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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychological study of participants in high-risk sports Huberman, John 1968

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A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PARTICIPANTS IN HIGH-RISK SPORTS by JOHN HUBERMAN M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l 9th 1968 i i ABSTRACT The study set out to investigate the question: "What type of people, driven by what motive(s) seek physically risky a c t i v i t i e s "for fun"? Professionals who obtain normal rewards (fame, money) for such a c t i v i t i e s were excluded. A number of hypotheses formulated in the context of personality and motivation theory were studied. Hypothesis I stated that risk has motive-like q u a l i t i e s . Hypothesis II, consisting of 5 sub-hypotheses, tested predic-tions derived from psychoanalytical theory which regards serious interest in risky pursuits as counterphobic efforts to allay one or more of the following anxieties: (l) general feelings of inadequacy; (2) feelings of masculine inadequacy; (3) morbid fear of death; (4) death-wishes; (5) repressed anxieties of parental abandonment. Hypothesis III postulated presence of bel i e f in magic and superstitions and/or concern with power fantasies; and Hypothesis IV predicted a general tendency to over-use the defense mechanisms of repression and denial by risk-seekers. Hypothesis V, derived from so c i a l learning theory, predicted that risk-seekers would tend to come from homes where early risk-taking was either positively reinforced by "loved" parents, or negatively reinforced by "unloved" parents. i i i Instruments included Boyar's (1963) fear-of-death scale, abridged; several items from Ca t t e l l ' s (1958) High School Per-sonality Questionnaire (H5PQ) which measure source t r a i t D; several new attitude scales which had been devised for this study; 3 cards from Murray's (1943) Thematic Apperception Test; Blum's (1950) Blacky card No. 6.; and Gough's (1965) Adjective Check L i s t (ACL), administered once under ego-con-cept and a second time under ego-ideal instructions. A l l i n -struments were assembled into an anonymous questionnaire format. Mean perceived danger levels (mpdr's) of 40 sports, rated on a 7-point scale, were established in a p i l o t study with 167 university students serving as raters. Three of the sports with above-average mpdr's were chosen to represent "risky sports": mountaineering, skydiving and scubadiving. Three below-average mpdr sports, similar to the risky sports but minus the danger-element, were selected as control sports; hiking, p i l o t i n g a small plane and s a i l i n g . Data are generally presented for the combined risk groups vs. combined controls. Subjects were selected randomly from membership l i s t s of clubs which promote the particular sport, subject to the f o l -lowing r e s t r i c t i o n s : S must be male; born on or moved to this continent before age of 10; must be s k i l l e d and have shown "devotion" to "his" sport; i f he i s a control S, he must be disinterested in the risk-sport for which he serves as a control. Ten 5s represented each sub-group giving a t o t a l iv of N = 60. Age levels across groups were homogeneous, and only 5 " e l i g i b l e " 5s were lost and randomly replaced. Only Hypotheses I and V received positive support. Risk has motivational q u a l i t i e s ; and risk 5s tend to come from homes with the predicted interaction pattern, and a positive attitude to risk-taking. Personality p r o f i l e s derived from the bough Adjective Check L i s t showed a l l groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y high in need for achievement, dominance and endurance, and low in succorance, when compared to population norms. Risk 5s showed s i g n i f i c a n t -l y low heterosexual interests. Findings are interpreted as demonstrating that for the average risk-seeker these sports do not act in a counterphobic capacity. A l l indicators identify him as a mentally very healthy specimen. Low heterosexual interest i s seen as "genuine", probably due to hormonal and/or early training con-ditions and not due to anxieties. Evidence i s adduced that risk-seeking i s actually a universal human t r a i t although i t s investigation has been largely neglected by psychology. Some early and recent trends are seen as consistent with the above interpretation. V TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OP CONTENTS t. . . . v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURE5 v i i LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT i x I INTRODUCTION 1 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND FORMULATION OF HYPQTHESE5 7 III SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS AND ADAPTATION OF EXISTING ONES TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE STUDY 34 IV DEVELOPMENT OF NEW INSTRUMENTS 42 V GENERAL PROCEDURE AND METHODS 57 VI RE5ULTS 71 VII DISCUSSION 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY 144 v i LI5T OF TABLES D Page I The 5 Hypotheses, instruments and predictions 51 II The intercorrelations and item/scale-total correlations for the 5 attitude scales 54 III Intercorrelations of the 5 attitude scales 55 IV Ss' experience in the sport they represent 66 V 5s' age, education and marital status 67 VI Selection of sports with "close" vs "not close" danger ratings - p i l o t study 72 VII Selection of sports with "close" vs "not close" danger ratings - main study 73 VIII Selection of sports with "close" vs "not close" danger ratings - combined study 74 IX Scores obtained on the MMPI Hy, Ma and K scales 88 X Danger-ratings of sports by participants vs non-participants 91 XI Early relationships between Ss and their parents 94 XII Parents' attitude toward risk-taking 95 XIII Interaction: S-parent relationship and parents' attitude toward risk-taking 96 XIV Group scores obtained on the 23 scales of the Gough ACL 99 XV L i s t of Gough ACL scales on which Ss differed from population norms 103 XVI Gough ACL item analysis under ego-condition administration 106 XVII Gough ACL item analysis under ego-ideal i n -structions ......110 XVIII Reasons given by risk-Ss for interest in their sport .......117 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES page FIGURE 1 Group s c o r e s on t h e Gough ACL 100 FIGURE 2 M u r r a y ' s TAT c a r d 13 MF . 163 FIGURE 3 M u r r a y ' s TAT c a r d 7 BM 164 FIGURE 4 M u r r a y ' s TAT c a r d 17 BM 165 FIGURE 5 The B l a c k y - c a r d No. 6. ......... 168 v i i i LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A - The instrument used i n the study 149 A - l - 5 personal data questionnaire 149 A-2 - Sport p a r t i c i p a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e 150 A-3 - Danger r a t i n g of 40 sports 151 A-4 - Composite a t t i t u d e s c a l e 152 A-5 - R e l a t i o n s h i p with parents and parents' a t t i t u d e to r i s k - t a k i n g 160 A-5a - Present and wished-for p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n 6 h i g h - r i s k sports 161 A-6 - I n s t r u c t i o n s regarding responses to the TAT and Blacky cards 162 A-7 - I n s t r u c t i o n s and the Gough ACL form 170 A-8 - I n s t r u c t i o n s and the 3 MMPI sc a l e s (Hy, Ma &. K) 174 APPENDIX B - Two p r o b a b i l i t y models . 182 APPENDIX C - The A a t t i t u d e s c a l e ...... 185 APPENDIX D - The B a t t i t u d e s c a l e 186 APPENDIX E - The C a t t i t u d e s c a l e 187 APPENDIX F - The D a t t i t u d e s c a l e 188 APPENDIX G - The E a t t i t u d e s c a l e 189 APPENDIX H - Scoring i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the TAT p r o t o c o l s 190 APPENDIX I - Mean perceived danger r a t i n g s of 40 sports 192 APPENDIX J - L e t t e r which accompanied the instrument ...... 193 APPENDIX K - D e s c r i p t i o n of the 23 Gough ACL s c a l e s 195 i x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s f o r e m o s t g r a t i t u d e t o t h e C h a i r m a n o f h i s Ch.D. C o m m i t t e e , Dr. E d r o S i g n o r i f o r t h e many h o u r s he has s p e n t i n c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i -c i s m o f t h i s s t u d y . Thanks a r e due t o t h e o t h e r members o f t h e C o m m i t t e e who were a l w a y s a v a i l a b l e when a d v i c e was needed and who c o n s i s t e n t l y d i r e c t e d t h e w r i t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o r e l e -v a n t l i t e r a t u r e : P r o f e s s o r s B. A l f r e d , E. B e l y e a , A.- D e v r i e s , D. Sampson, T. Storm and t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e i n i t i a l C o m m i t t e e , Dr. D. T. Kenny. The w r i t e r i s a l s o g r a t e f u l t o a number o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. who t o o k i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o j e c t and c o n t r i b u t e d t h o u g h t f u l p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s : M i s s Anna F r e u d , D r s . S. E p s t e i n , H. Gough, A. Maslow, B.C. M c C l e l l a n d and K. M e n n i n g e r . We a r e a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Mr. C l a y t o n C h o r k s y f o r s c o r i n g t h e T A T - p r o t o c o l s f o r n-Power. L a s t l y t h e w r i t e r w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s , many o f them busy p r o f e s s i o n a l s , who gave f r e e l y and g e n e r o u s l y o f t h e i r t i m e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p r o g r e s s o f s c i e n c e . I INTRODUCTION " E x c i t e m e n t a p p e a r s t o be an i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f . . . " E . R . G u t h r i e The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i s t a k e n f r o m a l e t t e r , d a t e d May 2 4 t h 1965 and a d d r e s s e d t o t h e D i r e c t o r s o f t h e P a r a c h u t e C l u b o f A m e r i c a f r o m t h e i r n e w l y e l e c t e d C h a i r m a n , G e n e r a l Joe S t i l w e l l , F o r t B r a g g , N , C . ( K l a u s n e r , 1966 c ) ; . "My " h a r d l a n d i n g " on A p r i l 1 s t was a p r a c t i c e m i l i t a r y HALO jump f r o m 40D0 f t . . . . E x i t and f a l l we re s t a b l e . P u l l ( o f r i p c o r d ) a t 2000 f t . was a c c o m p l i s h e d n o r m a l l y and t h e m a i n ( c h u t e ) imme-d i a t e l y d e v e l o p e d two c i g a r e t r o l l s ( i . e . o p e n e d o n l y p a r t i a l l y ) . . . . T o t a l s u p p o r t s u r f a c e r e m a i n -i n g was e s t i m a t e d a t 8 f t . . . I saw t r e e t o p s . . . Speed o f d e s c e n t was e s t i m a t e d b e t w e e n 45 and 60 mph. R e s u l t w a s : s p l e e n damaged and r e m o v e d ; h e e l s c r u s h e d ; a t o t a l o f 18 b r o k e n b o n e s ( f e e t , b a c k b o n e and r i b s ) ; a 2 9 - d a y s t a y i n t h e h o s p i t a l ; and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o jump my P a r a c h u t e C l u b ( j u m p s ) a g a i n a t t h e e a r l i e s t o p p o s t u n i t y . . . . " What m o t i v a t e s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 3 , 0 0 0 N o r t h A m e r i c a n s k y d i v e r s t o p e r s i s t i n t a k i n g s u c h r i s k s " f o r f u n " - and wha t k i n d o f p e o p l e a r e t h e y ? A r e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y d y n a m i c s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f m o u n t a i n e e r s who d e l i g h t i n s c a l i n g o v e r h a n g i n g c l i f f s , e x p o s e t h e m s e l v e s t o a v a l a n c h e s o r t o f a t a l s l i p s i n t o a c r e v a s s e , i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g a g o n d o l a - l i f t o r h e l i c o p t e r t o t h e same p e a k s ( o r o t h e r p e a k s w h i c h o f f e r e q u a l l y m a g n i f i c e n t v i e w s ) ? What c o n s t i t u t e s t h e e n t r i e s i n t h e p a y - o f f m a t r i x o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s ? T h i s s t u d y t h e n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n ! ; why do some men engage i n s p o r t s t h a t i n v o l v e h i g h p h y s i c a l r i s k , o s t e n s i b l y f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n " f u n " ? 1 2 The e n q u i r y w i l l be o r i e n t e d t o w a r d p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i -v a t i o n t h e o r y , r a t h e r t h a n t o w a r d " r i s k t h e o r y " f o r r e a s o n s t o be e x p l a i n e d s h o r t l y . R i s k t a k i n g i n " p r o f e s s i o n a l " v s . a " f u n " s e t t i n q . The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f l i m i t i n g an e n q u i r y t o h i g h - r i s k s p o r t e n t h u s i a s t s (HRSEs) r a t h e r t h a n i n c l u d i n g , o r p e r h a p s f o c u s -s i n g on t h e " p r o f e s s i o n a l " may w e l l be q u e s t i o n e d . I f one i s s e a r c h i n g f o r p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s o f p e o p l e who engage i n p h y s i c a l l y r i s k y p u r s u i t s , why e l i m i n a t e a s t r o n a u t s , b o m b - d i s p o s a l e x p e r t s , e x p l o r e r s , e t c . , who c o u r t d a n g e r p e r h a p s even more c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a n HRSEs? In answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n one may p o i n t t o a t l e a s t two o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " f r o m HRSEs; b o t h w o u l d seem t o f a v o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f HRSEs f i r s t , and " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " s e c o n d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s . F i r s t , a l l h i g h - r i s k p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e r i v e " n o r m a l " s o c i a l r e w a r d s f r o m t h e i r r i s k y a c t i v i t i e s , f ame, s t a t u s , p r o m o t i o n , money — whereas HRSEs a c t u a l l y s p e n d money f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e o f r i s k i n g t h e i r n e c k s . What s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e seems t o be d e r i v e d m a i n l y f r o m t h e i r own s m a l l group o f f e l l o w HRSEs. S e c o n d l y , p r o -f e s s i o n a l s ( e x c e p t p e r h a p s p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s m e n ) a t l e a s t o s t e n s i b l y aim a t c e r t a i n " u s e f u l " r e s u l t s w h i c h c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t a s s u m i n g t h e r i s k i n v o l v e d . One m i g h t sa y t h a t t h e y o p e r a t e " i n s p i t e o f d a n g e r " whereas HRSEs seem t o s eek r i s k f o r r i s k ' s s o k e . The a s t r o n a u t , t h e e x p l o r e r , t h e b o m b - d i s p o s a l e x p e r t do e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e i r power t o m i n i m i z e t h e r i s k . C o n s i d e r a g a i n s t t h i s t h e m o u n t a i n c l i m b e r who 3 s p u r n s t h e e a s y r o u t e o f a s c e n t i n f a v o r o f r i s k y c l i f f - o v e r -h a ngs; o r t h e s k y d i v e r : who e x i t s minus h i s p a r a c h u t e w h i c h i s handed t o him i n m i d - a i r by a j u m p i n g c o m p a n i o n . I f t h e r e a r e i n f a c t t y p i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d c o u r t i n g d a n g e r , t h e y s h o u l d a p p e a r i n t h e i r p u r e s t f o r m i n HRSEs (and p e r h a p s i n a t t e n u a t e d f o r m i n " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " ) . R i s k t h e o r y and t h e t a k i n g o f p h y s i c a l r i s k s . The r e a s o n s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r m s o f r i s k - t h e o r y , o r as d e c i s i o n - m ' a k i n g p r o c e s s e s , w i l l now be e x p l a i n e d . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and r i s k - t h e o r y r e s e a r c h t y p i c a l l y d e a l w i t h p a r a d i g m s i n w h i c h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e w a r d i s w e l l known; money, candy f o r c h i l d r e n , o r o t h e r d e s i r a b l e p r i z e s , What t h i s b r a n c h o f p s y c h o l o g y e x p l o r e s i s t h e method p e o p l e use t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r g a i n s under d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . In some p r o j e c t s , p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s a r e i n c l u d e d on t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s i d e as m o d e r a t o r - v a r i a b l e s . In t e r m s o f d e s i g n , Ss a r e t y p i c a l l y i n t r o d u c e d p a s s i v e l y i n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n and a r e g i v e n s p e c i f i c a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c h o o s e f r o m . An e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n i s p o s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t , n a m ely: "what i_s t h e i r r e w a r d , and what t y p e o f p e r -son w o u l d t e n d t o seek t h i s , as y e t unknown, r e w a r d ? " In a d -d i t i o n , HRSEs a r e a c t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g out t h e d a n g e r - l a d e n s i -t u a t i o n i n s t e a d o f b e i n g e x p o s e d t o i t by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . In s p i t e o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , i t i s l e g i t i m a t e t o ask w h e t h e r t h o s e who a p p e a r t o p r e f e r h i g h e r r i s k s i n b e t t i n g s i t u a t i o n s w o u l d a l s o p r e f e r r i s k i e r s p o r t a c t i v i t i e s . In o t h e r w o r d s : can t h e f i n d i n g s o f r i s k - r e s e a r c h be a p p l i e d 4 d i r e c t l y t o HRSEs? An answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n a w a i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h b u t t h e s t u d i e s t o d a t e l e a d one t o e x p e c t a t t h e most a m o d e r a t e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . 5 1 o v i c (1964) i n a summary o f r i s k - t a k i n g c o n v e r g e n c e f o u n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e o r d e r o f r = .20 between s e v e r a l r i s k - t a k i n g m easures i n t y p i c a l l a b o r a -t o r y b e t t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Kogan and W a l l a c h (1964) c o n d u c t e d a s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t b u t w i t h t h e i r S p a p u l a t i o n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 8 g r o u p s a c e o r d i n g to. 3 c r i t e r i a : s e x , h i g h / l o w t e s t - a n x i e t y and h i g h / l o w d e f e n s i v e n e s s . R e s u l t s were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a ch g r o u p . T h i s p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t e d i n r ' s r e a c h i n g t h e .40 r a n g e i n r e g a r d t o some g r o u p s and some b e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Z i l l e r (1957) a d m i n i s t e r e d . 3 i n s t r u m e n t s t o a group o f m i l i t a r y S s : a r i s k - t a k i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t i n r e g a r d t o w h i c h Ss were t o l d t h a t wrong a n s w e r s w o u l d be p e n a l i z e d , and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e on w h i c h Ss e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r one o f a v a r i e t y o f l i s t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h had been p r e -v i o u s l y r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e c o n o m i c r i s k i n v o l v e d i n e a c h . A " u t i l i t y f o r r i s k " i n d e x d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s c o r e s o f t h e f i r s t two i n s t r u m e n t s was c o n t r a s t e d t o S s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n an a n a l y s i s - o f - v a r i a n c e d e s i g n . S u b j e c t s who had o b t a i n e d h i g h e r " u t i l i t y f o r r i s k " i n d i c e s t e n d e d t o e x p r e s s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y r i s k i e r o c c u p a t i o n s ; t h e o v e r a l l F - r a t i o h owever, f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . T o r r a n c e and Z i l l e r (1957) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d r i s k q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( w h i c h i n i t s o r i g i n a l , s h o r t e r f o r m had d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y between f i g h t e r - p i l o t a c e s and non-a c e s ) t o F-84 f i g h t e r a i r c r a f t p i l o t s . They f o u n d t h a t Ss w i t h 5 h i g h e r s c o r e s (more o f t e n t h a n Ss w i t h l o w e r s c o r e s ) t e n d e d t o c h o o s e r i s k i e r a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l e s c a p e s i t u a t i o n , t o a s s i g n l o w e r a b s o l u t e r i s k - r a t i n g s t o t h e s e e s c a p e s i t u a -t i o n s and a l s o t o g u e s s more o f t e n on a t e s t a l t h o u g h t h e y had been i n f o r m e d t h a t w r o n g a n s w e r s w o u l d be p e n a l i z e d . The c o r -r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h o s e m e a s u r e s o f r i s k - t a k i n g r a n g e d f r o m . 2 2 t o . 3 4 . In t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s an a t t e m p t has been made t o r e v i e w some o f t h e more t y p i c a l and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o j e c t s i n t h e f i e l d o f r i s k r e s e a r c h . R e s u l t s a r e u n i f o r m ; i n c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s , w i t h p a r t l y . h y p o t h e t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c h o o s e f r o m , Ss t e n d t o show a d e g r e e o f c o n v e r g e n c e i n t h e i r r i s k - t a k i n g b e h a v i o r w h i c h r e s u l t s i n r ' s o f t h e o r d e r o f . 2 0 -. 3 0 . When c e r t a i n m o d e r a t o r - v a r i a b l e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d , t h e c o r -r e l a t i o n s i m p r o v e t o a b o u t . 4 0 . T h e r e i s no a - p r i o r i r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t e v e n s u c h m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d be f o u n d b e -t w e e n r i s k - t a k i n g a p p r o a c h i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s and a p r o p e n s i t y t o a c t i v e l y p u r s u e p h y s i c a l l y r i s k y s i t u a t i o n s i n r e a l l i f e . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y p r o p o s e s t o use a b a s i c a l l y d i f -f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t h a n t h a t w h i c h has been t y p i c a l l y a p p l i e d i n r i s k r e s e a r c h . IMale___vs. f e m a l e r i s k - t a k i n g t e n d e n c i e s . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t i s t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y c o n f i n e d t o men . Why s h o u l d t h i s be so? Kogan and W a l l a c h ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t men and women t e n d t o b e h a v e d i f f e r e n t l y even i n l a b o r a t o r y r i s k s i t u a t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , r e l a t i v e l y few women p a r t i c i p a t e i n h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s . K l a u s n a r (1966 c ) r e p o r t s t h a t s k y d i v i n g c l u b s i n t h e U . S . A . t e n d t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e membership o f women w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t o n l y 0-5% o f t h e membership o f a l l c l u b s c o n s i s t s o f women. Women a r e s i m i l a r l y r a r e among c a r - r a c e r s . I t may be assumed t h a t when a v e r y much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f women t h a n men p a r -t i c i p a t e i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l and p e r s o n -a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s a r e l i k e l y t o be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g m a l e s . Hence, i n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h p l a n n e d h e r e i n i t seems b e s t t o e x c l u d e women f r o m among t h e p r i n c i p a l e x p e r i m e n t a l 5s and t h u s a v o i d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p r o b a b l e c o n f o u n d i n g f a c t o r s . o 1 m l -t_ a r i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s _a_rnon_g__individuals who engage i n s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s by c h o i c e . A f i n a l q u e s t i o n : what s u p p o r t s t h e b e l i e f t h a t s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s w i l l be f o u n d among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s I t has been r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who engage i n s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s t e n d t o be s i m i l a r i n c e r t a i n p e r -s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s . S t r o n g (1943) b u i l t h i s h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t I n v e n t o r y on e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r i t i e s by i n d i v i d u a l s who p u r s u e d t h e same v o c a t i o n . Roe (1951) f o u n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s among c r e a t i v e s c i e n t i s t s and a l s o among e m i n e n t b i o l o g i s t s (Roe, 1 9 4 9 ) . M a c K i n n o n (1962) o b s e r v e d s i m i l a r i t i e s wjL_tJiijn g r o u p s o f a r c h i -t e c t s r a t e d high., medium and low on c r e a t i v i t y , and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e g r o u p s . Even s u c h a h e t e r o g e n e o u s group as " i n d u s t r i a l e x e c u t i v e s " was f o u n d by Henry ( 1 9 4 8 ) , M i n e r and C u l v e r (1965) and o t h e r s t o p o s s e s s c e r t a i n s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and m o t i v a t i o n s . From t h e s e e x-amples one m i g h t e x p e c t t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t t o y i e l d p s y c h o -l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l s i m i l a r i t i e s among HRSEs. I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES C i a r l o (1963) i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g what m o t i v a t e s p e o p l e t o go i n t o a v i a t i o n n o t i c e d t h a t a l m o s t 30 y e a r s ' e f f o r t s o f a v i a t i o n p s y c h o l o g i s t s had c o n c e n t r a t e d on f i n d i n g e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s o f p i l o t p e r f o r m a n c e b u t no one had s t u d i e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o f l y . O n l y c a s u a l d a t a , b a s e d on i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h i a t r i c c a s e h i s t o r i e s ( e . g . Bond, 1952) a l o n g w i t h M u r r a y ' s ( 1 9 5 5 , 1958) s p e c u l a t i o n s on what he c a l l e d t h e " I c a r u s syndrome", and some w r i t i n g s o f p i l o t - p o e t s ( e . g . S a i n t - E x u p e r y ) were a v a i l -a b l e t o h e l p i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f a c e s s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s i n t h a t no r e -s e a r c h a p p e a r s t o e x i s t w h i c h has as i t s p.rimary f o c u s t h e mo-t i v a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s o f p e o p l e who engage i n r i s k y s p o r t s . (A l a r g e - s c a l e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d e l v i n g i n t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l r a c i n g - c a r d r i v e r s i s now i n p r o g r e s s u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f Dr. B r u c e O g i l v i e a t t h e San J o s e S t a t e C o l l e g e ; r e s u l t s have not been p u b l i s h e d as y e t . ) In t h e a b s e n c e o f s p e c i f i c p r e v i o u s work i n t h i s a r e a , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d had t o r e s t on: a) p e r t i n e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y ; b) r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h done i n r e g a r d t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n o f p e o p l e who engage i n o t h e r t h a n h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s ( e . g . w e i g h t l i f t e r s ) ; c) r e s e a r c h done on one h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s g r o u p , namely s k y - d i v e r s , b u t i n d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t s ( e . g . t o t e s t d i f f e r e n t m odels o f a p p r o a c h - a v o i d a n c e c o n f l i c t s - E p s t e i n 8 and F e n z , 1 9 6 5 ) ; d) r e s e a r c h b a s e d on t h o s e who engage i n h i g h r i s k a c t i v i -t i e s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , i n p a r t i c u l a r : m i l i t a r y p a r a c h u t i s t s and a v i a t o r s ( e . g . T o r r a n c e and Z i l l e r , 1 9 5 7 ) ; e) r e l e v a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s made on i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h i a t r i c c a s e s ( e . g . D e u t s c h , 1 9 2 6 ) ; f ) ex c a t h e d r a t y p e o f s t a t e m e n t s made by some , m o s t l y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d w r i t e r s , , i n r e g a r d t o p e o p l e t o whom any sport ' - : i s o f more t h a n p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e s p o r t i s d a n g e r o u s ( e . g . F e n i c h e l , 1 9 4 5 ) ; g) v i e w s e x p r e s s e d i n p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n by n o t e -w o r t h y p e o p l e i n p s y c h o l o g y ( e . g . M c C l e l l a n d , 1 9 6 6 ) . I s t h e t a k i n g o f p h y s i c a l r i s k s i n s p o r t s " c o n v e r g e n t " ? The t e r m " c o n v e r g e n t " i s u s e d h e r e t o r e f e r t o t h e p r e -sumed t e n d e n c y o f p e o p l e t o p r e f e r s p o r t s w h i c h c a r r y s i m i l a r .1 e v e 1 s o f r i s k . When we ask why some p e o p l e engage i n p h y s i c a l l y r i s k y s p o r t s , t h e r e i s an i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n , n a m e l y t h a t t h e r i s k a s p e c t o f t h e s p o r t i s a t l e a s t one ( i f n o t i t s m a j o r ) a s p e c t w h i c h a t t r a c t * ; i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . In o t h e r w o r d s , we p r o p o s e t h a t r i s k has c e r t a i n m o t i v e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s , i n t h e s e n s e as " m o t i v e " i s u s e d by M u r r a y ( 1 9 3 8 ) , M c C l e l l a n d ( 1 9 5 3 ) and o t h e r s . O n l y i n d i r e c t , i n c o m p l e t e o r u n s u p p o r t e d e v i d e n c e a p p e a r s t o be a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o d a t e i n s u p p o r t o f s u c h a v i e w . C e r t a i n i t e m s o f t h e T o r r a n c e and Z i l l e r ( 1957 ) r i s k -t a k i n g s c a l e ( d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ) r e f e r t o " t a k i n g d a r e s , d r i v -9 i n g f a s t a r o u n d c o r n e r s , a u t o - r a c i n g and m o t o r c y c l i n g " . S i n c e t h i s s c a l e has been i t e m - a n a l y z e d i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i v e l y r i s k y a c t i v i t i e s t e n d t o "go t o g e t h e r " o r c o n v e r g e . From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , however, t h e s p o r t - l i k e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e t o o few i n number t o p e r m i t d r a w i n g any g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . F u r -thermore,- Ss o f t h e s t u d y were l i m i t e d t o F-84 f i g h t e r p i l o t s who a r e u n d o u b t e d l y " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " . C o t e ( 1 9 6 3 ) , h i m s e l f a s k y d i v e r , w r i t e s : " P a r a c h u t i s t s a r e s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , c o u r a g e o u s and a d v e n t u r o u s . They a r e i n f a c t , t h e v e r y same p e o p l e who p i l o t a i r c r a f t , r a c e b o a t s , e x p l o r e c a v e s , s k i and c l i m b m o u n t a i n s . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y no s u p p o r t i n g d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C o t e ' s p a p e r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s s t a t e m e n t s . In a l a r g e - s c a l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t y p e o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h was s e n t t o a b o u t 1/10 o f a l l U.S.A. s k y d i v e r s t h e n a c t i v e , K l a u s n e r ( 1 9 6 6 c ) f o u n d t h a t o f 825 r e s p o n d e n t s , 81 r e p o r t e d no s e r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o t h e r s p o r t s , 100 d e s i g n a t e d h u n t i n g , 92 swimming, 86 p i l o t i n g a p l a n e , 56 s k i i n g , 39 s c u b a d i v i n g and an u n s p e c i f i e d number r e p o r t e d c a r and m o t o r c y c l e r a c i n g as t h e s p o r t s t h e y engaged i n "most s e r i o u s l y b e s i d e s s k y d i v i n g " . K l a u s n e r c l o s e s t h e r e l e v a n t p a r t o f t h i s p a p e r w i t h a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t worded a l m o s t e x a c t l y as C o t e ' s pronouncement w h i c h was q u o t e d a b o ve. The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s t o what e x t e n t K l a u s n e r ' s f i n d i n g s may be g e n e r a l i z e d (a) t o s k y d i v e r s i n g e n e r a l (b) t o o t h e r HRSEs. In r e g a r d t o q u e s t i o n (a) i t must be n o t e d t h a t w h i l e K l a u s n e r ' s 10 sample was l a r g e (N a b o u t 8 0 0 ) , i t r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a 10% r e -t u r n o f t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8000 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s he had s e n t o u t . T h i s l e a v e s open t h e q u e s t i o n o f p o s s i b l e b i a s i n h i s sample w i t h o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . S e c o n d l y , he d i d n o t e n q u i r e what ( i f any) o t h e r s p o r t s h i s Ss m i g h t w i s h t o engage i n , C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t i m e and money may r e s t r i c t many p e o p l e t o t h e e x e r c i s e o f one s p o r t when i n f a c t t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o engage i n s e v e r a l o t h e r s as w e l l . I f t h e c o n v e r g e n c e -t h e o r y h o l d s , s u c h w i s h c h o i c e s s h o u l d a l s o p o i n t i n t h e d i r e c -t i o n o f o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s . K l a u s n e r o f f e r s no d a t a w h i c h w o u l d be r e l e v a n t t o t h i s q u e s t i o n * S i n c e K l a u s n e r ' s s t u d y was r e s t r i c t e d t o s k y d i v e r s , no c o n c l u s i o n s can r e a s o n a b l y be d e r i v e d f r o m h i s d a t a i n r e g a r d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s . T h i s a n s w e r s q u e s t i o n (b) above. A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e any o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s t r u e d as even m a r g i n a l l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f r i s k - t a k i n g ( i f s u c h e x i s t ) * I t w i l l be t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o a t t e m p t t o shed l i g h t on t h i s i s s u e . How r i s k y i s . " r i s k y " ? B e f o r e o f f e r i n g a f o r m a l h y p o t h e s i s i n r e g a r d t o t h e " c o n v e r g e n c e phenomenon", i t w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e f i n e t h e t e r m " r i s k y " i n r e l a t i o n t o s p o r t s . R i s k i n e s s can be d e f i n e d f i r s t l y i n o b j e c t i v e t e r m s , name-l y t h e number o f i n j u r i e s and d e a t h s w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m a g i v e n a c t i v i t y , p e r u n i t o f e x p o s u r e . At t h e moment s u c h d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e i n r e g a r d t o s k y d i v i n g i n t h e U.S.A. and Canada. D a t a a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r a number o f o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s t h e 11 r e l e v a n c e o f w h i c h t o t h i s s t u d y w i l l s o o n become o b v i o u s . One s u c h s t a t i s t i c r e f e r s t o t h e r i s k i n v o l v e d i n d r i v i n g a c a r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n o t h e r t o f l y i n g a p r i v a t e p l a n e i n C a n a d a . D a t a r e g a r d i n g f a t a l m o u n t a i n e e r i n g a c c i d e n t s i n S w i t z e r l a n d a r e p u b l i s h e d y e a r l y by t h e S w i s s A l p i n e C l u b and s i m i l a r d a t a , i n c l u d i n g i n j u r i e s , a r e r e p o r t e d y e a r l y f o r t h e U . S . A . and C a n a d a by t h e A m e r i c a n A l p i n e C l u b . - We s h a l l l o o k a t t h e s e d a t a i n t u r n . S k y d i v i n g i s n o t a p a r t i c u l a r l y h a z a r d o u s s p o r t i n t e r m s o f f a t a l i n j u r i e s - d e a t h o c c u r s a b o u t once i n 6 0 , 0 0 0 j u m p s . H o w e v e r , i t i s h i g h l y r i s k y i n t e r m s o f b o t h l i g h t and s e r i o u s i n j u r i e s . O n l y 1/3 o f i n d i v i d u a l s who jump f o r 2 y e a r s o r l e s s a v o i d a l l i n j u r y , 51% s u f f e r l i g h t and 14% s u f f e r s e r i o u s i n -j u r i e s ( K l a u s n e r , 1966 c ) . Among t h o s e who jump t h r e e y e a r s o r m o r e , 21% may e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e s e r i o u s i n j u r i e s ( i b i d . ) . Among a p p r o x i m a t e l y ( t h e n ) 6 0 0 C a n a d i a n s k y d i v e r s , 19 r e p o r t e d s e r i o u s i n j u r i e s d u r i n g t h e 4 . .months e n d i n g w i t h S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 6 . E x t r a p o l a t i n g t h i s f i g u r e t o a n o r m a l , 8 - m o n t h j u m p i n g s e a s o n and a 2 - y e a r p e r i o d ( t o make i t c o m p a r a b l e w i t h K l a u s n e r ' s d a t a q u o t e d a b o v e ) , i t w o u l d be 1 2 . 7 $ , q u i t e s i m i l a r t o K l a u s n e r ' s 14%. C o n s i d e r a g a i n s t t h e s e f i g u r e s t h e r i s k i n v o l v e d i n p i l o t -i n g a p r i v a t e p l a n e i n C a n a d a . F i g u r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e D e p a r t -ment o f T r a n s p o r t , O t t a w a , and a g a i n p r o r a t e d f o r a 2 - y e a r p e r i o d f o r c o m p a r a b i l i t y , show a 1.8% a c c i d e n t r a t e f o r t h e most r e c e n t 2 - y e a r s t r e t c h . T h i s i s n o t much h i g h e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e i n j u r y - r a t e o f c a r - d r i v e r s i n B . C . , n a m e l y 1.5% f o r 12 t h e most r e c e n t 2 - y e a r p e r i o d (as r e p o r t e d by t h e B.C. M o t o r V e h i c l e L i c e n c e B u r e a u , V i c t o r i a , B . C . ) . W h i l e c e r t a i n l i b e r -t i e s have been t a k e n w i t h t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i n t h a t t h e r a t e s f o r s k y d i v e r s and d r i v e r s r e f e r t o i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t f i g u r e r e f e r s t o p l a n e s as " s u b j e c t s " : t h e c o n c l u s i o n i s u n a v o i d a b l e t h a t , compared t o p l a n e - p i l o t i n g and c a r - d r i v i n g , s k y d i v i n g i s a r i s k y p u r s u i t . M o u n t a i n e e r s p e r i s h a t t h e r a t e o f between 130 and 150 p e r y e a r i n S w i t z e r l a n d . I n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 35 p e o p l e were r e p o r t e d k i l l e d and 110 i n j u r e d d u r i n g t h e two y e a r s 1965/66 The m o u n t a i n e e r i n g s t a t i s t i c s have t h s o b v i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g t h a t e x p o s u r e c a n n o t be e s t i m a t e d i n a m e a n i n g f u l manner. A s e c o n d , and p e r h a p s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more m e a n i n g f u l way t o l o o k a t t h e r i s k a s p e c t i s f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own p o i n t o f v i e w . How r i s k y does t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e t h e s p o r t t o be? I f a r i s k m o t i v e e x i s t s , h i s b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e r i s k l e v e l w o u l d c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e him i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t o go i n t o a s p o r t and w h e t h e r t o s t a y w i t h i t . T h i s " p e r c e i v e d r i s k " o f v a r i o u s s p o r t s can be e s t a b l i s h e d by a s k i n g s u f f i c i e n t p e o p l e t o r a t e a l a r g e number o f s p o r t s on, s a y , a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e , r a n g i n g f r o m " n o t more d a n g e r o u s t h a n u s u a l d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s " ( l e v e l 1.) t o " h i g h r i s k o f d e a t h i f t h e p e r s o n p e r s i s t s i n t h e a c t i v i t y f o r 10 y e a r s " ( l e v e l 7 . ) . Ths q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s w h e t h e r i t i s more m e a n i n g f u l t o d e v e l o p s u c h a "mean p e r c e i v e d d a n g e r r a t i n g " (mpdr) f o r v a r i o u s s p o r t s f r o m r a t i n g s o f m i x e d g r o u p s , o r g a t h e r r a t i n g s o n l y f r o m p e o p l e who a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e s p o r t s and t h u s p r e s u m a b l y p o s s e s s a more a c c u r a t e know-l e d g e o f t h e r e a l d a n g e r s i n v o l v e d . 13 I t has been f o u n d ( K l a u s n e r , 1966 c ) t h a t s k y d i v e r s show a c o n s i s t e n t t e n d e n c y t o deny t h a t t h e i r s p o r t i s d a n g e r o u s . I f s t r o n g d e n i a l t e n d e n c i e s p r e v a i l among f o l l o w e r s o f o t h e r , o b j e c t i v e l y f a i r l y r i s k y s p o r t s t h e n i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t r a t -i n g s o b t a i n e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a n t s o n l y w o u l d g i v e a b l u r r e d image i n t e r m s o f b o t h t h e a p p r o x i m a t e o b j e c t i v e d a n g e r l e v e l and p r o b a b l y t h e d a n g e r as p e r c e i v e d by most o t h e r p e o p l e . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o i n f l u e n c e a t l e a s t a p e r s o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y o u t t h e a c t i v i t y , i t seems more r e a l i s t i c t o o b t a i n r a t i n g s f r o m a m i x e d g r o u p o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i -c i p a n t s , p r e f e r a b l y i n a r o u g h l y s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e , and use t h e r e s u l t a n t m p d r ' s t o d e f i n e t h e p e r c e i v e d r i s k - e l e m e n t . S u c h an a p p r o a c h was e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f a h y p o t h e s i s o f " r i s k - c o n v e r g e n c e " . I f r i s k has m o t i v e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s (and i f r i s k - t a k i n g , a t l e a s t i n l i m i t e d a r e a s i s a " c o n v e r g e n t phenomenon") t h e n i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g h y -p o t h e s i s : HYPOTHESIS I . : INTEREST IN H I G H - R I S K SPORTS IS A CONVERGENT PHENOMENON: PEOPLE WHO ENGAGE IN ONE H I G H - R I S K SPORT WILL TEND TO ENGAGE I N , AND ALSO C L A I M PREFERENCE FOR OTHER H I G H -RISK S P O R T S . S p o r t - p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a " c o u n t e r p h o b i c " means f o r a l l a y i n g  b a s i c a n x i e t i e s . I n t h e w o r k s o f t h e few w r i t e r s who have e x p r e s s e d some o p i n i o n a b o u t m o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t s , e s p e c i a l -l y r i s k y s p o r t s , we o f t e n e n c o u n t e r t h e word " c o u n t e r p h o b i c " . 14 I t may be u s e f u l t o d i s c u s s t h i s c o n c e p t and t h e s e v e r a l mean-i n g s a t t a c h e d t o i t b e f o r e r e v i e w i n g t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e s e a u t h o r s . C o u n t e r p h o b i a . P s y c h i a t r i c d i c t i o n a r i e s ( e . g . H i n s i e and C a m p b e l l , I 9 6 0 ) t y p i c a l l y g i v e a n a r r o w d e f i n i t i o n o f c o u n t e r -p h o b i c b e h a v i o r . " C o u n t e r p h o b i a - a t e r m d e n o t i n g a c t u a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r , o r s e e k i n g o f , t h e v e r y s i t u a t i o n t h e p h o b i c p e r s o n i s a f r a i d o f " Under t h e above d e f i n i t i o n , an a c t c o u l d be l a b e l l e d " c o u n t e r p h o b i c " o n l y i f (a) t h e e x c e s s i v e o r m o r b i d a n x i e t y w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s p h o b i a s i s a t t a c h e d t o some p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e o u t e r w o r l d ( e . g . c l o s e d s p a c e s ) and (b) t h e a c t t a k e s t h e p e r s o n p h y s i c a l l y i n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r f e a r e d s i t u a t i o n . In a c t u a l u s a g e , t h e l a b e l i s f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d t o c o n d i -t i o n s where (a) t h e a n x i e t y i s r e l a t e d t o some a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y o f t h e 5 h i m s e l f ( e . g . f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y ) ; (b) t h e a c t i v i -t y has o n l y s y m b o l i c c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s o u r c e o f a n x i e t y ( e . g . E p s t e i n and F e n z , 1 9 6 5 ) , An example o f " s y m b o l i c c o n n e c -t i o n " w o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c o m p u l s i v e s e e k i n g o f r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y by a p e r s o n as ( u n c o n s c i o u s ) r e a s s u r a n c e a g a i n s t e x -c e s s i v e f e a r s r e l a t e d t o f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y . The e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e e x t e n d e d meaning o f t h e word " c o u n t e r p h o b i c " seem t o be t h e f o l l o w i n g : (a) i t must r e f e r t o an o b s e r v a b l e a c t i v i t y (b) S must have e x c e s s i v e a n d / o r m o r b i d f e a r s o f some t y p e ; t h e y may be u n c o n s c i o u s , o r c o n s c i o u s o n l y i n d i s p l a c e d f o r m ; 15 ( c ) t h e r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r must be v o l u n t a r y , and l e a d t o a p p r o a c h o f a f e a r e d s i t u a t i o n ; (d) t h e p r i m a r y p s y c h o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e o f t h e a c t i v i t y must be t o a l l a y t h e a n x i e t y , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y . The f i r s t t h r e e c r i t e r i a a r e g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a -b l e . The p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f t h e c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n i m p l i e d i n (d) can o n l y be c o n j e c t u r e d , b u t a good c a s e c o u l d be made f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h c o n n e c t i o n i f i t can be shown t h a t : ( d - l ) t h e p e r s o n i s u n a b l e t o p o i n t t o any " r e a s o n a b l e " m o t i v e f o r e n g a g i n g i n t h e a c t i v i t y ( e . g . "we c l i m b m o u n t a i n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e r e " ) , n o r t o any " n o r m a l " s o c i a l r e w a r d ; t h e more s p e c t a c u l a r , un-u s u a l a n d / o r d a n g e r o u s t h e a c t i v i t y i s , t h e more s u s p e c t i s S's i n a b i l i t y t o g i v e a c c e p t a b l e r e a s o n s ; (d-2) t h e a c t i v i t y i s f o l l o w e d t e m p o r a r i l y by a e u p h o r i c f e e l i n g w h i c h g r a d u a l l y d i s s i p a t e s , a t w h i c h t i m e i d e a s o f r e p e a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t y emerge; what i s i m p l i e d i s an a d d i c t i o n - l i k e q u a l i t y o f t h e a c t i v i t y . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e t e r m " c o u n t e r p h o b i c " i s used i n t h i s e x t e n d e d s e n s e . We s h a l l now t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e w r i t i n g s o f a u t h o r s who b e l i e v e t h a t more t h a n c a s u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any s p o r t s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as a c o u n t e r p h o b i c phenomenon, e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e s p o r t i s r i s k y . C e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s w h i c h p e r m i t o f s u c h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l a l s o be a d d u c e d . A f t e r t h i s v e r y g e n e r a l r e v i e w , we s h a l l e n q u i r e i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e v e r a l a n x i e t i e s w h i c h t h e s e w r i t e r s b e l i e v e t o be a t t h e base o f t h e c o u n t e r p h o b i c a c t i v i t i e s and a t t e m p t t o f o r m u l a t e 16 a s e p a r a t e h y p o t h e s i s i n t e r m s o f each o f t h e (presumed) a n x i e t i e s . I s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s c o u n t e r p h o b i c ? D e u t s c h (1926) r e g a r d s s p o r t s as v e h i c l e s f o r t h e p r o j e c -t i o n o f i n n e r s o u r c e s o f a n x i e t i e s u n t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d where t h e y can be ( t e m p o r a r i l y ) more s a f e l y c o u n t e r a c t e d . She c l o s e s h e r p a p e r as f o l l o w s : " T h i s ( " c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) h e l p s us t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e f o o l h a r d y t o u r i s t \±) ( m o u n t a i n e e r ) r i s k s t h e u n c e r t a i n e v e n t , a t t h e u t m o s t p e r i l t o h i s l i f e ; he i s t r y i n g t o r i d h i m s e l f o f p a r t o f h i s f e a r o f d e a t h , by d a r i n g t h e c o n t e s t w i t h t h e t h r e a t -e n i n g , c a s t r a t i n g , hand." H e r e , m o u n t a i n e e r i n g i s v i e w e d as a c o u n t e r p h o b i c a c t i v i t y a g a i n s t u n d e r l y i n g c a s t r a t i o n - a n x i e t y and f e a r o f d e a t h . F e n i c h e l ( 1 9 3 9 ) , w r i t i n g a b o u t c o u n t e r p h o b i c phenomena s t a t e s : "The most o u t s t a n d i n g example i s t h e w h o l e a r e a o f s p o r t s , w h i c h may be d e s i g n a t e d as a c o u n t e r p h o b i c phenomenon. C e r t a i n l y n o t e v e r y b o d y who engages i n s p o r t s i s s u f f e r i n g f r o m i n s o l u b l e f e a r s o f c a s t r a -t i o n , n o r does i t f o l l o w t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t f o r w h i c h he shows l a t e r p r e f e r e n c e must once have been f e a r e d . B u t i t w i l l be g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l j o y i s t h a t one b r i n g s a b o u t i n p l a y c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h were f o r m e r l y f e a r e d so t h a t one may e n j o y t h e f a c t t h a t now one has o v e r -come them w i t h o u t f e a r i n g them. I w o u l d l i k e t o go f u r t h e r and s u g g e s t t h a t p e o p l e f o r whom....at l e a s t c e r t a i n k i n d s o f s p o r t - as f o r example m o u n t a i n e e r i n g - a r e n o t mere o c c a s i o n a l r e l a x a t i o n b u t a m a t t e r o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e i r l i v e s a r e t r u e c o u n t e r p h o b i c s u b j e c t s . " T u r n i n g t o some e x p e r i m e n t a l work w h i c h p e r m i t s counte'r"- -The word " t o u r i s t " i s a m i s l e a d i n g t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e German word " T u r i s t " , e.g. " m o u n t a i n e e r " . The a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n s a r e c l e a r f r o m t h e c o n t e x t o f h e r p a p e r . ( i : 17 p h o b i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s p o r t p a r t i c i p a t i o n s E p s t e i n (1962) r e p o r t e d t h a t a boy who was a c h r o n i c s t u t t e r e r e x p e r i e n c e d an a l l e v i a t i o n o f h i s symptoms on t h s a f t e r n o o n o f h i s f i r s t p a r a -c h u t e - j u m p . (The d u r a t i o n o f t h e r e m i s s i o n i s n o t m e n t i o n e d ) . The c o u n t e r p h o b i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d l i n k t h e s t u t t e r i n g w i t h some b a s i c a n x i e t y . When i t i s t e m p o r a r i l y r e l i e v e d by t h e c o u n t e r p h o b i c a c t ( t h e j u m p ) , t h e symptom a l s o d i s a p p e a r s . E p s t e i n ( i b i d ) a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t s k y d i v e r s f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i -ence e u p h o r i a - l i k e s t a t e s , an o b s e r v a t i o n c o n f i r m e d by K l a u s n e r (1966 c ) . As p a r t o f t h e s t u d y j u s t r e f e r r e d t o , E p s t e i n (1962) a d -m i n i s t e r e d p a r a c h u t e - r e l e v a n t and " n e u t r a l " T A T - l i k e c a r d s t o s k y d i v e r s and n o n - p a r a c h u t i s t c o n t r o l s ; t h e r e s p o n s e s were s c o r e d f o r f e a r - c o n t e n t . On t h e day o f t h e jump, s k y d i v e r s gave v e r y low f e a r - c o n t e n t r e s p o n s e s t o p a r a c h u t e - r e l e v a n t c a r d s . Two o f t h e l a t t e r a r e q u o t e d v e r b a t i m i n t h e p a p e r ; a n a l y t i c a l l y minded o b s e r v e r s w o u l d r a t e t h e s e p r o t o c o l s as b e i n g v e r y h i g h i n c a s t r a t i o n - f e a r . None o f t h e c o n t r o l Ss p r o j e c t e d f e a r u n t o n e u t r a l TAT c a r d s . Two weeks a f t e r t h e jump, s k y d i v e r s demon-s t r a t e d h i g h e r a n x i e t y t o p a r a c h u t e - r e l e v a n t c a r d s t h a n d i d c o n -t r o l Ss a t any t i m e i n t h e s e q u e n c e . As an e x p l a n a t i o n , E p s t e i n p o i n t s t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s p s y c h o e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t t o s u p p r e s s f e a r t e m p o r a r i l y when one engages i n a r i s k y a c t . E x t r e m e a n x i e t y w o u l d be d i s r u p t i v e o f p e r f o r m a n c e and i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t t h e a c t i v i t y and s u r v i v e . Hence, j u s t b e f o r e t h e jump, a n x i e t y may be p a r t l y d i s p l a c e d away f r o m a l l p a r a c h u t e - r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i ; i t c o u l d , however, emerge 18 i n r e s p e c t t o n e u t r a l c a r d s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e a n x i e t y may be c o n v e r t e d t o a n g e r w h i c h was a l s o o b s e r v e d i n some o f t h e T A T - s t o r i e s g i v e n j u s t b e f o r e t h e jump. Once t h e d a n g e r has p a s s e d ( e . g . two weeks a f t e r t h e jump) t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e f o r m e r l y r e p r e s s e d a n x i e t y can emerge w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i v e e f -f e c t s , and does s o , even t o p a r a c h u t e - r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i n v o k e s no " b a s i c a n x i e t i e s " t o e x p l a i n t h e pheno-menon and i s e x p l i c i t l y p r e f e r r e d by E p s t e i n b e c a u s e o f t h i s p a r s i m o n y . He a d m i t s however, t h a t a c o u n t e r p h o b i c model w o u l d n o t be i l l o g i c a l . The c o u n t e r p h o b i c model i s s i m i l a r t o E p s t e i n ' s up t o a p o i n t : i t a l s o t r e a t s t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f a n x i e t y b e f o r e t h e juftip as a measure t a k e n by t h e S i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l economy. The s u b s e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e a n x i e t y - r e s p o n s e i s , however, e x p l a i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t t e r m s . In t h i s m o d e l , t h e " r e a l " p u r p o s e o f t h e r i s k y a c t i s seen as an a t t e m p t t o a l l e -v i a t e b a s i c a n x i e t i e s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a c t , a t e m p o r a r y t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t i s p r e d i c t e d : t h e b a s i c a n x i e t i e s s h o u l d s u b -s i d e f o r a w h i l e . D u r i n g t h i s r e m i s s i o n p e r i o d t h e r e i s no need t o c o n s i d e r t h e use o f t h e c o u n t e r p h o b i c a c t a g a i n ; h e n c e , f o r a t i m e t h e p e r s o n i s f r e e t o p r o j e c t t h e ( r e a l i s t i c ) f e a r - r e -s p o n s e o n t o p a r a c h u t e - r e l e v a n t c a r d s . Mo s y m b o l i c a c t c a n how-e v e r c u r e a p e r s o n ' s b a s i c a n x i e t i e s p e r m a n e n t l y . As t h e y t e n d t o b u i l d up a g a i n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l c o n s i d e r r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e a c t t o g a i n r e l i e f . At t h i s t i m e , r e p r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s s h o u l d t a k e o v e r a g a i n , c l i m a x i n g i n c o m p l e t e r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l j u s t b e f o r e t h e n e x t jump. And so t h e c y c l e w o u l d t e n d t o r e p e a t i t s e l f . 19 In a l a t e r s t u d y E p s t e i n and F e n z ( 1 9 6 5 ) a s k e d n o v i c e and e x p e r i e n c e d s k y d i v e r s t o r a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e d a n x i e t y on a 1 0 - p o i n t s c a l e a t 14 s p e c i f i c p o i n t s - i n - t i m e r e l a t i v e t o t h e jump s e q u e n c e . The f i r s t r a t i n g o c c u r r e d f o r a day 2 weeks b e -f o r e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d jump ( " c o n t r o l d a y " ) . Same o t h e r p o i n t s w e r e : t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t h e j u m p , upon a r r i v a l a t t he a i r p o r t , a f t e r b o a r d i n g t h e p l a n e e t c . The l a s t r a t i n g r e f e r r e d t o " j u s t a f t e r l a n d i n g " . P h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l m e a s u r e m e n t s ( G 5 R , r a t e o f b r e a t h i n g and h e a r t b e a t ) were a l s o t a k e n a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t i m e . T \!ovice j u m p e r s s t a r t e d o u t w i t h a 1 ,0 maan a n x i e t y r a t i n g on t h e c o n t r o l - d a y , showed some i n c r e a s e on t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t h e jump and t h e n an a l m o s t l i n e a r i n c r e a s e f r o m t h e m o r n i n g o f t h e jump t o t h e t i m e t h e c h u t e o p e n e d ( 7 . 5 a t t h i s p o i n t ) . T h e r e a f t e r t h e i r f e a r r a t i n g s d r o p p e d s h a r p l y and r e a c h e d 1 .0 a g a i n a t l a n d i n g . E x p e r i e n c e d j u m p e r s r e p o r t e d a 4 . 5 mean r a t i n g on t h e c o n t r o l d a y , r e a c h e d t h e i r peak o f 7 . 5 j u s t b e f o r e b o a r d i n g t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e n d r o p p e d l i n e a r l y t o 1 .0 j u s t b e f o r e t h e e x i t . Then t h e i r r a t i n g i n c r e a s e d t o 4 . 0 u n t i l t h e c h u t e o p e n e d , w h e r e u p o n i t t o o k a s u d d e n d r o p , b u t r o s e a g a i n t o 5 . 0 a f t e r l a n d i n g . P h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s f o r t h e n o v i c e s a p p r o x i m a t e d t h e c u r v e s o f s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r ; f o r e x p e r t j u m p e r s p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l moun ted u n t i l t h e j u m p e r was a i r b o r n and r e t u r n e d t o a l m o s t n o r m a l l e v e l s by t h e t i m e o f t h e e x i t f r o m t h e p l a n e . The a u t h o r s e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l r e a c t i o n o f n o v i c e v s . e x p e r t s k y d i v e r s i n t e r m s o f i n h i b i t o r y c o n t r o l s w h i c h d e v e l o p w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e . As " f e l t a n x i e t y " i s i n h i b i t e d . , t h e l e v e l o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l d e c r e a s e s and e n a b l e s t h e 20 i n d i v i d u a l t o o p e r a t e more e f f i c i e n t l y . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e phenomena i n t e r m s o f t h e c o u n t e r -p h o b i c m o d e l w o u l d be somewhat d i f f e r e n t . The n o v i c e s w o u l d be r e g a r d e d as i n d i v i d u a l s f o r whom s k y -d i v i n g has n o t ( o r n o t y e t ) t a k e n on c o u n t e r p h o b i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h a t l a b e l i s r e s e r v e d f o r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n -gages i n h a b i t u a l l y and a l m o s t a d d i c t i v e l y . H e n c e , n o v i c e s ' r e a c t i o n s h o u l d f o l l o w a " n o r m a l " p a t t e r n : a n x i e t y s h o u l d i n -c r e a s e as t h e o b j e c t i v e l e v e l o f d a n g e r m o u n t s , and s h o u l d d i s -s i p a t e as t h e d a n g e r has p a s s e d . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e o b -s e r v e d p a t t e r n . A d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n w o u l d be p r e d i c t e d f o r e x p e r t s f o r whom t h e s p o r t i s p r e s u m e d t o s e r v e as c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e a g a i n s t b a s i c a n x i e t i e s . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f e a r r a t i n g on t h e c o n t r o l day w o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n o f j u s t t h e s e b a s i c a n x i e t i e s . As t h e jump becomes i m m i n e n t , a l l a n x i e t y i s r e p r e s s e d as a mea -s u r e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e c o n o m y , t o c a r r y t h e i n d i v i d u a l " o v e r t h e hump" . The u p s u r g e o f a n x i e t y upon l a n d i n g w o u l d be s e e n as due t o a b r e a k - t h r o u g h o f w h a t e v e r b a s i c a n x i e t y t h s jump was s u p p o s e d t o c o n q u e r . - I t may r e s u l t f r o m a momenta ry r e a -l i z a t i o n t h a t no s y m b o l i c a c t i s c a p a b l e o f a l l a y i n g b a s i c a n x i -e t i e s p e r m a n e n t l y . E p s t e i n and F e n z (1965 a) p u b l i s h e d a p r e l i m i n a r y p a p e r r e l a t i v e t o a s t u d y o f t h e d reams o f s k y d i v e r s . They r e p o r t t h a t t h s number o f a n x i e t y d reams o f e x p e r i e n c e d p a r a c h u t i s t s t e n d t o i n c r e a s e w i t h a b s t i n e n c e f r o m s k y d i v i n g . They n o t e t h a t t h i s phenomenon l e n d s i t s e l f t o c o u n t e r p h o b i c i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , t h o u g h t h e y s t a t e t h a t t h e y p r e f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a -n a t i o n . To an e n q u i r y on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , D r . E p s t e i n 21 (1967) w r o t e , i n p a r t : "By no means do I w i s h t o i m p l y t h a t a c o u n t e r -p h o b i c r e a c t i o n i s n o t an i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t o r f o r many p a r a c h u t i s t s . O b s e r v a t i o n ... i n d i c a t e s t h a t a number o f them jump c l e a r l y f o r c o u n t e r -p h o b i c r e a s o n s . I know t h a t some o f them be-came a c u t e l y d i s t u r b e d when, f o r some r e a s o n beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o jump. I have a l s o o b s e r v e d c a s e s i n w h i c h p a r a c h u -t i s t s a t t e m p t e d t o g i v e up j u m p i n g , o n l y t o be-come h i g h l y a n x i o u s , and t o s u d d e n l y go on a j u m p i n g - b i n g e t h e r e a f t e r . " K l a u s n e r (1966 b) s u g g e s t s a model o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r s k y d i v e r s w h i c h i s c l e a r l y c o u n t e r p h o b i c i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h o u g h he d o e s n ' t a t t a c h a c o u n t e r p h o b i c l a b e l t o i t . He a l s o b y p a s s e s q u e s t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e u n d e r l y i n g a n x i e t i e s and t y p i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r i s k y s p o r t s as b e i n g beyond t h e s c o p e o f h i s s t u d y . Anna F r e u d ( 1 9 6 6 ) r e p o r t s t h a t i n a n a l y t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f HR5Es, t h e a c t i v i t y n o r m a l l y emerges as s e r v i n g one o f two p u r -p o s e s . Some i n d i v i d u a l s use i t i n a c o u n t e r p h o b i c manner t o a l l a y a n x i e t i e s a b o u t m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y ( c a s t r a t i o n f e a r ) , m o r b i d f e a r o f o r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d e a t h , o r a n x i e t y o v e r s u i c i d a l i m p u l s e s . To o t h e r s who a r e more i n f a n t i l e , o r r e -g r e s s e d , t h e c o u r t i n g o f d e a t h s e r v e s as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c t ou t i d e a s c f o m n i p o t e n c e . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s pages document t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o u n t e r p h o b i c h y p o t h e s i s has been i n v o k e d by r e p u t a b l e e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d t o e x p l a i n r i s k - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r . A l l t h e s e w r i t e r s made r e f e r e n c e t o some " b a s i c a n x i e t i e s " w h i c h t h s r i s k - t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e n d e d t o a l l e v i a t e . A t e s t o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e c o u n t e r p h o b i c h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d seem t o i n v o l v e , f i r s t o f a l l , a d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t r i s k -22 s e e k e r s do s u f f e r f r o m one o r more o f t h e s e f e a r s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . I f no s u c h e x c e s s i v e f e a r s c a n be f o u n d among r i s k - s e e k e r s t h e n i t w o u l d become a d v i s a b l e t o d r o p t h e c o u n t e r p h o b i c m o d e l and s e a r c h f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f r i s k - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r i n d i f f e r e n t t e r m s . We s h a l l now f o c u s on f i v e a n x i e t i e s w h i c h a r e o f t e n r e -f e r r e d t o as " b a s i c a n x i e t i e s " i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and f o r m u l a t e a s e p a r a t e h y p o t h e s i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o e a c h . The g e n e r a l i z e d f e a r o f i_nad_equacy. A d l e r ( e . g „ 1930) b u i l t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s y s t e m on t h e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y and c o m p e n s a t o r y s t r i v i n g s f o r s u p e r i o r i t y , m a s t e r y and c o n t r o l . From h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e more " e x t r e m e " and u n u s u a l an a c t i v i t y i s , t h e more e x t r e m e f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y one may e x p e c t t o u n d e r l y t h e b e h a v i o r . In d e s c r i b i n g a p a -t i e n t ' s c h a r a c t e r , he w r o t e : "The p a t i e n t . . . . made no f r i e n d s , d i d n ' t l i k e g i r l s and was a f r a i d o f s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . He c l i m b e d m o u n t a i n s w h i c h . . . . i s a common d e v i c e o f p e r s o n s who f e e l t h e m s e l v e s o v e r b u r d e n e d by l i f e , t o g i v e t h e m s e l v e s a f e e l i n g o f s u p e r i o r i t y . " ( o p . c i t . , p . 34) H e r e a d i r e c t c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n i s i m p l i e d b e t w e e n moun-t a i n e e r i n g and f e e l i n g s o f g e n e r a l i n a d e q u a c y . M o u n t a i n e e r i n g w a s , o f c o u r s e , t h e mos t p o p u l a r ( and a l m o s t o n l y ) r i s k y s p o r t o f t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s . The q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y c a n , i n e f f e c t , be d i s c o v e r e d among m o u n t a i n e e r s ( and p u r s u e r s o f o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s ) l e a d s t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s i s I l - a : HYPOTHESIS I l - a : I N D I V I D U A L S WHO REGULARLY P A R T I C I P A T E IN H I G H - R I S K SPORT ( " R I S K S s " ) WILL TEND TO DEMONSTRATE STRONGER F E E L I N G S OF INADEQUACY THAN N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S ("CONTROL S s " ) 23 A n x i e t y stemming f r o m f e e l i n g s o f m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y . The c o n c e p t o f " m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y " and t h a t o f " c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y " a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r w o v e n i n much o f t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . H e l e n e D e u t s c h (1926) i n h e r p a p e r t o w h i c h r e f e r e n c e has been made e a r l i e r , r e g a r d s s p o r t s as an i d e a l v e h i c l e f o r t h e r e l e a s e o f c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y . The a n x i e t y i s f i r s t p r o j e c t e d o n t o o u t s i d e s i t u a t i o n s , and t h e n t e m p o r a r i l y c o n q u e r e d by mas-t e r i n g t h e s e d a n g e r o u s o u t s i d e c h a l l e n g e s : m o u n t a i n s , w a t e r , a i r , o r an a d v e r s a r y i n an a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t . A d l s r ' s (1930) q u o t a t i o n g i v e n above l i n k s d i s i n t e r e s t i n , and f e a r o f , sex w i t h i n t e r e s t i n m o u n t a i n e e r i n g (and by i m p l i -c a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s ) . F e n i c h e l ' s (1939) p a p e r i n w h i c h he r e l a t e s i n t e n s e i n -t e r e s t i n s p o r t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , t o c o u n t e r p h o b i c a t t i t u d e s i n g e n e r a l and c a s t r a t i o n f e a r i n p a r t i c u l a r has a l s o been q u o t e d e a r l i e r . Anna F r e u d ' s (1966) p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e -f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y (among o t h e r s ) as f o r m -i n g t h e b a s i s o f r i s k - t a k i n g b e h a v i o r , i n a c o u n t e r p h o b i c man-n e r . Thune (1949) and H a r l o w (1951) s t u d i e d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s o f w e i g h t l i f t e r s w h i l e u s i n g a t h l e t e s and b a l l p l a y e r s as c o n t r o l s . ' W e i g h t l i f t i n g i s a somewhat dan-g e r o u s a c t i v i t y and has a s t r o n g l y m a s c u l i n e image. Hence f i n d i n g s s p e c i f i c t o w e i g h t l i f t a r s may be c o n s i d e r e d as h i n t s as t o what one m i g h t e x p e c t i n p a r t i c i p a n t s o f o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s w h i c h a r e a l s o r e g a r d e d as s t r o n g l y " m a s c u l i n e " . 24 B o t h r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t w e i g h t l i f t e r s d i s p l a y e d an u n u s u a l c o n c e r n a b o u t m a s c u l i n e s y m b o l s , e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s o f f e a r o f r e j e c t i o n and g e n e r a l h o s t i l i t y t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and c o m p l a i n e d o f s o c i a l ( t h o u g h n o t p h y s i c a l ) i n a d e q u a c y . They were a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low h e t e r o s e x u a l and h i g h h o m o s e x u a l i m p u l s e s . (The low h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t , a t l e a s t , w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f c a s t r a t i o n f e a r by p s y c h o a n a l y -t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d o b s e r v e r s ) . C o n c e r n a b o u t m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o l e a d e i t h e r t o a v o i d a n c e , o r t o s t r o n g l y a m b i v a l e n t f e e l i n g s t o -ward women and s e x . Men t r o u b l e d by s u c h c o n c e r n s s h o u l d demon-s t r a t e more m a r i t a l i n s t a b i l i t y , l a t e r m a r r i a g e s and l e s s f r e -q u e n t r e m a r r i a g e s a f t e r d i v o r c e , o r a f t e r b e i n g widowed. T h i s i s e x a c t l y what K l a u s n e r (1966 c) r e p o r t s i n r e g a r d t o h i s sample o f s k y d i v e r s . (No c o m p a r a b l e d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e i n r e -ga r d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s ) . A r e j e c t i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d women s h o u l d a l s o r e s u l t i n d i s c o u r a g e m e n t o f women f r o m j o i n i n g h i g h - r i s k s p o r t c l u b s . K l a u s n e r ( i b i d . ) r e p o r t s t h a t o n l y 0-5$ o f U.S.A. s k y d i v e r c l u b members a r e women, and t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s sample o f s k y -d i v e r s had e x p r e s s e d a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e a b o u t a d m i t t i n g women t o t h e c l u b s . A g a i n , no c o m p a r a b l e d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e r e o t h e r h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s . An a t t e m p t t o t e s t t h e c o r r e c t n e s s and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e above d a t a l e a d s t o t h e f o r -m u l a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : 25 HYPOTHESIS I I - b . : HIGH RISK 5 s , MORE OFTEN THAN CONTROL S s , WILL D I S P L A Y NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN AND S E X , AND WILL GIVE EVIDENCE OF GREATER " C A S T R A T I O N F E A R " THAN CONTROL S s . F e a r o f , and p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d e a t h . I n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y f e a r o f d e a t h and o f c a s t r a t i o n a r e o f t e n t r e a t e d t o g e -t h e r : m u t i l a t i o n a l w a y s c a r r i e s w i t h i t s e l f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e a t h , F r e u d ( 1 9 5 8 ) , i n h i s " D i c t i o n a r y o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s " d e f i n e s f e a r o f d e a t h as "an a n a l o g u e o f t h e f e a r o f c a s t r a t i o n " . S a r n o f f and C o r w i n (1959 ) a d m i n i s t e r e d a f e a r - o f - d e a t h s c a l e t o a s a m p l e o f Y a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . F o u r weeks l a t e r Ss were e x p o s e d t o s e x u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g p i c t u r e s (nude women) and t h e n a g a i n g i v e n t h e f e a r - o f - d e a t h s c a l e t o c o m p l e t e . T h o s e i n i -t i a l l y c l a s s i f i e d ns h i g h i n c a s t r a t i o n f e a r showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e f e a r - o f - d e a t h s c o r e s ( p . 0 0 1 , ^ ' = . 6 1 2 ) a f t e r b e i n g e x p o s e d t o t h e s t i m u l a t i o n . No i n c r e a s e i n d e a t h f e a r was o b s e r v e d among Ss who had i n i t i a l l y shown l o w c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y , n o r among h i g h c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y Ss who were e x p o s e d t o p i c t u r e s w h i c h c a r r i e d no s e x u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . R e f e r e n c e was made e a r l i e r t o Anna F r e u d ' s ( 1966 ) o b s e r v a -t i o n r e g a r d i n g f r e q u e n t f i n d i n g s o f d e a t h c o n c e r n among p a r t i -c i p a n t s i n r i s k y s p o r t s who u n d e r g o a n a l y t i c a l t r e a t m e n t , L e s t e r ( 1966 ) f o u n d t h a t t h o s e who f e a r d e a t h more t e n d t o a v o i d d e a t h l e s s . From t h e above f o l l o w s : HYPOTHESIS I I - c . : H I G H - R I S K Ss WILL TEND TO D I S P L A Y MORE FEAR O F , AND PREOCCUPATION WITH D E A T H , THAN CONTROL S s . 26 The w i s h t o d i e . H y p o t h e s e s I l - a , 11 — b and I I - c d e a l t w i t h c l e a r c u t a n x i e t i e s a g a i n s t w h i c h r i s k - t a k i n g b e h a v i o r p r e s u m a b l y a c t s i n t h e r o l e o f c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e . A c c o r d i n g t o p s y c h o -a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , however, c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e s may be o p e r a -t i v e n o t o n l y a g a i n s t a n x i e t i e s b u t a l s o a g a i n s t w i s h e s w h i c h o r i g i n a t e i n t h e I d and w h i c h a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e Ego o r S u p e r e g o . S i n c e we have j u s t been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e " f e a r o f d e a t h " , i t may be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o what, i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , i s r e g a r d e d a s " t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e c o i n " , namely " t h e w i s h t o d i e " . As we s h a l l , see,, t h i s presumed w i s h has a l s o been c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as t h e s o u r c e o f c o u n t e r p h o b i c r i s k - t a k i n g . F r e u d (1950) p o s t u l a t e d two b a s i c d r i v e s ( T r i e b e ) : E r o s and T h a n a t o s . W i t h i n t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c f r a m e w o r k t h e r e f o r e , e v e r y a c t must be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f one o r t h e o t h e r , o r b o t h d r i v e s t o i t s c o ming a b o u t . From t h i s m odel i t f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e l y c l o s e r a v o l u n -t a r y a c t c a r r i e s a p e r s o n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n n i h i l a t i o n o r i n j u r y - , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n w h i c h must d e r i v e f r o m t h e " d e a t h i n s t i n c t " . "The w i s h t o d i e " has been p o s t u l a t e d as one o f t h e f a c -t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u i c i d a l a c t s by W e n n i n g e r ( 1 9 3 8 ) , and s u p p o r t e d i n t h i s r o l e by Shneidman and F a r b e r o w ( 1 9 5 7 ) . I n n o n - s u i c i d a l ( o r n o t o b v i o u s l y s u i c i d a l ) i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e d e a t h i n s t i n c t w o u l d p r o b a b l y become d i s g u i s e d u n d e r a m b i v a l e n t l o n g i n g s f o r " g e t t i n g away f r o m e v e r y t h i n g " , n i r v a n i c f a n t a s -i e s , t h e a b s t r a c t q u e s t i o n n i n g o f t h e v a l u e o f l i f e and s i m i -l a r e x e r c i s e s . One o f K l a u s n e r ' s (1966 a) 5s w r o t e t h e 27 f o l l o w i n g s t o r y t o a T A T - l i k e c a r d w h i c h shows a s k y d i v e r i n d e s c e n t : " T h i s j u m p e r i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a f e e l i n g o f p u r e f r e e -dom. A f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a l o n e and f r e e f r o m any t r o u b l e , w o r r i e s , o r p r o b l e m s he may have on t h e g r o u n d . A l t h o u g h he does n o t want t o d i e and e s -c a p e e n t i r e l y , he i s e n j o y i n g t h i s b r i e f f e e l i n g o f b e i n g no one b u t h i m s e l f . He i s f r e e t o do as he p i e " s e n , b e c a u s e he i s e q u a l , A l l o f t h e s e f e e l i n g s a r e a l m o s t u n c o n s c i o u s , b e c a u s e a l l fie f e e l s r i g h t now i s p l e a s u r e . A p l e a s u r e t h a t c a n n o t be p u t i n t o w o r d s " . ( I t a l i c s a d d e d ) . The above r e s p o n s e c o m b i n e s i n an a l m o s t u n c a n n y way n o t o n l y t h e a m b i v a l e n t f e e l i n g s a b o u t l i f e and t h e n i r v o n i c f a n -t a s i e s , b u t a l s o t h e a d m i s s i o n o f f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y u n d e r " n o r m a l " c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and t h e momen ta ry e u p h o r i a w h i c h s h o u l d accompany c o u n t e r p h o b i c a c t s , Bond ( 1 9 5 2 ) r e p o r t s many f a n t a s i e s among m i l i t a r y p i l o t s and p i l o t - w r i t e r s w h i c h he i n t e r p r e t s as e x p r e s s i n g a d e a t h -w i s h . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e a l l e g e d g r e a t e r p r e v a l e n c e o f d e a t h - w i s h e s and n i r v a n i c f a n t a s i e s among r i s k - s e e k e r s ( a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e r i s k y a c t i v i t y i s p r e sum ed t o a c t as a c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e ) : HYPOTHESIS I I - d . : RISK Ss WILL MANIFEST A GREATER TENDENCY TO QUESTION THE MEANINGFULNESS OF L I F E , ADMIT TO S U I C I D A L I M P U L -SES AND REPORT WISHES FOR N I R V A N I C S T A T E S , THAN CONTROL S s . " P r i m a r y a n x i e t y " . The l o s t a n x i e t y w h i c h p s y c h o a n a l y -t i c a l w r i t e r s t e n d t o subsume u n d e r t h e g e n e r i c t e r m " b a s i c a n x i e t i e s " i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as " p r i m a r y a n x i e t y " - a r e -p r e s s e d f e a r o f e a r l y p a r e n t a l a b a n d o n m e n t . I t i s a l s o r e -g a r d e d as one o f t h e a n x i e t i e s a g a i n s t w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r i s k y s p o r t s may a c t as a c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e ( F e n i c h e l , 28 1 9 3 9 ) . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a c t i v i t y , 5 g i v e s up h i s s a f e and p r o t e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t and, r e l y i n g m o s t l y ( o r e x c l u s i v e l y ) on h i s own r e s o u r c e s , e x p o s e s h i m s e l f t o d a n g e r . T h i s m i g h t be r e g a r d e d as t h s v o l u n t a r y r e - c r e a t i o n o f e x a c t l y t h e s i t u a t i o n he was a f r a i d o f as a c h i l d . C a t t e l l (1957) l i n k s t h e p r e s e n c e o f h i s s o u r c e t r a i t D i n i n d i v i d u a l s t o " p r i m a l f e a r o f l a c k o f p r o t e c t i o n i n a c h i l d a c c u s t o m e d t o o v e r v a l u a t i o n o r s p o i l i n g " ( p g . 1 0 7 ) . S o u r c e t r a i t D ( o r U . I . (L) 4 ) , a t i t s p o s i t i v e end, i m p l i e s demanding, i m p a t i e n t a t t i t u d e s ; a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g and e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c be-h a v i o r ; o v e r a c t i v i t y , p r o n e n e s s t o j e a l o u s y , s e l f - a s s e r t i v e and e g o t i s t i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , c h a n g e a b i l i t y , l a c k o f p e r s i s t e n c e and a d e g r e e o f u n t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . Many o f t h e s e t r a i t s ( t h o u g h n o t a l l ) r e m i n d one o f t h o s e a d m i t t e d a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s by T o r r a n c e and Z i l l e r ' s (1957) h i g h - r i s k s e e k i n g combat p i l o t s . J d n i s ( 1 9 5 8 ) , i n a s t u d y o f p a t i e n t s who were e x p e c t i n g t o u ndergo m a j o r s u r g e r y , o b s e r v e d " r e g r e s s i v e " b e h a v i o r u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s and l i n k e d t h i s t o a r e c u r r e n c e o f e a r l y f e a r s w h i c h t h e s e p a t i e n t s had a c q u i r e d i n r e g a r d t o b e i n g abandoned by t h e i r p a r e n t s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , " p r i m a r y a n x i e t y " has been l i n k e d by a num-b e r o f a u t h o r s w i t h i m p o r t a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n t h e l a t e x , l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s f o r m u l a t e d t o t e s t t h e assump-t i o n t h a t r i s k - s e e k i n g may r e p r e s e n t a c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e a g a i n s t r e p r e s s e d f e a r s o f e a r l y p a r e n t a l abandonment : 29 HYPOTHESIS I I - e . : RISK S s , MORE OFTEN THAM CONTROL S s , WILL GIVE EVIDENCE OF HAVING REPRESSED FEARS OF EARLY PARENTAL ABANDONMENT H y p o t h e s i s I I - e was t h e l a s t one d e s i g n e d t o t e s t w h e t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s may be j u s t i f i a b l y v i e w e d as a c o u n t e r p h o b i c phenomenon. What H y p o t h e s e s I l - a , b, c, d and e have i n common i s t h a t e ach one f o c u s s e s on a n x i e t y as t h e m o t i v a t o r f o r r i s k - s e e k i n g . We s h a l l now l s a v e t h e f i e l d o f m o t i v a t i o n and r e v i e w what p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s !have been r e p o r t e d as p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r r i s k - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r . B e l i e f i n magic and f a n t a s i e s o f o m n i p o t e n c e . G r i n k e r , B r a d l e y et a l . (1946) r e p o r t e d t h a t 52% o f a sample o f " n o r m a l and f u n c t i o n i n g " combat f l y e r s a nswered " y e s " t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m w h i c h r e a d : " W h i l e o t h e r s m i g h t g et h u r t o r k i l l e d , I f e e l t h a t i t c o u l d n ' t happen t o me". Bond,( 1 9 5 2 ) l i s t s a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h he f o u n d rampant among combat f l y e r s i n W o r l d 'War I I . The p r e v a l e n c e o f m a s c o t s and "charms", r a n g i n g f r o m a m u l e t s t o r a b b i t - f e e t , i s a w e l l known phenomenon o f com-b a t u n i t s . The b e l i e f i n magic does n o t , o f c o u r s e , p r o v e t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l s o h a r b o r s f a n t a s i e s o f o m n i p o t e n c e b u t t h e r e v e r s e i s p r o b a b l y t r u e : i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e i n o m n i p o t e n c e u n l e s s one a l s o b e l i e v e s i n m a g i c . M c C l e l l a n d (1966) e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t r i s k - s e e k e r s may t e n d t o be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h p o w e r - f a n t a s i e s w h i c h t h e y w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e by o b t a i n i n g h i g h n-Power s c o r e s on p r o j e c -3D t i ; v e t e s t s . Anna F r e u d (1966) r e m a r k e d on t h e f i n d i n g o f f a n t a s i e s o f o m n i p o t e n c e among more r e g r e s s e d r i s k - s e e k e r s who undergo ana-l y t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . Thus, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t : HYPOTHESIS I I I ; INVOLVEMENT IN HIGH-RISK SPORTS REPRESENTS IN SOME PARTICIPANTS THE ACTING-OUT OF FANTASIES OF HAVING MAGIC POWERS (OMNIPOTENCE FANTASIES). THIS LEADS TO THE EXPECTATION OF FINDING IN THEM MORE PRONOUNCED BELIE F S IN SUPERSTITION, AND HIGHER n-POWER SCORES THAN AMONG CONTROL S s . R e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l t e n d e n c i e s .•  Among t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l e a d i n g up t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f H y p o t h e s i s I . , r e f e r e n c e was made t o K l a u s n e r ' s (1966 b) o b s e r -v a t i o n t h a t h i s s k y d i v e r s t e n d e d t o deny t h a t t h e i r s p o r t i s d a n g e r o u s . In t h e same s t u d y , K l a u s n e r r e p o r t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y e l e v a t e d mean Ma and Hy s c o r e s on t h e MMPI (Hathaway and M c K i n l e y , 1951) f o r h i s Ss: t h e i r mean Ma s c o r e was 1.57 s . d . , and t h e i r mean Hy s c o r e .55 s . d . h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e MMPI s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n g r o u p ' s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t K l a u s n e r has a n t i c i p a t e d t h e s e f i n d -i n g s : t h e Hy and Ma (and t h e K s c a l e w h i c h i s used t o c o r r e c t raw Ma s c o r e s ) were t h e o n l y MMPI s c a l e s i n c l u d e d i n h i s i n s t r u -ment. He i n t e r p r e t s t h e r e s u l t s as r e f l e c t i n g t h e t e n d e n c y o f h i s Ss t o be more e n e r g e t i c ( h i g h e r Ma), and t o p r e f e r d e a l i n g p h y s i c a l l y w i t h m a t t e r s o f f e e l i n g ( h i g h e r Hy) more g e n e r a l l y t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . S i m i l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s seem r e a -s o n a b l e i n r e g a r d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s . T here i s a w e l l - k n o w n c o n n e c t i o n between h y s t e r i a and r e -p r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s on t h e one hand, and t h e use o f d e n i a l i n 31 h y p o m a n i c s t a t e s on t h e o t h e r hand ( c f . S c h a f o r , 1 9 5 4 , p p . 5 4 , 2 3 2 , 2 3 4 - 2 4 2 ) . E p s t e i n ( 1 9 6 2 , p . 178) r e p o r t s t h a t d e n i a l o f f e a r by s k y -d i v e r s on t h e day o f t h e jump r e a c h e d " l u d i c r o u s p r o p o r t i o n s " . He d e r i v e d a m e a s u r e o f d e n i a l - o f - f e a r f r o m r e s p o n s e s t o T A T -l i k e c a r d s w h i c h d e p i c t e d p a r a c h u t e r s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f t h e j u m p - s e q u e n c e . Can K l a u s n e r ' s f i n d i n g s ( r e g a r d i n g t h e MMPI s c a l e s ) be r e p l i c a t e d on a new g r o u p o f s k y d i v e r s ? And a r e t h e r e p o r t e d t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l s p e c i f i c t o s k y d i v e r s , o r do t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e r i s k - s e e k e r s q u i t e g e n e r a l l y ? T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l e a d t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f : HYPOTHESIS I V . : RISK Ss WILL TEND TO MAKE MORE GENERAL USE OF THE DEFENSE-MECHANISMS OF REPRESSION AND D E N I A L , THAN CONTROL Ss . E a r l y a n t e c e d e n t s o f l a t e r r i s k - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r . I f i t i s t r u e t h a t p h y s i c a l r i s k s e e k i n g has m o t i v e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s one w o u l d e x p e c t some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n t e c e d e n t s i n t e r m s o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f e a r l y r i s k - t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and p e r h a p s m o d e l l i n g . M c C l e l l a n d ( 1 9 5 3 , 1961) has a m p l y d e m o n s t r a -t e d t h a t m o t i v e s a r e g e n e r a t e d a t a v e r y e a r l y a g e . ' W i n t e r -b o t t o m ( 1 9 5 3 ) f o u n d t h a t m o t h e r s o f b o y s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h n - A c h e x p e c t e d them t o d e v e l o p i n d e p e n d e n c e - s k i l l s e a r l i e r , and u s e d p h y s i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a f f e c t i o n as r e w a r d s more o f t e n t h a n m o t h e r s o f l o w n - A c h b o y s . R o s e n and d ' A n d r a d e ( 1 9 5 9 ) o b s e r v e d b o y s l o w and h i g h i n n - A c h i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e p l a y s i t u a t i o n i n t h e i r homes w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s p r e s e n t . P a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y m o t h e r s , o f t h e h i g h n - A c h b o y s d i s p l a y e d t h e e n -32 c o u r a g i n g and warm manner when t h e i r boys were s u c c e s s f u l which one might expect from the Winterbottom r e s e a r c h . On the o t h e r hand, f a t h e r s of low n-Ach boys t y p i c a l l y gave them d i r e c t i o n , made d e c i s i o n s f o r them and showed i r r i t a t i o n when the ; work d i d n ' t proceed w e l l . I t seems t h a t both maternal and p a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r i n f l u e n c e s the development of n-Ach. What k i n d of e a r l y r e i n f o r c e m e n t h i s t o r y might f a v o r the development of p h y s i c a l r i s k - t a k i n g i n l a t e r l i f e ? In the absence of any p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i t would seem best to t e s t the s i m p l e s t hypotheses which may be d e r i v e d from s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t t h e o r y . P a r e n t a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t of such e a r l y r i s k - t a k i n g by t h e i r boy as h i s c r o s s i n g of s t r e e t s a l o n e , c l i m b i n g t a l l t r e s s and/or h o l d i n g h i s own a g a i n s t b i g g e r boys should help to develop r i s k - t a k i n g t e n d e n c i e s , at l e a s t i f the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s good. Negative r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r r i s k - t a k i n g - by l o v e d p a r e n t s should have the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . When the c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s poor, p r e d i c t i o n be-comes more d i f f i c u l t . On the assumption, however, ths n e g a t i v e c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p - . t e n d s to engender n e g a t i v i s t i c beha-v i o r on p a r t of the c h i l d , one might r i s k the p r e d i c t i o n t h a t r i s k - p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n the parent would evoke r i s k - n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n the c h i l d . S i m i l a r l y , punishment by un-loved par-ents f o r r i s k t a k i n g may w e l l l e a d the c h i l d to engage i n j u s t such b e h a v i o r , both to "get back" at the " n a s t y " p a r e n t , and to help e s t a b l i s h h i s own, independent i d e n t i t y . These s p e c u l a t i o n s are f o r m a l i z e d i n the l a s t f o r m a l h y p o t h e s i s which was t e s t e d i n t h i s study: 33 HYPOTHESIS V . : HIGH RISK Ss WILL MORE OFTEN REPORT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TWO ( I N T E R A C T I V E ) RELATIONSHIPS TO P A R E N T S , AND P A R -E N T S ' ATTITUDE TO R I S K - T A K I N G : a) P O S I T I V E EARLY RELATIONSHIP WITH R I S K - A P P R O V I N G PARENTS OR b) NEGATIVE EARLY R E L A T I O N S H I P WITH R I S K - R E U E C T I N G P A R E N T S : W H E R E A 5 CONTROL Ss WILL T Y P I C A L L Y REPORT THE OPPOSITE I N T E R -A C T I V E C O N D I T I O N S : a) P O S I T I V E R E L A T I O N S H I P WITH PARENTS WHO OPPOSED EARLY R I S K - T A K I N G OR b) NEGATIVE R E L A T I O N S H I P WITH PARENTS WHO APPROVED OF EARLY R I S K - T A K I N G 34 I I I SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS AND ADAPTATION OF EXISTING ONES TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE STUDY Wh e r e v e r p a s s i b l e , t r i e d and p r o v e n i n s t r u m e n t s were c h o s e n . Where none c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d , new ones had t o be d e v e l o p e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , more t h a n one i n s t r u m e n t was i n t r o -duced t o t e s t a g i v e n h y p o t h e s i s where t h i s was p r a c t i c a l . Some o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t o be measured were s u b t l e and i t was hoped t h a t i f some w o u l d r e f u s e t o y i e l d t o one t y p e o f d e v i c e ( e . g . a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , t h e y may s t i l l p r o v e a c c e s s i b l e by a n o t h e r ( e . g . p r o j e c t i v e ) device.. I t was r e a l i z e d f r o m t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h may l e a d t o c o m p l i c a t i o n s , t h a t i s , i f t h e r e s u l t s d e r i v e d f r o m one i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d c o n t r a d i c t t h o s e d e r i v e d f r o m a n o t h e r i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n may become d i f f i c u l t . S t i l l , i n a s t u d y d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e l a r g e l y u n c h a r t e d : ' '• t e r r i t o r y , i t seemed p r e f e r a b l e t o be o p t i m i s t i c and t a k e t h i s c h a n c e . I f t h e o p t i m i s m l a t e r p r o v e d w a r r a n t e d , r e s u l t s w o u l d be more b e l i e v a b l e i f t h e y were de-r i v e d f r o m two o r more b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n f r o m j u s t one. I f t h e o p p o s i t e happened, t h e need f o r f u r t h e r r e -s e a r c h w o u l d be t h e most s e r i o u s outcome. In r e t r o s p e c t i t ap-p e a r s t h a t t h e t a k i n g o f t h e more " c o u r a g e o u s " r o u t e was w e l l j u s t i f i e d . In o r d e r t o s i m p l i f y t h e t a s k o f t h e r e a d e r , i t seemed a d v i s a b l e t o r e p o r t on t h e s e l e c t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s f i r s t ; t h i s w i l l be done i n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r . W i t h t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s o u t o f t h e way, t h e n e x t c h a p t e r 35 w i l l f o c u s on t h e h i s t o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e new i n s t r u m e n t s . • n e f a c t o r w h i c h somewhat c o m p l i c a t e s t h i s method o f p r e -s e n t a t i o n i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f one i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h a c t u a l l y s t r a d d l e s t h e o l d / n e w d i c h o t o m y , n a m e l y a c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e . I t c o n s i s t e d ' o f 5 i n d e p e n d e n t s u b - s c a l e s e a c h d e s i g n e d t o t e s t a d i f f e r e n t h y p o t h e s i s . Two o f t h e s c a l e s were s l i g h t l y a d a p t e d v e r s i o n s o f e x i s t i n g s c a l e s w h i l e t h e o t h e r 3 were new s c a l e s ; i t e m s o f a l l s c a l e s were i n t e r m i x e d i n a c t u a l p r e s e n t a -t i o n . Via s h a l l have t o s a y a few w o r d s a b o u t t h i s c o m p o s i t e s c a l e p r e s e n t l y . D e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g a u n i f o r m s c a l e - f o r m a t was t h e f i r s t o b -v i o u s r e q u i r e m e n t . To a v o i d c r i t i c i s m f r e q u e n t l y l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t m o n o - p o l a r s c a l e s on a c c o u n t o f p o s s i b l e i t e m - a m b i g u i t y ( e . g . c o n s i d e r t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a t t e m p t s t o " r e -v e r s e " t h e C a l i f o r n i a F - s c a l e - C h r i s t i e , H a v e l and 5 e i d e n b e r g 1 9 5 8 ) a b i p o l a r f o r m a t was d e c i d e d upon w i t h a 7 - p o i n t c h o i c e s c a l e w h i c h i n c l u d e d a " n e u t r a l " p o i n t . N e i t h e r o f t h e two e x -i s t i n g s c a l e s had t h i s f o r m a t . B o y a r ' s ( 1963 ) sca le? was mono-p o l a r , w i t h Y e s - N o a n s w e r c h o i c e s . C a t t e l l ' s ( 1 9 5 8 ) s c a l e o f -f e r e d two o r t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s t o t h e v a r i o u s i t e m s . T h e s e two e x i s t i n g s c a l e s had t o be a d a p t e d t o t h e b i - p o l a r f o r m a t ; f o r p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s ( i . e . t o keep t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t t o m a n a g e a b l e l e n g t h ) , t h e y were a l s o s h o r t e n e d . The b i - p o l a r i z a t i o n and s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e two s c a l e s as w e l l as t h e i r p l a c e m e n t i n a n o v e l c o n t e x t r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e y be r o - i t e m - a n a l y z e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e 3 new s c a l e s . The h i s -36 t o r y o f t h e i t e m - a n a l y s i s (and c r i t e r i a o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r i t e m s ) w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r ; o t h e r d e t a i l s r e l e v a n t t o t h e two e x i s t i n g s c a l e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , u n d e r t h e p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d t o t e s t . A f t e r t h i s somewhat l e n g t h y ( b u t u n a v o i d a b l e ) d i v e r s i o n , we w i l l p r o c e e d t o r e v i e w t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h e o r -d e r o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d t o t e s t . P r e d i c -t i o n ^ ) c a s t i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s f o l l o w e ach d e s c r i p t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s I_. No e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t was f o u n d t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , c o n s e q u e n t l y a new i n s t r u m e n t had t o be d e v e l o p e d . I t w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . H y p o t h e s i s I l - a : " G e n e r a l i z e d f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y " . A s i m p l e i n d e x o f f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y may be d e r i v e d f r o m an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f a p e r s o n ' s ego c o n -c e p t t o t h a t o f h i s e g o - i d e a l . P r e s u m a b l y t h e g r e a t e r t h e "gap", t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o n e s e l f as a p e r s o n . The Gouqh (1965) A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL) i s s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t . I t c o n s i s t s o f 300 a d j e c t i v e s ; 5 i s i n s t r u c t e d t o c h e c k a l l t h o s e w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s d e s c r i p t i v e o f him. N o r m a l -l y t h e i n s t r u m e n t y i e l d s a p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e i n te r m s o f 24 s c a l e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s I l - a , a d o u b l e - a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was n e c e s s a r y ; 5 was f i r s t i n -s t r u c t e d t o " d e s c r i b e h i m s e l f as he i s " (ego c o n c e p t ) , and a 37 s e c o n d t i m e "as he w o u l d l i k e t o b e " (ego i d e a l ) . A f o u r - f o l d p o i n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two p r o t o c o l s ( p h i - c o e f f i c i e n t ) s e r v e s as an i n d e x o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s e l f . In h i s t e s t m a n u a l , Gough (1965) r e p o r t s a mean p h i = .50 ( s . d . .21) f r o m a s ample o f 100 m a l e s ; t h i s f i g u r e may s e r v e as a n . a b s o l u t e g u i d e p o s t a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e p h i ' s o f a l l 5s may be compared. Gough f u r t h e r o b s e r v e s t h a t c o e f f i c i e n t s l a r g e r t h a n .85 may be r e g a r d e d as s i g n s o f e x t r e m e d e f e n s i v e n e s s r a -t h e r t h a n " h o n e s t " s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o n s e l f . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p r e d i c -t i o n s . P r e d i c t i o n s : (a) E x t r e m e l y h i g h p h i - c n e f f i c i s n t s ( > . 8 5 ) , i f t h e y o c c u r , w i l l o c c u r more o f t e n i n h i g h - r i s k 5 s ; (b) a f t e r r e m o v a l o f 5s who have e a r n e d phi>.85 f r o m t h e 5 - p o p u l a t i o n , r i s k 5s w i l l t e n d t o have l o w e r p h i -c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a n c o n t r o l 5 s . S i n c e p h i - c o s f f i c i e n t s a r e b a s i c a l l y P e a r s o n r ' s , t h e y may be a v e r a g e d f o r g r o u p s a f t e r f i r s t b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o F i s h e r ' s Z - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; and l a t e r r e - c o n v e r t e d t o p h i ' s . H y p o t h e s i s 11 - b : ''Masculine i n a d e q u a c y , r e s u l t i n g i n d e r o g a t i o n  o f women and s e x . '' T h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s were employed t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , two " o l d " ones and a new one; t h e l a t t e r w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . One a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t c h o s e n was Blum's (1950) B l a c k y  C a r d No. 6. u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " c a s t r a t i o n c a r d " . I t 3B had been u s e d , among many o t h e r s , by S a r n o f f and C o r w i n ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t e r s gauged c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y l e v e l s among Y a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . I n t h i s s t u d y i t was p r e s e n t e d i n r e p r o d u c t i o n , f o l l o w e d by t h e t h r e e f o r c e d - c h o i c e r e p l i e s w h i c h were u s e d by S a r n o f f and C o r w i n . The t h r e e a n s w e r s a r e p r e s u m e d t o r e f l e c t i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y ( c h o i c e 1 . i n d i c a t i n g a b s e n c e , c h o i c e 2 . m i l d , and c h o i c e 3 . h i g h l e v e l s o f c a s t r a t i o n f e a r ) . The c a r d i s r e p r o d u c e d - as F i g u r e 5 . I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Ss and t h e 3 f o r c e d c h o i c e r e p l i e s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x A - 6 . The s e c o n d a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t was M u r r a y ' s ( 1 9 4 3 ) TAT  c a r d MF 1 3 . The c a r d i s shown as F i g u r e 2 and i n s t r u c t i o n s t o Ss a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x A - 6 . P r e d i c t i o n s : (a) R i s k Ss w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r mean c a s t r a t i o n - f e a r s c o r e s on t h e B l a c k y c a r d , t h a n c o n t r o l S s . (b) R i s k Ss w i l l t e n d t o d e r o g a t e women and s ex more f r e -q u e n t l y - as j u d g e d by t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i r s t o r i e s w r i t t e n t o c a r d 13 M F - t h a n c o n t r o l 5 s . The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e B l a c k y c a r d a r e s e l f - s c o r i n g . I n -s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s c o r e r s o f t h e TAT s t o r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x H . H y p o t h e s i s I I - c : " F e a r o f d e a t h . " S e v e r a l f e a r - o f - d e a t h s c a l e s have been p u b l i s h e d . B o y a r ' s ( 1 9 6 3 ) s c a l e has t h e a d v a n t a g e t h a t i t s v a l i d i t y has been t e s t -ed by S - m a n i p u l a t i o n . M a n i p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f s h o w i n g Ss s c a r y f i l m s , a f t e r w h i c h t h e f e a r - s c o r e s showed t h e e x p e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e . 3 9 B o y a r ' s o r i g i n a l s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 18 i t e m s ; e i g h t o f t h e s e were c h o s e n f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t o r y , w i t h one o f t h e 8 i t e m s s e r v i n g as t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e t o a n o t h e r B o y a r - i t e m . The e i g h t h i t e m as_ w e l l as o p p o s i t e p o l e s t o t h e r e m a i n i n g B o y a r -i t e m s were d e v i s e d by t h i s w r i t e r . F i n a l i t e m - a n a l y s i s l e d t o t h e d r o p p i n g o f one o f t h e o r i g i n a l B o y a r - i t e m s , l e a v i n g t h e s c a l e w i t h 7 u s e f u l i t e m s . A p p e n d i x D l i s t s a l l i t e m s . P r e d i c t i o n : H i g h r i s k 5s w i l l t e n d t o g i v e more " e x t r e m e " r e s p o n s e s ( i . e . w i t h r e s p o n s e v a l u e s 1, o r 7 ) , t h a n c o n t r o l 5 s . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s somewhat u n u s u a l s c o r i n g method i s t h a t n o r m a l l y , e v e r y o n e c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be somewhat c o n -c e r n e d a b o u t h i s u l t i m a t e d e m i s e . S u c h a t t i t u d e w o u l d r e s u l t i n c h o i c e s o f r e p l i e s w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e s on t h e 7 - p o i n t s c a l e ( i . e . 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 o r 6 ) . S t r o n g d e n i a l o f a l l c o n c e r n a b o u t d e a t h ( e x p r e s s e d by s e l e c t i n g r e s p o n s e a t l e v e l 1, t h e l o w e s t , s c o r e ) s m a c k s o f h i g h l y d e f e n s i v e m a n o e u v r e s and l e a d s one t o s u s p e c t an u n d e r l y i n g s t r o n g c o n c e r n . I n o t h e r w o r d s ; w i t h i n t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c f r a m e w o r k (whe re t h i s h y p o t h e s i s b e l o n g s ) , s t r o n g a d m i s s i o n and s t r o n g d e n i a l o f an a n x i e t y ( w h i c h mos t o f us have t o some d e g r e e ) w o u l d be r e g a r d e d as a b o u t e q u a l l y s t r o n g p r o o f t h a t t h e p e r s o n i n q u e s t i o n has a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l o f i t . . The s u g g e s t e d s c o r i n g - s y s t e m w o u l d " c a t c h " b o t h t h e u n d e f e n d e d , and h i g h l y - d e f e n d e d v a r i e t i e s o f t h e f e a r . H y p o t h e s i s 11 —d r e q u i r e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 40 Hypothesis Il-e:"Repressed anxiety over early parental abandon-ment. Since such memories are supposedly deeply repressed, they may be d i f f i c u l t to uncover by direct methods, such as asking S whether he has any such memories. The instrument selected to test this hypothesis was therefore one which measures Ca t t e l l ' s source-trait D,which i s supposedly correlated with the anxiety under scrutiny. The two p a r a l l e l forms of C a t t e l l ' s (1955)  High School Personality Questionnaire (H5PQ) contain 10 items each of which ore measures of source t r a i t D, Eight of these were selected for the present study but 3 had to be dropped after f i n a l item-analysis (see explanation in the next chapter). A l l items are reproduced in Appendix F. Prediction: High risk Ss w i l l earn higher mean scores indicating stranger presence of source t r a i t D, than control 5s. Hypothesis III; "Magical and superstitious beliefs and power  concern." Three instruments were assigned to test this hypothesis: a new attitude scale which w i l l be discussed in the next chap-ter, and two TAT-cards, 7 BM and 17 BM, to be scored for n-Power. Wolowitz and Shorkey (1966) have developed a method for scoring TAT stories for n-Power, based on the o r i g i n a l method devised by Veroff (Atkinson, 1958). For scoring de t a i l s , see Appendix H. The TAT cards are reproduced as Figures 3 and 4. Instructions to 5s are given in Appendix A-6. 4 1 P r e d i c t i o n : R i s k Ss w i l l e a r n h i g h e r mean n - P o w e r s c o r e s on t h e i r TAT p r o t o c o l s t h a n c o n t r o l S s . H y p o t h e s i s I V : " T e n d e n c i e s t o use g e n e r a l i z e d r e p r e s s i o n and  d e n i a l " F o r r e a s o n s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e h y -p o t h e s i s , t h e MMPI H y , Ma and K s c a l e s have been i n c l u d e d among t h e i n s t r u m e n t s as m e a s u r e s o f g e n e r a l i z e d t e n d e n c i e s t o use r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l . The s e q u e n c e o f i t e m s h e r e i s t h e same as t h a t u s e d by K l a u s n e r (1966 b) i n h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i r e c t e d t o s k y d i v e r s . I t f o l l o w s t h e s e q u e n c e o f t h e s e i t e m s i n t h e MMPI a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n . T h e s e t h r e e s c a l e s were c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e com-p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e i n t h e " o v e r a l l " i n s t r u m e n t and h e n c e , no a t t e m p t was made t o c o n v e r t them i n t o b i - p o l a r f o r m . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e o r i g i n a l MMPI f o r m a t was p r e s e r v e d . I t i s r e p r o -d u c e d as A p p e n d i x A - B . P r e d i c t i o n s : (a) R i s k Ss w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r mean Hy and Ma s c o r e s t h a n c o n t r o l S s . (b) T h e s e s c o r e s w i l l a l s o be h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . A s e c o n d , s h o r t , i n s t r u m e n t t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a d d i -t i o n a l l y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . H y p o t h e s i s V . R e q u i r e d new i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h w i l l be d e s -c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . . 4 2 IV DEVELOPMENT OF NEW INSTRUMENTS One among the considerations leading to the formulation of Hypothesis I referred to the need to establish the mean per-ceived danger rating (mpdr) for a variety of sports. This would be necessary to select sports which are viewed as being risky and whose participants would therefore be suitable Ss on whom to test the various hypotheses. Determination of the mpdr's thus required a pilot-study. Once a pilot-study had become necessary, i t seemed advan-tageous to make use of i t for two further purposes: (a) perform i n i t i a l item-analysis of the composite attitude scale which was referred to in the previous chapter: (b) pre-testing of Hypothesis I on a population which would be more representative of the general population than high-risk Ss and their controls. In what follows, we w i l l report f i r s t on the 5s of the p i l o t studv. Then, following the procedure under which the previous chapter was organized, we w i l l describe development,..of th:: new instruments under the headings of the hypothesis which they were designed to test; predictions in instrumental terms w i l l be given after description of the instrument. The chapter w i l l close with a summary report on the development of the com-posite attitude scale. Subjects of the pilot-study. The 5 pool consisted of male and female students enrolled in an introductory class in 43 p s y c h o l o g y and male and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g a 4 t h y e a r c l a s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a l l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U s e a b l e r e t u r n s were r e c e i v e d f r o m 60 male 5s and a somewhat l a r g e r number o f f e m a l e s f r o m t h e f i r s t g r o u p ; t h e number o f f e m a l e r e t u r n s was r e d u c e d t o 60 b e c a u s e i t seemed u n r e a s o n a b l e t o use a m a j o r i t y o f f e m a l e j u d g m e n t s i n a s t u d y w h i c h ( i n i t s m a j o r a s p e c t s ) i s l i m i t e d t o male p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The d r o p p e d r e t u r n s were t h o s e o f t h e y o u n g e s t f e m a l e s i n t h i s g r o u p b e c a u s e , even a f t e r t a k i n g t h i s s t e p , t h e mean age o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f e m a l e s was a l m o s t one y e a r l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f . t h e m a l e s . T h i s group t h e n c o n s i s t s o f 60 m a l e s , mean age 19.4 ( s . d . 2.46) and 60 f e m a l e s , mean age I B . 6 , ( s . d . 1 . 2 7 ) , and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as "Group A". The s e c o n d p i l o t - p r o j e c t group y i e l d e d 27 u s e a b l e male and 16 u s e a b l e f e m a l e r e t u r n s , a l l o f w h i c h were r e t a i n e d . Mean ages were 22.B ( s . d . 2.8) and 22.0 ( s . d , 1.27) f o r male and f e m a l e g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ' . T h i s group w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as "Group B". H y p o t h e s i s I . ; " r i s k t a k i n g i n s p o r t s i s " c o n v e r g e n t " . I n s t r u m e n t s . The f i r s t i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a l i s t o f 40 s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f w i d e l y v a r y i n g dan-ge r l e v e l s ; 5s were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e p o r t ( a n o n y m o u s l y ) t h e f o l -l o w i n g d a t a ; (a) i n w h i c h o f t h e l i s t e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e y now p a r t i c i p a t i n g , o r have p a r t i c i p a t e d r e g u l a r l y i n t h e p a s t ; (b) w h i c h two o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s c h e c k e d u n d e r (a) w o u l d t h e y l e a s t l i k e t o g i v e up ( r a n k - o r d e r e d ) ; ( c ) w h i c h two a c t i v i t i e s n o t 44 c h e c k e d u n d e r (a) ( i . e . "new" a c t i v i t i e s ) w o u l d t h e y -most wan t t o t a k e u p , g i v e n t i m e and money ( a g a i n r a n k - o r d e r e d ) . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s r e p r o d u c e d as A p p e n d i x ' A-2. I t was a d -m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y and a g a i n , l a t e r , t o 5s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s t u d y -The s e c o n d i n s t r u m e n t was a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s l i s t o f 40 s p o r t s ; t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , 5s were i n s t r u c t e d t o r a t e e a c h s p o r t on a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e f o r d a n g e r . F o r r e s u l t s , see A p p e n d i x I . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s r e p r o d u c e d as A p p e n d i x A - 3 . I t was a l s o . a d m i n i s t e r e d b o t h i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y and t h e m a i n s t u d y . , The t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a r e p e a t - l i s t o f s i x r i s k y a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h had been l i s t e d i n t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d i n s t r u m e n t s . 5s were i n s t r u c t e d t o p u t one c h e c k m a r k t o t h o s e o f t h e 6 t h a t t h e y may be e n g a g i n g i n now; and a d o u b l e c h e c k -mark a g a i n s t t h o s e t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o engage i n , g i v e n t i m e and money . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h i s s e t o f q u e s t i o n s and t h o s e o f t h e f i r s t i n s t r u m e n t was t h a t h e r e 5 was n o t r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e number o f c h o i c e s he c o u l d make (a s w i l l be s e e n , t h e number o f c h o i c e s i s c a s t i n t h e r o l e o f a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was n o t u s e d i n t h e p i l o t - s t u d y b u t i s m e n t i o n e d h e r e f o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p l e t e n e s s and b e c a u s e i t i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e t e s t i n g o f H y p o t h e s i s I . The 6 s p o r t s a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x A - 5 a . The p u r p o s e o f t h e f i r s t and t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l b e -come e v i d e n t f r o m t h e p r e d i c t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w i m m e d i a t e l y . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e c o n d i n s t r u m e n t ( d a n g e r - r a t i n g ) w a s , among o t h e r s , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e mpdr o f e a c h o f t h e s p o r t s . 45 P r e d i c t i o n s : (a) i n r e g a r d t o a l l male 5 s , t h e mpdr's o f t h e two most h i g h l y v a l u e d p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s ( " l e a s t want t o g i v e up") w i l l t e n d t o be c l o s e r t h a n would o c c u r u n d e r c h a n c e - c o n d i t i o n s . F o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y m o d e l s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h i s , and t h e f o l l o w -i n g t h r e e p r e d i c t i o n s w i l l be t e s t e d see A p p e n d i x B. (b) t h e mpdr's o f t h e two s p o r t s w h i c h Ss r e p o r t as "most w i s h i n g t o t a k e up, g i v e n t i m e and money" w i l l a l s o t e n d t o be c l o s e r t h a n would o c c u r u n d e r c h a n c e - c o n d i t i o n s . ( c ) and ( d ) : p a r a l l e l c o n d i t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o h o l d as d e s -c r i b e d f o r p r e d i c t i o n s (a) and (b) when Ss' own d a n g e r r a t i n g s o f t h e s e l e c t e d s p o r t s w i l l be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e s p o r t s ' mpdr's. ( s ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more Ss who now engage i n a t l e a s t one " r i s k y " s p o r t w i l l i n d i c a t e i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n one o r more o f t h e 6 r i s k y s p o r t s ( A p p e n d i x A-5a). ( f ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s p o r t s mong t h o s e i n A p p e n d i x A-5a w i l l be p i c k e d as b e i n g o f f u t u r e i n t e r e s t ( g i v e n t i m e and money) by Ss who now engage i n a t l e a s t one r i s k y s p o r t , t h a n by Ss who now do n o t engage i n a r i s k y s p o r t . O n l y p r e d i c t i o n s ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) and (d) were p r e - t e s t e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y . R e s u l t s w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r V I , a l o n g w i t h a l l o t h e r r e s u l t s . T h i s c o n c l u d e s t h e l i s t o f i n s t r u m e n t s d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t H y p o t h e s i s I . 45 P r e d i c t i o n s ; (a) i n r e g a r d t o a l l male 5 s , t h e mpdr's o f t h e two most h i g h l y v a l u e d p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s ( " l e a s t want t o g i v e up") w i l l t e n d t o be c l o s e r t h a n w o u l d o c c u r u n d e r c h a n c e - c o n d i t i o n s . F o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y m o d e l s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h i s , and t h e f o l l o w -i n g t h r e e p r e d i c t i o n s w i l l be t e s t e d see A p p e n d i x B, (b) t h e mpdr's o f t h e two s p o r t s w h i c h Ss r e p o r t as "most w i s h i n g t o t a k e up, g i v e n t i m e and money" w i l l a l s o t e n d t o be c l o s e r t h a n would o c c u r u n d e r c h a n c e - c o n d i t i o n s . ( c ) and ( d ) : p a r a l l e l c o n d i t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o h o l d as d e s -c r i b e d f o r p r e d i c t i o n s (a) and (b) when Ss' own d a n g e r r a t i n g s o f t h e s e l e c t e d s p o r t s w i l l be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e s p o r t s ' mpdr's i (e) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more Ss who now engage i n a t l e a s t one " r i s k y " s p o r t w i l l i n d i c a t e i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n one o r more o f t h e 6 r i s k y s p o r t s ( A p p e n d i x A - 5 a ) . ' ( f ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s p o r t s mong t h o s e i n A p p e n d i x A-5a w i l l be p i c k e d as b e i n g o f f u t u r e i n t e r e s t ( g i v e n t i m e and money) by Ss who now engage i n a t l e a s t one r i s k y s p o r t , t h a n by Ss who now do n o t engage i n a r i s k y s p o r t . O n l y p r e d i c t i o n s ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) and (d) were p r e - t e s t e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y . R e s u l t s w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r V I , a l o n g w i t h a l l o t h e r r e s u l t s . T h i s c o n c l u d e s t h e l i s t o f i n s t r u m e n t s d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t H y p o t h e s i s I . 46 H y p o t h e s i s 11 - a ; the i n s t r u m e n t by w h i c h i t was t e s t e d was d e a l t w i t h i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . H y p o t h e s i s 11 — b : ' ' F e e l i n g s o f m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y , r e s u l t -i n q i n d e r o g a t i o n o f women and s e x . " The new i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s ( c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h TAT c a r d MF 13 and t h e B l a c k y c a r d 6 w h i c h were p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d ) was s c a l e A o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e . I t c o n s i s t e d o r i g i n a l l y o f 9 i t e m s , f o u r o f w h i c h were d r o p p e d a f t e r f i n a l i t e m - a n a l y s i s . I t i s r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x C . A l l i t e m s on t h i s ( and a l l o t h e r s c a l e s ) a r e k e y e d s u c h t h a t h i g h s c o r e s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s , e . g . i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e mean more d e r o g a t i o n , e t c . P r e d i c t i o n : R i s k 5s w i l l e a r n h i g h e r mean s c o r e s t h a n c o n t r o l S s . H y p o t h e s i s 1 1 - c : t h e i n s t r u m e n t was d e a l t w i t h i n t h e p r e -v i o u s c h a p t e r ' . H y p o t h e s i s 1 1 - d : "pie a t h w i s h and n i r v a n i c f a n t a s i e s . '" The new i n s t r u m e n t i s s c a l e C o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e ; one o f t h e o r i g i n a l B i t e m s was d r o p p e d a f t e r f i n a l i t e m - a n a l y s i s , ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . P r e d i c t i o n : Q u e s t i o n i n g t h e v a l u e o f l i f e , and open a d -m i s s i o n o f o c c a s i o n a l s u i c i d a l i m p u l s e s may be v e r y t h r e a t e n i n g t o an i n d i v i d u a l p a r t l y b e c a u s e s u c h f e e l i n g s r u n h e a d l o n g i n t o p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r a l n o r m s . The p r e d i c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e c a s t i n t o t h e same f o r m as t h a t w h i c h r e f e r s t o f e e r o f d e a t h ( I I - c ) : r i s k 5s w i l l t e n d t o g i v e more e x t r e m e r e s p o n s e s (1 o r 7 ) . 4 7 H y p o t h e s i s I I - e - i n s t r u m e n t was d i s c u s s e d i n l a s t c h a p t e r . H y p o t h e s i s 111 : " M i a q i c a l and s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s and power  c o n c e r n . " . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e two TAT c a r d s s c o r e d f o r n-Power w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d by means o f s c a l e E o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e . O n l y 5 o f i t s 10 o r i g i n a l i t e m s s u r v i v e d f i n a l i t e m - a n a l y s i s ; a l l a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x G, P r e d i c t i o n : R i s k Ss w i l l e a r n h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on t h i s s c a l e t h a n c o n t r o l S s . H y p o t h e s i s IV : ' T ^ e n e r a l i z e d t e n d e n c i e s t o r e p r e s s and deny The use o f t h e MMPI s c a l e s t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was d i s -c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . The new i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h was a s s i g n e d t o f u r t h e r t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r b e c a u s e i t was a l s o used t o t e s t p r e d i c t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o H y p o t h e s i s I . I t i s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on w h i c h Ss r a t e d t h e d a n g e r o f 40 s p o r t s on a T - p o i n t s c a l e ( A p p e n d i x A - 3 ) . P r e d i c t i o n : R i s k Ss w i l l t e n d t o a s s i g n l o w e r d a n g e r r a t -i n g s t o t h e i r "own" r i s k y s p o r t t h a n do Ss who do n o t p a r t i c i -p a t e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t . H y p o t h e s i s V : " T . n t e r a c t i o n o f e a r l y c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p and p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o r i s k - t a k i n g . " I n s t r u m c n t : a s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i t e m s l o c a t e d a t t h e end o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s e a l s and c a s t i n t h e same b i -48 p o l a r f o r m a t , w i t h 7 p o i n t c h o i c e s . Items e n q u i r e i n t o r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h f a t h e r , and m o t h e r , "when I was a l i t t l e boy", "when I was a t e e n a g e r " and " I c o u l d g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s my p r o -blems w i t h . . . " ; two q u e s t i o n s e n q u i r e i n t o r e i n f o r c e m e n t t e n -d e n c i e s o f f a t h e r and mo t h e r f o r e a r l y r i s k - t a k i n g a t t e m p t s , and one l a s t i t e m a s k s a b o u t f a t h e r ' s p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e t o l e a d i n g a " c o u r a g e o u s " v s . " s a f e " l i f e . (See A p p e n d i x A-5 ) . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was n o t t e s t e d i n t h e p i l o t - p r o j e c t . P r e d i c t i o n s . The p r e d i c t i o n s were c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n w h i c h l e d up t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s and need n o t be r e p e a t -ed h e r e . An e x p l a n a t i o n as t o why p r e d i c t i o n s were made o n l y i n r e g a r d t o i n t e r a c t i o n s and not i n r e g a r d t o "main e f f e c t s " i s i n o r d e r . The w r i t e r has not come a c r o s s any t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d l i n k a c h i l d ' s e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t s p a r e n t s t o l a t e r r i s k - t a k i n g t e n d e n c i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y no main e f f e c t p r e d i c t i o n i n t e r m s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be made. On t h e o t h e r hand; i f p a r e n t s have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o r i s k , and o r g a n i z e t h e i r l i v e s , and t h e h o u s e h o l d , a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e n t h e c h i l d may a b s o r b a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d r i s k - t a k i n g a l m o s t by " o s m o s i s " , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p a r e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y m a i n - e f f e c t s f r o m t h i s s o u r c e were r e g a r d e d as a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y . T h e o r y was n o t s t r o n g enough on t h i s p o i n t however, t o make t h e s e t t i n g up o f a f o r m a l h y p o t h e s i s w a r r a n t e d . We have now c o v e r e d a l l i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h were used i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e r e m a i n s t h e need f o r a summary r e p o r t on t h e 4 9 d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e w h i c h has so f a r been d i s c u s s e d o n l y i n t e r m s o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s c a l e s . Summary r e p o r t on t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e I t e m s o f t h e 5 c o n s t i t u e n t s c a l e s were i n t e r m i x e d , u s u a l l y by t a k i n g one i t e m f r o m e a c h s c a l e i n t h e o r d e r A - B - C - D - E . B a l a n c i n g o f t h e s c a l e ( i . e . p o s i t i o n i n g o f i t e m s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p o l e i n t h e r i g h t o r l e f t c o l u m n s ) was a c h i e v e d by t o s s i n g a c o i n . C r i t e r i a f o r t h e r e t e n t i o n o f i t e m s were a r b i t r a r i l y s e t as f o l l o w s : i t e m s s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s c a l e - t o t a l a t r j . 5 0 , and no i t e m i n any g i v e n s c a l e s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e w i t h a n o t h e r i t e m i n t h e same s c a l e a t r = . 5 0 o r m o r e . The c o m p o s i t e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e p i l o t s t u d y rc? l e g r o u p s . S u b s e q u e n t i t e m - a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t s u f f i c i e n t i t e m s i n e a c h s c a l e e i t h e r c o n f o r m e d , o r a l m o s t c o n f o r m e d t o t h e two c r i t e r i a ' j u s t g i v e n t o e n c o u r a g e t h e use o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e p r i n c i p a l s t u d y u n a l t e r e d . I t was e x p e c t e d (and g e n e r a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d ) t h a t t h e w i d e r age and e d u c a t i o n a l s p r e a d f o r e -s e e n among t h e Ss on w h i c h t h e h y p o t h e s e s were t o be t e s t e d w o u l d t e n d t o i m p r o v e i t e m / s c a l e - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s i n g i t e m - i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . T h e r e w o u l d be no p o i n t i n r e p o r t i n g t h e a c t u a l c o r r e l a t i o n - m a t r i c e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p i l o t - s t u d y g r o u p s s i n c e t h e i r o n l y f u n c t i o n was t o h e l p d e c i d e w h e t h e r o r n o t t o r e v i s e t h e s c a l e b e f o r e i t s " c r u c i a l " use on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l S s . I t e m - a n a l y s i s was r e p e a t -ed a f t e r t h e " c r u c i a l " use and i t e m s w h i c h f a i l e d t o c o n f o r m t o t h e c r i t e r i a were " v i r t u a l l y " d r o p p e d , i . e . t h e y were r e g a r d e d 50 as n o n - e x i s t e n t i n t e r m s o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . T a b l e I p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n - m a t r i c e s o f i t e m s w h i c h were r e t a i n e d a f t e r f i n a l i t e m - a n a l y s i s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e m a t r i c e s w i l l show t h a t a l l i t e m s c o n f o r m t o t h e c r i t e r i a w h i c h had been l a i d down , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f two i t e m - p a i r s i n S c a l e A . B o t h o f t h e s e p a i r s i n t e r c o r r e l a t e a t e x a c t l y , 5 1 1 . T h e s e i t e m s were r e t a i n e d b e c a u s e t h e y v i o l a t e t h e c r i t e r i a o n l y f r a c t i o n a l l y and l e n i e n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t seemed p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e A s c a l e t o o n l y 3 i t e m s . As had been i n d i c a t e d , mos t i t e m s i m p r o v e d t h e i r s c a l e -t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e c r u c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as c o m p a r e d t o t h e i r s h o w i n g i n t h e p i l o t - p r o j e c t , and f u r t h e r i m p r o v e d t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when t h e " p o o r " i t e m s were d r o p p e d f r o m e a c h s c a l e i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s . One u n e x p e c t e d e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s " r u l e " was f o u n d i n r e g a r d t o t h e C a t t e l l - s c a l e ( D ) . D u r i n g t h e p i l o t - s t u d y , 7 o f i t s 8 i t e m s c o n f o r m e d s t r i c t l y t o t h e c r i t e r i a , t h e 8 t h c o r r e l a t e d . 43 w i t h t h e s c a l e - t o t a l ( a n d none o f t h e i t e m s i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d a n y w h e r e c l o s e t o r = . 5 0 ) . I t was t h e r e f o r e an u n p l e a s a n t s u r p r i s e t o f i n d t h a t i n t h e c r u c i a l u se o f t h e s c a l e , one i t e m d r o p p e d i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s c a l e - t o t a l f r o m r = . 5 2 t o . 2 0 , a s e c o n d f r o m . 5 1 t o . 4 1 , and t h e o r i g i n a l l y somewhat l o w e r i t e m f r o m . 4 3 t o . 2 9 . T h e r e was no c h o i c e b u t t o d r o p t h e s e i t e m s . A p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i t e m s ' b e h a v i o r c a n be g i v e n i n r e t r o s p e c t . I t e m s f o r t h i s s c a l e were t a k e n f r o m an i n s t r u m e n t d e s t i n e d f o r , and s t a n -d a r d i z e d o n , h i g h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The i t e m s b e h a v e d as T A B L E I ITEM I iMTERCGRRELATIGN; CORRELATION OF ITEMS WITH S C A L E -T O T A L S , AND CORRELATION OF S C A L E - T O T A L S WITH AGE AND EDUCATIONAL CATEGORIES OF THE 60 Ss 1) A - s c a l e ( d e r o g a t i o n o f women and s e x ) I t e m A - 1 A - 2 A - 3 A - 4 A - 5 A - 2 - . 1 3 2 A - 3 - . 1 3 7 . 5 1 1 A - 4 . 2 5 0 . 3 5 9 . 1 7 6 A - 5 . 5 1 1 . 1 3 4 . 0 0 5 . 1 2 0 S c a l e t o t a l . 5 0 2 . 6 3 0 . 5 7 6 . 6 7 2 . 5 5 6 S c a l e t o t a l w i t h j S c a l e t o t a l w i t h age c a t e g o r y : . 0 0 3 J e d u c . c a t e g . : - . 1 1 3 2) B - s c a l e ( B o y a r ' s F e a r o f D e a t h S c a l e ) I tern B - l B - 2 B - 3 3 - 4 B - 5 B - 2 . 2 7 0 B - 3 . 4 5 3 . 3 3 2 B - 4 . 4 0 4 . 4 7 5 . 2 1 4 B - 5 . 3 6 5 ,,112 . 1 8 9 . 1 6 7 B - 6 . 206 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 9 . 4 3 5 . 2 0 9 B - 7 . 4 7 2 . 4 2 0 . 4 7 0 . 4 9 6 . 2 0 1 S c a l e t o t a l . 7 2 5 . 5 6 9 . 6 0 7 . 7 0 6 . 5 3 0 B - 6 B - 7 . 3 2 0 . 5 4 6 . 7 4 9 S c a l e t o t a l w i t h j S c a l e t o t a l w i t h age c a t e g o r y : - . 1 1 2 j e d u c . c a t e g . : - . Q 0 9 N o t e : a t 58 d . f . r . 2 5 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p <£ .05 r — . 3 2 5 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < . . 0 1 T A B L E I ( c o n t ' d ) 3) C - s c a l e ( w i s h f o r d e a t h , n i r v a n i c f a n t a s i e s ) I t e m C - l C - 2 C - 3 C - 4 C - 5 C - 2 . 3 6 9 C - 3 . 1 4 3 . 0 0 5 C - 4 . 4 3 8 . 1 4 1 . 4 4 4 C - 5 . 3 5 7 . 3 1 1 . 1 4 8 . 4 6 9 C - 6 . 2 4 5 . 2 7 2 . 2 9 5 . 0 0 8 . 2 4 2 C - 7 . 2 4 3 . 4 0 2 . 4 6 8 . 3 2 7 . 2 4 3 a l e . 5 8 6 . 5 0 1 . 632 . 7 0 6 . 6 6 0 C - 6 C - 7 . 3 4 4 . 5 5 4 . 7 0 1 t o t a l S c a l e t o t a l w i t h j S c a l e t o t a l w i t h age c a t e g o r y ; . 1 1 6 ; e d u c . c a t e g . s . 0 0 8 4) D - s c a l e ( C a t t e l l ' e S o u r c e T r a i t " D " ) I t e m D - l D - 2 D - 3 D - 4 D - 5 D - 2 . 4 1 9 D - 3 . 2 6 0 . 2 5 0 D - 4 . 2 1 9 . 4 3 7 . 3 2 7 D - 5 . 1 2 2 . 2 7 1 . 1 3 7 . 1 7 2 S c a l e t o t a l . 5 7 7 . 7 6 8 . 5 9 3 . 6 7 5 . 5 8 6 S c a l e t o t a l w i age c a t e g o r y : -t h j . 0 0 9 j S c a l e educ . t o t a l w i t h c a t e g . : - . 0 0 9 5) E - s c a l e ( M a g i c a l and S u p e r s t i t i o u s B e l i e f s ) I t e m E - l E - 2 E - 3 E - 4 E - 5 E - 2 . 1 9 4 E - 3 . 3 5 1 . 2 9 8 E - 4 . 2 5 2 . 0 0 7 . 3 4 5 E - 5 . 2 3 8 . 204 . 1 1 7 . 3 6 8 S c a l e t o t a l . 5 7 2 . 5 6 7 . 7 0 5 . 6 6 0 . 544 S c a l e t o t a l w i t h 1 S c a l e t o t a l w i t h age c a t e g o r y : - . 0 0 4 j e d u c . c a t e g . : - . 1 1 7 5 3 e x p e c t e d i n t h e p i l o t - s t u d y whose 5s were r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e i n age t o t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n g r o u p ' s . P a r t i a l f a i l u r e o c c u r r e d when t h i s v a r i a b l e was a l t e r e d i n t h e main s t u d y . T a b l e I a l s o p r e s e n t s c o r r e l a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d between e x -p e r i m e n t a l 5 s ' t o t a l s c o r e s on each s c a l e , and t h e i r age and e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . A l l t h e s e r ' s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y z e r o , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n e i t h e r age n o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l had any s i g n i -f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e way t h e s c a l e s were r e s p o n d e d t o . ( P i l o t - s t u d y S s ' were n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s i n c e e a ch group was a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y homogeneous i n r e s p e c t t o b o t h age and e d u c a t i o n ) . I n t e r c o r r c l a t i o n s o f t h e 5 s c a l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I , A l l r ' s a r e a t a l e v e l w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t each s c a l e m e asures s o m e t h i n g u n i q u e . S t i l l , some o f t h e r ' s a r e u n e x p e c -t e d l y h i g h . The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e B o y a r and C a t t e l l s c a l e s ( . 3 7 9 ) , as w e l l as t h a t between t h e B o y a r and t h e s u p e r s s t i t i o n - s c a l e E ( . 3 9 5 ) a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y p u z z l i n g and t h e w r i t e r can t h i n k o f no c o n v i n c i n g e x p l a n a t i o n as t o why t h i s s h o u l d be s o . The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e C a t t e l l s c a l e and t h e " n i r v a n -i c f a n t a s i e s " s c a l e C may d e r i v e f r o m a d i s l i k e o f n i r v a n i c a l l y p r e d i s p o s e d p e o p l e f o r e x c e s s i v e n o i s e ; t h e r e a c t i o n t o t h e n o i s e - e l e m e n t when a p e r s o n i s d o i n g s o m e t h i n g e l s e e n t e r s i n t o some o f t h e C a t t e l l i t e m s . A l l t h i s i s s p e c u l a t i o n , however. The f e r r e t i n g o u t o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c a u s e t h e s e s c a l e - i n t s r -c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d r e q u i r e a s e p a r a t e p r o j e c t w h i c h w o u l d go be-yond t h e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T a b l e I I I p r e s e n t s a summary o f a l l h y p o t h e s e s , t h e i n s t r u -m e n t s ) used t o t e s t them and t h e p r e d i c t i o n s i n t e r m s o f i n -s t r u m e n t a l r e s u l t s . 54 TABLE I I INTERCORRELATION OF THE 5 SCALES S c a l e A B C D E B .003 C .229 .250 D .004 .379 .358 E -.182 .395 .001 -.009 (1.00) N o t e : At 58 d . f . (rr. (r , .25 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p <^»05 .325 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p ^ .01 55 TABLE I I I A CONDENSED SUMMARY OF THE HYPOTHESES, INSTRUMENTS AND PREDICTIONS H y p o t h e s e s I n s t r u m e n t ( s P r e d i c t i o n s I . I n t e r e s t i n r i s k y s p o r t s i s a c o n -v e r g e n t phenomenon w h i c h d e f i n e s r i s k as a " m o t i v e " 1 . S p o r t s p a r t i c i p a -t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r a t i n g o f p e r -c e i v e d d a n g e r o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s I I . R e g u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r i s k y s p o r t s i s a c o u n t e r p h o b i c d e f e n s e a g a i n s t % I l - a : G e n e r a l i z e d f e e l -i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y 11 —b: F e e l i n g s o f s p e c i f i c m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y I I - c : F e a r o f , and p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d e a t h . 11 - d : The w i s h t o d i e ( n i r v a n i c f a n t a s i e s ) I l - e : R e p r e s s e d f e a r o f e a r l y p a r e n t a l a b a n -donment . Gough's (1965) Ad-j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL) f o r 1) ego &. 2 ) e g o - i d e a l , f o r c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e p h i - c o e f f i c i e n t . 1. A t t i t u d e s c a l e r e d e r o g a t i o n o f women &. s e x - S c a l e A 2. M u r r a y ' s TAT c a r d 13 MF. 3. Blum's (1950) B l a c k y C a r d No. 6. B o y a r ' s (1966) F e a r of D e a t h S c a l e -S c a l e B New s c a l e r e w o r t h -l e s s n e s s o f l i f e , s u i c i d a l i d e a s -S c a l e C C a t t e l l ' s (1958) H i g h S c h o o l P e r s . Q u e s t ' r e , i t e m s f o r S o u r c e T r a i t D S.c^lQ D P e o p l e i n gen-e r a l w i l l t e n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n , and e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t i n t a k -i n g up, a c t i v i -t i e s o f c l o s e l y s i m i l a r p e r -c e i v e d d a n g e r V e r y h i g h p h i ' s w i l l o c c u r more o f t e n among r i s k S s ; A v e r a g e d p h i ' s w i l l be l o w e r Ss . f o r r i s k 1.L2. t H i g h e r d e r o g a t i o n s c o r e s r e wo-men &. s e x 3.More s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g " c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y " More e x t r e m e r e s p o n s e s by r i s k S s . More e x t r e m e r e s p o n s e s by r i s k S s . H i g h e r s c a l e s c o r e s f o r r i s k Ss ( c o n t 1 d ) 56 TABLE III (Cont'd) Hypotheses I nstrument(s) Predictions III. Risk seekers tend to believe in magic powers, personal i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y , superstitions. IV. Risk seekers w i l l tend to use the de-fense mechanisms of repression &. denial V. Risk takers w i l l tend to come from families with: a) close relationship with parents who re-inforce early r i s k -taking or b) distant (poor) relationship with parents who frown on early risk-taking. (Obverse predic-tion re control 5s) 1. New questionnaire Scale E 2. Murray's TAT cards No.7. &. No.17, scored for n-Power 1. The Hy,Ma &. K scales of the MMPI 2. The sports questionnaire Last 9 items of the composite attitude questionnaire 1. Higher scores for risk Ss 2. Higher n-Power scores for risk Ss 1. Higher Ma •&. Hy scores for risk seekers 2. Risk seekers tend to give lower danger ratings to "own" sport (Explained in statement of hypothesis) 57 V GENERAL PROCEDURE AND METHODS Overall design. The study involved a comparison of s k i l l e d and devoted participants in three risky sports to participants in three r e l a t i v e l y low-risk sports. The low-risk sports were selected such that each resembles one of the high risk sports as closely as possible, but with the danger element removed. More than one high-risk sport had to be involved so that any differences found between risk-seekers and non-risk-seek-ers should not be attributable to the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of one par-t i c u l a r sport. The decision to select exactly three sports was arbitrary; i t was based on pr a c t i c a l considerations. In respect to most comparisons required by the hypotheses, the design c a l l s for the reporting of data only for the com-bined high-risk groups ("risk Ss") as a unit,, and the combined low-risk groups ("control Ss") as the second unit. In only a few instances w i l l i t be necessary-to examine the scores of i n -dividual sub-groups. Beyond testing the 5 hypotheses, the design allowed for extension of the study into purely exploratory research. The Gough ACL, o r i g i n a l l y introduced to measure s e l f - d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n by means of the phi-coefficient calculated between ego and ego-ideal scores, provides a personality p r o f i l e in terms of 24 personality and. need scales. Composite group-profiles may be constructed by averaging the standard scores of Ss who belong to one or another group. Deviation of mean group scores from 58 t h e p o p u l a t i o n norms, o r f r o m each o t h e r , - may be t e s t e d by t h e t - t e s t . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e G o u g h - s c a l e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x K; 23 o f t h e 24 a v a i l a b l e s c a l e s were used i n t h i s s t u d y - o n l y t h e " c o u n s e l l i n g r e a d i n e s s " s c a l e was o m i t t e d as i r r e l e v a n t . D a t a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e Gough ACL w i l l be p r e s e n t e d a f t e r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e 5 h y p o t h e s e s , i n t h e c h a p t e r w h i c h f o l l o w s . A s e c o n d e x p l o r a t o r y i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a q u e s t i o n t o 5 s : "What do you t h i n k keeps you i n t e r e s t e d i n " y o u r " s p o r t ? " R e p l i e s o f 5s t o t h i s e n q u i r y w i l l be s u m m a r i z e d a f t e r t h e Gough d a t a , a t t h e end o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r * The s e l e c t i o n . o f t h e 6 s p o r t s f o r s t u d y . M o u n t a i n e e r i n g and s k y d i v i n g were f a i r l y o b v i o u s c h o i c e s f o r t h e f i r s t two o f t h e t h r e e h i g h - r i s k s p o r t s . As documented i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s : A d l e r ' s , F s n i c h e l ' s and D e u t s c h ' s s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t d a n g e r - s e e k e r s were made e x p l i c i t l y a b o u t m o u n t a i n e e r s . The o n l y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s w h i c h i n v o l v e d p a r t i -c i p a n t s i n r i s k y s p o r t s had s k y d i v e r s as 5 s . The two s p o r t s a r e known t o be o b j e c t i v e l y r i s k y , and t h e i r mpdr's emerged a t a b o v e - a v e r a g e l e v e l f r o m t h e p i l o t s t u d y . S u b j e c t s f o r b o t h o f them a r e a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , b o t h s p o r t s have p a r a -l l e l l o w - r i s k s p o r t s , namely h i k i n g and p i l o t i n g s p o r t s - p l a n e s w h i c h a r e o b j e c t i v e l y i o w i n r i s k and w h i c h o b t a i n e d b e l o w -a v e r a g e mpdr's-. The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e t h i r d s p o r t was more troublesome.. I d e a l l y , i t s h o u l d have an mpdr a t , o r above, t h o s e o f moun-t a i n e e r i n g and s k y d i v i n g . Ss s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y ; and 59 a s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l s p o r t s h o u l d e x i s t . L a s t l y , i t s h o u l d p r o -b a b l y be o f t h e t y p e where p a r t i c i p a n t s . r e l y p r i m a r i l y on t h e i r own s k i l l and s t a m i n a ( a s do m o u n t a i n e e r s and s k y d i v e r s ) . R a c i n g c a r d r i v e r s , s t u n t f l y e r s , h y d r o p l a n e r a c e r s and o t h e r s who r e l y p r i n c i p a l l y on high-powered m e c h a n i c a l p r o p u l s i o n may w e l l have v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s and m o t i v a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s . 5uch c o m p l i c a t i o n s were t o be a v o i d e d i n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y an e x -p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . A r e v i e w o f t h e mpdr o f t h e 40 s p o r t s w h i c h were r a t e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t s c u b a d i v i n g m i g h t be t h e b e s t s e l e c t i o n f o r t h e t h i r d s p o r t . The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n group r a t e d i t a t an mpdr o f 4.69; t h e y o u n g e r , and p r o b a b l y l e s s k n o w l e d g e a b l e group o f s t u d e n t s i n P s y c h o l o g y r a t e d i t a t 4.31 - s t i l l above t h e mean o f 4.0. The o n l y o t h e r s p o r t s ( a p a r t f r o m t h e two a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d ) w h i c h o b t a i n e d r a t i n g s h i g h e r t h a n 4.0 by b o t h p i l o t g r o u p s were: h y d r o p l a n i n g , c a r - r a c i n g , p i l o t i n g a g l i d e r , s k i - j u m p i n g ' s t u n t f l y i n g , and b o r i n g . o k i - j u m p i n g was s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d , w i t h s k i - h i k i n g as a c o n t r o l ; however, c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h e x p e r t s i n t h i s s p o r t l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r i s k i n s k i - j u m p i n g a p p e a r s t o be h i g h l y o v e r r a t e d . S i m i l a r e n q u i r i e s r e g a r d i n g s c u b a d i v i n g p o i n t e d i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . B02 in{; has- 13 0 l o v - r i n l r equiva-l e n t c G l i d i n g was r a t e d o n l y m a r g i n a l l y d a n g e r o u s ( a t 4.32 and 4.39, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; i t was r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e r e were a l r e a d y two a i r b o r n g r o u p s ( i . e . s k y d i v e r s and p i l o t s ) . C a r - r a c i n g and h y d r o p l a n i n g were r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p u l -s i o n i n v o l v e d . T h i s l e f t s c u b a d i v i n g , w i t h p e r h a p s m i n o r 60 h e s i t a t i o n s . The h e s i t a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h r e e s o u r c e s : s c u b a d i v e r s a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f competence a r e u s u a l l y p r o f e s -s i o n a l s and i n Canada a r e t r a i n e d o n l y by t h e Wavy. S e c o n d l y , t h e s p o r t ' s mpdr i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y above t h e mean o f 4.0. T h i r d l y , i t does n o t a p p e a r p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n even as r o u g h a measure o f t h e o b j e c t i v e r i s k o f t h e a c t i v i t y as was a v a i l a b l e i n r e g a r d t o m o u n t a i n e e r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, s c u b a d i v e r s r e l y on t h e i r own s k i l l and s t a m i n a t o a b o u t t h e same e x t e n t as s k y d i v e r s do. W h i l e v e r y deep d i v e s r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , 100-200 f t . d i v e s can s t i l l end i n d i s a s t e r . And l a s t l y , s c u b a d i v i n g i n t r o d u c e s w a t e r as t h e r i s k - m e d i u m ; w i t h i t , e ach o f o u r t h r e e g r o u p s e x p o s e s i t s e l f t o a d i f f e r e n t " e l e m e n t " : e a r t h , a i r and w a t e r . Once s c u b a d i v i n g was s e l e c t e d as t h e t h i r d r i s k - s p o r t t h e q u e s t i o n o f s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l s a r o s e . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f a v o r e d s k i n d i v e r s . P r e s u m a b l y t h e y e x p o s e t h e m s e l v e s t o l e s s r i s k by d i v i n g l e s s deep; t h e i r mpdr's were 3.28 and 3.58 i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y ; and t h e y a r e l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e . In t a l k i n g t o e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d , h owever, i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t (a) t h e r e a r e few s k i n d i v e r s who do n o t a l s o s c u b a d i v e , and (b) s k i n d i v i n g i s o b j e c t i v e l y a t l e a s t as d a n g e r o u s as s c u b a d i v i n g . S k i n d i v e r s p r a c t i c e a t e x t e n d i n g t h e t i m e t h e y spend u n d e r wa-t e r b e f o r e c oming up f o r a i r . The a p p a r e n t r e s u l t o f s u c h p r a c -t i c e i s t h e w e a k e n i n g o f t h e body's d a n g e r - s i g n a l s w h i c h has l e d t o c a t a s t r o p h i e s i n q u i t e s h a l l o w w a t e r . Hence, s k i n d i v -i n g was r e j e c t e d as a p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o l g r o u p . 61 F o r t u n a t e l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a n o t h e r w a t e r - s p o r t seemed t o f u l f i l l a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s . S a i l i n g was r a t e d a t rnpdr 2.25 and 2.56 by t h e two p i l o t s t u d y g r o u p s . S a i l o r s a r e a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y and p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h some s a i l o r s c o n v i n c e d t h e w r i t e r t h a t t h e s p o r t can become as m e a n i n g f u l and i n v o l v -i n g t o a p e r s o n as t h e o t h e r s p o r t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t u d y . Hence, s a i l o r s were c h o s e n t o a c t as c o n t r o l Ss f o r s c u b a d i v e r s . Methods f o r c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a . I n any p r o j e c t o f t h i s t y p e , d a t a can be g a t h e r e d e s s e n -t i a l l y i n two ways: by q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , o r by methods i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . I t was d e c i d e d i n f a v o r o f t h e f a r m e r method. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - b a s e d s t u d i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y d e r o g a t e d be-c a u s e t h e r e t u r n - r a t i o i s t y p i c a l l y l o w . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e r e a s o n a b l e s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e sample may be b i a s e d i n f a v o r o f d e f e r e n t i a l and p o t e n t i a l l y e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c S s . Such a c r i t i -c i s m , i f i t were j u s t i f i e d , w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y damaging t o a p r o j e c t w h i c h d e l v e s i n t o t h e r e a l m o f p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s . The p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t way o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a , however, has i t s own p o t e n t i a l s h o r t c o m i n g w h i c h may be e q u a l l y d i s t u r b i n g . F a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t w i t h Ss may l e a d t o c o n s c i o u s , o r u n c o n s c i o u s , a t t e m p t s by t h e l a t t e r t o p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s i n u n d u l y f a v o r a b l e l i g h t . Anonymous q u e s t i o n n a i r e s do n o t have t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m - a t l e a s t n o t t o t h e same e x t e n t . A s e c o n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h e n t e r e d i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o use an anonymous q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e need t o g e t maximum S - c o o p e r a t i o n : maximum w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e i n 62 t h e s t u d y , and l e a s t p o s s i b l e S - l o s s . S i n c e t h e 5 p o p u l a t i o n had t o be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d f o r p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s , r e l a -t i v e randomness o f 5 s e l e c t i o n as w e l l as a v o i d a n c e o f S l o s s e s became a m a t t e r o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e . I t was assumed t h a t more Ss w o u l d a g r e e t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h e s t u d y i f t h e y c o u l d f i l l o u t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t home and a t a t i m e o f t h e i r own c h o o s i n g , t h a n i f t h e y have t o come t o a c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r " t e s t i n g " , The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s measure w i l l be r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The c o m p l e t e (anonymous) q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s r e p r o d u c e d as A p p e n d i x A. A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t t h a t t h e s e q u e n c e o f t h e 3 TAT p i c t u r e s was v a r i e d r a n d o m l y , by t h r o w i n g a d i e . The B l a c k y p i c t u r e a l w a y s f o l l o w e d t h e 3 TAT p i c t u r e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t t o t h e s e l e c t e d Ss by m a i l , a c c o m p a n i e d by a f o r m - l e t t e r w h i c h e x p l a i n e d t h e p r o j e c t ( A p p e n d i x J ) , and two p o s t - s t a m p e d e n v e l o p e s . One o f t h e s e was a d d r e s s e d t o a member o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t a t U.B.C. T h i s e n v e l o p e was used by S t o m a i l t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n o n y m o u s l y . The s e c o n d e n v e l o p e c a r r i e d t h i s w r i t e r ' s a d d r e s s and c o n t a i n e d a s i g n e d n o t e by w h i c h 5 i n f o r m s him t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been m a i l e d . T h i s s y s t e m a s s u r e d c o m p l e t e a n o n y m i t y t o S: nobody c o u l d l i n k up t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r s . At t h e same t i m e t h e w r i t e r knew w h i c h o f t h e p r o s p e c t i v e Ss had i n f a c t c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e and t h u s he c o u l d c o a x Ss ( v i a t e l e p h o n e o r m a i l ) whose r e t u r n s were s l o w i n a r r i v i n g . 63 The s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s . R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y . . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were s e t f o r 5 e l i g i b i l i t y : 1 . S mus t be ma le - f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h were g i v e n i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n . 2 . He mus t hove a c h i e v e d r e a s o n a b l y h i g h s k i l l i n " h i s " s p o r t . 3 . He mus t have been b o r n o n , o r moved t o , t h i s C o n t i n e n t b e f o r e age 1 0 . T h i s c r i t e r i o n was i n t r o d u c e d t o m a i n -t a i n r e a s o n a b l e h o m o g e n e i t y o f c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d w i t h i n and b e t w e e n g r o u p s . 4 . I f he i s a c o n t r o l 5 , he must n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n , n o r a d m i t i n t e r e s t i n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r i s k y s p o r t f o r w h i c h he s e r v e s as a c o n t r o l 5 . 5. S s ' ages s h o u l d c o v e r a r e a s o n a b l e r a n g e , and age d i s -t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p s s h o u l d be h o m o g e n e o u s . Number o f S s . F o r p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s i t was d e -c i d e d t o s e t t h e number o f Ss a t N = 10 f o r e a c h s u b - g r o u p , f o r a t o t a l N = 6 0 . S o l i c i t a t i o n o f S s . I n i t i a l l y i t was hoped t h a t a l l p e r -s o n a l c o n t a c t , h o w e v e r s u p e r f i c i a l , c o u l d be a v o i d e d w i t h p r o s -p e c t i v e S s . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e l e s s c o n t a c t 5 had w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , t h e more c a n d i d he m i g h t b e . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t was p l a n n e d t o o b t a i n t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f p r e s i d e n t s o r s e c r e t a r i e s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e s p o r t c l u b s and r e q u e s t them t o m a i l t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o s u i t a b l e S s , i n t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r o f 64 t h e i r mem'bership l i s t s . T h i s p l a n had t o be d r o p p e d b e c a u s e most c l u b o f f i c i a l s d i d n o t know t h e i r members s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a g i v e n p e r s o n was, o r was n o t , e l i g i b l e u n d e r t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . A compromise was c a l l e d f o r . In o r d e r t o o b t a i n h i s m o u n t a i n e e r i n g 5s, t h e w r i t e r a c c e p t e d an i n v i t a t i o n t o a p p e a r at one o f t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e l o c a l c h a p t e r o f t h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a nada, as w e l l as t h a t o f t h e M o u n t a i n e e r i n g C l u b o f B.C. He b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y as w e l l as t h e c r i t e r i a o f e l i g i b i l i t y t o t h o s e p r e s e n t and t h e n c i r c u l a t e d a p a p e r on w h i c h e l i g i b l e 5s were a s k e d t o s i g n up t h e m s e l v e s , o r e l i g i b l e f r i e n d s who r,rvvere,,no'te a t t e n d i n g t h e m e e t i n g . 'While t h i s p r o c e d u r e w o u l d seem t o v i o l a t e t h e r u l e s o f randomness o f s e l e c t i o n , no s u c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be j u s t i f i e d i n t h i s c a s e . B o t h c l u b s have a l a r g e membership, b u t v e r y few members who s a t i s f y t h e r e s i d e n c e - c r i t e r i a w h i c h were o u t l i n e d above. I n f a c t , t h e 10 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t an a l m o s t t o t a l s a mple o f t h e l o c a l e l i g i b l e 5s. In r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r s p o r t s , c l u b p r e s i d e n t s s u p p l i e d l i s t s o f members whom t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be e l i g i b l e . These l i s t s gave i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t 5s' age and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e ( e . g . number o f jumps w h i c h s k y d i v e r s had t o t h e i r c r e d i t ) . The w r i t e r c o n t a c t e d Ss by t e l e p h o n e i n o r d e r o f t h e i r l i s t e d mea-s u r e o f c o m p e t e n c e , t a k i n g c a r e however t o keep t h e mean age o f a l l g r o u p s as homogeneous as p o s s i b l e and a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e " r a r e s t " S s , namely t h e moun-t a i n e e r s . 65 S u c c e s s o f t h e s e l e c t i o n me thod . . O n l y 5 Ss who were c o n -t a c t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r , and p r o v e d e l i g i b l e , wa re l o s t . One s k y d i v e r r e f u s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o u t r i g h t . One o t h e r S , a p i l o t , p r o m i s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e b u t l a t e r r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u n t o u c h e d , p l e a d i n g t o be t o o b u s y . . T h r e e o t h e r s (a s c u b a -d i v e r , a s k y d i v e r and a p i l o t ) f a i l e d t o s e n d i n t h e i r r e t u r n s a f t e r 2 m o n t h s and 3 u r g i n g s and were r a n d o m l y r e p l a c e d . S e v e r a l o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who were c o n t a c t e d by phone p r o v e d t o be i n e l i g i b l e f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s a l t h o u g h a l l o f them were q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o c o o p e r a t e . Two c o m p l e t e d r e t u r n s had t o be r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s p o r t was b e l o w a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s . Ss " l o s t " i n t h i s manner do n o t , o f c o u r s e , v i o l a t e t h e r u l e s o f random s e l e c t i o n . The a t t e m p t a t random s e l e c t i o n ( w i t h i n l i m i t s s e t by t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e l i g i b i l i t y ) a p p e a r t o have been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . Do Ss f u l f i l l t h e e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s ? A l l b u t 3 were b o r n on t h i s C o n t i n e n t and t h e s e 3 moved h e r e b e f o r e t h e age o f t e n . A l l Ss a r e , o f c o u r s e , m a l e s . The l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f Ss a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e I V . On t h e w h o l e , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e seems t o be a d e q u a t e . S u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T a b l e V p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e mean g r o u p a g e s , t h e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s and t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f Ss i n t h e m a i n s t u d y . H o m o g e n e i t y o f a g e - c a t e g o r i e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s was t e s t e d 5 by o n e - w a y a n a l y s i s - o f - v a r i a n c e . The r e s u l t i n g F,-^ = . 5 4 i s o b v i o u s l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The g r o u p s a r e h i g h l y homogeneous i n r e g a r d t o a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n . TABLE IV YEARS SUBJECTS HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN THE SPORT THEY REPRESENT, AND.SOME INDICES OF PROFICIENCY ATTAINED M o u n t a i n e e r s S k y d i v e r s S c u b a - d i v e r s H i k e r s P i l o t s S a i l o r s Y e a r s i n s p o r t Mean 16.6 Med . 15.5 Range 5-49 D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f t o u r s 4-6 Y e a r s i n s p o r t Mean 7.1 ( N o t e : o n l y 9 5s Med. 3.0 r e p o r t e d y e a r s ) Range 1.5-33.0 Number o f jumps - Mean 198 Med. 118 Range 26-500 ( O n l y 2 Ss have l e s s t h a n 90 jumps) Y e a r s i n s p o r t -( N o t e : o n l y 9 Ss r e p o r t e d y e a r s ) D e e p e s t d i v e Y e a r s i n s p o r t No. o f h i k e s o v e r 10 m i l e s i n l a s t 2 y r s Mean Med. Range Mean Med. Range Mean Med. Range Mean Med. Range ( O n l y Y e a r s i n s p o r t - Mean ( N o t e : o n l y 9 Ss Med. r e p o r t e d y e a r s ) Range Hours l o g g e d Y e a r s i n s p o r t - Mean Med. Range ( O n l y 4.3 2.5 1- 15 125 ' 120' 75-200' 15.3 12.5 5-37 16 18 2- 25 1 5 had l e s s t h a n 8) 9.5 5.0 2-26 339 300 156-600 Ss had l e s s t h a n 21 - Mean : 19 Med. : 20 Range : 8-29 (No p r o f i c i e n c y measure seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s p o r t ) 67 TABLE V AGE, EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND FAMILY STATUS OF SUBJECTS (GROUP DATA) Mean Mean Number p,r ejpJJ.^ Number age educ. S i n g l e M a r r i e d e v e r c l a s s c l a s s d i v o r c e d M o u n t a i n -e e r s 3.8 5.1 4 6 0 S k y d i v e r s 3.8 3.7 4 6 1 S c u b a d i v e r s 4 t l 4.2 1 9 2 H i k e r s 3,7 4.3 6 4 0 P i l o t s 5.0 2.5 1 9 1 S a i l o r s 3,8 3.7 1 9 1 N o t e : Age and e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s were coded as f o l l o w s : Age C l a s s E d u c a t i o n C l a s s 20-24 1 Below Gr. 10 1 25-29 2 Grade 10-11 2 30-34 3 Grade 12 3 35-39 4 Some U n i v . 4 40-44 5 U n i v . G r a d . 5 45-49 6 M. A . , M. D . , 50+ 7 L L 3 , e t c . 6 Ph.D. 7 Number who have c h i l -d r e n 4 5 7 4 Not_e: An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e c o m p a r i n g t h e :aqes of Ss i n t h e s i x g r o u p s r e s u l t e d i n an i n s i g n i f i c a n t F ^ = ,54. The mean group ages a r e homogeneous a c r o s s a l l g r o u p s . A s e c o n d a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w h i c h compared educar-t i o n a l l e v e l s however, r e s u l t e d i n an Fjj^= 3.55, s i g -n i f i c a n t a t p = .0077. (A c o r r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and t o t a l s o f Ss on t h e 5 a t t i t u d e s c a l e however, p r o d u c e d r ' s t h a t were e s s e n t i a l l y e q u a l 0). 68 A s e c o n d a n a l y s i s - o f - v a r i a n c e i n r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n a l 5 l e v e l s r e s u l t e d i n an F , . ^ = 3 . 5 5 , p < . 0 1 . The g r o u p s a r e n o t homogeneous i n r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t t - t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t b e t w e e n two g r o u p s a t a t i m e d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e l o w e r e d u -c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e p i l o t s i s a t t h e r o o t o f t h e i m b a l a n c e . The t - r a t i o s b e t w e e n p i l o t s / m o u n t a i n e e r s and p i l o t s / h i k e r s r e a c h p < . 0 1 ; t h o s e b e t w e e n p i l o t s / s k y d i v e r s and p i l o t s / s c u b a d i v e r s r e a c h p < r . 05 ; t h e o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t t - r a t i o f o r any c o m p a r i s o n w h i c h i n v o l v e d p i l o t s o c c u r r e d f o r t h e p i l o t / s a i l o r c o m p a r i s o n . None o f t h e t - t e s t s b e t w e e n any o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s p r o d u c e d d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < , 0 5 . T h e s e f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t t h e w e l l - k n o w n f a c t t h a t m o u n t a i n e e r i n g and h i k i n g a t t r a c t s a d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f v e r y h i g h l y e d u c a t e d p e o p l e , w h i l e t h e o p p o s i t e i s t r u e (on t h e o v e r a g e ) f o r f l y i n g . I t was r e p o r t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a l l D f t h e a t t i t u d e s - s c a l e - t o t a l s and a g e , as w e l l as e d u c a t i o n a l c a -t e g o r i e s , was f o u n d t o be i n t h e o r d e r o f z e r o . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t any o f t h e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s ( e . g . t h e MMPI s c a l e s , o r t h e Gough A C L , e t c ) w o u l d be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c -t e d by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d i s p a r i t y o f one g r o u p o f Ss when no s u c h e f f e c t c o u l d be d e t e c t e d i n r e g a r d t o any o f t h e 5 a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . The number o f s i n g l e v s . m a r r i e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n e a c h g r o u p shows some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s among g r o u p s : o n l y one s c u b a -d i v e r , 1 s a i l o r and 1 p i l o t a r e s i n g l e , as a g a i n s t 4 m o u n t a i n -e e r s , 4 s k y d i v e r s and 6 h i k e r s . When t h e g r o u p s a r e " a s s e m b l e d " . 69 i n t o r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence b e t w e e n t h e 9 s i n g l e r i s k 5 s , and 8 s i n g l e c o n t r o l 5 s . K l a u s n e r (1966 c ) was q u o t e d e a r l i e r as r e p o r t i n g t h a t U . S . s k y d i v e r s were s i n g l e more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n o t h e r m a l e s i n s i m i l a r a g e - g r o u p s , t h a t t h e y m a r r i e d l a t e r and were d i v o r c e d more o f t e n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s a m p l e , s k y d i v e r s a r e i n one o f t h e 3 l o w m a r r i a g e - r a t e g r o u p s ; h o w e v e r , t h e i r d i v o r c e r a t e i s n o t h i g h e r t h a n t h a t r e p o r t e d by members o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . The l a s t c r i t e r i o n o f e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d t h a t c o n t r o l Ss s h o u l d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e , n o r e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t i n f u t u r e p a r -t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s p o r t f o r w h i c h t h e y were s e r v i n g as c o n t r o l s . T h r e e c o n t r o l 5s do n o t s t r i c t l y q u a l i f y u n d e r t h i s r u l e b u t were r e t a i n e d . One h i k e r s t a t e d t h a t he w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e up s e r i o u s m o u n t a i n e e r i n g ( and s k y d i v i n g ) ; one p i l o t who f r e -q u e n t l y f e r r i e s p a r a c h u t i s t s r e p o r t e d t h a t he w o u l d l i k e t o make one jump so as t o f i n d o u t "wha t i t i s a l l a b o u t " ; and one: s a i l o r had done c a r - r a c i n g and s t u n t - f l y i n g i n t h e p a s t . The h i k e r was r e t a i n e d b e c a u s e he i s o v e r age 5 0 , n e v e r d i d any s k y d i v i n g , n o r m o u n t a i n e e r i n g ( t h o u g h h i k.-TS c a n e a s i l y " s w i t c h " t o m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , and some do) - s o , a l l i n a l l , h i s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s c o u l d n o t be t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y . The p i l o t i n q u e s t i o n had l o g g e d o v e r 400 h o u r s f l y i n g t i m e and had been i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h s k y d i v e r s . S t i l l , he had made no p r e p a r a t i o n s t o e x e c u t e h i s "one j u m p " - a n d , e v e n a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own s t a t e m e n t s , a l l he was i n t e r e s t e d i n was one j u m p . H e n c e , h i s r e a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e s p o r t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e g l i g i b l e . 70 Tho s a i l o r i s n o t e n g a g e d i n any o f t h e d a n g e r o u s s p o r t s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e and f u r t h e r m o r e , he d i d n o t i n d i c a t e on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t he w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e up any, o f them a g a i n . C o n s e q u e n t l y he was n o t d i s q u a l i f i e d , , I n c l o s i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , one may p o n d e r as t o why t h e o v e r -w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f a b o u t 80 p e o p l e who were c o n t a c t e d e i t h e r a c t u a l l y s p e n t a b o u t 1 -y h o u r o f t h e i r t i m e t o c o m p l e t e a l e n g t h y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o r a t l e a s t had o f f e r e d t o do s o . Some u n d o u b t e d l y d i d i t t o h e l p s c i e n c e , o r a s s i s t a man t o o b t a i n h i s d e g r e e i n l a t e m i d d l e - a g e . As f a r as t h e r i s k Ss a r e c o n -c e r n e d , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was ample e v i d e n c e t h a t many p a r t i c i p a t e d b e c a u s e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s were p u z z l e d a b o u t t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o r i s k - t a k i n g and hoped t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s p r o j e c t w o u l d h e l p them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r own " h i d d e n " m o t i v a t i o n s . S e v e r a l o f them made s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t " I g u e s s y o u t h i n k we a r e some k i n d o f ' n u t s ' and a t t i m e s I w o n d e r a b o u t i t m y s e l f " . E v e r y 5 ( r i s k and c o n t r o l ) r e q u e s t e d t h a t he be s e n t a summary o f t h e r e s u i t s . 71 VI.. RESULTS 1. H y p o t h e s i s I : - " R i s k as a m o t i v e " . F o u r p r e d i c t i o n s were made i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , f o r t h e p i l o t and main s t u d y groups("common p r e d i c t i o n s " ) , w i t h 3 a d d i t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e main s t u d y g r o u p s o n l y . The common p r e d i c t i o n s s t a t e d i n e s s e n c e t h a t b o t h mpdr's and s e l f -r a t e d d a n g e r l e v e l s o f t h e two s p o r t s " l e a s t want t o g i v e up" and a l s o o f t h e 2 s p o r t s "most want t o t a k e up" w i l l be " c l o s e " more o f t e n t h a n w o u l d be e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . (The c h a n c e mo-d e l s a r e d e t a i l e d i n A p p e n d i x B ) . T a b l e VI p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d t o t h e common p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y : T a b l e V I I s u m m a r i z e s t h e same d a t a f o r t h e main s t u d y g r o u p s . L a s t l y , T a b l e V I I I s u m m a r i z e s t h e f i n d i n g s f o r p i l o t and main s t u d y g r o u p s c o m b i n e d . F o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y g r o u p s , t h e p r e d i c t e d t r e n d h o l d s w i t h o u t r e v e r s a l i n a l l o f t h e 12 c o m p a r i s o n s (4 c o n d i t i o n s x Group A, Group E and combined p i l o t s t u d y g r o u p s ) . F o r t h e two g r o u p s v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , two c o n d i t i o n s f a i l t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e (Group A, mpdr, "most want t o t a k e up"; and a l s o u n d e r s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r c o n d i t i o n ) . One c o m p a r i s o n a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t p \.10 (Group B, s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r , " l e a s t want t o g i v e u p " ) ; t h e r e m a i n i n g c o m p a r i s o n s a r e a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e v e l s r a n g i n g f r o m p< .05 t o <'.001, F o r t h e main s t u d y g r o u p , t h e two c o m p a r i s o n s i n v o l v i n g s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p< .05 and p< .01, 72 TABLE VI OBSERVED AND EXPECTED NUMBER OF Ss WHO CHOSE SPORTS WITH"CLOSE" AND "NOT CLOSE" DANGER RATINGS IN THE PILOT STUDY A) " L e a s t want t o g i v e up" A-1: mpdr d a n g e r r a t i n g Obs . Exp. Group A C l o s e Not c l . Tot, 47 33 13 27 60 60 X 2=13..22,. p < .001 Group B C l o s e Not c l , 19 14 7 12 To t , 26 26 X 2=3.86, p < .05 A So B Comb'd C l o s e Not c l . T o t . 66 20 86 47 39 86 X 2=16.92, p <.001 A-2: s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r Obs . Exp. Group A C l o s e Not c l . 54 39 6 21 X Tot, 60 60 2=16.41, p< .001 Group B C l o s e Not c l Tot, 21 17 5 9 26 26 ,2 = 2.72, p < .10 A &. B Comb'd C l o s e Not c l . T o t , 75 56 11 30 86 86 X 2 = 34.50, p < .001 i) "Most want t o t a k e up' B - l t mpdr d a n g e r r a t i n g Obs. Exp . Group A C l o s e Not C l . T o t 37 32 21 26 58 58 ,2=1. 76 , n . s . Group B C l o s e Not c l . T o t . 21 15 6 12 27 27 X 2 = 5.40, p <- .02 A & B Comb'd C l o s e Not c l . Tot 58 47 27 38 85 85 ,2 = 5.77, p < .02 Obs. Exp. 3-2: s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r Group A C l o s e Not c l . T o t . Group B C l o s e Not c l . T o t 42 37 16 21 58 58 25 17.5 2 9.5 27 27 X 2=1.86, n.s . X 2=9.17, p c -005 A So B Comb'd C l o s e Not c l . Tot, 67 18 85 54,5 30.5 85 X 2=9.00, p C.005 73 TABLE V I I OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES OF Ss IN THE MAIN STUDY WHO CHOSE SPORTS WITH "CLOSE" AND "NOT CLOSE" DANGER RATINGS A) " L e a s t want t o g i v e up"  A-1; mpdr d a n g e r r a t i n g C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 27 19 46 Exp. 26 20 46 The r e s u l t s a r e o b v i o u s l y n o t s i g n i f i c a n t A-2: s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 37 9 46 Exp. 30 16 46 x 2 = 4.67, p <.05 B) "Most want t o t a k e up" B - l : mpdr d a n g e r r a t i n g C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 24 23 47 Exp. 26 21 47 R e s u l t s a r e o p p o s i t e t o p r e d i c t i o n B-2: s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 39 8 47 Exp. 30 17 47 x 2 = 7.46, p < .01 N o t e : Some o f t h e main s t u d y Ss f a i l e d t o f i l l i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s , hence N < 60. TABLE V I I I OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES OF THE COMBINED PILOT AND MAIN STUDY GROUPS WHO CHOSE SPORTS WITH "CLOSE" AND "NOT CLOSE" DANGER RATINGS A) " L a a s t want t o g i v e up" A-1: mpdr d a n g e r r a t i n g s C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 93 39 132 Exp. 73 59 132 Y 2 = 12.28, p ( .001 A-2: s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 112 20 132 Exp. 86 46 132 X 2 = 27.65, p <.001 3) "Most want | t o t a k e up" B - l : mpdr d a n g e r r a t i n g s C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 82 50 132 Exp. 73 59 132 X 2 = 2.48, n . s . B-2: s e l f - r a t e d d a n g e r C l o s e Not C l o s e T o t a l Obs. 106 26 132 Exp. 85 47 132 X c = 14.56, p < .001 75 r e s p e c t i v e l y . One o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n s based on mpdr ( " l e a s t want t o g i v e up") j u s t e x c e e d s c h a n c e l e v e l s , and t h e l a s t c o m p a r i -son ("most want t o t a k e up") s u f f e r s a s l i g h t r e v e r s a l . F o r t h e c o m b i n e d p i l o t and main s t u d y g r o u p s , t h r e e o f t h e f o u r c o m p a r i s o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t beyond p £ .001; o n l y t h e "most want t o t a k e up - mpdr" c o n d i t i o n s f a i l s t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s a r e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . T h r e e f u r t h e r p r e d i c t i o n s were t e s t e d i n t h e main s t u d y o n l y and w i l l be r e p o r t e d on now. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i r s t , more r i s k t h a n c o n t r o l Ss s h o u l d be f o u n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e now i n o t h e r r i s k y s p o r t s t h a n j u s t t h e one w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d o n l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e 6 s p o r t s w h i c h a c h i e v e d h i g h e r mpdr's t h a n 4 i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y and t h e s e , o f c o u r s e , i n c l u d e t h e t h r e e s p o r t s w i t h w h i c h t h i s p r o j e c t i s p r i n c i p a l l y c o n c e r n e d , i . e . m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , s k y d i v i n g and s c u b a d i v i n g . The o t h e r 3 s p o r t s a r e h y d r o p l a n i n g , c a r - r a c i n g and s t u n t f l y i n g . T h ree o f t h e r i s k Ss r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n one more., and one r i s k 5 r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 2 more o f t h e 6 s p o r t s . O n l y 1 5 , a p i l o t , r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s p o r t d e f i n e d as r i s k y ( n a m e l y s t u n t f l y i n g ) . The r e s u l t s a r e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n b u t o b v i o u s l y n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s may, o r may n o t be due t o p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h p r e v e n t t h e a v e r a g e i n -d i v i d u a l f r o m s p e n d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y t i m e and money on s e v e r a l s u c h s p o r t s . The l a s t two p r e d i c t i o n s were t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more r i s k t h a n c o n t r o l Ss w o u l d r e g i s t e r i n t e r e s t i n 76 t a k i n g up one o r more o f t h e 6 r i s k s p o r t s , g i v e n t i m e and money. Twenty-one o f t h e r i s k 5 s , b u t o n l y 13 o f t h e c o n t r o l 5s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y wanted t o t a k e up one o r more o f t h e r i s k a c t i v i t i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t ^2=3.31, . 10> p > .05. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t 8 o f t h e s e 13 c o n -t r o l Ss were p i l o t s , m a i n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g up s t u n t f l y i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f i n d i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . The r e s u l t s i n te r m s o f t h e l a s t p r e d i c t i o n show t h a t t h e 13 c o n t r o l Ss p i c k e d a t o t a l o f 22 r i s k a c t i v i t i e s t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e up, as a g a i n s t a t o t a l o f 50 a c t i v i t i e s ( b e s i d e s t h e one t h e y now p u r s u e ) l i s t e d by t h e r i s k S s . T h i s p r e d i c -t i o n i s s t r o n g l y b o r n o u t by t h e d a t a . I n summary^ a l l p r e d i c t i o n s , i n r e g a r d t o a l l g r o u p s were s u s t a i n e d a t l e a s t i n t e r m s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n e x c e p t one: "most want t o t a k e up - mpdr" c o n d i t i o n s u f f e r e d a s l i g h t r e v e r s a l f o r m a i n - s t u d y S s . The r e s u l t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t r i s k t e n d s t o a c t as a d i s t i n c t m o t i v e w h i c h e n t e r s i n t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s p o r t s . 77 Hypothesis II; "Persistant risk-taking is counterphobic" Hypothesis I l - a : "Feelings of general inadequacy" This hypothesis predicted that risk Ss would obtain a l l , or most, of the larger than .85 phi-coefficients found between the ego vs. ego-ideal Gough ACL protocols; and, after removal of Ss with .>• .85 phi-coefficients from further consideration., the mean phi would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower for the risk than for the con-t r o l groups. Larger than .85 phi's are taken to demonstrate extreme defsnsiveness, while low phi's suggest a low degree of sat i s f a c t i o n with the s e l f . The f i r s t part of the prediction completely f a i l e d to ma-t e r i a l i z e : one risk 5, a scuba diver, obtained a phi = 1.00 by noting on the ego-ideal form that he was completely s a t i s f i e d with himself (and not f i l l i n g i t out) and one control 5, a hiker, obtained a phi = .88. A l l other phi's were below .85. To test the second part of the prediction, a l l phi's were transformed by Fisher's z-transformation, averaged separately for each group, and then re-converted into phi. The mean phi for the remaining 29 risk Ss was .430; that for the remaining 29 control Ss .455. The difference i s obviously not s i g n i f i -cant. Clearly, the observed data lead to a rejection of Hypothe-sis I l - a . Risk seekers do not seem to be less s a t i s f i e d with themselves than control Ss. One other index, not o r i g i n a l l y considered for the testing of this hypothesis, offers i t s e l f : the "Personal Adjustment" 78 s c a l e o f t h e Gough ACL. A l l Gough s c a l e s c o r e s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d t o s t a n d a r d s c o r e s , w i t h a mean = 50, s.d. =<10. On t h i s s c a l e , t h e me^n s c o r e o b t a i n e d by r i s k 5s was 47,27 ( s . d . 8.74) as a g a i n s t t h e c o n t r o l 5 s ' mem s c o r e o f 49. 33 ( s . d . 6.94). The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s c o r e o f t h e r i s k g r o up and t h e p o p u l a t i o n s c o r e o f 50 ' a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t = 1.68. ( C r i t i c a l t a t 29 d f . , t w o - t a i l e d ( f o r p c .10 i s 1 . 6 9 9 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s c o r e s D f t h e r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s does not even a p p r o a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e ( t = 1 . 0 1 4 ) . Two c o n c l u s i o n s seem a p p r o p r i a t e i n l i g h t o f t h e s e d a t a : 1. B o t h o f t h e o r i g i n a l p r e d i c t i v e i n d i c e s f a i l e d t o show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r i s k and c o n t r o l Ss i n t e r m s o f t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s e l f . 2. T h e r e i s a s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n o f l e s s s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n ( l o w e r " p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t " ) on p a r t o f t h e r i s k Ss t h a n on p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ; no s u c h i n d i c a t i o n i s e v i d e n t f o r t h e c o n t r o l S s . 79 H y p o t h e s i s I I — b : " f e e l i n g s o f m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y " T h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s were used t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s : s c a l e A o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e ; Blum's (1950) B l a c k y c a r d No. 6 ( c a s t r a t i o n c a r d ) ; and M u r r a y ' s TAT c a r d 13 MF s c o r e d f o r d e r o g a t i o n o f women and s e x . H i g h s c o r e s on t h e f i r s t two i n s t r u m e n t s w o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as s u p p o r t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s . On t h e TAT c a r d , more r i s k t h a n c o n t r o l 5s were e x p e c t e d t o p r o -duce s t o r i e s i n w h i c h women and sex a r e d e r o g a t e d . F o r i n -s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s c o r e r s o f t h e TAT c a r d s , see A p p e n d i x H. The A s c a l e . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e among a l l 6 g r o u p s i n r e g a r d t o t h e A s c a l e s c o r e s y i e l d e d an i n s i g n i f i c a n t F-r a t i o o f 1.21 (p = .32) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f a l l s u b -g r o u p s on t h i s s c a l e were e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l . S i n c e a d i f -f e r e n c e between c o m b i n e d r i s k and n o n - r i s k g r o u p s was o r i g i n a l -l y p r e d i c t e d , a t - t e s t was p e r f o r m e d between t h e s c o r e s o f com-b i n e d r i s k , ?nd com b i n e d n o n - r i s k S s , i n s p i t e o f t h e i n s i g n i -f i c a n t F - r a t i o . The mean A - s c o r e f o r t h e r i s k g r o u p s was 13.93 ( s . d . 4.24) and f o r t h e com b i n e d c o n t r o l g r o u p s 14.17 ( s . d . 4 . 9 7 ) . The mean v a l u e s a r e r e v e r s e d as compared t o t h e i r p r e -d i c t e d r e l a t i v e s t a n d i n g b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n e g l i g i b l e and i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The A - s c a l e r e s u l t s f a i l t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e h y p o t h e s i s . • n t h e B l a c k y c a s t r a t i o n c • r c . 24 r i s k Ss and 23 c o n t r o l Ss c h o s e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h i s presumed t c i n d i c a t e a b s e n c e o f c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y . Of t h e 4 r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g c a s t r a t i o n f e a r , 3 were g i v e n by c o n t r o l Ss and o n l y one by a r i s k S s . The f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s t e s t o b v i o u s l y f a i l t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . 80 TAT c a r d MF13. S t o r i e s w r i t t e n t o t h i s c a r d were t o be s c o r e d t w i c e ? once f o r d e r o g a t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r , and a s e c o n d t i m e f o r d e r o g a t i o n o f s e x . T h r e e j u d g e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m among t h e w r i t e r ' s a c q u a i n -t a n c e s . They were known t o t h e w r i t e r as i n t e l l i g e n t and i n t r a -c e p t i v e b u t t h e y were n o t t r a i n e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s . O r i g i n a l l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s were c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h i s t a s k b u t t h i s i d e a was r e j e c t e d l e s t t h e y m i g h t a t t e m p t t o g i v e "deep i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " w h i c h d i d n o t seem t o be c a l l e d f o r h e r e . The " p l e a s a n t n e s s " v s . " u n p l e a s a n t n e s s " o f t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r . T h e r e was c o m p l e t e agreement among j u d g e s i n 26 c a s e s . In 30 c a s e s , two o f t h e j u d g e s a g r e e d and t h e d i s a g r e e -ment between them and t h e t h i r d j u d g e i n v o l v e d o n l y one s t e p , i . e . between " n e u t r a l " and " p l e a s a n t ' 1 ' , o r " n e u t r a l " and "un-p l e a s a n t " . I n t h e s e c a s e s t h e s t o r y was a s s i g n e d t o t h e c a t e -g o r y upon w h i c h two j u d g e s had a g r e e d . In t h r e e c a s e s e a c h j u d g e c h o s e a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y ; and i n one c a s e t h e r e was a g reement between two j u d g e s but t h e t h i r d j u d g e d i s a g r e e d a t a l e v e l "two s t e p s removed". These f o u r s t o r i e s were d r o p p e d as t o o a m b i g u o u s , l e a v i n g 56 p r o t o c o l s f o r t h i s s o r t . The number o f s t o r i e s r a t e d " p l e a s a n t " , " u n p l e a s a n t " and " n e u t r a l , o r c a n ' t t e l l " ( i n t h e o r d e r g i v e n ) were: 3, 5 and 21 f o r r i s k S s ; 4 , 5 and 18 f o r c o n t r o l S s . The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t . R i s k Ss d i s p l a y e d no g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o p o r t r a y t h e woman as " u n p l e a s a n t " t h a n c o n t r o l S s . The " p l e a s a n t " v s . "unpleasant 1'' c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s e x u a l  a c t i v i t y . In t h i s s o r t , c o m p l e t e agreement among j u d g e s 81 o c c u r r e d i n r e g a r d t o 36 s t o r i e s ; two j u d g e s a g r e e d , w i t h one d i s a g r e e i n g a t "one s t e p removed" i n t h e c a s e o f 19 s t o r i e s . Three-way d i s a g r e e m e n t , o r agreement between two j u d g e s c o u p l e d w i t h "two s t e p s removed" d i s a g r e e m e n t by t h e t h i r d j u d g e happened i n 5 c a s e s and t h e s e 5 s t o r i e s were d r o p p e d . The j u d g e s had bean i n s t r u c t e d t o make a 4-way s o r t : s e x -a v o i d a n c e (no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s ) , sex w i t h p l e a s a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s , sex w i t h u n p l e a s a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s , and sex w i t h u n d e f i n e d o r ambiguous c o n s e q u e n c e s . F o u r t e e n r i s k 3 s , as a g a i n s t o n l y 5 c o n t r o l 5s a v o i d e d sex i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e does n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e , Of t h e 33 s t o r i e s w i t h s e x u a l r e f e r e n c e s , t h e s t o r i e s o f 1 r i s k 5 and 2 c o n t r o l Ss were r a t e d " p l e a s a n t " ; 9 r i s k Ss' and 14 c o n t r o l b s' s t o r i e s were a s s i g n e d t o t h e " u n p l e a s a n t 1 ' c a t e -g o r y ; 3 r i s k 5 and 4 c o n t r o l 5 s t o r i e s were r a t e d " n e u t r a l " , ambiguous o r " c a n ' t t e l l " . ( T h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t ) . The d a t a f a i l t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . In summary: d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m 3 d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t r i s k 5s have no g r e a t e r t e n d e n c i e s t o d e r o g a t e women and sex t h a n c o n t r o l 5 s . T h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n o f g r e a t e r s e x - a v o i d a n c e i n f a n t a s y - m a t e r i a l by r i s k 5s b u t n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n s o f a r as r e -s p o n s e s t o t h e B l a c k y c a r d a r e an a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f " c a s -t r a t i o n a n x i e t y " , s u c h e x i s t s a t v e r y l o w l e v e l i n b o t h g r o u p s and i s d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y between r i s k and c o n t r o l 5 s . I f t h e r e i s any f e e l i n g o f " m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y " among r i s k 5 s , 82 i t d o e s n ' t seem t o be l i n k e d t o " c a s t r a t i o n fear',' n o r does i t f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a t e n d e n c y t o d e r o g a t e women o r s e x , n e i t h e r " d i r e c t l y " ( as measured by q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e ) , n o r i n f a n t a s y (as measured by t h e TAT c a r d MF13). 83 H y p o t h e s i s 1 1 - c : " f e a r o f . and p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d e a t h " The i n s t r u m e n t was B o y a r ' s (1966) s c a l e ; 5 s ' s c o r e s were t h e number o f e x t r e m e (1 o r 7) a n s w e r - c h o i c e s w h i c h t h e y have made. The number o f e x t r e m e a n s w e r s were: 78 f o r r i s k S s , and 67 f o r c o n t r o l Ss. S c o r e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s by t h e Mann-Whitney U - t e s t , w h i c h y i e l d s a z - v a l u e when t h e number o f Ss i s as h i g h as i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The z - v a l u e was .836, c o m p l e t e l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . S c o r e s on t h i s s c a l e were a l s o compared by a l g e b r a i c a l l y summing t h e r e s p o n s e - v a l u e s , i . e . t h e " u s u a l " manner o f d e r i v -i n g s c o r e s f r o m a s c a l e . Mean s c o r e s a r r i v e d a t i n t h i s man-n e r v j c r e : r i s k 5 s : 17.67, ( s . d . 7 . 1 6 ) ; c o n t r o l S s : 19.07 ( s . d . 6 . 8 2). The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s i s n o t s i g n i f i -c a n t b u t t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n t r o l Ss seam t o a d m i t t o some-what more f e a r o f d e a t h t h a n r i s k 5 s , t h u s r e v e r s i n g t h e " e x -p e c t e d " d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s . 84 H y p o t h e s i s 11 — d : " t h e w i s h t o d i e , a n d n i r v a n i c f a n t a s i e s " The i n s t r u m e n t used t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s c a l e C o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e s c a l e , w i t h more e x t r e m e r e s p o n s e s p r e d i c t e d f o r t h e r i s k g r o u p . R i s k Ss gave 79 e x t r e m e a n s w e r s , as a g a i n s t 88 w h i c h o c -c u r r e d among c o n t r o l S s . The d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t b u t t h e d i r e c t i o n i s r e v e r s e d f r o m t h a t w h i c h was p r e d i c t e d . The d a t a f a i l t o s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . 85 H y p o t h e s i s I I - e : " r e p r e s s e d f e a r s o f p a r e n t a l abandonment". The i n s t r u m e n t was s c a l e D, composed o f i t e m s f r o m C a t t e l l ' s HSPQ w h i c h a r e measures o f s o u r c e t r a i t D. P r e d i c -t i o n was t h a t r i s k 5s w o u l d e a r n h i g h e r s c o r e s . Mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d were: r i s k 5 s : 19.27 ( s . d . 4 . 6 2 ) ; c o n t r o l 5 s : 20.20 ( s . d . 5 . 9 4 ) . The d a t a a r e i n r e v e r s e o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . 86 H y p o t h e s e s I I I : " m a g i c a l b e l i e f s , s u p e r s t i t i o n and power concern'' Two i n s t r u m e n t s were used t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s : s c a l e E o f t h e c o m p o s i t e a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and M u r r a y ' s TAT c a r d s 7 BM and 17 BM, s c o r e d f o r n-Power. Mean s c o r e s on s c a l e E were: r i s k S s : 12.97 ( s . d . 4 . 9 5 ) ; c o n t r o l Ss 14.30 ( s . d . 4 . 8 4 ) , i n r e v e r s a l o f t h e p r e d i c t e d t r e n d . (The d i f f e r e n c e between means i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t : t = 1 . 0 5 ) . W h i l e s c o r i n g f o r n-Power i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p l i c a t e d , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s r e q u i r e s a b o u t t h e same amount o f t r a i n i n g as s c o r i n g f o r n-Ach. Hence, i t seemed b e s t t o send t h e p r o t o c o l s ( t y p e d on f i l e c a r d s ) t o Mr. C l a y t o n S h o r k e y who d e v i s e d t h e s c o r i n g s y s t e m and had s c o r e d many t h o u -s a n d s o f p r o t o c o l s . Mr. S h o r k e y was, o f c o u r s e , q u i t e unaware of t h e c o d i n g s y s t e m f o r S s , n o r d i d he know much about t h e w h o l e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . The mean n-Power s c o r e f o r r i s k Ss was 2.27; t h a t f o r c o n -t r o l Ss 2.05. The s c o r e s a r e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e does not even a p p r o a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . (Mann-W h i t n e y U - t e s t p r o d u c e d a z - v a l u e o f 1„025). The d i f f e r e n c e a r o s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t e x a c t l y one 5 i n each o f t h e 3 r i s k g r o u p s had an n-Power s c o r e >3.0 whereas a l l r e m a i n i n g s c o r e s w •.: r a 3 . S c o r e s d e r i v e d f r o m b o t h i n s t r u m e n t s f a i l t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . 87 H y p o t h e s i s I V: "use o f r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l " . I n s t r u m e n t s used were: t h e Hy, Ma and K - s c a l e s o f t h e MMPI; and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on w h i c h Ss r a t e d t h e 40 s p o r t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d d a n g e r - l e v e l s . A c c o r d i n g t o p r e d i c t i o n s , r i s k Ss s h o u l d have g a i n e d h i g h e r Ma and Hy s c o r e s t h a n (a) c o n t r o l S s ; (b) t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . S k y d i v e r s ' MMPI s c o r e s were a l s o g o i n g t o be compared t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by K l a u s n e r (1966 b ) f o r h i s group o f 825 U.S.A. s k y -d i v e r s . On t h e s e c o n d i n s t r u m e n t , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a g i v e n r i s k y s p o r t s h o u l d be f o u n d t o r a t e i t a t a l o w e r l e v e l o f d a n g e r t h a n t h e c o m b i n e d n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t h r e e MMPI s c a l e s . C h y l i n s k i and W r i g h t (1967) p u b l i s h e d norms f o r a l l MMPI s c a l e s ( e x c e p t K - c o r r e c t e d Ma s c a l e ) b a s e d on a l a r g e C a n a d i a n male c i v i l i a n s a m p l e . T h e i r norms d i f f e r i n some c a s e s f r o m t h o s e r e p o r t e d by t h e MMPI t e s t manual b u t s h o u l d o f f e r t h e b e s t b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n f o r a group o f C a n a d i a n m a l e s . They a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e IX und e r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n " P o p u l a t i o n norms". D i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s . A s e p a r a t e one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d i n r e g a r d t o r e s u l t s on each s c a l e , t o t e s t f o r o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e 6 s u b - g r o u p s o f t h e s t u d y . Ma s c a l e s c o r e s were t e s t e d once w i t h , and once w i t h o u t , K-c o r r e c t i o n . A l l 4 Anova's r e s u l t e d i n i n s i g n i f i c a n t F - v a l u e s ( s e e T a b l e IX) so f u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n s became u n n e c e s s a r y . The d a t a c l e a r l y do n o t s u p p o r t t h e H y p o t h e s i s . D i f f e r e n c e s o f g r o u p - s c o r e s f r o m p o p u l a t i o n norms. As d a t a i n T a b l e IX i n d i c a t e : r i s k Ss a r e a t , o r below t h e p o p u l a t i o n TABLE IX BB MEANS, 5TANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND SIGNIFICANT DEVIATIONS FROM CANADIAN POPULATION NORMS OF RISK Ss AND CONTROL Ss ON THE MMPI Hy, K, AND MA SCALES R i s k Ss Mean S . d . C o n t r o l Mean 5 Ss .d. P o p u l a t i o n Mean 5 . d . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s Hy S c a l e 18.07 4.65 21.20 3 .24 18.35 4.30 C o n t r o l s > P o p u l a t i o n p < .002 ( t 2 g = 4.75) K S c a l e 13.03 4.60 14.53 4 .25 15.06 4.66 R i s k Ss <. P o p u l a t i o n p c .05 ( t 2 9 = 2.37) Ma S c a l e ( u n c o r -r e c t e d ) 15.57 5.63 14.90 4.07 15.74 4.28 No s i g n i f . d i f f e r e n c e s One -way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r 6 g r o u p s Ss d f M.S. F Hy s c a l e Between W i t h i n 171.55 871.30 5 54 34.31 2 16.13 . 12, n,s o K s c a l e Between W i t h i n 124.73 1103.00 5 54 24.95 1 20.60 .21, n.s . Ma s c a l e ( u n c o r r . ) Between W i t h i n 117.B3 1150.90 5 54 23.56 1 21.30 . 14, n . s . Ma S c a l e ( K - c o r -r e c t e d ) Between W i t h i n 360.60 281.78 5 54 15.76 22.85 .689, n . s . 89 norms o f a l l 3 s c a l e s (Hy, K, and u n c o r r e c t e d Ma); o n l y t h e K-s c a l Q A v i a t i o n , however, r e a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t = -2.37 (29 d f ) , p< .05. Not r i s k , b u t c o n t r o l 5s a r e above t h e p o p u l a t i o n norm o f t h e Hy s c a l e , a t a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p -£,002 ( t = 4.75, 29 d f ) . On t h e K - u n c o r r e c t e d Ma s c a l e s , c o n t r o l s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n norms. Thus, t h e p r e d i c t i o n made i n t e r m s o f p o p u l a t i o n norms a l s o f a i l s t o g a i n s u p p o r t f r o m t h e d a t a . C o m p a r i s o n o f s c o r e s o f s k y d i v e r s t o K l a u s n e r ' s group scores.. K l a u s n e r (1966 b) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y e l e v a t e d s c o r e s f o r h i s sam p l e o f 825 s k y d i v e r s . . They were as f o l l o w s : Hy mean 19.49, s..d. 4.46; Ma ( K - c o r r e c t e d ) mean 21. 1 1 , s . d . 4.08. The s c o r e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s k y d i v e r sample a r e : Hy mean: 17.2, s..d. 4.14; Ma ( K - c o r r e c t e d ) 16.8, s . d . 5.90. I n o t h e r w o r d s , " o u r " s k y d i v e r s s c o r e n o t o n l y below t h e C a n a d i a n popu-l a t i o n norms on t h e Hv s c a l e . , b u t even l o w e r t h a n t h e o v e r a l l mean f o r t h e r i s k - g r o u p . . The d i f f e r e n c e a g a i n s t K l a u s n e r ' s s c o r e does n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e ( t - 1.585) b u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e v a n i s h e s i n v i e w o f t h e a b s o l u t e l e v e l o f t h e Hy s c o r e i n t e r m s o f p o p u l a t i o n norms. The Ma ( K - c o r r e c t e d ) s c o r e o f o u r sample i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f K l a u s n e r ' s ( t - 3.27, p < . 0 0 1 ) . No C a n a d i a n norms e x i s t f o r t h i s s c o r e b u t t h e MMPI man u a l ' s mean p o p u l a -t i o n s c o r e may a c t as a g u i d e p a s t : 17.0, s..d.. 3.87. Thus o u r s k y d i v e r s ' s c o r e on t h i s s c a l e i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean, as r e p o r t e d by t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e MMPI, and 9 0 s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e l o w K l a u s n e r ' s g r o u p s ' . In summary: o u r d a t a do n o t s u p p o r t K l a u s n e r ' s f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g e l e v a t e d Hy and Ma s c o r e s f o r s k y d i v e r s . Whether t h i s i s due t o a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between U . 5 . A . and C a n a d i a n s k y d i v e r s w o u l d have t o be d e t e r m i n e d by f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . One may wonder w h e t h e r K l a u s n e r ' s f i n d i n g s i n t h i s r e s p e c t may be due t o a b i a s o f h i s sample w h i c h , w h i l e l a r g e , r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y lO/o o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t o u t . D a n g e r - r a t i n g o f 3 s 1 "own" s p o r t v s . r a . t i n q s by n o n - p a r -t i c i p a n t s . T a b l e X shows how p a r t i c i p a n t s , and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , r a t e d t h e t h r e e r i s k - s p o r t s . The p r e d i c t i o n t h a t r a t i n g s by p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r h o l d s f o r two o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s a t a h i g h l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t f a i l s t o h o l d f o r m o u n t a i n e e r s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s i n t e r m s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s i s t h e one h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h t e n d s t o be s u p p o r t e d by r e s u l t s f r o m one i n s t r u m e n t ( a t l e a s t i n p a r t ) and c o m p l e t e l y r e f u t e d by a n o t h e r . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n c o u l d be r e s o l v e d i f one e x a m i n e s what t h e two i n s t r u m e n t s r e a l l y m e a s u r e . The MMPI s c a l e s a r e assumed t o gauge r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l t e n d e n c i e s i n a b r o a d s e n s e . In o t h e r w o r d s , p e o p l e w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o r e c e i v e h i g h Ma and Hy s c o r e s i f t h e y have a v e r y g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y t o use t h e r e l e v a n t d e f e n s e - m e c h a n i s m s . I f s u c h a t e n d e n c y w o u l d e x i s t o n l y i n a v e r y n a r r o w r a n g e , e.g. one p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t , t h e n one w o u l d n o t e x p e c t t o f i n d e l e v a -t e d Hy, n o r Ma s c o r e s . TABLE X MEAN DANGER RATINGS ASSIGNED TO THE THREE RISK-SPORTS BY PARTICIPANTS OF A GIVEN SPORT, A 5 COMPARED TO RATINGS ASSIGNED BY THE COMBINED NON-PART ICIPANTS M o u n t a i n e e r i n g S k y d i v i n g S c u b a d i v i n g Mean d a n g e r r a t i n g by p a r t i c i p a n t s (N = 1 0 ) 5 . 1 4 . 5 ( a ) * 3 . 5 ( b ) * Mean d a n g e r r a t i n g by n o n - p a r t i c i -p a n t s (N = 5 0 ) 5 . 1 5 . 4 ( a ) * 4 . 7 ( b ) * (a) *: D i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p ; . . 0 0 2 3 , o n e - t a i l e d , Mann-Whitney U - t e s t (b) *: D i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p . - . 0 0 2 5 , o n e - t a i l e d , Mann W h i t n e y U - t e s t 92 E p s t e i n (1962) c i t e d s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where a n x i e t y i n r e g a r d t o p a r a c h u t e jumps was " r e p r e s s e d " when i t a p p e a r e d in t h e b e s t p s y c h o - e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t o f t h e p e r s o n t o do so tem-p o r a r i l y . We may be on t h e t r a c k o f t h e same phenomenon h e r e : r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l seems t o be l i m i t e d t o p e o p l e ' s own s p o r t o n l y , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g g e n e r a l i z e d . T h i s r e a s o n i n g w o u l d l e a d t o a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s i n r e g a r d t o t h e one r i s k y s p o r t i n w h i c h a p e r s o n h a b i t u a l l y e n g a g e s . At t h e same t i m e , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r i s k y s p o r t s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f g e n e r a l i z e d r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l t e n d e n c i e s must be r e j e c t e d . 93 H y p o t h e s i s V: t h e " e a r l y b a c k g r o u n d " h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e d t h a t r i s k and c o n t r o l 5s w o u l d emerge f r o m t y p i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t e a r l y b a c k g r o u n d s . E a r l y " c l o s e " r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s who p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d r i s k - s e e k i n g , o r e a r l y " d i s t a n t " r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s who r e i n f o r c e d r i s k - t a k i n g n e g a t i v e l y , would l e a d t o l a t e r r i s k -s e e k i n g ; t h e o b v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s were p o s t d i c t e d f o r 5s n o t i n -t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r i s k y s p o r t s . The l a s t 9 q u e s t i o n s o f t h e c o m p o s i t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e r v e d as t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The f i r s t 3 q u e s t i o n s e n q u i r e d i n t o e a r l y t e e n - a g e and " p r o b l e m d i s c u s s i n g " r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f a t h e r ; t h e n e x t 3 q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d a t t h e same a r e a i n r e g a r d t o m o t h e r . Two q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w e d r e g a r d i n g r e s p o n s e f r o m f a -t h e r t o e a r l y r i s k - t a k i n g , and one abo u t m o t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o s u c h a c t i v i t i e s . T a b l e XI r e f l e c t s t h e f a t h e r and m o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s : T a b l e X I I i n d i c a t e s f a t h e r ' s and m o t h e r ' s ( p e r c e i v e d ) r e a c t i o n s t o d a n g e r o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n c h i l d h o o d , and T a b l e X I I I p r e s e n t s t h e summary o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . The d a t a i n T a b l e X I I I i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e d i c t e d i n t e r - a c t i o n s h o l d f o r " e a r l y f a t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p " , a p < . 0 5 ; f o r e a r l y c o m b i n e d p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a t p < .10; and f o r com-b i n e d " p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and a t t i t u d e t o r i s k " ( i . e . a l l i n d i c e s c o m b i n e d ) a t p <.10. The s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e s i g n i f i -c a n c e t e s t s were r e s t r i c t e d t o 5s who r e p o r t e d e i t h e r above,, 94 TABLE XI MEAN RESPONSE SCORES OF THE RISK AND CONTROL GROUPS TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE ENQUIRING INTO CLOSENESS OF RELATION-SHIP TO FATHER AND MOTHER "WHEN I WAS A L I T T L E BOY" AND "WHEN I WAS A TEENAGER"; AND RATING OF A B I L I T Y TO DISCUSS PROBLEMS WITH FATHER AND/OR MOTHER, ALL ON A 7-POINT SCALE HIGH SCORES INDICATE CLOSE RELATIONSHIP F a t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p :< M o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p j j F a t h e r - f r : \ , H a n d • E a r l y D i s - Teens T o t . jj E a r l y D i s - Teens T o t . j j M o t h e r i. c u s s _ 1 c u s s ' R i s k ,4.51 4.35 4.21 ;13.07 5 .19 4.94 4.48.14.61 i g r oup ! N = 29 j ; Con-I t r o l s j; I N=30 i| ! i! i 4.50 4.10 4.00 U 2 . 6 0 i i 5 . 0 2 5.10 4.70115.00 27.68 127.60 Z r a - .; .13 t i o s It (Mann- -1 W h i t n e y ) .55 .43 !l • "It .37 :| .38 .54 .58 .89 .06 i t I! N o t e : A l l d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t T e s t s : Mann-Whitney U - t e s t . 95 TABLE X I I MEAN RESPONSE LEVELS OF THE RISK AND CONTROL GROUPS TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE ENQUIRING INTO FATHER'S AND MOTHER'S REACTION TO S s ' EARLY RISK-TAKING, AND FATHER'S PHILOSO-PHY ABOUT RISK-TAKING IN GENERAL, ALL ON A 7-POINT SCALE. (HIGH SCORES INDICATE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT OF RISK AC-T I V I T I E S , AND A "PRO-RISK" PHILOSOPHY). THE LAST TWO ROWS INDICATE Z-VALUES OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUP SCORES, AND P O I N T - B I S . r ' s BETWEEN INDICES AND MEMBERSHIP IN RISK GROUP | R i s k i g r o up ! Con-t r o l s Z - r a t i o i P ' p — b i s R award f r o m f a t h e r 4.39 3.57 2.192 p <.03 .320 F a t h e r ' s j Comb'd p h i l o s o p h y j F a t h e r : i n d . Reward |j Comb'd fr o m |* p a r e n t 3.87 3.13 2.104 p C.036 .289 I mother 8.26 6.70 3.52 2.73 2.509 Ij 2. 384 !; e <.012s p<.017H .356 .301 i n d i c e s 11.78 9.43 3.076 p<.002 ji [j .395 ;) Mote; t h e "combined f a t h e r i n d e x " i s t h e sum o f t h e " r e w a r d i n d e x ( f a t h e r ) " and f a t h e r ' s " p h i l o s o p h y i n d e x " ; t h e " combined p a r e n t i n d e x " i s t h e sum o f t h e combined f a t h e r i n d e x and t h e mother r e w a r d i n d e x . T e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ; Mann-Whitney U - t e s t 96 TABLE X I I I SUMMARY UF EFFECTS UPON 5 s 1 LATER RISK-TAKING TENDENCIES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN: EARLY AND TEEN-AGE (REPORTED) CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIP AND THE P A ' R E N T P O S I T I V E OR NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT OF RISK-TAKING (AND FATHER'S OWN (PERCEIVED) PHILOSOPHY ABOUT RISK-TAKING). P r e d i c t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i f i t o c c u r s On F a t h e r ' s p a r t In e a r l y c h i l d h o o d x 2 = 4.288 p < .05 * * X = .216 In t e e n s No r e l a t i o n s h i p In t e r m s o f a b i l i t y " t o d i s c u s s my p r o b l e m " n . s . A l l t h r e e above i n d i c e s n . s . On M o t h e r ' s ! Combined p a r t i p a r e n t a l I i n d i c e s n. s. n. s. n . s. n. s. I a v e r a g e d and j c o m b i n e d x 2 = 3.640* p c .10 **X = .23 5 n. s. n. s , x 2 = 3.760* I P < - 1 0 .44 * C r i t i c a l x 2 a t 1 d f . (p.<.05) = 3. 84; f o r ( p < . 1 0 ) = 2.71. **A. r e f e r s t o t h e K r u s k a l - G o o d m a n p r e d i c t i v e i n d e x o f c a t e g o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o p o r -t i o n o f r e d u c t i o n i n p r e d i c t i v e e r r o r o f t h e depen-d e n t c a t e g o r y w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m k nowledge o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t c a t e g o r y . (Goodman, L.A. and K r u s k a l , W.H. M e a s u r e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n f o r c r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a -97 o r b e l o w a v e r a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e p a r e n t i n q u e s t i o n and above o r below a v e r a g e p a r e n t r e a c t i o n t o r i s k y a c t i v i t i e s . In any o f t h e r e p o r t e d c o m p a r i s o n s , Ss were d r o p p e d i f t h e y r e -p o r t e d an " a v e r a g e " r a t i n g i n t e r m s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a r e n t -r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h s e r v e d as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n ( e . g . f o r " f a t h e r - e a r l y " : 4.0; f o r "combined p a r e n t s , e a r l y " : 8.0; e t c . ) . I t was f e l t t h a t no r e a s o n a b l e p r e d i c t i o n s c o u l d be b a s e d on an " a v e r a g e " r e l a t i o n s h i p . They were a l s o d r o p p e d i f t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r e n g a g i n g i n e a r l y r i s k y a c t i v i t i e s was r e -p o r t e d a t l e v e l 4.0 i n t h e c a s e o f m o t h e r , o r l e v e l 8.0 i n t h e c a s e o f f a t h e r ' s c o m b i n e d i n d e x ( r e i n f o r c e m e n t , and f a t h e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y ) , o r a t 12.0 when t h e combined f a t h e r - m o t h e r i n d i c e s were used i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t t h e two f a t h e r r i s k - a t t i t u d e i n d i c e s were a l w a y s combined i n t o one. No p r e d i c t i o n s were made i n t e r m s o f "main e f f e c t s " o f t h e v a r i a b l e s . D a t a were s c r u t i n i z e d , however, f o r p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n main e f f e c t s and t h e s e were s u b j e c -t e d t o s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s (Mann-Whitney U - t e s t , t w o - t a i l e d ) . None o f t h e s i n g l e ( o r combined) f a t h e r / S - , m o t h e r / 5 - , n o r c o mbined ( f a t h e r + m o t h e r ) / 5 r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c e s were s i g -n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . In o t h e r w o r d s , r i s k Ss and c o n t r o l Ss e n j o y e d (on t h e a v e r a g e ) s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s . A l l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h r e l a t e t o t h e p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o e a r l y r i s k - t a k i n g ( i n c l u d i n g f a t h e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y on t h e s u b j e c t t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y ) a r e d i f f e r e n t a t t h e p .036 t o p < .002 98 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . P a r e n t s o f r i s k 5s t e n d e d t o r e w a r d e a r l y r i s k - t a k i n g , and f a t h e r t e n d e d t o have a " c o u r a g e o u s " • a t t i t u d e t o l i f e , a t l e a s t as f a r as 5s r e p o r t t h e s e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s i n r e t r o s p e c t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , n o t o n l y t h e i n t e r a c -t i o n between p a r e n t - r e l a t i o n s h i p and p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o r i s k -t a k i n g a p p e a r s t o go w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l a t e r r e s u l t s , b u t t h e l a t t e r i n d e x a l o n e a p p e a r s t o r e f l e c t an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . T a b l e XI a l s o p r e s e n t s p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f -f i c i e n t s between each s e p a r a t e i n d e x , and membership i n t h e r i s k g r o u p . A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s : The Gough A d j e c t i v e C h e c k l i s t The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be t a k e n up w i t h a r e p o r t o f t h e d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d o u b l e - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (ego and e g o - i d e a l ) o f t h e Gough ACL. Group mean s c o r e s on a l l o f t h e 23 s c a l e s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e XIV and g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 1. The d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s c a l e s may be f o u n d i n Appen-d i x K. I t was m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r t h a t a l l s c o r e s o f t h e ACL a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o n o r m a l s c o r e s w h i c h have p o p u l a t i o n v a l u e s w i t h means o f 50.0 and s . d . o f 10.0. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i s : on w h i c h o f . t h e s e g o - s c a l e s do t h e r i s k and c o n t r o l 5s o b t a i n s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t -l y above o r b e l o w t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean o f 50? 5uch d e v i a t i o n s w o u l d r e p r e s e n t a measure o f how each group d i f f e r s f rom t h e " a v e r a g e p e r s o n " i n i t s " c o m p o s i t e p e r s o n a l i t y " . 99 TABLE X.IV MEAN EGO AND EGO-IDEAL SCORES OF THE RI5K AND CONTROL GROUP ON THE GOUGH ADJECTIVE CHECKLIST SCALES Ego c o n c e p t Ego-. i d e a l R i s k Ss C o n t r o l Ss R i s k Ss C o n t r o l Ss 1 . T o t a l c h ' d 48. 93 47.70 53. 3 3 * * 52.07m 2 . F a v o r a b l e 48. 77 49.40 61. 90** 61.10** 3 . U n f a v o r a b l e 51. 23 48.50 41. 1 7 * * 4 1 . 3 0 * * 4 , E e f e n s i v a n e s s 49. 73 54.47** 58. 0 3 * * 58.67** 5 , S e l f - c o n f i d , 47. 80 50.40 59. 30** 57.23** 6 . S e l f - c o n t r o l 48. 00 48.60 58. 1 0 * * 59.10** 7 . L a b i l i t y 50. 73 49.17 56. 6 3 * * 53.00m 8 . P e r s . A d j ustm. 47. 27m 49.33 59. 5 3** 58.40** 9 . A c h i e v e m e n t 54. 50* 5 6 . 6 3 * * 62. 47** 59.67 10.Dominance 53. 73m 52.60 61. 3 7 * * 57.40** 1 1 . E n d u r a n c e 54. 4 3 * 5 5.23** 63. 4 3 * * 60.37** 1 2 . O r d e r 54. 77* 5 5 . 2 3 * * 59. 77** 57.67 1 3 . I n t r a c e p t i o n 51. 70 54.13** 61. 57** 59.67** 1 4 . N u r t u r a n c e 50. 20 51.93 58. 57** 59.73** 1 5 . A f f i l i a t i o n 49. 20 50.20 .56. 97** 56.13** l 6 , H e t e r o s e x . i n t . 44. 97* 48.37 58. 67** 55.93** 1 7 . E x h i b i t i o n i s m 47. 77 47.17 52. 77m 5 2 . 2 3 * * 18.Autonomy 52. 07 48.20 48. 83 45.37** 1 9 . A g g r e s s i o n 50. 07 49.60 44. 73** 4 2.87** 20.Change 50. 00 48.17 47. 17 48.27 2 1 . 5 u c c o r a n c e 44. 97** 46.27* 39. 97** 40.17** 22.Abasement 47. 00 48.87 43. 1 7 * * 4 6.17** 2 3 . D e f e r e n c e 47. 97 49.27 45. 90 48.77 Note ( 1 ) : In t h e f i r s t two c o l u m n s , "m" o r "*" o r "**" r e f e r t o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m 50.0 ( t h e popu-l a t i o n mean f o r e g o - c o n d i t i o n ) . Numb e r s marked "m" a r e m a r g i n a l l y d i f f e r e n t ( p O . 1 0 ) ; t h o s e marked turn o r »**•» a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m 50.0 a t t h e .05 and .01 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Note (2) : In t h e l a s t two c o l u m n s , "m", "*" and mean t h a t t h e e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t g r o u p ' s e g o - s c o r e a t p-'.lQ, C .05 o r c .01, r e s p e c -t i v e l y . F I G U ' R £ 1. THE COMPOSITE t'GQ AND X'GO-IDEAl CONCEPTS OF 5lON l F l CANT &IFPBREHCS ff£TW>eew Sl CNIFlCANT •o i P P e e E N C C J S S T W J 6 N QKO\tf irV R f f & A R R T O A r V y O f T M S 2.3 SCALZi AR6 I M O I t A T S O THIS P o u R LINES AT rue sorrow OF TH6 5 R A P H . p.se-i s f e t> ^5" r o s-LOMiJ: jO .of X o STAN-'S) ARB SCOKf P E R S O N A L IT/ i 2 3 4- 7 S 9 10 « tZ TOT FVW ONF DFS S-ce S-CL LA8 ftAP / l e u P o r t CM> ORJ> 1.00 RfSK G R O U P AND C O N T R O L GROUP SS. S C A L E S is n is 16 i r i# / 9 2 0 21 Z 2 23 INT tVUg flFF .<M £XH A'JT r\6& CHA SOC q g A pgr RISK B&O ys- CONTROL t-Go RtSK c.G-0 -~!i>aAL VS-101 S e c o n d l y : on w h i c h o f t h e o c a l e ^ do t h e r i s k and c o n t r o l Ss o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s 'when compared t o each o t h e r 2 Such d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s and s h o u l d p r o v i d e c l u e s as t o why some p e o p l e seek r i s k w h i l e o t h e r s seem t o a v o i d i t . T h i r d l y : on w h i c h ( i f any) s c a l e s a r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between ego and e g o - i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s ? At l e a s t i n some c a s e s , s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s ( i f t h e y e x i s t ) m a y have m o t i v a t i o n -a l q u a l i t i e s : a p e r s o n may w i s h t o "move" i n a d i r e c t i o n s u c h t h a t t h e movement wou l d r e d u c e t h e t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by t h e gap between what he b e l i e v e s he i s , and what ha w o u l d l i k e t o be. A l l above c o m p a r i s o n s make use a f 23 o f t h e 24 p e r s o n a l i t y and need s c a l e s o f t h e ACL ( s c a l e 24, " C o u n s e l l i n g r e a d i n e s s " i s n o t used i n t h i s s t u d y ) . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f o b s e r v e d d i f f e r -e n c e s was t e s t e d i n each c a s e by t h e t - t e s t . F u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s may be a c h i e v e d by p e r f o r m i n g an i t e m a n a l y s i s i n t e r m s o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s : w h i c h o f them ( i f any) were c h e c k e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t number o f Ss i n one group as compared t o Ss i n t h e o t h e r g r o u p . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s may be t e s t e d by e n t e r i n g t h e number o f Ss who c h e c k e d , and d i d n ' t c h e c k , a g i v e n a d j e c t i v e i n t o a 4 - c e l l c o n t i n g e n c y - t a b l e where co l u m n s r e p r e s e n t " c h e c k e d " , " d i d n ' t check' : i, and t h e rows c o r -r e s p o n d t o r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , and p e r f o r m i n g a ^2 t e s t . O b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e Gough ACL r e s u l t s w i l l now be r e v i e w e d i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e p o s s i b l e c o m p a r i s o n s were d e s c r i b e d a b o v e. S i n c e t h e g r o u p s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , d i f -f e r e n c e s w i l l be r e p o r t e d i f t h e y r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t a b o u t 102 p s. .10 o r b e t t e r . A. Ego d e s c r i p t i o n  Ego s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y above o r below p o p u l a t i o n norms. The f i r s t two columns o f T a b l e XV l i s t t h e s c a l e s on w h i c h t h e g r a u p ( s ) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r o r l o w e r t h a n t h e r e p o r t e d p o p u l a t i o n mean o f 50.0, As a m a t t e r o f c o n v e n i e n c e , s c o r e s w h i c h a r e removed l e s s t h a n 0.5 s . d . fr o m t h e mean a r e shown i n d i f f e r e n t rows t h a n t h e ones where t h e d e v i a t i o n f r o m 50.0 e x c e e d s 0.5 s . d . C o m p l e t e mean ego and e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s were g i v e n i n T a b l e XIV and p o r t r a y e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 1. B o t h g r o u p s r e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s h i g h on t h e need f o r a c h i e v e -ment and o r d e r as w e l l as on e n d u r a n c e ; and low on s u c c o r a n e e . The l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e d i f f e r somewhat. R i s k 5s a l s o see t h e m s e l v e s h i g h i n do m i n a n c e . C o n t r o l 5s d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s as a b o v e - a v e r a g e i n d e f e n -s i v e n e s s and i n t r a c e p t i o n . In t e r m s o f b e l o w - a v e r a g e s c o r e s , o n l y r i s k 5s a d m i t t o l o w e r - t h a n a v e r a g e p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a t o l e v e l w h i c h a p p r o a -c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e (p < . 1 0 ) , and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r h e t e r o s e x -u a l i n t e r e s t (p-C.,05). T h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e ways i n w h i c h r i s k and c o n t r o l 5s d i f f e r f r o m t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n on t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e : b o t h a r e h i g h i n need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , o r d e r and e n d u r a n c e . In v i e w o f t h e c r i t e r i a by w h i c h t h e g r o u p s were s e l e c t e d , t h e s e p o s i t i v e d e v i a t i o n s a r e j u s t a b o u t what may have been e x p e c t e d . Once t h e t h r e e above d i f f e r e n c e s (on t h e 103 TABLE XV SCALES OF THE Gl. UGH ACL ON WHICH ONE OR BOTH GROUPS OF Ss ARE SIGNIFICANTLY ABOVE OR BELOW THE MEAN SCORE OF 50, ON THEIR EGO AND/OR EGO-IDEAL PROTOCOLS: AND SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO GRUUPS ON ANY UF THE SCALES UNDER THE TWO (EGO, EGO-IDEAL) CONDITIONS E_G 0 , R i s k Ss ' C o n t r o l Ss More t h a n .5 s . d . above pop. mean (50.0) Ach [/ End.** 4 t l r d . * * L e s s t h a n .5 s.d.. above p o p , mean (50.0) A c h . * / / Dorn./ / End. / O r d / Def..** I n t r . * * EGO _ IDEAL R i s k £is C o n t r o l Ss F a v . * * I F a v . * * D e f . * * ; D e f . * * 5-Conf. ** ! S-Conf.** 5 - C o n t r i S - C o n t r . * * L a b . * * i P e r s . A d . * * i P e r s , A d . * * A c h . * * \ : A c h . * * Dom,** ' : Dom.** End.* * \ j End,** O r d . * * O r d * * * I n t r . * * \| I n t r * * * N u r t . * * |\ N u r t . * * . A f f . * * \\ A f f . * * H o t . * * ; \ H e t , * * T o t . * 1 L a b . * * E x h . 1 E x h , * L e s s t h a n .5 s . d . b e l o w pop. mean (50.0) L . More t h a n .5 s . d . b e l o w pop. mean (50.0) P.. Adj.. H a t . * / Sue.'** S u e * Cha . D e f . * U n f . * * A g g r , *.*' Sue, *•* Aba.'** A u t . * * Aba.** U n f . * * A g g r . * * S u c c . * S c a l e s marked (*) a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y I p C .05 'Sc a l e s marked (**) a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y | P £.01 jJJnjnarked, s c a l e s d i f f e r from 50.0 a t ,~ ' j Qiffcsiicncss between i g r o u p s a r c s i g n i f i - ; c a n t f o r : \ D e f e n s i v e n e s s , Con- • t r o l group h i g h e r t h a n r i s k group a t i p <L.D5 above o r b e l o w 50 a t above o r below 50 a t .n..l 5irj...: D i f f e r e n c e s b g r o u p s a r e L a b : " R i s k " Ach: " Dom: " End: " A u t : " C o n t r o l " Aba: " _ J^ w_u_o_n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r : h i g h e r a t p<.10 ti ii ii l o w e r II PC PC P < 05 01 01 10 p i . . 10 104 p o s i t i v e s i d e ) e r e g i v e n , one e x p e c t s s u c c o r a n c e t o show up on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c o i n : Gough (1965) r e p o r t s r = -,44 be-tween dominance and s u c c o r a n c e , r = -.47 between e n d u r a n c e and s u c c o r a n c e and r = -.22 between a c h i e v e m e n t and s u c c o r a n c e . More w i l l be s a i d l a t e r about t h e l o w e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , and t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y low h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s c o r e , f o r t h e r i s k g r o u p . ' S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s on e g o - c o n c e p t , The o n l y s c a l e on w h i c h t h e e g o - c o n c e p t s o f t h e two g r o u p s emerged w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s " d e f e n s i v e n e s s : i , w i t h t h e c o n t r o l 5s h i g h , and r i s k 5s a t a b o u t t h e a v e r a g e l e v e l . S i n c e among 23 c o m p a r i s o n s a t p = .05 - l e v e l a t l e a s t one i s e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y by c h a n c e , p r o b a b l y l i t t l e s i g -n i f i c a n c e can be a t t a c h e d t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . I n any c a s e , t h e s c o r e o f t h e group o f p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t - t h e r i s k Ss - a r e a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n - m e a n . B. E g o - i d e a l d e s c r i p t i o n s T h e r e a r e no p u b l i s h e d norms f o r e g o - i d e a l d e s c r i p t i o n s on t h e ACL and c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s c o r e s w h i c h w o u l d be r e g a r d e d as o b j e c -t i v e l y h i g h , o r o b j e c t i v e l y low i f t h e y o c c u r r e d i n t h e ego-d e s c r i p t i o n c o n t e x t . . Many o f t h e s c a l e s have s t r o n g and u n i q u e -l y d e f i n e d c u l t u r a l v a l u a t i o n s a t t a c h e d , some o f w h i c h w o u l d p r o b a b l y h o l d u n i f o r m l y a c r o s s t h e w o r l d ( s u c h as p e r s o n a l ad-j u s t m e n t and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ) . . O t h e r s measure d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e v i e w e d as d i s t i n c t l y d e s i r a b l e , o r u n d e s i r a b l e , a t 105 l e a s t by t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m i d d l e - c l a s s f r o m w h i c h Ss o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were drawn. I t d o e s n ' t r e q u i r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( o r s o c i o l o g i c a l ) s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o p r e d i c t t h a t b o t h g r o u p s w i l l e a r n h i g h e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s n o t o n l y on t h e p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e s c a l e s , b u t a l s o on a number o f o t h e r s , e.g. s e l f - c o n t r o l , a c h i e v e m e n t and p r o b a b l y a f f i l i a t i o n . The know l e d g e t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n d i v i -d u a l s w o u l d a l s o l e a d us t o e x p e c t h i g h e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s on t h e e n d u r a n c e s c a l e . D a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l a s t two column s o f T a b l e XIV and XVI c o n f i r m t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s ; t h e y a r e r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u e . T h e r e a r e , however, a few s c a l e s w h i c h measure a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h m i d d l e - c l a s s N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y v i e w s w i t h l e s s c e r -t a i n v a l u e - j u d g m e n t s i n min d . The s c a l e s w h i c h t h i s w r i t e r w o u l d - t e n t a t i v e l y - a s s i g n t o t h i s " g r e y " c a t e g o r y a r e : l a -b i l i t y , i n t r a c e p t i o n ( f o r o t h e r t h a n s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s where i t wo u l d be h i g h l y v a l u e d ) , h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t , e x h i b i t i o n i s m , autonomy and a g g r e s s i o n . The e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s on t h e s e s c a l e s may r e v e a l s o m e t h i n g o f i n t e r e s t a b o u t o u r g r o u p s i f , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , one s e t s t h e e x p e c t e d s c o r e a t t h e mean ( 5 0 . 0 ) . T h r e e q u e s t i o n s may be posed i n r e g a r d t o t h e " g r e y " s c a l e s : (a) a r e t h e mean e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ( o r l o w e r ) t h a n 50.G; (b) a r e t h e y above o r below t h a t g r o u p ' s mean e g o - s c o r e (on t h e same s c a l e s ) ; I D S ( c ) on w h i c h ( i f any) o f t h e s e s c a l e s does t h e e g o - i d s a l o f t h e two g r o u p s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ? In what f o l l o w s , t h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n r e g a r d t o one " g r e y " s c a l e a t a t i m e . L a b i l i t y . B o t h g r o u p s r e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g a t a b o u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean ( e g o - c o n c e p t ) . B o t h w i s h t o be somewhat h i g h e r : t h e d i f f e r e n c e between ego and e g o - i d e a l s c o r e s i s s i g -n i f i c a n t f o r t h e c o n t r o l group ( p ^ ' . O l ) and a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i -c a n c e f o r t h e r i s k group (p ^ . 1 0 ) . I n t r a c e p t i o n . The r i s k g r o up r e p o r t s i t s e l f a t a b o u t t h e mean; t h e c o n t r o l g r oup s e e s i t s e l f s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n t h i s t r a i t ( e g o - c o n c e p t s ) . B o t h w o u l d l i k e t o be a t t h e same, v e r y h i g h , l e v e l on t h i s t r a i t ; ( d i f f e r e n c e between ego and e g o - i d e a l s i g n i f i c a n t a t p <.Q1 f o r b o t h g r o u p s ) . H e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t . The r i s k group r e p o r t s i t s e l f more t h a n 0.5 s . d . b e l o w t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean; t h e c o n t r o l g roup i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h e mean. B o t h g r o u p s w i s h t o be v e r y h i g h i n t h i s a r e a , w i t h t h e r i s k group even h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l group ( d i f f e r e n c e s , ego v s . e g o - i d e a l s i g n i f i c a n t a t p <.01) . E x h i b i t i o n i s m . B o t h g r o u p s a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e l o w t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean ( e g o - c o n c e p t ) . B o t h w i s h t o be above t h e mean ( a t s c o r e s 52.77 and 52.33 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r r i s k and c o n -t r o l 5 s ; t h e d e v i a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p <.1D and <.05 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Autonomy. The r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s r e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a b o ve, and b e l o w , t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean, 1Q7 r e s p e c t i v e l y . B o t h w i s h t o be l o w e r on t h i s need by 4 p o i n t s . T h i s b r i n g s t h e e g o - i d e a l f o r t h e c o n t r o l group s i g n i f i c a n t l y b elow t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean, but n o t t h a t o f t h e r i s k g r o u p . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e g o - i d e a l s o f t h e two g r o u p s i s n o t s i g -n i f i c a n t . S u c c o r a n c e . B o t h g r o u p s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e l o w t h e po-p u l a t i o n mean i n t h e i r e g o - c o n c e p t s - t h e r i s k group more so t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . B o t h w i s h t o be a b o u t one s . d . below t h e e g o - c o n c e p t p o p u l a t i o n norms on t h i s t r a i t . ( D i f f e r e n c e between ego and e g o - i d e a l i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h g r o u p s a t p •: .01) . An a t t e m p t t o summarize t h e d a t a w i l l be made a f t e r t h e s e c t i o n w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s . C. Item a n a l y s i s Which o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s i n t h e l i s t o f 300 were used s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more f r e q u e n t l y by one group t h a n by t h e o t h e r ( b o t h i n ego, and e g o - i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s ) ? M c K i n n o n (1962) i n h i s s t u d y o f more and l e s s c r e a t i v e a r c h i t e c t s ( t h r e e g r o u p s i n a l l ) r e p o r t s t h e a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h were used by more t h a n 30/b o f one, and l e s s t h a n 80% o f one o r b o t h o t h e r g r o u p s . T h i s method o f r e p o r t i n g may, however, m a g n i f y o b j e c t i v e l y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e q u e n c i e s . I f i n t h i s p r o j e c t 24 Ss (80 : Jo o f one group) check an a d j e c t i v e b u t o n l y 23 Ss i n t h e o t h e r group c h e c k i t , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s ob-v i o u s l y due t o c h a n c e , b u t u n d e r t h e M c K i n n o n - s y s t e m i t w o u l d be r e p o r t e d and d i s c u s s e d . 108 An a l t e r n a t i v e way o f r e p o r t i n g i s ba s e d on f r e q u e n c y d i f -f e r e n c e s i n r e g a r d t o a g i v e n a d j e c t i v e when s u c h a d i f f e r e n c e  a p p r o a c h e s o r a t t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n c e , r e g a r d l e s s o f the a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f one o r t h e o t h e r g r oup w h i c h u s e s t h e a d j e c t i v e . T h i s method has t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t i t e m s w h i c h may have been c h e c k e d by even l e s s t h a n h a l f o f one group may come t o a t t e n -t i o n , p r o v i d e d t h a t none o r v e r y few 5s i n t h e o t h e r group have c h e c k e d i t . I n o t h e r w o r d s : t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f r e q u e n c y o f c h e c k i n g may be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t t h e a d j e c t i v e i s not r e a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f e i t h e r g r o u p . A t h i r d method w o u l d be one t h a t f o c u s s e s o n l y on a d j e c -t i v e s w h i c h were c h e c k e d by t h e l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f one group ( s a y 70-80%) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s o f t e n by members o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p . As w i l l bs s e e n : t h e r e a r e o n l y 7 a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h w o u l d s a t i s f y s u c h a c r i t e r i o n . Hence, a l l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be r e -p o r t e d w h i c h • a p p r o a c h , o r a t t a i n a t l e a s t p ~ , 1 0 s i g n i f i c a n c e b u t t h e a c t u a l f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h each group used t h e p a r t i -c u l a r a d j e c t i v e i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e p o r t e d . In t h i s way t h e r e a d e r can d e c i d e f o r h i m s e l f t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t he may w i s h t o a t t a c h t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e . R e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r ego and f o r a g o - i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s . D a t a f o r t h e two c o n d i t i o n s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e s XVI and X V I I , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Ego c o n d i t i o n . B e f o r e r e p o r t i n g on t h e a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h t h e g r o u p s t e n d e d t o c h e c k a t d i f f e r e n t i a l f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e e g o - c o n d i t i o n , i t may be u s e f u l t o r e m i n d o n e s e l f t h a t among 300 a d j e c t i v e s , a b o u t 1/20 = 15 w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o y i e l d 109 TABLE XVI ADJECTIVES WHICH, UNDER EGO CONDITIONS, WERE CHECKED BY RISK AND CONTROL Ss AT DIFFERENTIAL FREQUENCIES ATTAINING OR APPROACHING SIGNIFICANCE. DATA ARE ALSO PRESENTED FOR THE FREQUENCY OF THE USE OF THE SAME ADJECTIVES UNDER EGO-IDEAL CONDITIONS D i f f e r -ence be-tween number of Ss who checked adj ective Ad j ec-tive Number who checked in risk group Number who checked in con-t r o l gr X 2 * P Numbsr who checked the same adjective under ego-ideal con-dition clear-thinking 14 21 2.49 > .10 Risk 29 Contr. 27 forqetful 13 6 2.77 c .10 0 L 0 7 interests wide 25 18 2.96 <.10 29 27 reasonable 17 24 2.77 <.10 25 25 s e l f cen-tered 8 1 Fish-er ex-act prob. • cr.02 1 0 generous 21 13 3.3 3 <.io 27 27 8 hurried 2 10 3.00 0 1 i j i s j ^ g j r t -f ul 2 10 3.00 <.10 11 11 9 I., • organized 17 8 4.38 _ £.05 23 26 soft heart-ed 23 12 6.86 <.01 11 10 13 cynical 15 2 13.85 <.001 2 0 110 TABLE X V I I ADJECTIVES WHICH, UNDER EGO-IDEAL CONDITIONS, WERE CHECKED BY RISK AND CONTROL Ss AT DIFFERENTIAL FREQUENCIES ATTAINING OR APPROACHING SIGNIFICANCE. DATA ARE ALSO PRESENTED FOR THE FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE SAME ADJECTIVES UNDER EGO-CONCEPT CONDITIONS D i f f e r -e nce b e -tween number o f Ss who c h e c k e d e d j e c t i v e A d j e c -t i v e Number who c h e c k e d i n r i s k g roup Number who c h e c k e d i n c o n -t r o l g r o u p X 2 P Number who c h e c k e d t h e same a d j e c -t i v e u n d e r e g o - c o n c e p t c o n d i t i o n R i s k 1 C o n t r . 7 p o i s e d 26 19 17 3.34 I . _ < .10 5 3 p r e c i s e s o p h i s t i -c a t e d 24 p 2.77 < .10 9 j 9 I 18 i 11 j 2.41 j > .10 < .10 3 ! 5 i 9 ! 8 8 l e i s u r e l y 8 I 16 | 3.41 s e l f c o n -f i d e n t 29 •• i 21 F i s h -e r < .006 16 j 16 s e l f c o n -t r o l l e d 25 17 3.85 <.05 19 : 18 t r u s t i n g 13 21 3.33 <.10 17 ; 19 12 e a s y -g o i n g 12 24 8,40 <.D1 • i 14 20 I l l d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p / . 0 5 l e v e l by c h a n c e . The s u r p r i s i n g l e v e l o f h o m o g e n e i t y between t h e two g r o u p s i s d o c u -mented by t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y 6 d i f f e r e n c e s r e a c h t h e p < i l O l e v e l , and 3 o t h e r s a c h i e v e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r 251 a d j e c t i v e s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e number o f 5s who c h e c k e d them was 3 o r l e s s between g r o u p s ; d i f f e r e n c e s o f 4, 5 and 6 c h e c k i n g s o c c u r i n t h e c a s e o f 19, 11 and 8 a d j e c t i v e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l d i f f e r e n c e s o f 7 o r more a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e X V I , (As w i l l be o b s e r v e d : d i f f e r e n c e s o f 7-8 among two g r o u p s o f 30 Ss each t y p i c a l l y r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s o f .10 > p,; .05. At a d i f f e r e n c e o f 9 S s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n -c r e a s e s t o between p i . 0 5 and p<'.01. L a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d t e n d t o be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ) . T a b l e XVI d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t a t t h e p <. .10 l e v e l , r i s k Ss more o f t e n t h a n c o n t r o l Ss see t h e m s e l v e s as " f o r g e t f u l " , ' h a v i n g w i d e i n t e r e s t s " , and b e i n g " s e l f - c e n t e r e d " b u t a l s o " g e n e r o u s " . C o n t r o l Ss see t h e m s e l v e s more o f t e n as " c l e a r -t h i n k i n g " , " r e a s o n a b l e " , " i n s i g h t f u l " and " h u r r i e d " . (The com-b i n a t i o n o f g e n e r o s i t y and s e l f - c e n t e r e d n a s s i s somewhat s u r -p r i s i n g - t h e r e a r e 7 r i s k 5s who use b o t h a d j e c t i v e s t o d e s -c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s . The e i g h t h " s e l f - c e n t e r e d " 5 d o e s n ' t s ea h i m s e l f as b e i n g " g e n e r o u s " , and none o f t h e 16 r e m a i n i n g " g e n e r o u s " Ss r e p o r t b e i n g " s e l f - c e n t e r e d " . The w r i t e r can o f -f e r no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n ) . At t h e .05 l e v e l , o r b e t t e r , o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , more r i s k 5s b e l i e v e t h e m s e l v e s t o be " o r g a n i z e d " , " s o f t - h e a r t e d ' ' and " c y n i c a l " , and i n each c a s e a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e r i s k Ss r e p o r t t h e s e t r a i t s . O n l y 8, 12 and 2 c o n t r o l 5s ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) t h i n k 112 o f t h e m s e l v e s i n t h o s e t e r m s . In t e r m s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s u n d e r ego c o n d i t i o n i t seems as i f c o n t r o l 5s e m p h a s i z e a more i n t e l l e c -t u a l a p p r o a c h t o l i f e , p e o p l e and t h e m s e l v e s ( c l e a r t h i n k i n g , i n s i g h t f u l , r a t i o n a l ) ; whereas r i s k - t a k e r s r e p o r t a p r e c a r i o u s b a l a n c e between a s e n t i m e n t a l , e m o t i o n a l l y - t i n g e d a p p r o a c h t o p e o p l e ( " g e n e r o u s , s o f t - h e a r t e d '•') and a s i m u l t a n e o u s d e n i a l o f t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f a n y t h i n g ( " c y n i c a l , f o r g e t f u l " ) . L a s t l y : t e n c o n t r o l 5s ( v s . o n l y 2 r i s k 5s) r e p o r t them-s e l v e s as " h u r r i e d " . As w i l l be shown i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s s t r o n g l y e g o - a l i e n t o b o t h g r o u p s and one may assume t h a t t h e " h u r r i e d n e s s " r e p o r t e d by t h e c o n t r o l 5s i s s o m e t h i n g i m p o s e d upon them by t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , much t o t h e i r d i s l i k e . E g o - i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n a g a i n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e a m a z i n g h o m o g e n e i t y w h i c h r u n s a c r o s s b o t h g r o u p s . A d i f -f e r e n c e o f 0-3 c h e c k i n g s was f o u n d f o r 257 a d j e c t i v e s ; d i f f e r -e n c e s o f 4,5 o r 6 o c c u r r e d f o r 20, 12 and 3 a d j e c t i v e s , r e s p e c -t i v e l y . T a b l e X V I I l i s t s t h e 8 a d j e c t i v e s c h e c k e d d i f f e r e n t l y by 7 o r more i n d i v i d u a l s i n one group as compared t o t h e o t h e r . F o u r o f t h e s e o n l y a p p r o a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t p < . 1 0 , one i s s i g -n i f i c a n t a t p < . 0 5 , two a t p <.01 and one f a i l s t o r e a c h even t h e p <.1• l e v e l . T a b l e X V I I a l s o g i v e s t h e f r e q u e n c i e s a t w h i c h t h e s e same a d j e c t i v e s were c h e c k e d u n d e r e g o - c o n c e p t i n s t r u c t i o n s . I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t i n a l l c a s e s , d i f f e r e n c e s a r e m i n i m a l o r n o n - e x i s t e n t . The- s i t u a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l t o t h a t f o u n d u n d e r 113 t h e e g o - c o n c e p t c o m p a r i s o n : a d j e c t i v e s c h e c k e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t h e r e showed no d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e r m s o f c h e c k i n g u n d e r ego-i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s . R e t u r n i n g now t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e e g o - i d e a l c o n d i t i o n : more r i s k Ss t h a n c o n t r o l Ss i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y w i s h t o be " p o i s e d " , " p r e c i s e " , " s o p h i s t i c a t e d " (p <..10), " s e l f - c o n f i d e n t " and " s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d " ( p < . Q 5 ) - many more, i n each c a s e , t h a n c l a i m t o p o s s e s s t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, c o n t r o l Ss d i s t i n c t l y v a l u e a l e i s u r e l y , e a s y - g o i n g a p p r o a c h t o l i f e and a l t h o u g h o n l y 8 c o n t r o l Ss d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s as " l e i s u r e -l y " , 20 c l a i m t o be " e a s y g o i n g " r i g h t now. U n d o u b t e d l y : t h e r i s k i e r t h e s p o r t , t h e more p o i s e , p r e -c i s i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l i t r e q u i r e s . C o n v e r s e -l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e r i s k y s p o r t s w i l l t e n d t o d e v e l o p j u s t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s and t h e r e b y h e l p t o b r i n g t h e s e p e o p l e c l o -s e r t o t h e i r e g o - i d e a l s . T h i s f u n c t i o n w o u l d endow i t w i t h q u a l i t i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e " r e i n f o r c e m e n t " . In o t h e r w o r d s : g i v e n t h e ego and e g o - i d e a l c o n c e p t o f t h e r i s k S s , r i s k y s p o r t s s h o u l d have r e i n f o r c i n g q u a l i t i e s f o r them. C o n t r o l Ss who seem t o v a l u e a more i n t e l l e c t u a l , l e i s u r e -l y a p p r o a c h t o l i f e f e e l l e s s i n need o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h i n s p i r e r i s k Ss - t h e y a r c n o t a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r an e a s y -g o i n g l i f e . Summary o f t h e d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e ACL. The c o m p l e x a r r a y o f d a t a w h i c h emerged f r o m t h e ACL i s l i k e l y t o have a c o n f u s i n g e f f e c t . A summary o f t h e e s s e n -t i a l , f i n d i n g s may be h e l p f u l t o r e a d e r s . 114 The c o m p o s i t e e g o - c o n c e p t s o f t h e r i s k and c o n t r o l g r o u p s were f o u n d t o d i f f e r i n s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t ways f r o m t h a t o f t h e " a v e r a g e p e r s o n " but few p o i g n a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d be-tween t h e ego c o n c e p t s o f t h e two g r o u p s . B o t h g r o u p s d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as h i g h i n need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , o r d e r and d o m i n a n c e , and h i g h i n e n d u r a n c e . B o t h saw t h e m s e l v e s low i n s u c c o r a n c e ; t h e y l i k e t o r e l y on t h e m s e l v e s and h e s i t a t e t o ask f o r h e l p f r o m o t h e r s . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s ( i n ego c o n c e p t ) were f o u n d i n t e r m s o f h i g h i n t r a c e p t i o n and d e f e n s i v e n s s r e p o r t e d on p a r t o f t h e c o n t r o l 5s w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e a more o u t g o i n g a p p r o a c h ; and l o w e r - t h a n - a v c r a g e p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t ( o n l y a t p -.'".10) b u t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e r i s k g r o u p . The s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e g r o u p s ' e g o - i d e a l c o n c e p t s were e q u a l l y s t r i k i n g , as was t h e a b s e n c e o f m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s . I f we d i s r e g a r d t h e s c a l e s on w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m i d d l e - c l a s s would make h i g h l y p r e d i c t a b l e ( h i g h , o_r l ow) s c o r e s i n t h e i r e g o - i d e a l p r o -t o c o l s , we a r e l e f t w i t h a few " g r e y " s c a l e s . On t h e s e (as on a l l b u t one s c a l e ) a l l 5s w i s h t o be even h i g h e r i n t h e a r e a s wher.; t h e y r e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s " h i g h " i n t h e ego c o n d i t i o n , and l o w e r where t h e y a l r e a d y see t h e m s e l v e s " l o w " . They w i s h t o be ( u n i f o r m l y ) v e r y h i g h on i n t r a c e p t i o n and a f f i l i a t i o n , and m o d e r a t e l y h i g h ( b u t h i g h e r t h a n t h e y a r e ) i n l a b i l i t y and e x h i b i t i o n i s m . Furthermore., t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o be even l o w e r i n s u c c o r a n c e t h a n t h e y a r e ; t h e same h o l d s f o r a g g r e s s i o n and 115 abasement (where t h e y r e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s a t o r n e a r t h e p o p u l a -t i o n mean i n t h e i r e g o - c o n c e p t s ) . The d a t a may s i m p l y r e f l e c t t h e c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e c h e e r f u l , f r i e n d l y , u n d e r s t a n d -i n g b u t a t t h e same t i m e h i g h l y s e l f - r e l i a n t m a l e . The one e x c e p t i o n f r o m t h e " r u l e " i s t h e v e r y h i g h ego-i d e a l s c o r e f o r h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t ( h . i . ) among r i s k 5s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r - t h a n - a v e r a g e s c o r e on t h i s s c a l e u n d e r ego c o n d i t i o n . ( T h i s s c o r e i s a l s o a t a h i g h l e v e l i n t h e e g o - i d e a l o f c o n t r o l 5 s ; however, t h e i r e g o - s c o r e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m 5 0 . 0 ) . The h . i . e g o - i d e a l s c o r e f a r r i s k 5s i s even h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f c o n t r o l S s , t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o . The i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v i n g f r o m t h i s d i s c r e -pancy a r e exam i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . I n n o t one i n s t a n c e were t h e g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y " r e v e r s e d " on a s c a l e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t one w o u l d have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h and t h e o t h e r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ow s c o r e . On t h e w h o l e , s c o r e s o f t h e r i s k 5s t e n d e d t o be more " p e a k e d " , b o t h i n t e r m s o f somewhat h i g h e r " h i g h s " and somewhat l o w e r " l o w s " on t h e s c a l e s ( w i t h , however, a few e x c e p t i o n s ) . What d i f f e r e n c e s o c -c u r r e d between g r o u p s was more a q u e s t i o n o f " a c c e n t " t h a n one o f " e s s e n c e " , The i t e m a n a l y s i s a g a i n a t t e s t e d t o t h e b a s i c i n t e r - g r o u p h o m o g e n e i t y ; a h i g h l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f a d j e c t i v e s was c h e c k e d by t h e same, o r a l m o s t t h e same, number o f Ss i n b o t h g r o u p s . The d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h d i d o c c u r t e n d e d t o c a s t t h e r i s k g roup i n t o a somewhat a m b i v a l e n t r o l e v i s - a - v i s o t h e r s : one o f s o f t - h e a r t e d n e s s and s e n t i m e n t a l i t y mixed w i t h a dash o f 116 c y n i c i s m ; and a more a c t i v e , i n t e n s e a t t i t u d e t o l i f e . The c o n t r o l g r o up i n t u r n e m p h a s i z e d a t r u s t i n g b u t p r e t t y i n t e l l e c -t u a l a p p r o a c h t o p e o p l e and seemed t o v a l u e a more l e i s u r e l y , r e l a x e d way o f l i f e . An a t t e m p t a t e v a l u a t i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e ACL t o t h e m a j o r s u b j e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l be made i n t h e n e x t (and l a s t ) c h a p t e r o f t h i s work. Reasons g i v e n by 5s f o r c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n " t h e i r " r i s k y  s p o r t . T a b l e X V I I I s u m m a r i z e s t h e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s g i v e n by r i s k 5s f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s p o r t . The p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e d a t a w i l l be exa m i n e d t o w a r d t h e end o f t h e D i s c u s s i o n S e c t i o n . TABLE X V I I I NUMBER OF RISK-Ss WHO LISTED ONE OR MORE OF THE REASONS AS RESPONSIBLE FOR KEEPING THEIR INTEREST IN THEIR SPORT ALIVE A c h i e v e m e n t & c h a l l e n g e ( i n c r e a s e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ) E x c i t e m e n t ("danger adds t o p l e a s u r e " ) Change f r o m d a i l y r o u t i n e &. r e s u l t a n t f r e e d o m f r o m w o r r i e s ; r e l a x a t i o n P l e a s u r e i n e x p l o r a t i o n , newness o f e n v i r o n m e n t B e a u t y o f n a t u r e H e a l t h y e x e r c i s e , p l e a s a n t body s e n s a t i o n C o m p a n i o n s h i p w i t h " r e a l " p e o p l e , teamwork Peak e x p e r i e n c e ( " h y p e r s e n -s i t i v i t y " t o l i f e ; f i n d i n g o f " r e a l " v a l u e s ) Overcome f e a r o f d e a t h , m a s t e r a n x i e t i e s H a b i t C o m p e t i t i o n , e x h i b i t i o n M o u n t a i n - S k y d i v e r s S c u b a -e e r s d i v e r s 8 4 3 5 5 3 6 4 6 2 0 8 4 1 4 4 2 2 4 3 5 • 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 N o t e : A few Ss d i d not f i l l i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . Most o f t h o s e who d i d gave s e v e r a l r e a s o n s , hence t h e number o f a n s w e r s does not add up t o 10 f o r t h e c o l u m n s . 118 V I I . DISCUSSION What c o n c l u s i o n s may be r e a s o n a b l y drawn f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y ? R i s k as a m o t i v e . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e , t h e r e seems t o be f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t e v i d e n c e f o r t h e b e l i e f t h a t r i s k has c e r t a i n m o t i v e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s . P e o p l e do t e n d t o be a t t r a c t e d t o s p o r t s w h i c h have r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r d a n g e r - l e v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e l e v e l s a r e s u b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d . I f t h e s e f i n d i n g s can be s u b -s t a n t i a t e d by i n d e p e n d e n t r e s e a r c h , r i s k may j o i n n-Ach, n-Power, A s c s n s i o n i s m and some o f t h e o t h e r w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d mo-t i v e s . How p e r v a s i v e a m o t i v e i s r i s k ? P i l o t s r e p r e s e n t l o w - r i s k Ss i n t h i s s t u d y , based b o t h on o b j e c t i v e s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e r i s k i n v o l v e d i n f l y i n g , and by t h e i r own and o t h e r p e o p l e ' s v i e w o f i t . S t i l l , 8 o u t o f 10 p i l o t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y would l i k e t o t a k e up s t u n t - f l y i n g w h i c h i s r i s k y b o t h by p o p u l a r c o n s e n s u s and t h e i r own r a t i n g o f i t ( s t u n t f l y i n g mpdr 6, p i l o t s mean r a t i n g o f i t 5.0, s t i l l w e l l above t h e mean o f 4 . 0 ) . 'Whether t h e y "mean what t h e y s a y " i . e . w h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d r e a l l y t a k e up s t u n t - f l y i n g i f i t were made ea s y f o r them, seems t o have l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e . M o t i v e s o c c u r i n f a n t a s y and t h e f a n t a s y does n o t have t o be a c t e d o u t " l i t e r a l l y " t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e m o t i v e . What may have happened h e r e i s t h a t a c o m p e t i n g m o t i v e o v e r - r o d e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r i s k - m o t i v e ( w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e i s assumed t o 119 be "negatively directed"). The motive which may have gotten the upper hand could be what White (1959) designated as "the need for competence" - stunt-flying i s of course the best demonstra-tion of competence in f l y i n g . The suggestion that other motives beside risk-seeking are operative in people who engage in risky sports should come as no surprise. A l l of the a c t i v i t i e s which were sampled carry certain i n t r i n s i c rewards which were well described by the par-ticipants in their "free answer period" (Table XVIII). And even the fathers of n-Achievement, or "Ascensionism" never pro-posed that the particular motive carries f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for keeping people interested in actively pursuing enterpreneurial goals, or f l y i n g , respectively.. Once risk has been demonstrated to be a motive, i t should be possible to trace i t s antecedents in the person's early his-tory. This leads us to the next area in which the study pro-duced positive results. Early antecedents to risk-taking. It was shown that re-inforcement by parents of early risk-taking endeavours of the c h i l d , the parents' own attitude toward risk, and also the i n -teraction of these factors with child-parent relationship cor-related with risk-taking in the predicted manner. On the other hand, the highest p o i n t - b i s e r i a l r, namely that between com-bined parental risk-taking indices and group-membership, f a i l e d to reach quite .40. Even i f we consider the fact that p o i n t - b i s e r i a l r's are more conservative estimates of correla-tion than Pearson's r and i f we compensate for this by raising the estimate of the variance accounted for to, say, 20%: 120 whure i s t h s r e m a i n i n g Q0% h i d d e n ? Some s p e c u l a t i o n s as t o where t h i s p a r t o f t h e v a r i a n c e may be l o c a t e d w i l l f o l l o w l a t e r . A t t h i s p o i n t , we w i l l t u r n t o d i s c u s s i o n o f t h a t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h p o i n t s t o where t h i s v a r i a n c e i s not c o m i n g f r o m . T h i s m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e " n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g " o f t h e s t u d y . M o t i v e s s u g g e s t e d by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c w r i t e r s . None o f t h e m o t i v e s was d i s c o v e r e d i n r i s k - 5 s w h i c h p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y i n -c l i n e d o b s e r v e r s ( o r p u p i l s o f A d l e r ) w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , f i n d i n g s were n e g a -t i v e f o r d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f f e e l i n g s o f g e n e r -a l o r m a s c u l i n e i n a d e q u a c y , f e a r o f d e a t h , d e r o g a t i o n o f women and s e x , d e a t h - w i s h e s , b e l i e f i n m a g i c , o r c o n c e r n w i t h power f a n t a s i e s . Some s c o r e s showed a s l i g h t , t h o u g h i n s i g n i f i c a n t , t e n d e n c y t o emerge i n t h e o b v e r s e d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e one t h a t was p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l t h e o r y . As w i l l be p o i n t e d o u t l a t e r : t h e s e r e s u l t s c a n n o t be r e a -s o n a b l y a s c r i b e d t o S s ' r e l u c t a n c e t o g i v e an h o n e s t p i c t u r e o f t h e m s e l v e s , n o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g r o u p s were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l * n o r o t h e r f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s d e s i g n . Do t h e s e f i n d i n g s " p r o v e " t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h wrong? The p r e s e n t s t u d y was n o t d e s i g n e d t o t e s t p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y as s u c h , and we have n o t been d e a l i n g w i t h p a t i e n t s on c o u c h e s . The o n l y c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h seems t o be e n t i r e l y w a r r a n -t e d i s t h a t a g e n e r a l c o u n t e r p h o b i c e x p l a n a t i o n o f r i s k - s e e k i n g i n s p o r t s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The key-word h e r e i s " g e n e r a l " . The o b s e r v a t i o n s o f A d l e r and o t h e r s i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r 121 p a t i e n t s may have been e n t i r e l y c o r r e c t . One may r e a s o n a b l y assume t h a t many o f them were d e p r e s s e d , some t o t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g s u i c i d a l ; o t h e r s may have had n a g g i n g d o u b t s a b o u t t h e i r m a s c u l i n i t y and g e n e r a l a d e q u a c y ; and i f some o f them a l s o p a r -t i c i p a t e d i n r i s k y s p o r t s , t h e y may w e l l have used s u c h p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n a c o u n t e r p h o b i c o r even d i r e c t l y s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e manner. One o f o u r s k y d i v e r s s t a t e d ( T a b l e X V I I I ) t h a t t h e s p o r t s h e l p s him t o overcome f e a r o f d e a t h . E p s t e i n (1966) who i s not a p s y c h o a n a l y s t o b s e r v e d t h a t he knew some h i g h l y d i s t u r b e d s k y d i v e r s who were " c l e a r l y u s i n g t h e s p o r t i n a c o u n t e r p h o b i c manner". R i s k y , as w e l l as n o n - r i s k y s p o r t s w i l l have t h e i r s h a r e o f m o r b i d and d i s t u r b e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . What emerges c l e a r l y f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e r i s k 5 shows no s i g n s o f s u f f e r i n g f r o m any o f t h e m o r b i d c o n -d i t i o n s mors t h a n n o n - r i s k - s e e k e r s do. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e f e a r s c a n n o t r e a s o n a b l y be c i t e d t o e x p l a i n r i s k - t a k i n g t e n d e n -c i e s i n g e n e r a l . I f we now t u r n f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s - t e s t -i n g p a r t o f t h e s t u d y t o i t s e x p l o r a t o r y s e c t i o n , an even b r i g h t -e r p i c t u r e o f t h e a v e r a g e r i s k - s e e k e r may be p a i n t e d t h a n t h e one where one s i m p l y a b s t a i n s f r o m f i l l i n g t h e c a n v a s w i t h un-p l e a s a n t s p l o t c h e s r e p r e s e n t i n g m o r b i d symptoms. R i s k s e e k e r s a p p e a r t o e n j o y good m e n t a l h e a l t h . J u d g e d by t h e i r G o u g h - p r o f i l e s , r i s k - s e e k e r s d i f f e r f r o m t h e " a v e r a g e p e r s o n " i n b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h i n need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , d o m i n a n c e , o r d e r and e n d u r a n c e ; t h e i r r e a d i n e s s t o h e l p o t h e r s ( n u r t u r a n c e ) i s a t t h e a v e r a g e l e v e l , b u t t h e y a r e 122 f i r m i n t h e i r t e n d e n c y t n s t a n d on t h e i r own f e e t ( l o w s u c c o r -a n c e ) . T h e i r e g o - i d e a l g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s e s t h e q u a l i t i e s t h e y a l -r e a d y have b u t a l s o want t o i n c r e a s e . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , t h i s i s a more t h a n n o r m a l l y " h e a l t h y " p r o f i l e . The f a c t t h a t i t d i f f e r s l i t t l e f r o m t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e c o n t r o l group i n no way d e t r a c t s f r o m t h i s f a c t - a f t e r a l l , t h e c o n t r o l group a l s o c o n s i s t e d o f h i g h l y a c h i e v e m e n t minded and a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . Two o f t h e s c o r e s o f t h e " c o m p o s i t e " r i s k - t a k e r however, r e q u i r e some d i s c u s s i o n . Cne i s t h a t f o r P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t , a t 47.27 w h i c h i s c 5 0.0 a t a l e v e l w h i c h a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t p <".10. (The c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e i s 4 9 . 3 3 ) . The o t h e r one i s H e t e r o s e x u a l I n t e r e s t w h i c h r e g i s t e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y low f o r t h e r i s k group a t 44.97 (p C.05) and o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e l o w t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l Ss ( 4 8 . 3 7 ) . (The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two s c o r e s i s not s i g n i f i -c a n t ) . The l o w H e t e r o s e x u a l I n t e r e s t s c o r e , e s p e c i a l l y , may c a u s e r a i s e d eyebrows among p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d o b s e r -v e r s . We s h a l l d e a l w i t h t h e two p r o b l e m s s e p a r a t e l y . P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t . We had a n o t h e r measure o f a d j u s t m e n t namely t h e p h i - c o e f f i c i e n t c a l c u l a t e d between t h e ego and ego-i d e a l s c o r e s . B o t h g r o u p s were a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e o f t h i s i n d e x ; t h e g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r p h i - c o e f f i c i e n t , n o r i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s s i g n i f i -c a n t f o r t h e P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e . The r i s k g r o u p ' s l o w e r s c a r e on t h i s l a t t e r s c a l e o n l y a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e . In v i e w o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (and t h e t h o r o u g h l y n e g a t i v e f i n d -i n g s i n t e r m s o f a number o f s p e c i f i c a n x i e t i e s w h i c h were t e s t -ed i n H y p o t h e s i s I I ) , i t seems b e s t t o a s c r i b e t h i s ''low" 1 2 3 s c o r e t o c h a n c e . The h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s c o r e o f t h e r i s k g r o up i s s i g -n i f i c a n t l y l o w ( p < . 0 5 ) . T h at o f t h s c o n t r o l g r o u p i s somewhat below t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean, b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y so ( 4 8 . 3 7 ) . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s I I , we f o u n d t h a t r i s k 5s d i d n o t d e r o g a t e women n o r sex more t h a n c o n t r o l 5 s . I f a p e r s o n s t a t e s t h a t he i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s o m e t h i n g t h a t many o t h e r p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n , one c o u l d c o n j e c t u r e two b a s i c c a u s e s : " h o n e s t d i s i n t e r e s t " o r " i n t e r e s t c o u n t e r a c t e d by some a n x i e t y " . " H o n e st d i s i n t e r e s t " i n h e t e r o s e x u a l sex c o u l d stem f r o m many s o u r c e s . Homosexual i n t e r e s t s may w e l l be t h e f i r s t c a u s e t h a t e n t e r s a p s y c h o l o g i s t ' s m i n d . T h e r e a r e o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s . S e x - d r i v e i s known t o be l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by h o r -mones - t h e i r l e v e l may be low i n c e r t a i n p e r s o n s . As any o t h e r d r i v e , s e x - i n t e r e s t i s known t o be s u b j e c t t o some i n f l u -ence by e a r l y t r a i n i n g and m o d e l l i n g . A g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h i m p l i c i t l y b a s e d on th ' i s a s s u m p t i o n , has been c a r r i e d o u t r e -g a r d i n g h o m o s e x u a l s , i . e . what p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e t e n d t o c r e a t e h o m o s e x u a l , r a t h e r t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s i n l a t e r l i f e ( e . g . Bene, 1 9 6 5 ) . I f a " r e v e r s a l " o f h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r -e s t s can be i n d u c e d by e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s , why n o t a l e s s e n e d i n t e r e s t i n sex w i t h o u t a c t u a l " r e v e r s a l " ? No i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w o u l d gauge h o m o s e x u a l i n c l i n a t i o n s d i r e c t l y was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r m i g h t i n c l u d e t h e S t r o n g V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t I n v e n t o r y among h i s d e v i c e s , as a s u b t l e i n s t r u m e n t by w h i c h t o measure f e m i n i n e 124 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( v i a i t s M-F s e a l s ) . H i g h s c o r e s by men-, i n t h e " f e m i n i n e " d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s s c a l e p o i n t t o h o m o s e x u a l tendencies„ S t o r i e s w i t h h o m o s e x u a l f l a v o r have been f o u n d t o o c c u r o c c a s i o n a l l y i n r e s p o n s e t o TAT c a r d s 13 MF and 7 BM. A c u r -s o r y s u r v e y o f t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y by t h i s w r i t e r d i s c o v e r e d none w i t h s u c h " h i n t s " . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a d e r w i l l remember t h a t 14 o f t h e r i s k S s , b u t o n l y B o f t h e c o n t r o l Ss,...evaded sex on TAT c a r d MF 13 by p r o d u c i n g s t o r i e s w h i c h had no s e x u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The s i m p l e s t ( t h o u g h n o t e x c l u s i v e ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u c h s e x -a v o i d a n c e i s t h a t s e x - i n t e r e s t i s n o t f o r e m o s t i n t h e p e r s o n ' s m i n d . A l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s w o u l d have t o i n v o k e r e p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l t e n d e n c i e s ; t h e s e were p r e s e n t i n t h e r i s k Ss o n l y a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e , o r l e s s e r l e v e l s , as measured by t h e MMPI . What t h i s r e a s o n i n g i s l e a d i n g up t o i s a t e n t a t i v e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l o w h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s c o r e o f r i s k Ss as an " h o n e s t l y " ( i . e . n o t d e f e n s i v e l y ) low i n t e r e s t i n s e x , p o s -s i b l y due t o h o r m o n a l a n d / o r e a r l y t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e s . In v i e w o f t h e d a t a d i s c u s s e d so f a r , t h i s a p p e a r s t o be t h e most p a r -s i m o n i o u s h y p o t h e s i s . The w r i t e r i s aware o f o n l y one f i n d i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w h i c h may c a s t d oubt on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t was j u s t p r o p o s e d , n a m e l y , t h e v e r y h i g h h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s c o r e o f t h e r i s k g r o up u n d e r e g o - i d e a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . I t was not o n l y h i g h ( 5 8 . 6 7 ) , b u t even h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l Ss f • t i e d . v 126 ( a t 55.93) a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e does n o t a p p r o a c h s i g n i f i -w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l o w h - i o f t h e r i s k 5s i s n o t r e a l l y ego-s y n t o n i c and may hence be d e f e n s i v e . O n l y h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can be o f f e r e d t o a c c o u n t f a r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . The s i m p l e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e h i g h h - i s c o r e r e f l e c t s a c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e w h i c h t h e r i s k - s e e k e r s a r e aware o f and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o j e c t i n t o t h e i r e g o - i d e a l , w i t h o u t however b e i n g r e a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e g o / e g o - i d e a l d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h i s a r e a . Most p e o p l e w o u l d l i k e t o be m i l l i o n a i r e s b u t few f e e l i n f e r i o r o r d e f e n s i v e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t . The Gough ACL does n o t p e r m i t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among e g o / e g o - i d e a l gaps w h i c h a r e s a l i e n t , o r s i g n i f i c a n t , t o a p e r -son and t h o s e w h i c h a r e n o t . A d i f f e r e n t l i n e o f s p e c u l a t i o n m i g h t f o c u s on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e no p u b l i s h e d p o p u l a t i o n norms f o r e g o - i d e a l d e s -c r i p t i o n s on t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e l y " h i g h " h - i s c a r e s o f b a t h g r o u p s a r e s t i l l ' b e -low t h e (unknown) p o p u l a t i o n norm. I f s u c h were t h e c a s e t h e n t h e h i g h s c o r e o f t h e r i s k 5s w o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y e x p l a i n e d , but t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d be s h i f t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n as t o why c o n -t r o l 5s show an even l o w e r h - i s c a r e i n t h e i r e g o - i d e a l p r o t o -c o l s . A t h i r d l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g w o u l d a s c r i b e t h e d i s c r e p a n c y as b e i n g due, a f t e r a l l , t o some f e a r s r e g a r d i n g sex - i n c a n c e ( t 5 8 d f = 1 . 4 5 2 ) . The l a r g e gap between ego and e g o - i d e a l 127 other words, a view opposite to that which was proposed by this writer. The holder of such a view would incur the obligation to point to the nature and sources of these alleged fears and demonstrate their presence in 5s with low h-i scores. These fears would presumably have to be different from the ones i n -vestigated in the present study. Alternatively, the appropriate-ness of the instruments used by the writer may be questioned. The problem of the s u i t a b i l i t y of the instruments w i l l be dis-cussed shortly. Un t i l further research c l a r i f i e s this point the writer pre-fers to adhere to the f i r s t l i n e of speculation, i . e . that risk 5s would be pleased i f their sex-interest could somehow be i n -creased, but this i s not a matter of concern to them. This hy-pothesis could be tested by means of an instrument which permits S not only to describe himself both in terms of his ego and ego-ideal but where he could additionally express how strongly he feels about the various areas of discrepancy. Regardless of the source of the lowered mean heterosexual interest shown by the risk group, i t is appropriate to ask whether this fact may be in someway connected with risk-seeking behavior. Is risk-seekinq_re-channelled sex-drive? The p o s s i b i l i t y of simple one-to-one relationship can be eliminated by examining the heterosexual interest scores of two of our sub-groups, mountaineers and hikers. Df the three pairs of matched groups, their a c t i v i t i e s are most similar to each other except for the risk involved. If the c r u c i a l factor in 128 risk-taking were some type of direct "conversion" of hetero-sexual interest into risk-taking, then c l e a r l y hikers should report s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher h-i scores than mountaineers. In fact, their scores are only i n f i n i t e s i m a l l y different; moun-taineers' h-i score i s 42.10, and hikers' score 42.70. Risk-taking i s c l e a r l y not a simple re-channelling, of the sex-drive. What, then, accounts for some persons' interest in r i s k , beyond the, say, 20% influence exerted by the early family s i -tuation? We may wish to review the design of the study and enquire whether flaws in design, or other aspects, may be re-sponsible for the lack of more positive results to emerge. A questioning of R e s i g n . instjrumentsi and the c r e d i b i l i t y of 5s. Design. In retrospect, this writer cannot detect any major flaw in the overa l l design, that i s , the decision to use three risk groups and contrast them with three control groups who engage in a low-risk version of the a c t i v i t i e s of the risk Ss. If the 5 selection has been reasonably random, di f f e r e n -ces between these groups should point to the causes which under-l i e the propensity to seek r i s k s . An alternative design which would have involved the comparison of risk 5 only to the "man in the street" could not make such a claim. The selection of sports. As had been pointed out in the chapter on Design, the selection of scubadiving as the third sport was accompanied by some misgivings. It seems doubtful that most non-professional scubadivers are as dedicated to 129 this sport as mountaineers and skydivers are to theirs. The Gough-profile of the "composite" scubadiver has, in fact, fewer peaks than that of the mountaineer but, on the other hand, d i f -fers l i t t l e from that of the composite skydiver's. The selec-tion of scubadivers was largely dictated by p r a c t i c a l consider-ations, such as a v a i l a b i l i t y . If the study were replicated, the writer would s t i l l want to use a water sport (along with mountaineering which i s earth-bound, and skydiving where the "adversary" i s the sky) but would prefer to employ dedicated and s k i l l e d surf-riders i f such would be obtainable. A second c r i t i c i s m may be levelled against the selection of sport p i l o t s as controls for skydivers. While sports-fly-ing i s objectively not dangerous, and even i t s mpdr ( r e f l e c t -ing i t s public image) was below the mean danger-scale value of 4.0: f l y i n g s t i l l has strong connotations of "daring" in the public mind. Secondly, planes are engine-driven; none of the other groups, risk or control, make use of power-propulsion, (Sailors may use auxiliary engines but this i s not a source of pride for them). In some ways, g l i d e r - p i l o t s might have been a more suitable choice from this point of view. On the other hand, this sport was assigned above-average mpdr's at 4.32 and 4.39, by the two groups of the pilot-study and this e f f e c t i v e -ly eliminated i t from among control sports. It seems then that, while sport p i l o t s may not have been an ideal selection, the alternative would have been to use no s p e c i f i c control group for skydivers, which would have of course, destroyed the 130 o v e r a l l d e s i g n . T h e r e j u s t d o e s n ' t seem t o be a more s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l s p o r t a v a i l a b l e h e r e . The s e l e c t i o n o f 5s. The most o b v i o u s c r i t i c i s m w h i c h may be b r o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f t h e g r o u p s . I t was d i c t a t e d m o s t l y by p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t i m e and c o s t b o t h o f w h i c h c a n become q u i t e c r u c i a l i n u n s u p p o r t e d r e s e a r c h . The same f a c t o r s made i t d e s i r a b l e t o r e s t r i c t 5 s e l e c t i o n as much as p o s s i b l e t o p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h i s a r e a . The r a r i t y o f C a n a d i a n ( o r U.S.) b o r n m o u n t a i n e e r s and h i k e r s , a t l e a s t i n t h i s a r e a , was i t s e l f a d e t e r r e n t a g a i n s t t r y i n g t o e n l i s t l a r g e r g r o u p s . The s i z e - i s s u e may, however, be l e s s c r u c i a l t h a n i t ap-p e a r s a t f i r s t g l a n c e . T h i s s t u d y was one i n t e n d i n g t o e x p l o r e t e r r i t o r y f o r w h i c h t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e maps c o n s i s t e d o f s p e -c u l a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d w r i t e r s , b a s e d on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a b i a s e d s ample o f p a t i e n t s and some i n c i d e n t a l f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h e r s who were u s i n g h i g h -r i s k Ss i n p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o c l a r i f y d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s . The m a j o r q u e s t i o n posed i n t h e s t u d y r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e l i a b i l i t y ( o r o t h e r w i s e ) o f t h e s e maps, w h i l e i t was e x -p e c t e d t h a t d a t a o b t a i n e d may be u s e f u l i n a t l e a s t d i r e c t i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f f u t u r e c a r t o g r a p h e r s t o w a r d a r e a s w h i c h may be most u s e f u l l y e x p l o r e d n e x t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a p a r t f r o m t e s t i n g t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y d e r i v e d h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s w r i t e r hoped t o f i n d a few m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e r i s k - s e e k e r s f r o m t h e " o r d i -n a r y p e r s o n " . I f s u c h e x i s t , one s h o u l d f i n d a t l e a s t 131 i n d i c a t i o n s o f them i n g r o u p s o f t h i s s i z e - p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e Ss c h o s e n a r e b o n a - f i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s p o r t s , and c r i -t e r i a o f randomness o f s e l e c t i o n w i t h i n e l i g i b l e 5s have n o t been s e r i o u s l y v i o l a t e d . Hays (1963) p o i n t s t o t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s can be i n c r e a s e d by e n l a r g i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e g r o u p s , b u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e c r i e s t h e o v e r l y g e n e r a l use o f t h i s method. He a r g u e s t h a t h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s mean l i t t l e u n l e s s t h e y a l s o a c c o u n t f o r a good p a r t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . I f one t a k e s t h i s argument s e r i o u s l y t h e n one w o u l d employ r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p s f o r e x p l o r a t o r y p r o j e c t s and l a r g e r g r o u p s when p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has a c c o u n t e d f o r enough o f t h e v a r i a n c e so t h a t t h e s e c o n d d e c i m a l t a k e s on a d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e . In t e r m s o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e w r i t e r w o u l d l i k e t o p o i n t t o t h e c a r e e x e r c i s e d i n s e l e c t i n g t h e S s , t h e o b s e r v a -t i o n o f r e l a t i v e randomness i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n , and t h e e x t r e m e l y s m a l l l o s s o f o t h e r w i s e e l i g i b l e S s . In v i e w o f t h e s e f a c t s , i t i s f e l t t h a t no a p o l o g y i s due on a c c o u n t o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e g r o u p s . The s e l e c t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , i n -s t r u m e n t s w h i c h had been v a l i d a t e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h were c h o s e n , e.g. t h e T A T - c a r d s , B o y a r ' s p a r t l y v a l i d a t e d f e a r - o f -d e a t h s c a l e , C a t t e l l ' s i t e m s f r o m h i s HSPQ, t h e 3 MMPI s c a l e s and t h e Gough ACL. The new a t t i t u d e - s c a l e s came o u t o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s a t t h e same, o r b e t t e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l t h a n t h e " e s t a b l i s h e d " o n e s . An u n v a l i d a t e d s c a l e i s - , 132 of course, always suspect i n terms of whether i t r e a l l y mea-sures what i t purports to measure. A review of the items of the new s c a l e s (A, C &. E) w i l l leave l i t t l e doubt i n the mind of most observers that they do, i n f a c t , r e f e r to what the s c a l e s were intended to measure. However, i n the absence of 5 manipulation, the question of the v a l i d i t y of the new s c a l e s must remain open. Observers w i l l have noted that none of the s c a l e s i s very long; i n f a c t , they comprise only 5-8 items. The Boyar-scale was reduced from i t s o r i g i n a l s i z e , and so was C a t t e l l ' s . Can t h i s f a c t o r be considered to have l e d to the non-occurrence of the p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s ? The data would seem to weight against t h i s assumption. The shortening of a t e s t w i l l o b v i o u s l y decrease i t s r e l i a -b i l i t y but, unless the t e s t i s very low i n r e l i a b i l i t y to be-gin with one would expect e x i s t i n g trends to show at reduced l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . No such trends appeared i n regard to the s c a l e s and i n some cases, there was a s l i g h t r e v e r s a l of the p r e d i c t e d trend. Secondly, there appeared no s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e s on the unabridged MMPI s c a l e s but s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s did occur i n regard to the very few questions which enquired i n t o p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e to r i s k - p r e c i s e l y one question regarding mother's, and two regarding f a t h e r ' s a t t i -tude to r i s k - t a k i n g . The argument that very long s c a l e s are needed to d i s c o v e r meaningful d i f f e r e n c e s would not seem to be supported by the f i n d i n g s . 133 A l l i n a l l , t h e i n s t r u m e n t s c o v e r e d a g o o d r a n g e o f t h e d e v i c e s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e t o d a y f o r t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y - d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s , v a l i d a t e d a n d u n v a l i d a t e d , b u t i t e m - a n a l y s e d , a t t i -t u d e s c a l e s , f o r m a l t e s t s (MMPI - A C L ) a n d p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e s ; a n d w h e r e p r a c t i c a l , m o r e t h a n o n e i n s t r u m e n t was u s e d t o t e s t a h y p o t h e s i s . The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h e s e l e c -t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s was a d e q u a t e i n v i e w o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y . The " h o n e s t y " o f 5s. T h i s i s o f c o u r s e a v e r y c r u c i a l i s s u e a n d an e n q u i r y m u s t c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b o t h c o n -s c i o u s a n d u n c o n s c i o u s t e n d e n c i e s o n t h e p a r t o f S s t o d i s -s i m u l a t e . T h e " a n o n y m o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e " d e s i g n was a d o p t e d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t o p r o m o t e " h o n e s t y " . C o n t a c t w i t h S s was h e l d a t t h e a b s o l u t e m i n i m u m , w i t h t h e same p u r p o s e i n m i n d . •n t h e o t h e r h a n d , S s knew t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o j e c t - t h e r e s e e m e d t o be no way a r o u n d t h e n e e d t o i n f o r m t h e m a b o u t i t i f o n e w a n t e d t o g e t t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t . As p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , t h e y w e r e i n no way " c a p t i v e " a n d i t w o u l d t a k e a m o r e f e r t i l e i m a g i n a t i o n t h a n t h i s w r i t e r l a y s c l a i m t o , t o d e s i g n t h i s k i n d o f p r o j e c t w i t h o u t t h e S s h a v i n g some i d e a a s t o w h a t i t was a l l a b o u t . U n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , h o n e s t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s e e m e d t o be t h e w i s e s t a l t e r -n a t i v e . The p o s s i b i l i t y m u s t t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t S s w o u l d " p u t t h e i r b e s t f o o t f o r w a r d " , n o t s o much t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s b u t t o p r o t e c t t h e i m a g e o f t h e s p o r t w h i c h t h e y knew t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d . 134 F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n t e r n a l c h e c k s w i t h i n some o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t o d e t e c t s u c h t e n d e n c i e s and a l l o f them a r e n e g a t i v e . F i r s t l y , t h e r e i s t h e K - s c a l e o f t h e MMPI. H i g h K - s c o r e s a r e r e g a r d e d as i n d i c a t i v e o f e f f o r t s t o p r e s e n t o n e s e l f i n a f a v o r a b l e l i g h t . The mean K - s c o r e f o r r i s k 5s was 13.03, t h a t o f c o n t r o l 5s 14.83, as a g a i n s t C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n norms o f 15.06 ( s . d . 4 . 6 6 ) . I f a n y t h i n g , r i s k 5s went somewhat o v e r -b o a r d a b o u t " b e i n g h o n e s t " . Two more c h e c k s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e Gough ACL s c o r e s : t h e number o f f a v o r a b l e and u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s c h e c k e d ( s t a n d a r d s c o r e s ) . F o r b o t h r i s k and c o n t r o l 5 s , t h e number o f f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s c h e c k e d was i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e l o w popu-l a t i o n norms, and t h e number o f u n f a v o r a b l e ones c h e c k e d s l i g h t l y above p o p u l a t i o n norms f o r r i s k 5 s , and v e r y s l i g h t l y b e l o w t h e s e norms f o r c o n t r o l 5s a l t h o u g h none o f t h e d i f f e r -e n c e s between t h e s e s c o r e s and t h e p o p u l a t i o n norm o f 50 i s s i g n i f i c a n t . W h i l e t h e d a n g e r o b v i o u s l y e x i s t e d , d a t a s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t Ss d i d n o t t r y t o p o r t r a y t h e m s e l v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r l y f a -v o r a b l e l i g h t , a t l e a s t n o t on t h e i n s t r u m e n t s where s u c h c h e c k s e x i s t . I t w o u l d be h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t Ss w o u l d be s e l e c t i v e l y t r u t h f u l and u n t r u t h f u l , and b e i n g " u n t r u t h f u l " i n r e g a r d t o t h e T A T - c a r d s i s n o t even p o s s i b l e . I n v i e w o f a l l t h i s , t h e w r i t e r f e e l s r e a s s u r e d t h a t n e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s n o r u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v e s o p e r a t e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c r e a -t i o n o f s y s t e m a t i c d i s t o r t i o n s o f S s 1 r e s p o n s e s . 135 I f the m i s s i n g v a r i a n c e i s not hidden under the f l a w s of the d e s i g n , where i s i t to be found? The h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e i s r e p l e t e w i t h i n s t a n c e s where the r e a l d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g an answer was due to a s k i n g the wrong q u e s t i o n . I f we ask whether l i g h t i s " r e a l l y " a bunch of waves or a bunch of p a r t i c l e s , we w i l l r e c e i v e no answer. I f we ex-tend the scope of the q u e s t i o n and enquire s i m p l y how the be-h a v i o r of l i g h t can best be d e s c r i b e d , i t w i l l be found t h a t , depending on the c o n d i t i o n s of the experiment, i t behaves at times more l i k e p a r t i c l e s and at o t h e r times more l i k e waves and i t s b e h a v i o r can best be d e s c r i b e d by an a b s t r a c t mathematical model because i t doesn't r e a l l y behave l i k e a n y t h i n g we know i n the macroscopic w o r l d . "Why doesn't everybody mountaineer?" One of the assump-t i o n s i m p l i e d i n the q u e s t i o n upon which t h i s study was based i s t h a t p h y s i c a l and o t h e r s e r i o u s forms of r i s k - t a k i n g are e x c e p t i o n a l phenomena among humans and hence i n need of e x p l a -n a t i o n . I f the t a k i n g of r i s k " f o r f u n " were found to be a very g e n e r a l human tendency then a d i f f e r e n t l y warded q u e s t i o n may be more a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s was brought to the w r i t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n by the remark which one of the mountaineers wrote i n on h i s r e t u r n : "Why don't you l o o k f o r the reason why e v e r y -one i s not m o u n t a i n e e r i n g ? " In view of the s m a l l percentage of mountaineers i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , i t would have been easy to d i s m i s s t h i s remark as p u r e l y f a c e t i o u s and at the e a r l y stages of t h i s 136 study the writer was inclined to do so. It appears much less facetious i f we rephrase i t in somewhat more general terms and with the i m p l i c i t assumption that risk-taking "for fun" i s a widely distributed human attribute. We might ask: what are the constitutional or hi s t o r i c elements which predispose some people to choose mountaineering, others skydiving or scuba-diving or sexual adventures and s t i l l others different p a r t i -cular ways of engaging in "risk for fun?" The r a t i o n a l i t y of this question c l e a r l y depends on the demonstration that risk-taking "for fun" i s indeed very widespread. How general i s risk-taking "for fun"? On reconsideration: quite general, i t would appear. The major proportion of auto-mobile accidents may be attributed to the taking of "unneces-sary" r i s k s , including speeding and the combination of drink-ing and driving. Escalated risk in this f i e l d involves the playing of "chicken" among young people, motorcycle races, etc. The continuous battle against i n d u s t r i a l accidents takes up a goodly portion of management's time, as well as that of such organizations as the National Safety Council and various regional organizations. Many i n d u s t r i a l (and other) accidents are a consequence of the taking of unnecessary r i s k . There are many other ways of courting disaster "for fun" than exposing oneself to physical risks.. The consequences of losing one's savings in Reno or Las Vegas can be more disas-trous than a month spent in hospital with a broken leg as the result of a bungled parachute-jump. The excitement involved 137 in smoking marijuana seems worth the risk of going to j a i l to many thousands of people. And, returning once more to risk involving health and l i f e : many millions of people on this Continent smoke cigarets against well-known odds of emphysema and lung cancer. Placed in this context i t seems that a large majority of the human race i s quite w i l l i n g to take risks of some type or another for fun. In the l i g h t of our findings, mountaineers, skydivers and scuba divers may d i f f e r from the rest c h i e f l y in that their habitual methods of risk-taking are more i n s t i t u -tionalized and conspicuous. Psychological view of risk-taking. The main stream of psychology where this study belongs has been very slow in com-ing to grips with the apparently universal habit of humans to want to take r i s k s . The drive-reduction and homeostatic model for motivation would of necessity relegate the search for risk and excitement to the realm of abnormal psychology. McClelland (1951) and others (e.g. Helson, 1948) admit the desire for creating minor changes in environment (levels of stimulation) as a primary motivational factor. The model s t i l l regards major changes in • stimulation as negative motivators. Hebb (1954) and the other "sensory deprivation researchers" proved beyond doubt that a certain level of stimulation i s not only sought by the healthy organism, but i s absolutely necessary for the maintenance of mental and physical health. Berlyne (1960) introduces "epistemic c u r i o s i t y " as a motivator. Maslow 138 (1954, 1964), f i r s t with his concept of the "need for s e l f -actualization" and then with the concept's further development in terms of the "search for peak experiences" gradually approa-ches a motivational model which regards the search for occa-sional strong excitement as a basic human ch a r a c t e r i s t i c . A few psychologists have e a r l i e r taken a positive view of the search for excitement. Blatz (1944, p. 145-146) describes the way in which a c h i l d learns to develop the "habit" of seek-ing adventure through climbing and suggests that "the t h r i l l of placing oneself in danger of f a l l i n g may be enjoyably ex-perienced by the c h i l d " . He continues: "Jumping and swinging are also means of developing the " s p i r i t of adventure". Swimming, mountain-climbing and hunting (rather than shooting) are adult patterns which emerge through this t r a i n i n g . . . " He further suggests the intriguing p o s s i b i l i t y that "foolhardi-ness" may be the result of mother's tendency to come to the child's rescue when he got himself into a d i f f i c u l t situation. Thirty years ago, Guthrie (1938) wrote: "Excitement appears to be an interest in i t s e l f " . He goes on to write: "There are several reasons for the strong tendency of young, healthy animals or persons to seek excite-ment* One of these i s that our physiological eco-nomy i s adapted to struggle and a certain expenditure of energy. An easy l i f e leads not only to soft mus-cles and fat, but deterioration." (p. 225). Should we then classify- risk-seeking, at least within "reasonable" l i m i t s , not as belonging to the category of ab-normal behavior but as something that helps to keep the organ-ism healthy? 139 Guthrie would have probably agreed with such a view, but more dramatic incidents may be adduced in favor of i t . E a r l i e r in this study, reference was made to Epstein's (1962) report of a boy whose habitual stuttering disappeared on the afternoon of his f i r s t parachute jump. Nor i s such remission of undesirable symptoms as a result of dramatic r i s k -taking as rare as one might believe. Janet (1925) devotes a whole chapter to psychotherapy by means of "excitation". A few of his examples may be of interest. A patient code-named Wkx (m.,29) loses his neurotic symptoms (not specified) when he goes on holidays. The patient wrote to Janet: "The voyage distracts my mind, and frees me from my customary anxieties. I can only keep myself going by excitation" (p. 882). Janet proceeds to l i s t the b e n e f i c i a l results of a whole series of events which he attributes to their excitational effects: sport, professional work, changes in mode of l i f e and occupa-tion, struggles, quarrels, dangers and sufferings, etc. and gives short case histories in each category to support his thesis. The most remarkable example involves "V" (female, 50) whose intense and obstinate depression went into remission as she walked out of a store after s h o p - l i f t i n g : "the emotions accompanying this theft were so d e l i g h t f u l that she f e l t per-f e c t l y well on going out" (p. 886). Two other cases of the disappearance of neurotic symptoms in consequence of shop-l i f t i n g , and their reappearance when the women were caught and the thefts settled ,v/ere f i r s t reported by Janet and later quoted by Guthrie (op c i t . , p. 237). Guthrie ascribes the 140 t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t o f t h e s h o p l i f t i n g t o t h e c u l p r i t f ; ' need t o f o c u s a l l t h e i r e n e r g i e s on t h e r i s k y a c t , t h u s f o r g e t t i n g a b o u t t h e i r d a i l y t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y were u n a b l e t o cope w i t h and w h i c h had c a u s e d i n them a s t a t e o f c h r o n i c i n -d e c i s i o n . A r e v i e w o f t h e " f r e e a n s w e r s " o f o u r 5s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t many f i n d t h e r i s k y and demanding a c t i v i t y b o t h e x h i l a r a t -i n g and r e l a x i n g , b e c a u s e i t removes them f r o m t h e 1000 i r r i t a -t i n g l i t t l e d e c i s i o n s o f weekday l i f e . The r i s k e l e m e n t i s e s s e n t i a l i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e t a s k a t hand. The e x h i l a r a t i o n and r e m o v a l o f a n x i e t y a f t e r t h e r i s k i s o vercome c o u l d have r e i n f o r c i n g e f f e c t s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n t h e " l a r g e r c o n t e x t " How w e l l do t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y f i t i n t o t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t , c r e a t e d by t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r i s k - s e e k i n g i s an i n b o r n and b a s i c a l l y " h e a l t h y " t e n d e n c y ? The " l a r g e r c o n t e x t " s u g g e s t s t h a t r i s k s h o u l d p o s s e s s m o t i v a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s - i n f a c t , i t s h o u l d have s u c h q u a l i t i e s f o r n e a r l y e v e r y o n e . Thus t h e g e n e r a l s u p p o r t d e m o n s t r a t e d f o r H y p o t h e s i s I f i t s t h e m o d e l . S e c o n d l y , p e o p l e who m o u n t a i n e e r o r s k y d i v e o r s c u b a d i v e s h o u l d show no more " m o r b i d t e n d e n c i e s " t h a n o t h e r s (who p r e -sumably g e t t h e i r e x c i t e m e n t i n d i f f e r e n t r i s k y w a y s ) . The l a c k o f s u p p o r t f o r H y p o t h e s e s I I ( a - e ) , I I I , and IV w o u l d s t r o n g l y f a v o r t h i s v i e w . The i t e m s w h i c h t e s t e d H y p o t h e s i s V i n c l u d e d p a r e n t a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g p a r t l y p h y s i c a l e f f o r t 141 (climbing trees) and partly s e l f - r e l i a n c e (crossing streets alone). Children reinforced for such a c t i v i t i e s should direct l a t e r a c t i v i t i e s into channels which require physical a c t i v i t y and self-assurance. The risky sports chosen for this study make such demands - and so does hiking. Of a l l the composite personality p r o f i l e s on the Gough ACL, those of mountaineers and hikers are most alike . The interest of p i l o t s in stunt-flying becomes understan-dable in a different context than was o r i g i n a l l y suggested. It would represent the most obvious method by which they could obtain excitement. How about the low heterosexual interest of risk Ss in general and also of hikers - but the "normal" heter-osexual interest found among pi l o t s and sail-boat enthusiasts? Sex i s to many people the most stimulating and exciting " a c t i v i t y " which, at least in premarital and extramarital s i -tuations, carries a number of r i s k s . It also involves the whole body, as do the sports represented in this study with the exception of s a i l i n g and f l y i n g . People who have low hetero-sexual interests for any reason may be expected to gravitate to sports where tensions can be discharged, and excitation cre-ated, by involving the whole body. This speculation i s entire-ly consistent with the h-i scores found amoung our sub-groups. Those whose preferred sport a c t i v i t y involves the whole body have s i g n i f i c a n t l y low heterosexual interests. P i l o t s and s a i l o r s h-i interests are at the population mean or above: 142 Mountaineers Skydivers... Scubadivers. 42.1 45.9 46.9 42.7 52.3 50.1 Hikers. P i l o t s . Sailors It seems that i f we place the findings of this study into what we called the "larger context", some explanations which were given within the o r i g i n a l context may be simplified, e.g. the p i l o t s ' interest in stunt-flying and the hikers' low heterosex-ual interest score. We also receive at least a tentative answer as to where the remainder of the variance may be hiding: under the semantic constraints imposed on the study by thinking of risk-taking as a somewhat "abnormal" human a c t i v i t y , and the consequent search for the variance among other conditions which are r e l a t i v e l y ab-normal, e.g. phobias and power-concern. Where our investigation moved within "normal" psychological context (e.g. s o c i a l learn-ing theory) a respectable amount of the variance emerged at the price of asking only 3 questions, two about father's and one about mother's attitude to risk-taking. These considerations may point to the direction which future research may profitably take, in search of the missing variance. The overall context should probably be one of asking: "How do you get your excitement and t h r i l l s ? " rather than "What kind of person seeks excitement?" The answer to the l a t t e r may simply be that only disturbed people narrow their life-space to exclude excitement. Once we have a l i s t of the usual ways in which people 143 seek their excitement (and perhaps Janet's headings referred to e a r l i e r may serve as a starting point), then we might e n l i s t the help of so c i a l learning and modelling theory as well as physiology and endocrinology to gradually build a structure which would permit understanding, and perhaps prediction from knowledge of a few variables, of the particular way which a particular individual would find most attractive in his search for excitement and r i s k . Alternatively, one might start with a purely pragmatic approach such as Strong (1943) used to construct his Vocation-al Interest Test. Even the data accumulated in the course of the present study might be subjected to discriminant function analysis in the expectation that an examination of the r e s u l t -ing regression-weights may lead to further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of physical risk-seeking tendencies. 144 BIBLIOGRAPHY A d l s r , A. P__roblerns o f neurosjLs,. New Y o r k ; C o s m o p o l i t a n Book C o r p . , 1930. A t k i n s o n , J . W. M o t i v e s ' i n f a n t a s y , a c t i o n and s o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : Van N o s t r a n d , 1958. B a s o w i t z , H., P e r s k y , H., K o r c h i n , 5 . J . and G r e n h e r , J . A n x i e t y and S t r e s s . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1955. Bene, E v a . On t h e g e n e s i s o f male h o m o s e x u a l s : an a t t e m p t a t c l a r i f y i n g t h e r o l e o f p a r e n t s . B r i t i s h , - J i . i P s y -c h i a t r y , 1965, 111: 803-813. B e r l y n e , D.E. C o n f l i c t , 3 I* OUS3-L 3 nd c u r i o s i t y . New Y o r k j M c G r a w - H i l l , I 9 6 0 . B l a t z , W.E. U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e young c h i l d . Toronto*, C l a r k e , I r w i n and Co. L t d . , 1944. Blum, G.S. The, B l a c k y p i c t u r e s : a t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e e x p l o r -a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y d y n a m i c s . New Y o r k : P s y c h o l o -g i c a l C o r p . , 1950. Bond, B.D. The l o v e and f e a r o f f l y i n g . New Y o r k : I n t e r n a -t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1952. B o y a r , J . I . The c o n s t r u c t i o n and p a r t i a l v a l i d a t i o n o f a s c a l e f o r t h e measurement o f t h e f e a r o f d e a t h . Unp. Ph.D. T h e s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , Ann A r b o r , M i c h . , 1964. C a t t a i l , R.B. P e r s o n a l i t y and M o t i v a t i o n . New Y o r k : W o r l d Book Co., 1957. C a t t e l l , R.B. J r . - S r . H i q h s c h o o l p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e (H5PQ). Champaign, 111.: I n s t i t u t e f o r p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i l i t y t e s t i n g , 1958. C h y l i n s k i , J o a n n e and W r i g h t , M.W. T e s t i n g i n Canada w i t h t h e M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (MMPI) and t h e Edwards P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e S c h e d u l e ( E P F S ) . Canad. P s y c h o l o g i s t . 1967, 8. ( a ) ; No. 3, 202-206. C h r i s t i e , F a v e l , J o a n and S e i d e n b e r g . S \ I s t h e F - s c a l e i r r e -v e r s i b l e ? J . Abnorm. So c . P s y c h o l . . 1958, 5_6: 143-15 9. C i a r l o , J.A. A s c e n s i o n i s m i n f a n t a s y and a c t i o n : a s t u d y o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o f l y . U n p u b l . Ph.D. T h e s . , H a r v a r d U n i v . , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1964. BIBLIOGRAPHY ( C o n t ' d ) 145 C o t e , A.E. The p s y c h o l o g y o f s p o r t _ p _ a r a c h u t i s t s . Mimeo-g r a p h e d r e p o r t , U n i v . a f New B r u n s w i c k , 1963. D e u t s c h , H e l e n e A. A c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f s p o r t . I n t . J . P s y c h e - a n a l . . 1926, 7, 223-227. E p s t e i n , S. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1967. E p s t e i n , S. The measurement o f d r i v e and c o n f l i c t i n humans - t h e o r y and e x p e r i m e n t . In M.R. J o n e s ( E d . ) , N e b r a s k a symposium on m o t i v a t i o n . 1962. L i n c o l n , U n i v e r . N e b r a s k a P r e s s , " 1962, 127-206. E p s t e i n , S. and F e n z , W.D. T h e o r y and e x p e r i m e n t on t h e measurement o f a p p r o a c h - a v o i d a n c e c o n f l i c t . J . A b n p rm. S o c . P s y c h o l . . 1962, 64: No. 2, 97-112. E p s t e i n , S. and F e n z , W.D. S t e e p n e s s o f a p p r o a c h and a v o i d -ance g r a d i e n t s i n humans as a f u n c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e : t h e o r y and e x p e r i m e n t . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1965, 70, 1-12. E p s t e i n , S. and F e n z , W.D. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s i n dreams. P r o g r e s s r e p o r t f o r t h e NIMH, s m a l l g r a n t No. MH 08755, 1 9 6 5 ( a ) . ( M i m e o g r a p h e d ) . F e n i c h e l , 0. The c o u n t e r p h o b i c a t t i t u d e , I n t l i f i i J . P s . y c h o a n a l . 1939, 20: 263-274. F e n i c h e l , 0. The p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c t h e o r y o f n e u r o s e s . New Y o r k . W.W. N o r t o n I n c . , 1945. F e n z , W.D. and E p s t e i n , S. Measurement o f a p p r o a c h - a v o i d a n c e c o n f l i c t a l o n g a s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n by a t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n t e s t . J . P e r s . , 1962, 3TJ, 613-632. F r e u d , Anna. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1966. F r e u d , S. D i c t i o n a r y o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : P h i l o s o -p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1 958. F r e u d , S. Beyond t h e p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e . London: H o g a r t h Press', 1950. Gough, H.G. and H e i l b r u n , A.B. The ad/j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t , P a l o A l t o , C a l i f . : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , 1965. G u t h r i e , E.R. The p s y c h o l o g y o f human c o n f l i c t . New Y o r k : H a r p e r B r o s . , 1938. 146 Bibliography (Cont'd) Grinker, R., Bradley, A., Fastovsky, A. and Willerman, B. A study of predisposition to the development of opera-ti o n a l fatigue. Amer. J. of Orthopsychiatry. 1946, 16: 191-214. Harlow, R.G. Masculine inadequacy and compensatory develop-ment of physique. J. Pers. , 1951, 19.: 312-323 . Hathaway, 5.R. and McKinley, J.C. Minnesota Multiphasic Per-sonality Inventory Manual. New York: The Psycholo-g i c a l Corporation, 1951. Hays, W.L. S t a t i s t i c s for psychologists. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963. Hebb, D.O. and Thompson, W.R. The so c i a l significance of animal studies. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of  Social Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1954, Pp. 551-2. Helson, H. Adaptation l e v e l as basis for a quantitative theory of frames of reference. Psychol. Rev. . 1948, 5J5 : 297-313 . Henry, W.E. Executive personality and job success. Amer. Manaqemt. Ass. Personnel Ser. No, 120, 1948. Hinsie, L.H. and Campbell, R.J. Psychiatric dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press, I960. Janet, P. Psychological healing. London (England): George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1925. Janis, J. Psychological stress. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1958. Klausner, S.Z. The impact of the means of recruitment on performance in a dangerous sport, s o c i a l , enthusiastic and e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c sky-divers. Res. Rep. No. AD631019  Bureau cf Soc. Science Res. Inc., Washington, D.C., 1966 (a). Klausner, S.Z. The transformation of fear. Res. Rep. No. AD631020. Bureau of Soc. Science Res., Inc., Washington, D.C., 1966 (b) . Klausner, S.Z. Volunteers for a high-risk sport. Res. Rep. No. AD631049, Bureau of Soc. Science Res. Inc., Washington, D.C., 1966 (c). Kogan, N. and Wallach, M.A. Risk taking - a study in cogni- tion and personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. 147 BIBLIOGRAPHY ( C o n t ' d ) L e s t e r , D. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f e a r . o f d e a t h s c a l e ; i t s c o n s i s t e n c y , v a l i d i t y and u s e . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1966. M c C l e l l a n d , D. P e r s o n a l i t y . New Yor,k; U r y d e n P r e s s , 1951. M c C l e l l a n d , D. The a c h i e v i n g s o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : Van N o s t r a n d ~ 1961. M c C l e l l a n d , D., A t k i n s o n , J.W., C l a r k , R.A. and L o w e l l , E.C. The a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v e . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -C r o f t s , I n c . , 1953. M c C l e l l a n d , ]j . C. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 1966 . M a c K i n n o n , D.W. The p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s o f c r e a t i v i t y : a s t u d y o f A m e r i c a n a r c h i t e c t s . In P r o c e e d i n _g_s_ j r f _th_e XIV I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , Copenhagen. C o p e n h a g e n ; M u n k s g a a r d , 1962. Maslow, A.H. M o t i v a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1954. Maslow, A.H. R e l i g i o u s , , v a l u e s , and peak e x p e r i e n c e s . Columbus .0.; O h i o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. M e n n i n g e r , l<. A. Man a g a i n s t h i m s e l f . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , 1938. M i n e r , J.B. and C u l v e r , J . E . Some a s p e c t s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . J . a p p l . P s y c h o l . , 1955, 3_9; 348-354. M u r r a y , H.A. E x p l o r a t i o n s i n p e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938, M u r r a y , H.A. T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t M a n u a l . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass. 1943. M u r r a y , H.A. A m e r i c a n I c a r u s . In A. B u r t o n and R.E. H a r r i s ( E d s . ) , C l i n i c a l s t u d i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y . New York", H a r p e r , 1955. Pp. 615-641. M u r r a y , H.A. N o t e s on t h e I c a r u s syndrome. F o l . P s y c h i a t . N e u r o l , and i M e u r o c h i r u r g . , N e e r l a n d , 1958, _ 6 l : (No. 2) 204-208. Roe, Ann. A s t u d y o f i m a g e r y i n r e s e a r c h s c i e n t i s t s . J . e r s . , 1 9 5 1 , 19; 459-470. 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd Roc, Ann. Psychological examination of eminent bio l o g i s t s . J. Consult. Psychol., 1949, 13: 225-246. Rosen, B.C. and d'Andrade, R.G. The psychosocial origin of achievement motivation. Sociometry, 1959, 22, 185-218. Sarnoff, I. and Corwin, 5.M. Castration anxiety and the fear of death. Ji-_Jiejrs. , 1959, 27s 374-385;, Schafer, R. Psychoanalytic interpretation in Rorschach testing. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1954. Shneidman, E.S. and Farberow, N.L. Clues to suicide. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1957. Slovic, P. Convergent validation of risk-taking measures* J. abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1962, _65_; (No. 1), 68-71, Strong, E.K. Jr. Vocational interest of men and women. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1943. Thune, J.3. Personality of weightlifters. Res. Quart., 1949 ,20: 296-298. Torrance, E.P. The development of a preliminary l i f e exper-ience inventory for the.study of fighter interceptor p i l o t combat effectiveness. Res. B u l l . AFPTRC.- TR -54 - 89. Lackland Air Force Base, Tex., 1954, Torrance, E.P. and Z i l l e r , R.C. Risk and l i f e experience. Research Report AFPTRO - TN - 57 - 23 (A5TIA Document No. 098926) Lackland Air Force Base, Tex., 1957. White, R.W. Motivation reconsidered: the concept of compe-tence. Psychol. Rev.. 1959, 66: 297-333. Winterbottom, Marian R. The relation of childhood training in independence to achievement motivation, In D.C. McClelland et, _ol. The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953. Wolowitz, H.M. and Sharkey, C. Power themes in the TAT stor-hn, Z i l l e r , R.C. Vocational choice and u t i l i t y for r i s k . _J. Counsel. Psychol., 1957, 21/4: 61-64. APPENDIX A-1 149 PERSONAL DATA SHEET YOU ARE REPRESENTING THE GROUP OF 1. Age 20-24 0 ( n e a r e s t 2 5-29 CP-b i r t h d a y ) 3 0 - 3 4 C i 35-39 40-44 - - ' i 4 5_49 i~i 50or+ Q i 2 . O c c u p a t i o n 3 . F o r m a l e d u c a t i o n : ( c h e c k h i g h e s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d ) below Gr. 1 0 i H ' g r a d e 10/11 g r a d e 12 P~J some u n i v . r~J u n i v . g r a d . C^j MA o r equ . r ~ j Ph.D. r-j 4 . M a r i t a l s t a t u s &. c h i l d r e n : (a) Are you p r e s e n t l y : s i n g l e [__! ( c h e c k ) m a r r i e d C 3 s e p a r a t e d (b) In e i t h e r c a s e , have you e v e r been: d i v o r c e d : Y e s l j No V~ i widowed : YesT~_"| No Q (c ) Number o f c h i l d r e n : 5 . R e s i d e n c e on t h i s C o n t i -n e n t (Canada o r USA) (a) Were you borjn on t h i s C o n t i n e n t ? Yes i _ " j No i i (b) I f n o t , how o l d were you when you came h e r e ? . . . . 6 . E x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s p o r t w h i c h  you r e p r e s e n t M o u n t a i n e e r s . Y e a r s i n v o l v e d : H i g h e s t g r a d e a s c e n t S a i l o r s : Y e a r s i n v o l v e d : S k y d i v e r s : Y e a r s i n v o l v e d : A p p r o x . No. o f jumps: H i g h e s t j ump: Scuba d i v e r s : Y e a r s i n v o l v e d : D e e p e s t d i v e : N o . d i v e s l a s t 2 y e a r s . . . . . . P i l o t s : Y e a r s o f f l y i n g : A p p r . h o u r s l o g g e d : H i k e r s : Y e a r s i n v o l v e d : A p p r . Number o f o v e r 10 m i l e h i k e s i n l a s t 2 y e a r s 7.Has y o u r f a t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c -t i v i t i e s :  S e r i o u s m o u n t a i n e e r i n g L - ^ J 5 k y d i v i n g i I Scuba d i v i n g L i S p o r t s f l y i n g ( p i l o t ) j j A i r F o r c e f l y i n g ( p i l o t )j I C a r r a c i n g (' , H y d r o l a n i n g — . The n e x t page c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f 40 s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c -t i v i t i e s . In Column 1., c h e c k ( • ) a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h you p a r t i -c i p a t e f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y now, o r have done so i n t h e p a s t . In Column 2., r a n k o r d e r two o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s you have c h e c k e d i n column 1. w h i c h you w o u l d l e a s t want  t o g i v e up ( P u t 1,2 n e x t t o them) In Column 3., r a n k o r d e r two a c t i v i t i e s n ot c h e c k e d i n column 1 w h i c h you w o u l d most want t o t a k e up, t i m e and money p e r m i t t i n g . ( A g a i n mark 1,2 n e x t t o t h e m ) . 150 APPENDIX A - 2 SPORT P A R T I C I P A T I O N QUESTIONNAIRE J C o l . l . I " d o i n g , j o r d i d A c t i v i t i e s ( \ / ) 1 . Hy d r q p l a r. i n g ( s p e e d b o a t r a c i n g ) 2 . B a d m i n t o n \ 3 . B a s k e t b a l l I 4 . B o x i n g \ 5 . C a r d r i v i n g f o r p l e a s u r e ( n o t r a c i n g ) j 6 . C a r r a c i n g 7 . D a n c i n g ( s o c i a l ) ; " 8'. S q u a r e - d a n c i n g : " ' 9". S k i n d i v i n g ; " " 10 . S c u b a (dee p - )" d i v i n g ; 11'.' F e n c i n g 1 2 . F o o t b a l l ; -13 . H i k i n g 14". Hoc ' k e y : " ' i S . H u n t i n g ;' 1 6 . ' J u d o ; " " 1 7 . J u m p i n g ( d i s t a n c : ; , h e i g h t , o r p o l e ) IB. L a c r o s s e ; 1 9 . M o u n t a i n e e r i n g ( " s e r i o u s " , i . e . c l i f f - c l i m b ) 2 0 . P i l o t a s m a l l p l a n e ( e x c l u d ' g a e r o b a t i c s i 2 1 . P i l o t a g l i d e r \ 2 2 . R o w i n g ( i n c o m p e t i t i o n ) 2 3 . R u h h i h g ( d i s t a n c e " , o r s p e e d ) : " 24". S a i l i n g 2 5 . S k a t i n g 2 6 . S k i - h i k i n g ( e x e l . s l a l o m , j u m p i n g ) 2 7 . 5 k i - j u m p i n g ! 2 9 . S o c c e r :" 3 0 . S p o r t s - p a r a c h u t i n g ( s k y d i v i n g ) 3 1 . S t u n t f l y i n g ( a e r o b a t i c s ) 3 2'.' 5 u r f b b a r d r i d i n g 3 3 . S w i m m i n g ( c a s u a l , o f f b e a c h ) j 3 4 . S w i m m i n g ( c o m p e t i t i o n , s p e e d o r d i s t ' e e ) 3 5 . T e n n i s ;"' 3 6 ' ' . ' T a ' b T o - t ' e ' h h ' i s ' " ' \ . . . 3 7 . W a t e r - s k i i n g ( " s i m p l e " ) : 3 8 . W a t e r - s k i i n g ( j u m p s , k i t i n g ) 3.9 ., W e i g h t 1 i f t i n g ; 40 . W r e s t l i n g ; " ' ; C o l . 2 . j C o l . 3 . i " l e a s t ['most iwant t o Want t o ' g i v e u p ' : t a k e up" i ( l - 2 ) U - 2 ) 151 APPENDIX A-3 DANGER RATING OF 5P0RT5 Please indicate below for each a c t i v i t y your best estimate of the danger of physical injury, or death, which a person would incur i f he pursues the a c t i v i t y f a i r l y regularly over a 10-year period. Indicate your estimate by placing any of the numbers 1,2,3....7 opposite the a c t i v i t y . "1" represents no more risk than any "normal" day-to-day a c t i v i t y "4" represents "average" danger l e v e l "7" stands for high risk of death DANGER RATING 1.Hydroplaning (speed-boat racing) 2 . Badminton 3. Basketball 4. Boxing - ;. 5 .Car.,.driving ..for pleasure (not racing) 6 ,.C.gr...racing i 7.Dancing (social) 8 . Square-dancing in-divinq 10...Scuba (deep-) diving^ 11.Fencing 1 2 / F o o t b a l l " " Z Z ~ ~ 1 13 . Hiking 14 ~ Hockey 15'.Hunting IS'. Judo 17'. Jumping "(distance", height or pole) 18 .'Lacrosse 19. Moun taineorin g ( c l i f f-climbing, etc.) ": 20. P i l o t a small plane 21'.Pi l o t n g l i d e r ; 22.Rowing (in competition) 2 3".'"R'uhn'i'h'g("distance,or" speed") 24 . Soiling 25,Skating 26 . Ski-nikihg (excl. J umping ,slalom) 2 7. S k i - j u m p i n g • 28.Slalom' 29.Soccer' 30. Sports'' 31.Stunt-flying (aerobatics) 32. Surf board' riding' 33.Swimming (casual, off-beach) 34.Swimmingf com p e t i t iv e') 3 5 . T'e n JTXiH 3 6 . T a"B 1 e t e n n i s 37 . Water/"sj<_"iin g "T^s'imple71! 38.Water skiing (jumps, kiting) 3 9 . We'i"g'F't"-TiT£l'ti'g 40 . W're'sxl'ing' " " " APPENDIX A-4 INSTRUCTIONS AND COMPOSITE ATTITUDE SCALE 152 On t h e f o l l o w i n g pages you a r e a s k e d t o " a n s w e r " a number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s w h i c h d e a l w i t h y o u r o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and b a c k g r o u n d . P l e a s e remember - t h e r e s e a r c h i s anonymous, so 1) Be as h o n e s t as you can 2) Take i t e m s i n o r d e r - d o n ' t peek ahead and d o n ' t c o r r e c t 3) Don't spend much t i m e on any i t e m - f o l l o w y o u r f i r s t i m p u l s e 4) Answer e v e r y i t e m t h e b e s t way you can Each " i t e m " c o n s i s t s o f two o p p o s i n g s t a t e m e n t s , one on t h e l e f t and t h e o t h e r on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e page; t h e y a r e c o n n e c -t e d w i t h a t h i n l i n e : ' D e p e n d i n g on how you f e e l a b o u t them, p l a c e one "X" on one o f t h e 7 v e r t i c a l l i n e s between t h e s t a t e m e n t s , a t t h e p o i n t where i t c r o s s e s t h e — l i n e w h i c h c o n n e c t s t h e two p a r t s o f t h e i t e m . The two o p p o s i n g s t a t e m e n t s m i g h t be: 1.1 s t r o n g l y p r e f e r — 1.1 s t r o n g l y p r e f e r t e a f o r b r e a k f a s t c o f f e e f o r b r e a k -f a s t By p u t t i n g y o u r mark "X" i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p o t , you can e x p r e s s s t r o n g , g e n e r a l o r m i l d a greement w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e two s t a t e m e n t s ; o r i n d i c a t e (by p u t t i n g y o u r "X" on t h e c e n t e r -l i n e ) t h a t you have n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t p r e f e r e n c e e i t h e r way, o r t h a t n e i t h e r s t a t e m e n t a p p l i e s t o you ( e . g . b e c a u s e you d r i n k m i l k f o r b r e a k f a s t , o r b e c a u s e you u s u a l l y d o n ' t e a t b r e a k f a s t a t a l l , e t c . ) The n e x t page shows t h e a c t u a l l a y o u t and i n d i c a t e s e x a c t l y where you may p u t y o u r mark. 153 APPENDIX A-4 ( C o n t ' d ) AGREEMENT EXAMPLE UNDE-5 G 5 CIDED 5 G S T E L o r L E T R N I DOES I N R 0 E G NOT G E 0 N ' R H APPLY H R N G A T T A G L V' v/ L V AGREEMENT 1.1 s t r o n g l y p r e -f e r t e a f o r b r e a k f a s t I f you do_ p r e f e r t e a f o r b r e a k f a s t / a ) a l m o s t a l w a y s , ' s t r o n g l y , p u t y o u r X h e r e yy ' D ) g e n e r a l l y : p u t y o u r X hereby, _ vi/ / even a s l i g h t p r e f e r e n c e o r : ) c a n ' t d e c i d e c ) o n l y s l i g h t l y . p u t y o u r X h e r e ^x. o r : c ) t h e i t e m - p a i r d o e s n ' t a p p l y t o you ( e . g . you o n l y have m i l k f o r b ' f a s t o r o b ' f a s t a t a l l etc..)' s t r o n g l y p r e f e r ccrffeje f o r b r e a k -f a s t I f you p r e f e r c o f f e e f o r b ' f a s t -a ) a l m o s t a l w a y s . s t r o n g l y . p u t y o u r X h e r e ^ — , b ) g e n e r a l l y : y o u r X put here>; • c ) o n l y s l i g h t l y : p u t y o u r X h e r e P l e a s e remember: you a r e a s k e d t o p u t o n l y one X_ down f o r eac h i t e m - p a i r The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e may be marked w i t h e i t h e r pen o r p e n c i l . iPPENDIX A-4 ( C o n t ' d ) 154 , AGREEMENT U N D E -s G 5 C I D E D S G 5 T E L o r L E T R N I "50- I . N R 0 E G "50 G E 0 N R H o r H R N G A T D O E S T A G L N O T L : \i A P P L Y >;/.. 1.1 s t r o n g l y > p r e f e r m i x e d p a r t i e s 2.1 t h i n k v e r y f r e q u e n t l y a-b o u t t h e f a c t t h a t I s h a l l have t o d i e ( B - l ) 3. The E a r t h i s a p t l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e B i b l e as a " V a l l e y o f s o r r o w " ( C - l ) 4. W h e n t h i n g s go wrong and u p s e t me, I b e l i e v e i n j u s t s m i l i n g 5. Wa a l l have o u r l u c k y days and l u c k y num-b e r s , and un-l u c k y days & u n l u c k y num-b e r s ( E - l ) 6. Women, on t h e w h a l e , a r e much l e s s t r u s t w o r t h y t h a n m e n ( A - 2 ) 7. G r a v e y a r d s seem t o u p s e t many p e o p l e b u t t h e y d o n ' t b o t h e r me AGREEMENT ^ /7~ l . l s t r o n g l y pre-f e r s t a g p a r t i e s ( A - 1 ) 1 2 . I p r a c t i c a l l y n e v e r t h i n k o f t h i s f a c t . 3 . L i f e on t h e whole i s a j o y -ous e x p e r i e n c e 4.When t h i n g s go wrong and u p s e t me I b e l i e v e i n making a f u s s ( D - l ) 5.1 d o n ' t b e l i e v e i n l u c k y days &. l u c k y numbers, n o r u n l u c k y days &. u n l u c k y numbers . 6 . Women, on t h e w h o l e , a r e as t r u s t w o r t h y as men 7 . G r a v e y a r d s seem t o u p s e t me c o n -s i d e r a b l y ( B-2 ) T h i s and t h e o t h e r s y m b o l s f o l l o w i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s r e f e r t o t h e s c a l e o f w h i c h t h a t s t a t e m e n t i s a p a r t . The sym b o l i n -d i c a t e s t h e p o s i t i v e l y k e y e d i t e m o f each p a i r . 155 APPENDIX A-4 ( C o n t ' d ) t I J , AGREEMENT 5 T R • N G G E N E R A L 5 L I G H T UNDE-CIDED o r "50-50" o r DOES NOT APPLY S L I G H T G E N E R A L 5 T R 0 N G 8 . L i f e has i t s ups and downs, b u t on t h e w h o l e , i t i s w o n d e r f u l 9.When s o m e t h i n g goes b a d l y wrong, I s e l d o m g e t a n - • gr y a t p e o p l e b e f o r e I s t a r t t o t h i n k what can be done a b o u t i t . 1 0 . I d o n ' t be-l i e v c t h a t t h e s t a r s have any b e a r i n g on hu-man f o r t u n e s 1 1 . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t as many u n d e r s t a n d i n g &. s y m p a t h e t i c women as t h e r e a r e s u c h men 12.1 have mo-ments when I get r e a l l y up-s e t a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d y i n g y o u n g ( B - 3 ) 1 3 . I f my f r i e n d s l e a v e me o u t o f s o m e t h i n g t h e y a r e d o i n g , I f e e l h u r t and a n g r y (D-3) 14,1 have o f t e n w i s h e d t h a t I h a d n ' t been b o r n ( -3) AGREEMENT-.8.1 o f t e n wonder w h e t h e r l i f e i s r e a l l y w o r t h l i v -i n g (C-2) .9.When s o m e t h i n g goes b a d l y wrong, I o f t e n g e t a n -gr y a t p e o p l e b e f o r e I s t a r t t o t h i n k what c a n be done abo u t i t . ( D - 2 ) .10.1 b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s t a r s have a l o t t o do w i t h a p e r s o n ' s s u c c e s s &. h a p p i n e s s ( E - 2 ) .11.Most women seem t o have an u n d e r -l y i n g mean s t r e a k i n them (A-3) 12.The i d e a t h a t I may be d y i n g young d o e s n ' t a f -f e c t me .13 . I f my f r i e n d s l e a v e me o u t o f s o m e t h i n g t h e y a r e d o i n g , I t h i n k t h e y made a m i s -t a k e .14.1 am v e r y hap-py t h a t I was b o r n APPENDIX 4 ( C o n t ' d ) 156 AGREEMENT 15.1 b e l i e v e s t r o n g l y i n men-t a l t e l e p a t h y ( E - 3 ) 16.Most women a r e . n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r men, s u b t l y n o r o p e n l y 1 7 . C o f f i n s make , me a n x i o u s (B-4) 18.1 c a n n o t work h a r d on s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g bo-t h e r e d when t h e r e i s a l o t o f n o i s e a r o u n d me (D-4) 19 . A t t i m e s I w i s h I had t h e c o u r a g e t o do away w i t h m y s e l f (C-4) S T R 0 N G 20.1 p r e f e r t o p l a y p o k e r (E-4) 21.The p l e a s u r e in., sex i s g r e a t l y o v e r - v a l u e d t h e s e d ays (A-5) 22.What w i l l happen., t o my body a f t e r d e a t h d o e s n ' t c o n -c e r n me G E N E R A L 5 L I G H T UNDE-CIDED o r "50-50" o r DOES NOT APPLY 5 L I G H T G E N E R A L S T R 0 N G AGREEMENT M X/ 15.1 d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t m e n t a l t e l e -p a t h y e x i s t s .16. Most women a r e o u t t o c o n t r o l t h e i r men ( o p e n l y , o r s u b t l y ) . (A-4) .17.1 d o n ' t g e t a n -x i o u s a t t h e s i g h t o f a c o f f i n . .18.1 can work h a r d when t h e r e i s a l o t o f n o i s e a r o u n d me w i t h o u t b e i n g b o t h e r e d 19.The i d e a o f s u i -c i d e seems u t t e r l y r e p u l s i v e t o me 20.1 p r e f e r t o p l a y b r i d g e .21.Sex w i t h a c o n -g e n i a l p a r t n e r i s j u s t a b o u t t h e g r e a t -e s t e n j o y m e n t i n l i f e .22.1 am, c o n c e r n e d what w i l l happen t o my body a f t e r d e a t h (B -5) 157 APPENDIX A-4 ( C o n t ' d ) AGREEMENT AGREEMENT. 23.1 o f t e n remember t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e , so I have t o d i s a -g r e e w i t h them a b o u t what r e a l l y happened (D-5) 24.1 f i n d modern l i f e ' s c o m p l e x i t i e s s t i m u l a t i n g & I l o v e t o be i n t h e c e n t e r o f a l l k i n d s o f a c -t i v i t i e s 2 5 . O t h e r t h i n g s be-i n g e q u a l : t h e more a p e r s o n e x p o s e s h i m -s e l f t o p h y s i c a l r i s k s , t h e more l i k e -l y he w i l l g e t i n -j u r e d o r k i l l e d 5 G T E R N 0 E N R G A L 26. To a r e a l man,sex-i s as i m p o r t a n t as a t t a i n i n g h i s o t h e r g o a l s i n l i f e 27. N e v e r a g a i n f e e l -i n g a n y t h i n g a f t e r I d i e u p s e t s me(B-6) 2 8 . I f I keep b r e a k -i n g , and a c c i d e n -t a l l y w a s t i n g t h i n g s when I make s o m e t h i n g , I g e t f u r i o u s (D-6) UNDE-CIDED o r " 50-50" o r DOES NOT APPLY s G 5 L E T I N R G E 0 H R N T A G L 23.1 d o n ' t o f t e n r e -member t h i n g s d i f f e r -e n t l y f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e , l e a d i n g t o d i s a g r e e m e n t as t o what r e a l l y happened .24.1 f i n d t h e com-p l e x i t y o f modern l i f e d i s t r e s s i n g &. o f t e n w i s h I c o u l d g e t away f r o m i t a l l (C-5) 2 5 . P e o p l e d o n ' t d i e t i l l t h e i r number comes up, so i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r how much dan-g e r a p e r s o n e x p o s e s h i m s e l f t o (E-5) 26. A r e a l man i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n a c h i e v e -ment t h a n i n s e x . (A-6) 27. T h i s t h o u g h t d o e s n ' t u p s e t me a t a l l 2 8 . I f I keep b r e a k i n g and a c c i d e n t a l l y w a s t i n g t h i n g s when I make s o m e t h i n g , I keep c a l m j u s t t h e same. APPENDIX A-4 ( C o n t ' d ) 158 AGREEMENT AGREEMENT 5 G 5 T E L R N I • E G N R H G A T. L 29.1 w i s h I had l i v e d i n t h e good o l d t i m e s when l i f e was q u i e t and r e s t -f u l (C-6) 30 . T h e r e i s no "magic s y s t e m " , t o i n c r e a s e one's w i n -n i n g s ( s h o r t o f c h e a t i n g ) i n a gam-b l i n g s i t u a t i o n 3 1 . I n d u l g i n g i n sex i s l i k e l y t o d r a i n e n e r g y f r o m more i m p o r t a n t p u r s u i t s (A-7) 32.The s i g h t o f a c o r p s e makes me a n x i o u s ( B - 7 ) 3 3 . I f p e o p l e a r o u n d me g e t t o o n o i s y , I w o u l d s e l d o m t e l l them t o be q u i e t 3 4 . I t i s w o n d e r f u l • t h a t one c a n p e r p e -t u a t e o n e s e l f i n one's c h i l d r e n 35.When l u c k i s w i t h y o u , you h a r d -l y have t o t r y ; i f i t i s a g a i n s t you', t h e r e i s no use t r y i n g (E-7) 36.1 c a n ' t t h i n k o f any v a l i d r e a s o n f o r a man t o r e n o u n c e sex UNDE-CIDED o r " so-so" o r DOES NOT APPLY s G S L E T I N R G E 0 H R N T A G L 29.1 am g l a d I l i v e i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y w i t h a l l i t s h u s t l e and b u s t l e .30. A good way t o w i n i n a g a m b l i n g s p o t i s t o o b s e r v e who has a w i n n i n g s t r e a k and t h e n b e t t h e way he does (E.-6) .31.Sexual s a t i s f a c -t i o n t e n d s t o enhance a p e r s o n ' s v i g o r so he can do even b e t -t e r i n o t h e r a r e a s . 32.1 d o n ' t g et an-x i o u s a t t h e s i g h t o f a c o r p s e 33. I f p e o p l e a r o u n d me g e t t o o n o i s y , I w o u l d o f t e n t e l l them t o be q u i e t (D-7) • 34 . 11 i s s i l l y t o b e a r c h i l d r e n , e s -p e c i a l l y i n t h i s a t o m i c age (C-7) .3 5 . S u c c e s s f u l o u t -come o f one's p r o -j e c t depends i n t h e l o n g r u n more on a-b i l i t y &. s t a m i n a , t h a n on l u c k . 36.1 a d m i r e men who r e n o u n c e sex f o r h i g h e r aims i n l i f e (A-8) APPENDIX A-4 ( C o n t ' d ) 159 AGREEMENT AGREEMENT 5 G S T E L R N I 0 E G N R H G A T L 37 c I am n o t a t a l l d i s t u r b e d a b o u t t h e f i n a l i t y o f d e a t h 38.Even t h o u g h peo- • p i e a r o u n d me l a u g h & t a l k w h i l e l i s t e n -i n g t o r a d i o o r TV, I can l i s t e n w i t h o u t b e i n g b o t h e r e d 39.Some p e o p l e , by c o n c e n t r a t i n g h a r d c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e way t h e d i c e w i l l r o l l , o r t h e hand t h e y g e t i n a c a r d -game (E-7) 40.One way t o l o s e my peace o f mind i s t o t h i n k o f d e a t h 41.Sex w i t h o u t emo-t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i s n o t v e r y s a t i s -f y i n g 42.1 g o t a b o u t as many t h i n g s t h a t I wanted b a d l y as most o t h e r p e o p l e -no more, no l e s s 4 3 . T h o u g h t s o f d o i n g away w i t h m y s e l f o c -c u r t o me p r o b a b l y more o f t e n t h a n t o most o t h e r s (C-9) 44.1 f e e l I was b o r n l u c k i e r t h a n most p e o p l e 8c n o t h i n g r e a l l y bad con e v e r happen t o me. (E-10) UNDE-CIDED o r " 50-50" o r DOES NOT • j , AP.PLY 5 G S L E T I N R G E 0 H R N T A G L .37.The f i n a l i t y o f d e a t h d i s t u r b s me g r e a t l y (B-8) .38.When p e o p l e a r o u n d me l a u g h &. t a l k w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o r a d i o o r TV, i t s p o i l s t h i n g s and annoys me (D-8) .39."Honest" d i c e and c a r d s c a n n o t be i n -f l u e n c e d by m e n t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n 4 0 . L i f e i s l a r g e l y s u f f e r i n g - o n l y d e a t h b r i n g s peace (0-8) 41.Sex i s O.K. as l o n g as one d o e s n ' t g e t e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d (A-9) . 4 2 . I f I r e a l l y wanted s o m e t h i n g , I a l m o s t a l w a y s g o t i t , s o o n -e r o r l a t e r (E-9) 43. The i d e a o f d o i n g away w i t h m y s e l f n e v e r o c c u r s t o me .44. Whether a n y t h i n g r e a l l y bad w i l l happen t o me i n my l i f e de-pends t o q u i t e an e x -t e n t on what c h a n c e s I m i g h t d e c i d e t o t a k e APPENDIX A-5 AND A - 5 A PARENT RELATIONSHIP AND~RI5K-SP0RT PARTICIPATION AGREEMENT S T R 0 N G When I was a young boy my father &. I were very close When I was a young boy my mother &. I were very close When I was a young boy my father &. I could always di s -cuss my problems When I was a young-boy my mother &. I could always dis-cuss my problems As I was growing up-(teens) I f e l t that father &. I r e a l l y understood each other As I was growing up-(teens) I f e l t that mother &. I r e a l l y understood each other G S E L N I E G R H A T: L UNDE-CIDED or "so-so" or DOES NOT APPLY G E N E R A L S T R 0 N G AGREEMENT si/ When I was a young boy my father &. I were quite distant When I was a young boy my mother &. I were quite distant .When I was a young boy my father &. I could never di s -cuss my problems ..When I was a young boy my mother &, I could never discuss my problems .As I was growing up (teens) I f e l t that father &. I never re a l l y understood each other ..As I was growing up (teens) I f e l t that mother &. I never re a l l y understood each other 161 APPENDIX A-5a ( C o n t ' d ) AGREEMENT 5 G 5 T E L R N I 0 E G N R H G A T L V When I was v e r y young 'my f a t h e r seemed t o be v e r y p l e a s e d i f I d i d " r i s k y " t h i n g s , l i k e c l i m b i n g t a l l t r e e s , c r o s s i n g i n -t e r s e c t i o n s a l o n e a n d / o r h o l d i n g my own a g a i n s t b i g g e r hoys When I was v e r y young my mo t h e r seemed t o be v e r y p l e a s e d i f I d i d " r i s k y " t h i n g s ( a s d e s c r i b e d above) F a t h e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y c o u l d be b e s t d e s -c r i b e d as "The coward d i e s a t h o u s a n d d e a t h s , t h e b r a v e d i e b u t o n c e " UNDE-CIDED o r " 50-50" o r DOES NOT APPLY v AGREEMENT 5 G S L E T I N R G E 0 H R IM T >\ G L When I was v e r y young my f a t h e r seemed t o g e t q u i t e a n g r y i f he f o u n d o u t t h a t I d i d a n y t h i n g " r i s k y " ..When I was v e r y young my mo t h e r seemed t o g e t q u i t e a n g r y i f she f o u n d o u t t h a t I d i d " r i s k y " t h i n g s ..Father's p h i l o s o p h y c o u l d be b e s t d e s -c r i b e d as " C a u t i o n i s t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f v a l o r " . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s p o r t you " r e p r e s e n t " i n t h i s s t u d y : a) do you p u r s u e ( i f s o , c h e c k once v ) b) i f you d o n ' t , do you t h i n k you w o u l d l i k e t o p u r s u e , g i v e n t i m e &. money ( i f so c h e c k double*,//) 1. S e r i o u s m o u n t a i n e e r i n g 2 . S k y d i v i n g 3. 5 c u b a - d i v i n g 4 . S t u n t - f l y i n g 5. C a r r a c i n g 6. Hydroplaning. ( s p e e d b o a t r a c i n g ) 162 APPENDIX A-6 INSTRUCTIONS AND PROTOCOL SHEETS FOR THE TAT AND BLACKY CARDS P l e a s e r e a d t h i s page c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e n e x t page. The n e x t page i s a p i c t u r e . P l e a s e l o o k a t i t f o r a b o u t 1 5 . s e c o n d s , t h e n go on t o t h e f o l l o w i n g page. Don't wa s t e t i m e by t u r n i n g back t o t h e p i c t u r e . On t h e page t h a t f o l l o w s t h e p i c t u r e p l e a s e w r i t e a s h o r t , b u t , i f p o s s i b l e , i m a g i n a t i v e s t o r y ( f o r n o t more t h a n 5 m i n -u t e s ) , t o i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i n t s : a) who c o u l d t h e p e r s o n ( s ) on t h e p i c t u r e be? (What t y p e o f p e r s o n ( s ) , p e r h a p s o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e p e r -s o n ( s ) , r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r i f t h e r e i s more t h a n one p e r s o n p i c t u r e s , e t c . ) b) what m i g h t be g o i n g on i n t h e p i c t u r e d s c e n e ? c) what has l e d up t o i t ? d) what w i l l t h e outcome be? The r e a r e o b v i o u s l y no " r i g h t " o r "wrong" s t o r i e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e t a s k i s t o g e t a sample o f y o u r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . Remember - d o n ' t spend more t h a n a b o u t 5 m i n u t e s on t h e s t o r y . A f t e r 5 m i n u t e s ( o r e a r l i e r , i f you have c o m p l e t e d i t e a r l i e r ) t u r n t o t h e n e x t page w h i c h i s a n o t h e r p i c t u r e , and p r o c e e d i n t h e same manner ( l o o k a t i t f o r abou t 15 s e c o n d s , and w r i t e a s t o r y f o r a b o u t 5 m i n u t e s o r l e s s ) . Then go on t o t h e t h i r d p i c t u r e , w h i c h i s t h e l a s t one t o w r i t e a s t o r y a b o u t . DON'T WORRY ABOUT STYLE, NOR ABOUT 5PELLING'. DON'T U5E A DICTIONARY P l e a s e remember n o t t o l o o k back a t t h e p i c t u r e w h i l e you a r e w r i t i n g y o u r s t o r y - i t woul d be a wast e o f y o u r t i m e . J u s t do t h e b e s t you c a n , . r e l y i n g on y o u r memory. 164 FIGURE 3 TAT CARD 7BM APPENDIX A-6 ( C o n t ' d ) 1 6 6 ^ N o t e : Each TAT p i c t u r e was f o l l o w e d by an answer s h e e t i d e n t i c a l t o t h i s . J P l e a s e spend a b o u t 5 m i n u t e s ( o r l e s s ) t o w r i t e t h e s t o r y DO NOT LOOK AT THE PICTURE AGAIN a) Who m i g h t t h e p e r s o n ( s ) i n t h e p i c t u r e be? ( a g e , o c c u p a t i o n , r e l a t i o n s h i p , e t c . ) b) What m i g h t be g o i n g on? c ) What m i g h t have l e d up t o i t ? d) What w i l l t h e outcome be? 167 APPENDIX A-6 (Cont'd) The next page is again a picture. Look at i t for about 15 seconds, then turn to the following page. Don't look at the picture again. On the page following the picture there are 3 statements. You are asked to pick out the one which, in your opinion, best describes the picture. (You w i l l not be asked to write a story, just pick out the most appropriate of the 3 statements). 168 FIGURE 5 BLACKY CARD NO. 6 APPENDIX A-6 ( C o n t ' d ) 169 P l e a s e s e l e c t among t h e t h r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s b e l o w t h e one w h i c h , i n y o u r o p i n i o n , b e s t f i t s t h e p i c t u r e . Don't spend much t i m e t h i n k i n g - and d o n ' t l o o k back a t t h e p i c t u r e . Mark y o u r s e l e c t i o n by "X", a) The b l a c k dog a p p e a r s t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g some t e n s i o n as he w a t c h e s t h e s c e n e i n f r o n t o f h i m . However, t h e s i g h t o f a m p u t a t i o n has l i t t l e e m o t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him and he v i e w s .•-••*"«• t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a f a i r l y d e t a c h e d manner. L. b) The b l a c k dog i s e v i d e n t l y q u i t e f r i g h t e n e d by what i s g o i n g on i n f r o n t o f him. He i s a f r a i d t h a t h i s t a i l may be n e x t t o be a m p u t a t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s he i s a b l e t o b e a r up t o t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g d e e p l y e m o t i o n a l l y ; ; u p s e t , o r overwhelmed by f e a r ' .c) The s i g h t o f t h e a p p r o a c h i n g a m p u t a t i o n i s a d e e p l y u p s e t t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e b l a c k dog who i s l o o k i n g on. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o s i n g h i s own t a i l and t h e t h o u g h t o f t h e : p a i n i n v o l v e d o v e r w h e l m s him w i t h f e a r 170 APPENDIX A-7 INSTRUCTIONS AND THE GOUGH ACL The n e x t page ( i n c l u d i n g i t s r e v e r s e s i d e ) c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f 300 a d j e c t i v e s . P l e a s e r e a d them q u i c k l y and b l a c k e n i n t h e c i r c l e b e s i d e e ach one you w o u l d c o n s i d e r t o be s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e . Don't w o r r y a b o u t d u p l i c a t i o n s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and so f o r t h . WORK QUICKLY and d o n ' t s p e n d t o o much t i m e on any one a d j e c t i v e . T r y t o be f r a n k and f i l l i n t h e c i r c l e s f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e you as you r e a l l y a r e , n o t as you w o u l d l i k e t o be. A l s o : a) p l e a s e use t h e s o f t p e n c i l w h i c h you f o u n d i n t h i s k i t d o n ' t use b a l l - p o i n t o r o r d i n a r y pen, o r h a r d p e n c i l . b) d i s r e g a r d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e s h e e t r e g a r d i n g p u t t i n g down y o u r name, age, s e x , e t c . A l s o s k i p i n s t r u c t i o n s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e use o f t h e "name g r i d " ( w h i c h o c c u p i e s t h e u p p e r l e f t c o r n e r o f t h e s h e e t ) -t h e s e d o n ' t a p p l y t o t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t w h i c h i s ano-nymous; s i m p l y s t a r t w i t h a d j e c t i v e no. 1.^ AND PROCEED. c) 3e s u r e t o go on t o t h e r e v e r s e s i d e o f t h e s h e e t d) F i l l t h e l i t t l e c i r c l e s c o m p l e t e l y ( i . e . d o n ' t put j u s t an "X" o v e r them) 171 APPENDIX A-7 THE GOUGH ADJECTIVE CHECKLIST NCS ANSWER SHEET FOR —THE ADJECTIVE CHECK LIST-BY HARRISON G. GOUGH Copyr ight 1952 by Harr ison G . G o u g h , Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley ® © ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® © © © © © /R\ /R\ /R\ ® rS\ ® rQ\ ® Published by Consulting Psych olot ists Press z > w a wzn © © © © © © © © © @ © © © © © ® © © © (S) © © © © Scored by Notional Computer Syslems f~\ m • 3 © © © © © © © vty iy> \yj © © © © © C0 © DIRECTIONS FOR USING N A M E GRID EES © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Print your name in boxes above the Name Grid. Print your Last ESI © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Name first, leavi* a space between your First and Last Name. ESS © @ © © ® © © © © © © © © © Blacken in the corresponding letter circles in each row. Print ra © © © © ® © © © © © © © © © © as much of your name as possible n the 15 spaces. n a © © © © © © © @ © © © © © © @ • Be sur o to use a #2'/? or softer writing pencil. 5 ESI ® ® ® ® © ® ® © © ® ® © ® ® © • Do Not Use Ball Point or Ink. •S3J © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © • Keep your Answer Sheet Clean. 5 KB, © ® © © ® ® © ® © © © ® © © ® • Do not make stray marks. BD ® ® ® © ® ® © ® © © © © ® ® • Erase errors completely. ra © © © © © ® © © ® © © © © © © © © © © © © * Fill the circle comuletelv. csa ® © © ® © © © © CO © © © © © © © © © • @ © © © © © DIRECTIONS FOR USING NCS ANSWER S H E E T E-a ® ® © © © © © ® ® © © © © ® © © © © ® ® © © This answer sheet contains a list of 300 a ijec ives. Please read KZZ3 © © © © © © © © © them quickly and blacken in the circ e beside each one you would © © ® © ® © © © © © © ® © © consider contradi to he self-descriptive. Do not worry about duplications, •tions. and so forth. Work auicklv and do not spend too > © ® © © © © © @ © © © © © © much time on any one adjective. Trv to be frank, and fill the ® © ® ® ® ® ® © ® © © © . © © ® circles for the adjectives which describe you a s you really are, © © © ® ® ® ® © ® © © ® © © © not as you would like to be. BE SURE TO T U R N T H E PAGE ® ® ® ® ® ® ® © © ® ® ® ® ® ® OVER and continue through adjective No. 300 on the reverse E39 © ® © ® © © © © © © © ® © ® ® side. BS) ® © ® © © © © ® © © ® ® © © © Example o BEEJ 1 O absent-minded 31 o cheerful 61 o dependent 91 O foresighted 121 o impulsive < mm 2 O active 32 o civilized 62 o despondent 92 O forgetful 122 o independent • n 3 O adaptable 33 o clear-thinking 63 o determined 93 O forgiving 123 o indifferent x a 4 O adventurous 34 clever 64 o dignified 94 O formal 124 o individualistic K l 5 O affected 35 o coarse 65 o discreet 95 O frank .125 o industrious o ED 6 O affectionate • 36 Q cold 66 o disorderly 96 O friendly 126 0 infantile m mm 7 C aggressive 37 o commonplace 67 o dissatisfied 97 O frivolous 127 o informal ma e O alert 38 o complaining 68 o distractible 98 O fussy 128 o ingenious mm 9 O aloof 39 o complicated 69 o distrustful 99 O generous 129 o inhibited mm 10 O ambitious 40 o conceited 70 o dominant 100 O gentle 130 o initiative mm 11 O anxious 41 o confident 71 o dreamy 101 O gloomy 131 o insightful 12 O apathetic 12 o confused 72 o dull 102 O good-lookin 132 o intelligent mm !3 O appreciative 43 o conscientious 73 o easy g Oing 103 O good-nature 133 o interests narrow ma 14 O argumentative 44 o conservative 74 o effeminate 104 O greedy 134 o interests wide I B lb O arrogant 45 o considerate 75 o efficient 105 O handsome 135 o intolerant tsi 16 O artistic 46 o contented 76 0 egotistical 106 0 hard-headed 136 0 inventive n I 17 0 assertive 4? o conventional 77 o emotional 107 O hard-hearted 137 o irresponsible 5 «fl ia O attractive 48 o cool 78 o energetic 108 O hasty 138 o irritable •» 19 O autocratic 49 o cooperative 79 o enterprising 109 O headstrong 139 o jolly • a 20 O awkward 50 o courageous 30 o enthusiastic no O. healthy 140 o kind BU 21 O bitter 51 o cowardly 81 o evasive 111 0 helpful 141 o lazy -mm 22 C blustery 52 o cruel 82 o excitable 112 0 high-strung 142 o leisurely ••ma 23 O boastful 53 o curious 83 o fair-minded 113 O honest 143 o logical mm 24 O bossy 54 r\ cynical 84 o fault-finding 1 14 O hostile 144 o loud mm 25 O calm 55 o daring BS o fearful 115 O humorous 145 o loyal 26 O capable 56 o deceitful 86 o feminine 116 O hurried 146 o mannerly C m 27 7J careless 57 o defensive 87 o fickle 117 O idealistic 147 o masculine L'8 0 cautious 58 o deliberate 88 o flirtatious 118 O imaginative 148 0 mature H M 79 O changeable 59 o demanding 39 o foolish 119 O immature 149 o meek 3C 0 charming 60 o dependable 9C o forceful 120 O impatient 150 o methodical CONTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE 172 A P P E N D I X A-7 THE GOUGH A D J E C T I V E C H E C K L I S T • Be sure to use a #2l/2 o r softer writing pencil. • Do Not Use Ball Point or Ink. • Keep your Answer Sheet Clean. • Do not make stray marks. • Erase errors completely. • Fill the circle completely. 151 O mild 181 o practical 211 0 sarcastic 241 o sophisticated 271 o tough 152 o mischievous 182 o praising 212 0 self-centered 242 o spendthrift 272 o trusting 153 o moderate 183 o precise 213 O self-confident 243 o spineless 273 o unaffected 154 o modest 184 o prejudiced ' i 2)4 O self-controlled 244 o spontaneous 274 o unambitious 155 o moody 185 o preoccupied 215 0 self-denying 245 o spunky 275 o unassuming i56 o nagging 186 o progressive. 216 O self-pitying 246 c stable 276 o unconventional 157 o natural 187 o prudish 217 O self-punishing 247 o steady 277 o undependable 158 o nervous 188 o quarrelsome 218 O self-seeking 248 c stern 278 o understanding 159 c noisy 189 o queer - 219' Q- selfish • ' 249 •o stingy 279 o unemotional *,60 o obliging i • 190 o O-sensitive . . o stolid . 280 o unexcitable 161 o obnoxious 191 o quiet 221 O sentimental t251 o strong 281 o unfriendly 162 o opinionated 192 o quitting 222 O serious 252 o stubborn 282 o uninhibited 163 o opportunistic 193 6 rational 223 O severe 253 o submissive 283 o unintelligent 164 o optimistic 194 o rattlebrained' 224 O'sexy ' 254 o suggestible 284 o unkind 165 o organized 195 o realistic 225 O'Shallow- "255 o sulky 285 o unrealistic 166 o original „ 196 o reasonable 226 O-sharprwitted . ,256 o superstitious 286 o unscrupulous 167 o outgoing 197 o rebellious 227 O shiftless 257 o suspicious 287 o unselfish 168 o outspoken 198 o reckless 228 O show-off 258 o sympathetic 288 o unstable 169 o painstaking •  199 o reflective 229 O shrewd 259 o tactful 289 o vindictive 170 o patient 200 o relaxed 230 O shy 260 o tactless ' 290 o versatile 171 o peaceable 201 o reliable 231 Q .silent 261 b talkative 291 o warm 172 o peculiar 202 o resentful 232 O simple 262 o temperamental 292 o wary 173 o persevering 203 o reserved 233 O sincere 263 o tense 293 o weak 174 o persistent 204 o resourceful 234 O slipshod 264 o thankless 294 o whiny 175 o pessimistic 203 o responsible 235 O slow 265 o thorough 295 o wholesome 176 o planful 206 o restless 236 O sly 266 o thoughtful 296 o wise 177 o pleasant 207 o retiring 237 O smug 267 o thrifty 297 o withdrawn 178 o pleasure-seeking 208 o rigid 238 O snobbish 268 o timid 298 o witty 179 0 poised 209 o robust 239 O sociable 269 o tolerant 299 0 worrying 180 o polished 210 o rude 240 O soft-hearted 270 o touchy 300 o zany APPENDIX A-7 ( C o n t ' d ) 173 As t h e n e x t s h e e t , you w i l l f i n d a n o t h e r copy o f t h e A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t . P l e a s e f i l l i n t h i s one t o d e s c r i b e t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n you w o u l d l i k e t o be. In o t h e r w o r d s : d i s r e g a r d y o u r s e l f as you a r e and mark a l l t h e a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h w o u l d d e s c r i b e you i f you were t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n you w o u l d r e a l l y l i k e t o be. A l l o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e t h e same as b e f o r e ( i . e . d i s r e -g a r d i n g t h e n a m e - g r i d , e t c . ) P l e a s e be s u r e t o use t h e s o f t p e n c i l a g a i n . N o t e : T h i s page was f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r copy o f - t h e Gough ACL 174 APPENDIX A-8 INSTRUCTIONS AND THE MMPI HY, MA AND K SCALES The f o l l o w i n g p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e one you have j u s t c o m p l e t e d . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g p r e s e n t e d w i t h two o p p o s e d s t a t e m e n t s , you w i l l f i n d 117 s i n g l e s t a t e m e n t s  and a s k e d t o mark down f o r e a c h w h e t h e r i t i s "TRUE" o r "FALSE'' as a p p l i e d t o you. I f a s t a t e m e n t i s TRUE, o r MOSTLY TRUE as a p p l i e d t o y o u , p l a c e an "X" o p p o s i t e i t on t h e ( v e r t i c a l ) T R U E - l i n e . I f a s t a t e m e n t i s FALSE o r NOT USUALLY TRUE as a p p l i e d t o y o u , p l a c e an "X" o p p o s i t e i t on t h e FALSE l i n e I f a s t a t e m e n t d o e s n ' t a p p l y t o you o r i f i t i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t you d o n ' t know a b o u t , make no mark a t a l l - b u t : PLEASE DON'T LEAVE ANY BLANK 5PACES IF YOU CAN AVOID I T , and g i v e YOUR OWN o p i n i o n a b o u t y o u r s e l f . T F R A EXAMPLE U L E S E 1. I u s u a l l y have c o f f e e f o r b r e a k f a s t ^ y >< I f you do. p l a c e y o u r X hereby" I f you d o n ' t ( b e c a u s e you u s u a l l y have t e a , m i l k e t c , o r no b r e a k f a s t a t a l l ) p l a c e y o u r X h e r e You may use pen o r p e n c i l f o r t h i s p a r t . APPENDIX A-8 ( C o n t ' d ) 175 TRUE F A L S E 1,1 have a good a p p e t i t e 2.1 wake up f r e s h and r e s t e d most m o r n i n g s : 3.1 l i k e t o r e a d newspaper a r t i c l e s on c r i m e ; 4. My hands and f e e t a r e u s u a l l y warm enough \ 5. My d a i l y l i f e i s f u l l o f t h i n g s t h a t keep me . i n t e r e s t e d 6.1 am a b o u t as a b l e t o work as I e v e r was \ 7. T h e r e seems t o be a lump i n my t h r o a t much o f t h e t i m e i 8. A p e r s o n s h o u l d t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s dreams and be g u i d e d by o r t a k e w a r n i n g f r o m them \ i 9 c I e n j o y d e t e c t i v e o r m y s t e r y s t o r i e s I • 10.1 work u n d e r a g r e a t d e a l o f t e n s i o n 1 1 . At t i m e s I have v e r y much wanted t o l e a v e home I 12. At t i m e s I have f i t s o f l a u g h i n g and c r y i n g t h a t I c a n n o t c o n t r o l I j 13.1 f e e l t h a t i t i s c e r t a i n l y b e s t t o keep my mouth s h u t when I'm i n t r o u b l e i ;• 1 4 . A t t i m e s I f e e l l i k e s w e a r i n g 15.1 f i n d i t h a r d t o keep my mind on a t a s k o r j o b 16. At t i m e s I f e e l l i k e s m a s h i n g t h i n g s 17. My s l e e p i s f i t f u l and d i s t u r b e d - i 18. Much o f t h e t i m e my head seems t o h u r t a l l o v e r I 19.1 am i n j u s t as good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h as most o f my f r i e n d s \ 20.1 am a l m o s t n e v e r b o t h e r e d by p a i n s o v e r t h e h e a r t i o r i n my c h e s t I \ 21.1 sometimes keep on a t a t h i n g u n t i l o t h e r s l o s t t h e i r ; p a t i e n c e w i t h me \ \ 22.1 t h i n k a g r e a t many p e o p l e e x a g g e r a t e t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e s \ i n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e sympathy and h e l p o f o t h e r s I 23.1 am an i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n j 24.Most o f t h e t i m e I f e e l b l u e 2 5 . I t t a k e s a l o t o f argument t o c o n v i n c e most p e o p l e o f t h e t r u t h :: •' 176 APPENDIX A-8 ( C o n t ' d ) TRUE FALSE 26.1 t h i n k most p e o p l e w o u l d l i e t o g e t ahead 27.1 have v e r y few q u a r r e l s w i t h members o f my f a m i l y i 2 8 . A t t i m e s I have a s t r o n g u r g e t o do s o m e t h i n g harm-f u l and s h o c k i n g ;j 29.1 have met p r o b l e m s so f u l l o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t I have been u n a b l e t o make up my mind about them \ 30.1 b e l i e v e women oug h t t o have as much s e x u a l f r e e - ! dorn as men \ \ 31.1 have l i t t l e o r no t r o u b l e w i t h my m u s c l e s j t w i t c h i n g o r j u m p i n g - , I : 32.Sometimes when I am n o t f e e l i n g w e l l I am c r o s s \ j 33.1 am happy most o f t h e t i m e ; 34.Some p e o p l e a r e so b o s s y t h a t I f e e l l i k e d o i n g t h e o p p o s i t e o f what t h e y r e q u e s t , even t h o u g h I know t h e y a r e r i g h t • 35.1 have n e v e r done a n y t h i n g d a n g e r o u s f o r t h e t h r i l l , o f i t j 3 6 . O f t e n I f e e l as i f t h e r e w o u l d be a t i g h t band a r o u n d my head \ 37. My s p e e c h i s t h e same as a l w a y s ( n o t f a s t e r o r s l o w e r , o r s l u r r i n g ; no h o a r s e n e s s ) • I 38. My t a b l e manners a r e n o t q u i t e as good a t home as j when I am o u t i n c o m p a n y ; 39. Most p e o p l e w i l l use somewhat u n f a i r means t o g a i n p r o f i t o r an a d v a n t a g e r a t h e r t h a n t o l o s e i t •; | ; 40.1 know who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most o f my t r o u b l e s 41.The s i g h t o f b l o o d n e i t h e r f r i g h t e n s me n o r makes I me s i c k ; ; 4 2 . O f t e n I c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why I have been so c r o s s and g r o u c h y i ; 4 3 . A t t i m e s my t h o u g h t s have r a c e d ahead f a s t e r t h a n I c o u l d speak them I 44.1 commonly wonder what h i d d e n r e a s o n a n o t h e r p e r -son may have f o r d o i n g s o m e t h i n g n i c e f o r me : i 45.1 b e l i e v e t h a t my h o m e l i f e i s as p l e a s a n t as t h a t I o f most p e o p l e I know APPENDIX A-8 ( C o n t ' d ) 177 T R U E F A L S E 4 6 . C r i t i c i s m o r s c o l d i n g h u r t s me t e r r i b l y I 47. My c o n d u c t i s l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e dustoms o f t h o s e a b o u t me ; I 48.1 c e r t a i n l y f e e l u s e l e s s a t t i m e s I 49.When I was a c h i l d , I b e l o n g e d t o a crowd o r gang t h a t t r i e d t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h t h i n k &. t h i n 50.1 have o f t e n l o s t o u t on t h i n g s b e c a u s e I c o u l d n ' t make up my mind soon enough ^ 5 1 . I t makes me i m p a t i e n t t o have p e o p l e ask my a d v i c e o r o t h e r w i s e i n t e r r u p t me when I am w o r k i n g on s o m e t h i n g i m p o r t a n t i 5 2 . D u r i n g t h e p a s t few y e a r s I have been w e l l most o f t h e t i m e \ 53.1 have had p e r i o d s i n w h i c h I c a r r i e d on a c t i v i -t i e s w i t h o u t k n o w i n g l a t e r what I had been d o i n g i 54.1 f e e l t h a t I have o f t e n been p u n i s h e d w i t h o u t c a u s e I j 55.1 have n e v e r f e l t b e t t e r i n my l i f e t h a n I do now 1 1 56,1 r e s e n t h a v i n g anyone t a k e me i n so c l e v e r l y t h a t i I I have had t o a d m i t t h a t i t was "one on me." I i 57. I do n o t t i r e q u i c k l y \ 58.1 am a f r a i d when I l o o k down f r o m a h i g h p l a c e ; 5 9 . I t w o u l d n ' t make me n e r v o u s i f any members o f my • f a m i l y g o t i n t o t r o u b l e w i t h t h e l a w j \ 60.What o t h e r s t h i n k o f me d o e s n ' t b o t h e r me 6 1 . I t makes me u n c o m f o r t a b l e t o p u t on a s t u n t a t a p a r t y even when o t h e r s a r e d o i n g t h e same s o r t ; o f t h i n g j 62.1 f r e q u e n t l y have t o f i g h t a g a i n s t s h o w i n g t h a t j I am b a s h f u l ; 63.1 have n e v e r had a f a i n t i n g s p e l l i 64.1 s e l d o m o r n e v e r have d i z z y s p e l l s i 65 „ I f i n d i t h a r d t o make t a l k when I meet new p e o p l e ; 66.When I g e t b o r e d I l i k e t o s t i r up some e x c i t e m e n t i 67,1 am a g a i n s t g i v i n g money t o beggars..; j 68„I f r e q u e n t l y n o t i c e my hands sh a k e when I t r y t o j do s o m e t h i n g •;• APPENDIX A-8 ( C o n t ' d ) 69.1 can r e a d a l o n g w h i l e w i t h o u t t i r i n g my eyes-TRUE FALSE 70.1 have had no d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g my b a l a n c e i n w a l k i n g 71.1 have had a t t a c k s i n w h i c h I c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l my movements b u t i n w h i c h I knew what was g o i n g on a r o u n d me 72.1 w i s h I were n o t so shy 73.My p e o p l e t r e a t me more l i k e a c h i l d t h a n a grown-up. 7 4 . I n w a l k i n g I am v e r y c a r e f u l t o s t e p o v e r s i d e -w a l k c r a c k s . 75.1 f r e q u e n t l y f i n d m y s e l f w o r r y i n g a b o u t something.. 7 6 . I t i s n o t h a r d f o r me t o ask h e l p f r o m my f r i e n d s even t h o u g h I c a n n o t r e t u r n t h e f a v o r 77.Some o f my f a m i l y have h a b i t s t h a t b o t h e r and annoy me v e r y much 78.A t t i m e s I f e e l t h a t I can make up my mind w i t h u n u s u a l l y g r e a t e a s e 79.1 h a r d l y e v e r n o t i c e my h e a r t p o u n d i n g and I am s e l d o m s h o r t o f b r e a t h 80.1 have been i n s p i r e d t o a program o f l i f e b a s e d on d u t y w h i c h I have s i n c e c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d 81.1 have a t t i m e s s t o o d i n t h e way o f p e o p l e who were t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g , n o t b e c a u s e i t amounted t o much b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e t h i n g 82.1 get mad e a s i l y and t h e n g e t o v e r i t soon.. 83.1 have p e r i o d s o f s u c h g r e a t r e s t l e s s n e s s t h a t I c a n n o t s i t l o n g i n a c h a i r 84.1 n e v e r w o r r y a b o u t my l o o k s ... - r 85.I have few o r no p a i n s 86.1 d o n ' t blame anyone f o r t r y i n g t o g r a b e v e r y t h i n g he c a n i n t h i s w o r l d 87^1 have h a d b l a n k s p e l l s i n w h i c h my a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e r r u p t e d and I d i d n o t know what was g o i n g on a r o u n d me 8B.I can be f r i e n d l y w i t h p e o p l e who do t h i n g s w h i c h I c o n s i d e r wrong 89.1 sweat e a s i l y avion on c o o l days-. APPENDIX A-8 ( C o n t ' d ) x ' y TRUE FALSE 90. I t i s s a f e r t o t r u s t nobody 91.Once a week o r o f t e n e r I become v e r y e x c i t e d \ 92.When i n a g r o u p o f p e o p l e , I have t r o u b l e t h i n k i n g o f t h e r i g h t t h i n g s t o t a l k a b o u t \ 9 3 . S o m e t h i n g e x c i t i n g w i l l a l m o s t a l w a y s p u l l me o u t o f i t when I am f e e l i n g l o w 94.1 do not blame a p e r s o n f o r t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f someone who l a y s h i m s e l f open t o i t ; 95. At t i m e s I am f u l l o f e n e r g y 96. My e y e s i g h t i s as good as i t has been f o r y e a r s 97. At t i m e s I have been so e n t e r t a i n e d by t h e c l e v e r -n e s s o f a c r o o k t h a t I have hoped he w o u l d g e t by w i t h i t \ 98.1 d r i n k an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e amount o f w a t e r e v e r y day 99.1 am a l w a y s d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h e l a w when a c r i m i n a l i s f r e e d t h r o u g h t h e a r g u m e n t s o f a s m a r t l a w y e r 10 0 . I am l i k e l y n o t t o speak t o p e o p l e u n t i l t h e y speak t o me i 1 0 1 . I have p e r i o d s i n w h i c h I f e e l u n u s u a l l y c h e e r -f u l w i t h o u t any s p e c i a l r e a s o n 1 0 2 . I f s e v e r a l p e o p l e f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n t r o u b l e , t h e b e s t t h i n g f o r them t o do i s t o a g r e e upon a s t o r y and s t i c k t o i t •; 103.1 t h i n k n e a r l y e v e r y o n e w o u l d t e l l a l i e t o keep o u t o f t r o u b l e 104 . I w o r r y o v e r money and b u s i n e s s 105. At p e r i o d s my mind seems t o work more s l o w l y t h a n u s u a l I j 106. P e o p l e o f t e n d i s a p p o i n t me j 107.I have s o m e t i m e s f e l t t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s were p i l i n g up so h i g h t h a t I c o u l d n o t overcome them j 108.1 o f t e n t h i n k , " I w i s h I were a c h i l d again'' i ; 109.1 have o f t e n met p e o p l e who were s u p p o s e d t o be e x - \ p e r t s who were no b e t t e r t h a n I \ 1 1 0 . I f i n d i t h a r d t o s e t a s i d e a t a s k t h a t I have un-d e r t a k e n , even f o r a s h o r t t i m e j 1B0 TRUE FALSE 111. I l i k e t o l e t p e o p l e know where I s t a n d on t h i n g s 112.1 am t r o u b l e d by a t t a c k s o f nausea and v o m i t i n g ; 113.1 f e e l weak a l l o v e r much o f t h e t i m e 114.1 have v e r y few h e a d a c h e s 115.LJnce a week o r o f t e n e r I f e e l s u d d e n l y h ot a l l j o v e r , w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t c a u s e \ 116.1 have o f t e n had t o t a k e o r d e r s f r o m someone who d i d n o t know as much as I d i d ; : 117.1 find i t hard to make t a l k when I meet new p e o p l e L a s t l y ? have you g i v e n any t h o u g h t w h a t i t may be t h a t keeps you i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s a c t i v i t y w h i c h ynu " r e p r e s e n t " ? What abo u t i t seems t o g i v e you g r e a t p l e a s u r e ? Any t h o u g h t s you may w i s h t o p u t down w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . 181 APPENDIX B 182 PROBABILITY MODELS AGAINST WHICH TO TEST THE SIGNIFICANCE OF "CLOSE" VS. "NOT CLOSE" CHOICES OF SPORTS IN TERMS OF THEIR RATED DANGER In o r d e r t o t e s t w h e t h e r Ss " c h o s e " t h e two s p o r t s t h e y l e a s t want t o g i v e up, and t h e two t h e y w o u l d most w i s h t o t a k e up, a t l e a s t i n p a r t as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e d a n g e r - l e v e l o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d a p r o b a b i l i t y m o d e l . T h i s model i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e d a n g e r l e v e l s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e c h o i c e o f t h e s p o r t s . F o u r s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s were made: a) The mpdr's o f t h e two " l e a s t want t o g i v e up" s p o r t s w i l l be c l o s e r t h a n c h a n c e l e v e l s ; b) The mpdr's o f t h e two "most want t o t a k e up" s p o r t s w i l l be c l o s e r t h a n c h a n c e l e v e l s ; c) The s e l f - r a t i n g s o f t h e two s p o r t s " l e a s t want t o g i v e up" w i l l be c l o s e r t h a n c h a n c e l e v e l s ; d) The s e l f - r a t i n g s o f t h e two s p o r t s "most want t o t a k e up" w i l l be c l o s e r t h a n c h a n c e l e v e l s . The most a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n c e model f o r p r e d i c t i o n s (a) and (b) a p p e a r s t o be one i n w h i c h each 5 draws two b a l l s ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e two s p o r t s ) f r o m an u r n w h i c h c o n t a i n s 40 b a l l s . Each b a l l c a r r i e s t h e mpdr number, o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t . ( I t w i l l be remembered, t h a t mpdr r a t i n g s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p i l o t g r o u p s ' r e t u r n s ; t h e numbers were r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t i n t e g e r f o r t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g a d i s c r e t e d i s t r i b u t i o n , t o s e r v e as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p r o b a -b i l i t y m o d e l . ) S i n c e we know t h e mpdr's o f t h e 40 s p o r t s , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f d r a w i n g each p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f two b a l l s can be de-t e r m i n e d . The sum o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f c o m b i n a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e mpdr's o f t h e drawn b a l l s d i f f e r by z e r o o r 1 p o i n t g i v e s t h e c h a n c e p r o b a b i l i t y o f d r a w i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n w h i c h i s d e f i n e d as " c l o s e " . The p r o b a b i l i t y , m u l t i p l i e d by t h e number o f Ss g i v e s t h e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f o c c u r r e n c e s o f " c l o s e " c h o i c e s u n d e r c h a n c e c o n d i t i o n s . The mpdr's a s s i g n e d by t h e two p i l o t g r o u p s were c a l c u l a -t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mpdr's by t h e f i r s t p i l o t g roup was as f o l l o w s : mpdr Number o f s p o r t s a s s i g n e d s u c h mpdr 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 12 9 8 4 2 40 183 APPENDIX B ( C o n t ' d ) T h e r e a r e 40x39 ways o f c h o o s i n g two b a l l s f r o m 40 w i t h o u t r e p l a c e m e n t . C o m b i n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e " c l o s e " , and t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t i e s , m u l t i p l i e d by ( 40x39) f o r c o n v e n i e n c e , a r e ; C o m b i n a t i o n s o f p X ( 4 0 x 3 9 ) d a n g e r l e v e l s 1&1 5x4 20 28.2 12x11 132 38.3 9x8 72 48.4 8x7.. 5 6 58.5 4x3 12 68.6 2x1 2 294 18.2.28.1 ( 5 x l 2 ) x 2 . . . 120 28.3.38.2 ( 1 2 x 9 ) x 2 216 38.4.48.3 ( 9 x B ) x 2 144 48.5 , 58.4 (8x4 )x2 64 58.6, 68.5 ( 4 x 2 ) x 2 16 560 T o t a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g " c l o s e " c o m b i n a t i o n s by c h a n c e i s : ( 2 9 4 + 5 6 0 ) / ( 4 0 x 3 9 ) = .547 P r o b a b i l i t y o f " n o t c l o s e " c h o i c e by c h a n c e , q = 1-.547 = .453 The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o b a b i l i t i e s i n t d r m s o f t h e rnpdr d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d p i l o t p r o j e c t group a r e : C l o s e c h o i c e s : p = .549 Not c l o s e c h o i c e s : q = .4 51 A somewhat d i f f e r e n t p r o b a b i l i t y model i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p r e d i c t i o n s (c) and ( d ) , namely where t h e c r i t e r i o n i s 5's own e s t i m a t e o f t h e d a n g e r - l e v e l s o f t h e two s p o r t s . In t h e p r e v i o u s m o d e l , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a n g e r l e v e l s was f i x e d ; we knew e x a c t l y w h i c h s p o r t was a s s i g n e d w h i c h d a n g e r l e v e l , and o n l y 6 o f t h e 7 p o s s i b l e d a n g e r l e v e l s ware a s s i g n e d t o any s p o r t . (The r e a s o n i s o f c o u r s e a t e n d e n c y f o r r e g r e s -s i o n t o w a r d t h e mean. Many 5s a s s i g n e d d a n g e r l e v e l 7 t o v a r i o u s s p o r t s , b u t n o t enough t o a s s i g n an mpdr o f 7 t o o n e ) . S i n c e t h e d a n g e r l e v e l s were q u i t e r e s t r i c t e d ( 1 - 6 ) , a v e r y s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i o n was a p p l i e d t o " c l o s e " c h o i c e s , i . e . 0, o r 1 d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e most. 184 APPENDIX B (Cont'd) When 5s can determine their own danger levels, they are obviously free to make f u l l use of the 7-point scale, which many 5s have done. The appropriate probability model here seems to be one of drawing two ba l l s , with replacement, from an urn containing 7 balls numbered 1-7. There are the following 28 ways to draw 2 balls from 7 with replacement; "Close" choices w i l l be those where the number of the balls do not d i f f e r by more than 2: 1-1* 1-2* 1-3* 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 2-2* 2-3* 2-4* 2-5 2-6 2-7 3-3* 3-4* 3-5* 3-6 3-7 4-4* 4-5* 4-6* 4-7 5-5* 5-6* 5-7* Choices defined as "close" are marked by *, and there are 18 such choices, out of a to t a l of 28; p = 18/28 - .642. The probability of "not close" choices g = l-(,642) = .358. The model actually implies that S i s only incidentally choosing sports; what he does i s to pick two danger-levels. If he picks them by chance, the proportion of close vs. not close choices would be .642/.358. This model i s obviously an oversimplified one but i t seems to be the best which could be devised for the purpose. 185 APPENDIX C THE A-SCALE : "DEROGATION OF WOMEN AND SEX" Bracketed numbers after items in the l e f t column indicate the item's number in the composite scale. Items are reproduced such that support of the item in the l e f t column i s deemed to support Hypothesis I l - b . 1. 2. 3. Items which survived f i n a l item-analysis: Women on the whole are much 1, less trustworthy than men, (6) The pleasure in sex i s greatly 2 overvalued these days (21) A real man is more interested 3. in achievement than in sex (26) Indulging in sex i s l i k e l y 4. to drain energy from more important pursuits (31) Sex i s O.K. so long as one 5, doesn't get emotionally involved (41) Women on the whole are as trustworthy as men Sex with a congenial partner is just about the greatest enjoyment in l i f e , To a real man, sex i s as important as attain-ing his other aims in l i f e . Sexual sa t i s f a c t i o n tends to enhance a person's vigor so he can do even better in other areas Sex without emotional involvement i s not very sa t i s f y i n g . Items rejected after item-analysis: 6. I strongly prefer stag 6. parties (1) 7. Most women have an under- 7. lying mean streak in them (11) 8. Most women are out to con-t r o l their men (openly, or subtly) (16) 9. I admire men who renounce sex 9. for higher aims in l i f e (36) I strongly prefer mixed parties. There are at least as many understanding and sympathetic women as men . Most women are not i n -terested in controlling their men, openly or subtly. I can't think of any valid reason for a man to renounce sex. 186 APPENDIX D THE B-5CALE : "FEAR OF DEATH" Items were taken from Boyar's "Partly Validated Fear of Death" scale, except item 1, which was added by the author. In one case Boyar's scale provided both poles of an item (item 3); for a l l other items, opposite poles were composed by the author. Items are reproduced such that support of the item in the l e f t column i s deemed to support the existence of death-anxiety. Note however, that the prediction c a l l s for risk 5s to choose more extreme scores more frequently, rather than sim-ple agreement (at a higher level) with the items in the l e f t column. Number i s brackets following the item (in the l e f t column) indicate the item's number in the composite scale. Items which survived f i n a l item-analysis: 1.1 think very frequently about 1. I p r a c t i c a l l y never think the fact that I s h a l l have to of this fact, die (2) 2.Graveyards seem to upset me considerably (7) 3.1 have moments when I get re a l l y upset about the possi-b i l i t y of dying young (12) 4,Coffins make me anxious (17) 5.1 .am concerned what w i l l hap-pen to my body after death (22) 6. The sight of a corpse makes me anxious (32) 7. The f i n a l i t y of death dis-turbs me greatly (37) 2. Graveyards seem to upset many people but they don't bother me 3. The idea that I may be dying young doesn't affect me 4. I doh't get anxious at the sight of a c o f f i n . 5. What w i l l happen to my body after death doesn't con-cern me 6. I don't get anxious at the sight of a corpse 7. I am not at a l l disturbed about the f i n a l i t y of death Item rejected after f i n a l item-analysis: 8.Never again feeling anything after I die upsets me (27) 8. This thought doesn't upset me at a l l 187 APPENDIX E SCALE C : THE WISH TO DIE L NIRVANIC FANTASIES Items in the l e f t column are deemed to indicate the presence of death-wish and/or nirvanic fantasies; scoring however was done in terms of the number of extreme responses. Bracketed number at the end of each item in the l e f t column indicates the number of the item in the composite scale. Items which survived f i n a l item-analysis: 1. I often wonder whether l i f e i s r e a l l y worth l i v i n g (8) 2. I have often wished that I hadn't been born (14) 3. At times I wish I had the courage to do away with my-s e l f (19) 4. I find the complexities of modern l i f e distressing and often wish I could get away from i t a l l (24) 5. I wish I had lived in the good old days when l i f e was quiet and r e s t f u l (29) 6. It is s i l l y to bear c h i l d -ren, especially in this atomic age (34) 7. Thoughts of doing away with myself occur to me probab-ly more often than to most others (A* 3) 1. L i f e on the whole i s a joy-ous experience 2. I am very happy that I was born 3. The idea of suicide seems utterly repulsive to me 4. I find modern l i f e ' s complex-i t i e s stimulating and I love to be in the center of a l l kinds of a c t i v i t i e s 5. I am glad I l i v e in the 20th century with a l l i t s hustle and bustle 6. It i s wonderful that one can perpetuate oneself in one's children 7. The idea to do away with my-s e l f never occurs to me Items rejected after item-analysis: 8. The Earth i s aptly described 8. L i f e on the whole is a joy-in the Bible as a "valley ous experience of sorrow" (3) 9. Li f e only is largely suffering -death brings peace (40) 9. One way to lose my peace of mind i s to think of death 188 APPENDIX F SCALE D : CATTELL'S SOURCE TRAIT "D" Agreement with items in the l e f t column are deemed to i n d i -cate the presence of Source Trait D. Bracketed numbers f o l -lowing the items in the l e f t column indicate the number of the item in the composite scale. Items which survived f i n a l item analysis: 1. When things go wrong and upset me, I believe in making a fuss (4) 2. When something goes bad-ly wrong, I often get angry at people before I start tb think what can be done about i t (9) 3. If I keep breaking, and accidentally wasting things when I make some-thing, I get furious (28) .4. If people around me get too noisy, I would often t e l l them to be quiet (33) 5. When people around me laugh and talk while l i s -tening to radio or TV, i t spoils things and annoys me (38) 1. When things go wrong and up-set me, I believe in just smiling 2. When something goes badly wrong, I seldom get angry at people before I start to think what can be done about i t . 3. If I keep breaking and a c c i -dentally wasting things when I make something, I keep calm just the same 4. If people around me get too noisy, I would seldom t e l l them to be quiet 5. Even when people around me laugh and talk while l i s t e n -ing to radio or TV, I can l i s t e n without being bo-thered Items which were rejected after analysis 6. If my friends leave me out 6. of something they are doing, I f e e l hurt and angry (13) 7. I cannot work hard on some-thing without being bother-ed when there i s a l o t of noise around me (18) 8. I often remember things d i f f e r e n t l y from other people, so I have to disa-gree with them about what rea l l y happened (23) 7, If my friends leave me out of something they are doing, I think they made a mistake I can work hard when there is a l o t of noise around me without being bothered I don't often remember things d i f f e r e n t l y from other people leading to disagreement as to what re a l l y happened APPENDIX G 189 SCALE E : MAGICAL THINKING AND SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS Agreement with items in the l e f t column are deemed to indicate the presence of magical thinking and beliefs in superstitions. Bracketed numbers after the items in the l e f t column indicate their number in the composite scale. Items which survived the f i n a l item-analysis . We a l l have our lucky days 1. and lucky numbers, and un-lucky days and unlucky numbers (5) , I believe strongly in men- 2. t a l telepathy (15) , People don't die t i l l their 3. numbers come up, so i t does'; not matter how much danger a person exposes himself to (25) , A good way to win in a 4. gambling spot i s to observe who has a winning streak and then bet the way he does (30) , Some people, by concentra- 5. ting hard, can influence the way the dice w i l l r o l l , or the hand they get in a card-game (39) I don't believe in lucky days and lucky numbers, nor unlucky days and unlucky numbers I don't believe that mental telepathy exists Other things being equal: the more a person exposes himself to physical r i s k , the more l i k e l y he w i l l get injured or k i l l e d There i s no "magic system" to increase one's winnings (short of cheating) in a gambling situation "Honest" cards and dice can-not be influenced by mental concentration Items which were rejected after item-I believe that the stars have a l o t to do with a person's success and hap-piness (10) I prefer to play poker (20) I don't stars have any human fortunes analysis: believe that the bearing on 7. I prefer to play bridge When luck i s with you, you 8. hardly have to try; i f i t is against you, there i s no use trying (35) If I r e a l l y wanted something,^. I almost always got i t , sooner or later (42) 10. I f e e l I was born luckier than most people and no-thing r e a l l y bad can ever happen to me (44) 10, Successful outcomes of one's projects depend in the long run more on a b i l i t y and stamina than on luck I got about as many things that I wanted badly as most other people-no more,no less Whether anything re a l l y bad w i l l happen to me in my l i f e depends to quite an ex-tent on what chances I might decide to take 190 APPENDIX H METHOD FOR 5C0RING THE TAT-PR0T0C0L5 FOR n-POWER, AND FOR "DEROGATION OF WOMEN AND SEX" 1. Scoring for n-Power. The scoring method was devised by Clayton T. Shorkey, University of Michigan. It i s based on Veroff's o r i g i n a l n-Power scoring scheme. The manual i s ob-tainable from Mr. Shorkey and only the essentials of the system w i l l be given here. Two aspects of each story are scored separately: "power" inherent in each person mentioned, and "power" which comes into play in the interaction of 2 or more story characters. S's n-Power score i s the sum of the two indices. "Power" i s scored in regard to story-character(s) i f he is described as possessing either "excess" or " d e f i c i t " in the following areas: (a) Physical ("very strong, muscular" or "weak,sick"); (b) Social ("everybody like s him" or "nobody can stand him") (c) Sexual ("patent" or "impotent") (d) Psycholo-gical ("ability to give support in c r i s i s " or "psychotic"); Int e l l e c t u a l ("genius" or "moron"). One point i s scored for each of the preceding categories for each individual occurance of this type in the protocol. Repetition of similar power concerns may occur, and each of these i s scored as one point in the appropriate area when they appear in different places in the story. "Power" i s further scored i f the person i s cast in a so c i a l l y superior, powerful role as against other character(s) in the protocol, e.g. judge-defendant, worker-boss. Casting a person merely as a parent (opposite a child) or as an older per-son (opposite a younger one) does not in i t s e l f c a l l for a power-score. In order to score for interaction, there must f i r s t of a l l be a definite verbal or physical interaction among the persons in the story, In this area, power can be used in a " f a c i l i t a t i n g manner": (a) giving physical help (aiding or assisting): (b) being helped by outside forces ( s p i r i t s , God): (c) giving material help (money, food): giving psychological help (supporting a person in a c r i s i s ) ; giving i n t e l l e c t u a l help (explaining, ad-vising) . Power (in interaction) i s also scored i f one person per-suades, or physically forces someone to do something (e.g. rape, and physical assault; but not a simple temper outburst, nor murder unless i t i s committed because the victim f a i l e d to do something which the aggressor wanted him to do). Power i s also scored in this context i f one person uses hypnosis, re-ligi o u s "power" or invocation of s p i r i t s to force someone to do something. Power is also scored for actual persuasion (without application of force), attempts at sexual seduction and even for begging someone to do something. In a l l these cases power i s not scored, however, i f there is mutual helping or coercion pictured - in order to earn a score, one person must be clear l y superior to the other in the interaction. 191 APPENDIX H (Cont'd) 2."Scoring" the TAT MF-13 protocols for derogation of women  and sex (a) Derogation of women. The "scorers" were given the f o l -lowing (written) instructions: "Sort these cards into three piles according to the way the woman i s described in the story. Put the cards into p i l e 1., i f the woman i s described in generally positive terms. Put cards into pile 2., i f the woman i s described in gen-eral l y negative terms. Put cards into pile 3., i f the woman's character or person-a l i t y i s not referred to in the story, so you have no way of t e l l i n g whether she i s a "desirable" or "undesirable" person; or i f you are uncertain. In arriving at your deci-sion, don't attempt a "sophisticated analysis" - don't try to go behond what the description actually contains. E.G. from the-mere fact she may be described as having been mar-ried to the man for a long time, don't conclude that she i s "desirable". If she were described as a drunkard, this would j u s t i f y categorization as "undesirable". If she just had too much to drink at a party the night before, and nothing else i s said about her, you would put the card in pi l e 3 -"don't know". (b) Derogation of sex. To keep this sort as simple as possi-ble, i t was decided to ask for a sort in terms of the pleasant or unpleasant conse.quences of sex, i f sex i s cl e a r l y involved in the story. Hence the "scorers" were given the following i n -structions : "Sort these cards into 4 p i l e s . Cards go into p i l e 1. i f the story doesn't involve sex d i -r e c t l y . E.g. i f the people are simply described as husband and wife but there i s no other reference to sex, the story would go into p i l e 1. For the card to go into one of the other three p i l e s , the story must contain direct references to sex a c t i v i t y which has some bearing on the outcome of the story. The sex act doesn't have to be completed to qualify the sorting into piles 2, 3 or 4; i t i s enough i f i t was attempted, or s e r i -ously contemplated: neither did i t necessarily have to take place between the people portrayed on the card - e.g. the g i r l may have been raped by someone else. But direct refer-ence to sex i s required or the card goes into pile 1. Put the card into p i l e 2 i f the outcome of the sexual a c t i -vity i s generally pleasant - e.g. "they had fun" -"they were enjoying themselves" etc. Put the card into p i l e 3 i f the consequences of the sex ac-t i v i t y produced undesired consequences - murder, unwanted pregnancy, uproar, etc. Put the card into pile 4 i f no reference i s made to "conse-quences", either "actual", or emotionally experienced by the participants in the act; or i f you "can't t e l l which". 192 APPENDIX I MEAN PERCEIVED DANGER RATINGS ( n i p d r ' s ) AS5IGNED BY GROUP A AND GROUP B TO THE L I S T OF 40 SPORTS & RECREATIONAL A C T I V I T I E S W e i g h t e d Gr. A Gr. B mpl 1 . H y d r o p l a n i n g ( s p e e d b o a t r a c i n g ) 5.17 5.35 ' 5 2. b a d m i n t o n 1.09 1.30 1 3 . B a s k e t b a l l 1.61 2.26 2 4. B o x i n g 4.64 5.05 5 5.Car d r i v i n g f o r p l e a s u r e ( n o t r a c e ) 2.93 3.12 3 6.Car r a c i n g 6.04 6.35 6 7 . D a n c i n g ( s o c i a l ) 1.00 1.00 1 8.Square d a n c i n g 1.05 1.04 1 9 . S k i n - d i v i n g 3.28 3. 58 3 10.Scuba ( d e e p ) - d i v i n g 4.31 4.69 4 1 1 . F e n c i n g 2.35 2.38 2 1 2 . F o o t b a l l 3.52 4.07 4 1 3 . H i k i n g 2.31 2.51 2 14.Hockey 3.05 3.46 3 1 5 . H u n t i n g 3.64 3.68 4 16.Judo 2.78 2.96 3 17 . J u m p i n g ( d i e t ' c e , p o l e , h e i g h t ) 2.25 2.49 2 1 8 . L a c r o s s e 3.31 3.37 3 1 9 . M o u n t a i n e e r i n g ( c l i f f c l i m b ' g ) 4.97 4.72 5 2 0 , P i l o t a s m a l l p l a n e 4.06 3.96 4 2 1 . P i l o t a g l i d e r 4.32 4.39 4 22.Rowing ( i n c o m p e t i t i o n ) 1.83 ' 2.06 2 2 3 . R u n n i n g ( d i s t a n c e , o r speed) 1.61 1.95 2 2 4 , S a i l i n g 2.25 2.56 2 2 5 . S k a t i n g 1.54 1.92 2 2 6 , S k i - h i k i n g ( e x c l . J u m p i n g ) 3.02 3.40 3 2 7 . S k i - j u m p i n g 4.26 4.62 4 2 8 . S l a l o m 3.48 3.96 4 2 9 . S o c c e r 2.68 2.77 3 3 0 . S p o r t p a r a c h u t i n g ( s k y d i v i n g ) 5.11 5.49 5 3 1 . S t u n t f l y i n g ( a e r o b a t i c s ) 5.60 5.80 6 3 2 . S u r f b o a r d r i d i n g 3.87 4.19 4 33.Swimming ( c a s u a l , o f f beach) 2.12 2.54 2 34.Swimming ( c o m p e t i t i v e ) 1.65 2.21 2 3 5 . T e n n i s 1.37 1.63 1 3 6 . T a b l e t e n n i s 1.05 1.05 1 37.Water s k i i n g ( s i m p l e ) 2.13 2.62 2 38.Water s k i i n g ( j u m p s , k i t i n g ) 3.59 4.18 4 3 9 . W e i g h t - l i f t i n g 2.28 2.60 2 4 0 , W r e s t l i n g 3.07 3.16 3 193 APPENDIX J EXPLANATORY LETTER WHICH ACCOMPANIED THE QUESTIONNAIRE. JOHN HUBERMAN Dear S i r , I am a s k i n g f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i n d e v o t i n g a b o u t 1-1/2 h o u r o f y o u r t i m e t o w a r d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h i s t o f o r m t h e b a s i s o f my d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i n P s y c h o l o g y . The s t u d y i s c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f Dr. E d r o S i g n o r i , P r o f e s s o r o f P s y c h o l o g y , UBC. S h o u l d you have any d oubt a b o u t t h e bona f i d e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t , Dr. S i g n o r i w i l l be g l a d t o r e a s s u r e you ( 2 2 8 - 3 2 8 6 ) . Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d c o n s i s t o f f i l l i n g i n t h e a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( p l e a s e d o n ' t l o o k a t i t y e t ! ) . B e f o r e g i v i n g you a v e r y b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , I w o u l d l i k e t o a s s u r e you t h a t i t i s c o m p l e t e l y anonymous. More a b o u t t h i s l a t e r . The s t u d y hopes t o f i n d some, however t e n t a t i v e a n s w e r s t o t h e o f t e n a s k e d , but n e v e r r e s e a r c h e d q u e s t i o n : "What makes a m o u n t a i n e e r want t o c l i m b , a s k y d i v e r s k y d i v e , and a s c u b a d i v e r want t o e x p l o r e t h e d e p t h s ? " A n o t h e r way t o ask t h e q u e s t i o n w o u l d be t h i s : "Does i t t a k e a s p e c i a l , somewhat t y p i c a l p e r -s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n t o become i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ; and i s t h i s d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e p a t t e r n o f p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n somewhat s i m i l a r s p o r t s b u t o f a somewhat l e s s a r d u o u s and p e r h a p s s p e c t a c u l a r t y p e s u c h as h i k i n g ( a g a i n s t m o u n t a i n e e r i n g ) , s p o r t s - p i l o t i n g ( a g a i n s t s k y d i v i n g ) , o r sailing ( a g a i n s t s c u b a - d i v i n g ) ' ? " P s y c h o l o g y knows q u i t e a b i t a b o u t what makes a r e s e a r c h s c i e n t i s t " t i c k " , what t y p e o f p e o p l e become h i g h l y , o r l e s s c r e a t i v e a r c h i t e c t s , what makes some p e o p l e g r a v i t a t e t o b u s i -n e s s , e t c ; b u t we have l i t t l e more t h a n M a l l o r y ' s famous d i c t u m ("We c l i m b m o u n t a i n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e r e " ) a b o u t m o t i v a t i o n f o r m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , and even l e s s " e x p l a n a t i o n " f o r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e o t h e r s p o r t s m e n t i o n e d . So y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a s k e d f o r i n a modest " f i r s t " s t u d y i n t h i s g e n e r a l a r e a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , I hope you w i l l f i l l i n t h e a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s . P l e a s e do i t i n t h e o r d e r as p r e s e n t e d -d o n ' t s c a n i t f i r s t t h a t i s , p l e a s e d o n ' t peek ahead! I t s h o u l d t a k e a b o u t 1-1/2 h o u r s t o c o m p l e t e . On c o m p l e t i o n , p l e a s e m a i l i t i n t h e a t t a c h e d e n v e l o p e t o Dr. S i g n o r i . He w i l l c o l l e c t t h e r e t u r n s f o r me and hand them o v e r i n g r o u p s . T h e r e i s a s e c o n d l e t t e r and e n v e l o p e 194 a t t a c h e d , a d d r e s s e d t o m y s e l f i n w h i c h you a d v i s e me t h a t you have s e n t t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Dr. 5 i g n o r i . The p u r -pose o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s t o p r e s e r v e c o m p l e t e p r i v a c y and a n o n i m i t y f o r y o u . Dr. S i g n o r i w i l l n o t even know t h e names o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and I w i l l n o t be a b l e t o t e l l who s e n t i n w h i c h c . q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( o t h e r t h a n t h a t i t came f r o m one o f t h e m o u n t a i n e e r s , o r s k y d i v e r s , e t c . ) . A l s o , y o u r name w i l l n o t be m e n t i o n e d i n t h e t h e s i s . In v i e w o f t h e g u a r a n t e e d a n o n i m i t y , you may wonder why some p e r s o n a l d a t a a r e a s k e d f o r a t t h e s t a r t . These a r e n e c e -s s a r y f o r two p u r p o s e s : f i r s t , i t i s p a r t o f r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e -ments t h a t some g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e group be r e p o r t e d on a group b a s i s ; s e c o n d l y , i t i s a l s o a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s be as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e i n a v e r a g e age, e d u c a -t i o n a l l e v e l and s i m i l a r o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s so t h a t any d i f -f e r e n c e s f o u n d between g r o u p s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d s i m p l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n age l e v e l , e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r s u c h f a c t o r s . ' S h o u l d you have o t h e r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t , and e s -p e c i a l l y , s h o u l d you have any d o u b t s i n y o u r mind a b o u t how some o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e t o be i n t e r p r e -t e d , p l e a s e d o n ' t h e s i t a t e t o c a l l me a t any t i m e ( i n c l u d i n g weekends) a t 228-8070. The r e s e a r c h i s n o t s u p p o r t e d by any g r a n t , C o n s e q u e n t l y , I c a n n o t o f f e r you any c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e work and e f f o r t I am a s k i n g you t o engage i n , o t h e r t h a n t h e p r o m i s e o f s e n d i n g you a summary o f any m e a n i n g f u l f i n d i n g s w h i c h may emerge f r o m t h e s t u d y i f you so w i s h . The l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o me c o n t a i n s a l i n e by w h i c h you may a d v i s e me o f y o u r d e s i r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . ( I h i s i s one p u r p o s e o f t h e " l e t t e r t o me". The o t h e r i s t o l e t me know t h a t you have s e n t i n t h e r e t u r n - i f I d o n ' t g e t i t , I s h a l l t a k e t h e l i b e r t y o f s e n d i n g you a f o l l o w - u p ) . Many t h a n k s i n a d v a n c e f o r y o u r k i n d c o o p e r a t i o n -S i n c e r e l y y o u r s , John Huberman, M.A.,LLD Cons. I n d u s t r . P s y c h o l o g i s t P.5. You w i l l f i n d a s p e c i a l s o f t p e n c i l e n c l o s e d , f o r y o u r c o n v e n i e n c e . A c t u a l l y , t h i s p e n c i l ( o r a s i m i l a r one, 2-1/2 o r s o f t e r ) i s n e c e s s a r y f a r m a r k i n g two f o r m s n e a r t h e end o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o p e r m i t d i r e c t c o m p u t e r a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s . Y o u r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be c a l l e d t o t h i s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p o t . The r e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may be f i l l e d i n any way ( p e n , b a l l - p o i n t pen, o r p e n c i l ) . . 1.95 APPENDIX K DESCRIPTION OF THE SCALES OF THE GOUGH ACL 1. Total number of adjectives checked; No. Ckd Subjects d i f f e r widely in the t o t a l number of adjectives checked, the range for a sample of 1,364 men being from 13 to 298, with a mean of 99.05 and a standard deviation of 38.35. The tendency to check more or fewer words obviously re-f l e c t s certain personological dispositions, but i t also acts as a response set a r t i f a c t in the scoring of other scales. For this reason, i t is necessary to control for " t o t a l checked" in deriving standard scores on the other variables. The tech-nique adopted i s to c l a s s i f y each protocol into one of four categories and to use standard scores calculated for that cate-gory only. The four categories for males are as follows: Category Number of Adjectives Checked Males A 1-75 B 76-95 C 96-121 D 122-300 Checking many adjectives seems to r e f l e c t surgency and drive, and a r e l a t i v e absence of repressive tendencies. Cor-relation with intelligence is s l i g h t l y negative, so that the exuberance in behavior may possibly spring more from shallow-ness and inattention to ambiguities than from a deep le v e l of involvement. The individual high on this variable tends to be described as emotional, adventurous, wholesome, conserva-tiv e , enthusiastic, unintelligent, frank, and helpful. He is active, apparently means well, but tends to blunder. The man with low scores tends more often to be quiet and reserved, more tentative and cautious in his approach to problems, and perhaps at times unduly tactiturn and aloof. He i s more apt to think o r i g i n a l l y and inventively, but is perhaps less ef-fective in getting things done. 2. Defensiveness: Df Sixty-nine college subjects took the ACL under standard instructions, then under instructions to perform l i k e a stu-dent who was trying to simulate perfect adjustment, and f i n -a l l y under instructions to simulate serious malad j ustment.. The subjects obtained a mean standard score on the Df (defen-siveness) scale of 61.13, standard deviation 4.21, under the ^"Abridged from the Gough (1965) ACL Manual 196 A P P E N D I X K ( C o n t ' d ) " f a k e g o o d " i n s t r u c t i o n s , and 1 3 . 3 0 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1 4 . 0 7 , u n d e r t h e " f a k e b a d " s e t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t Df m e a s u r e s a b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n o f t e s t - t a k i n g r s s p o n s e w h i c h i s i n t e r -p r e t a b l e a t e i t h e r e x t r e m e . T h e r e f o r e , i f s c o r e s on D f a r e h i g h l y d e v i a n t ( g r e a t e r t h a n 70 o r l e s s t h a n 3 0 ) , an i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f d i s s i m u l a t i o n s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be e n t e r t a i n e d . H o w e v e r , mos t s c o r e s w i l l f a l l c l o s e r t o 5 0 , w i t h i n a n o r m a l range, o f v a r i a t i o n . A d j e c t i v e s a p p e a r i n g on t h e ma le D f s c a l e a r e : c o n s i d e r -a t e , h o n e s t , i n d u s t r i o u s , n a t u r a l , r e a s o n a b l e , r e l i a b l e , s t a b l e , s t e a d y , t r u s t i n g , a d v e n t u r o u s , d e t e r m i n e d , r e s o u r c e f u l . The h i g h e r - s c o r i n g p e r s o n i s a p t t o be s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and r e s o l u t e i n b o t h a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r , and i n s i s t e n t and e v e n s t u b b o r n i n s e e k i n g h i s o b j e c t i v e s . H i s p e r s i s t e n c e i s morG ci d m i r a b l e t h a n a t t r a c t i v e . The l o w e r - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t t e n d s t o be a n x i o u s and a p p r e h e n s i v e , c r i t i c a l o f h i m s e l f and o t h e r s , and g i v e n t o c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . He n o t o n l y has more p r o b l e m s t h a n h i s p e e r s , b u t t e n d s t o d w e l l on them and p u t them a t t h e c e n t e r o f h i s a t t e n t i o n . 3 . Number o f f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s c h e c k e d : F a v . The f a v o r a b i l i t y o f s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n i s a f a c t o r w h i c h has r t j p e a t e d l y bean d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be i m p o r t a n t i n p e r s o n -a l i t y t e s t i n g . N i n e t y - s e v e n u n d e r g r a d u a t e p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a w e r e a s k e d t o c h o o s e t h e 75 "mos t f a v o r a b l e " w o r d s i n t h e 3 0 0 - w o r d c h e c k l i s t . The p e r -c e n t a g e o f c h o i c e s f o r e a c h w o r d was t a b u l a t e d , and t h e 75 w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s were c h o s e n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s c a l e . The i n d i v i d u a l who c h e c k s many o f t h e w o r d s i n t h e l i s t o f 75 a p p e a r s t o be m o t i v a t e d by a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o do w e l l and t o i m p r e s s o t h e r s , b u t a l w a y s by v i r t u e o f h a r d work and c o n v e n t i o n a l e n d e j a v o r . The r e a c t i o n o f o t h e r s i s t o s e e h im as d e p e n d a b l e , s t e a d y , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , m a n n e r l y , a n d . s e r i o u s ; t h e r e i s a l s o t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t ha may be t o o c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o t h e r s , and l a c k i n g i n v e r v e and q u i c k n e s s o f m i n d . E g o t i s m and s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s , w h i c h m i g h t be s u g g e s t e d by t h e way i n w h i c h t h e v a r i a b l e was d e r i v e d , i s s e l d o m s a l i e n t i n h i g h -s c o r i n g s u b j e c t s . The s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y c o m p o n e n t , i n o t h e r w o r d s , i s n o t o r d i n a r i l y a f a c a d e o r an a r t i f a c t , b u t s i n c e r e c o n c e r n w i t h b e h a v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y and w i t h d o i n g o n e ' s d u t y . The l o w - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t i s much more o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s t - - m o r s o f t e n s e e n as c l e v e r , s h a r p - w i t t e d , h e a d s t r o n g , p l e a -s u r e - s e e k i n g , and o r i g i n a l i n t h o u g h t and b e h a v i o r . H i s e m o t i o n s b e i n g more a c c e s s i b l e , hs a l s o more o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e s a n x i e t y , s e l f - d o u b t s , and p e r p l e x i t i e s * 4 . Number o f u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s c h e c k e d : U n f a v . Thu c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e " f a v o r a b l e " w o r d s , b u t s u f f i c i e n t -198 APP ENDIX K ( Co n t ' dj s t a n d a r d s c o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o s e x and t o t a l number o f a d j e c -t i v e s c h e c k e d . The same p r o c e d u r e i s f o l l o w e d f o r a l l s c a l e s h a v i n g b o t h i n d i c a t i v e and c o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 5-Cfd s t r e s s e s a s e n s e o f d o m i n a n c e , c l e a r l y one o f t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t s i n t h e syndrome d e f i n e d by t h e s c a l e . The h i g h - s c o r e r i s a s s e r t i v e , a f f i l i a t i v e , o u t -g o i n g , p e r s i s t e n t , an a c t i o n i s t . He wants t o g e t t h i n g s done, and i s i m p a t i e n t w i t h p e o p l e o r t h i n g s s t a n d i n g i n h i s way. He i s c o n c e r n e d about c r e a t i n g a good i m p r e s s i o n , and i s not above c u t t i n g a few c o r n e r s t o a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e . He makes a d i s t i n c t i m p r e s s i o n on o t h e r s , who s e e him as f o r c e f u l s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , d e t e r m i n e d , a m b i t i o u s , and o p p o r t u n i s t i c . The l o w - s c o r i n g p e r s o n i s a much l e s s e f f e c t i v e p e r s o n i n t h e e v e r y d a y s e n s e o f t h e word - he has d i f f i c u l t y i n m o b i l i -z i n g h i m s e l f and t a k i n g a c t i o n , p r e f e r i n g i n a c t i o n and c o n -t e m p l a t i o n . O t h e r s see him as u n a s s u m i n g , f o r g e t f u l , m i l d , p r e o c c u p i e d , r e s e r v e d and r e t i r i n g . _6_. S e l f - c o n t r o l : 5-Cn. The s e l f - c o n t r o l s c a l e was a l s o d e v e l o p e d e m p i r i c a l l y and i s i n t e n d e d t o p a r a l l e l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - s o c i a l i z a t i o n c l u s -t e r o f s c a l e s on t h e C a l i f o r n i a Ps y c h o l o q i c a l I n v e n t o r y . I n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s f o r s e l f - c o n t r o l i n c l u d e c o n s c i e n -t i o u s , d e p e n d a b l e , g o o d - n a t u r e d , i n d u s t r i o u s , p l e a s a n t , r e t i r -i n g , s t a b l e , wholesome, and o t h e r s . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c -t i v e s a r e a d v e n t u r o u s , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , d i s o r d e r l y , h a s t y , r e b e l l i o u s , s p e n d t h r i f t , e t c . S e v e r a l o p p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r s s t a n d out i n t h i s s c a l e . H i s c o r e r s t e n d t o be s e r i o u s , s o b e r i n d i v i d u a l s , i n t e r e s t e d i n and r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s . They a r e seen as d i l i g e n p r a c t i c a l , and l o y a l w o r k e r s . At t h e same t i m e t h e r e may be an e l e m e n t o f o v e r - c o n t r o l , t o o much e m p h a s i s on t h e p r o p e r means f o r a t t a i n i n g t h e ends o f s o c i a l l i v i n g . Thus t h e h i g h -e s t l e v e l o f ego i n t e g r a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and s u b l i -m a t i o n o f c h a o t i c and d e s t r u c t i v e i m p u l s e a l o n g w i t h t h e a l l o -s o c i a l and l i f e - g i v i n g d i s p o s i t i o n s , may be d e n i e d t o t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . At t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s c a l e one seems t o f i n d t h e i n -a d e q u a t e l y s o c i a l i z e d p e r s o n , h e a d s t r o n g , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , com-p l a i n i n g , d i s o r d e r l y , n a r c i s s i s t i c , and i m p u l s i v e . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e l o w - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t t e n d s t o be d e s c r i b e d i n un-f l a t t e r i n g t e r m s , even i n c l u d i n g s u c h words as o b n o x i o u s , a u t o c r a t i c , and t h a n k l e s s . 7. L a b i l i t y : L a b . The l a b i l i t y s c a l e was b a s e d on i t e m a n a l y s e s o f e x p e r i -m e n t a l s u b j e c t s r a t e d h i g h e r on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as s p o n -t a n e i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y , need f o r c h a n g e , r e j e c t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n and a s s e r t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i t y . 197 APPENDIX K (Cont'd) ly different psychodynamically to warrant separate scoring, is the t o t a l number of "unfavorable" words checked. Ninety-eight undergraduate psychology students were asked to choose the least favorable (or most unfavorable) words in the l i s t ; the 75 most frequently chosen words were selected for the scoring key. From individual work with subjects who have scored high on this scale i t appears that checking of unfavorable adjec-tives does not spring from a sense of humility and s e l f - e f -facement, but more from a kind of impulsive lack of control over the hostile and unattractive aspects of one's person-a l i t y . Ths high-scoring subject strikes others as rebellious, arrogant, careless, conceited, and cynical. He tends to be a disbeliever, a skeptic, and a threat to the complacent be-l i e f s and attitudes of his fellows. The low-scorer i s more placid, more obliging, more mannerly, more t a c t f u l , and pro-bably less i n t e l l i g e n t . 5. Self-confidence: S-Cfd. In the period from 1950 to I960 perhaps some 20 to 25 different ACL scales were developed and evaluated at the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research in Berkeley. One direction of effort was to define adjective scales which would p a r a l l e l the major f a c t o r i a l dimensions found in the Cal i f o r n i a Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1957), a test s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned with the si g n i f i c a n t variables of so-c i a l interaction. Another l i n e of effort was devoted to assessing personal adjustment and personal effectiveness. Out of these endeavors' four scales f i n a l l y emerged as having s u f f i c i e n t promise for inclusion in the recommended scoring of the l i s t . The f i r s t of these i s the self-confidence scale, which corresponds to the "poise' and self-assurance" cluster of scales on the CPI. This scale was Constructed by contrasting the self-descriptions of men and women rated in assessment as higher and lower on such t r a i t s as poise, s e l f -confidence, self-assurance, and the l i k e . Items with consis-tent positive correlations were retained for the "indicative" cluster of adjectives, and items with consistent negative cor-relations were kept for the "contra-indicative" l i s t . The indicative l i s t includes such adjectives as aggre-sive, clear-thinking, confident, dominant, enterprising, high-strung, independent, outspoken, progressive, shrewd and strong. I l l u s t r a t i v e of contra-indicative adjectives are anxious, cau-tious, inhibited, and patient. The self-confidence scale i s scored by counting the num-ber of words in the indicative cluster, and subtracting from this t o t a l the number of words checked in the contra-indica-tive cluster. The resulting raw score i s then converted to a 199 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d ) I t y i e l d e d a d j e c t i v e s s u c h as a d v e n t u r o u s , c l e v e r , emo-t i o n a l , e x c i t a b l e , f o r g e t f u £., x m p a t i e n t , m i s c h i e v o u s , t o l e r a n t e t c . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s f o r l a b i l i t y i n c l u d e c o n -s e r v a t i v e , f o r m a l , i n d u s t r i o u s , s e r i o u s , u n s e l f i s h and t h e l i k A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a f a c e t o f h i g h ego s t r e n g t h i n t h i s s c a l e , an a d v e n t u r o u s d e l i g h t i n g i n t h e new and d i f f e r e n t and s e n s i t i v i t y t o a l l t h a t i s u n u s u a l and c h a l l e n g i n g , t h e main e m p h a s i s seams t o be upon an i n n e r r e s t l e s s n e s s and an i n a -b i l i t y t o t o l e r a t e c o n s i s t e n c y and r o u t i n e . The h i g h - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t i s s e e n f a v o r a b l y as s p o n t a n e o u s , b u t u n f a v o r a b l y as e x c i t a b l e , t e m p e r a m e n t a l , r e s t l e s s , n e r v o u s , and h i g h - s t r u n g . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s , i s an une a s y one i n t h i s p e r s o n and he seems i m p e l l e d t o w a r d change and new e x p e r i e n c e i n an e n d l e s s f l i g h t f r o m h i s p e r p l e x i t i e s . The l o w - s c o r e r i s more p h l e g m a t i c , r o u t i n i z e d , p l a n f u l and c o n v e n t i o n a l . He r e p o r t s s t r i c t e r o p i n i o n s on r i g h t and wrong p r a c t i c e s , and a g r e a t e r need f o r o r d e r and r e g u l a r i t y . He i s d e s c r i b e d by o b s e r v e r s as t h o r o u g h , o r g a n i z e d , s t e a d y , and u n e m o t i o n a l . 8;. P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t : P e r A d j . The p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e was d e r i v e d f r o m i t e m a n a -l y s i s o f a s s e s s m e n t s u b j e c t s r a t e d h i g h e r and l o w e r on p e r s o n -a l a d j u s t m e n t and p e r s o n a l s o u n d n e s s . A d j e c t i v e s w i t h c o n s i s -t e n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s a p p e a r i n t h e i n d i c a t i v e l i s t , and t h o s e w i t h p e r s i s t e n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e c o n t r a i n d i -c a t i v e c l u s t e r . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f o r m e r a r e a l e r t , c a l m , f a i r - m i n d e d , l o y a l , o r g a n i z e d , p r a c t i c a l , t r u s t i n g , v e r s a t i l e and warm. C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e a f f e c t e d , a r r o g a n t , c o n c e i t e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d , i n t o l e r a n t , moody and weak, among o t h e r s . T h i s s c a l e s e e m s t o d e p i c t a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d l i f e more t h a n an a b s e n c e o f p r o b l e m s and w o r r i e s . The a t t i t u d i n a l s e t i s one o f o p t i m i s m , c h e e r f u l n e s s , i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r s , and a r e a d i n e s s t o a d a p t . The h i g h - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t i s s e e n as d e p e n d a b l e , p e a c e a b l e , t r u s t i n g , f r i e n d l y , p r a c t i c a l , l o y a l , and wholesome. He f i t s i n w e l l , a s k s f o r l i t t l e t r e a t s o t h e r s w i t h c o u r t e s y , and works e n t e r p r i s i n g l y t o w a r d h i s own g o a l s . He may o r may not u n d e r s t a n d h i m s e l f p s y c h o d y n a m i c a l l y , b u t he n o n e t h e l e s s seems t o p o s s e s s t h e c a p a c i t y t o " l o v e and work". The s u b j e c t l o w on t h e p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e s e e s h i m s e l f as a t odds w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and as moody and d i s s a -t i s f i e d . T h i s v i e w i s r e c i p r o c a t e d by o b s e r v e r s , who d e s c r i b e t h e l o w s c o r e r as a l o o f , d e f e n s i v e , a n x i o u s , i n h i b i t e d , w o r r y -i n g , w i t h d r a w n and u n f r i e n d l y . What a p p e a r s t o b e g i n as a p r o b l e m i n s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n e v e n t u a t e s as a p r o b l e m i n i n t e r -p e r s o n a l l i v i n g . 200 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d ) The Need S c a l e s The n e x t 15 s c o r e s on t h e p r o f i l e s h e e t a r e t h e need s c a l e s . The d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e Need S c a l e s was o f a r a t i o n a l n a t u r e . N i n e t e e n g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n p s y c h o l o g y were g i v e n E d wards' (1954) d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s and a s k e d t o j u d g e w h i c h a d j e c t i v e s , i f e n d o r s e d , w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e p r e -s e n c e o f e ach need i n t h e e n d o r s e r s . A r e q u i r e m e n t o f a t l e a s t 9 out o f 19 agreement was a d o p t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n o f an a d j e c t i v e i n a s c a l e , s i n c e t h i s seemed t o s t r i k e t h e b e s t c ompromise between a d e q u a t e i n t e r j u d g e agreement and a s u f f i -c i e n t number of a d j e c t i v e s i n t h e s c a l e s . The same p r o c e d u r e and r e q u i r e m e n t s were f o l l o w e d t o s e l e c t i t e m s w h i c h , i f e n -d o r s e d , w o u l d c o n t r o - i n d i c a t e t h s p r e s e n c e o f a g i v e n need. The raw s c o r e i s t h e a l g e b r a i c sum o f t h e s e two s e t s o f a d -j e c t i v e s . 9_. A c h i e v e m e n t ; Ach. D e f i n i t i o n ; To s t r i v e t o be o u t s t a n d i n g i n p u r s u i t s o f s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . T y p i c a l i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e a g g r e s s i v e , a m b i -t i o u s , c a p a b l e , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , e n e r g e t i c , i n d u s t r i o u s , o p p o r -t u n i s t i c , p l a n f u l , e t c . A d j e c t i v e s s u c h as a p a t h e t i c , e a s y -g o i n g , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , l e i s u r e l y , and s h i f t l e s s a r e c o n t r a -i n d i c a t i v e . The h i g h - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t on Ach i s u s u a l l y seen as i n -t e l l i g e n t and h a r d - w o r k i n g , but a l s o as i n v o l v e d i n h i s i n t e l -l e c t u a l and o t h e r e n d e a v o r s . He i s d e t e r m i n e d t o do w e l l and u s u a l l y s u c c e e d s . H i s m o t i v e s a r e i n t e r n a l and g o a l - c e n t e r e d r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t i t i v e , and i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h o t h e r s he may a c t u a l l y be u n d u l y t r u s t i n g and o p t i m i s t i c . The l o w -s c o r i n g s u b j e c t on Ach i s more s k e p t i c a l , more d u b i o u s a b o u t t h e r e w a r d s w h i c h m i g h t come f r o m e f f o r t and i n v o l v e m a n t , and u n c e r t a i n a b o u t r i s k i n g h i s l a b o r s . He t e n d s a l s o t o be some-what w i t h d r a w n and d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s c u r r e n t s t a t u s . 10. Dominance; Dom. D e f i n i t i o n ; t o seek and s u s t a i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n g r o u p s o r t o be i n f l u e n t i a l and c o n t r o l l i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . Among 31 i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s a r e : a g g r e s s i v e , argumen-t a t 1 V 6 • 3 u t o c r a t i c - , d emanding, d o m i n a n t , f o r c e f u l , i n i t i a t i v e , o u t g o i n g , r e s o u r c e f u l and s t r o n g . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a r e s u c h a d j e c t i v e s as a p a t h e t i c , e f f e m i n a t e , i n h - i b i t e d , meek, r e t i r -i n g , s h y , s u g g e s t i b l e and u n a m b i t i o u s . The h i g h - s c o r e r on t h i s s c a l e i s a f o r c e f u l , s t r o n g - w i l l e d , and p e r s e v e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l . . He i s c o n f i d e n t o f h i s a b i l i t y t o do what he w i s h e s and i s d i r e c t and f o r t h r i g h t i n h i s b e h a v i o r . The low s c o r e r on Dom i s u n s u r e o f h i m s e l f , and i n d i f f e r e n t 201 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d ) t o b o t h t h e demands and t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l l i f e . He s t a y s out o f t h e l i m e l i g h t and a v o i d s s i t u a t i o n s c a l l i n g f o r c h o i c e and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 1 1 . Endura_n_c_e_; End. D e f i n i t i o n ; t o p e r s i s t i n any t a s k u n d e r t a k e n . A d j e c t i v e s s c o r e d f o r E n d u r a n c e i n c l u d e d e t e r m i n e d , i n -d u s t r i o u s , m e t h o d i c a l , p a i n s t a k i n g , p a t i e n t , p e r s e v e r i n g , p r e -c i s e , r i g i d , s e r i o u s and s t e a d y . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s a r e a b s e n t - m i n d e d , c a r e l e s s , e a s y g o i n g , h a s t y , i m p u l s i v e , q u i t t i n g , s l i p s h o d , e t c . The s u b j e c t h i g h on End i s t y p i c a l l y s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and r e s p o n s i b l e , but a l s o i d e a l i s t i c and c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t r u t h and j u s t i c e . By n a t u r e c o n v e n t i o n a l , he may n o n e t h e l e s s ( b e c a u s e o f h i s s e n s e o f r e c t i t u d e ) f i n d h i m s e l f c h a m p i o n i n g u n c o n v e n -t i o n a l i d e a s and u n p o p u l a r c a u s e s . The l o w - s c o r e r on End, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s e r r a t i c and i m p a t i e n t , i n t o l e r a n t o f p r o -l o n g e d e f f o r t o r a t t e n t i o n , and a p t t o change i n an a b r u p t and q u i x o t i c manner. 1 2 . O r d e r ; O r d . D e f i n i t i o n : t o p l a c e s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on n e a t n e s s , o r -g a n i z a t i o n , and p l a n n i n g i n one's a c t i v i t i e s . Among t h e i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s f o r O r d e r a r e c a u t i o u s . , c o n s e r v a t i v e , f o r m a l , f u s s y , l o g i c a l , m e t h o d i c a l , r a t i o n a l , r i g i d , e t c . The need i s c o n t r a - i n d i c a t e d by a d j e c t i v e s s u c h as a b s e n t - m i n d e d , c o n f u s e d , d i s o r d e r l y , r a t t l e b r a i n e d , s h i f t -l e s s o r z a n y . H i g h - s c o r e r s on Ord a r e u s u a l l y s i n c e r e and d e p e n d a b l e , b u t a t t h e c o s t o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y and s p o n t a n e i t y . These s e l f -d e n y i n g and i n h i b i t o r y t r e n d s may a c t u a l l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e harmony and p s y c h i c o r d e r w h i c h t h e y s e e k . L o w - s c o r e r s a r e q u i c k e r i n temperament and r e a c t i o n , and m i g h t o f t e n be c a l l e d i m p u l s i v e . They p r e f e r c o m p l e x i t y and v a r i e t y , and d i s l i k e d e l a y , c a u t i o n , and d e l i b e r a t i o n . 1 3 . I n t r a c e p t i o n : I n t . D e f i n i t i o n ; t o engage i n a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d one's own b e h a v i o r o r t h e b e h a v i o r o f o t h e r s . H i g h - s c o r e r s t e n d t o c h e c k s u c h a d j e c t i v e s as a l e r t , c u r -i o u s , f o r e s i g h t e d , i n s i g h t f u l , m a t u r e , r e a s o n a b l e , - r e f l e c t i v e , s e n s i t i v e , e t c . They do n o t c h e c k a d j e c t i v e s s u c h as f a u l t -f i n d i n g , i n d i f f e r e n t , o p i n i o n a t e d , s e l f - c e n t e r e d o r s h a l l o w . The h i g h - s c o r e r on I n t i s r e f l e c t i v e and s e r i o u s , as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d ; he i s a l s o c a p a b l e , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , and k n o w l e d g e -a b l e . H i s i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t s a r e e x c e l l e n t and he d e r i v e s p l e a s u r e f r o m t h e i r e x e r c i s e . The l o w - s c o r e r may a l s o have 2D2 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d ) t a l e n t , b u t he t e n d s t o w a r d p r o f l i g a c y and i n t e m p e r a t e n e s s i n i t s u s e . He i s a g g r e s s i v e i n manner, and q u i c k l y becomes b o r e d o r i m p a t i e n t w i t h any s i t u a t i o n where d i r e c t a c t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e . H G i s a d o e r , n o t a t h i n k e r . 14_, N u r t u r a n e e : Nur D e f i n i t i o n : t o engage i n b e h a v i o r s w h i c h e x t e n d m a t e r i a l o r e m o t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o o t h e r s . H i g h s c o r e s a r e e a r n e d by s u b j e c t s who c h e c k a d j e c t i v e s s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g : a f f e c t i o n a t e , a p p r e c i a t i v e , c o n s i d e r a t e , c o o p e r a t i v e , f o r g i v i n g , f r i e n d l y , k i n d , l o y a l , s e n t i m e n t a l , s o f t - h e a r t e d , t h o u g h t f u l , t r u s t i n g . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c -t i v e s i n c l u d e , among o t h e r s : a l o o f , a r r o g a n t , b i t t e r , c o l d , d i s t r u s t f u l , g r e e d y , h o s t i l e , n a g g i n g , s e l f i s h , s n o b b i s h , un-f r i e n d l y , v i n d i c t i v e . The s u b j e c t h i g h on t h i s s c a l e i s o f a h e l p f u l , n u r t u r a n t d i s p o s i t i o n , b u t sometimes t o o b l a n d and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . H i s d e p e n d a b i l i t y and b e n e v o l e n c e a r e w o r t h y q u a l i t i e s , b u t he may n o n e t h e l e s s be t o o c o n v e n t i o n a l and s o l i c i t o u s o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n . The s u b j e c t s c o r i n g l o w on Nur i s t h e o p p o s i t e : s k e p t i c a l , c l e v e r , and a c u t e , b u t t o o s e l f - c e n t e r e d and t o o l i t t l e a t t e n t i v e t o t h e f e e l i n g s and w i s h e s o f o t h e r s . 15. A f f i l i a t i o n : A f f . D e f i n i t i o n : t o seek and s u s t a i n numerous p e r s o n a l f r i e n d -s h i p s . I n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s f o r t h e s c a l e a r e a d a p t a b l e , a t t r a c -t i v e , c o n s i d e r a t e , c o o p e r a t i v e , g o o d - n a t u r e d , k i n d , m a n n e r l y , m i s c h i e v o u s , p l e a s a n t , t a l k a t i v e , warm, and 23 o t h e r s . T h e r e a r e no c o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s on t h i s s c a l e . The h i g h - s c o r e r on A f f i s a d a p t a b l e and a n x i o u s t o p l e a s e , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e c a u s e o f a l t r u i s t i c m o t i v e s , i . e . , he i s a m b i t i o u s and c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o s i t i o n , and may t e n d t o ' e x p l o i t o t h e r s and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h them i n o r d e r t o g a i n h i s a n d s . The l o w - s c o r e r i s more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and s t r o n g - w i l l e d , t h o u g h p e r h a p s not o u t o f i n n e r r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and i n d e p e n -d e n c e . He t e n d s t o be l e s s t r u s t i n g , more p e s s i m i s t i c a b o u t l i f e , and r e s t l e s s i n any s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e s o r p r o -l o n g s h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s . 16. H e t e r o s e x u a l i t y : H e t . D e f i n i t i o n : t o seek t h e company o f and d e r i v e e m o t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s f r o m i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e - s e x e d p e e r s . A d v e n t u r o u s , a f f e c t i o n a t e , a t t r a c t i v e , e x c i t a b l e , f l i r t a -t i o u s , p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g , s o c i a b l e , warm a r e t y p i c a l i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s w h i l e a l o o f , c o l d , i n h i b i t e d , and u n e m o t i o n a l a r e c o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e . 203 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d ) The h i g h - s c o r e r on Het i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e o p p o s i t e s e x ns he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n l i f e , e x p e r i e n c e , and most t h i n g s a r o u n d him i n a h e a l t h y , d i r e c t , and o u t g o i n g manner. He may even be a b i t n a i v e i n t h e f r i e n d l y i n g e n u o u s n e s s i n w h i c h he a p p r o a c h e s o t h e r s . The l o w - s c o r e r t h i n k s t o o much, as i t were, and dam-pens h i s v i t a l i t y ; he t e n d s t o be d i s p i r i t e d , i n h i b i t e d , s hrewd and* c a l c u l a t i n g i n h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 17_«. ^1 i o n ; E x h . D e f i n i t i o n : t o behave i n s u c h a way as t o e l i c i t t h e i m -m e d i a t e a t t e n t i o n o f o t h e r s . The 27 i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by a f f e c t e d , a r r o g a n t , b o a s t f u l , c o n c e i t e d , humorous, j o l l y , l o u d , o u t g o i n g , s e l f - s e e k i n g , s h o w - o f f , u n c o n v e n t i o n a l , w i t t y , e t c . C o n t r a -i n d i c a t i v e a r e s u c h as a p a t h e t i c , d i s c r e e t , i n h i b i t e d , m i l d , r e s e r v e d , s i l e n t , t i m i d . P e r s o n s who a r e h i g h on t h i s s c a l e t e n d t o be s e l f - c e n -t e r e d and even n a r c i s s i s t i c . They a r e p o i s e d , s e l f - a s s u r e d , and a b l e t o meet s i t u a t i o n s - w i t h aplomb, but a t t h e same t i m e t h e y a r e q u i c k t e m p e r e d and i r r i t a b l e . In t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h o t h e r s t h e y a r e a p t t o be o p p o r t u n i s t i c and m a n i p u l a t i v e . P e r -s o n s who s c o r e l o w t e n d t o w a r d a p a t h y , s e l f - d o u b t , and undue i n h i b i t i o n o f i m p u l s e . They l a c k c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s a n d . s h r i n k f r o m any e n c o u n t e r i n w h i c h t h e y w i l l be v i s i b l e o r "on s t a g e " . I B . Autonomy: Aut D e f i n i t i o n ; t o a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f o t h e r s o r o f s o c i a l v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : a d v e n t u r o u s , a g g r e s s i v e , a l o o f , a u t o c r a t i c , c y n i c a l , h a r d - h e a d e d , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , o p i n -i o n a t e d , s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , u n d e p e n d a b l e , (and o t h e r s o f l i k e t e n o r ) . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a r e c a u t i o u s , c o n v e n t i o n a l , d e p en-d e n t , o b l i g i n g , s p i n e l e s s , s u g g e s t i b l e , t i m i d , e t c . The h i g h - s c o r e r on Aut i s i n d e p e n d e n t and autonomous, but a l s o a s s e r t i v e and s e l f - w i l l e d . He t e n d s t o be i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s and h e e d l e s s o f t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s when he h i m s e l f w i s h e s t o a c t . The l o w - s c o r e r i s o f a m o d e r a t e and even subdued d i s p o s i t i o n . He h e s i t a t e s t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e , p r e f e r r i n g t o w a i t and f o l l o w t h e d i c t a t e s o f o t h e r s . 19. A g g r e s s i o n ; Aqq D e f i n i t i o n : t o engage i n b e h a v i o r s w h i c h a t t a c k o r h u r t o t h e r s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s a r e a g g r e s s i v e , a r r o g a n t , a u t o c r a t i c , c r u e l , d i s s a t i s f i e d , f o r c e f u l , h o s t i l e , i r r i t a b l e , q u a r r e l s o m e , s a r c a s t i c , v i n d i c t i v e , e t c . C o n t r a -i n d i c a t i v e o f A g g r e s s i o n a r e c a l m , f o r g i v i n g , m a n n e r l y , 204 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d ) o b l i g i n g , p r a i s i n g , r e s e r v e d , s h y , s o f t - h e a r t e d , s y m p a t h e t i c , t o l e r a n t , e t c . The i h d i v i d u a l h i g h on t h i s s c a l e i s b o t h c o m p e t i t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e . He s e e k s t o w i n , t o v a n q u i s h , and v i e w s o t h e r s as r i v a l s . H i s i m p u l s e s a r e s t r o n g , and o f t e n u n d e r - c o n t r o l l e d . In an a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n he may d r i v e on t o w o r t h y a t t a i n -ment, b u t o f t e n h i s b e h a v i o r s w i l l be s e l f - a g g r a n d i z i n g and d i s r u p t i v e . The i n d i v i d u a l who i s l o w on Agg i s much more of a c o n f o r m i s t , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l a c k i n g i n c o u r a g e or t e n a -c i t y . He t e n d s t o be p a t i e n t l y d i l i g e n t , and s i n c e r e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . 20. Change: Cha. D e f i n i t i o n : t o seek n o v e l t y o f e x p e r i e n c e and a v o i d r o u t i n e . P e r s o n s who s c o r e h i g h on Cha t e n d t o c h e c k a d j e c t i v e s l i k e a d a p t a b l e , c h a n g e a b l e , c u r i o u s , d i s t r a c t i b l e , f i c k l e , s p o n -t a n e o u s , u n s t a b l e , e t c . They o m i t a d j e c t i v e s l i k e a p a t h e t i c , c o n s e r v a t i v e , i n h i b i t e d , m e t h o d i c a l , s t a b l e , e t c . P e r s o n s h i g h on Cha a r e t y p i c a l l y p e r c e p t i v e , a l e r t and s p o n t a n e o u s i n d i v i d u a l s who comprehend p r o b l e m s and s i t u a t i o n s r a p i d l y and i n c i s i v e l y and who t a k e p l e a s u r e i n change and v a r i e t y . They have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s and welcome t h e c h a l l e n g e s t o be f o u n d i n d i s o r d e r and c o m p l e x i t y . The l o w -s c o r e r s e e k s s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , and i s a p p r e h e n s i v e o f i l l - d e f i n e d a n d ' r r i s k - i n v o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . I n temperament he i s p a t i e n t and o b l i g i n g , c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o t h e r s , b u t l a c k i n g i n v e r v e and e n e r g y . 2 1 . S u c c o r a n c e : 5 u r . D e f i n i t i o n : t o s o l i c i t s y m p a t h y , a f f e c t i o n , or e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t f r o m o t h e r s . I n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s : a p p r e c i a t i v e , d e manding, e m o t i o n -a l , i m m a t u r e , s e l f - c e n t e r e d , s e l f - p i t y i n g , s u b m i s s i v e , w h i n y (and o t h e r s o f l i k e t e n o r ) . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s (N = 9 ) : a l o o f , c o n f i d e n t , d o m i n a n t , i n d e p e n d e n t , i n d i f f e r -e n t , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , m a t u r e , s e l f - c o n f i d e n t and s t r o n g . Sue. a p p e a r s t o d e p i c t , a t i t s h i g h end, a p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h i s t r u s t i n g , g u i l e l e s s , and even n a i v e i n i t s f a i t h i n t h e i n t e g r i t y and b e n e v o l e n c e o f o t h e r s . The h i g h - s c o r e r i s d e p e n d e n t on o t h e r s , s e e k s s u p p o r t , and e x p e c t s t o f i n d i t . The l o w - s c o r e r , on t h e c o n t r a r y , i n i n d e p e n d e n t , r e s o u r c e f u l , and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , b u t a t t h e same t i m e p r u d e n t and c i r c u m -s p e c t . He has a s o r t o f q u i e t c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s own w o r t h and c a p a b i l i t y . 205 APPENDIX K ( C o n t ' d )  2_2_._ _A_basemont: Aba. D e f i n i t i o n : t o e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y t h r o u g h s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , g u i l t , o r s o c i a l i m p o t e n c e . On t h e i n d i c a t i v e key a r e ; a n x i o u s , c o w a r d l y , d e s p o n -d e n t , gloomy, r e t i r i n g , s e l f - p u n i s h i n g , s p i n e l e s s , t i m i d , e t c . The c o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e key i n c l u d e s a g g r e s s i v e , a r r o g a n t , b o a s t f u l , e g o t i s t i c a l , h a r d - h e a d e d , i n d e p e n d e n t , s e l f - c o n f i -de n t , e t c . H i g h - s c o r e r s on Aba a r e not o n l y s u b m i s s i v e and s e l f -e f f a c i n g , b u t a l s o a p p e a r t o have p r o b l e m s o f s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e . They see t h e m s e l v e s as weak and u n d e s e r v i n g , and f a c e t h e w o r l d w i t h a n x i e t y and f o r e b o d i n g . T h e i r b e h a v i o r i s o f t e n s s l f - p u n i s h i n g , p e r h a p s i n t h e hope o f f o r e s t a l l i n g c r i t i c i s m and r e j e c t i o n f r o m w i t h o u t . The l o w - s c o r e r i s o p t i m i s t i c , p o i s e d , p r o d u c t i v e , and d e c i s i v e . Not f e a r i n g o t h e r s , ha i s a l e r t and r e s p o n s i v e t o them. H i s tempo i s b r i s k , h i s manner c o n f i d e n t , and h i s b e h a v i o r e f f e c t i v e . 23. D e f e r e n c e : Def. D e f i n i t i o n ? t o seek and s u s t a i n s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e s i n r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . I n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s : a p p r e c i a t i v e , c o n v e n t i o n a l , c o o p e r -a t i v e , g e n t l e ' , m a n n e r l y , o b l i g i n g , s e n s i t i v e , s u g g e s t i b l e , e t c . C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s : a r g u m e n t a t i v e , a u t o c r a t i c dom-i n a n t , i m p u l s i v e , o p i n i o n a t e d , o r i g i n a l , r e c k l e s s , e t c . The i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g h i g h on Def i s t y p i c a l l y c o n s c i e n -t i o u s , d e p e n d a b l e , and p e r s e v e r i n g . He i s s e l f - d e n y i n g n o t so much out o f any f e a r o f o t h e r s o r i n f e r i o r i t y t o them as out o f a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a n o n y m i t y and f r e e d o m f r o m s t r e s s and e x t e r n a l demands. He a t t e n d s m o d e s t l y t o h i s a f f a i r s , s e e k i n g l i t t l e , and y i e l d i n g a l w a y s t c any r e a s o n a b l e c l a i m by a n o t h e r . The i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a l o w s c o r e on Def i s more e n e r g e t i c , s p o n t a n -e o u s , and i n d e p e n d e n t ; he l i k e s a t t e n t i o n , l i k e s t o s u p e r v i s e and d i r e c t o t h e r s , and t o e x p r e s s h i s w i l l . He i s a l s o a m b i -t i o u s , and i s n o t above t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f o t h e r s and c o e r c i n g them i f he can a t t a i n a g o a l i n so d o i n g . 

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