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The British Columbia Land Commission Act-1973 Smith, Barry Edward 1974

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THE BRITISH COLUMBIA LAND COMMISSION ACT -- 1973 by BARRY EDWARD SMITH B. E. S. U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Scho o l % o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g .. We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 197^ In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements fi an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f th i s thes i s for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of PomTnunlty and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 1, 197 5 ABSTRACT I t i s estimated t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia has l e s s than f i v e per cent o f i t s l a n d upon which s o i l bound a g r i c u l t u r e can take p l a c e . Over the past t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of prime farmland have been l o s t t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. To a s s i s t i n s t o p p i n g t h i s t r e n d , the Land Commission  Ac t , R.S.B.C., 1 9 7 3 t Chapter 4 6 , became law on A p r i l 18th, 1 9 7 3 . While the Act has a number of f u n c t i o n s , t h i s study examines o n l y i t s o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r farm use. The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . P a r t one pr o v i d e s a review of a number of important reasons f o r implementing the Land Commission A c t . The second p a r t p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the A c t ' s implementation, i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s o f the c o n t r o v e r s y and i s s u e s t h a t arose from i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n and the subsequent amendments t h a t l e d to the Land Commission A c t . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s an examination of the process of e s t a b l i s h i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves as w e l l as a review of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e areas of a c t i v i t y o f the Land Commission. The study i s d i r e c t e d a t the Land Commission's f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n . I t does not i n c l u d e a i comparative examination o f l e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t e d towards the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f farmland i n oth e r p a r t s o f Canada and the wor l d . N e i t h e r does I t ana l y s e the economic impact the Land Commission Act w i l l have on urban or a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d v a l u e s or on the economic v i a b i l i t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The t h e s i s more c l o s e l y resembles a l e g a l - p o l i t i c a l examination of a p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n i n t e n d e d to h e l p keep the P r o v i n c e ' s s h o r t and l o n g range l a n d use o p t i o n s open. When b e g i n n i n g to r e s e a r c h t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e f o r m a l l y w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n i n g the A c t . I t was nece s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n through an examination of the A c t i t s e l f , Hansard, newspaper a r t i c l e s , and by i n t e r v i e w i n g and c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h s e v e r a l persons knowledgeable of the s u b j e c t . Through the r e s e a r c h i t was found t h a t d u r i n g the i n t e n s i v e debate t h a t f o l l o w e d the announcement °f B i l l b2, many statements i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n were erroneous. The primary purpose i n r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i s to h o p e f u l l y p r o v i d e a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the Land Commission A c t . i i I t was a l s o found t h a t the much p u b l i c i z e d amendments of the Act were g e n e r a l l y f o r the purpose of c l a r i f i c a t i o n with but two e x c e p t i o n s . The success of the Land Commission Act i n i t s attempt to pre s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d can not be a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d at t h i s time. There remain many reasons to suspect t h a t the Act w i l l f a i l . The t h r e a t of c o n t i n u a l u r b a n i z a t i o n of farmland remains i t s s t r o n g e s t a d v e r s a r y . There are, however, a number of a s p e c t s i n the Commission's favour the most important b e i n g the s t r e n g t h of c o n v i c t i o n of the L e g i s l a t o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the awareness of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c of the n e c e s s i t y of p r e s e r v i n g farmland. i l l TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES, MAP AND CHART v l / Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 PART I REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF THE LAND COMMISSION ACT 6 I I THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE 6 1. The Land Poor S i t u a t i o n 6 2. Food P r o d u c t i o n 10 3. The Economic Importance of A g r i c u l t u r e 11 4. World Food Shortages 15 5. The A e s t h e t i c and N o n - Q u a n t i f i a b l e Importance of A g r i c u l t u r e 16. I I I THE URBAN PRESENCE 22 1. The P o p u l a t i o n of the F r a s e r V a l l e y 22 2. The Consequences of U r b a n i z a t i o n Upon Farming 28 IV REGULATING THE USE OF LAND 42 1. Land Use C o n t r o l — Whose R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? 42 2. Techniques of Land Use C o n t r o l 47 3. The Land Commission A c t as a Zoning Device 52 4. Land Use C o n t r o l a t the R e g i o n a l L e v e l 56 5. The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n 67 6. The R e g i o n a l P l a n Under Four D i s t r i c t s 74 V SOCIALISM AND THE LAND COMMISSION ACT 89 1. The P r i n c i p l e s and O b j e c t i v e s of S o c i a l i s m — an overview 89 2. A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y and the Regina M a n i f e s t o 100 3. A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y and the B r i t i s h Columbia N.D.P. 103 iv PART I I Page THE LAND COMMISSION ACT 110 VI THE FARM LAND FREEZE AND BILL 42 110 1. The Farm Land Freeze 110 2. B i l l 42 121 3. The Co n t r o v e r s y 128 VII THE ISSUES AND AMENDMENTS l44 1. The Is s u e s 144 2. Amendments 148 V I I I ADMINISTRATION OF THE LAND COMMISSION ACT 179 1. Environment and Land Use 179 2. E s t a b l i s h i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves 184 3. Input P r i o r to the R e g i o n a l Role 186 4 . R e g i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve P l a n s 192 5 . Post R e g i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s 200 6 . E x c l u s i o n and Non-Conforming Uses 205 7 . Other A c t i v i t i e s 209 IX CONCLUSION 218 1. F a c t o r s P o s s i b l y Harmful t o the Commission 222 2. F a c t o r s Which May A s s i s t the Commission 227 BIBLIOGRAPHIC MATERIAL 235 APPENDICIES APPENDIX A C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n Programme — A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y -- 245 APPENDIX B Orders i n C o u n c i l 4483 and 157 P r o h i b i t i n g S u b d i v i s i o n of Farm Land 248 APPENDIX C B i l l 42 251 APPENDIX D B i l l 42 -- I n t e r e s t Groups 261 APPENDIX E Land Commission Act 263 APPENDIX F Order i n C o u n c i l 353 A p p l i c a t i o n s Under the Land Commission Act 276 APPENDIX G B.C. New Deomocratic P a r t y A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y -- as of August, 1972 283 v LIST OF TABLES, MAP AND CHAHT Table Page 3-1 Lower Mainland P o p u l a t i o n as a Percentage of B.C.'s T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 23 3-2 P o p u l a t i o n I n c r e a s e Due To N a t u r a l I n c r e a s e and Net M i g r a t i o n In the G.V.R.D. 24 3-3 P o p u l a t i o n I n c r e a s e s - Lower Mainland 1951-1971 25 3-4 Occupied and Vacant "Urban" Designated Land In the Lower Mainland 27 8-1 Progress Report -- A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve D e s i g n a t i o n s 204 Map #1 The Lower Mainland Region of B.C. 8 Chart #1 Routing of A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve Plans 201 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Because of the nature of this paper my thanks must be sincerely extended to a number of individuals who gave freely of their time to enhance my under-standing of the topic. Mr. R.T. Pranson and Dr. L.M. Lavkulich provided important insights into their particular areas of interest. Mr. R. Hankin of the G.V.R.D. enriched my understanding of the usefullness of the O f f i c i a l Regional Plan to the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. To Mr. R.B. Stock, Manager of the B.C. Federation of Agriculture I extend my thanks for not only discussing the subject at length, but for opening the door to a wealth of important material, I must acknowledge my appreciation for the detailed and useful responses to my correspondence by Mr. D.K. 0'Gorman of the Environment and Land Use Secretariat and Mr. R.L. Wilkinson of the Department of Agriculture. A special thanks must be reserved for Mr. William Lane. He greatly expanded my knowledge of the subject and provided a rather unique insight into an extremely current topic. I w i l l remain indebted to Mr. Lane not only for the hours he spent i n discussion with me when time for him was very precious, but also for his unselfish service to the Province. To my advisors Dr. William Rees and Mr. Brahm Wiesma'n I w i l l remain forever grateful. The many hours they spent reviewing my work and providing very constructive criticism and instruction w i l l not be forgotten. As i n everything I have ever done the guiding presence of my parents has been f e l t throughout. Their encouragement and love remains impeccable, I thank a Brother who has been a goal within himself. To my wife, for her unselfishness, understanding and love I thank. Her practical assistance v i i was matched by her ability to provide a rebound for my thoughts and ideas, which in turn was doubled by her continuous encouragement. To the late Hr. L. Thornton, a man who captured my continuous respect and unknowingly pointed the way, I humbly dedicated this work. v i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION "....the f a c t remains t h a t as yet the Lower Mainland s u p p l i e s i t s e l f w ith f r e s h milk, f r e s h f r u i t and a p r o p o r t i o n of v e g e t a b l e s . S i n c e we w i l l some day have to supply more than twice our p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n i t i s u t t e r f o l l y t o s a c r i f i c e our most f e r t i l e l a n d on the a l t a r of u n p r o d u c t i v e r e s -i d e n t i a l use when more s u i t a b l e l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h a t purpose."! Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board January 1952-D e s p i t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the above statement, i t took over twenty-one years b e f o r e the P r o v i n c i a l Government of B r i t i s h Columbia enacted l e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t e d towards the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland. The Land Commission Act, R.S.B.C., 1973i Chapter 46, became law on A p r i l 18th, 1973-In the l a s t t e n years, the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e e s t i m a t e s t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia has l o s t 7 8 , 0 0 0 h e c t a r e s of good farmland to r e s i d e n t i a l development. The g r e a t e r b u l k of t h i s l o s s has been i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and the Okanagan 2 B a s i n - both areas of high a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . Between 1951 and 1971• an average of s e v e n t y - f i v e persons was added to the Lower Mainland's p o p u l a t i o n d a i l y . 3 Subsequently the area was l o s i n g farmland at a r a t e of 1 , 2 0 0 h e c t a r e s each year. (For f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e see Chapter I I I , f o o t n o t e 1 6 ) . -1--2-T h i s study i s; d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s ; the f i r s t examining a number of important f a c t o r s which t o -gether, formed s i g n i f i c a n t reasons l e a d i n g to the a d o p t i o n of the Land Commission A c t . The second i s devoted to an a n a l y s i s of the Act i t s e l f . T h i s i n c l u d e s a review of the implementation as w e l l as the c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t surrounded the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42 -the Land Commission A c t . An examination of the major i s s u e s t h a t evolved from the c o n t r o v e r s y , as w e l l as the subsequent amentments to B i l l 42 i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . The study i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s employed by the Land Commission i n the e s t a b l i s h -ment of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserces throughout the P r o v i n c e . The c o n c l u s i o n p r o v i d e s a review of those f a c t o r s which may prove harmful to the Land Commission i n i t s b i d to p r e s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , as w e l l as an a p p r a i s a l of those a s p e c t s which w i l l c o n c e i v a b l y support the Commis-s i o n ' s work. There are t h r e e l i m i t a t i o n s to the study t h a t must be c l e a r l y enunciated at the o u t s e t i . F i r s t l y , the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (Lower Mainland) i s used, w i t h i n the study, f o r the purpose of example. While the Land Commission Act i s i n v o l v e d with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland throughout the P r o v i n c e , the F r a s e r V a l l e y a f f o r d s an extremely good example of the l a n d use c o n f l i c t s t h a t , i n p a r t , r e v e a l e d the n e c e s s i t y of the A c t . -3-Secondly, w h i l e the Act hfis a number of f u n c t i o n s , t h i s study w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i r e c t e d at the " a g r i c u l t u r a l elements of the A c t . S e c t i o n 7(1) (a) of the Land Commission Act s t a t e s , " I t i s the o b j e c t of the Commission to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r farming use." The importance of t h i s aspect of the Act was a l s o r e v e a l e d by the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e ' the day of B i l l ___?• s i n t r o d u c t i o n . He s a i d on t h i s o c c a s i o n t h a t the o b j e c t of the Land Commission Act, i s "to make a g r i c u l t u r e more economically v i a b l e to s u s t a i n the f a m i l y farm." A t h i r d important l i m i t a t i o n e x i s t s i n the s h o r t time p e r i o d s i n c e the a d o p t i o n of the A c t . While p a r t one of the t h e s i s u t i l i z e s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , the a n a l y s i s of the Land Commission Act p r i m a r i l y p e r t a i n s to i t s f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42 c r e a t e d an enormous amount of c o n t r o v e r s y . Premier David B a r r e t t d e s c r i b e d the events of t h i s p e r i o d as the most extreme example of 'knee-jerk' r e a c t i o n t h a t h i s young government had to face i n i t s f i r s t year and a h a l f of o f f i c e . T h e con-sequences of t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l p e r i o d were two f o l d . On the one hand, the awareness of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c of the problems b e s e t t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . ^ However, the f u r o r r e s u l t e d i n a m u l t i t u d e of erroneous statements c o n c e r n i n g the reasons f o r , and the powers of the A c t . Due o n l y -im-p a r t i a l l y to the Government's poor h a n d l i n g of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42, the a s s e r t i o n s made d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d , by a v a r i e t y o f sources, c r e a t e d misconceptions which have had a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on the f u l l and re a s o n a b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the A c t . In a c c u r a t e statements c o n c e r n i n g the Land Commission  Act have, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , not completely subsided. In a r e c e n t (March 1975) e d i t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia New  Homes the f o l l o w i n g recommendation from a S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y Committee Report on Housing r e v e a l s the p a r t i a l t r u t h s c o n c e r n i n g the Land Commission Act t h a t continue to p r e v a i l . "....because the r e a l i n t e n t of B i l l 42, the Land Commission Act, was to e x c e r c i s e c o n t r o l over a l l l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and not j u s t to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , B i l l 42 should be r e p e a l e d and r e p l a c e d by a s t a t u t e which would be s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to pres e r v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . " 7 W i l l i a m T. Lane, Chairman o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission has s t a t e d t h a t , "The e s s e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l a n d Commission Act i s t h a t i t s passage marked the coming o f age o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Food p r o d u c t i o n i s now an i n -d u s t r y of urgent concern to a l l c i t i z e n s of a p r o v i n c e whose farm r e s o u r c e s must be husbanded as never b e f o r e . " 8 I t i s the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s paper to r e v e a l why the government of the day f e l t our farm r e s o u r c e s must be husbanded and how, through the Land Commission Act, the P r o v i n c i a l Government has attempted to achieve t h i s end. -5-FOOTNOTES 1. The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, The  Lower Mainland Looks Ahead (New Westminister, January 1 9 5 2 ) p. 39-2 . Payne, Ronald J . , A F a r e w e l l to Farms?, from (Western L i v i n g , Bryan p u b l i c a t i o n s L t d . , Vancouver,.February, 1975 V o l . 5 . No. 1) p . 6 . 3 . C a l c u l a t e d from: Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , B.C., S t a t i s t i c s R e l a t i n g to R e g i o n a l and  M u n i c i p a l Governments i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , June 1973)-4. 'Farmers must wa i t . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, February 2 3 t 1 9 7 3 -5 . 'I dont't know....', Vancouver Sun, January 2 2 , 1974. 6 . Lane, W.T., The Land Commission and I t s S i g n i f i c a n c e  To B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e (Speech to the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , December.5 . 1974) p. 4. 7 . B r i t i s h Columbia New Homes, V o l . 3 . No. 3 . E x t r a c t s  From a S o c i a l C r e d i t Committee Report on Housing (Guide Magazines L t d . , Burnaby B.C. March 1 9 7 5 ) P' 6 . 8. Payne, p. 7 -PART I REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF THE LAND COMMISSION ACT CHAPTER II THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE 1. THE LAND POOR SITUATION North America has h i s t o r i c a l l y been considered land r i c h . The r e s u l t has been a d i s t i n c t lack of any urgent concern for preserving open space. This has been, however, a dominant objective of planning i i n many other, areas of the world. The myth - spawned by public attitudes - that Canada's 908,800,000 hectares of land i s an inex-haustible land resource, dies hard. This vast amount of land area i s misleading with regard to i t s p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land. From the viewpoint of climate alone, two thi r d s of Canada i s simply too cold for commercial a g r i c u l t u r e . Much of the southern t h i r d of the country cannot be used for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes because of rough t e r r a i n , swamps and unsuitable s o i l s . Added to t h i s , many f r u i t and vegetable crops require s p e c i a l i z e d environmental conditions found only i n a p few r e l a t i v e l y small areas of Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia has a t o t a l area of 91,975,424 hectares but only 2,115,^+35 hectares, or 2 .3 per cent of the Province i s estimated to be suitable for a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . - 5 * However, only 6 4 5 , 2 0 8 h e c t a r e s , or 3 0 . 5 per cent of t h i s p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e l a n d i s c l a s s i f i e d as improved l a n d , a c c o u n t i n g f o r only 0 . 7 per cent of the t o t a l l a n d a r e a of B r i t i s h Columbia. The F r a s e r V a l l e y (or Lower Mainland)^ of B r i t i s h Columbia (See Map No. 1 ) accounts f o r 4 1 3 , 3 4 ? h e c t a r e s , ^ or only . 4 - 5 per cent of the P r o v i n c e ' s t o t a l l a n d a r e a . L i m i t e d by urban l a n d uses and areas of poor s o i l s and t e r r a i n , only' 1 0 5 . 7 2 2 h e c t a r e s , or approximately 7 2 5 per cent of the Lower Mainland i s used as farmland. T h i s i n t u r n accounts f o r a mere f i v e per cent of the a P r o v i n c e ' s gross a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t the F r a s e r V a l l e y was r e s p o n s i b l e , i n 1 9 6 6, f o r producing over s i x t y per cent of the t o t a l v alue of farm pro-o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. i ) Topography, Climate and S o i l s The Lower Mainland i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most farming areas i n the P r o v i n c e . Because of the mountainous t e r r a i n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a g r i c u l t u r e tends to be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n 'pockets' of lower l y i n g l a n d - e s p e c i a l l y r i v e r and mountain v a l l e y s - where th e r e i s a f a v o u r a b l e 1 0 i n t e r a c t i o n of topography, c l i m a t e and s o i l . T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , the F r a s e r V a l l e y i s a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t expanse of l a n d with a few upland and mountainous areas as w e l l as r i v e r o e i t a s . The c l i m a t e of the F r a s e r V a l l e y may be c l a s s i f i e d *(B.C. Land Commission has c a l c u l a t e d approximately 5% of B.C. s u i t a b l e f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f food crops --"Keeping the Options Open" p. 5 ) -- 9 -as moderate. The mean temperatures In t h i s r e g i o n are higher than any other a g r i c u l t u r a l area i n Canada, with 11 the e x c e p t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d . The t o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the r e g i o n i s f a r i n excess of a g r i c u l t u r a l requirements but p o o r l y d i s t r i b u t e d s e a s o n a l l y . Consequently, the excess pre-c i p i t a t i o n c r e a t e s drainage problems i n the s p r i n g which are a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r some cr o p s . J u l y and August i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be dry months i n which there i s a p r e c i p i t a t i o n d e f i c i e n c y and a p e r i o d i n which most crops would normally b e n e f i t 13 from i r r i g a t i o n d u r i n g some stage i n t h e i r development. 14 The mean f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y i s 180 days per year. T h i s compares to 120 to 1 3 0 f r o s t - f r e e days per year i n both Southern O n t a r i o and Nova S c o t i a and 100 throughout wide areas of the P r a i r i e s . In summation, the R e g i o n a l Farmland Study notes t h a t , " d e s p i t e these c l i m a t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s , the F r a s e r V a l l e y s t i l l enjoys the bes t c l i m a t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n the l6 e n t i r e Country." Under the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Develop-ment Act (ARDA), the Canada Land Inventory (C.L.I.) has c l a s s i f i e d the s o i l s of the F r a s e r V a l l e y by grouping them i n t o seven c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use, depending on inh e r e n t s o i l and c l i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as 17 the p o s s i b l e rpnge of c r o p s . The C.L.I, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s - 1 0 -however, r e v e a l very few areas of C l a s s 1 a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the V a l l e y , w i t h most of the remaining good 13 la n d f a l l i n g between C l a s s e s II and IV. Despi t e c e r t a i n shortcomings, when c o n s i d e r i n g together the three elements of topography, c l i m a t e and. s o i l s , the F r a s e r V a l l e y i s the most p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia as w e l l as the most s u i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l area i n C a n a d a . ^ 2 . FOOD PRODUCTION As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the F r a s e r V a l l e y , i n 1 9 6 6 , accounted f o r 6 3 . 3 per cent of the t o t a l v a l u e of farm p r o d u c t i o n i n the Pro v i n c e and i t was d i r e c t e d to a l a r g e extent to the l a r g e urban market of Greater Vancouver. Not only does i t proauce the widest range of crops i n the e n t i r e country, but i t a l s o l e d the Province i n 1 9 6 6 i n the p r o d u c t i o n of many p e r i s h a b l e goods i n c l u d i n g p o u l t r y and p o u l t r y products ( 7 8 . 8 $ ) , v e g e t a b l e s ( 7 3 - 6 $ ) o n and d a i r y products (7 1 .7%). The d a i r y i n d u s t r y has h i s t o r i c a l l y been the main 2 1 a g r i c u l t u r a l • e n t e r p r i s e i n - t h e ? F r a s e r . V a l l e y . In 1 9 6 5 i t was estimated t h a t most of the mi l k needed to meet the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s i n the Lower Mainland would come through a s e r i e s of t e c h n i c a l advances. However, throughout the next 2 0 year p e r i o d , 1 9 6 5 to 1 9 8 5 , i t was f e l t t h a t the e f f e c t s of urban sprawl and the l a c k of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g - i n c l u d i n g the high c o s t of la n d nnd high taxes, along with other e x t e r n a l i t i e s - could d r a s t i c a l l y change the economic p i c t u r e of t h i s e n t e r p r i s e . " " P o u l t r y s a l e s ranked second i n the amount of a g r i c u l t u r a l cash income f o r the V a l l e y i n 1 9 6 6 . V e g e t a b l e farms i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y are becoming l a r g e r , more mechanized and more e f f i c i e n t . Vegetable p r o d u c t i o n however, i s f a i l i n g short of present demand i n the Lower Mainland. Although a c c o u n t i n g f o r over f o u r m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n r e t a i l s a l e s , o u t s i d e c o m p e t i t i o n as w e l l as the high c o s t of l a n d , taxes and labour tend to bear h e a v i l y on the f e a s l b i l t y of growing these c r o p s . V e g e t a b l e s from C a l i f o r n i a are g e n e r a l l y cheaper than home grown produce and t h e r e f o r e l a r g e l y govern l o c a l p r i c e s . However, due to the u r b a n i z a t i o n of farmland i n C a l i f o r n i a , B r i t i s h Columbia must a l s o import v e g e t a b l e produce 25 from Mexico - and compete with C a l i f o r n i a i n doing so. B e s i d e s the items of p r o d u c t i o n mentioned above, the Lower Mainland c o n t r i b u t e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n many othe r areas of food p r o d u c t i o n . These i n c l u d e : c a t t l e , greenhouse and nursery products, t r e e and s m a l l f r u i t s , 26 potatoes and o t h e r s . 3. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE 2 7 The d o l l a r v alue of producing f o o d a t the primary l e v e l has l e s s e n e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y ' s a b i l i t y to w i t h s t a n d p r e s s u r e s f o r l a n d space t h a t can be u t i l i z e d f o r purposes which would p r e s e n t l y c r e a t e higher economic r e t u r n s . The r e l a t i v e l y weak s t a t u s of a g r i c u l t u r e as an economic a c t i v i t y can be e x p l a i n e d i n part by our misconceptions of the value of a g r i c u l t u r e as an economic u n i t . 1) A g r i c u l t u r e D e f i n e d The gross v a l u e of output from primary a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1969 was only $ 2 1 9 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , and t h e r e f o r e ranked f a r below tourism, f o r e s t r y , mining and manufacturing i n the economic h i e r a r c h y of i n d u s t r i e s . Winter m a i n t a i n s t h a t " a g r i c u l t u r e has been v i r t u a l l y d e f i n e d out of e x i s t e n c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia." H i s t o r -i c a l l y , a g r i c u l t u r e was c l e a r l y a set of a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r e d on the g e n e r a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of food f i b e r f o r f i n a l consumption. On the t y p i c a l farm a century ago th e r e was some c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o c e s s i n g of food products. Our p e r c e p t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e has been d i f f i c u l t to a l t e r even though the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y has changed d r a m a t i c a l l y . I n concurrence w i t h these changes, the d e f i n i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e must a l s o be a d j u s t e d i n order to more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s a g r i c u l t u r e ' s economic v a l u e . A c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with a g r i c u l t u r e are today on three l e v e l s . ( 1 ) Primary a g r i c u l t u r e may be d e f i n e d as those a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e on farms which are es s e n t -i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o d u c t i o n of food and f i b r e . (2) A g r i b u s i n e s s and t r a d e i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g place o f f farms, but which are e i t h e r (a) d i r e c t e d towards - 1 3 -the p r o v i s i o n of m a t e r i a l s or equipment f o r use by farmers or (b) d i r e c t e d toward the p r o c e s s i n g of products from primary a g r i c u l t u r e or (c) d i r e c t e d towards the buying and s e l l i n g of food commodities. (3) T e r t i a r y agr-i c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s work or s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d i n s e r v i c i n g primary and secondary a g r i c u l t u r e . Although not r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as a g r i c u l t u r e per se, these a c t i v i t i e s would di s a p p e a r were i t unnecessary to 29 s y n t h e s i z e food. Winter expounds at some l e n g t h on the v a l u e of a g r i c u l t u r e to the B r i t i s h Columbia economy. A summary of h i s f i n d i n g s i s i n c l u d e d below. I t might be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the non-primary a s p e c t s of a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l have even g r e a t e r prominence i n the Lower Mainland due to the urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the south-west corner of B r i t i s h Columbia. i i ) Net Value Added by A g r i c u l t u r e The Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product (GPP) of B r i t i s h Columbia 30 i n 1969 was estimated to be 8.64 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The GPP i s made up of v a l u e added i n each i n d u s t r y and not v a l u e s o l d . In 1969 the net v a l u e added by primary a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia was 124 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d only 1.44 per cent of the GPP. However, primary a g r i c u l t u r e , a l o n g with a g r i b u s i n e s s , trade and the a c t i v i t i e s of t e r t i a r y a g r i c u l t u r e t o t a l l e d 501 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n v a l u e added, and e q u a l l e d 5 ' 8 per cent of -14-the Gross P r o v i n c i a l P r o d u c t . J 1 i i i ) Employment While the l a b o u r f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n primary a g r i c u l t -32 ure i s slowly dropping i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , the f o l l o w -i n g P r o v i n c i a l f i g u r e s c l e a r l y demonstrate the m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t o f t h i s segment of the i n d u s t r y . TABLE 2-1 EMPLOYMENT IN B.C. AGRICULTURE ( 1 9 6 9 ) Primary A g r i c u l t u r e —• r 2 8 , 0 0 0 Food Manufacturing . 1 6 , 0 0 0 -Food W h o l e s a l i n g 3 , 6 5 0 Food R e t a i l i n g 1 7 , 8 0 0 Farm Supply B u s i n e s s 2 , 6 0 0 T o t a l -• 6 8 , 0 5 0 Source: Winter, p. 1 0 A g r i c u l t u r e and food p r o c e s s i n g accounted f o r a r e s p e c t a b l e 9 . 6 per cent of the e n t i r e P r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r f o r c e i n 1 9 6 9 • -i v ) T o t a l Impact of A g r i c u l t u r e The o n l y source of r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to c a l c u l a t e the t o t a l impact of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n on the economy a t l a r g e i s that of Canada-wide impact m u l t i p l i e r s . These n a t i o n a l impact m u l t i p l i e r s r e v e a l how much each i n d u s t r y would have to expand or c o n t r a c t i f f i n a l demand f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of products - 1 5 -ohnnged by $ 1 . 0 0 TABLE 2 - 2 TOTAL IMPACT OF THE FOOD INDUSTRIES ON BRITISH. COLUMBIA PRODUCTION Value Added Impact T o t a l Primary A g r i c u l t u r e 124 1 . 7 2 2l4 Food Manufacturing 2 1 5 2 . 2 6 486 Wholesale Trade i n Food 24 1 . 6 2 3 9 R e t a i l Trade i n Food 1 2 7 1 . 6 2 2 0 6 Other T e r t i a r y _ 1 1 1 . 9 5 _ 2 1 M i l l i o n D o l l a r s T o t a l 5 0 1 9 6 6 Source: Winter, p. 1 3 -The r e s u l t s are somewhat s p e c u l a t i v e s i n c e the c o e f f i c i e n t s are n a t i o n a l . With t h i s i n mind we might estimate t h a t i f the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y came to an end, the t o t a l output i n B r i t i s h Columbia 3 4 might be reduced by about 9 6 6 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 4. WORLD FOOD SHORTAGES A f u r t h e r argument a g a i n s t the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d can be found i n a more g e n e r a l but v i t a l l y important c o n t e x t . The i s s u e of world food shortages, coupled w i t h growing, p o p u l a t i o n , has been the s u b j e c t of many 35 r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . W i l l i a m Lane has a l s o remarked on the a b s u r d i t y of u n n e c e s s a r i l y g i v i n g up p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n l i g h t of the world food supply"' . , . . 3 6 s i t u a t i o n . - 1 6 -S u p p l y i n g a v a r i e t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l products to the G r e a t e r Vancouver market i s a r e s p o n s i b i l t y o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y t h a t can not be i g n o r e d . Although the c u r r e n t p r i c e s , and t h e i r i n c r e a s e s , of food are of g r e a t concern to Canadians, these p r i c e s do not t r u l y r e f l e c t the v a s t shortages of the world's food supply. I f they d i d we would v a l u e what l i t t l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d the P r o v i n c e has, as perhaps our most p r e c i o u s r e s o u r c e . I f the p r e d i c t i o n s of growing food shortages per c a p i t a are c o r r e c t i t can be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the b i d d i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products throughout the world w i l l i n t e n s i f y . I n such a case rows o f v e g e t a b l e s w i l l more e a s i l y be a b l e to e c o n o m i c a l l y w i t h s t a n d the advancing rows of houses. When c o n s i d e r i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of world food shortages alone the removal of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from a c t i v e p r o d u c t i o n i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y or any other a r e a of B r i t i s h Columbia i s m o r a l l y u n j u s t i f i e d . 5. THE AESTHETIC AND NON-QUANTIFIABLE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE Be i n g m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l , a l l a s p e c t s of a g r i c u l t u r e ; can not be adequately measured u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l economic y a r d s t i c k s . Dr. Jan de V r i e s , of the Department of S o i l S c i e n c e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia addresses h i m s e l f to a number of q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s which warrant the p r e s e r v a t i o n of e x i s t i n g farmland. -17-He maintains, that t h e r e i s a very r e a l need f o r d i f f e r e n t k inds of open space w i t h i n c l o s e proximity to urban c e n t r e s ; not only the ocean and w i l d green space i n the f o r e s t e d mountains, but a l s o the domestic green space which i s prov i d e d by the farming c o u n t r y s i d e . He a l s o f e e l s t h a t i t i s Important t o save farmland because such areas are so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h our h e r i t a g e - our ' r o o t s are i n the s o i l ' . The domesticated farmland i s a l s o more c o n g e n i a l f o r the very, young and e l d e r l y than the . 37 w i l d e r green space. The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board r e p o r t , Land For Farming agrees t h a t farmland can make a s i g n i f i -cant r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n - " i t g i v e s us open space f o r hunting and stream f i s h i n g ; space where c h i l d r e n can see a cow without having to go to a zoo; and p l e a s a n t approaches to our major c i t i e s - a matter of some con-sequence f o r a t o u r i s t c e n t r e . " ^ Dr. de V r i e s a l s o f e e l s t h a t with a system of e q u i t -a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v o t e s between c i t y and r u r a l people, i t i s the urban d w e l l e r s who, through t h e i r v o t e s , w i l l make d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the f a t e o f the c o u n t r y s i d e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t u r b a n i t e s have easy a c c e s s to farmlands i n o r d e r to a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e of a g r i c u l t u r e . Farmland i s a l s o viewed as important f o r i t s a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e v a r i o u s waste m a t e r i a l s f o r f e r t i l i z e r i n crop 40 p r o d u c t i o n . With r e g a r d t o a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , Winter . -18-m a i n t a i n s t h a t s i n c e a g r i c u l t u r e Is c u r r e n t l y a f a m i l y -f o c u s s e d a c t i v i t y , i t o ccupies a unique s o c i o l o g i c a l dimension. To d e s t r o y a g r i c u l t u r e would mean an e n t i r e 41 way of l i f e would be n u l l i f i e d . -19-FOOTNOTES 1. Delafons, John; Land-Use C o n t r o l s In the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( J o i n t Center f o r Urban S t u d i e s of the M.I.T. and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Cambridge, Mass., 1962) p. 4. 2. Leahey, A., ' A p p r a i s a l of Canada's Land Base f o r A g r i -c u l t u r e ' ( R e g i o n a l and Resource P l a n n i n g i n Canada; H o l t R i n e h a r t , and Winston L t d . , Toronto, 1963) p. 97-99-3. ' A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ' can mean two t h i n g s : (1) land i n gross farm h o l d i n g s , not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l used; or (2) "improved" l a n d , t h a t i s , l a n d i n p r o d u c t i o n or used i n con n e c t i o n with p r o d u c t i o n . (Land f o r Farming, p. 5)• 4. B.C. Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce; B r i t i s h Columbia Manual of Resources and Devel-opment (Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , May 1971) p. 28. 5. The terms ' F r a s e r V a l l e y ' and 'Lower Mainland' w i l l be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y throughout. 6. Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , B.C., S t a t i s t i c s  R e l a t i n g to R e g i o n a l and M u n i c i p a l Governments i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , June 1973) P- 18, 19, 30, 31, 3^, 35, 38, 39-7. The f i g u r e of 105,722 gross h e c t a r e s of farmland i n the Lower Mainland i s n a t u r a l l y changing as a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s used f o r urban or othe r non-farming purposes or as some new areas, p r e v i o u s l y not c o n s i d e r e d farmland, a re brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s f i g u r e , although an approx-im a t i o n , was d e r i v e d from the t o t a l estimated farmland a r e a i n B.C. of 2,115,4-34 h e c t a r e s . The Lower Mainland accounts f o r f i v e per cent o f t h i s or 105,722 gross h e c t a r e s . 8. Lee, E.L., R e g i o n a l Farmland Study ( C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , A b b o t s f o r d , B.C. September 1972) p. 7-9. Lee, p. 14. 10. Farm Economics D i v i s i o n o f B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t -ure, The Busin e s s o f Farming and Ranching - 196 5 (Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , September 1966) p. l . 11. As the r e s u l t of p r e v a i l i n g w e s t e r l i e s and the warm waters o f the P a c i f i c , the main c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the West Coast are the m i l d w i n t e r s , warm but not hot summers, and sm a l l range of temperature. See The C l i m a t e  of Canada, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1962, f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . 12. Heavy s o i l s have a water requirement of over f i v e i n c hes per month d u r i n g the dry months. (Lee, p. 3)-- 2 0 -13. Lee, p. 2-3. 14. The number of aays between the mean s p r i n g and f a l l dates of f r e e z i n g i s taken to be the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d . 1 5 . Department of F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, The  Canada. Land Inventory: The C l i m a t e s of Canada f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , Report Mo. j (Queen's P r i n t e r Ottawa, 1966) p. 8. 1 6 . Lee, p. 3 . 1 7 . Runka, G.G., Land C a p a b i l i t y For A g r i c u l t u r e , ( S o i l .Survey D i v i s i o n , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C., January 1 9 7 3 ) P» 1. 18. The a g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Canada Land Inventory was the b a s i c t o o l used i n d e s i g n a t i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves under the Land Commission  Act. 19. T h i s same c o n c l u s i o n i s reached by a number of sources i n c l u d i n g : Land For Farming, R e g i o n a l Farmland Study and The T r a n s a c t i o n s of the N i n t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, (Dept. of Lands, F o r e s t s and Mines, B.C., V i c t o r i a , 1 9 5 6 ) . 20. Lee, p. 14. 21. Carne, Cruickshank, Muirhead and Thorpe, Second Approx-imation Report - A g r i c u l t u r e i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y  1964-1966 - 1974-1984 (B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a , October 196"6) p. 3 8 . 22. I b i d , p. 3 8 - 3 9 . 2 3 . Lee, p. 1 6 . 24. A g r i c u l t u r e i n the F r a s e r Valley', p. 5 5 . 2 5 . Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h , i n t e r v i e w , February 8th, 1974. 2 6 . Lee, p. 1 6 . 27. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s intended to p r o v i d e an overview o n l y to the Economic Importance of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the P r o v i n c e . For more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n see Winter, G.R., The S i g n i f i c a n c e of A g r i c u l t u r e To The Economy of B r i t i s h Columbia (Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Ecomices,. U.B.C. , Vancouver, February 6th, 1 9 7 1 ) . 28. Winter, p. 6 . -21-29- Winter, \>. 4-6. 30. In c a l c u l a t i n g the v a l u e added Winter u t i l i z e d two a v a i l a b l e sources, one from 1968 ( P r e l i m i n a r y B u l l e t i n , 1968 Annual Census of Manufacturers, D.B.S., Cat. #' 3l-201p) and 1969 (Canada Year Book, D.B.S., Chapt. XXI). Although the r e s u l t s are t h e r e f o r e only estim-a t i o n s , they do p r o v i d e the reader w i t h an understanding of the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the B.C. economy. Also, s i n c e these f i g u r e s are f i v e or s i x years o l d they w i l l be, i n a b s o l u t e terms, d e f f e r e n t than i n 1975' However, s i n c e there has been no dramatic e f f e c t s on the economy the v a l u e added by a g r i c u l t u r e as a p r o p o r t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia G.P.P., as demon-s t r a t e d by Winter are accepted as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e approximations of the 1975 s i t u a t i o n . 31. Winter, p. 8-10. 32. Lee, p. 20-21. 33' Winter, p. 10. 34. I b i d , p. 12-13. 35. See, Paddock, W i l l i a m , and Paul Paddock, Famine-1975 ( L i t t l e Brown and Co., Boston, 1967), and E h r l i c h , P a ul R., The P o p u l a t i o n Bomb ( B a l i a n t i n e Books Inc., New York, 1968). 36. W i l l i a m Lane (Chairman of The Land Commission of B.C.) l e c t u r e , February 20, 1974. 37- de V r i e s , Jan, 'Role of A g r i c u l t u r a l Use of Land In An Urban S o c i e t y ' , an address g i v e n a t the Land  Use i n the F r a s e r Vailey-Whose Concern conference, October 18, 1972, p. 2. 38. C r e r a r , A.D. Land For Farming (Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, New Westminister, 1962) p. 1. 39. de V r i e s , p. 3 and 4. 40. Winter, p. 1. CHAPTER 1 1 1 THE URBAN PRESENCE The u r b a n i z a t i o n of farm l a n d i s the g r e a t e s t nemesis of the a g r i c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.* G e n e r a l l y the r e l a t i v e l y few pockets of a r a b l e l a n d i n the P r o v i n c e are a l s o the most s u i t a b l e areas f o r the l o c a t i o n of urban communities. . There.: are a number of examples of c o m p e t i t i o n between urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d uses i n the P r o v i n c e . The F r a s e r V a l l e y , however, e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s c o n f l i c t b e t t e r than any o t h e r a r e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia.' 1 . THE POPULATION OF THE FRASER VALLEY 2 A c c o r d i n g to the census of 1901» Vancouver was the l a r g e s t c i t y on the west c o a s t w i t h . a p o p u l a t i o n 3 of almost 3 ° i 0 0 0 . S i n c e then, the C i t y has never experienced a d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n , and i n f a c t g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the r a p i d growth of adjacent m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n of the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 7 1 was 1 , 1 7 2 , 6 1 2 . ^ Table 3-1 shows t h a t the F r a s e r V a l l e y has g e n e r a l l y had over 5° per cent of the P r o v i n c e ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e the 1 9 2 0 ' s . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of urban development i s i n the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n the western p o r t i o n of the V a l l e y . I n 1971 the Greater Vancouver -22--23-R e g l o n a l D i s t r i c t had a p o p u l a t i o n of 1,028,334 with the C i t y of Vancouver a c c o u n t i n g f o r 426,256 or over 4 l per cent of t h i s f i g u r e . The r e s t o f the V a l l e y had a p o p u l a t i o n of 144,278 i n the same year."' TABLE 3-1 LOWER MAINLAND POPULATION AS A PERCENTAGE OF B . C . ' s TOTAL POPULATION0 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956 1961 1966 Lower Mainland Share of 47.5 53-5 53-8 5^.6 53.8 54.9 53.7 B . C . (%) Source: a . Population Trends 1921-1986, p . 13. t>. Census of Canada 1971 • 1971 b 53-7 i ) Rate of Populat ion Growth , Perhaps more important than a c t u a l populat ion f i g u r e s or the d i s t r i b u t i o n of people i n the V a l l e y i s the ra te of populat ion increase . The natural increase ( b i r t h s minus deaths) and the net migrat ion ( i n - m i g r a t i o n minus out-migrat ion) together contr ibute to the changes i n the p o p u l a t i o n . ^ The Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . , commanded almost ninety per cent of the Lower Mainland p o p u l a t i o n . Table 3-2 reveals the balance between natural increase and increases due to net migrat ion into the r e g i o n . Net migrat ion i s today the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n population growth i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to determine -24-whether t h i s trend w i l l continue unabated. The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the reasons 'why' • 7 people migrate to t h i s r e g i o n and what p o l i c i e s are en-a c t e d i n the f u t u r e to di s c o u r a g e or encourage t h i s t r e n d . TABLE 3-2 POPULATION INCREASE DUE TO NATURAL INCREASE AND NET MIGRATION IN THE G.V.R.D. P o p u l a t i o n N a t u r a l % of Net % of Increas e I n c r e a s e Increase M i g r a t i o n I n c r e a s e 1951-1956 103,102 45,4-94 44.2 57,608 55-3 1956-1961 125,117 53.125 ^2.4 72,052 57-6 1961-1966 102,112 39,058 38.4 63,054 61.6 1966-1971 135,^81 31,889 23.5 103,592 76.5 Source: Compiled from P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t , p. 5 and Census of Canada 1971 -R e g a r d l e s s of the reasons, the p o p u l a t i o n of the Lower Mainland (See Tab l e 3-3) between 1951 and 1971 i n c r e a s e d fay 533.69^ or 13.5 per cent . The C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , i n the v e r y h e a r t of the V a l l e y 1 s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , more than doubled i t s p o p u l a t i o n between 1951 and 1971 and between 1966 and 1971 r e a l i z e d an average annual p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e of 8.1 per c e n t . T h i s r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y more than doubled t h a t of the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d u r i n g t h i s l a t t e r f i v e year p e r i o d . From 1951 to 1971 the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by - 2 5 -TABLE 3-3 POPULATION INCREASES - LOWER MAINLAND 1951-1971 Greater Central Dewdney- Fraser- Total Vancouver Fraser Alouette Cheam Fraser Regional Valley Regional Regional Valley District Regional District District Distirct  Population 1951 562,462 27,706 20,430 28,320 638,918 Population 1956 665,564 31,840 23,840 34,383 755,627 Population In-crease 1951-56 103,102 4,134 3,410 6,063 116,709 % Increase 1951-56 18.3% 14.9% 16.7% 21.4% 18.3% Population 1961 790,741 37,601 29,835 38,016 896,193 Population In-crease 1956-61 125,177 5,761 5,995 3,633 140,566 % Increase 1956-61 18.8% 18.1% 25.1% 10.6% 18,,6% Population 1966 892,853 41,311 32,616 40,589 1,007,369 Population In-crease 1961-66 102,112 3,710 2,781 2,573 111,176 % Increase 1961-66 12.9%, 9.9% 9.3% 6.8% 12.4% Population 1971 1,028,334 58,085 40,096 46,097 1,172,612 Population In-crease 1966-71 135,481 16,774 7,480 5,508 165,243 % Increase 1966-71 15.2% 40.6% 22.9% 13.6% 16.4% Total Pop-ulation Increase 465,872 30,379 19,666 17,777 533,694 Total % Increase 82.8% 109.6% 94.9% 62.8% 83.5% Source: Census of Canada 1971. -26-seventy-three people each day i n the Lower Mainland. Mort i m p o r t a n t l y , however, d u r i n g the l a s t f i v e year census p e r i o d , 1966 to 19711 the p o p u l a t i o n was Q i n c r e a s i n g "by n i n e t y people each day. i i ) P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n 1971 of the Lower Mainland can be p e r c e i v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways and r e v e a l s the c o n t r a s t i n g forms of l a n d use throughout the V a l l e y . F r a s e r V a l l e y 2 . 5 persons/ha. C i t y of Vancouver 3 2 . 6 persons/ha. G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t — 5»6 persons/ha. E a s t e r n Three Regions . 5 persons/ha. Norman Pearson, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t of the B r i t i s h Columbia Environment and Land Use Committee, s t a t e d i n 1972 t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m i l l i o n people are accommodated on 282 square k i l o m e t r e s i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t to over 30 persons per h e c t a r e and t h e r e f o r e comparable to the C i t y of Vancouver's d e n s i t y i n 1971* Pearson contends t h a t " i f we were to. c o n t i n u e to develop a t these same d e n s i t i e s with mostly s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , t h e r e i s enough room i n the Lower Mainland f o r 3»^ m i l l i o n people .- about s i x t y years growth i f past t r e n d s h o l d - without t o u c h i n g a blade of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . " * 0 Pearson maintains t h a t through -27-i n c r e a s l n g d e n s i t y l e v e l s many more persons c o u l d be 11 housed w i t h i n the V a l l e y . In 1 9 6 5 the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board produced the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r the V a l l e y . T a b l e 3 - 4 r e p r e s e n t s the l a n d d e s i g n a t e d f o r urban development i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . In the m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s 5 5 0 square k i l o m e t r e s of vacant 1 2 developable nonfarm l a n d was a v a i l a b l e i n the Lower .Mainland. TABLE 3 - 4 OCCUPIED AND VACANT "URBAN" DESIGNATED LAND IN THE LOWER MAINLAND (Sq. K i l o m e t r e s ) "Urban" Greater F r a s e r T o t a l Land Vaneouver V a l l e y Lower Mainland Developed 2 8 2 sq. km. 3 9 sq. km. 3 2 0 sq. km. Vacant 3 0 7 sq. km. 2 4 3 sq. km. 5 5 0 sq. km. T o t a l 589 sq. km. 282 sq. km. 8 7 0 sq. km. Source: Pearson, p. 9. The l a n d - p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s r e f e r r e d to above tend to i n d i c a t e t h r e e important f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , i n qua n t i t a t i v e . - terms, l a n d i s a f i x e d r e s o u r c e . I n the lo n g run, the l a n d area i n B r i t i s h Columbia s u i t a b l e f o r urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by the physiography o f the P r o v i n c e . Secondly, the pop-u l a t i o n of the Lower Mainland i s i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y . T h i r d l y , t here remains i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y enough nonfarm l a n d to house, a t moderate d e n s i t i e s ( s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r than that of s i n g l e - f a m i l y u n i t s ) n e a r l y t h r e e times the present p o p u l a t i o n . -28-C o n s l d e r i n g these f a c t o r s , the n e c e s s i t y of sound land use p l a n n i n g would seem i n evidence. At the present time there i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the l o s s of 1,200 g r o s s 11 h e c t a r e s of farmland each year i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . J 2. THE CONSEQUENCES OF URBANIZATION UPON FARMING 1^ In c r e a s e d technology i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y has been demanded by the need to feed the growing urban p o p u l a t i o n s of Canaoa. The f u l l impact of t h i s t e c h -n o l o g i c a l change i n the i n d u s t r y has been f e l t by the farmer and h i s f a j n i l y d u r i n g the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . The f a c t t h a t l e s s than twenty per cent of a l l farmers now have the c a p a b i l i t y to produce e i g h t y per cent of the food grown i n Canada i s i n d i c a t i v e of the necessary r e l i a n c e upon technology as w e l l as acknowledging the t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n of farming p r a c t i c e s which have o c c u r r e d . ^ i ) The Family Farm Aided by growing u r b a n i z a t i o n and the many cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s , the - . o r i g i n a l homestead and s a l e s p o l i c i e s i n Western Canada supported the e s t a b l i s h e d tenure norm and i n some r e s p e c t s has proven p o o r l y s u i t e d to e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t farming. I n c r e a s i n g farm s i z e and g r e a t e r mechanization have, i n themselves, f a i l e d to overcome the low income problems which continue to plague a l a r g e s e c t o r of the l6 a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . -29-Many a s p e c t s of farming are being p l a c e d i n a new c o n t e x t . Throughout t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the farmer and h i s f a m i l y are f a c e d with i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o l v i n g t h e i r problems of farmland stewardship. T h e i r s e c u r i t y as farm f a m i l i e s , t h e i r h e a l t h y and sound f a m i l y l i f e , a r e t h r e a t e n e d . For those u n w i l l i n g to g i v e up t h e i r farms as u r b a n i z a t i o n g r a d u a l l y e n g u l f s them, t h i s t h r e a t i s g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d . L a n c t o t suggests t h a t t h e r e i s now ample evidence i n Canada t h a t the s m a l l f a m i l y farm i s passe", and t h a t the l a r g e mechanized farm i s here t o s t a y . Although the t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d mechanization may never change i n commercial farming, on a more o p t i m i s t i c note, L a n c t o t f e e l s t h a t the l a r g e r farm - g i v e n adequate c a p i t a l and sound management - may s t i l l be. a f a m i l y f a r m . 1 7 Warnock r e l a t e s t h a t one of the major themes of the 1969 F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on A g r i c u l t u r e , was the d e s i r a b i l i t y of ending f a r m i n g by the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y and to s h i f t t o c a p i t a l i s t f a r m i n g . C a p i t a l i s t -farming e x i s t s where t h e r e i s a primary r e l i a n c e on wage l a b o u r , and where farmin g must i n c l u d e the c o s t of labour as a necessary c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n . Warnock maintains t h a t t h i s i s the American model of farming which reaches i t s q u i n t e s s e n c e i n C a l i f o r n i a . I n -30-t h i s S t a t e the l a r g e s t s i n g l e d i r e c t owner of farm l a n d i s the Bank of America. Under t h i s system, farmland comes under the ownership of huge a g r i b u s i n e s s c o r p o r a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ ^ I f the f a m i l y farm d i e s - both as an economic a c t i v i t y and consequently as a way of l i f e - i t w i l l not go without a s t r u g g l e . A C.B.C. t e l e v i s i o n show on March 3» 197^ brought t o g e t h e r a panel of f o u r f a c u l t y members from the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia to d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f f a r m i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p a n e l expressed many concerns f o r the f a m i l y farm. However, d e s p i t e these problems, the p a n e l g e n e r a l l y expressed a r e v e r e n c e of the f a m i l y farm. They saw the f a m i l y farm not o n l y performing a necessary economic f u n c t i o n , but a l s o b e i n g very important s o c i o l o g i c a l l y and p r o v i d i n g a necessary l i n k between the somewhat a r t i f i c i a l urban world and n a t u r e . f c W i i ) Farming Communities Farm s e r v i c e towns on the urban f r i n g e a r e q u i c k l y changing to dormitory s e t t l e m e n t s as waves of p u r e l y u r b a n - o r i e n t e d immigrants s e t t l e i n these communities. C o n f l i c t s of i n t e r e s t o f t e n a r i s e between these new r e s i d e n t s and farmers over c e r t a i n b y-products of farm o p e r a t i o n s such as odor and n o i s e . T h i s l e a d s to a f u r t h e r s t r a i n on the 'farming way of l i f e ' . -31-The a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a f o r m e r l y served by the farm town no lon g e r has a separate c e n t r e c a t e r i n g to i t s needs or dependent upon i t s t r a d e . The added convenience of new s t o r e s and new s e r v i c e s which b r i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f the c e n t r a l c i t y f u r t h e r out i n t o the c o u n t r y s i d e o n l y p a r t l y compensates f o r the l o s s of the former r u r a l community of i n t e r e s t s . Other farm s e r v i c e towns are be i n g c u t o f f by improvements t o highways and other communication f a c i l i t i e s . As i n c r e a s i n g incomes are r e a l i z e d and the farmers' d e s i r e f o r ' c i t y ' goods i s i n c r e a s e d through the e f f o r t s o f modern communication, an atrophy o f many farm towns r e s u l t s . Such towns d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n and become mere supply p o i n t s f o r d a i l y n e c e s s i t i e s or1 r e t i r e m e n t towns f o r o l d e r farmers, as 21 many of the former f u n c t i o n s of the town d i s a p p e a r . i i i ) Urban Sprawl The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board r e l e a s e d 22 a r e p o r t i n A p r i l o f 1956 e n t i t l e d Urban Sprawl. I t mentioned t h a t "sprawl i s a b i g g e r and more s e r i o u s matter than you t h i n k , 2 ^ a n £ th a t i t i s "a wanton d e s t r o y e r o f l a n d . " 2 ^ The growth of urban c e n t r e s i s not a new phenomenon nor i s i t s encroachment on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Today, however, the r a t e o f urban expansion i s i n a stage of tremendous a c c e l e r a t i o n . P r i o r t o the Land Commission Act, the 'unfocused' sprawl of the d e v e l o p i n g land use p a t t e r n , caused s e r i o u s problems to farming i n the adjacent areas and was the most prominent f e a t u r e of the mushrooming c i t y . ^ 5 The s u b d i v i s i o n - s p r a w l process has long been a s s -o c l a t e d w i t h l a n d development i n the Lower Mainland. The s c a t t e r e d or ' l e a p f r o g ' form o f urban development can be caused i n a number of ways but the end r e s u l t has very o f t e n been to the demise of a g r i c u l t u r e as the a t t r i b u t e s of the V a l l e y bottom f o r r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment are u t i l i z e d . Throughout the Lower Mainland, the f l o o d p l a l n g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h farmland. I t i s a d u a l concern, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s i n c e the f l o o d p l a l n was d e f i n e d i n 1 9 6 3 , approximately e i g h t square m i l e s of i t have been u r b a n i z e d . ^ i v ) P r o p e r t y Tax I n c r e a s e s The impact of the detached r e s i a e n t i a l community l o c a t e d a t the p e r i p h e r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s not c o n f i n e d s o l e l y to the area o f farmland upon which the 28 new community i s l o c a t e d . With the s p i l l o v e r of. urban p o p u l a t i o n i n t o r u r a l a r e a s , farmers f e e l they a r e being f o r c e d to s u b s i d i z e , through pr o p e r t y taxes on farmlands, the a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s demanded by 2 9 new urban o r i e n t e d r e s i d e n t s . R egardless of a farmer's d e s i r e to continue farming, a s s e s s e d v a l u a t i o n s of l a n d may i n c r e a s e to a p o i n t where farmland can-be s a i d to be ' c o n f i s c a t e d ' f o r urban purpose -33-S i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Assessment E q u a l i z a t i o n Act of 1 9 5 5 » a l o n g w i t h the P u b l i c S c h o o l s Act and the M u n i c i p a l Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h high taxes upon farmland have, to a 31 degree, been r e c o g n i z e d . G e n e r a l l y the Assessment  E q u a l l z a t i o n Act r e q u i r e s farmlands to be a s s e s s e d at t h e i r use v a l u e , without r e g a r d to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l or market v a l u e f o r o t h e r u s e s . ^ v) Discouragement of Long Term Investment When i r r e p l a c e a b l e farmland i s taken out of pro-d u c t i o n through the process of premature s u b d i v i s i o n the whole pyramid of economic a c t i v i t i e s based on a g r i c u l t u r e i s t h r e a t e n e d . F e a r i n g that a g r i c u l t u r e has had i t s day, many farmers stop t h i n k i n g of farming as a long term e n t e r p r i s e . They, t h e r e f o r e , h e s i t i a t e to commit them-s e l v e s t o c a p i t a l improvements i n case they may not be 33 farming l o n g enough to pay f o r t h e i r c o s t . J Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h of the S o i l s S c i e n c e Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, has p o i n t e d out t h a t a f r e e market farmer may c o n t i n u e to i n c r e a s e 34 3 5 p r o d u c t i o n through i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n on even l e s s l a n d . ^ J J I f managed p r o p e r l y , t h i s can be a sound p r a c t i c e . However, q u i t e o f t e n a farmer tends to be a poor c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t as he mines the s o i l r a t h e r then u t i l i z i n g i t as a renewable r e s o u r c e . ^ U r b a n i z a t i o n makes an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s short-term time h o r i z o n . - 3 4 -v l ) Land Costs In the F r a s e r V a l l e y , the high c o s t of land Is the most s e r i o u s problem f a c i n g farmers who have plans to f u r t h e r develop t h e i r e x i s t i n g u n i t s . There are f o u r b a s i c reasons f o r the ever i n c r e a s i n g p r i c e of farmland: 1. Urban Sprawl, not onl y uses farm acreage, but a l s o s e t s up a r a d i a t i o n of non-farm use v a l u e s -r e a l or s p e c u l a t i v e - f o r some d i s t a n c e i n t o farming areas; 2 . The l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s expected by some owners of l a r g e r country e s t a t e s and other types of small farms or acreages; 3- Farmers i n l o c a l a r e a a t t e m p t i n g to expand t h e i r h o l d i n g s and i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y ; and 4. P u r c h a s i n g of farms by r e l o c a t i n g farmers from other areas who have s o l d t h e i r farms a t high p r i c e s and have the means to pay above the farm use v a l u e f o r a l a r g e r h o l d i n g i n a:lower p r i c e a r e a . ( T h i s r e l o c a t e d farmer u s u a l l y would have gained h i s means through urban p r e s s u r e s on h i s former h o l d i n g s ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia, farmland v a l u e has been i n c r e a s i n g a b r e a s t w i t h the n a t i o n a l t r e n d s i n the past twenty y e a r s . S i n c e 1 9 6 6 , however, the r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been much higher than the n a t i o n a l average. From 1 9 6 6 to 1 9 7 0 , the v a l u e of farmland i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e d by t h i r t y per cent while the va l u e of farmland i n the country as a whole i n c r e a s e d by onl y 37 f i f t e e n per ce n t . - " In 1954 the average v a l u e of farmland i n the F r a s e r 38 V a l l e y was $ 8 2 5 per h e c t a r e . In 1 9 7 2 a t y p i c a l d a i r y farm i n the V a l l e y was s e l l i n g a t $ 5 , 0 0 0 per h e c t a r e , 3 9 a p r i c e c o nsidered to be beyond the reach of most farmers. In January 19.7^  the Land Commission purchased: t h e i r f i r s t two farms, l o c a t e d i n D e l t a , at a p r i c e of $8,000 per h e c t a r e . ^ 0 The r i s e i n a b s o l u t e v a l u e of farmland i s induce-ment i n i t s e l f to a farmer to s e l l to d e v e l o p e r s s i n c e t h e r e i s always a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between s e l l i n g l a n d to another farmer and to a d e v e l o p e r . P r i o r to 1 9 6 l the s i z e of farms i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y tended to become l a r g e r . I n : r e c e n t years the r i s i n g c o s t of farmland has l a r g e l y c o n t r i b u t e d towards the s t a b i l i z i n g 42 of farm s i z e s . v i i ) E n l a r g i n g or Commencing Farm Operations. High farming c o s t s , of which l a n d v a l u e s and t a x a t i o n are important elements, have not been a major t h r e a t to the e s t a b l i s h e d and e f f i c i e n t F r a s e r V a l l e y farmers. However, f o r the farmer w i t h a s m a l l h o l d i n g , w i s h i n g to expand or the new farmer who wishes to e s t a b l i s h a bona f i d e farm i n the V a l l e y , the c o s t of l a n d i s • 4 3 d i s c o u r a g i n g . Non-farm economic a c t i v i t i e s e x e r t tremendous.; p r e s s u r e upon the farm s e c t o r . B r i t i s h Columbia has one of the h i g h e s t i n d u s t r i a l wage r a t e s i n Canada. Not o n l y i s i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the farming s e c t o r to compete i n the l a b o u r market, but the - 3 6 -younger and b e t t e r educated farmers who are not r e a l i z i n g what they f e e l i s a reasonable r e t u r n from t h e i r l a b o u r and management i n farming w i l l t end to move. The consequence i s an Increase i n the average age of the remaining farm p o p u l a t i o n . ^ With the r i s i n g c o s t of l a n d , wages and other necessary c a p i t a l investments, the corp-o r a t e farm or the e x i s t i n g l a r g e farm i s i n a much more f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n to enlarge t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . What might be regarded as u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n , r e -s i i l t s i l n f u r t h e r discouragement f o r the e x i s t i n g s m a l l farmer to expand or new farmer to commence o p e r a t i o n . v i i i ) C o n c l u s i o n As p o p u l a t i o n grows and the r a t i o between u r b a n i z e d and a g r a r i a n c i t i z e n s draws f u r t h e r a p a r t p r e s s u r e i s p l a c e d on fewer a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s t o produce l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s of food p r o d ucts. The r e s u l t has t h r e a t e n e d the economic e x i s t e n c e of the f a m i l y farm. The u r b a n i z i n g of farm communities has not o n l y withdrawn l a n d from p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l use, but the communit-i e s have g r a d u a l l y l o s t t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l import-ance as a s u p p l i e r of farm needs. B e s i d e s the :: tremendous l o s s of farmland;, through urban sprawl, the p r o p e r t y t a x e s and l a n d c o s t s have r i s e n on -37-farmland which i n turn have o f t e n discouraged long term investments and harmed the p o s s i b i l i t y of e n l a r g i n g farm u n i t s or commencing farm o p e r a t i o n s . U r b a n i z a t i o n has a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n of a g r i c u l t u r a l displacement. S p e c i a l i z e d and p e r i s h a b l e farm products, f o r m e r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the immediate f r i n g e of major c e n t r a l c i t i e s , are pushed f a r t h e r from t h e i r c e n t r a l c i t y market. F e r t i l e , h i g h-value, i n t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d t r u c k farms are u s u a l l y the f i r s t t o d i s a p p e a r . Next go the d a i r y farms, the o r c h a rds and other s p e c i a l i z e d urban o r i e n t e d a g r i c u l t -u r a l uses. I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e of.^a s i t u a t i o n i n which many he c t a r e s of u r b a n i z e d l a n d would r e v e r t ( i f i t were b i o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ) t o a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. The a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , i s to save a l l e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r s o i l bound a g r i c u l t u r e through the comprehensive r e g u l a t i o n of l a n d uses. - S B -FOOTNOTES In a B r i e f to the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l of the Government of B.C., e n t i t l e d P r o p o s a l s f o r Improving the B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r y , December 18, 1972, the f o l l o w i n g statement headed a l i s t of p o i n t s submitted by the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e : " p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland i s an important i f not c r i t i c a l l y d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n the f u t u r e of the i n d u s t r y . " The p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s ' U t i l i z e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n were b a s i c a l l y d e r i v e d from the 1971 Census o f Canada as w e l l as v a r i o u s r e p o r t s of the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board and the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . Although these sources are accepted as b e i n g a c c u r a t e at the time of computation, the f i g u r e s are not intended to be used as 'hard data' s i n c e i n 1975 the most re c e n t p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e are a t l e a s t f o u r years o l d . Since t h i s i s not a demographic study, the s t a t i s t i c s are only intended, to a s s i s t the reader, i n g a i n i n g an 'impression* of the p o p u l a t i o n - l a n d s i t u a -t i o n i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . Robinson, J . L . and W.G. Hardwi-ck, 'The Canadian C o r d i l l e r a ' , i n Canada: A G e o g r a p h i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( e d i t e d by John Warentin, Methuen P u b l i c a t i o n s , Toronto, 1967) P- 440-44?. T h i s f i g u r e was compiled by e s t a b l i s h i n g the munici-p a l i t i e s and d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the Lower Mainland from the S t a t i s t i c s R e l a t i n g to Regional and M u n i c i p a l  Governments i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Dept. of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) and then employing the p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e f o r each i n d i v i d u a l a r e a from; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, P o p u l a t i o n 1971 Census of Canada No: 92-702, V o l . 1, Part _1 ( I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, J u l y 1973). Census of Canada, 1971. Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, P o p u l a t i o n  Trends i n the Lower Mainland 1921-1986 T e c h n i c a l Report (L.M.R.P.B., New Westminister, March 1968) p. 14-16 G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P o p u l a t i o n  F o r e c a s t (G.V.R.D. P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver, January 1973) p. 5-Census of Canda, 1971 • F i g u r e s c a l c u l a t e d from B.C. S t a t i s t i c s and Census of "Canada, 1971 - 3 9 -10. Pearson, Norman, ' F r a s e r V a l l e y - Rape I t or Preserve I t ' ? an address g i v e n a t the Land Use In The F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Concern, conference h e l d on October 18, 1972, p. 9. 11. Pearson, p. 10, 12. I b i d , p. 9. 13* The R e g i o n a l Farmland Study s t i p u l a t e s t h a t "gross farm acreage was a t i t peak i n 194l and has been l o s i n g ground ever s i n c e . The r a t e of l o s s between 194l and 1966 was a t 3,000 a c r e s (1,200 h e c t a r e s ) per year, t h i s t a k i n g p l a c e mainly a t the western end of the V a l l e y . " (p. 7). D i s c u s s i n g t h i s figures w i t h Mr. A'.C. Jamieson, a P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n t with C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , he s t a t e d t h a t the 3»000 acre f i g u r e i s r e f e r r i n g to gross a c r e s and the d e f i n i t i o n of farm l a n d used by the R e g i o n a l Farmland Study was adopted from the 1971 Census of Canada which i s very broad. (March 1974). S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971 Census o f Canada - A g r i c u l t u r e (96-701 V o l . IV, P a r t 1, I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Ottawa, J u l y 1973). Gary Runka, Manager of the B.C* Land Commission, agrees t h a t the f i g u r e of 3,000 a c r e s (1,200 h e c t a r e s ) approximately r e p r e s e n t s the l o s s of farm l a n d i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . He adds t h a t t h i s f i g u r e i n c l u d e s the uses of hobby farms and r u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l s m a l l h o l d i n g s which e f f e c t i v e l y are not e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e commercial farms. Runka, G., d i s c u s s i o n , March 6th, 1974. 14. A number of f a c e t s of the u r b a n i z a t i o n process are b r i e f l y mentioned throughout the f o l l o w i n g pages. T h i s a s p e c t of the d i s c u s s i o n has been c o n s c i o u s l y kept as s i m p l i f i e d as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s i s not, nor i s i t i n t e n d e d to be, a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s s e c t i o n does, however, p r o v i d e an overview of many of the consequences t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n has had upon a g r i c u l t u r e as an economic a c t i v i t y and a way of l i f e . 15. L a n c t o t , Jean-B., The Impact of U r b a n i z a t i o n on R u r a l Areas (Queen's P r i n t e r , A.R.D.A., Ottawa, 1967) p. 8. 16. Brown, Jacob A., and Robert J . Bens; Farm Tenure i n  Saskatchewan (Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, June 1971). P« 3» 17. L a n c t o t , p. 8. -4o-18. Warnock, J.W. , 'The Farm C r i s i s ' , i n Essays on the  L e f t ( e d i t o r i a l committee, L a p i e r r e , McLeod, T a y l o r and Young; M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , Toronto, 1971) P. 126. 19. Evidence of the dominance of a g r i c u l t u r e by huge a g r i b u s i n e s s c o r p o r t a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s w e l l documented i n The Nader Report, e n t i t l e d P o l i t i c s of Land ( Grossman P u b l i s h e r s , New York, 1973) which d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y with C a l i f o r n i a . 20. G r a s s r o o t s G r a s s r o o t s , Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g Corp., March 3rd, 1974. 21. Halcrow, Ackerman, H a r l s , Stewart and Timmons ( E d i t o r i a l Committee) Modern Land P o l i c y (Papers of the Land Economics I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , Urbana, i960) p. l6l-l62. 22. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e p o r t , Urban Sprawl, d e f i n e d 'sprawl a r e a s ' as areas of s c a t t e r e d mixed develop-ment ; d e n s i t y from 1.2 to 7*9 persons per h e c t a r e . T h i s type of a r e a u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s some bona f i d e s m a l l h o l d i n g s from 1.2 to 4.8 h e c t a r e s i n s i z e which are farmed on a f u l l time b a s i s , (p. 4). 23. Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Urban Sprawl (New Westminister, 1956) p. 5« 24. I b i d , p. 13. 25. Modern Land P o l i c y , p. 157-159-26. Urban Sprawl, p. 13-27. Kennedy, Warnett; Vancouver Tomorrow A Search f o r  Greatness ( M i t c h e l l P r e s s L i m i t e d , Canada, 197^ -) p. 48. 28. Modern Land P o l i c y , p. 159-29. Lee, p. 43. 30. Modern Land P o l i c y , p. l60. 31. For a more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of the p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment i n assessment and t a x a t i o n on farmland i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as w e l l as a d i s c u s s i o n of a number of short comings i n t h i s . s y s t e m , see Lee, p. 43-46. 32. Lee, p. 43 and 44. 33. I b i d , p. 34. - 4 i -34. Dr. L.M. L a v k u l l c h , i n t e r v i e w , February Bth, 1974. 35' The Regional Farmland Study (Lee, p; 28) supports L a v k u l l c h ' s c o n t e n t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . 36. L a v k u l l c h , i n t e r v i e w , February 8 t h , 197^ 37. Lee. p. 38. 38. C r e r a r , A.D., Land f o r Farming (Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, New Westminister, 1962) p. 13-14. 39. T h i s same f i g u r e was a l s o quoted by Dr. Jan de V r i e s of the Department of S o i l Science U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n an address to the "Land Use i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Concern" conference. He s t a t e d t h a t "land i n the u r b a n - r u r a l f r i n g e a r e a of the Lower Mainland t h a t i s worth $5,000 or more per hectare i s too expensive to be used f o r farming." (p. 1 ) . In d i s -c u s s i o n with Mr. W. Lane, on February 6 t h , 19?4, he s t a t e d that people h o l d i n g land, as hobby farms, country e s t a t e s or f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes have not gen-e r a l l y lowered t h e i r s e l l i n g p r i c e of about $7,000 per hecta r e s i n c e being d e s i g n a t e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d by the Land Freeze i n December 1972. Dr. L a v k u l i c h f e e l s t h a t l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s (which can come i n a v a r i e t y of forms) are c o n t i n u i n g to ho l d on to land , hoping that (a) the Land Commission Act w i l l be thrown out or, (b) they can appe a l t h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n through the normal channels. He f e l t t h a t e v e n t u r a l l y these same • s p e c u l a t o r s ' w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r l a n d can not be'rezoned' f o r urban purposes and w i l l s e l l i n an attempt to g a i n something f o r t h e i r investment. ( I n t e r v i e w , February 8 t h , 197*0. 40. 'B.C. buys two farms...', The P r o v i n c e , January 23rd , 1974. 41. Lee, p. 42. 42. I b i d , p. 29-43 . I b i d , p. 24, 26, 29, and 42. 44. I b i d , p. 49 . 4 5 . Modern Land P o l i c y , p. 159-46. See L a v k u l i c h , L.M., ' P h y s i c a l Environment of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ' , address g i v e n a t the Land Use _in the F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Concern conference, D e l t a , October 18, 1972, p.~4~! CHAPTER IV REGULATING THE USE OF LAND An a p p r e c i a t i o n of the geographic and demographic circumstances i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e to the P r o v i n c i a l economy, e s p e c i a l l y when r e l a t e d to g l o b a l food shortages, and the con-s e q u e n t i a l e f f e c t s of u r b a n i z a t i o n upon farmland are s i g n i f i c a n t elements necessary f o r an under-s t a n d i n g of the reasons why the Land Commission  Act was implemented. These were, however, not the o n l y a s p e c t s which encouraged the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment to enact l e g i s l a t i o n which c e n t r a l i z e d the ' p r a c t i c a l ' power of c o n t r o l l i n g the use of agr-i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the hands of the P r o v i n c e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s p r i o r to the a d o p t i o n of the Land Commission Act was a l s o an Important reason f o r the A c t ' s i n c e p t i o n . 1. LAND USE CONTROL — WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY? i ) The B r i t i s h North America Act I n compliance w i t h S e c t i o n 146 of the B r i t i s h North America Act (B.N.A. Act) B r i t i s h Columbia was admitted i n t o the Union by an I m p e r i a l Order i n C o u n c i l on May l 6 t h , 1871. S e c t i o n 10 of the Order s t a t e d t h a t : -42--43-"The p r o v i s i o n s of the B r i t i s h North America Act s h a l l be a p p l i c a b l e to B r i t i s h Columbia i n the same way and to the l i k e extent as they apply to othe r p r o v i n c e s i n the Dominion as i f B r i t i s h Columbia had been an o r i g i n a l p r o v i n c e i n the Union."1 U l t i m a t e l y , the e n t i t y which t r u l y c o n t r o l s r e a l p r o p e r t y i s t h a t body which maintains the a l l o d i a l r i g h t s ( a b s o l u t e ownership of l a n d ) . S e c t i o n 92(13) of the B.N.A. Act d i s t r i b u t e s to the P r o v i n c e s o f Canada the l e g i s l a t i v e powers to 2 make laws w i t h r e g a r d t o pro p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s . S e c t i o n 92(5) g i v e s the Pr o v i n c e s the f u r t h e r power to make laws c o n c e r n i n g the management and s a l e of the p u b l i c l a n d s b e l o n g i n g to the Pr o v i n c e and of the timber and wood thereon.-^ A l s o , S e c t i o n 109 of the B.N.A. A c t e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t : " a l l Lands, Mines, M i n e r a l s and R o y a l t i e s b e l o n g i n g to the P r o v i n c e s of Canada, Nova S c o t i a and New Brunswick a t the Union, and a l l Sums then due or payable f o r such Lands, Mines, M i n e r a l s , or R o y a l t i e s s h a l l belong to the s e v e r a l P r o v i n c e s " 4 i i ) Land Ownership The b a s i s o f the s t a t e s * ( p r o v i n c e s ' ) owner-s h i p o f l a n d i n Canada i s based on E n g l i s h h i s t o r y and l a n d law. A f t e r the Norman Conquest, W i l l i a m I evolved a p l a n i n which l a n d ownership played an important r o l e . He knew he c o u l d not t r e a t England as h i s own p r i v a t e p o s s e s s i o n . I n s t e a d he gave to h l s f o l l o w e r s end s u p p o r t e r s segments of the domain i n r e t u r n f o r c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s - u s u a l l y m i l i t a r y . W i l l i a m I d i d not i g n o r e , however, the f a c t t h a t England was h i s by the u n i v e r s a l l y admitted r i g h t of conquest. H i s p l a n may be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. he imposed an immensely s t r o n g c e n t r a l government. 2. every man, noble or simple a l i k e , should hold h i s l a n d as a pledge of good behaviour. 3 . i f he f a i l e d i n h i s d u t i e s he would be turned out of h i s home to s t a r v e . 5 The s e r v i c e s t h a t v a r i o u s l a n d h o l d e r s had to perform f o r the Crown became s t a n d a r d i z e d through time and each set of s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t e d a s p e c i f i c form of tenure which demonstrated how the l a n d was h e l d . G e n e r a l l y the l e n g t h of tenure was f o r l i f e ( as long as the tenant l i v e d ) , _in t a i l ( f o r as l o n g as the tenant or any of h i s descendants l i v e d ) , or i n fee simple ( f o r as l o n g as the tenant or any of h i s h e i r s , whether descendants or not, were a l i v e ) . Each of these l e n g t h s o f tenancy was known as an e s t a t e . Thus the Crown may grant an e s t a t e i n fee simple, but the ownership of the l a n d i t s e l f remains • w i t h the Crown. T h e r e f o r e a man owns an e s t a t e i n l a n d but never the l a n d i t s e l f . ^ P r o p e r t y has two meanings which are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . F i r s t l y , p r o p e r t y i s r e c o g n i z e d as 'every-t h i n g which i s the s u b j e c t of ownership.... e v e r y t h i n g -45-t h a t has exchangeable v a l u e o r which goes to make up wealth'. The lesser-known meaning of prop e r t y i s not the ' t h i n g ' i t s e l f but r a t h e r the l e g a l i n t e r e s t i n the ' t h i n g ' — the r i g h t or r i g h t s i n the ' t h i n g ' which the law w i l l r e c o g n i z e and p r o t e c t . Property i n t h i s sense has been c a l l e d 'the h i g h e s t r i g h t a man can have to an y t h i n g . . . * , and 'ownership, the r i g h t t o d i s p o s e of a t h i n g i n eyery l e g a l way, to possess i t , to use i t , and to exclude every one e l s e from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h i t ' . With r e f e r e n c e to ' r e a l p r o p e r t y ' , the word " r e a l " h i s t o r i c a l l y r e f e r r e d to the ' r e a l a c t i o n ' a p a r t y c o u l d get i n co u r t when h i s property r i g h t s were i n t e r f e r e d w i t h . 7 T h i s meaning has changed, however, t o a s s o c i a t e ' r e a l ' w i t h the t a n g i b l e a s p e c t s of l a n d . Land i s o b v i o u s l y important but the r i g h t s by which i t s u t i l i t y i s g d e f i n e d c o n t r i b u t e h e a v i l y to i t s v a l u e . The fee simple e s t a t e i n l a n d has, through time, come to resemble ownership i n l a n d i t s e l f , but i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y t r u e to say t h a t the whole of the l a n d 9 i n England i s owned by the Crown. T h i s same b a s i s o f l a n d tenure i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n Canada as w e l l . The p r i v a t e l y h e l d e s t a t e s i n l a n d can be a t t a i n e d by the Pr o v i n c e through purchase on the open market or i t can be a c q u i r e d by the s t a t e through e x p r o p r i a -t i o n (the paying of compensation) r a t h e r than appro-p r i a t i o n (the t a k i n g of l a n d without compensation). -46-Even though compensation i s paid, e x p r o p r i a t i o n i s normally not a popular measure e i t h e r f o r those being e x p r o p r i a t e d or f o r government. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g , however, to f i n d t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia Law Reform Commission of 1971 r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e were over 30,000 b o d i e s or persons who, i n theory, have expro-11 p r i a t i o n powers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The balance between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e r t y r i g h t s o b t a i n e d through the fee simple a c q u i s i t i o n of an e s t a t e i n land and the s o c i a l means of govern-ment r e g u l a t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n ano the l i k e has l o n g been a matter of debate. That 'a man has a r i g h t t o do what he wants on h i s own l a n d ' i s a f a m i l i a r statement u t t e r e d by those who have f e l t the r e s t r i c t i v e hand of government wrenching some f u n c t i o n of l a n d -ownership from a person h o l d i n g a f e e simple e s t a t e i n l a n d . J.H. Beuscher contends t h a t g e n e r a t i o n s of lawyers have graduated from p r o p e r t y courses convinced t h a t the f o l l o w i n g a b s o l u t e s of B l a c k s t o n e are fundamentally t r u e . "So g r e a t , moreover, i s the r e g a r d of the law f o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , t h a t i t w i l l not author-i z e the l e a s t v i o l a t i o n of i t , no, not even f o r the g e n e r a l good of the whole community." I Commentaries 139 (1782) Beusher contends t h a t t h i s statement i s not t r u e and i t never has been. He supports h i s c o n t e n t i o n by -47-r e f e r r i n g to ten s t a t u t e s , spanning s i x c e n t u r i e s ( 1 2 8 5 to 1 8 5 8 ) , of E n g l i s h and American e x p e r i e n c e . These s t a t u t e s are g e n e r a l l y concerned with b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and l o c a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s of v a r i o u s l a n d uses. They emphasize the f a c t t h a t use l i m i t a t i o n s on r u r a l and urban l a n d have been the su b j e c t of 12 l e g i s l a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e f o r c e n t u r i e s . I r o n i c a l l y , and d e s p i t e Beuscher's statement c o n c e r n i n g the a t t i t u d e s of lawyers toward p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , i t has been the lawyers, r a t h e r than the planners, who have shouldered the i n t e l l e c t u a l burden of d e v e l o p i n g a theory of land use c o n t r o l i n 13 America. Beuscher, however, contended t h a t judge-made laws have not been c r u c i a l i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g p r i v a t e or p u b l i c l a n d use p l a n n i n g g o a l s . The b u i l t - i n weaknesses of the j u d i c i a l p r ocess as a whole come to bear. The case law pro c e s s i s e s s e n t i a l l y haphazard. Judges do not i n i t i a t e law but r a t h e r a d j u d i c a t e upon cases t h a t 14 happen to come be f o r e them. Delafons b e l i e v e s t h a t c o n t r o l s e s t a b l i s h e d by the c o u r t s can not be extended or adapted t o meet the needs or p o l i c i e s of government. 1 2 . TECHNIQUES OF LAND USE CONTROL The bundle of r i g h t s t h a t g e n e r a l l y accompanies the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ownership of an e s t a t e i n l a n d - of po s s e s s i o n , use and d i s p o s s e s s i o n - i s always l e s s " -48-than a l l o d i a l . There are many means other than e x p r o p r i a t i o n by which these r i g h t s can be taken or g i v e n away. These r e s t r i c t i v e elements o f t e n r u n with the l a n d r a t h e r than the c u r r e n t holder of the e s t a t e . Such incumberances on land may i n c l u d e l i c e n s e s charged a g a i n s t the owner r a t h e r than the t i t l e , l e a s e h o l d - d e s i g n a t i n g a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d of time r a t h e r than the I n f i n i t e or i n d e f i n i t e time of a f r e e h o l d , ^ easements - s p e c i a l purpose r i g h t over another's l a n d , o p t i o n s t o purchase, agreements f o r  s a l e , tax s a l e s , i n j u n c t i o n s , Income l i e n s and mechanics l i e n s . ^ A f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t on a 'landowner's' r i g h t s i s the r e s t r i c t i v e covenant. In t h i s case an i n d i v i d -u a l can p l a c e a covenant on, and running with, the l a n d which w i l l r e s t r i c t a f u t u r e owner i n h i s p o s s i b l e use of the l a n d . R e s t r i c t i v e covenants have been used i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas t o r e g u l a t e the 1 R use to which l a n d may be put. G e n e r a l l y the importance of r e s t r i c t i v e covenants have been reduced by the advent of a p u b l i c system of p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l . T h i s u s u a l l y takes the form o f m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n s o f 1Q zoning, s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and b u i l d i n g by-laws. 7 i ) Land Use C o n t r o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia — The M u n i c i p a l Act With the e x c e p t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver, m u n i c i p a l l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y found -49-i n the M u n i c i p a l Act of B r i t i s h Columbia. There i s a v a r i e t y of d e v i c e s which have v a r y i n g degrees of i n f l u e n c e on l a n d use. The o f f i c i a l community plan, ( S e c t i o n 695)» as a statement of p o l i c y , i s Intended to a s s i s t i n the guidance of a community's f u t u r e growth. While C o u n c i l cannot a c t i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n to the p l a n , the p r i v a t e holder of an e s t a t e i n l a n d ' must onl y a c t i n accordance to zoning r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d l e s s o f whether they comply t o the o f f i c i a l community p l a n . In f a c t , very few communities i n 21 B r i t i s h Columbia' have adopted an o f f i c i a l p l a n . S e c t i o n 711 of the M u n i c i p a l Act d e l e g a t e s the power to s u b d i v i d e l a n d to C o u n c i l . S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l the p r e l i m i n a r y stages of d e v e l -opment - the l a y o u t of s t r e e t s and l o t s and the p r o v i s i o n of necessary s e r v i c e s . They l i e some-where between the b u i l d i n g code and the zoning 22 o r d i n a n c e i n n a t u r e . When s u b d i v i d i n g , C o u n c i l may p r e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t standards and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r s e r v i c i n g of d i f f e r e n t uses f o r d i f f e r e n t z o n e s . 2 ^ The unnecessary and o f t e n haphazard s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d has been a concern to planners a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n the Lower Mainland f o r a number of y e a r s . In 1950 the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s s u e d a Memorandum on M u n i c i p a l C o n t r o l of Land S u b d i v i s i o n . I t s t a t e d i n p a r t t h a t a s e c t i o n of -50-p u b l l c o p i n i o n was opposed to g r a n t i n g the m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s any i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l over s u b d i v i s i o n s because some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e x e r c i s e a v e r y c a s u a l and p o s s i b l y p o l i t i c a l approach to a p p r o v a l . The r e p o r t complained t h a t i n 1950, s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l of s u b d i v i s i o n s was not uniform i n a p p l i c a t i o n and t h a t the r e g u l a t i o n s apply to survey p l a n s u b d i v i s i o n s but approving o f f i c e r s had no c o n t r o l over s u b d i v i s i o n s without a survey. A l s o , a p p r o v a l s were l a r g e l y based on the 2k s u i t a b i l i t y of highway accomodations. In 1954 A Model By-Law To Regulate The S u b d i v i s i o n  of Land was produced by the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board as a guide f o r Lower Mainland m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s . A number of years l a t e r the same body produced the Standard S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By-Law f o r the same purpose.25 D e s p i t e a degree of concern, the s u b d i v i s i o n process u t i l i z e d by many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on the urban f r i n g e d u r i n g the past twenty years has c r e a t e d sprawl c o n d i t i o n s which were d e v a s t a t i n g to a g r i c u l t -u r a l l a n d . The r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the r e p l o t t l n g of e x i s t i n g 26 p a r c e l s of l a n d i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . S e c t i o n 825 emphasizes the savings which may r e s u l t i n the expenditure of the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r highways and m u n i c i p a l u t i l i t i e s and the i n c r e a s e d t a x a t i o n which may be d e r i v e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y from the - 5 1 -i n c r e a s e d v a l u e of r e a l property a f t e r a d a p t i n g a r e p l o t t i n g scheme. T h i s , however, i s a r a t h e r narrow a c c e n t u a t i o n of the improvements t h a t may be gained. Awkward s u b d i v i s i o n schemes may be r e c t i f i e d and back acreage u t i l i z e d to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . Lane f e e l s t h a t ' i n f i l l i n g ' must occur i n many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the Lower Mainland and the advent of the Land  Commission Act w i l l encourage t h i s p r o c e s s . 2 7 Employ-i n g the p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e p l o t t i n g w i l l g r e a t l y a s s i s t i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g these ends. i l ) M u n i c i p a l Zoning D e s p i t e the above l a n d use c o n t r o l methods, the power of a m u n i c i p a l i t y to zone l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r -i s d i c t i o n , s p e c i f y i n g the uses t h a t may be p e r m i t t e d on that land, remains as the most important d e v i c e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d u s e , 2 ^ With r e g a r d to the Land  Commission A c t , the p r a c t i c e of zoning i s important f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , the p r i n c i p a l form of p u b l i c c o n t r o l over the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r i o r to the enactment of the Land Commission Act was through m u n i c i p a l zoning and, as i n the case of the Lower Mainland, l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . Secondly, the Land Commission Act i n i t s e l f i s a form of zoning - although wide i n g e o g r a p h i c a l scope. The zoning r e g u l a t i o n s of S e c t i o n 702 of the M u n i c i p a l Act are c l a s s i c i n n a t u r e . The C o u n c i l i s - 5 2 -g i v e n o p t i o n a l power to d i v i d e the whole, or a p o r t i o n o f , the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t o zones. W i t h i n each zone the 2 9 use and the s t r u c t u r e s can be r e g u l a t e d . S e c t i o n 702(2a) of the M u n i c i p a l Act s t a t e s t h a t C o u n c i l , when zoning, must have due r e g a r d f o r : "The promotion of h e a l t h , s a f e t y , con-v e n i e n c e and w e l f a r e o f the p u b l i c . " The zoning r e g u l a t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l Act are s t r o n g l y 30 l i n k e d with z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n many r e s p e c t s , zoning i s a statement o f n e g a t i o n . A l though the p r o h i b i t i v e nature o f zoning may l e a d to .. i t s e v e n t u a l i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s as a m u n i c i p a l l a n d use t o o l , i t i s e x a c t l y t h i s n e g a t i v e aspect and ease of un d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i s a p p a r e n t l y u n d e r l y i n g i t s popular support.31 W i t h i n S e c t i o n 702(b) o f the M u n i c i p a l Act i t i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t the power t o r e g u l a t e i n c l u d e s the power to p r o h i b i t . 3. THE LAND COMMISSION ACT AS A ZONING DEVICE The Land Commission Act i s one of the newest i n -struments o f l a n d use c o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s a p i e c e of zoning l e g i s l a t i o n i n so f a r as the d e s i g n a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves a r e concerned. The Ac t , however, swings a b r u p t l y away from the growing t r e n d towards g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y 32 i n l a n d use c o n t r o l . The Land Commission's primary purpose i s to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . I t i s not -53-compelled to encourage a ' b e t t e r ' way to develop l a n d (although i t i n a d v e r t e n t l y w i l l do so w i t h i n e x i s t i n g urban areas) but i s intended i n pa r t to stop urban development on land which i s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. As a means to save a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , zoning i s a p p e a l i n g because of i t s r e l a t i v e i n f l e x i b i l i t y , i t s e x c l u s i o n a r y a s p e c t s , i t s emphasis on use r a t h e r than development, and i t s a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e l a n d v a l u e s . The very reasons f o r which zoning has been .considered the growing 'problem c h i l d ' of l a n d use c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be the important s t r e n g t h s of the Land Commission. 33 The r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f the way i n which the d e s i g n a t i o n of the A g r u c u l t u r a l Land Reserces has taken p l a c e , (although based on a s c i e n t i f i c and c e r t a i n l y f a r from s i m p l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e ) , an in h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f zoning, should l e a d t o a g r e a t e r understanding of the Land Commission's a c t i v i t i e s and the Act ' s i n t e n t i o n s by t e c h n i c i a n s and p o l i t i c i a n s as w e l l as the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s w i l l i n t u r n enhance the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h i s law. P r i o r t o the passage of the Land Commission Act, r e - z o n i n g farmland from farm to non-farm uses c o u l d be ob t a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y upon a p p l i c a t i o n to the m u n i c i p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n which the l a n d was 34 s i t u a t e d . Franson s t a t e s that a f t e r a m u n i c i p a l i t y has zoned an ar e a i t may grant exceptions to t h a t zoning scheme i n the form of amendments to the zone, v a r i a n c e s -9>-and l a n d use c o n t r a c t s . He f e e l s t h a t "we should not p r o t e c t the r i g h t of landowners to earn a s p e c u l a t i v e p r o f i t . However, i n p r a c t i c e , t h a t theory simply won't work i n Canadian s o c i e t y because no governmental agency can be counted on to be f i r m and hard-hearted when the time comes to d e c i d e whether another s e c t i o n of farming 35 l a n d should be rezoned." ^ Although h a r d - h e a r t e d i s perhaps too s t r o n g a term, s u r e l y the c h a l l e n g e b e f o r e the Land Commission i s to be ' f i r m ' i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o 'hold the l i n e ' o f urban growth onto a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Franson d e s c r i b e s what he c a l l s a t y p i c a l s o r t of case p r i o r t o the Land Commission Act i n which a farmer, n e a r i n g r e t i r e m e n t , has r e c e i v e d a good o f f e r f o r h i s l a n d from a d e v e l o p e r . He i s no l o n g e r a b l e to make an economic l i v i n g because of h i g h e r taxes and p o s s i b l y the e f f e c t s of p o l l u t i o n on crop p r o d u c t i o n due to h i s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to an e x i s t i n g urban a r e a . Franson asks the q u e s t i o n ; "what p o l i t i c i a n can h o l d out a g a i n s t t h i s k i n d of case, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the press p u b l i c i z e s i t ? " Normally an exception' i s made and the i n f l u e n c e o f u r b a n i z a t i o n spreads. T h i s has been the h i s t o r y of zoning throughout North America. Mr. R i c h a r d Hankin, planner w i t h the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , s t a t e s , however, t h a t the u r b a n i z a t i o n of farmland was t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i g h l y ' v i s i b l e ' a r e a s , some of which were a l r e a d y s l a t e d f o r -55-urban uses. T h i s he f e e l s caused undue concern among many f a c t i o n s and a general publ ic awareness which caused the P r o v i n c i a l Government to over-react to a s i t u a t i o n that could have been c o n t r o l l e d at the 37 l o c a l l e v e l . However, since the Introduct ion of the Land  Commission A c t , the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t has published a report e n t i t l e d V i a b i l i t y of Farming  Study: Phase _1. The study s u b j e c t i v e l y examined the operations of s i x t y Del ta farms. The r e s u l t s substantiate many of the e f f e c t s of u r b a n i z a t i o n upon farming r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter I I I . Besides the loss of farmland i n absolute terms and problems associa ted with lower stand-ards of l i v i n g , farmers i n Del ta have experienced a number of f u r t h e r problems caused by the urban presence. These included: (a) many d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the area 's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; (b) a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n and ' u r b a n ' neighbourhood h o s t i l i t y ; (c) var ious drainage problems; (d) 53 per cent of the land i n D e l t a i s owned by government or absentee 'landowners* (many of t h i s l a t t e r group presumably holding the land for s p e c u l a t i v e , rather than farming purposes) ; (e) a g r i c u l t u r e service f a c i l i t i e s are migrat ing *up' the V a l l e y due to a f e e l i n g of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of D e l t a ' s eventual u r b a n i z a t i o n ; and (f) d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with power t ransmission l i n e s . ^ Taken c o l l e c t i v e l y , the f e e l i n g s of uncer ta inty , b i t t e r n e s s and doubt have -56-r e s u l t e d i n an a t t i t u d e among farmers t h a t t h e i r 39 o p e r a t i o n s a r e s h o r t - r u n endeavours. In i t s l a n d use c o n t r o l c a p a c i t y , the Land Commission  Act has, i n p a r t , been c r e a t e d t o supersede much of the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use c o n t r o l - and to thwart 'the t y p i c a l case' d e s c r i b e d above. I n f o r m a l l y , Lane has mentioned t h a t i t i s hoped t h a t the P r o v i n c i a i l y i n s p i r e d Land Commission w i l l not be as open t o 'whim' as have been past attempts to c o n t r o l l a n d use a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . Although not a u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d statement and perhaps o v e r l y harsh, the f a c t remains t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y - as In many o t h e r p a r t s o f the Pr o v i n c e - was be i n g devoured, d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , at an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e by u r b a n i z a t i o n . However, i n a c t i o n i n combating the problem p r i o r t o the Land Commission Act r a t h e r b e l i e s the awareness and knowledge of the problem over the past twenty y e a r s . 4. LAND USE CONTROL AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL Throughout most of B r i t i s h Columbia, R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s o v e r l i e the whole s t r u c t u r e o f l o c a l govern-ment. The i d e a of p l a n n i n g at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n the Lower Mainland began i n 1936. By the mid-1940's the concept had gained c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e n g t h and wit h encouragement from the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n o f the Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada and the Lower -57-Malnland m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Lower Malnlana R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board was e s t a b l i s h e d and the p l a n n i n g area g a z e t t e d , on June 21st, 19^9. At the time t h e r e was a s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t w h i l e many development problems are best s o l v e d l o c a l l y , o t h e r s do not cease a t m u n i c i p a l boundaries and each i n d i v i d u a l , through h i s C o u n c i l , has a stake i n the growth and development of the Region as a whole. I n 1957, the p r o v i s i o n s f o r Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g were brought under the M u n i c i p a l Act a l o n g w i t h those governing the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board (L. M. R. P.B. ) . The Board c o n s i s t e d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Lower Mainland m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Unorganized T e r r i t o r y , and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. I t was f i n a n c e d by i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( u s u a l l y about 28 members and one P r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. i ) A Growing Awareness From i t s c o n c e p t i o n , the L.M.R.P.B.'s primary f u n c t i o n was t h a t o f p l a n n i n g . T h e r e f o r e i n i t s twenty years of e x i s t e n c e , the awareness, a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n s of the L.M.R.P.B., d i r e c t e d toward the sa v i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l land, i s of b a s i c importance to t h i s study. Approximately f o r t y R e g i o n a l r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s and an O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n were produced d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . -58-The f i r s t major r e p o r t , The Lower Mainland Looks  Ahead, was w r i t t e n i n 1952 and o f f e r s a number of i n s i g h t s i n t o the L.M.R.P.B.'s concern f o r a g r i c u l t -u r a l l a n d . F i r s t l y , the r e p o r t d i s p l a y s a concern f o r the f u t u r e encroachment on farmland by urban growth and i s o u i t e aware of the 'haphazard growth 1 of urban ar e a s . I t a l s o s t a t e s t h a t ' i t i s r a r e l y necessary to encroach on our l i m i t e d a r a b l e l a n d - a f a c t t h at i s s t i l l f undamentally t r u e today. A g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d v a l u e s are a l s o mentioned but onl y with r e f e r e n c e to the e f f e c t s o f b i d d i n g f o r l a n d by 4 l d i f f e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l uses - not by urban uses. A v e r y s t r o n g case i s made w i t h i n the r e p o r t f o r comprehensive r u r a l z o n i n g t o stop haphazard growth which ' c r e a t e s the problems of the f u t u r e ' . There i s no mention made, however, t h a t random growth i s a v i s i b l e e f f e c t and not a cause. The c a s u a l f a c t o r s are more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the s p a t i a l arrangement of our economic f u n c t i o n s demanding urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n , our past, and probably c o n t i n u i n g , growth e t h i c as w e l l as our l a n d tenure system which perpetuates s p e c u l a t i o n - greed i f you l i k e . I t s concern w i t h the problems of i n f l e x i b i l i t y which have plagued zoning i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The r e p o r t s t a t e s , " i t should be remembered t h a t z o n i n g i s not a matter of r i g i d and f i n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . Good zoning i s r e v i s e d as o f t e n as changing c o n d i t i o n s make i t necessary." - 5 9 -And f u r t h e r , "In any case, the i n d i v i d u a l i s p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t a r b i t r a r y or harsh a p p l i c a t i o n s of zoning by the r i g h t to appeal to Appeal Boards. " ^ 2 C e r t a i n l y the L.M.R.P.B. was bending over backwards to ensure the p u b l i c t h a t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y r i g h t s were not going to be trampled on a t w i l l . F u r t h e r evidence t h a t , i n 1952, r u r a l zoning was a r a t h e r s e n s i t i v e t o p i c i s r e v e a l e d i n the f i n a l statement of t h i s p a r t of the r e p o r t ; " . . . . r u r a l zoning laws a l r e a d y e x i s t by s t a t u t e , and need o n l y understanding and s k i l l f o r proper a p p l i c a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l courage f o r i t s use. " ^ 3 R e g a r d l e s s of the statements t h i s e a r l y r e p o r t makes c o n c e r n i n g the s a v i n g of farmland from urban sprawl, i t s c o n v i c t i o n s appear somewhat l e s s than adamant. I n c l u d e d w i t h i n i t s statement of ' P r i n c i p l e s of R e g i o n a l Development' wi t h r e s p e c t to a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s the f o l l o w i n g , "In a l l o c a t i n g areas f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use, we must t r y to keep away from our best a g r i c u l t u r a l 44 l a n d . " I m portantly then, i t does not s t a t e t h a t we must, but r a t h e r t h a t we must t r y to save our a g r i c u l t -u r a l l a n d . I n speaking o f thepowers of the R e g i o n a l Board and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to i n f l u e n c e growth t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t d e v e l o p e r s are going to be asked to dance to a tune t h a t the government bodies wish to p l a y . On the c o n t r a r y , the r e p o r t emphasizes t h a t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s -60-should be planned f o r and c o n t r o l l e d but t h i s i s not "true of p r i v a t e developments, such as the est a b l i s h m e n t of i n d u s t r i e s and the growth of towns, over which we 45 have no p o s i t i v e c o n t r o l . " When the Land Commission Act was i n t r o d u c e d , a number of s u p p o r t e r s - p o l i t i c i a n s as w e l l as members of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c - s t a t e d t h a t the Act was twenty years too l a t e . D e s p i t e the L.M.R.P.B.'s apparent awareness of the growing c o n f l i c t s between r u r a l and urban l a n d uses, t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence i n 1952 t h a t t h i s c h i l d o f the P r o v i n c e was going to be the g u i d i n g l i g h t to e f f e c t u a t e l a n d use c o n t r o l s which would h a l t urban sprawl over the a g r i c u l t u r a l landscape. i i ) Other Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board Reports Of the many r e p o r t s produced by the L.M.R.P.B. a number of these o f f e r f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the Board's awareness of the l o s s of farmland and i t s a t t i t u d e towards the degree of p u b l i c c o n t r o l over l a n d use. The L.M.R.P.B.'s Memorandum on M u n i c i p a l , C o n t r o l of  Land S u b d i v i s i o n of 1950 d i s c u s s e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems o f l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n of t h a t day. A case i s made f o r the complete p u b l i c c o n t r o l of l a n d sub-d i v i s i o n by competent m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the Memorandum d i s a g r e e s w i t h the l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e of a l l o w i n g an 'owner' t o do as he p l e a s e s w i t h h i s l a n d , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the e f f e c t upon the community. In 1 9 5 6 a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d Urban Sprawl was r e l e a s e d While r e i t e r a t i n g on the e f f e c t s of sprawl and what can be done about t h i s phenomenon, the r e p o r t s p e c i f i c a l l y 4 7 condemns sprawl as a 'wanton d e s t r o y e r of farmland'. The r e p o r t a l s o s t a t e s t h a t c i t i z e n s and govern-ments are b l i s s f u l l y unaware of the e x i s t e n c e of sprawl as a major problem and i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d , i t i s accepted w i t h concern as a n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e o c currence. Zoning, based on a f i v e year r e s i d e n t i a l growth p e r i o d , and the a l l e v i a t i o n of u n f a i r taxes on farmlands are two of a number of recommendations made. The a u t h o r s of t h i s r e p o r t f a i l t o see s m a l l country h o l d i n g s , h e l d as part-time farms or c o u n t r y 4 8 e s t a t e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d as a problem. Land f o r Farming was the L.M.R.P.B.'s only major r e p o r t on a g r i c u l t u r e . Released i n 1 9 6 2 , i t develops t h r e e s c e n e r i o s concerned with the o u t l o o k f o r farmlands. F i r s t l y , i f a p o l i c y of 'no c o n t r o l * over urban expansion was adopted,, a l l the farmland i n the Lower Mainland would be l o s t by 1 9 8 0 . Secondly, i f 'no a r e a l expansion of our m e t r o p o l i t a n communities' was a l l o w e d t h e r e would be enough land zoned f o r urban use i n Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey to accommodate one m i l l i o n people ( u n f o r t u n a t e l y the number of h e c t a r e s of l a n d zoned f o r urban uses but farmed, or s u i t a b l e f o r farming, at t h i s time i s not mentioned). T h i r d l y , -62-however, the r e p o r t suggests t h a t n e i t h e r of the above are r e a l i s t i c and t h a t we must choose a middle course which w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l e a d to a l o s s of farms on good s o i l s . 4 9 F i g h t i n g t h i s 'middle course' r a t i o n a l e appears to be p r e c i s e l y the i n t e n t i o n of the Land Commission A c t . The r e p o r t f a i l s to suggest any p r a c t i c a l techniques t h a t might encourage - or demand - the use of o n l y urban l a n d f o r urban purposes. I n defense of the theory t h a t the a r e a l expansion of urban areas cannot be h a l t e d , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of vacant l a n d would be r e q u i r e d t o a l l o w the l a n d market to operate f r e e l y , the l o s s of farmland seems p r e d i c t a b l e . Of a l l the c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s t h a t rose to the s u r f a c e when B i l l 4-2 was i n t r o d u c e d , none were more b a s i c than the arguments surrounding the t o p i c of •what i s the b e s t way to save f a r m i n g ' . The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the s o l u t i o n l a y i n • s a v i n g the farmer'. The Land  Commission Act, as a s i n g l e statement of a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , i s committed, a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , to ' s a v i n g the farm*. Land For Farming supports the former. I n the r e p o r t ' s c o n c l u d i n g remarks i t i s maintained t h a t , "the Region's i n t e r e s t i n c o n s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r e must be sought mainly by t r y i n g to keep farming both economic and p r o f i t a b l e . " The removal of the tax p e n a l t y - 6 3 -on farmla.nd i s c a l l e d f o r and the r e p o r t suggests t h a t urban development should be d i r e c t e d onto areas of low s o i l f e r t i l i t y and away from f l o o d p l a l n s as f a r as possible.5 ® Once again , an aura of i n e v i t a b i l i t y i n the l o s s of farmland i s punctuated by i t s 'as f a r as p o s s i b l e ' s t a t e -ment - which i s not u n l i k e the a t t i t u d e v o i c e d ten years e a r l i e r i n The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead. In i t s s t a t e -of p o l i c i e s however, the Land For Farming r e p o r t emphasizes the need f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning t o 's e t our house i n order' and stop a g r i c u l t u r e ' s atmosphere of u n c e r t a i n t y . - * 1 During 1963, a s e r i e s of r e p o r t s was produced by the L.M.R..P.B.. - thr e e of which are of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n t h a t they p e r t a i n t o t o p i c s which would e v e n t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . The f i r s t - Dynamics of R e s i d e n t i a l Land Settlement - was r e l e a s e d i n June. The r e p o r t d e a l t w i t h (a) the supply o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d (non-farm), and concluded t h a t f o r t y -f i v e per cent of the a v a i l a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n the pre s e n t G.V.R.D. was vacant, (b) an a n a l y s i s of the set t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , and (c) an a n a l y s i s o f the l a n d v a l u e p a t t e r n . ^ 2 I n the same month, Land For L i v i n g was completed. The r e p o r t was g e n e r a l l y concerned w i t h r e g i o n a l -growth and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h the f a c t t h a t only h a l f of the t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a was being used and t h a t the wastage of urban -64-l a n d was most extreme on the urban f r i n g e . I t estimated t h a t o n l y h a l f of the a v a i l a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d In the V a l l e y would be used up i n the next f o r t y y e ars ' I f compact development w i t h no waste of l a n d o c c u r r e d . However, the t y p i c a l r e s i d e n t i a l development throughout the Region was not t a k i n g p l a c e i n a ve r y compact way. The r e p o r t warned e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t a l l t h e s u i t a b l e and a v a i l a b l e l a n d In the Region - other than prime farmland - would be u r b a n i z e d by the end of the c e n t u r y i f development c o n t i n u e d i n the same way. I t f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t s p e c u l a t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n and urban sprawl were t a k i n g i r r e p l a c e a b l e l a n d out of p r o d u c t i o n and the e n t i r e a g r i c u l t u r a l base was 53 b e i n g undermined. i i i ) Chance and C h a l l e n g e Chance and C h a l l e n g e , completed i n December 1963, o f f e r e d a proposed r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r the Lower Mainland. As the f o r e r u n n e r o f the a c t u a l O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , t h i s r e p o r t i s of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Once a g a i n , urban sprawl i s condemned and d e s c r i b e d as 54 "a dangerous growth w i t h a l l the consequences of f i r e " . The d i s c u s s i o n of farmland i s g i v e n but a s i n g l e page w i t h i n the r e p o r t , although a g r i c u l t u r e i s noted as d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t i n g 20 per cent of the jobs i n the Region. The r h e t o r i c of concerned awareness i s c o n t i n u e d - " t o b u i l d c i t i e s on f e r t i l e s o i l s when u n p r o d u c t i v e l a n d i s e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e - 6 5 -i s cannabalism-ln-the-famlly."55 The o b j e c t i v e of the R e g i o n a l P l a n as o u t l i n e d i n Chance and C h a l l e n g e was to produce an o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y f o r development which would weld the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n t o a p a t t e r n t h a t i s f u n c t i o n a l l y e f f i c i e n t , l i v a b l e and economical.-^ The r e g i o n a l concept t h a t was i n t r o d u c e d was f o r the development of a number of V a l l e y C i t i e s of l i m i t e d s i z e , surrounded by b e l t s of farmland and l i n k e d t o g e t h e r by a r e g i o n a l freeway. The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of development were based on the c o n s e r v a t i o n p r i n c i p l e o f ' c o n s e r v i n g e x i s t i n g community v a l u e s * ( v a l u e of investment) and 57 t h a t there should be no s u b d i v i s i o n without s e r v i c e s . The proposed r e g i o n a l p l a n as p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n Chance and C h a l l e n g e was not a zoning map as such, although d i s t r i c t i n g was proposed i n the form of f i v e broad c a t e g o r i e s of l a n d use - Urban, I n d u s t r i a l , R u r a l , R e s t r i c t e d and Park. The b e l t s of farmland c o i n c i d e d w i t h a c t u a l f l o o d p l a i n s and f e r t i l e s o i l s , w h i l e the V a l l e y C i t i e s o c c u p i e d i n f e r t i l e u p l a n d s . I n many areas as p o r t r a y e d by the proposed p l a n , c i t i e s were not -surrounded by farmland b e l t s ; r a t h e r , pockets of farmland were surrounded by c i t i e s . The 1973 V i a b i l i t y o f Farmland Study: Phase 1 por-t r a y s D e l t a as a 'dying' farming a r e a . I n c o n t r a s t D e l t a c c o r d i n g to Chance and C h a l l e n g e , would be one of the -66-l a r g e r expanses of farmland i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y when the p l a n drew to i t s p r e d i c t e d c o n c l u s i o n . The proposed plan was c o n s c i o u s l y not d e t a i l e d i n ord e r t o a l l o w l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t was hoped t h a t each m u n i c i p a l i t y would i n c o r p o r a t e w i t h i n the Board's g u i d e l i n e s i t s i n d i v i d u a l sub-d i v i s i o n and zoning by-laws and, p r e f e r a b l y , a l s o i n i t s O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . ^ 8 With r e f e r e n c e to the ad o p t i o n of l a n d use c o n t r o l s which would stop the encroachment of urban-i z a t i o n upon farmland, the proposed r e g i o n a l p l a n had at l e a s t t h r e e shortcomings. F i r s t l y , the r e p o r t o f f e r s no sound a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o o l s which would f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of the proposed p l a n s . •Even a rudimentary o u t l i n e o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n would have c l a r i f i e d the f o r c e of the plan, the power s t r u c t u r e i n terms o f r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g 'use cat e g o r y ' boundaries, and so f o r t h . Secondly the proposed p l a n p r i m a r i l y p e r t a i n s t o the development of the V a l l e y - not the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland. D e s p i t e the many statements o f concern and obvious awareness of the p l i g h t of farmland d e s c r i b e d i n the r e p o r t s reviewed above, the r h e t o r i c d i d not produce f i r m a c t i o n . The p o l i c y of s a v i n g farmland •as f a r as p o s s i b l e ' , so p r e v a l e n t i n p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s once a g a i n r i n g s v e r y c l e a r i n the proposed p l a n . R e g a r d l e s s of the L.M.R.P.B.'s l i m i t e d s t a t u t o r y powers, -67-there was no technique proposed or even encouraged which c o u l d be d i r e c t e d at the problem of p r o c u r i n g farmland f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . T h i r d l y , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , the proposed p l a n was c l e a r l y i n t r o d u c e d as a development d i r e c t i v e r a t h e r than an attempt to p u b l i c l y c o n t r o l development. One must conclude t h a t the r a t h e r weak c o n t r o l pro-cedures l a c k e d , to a l a r g e degree, any s t r e n g t h of c o n v i c t i o n . The development areas and p o l i c i e s i n the p l a n were not proposed i n a r e s t r i c t i v e s p i r i t . C o n s i d e r -i n g the above d i s c u s s i o n of zoning i n the urban c o n t e x t , i t appears t h a t the proposed plan's emphasis on d e v e l -opment ( r a t h e r than use) and i t s n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e a t t i t u d e , i s somewhat i n tune with the changing complexion o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s towards g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y . The s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n the case of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . I f i t i s going to be saved, the w a l l s must be secured and the gate shut t i g h t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n l i g h t of the vacant urban l a n d b e i n g at l e a s t f i g u r a t i v e l y sat upon w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s of ever h i g h e r s p e c u l a t i v e p r o f i t s than can be secured today. 5. THE OFFICIAL REGIONAL PLAN The work of the L.M.R.P.B. culminated i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government's enactment of Order-in-Counc11 2595 which, on August 29th, 1966, f o r m a l l y adopted the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r the Lower Mainland. The -68-f l r s t d r a f t o f t h e P l a n - C h a n c e a n d . C h a l l e n g e - w a s d i s c u s s e d a n d r e v i s e d f r o m i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n i n l a t e 1963 u n t i l J u l y o f 1966. E s s e n t i a l l y t h e P l a n h a d n o t c h a n g e d i n i t s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a n d c o n c e p t s s i n c e i t s f i r s t d r a f t . I t r e m a i n e d a s a f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . E a c h D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s m o r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ; s c h e d u l e s w e r e i n c l u d e d d e p i c t i n g t h e C u r r e n t S t a g e a n d L o n g R a n g e P l a n s ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n a n d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w e r e o u t l i n e d , a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r P l a n A m e n d m e n t a n d A p p e a l s w e r e a l l i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e f i n a l a n d a d o p t e d O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . T h e R u r a l A r e a s o f t h e O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n e n c o m p a s s e d t h e f l o o d p l a i h a n d r u r a l u p l a n d s t h a t w e r e n o t a n t i c i p a t e d a s b e i n g n e e d e d f o r f u t u r e e x -p a n s i o n o f t h e R e g i o n a l T o w n s . T h e r e w e r e n o p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e P l a n t h a t d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e d t h e B o a r d ' s p h i l o s o p h y i f a n d w h e n t h i s ' a n t i c i p a t i o n o f n e e d ' c h a n g e d . H o w e v e r , p l a n a m e n d m e n t p r o c e d u r e s d i d o f f e r o n e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . i ) P l a n A m e n d m e n t P r o c e d u r e s T h e e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n s c o u l d b e a m e n d e d i f t h e a m e n d m e n t c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e A r e a M o d i f i c a t i o n P o l i c i e s , t h e R e g i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s , a n d t h e G e n e r a l P o l i c i e s w i t h i n t h e O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . I f f u r t h e r s t u d i e s -69-i n d l c a t e d t h a t an ar e a was wrongly c l a s s i f i e d , or th a t the development a r e a p o l i c i e s , g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s were inadequate, the P l a n c o u l d be amended i n so f a r as the amendments r e t a i n e d the Intent of the R e g i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s . The P l a n Amendment Procedures had to comply with the p r o v i s i o n s o f the M u n i c i p a l Act as w e l l as the f o l l o w i n g . An a p p l i c a t i o n f o r P l a n Amendment must be submitted to the S e c r e t a r y of the Board. The Board members had to be n o t i f i e d o f the a p p l i c a t i o n and a r e p o r t w r i t t e n a f t e r the f a c t s i n the case were c l a r i f i e d . An a p p l i c a t i o n f o r amendment was adopted o n l y a f t e r a p p r o v a l was g i v e n by t w o - t h i r d s of the member - m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as w e l l as by the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n Council.59 An a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t was r e f u s e d c o u l d g e n e r a l l y not be reviewed f o r twelve months.^ S i g n i f i c a n t l y an i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y 'owner' was not g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to launch the amendment procedures without the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n p r o v i s i o n s or under S e c t i o n 798E of the M u n i c i p a l Act which p e r t a i n s to 6l a p p e a l s . The r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g appeals of p l a n amendment d e c i s i o n s by member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were heard by t h r e e a r b i t r a t o r s . Their, d e c i s i o n was f i n a l 6 9 and c o n c l u s i v e . c . - 7 0 -11) R u r a l Area D e s i g n a t i o n s The r u r a l areas w i t h i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l  P l a n formed t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t y pes. ( l ) Acreage R u r a l Areas (RRL-1) were d e s i g n a t e d as such because of; (a) the predominance of small h o l d i n g s (2 h e c t a r e s or l a r g e r ) , (b) poor s o i l , (c) some p o t e n t i a l f o r , or l o c a t i o n a d j a c e n t t o , f u t u r e urban development, and (d) a s s u r e d freedom from f l o o d i n g . T h i s Area c o u l d be extended i f I n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e or s m a l l h o l d i n g development was c l e a r l y warranted. The Area c o u l d be r e d e s i g n a t e d as a n / E x i s t i n g Urban Area (URB-1) through P l a n Amendment Procedures and i n accordance w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d urban a r e a m o d i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y . (2) Upland R u r a l Areas (RRL-2) were e s t a b l i s h e d because of ; (a) the predominance of l a r g e h o l d i n g s (4 h e c t a r e s or l a r g e r ) , (b) a r a b i l i t y , or i s o l a t i o n from urban development, and (c) freedom from f l o o d i n g . Upland R u r a l Areas c o u l d not be extended but i t was p o s s i b l e t o s u b d i v i d e - t h e l a r g e h o l d i n g s I n t o s m a l l e r ones by r e d e s i g n a t i n g the land as Acreage R u r a l Areas. (3) Lowland R u r a l Areas (RRL-3) were so d e s i g n a t e d because o f : (a) l o c a t i o n i n a f l o o d p l a l n , (b) predom-inance of l a r g e h o l d i n g s (8 h e c t a r e s or l a r g e r ) , and (c) a r a b i l i t y , or i s o l a t i o n from urban development. The L'o-wland R u r a l Areas c o u l d not be. 'expended but ..they c o u l d be r e d e s i g n a t e d i f an E x i s t i n g Urban, Area was i n a f l o o d p l a l n and was committed t o f u r t h e r urban development . , J J I t must be remembered t h a t the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l  P l a n of the L.M.R.P.B. was approaching the problems o f development from a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . While a few i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s might 'go a s t r a y ' , the L.M.R.P.B. f u n c t i o n e d as a form of m u n i c i p a l c o n s c i e n c e w h i l e welding the Region t o g e t h e r as a u n i t . The p r i n c i p l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the L.M.R.P.B. i n the a r e a o f farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n were t h e r e f o r e extremely important. I n each o f the t h r e e r u r a l a r e a c a t e g o r i e s the use p o l i c y e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t the areas may be used o n l y f o r r u r a l uses. R u r a l uses, by the Plan's d e f i n i t i o n , i n c l u d e s much more than i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e . S m a l l h o l d i n g s as w e l l as p u b l i c and se m i - p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l uses were allo w e d . G o l f courses and s i m i l a r e x t e n s i v e commercial r e c r e a t i o n a l as w e l l as 64 l o c a l commercial uses were a l s o a l l o w e d . The r e -d e s i g n a t i o n of Acreage R u r a l Areas as an E s t a b l i s h e d Urban Area must comply t o the m o d i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y of the E s t a b l i s h e d Urban Area. T h i s p o l i c y , however, does not c o n s i d e r the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban growth onto farmland. i i i ) Was Farmland Safe? A f t e r the areas d e s i g n a t e d as urban are developed -72-the Plan Implies t h a t Acreage R u r a l Areas would be the f i r s t to f a l l to the next wave of u r b a n i z a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t the a r e a was a l r e a d y i n s m a l l h o l d i n g s , thus J e o p a r d i z i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the a r e a f o r many a g r i c u l t u r a l uses, w i l l tend to a s s i s t t h i s p r o c e s s . There was no encouragement or p r o v i s i o n to c o n s o l i d a t e s m a l l e r u n i t s and r e c l a s s i f y the l a r g e r h o l d i n g s as Upland R u r a l A r e a s . The second r u r a l c a t e g o r y -Upland R u r a l Areas -c o u l d not be r e d e s i g n a t e d as an urban a r e a d i r e c t l y . However, an Upland R u r a l Area c o u l d be<redesignated ,to an Acreage R u r a l Area and, of course, Acreage R u r a l Areas c o u l d become an urban a r e a i f the proper pro-cedures were f o l l o w e d and urban:pressures were apparent. The Lowland R u r a l Areas c o u l d be r e d e s i g n a t e d as an urban a r e a i f an E x i s t i n g Urban Area was l o c a t e d i n , or surrounded by, the f l o o d p l a i n and p r e s s u r e s to develop were apparent. I n p r a c t i c a l terms, t h i s meant the p o s s i b l e u r b a n i z a t i o n of a l l the many hectar e s of f l o o d p l a i n l a n d i n Richmond, D e l t a , Surrey, P i t t Meadows and C h i l l i w a c k . In summation i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t the r e g i o n a l 'hand* which c o u l d have saved a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was not a heavy one. T h e o r e t i c a l l y a l l farmland i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y t h a t was t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y developable c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be u r b a n i z e d w i t h i n the e s t a b l i s h e d procedures of the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l F l a n . The t i m i n g would of course depend on the pressures of urban-i z a t i o n and upon the strength of the Board's conviction to save farmland - a credo which was punctuated by the phrase 'as f a r as possible'. This attitude i s at least understandable when one considers the growth ethic which existed without question during the 1950's and 1960's. This obvious concern for growth i s i n evidence i n the 1957 report, A Plan For Langley, which states, i n part, that economi decline need not happen"if the C i t y takes advantage of i t s 'head s t a r t ' and takes measures to maintain i t s pos i t i o n through the improvement of the services i t provides and by making i t s e l f a t t r a c t i v e both to 66 industry and to house bui l d e r s " This attitude c e r t a i n l y i s not dead. In the January 9th, 197^ e d i t i o of the Abbotsford, Sumas and Matsqui Mews, a front page a r t i c l e r e f e r s to "record growth i n Matsqui municipality" i n 1973- In a more melancholy tone the a r t i c l e goes on to explain that, "Abbotsford did not 6 7 have such a 'glorious* year.'' These communities are of course not located i n the burgeoning Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t but are i n the Central Fraser V a l l e y Regional D i s t r i c t -in the heart of the Lower Mainland's farmland. With the existence of such a t t i t u d e s , and t h e i r continued prevalence, one must strongly suspect that a body of municipal representatives could not be f u l l y counted -74-upon, i n the lo n g run, to e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g p o l i c y d i r e c t e d towards s a v i n g farmland i f c o n t i n u e d urban development was going to be harmed. While t h i s a n a l y s i s o n l y examines the p o l i c i e s a s s o c i a t e d with a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the O f f i c i a l  R e g i o n a l P l a n d e a l s with many o t h e r a s p e c t s . In a l l f a i r n e s s , the Plan.was the f i r s t major i n i t i a t i v e o f the L.M.R.P.B., and i t s authors saw the P l a n as o n l y an i n i t i a l step upon which f u t u r e p o l i c y c o u l d evolve.^ In l i g h t o f the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n which a P l a n was adopted by a Board made up of many d i v e r s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the P l a n was a s i g n i f i c a n t accomplish-ment. However, i t can be a t l e a s t s p e c u l a t e d , that i f the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board had taken a f i r m e r stand to ensure the r e t e n t i o n of a l l farmland i n 1966 t h e r e would have been l i t t l e need f o r the Land Commission Act i n 1973» 6. THE REGIONAL PLAN UNDER FOUR DISTRICTS Today the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s d e f u n c t . During 1967 and 1968, the new r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n took shape i n the Lower Mainland i n the form of f o u r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s - Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Dewdney-Alouette R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and Fraser-Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . ^ The t r a n s f e r p o l i c y was implemented by P r o v i n c i a l O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l 4ll6 -75-on December 31, 1968. T h i s provided f o r the o r d e r l y d i s s o l u t i o n of the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board and the t r a n s f e r of the Board's d u t i e s and respon-70 s i b i l i t i e s t o the f o u r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . ' The P r o v i n c i a l Government L e t t e r s Patent of December 31st, 1968 to the G.V.R.D. p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e d the f o u r new r e g i o n s to c o n t i n u e the p l a n n i n g programmes t h a t were c u r r e n t l y underway. The r e g i o n s had to undertake r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g pursuant to S e c t i o n s 795 to 798D of the M u n i c i p a l Act ( d e a l i n g w i t h r e g i o n a l p l a n s , o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s and the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee) and any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s w i t h i n the L e t t e r s  Patent. On A p r i l 1st,- 1969 each of the f o u r r e g i o n s were r e q u i r e d t o adopt t h a t p o r t i o n of the L.M.R.P.B.'s 71 O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n t h a t was a p p l i c a b l e . 1) The Review P a n e l and P l a n n i n g The L.M.R.P.B. was concerned t h a t the r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t had been maintained would be l o s t w ith the development of f o u r r e g i o n s . I t f e l t t h a t the overview r o l e was the essence of the O f f i c i a l 72 R e g i o n a l P l a n . To overcome t h i s problem, the P r o v i n c i a l Government r e q u i r e d each of the f o u r R e g i o n a l Boards t o appoint i t s Chairman and one other D i r e c t o r t o the Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Review P a n e l . The purpose of the Review Panel was to e v a l u a t e , review, and r e p o r t on the e f f e c t s of proposed amendments -76-and a l t e r a t i o n s to the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l Plan i n 73 terms of the whole Lower Mainland a r e a . The L.M.R.P.B. complained t h a t the Review Panel was a d e v i c e f o r c o n t r o l , and hence the ne g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f development c o n t r o l had u n f o r t u n a t e l y been g i v e n prominence i n the l e g i s l a t i o n . 7 ^ The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l i s m i n the Lower Mainland had not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n remained i n t a c t , as had the expressed a t t i t u d e of the L.M.R.P.B. towards the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland. D e s p i t e the L.M.R.P.B.'s concern over the ' c o n t r o l ' element of the Review Panel, the P r o v i n c i a l Government f a i l e d to encourage a 'harder l i n e ' f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland. The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n c o n t i n u e s not to be a zoning by-law. A f t e r having adopted the Plan , n e i t h e r the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t board nor a m u n i c i p a l i t y may "enact any p r o v i s i o n s or i n i t i a t e any works" which would impair or impede the u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s " o f the P l a n . 7 5 The m u n i c i p a l i t y i n f a c t i s not r e q u i r e d t o enact a zoning by-law 76 to implement the P l a n , but i f i t d i e s , t h a t by-law must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p l a n . Pranson d e s c r i b e s 'un-zoned development' as t a k i n g p l a c e " w i l l y - n i l l y " , but o n l y one m u n i c i p a l i t y - the D i s t r i c t of Langley. -77-has f a i l e d to enact a zoning by-law which c o u l d implement the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . 7 7 (as of 1973)• D e s p i t e the powers of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t to c o n t r o l development by the a d o p t i o n of the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l  P l a n and i t s implementation by the enactment of zoning at the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , i t i s p o s s i b l e to develop l a n d c o n t r a r y to the P l a n . Franson's e v a l u a t i o n of the process p o i n t s out the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c i a n a t the l o c a l l e v e l . A developer-must f i r s t c o n v i nce some m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l l o r , and through him the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , t h a t h i s development should be undertaken. Then the m u n i c i p a l i t y would have to apply t o the Re g i o n a l Board f o r an amendment to the P l a n . The a p p l i c a t i o n f o r amendment i s reviewed by the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee and the Review Panel but t h e i r a d v i c e can 7 R be i g n o r e d by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h i s process tends t o support the L.M.R.P.B.'s c l a i m t h a t the advantage o f an 'overview' p o s i t i o n has been l o s t w i t h i n the Plan ' s amendment procedure of the new R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s of the Lower Mainland. The next step i n the process i s t o amend the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n by. a tw o - t h i r d s vote o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board. I f s u c c e s s f u l , the m u n i c i p a l i t y -78-l s f r e e to rezone the ar e a i n q u e s t i o n a c c o r d i n g l y a f t e r h o l d i n g the necessary p u b l i c h e a r i n g . Pranson sums up h i s comments wi t h two s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s . F i r s t l y , a formal o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c debate and comment on the development occurs at a v e r y l a t e stage i n the process, and o n l y a f t e r the O f f i c l a i R e g i o n a l  P l a n has been amended. More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, Franson m a i n t a i n s t h a t most people i n the Lower Mainland a r e a are unaware of the e x i s t e n c e of the R e g i o n a l D i s t -r i c t s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the e l e c t o r a t e to h o l d the i n d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the r e g i o n a l boards r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s taken 7 9 a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . 7 i i ) The Performance Hankin has much more f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y o f the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n to stop development on farmland. He I n s i s t s t h a t , "the R e g i o n a l P l a n was, and s t i l l i s , tough to amend." Hankin admits t h a t the a l l o w a b l e uses on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d as o u t l i n e d i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n were perhaps too broad. However, he f e e l s t h a t i f the P r o v i n c e has "supported and s t r e n g t h -ened l o c a l zoning at the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , there would have been no need to • l o c k ' farmland i n t o the Land Commission's A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves and thereby c o n t r o l the use of farmland by what amounts to t h r e e l e v e l s of zoning ( m u n i c i p a l , r e g i o n a l and the Land -79-Commlsslon A c t ) " 8 0 In 1967f the P r o v i n c i a l Government p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . I n t h a t year, plans began f o r the development of the Roberts Bank Superport. Subsequently the Government e x p r o p r i a t e d 1,600 h e c t a r e s of r i c h a l l u v i a l f l o o d p l a l n farms i n D e l t a f o r i n d u s t r i a l backup l a n d and the r a i l w a y f a c -81 i l i t e s which were to supply the p o r t . The Board members as w e l l as L.M.R.P.B. s t a f f were opposed to t h i s f i r s t major a l i e n a t i o n of d e s i g n a t e d farmland -as w e l l as what was f u n c t i o n a l l y a major r e v i s i o n to the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . The P r o v i n c e proceeded w i t h i t s p l a n s . I n so doing, the Government not only i g n o r e d the i n t e n t i o n and o b j e c t i v e s of the O f f i c i a l  R e g i o n a l P l a n , but harmed i t s c r e d i b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y , making i t more d i f f i c u l t ' t o a d m i n i s t e r and i n c r e a s e d the pressure f o r amendments to the P l a n to permit m u n i c i p a l r e - z o n i n g . Adams, w r i t i n g i n the Vancouver Sun,. f e e l s t h a t the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the L.M.R.P.B. was a key reason f o r the poor performance of at l e a s t two of the f o u r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o save farmland from urban expansion. The f i r s t breach came i n 1969 when the D e l t a M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l pushed through an amendment of the O f f i c i a l  R e g i o n a l P l a n t h a t was approved by the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and subsequently r e s u l t e d i n the r e - z o n i n g of the 28 hectare Hayward farm near -80-Ladner f o r a 301-house s u b d i v i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g year Richmond gained a p p r o v a l to use 48 h e c t a r e s of farmland f o r an ' i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e ' . In 1972 Richmond r e c e i v e d a p p r o v a l f o r another 130 h e c t a r e s of farmland t o be used f o r an i n d u s t r i a l park. I n t o t a l the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t amended i t s p art of the O f f i c i a l Regional P l a n twenty e i g h t times i n th r e e y e a r s . Meanwhile the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t had changed the E l a n twenty s i x times. I n n i n e cases t h i s p a r t i c u l a r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t r e d e s i g n a t e d l a n d i n the Long Range P l a n from r u r a l to urban or i n d u s t r i a l uses. Many of these took p l a c e i n the w e s t e r l y D i s t r i c t of Langley. Adams sums up the reasons f o r the many amendments as an u n - r e g i o n a l approach by m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s , and development-prone C o u n c i l s . Eugene Lee, the former planner f o r the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , s a i d t h a t when p r o p o s a l s t o amend the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n came t o h i s o f f i c e he used t o comment on them b e f o r e p a s s i n g them on to l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . O f t e n he would recommend t h a t the P l a n be upheld, and farmland p r e s e r v e d . T h i s got some of the D i r e c t o r s angry.... "They would say the P l a n i s , 15 years out of date and needs to be 'updated'. I f e l t i t was 50 years ahead of i t s time when i t was passed." 83 C e r t a i n l y the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n s t i f l e d the rampant r e - z o n i n g of farmland to urban uses which con-c e i v a b l y may have o c c u r r e d i f the P l a n had not e x i s t e d . -81-However, as has been shown, the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l Plan c o u l d not secure farmland In p e r p e t u i t y . The present P r o v i n c i a l Government knew o f , and was concerned with the performance of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l development. In a background paper on B i l l 42 the Department of A g r i c u l t -ure expounded on the s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s way; "We cannot r e j e c t the p r i n c i p l e o f l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or d i s c o u n t the b e n e f i t of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o b e t t e r p l a n n i n g o f the la n d r e s o u r c e . However, we must make improvements i n the d e c i s i o n making process where experi e n c e d i c t a t e s improvement i s both urgent and necessa r y . Many l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s have not been a b l e to w i t h -stand p r e s s u r e to change z o n i n g and i t i s at t h i s p o i n t t h a t almost a l l known l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n schemes have f a i l e d . " 8 4 Coupled with the 'l a n d poor' s i t u a t i o n i n the Pro v i n c e , the d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s ( d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y ) of the urban presence upon farmland, and the importance o f a g r i c u l t u r e to the economy and as a food source of the P r o v i n c e , the l o c a l performance d i r e c t e d toward p r e s e r v i n g farmland formed another ma j or reason f o r the enactment of the Land Commission A c t . R e p l y i n g t o a q u e s t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the ha n d l i n g of l a n d use c o n t r o l s at the m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s , Mr. R.L. W i l k i n s o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e s t a t e s t h a t ; "Regional D i s t r i c t s and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been g i v e n s u b s t a n t i a l powers f o r p l a n n i n g and zoning and have had these powers f o r some time. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e had been -82-v a r y l n g degrees of success throughout the p r o v i n c e and g e n e r a l l y speaking, l o c a l governments had had great d i f f i c u l t y i n w i t h s t a n d i n g l o c a l p r e s s u r e s to develop on the most e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e farm l a n d s . The Land Commission Act simply p r o v i d e d a b l a n k e t or o v e r a l l p r o v l n c i a l l y i n s p i r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l zone which can be used as a b a s i s or framework around which to d e s i g n a l l o t h e r r e g i o n a l zone plans."85 -83-FOOTMOTES 1. Order o f Her Majesty In C o u n c i l A d m i t t i n g B r i t i s h  Columbia i n t o the Union (London, May 16 th , 1871) . 2. The B r i t i s h North America Act 1867 to 196 5, a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of (prepar e d by the Department o f J u s t i c e , Ottawa, 1967) S e c t i o n 92, s s . 13, p. 28. 3. I b i d , Sec. 9 2 ( 5 ) . 4 . I b i d , Sec. 109. 5 . Whittaker, S i r Thomas, The Ownership. Tenure and T a x a t i o n o f Land (M a c M i l l a n and Co., L i m i t e d , London, 1914) p. 152. 6. Megarry, R.E., A Manual o f the Law of R e a l P r o p e r t y (Stevens & Sons L t d . , London, 194-7) p. 8. 7. Smyth, J.E., and D.A. Soberman, The Law and Bu s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada L t d . , Toronto, 1964) p. 370. 8. Brown, R.K., R e a l E s t a t e Economics: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Urban Land Use (Houghton M i f f i n Co., Boston, 1965) p. 13. 9 . Megarry, p. 8. 10. I n 1972 l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia was d i s t r i b u t e d i n -the f o l l o i n g way: > Sq. Km. % of T o t a l P r i v a t e tenure 5 3 , 1 8 9 F e d e r a l l y Owned 8,863 . 1.0 P r o v i n c i a l l y Owned 8 7 5 . 5 6 4 9 3 0 T o t a l 937,616 100.0 Adapted from: M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y , Commerce & Trade, Canada Year Book 72 ( I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Ottawa, 1973) P. 55. 11. B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , New P o l i c i e s For  B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e , a b r i e f to the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e ; August 13, 1973-12. Beuscher, J.H. (ed.) Land Use C o n t r o l s - Cases and  M a t e r i a l (The C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and Typ i n g Company, Madison, W i s c o n s i n , 1964) p. 1 / -84-13. Delafons, John; Land-Use C o n t r o l s In the U n i t e d  S t a t e s ( J o i n t C e n t e r f o r Urban S t u d i e s o f the M.I.T. and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Cambridge, Mas., 1962) p 14. Beuscher, p. 14. 15. D e l a f o n s , p. 93. 16. Smyth and Soberman, p. 378. 17. Lane, l e c t u r e , October 3rd, 1973. 18. Smyth and Soberman, p. 382. 19- Megarry, p. 408. 20. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C. I960. Chapter 255 (Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1973). 21. Lane, l e c t u r e , February 6th, 1974. 2-2. Del a f o n s , p. 60. 23. M u n i c i p a l A c t, Sec. 711(a & d ) . 24. Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Memorandum  on M u n i c i p a l C o n t r o l of Land S u b d i v i s i o n (New Westminister, 1950) P' 3-25. Lower Mainland .Regional P l a n n i n g Board, Origin^ of  the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board (New Westmini s t e r , 1966. 26. M u n i c i p a l A c t, Sec. 823 to 856. 27. Lane, l e c t u r e , F e bruary 20th, 1974. 28. Franson, R.T., 'The L e g a l and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e For P l a n n i n g i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y ' an address given at the Land Use I n the F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Coneern? conference on October 18th, 1972, p. 1. 29. M u n i c i p a l A c t , Sec. 702(la,b, and c ) . 30. Zoning passed the t e s t of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s when i t was upheld i n 1926 by the Supreme Court i n the landmark case of V i l l a g e of E u c l i d v. Ambler R e a l t y Co. Mr. J u s t i c e S u t h e r l a n d , i n d e l i v e r i n g the o p i n i o n o f the Court, c o i n e d the c l a s s i c phrase, "A nuisance may be merely the r i g h t t h i n g i n the wrong p l a c e , - l i k e a p i g i n the p a r l o r i n s t e a d of the barnyard." He concluded t h a t zoning was not - 8 5 -a r b i t r a r y or unreasonable and was s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the p u b l i c h e a l t h , s a f e t y , morals and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . S i n c e t h a t time the Supreme Court o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s has never questioned the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of zoning except f o r one i n s t a n c e i n 1 9 2 8 . ( D e l afons p. 2 4 - 2 5 ) 3 1 . P o r t e r , B r i a n J . , The Land Use C o n t r a c t : I t s V a l i d i t y  as a Means o f Use and Development C o n t r o l (an unpub-l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s f o r the School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., 1 9 7 3 ) p . 5 8 . 3 2 . See P o r t e r f o r an i n t e n s i v e examination of the growing f l e x i b i l i t y i n l a n d use c o n t r o l s . ' 3 3 ' The f o l l o w i n g sources o u t l i n e v a r i o u s problems with zoning as a l a n d use c o n t r o l d e v i c e : a. D e l a f o n s , p. 3 0 . b. P o r t e r , p. 1 3 , 5 9 - 6 2 , 6 7 - 7 4 . c. Babcock, R.F., The Zoning G a m e : ( U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , M a d i s o n , , 1 9 6 6 ) p. 3 , 6 - 7 . 3 4 . Arcus, Peter L., 'The Land Commission A c t ' , from R e a l E s t a t e Trends In M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1 9 7 3 -1 9 7 4 ( R e a l E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver, S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, October, 1 9 7 3 ) P. ^. 3 5 * Franson, p. 1 and 6 and 7 * 3 6 . I b i d , p. 7 . 3 7 . Hankin, i n t e r v i e w , March 2 5 t h , 1 9 7 4 . 3 8 . Paton, Smith and Gram L t d . ( A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n s u l t a n t s ) V i a b i l i t y of Farming Study: Phase 1 (G.V.R.D.', Vancouver, September 1 2 , 1 9 7 3 ) p. 3 - 5 and 6 l . 3 9 . I b i d , p. 6 3 . 4 0 . O r i g i n o f the L.M.R.P.B., p. 1 . 4 1 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead (New Westminister, January, 1 9 5 2 ) p. 1 6 , 2 8 , 3 9 and 5 3 . 4 2 . I b i d , p. 5 9 . 4 3 . I b i d , p. 5 9 . 4 4 . I b i d , p. 5 9 . - 8 6 -45. I b i d , p. 4 l . 46. Memorandum.•. on . . . S u b d i v i s i o n , p. 1. 4 7 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Urban  Sprawl (New Westminister, 1956) p. 1 3 . 4 8 . I b i d , p. 1 6 - 1 9 . 49. C r e r a r , A.D., Land f o r Farming (Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, New Westminister, 1962) p. 1 2 . 5 0 . I b i d , summary. 5 1 . I b i d , p. 2 3 . 5 2 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Dynamics of  R e s i d e n t i a l Land Settlement (New Westminister, June 1963) P. 9 . 5 3 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Land f o r L i v i n g (New Westminister, June 1963) p. 7 - 9 . 5 4 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Chance and  C h a l l e n g e (New Westminister, December, 1963) p. 5 . 5 5 . I b i d , P- 10. 5 6 . I b i d , P- 5-5 7 . I b i d , P. 14-17. 5 8 . I b i d , P. 21. 5 9 . An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the amendment procedure, and one t h a t can be questioned, i s the a t t i t u d e o f a body of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s towards d i s a l l o w i n g another m u n i c i p a l i t y the o p p o r t u n i t y to extend i t s urban b o u n d a r i e s . One would suspect t h a t the Board would not be i n c l i n e d t o set a t r e n d i n which urban d e v e l -opment was h a l t e d , even i f i t pr o t r u d e d onto farmland. 6 0 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, O f f i c i a l  R e g i o n a l P l a n (New Westminister, August 2 9 t h , 1969) p. 14. 6 1 . The f a c t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l cannot amend the O f f i c i a l  R e g i o n a l P l a n i s i n c o n t r a s t to the Land Commission  Act t h a t a l l o w s an i n d i v i d u a l to make a p p l i c a t i o n to ap p e a l f o r e x c l u s i o n , s u b d i v i s i o n , or f o r a non-farm use i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve. -87-6 2 . O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , p. l 4 . 6 3 . I b i d , P. 8. 64. I b i d , p. 13. 6 5 . I b i d , p. 7 and 8. 6 6 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, A P l a n For  Langley (New Westminister, 1957) P« 6 . 6 7 . 'Record growth i n Matsqui....•, Abbotsford, Sumas  and Matsqui News, January 9 t h , 1974. 6 8 . Hankin. i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l . 1 0 , 197^. 6 9 . Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, P u t l e s  Assigned t o Board Pursuant to O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l 4 l l 6 (New Westminister, February l l " 1969T"p. 2. 70 . I b i d , p. 2. 71 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, L e t t e r s Patent: G.V.R.D., December 31st, 1968 (Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a - r e p r i n t e d from the B.C. Gazette, January l 6 t h , 1969). 7 2 . D u t i e s A s s i g n e d to Board, p. 4 . 7 3 . L e t t e r s Patent, December 31s t , 1968, S e c t i o n 5 and 6 . 74. D u t i e s A s s i g n e d t o Board, p. 6 . 75. -Municipal A c t , Sec. 797(1 and 2). 76. I b i d , Sec. 702(1). 77«-Franson, p. 3« '. 78. I b i d , p. 4 - 5 . 79- I b i d , p. 2 and 5* (The e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s of D i r e c t o r s to the R e g i o n a l Board has been a l t e r e d . Members or p o s s i b l e members of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s wish-i n g to become a R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r are e l e c t e d at l a r g e with the pre-r e q u i s i t e of being on C o u n c i l remaining i n t a c t ) . 80. Hankin, i n t e r v i e w , March 2 5 t h , 1974. -88-81. Paton, Smith and Gram L t d . , p. 6 l . 82. Baxter, David, B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission Act -A Review (a paper g i v e n a t a conference on the Management of Land f o r Urban Development, Canadian C o u n c i l on Urban and R e g i o n a l Research, February 2 6 t h , 197*0 P. 8. 83. ' T o o t h l e s s Zoning a l l o w e d b i t e on V a l l e y Farms', Vancouver Sun, February 3. 1973* 84. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B i l l 42: Land Commission  Act Background Paper, March 8 t h , 1973. p."~4~T 85. W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 1 5 t h 1974. CHAPTER V SOCIALISM AND THE LAND COMMISSION ACT The New Democratic Party of B r i t i s h Columbia gained a majori ty i n the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e i n the e l e c t i o n of August 1 9 7 2 . T h i s , along with the var ious circum-stances o u t l i n e d above, was a futher and important causal f a c t o r In the establishment of the Land Commission A c t , The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e manintains that f u l l c r e d i t f o r the c r e a t i o n of the Act should be accorded to the government of the day and t h e i r publ ic servants . The a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y of the New Democratic Party ( N . D . P . ) not only provided i n s p i r a t i o n but a l s o the broad p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s of the Land Commission A c t . ^ The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f review of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l base of the N . D . P . and the growth of soc ia l i sm i n Canada i s e s s e n t i a l to the f u l l understanding of the development of the Land Commission A c t . 1. THE PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES OF SOCIALISM - - an overview i ) A V a r i e t y of Forms Soc ia l i sm evolved i n a number of d i f f e r e n t forms. The N . D . P . have not adopted a r i g i d scheme of t o t a l publ ic ownership advocated by p h i l o s o p h i c a l s o c i a l i s m . It i s perhaps poss ible to l i n k s o c i a l i s m i n Canada to the school of thought advocated by the fo l lowers of Ferdinand L a s s a l l e i n Germany who, rather than destroy the s tate , demanded u n i v e r s a l and d i r e c t suffrage to give the workers c o n t r o l - 8 9 -- 9 0 -of the s t a t e and make i t serve them. There i s a l s o perhaps a minor a s s o c i a t i o n of N.D.P. phi l o s o p h y with the ' r e v i s i o n i s t s ' — h e i r s of Marx h i m s e l f . T h i s western stream o f Marxism g r a d u a l l y t u r n e d away from r e v o l u t i o n to the b a l l o t box f o r the achievement of the c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y . T h i s m o d i f i e d brand of Marxism stands with the champions of l i b e r a l democracy a g a i n s t both t'-'e t o t a l i t a r i a n extremism of the R i g h t , and the new Moscow-dominated M a r x i s t (communist) p a r t i e s of the L e f t . " S o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia however more c l o s e l y resembles the pragmatic, a d a p t i v e and democratic s o c i a l i s m of B r i t a i n and S c a n d i n a v i a . The ' c o o p e r a t i v i s t s ' . -- h e i r s of Owen — and the Fabians, have set out to remodel s o c i e t y s t e p - b y - s t e p by combining a humane concern f o r the working man w i t h a p a t r o n i z i n g and at times p u r i t a n 2 d e s i r e to improve him. T h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h f u r t h e r i n g the workers' cause has l o n g been a r a l l y i n g p o i n t f o r s o c i a l i s t s . I n Canada the N.D.P. are commonly r e f e r r e d to as 'the par t y of the working man'. I t i s r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t then t h a t the N.D.P. government i n B r i t i s h Columbia has d i r e c t e d a l a r g e degree o f i t s l e g i s l a t i v e t h r u s t , i n c l u d i n g the Land Commission Act, towards a s s u r i n g the v i a b i l i t y o f farming — a work r o l e which o f t e n demands a dawn-to-dusk seven day work week. -91-11) B a s i c O b j e c t i v e s There are t h r e e prominent o b j e c t i v e s common to a l l branches of s o c i a l i s m : ( l ) The s o c i a l c o n t r o l , , not n e c e s s a r i l y ownership, of economic power, I n c l u d i n g the p h y s i c a l means of p r o d u c t i o n - l a n d and c a p i t a l -i s b a s i c . S o c i a l i s m ' s o b j e c t i o n to p r i v a t e economic power r e s t s not o n l y on the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s abuse a g a i n s t workers, but a l s o on i t s tendency to d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n away from s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e ends. S o c i a l c o s t s are not c o n s i d e r e d as part of the c o s t of pro-d u c t i o n charged t o the p r i v a t e owner, and i t harms democracy by g i v i n g undue p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e to i t s p o s s e s s o r s , d e s t r o y i n g the p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y on which democracy depends. (2) The d r i v e f o r s u b s t a n t i a l s o c i a l e q u a l i t y i s a t the heart of s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y but has been d i f f i c u l t t o a t t a i n . The r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income and the suppres-s i o n of e x t r a o r d i n a r y g a i n s have not g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d through p u b l i c ownership. Rather, a combination of t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s , w e l f a r e programmes and b u s i n e s s r e g u l a t i o n s have been u t i l i z e d to meet t h i s e l u s i v e end. (3) The t h i r d g e n e r a l g o a l of s o c i a l i s m i s f o r a c o o p e r a t i v e and harmonious s o c i e t y . U n l i k e c a p i t a l i s m , which l o o k s f o r an harmonious r e s u l t to emerge from the o p e r a t i o n of the c o m p e t i t i v e market, s o c i a l i s m e s t a b l i s h -es harmony and c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s as e x p l i c i t g o a l s i n themselves. ^ Depending upon the k i n d l i e r a s p e c t s of man's nature to evolve to g r e a t e r h e i g h t s perhaps i s even more e l u s i v e than s o c i a l e q u a l i t y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, Mr. Hankin of the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t emphasized t h a t the farmers' problems c o u l d be s o l v e d and the farmland i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n c o u l d be saved - but o n l y through c o o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n k a t a l l l e v e l s . S o c i a l i s m arose as a humanitarian response to the o p p r e s s i v e and d e g r a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s of European l i f e i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s o c i a l i s t i s determined t h a t no'one s h a l l enjoy an undue and unearned advantage i n the use of r e s o u r c e s ; p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s must be s t r i p p e d of the powers t h a t c o n t r o l the l i v e s .5 and economic w e l f a r e of o t h e r s . I t i s c o n s i s t e n t then t h a t s o c i a l i s t s are p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to the use of a r a t h e r q u a n t i t a t i v e l y s t a t i c r e s o u r c e such as l a n d by s p e c u l a t o r s f o r the purpose of p r o f i t e e r i n g to maximize p e r s o n a l g a i n r a t h e r than the w e l l b e i n g of s o c i e t y . T h i s would be the case even i f the m a n i p u l a t i o n of the l a n d market had a n e u t r a l e f f e c t on s o c i e t y . I t i s of even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e however, when i r r e p l a c e a b l e farmland i s b e i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y d e s t r o y e d , when t h a t p a r t of the economy based on the primary a g r i c u l t u r e e n t e r p r i s e i s b e i n g harmed, and q u i t e p o s s i b l y such e f f o r t s are i n v o l v e d i n the i n f l a t i o n o f the p r i c e of urban ho u s i n g . - 9 3 -Boyce Richardson i n The Future of Canadian C i t i e s , r e l a t e s t h a t "In Vancouver (Greater,. Vancouver) , 2 , 7 6 0 h e c t a r e s of the 3 . 2 0 0 h e c t a r e s needed f o r housing by 1 9 8 1 are h e l d by .... s i x b i g d e v e l o p e r s . " He estimates t h a t Vancouver i s plu n g i n g towards the s o r t of l a n d c r i s i s t h a t i s now a f f l i c t i n g Toronto's c i t i z e n s . R i c h a r d s o n makes a s t r o n g case f o r p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o l a n d management. He i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t a p u b l i c l y owned land supply, bought t e n years i n advance -- as i s a l r e a d y the p r a c t i c e i n H o l l a n d , Sweden and f o r th a t matter i n Saskatoon — i s the key to housing low-income people. I t i s no a c c i d e n t that i t i s a Saskatchewan c i t y t h a t has pioneered i n the p u b l i c ownership of l a n d by a mun-i c i p a l i t y i n North America. R i c h a r d s o n maintains t h a t Saskatchewan has had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l i s t t h i n k i n g and a c t i o n , and i t s people have been educated to understand the i s s u e and support the s o l u t i o n s . Richardson, w r i t i n g i n 1 9 7 2 , p r i o r to the N.D.P. forming the government i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s t a t e s that i t i s a matter of n a t i o n a l concern t h a t people of Vancouver do not seem to apprec-i a t e the c h a l l e n g e facing.them i n proper management of t h e i r s carce l a n d r e s o u r c e ; Vancouver's economic h e a l t h i s e s s e n t i a l t o a l l of western Canada. Even though the pressure on land i n the Lower Mainland c o u l d become almost as i n t e n s e as i n H o l l a n d , most of the people i n Vancouver do not seem t o c a r e . H a l f of them were born o u t s i d e of the p r o v i n c e , and have moved - 9 4 -t h e r e i n search of Jobs, money and the good l i f e . They c a r r y w i t h them the expansive f r o n t i e r hope t h a t every-t h i n g i s p o s s i b l e ; they have c o n s i s t e n t l y v o t e d f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t government of W.A.C. Bennett - a government of businessmen - whose main p o l i c y i s to maximize p r o f i t s and t o buy and s e l l shrewdly, whether i t be l a n d or any o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e / R e g a r d l e s s of the e l e c t o r a t e s ' reasons, the s o c i a l i s t New Democratic P a r t y l e d by David B a r r e t t r e p l a c e d the . S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y as the government of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the F a l l o f 1972. For the N.D.P. to s t r o n g l y a s s e r t t h e i r p o l i c i e s i n the a r e a s of l a n d use and housing s h o u l d have been a s u r p r i s e t o no one. S o c i a l i s m r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the e l e c t o r a l p rocess as the means of r e s t r a i n i n g the arbitrary, use of power, both p o l i t i c a l and economic. I n Britain,.Norway and Sweden, s o c i a l i s m has s t r o n g l y adhered to the customs of con-7 s u l t a t i o n and compromise. Although c r i t i c i z e d i n some g c i r c l e s , the amendments to B i l l 42 p r i o r t o the p a s s i n g of the Land Commission Act serve as but one example of the B r i t i s h Columbia government's w i l l i n g n e s s t o compromise. I n h i n d s i g h t , i t c o u l d perhaps be concluded t h a t the N.D.P. government should have had much more c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42. The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e d i d , however, present a b r i e f to the government on December 18th, 1972 c o n c e r n i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r improving -95-the B r i t i s h Columbia a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . T h i s r e p o r t s t a t e d i n p a r t t h a t the, " p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland and subsequent r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s the most important i s s u e our i n d u s t r y has f a c e d , " and "our members view the i s s u e as being the c r i t i c a l l y d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n t h e i r f u t u r e . " ' The M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e d i d meet wit h the p r e s i d e n t and manager of the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n a few days a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42 to d i s c u s s the l e g i s l a t i o n i n d e t a i l and 10 c l a r i f y key p o i n t s . The F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e presented a b r i e f , and a supplement to t h i s same b r i e f , e n t i t l e d A l t e r n a t i v e P r o p o s a l s Pursuant To B i l l 4-2 on March 15th, 1973- The supplement was r e l e a s e d on A p r i l 5th, 1973* The b r i e f was e s s e n t i a l l y aimed a t i n f l u e n c i n g the government's amendments to the A c t . The government's w i l l i n g n e s s to c o n s u l t w i t h farmers was a l s o demonstrated i n t h i s excerpt from a Fotheringham a r t i c l e . The Premier asked C h a r l e s Bernhardt, then p r e s i d e n t of the F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , to " H i r e the best economist you can f i n d , the best agronomist, I don't c a r e . I don't even want to know who he i s . W e ' l l pay f o r him. You h i r e him and you come back here with yourrecommendations as to how we can best h e l p the farmers to stay on the l a n d . We're prepared to d i s c u s s a new form of t a x a t i o n , even pensions f o r farmers. We want i d e a s . Come back and w e ' l l l i s t e n t o you."!! The F e d e r a t i o n d i d r e t u r n with t h e i r i d e a s ; a b r i e f e n t i t l e d New P o l i c i e s For B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e -96-was r e l e a s e d on August 1 3 t h , 1973 and a second b r i e f , Pursuant to P r o p o s a l s f o r the Betterment of A g r i c u l t u r e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia was presented on December 17th, 1974. S o c i a l i s t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y do not depend on pure economic e f f i c i e n c y to achieve s o c i a l ends; they have e s t a b l i s h e d an independent standard - s o c i a l v a l u e -as a counter to the market standard of v a l u e t h a t d i r e c t s the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s to p r o d u c t i o n under cap-i t a l i s m . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two standards of v a l u e i s e s s e n t i a l l y the d i f f e r e n c e between wants and needs. S o c i a l i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t the p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l buyers c o n c e r n i n g the goods and s e r v i c e s they want are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of the c o o p e r a t i v e and harmonious s o c i e t y d i s c u s s e d above. People enter the market as buyers w i t h v a r y i n g amounts of wealth. T h i s g i v e s a wealthy man a l a r g e r 'vote' i n a l l o c a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n than a poor man. T h i s problem i s I n t e n s i f i e d i n a l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s i t u a t i o n . The market c h o i c e i s g e n e r a l l y 1 2 made on a p u r e l y i n d i v i d u a l and o f t e n s e l f i s h b a s i s . The broader s o c i e t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are r e l e g a t e d to a minor p r i o r i t y i n the c a p i t a l i s t format. The ' b a l a n c i n g a c t ' between economic and s o c i a l v a l u e s i s v e r y apparent i n the a l l o c a t i o n of the farm l a n d r e s o u r c e . As a market commodity, a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y on the urban f r i n g e , has d i f f i c u l t y competing w i t h urban uses on the b a s i s of pure economics. -97-As a r c h i t e c t - p l a n n e r Warnett Kennedy s t a t e s , "Urban-i z a t i o n always wins because i t pays o f f and the rows of v e g e t a b l e s have no v o t e s to o f f s e t those o f the people i n the s u b d i v i s i o n s . " ^ Hankin complains t h a t most s t u d i e s t h a t are done c o n c e r n i n g farming d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the economic as p e c t s and f a i l to acknowledge the f a c t t h a t farming i s much more than a b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n - i t i s a way of l i f e . * 4 The a e s t h e t i c and n o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e reasons to support a c o n t i n u a t i o n of agr i c u l t u r e ; : i n the:Lower Mainland, as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I , a l s o d e f y s t r i c t economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Lane has qu e s t i o n e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g food p r i c e s a t a re a s o n a b l e l e v e l , as w e l l as a s s u r i n g the v i a b i l i t y of farming, i f we r e f u s e t o c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of removing the p r i c e of l a n d as a necessary c a p i t a l investment, and subsequently an added c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n i n the farming o p e r a t i o n . ^ 5 Such a d e c i s i o n would r e l y h e a v i l y upon s o c i a l v a l u e s d i c t a t i n g t h a t the short term g a i n s of a few would not supplant the l o n g term b e n e f i t s o f the community. Growing wor l d f o o d shortages o f f e r f u r t h e r evidence of the ne,ed f o r c u r r e n t 'economic e f f i c i e n c y ' t o be r e s t r a i n e d i n order t o p r o t e c t B r i t i s h Columbia farmland and a s s u r e f u t u r e food s u p p l i e s . The government's a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use p o l i c y i s an import-ant element i n the t o t a l schema of s o c i a l i s t p o l i c y . Town and -98-country p l a n n i n g has c o n s i s t e n t l y been among the p o l i c i e s favoured by the Fabians i n England and p r a c t i c e d by soc-i a l i s t governments i n both B r i t a i n and S c a n d i n a v i a . B r i t i s h s o c i a l i s t s are j u s t i f i a b l y proud of the New Towns and other beginnings of comprehensive land-use p l a n n i n g t h a t were enacted under the Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t s of t h e i r f i r s t post-war government. T h i s aspect of p o l i c y i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the i d e a of an harmonious and o r d e r l y s o c i e t y , and r e p r e s e n t s an a r e a t h a t s o c i a l i s t s , . as reformers by nature, are l i k e l y to promote more s t r o n g l y the nearer they come .to a c h i e v i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s i n other f i e l d s . Land use p o l i c y a l s o serves to e q u a l i z e advantages of r i c h and poor, thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g to two of the major p o s i t i v e o b j e c t i v e s of the s o c i a l i s t movement. 1 D S o c i a l i s m i n Canada cannot be judged s t r i c t l y a g a i n s t the p h i l o s o p h i c a l model. P r e s t o n m a i n t a i n s , however, that d e s p i t e the v e r y s h o r t time i n which s o c i a l i s m has been p r a c t i c e d (world wide), i t seems ev i d e n t t h a t democratic, pragmatic s o c i a l i s m i s "working." N a t i o n a l i z e d : ; i n d u s t r i e s have been operated a t l e a s t as s u c c e s s f u l l y as they were under p r i v a t e . o w n e r s h i p . C o n s i d e r a b l e enlargement of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s has o c c u r r e d without b a n k r u p t i n g the economy. While a c h i e v i n g a l a r g e measure of p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n over the economic order," s o c i a l i s t governments have not s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l e d i n d i v i d u a l or p o l i t i c a l 1 7 l i b e r t i e s o f ' f r e e e x p r e s s i o n . Although ardent l e a d e r s -99-and f o l l o w e r s of the r i g h t wing p a r t i e s i n B r i t i s h 1 Columbia would q u i c k l y d i s a g r e e with the above statement, 2,500 people on the lawns of the l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s i n V i c t o r i a p r o t e s t i n g B i l l 42 on March 15th, 1973 c e r -t a i n l y d i d not have any r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e i r freedom of e x p r e s s i o n . The N.D.P. i n B r i t i s h Columbia are not c l a s s i c s o c i a l i s t s but have r e f i n e d t h e i r approach, o b j e c t i v e s and p r i n c i p l e s to adapt to the c a p i t a l i s t environment w i t h i n which they f i n d themselves. Land i s regarded as b e i n g a b a s i c element to the economy. I t s c o n t r o l i s , t h e r e f o r e , a l s o b a s i c to ensure the w e l f a r e of the people. Land i s important to s o c i a l i s t s f o r o t h e r reasons. The h a n d l i n g of t h i s n a t u r a l element as a commodity r a t h e r than a r e s o u r c e i s a p p a l l i n g as i s the i n t e n s e comp-e t i t i o n i n the l a n d market. - a b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n t h a t s h i r k s s o c i a l v a l u e s and d i s p e l l s c o o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . E s s e n t i a l l y the l a n d d e a l e r - r e a l e s t a t e agent - operates i n a b u s i n e s s which encourages ( o f t e n u n n e c e s s a r i l y ) the s e l l i n g of p r o p e r t y and i t s subsequent purchase. The m o t i v a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a percentage of the s e l l i n g p r i c e of t h a t p r o p e r t y . T h e r e f o r e . i t i s i n the best i n t e r e s t of the r e a l e s t a t e agent t o s e l l as many p i e c e s of p r o p e r t y as p o s s i b l e and f o r the h i g h e s t p r i c e t h a t the market w i l l bear. C o m p e t i t i o n i n t h i s phase of the l a n d b u s i n e s s must be i n t e n s e . Tom B o y l e , 1973 p r e s i d e n t of the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e a l E s t a t e Board, s a i d t h a t -100-"there are now 3,000 r e a l e s t a t e salesmen In G r e a t e r 19 Vancouver, whereas 1,000 c o u l d e a s i l y do the Job." The process i s i n f l a t i o n a r y . I t Is not only p u t t i n g the wealthy i n an advantageous p o s i t i o n - i n the market, and thereby i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r economic power, but i t i s a l s o encouraging g r e a t e r s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . Although a s p e c i f i e d power, W i l k i n s o n does not c o n s i d e r the purchase of farmland to be a major r o l e 20 of the Land Commission. I t can be concluded t h a t the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ( p r o v i n c i a l i z a t i o n ) of l a n d i s not on the agenda of the democratic p r a g m a t i s t s i n V i c t o r i a . C o n t r o l by s o c i e t y does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean s t a t e ownership. The Land Commission Act i s one such example of the s o c i a l c o n t r o l of l a n d and i t s uses without s t a t e ownership. 2. AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND THE .REGINA MANIFESTO The New Democratic P a r t y evolved from i t s predecessor, the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n (C.C.F,). From the backdrop of s o c i a l i s t t heory, and i n the midst of a d e p r e s s i o n , the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n h e l d i t s f i r s t n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n Regina on J u l y 19th, 1933. I t began as a f e d e r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g p a r t i e s . G r a d u a l l y the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s voted themselves out of e x i s t e n c e or out o f p o l i t i c s as separate e n t i t i e s , and -merged with the a l l - i n c l u s i v e p a r t y . In 19^3 David Lewis and Frank S c o t t observed t h a t from i t s b e g i n n i n g the C.C.F. s t r o v e f o r "an i m a g i n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l programme based - 1 0 1 -on a c o r r e c t s o c i a l philosophy and f e a r l e s s economic 2 1 a n a l y s i s . " The a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n western Canada, was s i g n i f i c a n t i n both the b i r t h and growth of the C.C.F. The Regina Ma n i f e s t o was based not only on s o c i a l i s t t h eory but was a l s o a r e a c t i o n to c o n d i t i o n s of the de-p r e s s i o n of the 1 9 3 0 ' s . In 1 9 3 2 the farmers were at l e a s t equal p a r t n e r s w i t h l a b o u r i n the c r e a t i o n of the C.C.F. The farmers had a s t r o n g • h i s t o r i c a l base of d i s c o n t e n t -ment. They s t i l l formed the c o r n e r s t o n e o f the Canadian economy but the d e p r e s s i o n had made a bad s i t u a t i o n worse. In f a c t , the farmers, as a group, were harder h i t by the d e p r e s s i o n than any o t h e r group i n the country. The farmers' l o t had been bad b e f o r e the d e p r e s s i o n and three decades of a g r a r i a n r e v o l t ( with l i m i t e d success) p r i o r t o 1 9 2 9 formed a v a l u a b l e base upon which the C.C.F. was to b u i l d . I n B r i t i s h Columbia the C.C.F., and l a t e r the W.D.P.', d i d not have as s t r o n g a farming base or a g r a r i a n t r a d i t i o n as d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the other three Western P r o v i n c e s . Although s o c i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia was, as i t s t i l l i s today, o r i e n t e d towards the labour unions, the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y o u t l i n e d by the Regina Manifesto. was adopted by C.C.F.ers i n B r i t i s h Columbia as i t was 23 i n other p a r t s of Canada. The a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s of the Regina M a n i f e s t o can t h e r e f o r e be" r e a d i l y compared with the p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y of the -102-N.D.P. S e c t i o n 4 of the Regina M a n i f e s t o (see Appendix A ) d e a l s with the C.C.F.'s a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . P r i m a r i l y the document i s concerned w i t h e n s u r i n g the v i a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e as an economic a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s not u n l i k e the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e ' s statement i n 1973 e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the purpose of B i l l 4-2 was t o make a g r i c u l t u r e more e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e to 24 s u s t a i n the f a m i l y farm. ' G e n e r a l l y ' then, the main t h r u s t o f s o c i a l i s t (C.C.F. - N.D.P.) p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d to a g r i c u l t u r e e s s e n t i a l l y has not changed i n some f o r t y y e a r s . The average farmer was r e l a t i v e l y poor i n 1933 and he s t i l l i s today. 2 5 S o c i a l i s t s w i t h i n the pre-C.C.F. farmers' movements were s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t i n g the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of farmland. Perhaps i n the 1930's the time was r i p e f o r such a c t i o n i n l i g h t of the economic s i t u a t i o n , the much d e s p i s e d (among farmers) banking and c r e d i t system, and the apparent l a n d ownership - tenancy t r e n d s . The Regina M a n i f e s t o , however, r e f r a i n e d from any mention of the s o c i a l ownership of l a n d . I n s t e a d i t demanded "the s e c u r i t y o f tenure f o r the farmer upon h i s farm which i s i m p e r i l l e d by the present d i s a s t r o u s s i t u a t i o n of the whole i n d u s t r y . " I n 1944 T.C. Douglas, then Premier o f Saskat-chewan, e x p l a i n e d the reasons f o r t h i s stance which many s o c i a l i s t s might r e g a r d as unnecessary p o l i c y -103-i n e r t n e s s . He s t a t e d t h a t "there has been a great d e a l of nonsense t a l k e d about the C.C.F. s o c i a l i z i n g l a n d . " The s o l e purpose of s o c i a l i z a t i o n he f e l t was r e s t o r a t i o n . Whenever the means of p r o d u c t i o n have been a l i e n a t e d from the people i t i s necessary to s o c i a l i z e them i n order to r e s t o r e them to the people. Douglas emphasized t h a t i f a few hundred f a m i l i e s owned a l l the p r o p e r t y , s o c i a l i z a t i o n of l a n d might be ne c e s s a r y . I n Canada, however, where most.of the farms are s t i l l owned by the f a m i l i e s who operate them, i t i s not necessary to s o c i a l i z e the l a n d i n order to r e s t o r e to the people something which they s t i l l have. Douglas concluded that "the o b j e c t of a C.C.F. government i s to see t h a t these farms c o n t i n u e to be property of the f a m i l i e s who operate them, r a t h e r than having those f a m i l i e s 27 become mere t e n a n t s of banks and mortgage companies." The d e c i s i o n by the f l e d g l i n g C.C.F. not:.;to>. n a t i o n a l i z e l a n d was probably made f o r * p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as o t h e r reasons. The C.C.F. d i d not want to d i s t u r b the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s of landownership and chance l o s i n g perhaps a m a j o r i t y of t h e i r support i n Western Canada. 3. AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND THE BRITISH COLUMBIA N.D.P. The c u r r e n t N.D.P. a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia (see Appendix G), l i k e the Regina M a n i f e s t o , i s concerned w i t h the s e c u r i t y of the f a m i l y farm and -104-has chosen to c o n t r o l land through r e g u l a t i o n , r a t h e r than by 'ownership*. The e l e c t i o n p l a t f o r m of the N.D.P. In August of 1972 s p e c i f i c a l l y condemned the powerful c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t were t i g h t e n i n g t h e i r g r i p on the la n d and dominating a g r i c u l t u r e . The a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use p o l i c y advoacated by the then o p p o s i t i o n N.D.P. was a c e n t r a l aspect i n t h e i r programme of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . Land Use: . E s t a b l i s h a l a n d - z o n i n g programme t o set a s i d e a r e a s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and to prevent such land being s u b d i v i d e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . . E s t a b l i s h a l a n d bank to purchase e x i s t i n g and re-zpned a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r l e a s e to farmers on a "long term b a s i s . . Recognize i n d i v i d u a l l y - o p e r a t e d farm u n i t s , r a t h e r than l a r g e c o r p o r a t e farms, as the b a s i s of B.C. a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . . L e g i s l a t e to preserve open space f o r c a t t l e g r a z i n g and to improve range l a n d i n c o o p e r a t i o n with w i l d l i f e a u t h o r i t i e s . 2 8 I n l e s s than a year, these broad p o l i c y statements were r e f i n e d i n t o the most comprehensive a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n i n the country, and q u i t e p o s s i b l y the c o n t i n e n t . The essence o f the Land Commission A c t was embodied i n these f o u r p o l i c y statements. The c r e a t i o n of the Act i t s e l f and the form which the Land Commission A c t took grew out of a g r i c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s found i n B r i t i s h Columbia today. I t s r o o t s can a l s o be d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to s o c i a l i s t theory as w e l l as the a g r a r i a n reform movements of the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c e ntury i n Western Canada which a i d e d the b i r t h of the - 1 0 5 -C . C . F . and from which the N . D . P . grew. Looking at the Land. Commission Act out of i t s h i s t o r i c a l context W i l l i a m Lane, Chairman of the Land Commission, f e e l s that the Act i s nei ther s o c i a l i s t nor c a p i t a l i s t i n form. The A c t , he f e e l s , i s b a s i c a l l y a regulatory land management device aimed at planning for the use of a scarce resource . He r e f e r s to the example of a s p a t i a l l y w e l l managed department store and queries — "Is t h i s social ism?"^9 Others, however saw B i l l 42 as a very s o c i a l i s t measure. In the furor of B i l l 42's i n t r o d u c t i o n , Frank R i c h t e r , then house leader of the S o c i a l C r e d i t Party , commented that , "the day of the pr ivate ownership of land i n B r i t i s h Columbia was destroyed t h i s a f t e r n o o n . " - ^ Harvey Schroeder, S o c i a l C r e d i t M . L . A . for C h i i l i w a c k r e f e r r e d to B i l l 42 as " . . . a devastat ing , v i c i o u s and s o c i a l i s t i c piece of 31 l e g i s l a t i o n . A n e d i t o r i a l by Jim Hume on radio s t a t i o n CFAX i n r e f e r r i n g to the ' farmers protest march on V i c t o r i a ' s ta ted , "But even i f they (the farmers) d i d n ' t make yards i n persuading the government to change i t s most alarming l e f t wing l e g i s l a t i o n to date, they 32 c e r t a i n l y must have impressed the community." Opinion i s d i v e r s e , but the ardent r i g h t wing elements too q u i c k l y associate the N . D . P . with communism 33 i n the U . S . S . R . and the People 's Republic of China . The C . C . F . - N . D . P . have never advocated the pure s o c i a l i s m of Marx. The l i n k s , however, between the -106-p h l l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g the Land Commission Act and pragmatic, a d a p t i v e , democratic s o c i a l i s m are s t r o n g . The Land Commission Act i s the f i r s t of a s e r i e s of l e g i s l a t i v e moves to assure the v i a b i l i t y of farming and a s s i s t i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l e q u a l i t y . The N.D.P. f i r m l y denounces the c o r p o r a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t i t i e s t h a t have been i n v a d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia i n much the same way as C a l i f o r n i a e xperienced a number of years ago. T h i s , a l o n g with encouraging the f a m i l y . farm, s h o u l d - f a c i l i t a t e , or be i n the d i r e c t i o n of a g r e a t e r s o c i a l c o n t r o l of economic power, by keeping the c o n t r o l of l a n d out of the hands of a few i n d i v i d u a l s or c o r p o r a t i o n s . The Land Commisslon Act i s not blanket n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of l a n d . T h i s same a t t i t u d e towards l a n d was adhered to by the C.C.F., and s o c i a l i s t s i n g e n e r a l are i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c e p t i n g s t a t e c o n t r o l over e s s e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d e c i s i o n s as a s u b s t i t u t e 34 f o r ownership. In many r e s p e c t s the Land Commlsslon Act i s an example•of f u n c t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m p r e s c r i b e d by P r o f e s s o r A d l e r - K a r l s s o n . Osten Unden, former Swedish m i n i s t e r of f o r e i g n a f f a i r s and law p r o f e s s o r , s t r e s s e d t h a t the concept of ownership i s not an i n d i v i s i b l e concept but, q u i t e the c o n t r a r y , a concept embodying d i f f e r e n t owner-s h i p f u n c t i o n s , which can e a s i l y be s e p a r a t e d from each other. A d i e r - K a r l s s o n maintains t h a t i t i s not a -107-q u e s t l o n of p r i n c i p l e whether any of the f u n c t i o n s of ownership should be brought under p u b l i c c o n t r o l . A great many a l r e a d y a r e . The only q u e s t i o n i s which f u n c t i o n s of ownership should be under p u b l i c c o n t r o l . The f u n c t i o n s to be encouraged are those which are s o c i a l , 35 r a t h e r than the u n s o c i a l use of ownership. y In 1972-73 the N.D.P. i n B r i t i s h Columbia made an important d e c i s i o n . I t decided t h a t a s s u r i n g the f u t u r e of a food source, and saving an economic a c t i v i t y and the f a m i l y farm as a way of l i f e had s o c i a l purpose. Conver s e l y the d e s t r u c t i o n ( p r i m a r i l y through l a n d spec-u l a t i o n and the unnecessary urban development of farmlands) of these same elements was an u n s o c i a l use of l a n d ownership. -108-F00TN0TES 1. Wi l k i n s o n , R.L., D i r e c t o r , P r o d u c t i o n & Marketing S e r v i c e s , Deportment o f A g r i c u l t u r e , correspondence, March 15, 1974. 2. Pr e s t o n , N a t h a n i e l Stone, P o l i t i c s Economics and Power, ( C o l i i e r - M a c m i l i a n Canada, L t d . , Toronto, 1969) p. 97-98 and 1 3 0 . 3. I b i d , p. 100-103. 4. Hankln, R., Planner, G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , i n t e r v i e w , March 25, 1974. 5. Preston,, p. 135 & 139. 6. Richardson-, Boyce, 'Land and Who Should Own I t ' , an a r t i c l e from The F u t u r e _of Canadian C i t i e s , (New P r e s s , Toronto, 1972) p. 106. 7. Pr e s t o n , p. 135 & 139. 8. Fransom, i n t e r v i e w , February 25» 197*+. 9. B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o p o s a l s F o r  Improving the B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r y , ( V i c t o r i a , December 18, 1972) p. 1. 10. 'Farm Owners t h r e a t e n to march...', Vancouver Sun, February 23,197*+. 11. 'Fotheringham', Vancouver Sun, March 17, 1973. 12. P r e s t o n , p. 106-107. 13. 'Now i s the time...', The P r o v i n c e , February 10, 1973. 14. Hankin, i n t e r v i e w , March 25, 197*+. 15. Lane, W., Chairman, B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission, i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 197*+. 16. P r e s t o n , p. 125-126. 17. I b i d , p. 131. 18. An advertisement p l a c e d i n the March 30"th, 197*+ e d i t i o n of the Vancouver Sun and The Pr o v i n c e by o r g a n i z e r J.W. Merks e n t i t l e d "Endangered S p e c i e s ? " d r a m a t i c a l l y summarizes the c a p i t a l i s t s ' f e a r ( o r the f e a r t h a t they a r e encouraging) o f r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l b ehavior and r i g h t s of appeal by the N.D.P. government. The advertisement was a s k i n g f o r donations t o the 'B.C. D i s a s t e r P r e v e n t i o n Fund.' - 1 0 9 -19» 'Bucket Shop method blamed...', Vancouver Sun, February 17, 1973. 2 0 . W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 15* 1 9 7 4 . 2 1 . Lewis, David and Frank S c o t t , Make THIS Your Canada, ( C e n t r a l Canada P u b l i s h i n g Co., Toronto, 1943), p. 122 & 1 2 7 . 2 2 . See League F o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  F o r Canada, (Thomas Nelson & Sons L t d . , Toronto, 1935)* 2 3 . D i s c u s s i o n w i t h s t a f f a t the N.D.P. o f f i c e ^ Vancouver B.C., S p r i n g 1973. 24. 'Farmers must wa i t . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, February 2 3 , 1973. 25« See (a) S h e f f e , Norman, Issues For the S e v e n t i e s Poverty, (McGraw-Hill Co. L t d . , Toronto, 1970). (b) Report o f the S p e c i a l Senate Committee on Poverty, Poverty i n Canada, ( I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Ottawa, 197lT^ (c) Adams, Cameron, H i l l and Penz, The R e a l  Poverty Report (M.G. H u r t i g L i m i t e d , Edmonton, 1 9 7 1 ) • 2 6 . Lewis, p. 2 0 1 . 2 7 . Douglas, T . C , 'The Farmer and the World o f Tomorrow', Feb r u a r y 28, 1944, i n P l a n n i n g f o r Freedom ( C o p y r i g h t , O n t a r i o C.C.F., 1944) p. 111 . 28.. The B r i t i s h Columbia New Democratic P a r t y , N.D.P. A New Deal For P e o p l e ^ ( A l l i e d P r i n t i n g Trades C o u n c i l , Vancouver, September 1972) p. 8 . 2 9 . Lane, l e c t u r e , February 2 0 , 197^. 3 0 . 'Land A c t V i o l a t e s . . . . 1 , Vancouver Sun, February 2 3 , 1 9 7 3 . 3 1 . The C h l l l l w a c k Progress, February 2 8 , 1 9 7 3 . 3 2 . J i m Hume, e d i t o r i a l , CFAX Radio, March 15 , 1973. 3 3 . 'Endangered S p e c i e s ' , Vancouver Sun, March 3 0 , 1974. 3 4 . P r e s t o n , p. 1 0 6 . 3 5 . A l d e r - K a r l s s o n , G., R e c l a i m i n g the Canadian Economy (House of Anansi Press L t d . , Toronto"] 1970) p. x l i i and 14 - 1 5 . THE PART I I LAND COMMISSION ACT CHAPTER VI THE FARM LAND FREEZE and BILL 42 1. THE FARM LAND FREEZE On December 21st, 1972 O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l 4483 was approved by the.Cabinet and p r o h i b i t e d the sub-d i v i s i o n o f farmland. The Order s a i d i n p a r t : "....pursuant to s e c t i o n 6 of the Environment  and Land Use Act, a l l s u b d i v i s i o n o f farm l a n d , i n c l u d i n g a l l lands deemed by the Committee (Environment and Land Use Committee) to be s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s , u n t i l f u r t h e r order or p r o v i s i o n by sta t u e t o the c o n t r a r y , be p r o h i b i t e d . " ! T h i s r e l a t i v e l y short order was to set o f f perhaps the most h o t l y c o n t e s t e d i s s u e both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t the Pr o v i n c e has expe r i e n c e d . The f o l l o w i n g day the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e s t a t e d t h a t the moratorium on the s u b d i v i s i o n of farmland was nec-essary pending the farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y which would i n c l u d e a p o s i t i v e approach to p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c -i e n t l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e today and i n the f u t u r e . The Department a l s o s a i d t h a t farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n was a burden t h a t must be shared by a l l people to h e l p ensure a more v i a b l e B r i t i s h Columbia a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . ^ The o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n the l e g i s l a t u r e were to l a t e r q u e s t i o n why the f r e e z e had been imposed w i t h -110-- I l l -such haste and without p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with con-cerned p a r t i e s . The M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , David S t u p i c h , e x p l a i n e d t h a t the Government was f o r c e d t o a c t because of a r u s h of r e - z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t came i n the wake of a speech he gave on November 30, 1972 o u t l i n i n g the Government's i n t e n t i o n s t o p l a c e c o n t r o l s on farmland. The speech was g i v e n b e f o r e a meeting of the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e (B.C.F.A.) and i n i t S t u p i c h s a i d , "I would not a d v i s e anyone to i n v e s t i n farmland w i t h any i n t e n t i o n t o develop i t f o r i n d u s t r i a l or r e s i d e n t i a l purposes." D u r i n g the next few weeks the r u s h of s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s was noted as b e i n g "extremely alarming."-^ i ) B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e ' s R e a c t i o n R e c e i v i n g the speech by the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e w i t h r e s e r v e , the farmers, through the B.C.F.A., q u i c k l y began to enunciate t h e i r p o i n t o f view. T h e i r arguments g e n e r a l l y remained c o n s i s t e n t throughout the debate d u r i n g the months ahead. E s s e n t i a l l y the B.C.F.A. f e l t t h a t i t was i n i t i a l l y more important t o save the farmer r a t h e r ithan.the farm. R i c h a r d Stock, g e n e r a l manager of the F e d e r a t i o n , . s t a t e d t h a t steps should be taken to see t h a t the farmer get a f a i r and p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n from h i s farming o p e r a t i o n . "That's the r e a l problem of our i n d u s t r y . The need to assure the farmer o f a f a i r p r o f i t f o r the work and investment he puts i n t o i t . . I f these farms were made p r o f i t a b l e we wouldn't -112-hove t o worry about them being s o l d f o r other uses. The farmer wouldn't, want to s e l l h i s l a n d . " 4 P u n c t u a t i n g the Government's emerging p o l i c y to save farmland James Lorlmer, M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , sent a l e t t e r to a l l mayors of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and a l l chairmen o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s throughout B r i t i s h Columbia on December 11, 1972. T h i s d i r e c t i v e noted t h a t any r e q u e s t s by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r a p p r o v a l o f l a n d use by-laws which would i n v o l v e the l o s s of farmland to urban uses would be ve r y c l o s e l y examined i n l i g h t of the Government's p o l i c y t o preserve farmland.^ By December 1.8th, 1972 and p r i o r to the announcement of O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 4483, the B.C.F.A. met with C a b i n e t . A B r i e f was presented which f o r m a l i z e d the farmers' p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r the improvement of the B r i t i s h Columbia a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The B r i e f emphasized t h a t 82 per cent of the farmers of B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e l e s s than f e d e r a l unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s , w h i l e a s u b s t a n t i a l number of farm f a m i l i e s make 'do on income below c u r r e n t w e l f a r e r a t e s . With r e s p e c t to farmland . p r e s e r v a t i o n , the B r i e f made the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : - p r e s e r v a t i o n o f farmland i s an important i f not c r i t i c a l l y d e c i d i n g f a c t o r In the f u t u r e o f the i n d u s t r y . -no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r ' l o c k i n g - i n ' the i n d u s t r y now, i n the hope of f i n d i n g s o l -u t i o n s l a t e r , thus l o c k i n g thousands of farm f a m i l i e s Into poverty. -no : j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r permanently m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo f o r an.:.industry to go broke. - 1 1 3 --unclouded ownership i s the very b a s i s f o r c a r r y i n g on i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r many farm f a m i l i e s . -cannot expect people to co n t i n u e working f o r sub-standard incomes i f a l l other avenues of p r o v i d i n g a r e t i r e m e n t income are withdrawn. -the g e n e r a l p u b l i c must a l s o accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland. -farmland zoning must be accompanied 1by a r e a s o n a b l e compensatory f a c t o r f o r the produce of the lan d , and f o r the d e v e l -opment r i g h t s t h e r e o f . " Immediately a f t e r the r e l e a s e of O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 4483 the B.C.F.»A. r e l e a s e d a two part p o s i t i o n s t a t e -ment pursuant to f a i r compensation f o r l o s s e s due to the l a n d f r e e z e . I t d e c l a r e d t h a t (a) the government must l i f t the farmland f r e e z e u n l e s s the l a n d i s bei n g s o l d f o r non-farm use, i n which case the Prov-i n c i a l Government would have the f i r s t r i g h t of r e f u s a l and c o u l d purchase the l a n d at a f a i r market v a l u e ; and (b) the government must pass p o l i c i e s to make the farmers* l o t b e t t e r so he can r e c a p t u r e the c o s t s o f Q p r o d u c t i o n . On January 10th, 1973. the B.C.F.A. once a g a i n met with the Government. Although the two bodies agreed on some b a s i c p o i n t s , the F e d e r a t i o n was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the Government's commitment to agr-i c u l t u r e and f e l t t h a t the 'b i g g e s t l a n d c o n f i s c a t i o n i n Canada's h i s t o r y must be stopped. ' 9 By January 15th, 1973. S t u p i c h announced t h a t the 'Farmland P r e s e r v a t i o n B i l l * was i n f o u r t h d r a f t . 1 0 -114-In defense o f the upcoming l e g i s l a t i o n , and i n response to the f e d e r a t i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s , S t u p i c h t o l d the F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t the B.C.F.A. had been u r g i n g the Government to h a l t the s u b d i v i s i o n of farmland f o r 12 years. Now t h a t something was being done about the problem the farmers were w o r r i e d about the p o s s i b l e l o s s of p r o f i t s a c c r u e d from the s a l e of t h e i r l a n d . S t u p i c h s a i d t h a t i t was not p r a c t i c a l to pay comp- ' e n s a t i o n to the farmers f o r the p o s s i b l e d e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r l a n d through 'zoning' - i t would simply c o s t too much.^1 • l i ) O r d e r - l n - C o u n c l l 157 O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 4483 e s t a b l i s h e d , as d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 2 of the T a x a t i o n Act, t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n of farmland, i n c l u d i n g a l l lands s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i -12 v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s , was p r o h i b i t e d . S e c t i o n 2 of the T a x a t i o n Act d e f i n e s farmland as any a r e a of l a n d two or more a c r e s (.8 h e c t a r e s or g r e a t e r ) c l a s s i f i e d as such by the A s s e s s o r . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n depends on the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : a) the l a n d i s a c t u a l l y under c u l t i v a t i o n or used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l , h o r t i c u l t u r a l , p o u l t r y - r a i s i n g , or s t o c k - r a i s i n g purposes; b) the time devoted t o the land's c u l t i v a t i o n ; and 13 c) the value of the crops or l i v e s t o c k produced. J O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 157, (see Appendix B ) approved on January 18th, 1973. c l a r i f i e d many p o i n t s which had s u r f a c e d from i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 4483. - 1 1 5 -I t c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t n o n a g r i c u l t u r a i development - i n c l u d i n g s i t e development, a change i n l a n d use, and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g o t h e r than one which i s necessary f o r the o p e r a t i o n of a farm - was p r o h i b i t e d . Added to the T a x a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n of farmland r e f e r r e d to above, farmland i n c l u d e d l a n d s i t u a t e d i n a munic-i p a l i t y and c l a s s i f i e d as farmland under S e c t i o n 332 of the M u n i c i p a l Act, or l a n d d e s i g n a t e d as C l a s s 1, 2, 3> or 4 of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , developed as p a r t of the Canada Land Inventory ( C . L . I . ) . W i t h i n the Order i t was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t : -no a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r s h a l l approve a sub-d i v i s i o n of farmland. -no person s h a l l i s s u e a b u i l d i n g permit f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new b u i l d i n g on farmland. -no m u n i c i p a l i t y , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , or the C i t y of Vancouver, s h a l l pass a zoning by-law or enter i n t o a l a n d use c o n t r a c t a l l -owing farmland to be used f o r n o n a g r i c u l t -u r a i use. -no R e g i s t r a r under the Land R e g i s t r y Act s h a l l accept a p l a n of s u b d i v i s i o n pursuant to the S t r a t a T i t l e s Act r e s p e c t i n g farmland. i l l ) Appeals Under the Land Freeze . The Order d i d a l l o w any developments, s u b d i v i s i o n s , or l a n d use c o n t r a c t s t h a t had s u b s t a n t i a l l y commenced on or b e f o r e December 21st, 1972 t o be approved. A person having farmland who f e l t a g g r i e v e d by an a c t i o n taken-under the a u t h o r i t y of Order 157 was a l s o a l l o w e d -116-to appeal h i s case to the Environment and Land Use 14 Committee. D e s p i t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of appeal, one c o u l d conclude that the P r o v i n c i a l Government had s e c u r e l y put the l i d on the f u t u r e s u b d i v i s i o n of farmland. On February l6th, 1973, a l e t t e r was sent to a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n s from the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e on b e h a l f of the Environment and Land Use Committee ( E.L.U.C. ) . to c l a r i f y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures f o r a l l o w i n g ' s u b s t a n t i a l l y commenced' developments on farmland to c o n t i n u e and f o r the appeals pursuant to O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 157. In the case of d e v e l -opments which had s t a r t e d p r i o r to December 21st, 1972, the i s s u a n c e of a c e r t i f i c a t e - f r o m the a p p r o p r i a t e o f f i c e r i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t was mandatory. The a p p l i c a n t had to c l e a r l y demonstrate to the o f f i c e r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n (based on s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a ) t h a t the development had indeed commenced s u b s t a n t i a l l y p r i o r to the above mentioned date. The l e t t e r a l s o s t a t e d that i n a l l cases of r e f u s a l of an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a s u b d i v i s i o n or permit of any k i n d because of the O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l , the denying a u t h o r i t y must n o t i f y the a p p l i c a n t i n w r i t i n g f u l l y s t a t i n g the reasons. I f a s u b d i v i s i o n would have been r e f u s e d by a m u n i c i p a l i t y r e g a r d l e s s of the O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l , the Approving O f f i c e r was a d v i s e d to e x p l a i n every reason f o r r e j e c t i o n so as not to g i v e undue s t r e s s to the O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l . 1 ^ -117-For those a p p e a l i n g to the E.L.U.C pursuant to a c t i o n s taken i n compliance w i t h O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l 4483 and 157, the appeals were not s p e c i f i c a l l y a g a i n s t b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d i n the farmland f r e e z e . Rather, the appeal was a g a i n s t a d e c i s i o n by some agency of the government ( l a n d r e g i s t r y , m u n i c i p a l i t y , and e t c e t e r a ) f o r not a l l o w i n g an i n d i v i d u a l to develop h i s l a n d i n con-t r a v e n t i o n to the O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l . The w r i t t e n s t a t e -ment of r e f u s a l r e f e r r e d to above was s i g n i f i c a n t be-cause i n h e a r i n g an a p p e a l , the f o l l o w i n g p i e c e s of i n -f o r m a t i o n were r e q u i r e d of the a p p l i c a n t by the E.L.U.C: 1. a l e t t e r of r e f u s a l from a body or agency of the government; 2. the l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t p r o p e r t y ; 3. an o u t l i n e of the p r o p o s a l which was r e f u s e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l ; and i m p o r t a n t l y 4. the a p p l i c a n t must demonstrate to the E.L.U.C. why the development (e.g. exemption from the l a n d f r e e z e ) i s n e c e s s a r y . 1 " When making a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g an appeal, the Committee c o u l d respond i n one of the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. approve u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y ; 2. approve, but not r e l e a s e the l a n d from the f r e e z e ( r e q u e s t e d development or s u b d i v i s i o n c o u l d take p l a c e , but no such f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y c o u l d o c c u r ) ; 3. deny o u t r i g h t ; or 4. deny pending the establishment of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve boundaries.17 By A p r i l 1974, a p p r o ximately 1,700 appeals had been processed. Lane e s t i m a t e s that o n e - t h i r d of the a ppeals -118-approved e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n a l l y or u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y , one t h i r d were denied pending the d e s i g n a t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves, and the remainder were r e f u s e d . 1 ^ i v ) O p p o s i t i o n i n the L e g i s l a t u r e While the B.C.F.A. was expounding the farmers' p o i n t of view, the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n the L e g i s -l a t u r e were a l s o c h a l l e n g i n g the Government's farmland f r e e z e p o l i c y . On February 2 n d , 1 9 7 3 , the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y forwarded a non-confidence motion based on the view t h a t t h e . C a b i n e t - o r d e r e d f r e e z e on farmland was i n v i o l a t i o n of the Canadian B i l l of R i g h t s which guar-antees the fundamental r i g h t to the "enjoyment of p r o p e r t y . " Don P h i l l i p s (S.C. - South Peace R i v e r ) who moved the motion, d e c l a r e d t h a t , "The C a b i n e t ' s o r d e r s , which imposed the f r e e z e on the s a l e of farmland, v i o l a t e t h i s B i l l of R i g h t s guarantee, and w i l l p l a c e i n doubt a l l p r i v a t e l a n d ownership i n the P r o v i n c e . " - ^ T h i s i s s u e of l a n d management was of course being h i g h l y p o l i t i c i z e d by the o p p o s i t i o n . With the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of the above statement b e i n g made d u r i n g the heat of debate i n the p o l i t i c a l arena, one must q u e s t i o n the b a s i s of P h i l l i p s ' statement. F i r s t l y , the two O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l d i d not a f f e c t , ownership per se (although a f u n c t i o n of ownership was suspended). Secondly, the o r d e r s a f f e c t e d only farmland, and such l a n d was c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and t h e r e f o r e d i d . n o t p e r t a i n to a l l p r i v a t e l y h e l d l a n d . Most Importantly, however, and a m i sconception -119-which would u n f o r t u n a t e l y plague f u t u r e d i s c u s s i o n s of B i l l 4-2 and the Land Commission Act and a view t h a t c o n c e i v a b l y may s t i l l be widely h e l d by members of the p u b l i c , the O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l p r o h i b i t e d the nonfarm development and s u b d i v i s i o n of farmland but s a i d n o t h i n g t h a t p r o h i b i t e d the s a l e of one's p r o p e r t y . There are of course many c o n t r o l s on s u b d i v i s i o n c o v e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y of cir c u m s t a n c e s . I f the r e was any l e g i t i m a t e b a s i s f o r a t t a c k i n g the O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l on the grounds t h a t they v i o l a t e d the B i l l of R i g h t s i t would mean t h a t a l l r e f u s a l s of s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i -c a t i o n s c o u l d q u i t e p o s s i b l y be c o n t e s t e d on the same grounds. I f s u c c e s s f u l , t h i s would r e q u i r e the amend-ment of many of the f u n c t i o n s o f the Land R e g i s t r y o f f i c e and there would be l i t t l e n e c e s s i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g m u n i c i p a l a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r s s i n c e any d e c i s i o n made a g a i n s t an a p p l i c a t i o n to su b d i v i d e l a n d c o u l d be over-turne d on the grounds t h a t i t harmed one's "enjoyment of p r o p e r t y . " The o p p o s i t i o n c o n t e s t e d the Government's a c t i o n on t h r e e o t h e r grounds. They claime d t h a t the Government f a i l e d to mention the p o s s i b i l i t y of a •Farmland P r e s e r v a t i o n B i l l ' i n the speech from the throne. S t u p i c h , however, claimed o t h erwise. I n defense of the Government; he s a i d t h a t there was c l e a r r e f e r e n c e to the i s s u e i n the throne speech i n the passages a s s e r t i n g the Government's d e t e r m i n a t i o n -120-to d e v i s e p o l i c i e s , "...so t h a t we may l i v e i n harmony 20 with ourienvironment." The statement, needless to say, i s r a t h e r sweeping. The o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a l s o took up the farmers' cause for p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d towards s a v i n g the farmer r a t h e r than the farm. L i b e r a l A l l a n W i l l i a m s , q u o t i n g from a r e p o r t o f the S e l e c t Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , emphasized t h a t , "means must be found to upward a d j u s t farm income." • Although undoubtedly.an a r e a needing . a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n , the o p p o s i t i o n appear t o have v i s u a l i z e d the p r o h i b i t i o n of farmland s u b d i v i s i o n and development as the ' e n d - a l l ' i n Government a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - which time has proven i t i s not. F i n a l l y , the o p p o s i t i o n was upset by the means used to i n i t i a t e the Government's p o l i c y , Both Orders were approved under S e c t i o n 6 of the Environment and Land Use Act which s t a t e s i n p a r t t h a t : . "The L i e u t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l , on the recommendation of the committee, may make such o r d e r s r e s p e c t i n g the environment, or l a n d use, as he may c o n s i d e r n e c e s s a r y or-: a d v i s a b l e . . . . S o c i a l C r e d i t house l e a d e r Frank R i c h t e r , i n r e f e r r i n g to the above s e c t i o n , d e c l a r e d t h a t , "the Environment and Land Use Act - which was used by the government to order the f r e e z e on 'farm s a l e ' - was i n c l u d e d i n the a c t by the Socreds t o underscore the c a t a s t r o p h i c s i t u a t i o n s t h a t might r e q u i r e immediate a c t i o n " and not ".... to be used as a day-to-day -121-a d m i n l s t r a t i v e t o o l to by-pass e i t h e r the L e g i s l a t u r e i t s e l f or the p u b l i c a t l a r g e . " 2 3 Premier B a r r e t t r e p l i e d t h a t the Government had agonized over t h i s means and agreed t h a t such use of the o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l was not a h e a l t h y p a t t e r n . The Government, however, f e l t t h a t because of the r a p i d i n -crease i n s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s s i n c e S t u p i c h ' s November 30th, 1972 speech, t h e r e was a need f o r immediate a c t i o n which c o u l d o n l y be gained through the use of 24 the o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l . I n summation, the Government had c l e a r l y demon-s t r a t e d i t s . d e s i r e to thwart the unnecessary sub-d i v i s i o n o f " f a r m l a n d . The Government, however, and by t h e i r own admittance, had to a l a r g e degree, been f o r c e d i n t o t a k i n g a c t i o n and consequently had to hurry the c r e a t i o n of t h e i r l e g i s l a t i o n to p r eserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . More i m p o r t a n t l y though, the o p p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t the o r d e r s - i n c o u n c i l foreshadowed events to come. 2. BILL 42 The Government's 'farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n b i l l ' was i n t r o d u c e d i n the L e g i s l a t u r e on February 22nd, 1973 by the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e as B i l l 42 - Land  Commission A c t . 2 ^ ' 2 ^ Although c o n t a i n i n g a number of , other p r o v i s i o n s , the main emphasis of the B i l l was to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r farm use. B i l l 42 -122-was not only an e l a b o r a t i o n of O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 157 but adhered s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the New Democratic Party agr-i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y as expounded upon p r i o r to the e l e c t i o n of the p r e v i o u s summer. In announcing B i l l 42, S t u p i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t the purpose of the l e g i s l a t i o n , " i s to make a g r i c u l t u r e more eco n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e to s u s t a i n the f a m i l y f a r m . " ^ 7 In h i n d s i g h t , the l e g i s l a t i o n can be more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as an important f i r s t s t e p r e q u i r e d to a c h i e v e the ends S t u p i c h d e p i c t e d . In p r e p a r i n g B i l l 4-2 the Government d i s c u s s e d w i t h o f f i c i a l s and s t u d i e d the land programmes of B r i t a i n The Netherlands and Sweden. I t was found t h a t the f o l l o w -i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p p l i e d t o a l l : 1. P l a n n i n g and z o n i n g i s much more d e t a i l e d and of g r e a t e r permanent e f f e c t than found In North American j u r i s d l c a t i o n s . 2. A l l t h r e e c o u n t r i e s have had l o n g experience i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g ; however, they do not c l a i m to have s o l v e d the problem of the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . 3.. In a l l c o u n t r i e s , l o s s e s c o n t i n u e but a t a c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d r a t e . A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n v e r s i o n to non-farm uses except as may be e s s e n t i a l i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and no other p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t s . 4. Changes i n l a n d use zoning must be approved by l a n d commissions of the s e n i o r government. 5- A l l three c o u n t r i e s have l a n d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n programmes whereby farmers are a s s i s t e d to i n -crease the s i z e of t h e i r h o l d i n g s . S u b d i v i s -i o n of prime farmland i s t h e r e f o r e d i s c o u r a g e d . " R.L. W i l k i n s o n , of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e 29 and a member of the T e c h n i c a l Committee of the E.L.U.C., 7 -123-confirmed t h a t r e p o r t s , l e g i s l a t i o n , and other m a t e r i a l from other p a r t s of the world were examined, "but essent-i a l l y the e x i s t i n g Land Commission Act was compiled from i n p u t s by a g r o l o g i s t s , l e g a l a d v i s o r s and l a n d use planners i ) B i l l 42 — A General D e s c r i p t i o n B i l l 4-2 pro v i d e d the means to e s t a b l i s h a Prov-i n c i a l Land Commission (Sec. 2 ss. 1). The Commission would be an agent of the crown and i t c o u l d h o l d i n i t s own name any l a n d or other r e a l o r p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and c o u l d d i s p o s e of the same,(Sec. 4, ss. 1 & 2). The Commission c o u l d a l s o make such by-laws and pass r e s -o l u t i o n s which .were necessary t o conduct i t s a f f a i r s . T h i s was e s s e n t i a l l y a housekeeping measure and the time and p l a c e o f c a l l i n g and h o l d i n g meetings and the pro-cedures to be f o l l o w e d a t the meetings were g i v e n as an example of the use of such powers (Sec 6 ) . The f o u r major o b j e c t i v e s of the B i l l were as f o l l o w s . F i r s t l y , to pr e s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r farm use (Sec 7a), and encourage the es t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of f a m i l y farms and l a n d i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e and to preserve the same ( s e c . 7b). The second o b j e c t i v e o f the B i l l was t o pre s e r v e green b e l t l a n d i n and around urban areas and to encourage the estab-l i s h m e n t and maintenance of l a n d i n a green b e l t l a n d r e s e r v e (Sec. 7c & d ) . T h i r d l y , the B i l l was aimed a t p r e s e r v i n g l a n d bank l a n d f o r urban o r i n d u s t r i a l developme -124-and to r e s t r i c t s u b d i v i s i o n t h e r e on, and to encourage the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of l a n d i n a l a n d bank l a n d r e s e r v e (Sec. 7e & f ) . L a s t l y , the B i l l was to preserve park land f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use and once a g a i n encourage the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of l a n d i n a park l a n d r e s e r v e (Sec. 7g & h ) . The Commission was to have the power to purchase or otherwise a c q u i r e l a n d , on such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as the Commission may c o n s i d e r a d v i s a b l e , and h o l d and d i s p o s e of the same (Sec. 7i & j ) . G i f t s of l a n d c o u l d a l s o be a c c e p t e d or the Commission c o u l d be a u t h o r i z e d by another Act to purchase or otherwise a c q u i r e , h o l d , a d m i n i s t e r , and d i s p o s e of l a n d , i n c l u d i n g Crown l a n d (Sec. 7k & m). The Commission c o u l d a l s o a c q u i r e and h o l d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and d i s p o s e of the same (Sec. 71). S e c t i o n 8 a l l o w e d f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n , and thereby the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e , a green b e l t l a n d r e s e r v e , a l a n d bank l a n d r e s e r v e and a park l a n d r e s e r v e . Only the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e q u i r e d the a p p r o v a l of the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l b e f o r e d e s i g n a t i o n ; a l l of the r e s e r v e s c o u l d i n c l u d e Crown l a n d and were s u b j e c t to t h i s Act and the r e g -u l a t i o n s . The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d exclude any l a n d from the r e s e r v e s e s t a b l i s h e d under S e c t i o n 8 (Sec. 9 ) . S e c t i o n 10, s u b s e c t i o n 1 s t i p u l a t e s t h a t : "No person s h a l l occupy or use a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d d e s i g n a t e d as an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e pur-suant to s e c t i o n 8 f o r any purpose ot h e r than farm use, except as p e r m i t t e d by t h i s Act or the - 1 2 5 -r e g u l a t i o n s or by order of the commission upon such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as the commission may impose."31 The remainder of S e c t i o n 10 e l a b o r a t e s on and c l a r i f i e s the r e s t r i c t i o n s pursuant t o the above sub-s e c t i o n and e s t a b l i s h e s the requirements of the m u n i c i p a l a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r s , the l a n d r e g i s t r y o f f i c e , and other b o d i e s and persons under the A c t . These requirements were q u i t e s i m i l a r t o those e s t a b l i s h e d under O r d e r - i n -C o u n c i l 157. N e g l e c t i n g S e c t i o n 11 f o r the moment, S e c t i o n 12 e s t a b l i s h e d the a d d i t i o n a l powers of the Commission w i t h r e s p e c t to a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d d e s i g n a t e d as an a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . The powers g e n e r a l l y were r e -l a t e d to the Commission's a c t i v i t i e s with r e g a r d to the encouragement of farm v i a b i l i t y and the h a n d l i n g of l a n d a c q u i r e d by the Commission. I t i s ve r y important to note t h a t these powers and r e g u l a t i o n s d e a l t o n l y with l a n d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s and d i d not p e r t a i n t o the l a n d d e s i g n a t e d i n any of the other t h r e e r e s e r v e s . • -Any a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was to be exempted from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e i f , on December 21st, 1972, the h o l d i n g was l e s s t h a n two a c r e s (.8 h e c t a r e s ) i n area (Sec. 11, ss. l ) . I f a l e g a l non-farm use e x i s t e d s i x months p r i o r t o t h i s same date, i t was exempted from S e c t i o n 10 u n t i l t h e r e was a change i n use, a f u t u r e 'law' p r o h i b i t e d such use, the r e g u l a t i o n t h a t -126-allowed such a non-farming use i s withdrawn or e x p i r e s or i f the a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s d i s p o s e d of ( s o l d , l e a s e d and e t c ) (Sec. 11, ss. 2 & 3). The Commission would a l s o accept a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i s s i o n to use a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r a non-farm purpose and all o w , • r e f u s e , or e s t a b l i s h c o n d i t i o n s with r e s p e c t to the a p p l i c a t i o n . The Commission's d e c i s i o n was f i n a l . An ap p e a l c o u l d only be launched on a q u e s t i o n o f law or •excess of j u r i s d i c t i o n (Sec. 11, ss. 4 & 5). The Commission c o u l d make c a p i t a l improvements on i t s l a n d (Sec. 13), c o u l d pay a gr a n t i n l i e u of taxes to the a p p r o p r i a t e agency on commission l a n d (Sec. l 4 ) , and e s t a b l i s h , with the a p p r o v a l of the Lieu t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , a schedule of f e e s f o r v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s (Sec. 15). S e c t i o n 16 c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t no compensation would be p a i d with r e s p e c t t o the est a b l i s h m e n t o f any o f the f o u r r e s e r v e s . For the purposes of the Act, agreements with other b o d i e s c o u l d be,entered i n t o by the m i n i s t e r , s u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l o f the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l (Sec. 17), annual r e p o r t s must be submitted (Sec. 18) and the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d make v a r i o u s r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c a r r y i n g out the purpose of the Act (Sec. 1 9 ) . The Act would only be s u b j e c t to th r e e o t h e r p i e c e s of s t a t u t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n (Sec. 12, ss. l ) , and the Act d i d not harm the v a l i d i t y of m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l by-laws except when they c o n f l i c t e d with -127-the p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t , and i n t h a t case the by-law i s suspended and of no e f f e c t (Sec. 20, s s . 4 & 5 ) . Any o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Companies Act may a p p l y to the Commission as d e c l a r e d by the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l (Sec 20, s s . 8 ) . For the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s , the Commission was a p p r o p r i a t e d t w e n t y - f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s (Sec. 21, s s . 1 ) . Funds f o r a c q u i r i n g l a n d f o r the o t h e r r e s e r v e s c o u l d a p p r o p r i a t e l y be o b t a i n e d from the Green B e l t P r o t e c t i o n Fund Act, the A c c e l e r a t e d Park Development Fund Act or any o t h e r A c t . (Sec. 21, s s . 2 ) . i i ) Proposed Accomplishments In defense of B i l l 4-2 the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g accomplishments t h a t would be a c h i e v e d i f B i l l 42 was passed.3 2 1. G r e a t l y c u r t a i l f u r t h e r l o s s of prime farm l a n d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. S t a b i l i z e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d base so t h a t improvement programs designed to improve farm income a r e not f r i t t e r e d away to h o u s i n g and o t h e r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. These i n c l u d e i r r i g a t i o n systems, farm development l o a n s , d y k i n g and drainage systems to mention but a few. 3. Guarantee the people of B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t we w i l l not be h e l p l e s s l y dependent on o t h e r s f o r our f o o d supply. The cheapest source of f o o d capable of p r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, w i l l u s u a l l y be d e r i v e d from l o c a l s o u r c e s . 4. R e i n f o r c e the e f f o r t s of those c i t i z e n s s e r v i n g on Municipal, C o u n c i l s , R e g i o n a l -128-Boards , P l a n n i n g Committees who share our s e r i o u s c o n c e r n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farm l a n d i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . 5. Improve, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r young people t o enter f a r m i n g . T h i s w i l l occur through b e i n g a b l e to l e a s e Crown owned farms and i n some s i t u a t i o n s , depending on experience, a b l e to c a r r y through w i t h purchase of a farm. 6. P r o t e c t the q u a l i t y o f the environment by c r e a t i o n of green b e l t r e s e r v e s some w i l l be comprised o f farm l a n d s . 7. Park l a n d r e s e r v e and Land Bank r e s e r v e are i n c l u d e d and a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . 3. THE CONTROVERSY I t i s probably q u i t e s a f e to say t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h e r e was a h i g h degree of unanimity throughout the P r o v i n c e and among most people w i t h the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f B i l l 42. The n e c e s s i t y o f p r e s e r v i n g farmland from urban sprawl was r e a d i l y accepted.33 I n f a c t , t h r e e p a r t i e s i n the 1972 P r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n had p o l i c i e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f farmland; the f o u r t h p a r t y , the incumbent S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y , campaigned p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s o f a 34 continuance o f i t s past performance. Farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n was proposed by the L i b e r a l P a r t y through the est a b l i s h m e n t of an " A g r i c u l t u r a l Lands T r u s t " which would purchaseethe development r i g h t s o f fa r m l a n d from farmers to "preserve farm l a n d s from i l l - c o n s i d e r e d s p e c u l a t i o n and l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n and development ."-35 The -129-P r o g r e s s l v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s p r o p o s a l c e n t e r e d on the use of " l o n g range and s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g ... so t h a t the b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s In f a c t used f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , and i s not wasted on o t h e r purposes through the l a c k of planning". 3 6 A S was r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter V, and a f a c t o r which s t i m u l a t e d B i l l 42, the New Democratic P a r t y advanced a ' l a n d z o n i n g programme' aimed a t the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Lane f e e l s t h a t the government b e l i e v e d t h a t they were a c t i n g r e l a t i v e l y i n n o c u o u s l y i n i n t r o d u c i n g B i l l 42 - w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of the i s s u e of compensation. Here the government expected c r i t i c i s m -but not n e a r l y as much as d i d occur nor on the v a r i e t y of t o p i c s . 3 ? i n r e f e r r i n g t o the e v o l v i n g c o n t r o v e r s y , Fotheringham r e p o r t s t h a t he " d e t e c t e d a c e r t a i n s o c i a l i s t impatience w i t h d e t a i l , the o l d • t r u s t - u s - b e c a u s e - o u r - h e a r t s - a r e - p u r e ' assumption, because s u r e l y we must get on w i t h the t a s k o f s a v i n g the w o r l d . Both those opposed t o , and those s u p p o r t i n g the B i l l agree t h a t the N.D.P. d i d not s u f f i c i e n t l y prepare the people of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r B i l l 42 and t h a t i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n was p o o r l y handled. With r e f e r e n c e to the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the government's l a n d a c t , and s h o r t l y a f t e r the March I 5 i 1973 p r o t e s t -130-march on the L e g i s l a t u r e , the Premier was quoted as s a y i n g ; "Sure, .we're going to have to stand back and take a l o o k f o r a b i t . I t ' s been bad p . r . Lousy p . r . We d i d n ' t e x p l a i n t h i n g s . That's o b v i o u s . We know t h a t now. Lousy p . r . We j u s t f i g u r e d t h a t a l l those people out t h e r e -he mentions names on o p p o s i t i o n benches -who've been on m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s knew e x a c t l y what we were t r y i n g to do w i t h the l a n d b i l l . They know - but t h e y ' r e not speaking up. T hat's OK, I guess. That's p o l i t i c s . We were n a i v e . We d i d n ' t prepare the p u b l i c f o r what we were t r y i n g t o do."39 i ) 'A T i d a l Wave of F e a r ' A f t e r the N.D.P. took o f f i c e i n the F a l l of 1972, a ' m i n i - s e s s i o n ' o f the L e g i s l a t u r e was h e l d . The 1973 S p r i n g - s e s s i o n , i n which B i l l 42 was i n t r o d u c e d , was the f i r s t f u l l s i t t i n g s i n c e the e l e c t i o n . Although d e f y i n g o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s , f e a r appears to have been of s i g n i f i c a n t importance i n s t i m u l a t i n g the tremendous o u t c r y of c r i t i c i s m which emerged a f t e r the I n t r o d u c t i o n of the government's l a n d a c t . The c o n t r o v e r s y a r o s e not o n l y because t h i s somewhat ambiguous B i l l d e a l t w i t h l a n d (an i n h e r e n t l y sensitive*.-, s u b j e c t ) but, Lane suggests, a l s o because the l e g i s l a t i o n was Introduced by a new government w i t h a d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g y than the p r e v i o u s S o c i a l C r e d i t government and as a r e s u l t , was met w i t h a t i d a l wave o f f e a r . T h i s f e a r - mainly of the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x p r o p r i a t i o n and the e f f e c t and extent of the d e s i g n a t e d r e s e r v e s .- had a f a n t a s t i c e f f e c t on a g r e a t many people. The p r e s s -- 1 3 1 -from i t s p o s i t i o n as g e n e r a l i s t s - d i d l i t t l e to thwart the f e a r t h a t a rose. For those people who f e l t a f f e c t e d or concerned w i t h the B i l l and wanted an unbiased o p i n i o n of i t s c o n t e n t s , the l o g i c a l source would be the knowledgeable t e c h n i c i a n s - the lawyers. Yet, Lane p o i n t s out, a t the annual meeting of B r i t i s h Columbia lawyers d e a l i n g w i t h m u n i c i p a l and r e a l e s t a t e law, t h e r e u s u a l l y i s no more than twenty people at the meetings and the minutes on l y reach another 2 0 0 lawyers. I n f a c t , Lane s p e c u l a t e s , t h e r e are probably o n l y about s i x lawyers i n the P r o v i n c e 40 t h a t c o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o as s p e c i a l i s t s i n l a n d law. I t w i l l probably never be c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d whether the emotional.statements made by o p p o s i t i o n M.L.A.'s and v a r i o u s o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s were provoked by a r e a l f e a r of s o c i a l i s m or i f they were c o n j u r e d up because of p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l reasons. A f t e r r e -v i e w i n g the l e g i s l a t i v e debates i n Hansard and the o p p o s i t i o n remarks which choked the p r e s s from l a t e F ebruary to m i d - A p r i l of 1973, one must e i t h e r g a i n a g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r the c u l t u r a l v a l u e . o f landownership (and f e e l i n g s f o r l a n d In g e n e r a l ) which are i n s t i l l e d i n people, or the o p p o s i t i o n was u s i n g the i s s u e as a stage upon which to l a u n c h an a n t i - s o c i a l i s t a t t a c k on the New Democratic P a r t y Government. The ' m i n i - s e s s i o n ' i n the F a l l of 1 9 7 2 d e a l t mainly w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n o l d age pensions and minimum wage -132-r e g u l a t l o n s . These were ha r d l y the i s s u e s upon which the p a r t i e s o f the r i g h t could a s s a u l t N.D.P. p o l i c y and expect to g a i n p u b l i c support f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . The Land Commission A c t was, however, p r e c i s e l y the m a t e r i a l upon which the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s c o u l d i n i t i a t e an o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t the Government. The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f e l t t h a t some of the statements made d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were based on an a c t u a l study of the B i l l and were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d informed and o f a c o n s t r u c t i v e nature. They r a t h e r p o l i t e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t o t h e r o p i n i o n was based on m i s - i n f o r m a t i o n , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and was sometimes d e l i b e r a t e l y m i s l e a d i n g . i i ) The R e a c t i o n The day a f t e r B i l l 4-2 was i n t r o d u c e d on February 23rd, 1973, S o c i a l C r e d i t house l e a d e r Frank R i c h t e r sent a telegram t o Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the B i l l was " i n t o t a l an unprecedented example of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n denying i n every r e s p e c t the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n the Canadian B i l l of R i g h t s . " The arguments were not u n l i k e those t h a t s u r f a c e d d u r i n g the Socreds non-confidence motion of February 2nd, 1973- On the same day, the p r e s i d e n t of the newly formed B.C. Landowners' A s s o c i a t i o n t h r e a t e n e d t h a t people he had t a l k e d to were "almost at the point o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y t a c t i c s r i g h t now" and t h a t " v i o l e n c e i s n ' t f a r away." The past p r e s i d e n t of the B.C. F r u i t - 1 3 3 -Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o f e l t t h a t "outraged farmers are ready to r e s o r t t o m i l i t a n t a c t i o n t o show the. 4? depth of t h e i r anger." ^ D e r r i l Warren, Leader of the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s launched h i s a t t a c k on the B i l l with a r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e newspaper advertisement e n t i t l e d ' T h i s land i s (NOT) 43 your l a n d ' . Warren a l s o went on an over 4,800 k i l o m e t r e , 3 0 meeting province-wide campaign denouncing B i l l 42 as "abusive l e g i s l a t i o n i n th a t i t . . . . h a s - t h e power to e x p r o p r i a t e any l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e . " ^ Warren, who was.not a member of the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly a l s o c h a l l e n g e d A g r i c u l t u r a l M i n i s t e r Dave S t u p i c h to r e s i g n h i s Nanaimo seat and run a g a i n s t him i n a b y - e l e c t i o n on the i s s u e of B i l l 42. S t u p i c h ' r e s p e c t -45 f u l l y ' d e c l i n e d the o f f e r . J Prom Ottawa, John Diefenbaker a l s o j o i n e d i n the o p p o s i t i o n o f the B i l l . He c a l l e d on J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Otto Lang t o use the power of r e s e r v i n g r o y a l a s s e n t to the l e g i s l a t i o n , so t h a t even i f passed by the B r i t i s h 46 Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e i t would not take e f f e c t . L i b e r a l l e a d e r David Anderson c a l l e d the Land Commission Act • d i c t a t o r i a l ' and added t h a t " t h i s government's r e c o r d i s such t h a t we cannot t r u s t them, and t h i s B i l l shows why. W.A.C. Benett flew home on March 2 n d , 1 9 7 3 from South A f r i c a , c u t t i n g short a 2% month v a c a t i o n . He immediately p r o c l a i m e d that " S o c i a l i s m i s now i n f u l l f l o o d i n B.C." and demanded t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n - 1 3 4 -be c a l l e d f o r t h w i t h . He warned t h a t "no house i s s a f e , no b u s i n e s s i s s a f e " because i f you "are going 48 to a t t a c k freedom, you always a t t a c k l a n d " . During the second r e a d i n g of the B i l l t Don P h i l l i p s (S.C. - South Peace R i v e r ) h e l d the f l o o r of the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r over 12 hours as the Socreds s u c c e s s f u l l y extended the debate i n the house u n t i l a f t e r the p r o t e s t march on March 1 5 t h . 4 9 The march, o r g a n i z e d p r i m a r i l y by the B.C.F.A., expected to have between 2 , 0 0 0 and 4 , 0 0 0 farmers p l u s 3 , 0 0 0 marchers m o b i l i z e d by the B.C. Landowners' A s s o c i a t i o n . The marchers were a l s o t o be j o i n e d by members of the newly formed Stamp Out S o c i a l i s m (S.O.S.) group.-5° The n o n - v i o l e n t march drew approximately 2 , 5 0 0 people to V i c t o r i a to p r o t e s t the Government's l a n d a c t . A f i n a l example of the emotional f e r v o u r t h a t erupted d u r i n g the debate on the B i l l i s a telegram sent to the Queen a t Buckingham P a l a c e , a s k i n g her to w i t h o l d r o y a l a s s e n t from the B i l l . ' A s i m i l a r telegram was sent to the Lieutenant-Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia,and the Governor-General of Canada from 15 'prominent' Langley a r e a c i t i z e n s , i n c l u d i n g the Mayor of Langley D i s t r i c t and former Langley M.L.A. Hunter V o g e l . ^ 1 From F e b r u a r y 24th 1973, two days a f t e r B i l l 42 was i n t r o d u c e d , u n t i l A p r i l 24th, a t o t a l o f 64 ' l e t t e r s - t o - t h e - e d i t o r • were r e e e l v e d by the Vaneouver - 1 3 5 -Sun and The P r o v i n c e c o n c e r n i n g B i l l 42. With on l y 50 p u b l i s h i n g days d u r i n g t h i s two month p e r i o d , the Vancouver d a i l i e s averaged more than one l e t t e r each day. The middle two weeks of March were the most a c t i v e . I n t o t a l , f o u r l e t t e r s can be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g n e u t r a l , 20 were d e f i n i t e l y a g a i n s t the B i l l (31.25$), and 40 (62.5$) of the l e t t e r s were i n f a v o u r of the Government's l a n d p o l i c y . The volume of l e t t e r s on t h i s one i s s u e i n i t s e l f r e v e a l s the importance g i v e n the matter. Although t h i s source i s a r a t h e r crude i n d i c a t i o n of p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to the B i l l , i t does tend to show a d e f i n i t e t r e n d of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . i i i ) Sources of C o n t r o v e r s y The most v i s i b l e group opposing the B i l l , as i n d i c a t e d from the r e a c t i o n above, was the o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c i a n s i n c l u d i n g a number of q u i t e v o c a l former M.L.A's who had l o s t the e l e c t i o n s i x months b e f o r e . L i k e the p o l i t i c i a n s , the B.C.F.A., which r e p r e s e n t s the v a s t m a j o r i t y of commercial farmers, a l s o used the i s s u e as a stage In order to enunciate t h e i r views and emphasize the problems of farming. I n r e c o g n i t i o n of the p l i g h t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y and moret i m p o r t a n t l y the farmer h i m s e l f , one c o u l d h a r d l y blame the B.C.F.A. f o r t a k i n g such a s t a n c e . U n l i k e most other groups, the farming community would be d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d and t h e r e f o r e had much more to l o s e -136-through poor l e g i s l a t i o n and much more to g a i n I f good l e g i s l a t i o n was passed. As a p r e s s u r e group the B.C.F.A. was extremely c r e d i b l e . D e s p i t e the 'march on the L e g i s l a t u r e ' , the B.C.F.A., through i t s B r i e f s , g e n e r a l l y c o n f i n e d i t s a t t a c k to the l e g i s l a t i o n I t s e l f and d i d not expand i t s e n e r g i e s on a f i g h t a g a i n s t the p u r p o r t e d ' e v i l s o f s o c i a l i s m ' . Although some of the i s s u e s the B.C.F.A. r a i s e d were i n h i n d s i g h t unwarrented ( i . e . e x p r o p r i a t i o n ) , t h e i r main t h r u s t was a g a i n s t s e c t i o n 16 o f the B i l l which d i d not r e c o g n i z e any harmful e f f e c t s to l a n d through d e s i g n a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e r e f u s e d the r i g h t of compensation. The f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n , passed a t the 36th annual c o n v e n t i o n o f the B.C.F.A. i n December o f 19691 r e v e a l s a v e r y c l o s e resemblance: between the f e e l i n g s of the p r o v i n c e ' s commercial farmers and the r e a s o n i n g behind and g o a l s of B i l l 42. The f o l l o w -i n g p o i n t s were made by the B.C. F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n support o f the r e s o l u t i o n : - i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to p r e s e r v e l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes on the f r i n g e s of urban development. -farmers f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t - f r e q u e n t l y i m p o s s i b l e -to s e l l t h e i r farms as economic u n i t s f o r economic purposes. - a l l a v a i l a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d should be r e t a i n e d f o r f o o d p r o d u c t i o n and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of green b e l t s . - p r e s e r v a t i o n of such a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s beyond the means o f l o c a l governments. -137-Th e r e s o l u t i o n , number 20, r e a d as f o l l o w s : " I t i s R e solved t h a t - The p r o v i n c i a l government be r e q u e s t e d to e s t a b l i s h an A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission which would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n o f any a g r i c u l t u r a l l y zoned farmland a t e x i s t i n g market l e v e l s i n the areas concerned where a farm owner i s unable to or does not d e s i r e to c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g and Is unable to s e l l h i s farm as an economic u n i t f o r farm purposes, and l e a s e such l a n d f o r farm purposes."52 W i t h i n t h i s r e s o l u t i o n the demand f o r compensation a t market v a l u e i s q u i t e c l e a r and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the B.C.F.A.*s most f o r c e f u l argument a g a i n s t B i l l 42. D e s p i t e the c o n c e r n w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l community, the Government f e l t the main source of o p p o s i t i o n came from persons or companies h o l d i n g l a n d f o r s p e c u l a t i v e purposes on the urban f r i n g e i n both the Lower Mainland and i n the Okanagan. T h i s was not the o p i n i o n of the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s which gave the i m p r e s s i o n , through the p r e s s , t h a t the •farmers were up In arms* over B i l l 42. H a r o l d S t e v e s , New Democrat MLA from Richmond, argued i n the L e g i s l a t u r e . t h a t t h i s was not the case. Steves s a i d t h a t n e a r l y a l l the farmers who came from Richmond on March 1 5 t h to demonstrate on the L e g i s l a t u r e s teps a g a i n s t B i l l 42 were major l a n d owners who had been t r y i n g to get t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d rezoned. He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t a f t e r c h e c k i n g the p o s t a l meter r e g i s t r a t i o n s , he found t h a t many of the "Stop B i l l 42" p o s t c a r d s he r e c e i v e d were mailed by people working f o r -138-development, r e a l e s t a t e and b u i l d i n g supply companies. Steves added t h a t twenty-two p o s t c a r d s came from David Dawson Agencies L t d . alone which he c l a i m e d c o n t r o l s 2 5 per cent of a l l development i n Richmond, 53 a n ( i y e t , o f the s e v e r a l hundred l e t t e r s and p o s t c a r d s he r e c e i v e d o b j e c t i n g to the l e g i s l a t i o n , o n l y t h r e e were from bona f i d e f a r m e r s . J Don Lewis, a farmer and N.D.P. backbencher, supported Steves' c l a i m and s a i d t h a t farmers i n h i s r i d i n g of Shuswap were 4 to 1 i n f a v o u r of the B i l l . 5 5 S t u p i c h a l s o f e l t the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the v a s t numbers of B.C. farmers opposed the l a n d a c t was d e c e p t i v e . " I f you use the d e f i n i t i o n t h a t a farmer i s anyone with an acre of l a n d who produces $ 5 0 worth of s a l e a b l e produce a year, t h e r e a r e 18 , 0 00 farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Only h a l f t h a t number however, produce more than $ 2 , 5 0 0 worth of s a l e a b l e produce. I n o t h e r words, the other 9 , 0 0 0 a r e people who own f a r m l a n d but o b v i o u s l y make t h e i r l i v i n g i n o t h e r ways. A l o t of the o p p o s i t i o n has come from these p e o p l e . " 5 ^ Wilkinson u pheld the Government's view and f i r m l y s t a t e d t h a t , "the commercial farmer was not the main f o r c e a g a i n s t the A c t . The s t r o n g a t t a c k on the l e g i s l a t i o n was p r i n c i p a l l y prompted by persons h o l d i n g l a n d c l o s e to urban expansion a r e a s f o r s p e c u l a t i v e r easons, f o l l o w e d by f i r m s and i n d i v i d u a l s o b t a i n i n g t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from l a n d development . " 5 7 -139-I n f u r l a t e d by the B i l l ' s o p p o s i t i o n , Highways M i n i s t e r Bob Strachan, w h i l e speaking t o a group of i n s u r a n c e agents, remarked that o p p o s i t i o n to the l a n d a c t " i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of the h y s t e r i a whipped up by some h o t l i n e bigmouths who are g e t t i n g h y s t e r i c a l about t h e i r r a t i n g s , and some p o l i t i c i a n s who are s t i l l mad they d i d n ' t win the l a s t e l e c t i o n . D e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the source of o p p o s i t i o n to B i l l j+2, the farmers through the B.C.F.A. have not c o n t i n u e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n which the r i g h t wing p a r t i e s f e l t was so apparent d u r i n g F e b r u a r y and March of 1973* I n two b r i e f s from the B.C.F.A. concerned w i t h p r o p o s a l s f o r the betterment o f a g r i c u l t u r e , one p r e s e n t e d i n August and the o t h e r r e l e a s e d i n December of 1973? t h e r e was not one condescending word a g a i n s t the Land Commission A c t . A number of groups v o i c e d t h e i r support and o p p o s i t i o n towards the B i l l d u r i n g the e a r l y two months of debate (see Appendix D ). G e n e r a l l y , environmental, labou r and two farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s supported the B i l l w h i l e o p p o s i t i o n came from r e a l e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s , a g r i c u l t u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a n t i - s o c i a l i s t g r o u p s c The c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding t h i s s i n g l e p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n was i n t e n s e . The Government, f o r i t s r a t h e r poor e f f o r t s i n p r e p a r i n g the p u b l i c f o r the B i l l , can be h e l d i n i t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the u n r e s t which the l e g i s l a t i o n caused. The New Democratic P a r t y -140-members would however, be q u i c k to p o i n t out t h a t once the debate began t o e v o l v e , I t was the o p p o s i t i o n members i n the L e g i s l a t u r e and other key f i g u r e s and groups t h a t encouraged discontentment, o f t e n - i n the N.D.P. o p i n i o n - u n n e c e s s a r i l y . On March 2 6 , 1973 the Premier spoke i n the L e g i s l a t u r e i n defense of the B i l l . The p r e s s r e f e r r e d t o h i s speech as a " s l a s h i n g a t t a c k on the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s f o r f a l l i n g t o propose p o s i t i v e amendments." ( t o B i l l 4-2,) I n p a r t i c u l a r , B a r r e t t accused o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r W.A.C. Bennett of " p r e a c h i n g anarchy" and s i n g l e d out D e r r i l Warren f o r " r a b b l e - r o u s i n g . . . . t h e lowest form of p o l i t i c s I've witnessed. " 5 9 Viewing the c o n t r o v e r s y from a much l e s s emotional stance, and a f t e r almost a year, the Chairman of the Land Commission made the f o l l o w i n g remarks; " I r o n i c a l l y , the g r e a t f u r o r which a r o s e on the o c c a s i o n o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42 has served a v e r y v a l u a b l e r o l e of making the p u b l i c aware of a s i t u a t i o n which had been countenanced almost u n n o t i c e d f o r decades. The f a c t t h a t these measures c o i n c i d e d w i t h a n a t i o n a l and w o r l d f o o d shortage t o g e t h e r w i t h a renewed concern f o r unplanned p o p u l a t i o n growth has served a g r i c u l t u r e v e r y w e l l . " 6 0 - l 4 l -FOOTNOTES 1. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n 4/7'3. 2. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , News Release, December 22, 1972. 3. 'Farm f r e e z e sparks v o t e 1 , Vancouver Sun, February 3, 1973. 4. 'Farmers want h i g h e r p r i c e s . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, December 8, 1972. 5« B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission, Land Commission Act  Handbook (B.C.L.C., Burnaby, 1973) document I-d. 6. B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , B r i e f : to the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l of the Government of B.C. r e g a r d i n g P r o p o s a l s  f o r Improving the B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r y , December 18, 1972, p. 1-2. 7. The B.C.F.A. have, i n t h e i r V i c t o r i a o f f i c e , a l a r g e •scrapbook' with v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , b r i e f s , press r e l e a s e s . and newspaper c l i p p i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h the Land Commission • A c t . When r e f e r e n c e i s made to t h i s source i t w i l l be c i t e d as - B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e . 8. B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , p. 5. 9. I b i d , p. 9-10. 'Stupich says....', The P r o v i n c e , January 15, 1973. 11. Nanaimo D a l l y Free P r e s s , January 18, 1973* 12. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n . 4/73 13. T a x a t i o n Act, Chapter 376, R.S.B.C. I960, Sec. 2. 14. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n , 19/73-15. S t u p i c h , David D., M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , Farm Land  P r e s e r v a t i o n (a l e t t e r to M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , February 16, 1973) p. 16. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 6, 197^-17. Baxter, p. 24 (from Pearson N., Documents p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a p p e a l s , J a n uary 24, 1974; Land Commission F i l e s ) . 18. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 6, 197^. 19. .'Farm f r e e z e sparks v o t e ' , Vancouver Sun, February' 3. 1973* 20. I b i d , February 3, 1973-21. ' I n c e n t i v e s f o r Farmers Urged' Vancouver Sun, February 3, 1973--142-22. Environment and Land DBe Act, Chapter 17, R.S.B.C. 1971, Sec. 6. 23. ' I n c e n t i v e s f o r farmers urged*, Vancouver Sun, February 3, 1973-24. 'Farm f r e e z e sparks v o t e * , Vancouver Sun, February 3, 1973* 25- The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the Land Commission Act w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as B i l l 42 or simply the B i l l . The f i n a l d r a f t of the Act which i s now law w i l l be noted as the Land Commission Act or the A c t . Reference to other l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be a l l u d e d t\o by i t s f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n . 26. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Debates of the  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly - Hansard, February 22, 1973-27. 'Farmers must w a i t . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, February 23, 1973-28. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B i l l 42: Land Commission  Act Background Paper, March 8, 1973, P- 4-5. 29- Land Commission Act Handbook, document I - i 30. W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 15, 1974 31. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, B i l l 42, February 22, 1973, Sec. 10(1). 32. Background Paper, p. 5-6. 33. Arcus, p. 2. 34. B a x t e r , p; 13. (from: S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, P o l i c i e s f o r People, j p . 26. source: Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Pamphlets D i v i s i o n ) . 35. I b i d , p. 13. .(from: L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B.C., "David Anderson f o r Premier: The P l a t f o r m of the L i b e r a l P a r t y . . . " Vancouver Sun August 26, 1972. 36. I b i d , p. 13- (from: P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e Assoc-i a t i o n of B . C . , ' P o l i c y P r o p o s a l s . . . . ' Vancouver, P.C.A.B.C. , 1972, p. 30. 37. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 6, 1974. 38. 'Fotheringham', Vancouver Sun, March 17, 1973-39. I b i d , March 17, 1973--143-40. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 6, 1974. 41. Background Paper, p. 5-42. 'Land Act v i o l a t e s b i l l of r i g h t s ' , Vacouver Sun, February 23, 1973-43. 'This l a n d i s (NOT) your l a n d ' , Vancouver Sun. March 3, 1973-44. 'Warren opens B.C. crusade'.Vancouver Sun, March 5. 1973-45. 'Warren dares S t u p i c h ' , The P r o v i n c e . March 10, 1973-46. ' B l o c k B . C . a c t Lang...', The Globe and M a l l . March 9, 1973-47. 'Anderson t e l l s b u l l . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, March l4, 1973-48. 'No house s a f e . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, March 3, 1973. 49. ' P h i l l i p s hammers l a n d a c t . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, March 14, 1973-50. ' S t u p i c h defends l a n d b i l l . . . . ' , The P r o v i n c e , March 10, 1973-51. 'Land b i l l : opponent s ask Queen....', Vancouver Sun, March 20, 1973-52. B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , Report: 36th Annual Convention, December 2 and 3. 1969, R e s o l u t i o n #20. 53. 'Developers c h i e f l a n d a c t f o e s ' , Vancouver Sun, March 23, 1973-54. 'Suburban spread ', Toronto S t a r , A p r i l l4, 1973-55. 'Farmer group h i t . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, March 24, 1973-56. 'Land-use c o n t r o l s : B.C....', Toronto S t a r . A p r i l 14, 1973-57. W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 15, 1974. 58. ' H y s t e r i a Whipped up....'.-Vancouver Sun. March 13, 1973-59. 'Bennett preaches anarchy....', Vancouver Sun, March 27, 1973/ 60. Lane, W.T., The Land Commission and I t s S i g n i f i c a n c e  To B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e (Speech to the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , December 5, 1973) P« 4. CHAPTER VI] THE ISSUES AND AMENDMENTS 1.THE ISSUES B i l l hi was a t t a c k e d on many f r o n t s . The f o l l o w i n g w i l l be a b r i e f review of what c o u l d be termed 'ge n e r a l or minor i s s u e s ' advanced d u r i n g the p u b l i c ( l e g i s l a t i v e ) and p r i v a t e debates c o n c e r n i n g the 'land a c t ' . F o l -lowing t h i s w i l l be a l i s t of the major i s s u e s which ar o s e . The source or sources w i l l not g e n e r a l l y be s p e c i f i e d but the 'Issue l i s t ' was compiled through an examination of v a r i o u s speeches, press c l i p p i n g s , Hansard, r e p o r t s , b r i e f s , correspondence and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . The major i s s u e s w i l l be f u r t h e r expanded upon and a n a l y s e d through an examination of the Land  Commission A c t , i t s amendments, and through the o p i n i o n s of 'informed' i n d i v i d u a l s . i ) General I s s u e s A r i s i n g From B i l l 4-2's I n t r o d u c t i o n I n i t i a l l y , as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , the B i l l was noted as b e i n g c o n t r a r y to the BILL OF RIGHTS. To withdraw B i l l 4-2 on these grounds would plac e i n jeopardy a l l z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-laws i n the P r o v i n c e . With the e x c e p t i o n of John D i e f e n b a k e r • s appeal to Otto Lang, t h i s i s s u e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y not maintained throughout the debates and a f t e r r e c e i v i n g h e a d l i n e s on the f r o n t page of the Vancouver Sun on' -144--145-February 23rd, 1 9 7 3 , the i s s u e 'dropped from s i g h t ' . A number o f g e n e r a l arguments were l e v e l l e d a t the B i l l which demonstrated the degree to which the i s s u e s themselves were p o l i t i c i z e d . The B i l l was denounced as being DICTATORIAL, AUTOCRATIC and FRIGHTENING. These comments were aroused through a f e e l i n g , among those opposed to the B i l l , t h a t PERSONAL FREEDOMS AND DEMOCRACY i t s e l f would be d e s t r o y e d through the enactment of the Government's la n d p o l i c i e s . These r a t h e r vague i s s u e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the much more s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to appeal procedures and the extent of the Commission's power. A t t a c k i n g the B i l l on the grounds that i t ' demonstrated the 'undemocratic nature' of the New Democratic P a r t y can be l i n k e d to more g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m which o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s (or p a r t y s u p p o r t e r s ) have f o s t e r e d t h a t condemn the N.D.P. as b e i n g f a c i s t and/or communist. B i l l 42 was a l s o a t t a c k e d on the grounds t h a t i t was DOCTRINAIRE SOCIALISM. Out of context the l e g i s l a t i o n can be viewed simply as a l a n d management t o o l - not u n l i k e z o n i n g ordinances i n many r e s p e c t s . At the same time the B i l l does not c o n t r a d i c t s o c i a l i s t t heory adhered to by the former C.C.F and present New Democratic P a r t y . I t can be s t r o n g l y s p e c u l a t e d that without t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n upon which the N.D.P. i s based, a l a n d a c t d i s p l a y i n g the s t r e n g t h - 1 4 6 -of c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the Land. Commlsslon Act does, would not have been enacted, by any oth e r p o l i t i c a l p arty i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1973- (See Chapter V ) . Attempting to denounce the B i l l by an a g g r e s s i v e condemnation of s o c i a l i s m probably weakened the o p p o s i t i o n ' s arguments and r e s u l t e d i n a r e a c t i o n by N.D.P. sup p o r t e r s , coming t o the defense of t h e i r maligned party and i t s p o l i c i e s through a f i r m en-dorsement of B i l l 42. T h i s i n p a r t e x p l a i n s the volume of l e t t e r s t o the e d i t o r s of the two Vancouver d a i l i e s on the s u b j e c t and the over 2 to 1 support f o r , r a t h e r than a g a i n s t the B i l l . T h i s r e a c t i o n tended to f u r t h e r p o l i t i c i z e the i s s u e s u n n e c e s s a r i l y . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t B i l l 42 would e f f e c t i v e l y DESTROY the Green B e l t P r o t e c t i o n Fund and the Acc-e l e r a t e d Park Development Fund. A f t e r the Commission's f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n t h i s has c e r t a i n l y not been the case. The Commission's a c t i v i t i e s w i l l probably support and enhance, through b e t t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n , both of these funds. I t was argued, e s p e c i a l l y by the L i b e r a l p a r t y , t h a t FURTHER STUDIES - perhaps even a Royal Commission - should be e s t a b l i s h e d t o examine the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y i n t o t a l and t h a t we should have a ' l a n d i n v e n t o r y ' . I t was the N.D.P.'s impression t h a t the S o c i a l C r e d i t government had s t u d i e d without a c t i o n f o r twenty years and t h a t the Canada Land Inve n t o r y p r o v i d e d at l e a s t a base from which d e s i g n a t i o n -147-plans c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . The Government never envisaged the B i l l as an e n d - a l l to a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - but only as an important b e g i n n i n g . With r e f e r e n c e to S e c t i o n l 4 of B i l l 4-2 l o c a l . governments expressed concern that the Commission was p e r m i t t e d , but not r e q u i r e d , to make gr a n t s to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n l i e u of TAXES on p r o p e r t y i t might own. T h i s i s s u e was not c l a r i f i e d by the amendments and a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , the Commission's r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s matter had not been f i n a l i z e d . However, i n the case of Commission l a n d which i s l e a s e d back to a farmer, the lease, arrangement would probably i n c l u d e the payment of taxes by the l e s s e e . I n the case of l a n d owned, but not l e a s e d , the Commission w i l l f u l f i l i t s o b l i g a t i o n as the r e g i s t e r e d owner and through the g r a n t - i n - l i e u formula, r e m i t 3 payment to the a p p r o p r i a t e boay. i i ) Major I s s u e s A r i s i n g From B i l l 42*s I n t r o d u c t i o n Hopefully, the v a l i d i s s u e s t h a t arose d i d not f i n d t h e i r source i n m i s l e a d i n g statements. Rather, they were b a s i c problems which.deserve the s c r u t i n y o f a concerned p u b l i c . Not o n l y was the p u b l i c p o o r l y prepared f o r the Government's ' l a n d a c t ' but B i l l 42 was i n some i n s t a n c e s ambiguous and thereby open to m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of major misunderstandings and i s s u e s t h a t were c e n t r a l i n the c o n t r o v e r s y -148-of B i l l 42. 1. The Government was going to TAKE OR AFFECT ALL LAND. T h i s i n c l u d e d the arguments t h a t a farmer c o u l d not s e l l h i s p r o p e r t y , p r i v a t e l a n d ownership was dead, and p u b l i c freedom was harmed. 2. COMPENSATION should be p a i d f o r the d e v a l u a t i o n of p r o p e r t y p l a c e d i n a r e s e r v e . 3.. APPEAL procedures must be c l a r i f i e d and enhanced. 4. The MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS of zoning and p l a n n i n g were b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . R e l a t e d to t h i s was the c r i t i c i s m of government c e n t a l i z a t i o n and the l a c k of p u b l i c involvement. 5. EXPROPRIATION was i n c l u d e d i n the powers of the Commission. T h i s was c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i th i s s u e #1 and t h i s b e l i e f encouraged the f e a r t h a t the Commission c o u l d take a l l l a n d e i t h e r o u t r i g h t or through d e s i g n a t i o n . 6. The POWERS OF THE COMMISSION were s t r o n g l y a t t a c k e d and the B i l l was noted as govern-ment by r e g u l a t i o n . There was v a s t mis-i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the.Commission's r e g u l a t o r y powers. The term of o f f i c e , removal of . Commission members, development of f u r t h e r bureaucracy and the p o s s i b i l t y of p a r t y patronage were a l l l i s t e d as s p e c i f i c c o m p l a i n t s of the Commission. 7- URBAN HOUSING and LAND VALUES WOULD INCREASE. T h i s i n c l u d e d a b e l i e f t h a t there would be v e r y l i t t l e l a n d l e f t to develop f o r urban purposes a f t e r d e s i g n a t i o n and t h a t the development i n d u s t r y would.consequently be l e f t i m m o b i l i z e d . 2. AMENDMENTS As B i l l 42 had p r e v i o u s l y been, the amendments to the B i l l were c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t h e i r own r i g h t . The amendments c l a r i f i e d a number of the major i s s u e s but to many people they came up s h o r t . For the B.C.F.A. J -149-only e i g h t of t h e i r e i g h t e e n r e q u e s t e d changes were 4 Included. For s t i l l o t h e r s , the amendments, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , weakened the l e g i s l a t i o n to a p o i n t of being unworkable and what would have been a 'one-stop' government agency f o r l a n d use matters was not."' By March 7th, 1973i and two days before .the second r e a d i n g of B i l l 42 was to begin, the Government gave f i r m i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t was going to make major amend-ments to the B i l l . T h i s , a t l e a s t was the impression gained by e x e c u t i v e s of the B.C.F.A. who met with the Premier and A g r i c u l t u r a l M i n i s t e r on t h a t date. There was s p e c u l a t i o n , which w*~s enunciated by the o p p o s i t i o n , t h a t s e v e r a l of the N.D.P. backbenchers were e x p r e s s i n g r e s e r v a t i o n s about the l a n d a c t . Others,, h o w e v e r , : i n s i s t e d t h a t there was no need f o r changing the B i l l . ^ B e i n g a product o f the p o l i t i c a l arena, the mot-i v a t i n g f o r c e behind the N.D.P.'s d e c i s i o n to a l t e r B i l l 42 may never be f u l l y r e a l i z e d . Having been ' f o r c e d ' , because of a r a s h of s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s , to e f f e c t u a t e the farmland f r e e z e and subsequently h u r r y i n g to produce the Land Commission Act, the Government may have f u l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e i r i n i t i a l e f f o r t s would be f a u l t y and. would have to be amended i n due course. The day B i l l 42 was i n t r o d u c e d S t u p i c h s a i d t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d be viewed by the p u b l i c d u r i n g the summer and t h a t , "Any p o s s i b l e amendments.... -150-c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d a t the next s e s s i o n . " 7 Through the c o n t r o v e r s y , and o f t e n absurd, statements, the Government may have had t h e i r eyes g e n u i n e l y opened to some e r r o r s i n the l e g i s l a t i o n . However, the Government d e c i s i o n to amend the B i l l may q u i t e p o s s i b l y have been more p o l i t i c a l l y motivated than a s t r i v i n g f o r s t a t u t o r y p e r f e c t i o n . The Land Commission Act was news from coast to c o a s t . For the f i r s t time the s p o t l i g h t had controv-e r s i a l l y f a l l e n on B r i t i s h Columbia's new Government. The r i g h t wing, a n t i - s o c i a l i s t elements, w i t h i n the Province, were b a t t e r i n g away at the Government and i t s l a n d a c t . a t every c o n c e i v a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y . The methods were b e i n g t e s t e d . I f the B i l l ' s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e - of p r e s e r v i n g farmland - had not been so admirable, the Government may have, i f one c o u l d conceive of i t , met w i t h an even more v o c a l hue-and-cry; B a s i c a l l y the amendments to the B i l l were an e x e r c i s e i n c l a r i f i c a t i o n . (With two e x c e p t i o n s ) . R e a l i z i n g t h i s one suspects t h a t the Government was w i l l i n g to make amendments r a t h e r than appear stubborn, as l o n g as the fundamental o b j e c t i v e s of the B i l l were not harmed. The B i l l underwent f p r t y r-five hours and f o r t y minutes of debate d u r i n g i t s second r e a d i n g . Four hours a f t e r a p p r o v a l i n p r i n c i p l e was g i v e n to the B i l l , the Government's amendments were i n t r o d u c e d on March 28th, 1973• The Government was accused of -151-d e l i b e r a t e l y p o l a r i z i n g o p i n i o n s while w i t h h o l d i n g i t s Q amendments. S t u p i c h denied t h i s , s a y i n g that i t would be unreasonable to i n t r o d u c e amendments before the Government had g i v e n the o p p o s i t i o n an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s the B i l l . i ) The S i g n i f i c a n t Changes Ten of the twenty-two s e c t i o n s of B i l l 42 were a l t e r e d i n some way. Only S e c t i o n 8 and .Section 9 were s u b s t a n t i a l l y changed. In both of these cases there was a complete r e m o d e l l i n g done, but f o r the most p a r t , the numerous other a l t e r a t i o n s were f o r the purpose of c l a r i f y i n g s e c t i o n s of the B i l l t h a t had been c o n s i s t e n t l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , due p a r t i a l l y , at l e a s t , to the B i l l ' s own ambiguity. The former ma r g i n a l notes of S e c t i o n 8, of B i l l .4-2 s t a t e d " D e s i g n a t i o n of r e s e r v e s " and the same note i n the amended Act read " A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s " and i n themselves sum up the changes to t h i s S e c t i o n . Rather than simply s t a t i n g t h a t the Commission had the power to d e s i g n a t e and thereby e s t a b l i s h any of the f o u r r e s e r v e s as had been the case i n B i l l 42, the Act s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e s the way i n which a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s w i l l be c r e a t e d . By doing so the r e g i o n a l boards and m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s were g i v e n a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n c r e a t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e p l a n s . The r e g i o n a l board was r e q u i r e d by by-law to adopt an -152-a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve plan and before doing so had to hold a p u b l i c hearing in accordance to Sect ion 703 of the Munic ipal Act (Sec. 8, ss . 2 & 3). Although the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s of the Lower Mainland had t h e i r o f f i c i a l plans e s t a b l i s h e d , i t was thought that r e q u i r i n g l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n could mean a boon to those r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s that already had draf ted r e g i o n a l plans but were being held up i n adopting them because of pressure . f rom those not wanting r e s t r i c t i v e 9 zoning. The newly d r a f t e d and enlarged Sect ion 9 e s t a b l i s h e d appeal procedures w i t h i n the Act.. In summary an owner of land aggrieved by a designat ion could apply to have his land excluded from. the a g r i c u l t u r a l . ; land reserves (Sec. 9, s s . 2). Both of these r e v i s e d sections w i l l be more f u l l y discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g sec t ion of the paper which examines the major issues previously o u t l i n e d . Quite of ten the amendment i t s e l f q u el led the contro-versy.-- Where t h i s was not the case the v a l i d i t y of the issue w i l l be discussed f o r t h w i t h . i i ) The Major Issues Issue #1 - Take or A f f e c t A l l Land: The argument that arose concerning the Government's apparent i n t e n t i o n s to take or a f f e c t a l l land was d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the Commission's power to designate land into -153-the s p e c i f i e d land r e s e r v e s . The p e r p e t u a t i o n of t h i s point can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a Vancouver Sun a r t i c l e r e f e r r i n g t o the pre-aroended B i l l , "Under the land a c t a f i v e member commission would be giv e n the a u t h o r i t y t o d e s i g n a t e the use of any la n d i n the pr o v i n c e i n one of f o u r types of r e s e r v e s . " 1 0 N o t a t i o n should be made of the phrase "designate the use of any l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e . " T h i s 'use' aspect i s c l e a r l y , but wrongly, s t a t e d . The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of S e c t i o n 8 allowed.the Commission t o de s i g n a t e and thereby e s t a b l i s h r e s e r v e s but i m p o r t a n t l y , such r e s e r v e s , " s h a l l be su b j e c t to t h i s Act and the r e g u l a t i o n s . " ( S e c . 8). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the Commission was only g i v e n the power (through S e c t i o n s 10 and 12) to r e g u l a t e the use of l a n d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . Any oth e r powers d e a l t s t r i c t l y w i t h housekeeping matters and the purchase and d i s p o s i t i o n of p r o p e r t y . The problem of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s f u n c t i o n was c l e a r l y one of poor d r a f t i n g o f the B i l l and not one of devious i n t e n t i o n s by the Government.H The problem i n d r a f t i n g o c c u r r e d because the word d e s i g n a t i o n had two,quite d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s ; In the case of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s , p r i v a t e and crown l a n d c o u l d be s e l e c t e d (by an e s t a b l i s h e d method) by the Commission and p l a c e d i n a r e s e r v e and , i n e f f e c t , r e g u l a t e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to zoning. But the green b e l t , park l a n d , -154-and land bonk l a n d r e s e r v e s , when e s t a b l i s h e d would i n f a c t only c o n s i s t of ' l i n e s on a map*. There were no p r i v a t e r i g h t s a f f e c t e d . Although l a n d c o u l d be p l a c e d i n one of these t h r e e r e s e r v e s the procedure had no e f f e c t on the use - l o c a l z o ning r e g u l a t i o n s would s t i l l a p p ly. The Commission's r o l e would be to c o - o r d i n a t e the v a r i o u s landowners i n a r e s e r v e , and i n some cases a c q u i r e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i n o r d e r to h o l d 12 the l a n d i n i t s a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e r v e . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t l e s s than 7 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's l a n d area i s p r i v a t e l y h e l d , one would suspect - e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s removed from the h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d s e c t i o n s o f the P r o v i n c e - t h a t the Commission would be more o f t e n c o - o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i o n s of a number of Governmental a g e n c i e s , (e.g. Lands Branch and B.C. Hydro on same l a n d ) . The o p p o s i t i o n was probably t e c h n i c a l l y c o r r e c t i n s a y i n g t h a t the B i l l a llowed the Commission to p l a c e a l l l a n d i n t o one of the fo u r r e s e r v e s . S t u p i c h admit-t e d t h a t "the wording of the s e c t i o n (Sec. 8) s e t t i n g out f o u r k i n d s of l a n d r e s e r v e s i n the p r o v i n c e was c o n f u s i n g " ( i n B i l l 42) but he added, " I t ' s not the i n t e n t i o n to carve up the p r o v i n c e i n t o f o u r r e s e r v e s . " 1 3 The p r e s e r v a t i o n of each of the f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of l a n d use (Sec. 7) i s the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of the Land Commission A c t . The powers of d e s i g n a t i o n i s the instrument through which these ends can be ach i e v e d . Lane, b e t t e r than any other source, c l e a r l y e x p l a i n s : - 1 5 5 -the r e g u l a t o r y powers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e s i g n a t i o n . " I t should be noted, however, t h a t o n l y i n the case of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s the Com-m i s s i o n g i v e n any zoning or r e g u l a t o r y powers. In o t h e r words, onl y i n the case of land a c t u a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve are t h e r e any r e s t r i c t i o n s on the p r i v a t e use of p r i v a t e l a n d s f o r purposes incom p a t i b l e w i t h farming or a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s r e g u l a t o r y power i s to be found i n s e c t i o n 10 s u b s e c t i o n (1) of the Land  Commlsslon Act . I t i s important to note t h a t there i s no s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to green-b e l t l a n d , l a n d bank l a n d or park l a n d r e s e r v e s . Indeed, while the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s become p a r t of the a g r i c u l t u r e "land r e s e r v e a f t e r d e s i g n a t i o n , g r e e n b e l t , l a n d bank, and park lands become pa r t of a r e s e r v e o n l y a f t e r the Land Commission has a c q u i r e d the p r o p e r t y e i t h e r from the Crown or by purchase or g i f t from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . There i s no r e g u l a t o r y power In v o l v e d i n so f a r as the l a t t e r three r e s e r v e s are con-cerned. T h i s was the thought behind even the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of B i l l 42. Because of the understandable but g r o u n d l e s s concern expressed i n some q u a r t e r s on the i n t r o d u c -t i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n , an erroneous b e l i e f grew i n the minds of many people (and i s s t i l l h e l d by a few) t h a t the Land Commission can "zone" p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y f o r g r e e n b e l t , l a n d bank or park l a n d purposes. I want to make i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h i s never was nor p r e s e n t l y i s the case."1^ S e c t i o n 7 s u b s e c t i o n (2) of the Act was added i n t o t a l to the amended v e r s i o n of the B i l l . I t r e q u i r e d the Commission t o purchase or a c q u i r e - not by e x p r o p r i a t i o n _ any l a n d p r i o r to p l a c i n g i t i n a g r e e n b e l t , park land or l a n d bank r e s e r v e . Funct-i o n a l l y t h i s was not an a l t e r a t i o n t o the B i l l and i t d i d not, as Lane ma i n t a i n s , change the i n t e n t of the Act but was o n l y a p o i n t of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . -156-The c o n t e n t i o n by those opposed to the land a c t t h a t the Government's i n t e n t i o n s were to n a t i o n a l i z e l a n d and t h a t the d e s i g n a t i o n o f l a n d r e s e r v e s , r e -g a r d l e s s of r e f e r e n c e to B i l l 42 or the Act, was the means of s e c u r i n g t h i s end, were u n e q u i v o c a l l y f a l s e . Not o n l y can t h i s be supported through an a n a l y s i s of the l e g i s l a t i o n but h i s t o r i c a l l y the C.C.F.-N.D.P. have been opposed to the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l . Furthermore, t h i s p r i n c i p l e grew from a concern f o r the maintainance of the f a m i l y farm i n p r i v a t e hands. Issue #2 - Compensation: The q u e s t i o n of compensation being p a i d to l a n d owners f o r the p o s s i b l e d e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r l a n d through the d e s i g n a t i o n process was the c e n t r a l theme of the B.C.F.A.'s c r i t i c i s m of the B i l l . S e c t i o n 16 of B i l l 42 s t a t e d : "Land s h a l l be deemed not to be taken or i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by reason of the d e s i g n a -t i o n by the commission of t h a t l a n d as an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e , green b e l t l a n d r e s e r v e , l a n d bank l a n d r e s e r v e , or park l a n d r e s e r v e . " Since S e c t i o n 7(2) of the Act e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the l a t t e r t hree types of r e s e r v e s had to be purchased or acq-u i r e d before d e s i g n a t i o n , the Commission would of course not be w o r r i e d about the p o s s i b l e d e v a l u a t i o n of i t s own l a n d and t h e r e f o r e S e c t i o n l6 of the -157-Land Commission Act was as f o l l o w s : "Land s h a l l be deemed not to be taken or I n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by reason of the d e s i g n a t i o n by the commission of t h a t l a n d as an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . " In e f f e c t the Government stood f i r m on the q u e s t i o n of compensation throughout the c o n t r o v e r s y . The i s s u e of compensation i s of course c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the q u e s t i o n of unearned increment. Although t h e r e may be a growing tendency to condemn - a t l e a s t m o r a l l y - one's r i g h t t o a c q u i r e t h a t amount of the i n f l a t i o n i n l a n d v a l u e s which r e s u l t e d from p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s and subsequent, a c t i o n , the farmer, as the B.C.F.A. w i l l p o i n t out, i s thought to have a s p e c i a l case. The r i g h t of a farmer to s e l l h i s p r o p e r t y to the h i g h e s t b i d d e r i n order to secure a r e t i r e m e n t fund has been regarded as j u s t i f i a b l e i n l i g h t of the farmers' l o n g years of hard work which are o f t e n rewarded wi t h sub-standard e a r n i n g s . The problem i s of course not t h a t simple. I n a r e a s w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e p r o x i m i t y t o the urban f r i n g e the 'highest b i d d e r ' i n v a r i a b l y w i l l be a l a n d s p e c u l a t o r - d e v e l o p e r with l i t t l e i n t e n t i o n of u t i l i z i n g the l a n d f o r l o n g term a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. E s t a b l i s h i n g a formula f o r e q u i t a b l y paying compensation i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n which would hinder such a scheme. There appeared to be, i n some q u a r t e r s , a g e n e r a l assumption throughout the debate that paying -158-compensatlon would i n f a c t u n i v e r s a l l y a s s i s t a l l farmers. T h i s , however, was not the case i n the market p r i o r to the Act and most c e r t a i n l y would not be t r u e i f compensation was pa i d by the Government under the A c t . Those farmers l o c a t e d c l o s e t o the urban f r i n g e would q u i t e probably r e a l i z e s u b s t a n t i a l p r o f i t s w h i l e o t h e r s would not. C l e a r l y the paying o f compensation on the b a s i s of the market v a l u e of l a n d . i s a v e r y u n e q u i t a b l e means of a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n c e - ' i f t h i s i s what i t s advocates saw as the r o l e of compen-s a t o r y payment. W i l k i n s o n p o i n t s out t h a t a t r a n s a c t i o n has to occur before i t i s known i f l a n d has a c t u a l l y d e v a l u a t e d . "The danger i s th a t t r a n s a c t i o n s c o u l d have been made to occur which l e a d s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l a p p a r e n t l y a g g r i e v e d landowners c o u l d not be t r e a t e d a l i k e . n l $ I n 1972 D.G. T a y l o r , Mayor of Matsqui, r e l y i n g on h i s b e l i e f t h a t a farmer was e n t i t l e d to compensation, s t r o n g l y advocated the p u r c h a s i n g of the development r i g h t s of the farmers' p r o p e r t y . T h i s he f e l t c o u l d be done, "by n e g o t i a t i n g with the farmer and pur-c h a s i n g the development r i g h t s from him and a covenant be p l a c e d on the land t i t l e i n the name of the three l e v e l s of government.... i n p e r p e t u i t y . " T a y l o r ' s t h e o r y wr?s based on two assumptions - th a t l a n d i s a commodity and that the development r i g h t s must be n e g o t i a t e d from the farmer "who now holds them."^ -159-R e a l i z i n g the importance of l a n d - e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d - i t i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y q u e s t i o n e d whether s o c i e t y can a l l o w l a n d to have the s t a t u s of a commodity. T a y l o r a l s o f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the 'development r i g h t s ' of l a n d are c l e a r l y h e l d by the Crown and a d m i n i s t e r e d through i t s a g e n c i e s -not by any i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g an e s t a t e i n l a n d . H a r o l d Steves, (N.D.P. - Richmond) a student of farm economics, q u e s t i o n s the f e a s a b i l i t y of p u r c h a s i n g development r i g h t s . He s t a t e d t h a t i t would c o s t $200 b i l l i o n to $300 b i l l i o n to c a r r y out such a scheme P r o v i n c l a l l y , and, " I n the Lower Mainland a r e a alone, where t h e r e i s p a r t i c u l a r p r e s s u r e to s u b d i v i d e , i t would c o s t $80 - $100 b i l l i o n to purchase farmland development r i g h t s . Even i f a r e a s o n a b l e method of compensation c o u l d be d e v i s e d , i t s b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y would l a s t f o r o n l y a s i n g l e g e n e r a t i o n and would not s o l v e the more fundamental problems the i n d u s t r y i s f a c i n g . E n s u r i n g adequate income l e v e l s and d e v e l o p i n g a more u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e pension programme a r e but two types of programmes t h a t must be implemented to a c h i e v e a h i g h degree o f - s e c u r i t y 18 f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s of our farm p o p u l a t i o n . The l e g a l a s p e c t s of the compensation i s s u e was the crux upon which the Government based i t s p o l i c y , . The P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l of the Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n -160-narrowly passed a r e s o l u t i o n a s k i n g the Government to e i t h e r e x p r o p r i a t e l a n d o u t r i g h t or to g i v e a f a i r p r i c e f o r l a n d devalued by the law. M.L.A. and lawyer Gary Lauk (N.D.P. - Vancouver C e n t r e ) accused the c o u n c i l of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p and s a i d t h a t "every lawyer knows t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of no compensati of downzonlng i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n law and t h a t the r e s o l u t i o n of the c o u n c i l was counter to l e g a l 19 precedent." 7 I n support o f Lauk's c l a i m , the Vancouver C h a r t e r s e c t i o n 569(1) and the M u n i c i p a l Act s e c t i o n 706(1) both l e n d themselves as evidence t h a t " p r o p e r t y s h a l l be deemed not to be t a k e n or I n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by on r e a s o n o f the a d o p t i o n o f a zoning by-law....."^^ D e s p i t e the l e n g t h y debate over t h i s i s s u e , farmland as r e f e r r e d to above, has not c o n c l u s i v e l y been devalued by the implementation of the A c t . W i l k i n s o n r e l a t e s t h a t " A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d v a l u e s have remained h i g h i n s p i t e o f the l e g i s l a t i o n , thus d i s p r o v i n g the assumption they would be devalued. The thought i s now being, expressed-"that a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d v a l u e s may even a c c e l e r a t e f a s t e r than non-a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s now t h a t the s h o r t supply i s c l e a r l y known and understood."^1 Issue #3 - Appeal Procedures: C r i t i c s of B i l l 42 were concerned t h a t the -161-l e g i s l a t l o n d i d not a l l o w a landowner s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p e a l the d e c i s i o n s of the Gommlssion. T h i s , coupled w i t h the Commission's power to d e s i g n a t e and r e g u l a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s was s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r the Government's o p p o s i t i o n to p r o c l a i m the B i l l d i c t a t o r i a l . W i t h i n s e c t i o n 11 of the B i l l , a landowner c o u l d o n l y a p p l y to the Commission f o r exemption on the grounds of a non-conforming use or on a q u e s t i o n of law. The amendments to S e c t i o n 9 e s t a b l i s h e d the procedures f o r a p p e a l s f o r e x c l u s i o n from a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . A m u n i c i p a l i t y , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , the Commission, as w e l l as the C a b i n e t . i t s e l f , may r e q u e s t the L i eutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l to exclude; l a n d from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve.22 (Sec. 9,ss.l) E s s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l landowner a g g r i e v e d by a d e s i g n a t i o n by the Commission of h i s l a n d may apply to the Commission t o have h i s l a n d excluded from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . I f however the l a n d was zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l uses under a by-law of a m u n i c i p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t immediately p r i o r to December 21, 1972, the owner i s not e n t i t l e d to a p p l y d i r e c t l y t o the Commission, but must f i r s t be a u t h o r i z e d by a r e s o l u t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t o do so. (Sec. 9» ss.5)« ( P r o c e d u r a l l y an a p p l i c a t i o n to a p p e a l under the Land . Commission Act i s f i r s t r e c e i v e d " and'processed by the -162-R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ) . I f the a g g r i e v e d owner appeals to the Land Commission and i s not s a t i s f i e d with the d e c i s i o n of the Commission w i t h r e s p e c t to the proposed e x c l u s i o n of l a n d from an A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve, the. owner may f u r t h e r appeal to the Environment and Land Use Committee of C a b i n e t . The landowner may do t h i s o n l y however, i f the munici-p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n q u e s t i o n has a u t h o r i z e d the f u r t h e r appeal and i f g i v e n l e a v e to appeal by at l e a s t two members of the Land Commission.(Sec. 11, s s . 7 ) . Lane, Chairman of the Commission concludes t h a t , " I t i s not expected such 'leave* would be denied a person 23 i f there was any m e r i t i n the a p p l i c a t i o n . " ^ While the amendments p e r t a i n i n g t o appeals g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d the o p p o s i t i o n , o t h e r s f e l t the Act had been s u b s t a n t i a l l y weakened w i t h r e g a r d to the l a n d use r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n of the Commission. The q u e s t i o n can be viewed i n two d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . F i r s t l y , by a f f o r d i n g an i n d i v i d u a l the o p p o r t u n i t y t o appeal the Commission's d e s i g n a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , and p o s s i b l y c a r r y the appeal to the Environment and Land Use Committee, the Commission would come under more d i r e c t pressure to change the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve plans under the Act than under the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of B i l l 42. Secondly, however, the Commission's c a p a c i t y to preserve l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes c o n t i n u e s to - 1 6 3 -be many times g r e a t e r than the a b i l i t y o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s o p e r a t i n g under a r e g i o n a l p l a n . The s i n g l e most Important f u n c t i o n of the Commission i s t o save farmland f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n s however, have a m u l t i p l i c i t y of f u n c t i o n s to d e a l w i t h - o f t e n i n a c o m p e t i t i v e f a s h i o n . Through the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n t h e r e were, p r i o r to the Land Commission A c t , l a r g e a r e a s of the Lower Mainland d e s i g n a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Land t h a t was zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l or farm use under a by-law of a m u n i c i p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p r i o r to December 21st, 1972, was a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e (Sec. 8, s s . 11). T h i s s u b s e c t i o n was added to the B i l l i n the form of an amendment and formed a t h i r d c r i t e r i a , a l o n g w i t h f a r m l a n d as d e f i n e d I n s e c t i o n 2 of t h e T a x a t i o n A c t and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 1, 2, 3» 4 of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t i o n of the Canada Land Inventory, f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s . By d o i n g t h i s , the a p p e a l procedure, i n many cases, has to go through a t h r e e t i e r .process. I f a farm was not zoned f o r an a g r i c u l t u r a l use p r i o r to December 21st, 1972 but d e s i g n a t e d as farmland by the Commission, the 'landowner' c o u l d apply f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve without a r e s o l u t i o n from the a p p r o p r i a t e m u n i c i p a l i t y or -164-r e g l o n a l d i s t r i c t . I f the a p p l i c a n t i s s u c c e s s f u l at t h i s l e v e l but the m u n i c i p a l zoning and/or O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n d e s i g n a t i o n do not s u i t the a p p l i c a n t ' s proposed l a n d use, amendments to both of these documents would be nec e s s a r y b e f o r e proceeding f u r t h e r . At e i t h e r o f these two l e v e l s , the ' r e - z o n i n g ' c o u l d be opposed. I f c o n s i s t e n c y i s a c h i e v e d i n f u t u r e . y e a r s between M u n i c i p a l zoning, the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l plans and the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s - as Hankin f e e l s w i l l be the case - t h i s t h r e e t i e r p r ocess w i l l be the normal course; a 'landowner' w i l l have to take when r e q u e s t i n g e x c l u s i o n from an a g r i c u l t u r a l 24 la n d r e s e r v e . Through a l l t h i s , t h e r e remains of course, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the E.L.U. Committee; e x c l u d i n g l a n d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s upon appeal (Sec. 9, s s . 7). At p r e s e n t , t h i s has not been t e s t e d but one would suspect t h a t the case- would have to be of e x t r a o r d i n a r y v a l i d i t y f o r the C a b i n e t to o v e r t u r n the d e c i s i o n of the Commission, and p o s s i b l y t h a t of the m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l b o d i e s . D e s p i t e the ap p e a l procedures, i t should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o exclude l a n d from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves. -165-Issue #4 - M u n i c i p a l Hole: The l a c k of p u b l i c , m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t involvement i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the r e s e r v e s was c o n s i d e r e d to be a s i g n i f i c a n t ommission i n the B i l l . There was a l s o a concern t h a t through t h e establishment of l a n d bank l a n d r e s e r v e s , a l l lands s u i t a b l e f o r f u t u r e urban development would be under P r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than l o c a l c o n t r o l . 25 To the l a t t e r q u e s t i o n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s need not have w o r r i e d about h a v i n g t h e i r powers suspended through the d e s i g n a t i o n of l a n d bank r e s e r v e s . s i n c e the power . to d e s i g n a t e d i d - n o t ' i n c l u d e the'"power to r e g u l a t e . However, s e c t i o n 7, s u b s e c t i o n 2 of the Act, which s t i p u l a t e s t h a t the Commission must purchase or a c q u i r e ' a l l l a n d s f o r any of the none-a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s , c l a r i f i e d any. m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h i s a spect may have caused. S e c t i o n 8 of the A c t , i n i t s amended v e r s i o n , a l l o w s the r e g i o n a l board o f each r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , to prepare the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e p l a n s . These plans c r e a t e d by the r e g i o n s , would be forwarded to the C a b i n e t , through the Commission, f o r a p p r o v a l . The Commission, however, r e s e r v e s the r i g h t to o f f e r amendments to the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e p l a n s . Mandatory to the c r e a t i o n of the r e s e r v e plans i s the h o l d i n g of a p u b l i c h e a r i n g a t the l o c a l l e v e l . (Sec. 8, s -166-These amendments generally s a t i s f i e d the c r i t i c i s m s of the Union of B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as well as the 27 reservations held by the S i e r r a Club i n t h i s regard. In the case of a Region f a i l i n g to submit an a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve plan, the Land Commission would assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i t s creation. (Sec. 8, ss.7). The powers of the Commission are a l t e r e d but not harmed to a degree that would make i t s objectives unattainable. The r i g h t s of the Commission to amend the carrying out of the intent and purpose of the Act (Sec. 8, ss. 5) i s a l l important. Naturally i f a regional board d i s -approved of the Commission's amendments, an appeal could be launched to the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council under Section 9, subsection 1 of the Act. Instances such as t h i s have not yet occurred but one must assume that the opinion of the Land Commission would receive a great deal of consideration by Cabinet - e s p e c i a l l y i f a decision against the Commission could harm i t s c r e d i b i l i t y . Isssue #5 - Expropriation: The power to expropriate was not given to the Land Commission within the o r i g i n a l version of B i l l 42. The right of the Land Commission to expropriate was wrongly assumed by many factions of the community because of a misinterpretation of Section 7(i) of B i l l 4.2 which stated that the Commission had the power -167-to 'purchase or otherwise a c q u i r e "land, on..such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as the commission may c o n s i d e r a d v i s a b l e . . . ' . The f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n on t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e was advanced by A.R. Lucas and R.T. Franson - both P r o f e s s o r s of Law at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s view i s c o n s i d e r e d c o r r e c t by W i l l i a m Lane and 28 u p h e l d by the Law Reform Commission r e p o r t of 1971. "...the b i l l ( B i l l 42) i s not an e x p r o p r i a t i o n s t a t u t e and does not gi v e the government the r i g h t or power to take an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a n d or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y by compulsory process. Those who argue otherwise a p p a r e n t l y base t h e i r argument on the power of the Commission under s. 7 ( i ) . . . " "The language i s not su f -f i c i e n t t o g i v e the government the r i g h t t o e x p r o p r i a t e l a n d . Powers to e x p r o p r i a t e may be c o n f e r r e d only by c l e a r and e x p l i c i t s t a t u t o r y language. The word 'otherwise' i n the b i l l merely a l l o w s the commission to n e g o t i a t e a c q u i s i t i o n of pr o p e r t y by means PQ other than s a l e , ( f o r example, by l e a s i n g i t ) . " S e c t i o n 504(1) of the M u n i c i p a l Act s t i p u l a t e s t h a t , "The C o u n c i l may by by-law, a c q u i r e , by purchase, l e a s e or otherwise r e a l or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . " But S e c t i o n 504(3) s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t , "The, C o u n c i l of a c i t y or d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y may e x p r o p r i a t e r e a l or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . . . . " W i t h i n the Vaneouver  C h a r t e r S e c t i o n 190(a) s p e c i f i e s t h a t the C o u n c i l may pro v i d e " f o r a c q u i r i n g such r e a l p r o p e r t y . . . as may be r e q u i r e d . " Quite, d i s t i n c t l y however, P a r t XXVI of the C h a r t e r , b e i n g S e c t i o n s 531 to 557 i n -c l u s i v e l y , set f o r t h the C i t y of Vancouver's power to e x p r o p r i a t e . Both of these examples c l e a r l y support the o p i n i o n of Lucus and Franson. -168-Lane s t r o n g l y contends t h a t B i l l 42 had no powers to e x p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n i t , and " i f such a case appeared i n c o u r t i t would be thrown out i n f i f t e e n minutes." To c l a r i f y t h i s i s s u e the words "except by e x p r o p r i a t i o n " were i n c l u d e d i n the Act where a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s of course had no e f f e c t on the Commission's powers. Lane f e l t t h a t not only was the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s statement not necessary, but by s t i p u l a t i n g the e x p r o p r i a t i o n c l a u s e as i t i s i n the Land Commission Act a l l other A c t s with a "may purchase or otherwise a c q u i r e " statement should t e c h -30 n i c a i l y be amended to conform. Issue #6 - Powers of the Commission: V a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the Commission and i t s powers were i n themselves p o i n t s of c o n t r o v e r s y as they were presented i n B i l l 42. S e c t i o n 4(2) of the B i l l a l l o w e d the Comission t o , " h o l d i n i t s own name any l a n d or other r e a l or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . . . . " S t u p i c h r e f e r r e d to the concerns expressed about 3 the phrase 'personal property 1' as being " r i d i c u l o u s . " ^ An N.D.P. b u l l e t i n s t a t e d t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r S e c t i o n r e f e r s only to the o f f i c e s , equipment, and l a n d t h a t 32 the Commission owns o u t r i g h t . S e c t i o n 7(1) of the B i l l g i v e s the Commission the power t o " a c q u i r e and h o l d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and d i s p o s e of the same." The same b u l l e t i n of the N.D.P. -169-m a l n t a l n s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n simply r e f e r s to equipment and stock on a farm t h a t has been s o l d to the Comm-i s s i o n by a farmer. S i n c e i t i s u s u a l to i n c l u d e the form equipment when s e l l i n g a farm, t h i s S e c t i o n was r e q u i r e d i n the B i l l t o a l l o w the Commission to d e a l with such equipment.33 Lucas and Franson however, i n t e r p r e t S e c t i o n 7(1) as r e f e r r i n g to the Commission's a b i l i t y to buy o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e , t y p e w r i t e r s , and 34 the l i k e . T h i s of course complies "with the N.D.P.'s view of S e c t i o n 4 ( 2 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n i s r e a l l y not important - both concluded the same t h i n g -the Commission was not going to take the ' s h i r t o f f of anyone's back', as the o p p o s i t i o n was p r o c l a i m i n g . 3-5 These s e c t i o n s are not s o c i a l i s t i c i n nature or an i n f r i n g e m e n t oh i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . N e a r l y a l l corp-?6 o r a t i o n s i n Canada have t h i s power. Both of these s e c t i o n s were, i n c i d e n t l y , not amended. The Commission, by S e c t i o n 7(1) was g i v e n the a d d i t i o n a l powers to purchase or otherwise a c q u i r e l a n d . T h i s s e c t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by adding the phrase "except by e x p r o p r i a t i o n " as s t a t e d above. Of g r e a t importance to B i l l 42 was the power t o d e s i g n a t e v a r i o u s l a n d r e s e r v e s . (Sec. 7). W i t h i n the Act these powers were a l t e r e d and c l a r i f i e d , but not weakened, by r e q u i r i n g the Commission to purchase any l a n d p r i o r to d e s i g n a t i n g i t as e i t h e r green b e l t r e s e r v e , park r e s e r v e , or l a n d bank r e s e r v e . With -170-r e f e r e n c e to the primary f u n c t i o n of the Act -to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d - the power to r e g u l a t e the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , as s t i p u l a t e d i n S e c t i o n s 10 and 12, i s by f a r the most important f e a t u r e of the A c t . Although the process of d e s i g n a t i o n was s i g n i -f i c a n t l y changed, the r e g u l a t o r y powers p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s i n S e c t i o n 10 were only s l i g h t l y amended by a l l o w i n g " r e s i d e n c e s of an owner of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d " to be e r e c t e d a c c o r d i n g to r e g u l a t i o n ( S e c t i o n 1 0 ( 4 i i i ) . S e c t i o n 12 of t h e . B i l l was not a l t e r e d a t a l l . The f i n a l r e g u l a t o r y powers c o n t a i n e d i n the B i l l are.found i n S e c t i o n 19 and were only s l i g h t l y changed to conform wi t h the amendment to S e c t i o n 1 0 ( 4 i i i ) p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . Lucas and Franson m a i n t a i n t h a t B i l l 42 (and the same can e q u a l l y be s a i d of the Act) i s not, as has been charged, government by r e g u l a t i o n . The g e n e r a l power to make r e g u l a t i o n s by a p p l i c a t i o n of S e c t i o n 19 i s i n c l u d e d i n v i r t u a l l y every s t a t u t e enacted i n t h i s P r o v i n c e i n the past 20 or more ..years. "In f a c t , s e c t i o n 19 c o n t a i n s nine sub-parts that are q u i t e s p e c i f i c i n nature and appear, i f anything, to c o n s t i t u t e an attempt on the p a r t of the l e g i s l a t i v e draftsmen to c o n f i n e the powers of the Commission. In t h a t , the b i l l i s a step away from the government by 37 r e g u l a t i o n t h a t we have been used to i n the past. The more gen e r a l concerns, p e r t a i n i n g to the -171-Commlsslon members' terms of o f f i c e and t h e i r renewal as set out i n S e c t i o n 2(1) were not changed. The p o s s i b i l i t y of p a r t y patronage e n t e r i n g i n t o the s e l e c t i o n of the Commission members was a grave concern of the o p p o s i t i o n . S e c t i o n 2 s t a t e d t h a t the Commission members - no l e s s than f i v e - would be a p p o i n t e d by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . The f i v e a p p o i n t e e s , acknowledged p u b l i c l y on May 17, 1973t were Mr. W i l l i a m Lane (Chairman), a lawyer and p r e v i o u s m u n i c i p a l s o l i c i t o r f o r Richmond; Dr. V. C. B r i n k , a p r o f e s s o r of p l a n t s c i e n c e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. A r t h u r G a r r i s h , an O l i v e r o r c h a r d i s t and former P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n ; Ms. Mary Rawson, a town planner and s p e c i a l i s t i n l a n d use economics; and Mr. Ted Barsby, a Nanaimo businessman, former Nanaimo alderman and former P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . The appointments were f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d by Order -i n - C o u n c i l 1662 and approved on May 18, 1973.38 The r e a c t i o n to the appointments was o n l y p o s i t i v e . C h a r l e s Bernhardt, p r e s i d e n t of the B.C.F.A. was p l e a s e d w i t h the s e l e c t i o n as was D e r r i l ; W a r r e n of the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y . Of the f i v e * o n l y one was noted 39 as b e i n g an N.D.P. su p p o r t e r . A l a s t g e n e r a l complaint of the Commission was t h a t i t i s ' j u s t another l e v e l of bureaucracy' adding to the c o m p l e x i t i e s of d e a l i n g w i t h l a n d use problems.^° - 1 7 2 -In response to t h i s , Lane simply s t a t e s t h a t "...yes, t h i s i s another l e v e l , but to do the Job t h a t l i e s ahead w i t h the g i v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h i s was u n a v o i d a b l e . Every attempt w i l l be made, however, to ensure t h a t the Commission f u n c t i o n s as e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e . " Issue #7 - I n c r e a s e i n P r o p e r t y V a l u e s : When B i l l 4-2 was i n t r o d u c e d , r e a l e s t a t e e x p e r t s warned t h a t some r u r a l b u i l d i n g l o t s had i n c r e a s e d 25 to 30 per c e n t s i n c e the December 2 1 s t , 1972 l a n d f r e e z e on farmland s u b d i v i s i o n , and they expected a f u r t h e r 25 per cent i n c r e a s e over the.next few months. They s a i d p r i c e s on both b u i l d i n g l o t s and r e s a l e p r o p e r t i e s would be squeezed up because of the Land  Commission A c t . I t was f u r t h e r emphasized t h a t w h i l e the l a n d d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e s o r t e d out "....development has stopped,•and the supply of l o t s i s d r y i n g up. I t ' s a l l a matter of supply and demand."^ E i g h t months l a t e r the R e a l E s t a t e Trends r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h the housing p r i c e I n c r e a s e i s . a nationwide phenomenon, the supply f u n c t i o n was not p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c r e a s e d c o s t of housing. Rather, the r a p i d and somewhat unexpected i n c r e a s e i n demand,. combined with the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f funds (mortgage) at r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t and the l a c k of a l t e r n a t i v e r e n t a l accommodations, have been the - 1 7 3 -major f a c t o r s behind the r e c e n t p r i c e i n c r e a s e f o r homes.^3 A 1 9 7 3 . r e p o r t by the G.V.R.D. maintained t h a t " t h e r e seems to be s u f f i c i e n t l a n d a l r e a d y d e s i g n a t e d f o r urban purposes w i t h i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n to meet the demands of the next decade. I n f a c t , t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t l a n d a l r e a d y d e s i g n a t e d f o r urban purposes f o r about 25 years o f d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ The f armland f r e e z e and subsequent Land Commission  Act ' d i d ' have a c o n t r l b u t l v e e f f e c t on i n c r e a s e d housing and l a n d v a l u e s . I t d i d not however, have any p h y s i c a l e f f e c t on the amount of d e v e l o p a b l e l a n d r e q u i r e d t o meet the housing needs. Rather, i t was the f e a r t h a t t h e r e would be a shortage of such l a n d , g e n e r a l l y advocated by those i n v a r i o u s segments of the * l a n d i n d u s t r y ' , t h a t a s s i s t e d i n the i n f l a t i o n of l a n d v a l u e s . The Trends r e p o r t s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s p o i n t of view. The r e c e n t ( 1 9 7 3 ) r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f l o t p r i c e s was r e l a t e d more to the va l u e of l a n d i n i t s e l f than to c o s t o f s e r v i c i n g . Although some people may have a c o n t r a d i c t o r y o p i n i o n , the l a n d f r e e z e has not s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d the short term supply of l a n d . But, a l t h o u g h the l o n g term impact i s not yet known, i t i s very l i k e l y t h a t f e a r of a f u t u r e shortage i n the supply o f l a n d has had a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t on 45 the market. W i l k i n s o n comments t h a t those who make -174-t h e l r l i v e l i h o o d from l a n d development over l o o k e d the f a c t t h a t they should d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to planned development elsewhere than on the h e r e t o f o r e 46 e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , c h e a p l y developed farmlands. i l l ) C o n c l u d i n g Remarks Not a l l of the i s s u e s t h a t a r o s e i n the c o n t r o v e r s y over B i l l 42 were s a t i s f i e d by the B i l l ' s amendments. I t must be remembered, however, t h a t many of the problems t h a t were c i t e d were i n f a c t n o n - i s s u e s . The . amendments, al t h o u g h numerous, p r i m a r i l y served a c l a r i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n . The two e x c e p t i o n s a r e the r o l e of the r e g i o n s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n producing the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e p l a n s and the ' b e e f i n g up' o f the a p p e a l procedures. S i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42 i t has not p e r p e t u a t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t . p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . Premier B a r r e t t , a p p e a r i n g on a r a d i o '.talk show' on March l 6 , 1973i r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d t h a t by the time o f the next e l e c t i o n , people would be so s a t i s f i e d with the Land  Commission Act t h a t no p o l i t i c i a n i n the P r o v i n c e w i l l campaign on the i s s u e of removing the Commission and expect to be e l e c t e d . S i n c e the Act gained R o y a l Assent on A p r i l 18, 1973» i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y not an i s s u e of importance i n e i t h e r of the two P r o v i n c i a l b y - e l e c t i o n s h e l d s i n c e t h a t date. Lane, through h i s t r a v e l s throughout the P r o v i n c e -175-l n c o n n e c t i o n with h i s commission d u t i e s , has found people r e a d i l y a c c e p t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the Act but d e s p i t e the amendments, they are s t i l l q u e s t i o n i n g the A c t ' s methods - e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r e a of comp-4.7 e n s a t i o n . ' The Act, i n Lane's o p i n i o n , i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by the m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n makers - p o l i t i c i a n s , as i t i s by the r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l t e c h n i c i a n s . Those who c o n t i n u e to oppose the Act - although few i n number - are those people who own farmland c l o s e to the urban f r i n g e and had t h e i r p lans of a c q u i r i n g s u b s t a n t i a l s p e c u l a t i v e g a i n s r a t h e r drama-48 t i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d . The f u l l understanding by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c of the A c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s and methods remains h i g h l y quest-i o n a b l e . The p u b l i c was i n i t i a l l y p o o r l y prepared by the Government f o r the Act and the i s s u e s of c o n t r o v e r s y - v a l i d or not - have not been e a s i l y erased i n the p u b l i c ' s mind. The f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a March 1974 l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of The P r o v i n c e r e f e r r i n g to the Act r e v e a l s the degree of misunderstanding t h a t i s p r o b a b l y s t i l l q u i t e widespread throughout the P r o v i n c e . "The farmers and ranchers who bought lan d and p a i d the taxes on i t f o r many years b e f o r e the b i r t h of the N.D.P. are now t o l d i f they can s e l l t h e i r l a n d and to whom, (both of these assumptions are i n c o r r e c t ) f o r what purposes they can use i t , and i n some cases, whether or riot they can b u i l d a r e s i d e n c e on i t . " ^ 9 Through a n a l y s i s , i t i s t h i s w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t -176-the amendments d i d not harm the Commission* s a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e i t s primary o b j e c t i v e - which i s to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land f o r farm purposes. R e f e r r i n g to the l o n g term s i t u a t i o n , Peter Arcus of the U.B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, f e e l s t h a t the Commission w i l l p r obably be c a l l e d upon to rezone some farmland out of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve i n t o other uses. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s probably reasonable t o expect t h a t the Land Commission and the c o n t r o l of l a n d use by the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t w i l l , a t best, a chieve only a more o r d e r l y development of urban areas i n the encroachment upon farmlands r a t h e r than a once and f o r a l l f r e e z e on f a r m l a n d . ^ T h i s r a t h e r p e s s i m i s t i c view of the Commission's (Government's) a b i l i t y to w i t h s t a n d urban encroachment . onto a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d a l o n g w i t h the Commission's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e techniques employed i n i t s f i r s t y e a r . o f o p e r a t i o n . - 1 7 7 -F00TN0TE3 1. T h i s p o i n t can be i l l u s t r a t e d many times i n the press b e f o r e and a f t e r the B i l l 42 c o n t r o v e r s y but was s p e c i f i c a l l y r a i s e d at a meeting of over 1 , 0 0 0 people i n Ladner on March. 1 1 , 1 9 7 3 ' At t h i s meeting the r i g h t - w i n g 'Canadian League of R i g h t s ' c i r c u l a t e d a l e a f l e t emblazoned w i t h a swastika and e n t i t i i e d " M u s s o l i n i , H i t l e r . . . . and Dave B a r r e t t . (Vancouver Sun, March 1 2 , 1973)• 2 . 'Land b i l l r a i s e s d u s t....', The P r o v i n c e , March 1 2 , 1 . 9 7 3 -3 . Mr. James P l o t n l k o f f , B.C. Land Commission s t a f f , i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 7 4 . 4 . 'Mixed g r e e t i n g ', The P r o v i n c e . March 3 0 , 1973- • 5 . (a) Baxter, p. 2 0 ; (b) 'Land a c t changes....', Vane ouver Sun, March 8 , 1973*. and (c) Fran son, i n t e r v i e w , February 2 5 , 1974. 6 . 'Land a c t changes....', Vancouver Sun, March 8 , 1 9 7 3 -7 . 'Farmers must wa i t . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, February 2 3 , 1973' 8 . 'N.D.P. wins B i l l 42 ', The P r o v i n c e , March 2 9 , 1 9 7 3 -9. ' B i l l changes f o r c e . . . . ' , The P r o v i n c e , March 2 9 , 1973-1 0 . 'Land a c t changes....', Vancouver Sun, Maech 8 , 1973-1 1 . A l s o i t may have been a case of the o p p o s i t i o n r e a l i z i n g t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n but they d i d not want to admit or. b e l i e v e . i t . 1 2 . Lane, i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 6 , 197^. 1 3 . ' 4 Land Act amendments....', Vancouver Sun, March 1 5 , 1973-14. Lane, speech, December 5 , 197^-1 5 . W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 1 5 , 1974. 1 6 . T a y l o r , D.G.B., 'The Concept of Development R i g h t s ' a speech g i v e n at the Land. Use In the F r a s e r V a l l e y -Whose Concern? conference (Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g Education,, U.B.C, h e l d a t D e l t a , October 1 8 , 1972) p. 4 & 6 . 17. 'Developers c h i e f l a n d . . . . ' Vancouver Sun, March 2 3 , 1 9 7 3 -1 8 . Franson, i n t e r v i e w , February 2 5 , 1974. 1 9 . ' C o u n c i l of bar....', Vancouver Sun, March 2 0 , 1 9 7 3 -2 0 . M u n i c i p a l A c t . R.S.B.C. i 9 6 0 Chapter 2 5 5 , Sec. 7 0 6 , ss. 1 . -170-21. W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 15, 1974. 22. Lane, speech, December 5, 1974, p. 3. 23- I b i d , p. 4. 24. Hankin. i n t e r v i e w , March 25, 1974. 25. Baxter, p. 18. 26. 'U.B.C.M. urges d e l a y . . . . ' , The P r o v i n c e , March 2, 1973-27. Franson, i n t e r v i e w , February 25, 1974. 28. Lane, Interview, March 16, 1974. 29- *A l e g a l l o o k a t B i l l 42', Vancouver Sun, March 19, 1973. 30. Lane i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 1974. 31. '4 Land Act amendments....', Vancouver Sun, March 15, 1973. 32. New Democratic P a r t y of B.C., Who Needs B i l l 42?, p. 4. 33. I b i d , p. 4. 34. 'A l e g a l l o o k a t B i l l 42', Vancouver Sun, March 19, 1973. 35« , i + Land Act amendments....', Vancouver Sun, March 15, 1973. 36. 'A l e g a l look a t B i l l 42', Vancouver Sun, March 19, 1973. 37- I b i d . 38. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n 12 2/73-39- 'Farmers and T o r i e s p l e a s e d . . . . ' , V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , May 18, 1973-40. Franson, Interview, February 25, 1974. 41. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 30, 1974. 42. '50 percent l a n d h i k e . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, February 23, 1973. 1 43. R e a l E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1973 - 1974 p. A - 1 & 3. 44. Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , The Housing Issue May, 1973, P. 25. 45. R e a l E s t a t e Trends, p. A - 2. 46. W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 15, 1974. 47. Lane, l e c t u r e , February 20, 1974. 48. Lane, Interview, February 6, 1974. 49. ' T e l l us, Mr. B a r r e t t . ', The P r o v i n c e , March 7, 1974. 50. Arcus, p. 6. CHAPTER V I I I ADMINISTRATION OF THE LAND COMMISSION ACT There a r e two important p o i n t s the reader must bear i n mind throughout the f o l l o w i n g review Of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Land Commission Act* F i r s t l y , t h e r e are c e r t a i n areas o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which are w e l l advanced but o t h e r s have not been c o n c l u s i v e l y developed. Secondly, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y s i s i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the Commission's work i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves. I n i t s f i r s t year, the Commission's a c t i v i t i e s were predominantly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s d u t i e s and powers a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the Land Commission Act i s but a s i n g l e , but important, aspect i n the Government's a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . I n the same way, the Commission p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n thee Govern-ment's o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y o f l a n d - r e s o u r c e management. 1. ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE The Environment and Land Use A c t . b e i n g one of o n l y two statxites to which the Land Commission A c t i s s u b j e c t , e s t a b l i s h e d the "Environment and Land Use Committee" of C a b i n e t . 2 The Committee i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r broad environmental and l a n d use p o l i c y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , -179--180-the B.L.U. Act o v e r r i d e s other development and environmental l e g i s l a t i o n . 3 The E.L..U. Act i s g e n e r a l i n nature and although the Land Commission  A c t i s v e r y comprehensive, i t i s more s p e c i f i c and a p p r o p r i a t e l y s u b j e c t e d to the E.L.U. Act f o r t h a t r e a s o n . 4 While the Land Commission Act has c e n t r a l i z e d c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l , the Government j u s t i f i e s t h i s d i r e c t i o n because of a " c l e a r need f o r meaningful P r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p i n s o r t i n g out the broad l a n d management -questions p l a g u i n g t h i s prov-i n c e . " W i l l i a m s condemns the past S o c i a l C r e d i t Govern-ment by s a y i n g t h a t , " I n the past, the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have t r i e d t h e i r best to work out meaning-f u l p l a n s , but they were stymied by the l a c k of c l e a r p o l i c i e s by the p r e v i o u s Government. Our r e s o u r c e s are too v a l u a b l e to l e a v e t h i s past piecemeal p r o c e s s , and the experience and i n s i g h t of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e too v a l u a b l e t o l e a v e i n t h e i r present f r u s t r a t i o n s . " ^ R e g a r d l e s s of what the environment-resource prob-lems are and what caused them, the new P r o v i n c i a l Government c l e a r l y i n tends to apply a much h e a v i e r hand t o the l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s of the lower l e v e l s of 'govern-ment' . However, t h i s i s not an unusual stance f o r t h e P r o v i n c e to m a i n t a i n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , Lane p o i n t s out, and i n c o n t r a s t to the American c o u n t e r p a r t s , Canadian 1 -181-m u n i c i p a l i t i e s n o r m a l l y have had "a f a i r amount of guidance from the P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . " While the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have g e n e r a l l y p o l i c e d t h e i r l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s , the P r o v i n c e u s u a l l y s e t s standards to which the l o c a l l e v e l must a d h e r e . 6 i ) The Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t To t a c k l e the r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n problems, the Government r e j e c t e d the i d e a of a s s i g n i n g the t a s k to an e x i s t i n g Department o r h i r i n g l a r g e numbers o f c o n s u l t a n t s . I n s t e a d , a sma l l S e c r e t a r i a t was formed to a c t as a c a t a l y s t i n drawing t o g e t h e r the v a r i o u s Departmental s t a f f s and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s when 7 a p p r o p r i a t e . ' The Environment and Land Use Committee; performs a c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n . Under t h i s Committee, a T e c h n i c a l Committee c h a i r e d by A. C r e r a r , D i r e c t o r of the S e c r e t a r i a t , works towards h i g h l e v e l f u n c t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n of s t u d i e s and programs. The S e c r e t a r i a t i t s e l f i s the s t a f f arm of the Environment and Land Use Committee working under i t s d i r e c t i o n to a c h i e v e c o o r d i n a t e d development. The a c t i v i t i e s of the S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l be enhanced i n the r e g i o n s through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of I n t e r - S e c t o r Committees to achieve t e c h n i c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n . 8 The s t a f f o f the S e c r e t a r i a t i t s e l f i s drawn from a v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s and has i n i t i a l l y formed t h r e e groups - an i n v e n t o r y group, a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g group, and a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s group. The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g -182-u n i t w i l l f o cus on broad l a n d a l l o c a t i o n and r e s o u r c e 9 management q u e s t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e ! . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s framework t h a t the Land Commission Act has been c l o s e l y drawn. The s t r o n g l y emphasized c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n s of the E.L.U. Committee^ through the work of the S e c r e t a r i a t , are enhanced and extended to the Land Commission. The f a c t t h a t the Land Commission Act i s comprehensive and o v e r r i d e s a l l but two o t h e r p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n , umless otherwise s p e c i f i e d , i n i t s e l f c o n f e r s a c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n on the Commission. T h i s w i l l be more c l o s e l y shown below i n a review of a n t i c i p a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of the Commission. W i l l i a m s has emphasized t h a t the S e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f w i l l 10 work c l o s e l y w i t h the Land Commission. T h i s has o c c u r r e d through the procedures e s t -a b l i s h e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e p l a n s . T h i s has a l s o been the case i n h e a r i n g appeals under O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l 4 4 8 3 and 157. (the farmland f r e e z e ) . A f u n c t i o n f o r m e r l y handled by the E.L.U. Committee, i t was g i v e n to the Commission under O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 3539 which was approved on October 25, 1 9 7 3 . T h i s a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Commission w i l l of course cease to e x i s t once a l l o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d 11 r e s e r v e s are e s t a b l i s h e d . Because of the f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s and a c t i v i t i e s thus f a r , i t i s s a f e to assume t h a t the S e c r e t a r i a t and the Land Commission w i l l c o n t i n u e to work c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r -183-to c o o r d i n a t e e f f o r t s w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h the broad a l l o c a t i o n of l a n d and r e -sources, viewed by the Government as being a c r i t i c a l concern throughout the P r o v i n c e . In many r e s p e c t s , the Land Commission can be viewed as. an 'arm 1 of the E.L.U. Committee not u n l i k e the S e c r e t a r i a t , although the l a t t e r has a much broader r o l e . A l e t t e r from the E.L.U. Committee t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s emphasizes the c l o s e t i e s between these two agencies i n s t a t i n g t h a t , "The enactment of the Land Commission Act i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the es t a b l i s h m e n t o f a S e c r e t a r i a t . . . . . . i s intended t o t a c k l e the problem ( o f l a n d and reso u r c e a l l o c a t i o n ) as q u i c k l y and e f f e c t i v e l y as 12 p o s s i b l e . A f u n c t i o n i n which the S e c r e t a r i a t has a l r e a d y become i n v o l v e d and one i n which the Land Commission w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned as the l a n d r e s e r v e s are e s t a b l i s h e d i s what W i l l i a m s d e s c r i b e s as a much needed p o l i c y framework f o r r e i n f o r c i n g R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and M u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g , as w e l l as f o r 13 P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c i s i o n making. J I n view of the Government's g e n e r a l concerns i n these areas and with r e g a r d to the c o n f l i c t s between a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p o l i c y and past m u n i c i p a l zoning p r a c t i c e s , one would suspect t h a t t h i s forms a crux of the Com-mi s s i o n ' s r o l e as i t s a c t i v i t i e s u n f o l d . -184-2. ESTABLISHING THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVES . Lane es t i m a t e s t h a t 8 5 per cent of the Commission's time and. energy i n i t s f i r s t year were spent c r e a t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s , and h e a r i n g appeals pursuant to the o r i g i n a l farmland f r e e z e . T h i s not o n l y r e f l e c t s the importance t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e has and w i l l be g i v e n by the Commission, but was due to a d e s i r e to l i f t the farmland f r e e z e as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Lane f e e l s t h at the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s would have been the Commission's primary concern a t any r a t e , but under the circumstances they were some-14 what f o r c e d i n t o t h i s course of a c t i o n . i ) Thawing the Freeze The Government was eminently concerned w i t h 'thawing' out the f r e e z e on farmland s u b d i v i s i o n where i t was j u s t i f i e d , w h i le s t r o n g l y m a i n t a i n i n g i t s g o a l o f p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r farm use. To p r o v i d e f o r the o r d e r l y t r a n s i t i o n from the pro-v i s i o n s o f O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l 4483/72 and 1 5 7 / 7 3 to the Land Commission Act, the E.L.U. Committee, the Land Commission, and the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e developed a three-phase process which i n c l u d e d : Phase 1 . I n d i v i d u a l appeals t o the E.L.U. Com-mit t e e ( t o the Land Commission a f t e r October 2 5 , 1 9 7 3 ) • Phase 2. B l o c k appeals by M u n i c i p a l i t i e s or R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . Phase 3 . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves under the Land Commission A c t . - 185-Th e purpose of the process was to a v o i d a r t i f i c i a l s h ortages of l a n d f o r housing i n the short terra w hile s t i l l p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r the l o n g t e r m . ^ Demonstrating expedience i n t h i s p rocess would a l s o tend to s t a b i l i z e a s i t u a t i o n t h a t was somewhat con-f u s i n g to many people, as was evi d e n t from the con-t r o v e r s y over B i l l 42. Phase 1 i n v o l v e d h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l a ppeals from a g g r i e v e d landowners as was d i s c u s s e d above i n Chapter VI under 'Appeals under the Land F r e e z e ' . Phase 2 a l s o i n v o l v e d the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of appeals by the E.L.U. Committee, but on a broader b a s i s f o r l a r g e r a r e a s . Such appeals were not on a l o t - b y - l o t b a s i s but i n c l u d e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d surrounded by development, sewered, or c l e a r l y needed f o r urban development i n the near f u t u r e . These appeals were i n i t i a t e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or r e g i o n s and the areas c o n s i d e r e d were l o g i c a l l y f o c u s s e d i n and.around urban a r e a s . T h i s was the q u i c k e s t way o f e n s u r i n g t h a t an a r t i f i c i a l shortage of land,' c a u s i n g i n f l a t e d , housing p r i c e s , d i d not occur. T h i s phase was u t i l i z e d very e a r l y i n the pr o c e s s . On March 28, 1 9 7 3 . the day the amendments to B i l l 42 were i n t r o d u c e d , Resources M i n i s t e r Bob W i l l i a m s t o l d the l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t the farmland f r e e z e had been l i f t e d i n s i x cases to a l l o w p r o j e c t s t o proceed. The d e c i s i o n s made by the E.L.U. Committee a i l r e s u l t e d -186-from requests from regional d i s t r i c t s or m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 17 that had community plans. The Established and bevel-oping Urban Areas designated i n the O f f i c i a l Regional  Plan for the Lower Mainland (URB - 1 and URB - 2) before March 1, 1973» were also exempted from the a g r i c u l t u r a l designation. The freeze was also loosened to a small degree by Order-in-Council 1891 approved on June k, 1973' This Order amended Order-in-Council 157 hy allowing the construction of buildings for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, and for not more than one owner-occupied residence , . 18 . per l o t . The t h i r d phase i n t h i s process was the formal designation of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves themselves under the Land Commission Act. This f i n a l phase can be broken into three sections; (a) the events p r i o r to the regional d i s t r i c t s ' adoption by by-law of the reserve plan and f i l i n g i t with the Commission, or 'Input p r i o r to the Regional Role'; (b) the creation of the 'Regional Reserve Plans'; and (c) the 'Post Regional A c t i v i t i e s ' required to designate the various a g r i c u l t -u r a l reserve plans throughout the Province. ' 3. INPUT PRIOR TO THE REGIONAL ROLE i) The Canada Land Inventory The Canada Land Inventory (C.L.I.) i s the corner-stone of the designation of a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserves. -187-The Inventory Is a comprehensive survey of land cap-a b i l i t y and use designed to p r o v i d e a p a r t i a l base f o r r e s o u r c e and l a n d use p l a n n i n g . I t was undertaken as a c o - o p e r a t i v e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l programme and i s a d m i n i s t e r e d under the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Development Act (ARDA). C o m p e t i t i o n f o r l a n d f o r a l t e r n a t i v e uses, and i n c r e a s e d government economic and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n r u r a l areas, made apparent the need f o r improved knowledge of the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of Canada's 19 l a n d s , t h e i r l o c a t i o n and e x t e n t . In August of 1958 t n e ' S p e c i a l Committee of the Senate on Land Use I n Canada* r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r 20 a "systematic l a n d use s u r v e y . I t was not, however, u n t i l a f t e r the 'Resources f o r Tomorrow' Conference of 196l that the F e d e r a l Government o f f i c i a l l y approved u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s comprehensive lan d r e s o u r c e inventory.^1 I t i s somewhat i r o n i c t h a t the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l was embodied i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s of the Regina Manifesto of 1933; "(3) the a d o p t i o n o f a planned system of -a g r i c u l t u r a l development based upon s c i e n t i f i c s o i l surveys d i r e c t e d towards b e t t e r l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n , and a s c i e n t i f i c p o l i c y of a g r i c u l t u r a l development f o r the whole of Canada."22 Bes i d e s the farm h o l d i n g s c l a s s i f i e d under the T a x a t i o n Act and m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l l y 'zoned' a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d pursuant to S e c t i o n 8(11) of the Land Commission Act, the r e s e r v e s are based on the f i r s t f o u r s o i l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r -188-a g r i c u l t u r e of the C.L.I.; these ore as f o l l o w s : C l a s s 1 - S o i l s i n t h i s c l a s s have no s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s i n use f o r c r o p s . C l a s s 2 - S o i l s i n t h i s c l a s s have moderate l i m i t -a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t the range of crops or r e q u i r e moderate c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . C l a s s 3 - S o i l s i n t h i s c l a s s have moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t the range of crops or r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . C l a s s 4 - S o i l s i n t h i s class have severe l i m i t -a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t the range.of crops or r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s or both. 23 i i ) Problems w i t h the Inventory .There-are a number of i n h e r e n t problems wi t h these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which had to be c o n s i d e r e d when employing them as an a i d to the c r e a t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land fie s erves. Many a g r i c u l t u r a l . a c t i v i t -i e s are not s o i l bound - one of the key c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r s . H o p e f u l l y , shortcomings due to t h i s problem have been s o l v e d by the other two a s p e c t s f a c i l i t a t i n g d e s i g n a t i o n , A l s o the C.L.I, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s do not take i n t o account s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e a l s o based sub-24 s t a n t i a l l y on crop range and not p r o d u c t i v i t y . Some la n d , however, may be v e r y p r o d u c t i v e f o r only one 25 crop, yet be p o o r l y c l a s s i f i e d by the C.L.I. The C.L.I, i s a Canada wide standard. The unique c l i m a t e and s o i l combinations of B r i t i s h Columbia de-manded m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the n a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s i n - 26 order to have un i f o r m a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e . - 1 8 9 -Th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 'boundary l i n e s ' were u s u a l l y curved or otherwise i r r e g u l a r and t h i s problem had to be reckoned w i t h by ' l e g a l i z i n g ' the l i n e s of d e s i g n a t i o n s b e f o r e the r e s e r v e s c o u l d be completed. R e l y i n g h e a v i l y upon a i r photographs and sampling, Lane b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt the C.L.I, based a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s w i l l be 'somewhat o f f i n some c a s e s . 2 7 R e a l i z i n g t h i s f a c t o r , appeal procedures, i f not abused, w i l l probably f a c i l i t a t e a c o r r e c t i n g process f o r i n i t i a l d e s i g n a t i o n mistakes. D e s p i t e these problems, L a v k u l i c h m a i n t a i n s t h a t the C.L.I, i s a v e r y sound method of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c l a s s i f y i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Lane f e e l s t h a t the Commission i s v e r y f o r t u n a t e to have the C.L.I, and t h a t there i s probably no other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n q u i t e l i k e i t i n North America. By u s i n g the C.L.I., the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s can be d e s i g n a t e d on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s s i n c e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a f f o r d a f a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n d i t i o n s and use. I m p o r t a n t l y , the d e s i g n a t i o n of the r e s e r v e s i s removed from the a r b i t r a r y z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with urban l a n d u s e . 2 9 i i i ) P r e p a r a t i o n by the Commission By e a r l y J u l y 1973 the Commission had v i s i t e d over h a l f of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ; b efore the r e s e r v e plans were f i l e d , the Commission had v i s i t e d every r e g i o n -190-- some as many as t h r e e times. Lane f e e l s t h a t the •superhuman' e f f o r t o f the Commission i n communicating p e r s o n a l l y with n e a r l y every a r e a of the Pr o v i n c e p a i d o f f i n d i v i d e n d s . The Commission gained the r e s p e c t of the t e c h n i c i a n s and d e c i s i o n makers at the l o c a l l e v e l s . They came to r e g a r d the Act as not j u s t a ' b i g experiment' and the r e g i o n s were t r u l y b e i n g c o n s u l t e d through t h e i r r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n of the 30 r e s e r v e p l a n s . G e n e r a l l y the e f f e c t was to l i g h t e n the heavy hand which the P r o v i n c i a l Government had pla c e d over the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and i t a f f o r d e d the Commission the o p p o r t u n i t y to a d v i s e the r e g i o n s r e g a r d i n g procedures and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s e r v e plans i n an e f f o r t t o s t a n d a r d i z e and speed up the p r o c e s s . A number of o t h e r p o i n t s were c l a r i f i e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Any l a n d p r e v i o u s l y exempted from the farmland f r e e z e by the E.L.U. Committee was a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e f t 31 out o f the r e s e r v e s a f t e r d e s i g n a t i o n . Lane a l s o emphasizes t h a t , d e s p i t e the appeals procedure, an i n d i v i d u a l or m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d not t e s t the d e s i g n a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n c o u r t except on a q u e s t i o n of law.(Sec. 11, s s . 5 of the A c t ) . T h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t because a plans a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r , who i s i n some r o l e s a d i r e c t d e l e g a t e of the P r o v i n c e , has i n some cases had h i s d e c i s i o n s o v e r t u r n e d by the c o u r t s . The Land Commission - 32 Act o v e r r i d e s t h i s problem s t a t u t o r i l y . The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was a l s o prepared - 1 9 1 -f o r t h e r e g i o n a l r o l e i n d e s i g n a t i n g t h e r e s e r v e s . T o a s s i s t t h e r e g i o n s , a s u g g e s t e d f i r s t d r a f t r e s e r v e p l a n w a s p r o d u c e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r e a c h R e g i o n a l B o a r d . T h e s e p l a n s w e r e p r i m a r i l y b a s e d o n t h e C a n a d a L a n d I n v e n t o r y . T h e C o m m i s s i o n w a s c o m m i t t e d t o a i d t h e s e r e g i o n s ( S e c . 8, s s . 2 o f A c t ) a n d i n p a r t i a l d i s c h a r g e o f t h i s o b l i g a t i o n a s e c o n d d r a f t o f t h e o r i g i n a l s u g g e s t e d r e s e r v e p l a n s w a s p r e p a r e d . T h e s e p l a n s w e r e d r a w n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l e g a l b o u n d a r i e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r r e g u l a r p l o t t i n g o f t h e C . L . I , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . 3 3 B o t h o f t h e s e ' t o o l s ' w e r e u t i l i z e d t o i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y a n d g i v e t h e r e g i o n s a s e r i e s o f g u i d e l i n e s f r o m w h i c h t o w o r k . W i t h t h e P r o v i n c e ' p l a y i n g i t s h a n d * f r o m t h e s t a r t , t h e r e g i o n s r e a l i z e d h o w e x t e n s i v e t h e r e s e r v e p l a n s w e r e ' e x p e c t e d * t o b e . K n o w i n g t h i s p r o b a b l y a v o i d e d a n u m b e r o f p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e r e g i o n s a n d t h e C o m m i s s i o n . w h i c h m i g h t h a v e a r i s e n a t a l a t e r d a t e . T h e l o c a l l e v e l s w e r e n o t g i v e n a t o t a l l y ' f r e e ' h a n d e v e n a t t h i s i n i t i a l s t a g e a n d s i n c e t h e L a n d C o m m i s s i o n c o u l d s u g g e s t a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e r e g i o n s * p l a n s b e f o r e t h e y w e r e s e n t t o t h e E . L . U . C o m m i t t e e , t h e P r o v i n c e - r e t a i n e d a s t r o n g g r i p o n t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s , o n e c a n s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e r e s e r v e p l a n s p r o d u c e d b y t h e r e g i o n s b e c a u s e o f t h e a m e n d m e n t s t o B i l l 4 2 w o u l d i n f a c t n o t b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y -192-d l f f e r e n t than i f the Commission i t s e l f had developed the p l a n s . In f a c t , an advantage of t h i s process to the Commission was t h a t the r e g i o n s d i d a great d e a l o f the i n i t i a l ' l e g work', a l l o w i n g the Commission t o p l a y a s t r o n g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and c o o r d i n a t i n g r o l e - which, at t h i s e a r l y stage, was v i t a l . D e s p i t e t h i s , Lane m a i n t a i n s t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s were P r o v i n c i a l l y i n s p i r e d but drawn up by the l o c a l t e c h n i c i a n s and approved by the l o c a l d e c i s i o n s - m a k e r s . k. REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESERVE PLANS The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s began to prepare t h e i r ' r e s e r v e p l a n s on June 9th, 1973,35 alt h o u g h i t was not u n t i l J u l y 2, 1973 t h a t s e c t i o n s 8 - 1 2 and 16 of the Act were p r o c l a i m e d . 3 6 The r e g i o n s were gi v e n 90 days t o complete t h e i r p l a n s (Sec. 8, s s . 2 of the A c t ) ; o n l y one succeeded i n r e a c h i n g t h i s d e a d l i n e although r e s e r v e plans from 16 of the 28 r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s had been r e c e i v e d by the Commission by the end'of 1973* O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 3919, pursuant t o the Land  Commission Act and approved on November 29th, 1973, f o r m a l i z e d and s t a n d a r d i z e d the method by which the r e g i o n s would present t h e i r r e s e r v e p l a n s . The r e g i o n s were r e q u i r e d to submit a base p l a n showing the whole of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e to a s c a l e of 1 i n c h t o 50,000 f e e t , and " c o n s t i t u e n t p l a n s " a t a l a r g e r -193-scale where necessary f o r the purpose of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 1) Commission Advice and C l a r i f i c a t i o n A memorandum from the Commission to the Regional Boards and Municipal Councils of July 11, 1973 more c l e a r l y outlined the procedures to be taken i n the preparation of the reserve plans. The memorandum c l a r i f i e d a number of important points. I t was the Commission's opinion that the Land Commission Act created a statutory p r i o r i t y of land use i n favor of a g r i c u l t u r a l land. The Commission f e l t that there was no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for holding up the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve plans while Regional Plans were being prepared. For those d i s t r i c t s that d i d not have t h e i r r e g ional plans i n order, t h e i r i n i t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to adopt the reserve plans i n conjunction with the C.L.I, a g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A f t e r t h i s was done and the Regional Plans had been prepared, the Boards of each region could apply for exclusion under section 9(1) of the Act where a lack of other options makes such a step necessary to accomodate urban uses. ' Although a supplementary memorandum advised the regions to, ' i f possible', only show one type of reserve - namely the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve - on -4-0 the maps submitted to the Commission, the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t submitted t h e i r base map i n d i c a t i n g two reserves. The primary reserve was, In the G.V.R.D.*s opinion, land s u i t a b l e for long, term a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. The secondary reserve encompassed lands where farm v i a b i l i t y questions were es p e c i a l l y serious and lands which had good s o i l s but also important p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l , urban or other purposes. I t can be anticipated that the G.V.R.D. w i l l , i n future years, be applying f o r the exclusion of lands from the secondary reserves as the need a r i s e s . The suggested A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve Plans prepared by the Department of Agriculture indicated areas f o r urban expansion. In many cases these expansion areas were equivalent to the present b u i l t up areas and the Commission strongly advised that future urban growth should be planned f o r these .locations. However, i n cases where a community had l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e but to expand onto a g r i c u l t u r a l land, or because of the existence of substantial, p a r t i a l l y used, public works designed to serve vacant-areas, an administrative decision was made by the Commission to allow the a g r i c u l t u r a l reserves to express the land required for the next f i v e years of predicted hp urban growth by excluding i t from the reserve plans. Although such a decision was contrary to the intent of the Act, Lane f e e l s that i f the Land Commission was going to survive i t could not enforce the reserves to the ' l e t t e r ' . The Act had to be l i b e r a l l y - 1 9 5 -a p p l i e d with a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the reasons f o r wanting t o 'thaw' the farmland f r e e z e as q u i c k l y as po s s i b l e , , the f i v e year b r e a t h i n g space would not l o c k a community i n t i g h t l y , and t h e r e f o r e owners of e x i s t i n g vacant urban l a n d would h o p e f u l l y not reap the w i n d f a l l p r o f i t s t h a t may have otherwise o c c u r r e d . The f i v e year time p e r i o d was set i n i t i a l l y because, i n the Commission's o p i n i o n , t h i s would g i v e the P r o v i n c i a l Government time to f u r t h e r s o r t out t h e i r l a n d management p r i o r i t i e s and make some of the important and ne c e s s a r y d e c i s i o n s 43 p e r t a i n i n g t o a growth s t r a t e g y . i i i ) P u b l i c Hearings The Commission a l s o a d v i s e d the Regions on the . requirements of a p u b l i s h e d n o t i c e of. the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s h e l d pursuant t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the r e s e r v e p l a n s , as w e l l as the nature and conduct of the h e a r i n g i t s e l f . Although the Commission i n some i n s t a n c e s was hard p r e s s e d t o c o n v i n c e the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t the l o c a l l e v e l s , the he a r i n g s were not t o be conducted p r e c i s e l y as r e - z o n i n g h e a r i n g s are under the M u n i c i p a l Act i n which i t i s qu e s t i o n e d whether the zoning change ought to be adopted a t a l l . S e c t i o n 8(2) of the Land Commission Act s t i p u l a t e s t h a t , "the-r e g i o n a l board of every r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t ' s h a l l ' adopt a l a n d r e s e r v e p l a n . " T h e r e f o r e i t was unnecessary -196-t o spend time at p u b l i c h e a r i n g s d i s c u s s i n g whether the p l a n should be adopted or not. What was r e l e v a n t was whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a n d was " s u i t a b l e f o r farm use." S u i t a b i l i t y was judged i n terms of the s o i l and c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s , not on short-range economics or d e s i r a b i l i t y of non-farm u s e s . 4 4 T h i s procedure r e v e a l s two important themes of the Land Commission t h a t were most l i k e l y i n s p i r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. F i r s t l y , as mentioned above, emphasis was p l a c e d on the speed and e f f i c i e n c y w i t h which the r e s e r v e p l a n s c o u l d be adopted. The Commission recommended t h a t , " I t i s g e n e r a l l y d e s i r a b l e f o r a Board to make up i t s mind as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r a h e a r i n g . T h i s reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y of Board members a c q u i r i n g , by i n a d v e n t u r e , f u r t h e r "evidence" which those who a t t e n d e d the h e a r i n g may not have had a chance to question.. Secondly, Lane p o i n t s out t h a t ; ".......the o b j e c t s of the A c t are to p r o t e c t the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n the l o n g h a u l , hence, short-term economic or t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e weight i n e v a l u a t i n g whether a g i v e n p a r c e l of l a n d should be i n c l u d e d or excluded from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve," and " . . . s o i l q u a l i t i e s and c e r t a i n c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . . . . m u s t be kept i n mind r a t h e r than the s h o r t term economic p o s s i b i l i t i e s which may a r i s e from time to time i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l a n d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n r e g a r d to i t s l o c a t i o n near urban areas."^° F u r t h e r evidence of t h i s ' l o n g h a u l ' approach i s r e v e a l e d by the f a c t t h at i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t l e s s -197-than h a l f o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s , as they are now b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , a re a c t u a l l y u t i l i z e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Some of these a r e s t i l l b e i n g logged and o t h e r s a re w i l d l i f e a r e a s - they c o u l d w e l l remain i n t h a t use f o r a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g l e n g t h of time. These areas a r e , however, l e g a l l y i n the r e s e r v e s and i n many cases, w i l l be opened up f o r farm use as technology allows. ^ 7 With r e g a r d to the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , Franson f e e l s t h a t they were p o o r l y covered by the p r e s s and suspects t h a t t h e r e may have been a c o n s c i o u s attempt t o •play down' the hea r i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f the ho p r e v i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y over B i l l 42. Lane, however, e m p h a t i c a l l y d e n i e s t h i s c l a i m . Although t h e r e was a ver y d e f i n i t e attempt to e x p l a i n t o the r e g i o n s what t h e i r r o l e was i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , t h e r e was never any s u g g e s t i o n t o 'pl a y them down'. Lane f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t the R e g i o n a l Boards are made up of mayors and s e n i o r aldermen, many of whom a r e not sympathetic t o the N.D.Pi T h e r e f o r e they c o u l d have "stacked the meetings with people w i l d l y opposed to the Act i n or d e r t o r a i s e h e l l -but t h i s was not the case." The decision-makers a t the l o c a l l e v e l s g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d something had to be done t o save a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and hence agreed w i t h the ends although q u e s t i o n e d the means. I n f a c t , many l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( p o l i t i c i a n s ) thought the Act -198-was 20 years too l a t e and were asking for a f i f t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - an ecological reserve. The press was also not asked to constrain from reporting on the public hearings held during the l a t e summer and early f a l l of 1973' Lane f e e l s that the press also appreciated the importance of the Act and were generally sympathetic to the Government's p o l i c i e s i n t h i s regard. 4" 9 With respect to l o c a l zoning, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserves, when f i n a l l y adopted, supercede any l o c a l zoning which may have been i n e f f e c t , except f o r provis-ions which are more stringent than, but not repugnant to, the Act. This i s consistent with Section 20 subsections 5 and 6 of the Act. For the purpose of summarizing the above points the following l i s t i l l u s t r a t e s the considerations, of the G.V.R.D. i n dr a f t i n g t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l : reserve plans. i i i ) Guidelines for Drafting Reserve Proposals — G.V.R.D. a. "the Department of Agriculture proposed reserves are a- s t a r t i n g point - deletions from t h e i r boundaries should be documented. b. land with good s o i l i s to be excluded from the reserves only where needed for i n d u s t r i a l and urban purposes i n the next f i v e years. c. include lands p h y s i c a l l y suited to agr i c u l t u r e ; i t i s not e s s e n t i a l that they are farmed at t h i s time or that they can be economically farmed - further p r o v i n c i a l actions are intended to deal with these questions. -199-d. ownership i s i g n o r e d , e.g. I n d i a n Reserves. e. acknowledge exemptions a l r e a d y granted by the Environment and Land Use Committee. f . I n c l u d e m a r g i n a l C l a s s k and 5 s o i l s where bordered o n l y by a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s and e x i s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s on poorer s o i l s . g. observe c u r r e n t development p a t t e r n s . h. exclude areas t h a t a r e sewered or where bylaws funds a r e a l l o c a t e d f o r sewers. i . f o r reasons of e q u i t y p a r c e l s i z e and the type of development of the l a n d should be as important as c u r r e n t z o n i n g . j . O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n INDUSTRIAL AREAS and URBAN AREAS i n l a r g e h o l d i n g s and w i t h •good 1 s o i l w i l l be p l a c e d i n the secondary r e s e r v e , as w i t h a l l LOWLAND RURAL AREAS (RRL-3) which are not d e s i g n a t e d , k. p r o p e r t y exempt from the ' f r e e z e ' due to i n i t i a t i o n of development p r i o r t o December 21, 1973, i s e x c l u d e d . " 5 0 i v ) By-law Ad o p t i o n Once the r e s e r v e p l a n s were prepared, and a p u b l i c h e a r i n g h e l d , the R e g i o n a l Board was r e q u i r e d by s e c t i o n 8(2) of the Act to adopt by by-law the l a n d r e s e r v e p l a n . The by-law i s , however, not an o p e r a t i o n a l document t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d and r e v i s e d as i s the case w i t h most l o c a l by-laws. Rather, i t i s a fo r m a l statement of the Region's s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s , t o be c o n s i d e r e d by the Land Commission and the C a b i n e t b e f o r e d e s i g n a t i o n of Reserves by the Commission.51 -200-5. POST REGIONAL ACTIVITIES Once the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s 1 by-laws were adopted, proposed r e s e r v e plans were submitted to the Land Commission. The Commission then checked the p l a n s to make c e r t a i n they adhered to the s p i r i t of the Act and p o s s i b l y to suggest changes. The review by the Commission had a d e f i n i t e a g r i c u l t u r a l b i a s which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the A c t ' s purpose. i ) R o u t i n g of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve Pla n s F o r m a l l y , the next stage of the p r o c e s s was to send the plans to C a b i n e t f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l which would f a c i l i t a t e the p a s s i n g of an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l . More p r a c t i c a l l y , the p l a n s were f i r s t sent to the S e c r e t a r i a t of the E.L.U. Committee as C h a r t #1 i n d i c a t e s . From t h i s vantage p o i n t , the plans were a s s e s s e d by v a r i o u s l i n e departments o f the Government through the C a b i n e t review p r o c e s s . The p l a n p r o p o s a l s and the v a r i o u s suggested amendments t h a t may have s u r f a c e d were f u r t h e r reviewed by the R e g i o n a l I n t e r - S e c t o r Committee be f o r e going t o the Head-q u a r t e r s Committee. The process i n i t s e l f demonstrates the c l o s e l i n k s between the Land Commission and the E.L.U. Committee. I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the comprehensive nature of the review, r a t h e r than h a v i n g the r e s e r v e p l a n s develop i n a p a r t i a l vacuum u t i l i z i n g o n l y the i n f o r m a l CHART # 1 ROUTING OF AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE PLANS prrxn\L • Rr-aanal Ont rid prtOClO*-chvgsd bow, aria*) al '•cMdulV LAND COMMISSION ov«rtar« *>owiri proposed Land Commission chcn?** & t*»l oratory note*. (Gary R\**n) L E P E *Q_ — — NORMAL WOUTE - "PWOLXM* ROUTT ( ) CONTACT PERSON Policy [ (A.Cnnr) Background Information (BofrRwd) grr-PETRRiAT • tran* !«r to cab-in* t review proC*U. (Edith Boflaan) FOREST SERVICE,, •duplication of mop* for Inter-Sic lor Coomttn. (2 co pita) Star in? of original*. (John Bract) REGIONAL INTER-SECTOR CCMMITTEE review ot Regional Distrlc propc-ial ft Land Comminioa propoialt by field itaff of lint Dtpti. for Cabinet (Alex Smith, Londt Branch)! HEADQUARTERS COMMITTEE _ review of Ihow pre mow propceatt Including thai from Regional Inter-Soc tor Cornmitlon. (Alii Smith) Origional " 1 f I 1 I !~ Ana!y*i» I I Owrlayi I (BobRwtf) I LAND COKMISStON • reunion of propoiol* m light af comment t trow RtvitwQrouf* (Gary Runfca) SECRETARIAT (Edith finer) -redrafting, af wtvnns ion (when nece»ary) Kmptiticattaa of schodalo franft* af a& InlomalioA onto 150000 moot. 'Pr io l in , tt {•as, o f tomo into gnus* of fear. (Sab Raid) E L.U C. tor final docupan (aVCroror) CABINET pasting, ol ordor| -r-touncil cronling opprwal (or designation (HorvOSrupeH) Original a SCIMOUM S L F V T T S a «Am«s O B A M C H I • - L A H D S iFOBESTSamTEB R E S C L U C E S -durJieolion of I 5C.000 a schoduls ortss -I oulapotiliv* hr f il.txj lor LondCom-mttaion1 I outopoailivt Stops* prints (C.McMinn or Brgco Yoono) LAND d>*(grttf»on a distribution Lard Cttr.ntn<ati\ retorts ont signsd oopsr print a all •grklng mm (Cory Ruiso) KEGIC1AL I » 7 * d fipsr or ml. t c w K p o i l t n F * I siontd pc;>*r prml Mart* II, I3T74 E B - E i l . » . E.LUC. S#<r»a1or*t I ro o -202-" Jungle g r a p e v i n e " network of communications b u i l t up by each department f o r i t s own purposes. The process g i v e s the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i n r e s o u r c e use to the Environment and Land Use Committee.5^ i n t h i s way, problems, when f o r e s e e n , c o u l d be s o l v e d a t t h i s stage r a t h e r than attempting t o a d j u s t the p l a n s because o f d e f a u l t s once the r e s e r v e s were d e s i g n a t e d . I f t h e r e are no s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t s , the p l a n s pass from the Headquarters Committee' back to the Land Commission f o r a f i n a l review i n l i g h t of any f u r t h e r suggested changes. The p l a n s then go back to the S e c r e t a r i a t f o r a n a l y s i s and t e c h n i c a l work and then to the E.L.U. Committee f o r i t s f i n a l d e c i s i o n . I t i s o n l y a f t e r t h i s p r o c e s s i s completed t h a t the C a b i n e t g r a n t s a p p r o v a l f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n which i s f o r m a l l y c a r r i e d out by the Commission a f t e r the t e c h n i c a l work of p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n i s completed by the Surveys and Mapping Branch of the Department of Lands, F o r e s t s and Water Resources. Copies of the plans are f i n a l l y f i l e d w i t h the Commission, the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e . i i ) D e s i g n a t i o n Progress I n i t s f i r s t year, the ' r e c o r d 1 of the Land Commission's work i s p r i m a r i l y found i n i t s e f f o r t s t o d e s i g n a t e the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . Because -203-of the numerous stages i n the p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d above, the d e s i g n a t i o n .has g e n e r a l l y been • slowed down. Impo r t a n t l y though, the Commission has had to 'gear up' an e n t i r e l y new agent of the crown w h i l e a s s i s t i n g the development of r e s e r v e plans and s t e e r i n g them to c o m p l e t i o n . The Commission's e f f o r t s i n t h i s one a r e a alone have i n f a c t been admirable. T a b l e 8-1 i l l u s t r a t e s the dates w i t h i n which each of the v a r i o u s stages i n the d e s i g n a t i o n process were completed. Although the d e s i g n a t i o n s r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f work by the Regions, Lane f e e l s t h a t o v e r a l l , the Land Commission was not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s r u p t i v e . F o r those areas which had t h e i r ' p l a n n i n g houses i n order' t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e j f o r o t h e r s , w i t h l i t t l e o r no p l a n n i n g , the demands. p l a c e d upon them by the Commission d i d cause concern.53 Lane agreed with Hankln's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t once the r e g i o n s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b r i n g t h e i r zoning boundaries i n t o l i n e w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e p l a n the Commission c o u l d m a i n t a i n an o v e r s e e i n g r o l e and, a l o n g w i t h the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , have veto power over the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and Regions i n terms of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use c o n t r o l . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y what i s now t a k i n g p l a c e . As the d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e completed, the 'zoning' r o l e of the Commission w i l l become of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . The Commission's .. o v e r s e e i n g d u t i e s w i l l , however, take the form of - 2 CI-TABLE 8-1 PROGRESS REPORT — AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE DESIGNATIONS Regional D is t r ic t Albemi-Clayoquot Bulkley Nechako Capital Cariboo Central Fraser Valley Central Kootenay Central Okanagan Columbia Shuswap Comox Strathcona Cowichan Valley Dewdney-Alouette East Kootenay Fraser Cheam Fraser-Fort George Greater Vancouver Kitimat Stikine Kootenay Boundary Mount Haddington Nanaimo North Okanagan Ocean Fal ls Okanagan Similkameen Peace River -L iard Powell River Skeena-Queen Charlotte Squamish L i l l o o e t Sunshine Coast Thompson Nicola Date F i rs t Recieved Review 6.11.73 11.12.73 3.12.73 29. 1.74 24.11.73 27. 2.74 28. 2.74 16. 5.74 6.11.73 11.12.73 10. 1.74 17. 4.74 6.12.73 21. 2.74 26. 2.74 9. 5.74 24.11.73 17. 1.74 23.11.73 20.12.73 30.10.73 11.12.73 13. 3.74 27. 5.74 28. 2.74 16. 5.74 7. 1.74 2. 4.74 25.10.73 8.11.73 24. 4.74 28. 5.74 22. 2.74 17. 4.74 18.12.73 27. 2.74 4.10.73 26.10.73 28. 6.74 5. 7.74 27. 9.73 12.10.73 3.12.73 30. 1.74 29. 4.74 14. 5.74 15. 8.74 23. 8.74 1.11.73 18.12.73 6.11.73 20.12.73 23.11.73 2. 4.74 Final Sent to Review Cabinet 8. 1.74 24. 1.74 25. 6.74 12. 7.74 29. 3.74 9. 4.74 29. 5.74 10. 6.74 8. 1.74 24. 1.74 3. 5.74 13. 5.74 29. 3.74 5. 4.74 29. 5.74 3. 6.74 25. 1.74 31. 1.74 17. 1.74 31. 1.74 8. 1.74 24. 1.74 25. 6.74 2. 7.74 29. 5.74 10. 6.74 18. 4.74 22. 4.74 10.12.73 24. 1.74 12. 6.74 18. 6.74 24. 4.74 24. 4.74 21. 3.74 5 . 4 . 7 4 19.11.73 12.12.73 10. 7.74 19. 7 74 29.10.73 2.11.73 20. 2.74 8. 3.74 14. 5.74 17. 7.74 23.10.74 20. 2.74 22. 2.74 8. 1.74 31. 1.74 18. 4.74 8. 5.74 Received Designa from tion Cabinet 16. 4.74 18. 4.74 17. 1.75 27. 6,74 27. 6.74 28. 6.74 29. 6.74 19. 4.74 24. 4.74 27. 9.74 27. 9.74 19. 7.74 24. 7.74 12. 8.74 3. 9.74 17. 5.74 21. 5.74 17. 5.74 21. 5.74 19. 4.74 24. 4.74 19. 4.74 26. 8.74 19. 4.74 19. 8.74 12. 6.74 12. 6.74 29.11.74 27. 9.74 27. 9.74 3. 7.74 27. 9.74 11. 3.74 15. 3.74 17. 1.75 31. 1.74 13. 2.74 19. 6.74 21. 6.74 29.11.74 13. 2.75 17. 5.74 21. 5.74 3... 4.74 3. 4.74 30. 8.74 Source: Br i t i sh Columbia Land Commission. -205-d e a l i n g with non-conforming uses arid a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n s from the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s . 6. EXCLUSIONS AND NON-CONFORMING USES A d m i n i s t e r i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s w i l l g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the r e s e r v e s under s e c t i o n 9(1) and (2) of the Land  Commission A c t , and d e a l i n g with a p p l i c a t i o n s t o c a r r y on non-farm uses i n the r e s e r v e s under s e c t i o n 8(11), 11(2) and 11(4) of the A c t . While t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e to draw upon a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures set f o r t h i n O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 353i approved on January 31, 1974, and a Land Commission memorandum of March 21, 197^, do o f f e r a "basis o f review. i ) E x c l u s i o n from A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves The h a n d l i n g o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from a m u n i c i p a l i t y , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t h e Commission o r the Cabinet i t s e l f w i l l be done openly w i t h each of the other p a r t i e s b e i n g n o t i f i e d and a b l e to make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 55 However, these procedures a r e somewhat of an ' i n house' a c t i v i t y , w i t h no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p u b l i c t o enter i n t o the debate. T h i s , however, i s not the case with appeals by i n d i v i d u a l s pursuant to s e c t i o n 9(2) o f the A c t . However, u n l i k e z o n i n g 'hearings', when an a p p l i c a t i o n -206-f o r e x c l u s i o n from an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e i s being processed, p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n meetings may be h e l d i f deemed necessary by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . At the r e q u e s t of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , the newly c r e a t e d procedures i n c l u d i n g those f o r e x c l u s i o n , are f i r m l y based at the l o c a l l e v e l . A p p l i c a t i o n s and appeals are not f i l e d d i r e c t l y w i t h the Land Commission o f f i c e but w i t h the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . A f t e r the r e g i o n a l s t a f f has a s c e r t a i n e d c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , the Board can comment on the a p p l i c a t i o n and may then h o l d an i n f o r m a t i o n meeting. The Commission a d v i s e s that such meetings would normally be necessary where major d e c i s i o n s were i n v o l v e d . R e g a r d l e s s , the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board i n a i l cases w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y to comment on the a p p l i c a n t ' s p r o p o s a l p r i o r to the Commission a c t i n g upon the a p p l i c -a t i o n . " ^ The many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g appeals and a p p l i c a t i o n s are important but w i l l not be o u t l i n e d here. Rather, the Commission's ' a t t i t u d e ' , or c r i t e r i a f o r a l l o w i n g e x c l u s i o n s and non-conforming uses are more r e l e v a n t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . O b t a i n i n g e x c l u s i o n from a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s w i l l be e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . The process i t s e l f i s demanding and w i l l be extremely time consuming. A p p l i e d to m u n i c i p a l r e - z o n i n g i n a development c o n t e x t , t h i s p rocess would most l i k e l y be thoroughly condemned, but i t does have merit when -207-c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the main o b j e c t i v e of the Land  Commission Act i s to p r o t e c t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from the encroachment of non-farm uses. The a t t i t u d e the Commission w i l l m a i n t a i n with r e g a r d to e x c l u s i o n s i s r e v e a l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g excerpt o u t l i n i n g the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s an a p p l i c a n t should make upon r e q u e s t i n g e x c l u s i o n . " I f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve, i s to be m aintained i n the l o n g - h a u l , i t i s obvious t h a t i t cannot be e n d l e s s l y eroded. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t with measures t o c o n t r o l l a n d under l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l z o n i n g by-laws which were e f f e c t i v e o n l y so l o n g as there wasn't a r o u t i n e r e q u e s t to use more farmland f o r urban purposes. The p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n e v a l u a t i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n from the Agr-i c u l t u r a l Reserve thus must d i f f e r from those employed i n weighing r e - z o n i n g r e q u e s t s . The c r i t e r i a f o r judging e x c l u s i o n s w i l l , by n e c e s s i t y , be more c o n s e r v a t i o n o r i e n t e d than are those used to weigh t r a d i t i o n a l r e -z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . " "A second p o i n t to c o n s i d e r i s t h a t p r o v i s i o n has a l r e a d y been made, i f no r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t s f o r expansion onto l e s s p r o d u c t i v e areas, f o r the e x c l u s i o n from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve of farmland necessary f o r up to f i v e years p r e d i c t e d growth around our urban c e n t r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , many comm-u n i t i e s have a l a r g e amount o f unused l a n d w i t h i n t h e i r d e v e l o p i n g neighbourhoods. " 5 ° I n the Commission's o p i n i o n , r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d l o c a t e d i n a r e a s remote from towns and v i l l a g e s cannot be j u s t i f i e d on the grounds of urban expansion. I f a s p e c i f i c s i t e d i d have some p e c u l i a r i t y and i t s e x c l u s i o n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a " p u b l i c n e c e s s i t y , " the a p p l i c a t i o n may be f a v o u r a b l y c o n s i d e r e d . The major b a s i s f o r which e x c l u s i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d -208-w i l l be founded on s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r s i n s o i l c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n . ^ i i ) A l l o w i n g Non-Conforming Uses I n c o n t r a s t , the Act - s h o r t of f u l l e x c l u s i o n -does a l l o w an e x t e n s i v e amount of f l e x i b i l i t y through r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s t a i l o r e d to s p e c i f i c problems. There are a s e r i e s of ways i n which non-farm uses may be a l l o w e d w i t h i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e . Soon to be announced B.C. R e g u l a t i o n s w i l l o u t l i n e a number of non-farm uses which are n e v e r t h e l e s s compatible w i t h long-term use of l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . These r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l i n c l u d e both c o n d i t i o n a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l u s e s . A l s o , the Commission under s e c t i o n 10(1) and (4) may a l l o w p r i v a t e non-farm uses which are not compatible to the long-term a g r i c u l t u r a l use i f t h e r e i s no a v a i l a b l e l a n d o u t s i d e of the r e s e r v e and the proposed use i s to serve some element of the community's w e l l - b e i n g . A p r e s e n t non-conforming use t h a t was e s t a b l i s h e d s i x months p r i o r t o December 21, 1972 may a l s o c o n t i n u e u n t i l such time as the use i s changed or the premises i s s o l d o r l e a s e d . I n such a case, p e r m i s s i o n must be o b t a i n e d from the Commission i n order to c o n t i n u e the non-farm use (Sec. 11, s s . 2 of A c t ) . I f a person has r e c e i v e d a " r e l e a s e " under an Environment and Land Use Act O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l but i s -209-w l t h i n an A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve, the non-conforming use may c o n t i n u e . A f u r t h e r non-conforming; use s t a t u s a r i s e s by the g r a n t i n g of an exemption by the Land Commission under s e c t i o n 8(11) of the A c t . In t h i s case, a g e n e r a l order p e r t a i n i n g to a l l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s or a s i t e s p e c i f i c o r d e r may a l l o w an a p p l i c a n t " t o use the premises as p r o v i d e d f o r i n the o r d e r . 6 0 In summary, the a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n w i l l not o n l y be d i f f u c u l t t o o b t a i n , but the Commission, backed by the Government's p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s , i s determined not to a l l o w a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o be urban-i z e d as i n the p a s t . The a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r non-conform-i n g uses, w h i l e b e i n g f l e x i b l e , c o n t i n u e to m a i n t a i n the l a n d i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves. ( R e f e r to Sec. 10(4) of the Act f o r enforcement t e c h n i q u e s ) . 7. OTHER ACTIVITIES The Commission's l a c k of a c t i v i t y w i t h i n i t s f i r s t year i n many of i t s a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be., a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o the enormity o f the t a s k of d e s i g n a t i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves. While t h i s s i n g l e f u n c t i o n has demanded 85 per cent of the Commission's time, Lane estimates t h a t i t s involvement i n a s p e c t s r e l a t e d to g r e e n b e l t l a n d has accounted f o r 10 per cent of the Commission's e n e r g i e s . G r e e n b e l t s are normally thought of. as b u f f e r zones between urban * (e.g. f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n ) - 2 1 0 -and r u r a l land uses but "in-town" greenbelt areas are a l s o being analyzed. I n such cases, s e r v i c i n g and design suggestions are a l s o being requested. I n c o n t r a s t , many people q u i t e removed from urban areas are o f f e r i n g t h e i r l a nd f o r s a l e to the Commission. These ( a p p l i c a t i o n s are now beginning to be processed as p o s s i b l e greenbelt r e s e r v e s . F i f t y p r o p e r t i e s , a c q u i r e d under the Greenbelt Fund, have a l s o been turned over to the Commission. F i v e per cent of the Commission* s time i s spent c o n s i d e r i n g the problems of l a n d bank l a n d . G e n e r a l l y the E.L.U. Committee w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t i n g on banking l a n d f o r short term use whi l e the Commission w i l l h o l d l a n d i n reserv e f o r long-term needs. At present, the Commission i s l e a s t i n v o l v e d i n park land although i t i s attempting to e s t a b l i s h i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Parks Branch. Most l i k e l y the future- park land reserves w i l l i n v o l v e a c q u i s i t i o n of scenic areas.^^ As does the E.L.U. S e c r e t a r i a t , the Land Commission a l s o hopes to a s s i s t the Government to develop a growth s t r a t e g y f o r the Pr o v i n c e . As a beginning, the Commission i s i n charge of developing a ' h a b i t a b l e l a n d map*. E s s e n t i a l l y the e x i s t i n g and p o s s i b l e urban areas and the a g r i c u l t u r a l r eserves w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d , w i t h the oceans and mountains being the 6 2 same col o u r to demonstrate t h e i r u n i n h a b i t a b l e nature. While, a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , the Land -211-Comrnission had not developed any by-laws under s e c t i o n 6 of the Act, an immediate concern, as the d e s i g n a t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s are completed, i s the n e c e s s i t y o f s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s which may v a r y from r e g i o n to r e g i o n . ^ I n order to prevent l a r g e farms b e i n g s u b d i v i d e d i n t o hobby farms, the minimum l o t s i z e w i l l i n most cases, be w e l l above c u r r e n t mlnimums (2 t o 8 h e c t a r e s ) . However, s m a l l h o l d i n g s under i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n w i l l not be ' r e g u l a t e d ' 64 ' out of b u s i n e s s . i ) F u t u r e Concerns I n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Mr. Lane, mention was made of a number of f u t u r e concerns of the Commission. At present, both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments have been p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n t e n d e d to a s s i s t the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . I n B. C. these have i n c l u d e d the Farm Income Insurance Act, the A g r i c u l t u r a l C r e d i t A c t , the Farm Products I n d u s t r y Improvement Act and many o t h e r s passed d u r i n g the f a l l s i t t i n g o f the L e g i s l a t u r e of 1973* Once both the s e n i o r l e v e l s of Government have c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s , i t i s hoped t h a t the e f f e c t s of t h e i r e f f o r t s can be a s s e s s e d and the Commission can h e l p i n some ar e a s p o s s i b l y o v e r l o o k e d . Tax i n c e n t i v e s may be used i n some cases to encourage the long-term a g r i c u l t u r a l use of l a n d , but -212-Lane does not see t h i s as an urgent need c o n s i d e r i n g the Commission's p r e s e n t work l o a d and i n l i g h t of the c u r r e n t adjustments o f tax assessment on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Another p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n w i l l be to d e v i s e and c o n t r o l a method o f a l l o w i n g e l d e r l y farmers to remain on the farm as t h e i r sons take over the o p e r a t i o n . Procedures may be e s t a b l i s h e d whereby a second home can be b u i l t on a farm without j e o p a r d i z i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . 6 5 D e s p i t e W i l k i n s o n ' s comments to the c o n t r a r y , Lane f e e l s t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n of farmland w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become a ver y important aspect o f the Commission's a c t i v i t i e s . A number of people have r e q u e s t e d thao the Commission purchase t h e i r farms. The f i r s t two farms purchased by the Commission were bought i n January 1974. The p r o p e r t i e s i n c l u d e d 78 h e c t a r e s of l a n d and more than 1.6 k i l o m e t r e s of w a t e r f r o n t a l o n g Boundary Bay. Not o n l y are the h o l d i n g s good farmland, 66 but the l a n d has s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n v a l u e . Due; to the p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t of l a n d ( i n t h i s case $625,000) the Commission w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be ver y s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r purchases and t h i s d u a l v a l u e aspect-may w e l l be the normal p r a c t i c e o f the Commission. I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the purchase of farms, the Com-m i s s i o n hopes to develop an i n n o v a t i v e form o f l a n d l e a s i n g . The scheme may i n c l u d e 4-0 year l e a s e s which c o u l d pass - 2 1 3 -to a farmer's son and the improvements could be sold back to the farmer as equity. The emphasis of the program would be to give the farmer a l l the security and amenities of ownership while not re q u i r i n g a d i s -proportionate amount of h i s c a p i t a l for the purchase of land. In return, the Commission would hope the lessee would regard the farm operation as a long-term a c t i v i t y . 6 7 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the convention of the National Farmers Union (N.F.U.) i n December 1 9 7 3 "approved a strongly-worded p o l i c y statement aimed at protecting farmland from urban encroachments." Included i n the statement, but r e f e r r e d back to the N.F.U. l o c a l s for discussion, was a section c a l l i n g for a system of •guaranteed tenure* over farmland as opposed to outright ownership. The tenure conditions described by the N.F.U. were i n substance not unlike those advanced by Lane. 6 8 Through the statutory mandate Which the Government has given the Commission, and i t s coordinative functions along with the E.L.U. Committee, many p o l i c i e s and stimuli to the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry which are unforseen today w i l l most l i k e l y evolve. Due to i t s rather prest-igious p o s i t i o n , the Act affords the Commission strong persuasive powers i n dealirg with l i n e departments of Government i n r e l a t e d matters which the Commission can not regulate. Regardless of new dir e c t i o n s which the Commission may take i n the future, an emphasis must, be placed on 'team work' and cooperation between the -214-farmer and Government to a c h i e v e the A c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s . Lane admits t h i s may be i d e a l i s t i c but i t may be 69 s t r i v e n f o r , 7 a n d t h i s may w e l l be the essence of the Commission's s u c c e s s . - 2 1 5 -FOOTNOTES 1 . Land Commission A c t . R.S.B.C. Chapter 4 6 , 1 9 7 3 , S e c t i o n 2 0 ( 1 ) . 2. Environment and Land Use Ac t , R.S.B.C. Chapter 1 7 , . 1 9 7 1 , S e c t i o n 2(TT 3. R.A. W i l l i a m s , ( M i n i s t e r of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water Resources) S e c r e t a r i a t f o r the Environment  and Land Use Committee (an announcement, May 4 , 1973) . 4 . L a n e , i n t e r v i e w . A p r i l 6, 1974. 5« W i l l i a m s , announcement, May 4 , 1973-6 . Lane, l e c t u r e , February 20, 1 9 7 4 . 7. W i l l i a m s , announcement, May 4, 1973. 8. Denis K. 0 ' Gorman, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r E.L:.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , correspondence, March 20, 1 9 7 4 . 9. W i l l i a m s , announcement, May 4, 1973-10. I b i d , May 4 , 1973-11. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n 391/73- -12. Environment and Land Use Committee,- Re: A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves (a l e t t e r to the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r s of a i l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , May 29, 1973) p. 3-13. W i l l i a m s , announcement, May 4, 1 9 7 3 . 14. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 1 9 7 4 . 15. B.C. Land Commission Handbook, document I^-h. 16. Handbook, document I-h. 17. 'Gov't farmland f r e e z e . . . . ' , Vancouver Sun, March 29, 1973-18. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n 1 4 7 / 7 3 . 1 9 - Department of R e g i o n a l Expansion, The Canada Land  I n v e n t o r y : O b j e c t i v e s , Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n , Report Ko. 1 (Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 2nd. ed. 1970) p. 1 . -20. M c C i e l l a n , J e r s a k and Hutton, A Guide to the C l a s s -' i f i c a t i o n of Land Use For the Canada Land Inventory ( G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1967).p. 55. - 2 l 6 -2 1 . Canada Land I n v e n t o r y : Report IMo. _1, p. 5-2 2 . Lewis, p. 214. " 2 3 . A . R . J J . A . , The Canada Land Inventory, S o i l C a p a b i l i t y  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Report Mo. 2 ( Dept. of F o r e s t r y , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 6 8 ) p. 5 - 6 . 24. Runka, G.G. Land C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e ( S o i l Survey D i v i s i o n , B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, January 1 9 7 3 ) p. 1 . 2 5 . L a v k u l l c h , i n t e r v i e w , February 8 , 1974. 2 6 . Runka, p. 1 . 2 7 . Lane, l e c t u r e , February 2 0 , 1 9 7 4 . 28. L a v k u l i c h , i n t e r v i e w , February 8, 1 9 7 4 . 2 9 . Lane, l e c t u r e , February 2 0 , 1 9 7 4 . 3 0 . Lane, i n t e r v i e w s , Febrary 6 , 1974 and March 1 6 , 1974. 3 1 . Lane, I n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 6 , 1 9 7 4 . 3 2 . Lane, l e c t u r e , February 2 0 , 1 9 7 4 . 3 3 • B.C. Land Commission, memorandum, J u l y 1 1 , 1973. P« 1 -3 4 . Lane, l e c t u r e , February 2 0 , 1 9 7 4 . 3 5 . I b i d , F e bruary 2 0 , 1 9 7 4 . 3 6 . Handbook, comments on r e l e v a n t documents, p. 2 . 3 7 . B.C. Land Commission, A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve  Plans - Report. as of A p r i l 2 , 1 9 7 4 . 3 8 . B.C. R e g u l a t i o n 4 4 5 / 7 3 . 3 9 - B.C. Land Commission, memorandum, J u l y 1 1 , 1 9 7 3 . P- 1 - 2 40. Handbook, Supplementary I n s t r u c t i o n s Regarding P r e p a r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserve P l a n s . 41. Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Reference Book on A g r i c u l t u r a l Reserves, August 2 7 . 1 9 7 3 - Item 4 . 42. B.C. Land Commission, memoranaum, J u l y 1 1 , 1 9 7 3 - P* 2 . 4 3 . Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 1 6 , 1 9 7 4 . 4 4 . B.C. Land Commission, memorandum, J u l y 1 1 , 1 9 7 3 - p. 3 . 4 5 . I b i d , p. 3 . -217-46. Lane, speech, December 5. 1974. 47. Lane, l e c t u r e , February 20, 1973. 48. Franson, Interview, February 25, 1973. 49. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 30, 1974. 50. Reference Book, Item 4, p. i-2. 51. I b i d , Item 4, p. 2-3. 52. 0'Gorman, correspondence, March 20, 1974. 53. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 1974. 54. Lane. i n t e r v i e w , March 30, 1974. • ' 55. B.C. R e g u l a t i o n 60/74. 56. B.C. Land Commission, memorandum, March 21, 1974. 57. Hankln, i n t e r v i e w , March 25, 1974. 58. B.C. Land Commission, memorandum, March 21, 1974, p. 2. 59. I b i d , p. 3. 60. I b i d , p. 2. 61. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 1974. 62. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 1974. 63. B.C. Land Commission, memorandum, J u l y 11, 1973-64. Baxter, p. 28. 65. Lane, Interview, A p r i l 6, 1974. 66. 'B.C. buys two farms....', The P r o v i n c e , January 23, 1974. 67. Lane, i n t e r v i e w , March 16, 1974. 68. 'Farmland 'tenure'....', Vancouver Sun, December 10, 1973. 69. Lane, Interview, March 16, 1974. CHAPTER IX CONCLUSION Man has r e q u i r e d s a n c t i o n s on h i s a c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i n order to a t t a i n e f f i c i e n c y and harmony i n l i f e . These c o n t r o l s have developed through time, are based upon c u l t u r e , and ensured through v a r i o u s l e g a l apparatus. They come i n many forms — from t r a f f i c l i g h t s t o Land Commission A c t s . As an instrument t o f a c i l i t a t e the s o c i a l c o n t r o l of l a n d use, the Land Commission Act i s endebted to the h i s t o r i c a l development of r e g u l a t o r y d e v i c e s t h a t have supplanted the w i l l of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the w e l f a r e of the community. B e s i d e s t h i s g e n e r a l b a s i s , t h e r e are t h r e e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e elements which were of s i g n i f i c a n c e to the o r i g i n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u t e . The p h y s i c a l circumstances, a l o n g w i t h the time frame w i t h i n which the Act was conceived, and the ph i l o s o p h y o f i t s c r e a t o r s , were a l l important to the development o f the Land Commi s s i o n A c t . The Act has been d e v i s e d to a s s i s t i n the p r e s e r v i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r the sake of en s u r i n g the v i a b i l i t y of the P r o v i n c e ' s f o u r t h l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y , to ensure a l o c a l source o f food supply i n a world with growing shortages, and to save a way of l i f e . To do so, the l e g i s l a t i o n was designed to d e a l with a h a b i t a b l e l a n d poor P r o v i n c e i n which a r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e was -218--219-c a u s i n g the unnecessary u r b a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d --a process t h a t f o r the most part was p r o g r e s s i n g unchecked by the e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l and p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . The Act was encouraged not o n l y by these e v o l v i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , but a l s o because of a growing awareness o f t h e i r e f f e c t s . D e s p i t e the c o n t r o v e r s y i n v o l v i n g B i l l 42's i n t r o d u c t i o n , there has been, i n r e c e n t years, a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n people's a t t i t u d e towards l a n d -r e s o u r c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , spurning the past growth e t h i c . In i t s p l a c e , the ' q u i e t r e v o l u t i o n i n l a n d c o n t r o l ' o f Bosse'lman and C a l l i e s ^ has begun to be heard. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , B r i t i s h Columbia found at i t s p o l i t i c a l helm i n the F a i l of 1972, a group of l e g i s -l a t o r s w i t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s h i f t from that of the p r e v i o u s Government i n terms of i t s s o c i a l and economic p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h i s i n i t s e l f demanded an i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l of r e s o u r c e s by s o c i e t y as a whole -- e s p e c i a l l y non-renewable r e s o u r c e s . Not o n l y was the New Democratic P a r t y ' s s e n s i t i v i t y to the r a p i d e r o s i o n of farmland and i t s causes important i n the development and form of the Land Commission Act, but t h i s may a l s o be a determining f a c t o r to the success of the l e g i s l a t i o n i n meeting the ends i t has set to a c h i e v e . Depending upon one's p o i n t of view, there are perhaps t h r e e d i s t i n c t but g e n e r a l approaches that c o u l d be employed i n d e a l i n g with a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . -220-(1) At one end of the spectrum, i t may be advocated that resource a l l o c a t i o n s should p r i m a r i l y be made w i t h i n the market place , e s s e n t i a l l y free of governmental c o n t r o l s . (2) A more moderate stance would include an emphasis on the management of growth to achieve order ly development but with no guarantee that a g r i c u l t u r a l land would be saved i n p e r p e t u i t y . (3) F i n a l l y , land use c o n t r o l s over a g r i c u l t -u r a l areas could be r i g i d , supported with a philosophy that 'urban growth must go up - - rather than out ' when a l l a v a i l a b l e urban land i s u t i l i z e d . Judging from the performance of past land use c o n t r o l methods, the' d i s p o s i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land by regions and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f e l l somewhere between strategy one and two, while perhaps being more c l o s e l y a l l i e d to number one. The Land Commission Act , although a n a l y s i s i s somewhat s p e c u l a t i v e , f a l l s between the p r i n c i p l e s of two and three . The outlook towards land use c o n t r o l has therefore dramat ica l ly changed. Through i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the A c t , while being stimulated by the management philosophy of the E . L . U . S e c r e t a r i a t , does, however, have the statutory power despite exclusions and appeals , to lock a g r i c u l t u r a l land into a reserve and to regulate i t s use. Regardless of what encouraged the Government to amend B i l l 42, i t s changes p r i m a r i l y c l a r i f i e d a number of misinterpreted s e c t i o n s . There were only two s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s . F i r s t , the Act allowed the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and regions the opportunity to be a party i n the c r e a t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land. Reserves. -221-In l i g h t of the. s t r i n g e n t .and comprehensive 'plans a p p r o v a l ' proce dure i t Is d o u b t f u l , however, that the Preserve Plans would have been very d i f f e r e n t i f handled by the P r o v i n c i a l Government without l o c a l c o n s u l t a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , the Government d e l e g a t e d power to the Land Commission. The use and o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s power are q u i t e e x p l i c i t . Yet, i t was the power of the Commission that was perhaps the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l area of o b j e c t i o n to those opposed to the p a s s i n g of the A c t . B i l l 4-2 d i d , however, a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l to make a p p l i c a t i o n to c a r r y on a non-conforming use w i t h i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e . The second major amendment to B i l l 42 gave r i s e to a procedure whereby R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Land Commission, as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u l d apply f o r complete e x c l u s i o n from an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . I f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n was r e j e c t e d , an appeal to the E.L.U. Committee was a l s o p o s s i b l e . Formerly, under S e c t i o n 9 of B i l l 42, only the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d a u t h o r i z e l a n d to be d e l e t e d from an e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e r v e . For those concerned t h a t the Act gave the Land Commission an excess of power over a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d -use, the i n c l u s i o n of these amendments was welcomed and c o n s i d e r e d necessary. On the other hand,the e x c l u s i o n procedures may w e l l prove to be the s o f t u n d e r - b e l l y of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves. -222-I t i s Impossible a t t h i s time to e v a l u a t e whether the Land Commission Act w i l l a c h i e v e i t s major o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g farmland or not. The Com-m i s s i o n has been i n f u l l o p e r a t i o n f o r o n l y one and a h a l f years at the time of t h i s w r i t i n g . The u n c e r t -a i n t i e s of the f u t u r e impair any sound a n a l y s i s i n t h i s r e g a r d . However, t h e r e are i n d i c a t o r s which may be examined to more c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e (a) p o s s i b l e reasons why the Commission may f a i l i n i t s b i d to save farmland, and (b) f a c t o r s t h a t w i l l a s s i s t the Commission i n r e a c h i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s . 1. FACTORS POSSIBLY HARMFUL TO THE COMMISSION As i s the case-with most 'use-zoned* areas, t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s which a r e caught up and a l l o w e d to c o n t i n u e c o n t r a r y to the r e g u l a t i o n s of the by-law. R e c o g n i z i n g t h i s , the Act g i v e s the Commission, through a number of means, the. power to a l l o w non-conforming uses t o e x i s t . The Commission has noted t h a t t h i s i s one example of f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n the A c t . Although the l a n d remains w i t h i n the r e s e r v e , the degree of f l e x i b i l i t y may harm the i n t e n t of the A c t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so i f the non-conforming use has a v e r y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on farm v i a b i l i t y . The a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o a p p l y f o r e x c l u s i o n s w i l l , i n i t s e l f , p l a c e p r e s s u r e s upon the Commission to a l t e r d e s i g n a t i o n s - a p r e s s u r e t h a t may otherwise -223-not have e x i s t e d . For those a d v o c a t i n g very r i g i d c o n t r o l s over farmland use, t h i s amendment may seem as a d i m i n i s h i n g of the Commission's powers. Although i t i s apparent t h a t , at present, e x c l u s i o n s w i l l o n l y be a l l o w e d f o r very j u s t i f i a b l e r easons, t h e r e i s no guarantee t h a t t h i s p o l i c y w i l l not change i n the f u t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y as urban p r e s s u r e s become more i n t e n s e . E x c l u s i o n through t h i s means i s a l s o l e f t t o the d i s c r e t i o n o f the Commission and does not r e q u i r e C a b i n e t a p p r o v a l . (Sec. 9 , s s . 2 ) R e g a r d l e s s of these p o s s i b l e d e f i c i e n c i e s , the e x c l u s i o n process does a l l o w the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o r r e c t p o o r l y d e s i g n a t e d r e s e r v e s . The appeals to the E.L.U. Committee, because of a Commission's d e c i s i o n not to a l l o w e x c l u s i o n , have not a t present been t e s t e d . T h e r e f o r e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n whether the E.L.U. Committee w i l l n o r m a l l y uphold the Commission's r u l i n g , o r i f i t w i l l a c t i n the contrary.- A l l t h r e e of the above f e a t u r e s of the Act may t e c h n i c a l l y be regarded as elements which may weaken the Commission. How much they w i l l harm the o b j e c t i v e s of the Act w i l l p r i m a r i l y depend on how they are a d m i n i s t e r e d . One p o s i t i v e aspect of these procedures i s t h a t , by a l l o w i n g the p u b l i c t o q u e s t i o n the d e s i g n a t i o n s by a p p l i c a t i o n and appeals, the Act has gained a g r e a t e r degree of.. -224-a c c e p t a b i l i t y - a necessary i n g r e d i e n t to the success of the Act as w e l l as f a c i l i t a t i n g a g r e a t e r ease of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y t he Act d i d not a l l o w the Commission the o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a d d i t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s a f t e r d e s i g n a t i o n . Although t h i s support mechanirm was overl o o k e d , the s i t u a t i o n was r e c t i f i e d by O r d e r - l n - C o u n c l l 24l2, approved on J u l y 19, 1974.2 The Commission made an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n to a l l o w each m u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t had no a l t e r n a t i v e , to exclude from the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s t h a t amount of l a n d which would be r e q u i r e d f o r f i v e years o f urban  growth. T h i s d e c i s i o n c l o s e l y resembles the second approach of l a n d use management r a t h e r than an a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l of l a n d use. While the Commission's reasons f o r d o i n g so are w e l l founded and such a c t i o n s w i l l once a g a i n I n c r e a s e p u b l i c acceptance, i t can a l s o be viewed as an a c t i o n which was c o n t r a r y t o the s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the A c t . As can be expected, u r b a n i z a t i o n w i l l remain as the most potent f o r c e a c t i n g upon the Commission i n a n e g a t i v e manner. Due to the p o s s i b i l i t y of urban • i n f i l l ' , e x i s t i n g but excess urban zoning, and the f i v e year 'growth space' allowed by the Commission, most r e g i o n s - I n c l u d i n g the G.V.R.D.' - have s u f f i c i e n t urban l a n d to s a t i s f y t h e i r needs f o r a t l e a s t the -225-next q u a r t e r c e n t u r y . I f growth r a t e s c o n t i n u e unchecked past t h i s p e r i o d , Arcus' view ( t h a t over the long-term the Land Commission w i l l be r e q u i r e d to c o n t i n u o u s l y exclude more and more l a n d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s , and a t b e s t i t s achievements w i l l be a more o r d e r l y development of urban areas i n t h e i r encroachment upon farmlands-^) may be proven to be c o r r e c t . T h i s s i n g l e element i s c r u c i a l and w i l l , r e m a i n as the most s i g n i f i c a n t problem w i t h which the Commission must d e a l . In i t s f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n , the Commission' has had i t s c r e d i b i l i t y harmed on one important o c c a s i o n . The i n c i d e n t i n v o l v e d the announcement that 300 h e c t a r e T i l b u r y I s l a n d i n the G.V.R.D. was purchased by the Government f o r an i n d u s t r i a l park. The i s l a n d i s . n o t e a b l y prime farmland and because of the growth t h a t the development w i l l s t i m u l a t e , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the development w i l l j e o p a r d i z e much more farmland than the i s l a n d i t s e l f . F o r the S i e r r a C l u b , < t h i s was i n "apparent c o n f l i c t w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g p hilosophy of the Land Commission."^ Indeed i t was, but Norman Pearson, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t to the E.L.U. Committee e x p l a i n e d t h a t b e s i d e s the l a n d b e i n g prime farmland, i t a l s o had above average c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n d u s t r i a l development f o r a number of r e a s o n s . ^ i t appears to be an example of the c l a s s i c t r a d e - o f f so apparent -226-l n the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n . Lane f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t the l a n d i n v o l v e d can be viewed as "an 'exchange' f o r the l a r g e r h o l d i n g s (56O Hectares) of the B.C. Harbour Board i n the h e a r t of D e l t a . The l a t t e r were c o n c u r r e n t l y • r e l e a s e d ' ( f o r the most p a r t ) from the u n c e r t a i n t y o f p o s s i b l e i n d u s t r i a l development." A l s o , Lane f e l t t h a t these a c t i o n s were not u n l i k e g i v i n g a m u n i c i p a l i t y a f i v e year growth ar e a because the r e g u l a t i o n s were as a p p l i c a b l e to the P r o v i n c e as to a m u n i c i p a l i t y . ^ I t was, however, not e s t a b l i s h e d whether or not t h e r e were any a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r i n d u s t r y , i n s t e a d o f T i l b u r y I s l a n d , t h a t c o u l d have been u t i l i z e d . One expects t h a t the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the s i t e f o r i n d u s t r y was such t h a t i t c o u l d not be i g n o r e d . R e g a r d l e s s of the reasons, T i l b u r y d i d tend to harm the Commission's e f f o r t s . More Importantly than the l o s s of 300 h e c t a r e s of farmland, the a c t i o n was t aken by the Government and i n many ways resembled the f i r s t major breach i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n c o n c e r n i n g the Roberts Bank backup l a n d which harmed the c r e d i b i l i t y of the P l a n . A f a c t o r which may harm the a c t i v i t i e s of the Commission, and one t h a t Government a c t i o n s or Commission r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l not s o l v e , i s that the Land Commission Act was a product of the p o l i t i c a l arena. -2?7-Although two b y - e l e c t i o n s , i n which the Act was not an i s s u e , do not support t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n , the L e g i s l a t u r e can amend t h i s Act or even terminate i t c o m p l e t e l y . I f the Commission works w e l l and m a i n t a i n s the high degree of r e s p e c t i t appears to have thus f a r a c h i e v e d , the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s work b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y undone by succeeding governments w i l l be l e s s e n e d . I n the same v e i n , the present f i v e person Commission w i l l , over the y e a r s , be a l t e r e d . The a t t i t u d e and subsequent a c t i o n s of the new members c o u l d harm, j u s t as e a s i l y as they c o u l d enhance, the work of the Commission. T h i s f a c t o r , a l o n g w i t h the p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , are of course entrenched deaply i n the realm of the unknown. 2. FACTORS WHICH MAY ASSIST THE COMMISSION On the s t r e n g t h of the farmland f r e e z e and the subsequent Land Commission Act, the s u b d i v i s i o n and development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r urban purposes throughout the P r o v i n c e has e s s e n t i a l l y been h a l t e d f o r over two y e a r s . The s t a t u t o r y powers g i v e n the Commission to d e s i g n a t e and subsequently r e g u l a t e the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s i s the b a s i c support mechanism upon which the Commission can r e l y to c a r r y out the i n t e n t of the A c t . -228-B e i n g s u b j e c t to o n l y two other p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t -i o n (the Environment and Land Use Act and the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act 1967) p l a c e s the Commission i n a p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n from which i t can a s s e r t a g r e a t d e a l of p e r s u a s i v e power and f a c i l i t a t e a h i g h degree of c o o r d i n a t i o n upon the a c t i o n s of l i n e departments and other government agencies which may otherwise be d e t r i m e n t a l to a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . While the a c t i v i t i e s of the Commission a r e c u r r e n t l y f o c u s s e d on a g r i c u l t u r a l problems, t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e the Commission, through i t s v e r y presence as w e l l as d i r e c t i v e s , w i l l encourage a s u p e r i o r management of urban growth than has h e r e t o f o r e been the c a s e . W i l k i n s o n sees the success of the Commission i n a c h i e v i n g i t s primary o b j e c t i v e c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the f u t u r e development o f sound urban p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . " I t i s reasonable to expect the Act w i l l work i n p r e s e r v i n g farmland once i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h e r e i s p l e n t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r urban and I n d u s t r i a l expansion on n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s i f we p l a n and a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . 1 , 7 I t i s somewhat I r o n i c to r e a l i z e t h a t the sound management of a g r i c u l -u r a l l a n d c o u l d have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on urban l a n d use p o l i c i e s . J u s t over two years ago, the r e v e r s e urban expansion a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d - was v e r y much i n evidence. - 2 2 9 -Th G procedure f o r o b t a i n i n g e x c l u s i o n from an A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve i s r a t h e r i n h i b i t i v e and i f a d m i n i s t e r e d s t r i c t l y w i l l a l l y i t s e l f to the t h i r d -- r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l s t r a t e g y — d i s c u s s e d above. There e x i s t s , however, a number of avenues through which non-conforming uses w i l l be p e r m i t t e d and, along w i t h the f i v e year growth ' b r e a t h i n g space', the Commission has d i s p l a y e d a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y which w i l l encourage i t s a c c e p t a b i l i t y by l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . Another p o s s i b i l i t y which may a s s i s t the Land Commission i n i t s g o a l to save farmland i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of the i n c r e a s e d v i a b i l i t y of farming. T h i s argument i s not u n l i k e that advanced by the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e which m a i n t ains that i f farming i s a paying p r o p o s i t i o n , r a t h e r than an i n d u s t r y of the working poor, then the farmer w i l l not want to 8 s e l l h i s l a n d to urban d e v e l o p e r s . Current a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y of the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . i s f o c u s s e d d i r e c t l y upon the problem of farm v i a b i l i t y . The success of these e f f o r t s w i l l undoubtedly decrease the pressure from the farming community f o r the e x c l u s i o n of l a n d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . In as much as the Land Commi s s i o n Act i s one of a number of- s t a t u t e s d i r e c t e d at the v i a b i l i t y of farming, Lane envisages the Act as the b e g i n n i n g of a new and improved era f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . -230-"Growing out of the courageous steps to p r o t e c t our a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . . . . i s the m o r a l e - b u i l d i n g aspect of the L e g i s l a t i o n . " "....the government and people of B r i t i s h Columbia have at l o n g l a s t accorded a g r i -c u l t u r e a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t u s among the v a r i e d and important r e s o u r c e s of the P r o v i n c e . For t h i s r e a s o n . i t s t r i k e s me t h a t the Land Commission Act i s the most important p i e c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n a l e n g t h y h i s t o r y of the i n d u s t r y i n t h i s p a r t of Canada. I say t h i s , because the law now makes i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s no l o n g e r expected to 'make do' on what-ever i s l e f t a f t e r every c o n c e i v a b l e urban or i n d u s t r i a l use has s a t i s f i e d i t s demands at the expense of farmland. " 9 I n d i c a t i o n s from the Government i t s e l f support the o p i n i o n that s i g n i f i c a n t steps may be taken to apply pressure to slow down p o p u l a t i o n growth i n s p e c i f i c areas of the P r o v i n c e . W i l l i a m s , Pearson and Lane ( a l l d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to l a n d management at the P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l ) have q u e s t i o n e d , ( l e c t u r e s , i n t e r v i e w s and speeches a t v a r i o u s times 1 9 7 3 - 7 ^ r a t h e r s t r o n g l y , the d e s i r a b i l i t y of growth, e s p e c i a l l y growth ac h i e v e d through i n - m i g r a t i o n . The development of the E.L.U. S e c r e t a r i a t i n i t s e l f i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the Government's concern f o r proper r e s o u r c e management -- a t o p i c which n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e s the d i s c u s s i o n of growth s t r a t e g i e s . Premier B a r r e t t , upon r e c e n t l y v i e w i n g the e f f e c t s of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n Japan, commented t h a t the d i s p l a c e d b u i l d i n g s popping up a l l over the p l a c e , c a r s and p o l l u t i o n everywhere had f u r t h e r c o nvinced him that "growth i n B.C. has to be s t o p p e d . " ^ I t goes almost -231-without s a y i n g t h a t p o l i c i e s a l o n g these l i n e s would serve the Land Commission v e r y w e l l by e a s i n g the p r e s s u r e of u r b a n i z a t i o n on prime farmlands of the Lower Mainland and other areas of the P r o v i n c e . B e s i d e s the power to d e s i g n a t e and r e g u l a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s , the Commission has the power  to purchase farmland. Although f u n d i n g i s of b a s i c importance, t h i s power not o n l y a l l o w s the Commission to implement i t s l a n d l e a s e program,, which should a s s i s t the v i a b i l i t y of farming, but the Commission can buy l a n d i n an e f f o r t t o d i s c o u r a g e an i n d i v i d u a l o r m u n i c i p a l i t y from a p p l y i n g f o r e x c l u s i o n from a r e s e r v e . In terms of l a n d use c o n t r o l d e v i c e s , none ar e s t r o n g e r than the fee simple ownership of l a n d b e i n g i n the hands of the Government. B e s i d e s the Importance of a growing awareness  by the p u b l i c of the l a n d management problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the Commission and moret i m p o r t a n t l y the Government, to ensure t h a t i t meets i t s o b j e c t i v e s , i s a v i t a l f a c t o r which c o u l d be the key to the Land Commission's s u c c e s s . There s t i l l , however, remains a degree of doubt as to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h which the Act w i l l be a p p l i e d i n i t s attempt to p r e s e r v e farmland. Throughout t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e r e have been many -232-examples of statements of d e t e r m i n a t i o n from the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , the Chairman of the Land Commission, and o t h e r s who have s a i d i n f a c t , and d e s p i t e the f l e x i b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h a t farmland must be saved and t h a t t h i s i s the primary o b j e c t i v e of the A c t . However, Gary Lauk, M i n i s t e r of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, has s t a t e d t h a t "...the Land Commission Act was not i n t e n d e d to p r e s e r v e every square i n c h of farmland i n p e r p e t u i t y , but was d e s i g n e d to stem the tremendous t i d e of d e v e l o p m e n t . " ^ Although not t o t a l l y incongruous w i t h the a t t i t u d e t h a t farmland must be saved, i t does s h i f t the emphasis .of the Commission t o the second, o r management approach to a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n a l l u d e d t o p r e v i o u s l y , r a t h e r than towards t h a t of r i g i d c o n t r o l s . While few would r e g a r d the Commission's r o l e as t h a t of attempting to save 'every square i n c h of farmland', Lauk's p o i n t of view i s i n f a c t not u n l i k e the 'save i f p o s s i b l e ' a t t i t u d e of the Lower Mainland. R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board - a p o s t u r e t h a t f a i l e d t o h a l t the advance of u r b a n i z a t i o n onto a g r i c u l -u r a l l a n d . This' p o i n t must be c l a r i f i e d . The degree of f l e x i b i l i t y which the Commission has u t i l i z e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Act thus f a r has 'probably s i g n i f i c a n t l y a i d e d r a t h e r than harmed the i n t e n t of the A c t . With -233-r e f e r e n c e to t o t a l e x c u s l o n however, the Commission must stand f i r m . The Land Commission, through i t s A c t , has the power to preserve f a r m l a n d . I t must be encouraged to use t h a t power now and i n the f u t u r e -when the p r e s s u r e s of u r b a n i z a t i o n are sure to i n c r e a s e . D e s p i t e the enormity of the problems f a c e d by i t s Land Commission, the Government has d i s p l a y e d a s t r e n g t h of c o n v i c t i o n t h a t must be r e a s s u r i n g f o r those who b e l i e v e i n the p r i n c i p l e s of the Land Commission A c t . I n f l u e n c e d by the Japanese scene, Premier B a r r e t t was moved to comment t h a t , "Coming here has f u r t h e r c o n v i n c e d me t h a t we should take a harder stand on l e g i s l a t i o n . The l a n d b i l l s , the r e s o u r c e s b i l l , I'm c onvinced more than ever now, are good p o l i c i e s , and now I t h i n k we should go h a r d e r on them."12 Japan's l a n d poor s i t u a t i o n i s not u n l i k e t h a t e xperienced i n mountainous B r i t i s h Columbia.... except t h a t Japan has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m i l l i o n more people. -234-FOOTNOTES 1 . Bosselman, F r e d and David C a l l l e s , The Quiet  R e v o l u t i o n In Land Use C o n t r o l , C o u n c i l on Environmental Q u a l i t y , Washington D.C, 1971. 2 . O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 2412, approved on J u l y 19, 1974 r e c t i f i e d t h i s problem by a l l o w i n g owners.: of l a n d to apply to have t h e i r land i n c l u d e d 'in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (Sec. 33). S e c t i o n 37 a l l o w s a m u n i c i p a l i t y , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the Land Commission to a l s o apply, under the proper procedures, to Include l a n d i n the A g r i c u l t u r e Land Reserve. 3 . Arcus, p. 6 . 4 . S i e r r a Club, Mews Release, February 13, 1974. 5. Norman Pearson, a l e t t e r to R.T. Franson, Chairman of the S i e r r a C l u b , February 13, 1974. 6 . W i l l i a m Lane, a l e t t e r to Mr. R.T. Franson, Chairman of the S i e r r a C l u b , February 13, 1974. 7 . W i l k i n s o n , correspondence, March 15, 1974. 8. R.B. Stock, Manager, B.C.F.A., i n t e r v i e w , March 11, 1974. 9. Lane, speech, December 5, 1974. 10. ' B a r r e t t v s . 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