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Psychographics : a review Vacek, Ludvik 1976

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PSYCHOGRAPHICS: A REVIEW  by  L.UDVIK VACEK B.Comm., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  in  THE  FACULTY OF  COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1976 L u d v i k Vacek, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  make  it  British  freely available  that permission  for financial  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  purposes may be granted It  for  the requirements  this  i s understood that gain shall  not  copying or  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  June 24, 1976  Columbia  that  thesis or  publication  be allowed without my  Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  for  study.  by the Head of my Department  permission.  Department of  Date  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  ABSTRACT  T h i s paper  i s the r e s u l t o f an i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and  a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p s y c h o g r a p h i c s . vestigation  has been t o p r o v i d e an improved  The purpose  of this i n -  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the found-  a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s as they r e l a t e t o m a r k e t i n g . To t h i s end t h r e e major a s p e c t s o f psychographic been c o n s i d e r e d : t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  literature  foundations of psychographics,  have marketing  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , and an e v a l u a t i o n o f psychographic research. The review o f l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s to  a c o n c l u s i o n that the f i e l d  c e r t a i n apparent  shortcomings,  successfully applied in  i s not without problems. however, psychographic  i n the area o f marketing  has l e a d  In s p i t e o f  r e s e a r c h has been  s t r a t e g y development, and  the area o f consumer b e h a v i o u r . Improvements w i l l  be r e q u i r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y  d e s i g n , and i n t h e areas o f r e l i a b i l i t y instrument items.  i n the area o f i n s t r u m e n t  and v a l i d i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l  N e v e r t h e l e s s , psychographic  r e s e a r c h promises t o  become a v i a b l e r e s e a r c h t o o l . T h i s paper c l o s e s with an assessment o f f u t u r e developments o f psychographics.  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page L i s t o f Tables  i i i  L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  iv  Acknowledgements  v  I.  INTRODUCTION  1  1. S u b j e c t Matter o f the T h e s i s  1  2. Reasons f o r W r i t i n g  2  3. L i m i t a t i o n s 4. O r g a n i z a t i o n II.  the T h e s i s  o f the T h e s i s  3.  and O u t l i n e o f t h e T h e s i s  3  PSYCHOGRAPHICS AND RELATED CONCEPTS  8  1. T h e o r e t i c a l Foundations o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s a) L i f e S t y l e b) P e r s o n a l i t y c ) Product B e n e f i t s and A t t r i b u t e s  9 11 12 14  2. D e f i n i t i o n s o f Psychographics a) D e f i n i t i o n s b) Psychographic V a r i a b l e s  15 16 24  3. Summary  29  I I I . MARKETING APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS  31  A. P s y c h o g r a p h i c s and Marketing S t r a t e g y  32  1. Market Segmentation a) P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s o r A t t i t u d e s b) L i f e S t y l e Segmentation c ) Product B e n e f i t Segmentation 2. A d v e r t i s i n g  Strategy  Based  Development  3. Product Development 4. Channels  of Distribution  Segmentation  32 33 45 54 56 62  Selection  5. Media S e l e c t i o n B. Psychographics and Consumer Behaviour  64 65 68  1. Consumer Behaviour A n a l y s i s  71  2. I d e n t i f y i n g Consumer P r o f i l e  76  3. Summary  79  ii  Page  IV.  EVALUATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS 1. Relevancy o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s t o Consumer and Marketing 2. R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y a) Instrument Design b) R e l i a b i l i t y c) V a l i d i t y  V.  80 Behaviour  and Measurement Problems  80 85 87 89 91  3. Pros and Cons o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s  95  4. Summary  97  CONCLUSIONS  98  REFERENCES  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  105  i ii  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between O v e r a l l  and Drug Segmentation Groups  37  2. Product Usage Among S i x Housewife Segments  38  3. Product Usage Among Four Drug R e l a t e d Segments  40  4. Product and Media Use by Male Psychographic Segments  44  5. L i f e  46  S t y l e and Demographic Dimensions  6. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n R e s u l t s o f AIO Agreement w i t h Male Bank Charge Card Users  49  7. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n R e s u l t s o f AIO Agreement with Female Bank Charge Card Users 8. T o o t h p a s t e Market Segments  52 Description  9. Summary o f Audience C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Female Data)  55  (1970 Canadian 69  10. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Psychographic V a r i a b l e s w i t h Variables  Demographic 72  11. R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s - Comparison o f E x p l a n a t o r y Power o f Demographic Versus Non-Demographic  Variables  12. Stomach Remedies Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items  75 83  13. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r 150 Activity, 14. S e l e c t e d  I n t e r e s t and O p i n i o n Questions  Examples o f S t a b l e AIO F a c t o r s  15. S e l e c t e d Examples o f U n s t a b l e AIO F a c t o r s  90 92 93  iv  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure  1.  Page  Relationships  Between A t t i t u d e s , I n t e r e s t s and O p i n i o n s  and L i f e S t y l e C a t e g o r i e s  27  2.  Framework f o r A d v e r t i s i n g S t r a t e g y Development  58  3.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Segments and T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  59  4.  Comparison o f Dependent and A c t i v e Automobile  60  5.  Psychographic  Drivers  P r o f i l e V a r i a b l e s and Sample Questions  77  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Special and  thanks a r e due my t h e s i s a d v i s e r s ,  Dr. Fred H. S i l l e r .  discussions  Without t h e hours o f t h e i r time spent i n  and c o n s t r u c t i v e  criticism,  t h e s i s would not have been kept so w e l l This  thesis  i s dedicated  s t a n d i n g made t h i s t h e s i s  Dr. Doyle L. Weiss,  the process o f w r i t i n g under c o n t r o l .  to my w i f e ,  possible.  this  Eva, whose help and under-  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1. S u b j e c t M a t t e r o f the T h e s i s E f f e c t i v e , p r o f i t d i r e c t e d management, demands an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f new developments  i n the marketing d i s c i p l i n e f o r t h e i r e f f e c t i v e  c a t i o n t o marketing problems.  The marketing d i s c i p l i n e  f l o o d e d w i t h new r e s e a r c h developments i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  i s now  and a p p l i c a t i o n s .  appli-  virtually  As a r e s u l t i t  f o r the p r a c t i s i n g marketer o r r e s e a r c h e r t o remain  c u r r e n t i n h i s knowledge o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h concept. The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o compile and a n a l y s e r e c e n t m a t e r i a l on p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i n such a way as t o a l l o w the p r a c t i s i n g marketer, o r o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r , a r e a s o n a b l y q u i c k , sound of  this  and c u r r e n t  overview  subject.  To gain an understanding o f new concepts one should always s t u d y i n g the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h .  s t a r t by  In t h i s way, u n i n t e n t i o n a l  d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h and u l t i m a t e l y a waste o f r e s e a r c h funds can be avoided. In  r e c e n t y e a r s the atmosphere s u r r o u n d i n g market r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s  has p r o v i d e d i d e a l graphics.  grounds  f o r a v a s t expansion o f the f i e l d  T h i s i s m a i n l y because  segmentation  have f a i l e d  the e x i s t i n g  o f psycho-  t o o l s f o r e f f e c t i v e market  t o do the j o b on many o c c a s i o n s .  This  expansion  however, has l e f t us w i t h a d i s c i p l i n e which appears t o be a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f demographics,  yet d i f f i c u l t  t o understand because  p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o v e r l a p p i n g concepts and t h e o r i e s . in  the f i e l d  of a  Furthermore, r e s e a r c h e r s  cannot seem t o agree on the proper o r p o t e n t i a l  uses o f  2  psychographics,  i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t a whole p o r t f o l i o o f r e s e a r c h  and a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e now  available.  Moreover, i t appears  t h a t psycho-  g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h has not been f i r m l y v e s t e d i n a s u p p o r t i n g framework, and  thus the p i o n e e r i n g and  mented and without In field  theoretical  r e c e n t work i n t h i s f i e l d  i s frag-  focus.  o r d e r to s i m p l i f y the process o f l i t e r a t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n i n the  o f psychographic  r e s e a r c h , t h i s t h e s i s s e t s forward  the f o l l o w i n g  objectives: a. Compile a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f l i t e r a t u r e and of  r e s e a r c h i n the  field  psychographics.  b. Review s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e and  research.  c. Conduct an a n a l y s i s o f t r e n d s i n the f i e l d d. I n d i c a t e , from  of  psychographics.  the l i t e r a t u r e , what has been done i n psycho-  g r a p h i c s to date. e. Summarize f i n d i n g s about s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f psychographic research. f.  P r o v i d e the reader w i t h a comprehensive overview u n d e r l y i n g psychographic  o f the  research, a p p l i c a t i o n s of  concepts  psychographic  r e s e a r c h , and c r i t i c i s m s of the s u b j e c t matter. g. B r i n g forward the w r i t e r ' s view o f the s u b j e c t matter.  2. Reasons f o r W r i t i n g the T h e s i s The of  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to p r o v i d e a comprehensive  psychographic  the understanding difficult  t h e o r y and  r e s e a r c h p r a c t i c e and,  o f psychographic  to f i n d one's way  through  overview  i n so d o i n g ,  r e s e a r c h i n marketing.  improve  Because i t i s  the e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e  on  3  psychographics  p u b l i s h e d over the l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h i s t h e s i s  to p r o v i d e the reader w i t h a comprehensive overview r e s e a r c h c o n c e p t s , supported by a b i b l i o g r a p h y . as a q u i c k r e f e r e n c e o f psychographic ology.  of  tries  psychographic  The t h e s i s should s e r v e  r e s e a r c h a p p l i c a t i o n s and method-  I t e x p l a i n s b a s i c concepts u n d e r l y i n g p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , i t s p o s s i b l e  a p p l i c a t i o n s , as well  as problems which should be a n t i c i p a t e d  in carrying  out psychographic r e s e a r c h .  3. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the T h e s i s The  t h e s i s i s n o t without.1 i m i t a t i o n s .  It i s physically impossible,  g i v e n the time c o n s t r a i n t s , t o c a r r y out a comprehensive and review o f the l i t e r a t u r e on p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  exhaustive  For t h i s r e a s o n , o n l y s e l e c t e d  p u b l i c a t i o n s o f major r e s e a r c h works, and o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o g r a p h i c s , are d i r e c t l y r e f e r e n c e d i n the t h e s i s .  psycho-  In a d d i t i o n , not a l l  p u b l i c a t i o n s deemed important f o r t h i s t h e s i s were a v a i l a b l e i n time t o be i n c l u d e d i n the  analysis.  4. O r g a n i z a t i o n and O u t l i n e o f the T h e s i s For the sake o f g r e a t e r c l a r i t y the t h e s i s d e a l s with the s u b j e c t matter under f o u r headings:  1) Psychographics  and  Related  Concepts;  2) A p p l i c a t i o n s o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s ; 3) E v a l u a t i o n o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s ; 4) C o n c l u s i o n s . of the purpose  (Chapters II - V r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . of i n d i v i d u a l  chapters follow.  An o u t l i n e and  and  discussion  4  a) Outline of Chapter II  - Psychographics and Related Concepts  The main purpose of t h i s chapter i s to discuss the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics  (Section 1), and to deal with some of the  d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with d e f i n i n g i t s subject matter (Section 2). The problem of d e f i n i n g psychographics  i s characterized by the f a c t  that t h i s d i s c i p l i n e i s f a i r l y new in the marketing context, and that i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y vested in a given t h e o r e t i c a l framework.  A score of  researchers have made attempts to define the f i e l d with various degrees of success, none exhaustively.  The lack of a concise d e f i n i t i o n of psycho-  graphics seems to be one of the most serious shortcomings of the d i s c i p l i n e leaving researchers and marketers without a common ground f o r understanding of the f i e l d .  As a r e s u l t , the a p p l i c a t i o n of psychographic research  techniques t o marketing problems has been impaired by a lack of understanding of the f i e l d . On the other hand, i t seems that psychographic research could become a v i a b l e marketing research t o o l .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n s i t u a t i o n s  where t r a d i t i o n a l market segmentation f a i l e d to produce meaningful r e s u l t s , due to the dynamic character of market segments.  For example, the l i f e  s t y l e of d i f f e r e n t demographic groups in the market can be very f a r apart or overlapping, giving no explanation as to why consumers buy the same products.  The same i s true f o r d i s c r e t i o n a r y income spending patterns.  I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t consumer behaviour of the market segment earning, say $10-15,000, j u s t because one consumer could be a heavy machinery operator and another an engineer - each enjoying a d i f f e r e n t l i f e style. In essence, psychographic research goes beyond t r a d i t i o n a l market  5  segmentation. matter how  In a psychographic approach to the market, i t does not  much the p a r t i c u l a r groups o f p r o s p e c t s e a r n , where they  what t h e i r ages a r e , and so on; but the most important matter the buyers o f a p a r t i c u l a r product have i n common i n the way and r e a c t , and why It w i l l  they purchase a p a r t i c u l a r product or  i s what they t h i n k  brand.  be shown t h a t the psychographic v a r i a b l e s are drawn from a t  l e a s t t h r e e u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s , one v a r i a b l e s , two  - life  - personality traits  s t y l e concept v a r i a b l e s , and  and a t t r i b u t e s concept v a r i a b l e s .  concept  t h r e e - product b e n e f i t s  These t h r e e concepts are  i n c o m p a t i b l e , but a l l t h r e e are c o v e r e d , i n one way term  live,  seemingly  o r a n o t h e r , by the  'psychographics'.  b) O u t l i n e o f Chapter  I I I - Marketing A p p l i c a t i o n s o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s  The main purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o deal w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n s o f psychographics to marketing  problems.  Two  major areas o f psychographic  a p p l i c a t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d : the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s t o marketing s t r a t e g y development, and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s t o consumer behaviour.  In p a r t i c u l a r , i n the c o n t e x t o f marketing  s t r a t e g y , the  f o l l o w i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s are d i s c u s s e d : market segmentation, advertising  s t r a t e g y development, product development, channels  o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , and media s e l e c t i o n .  In the c o n t e x t o f consumer b e h a v i o u r ,  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s to consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s ,  and  i d e n t i f y i n g o f consumer p r o f i l e are d i s c u s s e d . In s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t p s y c h o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i s r e l a t i v e l y it  new,  has generated a s c o r e o f r e s u l t s from which some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f o r  marketing d e c i s i o n making can be made.  As Demby [3] p o i n t s o u t , i t  6  appears t h a t t h e r e are two  kinds o f p r o d u c t s , those which do and  which do not change a person's l i f e  style.  Furthermore,  those  he says t h a t  t h e r e are brand s e l e c t i o n s t y l e s and t h a t some consumers r e q u i r e  fewer  inputs of a d v e r t i s i n g .  T h i s has enabled a d v e r t i s e r s t o make media  s e l e c t i o n s by measuring  media not j u s t f o r heavy u s e r s , but a l s o f o r  a t t i t u d e s and  behaviour t h a t can be used t o p r e d i c t the changes - the  p r o p e n s i t y - o f o t h e r p a r t s o f the audience t o buy a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t o r brand. The  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f psychographic concepts t o marketing are by no  means easy.  Psychographic r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s c o m p l i c a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t e s t s , use o f computer f a c i l i t i e s , the r e s u l t s .  and h i g h l y t r a i n e d personnel t o a n a l y s e  For t h e s e , and o t h e r reasons, p s y c h o g r a p h i c s have not been  used on a mass s c a l e to d a t e .  c) O u t l i n e o f Chapter  IV - E v a l u a t i o n o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s  The main purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s to encompass c r i t i c a l  points of  psychographic l i t e r a t u r e , and t o e v a l u a t e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f psychographic r e s e a r c h .  For these r e a s o n s , the c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the  s u b j e c t matter under the f o l l o w i n g sub-headings: to  Relevancy o f Psychographics  Consumer Behaviour and M a r k e t i n g ; R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y , and Measurement  Problems; and  Pros and Cons o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  The c r i t i c i s m s o f psychographic r e s e a r c h are g e n e r a l l y o f the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r : psychographic r e s e a r c h has to do w i t h m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h , and as such i t i s f u l l y  v u l n e r a b l e t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  v a l i d i t y of psychological  P s y c h o l o g i c a l measurements are c o m p l i -  tests.  c a t e d , l e n g t h y , r e q u i r e c o n s t r a i n i n g assumptions, subjectively interpreted  and  and y e t ' t h e y must be  i n s p i t e o f the use o f computer a s s i s t e d  analysis.  7  In a d d i t i o n , t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s a r e concerned q u e s t i o n s such as - are psychographics s a i d t o be?, i s psychographic  with  r e a l l y a c c o m p l i s h i n g what they a r e  research s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  sound?, and a r e the  methodologies and t e c h n i q u e s employed i n psychographic r e s e a r c h r e a l l y valid? The more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s come from w r i t e r s who q u e s t i o n the r e l e v a n c e o f psychographic problems.  r e s e a r c h t o marketing  decision  In p a r t i c u l a r , the q u e s t i o n here i s - can psychographic r e s e a r c h  help i n m o t i v a t i n g consumers t o buy a p a r t i c u l a r product o r brand? (Young [29]). F i n a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r c l o s e s with a summary o f pros and cons o f psychographics.  d) O u t l i n e o f Chapter V - C o n c l u s i o n s The thesis.  c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r summarizes the main p o i n t s d i s c u s s e d i n the In a d d i t i o n , an attempt i s made t o e s t i m a t e the f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n  o f psychographic r e s e a r c h .  Let us now t u r n t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f psychographics and r e l a t e d concepts.  8  CHAPTER II PSYCHOGRAPHICS AND RELATED CONCEPTS  The main purpose of this chapter is to explore the theoretical foundations of psychographics and to sort out some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in defining psychographic research.  For this reason, the chapter is  divided into two sections: 1. Theoretical Foundations of Psychographics 2. Definitions of Psychographics In the f i r s t section, i t w i l l be shown that psychographics can be seen only partly within a particular theoretical framework, namely that of the theory of personal constructs.  It seems that the lack of a more solid  theoretical base for psychographics leads to d i f f i c u l t i e s in defining the subject matter, and more seriously to a lack of proper orientation of the entire psychographic research f i e l d . The second section of this chapter deals with the question of defining the psychographic research f i e l d .  To this point in time, there has been  considerable confusion about what psychographics i s , or what i t should represent.  Some researchers feel that psychographics is research dealing  with personality, others feel l i f e style is the basic subject matter of psychographics, and yet others believe that product attributes (as perceived by the consumer) should be included as well.  In this connection,  i t w i l l be suggested that a l l three research concepts (personality, l i f e style, product attributes) can be usefully included under the term psychographics.  9  The t o p i c s of t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics, i t i o n of psychographics  and d e f i n -  must be seen as i n t e r r e l a t e d . As a - r e s u l t i t can  be expected t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y a s s o c i a t e d with the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of the subject matter w i l l have a bearing on i t s d e f i n i t i o n . F i n a l l y , the o v e r r i d i n g purpose of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework and d e f i n i t i o n o f psychographics needs.  has to be seen i n the l i g h t of the marketer's  Perhaps, some shortcomings i n both might not be as important i f i t  could be shown that psychographic  research f u l f i l l s the marketer's d e s i r e  to acquire more productive information about h i s market. i s to be of value psychographic  research must provide b e t t e r information  than the a v a i l a b l e demographic approach to the market. shows that psychographic  In s h o r t , i f i t  The next  chapter  research might have the p o t e n t i a l of p r o v i d i n g  the marketer with b e t t e r information f o r a more e f f e c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n of the market. Let us now turn to the question of t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics. 1. T h e o r e t i c a l Foundations  of  Psychographics  Apart from the work by Reynolds and Darden [21],  not many published  attempts d e a l i n g with the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics available.  are  In t h e i r work, Reynolds and Darden t r y to show that psycho[10]  graphics i s a c t u a l l y vested i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f K e l l y ' s personal c o n s t r u c t s .  However, i t seems that i f t h i s was the case, the  e n t i r e f i e l d of psychographics  would be much b e t t e r understood  today.  The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n b r i e f l y e x p l a i n s the major points of the theory of personal c o n s t r u c t s .  Then, the essence of d e r i v i n g the  foundations  10  o f psychographics from the personal d i f f i c u l t i e s with  constructs  p s y c h o g r a p h i c s as i t r e l a t e s t o the theory  c o n s t r u c t s a r e brought t o the r e a d e r s '  two major  o f personal  o f personal  constructs i s  foci.  First  ... i t s e t s f o r t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the ways a person o r g a n i s e s and s t r u c t u r e s h i s w o r l d , and  Second  ... the theory concerned with the process by which an i n d i v i d u a l changes h i s conceptual s t r u c t u r e s o f t h a t world.  In order  t o e x p l a i n the theory  a number o f ' c o n s t r u c t s ' lated  Finally,  attention.  In essence K e l l y ' s [21, p. 75] theory concerned with  i s discussed.  o f human b e h a v i o u r , K e l l y s e t s f o r t h  [21, p. 7 5 ] * . These c o n s t r u c t s a r e then formu-  i n t o d i f f e r e n t c o r o l l a r i e s , based on the n o t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n  alternativism. T h i s means t h a t :  ... an i n d i v i d u a l does not respond t o the ' r e a l ' s i t u a t i o n (whatever ' r e a l ' might mean) but t o a s i t u a t i o n as he sees i t . In t u r n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be a f u n c t i o n of h i s c u r r e n t c o n s t r u i n g system. Thus t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f human behaviour i s p r i m a r i l y dependent on the degree t o which construct.systems can be t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y subsumed. [ 2 1 ] .  Next, K e l l y b e l i e v e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e process c o r o l l a r i e s f o r various  life  situations.  forms d i f f e r e n t  As a r e s u l t , an i n d i v i d u a l  behaves i n about t h e same way under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s , p e r c e i v e s i n the same way, and i n general  reacts to s i t u a t i o n s with  stimuli  the same  *People r e p r e s e n t t h e i r worlds by c r e a t i n g c o n s t r u c t s o r p a t t e r n s by which to construe the events happening i n nature. Each person develops h i s own r e p e r t o i r o f c o n s t r u c t s and uses them t o i n t e r p r e t , c o n c e p t u a l i z e , and p r e d i c t events. D i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s construe the u n i v e r s e i n d i f f e r e n t ways; hence the c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f some i n d i v i d u a l s f i t r e a l i t y b e t t e r than the c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f o t h e r s .  11  behaviour. Because, the consumer's m a n i f e s t e d l i f e of  interest  relate can  s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y a r e  t o marketers, we want t o know how the l i f e  t o the t h e o r y o f personal  s t y l e and  personality  c o n s t r u c t s , and t o what e x t e n t t h i s  theory  e x p l a i n them.  a)  Life  Style  In o r d e r t o e x p l a i n the n o t i o n o f l i f e are  s t y l e , two o f the c o r o l l a r i e s  important; one, the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o r o l l a r y ,  corollary.  Both a r e e x p l a i n e d  (1) The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  and two, the communality  below:  corollary  states  that:  Each person c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e v o l v e s , f o r h i s convenience i n a n t i c i p a t i n g e v e n t s , a c o n s t r u c t i o n system e n f o r c i n g o r d i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s [ 2 1 , p. 8.7]. The  person's l i f e  s t y l e can then be viewed as the c o n s t r u c t i o n  system  t h a t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e v o l v e s f o r h i m s e l f . S i n c e l i f e s t y l e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the c o n s t r u c t i o n system, i t i s composed o f c o n s t r u c t i o n sub-systems each o f which a r e made up e n t i r e l y o f personal c o n s t r u c t s [21, p. 83] In p r a c t i c a l  terms, t h i s means t h a t the person's l i f e  style i s  composed o f two a s p e c t s , one being the behaviour o f an i n d i v i d u a l , and the  second, h i s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s .  determine p r e c i s e l y relationship  what the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  between h i s l i f e  unfortunate s i t u a t i o n  related  life  s t y l e i s , o r what i s the  s t y l e and behaviour.  f o r the p r a c t i s i n g  he may have about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s precisely  As a r e s u l t we a r e never a b l e t o  life  T h i s i s indeed an  marketer, because the i n f o r m a t i o n  s t y l e and behaviour cannot be  to h i s behaviour as a consumer.  12  In many cases the attempt t o measure and e x p l a i n the l i f e an  individual  i s done r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l l y .  If a particular  repeats i t s e l f ,  however, i t i s given a name and r e f e r r e d  style of l i f e .  Some o f the l a b e l s  style of  behaviour  t o as a p a r t i c u l a r  c r e a t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i n the p a s t [23]  i n c l u d e hard working, o u t g o i n g , homebody, and o t h e r s .  (2) The communality c o r o l l a r y  states:  To the e x t e n t t h a t one person employs a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e which i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t employed by another, h i s p r o c e s s e s a r e psychologically s i m i l a r t o those o f the o t h e r person [21,,p. 8 1 ] . This c o r o l l a r y  tells  being exposed to d i f f e r e n t representing l i f e  us t h a t i n s p i t e o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f persons s e t s o f s t i m u l i , the r e s u l t i n g  s t y l e can be the same.  behaviour  The c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s by which  such behaviour was g e n e r a t e d , however, i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . t h i s f a c t leads us t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r resulting "...  from  'aggregating' o r 'communality  of l i f e  life  styles.  styles,  However,  communality o f background does not guarantee t h a t people w i l l see  t h i n g s a l i k e o r behave a l i k e " For  practical  necessarily  b)  [ 2 1 , p. 8 4 ] ,  purposes then, we have t o r e a l i s e t h a t a t best we are  looking only a t a part of l i f e not  1  cultural  Furthermore,  result  s t y l e , and t h a t the same l i f e  from i d e n t i c a l  s t y l e does  stimuli.  Personality  A g a i n , the theory and r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e d with p e r s o n a l i t y improve s u b s t a n t i a l l y  the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s  Furthermore, the p r a c t i t i o n e r relationships  understanding o f the market.  cannot r e a s o n a b l y i n t e r p r e t  between the consumer's l i f e  does not  the causal  s t y l e , h i s behaviour, and f o r c e s  13  of marketing  s t r a t e g y w i t h which the consumer i s c o n f r o n t e d .  Reynolds and Darden [21, p. 86] r e a c t to t h i s s i t u a t i o n following  i n the  way:  We are i n t e r e s t e d i n t a p p i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n ( b e h a v i o u r b u i l d i n g ] system f o r those c o n s t r u c t s and sub-systems r e l e v a n t to consumer behaviour - the product r e l a t e d , communicating, p u r c h a s i n g and consuming behaviours o f persons. ... The o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the person's l i f e - s t y l e are i r r e l e v a n t f o r our purpose. Indeed, any attempt t o examine them i n r e l a t i o n to the consumer r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f the system would tend to produce i n c o m p a t i b l e r e s u l t s . T h i s , we b e l i e v e , to be one o f the main problems w i t h the use o f s t a n d a r d i z e d c l i n i c a l measures i n many p r e v i o u s attempts t o p r e d i c t consumer behaviour. I t i s not t h a t the measures are i n a c c u r a t e per se, i t i s simply t h a t such measures are subsuming i r r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n system and hence a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h consumer behaviour.  That r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f which b e h a v i o u r a l c o n s t r u c t should used  to e x p l a i n the t h e o r e t i c a l  psychographic  research.  f o u n d a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l i t y a s p e c t o f  There does not seem t o be a c l e a r answer t o  t h i s problem t o be found  in Kelly's constructs.  However, one  p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t s c o u l d p o s s i b l y improve the of the t h e o r e t i c a l  be  subset o f  understanding  base f o r use o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n consumer behaviour.  In  p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s subset o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s ' a c t i v i t y , i n t e r e s t and o p i n i o n ' (AIO).  T h i s i s , of c o u r s e , p o s s i b l e t o the e x t e n t the marketer can  r e a s o n a b l y sure t h a t these v a r i a b l e s are r e l a t e d t o the consumer  be  behaviour  in question. At t h i s p o i n t t h e r e does not seem to be a s o l i d f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o psychographic  theoretical  research.  p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n seems to be the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o AIO. of how will  well do the AIO  The  foundation only  The  c o r r o l a t e with p a r t i c u l a r s e t s o f consumer  be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I .  question behaviour  14  To summarize the d i s c u s s i o n o f l i f e r e l a t e to p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s , we in  this  theoretical  behaviour and  life  framework.  s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y as they  can see t h a t n e i t h e r i s p e r f e c t l y v e s t e d  For the marketer  i t means t h a t consumer  s t y l e must be seen and examined under g i v e n c i r c u m -  s t a n c e s , and t h a t i s i s almost i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t what the consumer behaviour under g i v e n s t i m u l i may  c) Product B e n e f i t s and  be.  Attributes  T h i s segment o f psychographic r e s e a r c h has t o do w i t h product b e n e f i t s or product a t t r i b u t e s . behaviour t h e o r y developed  T h i s concept does not f i t i n t o the human  by K e l l y , u n l e s s the product a t t r i b u t e , or  b e n e f i t , i s seen as an a t t i t u d e towards the product held by the Once t h i s t r a n s i t i o n o f thought product f a l l s  customer.  i s c a r r i e d o u t , t h e a t t i t u d e toward  i n t o the sphere o f p e r s o n a l i t y , and the c o n s t r u c t i v e  l a r y can be used t o e x p l a i n the consumer a t t i t u d e .  The  the corol-  construction  c o r o l l a r y says t h a t "a person a n t i c i p a t e s events by c o n s t r u i n g t h e i r replications" In  [21, p. 76].  t h i s sense then, the a t t i t u d e towards a product i s a  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the o b j e c t or event, as w e l l attached to i t .  The  person's  as the meaning which i s  a t t i t u d e towards a p r o d u c t i s not l i m i t e d t o the  c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s , but can be c l e a r l y demonstrated - through p u r c h a s i n g or non-purchasing  by consumer behaviour  o f the product,  To conclude t h i s s e c t i o n , i t seems t h a t p s y c h o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h can be o n l y p a r t l y v e s t e d i n K e l l y ' s t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l behaviour,  However,  t h e r e are some weaknesses i n the e x p l a n a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l behavioural  elements w i t h r e s p e c t to marketing  relevancy.  I t has been  15  shown t h a t we  do not know, and are unable  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e  s t y l e i s and  n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t from i n psychographic  identical  behaviour  that identical stimuli.  research i s related  o n l y to the e x t e n t t h a t the ATO in question.  t o determine,  f i n d i n g s about the t h e o r e t i c a l marketer?  p e r s o n a l i t y concept  i t was  shown t h a t the product  and  attribute  i s ; what are the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the base of psychographics  marketer must be a l e r t when u s i n g the psychographic  causal  used  framework.  f o r the  No c l e a r - c u t answer i s a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s s t a g e .  i n f o r m a t i o n from  not  i s r e a s o n a b l y r e l a t e d t o the consumer  Finally,  c l o s i n g q u e s t i o n then  s t y l e s do  to the theory o f personal c o n s t r u c t s  concept does not r e l a t e t o any t h e o r e t i c a l The  The  life  what p r e c i s e l y  However, the  concepts  h i s market, because o f the unexplained  practising  to a b s t r a c t  character of  f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t to the consumer's p e r s o n a l i t y  life The  style. next s e c t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r t u r n s t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h the development o f a workable d e f i n i t i o n o f  2. D e f i n i t i o n o f  psychographics.  Psychographics  There seems to be some c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y about e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  The  t a n t l y the p r a c t i s i n g marketer,  cannot  as to what can be expected  psychographics,  how  to use  i t i n the marketing  e x i s t i n g confusion l i e s and  from  r e s e a r c h community, and more impor-  context.  expect t o f i n d a c l e a r - c u t answer  One  how  to r e g a r d i t , o r even  o f the reasons  i n the number o f d e f i n i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o d a t e ,  i n the v a r i e t y o f d i r e c t i o n s i n which psychographic  going.  f o r the  A c c o r d i n g to Wells  r e s e a r c h has  [26] t h e r e are more than t h i r t y  been  definitions  16  s c a t t e r e d throughout  the l i t e r a t u r e .  Furthermore,  i t seems, t h a t none o f  these d e f i n i t i o n s s t a t e s t h e p r e c i s e nature o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s . C e r t a i n l y , any new r e s e a r c h f i e l d initial  i s bound t o be accompanied by  d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with d e f i n i t i o n s and t e r m i n o l o g y .  the p r a c t i s i n g community i s n a t u r a l l y more h e s i t a n t t o a c c e p t under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s . r e s e a r c h must be c l e a r . in  To them, the purpose  Any m i s c o n c e p t i o n s  psychographics  and a p p l i c a t i o n o f such  about t h e s u b j e c t may r e s u l t  a waste o f r e s o u r c e s . In  the s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , s e v e r a l  g r a p h i c s a r e a n a l y s e d and compared. of  However,  these d e f i n i t i o n s a r e brought  apparent  shortcomings  r e c e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f psycho-  Some major a s p e c t s and d i r e c t i o n s  t o the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n .  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  and p o s s i b l e , o r i e n t a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o marketing  applications are given. F i n a l l y , i t appears  t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n common concepts  number o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  ina  These concepts u n d e r l i e t h e  e n t i r e f i e l d o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , namely: p e r s o n a l i t y c o n c e p t s , l i f e and product a t t r i b u t e s .  style  (These concepts were d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s  s e c t i o n , i n connection with the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework).  T h i s s e c t i o n s t a r t s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the d e f i n i t i o n s o f psychog r a p h i c s as they e v o l v e d .  In the l a t t e r p a r t , psychographic  variables  and t h e i r use a r e d i s c u s s e d .  a) The  Definitions l a c k o f understanding o f t h e p r e c i s e nature o f psychographic  r e s e a r c h i s well  documented i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  U n f o r t u a n t e l y , not even  the most r e c e n t w r i t i n g s c l e a r up t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  The b a s i s o f  misunderstanding  of psychographics  i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Simmons [22] o f  the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r :  ... the f i r s t and foremost i m p r e s s i o n about p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no general agreement as t o j u s t e x a c t l y what i t i s , what are i t s major purposes and a p p l i c a t i o n s and what are the t e c h n i c a l and/or t h e o r e t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h psychog r a p h i c s from o t h e r types o f r e s e a r c h .  Here we  can see t h a t a t l e a s t a t h r e e - f o l d problem  w i t h the f i e l d two  o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s ; one  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s ; and  o t h e r forms o f marketing the p r a c t i s i n g marketer  has been a s s o c i a t e d  the major purpose  research.  i s the most i n t e r e s t e d i n .  f i n d a d e f i n i t i o n which attempts  g r a p h i c s i s i n an e x h a u s t i v e , understandable s t a t i n g the p r e c i s e nature o f the t h i n g * ) . community and the p r a c t i s i n g marketer  b r i n g s forward  As can be expected, onl,  t o e x p l a i n what  and  practical  the  psycho-  manner ( i . e .  As a r e s u l t , the r e s e a r c h  are l e f t  i n an u n f o r t u n a t e  However, i n s p i t e o f the u n s a t i s f a c o r y r e s u l t s o f attempts psychographic  from  These a r e , o f c o u r s e , f a c t s which  tens o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  seldom can we  psychographics  t h r e e the d i s t i n c t i o n o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s  R e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e o f psychographics literally  of  state. to d e f i n e  r e s e a r c h , t h e r e are emerging t r e n d s i n the d e f i n i t i o n s o f  field. For example, Wells [ 2 6 ] , u s i n g the e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s as a  developed  base,  an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n which a t l e a s t t r i e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h  between demographics and p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  A c c o r d i n g t o Wells  then,  O p e r a t i o n a l l y psychographic r e s e a r c h can be d e f i n e d as q u a n t i t i v e r e s e a r c h intended to p l a c e consumers on p s y c h o l o g i c a l - as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from demographic - dimensions. * Fowler, H.W. and F.Q. Fowler, eds., The C o n c i s e Oxford D i c t i o n a r y o f C u r r e n t E n g l i s h , (Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p.319,  18  In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a t l e a s t t h r e e important a s p e c t s emerge. 1. Psychographic r e s e a r c h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y 2. I t i s d i f f e r e n t from demographics, 3. The idea o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  oriented,  f o c u s i n g on p s y c h o l o g i c a l  dimension  needs f u r t h e r  dimensions,  clarification.  F o r t u n a t e l y , W e l l s [25] has p r o v i d e d us w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  variables  employed:  One common element i s t h e r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e (psychol o g i c a l ) v a r i a b l e s employed. Some o f the v a r i a b l e s a r e persona l i t y t r a i t s , l i k e s o c i a b i l i t y and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . Some a r e a t t i t u d e s - towards c h i l d r e a r i n g , housekeeping, a d v e r t i s i n g , government, r e l i g i o n , m o r a l s , money and o t h e r f a m i l i a r c o n c e r n s . Some a r e i n t e r e s t s - i n s p o r t s , c o o k i n g , c l o t h i n g , r e a d i n g , a r t , music, p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s . And some a r e o p i n i o n s about the proper r o l e s o f males and f e m a l e s , about what i s l i k e l y t o happen i n the f u t u r e , about t h e importance o f shopping c a r e f u l l y , o r about the pros and cons o f buying t h i n g s on c r e d i t , i n v e s t i n g i n the stock market.or moving t o a new community. However, even t h i s used  lengthy explanation o f psychographic  i n psychographic r e s e a r c h does.not  r e s e a r c h i s a l l about.  tell  us y e t what p s y c h o g r a p h i c  The q u a n t i t i v e view o f psychographic r e s e a r c h  f r e e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s mind t o use q u a n t i t i v e t o o l s , as w e l l methodologies  variables  o f m o t i v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , such combinations  as t h e  have come t o  r e l y on l a r g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples o f r e s p o n d e n t s , and s t a t i s t i c a l o f the f i n d i n g s [25, p.  analysis  197].  In a s e a r c h f o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f psychographic r e s e a r c h , i t i s u s e f u l to t u r n t o the d e f i n i t i o n  proposed  by Nelson  [ 1 4 ] , who suggests  that:  In i t s broadest sense, p s y c h o g r a p h i c s r e f e r s t o any form o f measurement o r a n a l y s i s o f the consumer's mind which p i n p o i n t s how one t h i n k s , , f e e l s , and r e a c t s . In essence, then, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n  has t o do w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f  'WHY' consumers buy the p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t , and n o t 'WHO'  buys the  19  p a r t i c u l a r product, the l a t t e r one being the customary q u e s t i o n behind demographic, market  segmentation.  To supplement h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , Nelson on to e x p l a i n psychographic psychographic  [14] goes  r e s e a r c h more s p e c i f i c a l l y , and c l a i m s t h a t  r e s e a r c h encompasses such f a c t o r s a s :  - the product b e n e f i t s t h a t consumers seek - the image o f brands, companies and media t h a t they p e r c e i v e - the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h a t they  possess  - t h e o p i n i o n s and v a l u e s t h a t they h o l d - t h e mode, o f buying t h a t they employ - the u n f u l f i l l e d  p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs t h a t they c r a v e  - the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s t h a t they  pursue  - t h e s e n s i t i v i t y t o ad messages t h a t they r e v e a l - the new product a d o p t i o n r a t e t h a t they m a i n t a i n - the degree convey  o f communication o f product i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t  they  - t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s from p r o d u c t s and media t h a t they d e s i r e - the concepts o f p o t e n t i a l - t h e i n f o r m a t i o n about  products t h a t they  relate  ' e x i s t i n g ' products t h a t they  specify  - t h e e f f e c t o f the c o n t e x t i n which ads a r e p l a c e d t h a t a r e discerned - the frame o f mind d u r i n g exposure - the degree  The still  t o ad messages t h a t they  feel  o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a t t i t u d e change t h a t they have  broadening  o f the d e f i n i t i o n  by Nelson  i n t o more s p e c i f i c  does not help t o adequately d e f i n e p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  aspects  I t can be seen  from Nelson's d e f i n i t i o n t h a t the term psychographics encompasses a wide range  o f concepts and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s .  For example, Nelson's  list  20  of  a s p e c t s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s can be segmented i n t o a t l e a s t t h r e e d i s t i n c t  groups, each d e a l i n g w i t h a s i n g l e concept. concept which c o u l d be observed  P e r s o n a l i t y i s the  i n such a s p e c t s as  first  'the o p i n i o n s and  v a l u e s t h a t they h o l d ' , 'the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h a t they h o l d ' , and unfulfilled  psychological  needs t h a t they c r a v e ' .  The  second  concept  which can be t r a c e d from the a s p e c t s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s l i s t e d is  that of 1 i f e s t y l e .  by  O b v i o u s l y , 'the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and  t h a t they pursue', i s a matter o f l i f e  style.  The  'the  Nelson  interests  t h i r d concept found i n  the a s p e c t s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s t h a t o f product a t t r i b u t e s concept. s a t i s f a c t i o n from p r o d u c t s and media t h a t they d e s i r e ' , and of  " p o t e n t i a l " products t h a t they r e l a t e '  product  'The  'the concepts  have t o do w i t h the concept o f  attributes.  To t h i s p o i n t we  have been a b l e t o i s o l a t e one a s p e c t meaningful  to  p s y c h o g r a p h i c s r e s e a r c h , namely t h a t psychographic r e s e a r c h i s a q u a n t i t a t i v e t o o l , u s i n g t h r e e b a s i c concepts t o c a r r y out the r e s e a r c h : 1. the p e r s o n a l i t y 2. the l i f e  concept,  s t y l e c o n c e p t , and  3. the product a t t i t u d e Before we way  concept.  proceed t o e x p l o r e what i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e  o f d e f i n i n g these c o n c e p t s , i t i s u s e f u l  q u e s t i o n o f 'WHY'  consumers buy a p a r t i c u l a r  i n the  to r e t u r n f o r a w h i l e t o the product.  Demby [3, p. 196] t h i n k s about p s y c h o g r a p h i c s as a t o o l  which:  B a s i c a l l y , ... i s a way o f segmenting the marketplace i n t o meaningful and l a r g e enough segments so t h a t a marketer can do the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Understand  who  i s most apt to buy h i s product f i r s t  - and  WHY;  2. Understand what kind o f a d v e r t i s i n g and packaging message i s most l i k e l y to convince a consumer - and WHY; 3. Understand  what media a r e most apt t o e f f i c i e n t l y and  f u l l y d e l i v e r h i s message - and  WHY;  success-  21  4. Understand customers;  the problem  o f c o n v e r t i n g non-customers  into  5. Understand what messages a r e l i k e l y t o c o n v i n c e the noncustomer - and WHY; 6. Understand what media a r e most a p t t o e f f i c i e n t l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y d e l i v e r the marketer's message t o e l i g i b l e c o n v e r t e e s non-customers, who can be turned i n t o customers - and WHY.  A c c o r d i n g t o Demby [ 3 ] then, p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s a concept which has to do w i t h market segmentation,  identifying  the buyer, c r e a t i n g  adver-  t i s i n g mix, media s e l e c t i o n , problem o f c o n v e r t i n g non-users, and p o s s i b l y o t h e r a s p e c t s o f marketing  strategy.  Thus, the scope o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s  r e s e a r c h reaches a wide v a r i e t y o f marketing c o n t e n t . s t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t by emphasising s e l e c t i o n tool  Demby [ 3 , p. 197]  t h a t "psychographics i s ... a media  -- but i t i s a l s o much more".  The i m p l i c a t i o n  here seems  to be t h a t p s y c h o g r a p h i c s r e s e a r c h goes beyond demographics o r t r a d i t i o n a l market segmentation  r e s e a r c h , and a c c o r d i n g t o Demby [ 3 , p. 196] "...  g i v e s numbers t o common  sense".  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e which can be observed psychographic market segmentation  between demographic and  i s i n the a d d i t i o n a l  q u e s t i o n asked  under the psychographic concept, namely the q u e s t i o n 'WHY'. particular state exists',  'Why a  'why do consumers purchase a brand' and o t h e r  s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s make the d i s t i n c t i o n  between these two marketing  tools.  As can be expected, i t i s i n no way easy t o answer these q u e s t i o n s and p r o v i d e t h e marketer w i t h u s e f u l  e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r them.  Young [29] d e f i n e s p s y c h o g r a p h i c s a s : ... r e s e a r c h which makes use o f consumers' a t t i t u d e s i n a n a l y s i n g such groups i n the market ... p s y c h o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s has and c o n t i n u e s t o i n c l u d e a t t i t u d e s about the product c a t e g o r y , about brands, as w e l l as a t t i t u d e s which r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e s about l i f e s t y l e . The p e r s o n a l i t y  22  and l i f e s t y l e data, of course, are what's r e l a t i v e l y new. It provides the content t h a t captures the imagination of the r e s e a r c h e r and marketer a l i k e . I t allows us to become voyeurs i n t o the psyche of the consumer. Young then, sees psychographics as a r e s e a r c h tool d e a l i n g mainly with consumers' a t t i t u d e s towards d i f f e r e n t aspects of marketing mix, with which the consumer i s confronted.  Such a view.is d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from  previous w r i t e r s and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s .  The d i f f e r e n c e T i e s i n the per-  c e p t i o n of the scope of psychographic r e s e a r c h . The previous w r i t e r s seemed to see psychographics as a tool which deals with market segmentation a c c o r d i n g to a s e t o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , l i f e s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s , whereas Young sees psychographics d e a l i n g with a t t i t u d e s of customers r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s , o p i n i o n s , and i n t e r e s t s . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t none of the w r i t e r s makes an attempt to provide us with a much needed l i n k a g e between psychographics r e s e a r c h and b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d from i t by p r a c t i s i n g marketers.  Obviously,  i f psychographic research i s to serve the p r a c t i t i o n e r s , i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n must be more t a n g i b l e than mere academic e x e r c i s e can provide. Perhaps the c l o s e s t attempt to provide the marketer with an understanding of how psychographic r e s e a r c h could help i n comprehending h i s market, can be found i n one o f the r e c e n t w r i t i n g s by Demby [ 2 ] * .  In  his view, psychographics can be d e f i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. G e n e r a l l y , psychographics may be viewed as the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the behavioural and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s to marketing r e s e a r c h ; 2. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , psychographics i s a q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h procedure t h a t i s i n d i c a t e d when demographic, socioeconomic and user/non-user analyses are not s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t consumer behaviour; * T h i s i s the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e work on the s u b j e c t of Psychographics t h i s w r i t e r has seen.  23  3. Most s p e c i f i c a l l y , p s y c h o g r a p h i c s seeks t o d e s c r i b e the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f consumers t h a t may have a b e a r i n g on t h e i r response to p r o d u c t s , packaging, a d v e r t i s i n g and public relations e f f o r t s . Such v a r i a b l e s may space the spectrum from s e l f - c o n c e p t and l i f e s t y l e t o a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s and o p i n i o n s , as w e l l as p e r c e p t i o n s o f p r o d u c t a t t r i b u t e s [2, p. 13].  E v i d e n t l y Demby's d e f i n i t i o n lie  psychographic research.  brings i n several  concepts which  In p a r t i c u l a r t h i s d e f i n i t i o n  under-  b r i n g s i n the  concepts o f m o t i v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h behind p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , the a s p e c t o f q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h procedure, and the a s p e c t o f v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d be employed i n psychographic r e s e a r c h , namely l i f e  style variables,  concept o r p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and product a t t r i b u t e  self-  variables.  However, a c c o r d i n g t o Dorny [4, p. 200], a shadow o f doubt what psychographic r e s e a r c h means comes from w r i t e r s who  about  c l a i m t h a t the  term p s y c h o g r a p h i c s should be r e s e r v e d t o r e s e a r c h v a r i a b l e s which are " t r u l y mental"  i n nature.  By i m p l i c a t i o n t h e n , the psychographic r e s e a r c h  should i n c l u d e o n l y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s r e s e a r c h , and the l i f e  style  and  product a t t r i b u t e s v a r i a b l e s should be g i v e n a s e p a r a t e name. It  seems t h a t such a d i s t i n c t i o n would not r e a l l y  help t o d e f i n e and  i s o l a t e psychographics any f u r t h e r , but on the o t h e r hand, i f the term p s y c h o g r a p h i c s should i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f c o n c e p t s , o n l y general  under-  standing of t h i s f a c t could j u s t i f y i t . Returning to Demby's d e f i n i t i o n above, i t i s p o s s i b l e , by individual  concepts used  i n psychographic r e s e a r c h , t o improve  s t a n d i n g o f what p s y c h o g r a p h i c s are a l l about. used  i n psychographic r e s e a r c h as  He  style variables,  3. product a t t r i b u t e  under-  i d e n t i f i e s the concepts  follows:  1. p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o r s e l f - c o n c e p t 2. l i f e  isolating  and  variables.  variables,  24  The  discussion  below e l a b o r a t e s  b) Psychographic (1) P s y c h o l o g i c a l Psychological an  Variables  Variables v a r i a b l e s can p l a y an. important r o l e i n d e s c r i b i n g  i n d i v i d u a l customer.  with l i f e The  In e s s e n c e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l  v a r i a b l e s are linked  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e scope. p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e  to i n d i v i d u a l consumers. total  on these c o n c e p t s :  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s can be measured w i t h  respect  However, f o r the purpose o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  market f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t , t h e aggregate i n f o r m a t i o n  i s what  the marketer needs. Some p s y c h o l o g i c a l toward c h i l d  v a r i a b l e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ,  attitudes  rearing, s e l f confidence, conformity, s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to  p e r s u a s i o n and o t h e r s ,  were mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  The most u n f o r t u n a t e  t h i n g about these v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r use i n p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s the f a c t that there  appears t o be l i t t l e agreement by a u t h o r i t y on what a c t u a l l y  constitutes personality  [ 5 , p. 305].  While we do not agree e x a c t l y on  what i t i s , measuring p e r s o n a l i t y c e r t a i n l y c r e a t e s are  several  difficulties.  There  instruments a v a i l a b l e t o measure p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t , as Demby  [2, p. 24] p o i n t s o u t , The l i t e r a t u r e i s l a c k i n g i n r e l i a b l e e m p i r i c a l evidence t h a t standard p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s a c t u a l l y measure what they p u r p o r t t o measure - a t l e a s t , as t h e measurements may p e r t a i n t o market segmentation and the purchase d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s ; (and) In cases where s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s have been a p p l i e d t o the marketing a r e a , they have o f t e n not proven to be e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g , i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between groups.  25  A l s o , Koponen [2, p. 25]  found i n a study o f a w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d  consumer product ( t o i l e t t i s s u e ) t h a t :  Information on the demographic and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s was l i t t l e b e t t e r than no i n f o r m a t i o n a t a l l ...  Indeed, such a s i t u a t i o n i s very d i s a p p o i n t i n g The  u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s  suggests t h a t the marketer  needs a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f v a r i a b l e s with s t r o n g e r istics;  f o r the marketer.  discriminating  character-  " v a r i a b l e s t h a t are more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to consumer behaviour  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  (2) L i f e S t y l e The  life  ..."  [2, p.  25].  Variables  s t y l e concept c o n s t i t u t e s the  to which the term psychographics has been d e f i n e d  "as an  been a t t a c h e d .  his active pleasures.  which i n f l u e n c e him: physical"  [1, p.  The  life  research  style  has  i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c u l a r manner o f l i v i n g as r e f l e c t e d  by a l l of h i s e x p e n d i t u r e s o f time and s u i t s and  second major segment o f  money i n both h i s p a r t i c u l a r pur-  I t i s the e x p r e s s i o n  o f a l l the  factors  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , economic, c u l t u r a l  and  190].  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the development and much o l d e r than the use  use  o f the l i f e  s t y l e concept i s  o f the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s concept.  the f i r s t w r i t i n g s on the s u b j e c t o f l i f e t h i s concept i n the f o l l o w i n g  In one  of  s t y l e , L a z e r [13] e l a b o r a t e s  way:  " L i f e s t y l e i s a systems concept. or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode o f l i v i n g ,  I t r e f e r s to the  distinctive  i n i t s aggregate and  sense, o f a whole s o c i e t y or segment t h e r e o f .  broadest  I t i s concerned  with those unique i n g r e d i e n t s or q u a l i t i e s which d e s c r i b e  the  on  26  s t y l e o f some c u l t u r e or group, and d i s t i n g u i s h others.  i t from  I t embodies the p a t t e r n s t h a t develop and emerge  from the dynamics  of l i v i n g in a society.  Life  style,  t h e r e f o r e , i s the r e s u l t o f such f o r c e s as c u l t u r e , r e s o u r c e s , symbols,  license,  and s a n c t i o n s .  values,  From one p e r s -  p e c t i v e , the aggregate o f consumer purchases, and the manner i n which  they are consumed, r e f l e c t a s o c i e t y ' s l i f e  Life style will used t o help s e l l is  have no meaning to the marketer, u n l e s s i t can be  the product.  A c c o r d i n g to King [ 1 2 ] , l i f e  r e l e v a n t to marketing "... i n the areas o f market  m o t i v a t i o n , product adjustment, and market course, i n t u i t i v e l y obvious. are  characteristic  delineation,  communication".  s t y l e i s concerned.  however, i t i s important to i s o l a t e l i f e be s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r  style  research purchase  This i s , of  I t can be expected t h a t no two  a l i k e , as f a r as t h e i r l i f e  would  style".  consumers  For the marketer,  style characteristic  which  over a range o f customers, so t h a t  this  c o u l d form a segment.  In more s p e c i f i c terms, the marketer needs t o know i n t o what particular life  s t y l e h i s product belongs, and what a t t i t u d e the  segment o f customers relationship  holds towards  the p r o d u c t .  by a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s ,  time, and consumption,  particular  Wind [27] d e s c r i b e s  opinions vs. l e i s u r e  this  time, work  i n a m a t r i x (see F i g u r e 1 ) .  Using the m a t r i x i n F i g u r e 1, the marketer can then a s s e s s h i s particular time  product's p o s i t i o n  w i t h r e s p e c t t o the consumer's AIO  and h i s  distribution. When the marketer chooses to use l i f e  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s to segment  FIGURE 1  RELATIONSHIPS  BETWEEN ATTITUDE, INTERESTS  AND OPINIONS, AND  LIFE STYLE CATEGORIES  [27]  L e i s u r e Time Outdoors Self Active  Social  Indoors Self  M  L  Work Housework  Social L  Self  Social  Consumption Paid Outside Work Self  Social  Self  Social  H  H  L  L  L  L  Activities Passive Process  L  H  M  L  L  Interests  Opinions*  Product  M  Opinions  H  L = Low  M = Medium  H = High  H L  E = Extremely High  * Wind [27] does not make the d i s t i n c t i o n between own and induced o p i n i o n . However, i t seems t h a t such d i s t i n c t i o n could be u s e f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to d i f u s s i o n process.  E  H  28  his  market, the most apparent d i f f i c u l t y  i s i n s e l e c t i n g such l i f e  items which are d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the p a r t i c u l a r  style  product.  (3) Product A t t r i b u t e V a r i a b l e s The  product a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s are d e r i v e d from the consumer's  p e r c e p t i o n o f the product.  A product w i l l  have meaning t o the consumer  o n l y to the e x t e n t t h a t he i s a b l e and ready t o a t t a c h c e r t a i n  attributes  to  the product.  attributes  is  based  T h i s i d e a o f segmenting the market by product  on i d e n t i f y i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number o f customers  p e r c e i v e the product i n the same It  can be expected  who  way.  t h a t t h e r e i s a l a r g e number o f a t t r i b u t e s which  c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o the product,  Demby [2, p. 19] l i s t s  p o s s i b l e product a t t r i b u t e s which f a l l  several  i n the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s :  a. P r i c e / v a l u e p e r c e p t i o n b. T a s t e c. T e x t u r e d.  Quality  e. B e n e f i t s f.  Trust  The most obvious d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s type o f d e s c r i p t i o n o f product a t t r i b u t e s a r i s e s from attempts  to measure them.  A l l o f the above  a t t r i b u t e s can be measured o n l y q u a l i t a t i v e l y , thus l e a v i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l variance f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . "... the marketing  As a r e s u l t , as observed  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s a n a l y t i c a l  by Haley  research tool  [7] are  l i m i t e d o n l y by the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the person u s i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a segmentation  study p r o v i d e s " .  29  To c o n c l u d e , the d i s c u s s i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i s a market segmentation approach of  to market d a t a ,  personality t r a i t s ,  The  life  psycho-  t o o l , using a q u a n t i t a t i v e  term psychographics  encompasses the  s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s .  d e f i n i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e seem t o be e x h a u s t i v e and  practical;  concepts  None o f the furthermore,  none o f the d e f i n i t i o n s takes i n t o account the need f o r l i n k i n g  psycho-  g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h with the u l t i m a t e g o a l s o f the user o f such r e s e a r c h the  marketer. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o t h i s p o i n t the market r e s e a r c h community o r the  p r a c t i s i n g marketers of  have not p r o v i d e d us with a s a t i s f a c t o r y  the f i e l d o f psychographic  research.  Such a s i t u a t i o n  i s bound t o have  a b e a r i n g on the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f psychographics as a v i a b l e t o o l , and  i t will  marketing  have a b e a r i n g on any f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n and e x p l o r -  a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t matter. psychographic  definition  Until  there i s a concise d e f i n i t i o n  r e s e a r c h , i t might be i m p o s s i b l e to c o n v i n c e the  and r e s e a r c h e r s to accept psychographic  of  marketers  r e s e a r c h without s e r i o u s r e s e r -  vations. To t h i s p o i n t we  have t o a c c e p t Reynolds  and Darden's [21] obser-  v a t i o n s t h a t "... the r a p i d r i s e o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s t o 'success', i s littered  with d e f i n i t i o n a l  debris".  3. Summary T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l t w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l of  psychographics.  An attempt  was  f o u n d a t i o n s and  made to show t h a t  psychographic  research i s only p a r t l y vested i n a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l T h i s i n t u r n i s not conducive  definitions  framework.  to d e f i n i n g psychographic r e s e a r c h .  30  However, i t was theoretical  shown t h a t i n s p i t e o f the shortcomings  i n the  base o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s and a v a r i e t y o f d e f i n i t i o n s  available,  t h e r e i s an emerging t r e n d i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what  psychographic  research  is a multi-  i s a l l about.  In general then, psychographics  v a r i e t y q u a n t i t a t i v e marketing  r e s e a r c h t o o l , based  concepts - p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ,  life  benefits.  on t h r e e u n d e r l y i n g  s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s o r  In t h i s sense psychographic market r e s e a r c h i s d i s t i n c t  demographic r e s e a r c h which uses socioeconomic Furthermore,  and demographic v a r i a b l e s .  the purpose o f a n a l y s i n g psychographic data i s t o e x p l a i n  u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r consumer behaviour, and p u r c h a s i n g A l s o , the d i f f i c u l t i e s  a s s o c i a t e d with the d e f i n i t i o n o f  f o u n d a t i o n s on which psychographic  psychographic  a p p l i c a t i o n s of psychographics.  evidence o f psychographic  research w i l l  however, the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l psychographics  theoretical  research r e s t s .  next c h a p t e r t u r n s to the marketing  Some o f the e m p i r i c a l  the  decisions.  r e s e a r c h can be a t t r i b u t e d , a t l e a s t p a r t l y , t o the incomplete  The  from  should be kept i n mind.  be  reviewed,  foundations of  31  CHAPTER I I I  MARKETING APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS  In  s p i t e o f psychographics' t h e o r e t i c a l  difficulties  (discussed  i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) , psychographic r e s e a r c h has been a p p l i e d t o many marketing d e c i s i o n problems. been marketing  successfully  The main areas o f use have  s t r a t e g y development and consumer behaviour r e s e a r c h .  The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r reviews a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h i n the area o f marketing  psychographic  s t r a t e g y development.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s a r e d i s c u s s e d : 1. Market  Segmentation  2. A d v e r t i s i n g S t r a t e g y Development 3. Product Development 4. Channels  of Distribution  Selection  5. Media S e l e c t i o n The  second  p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r c o n c e n t r a t e s on some r e s e a r c h l i t e r -  a t u r e i n the area o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s as i t r e l a t e s t o consumer b e h a v i o u r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f the r e s e a r c h a r e d e a l t w i t h : 1. Consumer Behaviour  Analysis  2. I d e n t i f y i n g Consumer P r o f i l e P o t e n t i a l l y , the r e s u l t s o f psychographic r e s e a r c h i n both major areas o f i n t e r e s t c o u l d be o f s u b s t a n t i a l of  v a l u e t o marketers.  consumer behaviour and understanding o f the market through  r e s e a r c h c o u l d make the d i f f e r e n c e between a s u c c e s s f u l marketing  strategy.  Knowledge psychographic  or unsuccessful  However, i t has t o be kept i n mind t h a t the p r e s e n t  32  s t a t e o f psychographic r e s e a r c h has not allowed the marketer r e s u l t s without r e s e r v a t i o n s .  An attempt  nesses o f the a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h w i l l  t o use i t s  t o p o i n t out the major weak-  be made i n the next c h a p t e r .  A. Psychographics and Marketing S t r a t e g y  1. Market  Segmentation  Meaningful  segmentation  o f the t a r g e t market has always  i n the development o f marketing social  strategy.  been  important  Unfortunately, a rapidly  changing  s t r u c t u r e , dynamic economic c o n d i t i o n s , and an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  number o f new s e r v i c e s and p r o d u c t s , have r e s u l t e d traditional  ( u s u a l l y demographic) market segmentation  i s b e l i e v e d by many marketing t a t i o n c o u l d be supplemented segmentation.  The  often f a i l s .  It  r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t demographic market segmenw i t h the r e s u l t s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c market  The reason f o r t h i s b e l i e f a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t  t a n t demographic d i s t i n c t i o n s service  i n a s i t u a t i o n where  simply do not e x i s t  impor-  i n many product and  categories. b a s i c q u e s t i o n then i s , how can p s y c h o g r a p h i c s help t o segment  the market?  The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e d a t l e a s t t h r e e important  components o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s attributes).  (personality t r a i t s ,  life  style,  product  The answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n l i e s i n the use o f these compon-  ents and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o segmentation. Ziff's  [ 3 0 ] approach  by the f o l l o w i n g "It  t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem  can be summarized  quote:  has been understood  that to a t t r a c t or motivate a  p a r t i c u l a r group o f consumers i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know how they t h i n k and what t h e i r v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s a r e , as w e l l  33  as who  they are i n terms o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  demographic  v a r i a b l e s o f age, sex, income, e t c . " . To t h i s we his  life  c o u l d add t h a t the way  the consumer spends h i s time ( i . e .  s t y l e ) and what he expects from the product (good  s t a t u s , s a t i s f a c t i o n ) are e q u a l l y important i n the way c o u l d be In  the remaining p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n we  a) Segmentation Several  based on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s or a t t i t u d e s  interesting  mainly because  r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s are a v a i l a b l e i n the area o f Two  o f these s t u d i e s are reviewed  they a r e , i n a sense, complementary, and  wide i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i s i n g marketers. [30] and d e a l s w i t h segmentation Newspaper A d v e r t i s i n g  In  life  attributes.  p e r s o n a l i t y market segmentation.  segmentation  turn to research studies  to segment the market by means o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ,  s t y l e s , and product  by The  market segments  developed.  which attempt  Ziff  service,  Bureau  The f i r s t  o f housewives.  ( o f New  o f the male p o p u l a t i o n o f New  because  here,  of t h e i r  study i s by Ruth The  second  study i s  York) [20] and d e a l s w i t h the York.  the Z i f f study, l e a v i n g the a n a l y t i c a l  procedures a s i d e , the main  o b j e c t i v e s were: (1) "to determine whether a c o r e o f a t t i t u d e s or v a l u e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d idual  t h a t would have meaning over a l a r g e number o f i n d i v -  products w i t h i n a s i m i l a r c l a s s o f p r o d u c t s " ; (2) "... t o  whether a c o r e o f a t t i t u d e s or v a l u e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d a c r o s s product c l a s s e s " - t h a t i s , be meaningful p e r s o n a l , and household  items.  determine  t h a t would c u t  f o r drugs, foods,  An u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f here was  that a par-  t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t would i n f l u e n c e the consumer's behaviour towards  34  v a r i o u s product c l a s s e s , f o r example, i f she i s , say, t h i s would r e f l e c t as p e r s o n a l  self-indulgent  i n an i d e n t i f i a b l e usage p a t t e r n o f household  items.  In t u r n , the s e l f - i n d u l g e n t housewife  as well  might p o s s i b l y  form a p a r t i c u l a r market segment which c o u l d become the f o c u s o f strategy In  efforts. her study, Z i f f c o l l e c t e d data on housewives' p e r s o n a l i t i e s  product usage.  T h i s data was  a p a t t e r n o f segmentation, wives, In and  and on i n d i v i d u a l  individual  r e l a t e d to o v e r a l l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f house-  product c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o r t r a i t  products, i n d i v i d u a l  scores.  and  then f a c t o r a n a l y s e d i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e  order t o i d e n t i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o v e r a l l  the o v e r a l l  characteristics.  segment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  products were c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d with  Some o f the f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d below.  Using f a c t o r score a n a l y s i s , Z i f f was or  marketing  a b l e t o i d e n t i f y s i x segments  groups o f housewives based,on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  A description  of  these segments f o l l o w s : 1. Outgoing  O p t i m i s t s (about 35% o f the sample) a r e o u t g o i n g ,  a t i v e , community-oriented,  p o s i t i v e toward grooming, not bothered  d e l i c a t e h e a l t h o r d i g e s t i o n problems o r e s p e c i a l l y concerned or  innovby  about germs  cleanliness. 2. C o n s c i e n t i o u s V i g i l a n t s  (about 28%)  are c o n s c i e n t i o u s , r i g i d ,  m e t i c u l o u s , g e r m - f i g h t i n g with a high c l e a n l i n e s s o r i e n t a t i o n and s e n s i b l e a t t i t u d e about f o o d .  They have high cooking  o r i e n t a t i o n , tend not t o be  shopping  convenience-oriented.  3. A p a t h e t i c I n d i f f e r e n t s with f a m i l y , i r r i t a b l e ,  pride, a careful  (about 14%)  a r e not o u t g o i n g , a r e u n i n v o l v e d  have a n e g a t i v e grooming o r i e n t a t i o n , are  e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f cooking p r i d e .  lazy,  35  4. S e l f - I n d u l g e n t s (about 13%) r e l a x e d , p e r m i s s i v e , unconcerned h e a l t h problems,  interested  i n convenience items but w i t h r e l a t i v e l y  cooking p r i d e , s e l f - i n d u l g e n t towards  themselves and t h e i r  with high  families,  5. Contented Cows (about 8%) a r e r e l a x e d , n o t w o r r i e d , r e l a t i v e l y unconcerned  about germs and c l e a n l i n e s s , not i n n o v a t i v e o r o u t g o i n g , s t r o n g l y  economy-oriented,  not s e l f - i n d u l g e n t .  6. W o r r i e r s (about 5%) a r e i r r i t a b l e , concerned about h e a l t h , germs and c l e a n l i n e s s , n e g a t i v e about grooming with a low economy and high convenience  and b r e a k f a s t , but s e l f - i n d u l g e n t orientation.  A l r e a d y the general d e s c r i p t i o n o f housewife p e r s o n a l i t y - b a s e d segments c o u l d serve as an i n p u t t o marketing s t r a t e g y development. e v e r , when Z i f f a n a l y s e d product s p e c i f i c  How-  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and r e l a t e d  them t o the housewife c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s above, i t was found t h a t the general enough.  segmentation o f housewife market was n o t s u f f i c i e n t and r e v e a l i n g There was no apparent product usage matching  individual all  segments.  the i d e n t i f i e d  That i s , people i n a l l the segments used  the products i n q u e s t i o n and no apparent d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  identified.  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y demonstrated  basically  i n usage was  by segmentation  with  r e s p e c t t o drug p r o d u c t s . A g a i n , u s i n g f a c t o r s c o r e a n a l y s i s on t h e same d a t a , o n l y the f o l l o w i n g f o u r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the market segments w i t h r e s p e c t t o drugs were identified: 1. R e a l i s t s  (35% o f the sample) a r e not h e a l t h f a t a l i s t s , nor  e x c e s s i v e l y concerned w i t h p r o t e c t i o n or germs. p o s i t i v e l y , want something  They view  remedies  t h a t i s c o n v e n i e n t and works, and do not f e e l  the need o f a doctor-recommended m e d i c i n e .  36  2. A u t h o r i t y Seekers  (31%) are d o c t o r - and  prescription-oriented,  are n e i t h e r f a t a l i s t s nor s t o i c s c o n c e r n i n g h e a l t h , but they p r e f e r the stamp o f a u t h o r i t y on what they do take. 3. S c e p t i c s  (23%) have a low h e a l t h c o n c e r n , are l e a s t l i k e l y t o  r e s o r t t o m e d i c a t i o n , and are h i g h l y s c e p t i c a l 4. Hypochondriacs as prone symptoms.  of cold  remedies.  (11%) have high h e a l t h c o n c e r n , r e g a r d  to any bug going around  themselves  and tend to take m e d i c a t i o n a t the  first  They do not look f o r s t r e n g t h i n what they lake, but need some  mild a u t h o r i t y reassurance. I n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be observed when the t o t a l segmentation 1).  housewife  i s compared with the product r e l a t e d segmentation  (see T a b l e  I t can be seen t h a t the h i g h e s t percentage o f s e l f - i n d u l g e n t  w o r r i e r s segment c o n s i d e r s themselves  realists.  The  and  h i g h e s t percentage  o f a u t h o r i t y seekers comes from the segments o f v i g i l a n t s .  The  sceptics  group draws the h i g h e s t percentage o f housewives from contented cows, and hypochondriacs a r e drawn m a i n l y from the w o r r i e r s segment.  Apart  from the f a c t t h a t these r e s u l t s are i n t u i t i v e l y o b v i o u s , c l e a r  implications  f o r the marketing  s t r a t e g y development a r e a p p a r e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  area o f product promotion.  For example, the a s s o c i a t i o n o f the w o r r i e r s  segment w i t h hypochondriacs might  be used to promote the drug product as  mainly p r e v e n t i v e m e d i c i n e , e t c . F u r t h e r l i g h t can be shed on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t o t a l o f the housewife market and  segmentation  s p e c i f i c product usage (see T a b l e 2 ) .  be observed t h a t the w o r r i e r s segment a c t u a l l y uses drug r e l a t e d with h i g h e r r a t e than the o t h e r segments i n most c a s e s . w i t h the v e r b a l  I t can products  This i s consistent  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s segment, and w i t h the f i n d i n g s  from  37  TABLE 1  RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN OVERALL AND DRUG SEGMENTATION GROUPS [30, p. 7]  Overall  Realists Authority  Seekers  Sceptics Hypochondriacs  o f Housewives  Consc. Vigilants  Apathetic Indifferents  %  %  %  %  %  %  37*  30  28  56  19  45  31  38  30  20  32  27  25  17  30  17  46  12  7  14  13  7  3  16  Outgoing Optimists  -o c cu  Segmentation  *Reads: 37% o f r e a l i s t s were o u t g o i n g o p t i m i s t s .  Contented Self Cows Indulg.  Worriers  TABLE 2  PRODUCT USAGE AMONG SIX HOUSEWIFE SEGMENTS 1 3 0 , p. 8 ]  Upset Stomach Remedies  Self Ind.  Out Opts.  Vigilants  %  %  %  %  %  %  49  48  45  32  65  40*  Indiff.  Cont. Cows  Worr  Acid Indigestion/ Heartburn Remedies  . 39  47  46  43  35  61  Hangover Remedies  25  21  26  22  12  35  Cold o r A l l e r g y Tab!ets  63  60  54  68  41  76 ;  .'  •,  28  29  28  26  26  44  Nose Drops  19  20  25  19  22  32  Nasal  22  25  21  23  17  40  13  15  16  21  12  29  Cough Drops  67  79  69  72  65  78  Sore T h r o a t Lozenges  54  49  48  54  44  55  Cough Syrup  51  55  53  58  47  55  Pain R e l i e v e r Tablets  88  86  87  91  81  85  Nasal  Sprays  Inhalers  L i q . Cold  Remedies  * Reads: 40% o f o u t g o i n g o p t i m i s t s use upset stomach remedies.  39  Table 1 . Here, the w o r r i e r s segment i s v i r t u a l l y the s t r o n g e s t user o f a l l kinds of drug products. F i n a l l y , the same s i t u a t i o n can be observed when drug product usage i s compared with the f o u r drug r e l a t e d segments (see Table 3 ) .  In t h i s  s i t u a t i o n , the hypochondriacs segment i s v i r t u a l l y the s t r o n g e s t i n use of a l l kinds of remedies.  As a r e s u l t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  w o r r i e r s segment and the hypochondriacs segment i s very s t r o n g l y r e a f f i r m e d . To conclude, i n Z i f f s housewife market segmentation, i t seems t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t and judgementally meaningful d i f f e r e n c e s i n product usage l e v e l s were found both on the b a s i s of the o v e r a l l segmentation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l product c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  Furthermore, a c c o r d i n g to  Z i f f , a core of a t t i t u d e s / n e e d s / v a l u e s can be used to provide the b a s i s f o r a meaningful segmentation f o r a number of i n d i v i d u a l products - i n a broad c l a s s of products. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n stems from the f i n d i n g s t h a t segmentation based on a s i n g l e set of d r u g - r e l a t e d statements was found to be r e l e v a n t f o r a number of drug products. The second f i n d i n g i s t h a t a core of a t t i t u d e s can be used to provide segments t h a t have meaning not only w i t h i n a c l a s s o f products, but t h a t are r e l e v a n t i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of products. The f i n d i n g s o f Z i f f are i n a way encouraging, however, t h e i r opera t i o n a l i z a t i o n b r i n g s about d i f f i c u l t i e s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter. To t h i s p o i n t , housewife p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t e d market segmentation has been d i s c u s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n deals with male p o p u l a t i o n p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t e d segmentation, as reported by The Newspaper A d v e r t i s i n g Bureau of New York.  40  TABLE 3  PRODUCT USAGE AMONG FOUR DRUG RELATED SEGMENTS [30, p. 9 ]  Realists  Authority Seekers  Skeptics  Hypochondriacs  %  %  %  %  Upset Stomach Remedies  49*  43  32  59  Acid Indigestion/Heartburn Remedies  »g  »c  oc  Hangover Remedies  27  21  17  31  Cold o r A l l e r g y T a b l e t s  74  57  41  72  Nasal  Sprays  33  27  21  38  Nasal  Inhalers  26  23  17  31  17  16  11  21  71  71  58  76  53  56  37  62  Cough Syrup  59  54  31  65  Pain R e l i e v e r T a b l e t s  90  88  77  95  L i q . Cold  Remedies  Cough Drops Sore Throat  Lozenges  * Reads: 49% o f r e a l i s t s  use upset  stomach remedies  50  41  Again,  l e a v i n g a s i d e r e s e a r c h methodology, and a n a l y t i c a l  we can t u r n t o f i n d i n g s about general In t h i s study, e i g h t psychographic described. in  (Note:  o f the male market.  segments were developed  t h e r e were s i x o v e r a l l  the p r e v i o u s s t u d y ) .  Group I.  segmentation  and v e r b a l l y  segments o f housewives d e s c r i b e d  D e s c r i p t i o n o f each segment  "The Q u i e t Family Man"  procedures,  (8% o f t o t a l  (group) f o l l o w s [ 2 0 ] :  males)  He i s a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t man who wants t o be l e f t alone and i s b a s i c a l l y shy. life  T r i e s t o be as l i t t l e  i n v o l v e d with community  life  as p o s s i b l e .  r e v o l v e s around the f a m i l y , simple work and t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g .  a marked f a n t a s y l i f e .  As a shopper he i s p r a c t i c a l ,  goods and p l e a s u r e s than o t h e r Low education  His Has  l e s s drawn to consumer  men.  and low economic s t a t u s , he tends  to be o l d e r than  average. Group I I .  "The T r a d i t i o n a l i s t "  A man who  (16% o f t o t a l  f e e l s s e c u r e , has s e l f - e s t e e m , f o l l o w s c o n v e n t i o n a l  He i s proper and r e s p e c t a b l e , regards in  males)  the w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s .  brands and well-known Low e d u c a t i o n  h i m s e l f as a l t r u i s t i c and  rules.  interested  As a shopper he i s c o n s e r v a t i v e , l i k e s  popular  manufacturers.  and low or middle  socioeconomic  s t a t u s ; the o l d e s t age  group. Group I I I . "The D i s c o n t e n t e d He i s a man who bypassed by l i f e ,  (13% o f t o t a l  males)  i s l i k e l y to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s work.  He f e e l s  dreams o f b e t t e r j o b s , more money and more s e c u r i t y .  tends t o be d i s t r u s t f u l conscious.  Man"  and s o c i a l l y a l o o f .  He  As a buyer he i s q u i t e p r i c e  42  Lowest e d u c a t i o n and lowest socioeconomic group, m o s t l y o l d e r  than  average. Group IV.  "The  Ethical  Highbrow" (14% o f t o t a l  . T h i s i s a v e r y concerned man,  s e n s i t i v e to people's needs.  a p u r i t a n , content with family l i f e , culture, religion  and s o c i a l  q u a l i t y , which may  males)  f r i e n d s and work.  reform.  Basically  Interested in  As a consumer he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n  a t times j u s t i f y g r e a t e r e x p e n d i t u r e .  Well educated, middle or upper socioeconomic s t a t u s , m a i n l y middle aged or o l d e r . Group V.  "The  P l e a s u r e O r i e n t e d Man"  (9% o f t o t a l  males)  He tends to emphasize h i s m a s c u l i n i t y and r e j e c t s whatever be s o f t  or f e m i n i n e .  dislikes is  He views  h i s work or j o b .  h i m s e l f as a l e a d e r among men.  Seeks immediate  gratification  appears to Self-centered  f o r h i s needs.  He  an i m p u l s i v e "buyer, l i k e l y to buy products w i t h a masculine image. Low  e d u c a t i o n , lower socioeconomic c l a s s ,  Group VI.  "The A c h i e v e r " (11% o f t o t a l  sity,  i s adventurous  f o o d , music, e t c . discriminating  d e d i c a t e d to s u c c e s s and a l l  p r e s t i g e , power and money.  about  leisure  younger.  males)  T h i s i s l i k e l y to be a hardworking man, that i t implies, social  middle aged or  time p u r s u i t s .  Is i n f a v o u r o f d i v e r Is s t y l i s h , l i k e s good  As a consumer he i s s t a t u s c o n s c i o u s , a t h o u g h t f u l and  buyer.  Good e d u c a t i o n , high socioeconomic s t a t u s , young. Group V I I .  "The  He-Man" (19% o f t o t a l  males)  He i s g r e g a r i o u s , l i k e s a c t i o n , seeks an e x c i t i n g and dramatic Thinks o f h i m s e l f as capable and dominant.  life.  Tends to be more o f a b a c h e l o r  43  than a f a m i l y man,  even a f t e r m a r r i a g e .  Products he buys and  brands  p r e f e r r e d are l i k e l y to have " s e l f - e x p r e s s i v e v a l u e " , e s p e c i a l l y a "Man Action"  of  dimension.  Well educated, mainly middle socioeconomic s t a t u s , the youngest  of  the male groups. Group V I I I .  "The  S o p h i s t i c a t e d Man"  (10%  of total  males)  He i s l i k e l y to be an i n t e l l e c t u a l , concerned about s o c i a l admires men  with a r t i s t i c and  p o l i t a n , broad i n t e r e s t s .  intellectual  achievements.  issues,  S o c i a l l y cosmo-  Wants to be dominant, and a l e a d e r .  he i s a t t r a c t e d t o the unique and  As a consumer  fashionable.  Best educated and h i g h e s t economic s t a t u s o f a l l groups, younger  than  average.  As i n the case o f housewife segmentation  p e r s o n a l i t y segmentation, the male market  c o u l d suggest v a r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r marketing  development.  strategy  However, none o f the market segments d e s c r i b e d seem to be  sufficiently  l a r g e to warrant development  i t s absolute s i z e .  Perhaps  of s p e c i f i c  s t r a t e g y because  b e t t e r r e s u l t s can be achieved when the male  psychographic segments are compared w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t and media From T a b l e 4 i t can be observed, f o r example, t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y centage o f men  i n each segment d r i n k beer, such a f i n d i n g  doubt about a need  because  high per-  l e a v e s some  ( o t h e r segmentation i s  A d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e can be observed w i t h r e s p e c t to  c i g a r e t t e smoking - here segmentation meaningful  usage.  to segment the male market as f a r as t h i s p r o d u c t i s  concerned - i . e . i n terms o f users and non-users no doubt p o s s i b l e ) .  of  the l e v e l  by smokers - non-smokers might  be  o f c i g a r e t t e smoking i n each male segment  44  TABLE 4  PRODUCT AND MEDIA USE BY MALE PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTS [20  Psychographic g r o u p percentages  ]  9  I  II  III  IV  V  VI  VII  Drink Beer  45*  56  57  51  75  59  80  72  Smoke C i g a r e t t e s  32  40  40  29  54  42  51  38  4  4  6  7  5  8  12  19  14  15  14  26  19  32  20  42  7  7  6  8  14  10  9  12  53  60  66  61  61  64  65  67  8  11  8  13  25  27  36  30  21  13  11  30  13  28  16  27  Time  17  8  7  16  9  26  17  29  Newsweek  17  14  8  20  11  18  13  22  F i e l d and Stream  10  12  14  8  12  9  13  3  Popular Mechanics  11  6  9  9  9  9  8  6  Sanford & Son  32  35  29  19  26  25  27  23  Sonny & Cher  17  24  22  19  14  24  30  22  Marcus Wei by  26  25  26  23  20  16  20  18  Rowan & M a r t i n  21  23  17  15  22  20  23  21  New Dick Van Dyke  19  15  16  13  11  8  10  12  A i r Travel  O u t s i d e U.S.  A i r T r a v e l , Domestic Use Brand X Deodorant Used Headache Remedy i n Past Four Weeks  Read c u r r e n t  issue of:,  Playboy National  Viewed  a  Groups  VII]  Geographic  i n past week:  o r segments  * Reads:,45%  are described  i n the text  o f the q u i e t f a m i l y men d r i n k beer  45  varies.  S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be reached w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r  products and media  usage.  To conclude t h i s s e c t i o n , two approaches segmentation were d i s c u s s e d .  The f i r s t  to p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s  market  study d e a l t w i t h housewife per-  s o n a l i t y based segmentation, t h e second study d e a l t w i t h segmentation i n the  male p o p u l a t i o n .  the  housewife market  usage well  Some general c o n c l u s i o n s were mentioned,  segmentation produced meaningful d i f f e r e n c e s  l e v e l s , on the b a s i s o f t h e o v e r a l l as on the b a s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l  were demonstrated  in particular,  segmentation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as  product c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  on the w o r r i e r - h y p o c h o n d r i a c market  These  segments.  the  r e s u l t s o f male p o p u l a t i o n  cut  example, m a i n l y because o f the a b s o l u t e s i z e o f each segment. In  However,  s t y l e segmentation  applications.  segmentation  L i f e s t y l e segmentation tool.  results  segmentation do not p r o v i d e such a c l e a r  t h e next s e c t i o n we turn t o l i f e  b) L i f e s t y l e  i n product  i s now a r e l a t i v e l y w i d e l y used marketing  I t i s , however, almost i m p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t one o r more l i f e  style  s t u d i e s which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s u b j e c t matter. T h i s i s because t h e l i f e substantial  s t y l e s t u d i e s do not f o l l o w a unique p a t t e r n and  d i f f e r e n c e s can be observed among them.  our d i s c u s s i o n we f i r s t  For the purpose o f  t u r n to a general d e s c r i p t i o n o f l i f e  s t y l e seg-  mentation and then to an a n a l y s i s o f some r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n the a r e a . The f i r s t  practical  q u e s t i o n put to l i f e  s t y l e research often i s ,  "what a r e the v a r i a b l e s o r dimensions t h a t can help t o segment and understand t h e market?"  Some o f these v a r i a b l e s a r e l i s t e d  i n T a b l e 5, i n  46  TABLE 5  LIFE STYLE AND DEMOGRAPHIC DIMENSIONS [19]  ACTIVITIES  INTERESTS  OPINIONS  DEMOGRAPHICS  Work  Family  Themselves  Age  Hobbies  Home  Social  Education  Job  Politics  Income  Vacation  Community  Business  Occupation  Entertainment  Recreation  Economics  Family  Club membership  Fashion  Education  Dwelling  Community  Food  Products  Geography  Shopping  Media  Future  City  Sports  Achievements  Culture  Stage i n l i f e cycle  Social  events  Issues  size  size  addition  to t y p i c a l  demographic  v a r i a b l e s are l i s t e d (AIO).  These  As can be observed, these  i n t h r e e groups, a c t i v i t i e s ,  interests, opinions  t h r e e b a s i c groups o f v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e a broad, everyday  view o f consumers. "combined  variables.  A c c o r d i n g t o Plummer [ 1 9 ] , when these v a r i a b l e s are  w i t h the t h e o r y o f t y p o l o g i e s and c l u s t e r i n g methods,  life  s t y l e segmentation can generate i d e n t i f i a b l e whole persons r a t h e r than i s o l a t e d fragments. of  L i f e s t y l e segmentation begins w i t h people i n s t e a d  p r o d u c t s and c l a s s i f i e s them i n t o d i f f e r e n t  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a unique s t y l e o f l i v i n g ities,  i n t e r e s t s , and  life  s t y l e ' t y p e s , each  based on a wide range o f a c t i v -  opinions".  The process o f l i f e  s t y l e segmentation  i s s u e , and r e q u i r e s s u b s t a n t i a l  research.  in i t s e l f  i s a complicated  The b a s i c s t e p s which should  be covered are e x p l a i n e d by Plummer [ 1 9 ] . 1. Determine which o f the l i f e  s t y l e segments are b e s t from the  s t a n d p o i n t o f e f f i c i e n t l y p r o d u c i n g the g r e a t e s t number o f customers f o r a brand. 2. Examine the usage o f the p r o d u c t i n the c a t e g o r y (or segment). 3. Examine the f r e q u e n c y o f usage o f the c a t e g o r y , t h a t i s , who the  heavy u s e r s , the moderate u s e r s , and l i g h t 4. Determine  are  users.  brand usage and brand s h a r e .  5. Determine product a t t i t u d e s and wage p a t t e r n s . Having performed a n a l y s i s through these s t e p s , the s e l e c t e d s t y l e segment(s)  should have a s e t o f i d e a l  life  p r o p e r t i e s , such as high  product p e n e t r a t i o n , h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f heavy u s e r s , p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g the volume i n the segment, and f a v o u r a b l e brand  attributes.  48  Furthermore,  t h e segment must be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d from  segments, and i t must possess  other  o t h e r d e s i r a b l e p r o p e r t i e s o f u s a b l e market  segment. The next step i n t h e l i f e  s t y l e segmentation  e x p l a i n each segment i n every-day mind the q u e s t i o n o f 'why'. in  understandable  analysis i s to verbally words, w h i l e keeping i n  ( T h i s a s p e c t o f psychographics  was d i s c u s s e d  the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) . In  reality  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t more than one segment w i l l  have to be  c o n s i d e r e d as t h e t a r g e t market, e i t h e r because o f t h e c l o s e n e s s o f the segments o r because i t would be uneconomical t o develop marketing for  each segment s e p a r a t e l y . One  performed essence, and  strategy  o f the more i n t e r e s t i n g  Plummer attempted  s t u d i e s was In  t o " i n d i c a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between heavy u s e r s ,  o f c r e d i t cards  (product) i n terms o f l i f e  style  (how they spend t h e i r time, t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , t h e i r o p i n i o n s ,  where they stand on important female  s t y l e segmentation  by Plummer [18] w i t h r e s p e c t to bank c r e d i t card usage.  l i g h t o r non-users"  variables  life  issues, etc.).  Plummer a n a l y s e d male and  segments o f the sample s e p a r a t e l y , because a p p a r e n t l y i t was f e l t  t h a t d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s might be p r e s e n t i n each group with r e s p e c t to c r e d i t card usage. R e s u l t s o f the study show t h a t t h e male bank c r e d i t card user "an a c t i v e , urbane, and upper socioeconomic  style of l i f e  congruent  leads with  t h e i r h i g h e r income, p o s i t i o n and e d u c a t i o n " .  A comparison o f male c r e d i t  card users and non-users i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 6.  A verbal d e s c r i p t i o n o f a  male c r e d i t card user can be: "He i s a young businessman on t h e r i s e , a r r i v i n g a t h i s suburban home from  t h e o f f i c e , and having a c o c k t a i l ,  49 TABLE 6 CROSS-TABULATION RESULTS OF AIO AGREEMENT WITH MALE BANK CHARGE CARD USERS [18]  Card Users Definite & General Agreement  Statement I enjoy going to c o n c e r t s A woman's p l a c e i s i n the home In my j o b I t e l l people what to do I am a good cook My g r e a t e s t achievements a r e ahead o f me I buy many t h i n g s w i t h a charge o r c r e d i t c a r d We w i l l probably move once i n t h e next f i v e y e a r s F i v e y e a r s from now t h e f a m i l y income w i l l p r o b a b l y be a l o t h i g h e r than i t i s now Good grooming i s a s i g n o f s e l f - r e s p e c t There i s too much a d v e r t i s i n g on TV today Women wear t o o much make up today My j o b r e q u i r e s a l o t o f s e l l i n g a b i l i t y I l i k e to.pay cash f o r e v e r y t h i n g I buy T e l e v i s i o n i s a primary source o f o u r e n t e r t a i n m e n t I n v e s t i n g i n the s t o c k market i s too r i s k y f o r most families To buy a n y t h i n g o t h e r than a house o r a c a r on c r e d i t i s unwise Young people have too many p r i v i l e g e s today I l o v e the outdoors There i s too much emphasis on sex today There a r e day people and t h e r e a r e n i g h t people; I am a day person I expect t o be a top e x e c u t i v e i n t h e next t e n y e a r s I am o r have been p r e s i d e n t o f a s o c i e t y o r c l u b I would l i k e t o have my b o s s j o b A p a r t y wouldn't be a p a r t y w i t h o u t l i q u o r I would r a t h e r l i v e i n o r near a b i g c i t y than i n o r near a smal1 town I o f t e n bet money a t t h e r a c e s I l i k e t o t h i n k I'm a b i t o f a swinger I s t a y home most evenings A d v e r t i s i n g can't s e l l me a n y t h i n g I don't want I o f t e n have a c o c k t a i l b e f o r e d i n n e r I like ballet When I must choose between t h e two, I u s u a l l y d r e s s f o r f a s h i o n not comfort L i q u o r i s .a c u r s e on American l i f e Movies should be censored I read one o r more b u s i n e s s magazines r e g u l a r l y I am a c t i v e i n two or.more s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s I do more t h i n g s s o c i a l l y than most o f my f r i e n d s We o f t e n s e r v e wine w i t h d i n n e r 1  Noncard Users Definite & General Agreement  25% 27 53 36 56 39 46  17% 41 21 26 42 22 37  71  60  52 59 43 51 26 25  71 70 51 37 67 40  47  56  29  47  52 54 52  64 76 64  58  69  44 51 42 29  27 36 33 17  46  34  18 38 62 55 36 26  8 26 71 68 20 16  19  10  34 41 34 28 19 30  49 57 18 17 10 16  Continued ....  50  TABLE 6 c o n t i n u e d ..  Statement  Card Users Definite & General Agreement  I buy a t l e a s t t h r e e s u i t s a y e a r Playboy i s one o f my f a v o u r i t e magazines I spend too much time t a l k i n g on the telephone I t i s good t o have charge accounts H i p p i e s should be d r a f t e d When I t h i n k o f bad h e a l t h , I t h i n k o f d o c t o r b i l l s My days seem to f o l l o w a d e f i n i t e r o u t i n e  NOTE: A l l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t above t h e .05 l e v e l tests of significance  25 25 31 33 48 31 47  Noncard Users Definite & General Agreement 11 16 17 21 61 46 58  based on C h i - s q u a r e  51  s e t t l i n g down to a n i c e meal, and [18].  One  more important l i f e  then going o f f to v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s "  s t y l e d i s c u s s i o n found by t h i s  the f a c t t h a t the male c r e d i t c a r d user belongs t o s e v e r a l and  he c o n s i d e r s r e a d i n g a source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and  appearance". as f o l l o w s : travel,  belongs to s o c i a l The v e r b a l  "She  likes  i s concerned  about  l u x u r y items, has a d e s i r e f o r s e l f - a s p i r a t i o n , and interests"  Plummer's l i f e  credit  her  [18].  For some statements comparing  female  7.  s t r a t e g y development r e . c r e d i t c a r d usage.  card users can be expected  b e t t e r educated, middle-aged,  to be the higher income,  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  group.  The  p o r t r a i t o f c r e d i t c a r d users i n d i c a t e s an a c t i v e , upper life  has very  s t y l e study, s e v e r a l a s p e c t s emerge which have  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r marketing  urban-suburban  socioeconomic  d e s c r i p t i o n o f female c r e d i t c a r d u s e r c o u l d be  c r e d i t c a r d u s e r s , see T a b l e  Potential  organizations,  i s i n v o l v e d and a c t i v e , f a n t a s y - o r i e n t e d , would want to  specific cultural  In  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  was  entertainment.  The female c r e d i t c a r d user " l e a d s an a c t i v e , upper style of l i f e ,  study  life  style  socioeconomic,  s t y l e w i t h many i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e the home.  male and female users i n d i c a t e a c o n v e n i e n c e - o r i e n t a t i o n toward  Both  the  credit  cards as a s a t i s f a c t o r y cash s u b s t i t u t e [ 1 8 ] . To c o n c l u d e , i n t h i s s e c t i o n we d i s c u s s e d the t h e o r e t i c a l to  life  s t y l e segmentation, and t h e n , a study o f c r e d i t c a r d usage  b r i e f l y examined. to  I t was  shown t h a t l i f e  m e a n i n g f u l l y segment the market.  with l i f e We  approach  s t y l e segmentation,  t u r n now  However, t h e r e are o p e r a t i o n a l  and these w i l l  used problems  be d i s c u s s e d i n the next c h a p t e r .  to the t h i r d maim v a r i e t y o f psychographic  namely, product b e n e f i t segmentation segmentation).  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be  was  segmentation,  (also c a l l e d product a t t r i b u t e  52 TABLE 7 CROSS-TABULATION RESULTS OF AIO AGREEMENT WITH FEMALE BANK CHARGE CARD USERS [18]  Statement  Card Users Definite & General Agreement  I enjoy going t o c o n c e r t s The next c a r our f a m i l y buys w i l l p r o b a b l y be a s t a t i o n wagon I u s u a l l y have my d r e s s e s a l t e r e d t o t h e l a t e s t hemline l e v e l s There s h o u l d be a gun i n e v e r y home I buy many t h i n g s w i t h a c r e d i t or charge c a r d I f I had my way, I would own a c o n v e r t i b l e I would l i k e t o own and f l y my own a i r p l a n e I would l i k e to be a f a s h i o n model I would l i k e to take a t r i p around the world I enjoy going through an a r t g a l l e r y I l i k e to pay cash f o r e v e r y t h i n g I buy I bowl, p l a y t e n n i s , g o l f o r o t h e r a c t i v e s p o r t s quite often I would l i k e to be an a c t r e s s I have more than t e n p a i r s o f shoes To buy a n y t h i n g o t h e r than a house o r c a r on c r e d i t i s unwise Our f a m i l y t r a v e l s q u i t e a l o t I belong to one o r more c l u b s I must admit I don't l i k e household chores I l i k e to play bridge I l i k e t o be c o n s i d e r e d a l e a d e r I'd l i k e to spend a y e a r i n London or P a r i s I would r a t h e r spend a q u i e t evening a t home than go out to a p a r t y I would l i k e to know how to sew l i k e an e x p e r t I would r a t h e r l i v e i n or near a b i g c i t y than i n or near a small town I sometimes bet money a t the r a c e s I l i k e to t h i n k I am a b i t o f a swinger I am a homebody I stay a t home most evenings I o f t e n have a c o c k t a i l b e f o r e d i n n e r I like ballet I l i k e danger I do v o l u n t e e r work f o r a h o s p i t a l o r s e r v i c e organi z a t i o n on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s I am an a c t i v e member o f more than one s e r v i c e organization  Noncard Users Definite & General Agreement  41%  32%  32  18  52  39  13 64 17 17 22 70 51 33  27 28 7 10 10 57 42 64  28  14  16 47  6 37  21  36  44 55 40 29 33 40  29 41 32 16 22 28  31  45  68  77  47  28  16 24 44 63 21 27 13  5 11 58 73 9 18 3  27  11  26  16  Continued ....  53  TABLE 7 Continued  Card Users Definite & General Agreement  Statement I enjoy most forms o f housework I do more t h i n g s s o c i a l l y than most o f my friends C l o t h e s should be d r i e d i n the f r e s h a i r and sunshine Movies should be censored I would l i k e a maid to do the housework It i s good to have charge accounts  NOTE: A l l d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t square t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  above the .05  Moncard Users Definite & General Agreement  36  47  23  11  26  37  55 41 62  65 27 41  level  based on C h i -  54  c) Product b e n e f i t  segmentation  The main purpose of t h i s approach to market segmentation to Haley  according  [7] i s to " i d e n t i f y market segments by c a u s a l f a c t o r s r a t h e r  than d e s c r i p t i v e f a c t o r s " . to market segmentation  The  underlying philosophy f o r t h i s  approach  i s the b e l i e f t h a t the " b e n e f i t s which people  seeking i n consuming a g i v e n p r o d u c t are the b a s i c reasons  are  f o r the e x i s t e n c e  of t r u e market segments" [ 7 ] . What then are the product v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n g to which the marketer should segment h i s market.  I t seems t h a t they can be any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  the product which c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y appeal  to the consumer.  Haley  of  [7]  shows, f o r example, the b e n e f i t segment v a r i a b l e s o f the t o o t h p a s t e market. One  segment o f the market, f o r example, i s concerned  one with b r i g h t n e s s o f t e e t h , one with f l a v o u r and and one w i t h Haley  w i t h "decay p r e v e n t i o n ,  appearance of the  product,  price".  i n h i s study o f the t o o t h p a s t e market compared the f o u r b e n e f i t  segments with demographic and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n each o f the b e n e f i t segments t h e r e was  (see T a b l e 8 ) .  He found  that  a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e number  of members o f one demographic group. Several  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the b e n e f i t market segmentation  mentioned here. ment suggest  The  be  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f demographic groups i n each  t h a t media s e l e c t i o n  should be.done with t h i s f a c t i n mind.  i m p o r t a n t l y , the marketer should seek the needs and p o t e n t i a l l y d e r i v e d by consumers, and w i t h these i n mind.  should  b e n e f i t s which might  then d e s i g n the product or  the s e c t i o n on psychographic  r e t u r n to T a b l e 8.  Here i t can be observed  market segmentation,  t h a t not o n l y was  be  pro-  duct a s u f f i c i e n t c o m p e t i t i v e edge r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s . To conclude  More  service  T h i s approach to market p l a n n i n g should g i v e any  l e t us  the market  seg-  55  TABLE 8 TOOTHPASTE MARKET SEGMENT DESCRIPTION [7]  Segment Name  The Sensory Segment  The Sociables  The Worriers  The Independent Segment  Principal benefit sought:  Flavour, product appearance  Brightness of t e e t h  Decay Prevention  Price  Demographic strengths:  Children  Teens, young people  Large families  Men  Special behavioural character-, isties:  Users o f spearmint flavoured toothpaste  Smokers  Heavy users  Heavy  Brands, disproportionately favoured:  Colgate, Stripe  Macleans, Plus white, Ultra Brite  Crest  Brands on sale  Personal i t y characteristics:  High s e l f involvement  High sociabil i t y  High hypochondriacs  High autonomy  Life-style characteristics:  Hedonistic  Active  Conservative  Value-oriented  users  56  segmented a c c o r d i n g to product b e n e f i t s , but a l s o a c c o r d i n g t o persona l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and each segment. in  life  s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of population in  A l s o , i n a sense, the purpose  t h i s t a b l e ; t h a t i s , i t i s shown how  performed  approach  t o market  Ideally, this  i s summarized  the market segmentation  using personality v a r i a b l e s , l i f e  attribute variables.  of t h i s section  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , and  should be the t o t a l  can  be  product  psychographic  segmentation.  2. A d v e r t i s i n g S t r a t e g y Development P r o v i d i n g t h a t i t i s f e a s i b l e t o segment the market w i t h p s y c h o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , then the next q u e s t i o n i s : "how g r a p h i c segments be u t i l i z e d segment?" verbal  The  work i n the area o f a d v e r t i s i n g For t h i s r e a s o n , Z i f f ' s  t i s i n g s t r a t e g y development w i l l  be reviewed  strategy.  s t r a t e g y development [31] framework f o r adver-  here.  essence, psychographic r e s e a r c h must c o n t a i n c e r t a i n elements  o r d e r to be o f use i n a d v e r t i s i n g It  i n d i r e c t u t i l i z a t i o n o f the  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the market segment to develop a d v e r t i s i n g  has been done by Z i f f .  psycho-  t o develop e f f e c t i v e communication w i t h each  answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n l i e s  Substantial  In  can the knowledge about  in  s t r a t e g y development.  should:  1. Encompass l i f e i s t i c s and  s t y l e s , v a l u e s and needs, p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -  (product) b e n e f i t s .  2. Be r e s t r i c t e d  to those segments c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o the product  under study. 3. Be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d wherever a p p r o p r i a t e - to the product than framed  i n a general sense  [31, p.  142].  rather  57  The F i g u r e 2.  important elements  develop p a r t i c u l a r promotional  benefit desired w i l l  strategy.  Furthermore,  brand data and demographic d a t a w i l l  i t i s expected  be developed  that  The tional  product product  and a n a l y z e d as w e l l .  In o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r a c o m p e t i t i v e edge f o r the p r o d u c t , or brand, a n a l y s i s must be performed  used  In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s expected  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , needs/values, and  be a n a l y z e d .  in  product  b e f o r e the r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h can be  that personality variables, l i f e  or  study are reproduced  T h i s fugure suggests t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s e s s the  on a number o f dimensions to  o f the psychographic  the  under a c o m p e t i t i v e frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  next step i n the process o f u s i n g p s y c h o g r a p h i c s  i n the promo-  s t r a t e g y development i s t o i d e n t i f y market segments i n terms o f  volume p o t e n t i a l , brand  saturation, potential  consumer b e n e f i t s ,  brand c o m p a t i b i l i t y , and consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  potential  (see F i g u r e 3 ) .  A c c o r d i n g t o Z i f f [ 3 1 ] , i n more simple t e r m i n o l o g y the output o f the psychographic  study would d e s c r i b e each  segment i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  "What they (the customers) are l i k e i n terms o f l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , needs, v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to the product under study. What they want i n terms o f t h a t p r o d u c t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r benefits. Who they are i n terms o f age, variables.  sex, and o t h e r demographic  What they do i n terms o f purchase  and  usage".  An example o f t h i s type o f a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 4. two  types o f c a r d r i v e r s are p i c t u r e d ; namely the Dependent D r i v e r ,  the A c t i v e D r i v e r .  I t can be observed  from, these two  can form a d i s t i n c t p i c t u r e o f each group o f d r i v e r s . to  Here,  tailor a specific  examples t h a t  and we  However, i n o r d e r  s t r a t e g y to each group or segment, s e v e r a l  criteria  FIGURE 2 FRAMEWORK FOR ADVERTISING STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT [31, p.  143]  Psychographic Variables  Product/ Brand Data  Individual Data  Personality Variables  Product Usage  Demographic Characteristics  Frequency Occasion n  L i f e Style Variables i Personal Family  Personal Family  n  Needs/Values  Brand Usage  Functional  Frequency  Aesthetic Situational Self-image  Occasions  Benefits  Desired  Brand P e r c e p t i o n s  1 1  Functional Aesthetic Emotional  Media Data (optional)  59  FIGURE 3 IDENTIFICATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTS AMD THEIR CHARACTERISTICS  [31, p. 144]  Based on  Identification of Important Segments In Terms o f Life Styles Needs & Values  <^  Volume P o t e n t i a l  No. o f consumers i n group and heaviness o f use  Brand  Brand usage  Saturation  P o t e n t i a l Consumer Benefits  -ss*  Benefits  desired  P o t e n t i a l Brand Compatibi1ity  Brand p e r c e p t i o n s i f included  Consumer Characteristics  Demographic data and media data i f i n c l u d e d  60  FIGURE 4 COMPARISON OF DEPENDENT AND ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE DRIVERS [31, p. 145, 146]  DEPENDENT DRIVERS  1/  ACTIVE DRIVERS  V  WHAT THEY ARE LIKE  WHAT THEY ARE LIKE  - Know l i t t l e about cars - Uninvolved i n c a r s , d r i v i n g , maintenance - Apprehensive about c a r s - Need r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t c a r w i l l run w e l l - Car make and d e a l e r important - Get p l e a s u r e from appearance of car  - Know a l o t about c a r s - I n v o l v e d i n c a r s and maintenance - Enjoy d r i v i n g - Are power o r i e n t e d i n d r i v i n g - Want t o be i n c o n t r o l when driving - B e l i e v e i n d i f f e r e n c e s between makes  WHAT THEY WANT  WHAT THEY WANT  -  - Powerful c a r s f o r d r i v i n g control - Top engine performance - Good h a n d l i n g q u a l i t i e s - Cars made by major companies  T r u s t i n manufacturer and d e a l e r Dependable c a r Good engine performance Good h a n d l i n g performance Good s t y l i n g Minimum maintenance  WHO THEY ARE  WHO THEY ARE  - Older - B e t t e r educated - Higher incomes  - Younger - Middle c l a s s i n income and education  WHAT THEY DO  WHAT THEY DO  - More own C h e v r o l e t s , P o n t i a c s , Oldsmobiles - Choose on t r u s t i n makes; s t y l i n g - Own more c a r s ; r e c e n t models  - More own a Ford, fewer a Chevrolet/AM - D r i v e more powerful c a r s - Choose on engine performance; styling  61  must be  satisfied.  The r i s e and importance o f V a r i o u s P o s s i b l e Market T a r g e t s must be s u f f i c i e n t to warrant e f f o r t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t / t h e m . The c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the Product - does the product have s u f f i c i e n t i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s to s a t i s f y consumer needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n a p a r t i c u l a r market segment, and what i s the minimum r e q u i r e d e f f o r t to c o n v i n c e consumers t h a t the product can s a t i s f y t h e i r needs and wants. In what sense i s the product Unique. To what e x t e n t are v a r i o u s s e l l i n g promises about a product unique, and what i s the expected r e a c t i o n o f the c o m p e t i t i o n with r e s p e c t t o t h i s uniqueness. Is the product promotional e f f o r t expected t o c a n n i b a l i z e o t h e r e n t r i e s by the f i r m . F i n a l l y , to what e x t e n t does the product lend i t s e l f t o c r e a t i v e promotion.*  When these c r i t e r i a promotional  are d e f i n e d and r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f i e d ,  s t r a t e g y developed on t h i s b a s i s s h o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o Z i f f ,  s a t i s f y the f o l l o w i n g requirements o f meaningful The  the  advertising  strategy.  strategy i s : 1. Meaningful  t o a l a r g e number o f consumers  2. Compatible w i t h the product being s o l d 3. S u f f i c i e n t l y unique to have a c o m p e t i t i v e 4. D i s t i n c t enough from the s t r a t e g y o f f e r e d e n t r i e s from the same company to minimize  advantage by c o m p e t i t i v e p r o d u c t cannibalization  5. P o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g enough to be t r a n s l a t e d creative  into  effective  advertising.  To c o n c l u d e , i n the s e c t i o n on use o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i t was  shown  t h a t i t can be used to i d e n t i f y a market segment o r t a r g e t , i t can d e s c r i b e  * F r e e l y adapted and m o d i f i e d from Z i f f [ 3 1 ] .  62  the market segment i n terms o f what i t i s l i k e , and f i n a l l y what the p a r t i c u l a r market segment might  expect from the p r o d u c t .  t h e s e reasons, the use o f psychographics as an approach s t r a t e g y development c o u l d be v e r y  i t can show For  t o promotional  beneficial.  3. Product Development Development o f any product i s no doubt  a difficult  t a s k o f the d e s i g n e r i s to develop a product t h a t w i l l needs. mation  task.  The main  s a t i s f y consumer  The most important f a c t i n the product d e s i g n process i s the about the a n t i c i p a t e d consumer and  knows the consumer p r o f i l e , which w i l l  his p r o f i l e .  infor-  I f the d e s i g n e r  he has a b e t t e r chance t o develop a product  more c l o s e l y f i t i n t o the consumer's frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  In the study by Frye and  Klein  [ 6 ] , i t was  shown i n an experimental  s e t t i n g t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to use psychographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f consumers i n a product d e s i g n .  In t h i s experiment,  d i f f e r e n t groups  of  d e s i g n e r s were given demographic data o r psychographic d a t a . The demographic data p r o f i l e o f the consumer was  d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s :  You are d e s i g n i n g a c l o c k r a d i o f o r a young market. market i s under 25 and none i s over Approximately  together".  34.  15% o f the market are s i n g l e people l i v i n g  H a l f would be c l a s s i f i e d living  About h a l f your  alone.  as "young marrieds without c h i l d r e n " or  About a f o u r t h have one c h i l d , and  "singles  some 10 p e r c e n t have  two or more c h i l d r e n . The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l have no c o l l e g e a t a l l . o f t h i s group  i s high i n your market.  Only s l i g h t l y over  10%  About h a l f have some c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g , w i t h many  presently attending college.  Over a f o u r t h have an  63  undergraduate  degree and s l i g h t l y over 10% have a graduate  About a f i f t h  o f the market earns $10,000 o r over a n n u a l l y .  a f o u r t h earn more than $7,500 but l e s s than $10,000. group  degree.  A fairly  About large  - s l i g h t l y over 35% - earns l e s s than $5,000 [ 6 ] .  The  psychographic p r o f i l e , on the o t h e r hand, was  d e s c r i b e d as  follows: You are d e s i g n i n g a c l o c k r a d i o f o r a market t h a t has a number o f interesting The  characteristics.  people i n your market tend to have a r e a s o n a b l y high a e s t h e t i c  sense, a p p r e c i a t e music  and t h i n g s o f  They tend to be o r i e n t e d toward but choose  to l i v e near c i t i e s  beauty. suburban,  single family residences,  r a t h e r than i n r u r a l  o r small town e n v i r o n -  ments. They have a f a i r l y undertake.  high degree o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n whatever they  However, they are not i n c l i n e d  necessary r i s k s  i n making the myriad  t o be gamblers  - t o take  of l i t t l e decisions involved  un-  in l i v i n g .  They are not o l d - f a s h i o n e d or t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d , y e t they are n o t , by any means, i n the vanguard  of fashion.  They enjoy a p l e a s a n t evening out; however, they e q u a l l y enjoy a q u i e t evening a t home. environment. attractive,  They tend to m a i n t a i n a neat, c l e a n  They are moderately h e a l t h f u l meals,  interested  i n cooking and  spending  living  serving  but are not compulsive about i t .  F i n a l l y , they are not s p e n d t h r i f t s .  While not e x a c t l y s t i n g y , they  are c o n s c i o u s o f p r i c e s t h a t they have to pay f o r the items needed i n everyday  living [6].  The was  resulting  judged  p r o d u c t , a c l o c k r a d i o , prepared  by i n d u s t r i a l  p r o f i l e was  by d i f f e r e n t  groups,  d e s i g n p r o f e s s o r s w i t h o u t knowing which consumer  given to the d e s i g n e r .  Statistical  tests  product designed on the b a s i s o f the psychographic  showed t h a t the  p r o f i l e had  been r a t e d  " b e t t e r " than the product designed on the b a s i s o f the demographic p r o f i l e However, i t i s not known i f the s u p e r i o r product would have a l s o been r a t e d b e t t e r by a c t u a l  consumers.  Furthermore,  as to what would have been the r e s u l t s have been u t i l i z e d  4.  Channels  should the two d i f f e r e n t  shown how  i t may  be p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i z e  of D i s t r i b u t i o n  e n q u i r y o f psychographic  Selection  research.  s t r a t e g y have escaped  the  Apparently i t i s p o s s i b l e to  r e s e a r c h even to s e l e c t  channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n .  utilize The  l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y behind i t i s i n the f o l l o w i n g : the consumer's l i f e and  shopping  h a b i t s vary by c i t y d i s t r i c t s as well  For these reasons different life  particular  p a r t s o f the c i t y  Channels life  A rural life  i t i s necessary to i d e n t i f y l i f e (say, urban  style patterns in d i f f e r e n t  region).  psycho  (and p r o f i l e ) i n product d e s i g n .  Not very many a s p e c t s o f a marketing  psychographic  profiles  simultaneously.  In t h i s s e c t i o n i t was g r a p h i c data  no mention has been made  under style  as geographic r e g i o n s . style patterns in  vs, sub-urban),  and  to  identify  g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s (say, a g r i c u l t u r a l  and modes o f d i s t r i b u t i o n  can then be t a i l o r e d t o the  style.  life  s t y l e might r e q u i r e ' c a t a l o g ' d i s t r i b u t i o n , a sub-urban  s t y l e might r e q u i r e a shopping  a s p e c i f i c product might s t i l l  centre.  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e  need some o t h e r channel  t o reach the  that  65  consumer. for  C e r t a i n c a u t i o n i s i n p l a c e when l i f e  p o s s i b l e channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n .  t h a t the causal  I t seems t h a t i t may  possible  s t y l e , and the channel does not f o l l o w a s p e c i f i c  life  style.  have been changing  over the l a s t c e n t u r y , b a s i c a l l y due t o the changes i n l i f e  style.  the i n n o v a t i v e merchandising t e c h n i q u e s were brought about and  because a t the g i v e n p o i n t i n time the l i f e to  life  That i s , the channel o f d i s t r i b u t i o n changes the  Hodoch [8] shows t h a t the channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  be  r e l a t i o n s h i p between channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and  s t y l e i s reversed. life  s t y l e i s considered  Most succeeded  s t y l e p a t t e r n s were conducive  a c c e p t such i n n o v a t i o n s . L a t e l y , we  have been e x p e r i e n c i n g changes i n l i f e  bound to have impact on the channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n .  s t y l e s which  Such f a c t s as a  s h o r t e r work week, working women, h i g h e r d i s c r e t i o n a r y incomes, ness to a c c e p t extremely uniform merchandise to  are  and  willing-  are prime motives f o r marketers  adapt t h e i r channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n .  5. Media  Selection  Media  selection  view, because  i s important from the marketing s t r a t e g y p o i n t o f  the ' c o r r e c t ' media might  in  a given segment.  own  f o l l o w e r s , and  the  consumer.  have g r e a t e r impact on the consumer  I t i s to be expected t h a t c e r t a i n media have t h e i r i n essence the media has a p e r s o n a l i t y i n the eyes o f  Furthermore,  media which resemble  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the consumer s e l e c t s o n l y  h i s own  p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e  style.  A message  c a r r i e d on the media which  i s n a t u r a l l y c l o s e to the consumer has a  b e t t e r chance  to succeed.  For the marketer, a knowledge o f which media  reaches which  segment o f i n t e r e s t  i s o f utmost  importance, r e s u l t i n g i n  66  a more e f f i c i e n t l y used advertising budget. An interesting approach to media selection has been taken by Tigert [23].  He takes two different approaches to media selection:  "One approach is to examine the characteristics of a particular medium's audience, and to compare these characteristics with the characteristics of those who are not in the medium's audience (i.e. compare viewers with nonviewers, readers with non-readers, etc.") This approach gives the marketer a chance to discover substantially important differences between two groups in the market segment.  It is  possible that viewers of a certain TV programme are also users of a particular product (and vice versa). "A second approach involves the examination of a particular medium's audience characteristics in relation to the audience characteristics of a l l other media that are being considered for a particular campaign. A comparison across audiences w i l l t e l l us something about the differences in the ' q u a l i t y ' or 'appropriateness' of each audience for (a specific) promotional campaign. (Providing that i t is s u f f i c i e n t l y possible to d i s criminate between the audiences, i . e . the overlap is not interfering)". Tigert's empirical findings show, for example, that the viewers with strong preference for Fantasy-Comedy TV shows [23], had the following characteristics: 1. A strong, more t r a d i t i o n a l , conservative inclination: concern about r e l i g i o n , youth, drugs, liquor, security, tradition, and the permissive society. 2. A greater concern about cleanliness in the home. 3. A stronger view of l i f e as both a personal and financial defeat: never get ahead on their income and are now looking for a handout; more heavily in debt and no way out. 4. A strong commitment to television: l i t t l e interest in print media, or other outside a c t i v i t y . These people stay at home most of the time. 5. Price conscious - bargain seekers, but w i l l i n g to pay more for nationally advertised brands.  67  6. An o r i e n t a t i o n towards the c h i l d r e n as a f o c a l i n the f a m i l y .  On  the other hand, the p r o f i l e o f viewers  with  point  strong  preference  f o r t a l k shows i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the f a n t a s y shows. viewers  These  had:  1. A s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n new  products.  2. An i n c l i n a t i o n t o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n about new p r o d u c t s . 3. A need f o r excitement 4. A s t r o n g i n t e r e s t  to seek out  i n t h e i r l i v e s , more o u t g o i n g , s o c i a b l e .  i n f a s h i o n and  personal  appearance.  5. P r i d e i n and care o f the home; but not the f a n a t i c a l with d i r t and germs. 6. A commitment to t e l e v i s i o n and  concern  i n p a r t i c u l a r the U.S.  shows.  7. A d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i f e , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r need f o r excitement. Perhaps they are l o o k i n g f o r an escape.  Apparently,  both  consumer segments  ( i . e . fantasy-comedy segment, and  t a l k show segment) p r o v i d e a d i s t i n c t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the marketer to communicate the message about a p a r t i c u l a r product. might be a b l e to develop of p o p u l a t i o n reach.  Here, the marketer  a media-product f i t w i t h much g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y  Tigert  [23] suggests  u s e f u l l y combined with a p a r t i c u l a r TV  s e v e r a l products  which c o u l d  programme type.  1. The fantasy-comedy shows r e p r e s e n t v i a b l e media f o r a l l types o f home c l e a n i n g products from d i s i n f e c t a n t s to a i r f r e s h n e r s to l i q u i d c l e a n e r s . And the appeals i n the copy should be hard h i t t i n g a t t a c k s on germs and d i r t . 2. The fantasy-comedy shows r e p r e s e n t v i a b l e media f o r many p r o p r i e t a r y drugs such as deodorants, mouthwashes and vitamins. 3. The t a l k shows r e p r e s e n t v i a b l e media f o r many types of new p r o d u c t s . They warrant s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g the i n t r o d u c t o r y phase.  be  68  4. The t a l k shows represent v i a b l e media f o r women's cosmetics, f a s h i o n s and grooming a i d s . F i n a l l y , T i g e r t developed audience p r o f i l e s f o r other types of TV programmes.  These are reproduced i n Table 9.  Here, i n each category of  viewers, some demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a l s o given. To conclude, i t seems t h a t a l l media have a unique audience, with unique l i f e s t y l e customs, and unique product purchasing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The consumer in each audience group (segment) r e q u i r e s a separate copy approach, t a i l o r e d to s p e c i f i c media, and product - i n order to s a t i s f y his unique need more e f f i c i e n t l y .  B. Psychographics and Consumer Behaviour The preceeding p a r t of t h i s chapter d e a l t with psychographics as i t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s to marketers' concerns.  Consumer behaviour questions  were i m p l i c i t l y d e a l t with, but no s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n was given to them. In t h i s p a r t we turn to the consumer s i d e of psychographic r e s e a r c h . However, i n r e a l i t y we ought to r e a l i z e t h a t s e p a r a t i o n of marketers' concerns from consumer behaviour i s incompatible, and marketers' i n t e r e s t w i l l always be at l e a s t p a r t l y o r i e n t e d toward consumer behaviour. Two aspects of consumer behaviour appear to be c l o s e l y connected with psychographics.  One, consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s , as represented by  p e r s o n a l i t y , a c t i v i t y , and a t t i t u d e s . Two, consumer p r o f i l e formation as represented by the actual consumer behaviour in the market p l a c e . w i l l f i r s t d i s c u s s the consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s .  We  TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS (1970 Canadian Female Data) [23]  IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURES (IRONSIDE, TAKES A THIEF, MANNIX, MOD AND MISSION IMPOSSIBLE)  SQUAD, FBI  Lower education Concern with h e a l t h A n t i - p o l l u t i o n and government c o n t r o l Compulsive TV viewers - a n t i - p r i n t Brand l o y a l T r a d i t i o n a l , conservative P r i c e conscious Financially optimistic Family o r i e n t e d Like science f i c t i o n L i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s  HOCKEY (WEDNESDAY AND  SATURDAY)  Older Strong i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e o f mother, w i f e and homemaker - anti-women's l i b A c t i v e s p o r t s p a r t i c i p a n t and s p o r t s f a n Very non-permissive about c o s m e t i c s , sex and d i s c i p l i n e Not a t r a v e l l e r Heavy newspaper reader  MALE SINGERS - I (CASH, MARTIN, WILLIAMS AND  CAMPBELL)  Lower e d u c a t i o n , s l i g h t l y lower income P r o - n a t i o n a l brands Brand l o y a l Strong on u n c e r t a i n t y , d i s t r u s t and worry Care and p r i d e of home A f f e c t i o n a t e , tender and l o v i n g P e r m i s s i v e on female use o f c o s m e t i c s , c i g a r e t t e s , e t c . Worried about y o u t h , drugs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Big on h e a l t h a i d s (deodorant, mouthwash, e t c . )  MOVIES (ACADEMY, WEDNESDAY AND  FRIDAY)  Lower income and e d u c a t i o n Strong on t r a d i t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i s m ( l i k e fantasy-comedy Compulsive TV viewers Home c l e a n l i n e s s , c a r e o f and p r i d e i n home  shows)  Continued  ...  TABLE 9 Continued  MOVIES (ACADEMY, WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY) Continued Non-risk takers, very s e c u r i t y conscious Homebody, not s o c i a l l y a c t i v e Financially dissatisfied Price conscious  VARIETY-COMEDY (GLEASON, BURNETT, LUCY, SKELTON) Very low education Older Lower income Strong on cooking P o s i t i v e towards a d v e r t i s i n g Compulsive housekeepers Anti-youth, drugs Weight and health conscious R e l i g i o u s , non-permissive Pro TV, a n t i - p r i n t except f o r Macleans magazine Fashion and personal appearance conscious Homebody Security conscious Self-confident, self-disciplined B e l i e f in s a l v a t i o n Want an enjoyable, l e i s u r e l y l i f e  BLACK COMEDY (JULIA, BILL CROSBY) Lower education and income Older L i f e s t y l e p r o f i l e very f l a t in general P o s i t i v e on cooking, non-permissive and t r a d i t i o n a l  71  1. Consumer Behaviour  Analysis  Pessemier and T i g e r t [17] undertook t o study consumer behaviour using  non-demographic measures which c o u l d  d i c t i o n o f market behaviour. of several and  total  In p a r t i c u l a r , they compared  demographic v a r i a b l e s family  a i d the d e s c r i p t i o n and p r e -  (age,  association  e d u c a t i o n o f husband and w i f e ,  income) with m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s ,  opinions,  personality  perceived  r i s k o f purchase, media exposure, and a d v e r t i s i n g  nition.  t e s t s , brand purchase p a t t e r n s ,  i n t e r e s t s and  Some o f the v a r i a b l e s  general  usage r a t e s ,  slogan  used and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s with demographic  v a r i a b l e s a r e reproduced i n T a b l e 10 ( i . e . c o r r e l a t i o n o f f a c t o r w i t h demographic v a r i a b l e s ) .  essence, i s one o f the most important f i n d i n g s .  The independence o f the  with psychographic  Pessemier and T i g e r t c a r r i e d out r e g r e s s i o n Some f i n d i n g s about v a r i a n c e  explained  demographic v a r i a b l e s  i s given  demographic v a r i a b l e s  have i n v a r i a b l y b e t t e r  e x c e p t i o n o f time v a r i a b l e s  i n T a b l e 11.  analysis  In t h i s s e c t i o n , a study d e a l i n g  profile  i n the same  by demographic and non-  I t can be observed t h a t  the non-  e x p l a n a t o r y power, w i t h the expen-  score carpets r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . with consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s was  I t was shown t h a t consumer behaviour can be e x p l a i n e d  g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s which i n many cases have g r e a t e r The  variables.  ( v a r i a b l e s #41 and 43, brand r e c o g n i t i o n  s i v e f u r n i t u r e and brand r e c o g n i t i o n  presented.  This, in  from demographic ones suggest t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be  a r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t o r y power a s s o c i a t e d  study.  scores  I t can be observed t h a t many o f the f a c t o r  s c o r e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y independent from demographic v a r i a b l e s .  psychographic v a r i a b l e s  recog-  variance  with  psycho-  e x p l a n a t o r y power.  c l o s i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r turns to the q u e s t i o n o f consumer formation.  72  TABLE CORRELATIONS OF  10  PSYCHOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES  [17]  C o r r e l a t i o n with Demographic V a r i a b l e s Number  Description  1  Housewife's age  2  Housewife's e d u c a t i o n  3  Husband's o c c u p a t i o n  4  Husband's e d u c a t i o n  5  Total  6  2nd o c c u p a t i o n FS - lawyer, s o c i a l worker, e t c .  7  family  group  1  2  3  4  5  -  01  02  -15  33  -  39  49  32  -  66  33  -  21  income  -  -06  17  08  06  12  3rd occupation FS - r e c e p t i o n i s t , secretary, etc.  -03  -07  -07  -07  03  8  4th o c c u p a t i o n FS - d r e s s d e s i g n e r , i n t e r i o r decorator, a r t i s t , etc.  -05  00  05  04  -01  9  2nd q u a s i - p e r s o n a l i t y s o c i a b l e , humorous  FS - o u t g o i n g ,  06  05  04  -01  04  10  4th q u a s i - p e r s o n a l i t y suspicious  FS  05  -07  -05  -06  00  11  1st p e r s o n a l i t y FS - s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n  10  -10  -05  -09  01  12  5th p e r s o n a l i t y FS - a s s e r t i v e  04  -19  -10  -09  -02  13  6th  p e r s o n a l i t y FS - n e g a t i v e  11  -32  -24  -28  -07  14  7th  p e r s o n a l i t y FS - i m p u l s i v e n e s s  -07  12  16  11  -03  15  8th p e r s o n a l i t y FS - n e g a t i v e i n t e r e s t and i n t e l l i g e n c e  intellectual  -05  -17  -05  -01  -07  16  1st AIO,  conformity  23  -12  -12  -14  03  17  2nd AIO, FS - c a r e f u l shopper p r i c e c o n s c i o u s , shops f o r s p e c i a l s  00  -03  -06  -07  -22  18  3rd AIO, FS - compulsive, housekeeper  04  -15  -12  -06  -09  19  4th AIO, FS - c a r e l e s s and/or s i b l e behaviour i n shopping, and personal a f f a i r s  irresponfinancial  -11  -17  -10  -09  -09  20  5th AIO, FS - c a r e l e s s and/or s i b l e behaviour i n shopping, and personal a f f a i r s  irresponfinancial  -11  -17  -10  -09  -09  21  6th AIO, FS - n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s advertising's value  18  14  08  06  14  FS - h e a l t h and  psychologist,  a  - skeptical,  leadership  social  orderly  towards  73  TABLE 10 Continued  Variable Number  C o r r e l a t i o n with Demographic V a r i a b l e s Description  1  2  3  4  5  22  7th AIO, FS - c o n s e r v a t i v e , middle c l a s s a t t i t u d e s , mature, s o c i a b l e  07  -09  -02  00  06  23  8th AIO, FS - weight watcher d i e t e r  16  05  07  05  18  24  9th AIO, FS - f e a r o f u n f a m i l i a r , avoids  02  -09  -22  -19  -08  -29  -04  -09  09  -09  14  07  10  07  06  -14  -01  02  01  -07  -09  05  09  02  -02  06  16  15  09  12  risk  25  10th AIO, FS - outdoor,  26  11th AIO, FS - n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g s p o r t s enthusiast  27  12th AIO, FS - a c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n  28  13th AIO, FS  29  14th AIO, FS - husband o r i e n t e d , i n t e r e s t e d i n husband's a c t i v i t i e s  30  Total  hours watching t e l e v i s i o n on weekdays  -17  -25  -09  -12  -29  31  Total  hours watching t e l e v i s i o n on Saturdays  -09  -26  -19  -21  -18  32  Total  hours watching t e l e v i s i o n on Sundays  00  -17  -11  -13  -10  33  A d v e r t i s i n g slogan company names  -14  10  12  18  08  34  A d v e r t i s i n g slogan r e c o g n i t i o n score flavoured soft drinks  -23  -07  -05  -03  -11  35  T o t a l score on a d v e r t i s i n g slogan r e c o g n i t i o n ( i n c l u d e s a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o t h e r than v a r i a b l e s 33 and 34 above)  -21  -03  -06  08  -02  36  1st Media FS - i n t e l l e c t u a l , c u l t u r a l (reads New York Times, Saturday Review, New Y o r k e r , A t l a n t i c Monthly, Consumer Reports, e t c . )  12  36  23  24  24  37  2nd Media FS - l i g h t r e a d i n g (reads Post, Reader's D i g e s t , Look, L i f e , L a d i e s Home Journal, etc.)  18  14  04  -04  09  38  3 r d Media FS - f a s h i o n , t h e swinger (reads Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, Glamour, Mademoise l l e , etc.)  06  20  21  19  24  39  4th Media FS - movie, crime, s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c (reads Modern Romance, Modern Screen, True S t o r y , True C o n f e s s i o n s , etc.)  -08  -18  -27  -22  -18  40  5th Media FS - the homemaker (reads Family C i r c l e , Woman's Day, M c C a l l s , Good housekeeping, B e t t e r Homes and Gardens, e t c . )  08  -15  -01  -08  01  41  1 s t brand r e c o g n i t i o n furniture  20  31  29  27  32  42  2nd brand r e c o g n i t i o n score furniture  -05  09  00  04  15  casual  seeker  - d o - i t - y o u r s e l f homemaker  recognition  score  score cola  - expensive - medium p r i c e d  74  TABLE 10 Continued  C o r r e l a t i o n with Variable Number  Demographic Description  Variables  1  2  3  4  5  33  21  20  12  38  -06  21  08  12  14  43  3rd  brand r e c o g n i t i o n  score  -  44  4th brand r e c o g n i t i o n fibres  score  - artificial  45  5th  brand r e c o g n i t i o n  score  - fabrics  23  29  21  15  40  46  7th  brand r e c o g n i t i o n  score  - liquors  04  18  30  23  26  47  Total  17  26  24  21  40  score  decimals omitted  on brand  carpets  recognition  75  TABLE 11 REGRESSION ANALYSIS - COMPARISON OF EXPLANATORY POWER OF VERSUS NON-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES f l 7 l  Run Number  Dependent V a r i a b l e  1  30  -  2  31  -  3  32  -  4  33  -  5  34  -  6  35  -  7  36  -  8  37  -  9  38  -  10  39  -  11  40  -  12  41  -  13  42  -  14  43  -  15  44  -  16  45  -  17  46  -  18  47  -  (from T a b l e  10)  t o t a l hours watching TV on .33 weekdays t o t a l hours watching TV on .32 Saturdays t o t a l hours watching TV on .27 Sundays A d v e r t i s i n g slogan r e c o g n i t i o n .23 score - company names A d v e r t i s i n g slogan r e c o g n i t i o n .28 score - c o l a f l a v o u r e d s o f t d r i n k s T o t a l score on a d v e r t i s i n g slogan .33 recognition 1st media f a c t o r s c o r e - i n t e l .40 lectual, cultural 2nd media f a c t o r s c o r e - 1 .26 l i g h t reading 3rd media f a c t o r s c o r e - f a s h i o n , .44 the swinger 4th media f a c t o r s c o r e - movie, .26 crime, s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c 5th media f a c t o r s c o r e - the .25 homemaker 1st brand r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e .37 expensive f u r n i t u r e 2nd brand r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e .24 medium-priced f u r n i t u r e 3rd brand r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e .38 carpets 4th brand r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e .22 artificial fibres 5th brand r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e .40 fabrics 7th brand r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e .35 liquors t o t a l s c o r e on brand .43 recognition  DEMOGRAPHIC  Percent o f P e r c e n t of Variance Variance E x p l a i n e d by E x p l a i n e d by Demographic Non-Demographic Variables Variables 12.4%  20.2%  8.8  23.1  3.1  23.9  5.3  17.7  5.5  22.5  5.0  28.0  15.0  25.0  6.0  20.0  8.5  35.1  8.6  17.9 .  3.0  22.0  19.0  18.0  4.0  20.1  20.8  17.2  6.2  15.8  20.0  20.0  12.0  23.0  20.0  23.0  76  2. I d e n t i f y i n g Consumer P r o f i l e The most p r e v a l e n t aspect o f psychographic r e s e a r c h i s the f o r mation o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f consumer p r o f i l e using v a r i a b l e s other than demographics.  In essence the r e s e a r c h e r develops an instrument which  draws h e a v i l y on every-day aspects o f the consumer's l i f e .  The i m p l i c a t i o n  here seems to be t h a t the consumer psychographic p r o f i l e should be as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the product i n question as p o s s i b l e . Some examples of the v a r i a b l e s used to i d e n t i f y the consumer p r o f i l e a r e reproduced i n Figure 5. The questions i n the instrument a r e normally scored on a f i v e p o i n t s t r o n g l y agree-disagree s c a l e . The r e s u l t i n g psychographic p r o f i l e then v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b e s a part i c u l a r c l a s s o f customers, as they r e l a t e to a product.  The psychographic  p r o f i l e according t o Hustad and Pessemier [ 9 ] c o u l d read: "Heavy users e x h i b i t a z e s t f o r l i f e . They a r e o p t i m i s t i c about t h e i r personal and f i n a n c i a l f u t u r e s , f a s h i o n and appearance c o n s c i o u s , p r o - c r e d i t , a c t i v e , i n f l u e n t i a l and r i s k t a k e r s . They a r e not a f r a i d to borrow or i n v e s t and they l i k e to go to e x c i t i n g p a r t i e s . Although they a r e above average i n income they a r e not on top o f the s o c i a l ladder". Providing that the r e s e a r c h e r i s a b l e to e s t a b l i s h the s i z e o f the 'heavy user' segment which warrants p a r t i c u l a r l y t a i l o r e d promotion, then the promotional s t r a t e g y i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e obvious.  For the psychographic  p r o f i l e d e s c r i b e d above, Hustad and Pessemier [ 9 ] suggest the f o l l o w i n g strategic implications: 1. Accept charge cards 2. Maintain an informal atmosphere 3. Don't s t r e s s c e n t s - o f f promotion, s i n c e heavy users do not seem to be p r i c e conscious 4. Consider home d e l i v e r y as an added time saver  77 FIGURE 5* PSYCHOGRAPHIC PROFILE VARIABLES AND  The I I I I  Gambler  Unconcerned c o n t .  l i k e to p l a y poker sometimes bet money a t the races 1 ike danger don't l i k e to take chances  Sports C a r s , F l y i n g and T r a v e l I l i k e sports cars I f I had my way, I would own a convertible I would l i k e to own and f l y my own airplane I don't l i k e to f l y I would l i k e to take a t r i p around the world I'd l i k e to spend a year i n London or P a r i s C o n s e r v a t i v e , T r a d i t i o n a l ism You c a n ' t have any r e s p e c t f o r a g i r l who gets pregnant before marriage A woman should not smoke i n p u b l i c I have somewhat o l d - f a s h i o n e d t a s t e s and h a b i t s I o f t e n wish f o r the good o l d days There i s too much emphasis on sex today There i s too much v i o l e n c e on TV today Young people have too many p r i v i l e g e s today Today, most people don't have enough disci piine P a r t i e s and  SAMPLE QUESTIONS  Liquor  A p a r t y c o u l d n ' t be a p a r t y without 1iquor We o f t e n s e r v e wine a t d i n n e r I 1 i ke beer L i q u o r i s a c u r s e on American l i f e I o f t e n have a c o c k t a i l before d i n n e r Unconcerned I dread the f u t u r e I n v e s t i n g i n the s t o c k market i s too r i s k y f o r most f a m i l i e s  Communism i s the g r e a t e s t p e r i l the world today  in  Religion I f Americans were more r e l i g i o u s , t h i s would be a b e t t e r c o u n t r y I o f t e n read the B i b l e S p i r i t u a l v a l u e s a r e more important than m a t e r i a l t h i n g s Self-Confidence,  Leadership  I l i k e to be c o n s i d e r e d a l e a d e r I t h i n k I have a l o t o f personal ability I have never been r e a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g at anything I o f t e n can t a l k o t h e r s i n t o doing something The  Swinging  Party-Goer  There a r e day people and t h e r e a r e n i g h t people; I am a day person I am a g i r l watcher I l i k e t o t h i n k I am a b i t o f a swinger I would r a t h e r spend a q u i e t evening a t home than go out to a p a r t y I l i k e p a r t i e s where t h e r e i s l o t s o f music and t a l k I do more t h i n g s s o c i a l l y than do most o f my f r i e n d s I l i k e to f e e l a t t r a c t i v e to women Books and  TV  T e l e v i s i o n programmes a r e more i n t e r e s t i n g than they were 5 y e a r s ago T e l e v i s i o n should have more s e r i o u s programs I l i k e t e l e v i s i o n news programs I l i k e to read comic s t r i p s I l i k e war s t o r i e s I l i k e science f i c t i o n A news magazine i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than a f i c t i o n magazine  78  FIGURE 5 Continued  Money and  Credit  Fashion Conscious c o n t .  To buy a n y t h i n g , o t h e r than a house or c a r on c r e d i t i s unwise I l i k e to pay cash f o r e v e r y t h i n g I buy In the p a s t y e a r , we have borrowed money from a bank or f i n a n c e company I buy many t h i n g s with a c r e d i t c a r d or a charge c a r d I w i l l probably have more money to spend next year than I have now F i v e y e a r s from now the f a m i l y income w i l l probably be a l o t h i g h e r than i t i s now Physical  & Occupational M o b i l i t y  In the l a s t 10 y e a r s , we have l i v e d in a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s We w i l l p r o b a b l y move a t l e a s t once in the next 5 y e a r s I expect to be a top e x e c u t i v e i n the next 10 y e a r s A d v e r t i s i n g & New  Brands  A d v e r t i s i n g cannot s e l l me a n y t h i n g t h a t I don't want A d v e r t i s i n g leads to w a s t e f u l buying i n our s o c i e t y I o f t e n t r y new brands b e f o r e my f r i e n d s and neighbours do Once I f i n d a brand, I l i k e to s t i c k with i t Price  When I must choose between the two, I u s u a l l y d r e s s f o r f a s h i o n , not f o r comfort Child Oriented When my c h i l d r e n are i l l i n bed, I drop most e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n o r d e r to see to t h e i r comfort My c h i l d r e n are the most important t h i n g i n my 1 i f e I t r y to arrange my home f o r my c h i l d r e n ' s convenience I take a l o t o f time and e f f o r t t o teach my c h i l d r e n good h a b i t s Compulsive  Housekeeper  I don't l i k e to see c h i l d r e n ' s toys l y i n g about I u s u a l l y keep my house v e r y neat and c l e a n I am uncomfortable when my house i s not c o m p l e t e l y c l e a n Our days seem t o f o l l o w a d e f i n i t e r o u t i n e such as e a t i n g meals a t a r e g u l a r time, e t c . Arts Enthusiast I enjoy going through an a r t g a l l e r y I enjoy going t o c o n c e r t s I like ballet  Conscious  I shop a l o t f o r s p e c i a l s I f i n d myself checking the p r i c e s in the g r o c e r y s t o r e even f o r smal1 i terns I u s u a l l y watch the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r announcements f o r s a l e s A person can save a l o t o f money by shopping around f o r bargains Fashion  Conscious  I u s u a l l y have one o r more outf i t s t h a t a r e o f the very l a t e s t style  * Developed [25]  by T i g e r t  [23] and  Wells  79  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f i l e o f consumer w i l l c a t i o n s f o r more than one  product.  have  impli-  In t h i s case the heavy user segment  c o u l d v a r y i t s h a b i t s to a range o f p r o d u c t s . To conclude, the consumer p r o f i l e  identification  a s p e c t o f psychographic market r e s e a r c h . how  i s the u n d e r l y i n g  In t h i s s e c t i o n , i t was  the p a r t i c u l a r p r o f i l e v a r i a b l e s a r e developed, and how  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the consumer p r o f i l e c o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d .  shown  the v e r b a l  Some promotional  s t r a t e g y i m p l i c a t i o n s were a l s o mentioned.  3. Summary The main purpose  o f t h i s c h a p t e r was  on the use o f psychographic  research.  f o r the uses o f psychographics was shown t h a t psychographic  to review l i t e r a t u r e  For t h i s purpose,  presented.  were presented were  i n each c a t e g o r y , and  a framework  In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was  r e s e a r c h has a p p l i c a t i o n s  development, and consumer behaviour r e s e a r c h .  sources  i n marketing s t r a t e g y  Several research s t u d i e s  the main a s p e c t s o f t h e i r  findings  reviewed.  The  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r proceeds  r e l a t e s to  marketing.  to e v a l u a t e p s y c h o g r a p h i c s as i t  80  CHAPTER IV  EVALUATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS  The two p r e v i o u s chapters examined t h e o r e t i c a l  formulations of  psychographic r e s e a r c h and a p p l i c a t i o n o f psychographic concepts to marketing  decisions.  T h i s c h a p t e r s e t s out to e v a l u a t e and  examine psychographic r e s e a r c h and ment.  i t s contribution  critically  to marketing manage-  The e v a l u a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m of p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s complex.  l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s l i t e r a l l y dozens of a r t i c l e s c r i t i z i n g r e s e a r c h per se, as w e l l  The  psychographic  as the a p p l i c a t i o n o f psychographics to the  marketing d i s c i p l i n e and consumer behaviour r e s e a r c h . In  o r d e r to f o l l o w the c r i t i c i s m s and e v a l u a t i o n o f psychographics  i n a s y s t e m a t i c and o b j e c t i v e manner, t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the s u b j e c t matter under the f o l l o w i n g  headings:  1. Relevancy o f Psychographics t o Consumer Behaviour Marketing  and  2. R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y and Measurements Problems 3.  Pros and Cons o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s : Some comments from  1. Relevancy o f Psychographics to Consumer Behaviour and One  Marketing  o f the more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h comes  from those who of  h o l d t h a t p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s not r e l e v a n t t o the  marketing q u e s t i o n s .  Consequently,  life  problems.  psychographic r e s e a r c h i s r e l e v a n t t o marketing  e x t e n t t h a t i t can help t o s o l v e marketing problems. and  solution  Indeed, i t would not make sense t o deal w i t h  p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i f i t d i d not help t o r e s o l v e the marketers'  ality  professionals  s t y l e concepts make i t d i f f i c u l t  o n l y to the  O b v i o u s l y , person-  to draw the d i s t i n c t i o n  81  as t o which o f t h e i r aspects  a r e r e l e v a n t t o marketing problems and  which a r e n o t . Young [29] says: The o n l y way t o i n s u r e t h a t measurements o f p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e s t y l e a r e r e l e v a n t t o the marketing problem i s to a n a l y z e them w i t h i n the context o f a p a r t i c u l a r product category.  T h i s , however, i s not a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n . t h a t consumers' l i f e  Here, Young assumes  s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y vary from one product  category  to the next o r t h a t s e v e r a l product c a t e g o r i e s appeal t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y or l i f e  style.  Apparently  t h i s has to be t r u e r e g a r d l e s s o f  the psychographic approach t o the market.  The d i f f i c u l t y  i s in identifying  a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y or l i f e  style  (with s u b s t a n t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  power) and c o r r e l a t i n g them with  the a n t i c i p a t e d consumer behaviour  with  r e s p e c t t o the product. Young [29] acknowledges t h a t : As f a r as the marketer i s concerned, he need o n l y be concerned with those aspects o f p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e s t y l e which a r e r e l e v a n t t o the way consumers t h i n k r e l a t i v e t o his product category. Any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f consumers which attempts t o g e n e r a l i z e about t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n given t o the r o l e which the product p l a c e s the consumer i n , or the importance i t p l a y s i n h i s l i f e , i s l i k e l y t o be i r r e l e v a n t i n many product s i t u a t i o n s , and even m i s l e a d i n g .  Furthermore, i n o r d e r  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e  to have a meaning i n segmenting t h e market, aggregate v a l u e s a l i t y and l i f e  s t y l e need t o be p r o p e r l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d .  style  o f person-  I t seems s a f e  to say t h a t a t t h i s time we do n o t know enough about p e r s o n a l i t y and life  s t y l e t o use them i n t h a t way.  ality"  o r "an average l i f e  The meanings o f "an average person-  s t y l e " a r e obscured, t o say the l e a s t .  This  82  is not  because  behaviour i s " c o u n t a b l e , not segmented, and  discrete" Yoell  (Yoell  i t i s continuous,  [28]).  f u r t h e r argues t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s cannot segment markets  meaningful way  using p e r s o n a l i t y and  life  in a  s t y l e c o n c e p t s ; thus t h e r e i s  very l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e o f these to marketing.  He says:  L i f e s t y l e i s a c o i n e d e x p r e s s i o n t h a t sounds n i c e , but which has no o b j e c t i v e b a s i s . I t i s an a p r i o r i assumption ... I t i s no d i f f e r e n t than the attempt to put consumers i n t o P e r s o n a l i t y c a t e g o r i e s such as c y c l o t h e g e n i c , p y k n i c , choleric. You cannot take broad, macroscopic c o n c e p t s , and p r e d i c t cake mix, dog f o o d , d e s s e r t or deodorant, s k i n c a r e or p i c k l e e a t i n g behaviour, o r extend them t o these m i c r o s copic areas.  The  r e s e a r c h e r can choose  to segment the market on any  which comes to h i s mind, and consumers w i l l dimension.  not  n e c e s s a r i l y e s t a b l i s h a causal  behaviour.  be d i f f e r e n t on any  But t h e r e i s o f t e n no r e l e v a n c y between such  and the p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t o f i n t e r e s t .  dimension such  segmentation  T h a t i s , the segmentation  does  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p o s s i b l e consumer  Behaviour i s a f u n c t i o n o f consequence  m e t r i c measurements, graphs o f the psyche, l i f e  [ 2 8 ] , not o f psycho-  s t y l e , or v a l u e  systems.  What happens a f t e r a response i s e m i t t e d determines whether or not i t is  repeated [ 2 8 ] . The problem o f psychographic r e l e v a n c y to p a r t i c u l a r  o f t e n stems from the way  the p e r s o n a l i t y and  r e l e v a n t are being developed.  Pernica  life  brand or p r o d u c t  s t y l e items deemed to be  [ 1 5 ] , f o r example, c i t e s q u e s t i o n s  used i n c o n n e c t i o n with stomach remedies  (see T a b l e 12).  I t can  be  observed t h a t most o f the items were f o r m u l a t e d as general p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s , without r e f e r e n c e to stomach problems.  Furthermore,  i t can be observed  t h a t the items i n T a b l e 12 almost e n t i r e l y omit the p h y s i o l o g i c a l psychological  needs u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with stomach remedy.  and  I t comes  TABLE 12 STOMACH REMEDIES QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS f l 5 1  My d a i l y l i f e i s f u l l of things that keep me i n t e r e s t e d I am a very energetic  person  For a vacation I p r e f e r going to a q u i e t cottage o f f the beaten track I p r e f e r c l o t h e s that a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n I have never f e l t b e t t e r i n my l i f e than I do  now  I worry a great deal about my health I don't know what I would do without my  medicines  Even small aches and pains bother me g r e a t l y If you overeat, you deserve to s u f f e r afterward I b e l i e v e a good many p o l i t i c i a n s are j u s t a l i t t l e  crooked  My hands and f e e t o f t e n f e e l c o l d I think i t i s true that "every cloud has a s i l v e r l i n i n g " I d i s l i k e medicines  that take time to prepare  L i q u i d remedies are more e f f e c t i v e than  pills  A f i z z y medicine has a r e f r e s h i n g t a s t e An e f f e r v e s c e n t medicine i s a quick way to r e l i e v e stomach upsets  84  as no s u r p r i s e to see t h a t t h i s approach meaningful  to segmentation  failed  to y i e l d  segments, i n terms o f brand usage, and s i z e o f the segment.  (An even usage p a t t e r n over s e v e r a l  brands was determined  - i n the seg-  ment o f h e a l t h y non-medicators, o v e r - i n d u l g e n t s e l f - t r e a t e r s ,  early  m e d i c a t o r s , and p r e s s u r e - s e n s i t i v e segments) [ 1 5 ] . C e r t a i n l y the major d i f f i c u l t y s t y l e r e l e v a n c y to marketing variables.  i n a s c e r t a i n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e  i s i n the q u e s t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y o f these  P e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e  s t y l e as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f behaviour,  c o u l d be r e l e v a n t t o marketing o n l y under a g i v e n s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , means t h a t even personality related  i f we succeed t o determine a p a r t i c u l a r  behaviour, t h a t behaviour w i l l  with any change i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  most l i k e l y change  As a r e s u l t , the p a r t i c u l a r  personality  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has v e r y l i t t l e p r e d i c t i o n c h a r a c t e r f o r the marketer. In or  life  sonal  p r a c t i c e , i t means t h a t the marketer  s t y l e d e f i n e d segments as t a r g e t groups f o r h i s p r o d u c t .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as compulsions, h o s t i l i t i e s ,  i n d u l g e n c e and so on, a r e not s t a b l e [ 2 8 ] . in  cannot r e l y on p e r s o n a l i t y  slyness,  People make d i f f e r e n t  Perselfresponses  d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f s i t u a t i o n s , and perhaps a d e s c r i p t i o n o f such  c a t e g o r i e s would be a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r o f consumer behaviour than h i s personality. With r e s p e c t to l i f e all ting  style,  i t may w e l l  be c u l t u r a l , but not a t  motive - o r concept g e n e r a t i n g - and c e r t a i n l y not deodorant [28].  affec-  Should the behaviour be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e  s t y l e under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t would have to c o r r e l a t e w i t h l a b e l s as i n d u l g e n t , a g g r e s s i v e , s e l f - a s s e r t i v e , conforming, l e i s u r e l y , bean e a t i n g , s h a v i n g , d a n c i n g , o r o r a l  hygiene  [28].  Yoell  baked  asks [ 2 8 ] :  such  85  Is there a psychograph permeating t o i l e t t i s s u e use, f a c e masking, t o a s t e a t i n g with o r w i t h o u t j e l l y , t y i n g t i e s , smoking, making l o v e to one's w i f e , d r i n k i n g t e a a t lunch, s c r a t c h i n g an i t c h - a v i t a l p s y c h i c i n v i s i b l e f o r c e permeating a l l t h i s ? How can t h i s be e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e l y ?  The  behaviour f o r any given  o n l y on the time horizon  stimulus  s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t , not  o f an i n d i v i d u a l , but a l s o v a r y i n g  from i n d i v i d u a l  to i n d i v i d u a l . To and  conclude t h i s s e c t i o n , i t was shown t h a t t h e use o f p e r s o n a l i t y  life  s t y l e variables requires  context.  caution  when used i n the marketing  Both o f these v a r i a b l e s a r e u n s t a b l e and as such they have  p r e d i c t i v e power i n consumer behaviour. s t y l e variables could  little  Consequently, use o f p e r s o n a l i t y  and  life  prove i r r e l e v a n t t o market segmentation,  and  u l t i m a t e l y to the s o l u t i o n o f marketing problems. F i n a l l y , t h i s s e c t i o n examined q u a l i t a t i v e problems o f psycho-  graphic  research.  The next s e c t i o n turns  problems o f psychographic  to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d  research.  2. R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y and Measurement Problems Psychographic r e s e a r c h it  i s f u l l y vulnerable  tests.  i s based on m o t i v a t i o n a l  Normally, these t e s t s a r e v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d , l e n g t h y ,  remain s u b j e c t  and as such  t o the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  many cases constraining assumptions, r e q u i r e yet  research  require i n  "good q u a l i t y " samples, and  to i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Computer processed  data speed up the a n a l y s i s but t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n remains. It  i s not c l e a r a t t h i s p o i n t how f a r and to what e x t e n t the marketing  executive  should r e l y on outcomes o f such  research.  86  I t seems t h a t f o r the marketer  i t may  be e a s i e r to understand  more t a n g i b l e t r a d i t i o n a l market segmentation, market s t r a t e g y .for i t , t i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s may The  as w e l l as t o develop  and p l a n f o r such a segment, whatever the r e s u l be.  psychographic r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s o f g r e a t importance  reasonably b e l i e v a b l e r e s u l t s .  be a p p l i e d  or m i s l e a d i n g " , a c c o r d i n g to  i n any g i v e n c a s e , and a c c o r d i n g  to the soundness o f a p p l i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and and  because  A c c o r d i n g to Simmons [ 2 2 ] , psycho-  g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i s "good or bad, u s e f u l  The a n a l y s i s , soundness,  'hard  t o g a i n c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h marketers  the s t u d i e s are executed.  p a r t i c u l a r methods t h a t may  in obtaining  However, i t seems t h a t most o f the  c o r e ' psychographic s t u d i e s f a i l of the way  the  interpretation.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f psychographics i s  s u b j e c t to the same p r i n c i p l e s of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y as o t h e r research. ficulties.  S o p h i s t i c a t e d computer programmes do not e l i m i n a t e these  dif-  Use of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , f o r example, f o r c e s the r e s e a r c h e r to  make broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about groups t h e i r various parts.  The  o f data and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s technique i s d e s c r i p t i v e o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s r a t h e r than d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f causes. Thus, the c o n c l u s i o n s about consumer behaviour must be made through i n f e r e n c e s r e s t i n g on o t h e r assumptions.  A c c o r d i n g to Simmons [ 2 2 ] :  Any technique t h a t narrows the range o f guesswork i n making i n f e r e n c e s about the causes o f behaviour w i l l o b v i o u s l y have a u s e f u l n e s s . P r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h these extremely r e l e vant and important q u e s t i o n s o f why people behave as they do has been a major concern s i n c e the e a r l y days o f m o t i v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . To what e x t e n t can psychographics e x p l a i n behaviour? I n s o f a r as e x p l a i n i n g m o t i v a t i o n s o r behaviour i s a major f o c u s of p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , i t i s i n e v i t a b l y s u b j e c t t o many o f the p i t f a l l s t h a t have beset the path o f o t h e r i n q u i r i e s i n t o the realm. Whether we are t a l k i n g about brand or product images, reasons f o r buying and u s i n g p r o d u c t s , market segment a t i o n or b e n e f i t segmentation, we i n e v i t a b l y encounter  87  1) s e r i o u s problems o f g e t t i n g v a l i d answers to serve as i n p u t i n t o the system, and 2) problems o f a n a l y s i s and interpretation. A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the psychographic r e s e a r c h problems i n general terms, we  t u r n now  t o some more s p e c i f i c problems,  s t a r t i n g with  instru-  ment d e s i g n .  a) Instrument Almost extremely  Design  a l l instruments used  i n psychographic r e s e a r c h to date were  l e n g t h y , with up to 300-400 q u e s t i o n s per instrument.  r e s u l t i t was  almost  i m p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i z e random samples,  q u e s t i o n panels were used  and  As a instead  (where the p a r t i c i p a n t s o b t a i n g i f t s f o r par-  ticipation). O b v i o u s l y , a t l e a s t two First,  s e r i o u s shortcomings  come t o mind  here.  the p a r t i c i p a n t s are b i a s e d towards f i l l i n g and m a i l i n g the ques-  t i o n n a i r e , because they know t h a t t h e r e i s a reward  f o r them.  Second,  the l e n g t h o f the instrument does not l e a v e any doubt t h a t a l l q u e s t i o n s cannot r e c e i v e the same a t t e n t i o n , or minimum a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d . it  (Is  p o s s i b l e t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s would answer such a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  randomly?) Another  problem  q u e s t i o n format  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the instrument d e s i g n i s i n the  itself.  The  instruments u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s e n t e n c e - l i k e  q u e s t i o n s to which the respondents (5-7 p o i n t L i k e r t type s c a l e ) . to s c o r e , and understand. adopted  s t r o n g l y agree o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e  On one  hand, t h i s type o f s c a l e i s easy  But, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h i s  without r e s e r v a t i o n s to a l l q u e s t i o n s .  s c a l e cannot  be  For example, "our f a m i l y  has moved a t l e a s t t h r e e times i n the p a s t ten y e a r s " w i l l  inevitably  88  yield  r e s u l t s a t the extreme ends o f t h e s c a l e , due t o i t s dichotomous  character.  Use o f q u a l i f i e r s i n t h e q u e s t i o n d e s i g n c r e a t e s p o t e n t i a l  misunderstanding and m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Q u e s t i o n : I t h o r o u g h l y enjoy con-  v e r s a t i o n about s p o r t s , I would r a t h e r go to a s p o r t i n g event than a dance,  I o f t e n seek o u t the a d v i c e o f my f r i e n d s ;  Information from  friend  i s b e t t e r , and A s t o r e ' s own brand u s u a l l y g i v e s you good v a l u e f o r the money, a r e o n l y a few examples o f ambiguous q u e s t i o n s .  Thoroughly,  rather,  o f t e n , b e t t e r , u s u a l l y , and good, r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t meaning t o d i f f e r e n t persons.  Any r e s u l t s a r e i n v a r i a b l y b i a s e d .  F u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the q u e s t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n i s i n assumptions about the p a r t i c i p a n t .  Some q u e s t i o n s assume t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t has  c h i l d r e n , a house, o r a c a r .  Others assume t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t  church goer, s p o r t watcher, o r p a r t i c i p a n t . ellicit  at least  s p e c i f i c meaning.  i n c o r r e c t responses.  Such assumptions  invariably  Other q u e s t i o n s do not have  For example, the sentence "I l i k e  to spend  evenings a t  home" c o u l d generate d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s i n each respondent. l i k e to spend evenings a t home on c o l d n i g h t s ? When f r i e n d s a r e over? One  is a  Twice a week?  Does one Always?  When kids a r e a s l e e p ?  o f the most ambiguous sentence formats i s the type "I would  l i k e to spend a summer i n London o r P a r i s " . be sure t o which  Here the p a r t i c i p a n t  cannot  p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n he i s r e s p o n d i n g and as such the  question i s inadmissible.  C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e people who would l i k e to  spend a summer i n P a r i s but not i n London, and people who would l i k e t o spend a summer i n London but not i n P a r i s .  There i s no apparent  s h i p between t h e s e two c i t i e s j u s t i f y i n g grouping them t o g e t h e r . c o n t r a r y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e s and languages  relationOn the  i n these two c i t i e s  89  c o u l d generate are asked  d i f f e r e n t responses  separately.  i n p a r t i c i p a n t s when the q u e s t i o n s  Furthermore,  when a n a l y s i n g t h e responses t o  t h i s q u e s t i o n , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e those p r e f e r r i n g P a r i s t o London (and i t c o u l d w e l l be t h a t people p r e f e r r i n g of  French wines (males) and heavy users o f Chanel  P a r i s a r e heavy users  No. 5 ( f e m a l e ) ) .  For  these reasons, the p a r t i c i p a n t s should be g i v e n the chance t o respond to  each q u e s t i o n s e p a r a t e l y . F i n a l l y , as was noted  i n the case o f the stomach remedy i n the  p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , the c o n t e n t o f some q u e s t i o n n a i r e sentences necessarily related  to the product  in question.  i s not  Such an approach t o  instrument d e s i g n l e a v e s the r e s e a r c h e r i n e v i t a b l y with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the area o f data a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  b)  Reliability  R e l i a b i l i t y has t o do w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n whether a p a r t i c u l a r ment measures about t h e same over a p e r i o d o f time. the r e l i a b i l i t y items. months.  o f some 150 d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ,  Tigert  [24] examined  i n t e r e s t s and o p i n i o n s  The study was c a r r i e d o u t on housewives over a p e r i o d o f seven The frequency  i n T a b l e 13. reliability  distribution of r e l i a b i l i t y  I t can be observed  coefficients  T i g e r t found  c o e f f i c i e n t i s b e t t e r than  .7.  The g r e a t e s t number o f s c a l e , about 55%.  t h a t there were b a s i c a l l y two types o f AIO items.  with s t a b l e f a c t o r s and those with u n s t a b l e f a c t o r s i n o n l y the f i r s t  i s given  t h a t o n l y about 20% o f t h e AIO q u e s t i o n s '  q u e s t i o n s scored between .5 - .69 on the r e l i a b i l i t y  appeared  instru-  and second  Those  (the unstable  data s e t f a c t o r  analysis).  S e l e c t e d examples o f s t a b l e and u n s t a b l e f a c t o r s a r e r e p r i n t e d i n  factors  TABLE 13 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR 150 ACTIVITY, INTEREST AND OPINION QUESTIONS (AIO's) f 2 4 l  Range o f R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficient  Number o f Questions i n t h i s Range  .80 o r higher  10  .70-.79  23  15.3  .60-.69  47  31.3  .50-.59  35  23.3  .40-.49  25  16.6  .30-.39  9  6.0  1  .6  l e s s than  .30  a  150  a  % of Total  R e a d : 10 o f the 150 a t t i t u d e  q u e s t i o n s had a t e s t - r e t e s t  c o e f f i c i e n t o f .80 o r g r e a t e r .  6.6  100  reliability  91  T a b l e 14 and T a b l e 15. in t h i s  T i g e r t e x p l a i n s the s t a b l e - u n s t a b l e phenomena  way:  C o n s i d e r f i r s t the s t a b l e f a c t o r s : " f a s i o n c o n s c i o u s " , " p r i c e c o n s c i o u s " , and " d i e t c o n s c i o u s " . These t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might p l a u s i b l y be d e s c r i b e d as l a s t i n g r a t h e r than temporary. People with weight problems have them over long p e r i o d s o f time.  However, i n s t a b i l i t y o f the "new  brand  t r i e r - i n n o v a t o r " and  l o y a l t y " suggest t h a t the consumer p e r c e p t i o n s o f new ported purchases  change over time.  development are i n e v i t a b l e - new  "brand  products and r e -  I m p l i c a t i o n f o r marketing s t r a t e g y  brands  cannot  be aimed a t  specific  segments. To c o n c l u d e , T i g e r t found t h a t some psychographic more r e l i a b l e than o t h e r s . require careful adding  To improve the r e l i a b i l i t y  s c a l e items were o f the s c a l e words  r e p h r a s i n g o f some o f the q u e s t i o n s , and d r o p p i n g o r  some o f the  Furthermore,  items. Wells [26] s t r e s s e s t h a t u n r e l i a b i l i t y a l s o reduces  the  c o n f i d e n c e one can p l a c e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e v e a l e d by c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s or  r e g r e s s i o n s , and  the c o n f i d e n c e one can p l a c e i n c l u s t e r s , both as to  c o n t e n t and as to s i z e .  When important d e c i s i o n s are t o be made on  basis of psychographics, i t i s e s s e n t i a l  that cross-tabulations, regres-  s i o n s , or c l u s t e r s be c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t holdout samples. too easy to o v e r a n a l y z e f i n d i n g s t h a t may  c.  the  be p a r t i a l l y due t o  It is a l l chance.  Validity  Relatively l i t t l e  r e s e a r c h i n t o the q u e s t i o n o f  instruments v a l i d i t y was meaning behind v a l i d i t y  found  psychographic  i n the l i t e r a t u r e s t u d i e d .  The  basic  i s t h a t the measurement i s v a l i d t o the e x t e n t  92 TABLE SELECTED EXAMPLES OF  14  STABLE AIO  Loadings T-lb"  Factors Fashion  FACTORS  [24]  9  T-2  C  Reliability  Conscious  I u s u a l l y have one o r more o u t f i t s t h a t are o f the very l a t e s t s t y l e An important p a r t o f my l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s is dressing smartly I o f t e n t r y the l a t e s t hairdo s t y l e s when they change I u s u a l l y wear n a i l p o l i s h f o r both work and p l e a s u r e and have s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t shades t o go with my  clothes  75  80  71  72  78  68  66  67  70  51  54  75  78  76  76  73  73  66  64  73  60  63  58  51  70  66  66  67  64  72  67  77  83  51  50  74  P r i c e or " S p e c i a l " Shopper I shop a l o t f o r " s p e c i a l s " I u s u a l l y watch the advertisements f o r announcements o f s a l e s I f i n d myself checking the brands and p r i c e s i n the g r o c e r y s t o r e even f o r such items as t o o t h p a s t e , m i l k and bread I t h i n k newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g i s a r e a l b e n e f i t to the housewife D i e t e r , Weight Watcher I am c a r e f u l about what I eat i n order to keep my weight under c o n t r o l I buy more low c a l o r i e foods than the average housewife In o r d e r t o c o n t r o l my weight, I have undertaken a s t r i c t d i e t one o r more times For a p e r i o d o f a week o r more, I have used M e t r e c a l or o t h e r d i e t s u p p l e ments a t l e a s t f o r one meal a day  a  Decimals  omitted  b  0ctober,  1965  C  April,  1966  93  TABLE 15 SELECTED EXAMPLES OF UNSTABLE AIO FACTORS  . Factors  Loading  9  f24l  Reliability Coefficient  New Brand T r i e r - Innovator Sometimes, when I see a new product on the s h e l f , I w i l l buy i t j u s t on impulse, to t r y i t o u t , without w o r r y i n g t o o much how much i t c o s t s I l i k e t o t r y new brands o f products I use the f i r s t time I see them i n t h e s t o r e I u s u a l l y l i k e t o wait and see how o t h e r people l i k e new brands b e f o r e I t r y them  Brand  72  44  62  43  -64  37  75 55  32 32  50  45  77  46  71  47  Loyalty  I'm t h e kind o f person who makes up her mind on t h e brand t o buy and then s t i c k s to t h a t brand f o r a l o n g time w i t h o u t t r y i n g any o t h e r s I keep away from u n f a m i l i a r brands I f e e l t h a t most o f t h e buying I do i s based on h a b i t  S a t i s f a c t i o n with L i f e We have as good a chance t o enjoy l i f e as we should Our f a m i l y income i s high enough t o s a t i s f y n e a r l y a l l our important desires  Appeared  i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o n l y a t T - l o r T-2  ^Decimals  omitted  a  5  94  t h a t i t r e a l l y measures what i t was we can never ational  and  intended  to measure.  In  reality,  be e n t i r e l y sure t h a t t h i s i s so, i n t h e c o n t e x t o f behavioural r e s e a r c h .  A c c o r d i n g t o Wells  [26],  psychographic  measurements, l i k e o t h e r measurements, can be r e l i a b l e w i t h o u t valid.  completely) In  b i a s t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s based  on them a r e p a r t l y  the same study, Wells makes a d i s t i n c t i o n  p u b l i s h e d , and v a l i d i t y o f case o f the l a t t e r , we  Pessemier  between standard  (and " r e l i a b i l i t y ) data a r e  'home made  1  psychographic  and  per-  normally  variables.  In the  can v i r t u a l l y make no c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e i r  Bruno [16] suggest  could be t e s t e d through  t h a t the v a l i d i t y o f an  Furthermore,  c r o s s v a l i d a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r a l  val-  [26]. instrument  the a d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s ,  i n the area of c o n t e n t , c o n s t r u c t , c o n c u r r e n t and  validity.  irrel-  (or even  i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t some authors t h i n k o t h e r w i s e  ticularly  of  false.  s o n a l i t y s c a l e s , f o r which v a l i d i t y  idity,  being  They can be r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f random e r r o r but so f u l l  evancies and  motiv-  par-  predictive properties of  the v a r i a b l e s i s p o s s i b l e . The  evidence  i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r shows t h a t  psychographic  v a r i a b l e s g e n e r a l l y r e l a t e to each o t h e r , to demographics, and of  p r o d u c t , and media.  who  h i s p o i n t o f view.  s t u d i e s need ways t o determine  be  certain.  In t h i s c o n t e x t , the  make important d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s o f  r e s e n t groups o f r e a l  use  The degree o f c o n f i d e n c e which the marketer puts  on those f i n d i n g s depends on marketers  to the  segmentation  when the products o f c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  consumers [ 2 6 ] ,  About t h i s the marketer may  rep-  never  95  3. Pros and Cons o f P s y c h o g r a p h i c s : Some comments from The  professionals  l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r summarizes t h e pros and cons o f  psychographic r e s e a r c h . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e , one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t comments t h a t can be made about psychographics  i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o o t h e r  r e s e a r c h t o o l s , and perhaps research. of  t h a t i t p r o v i d e s new d i r e c t i o n  To date, psychographic  tn consumer  r e s e a r c h can be c r e d i t e d w i t h a number  accomplishments i n the marketing  on t h i s  marketing  sphere.  To quote Demby [ 3 , p. 198]  matter:  1. I t has shown t h a t t h e r e a r e two kinds o f new products t h o s e which do n o t change a person's l i f e s t y l e ; and two, those which do change a person's l i f e s t y l e . The f i r s t has an e a s i e r chance to reach t h e mass market, t h e second has an e a s i e r chance to reach t h a t segment o f t h e market p l a c e which i s always a v i d l y l o o k i n g f o r new products; 2.  I t has uncovered communications b r i d g e s t h a t have made some products e a s i e r to s e l l . These communications b r i d g e s have been, i n v a r i a b l y , concepts which have shown consumers how to f i t t h e product and the brand i n t o t h e i r l i f e s t y l e more e a s i l y . The d i f f i c u l t y o f not knowing how to f i t a product i n t o one's l i f e s t y l e , or s e r v i n g s t y l e - i s p r o b a b l y the most p r e v a l e n t barr i e r t h a t a new product c o n f r o n t s i n r e a c h i n g a mass market.  3.  I t has p r e d i c t e d t h e coming o f new products i n q u i t e a few product c a t e g o r i e s . The technique f o r segmenting the marketplace with psychographics - i n - d e p t h has suggested v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f product a d o p t i o n by consumers.  4. I t has shown t h a t t h e r e a r e brand s e l e c t i o n s t y l e s people l i k e l y t o buy a premium brand i n one product c a t e g o r y a r e l i k e l y t o buy a premium brand i n another product c a t e g o r y . 5. I t has demonstrated t h a t some consumers r e q u i r e fewer i n p u t s o f a d v e r t i s i n g to be s o l d a g i v e n product than a r e r e q u i r e d by o t h e r consumers.  96  6. I t has enabled a d v e r t i s e r s to make media s e l e c t i o n s by measuring media not j u s t f o r heavy u s e r s , but a l s o f o r a t t i t u d e s and behaviour t h a t can be used t o p r e d i c t the chances - the p r o p e n s i t y - o f o t h e r p a r t s o f the audience to buy a s p e c i f i c product o r brand.  On the n e g a t i v e s i d e o f psychographic there a r e many m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about  r e s e a r c h , i t can be s a i d  the s u b j e c t matter  g r a p h i c s c o u l d be p o t e n t i a l l y a powerful  tool  itself.  that  Psycho-  i n marketing r e s e a r c h ,  but to t h i s date t h e r e i s no u n e q u i v o c a l l y c o n v i n c i n g evidence to t h i s effect.  Psychographic  who i s as w e l l  r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s an extremely competent a n a l y s t  versed i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and i n s t a t i s t i c a l  as he i s i n i m a g i n a t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t t e r s .  techniques  Otherwise,  the com-  p l e x i t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e d e s i g n , e x e c u t i o n , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  psychographic r e s e a r c h r u n an uncomfortable  despite conscientious efforts  r i s k o f being m i s l e a d i n g  i n t h e i r execution [22].  In c o n c l u s i o n , to use King's quote [ 1 1 ] : 1. There i s no s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c o n c e i v e d , g e n e r a l l y accepted d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e concept o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s . 2. M u l t i p l e p r o f e s s i o n a l marketing r e s e a r c h e r s and academics have c r e a t e d t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n s and r e s e a r c h i n s t r u ments and methodologies i n the arena o f psychographics (and t h e r e f o r e no f o u n d a t i o n s f o r s c i e n t i f i c approach to psychographics a r e being d e v e l o p e d ) . 3. ... P r o p r i e t a r y approaches u l t i m a t e l y produce founding, inconclusive data.  A more s y s t e m a t i c approach  t o psychographic  i n o r d e r to s t r e n g t h e n the t h e o r e t i c a l danger t h a t psychographics w i l l i n u l t i m a t e waste o f r e s o u r c e s .  base.  o n l y con-  research i s required  Otherwise,  there i s a  become another r e s e a r c h f a d , r e s u l t i n g  97  4.  Summary The  first  s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l t with the q u e s t i o n o f e v a l -  u a t i n g psychographics as i t r e l a t e s to marketing  problems.  I t was  t h a t t h e r e are problems i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f psychographics The  important p o i n t made was  t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y and  may  have no r e l e v a n c e to marketing  p a r t i c u l a r brand o f product can be The  second  life  style  marketing.  variables  problems u n l e s s a r e l a t i o n s h i p to a established.  section of t h i s chapter d e a l t with technical  a s s o c i a t e d with psychographic  to  difficulties  r e s e a r c h i n the area o f instrument d e s i g n ,  r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , and measurement problems.  One  o f the s h o r t -  comings o f the instrument d e s i g n i s i n e v i t a b l y i n i t s l e n g t h and d e s i g n of p a r t i c u l a r  i n the  items.  Such a s i t u a t i o n and  shown  b r i n g s about  problems i n the area o f data  analysis  interpretation of r e s u l t s . F i n a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e d the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f  psychographic r e s e a r c h .  I t was  more r e l i a b l e than o t h e r s . r e s e a r c h , i t was  said  shown t h a t some o f the s c a l e items a r e  With r e s p e c t to v a l i d i t y o f  psychographic  t h a t the degree o f c o n f i d e n c e i n psychographic  r e s e a r c h has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y a s c e r t a i n e d , and t h e r e f o r e the may  never be sure t h a t the psychographic  what i t was  g r a p h i c s , marketing  The about to  r e s e a r c h instrument i s measuring  intended to measure.  To t h i s p o i n t we  technical  marketer  have looked a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  base o f  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s and  psycho-  some o f the  aspects. final  c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s s e t s to summarize c o n c l u s i o n s  psychographics.  marketing  will  The  f u t u r e o f psychographic  be a s s e s s e d .  r e s e a r c h as i t r e l a t e s  98  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS  The main purpose of  psychographic  s u b j e c t matter.  o f t h i s t h e s i s was t o a n a l y z e some major a s p e c t s  r e s e a r c h and p r e s e n t a comprehensive overview o f the For these reasons, t h e t h e s i s has d e a l t with the sub-  j e c t matter from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s .  First,  theoretical  f o u n d a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s were e x p l o r e d . marketing  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f psychographics were examined.  g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h was c r i t i c a l l y  evaluated.  Second,  Third,  psycho-  Some general c o n c l u s i o n s o f  each p e r s p e c t i v e f o l l o w .  1 . With r e s p e c t to the t h e o r e t i c a l  f o u n d a t i o n s o f psychographic  r e s e a r c h , i t was concluded t h a t p s y c h o g r a p h i c s in  an a v a i l a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l  the u n d e r l y i n g psychographic  framework. concepts  i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y vested  In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was found (personality, l i f e  a t t r i b u t e s ) c o u l d o n l y p a r t l y be e x p l a i n e d through  style,  that  product  t h e t h e o r y o f personal  behaviour. It appears  t h a t the l a c k o f a s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l  l e a s t p a r t l y , to problems o f d e f i n i n g psychographic It  seems t h a t t h e area o f d e f i n i n g p s y c h o g r a p h i c s  base l e a d s , a t r e s e a r c h per s e .  i s c o n f u s e d , and a t t h i s  p o i n t t h e r e i s no general agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s and marketers as to  what p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s o r should be. In  g e n e r a l , i t seems t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y , l i f e  s t y l e , and product  a t t r i b u t e s a r e concepts u n d e r l y i n g p s y c h o g r a p h i c s .  In a d d i t i o n ,  g r a p h i c s r e s e a r c h i s p e r c e i v e d as a m u l t i - v a r i e t y q u a n t i t a t i v e research  tool.  psycho-  marketing  99  2. With r e s p e c t t o the marketing  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f psychographic  r e s e a r c h , i t was found t h a t psychographic two  major a r e a s : One, marketing  market segmentation,  r e s e a r c h i s being a p p l i e d i n  s t r a t e g y development; i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  advertising  s t r a t e g y development, product  ment, channels o f d i s t r i b u t i o n s e l e c t i o n , and media s e l e c t i o n the areas where psychographic empirical  evidence  Two, consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s ; i n  p a r t i c u l a r , consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s , and consumer p r o f i l e  In  general  i t seems t h a t psychographic problems.  base, the marketer  using psychographic  r e s e a r c h can be s u c c e s s f u l l y  However, because o f the i n s u f f i c i e n t  i s well  a d v i s e d t o e x e r c i s e c a u t i o n when  research findings.  The main reason l i e s  t h a t psychographics may not e x p l a i n s u f f i c i e n t l y t h e causal between a c t u a l  identifi-  e v i d e n c e was examined.  a p p l i e d to some marketing theoretical  seem to be  r e s e a r c h has been a p p l i e d , and where some  i s available.  c a t i o n , again, empirical  develop-  consumer behaviour, and p e r s o n a l i t y o r l i f e  i n the f a c t relationship  s t y l e or  product a t t r i b u t e s .  3. With r e s p e c t to the e v a l u a t i o n o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , i t was found t h a t one o f the most important p r o p e r t i e s o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s a t i o n s h i p to marketing, and consumer behaviour. found  is its rel-  However, i t was a l s o  t h a t some o f the r e s e a r c h designs were not prepared with t h i s  i n mind.  No meaningful  r e s u l t s can be expected  unless i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the marketing  problem  from psychographic  need research  i s s t r i c t l y incorporated  i n the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . In  the same c o n t e x t , r e l i a b i l i t y ,  were a n a l y z e d . attention.  Some shortcomings  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  v a l i d i t y and measurement problems  i n each area were brought  i t was found  to t h e r e a d e r ' s  t h a t . t h e instrument d e s i g n s do not  100  adhere  to marketing  individual  r e s e a r c h r u l e s , b r i n g i n g about d i f f i c u l t i e s  items response and  i n the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these r e s p o n s e s .  I t was  a l s o found t h a t some o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were more r e l i a b l e  than  o t h e r s , and t h a t some improvements i n the area o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f  psycho-  g r a p h i c instruments a r e needed.  little  Finally,  i s a v a i l a b l e i n terms o f e m p i r i c a l of psychographic i n s t r u m e n t s .  i t was  found t h a t v e r y  evidence w i t h r e s p e c t to the  Here the marketer  may  validity  be l e f t with  j e c t i v e judgement as to whether or not the instrument i s measuring i t was  subwhat  intended to measure.  To summarize the pros and cons o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , i t seems t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t the g r e a t e s t v a l u e o f p s y c h o g r a p h i c s i s i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a l t e r n a t i v e s to o t h e r marketing t r u e i n the area o f marketing  research tools.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t r a t e g y development and consumer b e h a v i o u r .  Here the psychographic r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s have p r o v i d e d some i n t e r e s t i n g findings,  both f o r the r e s e a r c h e r and f o r the p r a c t i s i n g  marketer.  G e n e r a l l y , i n the long r u n , psychographic r e s e a r c h can be expected  to  generate b e t t e r understanding o f t h e market and consumer behaviour i n the market.  I t must be s t r e s s e d a g a i n t h a t the marketing r e l e v a n c e o f  g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i s o f utmost On  importance.  the n e g a t i v e s i d e , psychographic r e s e a r c h l a c k s  theoretical  f o u n d a t i o n s , and  p r e c i s e terms.  the s u b j e c t matter  has not been d e f i n e d i n  [11].  1. Psychographics as a concept must be well marketing A  sufficient  U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , a d d i t i o n a l work i s needed i n these a r e a s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a c c o r d i n g t o King  2.  psycho-  d e f i n e d by the  community.  ' g e n e r a l i z e d ' r e s e a r c h methodology must be d e f i n e d i n terms  of c o n t e n t - b a s i c l i f e and  s t y l e , measurement  instruments - and i n terms o f f i e l d  dimensions  e x e c u t i o n to make  a p p l i c a t i o n a c r o s s product c a t e g o r i e s p o s s i b l e . 3. Procedures f o r t a i l o r i n g p s y c h o g r a p h i c s , as a concept, to s p e c i f i c product consumption c a t e g o r i e s ... must be developed ...  F i n a l l y , we may be i n t e r e s t e d g r a p h i c s i n the marketing r e s e a r c h i s here t o s t a y . ments on two f r o n t s . throughout  I t appears  that  marketing  develop  One, the r a t e o f d i f f u s i o n o f psychographics Two, improvements  r e s e a r c h instruments and t e c h n o l o g y .  i n many i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s and e m p i r i c a l  o f marketing  psychographic  We should be l o o k i n g f o r i n t e r e s t i n g  the r e s e a r c h and marketing communities.  i n psychographic result  context.  to know what i s the f u t u r e o f psycho  s t r a t e g y and consumer behaviour.  r e s u l t s should  follow.  Both should  evidence  then  i n the areas  U l t i m a t e l y , improved  102  REFERENCES  1. Bernay, Elayn K., " L i f e S t y l e A n a l y s i s as a B a s i s f o r Media S e l e c t i o n " , i n C h a r l e s W. King and Douglas J . 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