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Love as an ordering principle in Cavalcanti, Pound and Robert Duncan Westbrook, Ralph Robert 1969

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LOVE AS AN ORDERING PRINCIPLE IN CAVALCANTI, POUND AND ROBERT DUNCAN BY RALPH ROBERT WESTBROOK B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1966. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Eng l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required* standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 i In present ing th i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thes,is for f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to o f f e r some e x p l i n a t i o n o f the manner in which Ezra Pound has created a metaphysical c e n t r e f o r The Cantos through a b s o r p t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of the Renaissance metaphysic o f c o u r t l y and transcendent love and the pragmatic e t h i c a l philosophy o f Confucius. It r e s o l v e s no problems, e i t h e r textual or c r i t i c a l , but r a t h e r suggests that the t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto i s c e n t r a l to the philosophy u n d e r l y i n g the poem as a whole. From the c e n t r a l f o u r t h chaper, the t h e s i s attempts to give some idea of the nature o f Pound's i n f l u e n c e upon one other poet and how t h i s i n f l u e n c e has r e s u l t e d i n a new e v a l u a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l C a v a l c a n t i m a t e r i a l . The short i n t o d u c t o r y chapter o u t l i n e s the nature o f the problem of love as an o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e which provides a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the d i s p a r a t e and seemingly opposing f o r c e s which shape human e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s u n i t y , i t i s s t a t e d , represents an attempt on the part of western man to i n t e g r a t e h i s d u a l i s t i c response to the world of Process, an e s s e n t i a l l y eastern concept. Chapter two o u t l i n e s the nature of C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem and the philosophy o f love which i t c o n t a i n s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s poem has yet to be i n t e r p r e t e d with any degree of f i n a l i t y and I have n e c e s s a r i l y had to work through the general concensus of c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n . The t h i r d chapter points to Pound's conception of the philosophy o f Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s canzon and how Pound has i n t e r p r e t e d the "guerdon" of the amour c o u r t o i s t r a d i t i o n as the Confucian d o c t r i n e of l_i_. Chapter f o u r explores the connexion between Pound's conception and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Donna Me Prega and how, from the concept of i n d i v i d u a l compassion, Pound e n v i s i o n s a v i a b l e order f o r the s o c i e t y of western man, while c o n t i n u a l l y m a i n t a i n i n g the concept o f the universe as Process. The f i f t h chapter d e a l s with Robert Duncan's stated v a r i a t i o n on Pound's view of Donna Me Prega and the philosophy contained t h e r e i n , and o f f e r s some comments on the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s vf o r d e r , or l a c k o f same, as expressed by Duncan. The c o n c l u s i o n discusses the metaphysical concept of l o v e as a p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y in r e l a t i o n to some modern statements of epistemology and a e s t h e t i c s , and concludes t h a t Pound has expressed the sense of order and u n i t y in a more u n i v e r s a l and o b j e c t i v e manner than has Duncan-The addendum of chapter seven suggests some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o these areas and concludes that Ezra Pound's consciousness of the Processal universe i s e s s e n t i a l l y o r i e n t a l , i e . , an a e s t h e t i c response, while the concept remains l a r g e l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l p o s t u l a t e i n the western w o r l d . i i On the whole, the pr imary concern i s f o r the exp lana t i on of the r e l a t i o n s h i p among such elements as imag ina t i on , transcendent l o v e , human s o c i a l o r d e r , and the concept of the un i ve r se as an a l l - e m b r a c i n g Process of i n t e r a c t i n g elements. i i i CONTENTS PAGE 1. I n t roduc t i on p. 1 2. Donna Me Prega p. 5 3. Mercede as Compassion p. 29 4. Compassion or Order p. 52 5. Inmersed i n the Process p. 78 6. Conc lus ion p. 106 7. Addendum p. 113 8. B i b l i o g r aphy p. 118 i v LOVE AS AN ORDERING PRINCIPLE C h a p t e r One: I n t r o d u c t i o n The g r e a t e s t poets have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h o s e who worked toward and e f f e c t e d a s y n t h e s i s , an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the v a r i e d elements o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , both i n l i f e and i n a r t . Man i s both s e n t i e n t and i n t e l l e c t u a l , i m a g i n a t i v e and r a t i o n a l . The v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s r e f l e c t t h i s d u a l i t y i n tiiat each p o s t u l a t e s r e a l i t y as e x i s t e n t intwo d i s t i n c t a s p e c t s . In p h i l o s o p h y , one sees t h e d u a l i t y s t a t e d i n terms o f t h e p o s i t i o n s o f r e a l i s t and i d e a l i s t ; i n r e l i g i o n , t h e d i v i s i o n i s made between t h e r a t i o n a l i s t and t h e m y s t i c ; and i n a r t between t h e p o l e s o f c l a s s i c a l and r o m a n t i c . None o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t an e x p r e s s i o n o f a c t u a l i t y , as each a p p r o a c h e s e x i s t e n c e from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f some l i m i t e d t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f man and e x i s t e n c e . Each p o s i t i o n assumes t h a t man's n a t u r e i s a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e d by t h a t p a r t i c u l a r h a l f -t r u t h which i t p o s t u l a t e s and e a c h , i f a c c e p t e d as a sta t e m e n t o f f a c t and a v a l i d p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , i s e x c l u s i v e i n t h a t i t d i s a l l o w s any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about e x i s t e n c e t h a t t h e o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n c o u l d p r o v i d e . S u r r o u n d i n g t h e d i v i d e d house o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s and a w a i t -i n g t h e c e s s a t i o n o f man's a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s . Whether one s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e vi e w t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s composed w h o l l y o f s p i r i t o r t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s e n t i r e l y m a t e r i a l , o r even t o t h e 2 r e c e n t l y - d i s c o v e r e d view (a t l e a s t , by the western w o r l d ) , t ha t the un i ve r se i s a f l u x of matter and energy c on s t an t l y s h i f t i n g and re -pha s i ng , the Process awaits man's d i s cove r y o f , and i n t e g r a t i o n t o , i t s r i v e r - l i k e f l o w . The Process o f con t i nua l anabol ism and c a t abo l i sm , form and d i s s o l u t i o n , matter and energy, has been i n every age the e s s e n t i a l r e a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e . Each c u l t u r e has a r r i v e d a t a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n toward the Process , from the pass ive acceptance of and i n t e g r a t i o n to the " o t h e r " aspect o f r e a l i t y t ha t the As ian c u l t u r e s have ach ieved , to the t h e o r e t i c a l po s tu l a te s of human con t r o l over the "machine" of nature made by western man. Beyond the poles o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dichotomy l i e s the e s s e n t i a l t r u t h tha t n e i t h e r i s a complete statement o f the ac tua l s i t u a t i o n and tha t both p o s i t i o n s , when taken t oge the r , form a t o t a l cosmolog ica l v iew. In each c u l t u r e , the poet has been the one man who not on l y sees c l e a r l y the twin poles o f the a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n but who has sought a s y n t he s i s , a u n i t y which each has been aware must u n d e r l i e the d u a l i t y . In o rder to ach ieve i n s i g h t i n t o the e s s e n t i a l harmony of e x i s t e n c e , poets have the problem of d u a l i t y i n w ide l y v a r i e d terms and have u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t poles w i t h which to express the dichotomy. One has seen the d u a l i t y i n terms o f human psychology and metaphys ics , express ing on one hand the senses and the pass ive i n t e l l e c t , and on the o t h e r , the r a t i o n a l o r a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t ; and has spoken of r e a l i t y as e x i s t e n t i n form ( i n the P l a t o n i c sense) and a c t u a l i t y . Th i s i s the medieval p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f Guido C a v a l c a n t i , to whom love i s u l t i m a t e l y a P l a t o n i c form or idea which works through the sense response, u n i t i n g the d u a l i t y of human consciousness v i a the machinat ions of the po s s i b l e and a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t s , and working toward a myst i c contemplat ion of the super-sensuous i d e a l . Love, ther; i s a P l a t o n i c form which, a lthough a disembodied i d e a l , has a phys i ca l a c t u a l t y by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t ha t i t has i t s o r i g i n i n the response of the senses to phy s i ca l 3 beauty. Through the workings of the dual nature of the human consc iousness , l ove becomes a f o r c e which u n i f i e s the d u a l i t y in contemplat ion of a t ranscendent i d e a l . Another poet, Ezra Pound, w r i t i n g i n a c u l t u r a l m i l i e u which had pos tu la ted and demonstrated the metaphys ical i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n of 2 matter and energy in a c r y p t i c statement o f phy s i ca l r e a l i t y , (E=MC ), s t a te s the dichotomy i n terms o f ep i temology, u t i l i z i n g the poles o f percept ion and concept i on . Percept ion i s an i n t u i t i v e apprehension of t r u t h ope ra t i ng through one or more of the senses; wh i l e concept ion denotes the f o rmu l a t i on o f t r u t h i n the mind. As Pound uses these terms, the emphasis i s upon percept ion as an i n t u i t i v e , imag inat i ve and immediate apprehens ion, and he s tesses concept ion as a more conscious i n t e l l e c t u a l process d ivorced from imag ina t i on . The i n t e g r a t i o n of these responses a l l ows the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e to the world of P rocess , c l a r i t y of v i s i o n and a more complete apprehension of the p o s i t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l v i s - a - v i s the Process . Love, to Pound, has s t i l l both the P l a t o n i c form or i dea l and the Phy s i ca l a c t u a l i t y ; however, i n i t s machinat ions as a u n i f y i n g f o r c e , love becomes compassion or f e l l o w - f e e l i n g and enable the i n d i v i d u a l to man i fe s t the Confucian concept of l_i_, or b r o t h e r l y de fe rence. As each i n d i v i d u a l ach ieves the q u a l i t y of Poundian compassion the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the a t t a i n -ment o f a j u s t and l a s t i n g s o c i a l o rder i nc rea se s . Thus, love has, to one poet the power to u n i f y the mind i n contemplat ion of a t ranscendent i d e a l , w h i l e to another l ove has the p o t e n t i a l to c r ea te an e q u i t a b l e and a l l - p e r v a s i v e s o c i a l o rde r . To a t h i r d poet, Robert Duncan, the wor ld o f Process has become equatable w i t h the B i b l i c a l Chaos, th rea ten ing engulfment and d i s s o l u t i o n of form, meaning the consc iousness . The poem i t s e l f , being a microcosm of the l a r g e r un i v e r s e , repeats the d i s o r de r and the l a ck of d e f i n i t e form which the poet exper iences i n the wor ld of P rocess . No longer i s the poem an 4 express ion of the t o t a l sent ience and consciousness of man, but r a t h e r , i t e x i s t s as a scaled-down un iver se of d i s o rde r i n which the poet plumbs in order to d i s cove r h i s own i d e n t i t y . Love, i n i t s i dea l a spec t , i s dec i ded l y the Poundian compassion and i s s t i l l necessary to the estab l i shment o f both personal and s o c i a l o rde r ; however, the emphasis of the poem i s upon the surrounding darkness and human b e s t i a l i t y . The i d e a l of l ove provides a refuge i n that i t strengthens the f a i t h o f the i n d i v i d u a l who perce ives and can exper ience i t , thus a l l o w i n g him to s t o i c a l l y f a c e the disharmony and pain o f human e x i s t e n c e . 5 Chapter 2: Donna Me Prega T r a d i t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d t ha t Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s l y r i c express ion of the nature and o r i g i n s o f l o v e , "Donna Me Prega, " was w r i t t e n in response to the sonnet, "Onde s i Muove," o f Guido O r l a n d i . The canzone c e r t a i n l y answers a l l o f the quest ions concern ing l ove asked by O r l a n d i , and i t appears to be the on l y one extant t h a t cou ld be cons idered as a response to the sonnet. That the Donna o f the canzone i s O r l a n d i , o r a t l e a s t one poet of the do l ce s t i l nuove, i s made r e a d i l y apparent by the complex and sub t l e reason ing of the poem, not to mention the t i g h t l y compressed S c h o l a s t i c ph i lo sophy, obv i ou s l y not intended f o r the ears or mind of any woman. C a v a l c a n t i ' s avowed purpose f o r w r i t i n g the conzone, i m p l i c i t in the f i r s t s t anza , i s to conv ince those who doubt the ex i s t ence of t h i s t ranscendent f o r c e and to e x p l a i n , i n the terms of medieval ph i losophy and metaphys ics, the immediate and u l t i m a t e sources o f l o v e , i t s na tu re , r a m i f i c a t i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t , a l though the exchange between Or land i and Cava!cant i stands in the t r a d i t i o n of the medieval l ove debate, the canzone i s not intended merely to add to the knowledge of manners or procedure, not i s i t intended merely to defend o r c l a r i f y a t r a d i t i o n a l po s tu l a te or argument. Such an i n t e n t i o n would be s u p e r f i c i a l and unworthy of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of C a v a l c a n t i . Th is i s not to accuse the poets of the c o u r t l y love t r a d t i o n of a l a ck of se r ious concern f o r the t r ue nature of l o v e , but r a t h e r to imply tha t the love about which poets such as Arnaut D a n i e l , Gui l laume de L o r r i s and Geof f rey Chaucer spoke, was l e s s Metaphysical and cctsmic in scope t h a t t h a t of C a v a l c a n t i . The primary concern o f the Provencal poets and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s was w i th manners and mora l s , e s p e c i a l l y the manner i n which the uncouth medieval man could be 6 r e f i n e d , s o c i a l l y and pe r sonJ l y , by the love of the c o u r t l y love t r a d i t i o n . Ju s t as there i s a bas i c d i f f e r e n c e in purpose and treatment o f l ove between the poets of the c o u r t l y love t r a d i t i o n and C a v a l c a n t i , so i s there a d i f f e r e n c e in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e concept ions of the nature of l o v e . The f i n ' amors o f the Provencal l y r i c i s t s i s the r e s u l t of a j conf luence of p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r c e s , some inherent i n European c u l t u r e , others o r i e n t a l i n o r i g i n . The decline in awareness of C l a s s i c a l l e a r n -i ng l e f t on l y t r ace s of P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m , which, through the abso rp t ion of P l a t o n i c concepts i n t o the p h i l o s o p h i c a l system of A r i s t o t l e , were c a r r i e d forward i n t o the framework of medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two l a t e r r e s u l t e d in the medieval schools of Nominalism and Rea l i sm. A r i s t o t e l i a n r e a l i s m became the ph i l o s oph i c a l grounding of the S c h o l a s t i c movement i n medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y , wh i l e P l a t o n i c i d ea l i sm developed through the A lexandr i an P l a t o n i s t s , such as Or i gen , P roc lu s and Iambl ichus , i n t o the C h r i s t i a n phi losophy of D ionys ius the a reopag i te and S t . August ine. Between the d e c l i n e of the C l a s s i c a l ph i losophy and the t h i r t e e n t h century resurgence o f European c u l t u r e , r i s e s the power and l e a r n i n g of I s l amic c u l t u r e . The widespread conquests of Moslem armies and r e s u l t a n t absorpt ion of o r i e n t a l p h i l o s oph i c a l concepts l ead to a f u r t h e r P l a t o n i c c o l o u r i n g of A r i s t o t e l a i n r e a l i s m , which the C h r i s t i a n S c h o l a s t i c ph i l o sophe r s , e s p e c i a l l y Thomas Aquinas, began g r adua l l y to purge. The pr imary po in t s of con tac t between the European and I s l amic c u l t u r e s are Spa in , S i c i l y and the s e c t i o n d ' o r o f France. For our present purposes, however, Spain may be exc luded, as l i t t l e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of Spanish o r i e n t a l i s m upon the P rovenca l , S i c i Tan or Tuscan l i t e r a r y 7 t r a d i t i o n s has been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y proven. The S i c i l i a n cou r t of F rede r i ck II was the f i r s t imper i a l cou r t to absorby Arab s cho l a r s h i p and hence, o r i e n t a l ph i lo sophy, which was most ly i n the f i e l d s of mathematics and med ic ine . The p o s i t i o n of the I s l amic phi losophy of t h i s per iod was dec i ded l y P l a t o n i c , both i n h e r e n t l y , through the s cho l a r s h i p of Avicenna and Aver roes , and ex t raneous l y , through A rab i c ab so rp t i on of Hindu ph i l o s oph i c a l n o t i on s , which tend g e n e r a l l y toward the same idea l i sm as that expressed by P l a t o . Poets a t the cour t of F r ede r i c k I I , w r i t i n g in a s t y l e composed of Norman and O r i e n t a l e lements, t a l k i n terms of c h i v a l r i c idealism and ph i l o s oph i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s . The c h i v a l r i c and c o u r t l y content of thebir work i s l a r g e l y a f o r e i g n excrescence, g r a f t ed on through the i n f l uence s of 1 the Norman t r a d i t i o n s of f a n t a s t i c a l c h i v a l r y and the eastern sensuousness. Concepts, images and n a r r a t i v e elements a re ou t s i de of the na t i v e exper ience ; l i k e the matter of Rome employed by Guido de l Colonna, i t i s on l y a memory, evanescent as the m i s t s . The paradox behind the S i c i l i a n school l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t , a lthough the poets speak i n terms of ab s t r a c t i on s and the n e a r l y - f o r g o t t e n memories, the conclusion to the overwhelming amount o f t h e i r love poetry i s merely phy s i ca l conquest of the i d e a l i z e d lady and possess ion o f her phy s i ca l p e r f e c t i o n s . Love has not the e x a l t a t i o n and ref inement of s p i r i t i n the S i c i l i a n school as i t has i n the l a t e r Tuscan poets . Perhaps t h i s f a c t i s the best i l l u s t r a t i o n of how the c h i v a l r i c t r a d i t i o n s were g ra f ted onto the S i c i l i a n cou r t and r e u l t a n t l y , the l i t e r a r y exp re s s i on . The cou r t poets aim a t express ion of the noble i d ea l s of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u ze ra i n s , but the phys i ca l f a c t s of t h e i r personal exper ience are i r r e p r e s s i b l e . The e x p e r i e n t i a l element cannot be suppressed by any t h e o r e t i c or i d e a l i s t i c amb i t i on s . In the S i c i l i a n cou r t s poets , we see the s t rong i n f l u e n c e of 1 De S a n c t i s , F. H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . 1, pp 12 - 14, New York: B a s i c Books, I nc . 1931 8 A r a b i c P l a t o n i s m , but a l s o , how i m p e r f e c t l y t h i s i n f l u e n c e was a b s o r b e d . The l o v e t h a t t h e y seek t o e x p r e s s i s s e n s u a l i n e s s e n c e , but i s d i s u s s e d i n terms o f s p i r i t u a l and i d e a l i s t i c r e a l i t i e s which become mere a b s t r a c t i o n s w i t h o u t any r e a l b a s i s i n terms o f t h e i r a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . The o t h e r p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between European and I s l a m i c c u l t u r e , germane t o t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , o c c u r s i n t h e a r e a o f s o u t h e r n F r a n c e and h e l p s t o f o s t e r t h e c o u r t l y l o v e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e r e f i n e d l o v e o f t h e P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o r s . H e r e , as i s r e a d i l y s u r m i s e d f r o m Andreas C a p e l l a n u s ' De A r t e Honeste Amandi, l o v e i s a r e f i n i n g and e x a l t i n g f o r c e , but e x a l t i n g f o r c e , but p r i m a r i l y i n t h e a r e a o f t h e s o c i a l g r a c e s , manner and t h e a r t s . We have h e r e , as i n t h e S i c i l i a n p o e t s , t h e sense o f s e n s u a l l o v e ( e r o s ) , a l b e i t seen i d e a l i s t i c a l l y . The l a d y i s s o c i a l l y e x a l t e d beyond t h e c o u r t i e r ' s hope o f a t t a i n m e n t and t h e c o u r t i e r seeks t o become the s e r f o f h i s l a d y , o f f e r i n g h i s f e a l t y and d i s c r e t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r h e r "mercy". A l t h o u g h t h e s e r v a n t o f l o v e would seek t o improve h i m s e l f i n manners grooming, and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and performance o f l o v e l y r i c s i n p r a i s e o f h i s l a d y , t h e l e v e l o f t h e s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n i s o f the u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . The f o c u s o f t h e s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n i s here upon t h e outward man, man as a s o c i a l c r e a t u r e , as a c o u r t i e r . The l o v e o f t h e t r o u b a d o r s i s u l t i m a t e l y a s e n s u a l l o v e , i n f a c t , p r e f e r a b l y an i l l e g i t i m a t e l o v e , f o r some t r e a t i s e s even r u l e t h a t l o v e i s i m p o s s i b l e between a man and h i s l e g a l 2 s pouse. The T u s c a n poets o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e as much t h e h e i r s 2 Dodd, W.G. " The System o f C o u r t l y Love," p. 4, v o l I I , Chaucer C r i t i c i s m , N o t r e Dame, I n d . , : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1961 9 of the Provencal t roubadors as they are o f the S i c i l i a n cou r t poets . In t h e i r e a r l y work, one f i n d s the same c h i v a l r i c and f a n t i a s t i c a l l y he ro i c elements as i n the S i c i l i a n s , and the same sense o f c o u r t l i n e s s and concern f o r the manners and ref inement of the outer man as i n the Provencal t roubadors . There i s , however, an important departure from the v a r i ed elements which amalgamate to produce the do l ce s t i l nuove i n t h a t an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of thought, a more metaphys ica l i n c l i n a t i o n i s apparent. Perhaps t h i s g reater s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s e x p l i c a b l e i n terms of s o c i o l o g i c a l concept s , such as i n t e n s i f i e d u r b a n i z a t i o n and the g rea te r cu r ren t s of p h i l o s oph i c a l s pecu l a t i on which surrounded the F l o r e n t i n e poets ; however, one need go no f u r t h e r than the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i t s e l f i n order to e x p l a i n the phenomenon. G u i z i z e l l i , Cava l can t i and Dante wrote as the end r e s u l t , the f i n a l e f f l o r a t i o n , of an ongoing t r a d i t i o n of ph i l o s oph i c a l thought and t o p i c a l concern. I t i s po s s i b l e to see a continuum of a r t i s t i c and ph i l o s oph i c a l development from the Provencal and S i c i l i a n poets to Dante. Common elements e x i s t i n the work of a l l the poets concerned, such as the pre -occupat ion w i t h l o v e , i t s nature and r a m i f i c a t i o n s , the concern f o r the transcendent and e x a l t i n g aspects of sensuous love and the p r og re s s i v e l y deve lop ing concept ion of a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the f l e s h y and the s p i r i t u a l natures of man, the attempt to harmonize eros and agape. The S i c i l i a n cou r t poets do not have a s u f f i c i e n t l y s t rong e x p e r i e n t i a l r e fe rence f o r the s p i r i t u a l or t h e o r e t i c elements of t h e i r work, and hence, cannot transcend the sensuous aspect of l o v e , wh i l e the Provencal troubadors s u f f e r from a l a c k of v i s i o n o f the transcendent and are l i m i t e d to a r e a l i s t i c express ion of the power which love possesses to t ransform the man of crude s e n s i b i l i t y i n t o a r e f i n e d c o u r t i e r possess ing a s t rong sense of l o y a l t y , a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y and d i s c r e t i o n . 10 It i s b a s i c a l l y the f i n ' amors of the Provencal t r a d i t i o n , t h e n , that C a v a l c a n t i and h i s f e l l o w poets o f the d o l c e . s t i l miove a r e d i s c u s s i n g . However, as we have noted, there i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and s u b t l e reasoning on the part of the F l o r e n t i n e poets, which i s not found i n the work of the Provencal trou ba dors . The courtly love t r a d i t i o n o f southern France was judged h e r e t i c a l by the Church, and no doubt the reasoning and p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions which produced the f i i i ' amors produced a l s o the A l b i g e n s i a n heresy, which the Church treated so s e v e r e l y as a c h a l l e n g e to i t s a u t h o r i t y . If f o r no other r e a s o n , the Church would see t h i s focus on sensual or sexual love as a f o r c e working f o r human refinement as being e x c e s s i v e l y w o r l d l y i n o r i e n t a t i o n . For a f t e r a l l , the basic C h r i s t i a n teaching was that man should focus on the other w o r l d , the world of the Almighty, and d i r e c t h i s l o v e towards the c e l e s t i a l and the Supremely Good, r a t h e r than on the more l i m i t e d , but l e s s t h e o r e t i c , e a r t h l y good, or beauty. Man i s to focus on the d i v i n e l y and e t e r n a l l y b e a u t i f u l , r a t h e r than on that which i s sensuous and temporal. Monkish s c h o l a s t s brought the f u l l pressure of t h e i r A r i s t o t e l i a n r e a l i s m to bear upon t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y P l a t o n i c conception of l o v e , which f l o u r i s h e d i n t h i r t e e n t h and fourteenth century southern Europe. Anquinas argues as s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t the P l a t o n i c conception of love as he does a g a i n s t S t . A u g u s t i n e ' s myst ical C h r i s t i a n i t y , and u l t i m a t e l y r e c o n c i l e s the transcendent values of the C h r i s t i a n Church with the emphasis on e a r t h l y and sensual l o v e . It i s b a s i c a l l y the p o s i t i o n of Aquinas which Dante expresses, as the t h e o r e t i c component o f his a r t , i n the V i t a Nuova and the Divine Comedy. The emphasis o f both i s upon the Supreme Good, d e s p i t e P l a t o n i c elements i n both works, b a s i c a l l y an A r i s t o t e l i a n conception i n t e r p r e t e d so as to serve C a t h o l i c dogma. n In the D i v i ne Comedy, Dante p laces the Cava l can t i f a m i l y in H e l l , as he must do as a devout and p r a c t i c i n g C a t h o l i c . The f a m i l y held to a p o s i t i o n , both p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l , which was i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i th a s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of Church teach ing s . The bas i c position of the Church, i n terms of medieval ph i lo sophy, must be seen as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i s m , which holds t ha t the elements of the mate r i a l world are u l t i m a t e r e a l i t i e s , as they p a r t i c i p a t e i n and s t r i v e towards the D i v i ne Nature of the Supreme Be ing . The u l t i m a t e p o s i t i o n expressed i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s Donna Me Prega i s a ph i l o s oph i c a l i d e a l i s m , which holds tha t the ma te r i a l wor ld and the world of ideas are both u l t i m a t e l y r e a l ; however, on l y i n s o f a r as human exper ience of them i s ab le to judge them to be r e a l . Th is i s a p o s i t i o n of p h i l o s o p h i c a l conceptual i sm, not unre lated to eas tern ph i l o s oph i c a l concepts , or to P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m . The u l t i m a t e t e s t of r e a l i t y i s e x p e r i e n t i a l , i e . , r e a l i t y i s immediately and a e s t h e t i c a l l y apprehendable through the response of the i n d i v i d u a l . Th i s i s to po s tu l a te the un i ve r se as a plenum of s h i f t i n g and o s c i l l a t i n g energy l e v e l s which c o n t i n u a l l y waxes and wanes between r e l a t i v e form and d i s s o l u t i o n , s o l i d i t y and i n t a n g i b i l i t y - the world of Process . C a v a l c a n t i ' s world i s such a wo r l d , one i n which ma te r i a l and conceptual e n t i t i e s are i n d i s s o l u b l y u n i t e d . In such a w o r l d , the f o r c e of l ove serves as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r : o r d e r i n g , d e f i n i n g , and i n t e r - c o n n e c t i n g the mate r i a l to the i r r m a t e r i a l , the phy s i ca l to the s p i r i t u a l , the form w i th the i d e a . For d i s c u s s i o n of Donna Me Prega, I have worked from the F l e t che r 3 t r a n s l a t i o n , as i t i n c l ude s e x c e l l e n t l i n e by l i n e notes which expand upon the s i g n i f i c a n c e of terms which suggested d i f f e r e n t denotat ions and connotat ions to the medieval mind than they do to the modern reader . 3 F l e t c h e r , J .B . "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode of Love" ModernPhi logy, v o l . 7, January 1910, pp 423-26. 12 F l e t c h e r a l s o r e l a t e s c e r t a i n aspects of C a v a l c a n t i ' s p h i l o s oph i c a l p o s i t i o n to equ i va l en t s or p a r a l l e l s i n Dante, e s p e c i a l l y to the C o v i t o , i n which occur the g r ea te s t s i m i l a r i t i e s to C a v a l c a n t i ' s t r e a t i s e . Perhaps the s a f e s t e x e g e t i c a l procedure would be a stanza by stanza d i s c u s s i o n of the elements of C a v a l c a n t i ' s ph i losophy of l o v e . The f i r s t stanza works from the quest ions of O r l a n d i ' s sonnet, o u t l i n i n g the va r i ou s aspects o f the p a r t i c u l a r problem which are to be d i s c u s s ed . The quest ions are appa ren t l y p a i r e d , each p a i r to be re so l ved i n the succeeding s tanzas : where l ove has p l a ce , and what power a f f e c t s i t s c r e a t i o n ; what i s the p a r t i c u l a r v e r t u t e and power of t h i s f o r c e ; what i s the e s s e n t i a l v e r i t y or essence, and what are the natures of i t s motions and development; and l a s t l y , what p leasure i s de r i ved from l ove and i f i t be mani fest to s i g h t . Although each o f the succeeding stanzas are to be a d i s c u s s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n of two ques t i on s , eachhas a u n i t y of i t s own, i n t ha t the two problems d e a l t w i t h are t r ea ted as d i v i s i o n s of the s p e c i f i c s ub jec t w i th which the stanza d e a l s . A bas ic paradox i n the f i r s t stanza betrays the f a c t t ha t the nature of l ove d i s c u s s i o n i s going to be t w o f o l d , f o r w i th d ' un acc i den t s che sovents e f e r o ed e s i a l t e r o , c h ' e chiamato amore: (2-3) Cava l can t i o u t l i n e s the purpose and i n t e n t i o n of h i s ph i l o s oph i c canzone to be an attempt to r e c o n c i l e the d i f f e r e n c e between the opposing r epu ta t i on s which love has r e c e i v e d , f e r o and a l t e r o . That Cava l can t i i s biased i n favour of a l t e r o i s apparent i n h i s che sovente, t r a n s l a t e d as " too f r q u e n t l y , " by F l e t c h , A l s o , his na tu ra l p r e d i l e c t i o n can be seen i n the tone of h i s address ing the canzone to those hearts are not of "base degree. " (basso cho r e ) , f o r by p l a c i n g h i s d i s c u s s i o n on the l e v e l of 13 "p roof p h i l o s o p h i c , " he speaks on l y to those of h i s f e l l o w who are i n sympathy w i th the f i n ' amors and i n possess ion of t r a i n e d and s u b t l e i n t e l l e c t s . The f i r s t stanza i s an o u t l i n e of the problem f o r d i s c u s s i o n , a statement of l i m i t a t i o n o f audience ( r e l a t e d to the commiato), and as an avowal to cons ide r the problem i n the context of contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions. Stanza two desc r i be s the o r i g i n s or p lace of re s idence of t h i s l o v e , c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s i t s nature and de sc r i be s love i n i t s f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n s as a d i s pa s s i ona te med i ta t ion upon an image r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the i dea l of e a r t h l y beauty. Love ' s r e s i dence , or po in t of i n c e p t i o n , i s i n dove s ta memora (15) i e . , i n the p lace where memory r e s i d e s , to the medieval mind the s e n s i t i v e , as opposed to the r a t i o n a l , s o u l . In modern terms, the imag inat ion as opposed to the i n t e l l e c t . At t h i s p o i n t , Shaw, in h i s t h e s i s upon C a v a l c a n t i ' s ph i losophy of l o v e , expands upon t h i s concept ion o f l o v e ' s o r i g i n . C a v a l c a n t i ' s Love i s s e n s i t i v e and not r a t i o n a l , as we are t o l d i n the t h i r d stanza (1? - 3 ) , but i t i s both i n t e l l e c t u a l and sensua l : not tha t i t i s a union of two separate kinds of l o v e , but because the s e n s i t i v e soul of the l o v e r has both inner and outer f a c u l t i e s , and the inner f a c u l t i e s are i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t ha t they are pervaded by the i n t e l l e c t . I t has a f i r s t and a second p e r f e c t i o n , and the second p e r f e c t i o n i s i t s complete a c t u a l i t y . 4 From t h i s , one may d i s c e r n t h a t love i s formed through the a c t i o n s of the senses, i e . , through the sense response in the s e n s i t i v e soul or 4 Shaw, F.E. Guido Cava! c a n t i ' s Theory o f ' l o v e , Toronto: The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P re s s , 1961, P. 11. 14 imag ina t i on . Th i s i s love i n i t s f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n , an image of i dea l beauty i s c reated by the imag inat ion and remains i n the memory. The image i t s e l f i s an idea sensed or f e l t by the imag ina t i on , t h e r e f o r e , i n modern te rmino logy , an i n t u i t e d i d e a , a percept ion as opposed to a concept i on , In the notes to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , F l e t c h e r desc r ibes t h i s c r e a t i o n a s , "a s i l h o u e t t e i n b lack upon the screen of the imag ina t i on , so symbo l i z ing the " m a l i g n i t y " of Love. " F l e t c h e r then proceeds to de s c r i be the " m a l i g n i t y " or f e r o " aspect of l o ve as the r e s u l t of the poe t ' s d e r i v i n g the "shadow" from Mars, " t he p lanet of wrath and P e r t u r b a t i o n , " and says t h a t , " C a v a l c a n t i , however, makes the very essence of love " exce s s i ve l o n g i n g . " F l e t c h e r juxtaposes C a v a l c a n t i ' s d e r i v a t i o n of the "shadow" from Mars w i th Dante ' s d e r i v a t i o n ( i n Cdnvito I I , 7) of the f o r c e of l ove from the b r i g h t rad iance of the p lanet Venus. The d i f f e r e n c e here , between these two d e r i v a t i o n s , i s c r u c i a l , f o r C a v a l c a n t i , by d e r i v a t i o n of the acc iden t s from the i n f l u e n c e of the p lanet Mars, i s l o c a t i n g the i n cep t i on o f l ove in the concreteness of the sense response, the a e s t h e t i c response o f man to a sense o b j e c t . Dante, on the other hand, de r i ve s the f o r c e o f l ove from the p lanet Venus, the symbol ic va lue o f which suggests h i s focus to be removed from the sense response to the l e v e l of the who l l y t h e o r e t i c - l ove then becomes the d e s i r e of the soul f o r a s p i r i t u a l union w i th the loved o b j e c t . Dante, t h e r e f o r e , a s c e t i c a l l y denies the body, the phy s i ca l nature of l ove i n favour of the who l l y s p i r i t u a l , and one can r e a d i l y surmise t ha t Dante ' s p o s i t i o n i s more orthodox from the po in t o f view of the medieval C h r i s t i a n Church. That Cava l can t i works from the concrete phy s i ca l exper ience i s borne out by the remainder of h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n the second s tanza . 15 nature of sense bestows I t s name, and pose o f s o u l , and h e a r t ' s d e s i r e . I t comes from v i s i b l e fo rm, which, apprehended, Ascended i n t o pass ive i n t e l l e c t . (19 - 22) The sense response i s l o v e ' s po in t of depa r tu re . Love i s an a b s t r a c t i o n , or i d e a , i n t u i t i v e l y known or apprehended, drawn from the phys i ca l form of i d e a l beauty, i e . , woman. From the immediacy of the sense response, the imag inat ion draws the ab s t r ac ted idea i n t o the p o s s i b i l e i n t e l l e t t o or " pa s s i ve i n t e l l e c t , " i e . , the i n t e l l e c t i v e memory. Once i n the memory, t h i s l o v e , abs t rac ted from the p h y s i c a l , "ma inta in s i t s tenancy, " and never works i n that p a r t , i e . , the memory, " i n j u r y . " I n j u r y may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d i v e r s i o n of the w i l l from i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l , i e . , contemplat ion of the who l l y s p i r i t u a l . With l i n e twen ty - f ou r , " C a v a l c a n t i doub t l e s s " intends a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the body and s o u l , f o r he i s , i n e f f e c t , say ing t ha t a l though lovehas i t s i n cep t i on i n the phy s i c a l response, i t does not d e t r a c t from the s o u l ' s contemplat ion of the Supreme Good. I t , l o v e , i s not a mere b ind ing of the S e l f to the e a r t h l y , i e . , the sense response, but r a t h e r , l o v e , i n i t s now abs t rac ted or d i s t i l l e d form, i s not "from f i n i t e kind descended." Granted t ha t l o v e ' s o r i g i n a l i n cep t i on i s due to the i n f l u e n c e o f the p lanet Mars, i e . , of the senses, but , a f t e r the process o f ab s t r a c t i on has o ccu r red , i t s form ( idea) has been exa l ted by the pass ive i n t e l l e c t to the l e v e l of the i n f i n i t e . As F l e t c h e r ' s notes to l i n e s twen t y - f i v e and twenty s i x express the i d e a . Being o f a pure form, or i d e a , which as i n f i n i t e cannot be complete ly possessed by a f i n i t e be ing , l ove i s never i n a c t i v e through s a t i e t y . 5 Love, a t t h i s po i n t of i t s development, i s a pure form or i d e a , and, as i t i s i n f i n i t e and cannot be reconc i l ed to a f i n i t e c r e a t u r e , i t 16 cannot come to any phy s i ca l f r u i t i o n . The s t a t e of l o ve i s an enraptured med i t a t i on upon the i d e a l , an abandonment of S e l f to the contemplat ion of the i d e a l . Nor wears aspect of j o y but r e v e r i e , For may not enter there a f f i n i t y . (27 - 28) Cava l can t i expresses here the P l a t o n i c " e c s t a s y " the l o s s of separate s e l f - con sc i ou sne s s i n t o the r ap tu re o f contempla t i on . The ex i s t ence of the i dea l i n the world o f p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y i s the a f f i n i t y , t h e ' l i k e n e s s o r counte rpa r t of the idea i n o b j e c t i v e terms. These are i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , as the " f o rm" and " o b j e c t , " the i d e a l " and the " r e a l " a re d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s and may not i n t r ude upon the o t h e r ' s sphere of e x i s t e n c e . Of c e n t r a l importance in the second stanza i s the mataphysic o f l i g h t employed by Cava l can t i to d i s c r i b e the analogous s t a t e of l o v e , To the medieval mind, God and l i g h t were seen as coterminus, the d e i t y being qu i t e l i t e r a l l y the source of a l l l i g h t i n the un i ve r s e . A l l t a n g i b l e r a l i t i e s possessed l i g h t to v a r y i n g degrees; l i g h t was a property or q u a l i t y of bod ie s . The va ry ing degrees o f man i f e s t a t i on of l i g h t bespoke the p rox im i t y o f any given body to d i v i n i t y . Although the va r i ou s anc i en t and medieval ph i losophers d i f f e r e d i n the d e t a i l s of t h e i r l i g h t metaphys ics , a common body o f d o c t r i n e was held i n 5 F l e t c h e r , J .B . "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode of Love, " Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 7, January 1910, p. 424 17 agreement by a l l . The e s s e n t i a l s o f t h i s common body o f metaphys ica l d o c t r i n e a re o u t l i n e d by J .A . Mazzeo i n h i s study of the medieval c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n i n Dante, as f o l l o w : 1) L i g h t i s the p r i n c i p l e o f be ing , a c t i v i t y , e x ten s i on , casua l e f f i c a c y , l i f e , mot ion , n o b i l i t y , and e x c e l l e n c e ; indeed, eve ry th ing p o s i t i v e i s somehow l i g h t or of the nature of l i g h t , the oppos i te of which would be the sheer negat ion of darkness. 2) As the fundamental form of body as such, l i g h t i s the s u b s t a n t i a l form of the un iver se and prov ides the un iver se w i th i t s p r i n c i p l e of c o n t i n u i t y . 3) I t i s the nob le s t of co rpo ra l th ing s and has an i n te rmed ia te p lace between body and s o u l , matter and s p i r i t . 4) I t i s not on l y the p r i n c i p l e which c on s t i t ue s the un iver se but , as s p i r i t u a l l i g h t , the p r i n c i p l e by which the i n t e l l e c t understands. 5) A l l these not ions were set i n the framework of a H i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered un i ve r se . 6 As Masseo proceeds to o u t l i n e , the quest ion of the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between the corporea l l i g h t which i s the p r i n c i p l e of c o n t i n u i t y i n nature and the immater ia l l i g h t which i s God" was i m p l i c i t i n t h i s metaphys ical concep t i on . The s o l u t i o n , as Mazzeo has i t , was the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g th ree r e l a t i o n s h i p s : 1) Emanation, whereby the corporea l l i g h t was der i ved from the uncreated l i g h t and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the D i v i ne Be ing , f o r example, the doc t i ne of De I n t e l l i g e n t ! i s . 2) Analogy, wherein the two kinds o f l i g h t bore a pure ly a n a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to eachother, having no community of be ing , f o r example, the d o c t r i n e o f Bartholomew of Bologna and S t . Bonaventura. 3) A mixture of the two in which the r e l a t i o n s h i p was imagined as emanation but conceived i n terms which kept the Creator qu i t e d i s t i n c t from His c r e a t i o n , f o r example, the d o c t r i n e of A l be r tu s Magnus. 7 6 Mazzeo, J .A. Medieval C u l t u r a l T r a d i t i o n i r r Dante ' s Comedy, p. 75. I t haca : Co rne l l University P re s s , 1949. 7 l o c . c i t . 18 Of these three p o s i t i o n s , the f i r s t i s e s s e n t i a l l y P l a t o n i c and mon i s t . De i t y and the o b j e c t i v e world are in harmony, each p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the o t h e r , a pan the i s t p o s i t i o n . . The second and t h i r d are p o s i t i o n s of d u a l i t y , which separate t h e d e i t y from the phy s i ca l u n i v e r s e , thus de s t r oy i ng the u n i t y of being between God and the o b j e c t i v e wor ld * To C a v a l c a n t i , the . fo rmat ion of l ove i s analogous to the format ion of l i g h t i n a diaphanous body. Love begins where the i n t e l l e c t i v e memory r e s i d e s , i e . , i n the pass ive i n t e l l e c t or imag ina t i on . J u s t as l i g h t generates from the D i v i ne to the diaphanous p a r t i c l e s , so does love inform the i n t e l l e c t . s i formato come d i a f a n , da lome. (16 - 17j_ The l i g h t from the D i v i n e , which i l l u m i n a t e s the i n t e l l e c t , i s tranformed i n t o love by the imag ina t i on . The u l t i m a t e source o f l ove i s the p lanet Mars, i e . , the sense response to beauty. The human soul i s l i k e a diaphanous substance, i t i s a c t u a l i z e d by the l i g h t , which r a d i a t e s from D i v i n i t y , The soul has a potenta l f o r love whth i s made k i n e t i c by the l i g h t of the i n t e l l e c t . The i n t e l l e c t u a l l i g h t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the Primus Lax; i t i s the d i v i n e i n man. Cava l can t i i s say ing tha t love has a b s i s i n the sense response of the i n d i v i d u a l to a b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t . The form or idea o f l ove i s known i n t u i t i v e l y , i e . , t h i s i s the percept ion of the imag ina t i on , as opposed to the concept ion of the a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t . Th i s i s the f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n of l o v e , and i t i s to undergo a f u r t h e r process o f d i s t i l l a t i o n and c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n before i t can achieve i t s second p e r f e c t i o n . Cava l can t i makes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r , however, t ha t l ove has always i t s o r i g i n s i n the concrete sense response and works i t s way upward throught the 19 s e n s i t i v e o r pass ive i n t e l l e c t ( imag i na t i on ) , never caus ing s u f f e r i n g o r i n j u r y to the a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t or i n t e l l i g e n c e by having i t s bas i s i n the p h y s i c a l . so Love i t s form acqu i re s From shadowxas t by Mars, the which ab ides (17 - 18) Which g ives the l i e to the e s s e n t i a l l y a s c e t i c p o s i t i o n of the medieval Church, and which focuses on the myst ic r e l a t i o n between the o b j e c t i v e world o f tangiHe s p i r i t . The e s s e n t i a l paradox of Donna Me Prega l i e s j u s t i n t h i s myst ic u n i t y which Cava l can t i i s a t tempt ing to g ive "p roo f ph i losoph That C a v a l c a n t i ' s l ove i s not merely sensuous, but e x a l t s one to the l e v e l of the d i v i n e and e te rna l i s shown: i n And s i nce from f i n i t e kind ' t i s not descended, Unended i s i t s r a d i a n t e f f e c t . (25 - 26j_ where he draws the analogy t i g h t e r by l i k e n i n g the e f f e c t of l ove to t ha t o f the emanation of l i g h t from the Primus Lux to the i n t e l l e c t . Love becomes a ray ( rad iu s ) of l i g h t , which man r ece i ve s e s s e n t i a l l y from h i s sense response to the b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t , i e . , the na tu ra l o b j e c t . That the na tu ra l ob j ec t i s not merely sensuously enjoyed, but i s transcended by the a b s t r a c t i n g i n t e l l e c t in contemplat ion of the i dea l of l o v e . Nor wear aspect of j o y but r e v e r i e . (27) C a v a l c a n t i ' s l o v e , though having i t s bas i s in the i n t u i t i v e response to the b e a u t i f u l natura l o b j e c t , i s e s s e n t i a l l y immater ia l i n t ha t i t represents a contemplat ion of th i d e a l as opposed to the r e a l . In sofar as the poe t ' s ph i losophy of love s t re s se s the myst ic u n i t y of the phy s i ca l and the s p i r i t u a l , there can be no u l t i m a t e disharmony between 20 these as the i d e a l i s as r e a l as the o b j e c t , the form and the t h i n g i t s e l f a re e s s e n t i a l l y one. In the t h i r d s t anza , Cava l can t i underscores the sense response element of h i s theory of l o v e , and measure i t aga in s t the r a t i o n a l love of v i r t u e pro f fes sed by the C h r i s t i a n S c h o l a s t i c ph i l o sopher s . To these l a t t e r , l o ve i s on l y v i r t uou s i f d i r e c t e d by reason toward contemplat ion of the Supreme Good. To C a v a l c a n t i , love i s not the i n t e l l e c t u a l search f o r a r a t i o n a l p e r f e c t i o n , "but f e e l i n g , I a t t e s t , " i e . , love proceeds i n t u i t i v e l y , a l though l o v e , as Cava l can t i has a l ready s t a t e d , i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l i n i t s most complete s t a t e . Love seeks not the p e r f e c t good of v i r t u e or of the Supreme Good, but r a t h e r , i t leads the i n t e l l e c t away from " w e l l - b e i n g . " The e n t i r e e c t i v i t y of the mind i s taken up w i t h a p re -occupat ion w i th the b e a u t i f u l na tu ra l o b j e c t . For ravishments i n t e l l i g e n c e e n t h r a l l . (33) and the i n t e l l e c t i s thus d i v e r t ed from contemplat ion of the Supreme Good. Hoffiver, i f love i s not a moral v i r t u e , ye t I t i s not v i r t u e , but from t h a t proceeds which i s p e r f e c t i o n , i n complexion w i t ha l Not r a t i o n a l , but f e e l i n g I a t t e s t . (29 - 31) i e . , l ove has i t s o r i g i n i n moral v i r t u e , but i s not of the reason ( a c i t v e i n t e l l e c t . ) Rather, l ove i s an i n tu i t i ve percept ion o f v i r t u e , o r an i n t u i t i v e percept ion of good and beauty, possible on l y f o r those of v i r t u o u s na tu re . The power o f l ove i s great but i t warps the f u n c t i o n ' of the i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s , so t h a t , Discernment small i t has where v i c e i s guest , Often there f o l l o w s from i t s puissance deeth, I f wrath o ' e r much the f a c u l t y dismay (34 - 36) 21 The l ove r i s d i s t r a c t e d from h i s path of conscious moral v i r t u e , by nature o f the f a c t t ha t h i s a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t i s pre-occupied wi th a contemplat ion of the i dea l of l o v e , and hence, he i s vunerable to v i c e and unable to d i s c e r n i t s presence. The power o f l o ve can thus lead one to become o v e r l y concerned w i t h the wo r l d l y and tempora l , through wrath caused by impat ience of atta inment of the i dea l of l o v e . Th i s death i s the overwhelming of the phys i ca l and the mental se lves by obsess ive passion f o r a w o r l d l y o b j e c t . I f the path of l o ve l i e s not toward v i r t u e , the l o ve r i s thus obsessed w i th the w o r l d l y and loses h i s c l a im to e t e r n i t y . I t i s a death i n l i f e , a s p i r i t u a l a t rophy, of which Cava l can t i warns i n Who s a i t h that l i f e i s h i s i s lead a s t r a y (40) and i t i s the r e s u l t of obsess ion wi th the w o r l d l y , which takes away one ' s s e l f matery. Lack ing the s tay which makes him h i s own l o r d (41) Love, per se , i t i s in i t s e l f , n e i t h e r good nor bad, although i t can induce one toward obsess ion and abandonment of v i r t u e , depending upon the nature of the l o v e r . I f the l o ve r abandons the r a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t , and g ive h imse l f over complete ly to h i s sense response to the beauteous ob jec t and i t s contempla t ion , he undergoes a s p i r i t u a l a t rophy, a death. Love has thus the power f o r v i r t u e , or f o r c o r r u p t i o n , dependent upon the inherent worth of the man who loves. The f o u r t h stanza i s ded icated to a d i s cu s s i on of the "movimento" of l o v e , i t s essence, development and enactment. Th i s i s the second 22 pe fec t i on of l o v e , i t s a c t u a l i z a t i o n and e f f e c t s . At t h i s p o i n t , l ove i s an immoderate d e s i r e , an unnatural e x c i t a t i o n o f the w i l l t o ach ieve the i d e a l . For C a v a l c a n t i , the essence of l ove l i e s i n the f a c t t ha t i t s t imu la te s one to seek i n t r a n s i g a n t l y the una t t a i n ab l e i d e a l . The w i l l d r i v e s the l o ve r to seek what i s "beyond the measure of natura l p l ea su re . " In the t h i r d s t anza , wrath was exc i t ed i n the l o ve r by h i s i n a b i l i t y to a t t a i n the beautiful natura l o b j e c t . Here, wrath may be aroused by the very nature of the immoderacy of the l o v e r ' s pass ion f o r the transcendent i d e a l , through f r u s t r a t i o n o f h i s a t ta inment . Through t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n o f the l o v e r ' s d e s i r e s , he s u f f e r s angu i sh , confus ion and he lp les snes s from l ove i n i t s second p e r f e c t i o n , or a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Th i s s t a t e br ings mi sery to the l o v e r , whose i d e a l c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t s and i n c i t e s wrath i n him. The s t a t e o f s u f f e r i n g i s unimaginable to the u n i n i t i a t e d , i e . , those who know not l ove and have not f e l t i t s power. Here, Cava l c an t i departs sha rp l y from the Provencal t r a d i t i o n o f f i n ' amors, whose poets saw the game of l o v e , and i t s r e s u l t a n t s u f f e r i n g , as being pe r ve r se l y en jyab le and l e a d i n g to ref inement of s e l f . Love br ings no su r face d e l i g h t ; no s u p e r f i c i a l bene f i t i s gained from the s u f f e r i n g . No g reat wisdom, "gran save r , " whether i t be t rue or s l i g h t , r e s u l t s . Love, i n i t s second p e r f e c t i o n , i s b r i e f , f r u s t r a t i n g and p a i n f u l . I t serves no s u p e r f i c i a l end, such as s o c i a l re f inement , as i t d i d f o r the Provencal t roubadors , but c o n s t a n t l y moves the i dea l to i n c r e a s i n g l y una t t a i nab l e l e v e l s , thus f o r c i n g man to s t r i v e f o r t ha t which he can never a t t a i n . In the f i n a l s t anza , Cava l can t i again underscores the super-sensuous and transcendent nature o f the love o f vh i ch he i s speak ing, r e t u r n i n g to the l i g h t anology i n order to s t r e s s the exa l ted and d i v i n e nature of t h i s l o v e . The opening l i n e s of the stanza may be cons idered 23 as much a d i r e c t a sper s ion c a s t aga in s t the Provencal troubadors and their s u p e r f i c i a l v iew of l ove as i t i s r e l a t i n g o f the c e l e s t i a l nature of l o v e . Love, he says, seems to most men man i fe s t i n the l o v i n g glances and promises o f d e l i g h t of an e a r t h l y and sensuous r e l a t i o n . Th i s however, i s not t r u l y l o ve , but a decep t i on . In sec re t gu i se Love comes no t , so d e c l a r e d . Indeed not s co rn fu l beauty i s the d a r t . (59 - 60)_ The e a r t h l y , SBnsuous l o v e , of which sang the t roubadors , i s not the r e a l l ove of which Cava l can t i s i ng s . Love i s on l y h a l f man i f e s t , or i n i t s f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n , i n t h i s e a r t h l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n . Real l ove cannot be seen, the form or idea of l ove i s "seen by non. " And not to s i g h t i s Love made man i fe s t , (63) • • • * • • • • And, hears one r i g h t t h a t form i s seen by none, Then l e a s t by him t ha t i s by Love undone. (65 - 66) The r e a l l ove of Cava l can t i i s an i n t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y , an idea which has no e a r t h l y pressence, no outward shape which can be r e a d i l y de t e c t ed . Thus, l ove has no ma te r i a l v i s i b i l i t y , f o r Of co l ou r of being Love i s d i spos ses sed. (67) At this p o i n t , the end of the canzone, one must take va r i ance w i th the F l e t c h e r t r a n s l a t i o n of l i n e s i x t y - e i g h t , wh ich, i n the o r i g i n a l I t a l i a n , i s a s c i c o 'n mezzo scuro, l u c e rade . (68) which F l e t c h e r t r a n s l a t e s as f o l l o w : 24 At r e s t i n shadow space i t cance l s l i g h t . F l e t c h e r ' s notes to t h i s l i n e o f f e r no s o l u t i o n to the d i sc repancy , no reasoning f o r h i s obvers ion of C a v a l c a n t i ' s reason ing . C l e a r l y , the t r a n s l a t i o n i s wrong, by even l i t e r a l s tandards, and the meaning has been l o s t . The o r i g i n a l runs f e e l y a s , " seated i n o b s c u r i t y , l i g h t emanates, or sh ines f o r t h . " The noun, " l u c e " i n medieval I t a l i a n r e f e r s to a source o f l i g h t r a t he r than to a l i g h t acted upon, as i t would have to be f o r F l e t c h e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n to be even reasonab le . As i s r e a d i l y apparent, there i s noth ing i n the o r i g i n a l , (even w i th a l lowance f o r t e x t u a l v a r i a n t s ) , which can be construed as " c a n c e l s . " As d i scussed i n the poem, love i s a combinat ion of sense response and i n t e l l e c t . The source of l o ve i s the i n f l u e n c e o f Mars, i e . , the i n d i v i d u a l sense response to an a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t . However, l ove transcends the sensual by means of the a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t , which forms a v i s i o n of the una t t a i nab l e i d e a l . Despite t h i s emphasis of the super-sensuous i d e a l , the concrete sensuous o r i g i n s of love are maintained throughout the poem. In C a v a l c a n t i ' s medieval I t a l i a n , a s c i co 'n mezzo scuro , l u ce rade . (68) which i s to say t h a t , a l though l ove has sensuous o r i g i n s and i s f i r m l y rooted i n the i n f l u e n c e of the p lanet Mars, the l i g h t of the d i v i n e s t i l l emanates. Love, t h e r e f o r e , i s an expres s ion of man's quest f o r ! d i v i n i t y . Man works from the concrete sensuous response to a natura l and b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t , toward expres s ion of the d i v i n e i n h i s own nature . The sense response i s thus transformed i n t o a transcendent i d e a l , through the c o n s t r u c t i o n and i d s t i l l a t i o n of the imag inat ion and i n t e l l e c t . o 25 Love i s thuscdispossessed " o f c o l ou r o f be ing " and the " l i g h t emanates" out and upward toward the i d e a l . o 26 ODE OF LOVE (DONNA ME PREGA) by Guido Cava l can t i I A Lady en t rea t s me; wherefore I w i l l t e l l Of a q u a l i t y too f r e c e n t l y ma l i gn , Yet so d i v i n e t h a t men have c a l l e d i t Love: Thus may the t r u t h whatever doubt d i s p e l . Adept I ask unto t h i s task of mine, For my des i gn , I f e a r me, i s above Hi s w i t t ha t i s a t heart o f base degree. For me proof ph i l o soph i c i s d e f i n e d , E l s e d i s i n c l i n e d I f e e l me to r e c i t e Where Love has p l a ce ; c reated by what might; And what i t s v i r t u e i s ; and potency; V e r i t y e s s e n t i a l ; motions of what k i n d ; I t s name ass igned as Love f o r what d e l i g h t ; And i f i t may be man i fes t to s i g h t . II In t ha t par t where the memory r e s i de s I t makes appearance; as t ransparence shows Through which l i g h t f l o w s , so Love i t s form acqu i re s From shadow ca s t by Mars, the which ab ide s . Created hence; nature of sense bestows I t s name, and pose o f s o u l , and h e a r t ' s d e s i r e . I t comes from v i s i b l e form, which, apprehended, ' Ascended i n t o pass ive i n t e l l e c t , There, as a f f e c t , ma inta in s i t s tenancy. Never i t works i n t ha t part i n j u r y . And s i n ce from f i n i t e k ind ' t i s not descended, Unended i s i t s r a d i a n t e f f e c t . Nor wears aspect o f j o y but r e v e r i e , For many not enter there a f f i n i t y . 27 I I I I t i s not v i r t u e , but from that proceeds Which i s p e r f e c t i o n , i n complexion w i t ha l Not r a t i o n a l , but f e e l i n g , I a t t e s t . The jedgement Love aga in s t w e l l - b e i n g l ead s , For ravishments i n t e l l i g e n c e e n t h r a l l . Discernment smal l i t has where v i c e i s guest. Often the re f o l l o w s from i t s puissance death, I f wrath o'ermuch the f a c u l t y dismay Which o f the way adve r s a t i ve i s ward: Not tha t w i th nature Love hath d i s a c c o r d ; But when to p e r f e c t good l i e s not i t s path , Who s a i t h tha t l i f e i s h i s i s l ed a s t r a y , Lack ing the s tay which make him h i s own l o r d . Nor l e s s a v a i l s Love though i t be i gno red . IV I t s essence i s whenas the pass ionate w i l l Beyond the measure of na tu ra l p leasure goes; Then w i t h repose f o r e ve r i s u hb l e s t . S t i l l f i c k l e , smi les in tea r s i t can f u l f i l l , And on the f a ce leave p a l l i d t r a ce of woes. B r i e f are i t s t h r oe s . Yet c h i e f l y man i fes t Thou s h a l t observe i t i n the nobly w i se . To s ighs the new-given q u a l i t y i n v i t e s ; Through i t man s i gh t s an e v e r - s h i f t i n g a im, T i l l in him wrath i s k i n d l e d , d a r t i n g f l ame. Conceive i t none save one i t s puissance t r i e s . Complies i t never though i t s t i l l i n c i t e s ; And no d e l i g h t one seeketh i n i t s name, Ne i the r great wisdom, sooth - or small - to frame. 28 V A glance Love draws from l i ke -a t tempered heart Which seeming r i g h t to a l l d e l i g h t i m p l i e s . In s ec re t guise Love comes no t , so d e c l a r e d . Indeed not s co rn fu l beauty i s the d a r t . For t ha t way led de s i r e through dread i s w i se , But me r i t l i e s w i t h s p i r i t t h a t i s snared. And not to s i g h t i s Love made man i f e s t , For by i t s t e s t o ' e r t a k e n man f a l l s wh i t e ; And, hears one r i g h t t ha t form i s seen by none, Then l e a s t by him t ha t i s by Love undone. Of co l ou r of being Love i s d i spos ses sed. At r e s t in shadow space i t cance l s l i g h t . Without f a l s e s l e i g h t s a i t h a f a i t h - w o r t h y one, That from i t on l y i s the guerdon won. VI Ode, thou mayst go thy ways, u n f a l t e r i n g , Where pleases thee: I have thee so adorned That never scorned s h a l l by thy reason ing By such as b r i n g to thee i n t e l l i g e n c e : To b ide w i t h others mak ' s t thou no pretence. 8. F l e t c h e r , J . B . "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode of Love, " Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 7, January 1910, pp. 423-426 29 Chapter Three: Mercede to Compassion "Sex, i n so f a r as i t i s not a pu re l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l r ep roduc t i ve mechanism, l i e s i n the domain of a e s t h e t i c s , the junction of t a c t i l e and magnetic senses; " 9 Pound's essay on C a v a l c a n t i , (1910-1931), was publ i shed i n 10 i t s f i n a l form in 1934. During the per iod of i t s i n c e p t i o n , Pound's working a e s t h e t i c underwent a v a r i e t y of i n f l u e n c e s , most of which are observable in h i s l a t e r poetry . H i s i n t e r e s t i n Vaca l c an t i was an enduring p re -occupa t i on , which gre as Pound matured both as a t h i n ke r and as a poet, u n t i l he i n teg ra ted Cava l can t i and h i s metaphysic of love i n t o the framework of The Cantos. Pound's e a r l i e s t awareness o f the Cava l can t i canzone must have began at some po in t du r i ng h i s formal educat ion i n Romance L i t e r a t u r e . C e r t a i n l y , C a v a l c a n t i , f o r Pound, represents the u l t i m a t e express ion of an ongoing t r a d i t i o n which began i n Provence, f o r , i n h i s essay, Pound s tesses the connec t i on , i n terms of a e s t h e t i c s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l premises, between Guido and the Provencal t roubador s . 9 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London; Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 311 10 In Make I t New, but The S p i r i t Of Romance (n.d.) i s e a r l i e r . 30 E r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y we can f i n d in Greek and Roman poets , and one may observe t ha t the main t rend o f Provencal and Tuscan poets i s not toward e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . 11 They are opposed to a form of s t u p i d i t y not l i m i t e d to Europe, t ha t i s , i d i o t i c a s c e t i c i s m and a b e l i e f t ha t the body i s e v i l . 12 Pound makes a s t rong d i s t i n c t i o n between the C l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c , on one hand, and t ha t o f the Provencal troubadors and Tuscan poets , on the o t he r . What he terms, " e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , " represent f o r Pound an ove r - i ndu l gence , and e s p e c i a l l y a r t i s t i c express ion of the o ve r -indu lgence, of the phy s i ca l senses. He f e l t there to be a l a c k of i n t e l l i g e n c e accompanying t h i s sense indu lgence. The C l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c i s an a r t i c u l a t i o n of the d e s i r e to indulge the ca rna l a p p e t i t e . The Greek a e s t h e t i c would seem to c o n s i s t who l l y in p l a s t i c , or in p l a s t i c moving toward c o i t u s , and l i m i t e d by i n c e s t , which i s the so le Greek taboo. 13 I mean tha t P r ope r t i u s remains most ly i n s i d e the c l a s s i c a l wor ld and the c l a s s i c a e t h e t i c , p l a s t i c to c o i t u s , P l a s t i c p lus immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n . 14 11 I b i d . , p. 346 12 I b i d . , pp 346-7 13 I b i d . , p 346 14 I b i d . , p 348 31 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the C l a s s i c a l a e t h e t i c , which Pound has r e f e r r e d to as " e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , " and " P l a s t i c plus immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n , " i s somehow confused w i t h the northern European c u l t u r e s and t h e i r bas i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumption. The senses a t f i r s t seem to p r o j e c t f o r a few yards beyond the body. E f f e c t of a decent c l i m a t e where a man leaves h i s ne rve - se t open, or a l l ows i t to tune i n t o i t s ambience, r a t h e r than s t r u g g l i n g , as a northern race has t o , f o r s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n to guard the body from a s s a u l t s o f weather. He d e c l i n e s , a f t e r a t ime , to l i m i t r e cep t i on to h i s s o l a r p lexus . 15 However, h i s a s s o c i a t i o n of the C l a s s i c a l and northern a e s t h e t i c s i s no more e x p l i c i t than i n the above, and Pound may be merely express ing h i s d i s t a s t e f o r ess i n v i t i n g c l i m a t e s . To Pound, the d i s t i n c t i o n i n a e s t h e t i c s between the Provencal troubadors and h i s " p l a s t i c to c o i t u s " v iew o f the C l a s s i c a l world l i e s in the a b i l i t y of the Provencal s to focus as much on the idea or P l a t o n i c form of an o b j e c t as on i t s phys i ca l a c t u a l i t y . The Provencal a e s t h e t i c represent s a c e r t a i n p ropor t ion or balance between the sense percept ion of an o b j e c t and the i n t e l l e c t u a l concept ion of t ha t o b j e c t . The whole break of Provence w i th t h i s wo r l d , and indeed the c e n t r a l theme of the t roubadors , i s the dogma tha t there i s some propor t ion between the f i n e t h i n g held i n the mind, and the i n f e r i o r t h i ng ready f o r i n s t a n t consumption. 16 Th is view of the Provencal a e s t h e t i c (Pound notes here t ha t he wants to say metaphys ic , but h e s i t a t e s , becuase " i t i s so a p p a l l i n g l y a s soc i a ted i n peoples minds w i th unsupportable con jec tu re and 1% 15 I b i d . , pp 348-9 16 I b i d . , P 348 32 and devastated terms of a b s t r a c t i o n . " ) , i s i n suppor tab le i n l i g h t o f modern s c ho l a r s h i p which focuses upon the t o p i c o f amour c o u r t d i s , or even i n terms of Andreas Cappe l laneus ' De A r t e Honest Amandi. However, Pound i s here d i s c u s s i n g the a e s t h e t i c of a l a t e r group of poets who wrote i n the same t r a d i t i o n , such as Arnaut Daniel and i s c on s i de r i n g the troubadors p r i m a r i l y fo the l i g h t w h i c h t h e i r study ca s t s upon Guido Cava l can t i and h i s canzone. When speaking of the Provencal t r a d i t i o n and i t s a e s t h e t i c assumptions, Pound uses them in terchangeab ly w i t h the Tuscan, so s t rong i s h i s sense of the i n t e r -connect ion between the two. Never the le s s , there i s no escaping h i s e r r o r concern ing the amour cou to i s t r a d i t i o n , which becomes b l a t a n t l y apparent i n h i s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e lumping of " D a n i e l , Ventadorn, Guido, S e l l a i o , B o t t i c e l l i , Ambrogio P r aed i s , N i c . de l 17 Cossa. " Perhaps i t i s necessary to emphasize the f a c t t ha t Pound's pr imary concern i n the essay i s to ca s t l i g h t upon Cava l can t i and h i s canzone, and to c l a r i f y the reader of Cava l can t i on e x a c t l y what i s present i n Donna Me Prega. There i s no doubt t ha t the d i s t i n c t i o n which Pound i s making i s p resent ; however, some of Pound's observat ions concern ing the Provencal t r a d i t i o n of l ove are f a l s e acco rd ing to recent s cho l a r s h i p but one must not l o se t r ack o f the importance of the i n s i g h t . I am l abou r i ng a l l t h i s because I want to e s t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c t i o n as to the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c . 18 Pound next focuses on the Tuscan poets , and draws a d i s t i n c t i o n 1 7 I b i d . , p. 348 j 8„ Ibid.,*p. 350 33 between t h e i r r a t i o n a l mean of i n t e l l e c t and senses, and the extreme r e j e c t i o n of the senses, the " i d i o t i c a s c e t i c i s m and a b e l i e f t ha t the body i s e v i l , " tha t he f e e l s i s a " form of s t u p i d i t y not l i m i t e d to Europe." At t h i s p o i n t , we have before us the two extemes and the golden mean: t o t a l absorpt ion w i t h the senses, or the carna l a p p e t i t e , t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of the senses or submiss ion of the senses to the i n t e l l e c t , and l a s t l y , the sane use o f the sense response as a concrete bas i s f o r the r e f i n i n g i n t e l l e c t . To Pound, The Tuscan poets most c l e a r l y man i fes t t h i s form of behaviour; t h e i r work most f u l l y represents the "medieval c lean l i n e . " The concept ion of the body as per fected instrument of the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 19 To t h i s p o i n t , Pound has c o n t i n u a l l y employed the ana log ie s o f s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e as a means o f making h i s po in t s about the Provencal and Tuscan Poets , He now focuses on poet ry , but s t i l l mainta ins the frame of re fe rence of s cu l p tu re for purposes of analogy. C a v a l c a n t i ' s poetry has an immediacy of image, " t he medieval c l ean l i n e , " the concrete and e x p e r i e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e . In Guido the " f i g u r e , " the s t rong metamorphic or p i c tu re sque " express ion i s there w i th purpose to convey or to i n t e r p r e t a d e f i n i t e meaning. 20 The "metamorphic e xp re s s i on , " and the "wor ld o f moving e n e r g i e s , " in the f o l l o w i n g paragraph, a re c lues to the wor ld o f twent i e th - cen tu r y 19 I b i d . , p. 349 20 I b i d . , p. 351 34 sc ience which Pound so we l l expresses in h i s poet ry . This i s a ga i n , theworld of P roces s , in wh ich, a l l elements of nature are i n t e r connec ted , a n d d i s t i n c t i o n s among them merely d i f f e r i n g phases, or l e v e l s of be ing . Th i s i s what seems to make Cava l can t i so s t a r t ! i n g l y modern; the sc ience unde r l y i ng h i s poe t i c metaphor dispalys a keen percept ion of a "wor ld of moving ene r g i e s , " in which, phy s i ca l l um ino s i t y i s in terconnected w i th the l i g h t of human i n t e l l i g e n c e . There i s always the sense, i n Donna Me Prega, t h a t Guido Cava l can t i i s not merely employing metaphor i n order to express the power o f the i n t e l l e c t , but t h a t he a c t u a l l y sees the energy of human in te l l i gence under the i n f l u e n c e o f the f o r c e of love as coterminous w i th the phys i ca l l i g h t that, i n medieval cosmology, emanated from the d i v i n e . Pound peroaved t h i s element o f C a v a l c a n t i , t h i s i s why he be l i eved t h a t Guido was aware of Robert G r o s s e t e s t e ' s De Luce, and why he (Pound) f e e l s the need to employ the ana log ie s of s cu l p tu re and a r c h i t e c t u r e when d i s c u s s i n g Cava l can t i and the whole quest ion of the Tuscan and Provencal a e s t h e t i c s . Fo r , the power t ha t Pound sees in Cava l can t i i s the power of discernment o f fb rms , of v i s i b l e i deas . T h i s , i n modern pa r l ance , should perhaps, be more a c c u r a t e l y termed the imang inat ion , i n the l i m i t e d , d i c t i o n a r y sense of the term, ie , : , image fo rming . ....magnetisms t ha t take form t h a t a re seen o r t ha t border the v i s i b l e , the matter o f Dante ' s Pa r ad i s o , the g las s under water s , the form t h a t seems a form seen in a m i r r o r , these r e a l i t i e s p e r c e p t i b l e to the sense, i n t e r a c t i n g . 21 21 I b i d . , p. 351 35 Pound has d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Cava l can t i from h i s contemporar ies by r e f e r r i n g to him as a " n a t u r a l ph i l o sophe r , " as opposed to a moral ph i l o sopher . Th i s i s to say that Guido leaned toward the "p roof by exper iment, " r a t he r than accept the sub t l e reason ing of Church orthodoxy. Now, Pound p icks up t h i s phrase and d i scus ses the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and energy t ha t a medieval na tu ra l ph i losopher would see. A medieval ' n a t u r a l ph i l o s ophe r ' would f i n d t h i s modern wor ld f u l l of enchantments, not on l y the l i g h t i n the e l e c t r i c bu l b , but the though of the cu r ren t hidden i n the a i r and i n w i re would g ive him a mind f u l l of f o r m s . . . . t h e medieval ph i losopher would probably hae been unable to t h i n k the e l e c t r i c w o r l d , and not t h i n k of i t as a wor ld o f forms. 22 C a v a l c a n t i ' s modernity and h i s P la ton i sm are s t res sed by the comparison, as Pound sees C a v a l c a n t i ' s a b i l i t y to perce ive the " f o rm" behind the " t h i n g , " and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the energy to the t a n g i b l e o b j e c t as coterminous. To Pound, C a v a l c a n t i ' s imag inat ion and consciousness rep re sent a medieval awareness of the modern concept ion of the un iver se as a world of Process , " t he wor ld of moving e n e r g i e s , " wherein energy and matter a re u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i n g each in 2 the o t he r ; b a s i c a l l y , an E=mc un i ve r se . To Pound, Cava l can t i represents the i d e a l a r t i s t i c consciousness i n t h a t , he manifests the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y which u n d e r l i e s poetry and mus ic , and c l a r i f i e s the p ropor t ion between the idea and the image, the form and the o b j e c t . In the opening essay of Make I t New, e n t i t l e d Date L i n e , Pound has been o u t l i n i n g h i s p ro jec ted t a b l e of contents as be ing: an examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and mus ic , c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n of te rmino logy , and a "genera l surrmary of s t a t e of human consciousness 22 I b i d . , p. 352 36 23 i n decades immediately before my own." He ends by expres s i ng the view tha t Cava l can t i to him conta in s a l l of the preceeding. C a v a l c a n t i , as b r i n g i ng together a l l of these s t r and , the consc iousness , depth of same almost untouched i n w r i t i n g between h i s time and t ha t o f Ibsen and James; meaning i f you come a t i t not as p l a t o n i c f o rmu la t i on of phi losophy but a psychology. 24 Throughout the Cava l can t i essay, Pound c o n s t a n t l y r e tu rn s to the l i g h t metaphor which Guido so harmoniously throughout Ddnha Me Prega, Pound has s a i d tha t " t he poem i s ext remely c l e a r i n a number of p l a c e s , the ph i l o soph i c terms are used w i th a complete p r e c i s i o n o f t e chn i que , " and l a t e r , r e c a l l s a conver sa t ion w i th T. E. Hulme, i n which he brought to Hulm's a t t e n t i o n the f a c t t h a t "Guido thought in accurate terms; tha t the phrases correspond to d e f i n i t e sensat ion undergone;" 25 I spoke to him one day of the d i f f e r e n c e between Gu ido ' s p r c i s e i n t e r p r e t i v e metaphor, and the Petrarchan f u s t i a n and ornament, po i n t i n g out t ha t Guido though i n accura te terms 26 Th i s view of C a v a l c a n t i ' s metaphor ica l usage must be seen i n terms of Pound's theory o f the image, which i s perhaps best s ta ted and expanded upon i n h i s book on Gaud ie r -B rzeska . Here, Pound i s l ook i ng back upon 23 I b i d . , P. 15 24 I b i d . , p. 15 25 I b i d . , p. 361 26 l o c . c i t . 37 the theory and p r a c t i c e of Imagisme from the pe r spec t i ve of V o r t i c i s t s c u l p t u r e , p r i m a r i l y the ab s t r ac ted and geometric forms of B r ze ska . S ince the beg inn ing of bad w r i t i n g , w r i t e r s have used images as ornaments. The po in t of Imagisme i s t h a t i t does not use images as ornaments. The image i s i t s e l f the speech. The image i s the word beyond the formulated language. 27 In a poem of t h i s s o r t one i s t r y i n g to record the p rec i se i n s t a n t when a t h i n g outward and o b j e c t i v e t ransforms i t s e l f , or d a r t s i n t o a t h i n g inward and s u b j e c t i v e . 28 The image i s not an i d e a . I t i s a r a d i a n t node or c l u s t e r ; i t i s what I c an , and must p e r f o r c e , c a l l a VORTEX, from which, and through which, and i n t o wh ich , ideas are c o n s t a n t l y r u s h i n g . 29 These views o f Imagisme, devebped by Pound through the combined i n f l uence s of Impressionism and the Japanese ha i kku , somewhat c l a r i f y Pound's view of Guido as man i f e s t i n g what i s b a s i c a l l y an " o r i e n t a l 27 Pound, E z r a . Gaud ier -Brzesks : A Memoir, New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1916, 1960, p. 88 28 I b i d . , p. 89 29 I b i d . , p. 92 38 v i s i o n . " Th i s i s to say t ha t C a v a l c a n t i , in h is use of the l i g h t metaphor, has f o r Pound, the p r o c l i v i t y toward i m a g i s t i c concept ion -the a b i l i t y to perce ive the e s s e n t i a l harmony and u n i t y behind a l l outward appearances. Cava l can t i uses l i g h t metaphors as coterminous w i th the energy of the i n t e l l e c t under the i n f l u e n c e of l o v e . When he presents the image of l u m i n o s i t y , i t i s done in the same manner as occurs i n the p re sen ta t i on of the Japanese ha ikku . The haikku " s j pe r -po s i t i on s " two images and the poet i c emotion i s c reated from t h e i r j u x t a p o s t i o n . Th i s i s not a " l i k e or a s " r e l a t i o n s h i p , r a t h e r , the image i s i t s e l f the speech. 30 The image i s not used to g ive emphasis or concreteness to the speech, 31 but speaks i t s e l f . I t i s the "word beyond formulated language." Pound i s t h e r e f o r e , seeing Cava l can t i as a type of e a r l y imag i s t poet, who expresses the power of the i n t e l l e c t i n terms of r a d i a n t energy. Moreover, when Cava l cant i employs the mataphor of l i g h t , i t i s i n d i s s o l u b l y un i ted to the idea of i n t e l l e c t u a l rad iance and, the connect ion between the two are exper ienced r a t he r than thought. Perhaps Pound ove r s t re s se s the f r e e - t h i n k i n g q u a l i t i e s o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s mind and the unorthodoxy of h i s s c i e n t i f i c v iews . Pound admits to a po s s i b l e e r r o r when he says, 32 I cannot b e l i e v e t ha t Guido ' swa l l owed ' Aquinas. 30 I b i d . , p. 88 31 l o c . c i t . 32 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, pp. 357-8 39 and he nowhere says o u t r i g h t that Cava l can t i d e f i n i t e l y knew of the t h e o r y of l i g h t expressed by Robert Gro s se te s te . I t may be imposs ib le to prove tha t he had heard of Roger Bacon, but the whole canzone i s e a s i e r to understand i f we suppose, or a t l e a s t one f i n d s , a con s i de rab l e i n t e r e s t i n the s p e c u l a t i o n , t ha t he had read Grosseteste on the Generat ion of L i g h t . 33 We do know tha t Bacon was p r i m a r i l y g u i l t y of being a propagandist f o r Grossesteste (whose Church p o s i t i o n prevented c i r c u l a t i o n of h i s ideas under h i s own name), and t h a t Bacon was well-known i n French i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s . Guido may or may not have been aware of Bacon ' s w r i t i n g s and speeches; c e r t a i n l y , he was we l l - v e r s ed in the general p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s of the p e r i o d , but then, so was Dante, and Pound f e e l s t ha t he (Dante) was w i l 1 i n g 34 to take on any s o r t of holy and orthodox f u r n i t u r e . In any case , the quest ion of whether Cava l can t i knew of G r o s s e s t e s t e ' s theory or of Bacon ' s w r i t i n g s i s l a r g e l y academic; i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t h a t Pound f e l t Cava l can t i cou ld have been aware of these v iews , and that Pound found the i n f l uence of these ideas i n Donna Me Prega. Perhaps a t t h i s p o i n t , i t would be u se fu l to surmmarize Pound's f i n d i n g s i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem. Pound approves of what he f e l t t o be Gu ido ' s a n t i - a s c e t i c p o s i t i o n , the acceptance of the sensuous response 33 I b i d . , p. 345 34 I b i d . , p. 357 40 to phys i ca l s t i m u l i and the argument f o r the v a l i d i t y of personal exper ience . Re la ted to t h i s , we see Pound's approval of the " i m a g i s t i c " element i n C a v a l c a n t i , i e . , the focus on the percept ion o f the imnediate and conc re te ra the r than concept ion of the remote and t h e o r e t i c . Despite t h i s f i r m grounding of C a v a l c a n t i ' s ph i losophy i n the immediate and i n d i v i d u a l sense pe r cep t i on . Ound sees a l s o , the p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i d e a l i s t i c elements i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s a e t h e t i c , which he says consists of the r e a l i z a t i o n of the f a c t t h a t , . . . . t h e r e i s some propor t ion between the f i n e t h i n g held in the mind, and the i n f e r i o r t h i n g ready f o r i n s t a n t consupt i on . 35 Th i s i s a c t u a l l y s a id of the break of Provence w i th the C l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c but , as I have sa id e a r l i e r , Pound uses the "Provencal and Tuscan a e s t h e t i c " i n te rchangeab ly . S p e c i f i c a l l y on the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c , Pound has s a id t ha t they conceived of the body, and by i m p l i c a t i o n the whole of the sense exper ience , as sub jec t to the w i l l , the en l a r g i n g consc iousness . He d e c l i n e s , a f t e r a t ime , to l i m i t r e c e p t i o n to h i s s o l a r p lexus . The whole t h i n g has noth ing to do w i th taboos and b i g o t r i e s . I t i s more than the s imple a t h l e t i c i s m o f the mens sana i n corpore sano. The concept ion of the body as per fected instrument o f the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 36 Us ing the anology of s c u l p t u r e , Pound has s a id t ha t the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c sees that the 35 I b i d . , p. 348 36 I b i d . , p. 349 41 god i s i n s i d e the s tone, vacuos exe rce t aera morsus. The f o r c e i s a r r e s t e d , but there i s never any quest ion about i t s l a t e n c y , about the f o r c e being the e s s e n t i a l , and the r e s t ' a c c i d e n t a l 1 i n the ph i l o soph i c t e c h n i c a l sense. 37 I t i s the i d e a , or P l a t o n i c form of an o b j e c t which i s p r i m a l . The o b j e c t , the concrete a c t u a l i t y of exper ience , i s cont ingent upon the f o r c e of the i d e a . Th i s i s why love i n Cava l can t i i s termed, D'un acc idente (2) and de sp i t e i t s bas i s in the imnediate sense response, i t i s dependent, f o r i t s " pe rpetua l e f f e c t " upon the t ranscendent i dea l which i s he ld in the a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t . The movement of l o v e , from the l e v e l of the o r i g i n a l sense reponse to the e x a l t a t i o n of the l e v e l o f the i d e a l , i s what Pound has r e f e r r e d to as the p ropor t i on between the f i n e t h i n g held i n the mind, and the i n f e r i o r t h i n g ready f o r i n s t a n t consumption. 38 and the va lues of C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem, regard ing the formativepower of l o v e , are expressed by Pound i n h i s statement concern ing the Tuscan a e t h e t i c . The concept ion of the body as per fected instrument of the i n c r ea s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 39 This statement imp l i e s the not ion o f a h i e ra rchy of be ing, which as we have seen, i s present i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s o r i g i n a l poem and, as the statement t e s t i f i e s , i s present i n Pound. Cava l can t i l i v e d i n an era 37 l o c . c i t . 38 I b i d . , p. 348 39 I b i d . , p. 349 42 in which the concept of a h i e ra rchy of being was an i n t e g r a l part of the c u l t u r a l paideuma. Cava l can t i uses the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n as a metaphor, speaking of those who are of "base degree, " and address ing h i s canzone to those who can " b r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e " to i t s reason ing . Where Cava l can t i d i f f e r s from h i s contemorar ies , w i th regard to h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i e r a r c h i c a l n o t i o n s , l i e s i n what Pound has r e f e r r e d to a s , " t he concept ion of the body as pe r fec ted 40 instrument of the i n c r ea s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e . " Cava l can t i i s a " n a t u r a l ph i l o sophe r , " as opposed to a "moral ph i l o sophe r , " and hence, works from the " n a t u r a l demons t ra t ion , " the concrete sense exper ience r a t he r than from the t h e o r e t i c a l arguments o f orthodoxy. The sense response gives way to the treatment of the higher and a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t , which transforms i t i n t o a t ranscendent i d e a l ; however, the " i n f l u e n c e of Mars" always remains. Where the orthodox C h r i s t i a n ph i losopher r e j e c t s the e a r t h l y , the sensuous, in favour of some abs t rac ted theo ry , Cava l can t i takes the sense response as the bas i s of the transcendent i d e a l . There i s then, no abso lu te separat ion between the body and the s o u l , as there has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been i n C h r i s t i a n orthodoxy. Rather , there i s a s c a l e of v a l u e , a continuum upon which the sense response of the body represents l e s s va lue than does the ab s t rac ted i d e a l , which i s never who l l y removed from the sense response. Once a ga i n , w i th Yeat s , we see t h a t , 41 The body i s not bru i sed to p leasure s o u l . (58) 40 l o c . c i t . 41 Yeat s , W.B. The Variorum E d i t i o n of the Poems of W. B. Yeat s , New York; The Macmil lan Company, 1940, p. 445. 43 The body i s an inst rument, a too l which the growing awareness employs to i t s own advantage. There i s no chasm between the body and the i n t e l l e c t , and hence, no dua l i sm, a r i s e s from the separat ion o f body and s o u l , as i n r e l i g i o u s dogma. The l a c k of t h i s concept i n v a l i d a t e s the whole of monst ic thought. 42 The harmony which e x i s t s between the senses and the i n t e l l e c t i s a p sycho log i ca l equivalent to the outward harmony of image and idea which the Tuscan seeks i n h i s l i t e r a r y e xp re s s i on , the " p r o p o r t i o n between the f i n d t h i n g held i n the mind, and the i n f e r i o r t h i n g ready f o r i n s t a n t consumption. " I t i s in the mind, the consc iousness , t h a t t h i s harmony i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The senses serve the i n t e l l e c t , i n t h a t t h e i r responses to r e a l i t y are r e f i n e d by the i n t e l l e c t , which d i s t i l l s the essence from the response, withdrawing the idea from the sense p e r c e p t i o n , the form from the o b j e c t . The i n t e l l e c t works to c o n d i t i o n the response of the senses, so t h a t , there i s a mutual co -opera t ion between sense and i n t e l l e c t , r a t h e r than a chasm separa t i ng one from the o t he r . An e s s e n t i a l u n i t y of response e x i s t s , which a l l ows f o r mental c l a r i t y , balance and sensuous s a t i s f a c t i o n . We appear to have l o s t the r a d i a n t world where one thought cu s t s through another w i th a c l ean edge, a wor ld o f moving energ ies "mezzo oscuro r ade , "  " r i s p l e n d e in se p e r p e t u a l e e f f e c t o , " magnetisms t h a t take form, t ha t a re seen, or t ha t border the v i s i b l e these r e a l i t i e s p e r c e p t i b l e to the sense, i n t e r a c t i n g . 43 42 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 349 43 I b i d . , p. 351 44 This balance i s f o r Pound, " t h e Mediterranean s a n i t y . " 44 Throughout the whole of the essay on, and in the t r a n s l a t i o n of Donna Me Prega i t s e l f , Pound c o n t i n u a l l y s tesses the l i g h t anology upon which the poem i s b u i l t . Although he i s r e l u c t a n t to s t a te o u t r i g h t t ha t Cava l can t i was aware of G r o s s e t e s t e ' s theory of l i g h t and l i g h t d i f f u s i o n , Pound obv i ou s l y p re fe r s to cons ide r the poem in the l i g h t of G ro s s e t e s t e ' s theory . I t seems to me qu i t e po s s i b l e t h a t the whole of i t i s a s o r t of metaphor on the generat ion o f l i g h t , o r t ha t a t any r a t e g rea te r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the ph i losophy o f the per iod would e l u c i d a t e the remain ing t a n g l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f one search f o r the par t of phi losophy tha t was in a s t a t e of a c t i v i t y in the years 1270-1290. One cannot a b s o l u t e l y r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y of Gu ido ' s having seen some scraps of MS. by Roger Bacon, a l though t h a t i s , perhaps, u n l i k e l y . 45 G r o s s e t e s t e ' s theory of l i g h t and i t s emanation, stands i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the e t e r na l l i g h t of d i v i n i t y . Where G ro s se te s te , and indeed the e n t i r e Oxford p h i l o s o p h i c a l movement, d i f f e r s -from the t r a d i t i o n , i s i n the emphasis which they p lace upon the proof -by-exper iment element of the ph i l o s oph i c a l system. Th i s e x p e r i e n t e l element of the Nomina l i s t ph i losophy i s the f a c t o r which Pound emphasizes i n Cava l can t i and which makes C a v a l c a n t i , f o r Pound, an e s s e n t i a l l y modern poet. By l o c a t i n g the source of l ove in the sense response and by l i k e n i n g t h i s l o ve to a source of l i g h t , Cava l can t i i s f o cu s i n g upon the e a r t h l y and sensuous, and c r e a t i n g a sense of the harmony between the e a r t h l y and the c e l e s t i a l . 44 l o c . c i t . 45. i b i d . , p. 360 45 The t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n d u a l i t y of f l e s h and s p i r i t i s thus removed and the re i s u n i t y , i n the i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e , between the senses and the i n t e l l e c t , de sp i te C a v a l c a n t i ' s rang ing of the sense response and the i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l on a s c a l e or h i e r a r chy . I t i s t h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l q u a l i t y which Pound d i scovered i n Cava l cant i dur ing the f i r s t decade of the twent i e th cen t ruy , as h i s conver sat ion w i t h T. E. Hulme i l l u s t r a t e s . I spoke to him one day o f the d i f f e r e n c e between -Gu ido ' s p r c i s e i n t e r p r e t i v e mataphor, and the Petrarchan f u s t i a n and ornament, p o i n t i n g out that Guido though i n accurate terms; that the phrases correspond to d e f i n i t e sensat ions undergone:.. . .46 At t h i s p o i n t , Cava l can t i represent f o r Pound, a fo rerunner o f the Imagiste poet, an e a r l y i m a g i s t i c t h i n k e r , who perce ives i n t u i t i v e l y the inherent u n i t y between the image and the i d e a , between ob j e c t s i n nature and the P l a t o n i c forms unde r l y i n g them. C a v a l c a n t i , as a poet, i s e s s e n t i a l l y work ing in the same a e s t h e t i c as Gaud ie r -B rzeska , as a s c u l p t o r , i e . , the d e f i n i t i o n of emotion through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of plances and s u r f a ce s . I t i s because of h i s i n s i g h t i n t o the work o f Cava l c an t i and h i s own poet i c v i s i o n , t ha t Pound s t re s se s the l i g h t anology of the poem, us ing G r o s s e t e s t e ' s l i g h t theory as s c h o l a r l y evidence to i l l u s t r a t e C a v a l c a n t i ' s angle o f metaphys ica l v i s i o n . I t i s in the Gros se tes te thetry t ha t the mate r i a l f a c t o r of l i g h t emanation i s s t res sed and l a t e r , reasoned out to the s p i r i t u a l e lemet, i e . , the c e l e s t i a l or d i v i n e i s grounded in the e a r t h l v , sensuous and e x p e r i e n t i a l . Pound 47 works from Et ienne G i l s o n ' s Ph i l o soph ie auMoyen age. and quotes 1 46 the f o l l o w i n g summary of G ro s se te s te . La lumiere es t une substance c o r p o r e l l e t r e s s u b t i l e e t qui^se rapproche de 1 1 i n c o r p o r e l . Ses p r op r i e t e s c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s sont de s 'engendrer elle-meme perpetuel lement e t de se d i f f u s e r spheriquement autour d ' un po int d 'une manieVe instante 'e . Donnons-nous un po in t lumineux. , i l s 'engendre instantanement autour de ce po in t comme centre une spheYe lumineuse immernse. La d i f f u s i o n de l a lumiere ne peu t -e t re c o n t r a r i e e que par deux r a i s o n s : ou b ien e l l e r econ t re une o b s c u r i t e qui 1 ' a r r e t e , ou b ien e l l e f i n i t par a t t e i n d r e l a l i m i t e extreme de sa r a r e f a c t i o n , e t l a propagation de l a lumiere prend f i n par l a meme. Cette substance extremement tenue et au s s i 1 ' ^ t o f f e dont toutes choses sont f a l t e s ; e l l e es t l a premiere forme c o r p o r e l l e et ce que c e r t a i n s nomment l a c o r p o r e i t e . 48 From G i l son ' s summary of G ro s se te s te , the e s s e n t i a l l y metaphor ica l nature of the medieval Uropean p o i n t - o f - v i e w i s apparent. An e s s e n t i a l paradox appear i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of l i g h t a s , " p e r p e t u a l l y s e l f - engende r i n g , " and the impos i t i on of a l i m i t to which l i g h t i s ab le to r a r i f y . I f l i g h t can " p e r p e t u a l l y engender" i t s e l f , i t cannot p o s s i b l y d i s s i p a t e and thus , "prend f i n par l a meme." The paradox i s most l i k e l y the r e s u l t of the in fancy of the proof by experiment a t t h i s po i n t i n medieval ph i lo sophy, a c on t r a s t between the t h e o r e t i c and empi r i c statements concern ing the nature of the m a t e r i a l wo r l d . Ce r t a i n views o f l i g h t as an e s s e n t i a l l y c e l e s t i a l substance were accepted as a matter of course by the medieval mind, which was p r i m a r i l y concerned w i th the nature of d e i t y and the i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n btween d e i t y and the world o f apparent r e a l i t y . The acceptance o f t h i s " d i v i n e " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i g h t caused oftBn i n s o l u b l e paradoxes f o r the 46 I b i d . , p 361 47 G i l s o n , E. H. Ph i l o soph i e au Moyeh Age., P a r i s ; Payot, 1947 48 Pound, E z r a . Make i t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 359 47 natura l ph i lo spher of the p e r i o d , whose exper ience o f the ac tua l wor ld could not be r e c o n c i l e d w i th the accepted t h e o r i e s . As a r e s u l t , medieval s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e s are u s u a l l y a cu r i ou s blend of b e l i e f s and emp i r i c statements o f f a c t . The Grosseteste theory possesses t h i s admixture of f a c t and b e l i e f , in t h a t , i t represents an acceptance of the t r a d i t i o n a l metaphor of l i g h t as d e i t y but i s unable to v e r i f y t h i s b e l i e f i n terms o f i n t e l l e c t u a l exper ience o f the world of a c t u a l i t y . As d e i t y , l i g h t " s ' engendrer ell-meme perpetue l lement , " but as a phy s i ca l substance, i t " f i n i t par a t t e i n d r e l a l i m i t e extreme de sa r a r e f a c t i o n , e t l a propagation de l a lumiere prend f i n par l a meme." The paradox i s i m p l i c i t in the opening sentence o f the quoted G i l s o n summary,' i n t h a t , Gros setes te apparent l y woJd have both s ides of the arguement a t once: l i g h t i s both a co rporea l substance and y e t , i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s ub t l e and evanescent to be capable of approaching the non - co rpo rea l . L i g h t i s t hu s , both a ma te r i a l substance, t a n g i b l e i n a world of phys i ca l a c t u a l i t y , but i s a l s o possessed of the s p i r i t u a l i t y of a "wor ld of moving e n e r g i e s . " The u l t i m a t e i m p l i c a t i o n of G ro s s e t e s t e ' s seeming paradox i s t ha t a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between matter and s p i r i t are a r t i f i c i a l , each p a r t i c i p a t e s in the o t h e r . The ac tua l wor ld i s a "wor ld of moving ene r g i e s , " the wor ld of P rocess . I t i s the i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s seeming paradox upon which Pound now focu se s , in an attempt to remove the a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n which have been made by the l i m i t i n g and l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t . One cannot separate imaginat ion from i n t e l l e c t , form from o b j e c t , energy mat te r , i d e a l from a c t u a l . The separa t i on has been in the past and i s s t i l l the reason f o r man's atomized response to his wo r l d , and the 48 r e s u l t a n t impasse i n t o which dependence upon the merely i n t e l l e c t u a l has led man. Pound advocates the i n t u i t i v e response, the percept ion through i n t u i t i o n but t res sed by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t . Th i s harmony of v i s i o n i s the element of C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem which most appeals to Pound, as h i s repeated re fe rences to Gros se tes t would seem to suggest. As Pound sa/s, the French summary i s most a b l e , and most l u c i d . I t i s f a r more suggest ive o f the canzone, Donna_Me Prega, than the o r i g i n a l L a t i n of Grosseteste^ 41T Apart from the l i g h t paradox, the G i l son summary makes statements about the nature and r a m i f i c a t i o n s of l i g h t which appealed to Pound, and which he l a t e r employed in h i s own poetry . Gros setes te says t ha t l i g h t i s P r o t e a n , a pr imal substance from which a l l th ings are c r e a t e d . I t i s a l s o the e s s e n t i a l nature of any body, and i s i t s e l f the very essence of " c o r p o r e i t e . " One sees r e a d i l y , the pantheism whereby d i v i n i t y i s man i fes t in a l l l e v e l s of e x i s t e n c e , a l l c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the d i v i n e emanation. I t i s due to the p a t h e t t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of Cava l cant i and of Gros setes te tha t Pound emphasizes the " h e r e t i c a l " views of Cava l can t i and the an t i -Thomi s t bas i s cf the Cava l can t i un i ve r se . I may be wrong, but I cannot belie/e that Guido " swa l lowed 1 Aquinas. I t i s perhaps by merest a cc i den t but we f i n d nowhere in h i s poems any i m p l i c a t i o n of a b e l i e f in a geocent r i c o r t h e c e n t r i c m a t e r i a l un i ve r s e . 50 49 l o c . c i t . 50 I b i d . , pp. 357-8 49 Seeing l i g h t as an analogy f o r human i n t e l l i g e n c e , Pound focuses on G ro s s e te s t e ' s view t ha t l i g h t i s p e r p e t u a l l y s e l f ' e n g e n d e r i n g and connect ing t h i s p o s i t i o n to C a v a l c a n t i ' s i n r i s p l e n d e in se perpetua le e f f e t t o (12) and s t r e s s i n g the importance of the f a c t t h a t , Guido though i n accurate terms; t ha t the phrases correspond to d e f i n i t e sensat ions undergone. 51 This i s to say that l o v e , working upward from the sense response to beauty toward the transcendent i d e a l , i s r e spon s i b l e f o r harmonizing the imag inat ion and the i n t e l l e c t . Under the i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e , man's being i s u n i f i e d . Human sense response i s subjected to the i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l and i s t hu s , r e f i n d . Through, l o v e , the h ighest power of which the i n t e l l e c t i s capab le , i s ab le to r a d i a t e f o r t h . By c r e a t i n g a sense of i n t e g r a t i o n , love makes pos s ibe l human atta inment of the g reates t degree o f d i v i n i t y . J u s t as l i g h t was seen as s e l f - engende r i ng by! G ro s se te s te , so i s i n t e l l i g e n c e to Pound, f o r the i d e a l of l o v e , once transformed by the i n t e l l e c t , i s l i k e l i g h t i n G r o s s e t e s t e ' s t heo ry . Donnons-nous un po in t lumineux, i l s 'engendre instantanement autour de ce po in t comme cent re une sphere lu ineeuse immense. 52. 51 I b i d . , p. 361 52 I b i d . , p. 359 50 There i s an i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e , the i n t e l l e c t , drawing from the sense response to beauty, which c rea te s an i d e a l of l o v e . Th is i n t u r n , works upon the i n t e l l e c t a c e r t a i n re f inement , a d i s t i l l a t i o n which draws away the transcendent essence of the sense percept ion and e x a l t s the percept ion to the l e v e l of an i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l . There i s the re s idue of pe r cep t i on , percept ion of something which r equ i r e s a huraan being to produce i t . Which even may r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l to product i t . Th i s r e a l l y compl i cates the a e s t h e t i c . You deal w i t h an i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e : the v i r t u i n s ho r t . 53 The main departure of Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n of Donna Me Prega, both from the o r i g i n a l canzone and from subsequent s c h o l a r l y t r a n s l a t i o n s of the poem, l i e s i n Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n of mercede i n l i n e seventy. Merzed, o r mercy, to the Provencal t roubador , s i g n i f i e s the g rant ing o f phy s i ca l favours by the i d e a l i z e d , but s t i l l sensuous, l ady . C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem represent s an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the amour cOur to i s t r a d i t i o n , in t h a t , the mercede which he seeks i s not merely atta inment of the l a d y ' s phy s i ca l f a vou r s , but super-sensuous i d e a l o f l o v e , a l b e i t s t i l l f i r m l y grounded in the sense response to phys i ca l beauty. The F l e t c h e r t r a n s l a t i o n does not c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t , t r a n s l a t i n g the I t a l i a n mercede as guerdon, and l e a v i n g the sense u n c l a r i f i e d . However, F l e t che r s note to l i n e seventy c e r t a i n l y accomplishes t h i s e l u c i d a t i o n , and i s worth quot ing . 53 I b i d . , p. 348 54 F l e t c h e r , J .B . "Guido Cavalcant i ' s Ode o f Love. , "Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 7. January, 1910, p. 426. 51 The sense response remains a t the r oo t of the q u l i t y o f compassion, i e . , the concrete a t the bases of the t ranscendent i d e a l . There i s no q u a l i t y of human response, man i s e s s e n t i a l l y a harmony of sense and i n t e l l e c t . L i g h t emanates from the darkness of the "shadow of Mars , " becase of the harmony between sense and i n t e l l e c t which love e f f e c t s i n man. Becuase of t h i s u n i t y , t h i s harmony o f sense response and i n t e g r a t i o n , each whole i n d i v i d u a l i s ab le to shed the a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , which the s o l e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l response to the un i ve r se has c r e a t e d . Un i t y of s e l f must be e s t ab l i s hed as a p r e - c o n d i t i o n i n g before t h i s d i v i n e sympathy w i t h the " o t h e r " can be ach ieved. Once s e l f i n t e g r i t y i s a t t a i n e d , i n d i v i d u a l man i s able to r e a l i z e the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y of a l l humanity and man can be i n teg ra ted i n t o the world of Process . 52 Chapter Four: Compassion to Order I t h i n k the Cava l can t i Canto needs a rea l working ove r . Seems to me c e n t r a l to the meaning of the Cantos a t l a r g e and to a p rec i s e statement of Pound's ph i losophy or r e l i g i o n or whatever you want to c a l l i t . 55 The Cantos are a type of twen t i e th - cen tu r y Q$/ssey of the Ang lo -Saxon peoples, in which Pound i s both one of personae and the contemporary man and poet, expe r i enc ing the world of present a c t u a l i t y , man i n h i s t o r y and man i n the present . Th i s i s to say tha t the per ip lum takes the quester through exper iences which are both i n and out o f ch rono l og i ca l h i s t o r y . An event may be f i x e d in a d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l c on tex t , but a l l of the time past i s present in the imnediate moment. The u n i t y of The Cantos i s thus , one of consciousness as we l l as of theme and techn ique. The same v i s i o n i s present throughout the e n t i r e poem: however, t h i s grows and develops as the i n t e s i t y and the f requency of exper ience increases and a h i e ra rchy of va lues and events are cons ide red . Bes ides the Odyssean periplum of the poem, Pound has embodied the theme of i n d i v i d u a l man as a s o c i a l consc ience from the D iv ine Comedy of Dante. Th is i s on l y to say t h a t Pound i s both i n and 55 Edwards, John, e d i t o r . The Pound News l e t t e r , 6 A p r i l 1955, p. 20 Be r ke l ey : The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P re s s , 1955. 53 out o f the poem o r , t ha t the exper ience and events of h i s t o r y are o c c u r r i n g both s u b j e c t i v e l y and o b j e c t i v e l y to the poet. Pound both cons ider s h i s t o r i c events as exper ience undergone, being a t one wi th the consciousness of Odysseus, and as event con s i de red , i e . , viewed o b j e c t i v e l y from w i thou t . The events of h i s t r o y and exper ience are viewed ou t s i de of a ch r ono l o g i c a l or developmental contimuum, being impress ions o f s i g n i f i c a n t moments in the space/time continumm. These s p e c i f i c moments, impress ions and events o f t en recu r in h i s t o r y , the r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i v e f o r ce s reach ing c l imax c o n d i t i o n s , thus s t r e s s i n g the con t i nua l t i d e - l i k e waxing and waning of idea and a c t u a l i t y , form and o b j e c t . The con t i nua l phasing in and out i s underscored by the s t r e s s i n g of exact d a t e s , r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c event s . This p rec i se d a t i n g of documents, event , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , lends an impress ion of the exact moment i n the spce/time continumm a t which the i n t e r a c t i v e f o r ce s of Hs to ry connect and cause an event , or whatever, to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The dual r o l e of Pound, as poet/nar ra tor and as persona, should not be l i n k e d to the personal or Odyssean element and the cb j e c t i v e , or Dantescan, elements, as Pound i s f u l f i l l i n g both the personal and o b j e c t i v e r o l e s w i t h i n each element. Pound i s both, w i th Odysseus in consc iousness , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n h i s expe r i ence , and removed from Odysseus, and o b j e c t i v e l y n a r r a t i n g the events i nvo l ved i n the Odyssey. The same hold t r ue f o r the Dantescan element. The poe t ' s consciousness i s both , a t one w i th t h a t of Dante du r i n g the journey through H e l l and up to Pa r ad i s e , but i s a l s o o b j e c t i v e to the degree tha t the Dantescan H e l l and Parad i se are p o e t i c a l l y connected to c e r t a i n analogous s t a t e s in Pound's own wor ld of twen t i e th - cen tu r y a c t u a l i t y . 54 • Thus, Pound i s w i th Odysseus du r ing h i s quest voyage, c o n s i d e r i n g the h i s t o r i c event from i n s i j e the h i s t o r i c a l framework, and i s a l so remote from the immediate moment and i s man ipu la t ing the h i s t o r i c event f o r h i s own purposes. Thus, the opening of the f i r s t Canto, in which Pound i s both i n s i d e Odysseus ' exper ience and o u t s i d e , man ipu la t ing the exper ience of the Odyssey, in order to c r e a t e an Anglo-Saxon equ i va l en t s i t u a t i o n through use of tone, mood, metre and d i c t i o n . And then went down to the s h i p , Set keel to b reaker s , f o r t h on the godly sea, and We set up mast and s a i l on tha t swart s h i p , Bore sheep aboard he r , and our bodies a l s o (1,1-4) Pound, in a l e t t e r to h i s f a t h e r , o u t l i n e d the main scheme of the e n t i r e poem, as e a r l y as 1927 Dear Dad: - I - I A f r a i d the whole damn poem i s r a t h e r obscure, e s p e c i a l l y i n f ragments. Have I ever g iven you o u t l i n e of main shceme::: or whatever i t i s ? 1) Rather l i k e , or u n l i k e sub ject and response and counter s ub jec t i n fugue. A. A. L i ve man goes down i n t o wor ld of Dead C.B. The ' r epea t in h i s t o r y ' B. C. The 'magic moment' or moment of metamorphosis bust thru from quo t i d i en i n t o ' d i v i n e o r permanent w o r l d . ' Gods, e t c . 56 This i s a rough o u t l i n e i s v i a b l e and should be cons idered po in t by po i n t . The fuga l elements are an important c l u e , both to Pound's method of t o p i c a s s o c i a t i o n and to the harmoic elements. Pound has s a i d , 56 Pa ige , D.D. e d i t o r , The Le te r s of Ezra Pound 1907-1941, New York: Ha rcou r t , Brace & Wor ld , I nc . , 1950, P. 210 55 " r a t h e r l i k e , " which sould not be confused w i t h e x a c t l y l i k e , and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n should not be f o r g e t t e n in a l l f a i r n e s s to the poet. When Pound in t roduces a s p e c i f i c t o p i c , say the r e a l i t y and u b i q u i t y of the pagan gods, i t i s not to be d i scussed f u l l y then dropped, never to be f u r t h e r con s i de red , Rather, the pagan gods, o r whatever t o p i c , are introduced in a moment o f t h e i r mythic or h i s t o r i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n , r e l a t e d to some h i s t o r i c event in which they have a t o p i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , then dropped, to be r e - a s s e r t ed s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , w i t h l y r i c i n t e n s i t y and the a u t h o r i t y of personal c o n v i c t i o n . Thus, Pound's e a r l y treatment o f the pagan gods and l a t e r a s s e r t i o n of t h e i r ub iqu i tous e x i s t e n c e . Venerandam, In the C r e t a n ' s phrase, w i th the golden crown, Aphrod i te , Cypr i minimenta s o r t i t a e s t , m i r t h f u l , o r i c h a l c h i , w i th golden G i r d l e s and breas t bands, thou w i th dark e y e l i d s Bear ing the golden bough of A r g i c i d a . ( I , 72-76) • • • • * • • God- s l e i gh t then, g o d - s l e i g h t : Sh ip stock f a s t i n s e a - s w i r l , ( I I , 57-58) « • • • • • • Gods f l o a t in the azure a i r , B r i g h t gods and Tuscan, back before dew was shed. L i g h t : and the f i r s t l i g h t , before ever dew was f a l l e n . Pan i sk s , and from the oak, d ryas , And from the app l e , m a e l i d , Through a l l the wood, and the leaves are f u l l o f v o i c e s , A-whi sper , and the c louds bowe over the l a k e , And there are gods upon them, ( I I I , 7-14) 56 The s ub j e c t , the D ionys ian or mystery gods of pagan s o c i e t y , i s i n t r oduced , v a r i e d , and an e a r l y man i f e s t a t i on o f t h e i r r e a l i t y i s s ta ted as a response, and f i n a l l y , the c o u t e r - s u b j e c t , a ^personal and l y r i c a l a s s e r t i o n of t h e i r ever -p resent r e a l i t y , i s s t a t e d . Th i s technique of fuga l sub jec t p resentat ion i s r e l a t e d to the per ip lum i n s i g h t s i n t o the waxing and waning of c h r ono l o g i c a l h i s t o r y , f o r , j u s t as h i s t o r i c f o r ce s and cruxes are c o n t i n u a l l y phasing in and out of t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y , so i s there a c on t i nua l wave - l i ke motion of the s ub jec t s , as they are caught up, dropped, v a r i e d , and f i n a l l y r e - a s s e r t e d . Th i s fuga l element recur s in the rhythms of the poem, as o f ten l i n e s of d e f i n i t e power and a s s e r t i o n , and o f t en even harshness, a l t e r n a t e w i th l i n e s of r e l a t i v e ca lm, p a s s i v i t y and s o f t ne s s . Th i s waxing and waning of rhythmic s t r u c t u r e , another element of u n i t y i n the poem, t i e s together the phasing in and out of the personal and the o b j e c t i v e involvement, the t o p i c or sub jec t t reatement, and the h i s t o r i c " r epea t s " of i n t e r a c t i v e s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c f o r c e s . The second part of Pound's e a r l y o u t l i n e must be cons idered in t h i s same twofo ld manner. The " l i v e man," going down i n t o the wor ld of the dead, i s a t o n e t i m e , Pound examining the e v i l of the past through an adopted persona, and Pound pe r sona l l y commenting on the atrophy and death o f s p i r i t which he observed in h i s contemporary s o c i e t y . Pound i s one wi th Odysseus i n the Kimmerian lands and w i th Dante in purgatory, but s t i l l expresses the H e l l which he f e e l s to be inherent i n twent i e th - cen tu ry s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s arms p r o f i t e r i n g , usur ious economics and bad a r t . Th is p re sen ta t i on of the past and present through va r i ou s adopted personae, i s not un re la ted to the concept of the " r epea t i n h i s t o r y " as the c y c l i c a l v iew of h i s t o r i c f o r c e s may mesh, 57 to a l l ow r e p e t i t i o n of i d e n t i c a l o r c l o s e l y s i m i l a r events , so may the se . f o r ce s and r e s u l t a n t events i n t e r a c t w i th human nature to produce i n d i v i d u a l s who are of a c e r t a i n t ype . Pound has c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e hero and v i l l a i n a rchetypes , w i t h whom he peoples h i s wo r l d s , both of the past and of the present . The hero a rchetype, maiifest i n S o r d e l l o , Jbhn Adams, Kung-feu-tse and M a l a t e s t a , i s the man of un i ted i n t e l l e c t and f e e l i n g , the man whose c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the world of a c t u a l i t y i s not separate from h i s percept ion o r imag inat i ve response to the concrete i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s of the a e s t h e t i c wo r l d . The v i l l i a n s of the Poundian un iverse are those whose response to the world i s measured i n terms of t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t s , men whose theo r i e s about the nature of the ac tua l world have no r e l a t i o n to the complete and u n i f i e d response to the wo r l d , but are intended to serve some vested i n t e r e s t , u s u a l l y t h e i r own s e l f aggrandisement or ma te r i a l advantage. Among Pound's v i l l a i n s must be numbered a v a r i e t y of popes and monarchs, a r t i s t s who c loud the l i n e s o f demarcat ion, such as M i l t o n , and those among p o l i t i c i a n s and economists whose p o s i t i o n represent s a usur ious economic system, men such as S i r B a s i l Zaha ra f f , Winston C h u r c h i l l and F.D.R. The f i n a l po in t of Pound's o u t l i n e of h i s poem i s perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r purposes o f d i s c u s s i o n o f the Poundian metaphys ic. The key phrases, "magic momet," and " d i v i n e or permanent w o r l d , " are c r u c i a l to understanding Pound's view of a e s t h e t i c s and ph i l o soph i c v a l ue . The "magic moment" of metamorphosis i s the moment i n which the correspondence of idea and o b j e c t , f e e l i n g and thought, i s pe rce i ved . The i n t e l l e c t c rea te s a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , or 58 d u a l i t i e s , between s t a te s which are more p rope r l y placed in a continuum of e x i s t e n c e . Th i s i s to say tha t man i s an i n t e g r a l part of a wor ld of Process , one i n teger i n a i n te r - connected and m u l t i - l e v e l l e d framework of e x i s t e n c e . Man i s ab l e to pe r ce i ve , both sensuously and i m a g i n a t i v e l y , h i s p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s o ther l e v e l s of e x i s t e n c e , or can concep tua l i z e t heo r i e s about the nature of the non - se l f or " o t h e r " aspect of the world of Process . The i n teg ra ted s e l f , because there i s a harmony of being w i t h i n the s e l f , i s a b l e to perce ive the t rue r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s e l f to the " o t h e r " l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e . The i n t e l l e c t i s unable to make a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , because i t i s checked by the imag ina t i on , which responds sensuously to the u n i t y i n the un i ve r s e . The moment o f percept ion of t h i s e s s e n t i a l oneness which e x i s t s between the s e l f and the " o t h e r , " i s Pound's "magic moment." P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , Pound i s e s s e n t i a l l y a N e o - P l a t o n i s t , b e l i e v i n g t ha t the world i s composed of i dea l r e a l i t y and outward appearance. In terms o f P l a t o ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, Pound's "magic moment," would be an i n s t a n t of the space/time cohtinutrm wherein one perce ives the e s s e n t i a l oneness o f the tempora l l y l i m i t e d outward appearances and the permanent forms o f which the appearances are mere r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . In Pound's a e s t h e t i c , the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of poet i c images or the d e f i n i t i o n of form by plances i n s c u l p t u r e , prov ide i n s t an t s i n the space/time continuum wherein one i s ab le to r e a l i z e , through response of the i n teg ra ted s e l f to phy s i ca l s t i m u l i , the oneness of a l l e x i s t e n c e . I say tha t Pound i s a Neo -P l a t on i s t l a r g e l y due to h i s va lue judgment, i m p l i c i t i n the second phrase o f the f i n a l po in t of h i s o u t l i n e , namely, t ha t the "magic moment" represents a "bust thru from q u o t i d i e n , " 59 i n t o a " d i v i n e or permanent w o r l d . " By the word, " q u o t i d i e n , " Pound suggest the world of outward appearances to be l i m i t e d i n time and s p i r i t to the l e v e l o f the unreal and i l l u s o r y . P l a t o , t o o , saw the world of a c t u a l i t y as e x i s t e n t a t a remove from r e a l i t y , which i n P l a t o n i c terms i s de f ined as the world o f permanent forms or i dea s , e x i s t e n t a t the l e v e l o f the d i v i n e and e t e r n a l . Although Pound's r e a c t i o n to Hindu a s c e t i c i s m i s v i o l e n t l y nega t i ve , he never the les s man i fes t s what i s e s s e n t i a l l y the Hindu d o c t r i n e o f maya i n t h i s e v a l u a t i on of the world of appearances and the unde r l y i ng world of permanence. Behind the outward and seemingly r e a l world e x i s t s a l e v e l of ex i s tence removed from the time/space l i m i t a t i o n - the world of s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y . I t i s the "wor ld of moving e n e r g i e s , " t h i s wor ld of P rocess , which i s the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y f o r Pound. Pound's awareness o f the world of Process i s a r r i v e d a t through h i s search f o r a new and d i s t i n c t l i t e r a r y style, which i s to say, i n t e g r a l l y w i th h i s s t r ugg l e f o r complete s e l f awareness and i n t e g r a t i o n of be ing. The Poundian r e a l i z a t i o n of the connect ion between the l e v e l of s e l f e x i s t ence a t t a i n e d and the development of a new l i t e r a r y s t y l e can be best i l l u s t r a t e d from Pound's essay on Remy de Gourmont. Le s t y l e , c ' e s t de s e n t i r , de v o i r , de penser, e t r i e n p l u s . Le s t y l e e s t une s p e c i a l i s a t i o n de l a s e n s i b i l i t e . 60 Une idee n ' e s t qu 'une sensat ion d e f r a i c h i e , une image e f f a c e e . 57 Apparent l y , Pound found what he was search ing f o r i n de Gourrront 's l i t e r a r y pronouncements, as h i s essay would seem to i l l u s t r a t e . S t y l e o f p re senta t ion i s i n t e g r a l to f e e l i n g , i n t e l l e c t and t o t a l v i s i o n , a d i v i s i o n of s e n s i b i l i t y . Concepts a r i s e from sensat ions exper ienced, the i n t e l l e c t b u i l d s upon images. The view of a e s t h e t i c s , the emphasis upon the concrete image and the i n t e g r a t i o n of response i s apparent i n Pound's progress ion from the e a r l y , or Imagiste s tage, to the l a t e r achievement of h i s f i n a l s t y l e in the Cantos. In the Imagiste s tage, Pound sought the d e f i n i t i o n of poe t i c emotion through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n 58 of images, The emotion i s " f i r e s t ruck between s tones , " the stones being the images employed by the poet. In the l a t e r , V o r t i c i s t movement, Pound sees the d e f i n i t i o n of emotions through planes and sur faces as an a e s t h e t i c i d e a l , much as does Gaudier -Brzeska i n h i s a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e . Th i s movement represents an attempt to mainta in the c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r i n a r t . The form i s ab s t rac ted from the o r i g i n a l sense response of the v i ewer . Th is i s what Pound means by " the concept ion of the body as 59 per fected instrument of the i n c r ea s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e . " The response of the senses must be un i ted to the i n t e l l e c t u a l response before an i n s i g h t i n t o the form can be ga ined. By the t ime Pound begins the Cantos, h i s s t y l e has ach ieved i t s f i n a l form. The p r i n c i p l e s s t a ted by Pound, dur ing the Imagiste and 60 V o r t i c i s t pe r i od s , have merged wi th and become v e r i f i e d by h i s work 57 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, p.328 58 Hulme, T, E. Specu la t i on ? London: Kegan P a u l , 1924, p. 135 59 Pound, E z r a , Make I t New, Lotion: Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 349 60 I b i d . , pp.336-341 61 61 w i th the Fene l l o sa papers on the Chinese ideograms. This wor"k w i th the Chinese cha rac te r s br ings Pound to the u l t i m a t e development of h i s 62 s t y l e , what he has c a l l e d the "ideogrammic method." As Pound i n t e r p r e s t the Chinese ideogram, i t mani fests the same bas ic p r i n i c i p l e s f o r which Pound has been sea rch ing . Pound f e e l s the ideogram to posses an immediacy of r e fe rence not found in the phonetic symbols cf the western 63 a lphabet s . Th is i s to say t ha t the Chinese ideogram, as we l l as naming the o b j e c t , presents a symbol ic p i c t u r e of the o b j e c t or s t a t e . I t has a r e s u l t a n t re fe rence to the concrete exper ience of t ha t which i t r ep re sen t s , a b s t r a c t l y and s y m b o l i c a l l y . Thus, the images and planes which Pound has been at tempt ing to employ as a means of d e l i n e a t i n g poe t i c emotions and i dea s , may now be embodied in the ve ry cha rac te r s which he employs. More than t h i s , an adapta t i on of the p r i n c i p l e s under l y i ng the use of the Chinese ideogram can be made, which w i l l enable Pound to juxtapose mythic and h i s t o r i c events , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , ideas and emotions, thereby s t r u c t u r i n g h i s poem in the same manner as the Chinese ideogram i s b u i l t . Thus, a s ec t i on or Canto w i l l be ded icated to the exposure o f economic m a l p r a c t i c e . Th is w i l l be juxtaposed wi th passages p re sent ing examples of bad economics and c o r r u p t i o n , drawn from a l l ages o f h i s t o r y and croos c u l t u r a l l y . An extended passage w i l l f o l l o w , in which the i dea l i s de s c r i bed . The 61 Pound, E z r a , ABC of Reading, New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , I960, p 18. 62 C l a r k , T. "The Formal S t r u c tu re of Pound's " C an to s , " " East-West Review, vo l I, No. 2, Autumn 1964, pp. 97-144, Kyoto, Japan: Doshisha U n i v e r s i t y P res s , 1964 63 Pound, Ezra,ABC of Reading, New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1960,p. 22. 62 Poundian i d e a l may be in the realm of economics, ( G e s e l l , Doug las ) , or in p o l i t i c a l theory (Adams.) The va r ious elements of the o v e r a l l ideogram combine to present one w i th the idea c l u s t e r of mistaken economic theory , une th i c a l p r a c t i c e s and human c o r r u p t i o n , examples o f both of these and samples of documents which support such m a l p r a c t i c e , and a l s o , p resent ing the as ye t un r ea l i z ed i dea l f o r economic j u s t i c e . During the course of the p re senta t i on of these va r i ou s ideogramic elements, the reader has exper ienced a v a r i e t y of emotional responses to the assor ted s t i m u l i and w i l l be l e f t w i th an "economic impre s s i on , " an encapsulated h i s t o r y , theory and idea l of economics, which w i l l provoke emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l response. Employing t h i s ideogrammic procedure, Pound i s ab le to u n i f y and examine a l l h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and human exper ience, however remote or d i s p a r a t e . E v i l and H e l l i n the Cantos, are a t one time myth i c , h i s t o r i c , remote and a b s t r a c t , ac tua l and e x p e r i e n t i a l . The reader i s both a t one w i th the i n f e r n a l exper ience o f the f i g u r e s of pagan myth, heroes of h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the a c tua l w o r l d , and remotely and o b j e c t i v e l y judg ing the nature and m e r i t of these i n f e r n a l exper iences . The v i s i o n of H e l l i s u n i v e r s a l i z e d ye t the twen t i e t h - cen tu r y p a r a l l e l s make the v i s i o n r e a l , concrete and e x p e r i e n t i a l . He l l becomes a p o s s i b i l i t y , a p o t e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n of l i f e , a possibfe l i n e o f e x i s t e n c e . The splendour and rad iance of the heavenly c i t y has t h i s same q u a l i t y o f immediacy. Pound's v i s i o n of Parad i se i s expressed the same terms, and w i t h the same r e f e r ence s , as i s h i s v i s i o n o f Hades. One sympathizes w i t h , y e t o b j e c t i v e l y examines, the exper ience of Paradise undergone by the heroes and v i s i o n a r i e s of pagan myth, h i s t o r i c 63 p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s , as we l l as contemporary personae exper i enc ing and e n v i s i o n i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of a Pa rad i se , both inner and a c t u a l . The p re senta t i on of Paradise in the Cantos, both e a r t h l y and s p i r i t u a l , i s accomplished through the man ipu la t ion of l i g h t imagery, which i s the c o n t r o l 1ingmetaphor of the poem. A wide-rang ing v a r i e t y of l i g h t symbols and ana log ie s are presented by Pound throughout the poem, u s u a l l y in moments o f personal and l y r i c i n t e n s i t y . The e n t i r e p o s i t i v e a s s e r t i o n o f the Cantos i s accomplished through t h i s p re sen ta t i on of l i g h t metaphors. One cou ld s i m p l i f y Pound's s t r u c t u r i n g o f l i g h t imagery by an a r b i t a r y d i v i s i o n of h i s l i g h t images i n t o those which g ive express ion to the Dionys ian and those which convey the A p o l l o n i a n natures of man. Th i s would enable convenient d i s c u s s i o n of the d i v i n i t y which Pound i s a t tempt ing to express , but would n e c e s s a r i l y be l e s s than a complete statement o f the immense weight which Pound makes h i s c o n t r o l l i n g l i g h t imagery bear. However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y the D ionys ian and Apo l l on i an natures of man tha t Pound i s p u t t i n g f o r t h , a l b e i t i n a more complex form than t h i s d i v i s i o n would seem to suggest. The Dionys ian nature s t r e s se s the emotional involvement wi th the wor ld o f Process to an almost f r e n z i e d degree. Th i s emotional f r e n z y Pound would eschew, as h i s remarks on the " p l a s t i c to c o i t u s " element of Greek a r t d i s p l a y s . However, Pound would no doubt agree, and does i m p l i c i t l y , t ha t the D ionys ian emotional involvement, the i n t u i t i v e pe r cep t i on , i s v a l i d de sp i t e the f r e n z y of the e a r l y c u l t i s t s . Where Pound would d i f f e r , l i e s in t ha t s t r u c t u r i n g which he p laces on the body and a s p i r i t , i n t e l l e c t and emotion, and which he f e l t was inherent i n the Tuscan 64 a e s t h e t i c . The concept ion of the body as per fected instrument of the i n c r ea s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e 64 The Apo l l on i an element o f the Cantos seems r e a d i l y apparent i n those passages which are dedicated to Confucius and the Confucian d o c t r i n e of "chung. " However, to c a l l t h i s an Apo l l o n i an element i s a va s t o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , as Confucian phi losophy i s s u f f i c i e n t l y mature to conta in both poles of the D ionys ian/Apo l lon ian d u a l i t y . I t i s necessary, then to adopt a l a r g e r framework i n which to cons ider Pound's l i g h t imagery. However, i t should be borne in mind t ha t the D ionys ian/Apo l lon ian d i v i s i o n can be made, provided one a l l ows f o r Pound's h i e r a r c h i c a l v iew of the r e l a t i o n between the sense response and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , and the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of Confucian ph i lo sophy. The l i g h t pa t te rn of the Cantos i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o the Dionys ian and A p o l l o n i a n pe r spec t i ve s ; however, each aspect must be f u r t h e r subdiv ided in order to be p roper l y understood. The D ionys i an , or i n t u i t i v e element o f the Poundian metaphysic i s concerned w i th the w i th the a s s e r t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n of the pagan gods in a l l t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , e l u c i d a t i o n of the omnipotence and u b i q u i t y of these deitfes a t a l l l e v e l s in the world of process , and statement of the r e c o g n i t i o n of the Dionys ian element in man and by man. Thus, the presence and power of the pagan d i v i n i t i e s i s as ser ted e a r l y in the poem. 64 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 349 65 Venerandam, In the C re t an ' s phrase, w i th the golden crown, Aph rod i te , Cypr i munimenta s o r t i t a e s t , m i r t h f u j , o r i c h a l c h i , w i th golden G i r d l e s and breast bands, thou w i th dark e y e l i d s Bear ing the golden bough of A r g i c i d a . ( I , 71-75) And Acoetes, the on l y one to recogn ize the presence o f D ionys iu s , i s the on l y cre-member to be spared when the god wreaks vengeance upon the crew f o r " g o d - s l e i g h t . " Aye, I, Acoetes , stood t he re , and the god stood by me, ( I I , 62-63) He has a god i n him, though I do not know which god. ( I I , 109-110j_ Olibanum i s my incense, the v ines grow i n my homage. ( I I , 100-101) The Canto imned ia te l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s man i f e s t a t i on of the D ionys ian mystery god 's presence, a s s e r t s , w i th marve lous ly l y r i c i n t e n s i t y the mul t i - fo rmed u b i q u i t y of the pagan d e i t i e s and begins the progress ion of l i g h t imagery which i s to be c a r r i e d on throughout the whole o f the poem. Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r , B r i g h t gods and Tuscan, back before dew was shed, L i g h t : and the f i r s t l i g h t , before ever dew was f a l l e n . Pan i s k s , and from the oak, d r ya s , And from the app l e ,mae l i d , Through a l l the wood, and the leaves are f u l l of v o i c e s , A-whisper, and the c louds bowe over the l a k e , And there are gods upon them, ( H I , 7-14) 66 The r econgn i t i on of the Dionys ian by man, and the nece s s i t y of man's i n t e g r a t i n g h imse l f i n t o the wor ld of Process by r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s element in h imse l f , are key concepts r e l a t e d to the power of the pagan gods, f o r , " g o d - s l e i g h t " r e s u l t s i n the l o s s o f one ' s humanity and consequent r e ve r s i on to the b e s t i a l , as Pound i l l u s t r a t e s by the matter o f the abduct ion of D ionysuis and the r e s u l t a n t changing of the crew to beas t s . Acoetes , r e c o g n i z i n g god l ines s i t s e l f , r e t a i n s h i s humanity And I worsh ip. I have seen what I have seen. When they brought the boy I s a i d : "He has a god i n him, though I do not know which god," ( I I , 106-110), and i s ab l e to i n t e g r a t e h imse l f i n to the process o f na tu re , because of h i s r e c o g n i t i o n and ado ra t i on of g od l i ne s s . And Lyaeus: "From now, Acoetes, my a l t a r s , Fear ing no bondage, f e a r i n g no ca t of the wood, Safe w i t h my l ynxes , f eed ing grapes to my leopards , Olibanum i s my incense, the v ines grow i n my homage," (11, 96-101) L a t e r , Pound s t re s se s again the need f o r man to t r u l y r e a l i s e h i s p lace i n the na tu r a l order of the world of P rocess , h i s e s s e n t i a l oneness w i t h a l l l i f e . P u l l down thy v a n i t y , I say p u l l down. Learn of the green wor ld what can be thy p lace In sca led i n ven t i on or t rue a r t i s t r y , P u l l down they v a n i t y , Paquin p u l l down! (LXXXI, 144-148) 67 L i gh t i s employed to present the Apo l l on i an aspect of man's nature as we l l as the D ionys ian . The Apo l l on i an element of the Cantos r e f e r s to the a x i s of o rde r , which f o r Pound, i s the Confuc ian, a type o f r a t i o n a l i s m and i dea l i sm achieved through s e l f knowledge and compassion fpV one ' s f e l l o w man. The d i v i n e to Pound i s a t t a i n a b l e through s a c r i f i c e of one ' s sense of s e l f as separate from the world of P roces s . The heavenly c i t y can be r e a l i z e d here and now, i f man would e s t a b l i s h h i s connext ion w i th the d i v i n e , through i n t u i t i v e response to the process, bo l s t e red by the use o f the now c l e a r i n t e l l e c t . The A p o l l o n i a n , or ordered element of d i v i n i t y , presented a l s o by means o f l i g h t imagery, i s concerned w i t h the express ion of the rad iance of the heavenly c i t y and the sacred homes of the gods, d e s c r i p t i o n of t e human i n t e l l i g e n c e informed by the imag inat i ve sense response through the metaphor o f l i g h t and l i g h t f o rma t i on , and l i g h t i s a l so used as a metaphor or analogy f o r the forming i n f l u e n c e of love i n the i n t e l l e c t and imaginat ion of man. Thus, the v i s i o n of the heavenly c i t y has been a t t a i n e d by a l l s o c i e t i e s , the l i g h t of the hold scarab of Egypt ian myth i s as v a l i d and powerful as the l i g h t of Mount Ta i shan, the Olympus o f Ch ina . the great scarab i s bowed a t the a l t a r the green l i g h t gleams in h i s s h e l l (LXXXIV, 122,123) • • • • • as of Shun on Mt. Taishan (LXXIV, 128) The va r i ou s uses of l i g h t f l o w together in the seven ty - fou r th Canto, where the l i g h t of mythic d e i t i e s , medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y and Confuc ian 68 phi losophy are jux taposed, to be in terconnected by the Chinese charac te r "ming . " The l i g h t of na tu ra l i n t u i t i o n i s the "green l i g h t , " gleaming in the s h e l l of the sacred Egypt ian scarab. Th i s i n t u i t i v e grasp of the d i v i n e l i g h t i s connected to the pat te rn of l i f e in Chinese peasant s o c i e t y . I t i s a t e n s i l e , or v i a b l e , l i g h t , a p p l i c a b l e to a s o c i e t y r u l e d by a p r i e s t l y h i e r a r chy , as in anc i en t Egypt, and to a peasant l i f e of a g r a r i an economy, as i n e a r l y Ch ina. I t i s both the d i v i n e l i g h t , i n which John Scotus Er igena saw a l l ma te r i a l th ing s as p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the l i g h t of human i n t e l l i g e n c e working upward from a man to the d i v i n e . in the l i g h t of l i g h t i s the v i r t u (LXXIV, 126) In the l i g h t of human i n t e l l i g e n c e i s the power, the c a p a c i t y f o r the d i v i n e . Man can p a r t i c i p a t e in d i v i n i t y and c rea te h i s heavenly c i t y on e a r t h , through a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s u n i f i e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , the i n t u i t i o n and the i n t e l l e c t t oge the r . Man, as pa r t of the world of P roces s , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the d i v i n e l i g h t . He i s one of the " a l l t h i n g s , " t ha t Er igena saw as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the l i g h t of d i v i n i t y . " sunt lumina " sa id the Oirishaman to King Carol us , "OMNIA, a l l th ings tha t a re are l i g h t s " (LXXIV, 143-145) A l l th ings are i n t e g r a l part s of the world of P rocess , man i n c l u d e d , and the Process works toward the d i v i n e and e x a l t e d . L i g h t i s the world o f P roces s , "OMNIA. a l l th ings t ha t are are l i g h t s " (LXXIV, 144-145) 69 and man has the l i g h t of h i s i n t e g r a t e d , harmonized, i n t e l l i g e n c e , which i s the f l e x i b l e , w i d e l y - i n t e r p r e t e d power, a p p l i c a b l e to a l l c o n d i t i o n s and m i l i e u x . The Chinese cha rac te r "ming, " which Pound employs to fuse a l l the d i s p a r a t e uses of l i g h t , i s i n t e r p r e t e d by Pound to represent the t o t a l process of l i g h t in the un i ve r se , both ma te r i a l and s p i r i t u a l . The ideogram i s composed o f elements which rep resent the sun and the moon, hence, the t o t a l ma te r i a l l i g h t p rocess , the emanation, r a d i a t i o n , and r e f l e c t i o n of phy s i ca l l i g h t . Th i s i s the t a n g i b l e and corporea l l i g h t which Gros setes te was a t tempt ing to p i n p o i n t . In Confucian philosopfy, however, the ideogram i s used to represent a s e r i e s of d i s t i n c t i o n s made in the Ana lec t s by the Master . "Ming" means to be b r i g h t , c l e a r , i n t e l l i g e n t - a s t a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the d i v i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e , r ad i an t w i th the c l a r i t y of d i v i n e v i s i o n . I t can a l s o mean to c leanse or burn away the d r o s s , to i l l u s t r a t e , and to understand. There fo re , Pound's use of the ideogram must be seen as a c u l m i n a t i o n , as the peak of the pat te rn of l i g h t in the Cantos.  "M ing , " represents the ma te r i a l l i g h t of the un i ve r se which Er igena saw i n a l l t h i n g s . I t i s a l s o the d i v i n e l i g h t of the un i ve r s e , the in the l i g h t of l i g h t i s the v i r t u (LXXIV, 126) L i g h t t e n s i l e immaculata (LXXIV, 141) . . . . w h i t e l i g h t o f a l l n e s s (XXXVI, 70) the sun ' s cord unspotted. (LXXIV, 142) 70 to which man i s connected through h i s p lace in the wor ld of Process . Between these two extremes, l i e s the power of the human i n t e l l i g e n c e , which has a l i g h t of i t s own comprehension. The Confucian use of "m ing , " as the a c t i o n of the understanding, s t re s se s the d i v i n e element i n man, h i s in te l l i gence informed by h i s f e e l i n g , h i s sympathy or r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s e s s e n t i a l p lace in the wor ld of Process . Man must see h i s p lace i n tfe na tu ra l o r d e r , must e s t a b l i s h harmony between h i s f e e l i n g and i n t e l l e c t . He must cease to make d i s t i n c t i o n s w i th the l i m i t e d , and l i m i t i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l response, and cease to see h i s own ex i s tence as separate from the world o f P rocess . Learn o f the green world what can be thy p lace (LXXI, 145) • • • • • • • P u l l down thy v a n i t y . (LXXXI, 147) When he ceases to make these a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , man's i n t e l l i g e n c e i s f r eed and hence, ab le to be app l i ed to the search f o r the r ea l wo r l d , the realm of i d e a , P l a t o n i c forms, or i d e a l . He i s now ab le t o , bust thru from qu t i d i en i n t o ' d i v i n e or permanent w o r l d . ' Gods, e t c . 65 Once the quest ion of the d i v i ded house o f human response i s s o l ved , man can move on to the quest ion o f , what whiteness w i l l you add to t h i s wh i teness , what candour? (LXXIV, 16-17) 65 Pa i ge , D.D., e d i t o r . The L e t t e r s of Ezra Pound 1907-1941, New York: Ha r cou r t , Brace & Wor ld, I nc . , 1950, p. 210 71 and seek h i s p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s d i v i n i t y . Once ab le to u t i l i z e h i s complete i n t e l l i g e n c e and to see the d i v i n e element in i t s permanent r e l a t i o n to the conrete o f h i s own exper ience of the world of P rocess , man i s ab le to r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of the heavenly c i t y . to b u i l d the c i t y of Dioce whose t e r r a ce s are the c o l ou r of s t a r s (LXXIV, 10) Canto t h i r t y - s i x i s c e n t r a l to the e n t i r e metaphysic of the l a r ge r framework of the Cantos, in t h a t , i t dea l s w i th the personal s p i r i t u a l growth of the i n d i v i d u a l who would see the d i v i n e l i g h t and l e a r n what i s h i s t rue p lace i n the un i v e r s e . The f i r s t f i v e stanzas of the Canto are a t ran s lucence o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s canzone and d i f f e r e n t from the Pound t r a n s l a t i o n of Donna Me Prega. The major d i f f e r e n c e are Pound's emphasis of the l i g h t imagery and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the mercede, the guerdon to be won. We have seen t ha t C a v l c a n t i ' s views of l i g h t and love were i n t e r r e l a t e d , in t ha t love in human psychology i s analogous to the phy s i ca l fo rmat ion of l i g h t in the un i ve r se , and t h a t t h i s mate r i a l l i g h t has a l s o a s p i r i t u a l , or a t l e a s t non - co rpo rea l , a spec t , due to the medieval b e l i e f in a un iverse which owed i t s e x i s t ence to d i v i n e emanation, Man, in a s t a t e o f l ove r e f l e c t s the d i v i n e element i n h i s own na tu re , but he must c o n t i n u a l l y focus upon the supersensuous i d e a l of l ove and transcend t ha t aspect of l ove which i s merely phy s i ca l and sensuous. Neve r the le s s , the concrete sense response of love i s an element necessary to the growth and development of the d i v i n e nature of man. The "guerdon, " to be won, o r mercede, to Cava l can t i represented the concen t ra t i on upon the supersensuous i dea l of l o v e , the attempt to d i s c e r n the idea o r P l a t o n i c form of l o v e . In Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Cava l can t i canzone, the " ge rdon, " to be 72 won, or mercede to be granted, becomes compassion. Th is i s a d i v i n e sympathy, a f e l l o w - f e e l i n g , which i n s t i g a t e s change in the very s o c i a l nature of man, thedaydadhvam of Hindu ph i losophy, Man, able to sympathize w i th the exper ience o f h i s f e l l o w man, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a man of u n i f i e d s e n s i b i l i t y - i n t u i t i o n and i n t e l l e c t a re i ndo s so l ub l y un i ted in one response. The response i s e s s e n t i a l l y a e s t h e t i c , in the eastern sense of the word, in that i t rep re sent the response o f a complete and harmonized be ing , f e e l i n g w i t h h i s f e l l o w man, but , due to h i s i n t eg r a ted s e n s i b i l i t y , ab l e to d i r e c t h i s sense response w i t h the r a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t . The response d i f f e r s from the n i ne teen th - cen tu r y German concept of e i n f uh l ung , which i s a f e e l i n g o f oneness which a man may f e e l w i th the " o t h e r " of the o b j e c t i v e wor ld o f na tu re . Th i s e in fuh lung i s d e f f e r e n t , in t h a t , the va lues of the vfewer are super-imposed onto the a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t ; i t i s not then , a t r u l y a e s t h e t i c response as Pound sees i t , as i t r ep re sen t s , not an u n i f i e d , but an i n t e l l e c t u a l response. With in the framework of the Cantos, and s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n the t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto i t s e l f , t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same response. Although the t r a n s l a t i o n uses compassion f o r mercede, the t r an s l ucence employs the cognate word, mercy. The meaning i s t he same, but mercy i s a l e s s p rec i se term than compassion, bear ing connotat ions form the Eng l i s h Renaissance. However, the denotat ion i s o f the essence f o r purposes of d i s cu s s i on and one must r e a l i z e t ha t i t i s pa r t of a much l a r g e r framework. Perhaps Pound w i shes ; te g ive as c l o s e an impress ion of the o r i g i n a l poem as i s p o s s i b l e . He s p e l l s out h i s exact meaning in o ; the r p l a c e s , notab ly Canto t h i r t e e n , the Confuc ian, or l_i_ s ec t i on of the poem. The f u l l meaning of mercy and compassion, e x i s t e n t i n the framework o f the Anglo-Saxon e p i c , appears in the t h i r t e e n t h Canto, which dea l s w i th the 73 t h i r t e e n t h Canto, which deals w i th the Confucian concept of b r o t h e r l y deference. S e l f development to a high degree i s necessary before one can f e e l t h i s compassion. The i n d i v i d u a l must u n i f y and i n t e g r a t e h imse l f before he may look to h i s f e l l o w man. And Kung s a i d , and wrote upon the bo l eave s : I f a man have not order w i t h i n him He can not spread order about him; And i f a man have not order w i t h i n him H i s f a m i l y w i l l not a c t w i th due o rde r ; And i f the p r ince have not order w i t h i n him He can no put order i n h i s dominions. And Kung gave the words " o r d e r " and " b r o t h e r l y deference " and s a i d no - th ing of the " l i f e a f t e r dea th . " And he sa id "Anyone can run to excesses, I t i s easy to shoot par t the mark, I t i s hard to stand f i r m in the m i d d l e . " ( X I I I , 45-58) The l i g h t imagery of the t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto presents the pure l i g h t of d i v i n i t y , e x i s t e n t in a world of P roces s , the Process as bathed in c e l e s t i a l radiance - the gem-l ike rad iance of the Pa rad i s a l l i g h t , the c e l e s t i a l rad iance o f i dea l l o v e , and the concept t h a t man, through the e f f e c t s of t h i s d i v i n e l o v e , p a r t i c i p a t e s in and expresses the d i v i n e element of human natu re . Love, as Pound express i t , o r i g i n a t e s in the i n t e l l e c t i v e memory as the r e s u l t of the sense response to beauty. I t has a P l a t o n i c form or i d e a , which when un i ted to the sense response, o r i n t u i t i o n , i s a source of e te rna l l i g h t in i t s e l f . Thus, love i s Formed l i k e a d i a f a n from l i g h t on shade (XXXVI, 18) through the response of the senses to beauty, which sensuous response i s always the conc re te , or e x p e r i e n t i a l element of l o v e , r ega rd le s s of how ab s t r a c t and i d e a l i z e d i t may become through the workings o f the a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t . 74 Which shadow cometh of Mars and remaineth Created, having a name sensate, (XXXVI, 19-20) The i n t e l l e c t u a l , or n o n - e x p e r i e n t i a l , element of l o ve i s the P l a t o n i c form or idea of l o v e , which un i t e s w i th the sense response to c r ea t e a source o f d i v i n e rad iance w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Th i s i s an energy of the world of P rocess , d i s -connected form the t h e o r e t i c a l d e i t y o f organized r e l i g i o n , but s t i l l an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the e s s e n t i a l l y c e l e s t i a l or d i v i n e . A par t of the o b j e c t i v e wor ld of Process w i thout ma te r i a l connex ion, i e . , an element o f the "wor ld o f moving ene r g i e s . " Wherein hath he n e i t h e r weight nor s t i l l - s t a n d i n g . (XXXVI, 25) Th i s power, or energy, i s in i t s e l f , a source o f c e l e s t i a l l i g h t to man, i e . , i t a l l ows the emanation of s p i r i t u a l l i g h t from w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , but has no connexion wi th t r a d i t i o n a l d e i t i e s . I t i s the l i g h t of love which i s formed in the darkness of the i n s t i n c t s by the sense response to beauty, and which i n t e g r a t e s the i d e a l and the a c t u a l i t y of l o v e , to i l l u m i n a t e the soul of i n d i v i d u a l man. The emanation of l i g h t from love in man i s a perpetual source of c e l e s t i a l Cometh from a seen form which being understood Taketh locus and remaining in the i n t e l l e c t po s s i b l e (XXXVI, 23 -24) neth out (XXXVI, 26-27) 75 rad iance and comes on ly to the man who i s c on s c i ou s l y s t r i v i n g f o r s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n and who perce ives i n t u i t i v e l y the " m i d d l e , " in which Confucious f e l t a man to have t r o u b l e s tand ing . He i s not ve r tu but cometh of t h a t p e r f e c t i o n Which i s so po s tu l a te not by the reason But ' t i s f e l t , I say. (XXXVI, 30 -32j_ The connexion between the l i g h t of l o v e , and the l i g h t of the c e l e s t i a l i s made i n the f i f t h stanza of the t r an s l u cence , where Pound de sc r i be s l ove as unknowable from i t s outward appearance. Love can be known on l y i f the l o v e r perce ive i n t u i t i v e l y i t s presence i n the "wor ld of moveing ene r g i e s , " the world of P rocess . Nor i s he known from h i s f a ce But taken in the whi te l i g h t t ha t i s a l l n e s s (XXXVI 67-70) Th i s "wh i te l i g h t of a l l n e s s , " the c e l e s t i a l element in the Poundian metaphys ic, i s r e f l e c t e d in Pound's d e s c r i p t i o n of the heavenly c i t y and appears a l s o , in the same Canto, as the t o t a l of the d i v i n e in man. The heavenly c i t y has the same l i g h t , as has the d i v i n e in man. To b u i l d the c i t y of Dioce whose t e r r a ce s are the co lour of s t a r s . (LXXIV, 10) • • • • • what whitenss w i l l you add to t h i s wh i teness , what candour? (LXXIV 16) Man must r e a l i z e the d i v i n e in h imse l f , make i t manifest, before the 76 heavenly c i t y can become even a remote p o s s i b i l i t y . In the Cava l can t i Canto, t h i s heavenly c i t y i s desc r ibed in terms of gem imagery, but the same l i g h t i s present and i s connected to the wor ld of Process through John Scotus E r i gena . The heavenly c i t y , the "bust t h ru from q u o t i d i e n , " b r ings us to a c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of human exper ience and s p i r i t u a l growth, to the thrones of the heavenly c i t y . Pound uses a quote form Er igena to present an e a r l y gl impse of the c i t y of c e l e s t i a l r ad i ance . The ruby and topaz l i g h t of the Pa rad i s a l v i s i o n i s a l s o connected to the world o f P roces s , l a t e r i n the poem, as the l i g h t imagery reaches a c l imax c o n d i t i o n , fused i n t o the Confuc ian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Chinese l i g h t ideogram, "ming . " The l i g h t o f l o v e , of i n t e l l i g e n c e , it C a l l e d th rones , b a l a s c i o o r topaze" E r i u g i n a was not understood in h i s time (XXXVI, 85-86) o f i n t u i t i o n , sh ines through the " b a l a s c i o or t opa z , " of Er igena through a l s o , the g reat scarab i s bowed a t the a l t a r the green l i g h t gleams in h i s s h e l l (LXXIV, 122-123) and through the gems of the e a r l y pagan Greek v i s i o n . Smaragodos, c h r y s o l i t h o s ; (VII 55) I t i s the same l i g h t that shone on Olympus, and. as of Shun on Mt. Taishan and in the h a l l o f the fo rebear s as from the beginning of wonders (LXXIV, 128-130) 77 In i t s purest form t h i s i s the "wh i te l i g h t o f a l l n e s s , " to which, Pound f e e l s t ha t each man must a s p i r e , and of wh ich, each must have a v i s i o n , in order to be ab le to add, what whiteness w i l l you add to t h i s wh i teness , what candour? (LXXIV, 16) before we can e s t a b l i s h the order w i t h i n , the order necessary To b u i l d the c i t y of Dioce whose t e r r a ce s are the co lou r of s t a r s . (LXXIV 10) 78 Chapter F i v e : Immersed in the Process 66 Robert Duncan's I T e l l of Love, be ing , in i n t e n t i o n , a v a r i a t i o n upon the Pound Essay on Cava l can t i and Pound's t rans lat ion of Donna Me Prega, i s w r i t t e n in h i s e a r l i e r p e r i o d , where Duncan's work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an intense focus upon the psychology and the poets personal exper ience of Love. As Duncan says, in a l a t e r 67 poem, " I f I l i v e , I l i v e f o r l o v e . " From the form of the v a r i a t i o n , i t would appear t ha t Duncan does not subsr ibe to an a e s t h e t i c , not to a v iew of the un i ve r s e , i n which the impos i t i on of f o r and order by man i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , but r a t h e r , he focuses upon h i s own personal involvement i n the wor ld o f Process and work? toward 66 Duncan, R. E. Poems 1948-49, Glen Gardner, New J e r s ^ : L i b e r t a r i a n P re s s , n .d, pp 11-17. 6 7 _ . Caesa r ' s Gate: Poems 1949-1950. Spa in : D iver Press 1955. n.p. 79 the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c o ve r y . H i s concern f o r the e x p e r i e n t i a l elements i s thus d i f f e r e n t from Pound's concern, i n t h a t , w h i l e Pound sees the e x p e r i e n t a l l y v e r i f i a b l e as a necessary and i n s p i r a t i o n a l element in human i n te l l e c tua l s t r u c t u r i n g Duncan's focus i s upon the f a c t s of h i s own personal exper ience and processes and not upon the i n t e l l e c t u a l bu i l d - up from the i n i t i a l sense .response to s t i m u l i . The emotional and the u n r e s t r i c t e d are the primary elements in Duncan's working a e s t h e t i c , which i s n e c e s s a r i l y b u i l t upon h i s own sense responses, f e e l i n g , emotion and concept ions . Pound, on the other hand, s t re s se s the personal and e x p e r i e n t i a l elements as they are n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e g r a l to any attemtp a t human s t r u c t u r i n g and works toward such an o rde r i n g o r s t r u c t u r i n g through the p resenta t ion of the exper iences of h i s personae. Pound's v iew o f exper ience i s both s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e , i n that he presents both h i s own exper ience and h i s response to i t , and the exper iences of others and t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e responses to i t . In terms of the modern n o v e l , t h i s i s equal to a comparison of the stream of consciousness techn ique , as i t i s employed by V i r g i n i a Woolf and James Joyce. Mrs. Woolf t r i e s to present the stream e n t i r e , so pre-occupied i s i ie w i th the f l u x i t s e l f , Joyce however, selects from the stream and presents h i s s e l e c t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y . In t h i s comparison, Duncan's technique i s comparable to Mrs. Woo l f ' s in t h a t , l i k e her he i s pre-occupied w i th the f l u x . However, in s tead of a f l o w o f the stream of consc iousness , Duncan i s t o t a l l y immersed in the Process , one atom of b i l l i o n s a t f l u x in a un iver se of f l o w i n g matter and energy. Th is i s not to be construed as a d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m or disparagement o f Duncan's phi losophy or techn ique, as he does not seek to impose an order on the chaos of h i s personal e xpe r i en ce , nor does he attempt to c rea te any 80 l o g i c a l pa t te rn or form. He has s ta ted unequ i voca l l y t h a t such f o r m a l i z a t i o n i s ou t s i de o f h i s a e s t h e t i c i n t e n t i o n , "I do not seek 68 a s yn the s i s , but a melee. " Apart from the apparent i d s t i n c t i o n s of form between Pound and Duncan, c e r t a i n elements of v i s i o n are w ide l y separate , namely, the a b i l i t y to see human exper ience as compr i s ing an e s s e n t i a l u n i t y or continuum, the emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l responses of the i n d i v i d u a l as necessar i ly - forming a u n i t y , and, the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the estab l i shment o f a meaningful order in an e s s e n t i a l l y chao t i c u n i v e r s e . Pound's v i s i o n of the un iverse embraces the concept t h a t a l l men, no matter how remote in time or space, are e s s e n t i a l l y k in in t ha t the p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r ex i s t ence are i n v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s ; on l y the outward and mate r i a l man i f e s t a t i on s of these p r i n c i p l e s d i f f e r . Beneath the i l l u s o r y wor ld of su r face a c t u a l i t y , l i e immutable f o r ce s and i dea s , which are more r e a l and hence, more permanent than the world of apparent r e a l i t y . Th is concept i s we l l i l l u s t r a t e d in Pound's statement of general i n t e n t i o n r e f e r r e d to in note f i f t y - s i x above. Th i s p r i n c i p l e of human k i n s h i p , both of ex i s t ence and of a s p i r a t i o n , p a r t i a l l y account f o r the technique of personae which pound employs i n the poem, He i s s e l e c t i n g from the continuum of h i s t o r y moments o f h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , hero ic event s , in s tances of i n t e l l e c t u a l i n s i g h t and c l a r i t y of s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n , and d ramat i z ing them by j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i th other events and exper iences , e i t h e r h i s t o r i c or comtemporary, which 68 A l l e n , D., e d i t o r , The New American Poet ry : 1945-1960, New York: Grove P re s s , I n c . , 1960, p. 406. 81 he f e e l s to be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the va lue system of the poem. Thus, i n the t h i r t y - s i x Canto, the concepts of love and compassion, which Pound has managed to draw from the Cava l can t i canzone, are immediately f o l l owed by an encapsu la t ion of E r i g e n a ' s ph i l o soph i c concept ion of d i v i n e Process , a v i s i o n of the be-gewel led heavenly c i t y , a condemnation of A r i s t o t l e and Aquinas, and h i s t o r i c examples of the an t i t he se s o f l ove and compassion. The i d e a l i z e d concept ion of l o v e , contained i n the Cava l can t i cansone and presented i n the e a r l y stanzas of the t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto, i s f o l l owed by a statement of the sacramental nature of phy s i ca l l o v e , Sacrum, sacrum, i n l u m i n a t i o c o i t u . (XXXVI, 96) which, because the quotat ion i s i n L a t i n , suggest a western and a C h r i s t i a n concept, but which a l s o suggest the Hindu d o c t r i n e of T a n t r i c Yoga. Ideogrammical ly, Pound has connected the exper ience and phi losophy of pagan Greece, Tuscany, the Proveca l t roubadors , the S c h o l a s t i c movement o f medieval C h r i s t a i n i t y and As ian ph i l o sopy . Thus, the p o s i t i o n of man i n h i s t o r y f o r Pound, i s one of k i n s h i p and u n i t y w i t h man in h i s t o r y and in the present . I m p l i c i t a l s o , i s the r e l a t e d concept of the c o n t i n u i t y of human exper ience , as each age b u i l d s upon the exper ience and memory of t ha t which preceeds i t . Thus f o r Pound, the concrete exper iences and t h e o r e t i c a l ph i l o soph ie s of Confuc ian phi losophy are as v a l i d f o r the wr ld of the twent i e th cen t r u r y as they were in anc i en t Ch ina, and the heavenly c i t y , of which man has a v i s i o n i n every age, i s one w i th the heavenly c i t y of D ioce. 82 And Kung gave the words " o r de r " and " b r o t h e r l y deference" And s a i d noth ing of the " l i f e a f t e r d e a t h . " (X I I I 52-54) To b u i l d the c i t y of Dioce whose t e r r a ce s are the co l ou r of s t a r s . (LXXIV 10) Th i s v i s i o n of the e s s e n t i a l k i n s h i p of a l l men, and sense of the c o n t i n u i t y o f human exper ience i s absent from Duncan's v a r i a t i o n poem, the -ve ry tone of which suggests the world as chaos and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Perhaps i t i s on l y because the poem represents the test imony of Duncan's personal exper ience , but , the poe t ' s v i s i o n of the human c o n d i t i o n does seem to be one of darkness and d i s o r d e r . He heightens the sense of the surrounding darkness (46-47_) • • • • • ...I look upon d i s o r de r w i th a new eye. (114-115) Have I not had dark reasons? (74) You d i s t u rbed the p a t t e r n . (39) 83 One can exp l a i n away t h i s impres s i on , f o r , the poem i s not i n t e g r a l to any l a rge whole, express ing a t o t a l view o f the un i ve r se , nor i s i t seeking to express o b j e c t i v e l y the exper ience o f love of o ther mera. However, the tone of the negat ive passages, the constant r e t u r n to those elements which negate l o v e , compassion and u n i t y , combined w i th Duncan's sense o f darkness and chaos, u n i t e to g ive the rader a d i s t i n c t impress ion of the a tom iza t i on and l o n e l i n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l man i n Duncan's un i v e r s e . Seen from another ang le , t h i s impress ion serves to increase the poignancy of the poem, and renders more immediate the exper ience of l ove which Duncan has undergone by emphasizing the con t r a s t s between l o v e , l i g h t and u n i t y on one hand, and darkeness, f e a r , and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n on the o t he r . Hoever, t h i s sense of disharmony i s bo l s t e red by the sense of a d i v i ded response and the l a ck of any p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the impos i t i on of order upon human exper ience, which the poem presents . At f i r s t g l ance , the u n i f i c a t i o n of s e n s i b i l i t y which Pound saw as a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r the growth and development of love w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , would seem to be i m p l i c i t in Duncan's v a r i a t i o n poem. He speaks of h i s response to the s t a t e o f love a s , g i v i n g up my w i t , my essence, i n t o the l i g h t of i t . (6-7) and, quotes from Pound on love a s , "not to d e l i g h t , but i n an ardour of though. " (43) a l s o , of love as " c a s t i n g h i s own l i g h t : " 84 "where thought has i t s demarcat ion, the substance i t s v i r t u . " (51-52) y e t , he does not perc ieve love w i t h i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n u n i t e d , but r a t h e r , speaks of be ing . . . . . f i l l e d w i th a not ion of form tha t seems v i s i b l e . (18-19) and asks, Does not eh heart hunger f o r l o v e ; and the mind l ea rn pa t i ence , (24 - 26) Presumably, the hunger of the " h e a r t , " and the possess ion of the " n o t i o n , " of the i d e a l of l o v e , are metaphors, f o r the i n t u i t i o n , or sense response, but s u r e l y these are inadequate, imprec i se and vague s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the p rec i se d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which Pound made btween the i n t u i t i o n and the i n t e l l e c t ? Not ion denotes a p a r t i a l apprehension of a concept, a general idea or a vague thought; and connotes tha t t h i s apprehension i s l i m i t e d and incomplete. The " h e a r t , " as a metaphor f o r f e e l i n g and emotion, i s a t i r e d and hackneyed c o l l o q u i a l co inage, w i th unc lea r denotat ion and bear ing connotat ions of s u r f e i t fo emotion and mawkish s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . In a l l f a i r n e s s to Duncan, however, i t should be emphasized t ha t these are metaphors f o r f e e l i n g and i n t u i t i v e response, de sp i t e t h i r imprec i s i on and unfortunate connota t i on s , and, t ha t he i s t a k i n g cognizance o f the f a c t t ha t love has i t s i n cep t i on i n the unconsc ious, i n t u i t i v e response. 85 The t h i r d s t anza , in an attempt to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t a and the f e e l i n g i n t u i t i o n , opens w i t h a more c l e a r statement of the r o l e o f the f e e l i n g s , ;but, e v e n t u a l l y lo ses s i g h t of the argument in i n con s i s t ency . Duncan unequ i voca l l y s t a t e s t ha t love has i t o r i g i n a l r e a c t i o n in the sense response, I f e e l t h i s Love. (55) and f o l l o w s the same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l Cavalcanti argument t ha t we have seen in Pound's t a n s l a t i o n , essay and t r an s l u cence . Reason does not perce ive Him but takes i t s l i g h t from H i s presence. (56-57]_ Reason take i t s l i g h t from h i s presence. (68,78) This i s to say that the i n t e l l e c t , which i s not in harmony w i th the i n t u i t i o n , has not t rue reason, but makes d i s t i n c t i o n s and juedgments which are pu re l y t h e o r e t i c a l , i n t h a t , they have no concrete bas i s i n the e x p e r i e n t i a l , However, the p o s i t i o n put f o r t h by Pound does not seem to be f u l l y c l e a r to Duncan, as there would seem to be a bas ic i ncons i s tency i n the argument, which f o l l o w s the i n i t i a l statement of the r e l a t i o n between reason and l o v e . Reason i s a r i g h t form from which h i s r ad iance f l ows (58-59) Now perhaps I am mistaken in t h i s , but these l i n e s appear to c o n t r a d i c t 86 Duncan's o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n , in t h a t , reason seems to be a necessary p r i o r c o n d i t i o n f o r the growth and development of l o ve . To f i t the argument which has pneeeded, the f i f t y - n i t h l i n e should read, " F l ow ing from h i s r ad i ance . " The dependence has h i t h e r t o been t ha t of reason on l o v e , but, the p o s i t i o n l^as apparent l y now been reve r sed , and love now appears to be dependent upon reason. I f not an i n con s i s t ency o f arguement, then c e r t a i n l y an ambigu i ty o f statement .-(has been committed. or my read ing i s a t f a u l t . I t cou ld a l s o be t h a t the f i f t y - e i g h t j i l i n e i s merely p lacd-ng the " r i g h t form" o f a u n i f i e d s t a t e of being p r i o r to both reason and teh radiance o f l o v e , but t hen , one would have a d i f f i c u l t y i n prov ing t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based upon the poem. Twelve l i n e s f u r t h e r i n t o the s t anza , the ambiguity o f t h i s l i n e i s somewhat c l a r i f i e d , but , the o r i g i n a l i n con s i s t ency r e t u r n s , and one i s as confused as ever . Duncan now ask i f he has not stumbled i n the absence of l o ve , or l acked reason to perce ive l o v e : (71) which l ack of reason to perce ive l ove i s understandable, s i n c e , Reason does not perce ive Him But takes i t s l i g h t from His presense (56-57) The f i n a l l i n e of the stanza repeats the same argument, and, s i nce t h i s p o s i t i o n i s the one most empha t i c a l l y s ta ted i n the s t anza , and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the main argument of the poem, as wel l as w i t h the Pound o r i g i n a l , accept i t we must. However, the i n con s i s t ency o f the argument, or the ambigu i ty o f s ta temtnt , i s a lamentable f l a w i n an otherwise acceptab le test imony to the power of l o v e . The exp lanat ion of t h e i r occurence must remain i n the realm of c o n j e c t u r e ; perhaps 87 the most p l a u s i b l e exp lanat ion would be to see them in l i g h t of Duncan's statement of h i s workinq a e s t h a t i c , "I do not seek a s ynthes i s 69 but a melee, " plus the f a c t t h a t , f o r Duncan, the poem i s a s o r t of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d process of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y ; a process in which he may mingle a l l the va r ious elements of h i s exper ience i n hope of f hd ing h i s i d e n t i t y , c o n v i c t i o n s and a r t i c u l a t i o n , With such a v i ew, the poem i s i n t e g r a l to the poe t ' s own na tu re , a segment o f h i s search f o r h i s own s o u l , and consequently, i s l a r ge enough to con ta in i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . Other quest ions concern ing the r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n , though and emotion, a r i s e from Duncan's poem. The o v e r a l l impress ion of the poem, i n t h i s r e ga rd , i t t ha t Duncan subscr ibes t o Pound's p o s i t i o n th£ the i dea l i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o r the i n t e l l e c t to b u i l d i t s po s tu l a te s upon the concrete exper ience of the i n i t i a l sense apprehens ion. One perce ives i n t u i t i v e l y , and t h i s response i s b u i l t upon, or ab s t rac ted i n t o , the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the i n t e l l e c t . Th i s i s demonstrable i n Pound's essay through h i s statement upon the nature o f the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c . The concept ion of the body as per fected instrument of the i n c r ea s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 70 69 v i d . , 68n. 70 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 349 88 A l s o , one may detect t h i s same view in Pound's j i b e a t s c h o l a s t i c phrase-mongers among the o v e r - i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d students of psychology. Whether i t i s necessary to modernize or n o r d i c i z e our termino logy and c a l l t h i s " t he a e s t h e t i c or i n t e r a c t i v e vaso motor magnestism i n r e l a t i o n to the consc iousness , " I leave to the r e a d e r ' s own t a s t e and sense of p r opo r t i o n . I am i n c l i n e d to t h i n k tha t a hab i t of mind which i n s t t s upon, or even tends toward, such terminology somewhat takes the bloom o f f the peach. 71 Duncan's s u b s c r i p t i o n to Pound's views can be seen in the o v e r a l l impress ion t ha t the poem makes, t ha t love a r i s e s through the i n t u i t i v e pe r cep t i on , and t h a t , Reason takes i t s l i g h t from h i s presence. (78) However, as we have a l ready seen, some degree o f confus ion a r i s e s from the statements of the t h i r d s tanza , and that t h i s confus ion and i t s source are d i f f i c u l t to t r a c e , due to the working a e s t h e t i c which Duncan pro fes ses . That the power o f the informed i n t e l l e c t proceeds on l y from the mind that f e e l s the i n f l u e n c e of the power of l o v e ' s f o r c e , would seem to be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y understood by Duncan, as he r e - i t e r a t e s t h i s concept i n the t h i r d s tanza . However, the i n t u i t i v e response and the r e s u l t a n t percept ion are vaguely s t a t e d , and remain even mess c l e a r t ha t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o ve and the i n t e l l e c t . With the concept ion o ; f the world as p roces s , Pound and Duncan woudl seem to be inagreement. However, Pound seems more c l e a r as regards h imse l f as apprehender of the Process , in t h a t , he sees, the v iewer as being a t one t ime both i n and out of the Process . This would seem to c r e a t 89 a d u a l i t y o f human response, or of human o r i e n t a t i o n ; however, i n s o f a r as man i n n e c e s s a r i l y ou t s ide of the Process due to h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l na tu re , he must make judgments and d i s t i n c t i o n s f o r the sake o f h i s economic and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g . What Pound emphasizes i s the need f o r the pos tu la te s of the i n t e l l e c t to be made w i th regard f o r man's f u l l p o s i t i o n i n the na tu ra l wo r l d , and hence, they must alway take cognizance of the concretes of personal exper ience o f the w o r l d , i f man i s to be in harmony w i th the wo r l d . Duncan seems unc lear on the human p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the wor ld o f a c t u a l i t y and the nature of the i n t u i t i v e response t o ; t h i s wo r l d ; He seems unabrle to d i s t i n g u i s h between S e l f and " o t h e r , " and to separate h i s emotional from h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l responses. A f t e r quot ing from Pound on the nature of the world as Process, "a wor ld of moving ene rg ie s " (2-3) Duncan immediately focuses on the i n t e l l e c t u a l response which makes d i s t i n c t i o n s , or s epa ra t i on s , from the world of P r o ce s s , ' I t h i nk of a c l e a r stream; (3-4) but seems unable to d i t i n g u i s h between h imse l f , as s e l e c t o r from the Process , and the s e l e c t i o n which h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l response makes. I seem to be so conta ined i n t h i s e lement; (4-5) Th is i deh tn f j ca t . i dh apparent l y n e c e s s i t a t e s s a c r i f i c e of one ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l power, 90 g i v i n g up my w i t , my essence, i n t o the l i g h t of i t . (6-7) as would seem to be suggested by " w i t ; " however, " e s sence , " as an e l u c i d a t i o n of " w i t , " suggests the poe t ' s sense of h i s se l f= consc iousness , h i s awareness o f s e l f as d i s t i n c t from the Process . Thus, i t would be necessary to s a c r i f i c e one ' s sense of s e l f as a separate e n t i t y d i s t i n c t from the o b j e c t i v e world i n order to r e a l i z e the e s s e n t i a l harmony which e x i s t s between the s e l f , and the " o t h e r , " This i s f o l l owed by a statement to the e f f e c t t h a t , We are so merged i n what we see. (10) which can be construed as a b u t t r e s s i n g of the argument aga in s t d i s t i n c t i o n of s e l f as separate from the natu ra l w o r l d , but which connotes a consc ious a c t i o n of s e l f engulfment and abso rp t ion i n t o the " o t h e r . " The l o s s of s e l f i d e n t i t y i s too complete, the " o t h e r " medium, surrounds and absorbs the p e r s o n a l i t y and who l l y b l u r s the d i s t i n c t i o n between the man and Proces s , e r a s i n g w i l l and human purpose. Rather than t o t a l c e s s a t i on of a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between man and the world of Process made by the l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t , t h i s d e s i r e f o r merger suggest the death of the s e l f through abso rp t ion i n t o an " o t he r " medium which i s b a s i c a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c to the s e l f . The de s i r e f o r a complete engulfment i s u nna tu r a l , in t ha t i t represents a n n i h i l a t i o n of the human s p i r i t and i n t e l l e c t , a d e l i b e r a t e c a s t i n g -o f f of one ' s e s s e n t i a l humanity and a w i l l i n g n e s s to accept the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s e l f as a t h i n g , an inanimate e n t i t y . I t i s almost as i f consciousness were a pa i n f u l and undes i r ab le exper ience . Desp i t the argument to the c o n t r a r y , the suggest ion t ha t the Process 91 i s u l t i m a t e l y a n t i p a t h e t i c t o human e x 4 s t e n c e i s u n m i s t a k e a b l y p r e s e n t . A t h i r d d i f f e r e n c e i n p h i l o s o p h i c v i s i o n between Pound and Duncan o c c u r s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e views o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f some type o f m e a n i n g f u l human order upon a u n i v e r s e o f f l u x and d i s u n i t y . To Pound, o r d e r must f i r s t be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h r o u g h achievement o f a u n i f i e d s e n s i b i l i t y , which i s brough t o bear upon t h e c o n c r e t e s o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i n c e , b e f o r e any i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c t u r i n g i s p o s s i b l e . T h i s i s t o say, t h a t , t h e human psyche i s a d i v i d e d house which must be u n i f i e d b e f o r e man can l o o k t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l w o r l d . Through l o v e , which Pound i n t e r p r e t s as compassion o r mercy, man's p l u r a l r e s p o n s e t o the wo r l d as P r o c e s s i s b r o u g h t i n t o harmony and he a c h i e v e s a l e v e l o f b e i n g , form which man's i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n workd i n u n i s o n . T h i s new power Pound c a l l s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e - i n t e l l e c t u a l power r e - i n f o r m e d by the r e s p o n s e o ; f t h e senses and t h e i n t u i t i o n . The i d e a l o f l o v e , which f o r Pound i s t h e apogee o f human development, t h e P l a t o n i c o r "seen f o r m , " i s t h e Confucian d o c t r i n e o f T J j - o r " b r o t h e r l y d e f e r e n c e . " I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h J_i_ t h a t o r d e r can be e s t a b l i s h e d , f i r s t , w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and l a t e r , i n t h e a l r g e r s o c i a l world. I t i s t h e prime r e q u i s i t e f o r any r e a l i z a t i o n o f the d i v i n e element i n man, and a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e t h r o n e s o f the h e a v e n l y c i t y . To Duncan, whose a e s t h e t i c f o c u s e s upon t h e d i s o r d e r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o r d e r i s remote, i f p r e s e n t a t a l l . Order o c c u r s as a co n c e p t o n l ; y t w i c e i n h i s poem, Dnce i n i t s p o s i t i v e , and once i n i t s 92 a n t i t h e t i c a l fo rm. The p o s i t i v e concept appears i n the e ighth stanza where Duncan appears to be in agreement w i t h the Poundian premises as o u t l i n e d above. Who knows not Love cannot r e s t o r e o rde r . (125-126) Love, t hen , would appear to be a p r i o r c o n d i t i o n necessary f o r the estab l i shment of o rde r . But , Duncan, in us ing " r e s t o r e , " i s f o cu s i n g upon the present l ack of o rde r , e s s e n t i a l l y a more negat iv e point o f view than t ha t expressed by Pound. I f a man have not order w i t h i n him He can not spread order about him; And i f a man have not order w i t h i n him His f a m i l y w i l l not a c t w i th due o rder ; And i f the p r ince have not order w i t h i n him He can not put order i n h i s dominions. ( X I I I , 46-51) Granted, Pound i s working w i t h i n a much l a r ge r framework, and has r e s u l t a n t l y , more t ime and spce in which to devdop h i s system; s t i l l , Duncan has t h i s l a r g e r framework as a g iven f a c t o r w i th which to work, but i s u s ing i t to express a d i f f e r e n c t v i s i o n and exper ience of the Process . The d i f f e r n e n c e i s more apparent i n Duncan's p o s i t i v e a s s e r t i on o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l ove and o rder , where, f a r from being a source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n o f o rde r , i t merely possesses the power of enab l ing the l o v e r to ch ieve a s t o i c a l s t a t e , from which he may wi ths tand the d i s o r d e r . Duncan speaks here of the e f f e c t s of l o ve upon h imse l f 93 I look upon d i s o rde r w i th a new eye. I do not dwel l in my f e a r . (114-116) Looking both forward and backward, one should compare these e f f e c t s of l o ve w i t h Duncan's statement of h i s f e a r in the second s t an za , and w i t h h i s condemnation of those who do not s®k l o ve . So man has c r a f t from f e a r ; envy from ignorance, harbors hates . He f a l l s upon Beauty l i k e an an imal^ caught, f a l l s on the sp ike of or the t rap of the naked body where beauty i s death . (141-150) Duncan i s a d r i f t in the wor ld of chaos and d i s o r d e r , unable to make d i s t i n c t i o n s between the s e l f and the Process, who l l y engul fed by the " sur round ing darknes s . " Awareness of love on ly serves to sharpen the poets consciousness of the d i s p a r i t y between the i dea l of l o ve and i t a c t u a l i t y , and to enable man to s p r i t u a l l y r e s i s t the tendency toward a tomizat ion which i s i m p l i c i t i n a world of d i s o r d e r . I was a f r a i d (38) He heightens the sense of the surrounding darkness. (46-47) 94 The focus i s a l l upon the darkness, the formlessness and the lack of purpose which love makes apparent. Compare t h i s view o f the e f f e c t of love wi th tha t put f o r t h Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n , from which, Duncan i s work ing, In midst of darkness l i g h t l i g h t g i ve th f o r t h . (85) or w i th the equ i va l en t express ion i n the Pound t rans lucence of the Cava l cant i canzone, conta ined in the t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto. D i s j u n c t in mid darkness Grazeth the l i g h t , one moving by o t h e r , (XXXVI, 75-76) In the t r a n s l a t i o n , Pound emphasizes the power which l ove generates f o r the i l l u m i n a t i o n of darkness; the focus being upon the connexion with the d i v i n e t h t l ove strengthens in man. I t i s a p o s i t i v e a s s e r t i o n of human p o t e n t i a l , o p t i m i s t i c in a world of chacs and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , and, p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i d e a l i s t i c i n an era o f growing ma te r i a l i sm and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i s m . The fragment from the t h i r t y -s i x t h Canto, which occurs l a t e r and i s i n t e g r a l to a much l a r g e r framework, again facuses upon the p o s i t i v e and the i d e a l i s t i c , counte r ing the darkness which always threatens en fu l fment . The l i g h t of love stands apart and d i s t i n c t from the darkness and the chaos, whih i s now seen as on l y a dusky s t a te of dismal semi-darkness. In bo th , the t r a n s l a t i o n and the t r an s l ucence , the i n d i v i d u a l i s s t i l l l a r ge r i n s p i r i t than h i s environment. D i sorder i s personal and extends outward from the i n d i v i d u a l to the l a r g e r s o c i a l organism. Order can be c r e a t e d , f i r s t w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , then w i t h i n the 95 surrounding s o c i e t y . The darkness can be i l l u m i n a t e d by emanation of the d i v i n e l i g h t from w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l . Th i s emanation i s c rea ted by l o v e ! Duncan, on the other hand, re tu rns c o n t i n u a l l y to those aspects of h i s environment which are the " surrounding darkness " f o cu s i n g upon those who do not seek the supersensuous i dea l of l o v e , but r a t h e r , s e t t l e f o r the phy s i ca l involvement of l o v e . Love f o r these i s but a meaningless word, a phys ica l f r e n z y , which f o s t e r s and hastens the engulfment, and destroys the p o s s i b i l i t y of t ranscedence, which the idea l of love can c r ea te i n man. Thus, Love has no base l i k e n e s s (44) and i s una t t a i nab l e by those who do not quest f o r p e r f e c t i o n of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l be ing , so content are they to wallow i n t h e i r sensual p leasures . A base l i k ene s s w i l l not k i n d l e t h i s ardour. (53-54) Th i s l i m i t e d and l i m i t i n g sense involvement prevents the s p i r i t u a l growth of man, from the e a r t h l y to the c e l e s t i a l , You d i s t u rbed the p a t t e r n . (39) and causes the s p i r i t u a l death of the trapped i n d i v i d u a l . He f a l l s upon Beauty 1 i k e an an ima l , caught, f a l l s on the sp ike o f or the t r a p o f the naked body wfvere beauty i s death. (144-150j_ 96 I t i s t h i s constant r e t u r n to the merely phy s i ca l involvement which i l l u s t r a t e s Duncan's overwhelming sense o f the un i ve r s a l d i s o r d e r . The short i n t e r p o l a t e d s tanzas , i e . , the f o u r t h , e i g h t h , n i n t h , and p a r t i a l l y the t e n t h , a l l focus upon the a n t i t h e s i s of l o v e , the i nde f fe rence to l o v e , or the l a c k of o r de r , u n i t y and purpose which r e s u l t d i r e c t l y from the i n a b i l i t y to perce ive the supersensuous idea l of l o v e , o r to perce ive on l y a base form of l o v e . I t i s i n t h i s l a s t fo rm, t h a t , f o r Duncan, the human s p i r i t appears to be t rapped, and i n which, even beauty i s death (150) Despite these d i f f e r n c e s i n v i s i o n between Pound and Duncan the main arguments of the poem appear to be in e s s e n t i a l agreement w i th Pound's concept of l o ve as a r a d i a n t and s t r u c t u r i n g force, under the i n f l uence of which, man can achieve t rue reason and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e t e r na l d i v i n e l i g h t . The world as P roces s , a c on t i nua l waxing and waning between form and d i s s o l u t i o n , matter and energy, i s a concept ion common to both poets . Pound, however, seems to be more conscious o f man's s upe r i o r p lace i n t h i s wor ld of f l u x , due to h i s consc iousness , and f e e l s humanity to possess a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the impo s i t i on of a meaningful order upon the chaos o f exper ience . Duncan, a l though he subscr ibes to Pound's d e f i n i a t i o n of the Process , "a wor ld of moving ene rg i e s " (2-3) responds l e s s p o s i t i v e l y to the c ond i t i o n of f l u x . In h i s cons tant focus upon the d i s o r d e r and h i s unc lear response to the P roces s , Duncan seems to f ea r the d i s o r de r and lack of purpose, and responds to the 97 Process more emt i ona l l y than i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . I seem to be so conta ined in t h i s element; g i v i n g up my w i t , my essence, i n t o the l i g h t of i t . (4-7) I look. upon d i s o rde r w i th a new eye. I do not dwe l l i n my f e a r . (114-116) There i s no doubt tha t the type of love of which both poets speak i s i d e n t i c a l i n nature to that of the Cava l can t i poem. To C a v a l c a n t i , the "guerdon, " to be won was a supersensuous i d e a l of l o v e , a transcendent i d e a , desp i te i t s source being l oca ted i n the o r i g i n a l sense response to beauty. Th is i dea l of l o v e , Pound i n t e r p r e t s as compassion, and focuses upon the pcver which t h i s f o r c e possesses to change human nature and f o s t e r the c r e a t i o n of order upon the chaos of human s o c i e t y , and, to a l l o w the emanation of man's d i v i n e na tu re . Duncan's l o v e , t o o , i s a non^sensual i d e a l of human p e r f e c t i o n , i n wh ich, the " p a t t e r n , " of which he speaks, i s one i n which love begins in the sense response, but , i s r e f i n e d by the c l e a r - s e e i n g i n t e l l e c t . Thus, Love has no base l i k e n e s s . (44) but i s s t i r r e d , 98 by the s i gh t from the naked body where love seems to r e s t , each t ime , s i n gu l a r as i s appointed necessary, appropr i a te to the p a t t e r n . (32-36) y e t , l o ve e x i s t s "not to d e l i g h t , but i n an ardour of though." (43) and i s e xa l t ed beyond the merely phy s i ca l e lement, from which, i t o r i g i n a l l y a r i s e s . I do not speak o f a drunken s t a t e . (45) A base l i k e n e s s w i l l not k i n d l y t h i s ardour. (53-54) Yet , Duncan re tu rn s too o f t e n , to the merely phys i ca l aspect of l o v e , the "drunken s t a t e , " which he eschews. Love i s s t i r r e d in the sense response, not in the response to beauty, but , from the naked body (33) and, those who do not exper ience t h i s i d e a l of l o ve but are content w i th i t s sensual appearance, a r e , caught, f a l l s on the sp ike o f o r the t r ap of the naked body. (146-149) 99 Duncan's express ion of the phys i ca l bas i s of love ar i n v a r i a b l y in a n i m a l i s t i c terms. The r e a c t i o n aga in s t the phys i ca l i s too negat i ve f o r the a s s e r t i o n to be c r e d i b l e . As we have seen in c on s i de r a t i on of both Cavalcarti and Pound, the sensuous response has s t i l l a d e f i n i t e p lace in the i n cep t i on of t h i s i d e a l of l o v e , and, both are c l e a r upon the need f o r the transcedence of the s o l e l y phys i ca l aspect of l ove i n favour of the supersensuous i d e a l . However, ne i t he r r eac t s as v i o l e n t l y aga in s t the phys i ca l in a n i m a l i s t i c te rmino logy . I t sho;u ld a l s o be c l a r i f i e d , t ha t n e i t h e r C a v a l c a n t i , nor Pound, are working as c l o s e l y to t h e i r own personal exper ience o f the Phy s i ca l aspect of love as i s Duncan. Both hold a e s t h e t i c views which enable them to a b s t r a c t from t h e i r exper ience, w h i l e , Duncan's a e s t h e t i c r equ i r e s the t o t a l of h i s personal exper ience , wi thout e x t r a c t i n g i t s essence. Duncan, seeing the poem, l a r g e l y as a process of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y , f e e l s the need to exp l o r every f a c e t of h i s personal exper ience of l o v e , before he can d i scover the essence of t ha t exper ience. The process of the poem, 72 enable the poest to c l a r i f y and complete h i s exper ience , as i t were. R e l a t i v e to t h t problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the phy s i ca l and i d e a l i z e d aspect of l o v e , are the views which Pound and Duncan both apparent l y h o l d , of the percept ion of the i d e a l of l o v e . As p r e v i ou s l y mentioned. Pound sees the i d e a l of l ove as a P l a t o n i c fo rm, or i d e a , which transcends a l l apparent r e a l i t y , but s t i l l , i s as 72 V i va s , E l i s e o . Creat ion and D i scovery, Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1955. 100 experiental as the concrete phys i ca l exper ience . Thus, to Pound, l ove i n i t s i dea l a spec t , Cometh from a seen form which being understood ' Taketh locus and remain ing i n the i n t e l l e c t p o s s i b l e (XXXVI 23-24) w h i l e , f o r Duncan, the i dea l of l o v e , the P l a t o n i c form of l o v e , i s l e s s c l e a r beacause i t i s l e s s " under s tood , " than " f e l t . " I am f i l l e d w i th a not ion of form tha t seems v i s i b l e . (18-19) To Duncan the i d e a , or fo rm, i s not as t a n g i b l e and e x p e r i e n t i a l an aspect of love as i s the phys i ca l a c t u a l i t y . To Poupd, the form of l ove i s " s een , " and "under s tood, " wh i l e to Duncan, the form on l y "seems v i s i b l e , " and he has on l y a " n o t i on of f o rm , " r a t h e r than an understanding. Aga in , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be seen in terms of Duncan's working a e s t h e t i c . H i s concern i n the poem i s to r e l a t e h i s personal exper ience o f l o ve to the view t ha t Pound has expressed. Using h i s own exper ience as the conc re te , Duncan can on l y say how he, h imse l f , responds to the i dea l of l o v e , how i t was f i r s t perceived and known by him. He c a r e s , not f o r the general statement, but f o r the immediate exper ience, which hehas pe r s ona l l y known. Thus, he would not be j u s t i f i e d i n c l a i m i n g unders tand ing, nor i n making a general statement concerning the p e r c e p t i b i l i t y of the P l a t o n i c form of i dea l l o v e . E a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n , we have seen how the t h i r d stanza i s the source o f some confus ion rega rd ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e e l i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l power, and the l i g h t of l o v e . Despite the apparent i n con s i s t ency , i t must be s t res sed tha t the v iew, which Duncan shares 101 w i th Pound, t h a t , Reason does not perce ive Him But takes i t s l i g h t from H i s presence. (56-57) i s the concept ion which most c l e a r l y agrees w i th the r e s t of the argument of the poem, and a l s o , w i th the Pound t r a n s l a t i o n and essay. Although c o n j e c t u r a l , the idea occur s , t ha t Duncan, i n the e a r l y l i n e s of the t h i r d s t anza , may be r e f e r r i n g to d i v i n i t y , when d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reason and "H i s presence. " Thus, though seeming to be r e f e r r i n g to l o v e , Duncan, in c a p i t a l i z i n g " H i s , " may be s i g n i f y i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p , not between love and reason, but between d i v i n i t y and reason. Reason does not perce ive Him but takes i t s l i g h t from His presence. Reason i s a r i g h t form from which H i s rad iance f l o w s . (56-59) Reason, then , by i t s e l f , in i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r percept ion of the d i v i n e , but i s i t s e l f the r e s u l t of the d i v i n e man i f e s t a t i on in man. Reason i s a l s o , " i n t e l l i g e n c e , " i n the same sense as Pound uses the word, which when ach ieved , a l l ows a man to express the d i v i n e nature which he possesss, i e . , d i v i n i t y i s mani fest i n the world through the agency of the human i i n t e l l i g e n c e , which i s both f e e l i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l a t one t ime . La te r in the same s tanza , Duncan, i n what sounds l i k e the same argument, f a i l s to c a p i t a l i z e , " h i s , " perhaps s i g n i f y i n g t h i s t ime , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between love and reason. 102 Reason takes i t s l i g h t from h i s presence. Have I not stumbled i n Love ' s absence as i f I were a f o o l and a l i a r , Or l acked reason to perce ive Love; search ing f o r p e r f e c t i o n ' s source w i th imper fec t v i s i o n ? (68-73) Love i s thus , a p r i o r c o n d i t i o n of reason ( i n the sense of Pound's " i n t e l l i g e n c e " ) . , which emanates on l y from the l o v i n g i n t e l l e c t . Th is i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c rea te s an equat ion between the presence of l ove and the d i v i n e presence, i e . , the r i g h t reason of man i s an e f f e c t , both of the f o r c e of i dea l love and of the d i v i n e working through the human i n t l l i g e n c e . Th is equat ion of love and d i v i n i t y would seem to f i t the system, as expressed by Pound in h i s essay, t r a n s l a t i o n and t r an s l u cence , and removes the seeming i n con s i s t ency mentioned e a r l i e r . However, t h i s a l s o assumes that i t i s Duncan's i n t e n t i o n to express the same i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o v e , reason and d i v i n i t y that we have seen in Pound, and t h a t , he has chosen the t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of possess ive pronouns as a means of express ing d i v i n e presence. Th is i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s borne out by the l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l i g h t of l o v e , which p lace l ove in the p o s i t i o n of d i v i n i t y i t s e l f . He i s not l i k e the sun but the sun i t s e l f (118-120) Love g ives f o r t h h i s own l i g h t , worthy of f a i t h . In him who knows Love i s compassion born. (121-124) 103 Pound's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the "guerdon, " to be won as compassion i s r e - i n f o r c e d by Duncan's p a r a l l e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , f o r , he too sees love as primal and necessary to the estab l i shment of any bond o f t rue sympathy and order in the wo r l d . Although he seems to be pre-occupied w i th the human l ack of awareness of the i d e a l o f l o v e , and appears to accept the cont inued presence of d i s o r d e r , Duncan i s expres s ing the same e s s e n t i a l argument as Pound. Where Pound t r a n s l a t e s mercede as compassion, Duncan s t a t e s uneq i v o ca l l y t h a t , « In him who knows love i s compassion born. (122-124) and expresses awareness of l ove as a p r i o r c o n d i t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n or o rde r . Who knows not Love cannot r e s t o r e order Not by hearsay i s f a l s i t y d e s p e l l e d . (125-128) No doubt, the d i f f e r e n c e s between Pound's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Cava l can t i canzone and Duncan's v a r i a t i o n upon Pound's work, may be a t t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n t wor ld views of the two poets , as we l l as t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c s , which must d i f f e r as t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n s to the world d i f f e r . These are both dependent upon the paideumas of the r e s p e c t i v e s o c i a l m i l i e u x in which the two men came to consc iousness , The d i f f e r i n g working a e s t h e t i c s of the two poets then, are thus , the r e s u l t of each man's t o t a l exper ience , both of the e n c u l t u r a t i o n process and the i n d i v i d u a l exper iences of consc iousness . Pound i s a pioneer in t h a t , he was f i r s t to develop an a e s t h e t i c and technique which would 104 e f f e c t i v e l y express the twen t i e th - cen tu r y concept of the world as Process. Duncan i s irrmersed in the f l u x and d i s o rde r of t h i s Process wo r l d , and i s a t temtpt ing to d i s cove r h i s own soul through the medium of h i s a r t . He i s a man atomized and i s o l a t e d , conscious of the l ack of any sense of order and u n i t y . The poem i s an a s s e r t i o n of h i s o;wn exper ience o f , and response t o , i d e a l l o v e . As a tes t imony, i t i s more than s u f f i c i e n t , i t i s a great a r t i c u l a t i o n , however, as an exper ience of l o v e , communicable to o t h e r s , i t d oe sn ' t succeed in express ing th grand overview of the l i f e Process as does Pound's poem. The tone of I T e l l of Love, suggests Duncan's i s o l a t i o n and a t om i za t i on , h i s sense of being the on l y consc ious i n d i v i d u a l among the unaware, unreasoning and i n s e n s i t i v e . There i s much ambigu i ty and lack of c l a r i t y , not the mention the i n con s i s t ency of argument in the t h i r d s tanza . For example, by This i s the an imat i on , "a world of moving ene r g i e s " ; (1-3) does Duncan mean t ha t l ove i s the c r e a t i v e f o r c e w i t h i n the world o f P roces s , the o rde r i n g p r i n c i p l e o f the f l u x , o r , does he mean tha t t h i s wor ld of chaos and f l u x , o f "moving ene r g i e s , " i s the an imat ion, the agent r e spon s i b l e f o r the c r e a t i o n of love? Perhaps h i s statement conta in s both elements, perhaps on l y the former i s i n tended. The former i s c e r t a i n l y necessary, i f the remainder of the poem i s to have any un i t y of i n t e n t i o n and argument; however, the ambiguity destroys the u n i t y , j u s t as does the i n con s i s t ency of the t h i r d s tanza . There seems, a l s o , to e x i s t a d i screpancy between Duncan's 105 emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l responses to the f o r c e of i d e a l i z e d l o v e , and to the world o f Process . He d i s c l a i m s the who l l y p h y s i c a l , indeed, he re tu rn s repeated ly to c a s t i g a t i o n of those who go "not in Love ' s s ea r ch , " and are content w i th the "drunken s t a t e . " Yet h i s emotional responses are expressed in terms which suggest su r render , the d e s i r e to merge, to become immersed in the " e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , " of which Pound accused the C l a s s i c a l w o r l d , and which he expressed 73 so memorably the phrase, " p l a s t i c to c o i t u s . " 73 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and Faber, 1934, p. 348 106 Chapter S i x : Conclusion Toward comprehension of the conept of the world as Process, the metaphysical b a s i s of C a v a l c a n t i , Pound and Duncan, and the e p i s t e m o l i g i c a l theory of Ezra Pound, I have found the r e c e n t l y -74 s t a t e d system of Dr. F. S. C. Northrop to be extemely u s e f u l . Dr. Northrop's primary concern i s e p i s t e m o l g i c a l , i n t h a t he i s concerned with the nature o f the apprehension and the knowledge which man's t o t a l consciousness o f the world o f Process gains f o r him. The u n i v e r s e , or Process, i s termed i n t h i s system, the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a e s t h e t i c continuum, and the elements which comprise t h i s continuum are termed d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s . E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , man i s a d u a l i s t by nature, i n t h a t he apprehends the world o f Process i n two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t ways, or i s capable of a b i - p o l a r response to r e a l i t y . In one, man experiences the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a e s t h e t i c continuum with t h i s a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t , making statements concerning the nature o f r e a l i t y , which Dr. Northrop terms concepts by p o s t u a t i o n . These concepts by p o s t u a l a t i o n are t h e o r e t i c , i n t h a t each i s dependent upon i n f o r m a t i o n provided by o t h e r , more a b s t r a c t , t h e o r i e s and d i s c i p l i n e s f o r t h e i r c e r i f i c a t i o n . The range o f experience thus d e f i n e d i s termed the t h e o r e t i c continuum, and the elements which 74 Northrop, F.S.C. The Meeting of-hast and West. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1946. 107 comprise t h i s continuum are known as the t h e o r e t i c components of r e a l i t y . On beha l f of the oppos i te response, Dr. Northrop de f ines a rage of exper ience which i s d i r e c t l y or immediately apprehendable by means of man's a e s t h e t i c r e l a t i o n to the world of Process . In t h i s use o f a e s t h e t i c , Dr. Northrop s i g n i f i e s the eastern meaning of the word as a t o t a l or i n teg ra ted response, i n v o l v i n g the senses, the imag inat ion and the i n t e l l e c t . Man gains knowledge o f the wor ld o f Process v i a t h i s a e s t h e t i c response and makes statements about the nature of h i s exper ience o f P roces s , which are termed concepts by i n t u i t i o n . The range of exper ience thus de f ined i s termed the a e s t h e t i c continuum, or r e a l i t y in i t s a e s t h e t i c component. Both f a c t o r s s o f No r th rop ' s system, i e . , the t h e o r e t i c a l component o r i n t e l l e c t u a l po s t u l a t i on s and the a e s t h e t i c component o r concepts by i n t u i t i o n , are necessary to a complete comprehension o f the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the un i ve r se . The u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , the world of P rocess , i s a e s t h e t i c in t ha t i s cannot"be f u l l y comprehended s o l e l y through the i n t e l l e c t , as the concepts by p o s t u l a t i o n are on l y one -ha l f o f a d e f i n i t i o n of r e a l i t y . The immediate apprehension of the conepts by i n t u i t i o n i s necessary to a c o r r e c t and f u l l d e f i n i t i o n of r e a l i t y , as N ro th rop ' s system imp l i e s t ha t r e a l i t y can u l t i m a t e l y be def ined on l y by the i n d i v i d u a l . 75 In h i s essay, "The Funct ion and Future o f Poe t r y , " 75 Northrop, F. S. C. The Log ic o f the Sc iences and the Humanit ies. New York: Mer id i an Books, 1959, pp. 169-190. 108 Dr. Northrop app l i e s h i s theory of epistemology to the rea lm of a r t , saying t ha t poetry has the f unc t i on of making " e p i s t e m i c " c o r r e l a t i o n s between the conepts by postuht ion and the concepts by i n t u i t i o n . An ep i s temic c o r r e l a t i o n i s a r e l a t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y , but not a lways, one-one, j o i n i n g a t heo re t i c a l l y - khown  f a c t o r des ignated by a concept by post i ia t ion to is"  immediately apprehendable, a e s t h e t i c c o r r e l a t e denoted  by a concept by i r i t u i t i o n T To However, a r t not on ly " r e l a t e s items of r e a l i t y which are known 77 i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, " combining the concepts by i n t u i t i o n and p o s t u l a t i o n , but a l s o servew to d i s t i n g u i s h the two cont inua of r e a l i t y by a l l o w i n g the pe r ce i ve r to separate the concepts by i n t u i t i o n from the concepts by p o s t u l a t i o n . As Northrop says, In s ho r t , ep i s temic c o r r e l a t i o n s both separate and connect the r e a l as known a e s t h e t i c a l l y w i t h immediacy and the r e a l as known s c i e n t i f i c a l l y through deduc t i v e l y f o rmu la ted , expe r imenta l l y v e r i f i e d theo ry . 78 As a r t , accord ing to Dr. No r th rop ' s system, de f i ne s and r e l a t e s the a e s t h e t i c and t h e o r e t i c cont inua of r e a l i t y , so does i t serve two d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s . When d e a l i n g who l l y in the concepts by i n t u i t i o n , a r t f u n c t i o n i n and f o r i t s e l f , and when a r r t manipulates i t s rhythms, co lou r s and images i n order to s p e c i f i c a l l y serve some t h e o r e t i c a l l y pos tu la ted end, a r t can be s a i d to e x i s t as a handmaiden of the ext rane ious end, i e . , i s a propagandist or d i d a c t i c v e h i c l e f o r r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l dogam. I f the concepts by i n t u i t i o n and 76 I b i d . , p. 172 77 Loc. c i t . 78 I b i d . , p. 173 109 po s t u l a t i o n are in ba lance, a "one-one r e l a t i o n s , " i n No r th rop ' s te rmino logy , a r t achieves greatness of s t a t u r e , Dr. Northrop c i t e s Pan t ' s D iv ine Comedy as an example of g reat a r t which possesses t h i s "one-one r e l a t i o n " of the two types of i n fo rmat ion as he f e e l s t ha t Dante expresses, in metaphor ica l language, teh t h e r o r e t i c a l po s tua l te s of Thomas Aquninas ' Summa Theo l og i ca , but a l s o , Dante ' s poem e x i s t s as an a e s t h e t i c e n t i t y independent of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l element and hence, i s not merely a d i d a c t i c servant of theo logy. In other words, the poem f unc t i on s both e a s t h e t i c a l l y and t h e o r e t i c a l l y , n e i t h e r element ove r -powering the o t he r . In C a v a l c a n t i ' s Donna Me Prega, the a e s t h e t i c or i n t u i t i v e concepts are represented by the pa t te rn of l i g h t imagery, which i s an express ion of the medieval t r a d i t i i o n of the und iv ided l i g h t , and the t h e o r e t i c a l element, or concepts by p o s t u a l a t i o n , i s represented by the S c h o l a s t i c ph i losophy and the poe t ' s p re senta t i on of i dea l love as a contemplat ion of a transcendent and super-sensuous i d e a l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a e s t h e t i c and t h e o r e t i c e lements, of the poem i s not "one-one, " as comprehension of the argument of the poem depends e n t i r e l y upon understanding of the S c h o l a s t i c ph i losophy and the ga in ing of some i n s i g h t i n t o the s ub t l e reason ing of the argument. I t i s t r u e , t ha t the pa t te rn o f l i g h t imagery l a r g e l y c a r r i e s the metaphys ical arguement however, much of the understanding of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l i g h t pat te rn i s dependent upon an awareness o f the t r a d i t i o n of the und iv ided l i g h t and the medieval t h e r o r i e s of l i g h t emanation and d i f f u s i o n , such as the theory of Robert Grosseteste which Pound has u t i l i z e d in order to prov ide an no i i n s i g h t i n t o the poem. The g rea te s t percentage of the poem's argument i s t h e r e f o r e , dependent upon the t h e o r e t i c component of r e a l i t y , as i t r e l i e s upon i n t e l l e c t u a l theory f o r i t s u l t i m a t e understanding. The a e s t h e t i c elements of the poem, or i t s concepts by i n t u i t i o n , f u n c t i o n i n and f o r themselves, but t h e i r prime f u n c t i o n i s to serve as a v e h i c l e f o r the S c h o l a s t i c ph i losophy and the theory of love as a t ranscendent i d e a l . Pound, i n f o cu s i n g upon the underscor ing the l i g h t pat terns of the poem i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , s t re s se s the a e s t h e t i c component o f r e a l i t y . The t h e o r e t i c f a c t o r s are as strong as in the o r i g i n a l , but the e x p e r i e n t i a l elements have been brought more i n t o balance w i th the i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts . One can hardly r e f e r to the r e l a t i o n as "one-one, " as Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n i s s t i l l dependent upon an awareness o f S c h o l a s t i c phi losophy and medieval l i g h t t h e o r i e s r f o r i t s u l t i m a t e understand ing, a l though, what has been accomplished i s that the medieval aspect of the t h e o r e t i c component has been g iven an immediacy of apprehension through the s t r e s s i n g and moderniz ing of the l i g h t metaphors. In the Pound t r an s l u cence , the e xpe r i en t a l o r a e t h e t i c component of the poem i s even s t r onge r , due no doubt, to Pound's theory of the image and the use o f the "ideogrammic method," Rather than a t h e o r e t i c element dependent upon, an awareness of the medieval S c h o l a s t i c ph i lo sophy, Pound's t rans lucence e x i s t s i n a framework of modern p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept i on s , which are drawn from d i ve r se sources , and which are g iven an immediacy of r e fe rence through the poet i c theory to which Pound subsc r i be s . Whether Pound's t h e o r e t i c component drawns from anc i en t Greek, medieval European, o r O r i e n t a l I l l p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e x t s , the ideogrammic method employed by the poet renders the t h e o r e t i c component e x p e r i e n t i a l and immediately apprehendable. Thus, i t can be augued t h a t the Cantos are dependent upon an awareness of remote t heo r i e s f o r t h e i r u l t i m a t e comprehension however, the v e r a c i t y of any theory t ha t the poem conta ins can be experienced through the percept ion of the concepts by i n t u i t i o n , the a e s t h e t i c component of r e a l i t y upon which the poem i s s t r u c t u r e d . In Duncan's v a r i a t i o n upon Pound's workd on C a v a l c a n t i , the t h e o r e t i c a l element i s apparent l y i d e n t i c a l , in t ha t i t po s tu la te s the same bas ic concepts as does Pound, however, as we have seen there i s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the va lues represented by these concepts . Where pound a s s e r t s the i dea l of l ove as a p o s i t i v e f o r c e , working toward the es tab l i shment o f harmony, u n i t y of human response and toward the u n i t y o f a l l mankind i n a true and j u s t un i ve r s a l o r d e r , Duncan's i d e a l love possesses a muchless p o s i t i v e v a l u e , being now a f o r c e , working not f o r harmony, u n i t y and o rde r , but f o r the w i th s tand ing of human b e s t i a l i t y , d i s u n i t y and d i s o r d e r . Where Pound's concepts by po s t u l a t i o n were given i n an irrmedicay of response and an e x p e r i e n t i a l f a c t o r which rendered them more immediately apprehendable, Duncan's t h e o r e t i c component i s who l l y s u b j e c t i v e , depending upon the poets personal exper ience f o r i t s u l t i m a t e v e r i f i c a t i o n . The i n t u t i v e or a e s t h e t i c component of t h i s poem a l s o d i f f e r s q u a l i t a t i v e l y from Pound ' s , i n t ha t i t represents a lower .-scale of va lue and v i s i o n . In Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n , essay and t r an s l u cence , l i g h t was an i l l u m i n a t i n g f a c t o r which eminates from w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l toward the d i v i n e . Th is l i g h t was e s s e n t i a l l y the same, whether i t was the l i g h t of d i v i n i t y , of human i n te l l i g ence , or the l i g h t of the heavenly c i t y . In a s t a t e of i dea l l o v e , man i s 112 capable of deve lop ing the inner l i g h t and d i f f u s i n g the r e s u l t a n t c l a r i t y throughout the un i ve r se . In Duncan's poem, a l though the poet purports to subscr ibe to the same metaphys ical and s o c i a l v i s i o n , the a e s t h e t i c component, i e . , the l i g h t imagery, serves a l e s s metaphys ica l end. The l i g h t of i dea l love becomes now a f o r c e which l i g h t s up the " sur round ing darknes s , " i n the sense of c a s t i n g a s p o t l i g h t upon the problem of human d i s o r d e r . So heavy i s the emphasis upon t h i s darkness and engulfment, that one f e e l s t h a t even the never-ending l i g h t of the t r a d i t i o n a l metaphsic i s incapable of d i s p e l l i n g i t . 113 Chapter Seven: Addendum In r e t r o spec t the above t he s i s seems more e xp l o r a t o r y and e va l ua t i v e than exp lanatory and comparat ive, however, perhaps t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e con s i de r i ng the d i v e r s i t y of the m a t i e r i a l under d i s c u s s i o n . That Pound was deeply impressed wi th Cava l can t i and h i s canzone seems f a i r l y obvious and t ha t he made the ph i losophy conta ined i n Donna Me Prega c e n t r a l to the framework of The Cantos seems a reasonable and demonstable argument. There i s s t i l l much disagreement among s cho la r s as to the i n t e n t i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s of C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem, however, i t s l i t e r a r y s ta tu s i s assured and would be even without Pound's e x p l i c a t o r y notes to the poem. What Pound has accomplished i n h i s essay and t r a n s l a t i o n i s to make C a v a l c a n t i ' s work a c c e s s i b l e to the modern reader who l a c k s profound knowledge o f Renaissance Neo -P la ton i c and S c h o l a s t i c ph i lo sophy. What seems necessary f o r c r i t i c a l purposes i s a more d e t a i l e d knowledge of the connexion between the S c h o l a s t i c ph i losophy represented by Donna Me Prega and Pound's usage of C a v a l c a n t i ' s metaphys ica l p o s i t i o n as a bas i s f o r the Confucian e t h i c a l i dea l i sm as Pound expresses i t i n the t h i r t e e n t h Canto and indeed, which prov ides the e n t i r e e t h i c a l background f o r a l l of Pound's economic and p o l i t i c a l 114 no t i on s . Such a study could perhaps be inc luded i n a d e t a i l e d e x e g i s i s of e i t h e r Pound's r e l i g i o u s framework, eh i ch i s based on the D ionys ian mystery c u l t and the medieval P la ton i sm of C h r i s t i a n i t y , or of h i s economic, s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and moral b a s i s , which appears to be a tang le of the t heo r i e s of S o c i a l C r e d i t , G e s e l l ' s l abour o r g an i z a t i on and Confucian e t h i c s . More complete understanding of the t rue s i g n i f i c a n c e of Pound's t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto and i t s r e l a t i o n to the l a r g e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l framework of the poem as a whole seems contingent upon a c l o s e l y d e t a i l e d e x p l i c a t i o n of Pound's c r i t i c i s m , h i s s y the s i s of paganism, C h r i s t i a n i t y and Confucian pragmatism i n t o a r e l i g i o u s b a s i s , and of h i s unique views on economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Perhaps a sound study of h i s c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n w i l l be forthcoming i n the very near f u t u r e , when the o r i g i n a l t e x t of The Waste Land i s publ i shed l a t e r t h i s yea r . C e r t a i n l y a f u l l e r p i c t u r e of Pound's va lue as a p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c w i l l be ga ined. This r e v a l u a t i o n of Pound as a c r i t i c would broaden the c r i t i c s ' v iew of Pound's comparative and e v a l u a t i v e approach to c r i t i c i s m , of i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s such as C a v a l c a n t i . There have been sound exegreses of Pound's r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n , notab le B.A. Char le swor th ' s t h e s i s , The T e n s i l e L i g h t , which i s a good bas ic study but which i s fo rced to adopt a defens ive p o s i t i o n by v i r t u e of the f a c t t ha t i t i s l a r g e l y a response to the cha l l enge tha t Pound has no r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s or framework i n The Cantos. What i s now requ i red in the area of r e l i g i o n i s a d e t a i l e d examination of the va r i ou s elements which Pound has synthes ized i n t o a r e l i g i o u s framework and an 115 exegesis o f The Cantos in l i g h t of t ha t a n a l y s i s . Th is would n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l ude Pound's use o f the pagan mystery r e l i g i o n s (and perhaps F roben iu s ' a n th ropo l og i ca l s t u d i e s ) , Ov i d ' s Metamorphosis, C h r i s t i a n Neo=Platonism and S c h o l a s t i c ph i lo sophy, as we l l as teh Confucian Ana lect s and The Great D i ges t . When such a study i s completed, the f u n c t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Cava l c an t i Canto w i l l perhaps be mor apparent. C e r t a i n l ; y greater l i g h t w i l l be ca s t upon the ph i l o s oph i c a l ba:kground of the o r i g i n a l Cava l can t i canzone as Pound i n t e r p r e t e d and f i n a l l y transformed i t . The quest ion of Pound's economic and p o l i t i c a l t heo r i e s seems to be a d e l i c a t e problem even y e t . The apparent d i s t a s t e f u l l n e s s of these t heo r i e s has co loured almost every c t r i i t i ca l e va l ua t i on of Pound to da te , both as poet and as t h i n k e r , and one suspects t ha t any f a i r a pp r a i s a l of Pound's t rue l i t e r a r y p o s i t i o n w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y have to conf ront h i s views in these areas and i n t e g r a t e h i s conc lu s ions to the o v e r a l l framework of The Cantos. The whole quest ion of the case f o r and aga in s t Ezra Pound must n e c e s s a r i l y be answered once again i n order to p lace h i s major poem i n i t s t rue pe r spec t i v e . The task here would seem to be one of e s t a b l i s h i n g a more f u l l c o l l e c t i o n of Pound's correspondence, or perhaps an examination of the e t h i c a l bas i s of The Cantos f o cu s i ng upon the f i e l d s of economics, p o l i t i c a l o r g an i z a t i on and Confucian s o c i a l norms. Such a study cou ld perhaps be accomplished through p u b l i c a t i o n of Pound's correspondence to F. D. R. and the U.S. S ta te Department p r i o r to and du r ing World War I I . The concept of the world as Process should have been given g reater 116 emphasis and e x p l i n a t i o n in the above t h e s i s , as t h i s seems to be f a i r l y c e n t r a l to both Pound and Duncan as we l l as to Cava l can t i as he i s i n t e r p r e t e d by Pound. This concept seems to be more i n t e g r a l to the o r i e n t a l cosmology than to the western pos tu la te s of r e a l i t y . In the eastern world the view of the cosmos as a cha in of i n te r - connected and regenera t i ve events which ebb and f l ow between form and d i s s o l u t i o n , being and becoming, an i m p l i c i t assumption cornnon to each d i s t i n c t ph i l o s oph i ca l s tance. Where the western wor ld has t r a d i t i o n a l l y eva luated events i n the space/time continuum as proportionate to t h e i r u t i l i t y f o r human needs, the eastern mind has imply accepted the f a c t t ha t man i s merely one i n tege r among b i l l i o n s - a l b e i t a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c r ea tu re - and t ha t each of the i n tege r s i s r e l a t e d to a l l the others i n t h a t a l l a re par t of the c i r c u l a r process of un i v e r s a l e x i s t e n c e , which i s to say, becoming. Th i s v iew i s more an i n t e l l e c t u a l stance in the western w o r l d , As the twent i e th century po s tu l a te o f the i n t e r - c onnec t i o n of matter and energy becomes the accepted cosmolog ica l o r i e n t a t i o n the chasm between the p h i l o s o p h i c a l stances of the ea s t and west seems to draw togethe r . Such i s notthe case , however, as the "Process o r i e n t a t i o n " of the western world i s more s t r i c t l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t having no e x p e r i e n t i a l or a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r to l end i t an immediately apprehendable q u a l i t y and thus make i t u l t i m a t e l y r e a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l man. The i n te r - connex i on of matter and energy to the western world remains a c o l d t h e o r e t i c a l p o s t ua l a t e , a b s t r a c t but s c i e n t i f i c a l l y demonstrable. The e s s e n t i a l l y o r i e n t a l consciousness of Ezra Pound a l l ows him 117 t h i s f e l t / t h o u g h t awareness o f the wor ld as Process and enables him to g i ve express ion o f the "wor ld of moving e n e r g i e s . " The eastern per spect i ve renders the concept of man in a wor ld as Process imned ia t ley comprehensible or pe r cep tua l . The western or i n t e l l e c t u a l l y pos tu la ted view of the un iver se as Process of becoming has l e s s of an immediate or e x p e r i e n t i a l f a c t o r than has a conceptual bas i s f o r i t s r e a l i t y . I t i s a l i m i t e d awareness of a concept which demands to be embraced t o t a l l y , i e . , both though and f e l t , t h e o r e t i c and a e s t h e t i c , a b s t r a c t and conc re te . I t i s t h i s l i m i t e d awareness o f the u n i v e r s a l process t ha t leads the western world i n t o c o n f l i c t s of i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional responses and the r e s u l t a n t confus ion and eventual s t a s i s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our contemporary s o c i e t y . 118 B ib ! i og raphy I Works consu l ted on Guido C a v a l c a n t i i . F l e t c h e r , J e f f e r s o n B. "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode of Love" Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 7, January 1910. pp 423-427 - . L i t e r a t u r e of the I t a l i a n Renaissance. New York The Macmil lan Company, 1934. Mazzeo, Joseph A. Medieval C u l t u r a l T r a d i t i o n ' i n Da i i te ' s Comedy. I thaca : Co rne l l U n i v e r s i t y P res s . 1949 Muscat ine, Cha r le s . Chaucer and the French T r a d i t i o n . Be rke ley : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P res s . 1957. De S a n c t i s , Francesco. H i s t o r y ' o f _ I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . I New York: Bas ic Books, I n c . , 1931 Schoeck, R ichard J . , and T a y l o r , Jerome, e d i t o r s . Chaucer C r i t i c i s m , v o l . II Notre Dame, Ind iana: U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame Pres s . 1961. . Shaw, J . E . Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Theory of Love. Toronto: The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P re s s . 1949 Va lency , Maur ice. In Praise o f Love. New York: The Macmi l lan Company. 1958 V i t t o r i n i , Domenico. H i gh : Po in t s i n_ the H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e . New York: David McKay Company, Inc. 1958 II Works consu l ted in Re l a t i o n to Chapter Three G i l s o n , E t ienne H. La P h i l o s o p h i c au Moyen Age. 2nd. e d i t i o n . P a r i s : Payot. 1947. Pound, E z r a . Make I t New. London: Faber and Faber L i m i t e d . 1934 Gaud ier -Brzeska: A Memoir. New York: New D i r e c t i o n s . 1916. 1960. 119 I I I Works Consulted in Re l a t i on to Chapter Four Char lesworth , B.A. The T e n s i l e L i g h t : A Study o f ' E z r a Pound's R e l i g i o n . Coral Gables. F l o r i d a : The U n i v e r s i t y of Miami, 1957. C l a r k , Thomas. "The Formal S t u r c t u r e of Pound's ' C a n t o ; s ' . " East-West Review, v o l . I . No. 2. Autumn 1964. pp 97-144. Kyoto, Japan: Doshinsha U n i v e r s i t y P re s s . 1964. Edwards, John, e d i t o r . The PouncT New!etter . No..6. A p r i l 1955. Be rke ley : The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P re s s . 1955. F eno l l o s a , E rne s t . The Chinese Wr i t t en Character as a_Medium.for Poet ry . San F r anc i s co : C i t y L i gh t s Books. 1936. Pa ige , B.D. The L e t t e r s o f Ezra Pound 1907-1941. New York: Harcour t , Brace & Wor ld, Inc. 1950 • ~ Pound, E z r a . The Cantos ( 1 -95 ) . New York: New D i r e c t i o n s 1934. 1937, 1940, 1948, 1956. . ABC of Reading. New York: New D i r e c t i o n s . 1960 .Make I t New. London: Faber and Faber L i m i t e d . 1934. Yutang,L In. The Wisdom of Confuc iu s . New York: The Modern L i b r a r y . 1938 IV Works Consulted in Re l a t i o n to Chapter F i v e . Duncan, Robert E. Poems 1948-49. Glen Gardner, N . J . : L i b e r t a r i a n P re s s , n .d, . Se l ec ted Poems. San F r anc i s co : C i t y L i gh t s Books. 1959. . Caesar ' s Gate: Poems 1949-1950. Spa in : D ivers Press 1955. A l l e n , Donald e d i t o r . The New^American Poe t r y . 1945-1960 New York: Grove P re s s , Inc. 1960. Wah, P a u l i n e . Robert Duncan: The Poem as Process . (MA Thes i s ) Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1966. Chapter Two: Some Ba s i c D i s t i n c t i o n s , pp 5-17. 

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