Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Image mediators in paired-associate learning : properties of verbal labels and instructions Stanzl, Ingeborg J. F. 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A8 S73_5.pdf [ 3.26MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093601.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093601-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093601-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093601-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093601-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093601-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093601-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093601-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093601.ris

Full Text

IMAGE MEDIATORS IN PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING: PROPERTIES OP VERBAL LABELS AND INSTRUCTIONS by Ingeborg J. P. Stanzl A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of Educational Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1975 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date M a V 7 , 1975 Chairman: Dr. Stephen F. Foster 5 t a n z l , I. J . F. Image Mediators i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g : P r o p e r t i e s of v e r b a l l a b e l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s ABSTRACT This study i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of p r o p e r t i e s of v e r b a l l a b e l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s on p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . P r e d i c t i o n s concerning the independent e f f e c t s of a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and the d i r e c t i n g func-t i o n of the v e r b a l l a b e l were made f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e . A mediation hypothesis s t r e s s i n g the r o l e of imagery i n a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g and a coding hypothesis s t a t i n g that " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " v e r b a l l a b e l s may f u n c t i o n as conceptual r u l e s , i n that they d i r e c t stimulus s e l e c t i o n and u n i t a r y encoding of stimulus and response, guided t h i s work. Unitary imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g s u b j e c t s to draw the u n i t a r y image, were expected to f a c i l i t a t e the d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n of the v e r b a l l a b e l ; separate imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g subjects to draw only the stimulus image, were ex-pected to i n h i b i t i t ; standard p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e (PA) i n s t r u c -t i o n s were used as a c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . Two l i s t s of 18 p a i r s of incomplete f i g u r e - s t i m u l u s and concrete noun-response combinations, each, were co n s t r u c t e d . Each l i s t was homogeneous, regarding the l e v e l of a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s , which was e i t h e r high or low i n the r e s p e c t i v e l i s t s . The same stimulus f i g u r e s and nouns were used i n both l i s t s , but i n L i s t 1, the response nouns.were dominant a s s o c i a t e s of the incomplete f i g u r e s , and i n L i s t 2, they were remote a s s o c i a t e s . i i S ubjects were given one of three sets of i n s t r u c t i o n s to l e a r n e i t h e r L i s t 1 or L i s t 2. A s t u d y - t e s t t r i a l method was employed with one study t r i a l (drawing a c t i v i t y ) and two PA r e c a l l t e s t t r i a l s . The assumption that even o r i g i n a l l y remote a s s o c i a t e s would d i r e c t coding of incomplete f i g u r e s t i m u l i as complete f i g u r e s was supported. PA r e c a l l performance i n the u n i t a r y imagery group was equal to PA r e c a l l performance i n the s t a n -dard PA group. Both groups c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g reater number of responses than the separate imagery group, as had been hypothesized. Further the hypothesis that PA l e a r n -ing e f f i c a c y i n L i s t 1 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than i n L i s t 2 was confirmed. The e f f e c t of a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d -ness was found to be independent of the e f f e c t of the d i r e c t i n g , property of the v e r b a l l a b e l on u n i t a r y encoding of stimulus and response items. The a s s o c i a t i v e property of the v e r b a l l a b e l a f f e c t s u n i t a r y image generation because images are more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r a s s o c i a t i v e l y r e l a t e d p a i r s than f o r u n r e l a t e d ones. The d i r e c t i n g property of the v e r b a l l a b e l seems to a f f e c t the coding process as such, s i n c e v e r b a l l a b e l s seem to f u n c t i o n as conceptual r u l e s f o r r e l a t i n g the p a i r items, much as u n i -tary imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s do. The r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d to i n d i c a t e that each of these f a c t o r s independently exerts i t s i n f l u e n c e at the a c q u i s i t i o n phase of a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g , because each a f f e c t s the genera-t i o n of u n i t a r y images which mediate r e c a l l of the response at the t e s t t r i a l . Committee Chairman i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e A B S T R A C T i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S i i i L I S T O F T A B L E S i v L I S T O F F I G U R E S v C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I M e t h o d 2 6 ( a ) D e s i g n 2 6 ( b ) S u b j e c t s 2 8 ( c ) M a t e r i a l s 2 9 ( d ) A p p a r a t u s 3 2 ( e ) P r o c e d u r e 3 3 ( f ) I n s t r u c t i o n s 3 7 I I I R e s u l t s 4 0 I V D i s c u s s i o n a n d S u m m a r y 5 0 R E F E R E N C E S . . 5 6 A P P E N D I X A 61 A P P E N D I X B 6 6 A P P E N D I X C 7 3 V I T A i v L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E P a g e 1 I n c o m p l e t e F i g u r e s a n d N o u n L a b e l s i n L i s t 1 a n d L i s t 2 . . 3 0 2 M e a n N u m b e r o f C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r L i s t s , I n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d P A R e c a l l T e s t T r i a l s 4 2 3 5 u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f T o t a l N u m b e r o f C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d R e s p o n s e s f o r T w o P A R e c a l l T e s t T r i a l s 4 3 4 P a r t i t i o n i n g o f 5 S e r r o r ( b e t w e e n ) a n d S S e r r o r ( w i t h i n ) f o r T e s t s f o r H o m o g e n e i t y b y M e a n s o f F m a x T e s t s 4 4 5 V a r i a n c e - C o v a r i a n c e M a t r i c e s 4 5 6 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s , C o m p a r i s o n s , a n d B o n f e r r o n i ' s t - t e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n C e l l M e a n s 4 9 7 M e t h o d o f L e a r n i n g P a i r e d - A s s o c i a t e s : R e p o r t e d N u m b e r o f U n i t a r y I m a g e s , S e p a r a t e I m a g e s , R e p e a t e d I t e m s , a n d B l a n k s i n L i s t 1 a n d L i s t 2 w i t h S t a n d a r d P A I n s t r u c t i o n s 7 2 V L I S T O F F I G U R E S F I G U R E P a g e 1 A b s t r a c t n e s s - C o n c r e t e n e s s D i m e n s i o n s o f S h a p e s a n d W o r d s 1 2 2 I n c o m p l e t e F i g u r e a n d A s s o c i a t e d I m a g e s a n d L a b e l s 2 1 3 V a n d e r p l a s a n d G a r v i n S h a p e s ( V a n d e r p l a s &. G a r v i n , 1 9 5 9 ) a n d A s s o c i a t e d L a b e l s ( E l l i s &. M u l l e r , 1 9 6 4 ) ; I n c o m p l e t e F i g u r e f r o m F i g u r a l T e s t s , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n A c t i v i t y , F o r m A ( T o r r a n c e , 1 9 6 6 ) 2 1 4 I n t e r a c t i v e a n d U n i t a r y I m a g e s G e n e r a t e d a s a F u n c t i o n o f t h e D i r e c t i n g P r o p e r t y o f t h e V e r b a l L a b e l 2 3 5 L i s t 1 a n d L i s t 2 E x a m p l e s U s e d i n P r a c t i c e T r i a l t o E x p l a i n B o t h U n i t a r y a n d S e p a r a t e I m a g e r y t o S t u d e n t s 3 8 6 U n i t a r y I m a g e s S u g g e s t e d b y t h e S t u d e n t s a n d E x e c u t e d o n t h e B l a c k b o a r d b y t h e E x p e r i m e n t e r 3 9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Advisor: S. F. Foster Committee Members: 5. S. Lee N. Suzuki I wish to acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of the Vancouver School Board in supplying subjects for the study. To Dr. S. F. Foster, my advisor, go my thanks for his patience and advice over the last two years. I am grateful to the members of my committee, Dr. N. Suzuki and Dr. S. 5. Lee, for their interest and assist-ance in making this thesis possible. Most of a l l I want to thank my family, my husband and my children, Claude, Linda, and Valerie, for their love, understanding, and help. It is to them that I dedicate this thesis. Dedication to my husband and children Claude, Linda, and Valerie 1 C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N M o s t o f t h e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f i m a g e r y i n l e a r n i n g h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e ( P A ) l e a r n i n g t a s k . I n t e r e s t h a s c e n t e r e d o n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l a s s o -c i a t i o n s ; f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i n g l e a s s o c i a t i o n s , s u c h a s , i t e m p r o p e r t i e s , s t r a t e g i e s e m p l o y e d b y s u b j e c t s i n l e a r n i n g p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s , a n d t h e e f f e c t o f i n s t r u c -t i o n s o n p e r f o r m a n c e h a v e b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d . O n e a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f i m a g e r y h a s b e e n t o u s e a n d m a n i p u l a t e m a t e r i a l s d e s i g n e d t o e i t h e r e v o k e o r i n h i b i t t h e a r o u s a l o f i m a g e r y . T h i s t o o k t h e f o r m o f u s i n g w o r d s , r a t e d h i g h o r l o w i n t h e i r i m a g e e v o k i n g c a p a c i t y ( e . g . , P a i v i o , 5 m y t h e , &. Y u i l l e , 1 9 6 8 ) ; i t a l s o t o o k t h e f o r m o f a c t u a l l y p r o v i d i n g s u b j e c t s w i t h i m a g e s b y s h o w i n g t h e m p i c t u r e s ( e . g . , E p s t e i n , R o c k , &. Z u c k e r m a n , 1 9 6 0 ; R o h w e r , L y n c h , S u z u k i , &. L e v i n , 1 9 6 7 ) . A n o t h e r m e t h o d t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f i m a g e r y i n a s s o -c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e d t h e u s e o f m n e m o n i c i n s t r u c t i o n s t o i n d u c e s u b j e c t s t o u s e i m a g i n a l m e d i a t o r s i n t h e p e r f o r m -a n c e o f c e r t a i n t a s k s ( e . g . , B o w e r , 1 9 7 2 ; B o w e r &. W i n z e n z , 1 9 7 0 ; B u g e l s k i , 1 9 6 8 ; B u g e l s k i , K i d d , &. S e g m e n , 1 9 6 8 ) . 2 A . 5tudies o f P a i r I t e m P r o p e r t i e s a n d I m a g e r y I n s t r u c t i o n s W o l l e n a n d L o w r y (1971) a t t e m p t e d t o m a n i p u l a t e m e n t a l i m a g e s b y v a r y i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f p i c t u r e s w h i c h d e p i c t e d e i t h e r s t i m u l u s o r r e s p o n s e t e r m s s i n g l y , s i d e - b y - s i d e , o r i n s o m e f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n a s a p i c t o r i a l c o m p o u n d . S u b -j e c t s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o u s e t h e p i c t u r e s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d b o t h c o n c r e t e a n d a b s t r a c t n o u n p a i r s a s m e d i a t o r s . T h e i n t e r a c t i v e p i c t u r e a m e d i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n w a s t h e o n l y c o n -d i t i o n t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d PA r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o a n o - p i c t u r e c o n t r o l . F a c i l i t a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d f o r b o t h t y p e s o f p a i r s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e W o l l e n a r i d L o w r y s t u d y s u p p o r t a n d e x t e n d t h e f i n d i n g s o f e a r l i e r w o r k o f o t h e r s ( e . g . , E p s t e i n , R o c k , &. Z u c k e r m a n , 1 960; R o h w e r , L y n c ( j , S u z u k i , &. L e v i n , 1967). E p s t e i n e t a l . d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p i c t u r e p a i r s w e r e e a s i e r t o l e a r n t h a n w o r d p a i r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y s h o w e d t h a i a s s o -c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g o f p i c t o r i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d o b j e c t p a i r s w a s f a c i l i t a t e d b y u n i t a r y p r e s e n t a t i o n c o m p a r e d t o s e p a r a t e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s a m e p i c t o r i a l i t e m s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p i c t u r e p a i r s " h a n d i n b o w l " , " p i p e o n t o p o f c l o c k " , " c h a i r b e s i d e t r e e " , e t c . . f a c i l i t a t e d P A p e r f o r m a n c e c o m p a r e d t o t h e p i c t u r e p a i r s " h a n d a n d b o w l " , " p i p e a n d c l o c k " , V c h a i r a n d t r e e " , e t c . . w h i c h d i d n o t . P i c t o r i a l c o m p o u n d s w h i c h d e p i c t s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e o b j e c t s i n s o m e k i n d o f i n t e r -a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r i n s o m e f o r m o f s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , 3 constitute good "conceptual units" (e.g., Epstein et a l . , 1960); they show spatial relationships that confer "per-ceptual unity" upon the items to be associated (e.g., Asch, 1969). Wollen and Lowry (1971 ) attributed their findings to the facilitation of relational associating, i.e., the presentation of pictures that showed relationships of the referent objects to which the noun pair items re-ferred. Others have found that pictures which express different degrees of relationship with respect to the interactive unity achieved, differentially affect asso-ciative learning and PA recall efficacy. In the Rohwer et a l . , (1967) study, for instance, i t was demonstrated that "locational" and "action" pictures produced equi-valent learning; both conditions were superior to the "coincidental" condition in which the pictured objects appeared side-by-side. This finding parallels and extends the Epstein et a l . , (1960) finding that picture pairs which make good concep-tual units are easier to learn than pairs in which the members simply appear side-by-side. It also extends the finding that interaction pictures (i.e., interactive images) are better mediators than non-interacting pictures (Paivio, 1971a). Davidson and Adams (1970), using children as subjects, investigated the effect of syntactic and imagery mediators 4 o n P A l e a r n i n g o f n o u n p a i r s . B o t h m e d i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s w e r e f o u n d t o b e s u p e r i o r t o a s i d e - b y - s i d e c o n d i t i o n ; b u t , " a « m i n i m a l l a n g u a g e c u e " i n t h e f o r m o f a p r e p o s i -t i o n a l c o n n e c t i v e ( o v e r , u n d e r , a r o u n d , t h r o u g h e t c . ) w a s f o u n d t o m e d i a t e " m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n i m a g e r y a l o n e " ( p . 4 3 3 ) , w h e n a r e c o g n i t i o n P A t a s k w a s u s e d t o m e a s u r e P A l e a r n i n g . K e e a n d R o h w e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f a u r a l a n d p i c t o r i a l " e l a b o r a t i v e p r o m p t s " o n t h e r e s p o n s e a n d a s s o c i a -t i v e s t a g e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g . H e f o u n d t h a t b o t h t y p e s o f p r o m p t s f a c i l i t a t e t h e a s s o c i a t i v e s t a g e o f P A l e a r n i n g e q u a l l y . D i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s , r e g a r d i n g t h e t y p e o f e l a b o r a t i v e p r o m p t u s e d , c o u l d n o t b e f o u n d . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f e l a b o r a t i v e f a c i l i t a t i o n i s i n t h e a s s o c i a t i v e p h a s e . 5 i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w e r e r e p o r t e d b y B o w e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a n d i n a n o t h e r s t u d y b y R o w e a n d P a i v i o ( 1 9 7 1 ) , w h o b o t h u s e d d i f f - s e r e n t k i n d s o f i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p e r f o r m a n c e t a s k s , i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l o c u s o f t h e i m a g e r y e f f e c t i n P A l e a r n i n g o f n o u n p a i r s w i t h a d u l t s u b j e c t s . I n t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d b y B o w e r , s u b j e c t s w e r e i n s t r u c -t e d t o l e a r n c o n c r e t e n o u n p a i r s , u s i n g o n e o f t h r e e m e t h o d s : r o t e r e p e t i t i o n , i n t e r a c t i v e i m a g e r y , a n d s e p a r a t i o n i m a g e r y . I n t h e i n t e r a c t i v e i m a g e r y c o n d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s w e r e a s k e d t o i m a g i n e t h e r e f e r e n t o b j e c t s o f t h e t w o n o u n s i n e a c h p a i r i n s o m e f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n ; i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n 5 imagery c o n d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were asked to imagine the two r e f e r e n t o b j e c t s as separate e n t i t i e s . A stimulus recog-n i t i o n and a P A r e c a l l t e s t were used i n order to t e s t the two a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses,-explaining the imagery e f f e c t i n PA l e a r n i n g , e i t h e r as being due to "increased - r e l i a -b i l i t y of stimulus encoding or to increased r e l a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n produced by imagery" (Bower, 1970; p.529). Stimulus r e c o g n i t i o n was equal f o r a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . A s s o c i a t i v e r e c a l l was highest f o r the i n t e r -a c t i v e imagery c o n d i t i o n and lower, but equal, f o r the r o t e and separate imagery c o n d i t i o n s . Only the i n t e r a c t i v e imag-ery c o n d i t i o n appeared to f a c i l i t a t e a s s o c i a t i v e r e c a l l ; separate imagery and rote- r e p e t i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s seem to have i n t e r f e r e d with mediation which has been demonstrated to f a c i l i t a t e PA l e a r n i n g . In the Rowe and P a i v i o (1971) study, s u b j e c t s were administered e i t h e r compound imagery, separate imagery, or rote r e p e t i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s . The purpose of the study was to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of imagery and r e p e t i t i o n i n -s t r u c t i o n s i n v e r b a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n c i d e n t a l a s s o c i a -t i v e l e a r n i n g . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g was f a c i l i t a t e d by s i n g l e imagery or rote r e p e t i t i o n ; a s s o c i a t i v e r e c a l l was f a c i l i t a t e d only by compound imagery. Compound imagery presumably i n t e g r a t e d the p a i r elements as s p a t i a l u n i t s . The r e s u l t s of both s t u d i e s show that the imagery e f f e c t i s l o c a l i z e d " i n the a s s o c i a t i v e r a t h e r than the stimulus 6 coding phase" of PA learning (Rowe &. Paivio, 1971; p.671). In summary, the studies that have been discussed up to now, a l l indicate that the efficacy of imagery in.PA learn-ing may best be attributed to associative processes rather than to processes involving stimuli or responses as isolated units. Such an interpretation supports the relational asso-ciating hypothesis (Bower, 1970), and the hypothesis that anything that "aids figural organization or unitization should increase the effectiveness of imaginal mediators", (Paivio, 1971b; p.14). Bower suggested that imagery may act as a "relational organizer" in associative learning, emphasizing especially the integrating and unitizing function of imagery. Paivio (1971b) restated the so-called "conceptual peg" hypothesis (1963, 1965, 1969, 1970), which emphasized the role of stimulus concreteness in associative learning, in the form of an integration hypothesis which stresses the role of concreteness of both pair members in unitary media-tor generation and subsequent PA recall. The hypothesis states that concreteness of both pair members aids asso-ciative learning in the study t r i a l s by permitting subjects "to form compound images incorporating representations of both members of each pair. Concreteness of the stimulus member is especially important on recall t r i a l s , however, since that member must function as the retriev-al cue (conceptual peg) which reintegrates the mediating image from which the response component can be decoded" (p.15). •••••• Concrete noun pairs are learned more easily than abstract pairs; 7 f o r c o n c r e t e n o u n s , p r e s u m a b l y t h r o u g h c o n t i g u o u s a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n t o b j e c t s , h a v e d e v e l o p e d t h e " c a p a c i t y " t o e l i c i t a r e s p o n s e s i m i l a r t o t h a t e v o k e d b y t h e o b j e c t ( s ) , s b u t a b s t r a c t n o u n s , l a c k i n g c o n t i g u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n t o b j e c t s , c a n n o t e v o k e s u c h i m a g e s d i r e c t l y . B y t h e s a m e r e a s o n i n g , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t p i c t u r e p a i r s a r e l e a r n e d m o r e e a s i l y t h a n c o n c r e t e n o u n p a i r s , s i n c e t h e y c o n -s t i t u t e c o n c r e t e i m a g e s a s s u c h , w h i c h r e f e r e v e n m o r e d i r e c t -l y t o t h e r e f e r e n t o b j e c t s d e p i c t e d b y t h e m . P a i v i o a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d r e p e a t e d l y t h a t n o u n c o n c r e t e n e s s f a c i l i t a t e s P A l e a r n i n g ; f u t h e r m o r e , i t h a s b e e n s h o w n t h a t p i c t u r e p a i r s w e r e l e a r n e d m o r e e a s i l y t h a n w o r d p a i r s . W h e n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t o f n o u n c o n -c r e t e n e s s w a s c o n t r a s t e d o n b o t h t h e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e s i d e o f p a i r s , i t w a s f o u n d t h a t s t i m u l u s c o n c r e t e n e s s f a c i -l i t a t e d P A l e a r n i n g , c o m p a r e d t o r e s p o n s e c o n c r e t e n e s s . T h e f o u r p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e c o n c r e t e n e s s w e r e r e c a l l e d i n i n c r e a s i n g o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y , c o n c r e t e -c o n c r e t e ( C - C ) , c o n c r e t e - a b s t r a c t ( C - A ) , a b s t r a c t - c o n c r e t e ( A - C ) , a n d a b s t r a c t - a b s t r a c t ( A - A ) . T h e r e s u l t s w e r e i n t e r -p r e t e d t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e " c o n c e p t u a l p e g " h y p o t h e s i s ( P a i v i o , 1 9 6 5 ) . T h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i s i n d i -c a t e d b y s i m i l a r r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h c h i l d r e n a s s u b j e c t s ( P a i v i o L Y u i l l e , 1 9 6 6 ) . U s i n g a d u l t s u b j e c t s , P a i v i o a n d Y a r m e y ( 1 9 6 6 ) c a r r i e d o u t a s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y i n w h i c h t h e y t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s 8 of pictures versus words as either stimuli or responses. When contrasted on both the stimulus and response side of pairs, pictures were found to be superior to their respec-tive concrete-noun labels; this effect being greater on the stimulus side of pairs. The results were interpreted as being analogous to the finding for word abstractness-concreteness, pictures being even moie concrete than words. The finding that pictures facilitated learning as stimulus items was interpreted to support the "conceptual peg" hypothesis (picture-word pairs were superior to word-picture pairs) but the additional finding that picture-word pairs were superior to picture-picture pairs, could not be explained this way. The experimenters suggested that to decode a picture into a verbal response form might.= require more time - a decoding problem - but they could not_adequately explain why subjects would then have less diff i c u l t y in learning word-picture pairs compared to word-word pairs. Using the four possible combinations of stimulus-response concreteness, pairs were recalled in increasing order of diffic u l t y , picture-word (P-W), picture-picture (P-P),word-picture (W-P), and word-word (W-W). A study by Dilley and Paivio (1968) investigated the generality of the finding.that pictures are superior to words as stimulus members and the decoding interpretation of the inconsistent effect of pictures as response members 9 of PA pairs, by extending the Paivio and Yarmey study to young children. The results of this study indicated that pictures f a c i l i t a t e learning as stimuli, but hinder learn-ing as responses. Compared with the findings for adults, only the children's data show a general negative effect of pictures as response items. This finding was. explained in terms of the decoding hypothesis advanced by Paivio* Paivio's decoding hypothesis (which relates the prob-lem to response retrieval rather than to associative learn-ing) was tested against an alternative hypothesis, advanced by Rohwer (1970), which relates the problem to the storage phase of PA learning. Kee, Guy, &. Rohwer (1971), who con-ducted the above mentioned study with children as subjects, demonstrated that neither hypothesis can adequately explain the results. If one considers the findings of other researchers who investigated the locus of the imagery effect in associative learning, one is led to believe that another explanation of the inconsistent effect of response concreteness, com-pared to the consistent superiority of stimulus concreteness with picture-word paired-associates,is possible. Bower (1970) as well as Rowe and Paivio (1971) have emphasized that "a localization of the imagery effect in the associative rather than the stimulus encoding phase of PA learning" is indicated (Rowe &. Paivio, p. 671 ). Additionally, i t has been pointed out that unitary encoding of the pair 1 0 m e m b e r s , a n d t h e d e g r e e o f f i g u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t P A p e r -f o r m a n c e . U n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , c o m p a r e d t o s e p a -r a t i o n i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , h a v e b e e n s h o w n t o f a c i l i t a t e P A l e a r n i n g , b e c a u s e u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s e n c o u r a g e s u b j e c t s t o a c t i v e l y g e n e r a t e u n i t a r y c o m p o u n d s w h i c h m e d i a t e P A r e c a l l . I n f a c t , B o w e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n s t o u s e i m a g e r y f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o n l y , w h e n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c l u d e d a s e t t o f o r m i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s . A s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , i n s t r u c t i o n s t o i m a g e t h e r e f e r e n t s o f a p a i r s i d e - b y - s i d e d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a p p l y t o v e r b a l a n d n o n v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s a l i k e . I f o n e v a r i e s e i t h e r w o r d s ( P a i v i o , 1 9 6 5 ; P a i v i o , &. F o t h , 1 9 7 0 ) , p i c t u r e s ( E p s t e i n , R o c k , &. Z u c k e r m a n , 1 9 6 0 ; R o h w e r , L y n c h , S u z u k i , &. L e v i n , 1 9 6 7 ; W o l l e n &. L o w r y , 1 9 7 1 ) , o r s h a p e s a n d n o n s e n s e f i g u r e s ( A s c h , C e r a s o , L H e i m e r , 1 9 6 0 ; P r e n t i c e &. A s c h , 1 9 5 8 ; K a s w a n , 1 9 5 7 ) , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l o f c o n c r e t e n e s s a n d i m a g e r y v a l u e ( w o r d s ) , t h e l e v e l o f i n t e r -a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( p i c t u r e s ) , t h e l e v e l o f p e r c e p t u a l r e l a t e d -n e s s a n d " f i t t i n g n e s s f o r g o o d c o n t i n u a t i o n " ( s h a p e s a n d n o n -s e n s e f i g u r e s ) , t h e n o n e w i l l f i n d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f P A r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e i s a f u n c t i o n o f u n i t a r y m e d i a t o r p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h w a s a s s u m e d t o h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s , r e g a r d -l e s s o f w h i c h m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n u s e d . T h e a b o v e c i t e d s t u d i e s h a d o n e t h i n g i n c o m m o n : T h e P A p a i r i t e m s c o n s i s t e d o f e i t h e r v e r b a l o r n o n v e r b a l 11 i t e m s , c o m b i n a t i o n s o f b o t h w e r e n o t e m p l o y e d . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e s t u d i e s , P a i v i o a n d Y a r m e y ( 1 9 6 6 : ) ' a n d D i l l e y a n d P a i v i o ( 1 9 6 8 ) h a v e u s e d b o t h v e r b a l a n d n o n -v e r b a l s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i t e m s i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p i c t u r e s a n d w o r d s , P - P , P-W, W - P , W-W, w h i c h w e r e e m p l o y e d a s p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s . P a i v i o a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s o n l y i n t e r m s o f t h e " c o n c e p t u a l p e g " h y p o t h e s i s , w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s o n t h e " c r u c i a l r o l e " o f s t i m u l u s c o n c r e t e n e s s o n t h e P A r e c a l l t e s t t r i a l . A s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f P - P p a i r s o v e r W-W p a i r s a s w e l l a s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f P - W p a i r s o v e r W - P p a i r s c a n b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e " c o n c e p t u a l p e g " h y p o t h e s i s ; b u t , t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f P - W p a i r s o v e r P - P p a i r s n e e d s a n o t h e r e x -p l a n a t i o n . P a i v i o d e f i n e d " c o n c r e t e n e s s " i n t e r m s o f d i r e c t r e f e r -e n c e t o a n o b j e c t , t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g t h a t w o r d s a n d p i c t u r e s a r e c o n t a i n e d u n i d i r e c t i o n a l l y o n t h e s a m e a b s t r a c t n e s s - c o n -c r e t e n e s s d i m e n s i o n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , c o n c r e t e n e s s i s u n d e r s t o o d a s b e i n g b i d i r e c t i o n a l l y e x t e n d e d - w o r d s a r e c o n -t a i n e d i n o n e a b s t r a c t n e s s - c o n c r e t e n e s s d i m e n s i o n a n d s h a p e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o v a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o a c o m m o n o b j e c t r e f e r e n t , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 1 . 12 Words NOUN —»ABSTRACT NOUN Concreteness as defined by P a i v i o • Shapes Words RANDOM SHAPE*— PICTURE-*—>E*—>CQNCRETE NOUN —^ABSTRACT NOUN Incomplete Figure Concreteness as defi n e d i n t h i s study Figure 1: Abstractness-Concreteness Dimensions, of Shapes and Words 0 B J PICTURE = E<--»CONCRETE C T S 1 3 I f w e c o n s i d e r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e P a i v i o a n d Y a r m e y s t u d y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i m a g e r y e n c o d i n g u n i t i z a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s , w e m a y b e a b l e t o e x p l a i n t h e s u r p r i s i n g s u p e -r i o r i t y o f t h e P - W p a i r s o v e r t h e P - P p a i r s i n P A l e a r n i n g a n d r e c a l l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e v i e w t h a t u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i n t h e f o r m o f a n i n t e r a c t i v e i m a g e f a c i l i t a t e s P A l e a r n i n g a n d r e c a l l , w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t s o m e s ; h o w u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g w a s m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n t h e P - W p a i r s t h a n i n t h e P - P p a i r s , o r t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e l y , u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g o c c u r r e d o n l y i n t h e P - W c o n d i t i o n b u t n o t i n t h e P - P c o n -d i t i o n . T h e l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y s e e m s l e s s p r o b a b l e , s i n c e t h e P - P p a i r s w e r e s u p e r i o r t o t h e W - W p a i r s . B . S t u d i e s o f P - W p a i r s a n d t h e U n d e r l y i n g P r o c e s s e s E l l i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r o l e o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l i n s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a n d t r a n s f e r t o s h a p e r e c o g -n i t i o n . E l l i s u s e d r a n d o m s h a p e s o f e i t h e r h i g h o r l o w a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e ( i . e . , s i x - p o i n t r a n d o m s h a p e s s c a l e d b y V a n d e r p l a s &. G a r v i n , 1 9 5 9 ) a n d m e a n i n g f u l - r e l e v a n t l a b e l s w h i c h w e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s h a p e s . T h e m e a n i n g f u l -r e l e v a n t l a b e l s w e r e d o m i n a n t a s s o c i a t e s g i v e n t o t h e s h a p e s , a s d e f i n e d b y s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e s ( E l l i s , M u l l e r , &. T o s t i , 1 9 6 6 ) . T h e s a m e m e a n i n g f u l - r e l e v a n t l a b e l s w e r e p a i r e d w i t h 2 4 - p o i n t s h a p e s i n a s e c o n d s t u d y i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y . T h e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s p o n s e l a b e l r e l e v a n c e c o n t r i b u t e d t o g a i n i n r e c o g n i -t i o n f o r b o t h s i x - p o i n t a n d t w e n t y - f o u r - p o i n t r a n d o m s h a p e s w h e n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e o f t h e s h a p e s w a s h i g h . R e l e v a n c e o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f 2 4 - p o i n t l o w a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s h a p e s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o m e a n t h a t " r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e " v e r b a l l a b e l s d i r e c t s u b j e c t ' s a t t e n t i o n " t o t h o s e d i s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e s t i m u l i o f w h i c h t h e y a r e d e s c r i p t i v e " ( E l l i s , 1 9 6 8 ; - p . 4 0 7 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w a s a r g u e d t h a t , " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " v e r b a l l a b e l s p r o v i d e a c o n -c e p t t o w h i c h t h e s h a p e c a n b e r e l a t e d ( E l l i s &. M u l l e r , ' 1 9 6 4 ; E l l i s L D a n i e l , 1 9 7 1 ) . E l l i s a n d D a n i e l ( 1 9 7 1 ) c o n d u c t e d t h r e e s t u d i e s : t h e f i r s t a n d t h e s e c o n d i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e t e m p o r a l c o u r s e o f s t i m u l u s - s h a p e r e c o g n i t i o n , a f t e r p r e t r a i n i n g b y e i t h e r o b s e r v i n g t h e s t i m u l u s s h a p e s o r b y a s s o c i a t i n g t h e m w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s , w i t h 0 - d e l a y , 1 5 m i n u t e s -d e l a y , 3 0 - m i n u t e s d e l a y a n d e x t e n d e d d e l a y i n t e r v a l s o f t w o a n d s e v e n d a y s . T h e t h i r d s t u d y m e a s u r e d a i d e d a n d f r e e r e c a l l o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t h r o u g h a 2 8 d a y r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t s t i m u l u s r e c o g n i t i o n w a s i n v a r i a n t o v e r t i m e a n d t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n f o r m a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . P A r e c a l l p e r f o r m -a n c e w a s e q u a l t o r e c o g n i t i o n o v e r s h o r t t i m e i n t e r v a l s , b u t d e c l i n e d o v e r l o n g e r t i m e i n t e r v a l s . R e c o g n i t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e d i d n o t d e p e n d u p o n r e c a l l o f a s s o c i a t e d r e -s p o n s e s a t t h e t i m e o f r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t i n g . 1 5 T h e f i n d i n g s w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o m e a n t h a t s t i m u l u s r e c o g n i t i o n w a s i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e r e c a l l o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l a t t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g , a l t h o u g h , a s s o c i a t i o n f o r -m a t i o n w a s a s s u m e d t o h a v e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e a t t h e t i m e o f s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g a n d s t o r a g e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w a s s u p p o r t e d b y t h e D a n i e l a n d E l l i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) s t u d y w h i c h e x a m i n e d t h e r o l e o f d i s t i n c t i v e v e r b a l l a b e l s a n d s c a l e d c o d e a b i l i t y o f t h e s h a p e s o n t h e t e m p o r a l c o u r s e o f r e c o g n i t i o n m e m o r y f o r c o m p l e x r a n d o m s h a p e s . T h e s t i m u l i w e r e 2 4 - p o i n t V a n d e r p l a s a n d G a r v i n s h a p e s w h i c h w e r e s c a l e d f o r c o d e a b i l i t y b y a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o g i v e a " n a m e o r v e r b a l a s s o c i a t i o n " f o r e a c h s h a p e a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . " T h e m e a n l a t e n c y o f t h e f i r s t a s s o -c i a t i v e r e s p o n s e i s t h e s c a l e v a l u e f o r e a c h s h a p e , s h o r t l a t e n c i e s i n d i c a t i n g h i g h c o d e a b l e s h a p e s " ( p . 8 4 ) . T h e r e l e v a n t v e r b a l l a b e l s w e r e t a k e n f r o m p r e v i o u s s c a l i n g d a t a ( E l l i s & M u l l e r , 1 9 6 4 ) . T h e f i n d i n g s o f b o t h , t h e E l l i s a n d D a n i e l ( 1 9 7 1 ) a n d t h e D a n i e l a n d E l l i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) s t u d y , s u g g e s t t h a t v e r b a l l a b e l s a i d a p r o c e s s o f s t i m u l u s s e l e c t i o n b y e n c o u r a g i n g a t t e n t i o n t o d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t i m u l i . I t w a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f v e r b a l l a b e l s o n r e c o g n i t i o n m e m o r y i s " b e s t a t t r i b u t e d t o p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e e n c o d i n g o r a c q u i s i t i o n p h a s e o f t h e m e m o r y t a s k " ( D a n i e l r l E l l i s , 1 9 7 2 ; p i 8 3 ) . 1 6 F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l a b e l d i r e c t s u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g o f t h e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i t e m s o f e a c h p a i r : W h e n t h e r e s p o n s e t e r m s b e a r s o m e c o n c e p t u a l - r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o t h e s t i m u l u s t e r m , i m a g e - l i k e m e d i a t o r s c a n b e e m p l o y e d b y 5 t o r e l a t e t h e t e r m s , a n d p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e r e s p o n s e e n c o u r a g e S_ t o a t t e n d t o p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t i m u l i . W h a t g e t s e n c o d e d m a y b e s o m e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e u n i t , a s d i s t i n c t / f r o m s e p a r a t e e n c o d i n g o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e t e r m s ( E l l i s &. D a n i e l ; p . 2 6 ) . E l l i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n t h e c o n f i r m i n g a n d t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l . T h e c o n f i r m i n g p r o p -e r t y i s a s s u m e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e l a b e l b u t t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l i s a s s u m -e d t o s e r v e i n a n a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n : T h i s m o r e s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o E l l i s : e m p h a s i z e s t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l i n w h i c h a d d i t i o n a l - d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t i m u l i a r e l e a r n e d o v e r a n d b e y o n d , t h o s e m i n i m a l a s p e c t s a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a b e l ' s c o n f i r m i n g f u n c t i o n ( p . 4 0 6 ) . T o s u m m a r i z e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t i m u l u s - s h a p e p r e d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n s t u d i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o f i n d i n g s i n i m a g e r y r e s e a r c h , r e g a r d i n g p i c t u r e - w o r d p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s , w e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p -e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l o n s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s e s m a y b e m o s t i m p o r t a n t . C f N e e d s f o r t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y A s n o t e d e a r l i e r i n s e c t i o n A , t h e s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o b l e m i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t p i c t u r e - w o r d ( P - W ) p a i r s w e r e r e c a l l e d b e t t e r t h a n 1 7 p i c t u r e - p i c t u r e ( P - P ) p a i r s . I t w a s a l s o n o t e d t h a t P a i v i o ' s " c o n c e p t u a l p e g " h y p o t h e s i s a l o n g w i t h t h e d e c o d i n g h y p o t h e s i s o f r e s p o n s e t e r m s c o u l d n o t h a n d l e t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e o b s e r v e d f a c t . T h e r e f o r e , a n a l t e r n a t i v e w a y o f e x p l a i n -i n g t h e o b s e r v e d f a c t n e e d s t o b e f o r m u l a t e d . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a p l a u s i b l e h y p o t h e s i s o f u n i t i z a t i o n e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e s t u d i e s b y R o h w e r a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 6 7 ) , B o w e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a n d R o w e a n d P a i v i o ( 1 9 7 1 ) . P a r t i c u l a r l y , B o w e r ' s " r e l a t i o n a l o r g a n i z e r " i d e a s e e m s t o b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o b l e m i n h a n d a t t h i s p o i n t . A l t h o u g h , B o w e r h i m s e l f h a s n o t s p e c i f i e d s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n a l o r g a n i z e r s h o u l d f u n c t i o n . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g u n d e r l y i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t h e p a i r s s i m i l a r t o p i c t u r e - w o r d ( P - W ) p a i r s . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o i n v e s t i g -a t e t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f i n c o m p l e t e f i g -u r e s t i m u l u s t e r m s p a i r e d w i t h c o m m o n w o r d s a s r e s p o n s e i t e m s . F o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e , e n c o d i n g i s v i e w e d a s b e i n g o f t w o c l a s s e s : o n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a n d o n e e l a b o r a t i v e e n c o d i n g . T h e f o r m e r r e f e r s t o a s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s o f s t i m u l u s c o m -p o n e n t s t h a t a r e p h y s i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g i v e n s t i m u -l u s i t e m ; t h e l a t t e r r e f e r s t o f u r t h e r a d d i t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e g i v e n s t i m u l u s . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t w a s a s s u m e d t h a t s p e c i f i c m e c h a n i s m s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e t w o c l a s s e s o f s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g a r e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s p o n s e t e r m s . I n t h i s r e g a r d E l l i s a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s h a v e 18 i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e s p o n s e t e r m s a s r e l a t e d t o a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g o r s t i m u l u s r e c o g n i t i o n l e a r n i n g i n t e r m s o f t w o f u n c t i o n s , o n e c o n f i r m a t i v e a n d o n e d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e l a b e l . T h e i r s t u d i e s , u s i n g s u c h u n i n t e g r a t e d s t i m u l u s i t e m s a s r a n d o m s h a p e s a n d c o m m o n w o r d s a s r e s p o n s e l a b e l s , s e e m t o b e i n g e n e r a l s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e t w o h y p o t h e s i z e d f u n c t i o n s . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e p a i r s t o b e s t u d i e d a r e b a s e d u p o n i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a s s t i m u l u s i t e m s a n d c o m m o n w o r d s a s r e s p o n s e i t e m s . G i v e n s u c h p a i r s , i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t e l a b o r a -t i v e s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g w o u l d b e a m a j o r c o m p o n e n t o f ; ' . ; s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d , i n c l u d i n g s o m e o f t h e s e l e c t i o n a s p e c t t o o . O n e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a s t o w h a t s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s t h e r e s p o n s e t e r m s w o u l d t a k e o n . O n e c a n e o n c e i v e o f a t l e a s t t w o m a j o r f u n c t i o n s t h a t c a n b e a s s i g n e d t o t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l , t h a t i s , a s s o c i a t i v e a n d d i r e c t -i v e f u n c t i o n s . T h e a s s o c i a t i v e f u n c t i o n r e f e r s t o a h r o l e o f t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l t o e l i c i t " b a c k w a r d l y " i t s a s s o c i a t e d s t i m u l u s ( o r s t i m u l i ) , w h i c h m a y w e l l e x i s t p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l l y b e t w e e n s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e t e r m s . T h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n r e f e r s t o a r o l e o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l t o d i r e c t h o w t h e e l a b o r a -t i v e s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g i s t o b e c a r r i e d o u t . T h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e a c q u i s i t i o n r a t e a s a f u n c t i o n o f i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e p a i r i t e m s a n d t h a t o f t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e s p e c i f i c i m a g e r y 19 i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e l e a r n e r s . G i v e n t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s e l a b o r a t i v e e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s a n d i t s a s s o -c i a t e d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l , i t w a s h y p o t h -e s i z e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n t i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d -n e s s f o r e a c h p a i r o f t e r m s w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e s t i m u l u s e n -c o d i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s w o u l d r e s u l t i n e a s i e r r e c a l l o f p a i r i t e m s a s a u n i t . I t w a s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e e l a b o r a t i v e s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s w o u l d b e a i d e d , b y s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c -t i o n s t o f o r m u n i t a r y i m a g e s i n v o l v i n g s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i t e m s t o g e t h e r , t h u s r e s u l t i n g i n b e t t e r r e c a l l o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e a s a u n i t . C o n v e r s e l y , s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c -t i o n s w h i c h d i r e c t s u b j e c t s t o g e n e r a t e s e p a r a t e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i m a g e s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o i n h i b i t t h e e l a b o r a t i v e e n -c o d i n g p r o c e s s . S e p a r a t e e n c o d i n g o f t h e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e t e r m s , c o m p a r e d t o u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g , w a s e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n l e s s e f f i c i e n t r e c a l l o f t h e r e s p o n s e l a b e l . A s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l e m p l o y i n -c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a s s t i m u l i i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h c o n c r e t e n o u n r e s p o n s e s . I n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s w e r e c h o s e n , i n s t e a d o f pic4 t u r e s , b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t i n t e r m e d i a r y s h a p e s ( s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s ) w h i c h c a n b e e l a b o r a t e d a n d c o m p l e t e d ) b e t w e e n p i c t u r e s a n d r a n d o m s h a p e s . B o t h p i c t u r e s a n d r a n d o m s h a p e s c a n b e r e -d u c e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s ( o r c o m p o n e n t s ) , i . e . , i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s , w h i c h i n t u r n c a n r e p r e s e n t t h e s h a p e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s ) o f o r i g i n a l o b j e c t s . C o n v e r s e l y , e a c h i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e c a n b e e l a b o r a t e d o r c o m p l e t e d i n o r d e r t o 2 0 b e c o m e a s p e c i f i c p i c t u r e ( i m a g e ) o r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r t o f a s p e c i f i c o u t l i n e s h a p e . T h u s , i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s c o m p o n e n t p a r t s h a p e s , o r a s e n t i t i e s , c a p a b l e o f a r o u s i n g a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t i m a g e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s , ' e a c h o f w h i c h s h a r e s t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e a s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o n e n t p a r t w h i c h d i f f e r s f r o m o b j e c t t o o b j e c t . I n F i g u r e 2 , o n e c a n s e e a n e x a m p l e o f a n i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t s h o w s t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e a n d t h r e e d o m i n a n t a s s o c i a t e s ( i m a g e s a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a b e l s ) e v o k e d b y t h i s f i g u r e . F i g u r e 3 s h o w s a c o m p a r i s o n o f r a n d o m s h a p e s a n d a s s o c i a t e d l a b e l s w i t h a n i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e a n d i t s a s s o c i a t e d l a b e l s . W h a t m a k e s a n i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m a n i m p o v e r i s h e d p i c t u r e , a m i n i m a l o u t l i n e , o r a s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a n o b j e c t , i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e i s " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " o f i t s a s s o c i a t e d i m a g e s w i t h t h e i r o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s , b e c a u s e o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e o b j e c t s i t r e f e r s t o . T h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e T o r r a n c e T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g : F i g u r a l T e s t s , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n A c t i v i t y ( T o r r a n c e , 1 9 6 6 ) . T h e r e s p o n s e i t e m s w e r e c o n c r e t e n o u n s g i v e n a s a s s o c i a t e d l a b e l s o f p i c -t u r e s d r a w n b y e l a b o r a t i n g t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s ( T o r r a n c e , 1 9 6 6 ) . T w o l i s t s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o v a r y t h e l e v e l o f a s s o c i a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n 21 1 I N C O M P L E T E F I G U R E f; ell B O Y H O U S E T R E E B O D Y W A L L T R E E - T R U N K A R M . ( P A R T of B R A N C H * R O O F D O M I N A N T A S S O C I A T E S A S S O C I A T E D I M A G E S A S S O C I A T E D L A B E L S L A B E L of P A R T = I N C . F I G . Figure 2: Incomplete f i g u r e and a s s o c i a t e d images and l a b e l s H O U S E T R E E H O U S E T R E E B O Y 1 S i x - p o i n t shap.e scale d f o r A.V.* i n the study No 14 * A s s o c i a t i o n Value Twenty-four-point shape s c a l e d f o r A.V. i n the study No 10 Incomplete f i g u r e from Torrance (1966) F i g . Tests P i c t u r e Completion A c t i v i t y : F o r m A Figure 2 Figure 3: Vanderplas and Garvin Shapes (Vanderplas &. Garvin, 1959) and a s s o c i a t e d l a b e l s ( E l l i s & Muller, 1964) incomplete f i g u r e from F i g u r a l T ests, P i c t u r e Com-p l e t i o n A c t i v i t y , Form A (Torrance, 1966). 22 stimulus and response items i n each l i s t . The responses i n L i s t 1 were dominant a s s o c i a t e s of the incomplete f i g -ure s t i m u l i and the responses i n L i s t 2 were remote asso-c i a t e s of the incomplete f i g u r e s t i m u l i . Thus, i n terms of being d e s c r i p t i v e of the stimulus shapes, the dominant r e -sponses i n L i s t 1 would q u a l i f y as " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " l a b e l s ( E l l i s , 1968). The remote a s s o c i a t e s used as responses i n L i s t 2 would not q u a l i f y as such, i n s t e a d , they could be regarded as unrelated response items, comparable to the r e -sponse items used i n the P-W p a i r s ( P a i v i o &. Yarmey, 1966). However, even i f the response items i n L i s t 2 were compar-able to the response items used i n the P-W p a i r s i n the P a i v i o and Yarmey study, we would expect imagery processes to vary because of the d i f f e r e n c e i n the stimulus items. Although, both kinds of s t i m u l i ( p i c t u r e s and incomplete f i g u r e s ) are nonverbal items, they d i f f e r with respect to the shape property of completeness as w e l l as with respect to the property of concreteness, defined as the c a p a c i t y to evoke a s s o c i a t e d imagery and corresponding l a b e l s . The u n i t a r y encoding process as a f u n c t i o n of the d i r e c t -ing and r e l a t i n g property of the v e r b a l l a b e l (response) would be expected to d i f f e r . In the P-W p a i r s , we would expect stimulus s e l e c t i o n to occur i n combination with i n t e r a c t i v e encoding of stimulus and response items; but i n the incomplete figure-word p a i r s , we would expect stimulus e l a b o r a t i o n to oc-cur and the generation of u n i t a r y images. 23 I n t e r a c t i v e I m a g e G e n e r a t i o n U n i t a r y I m a g e G e n e r a t i o n i n i n P i c t u r e - W o r d P a i r s I n c o m p l e t e F i g u r e - W o r d P a i r s B I R D F i g u r e 4 : I n t e r a c t i v e a n d u n i t a r y i m a g e s g e n e r a t e d a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e k i n d o f n o n v e r b a l s t i m u l u s i t e m u s e d a n d a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l . I f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l a r e c l o s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y t h e n s o m e p r e d i c t i o n s c a n b e m a d e f r o m t h e h y p o t h e s i s . G i v e n t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s a s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , i t w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t h a t h i g h a s s o c i a -t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e l e a r n i n g o f p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s c o m p a r e d t o l o w a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s w i t h t h e s u b - h y p o t h e s i s o f a s s o c i a t i v e f u n c t i o n , g i v e n t h e e l a b o r a t i v e s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g h y p o t h e s i s . I f t h e s e c o n d s u b - h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l i s a c l o s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l -i t y t h e n i t w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t h a t u n i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l . I n t h i s w a y t h e l e a r n i n g o f r e m o t e l y a s s o c i a t e d p a i r s w o u l d b e f a c i l i t a t e d . O r d i n a r y P A i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d b e a s f a c i l i t a t i v e o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p a i r s t h a t a r e o f h i g h a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a -24 p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s a s u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d b e , a s s u m i n g s p o n t a n e o u s e l a b o r a t i v e e n c o d i n g o n t h e p a r t o f s u b j e c t s u n d e r o r d i n a r y P A i n s t r u c t i o n s . O f c o u r s e , t h i s a s s u m p t i o n w o u l d h a v e t o b e e x a m i n e d f o r i t s v a l i d i t y l a t e r . O f c o u r s e , i t m a y b e t h e c a s e t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s m a y n o t i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f a s s o -c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s i n a m u l t i p l i c a t i v e f a s h i o n b u t r a t h e r i n a d d i t i v e f a s h i o n . H o w e v e r , i f t h e r e i s n o e x -p e c t e d e f f e c t o f t h e u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n , a s p r e d i c t e d , t h e n w e m a y v i e w t h e f a c t a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h a t i s , u n i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n d o e s n o t d o a n y g o o d a s f a r a s t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e l a b e l i s c o n c e r n e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d b e d e s i r a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t a n y o t h e r k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d b e e f f e c t -i v e a t a l l , t h a t i s , t h e s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s . I n t h i s r e g a r d s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , a s b r i e f l y d e f i n e d e a r l i e r , w e r e e x p e c t e d t o i n h i b i t t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e l a b e l , a n d f u r t h e r m o r e , t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t i v e f u n c t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d d i s c o u r a g e a n y k i n d o f m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n t o r e l a t e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e t e r m s . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n t h e r e c a l l o f t h e p a i r s u n d e r t h e s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , w h e t h e r h i g h o r l o w a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s , w o u l d b e p o o r e r u n d e r t h e s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y c o n d i t i o n t h a n u n d e r o r d i n a r y P A i n s t r u c t i o n s . 25 The p r i n c i p a l e f f e c t o f the l a b e l i n g r e s p o n s e , g i v e n u n i t a r y i magery i n s t r u c t i o n s , would be due t o i t s d i r e c -t i v e f u n c t i o n which e n c o u r a g e s t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f u n i t a r y images by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n to the s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e shape, t h e r e b y r e l a t i n g i t t o the c o n c e p t the l a b e l i m p l i e s . G i v e n s e p a r a t e imagery i n s t r u c -t i o n s , t h e e f f e c t o f the d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f the v e r b a l l a b e l would be i n h i b i t e d and t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e s t i m u l u s and r e s p o n s e images would be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e c o n c r e t e n e s s offs.timafus and r e s p o n s e i t e m s . C H A P T E R I I M E T H O D D e s i g n I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c -t i v e n e s s o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e l a b e l i n g r e -s p o n s e o n u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i t e m s ( i . e . , c o d i n g o f i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s t i m u l i a s c o m -p l e t e f i g u r e s ) i n t h e f o r m o f u n i t a r y i m a g e s v i a i m a g -e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s h a d t o b e o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . T w o l e v e l s o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s , o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d a s l i s t s ( l i s t 1 = h i g h a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ; l i s t 2 = l o w a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a -p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a s s o -c i a t i v e p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l ( e . g . , i t s " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s " , E l l i s , 1 9 6 8 ) o n u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e t e r m s , c o n s t i t u t e d t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e . T h r e e l e v e l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s ( u n i t a r y i m a g e r y , s e p a -r a t e i m a g e r y , a n d s t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s ) c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e . T h u s , t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e t w o f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n a 2 X 3 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l w a s e x a m i n e d a s a f u n c t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . 27 U n i t a r y i m a g e r y - d r a w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e d e s i g n e d t o r e l a t e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e t e r m s ^ w e r e e x p e c t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e e l a b o r a t i v e e n c o d i n g o f t h e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n s e l a b e l c o n c e p t a n d i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l o n u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g . S e p a r a t e i m a g e r y - d r a w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e d e s i g n e d t o g e n e r a t e s t i m u l u s e v o k e d i m a g e s t h a t w e r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o n c e p t ( a n d a s s o c i a t e d i m a g e ) , i m p l i e d . b y t h e r e s p o n s e l a b e l , w e r e e x p e c t e d t o i n h i b i t e l a b o r a t i v e e n c o d i n g i n t h e f o r m o f s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e u n i t s , a n d d e c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l o n u n i t a r y e n c o d i n g . S t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e i n c l u d e d a s t h e t h i r d l e v e l o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s v a r i a b l e . S u b j e c t s i n t h e P A c o n d i t i o n h a d t o r e p o r t t h e m e t h o d u s e d i n l e a r n i n g t h e p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n s o f t h e P A r e c a l l t e s t t r i a l s . A l l l e v e l s o f t h e l i s t s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s v a r i a b l e s w e r e f a c t o r i a l l y c o m b i n e d t o c r e a t e s i x s e p a r a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n -d i t i o n s w i t h 1 6 s u b j e c t s t o e a c h c o n d i t i o n . A s u b j e c t w a s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e c e i v e d e i t h e r u n i t a r y i m a g e r y , s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y , o r s t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y l e a r n e d o n e o f t h e t w o P A l i s t s . F o l l o w i n g t h e s t u d y t r i a l , s u b j e c t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d ! t w o c o n s e c u t i v e P A r e c a l l t e s t t r i a l s w h i c h w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s i g n a s a t h i r d v a r i a b l e . T h u s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n 2 8 w a s a 2 X 3 X 2 f a c t o r i a l w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s o n t h e l a s t f a c t o r . T h e f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s e s , s t a t e d e a r l i e r . T l " \ i s t 1 ~ X L i s t 2 JZ ~ X P A ( L i s t 1 } " X U I ( L i s t 2 ) " ^ 3 ~ X P A ( L i s t 2 ) " X U I ( L i s t 2 ) Y 4 " X P A ( L i s t 1) ' X S I ( L i s t 2 ) y$ ~ X P A ( L i s t 2 ) ~ X 5 I ( L i s t 2 ) S u b i e c t s N i n e t y - s i x e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e g r a d e s i x p o p u l a t i o n o f a l o c a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s e r v e d a s s u b j e c t s O f t h e g r o u p o f 9 6 c h i l d r e n , 3 8 w e r e m a l e s a n d 5 8 w e r e f e m a l e s . S i x t e e n s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e a c h c o n d i t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n . M a t e r i a l s T h e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s c o n s i s t e d o f 1 8 i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a n d 1 8 c o n c r e t e n o u n s . T h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g n o u n - l a b e l s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e T o r r a n c e T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g : F i g u r a l T e s t s , F o r m A a n d F o r m B , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n A c t i v i t y ( T o r r a n c e 1 9 6 6 ) . E a c h p a i r c o n s i s t e d o f a n i n c o m p l e t e . f i g u r e s t i m u -l u s a n d a c o n c r e t e n o u n r e s p o n s e i t e m . T w o s e t s o f 1 8 p a i r s e a c h w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d : t h e f i r s t s e t c o n s t i t u t e d L i s t 1 , t h e s e c o n d s e t c o n s t i t u t e d L i s t 2 . T h e s a m e m a t e r i a l s w e r e u s e d i n b o t h l i s t s b u t t h e r e s p o n s e -l a b e l s , u s e d i n t h e f i r s t l i s t , w e r e r e - p a i r e d i n t h e s e c o n d l i s t . T h u s , t w o h o m o g e n e o u s l i s t s w e r e c r e a t e d w h i c h u s e d t h e s a m e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e s a n d n o u n s , b u t w e r e v a r i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l e v e l o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a -p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s b e t w e e n l i s t s . T a b l e 1 s h o w s t h e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e s a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a b e l s w h i c h w e r e u s e d i n L i s t 1 , a n d r e p a i r e d i n L i s t 2 , i n c o m -b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e f o r r e s p o n s e s g i v e n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a s l i s t e d i n t h e S c o r i n g G u i d e t o t h e F i g u r a l T e s t s , F o r m A a n d F o r m B , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n A c t i v i t y ( T o r r a n c e 1 9 6 6 ) . 30 TABLE 1 INCOMPLETE FIGURES AND NOUN LABELS IN L I S T 1 AND L I S T 2 L i s t 1 &, 2 L i s t 1 T o r r a n c e L i s . t 2 T o r r a n c e S t i m u l u s R e s p o n s e S c o r e Response S c o r e fx so I CJ BOY 1 BIRD 2 SHOE 0 FISH 2 HORSE 0 HOUSE 2 FLAG 0 HEAD 2 CAR 0 KITE 2 TREE 0 BOAT 2 HOUSE 1 BOY 2 FLOWER 1 CAT 2 KITE 1 CAR 2 DRESS 1 SHOE 2 BOAT FLOWER 2 F I S H 1 FLAG 2 WOMAN 1 DOG 2 CAT 1 TREE 2 HEAD SHIP 2 SHIP 1 DRESS 2 DOG 1 WOMAN 2 BIRD 1 HORSE 2 T h e D i r e c t i o n s M a n u a l a n d S c o r i n g G u i d e f o r t h e F i g u r a l T e s t s , F o r m A a n d F o r m B , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n A c t i v i t y ( R e s e a r c h E d i t i o n , 1 9 6 6 ) p r o v i d e s a s e p a r a t e g u i d e f o r e a c h o f t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s , s i n c e e a c h o f t h e m t e n d s t o e l i c i t i t s o w n h i e r a r c h y o f a s s o c i a t e d r e s p o n s e s . T h e s c o r i n g g u i d e f o r s c o r i n g o r i g i n a l i t y o f r e -s p o n s e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s i n F o r m A i s b a s e d o n a t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s s u b m i t t e d b y 3 8 1 s u b j e c t s f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l ; t h e s c o r i n g g u i d e f o r F o r m B i s b a s e d o n a t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s s u b m i t t e d b y 5 0 0 s u b j e c t s f r o m g r a d e s o n e t h r o u g h t w e l v e . Z e r o - p o i n t {5% o r m o r e o f t h e r e s p o n s e s ) a n d o n e -p o i n t r e s p o n s e s (2$> t o A.99% o f t h e r e s p o n s e s ) w e r e u s e d i n L i s t 1 ; t w o - p o i n t r e s p o n s e s ( l e s s t h a n 2% o f t h e r e -s p o n s e s ) w e r e u s e d i n L i s t 2 . T h e 1 8 n o u n s , u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , w e r e d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s i n L i s t 1 b u t n o t i n L i s t 2 . T h e y w e r e " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " l a b e l s ( E l l i s , 1 9 6 8 ) o f a s s o c i a t e d i m a g e s t h a t c a n b e e v o k e d b y t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s . T h e r e s p o n s e - l a b e l s i n L i s t 1 w e r e r e g a r d e d a s d o m i n a n t a s s o c i a t e s o f t h e s t i m u l u s s h a p e s ; t h e r e s p o n s e - l a b e l s i n L i s t 2 w e r e r e g a r d e d a s r e m o t e a s s o c i a t e s o f t h e s t i m u l u s s h a p e s , a s d e f i n e d b y s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e s ( T o r r a n c e , 1 9 6 6 ) . 32 Norms f o r concreteness (C), imagery ( I ) , meaningfulness (m; Noble, 1952), and frequency (F; Thorndike &. Lorge, 1944), were provided f o r the s e l e c t e d nouns by the "Con-creteness, Imagery, and Meaningfulness Values f o r 925 Nouns" ( P a i v i o , Y u i l l e , &. Madigan, 1 968 ). The nouns were rated high on C and I (mean C and I f o r 14 nouns was 6.67 and 6.91, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; " k i t e " , "boat", "head", "dog" were not l i s t e d ) ; the m value was 7.09; Thprndike-Lorge frequency values were high (AA = 100 or more occurrances per m i l l i o n f o r most nouns; except " c a t " A, " f l a g " A, " k i t e " 10 per m i l l i o n ) . t' Apparatus The apparatus was very simple. I t c o n s i s t e d of a blackboard, a 450mm X 600mm sheet of cardboard, a stop-watch, and the t e s t b ooklets. The blackboard was used f o r demonstration purposes. The cardboard represented the format of the study t r i a l and the t e s t t r i a l worksheets. It was d i v i d e d i n t o 18 r e c -t a n g l e s ; each of these r e c t a n g l e s corresponded to the space provided f o r the PA p a i r s on the worksheets.' How-i ever, on the cardboard example, the r e c t a n g l e s were numbered. These numbers were used f o r no other purpose than to show the s u b j e c t s that the drawing sequence was to proceed i n a v e r t i c a l manner from frame 1 to frame 18. A stop-watch was used to c o n t r o l the p r e s e n t a t i o n and draw-ing time of each instance i n the sequence. T h e t e s t b o o k l e t s c o n s i s t e d o f 6 p a g e s w h i c h w e r e s t a p l e d t o g e t h e r . E a c h t e s t ( s t u d y t r i a l a c t i v i t y : L i s t 1 o r L i s t 2 ; P A r e c a l l t e s t t r i a l s : T r i a l 1 a n d T r i a l 2 ) w a s c o n t a i n e d o n o n e p a g e . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e t e s t s : t h e f i r s t o n e w a s p r e c e d e d b y a p u r p l e p a g e , t h e s e c o n d o n e b y a g r e e n p a g e , a n d t h e t h i r d o n e b y a p i n k p a g e . T h e i m m e d i a t e p u r p o s e o f t h e c o l o r e d s h e e t s w a s t o s e p a r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t t r i a l s . T h e f u n c t i o n a l p u r p o s e o f t h e c o l o r e d s h e e t s w a s t h a t s u b j e c t s w o u l d b e a b l e t o o p e n t h e t e s t b o o k l e t s w i t h o u t l e a f i n g t h r o u g h t h e m . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w a s s u p p o s e d t o p r e v e n t s u b j e c t s f r o m r e f e r r i n g b a c k t o p r e c i o u s t r i a l s . T w o o r i g i n a l s t u d y t r i a l w o r k s h e e t s ( L i s t 1 a n d L i s t 2 ) a n d t h e t w o P A r e -c a l l t e s t t r i a l s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x A . P r o c e d u r e T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g w a s a s e p a r a t e a r e a i n t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y w h i c h w a s a v a i l a b l e f r o m 9:00 A . M . t o 1 2:00 A . M . o n t h e d a y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I t c o n t a i n e d s i x r o u n d t a b l e s w i t h f i v e c h a i r s e a c h , a n d t w o a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y d e s k s w i t h o n e c h a i r e a c h . T h i s s e a t i n g a r r a n g e -m e n t a c c o m m o d a t e d a g r o u p o f 3 2 s u b j e c t s t o b e t e s t e d a t t h e s a m e t i m e . T h e e x p e r i m e n t w a s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s e s s i o n s e a c h o f w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o o n e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e d e s i g n . A t o t a l o f 9 6 s u b j e c t s , 3 2 s u b j e c t s f r o m e a c h c l a s s , w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t o s e r v e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s o f 3 2 s u b j e c t s e a c h w e r e f o r m e d b y a s s i g n i n g e a c h s u b j e c t a n u m b e r t a g w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d o n e o f t h e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g t e s t e d i n t h e t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s e s s i o n s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w a s s u c h t h a t s u b j e c t s f r o m a n y o f t h e t h r e e c l a s s e s c o u l d b e i n a n y o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s : S u b j e c t s w i t h a n u m b e r " o n e " t a g w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e P A g r o u p b e i n g t e s t e d i n s e s s i o n n u m b e r o n e ; s u b j e c t s w i t h a n u m b e r " t w o " t a g w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e U l g r o u p b e i n g t e s t e d i n s e s s i o n n u m b e r t w o ; a n d , s u b j e c t s w i t h a n u m b e r " t h r e e " t a g w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e S I g r o u p b e i n g t e s t e d i n s e s s i o n n u m b e r t h r e e . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s ' ( L i s t 1 a n d L i s t 2 ) w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d o n t h e f i v e t a b l e s a n d t w o s t u d y d e s k s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : 1 , 2,1 , 2,1; 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2,1 , 2,1; 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 1 , 2,1 , 2,1; 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 , b e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t s e n t e r e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r o o m . S u b j e c t s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o s i t q u i e t l y a t t h e t a b l e a n d p l a c e o f t h e i r c h o i c e , a n d n o t t o o p e n t h e i r t e s t b o o k l e t s u n t i l t o l d t o d o s o . P e n c i l s w e r e p r o -v i d e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . A l l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , m e t h o d o f s t u d y , a n d g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s t u d y a n d t e s t ; t r i a l s . 35 The general ins t ruct ions s p e c i f i e d that the experiment was concerned with learning pairs of incomplete f igure stimulus and concrete noun response items. Following an explanation of the associat ive learning procedure, subjects were given a practice t r i a l with two examples; one example was representative of paired-associates in L i s t 1 (high associat ive i n t r a - p a i r relatedness) and the other was representative of paired-associates in L i s t 2 (low associat ive i n t r a - p a i r relatedness) . Subjects in the PA group (standard PA inst ruct ions) were asked to look at the pract ice pairs and think about a method of learning them most e f f i c i e n t l y . They were asked further to keep their method a secret . Any mention of imagery was s t r i c t l y avoided by the experimenter. Subjects in the two imagery groups were instructed to ac-t i v e l y engage in generating mental images. The experimenter drew the instances which were ei ther unitary images in the Ul group (unitary imagery ins t ruct ions) or separate images in the 51 group (separate imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s ) , provided by the subjects , on the blackboard. Thus, the experimenter demonstrated the drawing technique to be used in the study t r i a l , which involved the com-p l e t i o n of the incomplete f igure by adding l i n e s to i t , in such a way that a picture was produced which incorpo-rated the incomplete f igure as a s i g n i f i c a n t part . 36 F o l l o w i n g t h i s p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n t h e s t u d y t r i a l w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d . A s t u d y - t e s t m e t h o d w a s e m p l o y e d w h i c h w a s m o d i f i e d f r o m t h e s t a n d a r d P A s t u d y - t e s t m e t h o d i n t h a t o n l y o n e s t u d y t r i a l w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d , f o l l o w e d b y t w o P A r e c a l l t e s t t r i a l s . D r a w i n g o f t h e s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s ( e a c h p a i r ) o n t h e s t u d y t r i a l w a s t i m e d b y a s t o p - w a t c h . T h e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r e i t h e r d r a w i n g o r o b s e r v i n g e a c h i n s t a n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r o u p , w a s 1 5 s e c o n d s . E v e r y 1 5 s e c o n d s t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s t a m p e d o n t h e f l o o r , w h i c h w a s t h e s i g n a l t o p r o c e e d t o t h e n e x t i t e m . T o t a l t i m e a l l o w e d w a s 4 m i n u t e s f o r t h e s t u d y t r i a l a n d 5 m i n u t e s f o r e a c h t e s t t r i a l , w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e t i m e n e e d e d t o r e - e x p l a i n w h a t a s u b j e c t w a s r e q u i r e d t o d o o n t h e t e s t t r i a l s . T h e o r d e r o f t h e s t i m u l u s i t e m s o n e a c h t e s t t r i a l w a s d i f f e r e n t a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s o n t h e p a g e i n b o t h s t u d y t r i a l a n d t e s t t r i a l s w a s r a n d o m l y d e t e r m i n e d . W h e n t h e s t u d y t r i a l w a s c o m p l e t e d , i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e P A r e c a l l t e s t s w e r e b r i e f l y r e i t e r a t e d , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e n o i n t e r r u p t i o n s d u r i n g t h e a c t u a l t e s t t r i a l s . B o t h t e s t t r i a l s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d t e s t t r i a l , s u b j e c t s i n t h e P A g r o u p o n l y w e r e a s k e d t o r e p o r t w h i c h m e t h o d t h e y h a d u s e d t o l e a r n e a c h p a i r . T h e n a l l s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t o c l o s e t h e i r t e s t b o o k l e t s a n d l e a v e t h e m o n t h e t a b l e s . B e f o r e t h e y l e f t t h e t e s t i n g a r e a , t h e y w e r e a s k e d not to discuss the t e s t among themselves, or with any other student, u n t i l the experiment was over. I n s t r u c t i o n s Subjects i n a l l three i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were informed that they would see 18 p a i r s of incomplete f i g -ure stimulus and concrete noun response items on the study t r i a l worksheet. An example of a PA p a i r , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each l i s t , was demonstrated on the blackboard. Sub-j e c t s i n the standard PA group .were t o l d that they would have to l e a r n each p a i r i n such a way that they would be able to produce the response item when shown only the stimulus item on the t e s t t r i a l . Subjects i n the imagery groups r e c e i v e d the same i n s t r u c t i o n s as the PA group. In a d d i t i o n , they were shown how to generate images f o r the examples on the blackboard. With u n i t a r y imagery, the emphasis was on "sameness" or "two things that can be r e l a t e d i n such a way that they become one"; i n separate imagery, the emphasis was on "separateness" or "two things that are unrelated and d i f -f e r e n t from each other". The i n s t r u c t i o n s were administered o r a l l y . The pro-cess of generating e i t h e r u n i t a r y or separate imagery, i n order to l e a r n the incomplete f i g u r e - word p a i r s , i n the subsequent PA task, was demonstrated to the students through examples as indicated below. -< r f Bird Sky List 1 List 2 Figure 5: List 1 and l i s t 2 examples used in practice t r i a l to explain both unitary and separate imagery to students. Using the l i s t 1 example to explain unitary imagery, the experimenter pointed at the response "bird" and said: "Thinking bird what does this (pointing at the incomplete figure) ^ incomplete figure remind you of?" When the students provided examples, such as. beak. wing. part of bird, shape of bird, etc.. the experimenter drew the image bird. incorporating the suggested part, by adding lines to the incomplete figure. Using the l i s t 2 example to explain unitary imagery, the experimenter pointed at the response "sky" and said: "Thinking sky what does this incomplete figure (point-ing at the incomplete figure) remind you of?" When the students provided examples, such as, rocket, star, etc., the experimenter drew the suggested image, by incorporating the incomplete figure as a part of the picture (completed figure). Examples of this procedure are shown in Figure 6. 39 F i g u r e 6: U n i t a r y i m a g e s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s a n d e x e c u t e d o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r S e p a r a t e i m a g e r y w a s e x p l a i n e d a n d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e s a m e w a y . P o i n t i n g a t t h e L i s t 1 e x a m p l e o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s a i d : " L o o k a t t h i s i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e -w o r d p a i r . We a l l k n o w w h a t a b i r d l o o k s l i k e , ( t h e e x p e r i -m e n t e r p r o c e e d e d t o d r a w a p i c t u r e o f a b i r d ) b u t ( p o i n t i n g a t t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e ) w h a t c o u l d ' t h i s b e ? " T o e m p h a -s i z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o i t e m s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r r e p e a t e d : " I f i t i s n o t a b i r d , w h a t e l s e c o u l d i t b e ? " W h e n t h e s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d e x a m p l e s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r c o m -p l e t e d t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e i n s u c h a w a y t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t -e d t h e s u g g e s t e d i m a g e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g i m a g e s w e r e s u g g e s t e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s : " t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e l o o k s l i k e t h e h a t o f a c l o w n , i t l o o k s l i k e a n u p s i d e d o w n i c e c r e a m c o n e . i t l o o k s l i k e t h e p o i n t e d e n d o f a , p e n c i l . e t c . T h i s p r o c e d u r e w a s r e p e a t e d u n t i l e v e r y o n e k n e w w h a t w a s e x p e c t e d o f h i m a n d h o w t o p r o c e e d o n t h e s t u d y t r i a l . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r d r e w t h e p i c t u r e s d i r e c t l y a n d s i m p l y t o e n c o u r a g e s u b j e c t s t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t w o u l d b e e a s y t o d r a w t h e r e s p e c t i v e i m a g e s . C H A P T E R I I I R E S U L T S S u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e P A r e c a l l t e s t w a s o b -s e r v e d i n t e r m s o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h t r i a l . T o t a l r e c a l l s c o r e s f o r e a c h t r i a l w e r e c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . T h e m e a n s o f t h e s e s c o r e s f o r e a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 . A 2 x 3 x 2 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s p e r f o r m e d o n t h e s e s c o r e s . T h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d w e r e t w o l e v e l s o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ( l i s t s ) , t h r e e k i n d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s ( P A , U l , 5 1 ) , a n d t w o t r i a l s ( P A r e c a l l t e s t ) . T h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i s s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 3 . S i n c e t h e r e w e r e r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s o n t h e l a s t f a c t o r , t h e w i t h i n - c e l l v a r i a t i o n w a s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p a r t s , t h e S S , . a n d t h e S S r v . . „ E a c h o f s u b j w . g r o u p s C X s u b j w . g r o u p s . t h e s e e r r o r t e r m s w a s s u b d i v i d e d a n d t e s t e d f o r h o m o g e -n e i t y b y m e a n s o f F t e s t s a s o u t l i n e d b y W i n e r (1971). J J m a x J P a r t i t i o n i n g o f t h e t w o e r r o r t e r m s a n d t h e F r a t i o s 3 m a x a r e s h o w n i n T a b l e 4. T h e F t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a x a s s u m p t i o n o f h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e p a r t i t i o n e d p a r t s o f t h e w i t h i n - c e l l v a r i a t i o n w a s t e n a b l e . B o t h e r r o r t e r m s p r o v -e d t o b e h o m o g e n e o u s i n t e r m s o f t h e c r i t e r i o n s c a l e o f m e a s u r e m e n t b e i n g u s e d . S i n c e t h e c r i t e r i o n ( t h e t o t a l 4 1 n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d r e s p o n s e s i n t w o t e s t t r i a l s ) p r o v i d e d o n l y t w o m e a s u r e m e n t s o n e a c h s u b j e c t , t h e r e w a s o n l y o n e c o v a r i a n c e , a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f h o m o g e n e i t y o f c o v a r i a n c e d i d n o t e x i s t ( p . 5 3 7 , W i n e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h e a n a -l y s i s o f t h e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t e f f e c t s i n t h i s c a s e w a s e q u i -v a l e n t t o a n a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o t e s t t r i a l s . T h e v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b a s i c d a t a a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5 . N o t e t h e r a t i o o f t h e b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t e r r o r t e r m ( 2 2 . 4 5 5 5 5 ) t o t h e w i t h i n -s u b j e c t e r r o r t e r m ( . 5 6 5 2 7 7 8 ) w h i c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 : 1 . T h e o v e r a l l t y p e I e r r o r o f . 0 5 w a s a d o p t e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h e t w o m a j o r s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s , o n e t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ( l i s t s ) a n d t h e o t h e r t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s , w e r e e a c h t e s t e d a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e m a i n i n g v a l u e ofoC^ = . 0 3 w a s a l l o c a t e d e q u a l l y t o t h e L i s t X I n -s t r u c t i o n s i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f t r i a l s , a n d a l l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t r i a l s ; t h u s , t e s t i n g e a c h a t t h e . 0 0 6 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . R e s u l t s o f t h e t h r e e w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , s u m m a -r i z e d i n T a b l e 3 , s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n L i s t 1 a n d L i s t 2 , F_ ( 1 , 9 0 ) = 3 8 . 2 3 2 0 , p _ < . 0 0 0 0 . A s p r e d i c t e d , s c o r e s i n L i s t 1 ( h i g h a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e i n L i s t 2 ( l o w a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) . T h i s m e a n s t h a t s u b j e c t s l e a r n i n g p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e s i n L i s t 1 r e c a l l e d a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f r e s p o n s e s 4 2 T A B L E 2 M E A N N U M B E R O F C O R R E C T R E 5 P 0 N 5 E S A N D 5 T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N S F O R L I S T S , I N S T R U C T I O N S , A N D P A R E C A L L T E S T T R I A L S P A T e s t T r i a l s L i s t s I n s t r u c t i o n s T r i a l 1 T r i a l 2 X S . D . X S . D . P A 1 3 . 8 1 3 ( 2 . 8 1 0 ) 1 4 . 5 6 3 ( 2 . 3 9 3 ) P R - h i g h U l 1 4 . 3 1 3 ( 3 . 2 1 9 ) 1 4 . 2 5 0 ( 3 . 1 7 3 ) S I 7 . 3 7 5 ( 4 . 1 2 9 ) 8 . 3 7 5 ( 4 . 2 0 9 ) P A 9 . 6 2 5 ( 4 . 2 0 9 ) 9 . 8 1 3 ( 4 . 4 1 5 ) P R - l o w U l 1 0 . 3 1 3 ( 3 . 4 0 0 ) 1 0 . 5 0 0 ( 3 . 3 6 6 ) S I 3 . 5 6 3 ( 2 . 2 2 0 ) 3 . 5 0 0 ( 2 . 0 6 5 ) A b b r e v i a t i o n s : P R - h i g h = L i s t 1 ( h i g h a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) ; P R - l o w = L i s t 2 ( l o w a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) ; P A s t a n d s f o r s t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s , U l s t a n d s f o r u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d S I s t a n d s f o r s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s . 43 T A B L E 3 S u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f T o t a l N u m b e r o f C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d R e s p o n s e s f o r T w o P A R e c a l l T e s t T r i a l s S o u r c e d f M S F P B e t w e e n s u b i e c t s 9 5 L i s t s ( A ) 1 8 5 8 . 5 2 0 8 3 8 . 2 3 2 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 I n s t r u c t i o n s (B) 2 8 8 8 . 6 7 1 9 3 9 . 5 7 4 7 0 . 0 0 0 0 A X B 2 1 . 5 6 7 7 0 . 0 6 9 8 0 . 9 2 3 9 S u b j w . g r o u p s 9 0 2 2 . 4 5 5 5 W i t h i n s u b i e c t s 9 6 T r i a l s ( C ) 1 5 . 3 3 3 3 9 . 4 3 4 9 . 0 . 0 0 2 9 A X C 1 2 . 5 2 0 8 4 . 4 5 9 5 0 . 0 3 5 4 B X C 2 0 . 8 8 0 2 1 . 5 5 7 1 0 . 2 1 4 7 A X B X C 2 1 . 7 5 5 2 3 . 1 0 5 0 0 . 0 4 8 4 C X s u b j w . g r o u p s 9 0 0 . 5 6 5 3 T o t a l 1 9 1 44 TABLE 4 Partitioning of S S e r r Q r ( b e t w e e n , and 5 5 e r r Q r { w i t h i n , for Tests for Homogeneity by Means of F m a x Tests. Source SS df MS Subj w. group ab(11 ) 196 .875 15 Subj w. group ab(12) 291 .969 15 Subj w. group ab(13) 513 .500 15 Subj w. group ab(21 ) 550 .969 15 Subj w. group ab(22) 333 .219 1 5 Subj w. group ab(23) 134 .469 15 Subj w. groups 2021 .000 90 22.45555 ^max(obs.) 550.969/15 134.469/15 = 4.097 ^max(crit.).05(6,15) 4.680 CXsubj w.group ab(11) 7.500 15 CXsubj w.group ab(12) 14.469 15 CXsubj w.group ab(13) 8.000 15 CXsubj w.group ab(21 ) 7.219 15 CXsubj w.group ab(22 ) 10.219 15 CXsubj w.group ab(23) 3.469 15 CXsubj w.groups 50.875 90 0.5652778 , . . = 14.469/15, = 4. 171 F , .. , nt, (, = 4.680* max(obs.) "3 4 69/15 max(crit.).05(6,15) * Winer, B. J. (1971 ) 45 TABLE 5 Variance-Covariance Matrices l e v e l ab(11 ) l e v e l ab(12) l e v e l ab(13) C 1 7.89583 6.31250 C 2 6.31250 5.72916 l e v e l ab(21 ) C 1 10.36250 9.25000 C 2 9.25000 10.06666 l e v e l ab(22) C 1 17.05000 16.85000 C 2 16.85000 17.71666 l e v e l ab(23) C 1 17.71666 18.12500 C 2 18.12500 19.49583 '1 C, 11.56250 10.76666 C 1 4.92916 4.36666 C 2 10.76666 11.33333 C 2 4.36666 4.26666 Pooled Variances and Covariances C 1 11.58611 10.94514 C 2 10.94514 11.43472 Average Variance.- and Covariance C 1 11.51042 10.94514 C 2 10.94514 11.51042 M5 MS subj w.groups = MS error(between) = VAR + (r-1)C0V = 22.45555 CXsubj w. groups = M 5 e r r o r ( w i t h i n ) =VAR - C0V = 0.565.28' Within rounding e r r o r , these values are equal to those obtained f o r the corresponding mean squares i n Table 3. 4 6 t h a n s u b j e c t s l e a r n i n g p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s i n L i s t 2 . T h e o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t s i n v o l v e d t h e i n -s t r u c t i o n s v a r i a b l e , F ( 2 , 9 0 ) = 3 9 . 5 7 4 7 , j a ^ . O Q Q O , a n d t r i a l s , F ( 1 , 9 0 ) = 9 . 4 3 4 9 , R ^ * . Q Q 2 9 . T h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t b e t w e e n l i s t s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s w a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , F-s^.1 . A s p r e d i c t e d , s u b j e c t s g i v e n u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d s u b j e c t s g i v e n s t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s h a d h i g h e r r e c a l l f o r b o t h t y p e s o f p a i r s t h a n s u b j e c t s g i v e n s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e m e a n n u m b e r c o r r e c t , w i t h t h e d a t a c o l l a p -s e d a c r o s s l i s t s a n d t e s t t r i a l s , w e r e 1 2 . 3 4 4 f o r u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s , 1 1 . 9 5 3 f o r s t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d 5 . 7 0 3 f o r s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s . P A r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h s t a n d a r d P A i n s t r u c t i o n s w a s a p p r o x -i m a t e l y e q u a l t o P A r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s . C o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e c e l l m e a n s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i ( D u n n ) p r o c e d u r e . C o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s s\ y\ y\ y\ w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e c o n t r a s t s , iy ^» ^ 3 » ^ 4 » "1^ 5 • T h e e s t i m a t e d c o n t r a s t s a n d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s a r e s h o w n i n T a b l e 6. I n s e r t T a b l e 6 a b o u t h e r e T h e c o n t r a s t , ^ , w h i c h t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t o f P A i n s t r u c t i o n s i n L i s t ,1 v e r s u s t h e e f f e c t o f u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s 47 in L i s t 2 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This means that subjects learning pairs that were a s s o c i a t i v e l y r e l a t e d , given PA i n s t r u c t i o n s , reca l led a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of responses than subjects learning a s s o c i a t i v e l y unrelated p a i r s , given unitary imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s . The contrast , » which tested the ef fec t of PA i n s t r u c -tions in L i s t 2 versus the effec t of unitary imagery i n s t r u c -tions i n L i s t 2 was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This means that subjects learning a s s o c i a t i v e l y unrelated p a i r s , given unitary imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s , did not r e c a l l a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of responses than subjects learning assoc ia -t i v e l y unrelated p a i r s , given PA i n s t r u c t i o n s . The c o n t r a s t , , which tested the ef fec t of PA i n s t r u c -tions in L i s t 1 versus the ef fec t of separate imagery i n s t r u c -tions in L i s t 2 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This means that subjects learning a s s o c i a t i v e l y related p a i r s , given PA i n s t r u c t i o n s , reca l led a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of re-sponses than subjects learning a s s o c i a t i v e l y unrelated p a i r s , given separate imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s . The contrast , 'TJ/ , which tested the effec t of PA i n s t r u c -tions in L i s t 2 versus the ef fec t of separate imagery i n s t r u c -tions in L i s t 2 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This means that subjects learning a s s o c i a t i v e l y unrelated p a i r s , given PA i n s t r u c t i o n s , reca l led a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of responses than subjects learning a s s o c i a t i v e l y unrelated p a i r s , given separate imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s . 48 T h e s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t f o r t r i a l s w a s d u e t o g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r s c o r e s o n t h e s e c o n d t e s t t r i a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t r i a l s . 4 9 T A B L E 6 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s , C o m p a r i s o n s , a n d B o n f e r r o n i ' s t - t e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s H y p o t h e s i s T r e a t m e n t M e a n s $ 1 H o S A . i s t 1 'A*List 2 V S * ^ # 2 H o : A P A ( L i s t 1 ) " / f c u i C L i s t 2 ) V S * ^ L i s t 1 = 1 2 . 1 1 5 ^ 3 H o S A P A ( L i s t 2 ) VuKList 2 ) V S * * L i s t 2 = 7 . 8 8 5 $ 4 H 6 : A P A ( L i s t 1 ) S I ( L i s t 2 ) V S * ^ U l = 1 2 . 3 4 4 $ 5 H o 5 / & P A ( L i s t 2 ) / ^ S K L i s t 2 ) v s * ^ P A = 1 1 . 9 5 3 E s t i m a t e d C o n t r a s t S I = 5 . 7 0 3 ^ 1 2 . 1 1 5 - 7 . 8 8 5 = 4 . 2 3 0 T r i a l 1 = 9 . 8 3 3 ^ 2 1 4 . 1 8 8 - 1 0 . 4 0 6 = 3 . 7 8 2 T r i a l 2 = 1 0 . 1 6 7 ^ 3 9 . 7 1 9 - 1 0 . 4 0 6 = - 0 . 6 8 7 1 4 . 1 8 8 - 3 . 5 3 1 = 1 0 . 6 5 7 9 . 7 1 9 - 3 . 5 3 1 = 6 . 1 8 8 C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l ( r X = . 0 5 ) t , n ? ^ ^ ^ o 19U J = 2 . 6 4 2 . 0 1 8 1 £ 6 . 4 4 2 s . R e j e c t H Q 1 . 5 7 0 ^ ^ 2 ^ 5 . 9 9 4 s . R e j e c t H o - 2 . 8 9 9 ^ - ^ 3 ^ 1 . 5 2 5 n . s . R e t a i n H o 8 . 4 4 5 6:~f 4-61 2 . 8 6 9 s . R e j e c t H Q 3 . 9 7 6 ^ " f 5 ^ * 8 . 4 0 0 s . R e j e c t H Q M S e r r o r ( b e t w e e n ) = M S s u b j e c t s w . g r o u p s = 2 2 . 4 5 5 5 5 . d i v i s o r = 6 4 50 C H A P T E R I V D I S C U S S I O N A N D S U M M A R Y A s p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w a s t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t -i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l o n c o d i n g i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s t i m u l i a s c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s . I t w a s p r e d i c t e d t h a t e v e n o r i g i n a l l y r e m o t e a s s o c i a t e s o f t h e i n c o m -p l e t e f i g u r e s t i m u l i w o u l d d i r e c t c o d i n g o f t h e i n -c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a s c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s . A s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s w a s e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t u n i t a r y i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . U n i t a r y i m a g e s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o b e e a s i e r t o g e n e r a t e a n d p o s s i b l y t o b e m o r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s i n L i s t 1 ( h i g h a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) t h a n f o r p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s i n L i s t 2 ( l o w a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e u n i t a r y i m a g e s w o u l d m e d i a t e r e c a l l o f t h e r e s p o n s e s , t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d r e s p o n s e s w a s e x p e c t e d t o b e h i g h e r i n L i s t 1 t h a n i n L i s t 2 . T h u s , p r e d i c t i o n 1 w a s m a d e s u c h t h a t h i g h a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s i n c r e a s e s t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d r e s p o n s e s w h i l e l o w a s s o -c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s d e c r e a s e s i t . T h i s p r e -d i c t i o n w a s g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m e d . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t b y E l l i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) , E l l i s a n d D a n i e l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , D a n i e l a n d E l l i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) . . 5 1 U n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o f a c i l i -t a t e P A r e c a l l c o m p a r e d t o s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e e x p e c t e d t o i n h i b i t a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d s u b s e q u e n t P A r e c a l l . I t w a s p r e d i c t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s g i v e n u n i t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d r e c a l l a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f r e s p o n s e s c o r r e c t l y t h a n s u b j e c t s g i v e n s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n w a s a l s o c l e a r l y s u p p o r t e d . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s f r o m i m a g e r y s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t b y B o w e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a n d R o w e a n d P a i v i o ( 1 9 7 1 ) . T h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l w a s i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e a c q u i s i t i o n r a t e aastca / " f u n c t i o n o f i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e p a i r i t e m s a n d t h e o p e r a -t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l w a s i n -f e r r e d f r o m t h e s p e c i f i c i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e l e a r n e r s . I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n t i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s w o u l d i f a c i l i t a t e t h e s t i m u -l u s e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s . I t w a s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t u n i -t a r y i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e e l a b o r a t i v e s t i m u l u s e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s w h e r e a s s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c -t i o n s w o u l d i n h i b i t i t . O r d i n a r y P A i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o b e a s f a c i l i -t a t i v e o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p a i r s t h a t a r e o f h i g h a s s o -c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s a s u n i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d b e , a s s u m i n g s p o n t a n e o u s e l a b o r a t i v e e n c o d i n g o n t h e p a r t o f s u b j e c t s u n d e r o r d i n a r y P A i n s t r u c t i o n s . 52 Unitary imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s , by f a c i l i t a t i n g the d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n of the v e r b a l l a b e l , would f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g of remotely r e l a t e d p a i r s . The c o n t r a s t s , » an^~^2' ^ e s ^ e ^ "the assumption of spontaneity of e l a b o r a t i v e encoding o c c u r r i n g on the par t of the subj e c t s given PA i n s t r u c t i o n s versus the e f f e c t of un i t a r y imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s being a d d i t i v e to the a s s o c i a -t i v e f u n c t i o n of the ve r b a l l a b e l . P i e d i c t i d n ^ i w a s made such that s u b j e c t s given standard PA i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l perform as w e l l on L i s t 1 as subjects given u n i t a r y imagery i n s t r u c -t i o n s w i l l perform on L i s t 2. P r e d i c t i o n 3 was made such that s u b j e c t s given standard PA i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l r e c a l l a smaller number of responses i n L i s t 2 than su b j e c t s given u n i t a r y imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s . P r e d i c t i o n 2 was not confirmed. There was a s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e between P A ( L i s t 1) and U I ( L i s t 2 ) , which means that s u b j e c t s i n the P A ( L i s t 1) c o n d i t i o n performed much b e t t e r than su b j e c t s i n the U I ( L i s t 2) c o n d i t i o n . P r e d i c t i o n 3 was not confirmed e i t h e r . 5ubjects i n the Ul (Li s t 2 2 ) c o n d i t i o n , l e a r n i n g remotely r e l a t e d p a i r s , d i d not perform any b e t t e r than s u b j e c t s i n the P A ( L i s t 2) c o n d i t i o n , l e a r n i n g remotely r e l a t e d p a i r s . In other words, the number of c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d responses i n the PA con-d i t i o n ( L i s t 2) did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the num-ber of c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d responses i n the u n i t a r y imagery ( L i s t 2) c o n d i t i o n . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that s u b j e c t s 53 given PA inst ruct ions spontaneously generate unitary images by elaborating the stimulus figure in r e l a t i o n to the concept the l a b e l i m p l i e s . Elaborative encoding occurred in both L i s t 1 and L i s t 2 with PA i n s t r u c t i o n s , as can be seen in the post-experimental report data ( c . f . Appendix B), concerning the method used in learning the PA l i s t s . In both L i s t conditions with PA ins t ruc t ions subjects used the same method of elaborating the stimulus figure in r e l a t i o n to the response l a b e l concept. For instance ( referr ing to the stimulus f igure) "looks l i k e a cut of f s h o e . . . , looks l i k e part of a s h o e . . . , the heel of a s h o e . . . , in L i s t 1; in L i s t 2 " i t looks l i k e a f i s h ' s t a i l . . . , looks l i k e a f i s h . . . , f i n of a f i s h . . . " . These descriptions were used for the same stimulus figure ( f i g . # 3) paired with the response l a b e l "shoe" or " f i s h " in L i s t 1 or L i s t 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . One subject described the method used in the following way: "I looked at the word, pictured i t , and remembered l i n e . . . " which i s i d e n t i c a l to the method used in unitary imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s . It seems that the mere presence of the verbal l a b e l encourages u n i -tary encoding and elaboration of the incomplete f igure in r e l a t i o n to the concept the l a b e l i m p l i e s . Unitary imagery ins t ruct ions do not seem to do any good as far as the d i r e c -t ive function of the response l a b e l i s concerned. In order to test whether any .other kind of i n s t r u c t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e , that i s separate imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s , the contrasts , Y&» andty^, were used. 54 S e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o i n h i b i t b o t h t h e a s s o c i a t i v e a n d t h e d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l . P r e d i c t i o n 4 w a s s u c h t h a t s u b j e c t s g i v e n P A i n s t r u c t i o n s o n L i s t 1 w i l l p e r f o r m s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y c o n d i t i o n o n L i s t 2 . P r e d i c t i o n 5 w a s s u c h t h a t s u b j e c t s g i v e n P A i n s t r u c t i o n s o n L i s t 2 w i l l p e r f o r m s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y c o n d i t i o n o n L i s t 2 . B o t h p r e -d i c t i o n s w e r e c o n f i r m e d , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y i n s t r u c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y i n h i b i t t h e a s s o c i a t i v e a n d d i r e c -t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n s e ! l a b e l . T o s u m m a r i z e t h e f i n d i n g s , w e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f a s s o c i a t i v e i n t r a - p a i r r e l a t e d n e s s a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l b o t h f a c i l i t a t e P A p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e v e r b a l l a b e l d i r e c t s c o d i n g o f t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s t i m u l i a s c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s b y d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e s h a p e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t t h e r e s p o n s e l a b e l i m p l i e s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s a n d e x t e n d s t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t b y E l l i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) , E l l i s a n d D a n i e l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , a n d D a n i e l a n d E l l i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) . N o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r t y o n e n c o d i n g o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i t e m s a s u n i t a r y i m a g e s ( E l l i s &. D a n i e l , 1 9 7 1 ) w e r e c o n f i r m e d . 55 The d i r e c t i n g property of the v e r b a l l a b e l can be regarded to f u n c t i o n as a conceptual r u l e f o r r e l a t i n g p a i r items i n the form of u n i t a r y images which mediate PA r e c a l l . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggest a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n f o r the f i n d i n g s of the P a i v i o and Yarmey (1966) study regarding the s u p e r i o r i t y of picture-word p a i r s over p i c t u r e - p i c t u r e p a i r s . With picture-word p a i r s the d i r e c -t i n g property of the response would be expected to f a c i l i -t ate i n t e r a c t i v e mediator generation by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n to o u t l i n e p r o p e r t i e s of the shape ( p i c t u r e ) , s p e c i f i c as-pects of which could be r e l a t e d to the image (evoked by the noun), i . e . , to the concept the l a b e l i m p l i e s , i n a meaning-f u l way. REFERENCES 56 Asch, 5. E. A reformulation of the problem of association. American Psychologist. 1969, 24., 92-102. Asch, S. E., Ceraso, J. , &. Heimer, W. Perceptual conditions of association. Psychological Monographs. 1960, 74 t' Whole No. 490. Bower, G. H. Imagery as a relational organizer in associative learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1970, £, 529-533. Bower, G. H. Mental imagery and associative learning. In L. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in learning and memory. New York: Wiley, 1972. Bower, G. H., &. Winzenz, D. Comparison of associative learning strategies. Psychonomic Science. 1970, 20, 119-120. Bugelski, B. R. Images as mediators in one-trial paired-asso-ciate learning. II: Self-timing in successive l i s t s . Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1968. 77. 328-334. Bugelski, B. R. , Kidd, E., &. Segmen, J. Image as a mediator in one-trial paired-associate learning. Journal of • Experimental Psychology. 1968, 76,, 69-73. Daniel." T . C., &. E l l i s , H. C. Stimulus codability and long-term recognition memory for visual form. Journal of  Experimental Psychology. 1972, j?3, 83-89. Davidson, R. E., &. Adams, J. F. Verbal and Imagery Processes in children's learning. Journal of Experimental Child  Psychology. 1970, 429-435. Dilley, M. G., &. Paivio, A. Pictures and words as stimulus and response items in paired-associate learning of young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1968, 6, 231-240. 5'7. E l l i s , H . C . T r a n s f e r o f s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t o s h a p e r e c o g n i t i o n a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l e a r n i n g : R o l e o f p r o p e r t i e s o f v e r b a l l a b e l s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 6 8 , 7 8 , 4 0 1 , - 4 0 9 . E l l i s , H . C , &. D a n i e l , H . C . V e r b a l p r o c e s s e s i n l o n g - t e r m s t i m u l u s r e c o g n i t i o n m e m o r y . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 7 1 , 9 0 , 1 8 - 2 0 . E l l i s , H . C , &. M u l l e r , D . G . T r a n s f e r i n p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n -i n g f o l l o w i n g s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f  E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 6 4 , . 6 8 . , 3 8 8 - 3 9 5 . E l l i s , H . C . , M u l l e r , D . G . , &. T o s t i , D . T . S t i m u l u s m e a n i n g a n d c o m p l e x i t y a s f a c t o r s i n t h e t r a n s f e r o f s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , X I , 6 2 9 - 6 3 3 . E p s t e i n , W . , R o c k , I . , &. Z u c k e r m a n , C . B . M e a n i n g a n d F a m i l i -a r i t y i n a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l M o n o g r a p h s . 1 9 6 0 , 7±, W h o l e N o . 4 9 1 . K a s w a n , J . A s s o c i a t i o n o f n o n s e n s e - f i g u r e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f f i t t i n g n e s s a n d i n t e n t i o n t o l e a r n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 7 , 7 0 , 4 4 7 - 4 5 0 . K e e , D . W . , G u y , K . C , &. R o h w e r , W . D . , J r . P a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g e f f i c i e n c y a s a f u n c t i o n o f r e s p o n s e m o d e , a g e , a n d e l a b o r a t i o n . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e . t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n . N e w Y o r k , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 1 . K e e , D . W . , L R o h w e r , W . D . , J r . R e s p o n s e a n d a s s o c i a t i v e p h a s e c o m p o n e n t s o f e l a b o r a t i v e p r o m p t e f f e c t s i n c h i l -d r e n ' s n o u n - p a i r l e a r n i n g , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 4 , 1 8 , 6 2 - 7 1 . " 5 8 N o b l e , C . E . A n a n a l y s i s o f m e a n i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 5 2 , 5_9_, 4 2 1 - 4 3 0 . P a i v i o , A . L e a r n i n g o f a d j e c t i v e - n o u n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f a d j e c t i v e - n o u n w o r d o r d e r a n d n o u n a b -s t r a c t n e s s . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 3 , 1 7 . 3 7 0 - 3 7 9 . P a i v i o , A . A b s t r a c t n e s s , i m a g e r y , a n d m e a n i n g f u l n e s s i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g  a n d V e r b a l B e h a v i o r . 1 9 6 5 , 4 , 3 2 - 3 8 . P a i v i o , A . M e n t a l i m a g e r y i n a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d m e m -o r y , P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w . 1 9 6 9 , 7 6 . , 2 4 1 - 2 6 3 . P a i v i o , A . O n t h e f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i m a g e r y . I n H . W . R e e s e ( C h m . ) I m a g e r y i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : A s y m p o s i u m . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 1 9 7 0 , 7 3 . , 3 8 5 - 3 9 2 . P a i v i o , A . I m a g e r y a n d v e r b a l p r o c e s s e s . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , &. W i n s t o n , 1 9 7 1 a . P a i v i o , A . S y m b o l i c a n d s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s o f m e m o r y . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S y m p o s i u m o n C o g n i t i v e L e a r n i n g , W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e C o l l e g e , B e l l i n g h a m , O c t o b e r , 2 1 - 2 2 , 1 9 7 1 b . P a i v i o , A . , &. F o t h , D . I m a g i n a l a n d v e r b a l m e d i a t o r s a n d n o u n c o n c r e t e n e s s i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g : T h e e l u s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g a n d v e r b a l B e h a v i o r . 1 9 7 0 , 9 , 3 8 4 - 3 9 0 . P a i v i o , A . , S m y t h e , P . C , &. Y u i l l e , J . C . I m a g e r y v e r s u s m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f n o u n s i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 6 8 , 2 2 . , 4 2 7 - 4 4 1 . 59 P a i v i o , A., &. Yarmey, A. D. P i c t u r e s versus words as s t i m u l i and responses i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . Psychonomic  Science. 1966, 5_, 235-236. P a i v i o , A., &. Y u i l l e , J . C. Ward abstractness and meaning-f u l n e s s and p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n . Journal of C h i l d Psychology. 1966, 4, 81-89. P a i v i o , A., Y u i l l e , J . C , Madigan, S. Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness values f o r 925 nouns. Journal of  Experimental Psychology Monograph Supplement. 1968, 76, (1, Pt. 2). P r e n t i c e , W. C. H., &. Asch, 5. E. Paired A s s o c i a t i o n with r e l a t e d and unrelated p a i r s of nonsense-figures. American Jo u r n a l of Psychology. 1 958 , 7_V» 247-254. Rohwer, W. D., J r . Images and p i c t u r e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : research r e s u l t s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . In H. W. Re'eseJ .-(Chm. ), Imagery i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : A 5ymposium. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 1970, .73., 393-403. Rohwer, W. D., J r . , Lynch, S., Suzuki, N., &. L e v i n , J . R. Verbal and p i c t o r i a l f a c i l i t a t i o n of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d Psychology, 1967, 5, 294-302. Rowe, E. J . , &. P a i v i o , A. Imagery and r e p e t i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s i n v e r b a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n c i d e n t a l p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1971, 10, 668-672. Thorndike, E. L. , &. Lorge, I. A teacher's word book of 30,000 words. New York: Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l -lege, 1944. s 60 Torrance, E. P. The Torrance Tests of C r e a t i v e Thinking ( F i g u r a l Tests Form A and B) P r i n c e t o n , N. Y. : Personnel Press, 1966. Torrance, E. P. Norms T e c h n i c a l Manual. Research E d i t i o n , 1966, (Torrance Tests of C r e a t i v e Thinking, F i g u r a l T e s t s ) . Vanderpl as, J . M. , &. Garvin, E. A. The A s s o c i a t i o n Value of Random Shapes. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1959, 57, 147-154. Winer, B. J . S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n experimental design. New York: Mc Graw H i l l , 1971. APPENDIX A ORIGINAL STUDY WORK SHEETS: LIST 1 AND LIST PA RECALL TEST TRIALS: TRIAL 1 AND TRIAL 2 63 TisH C A T I / TREE HOUSE S H / P W E A J ) S H O E I Dnzss K I T E 1VOM AW y 7 S C A T ICV \ / 3 / 66 APPENDIX B 1. EXAMPLES OF DESCRIPTIONS USED BY SUBJECTS IN REPORTING ON THE METHOD USED TO LEARN PAIRED-A5S0CIATE5 IN LIST 1 AND LIST 2 WITH STANDARD PA INSTRUCTIONS 2. METHOD OF LEARNING PAIRED-ASSOCIATES: REPORTED NUMBER OF UNITARY IMAGES, SEPARATE IMAGES, BLANKS, AND REPEATED ITEMS IN LIST 1 AND LIST 2 WITH STANDARD PA INSTRUCTIONS 67 HOUSE FLOWER KITE House upside down... Looks like a house... Part of a house... Roof of house... House-shape... Looks like stem and stem for leaf. The stem for a flower... Stem of flower... Flower shape... Remembered the picture.. . Some kites are shaped that way... Looks like half a k i t e . . . Part of k i t e . . . Shape of k i t e . . . Half a k i t e . . . DRESS Side of dress... Dress shape... Part of dress... Half of dress... Just remembered i t . . . BOAT FISH WOMAN CAT Underside of boat... Front of boat... Boat, the way i t is curved... The,bottom, of,a boat... x £ L X u O X £1 D O £ L X • « • It just came to me... Looks like fish egg, when fish is hatch-ing. . . Fish shape... Like a f i s h . . . Fish eye... Remembered shape... Looks like top of woman's head... Woman* s l i p s . . . Looks like a woman... The bust of the dress of a woman... Woman (pictured word, remembered l i n e ) . . . Looks like cat's ears... Cat's shape... Cat's ear.. . Two ears... Looks like cat. . . HEAD Looks like a nose... Nose of head... Looks like nose of head. Head shape... Nose... 68 SHIP Looks like front of ship. Looks like end of ship.. Looks like ship. . . Part of ship. . . ship shape... DOG BIRD Two dogs... Looks like dog's ears... Ears of dog.., Dog's mouth.. Part of a dog Bird's beak.. Bird's t a i l . . Looks like bird's beak... Looks.,like.part of bird. . , Shape... 69 Examples of Descriptions Used by Subjects in Reporting on the Method Used to Learn Paired-Associates in L i s t 2 with Standard Paired-Associate Instructions L i s t 2 Stimulus Response Description a V BIRD FISH HOUSE HEAD KITE A bird has two wings... It looks l i k e wings ... Bird's wings... Shape of bird... Just remembered... It looks l i k e a fish ' s t a i l . . . Looks l i k e f i s h . . . Fin of f i s h . . . Looks l i k e hook... Shape... Looks l i k e smoke out of chimney.. House curtains... House on h i l l . . . Figure... Shape... Make i t into a picture of a head. Head for hangman... Shape of head... Looks l i k e hanger... Shape..• A kite on a s t r i n g . . . Kite on s t r i n g . . . Remembered shape... Just remembered... Storm waves... 7D BOAT BOY CAT GAR SHOE FLOWER FLAG Boat shape... Boat on storm waves... Just remembered... Remembered... Shape... Shape of boy walking... Looks like two legs and arm... Looks like shape of boy... I thought'boys write"T" !.. . . Boy shape... The long t a i l . .. Cat shape... Cat's noises begin with "Y"... Just remembered... Shape... Car drives funny... Car clutch... Cars go zzzzz... Just remembered... Remembered... Looks like shoe... Just remembered... Remembered... i Shape... Make i t into round part of flower... Looks like tulip... It looks like a flower... Looks like bottom of a tulip... Flower stem... Flags f l y funny... Flag string... Just remembered... Shape... 71 DOG Looks l i k e top of dog's ears... Dog's flappy ears... Part of dog... The ears.. . Dogs l i k e to chase birds... TREE Figure looks l i k e trees... Trees grow on h i l l s . . . Tops of trees... Tree stump... 5hape... SHIP Front of ship has shape l i k e t h i s . . . Part of ship... Ship anchoring... Looks l i k e ship... Just remembered... DRE5S Part of dress... Dress belt.. . Shape of dress... Remembered shape... Shape... WOMAN Woman's l i p s . . . Part of woman... Reminds me of a lady... Remembered shape... Shape... HORSE T a i l . . . Remembered shape... Just remembered... Remembered... 72 TABLE 8 METHOD OF LEARNING PAIRED-ASSOCIATES: REPORTED NUMBER OF UNITARY IMAGES, SEPARATE IMAGES, REPEATED ITEMS, AND BLANKS IN LIST 1 AND LIST 2 WITH STANDARD PA INSTRUCTIONS* LIST 1 REPORTED METHOD LIST 2 REPORTED METHOD Ul SI B R SUM Ul SI B R SUM cc BOY 11 0 0 4 15 Cc BIRD 6 0 1 5 12 fl SHOE 6 0 1 2 9 ri FISH 5 0 2 0 7 HORSE 9 0 2 1 12 HOUSE 6 0 3 1 10 7 FLAG 14 0 0 1 15 V HEAD 4 1 2 1 8 CAR 8 0 0 2 10 J KITE 4 1 1 3 9 TREE 10 0 2 1 13 BOAT 6 0 0 2 8 X HOUSE 10 0 1 0 11 A BOY 8 0 2 3 13 FLOWER 14 0 0 1 15 CAT 4 0 1 3 8 < KITE 7 0 1 1 9 CAR 4 0 0 0 4 ) DRESS 11 0 1 5 17 ; SHOE 1 0 2 1 4 BOAT 12 0 0 3 15 FLOWER 8 0 2 2 12 FISH 13 0 0 1 14 a FLAG 3 0 3 1 7 ^<~\ WOMAN 12 0 0 3 15 DOG 7 1 1 1 10 /-\ CAT 13 0 0 0 13 TREE 5 0 2 6 13 If HEAD 13 0 Ij 1 15 SHIP 5 0 3 3 11 SHIP 8 0 2 1 11 DRESS 6 0 0 2 8 DOG 15 0 1 0 16 WOMAN 4 0 0 3 7 J T 7 BIRD 8 0 1 0 9 HORSE 2 0 0 4 6 ^Reported method was checked only for correct responses on recall t r i a l s . UI=unitary imagery instructions; SI=separate imagery instructions; B=blank; R=repeated item. 73 A P P E N D I X C G E N E R A L I N S T R U C T I O N S ( P A ) P l e a s e l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y . T h i s i s a n e x p e r i m e n t o n l e a r n i n g p a i r s o f i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s a n d w o r d s . A n e x a m p l e o f s u c h a n i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e - w o r d p a i r i s t h i s (E_ d r a w s a n e x a m p l e o n t h e b o a r d ) . Y o u w i l l l e a r n 1 8 s u c h i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e - w o r d p a i r s i n s u c h a w a y t h a t , w h e n y o u a r e s h o w n t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s h a p e b y i t s e l f , y o u w i l l r e m e m b e r t h e w o r d t h a t g o e s w i t h i t . W h e n I t e l l y o u t o o p e n u p y o u r t e s t b o o k l e t s , y o u w i l l s e e b e f o r e y o u a s h e e t w i t h 1 8 i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e - w o r d p a i r s , e a c h o f w h i c h l o o k s l i k e a s l i d e . I t w i l l l o o k l i k e t h i s (E_ l i f t s a c a r d b o a r d s h e e t w i t h 1 8 r e c t a n g u l a r d i v i s i o n s a n d s h o w s i t t o t h e s t u d e n t s . ) We s h a l l l e a r n o n e p a i r a n d t h e n t h e n e x t o n e , t h e n e x t o n e a n d t h e n e x t o n e . . . a l w a y s i n a v e r t i c a l o r d e r . W h a t I m e a n i s , y o u w i l l l e a r n t h e p a i r j u s t b e l o w t h e o n e y o u h a v e j u s t l e a r n e d u n t i l y o u h a v e l e a r n e d a l l 1 8 p a i r s . ( E ^ d e m o n s t r a t e s o n t h e c a r d b o a r d s h e e t t h e p r o -c e d u r e o f l e a r n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s i n s e q u e n c e ) . E a c h i t e m w i l l l o o k l i k e t h i s ( E g o e s b a c k t o t h e b l a c k -b o a r d a n d d r a w s t h e s e c o n d e x a m p l e o n t h e b o a r d ; t h e n E_ d r a w s a f r a m e a r o u n d t h e i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e - w o r d p a i r ) . T h i s l e a r n i n g o f p a i r s w i l l n o t b e d o n e u n t i l l a t e r , h o w e v e r , a n d I w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e m e t h o d i n d e t a i l t h e n . W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o n o w i s t h i s . I w a n t y o u t o l o o k a t t h e s e t w o p a i r s a n d t h i n k a b o u t a m e t h o d o f l e a r n i n g t h e m . T h i s w i l l h e l p y o u 74 t o l e a r n t h e p a i r s . P l e a s e d o n o t t e l l a n y b o d y a b o u t y o u r m e t h o d . T h i s i s y o u r v e r y o w n m e t h o d , s o k e e p i t a s e c r e t . N o w , a s s o o n a s I t e l l y o u t o d o s o , y o u c a n o p e n u p y o u r t e s t b o o k l e t s a n d t h e s t u d y t r i a l w i l l b e g i n . B e f o r e w e s t a r t , I w a n t t o t e l l y o u w h a t I a m g o i n g t o d o . (E_ t a k e s t h e c a r d b o a r d s h e e t a g a i n a n d p o i n t s a t i t ) O n c e a g a i n , w e v s h a l l s t a r t w i t h t h e f i r s t p a i r u p i n t h e l e f t -h a n d c o r n e r a n d t h e n e x t p a i r t o b e l e a r n e d w i l l b e t h e o n e r i g h t b e l o w i t . We s h a l l p r o c e e d i n t h a t o r d e r u n t i l w e / r a r e f i n i s h e d . T h e n y o u s h a l l c l o s e y o u r t e s t b o o k l e t s a n d w h e n I t e l l y o u t o o p e n t h e m a g a i n , y o u w i l l d o s o a t t h e " f i r s t c o l o r e d p a g e a n d t h e t e s t t r i a l w i l l b e g i n . A l l t h i s I s h a l l e x p l a i n t o y o u a g a i n a t t h e p r o p e r t i m e . W h e n y o u l o o k a t e a c h p a i r i n s e q u e n c e , i t m a y b e a g o o d i d e a t o h o l d y o u r h a n d s a r o u n d t h e p a i r t o b e l e a r n e d , s o t h a t y o u c a n n o t s e e t h e n e x t p a i r . D o i n g t h i s m a y h e l p y o u t o l e a r n a n d r e m e m b e r t h e p a i r . Y o u c a n l o o k a t e a c h p a i r f o r 1 5 s e c -o n d s . I s h a l l s t a m p m y f o o t o n t h e f l o o r a s a s i g n a l t o m o v e o n t o t h e n e x t p a i r . A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s ? I f y o u h a v e n o f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s , w e c a n b e g i n a s s o o n a s I s a y n o w . N o w I ( E s t a m p s f o o t o n f l o o r a n d t h e s t u d e n t s l o o k a t t h e f i r s t i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e - w o r d p a i r ) . ( T h e g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e r e p e a t e d f o r u n i t a r y i m a g e r y a n d s e p a r a t e i m a g e r y c o n d i t i o n s ; r e f e r e n c e t o " t h i n k i n g a b o u t a m e t h o d o f l e a r n i n g t h e p a i r s " w a s e x c l u d e d ) . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093601/manifest

Comment

Related Items