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An analysis of the hero in the novels of Benjamin Jarnes Wood, Judith Mary 1969

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE HERO IN THE NOVELS OF BENJAMIN JARNES by JUDITH MARY WOOD B.A., University of Cambridge, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of HISPANIC AND ITALIAN STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l , 1969. In presenting th i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thes,is for f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i tten permi ss i on. Department of Hispanic and Italian Studies The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i i ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis i s to examine the characterization of the hero i n the novels of Benjamin Jarnes. The novels considered are those written and published i n Spain before the author's emigration at the time of the C i v i l War. The method used i s direct analysis of the novels combined with reference to Jarnes' writing i n other genres, p a r t i c u l a r l y his c r i t i c i s m . The f i r s t - p a r t of the thesis introduces Jarnes and his background. The main influences were his c l a s s i c a l and theological education, the avant-garde movements of the 1920's, and the ideas of Ortega and Gasset. Jarnes rejected r e l i g i o n , metaphysics, p u r i t a n i c a l morality, Romantic abstractions, and sentimentality i n favour of humanism, sensual enjoyment, and a desire for l u c i d i t y and precision i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y and a r t . He was interested i n psychoanalysis as a l i t e r a r y device for revealing character, and proposed that f i c t i o n should deal with a l l levels of consciousness. In presenting his characters Jarnes uses both an objective approach, which shows man's appearance and external behaviour, and a subjective approach, which penetrates inside the mind of individual characters. The psychological revelation i s usually reserved for the main character of the novel for reasons of authenticity: the hero thus r e f l e c t s everyone's i n a b i l i t y to know others more than s u p e r f i c i a l l y . In Chapters I I I , IV, and V the main characters are studied i i i i n r e l a t i o n to three themes: l o v e , i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , and the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l . Love i s t r e a t e d without sentimental i d e a l i z a t i o n . R e l a t i o n s h i p s are o f t e n temporary and nover p e r f e c t . The l o v e r has two d i s t i n c t a t t i t u d e s to h i s mistress's body -- sexual and a e s t h e t i c ; he derives pleasure both from detached, c e r e b r a l contemplation and from r e n u n c i a t i o n of the s e l f i n sexual passion. I n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i s of great importance but i t should be used i n the s e r v i c e of v i t a l i t y , not as the negation of i t . James deplores pedantry. I n t r o s p e c t i o n i s necessary f o r d i s c o v e r i n g one's true s e l f and remaining f a i t h f u l to i t , but i f i t leads to despair the mind must be d i v e r t e d i n t o more p o s i t i v e channels, or the senses must take over. The i n t e l l e c t becomes s t e r i l e unless combined w i t h f u l l use of other human a t t r i b u t e s , f o r example, i n a love a f f a i r . Reason has l i m i t a t i o n s , which must be admitted. J a m e s 1 heroes are threatened w i t h s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y as t h e i r circumstances urge them to conform to set p a t t e r n s . They r e s i s t by withdrawal i n t o the s e l f , but t h i s i s only a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n : true v i t a l i t y r e q u i r e s p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h one's environment. James uses various techniques f o r showing people's impotence or i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r example, humour, i r o n y , dehumanization. I n Locura y muerte de nadie he takes as main character "someone or other" i n s t e a d of a defined i n d i v i d u a l . iv The last chapter summarizes the characteristics of Jarnes" heroes. They have i n common a desire for freedom, a determination to make their own way independently of established customs and i n s t i t u t i o n s . As wel l as rejecting t r a d i t i o n they struggle to retain their i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n contemporary society, which r e l i e s more and more on mass culture and automation. They seek to avoid i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the crowd but are not misanthropic or c y n i c a l : they favour intimate contact with other individuals. Although these characters are i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n a worldly sense and although, even within the i r novels, they may enjoy a marginal pre-eminence over their fellows, they do emerge as heroes of a kind, distinguished by their tenacious affirmation of the s p i r i t u a l values of l i b e r t y , generosity, and v i t a l i t y . V CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 1 I Jarnes and his background 3 I I Characterization 17 I I I The Lover 29 IV The I n t e l l e c t u a l 43 V The Nobody 58 VI The Hero 74 Bibliography 87 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I should l i k e to express my gratitude to Mr. H.V. Livermore for introducing me to the works of Benjamin James and for helping me to organize my ideas about them. INTRODUCTION At the time of the Spanish C i v i l War, Benjamin James (1880-1950) l e f t Spain and went to l i v e i n Mexico. This study i s confined to his pre-war w r i t i n g and i s ' p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with his novels, which are l i s t e d below i n order of publication: E l profesor i n u t i l 1926 E l convidado de papel 1928 Locura y muerte de nadie 1929 Paula y Paulita 1929 Sal6n de e s t i o : Novelas breves 1929 Teoria del zumbel 1930 Escenas junto a l a muerte 1931 Lo rojo y l o azul 1932 Tantalo: Farsa .1935 The novels are examined from the point of view of the conception and portrayal of their main characters. The approach may be summarized as follows: f i r s t , the features which James' characterization may be expected to show are postulated from his l i t e r a r y background and from some of his c r i t i c a l remarks. Secondly, i n the l i g h t of these general considerations and with frequent reference s t i l l to the author's w r i t i n g i n genres other than the novel, the main characters are analysed i n the context of three themes, themselves suggested by subjects of fundamental importance - 2 -in the novels: love, intellectual activity, and insignificance. These correspond to the chapter headings "The Lover," "The Intellectual", and "The Nobody." A constant attempt is made to indicate the relation between the aesthetic side of Jarnes1 thought and writing and his ideas on human nature. The main characters are therefore considered both as fictional creations in the context of their novels, and as people transcending their specific roles and representing Jarnes' view of the human condition. Finally, in the chapter called "The Hero", the main characters' qualities are summarized to show how they may be regarded as heroes both in their capacity as novelistic protagonists and as exceptional human beings. - 3 -CHAPTER I : JARNES AND HIS BACKGROUND Benjamin Jarnes deplored the kind of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m which situates writers h i s t o r i c a l l y , labels them, and groups them i n schools and movements. He would doubtless be g r a t i f i e d by the lack of agreement among c r i t i c s about the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and value of his work. Although l i t t l e has been written about him apart from brief comments i n l i t e r a r y manuals, he has been variously assigned to the generations of 1923, 1925, and 1927. He has passed from international repute i n the 1930's -- "Probablemente son pocos 1 los paises de Europa en que Jarnes y su obra no sean conocidos" to an obscurity lamented i n 1968 by Paul H i e , who considers him 2 to be "a more consummate novelist and s t y l i s t " than Ram6n G6mez de l a Serna, whose books are w e l l known and readily available. Jarnes has been described as an i s t a subversivo, a prose-wri t i n g by-product of ultralsmo, a s u r r e a l i s t , a dehumanizer, a s t y l i s t , an excessive s t y l i s t . . . . Many comments are unenthusiastic or even h o s t i l e . A p a r t i c u l a r l y damning assessment comes from Torrente Bal l e s t e r : " su obra, por su excesiva vinculaci6n a lo m£s t r a n s i t o r i o de un periodo, esta condenada a que se le recuerde como puro documento."^ From Jarnfis' point of view there could be few worse fates than that: i f his work were indeed no more than a museum-piece he would wish i t to be washed away by the Ebro along with a l l l i f e l e s s erudition and irrelevant inpedimenta from the past. Fortunately one may dismiss the judgment as unfair. Unfair, that - 4 -i s , according to James own c r i t i c a l standards which c a l l for f l e x i b l e ad hoc c r i t e r i a and i n pa r t i c u l a r the measurement of an author's achievement against his own intentions and l i m i t a t i o n s : "Compara l a obra con la intenci6n del autor, a l autor con e l aro 4 que en torno suyo ha abierto o pretendido a b r i r . " Two c r i t i c s who do approach his works i n this way are Paul I l i e , i n his study of the theories and techniques used i n Locura y muerte de nadie and Teoria del zumbel, and Victor Fuentes, i n his short but profound summary of Jarnes 1 personality and l i t e r a r y achievement. Neither of these c r i t i c s considers James' works to have dated; i n fact Fuentes' a r t i c l e , written i n 1967, concludes with the opinion that they are highly relevant to present day man. To reproach Jarnds with having embraced "lo mas t r a n s i t o r i o " of his time i s to disregard the importance he attaches to the vindication of the ephemeral as opposed to the s t a t i c , the over-serious, and the transcendental. The same attitude prompted Guillermo de Torre to quote Quevedo -- "Lo f u g i t i v o permanece y dura" -- to support his r a l l y i n g - c r y : "JObras vivas y a r t i s t a s mas vivos aan!"^ To be f a i r to a writer l i k e Jarnes, one must bear i n mind the trends and commonplaces of his time, but ultimately assess;, him on his own terms as revealed i n his works; for association with a group, even with an effervescent ismo, does not necessarily imply i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with i t . Jarnes himself makes this point: writing i n 1939 of his early l i t e r a r y career, at s u f f i c i e n t distance to - 5, -see i t i n perspective, he conveys succinctly the mood and achievement of his generation and indicates his own position i n r e l a t i o n to i t : Un impetu rebelde corrio entonces por las f i l a s juveniles de l a l i t e r a t u r a y de todas las artes. . . . He aqui una generaci6n de arriscados j6venes que supieron remover alegremente e l campo de las l e t r a s , l a zona e s p i r i t u a l de EspaHa y de estos pueblos de America. Con todos sus errores, con todos sus retozos, con todas sus profanaciones del augusto clasicismo, siempre l a c r e i y l a creo -- necesaria para e l pleno desarrollo del e s p i r i t u espattol, anquilosado bajo muchos f r l o s montones de hojarasca r e t 6 r i c a . Pero. . . . yo f u i e l menos rebelde. Comence... con mi edad de ahora. 0 poco menos. ^Naci ya viejo a las letras? No se. Muchos anos de serenidad c l a u s t r a l , muchos aftos de d i s c i p l i n a de todo orden, me limaron las ultas. Soy de mi generaci6n, pero mi generaci&n s61o en parte me ha formado. (Cartas, p. 8) The passage shows a nostalgic aff e c t i o n for those years of creative v i t a l i t y , innovation, irreverence; years of confidence, se l f - a s s e r t i o n , and a sense of fun. I t stresses the importance of the iconoclastic a c t i v i t i e s of the young a r t i s t s : perhaps they went too f a r , perhaps the i r demolition out-weighed the i r re-construction, but they did contribute to the essential task of l i b e r a t i n g the arts from outworn themes and conventions. A l l over Europe a similar upheaval was taking place, p a r t i c u l a r l y just after the F i r s t World War. Guillermo de Torre c a l l s itsSpanish manifestation ultraismo, a primarily poetic movement i n i t i a t e d by Cansinos-Assens 1 manifesto Ultra i n 1918. Torre situates - 6 -JarnSs as one of "algunos prosistas de l a epoca inmediata subsiguiente" who were influenced by ultralsmo but not of i t , i n spite of thei r close association with i t s adherents and their collaboration on some of i t s reviews. Jarnes, then, i s seen by both Torre and himself to be on the edge of avant-garde a c t i v i t y , infected by i t but not wholly committed to i t . Jarnes perceives i n himself an incapacity for thorough-going r e b e l l i o n which we s h a l l find inherited by some of his f i c t i o n a l characters. His own hesitation before the aesthetic revolution he attributes tentatively to his age and conditioning. One may answer "No" to his question "^Naci yaviejo a las letra s ? " i n spite of the fact that when his f i r s t book (Mosen Pedro) was published, he was aged t h i r t y - s i x . The scant biographical information available t e l l s us that he spent ten years i n a seminary (aged ten to twenty), some years i n the army and some "dando tumbos"^ and scraping a l i v i n g . But the idea that he suddenly took to w r i t i n g , as i s suggested by Torrente Ballester's phrase "su tropiezo con l a Q l i t e r a t u r a , " i s invalidated by his autobiographical note called "Alios de aprendizaje y a l e g r l a . " He r e c a l l s that as an adolescent he was forbidden by his jealous father to write verses, after being commended at school for his talent i n this d i r e c t i o n , which, therefore, went underground: Y yo, con mis decimas a l Ebro o a l Moncayo, baje mi cabecita a pajaros y escondl desde entonces, en mi  casa y fuera de e l l a , mi presumida calidad de e s c r i t o r . Y esto, durante muchos alios, durante muchos aRos, durante muchos aHos. - 7 -He evidently had a writer's vocation from an early age, even i f i t did not manifest i t s e l f u n t i l much l a t e r . On the other hand, a discovery of modern l i t e r a t u r e may have come comparatively late to Jarnes. His formal education emphasized theology and the c l a s s i c a l authors. One may assume that l i k e his seminarist J u l i o he found an opportunity to read Stendhal and Chateaubriand. But i t seems l i k e l y that his adolescence and early adulthood may have passed by without his being familiar with modern authors. Certainly he was past his f i r s t youth when he joined their ranks. Jarnes' long gestation period as a writer gave him the opportunity to assimilate a wide veriety of ideas, both new and not so new. While he had no patience with veneration for the old just because i t was old, he owed and acknowledged an enormous debt to the culture of the past, as his extensive use of myth and legend demonstrate. At the same time he was receptive to modern ideas, so that he b u i l t up r i c h resources on which to draw as a wr i t e r . The quest for new directions for the novel required an open mind and a readiness to experiment. The writer with the best hope of discovering fresh seams i n what Ortega y Gasset saw as the f a i l i n g quarry of f i c t i o n a l themes would be one situated, as Jarnes says, "en medio del mundo, sometido a todas las corrientes, empujado y limitado por e l l a s . " " ^ JarnSs protects his a r t i s t i c freedom and individualism by maintaining an e c l e c t i c position. Thus he has at his disposal a whole range of topics, whether o r i g i n a l or not, and, more important, various ways of treating them. An object has as many facets as - 8 -these are angles from which to view i t , or, i n Ortega's words, "...una misma realidad se quiebra en muchas realidades divergentes 11 cuando es mirada desde puntos de v i s t a d i s t i n t o s . The use of d i f f e r i n g viewpoints not only offers vast a r t i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s compared with the single one, supposedly factual and i m p a r t i a l , of the " r e a l i s t " writer; the concept of r e a l i t y i t s e l f i s placed i n question, and therefore the i n t e g r i t y of anyone claiming to present i t objectively. Who has the right to pronounce upon r e a l i t y ? The most scrupulous observer i s s t i l l biased, his testimony modified by his senses, his memory, his past experience, his whole personality. The precarious tyranny of realism had, of course, been defied by many writers before Jarnes. A l i t e r a r y personality depends on two main factors': the material at the writer's disposal, and what he does with i t . Jarnes i s of the opinion that no matter what the subject matter, the a r t i s t ' s presentation of i t should be u t t e r l y personal. In the "Nota preliminar" to Teoria del zumbel he deplores the gregarious tendencies of young a r t i s t s of his time: "No posee a estos j6venes l a ambici6n de navegar en personales balandros, sino en un t r a n s a t l a n t i c colectivo. . . . La 'escuela, 1 1Z e l 'ismo' en arte, es un callej&n sin s a l i d a . " He adds: "Hay que ver e l mundo desde e l balc6n que nos quepa en suerte." As regards subject matter, Jarnes sounds ambitious: he c a l l s for integralismo the f u l l e s t possible portrayal of man at a l l his levels of consciousness: - 9 -E l hombre—artista, f i l 6 s o f o , c ientifico--para quien l a verdad y l a belleza no se presentan nunca de cara, o se presentan con muchas. A quien las prolongaciones sub-terraneas y los penachos romanticos interesan igualmente. E l hombre t r i p l e , i n t e g r a l , g a v i l l a de impetus. (Teoria, p. 31) The recipe, then, i s integral man interpreted and presented by an i n t e g r a l man. A f i c t i o n a l character i s permitted to exploit his " r e a l " l i f e , his fantasy world and his dreams, but at the same time the author i s also subject to fluctuations i n his state of consciousness, so that the focus of his v i s i o n and his attitude to his creation are always l i a b l e to change. With so many variables the p o s s i b i l i t i e s are innumerable, and p o t e n t i a l l y anarchistic, but Jarnes i s constantly aware of the dangers, even i f he perhaps does not always manage to escape them. Faced with an overwhelmingly vast f i e l d of operations he i s insistent upon the need for limitations and selection, for balance and d i s c i p l i n e . He i s consistently opposed to grandiose schemes, u n r e a l i s t i c projects, and great abstractions. He advocates the use of a magnifying glass or microscope for close scrutiny of the small and accessible; there i s ample material within man's reach, so why should be bother himself with i n f i n i t y , e t ernity, perfection, or any other abstraction beyond his apprehension? The instruments of human knowledge are the senses, and man's habitat the earth, but too often he has conceived himself instead with metaphysical speculations which, fortunately, are increasingly, discredited. Modern a r t , at l e a s t , can follow the example of i t s new medium, the cinema, and discover new perspectives i n the familiar - 10 -t e r r i t o r y of man's environment: "Es hoy cuando e l arte, con su cinematico microscopio, puede obrar verdaderos milagros. Refusal to accept the "tijeretazo a lo i n f i n i t o " (Rubricas, p. 74) i s absurdly, anachronistic: "Disponerse en serio, con toda gravedad, a r e a l i z a r una obra perfecta, eterna, impecable, es a l i s t a r s e para tomar parte en l a Guerra de los I r e i n t a AHos" (Rubricas, p. 77). Equally inappropriate are u l t e r i o r motives i n art -- propaganda, didacticism, moralizing -- though any topic may be u t i l i z e d as raw material. The results of Jarnes 1 integralismo could be chaotic i f he did indeed give f u l l r ein to his own capriciousness as well as to that of his characters. In fa c t , of course, a writer retains control of his creation even when claiming to renounce i t , so that i f he affects indifference towards his characters, or disclaims r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for their behaviour, he i s adopting a pose and aligning himself with his genuinely f i c t i t i o u s creatures. The success or f a i l u r e of such a manoeuvre s t i l l depends on the creator's s k i l l ; he must decide, for example, how much apparent autonomy his characters may enjoy. Jarnes i s far from advocating reliance on i n t u i t i o n : the point of departure may be i n t u i t i v e but the act:;of creation must be attended throughout by intel l i g e n c e and balanced judgment. He defines art as follows: "Arte es un coger  un trozo de nuestra vida i n t e r i o r o exterior y lanzarlo a los demas  bien embalado en una forma" (Cartas, p. 1Z0). A prerequisite for a r t i s t i c creation i s mastery of i t s mechanical s k i l l s : ". . .no - 11 -olvidar que e l a r t i s t a debe toda su altura--y toda su firmeza--a ,14 sus dlas de artesano, a sus horas de aprendiz." The more subjective art becomes, and the more arb i t r a r y i t s structure, the more l i k e l y does i t become that the reader or spectator w i l l be disorientated. This situation may reach the point where to« many people the a r t i s t ' s meaning i s obscure or even t o t a l l y incomprehensible. This may not matter i n the case of poetry or the p l a s t i c a r t s , for appreciation of an image or of harmony of shape and colour do not necessarily depend on rati o n a l comprehension; but obscurity i s l i k e l y to be f a t a l to a novel on account of i t s length. There i s no indication that Jarnes ever t r i e d deliberately to be obscure, nor that he directed himself to an e l i t e , though i t i s equally true that he made no ef f o r t to appeal to the masses. He appears to have aimed at achieving a balance between a subjective approach and the t r a d i t i o n a l stock-in-trade of the n o v e l i s t . He frequently stresses the extreme importance of c l a r i t y i n a l l art forms and condemns subject i v i t y when i t reaches the point of "ciertas reminiscencias de suettos, imposibles de coordenar por e l espectador, aun por e l mas... freudiano" (Cartas, p. 124). To return to a phrase already quoted: "Hay que ver e l mundo desde e l balc6n que nos quepa en suerte" (above, p. 7), one might elaborate a l i t t l e on James' metaphor. There i s another factor besides the man on the balcony and the world beneath him: there i s the effect on both the observer and the observed of the - 12 -wind and weather prevailing at the time. However irrelevant many labels -- schools, movements, generations, ismos -- may be, and none seems p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful i n the consideration of Jarnes, he was nevertheless c l e a r l y influenced by what Guillermo de Torre c a l l s the "aire del tiempo" described by him in 1924 as " e l comun denominador e s p i r i t u a l de una serie de fen6menos contemporaneos, que comprenden desde e l psicoanalisis a l a teoria de l a r e l a t i v i d a d , pasando por l a deshumanizaci6n del arte, e l mon61ogo i n t e r i o r , e l subconsciente freudiano y l a r i s a de Chaplin."15 Perhaps the common denominator of these widely d i f f e r i n g phenomena i s their defiance of t r a d i t i o n a l ways of looking at things, their departure from well trodden paths i n search of something new and unexplored. Radical questioning and an experimental approach , are always i n evidence i n Jarnes, but his use of the individual ingredients l i s t e d by Torre i s tempered with a certain detachment and irony. Thus although he uses psychoanalytical techniques i n Teoria del zumbel, i n the same novel he caricatures a p s y c h i a t r i s t . And although he often uses dehumanizing terminology i n describing people, their humanity i s lost only momentarily and i t usually re-appears with i n t e n s i f i e d v i t a l i t y . Ortega's famous analysis of dehumanized art appeared i n 1925. I t l i s t s as follows the characteristics of modern a r t : Tiende: 1., a l a deshumanizaci6n del arte; 2., a evitar • las formas vivas; 3., a hacer que l a obra de arte no sea sino obra de arte; 4.,.a considerar e l arte como juego y nada mas; 5., a una esencial i r o n l a ; 6.,. a eludir toda falsedad, y, por tanto, a una escrupulosa re a l i z a c i 6 n . En f i n , 7., e l arte, segun los a r t i s t a s j6venes, es una cosa s i n trascendencia alguna.16 - 13 -While JarnSs' works do demonstrate these tendencies, an essay he wrote the following year (1926) shows that he considered de-humanization to be an a r t i s t i c technique, not an objective. I t i s one of the ways i n which an a r t i s t can flee from boring, photo-graphic r e a l i t y , but i t i s the f l i g h t i t s e l f which counts, not to t a l escape, which would give not art but geometry or theology. Jarnes laments the way Ortega's essay has been misunderstood: "Lo que solo es un diagn&stico, se ha tornado-- y Icon que ceHuda pre c i p i t a c i 6 n l -- por una receta" (Cartas, p. 31). There may be less j u s t i f i c a t i o n for saying that Jarnes was influenced by La deshumanizaci6n del arte than that certain of his l i t e r a r y methods coincide with Ortega's findings. But Ortega's philosophy i n general i s undoubtedly a major influence on his thought, as he implies himself i n numerous tributes. He speaks, for example, of his "excepcional e inquebrantable devoci6n hacia las ideas y hacia l a persona del maestro Ortega y Gasset" (Viviana, p. 23). Perspectivism, v i t a l reason^: l i f e as a perpetual struggle for security. . . these and many more themes are of fundamental importance i n his novels. His discovery of Ortega, however, did not take place very early i n his l i f e . There was, after a l l , a difference of only fiv e years i n the two men's ages. Jarnes was nearly t h i r t y when, as he r e c a l l s , the f i r s t volume of E l Espectador appeared l i k e a miracle to disseminate European thought i n the c u l t u r a l desert of pro v i n c i a l Spain; his personality must have been substantially formed - 14 -already. I t i s l i k e l y therefore that a large.measure of his devotion to Ortega was due to his finding a kindred s p i r i t who drew into a cohesive pattern ideas p a r t i a l l y formulated by himself, from his own experience. Jarnes claims on several occasions that the a r t i s t ' s only authentic resources are i n himself. I t i s unlikely that he would deliberately apply someone else's ideas i n his books. Ortega's ideas must have come as a corroboration of his own for such a complete assimilation to take place. The "aire del tiempo" i s constantly changing. In the two decades during which Jarnes was w r i t i n g there was a drastic change of climate. The general feeling of newness and l i b e r a t i o n following the F i r s t World War was soon overtaken by growing anxiety about p o l i t i c a l developments a l l over Europe. Jarnes was not a p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r ; i n fact he was a n t i - p o l i t i c a l i n the sense that he deplored the tendency of people to divide into opposing camps rather than to co-operate i n groups transcending Right and L e f t . But the p o l i t i c a l elements present i n the "aire del tiempo" affected his w r i t i n g which, from 1930 onwards, changes i t s emphasis from the novel with "art for art's sake" tendencies to biography, c r i t i c i s m , and s o c i a l comment. The l a t e r novels show a growing concern about c u l t u r a l as well as personal values. This change r e f l e c t s the general l i t e r a r y s h i f t 'of the 1930's towards s o c i a l involvement. Jarnes retains, however, his f a i t h and optimism i n the s p i r i t u a l power of individuals; authentic communal values can be based only on personal i n t e g r i t y and good w i l l . Each person, as w e l l as being - 15 -a s o c i a l animal, has the problem of his own l i f e to solve, and this remains true whatever pa r t i c u l a r straws the "aire del tiempo" blows his way. A l l Jarnes 1 novels, therefore, introduce individuals who, i n different circumstances, have a unique self to discover and affirm. - 16 -FOOTNOTES Samuel Putnam, "Benjamin Jarnes y l a deshumanizaci6n del arte," Revista hispanica moderna, I I (1935-36), 17. 2 Paul I l i e , The Surrealist Mode i n Spanish Li t e r a t u r e ; An Inter- pretation of Basic Trends from Post-Romanticism to the Spanish Vanguard (University of Michigan, 1968), p. 156. 3 G. Torrente Ba l l e s t e r , Panorama de l a l i t e r a t u r a espaffola  contemporanea, Znd ed. (Madrid, 1961), I , 346. 4 Benjamin Jarnes, Cartas a l Ebro (Biografja y C r i t i c a | (Mexico, 1940), p. 156. Subsequent quotations w i l l be indicated by "Cartas" i n the text. 5 Guillermo de Torre, "PrSlogo a l a primera edici6n" (1924), Hi s t o r i a de las l i t e r a t u r a s de vanguardja (Madrid, 1965), p. 89. 6 Torre, pp. 570-571. 1 "Nota e d i t o r i a l , " Enciclopedia de l a l i t e r a t u r a , ed. JarnSs (Mexico, 1947), p. 9. 8 Torrente B a l l e s t e r , p. 344. 9 Benjamin James, Viviana y Merlin: Leyenda (Madrid, 1930), pp. 20-21. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Viviana." 10 Benjamin Jarnes, Feria del l i b r p : Ensayos breves (Madrid, 1935), p. 289. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Feria." 11 Jose Ortega y Gasset, La deshumanizaci6n del arte, Obras completas, 4th ed. (Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1957), I I I , 361. 12 Benjamin Jarn£s, Teoria del zumbel: Novela (Madrid, 1930), p. 18. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Teoria." 13 Benjamin Jarnes, Rdbricas (Nuevos eje r c i c i o s ) (Madrid, 1931), p. 70. 14 Benjamin Jarnes, Ejercicios (Madrid, 1927), p. 91. 15 Torre, pp. 78-79. 16 Ortega y Gasset, op. c i t . , p. 360. - 17 -CHAPTER I I : CHARACTERIZATION From the foregoing remarks one may make certain suppositions about Jarnfis' approach to creating f i c t i o n a l characters. Since he i s deeply concerned with seeing things exactly as they are, he may be expected to treat people i n the same way and to present them without i l l u s i o n s or i d e a l i z a t i o n . He may also be expected to present them from unusual angles and to vary his perspective. I f he himself rejects the great Romantic abstractions and l i m i t s himself to investigating what i s knowable, then his characters must either share his attitudes or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , their presumption and self-delusion must be shown for what they are. One effect of a rejection of metaphysical i l l u s i o n s about man's place i n the universe i s that attention w i l l be concentrated on the senses. I f b e l i e f i n heaven i s denied, one has the earth to explore. I f love i s deprived of i t s mystical and sentimental trappings, sex and aesthetic enjoyment remain. Aesthetic contemp-l a t i o n requires detachment and the suspension of irrelevant c r i t e r i a and preconceptions, and bears therefore a certain resemblance to s c i e n t i f i c observation. Both a r t i s t and s c i e n t i s t may regard their fellow men objectively, as a phenomenon among others, and such observation i s a v a l i d source of knowledge. Jarnes 1 characters are often presented i n geometric, a r c h i t e c t u r a l , or mechanistic terms, p a r t i c u l a r l y when one character i s watching or describing another. Knowledge of other people i s necessarily l i m i t e d , and - 18 -often s u p e r f i c i a l , but i t can s t i l l be accurate. Another, equally objective, way of looking at people i s to occupy a vantage point and look down at them en masse. People w i l l then appear as animals or d o l l s or cogs i n wheels. The members of the crowd can be c l a s s i f i e d as types but w i l l have no i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and their behaviour, i f bizarre, w i l l follow set patterns and, after observation, be predictable. The number of situations con-fronting human beings and the number of their possible reactions i n those situations are f i n i t e and the basic patterns have become st y l i z e d i n the form of myths and legends. People cannot hope to behave i n a unique, o r i g i n a l manner: everything has been done before. One may expect to find among Jarnes' characters new versions of f a m i l i a r figures, and this i s the case, though the originals may be scarcely recognizable. In addition to modernizing myths, Jarnes f a n c i f u l l y combines characters from past and present, fact and f i c t i o n . There are a number of cases i n Jarnes 1 works where either he or one of his characters places himself above the herd and observes i t dispassionately, or at le a s t , as dispassionately as possible, for such a view i s not l i k e l y to increase one's f a i t h i n human pot e n t i a l . The observer cannot detach himself permanently or completely and i s s t i l l subject to some emotional response ito what he sees. This response may take the form of despair, or a desire to intervene, or a voluntary renunciation of one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y and immersion of the s e l f i n cosmic anonymity. - 19 -Occasionally such a detached look at mankind i s salutary. In the foreward to Fauna contemporanea, Jarnes defends the attitude of Zacchaeus, the B i b l i c a l character who climbed up into a tree to watch Jesus pass. What Zacchaeus does i s " u t i l i z a r l o mas puro del hombre, la mirada, y dejar en huelga l o que hace del hombre una bestia mas, las uHas."* The withdrawal, however, can be only temporary, and sooner or lat e r the observer must abandon his look out position and re j o i n the crowd. JarnSs considers that i f an a r t i s t wishes to be t r u l y creative he must abandon his position of superiority and function as an integral human being: ". . . e l a r t i s t a nada ha de mirar desde l a cumbre. Aunque en l a l e j a n i a , todo debe quedar a l a altura del pecho" ( E j e r c i c i o s , p. 65). The p r i n c i p l e i s carried furthest i n Teoria del Zumbel, i n which the author, far from c o n t r o l l i n g his creation from above, enters into i t and discusses, even disagrees, with his characters. In the other novels his humility i s less obvious, but s t i l l present i s a certain rejection of omnipotence and imposed l o g i c . A s t r i c t adherence to what can be perceived by the senses, along with minimal interpretation by the author, would produce a kind of novel quite different from Jarnes'. The objective approach i s relieved i n Jarnes by the addition of another dimension, the mintL including the unconscious mind. This i s j u s t i f i e d by the fact that he regards psychology as a science and the dark recesses of the mind as capable of accurate elucidation. As Paul I l i e has - 20 -pointed out, Jarnes was perhaps naive and i d e a l i s t i c about the s c i e n t i f i c exactitude of psycho-analysis; nevertheless the workings of the mind are more accessible to s c i e n t i f i c investigation than are metaphysics and theology. The psychological presentation of a character can be accomplished either by introspection and s e l f -analysis or by the use of fantasy and dream. Jarnes uses both methods. Characters reveal themselves i n dialogue and monologue and compensate for limited action by dreams and imagination. Within the context of a person's mind dreams are as " r e a l " as physical actions. The person can act out roles and legitimately be leader, handsome hero or star. Jarnes takes advantage of the s i m i l a r i t y between the dream and the motion picture and sometimes includes f i l m sequences. Balanced against the metaphor of Zacchaeus i n the tree i s another recurring image, that of e l buzo (the diver) who brings to l i g h t submerged treasure. Psycho-analytical techniques can externalize the contents of the unconscious mind. Jarnes was p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n Jung's psychology, which distinguishes between the individual and the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious. The l a t t e r manifests i t s e l f i n the use of myths and legends, but a person's uniqueness l i e s i n his conscious thought and his personal unconscious. The i n d i v i d u a l i s t w i l l therefore treasure and cultivate these properties of himself, the more so i f he i s aware of his insignificance when measured against time and space. He w i l l tend to be intensely s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l and s e l f - c r i t i c a l , and contemplative rather than active. - 21 -We therefore find Jarnes treasuring abouve a l l human characteristics the intimidad, a person's private personality, which i s not a spontaneous creation but which demands deliberate self-knowledge. La intimidad--y su fruici6n--es e l don mas a l t o concedido a l hombre. Cuando un hombre puede encerrarse en e l s6tano de s i mismo, ya puede darse por bien logrado un e s p i r i t u . (Cartas, p. 135) Although from the outside human a c t i v i t y may appear predictable and governed by fixed laws and patterns, from the inside l i f e i s often perplexing, a r b i t r a r y , and unfair. Logic at one lev e l may be chaos at another. The individual has to face and solve problems, even i f his a b i l i t y to choose i s i l l u s o r y . But human reason i s inadequate; although i t can go a long way towards "descubrir en e l caos de los casos individuales desordenados del universo un orden" (Jung, quoted by Jarnes, Teoria, p. 15), much w i l l remain i r r a t i o n a l and inexplicable. As the author i s as beset by this haphazard messiness as anyone else, he has no right to contrive: neat, l o g i c a l stories for his characters. He says i n E l profesor  imutiL* ". . . yo prefiero l a novela donde--como en l a vida--no hay pr61ogo n i epllogo, sino ciertos jalones de partida o de termino."^ His characters, therefore, tend to d r i f t along and eventually wander off to fresh pastures. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , where death occurs, i t i s shown to be incongruous.•:and i l l - t i m e d . A b e l i e f that man has l i t t l e power to act and limited control even of his own fate i s pessimistic but i t also has humorous p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I f there i s no point i n worrying about major - 22 -problems or i n attempting any reform or progress, one may as wel l revert to playfulness and an enjoyment of simple things: Sera preciso que volvamos a enamorarnos del mundo, risueflamente, como niffos. Que intimemos con e l . Que le perdamos e l respeto. Que le tiremos de las greftas como a un le6n domesticado.^ In Teoria del zumbel even God i s represented as p l a y f u l : To take things too seriously i s to i n v i t e punishment for hubris. Thus Ju l i o ' s p o l i t i c a l involvement i n Lo rojo y l o azul ends i n the appalling firing-squad incident and Juli o ' s nervous breakdown. Jarnes shows great admiration and affecti o n for Charlie Chaplin, whose art he places on a l e v e l with that of Stravinsky and Picasso. A l l three, he says, perform a miracle of transubstantiation, using everyday r e a l i t y as th e i r basic material. Chaplin's films provoke both laughter and tears, laughter at the discrepancy between his aspirations and his attainments and tears for the "hombre desplazado, . . . nitlo perdido entre l a turba" ( E j e r c i c i o s , p. 44). But laughter has to preva i l over the pathos. As Jarnes says i n the prologue to Locura y Muerte de nadie: ". . . es muy duro i n v i t a r a l transetinte a que medite unas horas con su propia calavera entre las manos."^ The Chaplinesque character, pathetic, humiliated, absurd, for whom many things remain out of reach but who w i l l console himself with what is_ available (the bread r o l l s , for example, as a substitute for a dancing partner) finds many echoes i n Jarnes 1 novels. - 23 -Turning now to Jarnes' main characters, we find that in each novel there is one male character whose personality and experiences are developed in greater detail and depth than those of the remaining characters. This one character is the axis on which the rest of the novel turns. Usually, the other characters are presented through his eyes and are two-dimensional, whereas he has the extra dimension of intimidad (private thoughts, dreams, etc. While i t would not be practicable to reveal numerous characters in intimate depth, more than one could be so revealed, but a desire for authenticity apparently requires Jarnes to admit that he cannot know in detail how other people's mental processes work: Es en vano querer cosechar fuera de nosotros. . . . Tientan nuestro af&n creador muchos caminos, pero s61o hay uno nuestro, aunque despues se bifurque: El del hallazgo del propio autor. (Ejercicios, p. 63) This does not mean that his novels have to be autobiographical, simply that the mental process at work are the author's and therefore of limited application. There is an implied restriction to what he_ can imagine himself doing: Yo soy algo mas, quiero ser algo ma*s, que un hombre; quiero ser un artista. Y el artista es libre para elegir su tema. Como el de mi propia vida no me sirve, le desdeflo; . . . Prefiero decir lo que no he sido y lo que no voy a ser, en vez de decir lo que fui y sere. (Viviana, p. 18) Jarnes will not attempt to get under the skin of many different types of person, so it is not surprising to find the - 24 -same or similar characters recurring i n several novels. The emphasis, however, may s h i f t , just as the role of the frequently used first-person narrator varies from that of i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n with the hero ( E l profesor i n u t i l ; Escenas junto a l a muerte) to that of a marginal character (Tantalo) . One i s c l e a r l y not intended to take too l i t e r a l l y the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n either of the author with any character of of characters with each other. Even when Jarnes includes himself as the author, i n Teoria del Zumbel, he hides behind an i r o n i c mask, that of the writer of "novelas blancas", concerned with his popularity and success. On reading James 1 novels one i s struck by the number of times he uses the name J u l i o . Without trying to push the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n too f a r , one can see connections between the various Julios and even piece together certain " f a c t s " about the biography of a single person. J u l i o came from a poor family, was educated i n a seminary, escaped from i t , d r i f t e d for a while, and was conscripted into the army. (El convidado de papel; Lo rojo y l o az u l ) . These experiences appear to be based on James' own l i f e . In Lo rojo y l o azul J u l i o , here given the surname Aznar, takes lessons i n surveying from don Braulio. He i s uninterested i n the subject and soon drops the course, but i n "Andromeda", i n Sal6n de E s t i o , the hero, again called J u l i o , i s a qua l i f i e d surveyor. In Paula y Paulita he i s again described as a surveyor, who also gives lessons i n accountancy. L a s t l y , J u l i o appears as a l i t e r a r y figure: i n E l profesor i n u t i l , the profesor refers to " J u l i o Aznar, mi gran amigo" (p. 247), and quotes at - 25 -length from his latest novel. The supposed writer of the Gartas  a l Ebro i s likewise called Aznar, and i n - Tantalo, J u l i o has an unsuccessful play performed, a version of "Viviana y Merlin", and thereafter becomes a promoter of other people's plays, with a careful eye on the box o f f i c e . In the works mentioned, J u l i o ' i s not always the hero: i n Tantalo he appears as the friend of the narrator Arturo, and both are subordinate to the s i c k l y author of "Niobe". Arturo i s another recurring name. Although the Arturo of Tdntalo i s an insurance agent and the Arturo of Locuna y muerte  de nadie investigates f i r e insurance claims, there i s r e a l l y l i t t l e connection between the two, and s t i l l less with the Arturo of Lo rojo y l o a z u l , who i s a veteran soldier and v i o l i n i s t . Never-theless, i n each case Arturo accompanies the hero and acts as something of a f o i l and challenge to his ideas. Most of the manifestations of J u l i o share two ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a s u s c e p t i b i l i t y for women and a role as some kind of i n t e l l e c t u a l or teacher. These features are also shared by the first-person hero of E l profesor i n u t i l and Escenas junto a l a muerte. The roles of lover and i n t e l l e c t u a l continually cross, become confused, diverge again. The i n t e l l e c t u a l or teacher i s often a learner i n love. The "Viviana y M e r l i n " theme runs through a l l these novels; that i s , the c o n f l i c t between reason and i n s t i n c t s , which Jarnfis prefers to c a l l sabiduria and gracia. Reason prevails only i n i s o l a t i o n , and even then i n s t i n c t s intrude. Viviana sneaks into Merlin's ivory tower, into the seminary, into the opositor's - 26 -study. . . u n t i l the i n t e l l e c t u a l , no longer s a t i s f i e d with the women i n his books, breaks out i n search of the real thing. In so doing he s a c r i f i c e s a certain control over his own fate: the opositor forgets about his imminent examination, the seminarist wrecks his e c c l e s i a s t i c a l career, the profesor becomes i n u t i l . But the renunciation of i n t e l l e c t u a l or ra t i o n a l control may i n the long run lead to greater concentration and understanding when the i n s t i n c t s have been s a t i s f i e d and t h e i r lessons learnt. The objective i s a harmonious balance of sabidurla and gracia: ". . . s u s t i t u i r e l deseo por e l hastio; l a tenaz espuela del deleite--vibraci6n sorda que oscurece l a verdadera vida del e s p l r i t u - - , por e l f i l o s 6 f i c o reposo del sexo en calma, ya saciado"' and, ". . . a l a serenidad contemplativa se llega mejor por veredas locas de placer que por r e c t i l i n e o s caminos de abstinencia" (Convidado, p. 188). U n t i l now I have used the word "hero" as meaning the main character, but i t has also the connotation of an exceptional, even superhuman, man. As already stated, Jarnes w i l l not i d e a l i z e his characters or allow them to deviate far from the human norm. In any case heroism, and even individualism, have p r a c t i c a l l y disappeared from the world. The forces at work i n the twentieth century -- mechanization, c o l l e c t i v i s m , mass movements, speeded up communicationmedia -- tend to minimize the significance of in d i v i d u a l action. Arturo, i n Locura y muerte, remarks: "Pronto, s i algun h6roe surge, se sonreira aburridamente de su propio - 27 -herolsmo" (p. 165). S i m i l a r l y the narrator of Escenas junto  a l a muerte comments on the lack of impact even of remarkable in d i v i d u a l s : "Escritores, hombres de ciencia, de negocios, de vida so c i a l profunda, apenas logran ser conocidos por algun guiffo mas 6 saliente, por algun relieve mas vistoso, quiza e l menos profundo." Self-assertion has become almost impossible. One would not expect, then, to find conventionally heroic heroes i n Jarnes' novels. Old-fashioned heroism he reserves for his biographical w r i t i n g . But he does not bid farewell to heroism without regret or without comment on the demoralizing effect i t s disappearance may have on contemporary youth. He urges the reading of biographies of great men of the past and warns against accepting the degrading role of puppet or machine.' The standardization of man should not be accomplished without protest. In this l i g h t resistance, even f u t i l e resistance, may be heroic. Heroism would l i e more i n the struggle than i n what i t achieved. - 28 -FOOTNOTES 1 Benjamin Jarn£s,. Fauna contemporanea: Ensayos breves (Madrid, 1933), p. 12. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Fauna." 2 Benjamin Jarnes, E l profesor i n u t i l , nueva edici&n (Madrid, 1934), p. 164. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Prof." 3 Benjamin Jarn6s, Paula y P a u l i t a ; Novela (Madrid, 1929), p. 19. Subsequent quotations indicated by "P. y P." 4 Benjamin JarnSs, Locura y muerte de nadie: Novela (Madrid, 1929), p. 13. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Locura." 5 Benjamin JarnSs, E l convidado de papel: Novela (Madrid, 1928), p. 85. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Convidado." 6 Benjamin Jarnes, Escenas junto a l a muerte: Novela (Madrid, 1931), p. 185. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Escenas." - 29 -CHAPTER I I I : THE LOVER Since Jarnes sees no point i n taking things too seriously and i s opposed to the complicating and obscuring of straightforward . ." issues with grandiose, transcendental trappings and bollow rhetoric, i t i s not surprising that he has a radic a l attitude towards love. He retains love as one of his main themes, but scorns, parodies and debunks i t s Romantic manifestations and i n s i s t s upon honest treatment of lovers' sentiments and their causes. Relationships are treated r e a l i s t i c a l l y ; ideals may be sought, but not found, and a love a f f a i r i s much more l i k e l y to be terminated through boredom or expediency than through death, violence, or the decision to get married. The main philosophical basis for Jarnes 1 treatment of love i s the rejection of what,he regards as a perverse legacy of Chr i s t i a n i t y -- the idea that l i f e on earth i s merely a preparation for the true l i f e a f t er death -- and a b e l i e f instead i n the value of what man has here and now. He sees the introduction of the Christian idea of grace as an attempt to stamp out earthly fulfilment: toda l a Edad Media es un hondo co n f l i c t o entre dos gracias, entre dos sentidos de l a vida: e l de transito y e l de permanencia gozosa, aunque fugaz. Seniega a la vida otro sentido que no sea e l de v i a j e ; pero l a misma vida afirmara siempre su derecho a ser considerada como f i n . (Viviana, p. 47) Because immortality i s an abstraction beyond human v e r i f i c a t i o n i t i s a dubious basis on which to establish any philosophy - 30 -of l i f e . Man i s on surer ground i f he contents himself with phenomena he can experience and enjoy d i r e c t l y . Jarnes advocates a hedonistic attitude and considers abstinence and self-denial as, at best, negative virtues. In proclaiming " l a unica gracia verdadera, . . . l a que surge de la armoniosa plenitud de las fuerzas de la vida" (Viviana, p. 47), he i s attacking conventional Christian morality, f o r , as '.he says, his idea of grace "desde e l patibulo (the Cross) es llamada siempre d e l i t o " ( i b i d . ) . At the end of Viviana y Merlin, Viviana resurrects Merlin and arranges to meet him i n Cervantes' "Cueva de Montesinos" i n order to proclaim i n Spain the happy union of gracia and sabidurla. This suggests that by the time of the Renaissance the c o n f l i c t between the two attitudes to l i f e -- transito and permanencia --was already being resolved i n favour of the l a t t e r . But the ethics of the medieval Church have persisted and permeated many so c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , so that s t i l l i n the twentieth century the young hero of Lo rojo y l o azul finds himself at odds with society i n his desire to l i v e f u l l y i n the present: ^Por que, en d e f i n i t i v a , no enriquecer su presente, crear otro mas risueno? S i ; era muy d i f i c i l : e l mundo esta montado para fabricar en e l futuros. Todos sus t a l l e r e s tienden a ofrecer a l obrero humano l o indispensable para obtener un porvenir a trueque de i r s e viendo desmoronar e l presente.1 While i t i s true that the future intended here i s a worldly, not a - 31 -heavenly, one, the p r i n c i p l e i s the same: self-denial now i n order to reap rewards l a t e r , perhaps too l a t e . The moral i s that the hypothetical outcome does not j u s t i f y the s a c r i f i c e . An obvious example of the suppression of spontaneous action i s t r a d i t i o n a l sexual morality, especially the behaviour ex-pected of women. In Jarnes' novels there i s no g l o r i f i c a t i o n of chastity or condemnation of immodesty, marital i n f i d e l i t y , or p r o s t i t u t i o n . Most of the female characters are either experienced lovers or w i l l i n g r e c r u i t s . The conventional r e s t r i c t i v e upbringing of young g i r l s i s shown to be unnatural and a r t i f i c i a l , and t o t a l l y inadequate against the forces of i n s t i n c t . The innocent Blanca (Teoria del zumbel) learns rapidly that her devout trai n i n g i s i r r e l e v a n t : Prefiero . . . desear e l espantoso momento de perder l a gracia, de jugarme una eternidad por un momento. . . . Quiero hundirme pronto en esa ceniza•que dicen que amor. Quiero, en ese tedio, esperar misericordia. Pero, {ante todo, quemarme! (p. 128) The seduction of Rebeca i n E l profesor i n u t i l i s accompanied by anguish and t e r r o r , but this i s an unusual case, and Rebeca's fear i s more superstitious than moral. In general, Jarnes 1 seducers meet l i t t l e opposition. Sexual equality p r e v a i l s , with no question of a double moral standard. The untouched and untouchable single g i r l i s presented as ignorant rather than virtuous, and prostitutes are treated sympathetically, especially i f they have been driven to p r o s t i t u t i o n by poverty. This i s made - 32 -clear at the end of Escenas junto a l a muerte, where the hero, who has just been successful i n his oposiciones for a university post, f i r s t meets his future wife s o l i c i t i n g i n the street. Samuel Putnam has described E l profesor i n u t i l as a modern version of the Don Juan story. The profesor, he says, i s "un nuevo burlador, un Don Juan joven, tlmido y profesoral, y sin embargo, exGraHamente afortunado. . . While i t i s true that the profesor has a succession of amorous adventures of temporary nature, which involve no deep emotional attachment and do not lead to marriage, he i s not a cynical seducer intent only upon conquest without concern for his victims' feelings or fate. The same i s true of James' other lovers: they may be light-hearted but they are not callous. The lack of seriousness about love a f f a i r s i s due to two ideas fundamental to Jarnes' work. One i s the emphasis on the present, without undue concern for the future. The other i s the acceptance of limitations on human endeavour which permit a greater i n t e n s i t y within a reduced f i e l d . In terms of human relationships this means that one w i l l not expect tx>o much but that what one has may be enjoyed without i n h i b i t i o n . I f James' young men are reluctant to t i e themselves down, i t i s because conventional bourgeois marriage often involves more than the simple union of a man and a woman. Suppression of the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of either partner must not be allowed to occur. Jarnes i s opposed to possessiveness: jealousy and a proprietary interest i n the loved one are a l i e n to - 33 -his concept of love. Even worse i s a desire to reform, or to co-opt the partner into a family business. Neither partner should enslave the other or expect to have exclusive rights over him or her. F i n a l l y , i f the only true reason for a relationship i s passing sexual i n t e r e s t , that fact should be admitted: something inherently temporary should not be pushed beyond i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the threat to freedom constituted by marriage i s provided by Ju l i o ' s "invitaci6n a l a vida burguesa" i n Lo Rojo y lo azul. J u l i o i n i t i a t e s courtship with C e c i l i a because his idea of a happier present includes love as a v i t a l element. C e c i l i a and her mother, however, have very different ideas: J u l i o i s a prospect for the future, and not only as a prospective husband, but as a partner i n the family undertaking business. His i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s disregarded. C e c i l i a i s not r e a l l y i n love with him as he i s , but with "(el) hombre que resulte de una larga elaboraci6n" (p. 75). Realizing eventually that marriage to "La Eterna Paz" would be s p i r i t u a l death, J u l i o flees and spends his savings on Rubl. Conformism and routine are seen as d e v i t a l i z i n g , even ' dehumanizing, and therefore to be resisted. Jarn§s frequently returns to the paradox that only the transient, the f l u i d , the unstable r e a l l y endure. The Ebro erodes i t s banks, and washes away buildings, people, and objects, but the r i v e r i t s e l f flows on. S i m i l a r l y l i f e prevails over the setbacks and contradictions i t encounters. When the profesor's relationship with Carlota begins - 34 -to show signs of s t r a i n , he r e f l e c t s : " E l r l o y e l tiempo nunca vuelven l a cabeza. La f i d e l i d a d p e r f e c t a e s t r i b a en saber h u i r . " "La o t r a f i d e l i d a d es un vano empefio de j u n t a r dos t e d i o s en uno." ( P r o f . , p. 162) N e i t h e r people nor r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be expected to remain constant and s t a t i c . J a r n g s 1 l o v e r s accept that many love a f f a i r s can be only p a r t i a l l y or t e m p o r a r i l y s a t i s f y i n g . They tend to react w i t h equanimity to r e j e c t i o n and to e x t r i c a t e themselves i n good time i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s heading towards boredom, a divergence of i n t e r e s t s , or a c r i s i s l i k e l y to force an unwelcome d e c i s i o n . The profesor's adventures serve as examples. We are given no d e t a i l s bout what went wrong w i t h Ruth, but we witness the profesor's d e l i b e r a t e readjustment: ;1 Puesto que e l amor de Ruth esta para mi tan l e j o s , quiero yo tambien ha c e r l o pequeHito dentro de mi. Todo l o mas grande q u i s i e r a hoy v e r l o convertido en un l i n d o juguete. (p. 190) I n t h i s way he reduces h i s emotion to manageable proportions and rejuvenates h i m s e l f . He sets out to be a c h i l d f o r the day and i s i n the r i g h t frame of mind to meet h i s next g i r l f r i e n d -- Herminia 5-who, a p p r o p r i a t e l y , i s a governess. I n the case of C a r l o t a , the love a f f a i r ends because she wishes to convert i t i n t o marriage, and to the p r o f e s o r t h i s represents a f a l s i f i c a t i o n : Yo e n r i q u e c e r l a l a aventura con otro dulce e p i s o d i o ; pero C a r l o t a pretente r e e d i t a r l a c o r r i g i e n d o b i e n l a s e r r a t a s , affadiendole un minucioso colof&n. E l l a q u e r r i a hacerme r e c o r r e r e l l a r g o camino d e l amor burgues para a d q u i r i r l o que ya pudo l o g r a r s e por e l i n s t i n t o . (p. 164) —35 -The actual separation occurs calmly, urbanely, as Carlota writes his name beside her own on her examination result and drops the paper into the Ebro, thus terminating simultaneously the love a f f a i r and the pupil-teacher relationship. The fourth adventure of the profesor i n u t i l w i l l be examined more closely i n Chapter IV,. but i t i s relevant to mention here some general reflections which his experiences with Rebeca provoke. He bemoans the fact that very few women can present themselves to a lover i n a state of both physical and s p i r i t u a l nudity. Usually, from the start of an association, the woman's background and id6es recues intrude: Por eso nuestro deseo no suele crecer en proporci6n a l a distancia de su logro, sino que frecuentemente lo va mordiendo en e l camino e l aspid de l a desilusi&n; excepto en los casos infrecuentes en que l a mujer sabe ocultar todo cuanto no es en d e f i n i t i v a e l l a misma, su propia came en saz6n, su alma vehemente, e l g e n t i l penacho—porque entonces existe--de su e s p l r i t u ; entonces l a mujer llega a l a posesi6n, desprendida de todo cuanto l a sociedad arroj6 sobre e l l a : normas eticas, p r e j u i c i o s , taras, recelos, insuficiente educaci6n; llega a nosotros completamente desnuda. (p. 194) During a relationship Jamas' lover has two d i s t i n c t attitudes towards his mistress's body, sexual and aesthetic. He desires her, but also wants to contemplate her as an object of beauty. The two attitudes cannot normally occur simultaneously because sexual desire i s blind and impatient while aesthetic con-templation demands leisure and t r a n q u i l l i t y . This being so, the animal passion i s best dealt with f i r s t , so that the mind and - 36 -perceptional f a c u l t i e s can function calmly and accurately. Attempts to reverse the process are unl i k e l y to succeed. With Carlota, the profesor struggles lamely to r e s i s t her f l i r t a t i o u s overtures by forcing himself to perceive her i n Cubist terms. He succeeds i n translating her into "pura geometria" (p. 148) but as soon as he moves a l i t t l e , i n order to improve on the design, ". . . esferas, c i l i n d r o s , poliedros y troncos de cono comienzan a henchirse, . . . a deformarse en l a pura geometria para formarse de nuevo en l a sensual fugacidad de l a carne de C a r l o t a " (p. 149). Aesthetic appreciation excludes other emotions and has to be objective. The profesor adds a parenthesis to his account of f i r s t seeing Rebeca: (Entonces me daba escasa cuenta de ninguna ley de armonia; confieso humildemente que no contemple e l seno izquierdo como ninguna estructura, sino como relieve donde ensayar c a r i c i a s . . . C^&mo podia p e r c i b i r ejes de perspectiva s i yo estaba plenamente sumergido en e l cuadro? Es ahora, cuando lo cuento...) (p. 184) On the other hand J u l i o (Paula y Paulita) i s so far from being any-thing but an aesthetic observer, on the occasion when Paulita drops a basket of apples, that he forgets his manners:and offers her no help. The development of the sexual and aesthetic aspects of love i s c l e a r l y traced i n E l convidado de papel and Lo rojo y lo azul. As a c h i l d of ten J u l i o has a l e r t senses and a capacity for - 37 -voluptuous enjoyment. Although too young to be sexually interested i n E u l a l i a , he i s enchanted by her femininity and love of l i f e . In E j e r c i c i o s , Jarnes seems to be referring to E l convidado da  papel when he describes the f i r s t c h i l d i s h awareness of beauty, "anterior a l a fiebre de los sentidos. E l niflo ya persigue e l misterio de l a belleza feminina, aunque apenas conoce los signos de lo b e l l o " (p. 59). The a r t i c l e goes on to describe the suppression of this innocent discovery: "Luego los maestros le ensefiaran a dudar, a cerrar los ojos, le prohibiran e l himno de l a Venus Armoniosa" ( i b i d . ) . In Ju l i o ' s seminary the rigorous d i s c i p l i n e f a i l s i n i t s ef f o r t s to banish the e r o t i c . J u l i o becomes more and more obsessed with the mystery of a woman's body.. His knowledge of female anatomy has been confined to images of mutilated or semi-clothed saints and coldly s c i e n t i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n "un texto antiguo de Ginecologia, desechado por e l medico" (Convidado, p. 38). His most urgent desire i s "reconstruir aquella ideal estructura, totalmente, en su perfecta y viva integridad" ( i b i d . ) . During his time as a seminarist J u l i o has the occasional experience with a p r o s t i t u t e , but his aesthetic aspirations remain frustrated. A g i r l l i k e A r a c e l i i s always i n too much of a hurry and therefore "enemiga de l a pura contemplaci&n e s t S t i c a " (Convidado, p. 39). Later, i n Lo rojo y lo a z u l , he i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d a f t e r s i x orgias t i c days with Rubl, "porque sin dinerp e l amor pierde a l momento sus falsas purpurinas; se le ve t a l cual es: un poco de mon6tona vehemencia que va apagSndose" (Rojo, p. 126). He i s physically - 38 -satiated but a e s t h e t i c a l l y disappointed. The reason i s that the couple's poverty makes them hasten to lose themselves i n blind passion; Rubi has no resources other than pure animal sexuality, and this soon bores J u l i o , who "imaginaba e l amor como c i e r t a complicada estructura donde e l goce sensual fuese ofrecido a l a vez por todos sus elementos. . . . Para J u l i o l a desnudez de una hembra s61o podia ser cierto tema de primer tSrmino en una complicada partitura v i v a " (pp. 188-189). When a man i s engaged i n aesthetic contemplation of a woman he i s not r e a l l y behaving as a lover. He might as we l l be looking at a painting, a view, a sculpture. . . except that for Jarnfis' lovers a woman's body i s thei r favourite object of con-templation. The naked body i s mormally exposed to view only by a wife, mistress or night-club performer, but the connection with love, sexual desire, a f f e c t i o n , etc. i s i n c i d e n t a l . Contemplation i s a private, self-contained a c t i v i t y . In Jarnes i t i s often associated with dehumanization. The observer derives a special kind of pleasure from the mental exercise of analysing and abstracting the nude form, just as J u l i o , i n the seminary, found i t rewarding to eliminate from a photograph of two g i r l s everything except E s t r e l l a ' s smile. Such dehumanization i s often accompanied by mathematical calculation or problem-solving. Thus i n the night-club i n Teoria del zumbel, "calcula Bermudez l a edad de las seis amigas por e l angulo que forman sus senos con l a tabla torScica" (p. 77). Arturo, watching Matilde, ponders: ",jPor que l a forma conica es en - 39 -los senos mas dulce de gustar que l a hemisferica?V (Locura, p. 57). This kind of pleasure demands great awareness and s e l f -control, but the lover can derive equally intense enjoyment from the opposite: unseeing, uncalculating oblivion. For Arturo, such renunciation of the s e l f i s the only way he can t r u l y l i v e i n the present: VArturo se siente resbalar por l a deliciosa pendiente que le empuja a ser un ente colectivo, un numero de masa, un Nadie que desmenuza lentamente su gozosa postura de hombre s i n ramificaciones sociales, s i n tentaculos domesticos, sin opiniones, s i n p r e j u i c i o s , sin pasado y sin futuro, con un fugaz y encantador presente" (Locura, p. 59). In Paula y P a u l i t a , J u l i o enjoys a similar loss of s e l f . The experience i s i n t e n s i f i e d because he has just been meditating on the vanity of trying to be unique. He makes love to Paula, indistinguishable i n the darkness from her daughter -- or from any other female -- l e t t i n g himself "ser un ente que goza en borrarse todo gesto i n d i v i d u a l " (p. 142). Again one finds the acceptance of a l i m i t a t i o n as a key to pleasure: self-consciousness i s irrelevant to sex and ri s k s spoiling the experience. Arturo rejoices when Matilde c a l l s him Alfredo by mistake, whereas his inept friend Juan Sanchez f l i e s into a rage when a prostitute confuses him with "un t a l Juan Martinez" (Locura, p. 98). As already mentioned, the hero i s not to be idealized or presented as any kind of superman. This applies also to the lover. Jarnes often places him i n a ludicrous s i t u a t i o n , usually making - 40 -him aware of his own absurdity and thereby preventing him from taking himself too seriously. There are numerous examples. The opositor has no chance to protect Susana from her assailant because the l a t t e r f a l l s over a chair. (Escenas). The profesor has great d i f f i c u l t y gauging what distance should separate him from his new p u p i l , Garlota, as. they walk along the street (El profesor i n u t i l ) J u l i o (of Paula y Paulita) enters the wrong hotel room, immediately becomes known to everyone as " e l joven que anoche se metio en e l cuarto de una seftora" (p. 63), and seals his fate for the rest of his holiday. Such situations, calculated to make the hero look, and f e e l , gauche and i l l equipped for heroism, are used with especially comic effect i n the short stories of Salon de  estio . Although neither lovers nor love a f f a i r s are idea l i z e d , the fact that people do cherish ideals i s recognized. But since Jarnes 1 lover tends to be an extremely l u c i d character, aware of his own imperfections and limit a t i o n s and able to regard them with irony, he knows he w i l l not find his i d e a l . Each person creates his ideal of love to his own specif i c a t i o n s , which cannot a l l be met by one partner. Rather than spend his l i f e i n a f u t i l e pursuit, James' character prefers to s e t t l e for a compromise. He can either invent a f i c t i t i o u s love or, l i k e the profesor, "acudir a cualquier provisional resumen que e l azar nos t r a i g a " (Prof., p. 247). Instead of contrasting each imperfect specimen with his notion of the ideal woman, the profesor strives to synthesize the best elements - 41 -of a l l the women he has known, and project the r e s u l t , p r o v i s i o n a l l y , on to the woman of the moment. For him, therefore, the anonymous prostitute at the end of the novel sums up Ruth, Herminia, Carlota, and Rebeca, adds as her own contribution her "fina delgadez" (p. 257), and ; i s , for a b r i e f s p e l l , a l l that the profesor can desire. - 42 -FOOTNOTES 1 Benjamin Jarnes, Lo rojo y l o az u l : Novela (Madrid, 1932), p. 67. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Rojo". 2 Putnam,. "Benjamin Jarn£s y l a deshumanizaci&n del arte," p. 18, - 42 -CHAPTER IV: THE INTELLECTUAL Jarnes 1 novels demonstrate both the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the i n t e l l e c t , the Merlin of the legend. In order to bear f r u i t , Merlin's accomplishments have to combine with Viviana *s. As already mentioned i n Chapter I , Jarnes avoids meta-physical conjecture i n favour of close attention to phenomena within reach of direct human experience. Preoccupation with insoluble questions i s a waste of time and energy and eventually leads to a paralysis of the v i t a l forces. Reason, which should be man's most useful tool for dealing with the chaos of his s i t u a t i o n , f a i l s i f i t simply leads him to a confrontation with a few insoluble abstract problems, "ou l'Stre se s i m p l i f i e jusqu'a l a so t t i s e et i l se noie au l i e u de nager dans les circonstances de l'eau."''' Jarnes and his i n t e l l e c t u a l characters.are familiar with this state of impotent pessimism, but there i s an alternative to despair: the mind can apply i t s e l f to grasping what positive q u a l i t i e s the world has to of f e r . I t can create i t s own pleasure by playing i n t e l l e c t u a l games, inventing metaphors, studying the habits of ants and gnats, focusing i t s attention on the concrete and p a r t i c u l a r instead of on the abstract. Jarnes' novels themselves embody the p r i n c i p l e of. steering away from pessimism to a hedonistic attitude which i s far from naiive. Jarnes prefers to entertain his readers rather than to frighten them; wri t i n g of Juan Sanchez's neurotic terror of being engulfed i n the crowd, he comments: Yo he sentido ese miedo, me he sentido desfallecido, - 44 -aniquilado. Pero he preferido siempre no asustar a los demas. Tampoco hoy quisiera asustar a mis buenos amigos. (Locura, pp. 12-13) He chooses to l e t the "gran pulpo", the threat to i n d i v i d u a l i t y , hide under the surface, while Juan Sanchez amuses the reader i n a Chaplinesque fashion. The most important of James' i n t e l l e c t u a l heroes are the first-person narrators of SI profesor i n t l t i l and Escenas junto a  la muerte. They are i n fact probably the same person: James t dedication of the l a t t e r novel suggests that i t i s a continuation of the former, and the opositor refers b r i e f l y to previous r e l a t i o n -ships with Carlota and Ruth. J u l i o may also be regarded as an i n t e l l e c t u a l , especially as tie appears i n E l convidado de papel. In Lo rojo y l o a z u l , while he i s not a "professional" i n t e l l e c t u a l , he i s nevertheless a perplexed thinker, at odds with m a t e r i a l i s t i c society and inh i b i t e d by his scruples from either joining i t or destroying i t . J u l i o and the profesor share an aversion to s e t t l i n g down and joining the ranks of the bourgeoisie. The opositor, who i s older, though no more m a t e r i a l i s t i c , has by the end of Escenas married and established himself as a catedratico. These characters are presumably of humble o r i g i n . We know that J u l i o ' s family was poor and that his only alternative to being a farm labourer was to enter a seminary. No background i s provided for the profesor or the opositor, but their lack of f i n a n c i a l resources i s indicated - 45 -by the employment they take --.positions as tutors or clerks. They are people who are not quite of the middle class but whose intelligence and education have detached them from the working class. The profesor shows l i t t l e concern about his s o c i a l position or his future and the opositor i s on the way to establishing h i s , but for J u l i o the problem i s c r u c i a l . He flounders about i n a world which has no sympathy for one who "no conoce ningun modo de conquistar este mundo v i s i b l e porque s61o le ensefiaron los modos de conquistar e l i n v i s i b l e " (Rojo, p. 16). Society expects a young man to have plans for the future and i s h o s t i l e to the d r i f t e r who would l i k e f i r s t to comprehend the present. Although J u l i o has repudiated the seminary his "equipaje i n t e r i o r " (p. 10) contains values and an expactation of l i f e more elevated than those of the c a p i t a l i s t world he has entered. He has learnt to think, but has no useful s k i l l , and he soon feels resentment against a society which despises and humiliates the thinker i f he happens to be poor. When he i s snubbed and swindled by the i l l i t e r a t e grocer his indignation i s not that of the exploited worker, but that of the exploited i n t e l l e c t u a l : Estudiar toda mi vida, ,rpara que? Para poner mi i n t e l i g e n c i a a las 6rdenes de cualquier salchichero que n i siquiera me paga. ^Tiene algun valor l a inteligencia? (p. 142). I t i s obvious that JarnSs sympathizes with J u l i o ' s plight as long as the young man i s trying to discover his true s e l f and the dir e c t i o n his l i f e should take. When J u l i o leaves Augusta to j o i n the army he has "un programa v i t a l completamente en bianco" (Rojo, p. 10). His l i f e has scarcely begun, though he i s twenty-- 46 -one years old, because his education i n the seminary was a false t r a i l . He could not be expected to know his own destiny. He wants to investigate and to learn by experience, without preconceived ideas. Jarnes approves of this attitude; comparing J u l i o with Guillermina, he comments: Su sentido de l a vida era opuesto. E l de Guillermina era bien claro; por eso era tan dudoso. El de J u l i o parecla demasiado obscuro; por eso era tan humano. Guillermina lo preestablecia segun datos que reputaba autenticos: J u l i o no tenia otros datos que su propia vehemencia, que su propio i n s t i n t o v i t a l , (p. 19) As the novel proceeds, however, James 1 sympathy diminishes, because although J u l i o gets to know himself better, he does not remain f a i t h f u l to the self he discovers. Referring to the snub by the grocer and Juli o ' s reaction to i t -- joining the Marxists --Jarnes asks: "^Quien creera en un hombre que se aprovecha del gran dolor humano para enlazar l a inquietud que le causa cualquier picadura de esos vulgares mosquitos de l a contadicci6n?" (p. 145) Ju l i o ' s revolutionary sentiments are f a l s e . He does not hate and he does not believe that Jhe-, i s working for so c i a l j u s t i c e , or that a heaven on earth w i l l follow.a s o c i a l i s t revolution. The whole of this part of his l i f e i s based on a betrayal of his better nature and better judgment. He i s the more g u i l t y because i n honest moments he admits his hypocrisy, but repeatedly suppresses his true feelings. Ultimately he cannot l i v e up to the role he has assigned himself. He discovers he i s unable to k i l l and, i r o n i c a l l y , his f a i l u r e to k i l l one man contributes to the execution of seven. - 47 -J u l i o i s d i s l o y a l to his llnea i n t e r i o r or llnea de l a  vida, a concept which i s explained by the profesor; Muy tarde solemos conocer nuestra propia l l n e a , porque nada m5s arduo que e l conocimiento de s i mismo; pero, una vez conocida, n^o debemos conservarla a todo trance? Es acaso lo f a t a l ; pero lo mas l e a l consigo mismo es admitir esa f a t a l i d a d , defenderla, encauzarla, no desear nunca t o r c e r l a , como nunca se desea torcer e l esqueleto. (Prof., pp. 110-111) This i s the message which the lieutenant whom J u l i o should have k i l l e d delivers at the end of Lo rojo y lo a z u l : J u l i o i s a generous, non-aggressive person who should regard his peaceful, amorous nature as a blessing, not as cowardice, and leave others to hate and k i l l . In a young person the Itnea i s s t i l l f l e x i b l e and developing, and the profesor realizes that his own i s not yet "definitivamente elaborada" (p. 110). D r i f t i n g , experiment, hesitation, reluctance to commit oneself are a l l c haracteristic of the young man set on making his own evaluation of the world and his place i n i t . But the mature adult should have achieved some s t a b i l i t y , so that his a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and behaviour are consistent. The profesor's monologue continues: . . . es bueno conservar l a linea del cuerpo, pero mucho mas l a del e s p l r i t u . Notemos l a diferencia entre e l hombre opuesto en ideas a nosotros, pero de ideas firmes, por las cuales es capaz de s a c r i f i c i o , y e l hombre cuya opini6n se nos escapa, cuya llnea de conducta se nos borra o se nos pierde por caminos sospechosos... Aunque este hombre pretenda compartir nuestras ideas, mo preferiremos a l otro? (pp. 112-113) By firm ideas, however, the profesor does not mean complacency, - 48 -authoritarianism or idees repues. The mind should never become s t a t i c , but th i s does not prevent the d e f i n i t i o n of the linea  i n t e r i o r or intimidad. Writing of the function of the intimidad i n Cartas a l Ebro, Jarnes says: ". . . e l hombre no ha de ser cofre ambulante, sino una sensitiva maquina de devolver en deleite e l combustible de ideas comunes que hurte de aqui^y a l i a " (p. 136). Happiness i s possible i f only those ideas which are t r u l y compatible with the inner s e l f are retained; the selection and pruning processes have to be continuous. In a study of the i n t e l l e c t u a l hero i n French l i t e r a t u r e , Victor Brombert says: "Pain and l u c i d i t y are excellent tragic associates. The i n t e l l e c t u a l hero faces the widest range of suffering with the maximum degree of awareness. That JarnSs' hero feels this pain i s shown by the opositor's s u i c i d a l d i s -illusionment i n the prelude to Escenas junto a l a muerte, or by Jul i o ' s l u c i d assessment of his f a i l u r e at the end of Lo rojo y lo azul . But Jarnes does not create tragic heroes: he prefers more modest characters who are subject to attacks of depression and lassitude but who manage to find some way of emerging from them and continuing the struggle. As already mentioned (above, p. 35) th i s often involves narrowing the focus and concentrating on l i t t l e things. A l t e r n a t i v e l y one can l e t the senses take over from reason. "Sentir, cuando se trata de razonar, es malo. Razonar, cuando se trata de ver, es peor" (Teoria, p. 16). Jarnes has one character who commits suicide. He i s the Englishman, Mr. Brook, who shares with J u l i o the hero's role i n - 49 -Paula y P a u l i t a . His l u c i d i t y leads him to see man as the slave of "Cronos, e l gran tirano" (p. 200) and to picture with intolerable vividness his own degeneration and s e n i l i t y . For him the only freedom i s to f o r e s t a l l time and to cut off his l i f e i n middle age before his i n d i v i d u a l i t y becomes obscured by anonymous old age. Jarnes comments: "La raz6n es l a gran aniquiladora. Ha cultivado Brook con exceso la raz6n" (p. 160). Brook i s aware that his enemy i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m and before his death he repudiates i t . His to f i n a l toast is/the the destruction of the old abbey with i t s history and legends, "y que sobre l a hierba y con e l ritmo perenne del agua, un equipo de gimnastas desnudas purifiquen de espectros la Abadia" (p. 207). J u l i o i s Mr. Brook's a l t e r ego, to whom the older man bequeaths his s p i r i t along with his notebooks. J u l i o s t i l l has youth and vigour, without which Brook cannot bear to l i v e , but he lacks d i r e c t i o n . Brook stimulates his v i t a l energy. After his death J u l i o says: "Prendio en ml su alegrfa, su sed de f e r t i l i z a r cada hora con un nuevo afdn, con una idea nueva" (p. 213). Brook's suicide cannot be regarded as tragic because i t i s an affirmation of the value of l i f e : "Par6 su vida en e l momento en que comenzaba a parecerse a l a muerte" ( i b i d . ) . The phrase "profesor i n u t i l " occurs several times i n Jarnes' works as well assbeing the t i t l e of his f i r s t novel. On a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l the profesor i s unsuccessful because the subjects he teaches are of considerably less interest to himself and his - 50 -students than i s sex. Oily tie Libro de Buen Amor succeeds, momentarily, i n arousing Valentin's c u r i o s i t y , and the profesor's exposition of love i s intended not for-his ears but for Ruth's, should she be eavesdropping. Sexual a t t r a c t i o n from the start d i s t r a c t s both the profesor and Carlota, and when she f a i l s her mathematics examination, i t i s because of the erot i c turn her geometry classes have taken: her cylinders and cones have never been amputated, so she does not know how an e l l i p s e i s formed! The phrase "profesor i n u t i l , " however, raises two more serious questions: how much knowledge i s worth and to what extent teaching i s useful, or even possible. Jarnes has no time for pedantry or for dry erudition which has lo s t touch with l i f e and disallows imagination. Mr. Brook eliminates the scholar i n himself on his l a s t day a l i v e : "Profesor, i n u t i l profesor: ;Se acab6 l a raz6n! Paso franco a l a audaz fantasia" (P. y P., pp. 162-163). BOqks^Sjlike people, should be l i v e l y and not too serious: "Cuando l a temperatura del pdrrafo crece y va a apuntar e l profesor--ese profesor i n u t i l que tantos llevamos dentro--, izas!, un papirotazo y encasquetarle un revoltoso imagen" (Rubricas, p. 69). Learning i s useful only when i t enriches a person and increases the quality of his l i f e : "Archivo ambulante: s i no estudias para v i v i r mas intensamente, ^por que estudias?" (Viviana, p. 82). Even then, study;-alone i s not s u f f i c i e n t : i t must be combined with other a c t i v i t i e s . Head, heart, and i n s t i n c t s cannot be divorced from each other. Although i n general Jarnes scorns the sentimental connotations of - 51 -the heart, the opositor's mysterious i l l n e s s i s heart trouble i n both physical and metaphorical senses, and he reproaches himself for ignoring the heart, now i n r e b e l l i o n , for years. Jarnes has doubts about the value of teaching. Learning occurs p r i v a t e l y and often i n spite of formal instruction rather than because of i t . J u l i o , i n the seminary, obviously p r o f i t s l i t t l e from his lessons, and, on the other hand, learns a great deal from the smuggled books circulated i l l e g a l l y i n study time and from the enforced meditation periods which allow free rein to his imagination. He apparently reaches a high standard i n sehool-work but this i s due to his r e l i a b l e memory, "tan u t i l para repetir con del i c i o s a inconsciencia paginas enteras de los textos" (Convidado, p. 43). Here, however, Jarnes i s c r i t i c i z i n g rote-learning rather than more enlightened educational methods. In Feria  del l i b r o he l i s t s the duties of the teacher as knowing the p u p i l , stimulating him and d i s c i p l i n i n g him, -/none of which implies teaching i n the sense of imparting factual knowledge. He expresses p a r t i c u l a r approval of the idea of encouraging adolescents to express themselves i n free composition. In the "Discurso a Herminia" the profesor realizes that his r u s t i c pupil Juan understands nothing he hears but that he can learn from his teacher's voice and personality. From a personal friendship, instead of a formal p u p i l -teacher relationship, much can be gained, but, . . . Entonces, ^que lecci&n podria darse y recibirse sino una pura lecci6n de humanidad? Q^ue texto, entonces, podria yo explicar a Juan, como no fuese un texto probablemente i n u t i l , e l texto de mi mismo? (Prof., p. 17) - 52 -In fact the profesor f a i l s even i n t h i s , for .he does not manage to entice Juan away from Ceferino to an interest i n heterosexual 1: relationships. Teaching i s limited by what the pupil can learn; the basic personality cannot be altered, for i t was formed i n early childhood. In an a r t i c l e onAdler's psychology, Jarnes remarks: "Lo que e l hombre ha de afirmar-- aquello, en f i n , por lo cual un hombre es t a l hombre--no puede enseftarlo l a vida" (Feria, p. 225). Jarnes 1 teachers are frequently relegated to the position of learner by their female students. This i s to be expected, for while man represents sabidurla -- the i n t e l l e c t , l o g i c a l thought, theoretical knowledge -- woman embodies gracia --the i n s t i n c t s and emotions, i n t u i t i v e knowledge -- and each has much to learn from the other. The profesor delivers a lecture on the Maja desnuda's breasts, but Ruth i s the teacher of p r a c t i c a l anatomy. Isabel has'scarcely learnt to read when the profundity of one of her remarks causes the opositor to say: "Soy para t i un profesor i n u t i l . Sabes mas que yo" (Escenas, p. 188), With Isabel he has experienced an archetypal union of sabiduria and gracia , but his possessiveness spoils i t . He i s unwilling to share her with the rest of the world. He i s punished for such arrogance by marrying a woman whose nude form i s available to the public i n the form of a statue of vic t o r y , and he bows before Isabel's sarcastic comment: Sal i s t e ganando. Cuando tu Matilde se desmorone, podras seguirla viendo en plena lozania ... de piedra por todas las provincias de EspaTta. E l papel de las revistas donde mi desnudez se conserva es mucho menos resistente. (p. 252) - 53 -Jarnes 1 i n t e l l e c t u a l s are extremely introspective and the process and results of their self-examination are expounded i n d e t a i l . Self-knowledge i s v i t a l for discovering and remaining f a i t h f u l to one's linea i n t e r i o r . Jarnes 1 novels themselves are an externalization of his intimidad. He writes i n Cartas a l Ebro of the combined pain and pleasure of s e l f - a n a l y s i s : Esta tortura de ver siempre claro dentro del propio coraz6n . . . puede atenuarse a l volcar en e l papel nuestra desnuda intimidad. La confesi6n fue siempre medicina. Esta angustia de l a sinceridad llega a trocarse en deleite--deleite enfermizo, aunque intenso--, en un v i c i o secreto y, por serlo a s i , de los mas sabrosos. (p. 135) A very similar passage occurs i n Lo rojo y lo azul when J u l i o i s i n prison and embarks upon " l a m&s peligrosa aventura: (el) conocimiento de s i mismo" (p. 64). The'Heleite enfermizo " i s n a r c i s s i s t i c and can become obsessive. Jarnes considers that only the i n h i b i t e d , neurotic person w i l l spend much time indulging i n this secret vice. For the "intimidad robusta" (Rojo, p. 65) introspection w i l l soon give way to an outgoing movement and be translated into action. J u l i o ' s intimidad i s not robust, but he aspires nevertheless to be a man of action. He f a i l s at each attempt. As a revolutionary he can be only an agitator, defined by follows: "El hombre de agitaci&n suele ser hombre de. acci6n fracasado" (Fauna, p. 41). The hero, the true man of action, cannot usually be very introspective because he has to be competitive and able to commit himself. The introverted i n t e l l e c t u a l - 54 -i s often inhibited from action by his awareness of complexity and corresponding reluctance to take sides. In the seminary J u l i o i s already aware that he cannot be a r e a l , l i v e hero. The people who can are those with less imagination. J u l i o , however, has the advantage of being able to f u l f i l many heroic roles i n his fantasies. J u l i o invents i n t e l l e c t u a l games for his private delectation. He provides f i l m rflles for himself, embroiders B i b l i c a l s t o r i e s , experiments with variations on Arturo's love story. . . but i n addition to invention, he learns to derive pleasure from abstraction. From a photograph of two g i r l s he eliminates a l l but the "zigzagueo luminoso" (p. 118) of Es t r e l l a ' s smile because i n doing so he enjoys "mas refinadas voluptuosidades" (p. 117). JarnSs uses the word alquimia to describe the process and points out that J u l i o concentrates his emotion, whereas Romantics l i k e Arturo d i l u t e t h e i r s , dissolving i t "en grandes anforas" (p. 118) and sprinkling i t l y r i c a l l y over the world around them. The older i n t e l l e c t u a l heroes also play games, both for pleasure and as an escape from painful thought or emotion. I have already mentioned the profesor's reversion to childhood after his separation from Ruth (above, p. 3 4 ) . He i s beaten at his own game by rea l children, but Herminia provides him with a better one: that of l i v i n g i n the "pluscuampresente" tense. The object of this game i s to escape from "estos cadaveres de pensamientos, de - 55 -este campo e s t S r i l donde l a raz6n . '. . amenaza con sus ultimas flechas" (Prof., p. 124). The profesor makes another attempt to return to childhood after his disquieting experiences with Rebeca and Tr6tula. After watching children fl o a t -- and lose -- boats made of newspaper, he drops Rebeca's photograph into the pond and feels great r e l i e f . But t h i s time neither his i n t e l l e c t nor his game serves him, for he i s dealing with i r r a t i o n a l forces. The celebration of his freedom and rejuvenation i s short-lived, for he receives news that Rebeca has drowned. Apparently the occult forces have triumphed and the profesor has unwittingly k i l l e d by black magic, confirming the indications of murder on his palm. The profesor -- a r a t i o n a l i s t --r e c o i l s from the idea that Tr6tula and her i l k may indeed have supernatural powers but, of course, the question of magic or coincidence can never be proved either way. The profesor's accomplishments are useless again: he t r i e d to wean Rebeca from her superstitious b e l i e f s only to find himself implicated by two deaths and puzzled by phenomena which make'a mockery of his arrogant rationalism. Perhaps his predicament i s the result of an impertinent and insensitive invasion of female t e r r i t o r y . In the "Dedicatoria" of "Tr6tula", Jarnes equates Lucifer with Viviana and the-eternal female - - a desirable and enchanting incarnation of the d e v i l , but one whom reason cannot touch because the d e v i l l i e s and deceives. . . Reason i s a necessary implement and James' i n t e l l e c t u a l heroes make good use of i t , but i t i s only one of man's attrib u t e s . - 56 -I t s l i m i t a t i o n s are summarized i n the following passage of Carl Jung which Jarnes quotes i n the "Nota preliminar" to Teoria del zumbel: En todas partes se encuentra lo i r r a c i o n a l , l o discordante con l a raz6n. Y este elemento i r r a c i o n a l es tambiSn una funci6n psicol6gica; es precisamente lo inconsciente colectivo, mientras que l a funci6n de l a conciencia consiste esencialmente en l a raz&n. La conciencia ha de tener l a raz6n para descubfir en el caos de los casos individuales desordenados del universo un orden, y tambien para crearlo, por lo menos en l a esfera humana. (pp. 15-16). - 57 -FOOTNOTES Paul Valery, quoted i n Prof., p. 99. Victor Brombert, The Intellectual.. Hero. Studies i n the French Novel, 1880rl955 (University of Chicago Press: Phoenix ed., 1964) p. 103. - 58 -CHAPTER V: THE NOBODY Each person i s the centre of his world. He matters -- to himself -- as does nothing else. As the opositor remarks: "^Que puede importarnos--confesemoslo todos--, que puede importarnos la muerte de un hombre ante l a muerte de un d i a , de uno de nuestros  dias?" (Escenas, p. 204). The opositor continues: " e l tiempo somos nosotros mismds" which i s a corollary of Ortega's "yo soy yo con mis circunstancias," for time i s the one circumstance on which every existence depends. Less despotic than time are other circumstances which intimately affect the individual -- place, soc i a l and economic pressures, personal relationships. A person i s i n -come! vable without his circumstances,, and the circumstances are meaningless except when combined i n the context of an individual's l i f e . Jarnes expresses the theory i n geometric terms: "Cada momento de nuestra vida es e l vertice unico de muchos angulos que tienen un lado comun: nuestro propio a l i e n t o . Los otros lados son ajenas incitaciones" (Rubricas, p. 56). Man's fundamental self-centredness i s , however, only one side of a coin. The other side i s his pathetic in s i g n i f i c a n c e , the painful fact that every c h i l d has to learn: that his claim to the centre of the universe i s i n competition with everyone else's claim to the same p r i v i l e g e . Jarnes was the seventeenth c h i l d i n his family, so he must have learnt this lesso very early; there i s bitterness i n Adolfo's evocation of his childhood; he too was a seventeenth c h i l d , and as a l l the brothers had names ending i n - o l f o , - 59 --oldo, or -ardo, no one knew one from the other: "Los nombres eran otros tantos anzuelos que l a especie tendrla para procurarse un individuo m5s. Pero esta individualizaci&n apenas se lograba... The harsh, dehumanizing terms which Adolfo uses to describe his own procreation -- "cierto gastado mecanismo echado a andar por l a costumbre"; "dos sexos . . . instigados por cierto impulso cronometrico" (Convidado, p. 135)-- reveal a resentment against such senseless f e r t i l i t y which produces crowds rather than individuals. The dehumanizing effect of large numbers i s exacerbated by poverty, which i s "mas temible por su promiscuidad que por e l resto de sus calamidades" (Feria, p. 42) . Expressed i n another way, "No hay individuos en un v i a j e con b i l l e t e de tercera; s&lo hay series, expediciones, masas" (Rojo, p. 14). The combination of poverty and teeming humanity can have various effects on a c h i l d . I f he i s sensitive he may withdraw into himself to find the privacy and attention which he lacks. I f he i s i n t e l l i g e n t he may form the ambition of escaping at a l l costs from his unsatisfactory environment and i s p o t e n t i a l l y a relentless s o c i a l climber and money-maker. I t i s from a combination of s e n s i t i v i t y and int e l l i g e n c e that James' i n t e l l e c t u a l hero i s formed. Stendhal's Jul i e n Sorel, so much admired by J u l i o and by JarnSs himself, also combines these q u a l i t i e s , but i n him in t e l l i g e n c e pre dominates to the extent that he wages continuous war on his s e n s i b i l i t i e s and succeeds i n overcoming them. Jarnes' characters lack such determination and t h e i r ambition never rises to challenging - 60 -their s o c i a l superiors or competing with them on m a t e r i a l i s t i c terms. J u l i o , i n Lo rojo y l o az u l , naturally comes closest to emulating J u l i e n , but the gentle, timid, peace-loving side of his nature prevails over his ambition. When J u l i e n shoots Mme. R§nal he i s convinced he has k i l l e d her; when J u l i o i s required to shoot his lieutenant he feels compassion—"una absurda compasi&n" (p. 221) -- and postpones the deed u n t i l overcome by sleep. Ju l i e n feels remorse for his action; J u l i o , for his failunre to act. Ju l i e n goes to the gallows; J u l i o ' s g u i l t i s not even suspected. He i s a Juli e n Sorel manque, and the ending of Lo rojo y lo azul suggests that he w i l l go through l i f e as an amiable nobody. J u l i o i s a nobody i n the usual s o c i a l sense of a person without money, connections, authority, or any special talent. In addition, though, he i s placed i n circumstances which further obscure what outward i n d i v i d u a l i t y he has. In the seminary he i s just one of the community of black-clad adolescents: :; Nos parecemos todos. Casi e l mismo t r a j e , e l mismo andar... E l Seminario lo uniforma todo. (Convidado, p. 40) In the army too he wears uniform and behaves according to rules as a r b i t r a r i l y fixed- as those of chess. J u l i o i s one of the pawns, the humblest and most numerous chessmen with the most r e s t r i c t e d movements. The word pe6n -- with i t s double meaning of pawn and foot soldier -- occurs frequently i n Lo rojo y l o azu l . J u l i o , commenting s a r c a s t i c a l l y on Vigny's Servitude et grandeur m i l i t a j r e s - 61 -remarks: ". . . los soldados son peones de ajedrez, . . . las unidades tacticas no se componen de hombres, sino de numeros, de brazos mecanizados. . ." (p. 155). M i l i t a r y honour, for the common so l d i e r , l i e s i n f u t i l e and degrading a c t i v i t i e s l i k e sentry duty and menial tasks. Even at war the soldier cannot aspire to being anything but cannon-fodder. The seminary and the army are obvious and extreme examples of i n s t i t u t i o n s which reduce people to the status of s t a t i s t i c s or puppets, but JarnSs shows that there are many other situations which present the same threat. Any i n s t i t u t i o n , i n fact, i s by d e f i n i t i o n : anathema to the indi v i d u a l because i t depends on numbers of people acting i n accordance with established routines. Bourgeois materialism offers enslavement as surely as does poverty; a Right-wing dictatorship, which manipulates the masses, i s no better and no worse than Left-wing government by_ the masses; Saulo Bermudez, sole heir to a fortune, i s as hampered by his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and family traditions as J u l i o i s by his lack of them. S p i r i t u a l freedom l i e s i n staying aloof from a l l the c o n f l i c t i n g forces which threaten to submerge the individual and deprive him of his spontaneity, but withdrawal into the intimidad i s not a complete solution to the problem either. Self-knowledge i s not the same thing as se l f - a f f i r m a t i o n , though i t may be a preparation for i t . N a r c i s s i s t i c preoccupation with oneself i s f u t i l e unless eventually i t becomes productive. There has to be outward movement as well as inward; Jarnes makes th i s point i n a quotation from Ortega on the meaning of the verb v i v i r : - 62 -. . . resulta que v i v i r es, a l a vez, estar dentro de s£ y s a l i r fuera de s i ; es precisamente un movimiento constante desde un dentro--la intimidad reclusa del organismo--hacia un fuera, e l Mundo. . . . Para que l a v i t a l i d a d sea completa y sana es menester que ese movimiento se cumpla energicamente en su doble direcci6n. No solo s a l i r de s i a las cosas, sino traerse luego estas, apoderarse de e l l a s , internarlas, entraftdrselas. (Feria, pp. 102-103) The problem of how not to be a nobody i s very complex. Avoidance of the s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which would incur s p i r i t u a l death i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Various types of misanthropist and holgazan are dealt with severely i n Fauna contemporanea, and JarnSs divides p o l i t i c a l l y uncommitted people into neutrales and inm6viles. He sympathizes with the former because t h e i r i n t e g r i t y prevents them from choosing between unsatisfactory alternatives: they are i n a genuine dilemma. But the inm6viles , the "neutrales indiferentes o escepticos" (p. 134), who l i k e to c a l l themselves free, are i n fact merely i n e r t : their "freedom" i s "libertad para no avanzar" (p. 138). The uncommitted person, i n p o l i t i c s or any other issue, i s a kind of nobody f l o a t i n g i n limbo, without the reassurance which membership of one of the despised s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s would give him. I f his lack of commitment i s not due to indifference or laziness but stems from an u n f u l f i l l e d quest for something worthy of his dedication, such a person w i l l suffer. His anguish w i l l continue and even increase u n t i l he can apply his potential^energy to a cause i n which he believes. JarnSs' young heroes are at the stage of freeing themselves from those elements i n t h e i r background which they regard as chains, and of searching both inside and outside themselves for the path to fulfilment. Jarnes sympathizes with his young characters, and yet his sympathy i s not unmixed with impatience. This i s shown most c l e a r l y i n the long dialogue between J u l i o and Arturo i n Lo rojo y lo azul. As already stated (above, p. 46), the author's sympathy diminishes after his young hero becomes involved with the Marxists, and he appears to argue against him i n the person of Arturo. (The assumption i s supported by the fact that some of Arturo's opinions occur almost verbatim i n Fauna contemporanea,.) Arturo makes fun of J u l i o and cuts him down to s i z e , for he considers that his ideas are vain, excessively ambitious, and of no p r a c t i c a l application. J u l i o i s an i n t e l l i g e n t young man who i s l e t t i n g himself be misled by slogans and propaganda. He needs instead to recognize and accept his limitations, and then to work hard within them. When he asks p l a i n t i v e l y : "--^ No puedo hacer yo nada grande?" Arturo r e p l i e s : "--Por lo pronto, aprende a hacer bien alguna cosa pequeKa. Por ejemplo: zapatos, a r t i c u l o s de fondo, jaulas para g r i l l o s " (Rojo, p. 167). At the time these admonishments are t o t a l l y unacceptable to J u l i o , and Arturo does i n fact appear smug, narrow, and apathetic towards everything beyond his own comforts and his music. But i t i s true that Julio'a aspirations have become exaggerated and abstract and that they need to be brought down to a p r a c t i c a l and personal l e v e l . - 64 -Lo rojo y lo azul i s Jarnes 1 most conventional novel i n that i t t e l l s a story i n straightforward narrative and dialogue, with l i t t l e interruption by the author except to reveal the intimate workings of J u l i o ' s mind. In his other novels Jarnes experiments with different techniques and among these'are various methods of l i m i t i n g his heroes' p o s s i b i l i t i e s of action, that i s , of showing up the i r "nobody" facets. His heroes are predisposed to be nobodies because they are externally i n no way exceptional: as raw material for a novel they look unpromising. Their actions within the novel are either few and unremarkable, or else they are interesting only i n th e i r function of revealing character. I t would be contrary to Jarnes' idea of authenticity to create a picturesque man of action and plant him i n a situation teeming with heroic p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Genuine exceptional q u a l i t i e s are often more subtle than t r a d i t i o n a l l y heroic ones; opportunities for heroism do occur, but not to order: a reluctant passer-by i s as l i k e l y a candidate for such eventualities as the would-be adventurer; and f i n a l l y , i n the average s l i c e of l i f e the emotional temperature i s normal, events take place haphazardly, and only very rarely are a l l the elements of high drama found i n combination. I f the novel i s to be a mirror of r e a l i t y , the number of undramatic situations i t r e f l e c t s w i l l heavily outnumber the c r i s e s , and ordinary l i t t l e people w i l l s i m i l a r l y outnumber heroes. One way of keeping the hero i n a suitably humble position i s to make him a comic figure. Some examples of t h i s have already - 65 -been mentioned i n the examination of Jarnes 1 lover (above, p. 39). The humour depends p a r t l y on the hero's r e a l i z a t i o n of his own absurdity, and his actions are funny c h i e f l y because of the discrepancy between them and thei r preceding or accompanying thought pr ocesses. Thus i n Paula y Paulita the humour of Ju l i o ' s invasion of Paula's hotel room i s enriched by the fact that he has just used an elaborate arithmetical method of memorizing his own room number, instead of simply using his eyes. Furthermore, his ridiculous blunder nips i n the bud his arrogant pretensions to solitude and obscurity: now he has become one of the spa's c e l e b r i t i e s . Sometimes JarnSs takes w e l l known figures from l i t e r a t u r e or mythology and debunks their heroic a t t r i b u t e s . In "Andromeda" the.revamped Perseus i s a reluctant protagonist who distinguishes himself by his ineptitude. Ordered to close his eyes before the heroine's nudity, he i s then unable to untie the knots which bind her to the tree. He puffs and pants ungallantly as he t r i e s to carry her to the road. In the car, when he accidentally awakens her by caressing her wrist and breast, he i s so embarrassed that his f i r s t words are a b u l l e t i n on the exact latitude and longitude of t h e i r location. As the adventure continues his heroism wears even thinner, overshadowed by his fatigue and pangs of hunger. . . In " P e l i c u l a " , Romeo and J u l i e t suffer an even more drastic reduction of heroic stature and thei r story ends i n a banal, a n t i -climax instead of i n tragedy. Romeo "ama, pero no sabe reptar;" - 66 -as he t r i e s to climb up to J u l i e t ' s balcony he gets b l i s t e r e d hands, makes a noise, breaks things, and at the second f l o o r , "previo un ademan de tfagico desaliento, se deja caer, vencido" (Sal6n, p. 123). J u l i e t , more acrocatic, climbs down, while Romeo looks up her s k i r t . The story ends with Romeo fleeing on a motor-cycle and J u l i e t jumping out of a window -- straight into the arms of a guardia c i v i l ? These stories demonstrate the d i f f i c u l t i e s of r e a l - l i f e drama, especially i n a modern context. They also reveal the feet of clay which idols have; Jarnes has re-written these great love-stories with a child's perverse c u r i o s i t y about the mundane details which are not normally disclosed. There are echoes of Romeo and J u l i e t i n Teoria del  zumbel too, for Saulo and Blanca are i l l - s t a r r e d lovers whom society and chance contrive, to separate. Saulo i s not a comic character, but he i s . a nobody i n the sense that he i s a toy dependent on the whim of the various "children" who play with him or neglect him. This i s i n fact true of a l l the characters of the novel, for the theory of the t i t l e postulates a world peopled by spinning-tops which are whipped by God, the keeper of the zumbeles. I f God's attitude to his creation i s that of a c h i l d at play, the author, as a creator i n miniature, must have a similar attitude to his f i c t i t i o u s world: "Having realized that he i s playing the role of God, the a r t i s t must also admit that he often does not know what to create or what rules to follow." But when the top has been - 67 -whipped i t has a certain momentum of i t s own and can spin for a while without any attention from the player, so that at times even the author, even God himself, are i n the "nobody" po s i t i o n , for they are superfluous to the action. The author sets the novel i n motion but at a given point he t e l l s Blanca; "Pienso dejar sola a la acci&n. Ya no interrogo a nadie hasta e l epilogo" (Teoria, p. 147). In the i n t e r v a l , anything may happen. As Paul I l i e says, when art becomes a game, "the only structural law i s 4 that of chance." The author can, for example, declare "a favorable destiny for his characters even while allowing them to pursue less, appropriate alternatives . I t i s after the author's desertion that Saulo receives the telegram about his imminent bankruptcy which precipitates the events leading to his death; His story from this point i s f u t i l e and i l l o g i c a l ; and from the moment of his f i r s t car accident he ceases to exist except inside his own head, for as the momentum of the top decreases, he i s l e f t further and further behind the time governing the l i v i n g . Saulo i s now outside time, the one essential circumstance. The world goes on but i n i t he i s nobody. The only people who recognize him -- his servant and his secretary --take him for a ghost. The characters i n Teoria del zumbel have no rea l independence or power. Events are determined by objects. The author says to Blanca i n the epilogue: --Tu no eres un personaje. Ni Carrasco. Ni tu hermana. Ni siquiera Bermudez. Mis personajes son un zumbel, un r e l o j , un telegrama. . . (p. 251) - 68 -Even divine power i s l i m i t e d . God i s portrayed as " e l viejo te&sofo" who i n his dotage has reverted to children's games. His power i s now only t h e o r e t i c a l , while functional power i s i n the hands of the d e v i l , who runs an explosives factory opposite God's cabin. I have l e f t u n t i l l a s t a discussion of Locura de muerte  de nadie, James' most consummate treatment of the nobody. Juan Sanchez y Sanchez contends with a variety of forces, not least his own s e l f - c r i t i c a l l u c i d i t y , which causes him to appear to others and even to himself as someone or other, "otro cualquiera" (p. 32), that i s , no one i n p a r t i c u l a r . He i s obsessed by the desire to distinguish himself from the crowd, but even i n his supreme moments ( l i k e his appearance i n the newsreel film) he succeeds only i n representing the crowd. Juan Sanchez i s i n some respects a grotesquely comic figure, with his name tattooed across his chest and his nondescript face which reminds almost everyone of someone else. But Jarnes' treatment of him i s much less humorous than i r o n i c , and the irony becomes more cruel as Juan's madness develops and his self-assertive schemes become more 'preposterous. The brains behind the bank robbery, for example, are his,, and he places a l l his hopes on becoming a renowned criminal (by this time fame and notoriety are indistinguishable to him). But the crime i s attributed to Alfredo, who does indeed become something of a hero, and Juan's lamentations are interpreted as those of a particularly, hard-hit investor: --^Quien es? --pregunta un transeunte. --Nadie. los estafados. (p. 218) - 69 -His death too i s a cruel stroke of irony. He has planned to commit suicide, been talked out of i t by Arturo, and then, just when he i s convinced that he can after a l l make a fresh start i n l i f e , he i s run over by a truck, wiped out as by an eraser. And this ignoble death i s not even unique within his family: his mother suffered an i d e n t i c a l fate. As Paul I l i e points out, Juan Sanchez's l i f e i n the novel i s a series of post-climaxes, a situation which i s necessary because, ". . .since he i s . a non-hero, were he to be observed i n a climactic set of circumstances, he would not only become an indivi d u a l s e l f coping with his drama, but he would be heroic. Juan's story i s , of course, as contrived as the events which occur i n Teoria del zumbel during the author's supposed absence, but the avoidance of dramatic climaxes i s defended by Jarn6s. as being a f a i t h f u l r e f l e c t i o n of real l i f e , i n which many potential crises never materialize because some element i s missing at the c r u c i a l time: r" S61o un falso novelador puede recortar de aqui y a l i i trozos singulares de vida y acoplarlos . . . para hacerlos hervir ruidosamente, en un momento prefijado. En este breve r e l a t o , en este fragmento de l a vida de Juan Sanchez, no se tuvo l a fortuna de h a l l a r a los personajes en su punto de mas a l t a tensi6n. (Locura, p. 153) The general irony concerning Juan Sanchez, over and above his p a r t i c u l a r e x p l o i t s , i s that there i s ample material for a unique and exciting biography, but at every point some circumstance or other i s either missing or occurs at an inappropriate - 70 -time. Time i t s e l f serves Juan badly. He strongly suspects that his wife i s deceiving him with Arturo and Alfredo, but erupts at the wrong time to prove i t . Jarnes remarks: "Si Sanchez irrumpiese en un bosque salvaje, las fieras l e verian llegar indiferentes, porque en aquel momento estarian en plena digesti6n de alguna caravana acabada de e n g u l l i r " (p. 151). On other occasions Juan's own l u c i d i t y i s his enemy. He i s too c r i t i c a l to be s a t i s f i e d with f a c i l e solutions to the problem of proving himself. He attaches great hopes to the excursion to Monte Azul to investigate his ancestry, and i n fact his origins are picturesque compared with the ones he thought he had (a family of shopkeepers). He was the product of a l i a i s o n between the late count and a singer, a history on which Arturo congratulates him: --Su pasado es magnifico. Es una admirable novela" (p. 130). But i t i s too l a t e ; the magic was dispelled as soon as Juan learned that his mother was no prima donna, but a mere chorus g i r l . From that moment he sees his a r i s t o c r a t i c forebears for what they were, nobodies l i k e his mother and himself, " . . . r i d i c u l o s imitadores del a r t i s t a , del p o l i t i c o , del sabio" (p. 131). From them he i n h e r i t s his face and his obscure, s t e r i l e existence. • Juan Sanchez i s also a victim of introspection. For him, withdrawal into his intimidad has provided no "deleite personal" because every probe into his own mind has shown him- only attributes he shares with everyone else. "El siempre tropezo con esa red en la que todos los peces aprisionados son comunes a toda l a Humanidad. A s l comenz6 su locura" (p. 108). - 71 -But Juan's madness i s debatable; towards the end of the novel, when he has decided to commit suicide, his farewell speech to Arturo i s calm and l u c i d and reveals that he understands precisely why Matilde has been unfaithful to him: " ( E l l a ) busca a cierto hombre i n t e g r a l , que yo no pude llegar a ser. . . . Matilde es resignada y comprende que poseer una sl n t e s i s humana es aspirar a demasiado" (p. 222-223). She therefore compounds her own, of several lovers. I f Juan cannot be an "hombre i n t e g r a l " , neither can Arturo, who has brains, nor Alfredo, who has brawn. The "hombre i n t e g r a l " i s the sum t o t a l of attributes derived from a number of people, that i s , from the crowd.. Juan Sanchez cannot bear to be just one of the crowd --• a nobody -- though he i s supremely good at i t . Juan's problem i s everybody's problem, for everyone i s at the same time an entity i n his own right and a member of the crowd. Affirming the individual s e l f against the force of numbers has become so d i f f i c u l t as to be almost impossible. Arturo p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y sees mankind i n the l a s t phase of i t s era of "tipos o r i g i n a l e s " (p. 166). He demolishes one by one the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of distinguishing oneself -- bravery, wealth, passion, crime and predicts an age of standardized masses. Juan Sanchez l i v e s at an unpropitious time for transcending his insig n i f i c a n c e , but Arturo holds out this one crumb of hope for him: Busque, Juan Sanchez, una anfecdota cualquiera de usted; haga que l a cante un poeta y ambos pasaran a l a posteridad. Aun queda un margen para e l individuo... Pero no se atrase mucho." (p. 170) - 72 -Art can s t i l l vindicate the indiv i d u a l when a l l else f a i Jarn£s shows that i n a novel, even a nobody can be a her - 73 -FOOTNOTES 1 Convidado, nueva edici6n (Madrid, 1935), p. 157. This passage i s not found i n 1st ed. A l l subsequent quotations from 1st ed. 2 Benjamin JarnSs, Sal6n de es t i o : Novelas breves (Madrid, 1929), p. 123. Subsequent quotations indicated by "Salon". ^ I l i e , Surrealist Mode i n Sp. L i t . , p. 158. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . , p. 159. 6 Paul I l i e , "Benjamin Jarnes: Aspects of the dehumanized novel," PMLA, LXXVT (June, 1961), 249. - 74 -CHAPTER VI: THE HERO Jarnes' hero has been examined as a lover, an i n t e l l e c t u a l , and a nobody. I t remains to attempt a synthesis of his characteristics and to determine to what extent he i s heroic. In his capacities as lover, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and nobody he strives for i n d i v i d u a l i t y and freedom, for mobility, an intense l i f e , and a kind of happiness which he claims not as. an automatic right but as the result of a continuous struggle. The ef f o r t and i t s reward are described as follows by Victor Fuentes: La alegria y l a f e l i c i d a d se ofrecen . . . s61o a los seres que, por encima de todos los contratiempos y sufrimientos, afirman su vida, se sienten duettos de s i . Son un estado--estado de gracia--al que se llega despues de un arduo camino de perfecci6n, de un e j e r c i c i o ascetico de superaci6n. L i f e i s regarded as a series of journeys, not i n the Christian sense of t r a v e l l i n g the s t r a i t and narrow way towards death and immortality, nor i n the sense of s u p e r f i c i a l tourism, but rather as exploratory wanderings with plenty of time to examine the f l o r a and fauna beside the road. The t r a v e l l e r must be perpetually curious; c i t i n g Ortega, Jarnes defines true c u r i o s i t y as being the awareness of problems, and anything new and strange presents the observer with a problem. In order to be f u l l y a l e r t and capable of maximum response to new phenomena, the observer needs an a g i l e , uncluttered mind; he needs to travel l i g h t . A l l James' heroes demonstrate the desire to choose thei r own i t i n e r a r y and their own luggage. This i s symbolically represented i n Lo rojo y lo azul by Julio's lack - 75 -of possessions. When he leaves Augusta he has as luggage only a pr o v i n c i a l newspaper, which he throws away. Later, i n the prison c e l l , his intimidad i s represented by the few objects he carries i n his pockets, and even these are dispensable: a l l one r e a l l y needs i s oneself, i n good working order. Luggage, both material and mental i s often mere weight which impedes the t r a v e l l e r . The personality i s held back by preconceptions, memories, and other people's opinions. The point i s not to store ideas but to transform them into v i t a l energy. To return to the concept of the linea i n t e r i o r , (see above p. 47) i t i s useless to overfeed and to accumulate layers of f a t . Jarnes hero i s independent and r e s t l e s s . He i s opposed to pedantry, dogmatism, and complacency, and i s quick to notice them even i n himself. He wants to be confronted by new ideas, emotions, and sensations, and never to have his c u r i o s i t y blunted by f a m i l i a r i t y and routine. He i s therefore on his guard against any situation which threatens his freedom and which would lead eventually to boredom and s p i r i t u a l death. The ponderous legacy of the past i s a p a r t i c u l a r threat to the young man who wants a free and unburdened start to l i f e . At every step he meets opposition from a society which owes too much to t r a d i t i o n a l and outdated attitudes. In p a r t i c u l a r the nineteenth century haunts many aspects of l i f e i n the twentieth, affecting not only soc i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s but also personal attitudes and even emotions. Sentimental and idealized concepts of love are regarded by J u l i o i n E l convidado de papel as an old-fashioned fever which - 76 -should have been banished, but i t s germs s t i l l thrive where twentieth century l i g h t and a i r have not penetrated. Saulo (Teoria) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y weighed down by the past, as his drunken fantasies about his grandfather's watch show. The watch represents the regulated bourgeois l i f e which Saulo i s about to begin, but i t comes to symbolize Saulo's l i f e i t s e l f which e f f e c t i v e l y ends when the watch i s broken. The past represents one inert force. Another i s constituted by aspects of contemporary l i f e -- monolithic groups of people, rapid communications, mass media, world wars, c o l l e c t i v i s m , automation, and mass-production. The indi v i d u a l i s ever more puny when measured against his environment. This i s shown c h i e f l y i n Locura y muerte de  nadie, i n which Juan Sanchez struggles vainly and f r a n t i c a l l y to assert his i n d i v i d u a l i t y ; but the danger inherent i n large-scale organization i s revealed also i n Lo rojo y lo az u l . J u l i o reacts against the social hierarchy, which would either keep him poor or s e l l him into bourgeois bondage; he has escaped from the oppressive monastic l i f e ; and he i s equally d i s i l l u s i o n e d with the dehumanizing d i s c i p l i n e of the army. But instead of r e s i s t i n g the c o l l e c t i v e threat when i t presents i t s e l f under the Marxist f l a g , he joins the movement, and learns the hard way that this offers no solution either. The revolution feeds on petty discontent but i t has no place for personal scruples and s e n s i b i l i t i e s which i n h i b i t action.. Ultimately J u l i o i s thrown back on his own resources, which consist of the - 77 -positive q u a l i t i e s i n his own nature. The refusal of James 1 hero to commit himself to i n s t i t u t i o n s and his i n a b i l i t y to accept readymade solutions to questions which he feels he must answer himself mean that he i s often i n the position of spectator rather than that of active participant. The action i n most of these novels could be stated i n a few words. The hero has, however, a r i c h and energetic inner l i f e . His external circumstances foster introspection but he also cultivates i t deliberately. He finds pleasure as well as pain i n knowing himself thoroughly, and when he feels at one with himself he i s i n a position to see beauty and harmony i n the external world. The detached aesthetic experience i s a way of dealing with ugly facts which would otherwise be intolerably depressing. The passive r61es of spectator and introvert can, however, be carried to excess, to the extent where a person retreats behind a barrier and i s no longer capable of normal emotional responses. In the prelude to Escenas junto a l a muerte the s u i c i d a l opositor describes how the alegria he cultivated as a kind of protective game became a hermetic seal inside which his indifference gradually hardened. He reached the point where he could feel no sympathy for another's suffering. He had only two emotions l e f t : the aesthetic one, and revulsion at his own coldness. Reason can s i m i l a r l y become negative and d e v i t a l i z i n g i f cultivated i n i s o l a t i o n or to excess. The summit of Merlin's achievement, before he yields to Viviana, i s the s p e l l which turns - 78 -people to stone. This i s a figurative description of what happens^ when the l i f e goes out of study and human problems become generalized and abstract. James' hero i s not allowed to become a l l mind and brain or to confine himself to an ivory tower. When he places too much emphasis on i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s he i s dislodged•from his comfortable but one-sided existence as some manifestation of Viviana's power begins to function i n order to correct the balance. Jarnes' hero i s not a recluse or a misanthropist; he i s unsociable only i n the sense that he prefers to avoid dealings with crowds and to enter close relationships with individuals. The most important relationship i s that between the hero and a woman, or a succession of women, because the man cannot find fulfilment without the qu a l i t i e s he regards as feminine. A successful r e l a t i o n -ship i s based on the harmonious interaction of the mind with the senses, i n s t i n c t s , and i n t u i t i o n s , to the benefit of both partners. The delicate balance i s l i a b l e to be destroyed by elements extraneous to love but often associated with i t , such as possessiveness or the u l t e r i o r motive of moral reform or so c i a l advancement. Love should be generous and undemanding. I t should also be spontaneous and uninhibited; i f James avoids l y r i c a l sentimentality i t i s above a l l because i t i s often a hackneyed and h y p o c r i t i c a l disguise for the f e b r i l e state which results from frustrated sexual desire. I t i s therefore a false emotion fostered especially by nineteenth century puritanism. Sabiduria and gracia, and the love which springs from thei r - 79 -harmonious combination, are s p i r i t u a l values, but Jarnes 1 heroes move i n a m a t e r i a l i s t i c , tradition-ridden society, of which they are members whether they l i k e i t or not. They are not, after a l l , legendary characters with magical powers, l i k e M e r lin, but ordinary human beings, and Jarnes w i l l not allow them to be more. Various techniques which keep the hero i n his place have been described i n Chapter V, but one needs further discussion here: i n several novels the main character's position as hero i s challenged by another character. He i s usually a more active, pragmatic, or successful character than the hero, whose rSle i n re l a t i o n to him tends to be that of the spectator or commentator. In E l convidado de papel, Adolfo i s the hero of what story there i s . J u l i o ' s r81e i s almost e n t i r e l y i n a c t i v e : his adventures take place i n his imagination. Adolfo has had the experience of a real love a f f a i r which, instead of being cut short by the end of the summer holiday, follows him back to the seminary. Eulalia's v i s i t s are fraught with danger to Adolfo and her amorous attentions become a torment, arousing a mixture of desire and g u i l t . Adolfo grows pale and lovesick and eventually breaks out of the seminary. This story and Adolfo himself are presented through the eyes of J u l i o , who, though somewhat envious of his friend, i s well aware that he i s conventional and his story t r i t e . Nevertheless, the story has potential as the theme of a novel which J u l i o would l i k e to write. He would give i t a dramatic ending, such as suicide or execution, but a r e a l i s t i c assessment of Adolfo t e l l s him that a - 80 -much more probable denouement would be an exemplary bourgeois l i f e . Adolfo i s the sort of hero who would have to be rapidly disposed of once his adventure were over, because i n the context of everyday l i f e he would not have enough o r i g i n a l i t y to be interesting. J u l i o comes up against the problem faced by Jarn£s himself, of how to write an authentic novel which would maintain interest without relying on tension: "Estorba. mucho a l cronista de aventuras l a presencia tenaz de los aventureros, tan inferiores luego a su misma aventura--porque l a aventura es un trozo de vida en tensi6n, mientras l a vida normal acaba por r e l a j a r todas las cuerdas" (Convidado, p. 220). Jarnes solves the problem by presenting his hero i n circumstances not dependent on adventure and tension; so that although p o t e n t i a l l y Adolfo i s more interesting than J u l i o he has much less chance of surviving and transcending his own adventure. This novel i s a good example of the novel postulated by Ortega (Ideas  sobre l a novela). The plot i s minimal but character and environment (the "vida provinciana") are revealed i n a detailed, l e i s u r e l y fashion. In Paula y Paulita the hero's r61e i s shared by two characters and the challenger succeeds i n usurping the hero's, position for a while. In the f i r s t part of the novel the hero i s also the narrator. He i s a dreamy, rather ineffectual character, s o c i a l l y inept and inclined towards solitude. In spite of himself he becomes involved with Paula and P a u l i t a . He f a l l s i n love with the daughter but attracts only her mother, to whom he eventually makes love when - 81 -her face and i d e n t i t y are obscured by darkness and his abstracted mood. The second part of the novel, "Petronio", i s related i n the th i r d person. The narrator has become J u l i o , a character subordinate to Mr. Brook, Paula's former lover and Paulita's father. Brook has been an active man i n the past, but with advancing years his mind has outstripped his physical capacities, and he cannot bear to witness the onset of his own s e n i l i t y . He r e c a l l s having encountered his father, aged s i x t y , making merry i n a night clubhand i s determined never to become such a travesty of his younger s e l f . I f he cannot participate i n l i f e with a l l his f a c u l t i e s , he would rather be dead: "Como yo no puedo ser heroe, tampoco quiero ser espectador y cronista" (p. 179). The only heroism s t i l l possible for him i s a spectacular suicide which f o r e s t a l l s the annihilating onslaught of time. His death i s therefore a positive gesture, but even more positive i s his generosity i n passing on to J u l i o a l l that was best i n himself, his s p i r i t u a l values, and v i t a l i t y . In the "Nota f i n a l " J u l i o i s again the narrator -- and the hero. The two men have i n fact become one: J u l i o has assimilated the s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s of Brook, who thus ensures for himself the most worthwhile kind of immortality. Locura y muerte de nadie also has two heroes, and of the two Arturo i s much stronger and a much more successful person. The presence of the two a n t i t h e t i c a l heroes i s necessary because of the conception of the novel as a portrayal of no one i n p a r t i c u l a r . Juan Sanchez needs Arturo as a f o i l because a less different personality - 82 -would be indistinguishable from his own. Juan i s just one of the crowd, so that he cannot be allowed a d e f i n i t e personality, such as would emerge i f his intimidad were revealed i n depth. But he i s not the same thing as the crowd, which has a composite personality of i t s own, and therefore a certain i n d i v i d u a l i t y must somehow be conveyed to the reader. Arturo> provides a solution to this technical problem. He i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l character who takes pleasure i n exploring beneath Juan's nondescript surface, which no one else would bother to do, and who at the same time can record how Juan's exterior appears to the world. Arturo succeeds where Juan f a i l s , and yet he i s at times envious of Juan because he too has to contend with the problems of individualism versus group-membership, but i t affects him i n the opposite way. He has too much personality; i t isolates him from the crowd and he i s often lonely and bored. He has to cu l t i v a t e ways of suppressing his ego, which i s a handicap, for example, i n his work: he cannot write a report for an insurance company without i t s resembling personal memoirs. At the same time he i s aware that much of the burden of s e l f can never be known or shared by anyone else. Personality i s a soci a l phenomenon: "S61o nos conoceran (los demas) cuando una a r i s t a de nuestro ser roce e l suyo, les hiera, les haga volver los ojos" (p. 91). One reason for Juan's being such a f a i l u r e i s that he cannot believe i n his intimate s e l f -- unknowable to others -- unless i t i s recognized s o c i a l l y . As Jarnes says i n the prologue to this novel, "no se aparta de l a barandilla" (p. 12). But i f Juan f a i l s to be someone, he succeeds to his death i n being - 83 -no one, and so as the hero of this unusual novel he prevails over Arturo. Paul I l ie makes this comment on Juan: ". . . i f Juan Sanchez fails to acquire a unique set of character traits, at least he ceases to be indefinable within the collectivity by virtue of 2 his very consciousness of the problem." Juan has everything against him but he does put up an unceasing and courageous fight. His struggle against overwhelming odds both inside and outside himself gives him, after a l l , a kind of heroic stature. The same might be said of other apparently unheroic characters in Jarnes' novels. Saulo has the scales heavily weighted against him: Valdivia's committee threatens his hedonistic enjoyment of l i fe; Carrasco, the wet blanket, attempts to separate him from Blanca; his forebears reproach him in his conscience, the author abandons him. . . but when Saulo dies i t is in a last despairing attempt, in defiance of a l l opposition and obstacles - - even God's - - to get back to Blanca, the woman who has given him the unique authentic experience of his l i fe . The playwright in Tantalo, forbidden ©n falsified medical grounds to have his plays performed, has continued through the years to write, sublimating in his works the frustrations of his l i fe . Finally he attains success and recognition, but like the hero of his own play, "Vidas paralelas", he drops dead amid the applause. Even in these novels, where the main character dies, the final note is one of optimism, of affirmation of the l i fe that goes - 84 -on. Juan Sanchez i s reincarnated i n the epilogue of Locura y  muerte de nadie, as the novel returns to i t s beginning, when Arturo notices a man having trouble i d e n t i f y i n g himself i n the bank. This ending i s highly appropriate, i f not the one that Juan Sanchez would have chosen for his story. Teoria del zumbel ends with a r e p e t i t i o n of the description of a c h i l d playing with a top. But the c h i l d has a l i f e of his own, he transcends Saulo, his father, and i s out of reach even of the author. In Tantalo, J u l i o and Arturo observe a minutes silence i n honour of their dead protege and then return home' "alegremente". The heroes who survive to the end of t h e i r novel take their leave at a hopeful point i n the i r l i v e s . They turn the i r backs on the past and appear to be i n a strong position to face the future. The reader i s l e f t with the conviction that these are people whose l i v e s w i l l continue; they transcend the part of their biography which Jarnes has happened to write. They have been deeply involved i n their experiences, however tra n s i t o r y , i n the novel, but have retained or recovered the fundamental freedom which w i l l enable them to continue on their r e s t l e s s , exploratory way. J u l i o , i n Lo rojo y lo az u l , has had p a r t i c u l a r l y painful experiences. He i s u t t e r l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d with himself and can envisage only a colourless future as a neurotic nobody: Por primera vez se dio a l i i cuenta de que e l neur6tico es poco menos que un ente despreciable, sin cotizaci&n ninguna entre las hembras, con escasa valoraci6n entre los hombres. E l neur6tico podra ser un heroe momentaneo, en esos trances en que e l su i c i d i o se ofrece como un placer, pero es incapaz de heroismos perdurables, de persistencies u t i l e s , (p. 234) - 85 -But among the wreckage of J u l i o ' s ambitions appears the lieutenant whom J u l i o was supposed to k i l l and who could have ret a l i a t e d by having him executed for mutiny. The message which the lieutenant delivers -- that the i n a b i l i t y to k i l l i s not cowardice but generosity; that generosity i s the supreme s p i r i t u a l value, " l a tinica r e l i g i o n fecunda" (p. 236); that the regeneration of society can be accomplished only by the affirmation of positive personal values, not by mass hatred and c o n f l i c t -- could be Jarn6s' own exhortation to a l l Spaniards. Provided J u l i o heeds the lieutenant's words, leaves behind him his errors and g u i l t , and remains f a i t h f u l i n future to the generous, loving, and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c side of his nature, he w i l l emerge after a l l as a hero, at least i n his creator's eyes. Two f i n a l quotations describe some of the human qua l i t i e s which Jarnes most admired and which, i n their various ways and within th e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , his heroes embody: . EI verdadero e s p i r i t u no piensa en almacenar, sino en transformar. En i r y venir, como la abeja. Es l a inquietud, es e l movimiento quien produce los e s p i r i t u s . Nunca e l reposo. Y toda intimidad esta elaborada de inquietudes. De ahi l a f e r t i l i d a d de estos hombres que no encuentran reposo en e l amor, en e l arte, en l a fe. Hombres que de continuo se imponen una aspera tarea, l a duda. . . . Hombres cuya vida es una delgada pasarela sin f i n , sobre e l abismo. Temerosos de l a f e l i c i d a d - - l a eluden como a su peor enemigo--. Espiritus hirsutos, siempre en pie de guerra ante e l resto del orbe. (Cartas, pp. 136-137) - 86 -S61o podra verdaderamente llamarse hombre l i b r e e l hombre capaz de encadenarse de todo -- como e l i l u s i o n i s t a de feria--para mejor, y autenticamente, desembarazarse de todo. . . . S61o podra llamarse autSntico hombre i i b r e quien se deje arrastrar por todo y--como e l buen torero--sepa escamotear a tiempo su propia individualidad. (Fauna, p. 142) - 87 -Victor Fuentes, "Benjamin Jarnes: Aproximaciones a su intimidad y creacion," Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, LXXII 0-967), 39. I l i e , "Benjamin Jarnes: Aspects of the dehumanized novel," p. 248. Benjamin Jarnes, Tantalo; Farsa (Madrid, 1935), p. 202. - 88 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Brombert, Victor. The I n t e l l e c t u a l Hero: Studies i n the French Novel, 1880-1955. Phoenix edition, University of Chicago Press, 1964. Esquerra, Ram6n. "Stendhal en Espaffa," Revue de l a l i t t S r a t u r e  comparee, XVI (1936), 552-575. Ferrater Mora, Jose. Ortega y Gasset. London, 1956. Fuentes, Victor. "Benjamin Jarnes: Aproximaciones a su intimidad y creacion," Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, LXXII (1967), 33-40. Garcia Lopez, J . ,Historia de l a l i t e r a t u r a espagpla. 7th ed., Barcelona, 1963. Giraud, Raymond. The Unheroic Hero i n the novels of Stendhal, Balzac  and Flaubert. New Brunswick, 1957. I l i e , Paul. "Benjamin Jarnes: Aspects of the dehumanized novel," PMLA, LXXVI (June, 1961), 247-253. The Surrealist Mode i n Spanish Literature: An Inter- pretation of Basic Trends from Post-Romanticism to the  Spanish Vanguard. University of Michigan Press, 1968. Jarnfis, Benjamin. E j e r c i c i o s . Madrid, 1927. > El convidado de papel. Madrid, 1928. Nueva edici6n, 1935. Locura y muerte de nadie: Novela. Madrid, 1929. Paula y P a u l i t a ; Novela. Madrid, 1929. Sor Patrocinio, l a monja de las llagas: Biografla. Madrid, 1929. . „ Sal6n de es t i o : Novelas breves. Madrid, 1929. . Teoria del zumbel: Novela. Madrid, 1930. Viviana y Merlin: Leyenda. Madrid, 1930. m Escenas junto a l a muerte: Novela. Madrid, 1931. Rubricas: Nuevos e j e r c i c i o s . Madrid, 1931. - 89 -Jarnes, Benjamin. Zumalacarregui, e l caudillo romantico: Biografla. Madrid, 1931. Lo rojo y lo a z u l ; Novela. Madrid, 1932. m Fauna contempordnea: Ensayos breves. Madrid, 1933. . San Ale/jo. Madrid, 1934. E l profesor i n u t i l . Nueva edici6n. Madrid, 1934. (1st ed. 1926). _ . Castelar, Hombre del Sin a i . Madrid, 1935. Feria del l i b r o : Ensayos breves. Madrid, 1935.. _ ... Tantalo: Farsa. Madrid, 1935. . Doble agonia de Becquer. Madrid, 1936. # Cartas a l Ebro: Biografla y c r i t i c a . Mexico, 1940. (Written 1924-1939). _ _ _ . editor. Enciclopedia de l a l i t e r a t u r a . Mexico, 1947. Ortega y Gasset, Jose. E l tema de nuestro tiempo, Obras completas, 4th ed., v o l . I I I . Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1957. La deshumahizaci6n del arte, Obras completas, I I I . Ideas sobre l a novela, Obras completas, I I I . Putnam, Samuel, editor. The European Caravan: An Anthology of the  New S p i r i t i n European Literature. New York, 1931. "Benjamin jarnSs y l a deshumanizacion del arte," Revista Hispdnica Moderna, I I (1935-36), 17-21. Sainz de Robles, F.C. La novela espafiola en e l s i g l o XX. Madrid, 1957. Sim6n Diaz, J . Biblio g r a f t a de la l i t e r a t u r a espaftola. Barcelona, 1963. Stendhal (Henri Beyle) . Le Rouge et le Noir. Gamier ed., Pa r i s , 1960. Torre, Guillermo de. Hist o r i a de las l i t e r a t u r a s de vanguardia. Madrid, 1966. - 90 -Torrente Ballester, G. Panorama de l a l i t e r a t u r a espaffola. 2nd ed 2 vols. Madrid, 1961. Winecoff, Janet. "The Spanish Novel from Ortega to Cas t e l l e t : Dehumanization of the A r t i s t , " Hispania, L (1967), 35-38 


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