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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Neo-classicism in Alexander Pope and T.S. Eliot Sanford, Gloria Helen 1975

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- C L A S S I C I S M I N A L E X A N D E R P O P E A N D T . S . E L I O T b y G L O R I A H E L E N S A N F O R D . A . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t of E n g l i s h W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M a y , 1975 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of ENGLISH  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. i ABSTRACT F o l l o w i n g the c o n f u s i o n of the seventeenth c e n t u r y , e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h i n k e r s f e l t the need f o r the s t a b i l i t y and common sense which they found i n n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . T h e i r neo-c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e was o r d e r e d by r u l e s of l o g i c and r e s t r a i n t . E a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s a l s o came to b e l i e v e i n the c r i t i c a l importance of t r a d i t i o n . They shared w i t h t h e i r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r e d e c e s s o r s a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the f a d d i s h , hazy, i r r e g u l a r , e r r a t i c , and s e n t i m e n t a l elements i n a r t and s o c i e t y . N e o - c l a s s i c a l a r t i s d i d a c t i c and aims to reform abuses i n t a s t e and conduct by u p h o l d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l moral and r a t i o n a l standards. I t seeks r e s t r a i n t and p r e c i s i o n of language e x h i b i t e d i n d i s c i p l i n e d form. N e o - c l a s s i c i s t s r e f e r r e s p e c t -f u l l y t o the h e r o i c and c l a s s i c a l p a s t , u s i n g the eloquence o f p a s t h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e as an a l l u s i v e m i r r o r which heightens our p e r c e p t i o n of the p r e s e n t . T h i s study e x p l o r e s the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f Alexander Pope and T.S. E l i o t . The primary e f f e c t of the study i s to emphasize t h e i r s i m i l a r thematic f o c u s , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on s t e r i l i t y i n western s o c i e t y due t o the r e j e c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Through examination o f the themes, s t r u c t u r e , and imagery of the p o e t r y , p r i m a r i l y The Rape o f the Lock and The Waste Land, t o g e t h e r w i t h a review of r e l e v a n t prose, the n e o - c l a s s i c i s m of Pope and E l i o t i s p e r c e i v e d as fundamental to a proper understanding o f t h e i r work. E l i o t ' s n e o - c l a s s i c i s m evolved under the i n f l u e n c e of T.E. Hulme and E z r a Pound i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , John Dryden i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y , and Alexander Pope i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Through h i s 1927 statement t h a t he was "'Anglo-C a t h o l i c i n r e l i g i o n . . . c l a s s i c i s t i n l i t e r a t u r e , and r o y a l i s t i n p o l i t i c s ' " ' ' ' E l i o t e s t a b l i s h e d h i s t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n on r e l i g i o n , l i t e r a t u r e and l i f e . S i m i l a r i t i e s between E l i o t ' s p o e t r y and t h a t o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y can be t r a c e d through h i s r e s p e c t f o r the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s . In "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " he observed t h a t the c l a s s i c f e a t u r e of m a t u r i t y - i n mind, manner, and language -i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e through the p o e t r y o f Pope. There broods i n the l i t e r a t u r e of both E l i o t and Pope, as n e o - c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s , a d i s c o n t e n t which stems from t h e i r outrage a t the l o s s of t r a d i t i o n s which has caused s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and a r t i s t i c c o n f u s i o n . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y between the i d e a l and the a c t u a l i n western c i v i l i z a t i o n prompted the ascendence of v e r s e s a t i r e . Pope and E l i o t e n f o r c e , through r i d i c u l e , t r a d i t i o n a l standards of thought and conduct, and e s p e c i a l l y , the need f o r r e s t r a i n t and o r d e r . Both Pope and E l i o t extended t h e i r p o e t i c s beyond pas t t r a d i t i o n a l forms by r e l a t i n g to the language and p o e t i c s o f t h e i r time. Yet, E l i o t ' s p o e t i c s r e p r e s e n t a f a r more r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from the p r a c t i c e of h i s time than do the p o e t i c s T.S. E l i o t , " P r e f a c e " , For L a n c e l o t Andrewes (London: Faber and Gwyer L t d . , 1928), p . i x . i i i o f Pope. In t h i s r e s p e c t , i n t h e i r examination of E l i o t ' s p o e t r y , c r i t i c s have o f t e n s t r e s s e d the importance of h i s moral tone. However, v e r y l i t t l e comment has been made on h i s s a t i r e , and i t i s i n the p r a c t i c e o f the s a t i r i s t ' s a r t t h a t E l i o t and Pope seem p a r t i c u l a r l y to concur. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I N e o - c l a s s i c i s m 1 II N e o - c l a s s i c a l Themes i n Pope and E l i o t . . 35 I I I N e o - c l a s s i c a l Form i n Pope and E l i o t 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY 96 1 CHAPTER I N e o - c l a s s i c i s m By the terms of the c l a s s i c - r o m a n t i c c o n t r o v e r s y to c a l l any work of a r t ' c l a s s i c a l ' , i m p l i e s e i t h e r the h i g h e s t p r a i s e or the most contemptuous abuse, a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t y to which one belongs. I t i m p l i e s c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r m e r i t s o r f a u l t s : e i t h e r the p e r f e c t i o n o f form or the a b s o l u t e zero o f f r i g i d i t y . ^ The n e o - c l a s s i c a l e r a s of Alexander Pope and T.S. E l i o t are balanced on the f u l c r u m of Romanticism. E i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y Augustan l i t e r a t u r e was a r e v o l t a g a i n s t the extravagant enthusiasm of the Renaissance; e a r l y t w e n t i e t h -c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e was a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y romantic f e r v o u r . Twentieth-century man's d i s g u s t a t the a l t e r i n g framework of western s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n a n t i - r o m a n t i c a t t i t u d e s i n l i t e r a t u r e : ...the d e c l i n e o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and o f moral v a l u e s , the widespread acceptance o f the n a t u r a l -i s t i c view of l i f e , the mechanization o f both e x t e r n a l e x i s t e n c e and of i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , the d i s i n t e g r a t i n g f o r c e of an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y - these are some o f the f a c t o r s which, i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , brought about a c r u c i a l break i n romantic t r a d i t i o n ^ T h i s t u r n from romanticism to n e o - c l a s s i c i s m i s r e f l e c t e d i n T.E. Hulme's e x p l i c i t statement t h a t " a f t e r a hundred y e a r s 3 of romanticism we are i n f o r a c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l . " •"•T.S. E l i o t , "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " (1944), On P o e t r y  and Poets (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1957), p.54. 2 A l f r e d Noyes, ed., E n g l i s h Romantic P o e t r y and Prose (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), p.x x x i v . 3 T.E. Hulme, "Romanticism and C l a s s i c i s m " , i n Prose Keys to  Modern Poetry, ed., K a r l Shapiro (New York: Harper and Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1963), p.91. 2 T h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s o n e o f p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , 4 a n d a r t i s t i c u p h e a v a l , a n d f o l l o w i n g t h i s c o n f u s i o n , e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y t h i n k e r s f e l t t h e n e e d f o r s t a b i l i t y a n d c o m m o n s e n s e a n d t h u s s o u g h t t h e c o m f o r t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . T h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l m o v e m e n t i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e p e a k e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w o d e c a d e s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . N e o - c l a s s i c i s m i n v o l v e d " a c o m p l e x i n t e r w e a v i n g o f p u r e r a t i o n a l i s m , t h e R u l e s o f a r t d e r i v e d f r o m G r e e c e a n d R o m e , a n d v a r i o u s f o r m s o f e m o t i o n a l r e v o l t " . ^ T h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t s o f H o b b e s , N e w t o n , a n d o t h e r l e a d e r s o f t h e p e r i o d w e r e b a s e d o n c r i t i c a l a n d r a t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f n a t u r e , m a n , a n d s o c i e t y , w h i c h i n t u r n w e r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r a t i o n a l i s m w h i c h p e r v a d e s e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e . N e o - c l a s s i c i s m w a s e x p r e s s e d i n s o c i e t y a n d a r t t h r o u g h i d e a l s o f l o g i c , r e s t r a i n e d e m o t i o n , a n d s o c i a l p r o p r i e t y , a l l o r d e r e d b y s t r i n g e n t r u l e s : " I n p o e t r y a n d p r o s e , t h e a r t i s t s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w e r e t i r e d o f t h e f a n t a s t i c a l , t h e i r r e g u l a r , a n d t h e h a z y . T h e y d e m a n d e d c o r r e c t n e s s a n d a n a d h e r e n c e t o l i t e r a r y r u l e s w h i c h g w e r e c l e a r a n d r e a s o n a b l e . " a ) T h e 1 6 0 5 G u y F a w k e s R e b e l l i o n ; 1 6 4 8 e x e c u t i o n o f C h a r l e s I ; C r o m w e l l ' s a s c e n s i o n t o p o w e r ; t h e o v e r t h r o w o f C r o m w e l l a n d t h e c o m i n g t o p o w e r o f C h a r l e s I I . b ) P u r i t a n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e l a x f o r m s o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m , a n d r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t s t r i n g e n t C a t h o l i c i s m . c ) T h e P u r i t a n s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e a t r e s a n d f r i v o l o u s a r t f o r m s . ^ E m e r s o n R . M a r k s , T h e P o e t i c s o f R e a s o n ( N e w Y o r k : R a n d o m H o u s e , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 3 . g J o h n B . H a l s t e d , e d . , R o m a n t i c i s m ( N e w Y o r k : W a l k e r a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 9 . 3 In the t w e n t i e t h century i t was the Imagist movement which r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the " f a n t a s t i c a l , the i r r e g u l a r and the hazy" elements found p a r t i c u l a r l y i n some Romantic and V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a t u r e . The Imagists " h u r l e d a d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e a t exuberance, sentiment, and c l o u d i l y romantic l u s h n e s s i n 7 p o e t r y . ' " In c o n t r a s t to the Romantic elements, the Imagists suggested as t h e i r " p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e . . . a v e r s e o f hard and dry c l a r i t y , a g o a l c h i e f l y i n s p i r e d by the example of French g symbolism." The French i n f l u e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y through B a u d e l a i r e , generated i n E l i o t and o t h e r s a r e s p e c t f o r some as p e c t s of the n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o s i t i o n . E l i o t noted t h a t B a u d e l a i r e "belongs t o a d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n time...and by h i s 9 nature i s the f i r s t c o u n ter-romantic i n p o e t r y . " Dating from an e a r l i e r French l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n which had c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n common w i t h the S y m b o l i s t s , E n g l i s h n e o - c l a s s i c i s m drew " i t s name from the f a c t t h a t i t found i n c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and i n contemporary French n e o - c l a s s i c a l w r i t i n g s models f o r i t s l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n and a group o f a t t i t u d e s towards l i f e and a r t . " " ^ In the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y "Pope h i m s e l f r e c o g n i z e d the vogue o f French i d e a s , but the p o p u l a r i t y of B o i l e a u and the French c r i t i c s i n England 7 Noyes, p.xxxv. g I b i d . , p.xxxv, g T.S. E l i o t , " B a u d e l a i r e " (1930), S e l e c t e d Essays (Faber and Faber L t d . , 1946), p.386. "^W.F. T h r a l l , A. Hibbard, and C H . Holman, A Handbook to  L i t e r a t u r e (New York: The Odyssey P r e s s , I960), p.310. 4 c o i n c i d e d w i t h the development of s c i e n c e and w i t h the spread of the c u l t o f reason, common sense, and the l i g h t of n a t u r e . " " ^ To achieve a s u c c e s s f u l l i t e r a t u r e and a s i n c e r e l i t e r a r y -judgment, E l i o t and Pope suggest an adherence to the p r i n c i p l e s of nature and not j u s t an e x c l u s i v e adherence to the p r i n c i p l e s of man. Pope a d v i s e s : F i r s t f o l l o w Nature, and your judgment frame By her j u s t standard which i s s t i l l the same; Un e r r i n g NATURE, s t i l l d i v i n e l y b r i g h t , One c l e a r , unchanged, and u n i v e r s a l l i g h t , L i f e , f o r c e , and beauty, must to a l l impart, At once the source, and end, and t e s t o f A r t . ^ 2 The " e i g h t e e n t h century f e l t a deep n o s t a l g i a , not f o r the Eden o f t h e o l o g y , but f o r the S t a t e of Nature from which man 13 had somehow depar t e d . " E l i o t f e l t t h a t the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y had a l s o d eparted from a proper r e v e r e n c e f o r nature and thus he s t a t e s t h a t "a wrong a t t i t u d e towards nature i m p l i e s , somewhere, a wrong a t t i t u d e towards God, and...the consequence i s an i n e v i t a b l e 14 doom." T h e r e f o r e the w r i t e r and the c r i t i c s h ould not r e l y on man-made r u l e s but on those "Rules of o l d d i s c o v e r e d , not •"""""Francis Gallaway, Reason, Rule, and R e v o l t (New York: Octagon Books Inc., 1965), p.4. 1 9 Alexander Pope, Essay on C r i t i c i s m , i n eds., E. Audra and A. W i l l i a m s (London: Methuen and Company L t d . , 1961), l i n e s 68-73. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s poem are taken from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g the a b b r e v i a t i o n EC f o l l o w e d by the l i n e numbers. 1 3 B a s i l W i l l e y , The E i g h t e e n t h Century Background (1940; r p t . London: Chatto and Windus, 1961), p.101. 1 4 T . S . E l i o t , The Idea o f a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y (London: Faber and Faber L i m i t e d , 1942), p.61. 5 d e v i s ' d , " which are "Nature s t i l l , but Nature methodiz'd" (EC 88-89). T h i s statement "puts i n t o the n e a t e s t of n u t s h e l l s the g i s t o f Augustan d o c t r i n e . The r u l e s , they thought, were a f o r m u l a t i o n o f the r a t i o n a l i t y and o r d e r ' d i s c o v e r e d 1 i n 15 'nature'." Thus, alt h o u g h E l i o t and Pope are g e n e r a t i o n s a p a r t , they f e e l as E z r a Pound does when he says t h a t "the n a t u r a l o b j e c t i s always the adequate symbol".''"*' E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l c r i t i c s h e l d the b e l i e f t h a t a r t should copy n a t u r e : "To l i v e i n accordance w i t h 17 nature i s the same t h i n g as to l i v e i n accordance w i t h reason." The w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t h e i r work they accomplished p e r f e c t i o n o f nature i n a work guided by reason. The neo-c l a s s i c i s t s embodied t h e i r r e g a r d f o r nature i n a devout r e g a r d f o r 'the A n c i e n t s ' : "Nature i s adherence to g e n e r a l t r u t h ; g e n e r a l t r u t h i s u n i v e r s a l l y p l e a s i n g ; the A n c i e n t s f o l l o w e d Nature; by o b s e r v a t i o n o f the methods o f the A n c i e n t s 18 the Moderns can most r e a d i l y l e a r n how b e s t to i m i t a t e Nature". An important f e a t u r e of n e o - c l a s s i c i s m i s the d o c t r i n e of i m i t a t i o n , through which authors j u s t i f i e d t h e i r use and 15 C l a r e n c e C. Green, The N e o - C l a s s i c Theory of Tragedy i n England During the E i g h t e e n t h Century, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), Harvard S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , V o l . XI, p. 16. " ^ E z r a Pound, from "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n K a r l S h a p i r o , ed., p.16, 17 James A.K. Thomson, The C l a s s i c a l Background of E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1950), p.202. 18 F r a n c i s Gallaway, p.185. 6 i m i t a t i o n o f ' t h e A n c i e n t s ' . E l i o t , a s a p r o p o n e n t o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c i s m , b e l i e v e s i n t h e s t r i n g e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p a s t t o t h e p r e s e n t , a s i n d i c a t e d b y h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t n o " p o e t , n o a r t i s t o f a n y a r t h a s h i s c o m p l e t e m e a n i n g a l o n e . H i s s i g n i f i c a n c e , h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n i s t h a t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s 1 9 r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e a d p o e t s a n d a r t i s t s . " P o p e i s a l s o o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p o e t s a n d c r i t i c s t o b e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e g e n i u s o f p a s t p o e t s a n d c r i t i c s i f t h e y a r e t o b e a t a l l c o m p e t e n t i n t h e i r o w n w o r k s . H e a d v i s e s p o e t s t o l e a r n " h e n c e f r o m a n c i e n t r u l e s a j u s t e s t e e m ; / T o c o p y n a t u r e i s t o c o p y t h e m " ( E C 1 3 9 - 1 4 0 ) . " Y o u t h e n w h o s e j u d g m e n t t h e r i g h t c o u r s e w o u l d s t e e r , / K n o w w e l l e a c h A n c i e n t ' s p r o p e r c h a r a c t e r " ( E C 1 1 8 - 1 1 9 ) i s P o p e ' s a d v i c e t o c r i t i c s . J o h n D r y d e n s t a t e d t h a t a p o e t ' s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h n e w m e t h o d s i s p e r h a p s o f t e n a n u n c o n s c i o u s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e ' A n c i e n t s ' . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s t h e e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y u s e o f h e r o i c c o u p l e t s w h i c h D r y d e n s a y s i s " n o t s o 2 0 m u c h a n e w w a y a m o n g u s , a s a n o l d w a y n e w r e v i v e d . " T h r o u g h h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , E l i o t h a s j u s t i f i e d t h e u s e o f t h e ' A n c i e n t s ' w i t h i n a n a u t h o r ' s o w n w o r k s . E l i o t ' s v i e w o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g p a s t l i t e r a r y w o r k s b e c o m e s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n " T r a d i t i o n a n d t h e I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " . I n t h i s e s s a y h e r e m a r k s t h a t " w e s h a l l o f t e n f i n d t h a t n o t o n l y t h e b e s t b u t t h e m o s t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s o f a p o e t ' s w o r k m a y b e t h o s e i n w h i c h 1 9 T . S . E l i o t , " T r a d i t i o n a n d t h e I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " ( 1 9 1 9 ) , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p . 1 5 . 2 0 J o h n D r y d e n , q u o t e d b y C l a r e n c e C . G r e e n , p . 5 2 . the dead poets, h i s a n c e s t o r s , a s s e r t t h e i r i m m o r t a l i t y most c r i t i c which i s important s i n c e the " h i s t o r i c a l sense compels man to w r i t e not merely w i t h h i s own g e n e r a t i o n i n h i s bones, but w i t h a f e e l i n g t h a t the whole o f the l i t e r a t u r e of Europe from Homer, and w i t h i n i t the whole of the l i t e r a t u r e o f h i s own c o u n t r y , has a simultaneous e x i s t e n c e and composes a 22 simultaneous o r d e r . " Greek and Roman l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y V i r g i l and Homer, was a l a r g e p a r t o f the e d u c a t i o n and the l i t e r a t u r e of the neo c l a s s i c i s t s : "The d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n o f Greek and Roman a u t h o r s " 23 was a mark o f " r e s p e c t f o r the A n c i e n t s " . F r a n c i s Gallaway observes t h a t a l t h o u g h " r a t i o n a l arguments were p r e s e n t e d f o r i m i t a t i o n , i t should be e v i d e n t t h a t i m i t a t i o n c o u l d be p o p u l a r o n l y i n a c u l t u r e which was t h o r o u g h l y attuned to the i d e a 24 of the g r e a t n e s s of the c l a s s i c s . " "Hear how l e a r n e d Greece her u s e f u l r u l e s i n d i t e s " (EC 92) and "Be Homer's works your study and d e l i g h t , / R e a d them by day, and meditate by n i g h t " (EC 124-125) a d v i s e d Pope to both c r i t i c and author. Only from the p a s t can we l e a r n " j u s t p r e c e p t s . . . from g r e a t examples g i v e n " (EC 98). E l i o t and Pope b e l i e v e d t h a t i n o r d e r to understand any p o e t r y i t i s necessary to become ac q u a i n t e d w i t h a p o e t r y from a l i t e r a r y e r a o t h e r than v i g o r o u s l y . II 21 Thus i t i s the h e r i t a g e of the author and 21 " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " , S e l e c t e d Essays, p I b i d . , p.48. Gallaway, p.210. I b i d . , p.210. 22 23 24 8 one's own. Because of the r o l e o f the p a s t i n shaping c i v i l i z a t i o n - and p a r t i c u l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e - both Pope and E l i o t have emphasized the n e c e s s i t y f o r a con s c i o u s n e s s o f t r a d i t i o n . For E l i o t the t r a d i t i o n s o f the p a s t have merged w i t h the c u l t u r e s o f the t w e n t i e t h century; i n t h i s way "the h i s t o r i c a l 25 i m a g i n a t i o n makes the p a s t contemporary." Pope and E l i o t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r own poems l i n e s , images, rhythms, and othe r k i n d s o f a l l u s i o n s borrowed from an e x t e n s i v e f i e l d o f h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s . T h i s a d a p t a t i o n of o t h e r l i t e r a r y works has enabled both Pope and E l i o t t o extend the scope of t h e i r p o e t r y . In h i s c e n t r a l themes, through a l l u s i o n to p a s t h i s t o r i e s and l i t e r a t u r e s , E l i o t s t r e s s e s t h a t the p a s t i s very much a p a r t o f the p r e s e n t . T h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the 'oneness' of time i s emphasized when he w r i t e s i n the Four Q u a r t e t s t h a t : Time p r e s e n t and time p a s t Are both perhaps p r e s e n t i n time f u t u r e , And time f u t u r e c o n t a i n e d i n time p a s t . I f time i s e t e r n a l l y p r e s e n t A l l time i s unredeemable. 0, 26 Thus, i n o r d e r to achieve the u n i t y o f the p a s t w i t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , l i k e " V e r g i l , l i k e Janus, E l i o t looked behind and 25 F.R. L e a v i s , "The Waste Land", i n T.S. E l i o t , A C o l l e c t i o n  of C r i t i c a l E s says, ed., Hugh Kenner (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1962), p.89. 2 6 T.S. E l i o t , Four Q u a r t e t s (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1962), p.13, "Burnt Norton", l i n e s 1-5. 9 ahead i n the s h a r p e s t p o s s i b l e way". I m i t a t i o n f o r n e o - c l a s s i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s meant many t h i n g s , i n c l u d i n g t r a n s l a t i o n of the c l a s s i c s word f o r word i n t o E n g l i s h s i d e - b y - s i d e on the page, a d a p t i n g a c l a s s i c i n t o modern t r a n s l a t i o n u s i n g modern language and modern customs and c h a r a c t e r s , and u s i n g an o l d theme i n a new poem. For c e r t a i n w r i t e r s these approaches c o u l d be s i n c e r e . However, as Gallaway has noted, authors o f s l i g h t a b i l i t y found i n the d o c t r i n e of i m i t a t i o n a surcease from the p a i n of o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n , and they bent Horace and the o t h e r e l e g a n t Roman poets t o a l l the v a r i o u s burdens imposed by the a m e n i t i e s of s o c i a l l i f e or by the o c c a s i o n a l n e c e s s i t i e s of the Churchman or p o l i t i c i a n . ^ n The h y p o c r i t i c a l poet i n the f o l l o w i n g passage from Pope's E p i s t l e t o Dr. Arbuthnot s t e a l s r a t h e r than borrows, and y e t , even i n s t e a l i n g from h i s b e t t e r s he can c r e a t e o n l y a mediocre poem: The Bard whom p i l f e r e d P a s t o r a l s renown, Who t u r n s a P e r s i a n t a l e f o r h a l f a Crown, J u s t w r i t e s to make h i s barrenness appear, And s t r a i n s , from hard-bound b r a i n s , e i g h t l i n e s a year; He, who s t i l l wanting, though he l i v e s on t h e f t , S t e a l s much, spends l i t t l e , y e t has n o t h i n g l e f t ^ g A proper use of the d o c t r i n e of i m i t a t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, enhances the c o m p o s i t i o n of one's own works. Harry C. Rutledge, " C l a s s i c a l L a t i n P o e t r y : An A r t o f Our Time", The E n d l e s s F o u n t a i n : Essays on C l a s s i c a l Humanism, ed., Mark Morford (Columbus: Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p.143. 2 8 Gallaway, p.212. 29 Alexander Pope, E p i s t l e t o Dr. Arbuthnot, ed., John B u t t (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1961), l i n e s 179-184. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s poem are from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g the a b b r e v i a t i o n EDA f o l l o w e d by the l i n e numbers. 10 In "The F u n c t i o n of C r i t i c i s m " , E l i o t has observed t h a t the second-rate a r t i s t , of course, cannot a f f o r d t o surrender h i m s e l f to any common a c t i o n ; f o r h i s c h i e f task i s the a s s e r t i o n of a l l the t r i f l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s which are h i s d i s t i n c t i o n : o n l y the man who has so much to g i v e t h a t he can f o r g e t h i m s e l f i n h i s work can a f f o r d to c o l l a b o r a t e , to exchange, to c o n t r i b u t e . Pope, l i k e E l i o t , b e l i e v e d t h a t i n order to be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d , an a r t i s t - a poet - should i n c o r p o r a t e the b e s t o f the a r t i s t s of the p a s t , as can be noted i n h i s own borrowing from the g r e a t c l a s s i c s . "'The b e s t of the modern poets i n a l l l a n g u a g e s 1 , wrote Garth to Pope a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the l a t t e r ' s c a r e e r , 'are those t h a t have the n e a r e s t c o p i e d the 31 a n c i e n t s . ' " Pope f o l l o w e d t h i s a d v i c e and defended h i s use of i m i t a t i o n i n the 1717 P r e f a c e to h i s Works when he wrote t h a t "they who say our thoughts are not our own, because they resemble the A n c i e n t s , may as w e l l say our f a c e s are not our 32 own, because they are l i k e our F a t h e r s " . In a l e t t e r t o Spence, Pope wrote t h a t he began i m i t a t i n g c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s , "not out of v a n i t y , but h u m i l i t y : I saw how d e f e c t i v e my own t h i n g s were; and endeavoured to mend 33 my manner by copying good s t r o k e s from o t h e r s . " Both Pope 30 T.S. E l i o t , "The F u n c t i o n of C r i t i c i s m " (1923), S e l e c t e d  Essays, p.24. 31 Thomson, p.205. 32 Alexander Pope, quoted by Marks, p.102. 33 Alexander Pope i n a l e t t e r to Spence, quoted by G e o f f r e y T i l l o t s o n i n On the Poetry of Pope (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950), p.278. 11 and E l i o t f e l t t h a t modern authors had much to l e a r n from the c l a s s i c s and t h a t the i m i t a t i o n o f the g r e a t w r i t e r s o f a n t i q u i t y would mean the a p p l i c a t i o n of the most e f f e c t i v e remedies t o modern i l l s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g the modern w r i t e r w i t h a "measure of o b j e c t i v i t y " . 3 4 Even a f t e r d e v e l o p i n g h i s own p o e t i c t h e o r i e s and techn i q u e s , Pope d i d not stop i m i t a t i n g or borrowing. He f u r t h e r e d h i s i m i t a t i o n o f 'Ancient' authors i n or d e r t o achieve "the p a r t i c u l a r composite e f f e c t s he was aiming a t " s i n c e he found t h a t h i s p o e t r y " b e n e f i t t e d from t h i s i n c r e a s e d area of s e n s i t i v e n e s s which he was r e q u i r i n g i n the mind of 35 h i s r e a d e r . " In oth e r words, Pope used i m i t a t i o n i n h i s s a t i r e s t o extend t h e i r comic e f f e c t . E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Augustan c r i t i c i s m argued t h a t "over and above a j u s t P a i n t i n g of Nature, a l e a r n e d Reader w i l l f i n d a new Beauty superadded i n a happy I m i t a t i o n of some famous A n c i e n t , as i t r e v i v e s i n h i s Mind the P l e a s u r e s he took i n f i r s t r e a d i n g such an 3 6 Author." N e o - c l a s s i c a l authors and c r i t i c s b e l i e v e d t h a t " i m p o s s i b l e i t i s , without d e s e r t i n g n ature h e r s e l f , t o d i s s e n t from her f a i t h f u l c o p i e r s . . . [because] ... a c o n s c i o u s aim to be d i f f e r e n t exposes a w r i t e r t o the r i s k o f a r t i s t i c , „37 barrenness." 34 Gallaway, p.211. T i l l o t s o n , p.144. I b i d . , p.144. Marks, p.109. 35 36 37 Pope's verse i s " f u l l of a l l u s i o n s to the Humanist c l a s s i c s and his f a v o r i t e English poets, Spenser, Milton, 3 8 Dryden and the Restoration w r i t e r s " . The Rape of the Lock i s a "mosaic of quotations, parodies, and a l l u s i o n s , derived from 39 the masters of epic and narrative poetry." This borrowing, or imitation, used i n Pope's poetry i s an example of one of the techniques of n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r e . Even the astute twentieth-century reader enjoys the i m i t a t i o n of Horace, Chaucer, or Milton. Imitators appealed to the pleasure which an educated reader could obtain by comparing ancient and modern manner or even, by the p u b l i c a t i o n of English and L a t i n on opposite pages, to the delighted surprise at a s k i l l f u l display of ingenuity i n the choice of p a r a l l e l s . In The Rape of the Lock, for example, Pope combines the s a t i r i c i m i t a t i o n of the epic poem with a l l u s i o n s to various authors. Pope's imitation of famous l i n e s i s exemplified i n the following extract: Her love i n g i l d e d Chariots, when a l i v e , And love of Ombre, af t e r death s u r v i v e . 4 1 J O E l i z a b e t h Gurr, Pope (Edinburgh: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1971), p.7. 39 George Holden, ed., The Rape of the Lock (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909), p . l i v . 40 Gallaway, p.211. 41 Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock, ed., Geoffrey T i l l o t s e n (London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 3rd ed., 1962), Canto I, l i n e s 55-56. A l l future references to t h i s poem are from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d using the abbreviation TRL followed by the Canto and l i n e numbers. 13 l i n e s o b v i o u s l y borrowed from Dryden's Aeneid; The l o v e of Horses which they had, a l i v e , And c are of C h a r i o t s , a f t e r Death s u r v i v e . ^ Pope appears to borrow some of M i l t o n ' s e f f e c t s i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a n g e l i c s p i r i t s , who when p a r t s are severed, are m i r a c u l o u s l y r e s t o r e d as " t h ' E a t h e r e a l substance 43 c l o s ' d " and they are l e f t u n i n j u r e d : F a t e urg'd the sheers, and c u t the S y l p h i n twain, (But A i r y Substance soon u n i t e s a g a i n ! •* *(TRL I I I 151-152) 44 Pope's a l l u s i o n t o the " f a t a l Engine" c l o s e l y approximates M i l t o n ' s a l l u s i v e i r o n y and echoes V i r g i l and Dryden. The Waste Land i s evidence o f E l i o t ' s b e l i e f i n the uses o f the l i t e r a t u r e of the p a s t w i t h i n contemporary w r i t i n g . Indeed, The Waste Land i s "packed w i t h l i n e s , or h i n t s of l i n e s 45 w r i t t e n by o t h e r p o e t s . " By h i n t i n g a t a wide v a r i e t y of l i t e r a r y sources - both i n the words and the rhythm and a l s o i n themes - E l i o t keeps both h i s own p o e t r y and the borrowed p o e t r y a l i v e w i t h i n a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o n t e x t which i t s e l f i s d e s t i n e d to become the p a s t . 42 John Dryden, The Aeneid, ed., James K i n s l e y (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1958), Book VI, l i n e s 890-891. 43 John M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , ed., Helen D a r b i s h i r e (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1962), Book VI, l i n e s 330. 44 Perhaps Pope i s a l l u d i n g to the " f a t a l d a r t " i n P a r a d i s e  L o s t , Book I I , l i n e 786, or " t h a t two handed engine a t the y door" i n " L y c i d a s " , l i n e 30. 45 Ian Hamilton,"The Waste L a n d " , E l i o t i n P e r s p e c t i v e : A Symposium, ed., Graham M a r t i n (London: Macmillan and Co., 1970), p.103. 14 In the Four Q u a r t e t s E l i o t d e s c r i b e s a poet's d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a t i n g a poem which both r e f l e c t s t r a d i t i o n and y e t i s an i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i o n : ...And what t h e r e i s to conquer By s t r e n g t h and submission, has a l r e a d y been d i s c o v e r e d Once or t w i c e , or s e v e r a l times, by men whom one cannot hope To emulate - but t h e r e i s no c o m p e t i t i o n -There i s o n l y the f i g h t t o r e c o v e r what has been l o s t And found and l o s t a g a i n and a g a i n : and now, under c o n d i t i o n s That seem u n p r o p i t i o u s . But perhaps n e i t h e r g a i n nor l o s s . For us, t h e r e i s o n l y the t r y i n g . The r e s t i s not our b u s i n e s s . . , 46 Taking E l i o t ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r and indebtedness to Dante, as an example, he c l e a r l y does not hope to "emulate" Dante, but r a t h e r to emphasize Dante's themes i n o r d e r to "recover what has been l o s t " . Echoes from The I n f e r n o are e v i d e n t i n "Death by Water". E l i o t asks the r e a d e r to "Consider Phlebas who was once handsome 47 and t a l l as you." Phlebas, a P h o e n i c i a n s a i l o r "a f o r t n i g h t dead" (TWL 312), i s s i m i l a r to Phlegyas, the Boatman of Styx, i n the e i g h t h canto of The I n f e r n o . T h i s echo of Dante serve s to remind the reader of the h e l l of l i f e i n The Waste Land. Phlegyas a l s o s e r v e s as a reminder of the punishment i n H e l l "East Coker", Four Q u a r t e t s , l i n e s 182-189. 4 7 T . S . E l i o t , The Waste Land, i n C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935 (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1936), l i n e 321. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s poem are from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g the a b b r e v i a t i o n TWL f o l l o w e d by the l i n e numbers. 15 a f t e r death, as i t was he who guided "the f l y i n g s k i f f whose prow/Shot toward us over the p o l l u t e d channel/With a s i n g l e steersman a t the helm who c a l l e d : / ' S o do I have you a t l a s t , you whelp o f H e l l ? ' " 4 8 T i r e s i a s i s another c h a r a c t e r borrowed from The  I n f e r n o : Dante stands i n the middle of the b r i d g e over the FOURTH BOLGIA and l o o k s down a t the s o u l s of the FORTUNE TELLERS AND DIVINERS. Here are the s o u l s o f a l l those who attempted by f o r b i d d e n a r t s t o look i n t o the f u t u r e . Among those damned a r e : T I RESIAS. 4 g As punishment T i r e s i a s ' s head i s t u r n e d backwards on h i s body so t h a t he must always walk backwards and never look forward a g a i n . E l i o t makes e x c e l l e n t use of the reminder of T i r e s i a s ' s punishment s i n c e one of the themes o f The Waste Land i s the f u t i l i t y , and indeed, the s i n of f o r e s e e i n g the f u t u r e r a t h e r than being c o n t e n t w i t h one's God-given p r e s e n t s t a t e . E l i o t has commented on the f o r c e of Dante's i n f l u e n c e : "I s t i l l , a f t e r f o r t y y e a r s , r e g a r d h i s p o e t r y as the most 50 p e r s i s t e n t and deepest i n f l u e n c e upon my own v e r s e " . He c o n t i n u e s : C e r t a i n l y I have borrowed l i n e s from him, i n the attempt to reproduce, o r r a t h e r t o arouse i n the r e a d e r ' s mind the memory, o f some Dantesque scene, and thus e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the medieval i n f e r n o and modern l i f e . Readers of my ' i°Dante A l i g h i e r i , The I n f e r n o , t r a n s . , John C i a r d i (Toronto: The New American L i b r a r y , 1954), Canto V I I I , l i n e s 15-18. 49 John C i a r d i , The I n f e r n o , p.174. 5 0 T . S . E l i o t , "What Dante Means to Me" (1950), To C r i t i c i z e the C r i t i c (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1945), p.125. 16 Waste Land w i l l perhaps remember t h a t the v i s i o n of my c i t y c l e r k s t r o o p i n g over London B r i d g e from the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n to t h e i r o f f i c e s evoked the r e f l e c t i o n *I had not thought death had undone so many'(.^ For n e o - c l a s s i c a l poets the e x t e r n a l world o f f e r e d o n l y i m p e r f e c t models o f nature from which the a r t i s t , proud of h i s independence must s e l e c t t r a i t s here and t h e r e to compose the i d e a l l y b e a u t i f u l . The A n c i e n t s , however, had a l r e a d y s t u d i e d the e x t e r n a l world and c r e a t e d a second Nature, approved as b e a u t i f u l by the judgment of two thousand y e a r s and d o u b t l e s s l y s u p e r i o r because i t had e l i m i n a t e d the i m p e r f e c t i o n s and c o n f u s i o n s o f the crude e x t e r n a l world,.,, As a n e o - c l a s s i c i s t , E l i o t o b j e c t e d to Romanticism's l a c k o f o b j e c t i v i t y , and r e s t r a i n t , t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s avoidance of t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s . Although E l i o t admired Bla k e ' s p o e t r y , f o r example, he n e v e r t h e l e s s r e g r e t t e d t h a t B l a k e ' s c a p a c i t i e s were not " c o n t r o l l e d by a r e s p e c t f o r impersonal reason, f o r common sense, f o r the o b j e c t i v i t y o f s c i e n c e . . . [and] ...a 53 framework of accepted t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s " . James Thomson has commented t h a t i t " i s not v e r y easy to d i s c u s s the c l a s s i c a l background of Mr. E l i o t , a l t h o u g h i t 54 i s v ery d i s t i n c t l y t h e r e , because he uses i t . " Perhaps Thomson f i n d s d i s c u s s i o n of E l i o t ' s n e o - c l a s s i c i s m d i f f i c u l t because, as E l i o t h i m s e l f has acknowledged, the vague meaning of the terms "romanticism* and ' c l a s s i c i s m ' l i m i t s t h e i r "What Dante Means to Me", To C r i t i c i z e the C r i t i c , p.128. Gallaway, pp.215-216. T.S. E l i o t , " W i l l i a m Blake" (1920), S e l e c t e d Essays, p.322. Thomson, p.260. 17 u s e f u l n e s s : The d a n g e r o f u s i n g t e r m s l i k e ' r o m a n t i c ' and ' c l a s s i c ' - t h i s d o e s n o t however g i v e us p e r m i s s i o n t o a v o i d them a l t o g e t h e r - d o e s n o t s p r i n g so much f r o m t h e c o n f u s i o n c a u s e d by t h o s e who u s e t h e s e t e r m s a b o u t t h e i r own work, as f r o m i n e v i t a b l e s h i f t s o f m e a n i n g i n c o n t e x t . r c T h u s , i n h i s e s s a y , "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , E l i o t e x p l i c i t l y e x a m i n e s h i s own m e a n i n g o f t h e t e r m ' c l a s s i c ' . He b e l i e v e d t h a t a c l a s s i c c o u l d " o n l y o c c u r when a c i v i l i z a t i o n i s m a t u r e ; when a l a n g u a g e and a l i t e r a t u r e a r e m a t u r e ; and i t 5 6 must be t h e work o f a m a t u r e m i n d . " A t t h e same t i m e E l i o t saw t h e n e e d f o r a s o c i e t y w i t h m a t u r i t y o f manners and i n command o f a w e l l d e v e l o p e d "common S t y l e " i n l i t e r a t u r e . T h u s , when E l i o t o r Hulme c a l l f o r a c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l , t h e y do n o t mean an e x a c t r e t u r n t o t h e s t r i n g e n t r u l e s o f s o c i e t y and l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h were p r e v a l e n t i n P o p e ' s e r a . R a t h e r , t h e y demand a r e t u r n t o b a s i c n e o - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a s E l i o t s t a t e s , was n o t a s i t t h o u g h t i t s e l f , " t h e f i n e s t p e r i o d i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e " , n e v e r t h e l e s s i t was s t i l l a p e r i o d whose l i t e r a t u r e E l i o t a d m i r e d and whose l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s , he t h o u g h t , s h o u l d be b o t h o b s e r v e d and e m u l a t e d . T h u s , a l t h o u g h "we h a v e no c l a s s i c age, and no c l a s s i c p o e t i n E n g l i s h . . . w e must m a i n t a i n t h e 5 8 c l a s s i c i d e a l b e f o r e o u r e y e s . " E l i o t f e l t t h a t t h e r e was ^ T . S . E l i o t , A f t e r S t r a n g e Gods (Lo n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1934), p.26. "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , On P o e t r y and P o e t s , p.55. 5 7 I b i d . , p.59. 5 8 I b i d . , p.59. 18 no need f o r one p e r i o d i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e to be completely c l a s s i c a l , s i n c e "the p e r i o d which most n e a r l y f i l l s the 59 c l a s s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n i s not the g r e a t e s t . " I n s t e a d he b e l i e v e d t h a t "those l i t e r a t u r e s , of which E n g l i s h i s one of the eminent, i n which the c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t i e s are s c a t t e r e d between v a r i o u s authors and s e v e r a l p e r i o d s , may w e l l be the r i c h e r . " 6 0 E a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y T.E. Hulme, f r i e n d and advocate to E l i o t and Pound, c a l l e d f o r a p o e t r y t h a t was f o r m a l l y p r e c i s e and whose " p r e t e n s i o n s are l i m i t e d to simple 61 and v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n . " E l i o t contended t h a t "no s e n s i b l e author, i n the midst o f something t h a t he i s t r y i n g t o w r i t e , can stop to c o n s i d e r whether he i s going to be romantic or 6 2 the o p p o s i t e " . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t must be conceded t h a t he leaned towards c l a s s i c i s m , i n Hulme's sense, and i n The  Waste Land propounds the t r a d i t i o n a l n e o - c l a s s i c a l view o f the s o c i a l , moral, and r e l i g i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s o f man. T.E. Hulme c o n c e i v e d of romanticism as the b e l i e f i n man having u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l - romantic man a s p i r e s to godhead, to heaven, and b e l i e v e s t h a t he can a c h i e v e transcendence. However, c l a s s i c i s m , f o r Hulme, i s the b e l i e f t h a t man i s r e s t r i c t e d , a " l i m i t e d animal whose nature i s a b s o l u t e l y c o n s t a n t . I t i s o n l y by t r a d i t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t a n y t h i n g can be "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , On Poetry and Poets, p.54. 6 0 I b i d . , p.54. 61 T.E. Hulme, i n S h a p i r o , p.116. 6 2 A f t e r Strange Gods, p.26. 19 got out o f him." Led by t r a d i t i o n , a n e o - c l a s s i c a l poet would thus w r i t e a c c u r a t e l y o n l y of the f i n i t e world, of man hampered by o r i g i n a l s i n , a concern which E l i o t i s o b v i o u s l y i n agreement w i t h when q u o t i n g B a u d e l a i r e : 'In the l i g h t of these a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , man h i m s e l f i s judged to be e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d and i m p e r f e c t endowed w i t h O r i g i n a l S i n . While he can o c c a s i o n a l l y a c complish a c t s which partake of p e r f e c t i o n , he can never be p e r f e c t . C e r t a i n secondary r e s u l t s i n r e g a r d to o r d i n a r y human a c t i o n i n s o c i e t y f o l l o w from t h i s . A man i s e s s e n t i a l l y bad, he can o n l y accomplish a n y t h i n g of v a l u e by d i s c i p l i n e - e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l . Order i s thus not merely n e g a t i v e , but c r e a t i v e and l i b e r a t i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n s are n e c e s s a r y • 1 In w r i t i n g p o e t r y o f the ' f i n i t e ' w o r l d , E l i o t succeeds i n p r e s e n t i n g r e a l i t y i n the terms which Hulme recommends f o r t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l poets and which are s i m i l a r t o those which Pope p r e s e n t s f o r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r s , While Romantic i n t e l l e c t u a l s viewed man as having l i m i t l e s s p o t e n t i a l i t y , n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s c o n c e i v e d of man as 6 5 " l i m i t e d , d u a l i s t i c , and i m p e r f e c t " . The r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o f Pope and E l i o t compound w i t h t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and l i t e r a r y b e l i e f s through t h e i r bond w i t h c l a s s i c i s m . Hulme expresses t h i s o u t l o o k by w r i t i n g t h a t "the essence of romanticism i s l o c a t e d i n i t s i d o l a t r y of the i n d i v i d u a l who, 6 6 f o r the r o m a n t i c s , should have u n l i m i t e d powers." Pope and E l i o t c o n s i s t e n t l y oppose t h i s type o f romanticism. Man should l i m i t h i s a s p i r a t i o n s ; he should be c o n t e n t w i t h T.E. Hulme, i n Sh a p i r o , p.91. 64 " B a u d e l a i r e " , S e l e c t e d Essays, p.392. T h r a l l , Hibbard and Holman, p.310. ^ M u r r a y K r i e g e r , The New A p o l o g i s t s f o r Poetry ( M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , 1969), p.33. 20 h i s p r e s e n t l i f e on e a r t h , and not seek to t r a n s c e n d h i s p r e s e n t s t a t e i f he i s to ever know happiness. In the " U n i v e r s a l P r a y e r " , Pope s t a t e s t h a t man should be c o n t e n t w i t h h i m s e l f and the knowledge t h a t God e x i s t s and t h a t God i s good: Thou Great F i r s t Cause, l e a s t understood: Who a l l my Sense c o n f i n e d To know but t h i s , t h a t Thou a r t Good, And t h a t myself am b l i n d . ^ These l i n e s correspond w i t h the n o t i o n expressed by E l i o t i n the Four Q u a r t e t s , t h a t w h i l e many men tend to seek knowledge beyond t h a t which they p r e s e n t l y possess, they d e l v e o n l y i n t o the f u t u r e and not the p a s t . " M a t u r i t y o f mind...needs 6 8 h i s t o r y , and the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s t o r y . " The p a s t i s p a r t o f man's p r e s e n t b e i n g . The t r u e C h r i s t i a n man sho u l d be aware o n l y o f h i s p r e s e n t moment i n time - h i s one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God - and not be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the f u t u r e : Men's c u r i o s i t y searches p a s t and f u t u r e And c l i n g s to t h a t dimension. But t o apprehend The p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the t i m e l e s s With time, i s an o c c u p a t i o n f o r the s a i n t . Thus one a s p e c t o f the n e o - c l a s s i c a l o u t l o o k i s a sense o f the f i n i t e n e s s o f man, supplemented perhaps by a need f o r an o r d e r l y r e l i g i o u s h i e r a r c h y . I t was T.E. Hulme who l e d the r e v o l t o f e a r l y t w e n t i e t h -century n e o - c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s a g a i n s t the s u p e r f l u o u s and Alexander Pope, " U n i v e r s a l P r a y e r " , eds., Normal A u l t and John B u t t (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1964), l i n e s 5-8. 6 8 "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , On Poe t r y and Poets, p.60. 6 9 " D r y Salvag e s " , Four Q u a r t e t s , l i n e s 199-202. 21 hazy use o f language, e s p e c i a l l y e p i t h e t s , which he f e l t were "'beads on a c h a i n ' , p h y s i c a l t h i n g s c a r r y i n g no r e a l i t y . A g a i n s t words he opposed the image as a u n i t and the analogy 70 as an instrument of thought". One of the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of The Waste Land i s the imagery, which f o l l o w s the p a t t e r n l a i d by Hulme, who advocated "new and o r i g i n a l ways of s a y i n g t h i n g s " i f "poetry was to be a c c u r a t e " , "a new 71 k i n d of imagery: f r e s h , unusual metaphors and a n a l o g i e s . " Hulme b e l i e v e d t h a t " a l l emotion depends on r e a l s o l i d v i s i o n 72 or sound. I t i s p h y s i c a l . " S i n c e p l a i n speech " i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n a c c u r a t e " , i t i s o n l y by "new metaphors" t h a t i t can be made p r e c i s e . T h e r e f o r e Hulme advocated a p o e t r y i n a v i s u a l 73 sense where each word "must be an image seen, not a c o u n t e r . " E z r a Pound, who had a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on E l i o t ' s t h i n k i n g and who was i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by Hulme, l e d the Imagist movement, which advocated the f o l l o w i n g l i t e r a r y r u l e s : 1. D i r e c t treatment o f the ' t h i n g ' whether s u b j e c t i v e o r o b j e c t i v e . 2. To use a b s o l u t e l y no word t h a t does not c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n . 3. As r e g a r d i n g rhythm: to compose i n the sequence o f the m u s i c a l phrase, not i n sequence of a metronome.^ 70 T.E. Hulme, Notes on Language and S t y l e , ed., H e r b e r t Read (Washington: U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Chapbooks, no d a t e ) , p.7. 71 T.E. Hulme, quoted i n Gertrude P a t t e r s o n , T.S. E l i o t : Poems i n the Making (New York: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p.21. 72 T.E. Hulme, Notes on Language and S t y l e , p.10. 73 I b i d . , p.11. 74 E z r a Pound, from "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p.105. 2 2 I n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i s p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y T h e W a s t e L a n d , i t i s w e l l k n o w n t h a t E l i o t w a s g u i d e d b y t h e r u l e s f o r m e d b y P o u n d a n d t h e I m a g i s t m o v e m e n t . I n m a n y r e s p e c t s P o p e ' s c r i t i c i s m c o n f o r m s t o P o u n d ' s I m a g i s t i c c r i t e r i a . H e a l s o r e c o m m e n d e d " d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e ' t h i n g ' " , o b s e r v i n g t h a t t h e e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f c o n c e i t , f o r e x a m p l e , o n l y c l o u d s t h e p o e t ' s s u b j e c t . A p o e t w h o a t t e m p t s t o s h o w h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t h r o u g h w i t , c o n c e i t , a n d w o r d i n e s s i s n o t a p o e t o f c r a f t . L i k e P o u n d , P o p e d i r e c t s p o e t s t o " u s e n o s u p e r f l u o u s w o r d , n o a d j e c t i v e w h i c h d o e s 7 5 n o t r e v e a l s o m e t h i n g " f o r " w o r d s a r e l i k e l e a v e s , a n d w h e r e t h e y m o s t a b o u n d , / M u c h f r u i t o f s e n s e b e n e a t h i s r a r e l y f o u n d . " ( E C 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 ) T h e p o e t o f p o o r q u a l i t y a t t e m p t s t o h i d e h i s i n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s h i s t h o u g h t s b e h i n d g l i t t e r i n g v e r b o s i t y : S o m e t o C o n c e i t a l o n e t h e i r t a s t e c o n f i n e A n d g l i t t e r i n g t h o u g h t s s t r u c k o u t a t e v e r y l i n e ; P l e a s e d w i t h a w o r k w h e r e n o t h i n g ' s j u s t o r f i t ; O n e g l a r i n g C h a o s a n d w i l d h e a p o f w i t . ^ E C 2 8 9 - 2 9 2 ) I n h i s p o e t r y P o p e e x p r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r d i r e c t , c o n c i s e , a n d n o n - m e c h a n i c a l p o e t r y : P o e t s l i k e p a i n t e r s , t h u s , u n s k i l l e d t o t r a c e T h e n a k e d n a t u r e a n d t h e l i v i n g g r a c e , W i t h g o l d a n d j e w e l s c o v e r e v e r y p a r t , A n d h i d e w i t h o r n a m e n t s t h e i r w a n t o f a r t . T r u e W i t i s N a t u r e t o a d v a n t a g e d r e s s e d , W h a t o f t w a s t h o u g h t , b u t n e ' e r s o w e l l e x p r e s s e d ; S o m e t h i n g , w h o s e t r u t h c o n v i n c e d a t s i g h t w e f i n d , T h a t g i v e s u s b a c k t h e i m a g e o f o u r m i n d . ^ E C 2 9 3 - 3 0 0 ) 7 5 E z r a P o u n d , f r o m " A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p . 1 0 6 . 23 These views are a l s o expressed by E l i o t i n the Four Q u a r t e t s where he c o n s i d e r s the proper manner of c r e a t i n g a memorable poem: What we c a l l the beg i n n i n g i s o f t e n the end And to make an end i s to make a b e g i n n i n g . The end i s where we s t a r t from. And every phrase And sentence t h a t i s r i g h t (where every word i s a t home, Taking i t s p l a c e to support the o t h e r s , The word n e i t h e r d i f f i d e n t nor o s t e n t a t i o u s , An easy commerce of the o l d and the new, The common word exact without v u l g a r i t y , The formal word p r e c i s e but not p e d a n t i c , The complete c o n s o r t dancing together) Every phrase and every sentence i s an end and a b e g i n n i n g , Every poem an e p i t a p h . Pound, Pope, and E l i o t b e l i e v e d , as Hulme has phrased i t , t h a t t h e r e should be "a p o e t r y t h a t i s f o r m a l l y p r e c i s e and 77 whose p r e t e n t i o n s are l i m i t e d t o simple and v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n , " A t the same time, they a l s o lamented t h a t d e f e c t o f c o n t r i v e d p o e t r y which f o r c e d the words to f i t the rhythm. Many people review p o e t r y , Pope wrote, not " f o r the d o c t r i n e but the music th e r e . " ( E C 340) Pope, w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g the f a u l t o f r h y t h m i c a l l y c o n t r i v e d p o e t r y , i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t f a u l t through exaggerated r h y t h m i c a l use i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : These equal s y l l a b l e s alone r e q u i r e , Though o f t the ear the open v o w e l l s t i r e ; While e x p l e t i v e s t h e i r f e e b l e a i d do j o i n ; And ten low words o f t creep i n one d u l l l i n e : While they r i n g round the same u n v a r i e d chimes, With sure r e t u r n s of s t i l l expected rhymes^ 341-345) " L i t t l e G i d d i n g " , Four Q u a r t e t s , l i n e s 214-225. K r i e g e r , p.33. 24 Two hundred years l a t e r Pound expressed the same sentiment i n prose when he o b j e c t e d t h a t "the words are s h o v e l l e d i n t o f i l l 7 8 a m e t r i c p a t t e r n o r to complete the n o i s e o f a rhyme sound." He added, when a poet uses "a symmetrical form, [ a f a v o r i t e o f Pope and the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s ] don't put i n what you want t o 79 say and then f i l l up the remaining vacuum w i t h s l u s h . " In harmony w i t h n e o - c l a s s i c i s t p r i n c i p l e s , E l i o t ' s s t y l e i s " p r e c i s e and co n c e n t r a t e d ; he experiments w i t h form, as the c l a s s i c s and n e o - c l a s s i c s l i k e Pope r a r e l y d i d , but he i s 8 0 never f o r m l e s s , as h i s i m i t a t o r s too o f t e n a r e . " Thus E l i o t uses the d i s c i p l i n e o f p o e t i c form which n e o - c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n f e l t n e cessary to e n c a p s u l a t e thought. Pound s t r u c k the r i g h t balance when he wrote t h a t the "rhythmic s t r u c t u r e should not d e s t r o y the shape of your words, or t h e i r 81 n a t u r a l sound, or t h e i r meaning." Although i m p r e s s i v e l y a t ease i n d i s c u s s i n g a l l p e r i o d s of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , E l i o t seems most c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . He focuses c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n upon seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t s , as w e l l as on s a t i r e , and he has hi g h p r a i s e f o r both Dryden and Pope: 'Waller was smooth' indeed, but h i s smoothness i s f e e b l e n e s s , compared t o a n y t h i n g accomplished by Dryden o r Pope h i m s e l f : the smoothness of an ambling pad-pony compared to t h a t o f a f i e r y horse w i t h an expert r i d e r . Q O 7 8 E z r a Pound, "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p.105. 7 9 I b i d . , p.105. ^Thomson, p.261. 81 E z r a Pound, "A R e t r o s p e c t " , i n S h a p i r o , p.107. 8 2 T.S. E l i o t , "John Dryden", Homage to John Dryden (London: T.S. E l i o t , L. London and V i r g i n i a Woolf, 1924), p.11. 2 5 E l i o t ' s s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e s e n e o - c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s c a n b e f e l t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t o n t h a t p e r i o d : E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e b e t w e e n 1 6 6 0 a n d 1 7 9 8 w a s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a p r o s e l i t e r a t u r e . O f t h e p o e t s w h o w r o t e b e t w e e n t h o s e d a t e s t h e n a m e s o f a b a r e h a l f d o z e n l i v e i n t h e m e m o r y . D r y d e n a n d P o p e , m o r e o v e r , w e a r e a p t t o t h i n k o f a s c r i t i c s r a t h e r t h a n a s p o e t s - c r i t i c s o f s o c i e t y a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s a s w e l l a s o f l i t e r a t u r e . n ^ A s w i t h P o p e a n d D r y d e n , P o u n d a n d E l i o t a r e o f t e n t h o u g h t o f a s c r i t i c s a s r e a d i l y a s t h e y a r e r e g a r d e d a s p o e t s . I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f P o p e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o E l i o t , o n e c a n n o t i g n o r e t h e i n f l u e n c e w h i c h J o h n D r y d e n h a s h a d u p o n b o t h p o e t s , f o r a s E l i o t w r o t e : " D r y d e n i s a s u c c e s s o r o f J o n s o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e d e s c e n d e n t o f M a r l o w e ; h e i s t h e a n c e s t o r o f n e a r l y a l l t h a t i s b e s t i n t h e p o e t r y o f t h e 8 4 e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " T h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l e r a h a d b e e n m u c h m a l i g n e d , a n d E l i o t f o u n d h i m s e l f c o n s t a n t l y d e f e n d i n g D r y d e n a n d P o p e f r o m a d v e r s e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s : " I t u s e d t o b e t h o u g h t t h e p o e t i c s t y l e s o f D r y d e n a n d P o p e w e r e a r t i f i c i a l . O n e h a s o n l y t o c o m p a r e t h e m w i t h t h e s t y l e o f D r y d e n ' s g i m m e d i a t e p r e d e c e s s o r , A b r a h a m C o w l e y , t o p r o v e t h e c o n t r a r y . " E v e n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y D r y d e n w a s d e f a m e d b y c e r t a i n p o e t s a n d c r i t i c s . A l e x a n d e r P o p e , h o w e v e r , w a s n o t o n e o f t h e s e c r i t i c s , a n d h e r e c a l l e d t h a t i t " w a s D r y d e n w h o m a d e W i l l ' s c o f f e e h o u s e t h e g r e a t r e s o r t f o r t h e w i t s o f C l a r e n c e C . G r e e n , p . 2 3 2 . T . S . E l i o t , " J o h n D r y d e n " ( 1 9 2 1 ) , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p . 3 0 5 . " J o h n D r y d e n " , i n H o m a g e t o J o h n D r y d e n , p . 1 0 . 26 h i s time." L i k e E l i o t , Pope r e c o g n i z e d Dryden 1s g r e a t n e s s and b e l i e v e d t h a t the l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e which Dryden c r e a t e d would endure: "what Timotheus was, i s DRYDEN now." (EC 383) Fame i s f l e e t i n g ; o n l y g r e a t p o e t r y and g r e a t poets are r e c o g n i z e d and perpetuated, as Pope contends i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: No l o n g e r now t h a t golden age appears, When P a t r i a r c h w i t s s u r v i v e d a thousand y e a r s : Now l e n g t h o f Fame (our second l i f e ) i s l o s t , And bare t h r e e s c o r e i s a l l even t h a t can boast; Our sons t h e i r f a t h e r s ' f a u l t y language see, And such as Chaucer i s , s h a l l Dryden b e . ^ E C 4 7 3 - 4 8 3 ) E l i o t ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s technique and themes. In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n c r i t i c s have o f t e n s t r e s s e d the importance o f E l i o t ' s moral tone. However, v e r y l i t t l e comment has been made on h i s s a t i r e , and i t i s i n the p r a c t i c e o f the s a t i r i s t ' s a r t t h a t E l i o t and Pope seem p a r t i c u l a r l y to concur. The s a t i r i s t i s the c r i t i c o f s o c i e t y - commenting on, and a t t a c k i n g v a r i e t i e s of h y p o c r i s y and a f f e c t a t i o n . E l i o t b e l i e v e d i n s a t i r e as an i n f l u e n t i a l form o f p o e t r y , and condemned those people who were too d u l l to r e a l i z e i t s importance: . . . t h e i r i n s e n s i b i l i t y does not merely s i g n i f y i n d i f f e r e n c e t o s a t i r e and w i t , but l a c k o f p e r c e p t i o n o f q u a l i t i e s not c o n f i n e d to s a t i r e and w i t and p r e s e n t i n the work of o t h e r poets whom these persons f e e l t h a t they understand. Robert J . A l l e n , The Clubs o f Augustan London (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933), Harvard S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , V o l . V I I , p.28. 27 To those whose t a s t e i n p o e t r y i s formed e n t i r e l y upon the E n g l i s h p o e t r y of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y - to the m a j o r i t y - i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n or excuse Dryden: the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i s s t i l l n i n e t e e n t h , although i t may i n time a c q u i r e i t s own c h a r a c t e r . - -o / S i m i l a r l y , Pope observed t h a t many seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y r e a d e r s missed the s t r e n g t h o f Dryden's s a t i r i c a r t and t h a t o t h e r s who p e r c e i v e d the aim were b l i n d e d by p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e and r e f u s e d to see the a r t i s t r y o f Dryden's p o e t r y , which Pope thought both p e r c e p t i v e and r e f i n e d : P a r t i e s i n Wit a t t e n d on those of S t a t e , And p u b l i c f a c t i o n doubles p r i v a t e hate. P r i d e , M a l i c e , F o l l y , a g a i n s t Dryden r o s e , In v a r i o u s shapes of Parsons, C r i t i c s , Beaus; But sense s u r v i v e d , when merry j e s t s were past; For r i s i n g m e r i t w i l l buoy up a t l a s t . / T , ^ , A r., ^ 2 ^ ( E C 456-461) From the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t v i e w p o i n t , the r o l e of the poet as c r i t i c i s v i t a l . Dryden p l a y s an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m o f both Pope and E l i o t because he l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n upon which many i n f l u e n t i a l n e o - c l a s s i c i s t poets have c r e a t e d t h e i r own p o e t r y . S i m i l a r l y , E l i o t saw Pope as an example o f a poet who has molded a l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e and c r e a t e d a p o e t r y which w i l l l a s t through time: For ' i n f l u e n c e ' , as Dryden had i n f l u e n c e , a poet must not be so g r e a t as to overshadow a l l f o l l o w e r s . Dryden was f o l l o w e d by Pope, and a c e n t u r y l a t e r , by Samuel Johnson; both men of g r e a t and o r i g i n a l g e n i u s , who developed the medium l e f t them by Dryden i n ways which c a s t honour both on them and on him.gg T.S. E l i o t , "John Dryden", S e l e c t e d Essays, p.305. "John Dryden", i n Homage to John Dryden, p.6. 28 Both Pope and E l i o t have commented e x t e n s i v e l y on the composition of p o e t r y and prose and on the p r a c t i c e of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . In "The P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , E l i o t s t a t e d t h a t the a r t i s t i s , "each w i t h i n h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s - o f t e n e s t to be depended upon as a c r i t i c ; h i s c r i t i c i s m w i l l be c r i t i c i s m , and not the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a suppressed c r e a t i v e wish -8 9 what, i n most o t h e r persons, i s apt t o i n t e r f e r e f a t a l l y . " In the Essay on C r i t i c i s m , Pope h o l d s the same o p i n i o n as E l i o t on the matter of the author as c r i t i c : In Poets as t r u e genius i s but r a r e , True T a s t e as seldom i s the C r i t i c ' s share; Both must a l i k e from Heaven d e r i v e t h e i r l i g h t , These born t o judge, as w e l l as those to w r i t e . L e t such t e a c h o t h e r s who themselves e x c e l , And censure f r e e l y who have w r i t t e n w e l l . ,, J (EC 11-16) Pope and E l i o t r e g a r d s u c c e s s f u l authors as the b e s t q u a l i f i e d and l e a s t p a r t i a l c r i t i c s . In t h e i r assessment of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , E l i o t and Pope p i n p o i n t f a u l t s which d i m i n i s h the power and v e r a c i t y o f a c r i t i c ' s words. The f a u l t s o f many c r i t i c s are not found i n t h e i r manner of w r i t i n g , but r a t h e r i n p r e j u d i c e s and p a r t i a l i t i e s which are r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m . In "Johnson as C r i t i c " , E l i o t blames Johnson f o r h i s w h i m s i c a l a b i l i t y to i g n o r e f a u l t s i n one author which he r e c o g n i z e s i n o t h e r s . The " v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s sometimes no b e t t e r than t h a t o f a schoolboy's e x e r c i s e " , w r i t e s E l i o t o f Blackmore's " C r e a t i o n " ; Johnson, he w r i t e s , 89 T.S. E l i o t , "The P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , The Sacred Wood (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1950), p.7. i n d i s c u s s i n g Blackmore "must have been b l i n d e d to the d e f e c t s 90 which he would have reproved i n Dryden or Pope". The p r i n c i p a l reason f o r t h i s b l i n d n e s s may have been g i v e n i n Pope's Essay on C r i t i c i s m : Of a l l the Causes which c o n s p i r e t o b l i n d Man's e r r i n g judgment, and misguide the mind, What the weak head w i t h s t r o n g e s t b i a s r u l e s , Is P r i d e , the n e v e r - f a i l i n g v i c e o f f o o l s . , i r > v i \ In Pope's o p i n i o n , p r i d e stands i n the way of a c r i t i c ' s honest judgment. P r i d e makes the c r i t i c b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s h i s o p i n i o n - and h i s alone - which i s the o n l y e v a l u a t i v e t r u t h . E l i o t has w r i t t e n t h a t the c r i t i c " i f he i s to j u s t i f y h i s e x i s t e n c e should endeavour to d i s c i p l i n e h i s p e r s o n a l 91 p r e j u d i c e s and cr a n k s . " I t i s p r i d e which makes many c r i t i c s look o n l y t o t h e i r own i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t h e r than c o n s u l t i n g w i t h f e l l o w c r i t i c s . The c r i t i c "should endeavour to...compose h i s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h as many of h i s f e l l o w s as 92 p o s s i b l e , i n the common p u r s u i t o f t r u e judgment." As Pope so a p t l y comments i n a c o u p l e t o f a d v i c e t o the c r i t i c : T r u s t not y o u r s e l f ; but your d e f e c t s know, Make use of every f r i e n d - and every f o e . ^ E C 213-214) E l i o t b e l i e v e d t h a t r e a d e r s should abandon the c r i t i c s who r e f u s e t o " c o l l a b o r a t e " - who r e f u s e t o abandon t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e s i n favour o f an o b j e c t i v e e l u c i d a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f a work of a r t . He came to suspect t h a t the 90 T.S. E l i o t , "Johnson as C r i t i c " (1944), On Poetry and  Poets, p.194. 91 T.S. E l i o t , "The F u n c t i o n o f C r i t i c i s m " (1923), S e l e c t e d  Essays, p.25. 92 I b i d . , p.25. 3 0 a r b i t r a r y c r i t i c " o w e d h i s l i v e l i h o o d t o t h e v i o l e n c e a n d e x t r e m i t y , t o o t h e r c r i t i c s , o r e l s e t o s o m e t r i f l i n g o d d i t i e s o f h i s o w n w h i c h h e c o n t i n u e s t o s e a s o n t h e o p i n i o n w h i c h m e n a l r e a d y h o l d a n d w h i c h o u t o f v a n i t y a n d s l o t h t h e y p r e f e r 9 3 t o m a i n t a i n . " A s P o p e s t a t e d , e a c h c r i t i c b e l i e v e s h i s o w n o p i n i o n a n d c a t e r s t o h i s o w n f o i b l e s e v e n t h o u g h h e i s p l a c i n g h i s o p i n i o n s b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c r e a d e r s : A u t h o r s a r e p a r t i a l t o t h e i r w i t , ' t i s t r u e , B u t a r e n o t C r i t i c s t o t h e i r j u d g m e n t t o o ? ^.T-IS) b e c a u s e : ' T i s w i t h o u r j u d g m e n t s a s o u r w a t c h e s , n o n e G o j u s t a l i k e , y e t e a c h b e l i e v e s h i s o w n . ^ E C -y_gj A n d w h e n t h e c r i t i c s f i n d s t r o n g p o i n t i n a n a u t h o r ' s w o r k s , p e r h a p s i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y , l i k e " w e b u t p r a i s e o u r s e l v e s i n o t h e r m e n . " ( E C 4 5 5 ) T h i s v a n i t y m a k e s t h e c r i t i c a n u n r e l i a b l e c o m m e n t a t o r o n l i t e r a t u r e , s i n c e i t e v o k e s e m o t i o n s w h i c h p r e j u d i c e h i s v i e w s : " £ A ] l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s h o u l d h a v e n o e m o t i o n s e x c e p t t h o 9 4 i m m e d i a t e l y p r o v o k e d b y a w o r k o f a r t " . E l i o t ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e c r i t i c s h o u l d a p p r o a c h a r t w i t h a n i m p a r t i a l c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n i s w e l l k n o w n . T h e c r i t i c " m u s t n o t m a k e j u d g m e n t s o f w o r s e o r b e t t e r . H e m u s t s i m p l y e l u c i d a t e ; t h e r e a d e r w i l l 9 5 f o r m t h e c o r r e c t j u d g m e n t f o r h i m s e l f . " P o p e a l s o e x p r e s s e s t h i s o p i n i o n w h e n h e c o m m e n t s t h a t w e " c a n n o t b l a m e i n d e e d " , ( E C 2 4 2 ) b u t i n " e v e r y w o r k r e g a r d t h e w r i t e r ' s E n d " . ( E C 2 5 5 ) 9 3 " T h e F u n c t i o n o f C r i t i c i s m " , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p . 2 5 . 9 4 , 9 5 . 9 4 " T h e P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , T h e S a c r e d W o o d , p . 1 2 . I b i d . , p . 1 1 . 31 The c r i t i c and the reader can both enjoy l i t e r a t u r e , and l e a r n from i t i f they are r e c e p t i v e : A p e r f e c t Judge w i l l read each work o f Wit With the same s p i r i t t h a t i t s author w r i t : Survey the WHOLE, nor seek s l i g h t f a u l t s to f i n d Where nature moves, and r a p t u r e warms the mind; Nor l o s e , f o r t h a t malignant d u l l d e l i g h t , The generous p l e a s u r e to be charmed w i t h w i t . 2 3 3 - 2 3 8 ) Although he should not make o p p r e s s i v e judgments, the c r i t i c who p r e s c r i b e s r u l e s and d i s s e c t s p o e t r y f o r the mere purpose of d i s s e c t i n g and p r e s c r i b i n g i s not p e r f o r m i n g h i s job, a c c o r d i n g to E l i o t : In "matters o f g r e a t importance 96 the c r i t i c must not c o e r c e . " In o r d e r to be o f v a l u e , c r i t i c i s m "must always p r o f e s s an end i n view, which, r o u g h l y speaking, appears to be the e l u c i d a t i o n o f works of a r t 97 and the c o r r e c t i o n of t a s t e . " Pope too i n s t r u c t s the c r i t i c as t o the manner of approaching the e d u c a t i o n o f the r e a d e r : ' T i s not enough, your c o u n s e l s t i l l be t r u e ; B l u n t t r u t h s more m i s c h i e f than n i c e f a l s e h o o d s do; Men must be taught as i f you taught them not, And t h i n g s unknown proposed as t h i n g s f o r g o t . ^ ^ 2 - 5 7 5 ) Pope's o p i n i o n u n i t e s w i t h E l i o t ' s b e l i e f t h a t the "dogmatic c r i t i c , who l a y s down a r u l e , who a f f i r m s a v a l u e , has l e f t 9 8 h i s l a b o u r incomplete." O f t e n i n the process o f e l u c i d a t i n g the work o f a r t , "The P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , The Sacred Wood, p.11. "The F u n c t i o n o f C r i t i c i s m " , S e l e c t e d E s s a y s , p.24. "The P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , The Sacred Wood, p.11. 32 the c r i t i c , a l though not e m o t i o n a l l y b i a s e d , can become too narrow i n h i s a n a l y s i s of form. The " p u r e l y ' t e c h n i c a l ' c r i t i c - the c r i t i c , t h a t i s , who w r i t e s to expound some n o v e l t y or impart some l e s s o n to p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f an a r t - can be c a l l e d 99 a c r i t i c o n l y i n a narrow sense." Pope's views are s i m i l a r : N e g l e c t the r u l e s each v e r b a l C r i t i c l a y s . For not to know some t r i f l e s , i s a p r a i s e . Most C r i t i c s , fond o f some s u b s e r v i e n t a r t , S t i l l make the Whole depend upon a P a r t : They t a l k o f p r i n c i p l e s , but n o t i o n s p r i z e , And a l l to one l o v e d F o l l y s a c r i f i c e . ^ r r \ (EC 261-266) E l i o t d i s a p p r o v e d of the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y t r e n d i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m "which seems to demand o f p o e t r y , not t h a t i t s h a l l be w e l l w r i t t e n but t h a t i t s h a l l be ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i t s age'."''"^ T h i s i s a complaint which Pope a l s o v o i c e d . Poets laboured under the m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t they had t o w r i t e by r o t e the 'same1 p o e t r y as the s u c c e s s f u l poets o f t h e i r age."*"^ The attempts by hacks t o i m i t a t e Pope's success i n a r t i c u l a t i n g the s p i r i t o f h i s age i s r i d i c u l e d i n the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot: One d e d i c a t e s i n h i g h h e r o i c prose, And r i d i c u l e s beyond a hundred f o e s : One from a l l G r u b s t r e e t w i l l my fame defend, And, more ab u s i v e , c a l l s h i m s e l f my f r i e n d . ^ ^ 109-112) ^ " T h e P e r f e c t C r i t i c " , The Sacred Wood, p.11. "'"^T.S. E l i o t , The Use o f P o e t r y and the Use o f C r i t i c i s m (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1933), p.25. "^^"Pope's d i s d a i n f o r hack w r i t e r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l e d through h i s r i d i c u l e o f Benlowes, "famous f o r h i s own bad Poetry and f o r p a t r o n i z i n g bad Poets" (Pope's second f o o t n o t e to the Dunciad I I I ) . Pope commented, i n the Dunciad I I I l i n e 21, t h a t "Benlowes, p r o p i t i o u s s t i l l to blockheads, bows". 3 3 I n a d d i t i o n , p o e t r y w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e p h e m e r a l t a s t e o f a n a g e m a y b e l a c k i n g i n t h e q u a l i t i e s o f ' g o o d ' p o e t r y . P a i n s , r e a d i n g , s t u d y , a r e t h e i r j u s t p r e t e n c e , A n d a l l t h e y w a n t i s s p i r i t , t a s t e a n d s e n s e . . r „ , ™ » 1 ^ ( E D A 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 ) S i m i l a r l y E l i o t ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r f i x e d s t a n d a r d s o f t a s t e i s e v i d e n t i n h i s c r i t i c i s m : I w i s h t h a t w e m i g h t d i s p o s e m o r e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n , t o t h e c l a r i t y o r o b s c u r i t y , t o t h e c h o i c e o f w o r d s w h e t h e r j u s t o r i m p r o p e r , e x a l t e d o r v u l g a r , o f o u r v e r s e : i n s h o r t t o t h e g o o d o r b a d b r e e d i n g o f o u r p o e t s . I f p o e t r y i s t o b e s i n c e r e i t s h o u l d b e w r i t t e n f r o m t h e h e a r t - w r i t t e n a s E l i o t s a y s o f T h e W a s t e L a n d - " t o r e l i e v e £ t h e p o e t ' s ] e m o t i o n s " a n d a s " a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l a c t " . ^ " ^ I n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , J o h n D r y d e n , i n A D e f e n c e o f a n E s s a y o n D r a m a t i c P o e s y , w r o t e t h a t i t w a s t h e p o e t ' s c o n c e r n " t o a f f e c t t h e s o u l , a n d e x c i t e t h e p a s s i o n s , a n d a b o v e a l l , 1 0 4 t o m o v e a d m i r a t i o n " . S i m i l a r l y , f o r P o p e , t h e g e n u i n e p o e t c o n v e y s h i s d e e p e s t s e n s e o f r e a l i t y t o t h e r e a d e r , w h i l e t h e s h a l l o w p o e t w r i t e s o n l y t o s h o w o f f h i s l e a r n i n g - o r f o r t h e m o n e y h e w i l l r e c e i v e : E a c h W i g h t , w h o r e a d s n o t , a n d b u t s c a n s a n d s p e l l s , E a c h W o r d - c a t c h e r , t h a t l i v e d o n s y l l a b l e s . J ( E D A 1 6 5 - 1 6 6 ) R e g i m e n t e d a r t w a s s e e n i n t h e w o r s h i p o f A r i s t o t l e i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . A r i s t o t l e w a s a p i l l a r o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l c r i t i c i s m . P o p e w r o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e T h e U s e o f P o e t r y a n d t h e U s e o f C r i t i c i s m , p . 2 5 . 1 0 3 T . S . E l i o t , r e c o r d e d b y R i c h a r d C a s e , " T . S . E l i o t i n C o n c o r d " , A m e r i c a n S c h o l a r X V I ( A u t u m n 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 4 4 . 1 0 4 J o h n D r y d e n , q u o t e d b y C l a r e n c e C . G r e e n , p . 1 1 3 . Those c r i t i c s who conclude that " a l l were desperate sots and fools,/Who durst depart from A r i s t o t l e ' s r u l e s . " (EC 271-272) E l i o t believed that " A r i s t o t l e i s a person who has suffered from the adherence of persons who must be regarded less as his d i s c i p l e s than as his sec t a r i e s . One must be firml y d i s t r u s t f u l of accepting A r i s t o t l e i n a canonical s p i r i t . " B o t h the c r i t i c and the poet, according to E l i o t and Pope, should not follow r i g i d technical p r i n c i p l e s , such as those of " A r i s t o t l e £whoJ had what i s c a l l e d the s c i e n t i f i c mind.""'"^ Judging a writer of one era by the stringent rules established many centuries previous i s a grievous c r i t i c a l error. As Pope put i t : "To judge therfore [ s i c ] of Shakespear by A r i s t o t l e ' s rules i s l i k e t r y i n g a man by the Laws of one Country, who 107 acted under those of another." 105 "The Perfect C r i t i c " , The Sacred Wood, p.11. 106T, ., Ibid., p.13. 107 Alexander Pope, quoted by Clarence C. Green, p.99. 35 CHAPTER I I N e o - c l a s s i c a l Themes i n Pope and E l i o t What The Rape of the Lock was to the Augustans... The Waste Land has become to the Moderns. I t i s i n e s c a p a b l e . , n o In "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , E l i o t m a intained t h a t "unless we are a b l e to enjoy the work o f Pope, we cannot a r r i v e a t 10 9 a f u l l u nderstanding of E n g l i s h p o e t r y . " The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the reader who i s unable to a p p r e c i a t e the themes and forms of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r e w i l l be unable to a p p r e c i a t e the complex themes o f l a t e r p o e t r y . S i m i l a r l y , the reader who does not a p p r e c i a t e the n e o - c l a s s i c a l concepts expressed i n E l i o t ' s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and p o e t r y cannot come to a f u l l u n derstanding of h i s work and of the modern p o e t r y which was i n f l u e n c e d by him. N e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y i s concerned w i t h s o c i e t y and man's d a i l y l i f e : "By comparison w i t h o t h e r times, n e o - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s markedly s o c i a l and urban. Though he s t a r v e d i n a P a r i s slum or a G r u b - s t r e e t g a r r e t , the poet f e l t h i m s e l f a p a r t of s o c i e t y " . 1 ' ' ' 0 The Rape of the Lock and The Waste Land show the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between t r a d i t i o n a l moral standards and a c t u a l ways o f l i v i n g i n the c o n t e x t of the s o c i a l mores of the e i g h t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . 108 Robert E. K n o l l , Storm over the Wasteland (Nebraska: S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1964), p . I . 109 "What i s a C l a s s i c ? " , On P o e t r y and Poets, p.60. 1 1 0 M a r k s , p.19. The most famous poems of Pope and E l i o t are not o n l y o u t s t a n d i n g examples of the p o e t r y of t h e i r age but a l s o epitomes of n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r conspicuous d i d a c t i c i s m . The r o l e of the s a t i r i s t , whatever h i s c e n t u r y , i s to reform s o c i e t y . In The Idea of a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y , E l i o t r e l a t e s the problems of r e f o r m i n g s o c i e t y to the proper concept of what i s r i g h t and what i s wrong. In h i s prose w r i t i n g as w e l l as i n much o f h i s p o e t r y , E l i o t o f t e n examined the moral s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y : Any machine, however b e a u t i f u l to look a t and however wonderful a product of b r a i n s and s k i l l can be used f o r bad purposes as w e l l as good: and t h i s i s t r u e of s o c i a l machinery as o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s of s t e e l . I t h i n k t h a t more important than the i n v e n t i o n o f a new machine, i s the c r e a t i o n of a temper of mind i n people such t h a t they can l e a r n to use a new machine r i g h t l y . More important s t i l l a t the moment would be the d i f f u s i o n of knowledge o f what i s wrong - m o r a l l y wrong - and o f why i t i s wrong. Although s a t i r e was not a popular medium i n the e a r l y decades of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , E l i o t used s a t i r e e x t e n s i v e l y , p robably t a k i n g h i s l e a d to some ex t e n t from Pound's ve n t u r e w i t h "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley" which appeared j u s t p r i o r to the p u b l i c a t i o n of The Waste Land. N e o - c l a s s i c a l concepts are always r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s e t t i n g , to n e o - c l a s s i c i s m i n the b r oadest 112 sense. With r e g a r d to t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c i s m , T.E. Hulme b e l i e v e d t h a t a "poem should be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . . . ^ \ h e Idea of a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y , p.98 Marks, p . v n . 37 as an a c c u r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the r e a l i t y o f ' e x q u i s i t e 113 moments', without 'moaning o r whining about something or o t h e r . ' " Pope and E l i o t p r e s e n t r e a l i t y i n the terms which Hulme suggests. They do not w r i t e merely of the beauty of l i f e and nature, but r a t h e r c o n c e n t r a t e on the d a i l y moments i n man's l i f e i n the l i g h t o f the h i s t o r i c a l shadow o f mankind. T h i s n e o - c l a s s i c a l concern w i t h man and h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n i s humanism, one o f the major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The n e o - c l a s s i c a l a r t i s t sees "the imagery o f common 114 l i f e . . . t h e imagery o f the s o r d i d l i f e o f a g r e a t m e t r o p o l i s " . The p o e t - s a t i r i s t c o n v e r t s t h i s s o r d i d n e s s and p e t t i n e s s o f contemporary l i f e i n t o a r r e s t i n g images which c r e a t e b e a u t i f u l and i n c i s i v e p o e t r y . In r e l a t i o n t o t h i s p o e t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , Northrop F r y e has observed t h a t we "are g e t t i n g c l o s e to one of the fundamental f a c t s about s a t i r e : t h a t the s a r d o n i c v i s i o n i s the seamy s i d e o f the t r a g i c v i s i o n . " 1 1 ^ Pope and E l i o t both examine the s o r d i d n e s s o f contemporary l i f e . With h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e , h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , E l i o t p e r c e i v e s the e v i l s o f western man's warped emotional and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . He sees the waste o f our c i v i l i z a t i o n not "as a s i n g l e moment 116 i n h i s t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r t o the West i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , " 113 T.E. Hulme, quoted by Gertrude P a t t e r s o n , T.S. E l i o t : Poems i n the Making (New York: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p.21. 114 " B a u d e l a i r e " , S e l e c t e d Essays, p.388. 5 N o r t h r o p F r y e , "The Nature of S a t i r e " , i n S a t i r e  Theory and P r a c t i c e , ed., C h a r l e s A. A l l e n and George D. Stephens (Belmont, C a l . : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. Inc., 1964), p.26. 1 1 6 B . C . Southam, A Guide t o the S e l e c t e d Poems of T.S. E l i o t (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, Inc., 1968), p.69. 38 but as "an i n c l u s i v e , comparative v i s i o n , a p e r s p e c t i v e o f 117 h i s t o r y . , , J" L / In n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r e , such as E l i o t ' s and Pope's, c o r r u p t i o n of the i d e a l " i s almost always a t l e a s t i m p l i c i t , i t o n l y r a r e l y appears as the s o l e s u b j e c t o f the s a t i r e . The b a s i c p o l a r i t y o f an i d e a l ( u s u a l l y i n the past) and the degenerate p r e s e n t p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l frame f o r the argument o f 118 a s a t i r e " . Authors i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n look to the c l a s s i c a l p a s t f o r p e r f e c t i o n i n a r t and s o c i e t y , seeking t o teach t h e i r s o c i e t y the need f o r a change from the p r e s e n t abandonment of t a s t e and c u l t u r e . For n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s , t h e r e i s a chaos of v a l u e s i n the u n f o r t u n a t e emphasis on c u r r e n t e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e i r remedy to t h i s chaos can be found i n a r e s p e c t f o r the h i e r a r c h y o f v a l u e s e v i d e n t i n the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . E l i o t b e l i e v e d t h a t man i s "not l i k e l y to know what i s to be done u n l e s s he l i v e s i n what i s not merely the p r e s e n t , but the p r e s e n t moment of the p a s t , u n l e s s he i s c o n s c i o u s , not of 119 what i s dead, but of what i s a l r e a d y l i v i n g . " As n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s and s a t i r i s t s , then, Pope and E l i o t do not encourage the c r e a t i o n o f a new s t a t e of s o c i e t y but expose the decadence i n the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and encourage a consciousness of f i r m h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e s . O f t e n , the s a t i r i s t Southam, p.69. 118 Ronald Paulson, The F i c t i o n s o f S a t i r e ( B a l t i m o r e , Maryland: John Hopkins P r e s s , 1967), p.10. 119 " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " , S e l e c t e d Essays, p.22. 39 sees "the f a c t t h a t the s o c i e t y of the p r e s e n t does not r e p u d i a t e the o l d forms but r a t h e r c o n c e a l s i t s own p e r v e r s i o n 120 behind them, paying v i r t u e the compliment o f h y p o c r i s y . " In The Waste Land and many of h i s o t h e r poems, E l i o t espouses the theme of emotional and s p i r i t u a l s t e r i l i t y e x e m p l i f i e d i n the decadence of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y , a v i s i o n which to some e x t e n t he gained from h i s r e a d i n g s o f B a u d e l a i r e . W r i t i n g i n the age o f Queen Anne, Pope too pursues the theme of emotional and s p i r i t u a l s t e r i l i t y . The Rape of the Lock a l s o e x h i b i t s a world i n which i t has been observed t h a t " i n i t s v a n i t y and s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t 121 i s too l i t t l e concerned f o r o t h e r p e o p l e " . One of the most decadent scenes i n The Waste Land i s t h a t of T i r e s i a s ' s o b s e r v a t i o n o f emotional s t e r i l i t y i n the c o p u l a t i o n of the t y p i s t and her young man. T i r e s i a s w i t nessed the mockery of l o v e through l a c k o f emotion i n the s o - c a l l e d 'love a c t 1 . With the s a t i r i s t ' s m e r c i l e s s eye f o r d e t a i l , E l i o t has T i r e s i a s pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o the minute d e t a i l s o f feminine undergarments: " s t o c k i n g s , s l i p p e r s , c a misoles and s t a y s " (TWL 227) and "out of the window p e r i l o u s l y spread/Her d r y i n g combinations touched by the sun's l a s t r a y s " (TWL 224-225). S i n c e a combination i s a feminine undergarment which covers a woman's body from the top o f her bosom, over the w a i s t and t h i g h s , E l i o t takes advantage of i t s 120 Paulson, The F i c t i o n s o f S a t i r e , p.24. 121 Peter Dixon, The World of Pope's S a t i r e s (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1968), p.53. 40 likeness to the feminine form to emphasize the emptiness of the physical r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s central to the scene. The garment, l i k e the t y p i s t l a t e r i n the scene, i s " p e r i l o u s l y spread", ready to accept a lover, and l i k e the t y p i s t , i t i s empty, void of any animation. The garment i s spread i n acceptance previous to i t s owner's actual acceptance, a foreshadowing of what i s to come, so that the reader can be l i k e T i r e s i a s i n perceiving the scene and f o r e t e l l i n g the r e s t . In addition to feminine garments, E l i o t also makes note of feminine f r a i l t i e s and habits - the "one half-formed thought" "Well now that's done: and I'm glad i t ' s over'" (TWL 251-252) while the t y p i s t "smoothes her hair with automatic hand." (TWL 255) The man's actions, however, are as automatic as the young woman's reactions. He i s assured of his v i c t o r y ; his advances are mock-heroically described as an assault and his success as the winning of a b a t t l e . I t i s the b a t t l e of the sexes and the young man i s confident that he w i l l emerge the v i c t o r : He, the young man carbuncular, a r r i v e s , A small house agent's cl e r k , with one bold stare, One of the low on whom assurance s i t s As a s i l k hat on a Bradford m i l l i o n a i r e . /m,,T n->*\ (TWL 231-234) This small pimply young c l e r k : Endeavours to engage her i n caresses Which s t i l l are unreproved; i f undesired. Flushed and decided, he assaults at once; Exploring hands encounter no defence, m„ T r 3 (TWL 237-240) Although the act has not been f o r c i b l e rape, the young man has 41 f o r c e d h i s advances on a young woman who does not d e s i r e him. There i s no enjoyment i n the 'act o f l o v e ' f o r e i t h e r the man or the woman. The sex a c t has become as automatic as the smoothing o f h a i r o r the p l a y i n g o f a gramophone. Pope, i n a somewhat analogous f a s h i o n , d e s c r i b e s the manner i n which male l o v e r s a t t a i n t h e i r conquests as he d e s c r i b e s those feminine f o i b l e s which account f o r the male's easy a s s a u l t . Cantos I I and I I I o f The Rape of the Lock open w i t h views of the t r i v i a l thoughts and c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h which the women of the c o u r t passed t h e i r time. Women i n The Rape of the Lock equate the " s t a i n i n g " o f t h e i r honour w i t h the s t a i n i n g o f a "new brocade" d r e s s o r the m i s s i n g o f a masquerade b a l l . Pope's A r i e l , l i k e T i r e s i a s , sees the mockery of l o v e , the concern w i t h t r i v i a l i t y and the f a i l u r e to respond t o l i f e s e r i o u s l y . The men, p e r s o n i f i e d by the Baron, t r e a t l o v e as a conquest o f the female o f t h e i r c h o i c e . T h i s conquest i s d e s c r i b e d m o c k - h e r o i c a l l y l i k e a c r u c i a l stratagem: Resolved to win, he medit a t e s the way, By f o r c e to r a v i s h , or by f r a u d b e t r a y ; For when success a Lover's t o i l a t t e n d s ; Few ask, i f f r a u d o r f o r c e a t t a i n e d h i s ends., 11RL 1 J. j l ~ j Thus i n the poem, B e l i n d a ' s h a i r i s raped, f o r c e f u l l y taken, and t h i s a c t i s symbolic of the rape of the woman h e r s e l f . The male and female c h a r a c t e r s o f both poems f a i l t o p e r c e i v e the v a l u e o f l o v e i n t h e i r s h a l l o w and d e s t r u c t i v e p a r o d i e s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l of c o u r t s h i p . 42 The matter of s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s c e n t r a l t o both E l i o t and Pope: "For E l i o t , of course, a superb t r i n i t y o f c u l t u r e , sex, and r e l i g i o n i s humanity's most worthy g o a l and the s i c k n e s s o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n i s t h a t the t h r e e 1 2 2 impulses operate i n i s o l a t i o n . " Both Pope and E l i o t d e p i c t the c u t t i n g i r o n y o f western s o c i e t y ' s ambivalence towards l o v e and the sex a c t . In The Rape of the Lock, f o r example, women are "f a c e d w i t h a both-and paradox: the d e s i r e not to be v i o l a t e d and y e t 123 e x p l i c i t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i t . " The women i n both poems are r e p e l l e d by the thought o f v i o l a t i o n and y e t f e e l f o r c e d by the conventions o f t h e i r sex to submit t o men's advances. T h i s sense o f f a l s e m o r a l i t y and h y p o c r i s y o f v a l u e s i s prese n t e d i n The Rape of the Lock through the s e c r e t p r ayer f o r v i o l a t i o n which l u r k s i n B e l i n d a ' s h e a r t c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h her complaints o f l o s s . Her p r o t e s t s a t v i o l a t i o n are d i r e c t l y v o i c e d : F o r e v e r c ursed be t h i s d e t e s t e d day, Which snatched my be s t , my f a v o r i t e c u r l away! Happy 1 ah, ten times happy had I been, I f Hampton Court these eyes had never s e e n ! ^ T R L I V 1 4 7 - 1 5 0 ) The epigraph to the poem, however, r e v e a l s B e l i n d a ' s s e c r e t d e s i r e : "I was u n w i l l i n g B e l i n d a , to r a v i s h your l o c k s ; but r e j o i c e to have conceded t h i s t o your p r a y e r s . " (TRL t r a n s l a t i o n of the epigraph, from M a r t i a l ) 122 Hamilton, i n M a r t i n , p.107. 12 3 Rebecca P r i c e P a r k i n , The P o e t i c Workmanship of Alexander  Pope (New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1966), p.51. Sex, i n both The Waste Land and The Rape of the Lock, i s s t e r i l e - i t g i v e s n e i t h e r p r o p a g a t i o n o f l i f e nor f u l f i l l m e n t of p l e a s u r e . Most o f the women i n The Waste Land, as i n The Rape of the Lock, are not m a r r i e d . In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h the married women i n the pub s e c t i o n o f "A Game o f Chess" have brought f o r t h c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t o f sexual union, these o f f s p r i n g are not the d e s i r e d i s s u e o f l o v e . The l a c k o f l o v e between husband and w i f e and the l a c k of l o v e f o r c h i l d r e n a re i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : (She's had f i v e a l r e a d y , and n e a r l y d i e d o f young George.) W e l l , i f Albert won't l e a v e you alone, t h e r e i t i s , I s a i d , What you g e t mar r i e d f o r i f you don't want c h i l d r e n ? (TWL 159, 161-162) " I t i s a l l symptomatic o f the boredom of l o v e which i s degraded 124 i n contemporary s o c i e t y to a mechanical r e l a t i o n s h i p . " Although marriage i s s a n c t i o n e d by the church as the moral union o f man and woman, the c h a r a c t e r s i n Pope's and E l i o t ' s poems e i t h e r spurn i t o r misuse i t . Marriage was t r a d i t i o n a l l y s a n c t i o n e d by C h r i s t i a n Churches f o r the purpose of p r o p a g a t i n g f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s : The v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s who appear i n |The Waste Land] have t h i s i n common: they are mis u s i n g t h e i r s e x u a l c a p a c i t i e s i n ways which make them q u i t e l i t e r a l l y b a r r e n , so t h a t i n t h e i r s e x u a l a c t i v i t y they sow death i n s t e a d of l i f e . ^ 5 Fayek M. Ishak, The M y s t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y o f T.S. E l i o t (New Haven, Conn.: C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y Press P u b l i s h e r s , 1970), p.67. I O C Audrey F. C a h i l l , T.S. E l i o t and the Human Predicament (Cape Town, South A f r i c a : U n i v e r s i t y of N a t a l P r e s s , 1967), p.39 44 L i l , i n "A Game of Chess" has stopped the l i f e p r o c e s s , having had an a b o r t i o n : " I t ' s them p i l l s I took, to b r i n g i t o f f , she s a i d . " (TWL 159) C e n t r a l t o both Pope and E l i o t i s the theme of the de g r a d a t i o n of western v a l u e s and the v i c e s which a r i s e from t h i s d e g r a d a t i o n . Pope wrote t h a t " d i s d a i n and i n d i g n a t i o n a g a i n s t v i c e i s (I thank God) the o n l y d i s d a i n and i n d i g n a t i o n 126 I have. I t i s s i n c e r e , and i t w i l l be a l a s t i n g one." The d e g r a d a t i o n i s p i c t u r e d i n waste and i n h e r e n t l a c k o f purpose, o f t e n symbolized by p h y s i c a l waste - the a l l e y s and the garbage. In The Waste Land E l i o t symbolizes the want of purpose through images of u g l i n e s s and d e s o l a t i o n - the "stony r u b b i s h " (TWL 23), the "dead t r e e " (TWL 115), the "White bodies naked on the low damp ground/And bones c a s t i n a low dry g a r r e t , / R a t t l e d by the r a t ' s f o o t o n l y , year to year" (TWL 193-195), and the "Dead mountain mouth of c a r i o u s t e e t h t h a t cannot s p i t " (TWL 339). The s t r o n g moral b a s i s o f E l i o t ' s d e p i c t i o n o f contemporary s o c i e t y can be seen i n The Idea o f a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y i n which he commented t h a t " i t does not r e q u i r e a C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e t o p e r c e i v e t h a t the modern system o f s o c i e t y has a 127 g r e a t d e a l i n i t t h a t i s i n h e r e n t l y bad", due e s s e n t i a l l y , 126 Alexander Pope i n L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m o f Alexander Pope, ed., B e r t r a n d A. Goldgar ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1965), p.40. 127 The Idea o f a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y , p.32. 45 he b e l i e v e d , to the u n d e r l y i n g d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and sexual v a l u e s . While the t a r g e t o f The Rape of the Lock appears to be s u p e r f i c i a l , t h a t of feminine v a n i t y - t h e r e " a r e deeper themes i n v o l v i n g the condemnation of v i c e . L i v i n g i n a waste l a n d , both Pope's and E l i o t ' s c h a r a c t e r s are unable to make q u a l i t a t i v e judgments about events. The c h a r a c t e r s i n The Rape of the Lock, f o r example, p r e f e r appearance to r e a l i t y and thus l i v e i n an i l l u s o r y w o r l d . They have no concept of the r e a l i t y o f the wasted world c r e a t e d by t h e i r own i n s e n s i b i l i t y - a world i n which they w i l l be f o r c e d t o l i v e trapped f o r the r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s . Thus, B e l i n d a and her c o m p a t r i o t s are puppets o f the s o c i e t y which they themselves s u s t a i n and they s u f f e r the consequences. The "crowd flowed over London B r i d g e " (TWL 6 2 ) , E l i o t ' s a l l u s i o n t o Dante's I n f e r n o , dramatized i n the s o u l l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s marching over the b r i d g e i n t o H e l l ' s i n n e r c i r c l e , i s a k i n to the f a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n Pope's world who are a t the mercy of a s e l f - s e r v i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n which "hungry judges soon the sentence sign,/And wretches hang t h a t jurymen may d i n e " (TRL I I I 21-22). I t has been observed o f E l i o t and i t might be s a i d of Pope t h a t the "purposelessness of l i f e i s d i s g u i s e d by a r e s t -128 l e s s n e s s of a c t i o n and a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on minor events." The i n h a b i t a n t s of the waste lands o f Pope and E l i o t are i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e as they "drank c o f f e e , and t a l k e d f o r an C a h i l l , p.42. 46 hour" (TWL 11) and then "sometimes c o u n s e l take - and sometimes te a " (TRL I I I 8) or "soot h i n g c h o c o l a t e " . 1 2 9 To f i l l the v o i d of t h e i r l i v e s the c h a r a c t e r s i n " v a r i o u s t a l k the i n s t r u c t i v e hours they past,/Who gave the b a l l , or p a i d the v i s i t l a s t " (TRL I I I 11-12). The on l y change comes i n the games o f chess and ombre which u l t i m a t e l y d e c i d e the c h a r a c t e r s ' f a t e . Chess moves i n The Waste Land r e p r e s e n t the steps i n a lov e a f f a i r i n which the l o v e r s p l a n "What s h a l l we do t o -morrow?/ .. .And we s h a l l p l a y a game of c h e s s , / P r e s s i n g l i d l e s s eyes and w a i t i n g f o r a knock upon the door." (TWL 133, 136-138) E l i o t , i n h i s notes on the poem, r e f e r s t o 130 "the game o f chess i n Mi d d l e t o n ' s Women Beware Women" i n which the chess moves r e p r e s e n t the steps i n a s e d u c t i o n . In the game o f ombre p l a y e d i n The Rape of the Lock, a l t h o u g h i t i s B e l i n d a who wins the game, her exuberance i n winning lead s to her symbolic s e d u c t i o n , the rape of her l o c k by the Baron. Pe t e r Quennell compares the c a r d game i n The Rape o f the Lock to a m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y : Pope... extended h i s range by d e s c r i b i n g the world o f ca r d s , which form a m i n i a t u r e c o u r t i n s i d e a c o u r t , p a i n t e d r e p l i c a s o f the c o u r t l y personages who f i l l the room and pre s s around the t a b l e . . . I f the human p r o t a g o n i s t s are e p i c heroes and h e r o i n e s s k i l l f u l l y reduced t o comic s i z e , the cards a re r e d u c t i o n s o f 129 "The F i r e Sermon", F a c s i m i l e E d i t i o n , The Waste Land ed., V a l e r i e E l i o t (New York: Harcourt, Brace, J o v a n o v i c h Inc., 1972), p.38, l i n e 10. 1 3 0 T h e Waste Land, C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935, p.80. 47 r e d u c t i o n s , the d i m i n u t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s of a l r e a d y d i m i n i s h e d f i g u r e s . . . i t i s indeed a work 'where the l i t t l e becomes g i g a n t i c . ' ^^]_ In The Waste Land, E l i o t chooses both cards and chess to r e p r e s e n t s o c i e t y ' s movements. In chess, the p i e c e s r e p r e s e n t human f i g u r e s whose movements i n the game symbolize the a c t i v i t i e s o f the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i n the poem. J u s t as the Queen i s the most prominent f i g u r e i n the game of chess, i t i s the female who i s the dominant f i g u r e i n The Waste Land. I t i s a female, Madame S o s o s t r i s , who c a s t s T a r o t cards and f o r e t e l l s the f u t u r e , and whose cards s t r u c t u r e the b a s i c themes of the poem. The f i r s t T a r o t c a r d which she sees i s the man w i t h t h r e e staves which symbolizes i d e a l s and hope. The r e v e r s e d meaning of t h i s c a r d , however, i s more s i g n i f i c a n t t o the poem. R e v e r s a l r e p r e s e n t s r e j e c t i o n and l o s s which o v e r t a k e s a l l of the c h a r a c t e r s i n The  Waste Land. The blank c a r d r e p r e s e n t s the f o o l - f o l l y , i r ^ r a t i o n a l i t y , i n d i s c r e t i o n , t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s . Even the r e v e r s e d meaning of t h i s c a r d i s a p p l i c a b l e to the themes of The Waste  Land. The r e v e r s a l means a f a u l t y c h o i c e , a h e s i t a t i o n - apathy and n e g l i g e n c e . In both E l i o t and Pope, the c h a r a c t e r s have a narrow o u t l o o k which a f f e c t s both t h e i r inward responses and outward a c t i o n s . In The Waste Land, as the T a r o t p r e d i c t s , they tend to evade the r e a l i t i e s of both t h e i r i n n e r and o u t e r worlds. Although the f o r t u n e t e l l e r does not t u r n up the Hanged Man, t h i s c a r d does have an i n f l u e n c e on the tone o f The Waste E d u c a t i o n o f Genius 1968), pp.81-82. Pet e r Quennell, Alexander Pope: The  1688-1728 (London: Weidenfeld and N i c o l s e n , 48 Land. The Hanged Man r e p r e s e n t s l i f e i n suspension, a f a i l u r e to g i v e o f one's s e l f and a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h one's s e l f . The a r i s t o c r a t i c Marie, "the t y p i s t home a t teatime", "the young man c a r b u n c u l a r " , the women i n the pub, the lady on the "burnished throne" - a l l of the c h a r a c t e r s f a i l t o g i v e o f themselves, as t y p i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: The wind under the door. What i s t h a t n o i s e now? What i s the wind doing? Nothing a g a i n n o t h i n g . 'You know nothing? Do you see nothing? Do you remember ' N o t h i n g ? ' ( T W L 1 1 7 _ 1 2 2 ) A vacuum. An u n w i l l i n g n e s s to make the necessary e f f o r t o f l i v i n g and c a r i n g . The c h a r a c t e r s do not even use t h e i r senses. The p r e t e n c e o f s e n s u a l i t y i n love-making i s a merely mechanical p a s s i o n i n an a p a t h e t i c world i n which people hang i n suspension. The c o n c l u d i n g c a r d which Madame S o s o s t r i s c a s t s i s t h a t of "crowds of people, w a l k i n g round i n a r i n g " (TWL 56) which c l o s e l y resembles the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the T a r o t c a r d o f 'Judgment' and a l s o resembles the crowds o f people condemned to walk around i n the c i r c l e s o f H e l l . A l l the p r e c e d i n g n e g a t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s o f the T a r o t c u l m i n a t e i n the r e v e r s e d p o s i t i o n o f 'Judgment' - del a y , postponement, f a i l u r e t o f a c e f a c t s , unhappiness, i n d e c i s i o n , d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and p r o c r a s -t i n a t i o n . However, i n choosing 'Judgment', E l i o t has s e l e c t e d a most a p p r o p r i a t e l y o p t i m i s t i c symbolic c a r d t o conclude the v i s i o n of the f u t u r e . The p o s i t i v e meaning of the c a r d "suggests 4 9 r e j u v e n a t i o n . . . R e b i r t h . Change of P o s i t i o n . Readjustment. 132 Improvement. Development." Few of the c h a r a c t e r s are found moving i n harmony w i t h t h e i r s o c i e t y or t h e i r n a t u r a l surroundings s i n c e they are c o n s t a n t l y seeking a meaning f o r t h e i r l i v e s o u t s i d e o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Two c h a r a c t e r s who embody f a l s e v a l u e s and who can be c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d are Madame S o s o s t r i s of The Waste Land and A r i e l of The Rape of the Lock. I t i s Madame S o s o s t r i s who g i v e s a r e a d i n g o f the f u t u r e and p r e s e n t s a warning, In Canto I of The Rape of the Lock, A r i e l a l s o reads the f u t u r e and g i v e s a warning. While A r i e l uses o n l y A s t r o l o g y , the " c l e a r M i r r o r or thy r u l i n g S t a r " (TRL I 108), E l i o t ' s "famous c l a i r v o y a n t e " (TWL 43) combines both the r e a d i n g of T a r o t cards and A s t r o l o g y to f o r e t e l l the f u t u r e . A r i e l f o r e s e e s some dread event and warns B e l i n d a by s a y i n g : I saw a l a s ! some dread event impend, Ere to the main t h i s morning sun descend, But heaven r e v e a l s not what, or how, or where: Warned by the S y l p h , oh Pious Maid b e w a r e ! ^ T R L j 1 0 9 - 1 1 2 ) L i k e A r i e l , Madame S o s o s t r i s sees some e v i l event p o r t e n d i n g and l i k e A r i e l she does not know what t h a t event i s . She sees many omens, reads many c a r d s : Here i s the man w i t h t h r e e staves and here the wheel, And here i s the one-eyed merchant, and t h i s c a r d , Which i s blank, i s something he c a r r i e s on h i s back, Which I am f o r b i d d e n t o see. I do not f i n d The Hanged Man. Fear death by w a t e r . ^ ^ 1 ^ 5 0 - 5 4 ) S.R. Kaplan, T a r o t Cards f o r Fun and Fortune T e l l i n g (New York: U.S. Games Systems, Inc., 1970), p.10. 5 0 A l t h o u g h s h e g i v e s h e r p r e d i c t i o n , o r w a r n i n g , i t i s p r o j e c t e d s o f a r i n t o t h e f u t u r e a n d i s s o v a g u e t h a t i t d o e s n o t h e l p t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n T h e W a s t e L a n d t o c o p e w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s a n d e v i l s . M a d a m e S o s o s t r i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r o n i c s u p e r s t i t i o u s n e s s o f m u c h c o n t e m p o r a r y r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g . A s a y o u n g m a n , E l i o t f e l l a w a y f r o m h i s f a m i l y ' s r e l i g i o n , U n i t a r i a n i s m , a n d b e c a m e a n a g n o s t i c . H e n e i t h e r p r o f e s s e d n o r d e n i e d G o d , b u t r a t h e r s o u g h t p r o o f t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n . I n o r d e r t o f i n d p e a c e w i t h h i m s e l f , h o w e v e r , h e f o u n d t h a t h e c o u l d n o t t o t a l l y a b a n d o n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , a n d t h u s s o u g h t s o m e t y p e o f f a i t h . S e a r c h i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g t o f i l l t h e r e l i g i o u s v o i d , h e e x p l o r e d B u d d h i s m , o t h e r e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s , a n d m y s t i c i s m w h i c h a l l a i d e d i n h i s t e a c h i n g i n 1 9 1 5 w h e n h e " r e t u r n e d t o 1 3 3 A m e r i c a a n d b e c a m e a l e c t u r e r i n c o m p a r a t i v e r e l i g i o n s . " H e c o n t i n u e d t o s e e k a r e l i g i o u s c o m m i t m e n t , a n d h e n c e t u r n e d t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n c e p t o f C a t h o l i c i s m , w h i c h i n t u r n t h r o u g h h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h L o r d H a l i f a x l e d h i m t o t h e m o d i f i e d C a t h o l i c s t a t e m e n t o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . D u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h a n d e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s a g o o d m a n y i n t e l l e c t u a l s d e l i b e r a t e d a b o u t a n d r e j e c t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h i s d e l i b e r a t i o n c a n b e s e e n i n t h e e a r l y s t r u g g l e s o f t h e y o u n g T . S . E l i o t , w h o , l i k e m a n y l a t e V i c t o r i a n a g n o s t i c s , b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y t h a t r e l i g i o n , l i t u r g y , a n d w o r s h i p w e r e t h i n g s o f t h e p a s t . E l i o t ' s c o n s e r v a t i s m , 1 3 3 R o b e r t S e n c o u r t , T . S . E l i o t , A M e m o i r ( N e w Y o r k : D o d d , M e a d a n d C o . , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 5 2 . 51 which emerged i n his adoption of Anglicanism came at a time when s t r i c t adherence to a r e l i g i o n was unpopular. Although published i n 1922, p r i o r to E l i o t ' s conversion to Anglicanism in 1927, The Waste Land shows signs of his exploration of various r e l i g i o n s and his struggle with the problem of deciding whether or not to adopt C h r i s t i a n i t y . One section of the poem which shows the presence of Anglicanism i s "The B u r i a l of the Dead", an adaptation of the t i t l e of the funeral service of the Church of England, "The Order for the B u r i a l of the Dead". Pope, l i k e E l i o t , also went against the i n t e l l e c t u a l currents of his day as far as r e l i g i o n was concerned. Pope was Roman Catholic, and s t r i c t l y adhered to his f a i t h . He "professed his r e l i g i o n steadfastly, r e j e c t i n g the i n v i t a t i o n s of powerful fri e n d s , Oxford and Atterbury, that he come over with them and enjoy the p o l i t i c a l emoluments to which h i s 134 genius e n t i t l e d him." Throughout his career as a poet, Pope kept his firm b e l i e f i n Catholicism, as witnessed i n many r e l i g i o u s references and symbols i n his poetry. He declared his f a i t h openly i n a l e t t e r to Jonathan Swift i n which he claimed to be "of the r e l i g i o n of Erasmus, a c a t h o l i c " . 1 3 5 In the early eighteenth century, with the decline of r e l i g i o u s fervor, r e l i g i o u s poetry also declined both i n 134 William K. Wimsatt J r . , ed., Alexander Pope, Selected  Poetry and Prose (Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1951), p.xx. 135 Pope's l e t t e r to Swift quoted i n Wimsatt, p.xx. 52 bulk and popularity. Peter Quennell remarks that since the "death of Henry Vaughan i n 1695, something had gone out of 136 English devotional verse." Addison, one of the few poets who ventured to write r e l i g i o u s poetry, i l l u s t r a t e d eighteenth-century r e l i g i o u s concepts i n t h i s hymn: The Spacious firmament on high, With a l l the blue ethereal sky, And spangled heavens, a shining frame Their great O r i g i n a l p r o c l a i m . ^ 7 Addison's hymn " i l l u s t r a t e s the Augustan conception of r e l i g i o u s poetry: a form of Loyal Address presented to the Divine Sovereign, rather than the record of a private S p i r i t u a l 138 adventure." In his "Messiah: A Sacred Eclogue", published in the Spectator, May 14, 1712, Pope too adopts the formal and objective mode rather than a personal testament of h i s f a i t h , and yet he manages to temper his poem with a c e r t a i n amount of personal sentiment. Both Pope and E l i o t f e e l that western society has l e t " non-essential trappings take predominance i n r e l i g i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a loss of the sense of what i s v i t a l to the salvation of man and his soul. E l i o t and Pope believe that when man becomes aware of God he gains release from his tainted nature through release of energy i n the process of increasing love for God and his fellow man. ^^Quennell, p. 54. 137 Joseph Addison, "The Spacious Firmament on High", Restoration and Augustan Poets, eds., W.H. Auden and Norman Homes Pearson (New York: Viking Press, 1950), l i n e s 1-4. ^^Quennell, p. 54. 53 To the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l eye b e l i e f s , r e l i g i o n s and m o r a l i t i e s are human h a b i t s - i n t h e i r odd v a r i e t y too human. Where the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k p r e v a i l s , s a n c t i o n s w i t h e r . In a contemporary co n s c i o u s n e s s t h e r e i s i n e v i t a b l y a g r e a t d e a l of the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , and the background of The Waste Land i s thus seen to have a f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . To be, then, too much c o n s c i o u s and c o n s c i o u s of too much - t h a t i s the p l i g h t : " A f t e r such knowledge, what f o r g i v e n e s s ? " The modern fondness f o r d i s s e c t i o n o f man's i n t i m a t e l i f e -h i s environment, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n -tends t o d i s i n t e g r a t e the ve r y f a b r i c of human e x i s t e n c e . Man l o s e s h i s b e l i e f s ; he l o s e s the impetus to observe laws and customs, and he l o s e s moral judgment. The "academic a n a l y s i s o f r e l i g i o n and the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f the r e l i g i o u s l i f e seemed t o E l i o t almost a n t i t h e t i c a l . He p r e f e r r e d , 140 as always, t o adopt the non-academic p o i n t o f view." Pope and E l i o t share a sense of man's fundamental and unchangeable l i m i t a t i o n s - i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r common b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . As a r e s u l t of t h e i r b e l i e f s , both poets d e l v e i n t o the a g e l e s s problem of human in a d e q u a c i e s and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the r e s o l u t i o n o f these i n a d e q u a c i e s through r e l i g i o n . In Notes Towards the D e f i n i t i o n o f C u l t u r e , E l i o t remarked t h a t "no c u l t u r e has appeared or developed except t o g e t h e r w i t h r e l i g i o n : a c c o r d i n g to the p o i n t of view o f the o b s e r v e r , the c u l t u r e w i l l appear to be the product of 141 the r e l x g i o n , or the r e l i g i o n the product of the c u l t u r e . " F.R. L e a v i s , i n Hugh Kenner, p.91. 140 Robert Sencourt, p.52. 141 T.S. E l i o t , Notes Towards the D e f i n i t i o n o f C u l t u r e , (London: Faber and Faber L i m i t e d , 1948), p.15. 54 R e l i g i o n i s c l e a r l y o b s o l e t e i n The Waste Land: In t h i s decayed h o l e among the mountains In the f a i n t moonlight, the g r a s s i s s i n g i n g Over the tumbled graves, about the c h a p e l There i s the empty c h a p e l , o n l y the wind's home. I t has no windows, and the door s w i n g s / m T T T _. 0, -,r>r>\ ^ (TWL 386-390) In t h i s scene of decay, even the graves are "tumbled". A l l t h a t remains o f r e l i g i o n are decaying symbols of a b e l i e f t h a t once was. An example o f t h i s l a c k o f t r a d i t i o n and the c o r r u p t i o n which f o l l o w s i t can be found i n the person of E l i o t ' s Jew i n "Gerontian" whose l a c k o f a c l e a r h e r i t a g e i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t he was "Spawned i n some estaminet o f Antwerp/ 142 B l i s t e r e d i n B r u s s e l s , patched and p e e l e d i n London." In The Rape o f the Lock, al t h o u g h the a c t u a l A r a b e l l a Fermor was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s o c i a l h e r i t a g e , the c h a r a c t e r B e l i n d a spurns t r a d i t i o n , h e r i t a g e , the v a l u e s o f r e l i g i o n , sex r o l e s , and marriage. For Pope and E l i o t as n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s , man's problems and e v i l s are a r e s u l t of the abandonment of h i g h standards of t a s t e and m o r a l i t y , the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of v a r i o u s t r a d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y moral t r a d i t i o n s . In t h e i r p o e t r y , both men e x p l o r e the 'sham' r e l i g i o n o f o c c u l t i s m - man's urge to know the f u t u r e . The e x p l o r a t i o n o f the o c c u l t i s not man s e a r c h i n g f o r r e l i g i o n and s e l f -knowledge, but r a t h e r an avoidance of s e l f by a v o i d i n g the one-to-one dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God, which i s 142 T.S. E l i o t , " G erontian", C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935, l i n e s 9-10 55 e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t r o s p e c t i v e m a t t e r . E l i o t i s o p p o s e d t o o c c u l t i s m b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r s t o be man's s e a r c h f o r u l t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e - t h e F a u s t i a n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e d e s i r e t o have a l l t h e a n s w e r s . The o r i g i n a l F a l l o f Man o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e man w a n t e d t o a c h i e v e g o d h e a d - t o know a l l t h a t God knew. W e s t e r n man f a l l s a nd f a i l s i n h i s d a i l y l i f e b e c a u s e he t o o wants t o a c h i e v e u l t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e . I n a p a s s a g e on t h e o c c u l t i n t h e F o u r Q u a r t e t s , E l i o t t e l l s o f h i s d i s a p p r o v a l o f man's f u t i l e s e a r c h o f t h e o c c u l t f o r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f u t u r e i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e o f C h r i s t - "The p o i n t o f i n t e r -s e c t i o n o f t h e t i m e l e s s / W i t h t i m e " . 1 4 ' * T h i s d i s a p p r o v a l i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : To communicate w i t h M a r s , c o n v e r s e w i t h s p i r i t s To r e p o r t t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e s e a m o n s t e r , D e s c r i b e t h e h o r o s c o p e , h a r u s p i c a t e o r s c r y , O b s e r v e d i s e a s e i n s i g n a t u r e , e v o k e B i o g r a p h y f r o m t h e w r i n k l e s o f t h e p a l m And t r a g e d y f r o m f i n g e r s ; r e l e a s e omens By s o r t i l e g e , o r t e a l e a v e s , r i d d l e t h e i n e v i t a b l e W i t h p l a y i n g c a r d s , f i d d l e w i t h p e n t a g r a m s Or b a r b i t u r i c a c i d s , o r d i s s e c t The r e c u r r e n t image i n t o p r e - c o n s c i o u s t e r r o r s -To e x p l o r e t h e womb, o r tomb, o r dreams; a l l t h e s e a r e u s u a l P a s t i m e s and d r u g s and f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r e s s : And a l w a y s w i l l be, some o f them e s p e c i a l l y : When t h e r e i s d i s t r e s s o f n a t i o n a n d p e r p l e x i t y Whether on t h e s h o r e s o f A s i a , o r i n t h e Edgeware Road. Men's c u r i o s i t y s e a r c h e s p a s t and f u t u r e And c l i n g s t o t h a t d i m e n s i o n . 1 The w e l l - o r d e r e d c e r e m o n i e s o f o c c u l t i s m - T a r o t c a r d s , h o r o s c o p e s , and s p i r i t u a l i s m - r e p l a c e g e n u i n e r e l i g i o u s 1 4 3 "Dry S a l v a g e s " , F o u r Q u a r t e t s , l i n e 2 0 2 , 1 4 4 I b i d . , l i n e s 1 8 4 - 2 0 0 . ceremonies i n the s o c i e t y o f E l i o t ' s Waste Land. The "Son of man", who i s a l s o the son of God, no lo n g e r i s p r e s e n t i n modern man's world; he i s no lo n g e r the r o o t or the branch of r e l i g i o n because r e l i g i o n i s e i t h e r dead or i n suspended animation, a l l t h a t i s l e f t i s a "heap of broken images" (TWL 22). R e p l a c i n g a C h r i s t i a n - b a s e d r e l i g i o n - the t r u e r e l i g i o n - E l i o t sees the o c c u l t as r e p r e s e n t e d by Madame S o s o s t r i s "with a wicked pack of c a r d s . " (TWL 46) M y s t i c i s m was r e j e c t e d by the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s i n fav o u r o f Deism; thus i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t n e o - c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s would shy away from the s u p e r n a t u r a l and the o c c u l t and a t t e n d to the e a r t h l y s t a t e of man. P a r t of the n e o - c l a s s i c a l v i e w p o i n t i s the b e l i e f i n the r e a l i t y and v a l u e o f P r o v i d e n c e , which expresses i t s e l f i n the o r d e r i n g o f nature and i n p e r c e p t i v e g u i d e l i n e s f o r human b e h a v i o r . Hulme observed on one o c c a s i o n : That p a r t o f the f i x e d nature o f man i s the b e l i e f i n the D e i t y . T h i s should be as f i x e d and t r u e f o r every man as b e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e o f matter i n the o b j e c t i v e world. I t i s p a r a l l e l t o a p p e t i t e , the i n s t i n c t of sex, and a l l the o t h e r f i x e d q u a l i t i e s . In the Essay on Man, Pope argues t h a t man's momentary happiness i s c o n t i n g e n t upon h i s ignorance o f the f u t u r e . The i n a b i l i t y to f o r e s e e f u t u r e events i s the b a s i s of man's hope of a b e t t e r f u t u r e s t a t e s i n c e "hope s p r i n g s e t e r n a l i n 145 Hulme, i n Shapi r o , p.93. 146 the human b r e a s t " . Most of the t h i n g s by which man l i v e s are based on f a i t h - the l i b e r a t i n g l i f e - g i v i n g f e e l i n g i n C h r i s t which r e s u l t s i n content i n man's d a i l y l i f e . Pope b e l i e v e s t h a t l a c k of foreknowledge i s a g r a c i o u s g i f t g i v e n by God to ensure man's momentary happiness: Heaven from a l l c r e a t u r e s h i d e s the book o f F a t e , A l l but the page p r e s c r i b e d , t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e . • • • Oh b l i n d n e s s to the f u t u r e ! k i n d l y given., '148 Because, as Pope w r i t e s : One t r u t h i s c l e a r , WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT. The f i r s t , l a s t purpose of the human s o u l ; ...know, where F a i t h , Law, Morals a l l began, A l l end, i n LOVE OF GOD, and Love of MAN. 1 4 g By h i s a d d i t i o n o f the s y l p h s i n the r e v i s i o n s of The Rape o f the Lock Pope p l a c e d i n the poem some c l e a r s i g n o f the s o c i e t y ' s warped r e l i g i o u s o r d e r . The s y l p h s , gnomes, and nymphs which appear i n the poem are based on the forms found i n the R o s i c r u c i a n r e l i g i o n which Pope l e a r n e d from Comte de G a b a l i s . Commenting on the h i e r a r c h y o f Pope's p r e t e r n a t u r a l beings, George Wilson Knight wrote t h a t : We have a g r a d u a t i o n , as i t were, from one c o n c r e t e l i v i n g whole to the next; from words, c o n c r e t e or a b s t r a c t nouns o r v e r b s , to ' p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n * as a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e to dramatic e n t i t i e s such as the Alexander Pope, Essay on Man, ed., Maynard Mack (London Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1964), pp.239-326, l i n e 95. 147 Essay on Man, l i n e s 76-77. 148 T, . , . . o c I b i d . , l i n e 85. 1 4 9 I b i d . , l i n e s 337-339. 58 sylphs and gnomes of The Rape of the Lock; from t h e r e to a g a l l e r y of a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h e r e to s o c i e t y and the n a t i o n . T h i s o r d e r i n g of the n a t u r a l world and s p i r i t w orld i s o f importance i n s e t t i n g the l i v e s o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n the c o n t e x t of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . As Pope wrote: The use of these machines i s e v i d e n t : s i n c e no e p i c poem can p o s s i b l y s u b s i s t without them, the w i s e s t way i s to r e s e r v e them f o r your g r e a t e s t n e c e s s i t i e s : when you cannot e x t r i c a t e your hero by any human means, or y o u r s e l f by your own w i t , seek r e l i e f from heaven, and the gods w i l l do your b u s i n e s s v e r y r e a d i l y . E l i o t too makes use of the machinery of the gods, nymphs, and s y l p h s borrowed from a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s myths. The s y l p h s and nymphs are t r a d i t i o n a l guardians of female c h a s t i t y . In "The F i r e Sermon" E l i o t w r i t e s t h a t the "nymphs are departed" (TWL 175), and f o r emphasis r e p e a t s t h i s statement. T h i s i n s i s t e n c e can be i n t e r p r e t e d as the d e p a r t u r e of c h a s t i t y and m o r a l i t y as w e l l as the d e p a r t u r e from the b e l i e f i n the s p i r i t u a l w orld. In p l a c e of b e l i e f i n a D e i t y , the s o c i e t i e s s a t i r i z e d by E l i o t and Pope have warped v a l u e s and b e l i e f s which are d e r i d e d through the r e l i g i o u s r i t e s which have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the poems. Both Pope and E l i o t juxtaposed r e l i g i o n and female v a n i t y , f o r example, to c r e a t e a c o n f l i c t of R e l i g i o n and E r o s . Both The Waste Land and The Rape of the Lock come to 150 George Wilson Knight, Laureate of Peace (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1954), p.13. 151 Alexander Pope, "The A r t of S i n k i n g i n P o e t r y . For Machines" as quoted i n " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o The Rape o f the Lock (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p.29. 59 focus on a r i c h woman's t o i l e t . The d e t a i l s o f c o s m e t i c s , j e w e l s , t r i n k e t s , and other p a r a p h e r n a l i a used to adorn the women and t h e i r bed-chambers are d e s c r i b e d as i f the a r t i c l e s a re ordered f o r some r e l i g i o u s r i t e . B e l i n d a i n The Rape of  the Lock and the u p p e r - c l a s s woman of E l i o t ' s canto "A Game of Chess", are seen i n "sacred r i t e s o f p r i d e " (TRL I 128). The women comb t h e i r h a i r and adorn themselves i n order t o become v i r t u a l goddesses f o r the men w i t h whom they w i l l come i n t o c o n t a c t . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the " r i t e s o f p r i d e " , these women are symbolized i n the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f s e r i o u s r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t s w i t h cosmetic t r i n k e t s . B e l i n d a has on the d r e s s i n g t a b l e her c e l e b r a t e d c o l l e c t i o n of " P u f f s , Powders, Patches, B i b l e s , B i l l e t - d o u x . " (TRL I 138) The B i b l e , a C h r i s t i a n symbol, the s t o r y o f western r e l i g i o n , i s t o s s e d a l o n g s i d e cosmetics and o l d l o v e l e t t e r s . In The Waste Land, E l i o t p r e s e n t s the Jewish Menorah, the seven-branched c a n d l e s t i c k , as shedding l i g h t on a l l the t r i v i a i n the woman's room and on her d r e s s i n g t a b l e : ...the g l a s s Held up by standards wrought w i t h f r u i t e d v i n e s From which a golden Cupidon peeped out (Another h i d h i s eyes behind h i s wing) Doubled the flames o f the sevenbranched c a n d e l a b r a R e f l e c t i n g l i g h t upon the t a b l e as The g l i t t e r of her jewels rose to meet i t From s a t i n cases poured i n r i c h p r o f u s i o n , ^^-^ 7 3 - 8 5 ) In both i n s t a n c e s r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t s have been profaned i n the e r o t i c l i v e s o f r i c h and f r i v o l o u s women. To both GO poets t h i s overshadowing by the e r o t i c and m a t e r i a l i s t i c over the s p i r i t u a l r e p r e s e n t s an important f a c e t i n the decay of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The i n c o n g r u i t y of a s o c i e t y which pretends h u m i l i t y , r e s p e c t , and b e l i e f when none t r u l y e x i s t s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from The Rape of the Lock: On her white b r e a s t a s p a r k l i n g c r o s s she wore Which Jews might k i s s and i n f i d e l s adore. . T_ _ Q. { 1KL J. 1 / — o) With Chaucerian i r o n y , the C h r i s t i a n symbol of the c r o s s i s worn i n mockery merely as a f r i v o l o u s adornment to s e t o f f the beauty of B e l i n d a ' s white b r e a s t r a t h e r than as a symbol of her b e l i e f s . In the c o u r t s o c i e t y which Pope d e p i c t s , e v e r y t h i n g must be c o r r e c t l y o r d e r e d f o r p l e a s i n g appearance. T h i s n e c e s s i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the tea p a r t y a t Hampton Court, whose m e t i c u l o u s order i n t i m a t e s a r e l i g i o u s reverence f o r p e r f e c t i o n and beauty. The t r a y s on which the cups are c a r r i e d are even r e f e r r e d t o as " a l t a r s " : For l o ! the board w i t h cups and spoons i s crowned, The b e r r i e s c r a c k l e , and the m i l l t u r n s round; On s h i n i n g a l t a r s o f Japan they r a i s e The s i l v e r lamp; the f i e r y S p i r i t s b l a z e ; From s i l v e r spouts the g r a t e f u l l i q u o r s g l i d e , While China's e a r t h r e c e i v e s the smoking t i d e ^ T R L 105-110) The spoons, cups, and t r a y s which resemble a r t i c l e s a r r a y e d f o r a r e l i g i o u s ceremony symbolize the c u l t of shallow c o r r e c t n e s s o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . As w i t h e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y , t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y , as seen by E l i o t , i s o v e r l y c o n s c i o u s o f a s u p e r f i c i a l sense of order, 6 1 T h e r e a r e s t r o n g p a r a l l e l s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i n t h e o r i g i n a l a n d d i s c a r d e d d r a f t o f " T h e F i r e S e r m o n " a n d b e t w e e n E l i o t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f M a r i e ' s s o c i e t y i n t h e o p e n i n g o f " T h e B u r i a l o f t h e D e a d " a n d B e l i n d a ' s w o r l d i n T h e R a p e o f t h e L o c k . M a r i e , t h e g i r l o f t h e h y a c i n t h g a r d e n , d e s c r i b e s h e r p a s t t o a m a l e c o m p a n i o n w h o s h a r e s h e r m e m o r i e s . H e r l o v e r r e f l e c t s o n h i s f a i l u r e w h e n h e s a y s " I w a s n e i t h e r / L i v i n g n o r d e a d , a n d I k n e w n o t h i n g , / L o o k i n g i n t o t h e h e a r t o f l i g h t , t h e s i l e n c e . " ( T W L 3 9 - 4 1 ) H i s e x i s t e n c e , a s t h e l i v e s o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n T h e W a s t e L a n d , i s a p i c t u r e o f l i f e i n d e a t h , d e a t h i n l i f e - a l i f e u n a w a r e o f i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , u n c e r t a i n e v e n o f t h e r e a l i t y o f i t s o w n e x i s t e n c e . T h e r e i s a f i n e n o s t a l g i a , t h o u g h , a s E l i o t p a i n t s a n e v o c a t i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e " s h o w e r o f r a i n " , t h e " s u n l i g h t " , " t h e H o f g a r t e n " a n d " t h e h y a c i n t h g a r d e n " , t h e h a p p y m o m e n t s o f p a s t l o v e r e c a l l e d b y t h e s t a t e m e n t " Y o u g a v e m e h y a c i n t h s f i r s t a y e a r a g o " . ( T W L 3 5 ) M a r i e ' s l i f e i s o r d e r e d b y h e r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y , a s i n d i c a t e d b y h e r c h i l d h o o d s t a y a t t h e " a r c h - d u k e ' s " , h e r s u m m e r a t S t a r n b e r g e r s e e , a n d h e r h a b i t o f s p e n d i n g w i n t e r s i n t h e s o u t h . H e r s o c i a l r e g i m e n t a t i o n i s d o m i n a n t b o t h i n h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r s o c i a l l i f e a n d i n t h e p r i d e i n h e r b i r t h r i g h t , s i n c e s h e i s a w a r e o f b e i n g n o t R u s s i a n , b u t G e r m a n : " B i n g a r k e i n e R u s s i n , s t a m m ' a u s L i t a u e n , e c h t d e u t s c h . " ( T W L 1 2 ) I n T h e R a p e o f t h e L o c k t h e c h a r a c t e r s a l s o l a c k a s t r o n g s e n s e o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , a n d y e t , a s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e y h a v e a s t r o n g s e n s e o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . B e l i n d a ' s 62 p r e f e r e n c e f o r forms i s expressed i n her speech a t the end of Canto IV when she t h o u g h t l e s s l y i m p l i e s t h a t she would r a t h e r have l o s t her c h a s t i t y than her g l o r i o u s l o c k of h a i r . When the r e i s no m o r a l i t y or inward beauty to accompany p h y s i c a l beauty: How v a i n are a l l these g l o r i e s , a l l our p a i n s , Unless good sense p r e s e r v e what beauty g a i n s : That men may say, when we the f r o n t - b o x g r a c e : 'Behold the f i r s t i n v i r t u e as i n f a c e ! ' , c , Q . (1 JtvLi V 1 b — 1 o) As i n The Rape of the Lock, the d i d a c t i c nature of The Waste Land becomes apparent i n the f i f t h s e c t i o n , "What the Thunder S a i d " . In t h i s s e c t i o n E l i o t i n s e r t s a number of d i r e c t r e l i g i o u s a l l u s i o n s and pronouncements. The v o i c e of "the t h i r d who walks always b e s i d e you" (TWL 360) - perhaps the s p i r i t of God - becomes embodied i n the thunderous v o i c e whose words form the moral summation of the poem. The a d v i c e g i v e n by the "thunder" i s "Datta" (TWL 402); "Dayadhvan" (TWL 412) ; "Damyata" (TWL 419), which E l i o t has taken from a Hindu Upanishad. T r a n s l a t e d , t h i s a d v i c e i s Give; Sympathize; C o n t r o l . These pronouncements are a p p l i c a b l e t o the n e o - c l a s s i c a l r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n , which advocates t h a t one should g i v e of one's s e l f , sympathize w i t h man's c o n d i t i o n , and c o n t r o l one's a c t i o n s i n l i f e - comparable to Hulme's p o s i t i o n on c l a s s i c i s m . E l i o t concludes The Waste Land w i t h the c l o s i n g b l e s s i n g o f an Upanishad: "Shantih s h a n t i h s h a n t i h " (TWL 434), "'The Peace which p a s s e t h understanding* 152 i s our e q u i v a l e n t to t h i s word." Thus E l i o t i s s a y i n g "Notes on The Waste Land", C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935, p.84. 63 t h a t i f man f o l l o w s the moral p r e s c r i p t i o n , g i v e n i n the t h r e e words of "What the Thunder S a i d " , the r e s u l t w i l l be the long awaited peace i n l i f e i n The Waste Land. 64 CHAPTER I I I N e o - c l a s s i c a l Form i n Pope and E l i o t In The Rape of the Lock by " p l a c i n g so much emphasis on the 'moral' of the e p i c , Pope was c o n t r i b u t i n g to the e p i c t r a d i t i o n as he understood i t . To him, the t r a d i t i o n was not even remote, l e t alone dead. H i s views of the h e r o i c t r a d i t i o n were somewhat a k i n to those of T.S. E l i o t , whose f i r m b e l i e f i n the c o n t i n u i t y of t r a d i t i o n i s expressed i n ' T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t ' and 'The F u n c t i o n of C r i t i c i s m ' " . , c_ l b J In the n e o - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y - and v e r s e s a t i r e i n p a r t i c u l a r - i t was necessary to e x h i b i t e x a c t i n g p r i n c i p l e s of form i n o r d e r to i l l u m i n a t e the poet's c e n t r a l moral themes. The " e i g h t e e n t h century was 154 c l a s s i c a l i n i t s r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y " . Poets were "to m a i n t a i n standards, copy models and p a t t e r n s , comply w i t h 155 c o n v e n t i o n s , and c h a s t i s e l a w l e s s n e s s . " The p i t f a l l was the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c u l t of p o e t i c ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' . E l i o t ' s comment on t h i s type of d e v o t i o n was t h a t " t r a d i t i o n w ithout i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not worth h a v i n g " b e c a u s e " t r a d i t i o n 157 cannot mean s t a n d i n g s t i l l . " Hack w r i t e r s may pursue the ' c u l t of c o r r e c t n e s s ' , but w r i t e r s of m e r i t , such as Dryden, Pope and E l i o t , "however formal t h e i r s t y l e , were always d r i v i n g a t t h i n g s and people, a t l e a s t i n t h e i r most 153 George T. Wright, The Poet i n the Poem (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1962), p.56. 154 Henry A. Beers, A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Romanticism i n the  E i g h t e e n t h Century (New York: Gordian Press Inc., 1899), p.47. 155 X 3 3 I b i d . , p.47. ^ ^ A f t e r Strange Gods, p.19. 157 • L 3 / I b i d . , p.24. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c work; they d i d not j u s t embroider f a m i l i a r 158 themes w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l g r a c e s . " The form of the s a t i r e s of Pope and E l i o t i n v o l v e s a humorous d i s t o r t i o n of the f a m i l i a r whose p u r p o s e / n e v e r t h e l e s s / i s to b r i n g the reader i n t o terms w i t h r e a l i t y . E l i o t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the nature of s a t i r e can be r e a l i z e d i n h i s comment on d i d a c t i c p o e t r y , which he b e l i e v e d to be p o e t r y of moral e x h o r t a t i o n which, as w i t h some of Dryden's poems, i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y , are s a t i r e s i n the sense t h a t they aim to r i d i c u l e the o b j e c t s a g a i n s t which they are d i r e c t e d , and a l s o d i d a c t i c i n the aim to persuade the reader to a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s p o i n t of view.^^g The a r t of the s a t i r i s t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h a t of d i s t o r t i n g a contemporary i n c i d e n t which o f f e n d s reason i n t o a f i c t i o n which becomes c e n t r a l to h i s s a t i r e . T h i s change from the n a t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e to the d i s t o r t e d i n d i c a t e s the a b s u r d i t y of the e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i z e d c o n d i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . The s a t i r i s t o f t e n juxtaposes the contemporary world w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l or f i c t i o n a l world i n o r d e r to perform the t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of s a t i r e - the e d u c a t i o n of the reader to the e r r o r of h i s ways, c u s t o m a r i l y the e r r o r s o f v i c e and f o l l y . The s a t i r i s t e i t h e r s u b t l y or o b v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e s the moral nature of h i s work through h i s t e c h n i q u e s . By a t t a c k i n g v i c e o b l i q u e l y , the s a t i r i s t pretends to c e l e b r a t e t h a t which he d e s p i s e s ; he speaks f o r example "with enthusiasm of U t o p i a s 158 Thomson, p.207. 159 "The S o c i a l F u n c t i o n of P o e t r y " , On Poetry and Poets, p.11 66 which he proves to be w a s t e l a n d s " . 1 * ^ A primary t o o l o f the s a t i r i s t , v e r b a l i r o n y i s an i n v e r s i o n o f the poet's a c t u a l meaning. The words c a r r y the o p p o s i t e i n t e n t i o n o f what they o r d i n a r i l y mean and as such they serve t o i l l u s t r a t e i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s , as i n the b e l i e f by the Baron and the "young man c a r b u n c u l a r " t h a t they are accepted, even welcomed, by the women whom they seek t o e x p l o i t . " S a t i r e i s not f o r the l i t e r a l - m i n d e d . I t e x i s t s on a t 161 l e a s t two l e v e l s , the o v e r t and the i m p l i e d " . The reader must r e c o g n i z e the c o n f l i c t i n g sense o f v a l u e s p o i n t e d up by i r o n y i n or d e r f o r t h i s d e v i c e t o be s u c c e s s f u l . O f t e n the reader w i l l uphold one s e t of standards w h i l e the personae o f the s a t i r e uphold another. An example o f t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c o n t r a s t i n g v a l u e s can be seen i n The Rape o f the Lock where B e l i n d a t o s s e s " P u f f s , Powders, Patches, B i b l e s , B i l l e t - d o u x " (TRL I 138) t o g e t h e r on her d r e s s i n g t a b l e as i f they a l l have the same purpose and importance. S i m i l a r l y , i n or d e r t o emphasize normal e x p e c t a t i o n s about s p r i n g , a l o n g s i d e the n e u r o s i s o f h i s n a r r a t o r , E l i o t o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g c e l e b r a t e d j u x t a p o s i t i o n : A p r i l i s the c r u e l l e s t month, b r e e d i n g L i l a c s out of the dead l a n d , m ixing Memory and d e s i r e , s t i r r i n g D u l l r o o t s w i t h s p r i n g r a i n . , m T T T , ^ ^ (TWL 1-4) 1 6 0 A l v i n B. Kernan, The P l o t o f S a t i r e (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p.82. James S u t h e r l a n d , E n g l i s h S a t i r e (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p.20. 67 S p r i n g has become not a joyous awakening but i n s t e a d a c r u e l p a i n f o r c i n g new l i f e i n t o the world. With the s a t i r i s t ' s i r o n i c a l v i s i o n , E l i o t has r e v e r s e d the c o n v e n t i o n a l e v o c a t i o n of the season. In 1939 E l i o t s t a t e d t h a t man was p l a c i n g too much f a i t h i n h i s own power to c o n t r o l the w o r l d : We are a l l d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the way i n which the world i s conducted: some b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s a misconduct i n which we a l l have c o m p l i c i t y ; some b e l i e v e t h a t i f we t r u s t o u r s e l v e s e n t i r e l y t o p o l i t i c s , s o c i o l o g y , or economics we s h a l l o n l y s h u f f l e from one m a k e s h i f t to another.. 16 2. Pope a l s o expressed f e a r about the ' o v e r - c o n f i d e n c e ' and ' o v e r - r e a c h i n g ' of c i v i l i z e d man and d i s g u s t w i t h the greed i n government, the church, and commerce. In the t h i r d Moral Essay he c r i t i c i z e s the u n d e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l i s m which causes men 163 to be "sunk i n l u c r e ' s s o r d i d charms". In the I m i t a t i o n of Horace, Pope commented how men are " a l i k e i n n o t h i n g but 164 one l u s t f o r g o l d " . E l i o t ' s m i s g i v i n g s about the snare of m a t e r i a l i s m i s s i m i l a r to Pope's: Perhaps the dominant v i c e of our time, from the p o i n t of view of the Church, w i l l be proved to be A v a r i c e . S u r e l y t h e r e i s something wrong i n our a t t i t u d e towards money. The a c q u i s i t i v e , r a t h e r than the c r e a t i v e and s p i r i t u a l i n s t i n c t s are encouraged 16 2 The Idea of a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y , p.98. 163 Alexander Pope, Moral Essay I I I , E p i s t l e to B a t h u r s t , ed., F.W. Bateson (London: Methuen and Company L t d . , 1951), l i n e 145. 164 Alexander Pope, I m i t a t i o n o f Horace, ed., John B u t t (London: Methuen and Company L t d . , 1961), E p i s t l e I, l i n e 24. 165 The Idea of a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y , p.97. 68 The s a t i r e s of Pope and E l i o t were intended to break up " s t e r e o t y p e s , f o s s i l i z e d b e l i e f s , s u p e r s t i t i o n s , t e r r o r s , crank t h e o r i e s , p e d a n t i c dogmatism, a g g r e s s i v e f a s h i o n , and 166 a l l o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t impede the f r e e movement of s o c i e t y . " They are concerned w i t h man's l a c k of i n s i g h t about h i m s e l f , b e l i e v i n g t h a t "most people are p u r b l i n d , i n s e n s i t i v e , perhaps 167 a n a e s t h e t i z e d by custom and d u l l n e s s and r e s i g n a t i o n . " They i n s i s t , i n s h o r t , t h a t r e a d e r s be made to "see the t r u t h - a t l e a s t t h a t p a r t of the t r u t h which they h a b i t u a l l y i g n o r e . " 1 6 8 The s a t i r i s t has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "a r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c o f men and manners who g i v e s the r u l e s o f a happy and 169 v i r t u o u s l i f e " . In such works as The Idea o f a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y and A f t e r Strange Gods, where E l i o t c l e a r l y a c t s i n the r o l e o f moral c r i t i c , the f r a i l t y of contemporary c i v i l i z a t i o n i s expressed i n statements which are s i m i l a r t o the s a t i r i c t a r g e t s i n h i s poems. For E l i o t , p o e t r y - and s a t i r e i n p a r t i c u l a r - was not an unchecked emotional o u t p o u r i n g , but a work of f a s t i d i o u s s e l e c t i o n . In f a c t , g r e a t p o e t r y , he b e l i e v e d , might "be made without the d i r e c t use of any 170 emotion whatever". "Poetry i s not a t u r n i n g l o o s e of emotion, but an escape from emotion; i t i s not the e x p r e s s i o n 1 6 6 N o r t h r o p F r y e , i n A l l e n and Stephens, p.20. 1 6 7 G i l b e r t Highet, The Anatomy of S a t i r e ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), p.19. 1 6 8 I b i d . , p.19. Kernan, p.8. 1 7 0 " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " , S e l e c t e d Essays, p.18 Gy 171 o f p e r s o n a l i t y , but an escape from p e r s o n a l i t y . " S a t i r e i n v o l v e s condemnation o f s o c i e t y by r e f e r e n c e to an i d e a l through the s a t i r i s t ' s e f f o r t s i n measuring the 172 a b e r r a t i o n from the i d e a . The s o c i e t i e s o f the e i g h t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s seemed t o Pope and E l i o t t o be 'o v e r - c o n f i d e n t ' i n t h e i r m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s : "When the met a p h y s i c i a n s were demonstrating t h a t a l l was f o r the b e s t i n the b e s t o f a l l p o s s i b l e worlds a number of major writers) 173 were p o i n t i n g out t h a t a g r e a t deal...was wrong." N e v e r U t e l e s s , t y p i c a l o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l a r t i s t s , Pope and E l i o t s t r o v e f o r a balanced v i s i o n . Pope, f o r example, i n the Essay on Man shows how the Great Chain of Being i l l u s t r a t e s the beauty of God's o r d e r i n the worl d . On the o t h e r hand, i n The Dunciad he c r e a t e s a p i c t u r e o f growing darkness and e v i l where men behave as they would i f they r e v e r s e d the Chain o f Being, as Pope p r e d i c t e d i n Essay on Man: Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods. A s p i r i n g to be Gods, i f Angels f e l l , A s p i r i n g to be Angels, Men r e b e l : And who but wishes to i n v e r t the laws Of ORDER, s i n s a g a i n s t t h 1 E t e r n a l Cause. More than e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r i s t s , E l i o t v a r i e d the form o f s a t i r e , experimenting, f o r example, wit h f r e s h rhythms and a new s o r t o f c o l l a g e e f f e c t i n The Waste Land, because he saw "poetry as having a s o c i a l 171 " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " , S e l e c t e d Eeutgys, p. 21, 1 7 2 W i l l e y , p.101. 1 7 3 I b i d . , p.100. 174 Essay on Man, I, l i n e s 126-130. 70 f u n c t i o n of v i t a l i z i n g the language of i t s audience i n o r d e r 175 to v i t a l i z e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the world." As Harry Rutledge remarks of The Waste Land: T h i s u t t e r l y e n g r o s s i n g , f a s c i n a t i n g poem r e f l e c t s , and y e t breaks w i t h , the past; i t blends the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l p r e s e n t ; i t f r e e l y combines the m a j e s t i c m y t h o l o g i c a l prophet T i r e s i a s w i t h a p a t h e t i c stenographer and her c o a r s e 'young man c a r b u n c u l a r 1 . n n c l / o By examining the scenes and t e c h n i q u e s i n Pope's and E l i o t ' s p o e t r y , the reader can observe the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r p r a c t i c e as n e o - c l a s s i c a l s a t i r i s t s . In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h E l i o t ' s s a t i r e , one r e c a l l s F.R. L e a v i s ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t The Love Song o f J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k was a poem o f such a s t a r t l i n g new s t y l e t h a t i t "must indeed 177 have been d i f f i c u l t t o take s e r i o u s l y i n 1917". The poem i s d i f f i c u l t to take s e r i o u s l y because i t i s a s a t i r e i n the mock-heroic mode. E l i o t b u r l e s q u e s the e p i c through the c o n t r a s t of P r u f r o c k ' s amusingly t r i v i a l s t a t u r e w i t h the s e r i o u s theme o f man's t i m i d i t y i n approaching both l i f e (aging) and death. P r u f r o c k begins w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l e p i g r a p h which s e t s f o r t h the theme which w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d throughout the poem. The t r a n s l a t i o n of the e p i g r a p h , an a d a p t a t i o n from Dante's I n f e r n o , reads: I f I b e l i e v e d t h a t my r e p l y were made to one who c o u l d ever climb to the world a g a i n , t h i s flame would shake no more. But s i n c e no shade K r i e g e r , p.51. 176 Rutledge, i n Morford, p.144. 177 F.R. L e a v i s , New Bearings i n E n g l i s h Poetry (Michigan: Ann Arbour Paperbacks, 1960), p.75. 71 ever r e t u r n e d - i f what I am t o l d i s t r u e -from t h i s b l i n d world i n t o the l i v i n g l i g h t , w i t h out f e a r o f dishonour I answer you.._ 0 I / O The epigraph i s f i t t i n g s i n c e P r u f r o c k ' s voyage through l i f e becomes an extended mock-epic o f Dante's voyage through H e l l . E l i o t uses mock-heroic s t r u c t u r e to emphasize the i r o n y i n P r u f r o c k ' s speeches - the nauseating image of P r u f r o c k ' s b a l d i n g head upon a p l a t t e r i n c o n t r a s t w i t h h i s a c t u a l 179 s i t u a t i o n surrounded by "tea and cakes and i c e s " , and a l i f e measured out "with c o f f e e spoons" (LSP 51); Though I have seen my head (Grown s l i g h t l y bald) brought i n upon a p l a t t e r I am no prophet - and here's no g r e a t matter; I have seen the moment of my gre a t n e s s f l i c k e r , And I have seen the e t e r n a l Footman h o l d my c o a t , and s n i c k e r , And i n s h o r t , I was a f r a i d . / T n n n.. (LSP 80-84) Here, as elsewhere, E l i o t "solemnly d r e s s e s h i s contemporaries j^Prufrock, the aging c l e r k j i n e p i c robes too l a r g e f o r them, and c o n f i d e n t l y puts A c h i l l e ' s spear i n hands which cannot h o l d 180 i t . " A lthough P r u f r o c k says t h a t he i s no prophet, by im p l y i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s s t a t u r e and t h a t o f St. John, he has drawn a h e r o i c comparison. But P r u f r o c k i s not brave; he i s not g r e a t ; h i s moment of gre a t n e s s w i l l never k i n d l e i n t o the flame of success, i t w i l l o n l y f l i c k e r . Even death s n i c k e r s a t the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s man who f a c e s n e i t h e r l i f e nor death w i t h courage. The I n f e r n o , XXVI, l i n e s 58-63. 179 The Love Song of J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k , C o l l e c t e d Poems  1909-1935, l i n e 77. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem are taken from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g the a b b r e v i a t i o n LSP f o l l o w e d by the l i n e numbers. Kernan, p.82. 'Burlesque' has come to be commonly known as a type of t h e a t r i c a l show which i n c l u d e s s t r i p - t e a s e dancing, broad humour, and s h o r t s k i t s , a l l o f which have a heavy s e x u a l emphasis. Although b u r l e s q u e l i t e r a t u r e i s not u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to t h e a t r i c a l b u r l e s q u e , some shared f e a t u r e s of the two are comparable: The s e x u a l , mixed w i t h the s c a t o l o g i c a l , o f f e r e d the s a t i r i s t the most e x p r e s s i v e symbol he c o u l d f i n d f o r the exposed p r i v a t e world. I t i s , o f course, an area of e x p e r i e n c e he p e r s i s t e n t l y t u r n s to when he wishes to remind man o f h i s u n h e r o i c , animal s e l f . ^ g ^ T y p i c a l of s a t i r e i n g e n e r a l , the b u r l e s q u e does not i n v o l v e a s e r i e s o f scenes which resemble a p l o t , but i n s t e a d c o n s i s t s of " l o o s e l y r e l a t e d scenes and busyness [ s i c ] which c u r l s back 18 2 on i t s e l f " . In a l i t e r a r y b u r l e s q u e , the author p r e s e n t s s h o r t scenes resembling c a r i c a t u r e s or c a r t o o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s or s i t u a t i o n s which p l a c e heavy emphasis on the s e x u a l a s p e c t o f man's l i f e . These ' s k i t s ' are 'given' by the author as a type of comic amusement f o r the reader i n which the c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i d e the song, dance, and humour comparable to the melange of t h e a t r i c a l b u r l e s q u e . Burlesque i s l i k e a sounding board which p i c k s up and sends out sympathetic v i b r a t i o n s - s i m i l a r t o the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e of resonance frequency. The o r i g i n a l v i b r a t i o n s are p i c k e d up and d i s t o r t e d t o become new v i b r a t i o n s . Thus t h e r e i s a mimetic q u a l i t y to b u r l e s q u e , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n Pope's Dunciad which i s a d i s t o r t e d i m i t a t i o n of Dryden's s a t i r e MacFlecknoe. 1 8 1 P a u l s o n , p.107, 1 8 2 K e r n a n , p.100. 7 3 I n t h e D u n c i a d , P o p e u s e s l o w b u r l e s q u e t o d e p i c t w e a k a n d w i c k e d i n d i v i d u a l s w h o a r e d e g r a d e d d i s t o r t i o n s o f p e r s o n s w h o w e r e p r o m i n e n t i n s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . M a n i s b l i n d t o r e a l i t y a n d h a s c r e a t e d e x a l t e d i m a g e s o f h i m s e l f . I n t h e D u n c i a d , P o p e ' s d u n c e s a r e a n e x a m p l e o f t h i s p e r v e r s i o n , f o r t h e y b e l i e v e t h e m s e l v e s t o b e g r e a t w i t s : T u r n i n g h i s v o i c e , a n d b a l a n c i n g h i s h a n d s . H o w f l u e n t n o n s e n s e t r i c k l e s f r o m h i s t o n g u e ! H o w s w e e t t h e p e r i o d , n e i t h e r s a i d , n o r s u n g l ^ g ^ T h e s e l i n e s a r e P o p e ' s c o m m e n t o n J . H e n l e y , t h e o r a t o r , w h o p r e a c h e d o n l y f o r p r o f i t a n d t h e p l e a s u r e o f h e a r i n g t h e s o u n d o f h i s o w n v o i c e . T h e b u r l e s q u e i s m e a n t t o s h o w t h e i n c o n g r u i t y b e t w e e n t h e " n o b l e v i s i o n o f r a t i o n a l m a n a n d t h e h a t e f u l 1 8 4 s p e c t a c l e o f h i s a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . " I n t h e D u n c i a d , t h e d u n c e s c o n s t r u c t h e r o i c i m a g e s o f t h e m s e l v e s , m o n u m e n t s t o t h e i r s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e , a n d i n s o d o i n g t h e y r e v e a l t h e i r p e t t i n e s s a n d b a d t a s t e : K i n d S e l f - C o n c e i t t o s o m e h e r g l a s s a p p l i e s , W h i c h n o o n e l o o k s i n w i t h a n o t h e r ' s e y e s : B u t a s t h e F l a t t e r e r o r D e p e n d e n t p a i n t , B e h o l d s h i m s e l f a P a t r i o t , C h i e f , o r S a i n t . / r , T T T , -->^\ W h i l e b e h o l d i n g t h e m s e l v e s a s p a t r i o t s , c h i e f s , a n d s a i n t s , t h e d u n c e s s h o w t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e y a c t u a l l y a r e - i o b s c e n e b o o r s w h o p a r t i c i p a t e i n u r i n a t i n g c o n t e s t s , n o i s e - m a k i n g , a n d 1 8 3 A l e x a n d e r P o p e , T h e D u n c i a d , e d . , J a m e s S u t h e r l a n d ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n a n d C o . L t d . , 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 r d e d i t i o n , r e v i s e d , D u n c i a d I I I , l i n e s 2 0 0 - 2 0 2 . A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s p o e m a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n a n d w i l l b e i n t e r n a l i z e d u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n D f o l l o w e d b y t h e b o o k a n d l i n e n u m b e r s . 1 8 4 F r a n k B r a d y a n d M a r t i n P r i c e , e d s . , E n g l i s h P r o s e a n d  P o e t r y 1 6 6 0 - 1 8 0 0 ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . x v i i , m u d - s l i n g i n g . In some i n s t a n c e s Pope c o n t r a s t s the G r u b s t r e e t u g l i n e s s w i t h the c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c scene. Pope p a r a l l e l s the s q u a l o r of the dunces' world w i t h t h e i r o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the d i g n i t y and moral s e r i o u s n e s s o f the author's v o c a t i o n . He comments wryly on " C u r l l ' s chaste p r e s s " (D I 40) when C u r l l a c t u a l l y was a b o o k - s e l l e r who p u b l i s h e d , not c h a s t e , but obscene books. "Now N i g h t descending, the proud scene was o'er/But l i v e d i n S e t t l e ' s numbers one day more" (D I 89-90) comments on S e t t l e , the o f f i c i a l poet of London who wrote rhymes of t o p i c a l events. He d i d not take p r i d e i n h i s work as a poet, but wrote o n l y f o r the honour and f i n a n c i a l compensation. The most pungent bu r l e s q u e i n The Dunciad i s t h a t of Thomas Osborne. Pope w r i t e s t h a t Osborne was a c t u a l l y a b o o k - s e l l e r i n Gray's Inn who p u b l i s h e d advertisements f o r a year t o g e t h e r , p r e t e n d i n g to s e l l Mr. Pope's s u b s c r i p t i o n books of Homer's I l i a d a t h a l f the p r i c e : Of which he had none, but c u t to the s i z e of them (which was quarto) the common books i n f o l i o , w i t h out C o p p e r p l a t e s , on a worse paper, and never above h a l f the v a l u e . , o r l o b In The Dunciad Pope d i m i n i s h e s Osborne by making him the f i r s t of the dunces to accept the c h a l l e n g e i n the u r i n a t i n g c o n t e s t : The Goddess then: "who b e s t can send on h i g h The s a l i e n t spout, f a r - s t r e a m i n g to the sky:,_. _ . . . . F i r s t Osborne leaned a g a i n s t h i s l e t t e r e d p o s t ; I t r o s e , and laboured to a curve a t m o s t . ^ ^ 171-172) • • • A second e f f o r t brought but new d i s g r a c e : The W i l d Meander washed the A r t i s t ' s f a c e : . ^ T T ,_ r (D I I 175-176) Alexander Pope, f o o t n o t e 24, to the Dunciad I I . 75 Pope hopes, however, t h a t the decay and s o r d i d n e s s which i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n The Dunciad can somehow be r e v e r s e d so t h a t the world becomes pure a g a i n , perhaps through a pro c e s s s i m i l a r to t h a t e x e m p l i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t : So c l o u d s r e p l e n i s h e d from some bog below, Mount i n dark volumes, and descend i n snow. lT. T T. 0 , 0 ~>r~>\ \U ±1 J D Z - J D J ) As Pope's Dunciad b u r l e s q u e s Dryden 1s Macflecknoe, E l i o t i n The Waste Land uses low burlesque treatment o f R i c h a r d Wagner's Ring operas. In "The F i r e Sermon" E l i o t degrades the s t a t u r e of the t h r e e Wagnerian Rhine Maidens t o the t h r e e immoral Thames daughters. They echo the o r i g i n a l German and Norse legends o f Wagner's operas through t h e i r chorus o f "W e i a l a l a l e i a / W a l l a l a l e i a l a l a " (TWL 77-78) which i s a combination o f the v a r i o u s chants o f the Rhine Maidens. In the o r i g i n a l legend the t h r e e maidens were s u p e r n a t u r a l daughters o f the r i v e r . E l i o t d i s t o r t s them i n t o human women w i t h human f o l l i e s and human v i c e s . The Rhine Maidens are always coy and ready f o r a s e x u a l chase; they tempt l o v e r s but never accept t h e i r advances. The women o f E l i o t ' s poem, al t h o u g h r e p u l s e d by se x u a l advances, p a s s i v e l y a c c e p t t h e i r l o v e r s . One o f the daughters o f the Thames n a r r a t e s the events of her l o v e a f f a i r : 'Trams and dusty t r e e s . Highbury bore me. Richmond and Kew Undid me. By Richmond I r a i s e d my knees Supine on the f l o o r o f a narrow canoe.' / m T 7 T o r i n ~>n.\ c (TWL 291-294) In The Rhinegold the r i v e r i s pure, a "dark green surge"; " s i l v e r y l i g h t " ; "the f l o o d around flows a stream as o f s t a r s " and " f l a s h e s the foam"."1""" In The Waste Land we see i r o n y i n E l i o t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Thames, which, r a t h e r than b e i n g a l i f e - g i v i n g , p u r i f y i n g source and a beauty of nature, i s an i r o n i c reminder of death by drowning and a symbol of s t a g n a t i o n through p o l l u t i o n . On summer n i g h t s , the r i v e r c a r r i e s the c i t y ' s l i t t e r - " b o t t l e s , sandwich p a p e r s , / S i l k h a n d k e r c h i e f s , cardboard boxes, c i g a r e t t e ends" (TWL 176-177). There i s r o t t i n g s l i m e and v e g e t a t i o n as "A r a t c r e p t s o f t l y through the v e g e t a t i o n / Dragging i t s s l i m y b e l l y on the bank" (TWL 187-189). The r i v e r exudes the wastes of i n d u s t r y and t r a n s p o r t as i t " s w e a t s / O i l and t a r . " (TWL 266-267) E l i o t attempted t o show the r e a d e r s the e v i l s i n the excesses which l e d to the c r e a t i o n o f The Waste  Land o f the modern world. In t r e a t i n g the Ring operas as a t r a v e s t y , however, E l i o t has a l s o chosen the Norse legend f o r i t s own s u b t l y i n h e r e n t themes which are a l s o s t r e s s e d i n The Waste Land. The Rhinegold i s the b e g i n n i n g o f the Ring c y c l e , and the b e g i n n i n g of the c u r s e which becomes the d e v a s t a t i o n , the t o p p l i n g o f the Gods from t h e i r c l a s s i c p o s i t i o n . The rape o f the R h i n e g o l d from the c a r e of the t h r e e Rhine Maidens c o u l d o n l y be accomplished i f the attempted po s s e s s o r was w i l l i n g t o renounce the p l e a s u r e s of l o v e . A l b e r i c h Nibelung c o n s i d e r e d l o v e o n l y i n the l u s t f u l sense and t h e r e f o r e c u r s e d l o v e , becoming the p o s s e s s o r o f the g o l d and the i n s t i g a t o r of the c u r s e . Because of h i s m a t e r i a l i s m , l o v e was l o s t i n the kingdom o f the Gods. However, at the end R i c h a r d Wagner, The Rhinegold, t r a n s . , H.F. Corder (New York: O l i v e r S i t s o n Co., 1904), p.19. 77 o f the c y c l e l o v e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o humanity on e a r t h . The greed of the Gods i s d i m i n i s h e d i n The Waste Land to the greed of mankind: We are being made aware t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y on the p r i n c i p l e of p r i v a t e p r o f i t as w e l l as p u b l i c d e s t r u c t i o n , i s l e a d i n g to both the d e f o r m i t y of humanity by u n r e g u l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l i s m , and to the e x h a u s t i a n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and t h a t a good d e a l o f our m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s f o r which succeeding g e n e r a t i o n s may have to pay d e a r l y . Man has f o r f e i t e d l o v e , and thus the sex a c t has become b o r i n g 188 " ' l i f e - g i v i n g ' cheery automatism of the modern world." The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of m a t e r i a l greed and l a c k o f l o v e has l e d to the v a c u i t y o f "My people humble people who expect/ Nothing" (TWL 304-305). By r e f e r e n c e to the b u r n i n g o f Carthage i n "Burning b u r n i n g burning burning/O Lord Thou p l u c k e s t me out/0 L o r d Thou p l u c k e s t / b u r n i n g " (TWL 308-311) E l i o t makes a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the end o f the Ring c y c l e through the b u r n i n g o f S i e g f r i e d on the f u n e r a l pyre, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y reminding man of s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . Thus, w h i l e Wagner drew on and p r e s e r v e d the c l a s s i c s t a t u r e of the m a g n i f i c e n t a n c i e n t German and Norse legends, E l i o t , i n c r e a t i n g a t r a v e s t y of the Ring c y c l e , has demeaned the s t a t u r e o f the c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the framework of the legend. There are a number of elements i n an e p i c poem which 187 The Idea o f a C h r i s t i a n - S o c i e t y , p.61. 188 " B a u d e l a i r e " , S e l e c t e d Essays, p.391. 78 author can s u c c e s s f u l l y b u rlesque i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e an e f f e c t i v e mock-epic poem. Fe a t u r e s o f the e p i c which appear i n both Pope's The Rape of the Lock and E l i o t ' s The Waste Land are: the p r o p o s i t i o n or e p i g r a p h , i n v o c a t i o n , p r a y e r s , s a c r i f i c e to the gods, appearance of the goddess, prophecy, e p i c f e a s t , and e p i c b a t t l e . The e p i g r a p h to The Waste Land i s a q u o t a t i o n o f a few l i n e s from a speech by T r i m a l c h i o i n S a t y r i c o n , which i s t r a n s l a t e d : For once I myself saw w i t h my own eyes the S y b i l a t Cumae hanging i n a cage, and when boys s a i d t o her, ' S y b i l , what do you want?' she r e p l i e d "I want to d i e ' . 1 0 _ i o y T h i s e p i g r a p h s t a t e s a death wish which i s connected to the f u t i l i t y o f wanting foreknowledge and the f u t i l i t y o f a l i f e w i t h out God. The e p i g r a p h t o The Rape of the Lock i s an a d a p t a t i o n o f a q u o t a t i o n from M a r t i a l which, as has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d , i l l u s t r a t e s B e l i n d a ' s p e r v e r s e d e s i r e f o r v i o l a t i o n . Another prominent opening f e a t u r e o f the e p i c and the mock-epic i s the i n v o c a t i o n , which i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y appeal f o r h e l p of the Muse - the poet a s k i n g f o r a i d or i n t e r c e s s i o n . In The Rape o f the Lock, Pope a p p l i e s h i s i n v o c a t i o n t o h i s f r i e n d John C a r y l l who suggested the a c t u a l event of the c u t t i n g of the l o c k as a theme f o r Pope's poem: "Th i s v e r s e to CARYLL, Muse! i s due". (TRL I 3) By d e d i c a t i n g The Waste 190 Land "For E z r a Pound i l m i g l i o r fabbro" (the b e t t e r craftsman) 1 8 9 T h e Waste Land, C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935, p.59. 190 T, c_ I b i d . , p.59. E l i o t d i r e c t l y expressed h i s indebtedness to Pound f o r h i s m a s t e r f u l a s s i s t a n c e i n r e v i s i n g the poem. Prominent i n most e p i c p o e t r y i s a prayer by the hero f o r success i n b a t t l e . In The Rape o f the Lock, however/ the hero i s a h e r o i n e , an amusing t w i s t of Pope's h i g h b u r l e s q u e . But i t i s not B e l i n d a whom Pope has pray f o r success; i t i s the Baron who i s the adversary i n the poem: For t h i s , ere Phoebus r o s e , he had implored P r o p i t i o u s heaven, and every power adored, But c h i e f l y L o v e . . . ( T R L ^ 3 5 _ 3 7 ) • • • Then p r o s t r a t e f a l l s , and begs w i t h ardent eyes Soon to o b t a i n , and long possess the p r i z e ^ T R L -J-J 4 3 - 4 4 ) In The Waste Land E l i o t has changed the e p i c p r a y e r i n t o images o f a b a r e l y remembered God. The c l o s e s t resemblance to the e p i c p r a y e r comes i n the statement: "I w i l l show you f e a r i n a h a n d f u l of dust" (TWL 30). T h i s l i n e r e f e r s to c h a p t e r twelve o f E c c l e s i a t e s which r e c a l l s the preacher p r a y i n g -"Remember now thy C r e a t o r i n the days o f thy youth" - f o r the end of your l i f e w i l l soon come and then " s h a l l the dust r e t u r n to the e a r t h as i t was: and the s p i r i t s h a l l r e t u r n unto God who gave i t . V a n i t y o f v a n i t i e s , s a i t h the preacher; a l l i s 191 v a n i t y . " The p r a y e r i s o b v i o u s l y a p p l i c a b l e to the theme of the poem, s i n c e man i n E l i o t ' s modern world i s a v a i n c r e a t u r e who i s s e n s i t i v e not to God but to the o c c u l t . In both Pope and E l i o t the a r t of b u r l e s q u e i s seen i n those debased s a c r i f i c e s i n the contemporary world which are 191 E c c l e s i a s t e s x n , v e r s e s 1, 7-8. 80 made i n c o n t r a s t w i t h noble p a s t s a c r i f i c e s . In The Rape of  the Lock the Baron's s a c r i f i c e to the gods c o n s i s t s o f an a l t a r to the Goddess o f Love, b u i l t o f "twelve v a s t Romances, n e a t l y g i l t . / T h e r e l a y t h r e e g a r t e r s , h a l f a p a i r of gloves,-/And a l l the t r o p h i e s o f h i s former l o v e s ; / W i t h tender B i l l e t - d o u x he l i g h t s the pyre,/And breathes t h r e e amorous s i g h s to r a i s e the f i r e . " (TRL 39-42) In The Waste Land E l i o t h i n t s a t many s a c r i f i c e s made: the s a c r i f i c e o f death echoed by the " r a t t l e o f bones, and ch u c k l e spread from ear to ear" (TWL 186); P h i l o m e l ' s s a c r i f i c e o f her human body i n the change to b i r d form i n o r d e r t o escape rape "by the barbarous k i n g " (TWL 99); woman's s a c r i f i c e t o male s e x u a l demands, r e p r e s e n t e d by the t y p i s t ' s p h y s i c a l (sexual) s a c r i f i c e ; the s a c r i f i c e o f T i r e s i a s , l o c k e d i n a t r a n s v e s t i t e body and f o r c e d t o watch the s o r d i d s e x u a l u n i o n o f man and woman which he has r e l u c t a n t l y f o r e s e e n ; the s a c r i f i c e o f nature to the greedy m a t e r i a l i s m o f mankind i n d i c a t e d by the o i l and t a r of the p o l l u t e d r i v e r ; the s a c r i f i c e of the Rhinegold t o the greed o f the Nibelung; and the f i n a l reminder o f s a c r i f i c e through the burn i n g o f Carthage, sacked and burned as a s a c r i f i c e t o the memory of Roman dead - "Burning, b u r n i n g " - the f i r e which consumes and p u r i f i e s . In The Rape o f the Lock Pope p l a y s the s u p e r n a t u r a l o f f a g a i n s t n a t u r a l l i f e u s i n g mock-heroic e f f e c t s . B e l i n d a makes some absurd appearances as an ' e a r t h l y ' goddess, the f i r s t b eing i n Canto I, where jewels deck "the Goddess w i t h the g l i t t e r i n g s p o i l " (TRL I 132). However, when the heavenly Goddess o f Love 81 makes her presence f e l t , B e l i n d a becomes an i n f e r i o r goddess. I t i s w i t h i n Love's power to g r a n t the wishes o f the Baron. Love, however, b e l i e v e s i t necessary to a i d the moral goddess B e l i n d a and thus p r o v i d e s her w i t h "Sighs, sobs, and p a s s i o n s , and the war of tongues" (TRL IV 84) and " f a i n t i n g f e a r s , / S o f t sorrows, m e l t i n g g r i e f s , and f l o w i n g t e a r s " (TRL IV 85-86), a l l o f which are an attempt to nudge the Baron i n t o r e t u r n i n g h i s p r i z e and i n t o begging f o r g i v e n e s s o f the now flawed, and merely human h e r o i n e . In The Waste Land the goddess makes her appearance i n "A Game of Chess" where she s i t s upon a "burnished throne" and i s attended by golden cupidons o f l o v e . In E l i o t ' s poem the goddess i s a l s o of e a r t h l y o r i g i n , and her p u r i t y i s flawed by i n s i g n i f i c a n t s e x u a l c o n t a c t w i t h e a r t h l y l o v e r s . The prophecy i s an important element i n the p l o t o f an e p i c or mock-epic poem. In The Waste Land Madame S o s o s t r i s g i v e s the prophecy "Fear death by water" (TWL 55). E l i o t uses the low b u r l e s q u e to undercut the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f the famous c l a i r v o y a n t e ' s p r e d i c t i o n , showing her as a merely human f o r e c a s t e r whose powers are impaired by a bad c o l d . I r o n i c a l l y , she " n e v e r t h e l e s s / I s known to be the w i s e s t woman i n Europe" (TWL 44-45). She p r o p h e s i e s w i t h assurance: "Here, s a i d she,/ Is your c a r d " (TWL 47-48) , but she i s f e a r f u l o f her own u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e : "One must be so c a r e f u l these days." (TWL 59) The meaning o f her cards i s c l e a r w i t h i n the t o t a l c o n t e x t of the poem, but i t i s a meaning t h a t i s hidden from her, and 82 thus she i s powerless to g i v e genuine a i d to the c h a r a c t e r s whom she 'guides'. In The Rape of the Lock, A r i e l , B e l i n d a ' s g u a r d i a n nymph, sees h i m s e l f i n the a b s u r d l y melodramatic r o l e o f her 'guide' through l i f e . The nymph pr o p h e s i e s "oh pio u s maid, beware!/ ...Beware o f a l l , but most beware of man!" (TRL I 112, 114) A r i e l i s a s u p e r n a t u r a l being, but h i s a b i l i t i e s l i e o n l y i n p r e d i c t i n g the f u t u r e . He i s powerless to c o n t r o l B e l i n d a ' s thoughts o r a c t i o n s , f o r he p e r c e i v e s an " e a r t h l y Lover l u r k i n g a t her h e a r t " (TRL I I I 144) which l e a d s t o her c a r e -l e s s n e s s and l o s s o f the l o c k . The e p i c b a t t l e i n The Rape of the Lock i s reduced t o a b a t t l e o f cards and words, which, though, covers a f i e r c e b a t t l e o f the sexes. The e p i c b a t t l e i n The Waste Land a l s o becomes a b a t t l e o f the sexes. L i k e Pope, E l i o t a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e to many h i s t o r i c b a t t l e s . The sounds o f b a t t l e r e v e r b e r a t e i n the "shouting and the c r y i n g / P r i s o n and p a l a c e i n r e v e r b e r a t i o n " (TWL 335-336). There a re the " F a l l i n g towers" o f "Jerusalem" [the 1917 b a t t l e when the B r i t i s h r e c a p t u r e d Jerusalem from the Turks] "Athens" [the b a t t l e o f Thermopylae] " A l e x a n d r i a " [named f o r the g r e a t w a r r i o r Alexander the Great] "Vienna" [remembered f o r the Arch-Duke F e r d i n a n d whose a s s a s s i n a t i o n caused the f i r s t World WarJ "London" [bombed by the Germans i n the f i r s t World War] (TWL 373-375). The hero o f E l i o t ' s poem becomes mankind, f i g h t i n g the b a t t l e a g a i n s t the meaninglessness o f modern l i f e . 83 The e p i c f e a s t , which precedes b a t t l e , i s d i m i n i s h e d i n The Rape o f the Lock i n t o "the smoking t i d e " (TRL I I I 110) of the c o f f e e p a r t y . In The Waste Land t h i s f e a s t i s reduced even more i n d i g n i t y f o r i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the t y p i s t who " l a y s out food i n t i n s . " (TWL 2 23) The powerful gods o f the e p i c have become, i n The Rape  of the Lock, minute gnomes and s y l p h s which guard feminine v a n i t y , w h i l e i n The Waste Land the gods have c o m p l e t e l y vanished and even the "nymphs are departed." (TWL 178) The w a r r i o r ' s s h i e l d , u s u a l l y m a g i c a l l y endowed, which p r o t e c t s him from death, i s reduced i n both The Rape o f the  Lock and The Waste Land to the h e r o i n e ' s p e t t i c o a t s and undergarments which, w h i l e they remain i n p l a c e , p r o t e c t the female body from v i o l a t i o n . In The Waste Land the p e t t i c o a t s and feminine garments are removed and are exposed to the sun's r a y s , and are d r y i n g on the"window s i l l , thus p e r m i t t i n g access to the woman h e r s e l f . In the o r i g i n a l d r a f t o f The Waste Land, E l i o t i n s e r t e d a s e c t i o n i n "The F i r e Sermon" which was, both i n s t y l e and theme, a d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n o f The Rape of the Lock. E l i o t meant t h i s parody as a compliment to Alexander Pope, whom he 192 c o n s i d e r e d "a master o f m i n i a t u r e . " E z r a Pound, however, managed t o persuade E l i o t t o omit t h i s s e c t i o n i n the r e v i s i o n of the poem. E l i o t r e c a l l s t h i s r e v i s i o n : I remember t h a t Pound once induced me to d e s t r o y what I thought an e x c e l l e n t s e t o f c o u p l e t s ; f o r , s a i d he, 'Pope has done t h i s so w e l l t h a t you cannot do i t b e t t e r ; and i f you mean t h i s as a "John Dryden", S e l e c t e d Essays, p.310. 84 b u r l e s q u e , you had b e t t e r suppress i t , f o r you cannot parody Pope u n l e s s you can w r i t e b e t t e r v e r s e than Pope - and you c a n ' t . ^ g ^ Perhaps t h i s d i r e c t parody o f Pope was i n s e r t e d by E l i o t to i n d i c a t e i n a more d i r e c t f a s h i o n than the poem as i t now stands t h a t The Waste Land was intended t o be a b u r l e s q u e . The scene of the t y p i s t and her l o v e r i n "The F i r e Sermon" i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r example of a h i g h b u r l e s q u e , w r i t t e n i n mock-epic s t y l e , j u s t as the scene i n v o l v i n g Madame S o s o s t r i s i n " B u r i a l o f the Dead" and the scene i n v o l v i n g the t h r e e r i v e r maidens i n "The F i r e Sermon" are examples o f the low b u r l e s q u e . High burlesque f l o u r i s h e d i n the c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e o f Greece and Rome. T h e r e f o r e i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t the n e o - c l a s s i c a l authors - who modelled t h e i r work on c l a s s i c a l background and p r i n c i p l e s - should i m i t a t e the bu r l e s q u e . The Rape o f the Lock i s Pope's t r i b u t e to the e p i c . He once expressed the wish t h a t he c o u l d have w r i t t e n an e p i c poem, but he succeeded i n s t e a d i n w r i t i n g an e x c e l l e n t mock-epic poem. In The Rape of the Lock Pope has taken the elements o f the e p i c and c r e a t e d a h i g h b urlesque modelled a f t e r The Ae n e i d which he reduced t o f i v e p o e t i c c a n t o s . He t r e a t e d the c u t t i n g o f a l o c k o f h a i r w i t h the c a t a c l y s m i c impact o f the rape of Helen o f Troy. Because of the nature o f bu r l e s q u e , the poet does not c r e a t e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l T.S. E l i o t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , E z r a Pound S e l e c t e d Poems (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1941), p.18. 85 q u a l i t i e s and h a b i t s . I n s t e a d he c r e a t e s c h a r a c t e r s who are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r sex or s t a t i o n i n l i f e : "what £the s a t i r s t s j c a r e about i s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to c e r t a i n 194 enduring a r c h e t y p a l r o l e s . " H i s c h a r a c t e r s must be t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , y e t d i s t o r t e d v e r s i o n s of the o r i g i n a l s . The c h a r a c t e r s ' a c t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t e d i n exaggerated c a r t o o n s through which the s a t i r i s t , such as Pope, a t t a c k s t h e i r " s t r i c t adherence to the a u t h o r i t y of t r a d i t i o n . . .|whichj tended to reduce human be h a v i o r t o codes o f e t i q u e t t e and 195 r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " . The m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f the d e t a i l s o f the tea s e r v i c e and t o i l e t t a b l e e x e m p l i f i e s the importance which the l a d i e s o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p l a c e d on the d a i l y ceremonies. Pope observed t h a t "the a n c i e n t Poets are i n one r e s p e c t l i k e many Modern L a d i e s . L e t an A c t i o n be never so t r i v i a l i n i t s e l f , they always make i t appear of the utmost 196 importance." Thus through parody the author "makes the work, or the form, look r i d i c u l o u s by i n f u s i n g i t w i t h incongruous 197 i d e a s , or e x a g g e r a t i n g i t s a e s t h e t i c d e v i c e s . " Although E n g l i s h n e o - c l a s s i c a l poets d i d not c r e a t e t h e i r own e p i c s , they c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d c l a s s i c a l e p i c s and s a t i r e s . Pope's v e r s e b r i n g s the c l a s s i c a l e p i c s to mind by o f t e n d i r e c t l y echoing them. In cantos two and f o u r of The Rape of 194 Wright, p.61. Noyes, p.xx. 196 Alexander Pope, i n a l e t t e r t o A r a b e l l a Fermor, p r e f a c i n g The Rape o f the Lock. 1 9 7 G i l b e r t Highet, p.13. 86 the Lock t h e r e are echoes o f the descent to the E l y s i a n Shade i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the punishments o f the s y l p h s "stopped i n v i a l s " (TRL I I 126) or "plunged i n l a k e s of b i t t e r washes" (TRL I I 127). There i s Umbriel's descent i n t o the "gloomy Cave o f Spleen" (TRL IV 16) where: . . . l i v i n g Teapots stand, one arm h e l d out, One bent; the handle t h i s , and t h a t the spout: A P i p k i n t h e r e , l i k e Homer's T r i p o d walks; Here s i g h s a J a r , and t h e r e a Goose P i e t a l k s ; Men prove w i t h c h i l d , as powerful fancy works, And maids turned b o t t l e s , c a l l a l o u d f o r corks.. m_. T T X 7 . Q c Low b u r l e s q u e uses d i m i n u t i o n , the appearance o f u g l y or homely images which are intended to d i m i n i s h the d i g n i t y o f a s u b j e c t . For example, i n The Waste Land, E l i o t b u r l e s q u e s the Greek chorus by u s i n g T i r e s i a s as n a r r a t o r . T h i s c o n v e n t i o n of Greek tragedy i s g i v e n through the r e p e t i t i o n o f v a r i o u s phrases: "I T i r e s i a s , though b l i n d , t h r o b b i n g between two l i v e s , / O l d man w i t h w r i n k l e d female b r e a s t s , can see" (TWL 218-219); "I T i r e s i a s , o l d man w i t h w r i n k l e d dugs/Perceived the scene, and f o r e t o l d the r e s t " (TWL 228-229); "And I T i r e s i a s have f o r e s u f f e r e d a l l " (TWL 243). A pseudo-chorus, T i r e s i a s i s not an a c t o r i n the scene, j u s t as the nymphs o f The Rape of the Lock hover about t h e i r charges, watching and f o r e s e e i n g r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i o n . Pope g e n e r a l l y d e r i d e s the t r a d i t i o n a l form of the e p i c by u s i n g i t f o r t r i v i a l a f f a i r s , thereby emphasizing i n a d d i t i o n the t r i v i a l i t y o f the p o r t r a y e d s i t u a t i o n through the use o f such e l e v a t e d e p i c machinery. 87 F a s t i d i o u s n e s s i n d i c t i o n i s an a s p e c t of s a t i r e which the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s i n h e r i t e d from t h e i r c l a s s i c a l models: Pope's i n t e r e s t i n the word, however, i s something more p e r v a s i v e - something r e l a t e d t o the f a c t t h a t he and h i s f r i e n d s were among the l a s t men to be t r a i n e d t h o r o u g h l y i n an a n t i q u e k i n d of r e s p e c t f o r the word.^gg Although as a poet Pope was i n v o l v e d i n the d e d i c a t e d s e a r c h f o r the c r e a t i v e word - the ' r i g h t word i n the r i g h t p l a c e ' -i n the f o u r t h canto of The Dunciad he i l l u s t r a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e of words: Give law to Words, or war w i t h words alone, Senates and Courts w i t h Greek and L a t i n r u l e , And t u r n the C o u n c i l to a Grammar S c h o o l ! ^ I V 178-180) and S p o i l e d h i s own language, and a c q u i r e d no more; A l l C l a s s i c l e a r n i n g l o s t on C l a s s i c ground; And l a s t turned A i r , the Echo o f a S o u n d ! ^ I V 320-322) Rather than h i d i n g the meaning o f h i s words behind c l a s s i c l e a r n i n g , Pope used the v e r n a c u l a r o f h i s time - language which h i s r eader would understand: Pope's s a t i r e s are conspicuous f o r the v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s which they a s s i m i l a t e and f o r t h e i r toughness i n naming t h i n g s by t h e i r o r d i n a r y names - a v i r t u e which Matthew A r n o l d was to f i n d i n Homer^gg Pope experiments w i t h the c l a s s i c a l m a t e r i a l which he i n h e r i t e d and y e t keeps h i s experiments w e l l w i t h i n the bounds of the imabic pentameter rhymed c o u p l e t form: 198 Wimsatt, ed., p.xxv. 199 I b i d . , p . x l i v . 88 B e l i n d a s t i l l her downy p i l l o w p r e s t , _ i _ i _ i _ i _ i Her g u a r d i a n SYLPH prolonged the balmy r e s t : , m n T T , n o r.. ( 1KL 1 ±y ~Zu ) Although the two l i n e s balance each o t h e r i n s y l l a b i c l e n g t h , by making the second l i n e appear l o n g e r Pope emphasized the meaning of the word "prolonged". Although the c o u p l e t s are always rhymed, Pope o c c a s i o n a l l y uses e x p e r i m e n t a l ' i m p e r f e c t ' rhyme. He does not a r t i f i c i a l l y f o r c e rhyme by u s i n g i n c o n -gruent words to f i t the rhyme. An example o f t h i s rhyming i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t : One C e l l t h e r e i s , c o n c e a l e d from v u l g a r eye, _ > _ i _ i _ i _ i The Cave of Poverty and P o e t r y . ^ ^ 23-3^) Another i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e o f Pope's s t y l e i s h i s p r a c t i c e o f not merely rhyming m o n o s y l l a b i c words w i t h o t h e r m o n o s y l l a b i c words but e n f o r c i n g the rhyme on o c c a s i o n by rhyming p o l y -s y l l a b i c words w i t h m o n o s y l l a b i c words - " d e t a i n s " rhymed w i t h " c h a i n s " (TRL I I 23-24) and "maids" rhymed w i t h "masquerades" (TRL I 71-72). E l i o t has observed t h a t " i f an E n g l i s h poet i s t o l e a r n how t o use words i n our time, he must devote c l o s e study t o those who have used them b e s t i n t h e i r time; to those who, i n t h e i r own day, have made the language new."^" E l i o t ' s awareness o f the h i s t o r y o f language i s e v i d e n t everywhere i n h i s p o e t r y . The Waste Land i s c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s " m e t r i c a l v i r t u o s i t y . I t s b a s i c measure i s the h e r o i c T.S. E l i o t , "The S o c i a l F u n c t i o n o f P o e t r y " (1945), On  Poetry and Poets, p.22. 8 9 2 0 1 l i n e , w h i c h i t h a n d l e s i n a l m o s t e v e r y p o s s i b l e w a y . " _ • i _ i _ i _ i S w e e t T h a m e s , r u n s o f t l y t i l l I e n d m y s o n g , _ • _ > _ _ _ • _ i _ i S w e e t T h a m e s , r u n s o f t l y f o r I s p e a k n o t l o u d o r l o n g . ( T W L 1 8 3 - 1 8 4 ) T h e f i r s t l i n e i s i n i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r , b u t t h e s e c o n d i s a v a r i a t i o n u p o n t h a t m e t e r ; y e t b o t h l i n e s h a v e f i v e s t r o n g a n d d i s t i n c t b e a t s , w h i c h g i v e a f e e l i n g o f h o m o g e n e i t y . M o s t o f E l i o t ' s h e r o i c l i n e s a r e d e c a s y l l a b i c , a s a r e t h o s e o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s s u c h a s P o p e , e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : i _ _ i _ i _ i _ i B u t a t m y b a c k f r o m t i m e t o t i m e I h e a r _ i _ i _ i _ i _ i T h e s o u n d o f h o r n s a n d m o t o r s , w h i c h s h a l l b r i n g i _ i i _ _ _ i S w e e n e y t o M r s . P o r t e r i n t h e s p r i n g . ( T W L 1 9 6 _ 1 9 9 ) E l i o t ' s f r e e d o m i n v e r s e s t r u c t u r e c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s v i e w s o n m e t r e : A n y l i n e c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o f e e t a n d a c c e n t s . T h e s i m p l e r m e t r e s a r e a r e p e t i t i o n o f o n e c o m b i n a t i o n , p e r h a p s a l o n g a n d a s h o r t . . . f i v e t i m e s r e p e a t e d . T h e r e i s h o w e v e r , n o r e a s o n w h y , w i t h i n a s i n g l e l i n e , t h e r e s h o u l d b e a n y r e p e t i t i o n ; w h y t h e r e s h o u l d n o t b e l i n e s ( a s t h e r e a r e ) d i v i s i b l e o n l y i n t o f e e t o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . E l i o t ' s m e t r e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f l i n e s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f e e t : 1 ) T o s a y : I a m L a z a r u s c o m e f r o m t h e d e a d ( L S P 9 3 ) i _ _ i i _ 2 ) W h o a r e t h o s e h o o d e d h o r d e s s w a r m i n g ( T W L 3 6 9 ) i _ _ i _ _ i • 3 ) H e w h o w a s l i v i n g i s n o w d e a d ( T W L 3 2 8 ) H e l e n G a r d n e r , T h e A r t o f T . S . E l i o t ( N e w Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n a n d C o . I n c . , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 1 9 . 2 0 2 T . S . E l i o t , " R e f l e c t i o n s o n V e r s L i b r e " , T h e N e w S t a t e s m a n , I X , ( M a r c h 3 , 1 9 1 7 ) , p . 5 1 9 . 90 4) We who were l i v i n g a re now dying (TWL 329) L i n e one i s composed of an iamb, a t r o c h e e , two d a c t y l s and an incomplete t r o c h e e . L i n e two i s composed of a d a c t y l , a trochee, and a spondee w i t h an added unaccented beat. L i n e t h r e e i s composed o f two d a c t y l s and a spondee. L i n e f o u r i s composed o f two d a c t y l s and a spondee w i t h an added unaccented s y l l a b l e . Thus E l i o t f o l l o w s h i s own p r i n c i p l e s , making every l i n e v ary i n some way from the o t h e r l i n e s . He f e l t t h a t : the most i n t e r e s t i n g v e r s e which has y e t been w r i t t e n i n our language has been done e i t h e r by t a k i n g a v e r y simple form, l i k e the iambic pentameter, c o n s t a n t l y withdrawing from i t , o r t a k i n g no form a t a l l , and c o n s t a n t l y approx-ima t i n g t o a ve r y simple one. I t i s t h i s c o n t r a s t between f i x i t y and f l u x , t h i s unper-c e i v e d e v a s i o n o f monotony which i s the ve r y l i f e o f v e r s e . Much o f The Waste Land i s w r i t t e n i n blank v e r s e , E l i o t having been i n f l u e n c e d by E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a t i s t s and Shakespeare i n p a r t i c u l a r . Yet E l i o t o f t e n d i s t o r t s even h i s blank v e r s e , b r e a k i n g from iambic rhythm, u s i n g from two to s i x , to t e n f e e t per l i n e . He observed t h a t i t i s necessary f o r a poet to have a f e e l i n g f o r the s y l l a b l e s and rhythm. T h i s must be p r e s e n t , u n c o n s c i o u s l y g u i d i n g the words he chooses t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s theme. Although h i s v e r s e i s never f o r m l e s s , E l i o t ' s l i n e a l p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e v a r i e s from s t r i c t t o i r r e g u l a r metre, as has been observed. He juxtaposes iambic pentameter " R e f l e c t i o n s on Vers L i b r e " , The New Statesman, p.518. 91 w i t h t h r e e f o o t l i n e s i n The Waste Land, f o r example, i n o r d e r to u n d e r l i n e the u n c e r t a i n t y o f the modern world: "The ghost of some simple metre should l u r k behind the a r r a s i n even the ' f r e e s t v e r s e ' " „ ^ 0 4 In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e the f e e l i n g o f the h e r o i c c o u p l e t i t was necessary f o r E l i o t t o use rhyme. But even i n h i s use o f rhyme, E l i o t i s i n n o v a t i v e . The mock-epic e f f e c t o f P r u f r o c k , f o r example, i s s u s t a i n e d by the opening rhymed c o u p l e t and i n t e r s p e r s i n g the poem w i t h unrhymed l i n e s to u n d e r l i n e the presence of the rhyme: Le t us go then, you and I_, When the evening i s spread out a g a i n s t the sky L i k e a p a t i e n t e t h e r i s e d upon a t a b l e ; L e t us go, through c e r t a i n h a l f - d e s e r t e d s t r e e t s , The m u t t e r i n g r e t r e a t s Of r e s t l e s s n i g h t s i n one-night cheap h o t e l s . 1 (LoP 1— b) In The Waste Land, rhyme a l s o p l a y s an important r o l e i n s t r e s s i n g the burlesque nature o f such scenes as the " t y p i s t home a t teatim e " : A s m a l l house agent's c l e r k w i t h one b o l d s t a r e , One o f the low on whom assurance s i t s As a s i l k hat on a B r a d f o r d m i l l i o n a i r e . The time i s now p r o p i t i o u s , as he guesses The meal i s ended, she i s bored and t i r e d , Endeavours t o engage her i n c a r e s s e s s Which s t i l l are unreproved, i f u n d e s i r e d ^ T W L 232-238) A l t e r n a t e l i n e s rhyme w i t h each o t h e r w h i l e o c c a s i o n a l unrhymed l i n e s a re i n t e r s p e r s e d t o u n d e r l i n e the rhyme and c o n t r a s t the t r a d i t i o n a l n e o - c l a s s i c a l e f f e c t s w i t h modern i n n o v a t i o n s . 204 " R e f l e c t i o n s on Vers L i b r e " , The New Statesman, p.518. E l i o t r a r e l y uses a formal tone, and although The Waste Land speaks i n "the system o f s t r e s s e s and pauses... t h a t o f 205 po e t r y and not of prose", E l i o t makes dramatic use o f the c o l l o q u i a l language drawn from the v e r n a c u l a r o f the o r d i n a r y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y man o r woman: The p o e t r y o f a people takes i t s l i f e from the people's speech and i n t u r n g i v e s l i f e t o i t ; and r e p r e s e n t s i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t s g r e a t e s t power and i t s most d e l i c a t e s e n s i b i l i t y • A lthough i t would be a mistake, he argued, " to assume t h a t a l l p o e t r y ought to be melodious", because some p o e t r y " i s meant to be sung; most p o e t r y , i n modern times, i s meant to be 207 spoken". However, E l i o t s t r e s s e d t h a t no p o e t r y , o f course, " i s ever e x a c t l y the same speech t h a t the poet t a l k s and 208 hea r s " . I n s t a n c e s o f E l i o t ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p o e t i c language are found i n a l l o f h i s p o e t r y , and the f o l l o w i n g i s a most n o t i c e a b l e example: S h a l l I p a r t my h a i r behind? Do I dare t o eat a peach? I s h a l l wear white f l a n n e l t r o u s e r s , and walk upon the beach (LSP 121-122) Two t r i v i a l and v a i n q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w e d by an a b s u r d l y p o s i t i v e d e c i s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i n the speech of the e l e v a t e d l a d y of 205 T.S. E l i o t , " P r e f a c e " , A n a b a s i s : A Poem by S t . John  Perse (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1949), p.11. 206 T.S. E l i o t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , The Use of Po e t r y and the Use  of C r i t i c i s m , p.15. 207 T.S. E l i o t , "The Music of Poe t r y " , On P o e t r y and Poets, p 208 T, ., I b i d . , p.23. the "burnished throne" i n "A Game of Chess", t h e r e i s a feminine q u a l i t y of nagging i n s i s t e n c e i n the language which E l i o t has her use to her companion: 'My nerves are bad t o - n i g h t . Yes, bad. Stay w i t h me. 'Speak to me. Why do you never speak. Speak. 'What are you t h i n k i n g o f ? What t h i n k i n g ? What? 'I never know what you are t h i n k i n g . Think.' / m r T_ ... . . . N 2 a (TWL 111-114) The language which the women i n the pub scene use has the g a r r u l o u s a u t h e n t i c i t y o f r e a l l i f e , f r e e f l o w i n g and punctuated o n l y by the woman's h a b i t u a l s e l f - i n t e r r u p t i o n s : When L i l ' s husband got demobbed, I s a i d -I d i d n ' t mince my words, I s a i d to her myself, • • • Now A l b e r t ' s coming back, make y o u r s e l f a b i t smart. H e ' l l want to know what you done w i t h t h a t money he gave you To g e t y o u r s e l f some t e e t h . He d i d , I was t h e r e . You have them a l l out, L i l , and get a n i c e s e t , He s a i d , I swear, I can't bear to look a t you. ,_„,. . o r i ,.^\ J (TWL 139-146) "The proper source of Jj:he e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t ' s j 209 d i c t i o n was...the p o l i t e world of the c o u r t and c i t y . " Yet w h i l e the language o f Pope's p o e t r y i s most o f t e n 'proper', he too c o u l d use language w i t h c o l l o q u i a l v i v i d n e s s , as exempli-f i e d i n the opening o f the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot: P. Shut the door, good John! f a t i g u e d I s a i d T i e up the knocker, say I'm s i c k , I'm dead. , o x (.LDA 1 — £.) S i m i l a r l y , i n The Rape o f the Lock, Pope i l l u s t r a t e s the use o f common speech when he permits S i r Plume to l e t down h i s guard and break out w i t h : "My L o r d , my what the d e v i l ? " (TRL IV 126) N e v e r t h e l e s s i t was the formal a s p e c t of e i g h t e e n t h -century n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e which a t t r a c t e d both Pope and E l i o t . Marks, p.19. 94 I t has been observed t h a t : the c l o s e d c o u p l e t , w i t h i t s p o i n t e d rhyme, a c h i e v e s a very complex i n t e r n a l economy: the c o u p l e t s p l i t s i n t o l i n e s , the l i n e s o f t e n break i n t o caesuras or i n t e r n a l r e s t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y of balance and o p p o s i t i o n of phrases may be u n d e r l i n e d by resem-b l a n c e s of sound. E l i o t chose the c o u p l e t form f o r t h i s economy i n o r d e r to augment h i s m o d i f i e d blank v e r s e , f o r he o f t e n breaks from the ten s y l l a b l e l i n e s of blank v e r s e . He s t a t e d i n h i s c a u t i o n about f r e e form i n "The Music o f P o e t r y " , however, t h a t "no v e r s e i s f r e e f o r a man who wants to do a good j o b " and "only a bad poet 211 c o u l d welcome f r e e v e r s e as a l i b e r a t i o n from form." The steady rhythm o f the c o u p l e t i n P r u f r o c k and the a t t e n d a n t rhyme p r o v i d e the - reader w i t h a f e e l i n g of the grandeur of t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t r y which i s o f t e n echoed i n E l i o t " s v e r s e . But t h i s e f f e c t , l i k e so many o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t i c techniques (the echoing o f p a s t l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example) was o f t e n used i r o n i c a l l y i n E l i o t ' s e a r l y work. T h i s exaggerated s i m p l i c i t y of the metre comments on the s i n i s t e r and v i o l e n t a c t i o n i n "Sweeney among the N i g h t i n g a l e s " , f o r i n s t a n c e , and adds, by i t s i n c o n g r u i t y , a f i n a l grotesque note to the poem. There i s an easy s t e a d i n e s s about the metre which a t f i r s t l u l l s the r e a d e r , then shocks him i n t o awareness of the r e a l nature of the s u b j e c t . T h i s d e c e p t i v e l y l u l l i n g e f f e c t works e x c e l l e n t l y i n the rough d r a f t of "The F i r e Sermon" i n which E l i o t pokes fun a t 2 1 ^ B r a d y and P r i c e , eds., p.xv. 211 "The Music o f P o e t r y " , On Poetry and Poets, p.37. 212 John C h a l k e r , "Aspects of Rhythm and Rhyme i n E l i o t ' s E a r l y Poems" E n g l i s h , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Volume XVI, (Autumn 1966), Number 93, p.105. c l o s e t - v e r s e by having F r e s c a w r i t e p o e t r y : She s c r i b b l e s v e r s e of such a gloomy tone That c a u t i o u s c r i t i c s say, her s t y l e i s q u i t e her own. Not q u i t e an a d u l t , and s t i l l l e s s a c h i l d , By f a t e misbred, by f l a t t e r i n g f r i e n d s b e g u i l e d , F r e s c a 1 s a r r i v e d (the Muses Nine d e c l a r e ) To be a s o r t o f can-can s a l o n n i e r e . The rhythm and rhyme serve to l u l l the rea d e r , but a t the same time i l l u s t r a t e the sing-song v e r s e t h a t F r e s c a would have w r i t t e n . While the l i n e - "Not q u i t e an a d u l t and s t i l l l e s s a c h i l d " - d e s c r i b e s the e f f e c t o f F r e s c a ' s v e r s e , i t a l s o doubles as an apt d e s c r i p t i o n o f the young woman h e r s e l f . T h i s e f f e c t i n which the v e r s e echoes the sense o f the p o e t r y i s a c h i e v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t from P r u f r o c k : In the room the women come and go T a l k i n g o f M i c h e l a n g e l o . ^ L S p 1 3 - ^ 4 ) Here, as elsewhere, the c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c c o u p l e t s t a r t l e s the reader w i t h i t s c o n t r a s t t o the e l e g a n t and s u p e r f i c i a l p a t t e r o f the women. E l i o t ' s and Pope's p o e t i c p r a c t i c e s t e s t i f y r e p e a t e d l y to t h e i r shared n e o - c l a s s i c a l o u t l o o k . T h e i r homage to the uniqueness o f the p a s t and a l s o t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n through i m i t a t i o n a r e an e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n - what Robert F r o s t has 214 c a l l e d the " t r i b u t e o f the c u r r e n t t o the source". At the same time, as has been argued throughout, both poets i n t r o -duce s u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i o n s which r e l a t e them as d i s t i n c t l y to t h e i r own s o c i e t i e s as to the p a s t . 213 The Waste Land, F a c s i m i l e E d i t i o n , l i n e s 64-69. 214 Robert F r o s t , "West Running Brook", Robert F r o s t ' s Poems (New York: Washington Square P r e s s , 1963), l i n e 75. 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY I PRIMARY SOURCES E l i o t , T.S. A f t e r Strange Gods. London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1934. . C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935. 1936; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1949. . Four Q u a r t e t s . 1944; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1962. . Homage to John Dryden. London: T.S. E l i o t , London L. and V i r g i n i a Woolf, 1924. . The Idea of a C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y . 4th ed., 1939; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1942. , ed. " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " S e l e c t e d Poems of E z r a Pound. 1928; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1948. pp.16-18. . Notes Towards the D e f i n i t i o n o f C u l t u r e . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1948. . On Po e t r y and Poets. 1943; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1957. , t r a n s . " P r e f a c e . " Anabasis: A Poem by S t . John Perse. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1938. pp.9-12. . " R e f l e c t i o n s on Vers L i b r e . " The New Statesman. IX (March 3, 1917), pp.518-519. . The Sacred Wood. 7th ed. 1920; r p t . London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1957. . S e l e c t e d E s s a y s . 2nd ed. 1934; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1949. . To C r i t i c i z e the C r i t i c . 1945; r p t . London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1965. . F a c s i m i l e E d i t i o n , The Waste Land. Ed. V a l e r i e E l i o t . New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace, J o v a n o v i c h Inc., 1972. . For L a n c e l o t Andrewes. London: Faber and Gwyer L t d . , 1928. Pope, Alexander. "The A r t of S i n k i n g i n P o e t r y . For Machines." " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " The Rape of the Lock. Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,1960. . The Dunciad. Ed. James S u t h e r l a n d . London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1963. 97 • E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot. Ed. John B u t t . London • E s s a y °JA C r i t i c i s m . Eds. E. Audra and A. W i l l i a m s . London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1961. • Essay on Man. Ed. Maynard Mack. London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1964. • I m i t a t i o n of Horace. Ed. John B u t t . London: Methuen and Co. 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New York: Harper and Row, Pub., 1961. Beers, Henry A. A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Romanticism i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century. New York: Gordian P r e s s , 1899. Brady, Frank and M a r t i n P r i c e , eds. E n g l i s h Prose and P o e t r y  1660-18 00. Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1961. C a h i l l , Audrey F. T.S. E l i o t and the Human Predicament. Cape Town, South A f r i c a : U n i v e r s i t y of N a t a l P r e s s , 1967. C h a l k e r , John. "Aspects o f Rhythm and Rhyme i n E l i o t ' s E a r l y Poems." E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n E n g l i s h , 16 Autumn 1966. pp.84-88. Dixon, P e t e r . The World o f Pope's S a t i r e s . London: Methuen and Co. LtcfTT 1968. Dryden, John. The Aeneid. The Poems of John Dryden. Ed. James K i n s l e y . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1958. F r o s t , Robert. "West Running Brook." Robert F r o s t ' s Poems. New York: Washington Square P r e s s , 1963. F r y e , Northrup. 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E l i o t i n P e r s p e c t i v e : A Symposium. Ed. Graham M a r t i n . Bath: Pitman P r e s s , 1970. pp.102-112. Hi g h e t , G i l b e r t . The Anatomy of S a t i r e . P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. Hulme, T.E. Notes on Language and S t y l e . Ed. H e r b e r t Read. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Chapbooks, no d a t e . Hulme, T.E. "Romanticism and C l a s s i c i s m . " Prose Keys t o Modern P o e t r y . Ed. K a r l S h a p i r o . New York: Harper and Row Pub., 1962. pp.91-104. Ishak, Fayek M. The M y s t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y of T.S. E l i o t . New Haven: C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s P u b ~ l9"70. Jump, John D. B u r l e s q u e . London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1972. Kaplan, S.R. T a r o t Cards f o r Fun and F o r t u n e T e l l i n g . New York: U.S. Games Systems I n c . , 1970. Kernan, A l v i n B. The P l o t of S a t i r e . 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