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Neo-classicism in Alexander Pope and T.S. Eliot Sanford, Gloria Helen 1975

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-CLASSICISM  IN  ALEXANDER  POPE  AND  T . S .  ELIOT  by  GLORIA .A.  A  The  HELEN  U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS THE  o f  SUBMITTED  B r i t i s h  IN  REQUIREMENTS M a s t e r i n  SANFORD 1970  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  FOR  DEGREE  o f  t h e  C o l u m b i a ,  THE  OF  OF  A r t s  Department  of E n g l i s h  We  a c c e p t  r e q u i r e d  THE  t h i s  t h e s i s  a s  c o n f o r m i n g  standards  UNIVERSITY  OF  May,  BRITISH  1975  COLUMBIA  t o  t h e  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  reference and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department of  ENGLISH  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i  ABSTRACT  Following  the  eighteenth-century  c o n f u s i o n of the thinkers f e l t  common s e n s e w h i c h t h e y classical Early the  l i t e r a t u r e was  twentieth-century  critical  irregular,  society.  exhibited fully  standards.  predecessors and  h e r o i c and and  our  study  explores  of the  focus,  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on  study  of  the  themes, s t r u c t u r e , and  The  Rape o f  L o c k and  of r e l e v a n t prose,  p e r c e i v e d as work.  an  neo-  and  restraint.  shared  with  their faddish,  elements i n a r t  and  aims t o  and  reform  t r a d i t i o n a l moral and  past,  precision  using  refer  the  of  and  language  respect-  eloquence  allusive mirror  similarities T.S.  i n the  Eliot.  their  of  which  values.  neo-classical  The  similar  i n western  imagery of  The  and  present.  sterility  traditional  Their  logic  Neo-classicists  i s t o emphasize  rejection  the  the  of  They  upholding  Pope and  the  their  as  the  stability  a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the  classical  perception of  effect  is  by  literature  f o r the  a l s o came t o b e l i e v e i n  sentimental  form.  perspective of Alexander  review  rules  I t seeks r e s t r a i n t  in disciplined  past history  This  by  tradition.  conduct  century,  in neo-classicism.  Neo-classical art i s didactic  to the  heightens  need  neo-classicists  erratic,  a b u s e s i n t a s t e and rational  the  ordered  importance of  eighteenth-century hazy,  found  seventeenth  primary thematic  s o c i e t y due  Through examination the  Waste L a n d ,  poetry,  of  primarily  together with  a  t h e n e o - c l a s s i c i s m o f Pope and  fundamental to a proper  to  understanding  of  Eliot  Eliot's T.E. in  neo-classicism evolved  Hulme and  the  E z r a Pound i n t h e  seventeenth  century.  T h r o u g h h i s 1927  Catholic  religion,  literature  eighteenth  century  evident  the p o e t r y  of  E l i o t and  caused  civilization  be  "'Anglo-  order.  B o t h Pope and  time.  departure  neo-classical  outrage  f o r m s by Yet,  from the  the  and  at the  in  on  ideal  and  ridicule,  especially,  relating  to the  that  the  language  i n the  literature  authors, of  and  artistic  which  confusion.  a c t u a l i n western  need  their  -  a discontent  traditions  satire.  traditional  Pope  standards  p o e t i c s beyond  poetics represent than  of  for restraint  l a n g u a g e and  p r a c t i c e of h i s time  the  literature  the  the  the  English  loss  religious,  E l i o t extended  Eliot's  position  observed  ascendence of verse  through  conduct,  royalist  that of  he  There broods  political,  and  and  - i n m i n d , manner, and  o f Pope.  prompted  eighteenth  his respect for  i n eighteenth-century  thought  traditional  and  t r a c e d through  between t h e  E l i o t enforce,  their  t h a t he was  Dryden  life.  Pope, a s  social,  John  Pope i n t h e  "What i s a C l a s s i c ? "  stems f r o m t h e i r  This discrepancy  and  can In  through  has  and  feature of maturity  clearly  which  statement  between E l i o t ' s p o e t r y  neo-classicists.  both  Alexander  century,  Eliot established his traditional  Similarities  is  and  twentieth  i n f l u e n c e of  in religion...classicist in literature,  politics'"'''  classic  century,  under the  the  T.S. E l i o t , " P r e f a c e " , F o r L a n c e l o t Andrewes F a b e r and Gwyer L t d . , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . i x .  past  poetics of  a f a r more do  and  radical  poetics  (London:  iii of  Pope.  poetry, tone.  critics However,  satire, Eliot  In t h i s  respect,  in their  examination  have o f t e n  stressed  the importance  very l i t t l e  of E l i o t ' s  comment h a s b e e n made on h i s  and i t i s i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e s a t i r i s t ' s  and Pope  of h i s moral  seem p a r t i c u l a r l y  to concur.  a r t that  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  PAGE  I  Neo-classicism  II  Neo-classical  Themes i n Pope a n d E l i o t . .  35  III  Neo-classical  Form i n Pope a n d E l i o t  64  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1  96  1 CHAPTER I Neo-classicism By t h e t e r m s o f t h e c l a s s i c - r o m a n t i c c o n t r o v e r s y t o c a l l any work o f a r t ' c l a s s i c a l ' , i m p l i e s e i t h e r the h i g h e s t p r a i s e o r t h e most contemptuous abuse, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r t y t o w h i c h one b e l o n g s . It implies c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r merits or f a u l t s : either the p e r f e c t i o n o f form or the a b s o l u t e zero o f frigidity.^ The Eliot  neo-classical  are balanced  on  eras of Alexander the  fulcrum  c e n t u r y A u g u s t a n l i t e r a t u r e was extravagant century  enthusiasm  neo-classical  nineteenth-century disgust is  of  reflected  a revolt  against  the Renaissance;  romantic  T.S.  of Romanticism.  l i t e r a t u r e was  a t the a l t e r i n g  Pope and  fervour.  early  Eighteenththe twentieth-  a reaction against Twentieth-century  framework o f w e s t e r n  i n anti-romantic attitudes i n  man's  society's values  literature:  . . . t h e d e c l i n e o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and o f m o r a l v a l u e s , the widespread acceptance of the n a t u r a l i s t i c view of l i f e , the mechanization o f both e x t e r n a l e x i s t e n c e and o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g f o r c e o f an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y - t h e s e a r e some o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h , i n the t w e n t i e t h century, brought about a c r u c i a l break i n romantic tradition^ This  t u r n from r o m a n t i c i s m  T.E.  Hulme's e x p l i c i t  to neo-classicism i s r e f l e c t e d  statement  that "after  a hundred  in  years  3 of  romanticism  we  are  in for a classical  revival."  •"•T.S. E l i o t , "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " ( 1 9 4 4 ) , On P o e t r y P o e t s (London: F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p.54. 2 A l f r e d N o y e s , e d . , E n g l i s h R o m a n t i c P o e t r y and P r o s e (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), p . x x x i v .  and  3  T.E. Hulme, " R o m a n t i c i s m and C l a s s i c i s m " , i n P r o s e K e y s Modern P o e t r y , e d . , K a r l S h a p i r o (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1963), p.91.  to  2  The  s e v e n t e e n t h  c e n t u r y  was  one  of  p o l i t i c a l ,  r e l i g i o u s ,  4 and  a r t i s t i c  c e n t u r y  u p h e a v a l ,  t h i n k e r s sought  f e l t  the  thus  The  n e o - c l a s s i c a l movement  the  f i r s t  i n v o l v e d of  a r t  "a  e m o t i o n a l Hobbes,  complex  of  The  and  and  w h i c h  i n  t u r n  e a r l y  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  s o c i e t y  and  s o c i a l  p o e t r y t i r e d  and of  and  a r t  E n g l i s h  and  o b s e r v a t i o n s i n  the  s t r i n g e n t  an  R u l e s  of i n t e r e s t s  based  and  the  w h i c h  i r r e g u l a r ,  adherence  to  and  on  pervades  r e s t r a i n e d  e x p r e s s e d e m o t i o n ,  r u l e s :  e i g h t e e n t h  "In  c e n t u r y  were  h a z y .  They  the  l i t e r a r y  of  s o c i e t y ,  N e o - c l a s s i c i s m was  by  the  were  r a t i o n a l i s m  o r d e r e d of  the  forms  man,  l o g i c ,  a r t i s t s  f a n t a s t i c a l ,  p e r i o d  n a t u r e ,  d u r i n g  N e o - c l a s s i c i s m  s c i e n t i f i c  of  p r o s e ,  peaked  v a r i o u s  i d e a l s  a l l  and  of  sense  n e o - c l a s s i c i s m .  r a t i o n a l i s m ,  and  the  l i t e r a t u r e .  through  the  and  of  of  e i g h t e e n t h -  common  c e n t u r y .  pure  Rome,  l e a d e r s  r e f l e c t e d  c o r r e c t n e s s  of  and  l i t e r a t u r e  e i g h t e e n t h  p r o p r i e t y ,  the  demanded  r a t i o n a l  c o n f u s i o n ,  s t a b i l i t y  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  o t h e r  c r i t i c a l  i n  the  Greece  r e v o l t " . ^  were  i n  t h i s  p e r s p e c t i v e  i n t e r w e a v i n g  from  Newton,  f o r  c o m f o r t i n g  decades  d e r i v e d  f o l l o w i n g  need  and  two  the  and  r u l e s  w h i c h  g were  c l e a r  a) C h a r l e s Cromwell b) and  and  The I;  1605  Guy  C r o m w e l l ' s and  the  P u r i t a n  r e b e l l i o n c)  r e a s o n a b l e . "  The  Fawkes  R e b e l l i o n ;  a s c e n s i o n  coming  to  r e b e l l i o n  to  power  power;  of  a g a i n s t  a g a i n s t  s t r i n g e n t  P u r i t a n  s u p p r e s s i o n  1648 the  C h a r l e s the  l a x  e x e c u t i o n  of  overthrow  of  I I . forms  of  P r o t e s t a n t i s m ,  C a t h o l i c i s m . of  t h e a t r e s  and  f r i v o l o u s  a r t  forms.  House,  ^ E m e r s o n R. M a r k s , The I n c . , 1968), p . 3 . g John B. H a l s t e d , e d . ,  Company,  1 9 6 9 ) ,  p . 9 .  P o e t i c s  of  Romanticism  Reason  (New  (New  Y o r k :  Y o r k :  Walker  Random  and  3 In  t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i t was t h e I m a g i s t movement w h i c h  rebelled  against the " f a n t a s t i c a l ,  elements  found  literature.  particularly  The I m a g i s t s  exuberance,  sentiment,  the i r r e g u l a r  and t h e h a z y "  i n some R o m a n t i c and V i c t o r i a n  "hurled a d i r e c t  and c l o u d i l y  challenge at  romantic  lushness i n  7 poetry.'" suggested dry  In contrast as t h e i r  clarity,  t o t h e Romantic  "principal  a goal c h i e f l y  elements,  the Imagists  o b j e c t i v e . . . a v e r s e o f hard and  inspired  by t h e example o f F r e n c h  g symbolism."  The F r e n c h  Baudelaire,  generated  influence,  in Eliot  aspects of the n e o - c l a s s i c a l Baudelaire  "belongs  particularly  through  and o t h e r s a r e s p e c t f o r some  position.  to a definite  Eliot  noted  that  p l a c e i n time...and  by h i s  9  nature  i s the f i r s t  Dating certain  from  counter-romantic  an e a r l i e r  French  i n poetry."  literary  t r a d i t i o n which had  t h i n g s i n common w i t h t h e S y m b o l i s t s ,  n e o - c l a s s i c i s m drew " i t s name f r o m classical  literature  and i n contemporary  w r i t i n g s models f o r i t s l i t e r a r y attitudes  the fact  towards l i f e  English  that  French  i t found i n neo-classical  e x p r e s s i o n and a group o f  and a r t . " " ^  In the eighteenth century  "Pope h i m s e l f r e c o g n i z e d t h e v o g u e o f F r e n c h  ideas,  p o p u l a r i t y o f B o i l e a u and t h e F r e n c h 7 Noyes, p.xxxv.  i n England  g g  Ibid.,  critics  but the  p.xxxv,  T.S. E l i o t , " B a u d e l a i r e " ( 1 9 3 0 ) , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s ( F a b e r a n d F a b e r L t d . , 1 9 4 6 ) , p.386. "^W.F. T h r a l l , A. H i b b a r d , and C H . Holman, A Handbook t o L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : The O d y s s e y P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 3 1 0 .  4  c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n c e and t h e c u l t o f r e a s o n , common s e n s e , To  achieve a successful  judgment, E l i o t of  n a t u r e and  of  man.  and  not  an  the l i g h t  literature  Pope s u g g e s t  just  and  an  w i t h the  and  of  spread  of  nature.""^  a sincere  literary-  adherence  to the  principles  e x c l u s i v e adherence  to the  principles  Pope a d v i s e s :  F i r s t f o l l o w N a t u r e , and y o u r judgment f r a m e By h e r j u s t s t a n d a r d w h i c h i s s t i l l t h e same; U n e r r i n g NATURE, s t i l l d i v i n e l y b r i g h t , One c l e a r , u n c h a n g e d , and u n i v e r s a l l i g h t , L i f e , f o r c e , and b e a u t y , must t o a l l i m p a r t , A t o n c e t h e s o u r c e , and end, and t e s t o f A r t . ^ 2  The  "eighteenth century f e l t  Eden o f t h e o l o g y , b u t  a deep n o s t a l g i a ,  f o r the S t a t e of Nature  not  f o r the  from which  man  13 had  somehow d e p a r t e d . " Eliot  from  felt  a proper  that  r e v e r e n c e f o r n a t u r e and  "a wrong a t t i t u d e attitude  t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y had  towards n a t u r e  t o w a r d s God,  and...the  t h u s he  implies,  also  departed  states  that  somewhere, a wrong  consequence  i s an  inevitable  14 doom."  T h e r e f o r e the w r i t e r  on man-made r u l e s  b u t on  those  and  the c r i t i c  should not  rely  "Rules of o l d d i s c o v e r e d , not  •"""""Francis G a l l a w a y , R e a s o n , R u l e , and O c t a g o n B o o k s I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p.4.  Revolt  (New  York:  1 9  A l e x a n d e r Pope, E s s a y on C r i t i c i s m , i n e d s . , E . A u d r a and A. W i l l i a m s (London: M e t h u e n and Company L t d . , 1 9 6 1 ) , l i n e s 68-73. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem a r e t a k e n f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n EC f o l l o w e d by t h e l i n e numbers. B a s i l Willey, London: Chatto 1 3  rpt.  1 4  Faber  The E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y B a c k g r o u n d and W i n d u s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 1 0 1 .  T . S . E l i o t , The I d e a o f a C h r i s t i a n and F a b e r L i m i t e d , 1 9 4 2 ) , p.61.  Society  (1940;  (London:  5  d e v i s ' d , " which are 88-89). gist  "Nature s t i l l ,  T h i s statement  "puts  of Augustan d o c t r i n e .  formulation of  into  The  the r a t i o n a l i t y  but  Nature methodiz'd"  the  neatest of  rules, and  they  order  (EC  n u t s h e l l s the  thought,  'discovered  were a in  1  15 'nature'." they  feel  object  Thus, a l t h o u g h as  and  E z r a Pound d o e s when he  i s always the  adequate  Eighteenth-century that  Eliot  a r t should  says  that  apart,  "the n a t u r a l  symbol".''"*'  neo-classical  copy n a t u r e :  Pope a r e g e n e r a t i o n s  "To  live  critics  h e l d the  i n accordance  belief  with 17  nature The  i s the  same t h i n g as  to l i v e  writers believed that i n their  i n accordance work t h e y  p e r f e c t i o n of nature  i n a work g u i d e d  classicists  their  embodied  regard  for  truth;  general  regard  'the A n c i e n t s ' : truth  followed Nature;  by  by  in a  "Nature i s adherence  i s universally observation of  reason."  accomplished  reason.  f o r nature  with  p l e a s i n g ; the t h e methods o f  The  neo-  devout to  general  Ancients the  Ancients 18  t h e Moderns can most r e a d i l y An  important  learn  how  best  to  imitate  Nature".  f e a t u r e of n e o - c l a s s i c i s m i s the d o c t r i n e of  i m i t a t i o n , t h r o u g h w h i c h a u t h o r s j u s t i f i e d t h e i r u s e and 15 C l a r e n c e C. G r e e n , The N e o - C l a s s i c T h e o r y o f T r a g e d y i n England During the E i g h t e e n t h Century, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), Harvard S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , V o l . XI, p . 16. " ^ E z r a Pound, f r o m "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n K a r l S h a p i r o , e d . , p.16, 17 James A.K. Thomson, The C l a s s i c a l B a c k g r o u n d o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (London: G e o r g e A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 2 0 2 . 18 F r a n c i s G a l l a w a y , p.185.  6  i m i t a t i o n c e n t u r y  'the  A n c i e n t s ' .  n e o - c l a s s i c i s m ,  of  the  no  " p o e t ,  H i s  of  p a s t  to  no  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  b e l i e v e s  p r e s e n t ,  a r t i s t  of  h i s  E l i o t ,  any  as  as  i n  a  the  s t r i n g e n t  i n d i c a t e d  a r t  has  h i s  a p p r e c i a t i o n  i s  proponent  by  h i s  t w e n t i e t h  r e l a t i o n s h i p  statement  complete t h a t  of  meaning  t h a t a l o n e .  a p p r e c i a t i o n  of  h i s  19 r e l a t i o n the  to  the  o p i n i o n  c o n s c i o u s to  be  a t  to  l e a r n  n a t u r e the  to  an  a  i n  them" would  p o e t ' s  of  a r t i s t s . "  p a s t t h e i r  a n c i e n t (EC  poets  poets  and  own  r u l e s  e x p l o r a t i o n  example h e r o i c  of  t h i s  c o u p l e t s  a d v i c e  to  w i t h  copy judgment p r o p e r  c r i t i c s .  Dryden  John  methods  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n says  i s  of  i s  a r e  p o e t s  whose  t e c h n i q u e s  be  they  A n c i e n t ' s  new  of  to  a d v i s e s  then  each  w h i c h  i f  esteem;/To  "You  the  a l s o  c r i t i c s  He  w e l l  of  i s  c r i t i c s  j u s t  1 3 9 - 1 4 0 ) .  P o p e ' s  and  w o r k s . a  s t e e r , / K n o w i s  Pope  f o r  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  u n c o n s c i o u s  use  of  118-119)  An  and  n e c e s s a r y  g e n i u s  copy  (EC  ' A n c i e n t s ' . c e n t u r y  i s  from  c o u r s e  t h a t  p o e t s  competent  "hence  c h a r a c t e r "  i t  the  a l l  r i g h t  o f t e n  t h a t  of  i s  s t a t e d  dead  perhaps  the  the  i s  Dryden  e i g h t e e n t h -  "not  so  20 much  a  new  way  Through use  of  view  on  c l e a r he the  the  ' A n c i e n t s '  most  an  p a s t  an  the  i n d i v i d u a l  p a r t s  of  E l i o t ,  E l i o t  " T r a d i t i o n  a  f i n d  and  the  has  j u s t i f i e d  w o r k s .  becomes  T a l e n t " .  t h a t  p o e t ' s  r e v i v e d . "  own  works  I n d i v i d u a l  o f t e n  new  a u t h o r ' s  l i t e r a r y  s h a l l  E s s a y s ,  way  c r i t i c i s m ,  w i t h i n  and  o l d  "we  T . S .  S e l e c t e d  t h a t  as  l i t e r a r y  " T r a d i t i o n  remarks  9  h i s  u s ,  i n c o r p o r a t i n g  i n  1  among  work  not may  E l i o t ' s p a r t i c u l a r l y  In  t h i s the  b e s t  but  be  t h o s e  i n  w h i c h  I n d i v i d u a l  T a l e n t "  p . 1 5 .  Dryden,  quoted  by  C l a r e n c e  C.  e s s a y  o n l y  20 John  the  Green,  p . 5 2 .  (1919),  the dead p o e t s , II  vigorously. critic man  his ancestors, assert  21  Thus i t i s the h e r i t a g e o f  which i s important  to w r i t e not merely  but w i t h a f e e l i n g from own  Homer, and country,  their  s i n c e the  w i t h h i s own  compels  i n h i s bones,  literature  the  and  sense  generation  t h a t the whole o f the  a simultaneous  the author  "historical  w i t h i n i t the whole o f  has  i m m o r t a l i t y most  of  literature  e x i s t e n c e and  Europe of  composes  his  a  22 simultaneous  order."  G r e e k and was  Roman l i t e r a t u r e ,  particularly  a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n and  classicists:  "The  was  "respect f o r the A n c i e n t s " .  a mark o f  observes  that although  imitation, only of  direct  i t s h o u l d be  imitation  the  "rational  "Hear how  of  the  "Be  and  meditate  by  and  author.  Only  from  of  Roman  Francis  the  thoroughly 24  attuned  authors"  Gallaway  c o u l d be to the  neo  for  popular  idea  classics."  Homer's w o r k s y o u r night"  o f G r e e k and 23  Homer,  arguments were p r e s e n t e d  l e a r n e d Greece her  and  and  literature  evident that imitation  i n a c u l t u r e w h i c h was  the greatness  Virgil  (EC  study  useful and  g r e a t examples g i v e n "  that  i n order  to understand  indites"  delight,/Read  (EC  them by  124-125) a d v i s e d Pope t o b o t h  t h e p a s t c a n we  from  rules  (EC any  98).  Eliot  poetry  become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a p o e t r y f r o m 21 " T r a d i t i o n and t h e I n d i v i d u a l 22 Ibid., p.48. 23 G a l l a w a y , p.210. 24 I b i d . , p.210.  learn  "just  and  day,  critic  precepts...  Pope b e l i e v e d  i t i s necessary  a literary  92)  to  era other  than  Talent", Selected Essays,  p  8 o n e ' s own.  Because o f the r o l e  civilization Eliot  - and p a r t i c u l a r l y  have e m p h a s i z e d  o f the past literature  i n shaping - both  Pope a n d  the necessity f o r a consciousness  of  tradition. For E l i o t cultures  the t r a d i t i o n s  o f t h e p a s t have merged w i t h t h e  of the twentieth century;  i n t h i s way  "the h i s t o r i c a l  25 i m a g i n a t i o n makes t h e p a s t incorporated other  kinds  historical  into  literary  Pope and E l i o t images, rhythms, and  f r o m an e x t e n s i v e  f i e l d of  This adaptation of other  Pope a n d E l i o t  t o extend  literary  t h e scope o f  poetry.  literatures,  time  themes,  Eliot  part of the present. of  borrowed  sources.  both  In h i s c e n t r a l and  own poems l i n e s ,  of allusions  works h a s e n a b l e d their  their  contemporary."  through  allusion  to past  stresses that the past This consciousness  histories  i s v e r y much a  o f t h e 'oneness'  i s e m p h a s i z e d when he w r i t e s i n t h e F o u r  Quartets  that: Time p r e s e n t a n d t i m e p a s t Are both perhaps p r e s e n t i n time f u t u r e , And t i m e f u t u r e c o n t a i n e d i n t i m e p a s t . I f time i s e t e r n a l l y p r e s e n t A l l time i s unredeemable. , 26 0  Thus, and  i n order  to achieve  future, like  "Vergil,  the unity of the past with like  Janus, E l i o t  looked  present  behind and  25 F.R. L e a v i s , "The Waste L a n d " , i n T.S. E l i o t , A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , e d . , Hugh K e n n e r ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1962), p.89. 26 T.S. E l i o t , F o u r Q u a r t e t s ( L o n d o n : Faber and Faber L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 3 , " B u r n t N o r t o n " , l i n e s 1-5.  9  ahead  i n the  sharpest possible  Imitation things,  for neo-classical  including  into English  translation  s i d e - b y - s i d e on  modern t r a n s l a t i o n characters, writers Gallaway  and  p r a c t i t i o n e r s meant many  o f t h e c l a s s i c s word  c o u l d be  authors  into  and modern c u s t o m s  u s i n g an o l d theme i n a new  noted,  f o r word  t h e page, a d a p t i n g a c l a s s i c  u s i n g modern l a n g u a g e  these approaches has  way".  poem.  sincere.  For  However,  and  certain  as  of  s l i g h t a b i l i t y found i n the d o c t r i n e o f i m i t a t i o n a s u r c e a s e from the p a i n o f o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n , and t h e y b e n t H o r a c e and t h e o t h e r e l e g a n t Roman p o e t s t o a l l t h e v a r i o u s b u r d e n s i m p o s e d by t h e a m e n i t i e s o f s o c i a l l i f e o r by t h e o c c a s i o n a l n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h e Churchman o r p o l i t i c i a n . ^ n  The Epistle  hypocritical  t o Dr. A r b u t h n o t  even i n s t e a l i n g mediocre  poet  from  i n the  steals  following  rather  his betters  he  passage  than borrows,  from and  Pope's yet,  can c r e a t e o n l y a  poem:  The B a r d whom p i l f e r e d P a s t o r a l s renown, Who t u r n s a P e r s i a n t a l e f o r h a l f a Crown, J u s t w r i t e s t o make h i s b a r r e n n e s s a p p e a r , And s t r a i n s , f r o m h a r d - b o u n d b r a i n s , e i g h t l i n e s a y e a r ; He, who s t i l l w a n t i n g , t h o u g h he l i v e s on t h e f t , S t e a l s much, s p e n d s l i t t l e , y e t has n o t h i n g l e f t ^ g A proper  use  of the d o c t r i n e of i m i t a t i o n ,  e n h a n c e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f o n e ' s own  on  the other  hand,  works.  H a r r y C. R u t l e d g e , " C l a s s i c a l L a t i n P o e t r y : An A r t o f Our T i m e " , The E n d l e s s F o u n t a i n : E s s a y s on C l a s s i c a l Humanism, e d . , Mark M o r f o r d (Columbus: Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p.143. 28 G a l l a w a y , p.212. 29 A l e x a n d e r Pope, E p i s t l e t o D r . A r b u t h n o t , e d . , J o h n B u t t (London: M e t h u e n and Co. L t d . , 1 9 6 1 ) , l i n e s 179-184. A l l future r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n EDA f o l l o w e d by t h e l i n e numbers.  10 In that  "The  Function  of C r i t i c i s m " ,  Eliot  has  observed  the second-rate a r t i s t , of course, cannot a f f o r d to s u r r e n d e r h i m s e l f t o any common a c t i o n ; f o r h i s c h i e f task i s the a s s e r t i o n of a l l the t r i f l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s which are h i s d i s t i n c t i o n : only the man who has so much t o g i v e t h a t he c a n f o r g e t h i m s e l f i n h i s work c a n a f f o r d t o c o l l a b o r a t e , t o exchange, to c o n t r i b u t e .  Pope, l i k e an  artist  artists  Eliot, - a poet  of  the  from the g r e a t all  b e l i e v e d that i n order - should  past,  as  be  'are  i n h i s own  best of  those  of  appreciated, the  borrowing  t h e modern p o e t s  t o Pope a t t h e  1  career,  noted  "'The  l a n g u a g e s , wrote Garth  latter's  fully  i n c o r p o r a t e the best  can  classics.  t o be  t h a t have t h e  beginning nearest  of  in the  copied  the  31 ancients.'" of  Pope f o l l o w e d  imitation  that  "they  resemble own,  i n the  who  say  In a l e t t e r  how my  our  Preface  are  manner by  our  defended h i s  t o h i s Works when he not  as w e l l s a y  like  and  our our 32  own,  "not  own  copying  out  they  not  our  Fathers".  of v a n i t y , but  strokes  began  imitating  humility:  t h i n g s were; and good  use  wrote  because  faces are  t o S p e n c e , Pope w r o t e t h a t he  authors,  d e f e c t i v e my  advice  thoughts are  t h e A n c i e n t s , may  because they  classical  1717  this  endeavoured 33 from o t h e r s . "  I  saw  t o mend Both  Pope  30 Essays, 31  T.S. E l i o t , p.24.  "The  Function  of C r i t i c i s m "  (1923),  Selected  Thomson, p . 2 0 5 .  32 A l e x a n d e r Pope, q u o t e d by  Marks,  p.102.  33 A l e x a n d e r Pope i n a l e t t e r t o S p e n c e , q u o t e d by G e o f f r e y T i l l o t s o n i n On t h e P o e t r y o f Pope ( L o n d o n : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , p.278.  11  and  Eliot  classics  felt  t h a t modern a u t h o r s  and t h a t  antiquity  the i m i t a t i o n of the great  while providing  w i t h a "measure o f o b j e c t i v i t y " . Even a f t e r d e v e l o p i n g techniques, furthered  since area  writers of  w o u l d mean t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e  r e m e d i e s t o modern i l l s  achieve  had much t o l e a r n f r o m t h e  "the p a r t i c u l a r composite h i s poetry  of sensitiveness  t h e o r i e s and  i m i t a t i n g or borrowing.  h i s i m i t a t i o n o f 'Ancient'  that  writer  3 4  h i s own p o e t i c  Pope d i d n o t s t o p  he f o u n d  t h e modern  authors  He  i n order  to  e f f e c t s he was a i m i n g a t "  "benefitted  from t h i s  w h i c h he was r e q u i r i n g  increased  i n t h e mind o f  35 his  reader."  satires  In other  t o extend  their  Augustan c r i t i c i s m of Nature,  w o r d s , Pope u s e d comic e f f e c t .  argued  a learned  that  "over  Reader w i l l  in  a happy I m i t a t i o n  in  h i s Mind t h e P l e a s u r e s  find  imitation i n his  Eighteenth-century and a b o v e a j u s t a new B e a u t y  o f some famous A n c i e n t , he t o o k  in first  Painting  superadded  as i t r e v i v e s  reading  such an  36 Author."  N e o - c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s and c r i t i c s  "impossible  i t i s , without deserting  dissent  from her f a i t h f u l  35 36 37  Gallaway, Tillotson,  p.211. p.144.  Ibid.,  p.144.  Marks,  p.109.  that  nature h e r s e l f , t o  c o p i e r s . . . [ b e c a u s e ] ... a c o n s c i o u s a i m  t o be d i f f e r e n t e x p o s e s a w r i t e r , „37 barrenness." 34  believed  to the r i s k  of a r t i s t i c  Pope's v e r s e c l a s s i c s and  i s " f u l l of a l l u s i o n s to the Humanist  h i s f a v o r i t e E n g l i s h poets,  Spenser, M i l t o n ,  38 Dryden and  the R e s t o r a t i o n w r i t e r s " .  i s a "mosaic of q u o t a t i o n s ,  The  p a r o d i e s , and  Rape of the Lock  a l l u s i o n s , derived  from  39 the masters of e p i c and  n a r r a t i v e poetry."  or i m i t a t i o n , used i n Pope's p o e t r y the techniques  i s an example of one  of n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r e .  twentieth-century  reader  enjoys  T h i s borrowing,  Even the  of  astute  the i m i t a t i o n of Horace, Chaucer,  or M i l t o n . Imitators appealed to the p l e a s u r e which an educated reader c o u l d o b t a i n by comparing a n c i e n t and modern manner or even, by the p u b l i c a t i o n of E n g l i s h and L a t i n on o p p o s i t e pages, to the d e l i g h t e d s u r p r i s e a t a s k i l l f u l d i s p l a y of i n g e n u i t y i n the c h o i c e of p a r a l l e l s . In The  Rape of the Lock, f o r example, Pope combines  satiric  the  i m i t a t i o n o f the e p i c poem w i t h a l l u s i o n s t o v a r i o u s  authors. Pope's i m i t a t i o n of famous l i n e s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t : Her And  l o v e i n g i l d e d C h a r i o t s , when a l i v e , l o v e of Ombre, a f t e r death s u r v i v e .  4 1  E l i z a b e t h Gurr, Pope (Edinburgh: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1971), p.7. 39 George Holden, ed., The Rape o f the Lock (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1909), p . l i v . 40 Gallaway, p.211. 41 Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock, ed., G e o f f r e y T i l l o t s e n (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 3rd ed., 1962), Canto I, l i n e s 55-56. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s poem are from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g the a b b r e v i a t i o n TRL f o l l o w e d by the Canto and l i n e numbers. J O  13  l i n e s o b v i o u s l y borrowed The And  from Dryden's  Aeneid;  l o v e o f H o r s e s w h i c h t h e y had, a l i v e , care of C h a r i o t s , a f t e r Death s u r v i v e . ^  Pope a p p e a r s t o b o r r o w some o f M i l t o n ' s e f f e c t s Lost, p a r t i c u l a r l y severed,  i n the a n g e l i c s p i r i t s ,  a r e m i r a c u l o u s l y r e s t o r e d as  who  in  Paradise  when p a r t s  "th' Eathereal  are  substance  43 clos'd"  and  they  are  left  uninjured:  F a t e u r g ' d t h e s h e e r s , and c u t t h e S y l p h i n t w a i n , (But A i r y S u b s t a n c e s o o n u n i t e s a g a i n ! •* *(TRL I I I 151-152) 44 Pope's a l l u s i o n  t o the  Milton's allusive The  "fatal  i r o n y and  Waste L a n d  l i t e r a t u r e of  I n d e e d , The  Waste L a n d  literary  other  sources  themes - E l i o t  - both  hinting  Dryden.  belief  lines,  in  the  h i s own  or h i n t s of  a t a wide v a r i e t y  i n t h e w o r d s and  a l i v e within a twentieth-century t o become t h e  approximates  the past w i t h i n contemporary w r i t i n g .  By  keeps both  and  of E l i o t ' s  i s "packed w i t h 45  poets."  closely  echoes V i r g i l  i s evidence  uses of the  w r i t t e n by  Engine"  poetry  t h e r h y t h m and and  of also in  the borrowed  context which i t s e l f  lines  poetry  i s destined  past.  42 J o h n D r y d e n , The A e n e i d , e d . , James K i n s l e y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1958), Book V I , l i n e s 890-891. 43 John M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , ed., Helen D a r b i s h i r e (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1962), Book V I , l i n e s 330. 44 P e r h a p s Pope i s a l l u d i n g t o t h e " f a t a l d a r t " i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , Book I I , l i n e 786, o r " t h a t two h a n d e d e n g i n e a t t h e d o o r " i n " L y c i d a s " , l i n e 30. 45 I a n H a m i l t o n , " T h e Waste L a n d " , E l i o t i n P e r s p e c t i v e : A Symposium, e d . , Graham M a r t i n (London: M a c m i l l a n and Co., 1970), p.103. y  14  In the Four Q u a r t e t s in  creating  individual  E l i o t d e s c r i b e s a poet's d i f f i c u l t y  a poem w h i c h b o t h  reflects  tradition  and  yet  i s an  creation:  ...And what t h e r e i s t o conquer By s t r e n g t h and s u b m i s s i o n , h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c o v e r e d Once o r t w i c e , o r s e v e r a l t i m e s , by men whom one c a n n o t hope To e m u l a t e - b u t t h e r e i s no c o m p e t i t i o n T h e r e i s o n l y t h e f i g h t t o r e c o v e r what has b e e n l o s t And f o u n d and l o s t a g a i n and a g a i n : and now, under conditions T h a t seem u n p r o p i t i o u s . But perhaps n e i t h e r g a i n nor l o s s . For us, t h e r e i s o n l y the t r y i n g . The r e s t i s n o t o u r business.., 46 Taking an  example,  rather has  Eliot's  admiration  he  clearly  does not  indebtedness  hope t o  t o Dante,  "emulate" Dante,  t o e m p h a s i z e D a n t e ' s themes i n o r d e r  been  to  "recover  as but what  lost".  E c h o e s f r o m The Eliot  f o r and  asks  the reader  Inferno to  are  evident  "Consider  i n " D e a t h by  Phlebas  who  was  Water".  o n c e handsome  47 and  tall  dead" in to  as you."  (TWL  312),  Phlebas, i s similar  a Phoenician  to Phlegyas,  t h e e i g h t h c a n t o o f The I n f e r n o . remind the reader of the h e l l of  Phlegyas  also  serves  as  sailor  "a  fortnight  t h e Boatman o f  T h i s echo o f Dante s e r v e s l i f e i n The Waste L a n d .  a reminder of the punishment i n  "East Coker", Four Quartets,  Styx,  lines  Hell  182-189.  T . S . E l i o t , The Waste L a n d , i n C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935 (London: F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1 9 3 6 ) , l i n e 321. A l l future r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n TWL f o l l o w e d by t h e l i n e numbers. 4 7  15  after  d e a t h , as  i t was  prow/Shot toward steersman  Hell?'"  Tiresias  guided  us o v e r t h e p o l l u t e d  a t t h e helm  you whelp o f  he who  who  "the f l y i n g  skiff  channel/With a  c a l l e d : / ' S o do  I have y o u  whose  single at  last,  4 8  i s another character  borrowed  from  The  Inferno: Dante s t a n d s i n t h e m i d d l e o f the b r i d g e o v e r t h e FOURTH BOLGIA and l o o k s down a t t h e s o u l s o f t h e FORTUNE TELLERS AND DIVINERS. Here are the s o u l s o f a l l t h o s e who a t t e m p t e d by f o r b i d d e n a r t s t o look i n t o the f u t u r e . Among t h o s e damned a r e : TIRESIAS. 4 g  As  punishment  Tiresias's  so t h a t he m u s t a l w a y s again.  Eliot  punishment futility,  one  i s t u r n e d backwards on h i s body  w a l k b a c k w a r d s and  makes e x c e l l e n t  since and  head  "I  still,  after  of  o f t h e themes o f The Waste L a n d  indeed, the s i n of f o r e s e e i n g  has  look forward  use o f the reminder  than b e i n g c o n t e n t w i t h one's God-given Eliot  never  commented on forty  Tiresias's i s the  the future  present  the f o r c e o f Dante's  rather  state. influence:  y e a r s , r e g a r d h i s p o e t r y as t h e m o s t 50  persistent  and  deepest  influence  upon my  own  verse".  He  continues: C e r t a i n l y I h a v e b o r r o w e d l i n e s f r o m him, i n t h e attempt to reproduce, o r r a t h e r to arouse i n the r e a d e r ' s m i n d t h e memory, o f some D a n t e s q u e s c e n e , and t h u s e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m e d i e v a l i n f e r n o and modern l i f e . R e a d e r s o f my  ' °Dante A l i g h i e r i , The I n f e r n o , t r a n s . , J o h n C i a r d i (Toronto: The New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 4 ) , C a n t o V I I I , l i n e s 15-18. 49 J o h n C i a r d i , The I n f e r n o , p.174. T . S . E l i o t , "What D a n t e Means t o Me" ( 1 9 5 0 ) , To C r i t i c i z e the C r i t i c ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 1 2 5 . i  5 0  16 Waste L a n d w i l l p e r h a p s remember t h a t t h e v i s i o n o f my c i t y c l e r k s t r o o p i n g o v e r L o n d o n B r i d g e f r o m the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n to t h e i r o f f i c e s evoked the r e f l e c t i o n *I had n o t t h o u g h t d e a t h had undone so many'(.^ For  n e o - c l a s s i c a l poets  the  e x t e r n a l w o r l d o f f e r e d o n l y i m p e r f e c t models o f n a t u r e from which the a r t i s t , proud of h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e must s e l e c t t r a i t s h e r e and there t o compose t h e i d e a l l y b e a u t i f u l . The Ancients, however, had a l r e a d y s t u d i e d t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and c r e a t e d a s e c o n d N a t u r e , a p p r o v e d as b e a u t i f u l by t h e j u d g m e n t o f two t h o u s a n d y e a r s and d o u b t l e s s l y s u p e r i o r b e c a u s e i t had e l i m i n a t e d t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s and c o n f u s i o n s o f t h e c r u d e e x t e r n a l world,.,, As  a neo-classicist, Eliot  objectivity, traditional for  and  were n o t  restraint,  ideas.  e x a m p l e , he  nevertheless  f o r the  to Romanticism's l a c k  together  Although E l i o t  " c o n t r o l l e d by  common s e n s e ,  objected  with  i t s avoidance  admired Blake's  of  of  poetry,  regretted that Blake's c a p a c i t i e s  a respect  f o r impersonal  objectivity  of  reason,  s c i e n c e . . . [and]  for  ...a  53 framework o f  accepted  James Thomson has discuss  the  is  distinctly  very  classical  traditional  commented t h a t  of  the  terms  Eliot  there,  b e c a u s e he  himself  Eliot's  has  "romanticism*  T.S.  Eliot,  and  very  uses i t . " neo-classicism  Criticize  to  Perhaps difficult  vague meaning  'classicism' limits To  easy  although i t 54  acknowledged, the  "What D a n t e Means t o Me", Gallaway,  i t " i s not  b a c k g r o u n d o f Mr.  Thomson f i n d s d i s c u s s i o n o f b e c a u s e , as  ideas".  the  their Critic,  p.128.  pp.215-216.  Eliot,  "William  Thomson, p.260.  Blake"  (1920), S e l e c t e d  Essays,  p.322.  17 usefulness: The d a n g e r o f u s i n g terms l i k e ' r o m a n t i c ' and ' c l a s s i c ' - t h i s does n o t however g i v e us p e r m i s s i o n t o a v o i d them a l t o g e t h e r - does n o t s p r i n g so much f r o m t h e c o n f u s i o n c a u s e d by t h o s e who use these terms about t h e i r own work, as from i n e v i t a b l e s h i f t s o f meaning in context. r c  Thus,  i n h i s essay,  examines that  a  h i s own  classic  mature;  when  a  "What  meaning  could  i s a of  Classic?",  the  term  "only occur  language  and  a  Eliot  explicitly  'classic'.  when  a  He  believed  civilization i s  literature  are  mature;  the  same  and  i t  56 must  be  Eliot in  saw  of  for a  a well or  developed Hulme  literature  which  were  a  i t thought  nevertheless admired  and  the  itself,  whose  observed  age,  and  to  and  with  for a  to  the  "the  s t i l l  neo-classical  finest a  period  as  manners  literature.  revival,  rules  of  era.  they society  Rather,  literary  Eliot  and  theories.  states,  was  not  period  in English  literature",  whose  literature  Eliot  qualities,  emulated.  Thus,  poet  in  classical  stringent  literary  classic  Style"  p r e v a l e n t i n Pope's  basic  time  maturity of  eighteenth century,  i t was  both  no  return  At  "common  call  return  demand  mind."  society  exact  Although as  a mature  an  they  mean  of  need  when E l i o t  not  and  work  the  command  Thus, do  the  he  thought,  although  i n English...we  "we  should  have  no  must  maintain  felt  that  be classic  the  58 classic  ideal  ^T.S.  1934),  Ltd.,  before  Eliot,  "What  our  After  eyes."  Strange  Eliot  Gods  (London:  there  Faber  and  p.26. is a  Classic?",  5  7  Ibid.,  p.59.  5  8  Ibid.,  p.59.  On  Poetry  and  Poets,  p.55.  was  Faber  18  no  need f o r one  classical,  period  since  "the  in English period  literature  t o be  w h i c h most n e a r l y  completely  fills  the  59 classical believed the  definition that  eminent,  "those  the  greatest."  literatures,  i n which the  between v a r i o u s richer."  i s not  of which E n g l i s h  classical  a u t h o r s and  Instead  qualities  several periods,  are may  he  i s one  of  scattered well  be  the  6 0  Early  i n the  twentieth  advocate to E l i o t  and  formally  precise  can  to consider  century  Pound, c a l l e d  T.E.  Hulme, f r i e n d  for a poetry  that  and was  whose " p r e t e n s i o n s a r e l i m i t e d t o s i m p l e 61 and v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n . " E l i o t c o n t e n d e d t h a t "no s e n s i b l e a u t h o r , i n t h e m i d s t o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t he i s t r y i n g t o w r i t e , stop  and  w h e t h e r he  i s going  t o be  romantic  or  62 the  opposite".  leaned  Nevertheless,  s o c i a l , moral, T.E.  t o h e a v e n , and classicism,  is  and  traditional  of  by  p o t e n t i a l - r o m a n t i c man  believes  that  he  f o r Hulme, i s t h e  tradition  and  can  the  i s absolutely  Poetry  Ibid., p.54. 61 T.E. Hulme, i n S h a p i r o , p.116. 62 A f t e r S t r a n g e Gods, p.26.  that  and  belief to  in  man  godhead,  transcendence.  t h a t man  organization  of  man.  aspires  achieve  belief  "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , On 6 0  as  he  The  n e o - c l a s s i c a l view  romanticism  " l i m i t e d a n i m a l whose n a t u r e only  in  r e l i g i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s of  Hulme c o n c e i v e d  having unlimited  a  conceded t h a t  t o w a r d s c l a s s i c i s m , i n Hulme's s e n s e , and  Waste L a n d p r o p o u n d s t h e the  i t must be  is  restricted,  constant.  anything  Poets,  can  p.54.  It be  However,  19  g o t o u t o f him."  Led  by  tradition,  a neo-classical  would thus w r i t e a c c u r a t e l y o n l y o f  the  hampered by  which E l i o t  in  original  s i n , a concern  a g r e e m e n t w i t h when q u o t i n g  finite  poet  world,  of  man  i s obviously  Baudelaire:  'In t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , man h i m s e l f i s j u d g e d t o be e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d and i m p e r f e c t endowed w i t h O r i g i n a l S i n . W h i l e he c a n o c c a s i o n a l l y a c c o m p l i s h a c t s w h i c h p a r t a k e o f p e r f e c t i o n , he c a n n e v e r be p e r f e c t . C e r t a i n secondary r e s u l t s i n r e g a r d t o o r d i n a r y human a c t i o n i n s o c i e t y f o l l o w from t h i s . A man i s e s s e n t i a l l y b a d , he c a n o n l y a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g o f v a l u e by d i s c i p l i n e - e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l . Order i s thus not merely n e g a t i v e , b u t c r e a t i v e and l i b e r a t i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n s are necessary• 1  In w r i t i n g  poetry of the  presenting  reality  'finite'world,  i n the  t o t h o s e w h i c h Pope p r e s e n t s  limitless  Romantic  poets  and  which are  for eighteenth-century  intellectuals  potentiality,  succeeds  in  t e r m s w h i c h Hulme recommends f o r  twentieth-century neo-classical  While  Eliot  v i e w e d man  neo-classicists  as  similar readers,  having  conceived  o f man  as  65 "limited,  dualistic,  o f Pope and literary  Eliot  beliefs  expresses  this  romanticism  and  compound w i t h through  their  The  their  philosophical  t h a t "the  i s located i n i t s idolatry  the romantics,  and  Eliot  Man  should  of  essence  the  oppose t h i s  his aspirations;  Hulme, i n S h a p i r o ,  beliefs  and  type he  of  Hulme of  individual 66  s h o u l d have u n l i m i t e d powers."  consistently limit  religious  bond w i t h c l a s s i c i s m .  o u t l o o k by w r i t i n g  for  T.E.  imperfect".  who,  Pope  romanticism.  s h o u l d be  content  with  p.91.  64 " B a u d e l a i r e " , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p.392. T h r a l l , H i b b a r d and Holman, p.310. The  ^ M u r r a y K r i e g e r , The New A p o l o g i s t s f o r P o e t r y U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.33.  (Minneapolis:  20 his present state  life  o n e a r t h , and n o t s e e k t o t r a n s c e n d  i f he i s t o e v e r  know  happiness.  In the " U n i v e r s a l Prayer", be  content with  and  h i s present  Pope s t a t e s t h a t man  h i m s e l f and t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t God  should  exists  t h a t God i s g o o d : Thou G r e a t F i r s t Cause, l e a s t understood: Who a l l my S e n s e c o n f i n e d To know b u t t h i s , t h a t Thou a r t Good, And t h a t m y s e l f am b l i n d . ^  These l i n e s the Four  correspond  Quartets,  the notion expressed  t h a t w h i l e many men t e n d  beyond t h a t which they into  with  p r e s e n t l y possess,  t h e f u t u r e and n o t t h e p a s t .  by E l i o t i n  t o seek  they  knowledge  delve  only  " M a t u r i t y o f mind...needs 68  history,  and t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s  p a r t o f man's p r e s e n t b e i n g . be  of history."  The p a s t i s  T h e t r u e C h r i s t i a n man  aware o n l y o f h i s p r e s e n t moment i n t i m e  should  - h i s one-to-one  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God - and n o t be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e f u t u r e : Men's c u r i o s i t y s e a r c h e s p a s t a n d f u t u r e And c l i n g s t o t h a t d i m e n s i o n . But t o apprehend The p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e t i m e l e s s W i t h t i m e , i s an o c c u p a t i o n f o r t h e s a i n t . Thus o n e a s p e c t o f t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l finiteness orderly  o f man,  religious  outlook  s u p p l e m e n t e d p e r h a p s by a n e e d  and  f o r an  of early  twentieth-  n e o - c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s a g a i n s t t h e s u p e r f l u o u s and  A l e x a n d e r Pope, John B u t t (London: 68  " U n i v e r s a l P r a y e r " , e d s . , Normal A u l t M e t h u e n a n d C o . L t d . , 1 9 6 4 ) , l i n e s 5-8.  "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , 6 9  of the  hierarchy.  I t was T . E . Hulme who l e d t h e r e v o l t century  i s a sense  "Dry  Salvages",  Four  On P o e t r y Quartets,  and P o e t s , p . 6 0 . lines  199-202.  21  hazy use  of  "'beads on Against  language, e s p e c i a l l y a chain',  w o r d s he  e p i t h e t s , w h i c h he  physical things  opposed  the  c a r r y i n g no  image a s  felt  were  reality.  a u n i t and  the  analogy  70 as  an  instrument  features of  The  the  laid  of  pattern saying  of  thought".  Waste L a n d  things"  by  One  i s the  Hulme, who  i f "poetry  of  t h e most  imagery, which  advocated  was  striking  t o be  "new  follows  and  accurate",  original "a  ways  new  71 k i n d of imagery: f r e s h , u n u s u a l m e t a p h o r s and a n a l o g i e s . " Hulme b e l i e v e d t h a t " a l l e m o t i o n d e p e n d s on r e a l s o l i d v i s i o n 72 or  sound.  It is physical."  inaccurate", precise.  i t i s o n l y by  Therefore  Since "new  plain  speech  metaphors" t h a t  Hulme a d v o c a t e d  a poetry  "is essentially  i t can  in a  be  made  visual 73  s e n s e where e a c h word Ezra and  who  Pound, who  was  i n turn  "must be had  an  a great  i n f l u e n c e d by  image s e e n , n o t i n f l u e n c e on  a  Eliot's  Hulme, l e d t h e  counter." thinking  Imagist  movement, w h i c h a d v o c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g l i t e r a r y r u l e s : 1. D i r e c t treatment o f the ' t h i n g ' whether subjective or o b j e c t i v e . 2. To u s e a b s o l u t e l y no word t h a t d o e s n o t c o n t r i b u t e to the p r e s e n t a t i o n . 3.  As r e g a r d i n g r h y t h m : t o compose i n t h e sequence o f the m u s i c a l phrase, not i n sequence of a metronome.^  70 T . E . Hulme, N o t e s on L a n g u a g e and S t y l e , e d . , Herbert Read ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Chapbooks, no d a t e ) , p.7. 71 T.E. Hulme, q u o t e d i n G e r t r u d e P a t t e r s o n , T.S. Eliot: Poems i n t h e M a k i n g (New Y o r k : Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 1 ) , p.21. 72 T.E. Hulme, N o t e s on L a n g u a g e and S t y l e , p.10. 73 Ibid., p.11. 74 E z r a Pound, f r o m "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p . 1 0 5 .  22  In  the  i t  i s  c o m p o s i t i o n w e l l  Pound  and In  the  many  Pound's  poet and  I m a g i s t  who  p o e t s  to  "use  P o p e ' s  example, to  e s p e c i a l l y g u i d e d  by  The  the  Waste  r u l e s  Land,  formed  by  movement. c r i t i c i s m He  ' t h i n g ' " ,  attempts  w o r d i n e s s  was  c r i t e r i a .  the f o r  p o e t r y ,  E l i o t  r e s p e c t s  of  c o n c e i t ,  h i s  t h a t  I m a g i s t i c  treatment of  known  of  i s  not  a  poet  no  s u p e r f l u o u s  t h a t  c l o u d s  h i s  the  the  c r a f t .  word,  s u b j e c t .  A  through  w i t ,  c o n c e i t ,  Pound,  Pope  d i r e c t s  L i k e  no  " d i r e c t  e l a b o r a t e n e s s  p o e t ' s  i n t e l l i g e n c e  of  to  recommended  o b s e r v i n g  o n l y  show  a l s o  conforms  a d j e c t i v e  w h i c h  does  75 not they  r e v e a l  something"  most  abound,/Much  f o u n d . " h i d e  (EC  h i s  309-310)  i n a b i l i t y  f o r f r u i t The  to  "words of  poet  e x p r e s s  are  sense of  h i s  l i k e  l e a v e s ,  beneath  poor  i s  q u a l i t y  thoughts  and  where  r a r e l y  attempts  b e h i n d  to  g l i t t e r i n g  v e r b o s i t y : Some And  to  P l e a s e d One In and  C o n c e i t  g l i t t e r i n g w i t h  g l a r i n g h i s  a  n o n - m e c h a n i c a l Poets  l i k e  The nake W i t h g o l And h i d e True W i t What o f t Somethin That g i v  7  5  E z r a  d d  n a w i i s wa g, e s  work  Chaos  p o e t r y  a l o n e  thoughts  Pope  t h e i r s t r u c k  where  and  w i l d  t a s t e out  n o t h i n g ' s heap  e x p r e s s e d  the  of  c o n f i n e  at  every  j u s t w i t . ^  need  or E  f i t ; 289-292)  C  f o r  d i r e c t ,  c o n c i s e ,  p o e t r y :  p a i n t e r s ,  t h u s ,  u n s k i l l e d  to  t r a c e  a t u r e and the l i v i n g g r a c e , nd j e w e l s c o v e r every p a r t , t h ornaments t h e i r want of a r t N a t u r e to advantage d r e s s e d , s thought, but n e ' e r so w e l l e whose t r u t h c o n v i n c e d a t s i g h t us back the image of our m i n d .  Pound,  l i n e ;  from  "A  R e t r o s p e c t " ,  i n  . x p r e s s e d ; we f i n d , ^ E C 293-300)  S h a p i r o ,  p . 1 0 6 .  23  These views a r e a l s o where  expressed  by E l i o t  he c o n s i d e r s t h e p r o p e r manner  i n the Four  of creating  Quartets  a memorable  poem: What we c a l l t h e b e g i n n i n g i s o f t e n t h e e n d And t o make an end i s t o make a b e g i n n i n g . The end i s where we s t a r t f r o m . And e v e r y p h r a s e And s e n t e n c e t h a t i s r i g h t (where e v e r y word i s a t home, Taking i t s place to support the others, The word n e i t h e r d i f f i d e n t n o r o s t e n t a t i o u s , An e a s y commerce o f t h e o l d and t h e new, The common word e x a c t w i t h o u t v u l g a r i t y , The f o r m a l word p r e c i s e b u t n o t p e d a n t i c , The c o m p l e t e c o n s o r t d a n c i n g t o g e t h e r ) E v e r y p h r a s e and e v e r y s e n t e n c e i s an end and a b e g i n n i n g , E v e r y poem an e p i t a p h . Pound, Pope, and E l i o t b e l i e v e d , a s Hulme h a s p h r a s e d i t , that  t h e r e s h o u l d be "a p o e t r y t h a t  i s formally precise  and 77  whose p r e t e n t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d At  t h e same t i m e ,  they  p o e t r y which f o r c e d review music  also  t o s i m p l e and v i v i d  lamented  t h e words  description,"  that defect of contrived  t o f i t the rhythm.  Many  people  p o e t r y , Pope w r o t e , n o t " f o r t h e d o c t r i n e b u t t h e there."(EC  rhythmically exaggerated  340)  contrived  Pope, w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g poetry,  illustrated  the f a u l t  that  r h y t h m i c a l use i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  fault  of  through  lines:  These equal s y l l a b l e s alone r e q u i r e , Though o f t t h e e a r t h e o p e n v o w e l l s t i r e ; W h i l e e x p l e t i v e s t h e i r f e e b l e a i d do j o i n ; And t e n low words o f t c r e e p i n one d u l l l i n e : W h i l e t h e y r i n g r o u n d t h e same u n v a r i e d c h i m e s , W i t h s u r e r e t u r n s o f s t i l l e x p e c t e d rhymes^ 341-345) "Little Krieger,  Gidding", Four p.33.  Quartets, lines  214-225.  24  Two h u n d r e d y e a r s  later  Pound e x p r e s s e d  t h e same s e n t i m e n t i n  p r o s e when he o b j e c t e d t h a t " t h e words a r e s h o v e l l e d i n t o  fill 78  a m e t r i c p a t t e r n o r t o complete He a d d e d , when a p o e t  uses  t h e n o i s e o f a rhyme  "a s y m m e t r i c a l  Pope and t h e n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s ] d o n ' t say  and then In  is  fill  up t h e r e m a i n i n g  harmony w i t h  neo-classicist  " p r e c i s e and c o n c e n t r a t e d ;  classics  f o r m l e s s , as h i s i m i t a t o r s  Eliot  uses the d i s c i p l i n e  struck  balance  sound, o r t h e i r  slush."  principles,  Eliot's  with  form, as t h e  d i d , b u t he i s 80  too often are."  o f p o e t i c form to encapsulate  style  which  Thus  neo-classical  thought.  Pound  when he w r o t e t h a t t h e " r h y t h m i c words, o r t h e i r  meaning."  i m p r e s s i v e l y a t ease i n d i s c u s s i n g a l l p e r i o d s  English literature,  neo-classicism. and  vacuum w i t h  s h o u l d n o t d e s t r o y t h e shape o f your 81  Although of  necessary  the r i g h t  structure natural  felt  p u t i n what y o u want t o 79  Pope r a r e l y  never  tradition  form, [ a f a v o r i t e o f  he e x p e r i m e n t s  and n e o - c l a s s i c s l i k e  sound."  Eliot  He f o c u s e s  eighteenth-century  seems m o s t c o m f o r t a b l e considerable attention  poets,  as w e l l a s on s a t i r e ,  with upon  seventeenth  and he h a s  h i g h p r a i s e f o r b o t h D r y d e n and P o p e : ' W a l l e r was smooth' i n d e e d , b u t h i s s m o o t h n e s s i s f e e b l e n e s s , compared t o a n y t h i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d by D r y d e n o r Pope h i m s e l f : t h e s m o o t h n e s s o f an a m b l i n g p a d - p o n y compared t o t h a t o f a f i e r y h o r s e w7 i8t h an e x p e r t r i d e r . E z r a Pound, "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p . 1 0 5 . I b i d . , p.105. Q O  7 9  T.S.  ^ T h o m s o n , p.261. 81 E z r a Pound, "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p . 1 0 7 . 82 T.S. E l i o t , " J o h n D r y d e n " , Homage t o J o h n D r y d e n E l i o t , L . L o n d o n and V i r g i n i a W o o l f , 1 9 2 4 ) , p . 1 1 .  (London:  25  E l i o t ' s  s i m i l a r i t y  f e l t  the  i n  to  these  f o l l o w i n g  n e o - c l a s s i c a l  comment  on  E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e between p r e d o m i n a n t l y a p r o s e l i t e p o e t s who w r o t e between th of a bare h a l f dozen l i v e Dryden and Pope, moreover, t h i n k of as c r i t i c s r a t h e r of s o c i e t y and i n s t i t u t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . n ^  As  w i t h  of  as  Pope  and  c r i t i c s In  a  as  Dryden,  Pound  r e a d i l y  as  d i s c u s s i o n  cannot  i g n o r e  the  p o e t s ,  f o r  E l i o t  J o n s o n ,  as  and  a n c e s t o r  of  of  P o p e ' s  n e a r l y  a r e  i s  a r e  r e l a t i o n s h i p John  b e s t  o f t e n  r e g a r d e d  as  to  Dryden  i s  d e s c e n d e n t  t h a t  be  p e r i o d :  E l i o t  "Dryden  the  a l l  and  w h i c h  w r o t e :  can  1660 and 1798 was r a t u r e . Of the ose d a t e s the names i n the memory. we a r e a p t to than as p o e t s c r i t i c s s as w e l l as of  they  i n f l u e n c e  t h e r e f o r e  t h a t  w r i t e r s  a  of i n  thought p o e t s .  E l i o t , has  had  s u c c e s s o r Marlowe;  the  one b o t h  of  he  p o e t r y  upon  i s  of  the the  84 e i g h t e e n t h m a l i g n e d , and  Pope  c e n t u r y . " and  from  thought  the  One  o n l y  has  The  E l i o t  found  a d v e r s e  p o e t i c to  n e o - c l a s s i c a l  h i m s e l f  l i t e r a r y  s t y l e s  compare  of  them  e r a  c o n s t a n t l y  c r i t i c s :  Dryden w i t h  and  the  had  much  d e f e n d i n g  "It  used  Pope  were  s t y l e  been  of  to  Dryden  be  a r t i f i c i a l .  D r y d e n ' s  g immediate  p r e d e c e s s o r ,  Even c e r t a i n  i n  the  p o e t s  one  of  t h e s e  who  made  "John  and  he  E l i o t ,  Green, "John  Dryden",  i n  r e c a l l e d the  to  prove  Dryden  A l e x a n d e r  c o f f e e h o u s e  C.  Cowley,  c e n t u r y  c r i t i c s .  c r i t i c s ,  C l a r e n c e T.S.  e i g h t e e n t h  and  W i l l ' s  Abraham  g r e a t  was  Pope, t h a t  the  c o n t r a r y . "  defamed  however, i t  r e s o r t  "was f o r  by  was  not  Dryden  the  w i t s  of  p . 2 3 2 . Dryden" Homage  (1921), to  John  S e l e c t e d Dryden,  E s s a y s , p.10.  p . 3 0 5 .  26  his  time."  L i k e E l i o t , Pope r e c o g n i z e d D r y d e n s  and  believed  1  would endure:  that  t h e l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e which Dryden c r e a t e d  "what T i m o t h e u s was, i s DRYDEN now."  Fame i s f l e e t i n g ; recognized  greatness  (EC 383)  o n l y g r e a t p o e t r y and g r e a t p o e t s a r e  and p e r p e t u a t e d ,  a s Pope c o n t e n d s  i n the following  passage: No l o n g e r now t h a t g o l d e n a g e a p p e a r s , When P a t r i a r c h w i t s s u r v i v e d a t h o u s a n d y e a r s : Now l e n g t h o f Fame ( o u r s e c o n d l i f e ) i s l o s t , And b a r e t h r e e s c o r e i s a l l e v e n t h a t c a n b o a s t ; Our s o n s t h e i r f a t h e r s ' f a u l t y l a n g u a g e s e e , And s u c h a s C h a u c e r i s , s h a l l D r y d e n b e . ^ 473-483) E C  Eliot's reflected critics tone.  i n h i s t e c h n i q u e and themes.  have o f t e n  the importance  connection  of Eliot's  moral  comment h a s b e e n made o n h i s  a n d Pope seem p a r t i c u l a r l y of society  h y p o c r i s y and Eliot  and  little  In this  and i t i s i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e s a t i r i s t ' s a r t t h a t  the c r i t i c of  stressed  However, v e r y  satire, Eliot  admiration f o r eighteenth-century writers i s  to concur.  The s a t i r i s t i s  - commenting o n , a n d a t t a c k i n g  varieties  affectation.  believed  i n satire  as an i n f l u e n t i a l form o f p o e t r y ,  condemned t h o s e p e o p l e who were t o o d u l l  to r e a l i z e i t s  importance: . . . t h e i r i n s e n s i b i l i t y does n o t merely s i g n i f y i n d i f f e r e n c e t o s a t i r e and w i t , b u t l a c k o f perception of q u a l i t i e s not confined to satire and w i t a n d p r e s e n t i n t h e work o f o t h e r p o e t s whom t h e s e p e r s o n s f e e l t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d .  R o b e r t J . A l l e n , The C l u b s o f A u g u s t a n L o n d o n (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933), H a r v a r d S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , Vol. V I I , p.28.  27 To t h o s e whose t a s t e i n p o e t r y i s f o r m e d e n t i r e l y upon t h e E n g l i s h p o e t r y o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y - to the m a j o r i t y - i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n or excuse Dryden: the t w e n t i e t h century i s s t i l l n i n e t e e n t h , a l t h o u g h i t may i n t i m e a c q u i r e i t s own character.--  o/ Similarly,  Pope o b s e r v e d  century  readers  art  that others  and  personal poetry,  missed  the  who  p r e j u d i c e and  t h a t many s e v e n t e e n t h and strength of  perceived refused  to  Dryden's  eighteenth-  satiric  the  aim  were b l i n d e d  see  the  artistry  w h i c h Pope t h o u g h t b o t h p e r c e p t i v e  and  of  by Dryden's  refined:  P a r t i e s i n W i t a t t e n d on t h o s e o f S t a t e , And p u b l i c f a c t i o n d o u b l e s p r i v a t e h a t e . P r i d e , M a l i c e , F o l l y , a g a i n s t Dryden r o s e , In v a r i o u s shapes o f P a r s o n s , C r i t i c s , Beaus; B u t s e n s e s u r v i v e d , when m e r r y j e s t s were p a s t ; F o r r i s i n g m e r i t w i l l buoy up a t l a s t . , ^ , ., ^ ^ ( 456-461) / T  Ar  2  E C  From t h e as  critic  poetic  is vital.  criticism  foundation  of  Dryden p l a y s b o t h Pope and  an  their  example o f  own  poetry.  a p o e t who  has  the  role  influential  Eliot  upon w h i c h many i n f l u e n t i a l  have c r e a t e d an  n e o - c l a s s i c i s t viewpoint,  of  the  role  b e c a u s e he  Similarly,  Eliot  molded a l i t e r a r y  in  laid  neo-classicist saw  poet the the  poets Pope  heritage  and  c r e a t e d a poetry which w i l l l a s t through time: F o r ' i n f l u e n c e ' , as D r y d e n had i n f l u e n c e , a p o e t must n o t be so g r e a t as t o o v e r s h a d o w a l l followers. D r y d e n was f o l l o w e d by Pope, and a c e n t u r y l a t e r , by Samuel J o h n s o n ; b o t h men o f g r e a t and o r i g i n a l g e n i u s , who d e v e l o p e d t h e medium l e f t them by D r y d e n i n ways w h i c h c a s t h o n o u r b o t h on them and on him.gg  T.S.  Eliot,  "John Dryden", S e l e c t e d  "John Dryden",  Essays,  i n Homage t o J o h n D r y d e n ,  p.305.  p.6.  as  28  B o t h Pope and  Eliot  composition of  poetry  criticism.  "The  artist  In  and  and  not  the  p r o s e and  on  Perfect C r i t i c " ,  i s , "each w i t h i n  d e p e n d e d upon as  h a v e commented e x t e n s i v e l y  h i s own  a critic;  satisfaction  the  Eliot  the  p r a c t i c e of  literary  stated  the  that  limitations - oftenest  his criticism  of  on  will  a suppressed  be  to  be  criticism,  c r e a t i v e wish  89  what, i n most o t h e r In  the  E s s a y on  on  the  matter of  persons,  i s apt  to  C r i t i c i s m , Pope h o l d s the  author  as  interfere the  fatally."  same o p i n i o n  as  Eliot  critic:  I n P o e t s as t r u e g e n i u s i s b u t r a r e , T r u e T a s t e as s e l d o m i s t h e C r i t i c ' s s h a r e ; B o t h must a l i k e f r o m Heaven d e r i v e t h e i r l i g h t , T h e s e b o r n t o j u d g e , as w e l l as t h o s e t o w r i t e . L e t s u c h t e a c h o t h e r s who t h e m s e l v e s e x c e l , And c e n s u r e f r e e l y who h a v e w r i t t e n w e l l . ,, (EC  J  Pope and and  Eliot  regard  least partial In  their  s u c c e s s f u l a u t h o r s as  assessment of  literary  f a u l t s which d i m i n i s h  critic's  words.  The  faults  the  critics,  power and  o f many c r i t i c s  t h e i r manner o f w r i t i n g , b u t  rather  which are  criticism.  reflected in their  one  is  s o m e t i m e s no  writes  a u t h o r w h i c h he  Eliot  of  better  recognizes  Blackmore's  In  qualified  are  not  Pope  to The  and  ignore  Critic", faults  "versification exercise",  J o h n s o n , he  C r i t i c " , The 1 9 5 0 ) , p.7.  in  partialities  writes,  89 T.S. E l i o t , "The P e r f e c t (London: M e t h u e n and Co. L t d . ,  a  found  " J o h n s o n as  a schoolboy's  "Creation";  and  v e r a c i t y of  ability  i n others.  than t h a t of  Eliot  i n prejudices  blames Johnson f o r h i s w h i m s i c a l  in  best  critics.  pinpoint  Eliot  the  11-16)  S a c r e d Wood  i n d i s c u s s i n g B l a c k m o r e "must h a v e b e e n b l i n d e d  to the defects 90  w h i c h he w o u l d h a v e r e p r o v e d reason  for this  blindness  i n Dryden o r Pope".  may have b e e n g i v e n  The p r i n c i p a l  i n Pope's  E s s a y on C r i t i c i s m : Of a l l t h e C a u s e s w h i c h c o n s p i r e t o b l i n d Man's e r r i n g j u d g m e n t , a n d m i s g u i d e t h e m i n d , What t h e weak h e a d w i t h s t r o n g e s t b i a s r u l e s , Is P r i d e , the n e v e r - f a i l i n g v i c e o f f o o l s . , i r > v i \ In Pope's o p i n i o n , honest  judgment.  opinion Eliot  - and h i s a l o n e  existence  should  prejudices  to...compose possible,  that  the c r i t i c  to their  h i s differences with  The c r i t i c  personal  i n favour  o f a work o f a r t .  than  "should  of advice  should  t o " c o l l a b o r a t e " - who r e f u s e  prejudices  evaluation  readers  rather  judgment."  T r u s t not y o u r s e l f ; but your defects Make u s e o f e v e r y f r i e n d - and e v e r y  who r e f u s e  truth.  endeavour  a s many o f h i s f e l l o w s a s 92  Pope s o a p t l y comments i n a c o u p l e t  that  evaluative  h i s personal  own i n t e l l i g e n c e  fellow c r i t i c s .  believed  i ti s his  I t i s p r i d e w h i c h makes many  i n t h e common p u r s u i t o f t r u e  Eliot  that  " i f he i s t o j u s t i f y h i s  endeavour t o d i s c i p l i n e 91  only  with  i n t h e way o f a c r i t i c ' s  - which i s the only  and c r a n k s . "  look  consulting  stands  P r i d e makes t h e c r i t i c b e l i e v e  has w r i t t e n  critics  pride  As  to the c r i t i c :  know, foe.^  abandon  E C  213-214)  the c r i t i c s  t o abandon  their  o f an o b j e c t i v e e l u c i d a t i o n a n d He came t o s u s p e c t  that the  90 T.S. E l i o t , " J o h n s o n a s C r i t i c " ( 1 9 4 4 ) , On P o e t r y a n d P o e t s , p.194. 91 T.S. E l i o t , "The F u n c t i o n o f C r i t i c i s m " ( 1 9 2 3 ) , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p.25. 92 I b i d . , p.25.  30  a r b i t r a r y  c r i t i c  "owed  e x t r e m i t y ,  to  of  w h i c h  h i s  own  a l r e a d y  other  h o l d  l i v e l i h o o d  c r i t i c s ,  he  and  h i s  or  c o n t i n u e s  w h i c h  out  e l s e  to  of  to to  season  v a n i t y  the  v i o l e n c e  and  some  t r i f l i n g  o d d i t i e s  the  and  o p i n i o n  s l o t h  w h i c h  they  men  p r e f e r  93 to  m a i n t a i n . "  own  o p i n i o n  p l a c i n g  As  and  h i s  Pope  c a t e r s  o p i n i o n s  s t a t e d ,  to  h i s  b e f o r e  each  own  the  c r i t i c  f o i b l e s  p u b l i c  even  h i s  though  he  i s  r e a d e r s :  Authors  are  p a r t i a l  to  t h e i r  w i t ,  But  not  C r i t i c s  to  t h e i r  judgment  a r e  b e l i e v e s  ' t i s  t r u e ,  ^.T-IS)  too?  because: ' T i s Go  And  when  perhaps o t h e r  w i t h  j u s t  the i t  on  i s  (EC  £ A ]  as  each  f i n d  our  w a t c h e s ,  b e l i e v e s  s t r o n g  t h e y ,  l i k e  the  c r i t i c  h i s  p o i n t "we  i n  but  none  own.  an  ^  E  -y_gj  C  a u t h o r ' s  p r a i s e  w o r k s ,  o u r s e l v e s  i n  455)  v a n i t y  "  y e t  because  l i t e r a t u r e ,  v i e w s :  judgments  c r i t i c s  men." T h i s  our  a l i k e ,  makes  s i n c e  i t  l i t e r a r y  evokes c r i t i c  an  u n r e l i a b l e  emotions s h o u l d  w h i c h  have  no  commentator  p r e j u d i c e emotions  h i s  except  tho  94 i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t  the  o p i n i o n worse  c r i t i c i s  or  provoked  by  s h o u l d  w e l l  known.  b e t t e r .  He  a  work  of  approach The  must  a r t " . a r t  c r i t i c  s i m p l y  E l i o t ' s  w i t h  "must  an  i m p a r t i a l  not  e l u c i d a t e ;  i n s i s t e n c e  make the  c r i t i c a l  judgments  r e a d e r  of  w i l l  95 form  the  t h i s  o p i n i o n  (EC  242)  c o r r e c t  judgment  when  but  i n  he  f o r  comments  "every  work  h i m s e l f . " t h a t  r e g a r d  we  Pope "can  the  not  w r i t e r ' s  a l s o blame End".  e x p r e s s e s i n d e e d " , (EC  9 3 "The 94 9 4 ," T h e 95.  F u n c t i o n P e r f e c t  I b i d . ,  p.11.  of  C r i t i c i s m " ,  C r i t i c " ,  The  S e l e c t e d  S a c r e d  Wood,  E s s a y s , p.12.  p . 2 5 .  255)  31  The  critic  learn  and  from  the  reader  i t i f they  can  both  enjoy  literature,  and  are r e c e p t i v e :  A p e r f e c t J u d g e w i l l r e a d e a c h work o f W i t W i t h t h e same s p i r i t t h a t i t s a u t h o r w r i t : S u r v e y t h e WHOLE, n o r s e e k s l i g h t f a u l t s t o f i n d Where n a t u r e moves, and r a p t u r e warms t h e m i n d ; Nor l o s e , f o r t h a t m a l i g n a n t d u l l d e l i g h t , The g e n e r o u s p l e a s u r e t o be c h a r m e d w i t h w i t . 2 3 3 - 2 3 8 ) Although critic  who  he  should  prescribes rules  purpose of d i s s e c t i n g his  n o t make o p p r e s s i v e  job, according  and  and  dissects  prescribing  to E l i o t :  In  judgments,  poetry  i s not  "matters  the  f o r the  mere  performing  of great  importance  96 the  critic  must n o t  coerce."  In order  criticism  "must a l w a y s p r o f e s s an  speaking,  a p p e a r s t o be  the  end  t o be  of  value,  i n view, which,  elucidation  o f works o f  roughly  art  97 and t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f t a s t e . " as t o t h e manner o f a p p r o a c h i n g  Pope t o o i n s t r u c t s t h e c r i t i c the e d u c a t i o n of the reader:  ' T i s n o t enough, y o u r c o u n s e l s t i l l be t r u e ; B l u n t t r u t h s more m i s c h i e f t h a n n i c e f a l s e h o o d s do; Men must be t a u g h t as i f y o u t a u g h t them n o t , And t h i n g s unknown p r o p o s e d a s t h i n g s forgot.^^2-575) Pope's o p i n i o n u n i t e s w i t h critic,  who  Eliot's  l a y s down a r u l e ,  who  belief  t h a t the  affirms a value,  "dogmatic has  left  98 his  labour Often  incomplete." i n the process  of elucidating  "The  Perfect Critic",  "The  Function  "The  Perfect C r i t i c " ,  The  Sacred  of C r i t i c i s m " , The  t h e work o f a r t ,  Wood,  p.11.  Selected Essays,  Sacred  Wood,  p.11.  p.24.  32  the  critic,  although not emotionally  narrow i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f form. -  the c r i t i c ,  impart  that  some l e s s o n  i s , who  biased,  c a n become t o o  The " p u r e l y  writes  'technical'  t o expound  critic  some n o v e l t y  t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f an a r t - c a n be  or  called  99 a critic  only  i n a narrow sense."  Pope's views a r e s i m i l a r :  Neglect the r u l e s each v e r b a l C r i t i c l a y s . F o r n o t t o know some t r i f l e s , i s a p r a i s e . M o s t C r i t i c s , f o n d o f some s u b s e r v i e n t a r t , S t i l l make t h e Whole d e p e n d upon a P a r t : They t a l k o f p r i n c i p l e s , b u t n o t i o n s p r i z e , And a l l t o one l o v e d F o l l y s a c r i f i c e . ^ r r \ (EC 261-266) Eliot criticism be  disapproved "which  well written  age'."''"^ laboured rote  This  of the twentieth-century  seems t o demand but that  of poetry,  i t shall  be  1  not that  'representative  poetry  they  as t h e s u c c e s s f u l poets o f t h e i r  a t t e m p t s by h a c k s t o i m i t a t e P o p e ' s s u c c e s s  the  spirit  Dr.  Arbuthnot:  o f h i s age i s r i d i c u l e d  Perfect  Critic",  Poets by age."*"^  in articulating  i n the E p i s t l e to  One d e d i c a t e s i n h i g h h e r o i c p r o s e , And r i d i c u l e s b e y o n d a h u n d r e d f o e s : One f r o m a l l G r u b s t r e e t w i l l my fame d e f e n d , And, more a b u s i v e , c a l l s h i m s e l f my f r i e n d . ^  ^"The  of i t s  had t o w r i t e  The  in literary  i t shall  i s a c o m p l a i n t w h i c h Pope a l s o v o i c e d .  under t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t  t h e 'same  trend  ^  109-112)  The S a c r e d Wood, p . 1 1 .  "'"^T.S. E l i o t , The Use o f P o e t r y a n d t h e Use o f C r i t i c i s m (London: F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1933), p.25. "^^"Pope's d i s d a i n f o r h a c k w r i t e r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h h i s r i d i c u l e o f B e n l o w e s , "famous f o r h i s own b a d P o e t r y and f o r p a t r o n i z i n g bad P o e t s " (Pope's s e c o n d f o o t n o t e t o t h e D u n c i a d I I I ) . Pope commented, i n t h e D u n c i a d I I I l i n e 21, t h a t " B e n l o w e s , p r o p i t i o u s s t i l l t o b l o c k h e a d s , bows".  33  In  a d d i t i o n ,  of  an  age may P a i n s , And  e v i d e n t I  t h e y1  h i s  w i s h  t h a t  we  o b s c u r i t y , i m p r o p e r ,  i n  s h o r t  I f  p o e t r y  t o  t h e  on  Dramatic  might o f  t o  t h e  t o  a s  q u a l i t i e s  a r e  t h e i r  f o r  f i x e d  ephemeral  of  j u s t  t a s t e  t h e  c h o i c e  good  be  emotions"  Poesy, t h e  d i s p o s e  'good'  t a s t e  p o e t r y .  p r e t e n c e ,  and  s e n s e .  s t a n d a r d s  .  (EDA  o f  bad  and  as  and  o f  r „ , ™ » 159-160)  t a s t e  i s  i t  The  " a  p u r e l y  i t  e x c i t e  whether  s h o u l d  o f  j u s t  v e r s e :  o f  o u r  be  w r i t t e n  Waste  Land  p o e t s .  -  p e r s o n a l  Dryden,  i n  was  p o e t ' s  t h e  t o  c l a r i t y  o u r  b r e e d i n g  John  t h a t  t h e  words  o r  says  wrote  of  v u l g a r ,  s i n c e r e  a t t e n t i o n  t o  o r  c e n t u r y ,  s o u l ,  more  e x p r e s s i o n ,  E l i o t  s e v e n t e e n t h  a f f e c t  t h e  t h e  s p i r i t , ^  e x a l t e d  i s  w r i t t e n  In  i s  t o  c r i t i c i s m :  c o r r e c t n e s s  p o e t ' s ]  i n  p r e f e r e n c e  or  -  a c c o r d i n g  s t u d y ,  want  o r  h e a r t  "to  l a c k i n g  E l i o t ' s  i n  the  be  w r i t t e n  r e a d i n g ,  a l l  S i m i l a r l y  £the  p o e t r y  t h e  A  from  " t o  t h e  r e l i e v e  a c t " . ^ " ^  Defence  of  an  Essay  c o n c e r n  p a s s i o n s ,  and  above  a l l ,  f o r  t h e  genuine  104 to  move  a d m i r a t i o n " .  conveys  h i s  s h a l l o w  p o e t  money  he  d e e p e s t  sense  w r i t e s  w i l l  S i m i l a r l y ,  o n l y  o f t o  r e a l i t y show  Pope,  t o  o f f  t h e  h i s  r e a d e r ,  l e a r n i n g  Each  W i g h t ,  Each  W o r d - c a t c h e r ,  who  r e a d s  n o t ,  t h a t  and  l i v e d  Regimented  a r t  was  s e v e n t e e n t h  and  e i g h t e e n t h  p i l l a r  o f  n e o - c l a s s i c a l  The  w h i l e  -  o r  t h e  f o r  t h e  r e c e i v e : b u t on  scans  and  Use  o f  seen  i n  t h e  (EDA  P o e t r y  and  w o r s h i p  c e n t u r i e s .  c r i t i c i s m . t h e  Pope Use  s p e l l s ,  s y l l a b l e s . J  the  poet  o f  o f  A r i s t o t l e  A r i s t o t l e wrote  165-166)  was  t h a t  t h e r e  C r i t i c i s m ,  p . 2 5 .  i n a a r e  103 T.S. C o n c o r d " ,  E l i o t ,  A m e r i c a n  r e c o r d e d S c h o l a r  by  XVI  R i c h a r d (Autumn  C a s e , 1947),  " T . S .  E l i o t  p . 4 4 .  104 John  Dryden,  quoted  by  C l a r e n c e  C.  Green,  p . 1 1 3 .  i n  Those c r i t i c s who conclude t h a t " a l l were d e s p e r a t e s o t s and fools,/Who d u r s t d e p a r t from A r i s t o t l e ' s r u l e s . "  (EC 271-272)  E l i o t b e l i e v e d t h a t " A r i s t o t l e i s a person who has s u f f e r e d from the adherence  o f persons who must be regarded l e s s as h i s  d i s c i p l e s than as h i s s e c t a r i e s . of  One must be f i r m l y  distrustful  a c c e p t i n g A r i s t o t l e i n a c a n o n i c a l s p i r i t . " B o t h the  c r i t i c and the poet, a c c o r d i n g t o E l i o t and Pope, should not f o l l o w r i g i d t e c h n i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , such as those o f " A r i s t o t l e £whoJ had what i s c a l l e d the s c i e n t i f i c  mind.""'"^  Judging  a w r i t e r o f one e r a by t h e s t r i n g e n t r u l e s e s t a b l i s h e d many centuries previous i s a grievous c r i t i c a l error. put i t :  "To judge t h e r f o r e [ s i c ] o f Shakespear  rules i s like  As Pope by A r i s t o t l e ' s  t r y i n g a man by the Laws o f one Country, who 107  a c t e d under those o f another."  105 "The P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , The Sacred Wood, p.11. 106 , ., 107 I b i d . , p.13. Alexander Pope, quoted by C l a r e n c e C. Green, p.99. T  35 CHAPTER I I Neo-classical  Themes i n Pope and  Eliot  What The Rape o f t h e L o c k was t o t h e A u g u s t a n s . . . The Waste L a n d has become t o t h e M o d e r n s . It is inescapable., n  In we  o  "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , E l i o t  are able to enjoy  maintained  t h e work o f Pope, we  that  cannot  "unless  arrive  at  10 9 a full is  understanding  that  of English  t h e r e a d e r who  i s unable  forms o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y unable  to a p p r e c i a t e the  Similarly, concepts cannot  Neo-classical daily  life:  "By  influenced  poetry  criticism  by  with  i s markedly  in  slum o r a G r u b - s t r e e t g a r r e t ,  a part  of  show t h e and of  actual  society". ''' 1  0  The  incompatibility ways o f  living  t h e e i g h t e e n t h and  urban.  Rape o f  neo-classical and  the  and  man's  neo-classical  Though he the poet  t h e L o c k and  i n the c o n t e x t of the  starved  felt The  between t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l  twentieth  poetry of  society  times,  literature a Paris  be  him.  comparison w i t h other and  and  poetry.  o f h i s work and  i s concerned  social  later  a p p r e c i a t e the  literary  themes  satire will  themes o f  understanding  modern p o e t r y w h i c h was  implication  to a p p r e c i a t e the  does not  in Eliot's  come t o a f u l l  The  neo-classical  complex  t h e r e a d e r who  expressed  poetry."  himself  Waste  Land  standards  social  mores  centuries.  108 Robert E. K n o l l , Storm over S c o t t , F o r e s m a n and Company, 1 9 6 4 ) , 109 "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , On 1 1 0  Marks,  p.19.  the Wasteland p.I.  Poetry  and  Poets,  (Nebraska:  p.60.  The  m o s t famous poems o f the  Pope and  outstanding  examples o f  poetry  epitomes of  neo-classical satire,  conspicuous d i d a c t i c i s m .  The  his  society.  century,  Society,  i s to reform  Eliot  r e l a t e s the  the  proper  his  prose w r i t i n g  often  of  Eliot their  r o l e of  the  examined the  moral  but  only also  their  Idea of  reforming  i n much o f  s t r u c t u r e of  not  satirist,  I n The  problems of  as  age  especially in  c o n c e p t o f what i s r i g h t and as w e l l  are  whatever a Christian  society  what i s w r o n g . his poetry,  to In  Eliot  society:  Any m a c h i n e , however b e a u t i f u l t o l o o k a t and however w o n d e r f u l a p r o d u c t o f b r a i n s and skill c a n be u s e d f o r bad p u r p o s e s as w e l l as g o o d : and t h i s i s t r u e o f s o c i a l m a c h i n e r y as o f constructions of s t e e l . I t h i n k t h a t more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e i n v e n t i o n o f a new m a c h i n e , i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a temper o f m i n d i n p e o p l e s u c h t h a t t h e y c a n l e a r n t o use a new m a c h i n e rightly. More i m p o r t a n t s t i l l a t t h e moment w o u l d be t h e d i f f u s i o n o f k n o w l e d g e o f what i s wrong - m o r a l l y wrong - and o f why i t i s w r o n g . Although of  the  s a t i r e was  twentieth  probably with  taking  not  a p o p u l a r medium i n t h e  century, his  lead  Eliot to  used  satire  some e x t e n t  of  The  Waste  and  social  venture  j u s t p r i o r to  the  Land.  N e o - c l a s s i c a l concepts are cultural  decades  extensively,  f r o m Pound's  "Hugh S e l w y n M a u b e r l e y " w h i c h a p p e a r e d  publication  early  always r e l a t e d to  s e t t i n g , to n e o - c l a s s i c i s m  their  i n the  broadest  112 sense. T.E.  With regard  to  twentieth-century  Hulme b e l i e v e d  that  ^\he  a Christian Society,  Idea of  Marks,  p.vn.  a  "poem s h o u l d  be  neo-classicism, clearly  p.98  defined...  37 as  an a c c u r a t e  presentation  moments', w i t h o u t Pope and E l i o t  'moaning o r w h i n i n g  present  reality  They do n o t w r i t e m e r e l y rather light  concentrate  of 'exquisite  about something o r o t h e r . ' "  i n t h e t e r m s w h i c h Hulme  o f the beauty o f l i f e  on t h e d a i l y  of the h i s t o r i c a l  concern with  of the r e a l i t y  and n a t u r e , b u t  moments i n man's  shadow o f m a n k i n d .  man and h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n  suggests.  life  i n the  This n e o - c l a s s i c a l  i s humanism, one o f t h e  major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The  neo-classical artist  sees  " t h e i m a g e r y o f common 114  life...the The  imagery o f t h e s o r d i d l i f e  poet-satirist  converts  contemporary  life  and  poetry.  incisive  Northrop Frye of  Eliot  In r e l a t i o n  has observed  t h a t we  to this  and p e t t i n e s s o f  satire:  b o t h examine t h e s o r d i d n e s s historical  o f w e s t e r n man's w a r p e d  poetic  transformation,  " a r e g e t t i n g c l o s e t o one that the sardonic  i s t h e seamy s i d e o f t h e t r a g i c  conservative,  evils  sordidness  metropolis".  i n t o a r r e s t i n g images w h i c h c r e a t e b e a u t i f u l  the fundamental f a c t s about  vision  his  this  of a great  vision."  1 1  o f contemporary  perspective, emotional  He s e e s t h e w a s t e o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n  Eliot  ^  Pope a n d life.  With  perceives the  and s p i r i t u a l  values.  n o t " a s a s i n g l e moment 116  in  history, particular  t o t h e West i n t h e t w e n t i e t h  century,"  113 T.E. Hulme, q u o t e d by G e r t r u d e P a t t e r s o n , T.S. E l i o t : Poems i n t h e M a k i n g (New Y o r k : Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), p.21. 114 " B a u d e l a i r e " , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p.388. N o r t h r o p F r y e , "The N a t u r e o f S a t i r e " , i n S a t i r e T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e , e d . , C h a r l e s A. A l l e n a n d G e o r g e D. S t e p h e n s (Belmont, C a l . : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 2 6 . 5  B . C . Southam, A G u i d e t o t h e S e l e c t e d Poems o f T.S. E l i o t (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , and World, I n c . , 1968), p.69. 1 1 6  113  38  but  a s "an i n c l u s i v e ,  comparative  vision,  a perspective of  117 history.  , , J  "  L /  In n e o - c l a s s i c a l  satire,  corruption of the i d e a l it  only  basic  rarely  such  " i s almost  as E l i o t ' s  and P o p e ' s ,  always a t l e a s t  implicit,  appears as t h e s o l e s u b j e c t o f the s a t i r e .  polarity  o f an i d e a l  degenerate present  (usually  provides  i n the past)  The  and t h e  a u s e f u l frame f o r t h e argument o f  118 a  satire".  Authors  to the c l a s s i c a l to teach  their  past  i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l  s o c i e t y t h e need  i s a chaos o f v a l u e s  current found the  experience,  Eliot be  For n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s ,  i n the unfortunate  and t h e i r  seeking  f o r a change from t h e p r e s e n t  remedy t o t h i s  emphasis on c h a o s c a n be  i n a respect f o r the hierarchy of values  classical  look  f o r p e r f e c t i o n i n a r t and s o c i e t y ,  abandonment o f t a s t e a n d c u l t u r e . there  tradition  evident i n  tradition.  b e l i e v e d t h a t man  done u n l e s s  he l i v e s  i s "not l i k e l y  t o know what i s t o  i n what i s n o t m e r e l y  t h e p r e s e n t moment o f t h e p a s t , u n l e s s  the present, but  he i s c o n s c i o u s , 119  what i s d e a d , b u t o f what i s a l r e a d y  living."  neo-classicists  Pope a n d E l i o t  and s a t i r i s t s ,  then,  not of  As do n o t  e n c o u r a g e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new s t a t e o f s o c i e t y b u t e x p o s e the decadence i n t h e e x i s t i n g consciousness  of firm  situation  historical  values.  and encourage a Often,  the s a t i r i s t  Southam, p . 6 9 . 118 R o n a l d P a u l s o n , The F i c t i o n s o f S a t i r e ( B a l t i m o r e , Maryland: John Hopkins P r e s s , 1967), p.10. 119 " T r a d i t i o n and t h e I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p.22.  39  sees  "the f a c t  that  the s o c i e t y  o f t h e p r e s e n t does n o t  r e p u d i a t e the o l d forms but r a t h e r  conceals  i t s own  perversion 120  behind  them, p a y i n g v i r t u e  In  the compliment  of  hypocrisy."  The Waste L a n d and many o f h i s o t h e r poems,  e s p o u s e s t h e theme o f e m o t i o n a l and exemplified  spiritual  sterility  i n the decadence of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  v i s i o n w h i c h t o some e x t e n t he g a i n e d Baudelaire.  Writing  society,  from h i s r e a d i n g s  spiritual  The Rape o f t h e L o c k a l s o  a world i n which  is  too l i t t l e One  of  exhibits  " i n i t s vanity  self-satisfaction, i t 121  observation of emotional s t e r i l i t y and h e r young  witnessed  t h e mockery o f l o v e  so-called  'love a c t . 1  has T i r e s i a s  details  o f feminine undergarments:  spread/Her d r y i n g (TWL  Tiresias  (TWL  pay  227)  close attention  and  eye f o r  to the minute  "stockings,  slippers,  " o u t o f t h e window  c o m b i n a t i o n s t o u c h e d by t h e s u n ' s  224-225).  undergarment  i n the  With the s a t i r i s t ' s m e r c i l e s s  Eliot  stays"  man.  i s that  through l a c k o f emotion i n the  detail,  rays"  and  i t has  concerned f o r other people".  copulation of the t y p i s t  c a m i s o l e s and  of  sterility.  o f t h e m o s t d e c a d e n t s c e n e s i n The Waste L a n d  Tiresias's  a  i n t h e age o f Queen Anne, Pope t o o  p u r s u e s t h e theme o f e m o t i o n a l and  been o b s e r v e d t h a t  Eliot  Since a combination i s a  perilously  last  feminine  w h i c h c o v e r s a woman's body f r o m t h e t o p o f h e r  bosom, o v e r t h e w a i s t  and t h i g h s ,  Eliot  takes advantage o f i t s  120 P a u l s o n , The  Fictions  of Satire,  p.24.  121 P e t e r D i x o n , The W o r l d o f P o p e ' s S a t i r e s and Co. L t d . , 1 9 6 8 ) , p.53.  (London:  Methuen  40 l i k e n e s s to the feminine form to emphasize the emptiness p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s c e n t r a l to the scene. garment, l i k e the t y p i s t l a t e r i n the scene, spread", ready to accept a l o v e r , and empty, v o i d of any animation.  The  i s "perilously  l i k e the t y p i s t ,  i t is  The garment i s spread i n  acceptance p r e v i o u s to i t s owner's a c t u a l acceptance, foreshadowing  o f the  a  of what i s t o come, so t h a t the r e a d e r can  l i k e T i r e s i a s i n p e r c e i v i n g the scene and f o r e t e l l i n g  be  the  rest. In a d d i t i o n t o feminine garments, E l i o t a l s o makes note of  feminine f r a i l t i e s and h a b i t s - the "one  "Well now  t h a t ' s done:  w h i l e the t y p i s t (TWL  255)  and I'm  half-formed  g l a d i t ' s over'"  (TWL  "smoothes her h a i r w i t h automatic  251-252)  hand."  The man's a c t i o n s , however, are as automatic  the young woman's r e a c t i o n s .  as  He i s a s s u r e d of h i s v i c t o r y ;  his  advances are m o c k - h e r o i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as an a s s a u l t  his  success as the winning o f a b a t t l e .  the sexes and the young man  thought"  and  I t i s the b a t t l e of  i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t he w i l l emerge  the v i c t o r : He, the young man c a r b u n c u l a r , a r r i v e s , A s m a l l house agent's c l e r k , w i t h one b o l d s t a r e , One of the low on whom assurance s i t s As a s i l k hat on a B r a d f o r d m i l l i o n a i r e . ,, n->*\ (TWL 231-234) T h i s s m a l l pimply young c l e r k : /m  T  Endeavours to engage her i n c a r e s s e s Which s t i l l are unreproved; i f u n d e s i r e d . F l u s h e d and d e c i d e d , he a s s a u l t s a t once; E x p l o r i n g hands encounter no d e f e n c e , „ (TWL 237-240) m  r  T  3  Although the a c t has not been f o r c i b l e rape, the young man  has  41  forced There man  h i s advances  o n a young woman who d o e s n o t d e s i r e h i m .  i s no e n j o y m e n t  o r t h e woman.  smoothing  i n the 'act o f love'  T h e s e x a c t h a s become a s a u t o m a t i c  of hair or the playing  describes easy  male l o v e r s  Cantos  open w i t h views which The  the staining  mockery o f l o v e , respond  Baron, This  their  conquest  equate  thoughts  passed  conquests  account  a s he  f o r t h e male's  and c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h  their  the "staining"  o f a "new b r o c a d e " Pope's A r i e l ,  time.  seriously.  Women i n  of their  like  Tiresias,  sees t h e  and t h e f a i l u r e  T h e men, p e r s o n i f i e d  love as a conquest  honour  dress or the missing of  the concern with t r i v i a l i t y  to life  treat  describesthe  I I a n d I I I o f The Rape o f t h e L o c k  t h e women o f t h e c o u r t  a masquerade b a l l .  to  attain  of the t r i v i a l  Rape o f t h e L o c k  with  fashion,  those feminine f o i b l e s which  assault.  as t h e  o f a gramophone.  Pope, i n a somewhat a n a l o g o u s manner i n w h i c h  for either the  by t h e  o f the female o f t h e i r  i s described mock-heroically like  choice.  a crucial  stratagem: Resolved By f o r c e F o r when Few a s k ,  t o w i n , he m e d i t a t e s t h e way, t o r a v i s h , o r by f r a u d b e t r a y ; success a Lover's t o i l attends; i f f r a u d o r f o r c e a t t a i n e d h i s ends., 11RL  T h u s i n t h e poem, B e l i n d a ' s h a i r and  this  The  male and female  the  value o f love  the  traditional  i s raped,  forcefully  a c t i s s y m b o l i c o f t h e r a p e o f t h e woman c h a r a c t e r s o f b o t h poems f a i l  i n their  ritual  s h a l l o w and d e s t r u c t i v e  of courtship.  1 J. j l ~ j taken,  herself. to perceive parodies of  42 The m a t t e r o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s Eliot  a n d Pope:  culture, and  "For E l i o t ,  sex, and r e l i g i o n  i s central  t o both  o f course, a superb t r i n i t y o f  i s humanity's  t h e s i c k n e s s o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n  most w o r t h y i s that  goal  the three  122  impulses operate i n i s o l a t i o n . " B o t h Pope a n d E l i o t society's The  ambivalence  Rape o f t h e L o c k ,  depict  towards  the cutting  paradox:  explicit  preparation  repelled  by t h e t h o u g h t o f v i o l a t i o n  This  lurks  and y e t f e e l  f o r c e d by  advances.  and h y p o c r i s y o f v a l u e s i s  i n T h e Rape o f t h e L o c k  v i o l a t i o n which  and y e t  The women i n b o t h poems a r e  s e x t o s u b m i t t o men's  sense o f f a l s e m o r a l i t y  presented  n o t t o be v i o l a t e d 123  for i t . "  In  women a r e " f a c e d w i t h a  both-and  the conventions o f t h e i r  o f western  l o v e and t h e sex a c t .  f o r example,  the desire  irony  through the secret  i n Belinda's  heart  prayer f o r  concurrently  with  her c o m p l a i n t s o f l o s s . Her p r o t e s t s a t v i o l a t i o n a r e directly voiced: F o r e v e r c u r s e d be t h i s d e t e s t e d d a y , W h i c h s n a t c h e d my b e s t , my f a v o r i t e c u r l away! Happy 1 a h , t e n t i m e s happy h a d I b e e n , I f Hampton C o u r t t h e s e e y e s h a d n e v e r s e e n ! ^ T R L  The  e p i g r a p h t o t h e poem, however, r e v e a l s B e l i n d a ' s  desire: rejoice of  " I was u n w i l l i n g t o have c o n c e d e d  t h e e p i g r a p h , from  Belinda, this  to ravish  I  V  147-150)  secret  your l o c k s ; b u t  t o your prayers."  (TRL t r a n s l a t i o n  Martial)  122 Hamilton,  i n Martin,  p.107.  12 3 Pope  Rebecca P r i c e P a r k i n , The P o e t i c Workmanship o f A l e x a n d e r (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, I n c . , 1966), p.51.  Sex, sterile of The  i n both  T h e Waste L a n d a n d The Rape o f t h e L o c k , i s  - i t gives neither propagation  pleasure.  of l i f e  nor f u l f i l l m e n t  M o s t o f t h e women i n The Waste L a n d , a s i n  Rape o f t h e L o c k , a r e n o t m a r r i e d .  In a d d i t i o n , although the  married  women i n t h e pub s e c t i o n o f "A Game o f C h e s s "  brought  forth  offspring  c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t  o f sexual  union,  are not the desired issue o f love.  between husband and w i f e illustrated  these  The l a c k o f l o v e  and t h e l a c k o f l o v e f o r c h i l d r e n a r e  i n the following  (She's h a d f i v e George.)  have  already,  lines: a n d n e a r l y d i e d o f young  i f Albert won't l e a v e y o u a l o n e , t h e r e i t i s , I said, What y o u g e t m a r r i e d f o r i f y o u d o n ' t want c h i l d r e n ? (TWL 159, 161-162) Well,  "It  i s a l l symptomatic  o f t h e boredom o f l o v e w h i c h i s d e g r a d e d 124  in  contemporary Although  moral union Eliot's  marriage  i s sanctioned  relationship."  by t h e c h u r c h  o f man a n d woman, t h e c h a r a c t e r s  poems e i t h e r  traditionally of  society to a mechanical  spurn  sanctioned  i t o r misuse i t .  by C h r i s t i a n  as t h e  i n Pope's and Marriage  Churches  was  f o rthe purpose  propagating future generations: The v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s who a p p e a r i n |The Waste Land] have t h i s i n common: they a r e misusing their s e x u a l c a p a c i t i e s i n ways w h i c h make them q u i t e l i t e r a l l y b a r r e n , so t h a t i n t h e i r s e x u a l a c t i v i t y t h e y sow d e a t h i n s t e a d o f l i f e . ^ 5  F a y e k M. I s h a k , T h e M y s t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y o f T.S. E l i o t (New Haven, Conn.: C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1970), p.67. IOC  Audrey F. C a h i l l , (Cape Town, S o u t h A f r i c a :  T . S . E l i o t a n d t h e Human P r e d i c a m e n t U n i v e r s i t y o f N a t a l P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p.39  44  Lil,  i n "A Game o f C h e s s " h a s s t o p p e d  had  an a b o r t i o n :  she  said."  " I t ' s them p i l l s  t o b o t h Pope a n d E l i o t  degradation of western values degradation.  against  I took,  process,  to bring  having  i t off,  (TWL 159)  Central  this  the l i f e  vice  i s t h e theme o f t h e  and t h e v i c e s w h i c h a r i s e  Pope w r o t e t h a t  from  " d i s d a i n and i n d i g n a t i o n  i s ( I t h a n k God) t h e o n l y  d i s d a i n and i n d i g n a t i o n 126  I have. The  I t i s sincere,  degradation  often  i s pictured  symbolized  garbage.  and i t w i l l  on  I n The Waste L a n d E l i o t  23),  t h e "dead t r e e "  symbolizes  and d e s o l a t i o n (TWL 1 1 5 ) ,  t h e l o w damp g r o u n d / A n d b o n e s c a s t  Rattled and  i n waste and i n h e r e n t  by t h e r a t ' s f o o t o n l y ,  year  t h e want o f p u r p o s e  - the "stony  t h e "White b o d i e s  rubbish" naked  i n a low d r y g a r r e t , / to year"  t h e "Dead m o u n t a i n mouth o f c a r i o u s  spit"  lack o f purpose,  by p h y s i c a l w a s t e - t h e a l l e y s a n d t h e  t h r o u g h images o f u g l i n e s s (TWL  be a l a s t i n g o n e . "  teeth  (TWL 1 9 3 - 1 9 5 ) , that  cannot  (TWL 3 3 9 ) .  The  strong  moral b a s i s  of Eliot's  d e p i c t i o n o f contemporary  s o c i e t y c a n be s e e n i n The I d e a o f a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y i n w h i c h he commented t h a t " i t d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a C h r i s t i a n attitude  to perceive  that  t h e modern s y s t e m o f s o c i e t y h a s a 127  great  deal  i n i tthat  i s i n h e r e n t l y bad",  due e s s e n t i a l l y ,  126 A l e x a n d e r Pope i n L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m o f A l e x a n d e r Pope, ed., B e r t r a n d A. G o l d g a r ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s , 1965), p.40. 127 The I d e a o f a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y , p . 3 2 .  45 he  b e l i e v e d , to the u n d e r l y i n g d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  political, The  religious,  and  sexual values.  Rape o f t h e L o c k a p p e a r s  t o be  Eliot's about  c h a r a c t e r s are unable  events.  The  example, p r e f e r world. world  Living  c r e a t e d by  they w i l l lives.  be  their  forced  own  T h u s , B e l i n d a and  trapped  live  of the  over  their  suffer  London B r i d g e "  individuals  (TWL  judges  wretches  may  dine" It  that  the  (TRL  has  sentence III  sign,/And  circle,  i n Pope's w o r l d  p o p u l a t i o n i n which hang t h a t  62),  soulless  inner  a r e a t t h e mercy o f a s e l f - s e r v i n g soon the  the  the  i n the  Hell's  illusory  i n which  they  and  the b r i d g e i n t o  a k i n to the f a t e of the  i n an wasted  - a world  t o Dante's I n f e r n o , d r a m a t i z e d  i n d i v i d u a l s marching  for  sustain  "crowd f l o w e d o v e r  is  thus  and  judgments  are puppets o f  consequences.  allusion  Pope's  compatriots  themselves  Eliot's  the  f o r the r e s t of  s o c i e t y which they The  and  of  of  Rape o f t h e L o c k ,  of the r e a l i t y  her  that  t o make q u a l i t a t i v e  insensibility  to l i v e  the t a r g e t  i n a waste l a n d , both  appearance to r e a l i t y concept  classical  themes i n v o l v i n g  c h a r a c t e r s i n The  T h e y have no  While  superficial,  feminine v a n i t y - t h e r e " a r e deeper condemnation of v i c e .  of  who "hungry jurymen  21-22).  been o b s e r v e d  of E l i o t  "purposelessness of l i f e  and  i t m i g h t be  i s d i s g u i s e d by  said a  of  rest-  128 lessness of action The  and  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on m i n o r  i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e w a s t e l a n d s o f Pope and  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e as  Cahill,  they  p.42.  "drank c o f f e e ,  and  events." Eliot  talked  are  f o r an  Pope  46  hour" tea" of  (TWL 11) a n d t h e n  "sometimes c o u n s e l  (TRL I I I 8) o r " s o o t h i n g their  lives  hours they (TRL and  the characters  chocolate". i n "various  past,/Who g a v e t h e b a l l ,  I I I 11-12).  The o n l y  take  talk  i n which t h e l o v e r s p l a n  morrow?/ .. .And lidless 133,  we s h a l l  eyes and w a i t i n g  136-138)  Eliot,  the instructive  thev i s i t  the characters'  C h e s s moves i n T h e Waste L a n d r e p r e s e n t affair  the void  last"  c h a n g e comes i n t h e games o f c h e s s  ombre w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y d e c i d e  love  To f i l l  1 2 9  or paid  - and sometimes  play  fate.  the steps  "What s h a l l  i na  we do t o -  a game o f c h e s s , / P r e s s i n g  f o r a k n o c k upon t h e d o o r . " (TWL  i n h i s n o t e s o n t h e poem, r e f e r s t o 130  "the in  game o f c h e s s i n M i d d l e t o n ' s  w h i c h t h e c h e s s moves r e p r e s e n t  I n t h e game o f ombre p l a y e d it  i sBelinda  leads the  the steps  ina  seduction.  i n T h e Rape o f t h e L o c k ,  although  who w i n s t h e game, h e r e x u b e r a n c e i n w i n n i n g  t o h e r symbolic  seduction,  t h e r a p e o f h e r l o c k by  Baron. Peter  the  Women Beware Women"  Quennell  compares t h e c a r d game i n T h e Rape o f  Lock t o a m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y : P o p e . . . e x t e n d e d h i s r a n g e by d e s c r i b i n g t h e w o r l d o f c a r d s , which form a m i n i a t u r e c o u r t i n s i d e a c o u r t , p a i n t e d r e p l i c a s o f t h e c o u r t l y p e r s o n a g e s who f i l l t h e room a n d p r e s s a r o u n d t h e t a b l e . . . I f t h e human p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e e p i c h e r o e s and h e r o i n e s skillfully reduced t o comic s i z e , t h e c a r d s a r e r e d u c t i o n s o f  129 "The F i r e Sermon", F a c s i m i l e E d i t i o n , The Waste L a n d e d . , V a l e r i e E l i o t (New Y o r k : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 3 8 , l i n e 10. T h e Waste L a n d , C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935, p . 8 0 . 1 3 0  47  r e d u c t i o n s , the d i m i n u t i v e counterparts of already d i m i n i s h e d f i g u r e s . . . i t i s i n d e e d a work 'where t h e l i t t l e becomes g i g a n t i c . ' ^ ^ ] _ I n The represent  Waste L a n d , E l i o t  chooses both  s o c i e t y ' s movements.  In chess,  human f i g u r e s whose movements i n t h e of  the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s  most p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e is  the  i n the  dominant f i g u r e  Sosostris,  who  whose c a r d s  however,  she  ideals  and  and  s e e s i s t h e man  and  hope.  The  The  blank  rationality,  indiscretion,  to the  Land.  r e v e r s a l means a f a u l t y  negligence.  narrow o u t l o o k actions. tend  Man,  i s a p p l i c a b l e to the  In both  Eliot  Waste L a n d , a s  t o evade the  realities  Although  fortune  this  the  their  the  of both  teller  c a r d d o e s h a v e an  Pope,  female  future,  poem.  The  staves  this  card,  represents in  The  - folly, i r ^  Even the  reversed  a hesitation  the  and  first  characters  fool  who  which  themes o f The  choice,  and  which a f f e c t s both  I n The  the  thoughtlessness.  this  and  the  the  f e m a l e , Madame  Reversal  a l l of  activities  the  three  poem.  card represents  meaning o f The  card  the  r e v e r s e d meaning of  l o s s which overtakes  Waste L a n d .  the  with  represent  i t i s the  foretells  to  t h e Queen i s  It is a  b a s i c themes o f  i s more s i g n i f i c a n t  rejection  Waste L a n d .  chess  pieces  J u s t as  game o f c h e s s ,  i n The  s t r u c t u r e the  the  and  game s y m b o l i z e  poem.  casts Tarot cards  Tarot card which symbolizes  i n the  cards  characters  Waste -  apathy  have  i n w a r d r e s p o n s e s and  a outward  T a r o t p r e d i c t s , they their  does n o t  i n f l u e n c e on  i n n e r and t u r n up the  outer  the  worlds.  Hanged  t o n e o f The  Waste  P e t e r Q u e n n e l l , A l e x a n d e r Pope: The E d u c a t i o n o f G e n i u s 1688-1728 (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s e n , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.81-82.  48 Land. to The  The Hanged Man r e p r e s e n t s l i f e  g i v e o f one's s e l f aristocratic  i n suspension,  and a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h one's  Marie,  "the t y p i s t  a  failure  self.  home a t t e a t i m e " , " t h e  young man c a r b u n c u l a r " , t h e women i n t h e pub, t h e l a d y on t h e "burnished themselves,  throne"  - a l l of the characters f a i l  as t y p i f i e d  i n the following  to give of  passage:  The w i n d u n d e r t h e d o o r . What i s t h a t n o i s e now? What i s t h e w i n d d o i n g ? Nothing again nothing. 'You know n o t h i n g ? Do y o u s e e n o t h i n g ? Do y o u remember 'Nothing?' _ ( T W L  A vacuum. living  1  7  1  2  2  )  An u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y  and c a r i n g .  senses.  1  The c h a r a c t e r s do n o t e v e n u s e t h e i r  The p r e t e n c e o f s e n s u a l i t y  mechanical  effort of  i n love-making  p a s s i o n i n an a p a t h e t i c w o r l d  i n which  i sa  merely  people  hang i n s u s p e n s i o n . The of  c o n c l u d i n g c a r d w h i c h Madame S o s o s t r i s  "crowds o f p e o p l e , w a l k i n g  closely  resembles  the description  'Judgment' a n d a l s o to  walk around  round  resembles  i n the c i r c l e s  i n a ring"  facts,  t h e crowds o f p e o p l e of Hell.  indecision,  However, i n c h o o s i n g  most a p p r o p r i a t e l y o p t i m i s t i c vision  condemned  A l l the preceding i n the reversed  o f 'Judgment' - d e l a y , p o s t p o n e m e n t , f a i l u r e  unhappiness,  tination.  (TWL 56) w h i c h  of the Tarot card of  negative predictions o f the Tarot culminate position  casts i s that  of the future.  disillusionment  and p r o c r a s -  'Judgment', E l i o t  symbolic  to face  has s e l e c t e d  a  card to conclude the  The p o s i t i v e m e a n i n g o f t h e c a r d  "suggests  49  rejuvenation...Rebirth.  Change o f  Position.  Readjustment.  132 Improvement. Few their  of  the  can  be  closely  In Canto  who I of  gives  of  clairvoyante"  (TWL  and  the  of  to  with  s i n c e they  are  outside  embody  of  false  values  Madame S o s o s t r i s o f the  the  Lock.  Star"  (TRL  combines b o t h the  warns B e l i n d a  the  presents  Astrology,  I 108),  of  Ariel  and  like  Ariel  she  does not  many omens, r e a d s many  future  "famous  foresees  saying:  T R L  Madame S o s o s t r i s s e e s  warning,  Tarot  I saw a l a s ! some d r e a d e v e n t impend, E r e t o t h e m a i n t h i s m o r n i n g sun d e s c e n d , B u t h e a v e n r e v e a l s n o t what, o r how, or where: Warned by t h e S y l p h , oh P i o u s M a i d b e w a r e ! ^ j Like A r i e l ,  a  the  Eliot's  reading  future. by  The  a l s o reads the  uses only  and  I t i s Madame  f u t u r e and  Lock, A r i e l  foretell  i n harmony  lives  who  Rape o f  ruling  43)  e v e n t and  are  While A r i e l  thy  Astrology  some d r e a d  The  a reading  a warning. or  cards  characters  Rape o f  "clear Mirror  for their  paralleled  gives  found moving  n a t u r a l surroundings  Two  Ariel  The  are  a meaning  values.  Waste L a n d and Sosostris  their  seeking  traditional  and  characters  s o c i e t y or  constantly  who  Development."  some e v i l  event  know what t h a t e v e n t  109-112)  portending is.  She  sees  cards:  H e r e i s t h e man w i t h t h r e e s t a v e s and h e r e t h e w h e e l , And h e r e i s t h e o n e - e y e d m e r c h a n t , and t h i s c a r d , W h i c h i s b l a n k , i s s o m e t h i n g he c a r r i e s on h i s b a c k , W h i c h I am f o r b i d d e n t o s e e . I do n o t f i n d The Hanged Man. F e a r d e a t h by w a t e r . ^ ^ 1 ^ 5 0 - 5 4 )  (New  S.R. K a p l a n , T a r o t C a r d s f o r Fun and F o r t u n e York: U.S. Games S y s t e m s , I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p.10.  Telling  50  A l t h o u g h so  f a r  the  she  g i v e s  i n t o  the  c h a r a c t e r s  problems  and  a  p r e d i c t i o n ,  f u t u r e i n  The  e v i l s .  s u p e r s t i t i o u s n e s s As  her  young  and Waste  of  much  man,  E l i o t  p r o f e s s e d  nor  d e n i e d  knowledge  f o r  e s t a b l i s h i n g  w i t h  t o t a l l y  abandon  f a i t h .  S e a r c h i n g  he  e x p l o r e d  w h i c h  a l l  God,  i n  t h a t  cope  became  a  t e a c h i n g  found  1915  i r o n i c  He  n e i t h e r through  In he  sought  o r d e r  c o u l d some  when  and  he  to not  type  r e l i g i o u s  r e l i g i o n s ,  i n  p r e s e n t  f e e l i n g .  p r o o f  the  h e l p  f a m i l y ' s  t h a t  thus  not  the  p o s i t i o n .  f i l l  e a s t e r n  h i s  sought  p r o j e c t e d  t h e i r  a g n o s t i c .  and  to  does  r e l i g i o u s  r e l i g i o u s  b e l i e f ,  i s  r e p r e s e n t s  an  he  i t  i t  w i t h  from  r a t h e r  however,  o t h e r  h i s  to  away  something  Buddhism,  a i d e d  f e l l  but  r e l i g i o u s f o r  vague  S o s o s t r i s  and  h i m s e l f ,  w a r n i n g ,  contemporary  U n i t a r i a n i s m ,  peace  so  Land  Madame  r e l i g i o n ,  f i n d  i s  or  of  v o i d ,  m y s t i c i s m  " r e t u r n e d  to  133 A m e r i c a  and  became  He  c o n t i n u e d  to  e x p l o r e  h i s  to  the  f r i e n d s h i p  statement  of  a  good  seek  w i t h  the  many  l a t e  c o m p a r a t i v e  r e l i g i o n s . "  r e l i g i o u s  commitment,  and  of  L o r d  Church  T h i s  s t r u g g l e s  of  V i c t o r i a n  a g n o s t i c s ,  w o r s h i p  a  i n  C a t h o l i c i s m , H a l i f a x  of  the  were  l e d  and  T.S.  of  to  e a r l y  can  E l i o t ,  b e l i e v e d  t h i n g s  him  d e l i b e r a t e d  d e l i b e r a t i o n  young  w h i c h  i n the  hence t u r n  t u r n e d through  m o d i f i e d  C a t h o l i c  England.  n i n e t e e n t h  i n t e l l e c t u a l s  C h r i s t i a n i t y .  and  l e c t u r e r  c o n c e p t  the  During  a  the  t w e n t i e t h  about be  who,  s t r o n g l y p a s t .  and  r e j e c t e d  seen  i n  l i k e  many  t h a t  c e n t u r i e s  the  e a r l y l a t e  r e l i g i o n ,  E l i o t ' s  l i t u r g y ,  c o n s e r v a t i s m ,  133 Mead  and  Robert S e n c o u r t , T.S. C o . , 1971), p . 5 2 .  E l i o t ,  A  Memoir  (New  Y o r k :  Dodd,  51 which emerged i n h i s adoption o f A n g l i c a n i s m came a t a time when s t r i c t adherence t o a r e l i g i o n was unpopular.  Although  p u b l i s h e d i n 1922, p r i o r t o E l i o t ' s c o n v e r s i o n t o A n g l i c a n i s m i n 1927, The Waste Land shows s i g n s o f h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s r e l i g i o n s and h i s s t r u g g l e w i t h the problem o f d e c i d i n g whether o r not t o adopt C h r i s t i a n i t y .  One s e c t i o n o f the poem  which shows the presence o f A n g l i c a n i s m i s "The B u r i a l o f t h e Dead", an a d a p t a t i o n o f the t i t l e o f t h e f u n e r a l s e r v i c e o f the Church o f England,  "The Order  f o r the B u r i a l of the  Dead". Pope, l i k e E l i o t , a l s o went a g a i n s t the i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s o f h i s day as f a r as r e l i g i o n was concerned. Roman C a t h o l i c , and s t r i c t l y adhered  to h i s f a i t h .  Pope was  He  " p r o f e s s e d h i s r e l i g i o n s t e a d f a s t l y , r e j e c t i n g the i n v i t a t i o n s of powerful f r i e n d s , Oxford and A t t e r b u r y , t h a t he come over w i t h them and enjoy t h e p o l i t i c a l emoluments t o which h i s 134 genius e n t i t l e d him."  Throughout h i s c a r e e r as a poet,  Pope kept h i s f i r m b e l i e f i n C a t h o l i c i s m , as witnessed i n many r e l i g i o u s r e f e r e n c e s and symbols i n h i s p o e t r y . d e c l a r e d h i s f a i t h openly i n a l e t t e r t o Jonathan  He  Swift  i n which he c l a i m e d t o be "of the r e l i g i o n o f Erasmus, a catholic".  1 3 5  In t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f r e l i g i o u s f e r v o r , r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y a l s o d e c l i n e d both i n 134 W i l l i a m K. Wimsatt J r . , ed., Alexander Pope, S e l e c t e d Poetry and Prose (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1951), p.xx. 135 Pope's l e t t e r t o S w i f t quoted i n Wimsatt, p.xx.  52 bulk and p o p u l a r i t y .  Peter Q u e n n e l l remarks t h a t s i n c e the  "death of Henry Vaughan i n 1695,  something  had gone out of  136 English devotional verse." who  Addison, one o f the few  poets  ventured t o w r i t e r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y , i l l u s t r a t e d e i g h t e e n t h -  century r e l i g i o u s concepts i n t h i s hymn: The Spacious firmament on h i g h , With a l l the b l u e e t h e r e a l sky, And spangled heavens, a s h i n i n g frame Their great Original p r o c l a i m . ^ 7 Addison's hymn " i l l u s t r a t e s the Augustan poetry:  conception of r e l i g i o u s  a form of L o y a l Address p r e s e n t e d to the D i v i n e  Sovereign, r a t h e r than the r e c o r d of a p r i v a t e  Spiritual  138 adventure."  In h i s "Messiah:  i n the S p e c t a t o r , May  14, 1712,  A Sacred E c l o g u e " , p u b l i s h e d Pope too adopts the formal and  o b j e c t i v e mode r a t h e r than a p e r s o n a l testament o f h i s f a i t h , and y e t he manages t o temper h i s poem w i t h a c e r t a i n amount o f p e r s o n a l sentiment. Both Pope and E l i o t  f e e l t h a t western  s o c i e t y has l e t "  n o n - e s s e n t i a l t r a p p i n g s take predominance i n r e l i g i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s o f the sense of what i s v i t a l s a l v a t i o n of man when man  and h i s s o u l .  becomes aware of God  E l i o t and Pope b e l i e v e  that  he g a i n s r e l e a s e from h i s  t a i n t e d nature through r e l e a s e o f energy i n c r e a s i n g l o v e f o r God  t o the  and h i s f e l l o w  i n the p r o c e s s o f man.  ^ ^ Q u e n n e l l , p. 54. 137 Joseph Addison, "The Spacious Firmament on High", R e s t o r a t i o n and Augustan Poets, eds., W.H. Auden and Norman Homes Pearson (New York: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1950), l i n e s 1-4. ^ ^ Q u e n n e l l , p. 54.  53 To t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l e y e b e l i e f s , r e l i g i o n s a n d m o r a l i t i e s a r e human h a b i t s - i n t h e i r o d d v a r i e t y t o o human. Where t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k prevails, sanctions wither. In a contemporary consciousness there i s inevitably a great deal o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , and t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f The Waste L a n d i s t h u s s e e n t o h a v e a f u r t h e r significance. To be, t h e n , t o o much c o n s c i o u s and c o n s c i o u s o f t o o much - t h a t i s t h e p l i g h t : " A f t e r s u c h k n o w l e d g e , what f o r g i v e n e s s ? "  The modern f o n d n e s s f o r d i s s e c t i o n  o f man's i n t i m a t e  his  culture  environment,  social  tends t o d i s i n t e g r a t e  the very  Man l o s e s h i s b e l i e f s ; and customs, analysis life  relations,  fabric  he l o s e s  a n d he l o s e s m o r a l j u d g m e n t .  of religion  seemed t o E l i o t  and r e l i g i o n  o f human  t h e impetus  life  -  -  existence.  to observe The  laws  "academic  and t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s almost a n t i t h e t i c a l .  He  preferred, 140  as always, t o adopt t h e non-academic Pope a n d E l i o t unchangeable  delve  into  possibility religion. remarked  s h a r e a s e n s e o f man's f u n d a m e n t a l a n d  limitations  in Christianity.  p o i n t o f view."  - i n addition  As a r e s u l t  of their  to their  common  belief  beliefs,  both poets  t h e a g e l e s s p r o b l e m o f human i n a d e q u a c i e s a n d t h e of the r e s o l u t i o n o f these inadequacies through I n N o t e s Towards t h e D e f i n i t i o n  that  "no c u l t u r e  together with r e l i g i o n :  of Culture,  Eliot  has appeared o r developed except according  the o b s e r v e r , t h e c u l t u r e w i l l  to the point  appear  o f view o f  t o be t h e p r o d u c t o f 141  the r e l x g i o n ,  or the r e l i g i o n  F.R. L e a v i s ,  the product of the c u l t u r e . "  i n Hugh K e n n e r , p . 9 1 .  140 R o b e r t S e n c o u r t , p.52. 141 (London:  T.S. E l i o t , N o t e s Towards t h e D e f i n i t i o n F a b e r and F a b e r L i m i t e d , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 5 .  of Culture,  54  Religion  is clearly  obsolete  i n The  Waste  Land:  I n t h i s d e c a y e d h o l e among t h e m o u n t a i n s In the f a i n t m o o n l i g h t , the g r a s s i s s i n g i n g Over the tumbled g r a v e s , about the chapel T h e r e i s t h e empty c h a p e l , o n l y t h e w i n d ' s home. I t has no windows, and t h e d o o r s w i n g s _ . , -,r>r>\ / m T T T  ^ In  this  that  scene of  remains of An  corruption  which  Jew  evident  i n that  he  Rape o f  the with  of  evils  are  t a s t e and  their  tradition  found  whose l a c k o f  i n the  a belief and  person  of  a clear heritage  "Spawned i n some e s t a m i n e t o f  the  a c t u a l A r a b e l l a Fermor  heritage,  heritage,  the  the  values  i n London."  character of  is  Antwerp/ 142  Lock, although social  that  the  peeled  a  the  Eliot  a result  as of  morality,  In was  Belinda  religion,  sex  roles,  n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s , man's p r o b l e m s the  the  b o t h men  abandonment o f  particularly  explore  the  - man's u r g e t o know t h e  o c c u l t i s not  knowledge, but  man  rather  an  searching  future.  T.S.  Eliot,  "Gerontian",  various  traditions  moral t r a d i t i o n s .  The  for religion  avoidance of  standards  'sham' r e l i g i o n  self  o n e - t o - o n e d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God, 142  high  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  with c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  poetry,  occultism of  symbols o f  All  and  Pope and  associated In  "tumbled".  marriage. For  and  be  386-390)  patched  spurns t r a d i t i o n , and  was  lack of  i t can  i n "Gerontian"  graves are  decaying  this  follows  i n Brussels,  associated  are  example o f  Eliot's  The  even the  religion  o n c e was.  Blistered  decay,  (TWL  0  by  of  exploration and  self-  avoiding  which  the  is  C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935,  lines  9-10  55 essentially  an i n t r o s p e c t i v e  occultism  because  knowledge  - the Faustian  all  achieve falls  original godhead  t o b e man's  i s opposed  search  self-destructive  search  Eliot  the ultimate  life  to  f o r ultimate  desire  tells  To  t o have  because  with  man  time".  1 4  -  '*  to  man  he t o o w a n t s t o on t h e o c c u l t o f man's  of the future  of Christ  wanted  Western  of his disapproval  knowledge  communicate  G o d knew.  f o r knowledge  i n the following  because  In a passage  of the timeless/With  expressed  occurred  a l l that  knowledge.  of the occult  section  o f Man  i n his daily  ultimate  Quartets,  Fall  - t o know  and f a i l s  achieve  with  i t appears  Eliot  the answers. The  Four  matter.  futile  i n contrast  "The p o i n t This  i n the  of  inter-  disapproval i s  lines:  Mars,  converse  with  spirits  To r e p o r t t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e s e a m o n s t e r , Describe the horoscope, haruspicate or scry, Observe d i s e a s e i n s i g n a t u r e , evoke Biography from t h e w r i n k l e s o f t h e palm And t r a g e d y f r o m f i n g e r s ; r e l e a s e omens By s o r t i l e g e , o r t e a l e a v e s , r i d d l e t h e i n e v i t a b l e With p l a y i n g cards, f i d d l e with pentagrams Or b a r b i t u r i c a c i d s , o r d i s s e c t The r e c u r r e n t image i n t o p r e - c o n s c i o u s t e r r o r s T o e x p l o r e t h e womb, o r t o m b , o r d r e a m s ; a l l t h e s e a r e u s u a l Pastimes and drugs and f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r e s s : A n d a l w a y s w i l l b e , some o f t h e m e s p e c i a l l y : When t h e r e i s d i s t r e s s o f n a t i o n a n d p e r p l e x i t y Whether on t h e s h o r e s o f A s i a , o r i n t h e Edgeware Road. Men's c u r i o s i t y s e a r c h e s p a s t a n d f u t u r e And c l i n g s t o t h a t dimension. 1  The  well-ordered  horoscopes,  ceremonies  and s p i r i t u a l i s m  of occultism - Tarot  - replace  genuine  Quartets,  line  143  "Dry 1  4  4  Salvages",  Ibid.,  lines  Four  184-200.  202,  cards,  religious  c e r e m o n i e s i n t h e s o c i e t y o f E l i o t ' s Waste L a n d . man", who i s a l s o t h e s o n o f God, no l o n g e r modern man's w o r l d ; he i s no l o n g e r of  religion  animation, (TWL  a l l that  22).  religion  because r e l i g i o n  Replacing  - Eliot  Sosostris  "with  Mysticism  i s a "heap o f b r o k e n  a Christian-based  images"  religion  sees t h e o c c u l t as r e p r e s e n t e d a wicked pack o f c a r d s . "  i t i s only  - the true by Madame  (TWL 46)  i s the b e l i e f  which expresses  itself  i n favour  natural that neo-classical writers  t o t h e e a r t h l y s t a t e o f man.  perceptive  the root or the branch  i s e i t h e r dead o r i n suspended  s h y away f r o m t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l  viewpoint  i s present i n  was r e j e c t e d b y t h e n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s  o f Deism; t h u s would  i s left  The "Son o f  and t h e o c c u l t and a t t e n d  Part of the n e o - c l a s s i c a l  i n the r e a l i t y  and v a l u e  i n the ordering o f nature  g u i d e l i n e s f o r human b e h a v i o r .  of  Providence,  and i n  Hulme o b s e r v e d o n o n e  occasion: T h a t p a r t o f t h e f i x e d n a t u r e o f man i s t h e b e l i e f in the Deity. T h i s s h o u l d be as f i x e d and t r u e f o r e v e r y man a s b e l i e f i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m a t t e r i n the o b j e c t i v e world. I t i s parallel to a p p e t i t e , t h e i n s t i n c t o f sex, and a l l t h e o t h e r fixed qualities. In  t h e E s s a y on Man, Pope a r g u e s t h a t man's momentary  happiness i s contingent The  inability  to foresee  hope o f a b e t t e r  145  future  upon h i s i g n o r a n c e future events state since  Hulme, i n S h a p i r o , p . 9 3 .  of the future.  i s t h e b a s i s o f man's  "hope s p r i n g s  eternal i n  the  human b r e a s t " .  are  b a s e d on  faith  146  Most o f  - the  C h r i s t which r e s u l t s believes by  God  that  the  liberating  i n content  lack of  things  by  w h i c h man  life-giving  i n man's d a i l y  feeling life.  foreknowledge i s a gracious  t o e n s u r e man's momentary  lives in  Pope  gift  given  happiness:  Heaven f r o m a l l c r e a t u r e s h i d e s t h e book o f F a t e , A l l but the page p r e s c r i b e d , t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e . • • •  Oh  blindness  B e c a u s e , as One  to the  future!  k i n d l y given., '148  Pope w r i t e s :  truth i s clear,  WHATEVER I S ,  IS  RIGHT.  The f i r s t , l a s t p u r p o s e o f t h e human s o u l ; ...know, where F a i t h , Law, M o r a l s a l l b e g a n , A l l end, i n LOVE OF GOD, and L o v e o f M A N . 1 4 g  By  his addition of  Rape o f the  the  the  L o c k Pope p l a c e d  i n the  s o c i e t y ' s warped r e l i g i o u s  nymphs w h i c h a p p e a r i n t h e in  sylphs  the  Gabalis. beings,  Commenting on George W i l s o n  the  r e v i s i o n s of  The  poem some c l e a r s i g n  order.  poem a r e  Rosicrucian religion  i n the  The  sylphs,  b a s e d on  the  w h i c h Pope l e a r n e d  of  gnomes,  forms  and  found  f r o m Comte  de  h i e r a r c h y o f Pope's p r e t e r n a t u r a l  Knight  wrote  that:  We h a v e a g r a d u a t i o n , a s i t w e r e , f r o m one concrete l i v i n g whole to the next; from words, c o n c r e t e or a b s t r a c t nouns o r v e r b s , t o ' p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n * a s a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e t o d r a m a t i c e n t i t i e s s u c h as t h e  A l e x a n d e r Pope, E s s a y on Man, e d . , M a y n a r d Mack M e t h u e n and Co. L t d . , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp.239-326, l i n e 95. 147 E s s a y on Man, l i n e s 76-77. 148 , . , .. I b i d . , l i n e 85. T  1 4 9  Ibid.,  o c  lines  337-339.  (London  58 s y l p h s and gnomes o f The Rape o f t h e L o c k ; there to a g a l l e r y of actual p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h e r e t o s o c i e t y and t h e n a t i o n . This  ordering  importance  o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d and  i n setting  the l i v e s  context of t r a d i t i o n a l  values.  spirit  from and  world  of the c h a r a c t e r s As  Pope  i s of  i n the  wrote:  The u s e o f t h e s e m a c h i n e s i s e v i d e n t : s i n c e no e p i c poem c a n p o s s i b l y s u b s i s t w i t h o u t them, t h e w i s e s t way i s t o r e s e r v e them f o r y o u r g r e a t e s t necessities: when y o u c a n n o t e x t r i c a t e y o u r h e r o by any human means, o r y o u r s e l f by y o u r own w i t , s e e k r e l i e f f r o m h e a v e n , and t h e gods w i l l do your b u s i n e s s v e r y r e a d i l y . Eliot and  t o o makes u s e o f t h e m a c h i n e r y  s y l p h s borrowed  from  of the gods,  a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s myths.  and nymphs a r e t r a d i t i o n a l  guardians of female  In  writes  "The  Fire  departed" This  Sermon" E l i o t  (TWL  insistence  chastity belief  175),  and  c a n be  and m o r a l i t y  as w e l l  In p l a c e of b e l i e f  derided into  and  Eros.  "nymphs a r e statement.  as t h e d e p a r t u r e o f  as t h e d e p a r t u r e f r o m  the  world. i n a Deity,  through the r e l i g i o u s  t h e poems.  sylphs  chastity.  repeats this  the s o c i e t i e s  Pope have w a r p e d v a l u e s and  female v a n i t y , and  f o r emphasis  interpreted  i n the s p i r i t u a l  by E l i o t  that the  The  nymphs,  B o t h Pope and f o r example,  rites  which  Eliot  b e l i e f s which have b e e n  and  are  incorporated  juxtaposed r e l i g i o n  to create a c o n f l i c t  B o t h The Waste L a n d  satirized  The  of  and  Religion  Rape o f t h e L o c k  come t o  150 George W i l s o n K n i g h t , L a u r e a t e o f Peace R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1954), p.13.  (London:  151 A l e x a n d e r Pope, "The A r t o f S i n k i n g i n P o e t r y . For M a c h i n e s " a s q u o t e d i n " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o The Rape o f t h e L o c k (Oxford: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p.29.  59  f o c u s o n a r i c h woman's t o i l e t . jewels,  trinkets,  women a n d t h e i r ordered the Lock  of cosmetics,  and o t h e r p a r a p h e r n a l i a used  rite.  B e l i n d a i n The Rape o f  a n d t h e u p p e r - c l a s s woman o f E l i o t ' s a r e seen  i n "sacred r i t e s  women comb t h e i r  become v i r t u a l  t o adorn t h e  bed-chambers a r e d e s c r i b e d as i f t h e a r t i c l e s a r e  f o r some r e l i g i o u s  of Chess", The  The d e t a i l s  hair  goddesses  and adorn  canto  of pride" themselves  "A Game  (TRL I 1 2 8 ) . i n order to  f o r t h e men w i t h whom t h e y w i l l  come  into contact. Participants symbolized cosmetic  i n the "rites  of pride",  t h e s e women a r e  i n the juxtaposition  of serious  religious  trinkets.  celebrated  B e l i n d a has on t h e d r e s s i n g  collection  Billet-doux."  of "Puffs,  (TRL I 138)  the  story o f western  and  o l d love l e t t e r s .  religion,  I n T h e Waste L a n d , E l i o t  on a l l t h e t r i v i a  dressing  a Christian  Bibles, symbol,  i s tossed alongside cosmetics  J e w i s h Menorah, t h e s e v e n - b r a n c h e d light  table her  Powders, P a t c h e s ,  The B i b l e ,  objects with  candlestick,  presents the as shedding  i n t h e woman's room a n d o n h e r  table:  ...the g l a s s H e l d up by s t a n d a r d s w r o u g h t w i t h f r u i t e d v i n e s From w h i c h a g o l d e n C u p i d o n p e e p e d o u t ( A n o t h e r h i d h i s e y e s b e h i n d h i s wing) Doubled t h e flames o f t h e sevenbranched c a n d e l a b r a R e f l e c t i n g l i g h t upon t h e t a b l e a s The g l i t t e r o f h e r j e w e l s r o s e t o meet i t From s a t i n c a s e s p o u r e d i n r i c h p r o f u s i o n , ^^-^ 73-85) In both  instances religious  the e r o t i c  lives  of rich  o b j e c t s have been p r o f a n e d i n  a n d f r i v o l o u s women.  To b o t h  GO poets t h i s over  the  decay of The  the  spiritual  the  represents  e r o t i c and  an  important  materialistic facet  in  the  civilization. incongruity  respect, by  o v e r s h a d o w i n g by  and  of  a s o c i e t y which pretends  b e l i e f when none t r u l y  following  lines  f r o m The  exists i s  Rape o f  the  humility,  illustrated  Lock:  On h e r w h i t e b r e a s t a s p a r k l i n g c r o s s she wore W h i c h Jews m i g h t k i s s and i n f i d e l s a d o r e . . _  With Chaucerian i r o n y ,  the  worn i n m o c k e r y m e r e l y as the of  beauty of her In  Belinda's  C h r i s t i a n symbol o f  T  _  { 1KL  J. 1  the  cross  a f r i v o l o u s adornment t o  white breast  rather  set  t h a n as  a  Q  . / — o)  is  off symbol  beliefs. the  court  s o c i e t y w h i c h Pope d e p i c t s ,  be  c o r r e c t l y ordered  is  r e f l e c t e d i n the  for pleasing d e s c r i p t i o n of  C o u r t , whose m e t i c u l o u s o r d e r f o r p e r f e c t i o n and  beauty.  appearance. the  tea  intimates  The  everything This  party  must  necessity  at  Hampton  a r e l i g i o u s reverence  t r a y s on  which the  cups  are  carried  a r e even r e f e r r e d t o as " a l t a r s " : For l o ! t h e b o a r d w i t h c u p s and s p o o n s i s c r o w n e d , The b e r r i e s c r a c k l e , and t h e m i l l t u r n s r o u n d ; On s h i n i n g a l t a r s o f J a p a n t h e y r a i s e The s i l v e r lamp; t h e f i e r y S p i r i t s b l a z e ; From s i l v e r s p o u t s t h e g r a t e f u l l i q u o r s g l i d e , W h i l e C h i n a ' s e a r t h r e c e i v e s the smoking t i d e ^ 105-110) T  The  s p o o n s , c u p s , and  for  a r e l i g i o u s ceremony  correctness As as  of  with  s e e n by  t r a y s which resemble a r t i c l e s symbolize  eighteenth-century  eighteenth-century  Eliot,  i s overly  the  cult  of  R  L  arrayed  shallow  society. society, twentieth-century  conscious of  a superficial  society,  sense of  order,  61  There and  are  s t r o n g  d i s c a r d e d  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  d r a f t  of  Dead"  and  the  a  companion  on  h i s  and  I  g i r l  (TWL  d e a t h  u n c e r t a i n a  f i n e  of  the  "the by  when  i n  even  he  His  i n  The  l i f e  -  of  the  a  r a i n " ,  g a r d e n " ,  M a r i e ' s  "You  l i f e  a t  S t a r n b e r g e r s e e ,  i n  s o u t h .  b i r t h r i g h t , German:  s i n c e  " B i n  d e u t s c h . " In sense they  have  Rape  her she  gar  (TWL  The  of  of  i s  k e i n e  i t s  a  happy me  of  by  s t a y  her  an  of  p a s t  f i r s t  a i n  R u s s i n ,  stamm'  the  not aus  p i c t u r e and  a g o " .  s o c i e t y ,  dominant p r i d e  (TWL as  her w i n t e r s  b o t h i n  R u s s i a n , L i t a u e n ,  i s  r e c a l l e d  " a r c h - d u k e ' s " ,  i n  i n  There  year  i s  b e i n g  l i f e  l o v e  r e g i m e n t a t i o n  of  the  H o f g a r t e n "  spending  aware  the  e v o c a t i v e  of  and  dead,  of of  to  r e f l e c t s  nor  h a b i t  l i f e  p a s t  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s ,  p o s i t i o n the  her  l o v e r  l i v e s  "the  moments  at  L o c k .  e x i s t e n c e .  p a i n t s  her  B u r i a l  l i g h t ,  i t s  own  h y a c i n t h s  of  E l i o t ' s  the  p i c t u r e  " s u n l i g h t " ,  s o c i a l  i n her  but e c h t  12) of  the  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , a  of  of  Her  the  o r i g i n a l  "The  d e s c r i b e s  as  unaware  and  s o c i a l  Rape  h e a r t  i s  E l i o t  the  c h i l d h o o d  Her  d e s c r i p t i o n  as  o r d e r e d  summer  the  Land,  l i f e  of  n e i t h e r / L i v i n g  e x i s t e n c e ,  gave  by  The  the  between  opening  memories.  i n t o  the  i n d i c a t e d  her  her  i s  i n  was  r e a l i t y  "shower  statement  the  "I  the  i n  and  g a r d e n ,  her  Waste  though,  of  i n  w o r l d  says  r e s p e c t ,  Sermon"  h y a c i n t h  n o s t a l g i a ,  h y a c i n t h  t h e  F i r e  s h a r e s  39-41)  t h i s  s o c i e t y  the  who  c h a r a c t e r s  d e a t h ,  "The  n o t h i n g , / L o o k i n g  s i l e n c e . " other  i n  B e l i n d a ' s of  f a i l u r e knew  of  M a r i e ' s  M a r i e , male  p a r a l l e l s  s t r o n g  sense  Lock and of  the  c h a r a c t e r s  y e t , s o c i a l  as  a l s o  p r e v i o u s l y  s t a t u s .  l a c k  a  s t r o n g  d i s c u s s e d ,  B e l i n d a ' s  35)  62 preference Canto  IV  rather  f o r forms  i s e x p r e s s e d i n h e r s p e e c h a t t h e end  when s h e t h o u g h t l e s s l y  have l o s t  When t h e r e physical  her c h a s t i t y  i s no m o r a l i t y  implies  that  she  than her g l o r i o u s  or inward beauty  of  would  lock of  hair.  t o accompany  beauty:  How v a i n a r e a l l t h e s e g l o r i e s , a l l o u r p a i n s , U n l e s s good s e n s e p r e s e r v e what b e a u t y g a i n s : T h a t men may s a y , when we t h e f r o n t - b o x g r a c e : 'Behold the f i r s t i n v i r t u e as i n f a c e ! ' ,  c  , . Q  (1 JtvLi V 1 b — 1 o) As  i n The  Waste L a n d Thunder direct "the the  Rape o f t h e L o c k ,  becomes a p p a r e n t i n t h e f i f t h  Said".  In t h i s  religious  third spirit  who  section  allusions  walks  o f God  (TWL  Upanishad.  always  and c o n t r o l o n e ' s on c l a s s i c i s m .  is  actions  Eliot  blessing (TWL  self,  our e q u i v a l e n t  in life  voice  -  402);  i s Give;  which  of  perhaps  i n the thunderous The  voice advice  "Dayadhvan"  (TWL  412) ;  Hindu  Sympathize; t o the  advocates that  s y m p a t h i z e w i t h man's - comparable  one  condition,  t o Hulme's  position  c o n c l u d e s The Waste L a n d w i t h t h e  o f an U p a n i s h a d :  434),  360)  are applicable  position,  "What t h e  The  has t a k e n from a  advice  pronouncements  s h o u l d g i v e o f one's  shantih"  this  religious  (TWL  The  a number o f  summation o f t h e poem.  419), which E l i o t  These  neo-classical  closing  b e s i d e you"  - becomes embodied  Translated,  section,  inserts  t h e " t h u n d e r " i s " D a t t a " (TWL  "Damyata"  Control.  Eliot  nature of  and p r o n o u n c e m e n t s .  whose w o r d s f o r m t h e m o r a l g i v e n by  the d i d a c t i c  "Shantih  shantih  "'The  Peace which p a s s e t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g * 152 t o t h i s word." Thus E l i o t i s s a y i n g  "Notes on The Waste L a n d " ,  Collected  Poems 1909-1935,  p.84.  63 that  i f man  follows  the moral p r e s c r i p t i o n , given  words o f "What t h e T h u n d e r  Said",  long  i n The Waste  awaited peace i n l i f e  the r e s u l t  will  Land.  i n the be t h e  three  64  CHAPTER I I I Neo-classical  Form i n Pope and  Eliot  I n The Rape o f t h e L o c k by " p l a c i n g so much e m p h a s i s on t h e ' m o r a l ' o f t h e e p i c , Pope was c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e p i c t r a d i t i o n as he u n d e r s t o o d i t . To him, the t r a d i t i o n was n o t e v e n r e m o t e , l e t a l o n e d e a d . His v i e w s o f t h e h e r o i c t r a d i t i o n were somewhat a k i n t o t h o s e o f T.S. E l i o t , whose f i r m b e l i e f i n t h e c o n t i n u i t y of t r a d i t i o n i s expressed i n ' T r a d i t i o n and t h e I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t ' and 'The F u n c t i o n o f Criticism'"., _ lb J c  In the n e o - c l a s s i c a l - and  verse  exhibit  satire  l i t e r a t u r e of the  in particular  exacting principles  the poet's  - i t was  o f form  c e n t r a l m o r a l themes.  eighteenth necessary  i n order  The  to  century  to  illuminate  "eighteenth century  was  154 classical maintain  i n i t s respect for authority". standards,  c o p y m o d e l s and  Poets  were  p a t t e r n s , comply  "to  with  155 conventions, was  the  and  chastise lawlessness."  eighteenth-century  Eliot's  comment on  this  without  intelligence  c a n n o t mean s t a n d i n g 'cult  cult  type  The  of poetic  'correctness'.  o f d e v o t i o n was  driving  Eliot,  still."  Hack w r i t e r s may  "however f o r m a l  a t t h i n g s and  that  "tradition  i s not worth h a v i n g " b e c a u s e 157  of c o r r e c t n e s s ' , but w r i t e r s of m e r i t ,  Pope and  pitfall  people,  their  at least  style,  "tradition  pursue  such  as  were  always  in their  the  Dryden,  most  153 G e o r g e T. W r i g h t , The P o e t i n t h e Poem (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p.56. 154 H e n r y A. B e e r s , A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h R o m a n t i c i s m i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y (New Y o r k : G o r d i a n P r e s s I n c . , 1 8 9 9 ) , p.47. 155 Ibid., p.47. ^ ^ A f t e r S t r a n g e Gods, p.19. 157 • I b i d . , p.24. X 3 3  L 3 /  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c work; t h e y  d i d not  just  embroider  familiar  158 themes w i t h The  traditional  form  of the  humorous d i s t o r t i o n is  satires of the  to b r i n g the reader  consciousness  of  graces." o f Pope and  familiar  into  the nature  Eliot  whose  involves a  purpose nevertheless /  terms w i t h r e a l i t y . of s a t i r e  comment on d i d a c t i c p o e t r y , w h i c h he m o r a l e x h o r t a t i o n w h i c h , as w i t h  can  be  /  Eliot's  realized  b e l i e v e d t o be  in his  poetry  of  some o f D r y d e n ' s poems, i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a r e s a t i r e s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y aim t o r i d i c u l e t h e o b j e c t s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e y a r e d i r e c t e d , and a l s o d i d a c t i c i n t h e aim t o p e r s u a d e t h e r e a d e r t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s p o i n t of view.^^g The  a r t of the  distorting a fiction from  is characteristically  a contemporary  to h i s s a t i r e .  the n a t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e to the d i s t o r t e d of  the e x i s t i n g  satirist  historical f u n c t i o n of  criticized  often juxtaposes  or  fictional  satire  world  satirist  moral nature  change  indicates  i n order  and  the  the  pretends  he  s p e a k s f o r example  error  folly.  his techniques.  vice obliquely,  a  traditional  to the  subtly or obviously indicates  satirist  the  society.  to perform  - the education of the reader  either  into  the contemporary world w i t h  o f h i s work t h r o u g h  d e s p i s e s ; he  This  condition in  o f h i s ways, c u s t o m a r i l y t h e e r r o r s o f v i c e The  that of  i n c i d e n t which offends reason  w h i c h becomes c e n t r a l  absurdity The  satirist  the  By a t t a c k i n g  to c e l e b r a t e t h a t which  "with enthusiasm  of  Utopias  158 159  Thomson, p . 2 0 7 . "The S o c i a l F u n c t i o n o f P o e t r y " ,  On  Poetry  and  Poets,  p.11  66  w h i c h he p r o v e s satirist, The  t o be w a s t e l a n d s " . * ^  verbal  words c a r r y  irony  i s an i n v e r s i o n  the opposite  mean a n d a s s u c h t h e y actual  tool of the  o f the poet's actual  meaning.  i n t e n t i o n o f what t h e y o r d i n a r i l y  serve t o i l l u s t r a t e  incongruities i n  s i t u a t i o n s , a s i n t h e b e l i e f by t h e B a r o n a n d t h e  "young man c a r b u n c u l a r " by  A primary  1  t h e women whom t h e y "Satire  that  they a r e accepted,  even welcomed,  seek t o e x p l o i t .  i s not for the literal-minded.  I t e x i s t s on a t 161  least  two l e v e l s , t h e o v e r t  and t h e i m p l i e d " .  The r e a d e r  must r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n f l i c t i n g s e n s e o f v a l u e s p o i n t e d by  irony  i n order  reader w i l l the  Belinda (TRL  t o be s u c c e s s f u l .  u p h o l d one s e t o f s t a n d a r d s w h i l e  s a t i r e uphold  contrasting  for this device  values  tosses  another.  Often the  the personae o f  An example o f t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f  c a n be s e e n i n T h e Rape o f t h e L o c k w h e r e  "Puffs,  Powders, P a t c h e s , B i b l e s ,  I 138) t o g e t h e r o n h e r d r e s s i n g  table  h a v e t h e same p u r p o s e a n d i m p o r t a n c e . emphasize normal e x p e c t a t i o n s about neurosis of his  up  narrator,  Eliot  Billet-doux"  as i f they a l l  S i m i l a r l y , i n order to  spring,  alongside the  offers the following  celebrated  juxtaposition: A p r i l i s t h e c r u e l l e s t month, b r e e d i n g L i l a c s o u t o f t h e dead l a n d , m i x i n g Memory a n d d e s i r e , s t i r r i n g Dull roots with spring r a i n . , , ^ ^ (TWL 1-4) m T T T  160  A l v i n B. K e r n a n , T h e P l o t o f S a t i r e (New H a v e n : Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p.82. James S u t h e r l a n d , E n g l i s h S a t i r e ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p.20.  67 Spring pain  has  f o r c i n g new  ironical of  the  vision,  life  a joyous awakening but i n t o the  Eliot  has  world.  reversed  instead  With the  the  a  cruel  satirist's  conventional  evocation  season.  In in  become n o t  1939  h i s own  Eliot  stated  t h a t man  power t o c o n t r o l t h e  was  placing  too  much  faith  world:  We a r e a l l d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e world i s conducted: some b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s a m i s c o n d u c t i n w h i c h we a l l h a v e c o m p l i c i t y ; some b e l i e v e t h a t i f we t r u s t o u r s e l v e s e n t i r e l y t o p o l i t i c s , s o c i o l o g y , o r e c o n o m i c s we s h a l l o n l y s h u f f l e f r o m one m a k e s h i f t t o a n o t h e r . . 16 2. Pope a l s o e x p r e s s e d 'over-reaching'  of  i n government, the E s s a y he  criticizes  f e a r about the civilized church,  and  and  disgust  commerce.  In  with the  the third  underlying  and greed Moral  m a t e r i a l i s m which causes 163 t o be "sunk i n l u c r e ' s s o r d i d c h a r m s " . In the I m i t a t i o n o f H o r a c e , Pope commented how men a r e " a l i k e i n n o t h i n g but 164 one l u s t f o r g o l d " . E l i o t ' s m i s g i v i n g s about the snare of materialism  the  man  'over-confidence'  i s s i m i l a r to  men  Pope's:  Perhaps the dominant v i c e of p o i n t of view of the Church, be A v a r i c e . Surely there i s o u r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s money. r a t h e r t h a n t h e c r e a t i v e and are encouraged  our time, from the w i l l be p r o v e d t o s o m e t h i n g wrong i n The a c q u i s i t i v e , spiritual instincts  16 2 The  Idea of  a Christian Society,  p.98.  163 ed.,  F.W. 164  A l e x a n d e r Pope, M o r a l E s s a y I I I , E p i s t l e t o B a t h u r s t , B a t e s o n (London: M e t h u e n and Company L t d . , 1 9 5 1 ) , l i n e  A l e x a n d e r Pope, I m i t a t i o n o f H o r a c e , e d . , J o h n B u t t ( L o n d o n : TheM e t e n o fanda Company E p i s t l e I , l i n e 24. Ih du ea C h r i s t i a Ln t dS .o ,c i e1t9y6,1 ) , p.97. 165  145.  68  The  s a t i r e s of  "stereotypes,  fossilized  crank t h e o r i e s , all  other  They a r e  Pope and  beliefs,  pedantic  things  that  Eliot  were i n t e n d e d  aggressive  that  "most p e o p l e a r e  fashion,  f r e e movement o f  c o n c e r n e d w i t h man's l a c k o f  believing  up  superstitions, terrors,  dogmatism,  impede t h e  to break  society."  i n s i g h t about  purblind,  and 166  himself,  i n s e n s i t i v e , perhaps 167  anaesthetized They i n s i s t , truth  - at  by  c u s t o m and  i n short,  least that  that part  dullness  and  r e a d e r s be of  ignore." The s a t i r i s t  has  critic  manners who  the  resignation."  made t o  "see  the  t r u t h which they h a b i t u a l l y  1 6 8  o f men  and  been c h a r a c t e r i z e d gives  the  as  "a  responsible  rules of  a happy  and  169 virtuous Society the is  life". and  i n h i s poems. - was  believed,  not  For an  might  "be 170  Idea o f  an  Northrop  "Poetry  escape Frye,  Ibid., Kernan,  the  acts  contemporary  - and  emotional In  a Christian  clearly  s i m i l a r to  poetry  made w i t h o u t  the  satire  civilization  in  outpouring,  fact,  great  d i r e c t use  poetry, of  a turning  loose  from emotion;  i t i s not  the  i n A l l e n and  in  satiric  i s not  G i l b e r t H i g h e t , The Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1 7 0  Eliot,  unchecked  1 6 7  1 6 8  f r a i l t y of  fastidious selection.  emotion whatever". emotion, but  the  i n statements which are  a work o f  1 6 6  The  A f t e r S t r a n g e Gods, where E l i o t  expressed  particular  he  s u c h w o r k s as  r o l e of moral c r i t i c ,  targets  but  In  Stephens,  Anatomy o f S a t i r e 1962), p.19.  any of  expression  p.20. (Princeton,  N.J.:  p.19. p.8.  "Tradition  and  the  Individual Talent",  Selected  Essays,  p.18  Gy 171 of  personality, Satire  involves  to an i d e a l aberration and  b u t an escape  through from  the s a t i r i s t ' s 172  the idea.  typical  i n their material  i n measuring the of the eighteenth  success: that  t o be  "When t h e  a l l was f o r t h e b e s t  a number o f m a j o r w r i t e r s ) 173  o u t t h a t a g r e a t d e a l . . . w a s wrong."  of neo-classical  a balanced v i s i o n .  artists,  Pope a n d E l i o t  Pope, f o r e x a m p l e ,  shows how t h e G r e a t C h a i n o f B e i n g o f God's o r d e r i n t h e w o r l d . Dunciad  by r e f e r e n c e  seemed t o Pope a n d E l i o t  the best o f a l l p o s s i b l e worlds  were p o i n t i n g  efforts  The s o c i e t i e s  m e t a p h y s i c i a n s were d e m o n s t r a t i n g in  personality."  condemnation o f s o c i e t y  twentieth centuries  'over-confident'  from  he c r e a t e s a p i c t u r e  NeverUteless, strove f o r  i n t h e E s s a y o n Man  illustrates  t h e beauty  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n The o f growing  where men b e h a v e a s t h e y w o u l d  darkness  and e v i l  i f they r e v e r s e d the Chain o f  B e i n g , a s Pope p r e d i c t e d i n E s s a y o n Man: Men w o u l d be A n g e l s , A n g e l s w o u l d be G o d s . A s p i r i n g t o be Gods, i f A n g e l s f e l l , A s p i r i n g t o be A n g e l s , Men r e b e l : And who b u t w i s h e s t o i n v e r t t h e l a w s Of ORDER, s i n s a g a i n s t t h E t e r n a l C a u s e . 1  More t h a n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l Eliot with The  varied  t h e form o f s a t i r e ,  f r e s h r h y t h m s a n d a new s o r t Waste L a n d , b e c a u s e  experimenting, of collage  satirists, f o r example,  effect i n  he saw " p o e t r y a s h a v i n g a  social  171 1 7 2  " T r a d i t i o n and t h e I n d i v i d u a l W i l l e y , p.101.  I b i d . , p.100. 174 E s s a y o n Man, I , l i n e s  T a l e n t " , S e l e c t e d Eeutgys, p. 21,  1 7 3  126-130.  70  f u n c t i o n of v i t a l i z i n g  the  language  of  i t s audience  i n order  175 to v i t a l i z e Rutledge  their  p e r c e p t i o n s of the world."  r e m a r k s o f The  As  Harry  Waste Land:  T h i s u t t e r l y e n g r o s s i n g , f a s c i n a t i n g poem r e f l e c t s , and y e t b r e a k s w i t h , t h e p a s t ; i t blends the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l p r e s e n t ; i t f r e e l y combines t h e m a j e s t i c mythological prophet T i r e s i a s with a p a t h e t i c s t e n o g r a p h e r and h e r c o a r s e 'young man carbuncular . l/o 1  n n c  By  examining  poetry, their  the scenes  the r e a d e r can  and  techniques  observe  the c l o s e  p r a c t i c e as n e o - c l a s s i c a l In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h E l i o t ' s  observation poem o f  such  t h a t The  i n P o p e ' s and relationship  satirists. s a t i r e , one  recalls  L o v e Song o f J . A l f r e d  a startling  new  style  that  Eliot's between  F.R.  Leavis's  P r u f r o c k was  i t "must  a  indeed  177 have b e e n d i f f i c u l t is  difficult  mock-heroic contrast serious  to take  to take mode.  seriously  seriously  Eliot  burlesques  theme o f man's t i m i d i t y  the  the epic  trivial  through  both  i n the the  stature with  i n approaching  poem  the  life  death.  Prufrock begins with the forth  The  because i t i s a s a t i r e  of P r u f r o c k ' s amusingly  ( a g i n g ) and  i n 1917".  theme w h i c h w i l l  traditional  be m a i n t a i n e d  epigraph which throughout  poem. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e e p i g r a p h , an Dante's I n f e r n o , r e a d s :  sets  the  adaptation  from  I f I b e l i e v e d t h a t my r e p l y were made t o one who c o u l d e v e r c l i m b t o t h e w o r l d a g a i n , t h i s f l a m e w o u l d s h a k e no more. B u t s i n c e no s h a d e  Krieger,  p.51.  176 Rutledge,  i n Morford,  p.144.  177 Ann  F.R. L e a v i s , New B e a r i n g s i n E n g l i s h A r b o u r P a p e r b a c k s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p.75.  Poetry  (Michigan:  71  e v e r r e t u r n e d - i f what I am t o l d i s t r u e from t h i s b l i n d w o r l d i n t o t h e l i v i n g l i g h t , w i t h o u t f e a r o f d i s h o n o u r I answer y o u . . _ 0  I / O  The  epigraph i s f i t t i n g  becomes a n e x t e n d e d Eliot irony  s i n c e P r u f r o c k ' s voyage through  mock-epic  uses mock-heroic  i n P r u f r o c k ' s speeches  balding  head  situation  upon a p l a t t e r  surrounded  o f Dante's  structure  voyage through  life Hell.  t o emphasize t h e  - t h e n a u s e a t i n g image o f P r u f r o c k ' s i n contrast with h i s actual 179  by " t e a and c a k e s  and i c e s " ,  and a  life  m e a s u r e d o u t " w i t h c o f f e e s p o o n s " (LSP 5 1 ) ; Though I h a v e s e e n my h e a d (Grown s l i g h t l y b a l d ) b r o u g h t i n upon a p l a t t e r I am no p r o p h e t - and h e r e ' s no g r e a t m a t t e r ; I have s e e n t h e moment o f my g r e a t n e s s f l i c k e r , And I h a v e s e e n t h e e t e r n a l Footman h o l d my c o a t , and s n i c k e r , And i n s h o r t , I was a f r a i d . .. / T  (LSP Here,  as elsewhere,  j^Prufrock, and  Eliot  n  n  80-84)  "solemnly dresses h i s contemporaries  the aging c l e r k j  confidently  n  i n epic  puts A c h i l l e ' s  spear  robes  too large  i n hands w h i c h  f o r them, cannot  hold  180 it."  A l t h o u g h P r u f r o c k s a y s t h a t he i s no p r o p h e t , b y  implying  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s s t a t u r e  St.  John,  not  b r a v e ; he i s n o t g r e a t ; h i s moment o f g r e a t n e s s w i l l  kindle Even  he h a s drawn a h e r o i c  into  death  comparison.  and t h a t o f  the flame o f success, i t w i l l snickers  But Prufrock i s  only  never  flicker.  a t t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s man  who  faces n e i t h e r l i f e nor death w i t h courage. The I n f e r n o , XXVI, l i n e s 58-63. 179 The L o v e Song o f J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k , C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935, l i n e 77. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem a r e t a k e n f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n a n d w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n LSP f o l l o w e d by t h e l i n e numbers. Kernan, p.82.  'Burlesque' theatrical and  has  commonly known as  a type  show w h i c h i n c l u d e s s t r i p - t e a s e d a n c i n g ,  short skits,  Although  come t o be  a l l o f w h i c h have a h e a v y  burlesque  theatrical  literature  burlesque,  sexual  i s not u s u a l l y  some s h a r e d  broad  the  humour,  emphasis.  related  f e a t u r e s of  of  to  two  are  comparable: The s e x u a l , m i x e d w i t h t h e s c a t o l o g i c a l , o f f e r e d t h e s a t i r i s t t h e most e x p r e s s i v e symbol he c o u l d f i n d f o r the exposed p r i v a t e world. I t i s , of c o u r s e , an a r e a o f e x p e r i e n c e he p e r s i s t e n t l y t u r n s t o when he w i s h e s t o r e m i n d man o f h i s u n h e r o i c , animal s e l f . ^ g ^ Typical a of  of s a t i r e  series of  i n g e n e r a l , the burlesque  scenes  "loosely  which resemble  related  scenes  and  a plot,  busyness  does n o t  but  involve  instead  consists  [ s i c ] which c u r l s  back  18 2 on  itself".  short or  In a l i t e r a r y  scenes  resembling  burlesque,  c a r i c a t u r e s or cartoons of  s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h p l a c e h e a v y e m p h a s i s on  man's l i f e .  These  'skits'  are  ' g i v e n ' by  o f c o m i c amusement f o r t h e r e a d e r provide of  the  song,  theatrical  d a n c e , and  i s like  sends o u t  sympathetic  principle  of resonance  picked  and  up  a mimetic  Dunciad  the  presents individuals  sexual aspect  the author  as a  type  i n which the c h a r a c t e r s  humour c o m p a r a b l e  to the  melange  burlesque.  Burlesque  is  the author  a sounding vibrations  distorted quality  board  - similar  frequency.  to burlesque,  MacFlecknoe. 1 8 1  P a u l s o n , p.107,  1 8 2  K e r n a n , p.100.  The  t o become new  which i s a d i s t o r t e d  w h i c h p i c k s up to the  original  and  scientific  vibrations  vibrations.  Thus  there  as e x e m p l i f i e d i n Pope's  imitation  o f Dryden's  are  satire  of  73  In  t h e  and  w i c k e d  who  were  Dunciad,  i n d i v i d u a l s  prominent  s o c i e t y .  Man  images  h i m s e l f .  of  of  t h i s  Pope  i s  i n  who  l o w  a r e  to  In f o r  and  r e a l i t y  t h e  b u r l e s q u e  degraded  seventeenth  b l i n d  p e r v e r s i o n ,  uses  they  d i s t o r t i o n s  has  c r e a t e d  Pope's  b e l i e v e  d e p i c t  weak  of  persons  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  and  Dunciad,  t o  e x a l t e d  dunces  themselves  a r e  t o  an  be  example  g r e a t  w i t s :  Turning h i s v o i c e , and b a l a n c i n g h i s hands. How f l u e n t nonsense t r i c k l e s from h i s tongue! How sweet t h e p e r i o d , n e i t h e r s a i d , n o r s u n g l ^ g ^ These  l i n e s  preached of  h i s  a r e  o n l y  P o p e ' s  f o r  p r o f i t  own v o i c e .  between  t h e  comment  The  "noble  and  o n  t h e  b u r l e s q u e  v i s i o n  of  J .  Henley,  t h e  o r a t o r ,  p l e a s u r e  o f  h e a r i n g  i s  to  show  meant  r a t i o n a l  man  and  t h e  t h e  t h e  who sound  i n c o n g r u i t y  h a t e f u l  184 s p e c t a c l e In  of  t h e  h i s  a c t u a l  Dunciad,  themselves,  monuments  they  t h e i r  r e v e a l  b e h a v i o r . "  t h e t o  dunces t h e i r  p e t t i n e s s  c o n s t r u c t  h e r o i c  s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e ,  and  b a d  images and  b e h o l d i n g  dunces who  show  themselves  themselves  p a r t i c i p a t e  i n  as  as  p a t r i o t s ,  they  u r i n a t i n g  so  doing  t a s t e :  K i n d S e l f - C o n c e i t t o some h e r g l a s s a p p l i e s , Which no one l o o k s i n w i t h a n o t h e r ' s eyes: But as t h e F l a t t e r e r o r Dependent p a i n t , Beholds h i m s e l f a P a t r i o t , C h i e f , o r S a i n t . /r, W h i l e  i n  o f  a c t u a l l y  c o n t e s t s ,  c h i e f s , a r e  ,-->^\  T T T  and  s a i n t s ,  -iobscene  n o i s e - m a k i n g ,  t h e  boors and  183 Alexander Pope, The Dunciad, e d . , James S u t h e r l a n d (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1963), 3 r d e d i t i o n , r e v i s e d , Dunciad I I I , l i n e s 200-202. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem a r e from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n D f o l l o w e d by t h e book and l i n e numbers. 184 Frank Brady and M a r t i n P r i c e , e d s . , E n g l i s h Prose and Poetry 1660-1800 (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1961), p . x v i i ,  mud-slinging.  In  ugliness with  the  some i n s t a n c e s Pope c o n t r a s t s t h e classical  Pope p a r a l l e l s  the  heroic  squalor of  o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the d i g n i t y author's  vocation.  He  (D I 40)  when C u r l l  actually  not  chaste,  but  and  obscene books.  proud  s c e n e was  more"  (D I 89-90) comments on  L o n d o n who pride  o'er/But  and  financial  The  Dunciad  O s b o r n e was  lived  w r o t e rhymes o f  i n h i s work a s  scene. the  dunces' world  moral  comments w r y l y was  compensation.  "Now  on  "Curll's  their  the  chaste  press"  published,  Night  descending,  the  in Settle's  numbers one  day  Settle,  the o f f i c i a l  events.  but wrote o n l y The  He  poet  of  d i d not  f o r the  take  honour  most pungent b u r l e s q u e  i s t h a t o f Thomas O s b o r n e . actually  with  seriousness of  a b o o k - s e l l e r who  topical  a poet,  Grubstreet  Pope w r i t e s  a b o o k - s e l l e r i n Gray's Inn  in  that  who  published advertisements f o r a year together, p r e t e n d i n g t o s e l l Mr. P o p e ' s s u b s c r i p t i o n b o o k s o f Homer's I l i a d a t h a l f t h e p r i c e : Of w h i c h he had none, b u t c u t t o t h e s i z e o f them ( w h i c h was q u a r t o ) t h e common b o o k s i n f o l i o , w i t h o u t C o p p e r p l a t e s , on a w o r s e p a p e r , a n d n e v e r above h a l f the v a l u e . , o r  lob  I n The  D u n c i a d Pope d i m i n i s h e s  of  dunces to a c c e p t  the  The The  ...  Goddess t h e n : s a l i e n t spout,  the  O s b o r n e by m a k i n g him  challenge  "who b e s t c a n far-streaming  i n the  the  urinating  s e n d on h i g h t o t h e sky:,_.  first  contest:  _ .  F i r s t Osborne leaned a g a i n s t h i s l e t t e r e d p o s t ; I t r o s e , and l a b o u r e d t o a c u r v e a t m o s t . ^ ^ 171-172) • • •  A s e c o n d e f f o r t b r o u g h t b u t new d i s g r a c e : The W i l d Meander washed t h e A r t i s t ' s f a c e : . ^ ,_ (D I I 175-176) T  Alexander  Pope, f o o t n o t e  24,  to the  T  Dunciad I I .  r  75 Pope h o p e s ,  however,  that  exemplified  i n The D u n c i a d  t h e w o r l d becomes p u r e to  that  exemplified  the decay  and s o r d i d n e s s which i s  c a n somehow be r e v e r s e d  again, perhaps  i n the following  so t h a t  through a process couplet:  So c l o u d s r e p l e n i s h e d f r o m some b o g b e l o w , Mount i n d a r k v o l u m e s , a n d d e s c e n d i n snow. . . , lT  T T  \U  As in  Pope's D u n c i a d  The Waste L a n d  uses  Wagner's R i n g o p e r a s . the  burlesques Dryden s 1  Norse  I n "The F i r e  Thames d a u g h t e r s .  leia/Wallala  0  leialala"  the original  through t h e i r  German a n d  chorus o f  (TWL 77-78) w h i c h  i sa  Eliot  women w i t h human f o l l i e s  a n d human v i c e s .  are always  f o r a s e x u a l chase;  coy and ready  accept t h e i r  their  lovers.  distorts  advances.  In  supernatural  daughters o f the r i v e r .  poem, a l t h o u g h r e p u l s e d  Eliot  Rhine Maidens t o t h e t h r e e  l e g e n d t h e t h r e e maidens were  l o v e r s but never  r  degrades  combination o f t h e v a r i o u s chants o f t h e Rhine Maidens. the o r i g i n a l  ~>~>\  JDZ-JDJ)  Macflecknoe,  Sermon" E l i o t  They echo  l e g e n d s o f Wagner's o p e r a s  "Weialala  0  ±1  low b u r l e s q u e t r e a t m e n t o f R i c h a r d  s t a t u r e o f t h e t h r e e Wagnerian  immoral  similar  them i n t o  human  The Rhine they  Maidens  tempt  T h e women o f E l i o t ' s  by s e x u a l a d v a n c e s ,  passively  accept  One o f t h e d a u g h t e r s o f t h e Thames n a r r a t e s t h e  events o f her love  affair:  'Trams a n d d u s t y t r e e s . H i g h b u r y b o r e me. Richmond a n d Kew U n d i d me. By Richmond I r a i s e d my k n e e s Supine on t h e f l o o r o f a narrow canoe.' ~>.\ (TWL 291-294) / m T 7 T  c  I n The R h i n e g o l d t h e r i v e r "silvery  light";  "the f l o o d  o r i n  i s pure, a "dark green  around  n  surge";  flows a stream as o f s t a r s "  and in  " f l a s h e s the Eliot's  I n The  1  d e s c r i p t i o n of  life-giving, ironic  foam"." """  purifying  the  source  r e m i n d e r o f d e a t h by  through p o l l u t i o n . city's  litter  -  On  and  an  vegetation  and  tar."  evils  on  t h e bank"  i n d u s t r y and  excesses  treating  (TWL  the Ring  o p e r a s as  the  Ring  cycle,  w h i c h becomes t h e d e v a s t a t i o n ,  the of  the  attempted love.  s e n s e and gold  and  l o v e was  (New  position.  three  The  possessor  was  therefore cursed  lost  There  is  i t  rotting  vegetation/  The  river  "sweats/Oil  t o show t h e  readers  c r e a t i o n o f The  the  subtly  Waste L a n d .  and  the  the  Waste  toppling of  rape of the  instigator i n the  of  willing  kingdom o f  curse. the  R i c h a r d Wagner, The R h i n e g o l d , York: O l i v e r S i t s o n Co., 1 9 0 4 ) ,  of  the  Gods  from  Rhinegold  from  the  accomplished  the  i n the  his  i f  lustful of  the  materialism,  However, a t t h e  t r a n s . , H.F. p.19.  curse  pleasures  possessor  Because of  Gods.  Rhinegold  the  love only  l o v e , becoming the  The  to renounce the  considered  Eliot  inherent  beginning  R h i n e M a i d e n s c o u l d o n l y be  A l b e r i c h Nibelung  the  handkerchiefs,  187-189).  f o r i t s own  of  care of  the  a t r a v e s t y , however,  is  classic  carries  world.  a l s o s t r e s s e d i n The  their  a  stagnation  through the  t r a n s p o r t as  themes w h i c h a r e beginning  (TWL  attempted  a l s o chosen the Norse legend  the  river  176-177).  which l e d to the  is  a symbol o f  rat crept softly  266-267) E l i o t  t h e modern  In has  (TWL  i n the  Land o f  "A  i t s slimy b e l l y  nature,  sandwich p a p e r s , / S i l k  s l i m e and  exudes the wastes o f  a beauty of  d r o w n i n g and  boxes, c i g a r e t t e ends" as  irony being  summer n i g h t s , t h e  "bottles,  see  Thames, w h i c h , r a t h e r t h a n  cardboard  Dragging  Waste L a n d we  Corder  end  77  of  the c y c l e The  l o v e was  greed  the greed  transferred  t o h u m a n i t y on  o f t h e Gods i s d i m i n i s h e d  i n The  earth. Waste L a n d  to  of mankind:  We a r e b e i n g made aware t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r i v a t e p r o f i t as w e l l as p u b l i c d e s t r u c t i o n , i s l e a d i n g t o b o t h t h e d e f o r m i t y o f h u m a n i t y by u n r e g u l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l i s m , and t o t h e e x h a u s t i a n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and t h a t a good d e a l o f o u r m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s f o r w h i c h s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s may h a v e t o pay d e a r l y . Man  has  forfeited  l o v e , and  thus  the  sex  a c t has  become b o r i n g 188  "'life-giving'  cheery  a u t o m a t i s m o f t h e modern w o r l d . "  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of m a t e r i a l greed to the v a c u i t y of Nothing" By  (TWL  "My  people  and  lack of  humble p e o p l e  b u r n i n g / O L o r d T h o u p l u c k e s t me  t h e end  (TWL  of the Ring  the f u n e r a l  pyre,  308-311)  cycle  through  and  the burning  preserved  t h e m a g n i f i c e n t a n c i e n t German and  in  creating  a t r a v e s t y of the Ring c h a r a c t e r s and  i n "Burning Thou  their  man  the  of  classic  has  a number o f e l e m e n t s  stature Eliot,  demeaned  a c t i o n s w i t h i n the  i n an  the framework  e p i c poem w h i c h  187 The I d e a o f a C h r i s t i a n - S o c i e t y , p.61. " B a u d e l a i r e " , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p.391.  on  self-destruction.  Norse legends,  cycle,  with  of S i e g f r i e d  legend.  There are  188  burning  E l i o t makes a c o n n e c t i o n  of  the  expect/  out/0 Lord  simultaneously reminding  T h u s , w h i l e Wagner drew on  stature of  led  304-305).  pluckest/burning"  the  who  r e f e r e n c e to the burning of Carthage  burning  of  l o v e has  The  78 author  can s u c c e s s f u l l y  effective  mock-epic  b o t h P o p e ' s The are: to  burlesque i n order  poem.  to create  F e a t u r e s o f the e p i c which appear i n  Rape o f t h e L o c k and E l i o t ' s  The Waste  the p r o p o s i t i o n or e p i g r a p h , i n v o c a t i o n , the gods,  and  epic  appearance o f the goddess,  Land  prayers,  prophecy, epic  sacrifice feast,  battle.  The lines  an  e p i g r a p h t o The Waste L a n d  f r o m a s p e e c h by T r i m a l c h i o  i s a quotation of a  i n S a t y r i c o n , which  few  i s translated:  F o r o n c e I m y s e l f saw w i t h my own e y e s t h e S y b i l a t Cumae h a n g i n g i n a c a g e , and when b o y s s a i d t o h e r , ' S y b i l , what do y o u w a n t ? ' she r e p l i e d " I want t o d i e ' . _ 1 0  i oy  This  e p i g r a p h s t a t e s a death wish which  futility  of wanting  w i t h o u t God.  The  f o r e k n o w l e d g e and  e p i g r a p h t o The  adaptation of a quotation discussed,  illustrates  i s connected to the  the f u t i l i t y  of a  Rape o f t h e L o c k  from M a r t i a l which,  i s an  a s has a l r e a d y  Belinda's perverse desire  for In  The  cutting  Rape o f t h e L o c k , Pope a p p l i e s John C a r y l l  who  f o r a i d or  appeal  to h i s  event of the  o f t h e l o c k a s a theme f o r P o p e ' s poem: (TRL I 3)  the  intercession.  his invocation  suggested the a c t u a l  CARYLL, Muse! i s due".  and  i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y  h e l p o f t h e Muse - t h e p o e t a s k i n g  friend  to  i s the i n v o c a t i o n , which  been  for violation.  Another prominent opening f e a t u r e of the epic mock-epic  life  "This  By d e d i c a t i n g  The  verse Waste 190  Land  " F o r E z r a Pound i l m i g l i o r  fabbro"  T h e Waste L a n d , C o l l e c t e d 190 , _ I b i d . , p.59. 1 8 9  T  c  (the b e t t e r  Poems 1909-1935,  craftsman)  p.59.  Eliot  directly  expressed  h i s indebtedness  masterful assistance i n revising Prominent success hero But  i n most e p i c p o e t r y  in battle.  i s a heroine, i t i s not  B a r o n who  the  I n The an  t o Pound  for his  poem.  i s a prayer  by  the hero  for  Rape o f t h e L o c k , however/ t h e  amusing  twist  o f Pope's h i g h  B e l i n d a whom Pope has  i s the adversary  i n the  pray  burlesque.  for success;  i t i s the  poem:  F o r t h i s , e r e Phoebus r o s e , he had i m p l o r e d P r o p i t i o u s h e a v e n , and e v e r y power a d o r e d , But c h i e f l y L o v e . . . ^ _ ( T R L  3  5  3  7  )  • • •  T h e n p r o s t r a t e f a l l s , and b e g s w i t h a r d e n t e y e s Soon t o o b t a i n , and l o n g p o s s e s s t h e p r i z e ^ T R L -J-J I n The  Waste L a n d E l i o t  has  changed the  images o f a b a r e l y remembered God. the e p i c prayer in  a handful of dust"  twelve  of your  to the who  (TWL  statement:  30).  thy Creator  life  e a r t h as  gave i t .  will  "I w i l l  show y o u  refers  the preacher  and  the  then  spirit  Vanity of v a n i t i e s ,  saith  "shall shall  into  resemblance  to  fear  - for  the dust  r e t u r n unto  the preacher;  the return God  a l l is  191 vanity." of  The  prayer  t h e poem, s i n c e man  c r e a t u r e who In both those  debased  i s o b v i o u s l y a p p l i c a b l e to the in Eliot's  i s sensitive Pope and  not  Eliot  sacrifices  modern w o r l d  t o God  but  the a r t of burlesque  i n the  Ecclesiastes x n ,  verses  occult. i s seen  contemporary world  191 1,  7-8.  theme  i s a vain  to the  to  chapter  praying  i n the days o f thy youth"  s o o n come and  i t was:  closest  This line  of E c c l e s i a t e s which r e c a l l s  "Remember now end  comes i n t h e  The  epic prayer  43-44)  which  in are  80 made i n c o n t r a s t w i t h n o b l e p a s t s a c r i f i c e s . the Lock t h e Baron's s a c r i f i c e to  t h e Goddess o f Love, b u i l t  gilt./There  the t r o p h i e s o f h i s former he  lights  the  (TRL 39-42)  many s a c r i f i c e s  a pair  o f gloves,-/And a l l Billet-doux  t h r e e amorous s i g h s t o r a i s e  I n The Waste L a n d E l i o t h i n t s a t  made:  sacrifice  v a s t Romances, n e a t l y  loves;/With tender  the s a c r i f i c e  o f bones, and c h u c k l e  Philomel's form  half  the pyre,/And breathes  fire."  "rattle  t o t h e g o d s c o n s i s t s o f an a l t a r o f "twelve  l a y three garters,  I n The Rape o f  spread  o f death from  echoed by t h e  e a r t o e a r " (TWL 1 8 6 ) ;  o f h e r human body i n t h e c h a n g e t o b i r d  i n o r d e r t o escape  rape  "by t h e b a r b a r o u s  king"  (TWL 9 9 ) ;  woman's s a c r i f i c e  t o m a l e s e x u a l demands, r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e  typist's  (sexual) s a c r i f i c e ;  locked  physical  i n a transvestite  the s a c r i f i c e  body a n d f o r c e d  of  t o watch t h e s o r d i d  s e x u a l u n i o n o f man a n d woman w h i c h he h a s r e l u c t a n t l y the  sacrifice  indicated of  o f nature  burned  t o the greed  of sacrifice  as a s a c r i f i c e  burning" - the f i r e In against  through  river;  o f the Nibelung;  the s a c r i f i c e  and t h e f i n a l  the burning o f Carthage,  t o t h e memory o f Roman d e a d -  sacked and  "Burning,  w h i c h consumes a n d p u r i f i e s .  The Rape o f t h e L o c k Pope p l a y s t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l o f f natural  some a b s u r d  life  u s i n g mock-heroic  appearances  as an ' e a r t h l y '  i n C a n t o I , where j e w e l s d e c k spoil"  foreseen;  m a t e r i a l i s m o f mankind  by t h e o i l and t a r o f t h e p o l l u t e d  the Rhinegold  reminder  t o t h e greedy  Tiresias,  (TRL I 1 3 2 ) .  effects. goddess,  B e l i n d a makes the f i r s t  being  " t h e Goddess w i t h t h e g l i t t e r i n g  However, when t h e h e a v e n l y  Goddess o f Love  81 makes h e r p r e s e n c e f e l t , It  i s within  Love,  and  Soft all  of tongues"  sorrows, m e l t i n g  the wishes o f the  her with "Sighs,  and  (TRL IV 84)  griefs,  and  and  "fainting  flowing  tears"  her appearance  I n The Waste L a n d  t h r o n e " and  In E l i o t ' s  poem t h e g o d d e s s  purity  i s f l a w e d by  passions,  (TRL I V  into  85-86),  returning  f l a w e d , and  the goddess  i n "A Game o f C h e s s " where she s i t s  "burnished  goddess  fears,/  i n t o b e g g i n g f o r g i v e n e s s o f t h e now  m e r e l y human h e r o i n e .  Baron.  s o b s , and  o f w h i c h a r e an a t t e m p t t o nudge t h e B a r o n  his prize  goddess.  i t necessary to a i d the moral  thus provides  and t h e war  becomes an i n f e r i o r  L o v e ' s power t o g r a n t  however, b e l i e v e s  Belinda  Belinda  makes  upon a  i s a t t e n d e d by g o l d e n c u p i d o n s o f i s also of earthly o r i g i n ,  insignificant  sexual  contact with  love.  and  her  earthly  lovers. The p r o p h e c y e p i c o r mock-epic gives the  the prophecy  i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t poem.  I n The Waste L a n d Madame  " F e a r d e a t h by w a t e r "  (TWL  low b u r l e s q u e t o u n d e r c u t t h e p l a u s i b i l i t y  clairvoyante's prediction,  showing  she  " n e v e r t h e l e s s / I s known t o be  (TWL  44-45).  Is your card" uncertain  of  an  Sosostris  55).  Eliot  o f t h e famous  by a bad c o l d .  Ironically,  t h e w i s e s t woman i n E u r o p e "  She p r o p h e s i e s w i t h a s s u r a n c e :  "Here,  said  (TWL  o f her  own  future:  47-48) , b u t she i s f e a r f u l "One  must be  uses  h e r a s a m e r e l y human  f o r e c a s t e r whose powers a r e i m p a i r e d  so c a r e f u l  The m e a n i n g o f h e r c a r d s i s c l e a r of  i n the p l o t  within  t h e poem, b u t i t i s a m e a n i n g t h a t  these days."  the t o t a l  she,/  (TWL  context  i s hidden from her,  and  59)  82 thus  she i s p o w e r l e s s t o g i v e genuine a i d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s  whom s h e ' g u i d e s ' . I n T h e Rape o f t h e L o c k , A r i e l , sees h i m s e l f  i n the absurdly  through l i f e .  predicting  "oh p i o u s m a i d ,  b u t most beware o f man!"  i s a supernatural  Ariel  the future.  guardian  being,  but his a b i l i t i e s  lessness  epic battle  b a t t l e o f cards  o f the sexes.  reference  o f t h e sexes.  recaptured  Jerusalem  "Vienna"  i n T h e Waste L a n d  also  a l s o makes  The sounds o f b a t t l e  There a r e t h e " F a l l i n g  from t h e Turks]  "Athens"  [the b a t t l e o f  [named f o r t h e g r e a t w a r r i o r  [remembered  whose a s s a s s i n a t i o n c a u s e d  f o r t h e Arch-Duke  the f i r s t  [ b o m b e d b y t h e Germans i n t h e f i r s t hero o f E l i o t ' s  fierce  [ t h e 1917 b a t t l e when t h e B r i t i s h  Thermopylae] " A l e x a n d r i a " Great]  to a  and t h e c r y i n g / P r i s o n and p a l a c e  (TWL 335-336).  towers" o f "Jerusalem"  a  L i k e Pope, E l i o t  battles.  i n the "shouting  reverberation"  against  to her care-  though, covers  The e p i c b a t t l e  t o many h i s t o r i c  reverberate  the  Lover  i n T h e Rape o f t h e L o c k i s r e d u c e d  and words, which,  becomes a b a t t l e  in  Belinda's  and l o s s o f t h e l o c k .  The  battle  which leads  114)  l i e only i n  He i s p o w e r l e s s t o c o n t r o l  (TRL I I I 144)  a t her heart"  beware!/  (TRL I 112,  t h o u g h t s o r a c t i o n s , f o r he p e r c e i v e s a n " e a r t h l y lurking  nymph,  melodramatic r o l e o f her 'guide'  T h e nymph p r o p h e s i e s  ...Beware o f a l l ,  Belinda's  W o r l d WarJ  Ferdinand  "London"  W o r l d War] (TWL 3 7 3 - 3 7 5 ) .  poem becomes m a n k i n d , f i g h t i n g  t h e m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s o f modern  Alexander  life.  the b a t t l e  The  83 The  epic  feast,  which precedes b a t t l e ,  The Rape o f t h e L o c k i n t o of  the coffee  party.  e v e n more i n d i g n i t y "lays o u t food  " t h e smoking  this  f o r i t i s represented  (TRL I I I 110) feast  by t h e t y p i s t  have  w h i l e i n The Waste L a n d  vanished  who  become, i n T h e Rape  t h e L o c k , m i n u t e gnomes a n d s y l p h s w h i c h g u a r d  vanity,  i s reduced  (TWL 2 23)  The p o w e r f u l gods o f t h e e p i c of  tide"  I n T h e Waste L a n d  i n tins."  i s diminished i n  t h e gods  have  feminine  completely  a n d e v e n t h e "nymphs a r e d e p a r t e d . " (TWL 178)  The w a r r i o r ' s  shield,  usually magically  endowed, w h i c h  p r o t e c t s h i m f r o m d e a t h , i s r e d u c e d i n b o t h T h e Rape o f t h e Lock a n d The Waste Land t o t h e h e r o i n e ' s p e t t i c o a t s and undergarments the  f e m a l e body  petticoats to  In  meant t h i s  draft  i n "The F i r e  theme, a d i r e c t  a r e removed  and a r e d r y i n g  a c c e s s t o t h e woman  protect  I n T h e Waste L a n d t h e  and f e m i n i n e garments  the o r i g i n a l  section  they remain i n p l a c e ,  from v i o l a t i o n .  t h e sun's r a y s ,  permitting  a  which, w h i l e  and a r e exposed  on the"window s i l l ,  thus  herself.  o f T h e Waste L a n d , E l i o t  inserted  Sermon" w h i c h was, b o t h i n s t y l e a n d  i m i t a t i o n o f T h e Rape o f t h e L o c k .  parody as a compliment  t o A l e x a n d e r Pope,  Eliot whom he  192 considered  "a m a s t e r o f m i n i a t u r e . "  managed t o p e r s u a d e E l i o t of  t o omit t h i s  E z r a Pound, section  however,  i n the revision  t h e poem. Eliot recalls this revision: I remember t h a t Pound o n c e i n d u c e d me t o d e s t r o y what I t h o u g h t a n e x c e l l e n t s e t o f c o u p l e t s ; f o r , s a i d he, 'Pope h a s done t h i s s o w e l l t h a t y o u c a n n o t do i t b e t t e r ; a n d i f y o u mean t h i s a s a  "John Dryden",  Selected  Essays,  p.310.  84  b u r l e s q u e , you had b e t t e r suppress i t , f o r you c a n n o t p a r o d y Pope u n l e s s y o u c a n w r i t e b e t t e r v e r s e t h a n Pope - and y o u c a n ' t . ^ g ^ Perhaps t h i s indicate stands The  d i r e c t p a r o d y o f Pope was i n s e r t e d by E l i o t t o  i n a more d i r e c t f a s h i o n  that  scene o f the t y p i s t clear  mock-epic s t y l e ,  i n "The F i r e  Sermon" i s  burlesque, written i n  j u s t a s t h e s c e n e i n v o l v i n g Madame S o s o s t r i s  " B u r i a l o f t h e Dead" a n d t h e s c e n e i n v o l v i n g t h e t h r e e  High burlesque G r e e c e a n d Rome. neo-classical background  flourished i n the c l a s s i c a l  Therefore  authors  i ti s only  - who m o d e l l e d  and p r i n c i p l e s - s h o u l d  the wish that  he s u c c e e d e d  river  Sermon" a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h e l o w b u r l e s q u e .  natural  literature of that the  t h e i r work o n c l a s s i c a l  imitate  the burlesque.  Rape o f t h e L o c k i s P o p e ' s t r i b u t e t o t h e e p i c .  expressed but  and h e r l o v e r  t o be a b u r l e s q u e .  example o f a h i g h  m a i d e n s i n "The F i r e  The  t h e poem a s i t now  The Waste L a n d was i n t e n d e d  a particularly  in  than  he c o u l d  instead  have w r i t t e n  He o n c e  an e p i c  poem,  i n w r i t i n g an e x c e l l e n t mock-epic  poem.  I n The Rape o f t h e L o c k Pope h a s t a k e n t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e e p i c and  created  a high to five  b u r l e s q u e m o d e l l e d a f t e r The A e n e i d  he  reduced  poetic  of  a lock of hair with  of  Helen o f Troy.  cantos.  He t r e a t e d  the cataclysmic  characters  (London:  with  individualistic  the c u t t i n g  impact o f t h e rape  Because o f t h e nature o f b u r l e s q u e , create  which  t h e p o e t does n o t  and d i s t i n c t  personal  T.S. E l i o t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , E z r a Pound S e l e c t e d Faber and Faber L t d . , 1941), p.18.  Poems  85 qualities  and  habits.  representative  of  Instead  their  £the s a t i r s t s j c a r e  sex  about  or  he  creates  characters  station in l i f e :  is their  who  are  "what  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  certain  194 enduring archetypal  roles."  representative,  yet  distorted versions  The  actions  characters'  through which the "strict  His  are  the  such as  authority  tea  s e r v i c e and  the  l a d i e s of  ceremonies.  The toilet  the  of  table exemplifies  Pope o b s e r v e d  that  respect  l i k e many Modern L a d i e s .  trivial  in itself,  originals.  the  ancient  Let  their  an  etiquette  the  placed  "the  cartoons  t r a d i t i o n . . .|whichj  codes of  century  truly  i n exaggerated  magnification  eighteenth  the  must be  Pope, a t t a c k s of  t e n d e d t o r e d u c e human b e h a v i o r t o 195 respectability".  of  represented  satirist,  adherence to  characters  and  d e t a i l s of importance  on  the  be  t h e y a l w a y s make i t a p p e a r o f  which  daily  Poets are  Action  the  in  never  the  one so  utmost  196 importance." or the form, ideas,  or  look  Thus t h r o u g h p a r o d y t h e a u t h o r "makes t h e work, r i d i c u l o u s by i n f u s i n g i t w i t h i n c o n g r u o u s 197  exaggerating  i t s aesthetic  devices."  Although E n g l i s h n e o - c l a s s i c a l poets d i d not own  epics,  they c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d  Pope's v e r s e directly  brings  echoing  the  them.  classical  classical  epics  In  two  cantos  epics  t o m i n d by  and  four  of  create and  satires.  often The  Rape  194 Wright, Noyes,  p.61. p.xx.  196 A l e x a n d e r Pope, i n a l e t t e r p r e f a c i n g The Rape o f t h e L o c k . G i l b e r t Highet, p.13. 1 9 7  to A r a b e l l a  their  Fermor,  of  86 the Lock t h e r e are echoes o f the d e s c e n t in  the d e s c r i p t i o n  vials" (TRL  (TRL  of  I I 126)  I I 127).  Cave o f S p l e e n "  the punishments o f the  or  There  "plunged  IV 16)  descent  Shade  sylphs "stopped  i n lakes of b i t t e r  i s Umbriel's  (TRL  to the E l y s i a n  into  washes"  the  "gloomy  where:  . . . l i v i n g T e a p o t s s t a n d , one arm h e l d o u t , One b e n t ; t h e h a n d l e t h i s , and t h a t t h e s p o u t : A P i p k i n t h e r e , l i k e Homer's T r i p o d w a l k s ; H e r e s i g h s a J a r , and t h e r e a G o o s e P i e t a l k s ; Men p r o v e w i t h c h i l d , a s p o w e r f u l f a n c y w o r k s , And m a i d s t u r n e d b o t t l e s , c a l l a l o u d f o r c o r k s . . _ . m  Low  burlesque  uses  T  For  example,  d i m i n u t i o n , the appearance of ugly  i n The  Waste L a n d , E l i o t  the Greek chorus  by  of  i s given through  Greek t r a g e d y  phrases:  l i v e s , / O l d man 218-219); the  w i t h w r i n k l e d female  "I T i r e s i a s ,  scene,  and  o l d man  foretold  Tiresias  have f o r e s u f f e r e d  Tiresias  i s n o t an  The  foreseeing generally for  trivial  elevated  (TWL  about  their  affairs, of  epic  traditional thereby  A  a  two  see"  (TWL  "And  I  pseudo-chorus,  a s t h e nymphs o f  charges,  watching  of the e p i c  emphasizing  of  of various  i n the a c t i o n .  form  the p o r t r a y e d s i t u a t i o n machinery.  just  or  dugs/Perceived  228-229);  243).  scene,  r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a t i n g d e r i d e s the  triviality  all"  a c t o r i n the  Rape o f t h e L o c k h o v e r  b r e a s t s , can  (TWL  and  Pope by  in addition  through  c  convention  t h r o b b i n g between  with wrinkled  the r e s t "  This  the r e p e t i t i o n  though b l i n d ,  Q  burlesques  u s i n g T i r e s i a s as n a r r a t o r .  "I T i r e s i a s ,  .  T X 7  homely i m a g e s w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o d i m i n i s h t h e d i g n i t y subject.  in  the use  using i t the of  such  87 Fastidiousness seventeenth from  their  and  in diction  i s an  eighteenth-century  classical  aspect of  neo-classicists  for  as  a poet  Pope was  inherited  o f The  i s something the f a c t that men t o be of respect  i n v o l v e d i n the d e d i c a t e d  t h e c r e a t i v e word - t h e f o u r t h canto  the  models:  P o p e ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e word, however, more p e r v a s i v e - s o m e t h i n g r e l a t e d t o he and h i s f r i e n d s were among t h e l a s t t r a i n e d t h o r o u g h l y i n an a n t i q u e k i n d f o r t h e word.^gg Although  s a t i r e which  ' r i g h t word  in  the  Dunciad  of  the d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e of  he  i n the r i g h t  illustrates  search place' -  the  possibility  words:  G i v e law t o Words, o r war w i t h w o r d s a l o n e , S e n a t e s and C o u r t s w i t h G r e e k and L a t i n r u l e , And t u r n t h e C o u n c i l t o a Grammar S c h o o l ! ^ I  V  178-180)  and S p o i l e d h i s own l a n g u a g e , and a c q u i r e d no more; A l l C l a s s i c l e a r n i n g l o s t on C l a s s i c g r o u n d ; And l a s t t u r n e d A i r , t h e E c h o o f a S o u n d ! ^ 320-322) I  Rather  than  learning, his  V  h i d i n g t h e meaning o f h i s words b e h i n d  Pope u s e d  reader would  the v e r n a c u l a r o f h i s time  classic  - language  which  understand:  Pope's s a t i r e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s f o r the v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s w h i c h t h e y a s s i m i l a t e and f o r t h e i r t o u g h n e s s i n naming t h i n g s by t h e i r o r d i n a r y names - a v i r t u e w h i c h Matthew A r n o l d was t o f i n d i n Homer^gg Pope e x p e r i m e n t s inherited of  the  and  imabic  with  the c l a s s i c a l  y e t keeps h i s experiments  w e l l w i t h i n the  p e n t a m e t e r rhymed c o u p l e t  form:  198 199  m a t e r i a l which  Wimsatt, ed., p.xxv. Ibid., p.xliv.  he bounds  88  Belinda _  i  Her  still  h e r downy p i l l o w p r e s t ,  _  guardian  i  _  i  _  SYLPH p r o l o n g e d  i  _  i  t h e balmy r e s t : ,  m  n  T  ,  T  n  or  ..  ( 1KL 1 ±y ~Zu ) Although  t h e two l i n e s  by m a k i n g t h e s e c o n d m e a n i n g o f t h e word  balance  each o t h e r  l i n e appear  in syllabic  l o n g e r Pope e m p h a s i z e d t h e  "prolonged".  Although  the couplets are  a l w a y s rhymed, Pope o c c a s i o n a l l y  uses experimental  rhyme.  f o r c e rhyme by u s i n g  He d o e s n o t a r t i f i c i a l l y  gruent found  words t o f i t t h e rhyme.  An example o f t h i s  'imperfect' incon-  rhyming i s  i n the following couplet: One  Cell  The  Cave o f P o v e r t y  _  Another  there i s , concealed  >  _  i _  i  _  i _ i  from  and P o e t r y . ^  vulgar eye, ^  i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e o f Pope's s t y l e  not merely  rhyming m o n o s y l l a b i c  23-3^) i s h i spractice of  words w i t h o t h e r  monosyllabic  w o r d s b u t e n f o r c i n g t h e rhyme o n o c c a s i o n by r h y m i n g syllabic "chains" (TRL  length,  words w i t h m o n o s y l l a b i c  poly-  w o r d s - " d e t a i n s " rhymed  (TRL I I 23-24) a n d " m a i d s " rhymed w i t h  with  "masquerades"  I 71-72). Eliot  has o b s e r v e d  that  " i f an E n g l i s h poet  i s to learn  how t o u s e w o r d s i n o u r t i m e ,  he must d e v o t e  c l o s e study t o  t h o s e who h a v e u s e d  i n their  t o t h o s e who, i n  their  them b e s t  own d a y , h a v e made t h e l a n g u a g e n e w . " ^ "  awareness o f the h i s t o r y his  poetry.  his  "metrical virtuosity.  Poetry  time;  o f language  T h e Waste L a n d  Eliot's  i s e v i d e n t everywhere i n  i s clearly  representative of  I t s b a s i c measure i s t h e h e r o i c  T.S. E l i o t , "The S o c i a l and P o e t s , p.22.  Function of Poetry"  (1945),  On  89  201 l i n e ,  w h i c h  i t  h a n d l e s  _  i n  •  i  Sweet  Thames,  run  Sweet  Thames,  run  _  a l m o s t  •  _  i  s o f t l y  _  >  every  t i l l  _  _  s o f t l y  _  _  i  I  end  •  f o r  I  p o s s i b l e _  i  my  speak  way."  s o n g ,  _  i  not  _  l o u d  i  or  l o n g .  (TWL The  f i r s t  l i n e  i s  v a r i a t i o n  upon  t h a t  and  d i s t i n c t  Most  of  i n  i n  the  f o l l o w i n g  i  _  But  at  The  sound  _ i  h i s  i  a  l i n e s  the  second  have  f e e l i n g  a r e  of  i  i  of  f i v e  such  as  i  _  i  time  I  i s  a  s t r o n g  homogeneity.  d e c a s y l l a b i c ,  horns  i  M r s .  E l i o t ' s  freedom  to  _  and  i _  m o t o r s ,  _  _  P o r t e r  i n  _  time  i  to  on  l i n e s  from  Sweeney  views  g i v e  _  _  _  both  n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s  back  i  y e t  but  as  Pope,  a r e  t h o s e  o f  e x e m p l i f i e d  l i n e s :  _ my  w h i c h  h e r o i c  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  pentameter,  meter;  b e a t s ,  E l i o t ' s  i a m b i c  183-184)  i n  v e r s e  hear  w h i c h  _  the  i  i  s h a l l  i  s p r i n g .  s t r u c t u r e  _  (  can  T  W  b r i n g  L  be  1  9  6  _  1  9  9  )  a t t r i b u t e d  to  metre:  Any l i n e can be d i v i d e d i n t o f e e t and a c c e n t s . The s i m p l e r metres a r e a r e p e t i t i o n of one c o m b i n a t i o n , perhaps a l o n g and a s h o r t . . . f i v e t i m e s r e p e a t e d . There i s however, no r e a s o n why, w i t h i n a s i n g l e l i n e , t h e r e s h o u l d be any r e p e t i t i o n ; why t h e r e s h o u l d not be l i n e s (as t h e r e are) d i v i s i b l e o n l y i n t o f e e t of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s .  E l i o t ' s types  and  IX,  of  metre  demonstrates  the  f u n c t i o n  of  l i n e s  of  v a r i o u s  f e e t :  1)  To  2)  Who  3)  He  i  i  say:  I  _  are  _  who  _  am  those  _  was  i  L a z a r u s  i  hooded  _  l i v i n g  _  i s  come hordes  i  now  from  i  •  the  _  swarming  dead  (TWL  dead (TWL  (LSP  93)  369)  328)  Helen Gardner, The A r t of T.S. E l i o t (New Y o r k : Co. I n c . , 1950), p.19. 202 T.S. E l i o t , " R e f l e c t i o n s on Vers L i b r e " , The New (March 3, 1917), p . 5 1 9 .  E.P.  Dutton  Statesman,  90  4)  We who were l i v i n g  a r e now d y i n g  (TWL 329)  L i n e one i s composed o f a n iamb, a t r o c h e e , incomplete trochee, three  trochee.  two d a c t y l s a n d a n  L i n e two i s composed o f a d a c t y l ,  and a spondee w i t h  an added u n a c c e n t e d  beat.  i s composed o f two d a c t y l s a n d a s p o n d e e .  composed o f two d a c t y l s a n d a s p o n d e e w i t h  a Line  Line  an added  four i s  unaccented  syllable. Thus E l i o t vary  f o l l o w s h i s own p r i n c i p l e s , m a k i n g e v e r y  i n some way f r o m t h e o t h e r  lines.  He f e l t  line  that:  the most i n t e r e s t i n g v e r s e w h i c h has y e t been w r i t t e n i n o u r l a n g u a g e h a s b e e n done e i t h e r by t a k i n g a v e r y simple form, l i k e t h e iambic pentameter, c o n s t a n t l y withdrawing from i t , o r t a k i n g no f o r m a t a l l , a n d c o n s t a n t l y a p p r o x i m a t i n g t o a v e r y simple one. I t i s t h i s c o n t r a s t between f i x i t y and f l u x , t h i s u n p e r c e i v e d e v a s i o n o f monotony w h i c h i s t h e v e r y l i f e of verse. Much o f The Waste L a n d  i s w r i t t e n i n blank  verse,  Eliot  having  been i n f l u e n c e d by E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a t i s t s and Shakespeare i n particular. breaking per  Yet E l i o t  from iambic  line.  have a f e e l i n g  be  present,  illustrate Eliot's  rhythm, u s i n g  He o b s e r v e d  to  often distorts  that i t i s necessary  unconsciously  lineal  verse,  f r o m two t o s i x , t o t e n f e e t  f o r the s y l l a b l e s  h i s theme.  even h i s b l a n k  for a  and rhythm.  poet T h i s must  g u i d i n g t h e w o r d s he c h o o s e s t o  Although  h i s verse  i s never  p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e v a r i e s from  metre, as has been o b s e r v e d .  " R e f l e c t i o n s on V e r s  He j u x t a p o s e s  Libre",  The New  formless,  s t r i c t to irregular iambic  pentameter  Statesman,  p.518.  91 with  three foot  lines  i n T h e Waste L a n d ,  f o r example,  to  u n d e r l i n e t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e modern w o r l d :  of  some s i m p l e m e t r e s h o u l d  'freest In was  verse'"„^ order  necessary  rhyme, E l i o t for  l u r k behind  presence  "The g h o s t  t h e a r r a s i n even t h e  0 4  t o preserve for Eliot  the feeling  of the heroic couplet i t  t o u s e rhyme.  B u t even i n h i s use o f  i s innovative.  The mock-epic e f f e c t o f P r u f r o c k ,  example, i s s u s t a i n e d by t h e o p e n i n g  interspersing  i n order  t h e poem w i t h unrhymed  rhymed c o u p l e t a n d  lines  to underline the  o f t h e rhyme:  L e t us go t h e n , y o u a n d I_, When t h e e v e n i n g i s s p r e a d o u t a g a i n s t t h e s k y L i k e a p a t i e n t e t h e r i s e d upon a t a b l e ; L e t us go, t h r o u g h c e r t a i n h a l f - d e s e r t e d s t r e e t s , The m u t t e r i n g r e t r e a t s Of r e s t l e s s n i g h t s i n o n e - n i g h t c h e a p h o t e l s .  1  (LoP  In  The Waste L a n d , rhyme a l s o  the burlesque  nature  o f such  p l a y s an important scenes  role  as t h e " t y p i s t  1—  b)  i n stressing  home a t  teatime": A s m a l l house agent's c l e r k w i t h one b o l d s t a r e , One o f t h e l o w o n whom a s s u r a n c e s i t s As a s i l k h a t o n a B r a d f o r d m i l l i o n a i r e . The t i m e i s now p r o p i t i o u s , a s he g u e s s e s The m e a l i s e n d e d , s h e i s b o r e d a n d t i r e d , E n d e a v o u r s t o engage h e r i n c a r e s s e s s Which s t i l l a r e unreproved, i f u n d e s i r e d ^ 232-238) T W L  Alternate lines  lines  rhyme w i t h  e a c h o t h e r w h i l e o c c a s i o n a l unrhymed  a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d t o u n d e r l i n e t h e rhyme a n d c o n t r a s t  the t r a d i t i o n a l  204  neo-classical  " R e f l e c t i o n s on Vers  e f f e c t s w i t h modern i n n o v a t i o n s .  Libre",  T h e New S t a t e s m a n ,  p.518.  Eliot  rarely  uses a formal  tone,  and a l t h o u g h  The Waste  Land speaks i n " t h e system o f s t r e s s e s and p a u s e s . . . t h a t o f 205 p o e t r y and n o t o f p r o s e " , the c o l l o q u i a l  Eliot  l a n g u a g e drawn f r o m  makes d r a m a t i c  use o f  the vernacular of the  o r d i n a r y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y man o r woman: The p o e t r y o f a p e o p l e t a k e s i t s l i f e f r o m t h e p e o p l e ' s speech and i n t u r n g i v e s l i f e t o i t ; and r e p r e s e n t s i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t s g r e a t e s t power and i t s most d e l i c a t e sensibility• Although  i t w o u l d be a m i s t a k e ,  p o e t r y o u g h t t o be m e l o d i o u s " , to  be sung; m o s t p o e t r y ,  he a r g u e d , because  " t o assume t h a t a l l  some p o e t r y  i n modern t i m e s ,  i s meant  " i s meant t o be  207 spoken". "is  However, E l i o t  ever  s t r e s s e d t h a t no p o e t r y , o f c o u r s e ,  e x a c t l y t h e same s p e e c h  t h a t the poet  talks  and  208 hears".  Instances of E l i o t ' s  language a r e found  conversational poetic  i n a l l o f h i s p o e t r y , and t h e f o l l o w i n g i s  a most n o t i c e a b l e example: S h a l l I p a r t my h a i r b e h i n d ? Do I d a r e t o e a t a p e a c h ? I s h a l l wear w h i t e f l a n n e l t r o u s e r s , and w a l k upon t h e b e a c h (LSP 121-122) Two  trivial  decision.  and v a i n q u e s t i o n s Similarly,  f o l l o w e d by a n a b s u r d l y  i n the speech  positive  of the elevated lady of  205 T.S. E l i o t , " P r e f a c e " , A n a b a s i s : A Poem by S t . J o h n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Co., 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 1 1 . 206 T.S. E l i o t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , The Use o f P o e t r y a n d t h e Use C r i t i c i s m , p.15. 207 T.S. E l i o t , "The M u s i c o f P o e t r y " , On P o e t r y and P o e t s , p 208 , ., I b i d . , p.23.  Perse of  T  the  "burnished  feminine Eliot  throne"  quality  has  her  use  i n "A  of nagging to her  Game o f C h e s s " , insistence  there i s a  i n the  language  which  companion:  'My n e r v e s a r e bad t o - n i g h t . Y e s , b a d . S t a y w i t h me. 'Speak t o me. Why do you n e v e r s p e a k . Speak. 'What a r e you t h i n k i n g o f ? What t h i n k i n g ? What? 'I n e v e r know what y o u a r e t h i n k i n g . T h i n k . ' _ ... . . . (TWL 111-114) / m r T  2  The  l a n g u a g e w h i c h t h e women i n t h e pub  garrulous o n l y by  authenticity  N  a  of real  t h e woman's h a b i t u a l  life,  scene  free  use  has  the  f l o w i n g and  punctuated  self-interruptions:  When L i l ' s h u s b a n d g o t demobbed, I s a i d I d i d n ' t m i n c e my w o r d s , I s a i d t o h e r m y s e l f , • • •  Now A l b e r t ' s c o m i n g b a c k , make y o u r s e l f a b i t s m a r t . H e ' l l want t o know what y o u done w i t h t h a t money he g a v e y o u To g e t y o u r s e l f some t e e t h . He d i d , I was t h e r e . You h a v e them a l l o u t , L i l , and g e t a n i c e s e t , He s a i d , I swear, I c a n ' t b e a r t o l o o k a t y o u . ,_„,. . ,.^\ (TWL 139-146) "The p r o p e r s o u r c e o f Jj:he e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t ' s j o r i  J  209 d i c t i o n was...the p o l i t e world Yet while he  the  of  the E p i s t l e  city."  i s most o f t e n  language w i t h c o l l o q u i a l  i n the opening P.  c o u r t and  language o f Pope's p o e t r y  too c o u l d use  fied  of the  t o Dr.  'proper',  v i v i d n e s s , as  exempli-  Arbuthnot:  Shut the door, good John! fatigued I said T i e up t h e k n o c k e r , s a y I'm s i c k , I'm d e a d .  ,  o x  (.LDA 1 — £.) Similarly,  i n The  common s p e e c h and  Rape o f t h e L o c k , Pope i l l u s t r a t e s  when he  break out w i t h : Nevertheless  century  "My  i t was  neo-classical Marks,  permits  p.19.  S i r Plume t o l e t down h i s  L o r d , my the  the use  what t h e d e v i l ? "  formal  aspect  verse which a t t r a c t e d  of  (TRL  of  guard IV  126)  eighteenth-  both  Pope and  Eliot.  94 It  has  been o b s e r v e d  that:  t h e c l o s e d c o u p l e t , w i t h i t s p o i n t e d rhyme, a c h i e v e s a v e r y complex i n t e r n a l economy: the c o u p l e t s p l i t s i n t o l i n e s , the l i n e s o f t e n break i n t o c a e s u r a s o r internal rests. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f b a l a n c e and o p p o s i t i o n o f p h r a s e s may be u n d e r l i n e d by r e s e m b l a n c e s o f sound. Eliot  chose the  c o u p l e t form f o r t h i s  augment h i s m o d i f i e d ten  syllable  blank  verse,  l i n e s of blank  free  f o r m i n "The  free  f o r a man  f o r he  verse.  He  Music of Poetry",  who  w a n t s t o do  economy  i n order  o f t e n breaks  to from  the  stated in his caution  however, t h a t  a good j o b "  and  "no  verse  " o n l y a bad  about is  poet  211 c o u l d welcome f r e e v e r s e steady provide  as  rhythm o f the c o u p l e t the  -  reader  with  a liberation i n Prufrock  a feeling  from form." and  The  the attendant  of the grandeur of  rhyme  traditional  p o e t r y which i s o f t e n echoed i n E l i o t " s v e r s e . But t h i s e f f e c t , l i k e so many o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t i c techniques (the echoing o f p a s t l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example) was o f t e n u s e d i r o n i c a l l y i n E l i o t ' s e a r l y work. T h i s exaggerated s i m p l i c i t y of the m e t r e comments on t h e s i n i s t e r and v i o l e n t a c t i o n i n "Sweeney among t h e N i g h t i n g a l e s " , f o r i n s t a n c e , and a d d s , by i t s i n c o n g r u i t y , a f i n a l grotesque n o t e t o t h e poem. T h e r e i s an e a s y s t e a d i n e s s about the metre which a t f i r s t l u l l s the r e a d e r , t h e n s h o c k s him i n t o a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e a l n a t u r e of the s u b j e c t . This deceptively l u l l i n g rough d r a f t  of  "The  Fire  e f f e c t works e x c e l l e n t l y  Sermon" i n w h i c h E l i o t  in  pokes fun  the at  ^ B r a d y and P r i c e , e d s . , p.xv. 211 "The M u s i c o f P o e t r y " , On P o e t r y and P o e t s , p.37. 212 J o h n C h a l k e r , " A s p e c t s o f Rhythm and Rhyme i n E l i o t ' s E a r l y Poems" E n g l i s h , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Volume XVI, (Autumn 1 9 6 6 ) , Number 93, p . 1 0 5 . 2 1  c l o s e t - v e r s e by h a v i n g  Fresca write  poetry:  She s c r i b b l e s v e r s e o f s u c h a gloomy t o n e T h a t c a u t i o u s c r i t i c s s a y , h e r s t y l e i s q u i t e h e r own. Not q u i t e an a d u l t , and s t i l l l e s s a c h i l d , By f a t e m i s b r e d , by f l a t t e r i n g f r i e n d s b e g u i l e d , F r e s c a s a r r i v e d ( t h e Muses N i n e d e c l a r e ) To be a s o r t o f c a n - c a n s a l o n n i e r e . 1  The  r h y t h m a n d rhyme s e r v e  same t i m e  illustrate  written.  While  a child" doubles This is  to l u l l  the reader,  the sing-song  the line  verse  but a t the  t h a t F r e s c a would  - "Not q u i t e a n a d u l t a n d s t i l l  - describes the effect  o f Fresca's  verse,  a s a n a p t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e young woman  effect  i n which t h e verse  achieved  L S  with  i t also  herself.  Prufrock:  I n t h e room t h e women come a n d go Talking of Michelangelo.^ p 1 3 - ^ 4  the reader  less  echoes t h e sense o f t h e p o e t r y  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t from  Here, as elsewhere,  have  the c l a s s i c a l  )  heroic couplet  startles  i t s c o n t r a s t t o t h e e l e g a n t and s u p e r f i c i a l  p a t t e r o f t h e women. Eliot's to  their  and Pope's p o e t i c p r a c t i c e s t e s t i f y  shared  neo-classical  outlook.  uniqueness o f t h e p a s t and a l s o t h e i r  repeatedly  T h e i r homage t o t h e inspiration  i m i t a t i o n a r e an e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n  through  - what R o b e r t  F r o s t has  214 called the  the "tribute  same t i m e ,  o f the current t o the source".  as has been argued  throughout,  duce s u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i o n s which r e l a t e their  own s o c i e t i e s  both  At poets  intro-  them a s d i s t i n c t l y t o  as t o t h e past.  213 The  Waste L a n d , F a c s i m i l e E d i t i o n ,  lines  64-69.  214 Poems  R o b e r t F r o s t , "West R u n n i n g B r o o k " , R o b e r t F r o s t ' s (New Y o r k : W a s h i n g t o n S q u a r e P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , l i n e 75.  96  BIBLIOGRAPHY I  PRIMARY  SOURCES  E l i o t , T.S. A f t e r L t d . , 1934.  S t r a n g e Gods.  London:  Faber  and Faber  . 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