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Love as an ordering principle in Cavalcanti, Pound and Robert Duncan Westbrook, Ralph Robert 1969

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LOVE AS AN ORDERING PRINCIPLE IN CAVALCANTI, POUND AND ROBERT DUNCAN BY RALPH ROBERT WESTBROOK B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1966. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required* s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969  i  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  f r e e l y available for  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  this  that  Study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  representatives.  It  thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to o f f e r some e x p l i n a t i o n o f the manner i n which Ezra Pound has c r e a t e d a metaphysical c e n t r e f o r The Cantos through a b s o r p t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Renaissance metaphysic o f c o u r t l y and t r a n s c e n d e n t l o v e and the pragmatic e t h i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f C o n f u c i u s . It r e s o l v e s no problems, e i t h e r t e x t u a l or c r i t i c a l , but r a t h e r suggests t h a t the t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto i s c e n t r a l to the p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g the poem as a whole. From the c e n t r a l f o u r t h c h a p e r , the t h e s i s attempts to give some idea o f the nature o f Pound's i n f l u e n c e upon one o t h e r poet and how t h i s i n f l u e n c e has r e s u l t e d i n a new e v a l u a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l C a v a l c a n t i material. The s h o r t i n t o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s the nature o f the problem o f l o v e as an o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e which p r o v i d e s a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the d i s p a r a t e and seemingly opposing f o r c e s which shape human e x p e r i e n c e . This u n i t y , i t i s s t a t e d , r e p r e s e n t s an attempt on the p a r t o f western man t o i n t e g r a t e h i s d u a l i s t i c response to the world o f P r o c e s s , an e s s e n t i a l l y eastern concept. Chapter two o u t l i n e s the nature o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem and the p h i l o s o p h y o f l o v e which i t c o n t a i n s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s poem has y e t to be i n t e r p r e t e d with any degree o f f i n a l i t y and I have n e c e s s a r i l y had to work through the general concensus o f c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n . The t h i r d c h a p t e r p o i n t s to Pound's c o n c e p t i o n o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s canzon and how Pound has i n t e r p r e t e d the "guerdon" of the amour c o u r t o i s t r a d i t i o n as the Confucian d o c t r i n e o f l_i_. Chapter f o u r e x p l o r e s the connexion between Pound's c o n c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Donna Me Prega and how, from the concept o f i n d i v i d u a l compassion, Pound e n v i s i o n s a v i a b l e o r d e r f o r the s o c i e t y o f western man, w h i l e c o n t i n u a l l y m a i n t a i n i n g the concept o f the u n i v e r s e as P r o c e s s . The f i f t h chapter d e a l s with Robert Duncan's s t a t e d v a r i a t i o n on Pound's view o f Donna Me Prega and the p h i l o s o p h y c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n , and o f f e r s some comments on the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s vf o r d e r , o r l a c k o f same, as expressed by Duncan. The c o n c l u s i o n discusses t h e metaphysical concept of l o v e as a p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y i n r e l a t i o n to some modern statements o f epistemology and a e s t h e t i c s , and c o n c l u d e s t h a t Pound has expressed the sense o f o r d e r and u n i t y i n a more u n i v e r s a l and o b j e c t i v e manner than has DuncanThe addendum o f c h a p t e r seven suggests some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o these areas and concludes t h a t E z r a Pound's c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e P r o c e s s a l u n i v e r s e i s e s s e n t i a l l y o r i e n t a l , i e . , an a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e , w h i l e the concept remains l a r g e l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l p o s t u l a t e i n the western w o r l d .  ii  On the w h o l e , t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i s f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among such elements as i m a g i n a t i o n , t r a n s c e n d e n t l o v e , human s o c i a l o r d e r , and t h e c o n c e p t o f the u n i v e r s e as an a l l - e m b r a c i n g Process of i n t e r a c t i n g elements.  iii  CONTENTS  PAGE 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  p.  1  2. Donna Me Prega  p.  5  3. Mercede as Compassion  p. 29  4. Compassion or Order  p. 52  5. Inmersed i n the P r o c e s s  p. 78 p.  106  7. Addendum  p.  113  8. B i b l i o g r a p h y  p.  118  6.  Conclusion  iv  LOVE AS AN ORDERING PRINCIPLE  Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n  The g r e a t e s t poets have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h o s e who worked toward and e f f e c t e d a s y n t h e s i s , an i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e v a r i e d e l e m e n t s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , both i n l i f e and i n a r t . Man i s both s e n t i e n t and i n t e l l e c t u a l , i m a g i n a t i v e and r a t i o n a l . The v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s r e f l e c t t h i s d u a l i t y i n tiiat each p o s t u l a t e s r e a l i t y a s e x i s t e n t intwo d i s t i n c t aspects.  In p h i l o s o p h y , one sees t h e d u a l i t y s t a t e d i n terms o f t h e  p o s i t i o n s o f r e a l i s t and i d e a l i s t ; i n r e l i g i o n , t h e d i v i s i o n i s made between t h e r a t i o n a l i s t and t h e m y s t i c ; and i n a r t between t h e p o l e s o f c l a s s i c a l and r o m a n t i c .  None o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t an e x p r e s s i o n  o f a c t u a l i t y , as e a c h a p p r o a c h e s e x i s t e n c e from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f some l i m i t e d t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f man and e x i s t e n c e .  Each p o s i t i o n  assumes t h a t man's n a t u r e i s a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e d by t h a t p a r t i c u l a r h a l f t r u t h which i t p o s t u l a t e s and each, i f a c c e p t e d a s a statement o f f a c t and a v a l i d p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , i s e x c l u s i v e i n t h a t i t d i s a l l o w s any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about e x i s t e n c e t h a t t h e o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n c o u l d provide. S u r r o u n d i n g t h e d i v i d e d house o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s  and a w a i t -  i n g t h e c e s s a t i o n o f man's a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s t h e w o r l d o f Process.  Whether one s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e v i e w t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s composed  w h o l l y o f s p i r i t o r t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s e n t i r e l y m a t e r i a l , o r even t o t h e  2 r e c e n t l y - d i s c o v e r e d view ( a t l e a s t , by the western w o r l d ) , t h a t t h e universe  i s a f l u x o f m a t t e r and energy c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g and  the Process flow.  re-phasing,  a w a i t s man's d i s c o v e r y o f , and i n t e g r a t i o n t o , i t s r i v e r - l i k e  The P r o c e s s o f c o n t i n u a l a n a b o l i s m and c a t a b o l i s m , form and  d i s s o l u t i o n , m a t t e r and energy, of existence.  has been i n e v e r y age the e s s e n t i a l  reality  Each c u l t u r e has a r r i v e d a t a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n  toward t h e P r o c e s s ,  from t h e p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f and i n t e g r a t i o n t o the  " o t h e r " a s p e c t o f r e a l i t y t h a t the A s i a n c u l t u r e s have a c h i e v e d , t o the theoretical  p o s t u l a t e s o f human c o n t r o l over t h e "machine" o f n a t u r e made  by w e s t e r n man. essential  Beyond t h e p o l e s o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dichotomy l i e s  t r u t h t h a t n e i t h e r i s a complete statement o f t h e a c t u a l  the  situation  and t h a t both p o s i t i o n s , when taken t o g e t h e r , form a t o t a l c o s m o l o g i c a l  view.  In each c u l t u r e , t h e poet has been t h e one man who not o n l y sees c l e a r l y the t w i n p o l e s o f the a r t i f i c i a l synthesis,  d i s t i n c t i o n but who has sought a  a u n i t y which each has been aware must u n d e r l i e the d u a l i t y .  order to achieve i n s i g h t  i n t o the e s s e n t i a l  In  harmony o f e x i s t e n c e , poets  have  t h e problem o f d u a l i t y i n w i d e l y v a r i e d terms and have u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t p o l e s w i t h which t o e x p r e s s t h e d i c h o t o m y . o f human p s y c h o l o g y and m e t a p h y s i c s ,  One has seen the d u a l i t y i n terms  expressing  on one hand the senses and  the p a s s i v e i n t e l l e c t , and on the o t h e r , the r a t i o n a l o r a c t i v e  intellect;  and has spoken o f r e a l i t y as e x i s t e n t i n form ( i n t h e P l a t o n i c sense) and actuality.  T h i s i s the medieval  philosophical  p o s i t i o n o f Guido C a v a l c a n t i ,  t o whom l o v e i s u l t i m a t e l y a P l a t o n i c form o r i d e a which works through sense r e s p o n s e , machinations  u n i t i n g t h e d u a l i t y o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s v i a  the  the  o f t h e p o s s i b l e and a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t s , and working toward a  m y s t i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e super-sensuous i d e a l .  L o v e , ther; i s a P l a t o n i c  form w h i c h , a l t h o u g h a disembodied  i d e a l , has a p h y s i c a l  a c t u a l t y by v i r t u e  o f the f a c t t h a t i t has i t s o r i g i n  i n the response o f t h e senses t o  physical  3 beauty.  Through the workings o f t h e dual n a t u r e o f t h e human c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  l o v e becomes a f o r c e which u n i f i e s the d u a l i t y i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f a transcendent i d e a l .  Another p o e t , E z r a Pound, w r i t i n g i n a c u l t u r a l m i l i e u  which had p o s t u l a t e d and demonstrated t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l  i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n of 2  m a t t e r and energy i n a c r y p t i c statement o f p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , (E=MC ), the dichotomy i n terms o f e p i t e m o l o g y , u t i l i z i n g the p o l e s o f and c o n c e p t i o n .  states  perception  P e r c e p t i o n i s an i n t u i t i v e apprehension o f t r u t h o p e r a t i n g  through one o r more o f t h e s e n s e s ; w h i l e c o n c e p t i o n denotes t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of t r u t h i n the mind.  As Pound uses these t e r m s , t h e emphasis i s upon  p e r c e p t i o n as an i n t u i t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e and immediate a p p r e h e n s i o n , and he s t e s s e s c o n c e p t i o n as a more c o n s c i o u s imagination.  intellectual  process d i v o r c e d from  The i n t e g r a t i o n o f these r e s p o n s e s a l l o w s the a p p l i c a t i o n  o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t o the w o r l d o f P r o c e s s , c l a r i t y o f v i s i o n and a more complete apprehension o f the p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l v i s - a - v i s Process.  L o v e , t o Pound, has s t i l l  the  both t h e P l a t o n i c form o r i d e a l and the  P h y s i c a l a c t u a l i t y ; however, i n i t s m a c h i n a t i o n s as a u n i f y i n g f o r c e , l o v e becomes compassion  o r f e l l o w - f e e l i n g and enable t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o m a n i f e s t  t h e C o n f u c i a n c o n c e p t o f l_i_, o r b r o t h e r l y d e f e r e n c e . a c h i e v e s the q u a l i t y o f Poundian compassion  As each i n d i v i d u a l  the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the a t t a i n -  ment o f a j u s t and l a s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r i n c r e a s e s .  Thus, l o v e has, t o one  poet t h e power t o u n i f y t h e mind i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t  ideal,  w h i l e t o a n o t h e r l o v e has the p o t e n t i a l t o c r e a t e an e q u i t a b l e and a l l - p e r v a s i v e social  order. To a t h i r d p o e t , Robert Duncan, the w o r l d o f Process  equatable w i t h the B i b l i c a l  has become  Chaos, t h r e a t e n i n g engulfment and d i s s o l u t i o n  o f f o r m , meaning t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  The poem i t s e l f , b e i n g a microcosm o f  the l a r g e r u n i v e r s e , r e p e a t s the d i s o r d e r and the l a c k o f d e f i n i t e form which the poet e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s .  No l o n g e r i s t h e poem an  4 expression of the t o t a l  s e n t i e n c e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s  o f man, but r a t h e r , i t  e x i s t s as a scaled-down u n i v e r s e of d i s o r d e r i n which the poet plumbs  in  o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r h i s own i d e n t i t y .  Love, i n i t s i d e a l a s p e c t , i s d e c i d e d l y  t h e Poundian compassion and i s s t i l l  n e c e s s a r y t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f both  p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l o r d e r ; however, t h e emphasis o f t h e poem i s upon the s u r r o u n d i n g darkness and human b e s t i a l i t y . refuge i n that i t strengthens  The i d e a l o f l o v e p r o v i d e s a  the f a i t h o f the i n d i v i d u a l who p e r c e i v e s and  can e x p e r i e n c e i t , thus a l l o w i n g him t o s t o i c a l l y f a c e t h e disharmony and p a i n o f human e x i s t e n c e .  5  Chapter 2: Donna Me Prega T r a d i t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s l y r i c  expression  o f t h e n a t u r e and o r i g i n s o f l o v e , "Donna Me P r e g a , " was w r i t t e n i n response t o t h e sonnet, "Onde s i Muove," o f Guido O r l a n d i .  The canzone c e r t a i n l y  answers a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l o v e asked by O r l a n d i , and i t appears t o be t h e o n l y one e x t a n t t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a response t o t h e sonnet.  That t h e Donna o f t h e canzone i s O r l a n d i , o r a t l e a s t one poet o f  the d o l c e s t i l  nuove, i s made r e a d i l y apparent by t h e complex and s u b t l e  r e a s o n i n g o f t h e poem, not t o mention t h e t i g h t l y compressed  Scholastic  p h i l o s o p h y , o b v i o u s l y n o t i n t e n d e d f o r t h e e a r s o r mind o f any woman.  C a v a l c a n t i ' s avowed purpose f o r w r i t i n g t h e conzone, i m p l i c i t i n the f i r s t s t a n z a , i s t o c o n v i n c e t h o s e who doubt t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t f o r c e and t o e x p l a i n , i n t h e terms o f medieval p h i l o s o p h y and metaphysics,  t h e immediate and u l t i m a t e sources o f l o v e , i t s n a t u r e ,  r a m i f i c a t i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n c e .  I t i s c l e a r t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e exchange  between O r l a n d i and C a v a ! c a n t i stands  i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e medieval  love  d e b a t e , t h e canzone i s n o t i n t e n d e d m e r e l y t o add t o t h e knowledge o f manners o r p r o c e d u r e , n o t i s i t i n t e n d e d m e r e l y t o defend o r c l a r i f y a t r a d i t i o n a l p o s t u l a t e o r argument. of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Such an i n t e n t i o n would be s u p e r f i c i a l and unworthy  sophistication of Cavalcanti.  This  i s n o t t o accuse  the poets o f t h e c o u r t l y l o v e t r a d t i o n o f a l a c k o f s e r i o u s c o n c e r n f o r t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f l o v e , but r a t h e r t o i m p l y t h a t t h e l o v e about which poets such as A r n a u t D a n i e l , G u i l l a u m e de L o r r i s and G e o f f r e y Chaucer spoke, was l e s s Metaphysical  and cctsmic i n scope t h a t  concern o f t h e P r o v e n c a l  that of Cavalcanti.  The p r i m a r y  poets and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s was w i t h manners and  m o r a l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e manner i n which t h e uncouth medieval man c o u l d be  6 r e f i n e d , s o c i a l l y and p e r s o n J l y , by t h e l o v e o f the c o u r t l y l o v e tradition. J u s t as t h e r e i s a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n purpose and t r e a t m e n t o f l o v e between the poets o f t h e c o u r t l y l o v e t r a d i t i o n and C a v a l c a n t i ,  so  i s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f the n a t u r e of love.  The f i n ' amors o f t h e P r o v e n cj a l l y r i c i s t s i s the r e s u l t o f a  c o n f l u e n c e o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r c e s , some i n h e r e n t i n European others o r i e n t a l  in o r i g i n .  The decline i n awareness o f C l a s s i c a l  i n g l e f t o n l y t r a c e s o f P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m , w h i c h , through the of P l a t o n i c c o n c e p t s  i n t o the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two l a t e r r e s u l t e d i n t h e medieval  grounding  learn-  absorption  system o f A r i s t o t l e , were  c a r r i e d f o r w a r d i n t o t h e framework o f medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Nominalism and R e a l i s m .  culture,  A r i s t o t e l i a n r e a l i s m became the  The e s s e n t i a l  schools of philosophical  o f t h e S c h o l a s t i c movement i n medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y , w h i l e  P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m developed through the A l e x a n d r i a n P l a t o n i s t s , such as O r i g e n , P r o c l u s and I a m b l i c h u s ,  i n t o the C h r i s t i a n philosophy  the a r e o p a g i t e and S t . A u g u s t i n e .  Between t h e d e c l i n e o f the C l a s s i c a l  p h i l o s o p h y and t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e s u r g e n c e rises  of D i o n y s i u s  the power and l e a r n i n g o f I s l a m i c c u l t u r e .  o f European  culture,  The widespread  conquests  o f Moslem armies and r e s u l t a n t a b s o r p t i o n o f o r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l  concepts  l e a d t o a f u r t h e r P l a t o n i c c o l o u r i n g o f A r i s t o t e l a i n r e a l i s m , which the Christian Scholastic g r a d u a l l y to  philosophers,  e s p e c i a l l y Thomas A q u i n a s ,  began  purge.  The p r i m a r y p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t between t h e European and c u l t u r e s a r e S p a i n , S i c i l y and the s e c t i o n d ' o r o f F r a n c e .  Islamic  For our  present  purposes, however, S p a i n may be e x c l u d e d , as l i t t l e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f S p a n i s h o r i e n t a l i s m upon t h e P r o v e n c a l , S i c i T a n o r Tuscan l i t e r a r y  7 t r a d i t i o n s has been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p r o v e n . F r e d e r i c k II  The S i c i l i a n c o u r t o f  was t h e f i r s t i m p e r i a l c o u r t t o absorby Arab  scholarship  and hence, o r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y , which was m o s t l y i n t h e f i e l d s of mathematics and m e d i c i n e .  The p o s i t i o n o f the I s l a m i c  philosophy of  this  p e r i o d was d e c i d e d l y P l a t o n i c , both i n h e r e n t l y , through t h e s c h o l a r s h i p  of  Avicenna and A v e r r o e s , and e x t r a n e o u s l y , through A r a b i c a b s o r p t i o n o f Hindu p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n s , which tend g e n e r a l l y toward the same i d e a l i s m as expressed by P l a t o .  Poets a t the court of F r e d e r i c k I I ,  that  w r i t i n g in a s t y l e  composed o f Norman and O r i e n t a l e l e m e n t s , t a l k i n terms o f c h i v a l r i c idealism and p h i l o s o p h i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s .  The c h i v a l r i c and c o u r t l y c o n t e n t o f thebir  work i s l a r g e l y a f o r e i g n e x c r e s c e n c e , g r a f t e d on through t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f 1 the Norman t r a d i t i o n s o f f a n t a s t i c a l c h i v a l r y and t h e e a s t e r n sensuousness. C o n c e p t s , images and n a r r a t i v e elements a r e o u t s i d e of t h e n a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e ; l i k e t h e m a t t e r o f Rome employed by Guido d e l C o l o n n a , i t i s o n l y a memory, evanescent as t h e m i s t s .  The paradox behind the S i c i l i a n school  lies  in  the f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h the poets speak i n terms o f a b s t r a c t i o n s and the n e a r l y - f o r g o t t e n memories, t h e conclusion t o t h e overwhelming amount o f t h e i r love poetry i s merely physical o f her p h y s i c a l  perfections.  conquest o f t h e i d e a l i z e d l a d y and p o s s e s s i o n Love has n o t the e x a l t a t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t o f  s p i r i t i n t h e S i c i l i a n s c h o o l as i t has i n t h e l a t e r Tuscan p o e t s .  Perhaps  t h i s f a c t i s t h e b e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how the c h i v a l r i c t r a d i t i o n s were g r a f t e d onto the S i c i l i a n c o u r t and r e u l t a n t l y , the l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n . The c o u r t poets aim a t e x p r e s s i o n o f the noble i d e a l s o f t h e i r suzerains,  but the p h y s i c a l f a c t s o f t h e i r personal  The e x p e r i e n t i a l element cannot be suppressed ambitions.  political  experience are i r r e p r e s s i b l e .  by any t h e o r e t i c o r i d e a l i s t i c  In t h e S i c i l i a n c o u r t s p o e t s , we see the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f  1 De S a n c t i s , F. H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . 1931  1, pp 12 - 14,  8  A r a b i c P l a t o n i s m , b u t a l s o , how i m p e r f e c t l y t h i s i n f l u e n c e was a b s o r b e d . The l o v e t h a t t h e y seek t o e x p r e s s i s s e n s u a l i n e s s e n c e , b u t i s d i s u s s e d i n terms o f s p i r i t u a l and i d e a l i s t i c r e a l i t i e s which become mere a b s t r a c t i o n s w i t h o u t a n y r e a l b a s i s i n terms o f t h e i r a c t u a l  experience.  The o t h e r p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between E u r o p e a n and I s l a m i c c u l t u r e , germane t o t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , o c c u r s i n t h e a r e a o f s o u t h e r n  France  and h e l p s t o f o s t e r t h e c o u r t l y l o v e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e r e f i n e d l o v e o f t h e Provencal troubadors.  H e r e , a s i s r e a d i l y s u r m i s e d from A n d r e a s C a p e l l a n u s '  De A r t e Honeste Amandi, l o v e i s a r e f i n i n g and e x a l t i n g f o r c e , b u t e x a l t i n g f o r c e , b u t p r i m a r i l y i n t h e a r e a o f t h e s o c i a l g r a c e s , manner and t h e a r t s . We have h e r e , a s i n t h e S i c i l i a n p o e t s , t h e sense o f s e n s u a l l o v e ( e r o s ) , a l b e i t seen i d e a l i s t i c a l l y .  The l a d y i s s o c i a l l y e x a l t e d beyond t h e  c o u r t i e r ' s hope o f a t t a i n m e n t a n d t h e c o u r t i e r seeks t o become t h e s e r f o f h i s l a d y , o f f e r i n g h i s f e a l t y and d i s c r e t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r h e r "mercy". A l t h o u g h t h e s e r v a n t o f l o v e would seek t o improve h i m s e l f i n manners grooming, and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and p e r f o r m a n c e o f l o v e l y r i c s i n p r a i s e of h i s lady, the l e v e l o f the s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n i s o f theutmost  importance.  The f o c u s o f t h e s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n i s here upon t h e outward man, man a s a s o c i a l c r e a t u r e , a s a c o u r t i e r . The l o v e o f t h e t r o u b a d o r s  i s ultimately  a s e n s u a l l o v e , i n f a c t , p r e f e r a b l y an i l l e g i t i m a t e l o v e , f o r some t r e a t i s e s even r u l e t h a t l o v e i s i m p o s s i b l e between a man and h i s l e g a l 2 spouse. The T u s c a n poets o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e a s much t h e h e i r s  2 Dodd, W.G. " The System o f C o u r t l y Love," p. 4, v o l I I , Chaucer C r i t i c i s m , N o t r e Dame, I n d . , : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1961  9 o f t h e P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o r s as they a r e o f t h e S i c i l i a n c o u r t p o e t s .  In  t h e i r e a r l y work, one f i n d s the same c h i v a l r i c and f a n t i a s t i c a l l y h e r o i c elements as i n t h e S i c i l i a n s , and t h e same sense o f c o u r t l i n e s s  and  c o n c e r n f o r the manners and r e f i n e m e n t o f the o u t e r man as i n the Provencal troubadors.  There i s , however, an i m p o r t a n t d e p a r t u r e from t h e v a r i e d elements  which amalgamate t o produce t h e d o l c e s t i l o f t h o u g h t , a more m e t a p h y s i c a l  nuove i n t h a t an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  i n c l i n a t i o n i s apparent.  Perhaps  this  g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s e x p l i c a b l e i n terms o f s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s , such as i n t e n s i f i e d u r b a n i z a t i o n and t h e g r e a t e r c u r r e n t s o f s p e c u l a t i o n which surrounded  philosophical  the F l o r e n t i n e p o e t s ; however, one need go  no f u r t h e r than t h e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i t s e l f i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e phenomenon. final  G u i z i z e l l i , C a v a l c a n t i and Dante wrote as the end r e s u l t , t h e  e f f l o r a t i o n , o f an ongoing t r a d i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought and  topical concern.  It  i s p o s s i b l e t o see a continuum o f a r t i s t i c and  p h i l o s o p h i c a l development from t h e P r o v e n c a l and S i c i l i a n poets to Dante. Common elements e x i s t i n t h e work o f a l l t h e poets c o n c e r n e d , such as the p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h l o v e , i t s n a t u r e and r a m i f i c a t i o n s , the c o n c e r n f o r the t r a n s c e n d e n t and e x a l t i n g a s p e c t s o f sensuous l o v e and t h e  progressively  d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t i o n o f a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h y and t h e s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e s o f man, t h e a t t e m p t t o harmonize e r o s and agape.  The S i c i l i a n  c o u r t poets do not have a s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g e x p e r i e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s p i r i t u a l o r t h e o r e t i c elements o f t h e i r work, and hence, cannot t r a n s c e n d t h e sensuous a s p e c t o f l o v e , w h i l e the Provencal t r o u b a d o r s  suffer  from a l a c k o f v i s i o n o f the t r a n s c e n d e n t and a r e l i m i t e d t o a r e a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e power which l o v e possesses t o t r a n s f o r m the man o f crude s e n s i b i l i t y i n t o a r e f i n e d c o u r t i e r p o s s e s s i n g a s t r o n g sense o f l o y a l t y , a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y and d i s c r e t i o n .  10 It  is basically  Cavalcanti  the f i n ' amors o f the Provencal  and h i s f e l l o w  t r a d i t i o n , then,  poets o f the d o l c e . s t i l  However, as we have n o t e d , t h e r e i s  philosophical  miove a r e  southern France was judged  troubadors.  heretical  discussing.  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and  s u b t l e r e a s o n i n g on the p a r t o f the F l o r e n t i n e p o e t s , i n the work o f the Provencal  which i s not found  The courtly love t r a d i t i o n o f  by the C h u r c h , and no doubt  r e a s o n i n g and p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions which produced the f i i i ' produced a l s o the A l b i g e n s i a n h e r e s y , as a c h a l l e n g e  to  its  authority.  would see t h i s focus on sensual  which the Church t r e a t e d  the amors  so  severely  I f f o r no other r e a s o n , the Church or sexual  l o v e as a f o r c e working f o r  human refinement as being e x c e s s i v e l y w o r l d l y i n o r i e n t a t i o n . all,  that  For  after  t h e b a s i c C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g was t h a t man should f o c u s on the  other  w o r l d , the world o f the A l m i g h t y ,  and d i r e c t h i s l o v e towards the  and the Supremely Good, r a t h e r than on t h e more l i m i t e d , but theoretic,  earthly  good, o r beauty.  eternally beautiful,  less  Man i s to focus on the d i v i n e l y and  r a t h e r than on t h a t which i s sensuous and t e m p o r a l .  Monkish s c h o l a s t s  brought the f u l l  to bear upon t h i s  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y Platonic conception of love,  flourished argues against  as s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t St. Augustine's  and sensual expresses,  pressure of t h e i r A r i s t o t e l i a n r e a l i s m which  i n t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y southern E u r o p e .  the t r a n s c e n d e n t  values  love.  It  C h r i s t i a n i t y , and u l t i m a t e l y  reconciles  o f the C h r i s t i a n Church with the emphasis on e a r t h l y  is basically  the p o s i t i o n o f Aquinas which Dante  component o f h i s a r t ,  i n the V i t a Nuova and the  The emphasis o f both i s upon the Supreme Good,  P l a t o n i c elements  Anquinas  the P l a t o n i c c o n c e p t i o n o f l o v e as he does  mystical  as the t h e o r e t i c  D i v i n e Comedy.  celestial  i n both works,  basically  i n t e r p r e t e d so as to serve C a t h o l i c  dogma.  an A r i s t o t e l i a n  despite  conception  n In t h e D i v i n e Comedy, Dante p l a c e s the C a v a l c a n t i f a m i l y i n H e l l , as he must do as a devout and p r a c t i c i n g C a t h o l i c . t o a p o s i t i o n , both p o l i t i c a l  The f a m i l y h e l d  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l , which was i r r e c o n c i l a b l e  w i t h a s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f Church t e a c h i n g s .  The  b a s i c position o f t h e Church, i n terms o f medieval p h i l o s o p h y , must be seen as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i s m , which h o l d s t h a t t h e elements o f the m a t e r i a l world a r e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t i e s , as they p a r t i c i p a t e i n and s t r i v e t h e D i v i n e Nature o f t h e Supreme B e i n g .  The u l t i m a t e p o s i t i o n  i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s Donna Me Prega i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l  towards expressed  i d e a l i s m , which  holds  t h a t the m a t e r i a l w o r l d and t h e w o r l d o f i d e a s a r e both u l t i m a t e l y r e a l ; however, o n l y i n s o f a r as human e x p e r i e n c e o f them i s a b l e t o judge them t o be r e a l .  This  i s a p o s i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i s m , not u n r e l a t e d  to e a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t s , o r t o P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m .  The u l t i m a t e  t e s t o f r e a l i t y i s e x p e r i e n t i a l , i e . , r e a l i t y i s i m m e d i a t e l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y apprehendable through the response  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  i s t o p o s t u l a t e the u n i v e r s e as a plenum o f s h i f t i n g and o s c i l l a t i n g  This energy  l e v e l s which c o n t i n u a l l y waxes and wanes between r e l a t i v e form and d i s s o l u t i o n , s o l i d i t y and i n t a n g i b i l i t y - t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s .  Cavalcanti's  w o r l d i s such a w o r l d , one i n which m a t e r i a l and c o n c e p t u a l e n t i t i e s a r e indissolubly united. limiting factor:  In such a w o r l d , t h e f o r c e o f l o v e s e r v e s as a  o r d e r i n g , d e f i n i n g , and i n t e r - c o n n e c t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l t o  the i r r m a t e r i a l , the p h y s i c a l  For d i s c u s s i o n 3 translation,  t o t h e s p i r i t u a l , t h e f o r m w i t h the i d e a .  o f Donna Me P r e g a , I have worked from t h e F l e t c h e r  as i t i n c l u d e s e x c e l l e n t l i n e by l i n e notes which expand  upon the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f terms which suggested d i f f e r e n t d e n o t a t i o n s connotations  and  to t h e medieval mind than t h e y do t o t h e modern r e a d e r .  3 F l e t c h e r , J . B . " G u i d o C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode o f L o v e " M o d e r n P h i l o g y , January 1910, pp 423-26.  v o l . 7,  12 F l e t c h e r a l s o r e l a t e s c e r t a i n aspects of C a v a l c a n t i ' s  philosophical  p o s i t i o n t o e q u i v a l e n t s o r p a r a l l e l s i n Dante, e s p e c i a l l y t o the C o v i t o , i n which o c c u r the g r e a t e s t s i m i l a r i t i e s to C a v a l c a n t i ' s t r e a t i s e .  Perhaps  the s a f e s t e x e g e t i c a l procedure would be a s t a n z a by s t a n z a d i s c u s s i o n the elements o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s  of  philosophy of l o v e .  The f i r s t s t a n z a works from t h e q u e s t i o n s o f O r l a n d i ' s  sonnet,  o u t l i n i n g the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r problem which a r e t o be discussed.  The q u e s t i o n s a r e a p p a r e n t l y p a i r e d , each p a i r t o be r e s o l v e d  i n the succeeding stanzas: its creation;  where l o v e has p l a c e , and what power a f f e c t s  what i s the p a r t i c u l a r v e r t u t e and power o f t h i s f o r c e ;  what i s t h e e s s e n t i a l v e r i t y o r e s s e n c e , and what a r e t h e n a t u r e s o f motions and development;  and l a s t l y , what p l e a s u r e i s d e r i v e d from l o v e  and i f i t be m a n i f e s t t o s i g h t . a r e t o be a d i s c u s s i o n  its  A l t h o u g h each o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g  and r e s o l u t i o n o f two q u e s t i o n s ,  eachhas a u n i t y  o f i t s own, i n t h a t t h e two problems d e a l t w i t h a r e t r e a t e d as o f t h e s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t w i t h which the s t a n z a d e a l s .  stanzas  A basic  i n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a b e t r a y s the f a c t t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f l o v e  divisions paradox  discussion  i s g o i n g t o be t w o f o l d , f o r w i t h d ' u n a c c i d e n t s che sovents e f e r o ed e s i a l t e r o , c h ' e chiamato amore:  (2-3)  C a v a l c a n t i o u t l i n e s the purpose and i n t e n t i o n o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c t o be an a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e p u t a t i o n s which l o v e has r e c e i v e d , f e r o and a l t e r o .  opposing  That C a v a l c a n t i  i s b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f a l t e r o i s apparent i n h i s che s o v e n t e , as " t o o f r q u e n t l y , " by F l e t c h , i n t h e tone o f h i s a d d r e s s i n g "base d e g r e e . "  canzone  translated  A l s o , his n a t u r a l p r e d i l e c t i o n can be seen t h e canzone t o t h o s e h e a r t s a r e not o f  (basso c h o r e ) , f o r by p l a c i n g h i s d i s c u s s i o n  on the l e v e l  of  13 " p r o o f p h i l o s o p h i c , " he speaks o n l y to those o f h i s f e l l o w who a r e i n sympathy w i t h t h e f i n ' amors and i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t r a i n e d and s u b t l e intellects.  The f i r s t s t a n z a i s an o u t l i n e o f the problem f o r  discussion,  a statement o f l i m i t a t i o n o f a u d i e n c e ( r e l a t e d t o t h e commiato), and as an avowal t o c o n s i d e r the problem i n the c o n t e x t o f contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions. S t a n z a two d e s c r i b e s the o r i g i n s o r p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e o f t h i s l o v e , c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s i t s n a t u r e and d e s c r i b e s l o v e i n i t s f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n s as a d i s p a s s i o n a t e m e d i t a t i o n upon an image r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the i d e a l of e a r t h l y beauty.  Love's r e s i d e n c e , or point of i n c e p t i o n , i s  dove s t a memora  in  (15)  i e . , i n t h e p l a c e where memory r e s i d e s , t o the medieval mind the s e n s i t i v e , as opposed t o t h e r a t i o n a l , s o u l . opposed t o t h e i n t e l l e c t .  In modern t e r m s , the i m a g i n a t i o n as  A t t h i s p o i n t , Shaw, i n h i s t h e s i s  upon  C a v a l c a n t i ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f l o v e , expands upon t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f  love's  origin. C a v a l c a n t i ' s Love i s s e n s i t i v e and not r a t i o n a l , as we a r e t o l d i n t h e t h i r d s t a n z a ( 1 ? - 3 ) , but i t i s both i n t e l l e c t u a l and s e n s u a l : not t h a t i t i s a union o f two s e p a r a t e k i n d s o f l o v e , but because the s e n s i t i v e soul o f t h e l o v e r has both i n n e r and o u t e r f a c u l t i e s , and the i n n e r f a c u l t i e s a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t h a t t h e y a r e pervaded by the i n t e l l e c t . I t has a f i r s t and a second p e r f e c t i o n , and t h e second p e r f e c t i o n i s i t s complete a c t u a l i t y . 4 From t h i s , one may d i s c e r n t h a t l o v e i s formed through the a c t i o n s o f the s e n s e s , i e . , through t h e sense response  i n the s e n s i t i v e soul  4 Shaw, F.E. Guido Cava! c a n t i ' s Theory o f ' l o v e , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1961, P. 1 1 .  Toronto:  or  14  imagination.  T h i s i s l o v e i n i t s f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n , an image o f i d e a l  beauty i s c r e a t e d by t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and remains i n t h e memory.  The  image i t s e l f i s an i d e a sensed o r f e l t by t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i n modern t e r m i n o l o g y , an i n t u i t e d i d e a , a p e r c e p t i o n as opposed t o a conception,  In the notes to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , F l e t c h e r d e s c r i b e s  this  c r e a t i o n a s , " a s i l h o u e t t e i n b l a c k upon the s c r e e n o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , so s y m b o l i z i n g t h e " m a l i g n i t y " o f L o v e . "  F l e t c h e r then proceeds  to  d e s c r i b e t h e " m a l i g n i t y " o r f e r o " a s p e c t o f l o v e as t h e r e s u l t o f the p o e t ' s d e r i v i n g t h e "shadow"  from M a r s , " t h e p l a n e t o f wrath and  P e r t u r b a t i o n , " and says t h a t , " C a v a l c a n t i , however, makes the v e r y essence o f l o v e " e x c e s s i v e  longing."  d e r i v a t i o n o f the "shadow"  from Mars w i t h D a n t e ' s d e r i v a t i o n ( i n C d n v i t o  II,  Fletcher juxtaposes  Cavalcanti's  7) o f t h e f o r c e o f l o v e from t h e b r i g h t r a d i a n c e o f t h e p l a n e t  The d i f f e r e n c e h e r e , between these two d e r i v a t i o n s , i s  crucial,  Venus.  for  C a v a l c a n t i , by d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e a c c i d e n t s from t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the p l a n e t M a r s , i s l o c a t i n g the i n c e p t i o n o f l o v e i n the c o n c r e t e n e s s o f the sense r e s p o n s e ,  the a e s t h e t i c response o f man t o a sense o b j e c t .  Dante,  on t h e o t h e r hand, d e r i v e s the f o r c e o f l o v e from t h e p l a n e t Venus,  the  s y m b o l i c v a l u e o f which suggests h i s f o c u s t o be removed from the sense response  t o t h e l e v e l o f the w h o l l y t h e o r e t i c - l o v e then becomes the  d e s i r e o f t h e soul f o r a s p i r i t u a l u n i o n w i t h the l o v e d o b j e c t .  Dante,  t h e r e f o r e , a s c e t i c a l l y d e n i e s the body, the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e o f l o v e  in  f a v o u r o f t h e w h o l l y s p i r i t u a l , and one can r e a d i l y surmise t h a t D a n t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s more orthodox from the p o i n t o f view o f the medieval  Christian  Church.  That C a v a l c a n t i works from the c o n c r e t e p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e borne o u t by t h e remainder o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n  i n t h e second  stanza.  is  15  n a t u r e o f sense I t s name, and pose o f I t comes from v i s i b l e Ascended i n t o p a s s i v e  The sense response  is love's  bestows s o u l , and h e a r t ' s d e s i r e . f o r m , w h i c h , apprehended, intellect. (19 - 22)  p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e .  Love i s an a b s t r a c t i o n ,  o r i d e a , i n t u i t i v e l y known o r apprehended, drawn from t h e p h y s i c a l o f i d e a l b e a u t y , i e . , woman.  From the immediacy o f t h e sense  form  response,  the i m a g i n a t i o n draws t h e a b s t r a c t e d i d e a i n t o the p o s s i b i l e i n t e l l e t t o or "passive memory.  intellect,"  i e . , the i n t e l l e c t i v e  Once i n t h e memory, t h i s l o v e , a b s t r a c t e d from t h e p h y s i c a l ,  "maintains  i t s t e n a n c y , " and never works i n that p a r t , i e . , t h e memory,  "injury."  I n j u r y may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d i v e r s i o n o f the w i l l  i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l , i e . , c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the w h o l l y s p i r i t u a l . twenty-four, "Cavalcanti doubtless"  from With l i n e  intends a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the  body and s o u l , f o r he i s , i n e f f e c t , s a y i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h l o v e h a s  its  i n c e p t i o n i n the p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e ,  i t does not d e t r a c t from the s o u l ' s  c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e Supreme Good.  It,  l o v e , i s not a mere b i n d i n g o f the  S e l f t o the e a r t h l y , i e . , the sense r e s p o n s e ,  but r a t h e r , l o v e , i n  its  now a b s t r a c t e d o r d i s t i l l e d f o r m , i s n o t " f r o m f i n i t e k i n d d e s c e n d e d . " Granted t h a t l o v e ' s o r i g i n a l  i n c e p t i o n i s due t o the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  p l a n e t M a r s , i e . , of the s e n s e s , b u t , a f t e r the process o f a b s t r a c t i o n has o c c u r r e d , i t s form ( i d e a ) t o the l e v e l o f the i n f i n i t e . and twenty s i x express  has been e x a l t e d by the p a s s i v e i n t e l l e c t As F l e t c h e r ' s notes to l i n e s  twenty-five  the i d e a .  B e i n g o f a pure f o r m , o r i d e a , which as i n f i n i t e cannot be c o m p l e t e l y possessed by a f i n i t e b e i n g , l o v e i s never i n a c t i v e through s a t i e t y . 5  L o v e , a t t h i s p o i n t o f i t s development, i s a pure form or i d e a , and, as i t i s i n f i n i t e and cannot be r e c o n c i l e d t o a f i n i t e c r e a t u r e , i t  16  cannot come t o any p h y s i c a l  fruition.  The s t a t e o f l o v e i s an  e n r a p t u r e d m e d i t a t i o n upon the i d e a l , an abandonment c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the  of S e l f to the  ideal.  Nor wears a s p e c t o f j o y but r e v e r i e , For may n o t e n t e r t h e r e a f f i n i t y . C a v a l c a n t i e x p r e s s e s here the P l a t o n i c " e c s t a s y " self-consciousness  (27 -  the l o s s o f  i n t o the rapture of contemplation.  28)  separate  The e x i s t e n c e o f  t h e i d e a l i n the w o r l d o f p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y i s the a f f i n i t y , t h e ' l i k e n e s s or c o u n t e r p a r t of the idea in o b j e c t i v e terms.  These a r e  i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , as the " f o r m " and " o b j e c t , " t h e i d e a l " and t h e a r e d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s and may not i n t r u d e upon the o t h e r ' s  "real"  sphere  of  existence.  Of c e n t r a l importance i n the second s t a n z a  i s the mataphysic  l i g h t employed by C a v a l c a n t i t o d i s c r i b e the analogous s t a t e o f  love,  To t h e medieval m i n d , God and l i g h t were seen as c o t e r m i n u s , the d e i t y b e i n g q u i t e l i t e r a l l y the source o f a l l l i g h t i n the u n i v e r s e . t a n g i b l e r a l i t i e s possessed l i g h t t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s ; property or q u a l i t y of bodies.  l i g h t was a  The v a r y i n g degrees o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n  o f l i g h t bespoke t h e p r o x i m i t y o f any given body t o d i v i n i t y . the v a r i o u s a n c i e n t and medieval of t h e i r l i g h t metaphysics,  All  philosophers  Although  d i f f e r e d i n the d e t a i l s  a common body o f d o c t r i n e was held  5 F l e t c h e r , J . B . "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode o f L o v e , " v o l . 7, January 1910, p. 424  Modern  in  Philology,  of  17  agreement by a l l .  The e s s e n t i a l s o f t h i s common body o f m e t a p h y s i c a l  d o c t r i n e a r e o u t l i n e d by J . A . Mazzeo i n h i s study of the medieval c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n i n Dante, as f o l l o w : 1) L i g h t i s the p r i n c i p l e o f b e i n g , a c t i v i t y , e x t e n s i o n , c a s u a l e f f i c a c y , l i f e , m o t i o n , n o b i l i t y , and excellence; i n d e e d , e v e r y t h i n g p o s i t i v e i s somehow l i g h t o r o f t h e n a t u r e o f l i g h t , t h e o p p o s i t e of which would be the sheer n e g a t i o n o f d a r k n e s s . 2) As t h e fundamental form o f body as s u c h , l i g h t i s the s u b s t a n t i a l form o f t h e u n i v e r s e and p r o v i d e s the universe w i t h i t s p r i n c i p l e of c o n t i n u i t y . 3) I t i s the n o b l e s t o f c o r p o r a l t h i n g s and has an i n t e r m e d i a t e p l a c e between body and s o u l , m a t t e r and s p i r i t . 4) I t i s not o n l y the p r i n c i p l e which c o n s t i t u e s t h e u n i v e r s e b u t , as s p i r i t u a l l i g h t , t h e p r i n c i p l e by which t h e i n t e l l e c t u n d e r s t a n d s . 5) A l l t h e s e n o t i o n s were s e t i n t h e framework o f a H i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered u n i v e r s e . 6 As Masseo proceeds t o o u t l i n e , t h e q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between t h e c o r p o r e a l l i g h t which i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y i n n a t u r e and t h e i m m a t e r i a l l i g h t which i s God" was i m p l i c i t t h i s metaphysical conception.  in  The s o l u t i o n , as Mazzeo has i t , was the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s : 1) Emanation, whereby t h e c o r p o r e a l l i g h t was d e r i v e d from t h e u n c r e a t e d l i g h t and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e D i v i n e B e i n g , f o r example, the d o c t i n e o f De I n t e l l i g e n t ! i s . 2) A n a l o g y , wherein the two k i n d s o f l i g h t bore a purely analogical r e l a t i o n s h i p to eachother, having no community o f b e i n g , f o r example, t h e d o c t r i n e o f Bartholomew o f Bologna and S t . B o n a v e n t u r a . 3) A m i x t u r e o f the two i n which the r e l a t i o n s h i p was imagined as emanation but c o n c e i v e d i n terms which kept the C r e a t o r q u i t e d i s t i n c t from H i s c r e a t i o n , f o r example, the d o c t r i n e o f A l b e r t u s Magnus. 7  6 Mazzeo, J . A . Medieval C u l t u r a l T r a d i t i o n i r r D a n t e ' s p. 7 5 . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l University P r e s s , 1949. 7 loc. c i t .  Comedy,  18  Of these t h r e e p o s i t i o n s , t h e f i r s t i s e s s e n t i a l l y P l a t o n i c and m o n i s t . D e i t y and the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d a r e i n harmony, each p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the o t h e r , a p a n t h e i s t p o s i t i o n . . The second and t h i r d a r e  positions  o f d u a l i t y , which s e p a r a t e t h e d e i t y from t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e ,  thus  d e s t r o y i n g t h e u n i t y o f b e i n g between God and the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d *  To C a v a l c a n t i , t h e . f o r m a t i o n o f l o v e i s analogous t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f l i g h t i n a diaphanous memory r e s i d e s ,  body.  Love begins where the i n t e l l e c t i v e  i e . , i n the passive  i n t e l l e c t or imagination.  l i g h t generates from t h e D i v i n e t o t h e diaphanous l o v e i n f o r m the  J u s t as  p a r t i c l e s , so does  intellect.  s i formato come d i a f a n , da lome.  (16 - 17j_  The l i g h t from t h e D i v i n e , which i l l u m i n a t e s t h e i n t e l l e c t , i s i n t o l o v e by the i m a g i n a t i o n . M a r s , i e . , the sense response diaphanous  substance,  Divinity,  The soul  tranformed  The u l t i m a t e source o f l o v e i s the p l a n e t t o beauty.  The human soul  is like a  i t i s a c t u a l i z e d by t h e l i g h t , which r a d i a t e s from  has a p o t e n t a l f o r l o v e whth i s made k i n e t i c by the  l i g h t o f the i n t e l l e c t .  The i n t e l l e c t u a l l i g h t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o  t h e Primus Lax; i t i s the d i v i n e i n man. has a b s i s i n t h e sense response  Cavalcanti i s saying that love  of the i n d i v i d u a l to a b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t .  The form o r i d e a o f l o v e i s known i n t u i t i v e l y , i e . , t h i s i s the p e r c e p t i o n o f the i m a g i n a t i o n , as opposed t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f the a c t i v e  intellect.  T h i s i s t h e f i r s t p e r f e c t i o n o f l o v e , and i t i s to undergo a f u r t h e r  process  o f d i s t i l l a t i o n and c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n b e f o r e i t can a c h i e v e i t s second p e r f e c t i o n . C a v a l c a n t i makes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r , however, t h a t l o v e has always i t s i n t h e c o n c r e t e sense response  and works i t s way upward t h r o u g h t  origins  the  19 s e n s i t i v e or passive  i n t e l l e c t ( i m a g i n a t i o n ) , never c a u s i n g  suffering  o r i n j u r y t o t h e a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t o r i n t e l l i g e n c e by h a v i n g i t s b a s i s  in  the p h y s i c a l . so Love i t s form a c q u i r e s From s h a d o w x a s t by M a r s , the which a b i d e s  (17 - 18)  Which g i v e s t h e l i e t o the e s s e n t i a l l y a s c e t i c p o s i t i o n o f the medieval Church, and which f o c u s e s on the m y s t i c r e l a t i o n between t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f tangiHe s p i r i t .  The e s s e n t i a l  paradox o f Donna Me Prega l i e s  i n t h i s m y s t i c u n i t y which C a v a l c a n t i i s a t t e m p t i n g t o g i v e " p r o o f  just  philosoph  That C a v a l c a n t i ' s l o v e i s n o t m e r e l y sensuous, but e x a l t s one t o the l e v e l o f the d i v i n e and e t e r n a l i s shown:  in  And s i n c e from f i n i t e kind ' t i s not descended, Unended i s i t s r a d i a n t e f f e c t . (25 - 26j_ where he draws t h e a n a l o g y t i g h t e r by l i k e n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f l o v e t o t h a t o f t h e emanation o f l i g h t from the Primus Lux Love becomes a r a y ( r a d i u s ) from h i s sense response object.  t o the  o f l i g h t , which man r e c e i v e s  intellect.  essentially  t o t h e b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t , i e . , the n a t u r a l  That t h e n a t u r a l o b j e c t i s not m e r e l y s e n s u o u s l y e n j o y e d , but  i s transcended by t h e a b s t r a c t i n g i n t e l l e c t i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l of l o v e . Nor wear a s p e c t o f j o y but r e v e r i e . Cavalcanti's  (27)  l o v e , though h a v i n g i t s b a s i s i n the i n t u i t i v e response  to the b e a u t i f u l natural o b j e c t , i s e s s e n t i a l l y immaterial in t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h i d e a l as opposed to t h e r e a l . as the p o e t ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f l o v e s t r e s s e s  Insofar  the m y s t i c u n i t y o f the  p h y s i c a l and the s p i r i t u a l , t h e r e can be no u l t i m a t e disharmony  between  20 these as the i d e a l i s as r e a l as the o b j e c t , the form and t h e t h i n g i t s e l f are e s s e n t i a l l y  one.  In the t h i r d s t a n z a , C a v a l c a n t i u n d e r s c o r e s element o f h i s t h e o r y o f l o v e , and measure love of v i r t u e proffessed  t h e sense response  i t against  the r a t i o n a l  by t h e C h r i s t i a n S c h o l a s t i c  philosophers.  these l a t t e r , l o v e i s o n l y v i r t u o u s  i f d i r e c t e d by reason  c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e Supreme Good.  To C a v a l c a n t i , l o v e i s n o t t h e  intellectual l o v e proceeds  To  toward  search f o r a r a t i o n a l p e r f e c t i o n , " b u t f e e l i n g , I a t t e s t , " i e . , i n t u i t i v e l y , although  l o v e , as C a v a l c a n t i has a l r e a d y  i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l i n i t s most complete s t a t e .  stated,  Love seeks n o t  t h e p e r f e c t good o f v i r t u e o r o f t h e Supreme Good, but r a t h e r , i t l e a d s i n t e l l e c t away from " w e l l - b e i n g . "  The e n t i r e e c t i v i t y o f t h e mind  taken up w i t h a p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the b e a u t i f u l n a t u r a l  For r a v i s h m e n t s  intelligence enthrall.  is  object.  (33)  and t h e i n t e l l e c t i s thus d i v e r t e d from c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the Supreme Good. Hoffiver, i f l o v e i s n o t a moral v i r t u e , y e t  I t i s not v i r t u e , but from t h a t proceeds which i s p e r f e c t i o n , i n complexion w i t h a l Not r a t i o n a l , but f e e l i n g I a t t e s t . i e . , l o v e has i t s o r i g i n (acitve i n t e l l e c t . )  i n moral v i r t u e , but i s n o t o f t h e  (29 -  31)  reason  R a t h e r , l o v e i s an i n t u i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f v i r t u e ,  o r an i n t u i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f good and beauty, possible o n l y f o r t h o s e virtuous nature.  of  The power o f l o v e i s g r e a t but i t warps the f u n c t i o n '  o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s , so t h a t , Discernment s m a l l i t has where v i c e i s g u e s t , O f t e n t h e r e f o l l o w s from i t s p u i s s a n c e deeth, I f wrath o ' e r much the f a c u l t y dismay (34 -  36)  the  21  The l o v e r i s d i s t r a c t e d from h i s path of c o n s c i o u s moral v i r t u e , by nature o f the f a c t t h a t his a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t i s pre-occupied with a c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the i d e a l o f l o v e , and hence, he i s v u n e r a b l e t o v i c e and u n a b l e to d i s c e r n i t s p r e s e n c e .  The power o f l o v e can thus  l e a d one t o become o v e r l y concerned w i t h the w o r l d l y and t e m p o r a l , through wrath caused by i m p a t i e n c e o f a t t a i n m e n t o f the i d e a l o f l o v e . T h i s death i s t h e overwhelming o f the p h y s i c a l and t h e mental by o b s e s s i v e  passion f o r a w o r l d l y o b j e c t .  If  selves  t h e path o f l o v e l i e s  n o t toward v i r t u e , the l o v e r i s thus obsessed w i t h the w o r l d l y and his c l a i m to e t e r n i t y . which C a v a l c a n t i warns  loses  I t i s a death i n l i f e , a s p i r i t u a l a t r o p h y , o f in  Who s a i t h t h a t l i f e  i s his i s lead a s t r a y  (40)  and i t i s the r e s u l t of o b s e s s i o n w i t h the w o r l d l y , which t a k e s away o n e ' s s e l f matery. L a c k i n g the s t a y which makes him h i s own l o r d  (41)  L o v e , per s e , i t i s i n i t s e l f , n e i t h e r good nor b a d , a l t h o u g h i t can induce one toward o b s e s s i o n the n a t u r e o f the l o v e r .  and abandonment o f v i r t u e , depending upon  I f t h e l o v e r abandons the r a t i o n a l  and g i v e h i m s e l f over c o m p l e t e l y to h i s sense response  intellect,  to the  beauteous o b j e c t and i t s c o n t e m p l a t i o n , he undergoes a s p i r i t u a l atrophy, a death.  Love has thus t h e power f o r v i r t u e , o r f o r c o r r u p t i o n ,  dependent upon t h e i n h e r e n t worth of the man who l o v e s .  The f o u r t h s t a n z a i s d e d i c a t e d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f l o v e , i t s e s s e n c e , development and enactment.  of the "movimento"  T h i s i s t h e second  22 p e f e c t i o n o f l o v e , i t s a c t u a l i z a t i o n and e f f e c t s . i s an immoderate d e s i r e , an u n n a t u r a l ideal.  At t h i s point, love  e x c i t a t i o n of the w i l l  to achieve the  For C a v a l c a n t i , t h e essence o f l o v e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t  s t i m u l a t e s one t o seek i n t r a n s i g a n t l y the u n a t t a i n a b l e i d e a l .  it  The w i l l  d r i v e s t h e l o v e r t o seek what i s "beyond t h e measure o f n a t u r a l  pleasure."  In t h e t h i r d s t a n z a , wrath was e x c i t e d i n t h e l o v e r by h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a t t a i n the beautiful n a t u r a l o b j e c t .  Here, wrath may be aroused by the v e r y n a t u r e  o f the immoderacy o f t h e l o v e r ' s p a s s i o n f o r t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t through f r u s t r a t i o n o f h i s a t t a i n m e n t .  ideal,  Through t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e  l o v e r ' s d e s i r e s , he s u f f e r s a n g u i s h , c o n f u s i o n and h e l p l e s s n e s s i n i t s second p e r f e c t i o n , o r a c t u a l i z a t i o n .  This state brings  from l o v e misery  t o t h e l o v e r , whose i d e a l c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t s and i n c i t e s wrath i n him.  The  s t a t e o f s u f f e r i n g i s u n i m a g i n a b l e t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d , i e . , those who know not l o v e and have not f e l t  i t s power.  Here, C a v a l c a n t i departs  sharply  from t h e P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n o f f i n ' amors, whose poets saw the game o f l o v e , and i t s r e s u l t a n t s u f f e r i n g , as being p e r v e r s e l y e n j y a b l e and l e a d i n g to refinement of s e l f .  Love b r i n g s  i s gained from t h e s u f f e r i n g .  no s u r f a c e d e l i g h t ;  no s u p e r f i c i a l b e n e f i t  No g r e a t wisdom, " g r a n s a v e r , " whether i t be  true or s l i g h t , r e s u l t s .  Love, i n i t s second p e r f e c t i o n , i s  f r u s t r a t i n g and p a i n f u l .  I t serves  brief,  no s u p e r f i c i a l end, such as  r e f i n e m e n t , as i t d i d f o r the P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o r s ,  social  but c o n s t a n t l y moves  the i d e a l t o i n c r e a s i n g l y u n a t t a i n a b l e l e v e l s , thus f o r c i n g man t o f o r t h a t which he can never  In t h e f i n a l  attain.  stanza, C a v a l c a n t i again underscores  sensuous and t r a n s c e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e l o v e o f v h i c h he i s r e t u r n i n g to the l i g h t anology i n order to s t r e s s nature of t h i s l o v e .  strive  the  super-  speaking,  the e x a l t e d and d i v i n e  The opening l i n e s o f t h e s t a n z a may be c o n s i d e r e d  23 as much a d i r e c t a s p e r s i o n c a s t a g a i n s t t h e P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o r s and their s u p e r f i c i a l v i e w o f l o v e as i t i s r e l a t i n g o f t h e c e l e s t i a l n a t u r e o f love.  L o v e , he s a y s , seems t o most men m a n i f e s t i n t h e l o v i n g  and promises o f d e l i g h t o f an e a r t h l y and sensuous r e l a t i o n .  glances This  however,  i s not t r u l y l o v e , but a d e c e p t i o n .  In s e c r e t g u i s e Love comes n o t , so d e c l a r e d . Indeed not s c o r n f u l beauty i s the d a r t .  The e a r t h l y , SBnsuous l o v e , o f which sang t h e t r o u b a d o r s , r e a l l o v e o f which C a v a l c a n t i s i n g s .  (59 - 60)_  i s not t h e  Love i s o n l y h a l f m a n i f e s t , o r  i t s f i r s t perfection, in this earthly manifestation.  in  Real l o v e cannot be  s e e n , the form o r idea of l o v e i s "seen by n o n . "  And not t o s i g h t  •  •  •  i s Love made m a n i f e s t ,  *  •  •  •  (63)  •  And, hears one r i g h t t h a t f o r m i s seen by none, Then l e a s t by him t h a t i s by Love undone.  (65 - 66)  The r e a l l o v e o f C a v a l c a n t i i s an i n t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y , an i d e a which has no e a r t h l y p r e s s e n c e , no outward shape which can be r e a d i l y detected.  Thus, l o v e has no m a t e r i a l v i s i b i l i t y , f o r  Of c o l o u r o f being Love i s d i s p o s s e s s e d .  (67)  At this p o i n t , the end o f t h e canzone, one must t a k e v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e F l e t c h e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f l i n e s i x t y - e i g h t , w h i c h , i n the o r i g i n a l Italian,  is  ascico  ' n mezzo s c u r o , l u c e r a d e .  which F l e t c h e r t r a n s l a t e s as f o l l o w :  (68)  24  At r e s t i n shadow space i t c a n c e l s  light.  F l e t c h e r ' s notes t o t h i s l i n e o f f e r no s o l u t i o n t o the d i s c r e p a n c y no r e a s o n i n g f o r h i s o b v e r s i o n o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s r e a s o n i n g . the t r a n s l a t i o n i s wrong, by even l i t e r a l has been l o s t .  Clearly,  s t a n d a r d s , and t h e meaning  The o r i g i n a l runs f e e l y a s ,  emanates, o r s h i n e s f o r t h . "  ,  " seated i n o b s c u r i t y ,  The noun, " l u c e " i n medieval  light  Italian  r e f e r s t o a source o f l i g h t r a t h e r than t o a l i g h t a c t e d upon, as  it  would have t o be f o r F l e t c h e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n t o be even r e a s o n a b l e .  As  i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h e o r i g i n a l , (even w i t h a l l o w a n c e f o r t e x t u a l v a r i a n t s ) , which can be c o n s t r u e d as As d i s c u s s e d intellect.  "cancels."  i n t h e poem, l o v e i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f sense response  and  The s o u r c e o f l o v e i s the i n f l u e n c e o f Mars, i e . , t h e  i n d i v i d u a l sense response t r a n s c e n d s t h e sensual  to an a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t .  However,  love  by means o f t h e a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t , which forms  a v i s i o n of the unattainable i d e a l .  D e s p i t e t h i s emphasis o f t h e  super-  sensuous i d e a l , t h e c o n c r e t e sensuous o r i g i n s o f l o v e a r e m a i n t a i n e d throughout t h e poem.  In C a v a l c a n t i ' s medieval  ascico  Italian,  ' n mezzo s c u r o , l u c e r a d e .  (68)  which i s to say t h a t , a l t h o u g h l o v e has sensuous o r i g i n s and i s f i r m l y r o o t e d i n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p l a n e t Mars, the l i g h t o f the d i v i n e still  emanates.  divinity.  L o v e , t h e r e f o r e , i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f man's quest f o r !  Man works from t h e c o n c r e t e sensuous response  t o a n a t u r a l and  b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t , toward e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e d i v i n e i n h i s own n a t u r e . The sense response  i s thus transformed i n t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t i d e a l ,  the c o n s t r u c t i o n and i d s t i l l a t i o n o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and  through  intellect.  o 25  Love i s t h u s c d i s p o s s e s s e d  " o f c o l o u r o f b e i n g " and t h e " l i g h t emanates"  out and upward toward t h e i d e a l .  o  26  ODE OF LOVE (DONNA ME PREGA) by Guido C a v a l c a n t i I  A Lady e n t r e a t s me; w h e r e f o r e I w i l l t e l l Of a q u a l i t y too f r e c e n t l y m a l i g n , Y e t so d i v i n e t h a t men have c a l l e d i t Love: Thus may the t r u t h whatever doubt d i s p e l . Adept I ask unto t h i s t a s k o f mine, For my d e s i g n , I f e a r me, i s above H i s w i t t h a t i s a t h e a r t o f base d e g r e e . For me proof p h i l o s o p h i c i s d e f i n e d , E l s e d i s i n c l i n e d I f e e l me t o r e c i t e Where Love has p l a c e ; c r e a t e d by what m i g h t ; And what i t s v i r t u e i s ; and p o t e n c y ; V e r i t y e s s e n t i a l ; motions o f what k i n d ; I t s name a s s i g n e d as Love f o r what d e l i g h t ; And i f i t may be m a n i f e s t t o s i g h t . II  In t h a t p a r t where the memory r e s i d e s I t makes appearance; as t r a n s p a r e n c e shows Through which l i g h t f l o w s , so Love i t s f o r m a c q u i r e s From shadow c a s t by M a r s , t h e which a b i d e s . Created hence; n a t u r e o f sense bestows I t s name, and pose o f s o u l , and h e a r t ' s d e s i r e . I t comes from v i s i b l e f o r m , w h i c h , a p p r e h e n d e d , ' Ascended i n t o p a s s i v e i n t e l l e c t , T h e r e , as a f f e c t , m a i n t a i n s i t s t e n a n c y . Never i t works i n t h a t p a r t i n j u r y . And s i n c e from f i n i t e k i n d ' t i s n o t descended, Unended i s i t s r a d i a n t e f f e c t . Nor wears a s p e c t o f j o y but r e v e r i e , For many not e n t e r t h e r e a f f i n i t y .  27  III  I t i s not v i r t u e , but from t h a t proceeds Which i s p e r f e c t i o n , i n complexion w i t h a l Not r a t i o n a l , but f e e l i n g , I a t t e s t . The jedgement Love a g a i n s t w e l l - b e i n g l e a d s , For r a v i s h m e n t s i n t e l l i g e n c e e n t h r a l l . Discernment s m a l l i t has where v i c e i s g u e s t . O f t e n t h e r e f o l l o w s from i t s p u i s s a n c e d e a t h , I f wrath o'ermuch t h e f a c u l t y dismay Which o f t h e way a d v e r s a t i v e i s ward: Not t h a t w i t h n a t u r e Love hath d i s a c c o r d ; But when to p e r f e c t good l i e s not i t s p a t h , Who s a i t h t h a t l i f e i s h i s i s l e d a s t r a y , L a c k i n g t h e s t a y which make him h i s own l o r d . Nor l e s s a v a i l s Love though i t be i g n o r e d .  IV I t s essence i s whenas t h e p a s s i o n a t e w i l l Beyond the measure o f n a t u r a l p l e a s u r e goes; Then w i t h r e p o s e f o r e v e r i s u h b l e s t . S t i l l f i c k l e , s m i l e s i n t e a r s i t can f u l f i l l , And on t h e f a c e l e a v e p a l l i d t r a c e o f woes. B r i e f a r e i t s t h r o e s . Yet c h i e f l y m a n i f e s t Thou s h a l t observe i t i n t h e n o b l y w i s e . To s i g h s t h e new-given q u a l i t y i n v i t e s ; Through i t man s i g h t s an e v e r - s h i f t i n g a i m , T i l l i n him wrath i s k i n d l e d , d a r t i n g f l a m e . C o n c e i v e i t none save one i t s p u i s s a n c e t r i e s . Complies i t never though i t s t i l l i n c i t e s ; And no d e l i g h t one seeketh i n i t s name, N e i t h e r g r e a t wisdom, s o o t h - o r small - t o f r a m e .  28  V  A g l a n c e Love draws from l i k e - a t t e m p e r e d h e a r t Which seeming r i g h t t o a l l d e l i g h t i m p l i e s . In s e c r e t g u i s e Love comes n o t , so d e c l a r e d . Indeed not s c o r n f u l beauty i s t h e d a r t . For t h a t way l e d d e s i r e through dread i s w i s e , But m e r i t l i e s w i t h s p i r i t t h a t i s s n a r e d . And not to s i g h t i s Love made m a n i f e s t , F o r by i t s t e s t o ' e r t a k e n man f a l l s w h i t e ; And, hears one r i g h t t h a t form i s seen by none, Then l e a s t by him t h a t i s by Love undone. Of c o l o u r o f b e i n g Love i s d i s p o s s e s s e d . A t r e s t i n shadow space i t c a n c e l s l i g h t . Without f a l s e s l e i g h t s a i t h a f a i t h - w o r t h y one, That from i t o n l y i s t h e guerdon won.  VI  Ode, thou mayst go t h y ways, u n f a l t e r i n g , Where p l e a s e s t h e e : I have t h e e so adorned That never scorned s h a l l by t h y r e a s o n i n g By such as b r i n g t o thee i n t e l l i g e n c e : To b i d e w i t h o t h e r s m a k ' s t thou no p r e t e n c e .  8. F l e t c h e r , J . B . "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode o f L o v e , " Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 7 , J a n u a r y 1910, pp. 423-426  29  Chapter T h r e e : Mercede t o  Compassion  " S e x , i n so f a r as i t i s n o t a p u r e l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e p r o d u c t i v e mechanism, l i e s i n t h e domain o f a e s t h e t i c s , the junction o f t a c t i l e and magnetic senses;" 9  P o u n d ' s e s s a y on C a v a l c a n t i , (1910-1931), was p u b l i s h e d 10 its final  form i n 1934.  in  During t h e p e r i o d o f i t s i n c e p t i o n , P o u n d ' s  w o r k i n g a e s t h e t i c underwent a v a r i e t y o f i n f l u e n c e s , most o f which are observable  in his l a t e r poetry.  H i s i n t e r e s t i n V a c a l c a n t i was  an e n d u r i n g p r e - o c c u p a t i o n , which gre as Pound matured both as a t h i n k e r and as a p o e t , u n t i l  he i n t e g r a t e d C a v a l c a n t i and  metaphysic o f l o v e i n t o the framework o f The  his  Cantos.  Pound's e a r l i e s t awareness o f the C a v a l c a n t i canzone must have began a t some p o i n t d u r i n g h i s formal e d u c a t i o n i n Literature.  Romance  C e r t a i n l y , C a v a l c a n t i , f o r Pound, r e p r e s e n t s t h e u l t i m a t e  e x p r e s s i o n o f an ongoing t r a d i t i o n which began i n P r o v e n c e , f o r , i n e s s a y , Pound s t e s s e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n , i n terms o f a e s t h e t i c s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e m i s e s , between Guido and t h e P r o v e n c a l  9 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New,  troubadors.  London; Faber and F a b e r , 1934, p.  10 In Make I t New, but The S p i r i t Of Romance ( n . d . ) i s  earlier.  311  his  30  E r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y we can f i n d i n Greek and Roman p o e t s , and one may observe t h a t the main t r e n d o f P r o v e n c a l and Tuscan poets i s not toward e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . 11  They a r e opposed t o a form o f s t u p i d i t y not l i m i t e d t o E u r o p e , t h a t i s , i d i o t i c a s c e t i c i s m and a b e l i e f t h a t t h e body i s e v i l . 12  Pound makes a s t r o n g d i s t i n c t i o n between the C l a s s i c a l one hand, and t h a t o f the P r o v e n c a l other.  troubadors  a e s t h e t i c , on  and Tuscan p o e t s , on t h e  What he t e r m s , " e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , " r e p r e s e n t f o r Pound  an o v e r - i n d u l g e n c e ,  and e s p e c i a l l y a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n  i n d u l g e n c e , o f the p h y s i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e accompanying  senses.  o f the o v e r -  He f e l t t h e r e t o be a l a c k of  t h i s sense i n d u l g e n c e .  The C l a s s i c a l  aesthetic  i s an a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e t o i n d u l g e the c a r n a l a p p e t i t e .  The Greek a e s t h e t i c would seem t o c o n s i s t w h o l l y i n p l a s t i c , o r i n p l a s t i c moving toward c o i t u s , and l i m i t e d by i n c e s t , which i s t h e s o l e Greek taboo. 13  I mean t h a t P r o p e r t i u s remains m o s t l y i n s i d e the c l a s s i c a l w o r l d and t h e c l a s s i c a e t h e t i c , p l a s t i c t o c o i t u s , P l a s t i c p l u s immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n . 14  11 I b i d . ,  p.  346  12 I b i d . ,  pp 346-7  13 I b i d . ,  p 346  14 I b i d . ,  p 348  31 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e C l a s s i c a l a e t h e t i c , which Pound has r e f e r r e d t o as " e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , " and " P l a s t i c p l u s immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n , " i s somehow confused w i t h the n o r t h e r n European c u l t u r e s and t h e i r basic philosophical  assumption.  The senses a t f i r s t seem t o p r o j e c t f o r a few y a r d s beyond the body. E f f e c t o f a decent c l i m a t e where a man l e a v e s h i s n e r v e - s e t open, o r a l l o w s i t t o tune i n t o i t s ambience, r a t h e r than s t r u g g l i n g , as a n o r t h e r n r a c e has t o , f o r s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n t o guard the body from a s s a u l t s o f w e a t h e r . He d e c l i n e s , a f t e r a t i m e , t o l i m i t r e c e p t i o n t o h i s s o l a r p l e x u s . 15  However, h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o f the C l a s s i c a l and n o r t h e r n  aesthetics  i s no more e x p l i c i t than i n the above, and Pound may be merely expressing  h i s d i s t a s t e f o r ess  inviting climates.  To Pound, the d i s t i n c t i o n i n a e s t h e t i c s between the P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o r s and h i s " p l a s t i c t o c o i t u s " v i e w o f t h e C l a s s i c a l w o r l d l i e s i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e P r o v e n c a l s t o f o c u s as much on t h e i d e a o r P l a t o n i c form o f an o b j e c t as on i t s p h y s i c a l a c t u a l i t y .  The  P r o v e n c a l a e s t h e t i c r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n o r b a l a n c e between the sense p e r c e p t i o n of an o b j e c t and t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  conception of  that object.  The whole break o f Provence w i t h t h i s w o r l d , and indeed t h e c e n t r a l theme o f t h e t r o u b a d o r s , i s the dogma t h a t t h e r e i s some p r o p o r t i o n between t h e f i n e t h i n g h e l d i n the m i n d , and the i n f e r i o r t h i n g ready f o r i n s t a n t c o n s u m p t i o n . 16 T h i s view o f t h e P r o v e n c a l a e s t h e t i c (Pound notes here t h a t he wants to say m e t a p h y s i c , but h e s i t a t e s , becuase " i t i s so associated  appallingly  i n peoples minds w i t h u n s u p p o r t a b l e c o n j e c t u r e and  1% 15 I b i d . , pp 348-9 16 I b i d . , P 348  32 and d e v a s t a t e d terms o f a b s t r a c t i o n . " ) , i s i n s u p p o r t a b l e i n l i g h t o f modern s c h o l a r s h i p which f o c u s e s upon the t o p i c o f amour c o u r t d i s , o r even i n terms o f Andreas C a p p e l l a n e u s ' De A r t e Honest Amandi. However, Pound i s here d i s c u s s i n g the a e s t h e t i c o f a l a t e r group o f poets who wrote i n t h e same t r a d i t i o n , such as Arnaut D a n i e l and  is  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t r o u b a d o r s p r i m a r i l y f o the l i g h t w h i c h t h e i r s t u d y c a s t s upon Guido C a v a l c a n t i and h i s canzone.  When s p e a k i n g o f the  P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n and i t s a e s t h e t i c a s s u m p t i o n s ,  Pound uses them  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h the Tuscan, so s t r o n g i s h i s sense of t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n between the two.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s no e s c a p i n g  his  e r r o r c o n c e r n i n g t h e amour c o u t o i s t r a d i t i o n , which becomes b l a t a n t l y a p p a r e n t i n h i s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e lumping of " D a n i e l , V e n t a d o r n , G u i d o , S e l l a i o , B o t t i c e l l i , Ambrogio P r a e d i s , N i c . d e l 17 Cossa."  Perhaps i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o emphasize the f a c t t h a t  Pound's  p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n t h e essay i s t o c a s t l i g h t upon C a v a l c a n t i and h i s canzone, and t o c l a r i f y the r e a d e r o f C a v a l c a n t i on e x a c t l y what p r e s e n t i n Donna Me P r e g a .  is  There i s no doubt t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n  which Pound i s making i s p r e s e n t ; however, some o f Pound's  observations  c o n c e r n i n g the P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n o f l o v e a r e f a l s e a c c o r d i n g t o r e c e n t s c h o l a r s h i p but one must n o t l o s e t r a c k o f the importance o f the insight. I am l a b o u r i n g a l l t h i s because I want t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c t i o n as to the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c . 18  Pound next f o c u s e s on t h e Tuscan p o e t s , and draws a d i s t i n c t i o n  1 7 I b i d . , p.  348  j „ Ibid.,*p. 350 8  33 between t h e i r r a t i o n a l mean o f i n t e l l e c t and s e n s e s , and t h e extreme r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s e n s e s , the " i d i o t i c a s c e t i c i s m and a b e l i e f t h a t the body i s e v i l , " l i m i t e d to Europe."  t h a t he f e e l s i s a " form o f s t u p i d i t y n o t A t t h i s p o i n t , we have b e f o r e us the two extemes  and t h e golden mean: t o t a l a b s o r p t i o n w i t h the s e n s e s , o r the c a r n a l a p p e t i t e , t o t a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e senses o r s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e senses to t h e i n t e l l e c t , and l a s t l y , the sane use o f t h e sense response as a c o n c r e t e b a s i s f o r the r e f i n i n g i n t e l l e c t .  To Pound, The Tuscan  poets  most c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t t h i s form o f b e h a v i o u r ; t h e i r work most f u l l y represents the "medieval clean l i n e . "  The c o n c e p t i o n of t h e body as p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e p e r v a d e s . 19 To t h i s p o i n t , Pound has c o n t i n u a l l y employed t h e a n a l o g i e s  of  s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e as a means o f making h i s p o i n t s about the P r o v e n c a l and Tuscan P o e t s ,  He now f o c u s e s on p o e t r y , but  m a i n t a i n s t h e frame of r e f e r e n c e o f s c u l p t u r e for analogy.  purposes  still of  C a v a l c a n t i ' s p o e t r y has an immediacy of image, " t h e  medieval c l e a n l i n e , " t h e c o n c r e t e and e x p e r i e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e . In Guido the " f i g u r e , " t h e s t r o n g metamorphic or picturesque" expression i s there with purpose t o convey o r to i n t e r p r e t a d e f i n i t e meaning. 20 The "metamorphic e x p r e s s i o n , " and t h e " w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s , "  in  t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h , a r e c l u e s t o the w o r l d o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  19 I b i d . , p. 349 20 I b i d . , p. 351  34  s c i e n c e which Pound so w e l l e x p r e s s e s theworld of Process,  in his poetry.  This i s  again,  i n w h i c h , a l l elements o f n a t u r e a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d ,  a n d d i s t i n c t i o n s among them m e r e l y d i f f e r i n g phases, or l e v e l s o f being.  T h i s i s what seems t o make C a v a l c a n t i so s t a r t ! i n g l y modern;  t h e s c i e n c e u n d e r l y i n g h i s p o e t i c metaphor dispalys a keen p e r c e p t i o n o f a " w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s , "  in which, physical  luminosity  i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h the l i g h t o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e . t h e sense,  is  There i s  always  i n Donna Me P r e g a , t h a t Guido C a v a l c a n t i i s n o t m e r e l y  employing metaphor i n o r d e r t o express t h e power o f t h e i n t e l l e c t ,  but  t h a t he a c t u a l l y sees the energy of human i n t e l l i g e n c e under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f o r c e o f l o v e as coterminous w i t h the p h y s i c a l t h a t , i n medieval cosmology,  emanated from t h e d i v i n e .  Pound  light  peroaved  t h i s element o f C a v a l c a n t i , t h i s i s why he b e l i e v e d t h a t Guido was aware o f Robert G r o s s e t e s t e ' s need t o employ t h e a n a l o g i e s discussing  De L u c e , and why he (Pound) f e e l s t h e o f s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e when  C a v a l c a n t i and t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f t h e Tuscan and  Provencal a e s t h e t i c s .  F o r , the power t h a t Pound sees i n C a v a l c a n t i  i s t h e power o f d i s c e r n m e n t o f f b r m s , o f v i s i b l e i d e a s .  This,  in  modern p a r l a n c e , should perhaps, be more a c c u r a t e l y termed the i m a n g i n a t i o n , i n the l i m i t e d , d i c t i o n a r y sense of t h e t e r m , i e , : , image f o r m i n g .  ....magnetisms t h a t t a k e form t h a t a r e seen o r t h a t border the v i s i b l e , the matter o f D a n t e ' s P a r a d i s o , the g l a s s under w a t e r s , the form t h a t seems a form seen i n a m i r r o r , these r e a l i t i e s p e r c e p t i b l e t o t h e s e n s e , i n t e r a c t i n g . 21  21 I b i d . ,  p.  351  35 Pound has d i f f e r e n t i a t e d C a v a l c a n t i from h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s by r e f e r r i n g t o him as a " n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r , " as opposed t o a moral philosopher.  T h i s i s t o say t h a t Guido leaned toward the " p r o o f by  e x p e r i m e n t , " r a t h e r than a c c e p t t h e s u b t l e r e a s o n i n g o f orthodoxy.  Church  Now, Pound p i c k s up t h i s phrase and d i s c u s s e s the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and energy t h a t a m e d i e v a l n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r would s e e .  A medieval ' n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r ' would f i n d t h i s modern w o r l d f u l l o f enchantments, not o n l y the l i g h t i n the e l e c t r i c b u l b , but the though o f the c u r r e n t hidden i n t h e a i r and i n w i r e would g i v e him a mind f u l l o f f o r m s . . . . t h e medieval p h i l o s o p h e r would p r o b a b l y hae been unable t o t h i n k t h e e l e c t r i c w o r l d , and not t h i n k of i t as a w o r l d o f f o r m s . 22  C a v a l c a n t i ' s m o d e r n i t y and h i s P l a t o n i s m a r e s t r e s s e d by the c o m p a r i s o n , as Pound sees C a v a l c a n t i ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e the " f o r m " b e h i n d t h e " t h i n g , " and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e energy to t h e t a n g i b l e as c o t e r m i n o u s .  object  To Pound, C a v a l c a n t i ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and c o n s c i o u s n e s s  r e p r e s e n t a medieval awareness o f the modern c o n c e p t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e as a w o r l d o f P r o c e s s , " t h e w o r l d o f moving  energies,"  wherein energy and m a t t e r a r e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i n g each i n 2 the o t h e r ; b a s i c a l l y , an E=mc  universe.  To Pound, C a v a l c a n t i  r e p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a l a r t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h a t , he manifests the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y which u n d e r l i e s p o e t r y and m u s i c , and c l a r i f i e s the p r o p o r t i o n between the i d e a and t h e image, the form and the o b j e c t . the opening essay of Make I t New, e n t i t l e d Date L i n e , Pound has been o u t l i n i n g h i s p r o j e c t e d t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s as b e i n g : an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and m u s i c , c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n o f t e r m i n o l o g y , and a " g e n e r a l surrmary of s t a t e o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s 22 I b i d . , p. 352  In  36  23 i n decades i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e my own."  He ends by e x p r e s s i n g  the  view t h a t C a v a l c a n t i t o him c o n t a i n s a l l o f the p r e c e e d i n g . C a v a l c a n t i , as b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a l l o f t h e s e s t r a n d , t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , depth o f same almost untouched i n w r i t i n g between h i s time and t h a t o f Ibsen and James; meaning i f you come a t i t not as p l a t o n i c f o r m u l a t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y but a p s y c h o l o g y . 24  Throughout the C a v a l c a n t i e s s a y , Pound c o n s t a n t l y r e t u r n s t o t h e l i g h t metaphor which Guido so harmoniously throughout Ddnha Me P r e g a , Pound has s a i d t h a t " t h e poem i s e x t r e m e l y c l e a r i n a number o f  places,  the p h i l o s o p h i c terms a r e used w i t h a complete p r e c i s i o n o f t e c h n i q u e , " and l a t e r , r e c a l l s a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h T. E. Hulme, i n which he brought t o Hulm's a t t e n t i o n the f a c t t h a t " G u i d o thought i n a c c u r a t e t e r m s ; t h a t t h e phrases c o r r e s p o n d to d e f i n i t e s e n s a t i o n undergone;"  25  I spoke t o him one day of the d i f f e r e n c e between G u i d o ' s p r c i s e i n t e r p r e t i v e metaphor, and t h e P e t r a r c h a n f u s t i a n and ornament, p o i n t i n g out t h a t Guido though i n a c c u r a t e terms 26 T h i s view o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s m e t a p h o r i c a l usage must be seen i n terms o f P o u n d ' s t h e o r y o f the image, which i s perhaps b e s t s t a t e d and expanded upon i n h i s book on G a u d i e r - B r z e s k a .  23 I b i d . , P. 15 24 I b i d . , p. 15 25 I b i d . , p. 361 26 l o c . c i t .  H e r e , Pound i s l o o k i n g back upon  37  t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f Imagisme from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f V o r t i c i s t s c u l p t u r e , p r i m a r i l y the a b s t r a c t e d and g e o m e t r i c forms o f B r z e s k a . S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f bad w r i t i n g , w r i t e r s have used images as ornaments. The p o i n t o f Imagisme i s t h a t i t does not use images as ornaments. The image i s i t s e l f t h e speech. The image i s the word beyond the formulated language. 27  In a poem o f t h i s s o r t one i s t r y i n g t o r e c o r d t h e p r e c i s e i n s t a n t when a t h i n g outward and o b j e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m s i t s e l f , or d a r t s i n t o a t h i n g inward and subjective. 28  The image i s not an i d e a . I t i s a r a d i a n t node o r c l u s t e r ; i t i s what I c a n , and must p e r f o r c e , c a l l a VORTEX, from w h i c h , and through w h i c h , and i n t o which, ideas are c o n s t a n t l y r u s h i n g . 29  These views o f Imagisme, devebped by Pound through t h e combined i n f l u e n c e s o f Impressionism and t h e Japanese h a i k k u , somewhat c l a r i f y Pound's view of Guido as m a n i f e s t i n g what i s b a s i c a l l y an " o r i e n t a l  27 Pound, E z r a . G a u d i e r - B r z e s k s : A Memoir, New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1916, 1960, p. 88 28 I b i d . , p. 89 29 I b i d . , p. 92  38 vision."  T h i s i s to say t h a t C a v a l c a n t i , i n h i s use o f the l i g h t  metaphor, has f o r Pound, the p r o c l i v i t y toward i m a g i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e the e s s e n t i a l harmony and u n i t y behind a l l outward a p p e a r a n c e s .  C a v a l c a n t i uses l i g h t metaphors as c o t e r m i n o u s  w i t h the energy o f the i n t e l l e c t under the i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e .  When he  p r e s e n t s the image o f l u m i n o s i t y , i t i s done i n the same manner as o c c u r s i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Japanese h a i k k u .  The haikku  " s j p e r - p o s i t i o n s " two images and t h e p o e t i c emotion i s c r e a t e d from their juxtapostion.  This i s not a " l i k e or as" r e l a t i o n s h i p , r a t h e r ,  t h e image i s i t s e l f the speech.  30  The image i s not used t o g i v e emphasis o r c o n c r e t e n e s s t o t h e s p e e c h , 31 but speaks i t s e l f .  It  i s the "word beyond f o r m u l a t e d  language."  Pound i s t h e r e f o r e , s e e i n g C a v a l c a n t i as a type o f e a r l y i m a g i s t p o e t , who e x p r e s s e s t h e power o f t h e i n t e l l e c t i n terms o f r a d i a n t energy. Moreover, when C a v a l c a n t i employs t h e mataphor o f l i g h t , i t  is  i n d i s s o l u b l y united to the idea of i n t e l l e c t u a l radiance and, the c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two a r e e x p e r i e n c e d r a t h e r than Perhaps Pound o v e r s t r e s s e s  thought.  the f r e e - t h i n k i n g q u a l i t i e s o f  C a v a l c a n t i ' s mind and t h e unorthodoxy of h i s s c i e n t i f i c v i e w s .  Pound admits  t o a p o s s i b l e e r r o r when he s a y s , 32 I cannot b e l i e v e t h a t Guido ' s w a l l o w e d '  Aquinas.  30 I b i d . , p. 88 31 l o c . c i t . 32 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and F a b e r , 1934, pp. 357-8  39  and he nowhere says o u t r i g h t t h a t C a v a l c a n t i d e f i n i t e l y knew o f the t h e o r y o f l i g h t expressed by Robert  Grosseteste.  I t may be i m p o s s i b l e to prove t h a t he had heard o f Roger Bacon, but the whole canzone i s e a s i e r t o understand i f we suppose, or a t l e a s t one f i n d s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the s p e c u l a t i o n , t h a t he had read G r o s s e t e s t e on the G e n e r a t i o n o f L i g h t . 33  We do know t h a t Bacon was p r i m a r i l y g u i l t y o f b e i n g a p r o p a g a n d i s t Grossesteste  (whose Church p o s i t i o n prevented c i r c u l a t i o n o f h i s  under h i s own name), and t h a t Bacon was well-known i n French circles.  for  ideas  intellectual  Guido may o r may n o t have been aware o f B a c o n ' s w r i t i n g s and  speeches; c e r t a i n l y , he was w e l l - v e r s e d i n the general  philosophical  w r i t i n g s o f t h e p e r i o d , but t h e n , so was Dante, and Pound f e e l s t h a t he (Dante) was w i l 1 i n g 34 t o t a k e on any s o r t o f h o l y and orthodox f u r n i t u r e . In any c a s e , t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether C a v a l c a n t i knew o f  Grossesteste's  t h e o r y or o f B a c o n ' s w r i t i n g s i s l a r g e l y academic; i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t h a t Pound f e l t C a v a l c a n t i c o u l d have been aware o f t h e s e v i e w s , and t h a t Pound found t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e i d e a s i n Donna Me P r e g a .  Perhaps a t t h i s p o i n t , i t would be u s e f u l t o surmmarize P o u n d ' s f i n d i n g s i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem.  Pound approves o f what he f e l t t o be  G u i d o ' s a n t i - a s c e t i c p o s i t i o n , the a c c e p t a n c e o f the sensuous  33 I b i d . , p.  345  34 I b i d . , p. 357  response  40  to physical  s t i m u l i and the argument f o r the v a l i d i t y o f  experience.  personal  R e l a t e d t o t h i s , we see P o u n d ' s a p p r o v a l o f t h e " i m a g i s t i c "  element i n C a v a l c a n t i , i e . , the f o c u s on the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i m n e d i a t e and c o n c r e t e r a t h e r than c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e remote and t h e o r e t i c . Despite t h i s f i r m grounding of C a v a l c a n t i ' s and i n d i v i d u a l sense p e r c e p t i o n .  philosophy  i n the immediate  Ound sees a l s o , the p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y  i d e a l i s t i c elements i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s a e t h e t i c , which he says consists  of  the r e a l i z a t i o n of the f a c t t h a t ,  . . . . t h e r e i s some p r o p o r t i o n between the f i n e t h i n g h e l d i n the m i n d , and t h e i n f e r i o r t h i n g r e a d y f o r i n s t a n t c o n s u p t i o n .  35  T h i s i s a c t u a l l y s a i d of t h e break of Provence w i t h the C l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c b u t , as I have s a i d e a r l i e r , Pound uses the " P r o v e n c a l Tuscan a e s t h e t i c " i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y .  and  S p e c i f i c a l l y on the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c ,  Pound has s a i d t h a t t h e y c o n c e i v e d o f the body, and by i m p l i c a t i o n the whole o f t h e sense e x p e r i e n c e , as s u b j e c t t o t h e w i l l , t h e e n l a r g i n g consciousness.  He d e c l i n e s , a f t e r a t i m e , t o l i m i t r e c e p t i o n to h i s s o l a r p l e x u s . The whole t h i n g has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h taboos and bigotries. I t i s more than the s i m p l e a t h l e t i c i s m o f t h e mens sana i n c o r p o r e sano. The c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e body as p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t o f the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 36 U s i n g the a n o l o g y o f s c u l p t u r e , Pound has s a i d t h a t the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c sees t h a t t h e  35 I b i d . , p. 348 36 I b i d . , p.  349  41  god i s i n s i d e t h e s t o n e , vacuos e x e r c e t aera morsus. The f o r c e i s a r r e s t e d , but t h e r e i s never any q u e s t i o n about i t s l a t e n c y , about the f o r c e b e i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l , and the r e s t ' a c c i d e n t a l i n the p h i l o s o p h i c t e c h n i c a l sense. 1  It  i s t h e i d e a , o r P l a t o n i c form o f an o b j e c t which i s p r i m a l .  37  The  o b j e c t , the c o n c r e t e a c t u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e , i s c o n t i n g e n t upon the f o r c e of the i d e a .  T h i s i s why l o v e i n C a v a l c a n t i i s t e r m e d , D'un a c c i d e n t e  (2)  and d e s p i t e i t s b a s i s i n the i m n e d i a t e sense r e s p o n s e ,  i t is  dependent,  f o r i t s " p e r p e t u a l e f f e c t " upon the t r a n s c e n d e n t i d e a l which i s in the a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t . original  held  The movement o f l o v e , from t h e l e v e l o f t h e  sense reponse t o t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f the l e v e l o f the i d e a l ,  is  what Pound has r e f e r r e d t o as the p r o p o r t i o n between the f i n e t h i n g h e l d i n t h e mind, and the i n f e r i o r t h i n g r e a d y f o r i n s t a n t consumption. 38 and t h e v a l u e s o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s  poem, r e g a r d i n g the f o r m a t i v e p o w e r  of l o v e , a r e expressed by Pound i n h i s statement c o n c e r n i n g the  Tuscan  aethetic. The c o n c e p t i o n o f the body as p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 39 T h i s statement i m p l i e s t h e n o t i o n o f a h i e r a r c h y o f b e i n g , which as we have s e e n , i s p r e s e n t i n C a v a l c a n t i ' s o r i g i n a l statement t e s t i f i e s , i s p r e s e n t i n Pound.  37 l o c . c i t . 38 I b i d . , p.  348  39 I b i d . , p.  349  poem a n d , as the  C a v a l c a n t i l i v e d i n an era  42  i n which t h e concept o f a h i e r a r c h y o f b e i n g was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c u l t u r a l paideuma.  C a v a l c a n t i uses t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  as a metaphor, s p e a k i n g o f those who a r e o f " b a s e d e g r e e , " and a d d r e s s i n g h i s canzone t o those who can " b r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e " t o reasoning.  its  Where C a v a l c a n t i d i f f e r s from h i s c o n t e m o r a r i e s , w i t h  r e g a r d t o h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i e r a r c h i c a l n o t i o n s , l i e s i n what Pound has r e f e r r e d t o a s , " t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f the body as p e r f e c t e d 40 instrument of the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e . " "natural  Cavalcanti is a  p h i l o s o p h e r , " as opposed t o a "moral p h i l o s o p h e r , " and hence,  works from t h e " n a t u r a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n , " the c o n c r e t e sense e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r than from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l arguments o f o r t h o d o x y . response  The sense  g i v e s way to the t r e a t m e n t o f the h i g h e r and a c t i v e  intellect,  which t r a n s f o r m s i t i n t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t i d e a l ; however, the " i n f l u e n c e o f Mars" always r e m a i n s .  Where t h e orthodox C h r i s t i a n  philosopher  r e j e c t s the e a r t h l y , the sensuous, i n f a v o u r o f some a b s t r a c t e d t h e o r y , C a v a l c a n t i t a k e s t h e sense response as t h e b a s i s of t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t ideal.  There i s t h e n , no a b s o l u t e s e p a r a t i o n between the body and the s o u l ,  as t h e r e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been i n C h r i s t i a n o r t h o d o x y .  Rather, there  i s a s c a l e of v a l u e , a continuum upon which the sense response o f t h e body r e p r e s e n t s l e s s v a l u e than does t h e a b s t r a c t e d i d e a l , which never w h o l l y removed from t h e sense r e s p o n s e .  is  Once a g a i n , w i t h Y e a t s , we  see t h a t , 41 The body i s n o t b r u i s e d t o p l e a s u r e s o u l .  (58)  40 l o c . c i t . 41 Y e a t s , W.B. The Variorum E d i t i o n of the Poems o f W. B. Y e a t s , New York; The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1940, p. 445.  43  The body i s an i n s t r u m e n t , a t o o l which the growing awareness t o i t s own advantage.  employs  There i s no chasm between t h e body and t h e  i n t e l l e c t , and hence, no d u a l i s m , a r i s e s from the s e p a r a t i o n o f and s o u l , as i n r e l i g i o u s  body  dogma.  The l a c k o f t h i s c o n c e p t i n v a l i d a t e s t h e whole o f m o n s t i c thought. 42 The harmony which e x i s t s psychological  between t h e senses and the i n t e l l e c t i s a  equivalent t o t h e outward harmony o f image and i d e a  which t h e Tuscan seeks i n h i s l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n , the  "proportion  between t h e f i n d t h i n g h e l d i n t h e m i n d , and t h e i n f e r i o r t h i n g r e a d y f o r i n s t a n t consumption."  It  t h i s harmony i s e s t a b l i s h e d .  i s i n the m i n d , t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  that  The senses s e r v e t h e i n t e l l e c t , i n t h a t  t h e i r responses t o r e a l i t y a r e r e f i n e d by the i n t e l l e c t , which d i s t i l l s the essence from t h e r e s p o n s e , w i t h d r a w i n g t h e idea from the sense p e r c e p t i o n , the form from t h e o b j e c t . c o n d i t i o n t h e response  The i n t e l l e c t works  to  of t h e s e n s e s , so t h a t , t h e r e i s a mutual  c o - o p e r a t i o n between sense and i n t e l l e c t , r a t h e r than a chasm one from the o t h e r .  An e s s e n t i a l  u n i t y o f response  separating  e x i s t s , which  f o r mental c l a r i t y , b a l a n c e and sensuous s a t i s f a c t i o n .  We appear t o have l o s t t h e r a d i a n t w o r l d where one thought c u s t s through a n o t h e r w i t h a c l e a n edge, a w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s "mezzo oscuro r a d e , " " r i s p l e n d e i n se p e r p e t u a l e e f f e c t o , " magnetisms t h a t t a k e f o r m , t h a t a r e s e e n , or t h a t border the v i s i b l e these r e a l i t i e s p e r c e p t i b l e t o t h e sense, i n t e r a c t i n g . 43  42 Pound, E z r a . Make I t 43 I b i d . , p.  351  New, London: Faber and F a b e r , 1934,  p. 349  allows  44 T h i s balance i s f o r Pound, " t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n s a n i t y . " Throughout  44  the whole o f the essay o n , and i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n  o f Donna Me Prega i t s e l f , Pound c o n t i n u a l l y s t e s s e s t h e l i g h t upon which t h e poem i s b u i l t .  anology  Although he i s r e l u c t a n t t o s t a t e  o u t r i g h t t h a t C a v a l c a n t i was aware o f G r o s s e t e s t e ' s  theory of  light  and l i g h t d i f f u s i o n , Pound o b v i o u s l y p r e f e r s t o c o n s i d e r the poem i n the l i g h t o f G r o s s e t e s t e ' s  theory.  I t seems to me q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e whole o f i t i s a s o r t o f metaphor on the g e n e r a t i o n o f l i g h t , o r t h a t a t any r a t e g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f the p e r i o d would e l u c i d a t e the remaining t a n g l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f one s e a r c h f o r t h e p a r t o f p h i l o s o p h y t h a t was i n a s t a t e o f a c t i v i t y i n the y e a r s 1270-1290. One cannot a b s o l u t e l y r u l e o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of G u i d o ' s having seen some s c r a p s o f MS. by Roger Bacon, a l t h o u g h t h a t i s , perhaps, u n l i k e l y . 45  Grosseteste's  t h e o r y of l i g h t and i t s e m a n a t i o n , stands  t r a d i t i o n o f the e t e r n a l l i g h t o f d i v i n i t y .  in the  Where G r o s s e t e s t e , and indeed  the e n t i r e Oxford p h i l o s o p h i c a l movement, d i f f e r s -from t h e t r a d i t i o n , i s i n the emphasis which they p l a c e upon the p r o o f - b y - e x p e r i m e n t of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l philosophy  system.  element  T h i s e x p e r i e n t e l element o f t h e N o m i n a l i s t  i s the f a c t o r which Pound emphasizes  i n C a v a l c a n t i and which  makes C a v a l c a n t i , f o r Pound, an e s s e n t i a l l y modern p o e t . the source o f l o v e i n the sense response  By l o c a t i n g  and by l i k e n i n g t h i s l o v e to  a source o f l i g h t , C a v a l c a n t i i s f o c u s i n g upon the e a r t h l y and sensuous, and c r e a t i n g a sense o f the harmony between t h e e a r t h l y and t h e  44 l o c . c i t . 45. i b i d . , p. 360  celestial.  45  The t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n d u a l i t y o f f l e s h and s p i r i t i s t h u s  removed  and t h e r e i s u n i t y , i n the i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e , between the senses and the i n t e l l e c t , d e s p i t e C a v a l c a n t i ' s r a n g i n g of t h e sense response intellectual  i d e a l on a s c a l e o r h i e r a r c h y .  and t h e  It is this experiential  q u a l i t y which Pound d i s c o v e r e d i n C a v a l c a n t i d u r i n g t h e f i r s t decade o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t r u y , as h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h T. E. Hulme illustrates.  I spoke t o him one day o f the d i f f e r e n c e between - G u i d o ' s p r c i s e i n t e r p r e t i v e mataphor, and the P e t r a r c h a n f u s t i a n and ornament, p o i n t i n g out t h a t Guido though i n a c c u r a t e t e r m s ; t h a t the phrases c o r r e s p o n d t o d e f i n i t e s e n s a t i o n s undergone:....46  A t t h i s p o i n t , C a v a l c a n t i r e p r e s e n t f o r Pound, a f o r e r u n n e r  of  the I m a g i s t e p o e t , an e a r l y i m a g i s t i c t h i n k e r , who p e r c e i v e s i n t u i t i v e l y the i n h e r e n t u n i t y between the image and t h e i d e a , between o b j e c t s i n n a t u r e and the P l a t o n i c forms u n d e r l y i n g them.  C a v a l c a n t i , as a p o e t ,  i s e s s e n t i a l l y w o r k i n g i n the same a e s t h e t i c as G a u d i e r - B r z e s k a , as a s c u l p t o r , i e . , the d e f i n i t i o n o f emotion through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p l a n c e s and  It  surfaces.  i s because o f h i s i n s i g h t  i n t o t h e work o f C a v a l c a n t i and  h i s own p o e t i c v i s i o n , t h a t Pound s t r e s s e s using G r o s s e t e s t e ' s  t h e l i g h t anology o f t h e poem,  l i g h t t h e o r y as s c h o l a r l y e v i d e n c e to i l l u s t r a t e  C a v a l c a n t i ' s angle o f m e t a p h y s i c a l v i s i o n .  It  i s in the Grosseteste  thetry t h a t the m a t e r i a l f a c t o r o f l i g h t emanation i s s t r e s s e d  and  l a t e r , reasoned o u t t o the s p i r i t u a l e l e m e t , i e . , t h e c e l e s t i a l o r d i v i n e i s grounded  i n the e a r t h l v , sensuous and e x p e r i e n t i a l . Pound 47 works from E t i e n n e G i l s o n ' s P h i l o s o p h i e a u M o y e n age. and quotes  1  46  the f o l l o w i n g summary o f G r o s s e t e s t e .  La l u m i e r e e s t une substance c o r p o r e l l e t r e s s u b t i l e e t q u i ^ s e rapproche de 1 i n c o r p o r e l . Ses p r o p r i e t e s c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s s o n t de s ' e n g e n d r e r elle-meme p e r p e t u e l l e m e n t e t de se d i f f u s e r spheriquement a u t o u r d ' u n p o i n t d ' u n e manieVe i n s t a n t e ' e . Donnonsnous un p o i n t l u m i n e u x . , i l s ' e n g e n d r e instantanement a u t o u r de ce p o i n t comme c e n t r e une spheYe lumineuse immernse. La d i f f u s i o n de l a l u m i e r e ne p e u t - e t r e c o n t r a r i e e que par deux r a i s o n s : ou b i e n e l l e r e c o n t r e une o b s c u r i t e qui 1 ' a r r e t e , ou b i e n e l l e f i n i t par a t t e i n d r e l a l i m i t e extreme de sa r a r e f a c t i o n , e t l a p r o p a g a t i o n de l a l u m i e r e prend f i n par l a meme. C e t t e substance extremement tenue e t a u s s i 1 ' ^ t o f f e dont t o u t e s choses sont f a l t e s ; e l l e e s t l a premiere forme c o r p o r e l l e e t ce que c e r t a i n s nomment l a c o r p o r e i t e . 48 1  From G i l s o n ' s summary o f G r o s s e t e s t e , t h e e s s e n t i a l l y m e t a p h o r i c a l n a t u r e o f the medieval Uropean p o i n t - o f - v i e w i s a p p a r e n t .  An e s s e n t i a l  paradox appear i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of l i g h t a s , " p e r p e t u a l l y s e l f - e n g e n d e r i n g , " and the i m p o s i t i o n o f a l i m i t t o which l i g h t able to r a r i f y .  I f l i g h t can " p e r p e t u a l l y engender"  p o s s i b l y d i s s i p a t e and t h u s , "prend f i n par l a meme."  is  i t s e l f , i t cannot The paradox  i s most l i k e l y the r e s u l t o f the i n f a n c y o f the proof by experiment a t t h i s p o i n t i n medieval p h i l o s o p h y , a c o n t r a s t between t h e t h e o r e t i c and e m p i r i c statements c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f the m a t e r i a l w o r l d .  Certain  views o f l i g h t as an e s s e n t i a l l y c e l e s t i a l substance were a c c e p t e d as a m a t t e r o f course by t h e medieval m i n d , which was p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f d e i t y and the i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n btween d e i t y and t h e world of apparent r e a l i t y .  The a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s " d i v i n e "  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i g h t caused oftBn i n s o l u b l e paradoxes f o r t h e  46 I b i d . , p 361 47 G i l s o n , E. H. P h i l o s o p h i e au Moyeh A g e . , P a r i s ; P a y o t ,  1947  48 Pound, E z r a . Make i t New, London: Faber and F a b e r , 1934, p. 359  47  natural  p h i l o s p h e r of t h e p e r i o d , whose e x p e r i e n c e o f the a c t u a l  w o r l d c o u l d not be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e accepted t h e o r i e s .  As a r e s u l t ,  medieval s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e s a r e u s u a l l y a c u r i o u s blend o f and e m p i r i c statements o f f a c t .  beliefs  The G r o s s e t e s t e t h e o r y possesses t h i s  a d m i x t u r e o f f a c t and b e l i e f , i n t h a t , i t r e p r e s e n t s an a c c e p t a n c e of the t r a d i t i o n a l metaphor o f l i g h t as d e i t y but i s u n a b l e t o v e r i f y t h i s b e l i e f i n terms o f i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the w o r l d o f a c t u a l i t y . As d e i t y , l i g h t " s ' e n g e n d r e r physical substance,  ell-meme p e r p e t u e l l e m e n t , " but as a  i t " f i n i t par a t t e i n d r e l a l i m i t e extreme  de sa  r a r e f a c t i o n , e t l a p r o p a g a t i o n de l a l u m i e r e prend f i n par l a meme." The paradox i s i m p l i c i t i n the opening sentence o f t h e quoted  Gilson  summary,' i n t h a t , G r o s s e t e s t e a p p a r e n t l y woJd have both s i d e s of the arguement a t once:  l i g h t i s both a c o r p o r e a l substance and y e t ,  s u f f i c i e n t l y s u b t l e and evanescent to be c a p a b l e o f a p p r o a c h i n g non-corporeal.  L i g h t i s t h u s , both a m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e ,  is the  tangible  in  a w o r l d o f p h y s i c a l a c t u a l i t y , but i s a l s o possessed of the s p i r i t u a l i t y o f a " w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s . " Grosseteste's  The u l t i m a t e i m p l i c a t i o n of  seeming paradox i s t h a t a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s  between m a t t e r and s p i r i t a r e a r t i f i c i a l , each p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the other. of  The a c t u a l w o r l d i s a " w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s , "  the w o r l d  Process.  It  i s the i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s seeming paradox upon which  Pound now f o c u s e s ,  i n an a t t e m p t t o remove t h e a r t i f i c i a l  distinction  which have been made by the l i m i t i n g and l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t .  One  cannot s e p a r a t e i m a g i n a t i o n from i n t e l l e c t , form from o b j e c t , energy m a t t e r , i d e a l from a c t u a l . still  The s e p a r a t i o n has been i n the past and  the reason f o r man's atomized response t o his w o r l d , and the  is  48  r e s u l t a n t impasse i n t o which dependence upon t h e m e r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l has l e d man.  Pound advocates the i n t u i t i v e r e s p o n s e , the p e r c e p t i o n  through i n t u i t i o n b u t t r e s s e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t .  This  harmony of v i s i o n i s t h e element o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem which most a p p e a l s to Pound, as h i s r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o G r o s s e t e s t would seem to suggest.  As Pound sa/s, the  French summary i s most a b l e , and most l u c i d . It is far more s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e canzone, Donna_Me P r e g a , than the o r i g i n a l L a t i n o f G r o s s e t e s t e ^ 41T A p a r t from the l i g h t paradox, the G i l son summary makes s t a t e m e n t s about t h e n a t u r e and r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f l i g h t which appealed t o Pound, and which he l a t e r employed i n h i s own p o e t r y .  G r o s s e t e s t e says t h a t l i g h t  i s P r o t e a n , a p r i m a l substance from which a l l t h i n g s a r e c r e a t e d .  It  is  a l s o the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f any body, and i s i t s e l f the v e r y essence o f "corporeite."  One sees r e a d i l y , the pantheism whereby d i v i n i t y i s  m a n i f e s t i n a l l l e v e l s of e x i s t e n c e , a l l c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the d i v i n e emanation.  I t i s due t o t h e p a t h e t t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of  C a v a l c a n t i and o f G r o s s e t e s t e t h a t Pound emphasizes the " h e r e t i c a l " views o f C a v a l c a n t i and t h e a n t i - T h o m i s t b a s i s cf the C a v a l c a n t i universe.  I may be wrong, but I cannot belie/e t h a t Guido "swallowed Aquinas. I t i s perhaps by merest a c c i d e n t but we f i n d nowhere i n h i s poems any i m p l i c a t i o n of a b e l i e f in a geocentric or t h e c e n t r i c material universe. 50 1  49 l o c . c i t . 50 I b i d . , pp. 357-8  49  S e e i n g l i g h t as an a n a l o g y f o r human i n t e l l i g e n c e , Pound f o c u s e s on G r o s s e t e s t e ' s view t h a t l i g h t i s p e r p e t u a l l y s e l f ' e n g e n d e r i n g and connecting t h i s p o s i t i o n to C a v a l c a n t i ' s  in  r i s p l e n d e i n se p e r p e t u a l e e f f e t t o  (12)  and s t r e s s i n g t h e importance o f the f a c t t h a t , Guido though i n a c c u r a t e terms; t h a t t h e phrases c o r r e s p o n d to d e f i n i t e s e n s a t i o n s undergone. 51 T h i s i s t o say t h a t l o v e , w o r k i n g upward from t h e sense response beauty toward the t r a n s c e n d e n t i d e a l , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n and t h e i n t e l l e c t . being i s u n i f i e d .  Through,  i s subjected to the  degree o f d i v i n i t y .  intellectual  l o v e , the h i g h e s t power o f which  the i n t e l l e c t i s c a p a b l e , i s a b l e to r a d i a t e f o r t h . of i n t e g r a t i o n , l o v e makes p o s s i b e l  harmonizing  Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e , man's  Human sense response  i d e a l and i s t h u s , r e f i n d .  to  By c r e a t i n g a sense  human a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e g r e a t e s t  J u s t as l i g h t was seen as s e l f - e n g e n d e r i n g by!  G r o s s e t e s t e , so i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t o Pound, f o r the i d e a l o f l o v e , once t r a n s f o r m e d by the i n t e l l e c t , i s l i k e l i g h t i n G r o s s e t e s t e ' s Donnons-nous un p o i n t l u m i n e u x , i l s ' e n g e n d r e instantanement a u t o u r de ce p o i n t comme c e n t r e une sphere l u i n e e u s e immense. 52.  51 I b i d . , p.  361  52 I b i d . , p. 359  theory.  50 There i s an i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e , the i n t e l l e c t , drawing from t h e sense response  t o beauty, which c r e a t e s an i d e a l o f l o v e .  This  in turn,  works upon the i n t e l l e c t a c e r t a i n r e f i n e m e n t , a d i s t i l l a t i o n which draws away  t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t essence o f t h e sense p e r c e p t i o n and e x a l t s the  p e r c e p t i o n to the l e v e l o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l . There i s the r e s i d u e o f p e r c e p t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n o f something which r e q u i r e s a huraan b e i n g to produce it. Which even may r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l t o product i t . T h i s r e a l l y c o m p l i c a t e s the a e s t h e t i c . You deal w i t h an i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e : t h e v i r t u i n short. 53  The main d e p a r t u r e o f P o u n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Donna Me P r e g a , both from t h e o r i g i n a l canzone and from subsequent  scholarly  of t h e poem, l i e s i n P o u n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f mercede i n l i n e M e r z e d , o r mercy, t o t h e P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o r , s i g n i f i e s physical favours  by t h e i d e a l i z e d , but s t i l l  translations seventy.  the g r a n t i n g  sensuous, l a d y .  of  Cavalcanti's  poem r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e amour c O u r t o i s t r a d i t i o n , i n t h a t , t h e mercede which he seeks i s not m e r e l y a t t a i n m e n t o f the p h y s i c a l f a v o u r s , but super-sensuous i d e a l o f l o v e , a l b e i t f i r m l y grounded  i n t h e sense response  to p h y s i c a l b e a u t y .  t r a n s l a t i o n does not c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t , t r a n s l a t i n g the mercede as guerdon, and l e a v i n g t h e sense u n c l a r i f i e d .  lady's  still The F l e t c h e r  Italian However,  F l e t c h e r s note t o l i n e seventy c e r t a i n l y a c c o m p l i s h e s t h i s e l u c i d a t i o n , and i s worth q u o t i n g .  53 I b i d . , p. 348 54 F l e t c h e r , J . B . "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode o f L o v e . , "Modern v o l . 7. J a n u a r y , 1910, p. 426.  Philology,  51  The sense response  remains a t t h e r o o t o f the q u l i t y o f  compassion,  i e . , the c o n c r e t e  a t the bases o f the t r a n s c e n d e n t i d e a l .  There i s no  q u a l i t y of human r e s p o n s e , man i s e s s e n t i a l l y a harmony of sense and intellect.  L i g h t emanates from the darkness  o f t h e "shadow o f M a r s , "  becase o f the harmony between sense and i n t e l l e c t which l o v e e f f e c t s i n man.  Becuase of t h i s u n i t y , t h i s harmony o f sense response  i n t e g r a t i o n , each whole i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e to shed the d i s t i n c t i o n s , which t h e s o l e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l has c r e a t e d .  response  and  artificial  t o the u n i v e r s e  U n i t y o f s e l f must be e s t a b l i s h e d as a p r e - c o n d i t i o n i n g  b e f o r e t h i s d i v i n e sympathy w i t h t h e " o t h e r " can be a c h i e v e d .  Once  s e l f i n t e g r i t y i s a t t a i n e d , i n d i v i d u a l man i s a b l e t o r e a l i z e  the  essential world of  u n i t y of a l l humanity and man can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e Process.  52  Chapter F o u r :  Compassion t o Order  I t h i n k the C a v a l c a n t i Canto needs a r e a l w o r k i n g o v e r . Seems t o me c e n t r a l t o the meaning o f the Cantos a t l a r g e and to a p r e c i s e statement o f P o u n d ' s p h i l o s o p h y o r r e l i g i o n or whatever you want t o c a l l i t . 55  The Cantos are a type o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Q$/ssey of the A n g l o Saxon p e o p l e s , i n which Pound i s both one o f personae and t h e contemporary man and p o e t , e x p e r i e n c i n g the w o r l d o f p r e s e n t a c t u a l i t y , man i n h i s t o r y and man i n the p r e s e n t .  T h i s i s t o say t h a t t h e p e r i p l u m  t a k e s the q u e s t e r through e x p e r i e n c e s which a r e both i n and out o f chronological  history.  An event may be f i x e d i n a d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l  c o n t e x t , but a l l o f the time past i s p r e s e n t i n the i m n e d i a t e moment. u n i t y of The Cantos i s t h u s , one o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t e c h n i q u e .  as w e l l as o f theme  The same v i s i o n i s p r e s e n t throughout the e n t i r e poem:  however, t h i s grows and develops as t h e i n t e s i t y and the f r e q u e n c y of e x p e r i e n c e i n c r e a s e s and a h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s and events a r e considered.  B e s i d e s t h e Odyssean p e r i p l u m o f the poem, Pound  has  embodied the theme o f i n d i v i d u a l man as a s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e from t h e D i v i n e Comedy of Dante.  T h i s i s o n l y t o say t h a t Pound i s both i n and  55 Edwards, J o h n , e d i t o r . The Pound N e w s l e t t e r , 6 A p r i l B e r k e l e y : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1955.  1955, p. 20  The  53  out o f t h e poem o r , t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e and events o f h i s t o r y are o c c u r r i n g both s u b j e c t i v e l y and o b j e c t i v e l y t o the p o e t . considers  h i s t o r i c events as e x p e r i e n c e undergone,  the c o n s c i o u s n e s s  b e i n g a t one w i t h  of Odysseus, and as event c o n s i d e r e d , i e . , viewed  o b j e c t i v e l y from w i t h o u t .  The events of h i s t r o y and e x p e r i e n c e a r e  viewed o u t s i d e o f a c h r o n o l o g i c a l impressions  Pound both  or developmental contimuum, b e i n g  o f s i g n i f i c a n t moments i n the space/time continumm.  s p e c i f i c moments, i m p r e s s i o n s  and events o f t e n r e c u r i n h i s t o r y ,  r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i v e forces reaching climax c o n d i t i o n s ,  These the  thus  s t r e s s i n g the c o n t i n u a l t i d e - l i k e waxing and waning o f idea and a c t u a l i t y , form and o b j e c t .  The c o n t i n u a l phasing  i n and out i s underscored by the  s t r e s s i n g of exact dates, r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c events.  This  precise  d a t i n g o f documents, e v e n t , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , l e n d s an i m p r e s s i o n  of  the e x a c t moment i n the s p c e / t i m e continumm a t which the i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e s o f H s t o r y c o n n e c t and cause an e v e n t , o r w h a t e v e r , to be significant.  The dual r o l e o f Pound, as p o e t / n a r r a t o r and as  persona,  should not be l i n k e d t o the personal o r Odyssean element and the c b j e c t i v e , o r D a n t e s c a n , e l e m e n t s , as Pound i s f u l f i l l i n g personal  and o b j e c t i v e r o l e s w i t h i n each e l e m e n t .  Odysseus i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  both the  Pound i s b o t h , w i t h  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e , and removed  from Odysseus, and o b j e c t i v e l y n a r r a t i n g t h e events i n v o l v e d i n t h e Odyssey. The same h o l d t r u e f o r the Dantescan e l e m e n t . consciousness  The  poet's  i s b o t h , a t one w i t h t h a t o f Dante d u r i n g t h e j o u r n e y  through H e l l and up t o P a r a d i s e , but i s a l s o o b j e c t i v e t o the degree t h a t the Dantescan H e l l and P a r a d i s e a r e p o e t i c a l l y connected t o c e r t a i n analogous s t a t e s i n P o u n d ' s own w o r l d o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y a c t u a l i t y .  54 •  Thus, Pound i s w i t h Odysseus d u r i n g h i s quest voyage, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c event from i n s i j e the h i s t o r i c a l framework, and i s a l s o remote from the immediate moment and i s m a n i p u l a t i n g the h i s t o r i c event f o r h i s own purposes.  Thus, the o p e n i n g o f t h e f i r s t C a n t o , i n w h i c h Pound  is  both i n s i d e Odysseus' e x p e r i e n c e and o u t s i d e , m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e Odyssey, i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e an Anglo-Saxon  equivalent  s i t u a t i o n through use o f t o n e , mood, metre and d i c t i o n .  And then went down to the s h i p , S e t k e e l t o b r e a k e r s , f o r t h on t h e godly s e a , and We s e t up mast and s a i l on t h a t swart s h i p , Bore sheep aboard h e r , and our b o d i e s a l s o (1,1-4) Pound, i n a l e t t e r t o h i s f a t h e r , o u t l i n e d t h e main scheme o f the e n t i r e poem, as e a r l y as  1927  Dear Dad: - I - I A f r a i d t h e whole damn poem i s r a t h e r o b s c u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n f r a g m e n t s . Have I e v e r g i v e n you o u t l i n e o f main shceme::: o r whatever i t is? 1) Rather l i k e , or u n l i k e s u b j e c t and response and counter subject i n fugue. A. A. L i v e man goes down i n t o w o r l d o f Dead C.B. The ' r e p e a t i n h i s t o r y ' B. C. The 'magic moment' o r moment o f metamorphosis b u s t t h r u from q u o t i d i e n i n t o ' d i v i n e o r permanent w o r l d . ' Gods, e t c . 56 T h i s i s a rough o u t l i n e i s v i a b l e and s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d p o i n t by point.  The f u g a l elements are an i m p o r t a n t c l u e , both t o  method of t o p i c a s s o c i a t i o n and t o t h e harmoic e l e m e n t s .  56 P a i g e , D.D. e d i t o r , The L e t e r s of E z r a Pound 1907-1941, New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , I n c . , 1950, P. 210  Pound's Pound has  said,  55  " r a t h e r l i k e , " which s o u l d not be c o n f u s e d w i t h e x a c t l y l i k e , and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n should not be f o r g e t t e n i n a l l f a i r n e s s  to the p o e t .  When Pound i n t r o d u c e s a s p e c i f i c t o p i c , say t h e r e a l i t y and u b i q u i t y of the pagan gods, i t i s n o t to be d i s c u s s e d f u l l y then dropped, never t o be f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r e d ,  R a t h e r , the pagan gods, o r whatever t o p i c ,  a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n a moment o f t h e i r m y t h i c o r h i s t o r i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n , r e l a t e d t o some h i s t o r i c event i n which t h e y have a t o p i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , then dropped, to be r e - a s s e r t e d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , w i t h l y r i c i n t e n s i t y and t h e a u t h o r i t y of personal c o n v i c t i o n .  Thus,  P o u n d ' s e a r l y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e pagan gods and l a t e r a s s e r t i o n o f t h e i r ubiquitous  existence.  Venerandam, In t h e C r e t a n ' s p h r a s e , w i t h t h e golden crown, A p h r o d i t e , C y p r i minimenta s o r t i t a e s t , m i r t h f u l , o r i c h a l c h i , w i t h golden G i r d l e s and b r e a s t bands, thou w i t h d a r k e y e l i d s B e a r i n g the golden bough of A r g i c i d a . ( I , 72-76)  •  •  •  •  *  God-sleight then, god-sleight: Ship stock f a s t in s e a - s w i r l ,  «  •  •  •  •  •  •  (II,  57-58)  •  •  Gods f l o a t i n t h e a z u r e a i r , B r i g h t gods and Tuscan, back b e f o r e dew was shed. L i g h t : and t h e f i r s t l i g h t , b e f o r e ever dew was f a l l e n . P a n i s k s , and from t h e oak, d r y a s , And from t h e a p p l e , m a e l i d , Through a l l the wood, and the l e a v e s a r e f u l l o f v o i c e s , A - w h i s p e r , and the c l o u d s bowe over t h e l a k e , And t h e r e a r e gods upon them, (III, 7-14)  56 The s u b j e c t , the D i o n y s i a n or mystery gods o f pagan s o c i e t y ,  is  i n t r o d u c e d , v a r i e d , and an e a r l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e i r r e a l i t y  is  s t a t e d as a r e s p o n s e , and f i n a l l y , the c o u t e r - s u b j e c t , a ^personal and l y r i c a l  assertion of t h e i r ever-present r e a l i t y , i s s t a t e d .  This  technique of fugal subject presentation i s r e l a t e d to the periplum insights  i n t o t h e waxing and waning of c h r o n o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y ,  j u s t as h i s t o r i c f o r c e s and c r u x e s are c o n t i n u a l l y phasing  for,  i n and out  o f t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y , so i s t h e r e a c o n t i n u a l w a v e - l i k e motion o f the s u b j e c t s , as t h e y are caught up, dropped, v a r i e d , and f i n a l l y re-asserted.  T h i s f u g a l element r e c u r s i n the rhythms o f the poem, as  o f t e n l i n e s o f d e f i n i t e power and a s s e r t i o n , and o f t e n even h a r s h n e s s , a l t e r n a t e w i t h l i n e s o f r e l a t i v e c a l m , p a s s i v i t y and s o f t n e s s .  This  waxing and waning o f r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e , another element o f u n i t y t h e poem, t i e s t o g e t h e r t h e phasing  i n and out o f the personal  in  and the  o b j e c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t , the t o p i c o r s u b j e c t t r e a t e m e n t , and t h e h i s t o r i c " r e p e a t s " o f i n t e r a c t i v e s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c f o r c e s .  The second p a r t o f Pound's e a r l y o u t l i n e must be c o n s i d e r e d t h i s same t w o f o l d manner.  The " l i v e man,"  in  g o i n g down i n t o the w o r l d o f  the dead, i s a t o n e t i m e , Pound examining the e v i l  o f t h e p a s t through  an  adopted p e r s o n a , and Pound p e r s o n a l l y commenting on the a t r o p h y and death o f s p i r i t which he observed  i n h i s contemporary s o c i e t y .  i s one w i t h Odysseus i n t h e Kimmerian l a n d s and w i t h purgatory,  but s t i l l  expresses  Dante  through v a r i o u s  in  the H e l l w h i c h he f e e l s t o be i n h e r e n t  i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s arms p r o f i t e r i n g , economics and bad a r t .  Pound  T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the past and  adopted personae,  usurious present  i s n o t u n r e l a t e d t o t h e concept o f the  " r e p e a t i n h i s t o r y " as t h e c y c l i c a l v i e w o f h i s t o r i c f o r c e s may mesh,  57  to a l l o w r e p e t i t i o n of i d e n t i c a l o r c l o s e l y s i m i l a r e v e n t s , so may t h e s e . f o r c e s and r e s u l t a n t events i n t e r a c t w i t h human n a t u r e t o i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e of a c e r t a i n t y p e .  Pound has c l e a r l y  produce  distinguishable  hero and v i l l a i n a r c h e t y p e s , w i t h whom he peoples h i s w o r l d s , both o f the p a s t and o f the p r e s e n t . Jbhn Adams, K u n g - f e u - t s e  The hero a r c h e t y p e , maiifest i n S o r d e l l o ,  and M a l a t e s t a , i s t h e man o f u n i t e d  intellect  and f e e l i n g , the man whose c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d o f a c t u a l i t y i s not s e p a r a t e from h i s p e r c e p t i o n o r i m a g i n a t i v e response c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s o f the a e s t h e t i c w o r l d . Poundian u n i v e r s e a r e those whose response  to the  The v i l l i a n s o f the  to the world i s  measured  i n terms o f t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t s , men whose t h e o r i e s about t h e n a t u r e o f the a c t u a l w o r l d have no r e l a t i o n to t h e complete and u n i f i e d response  t o t h e w o r l d , but a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e some v e s t e d  i n t e r e s t , u s u a l l y t h e i r own s e l f aggrandisement  or m a t e r i a l  advantage.  Among Pound's v i l l a i n s must be numbered a v a r i e t y of popes and monarchs, a r t i s t s who c l o u d t h e l i n e s o f d e m a r c a t i o n , such as M i l t o n , and those among p o l i t i c i a n s and economists whose p o s i t i o n a usurious  represents  economic system, men such as S i r B a s i l Z a h a r a f f ,  Winston  C h u r c h i l l and F.D.R.  The f i n a l  p o i n t o f Pound's o u t l i n e o f h i s poem i s  the most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r purposes o f d i s c u s s i o n metaphysic.  The key p h r a s e s ,  Poundian  "magic momet," and " d i v i n e o r  w o r l d , " are c r u c i a l to understanding philosophic value.  o f the  permanent  Pound's view o f a e s t h e t i c s  The "magic moment" o f metamorphosis  The i n t e l l e c t c r e a t e s a r t i f i c i a l  and  i s the moment  i n which the correspondence o f idea and o b j e c t , f e e l i n g and is perceived.  perhaps  thought,  d i s t i n c t i o n s , or  58  d u a l i t i e s , between s t a t e s which a r e more p r o p e r l y p l a c e d i n a continuum of existence.  This  i s t o say t h a t man i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a w o r l d  o f P r o c e s s , one i n t e g e r i n a i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d and m u l t i - l e v e l l e d framework o f e x i s t e n c e .  Man i s a b l e t o p e r c e i v e , both s e n s u o u s l y and  imaginatively, his position v i s - a - v i s  other l e v e l s of e x i s t e n c e , or  can c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e o r i e s about the n a t u r e o f the n o n - s e l f o r aspect of the world of Process.  "other"  The i n t e g r a t e d s e l f , because t h e r e  is  a harmony of b e i n g w i t h i n t h e s e l f , i s a b l e t o p e r c e i v e the t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s e l f to the " o t h e r " l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e .  The  i n t e l l e c t i s unable t o make a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , because i t checked by the i m a g i n a t i o n , which responds the u n i v e r s e .  is  sensuously to the u n i t y  in  The moment o f p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s e s s e n t i a l oneness which  e x i s t s between the s e l f and t h e " o t h e r , " i s P o u n d ' s "magic P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , Pound i s e s s e n t i a l l y a N e o - P l a t o n i s t ,  moment."  believing  t h a t the world i s composed o f i d e a l r e a l i t y and outward a p p e a r a n c e .  In  terms o f P l a t o ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, Pound's "magic moment," would be an i n s t a n t o f t h e space/time cohtinutrm wherein one p e r c e i v e s  the  e s s e n t i a l oneness o f t h e t e m p o r a l l y l i m i t e d outward appearances  and  the permanent forms o f which the appearances a r e mere r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . In Pound's a e s t h e t i c , t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p o e t i c images o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f form by p l a n c e s i n s c u l p t u r e , p r o v i d e i n s t a n t s  i n t h e space/time  continuum wherein one i s a b l e to r e a l i z e , through response i n t e g r a t e d s e l f t o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i , t h e oneness o f a l l  o f the  existence.  I say t h a t Pound i s a N e o - P l a t o n i s t l a r g e l y due t o h i s v a l u e judgment, i m p l i c i t i n t h e second phrase o f t h e f i n a l  p o i n t o f h i s o u t l i n e , namely,  t h a t the "magic moment" r e p r e s e n t s a " b u s t t h r u from q u o t i d i e n , "  59 i n t o a " d i v i n e o r permanent w o r l d . "  By the word, " q u o t i d i e n , "  Pound suggest the w o r l d o f outward appearances t o be l i m i t e d i n time and s p i r i t t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e u n r e a l and i l l u s o r y .  Plato, too,  saw the w o r l d o f a c t u a l i t y as e x i s t e n t a t a remove from r e a l i t y , which i n P l a t o n i c terms i s d e f i n e d as t h e w o r l d o f permanent forms or e x i s t e n t a t the l e v e l o f the d i v i n e and e t e r n a l .  Although  r e a c t i o n t o Hindu a s c e t i c i s m i s v i o l e n t l y n e g a t i v e , he  ideas,  Pound's  nevertheless  m a n i f e s t s what i s e s s e n t i a l l y the Hindu d o c t r i n e o f maya i n  this  e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d o f appearances and the u n d e r l y i n g world o f permanence.  Behind the outward and seemingly r e a l w o r l d e x i s t s a  l e v e l o f e x i s t e n c e removed from t h e time/space l i m i t a t i o n - t h e w o r l d o f spiritual reality.  It  i s the " w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s , "  t h i s world  o f P r o c e s s , which i s t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y f o r Pound.  P o u n d ' s awareness o f t h e world o f Process  is arrived at  through  h i s s e a r c h f o r a new and d i s t i n c t l i t e r a r y style, which i s t o  say,  i n t e g r a l l y w i t h h i s s t r u g g l e f o r complete s e l f awareness  integration  of being.  and  The Poundian r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e l e v e l  o f s e l f e x i s t e n c e a t t a i n e d and t h e development o f a new l i t e r a r y s t y l e can be b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d from Pound's e s s a y on Remy de Gourmont. Le s t y l e , c ' e s t de s e n t i r , de v o i r , de penser, et r i e n plus.  Le s t y l e e s t une s p e c i a l i s a t i o n de l a s e n s i b i l i t e .  60  Une i d e e n ' e s t qu'une s e n s a t i o n d e f r a i c h i e , une image e f f a c e e . 57 A p p a r e n t l y , Pound found what he was s e a r c h i n g f o r i n de Gourrront's l i t e r a r y pronouncements, as h i s essay would seem to i l l u s t r a t e .  Style  o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n t e g r a l t o f e e l i n g , i n t e l l e c t and t o t a l v i s i o n , a d i v i s i o n of s e n s i b i l i t y .  Concepts a r i s e from s e n s a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d ,  the i n t e l l e c t b u i l d s upon images.  The v i e w o f a e s t h e t i c s , the emphasis  upon the c o n c r e t e image and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f response i s apparent i n Pound's  p r o g r e s s i o n from the e a r l y , o r Imagiste  achievement o f h i s f i n a l  s t y l e i n the C a n t o s .  stage, to the l a t e r In the I m a g i s t e  stage,  Pound sought t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f p o e t i c emotion through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n 58 o f images,  The emotion i s " f i r e s t r u c k between s t o n e s , "  b e i n g t h e images employed by the p o e t .  the stones  In the l a t e r , V o r t i c i s t movement,  Pound sees the d e f i n i t i o n o f emotions through p l a n e s and s u r f a c e s as an a e s t h e t i c i d e a l , much as does G a u d i e r - B r z e s k a i n h i s a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e . T h i s movement r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n the c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r in a r t .  The form i s a b s t r a c t e d from t h e o r i g i n a l sense response o f t h e  viewer.  T h i s i s what Pound means by " t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e body as 59  p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t o f the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e . "  The response  o f the senses must be u n i t e d t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l response b e f o r e an insight  i n t o t h e form can be g a i n e d . By the t i m e Pound begins t h e C a n t o s , h i s s t y l e has a c h i e v e d i t s  f i n a l form.  The p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d by Pound, d u r i n g t h e I m a g i s t e and 60 V o r t i c i s t periods, have merged w i t h and become v e r i f i e d by h i s work  57 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and F a b e r , 1934, p.328 58 Hulme, T, E. S p e c u l a t i o n ? London: Kegan P a u l , 1924, p. 135 59 Pound, E z r a , Make I t New, Lotion: Faber and F a b e r , 1934, p. 349 60 I b i d . , pp.336-341  61 61 w i t h the F e n e l l o s a papers on t h e Chinese ideograms.  T h i s wor"k w i t h  the Chinese c h a r a c t e r s b r i n g s Pound to the u l t i m a t e development o f 62 s t y l e , what he has c a l l e d the "ideogrammic method." As Pound  his  i n t e r p r e s t t h e Chinese ideogram, i t m a n i f e s t s the same b a s i c p r i n i c i p l e s f o r which Pound has been s e a r c h i n g .  Pound f e e l s t h e ideogram t o posses an  immediacy o f r e f e r e n c e not found i n the p h o n e t i c symbols cf the w e s t e r n 63 alphabets.  T h i s i s t o say t h a t the Chinese ideogram, as w e l l  as  naming t h e o b j e c t , p r e s e n t s a s y m b o l i c p i c t u r e o f t h e o b j e c t o r s t a t e . I t has a r e s u l t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o the c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h a t which i t r e p r e s e n t s , a b s t r a c t l y and s y m b o l i c a l l y .  Thus, t h e images and p l a n e s  which Pound has been a t t e m p t i n g t o employ as a means o f d e l i n e a t i n g p o e t i c emotions and i d e a s , may now be embodied i n the v e r y c h a r a c t e r s which he employs.  More than t h i s , an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s  u n d e r l y i n g t h e use o f the Chinese ideogram can be made, which w i l l e n a b l e Pound t o j u x t a p o s e m y t h i c and h i s t o r i c e v e n t s , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i d e a s and e m o t i o n s , t h e r e b y s t r u c t u r i n g h i s poem i n t h e same manner as the Chinese ideogram i s b u i l t .  Thus, a s e c t i o n o r Canto w i l l  d e d i c a t e d t o t h e exposure o f economic m a l p r a c t i c e .  This w i l l  be  be  j u x t a p o s e d w i t h passages p r e s e n t i n g examples of bad economics and c o r r u p t i o n , drawn from a l l ages o f h i s t o r y and c r o o s c u l t u r a l l y . extended passage w i l l  f o l l o w , i n which the i d e a l  61 Pound, E z r a , ABC o f R e a d i n g , New Y o r k :  is described.  An The  New D i r e c t i o n s , I 9 6 0 , p 18.  62 C l a r k , T. "The Formal S t r u c t u r e o f Pound's " C a n t o s , " " East-West Review, v o l I, No. 2, Autumn 1964, pp. 97-144, K y o t o , J a p a n : Doshisha U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964 63 Pound, Ezra,ABC o f R e a d i n g , New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1960,p.  22.  62  Poundian i d e a l may be i n t h e r e a l m o f economics, ( G e s e l l , D o u g l a s ) , or in p o l i t i c a l  t h e o r y (Adams.)  The v a r i o u s elements o f t h e o v e r a l l  ideogram combine to p r e s e n t one w i t h the i d e a c l u s t e r o f mistaken economic t h e o r y , u n e t h i c a l p r a c t i c e s and human c o r r u p t i o n , examples o f both o f t h e s e and samples o f documents which s u p p o r t such m a l p r a c t i c e , and a l s o , p r e s e n t i n g the as y e t u n r e a l i z e d i d e a l f o r economic j u s t i c e . During the course o f the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these v a r i o u s  ideogramic elements,  the r e a d e r has e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f emotional responses t o t h e a s s o r t e d s t i m u l i and w i l l  be l e f t w i t h an "economic i m p r e s s i o n , "  e n c a p s u l a t e d h i s t o r y , t h e o r y and i d e a l of economics, which w i l l emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l  response.  Employing t h i s  an provoke  ideogrammic  p r o c e d u r e , Pound i s a b l e to u n i f y and examine a l l h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and human e x p e r i e n c e , however remote o r d i s p a r a t e .  E v i l and H e l l  i n the  C a n t o s , a r e a t one time m y t h i c , h i s t o r i c , remote and a b s t r a c t , a c t u a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l .  The r e a d e r i s both a t one w i t h the i n f e r n a l  experience of the f i g u r e s of  pagan m y t h , heroes o f h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e ,  and p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the a c t u a l w o r l d , and r e m o t e l y and o b j e c t i v e l y j u d g i n g t h e n a t u r e and m e r i t of these i n f e r n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . of Hell  The v i s i o n  i s u n i v e r s a l i z e d y e t the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p a r a l l e l s make t h e  v i s i o n r e a l , c o n c r e t e and e x p e r i e n t i a l .  Hell  becomes a p o s s i b i l i t y ,  a p o t e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e , a possibfe l i n e o f e x i s t e n c e .  The  splendour and r a d i a n c e o f the h e a v e n l y c i t y has t h i s same q u a l i t y o f immediacy.  P o u n d ' s v i s i o n o f P a r a d i s e i s e x p r e s s e d the same t e r m s ,  and w i t h t h e same r e f e r e n c e s , as i s h i s v i s i o n o f Hades.  One  sympathizes w i t h , y e t o b j e c t i v e l y examines, t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f  Paradise  undergone by the heroes and v i s i o n a r i e s o f pagan m y t h , h i s t o r i c  63  p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s , as w e l l as contemporary  personae  e x p e r i e n c i n g and e n v i s i o n i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a P a r a d i s e , both i n n e r and a c t u a l . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f P a r a d i s e i n t h e C a n t o s , both e a r t h l y and s p i r i t u a l , i s accomplished through the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f l i g h t which i s the c o n t r o l 1ingmetaphor o f the poem.  imagery,  A wide-ranging v a r i e t y  o f l i g h t symbols and a n a l o g i e s are presented by Pound throughout the poem, u s u a l l y i n moments o f personal and l y r i c p o s i t i v e a s s e r t i o n o f the Cantos of l i g h t metaphors.  intensity.  The e n t i r e  i s a c c o m p l i s h e d through t h i s  One c o u l d s i m p l i f y Pound's s t r u c t u r i n g o f  presentation light  imagery by an a r b i t a r y d i v i s i o n o f h i s l i g h t images i n t o t h o s e which g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to the D i o n y s i a n and those which convey the A p o l l o n i a n n a t u r e s o f man.  T h i s would enable c o n v e n i e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f the d i v i n i t y  which Pound i s a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p r e s s , but would n e c e s s a r i l y be l e s s a complete statement o f the immense w e i g h t which Pound makes c o n t r o l l i n g l i g h t imagery b e a r .  than  his  However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y the  Dionysian  and A p o l l o n i a n n a t u r e s o f man t h a t Pound i s p u t t i n g f o r t h , a l b e i t i n a more complex form than t h i s d i v i s i o n would seem t o s u g g e s t . Dionysian nature stresses  The  t h e emotional involvement w i t h t h e w o r l d o f  Process t o an almost f r e n z i e d d e g r e e .  T h i s emotional f r e n z y Pound would  eschew, as h i s remarks on the " p l a s t i c t o c o i t u s " element o f Greek a r t displays.  However, Pound would no doubt a g r e e , and does  implicitly,  t h a t the D i o n y s i a n emotional i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e i n t u i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , i s v a l i d d e s p i t e the f r e n z y of the e a r l y c u l t i s t s .  Where Pound would  d i f f e r , l i e s i n t h a t s t r u c t u r i n g which he p l a c e s on t h e body and a s p i r i t , i n t e l l e c t and e m o t i o n , and which he f e l t was i n h e r e n t i n the Tuscan  64  aesthetic. The c o n c e p t i o n o f the body as p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t o f the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e 64 The A p o l l o n i a n element o f t h e Cantos seems r e a d i l y apparent i n  those  passages which a r e d e d i c a t e d t o C o n f u c i u s and t h e C o n f u c i a n d o c t r i n e of "chung."  However, t o c a l l  t h i s an A p o l l o n i a n element i s a v a s t  o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , as C o n f u c i a n p h i l o s o p h y i s s u f f i c i e n t l y mature t o c o n t a i n both p o l e s o f t h e D i o n y s i a n / A p o l l o n i a n d u a l i t y .  It  is  n e c e s s a r y , then t o adopt a l a r g e r framework i n which t o c o n s i d e r Pound's l i g h t imagery.  However, i t should be borne i n mind t h a t t h e  D i o n y s i a n / A p o l l o n i a n d i v i s i o n can be made, p r o v i d e d one a l l o w s f o r Pound's h i e r a r c h i c a l v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i o n between the sense and t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l Confucian  response  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , and t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f  philosophy.  The l i g h t p a t t e r n o f the Cantos i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o the  Dionysian  and A p o l l o n i a n p e r s p e c t i v e s ; however, each a s p e c t must be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n o r d e r t o be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d .  The D i o n y s i a n ,  or  i n t u i t i v e element o f the Poundian metaphysic i s concerned w i t h t h e w i t h t h e a s s e r t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the pagan gods i n a l l t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , e l u c i d a t i o n o f the omnipotence and u b i q u i t y o f these deitfes a t a l l l e v e l s i n t h e world of p r o c e s s , and statement o f the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the D i o n y s i a n element i n man and by man. presence and power o f the pagan d i v i n i t i e s  Thus, t h e  i s asserted e a r l y in the  poem.  64 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and F a b e r , 1934, p. 349  65  Venerandam, In the C r e t a n ' s p h r a s e , w i t h the golden crown, A p h r o d i t e , C y p r i munimenta s o r t i t a e s t , m i r t h f u j , o r i c h a l c h i , w i t h golden G i r d l e s and b r e a s t bands, thou w i t h dark e y e l i d s B e a r i n g t h e golden bough o f A r g i c i d a . ( I , 71-75) And A c o e t e s , the o n l y one t o r e c o g n i z e the presence o f D i o n y s i u s ,  is  the o n l y cre-member t o be spared when t h e god wreaks vengeance upon the crew f o r  "god-sleight."  A y e , I,  A c o e t e s , stood t h e r e , and t h e god stood by me,  (II,  62-63)  He has a god i n him, though I do not know which god.  (II,  109-110j_  Olibanum i s my i n c e n s e , t h e v i n e s grow i n my homage.  (II,  100-101)  The Canto i m n e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e mystery g o d ' s p r e s e n c e , a s s e r t s , w i t h m a r v e l o u s l y l y r i c  Dionysian  intensity  the m u l t i - f o r m e d u b i q u i t y o f t h e pagan d e i t i e s and begins  the  p r o g r e s s i o n o f l i g h t imagery which i s t o be c a r r i e d on throughout  the  whole o f t h e poem. Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r , B r i g h t gods and T u s c a n , back b e f o r e dew was shed, L i g h t : and the f i r s t l i g h t , b e f o r e ever dew was f a l l e n . P a n i s k s , and from the oak, d r y a s , And from the a p p l e , m a e l i d , Through a l l the wood, and the l e a v e s are f u l l of v o i c e s , A - w h i s p e r , and t h e c l o u d s bowe over the l a k e , And t h e r e a r e gods upon them, ( H I , 7-14)  66  The r e c o n g n i t i o n o f the D i o n y s i a n by man, and the n e c e s s i t y o f man's i n t e g r a t i n g h i m s e l f i n t o the w o r l d o f P r o c e s s by r e c o g n i t i o n o f  this  element i n h i m s e l f , are key c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o the power o f the pagan gods, f o r , " g o d - s l e i g h t "  r e s u l t s i n t h e l o s s o f o n e ' s humanity and  consequent r e v e r s i o n t o t h e b e s t i a l , as Pound i l l u s t r a t e s by t h e matter o f the a b d u c t i o n of D i o n y s u i s crew t o b e a s t s .  and t h e r e s u l t a n t changing o f t h e  Acoetes, recognizing godliness  i t s e l f , retains  his  humanity  And I w o r s h i p . I have seen what I have seen. When they brought the boy I s a i d : "He has a god i n him, though I do not know which g o d , "  (II,  and i s a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f i n t o t h e process o f n a t u r e , o f h i s r e c o g n i t i o n and a d o r a t i o n o f  because  godliness.  And Lyaeus: "From now, A c o e t e s , my a l t a r s , F e a r i n g no bondage, f e a r i n g no c a t of the wood, S a f e w i t h my l y n x e s , f e e d i n g grapes to my l e o p a r d s , Olibanum i s my i n c e n s e , t h e v i n e s grow i n my homage," L a t e r , Pound s t r e s s e s  106-110),  ( 1 1 , 96-101)  a g a i n t h e need f o r man t o t r u l y r e a l i s e  his  p l a c e i n the n a t u r a l o r d e r of the w o r l d o f P r o c e s s , h i s e s s e n t i a l oneness w i t h a l l  life.  P u l l down t h y v a n i t y , I say p u l l down. Learn o f t h e green w o r l d what can be thy p l a c e In s c a l e d i n v e n t i o n o r t r u e a r t i s t r y , P u l l down they v a n i t y , Paquin p u l l down!  ( L X X X I , 144-148)  67  L i g h t i s employed t o p r e s e n t t h e A p o l l o n i a n a s p e c t o f man's n a t u r e as w e l l as t h e D i o n y s i a n .  The A p o l l o n i a n element o f the Cantos  r e f e r s to the a x i s o f o r d e r , which f o r Pound, i s t h e C o n f u c i a n , a t y p e o f r a t i o n a l i s m and i d e a l i s m a c h i e v e d through s e l f knowledge and compassion f p V o n e ' s f e l l o w man.  The d i v i n e t o Pound i s a t t a i n a b l e  through s a c r i f i c e o f o n e ' s sense o f s e l f as s e p a r a t e from the w o r l d of Process.  The heavenly c i t y can be r e a l i z e d here and now, i f man  would e s t a b l i s h h i s c o n n e x t i o n w i t h the d i v i n e , through i n t u i t i v e response t o t h e p r o c e s s , b o l s t e r e d by the use o f the now c l e a r intellect.  The A p o l l o n i a n , o r o r d e r e d element o f d i v i n i t y , presented  a l s o by means o f l i g h t imagery, i s concerned w i t h the e x p r e s s i o n of the r a d i a n c e o f the heavenly c i t y and t h e sacred homes o f the gods, d e s c r i p t i o n of t e human i n t e l l i g e n c e informed by t h e i m a g i n a t i v e sense response  through the metaphor o f l i g h t and l i g h t f o r m a t i o n , and  l i g h t i s a l s o used as a metaphor or a n a l o g y f o r t h e f o r m i n g i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e i n the i n t e l l e c t and i m a g i n a t i o n o f man.  Thus, the v i s i o n  of  the heavenly c i t y has been a t t a i n e d by a l l s o c i e t i e s , the l i g h t o f the hold scarab o f E g y p t i a n myth i s as v a l i d and powerful as t h e l i g h t of Mount T a i s h a n , the Olympus o f C h i n a .  the g r e a t scarab i s bowed a t t h e a l t a r t h e green l i g h t gleams i n h i s s h e l l  •  •  •  •  as o f Shun on Mt. Taishan  (LXXXIV, 122,123)  •  (LXXIV, 128)  The v a r i o u s uses o f l i g h t f l o w t o g e t h e r i n the s e v e n t y - f o u r t h C a n t o , where the l i g h t o f m y t h i c d e i t i e s , medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y and C o n f u c i a n  68  philosophy  a r e j u x t a p o s e d , t o be i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by t h e  character "ming." light,"  The l i g h t o f n a t u r a l  Chinese  i n t u i t i o n i s the  gleaming i n t h e s h e l l o f the sacred E g y p t i a n  "green  scarab.  This  i n t u i t i v e grasp o f the d i v i n e l i g h t i s connected t o t h e p a t t e r n o f l i f e Chinese  peasant s o c i e t y .  It  i s a t e n s i l e , or v i a b l e , l i g h t , a p p l i c a b l e  t o a s o c i e t y r u l e d by a p r i e s t l y h i e r a r c h y , as i n a n c i e n t E g y p t , and t o a peasant l i f e o f a g r a r i a n economy, as i n e a r l y C h i n a . the d i v i n e l i g h t , i n which John Scotus E r i g e n a  It  is  saw a l l m a t e r i a l  as p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h e l i g h t o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e working  both things  upward  from a man t o the d i v i n e .  in the l i g h t of l i g h t i s the v i r t u  (LXXIV,  126)  In t h e l i g h t o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e i s the power, the c a p a c i t y f o r the divine.  Man can p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i v i n i t y and c r e a t e h i s h e a v e n l y  city  on e a r t h , through a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s u n i f i e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , the i n t u i t i o n and the i n t e l l e c t t o g e t h e r .  Man, as p a r t o f t h e w o r l d of  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the d i v i n e l i g h t .  Process,  He i s one o f the " a l l t h i n g s , "  that  E r i g e n a saw as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the l i g h t o f d i v i n i t y .  " s u n t l u m i n a " s a i d t h e Oirishaman "OMNIA, a l l things that are are l i g h t s " All  things  (LXXIV, 143-145)  a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d of P r o c e s s , man i n c l u d e d ,  and t h e Process world of  to King Carol u s ,  works toward t h e d i v i n e and e x a l t e d .  Light is  the  Process,  all  things  "OMNIA. that are are l i g h t s "  ( L X X I V , 144-145)  in  69  and man has the l i g h t o f h i s  i n t e g r a t e d , harmonized,  intelligence, (LXXIV,  i n the l i g h t of l i g h t i s t h e v i r t u  126)  which i s t h e f l e x i b l e , w i d e l y - i n t e r p r e t e d power, a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l c o n d i t i o n s and m i l i e u x .  Light tensile  (LXXIV,  immaculata  The Chinese c h a r a c t e r " m i n g , " w h i c h Pound employs t h e d i s p a r a t e uses o f l i g h t , i s total  process  141)  to fuse a l l  i n t e r p r e t e d by Pound t o r e p r e s e n t  of l i g h t i n t h e u n i v e r s e ,  the  both m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l .  The ideogram i s composed o f elements which r e p r e s e n t the sun and the moon, hence, t h e t o t a l m a t e r i a l l i g h t p r o c e s s , and r e f l e c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l l i g h t . l i g h t which G r o s s e t e s t e  t h e emanation, r a d i a t i o n ,  T h i s i s the t a n g i b l e and c o r p o r e a l  was a t t e m p t i n g t o p i n p o i n t .  In  Confucian  philosopfy, however, the ideogram i s used t o r e p r e s e n t a s e r i e s d i s t i n c t i o n s made i n t h e A n a l e c t s by the M a s t e r .  of  " M i n g " means to be  b r i g h t , c l e a r , i n t e l l i g e n t - a s t a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the d i v i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e , r a d i a n t w i t h the c l a r i t y o f d i v i n e v i s i o n .  I t can a l s o  mean to c l e a n s e or burn away t h e d r o s s , t o i l l u s t r a t e , and t o understand.  T h e r e f o r e , P o u n d ' s use o f t h e ideogram must be seen as a  c u l m i n a t i o n , as t h e peak o f the p a t t e r n o f l i g h t i n t h e "Ming,"  represents  saw i n a l l t h i n g s .  Cantos.  t h e m a t e r i a l l i g h t of the u n i v e r s e which It  i s a l s o the d i v i n e l i g h t of t h e u n i v e r s e ,  ....white l i g h t of  the sun's cord  Erigena  allness  unspotted.  (XXXVI, 70)  (LXXIV, 142)  the  70  t o which man i s connected through h i s p l a c e in t h e w o r l d of  Process.  Between these two extremes, l i e s the power o f the human i n t e l l i g e n c e , which has a l i g h t o f i t s own comprehension.  The C o n f u c i a n use o f  as t h e a c t i o n o f the u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  the d i v i n e element i n man,  stresses  "ming,"  h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e informed by h i s f e e l i n g , h i s sympathy o r r e a l i z a t i o n of his e s s e n t i a l  p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d of P r o c e s s .  Man must see h i s  place  i n tfe n a t u r a l o r d e r , must e s t a b l i s h harmony between h i s f e e l i n g and intellect.  He must cease t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h the l i m i t e d , and  l i m i t i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l response, as s e p a r a t e from the w o r l d o f  and cease t o see h i s own e x i s t e n c e  Process.  Learn o f t h e green w o r l d what can be t h y p l a c e  •  •  •  •  •  •  (LXXI,  145)  •  P u l l down thy v a n i t y .  (LXXXI,  When he ceases t o make these a r t i f i c i a l  147)  d i s t i n c t i o n s , man's i n t e l l i g e n c e  i s f r e e d and hence, a b l e t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e r e a l w o r l d , the r e a l m o f i d e a , P l a t o n i c f o r m s , o r i d e a l .  He i s now a b l e t o ,  bust t h r u from q u t i d i e n i n t o ' d i v i n e o r permanent w o r l d . ' Gods, e t c . 65 Once the q u e s t i o n o f the d i v i d e d house o f human response man can move on t o t h e q u e s t i o n what w h i t e n e s s w i l l  is  solved,  of,  you add t o t h i s w h i t e n e s s , what candour?  (LXXIV, 16-17)  65 P a i g e , D.D., e d i t o r . The L e t t e r s o f E z r a Pound 1907-1941, New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace & W o r l d , I n c . , 1950, p. 210  71  and seek h i s p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s  divinity.  Once a b l e to u t i l i z e  complete i n t e l l i g e n c e and t o see the d i v i n e element i n i t s  permanent  r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n r e t e o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e of the w o r l d o f man i s a b l e t o r e a l i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e heavenly  his  Process,  city.  t o b u i l d the c i t y o f Dioce whose t e r r a c e s a r e t h e c o l o u r o f  stars  (LXXIV, 10) Canto t h i r t y - s i x i s c e n t r a l t o t h e e n t i r e metaphysic o f the l a r g e r framework o f t h e C a n t o s , spiritual  i n t h a t , i t d e a l s w i t h the  personal  growth of the i n d i v i d u a l who would see the d i v i n e l i g h t and  l e a r n what i s h i s t r u e p l a c e i n t h e u n i v e r s e .  The f i r s t f i v e s t a n z a s  of  the Canto a r e a t r a n s l u c e n c e o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s canzone and d i f f e r e n t from the Pound t r a n s l a t i o n o f Donna Me P r e g a . The major d i f f e r e n c e a r e P o u n d ' s emphasis o f t h e l i g h t imagery and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the mercede, the guerdon t o be won.  We have seen t h a t C a v l c a n t i ' s  views o f l i g h t  and  l o v e were i n t e r r e l a t e d , i n t h a t l o v e i n human p s y c h o l o g y i s analogous to t h e p h y s i c a l f o r m a t i o n of l i g h t i n the u n i v e r s e , and t h a t material  this  l i g h t has a l s o a s p i r i t u a l , o r a t l e a s t n o n - c o r p o r e a l ,  aspect,  due t o the medieval b e l i e f i n a u n i v e r s e which owed i t s e x i s t e n c e t o d i v i n e emanation,  Man, i n a s t a t e o f l o v e r e f l e c t s t h e d i v i n e  element  i n h i s own n a t u r e , but he must c o n t i n u a l l y f o c u s upon the supersensuous i d e a l o f l o v e and t r a n s c e n d t h a t a s p e c t of l o v e which merely p h y s i c a l and sensuous. of l o v e i s an element n e c e s s a r y d i v i n e n a t u r e o f man.  Nevertheless,  the c o n c r e t e sense  is  response  to the growth and development o f t h e  The " g u e r d o n , "  to be won, o r mercede, t o  C a v a l c a n t i r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon the supersensuous i d e a l o f l o v e , the attempt to d i s c e r n the i d e a o r P l a t o n i c form o f l o v e . P o u n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f the C a v a l c a n t i canzone, t h e " g e r d o n , "  t o be  In  72  won, or mercede t o be g r a n t e d , becomes compassion.  This  is a divine  sympathy, a f e l l o w - f e e l i n g , which i n s t i g a t e s change i n the v e r y s o c i a l o f man, thedaydadhvam o f Hindu p h i l o s o p h y ,  nature  Man, a b l e t o sympathize w i t h  the e x p e r i e n c e o f h i s f e l l o w man, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a man of u n i f i e d s e n s i b i l i t y - i n t u i t i o n and i n t e l l e c t a r e i n d o s s o l u b l y u n i t e d i n one response.  The response  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a e s t h e t i c , i n the e a s t e r n sense  o f t h e word, i n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t t h e response o f a complete and harmonized b e i n g , f e e l i n g w i t h h i s f e l l o w man, b u t , due to h i s s e n s i b i l i t y , a b l e t o d i r e c t h i s sense response intellect.  The response  concept of e i n f u h l u n g ,  integrated  w i t h the r a t i o n a l  d i f f e r s from the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y German which i s a f e e l i n g o f oneness which a man may  f e e l w i t h t h e " o t h e r " o f the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f n a t u r e .  This  e i n f u h l u n g i s d e f f e r e n t , i n t h a t , the v a l u e s o f the vfewer a r e  super-  imposed onto t h e a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t ; i t i s n o t t h e n , a t r u l y a e s t h e t i c response as Pound sees i t , as i t r e p r e s e n t s , not an u n i f i e d , but an intellectual  response.  W i t h i n the framework of the Cantos, and s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i n t h e t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto i t s e l f , t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e s p o n s e . A l t h o u g h t h e t r a n s l a t i o n uses compassion employs the cognate word, mercy. l e s s p r e c i s e term than compassion, Renaissance.  f o r mercede, the t r a n s l u c e n c e  The meaning i s t h e same, but mercy i s a b e a r i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s form the  English  However, the d e n o t a t i o n i s o f the essence f o r purposes  d i s c u s s i o n and one must r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s p a r t o f a much l a r g e r  of  framework.  Perhaps Pound w i s h e s ; t e g i v e as c l o s e an i m p r e s s i o n o f the o r i g i n a l poem as i s p o s s i b l e .  He s p e l l s out h i s e x a c t meaning in o ; t h e r  places,  n o t a b l y Canto t h i r t e e n , the C o n f u c i a n , o r l_i_ s e c t i o n o f t h e poem.  The  f u l l meaning o f mercy and compassion, e x i s t e n t i n t h e framework o f t h e Anglo-Saxon e p i c , appears  i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h Canto, which d e a l s w i t h the  73  t h i r t e e n t h C a n t o , which d e a l s w i t h the C o n f u c i a n concept o f deference. feel  brotherly  S e l f development t o a h i g h degree i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e one can  t h i s compassion.  The i n d i v i d u a l must u n i f y and i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f  before  he may l o o k t o h i s f e l l o w man. And Kung s a i d , and wrote upon t h e bo l e a v e s : I f a man have not o r d e r w i t h i n him He can not spread o r d e r about him; And i f a man have not o r d e r w i t h i n him H i s f a m i l y w i l l not a c t w i t h due o r d e r ; And i f t h e p r i n c e have not o r d e r w i t h i n him He can no put o r d e r i n h i s d o m i n i o n s . And Kung gave t h e words " o r d e r " and " b r o t h e r l y d e f e r e n c e " and s a i d n o - t h i n g of t h e " l i f e a f t e r d e a t h . " And he s a i d "Anyone can run t o e x c e s s e s , I t i s easy t o shoot p a r t the mark, It  i s hard t o stand f i r m i n the m i d d l e . "  ( X I I I , 45-58)  The l i g h t imagery of t h e t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto p r e s e n t s  the pure  l i g h t of d i v i n i t y , e x i s t e n t i n a w o r l d of P r o c e s s , t h e P r o c e s s  as  bathed i n c e l e s t i a l radiance - the g e m - l i k e r a d i a n c e o f the P a r a d i s a l l i g h t , t h e c e l e s t i a l r a d i a n c e o f i d e a l l o v e , and t h e concept t h a t man, through the e f f e c t s o f t h i s d i v i n e l o v e , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n and t h e d i v i n e element of human n a t u r e . originates to beauty.  Love, as Pound express  expresses it,  i n t h e i n t e l l e c t i v e memory as t h e r e s u l t o f the sense  response  I t has a P l a t o n i c form or i d e a , which when u n i t e d t o the  sense response, o r i n t u i t i o n , i s a source o f e t e r n a l l i g h t i n i t s e l f . Thus, l o v e  is  Formed l i k e a d i a f a n from l i g h t on shade through t h e response  o f t h e senses to b e a u t y , which sensuous  (XXXVI, 18) response  i s always t h e c o n c r e t e , or e x p e r i e n t i a l element o f l o v e , r e g a r d l e s s how a b s t r a c t and i d e a l i z e d i t may become through t h e workings o f t h e active intellect .  of  74  Which shadow cometh of Mars and remaineth C r e a t e d , h a v i n g a name s e n s a t e ,  (XXXVI, 19-20)  The i n t e l l e c t u a l , o r n o n - e x p e r i e n t i a l , element o f l o v e i s t h e P l a t o n i c form o r idea o f l o v e , which u n i t e s w i t h t h e sense response to c r e a t e a source o f d i v i n e r a d i a n c e w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Cometh from a seen form which b e i n g understood Taketh l o c u s and r e m a i n i n g i n t h e i n t e l l e c t p o s s i b l e (XXXVI, 23  -24)  T h i s i s an energy o f t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s , d i s - c o n n e c t e d form the theoretical  d e i t y o f o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n , but s t i l l  the e s s e n t i a l l y c e l e s t i a l or d i v i n e .  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  A part of the o b j e c t i v e world of  P r o c e s s w i t h o u t m a t e r i a l c o n n e x i o n , i e . , an element o f t h e " w o r l d o f moving  energies."  Wherein hath he n e i t h e r weight nor s t i l l - s t a n d i n g . (XXXVI, 25) T h i s power, o r e n e r g y ,  i s i n i t s e l f , a source o f c e l e s t i a l l i g h t t o  man, i e . , i t a l l o w s t h e emanation o f s p i r i t u a l l i g h t from w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , but has no connexion w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l d e i t i e s .  n e t h out  It  (XXXVI, 26-27)  i s the l i g h t of l o v e which i s formed i n t h e darkness o f the  instincts  by t h e sense response t o b e a u t y , and which i n t e g r a t e s the i d e a l and the a c t u a l i t y of l o v e , t o i l l u m i n a t e the soul o f i n d i v i d u a l man.  The  emanation o f l i g h t from l o v e i n man i s a p e r p e t u a l source o f c e l e s t i a l  75  r a d i a n c e and comes o n l y to the man who i s c o n s c i o u s l y  striving for  s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n and who p e r c e i v e s i n t u i t i v e l y t h e " m i d d l e , " which C o n f u c i o u s f e l t a man to have t r o u b l e  in  standing.  He i s not v e r t u but cometh o f t h a t p e r f e c t i o n Which i s so p o s t u l a t e not by the reason But ' t i s f e l t , I say.  (XXXVI, 30 -32j_  The connexion between t h e l i g h t o f l o v e , and t h e l i g h t o f t h e c e l e s t i a l i s made i n the f i f t h s t a n z a o f the t r a n s l u c e n c e , where Pound l o v e as unknowable from i t s outward appearance.  describes  Love can be known o n l y  i f t h e l o v e r p e r c e i v e i n t u i t i v e l y i t s presence i n the " w o r l d o f moveing energies,"  the world o f  Process.  Nor i s he known from h i s f a c e But taken i n t h e w h i t e l i g h t t h a t i s a l l n e s s This "white l i g h t of a l l n e s s , "  (XXXVI 67-70)  the c e l e s t i a l element i n t h e  Poundian m e t a p h y s i c , i s r e f l e c t e d i n P o u n d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c i t y and appears a l s o , i n the same Canto, as the t o t a l i n man.  heavenly  of t h e d i v i n e  The heavenly c i t y has t h e same l i g h t , as has t h e d i v i n e  in  man. To b u i l d t h e c i t y o f Dioce whose t e r r a c e s are t h e c o l o u r o f  stars.  ( L X X I V , 10)  •  •  •  what w h i t e n s s w i l l you add t o t h i s  •  whiteness,  what candour?  (LXXIV 16)  Man must r e a l i z e the d i v i n e i n h i m s e l f , make i t manifest, b e f o r e the  •  76  heavenly c i t y can become even a remote p o s s i b i l i t y .  In t h e C a v a l c a n t i  C a n t o , t h i s heavenly c i t y i s d e s c r i b e d in terms of gem imagery, but t h e same l i g h t i s p r e s e n t and i s connected t o the w o r l d o f through John Scotus E r i g e n a . quotidien," spiritual  Process  The h e a v e n l y c i t y , the " b u s t t h r u from  b r i n g s us t o a c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f human e x p e r i e n c e and  growth, t o t h e t h r o n e s of the h e a v e n l y c i t y .  Pound uses a  quote form E r i g e n a t o p r e s e n t an e a r l y glimpse o f the c i t y of c e l e s t i a l radiance. it C a l l e d t h r o n e s , b a l a s c i o o r t o p a z e " E r i u g i n a was n o t understood i n h i s time  The ruby and t o p a z l i g h t o f t h e P a r a d i s a l v i s i o n  (XXXVI, 85-86)  i s a l s o connected t o  t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s , l a t e r i n the poem, as the l i g h t imagery reaches a c l i m a x c o n d i t i o n , f u s e d i n t o the C o n f u c i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Chinese l i g h t ideogram, " m i n g . "  The l i g h t o f l o v e , of i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  o f i n t u i t i o n , s h i n e s through t h e " b a l a s c i o or t o p a z , " o f through  Erigena  also, the g r e a t scarab i s bowed a t the a l t a r the green l i g h t gleams i n h i s s h e l l  (LXXIV, 122-123)  and through the gems o f t h e e a r l y pagan Greek v i s i o n . Smaragodos, c h r y s o l i t h o s ;  It  (VII  55)  i s the same l i g h t t h a t shone on Olympus, a n d .  as o f Shun on Mt. T a i s h a n and i n the h a l l o f the f o r e b e a r s as from the b e g i n n i n g o f wonders  (LXXIV, 128-130)  77  In i t s p u r e s t form t h i s i s t h e " w h i t e l i g h t o f a l l n e s s , " t o w h i c h , Pound f e e l s t h a t each man must a s p i r e , and o f w h i c h , each must have a v i s i o n , i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o add, what w h i t e n e s s w i l l you add t o t h i s  whiteness,  what candour?  b e f o r e we can e s t a b l i s h t h e o r d e r w i t h i n , the o r d e r  (LXXIV, 16)  necessary  To b u i l d the c i t y o f Dioce whose t e r r a c e s a r e t h e c o l o u r o f (LXXIV 10)  stars.  78  Chapter F i v e :  Immersed  in the  Process  66 Robert Duncan's I T e l l o f L o v e ,  being, in i n t e n t i o n , a  v a r i a t i o n upon the Pound E s s a y on C a v a l c a n t i and Pound's of Donna Me P r e g a ,  translation  i s w r i t t e n i n h i s e a r l i e r p e r i o d , where Duncan's  work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n t e n s e f o c u s upon the psychology and t h e poets p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f L o v e . poem, " I f  I l i v e , I live for love."  As Duncan s a y s , i n a l a t e r 67 From the form of the  v a r i a t i o n , i t would appear t h a t Duncan does n o t s u b s r i b e t o an a e s t h e t i c , not t o a v i e w o f t h e u n i v e r s e , i n which t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f f o r and o r d e r by man i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , but r a t h e r , he f o c u s e s h i s own personal  upon  involvement i n t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s and work? toward  66 Duncan, R. E. Poems 1948-49, Glen G a r d n e r , New J e r s ^ : L i b e r t a r i a n P r e s s , n . d , pp 11-17. 67_  . C a e s a r ' s G a t e : Poems 1949-1950. S p a i n : D i v e r Press n.p.  1955.  79  the p o s s i b i l i t y of discovery. elements i s thus d i f f e r e n t  H i s c o n c e r n f o r the e x p e r i e n t i a l  from P o u n d ' s c o n c e r n , i n t h a t , w h i l e  Pound sees the e x p e r i e n t a l l y v e r i f i a b l e as a n e c e s s a r y and i n s p i r a t i o n a l element i n human i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c t s of h i s own personal intellectual  s t r u c t u r i n g Duncan's f o c u s i s upon t h e  e x p e r i e n c e and processes  b u i l d - u p from t h e i n i t i a l  and n o t upon the  sense .response  to s t i m u l i .  The  emotional and the u n r e s t r i c t e d a r e the primary elements i n Duncan's w o r k i n g a e s t h e t i c , which i s n e c e s s a r i l y b u i l t upon h i s own sense responses, stresses  f e e l i n g , emotion and c o n c e p t i o n s .  the personal  Pound, on the o t h e r  and e x p e r i e n t i a l elements as t h e y a r e  hand,  necessarily  i n t e g r a l to any a t t e m t p a t human s t r u c t u r i n g and works toward such an o r d e r i n g o r s t r u c t u r i n g through t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the e x p e r i e n c e s o f personae.  his  P o u n d ' s v i e w o f e x p e r i e n c e i s both s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e ,  i n that he p r e s e n t s  both h i s own e x p e r i e n c e and h i s response  t o i t , and  the e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r s and t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e responses t o i t .  In  terms  of the modern n o v e l , t h i s i s equal t o a comparison o f the stream o f consciousness Joyce.  t e c h n i q u e , as i t i s employed by V i r g i n i a Woolf and James  M r s . Woolf t r i e s t o p r e s e n t the stream e n t i r e , so  pre-occupied  i s iie w i t h t h e f l u x i t s e l f , Joyce however, selects from the stream and p r e s e n t s h i s s e l e c t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y . t e c h n i q u e i s comparable t o M r s . W o o l f ' s pre-occupied with the f l u x . of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  In t h i s comparison, Duncan's i n t h a t , l i k e her he  is  However, i n s t e a d o f a f l o w o f the stream  Duncan i s t o t a l l y immersed i n t h e P r o c e s s , one atom o f  b i l l i o n s a t f l u x i n a u n i v e r s e of f l o w i n g m a t t e r and energy. not to be c o n s t r u e d as a d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m o r disparagement  This  is  o f Duncan's  p h i l o s o p h y o r t e c h n i q u e , as he does n o t seek t o impose an o r d e r on the chaos o f h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , nor does he attempt t o c r e a t e any  80  logical  p a t t e r n or f o r m .  He has s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t such  f o r m a l i z a t i o n i s o u t s i d e o f h i s a e s t h e t i c i n t e n t i o n , "I a synthesis,  but a m e l e e . "  do not seek  68  A p a r t from t h e apparent i d s t i n c t i o n s of form between Pound and Duncan, c e r t a i n elements o f v i s i o n a r e w i d e l y s e p a r a t e , namely, the a b i l i t y t o see human e x p e r i e n c e as c o m p r i s i n g an e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o r c o n t i n u u m , the emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s p o n s e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l as n e c e s s a r i l y - f o r m i n g a u n i t y , and, the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a meaningful  o r d e r i n an e s s e n t i a l l y c h a o t i c  universe.  Pound's v i s i o n o f the u n i v e r s e embraces the concept t h a t a l l men, no matter how remote i n time o r s p a c e , are e s s e n t i a l l y k i n i n t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e a r e i n v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s ; o n l y t h e outward and m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of these p r i n c i p l e s d i f f e r .  Beneath t h e  i l l u s o r y w o r l d o f s u r f a c e a c t u a l i t y , l i e immutable f o r c e s and  ideas,  which a r e more r e a l and hence, more permanent than t h e w o r l d o f apparent r e a l i t y . of general  T h i s concept i s w e l l  i l l u s t r a t e d i n P o u n d ' s statement  i n t e n t i o n r e f e r r e d t o i n note f i f t y - s i x above.  This p r i n c i p l e  o f human k i n s h i p , both o f e x i s t e n c e and o f a s p i r a t i o n , p a r t i a l l y account f o r the t e c h n i q u e o f personae which pound employs i n the poem,  He i s s e l e c t i n g from t h e continuum of h i s t o r y moments o f  s i g n i f i c a n c e , heroic events, instances of i n t e l l e c t u a l  insight  historic and  c l a r i t y o f s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n , and d r a m a t i z i n g them by j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h o t h e r events and e x p e r i e n c e s , e i t h e r h i s t o r i c o r comtemporary,  68  A l l e n , D.,  editor,  Grove P r e s s , I n c . ,  which  The New American P o e t r y : 1945-1960, New Y o r k :  1960, p.  406.  81  he f e e l s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the v a l u e system o f the poem.  Thus, i n the  t h i r t y - s i x C a n t o , t h e concepts of l o v e and compassion, which Pound has managed t o draw from t h e C a v a l c a n t i canzone, a r e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by an e n c a p s u l a t i o n o f E r i g e n a ' s  p h i l o s o p h i c conception of d i v i n e  P r o c e s s , a v i s i o n o f the b e - g e w e l l e d heavenly c i t y , a condemnation o f A r i s t o t l e and A q u i n a s , and h i s t o r i c examples of t h e a n t i t h e s e s o f l o v e and compassion.  The i d e a l i z e d c o n c e p t i o n o f l o v e , c o n t a i n e d i n  the C a v a l c a n t i cansone and presented i n the e a r l y s t a n z a s of the t h i r t y - s i x t h C a n t o , i s f o l l o w e d by a statement o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l nature of physical  love,  Sacrum, sacrum, i n l u m i n a t i o c o i t u .  (XXXVI, 96)  w h i c h , because t h e q u o t a t i o n i s i n L a t i n , suggest a western and a C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t , but which a l s o suggest t h e Hindu d o c t r i n e o f T a n t r i c Yoga.  I d e o g r a m m i c a l l y , Pound has connected t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  p h i l o s o p h y o f pagan Greece, Tuscany, t h e P r o v e c a l t r o u b a d o r s ,  the  S c h o l a s t i c movement o f medieval C h r i s t a i n i t y and A s i a n p h i l o s o p y .  Thus,  the p o s i t i o n o f man i n h i s t o r y f o r Pound, i s one o f k i n s h i p and u n i t y w i t h man i n h i s t o r y and i n t h e p r e s e n t .  I m p l i c i t a l s o , i s the r e l a t e d  c o n c e p t o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e , as each age b u i l d s upon the e x p e r i e n c e and memory of t h a t which preceeds i t .  Thus f o r Pound,  t h e c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e o r e t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f  Confucian  p h i l o s o p h y a r e as v a l i d f o r the w r l d o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t r u r y as t h e y were i n a n c i e n t C h i n a , and the h e a v e n l y c i t y , o f which man has a v i s i o n i n every a g e , i s one w i t h the h e a v e n l y c i t y o f D i o c e .  82  And Kung gave the words " o r d e r " and " b r o t h e r l y d e f e r e n c e " And s a i d n o t h i n g o f t h e " l i f e a f t e r d e a t h . "  ( X I I I 52-54)  To b u i l d t h e c i t y o f Dioce whose t e r r a c e s a r e the c o l o u r o f  stars.  (LXXIV 10) This v i s i o n of the e s s e n t i a l  k i n s h i p o f a l l men, and sense of t h e  c o n t i n u i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e i s absent from Duncan's v a r i a t i o n poem, t h e - v e r y tone o f which suggests the world as chaos and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Perhaps i t i s o n l y because t h e poem r e p r e s e n t s t h e t e s t i m o n y o f Duncan's personal e x p e r i e n c e , b u t , the p o e t ' s v i s i o n o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n does seem t o be one o f darkness and d i s o r d e r . He h e i g h t e n s the sense of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g darkness  •  •  •  •  (46-47_)  •  ...I look upon d i s o r d e r w i t h a new eye.  (114-115)  Have I n o t had dark r e a s o n s ?  (74)  You d i s t u r b e d t h e p a t t e r n .  (39)  83  One can e x p l a i n away t h i s i m p r e s s i o n , f o r , the poem i s not i n t e g r a l t o any l a r g e whole, e x p r e s s i n g a t o t a l view o f t h e u n i v e r s e , nor  is  i t s e e k i n g t o express o b j e c t i v e l y t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e o f o t h e r mera. However, t h e tone o f t h e n e g a t i v e passages, the c o n s t a n t r e t u r n t o those elements which negate l o v e , compassion Duncan's sense o f darkness distinct  and c h a o s , u n i t e t o g i v e the r a d e r a  i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e a t o m i z a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l  man i n Duncan's u n i v e r s e . serves  and u n i t y , combined w i t h  Seen from another a n g l e , t h i s  impression  to i n c r e a s e the poignancy o f the poem, and r e n d e r s more  immediate t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e which Duncan has undergone  by  e m p h a s i z i n g t h e c o n t r a s t s between l o v e , l i g h t and u n i t y on one hand, and d a r k e n e s s ,  f e a r , and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n on the o t h e r .  sense of disharmony  Hoever,  i s b o l s t e r e d by the sense o f a d i v i d e d  this  response  and the l a c k o f any p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the i m p o s i t i o n o f o r d e r upon human e x p e r i e n c e , which the poem p r e s e n t s .  At f i r s t glance, the u n i f i c a t i o n  o f s e n s i b i l i t y which Pound saw as a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the growth and development of l o v e w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , would seem t o be i m p l i c i t i n Duncan's v a r i a t i o n poem. state of love  He speaks o f h i s response  as,  g i v i n g up my w i t , my e s s e n c e , i n t o the l i g h t of i t . a n d , quotes from Pound on l o v e  (6-7) as,  " n o t to d e l i g h t , but i n an a r d o u r o f t h o u g h . " a l s o , o f l o v e as " c a s t i n g h i s own l i g h t : "  (43)  t o the  84  "where thought has i t s d e m a r c a t i o n , the substance i t s v i r t u . "  (51-52)  y e t , he does not p e r c i e v e l o v e w i t h i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n u n i t e d , but r a t h e r , speaks of  being.  . . . . f i l l e d w i t h a n o t i o n o f form t h a t seems v i s i b l e .  (18-19)  Does n o t eh h e a r t hunger f o r l o v e ; and t h e mind learn patience,  (24 - 26)  and asks,  Presumably, the hunger of the " h e a r t , " and the p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e " n o t i o n , " o f t h e i d e a l o f l o v e , are metaphors, f o r the i n t u i t i o n , o r sense r e s p o n s e ,  but s u r e l y these a r e i n a d e q u a t e , i m p r e c i s e and  vague s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the p r e c i s e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which Pound made btween the i n t u i t i o n and the i n t e l l e c t ? apprehension  N o t i o n denotes a p a r t i a l  of a c o n c e p t , a g e n e r a l i d e a o r a vague t h o u g h t ;  connotes t h a t t h i s apprehension  i s l i m i t e d and i n c o m p l e t e .  and  The " h e a r t , "  as a metaphor f o r f e e l i n g and e m o t i o n , i s a t i r e d and hackneyed colloquial  c o i n a g e , w i t h u n c l e a r d e n o t a t i o n and b e a r i n g  o f s u r f e i t f o emotion and mawkish s e n t i m e n t a l i t y .  connotations  In a l l  fairness  t o Duncan, however, i t should be emphasized t h a t these a r e metaphors f o r f e e l i n g and i n t u i t i v e r e s p o n s e , unfortunate connotations, and,  d e s p i t e t h i r i m p r e c i s i o n and  t h a t he i s t a k i n g c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e  f a c t t h a t l o v e has i t s i n c e p t i o n i n the u n c o n s c i o u s ,  intuitive  response.  85  The t h i r d s t a n z a , i n an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t a and the f e e l i n g i n t u i t i o n , opens w i t h a more c l e a r statement o f the r o l e o f t h e f e e l i n g s , ;but, e v e n t u a l l y l o s e s s i g h t t h e argument i n i n c o n s i s t e n c y .  Duncan u n e q u i v o c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t l o v e  has i t o r i g i n a l r e a c t i o n i n t h e sense  I feel  of  t h i s Love.  response,  (55)  and f o l l o w s t h e same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l Cavalcanti  argument  t h a t we have seen i n Pound's t a n s l a t i o n , essay and t r a n s l u c e n c e . Reason does not p e r c e i v e Him but t a k e s i t s l i g h t from H i s p r e s e n c e .  (56-57]_  Reason t a k e i t s l i g h t from h i s p r e s e n c e . This  (68,78)  i s t o say t h a t the i n t e l l e c t , which i s n o t i n harmony w i t h the  i n t u i t i o n , has n o t t r u e r e a s o n , but makes d i s t i n c t i o n s and  juedgments  which a r e p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l , i n t h a t , t h e y have no c o n c r e t e b a s i s the e x p e r i e n t i a l ,  in  However, t h e p o s i t i o n put f o r t h by Pound does not  seem t o be f u l l y c l e a r t o Duncan, as t h e r e would seem t o be a b a s i c inconsistency  i n the argument, which f o l l o w s t h e i n i t i a l  statement o f  t h e r e l a t i o n between reason and l o v e .  Reason i s a r i g h t form from which h i s r a d i a n c e f l o w s  (58-59)  Now perhaps I am m i s t a k e n i n t h i s , but t h e s e l i n e s appear t o c o n t r a d i c t  86  Duncan's o r i g i n a l  p o s i t i o n , i n t h a t , r e a s o n seems t o be a  p r i o r c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e growth and development o f l o v e .  necessary To f i t the argument  which has pneeeded, t h e f i f t y - n i t h l i n e should r e a d , " F l o w i n g from his radiance."  The dependence has h i t h e r t o been t h a t of reason  l o v e , b u t , the p o s i t i o n  on  l^as a p p a r e n t l y now been r e v e r s e d , and l o v e now  appears t o be dependent upon r e a s o n .  I f not an i n c o n s i s t e n c y  of  arguement, then c e r t a i n l y an a m b i g u i t y o f statement .-(has been c o m m i t t e d . or my r e a d i n g i s a t f a u l t .  I t c o u l d a l s o be t h a t t h e f i f t y - e i g h t j i l i n e  i s m e r e l y p l a c d - n g t h e " r i g h t f o r m " o f a u n i f i e d s t a t e of b e i n g  prior  t o both reason and t e h r a d i a n c e o f l o v e , but t h e n , one would have a d i f f i c u l t y i n p r o v i n g t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based upon t h e poem. l i n e s f u r t h e r i n t o the s t a n z a , t h e a m b i g u i t y o f t h i s l i n e i s c l a r i f i e d , but, the o r i g i n a l as e v e r .  Twelve  somewhat  i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e t u r n s , and one i s as  Duncan now ask i f he has n o t stumbled i n t h e absence o f  o r l a c k e d reason t o p e r c e i v e l o v e :  confused love,  (71)  which l a c k o f reason t o p e r c e i v e l o v e i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ,  since,  Reason does n o t p e r c e i v e Him But takes i t s l i g h t from H i s presense The f i n a l  (56-57)  l i n e o f t h e s t a n z a r e p e a t s t h e same argument, a n d , s i n c e  p o s i t i o n i s t h e one most e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d i n t h e s t a n z a , and  this  is  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e main argument of the poem, as w e l l as w i t h the Pound o r i g i n a l , a c c e p t i t we must.  However, the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f the  argument, o r t h e a m b i g u i t y o f s t a t e m t n t , i s a l a m e n t a b l e f l a w i n an o t h e r w i s e a c c e p t a b l e t e s t i m o n y t o t h e power of l o v e .  The e x p l a n a t i o n  of t h e i r occurence must remain i n the realm o f c o n j e c t u r e ;  perhaps  87  t h e most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n would be to see them i n l i g h t o f Duncan's statement o f h i s w o r k i n q a e s t h a t i c , "I 69 but a m e l e e , "  do not seek a  synthesis  p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t , f o r Duncan, t h e poem i s a s o r t  of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d process o f s e l f - d i s c o v e r y ;  a process  i n which he  may m i n g l e a l l the v a r i o u s elements o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n hope o f f h d i n g h i s i d e n t i t y , c o n v i c t i o n s and a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  With such a v i e w ,  the poem i s i n t e g r a l t o t h e p o e t ' s own n a t u r e , a segment o f h i s  search  f o r h i s own s o u l , and consequently, i s l a r g e enough t o c o n t a i n inconsistencies. Other q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n , though and e m o t i o n , a r i s e from Duncan's poem.  The o v e r a l l  i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e poem, i n t h i s r e g a r d , i t t h a t Duncan s u b s c r i b e s Pound's p o s i t i o n th£ t h e i d e a l  to  in t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o r the  i n t e l l e c t to b u i l d i t s p o s t u l a t e s upon the concrete e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e initial  sense a p p r e h e n s i o n .  One p e r c e i v e s i n t u i t i v e l y , and t h i s  response  i s b u i l t upon, or a b s t r a c t e d i n t o , t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the intellect.  T h i s i s demonstrable i n Pound's essay through h i s  statement  upon the n a t u r e o f the Tuscan a e s t h e t i c .  The c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e body as p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e pervades. 70  69 v i d . , 68n.  70 Pound, E z r a . Make I t New, London: Faber and F a b e r , 1934,  p.  349  88  A l s o , one may d e t e c t t h i s same view i n Pound's j i b e a t phrase-mongers  scholastic  among the o v e r - i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d s t u d e n t s of  psychology.  Whether i t i s n e c e s s a r y to modernize or n o r d i c i z e our t e r m i n o l o g y and c a l l t h i s " t h e a e s t h e t i c o r i n t e r a c t i v e vaso motor magnestism i n r e l a t i o n t o the c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " I l e a v e t o the r e a d e r ' s own t a s t e and sense of proportion. I am i n c l i n e d to t h i n k t h a t a h a b i t o f mind which i n s t t s upon, o r even tends t o w a r d , such t e r m i n o l o g y somewhat takes t h e bloom o f f t h e peach. 71  Duncan's s u b s c r i p t i o n t o P o u n d ' s views can be seen i n the o v e r a l l impression  t h a t t h e poem makes, t h a t l o v e a r i s e s  through t h e i n t u i t i v e  p e r c e p t i o n , and t h a t , Reason t a k e s i t s l i g h t from h i s p r e s e n c e .  (78)  However, as we have a l r e a d y seen, some degree o f c o n f u s i o n  arises  from the statements o f the t h i r d s t a n z a , and t h a t t h i s c o n f u s i o n  and  i t s source a r e d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e , due t o t h e working a e s t h e t i c which Duncan p r o f e s s e s .  That t h e power o f the informed i n t e l l e c t  o n l y from t h e mind that f e e l s the  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e power o f  proceeds love's  f o r c e , would seem t o be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y understood by Duncan, as he r e - i t e r a t e s t h i s concept i n the t h i r d s t a n z a . response  However, the i n t u i t i v e  and t h e r e s u l t a n t p e r c e p t i o n a r e v a g u e l y s t a t e d , and remain  even mess c l e a r t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o v e and the  intellect.  With t h e c o n c e p t i o n o ; f t h e w o r l d as p r o c e s s , Pound and Duncan woudl t o be inagreement.  However, Pound seems more c l e a r as r e g a r d s  as apprehender o f t h e P r o c e s s ,  i n t h a t , he s e e s , the v i e w e r as  a t one t i m e both i n and out of the P r o c e s s .  seem  himself being  T h i s would seem t o c r e a t  89  a d u a l i t y o f human r e s p o n s e , or o f human o r i e n t a t i o n ; however, as man i n n e c e s s a r i l y o u t s i d e o f t h e Process due to h i s  insofar  intellectual  n a t u r e , he must make judgments and d i s t i n c t i o n s f o r the sake o f economic and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g .  his  What Pound emphasizes i s t h e need f o r  t h e p o s t u l a t e s of the i n t e l l e c t t o be made w i t h r e g a r d f o r man's f u l l p o s i t i o n i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d , and hence, they must alway t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f the c o n c r e t e s o f personal man i s t o be i n harmony w i t h the w o r l d . human p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s  e x p e r i e n c e o f the w o r l d , i f Duncan seems u n c l e a r on the  t h e w o r l d o f a c t u a l i t y and the n a t u r e o f the  i n t u i t i v e response t o ; t h i s w o r l d ;  He seems unabrle to  distinguish  between S e l f and " o t h e r , " and t o s e p a r a t e h i s e m o t i o n a l from h i s intellectual w o r l d as  responses.  A f t e r q u o t i n g from Pound on t h e n a t u r e o f the  Process,  "a world o f moving e n e r g i e s " Duncan i m m e d i a t e l y f o c u s e s on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , o r s e p a r a t i o n s , from t h e w o r l d o f I think of a c l e a r stream;  (2-3) response which makes Process,'  (3-4)  but seems u n a b l e t o d i t i n g u i s h between h i m s e l f , as s e l e c t o r from t h e P r o c e s s , and t h e s e l e c t i o n which h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l response I seem to be so c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s e l e m e n t ;  makes.  (4-5)  This idehtnfjcat.idh apparently necessitates s a c r i f i c e of one's intellectual  power,  90  g i v i n g up my w i t , my e s s e n c e , i n t o the l i g h t of i t .  (6-7)  as would seem t o be suggested by " w i t ; " however, " e s s e n c e , " e l u c i d a t i o n o f " w i t , " suggests t h e p o e t ' s sense o f h i s consciousness,  self=  h i s awareness o f s e l f as d i s t i n c t from t h e  Thus, i t would be n e c e s s a r y  as an  Process.  t o s a c r i f i c e o n e ' s sense o f s e l f as a  s e p a r a t e e n t i t y d i s t i n c t from t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e the e s s e n t i a l  harmony which e x i s t s between the s e l f , and t h e  "other,"  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a statement t o the e f f e c t t h a t , We a r e so merged i n what we s e e .  (10)  which can be construed as a b u t t r e s s i n g o f the argument  against  d i s t i n c t i o n o f s e l f as separate from t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , but which connotes a c o n s c i o u s "other."  a c t i o n o f s e l f engulfment and a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e  The l o s s o f s e l f i d e n t i t y i s too c o m p l e t e , the  "other"  medium, surrounds and absorbs the p e r s o n a l i t y and w h o l l y b l u r s d i s t i n c t i o n between the man and P r o c e s s , e r a s i n g w i l l Rather than t o t a l c e s s a t i o n o f a r t i f i c i a l  the  and human purpose.  d i s t i n c t i o n s between man and  t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s made by the l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t , t h i s d e s i r e f o r merger suggest t h e death of t h e s e l f through a b s o r p t i o n i n t o an " o t h e r " medium which i s b a s i c a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the s e l f . d e s i r e f o r a complete engulfment i s u n n a t u r a l , i n t h a t i t  The  represents  a n n i h i l a t i o n o f t h e human s p i r i t and i n t e l l e c t , a d e l i b e r a t e c a s t i n g o f f of one's e s s e n t i a l  humanity and a w i l l i n g n e s s  to accept the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s e l f as a t h i n g , an i n a n i m a t e e n t i t y . almost as i f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  were a p a i n f u l and u n d e s i r a b l e  It  is  experience.  D e s p i t the argument to the c o n t r a r y , the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e  Process  91  i s u l t i m a t e l y a n t i p a t h e t i c t o human e x 4 s t e n c e i s u n m i s t a k e a b l y  present.  A t h i r d d i f f e r e n c e i n p h i l o s o p h i c v i s i o n between Pound and Duncan o c c u r s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e views o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i m p o s i t i o n of some type o f m e a n i n g f u l human disunity.  order  upon a u n i v e r s e o f f l u x  and  To Pound, o r d e r must f i r s t be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ,  t h r o u g h achievement o f a u n i f i e d s e n s i b i l i t y , which i s brough t o bear upon t h e c o n c r e t e s o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i n c e , b e f o r e any i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c t u r i n g i s p o s s i b l e . T h i s i s t o s a y , t h a t , t h e human psyche i s a d i v i d e d house which must be u n i f i e d b e f o r e man c a n l o o k t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l world. Pound i n t e r p r e t s a s compassion  Through l o v e , which  o r mercy, man's p l u r a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e  w o r l d as P r o c e s s i s b r o u g h t i n t o harmony and he a c h i e v e s a l e v e l o f b e i n g , form which man's i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n workd i n u n i s o n .  This  new power Pound c a l l s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e - i n t e l l e c t u a l power r e - i n f o r m e d by the r e s p o n s e o ; f t h e senses and t h e i n t u i t i o n . f o r Pound i s t h e apogee o f human development, "seen form," i s t h e  Confucian  The i d e a l o f l o v e , which the Platonic or  doctrine o f TJj-or "brotherly deference."  I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h J_i_ t h a t o r d e r c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d , f i r s t , w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and l a t e r , i n t h e a l r g e r s o c i a l  world.  I t i s the  prime r e q u i s i t e f o r a n y r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d i v i n e element i n man, and absolutely e s s e n t i a l to the c r e a t i o n o f the thrones of the heavenly city. To Duncan, whose a e s t h e t i c f o c u s e s upon t h e d i s o r d e r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o r d e r i s remote, i f p r e s e n t a t a l l . c o n c e p t o n l ; y t w i c e i n h i s poem,  Dnce  Order o c c u r s a s a  i n i t s p o s i t i v e , and once i n i t s  92  a n t i t h e t i c a l form.  The p o s i t i v e concept appears i n t h e e i g h t h s t a n z a  where Duncan appears t o be i n agreement w i t h t h e Poundian premises  as  o u t l i n e d above. Who knows not Love cannot r e s t o r e o r d e r .  (125-126)  Love, t h e n , would appear t o be a p r i o r c o n d i t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the establishment of o r d e r .  B u t , Duncan, i n u s i n g " r e s t o r e , " i s  focusing  upon the p r e s e n t l a c k of o r d e r , e s s e n t i a l l y a more n e g a t i v e point o f view than t h a t expressed by Pound.  I f a man have n o t o r d e r w i t h i n him He can not spread o r d e r about him; And i f a man have not o r d e r w i t h i n him H i s f a m i l y w i l l not a c t w i t h due o r d e r ; And i f t h e p r i n c e have not o r d e r w i t h i n him He can n o t put o r d e r i n h i s d o m i n i o n s . ( X I I I , 46-51)  G r a n t e d , Pound i s w o r k i n g w i t h i n a much l a r g e r framework, and has r e s u l t a n t l y , more t i m e and spce i n which t o devdop h i s  system;  s t i l l , Duncan has t h i s l a r g e r framework as a g i v e n f a c t o r w i t h which to work, but i s u s i n g i t t o express a d i f f e r e n c t v i s i o n and e x p e r i e n c e o f the P r o c e s s .  The d i f f e r n e n c e i s more apparent i n Duncan's p o s i t i v e  a s s e r t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o v e and o r d e r , where, f a r from b e i n g a source o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n o f o r d e r , i t m e r e l y possesses t h e power o f e n a b l i n g the l o v e r t o c h i e v e a s t o i c a l from which he may w i t h s t a n d the d i s o r d e r . e f f e c t s o f l o v e upon h i m s e l f  state,  Duncan speaks here o f t h e  93  I look upon d i s o r d e r w i t h a new e y e . I do not d w e l l i n my f e a r .  (114-116)  L o o k i n g both forward and backward, one should compare these e f f e c t s o f l o v e w i t h Duncan's statement of h i s f e a r i n the second s t a n z a ,  I was a f r a i d  (38)  and w i t h h i s condemnation o f those who do not s®k l o v e .  So man has c r a f t from f e a r ; envy from i g n o r a n c e , harbors h a t e s . He f a l l s upon Beauty l i k e an a n i m a l ^ caught, f a l l s on t h e s p i k e o f or the trap of the naked body where beauty i s d e a t h .  (141-150)  Duncan i s a d r i f t i n t h e w o r l d o f chaos and d i s o r d e r , u n a b l e t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e s e l f and t h e P r o c e s s , w h o l l y e n g u l f e d by the "surrounding darkness." t h e poets c o n s c i o u s n e s s  Awareness o f l o v e o n l y serves t o  sharpen  of t h e d i s p a r i t y between t h e i d e a l o f l o v e  and i t a c t u a l i t y , and t o enable man to s p r i t u a l l y r e s i s t the tendency toward a t o m i z a t i o n which i s i m p l i c i t i n a w o r l d of  He h e i g h t e n s the sense of the surrounding  darkness.  (46-47)  disorder.  94  The f o c u s i s a l l upon the d a r k n e s s ,  the formlessness  and t h e l a c k of  purpose which l o v e makes a p p a r e n t .  Compare t h i s view o f t h e e f f e c t of  l o v e w i t h t h a t put f o r t h P o u n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n , from w h i c h , Duncan i s working, In m i d s t of darkness  l i g h t l i g h t giveth f o r t h .  or w i t h the e q u i v a l e n t expression  (85)  i n t h e Pound t r a n s l u c e n c e o f the  C a v a l c a n t i canzone, c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t h i r t y - s i x t h C a n t o . D i s j u n c t i n mid darkness G r a z e t h t h e l i g h t , one moving by o t h e r ,  (XXXVI, 75-76)  In t h e t r a n s l a t i o n , Pound emphasizes t h e power which l o v e f o r the i l l u m i n a t i o n of d a r k n e s s ;  generates  the f o c u s b e i n g upon the connexion  with the d i v i n e t h t love strengthens  i n man.  It  is a positive  a s s e r t i o n o f human p o t e n t i a l , o p t i m i s t i c i n a world o f chacs and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d , p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i d e a l i s t i c i n an era o f m a t e r i a l i s m and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i s m .  growing  The fragment from the t h i r t y -  s i x t h C a n t o , which o c c u r s l a t e r and i s i n t e g r a l t o a much l a r g e r framework, again f a c u s e s upon the p o s i t i v e and t h e i d e a l i s t i c , c o u n t e r i n g t h e darkness  which always t h r e a t e n s e n f u l f m e n t .  The l i g h t  of l o v e stands a p a r t and d i s t i n c t from t h e darkness and the whih i s now seen as o n l y a dusky s t a t e o f dismal  chaos,  semi-darkness.  In  b o t h , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n and the t r a n s l u c e n c e , the i n d i v i d u a l i s  still  l a r g e r i n s p i r i t than  and  h i s environment.  Disorder  i s personal  extends outward from the i n d i v i d u a l t o the l a r g e r s o c i a l  organism.  Order can be c r e a t e d , f i r s t w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , then w i t h i n the  95  s u r r o u n d i n g s o c i e t y . The darkness can be i l l u m i n a t e d by emanation o f the d i v i n e l i g h t from w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s emanation i s c r e a t e d by l o v e !  Duncan, on t h e o t h e r hand, r e t u r n s c o n t i n u a l l y t o t h o s e  a s p e c t s o f h i s environment which a r e t h e " s u r r o u n d i n g  darkness"  f o c u s i n g upon those who do not seek the supersensuous i d e a l o f l o v e , but r a t h e r , s e t t l e f o r the p h y s i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f l o v e .  Love f o r  these i s but a meaningless word, a p h y s i c a l f r e n z y , which f o s t e r s and hastens  t h e e n g u l f m e n t , and d e s t r o y s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s c e d e n c e ,  which the i d e a l of l o v e can c r e a t e i n man. Love has no base l i k e n e s s  Thus, (44)  and i s u n a t t a i n a b l e by t h o s e who do not quest f o r p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e i r spiritual  b e i n g , so c o n t e n t a r e t h e y t o w a l l o w i n t h e i r  sensual  pleasures. A base l i k e n e s s w i l l t h i s ardour.  not k i n d l e (53-54)  T h i s l i m i t e d and l i m i t i n g sense i n v o l v e m e n t prevents the s p i r i t u a l growth o f man, from t h e e a r t h l y t o the c e l e s t i a l , You d i s t u r b e d the p a t t e r n .  (39)  and causes t h e s p i r i t u a l death o f t h e t r a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l . He f a l l s upon Beauty 1 i k e an a n i m a l , caught, f a l l s on the s p i k e o f or the t r a p o f the naked body wfvere beauty i s d e a t h .  (144-150j_  96  It  i s t h i s c o n s t a n t r e t u r n t o the merely p h y s i c a l  i n v o l v e m e n t which  i l l u s t r a t e s Duncan's overwhelming sense o f the u n i v e r s a l The s h o r t i n t e r p o l a t e d s t a n z a s ,  disorder.  i e . , the f o u r t h , e i g h t h , n i n t h , and  p a r t i a l l y t h e t e n t h , a l l f o c u s upon the a n t i t h e s i s o f l o v e , the i n d e f f e r e n c e t o l o v e , o r the l a c k o f o r d e r , u n i t y and purpose  which  r e s u l t d i r e c t l y from the i n a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e t h e supersensuous i d e a l o f l o v e , o r t o p e r c e i v e o n l y a base form o f l o v e . l a s t f o r m , t h a t , f o r Duncan, the human s p i r i t appears  It  is in  this  t o be t r a p p e d ,  and i n w h i c h , even beauty i s death  (150)  Despite these d i f f e r n c e s i n v i s i o n t h e main arguments  between Pound and Duncan  o f t h e poem appear t o be i n e s s e n t i a l  agreement w i t h  P o u n d ' s concept o f l o v e as a r a d i a n t and s t r u c t u r i n g force, under t h e i n f l u e n c e of w h i c h , man can a c h i e v e t r u e r e a s o n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e eternal divine l i g h t .  The w o r l d as P r o c e s s , a c o n t i n u a l waxing and  waning between form and d i s s o l u t i o n , m a t t e r and energy, common t o both p o e t s .  is a conception  Pound, however, seems to be more c o n s c i o u s  man's s u p e r i o r p l a c e i n t h i s w o r l d o f f l u x , due to h i s  of  consciousness,  and f e e l s humanity to possess a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the i m p o s i t i o n o f a meaningful  o r d e r upon the chaos o f e x p e r i e n c e .  subscribes  t o Pound's d e f i n i a t i o n o f t h e  "a world o f moving e n e r g i e s "  responds  Duncan, a l t h o u g h he  Process,  (2-3)  l e s s p o s i t i v e l y to the c o n d i t i o n of f l u x .  f o c u s upon the d i s o r d e r and h i s u n c l e a r response  In h i s  constant  to the P r o c e s s , Duncan  seems t o f e a r t h e d i s o r d e r and l a c k o f purpose, and responds  to the  97  Process more e m t i o n a l l y than i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .  I seem to be so c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s e l e m e n t ; g i v i n g up my w i t , my e s s e n c e , i n t o the l i g h t o f i t .  I look. upon d i s o r d e r w i t h a new e y e . I do not d w e l l i n my f e a r .  (4-7)  (114-116)  There i s no doubt t h a t the type of l o v e of which both poets i s i d e n t i c a l i n n a t u r e to t h a t o f t h e C a v a l c a n t i poem. the "guerdon,"  speak  To C a v a l c a n t i ,  t o be won was a supersensuous i d e a l o f l o v e , a  t r a n s c e n d e n t i d e a , d e s p i t e i t s source b e i n g l o c a t e d i n the o r i g i n a l sense response  to beauty.  T h i s i d e a l o f l o v e , Pound i n t e r p r e t s as  compassion, and f o c u s e s upon the pcver which t h i s f o r c e possesses t o change human n a t u r e and f o s t e r t h e c r e a t i o n o f o r d e r upon the chaos of human s o c i e t y , a n d , t o a l l o w the emanation o f man's d i v i n e nature.  Duncan's l o v e , t o o , i s a non^sensual  i d e a l o f human  p e r f e c t i o n , i n w h i c h , the " p a t t e r n , " o f which he s p e a k s , i n which l o v e b e g i n s  i n the sense r e s p o n s e , b u t , i s r e f i n e d by the  clear-seeingintellect.  Thus,  Love has no base but i s s t i r r e d ,  i s one  likeness.  (44)  98  by the s i g h t from t h e naked body where l o v e seems to r e s t , each t i m e , s i n g u l a r as i s a p p o i n t e d n e c e s s a r y , appropriate to the p a t t e r n .  (32-36)  yet, love exists  " n o t to d e l i g h t , but i n an a r d o u r o f t h o u g h . "  (43)  and i s e x a l t e d beyond the m e r e l y p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t , from w h i c h , i t originally  arises.  I do not speak o f a drunken s t a t e .  (45)  A base l i k e n e s s w i l l t h i s ardour.  (53-54)  not k i n d l y  Y e t , Duncan r e t u r n s too o f t e n , t o the m e r e l y p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f l o v e , t h e "drunken s t a t e , " which he eschews.  Love i s s t i r r e d i n the sense  r e s p o n s e , n o t i n the response t o b e a u t y , b u t , from t h e naked body  (33)  and, those who do n o t e x p e r i e n c e t h i s i d e a l o f l o v e but a r e c o n t e n t w i t h i t s sensual  appearance, a r e ,  caught, f a l l s on t h e s p i k e o f o r the t r a p o f the naked body.  (146-149)  99  Duncan's e x p r e s s i o n  of t h e p h y s i c a l  a n i m a l i s t i c terms.  The r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p h y s i c a l  for  the a s s e r t i o n t o be c r e d i b l e .  b a s i s o f l o v e ar i n v a r i a b l y i n i s too n e g a t i v e  As we have seen i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n  both Cavalcarti and Pound, the sensuous response  has s t i l l  of  a definite  p l a c e i n t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h i s i d e a l o f l o v e , and, both a r e c l e a r upon t h e need f o r the t r a n s c e d e n c e o f t h e s o l e l y p h y s i c a l a s p e c t of  love  i n f a v o u r o f t h e supersensuous i d e a l .  as  v i o l e n t l y against the physical  However, n e i t h e r r e a c t s  in a n i m a l i s t i c terminology.  It  sho;uld  a l s o be c l a r i f i e d , t h a t n e i t h e r C a v a l c a n t i , nor Pound, a r e w o r k i n g as to t h e i r own personal Duncan.  e x p e r i e n c e o f the P h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f l o v e as  closely  is  Both h o l d a e s t h e t i c views w h i c h e n a b l e them t o a b s t r a c t from  t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e , Duncan's a e s t h e t i c r e q u i r e s the t o t a l personal experience, without e x t r a c t i n g i t s essence.  of  his  Duncan, s e e i n g the  poem, l a r g e l y as a process of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y , f e e l s t h e need t o e x p l o r every f a c e t o f h i s p e r s o n a l  e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e , b e f o r e he can  d i s c o v e r the essence o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e .  The p r o c e s s o f t h e poem,  enable the poest t o c l a r i f y and complete h i s e x p e r i e n c e , as i t were.  72  R e l a t i v e t o t h t problem o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p h y s i c a l and i d e a l i z e d a s p e c t o f l o v e , a r e the views which Pound and Duncan both a p p a r e n t l y h o l d , o f the p e r c e p t i o n o f the i d e a l o f l o v e . p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  As  Pound sees the i d e a l o f l o v e as a P l a t o n i c f o r m ,  or i d e a , which t r a n s c e n d s a l l a p p a r e n t r e a l i t y , but s t i l l ,  72 V i v a s , E l i s e o . C r e a t i o n and D i s c o v e r y , 1955.  Chicago:  is  as  Henry Regnery  Co.,  100  experiental as t h e c o n c r e t e p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e .  Thus, t o Pound, l o v e  in i t s ideal aspect, Cometh from a seen f o r m which b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d ' Taketh l o c u s and r e m a i n i n g i n t h e i n t e l l e c t p o s s i b l e (XXXVI 23-24) w h i l e , f o r Duncan, the i d e a l o f l o v e , the P l a t o n i c form o f l o v e , l e s s c l e a r beacause i t i s l e s s " u n d e r s t o o d , " than  is  "felt."  I am f i l l e d w i t h a n o t i o n o f form t h a t seems v i s i b l e .  (18-19)  To Duncan the i d e a , o r f o r m , i s not as t a n g i b l e and e x p e r i e n t i a l an a s p e c t o f l o v e as i s the p h y s i c a l a c t u a l i t y .  To Poupd, the form o f  l o v e i s " s e e n , " and " u n d e r s t o o d , " w h i l e t o Duncan, t h e form o n l y "seems v i s i b l e , " and he has o n l y a " n o t i o n o f f o r m , " r a t h e r than an u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  A g a i n , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be seen i n terms o f  Duncan's w o r k i n g a e s t h e t i c .  H i s concern i n t h e poem i s to r e l a t e h i s  p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e t o t h e v i e w t h a t Pound has expressed. U s i n g h i s own e x p e r i e n c e as the c o n c r e t e , responds him.  Duncan can o n l y say how he, h i m s e l f ,  t o t h e i d e a l o f l o v e , how i t was f i r s t p e r c e i v e d and known by  He c a r e s , not f o r the general s t a t e m e n t , but f o r t h e immediate  e x p e r i e n c e , which hehas p e r s o n a l l y known.  Thus, he would not be  j u s t i f i e d i n c l a i m i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g , nor i n making a g e n e r a l statement c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e r c e p t i b i l i t y o f t h e P l a t o n i c form o f i d e a l l o v e .  E a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n , we have seen how t h e t h i r d s t a n z a i s the source o f some c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between feeling, intellectual  power, and the l i g h t o f l o v e .  D e s p i t e t h e apparent  i n c o n s i s t e n c y , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e v i e w , which Duncan s h a r e s  101  w i t h Pound, t h a t , Reason does n o t p e r c e i v e Him But t a k e s i t s l i g h t from H i s p r e s e n c e .  (56-57)  i s t h e c o n c e p t i o n which most c l e a r l y agrees w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e argument o f t h e poem, and a l s o , w i t h t h e  Pound t r a n s l a t i o n and e s s a y .  A l t h o u g h c o n j e c t u r a l , the idea o c c u r s , t h a t Duncan, i n the e a r l y  lines  o f the t h i r d s t a n z a , may be r e f e r r i n g t o d i v i n i t y , when d i s c u s s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between reason and " H i s t o be r e f e r r i n g t o l o v e , Duncan,  presence."  Thus, though  the  seeming  i n c a p i t a l i z i n g " H i s , " may be  s i g n i f y i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p , not between l o v e and r e a s o n , but between d i v i n i t y and r e a s o n .  Reason does n o t p e r c e i v e Him but t a k e s i t s l i g h t from H i s p r e s e n c e . Reason i s a r i g h t form from which H i s r a d i a n c e f l o w s .  (56-59)  Reason, t h e n , by i t s e l f , i n i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r p e r c e p t i o n o f the d i v i n e , but i s i t s e l f t h e r e s u l t o f the d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n man. Reason i s a l s o , " i n t e l l i g e n c e , " i n t h e same sense as Pound uses t h e word, which when a c h i e v e d , a l l o w s a man t o express  the d i v i n e n a t u r e  which he p o s s e s s s , i e . , d i v i n i t y i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e w o r l d through agency o f the human i i n t e l l i g e n c e , which i s both f e e l i n g and a t one t i m e .  the  intellectual  L a t e r i n the same s t a n z a , Duncan, i n what sounds l i k e the  same argument, f a i l s t o c a p i t a l i z e , " h i s , " the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o v e and r e a s o n .  perhaps s i g n i f y i n g t h i s t i m e ,  102  Reason t a k e s i t s l i g h t from h i s p r e s e n c e . Have I not stumbled i n L o v e ' s absence as i f I were a f o o l and a l i a r , Or l a c k e d r e a s o n t o p e r c e i v e Love; s e a r c h i n g f o r p e r f e c t i o n ' s source with imperfect vision? (68-73) Love i s t h u s , a p r i o r c o n d i t i o n o f reason ( i n t h e sense o f " i n t e l l i g e n c e " ) . , which emanates o n l y from t h e l o v i n g  Pound's  intellect.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c r e a t e s an e q u a t i o n between the presence o f l o v e and t h e d i v i n e p r e s e n c e , i e . , t h e r i g h t reason o f man i s an e f f e c t , both o f t h e f o r c e o f i d e a l l o v e and o f t h e d i v i n e w o r k i n g  through  the human i n t l l i g e n c e .  T h i s e q u a t i o n o f l o v e and d i v i n i t y would seem t o f i t t h e system, as expressed by Pound i n h i s e s s a y , t r a n s l a t i o n and t r a n s l u c e n c e , and removes t h e seeming i n c o n s i s t e n c y mentioned e a r l i e r .  However,  this  a l s o assumes t h a t i t i s Duncan's i n t e n t i o n t o express the same i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o v e , reason and d i v i n i t y that we have seen  in  Pound, and t h a t , he has chosen the t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f possessive  pronouns as a means o f e x p r e s s i n g d i v i n e p r e s e n c e .  This  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s borne o u t by the l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e l i g h t o f l o v e , which p l a c e l o v e i n the p o s i t i o n o f d i v i n i t y i t s e l f . He i s not l i k e the sun but t h e sun i t s e l f  Love g i v e s f o r t h h i s own l i g h t , worthy of f a i t h . In him who knows Love i s compassion b o r n .  (118-120)  (121-124)  103  P o u n d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the " g u e r d o n , "  t o be won as  compassion  i s r e - i n f o r c e d by Duncan's p a r a l l e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , f o r , he too sees l o v e as p r i m a l and n e c e s s a r y  to t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f any bond o f t r u e  sympathy and o r d e r i n t h e w o r l d . w i t h the human l a c k of awareness  A l t h o u g h he seems t o be p r e - o c c u p i e d o f t h e i d e a l o f l o v e , and appears  a c c e p t t h e c o n t i n u e d presence o f d i s o r d e r , Duncan i s e x p r e s s i n g same e s s e n t i a l argument as Pound. compassion,  to  the  Where Pound t r a n s l a t e s mercede as  Duncan s t a t e s u n e q i v o c a l l y t h a t , «  In him who knows l o v e i s compassion b o r n . and expresses  awareness  (122-124)  o f l o v e as a p r i o r c o n d i t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n  or o r d e r . Who knows n o t Love cannot r e s t o r e o r d e r Not by hearsay is f a l s i t y despelled.  (125-128)  No d o u b t , the d i f f e r e n c e s between P o u n d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the C a v a l c a n t i canzone and Duncan's v a r i a t i o n upon Pound's work, may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f e r e n t w o r l d views o f the two p o e t s , as w e l l  as  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c s , which must d i f f e r as t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n s to the world d i f f e r .  These a r e both dependent upon the paideumas  the r e s p e c t i v e s o c i a l m i l i e u x i n which the two men came t o  consciousness,  The d i f f e r i n g w o r k i n g a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e two poets t h e n , are t h u s , r e s u l t of each man's t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e , both o f the e n c u l t u r a t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  of  the process  Pound i s a pioneer  t h a t , he was f i r s t to develop an a e s t h e t i c and t e c h n i q u e which would  in  104  e f f e c t i v e l y express  t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r l d as  Process.  Duncan i s irrmersed i n t h e f l u x and d i s o r d e r o f t h i s Process w o r l d , and i s a t t e m t p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r h i s own soul through the medium o f h i s a r t . He i s a man atomized and i s o l a t e d , c o n s c i o u s o f t h e l a c k o f any sense of o r d e r and u n i t y . and response  The poem i s an a s s e r t i o n o f h i s o;wn e x p e r i e n c e o f ,  to, ideal love.  As a t e s t i m o n y , i t i s more than s u f f i c i e n t ,  i t i s a g r e a t a r t i c u l a t i o n , however, as an e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e , communicable t o o t h e r s , i t d o e s n ' t succeed i n e x p r e s s i n g t h grand o v e r v i e w o f the l i f e Process as does Pound's I Tell  o f Love,  The tone o f  suggests Duncan's i s o l a t i o n and a t o m i z a t i o n , h i s  of being the o n l y c o n s c i o u s and i n s e n s i t i v e .  poem.  i n d i v i d u a l among the unaware,  sense  unreasoning  There i s much a m b i g u i t y and l a c k of c l a r i t y , not t h e  mention the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f argument i n the t h i r d s t a n z a .  For example,  by  This i s the a n i m a t i o n , " a world o f moving e n e r g i e s " ;  (1-3)  does Duncan mean t h a t l o v e i s t h e c r e a t i v e f o r c e w i t h i n the world o f P r o c e s s , t h e o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e o f the f l u x , o r , does he mean t h a t t h i s w o r l d of chaos and f l u x , o f "moving e n e r g i e s , " agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o v e ?  i s t h e a n i m a t i o n , the  Perhaps h i s statement  c o n t a i n s both e l e m e n t s , perhaps o n l y the former i s i n t e n d e d . is c e r t a i n l y necessary,  The former  i f the remainder o f the poem i s t o have any  u n i t y o f i n t e n t i o n and argument; however, the a m b i g u i t y d e s t r o y s  the  u n i t y , j u s t as does t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f the t h i r d s t a n z a .  There seems, a l s o , t o e x i s t a d i s c r e p a n c y between Duncan's  105  emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l responses to the f o r c e o f i d e a l i z e d l o v e , and t o t h e w o r l d o f P r o c e s s .  He d i s c l a i m s t h e w h o l l y p h y s i c a l , i n d e e d ,  he r e t u r n s r e p e a t e d l y t o c a s t i g a t i o n of t h o s e who go " n o t i n L o v e ' s s e a r c h , " and a r e c o n t e n t w i t h the "drunken s t a t e . " responses a r e expressed  i n terms which suggest  Yet h i s  emotional  surrender,  the d e s i r e t o merge, to become immersed i n the " e r o t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , " of which Pound accused t h e C l a s s i c a l w o r l d , and which he 73 so memorably the p h r a s e , " p l a s t i c t o c o i t u s . "  73 Pound, E z r a .  Make I t New, London:  expressed  Faber and F a b e r , 1934, p. 348  106  Chapter S i x :  Conclusion  Toward comprehension of the conept of the world as Process, the metaphysical b a s i s of C a v a l c a n t i , Pound and Duncan, and the e p i s t e m o l i g i c a l theory of Ezra Pound, I have found the r e c e n t l y 74 s t a t e d system of Dr. F. S. C.  Northrop to be extemely u s e f u l .  Dr. Northrop's primary concern i s e p i s t e m o l g i c a l , i n t h a t he i s concerned with the nature o f the apprehension and the knowledge which man's t o t a l consciousness o f the world o f Process gains f o r him.  The u n i v e r s e , or Process, i s termed i n t h i s system, the  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a e s t h e t i c continuum, and the elements which comprise t h i s continuum are termed d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s .  E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , man  i s a d u a l i s t by nature, i n t h a t he apprehends the world o f Process i n two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t ways, or i s capable of a b i - p o l a r response to reality.  In one, man experiences the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a e s t h e t i c  continuum with t h i s a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t , making statements concerning the nature o f r e a l i t y , which Dr. Northrop terms concepts by p o s t u a t i o n . These concepts by p o s t u a l a t i o n are t h e o r e t i c , i n t h a t each i s dependent upon i n f o r m a t i o n provided by o t h e r , more a b s t r a c t , t h e o r i e s and disciplines for their cerification.  The range o f experience thus  defined i s termed the t h e o r e t i c continuum, and the elements which 74 Northrop, F.S.C. The Meeting of-hast and West. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1946.  107  comprise t h i s continuum a r e known as the t h e o r e t i c components  of  reality.  On b e h a l f o f the o p p o s i t e r e s p o n s e , Dr. N o r t h r o p d e f i n e s a rage of e x p e r i e n c e which i s d i r e c t l y o r i m m e d i a t e l y apprehendable by means of man's a e s t h e t i c r e l a t i o n t o the w o r l d o f P r o c e s s .  In t h i s use o f  a e s t h e t i c , Dr. N o r t h r o p s i g n i f i e s the e a s t e r n meaning o f the word as a t o t a l or integrated response, and the i n t e l l e c t .  i n v o l v i n g t h e s e n s e s , the i m a g i n a t i o n  Man gains knowledge o f t h e w o r l d o f Process  t h i s a e s t h e t i c response  via  and makes statements about the n a t u r e o f  e x p e r i e n c e o f P r o c e s s , which are termed c o n c e p t s by i n t u i t i o n .  his The  range o f e x p e r i e n c e thus d e f i n e d i s termed t h e a e s t h e t i c c o n t i n u u m , o r r e a l i t y i n i t s a e s t h e t i c component.  Both f a c t o r s s o f  system, i e . , the t h e o r e t i c a l component o r i n t e l l e c t u a l  Northrop's  postulations  and t h e a e s t h e t i c component o r c o n c e p t s by i n t u i t i o n , a r e  necessary  t o a complete comprehension o f t h e n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e universe.  The u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , t h e world o f P r o c e s s ,  is aesthetic  i n t h a t i s c a n n o t " b e f u l l y comprehended s o l e l y through t h e  intellect,  as the c o n c e p t s by p o s t u l a t i o n a r e o n l y o n e - h a l f o f a d e f i n i t i o n o f reality.  The immediate a p p r e h e n s i o n o f the conepts by i n t u i t i o n i s  n e c e s s a r y to a c o r r e c t and f u l l  d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y , as  Nrothrop's  system i m p l i e s t h a t r e a l i t y can u l t i m a t e l y be d e f i n e d o n l y by t h e individual. 75 In h i s e s s a y , "The F u n c t i o n and F u t u r e o f P o e t r y , "  75 N o r t h r o p , F. S.  C.  The L o g i c o f the S c i e n c e s and the H u m a n i t i e s .  New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n Books, 1959, pp. 169-190.  108  Dr. Northrop a p p l i e s h i s t h e o r y of e p i s t e m o l o g y t o the r e a l m of a r t , s a y i n g t h a t p o e t r y has t h e f u n c t i o n o f making " e p i s t e m i c " c o r r e l a t i o n s between the conepts by p o s t u h t i o n and the c o n c e p t s by i n t u i t i o n . An e p i s t e m i c c o r r e l a t i o n i s a r e l a t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y , but not a l w a y s , one-one, j o i n i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l l y - k h o w n f a c t o r d e s i g n a t e d by a concept by p o s t i i a t i o n t o is" i m m e d i a t e l y a p p r e h e n d a b l e , a e s t h e t i c c o r r e l a t e denoted by a c o n c e p t by i r i t u i t i o n T To However, a r t not o n l y " r e l a t e s items o f r e a l i t y which are known 77 i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, "  combining the c o n c e p t s by i n t u i t i o n  and p o s t u l a t i o n , but a l s o servew t o d i s t i n g u i s h  the two c o n t i n u a of  r e a l i t y by a l l o w i n g the p e r c e i v e r t o s e p a r a t e the concepts by i n t u i t i o n from t h e concepts by p o s t u l a t i o n .  As N o r t h r o p  says,  In s h o r t , e p i s t e m i c c o r r e l a t i o n s both s e p a r a t e and c o n n e c t the r e a l as known a e s t h e t i c a l l y w i t h immediacy and the r e a l as known s c i e n t i f i c a l l y through d e d u c t i v e l y f o r m u l a t e d , e x p e r i m e n t a l l y v e r i f i e d t h e o r y . 78 As a r t , a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. N o r t h r o p ' s system, d e f i n e s and r e l a t e s the a e s t h e t i c and t h e o r e t i c c o n t i n u a o f r e a l i t y , so does i t s e r v e two distinct functions.  When d e a l i n g w h o l l y i n the c o n c e p t s by i n t u i t i o n ,  a r t f u n c t i o n i n and f o r i t s e l f , and when a r r t m a n i p u l a t e s  its  rhythms,  c o l o u r s and images i n o r d e r to s p e c i f i c a l l y serve some t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s t u l a t e d e n d , a r t can be s a i d t o e x i s t as a handmaiden o f the extraneious end, i e . , i s a propagandist or d i d a c t i c v e h i c l e f o r r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l dogam.  76 I b i d . , p.  172  77 L o c . c i t . 78 I b i d . , p.  173  I f t h e concepts by i n t u i t i o n and  109  p o s t u l a t i o n a r e i n b a l a n c e , a "one-one r e l a t i o n s , " terminology, a r t achieves greatness  of s t a t u r e ,  in  Northrop's  Dr. N o r t h r o p c i t e s  P a n t ' s D i v i n e Comedy as an example o f g r e a t a r t which possesses t h i s "one-one r e l a t i o n " o f the two t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n as he f e e l s t h a t Dante e x p r e s s e s ,  i n m e t a p h o r i c a l language, t e h t h e r o r e t i c a l p o s t u a l t e s  of Thomas A q u n i n a s '  Summa T h e o l o g i c a , but a l s o , D a n t e ' s poem e x i s t s  as  an a e s t h e t i c e n t i t y independent of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l element and hence, i s not merely a d i d a c t i c servant of theology.  In o t h e r words, t h e poem  f u n c t i o n s both e a s t h e t i c a l l y and t h e o r e t i c a l l y , n e i t h e r element o v e r powering t h e o t h e r .  In C a v a l c a n t i ' s Donna Me P r e g a , the a e s t h e t i c o r i n t u i t i v e concepts are r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p a t t e r n o f l i g h t imagery, which i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the medieval t r a d i t i i o n o f the u n d i v i d e d l i g h t , and the theoretical  e l e m e n t , o r concepts by p o s t u a l a t i o n , i s r e p r e s e n t e d by  the S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y and the p o e t ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a l l o v e as a c o n t e m p l a t i o n of a t r a n s c e n d e n t and super-sensuous i d e a l .  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a e s t h e t i c and t h e o r e t i c e l e m e n t s , o f t h e poem i s n o t " o n e - o n e , " as comprehension o f the argument o f the poem depends e n t i r e l y upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the S c h o l a s t i c  philosophy  and t h e g a i n i n g o f some i n s i g h t i n t o the s u b t l e r e a s o n i n g o f the argument.  I t i s t r u e , t h a t the p a t t e r n o f l i g h t imagery l a r g e l y  c a r r i e s t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l arguement however, much of the  understanding  o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l i g h t p a t t e r n i s dependent upon an awareness o f the t r a d i t i o n o f the u n d i v i d e d l i g h t and the medieval t h e r o r i e s o f l i g h t emanation and d i f f u s i o n , such as t h e t h e o r y o f Robert G r o s s e t e s t e which Pound has u t i l i z e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an  no i i n s i g h t i n t o the poem.  The g r e a t e s t percentage o f the poem's  argument i s t h e r e f o r e , dependent upon the t h e o r e t i c component o f r e a l i t y , as i t r e l i e s upon i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding.  theory f o r i t s ultimate  The a e s t h e t i c elements o f the poem, or i t s c o n c e p t s  by i n t u i t i o n , f u n c t i o n i n and f o r t h e m s e l v e s , but t h e i r prime f u n c t i o n i s t o s e r v e as a v e h i c l e f o r t h e S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y and t h e t h e o r y of l o v e as a t r a n s c e n d e n t  ideal.  Pound, i n f o c u s i n g upon the u n d e r s c o r i n g the l i g h t p a t t e r n s o f the poem i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , s t r e s s e s reality.  the a e s t h e t i c component o f  The t h e o r e t i c f a c t o r s are as s t r o n g as i n t h e o r i g i n a l , but  the e x p e r i e n t i a l elements have been brought more i n t o b a l a n c e w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l  concepts.  One can hardly r e f e r t o the r e l a t i o n as  " o n e - o n e , " as P o u n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i s s t i l l  dependent upon an  awareness o f S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y and medieval l i g h t t h e o r i e s r f o r i t s u l t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a l t h o u g h , what has been a c c o m p l i s h e d  is  t h a t the medieval a s p e c t of the t h e o r e t i c component has been g i v e n an immediacy o f a p p r e h e n s i o n through t h e s t r e s s i n g and m o d e r n i z i n g of t h e l i g h t metaphors.  In the Pound t r a n s l u c e n c e , t h e e x p e r i e n t a l o r  a e t h e t i c component o f t h e poem i s even s t r o n g e r , due no d o u b t , t o Pound's t h e o r y of t h e image and t h e use o f t h e "ideogrammic method," Rather than a t h e o r e t i c element dependent upon, an awareness o f t h e medieval S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , framework o f modern  Pound's t r a n s l u c e n c e e x i s t s  in a  p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s , which are drawn from  d i v e r s e s o u r c e s , and which a r e g i v e n an immediacy of r e f e r e n c e through the p o e t i c t h e o r y to which Pound s u b s c r i b e s .  Whether P o u n d ' s t h e o r e t i c  c o m p o n e n t drawns from a n c i e n t Greek, medieval European, o r O r i e n t a l  Ill  p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e x t s , the ideogrammic method employed by the poet r e n d e r s the t h e o r e t i c component e x p e r i e n t i a l and i m m e d i a t e l y apprehendable.  Thus, i t can be augued t h a t t h e Cantos a r e  upon an awareness  o f remote t h e o r i e s f o r t h e i r u l t i m a t e  dependent  comprehension  however, the v e r a c i t y of any t h e o r y t h a t the poem c o n t a i n s can be e x p e r i e n c e d through t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f the c o n c e p t s by i n t u i t i o n , the a e s t h e t i c component o f r e a l i t y upon which the poem i s  structured.  In Duncan's v a r i a t i o n upon Pound's workd on C a v a l c a n t i , the t h e o r e t i c a l element i s a p p a r e n t l y i d e n t i c a l , i n t h a t i t  postulates  the same b a s i c c o n c e p t s as does Pound, however, as we have seen t h e r e i s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t e d by these Where pound a s s e r t s  concepts.  the i d e a l o f l o v e as a p o s i t i v e f o r c e , w o r k i n g  toward t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f harmony, u n i t y o f human response toward the u n i t y o f a l l mankind i n a true and j u s t u n i v e r s a l Duncan's i d e a l l o v e possesses a muchless  and order,  p o s i t i v e v a l u e , b e i n g now  a f o r c e , w o r k i n g not f o r harmony, u n i t y and o r d e r , but f o r the w i t h s t a n d i n g o f human b e s t i a l i t y , d i s u n i t y and d i s o r d e r .  Where P o u n d ' s c o n c e p t s  by  p o s t u l a t i o n were given i n an irrmedicay o f r e s p o n s e and an e x p e r i e n t i a l f a c t o r which rendered them more i m m e d i a t e l y a p p r e h e n d a b l e ,  Duncan's  t h e o r e t i c component i s w h o l l y s u b j e c t i v e , depending upon the poets personal experience f o r i t s u l t i m a t e v e r i f i c a t i o n .  The i n t u t i v e o r a e s t h e t i c  component o f t h i s poem a l s o d i f f e r s q u a l i t a t i v e l y f r o m P o u n d ' s , i t r e p r e s e n t s a lower .-scale o f v a l u e and v i s i o n .  in that  In P o u n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n ,  essay and t r a n s l u c e n c e , l i g h t was an i l l u m i n a t i n g f a c t o r which eminates from w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l toward the d i v i n e .  T h i s l i g h t was  essentially  the same, whether i t was the l i g h t o f d i v i n i t y , of human i n t e l l i g e n c e , or the l i g h t o f the heavenly c i t y .  In a s t a t e o f i d e a l l o v e , man  is  112  c a p a b l e o f d e v e l o p i n g the i n n e r l i g h t and d i f f u s i n g t h e r e s u l t a n t c l a r i t y throughout t h e u n i v e r s e .  In Duncan's poem, a l t h o u g h t h e poet  p u r p o r t s t o s u b s c r i b e t o t h e same m e t a p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l v i s i o n , t h e a e s t h e t i c component, i e . , t h e l i g h t imagery, s e r v e s a l e s s m e t a p h y s i c a l end.  The l i g h t o f i d e a l l o v e becomes now a f o r c e which l i g h t s up t h e  "surrounding darkness,"  i n the sense o f c a s t i n g a s p o t l i g h t upon the  problem of human d i s o r d e r .  So heavy i s t h e emphasis upon t h i s  darkness  and e n g u l f m e n t , t h a t one f e e l s t h a t even the n e v e r - e n d i n g l i g h t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l metaphsic i s i n c a p a b l e of d i s p e l l i n g i t .  113  Chapter Seven:  Addendum  In r e t r o s p e c t the above t h e s i s seems more e x p l o r a t o r y and e v a l u a t i v e than e x p l a n a t o r y and c o m p a r a t i v e , however, perhaps  this  e x p l o r a t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i v e r s i t y o f the m a t i e r i a l under d i s c u s s i o n .  That Pound was d e e p l y impressed w i t h C a v a l c a n t i  and h i s canzone seems f a i r l y obvious and t h a t he made t h e p h i l o s o p h y c o n t a i n e d i n Donna Me Prega c e n t r a l t o the framework o f The Cantos seems a r e a s o n a b l e and demonstable argument.  There i s s t i l l  much  disagreement among s c h o l a r s as t o the i n t e n t i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s  of  C a v a l c a n t i ' s poem, however, i t s l i t e r a r y s t a t u s i s a s s u r e d and would be even w i t h o u t Pound's e x p l i c a t o r y notes t o the poem.  What Pound has  accomplished i n h i s e s s a y and t r a n s l a t i o n i s to make C a v a l c a n t i ' s work a c c e s s i b l e t o the modern r e a d e r who l a c k s profound knowledge o f Renaissance N e o - P l a t o n i c and S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . necessary f o r c r i t i c a l  What seems  purposes i s a more d e t a i l e d knowledge o f t h e  connexion between the S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y r e p r e s e n t e d by Donna Me Prega and Pound's usage o f C a v a l c a n t i ' s m e t a p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n as a b a s i s f o r the C o n f u c i a n e t h i c a l expresses  i d e a l i s m as  Pound  i t i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h Canto and i n d e e d , which p r o v i d e s the  entire ethical  background f o r a l l o f Pound's economic and  political  114  notions.  Such a s t u d y c o u l d perhaps be i n c l u d e d i n a d e t a i l e d  e x e g i s i s of e i t h e r Pound's r e l i g i o u s framework, e h i c h i s based on t h e D i o n y s i a n mystery c u l t and the medieval P l a t o n i s m o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , o r o f h i s economic, s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and moral b a s i s , which appears be a t a n g l e o f t h e t h e o r i e s of S o c i a l C r e d i t , G e s e l l ' s  to  labour  o r g a n i z a t i o n and C o n f u c i a n e t h i c s .  More complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i r t y - s i x t h Canto and i t s r e l a t i o n to t h e l a r g e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Pound's  framework  o f the poem as a whole seems contingent upon a c l o s e l y d e t a i l e d e x p l i c a t i o n of Pound's c r i t i c i s m , h i s s y t h e s i s  o f paganism, C h r i s t i a n i t y and  C o n f u c i a n pragmatism i n t o a r e l i g i o u s b a s i s , and of h i s unique views on economic and p o l i t i c a l  organization.  Perhaps a sound s t u d y o f  critical  position w i l l  original  t e x t of The Waste Land i s p u b l i s h e d l a t e r t h i s y e a r .  his  be f o r t h c o m i n g i n the v e r y near f u t u r e , when the  a f u l l e r p i c t u r e of Pound's v a l u e as a p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c w i l l  Certainly be g a i n e d .  T h i s r e v a l u a t i o n o f Pound as a c r i t i c would broaden the c r i t i c s ' view o f Pound's c o m p a r a t i v e and e v a l u a t i v e approach to c r i t i c i s m , o f i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s such as C a v a l c a n t i .  There have been sound exegreses n o t a b l e B.A.  o f Pound's  religious  C h a r l e s w o r t h ' s t h e s i s , The T e n s i l e L i g h t ,  position,  which i s a  good b a s i c study but which i s f o r c e d t o adopt a d e f e n s i v e  position  by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t i t i s l a r g e l y a response t o the c h a l l e n g e t h a t Pound has no r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s or framework i n The C a n t o s .  What  is  now r e q u i r e d i n the area o f r e l i g i o n i s a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s elements which Pound has s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o a r e l i g i o u s framework and an  115  e x e g e s i s o f The Cantos i n l i g h t of t h a t a n a l y s i s . n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e Pound's (and perhaps F r o b e n i u s ' Metamorphosis,  T h i s would  use o f the pagan mystery  anthropological studies),  religions  Ovid's  C h r i s t i a n Neo=Platonism and S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h y ,  w e l l as t e h C o n f u c i a n A n a l e c t s and The Great D i g e s t .  as  When such a  s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e d , the f u n c t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C a v a l c a n t i Canto  will  perhaps be mor a p p a r e n t .  C e r t a i n l ; y greater l i g h t w i l l  be  c a s t upon the p h i l o s o p h i c a l ba:kground o f t h e o r i g i n a l C a v a l c a n t i canzone as Pound i n t e r p r e t e d and f i n a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i t .  The q u e s t i o n o f Pound's economic and p o l i t i c a l t o be a d e l i c a t e problem even y e t .  theories  seems  The a p p a r e n t d i s t a s t e f u l l n e s s o f  these t h e o r i e s has c o l o u r e d a l m o s t e v e r y c t r i i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f Pound t o d a t e , both as poet and as t h i n k e r , a p p r a i s a l o f Pound's  and one s u s p e c t s  true l i t e r a r y position w i l l  t h a t any  n e c e s s a r i l y have t o  c o n f r o n t h i s views i n these a r e a s and i n t e g r a t e h i s c o n c l u s i o n s o v e r a l l framework of The Cantos.  fair  to t h e  The whole q u e s t i o n of the case f o r and  a g a i n s t E z r a Pound must n e c e s s a r i l y be answered once a g a i n i n o r d e r t o p l a c e h i s major poem i n i t s t r u e p e r s p e c t i v e . seem t o be one o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a more f u l l  The t a s k here would  c o l l e c t i o n of  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o r perhaps an examination o f the e t h i c a l The Cantos  f o c u s i n g upon the f i e l d s o f economics,  o r g a n i z a t i o n and C o n f u c i a n s o c i a l norms.  Pound's basis  of  political  Such a s t u d y c o u l d  perhaps  be accomplished through p u b l i c a t i o n o f Pound's correspondence t o F. D. R.  and the U.S.  S t a t e Department p r i o r t o and d u r i n g World War  The c o n c e p t o f the world as P r o c e s s s h o u l d have been given  II.  greater  116 emphasis  and e x p l i n a t i o n i n t h e above t h e s i s , as t h i s seems t o be  f a i r l y c e n t r a l t o both Pound and Duncan as w e l l as t o C a v a l c a n t i as he i s i n t e r p r e t e d by Pound. the o r i e n t a l cosmology  T h i s c o n c e p t seems t o be more i n t e g r a l  than t o the western p o s t u l a t e s o f r e a l i t y .  t h e e a s t e r n w o r l d the view o f the cosmos as a c h a i n o f  to In  inter-connected  and r e g e n e r a t i v e events which ebb and f l o w between form and d i s s o l u t i o n , b e i n g and becoming, an i m p l i c i t assumption cornnon to each d i s t i n c t philosophical  stance.  Where the western w o r l d has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  e v a l u a t e d events i n t h e space/time continuum as proportionate t o t h e i r u t i l i t y f o r human needs, the e a s t e r n mind has i m p l y a c c e p t e d t h e f a c t t h a t man i s merely one i n t e g e r among b i l l i o n s - a l b e i t a c r e a t u r e - and t h a t each o f the i n t e g e r s  self-conscious  i s r e l a t e d t o a l l the o t h e r s  i n t h a t a l l a r e p a r t o f t h e c i r c u l a r process of u n i v e r s a l which i s t o say,  becoming.  T h i s v i e w i s more an i n t e l l e c t u a l world,  existence,  s t a n c e i n the western  As t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p o s t u l a t e o f the i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n o f  m a t t e r and energy becomes the a c c e p t e d c o s m o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t h e chasm between t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n c e s o f the e a s t and west seems t o draw together.  Such i s n o t t h e c a s e , however, as the " P r o c e s s  o f the western w o r l d i s more s t r i c t l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l  orientation"  construct  having no e x p e r i e n t i a l o r a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r t o l e n d i t an i m m e d i a t e l y apprehendable q u a l i t y and thus make i t u l t i m a t e l y r e a l f o r man.  individual  The i n t e r - c o n n e x i o n o f m a t t e r and energy t o the western w o r l d  remains a c o l d t h e o r e t i c a l p o s t u a l a t e , a b s t r a c t but s c i e n t i f i c a l l y demonstrable.  The e s s e n t i a l l y o r i e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s  o f E z r a Pound a l l o w s  him  117  t h i s f e l t / t h o u g h t awareness  o f the w o r l d as Process and enables  to g i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f the " w o r l d o f moving e n e r g i e s . " p e r s p e c t i v e r e n d e r s the c o n c e p t o f man i n a w o r l d as imnediatley comprehensible or p e r c e p t u a l .  him  The e a s t e r n Process  The western or i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  p o s t u l a t e d view of t h e u n i v e r s e as P r o c e s s of becoming has l e s s o f an immediate o r e x p e r i e n t i a l f a c t o r than has a c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r reality.  I t i s a l i m i t e d awareness  of a c o n c e p t which demands to be  embraced t o t a l l y , i e . , both though and f e l t , t h e o r e t i c and a b s t r a c t and c o n c r e t e . process  It  its  i s t h i s l i m i t e d awareness  aesthetic,  o f the u n i v e r s a l  t h a t l e a d s the western w o r l d i n t o c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  and e m o t i o n a l responses and t h e r e s u l t a n t c o n f u s i o n and e v e n t u a l which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f our contemporary  society.  stasis  118  Bib!iography  I  Works c o n s u l t e d on Guido C a v a l c a n t i i . F l e t c h e r , J e f f e r s o n B. "Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Ode o f Love" Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 7 , January 1910. pp 423-427 - . L i t e r a t u r e of t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . New York The M a c m i l l a n Company,  1934.  Mazzeo, Joseph A. M e d i e v a l C u l t u r a l T r a d i t i o n ' i n D a i i t e ' s I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1949  Comedy.  M u s c a t i n e , C h a r l e s . Chaucer and t h e French T r a d i t i o n . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . 1957. De S a n c t i s , F r a n c e s c o . H i s t o r y ' o f _ I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . I New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1931 Schoeck, R i c h a r d J . , and T a y l o r , Jerome, e d i t o r s . Chaucer C r i t i c i s m , v o l . II N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame P r e s s . 1961. . Shaw, J . E . Guido C a v a l c a n t i ' s Theory of Love. T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . 1949 V a l e n c y , M a u r i c e . In Praise o f Love. New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company. 1958 V i t t o r i n i , Domenico. H i g h : P o i n t s i n _ t h e H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n New Y o r k : David McKay Company, I n c . 1958 II  Literature.  Works c o n s u l t e d i n R e l a t i o n t o Chapter Three G i l s o n , E t i e n n e H. La P h i l o s o p h i c au Moyen Age. 2nd. e d i t i o n . P a r i s : P a y o t . 1947. Pound, E z r a . Make I t New. London: Faber and Faber L i m i t e d . G a u d i e r - B r z e s k a : A Memoir. New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s . 1960.  1934 1916.  119  III  Works C o n s u l t e d in R e l a t i o n to Chapter  Four  C h a r l e s w o r t h , B.A. The T e n s i l e L i g h t : A Study o f ' E z r a Pound's R e l i g i o n . C o r a l G a b l e s . F l o r i d a : The U n i v e r s i t y of M i a m i , 1957. C l a r k , Thomas. "The Formal S t u r c t u r e o f P o u n d ' s ' C a n t o ; s ' . " East-West Review, v o l . I . No. 2 . Autumn 1964. pp 97-144. K y o t o , J a p a n : Doshinsha U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1964. Edwards, J o h n , e d i t o r . The PouncT N e w ! e t t e r . N o . . 6 . A p r i l B e r k e l e y : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . 1955. Fenollosa, Ernest. The Chinese W r i t t e n C h a r a c t e r as a_Medium.for San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books. 1936.  Poetry.  P a i g e , B.D. The L e t t e r s o f E z r a Pound 1907-1941. H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , I n c . 1950 • ~  New York:  Pound, E z r a . The Cantos ( 1 - 9 5 ) . New York: New D i r e c t i o n s 1937, 1940, 1948, 1956. . ABC of R e a d i n g . New York: New D i r e c t i o n s .  IV  Works C o n s u l t e d i n R e l a t i o n t o Chapter  1934.  The Modern  Five.  Duncan, Robert E. Poems 1948-49. Glen Gardner, L i b e r t a r i a n Press, n.d,  N.J.:  . S e l e c t e d Poems. San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books. . Caesar's  1934.  1960  .Make I t New. London: Faber and Faber L i m i t e d . Y u t a n g , L I n . The Wisdom o f C o n f u c i u s . New Y o r k : L i b r a r y . 1938  1955.  1959.  G a t e : Poems 1949-1950. S p a i n : D i v e r s P r e s s  1955.  A l l e n , Donald e d i t o r . The New^American P o e t r y . 1945-1960 New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , I n c . 1960. Wah, P a u l i n e . Robert Duncan: The Poem as P r o c e s s . (MA T h e s i s ) Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1966. Chapter Two: Some B a s i c D i s t i n c t i o n s , pp 5-17.  

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