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Kasini society : some aspects of the social organization of an Athapaskan culture between 1900-1950 1975

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KASINI SOCIETY: SOME ASPECTS OF THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 0? AN ATHAPASKAN CULTURE BSTY/ESN 1900 - 1950 t>y ROGER FRAN CIS MCDONNELL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n t he Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le f o r reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission fo r extensive copying o f th i s thes is f o r scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is f o r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date (3erT7 2.. Wig*. i i ' : ' . ABSTRACT This study provides a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the K a s i n i , a small group of northern Athapaskan Indians. Though i t presents a considerable body of ethnographic m a t e r i a l from a p r e v i o u s l y unstudied area, i t s main concern i s to e l u c i d a t e a form of o r g a n i z a t i o n that p r e v a i l e d , between 1900-195Q, i n the southeastern Yukon. K a s i n i s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s were subject to change and the general character of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was not p r e d i c a t e d on a f i x e d normative order. A c c o r d i n g l y , I have focused on i n d i v i d u a l experience and emphasized the emergent q u a l i t y of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r contexts i n s t e a d of assuming a f i x e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework and attempting to understand the order of K a s i n i s o c i a l l i f e i n i t s terms. • This study seeks to d i s c o v e r the reasons f o r changes i n K a s i n i r e l a t i o n s , the means they had f o r r e c o g n i z i n g changed r e l a t i o n s , and the methods used to p o r t r a y d i f f e r e n t k inds of r e l a t i o n s h i p . S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are examined from the pe r s p e c t i v e of a c t i v i t i e s and i d e a s . Chapters three and f o u r describe resources used by K a s i n i and o u t l i n e the annual "sequence of a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n . This provides the s i n g l e most demanding framework governing K a s i n i behavior and the d e s c r i p t i o n r e v e a l s that K a s i n i were subject to frequent i i i group r e a l i g n m e n t , and t h a t r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y i n the food quest was a c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a l l c o m e s t i c g r o u p s . Chapters f i v e and s i x d i s c u s s c e r t a i n fundamental K a s i n i i d e a s and show how the s e pervade K a s i n i c u l t u r e and p r o v i d e a b a s e - l i n e f o r K a s i n i r e c o g n i t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . The remainder o f the s t u d y i s an attemot to u n d e r s t a n d c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f K a s i n i s o c i a l l i f e i n the l i g h t o f the frameworks o f r e s o u r c e s and i d e a s . Chapters seven and e i g h t examine k i n s h i p and the s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s used by peop l e who were i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t . D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y r e l a t e t o and determine p r e f e r r e d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f xieonle w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e domestic g r o u p s . Evidence i s presented, to show how b e h a v i o r i n f l u e n c e d the use o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s and n e r c e n t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t , t h e r e was a tendency t o eirroloy s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to c e r t a i n r u l e s , w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d . These c o n s t i t u t e a s u b - c l a s s o^ a b r o a d e r s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e used between n e o n l e i n i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t . T h i s l a r g e r s e t i s d e s c r i b e d and the i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e i s shown t o be a p i v o t a l s t r u c t u r e , c r e a t i n g c r u c i a l bonds w i t h i n K a s i n i s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 - II SETTING: GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL 36 III NATURAL RESOURCES: LOCAL DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS 48 IV THE COMPOSITION CP DOMESTIC GROUPS AND EXPLOITATION OP NATURAL RESOURCES 77 V KASINI IDEAS AND BELIEFS 122 VI BALANCED DUALITY REFLECTED 145 VII SUBORDINATION AND SOCIAL DISTANCE 178 VIII KINSHIP RELATIONS AND THE COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC GROUPS 216 IX SOCIAL DISTANCE AND THE AMBIGUITY OF POWER 3QO X ARRANGED MARRIAGES, SOCIAL REALIGNMENT AND THE MOIETY SYSTEM 3 3 9 XI CONCLUSION 369 BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 7 1 APPENDIX A A GLOSSARY OF KASINI WORDS 3 7 7 APPENDIX B A NOTE ON THE DESIGNATION KASINI 3 8 0 MAPS 1 S e t t l e m e n t s , Roads and R i v e r s i n the Southern Yukon: 1971 2 K a s i n i Hunting-Trapping. Area and T r a p p i n g P o s t s i n P r o x i m i t y t o Ross R i v e r : 1900-1954 3 Contiguous A r e a s Used D u r i n g 1910-1915 "by Three S i b l i n g s 4 l o c a t i o n o f Resources i n A r e a "A" on Map t h r e e 5 A r e a s J o i n t l y and S e p a r a t e l y I n h a b i t e d by Three S i b l i n g s 6 K a s i n i T e r r i t o r y 7 K a s i n i T e r r i t o r y Superimposed on E t h n o g r a p h i c B o u n d a r i e s f o r South Yukon DIAGRAMS 4.1 Domestic Group 4.2 Domestic Group 4.3 Domestic Group 4.4 Domestic Group 4.5 Domestic Group 4.6 Domestic Group 4.7 Domestic Group 4.8 Domestic Group 4.9 Domestic Group 7.1 P3-BD M a r r i a g e 7.2 PB-BD-Marriage 7.3 FZ-B3 M a r r i a g e 7.4 FZ-33 M a r r i a g e vi:' PAGE DIAGRAMS ( C o n t i n u e d ) 8.1 I n c e s t P r o h i b i t i o n and the S t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f 250 K a s i n i S o c i e t y 8.2 Domestic Group 269 8.3 Domestic Group 272 8.4 A K a s i n i Genealogy 278 8.5 Domestic Group 278 8.6 Domestic Group 281 10.1 G e n e a l o g i c a l P r o f i l e o f Some K a s i n i 342 M a r r i a g e s (c.1900) 10.2 Some K a s i n i M a r r i a g e s (1920-1940) • • 345 10.3 Some M a r r i a g e s Between Ross R i v e r P e o p l e 347 and P e l l y Bank P e o p l e c.1924 10.4 Some M a r r i a g e s Between Ross R i v e r P e o p l e ' 348 and P e l l y Bank P e o p l e c.1928 10.5 Some,Kasini M a r r i a g e s (1951-1956) 355 TABLES 1 P r o f i l e o f Some Recent Changes i n the L i f e 8 S t y l e of t h e I n d i a n s of Ross R i v e r : 1967-1974 3.1 K a s i n i S u b s i s t e n c e A c t i v i t i e s '73 4.1 K a s i n i P o p u l a t i o n 1904-1944 79 7.1 K a s i n i A t t i t u d e s t o C l a s s e s o f I n d i v i d u a l s 186 7.2 C a t e g o r i e s o f Pe o p l e O l d e r t h a n Ego i n 187 O p p o s i t e M o i e t y 7.3 C a t e g o r i e s o f Pe o p l e O l d e r t h a n Ego i n 192 Own M o i e t y v i i : ' PAGE TABLES ( C o n t i n u e d ) 7.4 K a s i n i K i n s h i p Terms 200 7.5 R e c i p r o c a l Terms Between H a l e s i n Same M o i e t y 203 7.6 R e c i p r o c a l Terms Between Males i n O p p o s i t e 203 M o i e t y 8.1 Male-Female K i n C a t e g o r i e s 227 9.1 S o c i a l D i s t a n c e R e f l e c t e d i n K a s i n i 304 S o c i a l C a t e g o r i e s 10.1 Age S t r a t a o f M a r r i e d Couples Capable o f 340 A r r a n g i n g M a r r i a g e s 10.2 K a s i n i M a r r i a g e s (1920-1940) 346 10.3 K a s i n i M a r r i a g e s (1951-1956) 355 v i i l L I have been p r o v i d e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , c r i t i c a l comment and m o r a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from a l a r g e number o f pe o p l e d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . To acknowledge my debt t o a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e i n d i v i d u a l l y would be a l e n g t h y t a s k , and I would not h e s i t a t e t o attempt i t i f I thought I c o u l d do so f a i r l y . I hbpe t h a t most th e s e p e o n l e know who they a r e and t h a t they w i l l u n d e r s t a n d when I r e s t r i c t m e n t i o n here t o the f o r b e a r a n c e and f r i e n d s h i p o f H a r r y Hawthorn and George Bob,, and, a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s , the encouragement and i n d i s p e n s a b l e companionship o f V a l e r i e and B a r b a r a . S i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l s u p port was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a Canada C o u n c i l D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p (1969-72) and an A r c t i c and A l p i n e R e s e a r c h Grant (1970) . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e some a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f an Athapaskan s p e a k i n g p e o p l e i n s o u t h e a s t e r n Yukon between 1900-1950. The s t u d y has been c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n a b r o a d e r framework o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l change and c o n s t i t u t e s an o b l i q u e p r e l u d e t o t h e contemporary scene i n w h i c h f i e l d work was i n t e r m i t t e n t l y c a r r i e d out between 1967-71. The' study i s a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a way o f l i f e t h a t i s now o v e r . I t i s based on r e m i n i s c e n t m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d from a c u l t u r a l community w h i c h , d e s p i t e e x i s t i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c u n i t s , we have chosen t o r e f e r t o as K a s i n i . T h i s i s a word from.the- 1 d i a l e c t o f the p e o p l e i n q u e s t i o n and r e f e r s t o a predominant f e a t u r e o f the a r e a : t h e P e l l y r i v e r . 1 The K a s i n i , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s who p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n a d j a c e n t a r e a s , now l i v e more o r l e s s permanently i n the town of* Ross R i v e r w h i c h i s s i t u a t e d a t the c o n f l u e n c e o f the Ross and P e l l y r i v e r s (see Map 1 ) . Ross R i v e r began as a t r a d i n g p o s t i n 1900 and i s one o f the few r e m a i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t s i n the r e g i o n t h a t has s u r v i v e d the d e c l i n e o f the f u r t r a d e . I n 1970 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Ross R i v e r c o n s i s t e d o f about 300 p e o p l e o f w h i c h 200 were I n d i a n s . Almost a l l o f the White ( l a r g e l y Euro- Canadian) p o p u l a t i o n has come t o Ross R i v e r s i n c e 1966 and t h e y 1. Our d e c i s i o n t o i s o l a t e t h e K a s i n i i n t h i s way i s d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix B. 2 a r e engaged i n e i t h e r permanent wage-employment o r i n s m a l l b u s i n e s s o f t h e i r own. The I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Ross R i v e r s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n and i t c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e g e n e r a l a g g r e g a t e s o f p e o p l e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n terms o f f o u r , s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a : t e r r i t o r y h a b i t u a l l y used f o r h u n t i n g , t e r r i t o r y i n h a b i t e d p r i o r t o t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e f u r t r a d e , d i a l e c t , and c e r t a i n customs and s o c i a l arrangements. The K a s i n i c o n s t i t u t e t h e l a r g e s t o f the t h r e e a g g r e g a t e s and t o t a l 153 i n d i v i d u a l s . The contemporary c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f K a s i n i l i f e a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e we d e s c r i b e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . However, t h e y do c o n s t i t u t e t h e e m p i r i c a l base l i n e and s t i m u l u s f o r p u r s u i n g p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s o f e n q u i r y . T h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e main problem t o w h i c h t h i s s tudy i s a d d r e s s e d we would l i k e t o o u t l i n e some o f t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s w h i c h preceded o u r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e K a s i n i and b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h . Recent H i s t o r y : 1945-1974 l i k e most o t h e r I n d i a n p e o p l e o f the Canadian s u b a r c t i c t h e K a s i n i have undergone two major changes i n t h e i r mode o f s u b s i s t e n c e s i n c e t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e "Whiteman". The f i r s t o f t h e s e i n v o l v e d a s h i f t from h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g to h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g w i t h a g r a d u a l economic commitment t o v a r i o u s t o o l s and manufactured i t e m s a c q u i r e d i n exchange f o r f u r s . . T h i s phase, w h i c h p r o p e r l y began f o r t h e K a s i n i around 1900, i n v o l v e d an i n t e r n a l and l a r g e l y v o l u n t a r y r e d e f i n i t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s . The second phase, 3 which, has "been c a l l e d the "government-commercial e r a " , began w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e f u r t r a d e a f t e r 1945 and i n v o l v e d an i n c r e a s e d dependence on wage employment and t h e d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n such t h i n g s as e d u c a t i o n , cash s u b s i d i e s , the p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g i n v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s , and law e n f o r c e - ment (Helm, 1971). The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the A l a s k a highway d u r i n g the second w o r l d war has dwarfed i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and fame most o t h e r e v e n t s i n t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f the Yukon. However, a n o t h e r l e s s w e l l known p r o j e c t u n d e r t a k e n a t the time was an o i l p i p e l i n e and s e r v i c i n g r o a d t h a t t r a v e r s e d the P e l l y r i v e r r e g i o n and extended from t h e Mackenzie r i v e r i n the n o r t h t o Johnson G r o s s i n g on t h e A l a s k a highway t o t h e s o u t h . A l t h o u g h u sed o n l y b r i e f l y f o r the purpose f o r w h i c h i t was c o n s t r u c t e d , t h e Canol r o a d , as i t i s c a l l e d , p a s s e d d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e tov/n o f Ross R i v e r and i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d r a t e o f i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d from o u t s i d e the r e g i o n . An o f f i c i a l o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s v i s i t e d Ross R i v e r i n 1949, a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1950, and by 1952 a few c h i l d r e n were b e i n g f l o w n out t o a t t e n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a t W h i tehorse and. C a r c r o s s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e f u r market began t o d e c l i n e s h a r p l y , and e v e n t u a l l y , i n 1957-58, the c o m b i n a t i o n o f a d e p l e t e d moose p o p u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d f r e i g h t i n g c o s t s , and r i s i n g s t o r e p r i c e s r e s u l t e d i n most o f the Ross R i v e r p o p u l a t i o n l e a v i n g f o r Watson l a k e , Upper L i a r d , T e s l i n , Carmacks o r W h i t e h o r s e i n s e a r c h o f wage employment and more d i r e c t a c c e s s t o government a s s i s t a n c e . By t h e e a r l y 1960's,  5 however, rumours of summer employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h b i g game hunters and mineral e x p l o r a t i o n companies a t t r a c t e d many of these emigrants back-to Ross R i v e r again. . Between 1960-65 there was no p a r t i c u l a r inducement beyond'the a t t r a c t i o n s and d i s t r a c t i o n s of s o c i a b i l i t y that encouraged the K a s i n i to adopt a sedentary existence around the Ross Ri v e r post. Summer wages, government pensions and cash allowances d i d l i t t l e more than pay o f f debts i n the store and make a person's c r e d i t good i n the f o l l o w i n g months. They were i n s u f f i c i e n t to allow everyone to l i v e e n t i r e l y from store bought goods during the w i n t e r . Consequently most K a s i n i l i v e d i n the bush throughout the w i n t e r and attempted to supplement t h e i r food s u p p l i e s by hunting. Thus the K a s i n i mode of production became one of w i n t e r hunting and summer wage employment. In a d d i t i o n there were government s u b s i d i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , e l d e r l y , the d i s a b l e d and unmarried mothers. Trapping was no longer the most s i g n i f i c a n t means whereby food and c l o t h i n g could be obtained from the s t o r e : i t became a source of supplementary income whereby a person's supply of tobacco, d r i e d f r u i t s , e t c . , could be ensured through- out the w i n t e r months. To accommodate the growing i n t e r e s t i n the mineral p o t e n t i a l of the area a p u b l i c road was constructed i n 1964 which l i n k e d Ross R i v e r to Watson l a k e . This road coincided w i t h the excitement created by the discovery of a r i c h ore deposit about 40 miles down r i v e r from Ross R i v e r . By 1966 i t was known that a mine'was to be b u i l t there and c o n s t r u c t i o n 6 w o r k e r s , some w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s and m o b i l e homes, began t o move i n t o t h e a r e a and a few o f t h e s e have s i n c e become permanent r e s i d e n t s o f the town. E v e n t u a l l y t h e r o a d t h a t began i n Watson Lake was pushed t h r o u g h t o Carmacks and by d o i n g so p l a c e d Ross R i v e r and the new m i n i n g town o f Faro on a c o n t i n u o u s a l l - s e a s o n t h o r o u g h f a r e . A t t e n d a n t t o t h i s sudden a c c e s s i b i l i t y Ross R i v e r e x p e r i e n c e d a s m a l l "boom" and i n f a i r l y q u i c k o r d e r a garage, m o t e l , beer p a r l o u r , c a f e , t r a i l e r c o u r t , p o l i c e s t a t i o n , s c h o o l , h e a l t h c l i n i c and r o a d maintenance s t a t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d and a number o f houses were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the newly a r r i v e d White r e s i d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e t r a p p i n g p o s t was r e b u i l t and became known as a "department s t o r e " . T h i s r a p i d growth o f Ross R i v e r t h r o u g h th e i n f l u x o f White e n t r e p r e n e u r s and government a g e n c i e s d i d l i t t l e t o w i den t h e s o u r c e s o f income f o r I n d i a n s . What i t d i d do was p r o v i d e new d i v e r s i o n s upon w h i c h the- I n d i a n s c o u l d spend what cash t h e y were a b l e t o a c q u i r e i n the summer months. Much money w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y spent on f o o d s t a p l e s and. n e c e s s a r y equipment now went i n t o the purchase o f b e e r , s t y l i s h c l o t h e s , g a d g e t s , and f o o d i n f a n c y packages. T h i s tendency was encouraged by t e e n - a g e r s r e c e n t l y back from r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l whose i n t e r e s t i n c l o t h e s f a s h i o n s , cameras, tape r e c o r d e r s and t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o s , e t c . , was as g r e a t as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n W h i t e h o r s e . I n a d d i t i o n , by e s t a b l i s h i n g a l o c a l s c h o o l i n Ross R i v e r , the government removed what had been a q u i t e i n d i r e c t and u n i n t e n - t i o n a l form of economic s u p p o r t . T h i s i n v o l v e d t a k i n g c h i l d r e n 7 f r om t h e i r p a r e n t s and e d u c a t i n g them i n t h e l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a t C a r c r o s s and Y/hitehorse. F o r bette'r o r worse, t h i s r e duced the number o f mouths t o f e e d and a l l o w e d e v e r y d o m e s t i c group t o remain m o b i l e t h r o u g h o u t the w i n t e r . C o nsequently f o r many, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a l o c a l s c h o o l i n Ross R i v e r f u r t h e r f r a c t u r e d t h e s e a s o n a l l y f l u c t u a t i n g economic rhythm f o r i t meant t h a t somebody had t o s t a y i n town t o l o o k a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n who were b e i n g s c h o o l e d . And s i n c e t h e s c h o o l y e a r l a s t e d from September t o June, i t a l s o meant t h a t some had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e i r summer income by w i n t e r h u n t - i n g . U l t i m a t e l y t h e s e changes d i d n o t r e s u l t i n any s e r i o u s d e p r i v a t i o n , f o r the government stepped i n w i t h w e l f a r e money and w i n t e r works p r o j e c t s . These changes, however, d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e everyone i n t h e same way and between 1966-71 a p a r t i a l s p l i t d e v e l o p e d i n the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . Those who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n were o b l i g e d t o adapt d i r e c t l y t o a s u s t a i n e d s e d e n t a r y l i f e i n town, w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t s e a s o n a l employment, i n a c t i v i t y , boredom, d r i n k i n g and the s c h o o l - i n g o f c h i l d r e n . Those w i t h o u t such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d s t i l l camp i n t h e bush f o r much o f the y e a r and p a r t i c i p a t e i n , t h e i . f a m r l i a r , i n t i m a t e and f r e q u e n t l y v i g o r o u s e x i s t e n c e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d l i f e i n s m a l l domestic h u n t i n g g r o u p s . F o r some, e s p e c i a l l y young c o u p l e s , t h e r e were r e c o g n i z e d advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o b o t h l i f e s t y l e s , and f r e q u e n t l y the w i n t e r was spent moving back and f o r t h between a bush camp and Ross R i v e r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n the l a n d around Ross R i v e r was a s s e s s e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms 8 o f i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t h i s i n v o l v e d d o m e s t i c h u n t i n g groups b e i n g g e n e r a l l y s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y o f t h e e x i s t i n g network o f r i v e r s and r o a d s . G r a d u a l l y , as the c h i l d r e n o f young c o u p l e s began t o r e a c h s c h o o l age, f e w e r and fewer p e o p l e spent the w i n t e r o r even p a r t o f the w i n t e r out o f Ross R i v e r . T h i s i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n Table 1.1, w h i c h shows t h a t d u r i n g September - December o f 1967 t h e r e were 13 o f 29 h o u s e h o l d s l i v i n g out o f Ross R i v e r i n v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c h u n t i n g groups, whereas d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d i n 1974 o n l y t h r e e out o f t h i r t y t h r e e h o u s e h o l d s were d o i n g so and a l l were l i v i n g i n Ross R i v e r b y mid-December. Ta b l e 1.1, PROFILE OP SOME RECENT CHANGES IN THE L I F E STYLE OF THE INDIANS OF ROSS RIVER; 1967 and 1974 I n d i a n Houses T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Households spending i n Ross R i v e r Mode p e r House S e p t - D e c . i n bush 1967 T e n t s : 11 Dogs: 21* Bush Camp: 13** Houses: 18 Cars: • — Town: 16 29 Snowmobile: 1 1974 Tents: 1 Dogs: 5 Bush Camp: 3 Houses: 32*** Cars: 10 Town: 36 *A Household c r e d i t e d w i t h "dog t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " means t h a t i t u s ed and c a r e d f o r one o r two dog teams. A "team" b e i n g t h r e e t o f i v e dogs. **What i s i n d i c a t e d by "bush camp" i s not the number o f camps t h a t were formed i n t h e bush but t h e number o f Ross R i v e r h o u s e h o l d s whose occupants were l i v i n g i n t h e bush f o r t h r e e out o f the f o u r months i n q u e s t i o n . I n 1967-68 some Ross R i v e r homes were empty f o r n i n e months o f the y e a r ; whereas nobody seems t o have spent more t h a n t h r e e to f o u r months i n t h e bush d u r i n g 1973-74. ***Four o f t h e s e houses a r e a r e s u l t . o f a; low. c o s t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n 1972-73* T h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n has had" n o t h i n g t o do w i t h I n d i a n s or. the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . 9 The f i r s t column does not a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the amount o f c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t has r e c e n t l y o c c u r r e d . Some o l d e r houses have been t o r n down, and i n f a c t o n l y n i n e o f t h o s e s t a n d i n g i n 1967 s t i l l e x i s t ; a l l t h e r e s t have been b u i l t s i n c e t h i s t i m e . In. i t s e l f t h i s has r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and. i n 1967 t h i s was c o m p l e t e l y i n the hands o f o f f i c i a l s from the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ( D I A ) . A C h i e f and C o u n c i l had been c r e a t e d as a p o t e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t by t h e s e o f f i c i a l s i n 1966 but i n i t i a l l y t h o s e i n v o l v e d d i d not have the s l i g h t e s t i d e a what were supposed to be t h e i r d u t i e s . T h i s was p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f n o t h a v i n g any i d e a o f a c c o u n t i n g , o r d e r i n g m a t e r i a l s and p r o p e r l y a d m i n i s t e r i n g a p a y r o l l . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e y had n o t g r a s p e d th e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r v a s t l y changed d o m e s t i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s and s i m p l y assumed t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f s h e l t e r and warmth, f o r i n s t a n c e , would be p r o v i d e d by i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t . And i n d e e d some peopl e purchased m a t e r i a l and c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r own houses. However, h o u s i n g , wood c u t t i n g c o n t r a c t s f o r w i n t e r f u e l , d i s p o s a l o f garbage and the p r o v i s i o n o f a d o m e s t i c w a t e r s u p p l y remained a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y i n the hands o f DIA o f f i c i a l s i n 1969. At t h i s time the Yukon N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d (YFB) was formed and v i r t u a l l y o v e r n i g h t c o u r s e s were d e v e l o p e d to t r a i n p e o p l e from I n d i a n communities such as Ross R i v e r t o manage t h e s e a f f a i r s . I n a d d i t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l s a l a r i e s were p r o v i d e d t o t h o s e w i l l i n g t o t a k e the t r a i n i n g and assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d . The g e n e r a l o p i n i o n i n Ross R i v e r was t h a t those who had had some s c h o o l i n g and f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n were b e s t s u i t e d f o r the 10 t r a i n i n g and performance of these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s . P r i o r to ' 1969 those who had assumed these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s averaged 40 years of age and some of these people, a l l of whom were men, were e n t i r e l y i l l i t e r a t e . Between 1969-72 the s e l e c t i v e pressures of t r a i n i n g programs and more p r e c i s e l y defined r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n members of the f i r s t f u l l y l i t e r a t e generation seeking and g a i n i n g o f f i c e ; some of these were women. This lowered the average age of those i n p o s i t i o n s of Chief, Councilor and Band Manager to 25 years of age. Since 1974 these new incumbents, aside from t h e i r o f f i c i a l d u t i e s , have been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a v i l l a g e h a l l , development of a co- operative store and s u c c e s s f u l l y b i d d i n g f o r a p u b l i c contract to c l e a r some land — the l a s t p r o v i d i n g work f o r about s i x men during w i n t e r . "Modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " and "Sept.-Dec. spent i n bush" are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d but a l s o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t kinds of t h i n g s . The t r a n s i t i o n to a mechanized form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s , among other t h i n g s , i n d i c a t i v e of a s u b s t a n t i a l l y increased purchasing power. In December 1967 there were s i x t e e n Indian people i n Ross R i v e r w i t h incomes of $120-$250 per month. These people were d i s t r i b u t e d i n only twelve of the twenty-nine•households. Only f i v e of them were g a i n f u l l y employed, the r e s t were r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s kinds of cash s u b s i d i e s from government agencies'.^ I n 2", We are not i n c l u d i n g here government allowances f o r c h i l d r e n . The s u b s i d i e s we do take i n t o account i n v o l v e one unemployment insurance b e n e f i c i a r y and cash allowances to the i n d i g e n t , d i s a b l e d and e l d e r l y , the l a s t c o n s t i t u t i n g more than h a l f of the t o t a l . 11 December 1974 t h e r e were t h i r t y - f o u r w i t h incomes o f $120-$600 p e r month. These p e o p l e were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h i r t y o f the t h i r t y - t h r e e h o useholds and out o f t h e s e , t h i r t e e n were w o r k i n g and s i x r e c e i v i n g unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s . The i n c r e a s e i n w i n t e r income and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s has developed l a r g e l y s i n c e 1970 and i t has a l l o w e d most p e o p l e t o a v o i d t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g d e b t s t h e y f o r m e r l y a c c r u e d i n t h e s t o r e and which t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o pay o f f i n the s h o r t season o f summer employment. But to the extent' t h a t t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n purc h a s e o f a u t o m o b i l e s and abandonment o f dogs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i t a l s o r e f l e c t s the g r o w i n g commitment and a d a p t a t i o n t o a s e d e n t a r y l i f e i n Ross R i v e r . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n column t h r e e o f Table 1.1. Cars a r e o b v i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r use t o the e x i s t i n g system o f r o a d s , and. w i t h o u t dogs t o a s s i s t i n t r a n s p o r t i n g n e c e s s a r y equipment o f f the road t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e too a r e now o b l i g e d t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r movements. Most o f the w i n t e r h u n t i n g now t a k e s p l a c e on the week-ends by c r u i s i n g up and down the r o a d i n c a r s i n hopes o f i n t e r c e p t i n g some moose o r c a r i b o u . — t h e h u n t e r s u s u a l l y r e t u r n i n g t o Ross R i v e r i n the e v e n i n g . By c o n t r a s t i n 1967-68 domestic h u n t i n g groups were camped twenty m i l e s away from any road and i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s out o f Ross R i v e r t h e r e e x i s t e d c o n t i n u o u s toboggan t r a i l s o f t h i r t y , f o r t y and s i x t y m i l e s i n l e n g t h . Development o f w i n t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b u i l d i n g a l o c a l s c h o o l and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f adequate accommodation a r e o n l y some o f the c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h have brought about a decrease i n m o b i l i t y and growing i n v o l v e m e n t i n t o w n ' l i f e . The y e a r s 1967 12 and 1974 r e p r e s e n t o n l y the extremes o f a f i t f u l and uneven p r o c e s s o f a d a p t a t i o n t h a t has i n v o l v e d v a r i o u s k i n d s o f i n f l u e n c e s . There has been, f o r example, a change i n the d i e t and a decrease i n t h e amount o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e t a k e n . T h i s seems t o have r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g i n a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d c o m f o r t a b l y the extreme c o l d and f r e q u e n t l y v i g o r o u s and s u s t a i n e d a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e d i n a w i n t e r camp. I n a d d i t i o n a t t i t u d e s , s e n s i t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l mechanisms ar e d e v e l o p i n g to accommodate a cash based economy and t h e s u s t a i n e d s e d e n t a r y l i f e i n Ross R i v e r . These developments a r e p a r t l y - a r e s u l t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s i n i t i a l l y employed by DIA o f f i c i a l s and s i n c e t a k e n up and u sed by t h o s e managing community a f f a i r s a t the l o c a l l e v e l . Very b r i e f l y t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f houses f o r s p e c i f i c i n d i - v i d u a l s w i t h a p r e f e r e n c e g i v e n to c o u p l e s w i t h l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s p r o c e d u r e t h e r e e x i s t s a ro\igh e q u a t i o n between h o u s e h o l d group and f a m i l y group a l t h o u g h i n t h e l e x i c o n o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s i n the v a r i o u s Athapaskan d i a l e c t s i n v o l v e d3 t h e r e e x i s t s n o t h i n g w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e c a t e g o r y " f a m i l y " and no e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t a " f a m i l y " group p r e v i o u s l y f u n c t i o n e d as a u n i t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n c e r t a i n g o v e r n - ment a l l o w a n c e s are d i s t r i b u t e d on the b a s i s o f r e c k o n i n g t h e n a t u r a l o r l e g a l c h i l d r e n o f a woman o r c o u p l e w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f economic dependencies t h a t might e x i s t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , even w i t h i n a s i n g l e h o u s e h o l d a f a m i l y u n i t i s i s o l a t e d o r d e f i n e d f o r some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . 3. We speak here o n l y o f the S l a v e , Tutchone and Kaska speakers now l i v i n g i n Ross R i v e r . 13 I n a v e r y l o o s e sense t h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , some need f o r t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e to r e c o g n i z e the economic and s p a t i a l c o r r e l a t e s o f t he non-Athapaskan i d e a o f a " f a m i l y group" s i m p l y because i t has been imposed. However, the new ambience i t s e l f p r o v i d e s r e a s o n to. r e c o g n i z e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t the " f a m i l y " , b o t h as c a t e g o r y and group, has come t o f u n c t i o n as a means o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g and s i g n i f y i n g new b o u n d a r i e s o f i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n . These a r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n o t h e r ways. I n 1967 most p e o p l e s t i l l found i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to t u r n down r e q u e s t s f o r m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e i r a c q u a i n t a n c e s , whether o r not t h e y shared the same ho u s e h o l d , and heavy demands were p l a c e d on t h o s e few who had money from any s o u r c e . I t was p a r t l y i n an e f f o r t . t o c onserve t h e s e m i n i m a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t some p e o p l e began d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f i n s u l a t - i n g t hemselves from the i n c e s s a n t r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e from a c q u a i n t a n c e s i n town. Among t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i s the use to w h i c h t h e house was p u t . U n l i k e t h e t e n t o r b r u s h s h e l t e r o f a camp i n the bush, a house i n town c o n s t i t u t e s a p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r . Even i n 1968-69 i t was not customary f o r a p e r s o n t o r e q u e s t p e r m i s s i o n t o e n t e r a house i n w h i c h he d i d n o t u s u a l l y r e s i d e . He s i m p l y tapped on the door and stepped i n s i d e i n much the same v/ay t h a t he would l e t out a shout j u s t b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a camp i n the bush. However, the house now f u n c t i o n s as a s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d boundary i n w h i c h the v i s i t o r r e q u e s t s p e r m i s s i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n . I n the event t h a t h i s i n c l u s i o n i s n o t wanted the knock on t h e f r e q u e n t l y l o c k e d door s i m p l y r e c e i v e s no response 14 f r o m w i t h i n and the would he h o s t s r e m a i n s i l e n t i n s i d e u n t i l the unwanted . v i s i t o r goes away. T h i s new k i n d o f s o c i a l i n s u l a r i t y i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the c u r r e n t tendency t o o f f e r t o pay f o r meat t h a t p e o p l e from o t h e r h o u s e h o l d s have been f o r t u n a t e enough to a c q u i r e i n t h e i r h u n t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s . Very o f t e n such o f f e r s a r e r e f u s e d o u t r i g h t i n an e f f o r t t o n u l l i f y the i m p l i e d e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i a l s e n a r a t e n e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the o f f e r i t s e l f r e f l e c t s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f new c r i t e r i a i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s . None o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s and i n t e r e s t s has g e l l e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e now e x i s t s a commonly r e c o g n i z e d way o f e s t a b l i s h i n g s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s o f i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n i n the ambience o f town l i f e . Only t e n d e n c i e s e x i s t and t h e s e have n o t , a t l e a s t not y e t , r e c e i v e d g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n o r a c c e p t a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s a l l p o i n t to. the emergence o f h o u s e h o l d groups as u n i t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and an awareness and more p r e c i s e r e c o g n i t i o n o f what th e i n t e r n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e groups s h o u l d e n t a i l . As we have t r i e d t o i n d i c a t e v e r y b r i e f l y above and as the p r e s e n t s t u d y shows, t h e s e developments a r e u n p r e c e d e n t e d and they cannot, a t l e a s t n o t e n t i r e l y , be viewed as d e r i v a t i v e o f a p r e v i o u s way o f t h i n k i n g about and i n t e r p r e t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Nor can the p a s t be i g n o r e d f o r i t s t i l l i n t r u d e s , a l b e i t i n f r a g m e n t s , i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u r r e n t a f f a i r s . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t we have chosen, i n t h i s s t u d y o f K a s i n i l i f e , t o f o c u s on t h e p a s t and attempt to g i v e t o a few o f t h e s e fragments some o f t h e i r former coherence. 15 Conditions of Research and Character of Data The foregoing gives a t h i n hut accurate i n d i c a t i o n of the major s h i f t s i n economic o r i e n t a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s that were i n process as f i e l d w o r k was being c a r r i e d out during 1967-69 and 1970-71. I t does not, however, r e f l e c t the c r e a t i v e mix of idioms nor the general and, i n the face of innumerable f a i l u r e s , the r a t h e r f r a n t i c inventiveness that was, and i s s t i l l o c c u r r i n g i n the semi-urban s e t t i n g of Ross R i v e r . Nor does i t r e f l e c t the despair and sense of f u t i l i t y that p e r i o d i c a l l y seems to envelop- everyone i n the contemporary s i t u a t i o n . The i n i t i a l impression given by the current s t a t e of a f f a i r s i s that of a v a s t , e c l e c t i c c l u t t e r i n which m a t e r i a l concerns, symbolic idioms, ideas, a p p r e c i a t i o n s of relevance and m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a l l seem, profoundly jumbled. This impression i s not simply a r e s u l t of the observer being exposed to new circumstances since there e x i s t s a curious f a m i l i a r i t y to much that i s going on and i t has proven extremely d i f f i c u l t to determine i n what way and to what extent t h i s i s or i s not an i l l u s i o n . On the most pragmatic l e v e l t h i s jumble i s evident i n the j u x t a p o s t i o n of two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t technologies and m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . On the one hand we have the f a m i l i a r mixture of d i s p a r a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s as manifest i n such thing s as a s l e d dog chained to the remnants of a Honda motor-bike, bellbottomed t r o u s e r s and moose hide mocassins, handmade snowshoe frames f i l l e d w i t h nylon cord, beaver meat and corn f l a k e s f o r b r e a k f a s t , and a bush camp w i t h a t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o and a hundred 16 f e e t of wire a e r i a l strung through the trees.. On the other hand, we have the stated preference of l i v i n g i n the hush attended by an awareness t h a t i t i s necessary to ob t a i n money i n order to l i v e . Today, going i n t o the bush i n v o l v e s the spending of money but not i t s production. I t i s l a r g e l y a s u b s i d i z e d venture i n which an i n d i v i d u a l seldom comes even close to covering expenses through t r a p p i n g . Consequently, to go or not to go i n t o the bush oft e n presupposes that a person or group can or cannot a f f o r d such an excur s i o n . I n the summer months e s p e c i a l l y t h i s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n separations since many of the jobs f o r mineral e x p l o r a t i o n companies and b i g game o u t f i t t e r s r e q u i r e working i n remote places w e l l away from Ross R i v e r . Those who remain set up camps i n the bush and make p e r i o d i c t r i p s to Ross Ri v e r to pick up the money that has been sent to them by the i n d i v i d u a l who i s c u r r e n t l y employed. These objects and a c t i v i t i e s are enveloped i n a wide range of ideas and i n t e r e s t s derived from Athapaskan and non- Athapaskan t r a d i t i o n s . There i s C h r i s t i a n i t y of s o r t s and Red Power of s o r t s j u s t as there i s the r h e t o r i c of white oppression and the n o t i o n of freedom. There i s also a n o t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l "power", o c c a s i o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h shamans, t a l k of sorcery and c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l food avoidances. S t e e l and machinery are appreciated on the p r a c t i c a l l e v e l as " t o o l s " and a l s o , by v i r t u e of a t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a capa c i t y c a l l e d "God power" thought to be possessed by the White- man. "Wage employment" also i s appreciated as a means of a c q u i r i n g money but i t i s , or can be, other t h i n g s . Being employed and 17 g e t t i n g a bonus, or b e i n g employed w h i l e o t h e r s a r e u n a b l e t o f i n d j o b s h o t o n l y r e f l e c t s o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s i t a l s o r e f l e c t s fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e r e n t to t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . And n e i t h e r t h e n a t u r e o f the s e d i f f e r e n c e s n o r t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l i m t > l i c a t i o n s a r e encompassed o r even i n t r o d u c e d by c a t e g o r i z i n g such a c t i v i t i e s and t h i n g s as "wage employment" and " t o o l s " . T h i s o f course does n o t n u l l i f y t h e u t i l i t y o f such d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s but i t does g i v e one r e a s o n to pause and r e f l e c t on the ap p a r e n t f a m i l i a r i t y o f many t h i n g s and a c t i v i t i e s i n ' t h e contemporary scene: What, a f t e r a l l , c o u l d an a s s o c i a t i o n between a snowmobile and "God- power" p o s s i b l y mean? F u r t h e r m o r e , what i s the s t a t u s o f such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n when some would s e r i o u s l y employ i t as a means o f comprehending the o b j e c t and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t and o t h e r s would l i g h t l y d i s m i s s such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as " I n d i a n b u l l s h i t " . The p o i n t to be made h e r e , i s n o t t h a t two c u l t u r a l streams have combined i n chaos, f o r c e r t a i n l y t h e K a s i n i comprehend a good d e a l o f t h e contemporary scene. However, what i s f a m i l i a r t o Euro-Oanadian o u t s i d e r s — snowmobile, s a l a r y , God, c o u s i n , e t c . , must n o t be u n d e r s t o o d as f a m i l i a r t h i n g s i f one d e s i r e s t o comprehend K a s i n i e x p e r i e n c e . The modern t e c h n i c a l i t e m s i n K a s i n i use and E n g l i s h words i n t h e i r speech, a r e a l l t h e more d e c e p t i v e f o r t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y . U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f K a s i n i s o c i a l l i f e , i n our e x p e r i e n c e , i s made more d i f f i c u l t by t h e i r i n t e r - m i x i n g o f c u l t u r a l i d i o m s and i f one i s g o i n g to d i s p l a y m u l t i p l i - c i t y by c o n j e c t u r i n g deep s t r u c t u r e o ur examples s h o u l d i n d i c a t e j u s t how d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o a c h i e v e a p r o p e r f o c u s . The ph r a s e 18 "God power", f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a mix of words d e r i v e d from b o t h C h r i s t i a n i t y and Athapaskan n o t i o n s . I n terms o f L e v i - S t r a u s s ' s famous b r i c o l e u r such a phrase c o n s t i t u t e s a b r i c o l a g e and i s s i m i l a r t o the a s s o r t m e n t o f i t e m s one young man had c o l l e c t e d t o ensure s u c c e s s w h i l e h u n t i n g . These i t e m s were c o n t a i n e d i n a s m a l l canvas bag and i n v o l v e d a s h e l l f o r a s m a l l c a l i b r e r i f l e , two f e a t h e r s , t h e e a r s o f a s m a l l mammal and a t i n y b r a s s c r o s s . I n b o t h o f t h e s e c a s e s , i t i s t r u e , i t was o n l y t h e i d i o m s ( o b j e c t s and words) t h a t were mixed* th e semantic framework i n w h i c h t h e y were embedded was e n t i r e l y Athapaskan i n n a t u r e . Thus the word "God" was a s i g n i f i e r , w h i c h had no p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , and t h e p h rase "God power" may be t r a n s l a t e d as something l i k e "non-Athapaskan power" o r "a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d o f power". However, "power" i s a d i s t i n c t l y A thapaskan concept w h i c h may be t r a n s l a t e d as a b i l i t y o r c a p a c i t y d e r i v e d from c o n t a c t w i t h a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l domain. S i m i l a r l y t h e b r a s s c r o s s may be p r o p e r l y d e s c r i b e d as a r e l i g i o u s symbol o f some kind, but i t i s o n l y i n a v e r y guarded manner t h a t we c o u l d c a t e g o r i z e i t as a c r u c i f i x s i n c e t h e o n l y t h i n g i t had r e t a i n e d when e x t r a c t e d f rom t h e e d i f i c e o f C h r i s t i a n i d e a s and s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s was i t s p h y s i c a l f o rm and apparent c e n t r a l i t y t o and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h "God power". I n t h e s e two examples we can see t h a t t h e framework f o r c r e a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p has remained Athapaskan but the i d i o m i n w h i c h r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i s c h a n g i n g . However, the r e v e r s e i s a l s o t r u e as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t usage o f the s o c i a l category_£S_'e!etfa. .which l i t e r a l l y t r a n s l a t e s as "my p e o p l e " . 19 Formerly "my people" was used by an in d i v i d u a l i n reference to a l l those with whom he was i n close association and with whom he frequently interacted. Separately he both referred to and addressed these people with k i n terms. Currently, however, those i n Ross River are a l l i n more or less close association although they do not a l l interact with the same frequency. In order to s i g n i f y degrees of s o c i a l distance within t h i s new ambience the category A-$jJi£Jl&—~-— , which i s s t i l l often used, has obtained a discriminat- ing component which i t did not previously possess. This involves an emphasis on genealogical connectedness and a f i n e r d i f f e r e n t i a - t i o n between c o l l a t e r a l r e l a t i v e s i n s i g n i f y i n g degrees of s o c i a l distance. Thus the term__£5'c^er\d_ has been retained but has come to mean, at least f o r some, something quite d i f f e r e n t than i t did formerly since the c r i t e r i o n of physical proximity i s being supplanted by genealogical proximity. The sweeping cl a s s i . f i c a - tory d i s t i n c t i o n of cross-cousin/parallel-cousin (including siblings) i m p l i c i t to the indigenous system of so c i a l categories i s being replaced by a three f o l d d i s t i n c t i o n involving cousin ( i n reference to cross-cousin), s i b l i n g , cousin-sibling ( i n reference to p a r a l l e l cousin). This change has been f a c i l i t a t e d by what s o c i o - l i n g u i s t s r e f e r to as code-switching. The indigenous system of categories subsumed by__£5^ena has not been tampered with or modified. I t has simply been replaced by a new system using English words, e.g. cousin, brother, cousin-brother, which, by recognizing d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a , p a r t i a l l y accommodates what i s s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the new sit u a t i o n without d i r e c t l y challenging or contradicting semantic and syn t a c t i c a l features inherent to the t r a d i t i o n a l system of s o c i a l categories. 20 As e n t a n g l e d as t h i s mix. between Athapaskan and non- Athapaskan c o n t e n t may be i t does n o t , i n ' i t s e l f , pose any s p e c i a l problems f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i f i n f a c t t h e r e e x i s t s a c l e a r correspondence between c o n t e n t and form. I n o t h e r words i f we can see the c o n t e n t as b e i n g a c u l t u r a l corpus c a p a b l e o f e x p r e s s i n g c e r t a i n k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s h o u l d , i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , make no d i f f e r e n c e what, f o r example, th e c a t e g o r y <ts'e>gn3 f o r m e r l y meant i f i t now, u n e q u i v o c a l l y means something e l s e . T h i s , however, i s n o t t h e case f o r n o t o n l y has the c o n t e n t i n some i n s t a n c e s changed w h i l e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i m p l i e d have remained the same, and i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s changed w h i l e t h e c o n t e n t has been r e t a i n e d , but i n s o f a r as any d i r e c t correspondence might be d e s c r i b e d between c o n t e n t and form t h e s e changes a r e s t i l l i n a s t a t e o f f l u x . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t meanings a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s such as fe6'<)e-ti^ .and t h e y a r e a l l s t i l l i n u s e . Some ar e d e r i v e d from the p a s t and a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y l o c a t e d i n a nomadic l i f e s t y l e and o t h e r s are emerging i n apparent response t o the s e d e n t a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f contemporary l i f e i n Ross R i v e r . I n o u r a t t e m p t s t o comprehend, the s y m b o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y our d i f f i c u l t i e s were f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by a l a c k o f any c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c u l t u r a l p a s t ( w h i c h v/as s t i l l p a s s i n g ) , and by o u r f a i l u r e to a c h i e v e f l u e n c y i n any o f the Athapaskan d i a l e c t s spoken. And f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s we were o f t e n l e d a s t r a y as we t r i e d to f o l l o w up the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f new r e l a t i o n s h i p s embedded i n o l d i d i o m s and v i c e - v e r s a . 21 But f o r p r e c i s e l y the same r e a s o n s , a l t h o u g h t o a much l e s s e r degree, t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e were o f t e n g o i n g a s t r a y t h e m s e l v e s and t h e y f r e q u e n t l y f a i l e d to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y o r to draw r e l e v a n t i n f e r e n c e s from each o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r . The Kaska words n.i*i"C and _ ruts, i t , f o r . example, w h i c h may be t r a n s l a t e d as " p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h " and " a b i l i t y ( o r power) d e r i v e d from c o n t a c t w i t h a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l domain" r e s p e c t i v e l y , were, i n t h e E n g l i s h v e r n a c u l a r o f Kaska s p e a k e r s , c o n s i d e r e d r o u g h l y e q u i v a - l e n t to the words " s t r e n g t h " and "power". The word " s t r e n g t h " , however, i s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h "power" and t h i s produces a p o t e n t i a l source of a m b i g u i t y t h a t does n o t e x i s t i n Kas k a . Consequently a statement l i k e "When he g e t s o l d e r he w i l l be r e a l l y s t r o n g " can mean two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s w h i c h may o r may not be e l u c i d a t e d by the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e spoken. T h i s statement was i n f a c t made as a commentary on the drunken and v i o l e n t a n t i c s o f a young man who had f o r some y e a r s p e r i o d i c a l l y d i s r u p t e d and a t ti m e s t e r r o r i z e d t h e Ross R i v e r I n d i a n community w i t h u n p r e d i c t a b l e and dangerous b e h a v i o r ; The remark was made i n r e f e r e n c e n o t t o t h e young man's p h y s i c a l " s t r e n g t h " , as was e v i d e n t i n the d e s t r u c t i o n he wrought, but t o h i s a p p a rent c o n t a c t w i t h a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l domain, as e v i d e n t i n h i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e b e h a v i o r , w h i c h was a s i g n o f f u t u r e a b i l i t y and "power". N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h one p e r s o n nodded i n under- s t a n d i n g and agreement when h e a r i n g the above remark, a n o t h e r o b j e c t e d by p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h e young f e l l o w i n q u e s t i o n was p h y s i c a l l y s m a l l and s k i n n y and would n e v e r be v e r y s t r o n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , the second l i s t e n e r , a l t h o u g h f u l l y aware o f the f i r s t k i n d o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , was i n c l i n e d 22 to a t t r i b u t e t h e v i o l e n t ' y o u n g man's b e h a v i o r s o l e l y t o t h e mundane i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l r a t h e r t h a n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l . F o r t h i s r e a s o n he was a l s o i n f a v o u r o f h a v i n g t h e p o l i c e brought i n whenever the young man got out o f hand r a t h e r t h a n a d o p t i n g the " t r a d i t i o n a l " r esponse t o such b e h a v i o r w h i c h would have been t o a v o i d e n t i r e l y a l l c o n t a c t o r i n t e r - f e r e n c e w i t h him. Our purpose i n p r o v i d i n g t h e s e few examples has been to i n d i c a t e the b i f a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f much o f t h e m a t e r i a l we c o l l e c t e d and t o show r e a s o n f o r a d o p t i n g the f i e l d p r o c e d u r e s we d i d . D u r i n g 1967-69 we spent 11 months (out o f a t o t a l o f 16) i n Ross R i v e r and. w i t h a n o t a b l e l a c k o f s u c c e s s we a t t e m p t e d t o s e t up f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n o f b o t h an h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary n a t u r e . A p a r t from b e i n g u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between Athapaskan as on-nosed t o non- Athapaskan ( o r neo-Athapaskan' 7) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f a c t , whether h i s t o r i c a l o r contemporary, o u r i n t e r v i e w s , such as they were, i n e v i t a b l y f o u n d e r e d whenever we began to f o c u s s h a r p l y on a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c o r too o b v i o u s l y d i r e c t t h e l i n e o f e n q u i r y . The .reasons f o r t h i s were many and s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t a t i s s u e here i t w i l l s u f f i c e to say t h a t , most o f our i n f o r m a t i o n was a c q u i r e d i n g e n e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h a t we u s u a l l y advanced on any p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c i n a v e r y o b l i q u e and e r r a t i c f a s h i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , the event d e s c r i b e d above c o n c e r n i n g t h e words " s t r e n g t h " and "power" l e d , i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n , t o q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r K a s k a e q u i v a l e n t s w h i c h l e d , s t i l l l a t e r , t o d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o t h e i n t e r c h a n g e . I n t h i s manner we hacked i n , as i t were, to an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a K aska d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h we were t h e n a b l e to r e a d f o r w a r d as a p a r t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d . ' The r e m a i n i n g f i v e months d u r i n g our f i r s t s t a y i n the f i e l d were spent w i t h v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c groups camped i n t e n t s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Ross R i v e r . I n t h i s s e t t i n g we l e a r n e d some of t h e r u d i m e n t s o f h u n t i n g , s n a r i n g and f i s h i n g , and the t e c h n i q u e s o f t r a v e l l i n g and camping i n t h e bush a t a l l seasons of the y e a r . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s y s t e m a t i c e n q u i r y was no g r e a t e r here but s i n c e the s e t t i n g was so c l e a r l y r e d o l e n t o f a former way o f l i f e i t d i d encourage a more c o n s i s t e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f a " t r a d i t i o n a l " Athapaskan p e r s p e c t i v e . I t was p r i m a r i l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t d u r i n g our second s t a y i n the f i e l d we chose t o spend most o f the time (11 o f 16 months) l i v i n g w i t h s m a l l domestic groups camped i n the bush. T h i s p r o v i d e d us w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p r e c i a t e a r e l a t i v e l y u n c l u t t e r e d Athapaskan view o f t h i n g s , and i t i s l a r g e l y upon our e n q u i r i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s s e t t i n g t h a t we have based the p r e s e n t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e K a s i n i as i t e x i s t e d between 19OO-1950 . The P l a n o f the Study The n o t i o n o f " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y " i s now c o n s i d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many h u n t i n g p e o p l e s (Lee and Devore, 1968) and i n v a r i o u s ways t h i s f e a t u r e has been emphasized f o r a number o f Athapaskan s p e a k i n g p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g K u t c h i n ( S l o b o d i n , I 9 6 0 ) , Hare ( S a v i s h i n s k y , 1970), D o g r i b (Helm, 1965. 1971; Helm and L u r i e , 1961),Bear L a k e r s (Osgood, 1932), S l a v e (Honigmann, 1946; Helm, 1961), Chipew^ann (Vanstone, 1965)-, K a s k a (Honigmann, 1949) and f o r . the hunting people of s u b a r c t i c (Helm and. Leacock, 1971) and a r c t i c ( V alentine and V a l l e e , 1968) Canada g e n e r a l l y . F l e x i b i l i t y i s a q u a l i t y or c o n d i t i o n which can be a s c r i b e d to some s t r u c t u r e s or r e l a t i o n s h i p and re q u i r e s the not i o n of a standard or norm. I t thus f o l l o w s that i t s u t i l i t y can only be assessed w i t h respect to the relevance of a chosen standard to the people being s t u d i e d . In Athapaskan s t u d i e s f l e x i b i l i t y has been a s c r i b e d to s o c i a l groups. Almost without exception, some reference has been made to f l e x i b i l i t y of group composition, recruitment, and a t t i t u d e s towards residence. However, i t i s extremely u n c l e a r whether t h i s emphasis on groups i s shared by the people being s t u d i e d . The necessary task of d e s c r i b i n g the groupings that are formed and the a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by i n d i v i d u a l s i n these groupings assumes pre-eminence and presents a s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective i n which the peoples' views of t h e i r own r e l a t i o n s h i p s are judged. That these views or i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n s do not appear c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c t u a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of groups has l e d to the conclusion t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y e x i s t s . I n many instances t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n c l e a r and i n t e l l i g e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s of l i m i t i n g e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s but i t has r e s u l t e d i n a reduced emphasis on how, w i t h i n such a framework, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t y i s c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d . I t i s hoped that the premises employed and the questions asked i n the present study w i l l show how a deeper a n a l y s i s of c u l t u r e may be reintroduced to strengthen our general understanding of Athapaskan s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The n o t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u s e f u l l y s t r a d d l e s 25 the a n a l y t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between co n t e n t and form i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how and to what e x t e n t human a c t i o n i n c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d s u r r o u n d i n g s may be seen as s t r u c t u r e d and a r t i c u l a t e ' ( c f . Firth.,1964: 60-63, 80-84.). Form i s i n d u c e d from c o n t e n t and i s d e r i v a t i v e o f two p e r s p e c t i v e s which, r e s u l t i n what, f o r our p u r p o s e s , may be c a l l e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l l o g i c o f a c t i v i t y and the c u l t u r a l l o g i c o f i n t e r a c t i o n . However, to the e x t e n t t h a t t h e advantages o f t h e n o t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e e v i d e n t i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h have e x t e n s i v e r e f e r e n c e t o ob s e r v e d o r w e l l documented a c t i v i t i e s we, o f n e c e s s i t y , must employ a r a t h e r a b b r e v i a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t i n h a n d l i n g the r e m i n i s c e n t m a t e r i a l we have on hand, n e v e r t h e l e s s , f o l l o w i n g F i r t h we a c c e p t t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s framed w i t h i n t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o c e s s and change and t::ut i n v a r i o u s ways t h e o v e r a l l i n t e n t o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d i s to gr a s p a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u m e n t a l and c u l t u r a l forms w h i c h , to p a r a p h r a s e . D a r e n d o r f , a t any p o i n t i n time e i t h e r a re no l o n g e r o r n o t y e t what th e y w i l l become. I n s t r u m e n t a l . f o r m s , as we use t h e term h e r e , i n v o l v e s c o l l a t i o n o f t h e narrow h o r i z o n s and fragmented needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s p r o d u c i n g t h e m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y f o r e x i s t e n c e . I n a c e r t a i n sense t h e r e i s something a c u l t u r a l about the g e n e r a l i z e d framework w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m th e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; f o r i t i s n o t enough t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s i m p l y c o n s t r u c t and a c q u i r e t h i n g s t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , they l a b e l as s h e l t e r and f o o d ; t h e s e t h i n g s must a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n and be n u t r i t i o u s i n a s u b s t a n t i a l way. I n o t h e r words a l l i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . must re s p o n d - w i t h i n - , the autonomous parameters o f s p e c i f i e d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i f the e n s u i n g a c t i o n i s to be t o l e r a t e d . T h i s much i s a s t o c k 26 t r u i s m i n a n t h r o p o l o g y and u n d e r l i e s the e n t i r e r a t i o n a l e f o r d e s c r i b i n g l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s , however, i m p o r t a n t to remember t h a t a l t h o u g h any p e o p l e must r e c o g n i z e such c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o cope e f f e c t i v e l y i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y (and i n f a c t most uncommon) t h a t t h e y c o n c e p t u a l i z e o r c r e a t e a g e n e r a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f them. One does n o t , a f t e r a l l , r e q u i r e a t h e o r y o f g r a v i t y i n o r d e r to r e c o g n i z e i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and respond a c c o r d i n g l y . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r us to make such a f o r m u l a t i o n i f we a r e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t body o f a t t i t u d e s and i d e a s i n f l u e n c e t h e o r d e r o f human a c t i v i t y . As Leach has p o i n t e d o u t , t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n can o n l y be a c h i e v e d i f we f i r s t exhaust the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e e i n g o r d e r i n t h e s e same a c t i v i t i e s as an a d a p t i v e response t o p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s (Leach, 1 9 6 1 : 3 0 6 ) . I n the n e x t t h r e e c h a p t e r s we p r o v i d e such a . f o r m u l a t i o n and show how, i n c o m b i n a t i o n , the r e s o u r c e base and t h e methods used i n i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n must r e s u l t i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s and g r o u p s . I n b r i e f we show t h a t : (a) the r e s o u r c e s o f the a r e a c o u l d o n l y s u p p o r t a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n , (b) t h i s p o p u l a t i o n had t o be m o b i l e i n p u r s u i t o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s , ( c ) t h i s m o b i l i t y i n f l u e n c e d the s i z e o f groups t h a t were formed, (d) c e r t a i n l y i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s were r e q u i r e d f o r e x p l o i t i n g - t h e s e r e s o u r c e s , and t h a t (e) e v e r y e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e group t h a t formed had t o c o n t a i n an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e s e c a p a c i t i e s . From the s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s we cannot show what was n o r m a l l y the case by p r o v i d i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e o f a c t i v i t i e s and g r o u p i n g s 27 s i n c e we have no way o f knowing what t h e s e might have been f o r any p a r t i c u l a r time d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t our d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n o l o g y i s adequate, however, v/e can i n d u c e a l o g i c o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n - i n g i n terms of w h i c h we c h a r a c t e r i z e c e r t a i n r e g i i l a r i t i e s i n a c t i v i t y and group c o m p o s i t i o n . We o n l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e r e g u l a r i t i e s w i t h s p e c i f i c cases from our K a s i n i m a t e r i a l but i t i s our c o n t e n t i o n t h a t under the c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d t h e s e r e g u l a r i t i e s would n e c e s s a r i l y emerge r e g a r d l e s s o f o t h e r c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . o u t l i n e o f a c t i v i t i e s and a modular a p p r e c i a t i o n o f group c o m p o s i t i o n — i t p r o v i d e s the s i n g l e most demanding framework i n w h i c h a l l K a s i n i must o p e r a t e . T h i s framework t e l l s us when c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s a r e performed and what c l a s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s must be on hand t o p e r f o r m them. I n the f a l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , we l e a r n t h a t K a s i n i hunt f o r b i g game i n h i g h c o u n t r y , we a l s o know t h a t t h i s t a s k r e q u i r e s commensurate knowledge and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y . C o n s equently, d u r i n g the f a l l we have a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f f u n c t i o n a l e q u a t i o n from w h i c h we may c o n c l ude something about t h e g r o u p i n g s t h a t are formed. T h i s may be diagramed as f o l l o w s : The h u n t e r i n t h i s case i s n o t j u s t somebody who may be c a l l e d a " h u n t e r " but somebody who i s a c t u a l l y c a p a b l e o f h u n t i n g . I t Our a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n a s e q u e n t i a l and c y c l i c a l A c t i v i t y Group P a l l Hunting ^ 28 does not i n c l u d e the s i c k , the lame o r e l d e r l y who may have t h e knowledge t o hunt but who 'are p h y s i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e . F o r does i t ca p a b l e but who a r e i g n o r a n t . T h i s a s s e r t i o n c o u l d be judged o b v i o u s t o the p o i n t o f t r i v i a l i t y were i t n o t f o r the f a c t t h a t i t i s so t e m p t i n g to v i e w t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t K a s i n i domestic group i n terms o f more f a m i l i a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I n the s m a l l K a s i n i p o p u l a t i o n many dom e s t i c groups t h a t formed i n v o l v e d p e o p l e o f c l o s e g e n e a l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n and the c l a s s i f i c a t o r y k i n terms t h a t were employed n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l e d f i n i t e c o m b i n a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , w i t h r e s p e c t t o genealogy and k i n terms, we v e r y o f t e n r e c o r d e d d o m e s t i c groups t h a t c o u l d be diagramed as v a r i a n t s o f the f o l l o w i n g : The t e m p t a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s to see the above as a " f a m i l y group" o f some s o r t and to jump from here to the erroneous c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the " f a m i l y " i s a b a s i c p r o d u c t i v e u n i t . T h i s , however, would p l a y down the n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r o f such a group and c o u l d r e s u l t i n an emphasis on a f a m i l i a l theme i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f v a r i a n c e r a t h e r t h a n on the l o g i c o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . I n t h e f a l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , the above g r o u p i n g would no t emerge a t a l l i f t h e r e were not some on hand who c o u l d hunt — t h i s would have been t h e preeminent c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the f o r m a t i o n o f such a group and i t i s i n terms o f t h i s s t a n d a r d o f i n s t r u m e n t a - t i o n t h a t a g r e a t many v a r i a t i o n s i n K a s i n i group p e r s o n n e l may be i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n ( o r v i s i t i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ) who may be p h y s i c a l l y A =7 O 29 u n d e r s t o o d . Other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must he a m a t t e r o f demonstrated c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and one cannot presume to know what t h e s e a r e u n t i l such d e m o n s t r a t i o n s have been made. l i k e the bat on a Rorsc h a c h c a r d , o r the s t a r s o f t h e z o d i a c and a c l o c k f a c e , the resemblance between the above diagram and something we r e c o g n i z e as a " f a m i l y 1 * i s o b v i o u s — but i t may not be i n t h e l e a s t b i t r e l e v a n t and, i n p o i n t o f f a c t i t was n o t f o r the K a s i n i . The a c i d t e s t o f a l l domestic groups was t h e i r v i a b i l i t y as p r o d u c t i v e u n i t s and o t h e r t h a n t h i s K a s i n i p o s s e s s e d no i d e a l i z a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r i n t e r n a l c o m p o s i t i o n . Domestic groups were not p e r c e i v e d as d i s c r e t e , n o r m a t i v e u n i t s o r e n t i t i e s and t h e r e e x i s t e d no segmentary system o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c e n t r e d on group membership. Through time a l l i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g ed t o numerous d o m e s t i c groups and K a s i n i were c o n s t a n t l y moving i n and out o f each other.'-s ambience as t h e y responded t o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the r e s o u r c e base and s h i f t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . K a s i n i were e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o changes i n r e l a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y and f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t and t h e s e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . B r o a d l y s n e a k i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between any two p e o p l e was n o t f i x e d — the i d e n t i f i - c a t i o n o f o t h e r s i n terms o f o n e s e l f and o n e s e l f i n terms o f o t h e r s was a c o n t i n u o u s d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s c e n t e r e d on t h e d i f f e r e n t i n f e r e n c e s t h a t c o u l d be drawn from a c t i v i t i e s on the one hand and s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s on the o t h e r . The main body o f t h i s s tudy examines t h i s a s p e c t o f K a s i n i s o c i a l l i f e i n d e t a i l . I n a n t h r o p o l o g y the i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r a c t i o n and. s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p l a r g e l y c e n t e r s on the p a i r e d f o c i s o c i a l c a t e g o r y 30 and b e h a v i o r . The n o t i o n s of i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e d e r i v e d from i n f e r e n c e , not o b s e r v a t i o n — s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g a l l one can observe a r e sequences o f a c t i v i t y and s p a t i a l arrangements o f p e o p l e on the ground (Watslawick,. 1 9 6 7 : 5 4 - 5 7 ) . These a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p by u n d e r s t a n d i n g how the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e b o t h to each o t h e r and t o t h e a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e y engage.. I n o t h e r words i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e g r a s p e d i n terms o f how the p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w the s i t u a t i o n and t h i s t h e y do i n two main ways. ' E i t h e r t h e y r e c o g n i z e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and thus see b e h a v i o r as r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r t h e y see s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p r o p e r t i e s t hey a s c r i b e to each o t h e r and t h u s see s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s as r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l l p e o p l e seem t o use b o t h methods i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y and as a r e s u l t our g e n e r a l u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f the p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a t e g o r y and b e h a v i o r has remained r a t h e r a n f r a c t u o u s and o b l i q u e . Take f o r i n s t a n c e two i n d i v i d u a l s who might be from our own s o c i e t y — i n d i v i d u a l X g i v e s a d v i c e , i n d i v i d u a l Y s o l i c i t s a d v i c e . I n time t h i s sequence may prompt X t o a d d r e s s Y w i t h t h e term "son". The s o c i a l c a t e g o r y "son" and i t s i m p l i c i t r e c i p r o c a l " f a t h e r " t h u s p o r t r a y a r e l a t i o n s h i p — the r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f i s d e r i v e d from how X and Y a t t a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e to the a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e y a r e engaged. I n t h i s case i t r e s u l t s i n X b e i n g viewed as s u p e r o r d i n a t e v i s - a - v i s Y. The a c t i v i t y and t h e c a t e g o r i e s employed t h e r e f o r e have a communicative a s p e c t and f o r t h i s r e a s o n we may speak o f the s e m a n t i c s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p . S o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s , however, may a l s o be viewed as a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o h e r e n t v o c a b u l a r y o f l a b e l s w h i c h a r e employed by a P p l y i n g c e r t a i n r u l e s — f o r t h i s r e a s o n we may sneak o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e o p l e as s y n t a c t i c a l o r - r u l e based. I n d i v i d u a l s X and Y, f o r i n s t a n c e , may employ the r e c i p r o c a l c a t e g o r i e s " f a t h e r " and "son" because X i s t h e l e g a l g u a r d i a n and assumed g e n i t o r o f Y. I n t h i s case " f a t h e r " and "son" a r e a p p l i e d not because o f the a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h X and Y a r e engaged i n , but because o f the r u l e s w h i c h i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s govern t h e i r u s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c a t e g o r i e s employed would s t i l l p o s s e s s the semantic q u a l i t y mentioned above and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between X and Y c o u l d n o t be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d , i n our o p i n i o n , u n l e s s t h i s was a l s o brought i n t o the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . The need f o r t h i s semantic a p p r e c i a t i o n . would be e v i d e n t i f , f o r example, Y r e f e r r e d t o h i s g e n i t o r and l e g a l g u a r d i a n as "son". I f Y was t h r e e y e a r s o l d X would l i k e l y d i s m i s s the event as a m i s t a k e and assume t h a t l i t t l e Y had s i m p l y not p r o p e r l y g r a s p e d the s y n t a x o f a p p l y i n g such c a t e g o r i e s as " f a t h e r " and "son". I f Y was a t e e n a g e r , however, might o b j e c t t o s u c h a p r a c t i s e and v i e w i t as an i m p e r t i n e n c e — i . e . j X would o b j e c t to what Y was t r y i n g t o s i g n i f y and what t h i s i m p l i e d about t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s tudy i s an attempt t o grasp c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f K a s i n i i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . We c o n s i d e r b o t h the s y n t a x and s e m a n t i c s o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s and c e n t e r on t h e i n f e r e n c e s K a s i n i drew from p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s and changes t h a t o c c u r r e d i n i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . We b e g i n , i n Chapter f i v e , by i n t r o d u c - i n g c e r t a i n i d e a s K a s i n i had about t h e m s e l v e s and t h e r e a l i t y i n w h i c h they l i v e d . T h i s e n t r a n c e to K a s i n i c u l t u r e i s a h i t a r b i t r a r y but l a y s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a number o f i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s we d i s c u s s l a t e r . Chapter s i x a t t e m p t s two t h i n g s . I n the c o n t e x t o f i l l u s t r a t i n g t he p r e v a l e n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p we p r o v i d e a broad f o r m u l a o r a x i s i n terms o f w h i c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f many k i n d s — s o c i a l and o t h e r w i s e — were r e c o g n i z e d . T h i s a x i s , o r what Ge e r t z might c a l l a t e m p l a t e , was n o t so much a r e f l e c t i o n o f any s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n o r event as i t was a means o f r e c o g n i z i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f many e v e n t s . I t f u n c t i o n e d as a method o f i n t e r p r e t - i n g o r g i v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c a s t t o events and thus s e r v e d K a s i n i as a framework f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g what went on around them. I n no demonstrable sense i s t h i s a x i s d e r i v a t i v e o f e i t h e r s o c i a l a rrangements, p r a c t i c a l concerns o r i n d e e d any p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t a l l , i t i s s i m p l y t h e r e , a g i v e n i n K a s i n i c u l t u r e . I n Chapters seven and e i g h t we examine t h e K a s i n i l o g i c o f i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s used by pe o p l e who were i n s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t a l o n g w i t h the i n f e r e n c e s t h a t were drawn from d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y . Chapter e i g h t i s an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d K a s i n i domestic groups as a s t r u c t u r e o f p r e f e r r e d c o m b i n a t i o n s of p e o p l e i n t e r a c t i n g . I t i s i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e , . n o t the group i t s e l f , t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s the p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . I n b o t h c h a p t e r s we p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t b e h a v i o r i n f l u e n c e d how s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s were employed and r e l a t i o n s h i p p e r c e i v e d . There were, however, c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h i s p r o c e s s and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s was n o t , f o r th e most p a r t , d e r i v a t i v e o f the a c t i v i t y o f p e o p l e i n f r e q u e n t 33 c o n t a c t . I n o t h e r words t h e r e was a tendency to employ s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s i n terms o f c e r t a i n r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n and t o some e x t e n t i t i s f r u i t f u l t o a p p r e c i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p and u n d e r s t a n d K a s i n i b e h a v i o r as f o l l o w i n g from the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s . We cannot, however, d e v e l o p a one s i d e d t h e s i s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s a l t h o u g h i n t h i s r e g a r d i t i s o f i n t e r e s t to c o n s i d e r the broad i m p l i c a t i o n s o f someone who t h i n k s he can. I n a d e n s e l y argued work F o r t e s has r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n , " K i n s h i p p r e d i c a t e s the axiom o f a m i t y ... What ( t h i s ) r u l e p o s i t s i s t h a t ' k i n s f o l k ' have i r r e s i s t a b l e c l a i m s on one a n o t h e r ' s .;, s u p p o r t and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to 'non-kinsmen' s i m p l y by r e a s o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t they a r e k i n " ( F o r t e s 1969:237-8). The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d r i f t o f F o r t e s ' p o s i t i o n i s t o b e g i n w i t h the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s and t h e n attempt to u n d e r s t a n d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n terms o f t h i s framework.4 A m i c a b l e b e h a v i o r , as he says, f o l l o w s from a knowledge.of who are k i n s f o l k . T h i s knowledge and the means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g i t a r e , i t would seem, n e c e s s a r i l y i n v a r i a n t — a p e r s o n cannot be c a t e g o r i z e d as a "kinsman" a t one t i m e and a "non-kinsman" a t a n o t h e r i f a m i t y i s 4. S i n c e t h i s narrow s y n o p s i s o f F o r t e s ' p o s i t i o n does not i n c l u d e j u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i . e . , systems o f r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s , i t s h o u l d not be t a k e n too l i t e r a l l y . I n p a s s i n g , however, i t i s w o r t h p o i n t i n g out how c o n f o u n d i n g h i s p o s i t i o n can become. The s o - c a l l e d axiom o f a m i t y i s , o f c o u r s e , a taxonomic c l a s s w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t a m i c a b l e b e h a v i o r i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e — i n t h i s r e g a r d one.need o n l y r e f l e c t on how v a r i o u s a r e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s • o f the muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s of the f a c e w h i c h r e s u l t i n an upward curve o f the l i p s . Depending on c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d c o n t e x t t h i s b e h a v i o r may be i n t e r p r e t e d a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , a s m i l e o r l e e r . As s t a t e d , however, F o r t e s ' b e h a v i o r a l c l a s s i s e n t i r e l y d e v o i d o f c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n i t and f o r t h i s r e a s o n h i s a t t e m p t a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n cannot be a p p l i e d s i m p l y because we have no means o f i d e n t i f y i n g a m i t y i n i t s s p e c i f i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . I n t h i s r a t h e r ungenerous l i g h t what began as g e n e r a l i t y ends as a b s u r d i t y i . e . " K i n s h i p p r e d i c a t e s ( w h a t ? ? ) " . 3 4 t o be p r e d i c a t e d on k i n s h i p . The s t r u c t u r a l shape o f p e o p l e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e r e f o r e depends on how th e y appear t o each o t h e r as members o f d i s c r e t e segments. The a n a l y t i c a l emphasis con- s e q u e n t l y must f a l l on the s e segments, e.g. k i n / n o n - k i n , and from t h i s knowledge c e r t a i n k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r may be e x p e c t e d . I n many e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , k i n s h i p terms are c o n s i d e r e d as an autonomous corpus and perhaps f o r many s o c i e t i e s t h i s k i n d o f c l o s u r e i s j u s t i f i e d . I n Chapter n i n e , however, we show how K a s i n i k i n terms c o n s t i t u t e a s u b - c l a s s o f c a t e g o r i e s and a r e encompassed i n a much b r o a d e r framework. The coherence o f t h i s l a r g e r framework i s a c h i e v e d , f u r t h e r m o r e , by i n v e r t i n g t h e emphasis between c a t e g o r y and b e h a v i o r t h a t F o r t e s a d v o c a t e s . S o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n terms o f a d e s c r i p t i o n o f b e h a v i o r and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i s u n d e r s t o o d as f o l l o w i n g from c e r t a i n k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r . I n o t h e r words b e h a v i o r i t s e l f p o s s e s s e s a s t r u c t u r a l eloquence w h i c h promotes the use o f c e r t a i n s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s — a c t i v i t y e s t a b l i s h e s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s s i m p l y p o r t r a y . F o r the K a s i n i , as a r e s u l t , t h e r e e x i s t e d no i n v a r i a n t form o f d i s c r e t e s o c i a l segments, s i n c e a p e r s o n c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , k i n o r n o n - k i n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s depending on whether a m i t y o r enmity was thought to p r e v a i l . The s t r u c t u r a l shape o f K a s i n i i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e r e f o r e depended on how t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . Consequently t h e emphasis f a l l s on how t h e y r e c o g n i z e d m e a n i n g f u l b e h a v i o r when t h e y saw i t and what s o r t s o f i n f e r e n c e t h e y drew from i t i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s . S t r i c t l y speaking' we a r e n o t d e a l i n g here w i t h a c l a s s o f b e h a v i o r but the 35 event o f s e p a r a t i o n and what s i g n i f i c a n c e v a r y i n g f r e q u e n c e o f c o n t a c t had f o r K a s i n i . There we're s o c i a l r e a s o n s f o r s e p a r a t i o n w h i c h we d i s c u s s i n Chapter e i g h t , a l t h o u g h t h e event seems to have r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y f rom p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c e n t e r i n g on t h e f o o d q u e s t . I n Chapter t e n we d i s c u s s the K a s i n i i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e as a p i v o t a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e i r s o c i e t y and examine how i t f u n c t i o n e d as a mechanism f o r d r awing t o g e t h e r t h o s e who were s e p a r a t e d . We can see i n the two approaches o u t l i n e d above t h a t i t i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f s t r u c t u r e , f o r b o t h a c h i e v e t h i s q u i t e a d e q u a t e l y . R a t h e r , i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f t h e immutable o r r e l a t i v e n a t u r e o f p r o p e r t i e s a s c r i b e d to p e o p l e . Each encourage q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r a l form o f s o c i a l l i f e . On t h e one hand we have what may be c a l l e d the segmentary t e c h n i q u e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the s o c i o - l o g i c a l o t h e r . Here the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s stems f r o m a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c r u l e s and t h e y p r o v i d e an u n e q u i v o c a l and t i m e l e s s d e f i n i t i o n o f p e o p l e . On the o t h e r hand we have what may be c a l l e d the o r i e n t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l o t h e r . I n t h i s case the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s i s d e r i v e d from th e meaning t h a t o b t a i n s i n p r e v a i l i n g a c t i v i t y . The s o c i a l l i f e o f e v e r y p e o p l e would p r o b a b l y admit t o a n a l y s i s from b o t h t h e s e approaches, a l t h o u g h i t seems the encompassing framework i n most s o c i e t i e s i s segmentary i n n a t u r e . I n t h i s r e g a r d K a s i n i appear r e m a r k a b l e , s i n c e , f o r them, the encompassing framework was o r i e n t a t i o n a l . 36 CHAPTER I I SETTING: GEOGRAPHICAL AFP HISTORICAL Topography and C l i m a t e The P e l l y R i v e r d r a i n a g e b a s i n c o v e r s a l a r g e a r e a i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n s e c t o r o f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . Prom i t s s o u r c e c l o s e t o t h e Yukon—Northwest T e r r i t o r y b o r d e r deep i n t h e Selwyn mountain range the r i v e r f l o w s i n a s o u t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n towards t h e p l a t e a u between the Selwyn range to the e a s t and. the P e l l y range t o the west. On r e a c h i n g the s o u t h e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t i e s o f t h i s 2,000 f o o t h i g h p l a t e a u the P e l l y f l o w s t h r o u g h i t t o t h e n o r t h w e s t u n t i l . i t ' s . 300 m i l e course t e r m i n a t e s i n a j u n c t i o n w i t h the Yukon r i v e r n e a r t h e p r e s e n t s i t e o f P e l l y C r o s s i n g . The tv/o major t r i b u t a r i e s o f the P e l l y , the Ross and M a c m i l l a n r i v e r s , a l s o have t h e i r headwaters i n the Selwyn mountain range and j o i n the P e l l y a t about 100 m i l e i n t e r v a l s from the source o f the mainstream. West o f the P e l l y a r e o t h e r r i v e r s w h i c h a l s o f l o w i n t o t h e Yukon, the most i m p o r t a n t b e i n g the "Big and L i t t l e Salmon r i v e r s . South and s o u t h e a s t o f the P e l l y d r a i n a g e the r i v e r s a r e p a r t o f the A r c t i c w a tershed and f l o w i n t o t h e Mackenzie r i v e r . I m m e d i a t e l y t o the s o u t h i s the L i a r d and one o f i t s main t r i b u t a r i e s , the Prances r i v e r . T h i s system f l o w s s o u t h and then n o r t h e a s t f o r some hundreds o f m i l e s b e f o r e j o i n i n g t h e Mackenzie a t P o r t Simpson. E a s t of' the P e l l y d r a i n a g e and c l o s e to the tv/o main t r i b u t a r i e s o f the P e l l y r i v e r i s the K e e l e r i v e r } w h i c h f l o w s 37 n o r t h e a s t and the n e a s t i n t o the Mackenzie about 50 m i l e s upstream from P o r t Norman. These r i v e r systems c o n s t i t u t e the l i k e l y r o u t e s by wh i c h v a r i o u s p e o p l e s who l i v e on the upper P e l l y r i v e r g a i n e d a c c e s s t o the r e g i o n . The topography o f the a r e a i s rough, mountainous and d i s s e c t e d hj numerous streams and r i v e r s . The P e l l y range, w h i c h i s between 4,000 and 6,000 f e e t h i g h and west o f the P e l l y r i v e r , i s more o r l e s s p a r a l l e l t o the Selwyn range t o the e a s t w h i c h i s between 5,000 and 7,000 f e e t . These mountains a r e f a i r l y e v e n l y c o v e r e d by c o n i f e r s , m o s t l y Spruce and P i n e , up to about 3,500 f e e t ; however, o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y do i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s have a di a m e t e r g r e a t e r t h a n t e n ' i n c h e s . P o p l a r , b i r c h and r e d w i l l o w a r e v e r y common i n r a v i n e s and o l d a l l u v i a l t e r r a c e s o f the moi s t l o w l a n d s . I n some a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p l a t e a u r e g i o n a l o n g t h e P e l l y r i v e r , v e g e t a t i o n i s spa r s e and one f i n d s o n l y bunch g r a s s e s , low shrubs and ground p l a n t s — a m i c r o - c l i m a t e w h i c h might almost be d e s c r i b e d as a r i d . The s t u n t e d and sp a r s e q u a l i t y o f most o f the v e g e t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Yukon r e g i o n , w h i c h i s w e l l i n l a n d , shadowed from the m o i s t u r e l a d e n a i r o f the P a c i f i c and a l s o s u b j e c t t o l o n g , s e v e r e w i n t e r s . O c t o b e r u s u a l l y marks the b e g i n n i n g o f w i n t e r , and May the time o f break-up on t h e l a r g e s t r i v e r s . S u s t a i n e d 'winter t e m p e r a t u r e s o f -20P a r e common and not i n f r e q u e n t l y the thermometer w i l l plummet t o -75P o r even c o l d e r , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g January and F e b r u a r y . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y l i g h t i n the i n t e r - m o u n t a i n p l a t e a u t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e P e l l y f l o w s and o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y does more t h a n two or t h r e e f e e t o f 38 snow f a l l d u r i n g the e i g h t month w i n t e r . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the mountains i s somewhat h e a v i e r . A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f the c l i m a t e i s the s e a s o n a l extremes i n exposure t o s u n l i g h t . D u r i n g w i n t e r months t h e r e i s l i t t l e more than f o u r o r f i v e h o u r s s u n l i g h t p e r day, whereas i n the summer months p r e c i s e l y t h e o p p o s i t e o c c u r s . T h i s f e a t v i r e i s c o n d u c i v e t o r a p i d matura- t i o n o f s m a l l p l a n t s and shrubs w h i c h grow q u i c k l y and go to seed w i t h i n t h e s h o r t g r o w i n g season. However, i t does n o t encourage r a p i d development o f l a r g e r p l a n t s and c o n s e q u e n t l y r e s t r i c t s f o r e s t growth. E a r l y C o n t a c t The l a t e 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h C e n t u r i e s saw the f i r s t c o n t a c t by Whitemen w i t h a r e a s p e r i p h e r a l to the upper P e l l y r i v e r r e g i o n . F i r s t came the R u s s i a n s on the P a c i f i c c o a s t , and n o t l o n g a f t e r the N o r t h West Company began e x p l o r i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g . t r a d i n g ' p o s t s on the Mackenzie r i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . By the e a r l y 1800's t h e . I n d i a n s o f t h e P e l l y r i v e r were almost surrounded by those who had d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the Whiteman and a c c e s s to h i s t r a d e goods ( M c C l e l l a n , 1 9 6 4 : 3 - 6 ) . A c t u a l White p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e u n t i l t h e summer o f 1840 when Robert Campbell d i s c o v e r e d the P e l l y r i v e r w h i l e c a r r y i n g out e x p l o r a t i o n s f o r the Hudson's Bay Company. I n 1842 Campbell c o n s t r u c t e d G l e n l y o n House a t F r a n c e s Lake and i n 1846 t h e p o s t o f P e l l y Banks was c o n s t r u c t e d on the P e l l y r i v e r n e a r the mouth of the Campbell r i v e r . However, i n 1849 P e l l y Banks b u r n t down and t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r G l e n l y o n House was abandoned f o r the more s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n a t F o r t S e l k i r k , b u i l t i n 1848 a t the mouth o f the Pell}?- r i v e r . 39 But t h i s too was abandoned i n 1852, due i n p a r t t o d i s c o v e r y o f e a s i e r a c c e s s r o u t e s to the r i c h e r f u r a r e a s to the n o r t h and. a l s o t h e h o s t i l e c o m p e t i t i o n o f T l i n g i t t r a d e r s on the upper Yukon r i v e r . Thus I n d i a n - W h i t e t r a d e was t e r m i n a t e d i n the u pper P e l l y r i v e r r e g i o n , and none was o r g a n i z e d f o r the n e x t f i f t y Years ( C a m p b e l l , 1958). The d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s o f the s u s t a i n e d t r a d e on the p e r i p h e r i e s o f the r e g i o n and Campbell's b r i e f o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e a r e a , a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e but a few t h i n g s a r e q u i t e c l e a r . Trade between I n d i a n s , a t l e a s t on t h e lower P e l l y , had t a k e n p l a c e p r i o r t o Campbell's a r r i v a l \ f o r the I n d i a n s he met n e a r the c o n f l u e n c e o f the P e l l y and Yukon a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d a few i t e m s w hich were, o f b o t h R u s s i a n and Hudson's Bay Company o r i g i n ( W i l s o n , 1970: 77-78). Thus, a l t h o u g h Campbell makes no s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s about the I n d i a n s o f the upper P e l l y , t r a d e goods were e n t e r i n g the r e g i o n p r i o r t o White c o n t a c t . A l s o , i f Campbell's u n s p e c i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f i n t e r n e c i n e c o n f l i c t i s any i n d i c a t i o n , the c o n c e n t r i c a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e t r a d i n g p o s t s a t b o t h Prances Lake and P e l l y Banks drew p e o p l e t o g e t h e r who p r e v i o u s l y had. -had- very', l i t t l e t o ' d o ' w i t h one'another and;/very p r o b a b l y any correspondence t h a t might have e x i s t e d between t e r r i t o r i e s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and l i n g u i s t i c a g g r e g a t e s was becoming r e a r r a n g e d . C e r t a i n l y e v e n t s f o l l o w i n g c l o s u r e o f P o r t P e l l y Banks suggest t h a t t h e y were becoming r e a r r a n g e d r a t h e r q u i c k l y , f o r 35 y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1887, the " P e l l y I n d i a n s 1 ' , as C a l b r e a t h d e s c r i b e s them, were t r a d i n g a t Pease Lake — 200 m i l e s from the n e a r e s t p o i n t on the P e l l y r i v e r ( C a l b r e a t h , 1888). 40 But apart from these temporary t r a d i n g ventures out of the area, i t i s c l e a r from accounts of informants, e a r l y records ( F i e l d , 1913; P i k e , 1896) and more recent ethnographic surveys (Denniston^1966) that the p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g Campbell's occupation of the upper P e l l y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n f l i c t and immigration of small groups from the south and n o r t h e a s t . Why these groups moved i n t o the area, i s not c e r t a i n but perhaps they themselves were being pushed out of other regions or were searching f o r r i c h e r f u r country. Whatever the case, i n s t o r i e s now t o l d about t h i s p e r i o d i t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d ' t h a t immigrating groups had had recent contact w i t h White t r a d e r s and d i d possess guns. These gave the immigrants a decided advantage i n imposing t h e i r w i l l and making good t h e i r c l a i m to t e r r i t o r y i n h a b i t e d by K a s i n i who were l i v i n g northwest of Prances lake and along the P e l l y r i v e r . . C e r t a i n s i t e s are s t i l l w e l l known f o r the f i g h t i n g and k i l l i n g that went on during t h i s p e r i o d . These immigrant groups, however, were n e i t h e r l a r g e i n s i z e nor possessed of a common s o c i a l background or language and they presented no u n i f i e d f r o n t . The r e s u l t has been a gradual blending w i t h the K a s i n i and the question of o r i g i n s d a t i n g back to these times has come to bear l i t t l e s o c i o l o g i c a l weight.. Trapping Posts and the Pur Trade In the next phase of contact, e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a p p i n g posts and the wanderings of i n d i v i d u a l s prospectors f o l l o w i n g the Klondike gold rush,., brought d i r e c t and sustained contact to the K a s i n i . By 1900 numerous posts had been b u i l t along the 41 Yukon r i v e r and i t s e a s t e r n t r i b u t a r i e s , n o t a b l y by the company o f T a y l o r and Drury w h i c h began o p e r a t i o n s i n 1 8 9 q . At about t h e same time an independent f u r buyer e s t a b l i s h e d Nahanie House a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f the Ross and P e l l y r i v e r s and w i t h i n two y e a r s t h e Hudson's Bay Company reopened a s m a l l p o s t n e a r t h e i r o l d s i t e o f P e l l y Banks (Sheldon,1911: 190-3). I n 1905 T a y l o r and Drury bought out the o p e r a t i o n s a t b o t h Hahanie House and P e l l y Banks. The f o r m e r t h e y renamed Ross R i v e r and i t became the main s u p p l y depot f o r i t was the f a r t h e s t p o i n t on the P e l l y r i v e r w h i c h c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y n a v i g a t e d by steamers t r a n s p o r t - i n g f r e i g h t . As i t t u r n e d out Ross R i v e r was s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d f o r n o t o n l y was i t a b l e t o s e r v e p e o p l e who h a b i t u a l l y l i v e d i n the a r e a but i t was a l s o a c c e s s i b l e to those who l i v e d i n t h e r e g i o n to the n o r t h . They t r a p p e d i n the M a c m i l l a n r i v e r a r e a and were composed o f an i n t e r m a r r i e d m i x t u r e o f p e o p l e who had t r a d e d out o f S e l k i r k and P o r t Norman. I n a d d i t i o n t h o s e who t r a p p e d on t h e b o r d e r s o f the h i n t e r l a n d o f p o s t s t o t h e west such as B i g Salmon, Carmacks and l i t t l e Salmon, a l s o began t o t r a d e a t Ross R i v e r . Soon a f t e r i t opened t h e r e f o r e , Ross R i v e r was f r e q u e n t e d by p e o p l e who i n h a b i t e d , q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i e s , were s o c i a l l y p e r i p h e r a l to one a n o t h e r and who w e r e - q u i t e d i s t i n c t i n d i a l e c t and. custom. Fu r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was a t t h i s time a f a i r l y s t a b l e arrangement o f l a n d use amongst t h e s e p e o p l e . T r a p p i n g had j u s t begun and the l a n d was s t i l l r i c h i n f u r , hence t h e r e was l i t t l e r e a s o n f o r p e o p l e to move i n t o t e r r i t o r i e s t h a t were b o t h u n f a m i l i a r and i n h a b i t e d by s t r a n g e r s . As a r e s u l t t h e s e l i n g u i s t i c and t e r r i t o r i a l IV) A P 2 KASINI HUNTING - TRAPPING AREA AND TRAPPING POSTS IN P R O X I M I T Y TO ROSS R I V E R : 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 4 " K A S I N I AREA (approximate scale) 4;3: c l u s t e r s remained c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s whose i n t e r c h a n g e appears t o have been r e s t r i c t e d t o r i t u a l c o m p e t i t i o n s i n s i n g i n g and gam b l i n g d u r i n g the few weeks t h e y met each y e a r w h i l e p a t r o n i z i n g the Ross R i v e r p o s t . Throughout the n e x t 35 y e a r s t h e s e s e p a r a t e c l u s t e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s c r e t e — not because t h e y were p o l i t i c a l o r l a n d h o l d i n g u n i t s as some e a r l y o b s e r v e r s have suggested ( K e e l e , 1910), but because: 1) t h e y r e c o g n i z e d each o t h e r as b e i n g c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t and t h e r e f o r e u n p r e d i c t a b l e and p r o b a b l y dangerous', 2) they o c c u p i e d d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i e s t h a t were s u f f i c i e n t to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e needs, 3) th e y appear t o have been a b l e t o f i n d w i t h i n t h e i r own r a n k s s u f f i c i e n t numbers of m a r r i g e a b l e people, to p e r p e t u a t e t h e m s e l v e s , and 4) the s o c i a l d i s t a n c e t h a t e x i s t e d between th e s e t h r e e c l u s t e r s was f u r t h e r a c c e n t u a t e d by the developments o f the f u r t r a d e t h a t took p l a c e i n the 1920's and 1930's. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a t l e a s t six. o t h e r t r a p p i n g p o s t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the a r e a (see Map 2 ) . To th e n o r t h independent f u r buyers c o n s t r u c t e d t h r e e p o s t s on the M a c m i l l a n r i v e r and a n o t h e r a t Sheldon Lake. To t h e so u t h a p o s t was o p e r a t e d a t Prances Lake and T a y l o r and Drury e s t a b l i s h e d a post a t P e l l y Lakes. And t o the west T a y l o r and Drury a l s o o p e r a t e d a s m a l l o u t p o s t a t Rose P o i n t . Consequently, a p a r t from d e c r e a s i n g t h e need to come t o Ross R i v e r a t a l l , the emergence o f these new commercial c e n t e r s f u r t h e r s e p a r a t e d , i n terms o f g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e , t h e s e d i f f e r e n t t r a p p i n g communities. The Commitment to T r a p p i n g A f t e r h i s i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f the Prances Lake and u upper P e l l y r i v e r a r e a s Robert Campbell a p p a r e n t l y made t h e o b s e r v a - t i o n t h a t i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e t h e t r u e f u r p o t e n t i a l o f a c o u n t r y so i n t e r r u p t e d by mountains and v a l l e y s . From h i s own e x p e r i e n c e such topography was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l but r i c h p o c k e t s o f f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s t h a t a f f o r d e d p r o f i t a b l e e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r o n l y s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t i m e . Thus, q u i t e a p a r t from the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s on the l o w e r P e l l y , i t may have been t h e s u s p i c i o n o f an uneven f u r p o t e n t i a l on the upper P e l l y w h i c h l e d " t h e Hudson's Bay Company in v e s t m e n t t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d on the l o w e r P e l l y a t F o r t S e l k i r k . I n many ways Campbell's e a r l i e r assessment was r e f l e c t e d i n subsequent e v e n t s . Amongst t h e K a s i n i t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f an " a t o m i s t i c " form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n such as emerged w i t h o t h e r n o r t h e r n Athapaskan (Je r m e s s , 1937) and A l g o n k i a n ( H i c k e r s o n . 1967) p e o p l e s a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the f u r t r a d e and the development o f e x c l u s i v e c o r p o r a t e r i g h t s o v e r s p e c i f i c p l o t s o f l a n d f o r t r a p p i n g p u r p o s e s . W i t h i n the K a s i n i region,, i t appears t h a t no p a r t i c u l a r a r e a c o u l d ensure, f o r even a few y e a r s , a s u s t a i n e d f u r ' . y i e l d . K a s i n i found i t n e c e s s a r y t o move f r e q u e n t l y from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r i n s e a r c h o f f u r . There were, o f c o u r s e , l i m i t s t o t h e i r meanderings and t h e s e we w i l l d i s c u s s p r e s e n t l y . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o bear i n mind t h a t n e i t h e r b e f o r e n o r a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the t r a p p i n g b u s i n e s s does t h e r e appear t o have been any system o f t e n u r e whereby s p e c i f i c p l o t s o f l a n d were a l l o c a t e d t o d i s c r e t e groups o r t o i n d i v i d u a l s . The u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d and q u i c k l y exhausted f u r r e s o u r c e s o f the a r e a a r e f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t o t a l number o f 45;. t r a p p i n g p o s t s t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the r e g i o n . The P e l l y Banks, P e l l y Lakes and P r a n c e s Lake p o s t s were a l l c l o s e d and opened a number o f t i m e s b e f o r e t h e i r f i n a l c l o s u r e i n the 1950's. I n p a r t t h i s was i n response t o c y c l i c a l d e p l e t i o n and r e s u r g e n c e o f f u r . b e a r i n g a n i m a l s b e i n g t r a p p e d i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o each p o s t . Dependence on t r a p p i n g , however, was n e v e r t o t a l f o r up u n t i l the mid 1920's v i r t u a l l y a l l f o o d the K a s i n i consumed was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i r own e f f o r t s from the l a n d . Trade goods, w h i c h were r e s t r i c t e d p r i m a r i l y to f a b r i c s , condiments, t o b a c c o and hardware i t e m s , were a p p r e c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r n o v e l t y and o b v i o u s c o n v e n i e n c e . Even u n t i l 1955 t h e dependence on the t r a p p i n g p o s t f o r f o o d i n v o l v e d r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , a l t h o u g h perhaps c r i t i c a l amounts o f f l o u r , r i c e and s u g a r . We can t h e r e f o r e c h a r a c t e r i z e K a s i n i p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e f r e q u e n t l y used r u b r i c " h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g " . However, i n d o i n g so we must bear i n mind t h a t t r a p p i n g became f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to h u n t i n g i n a way t h a t d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o any o f t h e p r e v i o u s g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Indeed, t h e r e i s r e a s o n to s u s p e c t t h a t a f t e r i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t r a p p i n g the K a s i n i became more committed t o h u n t i n g t h a n they had e v e r been b e f o r e . T h i s i s based on t h r e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F i r s t , p r i o r t o t r a p p i n g t h e K a s i n i p o s s e s s e d no w o r k i n g dogs. There i s some ev i d e n c e t h e y had s m a l l h u n t i n g watch dogs, but from a l l a c c o u n t s i n t h i s and s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s i t i s c l e a r t h a t m o b i l i t y was p r i m a r i l y p e d e s t r i a n and goods were moved by b a c k - p a c k i n g o r on h a n d - p u l l e d s k i n toboggans. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t r a p p i n g , however, .4-6 i n c r e a s e d t h e need f o r a more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y n o t so much f o r t r a p p i n g i t s e l f as i t was f o r t h e movement o f b o t h goods and pe o p l e between a p a r t i c u l a r t r a p p i n g a r e a and-the p o s t . Such t r i p s were u s u a l l y made i n m i d - w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g and, f o r the K a s i n i , f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d t o t a l d i s t a n c e s p e r t r i p o f 80 - 150 m i l e s . I n t h e s h o r t r u n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a r g e , s t r o n g work dogs to p u l l l o a d e d toboggans prove d an e f f i c i e n t answer. Secondly, t h e r e has been e x t e n s i v e r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f f a c t o r s w h i c h l i m i t the p o p u l a t i o n o f h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g s o c i e t i e s (Lee and DeVore. 1968: 221-48), and a l t h o u g h n o t h i n g c o n c l u s i v e has come o f t h i s , t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on t r e a t i n g h u n t e r s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a " p r e d a t o r - p r e y " r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s emphasis has i n t u r n been p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e framework o f what has come t o be known as L i e b i g ' s "law o f the minimum". T h i s i s a "statement about b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n w h i c h c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t s e l e c t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n respond t o minimum r a t h e r than maximum f e a t u r e s o f the environment" ( P r i e d . 1 9 6 7 : 6 5 ) . I n the case of p r e d a t o r p o p u l a t i o n s w h i c h p r e y on s m a l l a n i m a l s t h e r e i s o f t e n a r a p i d f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i f t h e p r e y s p e c i e s i s on a s h o r t p o p u l a t i o n cycle w h i c h i s c o n t r o l l e d by means o t h e r t h a n p r e d a t i o n . Such i s the case w i t h l y n x and r a b b i t s i n the b o r e a l f o r e s t r e g i o n . However, i n the case o f "man the h u n t e r " , who does not have t h e same r e c o v e r y r a t e as t h e l y n x , t h e p o p u l a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y appears t o l e v e l out a t o r n e a r the f o o d c a p a c i t y o f the l a n d which i s a v a i l a b l e 47 d u r i n g the l e a n e s t p e r i o d s . T h i s can be gauged e i t h e r i n terms o f the l e a n e s t time of the y e a r and/or the extreme n a d i r o f t h e a n i m a l p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h might o c c u r o n l y once p e r decade o r l e s s . T h i r d l y , i f the "law o f the minimum" argument i s even r o u g h l y c o r r e c t we can be sure t h a t c e r t a i n consequences would i n e v i t a b l y a t t e n d the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f dogs t o the K a s i n i economy. Q u i t e a p a r t from t h e i r m o b i l i t y v a l u e dogs would a l s o c o n s t i t u t e an a d d i t i o n a l l o a d on the same, food r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the K a s i n i f o r i n t h i s r e g i o n meat from b i g game a n i m a l s c o n s t i t u t e d by f a r the l a r g e s t source o f n u t r i t i o n . C o n sequently i f the p o p u l a t i o n o f b i g game a n i m a l s was u n a b l e t o i n c r e a s e i t s r a t e o f r e p r o d u c t i o n to accommodate the n e c e s s a r y i n c r e a s e i n p r e d a t i o n , t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t would be an e v e r - d e c l i n i n g q u a n t i t y o f f o o d f o r b o t h men and dogs. T h i s s i t u a t i o n , i f a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , would g r a d u a l l y sharpen the a l t e r n a t i v e s open to any h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g p e o p l e s : a) t h e y c o u l d g i v e up t h e i r dogs i n o r d e r to have s u f f i c i e n t food f o r t h e m s e l v e s : i n w h i c h case t h e y would p r o b a b l y have t o g i v e up t r a p p i n g , b) t h e y c o u l d spend more time h u n t i n g f o r an ever d e c r e a s i n g f o o d s u p p l y , i n w h i c h case t h e y would have to d e c r e a s e the time spent a t t r a p p i n g , c) thev c o u l d m i g r a t e t o a new a r e a i n the hopes t h a t i t was p l e n t i f u l i n b o t h f o o d and f u r s , o r d) they c o u l d r e l y i n c r e a s i n g l y on the t r a n c i n g p o s t to s u p p l y them w i t h c r i t i c a l amounts o f f o o d . T h i s f i n a l a l t e r n a t i v e does not appear to have been a v a i l a b l e to the K a s i n i u n t i l the l a t e 1930's and e a r l y 1940's. I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t h a t K a s i n i t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s , o v e r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g p e r i o d o f time and i n some a r e a s , c o u l d 48 have been an u n s t a b l e a d a p t i v e r e s p o n s e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s we d e s c r i b e a way o f l i f e t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f r e q u e n t group r e a l i g n m e n t and r a p i d movement and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say what t h e s e owe t o t h e i n f l u e n c e s c o n s i d e r e d above. I t i s l i k e l y , however, t h a t they became much more developed a f t e r t r a p p i n g began. i 49 CHAPTER'III NATURAL RESOURCES: LOCAL DIVERSITIES AFP SEASONAL VARIATIONS^ A f t e r 1900 the K a s i n i remained dependent on hunting, f i s h i n g and gathering, which r e q u i r e d m o b i l i t y and a v a r i e t y of e x p l o i t a t i v e techniques. Amongst hunters i n general,accumulation of goods i s constrained by t h e i r m o b i l i t y : "...needs are l i m i t e d , a v a r i c e i n h i b i t e d and — p o r t a b i l i t y (becomes) a main value i n the economic scheme of t h i n g s " (Sahlinsj1968:86). K a s i n i there- f o r e placed great emphasis on being able to manufacture both t o o l s and eauipment from the m a t e r i a l s at hand — r a f t s and s k i n , w a t e r c r a f t , bark or dug-out canoes, a v a r i e t y of bone and stone t o o l s , snowshoes, rawhide snares f o r both small and b i g game, f i s h nets made from sinews, l e a t h e r containers and. c l o t h i n g , d r i e d food, and brush s h e l t e r s set to an open f i r e . We have already argued that i t was not so much tr a p p i n g but the distances i n v o l v e d i n t r a d i n g that stimulated a need f o r an i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f i c i e n t mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . And t h i s r e s u l t e d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of work dogs. In many respects the use of dogs re l a x e d the r e s t r i c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y imposed by pe d e s t r i a n t r a v e l , on the qu a n t i t y of non-subsistence goods t h a t could be acquired at one time. These in c l u d e d f a b r i c s and var i o u s items of hardware which f r e q u e n t l y decreased e f f o r t needed 1. In focus and even i n format the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n has followed the l e a d of others. Some of these i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r works are considered i n t h i s chapter and the next. Hov/ever, there are some notable s t u d i e s which have been consulted but not mentioned; among these are the works of S u t t l e s (i960, 1962) f o r the Northwest Coast, Spencer (1959), and Damas (1966, 1969) f o r the Eskimo, Lee (1972) and M a r s h a l l (1959, I960) f o r the Bushman, and Helm (1965, 1968) f o r the Athapaskan speakers of the A r c t i c drainage. 59' t o s a t i s f y the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r goods (guns, t r a p s , snare w i r e , k n i v e s and c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s ) , warmth (a x e s , f i l e s , saws, matches, l o g c a b i n s , s t o v e s and s t o v e p i p e s , c l o t h f o r t e n t s , b e d d i n g and c l o t h i n g ) and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( a x e s , saws and wood p l a n e s f o r making s l e d g e s , toboggans and by the 1930's p l a n k b o a t s , the l a t t e r r e q u i r i n g i n t h e i r t u r n o u t b o a r d motors, o i l and. g a s o l i n e ) . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s p a t t e r n i s an o v e r a l l c o n f l i c t : on t h e one hand a s u s t a i n e d need f o r m o b i l i t y i n t h e f o o d q u e s t , and on the o t h e r dependence on a g r o w i n g number o f cumbersome, and even immoveable, m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s . To some e x t e n t t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n was mediated by dogs and the more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n they p r o v i d e d . However, dogs vi ere an o b v i o u s advantage o n l y when used w i t h toboggans d u r i n g w i n t e r months. A t o t h e r t i m e s o f the y e a r , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g l a t e s p r i n g , t h e dog became n o t o n l y l e s s u s e f u l but an a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e on t h e t e m p o r a r i l y m a r g i n a l f o o d r e s o u r c e s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e r e were seasons i n w h i c h a c c o u t r e m e n t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h and f o r t r a p p i n g were most u s e f u l . T r a p p i n g was c a r r i e d out from November t o March when p e l t s p o s s e s s e d t h e i r b e s t market v a l u e . l u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d most d o m e s t i c groups l i v e d i n w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d l o g c a b i n s o r semi- permanent t e n t camps, and a d j a c e n t to t h e s e t h e a d u l t males engaged i n t r a p p i n g . For the r e s t o f the y e a r h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g was the main a c t i v i t y and consequently- the c a b i n , s t o v e s , e x t r a c l o t h i n g and b e d d i n g , t r a p s , t o o l s and even e x t r a guns were l e f t b e h i n d — not t o be used a g a i n u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g s e a s o n . By the end o f A p r i l toboggans, s l e d g e s and showshoes 51-' were a l s o cached u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r . I n the s p r i n g , summer and f a l l seasons t r a v e l was p r i m a r i l y on f o o t and goods were packed by b o t h man and dog from one f o o d s u p p l y t o the n e x t . T h i s r a t h e r s i m p l e s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n depended on a c q u i s i t i o n , b y the d o m e s t i c group, o f s u f f i c i e n t f o o d i n the f a l l months (September - October) i n o r d e r t h a t t r a p p i n g c o u l d be engaged i n f u l l - t i m e d u r i n g the w i n t e r . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , however, was seldom i f e v e r f u l l y met and h u n t i n g f r e q u e n t l y had t o be g i v e n p r i o r i t y even d u r i n g the t r a p p i n g season. I n a r e c e n t s t u d y i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t humans a r e capable o f l i v i n g on two pounds o f moose meat p e r day, and t h a t the average moose w i l l p r o v i d e 400 pounds o f f o o d ( R i d i n g t o n 1 9 6 8 ) . L e t us c o n s i d e r one case i n v o l v i n g a K a s i n i man who a l l e g e d l y was a b l e to cache t h r e e moose, f i v e c a r i b o u and 500 f i s h i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the w i n t e r o f 1 9 4 6 - 4 7 . Fow i f we assume out o f hand t h a t the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of moose, f i s h and c a r i b o u i s e q u i v a l e n t and a c c o r d an a r b i t r a r y average w e i g h t o f 200 e d i b l e pounds p e r c a r i b o u and 3 e d i b l e pounds p e r f i s h ( b o t h o f w h i c h a r e p r o b a b l y over e s t i m a t e s V t h e r e would have been a t o t a l o f 3 7 0 0 pounds o f f o o d on hand. However, i f we a l s o assume t h a t dogs a r e c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g e f f e c t i v e l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r on two pounds o f f o o d p e r day (which from our e x p e r i e n c e i s an u n d e r e s t i m a t e ) , we can v e r y r o u g h l y gauge.the f o o d r e q u i r e - ments o f the group f o r the f i v e month t r a p p i n g 'season. I n d o i n g so we s h o u l d keep i n mind t h a t we have p r o b a b l y o v e r - e s t i m a t e d t h e a v a i l a b l e q u a n t i t y o f f o o d and u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d t h e needs o f t h e group. I n any case, the group i n q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d t e n 52. people and f i v e dogs, which would r e q u i r e , according to our estimates, 4500 pounds of food — 800 pounds more than had been acquired i n the f a l l months. In the p a r t i c u l a r case i n question the f i v e caribou and three moose were considered to be an average to an above average f a l l catch. However, the 500 f i s h - '. catch was considered remarkable by a l l who knew about i t and most claimed never to have been able to cache i n excess of 60-80 f i s h f o r w i n t e r . Thus we may conclude that 2,000 pounds of meat and f i s h would have had to be procurred during the t r a p p i n g season by most domestic groups. These competing o r i e n t a t i o n s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e a c t i v i t i e s of most i n d i v i d u a l s i n a domestic group. I n many cases the trapper was able to i n t e r c e p t game while t r a v e l l i n g along h i s l i n e of t r a p s . Frequently, however, good hunting and t r a p p i n g areas were not c o i n c i d e n t and c e r t a i n times had t h e r e f o r e to be devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to hunting. Permanent movement out of an area was a r e s u l t of two t h i n g s — e i t h e r f u r was depleted or food u n a v a i l a b l e . I t appears th a t t h i s occurred every three to f i v e years and. by the time any i n d i v i d u a l had reached maturity he or she had l i v e d i n at l e a s t f o u r d i f f e r e n t areas and was f a m i l i a r , i n v a r y i n g degrees, w i t h a l a r g e t r a c t of l a n d . Movement was a l s o i n i t i a t e d by closure or reopening of t r a p p i n g posts, although t h i s does not appear to have had a major impact before 1950. Thus the general s i t u a t i o n seems to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by both seasonal movements w i t h i n a given area, and p e r i o d i c movements i n t o new or at l e a s t d i f f e r e n t areas. As a r e s u l t p a r t i c u l a r c l u s t e r s of people e x p l o i t e d a "home" t e r r i t o r y f o r only a few years before they found i t necessary to fragment and become s p a t i a l l y r e a l i g n e d i n adjacent areas. For a n y ' c l u s t e r of people, however, t h i s phenomenon di d not occur simultaneously nor d i d i t n e c e s s a r i l y take place at a p a r t i c u l a r time of the year. Domestic groups or t h e i r segments would move o f f i n t o a new area simply when m a t e r i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggested that they should and t h i s might be i n the e a r l y summer, or f a l l , or even mid-winter. Very o f t e n when a move was r e q u i r e d h e a v i e r and more cumbersome items had to be l e f t behind w i t h no guarantee that anyone would be able to r e t u r n to pick them up. As a r e s u l t m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the more durable such as traps and stoveSjWere d u p l i c a t e d and cached i n w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d l o c a - t i o n s . Over a p e r i o d of time most i n d i v i d u a l s would acquire knowledge of a number of such caches, both those made themselves and by o t h e r s . In the event that they or t h e i r close r e l a t i v e s returned to the area, which f r e q u e n t l y happened, much saving o could be e f f e c t e d by the knowledge of equipment already i n the l o c a l e . By degrees the region became dotted w i t h small depots of equipment and o f t e n , when.a choice was open these governed d e c i s i o n s on group movement. Choices, however, were always contingent on where and when the n a t u r a l resources of the land would be a v a i l a b l e and i t i s these primary resources we must now consider. I t should be kept i n mind though, that the p e r i o d i c but necessary abandonment of hardware acquired a sustained u t i l i z a t i o n of many techniques of t o o l making and t e c h n i c a l knowledge that might otherwise have been f o r g o t t e n . In v a r y i n g degrees t h i s knowledge i s ' s t i l l '.retained and has been observed f i r s t hand as r e c e n t l y as 1970. Types and V a r i e t i e s of Resources a) Pood: Vegetable foods i n c l u d e d s i x species of b e r r i e s , the root of one p l a n t , young leaves of s e v e r a l p l a n t s , and cambium l a y e r s of at l e a s t two species of t r e e . A l l a v a i l a b l e species of f i s h were eaten. These included the Longnose sucker, two species of w h i t e f i s h , Northern p i k e , Burbot, Inconnu, Lake t r o u t , A r c t i c g r a y l i n g and a l l f i v e species of P a c i f i c salmon. At l e a s t f i v e species of upland b i r d s were also eaten, as w e l l as numerous species of migratory b i r d s i n c l u d i n g M a l l a r d duck, Canada goose, and S a n d h i l l crane. The amphibious beaver and muskrat were o f t e n eaten, the former o c c a s i o n a l l y a t t a i n i n g a weight of 40 pounds. Numerous small land mammals were important to the K a s i n i d i e t and these i n c l u d e d ground s q u i r r e l s , s q u i r r e l s , marmots, porcupine and r a b b i t s . The Lynx was-also considered a source of food and, ' i n a d d i t i o n , the Mountain goat and two species of sheep were hunted when a v a i l a b l e . However, even i n combination the heaviest of above sources d i d not begin to equal i n volume the food which was obtained from moose and the two species of caribou common to the area. b) Furbearers: Trapping produced, both e d i b l e animals and those considered i n e d i b l e . Lynx, s q u i r r e l , beaver and muskrat, valued f o r t h e i r f u r , were a l s o eaten. Other animals were valued, f o r '5-5 t h e i r f u r a l o n e . These w e r e - w o l v e r i n e , f o x , marts.n, w e a s e l , mink, f i s h e r and o t t e r . Towards the end o f the t r a p p i n g e r a the p e l t s o f w o l v e s , B l a c k and G r i z z l y bear a l s o a t t a i n e d some v a l u e on t h e f u r market but "the a n i m a l s were not c o n s i d e r e d e d i b l e by the . ' K a s i n i . c) M a t e r i a l f o r Technology: Many t o o l s and p i e c e s o f equipment were manufactured from b y - p r o d u c t s o f t h e f o o d q u e s t . These i n c l u d e d sinew t h r e a d , rawhide c o r d o r " b a b i c h e " , and l e a t h e r goods used f o r p a c k s , c o n t a i n e r s , v a r i o u s i t e m s o f c l o t h i n g , n o t a b l y m i t t s , m o c a s s i n s , j a c k e t s , headgear, and b e d d i n g . The l a s t i t e m was made from t h e s k i n s o f e i t h e r ground s q u i r r e l s o r marmots. O t h e r i t e m s were a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y d e r i v e d from e i t h e r moose o r c a r i b o u , as were the bone t o o l s used i n the c l e a n i n g and s c r a p i n g o f h i d e s . Stone t o o l s were used when m a n u f a c t u r i n g l e a t h e r and t h e s e i n v o l v e d a l m o s t any pre-formed o r e a s i l y worked r o c k , u s u a l l y some type o f s l a t e . A l l v a r i e t i e s o f wood were used f o r f u e l , spruce and w i l l o w were used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f i s h w e i r s . The h a r d e s t and most r e s i l i e n t wood, u s u a l l y b i r c h , but sometimes tamarack o r b l a c k s p r u c e , v/ere used f o r toboggans, s l e d g e s and snowshoes. An i n d e t e r m i n a t e 'number o f seeds, l e a v e s , f u n g i , b a r k s and a n i m a l p a r t s were used f o r " m e d i c i n a l " p u r p o s e s . S p a t i a l D i v e r s i t y , - Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y and S u i t a b i l i t y a) P l a n t L i f e : The abundance o f p l a n t l i f e v a r i e s g r e a t l y from p l a c e to p l a c e and i s c o n t i n g e n t on such g e n e r a l f a c t o r s as p r e c i p i t a t i o n , 56 a l t i t u d e , exposure to the sun, a v a i l a b l e ground .water, s o i l type and the existence of p