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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Client characteristics of the Family Service Centres of Greater Vancouver Akune, Bonnie Chizuko 1967

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CLIENT CHARACTERISTICS  OF THE FAMILY SERVICE CENTRES  OF GREATER VANCOUVER  by Bonnie Chizuko Akune E l i o Amedeo Azzara Barbara G a i l B r e t t A s b j o r g S y l v i a Clemson Chun-duh Kuo M a r j o r i e Donalda M a r t i n  T h e s i s submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e standard r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  ,School o f S o c i a l Work  1967 The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g  for  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  that  the  Study.  thesis  Library  shall  I further  agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  that  freely  of  British  available  permission  for  of  for  the  requirements  Columbia,  I  reference  and  extensive  copying of  for  scholarly  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  by t h e  Department  o r b y hi;s  representatives.  understood  or  publication  without  of  my w r i t t e n  this  thesis  for  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Columbia  It  financial  is  gain  agree  this  Head o f my  shall  that  not  be  copying  allowed  ABSTRACT The F a m i l y S e r v i c e C e n t r e s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a i s composed o f a M a i n and b r a n c h o f f i c e s . At t h i s time, the Agency i s a s k i n g whether t h e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y p a t t e r n s i n t h e M a i n and b r a n c h o f f i c e s m a t c h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f their respective clients. As a r e s u l t , t h i s s t u d y was undertaken with the f o l l o w i n g general hypotheses: that t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Main O f f i c e , N o r t h S h o r e and B u r n a b y b r a n c h e s o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Centres of G r e a t e r Vancouver i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h o s e r e q u e s t i n g s e r v i c e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r r e q u e s t and the t y p e of approach t o the Agency. A c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s u r v e y was made o f a l l p e r s o n s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e M a i n , B u r n a b y and N o r t h S h o r e o f f i c e s d u r i n g a f o u r week p e r i o d i n O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r , 1967. A d a t a s c h e d u l e was u s e d by i n t a k e p e r s o n n e l t o s e c u r e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t o t a l o f 411 a p p r o a c h e s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g f o u r v a r i a b l e s was sought—socioeconomic status, family l i f e stage, request f o r s e r v i c e , and t y p e o f a p p r o a c h . The B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e and t h e D u v a l l F a m i l y L i f e S t a g e s w e r e u s e d as m o d e l s . A c o m p u t e r was u s e d i n a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a . The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e some d i f f e r e n c e s between the t h r e e o f f i c e s i n t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d , t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e most m a r k e d i n s o c i o e c o n o m i c class. The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d .  and  F u r t h e r , i t was f o u n d t h a t g e n e r a l l y , t h e c l i e n t s came f r o m t h e l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s , and t h a t t h e y w e r e c h i l d r e a r i n g f a m i l i e s . S t r i k i n g l y few aged p e r s o n s a p p r o a c h e d t h e Agency f o r s e r v i c e . I n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l was t h e most r e q u e s t e d s e r v i c e i n t h e t o t a l s a m p l e , and s e l f - r e f e r r a l was f o u n d t o be t h e most common t y p e o f a p p r o a c h . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e Agency s h o u l d c o n s i d e r v a r y i n g the s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y p a t t e r n s t o meet t h e u n i q u e c o n s t e l l a t i o n of needs of the c l i e n t s a p p r o a c h i n g each o f f i c e . There are i m p l i c a t i o n s also f o r a general evaluation of s e r v i c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as f o r f u r t h e r research.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t has r e q u i r e d a s s i s t a n c e from many sources.  G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y made to the s t a f f o f t h e Family S e r v i c e o f Greater Vancouver Area without  whose c o o p e r a t i o n  Centres this  p r o j e c t would not have been p o s s i b l e . We wish t o acknowledge e s p e c i a l l y t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Miss F l o r e n c e V. Clayden,  Intake S u p e r v i s o r i n t h e Main  O f f i c e , Mrs. Margaret Jessup,  D i s t r i c t Secretary of the  North Shore o f f i c e , and M i s s E. Mildred:i.Porter, S e n i o r  Social  Worker, Burnaby o f f i c e . We a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted t o Mrs. Jean Assimakos, f o r her constant  guidance and encouragement i n her r o l e as  r e s e a r c h i n s t r u c t o r ; and t o Mr. L a r r y B e l l , D i r e c t o r o f Research, U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a d v i c e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  Page INTRODUCTION  1  The Agency s e t t i n g and f u n c t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r o j e c t . The p r e v i o u s i n t e r n a l s t u d i e s o f t h e Agency. The scope and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o j e c t . General hypothesis. II  METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY  7  Sampling d e s i g n . Data c o l l e c t i o n models. O p e r a t i o n a l procedures. Operat i o n a l assumptions. Plan o f data a n a l y s i s . Ill  PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS  14  Description of the population. Analys i s o f socioeconomic s t a t u s . A n a l y s i s o f f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e stage. A n a l y s i s o f r e quest f o r s e r v i c e . A n a l y s i s o f type o f approach. IV  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS  28  General h y p o t h e s i s f i n d i n g s . Overall c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p l i c a b i l i t y of the models. V  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  34  D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e o f f i c e s and implications f o r service delivery patterns. I m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g out o f c l i e n t characteristics.  Appendix A  Data Schedule  B  Blishen Occupational Class  38  Scale  39  Appendix C  D u v a l l Family L i f e C y c l e Stages  D  Memo dated October 12, 1967 t o A l l S t a f f of the Family S e r v i c e Centres o f Greater Vancouver Area r e g a r d i n g Research P r o j e c t  E  Combining C l a s s e s i n the B l i s h e n and D u v a l l Models  F  Memo dated October 19, 1967 t o S t a f f o f the Family S e r v i c e Centres o f G r e a t e r Vancouver i n v o l v e d i n f i l l i n g out Research Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Bibliography  TABLES IN THE TEXT  Table  13  Page  Type o f Approach vs Family L i f e C y c l e Stages H o r i z o n t a l Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n  26  GRAPH IN THE TEXT Graph 1  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Family L i f e C y c l e Stages 3, 4, & 5 i n the t h r e e offices  20  SECTION I INTRODUCTION Maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency i s not  achieved without r e g u l a r  administrative lation.  structure,  and c a r e f u l s t u d i e s o f s e r v i c e s ,  and r e a l and p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t popu-  The Family S e r v i c e  Centres o f Greater Vancouver Area,  an agency committed t o the use o f r e s e a r c h i s presently  t o improve s e r v i c e s ,  undergoing a number o f changes i n c l u d i n g the  major one o f i n c r e a s e d i s administrative  decentralization.  As a r e s u l t , t h e r e  concern about the need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e -  g a r d i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l i e n t s .  In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e  i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r not t h e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y  patterns  i n the Main O f f i c e match the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l i e n t s app r o a c h i n g t h e Agency and t h e i r s e r v i c e needs, and whether these f a c t o r s d i f f e r between t h e Main and branch o f f i c e s . The  Family S e r v i c e  Centres, e s t a b l i s h e d  now composed o f a Main O f f i c e , p l u s  i n 1928, i s  a number o f branch and  neighborhood o f f i c e s , o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e on a n o n - s e c t a r i a n  basis  to f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s r e s i d i n g i n Vancouver proper, t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, Burnaby, Richmond, and North and West Vancouver. Association  As a member agency o f the Family  Service  o f America, i t s e s s e n t i a l purpose i s t o " c o n t r i b u t e  to harmonious f a m i l y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o strengthen p o s i t i v e values i n family l i f e ,  and t o promote h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y de-  velopment and s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f v a r i o u s  family  2 members." ( 1 0 , p. 3 )  T h i s g e n e r a l goal i s supported by the  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Agency. ( 8 )  Casework s e r v i c e s ,  day-care,  homemaker and camping s e r v i c e s a r e the p r i n c i p a l t o o l s used to h e l p f a m i l i e s d i r e c t l y .  I n a d d i t i o n , the Agency  partici-  p a t e s at v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n programs o f a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and neighborhood development n a t u r e . Three branch o f f i c e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d - the North Shore o f f i c e i n 1937, the Burnaby o f f i c e i n 1962, and the Richmond o f f i c e i n 1966.  I t has been assumed t h a t these o f -  f i c e s would not o n l y have the advantages o f b e i n g more v i s i b l e and a c c e s s i b l e t o the c l i e n t , but t h a t agency p e r s o n n e l would more r e a d i l y be a b l e t o understand and become i n v o l v e d i n the s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r p a r t o f t h e community which enhanced or impinged upon f a m i l y l i f e .  At t h i s time, t h e Main and  branch o f f i c e s o f f e r e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s .  However,  the q u e s t i o n now posed i s whether t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  dif-  f e r e n c e s i n the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n which should be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e nature o f the s e r v i c e o f f e r e d . S e v e r a l p r e v i o u s i n t e r n a l s t u d i e s have been undertaken by t h e Agency, which p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o the present project.  Two r e s e a r c h proj'ects were completed i n I 9 6 0 .  "A  Caseload A n a l y s i s , " prepared under t h e a u s p i c e s o f the Agency, surveyed a l l  cases open i n June, I 9 6 0 , i n which t h r e e or more  i n t e r v i e w s had been g i v e n . ( 6 ) T h i s p r o j e c t made use of the "Multi-problem Check L i s t " d e v i s e d by the Research Department o f t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l f o r use i n a survey o f the  s o - c a l l e d "multi-problem" f a m i l i e s i n t h e Greater Area.  ( 6 , p. 2)  Vancouver  The r e s u l t s suggested t h a t t h e Agency was  "serving a representative cross s e c t i o n of occupations," compared with t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n  of the Province,  as  although  w i t h a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than average p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n als.  ( 6 , Chart  2 f f . p. 2)  In a Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s completed i n I 9 6 0 , Eva M i l d r e d P o r t e r s t u d i e d "Intake P r i o r i t i e s and C r i t e r i a i n a Family  S e r v i c e Agency —  A Survey o f W a i t i n g  Administrative Implications." (19)  L i s t Cases and  P o r t e r ' s sample i n c l u d e d  only t h e i n t a k e i n t h e Main O f f i c e .  She analysed  many f a c t o r s ,  i n p a r t l o o k i n g at t h e socioeconomic c l a s s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e . She  does not use an instrument s i m i l a r t o t h e one used i n the  present  study and t h e r e f o r e comparison i s not p o s s i b l e .  How-  ever, h e r r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s : Male c l i e n t s :  White C o l l a r Skilled Semi-skilled Unskilled  20$ 26.25$ 30.25$ 14.5$  Female c l i e n t s :  Business o r P r o f e s s i o n a l 25$ C l e r i c a l and S a l e s 50$ S e m i - s k i l l e d o r u n s k i l l e d 25$ (19,  p. 3 1 f f )  In September, 1 9 6 4 , t h e Agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n undertook an "Area A n a l y s i s " a t t h e request  o f i t s Board o f D i r e c t o r s i n  order t o a s s i s t t h e Board i n f u t u r e p l a n n i n g and l o c a t i o n o f Agency s e r v i c e s . ( 9 )  The monthly c a s e l o a d  statistics  provided  4 the data on which t h e study was based.  The r e p o r t analysed  some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l i e n t s served, and supports t h e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e Agency serves low-income f a m i l i e s as w e l l as t h e middle and upper income groups. In a more recent i n f o r m a l study, e n t i t l e d "Survey o f Main O f f i c e Intake - November, 1 9 6 6 , " F l o r e n c e V. Clayden, M.S.W., Intake S u p e r v i s o r , analysed t h a t month's i n t a k e i n t h e Main O f f i c e , d e s c r i b i n g many c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( 3 ) study p r o v i d e d t h e Agency w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e up-to-date mation about t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Main O f f i c e  This  infor-  clientele,  but d i d not p r o v i d e any comparative i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e branch  offices. The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s e l e c t s f o u r c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f those approaching t h e Agency and examines them i n d e t a i l - socioeconomic s t a t u s , stage i n t h e f a m i l y l i f e s e r v i c e requested, 1 and type o f approach. 2  cycle,  Data coverxng these  items was secured from a l l persons approaching t h e Main O f f i c e , and Burnaby and North Shore branch o f f i c e s between October 1 6 , 1 9 6 7 and November 1 0 , 1 9 6 7 . The Richmond branch o f f i c e was not i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t because  i t i s recently  e s t a b l i s h e d and has not b u i l t up a s u b s t a n t i a l c l i e n t body.  S e r v i c e requested i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : ( l ) I n f o r m a t i o n - r e f e r r a l , ( 2 ) Concrete s e r v i c e s , ( 3 ) Counselling. x  ^Type o f approach - d i r e c t , r e f e r r i n g t o a p e r s o n a l approach and c o l l a t e r a l , r e f e r r i n g t o an approach made on b e h a l f o f another person.  5 The p r o j e c t has a number of l i m i t a t i o n s , but most p a r t i c u l a r l y i t i s l i m i t e d i n scope.  Because o f the amount  of time a v a i l a b l e , the s i z e of the sample i s r e l a t i v e l y and i t was  not p o s s i b l e to undertake e x p l o r a t i o n o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n any breadth or- depth. t h e r e f o r e , as only a p r e l i m i n a r y and  client  I t must be  essentially  small  regarded,  statistical  overview of f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the persons making an initial  approach to the Agency.  such important motivation.  No  attempt was  f e a t u r e s as problem presented,  made to  assess  c a p a c i t y or  A l a r g e body of l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s r e g a r d i n g  very c r i t i c a l c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  these  For example, R i p p l e  has  e x p l o r e d m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y , and the p r o b l e m - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n area, i n depth. (21)  Other r e s e a r c h e r s and  practitioners  have d e a l t with such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as c l i e n t m o t i v a t i o n expectation.^  Such s t u d i e s p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e background  i n s i g h t about c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  a conceptual  f o r s t u d i e s i n depth w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l agencies.  and  and  base  I t i s hoped  t h a t although the present p r o j e c t i s l i m i t e d i n scope, i t w i l l p r o v i d e a r e s e a r c h p a t t e r n and a p o s s i b l e base on which f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l can be  developed.  A general h y p o t h e s i s f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was follows:  posed as  That t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the  Main O f f i c e , North Shore and Burnaby branches of the S e r v i c e Centres o f Greater Vancouver i n the  Family  characteristics  1-For examples of such m a t e r i a l , see Oxley (17), (15), and Rosenfeld (23).  Levinger  6 o f those r e q u e s t i n g s e r v i c e , the nature of t h e i r request  and  the type o f approach to the Agency. While the main purpose o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s the t e s t i n g o f hypotheses, a secondary goal i s an e v a l u a t i o n of the plicability  of the two  Occupational  instruments used - the  C l a s s S c a l e and  ap-  Blishen  the D u v a l l Family  Life  Cycle  Model - to t h i s Agency s e t t i n g . The  report i s written i n f i v e sections:  to t h i s f i r s t  i n addition  introductory section, Section II describes  methodology, S e c t i o n I I I p r e s e n t s  the  the f i n d i n g s i n d e t a i l ,  S e c t i o n IV d i s c u s s e s the f i n d i n g s , i n d i c a t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n s , and recommendations.  Section V contains conclusions  and  SECTION I I METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e method used i n the p r o j e c t . It  i n c l u d e s statements about t h e s e l e c t i o n o f sample, t h e  data schedule, and  t h e r a t i o n a l e r e g a r d i n g t h e instruments used,  t h e o p e r a t i o n a l assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h e p r o j e c t .  Sampling Design The  r e s e a r c h design  i s a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l survey i n  which an attempt i s b e i n g made t o e s t a b l i s h a s s o c i a t i o n s between s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s a t one p o i n t i n time.  I t does not  allow f i r m i n f e r e n c e s as t o time order o f v a r i a b l e s , which, however, a r e not f e l t t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s The  study.  study sample c o n s i s t e d o f a l l approaches^ t h a t  were made t o t h e Agency's Main, Burnaby, and North Shore o f f i c e s w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f f o u r weeks o f working days from 9:00 a.m., Monday, October 16th t o 5:00 p.m., F r i d a y , November 1967.  10th,  Agency s t a f f , and i n p a r t i c u l a r Miss F. V. Clayden,  M.S.W., Intake S u p e r v i s o r , considered  and t h e two branch s u p e r v i s o r s ,  t h a t t h i s p e r i o d would o f f e r a " t y p x c a l "  cross-  s e c t i o n o f i n t a k e , coming as i t does a f t e r t h e summer h o l i d a y  ^"Approach" r e f e r s t o a telephone c o n t a c t , correspondence, and " d r o p - i n , " i . e . persons who c a l l i n a t an o f f i c e without appointment. 2 R e a l l y no month i s " t y p i c a l " - t h e r e appear t o be s e a s o n a l , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and other v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t a k e .  8  i s over, and at a time when c h i l d r e n have s e t t l e d i n t o s c h o o l . Agency s t a f f a n t i c i p a t e d a sample o f approximately 2 8 0 d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d - Main O f f i c e , 2 0 0 ; North Shore, 5 0 ; Burnaby, 3 0 . I t was o r i g i n a l l y planned t h a t e n q u i r i e s answered by the r e c e p t i o n i s t at t h e switchboard i n t h e Main O f f i c e would be excluded from t h e sample.  However, a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e  dis-  c u s s i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n with M i s s Clayden, i t was decided t o i n c l u d e these e n q u i r i e s because o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i cance.  A data  schedule was drawn up f o r completion on t h e  date t h e approach was made i n order to ensure accuracy e l i m i n a t e p o s s i b l e e r r o r s , ( s e e Appendix A) intended  t h a t t h i s schedule would be f i l l e d  I t was  and t o initially  i n by Agency  per-  sonnel  ( i . e . case a i d e or s o c i a l worker) t a k i n g t h e main i n t a k e  role.  However, w i t h t h e i n c l u s i o n o f switchboard e n q u i r i e s ,  schedules were a l s o completed by t h e r e c e p t i o n i s t s . Data C o l l e c t i o n Models The  schedule p r o v i d e s  a model f o r t h e study o f s o c i o -  economic s t a t u s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e . Blishen Occupational  F o r t h i s purpose, the  C l a s s S c a l e was selected.-'-  based on t h e 1 9 5 1 Canadian D e c e n n i a l  Census.  The s c a l e i s  "In t h i s s c a l e ,  The s c a l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o seven ranked c a t e g o r i e s , as follows: C l a s s 1 - higher p r o f e s s i o n a l s , C l a s s 2 - lower p r o f e s s i o n a l s , C l a s s 3 - h i g h e r p a i d white c o l l a r and a few h i g h e r blue c o l l a r workers, C l a s s 4 - higher p a i d blue c o l l a r s and lower p a i d white c o l l a r , C l a s s 5 - s k i l l e d tradesmen, C l a s s 6 - higher p a i d s e m i - s k i l l e d and l a b o u r i n g j o b s , C l a s s 7 u n s k i l l e d and l a b o u r i n g j o b s . ( 2 0 , p. 1 6 1 ) (Appendix B)  9 a s t a n d a r d s c o r e f o r each o f t h e 1951 o c c u p a t i o n s  combines  a v e r a g e income and a v e r a g e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , and p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r a rank order o f t h e occupations i n t o seven c l a s s e s . " ( 2 0 , p. 160) the rank  order of occupations  and d i v i s i o n s  B l i s h e n p o i n t s out that  c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h t h e rank  order of p r e s t i g e according t o a v a i l a b l e p r e s t i g e studies, (l,  p. 4 7 9 )  instrument  The S c a l e h a s p r o v i d e d r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h a u s e f u l a n d was u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by J o h n P o r t e r i n h i s  comprehensive a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l in its  1964. (20)  c l a s s and p o w e r i n Canada  S i n c e i t was d e v e l o p e d  applicability  i s questioned  today  a s l o n g ago a s 1951> i n view o f t h e r a p i d  change d u r i n g t h e l a s t decade i n economic and s o c i a l  structure.  B l i s h e n h i m s e l f p o i n t s o u t two p o s s i b l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s s h i f t s i n the balance and p.  between s k i l l e d  480)  Nonetheless,  since this  The  i s t h e o n l y Canadian measure-  o f s o c i a l c l a s s a v a i l a b l e , i t was d e c i d e d t o  use t h e S c a l e , d e s p i t e these  limitations.  s c h e d u l e makes u s e o f t h e D u v a l l F a m i l y  model. (Appendix  In  workers,  o t h e r s h i f t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o c c u p a t i o n s , ( l ,  ment i n s t r u m e n t  and  and u n s k i l l e d  C)  Life  Cycle  T h i s model i s based on A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h  s t a t i s t i c s a p p l i e d i n a framework o f developmental  theory.  t h i s model, f a m i l i e s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o f a m i l y l i f e  stages  b a s e d on t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e v o l u t i o n a r y sequences o f family l i f e The  and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l  t a s k s f a c e d a t each  stage.  dynamics o f f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n a r e emphasized as they  change throughout  the l i f e  cycle of the nuclear family.  The  10 i n t e r n a l Agency s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n I support t h e use o f a f a m i l y l i f e sis"  stage model.  Both t h e "Caseload Analy-  and the P o r t e r t h e s i s found t h a t S0% o f t h e f a m i l i e s  b e i n g served had c h i l d r e n i n t h e home, ( 6 , Chart 1 ; 19, p. 25) and t h e other two s t u d i e s , "An Area A n a l y s i s " and t h e Clayden i n t a k e study, supported t h i s f i n d i n g .  One disadvantage i n  u s i n g t h i s model i s t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f the s t a g e s .  In addi-  t i o n , as Rowe p o i n t s out, t h i s i s a c h i l d focussed model which pre-supposes  t h a t any problems are r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o  the c h i l d r e n . (24) Because t h e model has no category f o r c h i l d l e s s persons, except those married l e s s than two y e a r s , i t was necessary t o add one to t h e data schedule. As i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n I (p. 4 ) , a simple model f o r s e r v i c e requested was d e v i s e d . and socioeconomic  Unlike the family l i f e  f a c t o r s sought,  stage  t h i s model, r a t h e r than  b e i n g based on c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n , r e q u i r e s a judgement on the p a r t o f t h e respondent.  I t was f e l t t h a t t h e data gath-  ered i n t h i s s e c t i o n would be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n e v a l u a t i n g the appropriateness of the s e r v i c e s offered i n the three o f f i c e s i n r e l a t i o n to the expectations of the c l i e n t e l e coming t o them. The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e schedule d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e type o f approach was  - i . e . direct or c o l l a t e r a l .  This variable  added a f t e r t h e t e s t run f o l l o w i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h Miss  Clayden, and o t h e r Agency s t a f f , who suggested t h a t t h i s might be a p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s .  Informa-  11  t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the Agency as a f o l l o w up to the Clayden study o f November, 1 9 6 6 which r e v e a l e d a r a t i o of s e l f r e f e r r a l s to c o l l a t e r a l o f t o one.  two  (3)  Operational  Procedures  Both b e f o r e and d u r i n g the data c o l l e c t i o n phase, members o f the r e s e a r c h team maintained Agency s t a f f at a l l t h r e e o f f i c e s . and  close l i a i s o n  Many p e r t i n e n t  comments were r e c e i v e d which have a s s i s t e d the  team i n d e v e l o p i n g  with  suggestions research  g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n e v a l u a t i n g the  data.  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the maintenance of good communication between the r e s e a r c h team and the t h r e e o f f i c e s i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the schedule t e n t and  would be completed i n a c o n s i s -  s t a n d a r d i z e d manner. A memo (see Appendix D) was  sent to a l l s t a f f i n the  Agency e x p l a i n i n g the purpose of the study, as to the completion  of the schedule,  of the r a t i o n a l e f o r each model. v i s o r s and  The  and  giving directions  a brief description  branch o f f i c e  i n t a k e s u p e r v i s o r i n the Main O f f i c e were  to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g and u l e s and  the  superrequested  c o l l e c t i n g the sched-  for giving consultation. A one day  t e s t run of the schedule  was  made at the  three o f f i c e s .  As a r e s u l t , a number of problems were l o c a t e d  and  were r e c e i v e d from the respondents.  suggestions  quently  some minor changes were made.  Subse-  12 The  unstructured  approach was used - thus a l l o w i n g  the i n t a k e workers t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r own i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h niques and t o use t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n i n o b t a i n i n g t h e information. Operational The  assumptions r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s based on t h e f o l l o w i n g  assumptions: (a) t h a t under s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e i n t a k e and d i s t r i c t  supervisor  s u p e r v i s o r s , a l l s t a f f i n v o l v e d would be equally-  a b l e t o complete t h e data schedule competently. (b) t h a t a l l s t a f f at t h e Main and branch o f f i c e s would f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e completion o f t h e data schedule i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner. P l a n o f Data A n a l y s i s The  schedule was so s e t up t h a t i t s data c o u l d be  e a s i l y coded f o r a computer run. breaking  The computer a s s i s t e d by  t h e data down i n t o (a) frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n , (b)  h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l percentage t a b l e s and ( c ) c a l c u l a t e d values.  A f t e r a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e computer r e s u l t s  i t was thought t h a t c e r t a i n manipulations t i n e n t as some expected f r e q u e n c i e s were l e s s than 5 .  o f data were p e r -  i n some contingency t a b l e s  I n order to i n c r e a s e those expected  quencies l e s s than 5 t h e data was s t a t i s t i c a l l y by combining c a t e g o r i e s . (Appendix E)  fre-  manipulated  In t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e major h y p o t h e s i s under which t h i s study i s conducted, i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l t h r e e o f f i c e s was  grouped under f o u r major v a r i a b l e s .  The b a s i c  p l a n was to run t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s a g a i n s t each o t h e r w i t h i n each o f these v a r i a b l e s and f u r t h e r attempt to run the v a r i a b l e s a g a i n s t each o t h e r to t e s t f o r interdependence.  SECTION I I I PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s study i n c l u d e d 411 approaches made t o t h e Agency d u r i n g the data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . T h i s number was much h i g h e r than the Agency e x p e c t a t i o n o f 280 and t h i s , i n i t s e l f , f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r .  constitutes a significant  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was found t h a t i n t a k e  at t h e Main O f f i c e accounted (53.28/o) o f a l l approaches  f o r a l i t t l e more than h a l f  t o t h e Agency, w h i l e Burnaby i n t a k e  f o r 1 3 . 6 3 $ and North Shore,  accounted approaches  finding  for 33-09$.  241 o f a l l  were completely c l a s s i f i a b l e , and t h e remaining  number were a p p l i c a b l e only i n s p e c i f i c areas o f the a n a l y s i s because o f incomplete i n f o r m a t i o n . TABLE I TOTAL SAMPLE OF COMPLETED AND INCOMPLETED  QUESTIONNAIRES  Completed  Incompleted  No.  Main  151  122  273  Burnaby  33  16  49  North Shore  57  32  89  Total  241  170  411  The l a r g e number o f incomplete schedules, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e Main O f f i c e , can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h e r o l e o f the switchboard  .  A f u r t h e r breakdown o f the data r e v e a l e d  t h a t t h e switchboard i n the Main O f f i c e r e c e i v e d 76 o f the 122 approaches  f o r which incomplete schedules were f i l l e d o u t .  In a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e o f the t r e n d s t h a t appeared i n the data, each v a r i a b l e w i l l be: d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n , as they appear on t h e schedule. (Appendix Socioeconomic  A)  Status TABLE 2  DISTRICT vs SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS - SWITCHBOARD INCLUDED Socioeconomic  Classes  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  No.  Main  3  22  21  9  28  31  37  151  Burnaby  1  6  1  2  5  11  7  33  North Shore  1  11  14  4  14  8  5  57  Total  5  39  36  15  47  50  49  241  16.18  14.94  6.22  19.50  %  2.07  In c o n s i d e r i n g socioeconomic  20.75  100$  20.33  s t a t u s , i t can be s t a t e d  g e n e r a l l y t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n coming t o t h e Agency d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f data c o l l e c t i o n f e l l predominantly socioeconomic  classes.  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s evident i n t h e  frequency t a b l e presented Furthermore, i n the socioeconomic  i n t o t h e lower  above.  t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s show some d i f f e r e n c e s s t a t u s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e they s e r v e .  naby s e r v e s a very s m a l l number o f persons  Bur-  i n c l a s s e s 3 and 4,  w h i l e t h e North Shore s e r v e s a s m a l l number i n c l a s s e s 6 and 7. (See Appendix B)  On t h e b a s i s o f the g e n e r a l impressions o f  the p r a c t i t i o n e r s t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s may be meaningful,  16 a f u r t h e r t e s t o f interdependence o f t h e v a r i a b l e s s o c i o economic  s t a t u s and t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s was c a r r i e d o u t . TABLE 3  DISTRICT vs SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS COMBINED CATEGORIES* SWITCHBOARD INCLUDED Socioeconomic  1 & 2 o  3 & 4  Classes  5  6  7  No.  Main  25  30  28  31  37  151  Burnaby  7  3  5  11  7  33  North Shore  12  18  14  8  5  57  Total  44  51  47  50  49  241  18.25  21.16  19.50  20.75  or  X  2  = 15.90  P<  .05  100$  20.33  8 d.f.  I t w i l l be seen from the t a b l e above t h a t a f t e r comb i n i n g c l a s s e s , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was supported. was p a r t i c u l a r l y  The d i f f e r e n c e  evident i n t h e lower p r o p o r t i o n o f responses  o b t a i n e d i n C l a s s e s 6 and 7 i n t h e North Shore o f f i c e as cont r a s t e d w i t h those i n t h e Main and Burnaby  offices.  Converse-  l y , i n t h e Main O f f i c e , t h e l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c l i e n t s are i n the lower socioeconomic c l a s s e s i n comparison t o t h e North Shore o f f i c e .  The Burnaby  o f f i c e c l i e n t e l e are r a t h e r evenly  spread throughout t h e seven c l a s s e s . These f i n d i n g s support the p r a c t i t i o n e r s '  assumptions  about t h e socioeconomic d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c l i e n t e l e coming t o *See Appendix  E f o r r a t i o n a l e o f combining t a b l e s .  17 the t h r e e o f f i c e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e impression t h a t t h e c l i e n t e l e coming t o t h e North Shore o f f i c e are o f a h i g h e r socioeconomic  class.  F u r t h e r t e s t s t h e r e f o r e were  t o see i f t h e socioeconomic  conducted  status of the c l i e n t population  of t h e North Shore w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t i n the Main O f f i c e and Burnaby o f f i c e . TABLE 4 DISTRICT GROUP vs SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS COMBINED CATEGORIES Socioeconomic  1 & 2 3 & 4  Classes  5  6  7  No.  Main and Burnaby  32  33  33  42  44  North Shore  12  18  14  8  5  57  Total  44  51  47  50  49  241  X  2  = 12.944  P<  .02  18 4-,  4 d.f •  T h i s hypothesis was c l e a r l y supported, t h e r e f o r e , i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e socioeconomic  variable i s a discriminating  one i n i d e n t i f y i n g c l i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s . Family L i f e C y c l e Stages T a b l e 5 which f o l l o w s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t number o f approaches made t o t h e agency were made by those famil i e s w i t h s c h o o l aged o r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n .  I t indicates  f u r t h e r t h a t t h e l a r g e s t number a r e from stage 5 ( a d o l e s c e n t s ) p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e North Shore, and t h e l e a s t , from stage 1  18 TABLE 5 DISTRICT vs FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES SWITCHBOARD INCLUDED Family L i f e C y c l e Stages  Main  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  10  17  19  35  35  19  10  1  9  8  5  Burnaby  9  No.  16  19  180  1  3  2  36  0  1  Shore  2  10  11  18  22  5  1  3  2  74  Total  12  28  37  62  65  29  12  22  23  290  North  %  4.14 9.66 12.76 X  2  = 20.978  21.38 22.41 10 P < .2  4.14 7.59 7.93 1 0 0 % 16 d . f .  (married l e s s than two y e a r s ) and stage 7 (middle y e a r s ) . I n comparison,  t h e Main O f f i c e r e c e i v e s a l a r g e number o f c a l l s  from those i n stage 9> ( f a m i l i e s without c h i l d r e n , s i n g l e persons) a category which i s not i n c l u d e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l D u v a l l model.  (See Appendix C) I t was wondered, then, whether t h e r e might be s i g n i f i -  cant d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l i f e c y c l e stages o f t h e c l i e n t e l e p o p u l a t i o n among t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s .  ( T a b l e 6)  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s , however, was r e j e c t e d when a l l t h r e e o f f i c e s were run independently a g a i n s t one another.  However,  t h e r e seemed t o be some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n between the North Shore o f f i c e and t h e o t h e r two o f f i c e s . cance o f t h i s was t e s t e d a l s o . ( T a b l e 7 )  The s i g n i f i -  19 TABLE 6 DISTRICT vs FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES COMBINED CATEGORIES, SWITCHBOARD INCLUDED Family L i f e C y c l e Stages  4  5  35  35  29  35  180  8  9  8  6  5  36  North Shore  23  18  22  6  5  74  Total  77  62  65  41  45  290  26.56  21.38  22.41  14.14  15.52  100%  1&2&3 46  Main Burnaby  % X  = 12. 27  2  P < .2  6 &7  8 &9  No.  8.d.f.  TABLE 7 DISTRICT GROUP vs FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES COMBINED CATEGORIES, SWITCHBOARD INCLUDED Family L i f e C y c l e Stages  1&2&3  4  5  6&7  8&9  No.  Main and Burnaby  54  44  43  35  40  216  North Shore  23  18  22  6  5  74  Total  77  62  65  41  45  X  2  =11.08  P < .05  4 d.f.  These f i n d i n g s demonstrate t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the c l i e n t e l e  290c  significant  coming t o t h e North Shore o f f i c e .  T h i s g i v e s some support f o r t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s o f d i f f e r -  20 ences i n the l i f e c y c l e stages o f those approaching the t h r e e offices.  The d i f f e r e n c e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , seem t o l i e i n stage  5, w i t h the North Shore r e c e i v i n g a l a r g e r number o f f a m i l i e s w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s than the other two o f f i c e s .  GRAPH 1. Percentage  100$  35 -I  50 3  4  5  FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES 3, 4, and 5 IN THE THREE OFFICES History:  T o t a l Percentages f o r Stages:  Main  Main  Burnaby  Burnaby = 66.66$  North Shore  o — o — o —  =  49.04$  North Shore = 68.91$  21 The g r a p h a b o v e i n d i c a t e s how l a r g e a p r o p o r t i o n o f the  total population f a l l s  i n t o s t a g e s 3> 4, and 5.  In addi-  t i o n , t h i s c l u s t e r i n g i s b r o k e n down t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f e r ences i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e f i g u r e s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e i n t h e s e classes f o rthe three It the  offices.  may b e n o t e d t h a t i n t e r m s o f l i f e  stages,  c l i e n t e l e coming t o t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e C e n t r e s a r e p r i -  marily families with children s t i l l ingly,  i n t h e home.  Interest-  t h e a g e d do n o t seem t o b e s e e k i n g o u t t h e A g e n c y ' s  services.  A g a i n , t h e s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between  S h o r e o f f i c e a n d t h e o t h e r two o f f i c e s of  cycle  this  Service  the North  i s apparent i n terms  model. Requested TABLE 8  D I S T R I C T v s SERVICE REQUESTED - SWITCHBOARD Service  INCLUDED  Requested  Information and/or R e f e r r a l  Concrete  Counselling  No.  168  36  69  273  Burnaby  18  9  22  49  North  33  11  45  89  219  56  136  411  33.09  100$  Main  Shore  Total  %  53.28 X  2  = 26.662  13 .63 P<  .001  4 d.f.  The  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n above i n d i c a t e s t h a t  r e q u e s t s from the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n tion/referral.  the  were l a r g e l y f o r informa-  In a d d i t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s were reques-  t e d more o f t e n than c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s when the switchboard i s included.  I t i s a l s o evident  from t h i s t a b l e t h a t the Main  O f f i c e received proportionately r e f e r r a l than the other two Share and  more c a l l s f o r  offices.  information/  In c o n t r a s t , the  Burnaby o f f i c e s r e c e i v e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  for counselling.  North  more c a l l s  I t can be seen from t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h a t  the assumption o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g i n the k i n d s of r e q u e s t s r e c e i v e d by the t h r e e o f f i c e s was supported.  The  clearly  frequency t a b l e above i n d i c a t e s where these  d i f f e r e n c e s occurred,  i . e . t h e r e were more r e q u e s t s to  the  North Shore f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . TABLE 9 DISTRICT GROUP COMBINED CATEGORIES vs SERVICE REQUESTED Service Information and/or R e f e r r a l  Concrete  Counselling  110  45  91  248  33  11  45  89  143  56  136  335  Main & Burnaby North Shore Total X  2  Requested  = 5.233  P <  .1  2 d.f.  As can be seen, w i t h the switchboard excluded r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are l e s s c l e a r c u t .  the  In order t o  examine f u r t h e r , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s change i n s i g n i f i c a n c e level,  a f u r t h e r t e s t was p r o p o s e d  relating the distribution of  request f o r s e r v i c e i n t h e North Shore o f f i c e t o t h a t o f t h e M a i n O f f i c e and Burnaby o f f i c e w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e M a i n Office  switchboard. The  accepted,  reader w i l l  note t h a t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s has been  a l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s a r e somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e .  s h o u l d be n o t e d  that i n the f i r s t  misunderstanding  week o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ,  It a  i n t h e North Shore O f f i c e about t h e r o l e o f  t h e s w i t c h b o a r d r e s u l t e d i n t h e o m i s s i o n o f some c a l l s made t o them f o r i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l .  T h e s e o m i s s i o n s may h a v e skewed  t h e d a t a somewhat, a n d i t i s f e l t  that a further t e s t i n g with a  l a r g e r s a m p l e a n d more r e f i n e d i n s t r u m e n t s may y i e l d significant  findings.  The  frequency  more  d i s t r i b u t i o n above i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e  w e r e a h i g h number o f i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l c a l l s c o m i n g t o t h e Main O f f i c e .  Because of t h e p r e v i o u s l y noted  switchboard i n t h e Main O f f i c e ,  role of the  i t was w o n d e r e d w h e t h e r  p r o p o r t i o n o f r e q u e s t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n  t h e o t h e r two o f f i c e s , when t h e s w i t c h b o a r d was ( T a b l e 10) ing  No s i g n i f i c a n t  up t h e u n i q u e  f i n d i n g arose from  r o l e of the switchboard  this  excluded.  this,  again p o i n t -  i n t h e Main  Office.  B e c a u s e o f t h e number o f c o u n s e l l i n g c a l l s c o m i n g t o the North Shore o f f i c e , significantly  i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a  g r e a t e r number o f r e q u e s t s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m  the c l i e n t s o f r e l a t i v e l y higher socioeconomic table i s not included.)  status.  (This  24 TABLE 10 DISTRICT GROUP COMBINED CATEGORIES vs SERVICE REQUESTED SWITCHBOARD EXCLUDED S e r v i c e Requested Information and/or R e f e r r a l Concrete Counselling  No.  Main  92  36  69  197  Burnaby and North Shore  51  20  65  138  143  56  136  335  Total X The .5  X  2  = 5-447 derived  P < .1  2 d.f.  from t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t only t h e  l e v e l , and i t can be seen from t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  appears t o be l i t t l e ables.  that  there  interdependence between these two v a r i -  T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e assump-  t i o n s of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s , f o r there i s a strong f e e l i n g at the Agency t h a t c l i e n t s o f a h i g h e r socioeconomic s t a t u s request c o u n s e l l i n g  will  services.  N o t i n g t h a t t h e r e were no r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e quests f o r s e r v i c e and socioeconomic s t a t u s , i t was h e l d  that  t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between request f o r s e r v i c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h e f a m i l y l i f e sification. The  c y c l e stages c l a s -  (Table 11) r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p evidenced between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , and  i t may be noted t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t s  impressions  h e l d by some agency s t a f f t h a t persons i n c e r t a i n f a m i l y c y c l e stages w i l l request  life  c e r t a i n kinds o f s e r v i c e s . TABLE 11  FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES COMBINED CATEGORIES vs SERVICE; REQUESTED  1 & -2 & 3 Information and/or R e f e r r a l  5  4  6 & 7  8 & 9  28  27  19  10  21  105  10  13  9  7  11  50  Counselling  39  22  37  24  13  135  Total  77  62  65  41  45  290  Concrete  X At  2  = 15.058  P < .1  8 d.f.  t h i s p o i n t , no statements can be made about the  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s v a r i a b l e t o t h e other two v a r i a b l e s d i s cussed above.  The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t emerging from t h i s a n a l y s i s  i s the h i g h number o f i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l c a l l s coming i n t o the Main O f f i c e , and the r o l e o f t h e switchboard i n p r o c e s s i n g these  calls.  Type o f Approach A large proportion self-referrals.  o f approaches t o t h e agency are  The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i s t h a t t h i s  i s c o n s i s t e n t i n a l l three o f f i c e s , i n v a r y i n g  pattern  proportions.  However, the f i n d i n g t h a t t h e North Shore o f f i c e has propor-  26 TABLE 12 DISTRICT vs TYPE OF APPROACH Type o f Approach Direct Main  Collateral  No.  227  46  273  Burnaby  42  7  49  North Shore  69  20  89  338  73  411  83.24  17.76  Total % X  2  = 1.912  P <  .5  100$  2 d.f.  t i o n a t e l y more c o l l a t e r a l c a l l s than t h e other two o f f i c e s , l e d t o a q u e s t i o n i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e type of approach  and socioeconomic s t a t u s .  between these two v a r i a b l e s .  No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found  However, some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d -  i n g s appeared when t h i s v a r i a b l e ,  type o f approach, was com-  pared t o the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e stages model. TABLE 13 TYPE OF APPROACH vs FAMILY LIFE STAGES HORIZONTAL PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION Family L i f e Stages 1 Direct  3  4  5  6  7  8  $  No.  56  3.98 10.62 1 4 . 1 6 22.57 2 3 . 0 1 1 0 . 6 2 3.54 2.21 9.29 226 100  Collat e r a l 4.69 %  2  4.14  6.25  7.81 17.19 20.31  7-81 6.25 26.56 3 .13  64 100  9.66 1 2 . 7 6 21.38 22.41 10.00 4.14 7.59 7.93 290 100  The percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t w h i l e the g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  t a b l e above  indicates  f a l l s h e a v i l y i n category  2, i . e . s e l f - r e f e r r a l , a s t r i k i n g d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t s 8, i . e . aged persons.  The aged seem t o approach  through a c o l l a t e r a l r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s .  i n stage  the Agency  SECTION IV DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The data a n a l y s i s i n the p r e v i o u s S e c t i o n  indicates  t h a t , i n support o f the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e tends to be some d i f f e r e n c e s between the Main and branch o f f i c e s i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s they s e r v e .  These  d i f f e r e n c e s are most c l e a r l y seen i n socioeconomic  status.  While t h e r e are marked s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the c l i e n t s  approach-  i n g the Main and Burnaby o f f i c e s , those who  approach the  North Shore o f f i c e are o f a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r c l a s s . I n terms o f the second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t u d i e d , namely f a m i l y l i f e stage, t h e r e are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more persons from stages 3 ( f a m i l i e s w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ) , 4 f a m i l i e s with s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ) , and 5 ( f a m i l i e s with teenagers) coming to the North Shore o f f i c e than i s the case i n the o t h e r two offices.  T h i s f i n d i n g supports the assumptions  workers.  At the same time, the North Shore o f f i c e  markedly is,  o f most Agency receives  fewer r e q u e s t s from stage 8 ( a g i n g f a m i l i e s ) ,  4-05%  that  o f a l l r e q u e s t s , than the Main and Burnaby o f f i c e s  which r e c e i v e 8.89% and 8.33%  respectively.  Regarding request f o r s e r v i c e , each o f f i c e r e f l e c t s a unique c o n s t e l l a t i o n of approaches - i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l predominates  i n the Main O f f i c e ; c o u n s e l l i n g i n the North  Shore; and a combination o f c o u n s e l l i n g and c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s i n Burnaby.  29  The data c o n c e r n i n g type o f approach some d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e o f f i c e s .  also revealed The i n t e r e s t i n g  f a c t o r emerging here i s t h a t t h e North Shore o f f i c e i s r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o l l a t e r a l r e f e r r a l s than t h e o t h e r two o f f i c e s w i t h Burnaby r e c e i v i n g a preponderance o f direct  approaches. The general l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s study - time and  sample s i z e - have been d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n I , and as w e l l , s p e c i f i c l i m i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n s a r e o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n I I I i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the v a r i a b l e s t o which they p e r t a i n .  A l l o w i n g f o r these f a c t o r s , t h e r e s e a r c h team  c o n s i d e r t h a t the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s can be accepted. F u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f these f i n d i n g s c o u l d no doubt be achieved i n a follow-up r e s e a r c h study u s i n g a l o n g e r time span and t h e r e f o r e s e c u r i n g a l a r g e r sample.  A f u t u r e study, i n which t h e i n c l u s i o n o f the R i c h -  mond branch o f f i c e would be more f e a s i b l e , would y i e l d a f u l l e r comparative  a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s  of t h e c l i e n t s coming t o the Family S e r v i c e C e n t r e s . T h i s study a l s o y i e l d e d data showing a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f those persons approaching t h e Agency. F i r s t l y , t h e c l i e n t s a r e l a r g e l y from t h e lower classes.  V a l i d comparison  socioeconomic  w i t h p r e v i o u s Agency s t u d i e s (out-  l i n e d i n S e c t i o n I ) , i s not p o s s i b l e because o f the d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s o f t h e instruments  used.  30 Secondly,  i t was  found t h a t most persons  coming to the  Agency f o r s e r v i c e are engaged i n the p r o c e s s of c h i l d r e a r i n g , that i s , they have c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from p r e - s c h o o l e r s to a d o l e s c e n t s .  T h i s f i n d i n g f u l l y confirms t h a t of the p r e -  v i o u s i n t e r n a l Agency s t u d i e s . (3,6,19) l a r l y noted t h a t aged persons  I t should be p a r t i c u -  c o n s t i t u t e only 7.59$ of a l l  approaches, c o n t r a r y to the o p i n i o n s expressed  by Agency  staff.  With regard t o the t h i r d v a r i a b l e s t u d i e d , t h a t of request f o r s e r v i c e , a most s t r i k i n g f i n d i n g emerged, t h a t i s , t h a t t h e r e was  a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l  calls  coming to a l l the o f f i c e s of the Agency i n c o n t r a s t to c a l l s r e q u e s t i n g e i t h e r concrete s e r v i c e s or c o u n s e l l i n g . p a r t i c u l a r l y of i n t e r e s t to note the key r o l e the  switchboard  p l a y s i n the Main O f f i c e i n p r o c e s s i n g a very l a r g e of these i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l The  percentage  approaches.  study r e v e a l e d t h a t s e l f - r e f e r r a l i s the most  common type of approach to the Agency, except who  It i s  f o r the aged  were more f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d by a c o l l a t e r a l  person.  A l l o w i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e f i n i t i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n , confirms Miss C l a y d e n s f  Main O f f i c e .  1966  this  f i n d i n g of t h i s p a t t e r n i n the  (3)  A p p l i c a b i l i t y of models (a) The  Blishen Occupational Class Scale  Initially,  some d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered  i n apply-  i n g the B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e to the sample d a t a .  31 Because of the changes i n o c c u p a t i o n a l system i n the s i n c e t h i s was  compiled, some occupations  sample t h a t were not l i s t e d i n the S c a l e . i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as the S c a l e presented sification possibilities. utilized  l a r i t y to occupations with present  were found i n the In other  cases,  a v a i l a b l e to enable  several alternate clas-  For these cases, the  a two-judge team who  years  researchers  c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s o f s i m i -  l i s t e d on the s c a l e , or i n accordance  knowledge of the r e l a t i v e p r e s t i g e , economic  and  e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s involved.-*" In a d d i t i o n to t h i s d i f f i c u l t y ,  the r e s e a r c h e r s  the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s S c a l e time-consuming. c o u l d be overcome by s e p a r a t i n g the male and  found  Some o f t h i s female  categor-  i e s and l i s t i n g them a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . A S c a l e based on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver area would be more meaningful.  A p a r t i a l a n a l y s i s of B l i s h e n s  compared to the 1961  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area Census i n d i -  f  groupings  cates t h a t the percentage o f persons f a l l i n g i n t o C l a s s e s 1 and (2) 10$  2 i s h i g h e r i n Vancouver than i n the 1951  n a t i o n a l sample.  For example, w h i l e John P o r t e r found 1% i n C l a s s 1  and  i n C l a s s 2, the r e s u l t s of the p a r t i a l a n a l y s i s i n  -*-For example, one occupation encountered twelve times i n the sample data was t h a t of "salesman." T h i s occupation was c l a s s i f i e d as C l a s s 3 on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r i t y to "commerc i a l t r a v e l l e r , " r a t h e r than i n C l a s s 5 as " s a l e s c l e r k , " and t h i s was an attempt to e l i m i n a t e p o s s i b l e sources of e r r o r o r omission i n the judgement of the team.  Vancouver area showed 1.5% (20, p. 163)  i n C l a s s 1, and  This gives a beginning  17%  i n Class  indication  2.  o f some of  the changes t h a t must be i n c o r p o r a t e d to cope with the problems of u r b a n i z a t i o n and provide  increased i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ,  f o r the unique d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n Metropolitan (b) The I t was  and  to  of socioeconomic c l a s s e s  Vancouver. D u v a l l Family  Life  Cycle  found t h a t the e i g h t - s t a g e D u v a l l Family  C y c l e model, with the a d d i t i o n of one  other  Life  c l a s s to encom-  pass c h i l d l e s s persons, c o u l d be a p p l i e d to the sample data with a minimum amount of time or d i f f i c u l t y by the respondents.  There was  classified.  only one  That the model  b o r d e r l i n e case which c o u l d not f ,  f i t " the sample data so w e l l  suggests t h a t i t might be a u s e f u l model f o r Family Centres t o adopt i n c l a s s i f y i n g c l i e n t e l e d u r i n g the procedure.  The  stages  i n the model i n c o r p o r a t e  c r i p t i v e and  Service intake  "developmental  t a s k s " or g l o b a l i d e a s of the problems p o s t u l a t e d to w i t h i n each FairuLy L i f e Stage.  be  exist  These c o u l d be used as des-  d i a g n o s t i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of over-  a l l s e r v i c e s to meet the needs of the  family.  (c) Request f o r S e r v i c e Model A f t e r the f i r s t week of data c o l l e c t i o n , t h a t some c o n f u s i o n had  i t was  a r i s e n among i n t a k e s t a f f with  found regard  to c l a s s i f y i n g on t h i s v a r i a b l e i n b o r d e r l i n e cases where more than one  k i n d of request  seemed to be i n v o l v e d .  Further  33 c l a r i f i c a t i o n was requested and a c c o r d i n g l y a memo o u t l i n i n g the b a s i s f o r making the judgement on t h i s v a r i a b l e was directed to s t a f f .  (Appendix F)  SECTION V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Previous  s e c t i o n s have o u t l i n e d i n d e t a i l t h e f i n d i n g s  of t h i s study, and have made some s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s ther research.  for fur-  At t h i s p o i n t , however, some i m p l i c a t i o n s  c o u l d be drawn r e g a r d i n g present  Agency p o l i c y and procedures.  Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i s t h e general  f i n d i n g that  t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s between the c l i e n t s o f the t h r e e The  research  team b e l i e v e s t h a t at l e a s t t h r e e f a c t o r s may be  i n f l u e n c i n g these d i f f e r e n c e s . nomic f e a t u r e s o f t h e area assumed by Agency s t a f f . w e l l be drawing a higher is,  offices.  F i r s t l y , the s o c i a l and eco-  served may w e l l be d e c i s i v e , as i s In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e North Shore might  socioeconomic group s i t u a t e d , as i t  i n an area o f somewhat higher  socioeconomic s t a n d i n g .  A  second c o n s i d e r a t i o n may be t h e degree o f Agency involvement i n the community.  That t h e North Shore o f f i c e r e v e a l s t h e  most marked d i f f e r e n c e i s thought t o be a consequence o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s O f f i c e - one o f l o n g s t a n d i n g  i n t h e community -  i s more f u l l y i n v o l v e d and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the community.  A  t h i r d f a c t o r , suggested by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Main O f f i c e r e ceives the highest  p r o p o r t i o n o f requests  f o r information/  r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s , may be t h a t t h e r o l e s o f the o f f i c e s are perceived  d i f f e r e n t l y by t h e community, w i t h t h e Main O f f i c e  c a r r y i n g a more general specific roles.  r o l e , and the branch o f f i c e s more  35  The  extent of d i f f e r e n c e s between o f f i c e s and  u n d e r l y i n g causes c o u l d w e l l be explored f u r t h e r .  their  However,  present r e s u l t s p o i n t to the need t o look at s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y p a t t e r n s w i t h a view to v a r y i n g them a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e b e i n g served i n order to p r o v i d e more effective  service.  I n terms of the g e n e r a l c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l three o f f i c e s ,  a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Agency p o l i c y  might be suggested. lower now  With a preponderance of c l i e n t s i n the  socioeconomic  b r a c k e t , the Agency might ask i f s e r v i c e s  a v a i l a b l e are meeting the needs of t h i s c l i e n t  group.  Are some changes c a l l e d f o r , such as an i n c r e a s e i n c o n c r e t e services? plans?  Do  such c l i e n t s c o n t i n u e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n casework  Would f u r t h e r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a s s i s t i n making s e r -  v i c e s more a c c e s s i b l e ?  The r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t i t would  be of i n t e r e s t to undertake a study i n t h r e e to f o u r months to f o l l o w up those persons  requesting counselling services,  i n order to determine the extent to which a p p l i c a n t s of f e r e n t socioeconomic  dif-  l e v e l s become c l i e n t s of the Agency.  From a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view, i t might be whether the Agency as a whole i s now i t b e l i e v e s i t i s best equipped  r e a c h i n g the  to s e r v e .  The  asked  clientele  suggestion  here  i s t h a t the main s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by the Agency, c o u n s e l l i n g , may  be more e f f e c t i v e with c l i e n t s o f middle  economic c l a s s e s .  and higher s o c i o -  I f t h i s i s the case, perhaps the Agency  should c o n s i d e r more e f f e c t i v e ways of making i t s s e r v i c e s  3§ known and a v a i l a b l e by u n d e r t a k i n g some form o f p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n program aimed at these c l a s s e s . The  preponderance o f a p p l i c a n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n coming  to a l l o f f i c e s suggests t h a t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n might be given toward f u r t h e r expansion and supplementation o f s e r v i c e s f o r t h i s group, such as i n c r e a s e d  Family L i f e Education S e r v i c e s .  I t i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o note t h e minor  proportion  of aged persons who seek s e r v i c e , as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t , i n most i n s t a n c e s , their behalf.  s e r v i c e was sought by c o l l a t e r a l persons on I t seems then, t h a t i f t h e aged a r e t o be more  f u l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e Agency's s e r v i c e umbrella,  consideration  must be g i v e n t o more e f f e c t i v e ways and means o f r e a c h i n g t h i s group. In terms o f s e r v i c e b e i n g requested, as was p o i n t e d out,  a most s t r i k i n g f i n d i n g i s t h a t o f t h e o v e r a l l high  portion of information/referral enquiries received.  pro-  Family  S e r v i c e Centres appears t o p l a y an important r o l e i n t h e community i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n various health, welfare  about, and r e f e r r a l t o ,  and l e g a l s e r v i c e s .  The number o f  these c a l l s seems t o p o i n t t o t h e need f o r the Agency t o c o n s i d e r what i t s a p p r o p r i a t e Agency should  be.  r o l e as an i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g  What f u n c t i o n does i n f o r m a t i o n - r e f e r r a l  serve i n r e s p e c t t o t h e purpose o f t h e Agency? appropriate,  should  i t be i n c o r p o r a t e d  If i t i s  i n t o the structure of  the Agency as a f i r s t l i n e f u n c t i o n equal t o homemaker and day  care s e r v i c e s .  As p a r t o f t h i s q u e s t i o n ,  but s p e c i f i c a l l y  i n r e s p e c t t o the Main O f f i c e , t h e study has p o i n t e d up the l a r g e r o l e o f the r e c e p t i o n i s t i n h a n d l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n / referral  enquiries. T h i s study i s r e s p e c t f u l l y presented i n the hope  t h a t these f i n d i n g s w i l l add t o the growing body o f knowledge c o n c e r n i n g c l i e n t s and s e r v i c e p a t t e r n s of the Family S e r v i c e Centres o f Greater Vancouver Area.  38 APPENDIX  A  1 2  SUBJECT NUMBER  DATA SCHEDULE  3  CLIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FAMILY SERVICE CENTRES OF GREATER VANCOUVER CODE  U.B.C. STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECT  4 - 1  Please complete this form for every approach to the agency, either by telephone or "drop-in", from 9 a.m., Monday, October 16, to Friday, Nov.10, 1967. Please do so on the day the approach to the agency i s made. Please consult your supervisor i f necessary. Thank you very much. DISTRICT Main Office  (  Burnaby  )  (  )  North Shore  (  1  )  2 3  IDENTIFYING DATA Date  •. . Worker's I n i t i a l  Name Christian names  Surname SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS Who  6 -  i s the head of the household? Note; D e f i n i t i o n of Head of Household - member of family l i v i n g together under one roof, who i s the main source of economic support. IF a woman i s separated or divorced, she counts as the head of of the household. Separation must appear to be long-term.  What i s his or her occupation? . Note; Be sure to get the exact job, not the name of the employer. IF not working now, e.g. unemployed, r e t i r e d , housewife, state last job. IF a woman has never worked, get the husband's occupation. D:  FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Please put enquirer into one of the following categories: (1)  7 -  couple without children  a, together under two years ( ) b. together over two years ( ) (2) family unit i n which the eldest c h i l d of either partner i s under twenty years of age, l i v i n g at home or with other parent or relative ( ) IF so, exact birthdate of eldest c h i l d Day  Mouth  Year.  (3) family unit i n which the eldest c h i l d i s over twenty and/or has home but there are younger children l i v i n g at home ( )  left  (4) family unit i n which a l l children have l e f t home but couple have not yet reached retirement ( ) (5) retired  couple or person  (6) persons who have never had children IF unable to categorize, state family circumstances  o o  SERVICE REQUESTED Please make a judgment of v/hat c l i e n t wanted Information ( and/or Referral F:  )  Concrete ( ) e.g. homemaker financial  1 Counselling  (  )  2 3  TYPE OF APPROACH Direct approach by ( potential applicant  )  C o l l a t e r a l approach  (  )  1  2  An Occupational Class Scale  [481] [482]  APPENDIX  P A H T VII / S O C I A L S  B 7—(Continued)  Table Table  1—Occupations  Ranked  Standard  Scores  Canada,  1951 °  and Grouped  for Income  'According  and Years  to  Combined  of Schooling,  by  Occupation  Sex,  C/ass Music  3  Sox  Scon  Accountants  Judges Dentists and  surgeons  Lawyers  M  90.0  M  82.5  M  81.2  M  78.8  M  77.8  M  77.6  Engineers,  mining  M  77.4  Engineers,  electrical  M  75.2  Engineers,  civil  M  75.0  M  73.2  chemical  Engineers, Actuaries  Architects Cfass  editors, and journalists  mechanical  Professors and bond  Gov't,  brokers  52.2  Transportation  M  49.4  M  49.3  F  59.1  Inspectors a n d g r a d e r s  M  49.2  M  58.5  Farmers  M  49.2  cloth  F  58,2  Insurance  agents  M  58.2  Foremen,  communication  M  58.1  agents  M  58.0  N.E.S.'  M  57.7  F  57.6  M  57.6  F  57.4  Real estate agents a n d d e a l e r s  M  57.0  M  57.0  M  57.0  Community  service  Dispatchers, Designers,  Nurses,  workers  train  teachers a n d teachers of a r t groduate  Cfass  workers  managers  3  M  67.7  Actors  M  67.3  Commercial  F  67.0  Advertising Forestry  F  56.9  travellers  M  56.7  agents  F  56.6  managers  M  56.5  commercial  F  56.4  M  56.4  M  65.0  laboratory  F  64.8  Artists,  M  64.8  Other  professions  Construction  managers  Wholesale trade  managers  64.7  technicians  M  56.0  Brokers, agents, and appraisers  M  56.0  Inspectors,  M  55.0  communication  Forewomen, Foremen,  a n d cashiers  F  51.9  communication  F  51.8  manufacturing  M  51.8  Photographers  M  51.8  Inspectors,  M  51.7  Window-decoraton  M  51.6  Telegraph  M  51.6  M  51.6  M  51.6  construction operators  Petroleum  refiners  Toolmakers Engravers,  except M  51.4  Undertakers  photo-engravers  M  51.3  Office  F  51.2  M  51.2  M  51.2  M  51.1  M  51.0  M  51.0  clerks  Locomotive  firemen  Book-keepers Brakemen,  a n d cashiers  railway  Power station Office  operators  appliance  Doctor,  dentist  Motion  picture  Radio  operators attendants projectionists  repairmen  Captains,  mates,  Foremen,  transportation  Foremen,  pilots  commercial  F  50.8  M  50.8  M  50.8  M  507  M  50.7  M  50.6  M  50.5  Photographic  occupations M  49.2  Collectors  N.E.S.'  M  49.1  Dental  M  49.1  M  49.0  M  46.9  M  46.8  mechanics  Sulphite  cookers  Wire  drawers  Other  ranks, armed  M  46.8  Plumbers  M  46.8  Motormen  M  46.7  Quarriers  M  46.6  M  46.3  M  46.4  Filers  M  46.4  Upholsterers  M  46.3  Knitters  M  Machine Point  operators,  Wood  Furndcemen  M  46.2  Furriers  M  46.2  Brothers  M  46.1  M  46.1  N.E.S.'  F  46.0  Coremakers  M  46.0  Vulcanizers  M  46.0  M  46.0  M  45.9  f  45.9  f f  45.8  f  45.8  Tobacco  products  Paper  box  Other  bookbinding  55.0  M  63.5  R e c r e a t i o n service officers  M  54.3  M  54.8  M  54.3  Patternmakers  M  50.4  liquor  M  54.2  Compositors  M  50.4  Postmen  F  54.1  Inspectors,  M  50.4  Meat  canners  M  54.1  Paper-makers  M  50.4  Other  upholstering  M  54.0  Photographers  F  50.2  N.E.S.'  M  54.0  Policemen  M  50.2  Bookbinders  M  54.0  Office  M  50.2  Transportation,  M  50.1  F  50.0  Manufacturing  M  63.0  L a b o r a t o r y technicians  C o m m u n i t y service w o r k e r s  M  62.4  Stenographers  Social  F  62.2  Conductors,  agents  ticket  station N.E.S.6  a n d typists railway  F  62.2  Radio  M  62.2  Locomotive  M  62.0  Photo-engravers  operators engineers  (continued)  Cfass  5  metal  clerks  Mechanics,  airplane  Inspectors,  metal  products  workers  makers  55.0  officers  . 46.3 46.2  M  service  46.3  M  f F f  Barbers Milliners  F  Personal  .  inspectors  Surveyors  of a r t '  metal  makers  Artists  a n d teachers  forces -  Electroplate's  64.0  Agents,  librarians  Book-keepers  63.8  63.4  a n d chiropractors  4  M  M  teochers  Cfass  millmen  M  Authors, editors, a n d journalists  S:hool  56.0  Draughtsmen  Purchasing  Osteopaths  .  56.0  63.4  workers  F M  F  welfare  N.E.S.'  commercial  Librarians managers  49.4  Rolling  72.0  M  49.4  M  Auctioneers  announcers  officials  49.4  52.1  M  water  M M  52.0  Radio  gas, and  49.4  M  Artists,  Electricity,  Inspectors  49.6  M  M  65.1  professionals  graduate  officers (on ships)  49.6  M  Acton  65.8  Agricultural  mining  49.6  M  Stenographers  managers  M  a n d metallurgists  Linemen a n d servicemen  M  M  pilots  52.9  Nurses,  Officers, Chemists  F  60.6  Chemists a n d metallurgists Air  operators  metal  M  68.8  forces  Machinists,  service officials  M  armed  53.3  49.8  F  60.1  Artists  66.7  F  49.8  M  59.4  72.6  F  managers  Engineering  welfare  Professors  trade  Baggagemen  trade  Dietitians  Electricians  52.3  Retail  a n d chiropractors  53.4  52.8  Social  Osteopaths  M  operators .  F  69.8  managers  Telephone  50.0  F  M  67.9  53.4  printers  F M  M  School  M  F  a n d plote  M  69.5  managers  Telegraph  Pressmen  Foremen,  M  Statisticians  61.4  53.6  deportment  Window-decorators  M  service officers  F  F  fire  Score'1  Sex  teachers  61.0  Farmers  72.9  70.9  Retail  Firemen,  Music  60.6  Transportation  f  M  operators  N.E.S.'  61.8  53.7  M  Business  Finance  appliance  M  M  Occupation  M  Designers,  Veterinarians  Mining  Office  Score^  clothing  Clergymen  Managers  Statisticians  Stock  Authors,  a n d auditors  Advertising  2  Engineers,  b  N.E.S.'  Teachers  Clots I  Physicions  «.  Sex  Occupation  S.x  (continued)  teachers  Teachers  Occupofion  FICATION  communication metal  46.2  workers  and beverage  Polishers,  46.2  workers  workers  45.8  storage. workers  M  45.8 (continued)  I [484]  An Occupational Class Scale  Class  5  Sheetmetal  workers  Truck  Finishers,  wood  M  43.6  Coopers  M  Finishers,  textile  M  43.6  Sailors•  M  F  45.2  Tanners  M  43.6  Harness Nuns  Meat  canners  M  45.2  45.5  Farm  managers  M  45.2  Operators,  electric  engineers  Bookbinders a n d tube  builders  Canvassers  in training  f  45.4  Plasterers  M  45.4  Textile  M  45.4  Other  F  48.9  pulp  a n d paper  workers  M  45.1  F  45.1  M  48.8  Winders  a n d warpers  M  48.7  Carders  a n d drawing  M  48.6  F  48.4  Sales  M  48.2  Moulders,  F  45.0  frame  workers clerks metal  F  45.0  F  45.0  M  45.0  M  45.0  F  44.9  F  44.8  operators  M  48.2  Nurses,  Switchmen  a n d signalmen  M  48.2  Cutters,  M  48.2  Elevator  M  48.2  Tailoresses  F  44.8  F  48.1  Textile  F  44.8  Potmen  M  44.8  Jewellers  and  Personal  service  Assemblers,  watchmakers workers  electrical  a n d c a p makers  practical textile  goods  tenders inspectors  Teamsters  M  43.4  Cooks  M  41.8  Stone  M  43.4  Janitors  M  41.6  M  43.4  laundresses, cleaners, a n d  cutters  Butter  a n d rivet  heaters  a n d cheese  makers  '  M  43.3  Chauffeurs  M  43.3  Sectionmen  Boiler  M  43.3  Charworkers  M  43.3  Paper  F  43.2  firemen  Spinners Inspectors  N.E.S.,  graders *  41.2  Carpenters  M  43.2  Waitresses  F  41.2  Glove  F  41.2  labourers  M  40.8  Sewers  a n d sewing  machine  operators Forest lock  rangers  keepers,  canolmen  48.0  Liquor  a n d beverage  F  44.6  Sewers  F  47.9  Paper  b o x 'makers  F  44.6  M  47.8  Kiln  burners  M  44.6  Brick  M  47.7  Brick  a n d stone  M  44.6  Textile  Opticians  F  47.6  Construction  Machine  Bus  M  47.6  Canvassers  M  47.6  Service  F  47.5  Painters  F  47.4  Hat  F  47.4  Bleachers  Boilermakers  M  47.3  Spinners  Jewellers  F  47.2  Rubber  M  47.2  Tobacco  M  47.2  Millers  M  47.2  Nurses,  M  47.2  Finishers,  M  47.2  M  47.2  M  Heat  treaters  Religious  workers  Photographic Machine  Other  N.E.S.'  workers  operators,  N.E.S.'  metal  a n d watchmakers  bookbinding  Sales  clerks  Koistmen,  cranemen  Welders Mechanics Mechanics, Fitters,  N.E.S.' railroad  metat  37.8  42.7  Farm  M  37.5  leather  F  42.6  Lumbermen  E l e v a t o r tenders  M  42.5  Charworkers  F  42.4  practical  F  44.1  launderers  textile  F  44.0  Firemen,  Blacksmiths  M  44.0  Cement  Tailors  M  44.0  Dressmakers  47.2  Bakers  M  43.8  M  43.8  M  43.8 43.7  F  43.6  M  43.6  •  F  M  44.2  Other  M  Hotel  42.8  M  .47.1 47.1  Riggers  42.8  Bakers  F  •  personal service workers  Barbers  '  (continued)  38.8  M  Machine  makers  38.9  M  44.2  Core  39.3  F  38.7  44.2  F  40.0  M  37.8  M  labellers  F  M  M  47.1  40.1  Janitors  Guides  44.2  F  M  42.8  F  drawers  Ushers  F  'Cutters,  Wire  43.1  M  44.3  makers  40.2  M  M  F  shoe  M  workers  a n d twisters  Rubber  Shoemakers  Newsboys  Glove  Weavers  43.1  42.8  44.4  47.2  40.2  M  F  operators,  M  47.2  M  Hotel  a n d dyers  M  goods  Messengers  42.8  Guards  workers  43.1  F  masons  inspectors  Winders,  products  40.5  M  Housekeepers  44.4  Porters  F  43.0  44.4  makers  Cooks  M  a n d stone  M  shoe  43.2  Hawkers  M  a n d decorators  a n d c a p makers  M  .  43.0  44.4  attendants  43.2  F  M  station  makers  M  machine  operators  44.4  M  textile  a n d sewing  44.5  operators  Millmen  Cutters,  turners  M  workers  N.E.S.'  Wood  F  machine  1  41.2  M  drivers  41.3  M  l a b o u r e r s , mines a n d quarries  masons  M  makers  M  44.7  foremen  41.3  b o x , b a g ,a n d envelope  Longshoremen  M  Construction  M  Sawyers  Oilers, power  Milliners  41.4  a n d cleaners  43.2  48.0  metal  41.4  M  43.2  M  Fitters,  F a n d trackmen  F  44.7  workers  dyers  M  M  N.E.S.C  41.8  Postmen  Prospectors  workers  ,  Waiters  48.1  Religious  F  Class 7  M  plant  42.1 < 42.0  43.4  44.7  Millwrights  M  F  packers a n d  wrappers  M  builders  markers  43.5  Timbermen  a n d tube  a n d saddle  42.2  j  43.5  48.1  Tire  makers  F  M  equipment  a n d basket  M  leather  Riveters  Telephone Opticians  Hat  Cutters,  Commercial  M  *  inspectors  Clan 6  street  railway Stationary  42.2  45.3  45.5  equipment  42.3  F  45.4  M  Miners  M  M  M  Assemblers, electrical  Box  M  Nurses,  textile  43.6  frome  foremen  45.6  Butchers  M  a n d drawing  tenders  Packers  M  a n d wrappers  43.6  47.0  inspectors  Weavers,  Carders M  M  Labellers  makers  (continued)  drivers  clerks  Logging  a n d furniture  . b  \5tx  Shipping  45.6  fixers  Occupation  45.6 45.6  Cabinet  . b  Score  F M  workers  Class 6  47.1  M  Iron  Sex  Scont  M  motor  Structural Mechanics,  Loom  Score ^  Sex  Occupation  (continued)  Furrier*  Textile  Score  STRATIFICATION  1— (Continued) Occupation  , b  Sex  Occupation  Tire  ' Table  1—(Continued)  Table  P A R T VII / SOCIAL  [483]  boot a n d  shoe Knitters warpers,  reeiers  makers  operators, boot a n d  shoe on  ships  a n d concrete  finishers  a n d seamstresses  M  42.4  M  42.4  M  42.4  M  42.4  F  42.3  cafe  cafe  a n d matrons  a n d household  a n d household  workers labourers  M  37.4  F  37.4  Fishermen  M'  36.9  Bootblacks  M  36.8  M  36.2  F  36.0  M  32.0  Fish  a n d cleaners  canners,  curers a n d  packers Fish  canners,  curers a n d  packers Hunters a n d trappers  o . C a n a d a , D o m l r J i n o f S t a t i s t i c s , C e n s u s o f Canada. 1 9 5 1 , V , T o b l e (Ottawa, 1 9 5 3 ) ; Cc-^-ia, Dept. of Internal R e v e n u e , l o c a t i o n Slalidics, A d d i t i o n a l information supplied by D.B.S., Census Analysis Section. b. The m e a n eoch sex). c  N.E.S.  of  t f < scores  r= n o t « ! i * - . » h t r «  =  5 0 ; the standard  specified.  deviation  =z  10  2 1 , a n d I V , T a b l e 11 1951 ( O t t a w a , 1953).  (calculated  seporolely f o r  41 APPENDIX  Duvall's Stage I  Family  C  Life  Cycle  Stages  Beginning F a m i l i e s (couple married under years,  Stage I I  without  children)  Childbearing Families (oldest 30  Stage I I I  Stage IV  to 6  6 t o 13  30  Children (oldest  child  child  years) (oldest  child  13 t o  years)  F a m i l i e s as L a u n c h i n g gone t o l a s t  Stage V I I  to  years)  F a m i l i e s with Teenagers  Stage VI  birth  months)  Families with School  Stage V  child,  Families with Preschool Children (oldest l\  two  Centers  child's  (first  leaving  F a m i l i e s i n the Middle Years  child  home)  (empty n e s t  to  retirement) Stage V I I I  Aging  Families (retirement to death both  Stage IX  Childless  spouses)  Persons,  married  -«-Note:  o f one o r  over  (Couples 2  without  children,  years)  Age o f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n c l u s i v e . F o r example, i n S t a g e I I I , t h e a c t u a l age o f t h e o l d e s t c h i l d s h o u l d b e l\ t o 5 i n c l u s i v e .  42 APPENDIX D FAMILY SERVICE CENTRES OF GREATER VANCOUVER AREA 12 October, Memo t o :  A l l Staff  From:  Study U n i t  Re:  Research P r o j e c t - C l i e n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Family S e r v i c e Centres of Greater Vancouver  1967  the  Next Monday, October 16, 1967, we w i l l begin c o l l e c t i n g the data f o r the above r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . Data w i l l be c o l l e c t e d f o r a f o u r week p e r i o d , ending on F r i d a y November 10. Our aim i s to measure c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c l i e n t s approaching the Main O f f i c e , Burnaby o f f i c e and North Shore o f f i c e f o r s e r v i c e . Because of our need f o r as l a r g e a sampling as p o s s i b l e , we are r e q u e s t i n g t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n be obtained f o r every approach made to the Agency d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , however minimal t h i s may be. We have developed a one page schedule or q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h i s purpose. Although most o f the i n f o r m a t i o n we need w i l l be obtained f o r us by the s t a f f members on switchboard or i n t a k e duty, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t any s o c i a l worker c o u l d be approached f o r s e r v i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y by former c l i e n t s who are r e t u r n i n g f o r f u r t h e r s e r v i c e . Again, to help i n c r e a s e the s i z e of our sample, we would ask your help i n completing a schedule i n any i n s t a n c e where you are approached f o r s e r v i c e , e.g. former c l i e n t s approaching former worker d i r e c t l y . The branch o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r or i n t a k e s u p e r v i s o r i n each o f f i c e w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g i v i n g out and c o l l e c t i n g the forms. In order to help i n completing i n g i n f o r m a t i o n may c l a r i f y what we  the schedule, the f o l l o w are l o o k i n g f o r .  There are s i x s e c t i o n s to the schedule. The f i r s t two are s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , i n v o l v i n g only i d e n t i f i c a t i o n items, e.g. name of case, o f f i c e , date e t c . In the l a s t f o u r s e c t i o n s we are v i t a l l y concerned with g a i n i n g exact i n f o r m a t i o n as our a n a l y s i s o f c l i e n t charact e r i s t i c s depends on t h i s . Here i s the r a t i o n a l e behind Sect i o n s C. D and E. We hope t h a t S e c t i o n F i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y .  43 C.  Socio-economic S t a t u s - I n t h i s s e c t i o n we a r e a t t e m p t i n g to a s c e r t a i n the exact o c c u p a t i o n of the head of the household. T h i s w i l l e n a b l e us t o p l a c e t h e f a m i l y on a r a n k e d s o c i a l c l a s s s c a l e as d e v i s e d by B l i s h e n . This i s why, a s y o u w i l l s e e i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o n t h e s c h e d u l e , i t i s important to a s c e r t a i n t h e i r occupation whether or n o t t h e p e r s o n i s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d now, e.g. retired p e r s o n on p e n s i o n - g e t l a s t j o b .  D.  F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e - We a r e u s i n g t h e D u v a l l F a m i l y L i f e Cycle Model. T h i s m o d e l a s s u m e s t h a t a l l f a m i l i e s go t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e p r o b l e m s they encounter are connected w i t h these stages. One o f t h e b e s t ways o f p l a c i n g t h e f a m i l y w i t h i n t h i s model i s by o b t a i n i n g t h e e x a c t age o f t h e e l d e s t c h i l d . There a r e c a t e g o r i e s a l s o f o r c o u p l e s whose c h i l d r e n a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o r h a v e l e f t h o m e . We h a v e a d d e d a c a t e g o r y t o t h e D u v a l l m o d e l f o r p e r s o n s who h a v e n e v e r h a d c h i l d r e n . As t h i s i s a f a m i l y a g e n c y , one o f o u r aims i s t o t e s t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s model f o r p r a c t i c e purposes i n t h e Agency.  E.  S e r v i c e R e q u e s t e d - H e r e we a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o o b t a i n a v e r y b r o a d i d e a o f t h e t y p e s o f s e r v i c e e x p e c t e d by t h e client.  F.  Source  of Referral  - self  or  collateral.  W h i l e a t t h i s p o i n t i t i s r a t h e r e a r l y t o s a y , we h o p i n g t h a t we w i l l o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l p r o v e v a l u e t o you i n your d a i l y p r a c t i c e . B. E. B. A. C.  Akune A. A z z a r a Brett Clemson D. Kuo  are of  44 APPENDIX E Combining C l a s s e s i n the B l i s h e n and D u v a l l Models In a n a l y z i n g the data w i t h regard to the B l i s h e n and D u v a l l models, i t became c l e a r t h a t because of the small sample gathered  f o r the study, and the range of these two  t h e r e were some expected  variables,  f r e q u e n c i e s o c c u r r i n g i n the t a b l e s  which e q u a l l e d l e s s than f i v e , thus making the c h i - s q u a r e score f o r these t a b l e s l e s s meaningful. more meaningful  In order t o make the data  i n r e l a t i o n to t h e hypotheses,  to apply s t a t i s t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s which i n v o l v e d these  i t was  decided  t o the frequency t a b l e s  variables.  The t e x t of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e s where these manipulations were done. was  The procedure  followed  t o combine c l a s s e s i n order t o decrease t h e degrees of  freedom and determine whether a more s i g n i f i c a n t s c o r e c o u l d be  chi-square  obtained.  With r e g a r d to the B l i s h e n s c a l e , c l a s s e s one were combinedj c l a s s e s t h r e e and ses f i v e , s i x and seven were l e f t these combinations  and  f o u r were combined; and discrete.  ivas as f o l l o w s :  two clas-  The r a t i o n a l e f o r  the p r o f i l e of B l i s h e n ' s  o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e , as i n P o r t e r ' s V e r t i c a l Mosaic p l a c e s e l e v e n percent of the labour f o r c e i n c l a s s e s t h r e e and f o u r ; t h i r t y - f o u r percent of the l a b o u r f o r c e i n c l a s s f i v e ; percent i n c l a s s s i x ; and twenty-one percent i n c l a s s (20, p. 163)  twenty seven.  There t h e r e f o r e seemed to be some b a s i s f o r  combining t h e c l a s s e s at t h e upper end o f t h e s c a l e and l e a v i n g the bottom t h r e e  classes discrete.  Justification for this  m a n i p u l a t i o n can a l s o be o b t a i n e d i n t h a t p r e s e n t l y very l i t t l e  there i s  d i s t i n c t i o n between c l a s s one and c l a s s two as  both c l a s s e s c o n t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The  r a t i o n a l e followed  i n combining c l a s s e s i n t h e  D u v a l l model f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of r e a s o n i n g .  On t h e  b a s i s t h a t b e g i n n i n g f a m i l i e s ( c l a s s one), c h i l d b e a r i n g  fami-  lies  share  ( c l a s s two), and p r e s c h o o l  families (class three),  s i m i l a r developmental problems t h e s e t h r e e bined.  F a m i l i e s with school  c l a s s e s were com-  age c h i l d r e n ( c l a s s f o u r ) , and  f a m i l i e s w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s ( c l a s s f i v e ) were kept d i s c r e t e as i t was f e l t t h a t these two f a m i l y stages experience unique developmental t a s k s i n modern urban s o c i e t i e s , and i t was therefore Classes  felt  t o be d e s i r a b l e not t o merge these two c l a s s e s .  s i x and seven were combined w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e t h a t  f a m i l i e s as l a u n c h i n g  centres  and f a m i l i e s i n middle y e a r s  were not markedly d i s s i m i l a r i n t h e f a m i l y developmental f a c i n g them. and  The combining o f c l a s s e i g h t  (aging  tasks  families)  c l a s s n i n e ( c h i l d l e s s persons) was decided upon because  these two c l a s s e s accounted f o r a small percentage of the t o t a l sample; and again, tasks,  i n terms o f D u v a l l s T  developmental  are faced with s i m i l a r problems of adjustment t o a more  s o l i t a r y way o f l i f e .  46 APPENDIX  F  19th Memo t o :  Staff involved i n f i l l i n g  out  From:  Elio  B r e t t , A.  Re:  Category  Azzara, E -  B.  Akune,  B.  October,  Research  1967  Questionnaire  Clemson,  C-D.  Kuo  S E R V I C E REQUESTED  A l t h o u g h we w o u l d l i k e t h e c a t e g o r i e s t o b e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e and t h u s i n t e n d e d , t h e y a r e n o t e n t i r e l y s o . This may b e i m p o s s i b l e , i . e . t h e r e i s a n i n f o r m a t i o n a s p e c t t o a n y request f o r s e r v i c e . A t t h e same t i m e i t a p p e a r s v a l i d t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t h e amount o f i n v o l v e ment w i t h s e r v i c e f r o m t h i s A g e n c y i n h e r e n t i n t h e request. The i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l c a t e g o r y s e v e r a l groups of c l i e n t s : 1.  appears to  encompass  C l i e n t s who b y i n t e n t , t h i n k o f u s o n l y a s sources of information. There i s o f t e n a t h i n l i n e between t h e s e and c o u n s e l l i n g c a s e s , e i t h e r b e c a u s e c l i e n t i s a l s o seeking t h i s unconsciously, or because w o r k e r t h i n k s he s h o u l d . We a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c l i e n t ' s view r a t h e r than the worker's. The w o r k e r i s a s k e d t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n when he makes a "judgement." However, he s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o s e e k c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d we w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r being i n v o l v e d i n making such judgements.  /JW  2.  C l i e n t s r e q u e s t i n g a s e r v i c e we do n o t ( w h e t h e r c l i e n t knew t h i s o r n o t ) .  give  3.  C l i e n t s who r e q u e s t a s e r v i c e we g i v e b u t who do not l i v e w i t h i n the correct g e o g r a p h i c a l boundaries a n d who t h u s m u s t a l s o b e r e f e r r e d e l s e w h e r e .  47 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., "The C o n s t r u c t i o n & Use o f an Occupat i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e , " Canadian S o c i e t y - S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ( E d s . ) B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., J o n e s , F r a n k E., N a e g e l e , K a s p o r E., and P o r t e r , J o h n . The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L t d . , 1964, pp. 449 - 458.  2.  C a n a d a , D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1961 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , L a b o u r F o r c e O c c u p a t i o n s by S i x M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s . B u l l e t i n 3-1-4, 19-7-1963.  3.  C l a y d e n , F l o r e n c e V., S u r v e y o f M a i n O f f i c e I n t a k e November, 1966, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. (Unpublished)  4.  D e t t w i l e r , W e r n e r & S o k o l , Andrew. GI UBC MUTAB ( M u l t i V a r i a t e Contingency T a b u l a t i o n s ) , R e v i s e d i n August 1966 by B j e r r i n g , James and H o g a n , R u t h , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Computing C e n t e r .  5.  D u v a l l , E v e l y n M., F a m i l y D e v e l o p m e n t , J . B. L i p p i n c o t t Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a & New Y o r k , 1957, pp. 1 - 25.  6.  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , A n a l y s i s , June, I960. (Unpublished)  7.  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, A R e f e r e n c e M a n u a l f o r The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , R e v i s e d 1962. (Unpublished)  8.  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, (Unpublished)  9.  F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , An A r e a A n a l y s i s p r e p a r e d f o r The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , S e p t e m b e r ,  A  Caseload  Constitution.  1964-  10.  F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , S c o p e and o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, 1953-  11.  F o w l e r , I r v i n g A., " F a m i l y A g e n c y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and C l i e n t C o n t i n u a n c e , " S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , May, 1967, p p . 271 - 277.  12.  G o l d s t e i n , H a r r i s K., R e s e a r c h S t a n d a r d s and M e t h o d s F o r S o c i a l W o r k e r s , The H a u s e r P r e s s , New O r l e a n s , 1963.  13.  G u i l f o r d , J . P., F u n d a m e n t a l S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y & E d u c a t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c . , New Y o r k ,  1954.  Methods  48 14.  H a y s , W i l l i a m L., S t a t i s t i c s f o r P s y c h o l o g i s t s , H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1963.  15.  L e v i n g e r , George, " C o n t i n u a n c e i n Casework and Other Helping Relationships: A R e v i e w o f C u r r e n t Res e a r c h , " S o c i a l W o r k , J u l y I960, p p . 40 - 51.  16.  M c C o l l o u g h , C e l e s t e & Van, A t t a L., S t a t i s t i c a l Conc e p t s A Program f o r S e l f - I n s t r u c t i o n , McGraw-Hill Book Company I n c . , 1963.  17.  O x l e y , G e n e v i e v e B., " T h e C a s e w o r k e r ' s E x p e c t a t i o n s a n d C l i e n t M o t i v a t i o n , " S o c i a l Casework, J u l y , 1966,  PP. 432 - 437.  18.  P o l a n s k y , N o r m a n A., ( e d . ) S o c i a l W o r k R e s e a r c h . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , I960.  19.  P o r t e r , E v a M., I n t a k e P r i o r i t i e s a n d C r i t e r i a i n a Fami l y S e r v i c e Agency - A Survey o f W a i t i n g L i s t Cases and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l requirements f o r t h e Degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I960.  20.  P o r t e r , J o h n , The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c , An A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l C l a s s and Power i n Canada, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Press, 1965.  21.  R i p p l e , L i l l i a n , M o t i v a t i o n , C a p a c i t y and O p p o r t u n i t y S t u d i e s i n Casework Theory & P r a c t i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , 1964.  22.  R o s e n f e l d , J o n a M., " S t r a n g e n e s s B e t w e e n H e l p e r a n d C l i ent: A P o s s i b l e E x p l a n a t i o n o f Non-use o f A v a i l a b l e P r o f e s s i o n a l Help," S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, March, 1964, p p . 17 - 25.  23.  R o w e , G e o r g e P., " T h e D e v e l o p m e n t a l C o n c e p t u a l F r a m e w o r k to the Study of the F a m i l y , " Emerging Conceptual F r a m e w o r k s i n F a m i l y A n a l y s i s , ( E d s . ) N y e , F. I . , a n d B e r a n d o , F. M. T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y New Y o r k , 1966, p p . 198 - 2 2 2 .  24.  S k i p p e r , J a m e s K., J r . , G u e n t h e r , A n t h o n y L . , & N a s s , G i l b e r t , " T h e S a c r e d n e s s o f .05: A Note C o n c e r n i n g The U s e s o f S t a t i s t i c a l L e v e l s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e , " The A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1967. p p . 16 - 18.  25.  W a l k e r , H e l e n M., & L e v , J o s e p h , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n ,  S t a t i s t i c a l Inference, New Y o r k , 1953.  

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