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Kasini society : some aspects of the social organization of an Athapaskan culture between 1900-1950 McDonnell, Roger Francis 1975

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K A S I N I SOCIETY: SOME ASPECTS OF THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 0 ? AN ATHAPASKAN CULTURE BSTY/ESN 1900 - 1 9 5 0  t>y  ROGER FRAN CIS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  MCDONNELL  of British  Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  t h e Department of Anthropology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September, 1975  In  presenting this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  for  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  written  representatives. thesis  for  It  is understood that  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  permission.  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  (3erT7  2..  Wig*.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  ii':'. ABSTRACT  T h i s study p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the K a s i n i , a s m a l l group o f n o r t h e r n Athapaskan I n d i a n s . Though i t p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f e t h n o g r a p h i c  material  from a p r e v i o u s l y u n s t u d i e d a r e a , i t s main concern i s to e l u c i d a t e a form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t p r e v a i l e d , between 1900-195Q, i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n Yukon.  Kasini social  relations  were s u b j e c t to change and the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was not p r e d i c a t e d on a f i x e d normative  order.  A c c o r d i n g l y , I have f o c u s e d on i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e  and  emphasized the emergent q u a l i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s i n s t e a d o f assuming a f i x e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework and a t t e m p t i n g to u n d e r s t a n d i t s terms.  the o r d e r o f K a s i n i s o c i a l l i f e i n •  T h i s study seeks to d i s c o v e r the r e a s o n s f o r changes i n K a s i n i r e l a t i o n s , the means they had f o r r e c o g n i z i n g changed r e l a t i o n s , and the methods used to p o r t r a y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f relationship. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are examined from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a c t i v i t i e s and i d e a s .  Chapters t h r e e and f o u r d e s c r i b e  r e s o u r c e s used by K a s i n i and o u t l i n e the annual "sequence o f a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n .  This provides  s i n g l e most demanding framework g o v e r n i n g K a s i n i b e h a v i o r  the and  the d e s c r i p t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t K a s i n i were s u b j e c t to f r e q u e n t  iii group realignment, was a c r i t i c a l groups. Kasini  and t h a t r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y  i n the food  consideration i n the formation  quest  of a l l comestic  Chapters f i v e and s i x d i s c u s s c e r t a i n fundamental i d e a s a n d show how t h e s e  provide  p e r v a d e K a s i n i c u l t u r e and  a base-line f o rKasini recognition of relationshipi n  different  contexts. The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s t u d y  c e r t a i n aspects  of K a s i n i s o c i a l l i f e  frameworks o f resources  and i d e a s .  examine k i n s h i p and t h e s o c i a l were i n f r e q u e n t  i s an attemot to understand  contact.  i n the l i g h t o f the  C h a p t e r s seven and e i g h t  c a t e g o r i e s u s e d b y p e o p l e who  Differences i n individual  ability  r e l a t e t o and d e t e r m i n e p r e f e r r e d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f xieonle w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e domestic groups. behavior  E v i d e n c e i s presented,  i n f l u e n c e d the use o f s o c i a l  c a t e g o r i e s and n e r c e n t i o n  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For i n d i v i d u a l s i n frequent was a t e n d e n c y t o eirroloy s o c i a l r u l e s , which are described.  contact,  categories according  there  to c e r t a i n  These c o n s t i t u t e a s u b - c l a s s  broader s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d i n g those i n infrequent contact.  t o show how  o^ a  used between n e o n l e  T h i s l a r g e r s e t i s d e s c r i b e d and t h e  i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e i s shown t o be a p i v o t a l s t r u c t u r e , c r e a t i n g c r u c i a l bonds w i t h i n K a s i n i s o c i e t y a t l a r g e .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1  II  SETTING:  36  III  NATURAL RESOURCES:  GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL LOCAL DIVERSITY AND  SEASONAL VARIATIONS IV  48  THE COMPOSITION CP DOMESTIC GROUPS AND EXPLOITATION OP NATURAL RESOURCES  77  V  KASINI IDEAS AND BELIEFS  122  VI  BALANCED DUALITY REFLECTED  145  VII  SUBORDINATION AND SOCIAL DISTANCE  178  VIII  KINSHIP RELATIONS AND THE COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC GROUPS  IX  216  SOCIAL DISTANCE AND THE AMBIGUITY OF POWER  X  3QO  ARRANGED MARRIAGES, SOCIAL REALIGNMENT AND THE MOIETY SYSTEM  XI  CONCLUSION  BIBLIOGRAPHY  3  3  9  369 3  7  1  APPENDIX A  A GLOSSARY OF KASINI WORDS  3  7  7  APPENDIX B  A NOTE ON THE DESIGNATION KASINI  3  8  0  -  MAPS 1  S e t t l e m e n t s , Roads and R i v e r s i n t h e S o u t h e r n Yukon:  2  Kasini  1971 H u n t i n g - T r a p p i n g . A r e a and T r a p p i n g P o s t s  i n P r o x i m i t y t o Ross R i v e r : 3  1900-1954  C o n t i g u o u s A r e a s U s e d D u r i n g 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 5 "by Three  Siblings  4  l o c a t i o n o f R e s o u r c e s i n A r e a "A" o n Map  5  A r e a s J o i n t l y and S e p a r a t e l y I n h a b i t e d Three  three  by  Siblings  6  Kasini  Territory  7  K a s i n i T e r r i t o r y Superimposed Boundaries f o r South  DIAGRAMS 4.1  D o m e s t i c Group  4.2  D o m e s t i c Group  4.3  D o m e s t i c Group  4.4  D o m e s t i c Group  4.5  D o m e s t i c Group  4.6  D o m e s t i c Group  4.7  D o m e s t i c Group  4.8  D o m e s t i c Group  4.9  D o m e s t i c Group  7.1  P3-BD M a r r i a g e  7.2  PB-BD-Marriage  7.3  FZ-B3 M a r r i a g e  7.4  FZ-33 M a r r i a g e  Yukon  on E t h n o g r a p h i c  vi:'  PAGE DIAGRAMS 8.1  (Continued)  I n c e s t P r o h i b i t i o n and t h e S t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f  250  Kasini Society 8.2  Domestic  Group  269  8.3  Domestic  Group  272  8.4  A Kasini  Genealogy  278  8.5  Domestic  Group  278  8.6  Domestic  Group  281  10.1  G e n e a l o g i c a l P r o f i l e o f Some K a s i n i Marriages  342  (c.1900)  10.2  Some K a s i n i M a r r i a g e s  10.3  Some M a r r i a g e s B e t w e e n R o s s R i v e r P e o p l e and  10.4  P e l l y Bank P e o p l e  (1920-1940)  ••  10.5  Some,Kasini  Marriages  347  c.1924  Some M a r r i a g e s B e t w e e n R o s s R i v e r P e o p l e ' and P e l l y Bank P e o p l e  345  348  c.1928 (1951-1956)  355  TABLES 1  P r o f i l e o f Some R e c e n t Changes i n t h e L i f e Style  o f t h e I n d i a n s o f Ross R i v e r :  1967-1974  3.1  Kasini  Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s  4.1  K a s i n i P o p u l a t i o n 1904-1944  7.1  Kasini Attitudes  7.2  C a t e g o r i e s o f P e o p l e O l d e r t h a n Ego i n Opposite  7.3  8  to Classes of Individuals  '73 79 186 187  Moiety  C a t e g o r i e s o f P e o p l e O l d e r t h a n Ego i n Own M o i e t y  192  vii:' PAGE TABLES  (Continued)  7.4  K a s i n i K i n s h i p Terms  200  7.5  R e c i p r o c a l Terms B e t w e e n H a l e s i n Same M o i e t y  203  7.6  R e c i p r o c a l Terms B e t w e e n M a l e s  203  i n Opposite  Moiety 8.1  Male-Female K i n C a t e g o r i e s  227  9.1  Social Distance Reflected i n Kasini  304  Social Categories 10.1  Age  S t r a t a o f M a r r i e d Couples  Capable  of  340  Arranging Marriages 10.2  K a s i n i Marriages  (1920-1940)  346  10.3  K a s i n i M a r r i a g e s (1951-1956)  355  viilL  I have been p r o v i d e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t critical  information,  comment and m o r a l a n d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m a  number o f p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s acknowledge  my  study.  debt to a l l o f these people i n d i v i d u a l l y  large To would  be a l e n g t h y t a s k , and I w o u l d n o t h e s i t a t e t o a t t e m p t i t i f I t h o u g h t I c o u l d do so f a i r l y . know who  t h e y a r e and  I hbpe t h a t m o s t t h e s e  that they w i l l  u n d e r s t a n d when I  m e n t i o n h e r e t o t h e f o r b e a r a n c e and f r i e n d s h i p  e n c o u r a g e m e n t and i n d i s p e n s a b l e  and  Barbara. Significant  financial  companionship  s u p p o r t was  restrict  of  H a r r y H a w t h o r n and George Bob,, and, a t d i f f e r e n t the  peonle  periods, of Valerie  obtained through a  Canada C o u n c i l D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p ( 1 9 6 9 - 7 2 ) and an A r c t i c A l p i n e Research Grant  (1970) .  and  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The  purpose o f t h i s  study i s t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e  some a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n A t h a p a s k a n people  i n s o u t h e a s t e r n Yukon between 1900-1950.  been c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n a broader  speaking  The s t u d y h a s  framework o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  c h a n g e and c o n s t i t u t e s a n o b l i q u e p r e l u d e t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y scene i n which  f i e l d w o r k was i n t e r m i t t e n t l y  c a r r i e d out between  1967-71.  The' s t u d y i s a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a way o f l i f e  now o v e r .  I t i s based on r e m i n i s c e n t m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d  cultural  community w h i c h ,  that i s from a  despite e x i s t i n g ethnographic u n i t s ,  have chosen t o r e f e r t o as K a s i n i .  T h i s i s a word  from.the-  1  d i a l e c t o f the people  i n q u e s t i o n and r e f e r s t o a p r e d o m i n a n t  feature of the area:  the P e l l y  The  Kasini,  river.1  a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s who p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n  a d j a c e n t a r e a s , now l i v e more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t l y Ross R i v e r w h i c h Pelly rivers 1900  i n t h e t o w n of*  i s s i t u a t e d a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e Ross and  ( s e e Map 1 ) . R o s s R i v e r b e g a n a s a t r a d i n g p o s t i n  a n d i s one o f t h e f e w r e m a i n i n g  settlements i n the region  t h a t has s u r v i v e d the d e c l i n e o f the f u r t r a d e .  I n 1970 t h e  p o p u l a t i o n o f R o s s R i v e r c o n s i s t e d o f a b o u t 300 p e o p l e 200 w e r e I n d i a n s .  Almost a l l o f the White ( l a r g e l y  o f which Euro-  C a n a d i a n ) p o p u l a t i o n h a s come t o R o s s R i v e r s i n c e 1966 a n d t h e y  1.  we  O u r d e c i s i o n t o i s o l a t e t h e K a s i n i i n t h i s way i s d i s c u s s e d i n A p p e n d i x B.  2 a r e e n g a g e d i n e i t h e r p e r m a n e n t wage-employment o r i n s m a l l business  o f t h e i r own.  The  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n has  w i t h R o s s R i v e r s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n and general aggregates of people socially  significant  hunting,  territory  153  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n terms o f f o u r ,  criteria:  t e r r i t o r y h a b i t u a l l y used f o r  c e r t a i n c u s t o m s and  fur  s o c i a l arrangements.  The  total  individuals.  different they  do  contemporary circumstances  f r o m t h o s e we  of K a s i n i l i f e  d e s c r i b e i n the present  c o n s t i t u t e t h e e m p i r i c a l b a s e l i n e and  pursuing p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s of enquiry. the main problem to which t h i s  study  experiences  w i t h t h e K a s i n i and  study.  are  quite  However,  stimulus f o r  Therefore, i s addressed  o u t l i n e some o f t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l  before d i s c u s s i n g we  would l i k e  events which preceded  briefly  d e s c r i b e the  to  our  conditions  research. 1945-1974  Recent H i s t o r y :  l i k e most o t h e r I n d i a n p e o p l e t h e K a s i n i h a v e u n d e r g o n e two subsistence first  involved a shift  furs..  Canadian s u b a r c t i c  contact w i t h the  "Whiteman".  f r o m h u n t i n g and  gathering  trapping with a gradual  v a r i o u s t o o l s and  of the  m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e i r mode o f  since t h e i r i n i t i a l  of these  h u n t i n g and  1900,  three  c o n s t i t u t e t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e t h r e e a g g r e g a t e s and  The  of  i t consists of  i n h a b i t e d p r i o r to the d e c l i n e of the  t r a d e , d i a l e c t , and Kasini  been a s s o c i a t e d  manufactured items  The  to  e c o n o m i c commitment t o a c q u i r e d i n exchange f o r  T h i s phase, w h i c h p r o p e r l y began f o r t h e K a s i n i around i n v o l v e d a n i n t e r n a l and  resources  and  largely voluntary redefinition  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s .  The  second phase,  of  3 which, has  "been c a l l e d t h e  "government-commercial e r a " , began w i t h  t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e f u r t r a d e a f t e r 1945 d e p e n d e n c e on wage employment and  and  i n v o l v e d an  t h e d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n by  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n s u c h t h i n g s as e d u c a t i o n , the p r o v i s i o n of housing  increased  in village  cash s u b s i d i e s ,  s e t t l e m e n t s , and  law  enforce-  ment (Helm, 1 9 7 1 ) . The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a highway d u r i n g  s e c o n d w o r l d war other events another oil  has  i n the r e c e n t h i s t o r y of the Yukon.  p i p e l i n e and  s e r v i c i n g road t h a t t r a v e r s e d the P e l l y  on t h e A l a s k a h i g h w a y t o t h e  used only b r i e f l y Canol  south.  f o r t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h i t was  official  R o s s R i v e r i n 1949, by 1952  a few  residential  o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n was  c h i l d r e n were b e i n g f l o w n o u t t o  combination  c o s t s , and  the  visited 1950,  attend  In addition  eventually, i n  o f a d e p l e t e d moose p o p u l a t i o n ,  rising  of  the  established i n  t h e f u r m a r k e t b e g a n t o d e c l i n e s h a r p l y , and  freighting  to  constructed,  from o u t s i d e  s c h o o l s a t W h i t e h o r s e and. C a r c r o s s .  1957-58, t h e  river  i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n marked the b e g i n n i n g  a v a s t l y increased rate of i n f l u e n c e exerted An  an  Although  road, as i t i s c a l l e d , passed d i r e c t l y through  tov/n o f R o s s R i v e r and  and  However,  extended from the Mackenzie r i v e r i n the n o r t h  Johnson Grossing  region.  fame most  l e s s w e l l known p r o j e c t u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e t i m e was  r e g i o n and  the  d w a r f e d i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and  the  increased  s t o r e p r i c e s r e s u l t e d i n most o f  the  Ross R i v e r p o p u l a t i o n l e a v i n g f o r Watson l a k e , Upper L i a r d , Teslin,  Carmacks o r W h i t e h o r s e i n s e a r c h o f wage employment  more d i r e c t a c c e s s  t o government a s s i s t a n c e .  By t h e  and  e a r l y 1960's,  5 however, rumours o f summer employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h b i g game h u n t e r s and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n companies a t t r a c t e d many o f these emigrants  back-to  Ross R i v e r a g a i n . .  Between 1960-65 t h e r e was no p a r t i c u l a r inducement beyond'the a t t r a c t i o n s and d i s t r a c t i o n s o f s o c i a b i l i t y t h a t encouraged the K a s i n i to adopt a sedentary Ross R i v e r p o s t . allowances  e x i s t e n c e around the  Summer wages, government p e n s i o n s  and  cash  d i d l i t t l e more than pay o f f debts i n the s t o r e and  make a p e r s o n ' s c r e d i t good i n the f o l l o w i n g months.  They were  i n s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w everyone to l i v e e n t i r e l y from s t o r e bought goods d u r i n g the w i n t e r .  Consequently most K a s i n i l i v e d i n the  bush throughout the w i n t e r and attempted t o supplement t h e i r s u p p l i e s by  food  hunting.  Thus the K a s i n i mode o f p r o d u c t i o n became one o f w i n t e r h u n t i n g and  summer wage employment.  I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e were  government s u b s i d i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , e l d e r l y , the d i s a b l e d and u n m a r r i e d mothers.  T r a p p i n g was  no l o n g e r the most s i g n i f i c a n t  means whereby food and c l o t h i n g c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from the s t o r e : i t became a source o f supplementary income whereby a person's supply of tobacco,  d r i e d f r u i t s , e t c . , c o u l d be ensured  through-  out the w i n t e r months. To accommodate the growing i n t e r e s t i n the m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a a p u b l i c road was w h i c h l i n k e d Ross R i v e r to Watson l a k e . w i t h the excitement  constructed i n  1964  T h i s road c o i n c i d e d  c r e a t e d by the d i s c o v e r y o f a r i c h  d e p o s i t about 40 m i l e s down r i v e r from Ross R i v e r .  By  ore 1966  i t was known t h a t a mine'was to be b u i l t t h e r e and c o n s t r u c t i o n  6 w o r k e r s , some w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s and move i n t o t h e a r e a and  a few  permanent r e s i d e n t s o f the i n Watson L a k e was placed  town.  t h e new  continuous all-season  Eventually  experienced a small  sudden a c c e s s i b i l i t y  cafe,  in fairly  trailer  by  began  doing  so  a  quick  Ross  order  River a  garage,  court, police s t a t i o n ,  school,  r o a d m a i n t e n a n c e s t a t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d  a number o f h o u s e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d residents.  C a r m a c k s and  road that  m i n i n g t o w n o f F a r o on  "boom" and  motel, beer p a r l o u r ,  the  become  thoroughfare.  Attendant to t h i s  and  o f t h e s e have s i n c e  pushed t h r o u g h to  R o s s R i v e r and  health c l i n i c  m o b i l e homes, b e g a n t o  I n a d d i t i o n the  known a s a " d e p a r t m e n t  and  f o r the newly a r r i v e d White  t r a p p i n g p o s t was  r e b u i l t and  became  store".  T h i s r a p i d growth o f Ross R i v e r t h r o u g h the i n f l u x W h i t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s and  government a g e n c i e s d i d l i t t l e  the  s o u r c e s o f income f o r I n d i a n s .  new  d i v e r s i o n s u p o n w h i c h the- I n d i a n s  were a b l e  to acquire  p r e v i o u s l y s p e n t on  i n the food  summer m o n t h s .  i n fancy  packages.  This  etc.,  fashions,  was  as g r e a t  a d d i t i o n , by  t h e i r counterparts  establishing a local  g o v e r n m e n t removed what had  Much money w h i c h  e n c o u r a g e d by  school  and  was  now and teen-  transistor radios,  i n Whitehorse.  In  i n Ross R i v e r ,  the  b e e n a q u i t e i n d i r e c t and  t i o n a l form of economic s u p p o r t .  they  s c h o o l whose i n t e r e s t i n  cameras, tape r e c o r d e r s as  spend what c a s h  c l o t h e s , gadgets,  t e n d e n c y was  agers r e c e n t l y back from r e s i d e n t i a l clothes  provide  s t a p l e s and. n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t  went i n t o the p u r c h a s e o f b e e r , s t y l i s h food  to widen  What i t d i d do was could  of  This  involved taking  unintenchildren  7 from t h e i r parents schools  at  Carcross  and  educating  and  them i n t h e l a r g e  Y/hitehorse.  For bette'r o r worse,  r e d u c e d t h e number o f m o u t h s t o f e e d and  allowed  group to remain m o b i l e throughout the w i n t e r . for  many, t h e  establishment  f u r t h e r f r a c t u r e d the  of a l o c a l  seasonally  for  i t meant t h a t somebody h a d  the  c h i l d r e n who  were b e i n g  residential  school  every  this  domestic  Consequently i n Ross  River  f l u c t u a t i n g economic rhythm  t o s t a y i n town t o l o o k a f t e r  schooled.  And  since the  school  l a s t e d f r o m S e p t e m b e r t o J u n e , i t a l s o meant t h a t some had difficulty  year great  i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e i r summer i n c o m e by w i n t e r  hunt-  ing . U l t i m a t e l y t h e s e changes d i d not deprivation, and  f o r the government stepped i n w i t h w e l f a r e  w i n t e r works p r o j e c t s .  i n f l u e n c e everyone i n the split  and  seasonal  sedentary  employment, i n a c t i v i t y ,  of c h i l d r e n .  camp i n t h e i n t i m a t e and  Those w i t h o u t  For  that  school-  could  still  some, e s p e c i a l l y  f r e q u e n t l y t h e w i n t e r was  r e a s o n t h e l a n d a r o u n d R o s s R i v e r was  the  characterized  a d v a n t a g e s and  f o r t h b e t w e e n a b u s h camp and  attendant  p a r t i c i p a t e in, thei.famrliar,  existence  t h e r e were r e c o g n i z e d  s t y l e s , and  adapt  boredom, d r i n k i n g and  groups.  partial  were  such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  frequently vigorous  young c o u p l e s ,  b a c k and  Those who  i n town, w i t h i t s  b u s h f o r much o f t h e y e a r and  i n small domestic hunting  to both l i f e  life  not  between 1966-71 a  f o r s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n were o b l i g e d t o  d i r e c t l y to a sustained  life  same way  serious money  These changes, however, d i d  developed i n the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n .  responsible  ing  r e s u l t i n any  Ross R i v e r . assessed  disadvantages spent moving For  this  p r i m a r i l y i n terms  8 o f i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y and  t h i s i n v o l v e d domestic hunting  being g e n e r a l l y s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y n e t w o r k o f r i v e r s and Gradually, reach  s c h o o l age,  T a b l e 1.1,  1967  as t h e  f e w e r and  This i s c l e a r l y  reflected  of Ross R i v e r i n  groups, whereas d u r i n g the  of t h i r t y  even  S e p t e m b e r - December o f  o f 29 h o u s e h o l d s l i v i n g o u t  o n l y t h r e e out  began t o  fewer people spent the w i n t e r or  o f Ross R i v e r .  v a r i o u s domestic hunting 1974  c h i l d r e n of young couples  w h i c h shows t h a t d u r i n g  t h e r e w e r e 13  existing  roads.  p a r t of the w i n t e r out in  of the  groups  same p e r i o d i n  t h r e e h o u s e h o l d s were d o i n g  so  and  a l l were l i v i n g i n Ross R i v e r b y mid-December. Table P R O F I L E OP L I F E STYLE OF  THE  I n d i a n Houses i n Ross R i v e r 1967  Tents: 11 H o u s e s : 18 29  1974  Tents: 1 Houses: 32***  1.1,  SOME RECENT CHANGES IN  INDIANS OF  ROSS RIVER;  THE 1967  and  1974  Transportation Mode p e r House  Households spending Sept-Dec.in bush  Dogs: 21* Cars: •— Snowmobile: 1  B u s h Camp: Town:  13** 16  B u s h Camp: Town:  3 36  Dogs: Cars:  5 10  *A H o u s e h o l d c r e d i t e d w i t h "dog t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " means t h a t i t u s e d a n d c a r e d f o r one o r two dog t e a m s . A "team" b e i n g three to f i v e dogs. **What i s i n d i c a t e d by " b u s h camp" i s n o t t h e number o f camps t h a t w e r e f o r m e d i n t h e b u s h b u t t h e number o f R o s s R i v e r h o u s e h o l d s whose o c c u p a n t s w e r e l i v i n g i n t h e b u s h f o r t h r e e o u t o f t h e f o u r months i n q u e s t i o n . I n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 some R o s s R i v e r homes w e r e empty f o r n i n e months o f t h e y e a r ; w h e r e a s n o b o d y seems t o h a v e s p e n t more t h a n t h r e e t o f o u r months i n the bush d u r i n g 1973-74. * * * F o u r o f t h e s e h o u s e s a r e a r e s u l t . o f a; low. c o s t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n 1972-73* T h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n h a s h a d " n o t h i n g t o do w i t h I n d i a n s or. t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s .  9 The of  first  column does not  c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t has  recently occurred.  h a v e b e e n t o r n down, and 1967  still  In. i t s e l f 1967  exist;  t h i s was  i n f a c t only nine  a l l the  t h i s has  considerable  i n 1966  but  (DIA).  initially  r e s u l t of not  having  those i n v o l v e d d i d not  any  and  simply  indeed  own  houses.  fuel, supply  affairs.  ordering  materials  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e y had  assumed t h a t t h e  v i r t u a l l y overnight  p r o v i s i o n of s h e l t e r  by  individual  and  effort.  constructed  their winter  the p r o v i s i o n of a domestic w a t e r i n t h e h a n d s o f DIA Brotherhood  officials  (YFB)  courses were developed to  communities s u c h as  t r a i n i n g and  was train  R o s s R i v e r t o manage t h e s e  I n a d d i t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l s a l a r i e s were p r o v i d e d the  not  domestic  wood c u t t i n g c o n t r a c t s f o r  t h i s time the Yukon N a t i v e  w i l l i n g to take  officials  idea of accounting,  However, h o u s i n g ,  people from I n d i a n  these  had  partly a  remained almost completely  f o r m e d and  Council  T h i s was  some p e o p l e p u r c h a s e d m a t e r i a l and  At  the  their duties.  d i s p o s a l o f g a r b a g e and  i n 1969.  from  slightest  w a r m t h , f o r i n s t a n c e , w o u l d be p r o v i d e d And  time.  have the  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r v a s t l y changed  circumstances  in  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and. i n  A C h i e f and  properly administering a payroll.  grasped the  since t h i s  a s a p o t e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t by  i d e a w h a t w e r e s u p p o s e d t o be  and  of those standing  i n the hands o f o f f i c i a l s  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  amount  Some o l d e r h o u s e s  r e s t have been b u i l t  required  completely  been c r e a t e d  a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the  assume t h e  to  those  responsibilities  involved. The had  general  some s c h o o l i n g and  o p i n i o n i n R o s s R i v e r was formal  t h a t t h o s e who  i n s t r u c t i o n were b e s t  suited for  had the  10 t r a i n i n g and performance o f these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s .  P r i o r to '  1969 those who had assumed t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s averaged 40 y e a r s o f age and some o f these p e o p l e , a l l o f whom were men, were e n t i r e l y i l l i t e r a t e .  Between 1969-72 t h e s e l e c t i v e p r e s s u r e s  o f t r a i n i n g programs and more p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n members o f t h e f i r s t f u l l y l i t e r a t e g e n e r a t i o n and  gaining o f f i c e ;  some o f t h e s e were women.  seeking  T h i s lowered t h e  average age o f those i n p o s i t i o n s o f C h i e f , C o u n c i l o r and Band Manager t o 25 y e a r s o f age.  Since 1974 these new incumbents,  a s i d e from t h e i r o f f i c i a l d u t i e s , have been l a r g e l y  responsible  f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a v i l l a g e h a l l , development o f a c o operative  s t o r e and s u c c e s s f u l l y b i d d i n g f o r a p u b l i c c o n t r a c t to  c l e a r some l a n d — during  t h e l a s t p r o v i d i n g work f o r about s i x men  winter. "Modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " and "Sept.-Dec. spent i n bush"  are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d but a l s o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t k i n d s  of things.  The t r a n s i t i o n t o a mechanized form o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s , among other things, i n d i c a t i v e of a s u b s t a n t i a l l y increased power.  purchasing  I n December 1967 t h e r e were s i x t e e n I n d i a n people i n  Ross R i v e r w i t h incomes o f $120-$250 p e r month.  These p e o p l e  were d i s t r i b u t e d i n o n l y t w e l v e o f t h e t w e n t y - n i n e • h o u s e h o l d s . Only f i v e o f them were g a i n f u l l y employed, t h e r e s t were r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s k i n d s o f cash s u b s i d i e s from government agencies'.^  2",  In  We a r e n o t i n c l u d i n g here government a l l o w a n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n . The s u b s i d i e s we do t a k e i n t o account i n v o l v e one unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i c i a r y and cash a l l o w a n c e s t o t h e i n d i g e n t , d i s a b l e d and e l d e r l y , t h e l a s t c o n s t i t u t i n g more t h a n h a l f of t h e t o t a l .  11 December 1974 t h e r e w e r e t h i r t y - f o u r w i t h i n c o m e s o f $120-$600 p e r month.  These people  were d i s t r i b u t e d  t h i r t y - t h r e e h o u s e h o l d s and out o f t h e s e , and  i n thirty  of the  t h i r t e e n were  working  s i x r e c e i v i n g unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s . The i n c r e a s e i n w i n t e r i n c o m e and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  has  developed  largely  s i n c e 1970 a n d i t h a s a l l o w e d most  to avoid the d e b i l i t a t i n g and  debts they formerly accrued  i n the store  w h i c h t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o p a y o f f i n t h e s h o r t s e a s o n o f summer  employment.  But t o t h e extent' t h a t t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n purchase  of automobiles  and abandonment o f dogs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i t a l s o  r e f l e c t s t h e g r o w i n g commitment a n d a d a p t a t i o n t o a life  people  i n Ross R i v e r .  sedentary  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n column t h r e e o f Table  Cars are o b v i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r use t o the e x i s t i n g of roads,  and. w i t h o u t  equipment o f f the road restrict  1.1.  system  dogs t o a s s i s t i n t r a n s p o r t i n g n e c e s s a r y the I n d i a n people  t h e i r movements.  t o o a r e now o b l i g e d t o  M o s t o f t h e w i n t e r h u n t i n g now  p l a c e on t h e week-ends by c r u i s i n g up and down t h e r o a d i n h o p e s o f i n t e r c e p t i n g some moose o r c a r i b o u . — t h e u s u a l l y r e t u r n i n g t o Ross R i v e r i n t h e e v e n i n g .  takes  i n cars  hunters  By c o n t r a s t i n  1967-68 d o m e s t i c h u n t i n g g r o u p s w e r e camped t w e n t y m i l e s away f r o m any road and i n d i f f e r e n t existed  continuous  d i r e c t i o n s o u t o f Ross R i v e r  toboggan t r a i l s  of t h i r t y ,  f o r t y and  there  sixty  miles i n length. D e v e l o p m e n t o f w i n t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b u i l d i n g a local  s c h o o l and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f adequate accommodation a r e o n l y  some o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b r o u g h t a b o u t a d e c r e a s e i n m o b i l i t y and g r o w i n g i n v o l v e m e n t  i n town'life.  The y e a r s  1967  12 and  1974  represent only  of adaptation has  t h a t has  and  extremes of a f i t f u l  involved  various  b e e n , f o r e x a m p l e , a change i n t h e  amount o f p h y s i c a l an  the  exercise  increasing i n a b i l i t y frequently  winter  camp.  taken.  sedentary l i f e  are  p a r t l y - a r e s u l t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e DIA  i n Ross R i v e r .  o f f i c i a l s and  since  m a n a g i n g community a f f a i r s a t t h e these procedures involve  viduals with a preference given  social  there and  no  categories  exists nothing evidence to  functioned  social  to  u s e d by Very  couples with  those  briefly  l a r g e numbers  e x i s t s a ro\igh  f a m i l y group a l t h o u g h i n the  i n the v a r i o u s  indiof  equation  lexicon  A t h a p a s k a n d i a l e c t s i n v o l v e d3  which corresponds to the  category  suggest t h a t a " f a m i l y " group  d i s t r i b u t e d on  and  initially  of houses f o r s p e c i f i c  "family"  previously  In a d d i t i o n c e r t a i n govern-  the  n a t u r a l o r l e g a l c h i l d r e n o f a woman o r actual  and  local level.  as a u n i t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  ment a l l o w a n c e s a r e  the  procedures  I m p l i c i t i n t h i s procedure there  b e t w e e n h o u s e h o l d g r o u p and of  in a  These d e v e l o p m e n t s  t a k e n up  construction  in  cold  d e v e l o p i n g t o accommodate a c a s h b a s e d economy  sustained  children.  extreme  a c t i v i t y required  the  e m p l o y e d by  the  seems t o h a v e r e s u l t e d  I n a d d i t i o n a t t i t u d e s , s e n s i t i v i t i e s and  mechanisms a r e  There  a decrease i n  c o m f o r t a b l y the  sustained  uneven process  of influences.  d i e t and  This  to withstand  v i g o r o u s and  kinds  and  basis of reckoning  the  couple without regard  s t r u c t u r e of economic dependencies t h a t might  to  exist.  Consequently, even w i t h i n a s i n g l e h o u s e h o l d a f a m i l y u n i t i s i s o l a t e d or defined  3.  f o r some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  We s p e a k h e r e o n l y o f t h e S l a v e , now l i v i n g i n R o s s R i v e r .  purposes.  T u t c h o n e and  Kaska  speakers  13 In  a v e r y l o o s e s e n s e t h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , some n e e d f o r  the Indian people of has  t o r e c o g n i z e t h e economic and s p a t i a l  correlates  t h e non-Athapaskan i d e a o f a " f a m i l y group" s i m p l y because i t been imposed.  However, t h e new a m b i e n c e i t s e l f  r e a s o n to. r e c o g n i z e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  provides  s o c i a l boundaries,  and i n t h i s  r e s p e c t t h e " f a m i l y " , b o t h a s c a t e g o r y a n d g r o u p , h a s come t o f u n c t i o n a s a means o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g a n d s i g n i f y i n g boundaries in  o f i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n .  These a r e a l s o  reflected  found i t extremely  difficult  o t h e r ways. In  to  new  1967 most p e o p l e  still  t u r n down r e q u e s t s f o r m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m  acquaintances, whether or not they shared  their  t h e same h o u s e h o l d ,  and  h e a v y demands w e r e p l a c e d o n t h o s e f e w who h a d money f r o m a n y source.  I t was p a r t l y i n a n e f f o r t . t o  r e s o u r c e s t h a t some p e o p l e ing  themselves  acquaintances  from  conserve  minimal  began d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f i n s u l a t -  the i n c e s s a n t r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e from  i n town.  Among t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i s t h e u s e t o w h i c h  t h e h o u s e was p u t . U n l i k e t h e t e n t o r b r u s h in  these  s h e l t e r o f a camp  t h e b u s h , a h o u s e i n town c o n s t i t u t e s a p h y s i c a l  E v e n i n 1968-69 i t was n o t c u s t o m a r y f o r a p e r s o n  barrier.  to request  p e r m i s s i o n t o e n t e r a h o u s e i n w h i c h he d i d n o t u s u a l l y He s i m p l y t a p p e d  on t h e door and s t e p p e d  v/ay t h a t he w o u l d l e t o u t a s h o u t in  the bush.  inclusion.  i n s i d e i n much t h e same  j u s t b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a camp  However, t h e h o u s e now f u n c t i o n s a s a  r e c o g n i z e d boundary i n which I n t h e event  reside.  the v i s i t o r  socially  requests permission f o r  t h a t h i s i n c l u s i o n i s n o t wanted t h e  k n o c k on t h e f r e q u e n t l y l o c k e d d o o r s i m p l y r e c e i v e s no  response  14 f r o m w i t h i n and  t h e w o u l d he h o s t s r e m a i n  silent  inside u n t i l  the  u n w a n t e d . v i s i t o r g o e s away. T h i s new in  k i n d of s o c i a l  the c u r r e n t tendency  other households  t o o f f e r t o pay  reflected  f o r meat t h a t p e o p l e  Very o f t e n such o f f e r s are r e f u s e d o u t r i g h t  an e f f o r t t o n u l l i f y  the i m p l i e d e x i s t e n c e of s o c i a l  senarateness.  Nevertheless, the o f f e r i t s e l f r e f l e c t s the r e c o g n i t i o n of c r i t e r i a i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l None o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s and e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e now establishing  s o c i a l boundaries Only  new  boundaries.  interests  has  gelled to  e x i s t s a commonly r e c o g n i z e d way  a m b i e n c e o f town l i f e . at  from  have been f o r t u n a t e enough to a c q u i r e i n t h e i r  hunting expeditions. in  i n s u l a r i t y i s also  o f i n c l u s i o n and  of  e x c l u s i o n i n the  t e n d e n c i e s e x i s t and  t h e s e have n o t ,  l e a s t not y e t , r e c e i v e d general r e c o g n i t i o n o r  acceptance.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s a l l p o i n t to. t h e emergence o f household  g r o u p s a s u n i t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  more p r e c i s e r e c o g n i t i o n o f what t h e i n t e r n a l these groups should e n t a i l . briefly  a b o v e and  are unprecedented viewed  As we  they cannot,  for  i t still  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n of current a f f a i r s . have chosen,  t h e p a s t and t h e i r former  of t h i n k i n g about  c a n t h e p a s t be  i n t r u d e s , a l b e i t i n fragments,  attempt  i n this  be and  ignored understanding  It i s for this  study of K a s i n i l i f e ,  t o g i v e t o a few  coherence.  i n the  very  developments  at l e a s t not e n t i r e l y ,  Nor  and  composition of  have t r i e d t o i n d i c a t e  a s d e r i v a t i v e o f a p r e v i o u s way  interpreting social relations.  t h a t we  an awareness  a s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y shows, t h e s e and  the  reason  to focus  of these fragments  on  some o f  15 C o n d i t i o n s o f Research and  C h a r a c t e r o f Data  The f o r e g o i n g g i v e s a t h i n hut a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f the major s h i f t s i n economic o r i e n t a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t were i n p r o c e s s as f i e l d w o r k was and 1970-71.  b e i n g c a r r i e d out d u r i n g 1967-69  I t does n o t , however, r e f l e c t the c r e a t i v e mix  i d i o m s n o r the g e n e r a l and, i n the f a c e of innumerable t h e r a t h e r f r a n t i c i n v e n t i v e n e s s t h a t was, i n the semi-urban s e t t i n g o f Ross R i v e r . d e s p a i r and sense o f f u t i l i t y  of  failures,  and i s s t i l l o c c u r r i n g Nor does i t r e f l e c t  t h a t p e r i o d i c a l l y seems to  the  envelop-  everyone i n the contemporary s i t u a t i o n . The i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n by the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s that of a v a s t , e c l e c t i c c l u t t e r i n which m a t e r i a l concerns,  symbolic idioms, i d e a s , a p p r e c i a t i o n s of relevance  m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a l l seem, p r o f o u n d l y jumbled.  and  This  i m p r e s s i o n i s not s i m p l y a r e s u l t o f the o b s e r v e r b e i n g exposed to new  circumstances  s i n c e t h e r e e x i s t s a c u r i o u s f a m i l i a r i t y to  much t h a t i s g o i n g on and i t has p r o v e n e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t determine  i n what way  and to what e x t e n t t h i s i s o r i s not  to an  illusion. On the most p r a g m a t i c l e v e l t h i s jumble i s e v i d e n t i n the j u x t a p o s t i o n o f two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t e c h n o l o g i e s and motivational orientations.  On the one hand we have the f a m i l i a r  m i x t u r e o f d i s p a r a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s as m a n i f e s t i n such t h i n g s as a s l e d dog chained t o the remnants o f a Honda b e l l b o t t o m e d t r o u s e r s and moose h i d e mocassins,  motor-bike,  handmade snowshoe  frames f i l l e d w i t h n y l o n c o r d , beaver meat and c o r n f l a k e s f o r b r e a k f a s t , and a bush camp w i t h a t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o and a hundred  16 f e e t o f w i r e a e r i a l s t r u n g t h r o u g h t h e trees.. we have t h e s t a t e d p r e f e r e n c e  On t h e o t h e r hand,  o f l i v i n g i n t h e hush a t t e n d e d by an  awareness t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n money i n o r d e r t o l i v e . Today, g o i n g i n t o t h e bush i n v o l v e s t h e spending o f money but n o t i t s production.  I t i s l a r g e l y a s u b s i d i z e d v e n t u r e i n w h i c h an  i n d i v i d u a l seldom comes even c l o s e t o c o v e r i n g expenses t h r o u g h trapping.  Consequently, t o go o r n o t t o go i n t o t h e bush o f t e n  presupposes t h a t a p e r s o n o r group can o r cannot a f f o r d such an excursion.  I n t h e summer months e s p e c i a l l y t h i s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s  i n separations  s i n c e many o f t h e jobs f o r m i n e r a l  exploration  companies and b i g game o u t f i t t e r s r e q u i r e w o r k i n g i n remote w e l l away from Ross R i v e r .  places  Those who remain s e t up camps i n t h e  bush and make p e r i o d i c t r i p s t o Ross R i v e r t o p i c k up t h e money t h a t has been sent t o them by t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i s c u r r e n t l y employed. These o b j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s a r e enveloped i n a wide range o f i d e a s and i n t e r e s t s d e r i v e d from Athapaskan and nonAthapaskan t r a d i t i o n s .  There i s C h r i s t i a n i t y o f s o r t s and Red  Power o f s o r t s j u s t as t h e r e i s t h e r h e t o r i c o f w h i t e and  the n o t i o n o f freedom.  oppression  There i s a l s o a n o t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l  "power", o c c a s i o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h shamans, t a l k o f s o r c e r y and  c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l food a v o i d a n c e s .  are appreciated  S t e e l and machinery  on t h e p r a c t i c a l l e v e l as " t o o l s " and a l s o , by  v i r t u e of a t r a d i t i o n a l kind of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , associated with a c a p a c i t y c a l l e d "God power" thought t o be p o s s e s s e d by t h e W h i t e man.  "Wage employment" a l s o i s a p p r e c i a t e d  money but i t i s , o r can be, o t h e r t h i n g s .  as a means o f a c q u i r i n g Being employed and  17 g e t t i n g a bonus, o r b e i n g employed w h i l e find  jobs hot only  r e f l e c t s observable differences w i t h i n a  structure of opportunities differences  others are unable to  inherent  i t also r e f l e c t s fundamental  to the i n d i v i d u a l s involved.  And n e i t h e r t h e  nature o f these d i f f e r e n c e s n o r t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l imt>lications a r e encompassed o r even i n t r o d u c e d things  a s "wage e m p l o y m e n t " a n d " t o o l s " .  nullify give  by c a t e g o r i z i n g s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a n d  the u t i l i t y  This  o f course does n o t  o f such d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s  b u t i t does  one r e a s o n t o p a u s e a n d r e f l e c t on t h e a p p a r e n t  o f many t h i n g s after all,  and a c t i v i t i e s  could  in'the  familiarity  contemporary scene:  What,  a n a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n a s n o w m o b i l e and "God-  p o w e r " p o s s i b l y mean?  F u r t h e r m o r e , what i s t h e s t a t u s o f s u c h a n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n when some w o u l d s e r i o u s l y e m p l o y i t a s a means o f comprehending t h e o b j e c t would l i g h t l y The  dismiss point  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t and o t h e r s  such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as " I n d i a n  t o be made h e r e , i s n o t t h a t  bullshit".  two c u l t u r a l  s t r e a m s have combined i n chaos, f o r c e r t a i n l y t h e K a s i n i comprehend a good d e a l  o f t h e contemporary scene.  to Euro-Oanadian o u t s i d e r s  —  However, w h a t i s f a m i l i a r  s n o w m o b i l e , s a l a r y , God,  e t c . , must n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a s f a m i l i a r t h i n g s comprehend K a s i n i e x p e r i e n c e .  cousin,  i f one d e s i r e s t o  The modern t e c h n i c a l i t e m s i n  K a s i n i u s e a n d E n g l i s h w o r d s i n t h e i r s p e e c h , a r e a l l t h e more deceptive f o r t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y . life,  Understanding of K a s i n i  i n o u r e x p e r i e n c e , i s made more d i f f i c u l t  by t h e i r i n t e r -  m i x i n g o f c u l t u r a l i d i o m s a n d i f one i s g o i n g t o d i s p l a y c i t y by c o n j e c t u r i n g j u s t how d i f f i c u l t  social  deep s t r u c t u r e o u r e x a m p l e s s h o u l d  i ti s to achieve a proper focus.  multipliindicate  The p h r a s e  18 "God  power", f o r i n s t a n c e ,  C h r i s t i a n i t y and  i s a mix  of words d e r i v e d  Athapaskan n o t i o n s .  I n terms of  from both  Levi-Strauss's  famous b r i c o l e u r s u c h a p h r a s e c o n s t i t u t e s a b r i c o l a g e and s i m i l a r t o t h e a s s o r t m e n t o f i t e m s one ensure success w h i l e h u n t i n g . small two  c a n v a s bag  and  f e a t h e r s , the  ears  "God"  was  o f a s m a l l mammal and i t i s t r u e , i t was  something l i k e o f power". w h i c h may  no  cross.  o n l y the  idioms  (objects  t h e p h r a s e "God  Thus the  word  p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to  p o w e r " may  be  t r a n s l a t e d as  concept  t r a n s l a t e d as a b i l i t y o r c a p a c i t y d e r i v e d from domain.  S i m i l a r l y the brass  could  s i n c e t h e o n l y t h i n g i t had  e d i f i c e o f C h r i s t i a n i d e a s and  p h y s i c a l f o r m and  contact  c r o s s may  a s a r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l o f some k i n d , b u t  o n l y i n a v e r y g u a r d e d manner t h a t we  "God  a t i n y brass  " n o n - A t h a p a s k a n power" o r "a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d  properly described  the  rifle,  e n t i r e l y Athapaskan i n nature.  with a transcendental  crucifix  calibre  However, "power" i s a d i s t i n c t l y A t h a p a s k a n be  in a  s e m a n t i c framework i n w h i c h t h e y  a s i g n i f i e r , w h i c h had  C h r i s t i a n i t y , and  c o l l e c t e d to  These i t e m s were c o n t a i n e d  w o r d s ) t h a t were mixed* t h e  w e r e embedded was  had  involved a s h e l l f o r a small  I n both of these cases, and  y o u n g man  is  be  i t is  c a t e g o r i z e i t as  a  r e t a i n e d when e x t r a c t e d  symbolic  apparent c e n t r a l i t y  r e l a t i o n s was  t o and  from  its  association with  power". I n t h e s e two  e x a m p l e s we  c r e a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p has  social  see  that the  remained A t h a p a s k a n but  which r e l a t i o n s h i p i s being reverse  can  expressed i s changing.  i s a l s o t r u e as i l l u s t r a t e d  i n the  category_£S_'e!etfa. .which l i t e r a l l y  framework f o r  the  idiom  in  However,  c u r r e n t usage of  t r a n s l a t e s as  "my  the the  people" .  19  Formerly "my people" was used by an i n d i v i d u a l i n r e f e r e n c e  to a l l  those with whom he was i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n and w i t h whom he frequently interacted.  Separately he both r e f e r r e d to and addressed  these people w i t h k i n terms.  C u r r e n t l y , however, those i n Ross  R i v e r are a l l i n more o r l e s s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n although not a l l i n t e r a c t w i t h the same frequency.  they do  I n order to s i g n i f y  degrees o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e w i t h i n t h i s new ambience the category  A-$jJi£Jl&—~-—  , which i s s t i l l  o f t e n used, has obtained  i n g component which i t d i d n o t p r e v i o u s l y possess. an emphasis on g e n e a l o g i c a l  a discriminat-  This involves  connectedness and a f i n e r  differentia-  t i o n between c o l l a t e r a l r e l a t i v e s i n s i g n i f y i n g degrees o f s o c i a l distance.  Thus the term__£5'c^er\d_  has been r e t a i n e d but has come  to mean, a t l e a s t f o r some, something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t than i t d i d formerly  s i n c e the c r i t e r i o n o f p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y  supplanted  by g e n e a l o g i c a l p r o x i m i t y .  i s being  The sweeping c l a s s i . f i c a -  tory d i s t i n c t i o n of cross-cousin/parallel-cousin (including s i b l i n g s ) implicit  t o the indigenous  system o f s o c i a l  c a t e g o r i e s i s being  r e p l a c e d by a three f o l d d i s t i n c t i o n i n v o l v i n g cousin to c r o s s - c o u s i n ) , s i b l i n g , cousin).  c o u s i n - s i b l i n g ( i n r e f e r e n c e to p a r a l l e l  This change has been f a c i l i t a t e d by what  r e f e r to as code-switching. subsumed by__£5^ena I t has simply e.g.  The indigenous  socio-linguists  system o f c a t e g o r i e s  has not been tampered w i t h or m o d i f i e d .  been r e p l a c e d by a new system u s i n g E n g l i s h words,  cousin, brother,  different  ( i n reference  cousin-brother,  which, by r e c o g n i z i n g  c r i t e r i a , p a r t i a l l y accommodates what i s s o c i a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t i n the new s i t u a t i o n without d i r e c t l y  challenging or  c o n t r a d i c t i n g semantic and s y n t a c t i c a l f e a t u r e s i n h e r e n t t r a d i t i o n a l system o f s o c i a l  categories.  to the  20 As Athapaskan  e n t a n g l e d a s t h i s mix. b e t w e e n A t h a p a s k a n  c o n t e n t may  be i t d o e s n o t , i n ' i t s e l f ,  and  p o s e any  problems f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i f i n f a c t there e x i s t s a correspondence  b e t w e e n c o n t e n t and  form.  c a n see t h e c o n t e n t a s b e i n g a c u l t u r a l  nonspecial  clear  I n o t h e r w o r d s i f we corpus  capable  of  expressing c e r t a i n k i n d s of r e l a t i o n s h i p i t should, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n , make no <ts'e>gn3  example, the c a t e g o r y  u n e q u i v o c a l l y means s o m e t h i n g case f o r n o t o n l y has  d i f f e r e n c e what, f o r  f o r m e r l y meant i f i t  else.  now,  T h i s , however, i s n o t  t h e c o n t e n t i n some i n s t a n c e s changed w h i l e  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i m p l i e d have remained  t h e same, and  i n other  i n s t a n c e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s changed w h i l e t h e c o n t e n t has r e t a i n e d , b u t i n s o f a r a s any between c o n t e n t and As a r e s u l t ,  still  direct  correspondence  form these changes are s t i l l  i n use.  c a t e g o r i e s such as  in  apparent  life  response  i n Ross In  of any  activity  i n a state of  fe6'<)e-ti^  s t y l e and  .and t h e y  others are  to the sedentary c o n d i t i o n s of  are  are emerging  contemporary  River. our attempts  t o comprehend, t h e s y m b o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n  o u r d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by a l a c k  clear understanding of a c u l t u r a l past  ( w h i c h v/as  p a s s i n g ) , and by o u r f a i l u r e  t o a c h i e v e f l u e n c y i n any  Athapaskan  And  led  flux.  meanings  Some a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p a s t and  f u n c t i o n a l l y l o c a t e d i n a nomadic l i f e  been  m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d  there currently exists quite d i f f e r e n t  a t t r i b u t a b l e to s o c i a l all  the  d i a l e c t s spoken.  a s t r a y a s we  tried  f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s we  t o f o l l o w up  still of  vice-versa.  the  were o f t e n  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s embedded i n o l d i d i o m s and  of  new  21 But  f o r p r e c i s e l y t h e same r e a s o n s ,  although  degree, t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e were o f t e n g o i n g they  frequently failed  t o a much l e s s e r  a s t r a y themselves and  t o c o m m u n i c a t e e f f e c t i v e l y o r t o draw  r e l e v a n t i n f e r e n c e s from each o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r . a n d _ ruts, i t  n.i*i"C as  , f o r . e x a m p l e , w h i c h may be t r a n s l a t e d  " p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h " and " a b i l i t y  contact with a transcendental English vernacular  ( o r power) d e r i v e d  o f Kaska speakers,  considered  however, i s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y  Consequently a statement l i k e  be r e a l l y  strong"  equiva-  "strength",  "power" a n d t h i s  t h a t does n o t e x i s t i n  "When he g e t s  o l d e r he  c a n mean two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s  w h i c h may o r may n o t be e l u c i d a t e d by t h e c o n t e x t  i n which  they  are  spoken.  the  d r u n k e n a n d v i o l e n t a n t i c s o f a y o u n g man who h a d f o r some  years  This  roughly  The w o r d  with  produces a p o t e n t i a l source of ambiguity  will  from  domain" r e s p e c t i v e l y , were, i n t h e  l e n t t o t h e w o r d s " s t r e n g t h " a n d "power".  Kaska.  The K a s k a w o r d s  p e r i o d i c a l l y d i s r u p t e d and a t t i m e s t e r r o r i z e d t h e R o s s  River Indian The  s t a t e m e n t was i n f a c t made a s a commentary o n  community w i t h u n p r e d i c t a b l e  r e m a r k was made i n r e f e r e n c e  " s t r e n g t h " , a s was e v i d e n t his  and  "power".  i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n he w r o u g h t , b u t t o  behavior,  Nevertheless,  behavior;  n o t t o t h e y o u n g man's p h y s i c a l  apparent contact w i t h a transcendental  i n h i sunpredictable  and dangerous  domain, as  evident  w h i c h was a s i g n o f f u t u r e  although  one p e r s o n n o d d e d i n u n d e r -  standing  a n d a g r e e m e n t when h e a r i n g  objected  by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e y o u n g f e l l o w i n q u e s t i o n  physically  s m a l l and s k i n n y  ability  t h e above remark, a n o t h e r  and w o u l d n e v e r be v e r y  Furthermore, the second l i s t e n e r , a l t h o u g h  fully  was  strong.  aware o f t h e  f i r s t k i n d o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , was i n c l i n e d  22 to  a t t r i b u t e the v i o l e n t ' y o u n g  man's b e h a v i o r  s o l e l y to  the  mundane i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l r a t h e r t h a n t o c o n t a c t w i t h transcendental.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n he was  also i n favour of  t h e p o l i c e b r o u g h t i n w h e n e v e r t h e y o u n g man r a t h e r than adopting  the  "traditional"  got  out  or  behavior inter-  him.  Our to  having  o f hand  response to such  w h i c h would have been t o a v o i d e n t i r e l y a l l c o n t a c t ference with  the  purpose i n p r o v i d i n g these  i n d i c a t e the  c o l l e c t e d and  few  e x a m p l e s has  been  b i f a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f much o f t h e m a t e r i a l  t o show r e a s o n f o r a d o p t i n g  we  did.  During  1967-69 we  in  R o s s R i v e r and. w i t h a n o t a b l e  to  s e t up  formal  and  procedures  s p e n t 11 months ( o u t o f a t o t a l o f  i n t e r v i e w s and  o f b o t h an h i s t o r i c a l  the f i e l d  we  l a c k of success  we  attempted  systematically collect  contemporary n a t u r e .  16)  information  Apart  from  u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n A t h a p a s k a n as on-nosed t o  being  non-  Athapaskan ( o r neo-Athapaskan' ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f a c t ,  whether  historical  were,  7  or contemporary, o u r i n t e r v i e w s , such as they  i n e v i t a b l y f o u n d e r e d w h e n e v e r we  began to f o c u s  s h a r p l y on  p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c o r too o b v i o u s l y d i r e c t the l i n e The  .reasons f o r t h i s w e r e many and  here i t w i l l acquired any  suffice  i n general  to say  p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c i n a very  and  t h a t we  o b l i q u e and  concerning  at  issue  information  was  u s u a l l y advanced  erratic  F o r i n s t a n c e , the event d e s c r i b e d above c o n c e r n i n g " s t r e n g t h " and  enquiry.  since they are not  t h a t , most o f o u r  conversation  of  a  "power" l e d , i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n , t o  t h e i r Kaska equivalents which l e d , s t i l l  on  fashion. the  words  questions later,  to  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s to the i n t e r c h a n g e .  In  t h i s manner we  hacked i n , as i t were, to an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f  K a s k a d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h we partial  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the The  field in  remaining  of the  f i v e months d u r i n g  rudiments of hunting,  opportunity  s i n c e the  so  our  time  first  fishing,  stay i n  enquiry  was  clearly redolent  our  I t was  the bush.  months) l i v i n g w i t h This provided  no  we  o f a f o r m e r way of a  we  have based the p r e s e n t  year. but  of  life  "traditional" that  c h o s e t o s p e n d most o f  the  s m a l l d o m e s t i c g r o u p s camped  us w i t h t h e  e n q u i r i e s and  techniques  greater here  opportunity  to  appreciate  a r e l a t i v e l y u n c l u t t e r e d A t h a p a s k a n v i e w o f t h i n g s , and l a r g e l y upon our  some  the  p r i m a r i l y f o r t h i s reason  second stay i n the f i e l d  (11 o f 16  learned and  the  tents  bush at a l l seasons of the  d i d e n c o u r a g e a more c o n s i s t e n t e x p r e s s i o n  during  a '  s e t t i n g we  s n a r i n g and  f o r systematic  Athapaskan p e r s p e c t i v e .  in  In this  camping i n the  s e t t i n g was  as  events described.  o f Ross R i v e r .  o f t r a v e l l i n g and  it  forward  w e r e s p e n t w i t h v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c g r o u p s camped i n  the v i c i n i t y  The  were t h e n a b l e to r e a d  a  observations  i n this  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  i t is  setting  social  that  organization  o f t h e K a s i n i as i t e x i s t e d between 19OO-1950 . The  P l a n o f the The  considered 1968)  and  Study  notion of  "organizational f l e x i b i l i t y "  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many h u n t i n g i n v a r i o u s ways t h i s f e a t u r e h a s  number o f A t h a p a s k a n s p e a k i n g I960),  (Lee  Lurie,  Helm, 1 9 6 1 ) ,  and  people i n c l u d i n g Kutchin  1961),Bear Lakers  now Devore,  been emphasized f o r a  H a r e ( S a v i s h i n s k y , 1 9 7 0 ) , D o g r i b ( H e l m , 1965.  Helm and 1946;  peoples  is  (Slobodin, 1971;  (Osgood, 1 9 3 2 ) , S l a v e  (Honigmann,  C h i p e w ^ a n n ( V a n s t o n e , 1965)-, K a s k a ( H o n i g m a n n , 1949)  and  f o r . the h u n t i n g  p e o p l e o f s u b a r c t i c (Helm and. Leacock, 1971)  and a r c t i c ( V a l e n t i n e and V a l l e e , 1968) Canada g e n e r a l l y . F l e x i b i l i t y i s a q u a l i t y o r c o n d i t i o n w h i c h can be a s c r i b e d to some s t r u c t u r e s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p and r e q u i r e s the n o t i o n o f a standard  o r norm.  I t t h u s f o l l o w s t h a t i t s u t i l i t y can o n l y be  assessed w i t h respect to the relevance the people b e i n g  studied.  o f a chosen standard t o  I n Athapaskan s t u d i e s f l e x i b i l i t y has  been a s c r i b e d t o s o c i a l groups.  Almost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n ,  r e f e r e n c e has been made t o f l e x i b i l i t y  o f group  recruitment, and a t t i t u d e s towards r e s i d e n c e .  some  composition,  However, i t i s  e x t r e m e l y u n c l e a r whether t h i s emphasis on groups i s shared by the p e o p l e b e i n g  studied.  The n e c e s s a r y t a s k o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e  g r o u p i n g s t h a t a r e formed and t h e a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by i n d i v i d u a l s i n these g r o u p i n g s assumes pre-eminence and p r e s e n t s a s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective  i n which the peoples' views o f t h e i r  own r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e judged.  That these v i e w s o r i n t e r p r e t a -  t i o n s do n o t appear c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c t u a l a r t i c u l a t i o n o f groups has l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y  exists.  i n s t a n c e s t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n c l e a r and i n t e l l i g e n t  I n many descriptions  o f l i m i t i n g e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s but i t has r e s u l t e d i n a reduced emphasis on how, w i t h i n such a framework, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y i s c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e premises employed and t h e q u e s t i o n s i n the p r e s e n t study w i l l may be r e i n t r o d u c e d Athapaskan s o c i a l  asked  show how a deeper a n a l y s i s o f c u l t u r e  to strengthen  our g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  organization.  The n o t i o n o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u s e f u l l y s t r a d d l e s  25 the a n a l y t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between content  and form i n the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how a n d t o what e x t e n t human a c t i o n i n c u l t u r a l l y defined  surroundings  ( c f . Firth.,1964:  may be s e e n a s s t r u c t u r e d a n d a r t i c u l a t e '  6 0 - 6 3 , 80-84.).  Form i s i n d u c e d  from  content  and  i s d e r i v a t i v e o f two p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h , r e s u l t i n w h a t , f o r  our  p u r p o s e s , may be c a l l e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l l o g i c  the  cultural logic of interaction.  o f a c t i v i t y and  However, t o t h e e x t e n t  that  the advantages o f t h e n o t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e evident i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h have e x t e n s i v e  reference  to observed o r  w e l l d o c u m e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s we, o f n e c e s s i t y , must e m p l o y a r a t h e r abbreviated  understanding  m a t e r i a l we h a v e o n h a n d , accept  of i t i n handling nevertheless,  the reminiscent  f o l l o w i n g F i r t h we  t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s framed w i t h i n t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e  categories o f process  a n d change a n d t::ut i n v a r i o u s ways t h e  o v e r a l l i n t e n t o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d i s to grasp a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u m e n t a l and c u l t u r a l forms w h i c h , t o p a r a p h r a s e . D a r e n d o r f , a t a n y p o i n t i n t i m e e i t h e r a r e no o r n o t y e t what t h e y w i l l  become.  Instrumental.forms,  a s we u s e t h e t e r m h e r e ,  c o l l a t i o n o f the narrow horizons i n d i v i d u a l s producing  longer  involves  and f r a g m e n t e d n e e d s o f  the m a t e r i a l necessary  f o rexistence.  In a  c e r t a i n sense t h e r e i s something a c u l t u r a l about t h e g e n e r a l i z e d framework w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m these  considerations;for i ti s  not  c o n s t r u c t and a c q u i r e  enough t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s i m p l y  t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , they must a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e way.  l a b e l as s h e l t e r and f o o d ;  these  things things  p r o t e c t i o n a n d be n u t r i t i o u s i n a s u b s t a n t i a l  I n o t h e r w o r d s a l l i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . must  respond-within-,  t h e autonomous p a r a m e t e r s o f s p e c i f i e d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i f the ensuing  a c t i o n i s t o be t o l e r a t e d .  T h i s much i s a  stock  26 t r u i s m i n anthropology describing limiting however, i m p o r t a n t recognize it  t o remember t h a t a l t h o u g h  require a theory  i t s manifestations i s necessary  appreciate  effectively  f o r us  they  f o r m u l a t i o n o f them. of g r a v i t y i n order  respond a c c o r d i n g l y .  On  the  One  does  to  recognize  other  hand,  t o make s u c h a f o r m u l a t i o n i f we  are  to  t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t body o f  a t t i t u d e s and  i f we  and  It i s ,  p e o p l e must  ( a n d i n f a c t m o s t uncommon) t h a t  or create a general  after a l l ,  L e a c h has  any  s u c h c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o cope  conceptualize  it  entire rationale for  conditions i n social organization.  i s not necessary  not,  and u n d e r l i e s t h e  ideas i n f l u e n c e the order  pointed  first  out,  o f human a c t i v i t y .  t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n can o n l y be  exhaust the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e e i n g o r d e r  a c t i v i t i e s a s an a d a p t i v e  response to p a r t i c u l a r  As  achieved i n these  same  conditions  (Leach,1961:306). I n the n e x t t h r e e and  show how,  chapters  i n combination,  we  provide  the resource  such a .formulation  b a s e and  the  u s e d i n i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n must r e s u l t i n c e r t a i n k i n d s a c t i v i t i e s and of the area  groups.  I n b r i e f we  could only support  p o p u l a t i o n had  t o be m o b i l e i n p u r s u i t o f t h e s e  certainly individual  these  resources,  t h a t f o r m e d had From t h e s e  and  that  of  (a) the  a small population,  (c) t h i s m o b i l i t y i n f l u e n c e d the (d)  show t h a t :  methods  (b)  resources this  resources,  s i z e o f g r o u p s t h a t were f o r m e d ,  c a p a c i t i e s were r e q u i r e d f o r e x p l o i t i n g (e) e v e r y  t o c o n t a i n an  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s we  economically  v i a b l e group  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h these c a p a c i t i e s . c a n n o t show what was  c a s e by p r o v i d i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l  normally  p r o f i l e o f a c t i v i t i e s and  the groupings  27 s i n c e we any  h a v e no way  o f k n o w i n g what t h e s e m i g h t h a v e b e e n f o r  p a r t i c u l a r time during extent  t h a t our  the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d  To  the  d e s c r i p t i o n of resources  is  a d e q u a t e , h o w e v e r , v/e can  i n g i n t e r m s o f w h i c h we a c t i v i t y and  i s our  characterize  group c o m p o s i t i o n .  regularities with it  induce a l o g i c  specific  contention  We  in  question.  and  technology  of p r a c t i c a l  reason-  certain regiilarities  only  illustrate  these  cases from our K a s i n i m a t e r i a l  t h a t under the  conditions  described  r e g u l a r i t i e s w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y emerge r e g a r d l e s s  in  but these  of other  cultural  considerations. Our  a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n a s e q u e n t i a l and  o u t l i n e o f a c t i v i t i e s and composition —  a modular a p p r e c i a t i o n of  i t provides  the  must be  This  p e r f o r m e d and  on h a n d t o p e r f o r m them.  framework t e l l s us  task  requires  ability.  Consequently, during  I n the  fall,  f a l l we  of f u n c t i o n a l equation  f r o m w h i c h we  the  formed.  groupings t h a t are  country,  may  T h i s may  The a  hunter i n t h i s "hunter" but  Hunting  a l s o know  physical  conclude something about be  d i a g r a m e d as  follows:  Group  ^  case i s not  somebody who  we  we  have a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d  Activity  Pall  for instance,  commensurate k n o w l e d g e and the  when  what c l a s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s  l e a r n t h a t K a s i n i h u n t f o r b i g game i n h i g h that this  group  s i n g l e most demanding framework  i n w h i c h a l l K a s i n i must o p e r a t e . c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s are  cyclical  j u s t somebody who  may  be  called  i s a c t u a l l y capable of hunting.  It  28 does n o t i n c l u d e t h e s i c k ,  t h e l a m e o r e l d e r l y who may h a v e t h e  k n o w l e d g e t o h u n t b u t who 'are p h y s i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e .  F o r does i t  i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n ( o r v i s i t i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ) who may be p h y s i c a l l y c a p a b l e b u t who a r e i g n o r a n t . T h i s a s s e r t i o n c o u l d be j u d g e d o b v i o u s t o t h e p o i n t o f t r i v i a l i t y w e r e i t n o t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s so t e m p t i n g t o v i e w t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t K a s i n i d o m e s t i c g r o u p i n t e r m s o f more familiar considerations.  I n the small K a s i n i population  domestic groups t h a t formed i n v o l v e d people o f c l o s e connection  genealogical  and t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y k i n terms t h a t were employed  necessarily entailed finite respect  many  combinations.  t o g e n e a l o g y a n d k i n t e r m s , we v e r y  As a r e s u l t ,  with  often recorded  domestic  g r o u p s t h a t c o u l d be d i a g r a m e d a s v a r i a n t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :  A  The  temptation,  of course,  =7  O  i s t o see t h e above as a " f a m i l y g r o u p "  o f some s o r t a n d t o jump f r o m h e r e t o t h e e r r o n e o u s that the "family" i s a basic productive  unit.  w o u l d p l a y down t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u m e n t a l  This,  reasoning. not  I n the f a l l ,  however,  c h a r a c t e r o f such a  group and c o u l d r e s u l t i n a n emphasis on a f a m i l i a l recognition of variance  conclusion  theme i n t h e  r a t h e r t h a n on t h e l o g i c o f p r a c t i c a l f o rinstance,  t h e above g r o u p i n g would  emerge a t a l l i f t h e r e w e r e n o t some o n h a n d who c o u l d h u n t  —  t h i s would have been t h e p r e e m i n e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s u c h a g r o u p and i t i s i n t e r m s o f t h i s t i o n that a great  standard  of  instrumenta-  many v a r i a t i o n s i n K a s i n i g r o u p p e r s o n n e l  may be  29 understood. cultural are  Other  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must he a m a t t e r o f d e m o n s t r a t e d  significance  until  a n d one c a n n o t presume t o know what t h e s e  s u c h d e m o n s t r a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made. l i k e t h e b a t on a R o r s c h a c h  card, or the stars  z o d i a c and a c l o c k f a c e , t h e resemblance diagram  and something  of the  between t h e above  we r e c o g n i z e a s a " f a m i l y * 1  i s obvious  —  b u t i t may n o t be i n t h e l e a s t b i t r e l e v a n t a n d , i n p o i n t o f f a c t i t was n o t f o r t h e K a s i n i . g r o u p s was t h e i r v i a b i l i t y this Kasini composition.  as p r o d u c t i v e u n i t s  Domestic  and o t h e r than  groups were n o t p e r c e i v e d a s d i s c r e t e ,  o r e n t i t i e s and t h e r e e x i s t e d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c e n t r e d on g r o u p  all  t e s t o f a l l domestic  p o s s e s s e d no i d e a l i z a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r i n t e r n a l  normative u n i t s of  The a c i d  i n d i v i d u a l s belonged  membership.  no s e g m e n t a r y  system  Through time  t o numerous d o m e s t i c groups  and K a s i n i  w e r e c o n s t a n t l y m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f e a c h other.'-s a m b i e n c e a s t h e y responded  to fluctuations  i n the r e s o u r c e base and s h i f t i n g  individual capabilities. K a s i n i were e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e  t o changes i n r e l a t i v e  c a p a b i l i t y and f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t and t h e s e f a c t o r s t h e i r experience of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . relationship cation  Broadly sneaking the  b e t w e e n a n y two p e o p l e was n o t f i x e d —  o f o t h e r s i n terms  influenced  the i d e n t i f i -  o f o n e s e l f and o n e s e l f i n terms o f  o t h e r s was a c o n t i n u o u s d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s c e n t e r e d on t h e d i f f e r e n t i n f e r e n c e s t h a t c o u l d be drawn f r o m a c t i v i t i e s on t h e one h a n d a n d s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s on t h e o t h e r . this  study examines t h i s a s p e c t o f K a s i n i  The m a i n body o f  social l i f e  i ndetail.  I n a n t h r o p o l o g y t h e i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r a c t i o n and. s o c i a l relationship  largely  c e n t e r s on t h e p a i r e d f o c i s o c i a l c a t e g o r y  30 and b e h a v i o r .  The n o t i o n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p  d e r i v e d from inference, not o b s e r v a t i o n — one  can o b s e r v e a r e sequences  o f p e o p l e on t h e g r o u n d  strictly  o f a c t i v i t y and  (Watslawick,.1967:  how  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  attribute  significance  t o t h e a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e y engage.. and r e l a t i o n s h i p  speakinga l l  spatial  54-57).  t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p  These a r e  by u n d e r s t a n d i n g  b o t h t o e a c h o t h e r and  the  interaction  participants  v i e w t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h i s t h e y do i n two m a i n w a y s . recognize significance  arrangements  I n o t h e r words  a r e g r a s p e d i n t e r m s o f how  'Either  i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and  see b e h a v i o r a s r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  o r t h e y see  i n p r o p e r t i e s t h e y a s c r i b e t o e a c h o t h e r and t h u s see c a t e g o r i e s as r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p .  are  they  thus  significance social  A l l p e o p l e seem t o u s e  b o t h methods i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y and as a r e s u l t our g e n e r a l u n d e r standing of the p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e h a v i o r has remained i n s t a n c e two  b e t w e e n c a t e g o r y and  r a t h e r a n f r a c t u o u s and o b l i q u e .  i n d i v i d u a l s who  m i g h t be f r o m o u r own  Take f o r  society  individual X gives advice, i n d i v i d u a l Y s o l i c i t s advice. t h i s sequence The  may  prompt X t o a d d r e s s Y w i t h t h e term  s o c i a l c a t e g o r y " s o n " and i t s i m p l i c i t r e c i p r o c a l  thus p o r t r a y a r e l a t i o n s h i p f r o m how  employed  ship.  I n time  "son". "father"  i t s e l f i s derived  to the a c t i v i t y  i n which  I n t h i s case i t r e s u l t s i n X b e i n g viewed  s u p e r o r d i n a t e v i s - a - v i s Y.  may  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  X and Y a t t a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h e y a r e engaged.  we  —  —  The  a c t i v i t y and t h e  t h e r e f o r e have a communicative  as  categories  a s p e c t and f o r t h i s r e a s o n  speak o f the s e m a n t i c s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n Social  c a t e g o r i e s , h o w e v e r , may  a l s o be v i e w e d a s a  systematically by  a  Pplying  coherent vocabulary of l a b e l s which are  certain rules —  relationship  between p e o p l e as s y n t a c t i c a l  I n d i v i d u a l s X and Y,  f o r i n s t a n c e , may  c a t e g o r i e s " f a t h e r " and  "son" because  a n d assumed g e n i t o r o f Y. a p p l i e d not because in,  but because  t h e i r use.  f o r t h i s r e a s o n we may  In this  sneak  or-rule  employ t h e  employed  based. reciprocal  X i s the l e g a l  guardian  c a s e " f a t h e r " and  "son" a r e  o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h X and Y a r e e n g a g e d  of the r u l e s which i n c e r t a i n contexts govern  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c a t e g o r i e s employed would  possess the semantic q u a l i t y mentioned  above and t h e  still  relationship  b e t w e e n X and Y c o u l d n o t be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d , i n o u r u n l e s s t h i s was  of the  a l s o brought  of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . w o u l d be e v i d e n t i f ,  i n t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and  The n e e d f o r t h i s f o r example,  l e g a l g u a r d i a n as "son".  opinion,  analysis  semantic a p p r e c i a t i o n .  Y referred to h i s genitor  I f Y was  three y e a r s o l d X would  d i s m i s s t h e e v e n t a s a m i s t a k e and assume t h a t l i t t l e  and likely  Y had  simply not p r o p e r l y grasped the syntax o f a p p l y i n g such  categories  a s " f a t h e r " and  might  "son".  I f Y was  a t e e n a g e r , however,  o b j e c t t o s u c h a p r a c t i s e and v i e w i t as an i m p e r t i n e n c e i . e . j X would  o b j e c t t o what Y was  i m p l i e d about t h e i r The  t r y i n g t o s i g n i f y and what  and  this  relationship.  remainder of t h i s  study i s an a t t e m p t t o g r a s p  c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f K a s i n i i n t e r a c t i o n and We  —  c o n s i d e r b o t h t h e s y n t a x and  social  relationship.  semantics of s o c i a l  categories  c e n t e r on t h e i n f e r e n c e s K a s i n i drew f r o m p h y s i c a l  separation,  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s and c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n individual  capabilities.  We  begin, i n Chapter f i v e ,  by  introduc-  i n g c e r t a i n i d e a s K a s i n i had about t h e m s e l v e s and t h e r e a l i t y i n  which  they l i v e d .  This entrance  to K a s i n i  culture i s a h i t  a r b i t r a r y but l a y s the foundation f o r understanding important things.  i s s u e s we d i s c u s s l a t e r .  Chapter  I n the context of i l l u s t r a t i n g  s i x attempts  otherwise —  formula o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f many k i n d s —  were r e c o g n i z e d .  two  the prevalence of a  p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p we p r o v i d e a b r o a d a x i s i n terms o f which  a number o f  This a x i s ,  s o c i a l and  o r what G e e r t z  might  c a l l a t e m p l a t e , was n o t so much a r e f l e c t i o n o f a n y s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n o r e v e n t a s i t was a means o f r e c o g n i z i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f many e v e n t s .  I t f u n c t i o n e d a s a method o f i n t e r p r e t -  i n g or g i v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r cast t o events  and thus  served  Kasini  a s a f r a m e w o r k f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g what went o n a r o u n d them. no  demonstrable  sense i s t h i s a x i s d e r i v a t i v e o f e i t h e r  arrangements, p r a c t i c a l consideration at a l l ,  concerns  In  social  o r i n d e e d any p a r t i c u l a r  i t i s simply there, a given i n K a s i n i  culture. I n Chapters  s e v e n a n d e i g h t we e x a m i n e t h e K a s i n i  o f i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l  logic  c a t e g o r i e s used by p e o p l e  who w e r e i n s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t a l o n g w i t h t h e i n f e r e n c e s t h a t w e r e drawn f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y . an attempt  to understand  of p r e f e r r e d combinations  K a s i n i domestic of people  p r e f e r e n c e , . n o t t h e group i t s e l f , departure i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .  eight i s  groups as a s t r u c t u r e  interacting.  I t i s individual  that constitutes the point of  I n b o t h c h a p t e r s we p r o v i d e  t h a t b e h a v i o r i n f l u e n c e d how s o c i a l relationship perceived.  Chapter  evidence  c a t e g o r i e s were employed and  There were, however, c e r t a i n  limitations  t o t h i s p r o c e s s a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s was n o t , f o r t h e most p a r t , d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e a c t i v i t y  of people  i n frequent  33 contact.  I n o t h e r w o r d s t h e r e was  categories and  a t e n d e n c y t o employ  social  i n terms of c e r t a i n r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n  t o some e x t e n t  i t i s f r u i t f u l to appreciate  understand K a s i n i behavior social categories. t h e s i s along to consider  We  r e l a t i o n s h i p and  as f o l l o w i n g f r o m the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , d e v e l o p a one  these l i n e s although  i n t h i s regard  t h e b r o a d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f someone who  In a densely  a r g u e d work F o r t e s has  sided  i t i s of i n t e r e s t t h i n k s he  can.  recently written,  " K i n s h i p p r e d i c a t e s t h e a x i o m o f a m i t y ... What ( t h i s ) r u l e p o s i t s i s t h a t ' k i n s f o l k ' h a v e i r r e s i s t a b l e c l a i m s on one a n o t h e r ' s ., s u p p o r t and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o ' n o n - k i n s m e n ' s i m p l y by r e a s o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e k i n " ( F o r t e s 1969:237-8). ;  The begin with  methodological  the  s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l  understand s o c i a l behavior behavior,  as he  d r i f t of Fortes' p o s i t i o n i s to  says,  T h i s k n o w l e d g e and  4.  " k i n s m a n " a t one  and  then attempt to  i n terms o f t h i s framework.4  f o l l o w s f r o m a k n o w l e d g e . o f who  t h e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g i t a r e ,  seem, n e c e s s a r i l y i n v a r i a n t — a  categories  t i m e and  a p e r s o n c a n n o t be  Amicable  are k i n s f o l k . i t would  categorized  as  a "non-kinsman" a t a n o t h e r i f a m i t y i s  Since t h i s narrow s y n o p s i s o f F o r t e s ' p o s i t i o n does not i n c l u d e j u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i . e . , s y s t e m s o f r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s , i t s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n t o o l i t e r a l l y . I n p a s s i n g , h o w e v e r , i t i s w o r t h p o i n t i n g o u t how c o n f o u n d i n g h i s p o s i t i o n c a n become. The s o - c a l l e d a x i o m o f a m i t y i s , o f c o u r s e , a taxonomic c l a s s which i m p l i e s that amicable behavior i s intrinsically identifiable — i n t h i s r e g a r d one.need o n l y r e f l e c t on how v a r i o u s a r e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s • o f t h e m u s c l e c o n t r a c t i o n s o f t h e f a c e w h i c h r e s u l t i n an u p w a r d c u r v e o f the l i p s . D e p e n d i n g on c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d c o n t e x t t h i s b e h a v i o r may be i n t e r p r e t e d a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , a s m i l e o r l e e r . As s t a t e d , h o w e v e r , F o r t e s ' b e h a v i o r a l c l a s s i s e n t i r e l y d e v o i d o f c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n i t and f o r t h i s r e a s o n h i s a t t e m p t a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n c a n n o t be a p p l i e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e we h a v e no means o f i d e n t i f y i n g a m i t y i n i t s s p e c i f i c manifestations. I n t h i s r a t h e r u n g e n e r o u s l i g h t what b e g a n a s g e n e r a l i t y ends a s a b s u r d i t y i . e . " K i n s h i p p r e d i c a t e s (what??)".  34 t o be p r e d i c a t e d  on k i n s h i p .  The s t r u c t u r a l  shape o f p e o p l e i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d s on how t h e y a p p e a r t o e a c h  other  a s members o f d i s c r e t e s e g m e n t s .  con-  sequently  must f a l l  The a n a l y t i c a l  emphasis  on t h e s e segments, e.g. k i n / n o n - k i n ,  from t h i s knowledge c e r t a i n k i n d s I n many e t h n o g r a p h i c  of behavior  and  may be e x p e c t e d .  s t u d i e s , k i n s h i p terms are considered  a s a n a u t o n o m o u s c o r p u s a n d p e r h a p s f o r many s o c i e t i e s t h i s of closure i s j u s t i f i e d .  I n C h a p t e r n i n e , h o w e v e r , we show how  K a s i n i k i n terms c o n s t i t u t e a sub-class  o f c a t e g o r i e s and a r e  e n c o m p a s s e d i n a much b r o a d e r f r a m e w o r k . l a r g e r framework i s a c h i e v e d , emphasis between c a t e g o r y Social  furthermore,  and behavior  The c o h e r e n c e o f t h i s by i n v e r t i n g t h e  that Fortes  advocates.  c a t e g o r i e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n terms o f a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  behavior  and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i s understood as f o l l o w i n g from  certain kinds a  kind  structural  categories — categories  of behavior.  I n o t h e r words b e h a v i o r  itself  possesses  eloquence which promotes t h e use o f c e r t a i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t y establishes relationship that  simply  portray.  F o r the K a s i n i , as a r e s u l t ,  e x i s t e d no i n v a r i a n t f o r m o f d i s c r e t e s o c i a l p e r s o n c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d  social there  segments, s i n c e a  as, f o rinstance, k i n or non-kin at  d i f f e r e n t t i m e s d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r a m i t y o r e n m i t y was t h o u g h t to p r e v a i l . therefore  The s t r u c t u r a l  shape o f K a s i n i i n r e l a t i o n s h i p  d e p e n d e d o n how t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r  activity.  Consequently t h e emphasis f a l l s  recognized  meaningful behavior  respective  o n how t h e y  when t h e y saw i t a n d what  o f i n f e r e n c e t h e y drew f r o m i t i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s . s p e a k i n g ' we a r e n o t d e a l i n g h e r e w i t h a c l a s s o f b e h a v i o r  sorts Strictly but the  35 e v e n t o f s e p a r a t i o n and contact  had  w h i c h we  what s i g n i f i c a n c e v a r y i n g f r e q u e n c e  for Kasini.  T h e r e we're s o c i a l r e a s o n s f o r  discuss i n Chapter e i g h t , although  have r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y from p r a c t i c a l the  food  the  separation  e v e n t seems t o  considerations  centering  on  quest. I n C h a p t e r t e n we  discuss  the K a s i n i i n s t i t u t i o n  m a r r i a g e as a p i v o t a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e i r s o c i e t y and it  of  functioned  as a mechanism f o r d r a w i n g t o g e t h e r  of  examine  t h o s e who  how were  separated. We it  i s not  can  a question  both achieve the  see  i n the  two  t h i s quite adequately.  Rather, i t i s a question  of properties ascribed  Each encourage q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n s  c u l t u r a l form of s o c i a l l i f e . c a l l e d the  On  t h e one  segmentary technique  l o g i c a l other.  Here t h e  h a n d we  and  a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l  of  social  categories  nature.  them, t h e  socio-  categories  the  stems  an other  o r i e n t a t i o n a l technique In this  may  in  case the a p p l i c a t i o n  i s d e r i v e d from the meaning t h a t o b t a i n s The  social l i f e  in  of every people would  admit to a n a l y s i s from both these approaches, although  seems t h e in  c a l l e d the  sociological other.  prevailing activity. probably  be  the  h a v e what  On  of  to  of  they provide  timeless d e f i n i t i o n of people.  h a v e what may  i d e n t i f y i n g the  h a n d we  i n i d e n t i f y i n g the  f r o m a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c r u l e s and unequivocal  that  of the presence or absence of s t r u c t u r e , f o r  immutable o r r e l a t i v e nature  people.  be  approaches o u t l i n e d above  i t  e n c o m p a s s i n g f r a m e w o r k i n most s o c i e t i e s i s s e g m e n t a r y In t h i s regard K a s i n i appear remarkable, s i n c e , f o r e n c o m p a s s i n g f r a m e w o r k was o r i e n t a t i o n a l .  36 CHAPTER I I SETTING:  GEOGRAPHICAL AFP HISTORICAL  Topography and C l i m a t e The  P e l l y River drainage  the southeastern  basin covers a l a r g e area i n  s e c t o r o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  c l o s e t o t h e Yukon—Northwest T e r r i t o r y border  Prom i t s s o u r c e  deep i n t h e S e l w y n  mountain range t h e r i v e r f l o w s i n a s o u t h w e s t e r l y  direction  t o w a r d s t h e p l a t e a u b e t w e e n t h e S e l w y n r a n g e t o t h e e a s t and. t h e Pelly  range t o t h e west.  On r e a c h i n g t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t i e s  o f t h i s 2,000 f o o t h i g h p l a t e a u t h e P e l l y f l o w s t h r o u g h northwest  u n t i l . i t ' s . 300 m i l e c o u r s e  terminates i n a junction  w i t h t h e Yukon r i v e r n e a r t h e p r e s e n t The  tv/o m a j o r t r i b u t a r i e s  rivers, and  i t to the  s i t e of P e l l y  of the P e l l y ,  Crossing.  t h e Ross and M a c m i l l a n  a l s o have t h e i r h e a d w a t e r s i n t h e Selwyn m o u n t a i n range  j o i n t h e P e l l y a t a b o u t 100 m i l e i n t e r v a l s  from the source o f  the mainstream. West o f t h e P e l l y a r e o t h e r r i v e r s w h i c h a l s o f l o w t h e Y u k o n , t h e most i m p o r t a n t  b e i n g t h e "Big a n d L i t t l e  into  Salmon  rivers. South and s o u t h e a s t  of the P e l l y  drainage  a r e p a r t o f t h e A r c t i c w a t e r s h e d and f l o w i n t o river.  Immediately  tributaries, northeast at  Port  to the south i s the L i a r d  the Prances  river.  the r i v e r s  the Mackenzie a n d one o f i t s m a i n  T h i s s y s t e m f l o w s s o u t h and t h e n  f o r some h u n d r e d s o f m i l e s b e f o r e  joining  the Mackenzie  Simpson. E a s t of' t h e P e l l y  drainage  a n d c l o s e t o t h e tv/o m a i n  t r i b u t a r i e s of the P e l l y r i v e r i s the Keele  r i v e r w h i c h flows }  37 northeast  and then  from Port  Norman.  east into  t h e M a c k e n z i e a b o u t 50 m i l e s  These r i v e r systems c o n s t i t u t e t h e l i k e l y which v a r i o u s peoples access  who l i v e  on t h e upper P e l l y  upstream  r o u t e s by  river  gained  to the region. The  topography o f t h e area i s rough, mountainous and  d i s s e c t e d hj numerous s t r e a m s a n d r i v e r s .  The P e l l y r a n g e , w h i c h  i s b e t w e e n 4,000 a n d 6,000 f e e t h i g h a n d w e s t o f t h e P e l l y i s more o r l e s s p a r a l l e l  t o t h e Selwyn range t o t h e east w h i c h i s  b e t w e e n 5,000 a n d 7,000 f e e t . covered  river,  by c o n i f e r s , m o s t l y  These m o u n t a i n s a r e f a i r l y  evenly  S p r u c e a n d P i n e , up t o a b o u t 3,500  f e e t ; h o w e v e r , o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y do i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s h a v e a diameter  g r e a t e r than  are very  common i n r a v i n e s a n d o l d a l l u v i a l  lowlands.  ten'inches.  I n some a r e a s ,  P o p l a r , b i r c h and r e d w i l l o w t e r r a c e s o f the moist  especially the plateau region  the P e l l y r i v e r , v e g e t a t i o n i s sparse  a n d one f i n d s o n l y  g r a s s e s , low shrubs and ground p l a n t s —  a micro-climate  along bunch which  m i g h t a l m o s t be d e s c r i b e d a s a r i d . The is  s t u n t e d and sparse  characteristic  o f t h e Yukon r e g i o n , w h i c h i s w e l l i n l a n d ,  shadowed f r o m t h e m o i s t u r e  l a d e n a i r o f t h e P a c i f i c and a l s o  subject t o long, severe w i n t e r s . beginning rivers.  O c t o b e r u s u a l l y marks t h e  o f w i n t e r , a n d May t h e t i m e  o f b r e a k - u p on t h e l a r g e s t  S u s t a i n e d ' w i n t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s o f -20P a r e common a n d n o t  i n f r e q u e n t l y t h e thermometer w i l l e s p e c i a l l y during January light  q u a l i t y o f most o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n  plummet t o -75P o r e v e n c o l d e r ,  and February.  i n the inter-mountain  Precipitation i s especially  plateau through  f l o w s a n d o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y does more t h a n  which the P e l l y two o r t h r e e f e e t o f  38 snow f a l l  d u r i n g t h e e i g h t month w i n t e r .  m o u n t a i n s i s somewhat h e a v i e r . o f the  c l i m a t e i s the  seasonal  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  the opposite  occurs.  seed w i t h i n the  more t h a n  four or  w h e r e a s i n t h e summer months  This featvire i s conducive  t i o n o f s m a l l p l a n t s and  feature  extremes i n exposure to s u n l i g h t .  D u r i n g w i n t e r months t h e r e i s l i t t l e h o u r s s u n l i g h t p e r day,  P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the  five  precisely  to r a p i d matura-  s h r u b s w h i c h grow q u i c k l y and  short growing season.  go  to  However, i t d o e s n o t  e n c o u r a g e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a r g e r p l a n t s and  consequently  r e s t r i c t s f o r e s t growth. Early  Contact The  l a t e 1 8 t h and  e a r l y 19th  c o n t a c t by Whitemen w i t h a r e a s river region. not  First  C e n t u r i e s saw  the  p e r i p h e r a l to the upper  came t h e R u s s i a n s  on t h e P a c i f i c  first  Pelly coast,  l o n g a f t e r t h e N o r t h West Company b e g a n e x p l o r i n g  and  and  e s t a b l i s h i n g . t r a d i n g ' p o s t s on t h e M a c k e n z i e r i v e r and i t s tributaries.  By t h e  e a r l y 1800's t h e . I n d i a n s  w e r e a l m o s t s u r r o u n d e d by W h i t e m a n and  access  t h o s e who  had  to h i s t r a d e goods  direct  of the P e l l y contact with  the P e l l y Bay  on  summer o f 1840  I n 1842  L a k e and  Hudson's  C a m p b e l l c o n s t r u c t e d G l e n l y o n House a t  i n 1846  the post  P e l l y Banks b u r n t  G l e n l y o n House was  take  discovered  e x p l o r a t i o n s f o r the  of P e l l y  t h e P e l l y r i v e r n e a r t h e mouth o f the  H o w e v e r , i n 1849  at  when R o b e r t C a m p b e l l  r i v e r w h i l e c a r r y i n g out  Company.  Frances  the  the  (McClellan,1964:3-6).  A c t u a l White p e n e t r a t i o n of the r e g i o n d i d not place u n t i l  river  B a n k s was  Campbell  down a n d  constructed  river.  the f o l l o w i n g year  a b a n d o n e d f o r t h e more s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n  F o r t S e l k i r k , b u i l t i n 1848  a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e Pell}?-  river.  39 But  t h i s t o o was  e a s i e r access the h o s t i l e river.  a b a n d o n e d i n 1852,  i n part to discovery  routes to the r i c h e r f u r areas  competition of T l i n g i t  Thus I n d i a n - W h i t e  Pelly  r i v e r r e g i o n , and  Years  (Campbell, The  due  t o t h e n o r t h and. a l s o  t r a d e r s on t h e u p p e r Y u k o n  t r a d e was  none was  terminated  organized  i n the  upper  f o r the next  fifty  1958).  d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s of the  p e r i p h e r i e s o f t h e r e g i o n and area, are d i f f i c u l t  s u s t a i n e d t r a d e on  the  Campbell's b r i e f occupation  t o d e t e r m i n e b u t a few  of  things are q u i t e  T r a d e b e t w e e n I n d i a n s , a t l e a s t on t h e lower  Pelly,  had  o f t h e P e l l y and  Yukon a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d  w h i c h were, o f b o t h R u s s i a n and ( W i l s o n , 1970:  77-78).  H u d s o n ' s Bay  Thus, a l t h o u g h  the clear.  taken  p l a c e p r i o r t o C a m p b e l l ' s a r r i v a l \ f o r t h e I n d i a n s he met confluence  of  near  a few  the  items  Company o r i g i n  C a m p b e l l makes no  o b s e r v a t i o n s about the I n d i a n s of the upper P e l l y , were e n t e r i n g the r e g i o n p r i o r t o White c o n t a c t .  similar  trade  goods  Also, i f  Campbell's u n s p e c i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r n e c i n e c o n f l i c t i s any  indication,  at both  the  c o n c e n t r i c a t t r a c t i o n of the t r a d i n g posts  P r a n c e s L a k e and  P e l l y B a n k s drew p e o p l e  p r e v i o u s l y had. -had- very', l i t t l e probably  any  territories,  to'do'with  who  o n e ' a n o t h e r and;/very  correspondence t h a t might have e x i s t e d between s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and  becoming r e a r r a n g e d .  l i n g u i s t i c aggregates  C e r t a i n l y events  r a t h e r q u i c k l y , f o r 35 y e a r s l a t e r ,  was  f o l l o w i n g closure of  P o r t P e l l y Banks s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y were becoming  as  together  i n 1887,  the  rearranged "Pelly  Indians ',  C a l b r e a t h d e s c r i b e s them, w e r e t r a d i n g a t P e a s e L a k e —  m i l e s from the n e a r e s t  p o i n t on t h e P e l l y  river  1  200  (Calbreath, 1888).  40  But a p a r t from these temporary t r a d i n g v e n t u r e s o f the a r e a , i t i s c l e a r from accounts o f i n f o r m a n t s , r e c o r d s ( F i e l d , 1913;  P i k e , 1896)  and more r e c e n t  early  ethnographic  s u r v e y s (Denniston^1966) t h a t the p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y Campbell's o c c u p a t i o n o f the u p p e r P e l l y was  out  following  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  c o n f l i c t and i m m i g r a t i o n o f s m a l l groups from the s o u t h  and  northeast.  certain  Why  these groups moved i n t o the area, i s not  but perhaps t h e y themselves  were b e i n g pushed out o f o t h e r  r e g i o n s o r were s e a r c h i n g f o r r i c h e r f u r c o u n t r y . case, i n s t o r i e s now  Whatever the  t o l d about t h i s p e r i o d i t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d '  t h a t i m m i g r a t i n g groups had had r e c e n t c o n t a c t w i t h White t r a d e r s and d i d possess guns.  These gave the immigrants  a d e c i d e d advantage  i n imposing t h e i r w i l l and making good t h e i r c l a i m to t e r r i t o r y i n h a b i t e d by K a s i n i who  were l i v i n g northwest  and a l o n g the P e l l y r i v e r . . for  the f i g h t i n g and k i l l i n g  C e r t a i n s i t e s a r e s t i l l w e l l known t h a t went on d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  These immigrant groups, i n s i z e n o r possessed  o f Prances l a k e  however, were n e i t h e r l a r g e  o f a common s o c i a l background o r language  and they p r e s e n t e d no u n i f i e d f r o n t .  The r e s u l t has been a  g r a d u a l b l e n d i n g w i t h the K a s i n i and the q u e s t i o n o f o r i g i n s d a t i n g back to these times has come to bear l i t t l e  sociological  weight.. T r a p p i n g P o s t s and the Pur Trade In  the n e x t phase o f c o n t a c t , e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a p p i n g  p o s t s and the wanderings of i n d i v i d u a l s p r o s p e c t o r s f o l l o w i n g the K l o n d i k e g o l d rush,., brought d i r e c t and s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t to the K a s i n i .  By 1900  numerous p o s t s had been b u i l t a l o n g the  41 Y u k o n r i v e r and of  T a y l o r and  i t s e a s t e r n t r i b u t a r i e s , n o t a b l y by t h e  Drury w h i c h began o p e r a t i o n s i n 1 8 9 .  t h e same t i m e a n i n d e p e n d e n t at  At  q  f u r buyer  t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e R o s s and P e l l y  y e a r s t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay  Company r e o p e n e d  company about  e s t a b l i s h e d N a h a n i e House r i v e r s and w i t h i n  two  a small post near  their  old  s i t e o f P e l l y Banks (Sheldon,1911:  and  D r u r y b o u g h t o u t t h e o p e r a t i o n s a t b o t h H a h a n i e House  Pelly  Banks.  The  ing  c o u l d be  in  i t became  steamers  i t t u r n e d o u t R o s s R i v e r was  n o t o n l y was  strategically  i t a b l e t o s e r v e p e o p l e who  t h e a r e a b u t i t was  habitually  a l s o a c c e s s i b l e t o t h o s e who  Pelly  transport-  had  They t r a p p e d i n t h e M a c m i l l a n  t r a d e d o u t o f S e l k i r k and  t h o s e who  P o r t Norman.  began t o t r a d e a t Ross R i v e r . R o s s R i v e r was  little  river  people  addition  f r e q u e n t e d by p e o p l e who  inhabited, quite  d i s t i n c t i n d i a l e c t and. c u s t o m .  a t t h i s time a f a i r l y  these people.  a n o t h e r and Furthermore,  s t a b l e arrangement o f l a n d use  T r a p p i n g had  r i c h i n f u r , h e n c e t h e r e was  j u s t b e g u n and little  t h e l a n d was  reason f o r people  i n t o t e r r i t o r i e s t h a t w e r e b o t h u n f a m i l i a r and As a r e s u l t  Salmon,  also  Soon a f t e r i t o p e n e d t h e r e f o r e ,  t e r r i t o r i e s , w e r e s o c i a l l y p e r i p h e r a l t o one  strangers.  lived  t r a p p e d on t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e h i n t e r l a n d o f p o s t s t o  t h e w e s t s u c h a s B i g Salmon, Carmacks and  were-quite  In  located  lived in  a r e a and w e r e composed o f a n i n t e r m a r r i e d m i x t u r e o f  was  and  t h e f a r t h e s t p o i n t on t h e  s u c c e s s f u l l y n a v i g a t e d by  the r e g i o n to the n o r t h .  who  Taylor  freight. As  for  I n 1905  f o r m e r t h e y renamed R o s s R i v e r and  t h e m a i n s u p p l y d e p o t f o r i t was r i v e r which  190-3).  t h e s e l i n g u i s t i c and  different who there amongst still  t o move  inhabited territorial  by  IV) A P 2  KASINI  HUNTING - T R A P P I N G  AND TRAPPING POSTS TO  IN  AREA  PROXIMITY  ROSS R I V E R : 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 4  "  KASINI  AREA  (approxm i ate scale)  4;3: c l u s t e r s remained  c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s t i n c t  whose i n t e r c h a n g e a p p e a r s  t o have been r e s t r i c t e d  c o m p e t i t i o n s i n s i n g i n g and gambling met  to r i t u a l  d u r i n g t h e f e w weeks t h e y  each y e a r w h i l e p a t r o n i z i n g t h e Ross R i v e r p o s t . Throughout t h e next  35 y e a r s t h e s e s e p a r a t e  became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s c r e t e — or  entities  n o t because t h e y were  l a n d h o l d i n g u n i t s a s some e a r l y o b s e r v e r s h a v e  ( K e e l e , 1910), b u t b e c a u s e :  clusters political  suggested  1) t h e y r e c o g n i z e d e a c h o t h e r a s  b e i n g c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t and t h e r e f o r e u n p r e d i c t a b l e and p r o b a b l y dangerous', 2) t h e y o c c u p i e d d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i e s  that  w e r e s u f f i c i e n t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n e e d s , 3) t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n a b l e t o f i n d w i t h i n t h e i r own r a n k s s u f f i c i e n t numbers of  m a r r i g e a b l e people, t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e m s e l v e s ,  a n d 4) t h e s o c i a l  d i s t a n c e t h a t e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e s e t h r e e c l u s t e r s was f u r t h e r accentuated in  by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e f u r t r a d e t h a t t o o k  t h e 1920's a n d 1930's.  During t h i s period a t l e a s t  six. o t h e r  t r a p p i n g p o s t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e a r e a ( s e e Map 2 ) . the n o r t h independent  f u r buyers  a post a t P e l l y Lakes.  To  c o n s t r u c t e d t h r e e p o s t s on t h e  M a c m i l l a n r i v e r and a n o t h e r a t Sheldon p o s t was o p e r a t e d a t P r a n c e s  place  Lake.  To t h e s o u t h a  Lake and T a y l o r and Drury  And t o t h e w e s t T a y l o r a n d D r u r y  o p e r a t e d a s m a l l o u t p o s t a t Rose P o i n t .  Consequently,  established also apart  from  d e c r e a s i n g t h e n e e d t o come t o Ross R i v e r a t a l l , t h e emergence of  t h e s e new c o m m e r c i a l  c e n t e r s f u r t h e r separated, i n terms o f  geographical d i s t a n c e , these d i f f e r e n t t r a p p i n g The  communities.  Commitment t o T r a p p i n g After his i n i t i a l  e x p l o r a t i o n o f the Prances  Lake and  u upper P e l l y  r i v e r areas  Robert  t i o n t h a t i t w o u l d be v e r y p o t e n t i a l of a country From h i s own e x p e r i e n c e small but r i c h pockets profitable  C a m p b e l l a p p a r e n t l y made t h e o b s e r v a -  difficult  to estimate the true f u r  so i n t e r r u p t e d by m o u n t a i n s a n d v a l l e y s . such  t o p o g r a p h y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y  of f u r bearing animals  that afforded  e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r only short periods o f time.  Thus,  q u i t e a p a r t f r o m t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s on t h e l o w e r P e l l y , i t may h a v e b e e n t h e s u s p i c i o n o f a n u n e v e n f u r p o t e n t i a l on t h e u p p e r P e l l y w h i c h l e d " t h e Hudson's Bay Company i n v e s t m e n t c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e l o w e r P e l l y a t F o r t In in  t o be  Selkirk.  many ways C a m p b e l l ' s e a r l i e r a s s e s s m e n t was r e f l e c t e d  subsequent events.  Amongst t h e K a s i n i t h e r e i s no  indication  o f a n " a t o m i s t i c " f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s u c h a s emerged w i t h northern Athapaskan (Jermess, 1967)  peoples  1937) and A l g o n k i a n  a f t e r the establishment  Kasini  f r e q u e n t l y f r o m one a r e a t o a n o t h e r were, o f course,  specific  plots  W i t h i n t h e K a s i n i region,, i t  a p p e a r s t h a t no p a r t i c u l a r a r e a c o u l d e n s u r e , years, a sustained fur'.yield.  (Hickerson.  o f t h e f u r t r a d e and t h e  development o f e x c l u s i v e c o r p o r a t e r i g h t s over of l a n d f o r t r a p p i n g purposes.  found  f o r even a few  i t necessary  i n search of f u r .  However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  will  t o bear i n mind t h a t  neither before nor a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the trapping does t h e r e appear t o have been any system o f t e n u r e s p e c i f i c p l o t s o f l a n d were a l l o c a t e d  t o move  There  l i m i t s t o t h e i r m e a n d e r i n g s a n d t h e s e we  discuss presently.  other  business  whereby  to d i s c r e t e groups o r t o  individuals. The  unevenly  d i s t r i b u t e d and q u i c k l y  resources o f the area are f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d  exhausted f u r  i n t h e t o t a l number o f  45;. t r a p p i n g p o s t s t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the r e g i o n . Banks, P e l l y  Lakes and  Pelly  P r a n c e s Lake p o s t s were a l l c l o s e d  o p e n e d a number o f t i m e s b e f o r e t h e i r f i n a l 1950's.  The  I n p a r t t h i s was  i n response  and  c l o s u r e i n the  to c y c l i c a l  depletion  and  resurgence of fur. bearing animals being trapped i n areas adjacent to each p o s t . Dependence on t r a p p i n g , h o w e v e r , was up u n t i l was  the mid 1920's v i r t u a l l y  o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i r own  never t o t a l f o r  a l l food the K a s i n i  consumed  e f f o r t s from the l a n d .  goods, w h i c h were r e s t r i c t e d p r i m a r i l y  to f a b r i c s ,  Trade  condiments,  t o b a c c o and h a r d w a r e i t e m s , were a p p r e c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r n o v e l t y and o b v i o u s c o n v e n i e n c e .  E v e n u n t i l 1955  on the t r a p p i n g p o s t f o r f o o d i n v o l v e d r e l a t i v e l y perhaps  critical We  amounts o f f l o u r ,  related  small,  sugar.  " h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g " .  However, i n  must b e a r i n m i n d t h a t t r a p p i n g became  functionally  t o h u n t i n g i n a way  t h a t d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o any  the previous g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Indeed,  more c o m m i t t e d  t o h u n t i n g t h a n t h e y had  T h i s i s based  became  ever been b e f o r e .  on t h r e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  t o t r a p p i n g t h e K a s i n i p o s s e s s e d no w o r k i n g d o g s . e v i d e n c e t h e y had  of  there i s reason to  suspect t h a t a f t e r i n t r o d u c t i o n of t r a p p i n g the K a s i n i  i n t h i s and  although  can t h e r e f o r e c h a r a c t e r i z e K a s i n i p r o d u c t i o n w i t h  the f r e q u e n t l y used r u b r i c d o i n g so we  r i c e and  t h e dependence  First, There  s m a l l h u n t i n g watch dogs, but from a l l  surrounding areas i t i s clear that m o b i l i t y  prior i s some accounts was  p r i m a r i l y p e d e s t r i a n a n d g o o d s w e r e moved by b a c k - p a c k i n g o r h a n d - p u l l e d s k i n toboggans.  The  introduction of trapping,  on  however,  .4-6 i n c r e a s e d t h e n e e d f o r a more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . was n e c e s s a r y  n o t so much f o r t r a p p i n g i t s e l f a s i t was f o r t h e  movement o f b o t h g o o d s a n d p e o p l e area and-the p o s t .  distances per t r i p  between a p a r t i c u l a r  frequently involved  o f 80 - 150 m i l e s .  Secondly,  I n the short run the  t h e r e has been e x t e n s i v e r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g  ( L e e a n d DeVore. 1968:  c o n c l u s i v e h a s come o f t h i s ,  relationship.  toboggans  answer.  of f a c t o r s which l i m i t  on t r e a t i n g h u n t e r s  and  total  a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a r g e , s t r o n g work dogs t o p u l l l o a d e d p r o v e d an e f f i c i e n t  trapping  Such t r i p s w e r e u s u a l l y made i n m i d - w i n t e r  e a r l y s p r i n g and, f o r t h e K a s i n i ,  societies  This  221-48), and a l t h o u g h  nothing  t h e r e h a s been c o n s i d e r a b l e  w i t h i n the context  of a  emphasis  "predator-prey"  T h i s emphasis has i n t u r n been p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e  i n t e r p r e t i v e f r a m e w o r k o f what h a s come t o be known a s L i e b i g ' s "law  o f t h e minimum".  T h i s i s a "statement about  biological  e v o l u t i o n w h i c h c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t s e l e c t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n r e s p o n d t o minimum r a t h e r t h a n maximum f e a t u r e s o f t h e environment"  (Pried.1967:65).  I n t h e case of p r e d a t o r p o p u l a t i o n s which prey animals  there i s often a r a p i d f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e i r  s i z e i fthe prey  population  s p e c i e s i s o n a s h o r t p o p u l a t i o n cycle  c o n t r o l l e d by means o t h e r t h a n p r e d a t i o n .  which i s  Such i s t h e c a s e w i t h  l y n x and r a b b i t s i n t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t r e g i o n . c a s e o f "man t h e h u n t e r " ,  on s m a l l  However, i n t h e  who d o e s n o t h a v e t h e same  recovery  r a t e as the lynx, the p o p u l a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y appears t o l e v e l out at o r near the food  capacity o f the land which i s a v a i l a b l e  47 d u r i n g the l e a n e s t p e r i o d s .  This  o f the l e a n e s t time of the year animal  roughly  c o r r e c t we  can  i n e v i t a b l y a t t e n d the Quite  apart  be  gauged e i t h e r i n t e r m s  and/or the  p o p u l a t i o n which might o c c u r T h i r d l y , i f the  an  c a n be  extreme n a d i r o f  o n l y once p e r d e c a d e o r  o f t h e minimum" a r g u m e n t i s e v e n  sure  t h a t c e r t a i n consequences would  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f dogs t o t h e K a s i n i economy.  a d d i t i o n a l l o a d on  the  same, f o o d  dogs w o u l d a l s o c o n s t i t u t e  resources  a v a i l a b l e to  K a s i n i f o r i n t h i s r e g i o n meat f r o m b i g game a n i m a l s by f a r t h e l a r g e s t s o u r c e  of n u t r i t i o n .  p o p u l a t i o n o f b i g game a n i m a l s  the  f o r b o t h men  continue  was  and  dogs.  an  This  unable to increase i t s r a t e increase i n predation,  ever-declining quantity situation,  s h a r p e n t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o p e n t o any a)  sufficient  they  food  i f allowed  c o u l d g i v e up  hunting  and  post  t o a new  area  f u r s , o r d)  to supply  food  supply,  they  hunting would  could  plentiful  c o u l d r e l y i n c r e a s i n g l y on t h e amounts o f f o o d .  probably  This  i n both trancing final  a p p e a r t o have been a v a i l a b l e t o the K a s i n i  t h e l a t e 1 9 3 0 ' s and It  t o have  i n w h i c h case they  i n t h e h o p e s t h a t i t was  them w i t h c r i t i c a l  a l t e r n a t i v e does not until  gradually  c o u l d s p e n d more t i m e  h a v e t o d e c r e a s e t h e t i m e s p e n t a t t r a p p i n g , c) t h e v  f o o d and  to  trapping  t h e i r dogs i n o r d e r  t r a p p i n g , b) t h e y  ever decreasing  migrate  of  f o r themselves: i n which case they would  h a v e t o g i v e up f o r an  constituted  f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g p e r i o d of time, would  peoples:  the  Consequently i f the  t o accommodate t h e n e c e s s a r y  i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t w o u l d be  food  less.  "law  from t h e i r m o b i l i t y value  of reproduction  the  e a r l y 1940's.  i s therefore possible that K a s i n i trapping  o v e r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e and  activities,  i n some a r e a s ,  could  48 h a v e been a n u n s t a b l e a d a p t i v e r e s p o n s e . we d e s c r i b e a way o f l i f e realignment these  I n the following  t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f r e q u e n t  a n d r a p i d movement a n d i t i s d i f f i c u l t  owe t o t h e i n f l u e n c e s c o n s i d e r e d a b o v e .  however,  chapters  t h a t t h e y became much more d e v e l o p e d  began.  i  t o s a y what  I t i s likely, after  group  trapping  49 CHAPTER'III  NATURAL RESOURCES:  LOCAL DIVERSITIES AFP SEASONAL VARIATIONS^  A f t e r 1900 t h e K a s i n i remained dependent on h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g , w h i c h r e q u i r e d m o b i l i t y and a v a r i e t y o f e x p l o i t a t i v e techniques.  Amongst h u n t e r s i n  o f goods i s c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r m o b i l i t y : a v a r i c e i n h i b i t e d and —  general,accumulation  "...needs a r e l i m i t e d ,  p o r t a b i l i t y (becomes) a main v a l u e i n  the economic scheme o f t h i n g s "  (Sahlinsj1968:86).  K a s i n i there-  f o r e p l a c e d g r e a t emphasi