riickert are b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d and analyzed i n the l i g h t of Romantic t h e o r i e s of l o v e . The r e s u l t s of Romantic i n t e r e s t i n the theme of T r i s t a n are s u r p r i s i n g l y meagre and s i n c e no s p e c i f i c evidence can be adduced as to the reason f o r t h i s , i t i s only p o s s i b l e to put forward a t e n t a t i v e theory r e g a r d i n g some of the causes. Only Immermann produced a work of any consequence and t h i s i s t h e r e f o r e d i s c u s s e d at some l e n g t h . Only a f t e r the Romantics are there any s e r i o u s e f f o r t s to produce l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and s c h o l a s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t r a n s l a t i o n s (Hermann K u r t z , K a r l Simrock, Wilhelm H e r t z ) . I t was l e f t t o R i c h a r d Wagner, on the b a s i s of modern t r a n s l a t i o n s , to " r e h a b i l i t a t e " the T r i s t a n legend i n h i s music drama and although i t has very l i t t l e i n common wi t h G o t t f r i e d , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s the only work s i n c e G o t t f r i e d t h a t has succeeded i n provoking f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n T r i s t a n . M. S. B a t t s iv -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I. Gottfried's T r i s t a n and l a t e r medieval versions 1 Chapter I I . Romanticism. 3 3 Chapter I I I . Versions by the Romantics 6 l Chapter IV. Translations 91 Chapter V. Richard Wagner's music drama Tr i s t a n und Isolde 104 Chapter VI. Conclusion 1 2 0 Footnotes 124-Bibliography 1 3 0 CHAPTER I GOTTFRIED'S TRISTAN AND LATER MEDIEVAL VERSIONS The s t o r y of the i l l f a t e d love of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e , which i s b a s i c a l l y C e l t i c , r e c e i v e d i t s c l a s s i c a l form w i t h G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g about 1 2 1 0 . I t came to Germany v i a England and France g a t h e r i n g on i t s way new episodes and m o t i f s around the o l d saga. I t i s only i n the number of these episodes and type of the m o t i f s t h a t the v a r i o u s a d a p t a t i o n s d i f f e r ; b a s i c a l l y the s t o r y i s as f o l l o w s . T r i s t a n i s the son of R i v a l i n and B l a n c h e f l o r , s i s t e r of King Mark of Cornwall. A f t e r R i v a l i n i s k i l l e d i n b a t t l e , B l a n c h e f l o r d i e s g i v i n g b i r t h t o a son named T r i s t a n . At the age of f o u r t e e n , a f t e r the boy has been, kidnapped by Norwegian merchants and put ashore i n Cornwall, he f i n d s h i s way to h i s uncle Mark, who i s a t f i r s t unaware of h i s i d e n t i t y but on l e a r n i n g i t accepts him as h i s nephew and h e i r . The T r i s t a n romance proper begins a t t h i s p o i n t . T r i s t a n d e f e a t s the I r i s h g i a n t Morholt, who a n n u a l l y c l a i m s t r i b u t e from Cornwall, but he i s m o r t a l l y wounded i n the encounter by Morholt's poisoned sword and can be h e a l e d only by the I r i s h queen I s o l d e , Morholt"s s i s t e r . T r i s t a n comes to I r e l a n d d i s g u i s e d as the m i n s t r e l T a n t r i s and i s r e c e i v e d by the queen who h e a l s him.. T r i s t a n r e t u r n s to Mark's co u r t but l a t e r goes back t o I r e l a n d as h i s un c l e ' s envoy t o request the hand of the p r i n c e s s I s o l d e . - 2 -On the journey homeward Tristan and Isolde by mistake drink the love potion prepared by the Queen Mother and intended for her daughter and King Mark. Henceforth the two young people are bound to each other by an imperishable love that becomes their fate. Since Isolde is legally bound to Mark, the lovers have to resort to ruses and deceit in order to meet, whilst Mark and his courtiers seek to entrap them. For some time they escape the snares l a i d for them until f i n a l l y they are discovered and Tristan Is obliged to flee the country. He eventually finds a new love in Isolde Whitehand and marries her but cannot bring himself to consummate the marriage. Later, when he is mortally wounded in battle, he calls for Isolde the Fair to heal him.. When the ship is sighted, Tristan's wife informs him incorrectly that the ship is approaching under a black s a i l , which means that Isolde is not on board. Overcome by disappointment and sorrow, Tristan dies. Isolde, having arrived too late to save Tristan, also yields up her l i f e over his body. A miracle follows their deaths: a vine and rosebush grow out of their graves and intertwine their branches. One of the earliest literary adaptations of this original saga was the one by the German poet Eilhart von Oberge, late in the twelfth century (at the end of the sixties or the beginning of the seventies), Tristrant  und Isalde. Since Eilhart's work is available only in fragments, i t has to be reconstructed by relying on a - 3 -C z e c h t r a n s l a t i o n o f h i s poem a n d o n t h e G e r m a n P r o s e Romance o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f o r w h i c h i t was t h e m a i n s o u r c e . E i l h a r t b a s e d h i s w o r k o n t h e s o - c a l l e d E s t o l r e 1 a n d t r u e t o t h e t r e n d o f t h e p e r i o d , t h e v a r i o u s a d v e n t u r e s a n d h e r o i c d e e d s a r e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d ; l o v e i s n o t h i s m a i n i n t e r e s t , n o r a r e t h e i n n e r m o s t f e e l i n g s o f t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r s . He e n j o y s d e p i c t i n g a c t i o n , e x c i t e m e n t , a n d t h e l u s t y a n d o f t e n c r u d e a s p e c t s o f t h e s t o r y . To h i m t h e l o v e r s a r e e x c u s e d f o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n o t h a v e a c t e d a n y o t h e r way u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e " a c c u r s e d p o t i o n " ( u n s a e l i g e r t r a n k ) . He h a s v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n T r i s t a n ' s a n d I s o l d e W h i t e -h a n d ' s u n c o n s u m m a t e d m a r r i a g e a n d d e v o t e s o n l y a f e w l i n e s t o i t . The d e e p e r s e n s e o f i t e s c a p e s h im. c o m p l e t e l y . The g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y o f E i l h a r t ' s e p i c i s p r o v e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t G o t t f r i e d ' s s u c c e s s o r s b a s e d t h e i r c o n t i n u a t i o n s o n E i l h a r t ' s v e r s i o n a n d n o t o n G o t t f r i e d ' s , a n d t h a t t h e G e r m a n P r o s e Romance a l s o r e l i e s o n E i l h a r t . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t v e r s i o n o f t h e s a g a i s t h a t b y t h e A n g l o - N o r m a n p o e t Thomas f r o m t h e l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , l a t e r o n a l s o t r a n s l a t e d i n t o G e r m a n a n d O l d N o r s e . T h o u g h o n l y f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n , t h e y s t i l l show t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l was a w o r k o f o u t s t a n d i n g m e r i t . Thomas i s a p o e t o f c o u r t l y l o v e a n d c o u r t l y l i f e , w h o , i n h i s p r a i s e o f E n g l a n d , e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p o r t r a y s h i s i d e a l o f a m o d e r n , e d u c a t e d , a n d r e f i n e d s o c i e t y . He r e w o r k e d t h e poem i n o r d e r t o make i t a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e more r e f i n e d c o u r t l y l e v e l of h i s time and p l a c e of w r i t i n g . Thomas achieved g r e a t e r u n i t y and p l a u s i b i l i t y i n the main s t o r y by e l i -m i n a ting c e r t a i n improbable episodes and f a b l e s , and he improved the g e n e r a l tone of the e p i c by a more s e n s i t i v e and r e f i n e d s t y l e . H i s nature i n c l i n e d towards the l y r i c a l r a t h e r than the e p i c and he t h e r e f o r e tends to f o c u s on a n a l y s e s of i n n e r f e e l i n g s and c o n f l i c t s . He d e s c r i b e s i t a l l , however, from, as i t were, an i n t e l l e c t u a l p l a n e , not as a person who has a c t u a l l y experienced such emotions and s u f f e r i n g s . Consequently, the i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d by Thomas' p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y ses Is t h a t of a r a t i o n a l i s t who c a r e f u l l y motivates a l l events, but l a c k s warmth. In t h i s l e a n i n g towards r e f l e c t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n and analyses of emotion, Thomas found a k i n d r e d s p i r i t i n the German poet G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g . In the b e g i n n i n g of the t h i r t e e n t h century (ca. 1210), G o t t f r i e d wrote h i s v e r s i o n of the l o v e e p i c based on Thomas—although he a l s o knew E i l h a r t — a n d he i t i s who g i v e s the e p i c i t s f i n a l c l a s s i c a l form. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the work breaks o f f i n the midst of T r i s t a n ' s monologue b e f o r e h i s marriage t o I s o l d e Whitehand. I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t death prevented the poet from, completing i t . Compared w i t h Thomas, G o t t f r i e d i s the g r e a t e r a r t i s t . He has not merely t r a n s l a t e d Thomas' e p i c , he has r e f a s h i o n e d " i t w i t h great s k i l l by m o d ifying the form, r a t h e r than the m o t i f s . In g e n e r a l , he f o l l o w s Thomas scene by scene, as he h i m s e l f s t a t e s i n the prologue (1^ 9 f f . ) , and the changes made mainly amount to the a d d i t i o n of g r e a t e r i n -s i g h t and depth i n the an a l y s e s of emotional s t a t e s , as w e l l as t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more p l a u s i b l e m o t i v a t i o n . He e l e v a t e s the whole i n n e r s t r u c t u r e t o a more s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , a i d e d by h i s ex t e n s i v e l e a r n i n g ; i n s h o r t , G o t t f r i e d transcends Thomas. Since G o t t f r i e d had s t u d i e d w i d e l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d s of law, c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and theology, he was o b v i o u s l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the a l l e g o r i c a l and sym-b o l i c a l method and used i t to a great extent t o convey to h i s " s e l e c t ' audience of edele herzen the deeper meaning of h i s words. I t i s mainly due to the use of these a l l e g o r i e s and symbols t h a t many c o n t r o v e r s i e s arose r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the inn e r meaning or message of T r i s t a n . Some s c h o l a r s saw only u n r e s t r a i n e d sensual love g l o r i f i e d 2a i n the e p i c ( D i l t h e y , Scherer) h e r a l d i n g the i d e a l of the Renaissance. Others saw the exact opposite i n i t , namely the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r of l o v e , which at times i s e l e v a t e d even t o a d o c t r i n e ; the l o v e r s are c o n s i d e r e d " M i n n e h e i l i g e " (de Boor), the cave of l o v e r s i s sym-b o l i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a church (Ranke), and the union of the l o v e r s i s understood m y s t i c a l l y ( S c h w i e t e r i n g ) . 2 d A completely d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s o f f e r e d by G. Weber, who cla i m s t h a t G o t t f r i e d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n T r i s t a n the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g s of S t . Augustine, S t . Bernard of C l a i r v a u x , of the Cathars, of the A m a l r i c i a n s , and of the sch o o l of C h a r t r e s , without i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h any of them. G o t t f r i e d ' s "Love mysticism" i s to 6 -Weber not an analogy but an a n t i t h e s i s of C h r i s t i a n l o v e -metaphysics: w h i l e the I d e e n s t r u k t u r i s completely C h r i s t i a n , the I d e e n i n h a l t i s very u n - C h r i s t i a n , because T r i s t a n and I s o l d e do not become one w i t h God or C h r i s t , but under the e x c l u s i o n of God become one w i t h each other. For Weber, G o t t f r i e d 1 s l o v e i d e a i s r o o t e d i n the c r i s i s and the t e n s i o n s between the body and the s o u l of man, i n the p a r t a k i n g of both the s o u l and the body i n the l o v e phenomenon—in the c r i s i s between eros and agape. Dualism, dilemma, and the c o n t r a s t between minne and e r e , which f i n a l l y r e s u l t i n a p e r v e r t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and the demonic metaphysical power of l o v e , these are to Weber the d e c i s i v e and e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s f o r understanding and I n t e r p r e t i n g G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n . F r i e d r i c h Maurer and Maria, B i n d s c h e d l e r base t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on the c o u r t l y i d e a l , t h a t i s on the c o n f l i c t beween l o v e and the standards set by c o u r t l y s o c i e t y . Denis de Rougemont, however, sees the key to the understanding of the e p i c i n the v i o l a t i o n by the l o v e r s of the c o u r t l y l o v e d o c t r i n e . In comparison w i t h the f o r e g o i n g r a t h e r one-sided i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , the views of S c h w i e t e r i n g , Petrus Tax and Gerhard Meissburger seem to o f f e r a more reasonable and balanced approach. They see the l o v e of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e on two l e v e l s : the p h y s i c a l union (belonging to the c o u r t l y world, as w e l l as to the realm of e v i l or d a r k n e s s ) , and the s p i r i t u a l love-bond, towards which the separated l o v e r s develop through s u f f e r i n g (belonging to the d i v i n e realm). 7 „ I t i s obvious t h a t there are s e v e r a l ways i n which one can approach G o t t f r i e d ' s e p i c and attempt to so l v e the r i d d l e of i t s deeper meaning. But i t must not be overlooked t h a t G o t t f r i e d h i m s e l f has gi v e n us i n h i s prologue i n d i c a t i o n s as t o how h i s a r t i s t i c i n t e n t i o n s are to be judged. He c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t h i s world i s th a t of the edele herzen, t h a t world which embraces and welcomes i n i t s heart l o v e and sorrow. Consequently, even T r i s t a n and I s o l d e themselves are o u t s i d e t h i s c i r c l e as l o n g as they do not reach t h i s stage of l o v e , though the b a s i c idea does p l a c e them, w i t h i n the world of edele herzen. G o t t f r i e d i s a l s o q u i t e e x p l i c i t as t o the k i n d of l o v e T r i s t a n and I s o l d e a s p i r e t o : i c h w i l i n wol bemaeren von edelen senedaeren, d i e r e i n e r sene wol t a t e n s c h i n : e i n senedaer unde e i n senedaerin, e i n man e i n wip, e i n wip e i n man, T r i s t a n I s o l t , I s o l t T r i s t a n (125 f f . ) . The emphasis i s on " r e i n e r senev" i . e . , on the s p i r i t u a l -s o u l l e v e l ; e q u a l l y important i s the accent on " i n n e c l i c h i u t r i u w e " (219) , " i r triuwe, i r triuwen r e i n e k e i t " (231) . An emerging of two l e v e l s now becomes apparent: the world of the edele herzen ( f o r whom. G o t t f r i e d w r i t e s i n the f i r s t p l a c e and to whom h i s a l l e g o r i e s and symbolism are d i r e c t e d ) i s c o n t r a s t e d with the c o u r t l y s o c i e t y , which may enjoy r e a d i n g the e p i c as an e x c i t i n g l o v e s t o r y , without n e c e s s a r i l y a p p r e c i a t i n g i t s depth. On the b a s i s of these two l e v e l s — w h i c h have very l i t t l e i n common-G o t t f r i e d p o r t r a y s the main c h a r a c t e r s . T r i s t a n and I s o l d e of course belong to the l e v e l of edele herzen; Brangaene—though the c o n f i d a n t e of the l o v e r s — b e l o n g s to the c o u r t l y s o c i e t y . Brangaene i s exceedingly c l e v e r , scheming and i n t e r e s t e d i n immediate advantage; every-t h i n g she does or a d v i s e s others to do i s i n keeping w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u r t l y honour ( e r e ) , her h i g h e s t norm. C o u r t l y manners and decorum are very Important to her; she i s not i n c l i n e d toward a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n , but f a v o u r s compromise. Mark, Marjodo, Melot, a l s o belong t o the c o u r t l y s o c i e t y , t o the o u t s i d e world i n c a p a b l e even of understanding the world of the edele herzen, a c t i n g only upon the apparent and s u p e r f i c i a l and unable to penetrate to the t r u t h . Obviously t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i n understanding and communicating w i l l c r e a t e t e n s i o n s and s u f f e r i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the l o v e r s who l i v e on a more e l e v a t e d l e v e l . T r i s t a n ' s path i s meant to be under the s p e c i a l guidance of God, something that i s G o t t f r i e d ' s i n n o v a t i o n as com-pared to Thomas, and the f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to t h i s i s made i n l i n e s 1788 f f : und sagen wir umb das k i n d e l i n daz v a t e r noch muoter haete, was got mit deme getaete . God seems to i n t e r v e n e on b e h a l f of T r i s t a n i n the episode i n which he i s b e i n g kidnapped by Norwegian merchants, when the f u r i o u s sea (2*4-25 f f . ) , whipped by a t e r r i b l e tempest, not only i n t i m i d a t e s the merchants but l e a v e s them completely h e l p l e s s and i n d e s p a i r of t h e i r l i v e s . A f t e r e i g h t days and near to exhaustion, one of the merchants - 9 -f e e l s t h a t t h i s t e r r i b l e s i t u a t i o n has as i t s cause t h e i r s i n f u l t r e a c h e r y i n kidnapping T r i s t a n (244l f f . ) and they r e s o l v e to set him f r e e as soon as the storm, subsides. I n s t a n t l y the t u r m o i l i n nature begins to recede and T r i s t a n Is set ashore. T r i s t a n r e c e i v e s a most d i v e r s i f i e d and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n and he e x c e l s i n speaking languages, i n music, and i n a l l c o u r t l y accomplishments. In s p i t e of h i s youth he a c q u i r e s great s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , a keen mind; he completely l a c k s i n h i b i t i o n but has great "presence d ' e s p r i t " to the p o i n t of t e l l i n g t a l l t a l e s i n order to t u r n a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n i n t o h i s f a v o u r , or at l e a s t t o astound people. A l l these t r a i t s combined w i t h h i s p o l i s h e d c o u r t l y a t t i t u d e cover up h i s i n h e r e n t i n s t i n c t f o r s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , h i s cunning, h i s shrewd, o f t e n b r u t a l and at no time k n i g h t l y s p i r i t . E v e r y t h i n g i n him i s geared to s e l f - i n t e r e s t , s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n , ambition. T r i s t a n as a b r i l l i a n t c o u r t l y youth stands w i t h both f e e t on the l e v e l of the c o u r t l y w o r l d — w i t h a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s of " S e i n und Schein"; he i s a gambler, an adventurer, to whom a l l means are j u s t i f i e d t o r e a c h h i s g o a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe t h a t even Brangaene, as c l e v e r as she i s , cannot equal T r i s t a n ' s r u t h l e s s shrewdness. I s o l d e , too, i s brought up i n t r u e c o u r t l y f a s h i o n , and i t i s T a n t r i s - T r i s t a n h i m s e l f who g i v e s her c o n v e n t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n the f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s — h e i s the only one t r u l y 10 -q u a l i f i e d to do t h i s . Through t h i s f a c t , G o t t f r i e d r a i s e s I s o l d e from, the l e v e l of the other c o u r t l y l a d i e s and makes her the only equal of T r i s t a n . I t i s at t h i s l e v e l of awareness t h a t T r i s t a n and I s o l d e partake of the l o v e p o t i o n . The l a t t e r i s again a source of much c o n t r o v e r s y amongst s c h o l a r s i n p a r t concerning i t s symbolism., and whether or not T r i s t a n and I s o l d e had been i n f a t u a t e d w i t h each other b e f o r e d r i n k i n g i t . A c c o r d i n g t o F i i r s t n e r and Hatto,-^ T r i s t a n and I s o l d e i n G o t t f r i e d ' s e p i c are not i n l o v e w i t h each other, not even u n c o n s c i o u s l y . T h e r e f o r e , the l o v e p o t i o n becomes the symbol of love-magic, of something superhuman: f a t e . G o t t f r i e d h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s the nature and the consequences of h i s l o v e p o t i o n , as the Queen Mother prepares i t , thus: mit sweme s i n ieman getranc, den muoser ane s i n e n danc vo r a l i e n dingen meinen und er da wider i n einen: i n was e i n t o t unde e i n leb e n , e i n t r i u r e , e i n vroude samet gegeben (11 3^6 f f ) The Queen Mother's i n s t r u c t i o n s t o Brangaene r e g a r d i n g the l o v e p o t i o n were most emphatic and d e t a i l e d , s t r e s s i n g the need to p r o t e c t I s o l d e ' s ere und a l i r dine bewarn (11 478). Emphasis i s on "ere." A f t e r T r i s t a n and I s o l d e have partaken of the p h i l t r e due to Brangaene's n e g l i g e n c e , Brangaene i s i n c o n s o l a b l e — s h e has now l o s t her ere and her triuwe and wishes she were dead. She concludes her lamentations w i t h the f o l l o w i n g words: ouwe T r i s t a n un.de I s o t d i z t r a n c i s t iuwer b e i d e r t o t ! (11 705 f . ) . 11 As the sh i p was l e a v i n g I r e l a n d , the passengers in t o n e d a p i l g r i m s ' song: " i n gotes namen varen w i r . " T h i s song i n f a c t i s sung twice more, thus g i v i n g i t an importance not to be overlooked. I t i s q u i t e obvious t h a t t h i s whole t r i p of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e i s to be made under God's care and g u i d a n c e — h e r e b y connecting w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y r a i s e d i d e a t h a t T r i s t a n ' s path was meant t o be under the s p e c i a l guidance of God (I788 f f . , 2441 f f . ) . Here we have then the e x p o s i t i o n of the maUn themes i n t h i s e p i c : Love, L i f e and Death, God. ^ G o t t f r i e d l e a v e s no doubt (11 707 f f . ) t h a t a f t e r p a r t a k i n g of the p o t i o n T r i s t a n and I s o l d e have i n a new way become e t e r n a l l y u n i t e d , and thereby i s brought i n t o b e i n g the Love-Sphere, which only encompasses the l o v e r s . T h i s f a c t i s f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e d by G o t t f r i e d i n th a t he denies t h a t Mark partakes of i t a f t e r the wedding (as s t a t e d by Thomas). As an immediate r e s u l t of the love p o t i o n , the l o v e r s are overwhelmed by mlnne, who f i r s t d i s p o s e s of t h e i r i n n e r i n h i b i t i o n s — t h e y d i s c l o s e t o each other t h e i r f e e l i n g s through t h e i r eyes (11 730-875)—and then the c o n f e s s i o n f o l l o w s , s e a l e d by a k i s s , " e i n s a e l e c l i c h e r anevanc" (12 0 4 l ) . But j u s t at t h i s h i g h s p i r i t u a l l e v e l of l o v e - s u f f e r i n g , Brangaene i n t e r v e n e s , a f r a i d t h a t the l o v e r s w i l l d i e . T r i s t a n f i r s t secures her promise of f a i t h f u l n e s s f o r both him. and I s o l d e and then d e c l a r e s t h a t i f they were t o d i e of l o v e , i t would be e n t i r e l y her f a u l t , s i n c e she does not gi v e them, an o p p o r t u n i t y to be alone: "unser t o t und unser leben / d i e s i n t i n iuwer hant gegeben" (12 11? f . ) . A f t e r I s o l d e confirms the t r u t h of T r i s t a n ' s words, Brangaene agrees r e l u c t a n t l y t o g i v e them an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p h y s i c a l union, a s s u r i n g them of her d e v o t i o n and s e c r e c y . G o t t f r i e d i n t e n t i o n a l l y avoids a l l sensual d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s l o v e union, emphasizing more the symbolic aspects at t h i s stage of T r i s t a n ' s and I s o l d e ' s l o v e - j o u r n e y . I n the ensuing ( s o - c a l l e d ) "Busspredigt der Minne" G o t t f r i e d does not use the key-word herze when speaking of the two l o v e r s and only mentions t h e i r moment of mutual joy. Obviously the l o v e i d e a l — l o v e and sorrow e n t w i n e d — has not been reached i n t h i s f i r s t e xperience. G o t t f r i e d i m p l i e s by t h i s omission t h a t both T r i s t a n and I s o l d e s t i l l d w e l l on the c o u r t l y s o c i e t y l e v e l , only seeking enjoyment. T h e i r l o v e , "minne, d i u v r i e , d i u e i n e " (12 301) , Is not y e t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t but needs o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e , I.e., Brangaene. The ensuing l o v e - j o y d u r i n g the remainder of the journey i s not i n agreement w i t h G o t t f r i e d ' s standards and requirements of t r u e l o v e , s i n c e by t h e i r a c t i o n the l o v e r s a v o i d the b l e n d i n g of l o v e w i t h sorrow (12 387) . F u l l of remorse and g u i l t , Brangaene consents to be the s u b s t i t u t e f o r I s o l d e on the wedding n i g h t and then she d i s c l o s e s to the l o v e r s the s e c r e t of the l o v e p o t i o n . T r i s t a n ' s r e a c t i o n i s : 'nu waltes got!* sprach T r i s t a n 'ez waere t o t oder l e b e n : ez hat mir s a n f t e vergeben. - 13 -ine weiz, wie jener werden s o l : d i r r e t o t der tuot mir wol. s o l t e d i u wunnecliche I s o t iemer a l s u s s i n min t o t , so wolte i c h gerne werben umb e i n eweclichez s t e r b e n ' (12 494 f f . ) . I t i s a f r i v o l o u s p l a y of words on " t o t , " because i n G o t t f r i e d ' s sense " e i n eweclichez s t e r b e n " Includes an a l l u s i o n to "eweclichez l e b e n " (4304 f f . ) . T r i s t a n a g a i n r e f e r s only to the sensual joys of h i s l o v e l i f e , and i f t h i s i s c a l l e d "eweclichez s t e r b e n , " he has no o b j e c t i o n s to e x p e r i e n c i n g i t over and over again] T r i s t a n i s s t i l l embracing only one aspect of l o v e . I n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between T r i s t a n and Mark, the aspects of ere and triuwe are d i s c o u r s e d upon as main motives f o r T r i s t a n ' s ensuing a c t i o n . He l e a d s I s o l d e to Mark and the wedding takes p l a c e ; G o t t f r i e d mentions i t only very b r i e f l y . Concerning the s u b s t i t u t i o n of Brangaene, G o t t f r i e d v o i c e s r e g r e t t h a t the l o v e r s stooped to such a measure. The event takes p l a c e i n complete darkness, a f u r t h e r symbol t h a t the a c t belongs to the realm, of the demonic, of e v i l . G o t t f r i e d ' s sympathy i s w i t h Brangaene, and thanks to her the l o v e r s are a b l e to c a r r y on t h e i r c a r e f r e e l o v e l i f e . G o t t f r i e d remarks upon t h i s : "dan dahte weder wip noch man / deheiner s l a h t e undinges an" (12 689 f f . ) . Seen o b j e c t i v e l y , t h i s k i n d of l i f e i s a n undine, an e v i l , except t h a t nobody n o t i c e s i t ! I s o l d e i s s t i l l not s a t i s f i e d . In s p i t e of Brangaene's assurance of d e v o t i o n and secrecy, and her help i n the wedding n i g h t , I s o l d e f e a r s she w i l l be b e t r a y e d to Mark 14 -and wants Brangaene k i l l e d . T h i s attempt at murder makes an even more unfortunate impression s i n c e i n G o t t f r i e d ' s work Brangaene i s t r e a t e d as I s o l d e ' s b l o o d r e l a t i v e (which i s not the case elsewhere). I s o l d e demands Brangaene's tongue as proof of her death. 'This r e c a l l s the j u d i c i a l p r a c t i c e by which a person i s punished on t h a t p a r t of the body w i t h which he had sinned. G o t t f r i e d ' s own judgment of I s o l d e ' s attempted murder i s v o i c e d i n the f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s : d i u s o r c h a f t e k i i n i g i n d i u t e t an d i s e n dingen s c h i n , daz man l a s t e r unde spot mere v u r h t e t danne got (12 709 f f . ) . Brangaene's symbolic language (12 792-848) where she excuses I s o l d e and thus saves h e r s e l f , at the same time p r o v i n g her triuwe f o r her m i s t r e s s , i s of i n t e r e s t w i t h r e g a r d to the "zwei hemede wiz alsam e i n sne": daz wize, daz r e i n e : sus l i e b e t i r daz hemede an. do s i z vieben^began, b i z daz s i z uber iiebete, s i n e wlze gar betriiebete , (12 818 f f . ) . T h i s c r i t i c i s m of T r i s t a n and Isolde,'s l o v e l i f e i s s u r e l y not d i r e c t e d to the h i r e d henchmen, who are not even meant to understand the symbolism, but n e i t h e r i s i t intended f o r I s o l d e ! So we must assume t h a t by u s i n g Brangaene as h i s mouthpiece, the author wanted i n d i r e c t l y to convey to h i s readers ( w e l l v e r s e d i n symbolism) h i s own o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c a l union of the l o v e r s : I s o l d e had thereby very much s o i l e d her p u r i t y . For the time b e i n g there i s no change i n the l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two l o v e r s , and a.s l o n g as they need - 15 -Brangaene's a s s i s t a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n to b r i n g i t about, t h e i r l o v e does not t r a n s c e n d the p u r e l y c o u r t l y l e v e l of p h y s i c a l p l e a s u r e . T h e i r behaviour towards the out-s i d e world i s branded by G o t t f r i e d as d e c e i t (13 0 0 3 ) . The key-word herz i s s t i l l m i s s i n g when r e f e r r i n g to the two l o v e r s . With Marjodo begins the h e r z e l e i t of the l o v e r s (13 488 f f . ) . H i s dream about the boar i n the King's bed i s very important f o r the eventual d i s c o v e r y of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e ' s s e c r e t l o v e . King Mark i s brought i n t o the p i c t u r e and thus p r e c i p i t a t e s the s u f f e r i n g c y c l e of our two heroes. . Again the sexual symbol of the boar i s meant f o r the r e a d e r s : i t i s a s o i l i n g of the c o n n u b i a l bed, and i n a s y m b o l i c a l sense of the sacrament of marriage. T h i s t r e n d of thought i s f u r t h e r supported by the symbolism, of l i g h t and darkness i n the ensuing scenes. Although the moon i s s h i n i n g o u t s i d e , there i s complete darkness i n I s o l d e ' s chamber, s i n c e Brangaene has shaded the l i g h t by a chess-board. T h i s togetherness of the l o v e r s i s a g a i n e v i l and Brangaene, who has made i t p o s s i b l e , i s the t h i r d p a r t y i n t h i s demonic p a c t . Marjodo, f o r m e r l y T r i s t a n ' s f r i e n d , has become the s l y and envious opponent of the l o v e r s and i n d i c a t e s to Mark h i s d i s c o v e r y about T r i s t a n and I s o l d e . Thus the two p a r t i e s c o n f r o n t each other and the c o u r t l y b a t t l e of ruse a g a i n s t r u s e , d e c e i t a g a i n s t d e c e i t , b e g i n s . In the ensuing three scenes, G o t t f r i e d ' s i n t e n t i o n s come f u l l y t o l i g h t . At Marjodo's i n s t i g a t i o n , Mark pl a n s to t r a p 16 -I s o l d e i n order to e s t a b l i s h her t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p to T r i s t a n . Her innocent f i r s t r e p l i e s alarm Mark, making him h i g h l y s u s p i c i o u s , and he immediately informs Marjodo. I s o l d e i s from now on coached by Brangaene while Marjodo fans Mark's s u s p i c i o n s (13 707 f f . ) . I s o l d e braces her-s e l f a g a i n s t Mark's i n q u i s i t i o n and uses a l l p o s s i b l e means and w i l e s to a l l a y h i s s u s p i c i o n . Her c o u r t l y l i e s a chieve t h i s end u n t i l Mark d i s t r u s t s Marjodo. In these episodes, G o t t f r i e d intends to show the b a s i c d i s c r e p a n c y between the a c t u a l Love-Sphere and t h a t of the normal c o u r t l y world. Whenever I s o l d e has to r e l y upon h e r s e l f , she emerges as the l o v i n g woman who sub-c o n s c i o u s l y pays a t t e n t i o n to T r i s t a n — a n d only to him.— but u n w i t t i n g l y gets T r i s t a n i n t o t r o u b l e by t e l l i n g the t r u t h . On the other hand, whenever I s o l d e a l i g n s h e r s e l f w i t h the c o u r t l y l e v e l , w i t h Brangaene, her c o n c e n t r a t i o n on, and spontaneous r e a c t i o n t o , her l o v e r ceases e n t i r e l y , and while she denies her Love-Sphere w i t h a crude l i e , a dubious t r u c e i s achieved on the c o u r t l y l e v e l ; on the s u r f a c e a l l seems to be i n p e r f e c t order. Since Marjodo alone cannot convince Mark, he c a l l s i n a p a r t n e r : the dwarf Melot. I t i s the i d e a of a l l three of them (14 275) t o f o r b i d T r i s t a n a l l c o n t a c t w i t h I s o l d e i n order to f i n d out the t r u t h . T r i s t a n obeys Mark's order. I t i s at the p o i n t of the l o v e r s ' p a r t i n g — when T r i s t a n and I s o l d e stand alone and c o n f r o n t not only t h e i r three opponents but the whole c o u r t , when they cannot even speak: t o each other, c e r t a i n l y not m e e t — i t .. i 7 -i s at t h i s p o i n t t h a t G o t t f r i e d d e s c r i b e s i n t o u c h i n g words ( r e m i n i s c e n t of the scene be f o r e t h e i r l o v e d e c l a r a t i o n , 11 915), t h e i r s o r r o w f u l union of h e a r t s r a i s e d to super-sensual oneness, ". . . i r b e i d e r guot, / i r b e i d e r t o t , i r b e i d e r l e b e n " (14 330 f . ) . Mark immediately r e a l i z e s the t r u t h , and a l l t h a t i s needed i s to f i n d the l o v e r s In f l a g r a n t e . Brangaene, too, f e e l s the t r i b u l a t i o n s of the l o v e r s and while t a l k -i n g t o T r i s t a n about i t , he f o r the second time implores her to p r o v i d e a chance f o r meeting I s o l d e alone (a d i r e c t r e p e t i t i o n of the f i r s t p h y s i c a l union e p i s o d e ) . Brangaene suggests a s o l u t i o n , and the two are a g a i n under her p r o -t e c t i o n . The opposing teams are now equal i n number: three a g a i n s t t h r e e . As b e f o r e , these meetings of the l o v e r s under Brangaene's w a t c h f u l eyes belong to the realm of darkness. A f t e r the n i g h t l y meeting i n the orchard, where the l o v e r s are aware of b e i n g s p i e d upon by Mark and Melot, T r i s t a n and I s o l d e p a r t a g a i n s a d l y (1^907 f f . ) . The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of s h a r i n g p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t and sensual l o v e a g a i n r a i s e s the l o v e r s to a h i g h e r s p i r i t u a l l e v e l . However, t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s o n l y of s h o r t d u r a t i o n , s i n c e Mark's s u s p i c i o n s have been appeased, or so i t seems. The f l o u r - s c e n e proves the c o n t r a r y . Although T r i s t a n sees the white f l o u r but i gnores i t and jumps i n t o I s o l d e ' s bed, he proves by h i s sexual behaviour t h a t he does not see l o v e i n i t s t r u e essence and t h e r e f o r e misunderstands i t . G o t t f r i e d c a l l s T r i s t a n here "der minnen b l i n d e " 18 -because he i s , s y m b o l i c a l l y speaking, b l i n d . The consequences of t h i s episode culminate i n the j u d i c i a l o r d e a l by which I s o l d e i s to prove her innocence (15 518 f f . ) . In t h i s episode i t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h between I s o l d e ' s behaviour i n r e l a t i o n to God and her be-h a v i o u r towards Mark and the c o u r t l y world. I s o l d e knows she i s g u i l t y b e f o r e God, but she asks him. not to b e t r a y her b e f o r e Mark and the c o u r t . To her i t r e a l l y means an o r d e a l b e f o r e God, and she o f f e r s him her heart and hand f o r h i s grace. I s o l d e formulates the oath h e r s e l f and d i r e c t s i t only to Mark (15 697-723), so t h a t i n t h i s f i n a l b a t t l e I s o l d e and the King c o n f r o n t each other a l o n e . As f a r as I s o l d e i s concerned, her oath speaks the t r u t h , and the o r d e a l ends i n her f a v o u r : God has heard her p r a y e r s and bestowed His grace upon her—-which does not at a l l imply t h a t her g u i l t and s i n b e f o r e God have been m i t i g a t e d . G o t t f r i e d merely says, "dazg an i r eren genas" (15 750), i . d . , God d i d not wish t o d i s c l o s e i n any form, at t h i s time to Mark and the c o u r t the l o v e r s ' s e c r e t . God has helped I s o l d e and appeased Mark's "zwi v e l unde arcwan" (15 ?63 f f . ) without Brangaene as mediator. T r i s t a n , who has l e f t the country, o b t a i n s f o r I s o l d e the l i t t l e dog P e t l t c r e i u w i t h the magic b e l l t h a t banishes a l l sorrow. He sends a m i n s t r e l to take the dog to I s o l d e f o r her enjoyment and c o n s o l a t i o n . I t i s obvious t h a t t h i s dog i s a t y p i c a l c o u r t l y symbol: i t r e p r e s e n t s sheer joy. G o t t f r i e d s t r e s s e s t h i s by the f a c t t h a t the dog reaches I s o l d e v i a Brangaene. However, by the mere f a c t - 1 9 -t h a t T r i s t a n sends the dog to h i s beloved i n a most un-s e l f i s h and understanding way, he not only shows the i n n e r depth and s t r e n g t h of l o v e f o r her but a l s o a f f i r m s and welcomes by t h i s gesture h i s own l o v e sorrows imposed upon him by I s o l d e ' s absence. I s o l d e , however, " d i u getriuwe s t a e t e senedaerin" (16 400), has a l r e a d y been u p l i f t e d and s p i r i t u a l i z e d through her l o v e to such a degree t h a t P e t i t r e i u cannot p o s s i b l y give her any s o l a c e and she t e a r s o f f the magic b e l l — w h i c h i s supposed to b a n i s h her s a d n e s s — b e c a u s e she too wishes to m a i n t a i n sadness of heart l i k e T r i s t a n . By t h i s gesture I s o l d e has completely transformed and a c t u a l l y r e v e r s e d the c o u r t l y purpose of the l i t t l e dog: i t not only l o s e s i t s j o y - g i v i n g f u n c t i o n , but becomes a symbol of s o r r o w f u l l o v e , of r e i n e sene und t r i u w e . Thus the g i v i n g of P e t i t c r e i u and the removal of the magic b e l l denote t h a t both T r i s t a n and I s o l d e have changed the q u a l i t y of t h e i r l o v e c o n s i d e r a b l y from eros towards agape and o n l y now have they reached the l e v e l intended f o r them by G o t t f r i e d from the o u t s e t . Love i n r e i n e r  sene und triuwe and i n h e r z e l e i t . T r i s t a n i s back at c o u r t again, but the l o v e r s ' l o v e had been s p i r i t u a l i z e d a l r e a d y to such a degree t h a t they of t h e i r own a c c o r d stay a p a r t (16 4 l l f f . ) . S t r angely enough i t i s j u s t t h i s k i n d of l o v e , h i g h l y approved of by the author, t h a t makes Mark s u s p i c i o u s a g a i n due to the tender gestures and looks of the l o v e r s , which G o t t f r i e d wants to have understood s t r i c t l y s y m b o l i c a l l y as a - 20 -s p i r i t u a l soul-bond, a oneness of h e a r t s (16 493 f f . ) expressed i n l o o k s and g e s t u r e s . The King does not under-stand t h i s , of course, f o r he l i v e s on another l e v e l , and he t h e r e f o r e banishes the l o v e r s from the c o u r t ; he cannot bear the s i g h t of them, any more. T r i s t a n and I s o l d e now have no c h o i c e , they have to go s i n c e Mark renounces I s o l d e (16 613) and g i v e s the l o v e r s f u l l freedom.; he even wishes them. God-speed: " v a r t i r b e i d i u gote ergeben" (16 617) . Again there i s the mention of God i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f a t e of the l o v e r s . T r i s t a n and I s o l d e now proceed, but not without r e g r e t , to the l o v e r s * cave accompanied by T r i s t a n ' s dog Hiudan and by C u r v e n a l . They are s t i l l r a t h e r c o u r t l y and the banishment from, c o u r t a f f e c t s them.. Brangaene remains at court f o r she has no p a r t whatsoever i n the Love-Sphere, t h a t w i l l r e c e i v e i t s h i g h e s t f u l f i l m e n t i n the g r o t t o . P e t i t c r e i u a l s o — n o w the symbol of s o r r o w f u l l o v e — w o u l d be out of p l a c e i n these surroundings, where the l o v e r s w i l l experience t h e i r g r e a t e s t b l i s s . Only Curvenal knows where the l o v e r s are because he i s to p l a y the r o l e of a mediator, though d e f i n i t e l y s t a n d i n g on the s i d e of the l o v e r s . He i s the only one who b e s i d e the l o v e r s has access to the surroundings of the cave, s i n c e he too i s "von edeles herzen a r t " (2 263) . T h i s s e c t i o n concerning the cave of the l o v e r s has undergone the g r e a t e s t changes w i t h G o t t f r i e d and encompasses a f u l l 1100 v e r s e s . Without going i n t o d e t a i l about the d i f f e r e n c e s between Thomas and G o t t f r i e d r e g a r d i n g t h i s 21 -s e c t i o n , one can summarize by saying t h a t G o t t f r i e d has extended i t l a r g e l y by the a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Minnegrotte which i s h i s own i n v e n t i o n . He i n t r o d u c e s the miraculous mutual nourishment of the l o v e r s through l o v e i t s e l f . The cave has become a temple of l o v e , a magic g r o t t o , which i n c l u d e s the immediate surroundings of n a t u r e , the occupants of which are p o r t r a y e d as the l o v e r s ' entourage. T r i s t a n and I s o l d e have f i n a l l y found an abode i n keeping with t h e i r i n n e r l e v e l of s p i r i t u a l i t y ; and s i n c e a l l e g o r i c a l l y there i s an i m p l i c a t i o n of l i f e i n p a r a d i s e , so too there i s the mystery of the S p e i s e -wunder, an i n v i s i b l e mutual n o u r i s h i n g . T h e i r togetherness has now reached an i n t e n s i t y of d e l i g h t comparable to no t h i n g i n t h i s world, even wi t h t h a t of any other l o v e r s i n the p a s t (17 225). The t r u e purpose of the cave i s f u l f i l l e d t o i t s h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l only through T r i s t a n and I s o l d e and t h e i r l o v e f o r each ot h e r , and the d w e l l i n g i n t h i s g r o t t o w i t h a l l i t s inherent b l i s s and e l e v a t i o n i s a grace bestowed upon the l o v e r s . Now t h e i r l o v e does not need any o u t s i d e h e l p f o r i t s f u l f i l m e n t and e s p e c i a l l y not "akust unde l i s t " (16 936). T r i s t a n and I s o l d e are e x p e r i e n c i n g i d e a l l o v e and G o t t f r i e d sees i n them t r a n s f i g u r e d b e i n g s — almost s a i n t s . T h e i r present l o v e i s f r e e of gewalte, c r a f t , l i s t e , m e i s t e r s c h a f t , v a l s c h e i t or luge (17 O i l f f . ) , otherwise they would never have entered the cave through the e r i n e t u r . I t s two b o l t s : " w i s h e i t und s i n n e , k i u s c h e und r e i n e , " prevent anybody but the l o v e r s from, g e t t i n g - 22 -i n t o the cave (1? 024 f f . ) . The l o v e - f u l f i l m e n t i s closely-l i n k e d w i t h " r e h t e r guete" (17 052) and t h a t i s only achieved w i t h " a r b e i t " und "ungemach" (17 108). The i n s i d e of the cave i s i l l u m i n a t e d not only by the s u n l i g h t f i l t e r i n g through the th r e e windows that r e p r e s e n t "guete, diemiite und zuht," but a l s o by the constant glow of ere, which i s always present when e a r t h l y l o v e ( i . e . , human love) i s l i v e d and experienced i n an i d e a l manner and based upon the three v i r t u e s j u s t mentioned. G o t t f r i e d wants to present to us here h i s lov e i d e a l i n a p o e t i c - s y m b o l i c a l way, an i d e a l t h a t should be made r e a l i t y a l r e a d y on t h i s e a r t h . In the e p i c T r i s t a n and I s o l d e have reached t h i s stage and 'eve ( i . e . , v i r t u e ) e n f o l d s them., as I t o r i g i n a t e s i n t r u e l o v e and has no t h i n g whatsoever i n common w i t h c o u r t l y "ere, s i n c e i t s l i g h t descends from, above. I t i s there l i k e the sun, a l s o g i v e n as a g i f t f o r t r a n s c e n d e n t a l reasons. We have here a Go d - w i l l e d and God-pleasing l o v e and ere i n p e r f e c t harmony. IiQOking back at the l i f e and l o v e of the l o v e r s a t co u r t w i t h a l l i t s h i g h p o i n t s but a l s o w i t h i t s setbacks, we can see t h a t they a l l r e p r e s e n t e d stages to be overcome i n the grad u a l ascent on the narrow path of p e r f e c t i n g o n e s e l f . In a s y m b o l i c a l way, t h i s a l s o d e p i c t s the way of each l o v i n g couple as i t c o u l d and should be. In s p i t e of the p a r a d i s e - l i k e l i f e i n the cave, T r i s t a n and I s o l d e have t o abandon i t and r e t u r n t o the co u r t a t Mark's i n s t i g a t i o n . By o b s t r u c t i n g one of the windows wit h grass and f l o w e r s , Mark e l i m i n a t e s one of - 23 -the important sources of l i g h t , c a n c e l l i n g out the p e r f e c t i o n of rays w i t h i n the cave: the King i s the r e a l and l a s t o b s t a c l e o u t s i d e of the Love-Sphere c o n f r o n t i n g the l o v e r s . I t a l s o means t h a t the King intends t o demand ag a i n h i s r i g h t as l a w f u l husband: t o G o t t f r i e d marriage as a sacrament has precedence over a Go d - w i l l e d and God-p l e a s i n g l o v e . Another reason f o r r e t u r n i n g t o cou r t Is the great d e s i r e of the l o v e r s t o be p a r t of s o c i e t y . I n s p i t e of t h e i r harmonious l i f e at the cave, G o t t f r i e d d e c l a r e s : s i n haeten a l l e z b i i n da. s i n haeten umbe e i n bezzer l e b e n n i h t eine bone gegeben wan eine umbe i r ere (16 875 f f . ) . They f e e l t h a t they owe i t to t h e i r w o r l d l y ere a g a i n to become p a r t of c o u r t l y l i f e , something f o r which they had hoped ever s i n c e t h e i r banishment. However, G o t t f r i e d a l s o wishes to convey on a high e r l e v e l t h a t i t i s not compatible w i t h the present stage of l o v e and l o v e - e r e ( i . e . , v i r t u e ) of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e , nor j u s t i f i e d b e f o r e God t o stay any lo n g e r i n the b l i s s f u l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t atmosphere of the cave. They should r e t u r n to c o u r t , and s i n c e the lov e experience on the h i g h e s t l e v e l i s d e f i n i t e l y terminated, they w i l l have to content themselves w i t h a l e s s e r k i n d . Upon t h e i r r e t u r n t o c o u r t , Mark promptly f o r b i d s T r i s t a n and I s o l d e t o indu l g e i n tender l o v e - g a z i n g . I n h i s p a s s i o n f o r I s o l d e , he not only cannot see but does not want to see the t r u t h and t h e r e f o r e , o b j e c t i v e l y 2 4 -viewed, i t i s he who i s r e a l l y the g u i l t y one. In the o r c h a r d scene at h i g h noon, where I s o l d e arranges a s e c r e t meeting w i t h T r i s t a n i n the shade of a t r e e , i t i s I s o l d e h e r s e l f who i n v i t e s the e c l i p s e of t h e i r l o v e , t h i n k i n g t h a t she can a v o i d her s o r r o w f u l and p a i n -f u l f a t e . Here, however, i n c o n t r a s t to the s i t u a t i o n at the l o v e r s ' cave sunne and l o v e - e r e are i n o p p o s i t i o n (18 1 2?f.), as much as sunne and minne (18 129 f.)« In. the shade, the l o v e r s a g a i n enter the realm, of e v i l , of darkness, by i n d u l g i n g i n p h y s i c a l union. G o t t f r i e d compares t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i t h the f i r s t f a l l of man i n p a r a d i s e , s i n c e he Is of the o p i n i o n t h a t the f a l l and s i n of Adam, and Eve was a sexual one. He c o u l d not have made the greatness of the l o v e r s ' f a l l more emphatic. I t i s a g a i n a d e f i l i n g of the connubial bed, and I s o l d e i s the v i c t i m . Since Mark s u r p r i s e s the l o v e r s and f i n a l l y f i n d s them. i n f l a g r a n t e , T r i s t a n has to f l e e . But while at the p a r t i n g T r i s t a n d e f i n i t e l y remains s t i l l on the c o u r t l y l e v e l (18 256 f f . ) , I s o l d e d i s c l o s e s i n her p a r t i n g speech (18 288-358) the a b s o l u t e h e i g h t and s t r e n g t h of her s p i r i t u a l i n n e r l i f e . She l e a v e s a l l c o u r t l y values behind as completely w o r t h l e s s , f a l l s back on her own i n n e r r e s o u r c e s a f t e r her keen awareness of having not o n l y become one w i t h T r i s t a n i n heart and s p i r i t , but i n the m y s t i c a l love-exchange of body and l i f e w i t h him, f i n a l l y reached the peak of s e l f l e s s n e s s (18 324-358). As she watches T r i s t a n ' s s h i p l e a v i n g , she r e v e a l s i n her l o n g monologue the f e r v e n t i n t e r m i n g l i n g of l o v e and - 25 -death, body and l i f e of the l o v e r s . She r e a l i z e s t h at i t i s o n l y through continence t h a t T r i s t a n w i l l be able to atone and be healed, and her f i n a l words r e v e a l t h a t she i s s t r i v i n g t o overcome her own d e s i r e f o r h i s and her sake: i c h w i l mich gerne twlngen an a l i e n minen dingen, das i c h mln unde s i n entwese, durch daz er mir und ime genese. (18 597 f f . ) I t i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the C h r i s t i a n - m y s t i c experience of body and l i f e ; the senses of the l o v e r s d i e away and the p a i n of the p a r t i n g f o r e s e e s t h i s as a f a c t a l r e a d y accomplished. T r i s t a n , i n accordance w i t h the v a l u e s of h i s s t i l l c o u r t l y l e v e l , decides to devote h i s l i f e to r i t t e r s c h e f t e (18 442) i n order to be able to bear h i s love-sorrow and s u f f e r i n g . He r e a l l y wants to r i d h i m s e l f of h i s l o v e -p a i n and plunge i n t o the world of a c t i o n , joy and f o r g e t -f u l n e s s . But to G o t t f r i e d , t h i s k i n d of world is equated w i t h the death of the s p i r i t , and the estrangement from h i s t r u e l i f e w i t h the death of the body. T r i s t a n then Is endangered by two k i n d s of death: "sus twang i n t o t unde t o t " (18 437). He would exchange h i s t r u e l i f e f o r an apparent l i f e of joy ending i n double death. T r i s t a n at t h i s stage i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the " f a l l e n s a i n t . " A f t e r v a r i o u s adventures and detours, T r i s t a n comes to A r undel, where he b e f r i e n d s Kaedin, the Duke's son, and meets h i s temptation i n the l a t t e r * s daughter, I s o l d e 26 -Whitehand. Her name s p e l l s magic f o r T r i s t a n , reminding him of I s o l d e the F a i r ; h i s sorrow i s awakened anew and he acknowledges i t as h i s t r u e l i f e , because the d i s t a n t b e l o v e d s t i l l means more to him than the present I s o l d e . But l i t t l e by l i t t l e he begins to f e e l a joy i n the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The r e s u l t of the simultaneous b l e n d i n g of s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l joy i s a c o n f u s i o n of mind, which determines the f u r t h e r development. Joy and s u f f e r i n g do not focus on one and the same person any more, but only i n the same name of two p e r s o n s — t h e r e f o r e T r i s t a n ' s c o n f u s i o n concerning I s o l d e the F a i r and I s o l d e Whitehand. He senses t h i s very w e l l ; he f e e l s t h a t he i s under the s p e l l of the name. He c o n s t a n t l y hears I s o l d e but does not know where she i s ; he can see ; her, but cannot r e c o g n i z e her; she i s f a r away, yet near him.. He f e a r s he has come under the s p e l l of a magic p o t i o n f o r the second time (19 006 f . ) so t h a t he cannot d i f f e r e n t i a t e between I s o l d e and I s o l d e . He b e l i e v e s he has found the r e a l I s o l d e , but q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y and l u c i d l y i s aware t h a t i t i s only I s o l d e of A r u n d e l . But then he suddenly decides to meet every woman wi t h t h a t name w i t h a l o v i n g h e a r t , c l a i m i n g he owes i t to the name. T r i s t a n ' s d e s i r e i s not I s o l d e the F a i r any l o n g e r , nor y e t I s o l d e Whitehand, but t h e i r name.' Thus T r i s t a n t r a n s -f e r s memories from one t o the other and thereby k i n d l e s the flame of l o v e i n the l a t t e r ' s h e a r t . Due to t h i s a g a i n , l i k e a v i c i o u s c i r c l e , T r i s t a n f o r c e s h i m s e l f to l o v e I s o l d e Whitehand, hoping to be r e l e a s e d from, h i s - 2 ? -inner suffering and longing f o r the other Isolde. T r i s t a n attempts to overcome his pa i n f u l love sickness by means of a new love (Ovid's advice i n Remedla Amoris), but t h i s w i l l not bring about his desire. On the contrary, i t w i l l create more sorrow, and lack a l l v i t a l i t y . T r i s t a n Is deceiving both Isoldes, and himself most of a l l , because the new l i f e he i s seeking w i l l bring him. physical death. G o t t f r i e d defies his master O v i d — f o r whom, love was a f t e r a l l only an art one could acquire—and proves him wrong! But Tristan's f a t e — c o n t a i n e d i n his own name—-is stronger than t h i s inner confusion of h i s , and he awakens as i f from, a bad dream.: he cannot comprehend how he ever could have even thought of anyone else besides his Isolde, the only one belonging to his l i f e and heart, and the only one having the key to i t . She had accepted many a hard-ship because of him and had always f a i t h f u l l y stood by him.. He sins against Isolde because he wants to l i v e a l i f e of which she w i l l have no part. While she loves only him., he has t r i e d to woo another woman! Gottfried's judgment of the whole s i t u a t i o n i s very p l a i n and frank: T r i s t a n alone i s the g u i l t y party, he i s the one who betrayed Isolde Whitehand (19 397): " s i was betrogen." Therefore, we cannot l a b e l Isolde White-hand as a seducer, but as the innocent and naive victim. G o t t f r i e d considers the relationship between Tr i s t a n and Isolde Whitehand based on deceit, as a crime and sin; such a. marriage cannot l a s t . In other words, T r i s t a n 28 -should have married I s o l d e the F a i r and not I s o l d e White-hand, but s i n c e h i s t r u e l o v e was a l r e a d y bound by the bonds of marriage to another, he t h e r e f o r e had no r i g h t t o d e s i r e from her complete f u l f i l m e n t . He a l s o should not f o l l o w Ovid's advice and look f o r a new l o v e , but should renounce a l l but the s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f i r s t l o v e . One cannot d i v i d e one's power of l o v e , because such a d i v i s i o n would a f f e c t the very core of l o v e : the a b i l i t y to l o v e t r u l y and deeply. One should only l o v e one person, w i t h a l l one's might. The s l o g a n of the c o u r t l y l o v e d o c t r i n e was t h a t t r u e l o v e cannot e x i s t i n marriage and a g a i n s t t h i s back-ground the marriages of Mark to I s o l d e , and T r i s t a n to I s o l d e Whitehand are to be seen, i . e . , as examples of a marriage which G o t t f r i e d d i d not c o n s i d e r s a t i s f a c t o r y . For him, a. marriage would have been a complete one only i f i t combined and harmonized l o v e and ere, when lov e would not have been r e p r e s s e d because of the world's judgment, but g i v e n to the beloved w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and maze. G o t t f r i e d searches f o r t h i s i d e a l but cannot see i t r e a l i z e d anywhere: T r i s t a n and I s o l d e cannot marry each other, and o u t s i d e of marriage the u n i t y of a l l necessary components i s not p o s s i b l e , s i n c e e r e — t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of the w o r l d — w o u l d have to be m i s s i n g . G o t t f r i e d s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e s the emptiness of a r i g i d concept r e g a r d i n g marriages of h i s p e r i o d and seeks to e s t a b l i s h an i d e a l f o r simple mortals. However, he knew t h a t he was ahead of h i s time and c o u l d h a r d l y hope - 29 -to be understood by, everyone, and t h i s i s why we can de t e c t i n h i s e p i c a tone of s o r r o w f u l r e s i g n a t i o n , and t h i s i s why, as he h i m s e l f p o i n t s out, he w r i t e s only f o r the s e l e c t few, f o r the e l i t e of edele herzen, because only they w i l l t r u l y understand h i s message. Two German poets attempted to complete G o t t f r i e d ' s k u n f i n i s h e d e p i c . The c o n t i n u a t i o n of U l r i c h von Turheim encompasses 3*800 verses based on E i l h a r t ' s v e r s i o n . I t i s a r a t h e r poor attempt, completely l a c k i n g any under-s t a n d i n g of the deeper meaning i n G o t t f r i e d ' s poem. H e i n r i c h von F r e i b e r g ^ had much g r e a t e r a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y than U l r i c h , and h i s e f f o r t s proved him. to be a worthy f o l l o w e r of G o t t f r i e d . He added 6,890 v e r s e s to G o t t f r i e d ' s 19,548, p e r u s i n g E i l h a r t as w e l l as U l r i c h ' s c o n t i n u a t i o n , but h i s a r t i s t i c i d e a l i s G o t t f r i e d , w i t h whose p r a i s e he begins h i s poem. He i s q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n i m i t a t i n g not only G o t t -f r i e d ' s outer form by use of a h i g h l y p o l i s h e d language, but a l s o making i t h i s own s t y l e and form of e x p r e s s i o n . In the i n n e r s p i r i t of the legend, however, H e i n r i c h cannot completely hide h i s own sense of r e a l i t y . While G o t t f r i e d wrote h i s poem "der w e l t ze l i e b e , " H e i n r i c h concludes h i s v e r s i o n w i t h comments on the f u t i l i t y of w o r l d l y l o v e , admonishing every C h r i s t i a n to t u r n h i s he a r t to l a s t i n g l o v e — t o C h r i s t . L i t t l e by l i t t l e , a p p r e c i a t i o n was l o s t f o r G o t t f r i e d ' s r e f i n e d , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y motivated, s p i r i t u a l p o r t r a y a l , - 30 -while the E i l h a r t v e r s i o n , e n t i r e l y based on e f f e c t i v e n a r r a t i o n of outer a c t i o n , remained po p u l a r . For about 200 y e a r s , the legend seems to be f o r g o t t e n and only i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century do we encounter the Prose Romance. At t h i s time, o l d e p i c poems, p r e v i o u s l y only a v a i l a b l e i n manuscripts, were put i n t o prose and p r i n t e d i n order to reach the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . An unknown author rewrote the whole T r i s t a n e p i c i n t o prose, u n f o r t u n a t e l y without any a r t i s t i c ambition, founding i t on E i l h a r t ' s v e r s i o n , "von der l e u t wegen, d i e s .olicher gereimbter biicher n i t genad habent, auch e t l i c h , d i e d i e kunst der reimen n i t e y g e n t l i c h v e r s t e e n kunden. There were s e v e r a l p r i n t i n g s made, the f i r s t one b e i n g i n 1484 at Augsburg. R e p r i n t s were made i n the s i x t e e n t h century and the Romance was a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Buch der Liebe'' i n 1578 and 1587. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n was once more p r i n t e d under the same t i t l e i n 1809 through the •I e f f o r t s of Biisching and von der Hagen. Thus the legend of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e was kept a l i v e i n Germany i n a v e r s i o n which was i n i t s content very c l o s e to the a r c h a i c form., i n c o n t r a s t to France where the s o - c a l l e d E s t o i r e had become an extended Prose Romance a l r e a d y i n the second h a l f of the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , but w i t h such r a d i c a l changes, t h a t the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e was h a r d l y d i s c e r n i b l e . In the German Prose Romance, the o l d c o u r t l y e p i c was reduced to a s t o r y f o r entertainment and consequently i t s s t y l e was a l t e r e d to s u i t the l e v e l of i t s r e a d e r s . - 31 -The unknown author o f t e n i n t r u d e s w i t h e l a b o r a t e comments of h i s own, c u l m i n a t i n g i n admonitions to the reader to gi v e God p r i o r i t y over w o r l d l y l o v e i n order not t o p r e -c i p i t a t e an untimely death. The l a s t e a r l y e f f o r t t o c l o t h e the T r i s t a n s t o r y In a new garment came from a bourgeois poet. Hans Sachs knew the Worms e d i t i o n of the Prose Romance (15^9/50) and u t i l i z e d the m a t e r i a l f o r s i x M e i s t e r l i e d e r and one drama (1553), the l a t t e r e n t i t l e d " T r agedia. M i t 23 Personen. Von der strengen l i e b h e r r T r i s t r a n t , mit der schonen k o n i g i n I s a l d e n , unnd hat 7 a c t u s . " The r i g i d and s t e r e o t y p e d form, of the M e i s t e r l i e d does not r e a l l y l e n d i t s e l f t o a f l u e n t account of such a Romance, and so Hans Sachs s i m p l i f i e s the m a t e r i a l t o a great extent. He d i s c a r d s the s t o r y of T r i s t a n ' s parents and h i s youth, and a l l unnecessary persons and episodes, not even u s i n g nam.es except f o r the main c h a r a c t e r s . A few new elements were found necessary t o b r i d g e the gaps. U n l i k e both the "Volksbuch" and the "Tr a g e d i a , " there i s no other I s o l d e , no wife f o r T r i s t a n , a f a c t which of course g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e s the s t o r y . Hans Sachs i s very r e a l i s t i c but a l s o very naive i n h i s s t o r y t e l l i n g . On the whole, he expresses throughout the T r i s t a n poems h i s shame and sorrow r e g a r d i n g the l o v e s t o r y and the l o v e r s * l i f e , g i v i n g admonitions f o r morals t o the readers at the end of each poem.. In h i s drama, Hans Sachs f o l l o w e d h i s source f a i t h -- 32 -f u l l y , but shortened the legend by l e a v i n g out T r i s t a n ' s youth, the Truchsess episode, Brangel as s u b s t i t u t e i n the wedding n i g h t , and as consequence of t h i s , I s o l d e ' s attempt to have her murdered, as w e l l as t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . He d i d not succeed i n c r e a t i n g a dramatic a c t i o n , s i n c e a too voluminous e p i c n a r r a t i v e had to be compressed i n t o seven a c t s , r e s u l t i n g i n f a r too l o n g and numerous d i a l o g u e s and obscure and i l l o g i c a l scenes, w i t h time l a p s e s amounting to s e v e r a l years w i t h i n one a c t . Hans Sachs has a somewhat l o n e l y p o s i t i o n among poets who have sung the Romance of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e . Although he had f o r e r u n n e r s , he d i d not know them, and h i s s u c c e s s o r s d i d not t h i n k of him, though he was the f i r s t t o w r i t e and p u b l i s h T r i s t a n as a drama. Again c e n t u r i e s e l a p s e d b e f o r e the T r i s t a n and I s o l d e legend was r e v i v e d i n German l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s time through the Romantic Movement at the end of the e i g h t e e n t h and i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. 33 -CHAPTER I I R O M A N T I C I S M A f t e r the emotional Storm, and S t r e s s p e r i o d , there f o l l o w e d two l i t e r a r y movements, Cl a s s i c i s m , and Romanticism.. Both of these movements were b a s i c a l l y n o t h i n g more than an e f f o r t toward a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the demands of i n t e l l e c t w i t h the demands of f e e l i n g f o r l i t e r a r y purposes, and p h i l o s o p h i c a l , e t h i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s ends. The C l a s s i -cism, of S c h i l l e r and Goethe, who c u l t i v a t e d i d e a l s more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the world of human accomplishments, achieved t h i s end w i t h r e c o g n i z e d success. The Romantics, on the other hand, who c u l t i v a t e d the l o n g i n g s of t h e i r i n n e r l i f e , succeeded only i n p a r t . They attempted to r e c o n c i l e i n t e l l e c t and f e e l i n g , the v i s i b l e and the i n v i s i b l e , v i s u a l concepts and emotional s t a t e s , calm judgments and p a s s i o n s , l o g i c a l demonstrations and i n -s t i n c t s , the conscious and the unconscious, r e a l i t i e s and i d e a l s , the world and God; they attempted to r e c o n c i l e these f o r c e s under the burden of a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . The Romantics wanted to be humanistic, but found no a r t at hand which c o u l d s a t i s f y completely t h e i r emotional nature. They gave us a l i t e r a r y r e c o r d of the experiences of t h e i r emotional i n n e r l i f e , of the enjoyment of that l i f e , of i t s enrichment, deepen-i n g and enhancement. Theybattempted to p r o j e c t that i n n e r l i f e i n t o the world and g i v e us an account of i t s s u c c e s s f u l harmonization as w e l l as of i t s f a i l u r e . - 3k -German romanticism, i s S e e l e n k u l t u r . I t f i n d s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the e x i s t e n c e of an i n n e r world. I t i s a r e c o r d of approaches t o , and r e v e l a t i o n s o f , u n i v e r s a l d i v i n e l i f e . Romanticism stands f o r emancipation of the i n t e l l e c t , of the senses, emotions, and s p i r i t , from t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s , forms, conventions, i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l i t e r a r y standards. Among t h e i r i d o l s are a e s t h e t i c s e l f - c u l t u r e and l o v e of beauty. Although much of the beauty which the Romantics l o v e d was sensuous, a t t a c h i n g i t s e l f t o nature, beauty was to them, e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l : a l l beauty was l i f e , and t h a t which made a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g b e a u t i f u l was not i t s e f f e c t on t h e i r senses, but p r i m a r i l y the f e e l i n g i t evoked i n t h e i r minds. Beauty was f e e l i n g , emotional-mental s t a t e s , p s y c h i c experiences, s p i r i t u a l moods. Romanticism, i s , t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e l y a r e c o r d of t h i s f e e l i n g of t h e i r l o v e f o r t h i n g s to be l o v e d , a r e c o r d of the p r o p e r t i e s of t h e i r own h e a r t : a l o v e gospel of s o u l e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s makes romantic w r i t i n g s auto-b i o g r a p h i c a l ; i t i s the p o e t r y of c o n f e s s i o n s of the ex-p e r i e n c e s of the human h e a r t . The Romantics d i s c o v e r e d or r e - d i s c o v e r e d the power of the subconscious, the dream., premonition, l o n g i n g , magic, the magnetism of the s o u l and the s e c r e t s of the myths. They became most r e c e p t i v e to the i n n e r v o i c e s of nature, gave a new understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , and f o l l o w e d Herder's f o o t s t e p s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of a l l n a t i o n s . They were convinced of the r i g h t and the freedom, of the i n d i v i d u a l -- 35 -i s t i c , y e t at the same time preached the organic u n i t y of a l l c r e a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g F i c h t e ' s p h i l o s o p h y , the Romantics were of the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t man's innermost b e i n g cannot achieve f u l f i l m e n t i n t h i s world but only i n the immeasurable " o t h e r - w o r l d l y " realm, and the b l u e f l o w e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r l o n g i n g f o r i t . The union w i t h God was the only way f o r s a l v a t i o n — - a n d the C a t h o l i c church became i t s a e s t h e t i c - s y m b o l i c a l - m y s t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , r e i n f o r c e d by the d i s c o v e r y of the v a l u e s of medieval c u l t u r e which was based on Catholicism.. The Romantic Movement was from the s t a r t a r e l i g i o u s movement and i n t h e i r s e arch f o r i d e n t i t y the Romantics sought t h e i r i d e a l s In the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , i n the h e r i t a g e of t h e i r own n a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s was an attempt to escape the p r e s e n t , born out of a s p i r i t u a l n e c e s s i t y ; i t was the r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c r i s i s , t h e i r d e s p a i r at "Enlightenment," an enthronement of subjectivism., due to Kant's d e s t r u c t i o n of b e l i e f i n the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y of the e m p i r i c a l u n i v e r s e . Man searches f o r what he needs where he b e l i e v e s he can f i n d i t , and so i t i s a q u i t e n a t u r a l path f o r the Romantics to r e t r a c e t h e i r steps to the Middle Ages (from, the e a r l y times up to and i n c l u d i n g the Renaissance), a p e r i o d which seemed to possess e v e r y t h i n g t h a t t h e i r present l a c k e d . They c o u l d not p o s s i b l y be s a t i s f i e d by i d e a l -i z i n g t h e i r own present time, they had to s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e i r own world a world i n which r e l i g i o n was s t i l l a c u l t u r a l power and the f o u n d a t i o n of s o c i e t y . T h i s c u l t - 36 -of the Middle Ages i n f a c t means: C a t h o l i c i s m — n o t so much due to the t r u t h of i t s t e a c h i n g s , as due to the d i v i n e order of man's l i f e "based on these teachings and 8 c u l t u r e . THE ROMANTIC TREASURES OF THE PAST At the end of the e i g h t e e n t h century, Wackenroder 9 g l o r i f i e d the a r t of the time of Durer i n Nurriberg, the b r o t h e r s S c h l e g e l deepened the l i t e r a r y - h i s t o r i c a l understanding of the past on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l 1 0 ' and then a l s o turned to the past of t h e i r own n a t i o n by l e c t u r i n g about Middle High German e p i c s , h e r o i c sagas, mythology, and by encouraging g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n the o l d sources of German language and p o e t r y . N o v a l i s saw i n the medieval world t h a t i d e a l and deep c u l t u r a l u n i t y f o r which a l l the Romantics were l o n g i n g , s i n c e t h e i r e r a d i d not possess i t . N a t u r a l l y , i t was not only a r c h i t e c t u r e and p a i n t i n g , language and h i s t o r y of the Middle Ages t h a t was b e i n g promoted, but a l s o I n t e r e s t i n medieval poetry and w r i t i n g * Ludwig T i e c k took the banner from, h i s f r i e n d Wackenroder. He f i n a l l y found the l i t e r a r y form i n which he c o u l d express h i m s e l f b e s t . These were Nacherzahlungen iand Umarbeltungen of o l d chapbooks, In which he succeeded i n c a p t u r i n g the naive manner and mood of t r u e s t o r y t e l l i n g . By u s i n g the m a t e r i a l of o l d chapbooks and f a i r y t a l e s , T i e c k awakened a very l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n o l d e r poetry and w r i t i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y In t h a t of the V o l k s d i c h t u n g . Even - 37 -i n h i s a r t i s t - n o v e l (Kiinstlerroman), Franz S t e r n b a l d s  Wanderungen, he wanted to d e p i c t the world at the waning of the Middle Ages, the Nurnberg of A l b r e c h t Durer, as w e l l as the a r t i s t i c world of the Netherlands and of I t a l y . Old sagas (Ekhard, Tannhauser) were a l s o perused as m a t e r i a l f o r s h o r t s t o r i e s i n the manner of f a i r y t a l e s and i n a d d i t i o n T i e c k e d i t e d and p u b l i s h e d some of Hans Sachs' F a s t n a c h t s p i e l e and brought to the a t t e n t i o n of h i s f r i e n d s the w r i t i n g s of the S i l e s i a n m y s t i c , Jakob Bohme, a f a c t which had f a r - r e a c h i n g r e s u l t s f o r the whole Romantic Movement. The deep impression which h i s v i s i t to Nurnberg had made on him. and Wackenroder, prompted T i e c k to study i n " the l i b r a r i e s of Munich, Rome and P a r i s manuscripts of Middle High German poetry, e s p e c i a l l y M i n n e l i e d e r . He p u b l i s h e d the l a t t e r i n a d a p t a t i o n and i n the p r e f a c e gave a summary of the development of poetry from, the medieval time to Shakespeare and Goethe, p a i n t i n g an i d e a l p i c t u r e of knighthood and c o u r t l y l i f e . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the medieval p e r i o d had an e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f e c t : Jacob Grimm was prompted by i t to i n v e s t i g a t e medieval l i t e r a t u r e , others t a c k l e d renewals of o l d e p i c s , Achim von Arnim proceeded to peruse w r i t i n g s of the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r i e s (notably the seventeenth) as t o p i c s f o r h i s own l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s . 1 1 Arnim r e v i v e d many o l d s t o r i e s and f a i r y t a l e s . In c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Brentano, he gathered over s e v e r a l y ears f o l k s o n g s , sagas and p o e t r y of the past from, p r i n t e d and handwritten sources or by - 38 » word of mouth, f i n a l l y p u b l i s h i n g the r e s u l t s i n 1805 under the t i t l e Des Knaben Wunderhorn. T h e i r reasons were not s c h o l a r l y , they were more i n t e r e s t e d i n the immediate impact and e n t h u s i a s t i c r e a c t i o n t h a t t h i s c o l l e c t -i o n of t r e a s u r e s out of the past would have on t h e i r con-temporaries. T h i s they c e r t a i n l y a c h ieved to a much h i g h e r degree than d i d Herder w i t h h i s c o l l e c t i o n e r r o n e o u s l y e n t i t l e d V o l k s l i e d e r . J o s e f Gorres, a d e d i c a t e d Romantic and f i g h t e r f o r freedom and t r u t h through the medium, of j o u r n a l i s m , became f a m i l i a r w i t h o l d German l i t e r a t u r e through Brenta.no, and c o l l e c t e d chapbooks (about f o r t y - n i n e of them). Grimm admitted b e i n g g r e a t l y indebted to him f o r some of h i s m a t e r i a l . I n h i s s t u d i e s of the Middle Ages and i t s people, Gorres' essays can be c o n s i d e r e d an improvement over T i e c k 1 s , due to t h e i r g r e a t e r s c h o l a r l y e x a c t i t u d e . Von der Hagen and Busching c a r r i e d on w i t h t h i s i n t e r e s t i n chapbooks and p u b l i s h e d i n 1809 those of Pontus und S i d o n i a , F i e r a b a s and T r i s t a n under the t i t l e Buch der L i e b e . While Wilhelm Grimm s p e c i a l i z e d i n r e s e a r c h on o l d sagas and f a i r y t a l e s , Ludwig Uhland de-v o t e d a l r e a d y i n h i s younger years c o n s i d e r a b l e time to the study of Folksong, as w e l l as to the sagas and poetry of the Middle Ages. T h i s r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n the Middle Ages by the Romantics, e s p e c i a l l y i n the e p i c s , p o e t r y and chapbooks, - 39 -r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of the T r i s t a n and I s o l d e legend and i t s p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t f o r the Romantics, s i n c e i t expresses a h i g h i d e a l of l o v e , of which the Romantics p r a c t i c a l l y had made a c u l t . Before d i s c u s s i n g the Romantic treatments of the T r i s t a n legend, however, i t w i l l be necessary to l o o k at the Romantics' a t t i t u d e t o l o v e i n g e n e r a l . ROMANTIC LOVE . . Es i s t a l l e s i n der L i e b e : F r e u n d s c h a f t , schoner Umgang, S i n n l i c h k e i t und auch L e i d e n s c h a f t ; und es muss a l l e s d a r i n s e i n , und e i n s das andere v e r s t a r k e n und l i n d e r n , beleben und erhohen." (Lucinde, p. 83.) I n order b e t t e r to understand the t h i n k i n g of the Romantics r e g a r d i n g l o v e , we have f i r s t to go back to the end of the e i g h t e e n t h century and a s c e r t a i n what k i n d of s p i r i t u a l and mental a t t i t u d e was p r e v a l e n t a t t h a t time, and w i t h what k i n d of an o p i n i o n on l o v e the g e n e r a t i o n of the Romantics had to w r e s t l e . The dualism, i n the t h i n k i n g of the e i g h t e e n t h century, which d i s t i n g u i s h e s between sensual l o v e and s p i r i t u a l l o v e , i s q u i t e evident w i t h the Romantics. The harsh d i v i s i o n of body and s o u l — a c a r r y over i n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y from a n t i q u i t y — i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h the accepted o p i n i o n about woman d u r i n g the Enlightenment p e r i o d . Woman was equal to man as a r a t i o n a l b e i n g , a d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t i n g merely i n t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s . However, - 40 -a very low opinion prevailed regarding the sexual aspects, founded on Descartes' philosophy of the rigid division of body and soul qualities inherent in human beings. The irrational!stic philosophers of the eighteenth century extended this division further between that of sensuality and feelings. Thus any relationship involving a physical union was looked upon as inferior (and this included marriage!) to that of the 'spiritual bond' or the 'lofty meeting of kindred minds.' Klopstock's and Goethe's 12 attempts to change this point of view—born out of their own deep and strong realizations—were unsuccessful. It was not until Friedrich Schlegel and Schleiermacher pro-pounded the unity of the physical and spiritual aspects of love and corroborated i t philosophically, 1^ that this convjction took permanent roots in society. They had to overcome that gulf imposed by a l l the teachings that preceded their own time. While marriage had a higher value in German literature and philosophy of the eighteenth century than i t did in French literature, theoretically the reasons for its existence s t i l l did not amount to more than procreation or a means to avoid promiscuity. So much the higher was the value of a soul relationship, especially in those circles that considered themselves guardians of the Christian teachings, e.g., Bodmer and his friends. In contrast to them., Wieland's novels and verse romances proclaimed the intense power (Allmacht) of the nature-instincts, which idealistic, Platonlcally-lnclined youths - 41 -t r i e d i n v a i n to a v o i d . More honest than W i e l a n d 1 s v e i l e d l a s c i v i t y was the "L e i d e n s c h a f t s p a t h o s " of the poets of the Storm and S t r e s s , who embraced the n a t u r a l sensual p a s s i o n s . At the opposite end stood at the c l o s e of the century the f o l l o w e r s of the i r r a t l o n a l i s t i c p h i l o s -opher Hemsterhuis (who c o n s i d e r e d marriage a degra d a t i o n of the s o u l - l o v e , due to i t s p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s ) , i n c l u d i n g Jean P a u l , Herder and Jacob!, a l l of whom, h a i l e d f r i e n d -s h i p (the "Ehe der G e i s t e r " ) as s u p e r i o r t o lov e (the "Ehe der Ko r p e r " ) . Numerous l i t e r a r y works through s e v e r a l decades g i v e proof of t h i s p o i n t of v i e w — a man between two women: the one i s h i s w i f e , the other h i s "soul-mate" (e.g., J a c o b i : "Woldemar"). Only a few poets, such as Kl o p s t o c k and even more so Goethe, v o i c e d a d i f f e r e n t c o n v i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g l o v e , where the p h y s i c a l i s co n s i d e r e d the e x p r e s s i o n of the s p i r i t u a l , and of the s o u l i t s e l f . I t was only through the Romantics t h a t t h i s l a t t e r thought became v i c t o r i o u s . F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l , who, with h i s b r o t h e r August Wilhelm., was the c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Romanticism i n Germany i n i t s t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s , s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d J a c o b i ' s "Woldemar," not only f o r h i s o p i n i o n about l o v e , but a l s o f o r h i s p o r t r a y a l of the two women, e s p e c i a l l y the one of the w i f e , h a i l e d as an i d e a l by others f o r her complete submissiveness to the husband. The new i d e a l t h a t S c h l e g e l had was of a completely d i f f e r e n t k i n d : " S e l b s t a n d i g e W e i b l i c h k e i t " was to be 42 -the g o a l toward which the i d e a l of f e m i n i n i t y should 1 4 s t r i v e . In 1799 he p u b l i s h e d h i s romantic novel Lucinde, which aroused a c o n s i d e r a b l e s c a n d a l . In t h i s n o v e l he l a i d bare h i s p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s m i s t r e s s Dorothea, with a l a c k of r e t i c e n c e which shocked even h i s Romantic f r i e n d s . Yet Lucinde i s something more than a chronique  scandaleuse: i t u n f o l d s a programme of s o c i a l reform which was of much consequence f o r the f u t u r e . Taking up a. th r e a d from, the e a r l i e r essay Ube r d i e Dlotlma, S c h l e g e l expresses h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t woman was to be man's sexual arid i n t e l l e c t u a l comrade, not merely the mother of h i s c h i l d r e n or a. household drudge, and th a t she must even possess p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . He saw i n the union of man and woman an a l l e g o r y of complete humanity i n which m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y u n i t e i n harmonious r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , i n the b e l i e f t h a t man must take on some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of womanhood, and woman some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of manhood, to be worthy of such a humanity. The i d e a l marriage which he d e s c r i b e s i n Lucinde was based on the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l and on a harmony and u n i t y of so u l s which should p e r s i s t not only In t h i s world but a l s o i n the next. Through a l l the Romantic w r i t e r s , from. T i e c k to Hoffmann, we f i n d t h i s same t h e o r e t i c a l condemnation of marriage: they a l l see i n such a common-p l a c e f u l f i l m e n t of lov e the death of h i g h a p p r e c i a t i o n and the end of a r t i s t i c i n s p i r a t i o n . "Die L i e b e i s t n i c h t b l o s s das s t i l l e Verlangen nach dem. Unendlichen" (t h a t was the theme of the Hemsterhuis c i r c l e ) , " s i e i s t auch _. 43 -d e r h e i l i g e Genuss e i n e r schonen Gegenwart. S i e i s t n i c h t b l o s s e i n e Mischung, e i n Ubergang vom S t e r b l i c h e n zum U n s t e r b l i c h e n , sondern s i e i s t e i n e v o l l i g e E i n h e i t b e i d e r * 1 (L. 152) . T h i s c o n v i c t i o n became the b a s i c l o v e 15 m o t i f of almost a l l Romantic p o e t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s . ^ S c h l e g e l was i n t e r e s t e d i n m a t t e r s of sex , l o v e and womanhood from, h i s e a r l y y e a r s , as h i s l e t t e r s t o h i s b r o t h e r August Wilhelm. t e s t i f y . I n f l u e n c e d by h i s s t u d i e s I n Greek l i t e r a t u r e and p h i l o s o p h y , and by t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a c t i v i t i e s of h i s own t i m e , h i s i n t e r e s t s l a t e r on deepened and became more s p i r i t u a l , u n t i l he f e l t h i m s e l f c a l l e d upon t o d i s c h a r g e t h e d u t i e s of an e t h i c a l r e f o r m e r . He became c o n v i n c e d , as time went, t h a t t h e s o c i e t y i n wh i c h he l i v e d was p o s i t i v e l y i n e r r o r as t o the p o s i t i o n w h i c h woman was t o occupy i n the w o r l d . He was c o n v i n c e d t h a t woman had been f o r c e n t u r i e s d e p r i v e d of h e r n a t u r a l r i g h t t o s t a n d by t h e s i d e of man as h i s e q u a l , and t h e r e -f o r e needed t o be emancipated. Woman's n a t u r e , S c h l e g e l c l a i m s , i s not i n f e r i o r t o t h a t of man, nor d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d , as S c h i l l e r had r e p r e s e n t e d i n h i s Anmut und Wiirde, b u t i s l i k e t h a t of man. I f t h e r e was any d i f f e r e n c e , i t was one o f degree o n l y , as P l a t o had a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t . T h e r e f o r e , woman s h o u l d e n j o y g r e a t e r s p i r i t u a l independence, she s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o work out h e r own s a l v a t i o n as a. d i s t i n c t , independent p e r s o n a l i t y . She s h o u l d not be l o o k e d upon as b e a r e r and g u a r d i a n of c h i l d r e n o n l y , b u t s h o u l d be h e r husband's f r i e n d . She 44 -should develop her i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t s and s a t i s f y her i n s t i n c t s f o r poetry, philosophy, or the sciences. In short, she should so c u l t i v a t e her powers as to be the equal of man a e s t h e t i c a l l y , e t h i c a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , and s p i r i t u a l l y . This was Schlegel's new moral programme. The r i g h t of the woman to stand by the side of man as his equal Is claimed on the theory that man and woman are equal parts of one abstract humanity which existed i n God's mind before creation, and w i l l come again i n the future, i n part on earth through man's gradual perfection and, ultimately, i n another s p i r i t u a l world. Works depicting man's quest for inner unity (Goethe's Faust, Wilhelm. Meisters Lehr.jahre) and portrayals of ideal women (Natalie, Iphigenie) meant much to the young Schlegel s t i l l yearning for unity, completeness of being and l i f e , as well as f o r mastery of his ambivalent nature. It was women who i n l i f e gave Schlegel his s i g n i f i c a n t experiences, through which he matured and found his centre. The encounter with Caroline was a most powerful one for him., because she possessed what he longed f o r most: unity of being. But thi s encounter had to end i n renunciation on his part, since Caroline became hi s brother's wife. While his love f o r her enabled him. to f i n d his own s e l f , to p u r i f y his own character, f u l f i l m e n t came into his l i f e only l a t e r through Dorothea. She was the one who was capable of d i s c l o s i n g to him. the unity of the sensual and s p i r i t u a l aspects of love, and t h i s experience had to have the most profound impact on him.. He f i n a l l y experienced a l o v e i n which there was equal response of body and s o u l , where the p h y s i c a l submission meant a r e c i p r o c a l opening and e n f o l d i n g of t h e i r s o u l s . T h i s experience, t h i s harmony, t h i s u n i t y of body-soul l o v e i s the theme of Lucinde. T h i s fragment e x t o l l s the joys of s e n s u a l i t y but i t was not h i s i n t e n t i o n to g l o r i f y s e n s u a l i t y and moral freedom per se, as t h i s n o v e l was assumed t o do by most contemporaries, because to him " b l o s s e S i n n l i c h k e i t ohne Liebe z e r s t o r e das Wesen der F r a u " (!». 80), and r e f e r r i n g to the Greek courtesans, he s t a t e s : "Die Kunst e i n e r A s p a s i a kann vollkommen s e i n , aber n i e kann i h r e a b s i c h t l i c h e Kunst den Namen der Liebe 17 v e r d i e n e n . " ' S c h l e g e l does not b e l i e v e i n s o - c a l l e d "pure f r i e n d -s h i p " between two people of opposite sexes. "Etwas r e c h t Albernes i s t es, wenn so zwei Personen v©n v e r s c h i e -denem. Geschlecht s i c h e i n V e r h a l t n i s a u s b i l d e n und e i n -b i l d e n wie r e i n e F r e u n d s c h a f t " (L. ? 6 / 7 7 ) . I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t he a t t a c k s "Woldemar," s i n c e to him the man-woman l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f a r s u p e r i o r to t h a t of f r i e n d -s h i p , because i t i s completely f u l f i l l i n g " i n der s i e durch a l l e S t u f e n der Menschheit zusammengehen, von der aus-g e l a s s e n d s t e n S i n n l i c h k e i t b i s zur g e i s t i g s t e n G e i s t i g -k e i t " (L. 1 6 ) , and yet i n a l l t h i s s e nsual e r o t i c i s m , i n a l l t h i s submission we are to f i n d only the e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r "Zusammengehorigkeit." In h i s "Athenaurofragmente" F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l says: 46 -"Das erste i n der Liebe i s t der Sinn fur einander, und das Hochste der Glauben an einander. Hingebung i s t der Aus-druck des Glaubens, und Genuss kann den Sinn beleben und scharfen, wenn auch nicht hervorbringen, wie die gemeine Meinung i s t . Darum kann die S i n n l i c h k e i t schlechte Men-schen auf eine kurze Zeit tauschen, als konnten sie sic h l i e b e n " (Nr. 8? M. I I , 216).—"Wie der Sinn fur einander, wuchs auch der Glauben an einander, und mit dem Glauben s t i e g der Mut und die K r a f t " (L. l4 l ) . A love r e l a t i o n -ship of t h i s l e v e l obviously has to be valued more highly than friendship. "Freundschaft i s t parziale Ehe, und Liebe i s t Freundschaft von a l i e n Seiten und nach a l i e n Richtungen, universelle Freundschaft. Das Bewusstsein der notwendigen Grenzen i s t das Unentbehrlichste und das Seltenste i n der Freundschaft" (M. I I , 265, Fragment #359). Precisely because of the woman's love capacity, Schlegel denies her a b i l i t y f o r friendship, because every-thing a woman loves, she loves completely (wholly) and a friendship necessitates c e r t a i n boundaries and must be s p i r i t u a l . "Diese Absonderung wiirde Euer Wesen nur auf eine feinere Art ebenso vollkommen zerstoren wie blosse S i n n l i c h k e i t ohne Liebe" (L. 80). While one may not completely agree with t h i s point of view, one must admit that i n the ba t t l e between love and friendship, fought a l l through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, love had never been so elevated above friendship; and t h i s statement coming from, no one less than F r i e d r i c h Schlegel, who expounded his "Philosophie der Freundschaft," makes - 47 -i t even more remarkable. However, for Schlegel and his followers i t i s of the utmost importance that i n spite of a l l submission (includ-ing that of the man, i n accordance with the i d e a l of "der sanften Mannlichkeit"), the personality does not become submerged, but instead t r u l y comes to bloom.. It i s due to t h i s very quality, that love becomes the deciding fa c t o r f o r growth and evolution to the Romantics. Love i s focussed on the core of the personality and i s capable of s i n g l i n g out or illuminating i t , thus bringing s e l f awareness to the beloved. This conviction i s at the basis of Novalis* Heinrich von Ofterdingen, but we also detect i t i n Lucinde i n the joyous hopefulness of the lovers to understand each other completely i n the "uner-schopflichen Gefvihl unserer urspfunglichen Harmonie.' . . . Ach Liebe! glaube es nur, dass keine Frage i n d i r ohne Antwort i n mir i s t " (L. 163) . Only through the love of another can man f i n d his r e a l s e l f . "Nur i n der Antwort seines Du kann jedes Ich seine unendliche Einheit ganz fiihlen und selbst den inneren Keim. der Gottahnlichkeit entfalten" (BL. 228). For Schlegel, the highest goal of development i s to become humane ("Menschwerden") and to reveal the inner centre of s e l f (the God-likeness), out of which a l l can be explained and to which everything else leads back again, thus overcoming a l l singleness (Vereinzelung). Here, too, we f i n d the s t r i v i n g for synthesis: to f i n d one's centre i n order to overcome a l l f l u c t u a t i o n s , to obtain 48 -harmony and partake of God through the medium and help of love. Thus the experience of love extends into that of r e l i g i o u s experience. In t h i s l a t t e r realm woman becomes the leader, since her being has more unity and centre than that of man. She, too, needs love f o r her development, but she anticipates i t more eagerly; she Is more r e l i g i o u s , of a r i c h e r nature, with which she i s preordained to awaken the innermost i n man. "Demi ohne lebendiges Zentrum. kann der Mensch nicht sein, und hat er es noch nicht i n sich, so darf er es nur i n einem Menschen suchen, und nur ein Mensch und dessen Zentrum. kann das selnige reizen und wecken" (Idee #45, M. I I , 294). It i s the woman's mission to be the mediator-awakener and man owes i t to her that he discovers his centre, that he i s complemented and elevated to a higher being, due to t h e i r unity: i t i s not just a summation of two in d i v i d u a l s . The "Dithyrambische Fantasie uber die schbnste Situation" begins with the following words: "Nur h l e r ( i n d i r ) sehe i c h mich ganz und harmonisch oder vielmehr die v o i l e ganze Menschheit i n mir und i n d i r " (L. 13), thus foreshadowing the deeper meaning of the ensuing episode: even i n play and the sensual enjoy-ments of love, t h e i r union i s to have a higher connotation. "Die Religion der Liebe" brings ever greater closeness to t h e i r love (L. 19). Novalis once remarked on Schlegel's "Ideen": "Dir i s t Religion geistige S i n n l i c h k e i t und •I Q geistige Korperwelt iiberhaupt." — "Es i s t die alteste k l n d l i c h s t e einfachste Religion, zu der ich zuriickgekehrt bin. Ich verehre als vorziiglichstes Sinnbild der Gottheit das Peuer, und wo gibts ein schoneres, als das was die Natur t i e f i n die weiche Brust der Frauen verschloss? Weihe du mich zum. P r i e s t e r " (L. 50). The beloved becomes the mediator between the lover's incomplete s e l f and the i n d i v i s i b l e eternal humanity. So we have here another kind of love a f t e r a l l , fused with the e r o t i c , i n f a c t , an offshot that unites with i t : the love f o r mankind, fo r humanity, or, to say i t i n Schlegel's sense: love for the Universe (L. 169). But the romantic adoration of the beloved i s di f f e r e n t from, the depicting of woman i n the novels of the great passions (Leidenschaftsroman), as well as from those of Platonic enthusiasm (Empfindsamkeit). The Romantics do not want to worship the images of t h e i r fantasy i n the other being—-which romantically speaking would have been very one-sided and incomplete—but the human being with the f u l l n e s s of nature i n him/her, more humane than the "Hei l i g e n b i l d des Schwarmers." The woman becomes prie s t e s s , " P r i e s t e r i n der Freude, die das Geheimnls der Liebe offen-bart" (L. 166), and man adores her (L. 50). To t h i s r e l i g i o u s experience of love, death i s no ba r r i e r any more. Both lovers were from, the beginning of t h e i r relationship prepared to follow each other into death—indeed, l i f e a f t e r death seemed to promise to them, a. more intimate p o s s i b i l i t y of blending with each other. "Wir beide werden noch einst i n einem Geiste anschauen, dass wir Bliiten einer Pflanze oder B l a t t e r einer Blume - 50 -sind" (L. 1 9 ) . From t h e i r mutual desire to extend, i f not perpetuate, t h e i r moment of unity, from, the f e e l i n g of "gegenseitiger Unersattlichkeit im Lieben und Geliebt-werden," so that they love "bis zur Vernichtung" (L. 17, 1 6 2 ) , arises the love-death wish. "Dort (im Tode) wird 19 dann v i e l l e i c h t die Sehnsucht v o l l e r b e f r i e d i g t " (L. 18). This thought of the "Liebestod" was close to Schlegel at that time; a whole series of poems expresses the thought of dying together with the beloved i n order to be eternally 20 united with her. Here Schlegel's thoughts meet those of Novalis, and i t i s probable that they originated with the l a t t e r . Schlegel wrote to him., " V i e l l e i c h t b i s t du der erste Mensch i n unserem Z e i t a l t e r , der Kunstsinn fur 21 den Tod hat." This love-death wish i s the l a s t con-sequence of the s t r i v i n g f o r unity. It i s the desire f o r the l a s t and highest gradation of love experience and touches upon the motif of the "Liebestod" at the close of the dialogue i n Lucinde: "0 ewige SehnsuchtJ—Doch endlich wird des Tages fruchtlos sehnen, e i t l e s Blenden sinken und erloschen, und eine grosse Liebesnacht sich ewig ruhig f u h l e n l " (L. 204). After t h i s serious moment follow Tandeleien der Phantasie which fade out into a dream, praising the harmony of love, the completion of existence. "Nun versteht die Seele . . . den h e l l i g e n Sinn des Lebens" (L. 209). - 51 -ROMANTIC MYSTICISM Bei Nacht ward die Unsterblichkeit ersonnen, Denn sehend b l i n d sind wir im. Licht der Sonnen. A. W. Schlegel, An Novalis. There was a mystic s t r a i n i n a l l Romantic writers, simply because they a l l tended strongly towards r e l i g i o n and metaphysics. However, Novalis' mysticism was pro-founder than that of the r e s t : he was born a mystic. He had come from, the s p i r i t world: he l i v e d on earth to perform his duties as one among men with t r u l y human attachment f o r t h i s earth, yet looked forward to the time when he could again return to what he regarded as his true home. "Wo gehen wir denn hin?" he asked of Cyane i n Heinrich von Ofterdingen. "Immer nach Hause," was the answer. Novalis l i v e d i n the world of the s p i r i t while s t i l l on earth and t h i s i s the key to his i n d i v i d u a l romanticism.. Certain of Novalis' statements lead us to regard him as more of a poet than mystic, since he does not always believe him.self imprisoned i n the world by the senses, seeking behind i t a profound mystery; f o r him., t h i s sacred realm beyond was not an insoluble mystery, but h i s o r i g i n a l home. From, here, he looked out upon the world of the senses and judged i t s r e l a t i o n s . This mythos, i n s t i n c t i v e l y a part of his nature, opened to him. the secret doors of philosophy, the sciences, the arts, and the minds of great men. The wonderful charm, and melody of his sty l e - 5 2 -were not the r e s u l t of study, but the natural expression of his being. There i s a peculiar blending of the here and the beyond i n his writings not found i n those of the other Romantics. What he says i s not d o c t r i n a l , d i d a c t i c , or even s t r i c t l y metaphysical, but e s s e n t i a l l y poetic, prophetic, interpretative of s p i r i t u a l things, revealing s p i r i t u a l r e l ationships, and unfolding symbolic meanings of things seen and unseen. This i s Novalis' personal contribution to the romanticism, of the School, giving i t a d i s t i n c t i v e colour-ing, which would be lacking otherwise. His individualism, does not show i t s e l f i n the form of revolt but submits from the outset to higher influences. He does not use the magic powers of his imagination f o r mere enjoyment, but fo r the sake of establishing through that power important r e l a t i o n s between his own mind and the mind of the world. He did not play with his various moods, as other writers of Romanticism, did (e.g., Tieck), since he attached to them, profound meanings: they were to him. important messages sent from, the distant background of his inner l i f e . And again i t was Tieck who was instrumental i n arous-ing i n another writer a deep response of the soul; i t was he who talked to Novalis of mystic subjects and recommended the works of Jakob Bohme of whose teachings we f i n d so much i n Novalis' works. It i s important, however, to remember that Novalis knew Bohme's works before Tieck c a l l e d h i s attention to them, but when he read them again, 53 -systematically, his understanding was greater than before. 22 Novalis' poem. An Tieck i s a generous e u l o g i s t i c tribute which he pays to h i s f r i e n d , c a l l i n g him. the hei r to Bohme's s p i r i t u a l treasures and the modern herald of his works. We today, however, may f e e l that the reverse i s the case, that Novalis, not Tieck, was Bohme's r i g h t f u l h e i r . What Novalis found within the esoteric realism, of his inner s p i r i t u a l l i f e , the great treasure house of s p i r i t u a l truths and values, shaped i t s e l f i n his mind i n the form, of a grand imaginative, symbolic picture, the picture of the "Veiled Maiden" or "Veiled Goddess." 2^ Throughout his works, i n one form, or another, i n one r e -ference or another, there i s t h i s maiden. His whole mystic philosophy i s compressed into i t . Happy was the man who could f i n d her, and l i f t her v e i l . Yet t h i s task was as d i f f i c u l t as i t was f o r Par z i v a l to f i n d the Holy G r a i l — f o r t h i s maiden was i n v i s i b l e ! I t was the s p i r i t u a l nature i n man, which he had lo s t when he was driven from. Paradise, and to point out to man the way back to Paradise, to his l o s t kingdom, was Novalis' poetic mission. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of fin d i n g her again, f o r there i s i n every man something which yearns f o r her love, an inner voice gently c a l l i n g ; a secret power which draws him., and by which, a f t e r many t r i a l s and i n f i n i t e struggles, through pain, suffering and disappointments, he w i l l f i n a l l y reach hi s g o a l — i t i s the romantic Blue Flower. This Blue Flower was also known to Bohme; i t apparently grew i n the .. 5 4 -rose garden of Paradise: "The way to t h i s flower i s not f a r , " he says, "he who finds i t may not reveal i t , nor can he; f o r there i s no language that can name i t . Nor can any f i n d i t without the flower's consent; however, i t w i l l meet him. who fervently seeks with a maiden-like s p i r i t . Then you w i l l say: 'That must be God?' No: i t i s not God; but i t i s God's f r i e n d . " 2 ^ Novalis' whole poetic mission may be said to be an e f f o r t to re-store to man his s p i r i t u a l l i f e which he l o s t when he was driven from Paradise. His works are dream pictures of t h i s l o s t l i f e , and indications of ways open to man to regain his former heavenly kingdom.. Novalis' Hymnen an die Nacht introduce us to the mystic side of Romanticism., away from the world of the senses, against the daytime and the l i g h t of the sun, sensuous beauty, nature i n i t s splendour and r i o t of colour and sound. It i s a yearning away into the spaces of the night, away from, the world and i t s sameness to another unknown world of golden hopes. The Hymnen an  die Nacht celebrate t h i s yearning. They are intimately associated with events i n his l i f e , soul experiences, confessions wrung from his heart amid t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s . The events referred to are a l l relevant to his r e l a t i o n ship with his yet c h i l d - l i k e fiancee, Sophie Kiihn, her i l l n e s s and ensuing death. Already during her i l l n e s s , a magic transformation seemed to take place i n her person, - 55 -which deeply affected Novalis: hovering between l i f e and death, the immature, c h i l d i s h t r a i t s of Sophie seemed to slough o f f , and the inherent character Novalis sensed i n her when he stated that she did not s t r i v e to be something but was something, developed without r e s t r i c t -ions, permeating her whole person, u n t i l a spiritual-a f f i n i t y between the two lovers was established. From, t h i s time Novalis became more introspective, r e s t l e s s , more accustomed to interpret the world from within rather than from, without. He turned with renewed eagerness to his philosophic studies, hoping to f i n d consolation f o r his g r i e f . When Sophie f i n a l l y died, i t was a tremendous shock to Novalis, r a d i c a l l y changing his whole being. He described i t as a divine occurrence, a key to every-thing, a wondrous providential move: a power had arisen i n his consciousness and he believed he could yet achieve something. His love had grown into a flame, by which 25 everything earthly was consumed. He focussed his consciousness longingly on the world of truth, where Sophie now was. For a moment, he even contemplated suicide, i n order to j o i n her sooner, but quickly d i s -missed t h i s ignoble thought from his mind. There was another, better, and nobler way—-Fichte had pointed i t out to him—a transcendental way: by sheer w i l l powerI He went frequently to her grave, dreaming by i t s side the great dream of a reunion, and within three months afte r Sophie's death, he prepared himself f o r the grand superhuman act of w i l l power which was to sever - 56 -his soul from, t h i s world and conduct i t into the next world. From these dreams, and from, attendant struggles and meditations and mystic writings, the Hymnen an die  Nacht took shape i n the poet's mind. His ardent desire for reunion with Sophie was crowned with success, and Novalis recorded i t i n the t h i r d Hymn. His clairvoyant experience at the grave of Sophie, his v i s i o n , gave him an undying, imperishable f a i t h i n the heavenly realms of the night and i t s l i g h t — - h i s fiancee. He had seen by an inner l i g h t what his bare senses could never have revealed to him. This central idea of the Hymnen, which grew out of his v i s i o n at the grave, becam.e l a t e r greatly enlarged and universalized. What i n the beginning was purely personal, became i n the course of time applicable to the whole world. Sophie's love grew into a love i n which the whole of humanity had a share, and the place, where her s p i r i t was, became the abiding place of the loving s p i r i t of the whole world, and the sacredness of her person and the sacredness of her heavenly home grew into the Christ of r e l i g i o n and the heaven of C h r i s t i a n i t y . In t h i s new, amplified conception, he was i n part influenced by Bohme's Aurora and the Three P r i n c i p l e s . To Novalis, Sophie was his s p i r i t u a l Eve who had come to him. from the heights of heaven and had dwelt with him f o r a l i t t l e while. Then she departed, but he saw her again on that memorable day at the grave. She existed, she l i v e d . There was an hereafter, there was a s p i r i t u a l l i f e , there was some-thing there beyond the stars f o r every in d i v i d u a l man, - 57 -waiting f o r him—man's Eve, his s p i r i t u a l "betrothed. Then there was immortality, a Ch r i s t i a n heaven, a Christ, a Heavenly Father. And she being there i n that home of Ch r i s t i a n f a i t h , she became i n Novalis' eyes the symbol of that home, d e i f i e d , a Divine Maiden, the C h r i s t i a n Madonna or the C h r i s t i a n Christ, the representative symbol of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n and divine Love, the symbol of those twin-flowers of Romanticism, entwined on one l i f e -s t a l k — r e l i g i o n and love. This then Is Novalis' conception of the Night i n praise of which his Hymns were sung. In the day-time, our senses reign, i n the night-time, our s p i r i t . The night becomes, therefore, a symbol standing f o r the realm of the s p i r i t , f or the Ch r i s t i a n heaven, where the Father i s , where Christ i s , where a l l the loved ones are, and where Sophie, the betrothed, l i v e s . To love the night i s to love the s p i r i t u a l i n man, which w i l l one day be released from the body and pass from, daylight of earthly existence into the l i g h t of eternal l i f e . Longingly Novalis stretched out his arms for that s p i r i t u a l home. Hinunter i n der Erde Schoss, Weg aus des Lichtes Reichen! (R. I., p. 658.) he sings i n the six t h and l a s t Hymn, the most t r u l y mystic of them, a l l , ending with t h i s stanza: Hinunter zu der siissen Braut, Zu Jesus, dem. Geliebten.' Getrost! Die Abenddammrung graut Den Liebenden, Betriibten. Ein Traum. br i c h t unsre Banden los Und senkt uns i n des Vaters Schoss. (R. I., p. 659.) - 58 -Although the Hymns praise the Night, we can s t i l l f i n d i n them an appropriate estimate of the merits of the daytime. His purpose i s not to sunder the s p i r i t from the f l e s h , but merely to emphasize the symbolic r e l a t i o n -ship of the one to the other, the inner world to the empirical world. In the daytime, beauty holds sway, and the body demands i t s own physical l i f e , but when the night wraps i t s e l f about man, peace enters his soul, and beyond the twinkling of the stars he sees yet another l i g h t , the immortal l i f e of the s p i r i t . Addressing the Day i n the fourth Hymn, he says: "Gern w i l l i c h die f l e i s s i g e n Hande riihren, uberall umschaun, wo du mich brauchst; rtthmen deines Glanzes v o i l e Pracht"(R.HN,I., p. 651/2). At once, however, follows a comparison with the Night. "Aber getreu der Nacht b l e i b t mein geheimes Herz und der schaffenden Liebe" (R. HN. I., p. 652), . . . Ich lebe bei Tage V o l l Glauben und/iut, Und sterbe die Nachte i n h e i l i g e r Glut. As we have seen, through the death of his beloved Sophie, the highest senses were awakened i n Novalis, making him. not only a true poet, but a dweller i n two worlds. This evolution of Novalis i s depicted i n his fragmentary novel, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, i n which the greatest importance i s given to the experience of Love. There i s also the b a t t l e between Mind and Heart; the poet saw the destroying of his heart as a danger f o r himself, whereas love meant his salvation. In many ways, we can see i n t h i s novel what Sophie had meant to him. The most beautiful dialogues about the nature and effect of love written, not only by Novalis, but by the Romantics as a whole, can be found here. Equally important are the ?6 gestures of the lovers, and the strong impact of looking at each other: t h e i r eyes speak. Novalis i s of the conviction that love effects an evolutionary growth i n the lovers, each wanting the per-f e c t i o n of the other, seeking the union i n order to complement, soothe and awaken i n the other the true core of s e l f ; one mirroring the other. Such an evolution, such help f o r the other, i s only possible through a heightened a b i l i t y to love, and that can only be evoked i n man through love i t s e l f . Only through love can the riches of the inner l i f e unfold, can man t r u l y become aware of s e l f , can new worlds be opened to him.. "Wenn man recht l i e b t , so e n t f a l t e t s i c h i n unserm Innern eine w i r k l i c h s i c h t -bare Welt" (M. I I I . , 32?). For Novalis, the theory of Love i s the highest science. "Was i s t das ewige Geheimnis?" fragte die Sphinx: "Die Liebe" (M. IV., 202, 195). However, a l l love f o r God, the Cosmic, Nature, i s c r y s t a l l i z e d i n the love f o r his beloved and only through her death does i t receive i t s l a s t culmination and transfiguration: "Verbindung, die auch fur den Tod geschlossen i s t , i s t eine Hochzeit, die uns eine Genossin fur die Nacht gibt. Im. Tode i s t die Liebe am siissesten; fur den Liebenden Ist der Tod eine Brautnacht, ein Geheimnis siisser Mysterien" (M. I I . , 297). - 60 -"Tod i s t eine nahere Verbindung liebender Wesen" (M. I I . , 280). This i s f o r him the idea of the "Liebestod." In addition to t h i s idea, Novalis also touches upon another more prevalent one: death at the moment of union, i n order to achieve eternal duration. 61 -CHAPTER III VERSIONS BY THE ROMANTICS Considering a l l that has been said about the Romantics as emancipators of the i n t e l l e c t , the f e e l i n g s , and the s p i r i t , as well as representatives of a new attitude to-wards woman, love, nature, and beauty, and comparing : t h i s with the basic legend of T r i s t a n und Isolde, i t would seem as i f i t were made f o r the Romantics, that they would be delighted and inspired to recreate either the whole romance or some aspects of i t . They could perhaps give i t t h e i r own interpretation, under the influence of t h e i r own doctrines about love, marriage of the souls, r e l i g i o n . We w i l l see i n the following chapter, what they accomplished and how meagre a crop was actually harvested. Bodmer began to c o l l e c t the treasures of Middle High German poetry and these were l a t e r published i n 1784/85 by C. H. Miiller under the t i t l e Sammlung deutscher Gedichte  aus dem. 12., 13» und 14. Jahrhundert. Volume two contained Gottfried's T r i s t a n with Heinrich von Freiberg's con-tinuation. However, t h i s and other medieval text editions had no p r a c t i c a l value i n the beginning, since a l l the commentaries, annotations, and glossaries, so essential f o r t h e i r complete understanding, were s t i l l lacking. Since the Romantics considered i t t h e i r task to awaken a general interest i n the l i t e r a r y achievements of the German Middle Ages by way of adaptations, commentaries 6 2 -and new versions, A. W. Schlegel, too, was motivated and inspired by the legend to write a poem. T r i s t a n i n the spring of 1800, incorporated l a t e r (1811) i n his c o l l e c t i o n Poetische Werke. Schlegel came upon Gottfried's T r i s t a n i n the course of his research i n old German l i t e r a r y works i n 1799, and he had the following to say about i t : Der Hauptinhalt i s t die Liebe des T r i s t a n und der Konigin Ysalde, die der des Lancelot mit der Genevre symmetrisch gegeniiber steht. Die Ungesetzlichkeit des Verhaltnisses haben beide Dichter durch anderweitige Tugenden und Z a r t i heiten der Gefiihle auf a l l e Weise zu adeln gesucht, am. T r i s t a n wird besonders ein ruhrendes Muster der unuberwindlichen Treue bis i n den Tod auf-g e s t e l l t . Man kann wohl sagen, dass bei allem, was der Moralist anstossig finden wurde, doch eine grosse Unschuld der Gesinnung sic h offen-bart, weswegen der Dichter auch zuletzt den Sinn seiner Dichtung aufs H e i l i g e , die Ueberschweng-l i c h k e i t der r e l i g i o s e n Liebe wendet. Schlegel valued poetic adaptations, such as Tristan, very highly, as evidenced i n some remarks i n his lectures concerning "brltannische und nordfranzosische B i t t e r -mythologie" (1803-04): Bei der Erstorbenheit der Phantasie, welche aus der gegerxwartigen Verfassung des Lebens grosse und kuhne Dichtung hervorzulocken beinahe unmoglich macht, ware es denn doch sehr anzu-raten, dass man durch Wiedererweckung jener al t e n unkenntlich gewordenen Gebilde die Poesie zu bereichern suchte. . . . Es kommt nur darauf an, eine Dichtung i n ihrem eigent.umlichen Sinne aufzufassen, und sie mit dem. Glanze a l l e r der Darstellungsmittel zu umkleiden, welche uns die heutige Ausbildung der Sprache und poetischen Kunst an-;, die Hand gibt, so kann sie die grosste Wirkung nicht verfehlen. Auf diesem. Felde i s t noch unermesslich v i e l Ruhm. einzuernten. Schlegel's Tristan comprises 91 stanzas, being only the f i r s t part of his great outline, which was to include not only Gottfried's Tristan , but the G r a i l and Lancelot - 63 -as well, which are linked i n l a t e r Arthurian l i t e r a t u r e . Since t h i s would, i n part, involve a duplication of events (Tristan/Isolde and Lancelot/Ginevra), and create complic-ations, i t i s quite apparent that Schlegel*s outline had not been thoroughly analyzed nor seriously considered. Moreover, Schlegel was f a r too busy a man with his academic lectures, his c r i t i c a l writings, the Athenaum and his various translations from, foreign languages, to be able to devote s u f f i c i e n t time to the pursuit of an epic of such vast proportions. Thus he was unable to keep his promise, expressed i n the l a s t l i n e s of his Tr i s t a n : . . . ; was drauf ihm widerfahren, S o l l t i h r im folgenden Gesang erfahren. (P. 126) In his 91 stanzas, Schlegel follows G o t t f r i e d quite c l o s e l y , ending the narrative at Tristan's kidnapping by the Norwegian merchants, but condensing the story by eliminating detailed contemplation or minor facets, constantly keeping i n mind the vastness of h i s plan. And yet, t h i s does not seem, to prevent him from, introduc-ing some of h i s own inventions, as for instance the disguise of Blancheflur as a pageboy. Also, Riwalin's l a s t b a t t l e , which G o t t f r i e d glosses over quite b r i e f l y i n a l i n e or two, Is depicted very v i v i d l y and at quite some length by Schlegel. It probably did not suit the modern poet to dismiss the hero of the preceding romantic episode in. such an abrupt manner. Schlegel probably knew the French Prose Romance and followed i t i n the episode where the dying Blancheflur 64 -herself gives T r i s t a n his name, motivating i t by the sorrows she endured leading up to his b i r t h : 7 1 . Sie sprach, es hegend am gebrochnen Herzen: "Ich habe, da ich dich empfing, getrauert, Dein Vater t r a u r i g lag i n wunden Schmerzen, In Trauer hat mich die Geburt durchschauert, Traurig umwolkt sich deine Sterne Schwarzen, Weil du verwaist und von Gefahr umlauert. Drum heisse T r i s t a n mit dem Traur'gen Namen. Das i s t mein l e t z t e r Muttersegen. Amen." Blancheflur's blessing then provides the t r a n s i t i o n back to Gottfried's text where the c h i l d was named by Rual. Tieck, who had seen Schlegel's T r i s t a n i n manuscript form., gives an in t e r e s t i n g analysis of the story i n a l e t t e r to him i n September 1802: Ich finde, dass T r i s t a n ganz Leichtsinn, Liebe, Leidenschaft i s t , die Abenteuer haben. ordent-l i c h etwas von Anekdoten. . . . Woriiber i c h aber nicht mit Dir e i n i g sein kann, i s t der r e l i g i o s e Ton, i c h weiss nicht, wie Du es mit der Hauptgeschichte wirst verbinden konnen? Ist T r i s t a n in. irgend einer Sage w i r k l i c h nach dem Graale geritten? Ich zweifle daran, und zweifle noch mehr, dass Du es w i l l k u r l i c h h i n -zudichten darfst; der Graal und Parceval sind eins, T r i s t a n und Liebesabenteuer; i n diesem. Gedichte widerspricht a l l e s der Religion, ja auf gewisse Weise i s t Spott damit getrieben, wie bei dem. artigen Doppelsinne der Feuerprobe der Isolde, wie T r i s t a n s i c h durch die Capelle r e t t e t , so dass Gott ihm. selber zum. Ehebruch b e h i i l f l i c h scheint: es i s t zwar, sta t t des Schicksals, eine moral!sche Beendigung da, indessen nur, wie i n den Romanen .sein kann, die von Liebe handeln, das Hohersteigen der Leidenschaft und der Tod, als Tr i s t a n seinem. Freunde i n unrechtmassiger Liebe h i l f t ; diese Moral auf der elnen, der Liebestrank auf der^ andern Seite erregen wieder ein Unschuldsgefuhl, wodurch^die her r l i c h e Schilderung und Erfindung dem. Gemute wohl tun. Bei solchen S t e l l e n , wie sie beide i n der Einsamkeit, i n der wunderbaren Hohle leben, b l e i b t dem neueren Dichter recht v i e l Spielraum. 2? 65 -Carl P h i l i p p Conz (1762-I872) was professor of Clas s i c Philology at the University of Tubingen and as such a very well versed and apt translator of Greek poets. He had a leaning towards philosophical and did a c t i c l y r i c and followed i n t h i s i n S c h i l l e r ' s footsteps. As a poet, he was of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . He published i n 1821 his Romance Tristans Tod, based on Heinrich von Freiberg's continuation of Gottfried's epic, but with quite a few innovations as well. The Romance begins thus: Krank an bitterschweren Todeswunden lag daheim. auf seinem, Bette Tr i s t a n , naher neigt mit jeglicher Minute schon dem. Tode zu sein Heldenleben, schon dem. Tode zu sein Liebeleben. Eine Hoffnung halt noch von den Lippen ab des Todes Finger: seine Liebe; ob Isotte nicht, die V i e l g e l i e b t e nahen wiird! ? Ihr^Anblick, ih r e r Augen Strahlen, i h r e r Nahe Zauberkreise, Ihrer Finger heilende Beruhrung, wundertatig, konnten sie vom. Tode den dem. Tode schon verfallenen retten. The c l a s s i c episode of the white and the black s a i l follows, with Tristan's and Isolde's death. Conz has treated Isolde's lamentation over Tristan's dead body i n a rather o r i g i n a l , though t y p i c a l l y romantic way, and has Isolde express her sorrow i n very sentimental words: "Leb' ich noch, war doch i n ihm. mein Leben Ei n z i g . Eine Seel* i n zweier Leibern! Ungetreuer, kannst du mich verlassen? Schlage noch einmal diejDlauen Augen Auf zu mir, die Liebeshande reiche' Mir einmal noch, dass wir gehn zusammen Und vereint des Todes Hochzeit h a l t e n j " Und so sinkt sie wieder hin zum. Todten. However, contrary to the legend, the bodies of the lovers are not taken to Cornwall, but remain i n Britanny, and instead of the vine and the rosebush, we f i n d here the l i l y and the rosebush—adding a more sentimental touch, 6 6 -which was not inherent i n the legend. Karl Heinrich Wackernagel, born i n 1800, studied under Lachmann and became himself professor of German language and l i t e r a t u r e i n Basel, where he died i n I 8 6 9 . His f i r s t poetic attempts, gathered under the t i t l e Gedichte eines  fahrenden Schiilers (1828) are s t i l l very much under the influence of his studies i n the old German Period, f u l l of archaic words and a r t i f i c i a l phrases and similes. His l a t e r poems (Neuere Gedichte, 1842, Zeitgedichte, 1843, and Welnbiichlein, 1845) are s t i l i s t i c a l l y more independent. In h i s c o l l e c t i o n of poems Gedichte eines fahrenden Schiilers are included seven T r i s t a n Romances. They are based on the English S i r Tristrem. and are also i n 'balladesque' form. Wackernagel was further influenced by the German Prose Romance and, of course, G o t t f r i e d . The f i r s t three Romances have each a special t i t l e : Das Goldhaar, Die Brautwerbung, and Minnezauber. The l a s t four Romances are more cl o s e l y linked under the heading Tristans und Isoldens Tod. The narrative i s extremely b r i e f and e r r a t i c , lacking a l l poetic empathy; the language i s rather forced, the verses exceedingly clumsy. Since Wackernagel c a l l e d his T r i s t a n Romances "Bruch-stucke," we may assume that he had planned to write more Romances, or perhaps even the whole T r i s t a n epic i n t h i s form. It i s just as well that nothing came of i t , since the available material i s already s u f f i c i e n t proof of a sad f a i l u r e . Here, for example, the drinking of the potion: - 67 -Schnell trugen die Kiele hin/Die Magd und i h r Gesinde, Den zarten Frauen thaten weh/Wasser und die Winde. Sie waren gefahren auf Oder Flut/Manche Wassermeile. T r i s t a n gab der Koniginn/Mit Rede Kurzweile. "Magdlein, gebt mir eures Weins:/Mich beginnet dursten." Einen Becker von lauterm. Glas/Brachten s i e dem. Fursfcen. Er bot ihn vor mit Ziichten dar/Zu Isolden Hande. Sie trank und gab ihn aber hin/Herren Tristande. Was sehnet Herz zu Herzen sich/Den beiden a l l zur Stunde? Aug' i n Auge was schauen sie?/Was seufzet Mund nach Munde? Sie sassen nach der Rothe bleich/In liebem Verlangen, Suchen und fliehend den Wechselblick/Mit freudigem Bangen. (P. 37) F r i e d r i c h Ruckert was born at Schweinfurt i n 1788. He i s quite well known as a singer of the Wars of Liberation (Geharnischte Sonette), but his great inte r e s t was the study of o r i e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e . He rendered valuable services to German l i t e r a t u r e as an interpreter of o r i e n t a l l i f e and poetry, notably of Hafiz; he i s excellent as a trans-l a t o r of Sanskrit and Arabic, and ranks with Platen, who also began his l i t e r a r y work with o r i e n t a l imitations. He, too, planned a T r i s t a n and Isolde epic, of which the f i r s t part ( e n t i t l e d by the editor Jung Tristan) was published i n 1839 i n Oswald Marbach's Quarterly Die Jahres-zeiten. The poem sta r t s where Schlegel ended: how young Tr i s t a n , kidnapped by Norwegian merchants, lands i n Corn-w a l l . Ruckert obviously favours' great brevity: he covers i n h i s 32 stanzas of 8 l i n e s each what G o t t f r i e d relates between verses 1790-2530 ( i . e . , 7*K) verses). Ruckert does not give us the Prologue, nor the story of Riwalin - 68 -and Blancheflur, and we can glean from, Riickert's sketches for his epic only that he did not have i n mind a trans-l a t i o n , but an Independent and free adaptation. His poetic freedom, consists mainly i n the arrangement of his material. We were to learn, f o r example, about Tristan's parents and his own youth l a t e r on, i n flash-back manner, presumably through Rual's account. Young Tristan turns up t h e n — f o r the reader as well as f o r King Mark—as a perfect stranger, thus creating tension and expectation right from the s t a r t . The plan of the story i s indicated by the author i n the beginning verses: Was heben wir zu singen an Von Helden a l t e r Zeit und ihren Holden? Vom. r l t t e r l i c h e n Held T r i s t a n Und seiner Braut Isolden, Was der von Strassburg Gotefried Sang meisterhaft und starb, eh' er's vollendet, vollendeh lasse mich ein gunstiger Stern das Lied! Und ob es anders mir beschiede, Der uber uns die Sterne lenkt, So w i l l i c h sterben unterm. Liede, Ins siisse Weh der Welt versenkt; Die Liebe, die mir gab das Leben, Sie moge mir den Tod Und ewiges Leben dort, hier ewigen Nachruhm. gebenl Ruckert relates Tristan's encounter with the pilgrims and the hunting scene, though these are considerably shortened. King Mark i s portrayed as a gloomy, unfriendly, r e t i c e n t man, mourning the mysterious disappearance of his s i s t e r . His favourites are a dwarf, Melot, and a b l i n d bard. It i s quite apparent from, the beginning that T r i s t a n , the c h i l d with the sad name, i s meant to bring joy and happiness to Mark's s i n i s t e r court and 69 -thus Immediately contrast with Melot and the b l i n d bard. In t h i s way, the psychological motivation i s given f o r future events, involving jealousy and hate, when Tr i s t a n w i l l cause much pain to hi s uncle. This fragment which was published only a few years before Immermann's Tri s t a n i s generally cheerful and gay i n tone, thus being s i m i l a r to Immermann's poem, and contrasting with Schlegel's which i s more i n the vein of pathos. Karl Lebrecht Immermann, who was born at Magdeburg i n 1796, and died i n 1840, can be c l a s s i f i e d as a post Romantic. He studied law at Halle and i n 1827 was appointed Landgerichtsrat at Diisseldorf. Immermann pQ experimented i n a l l Romantic l i t e r a r y forms: i n plays, a dramatic poem.,2^ a n o v e l , a n d a romance.-^ Later, as a producer at the theatre i n Diisseldorf, he accomplished what Ludwig Tieck had attempted i n Dresden: he produced the masters of dramatic l i t e r a t u r e , above a l l Shakespeare and Calderon, and from, these experiments (1840) dates a new phase i n the development of the German theatre. In pursuing his inter e s t i n Old German l i t e r a t u r e (he had studied the Edda, P a r z i v a l , T i t u r e l , Lohengrin), Immermann also came across Gottfried's T r i s t a n . Being highly impressed by the story, he began writing his own version i n 1831 but, although he returned to i t i n l a t e r years, he never succeeded i n f i n i s h i n g the poem.. It was published posthumously i n 1842. In a l e t t e r - 70 -to his brother Ferdinand, dated March 31, I831, Immer-mann wrote: Das i s t ein ganz h e r r l i c h e r Gehalt. Es i s t i n mir der Plan entstanden, dereinst dieses Gedicht i n neuer kiinstlerischer Form, aufzuerwecken, und zwar so, dass nur der Stoff Gottf ried_von Strassburg, die Behandlung aber mir angehoren mochte. Jam.merscha.de, dass so prachtige Sachen under den Gelehrten vermodern! man muss sie dem Volke schenken.32 Before s t a r t i n g his version, Immermann thoroughly i n -vestigated not only the material and background of the story i t s e l f , but also studied Germanic mythology and sagas of that period.-^ In spite of a l l these earnest preparations and the i n i t i a l enthusiasm., Immermann l e f t the poem, untouched fo r several years. It was only when a new love entered his own l i f e that he returned to the epic T r i s t a n und Isolde and f i n i s h e d the f i r s t part of i t i n I 8 3 8 . He himself r e f e r s to t h i s " r e v i v a l of his heart" i n the "Zueignung" and further a l l u s i o n s can be traced l a t e r . The "Zueignung" reads: Gestorben war das Herz und lag im Grabe! Dein Zauber weckt es wieder auf, der holde; Es klopft und f i i h l t des neuen Lebens Gabe, Sein erster Laut i s t , T r i s t a n und Isolde! Immermann came further i n his narrative of T r i s t a n than Schlegel, but not as f a r as Gottfried; his poem ends with the scene i n which Isolde schemes to have Brangaene murdered. What was to follow l a t e r i s found i n Immermann's sketches, so that we do have the complete plan of his epic. I t i s on these sketches f o r the f i n a l section of the narrative that Hermann Kurtz l a t e r based his version. - 71 -Immermann divides his epic into Romanzen, i n t e r -spersed with numerous discourses and r e f l e c t i o n s , modelled a f t e r G o t t f r i e d , though i n quite a d i f f e r e n t vein. He c a l l s them Vorspiele, Zwischenspiele, and Nachspiele. The epic was planned i n two parts: the f i r s t part was to consist of eleven and the second of ten romances. The f i r s t part ends with Isolde's a r r i v a l i n Cornwall, the second part begins with Mark's nuptials and ends with the lovers' death. The sources used were Gott-f r i e d f o r the f i r s t part, and the Prose Romance as the backbone of the second part; f o r minor episodes, S i r  Trlstrem. was used as well as the continuations by U l r i c h and Heinrich. While the number of episodes i s considerably r e -duced, the narrative i s , on the other hand, extended by lengthy descriptions of nature and by the i n t r o -duction of background material. In the f i r s t hunting scene, f o r example (at which Mark i s present), Immermann starts off by t e l l i n g us of the b i r t h and l i f e of the stag to be hunted. After the hunt i s over and the huntsmen are on the way home, Mark discovers Tristan's background and recognizes i n him. his nephew. From, here on, Tristan's presence completely changes l i f e i n T i n t a y o l . He makes his uncle get up at dawn and ride fo r hours over his land, thereby disturbing the smooth d a i l y routine i n the c a s t l e . T r i s t a n i s c a l l e d "der Wlldfang" and portrayed as a f r i s k y young man f u l l of mischief and humour, who actually i s p u l l i n g a l l the - 72 -strings at court. He even suggests to his uncle that he should take a young wife i n order to make l i f e gayer: Und T r i s t a n sprach: Ihr wart verbauert, Hatt' ohne mich hie r fortgedauert Das simple Leben. Doch das Best Es f e h l t Euch noch zu S p i e l und Pest. . . . : ein Weibchen jung. Sie bringt Euch erst^zum. rechten Halte In h e r r l i c h s t e r Erkraftigung, W i l l sehn, dass auch den Trost i c h schaffe! Der Konig r i e f : Du bisbein Affe! (P. 6l) • • • Oheim. nehmt eine junge Frau! Ich l a s s ' Euch keine Ruh', b i s dass Ihr Oheim., nehmt eine junge Frau. • • • Wie wird das holde Kind s i c h schmiegen An Euren Leib, und l i e b l i c h wiegen Mit siissem Wiegenlied zuriick Den gut en Ohm. i n Jugendgliick! (P. 71) Mark does not take him. seriously, of course, but T r i s t a n l a t e r on acts quite independently i n t h i s matter. Immermann also uses the story of the two swallows and the blond h a i r , which G o t t f r i e d considered improbable and discarded. T r i s t a n takes only one voyage to Ireland: After having been healed of the wound received i n the b a t t l e with Morolt (who i n Immermann's version himself knights T r i s t a n before the battle!) and found out by Isolde as the k i l l e r of her uncle, T a n t r i s - T r i s t a n saves himself from. Isolde's wrath and revenge by declaring that he had come as his uncle Mark's deputy to ask Isolde i n marriage. As such an envoy he became i n v i o l a b l e . In h i s account to Mark, "Tristans v i e r t e B r i e f s e i t e , " T r i s t a n j u s t i f i e s h i s action thus: Auch du, mein zweiter Vater, wiirdest dichten Sahst du auf dich des Schwertes Spitze r i c h t e n . (P. 145) - 73 -As regards characterizations, Immermann wrote to Tieck i n the following terms: "Das conventionell R l t t e r l i c h e Oder Romantische, wie man es nennen w i l l , wvirde mich genieren und kein Leben unter meiner Hand gewinnen; nun dichte i c h ihn mir urn i n das menschliche und naturliche Element und mache mir einen ubersprudeln-den Liebesjungen zurecht, wie er mutatis mutandis auch 34 a l l e n f a l l s heut zu Tage noch zur Welt kommen konnte."-^ An example of Immermann's treatment of the material on these l i n e s i s Melot the dwarf, whom, he portrays with a c e r t a i n fondness. To him, Melot i s a funny, j o l l y creature, evoking sympathy i n spite of h i s s p i t e f u l character: E i n Mannlein war's von sondrer Kraft. Er trug ein Flickenwam.slein scheckicht, Den Kolben, und die Kappen eckicht. Er schlug e i n Rad, schnitt eine Fratz* Und rutscht' umher, schmiss urn Gefasse, War auch schon d r e i s s i g Jahr'^am. P l a t z , Und machte stets dieselben Spasse, Der Konig hatte s i c h gewohnt Zu lachen, wenn er greint und hohnt'. Der Fratzenhans, der Possenreisser, Der Rutscher, der Gefassumschmeisser, Das war ein Zwerglein, hiess Melot, Der kleine Schurk von leichtem. Schrot. Die Hexe hat ihn einst gezeuget Mit einem Meister schwarzer Kunst, Er ward mit Hexenmilch gesauget Und stand bei'm Teufel sehr i n Gunst. . . . (P. 57) An example of Immermann's change of organization and motivation i s Isolde's attempt to have Brangaene murdered. Immermann i s here f u l l y aware of an inherent dramatic moment. With Go t t f r i e d , Isolde wishes to get r i d of Brangaene, since she i s the only person who knows her secret, and the Queen i s a f r a i d of being exposed 7^ -one day; there i s no other reason given f o r h i r i n g the murderers. Immermann, however (according to his sketches), intended to insert a heated argument between the two women during which Brangaene would get ca r r i e d away with accusations against Isolde. Brangaene's character would thereby become raised from, a rather passive one and the then following s i t u a t i o n psychologically motivated. Immermann's version captures our interest further through the f l u e n t , v i v i d and enthusiastic language, and by his d e l i g h t f u l l y s a t i r i c a l and humorous style Ach John! Du armer R i t t e r ! Es geht durchs Eisen ein Gezitter. Dein F l e i s c h i s t morsch, die Muskel bebt, Dein Muth i s t , was an d i r noch le b t : Es hing urn die verschrumpften Glieder Der Beinharnisch unschliessend, l o s ' , Der Helm, sank bis zur Schulter nieder, Die Schuhe waren v i e l zu gross, Er stand und konnte sic h nicht riihren In diesem Schmuck von Zeiten, friih'ren. Doch hob er auf das Schwert zum Haun, Wie einst im. Strauss von Dunbar-Town; A l l ein dem. Arme diirr und s a f t los E n t g l i t t ' s ; er strauchelte und k r a f t l o s Vom. Lufthieb fortgerissen, f i e l Der a l t e R i t t e r nieder prasselnd; Zum. Schutz und Trutz das Waffenspiel Klang iiber seinem. Leibe rasselnd; Er lag am Boden, schluchzte schwer, Ei n B i l d verjahrter Waffenehr'. The description of the seasick Lords affords another opportunity f o r r e a l i s t i c s a t i r e : Doch aus dem. t i e f e n Raum. des S c h i f f s Wankten empor, hochst schwach, B e g r i f f s , Gefuhls, Bewusstseins fas t entblosset, Die schlaffen Ziige aufgeloset, Griingelblichen Gesichts, verdorben Im C o l o r i t , so schien's, auf lang, Abscheu urn Lippen, wo gestorben Fur ewig die Triebe nach Speis' und Trank, Der Welten ganze Noth i n s i c h : Wankten die Lords, sehr jammerlich. (P. 185) - 75 -Although better versed i n the dramatic form, Imm.ernia.nn was able to free himself from, too great an interest i n a rapid development of the action and con-centrated instead on i t s motivations and the circum-stances leading up to the c o n f l i c t s . A special character-i s t i c of Immermann's poem, i s the great emphasis on the descriptions of nature and landscape where the personages are only of secondary importance. With these descriptions he creates the mood necessary f o r the ensuing action and increases the tension of the narrative. He describes, for example, the preparation of the love potion by the Queen at high noon i n the midst of nature, panting under the s t i l l heat of the midday sun: "Wenn Mittags traumt der Pan" (p. 157). aptly e n t i t l i n g the scene "Mittags-zauber." Other descriptions are there to evoke sensuous impressions through the colouring of his "word-paintings." His love of nature i s conveyed i n the exquisite miniatures and d e t a i l e d portrayals of plant and animal l i f e (e.g., Mark's Spring F e s t i v a l , the description of the stag to be hunted £p. 3 3 J » or the seashore i n the section c a l l e d "Sanct Patrick's S c h i f f " ) . We can best detect the Romantic influence i n Immer-mann's epic by tracing the idea and effect of love. The f i r s t example s t i l l reminds us of Gottfried's courtly love i d e a l : . . . Denn Liebe, sagt man, i s t nur Hoffen, Und wird gewahrt, vom Tod betroffen. (P. 183) - 76 -but Immermann sw i f t l y changes to the Romantic doctrine of love: Nun kam die Zeit zu Melodein Fur T r i s t a n auch bei Sonnenschein (P. 227) i n contrast to an e a r l i e r statement: T r i s t a n sang nie bei Sonnenscheine, Er h i e l t das nur fur Z e i t v e r s c h l i s s . (P. 62) Immermann views the love experience of T r i s t a n and Isolde as progressive, beginning at Tantris-Tristan's sick bed i n Ireland and reaching i t s eruptive climax through the love potion. A jealous, inebriated I r i s h c o u r t i e r , S i r Donegal, mentions with reference to Ta n t r i s -T r i s t a n "mattverliebte B l i c k g e b l i n k e l " (p. 130) , and i n connection with Isolde the Romantics' d i v i n i n g " S i l b e r -b l i c k " of the beloved i s introduced: In ihrem. Angesichte bliihte Wie S i l b e r b l i c k , die reinste Gute. Ja, kiihn s ei die Barmherzigkeit Geprissen £sic3 g l e i c h dem. S i l b e r b l i c k e . (P. 133) When Tri s t a n l a t e r on, i n order to save his l i f e , has to resort to the invented tale about being Mark's envoy to request Isolde i n marriage, she i s shattered by the sudden turn of events. I t i s only natural that her growing a f f e c t i o n f o r T r i s t a n i s outwardly changed into resentment and animosity, yet secretly weighing her heart with sorrow. The Queen has no doubt been aware of the s i l e n t bond between the two young people and contemplating the impending marriage of her daughter to an old man, "Mark i s t ein Greis, Isold' i s t jung,/Da muss ich s t i f t e n Festigung" (p. 157) > she resolves to - 77 -turn the s i t u a t i o n into a bearable fate and prepares the magic p h i l t r e . As proof that no dark forces have any part i n t h i s undertaking, the Queen explains to Brangaene that she concocts i t i n bright daylight under the' "Flam-menschritt der hohen Sonne im Zenith" (p. 157) In order to i n j e c t into i t the spark, "Das hochste Wunder, dessen K r a f t / e i n innerliches Herz entbindet" (p. 157) . Brangaene, who becomes the "vestal keeper" of the p h i l t r e , i s awed by t h i s "heil'gen Zauberwein" (p. 173) and before storing i t in. the casket on board ship, decides to have a peek at i t : ". . . Blitzend t r i f f t / I h r Aug" ein gottliches Gefunkel,/Rasch deckt sie zu die Wunder-GIft" (p. 173) . On board ship, the s t i l l stunned Isolde has with-drawn into h e r s e l f , gazing either high towards heaven or t r y i n g to penetrate the depths of the ocean. "Sie war wie gottliches Entsagen,/An Wunsch und Hoffnung arm. und Klagen" (p. 176) . As f o r T r i s t a n , he too was changed: "Tristan war auch wie umgekehrt./Sein Scherz versiegte. . . . Er nahte nur mit scheuem Zaudern,/So v i e l die H o f l i c h -k e i t befahl,/Dem Sessel der Prinzessin, . . . indessen stahl/Er s i c h , sobald es ging, bei S e i t e , / g r i f f einen einzelnen Accord,/warf dann die Laute wleder f o r t . " (P. 176) I t i s only now that T r i s t a n r e a l i z e s the consequences f o r him. and the whole impact of h i s own action. It was the peaceful l i f e on the ship that brought the r e a l i z -ation: "Ruh'/der Meerfahrt trug's der Seele zu" (p. 180). T r i s t a n t e l l s the worried Brangaene i n a v e i l e d con-fe s s i o n that he had decided to make a pilgrimage to - 78 -Jerusalem to atone for h i s sins: Ich habe A sprach Tristan, begriindet Auf Schwanke, Ranke, t o l l e n Trug Den altesten Bund, den unser Buch Mit heil'ger Zeugenschaft verbriefend, Vom. Herren selber heisst gesetztl So hat die Lippe lugentriefend Der Wahrheit Uranfang v e r l e t z t , D a s L i c h t , das nimmer untersinket, Stets wie der Polstern droben b l i n k e t . (P. 181) Brangaene sympathizes with both of them., especially with her young mistress: 'S i s t zu entschuld'gen, dass i h r graue Das Rosenroth, das Lilienweiss Zu kalten an des Greisen E l s . (P. 182) Isolde t r i e s to be brave and decides to l i v e a l i f e of duty and service f o r the sick and needy. She i s not a f r a i d of Mark and hopes to have a s i s t e r l y r e l a t i o n -ship with him., "Wie^esJ seinem A l t e r ziemt" (p. 184). Brangaene admires such high and s e l f l e s s aspirations, "Und klagt' im Still»n, dass nur bei Hofe/erwachse ein so schoner Sinn,/in i h r e m Stande nie Entsagen/ abtodte Lust an- Kusses Plagen" (p. 184). In spite of t h e i r self-imposed s e l f - c o n t r o l , T r i s t a n and Isolde are very much drawn together. The b r i e f scene, where the ship had docked en route to get some fresh spring water and everybody had disembarked f o r a short s t r o l l 6n the island, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s v e i l e d love-seeking admirably: Herr T r i s t a n war der Letzte, der Das S c h i f f l i e s s zogernd, menschenleer. Er ging nur, weil Isolden's Auge Ihm. sagte, dass kein Zeug' i h r tauge Zur Aufheltrung. Doch a l s er stand Mit ernstem. Gruss noch an der Brvicke Da sah er, dass sie sic h gewandt, - 79 -Als suchten Entbehrtes ihre B l i c k e . Er t r a t zu i h r und frug: Was f e h l t ? Kann i c h es schaffen, so befehlt. Sie sprach: Ich mag den Wunsch auch missen, Mich diirstet, wenn Ihr's wollet wissen. . . . at the same time providing a l i n k f o r the Love Potion scene. Actually there i s no such scene described at a l l , we are only witnesses of i t s e f f e c t s . The method used by the author i s that of the reader following Brangaene back onto the ship, while the rest of the party s t i l l enjoys the peacefulness of the i s l a n d . Brangaene i s worried f o r having l e f t Isolde alone so long and hurries back. She cannot see her on deck and searches below i n the cabin; here she discovers with horror that the casket i s open and the s i l v e r container with-the magic potion gone. In panic she runs again on deck and finds the lovers i n an embrace behind the screening of some sheets put up as make-shift f o r a tent. . . .Da bliiht das Wunder, gross und machtig, Leer steht der Becher auf dem Tisch, Und, die entsagend und bedachtig Jerusalem, gesucht, der P f l i c h t Sich widmen wollten i n Verzicht Auf Meer und L i c h t , Natur und Sonne, Die pflegen Lust und fanden Wonne. Das h e i l i g e gelobte Land Zwei rote Lippen sind's, erkannt Als Gnadentrost von Jiinglingsmunde, Ein Kranker wird da weich gepflegt Von Weibesarmen, die zum, Bunde Zum. engsten, sic h urn ihn gelegt! Unlosbar, Brust an Brust gedrungen, Stehn T r i s t a n und Isold' umschlungen. (Pp. 197/8) They are oblivious to t h e i r surroundings, to Brangaene's lamentations, to the rest of the party, so that Brangaene, highly alarmed, decides to draw 80 -the attention to herself by t e l l i n g some stories to the others. Immermann describes i n t y p i c a l l y romantic terms the lovers' b l i s s : . . . Es fasste mich mein liebes Mein, Ich fasste, was mir war entwunden, Wie konnt' es jemals anders sein? Und anders wir, a l s so verbunden? (P. 199) . . . Er mit mir und i c h mit ihm. Ich bin i n d i r zerschmelzt, verronnen, Und i c h i n d i r ergliiht, entbronnen. (P. 199) . . . Das sel'ge Leide Durchdrang mit solcher Macht sie^schon, Dass sie ein Schau'r des Todes kiihlte, Wenn eins s i c h nicht am andern f i i h l t e . (P. 202) They delighted i n gazing at each other even i n darkness: . . . Nicht herniate sie des Lichtes Pehlen, Klar sahen sich die beiden Seelen. (P. 203) Even nature i s affected by the love potion: War es das Tropfchen, so noch drinnen, Was Leben schuf und pflanzte Sinnen Im ungefuhl'gen Element, Dass Nasse glanzet, Kuhle brennt? Sobald die Nacht hereingedunkelt,. Ziehn h e l l e S t r e i f e n schmal heran, Dann immer b r e i t e r gluht's - es funkelt Bald Well' auf Well' im. Ocean, Bis endlich i n dem. S t i l l e n , Feuchten E i n Glimmern 1st, e i n Strahlen, Leuchten! (P. 202) and compared with the lovers: Ist Meereswoge worden Brand, Wer w i l l ermessen, hat erkannt, In welchen heissen Innigkeiten Zwei Herzen Wunder sich bereiten? (P. 202) A further innovation by Immermann i s the r i n g exchange of the lovers marking t h e i r engagement, "Also verlobte si c h das Paar/bel Meergeleucht' und Sternen k l a r " (p. 204). T r i s t a n gives Isolde his mother's - 81 -r i n g , and Isolde parts with the r i n g Mark had sent her as his bride! They only exist f o r each other and "lebten i h r e r Phantasei" (p. 2 0 6 ) , gazing enchanted into the p l a y f u l waves, i n which they saw "ein g o t t l i c h Schauspiel wachst und s t e i g t / i n Stammen, iisten, Fachern, Dolden, Kleinodien, paradiesesbunt/empor i n dem Kry-s t a l l n e n Sund" (p. 207) . Nature i s f u l l of wonders to them, and Isolde ponders the mirage i n the waves. "Mein Tristan,/weil es die reine Wog' umspiilet,/dle klare Flut i h r Werk gethan/ . . . drum, triumph!ert' s i n solcher Pracht, . . . es hat si c h g o t t l i c h ausgegossen/ die heil'ge Flut urn. unser Sein,/ . . . zur Glorie im. Meer der Liebe!" (p. 209) . She wants to sink into the depths of t h i s shiny watery element, "Verschwimmen i n dem. siissen Gleichniss!" (p. 209) > and while belonging to each other become free. Later on, shortly before the landing i n Cornwall, the sea becom.es "ein kiihl Erretten,/die Zeugin unsres Bund's, die F l u t ! " (p. 211) and Isolde takes the i n i t i a t i v e : "Fass mich und dich, und l a s s ' uns wahren/die Treue bei der Tiefe Schaaren, . . . hiiten wir vor Schmach/die treuen Seelen, reinen Leiber!" T r i s t a n throws his beret into the water, Isolde her v e i l , when Brangaene stops them.. In great despair she offers another solution, which Isolde gladly accepts, " . . . denn das Leben/ist schon vom. Minneglanz umgeben" (p. 212) . In the sketches, we f i n d that Immermann had planned that T r i s t a n should send his sword to Isolde when he f e e l s 82 -death approaching, and that she had promised to come and j o i n him; Rual was to be Tristan's messenger. Imm.erm.ann intended to portray Isolde Whitehand sym-pa t h e t i c a l l y : "Die Sache muss so gefasst werden, dass i h r Benehmen also n a t i i r l i c h , i n ihrem Charakter zu ent-schuldigen, erscheint. Fur die rechtmassige Frau i s t Isolde nur die Buhlerin, und sie glaubt f u r Tristan's H e i l zu sorgen wenn sie diese von ihm. abhalt. Vor a l i e n Dingen darf also T r i s t a n nicht erfahren, dass die Konigin naht." Concerning the f i n a l scene, the following thoughts are found f o r "Rose und Rebe": "Es gibt Menschen, die" nicht sterben konnen, weil s i e ein Geheimniss druckt, was sie noch Jemand offenbaren mils sen; die ein Verbre-chen belastet, was sie erst beichten wollen. Auch unge-s t i l l t e s Liebessehnen kann zwischen Tod und Leben f e s t -halten" (p. 2 ^ 7 ) . This must not be construed to mean that Immermann considered Tristan's and Isolde's love "ein Verbrechen," but as t h e i r longing f o r each other had not been appeased completely while on earth, there i s s t i l l some unconsumed energy extant which craves manifestation i n the material world. The entwining branches of a rose and a vine on t h e i r graves would thus symbolically depict t h i s u n f u l f i l l e d desire f o r an eternal loving embrace. In conclusion, one can quote R. Bechstein's summary of Immermann's work which seems to be an adequate appraisal of his achievement: - 8 3 -Immermann• s T r i s t a n und Isolde i s t . . . kein Epos i n strengem Sinne. Es i s t selbst nicht eine Romanzendichtung wie etwa^Herder•s Cid, son-dern eine Vereinigung erzahlender und l y r l s c h e r Poesie, eine Vereinigung von Novelle und I d y l l e , von Genre und Landschaft. Darum i s t eine p r i n c i p i e l l e Vergleichung und asthetische Ab-schatzung zwischen dieser neuen Schopfung und dem. classischen Werke Gottfried's von Strassburg nicht moglich, wenn auch im.t< Einzelnen die Betrachtung auf eine abwagende Gegeniiberstellung fiihren musste. (Bechstein, p. 7 2 ) In reviewing a l l the T r i s t a n versions produced by the Romantics, we have to come to the surprising, i f not disappointing, conclusion that the Romantics have •" not done anything worthwhile with the so promising love story of T r i s t a n and Isolde. It i s d i f f i c u l t to believe and one i s at f i r s t at a loss f o r an adequate explanation. But by analyzing the various e f f o r t s of the Romantics once more and by asking ourselves what could have possibly been t h e i r motivation f o r tackling the legend i n the f i r s t place, i t i s perhaps possible to o f f e r a tentative answer. Carl P h i l i p p Conz chose to focus his interest on only one episode of Gottfried's epic: Tristan's Death. Since death meant to the Romantics only the beginning of the " r e a l l i f e " and the l i m i t l e s s expansion of s e l f , the Romance by Conz centers around d e a t h — h e a l i n g — l o v e . These three motifs are key p i l l a r s f o r the "mission f o r salvation" of the Romantics, yet Conz f a i l e d to develop them, into anything s i g n i f i c a n t . His treatment of love i s t y p i c a l l y romantic and very sentimental, but offers no more than a conventional account of the l a s t moments 84 -i n the lovers' l i f e . The scanty and e r r a t i c plan of Wackernagel*s seven Romances, without the s l i g h t e s t trace of a f f i n i t y f o r the subject, suggests that he had used the theme of the T r i s t a n legend only as a mental exercise i n the wave of enthusiasm, f o r the r e v i v a l of medieval material, and since Riickert's planned T r i s t a n and Isolde epic did not grow beyond i t s f i r s t stage ( i n spite of the available whole o u t l i n e ) , we can only consider t h i s attempt an abortive one. A. W. Schlegel wanted to "resurrect" the then pre-valent "Erstorbenheit der Phantasie" by u t i l i z i n g older l i t e r a r y works fo r the enrichment of poetic imagination. As he himself had pointed out, i t was e s s e n t i a l to understand the old poetry i n i t s true inherent meaning and only embellish i t with the more splendid garments of more highly developed language and poetic a r t i s t r y now at the disposal of the Romantics. The keywords seem, to be e s s e n t i a l and true inherent meaning—and these words are the actual crux of the matter. As we have seen, even today quite a few approaches are possible towards an Interpretation and understanding of the romance, with r e s u l t s that l i e In p l a i n opposition to each other. Schlegel takes the legend l i t e r a l l y , ignoring any symbolism, and deeper meaning, out of neces-s i t y then coming to the conclusion that T r i s t a n i s a story about immoral love, an extramarital r e l a t i o n s h i p to be condemned by the moralist, i n spite of the great - 85 -innocence of f e e l i n g and the f i n a l r e l i g i o u s trend o f the love. Tieck had his doubts about the r e l i g i o u s tone and disagreed with Schlegel regarding the basic innocent attitude of the lovers i n the epic. To him, T r i s t a n was no more than a compilation of f r i v o l o u s , passionate adventures i n anecdote form. Immermann's work Is the only larger e f f o r t a v a i l -able, although i t a c t u a l l y belongs already to the gener-ation following the Romantics, a fac t f u l l y evident not only i n the s p i r i t and language of the epic, but also i n i t s form.. The key to Immermann's work i s contained i n h i s l e t t e r to Tieck and i n his renewed interest i n Gottfried's epic through a " r e v i v a l of his own heart" l a t e r i n l i f e . By reading Immermann's T r i s t a n und Isolde, one i s carr i e d away as i f on waves of a cheerful, bubbling brook, making a "scenic tour" through nature, with i t s beauty and moods being pointed out to us, peopled by romantic but nevertheless very human and natural charac-t e r s . Joy and happiness p r e v a i l throughout, mixed with humour and irony. One could take Isolde's words as i t s motto: " . . . denn das Leben i s t schon vom Minneglanz umgebenj" (p. 212). To R. Bechstein, "Karl Immermann's Schopfung i s t die Perle unter den Tristandichtungen der Neuzeit, und inmitten der gesamm.ten epischen oder l y -risch-epischen L i t e r a t u r t r i t t sie nicht minder h e l l leuchtend hervor" (Bechstein, p. 54). - 86 -It might toe of interest here to mention Heinrich Heine's opinion about Gottfried's T r i s t a n , as expressed i n h i s Die romantisohe Schule. Heine finds that Gott-f r i e d had thrown off the f e t t e r s of abstract C h r i s t i a n virtues and self-complacently descended into "die Ge-nusswelt der verherrlichten S i n n l i c h k e i t . " While one i s free now to praise Gottfried's epic as perhaps the most b e a u t i f u l of the Middle Ages, Heine i s convinced that i n Gottfried's time i t was bound to be considered blasphemous, i f not downright dangerous. Schlegel, Tieck and Heine are the only Romantics I have found who voiced an opinion on Gottfried's Tri s t a n ; others, l i k e Uhland, t a c i t l y ignored i t . One wonders why. No doubt there must have been v a l i d reasons f o r t h i s . Without claiming to of f e r a d e f i n i t e answer, the following conjectures are offered as a basis f o r further study. Since the Romantics appear to have understood Gott-f r i e d ' s epic only l i t e r a l l y and seen i n i t only an account e x t o l l i n g sensuality, i t must have met with the same r e j e c t i o n as Schlegel's Lucinde, although the l a t t e r was supposed to have been the vehicle f o r Schle-gel 's doctrine of elevated womanhood, love, marriage, and s p i r i t u a l i z e d r elationship of the sexes. It created i n f a c t a scandal, because i t was misunderstood. (Cf. Heine's comments on Lucinde quoted above.) This • one scandal i n t h e i r midst was enough f o r the Romantics and on account of i t they may have become exceedingly - 87 -a l e r t and c a r e f u l not to p r e c i p i t a t e another one. Then there i s also the question regarding r e l i g i o n and God i n Gottfried's T r i s t a n . As we know, the Roman-t i c s took themselves and t h e i r philosophy very seriously and the quest for a nearer God was to them, a highly important one. Since they read G o t t f r i e d only 'at face value' and understood h i s epic i n the thinking of t h e i r own time, they could not possibly have reconciled Gott-f r i e d ' s comments concerning God and His image through-out the epic with t h e i r own b e l i e f s rooted i n pantheistic mysticism.. Their God was not the same as Gottfried's any more. While G o t t f r i e d drew a majestic picture of the power of God as revealed i n a. tempest, or a more sentimental one as He sets heavenly crowns on the heads of the happy pair Rual and Florete, when they are dead, he nevertheless uses the name of God l i g h t l y i n other contexts or makes a mere narrative device of i t . His characters sometimes voice sentiments which most l i k e l y are his own. A case i n point i s Tristan's f a c i l e assumption of the r o l e of David to Morolt's Goliath, p r i o r to t h e i r duel. For T r i s t a n t r i e s to assuage the Cornishmen's fears by the argument that i f a warrior who stakes his l i f e i n a good cause f a l l s , then a swift death and a people's long-drawn agony are rated d i f -f e r e n t l y i n Heaven and on earth. In the sequel we learn that God did come to Tristan's a i d only at the l a s t moment afte r a sharp reminder from. G o t t f r i e d , and even then was but one a l l y among three. 88 -A further example Is Gottfried's alarming comment on the outcome of Isolde's j u d i c i a l ordeal ( i n which Heaven seems to uphold her innocence), when G o t t f r i e d observes that Christ i n His great v i r t u e i s "pliant as a windblown sleeve; He f a l l s into place and c l i n g s which-ever way one t r i e s Him., c l o s e l y and smoothly" (15 733 f f . ) . The courtly God i s apparently an anthropomorphic God on the side of the characters, out of sheer chivalry, a fact that was considered blasphemous not only by the Romantics, but by c r i t i c s i n the twentieth century! The Romantic doctrine of love, i n which love becomes the deciding factor f o r growth and evolution of a per-sonality i n a r e c i p r o c a l action and reaction upon the lovers, c e r t a i n l y could have been g a i n f u l l y applied to Gottfried's Tristan. It could have been even deepened since love becomes a r e l i g i o u s experience with the Ro-mantics. I t seems almost incredible to have overlooked t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Obviously the love of T r i s t a n and Isolde did not seem to the Romantics even remotely near to t h e i r own concept of love, since they saw i n them, only the main characters of a passionately amorous romp, to be read merely f o r the t i t i l a t i o n of the senses (cf. Heine's comments on T r i s t a n quoted above). In contrast, the generation that follows the Romantics did not shy away from, eroticism, f o r i t s own sake any more, and we can see t h i s quite well i n Immermann's version. He takes every opportunity to underscore these aspects with p l a y f u l humorous joy. - 89 -The Romantics cannot be blamed e n t i r e l y f o r not hav-ing done more with Gottfried's T r i s t a n , because not many scholarly works dealing with i t were as yet available and those scholars who had written about i t also under-stood It l i t e r a l l y and condemned i t s ethics. It i s t y p i c a l f o r most of them to d i s t i n g u i s h between Gottfried's poetic art s k i l l , the aesthetic, and h i s ethics. The opinion of Karl Lachmann (1793-1851) i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r the understanding of T r i s t a n even In the nineteenth century. While he acknowledges Gottfried's "gehaltene, verstandig geschmiickte Darstellungsweise," he cannot say more for the epic than "anderes a l s Ueppigkeit oder Gotteslasterung boten die Hauptteile seiner weiblichen, u n s i t t l i c h e n Erzahlung nicht dar."^' Georg G. Gervinus (1805-1871) mentions i n his Geschlchte der deutschen Dichtung (^1871) with reference to G o t t f r i e d his "unvergleichliche Dichtergabe," but regarding T r i s t a n states: "was von nun an ( i n Tristan) f o l g t , i s t nicht geeignet, etwas anderes a l s unseren Abscheu zu wecken" (p. 6 2 9 ) , and he sums up as follows: "Sollen wir zum Abschluss ein U r t e i l uber Gottfried's T r i s t a n beifiigen, so wiissten wir kein anderes iiber dieses Gedicht als Dante iiber solche Gefiihle: man muss ver-damm.en, aber bewundern und bedauern" (p. 633 K " ^ It need not surprise us then when a scholar such as Ludwig Uhland, so thoroughly f a m i l i a r with medieval l i t e r a t u r e , makes a point of ignoring Gottfried's - 90 -T r i s t a n , although he had translated many medieval epics and myths and a. great deal of love poetry, some of i t very e r o t i c i n tone ( v i z . Walther von der Vogelweide). 91 -CHAPTER IV T R A N S L A T I O N S As we have seen, the Romantics made several attempts to bring T r i s t a n to the attention of the greater public by either adaptations or free versions of the medieval epic. However, as we have also seen, a l l of these re-mained only fragments. There i s another approach to the problem, of pre-senting the epic to the public, namely i n accurate trans-l a t i o n , and i t i s to these we must now turn. In the early nineteenth century, there are two attempts to present T r i s t a n i n a more contemporary form, by t r a n s l a t i n g i t into modern German: one by Hermann Kurtz (1844), and the other by Karl Simrock (1855). Hermann Kurtz (1813-83) belongs with Morike to the Swabian poets, but much of his time was spent—from, circumstances rather than c h o i c e — i n t r a n s l a t i n g . He made excellent versions of the Orlando Furioso (1843) and of Gottfried's T r i s t a n (1844). As a n o v e l i s t , Kurtz was the author of a number of short stories and two excel-lent h i s t o r i c a l romances, S c h l l l e r s Heimat.iahre (1843) and Der Sonnenwirth (1855)» the scene of which i s l a i d i n the Wiirttemberg of S c h i l l e r ' s youth. The f i r s t e d i t i o n of Kurtz's t r a n s l a t i o n appeared i n 1844, a second edition, now prefaced by an extensive introduction to the history of the legend i n 1847. Kurtz perused Massmann's 1843 ed i t i o n and enjoyed also - 92 -the able assistance and advice of the scholar Franz P f e i f f e r ; consequently, his t r a n s l a t i o n i s quite r e l i -able and accurate, barring the odd p h i l o l o g i c a l mistake. He was quite successful i n recapturing i n the language Gottfried's s t y l e . The whole epic i s rendered i n un-abridged form, and as such i s u n r i v a l l e d even today. His Prologue gives us a general clue as to the sources consulted: Heinrich and U l r i c h , Das Buch der  Liebe, E i l h a r t , S i r Tristrem, and Got t f r i e d . Bis hierher wob des Meisters Hand Des Leides und der Liebe Band. Es l i e g t verwaist: eine dunkle Hand Zerschnitt zu friih sein Lebensband. These words conclude Kurtz's t r a n s l a t i o n of Gott-f r i e d ' s epic and at the same time serve as a bridge to his own version of the end. To Gottfried's 19,5^8 verses, Kurtz has added about 3,700 of his own independent ending by further u t i l i z i n g U l r i c h , Heinrich, the German Prose Romance, S i r Tristrem., as well as some ideas from. Immer-mann's sketches: . . . lass d i r von ihm^die Briieke schlagen, Die dich s o l i zu^der Mare tragen. Noch sind uns Bl a t t e r , rasch geschrieben, Von seiner edlen Hand geblieben, Nur wenige, ach, und unvollendet; Sie seien i n dein Lied verwendet; Das halbe Wort lass im Gedicht Lebendig werden. . . . Thus the unity of style was bound to suffer, due to the conglomeration of i t s component parts. In addition, Kurtz allows his imagination free reign, so that the f i n a l r e s u l t i s a completely independent version. 93 -Kurtz begins his work with Heinrich's eulogy of Gott f r i e d , then praises a l l other poets who have attempted to follow G o t t f r i e d , but especially s i n g l i n g out Immer-mann. After having considered a l l his forerunners, Kurtz picks up the thread of the story: Tristan's marriage to Isolde Whitehand. Immermann's sketch, centering around love between men, i . e . , friendship, as a contrast to love f o r woman, was his main guide. Kurtz adapts Immermann's own words: "Ein gliickloses Mannerherz i s t wie ein Kirchhof, die Wohnung i r r e r Schemen. Das l i e b e -leere Leben der Frau wie der Lauf des Jordans, l e i s e und schleichend, zwischen oden Ufern, an denen doch h e i l i g e Geschichte geschah," i n his continuation, some-what modified, as follows: Gliickloses Frauenleben gleicht Des Jordans Lauf, der l e i s e schleicht" An Ufern hin, die ode stehn, Und i s t doch Heil'ges drauf geschehn. Da glimmt ein l e i s e s Lebenswort Im. Herzen unter der Asche f o r t : Ich habe geliebt.' Das arme l e i s e Wort 1st des Herzens Trank und Speise. Das Mannerherz, des Gliicks beraubt, Hat ausgelebt und ausgeglaubt: Es i s t e i n stummes Leichenfeld, Vom spaten Monde triib e r h e l l t , Wo Schemen sich mitternachtlich t r e f f e n , Das Leben mit Schein des Lebens affen. Thereupon follows the poetic portrayal of love and Tristan's self-deception. Through the emptiness i n his heart T r i s t a n f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s his mistake and refuses to consummate his marriage to Isolde Whitehand under the pretext of a vow. For a while, T r i s t a n and Isolde White-hand appear to others as a happy young married couple; but the deceit i s brought to l i g h t : - 94 -Nun sagt ein Buch, i n dem ich l a s , Es sei ein Voglein, f l i n k und keck, Auf Isolden's Schulter, i h r zum Schreck Geflogen und habe sie gekusst. This thought regarding the book originates with Imm.erm.ann, and Kurtz does not want any part of i t . Instead, si m i l a r to Gottfried's polemic i n connection with the swallows and the blond h a i r , he continues: Wann hatte ein Vogel solch Geliist? Das miissten gar zahme Vogelein Dazumalen gewesen sein. Wenn's aber abgerichtet war, Karo's i h r nicht neu noch wunderbar. Die schone Mare decke du Mit keinem. Feigenblatte zu, Mein Lied! es war kein Vogel, nein, Es war ein keckes Wasserlein. . . . . . . die erschrockene Schone schrie Und dann mit Lachen sagte s i e : "Wasserlein, du b i s t kuhn furwahr, Kuhner denn je Herr T r i s t a n war." Kurtz s i m p l i f i e s the rest of the story by omitting the journey to Cornwall and Tristan's reunion with Isolde, and he motivates t h i s change with the following words: . . . zu neuem Truggewlnne Zwischen Verrath und Minne? 0 nein, o nein, das hat ein Z i e l : Mir i s t des Alten schon zu v i e l . Ich glaube auch wahrlich nimm.erm.ehr, Dass es nach des Meisters Sinne war'. Was er die Lieb' i n der Scheidestunde Aussprechen l i e s s mit bittrem. Munde, Das sah nicht aus nach neuer Lust, Das klang so s t i l l , so todtbewusst: Nach Reden, die so zu Leide stehn, Soilman sic h niemals wiedersehn. Sie waren, echt und herzgebrochen, < Auf Nimmerwiedersehn gesprochen. But then Kurtz inserts the episode of Beliagog (following S i r Tristrem) with the Ha l l of Statues and - 95 -portrays i t i n a very v i v i d and c o l o u r f u l manner. This episode affords one l a s t opportunity to recapitulate the highlights i n Tristan's l i f e , as well as giving a better motivation f o r Kaedin's change of mind to desist from a journey to Cornwall. As we know, Kaedin's l a s t adventure with a married woman, f o r which he e n l i s t s Tristan's help as a f r i e n d , r e s u l t s i n T r i s t a n receiving the f a t a l wound. But t h i s episode i s somehow out of tune with the otherwise so dramatic action and the p o e t i c a l l y so fasci n a t i n g con-tents. The English S i r Tristrem. offers a s i m i l a r yet much nobler episode by introducing another knight by the name of Tristan, who asks the hero T r i s t a n f o r assistance i n the attempt to l i b e r a t e his kidnapped beloved. T r i s t a n consents; but when the young knight i s k i l l e d i n the adventure, T r i s t a n wants to avenge him. and thereby obtains his f a t a l wound. Immermann had avoided the s i t u a t i o n altogether by eliminating Kaedin's episode. Kurtz decided to follow the German t r a d i t i o n . F u l l y aware of the unsatisfactory motivations f o r modern reasoning, and of the most unworthy action of stealing the key and making a duplicate i n order to gain entrance, Kurtz t r i e s to give t h i s whole episode the character of a youthful prank, a humorous love adventure. This gives the epic a somewhat f a r c i c a l quality, quite out of keeping with the o r i g i n a l dramatic theme. 96 -The rest of the poem, follows the t r a d i t i o n a l t r e n d -except f o r the motivation of the lovers' reason f o r t h e i r s i n , since a modern poet could not possibly ascribe i t en t i r e l y to the love potion. To us, love as such i s already magic and miraculous. These thoughts were ex-pressed by Kurtz at the outset of his continuation: Zu solchem. B i l d der Leidenschaft Was braucht's noch Zaubertrankes Kraft? Den Trank, den T r i s t a n und Isold Getrunken, solch ein f l i i s s i g Gold, Ich wahne, trank auch Gottfried's Mund; Vom. siissen G i f t im. Herzen wund, Die brennende Wunde, lachelnd, Mit kiihlen Scherzen fachelnd, :0 Drangt er des Minnezaubers Hort, Den ganzen, i n sein Zauberwort, Und wird, verzaubert von Minne, Ei n Zaubrer a l l e r Sinne. For Kurtz, the key to the answer l i e s i n Mark's hands: He becomes aware that he himself has caused the t r i b u l a t i o n s and errors of the lovers: Rief nicht, a l s das herr l i c h e Zwillingspaar Aus dem Schiffe t r a t ans Gestade dar, Rief's nicht i n meinem Herzen laut? Das i s t der Brautigam und die Braut! Die sind von Gott erkoren, Sind fur einander geboren. . . . . . . das war kein Paar, Wie man's i n losen G e d l c h t e n _ t r i f f t , Das w i l l i g g r e i f t nach dem. siissen G i f t . Des bessern Rechtes s i c h bewusst, Der Minne Stachel i n der Brust, GIng schweigend jedes seine Bahn, Keusch und kiihl b i s ans Herz hinan, Bis sie den Feuerbecher tranken Und kampfend i n die Gluthen sanken, Ach rettungslos dahingerafft Vom Zauberrausch der Leidenschaft. Mark's monologue of self-accusation (which i s an innovation by Kurtz) culminates with h i s passionate plea to God to forgive him his s i n . - 97 -Denn ihnen hast du schon vergeben: Sie bussten ihre Schuld im Leben. Was blode Menschenaugen sahn, Das war ein Schein, das war ein Wahn. Du aber sahst den wahren Lauf, Zu d i r s t i e g nur das Wesen auf. Die Opfer grausen Menschenspottes Stehn f r e i vor den Gerichten Gottes. This self-accusation by Mark reveals to us the message of the legend: the warring between f a i t h f u l n e s s and f a i t h f u l n e s s , between honour and honour, inevitably leading to c o n f l i c t s and a tr a g i c ending. The misdeed— so inevitable i n t r a g e d y — i s not focussed on robbery or murder, but i s out of necessity the s i n of adultery, since love i s the theme of Tristan. The c u l p r i t s suffer t h e i r death, but f i n d mercy and compassion by the one whom they betrayed. Despite a l l the trib u t e that we have to give to Kurtz's be a u t i f u l and ambitious continuation, i t seems that i t could have gained by a more frequent use of simple narrative and l y r i c a l moods, instead of his too broad use of r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s . Kurtz intended a second transcript of the legend which would have been more adapted to the f e e l i n g of his time, but only a few sketches remained, i n d i c a t i n g an outline that was l a t e r on carried out by Wilhelm Hertz. Karl Simrock ( I 8 0 2 - I 8 7 6 ) , born i n Bonn, studied law and German l i t e r a t u r e . He was professor of German language and l i t e r a t u r e at Bonn University from. 1850 98 -to his death in. I 8 7 6 . He was exceedingly productive as a scholar, trans-l a t o r , editor and l y r i c poet. Based on old legends, he composed his own version of the epic Wieland der Schmied ( I 8 3 5 ) , Das Amelungenlied (1843-4-9); then he turned to the Nibelungenlied (1827), Der arme Heinrich by Hartmann von Aue ( I 8 3 0 ) , Walther von der Vogelweide ( I 8 3 3 ) , P a r z i v a l and T i t u r e l (1842), Kudrftn (1843), and Heliand (1856). In 1855 appeared Karl Simrock's t r a n s l a t i o n of Gottfried's T r i s t a n und Isolde. A short epilogue attempted to touch upon the ethics of the medieval epic, t r y i n g to present the love story as morally j u s t i f i e d . He also mentions related sagas of Hero and Leander, Romeo and J u l i e t ; the motif of the black and white s a i l s , and the b u r i a l of the lovers as appearing i n other legends. The second e d i t i o n twenty years l a t e r , i n I 8 7 5 , was complemented by Simrock's own adaptation of the continuation. While Simrock's knowledge of the Middle High German language i s better than that of K u r t z — a s proven by his adaptations of the bards' heroic songs— he shows no a f f i n i t y whatsoever fo r Gottfried's Tristan. Consequently, his t r a n s l a t i o n i s very dry and a f a r cry from. Kurtz's s o u l f u l empathy for Gottfried's epic. Simrock's own version of the continuation i s a complete f a i l u r e s t y l i s t i c a l l y , since i t reverts to the l e v e l of the bards a f t e r Gottfried's l o f t y , courtly vocabulary and s t y l e — n o t to mention the abominable „ 99 -mixture of Middle High German and New High German. Simrock's continuation i s considerably shorter than that by Kurtz; i t i s obvious that he i s not interested i n the further development of the narrative but i n i t s ending. Following Kurtz, he too leaves out the journey to Cornwall, but then he also eliminates the Kaedin episode, through which he avoids an unfavourable turn of events i n the legend, but t h i s f a c t nevertheless also robs him of a tragic ending. Simrock invents a phantastic reason f o r Tristan's f a t a l wound: while looking at the statues i n Beliagog's H a l l of S t a t u e s — i n c l u d i n g his own, which depicts him. l y i n g down wounded by Morholt's sword and P e t i t c r e i u l i c k i n g his wounds—the pain i n his old wound returns and the wound begins to f e s t e r . In t h i s way, Tristan's l a s t suffering i s supposed to have i t s o r i g i n i n the emotional impact of an occurrence i n the p a s t — a n incident of chance. P e t i t c r e i u becomes" the symbol of a death-messenger (based on German mytho-logy). A l l these l a t t e r a l t e r a t i o n s are not only un-fortunate and contradictory to the e a r l i e r episodes to which they re f e r , but also greatly weaken the trag i c outcome. The short f i n a l part i s i n keeping with the general outline of the story with the exception of one d e t a i l : There are s l i g h t differences i n the various versions as to who t o l d King Mark about the power of the love potion of which the lovers had partaken. With U l r i c h von Turheim. and i n the Prose Romance, i t i s just generally stated 100 -that the King was t o l d about i t . With Heinrich, i t i s Kurvenal, with Immermann and Kurtz Brangaene. But with Simrock i t i s Isolde's court maiden Gimele von der S c h i r n i e l , since Brangaene had died of a broken heart when she heard about Isolde's sufferings. So Brangaene, too, had found her punishment i n death. However, Simrock had s t i l l another reason f o r chosing Gimele as the bringer of these news: he wanted King Mark also to f i n d out about the deceit of the wedding night i n which Brangaene had played the major r o l e , and that she, i n f a c t , had become his wife, while Isolde belonged to T r i s t a n u n t i l t h e i r death. Brangaene herself would never have been able to confess a l l t h i s , nor would Kurvenal have been a s u i t -able informer. Since both E i l h a r t and G o t t f r i e d only r e f e r to one such substitution, namely on the wedding' night, Simrock has taken a greater l i b e r t y than was permissible f o r a continuation of Gottfried's epic, e s p e c i a l l y since t h i s necessitated a series of other unfavourable deviations i n the narrative. Wilhelm Hertz i s very lenient i n h i s judgment of t h i s weak attempt when he says: "Mit Kurtzens hoch-poetischer Kraft hatte Simrock sich im Greisenalter nicht mehr m.essen so l l e n . " Neither of the two translations were r e a l l y success-f u l attempts and i t i s only with Wilhelm Hertz that a version was produced that i s considered even today as the c l a s s i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n . It i s for t h i s reason that - 101 -we s h a l l also consider Wilhelm. Hertz, although he does not belong to the Romantics any longer. Wilhelm. Hertz (1835-1902), who was one of the o r i g i n a l contributors to Geibel's Dichterbuch, continued the work Karl Simrock had begun and with a rare power fo r reproducing the atmosphere of the Middle High German poets, he translated both Gottfried's T r i s t a n (1877) and Wolfram's Parzival (1898); In the Preface, Hertz points out that among a l l the poets of the medieval period, G o t t f r i e d von Strass-burg comes closest to present-day thinking and f e e l i n g , and although his epic, the saga of Tr i s t a n , constantly inspires our modern poets to new adaptations and i n -dependent creations, he i s by no means duly recognized and valued. This i s then Hertz's reason f o r presenting his own tr a n s l a t i o n : he wishes to win new friends for t h i s masterpiece, i n spite of the meritorious trans-l a t i o n s by Hermann Kurtz and Karl Simrock. "Es gait mir hiebei vor allem, dem. Gebildeten von heute einen mog-l i c h s t f r i s c h e n und reinen Eindruck des Gedichtes zu gewahren, und diesen Zweck schien mir eine f r e i e , aber p i e t a t v o l l e Bearbeitung eher zu erreichen a l s eine philosophisch treue Uebersetzung vom. ersten bis zum. l e t z -ten Wort" (Pref.V). Hertz shortened the unimportant events which might minimize or even be detrimental to the enjoyment of the story (the Gandin episode, P e t i t c r e i u ) , as well as numerous 102 -discourses, observations, polemics, etc. Lengthy-descriptions are abbreviated (hunting episode, the cave of the lovers, descriptions of clothing and knightly o u t f i t ) , r e l y i n g e n t i r e l y on his ox«i f e e l i n g and judg-ment, of which, i n his own opinion, he had done rather too l i t t l e than too much. He also f e l t the need to r e s t r a i n himself regarding the frequent thought and word r e p e t i t i o n s , i n which G o t t f r i e d revels, and which are to our present way of thinking somewhat too e b u l l i e n t . By the same token, French words and verses were cut down to a minimum.. Some of Gottfried's tropes were changed, because they affronted the present-day good taste.' "Von mittelhoch-deutschen Wortera wurden, abgesehen von den Kunstaus-drucken, nur solche zugelassen, welche unsrem Sprach-gefiihl noch lebendig sind. Bei Uebersetzungen von a l t -deutschen Dichtungen i s t haufig eine eigentumliche Mischsprache zur Anwendung gekommen, welche aufgehort hat mittelhochdeutsch zu sein, ohne darum. neuhochdeutsch zu werden. Mein Bestreben war, das Gedicht des 13. Jahrhunderts i n die Dichtersprache des 19. zu iiber-tragen" (Pref. VIII). In order not to present to the readers only a torso, Hertz had added some verses i n free adaptation of Thomas' poem., Gottfried's own source, covering the period between Tristan's marriage to Isolde Whitehand and his death. Thomas' style needed an even fr e e r - 103 -adaptation than Gottfried's to s u i t the present-day taste. Here, too, Hertz proved hi s f i n e a r t i s t i c sense. Since he i s equally independent i n his approach to both Thomas and G o t t f r i e d , Hertz succeeds i n presenting quite an a r t i s t i c a l l y u n i f i e d T r i s t a n , i n spite of his two sources. Since Thomas' poem, i s only preserved i n f r a g -ments, and G o t t f r i e d d i d not f i n i s h h i s , Hertz's adapt-ation i s the only complete form of the courtly T r i s t a n epic, as created by Thomas and adapted into German by G o t t f r i e d . Apart from, having a most fortunate quality, that of temperamental kinship and inner a f f i n i t y to G o t t f r i e d , Hertz was also greatly assisted by h i s thorough knowledge of Old German and Old French. The l a t t e r enabled him. to understand and follow his sources i n the o r i g i n a l i n the minutest d e t a i l s , and his poetic talent supplied the f o r c e f u l expressions with which he so adeptly conveyed 7 the meaning and f e e l i n g of the old legend i n a new a t t i r e . Hertz's T r i s t a n had three editions: 1&77, 1894, and 1901; only minor changes were undertaken i n the two l a t t e r ones. 104 -CHAPTER V RICHARD WAGNER'S MUSIC DRAMA TRISTAN UND ISOLDE Just as the versions of the Romantics, the early-translations also f a i l e d to produce any l a s t i n g interest i n the legend of Tri s t a n and Isolde. But they at least provided material for one very i n f l u e n t i a l re-creation of the story, namely by Wagner, who perused Kurtz's t r a n s l a t i o n . Wagner's Tr i s t a n version i s the only one which has kept the general public's Interest i n the legend a l i v e . This has been due as much to the controversies, discussions and writings which the l i b r e t t o provoked, as to the music or symbolism. Our study of the t r e a t -ment of the legend i n the Romantic period and after would not be complete without at least a b r i e f look at Wagner's version, what he had made out of Gottfried's epic and how i t was received. Richard Wagner was born on May 22, 1813, at Leipzig. He received a sound academic education, but his formal t r a i n i n g i n music did not amount to much more than one year with competent teachers. He wrote some musical compositions and an opera before being appointed as chorusmaster at Wiirzburg. For a number of years, he was employed as conductor i n several p r o v i n c i a l German opera houses, u n t i l his move to Paris i n 1839> where he had a very try i n g time f o r two and a half years while he sought to advance his career as a composer. In 1842, Rienzi was successfully performed at Dresden, and his - 105 -fortune suddenly Improved. Der fliegende Hollander (184-3), Tannhauser (1845) and Lohengrin (1850) followed and were well received. But aft e r becoming involved i n the Dresden May Revolution of 1849 (led by a Russian named Bakunin), Wagner had to f l e e from. Germany and he s e t t l e d i n Zurich u n t i l 1859. Here he composed most of his Ring and began Tr i s t a n . Again i n Paris i n 1861, he saw an elaborately prepared production of Tannhauser end i n f i a s c o because of the machinations of h i s p o l i t i c a l enemies. His fortunes declined again, but several years l a t e r he found a patron i n Ludwig II of Bavaria, and his future was assured. T r i s t a n was performed at Munich i n 1865, Die Meistersinger i n 1868. In 1870 he married Cosima L i s z t von Billow, and two years l a t e r established his residence i n Bayreuth. Here, i n I 8 7 6 , the entire Ring was performed and P a r s i f a l was given at the next f e s t i v a l i n 1882. Wagner died i n Venice, at the age of seventy, on February 13, 1883. Wagner's p r i n c i p a l prose writings were produced between the years 1848 and 1851, a period of profound c r i s i s i n both his external circumstances and his de-velopment as an a r t i s t , a period during which he wrote no music. As a thinker, Wagner i s both o r i g i n a l and derivative. But even when his basic ideas were borrowed from, pure philosophers—Feuerbach i n his early writings, Schopenhauer i n his l a t e r work—Wagner assimilated these - 106 -ideas i n such a manner, that he made them, not only part of his theory hut formulations of what he had most deeply experienced. What i s more, i n his proper sphere as a c r i t i c and theorist of the arts of theatre and music,. Wagner was an exceedingly resourceful and v e r s a t i l e thinker. He pioneered i n the study of symbols, myths and primitive legends; he was a b r i l l i a n t exponent of Beethoven, and a penetrating analyst of the technical problems of conducting, acting, musical declamation and theatre design. . When i n the early 1 8 5 0 's Wagner stopped theorizing about the artwork of the future and began composing the Nibelungenring, he suddenly r e a l i z e d that he was involved i n a fundamental philosophic contradiction. As an a r t i s t he was intent on projecting a tragic v i s i o n of l i f e ; yet as a prophetic thinker he had committed himself to an optimistic f a i t h i n Utopia. The immediate p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t of t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n was not another t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e , but some s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the design of the f i n a l opera of the Ring. Consequently, the vigorous controversy that has gone on f o r many decades concerning the revolution i n Wagner's thinking centers upon the nature of these changes and the motives that prompted them. Wagner at f i r s t held that the e v i l of the world was the e f f e c t of an e v i l god (-Wotan) and that a new and righteous world could be created by new men without fear. Then, a f t e r reading Schopenhauer ( i n 1 8 5 4 ) , - 107 -he "began to understand how his essential a r t i s t i c nature had f o r long been functioning i n opposition to the w i l l e d optimism of his i n t e l l e c t . Thus Wagner arrived at an understanding of his own art works through the help of another who had provided i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts that corresponded to his i n t u i t i v e promptings. The e v i l of the world, i n t h i s new view, was irremediable. The a r t -work of the future, therefore, could redeem, the world only by i l l u s t r a t i n g with inevitable l o g i c the necessity fo r the world's destruction. Thus Wagner reversed his values of l i f e : art i s now a "noble i l l u s i o n , a turning away from r e a l i t y , a cure f o r l i f e which i s indeed not r e a l , which leads one wholly outside l i f e but raises one above i t . " (Wagner, On Music and Drama, Introd., p. 22) Wagner's philosophical problem, stems from the basic incompatibility of c l a s s i c a l tragedy and the Romantic s p i r i t . Romantic tragedy had been tragedy inverted: the heroes go from c o n f l i c t through su f f e r i n g to ultimate triumph and peace. Wagner aimed, i n contrast, at the r e v i v a l of the Greek tragedy, and i n addition was de-termined to use only those legends that could be made to encompass the sufferings and the moral dilemmas of the modern world. Lacking any l i t e r a r y precursor i n t h i s bold en-deavour, he took h i s warrant from a musician: Beethoven. Wagner's hopes f o r a r e b i r t h of tragedy i n the modern world sprang ultimately from his awareness of the great new power that had been released into that world through 108 -Beethoven's music. Beethoven's contribution to the a r t -work of the future was twofold: he had demonstrated the unique capacity of music to project the inmost con-tent of the tra g i c myth—the myth of the hero's struggles, v i c t o r i e s , and death—and he had pointed the way i n the f i n a l movement of his Ninth Symphony to the use of language i n conjunction with symphonic music. Beethoven had thus invested music with undreamed-of powers of dramatic and philosophic implications. To Wagner, i t pointed the way f o r his artwork of the future: the symphony orchestra would sound the mighty themes of the hero's sufferings, triumphs, loves, and death, but instead of these themes conjuring up phantasms i n the l i s t e n e r s ' minds, the figures of the hero and the heroine would actually appear, acting out the content of the music i n verbally pointed pan-tomime. The music would i n th i s way be freed to a high degree from i t s own abstract unity through formal devices of r e p e t i t i o n and r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , and could flow on i n endless melody, enfolding the entire drama i n a r i c h f a b r i c of closely woven symphonic motifs. As a dramatist, dramatic theorist and composer, Wagner set himself the task of creating a s i t u a t i o n that would s t i r the audience profoundly, overwhelm i t , and bring i t to a state of wider or deeper awareness by exploring the depths out of which the emotions arose. Wagner's solution was to reduce motivation i n order to spend most of the time exploring a single strong emo-t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . Recognizing the power of music to - 109 -• create excitement ins t a n t l y , he r e l i e d upon the orchestra to set the mood and prepare the audience f o r the dramatic climaxes to come. However, since music could express only emotion but not the reason f o r t h i s emotion, musical expression and dramatic motivation had to be made to serve each other. To him. the truth lay more i n emotions than i n motives, and he sought to capture the movements of the soul; love i t s e l f or jealousy i t s e l f , and not the complicated actions i n everyday l i f e that gave r i s e to i t . The main story of Wagner's T r i s t a n opera i s based on Hermann Kurtz's t r a n s l a t i o n of Go t t f r i e d . Wagner had no doubt given Kurtz preference over Simrock not only because i t was by f a r the better rendition and more i n the s p i r i t of Gottfried's epic, but also because Kurtz had studied thoroughly and compared the ancient myths, expressing his views i n the Preface to his t r a n s l a t i o n . In the 96 pages of this essay on myths, Kurtz refers as f a r back as the Egyptian archetypal myths and traces and compares them, through the history and culture of na-tion s , ascribing to them, the very same meaning and values as Wagner. Only the archetypal s i t u a t i o n could serve Wagner's aim of presenting l i f e as r e s u l t i n g from, eternal laws, and such archetypal situations could be found only i n myths. Therefore, Wagner thoroughly studied the old myths, not i n order to modernize them., but to learn from them., to share t h e i r wisdom,, and to project them, into 110 -the present. This attitude i s the key to an under-standing of Wagner's whole system of thought. For him. the universe was composed of forces rather than of things; seeing the truth meant understanding these forces. In the depths of our individual minds and souls are the roots that connect with the primordial unity. What we share with every other l i v i n g creature i s the energy that drives us; whatever produces a c e r t a i n response i n the depths of one person should produce much the same re-sponse i n the rest of the people. Thus communion of f e e l i n g counts more than communications of ideas. Con-sequently, the Wagnerian drama has the depths of the soul as i t s setting. Explaining the genesis of T r i s t a n  und Isolde, Wagner said: I too, as I have t o l d you, f e l t driven to t h i s "Whence and wherefore?" and f o r long i t banned me from the magic of my art. But my time of penance taught me to overcome the question. A l l doubt at l a s t was taken from, me, when I gave myself up to the Tristan. Here, i n perfect . trustfulness, I plunged into the inner depths of . soul events, and from out t h i s inmost center of the world I f e a r l e s s l y b u i l t up i t s outer form.. A glance at the volumen of th i s poem, w i l l show you at once that the exhaustive detail-work which a h i s t o r i c a l poet i s obliged to devote to clearing up the outward bearings of his p l o t , to the detriment of a l u c i d exposition of i t s inner motives, I now trusted myself to apply to these l a t t e r alone. L i f e and death, the whole import and existence of the outer world, here hang on nothing but the inner movements of the soul. The whole a f f e c t i n g action comes about f o r reason only that the inmost soul demands i t , and steps to l i g h t with the very shape, foretokened i n the inner shrine. (Page 270, Wagner, On Music and Drama.) Wagner's most o r i g i n a l contribution to the dramaturgy of the nineteenth, century was the perfection of a drama I l l -where the characters are meant to serve as media between the audience and a larger, profounder and truer world. The basis f o r t h i s concept was given by combining and amplifying the ideas of Novalis, Gorres, Schelling, and the brothers Schlegel, who a l l agreed that the heart of the universe lay within each man's soul, and who also regarded the myths as repositories of eternal truths. These concepts too are c r u c i a l f o r an understanding of the Wagnerian drama. Wagner always wrote and sometimes published his poems before he began to compose the music. But i n the case of Tristan, the music began to assert i t s chromatic pattern even before Wagner had drawn up the dramatic scenario; i t was born out of the s p i r i t of music. In a l e t t e r to Franz L i s z t , dated December 1 6 , 1 8 5 4 , Wagner wrote: . . . As I have never i n l i f e f e l t the r e a l b l i s s of love, I must erect a monument to the most be a u t i f u l of a l l my dreams, i n which from, beginning to end, that love s h a l l be thoroughly satiated, I have i n my head T r i s t a n  and Isolde, the simplest but most fullblooded musical conception; with the "black f l a g " which f l o a t s at the end of i t I s h a l l cover myself to die. (Wagneu On Music and Drama, p. 2 7 2 . ) Wagner's Venice Diary and his l e t t e r s to Mathilde Wesendonck convey to us the emotional state and mental frame of mind i n which T r i s t a n was written. Mathilde Wesendonck was the author of the f i v e poems which Wagner set to music i n the winter of 1 8 5 7 / 8 , two of which became part of Tristan. From the music to "Traume" evolved i n Venice the Love-Night of the second act; the melodies 112 -of the "Treibhaus" with i t s heavy,' sad mood, were used for the Overture to the t h i r d act. As f a r as the content of the music drama i s con-cerned, Wagner d r a s t i c a l l y reduces Gottfried's epic to three acts; i n the f i r s t , we witness Isolde's journey as Mark's bride to Cornwall, i n the second, her secret meeting with T r i s t a n at night i n the garden, while Mark i s supposedly away hunting, and i n the t h i r d , the death of the lovers. There are only three main characters i n the opera: Tristan, Isolde and Mark, supported by three minor ones: Brangaene, Kurvenal and Melot. Compared to Gottfried's epic, not much i s l e f t of the legend i n Wagner's opera. There i s no mention of Tristan's parents, or his youth. We learn about the Tantris episode when Isolde discloses to Brangaene the reason f o r her tumultuous disquiet on boaid ship. Morolt i s i n Wagner's version Isolde's betrothed, whom. Tri s t a n had k i l l e d . Isolde discovered i n Tantris the slayer of her fiance and rushed to k i l l him but his eyes met hers and rendered her powerless: i n a f l a s h her heart was empty of hate and an overwhelming love welled up. But the following turn of events which destined Isolde to become Mark's bride, outraged Isolde. Rejected love, injured personal and national pride (for she imagines that Tristan, who had r e l i e v e d Cornwall from, tr i b u t e to Ireland, was now g r a t i f y i n g his ambition by bringing her as Ireland's tribute to Cornwall), detest-ation of a loveless marriage to an old King, a l l these - 1 1 3 -f i e r c e emotions are seething in. her heart. She r e -solves to die and to force T r i s t a n to j o i n her. She commands Brangaene to prepare the poison. Under the pretext of desiring T r i s t a n to ask her forgiveness, Isolde summons him. and suggests they drink together a cup of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . T r i s t a n i s aware of her true reason and consents to drink. But Brangaene has d i s -obeyed Isolde's instructions and instead of poison, the cup contains the love-potion. After a moment of be-wilderment, the two fated ones are in. each other's arms, pouring out an ecstasy of passion. Than the maids of honour robe Isolde to receive King Mark, who i s coming on board to greet his bride. The second act brings the lovers' nocturnal meeting, t h e i r hope and despair, t h e i r love f u l f i l m e n t and ec-stasy. On the King's sudden return, T r i s t a n i s accused of treachery and ingratitude. From, the King we learn that he had been forced into the marriage with Isolde by the disturbed state of his kingdom., and that he had not consented to i t u n t i l T r i s t a n had threatened to de-part from Cornwall. Tristan's only reply to t h i s i s his plea f o r Isolde's promise to follow him into the •wondrous realm, of night." Then he makes a f e i n t of attacking Melot, but permits the l a t t e r to injure him. with his sword. Act three i s mournful, f u l l of despair and longing. T r i s t a n i s dying i n his ancestral castle i n Brittany and i t i s only the hope of seeing Isolde again that keeps 114 him a l i v e . She was sent f o r by Kurvenal to come and restore T r i s t a n to health once more. But upon her a r r i v a l , Tristan's l i f e endures only f o r one short embrace, one word, "Isolde!" and he dies i n her arms. Isolde also f a i n t s over Tristan's body. Mark arrives on a second ship, f o r Brangaene has t o l d him the secret of the love-potion and the King has come to unite the lovers. But he com.es too late; Isolde, ignoring everything, sings out her broken heart and expires. In contrast to G o t t f r i e d , for whom the climax was the grotto, Wagner's climax i s the death-scene. Death, however, has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t connotation with Wagner than i t had with G o t t f r i e d , f o r Wagner's Love-Death i s the threshold to "utter and divine o b l i v i o n " (Nirvana) of the senses, wherein love i s no longer personalized and f i n i t e but becomes universal and eternal. In Gottfried's epic death was welcome because i t released the lovers from t h e i r love-sufferings by f i n a l l y permitting them an eternal, b l i s s f u l union. The essence of Gottfried's epic i s contained i n : The Love Potion, the Cave of the Lovers, and i n the Lovers' Death. Since i n Wagner's opera the meaning of the love potion i s distorted and the Cave of the Lovers non-existent i n order to concentrate everything on the Love-Death, Wagner's version cannot be said e s s e n t i a l l y to represent Gottfried's T r i s t a n und Isolde at a l l ; he i s , i n f a c t , very f a r from i t . Wagner i s much closer to the Romantics' concept of love and uses t h e i r motifs - 115 -of l i f e and death, night and day, the death-wish and love-death. To enter into a further analysis of the meaning of Wagner's opera i s not within the scope of t h i s study, but i t w i l l be relevant to mention b r i e f l y the effect of his work. While the deeper meaning of Wagner's Tri s t a n , i n p a r t i c u l a r i t s symbolism., was recognized by only a very few contemporaries, the majority was and s t i l l i s some-what puzzled (including some c r i t i c s ) , o f f e r i n g some interpretations of t h e i r own both regarding the plot and the music. Thus we can observe some quite contradictory opinions. The majority of c r i t i c s seem, to concur that T r i s t a n was Wagner's "monument to Love" written to f u l -f i l l Schopenhauer's i d e a l . "Wagner's private meditations on Schopenhauer seem, l i k e studies f o r the text of T r i s t a n without the rhyme" (Zuckermann, p. 4 ) . Nietzsche and Thomas Mann also belong to t h i s clan; the l a t t e r d i s -courses at quite some length about t h i s point i n his Essay, Leiden und Grosse Richard Wagners (pp. 9 6 - 9 9 ) : . . . Man findet i n wagneroffiziellen Werken a l i e n Ernstes die Behauptung, der T r i s t a n sei unbeein-f l u s s t von Schopenhauerscher Philosophie. Das zeugt schon von sonderbarer Uneinsichtigkeit. Die erzromantische Nachtverherrlichung, dieses erhaben morbiden, verzehrenden und zaubervol-len, i n a l l e schlimmsten und hehrsten Mysterien der Romantik t i e f eingeweihten Werkes i s t f r e i l i c h nichts s p e z i f i s c h Schopenhauerisches. Die sinnlich-ubersinnlichen Intuitionen des T r i s t a n kommen von we i t e r her: von dem. i n -brunstvollen Hektiker Novalis. . . . After t h i s statement, Thomas Mann compares the influence of Novalis* Hymnen an die Nacht as well as Fr. Schlegel's 116 -Lucinde on Wagner's T r i s t a n and concludes: Wenn nun aber die Wagnerschriftsteller e r k l a -ren, 'Tristan und Isolde' sei ein Liebesdrama, das als solches die hochste Bejahung des Wil-lens zum Leben i n s i c h schliesse und darum nichts mit Schopenhauer zu tun habe; wenn sie darauf bestehen, die darin besungene Nacht sei die Nacht der Liebe, "wo Liebeswonne uns l a c h t , " und s o l l e dies Drama durchaus eine Philosophie enthalten, so sei diese das genaue Gegenteil der Lehre von der Verneinung des Willens, und darum eben sei das Werk unabhangig von Schopenhauers Metaphysik,—so herrscht da eine befremdende psychologische Unempfindlichkeit. Ernest Newman's opinion about the love t r i a n g l e s i t -uation i n t h i s opera i s voiced i n his work The L i f e of  Richard Wagner, Vol. 3 , p. 329: The medieval Isolde i s the mistress of T r i s t a n and the wife of Mark. Wagner's Isolde i s neither. It i s possible, of course, to f i n d i n the text v e s t i g i a l indications that the lovers have met i l l e g a l l y before t h e i r Night of Love. But Wagner's s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the legend requires us to think of t h i s night as not only arche-typal but unique. And here T r i s t a n and Isolde merely sing together, at a time when we can be f a i r l y c e r t a i n that she has not yet shared the bed of the King of Cornwall. E l l i o t t Zuckermann has a similar statement (p. 2 2 ) : T r i s t a n and Isolde never consummate t h e i r union. Of the two sexual climaxes that are unmistakably depicted i n the orchestra, one i s interrupted by the entry of Kurvenal on an unnamable d i s -cord, and the other occurs a f t e r T r i s t a n has been dead f o r twenty minutes. The subject of T r i s t a n i s unconsummated passion. The legend t e l l s of passion as desire and passion as s u f f e r i n g — a n d of what Rougemont c a l l s the "dark unmentionable f a c t " that passion i s associated with death. Without the Liebestod the story has no point. The Wagnerites Albert Goldman and Evert Sprinchorn are of the following opinion (p. 28): - 1 1 7 -T r i s t a n and Isolde, the a r t i s t i c product of Wagner's romance, i s b u i l t e n t i r e l y on the dualism, of l i f e and death, of truth and i l -lusions with the everyday world being repre-sented as an i l l u s i o n . . . . At the end of the f i r s t act the love potion i s exchanged for the death potion, suggesting not only the transformation of hate into love but also the equivalence of love and death. In the second and central act of the drama, a. long and ex-p l i c i t depiction of the sex act i t s e l f , physical passion c a r r i e s the two lovers through the night to the point where the coming of morning and a return to the everyday world of i n d i v i d -ual existence i s unthinkable. Eternal night, eternal love, pure f e e l i n g , unconsciousness suggest the primordial unity out of which the in d i v i d u a l emerges b r i e f l y to l i v e his "strange interlude" before sinking back whence he came. . . . In the f i n a l , sublime moments of the drama, Isolde, standing over Tristan's body, sinks e c s t a t i c a l l y into o b l i v i o n . . . . This f i n a l scene reveals a r a d i c a l difference between Schopenhauer's way of dealing with the universal w i l l and Wagner's. Where Scho-penhauer advocates withdrawal and noncooper-ation i n order to impose one's own meaning on the essential meaninglessness of l i f e , Wagner's lovers rush to embrace th i s w i l l with such abandon and vigor that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l whether the force i s overcoming the individuals or the individuals are momentarily mastering the force. In the opinion of some very prominent music c r i t i c s , such as Lawrence Gilman, Wagner had not only grasped i n his T r i s t a n the whole depth of true love, but also conveyed i t through his music: . . . t h i s music i s the l a s t word that any art has spoken about the anguish and the ecstacy of human passion. But to look upon Tr i s t a n as nothing more than a g l o r i f i c a t i o n of passionate and t r a g i c human love i s scarcely to see below i t s surface. It i s that, of course; and one might reasonably f e e l that that, i n a l l conscience, should be enough to s a t i s f y anyone. But Wagner happens to have made Tr i s t a n something more than a l y r i c tragedy of passionate and f a t e f u l love. He conceived i t as a drama of the inner l i f e of man; and unless we r e a l i z e that truth and 1 1 8 -are moved by that r e a l i t y , we get only the exterior of the work—overwhelming as i t i s . In spite of the variances i n the interpretation of the music drama's meaning, or purpose, or symbolism., T r i s t a n exerted a magic of i t s own on opera lovers and avowed Wagnerites. It became almost a c u l t , which as often as not, was based on misconceptions. In contrast to 'Wagnerism,' however, the 'Tri s t a n i z i n g ' i s based on a di r e c t response to the music. It i s the res u l t of a personal i n -fatuation rather than an id e o l o g i c a l commitment; i t i s an en t i r e l y private matter. While the Wagnerite must learn theories and cu l t i v a t e habits, the T r i s t a n i t e only has to be overwhelmed. Gabriele D'Annunzio expressed his emotional experience i n impressionistic prose poetry. Gabriel Chabrier and Arnold Schoenberg, to name only two, found the music of Tr i s t a n recurring i n th e i r own compositions. Or an infatuation with the music could lead to a ponder-ing of the myth, l a t e r r e s u l t i n g i n the use of i t i n a writer's own s t o r i e s — a s i n the case of Thomas Mann. With him., the legend i s i r o n i c a l l y r e t o l d , and enacted by characters for whom, the music i s unwholesomes as well as overpowering. In t h i s respect Thomas Mann was re -c a p i t u l a t i n g the experience of Nietzsche, who found the music fascinating, but at the same time more dangerous than any form, of ide o l o g i c a l Wagnerism. Nietzsche recorded the importance of the Tr i s t a n music i n Ecce Homo (Kauf-mann, N. I I , p. 6): - 119 -A l l things considered, I could never have stood my youth without Wagner's music. . . . When one wants to ridsoneself of an intolerable pressure, one needs hashish. Well, I needed Wagner. . . . From the very moment when there was a piano score f o r Tristan—my compliments Herr von Billow— I was a Wagnerian. . . . To t h i s day I am s t i l l looking for a work of equally dangerous fasci n a t i o n , of an equally shivery and sweet i n f i n i t y , as Tristan—-and I look i n a l l the arts i n vain. . . . This work i s by a l l means the non plus u l t r a by Wagner; . . . The world i s poor f o r those who have never been sick enough f o r t h i s "voluptuousness of h e l l " : i t i s permissible,.it i s almost im-perative, to have recourse to a formulation of the mystics. A l l things considered, Tristan, cast a strange s p e l l and fascination; some loved i t , some rejected i t , some c a l l e d i t dangerous—but i t affected them. a l l . 120 -CHAPTER VI C O N C L U S I O N After G o t t f r i e d , the T r i s t a n legend was only considered as material for popular entertainment throughout the l a t e r Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Only with developing inter e s t i n the past and p a r t i c u l a r l y through the Ro-manticism was i t 're-discovered.' But whatever the rea-sons, there was no successful re-creation of the story by either poets, translators or scholars. The r e v i v a l of int e r e s t i n the Middle Ages was actually more a "ro-manticizing" than a genuine approach to the art and l i t e r -ary treasures of that period. The Romantics were merely i n search of adequate material onto which they could graft t h e i r own ideas and philosophies. One could aptly paraphrase C. G. Jung and say, "The Romantics were i n search of a Soul"! The r e s u l t was that although the Romantics found the very thing they needed, they did not recognize i t as such. The Romantics could have found a great deal i n Gott-f r i e d which related to t h e i r own ideas i f they had under-stood his epic and i t s symbolism.. The thoughts of both G o t t f r i e d and the Romantics revolve around a doctrine of love and both consider love a power which becomes the deciding factor f o r the growth, of personality, reveals the inner centre of s e l f , and enables one to obtain har-mony and partake of God. The formulation here i s that of the Romantics, but e s s e n t i a l l y i t i s the same idea. 121 -with G o t t f r i e d . He too ascribes to love the power of growth but he sees the deciding factor i n the acceptance of the suffering brought by love. The terminology may be d i f f e r e n t , but the meaning and the goal are the same. Another point i n which the Romantics concur with G o t t f r i e d i s i n the p o s i t i v e attitude towards the physical union of the lovers, because to such a union i s given a higher connotation f o r i t s enjoyment becoro.es an es s e n t i a l element i n the f u l l expansion of the inner s e l f , based on harmony and the complete blending of souls. In order to extend such an i d e a l experience i n d e f i n i t e l y — ' e t e r n a l l y — t h e lovers wish f o r death together. To G o t t f r i e d death would release the lovers from, t h e i r suffering and afford an id e a l eternal love f u l f i l m e n t . To the Romantics death would f u l l y open the gates to eternal b l i s s f o r the lovers, freed from, bodily f e t t e r s . Gottfried's Grotto alone could have offered a t r e -mendous challenge to the Romantics, had they but seen i t i n the right perspective and sensed the inherent p o s s i -b i l i t y of interpreting i t as a temple—a. Temple of God, as they might have c a l l e d i t . Before being worthy to enter the Grotto, the lovers have f i r s t to overcome c e r t a i n stages of inner development, of s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n i n the gradual ascent on the path of perfection. Then, having entered, s p i r i t u a l harmony reaches an in t e n s i t y which i s underscored by t h e i r being only s p i r i t u a l l y nourished. This elevating experience i s to be considered as God's grace bestowed upon the deserving lovers for a 122 -short while as a respite from suffering. One wonders what Novalis would have done with t h i s theme. We have seen how the Romantics revolutionized the general outlook on marriage: th e i r doctrine of love based every true marriage on harmony and soul unity of the partners. Didn't G o t t f r i e d advocate the same? In his time, of course, he could only portray an i d e a l to be s t r i v e n f o r , because marriage was often only a s o c i a l arrangement, a business or p o l i t i c a l contract without consideration for f e e l i n g , something that persisted right up to the RomanticsJ Although s u p e r f i c i a l l y they seem, to have the same attitude to l i f e , Gottfried's love of l i f e i s expressed i n an anecdotal fashion, which the Romantics misunder-stood as being a farce, whereas the Romantics expressed t h e i r joy of l i v i n g i n serious episodes which had a function. Since the Romantics did not have the knowledge about symbolism i n Gottfried's epic and did not receive any help i n t h i s l i n e from, the scholars either, they were unable to see the sense i n Gottfried's series of gallant adventures and his manner of narration. The Romantics saw i n the various experiences i n l i f e a deeper meaning and an important stage i n the a l l - o v e r evolution of man, therefore, i n t h e i r way of thinking, Gottfried's T r i s t a n did not mean more than a romance about passionate love, f u l l y indulged i n for i t s own sake, and narrated i n a f r i v o l o u s manner. - 123 -It was only with Wagner that the legend was r e -created i n a form which has become a r t i s t i c a l l y extremely important. While i t i s not G o t t f r i e d at a l l , Wagner's T r i s t a n has been so i n f l u e n t i a l that i t affected a l l succeeding attempts for re-creation of the legend: Wagner's music drama has come to be i d e n t i f i e d with the popular meaning of romantic love. 124 -F O O T N O T E S "'"The older French epic version. 2a, b, c, a p e t r u s w < T a x > wort, Slnnblld, Zahl im. T r i -stanroman, Studlen zum Denken und Werten Gottfrieds von  Strassburg. Philologische Studien und Quellen, Hft. 8 ( B e r l i n , 1961), p. 5 . % a n s Fiirstner, Studien zur Wesensbestimmung der ho-fischen Minne (Groningen/DJakarta, 1956), pp. 25 f f ; T r i s t a n by G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg with the 'Tristran' of Thomas, trans. A. T. Hatto, The Penguin C l a s s i c s (Edinburgh, i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 302 f f . 4 T r i s t a n und Isolde, Fortsetzung Ulric h s von Turheim. In: Gottfrieds von Strassburg Werke, ed. F r i e d r i c h Hein-r i c h von der Hagen (Breslau, 1823). ^Heinrich von /Freiberg, Fortsetzung von Gottfrieds T r i s t a n . In: Gottfrieds von Strassburg Werke, ed. Friedrich. Heinrich von der Hagen (Breslau, 1823) . F r i e d r i c h Ranke, T r i s t a n und Isolde, Biicher des M i t t e l -a l t e r s (Munchen, 1925), p. 253. 7 'The Buch der Liebe i s a c o l l e c t i o n of Prose Romances i n t h i r t e e n volumes, printed i n 1578 and i l l u s t r a t e d with crude woodcuts. I t contained mainly courtly s t o r i e s , frequently including those of foreign o r i g i n ( c h i e f l y French), and German medieval epics and ballads i n prose. o "A romantic could become a Catholic i f he had been born a Protestant, but could hardly be a Catholic other-wise, since i t was necessary to combine Catholicism, with r e v o l t , " said Bertrand Russell i n his essay on The Roman-t i c Movement, i n A History of Western Philosophy and i t s  connection with p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l circumstances from,  the e a r l i e s t times to the present day (New York: Simon and Schuster Inc., 1945), p. 679. ^In: Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden K l o s t e r -bruders. Wackenroder*s art interpretations are the most t y p i c a l of the Romantic School's tendencies. Whatever the brothers Schlegel or Tieck may have added to them,, they are based substantially, i n matters of beauty, upon Wackenroder's tenets. (Robert M. Wernaer, Romanticism  and the Romantic School i n Germany (New York/London, 1910), p. 9775 1 0 F r i e d r i c h Schlegel had written a number of important essays on Greek l i t e r a r y subjects: Von den Schulen der  griechischen Poesie, Vom asthetischen Werthe der g r i e -chischen Komodie; Ueber die Grenzen des Schonen; Ueber - 125 -die weiblichen Charaktere In den griechischen Dichtern ( a l l i n 1794). Ueber die Diotima. Tin 1795). August Wilhelm's Lectures on Literature and Art, trans-l a t i o n s of Shakespeare's works, as well as those of I t a l i a n , Spanish and Portuguese writers. Together with Tieck, A. W. Schlegel introduced Calderon to German l i t e r a t u r e and thus started a greater influence of the Spanish drama on the German. "^Thus Halle und Jerusalem has as i t s source Andreas Gryphius' tragedy Cardenio und Cellnde embellished with many personal ^experiences; Die Grafen von Gleichen and Die Papstin Johanna deal with legend material; Der S t r a h l -auer Fischzug, Die Appelmanner, and others are dramatic "Schwankstoffe" from, the sixteenth and seventeenth cen-t u r i e s , revamped, with a very good eye f o r the effects of the 'Puppentheater' and 'Volksbuhnenkunst.' 12 Klopstock expressed In h i s ode "An G o t t " — a s no other poet had done before him.—a longing f o r s p i r i t u a l and physical union with the beloved created especially f o r him, and implores God to be allowed f i n a l l y to meet" her. Bodmer sharply reprimanded Klopstock and could not understand "dass ein so grosser Geist so stark i n den Korper v e r l i e b t s e i , " affronted c h i e f l y by the audacity to be contradicted i n his own concept of dualism,. Klopstock's rel a t i o n s h i p with Meta Moller (who l a t e r became his wife) was also based on natural human feelings and desires, which i n fact deepened t h e i r bond rather than 'd e f i l e d i t s sanctity.* They were both of the opinion that love was not a matter of chance but founded on the s i m i l a r i t y of the hearts and v i r t u e s . This kind of love becom.es to them, marriage even without the sanction of the church. Goethe did not write t h e o r e t i c a l works about love, he l i v e d i t and expressed i t s effects i n his works. He did not set up any doctrines, but from, the thoughts inherent i n his works and the characters portrayed therein, es-p e c i a l l y women, i t i s quite obvious that he did not sub-scribe to the dualism, of his time. Simmel ( i n : Goethe, 1913, pp. 193-209) states: "Sein Vertrauen auf das Sinn-v o i l e im. Realen war zu gross, als dass er den Leib als Gegensatz zum Geist empfunden hatte, und das S i t t l i c h e vom. Sinnlichen hatte absondern, die liebenden und begeh-renden Empfindungen hatte spalten wollen. Fruh denkt er darum. schon nach uber s i t t l i c h e S i n n l i c h k e i t . " Goethe's works as a whole have underscored the close relationship of the s p i r i t u a l and physical aspects of love. 1^The speculative philosophy of the German Romantics i s based on. the firm., unshakable b e l i e f i n a divine P r i n -c i p l e , the source of the v i s i b l e world about them and of 126 -the s p i r i t u a l l i f e within them.. But they were not seeking the t r a d i t i o n a l God of Ch r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , but a pan-t h e i s t i c God: a nearer God who dwelt i n nature as well as i n man, and who would reconcile i n his own person the antagonistic systems of philosophy. Endowed with the consciousness of special powers, such as the philosophy of Fichte and Schelling bestowed upon man, the Romantics f e l t i n s t i n c t i v e l y c a l l e d upon to penetrate farther into the realms of the universe than pure r e l i g i o u s f a i t h had heretofore thought possible: i f not empirically, then i n t u i t i v e l y , i f not with the help of understanding, then with that of f e e l i n g , s p i r i -t u al perception, theosophy. In t h e i r creed there was i n God's mind a humanity without sex—as i t had existed before i t assumed the form, of man and woman—and which they hoped would come once more into being. When humanity was born i t came into the world i n the body of man and woman, and while humanity l i v e s on t h i s earth, i t w i l l and must have t h i s double body. Whatever may be therefore the s p i r i t u a l endeavours of man, only by means of his physical body can they be carried out; only by the means of the body, by the bodily union of man and woman, can the race, and with i t the perfection of humanity, go on. God created the body of man and woman as He created the whole v i s i b l e nature which l i e s i n a l l i t s beauty before us. It must then be holy just as much as man's s p i r i t u a l part i s holy, for i t i s the dwelling place of the divine, the temple of the soul, and therefore divine i t s e l f . Therefore, a l l sex relations are clean and sacred, and when the two bodies of man and woman meet, when the two separated halves j o i n , we have i n thi s marvellous union a symbol of, and return to, the divine human oneness which was and w i l l ever be. (R. M. Wernaer, Romanticism, pp. 144 f f . ; pp. 237 f f . ) ^Lucinde. E d i t i o n of 1926, B e r l i n / L e i p z i g (referred to under L. and page no.), and Die deutschen Romantiker, Die Bergland Buch-Klassiker, 2 vols. (Salzburg/Stuttgart, n.d.), I I , 228 f f . (referred to under RL. and page no.). Heinrich Heine's comments on Lucinde i n Die romantische  Schule are quite revealing of the opinion about the book: "Es hat seiner Zeit nicht an Lobpreisern dieses Romans gefehlt. . . . Es fehl t e sogar nicht an K r i t i k e r n , die dieses Produkt a l s ein Meisterstuck priesen und die bestimmt prophezeiten, dass es einst f u r das beste Buch i n der deutschen L i t e r a t u r gelten werde. Man hatte diese Leute von Obrigkeitswegen festsetzen s o l l e n , wie man i n Russland die Propheten, die ein 6ffentlich.es Ungliick prophezeien, v o r l a u f i g so lange einsperrt b i s ihre Weis-sagung i n Erfi i l l u n g gegangen. Nein, die Gotter haben unsere L i t e r a t u r vor jenem. Ungliick bewahrt; der Schlegel'-sche Roman wurde bald wegen seiner unzuchtigen Nichtigkeit - 127 -allgemein verworfen und i s t j e t z t verschollen. Lucinde i s t der Name der Heldin dieses Romans, und sie i s t ein s i n n l i c h witziges Weib, O d e r vielmehr eine Mischung von S i n n l i c h k e i t und Witz. Ihr Gebrechen i s t eben, dass die kein Weib i s t , sondern eine unerquickliche Zusammen-setzung von zwei Abstraktionen, Witz und S i n n l i c h k e i t . Die Muttergottes mag es dem. Verfasser verzeihen, dass er dieses Buch geschfieben; nimm.erni.ehr verzeihen es ihm die Musen." (Heinrich Heine's Werke (Hamburg, I 8 8 7 ) , Vol. VII, p. 16"0~7T 1*5 •^Cf. Schleiermacher: Grundlinien einer K r i t i k der  bisherigen Sittenlehre, and F r i e d r i c h Schlegel: Philosophie  des Lebens. l 6 I n Part I I , Appendix (IV.445 B-V.471 C) and Chapter XV and XVI (IV.445 B-V.457 B) of The Republic. Translated with introduction and notes by Francis MacDonald Cornford (New York/London: Oxford University Press, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 144-168. 17 'Fr i e d r i c h Schlegel. Seine prosaischen Jugendschriften, ed. Minor, 2 n d ed., 2 vols., 1 9 0 6 , Vol. I, p. 2 5 . In Manuscript of the "Ideen" by Fr. Schlegel, i n Dorothea's handwriting. Goethe-Schiller Archives. (As quoted by P. Kluckhohn, Die Auffassung der Liebe im 18.  Jahrhundert, p. 3 8 5 » since the o r i g i n a l was not accessible to me.) 1 9 C f . Nachlassheft: "Die mystische Synthesis der Individuen i n der Liebe besteht im Zusammensterben; das i s t das Geheimnis des Todes." (Quoted i n P. Kluckhohn, Die Auffassung der Liebe, p..391.) 2 0 C f . "Abendrote," "Der Wasserfall," "Zwei Nachtigallen," "An die Freundin," "An Selinde," "Der Gluhende," "Der Ziirnende." on " Dorothea von Schlegel und deren Sonne I. und Ph. Veit, ed. Raich, 2 v o l s . , 1881, p. 1 3 0 . 22 Jakob Bohme, der schlesische Mystiker, Goldmanns Gelbe Taschehbucher, No. 5 9 8 (Munchen, 1 9 5 9 ) , PP- 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 . 2-^It i s the symbol of the "Divine Feminine," the "Ur-Mutter," I s i s , or Anima, i n man. This maiden i s the "Goddess of Sais," Rosenbliitchen, i n the novel Die Lehr-linge von Sals ( 1 7 9 8 - 9 9 ) ; It i s Sophia and J u l i a i n Hymnen an die Nacht ( I 7 9 8 - I 8 O O ) ; Mathilde, Cyane, Zulima, i n his Heinrich von. Ofterdingen (1799-1300). o k See Bohme, Von den drei P r i n z i p i e n , Chapter XIII, Subdivision 24 f f . and Aurora. To understand the o r i g i n and growth of these mystic conceptions, i t i s necessary 128 -to turn to Adam, and the creation of the world. When Adam f e l l i n the garden of Eden, he suffered a great irreparable l o s s . He l o s t h i s Eve, and with her, so Bohme develops i n his mystic philosophy, his s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Certainly, another Eve remained with him., but she was not the old, s p i r i t u a l , d i v i n e l y given Eve, but the simple, p l a i n , earthy, human Eve. The r e a l Eve withdrew and v e i l e d her-s e l f and remained i n heaven. Deprived of his s p i r i t u a l l i f e , Adam, went out into the world, and groped about l i k e a b l i n d man. But he had, nevertheless, a mission, and man has the same mission even to t h i s day: Man must f i n d what he had l o s t , he must regain his former s p i r i t u a l l i f e — h i s Eve. How to regain her i s revealed i n Bohme's philosophy. (Original not available to roe, therefore quoted i n English.) 2 ^ C f . Raich, Novalis' Briefwechsel, pp. 29-30. (Letter to Fr. Schlegel, dated A p r i l 13, .1797.) 2^Cf. Fragment I I , 237: "Alle echte Mitteilung i s t also sinnbildsam—und sind also nicht Liebkosungen echte Mitteilungen?" 2 ^ C f . Klee, Zu Tiecks germanlschen Studien (Bautzen: Gymnasium. Programm, 1895) , p. 8. 2 8 A one-act "fate tragedy," Der Verschollene (1822), the popular comedy, Das Auge der Liebe (1824), based on Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream., Das Trauerspiel  i n T i r o l (1828), whose hero i s the Tyrolean p a t r i o t Andreas Hofer, and the play i s f u l l of supernatural episodes In the Romantic manner. 2 9 M e r l i n , eine Mythe (1832), which the author himself c a l l e d "die Tragodie des Widerspruchs," the l a s t of the attempts which the German Romantics made to adapt to i t s ends the great secular mysteries of the Middle Ages. Merlin, the son of Satan and a C h r i s t i a n V i r g i n , i s a kind of Anti-Christ who i s racked by the antitheses of l i f e ; the s p i r i t u a l and the sensual, renunciation and pleasure, are at war within him,, and he dies, b a f f l e d i n his e f f o r t s to reconcile them.. -^Die Epigonen (I836). This work describes the r e l a -tions i n which a young man of good family i n Bremen stands towards several women, and contains many autobiographical elements. Die Epigonen i s written i n the vein of Wilhelm. Meister, but has a more modern background than Goethe's novel, being concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with the c o n f l i c t between the r i s i n g middle class and the old aristocracy. By bringing such problems into debate, i t inaugurated the s o c i a l novel of the next generation. -^Munchhausen ( I 8 3 8 ) , f u l l of s a t i r i c a l attacks upon his own time; obviously under the influence of Jean Paul - 129 -or even E. T. A. Hoffmann. 32 Quoted by Bechstein, p. 55 (the o r i g i n a l was not available to me). -^Itomermann studied Grimm's Rechtsalterthiimer, Mythologie und Sagen. The l a t t e r were the source for his chapter "Mittagszauber." -^Dated May 29, 1840. .In: Karl Immermann. Sein Leben  und seine Werke aus Tagebiichern und B r i e f en an seine  Familie zusammengestellt, ed, Gustav zu P u t l i t z , 2 vols. ( B e r l i n : Hertz, I 8 7 0 ) . 35 •^Just as f r e e l y as Immermann treated his characters and situations, he also invented some new characters with-out any p a r t i c u l a r reason. " R i t t e r John," the "Sene-s c h a l l " i s such a character i n whom, the author spoofs the knighthood. ^ Heinrich Heine's Sa'mmtliche Werke i n 12 Banden, Vol. 7, p. 127. " . . . Endlich sehen wir aber auch Gedichte i n jener Z e i t , die dem. c h r i s t l i c h e n S p i r i t u a l i s -mus nicht unbedingt huldigen, ja worin dieser sogar fr o n d i e r t wird, wo der Dichter si c h den Ketten der ab-strakten c h r i s t l i c h e n Tugenden entwindet und wohlgefallig s i c h hinabtaucht i n die Genusswelt der verherrlichten S i n n l i c h k e i t ; und es i s t eben nicht der schlechteste Dichter, der uns das Hauptwerk dieser Richtung, "Tristan und Isolde," hinterlassen hat. Ja, i c h muss gestehen, G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg, der Verfasser dieses schon-sten Gedichts des M i t t e l a l t e r s , i s t v i e l l e i c h t auch dessen grosster Dichter, und uberragt noch a l l e H e r r l i c h k e i t des Wolfram, von Eschilbach, den wir im Perceval und i n den Fragmenten des T i t u r e l so sehr bewundern. Es i s t v i e l -l e i c h t j e t z t erlaubt, den Meister G o t t f r i e d unbedingt zu rtihmen und zu preisen. _Zu seiner Zeit hat man sein Buch gewiss fur gottlos und ahnliche Dichtungen, wozu schon der Lancelot gehorte, f u r gefahrlich gehalten. Und es sind w i r k l i c h auch bedenkliche Dinge vorgefallen. Fran-ceska da Polenta (= da^Rimini) und i h r schoner Freund mussten theuer dafiir biissen, dass sie eines^Tages mit e i n -ander i n einem solchen Buche lasen;-—die grosste Gefahr f r e i l i c h bestand darin, dass sie p l o t z l i c h zu lesen aufhortenl" 3?In: Auswahl aus den hochdeutschen Dichtern des  13. Jahrhunderts, 1820, p. 159. Quoted i n : G o t t f r i e d Weber, G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg, Sammlung Metzler (Stuttgart, 1952), p. 4 5 . 3 8Gottfried Weber, G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg, p. 46. -^Trans. Goldman. (The o r i g i n a l was not available to me.) - 130 -B I B L I O G R A P H Y Bechstein, Reinhold. T r i s t a n und I s o l t i n deutschen  Dichtungen der Neuzeit. Leipzig, I876. Benz, Richard. Die deutsche Romantik. Leipzig, 194-0. Bergson, Henry. Le Hire. Alcan, 1938. Bindschedler, Maria. "Gottfried von Strassburg und die hofische Ethik," Beltrage zur Geschichte der deutschen  Sprache und L i t e r a t u r , LXXVI, 1955* PP. 1-39. . "Der T r i s t a n Gottfrieds von Strassburg," Der Deutschunterricht, VI, 1954, pp. 65-76. Boor, Helmut de. "Die Grundauffassung von Gottfrieds T r i s t a n , " DVJS, 18. Jhg., 18. Bd., Hft. 3, 19^0, pp.262-306 Capellanus, Andreas. De Amore L i b r i Tres. (The art of courtly love.) Columbia University Press, 1941. Closs, August, ed. T r i s t a n und I s o l t , by G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg. Blackwell's German Texts. Oxford, 1958. Conz, K a r l P h i l i p p . Gedichte. Erste'Sammlung. Tubingen, 1792. Ehrismann, Dr. G. Geschichte der deutschen L i t e r a t u r b i s zum Ausgang des M i t t e l a l t e r s . 2. T e i l . 2. Absch. 2. Halfte. F i s e r , Emeric. Le symbol l i t t e r a l r e . P a r i s , 1 9 4 l . Freiberg, Heinrich von. Heinrich von Freibergs Fort-setzung von Gottfrieds Tris t a n . In: Gottfrieds von  Strassburg. Werke. Ed. F r i e d r i c h Heinrich von der Hagen. Breslau, 1823. Furstner, Hans. Studien zur Wesensbestimmung der hofischen  Minne. Groningen/DJakarta, 1956. Gilman, Lawrence'. Wagner's Operas. New York/Toronto, 1937. Glasenapp, Carl Fr. Das Leben Richard Wagners. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1905^. Golther, Wolfgang. Richard Wagner als Dichter. Ed. Georg Brandes. Die L i t e r a t u r , 14^ B e r l i n , n.d. . Richard Wagner an Mathilde Wesendonk. £sic] Tagebuchblatter und B r i e f e , 1853-1887. Leipzig, 1922. - 131 -Golther, Wolfgang. T r i s t a n und Isolde i n den Dichtungen  des M i t t e l a l t e r s und der neuen Z e i t . L e i p z i g , 1907. . T r i s t a n und Isolde. S t o f f - und Motivgeschichte der deutschen L i t e r a t u r . 1929. Gundolf, F r i e d r i c h . "Schleiermachers Romantik," DVJS, 2, Hft. 3 , Halle(Saale), pp. 418-509. Hatto, A. T., trans. T r i s t a n by G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg with the 'Tristran* of Thomas. The Penguin C l a s s i c s . Edinburgh, 1 9 6 0 . Heinzel, Richard. Uber G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg. In: Kleine Schriften von Richard -Heinzel. Ed. M. H. J e l l i n e k and C. von Kraus. Heidelberg, 1907* Hertz, Wilhelm.. T r i s t a n und Isolde. Stuttgart/Berlin, 1923. Huch, Ridaarda. Die romantische Schule. 2 v o l s . B e r l i n , 1920. Immermann, K a r l . T r i s t a n und Isolde. Ein Gedicht i n  Romanzen. Lei p z i g , n.d. Jakob Bohme, der schlesische Mystiker. Ed. Charles Waldemar. Goldmanns Gelbe Taschenbiicher, 598. Miinchen, 1959. Jost, Walter. "Von Ludwig Tieck zu E. T. A. Hoffmann. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des romantischen Subjektivismus," Deutsche Forschungen, Hft. 4 , Frankfurt/M., 1921. Kluckhohn, P. Die Auffassung der Liebe i n der L i t e r a t u r  des 18. Jahrhunderts und i n der deutschen Romantik. Tubingen, 19663. . Die deutsche Romantik. B i e l e f e l d , 1924. Korff, H. A. Geist der Goethezeit. 4 vols. Leipzig, 1964. Kurtz, Hermann. Tr i s t a n und Isolde. Stuttgart, 1847. Lewis, C. S. The Allegory of Love. Oxford University Press. London, 1951. Mann, Thomas. Wagner und unsere Z e i t . Frankfurt/M., 1963. Martin, A l f r e d von. "Das Wesen der romantischen R e l i g i o -s i t y , " DVJS, 2, Heft. 3 , Halle(Saale), 1924, pp. 367-417. - 132 -Meissburger, Gerhard. T r i s t a n und Isold mit den weissen  Handen. Die Auffassung der Minne, der Liebe und  der Ehe bei Got t f r i e d von Strassburg und U l r i c h von Turheim. Basel, 1954. Newman, Ernest. A Study of Wagner. London/New York, 1899. . The L i f e of Richard Wagner. 2 v o l s . London/ Toronto/Melbourne/Sydney, 1937. Nickel, E r i c h . Studien zum Llebesproblem. bei Go t t f r i e d  von Strassburg. Konigsberg, 1927. Novalis. Heinrich von Ofterdingen. In: Die deutschen  Romantiker, I I . Die Bergland-Buch-Klassiker. Salzburg/Stuttgart, n.d. . Hymnen an die Nacht. In: Die deutschen Romantiker, I. Die Bergland-Buch-Klassiker. Salzburg/Stuttgart, n.d. . Samtliche Werke. Ed. Carl Meissner. 4 vols. Florenz and Leipzig, I 8 9 8 . (Referred to under: M, v o l . , p.) Panofsky, Walter. Wagner. A p i c t o r i a l biography. London, 1963. Ranke, F r i e d r i c h . "Die Allegorie' der'Minnegrotte i n Gottfrieds T r i s t a n , " Schriften der Konigsberger  Gelehrten Gesellschaft: Geisteswiss. Klasse, 2. Jahr, Hft. 1, 1925/26, pp. 21-39. , ed. Go t t f r i e d von Strassburg. T r i s t a n und Isolde. Text. Zurich/Berlin, 1965?. T r i s t a n und Isolde. Bucher des M i t t e l a l t e r s . Munchen, 1925. Raphael, Robert. "The Redemption from. Love i n Wagner's Tr i s t a n und Isolde," Monatshefte, LV, February 1963, pp. 113-121. Rosteutscher, J . H. W. Die Wiederkunft des Dionysos. Der naturmystische Irrationalisrous i n Deutschland. Bern, 1947. Rougemont, Denis de. Love Declared. Boston, 1964. _______ Passion and Society. London, 1956. Ruckert, F r i e d r i c h . Gesammelte poetische Werke. Ed. Heinrich Ruckert. 12 vols. Frankfurt/M., 1868/69. - 133 -Schjelderup, Gerhard. Richard Wagner und seine Werke. Leip z i g , 1913. Schlegel, August Wilhelm. von. Samtliche Werke. Lei p z i g , 18463. Schlegel, F r i e d r i c h von. Die deutschen Romantiker. 2 vols. Salzburg/Stuttgart, n.d. . Lucinde. B e r l i n / L e i p z i g , 1926. Schultz, Franz. "Romantik und Romantischj,' DVJS, 2, Hft. 3 , Halle (Saale), 1924, pp. 349-3557"" Schwietering, J u l i u s . Der Tri s t a n Gottfrieds von Strass-burg und die bernhardische Mystik. Tubingen, i 9 6 0 . Simrock, K a r l . Samtliche Werke. 12 vols. Leipzig, n.d. Stein, Herbert von. Dichtung und Musik im Werk Richard  Wagners. B e r l i n , 1962. S t o l t e , Heinz. "Drachenkampf und Liebestrank. Zur Ge-schichte der Tristandichtung," DVJS, HallefSaale), 18, 194-0/pp. 250-261. Tax, Petrus W. Wort, Sinnbild, Zahl im, Tristanroman. Studien zum. Denken und Werten Gottfrieds von Strass-burg. Philologische Studien und Quellen, 8, B e r l i n , T90I . Tiirheim, U l r i c h von. T r i s t a n und Isolde. Fortsetzung  Ulrich s von Tiirheim. In: Gottfrieds von Strass-burg Werke. Ed. F r i e d r i c h Heinrich von der Hagen. Breslau, 1823. Tymms, Ralph. German Romantic L i t e r a t u r e . London, 1955-Unger A Rudolf. "Herder, Novalis und K l e i s t . Studien iiber die Entwicklung des Todesproblems i n Denken und Dichten vom. Sturm, und Drang zur Romantik," Deutsche  Forschungen, Hft. 9 , Frankfurt/M., 1922. . "Vom Sturm, und Drang zur Romantik I," DVJS, 2, Hft. 3 , Halle(Saale), 1924, pp. 616-645. Wackernagel, Wilhelm.. Gedichte eines fahrenden Schiilers. B e r l i n , 1828. Wagner, Richard. Musikdramen. Ed. W.Gblther. B e r l i n / L e i p z i g , n.d. . My L i f e . 2 v o l s . London, 1911. 134 -Wagner, Richard. On Music and Drama. Ed. AlbertGoldman and Evert Sprinchorn. New York, 1964. . T r i s t a n und Isolde. Vocal score by Richard Kleinmichel. New York, 1906. Weber, Go t t f r i e d . G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg. Sammlung Metzler. Stuttgart, 1962. . Gottfrieds von Strassburg T r i s t a n und die Krisea des Hochmittelalterlichen Weltbildes um. 1200. 2 v o l s . Stuttgart, 1953. Wehrli, Max. "Der Tr i s t a n Gottfrieds von Strassburg," Trivium, Jg. IV, Zurich, 1946, pp. 8 I - I I 7 . Weigand, Herman J. "Three Chapters on Courtly Love i n Arthurian France and Germany," University of North  Carolina Studies i n the Germanic Languages and  Liter a t u r e s, XVII, Chapel H i l l , 1956, pp. 18-25. Wernaer, Robert M. Romanticism, and the Romantic School  i n Germany. New York/London, 1910. Willoughby, L. The Romantic Movement i n Germany. Oxford, 1930. Wolzogen, Hans von. Die Sprache i n Richard Wagners  Dichtungen. 3rd e d i t i o n . Leipzig, n.d. . Thematischer Leitfaden durch die Musik zu Richard Wagner7s T r i s t a n und Isolde. (Nebst einem. Vorworte uber den Sagenstoff des Wagner'schen Dramas.) Leip z i g , 1 8 9 4 6 . Zuckermann, E l l i o t t . The f i r s t hundred years of Wagner's  Tri s t a n . Columbia University Press, New York/Londonn 1964. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093619/manifest

Comment

Related Items