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Psychographics : a review Vacek, Ludvik 1976

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PSYCHOGRAPHICS: A REVIEW by L.UDVIK VACEK B.Comm., University of Calgary, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n Business Administration THE FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA i n June, 1976 Ludvik Vacek, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of Commerce and Business Administration The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date June 24, 1976 ABSTRACT This paper i s the r e s u l t of an intensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and analysis of the l i t e r a t u r e on psychographics. The purpose of th i s i n -vestigation has been to provide an improved understanding of the found-ations and app l i c a t i o n s of psychographics as they r e l a t e to marketing. To t h i s end three major aspects of psychographic l i t e r a t u r e have been considered: the theoretical foundations of psychographics, marketing ap p l i c a t i o n s of psychographics, and an evaluation of psychographic research. The review of l i t e r a t u r e on the subject of psychographics has lead to a conclusion that the f i e l d i s not without problems. In s p i t e of c e r t a i n apparent shortcomings, however, psychographic research has been su c c e s s f u l l y applied in the area of marketing strategy development, and in the area of consumer behaviour. Improvements w i l l be required p a r t i c u l a r l y in the area of instrument design, and in the areas of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of ind i v i d u a l instrument items. Nevertheless, psychographic research promises to become a v i a b l e research t o o l . This paper closes with an assessment of future developments of psychographics. i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page L i s t of Tables i i i L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s iv Acknowledgements v I. INTRODUCTION 1 1. Subject Matter of the Thesis 1 2. Reasons f or Writing the Thesis 2 3. Limitations of the Thesis 3 . 4. Organization and Outline of the Thesis 3 II. PSYCHOGRAPHICS AND RELATED CONCEPTS 8 1. Theoretical Foundations of Psychographics 9 a) L i f e Style 11 b) Personality 12 c) Product Benefits and Att r i b u t e s 14 2. D e f i n i t i o n s of Psychographics 15 a) D e f i n i t i o n s 16 b) Psychographic Variables 24 3. Summary 29 II I . MARKETING APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS 31 A. Psychographics and Marketing Strategy 32 1. Market Segmentation 32 a) Personality T r a i t s or Attitudes Based Segmentation 33 b) L i f e Style Segmentation 45 c) Product Benefit Segmentation 54 2. Advertising Strategy Development 56 3. Product Development 62 4. Channels of D i s t r i b u t i o n Selection 64 5. Media Selection 65 B. Psychographics and Consumer Behaviour 68 1. Consumer Behaviour Analysis 71 2. Identifying Consumer P r o f i l e 76 3. Summary 79 i i Page IV. EVALUATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS 80 1. Relevancy of Psychographics to Consumer Behaviour and Marketing 80 2. R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y and Measurement Problems 85 a) Instrument Design 87 b) R e l i a b i l i t y 89 c) V a l i d i t y 91 3. Pros and Cons of Psychographics 95 4. Summary 97 V. CONCLUSIONS 98 REFERENCES 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Relationship Between Overall and Drug Segmentation Groups 37 2. Product Usage Among Six Housewife Segments 38 3. Product Usage Among Four Drug Related Segments 40 4. Product and Media Use by Male Psychographic Segments 44 5. L i f e Style and Demographic Dimensions 46 6. Cross-Tabulation Results of AIO Agreement with Male Bank Charge Card Users 49 7. Cross-Tabulation Results of AIO Agreement with Female Bank Charge Card Users 52 8. Toothpaste Market Segments Description 55 9. Summary of Audience C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (1970 Canadian Female Data) 69 10. Correlations of Psychographic Variables with Demographic Variables 72 11. Regression Analysis - Comparison of Explanatory Power of Demographic Versus Non-Demographic Variables 75 12. Stomach Remedies Questionnaire Items 83 13. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r 150 A c t i v i t y , Interest and Opinion Questions 90 14. Selected Examples of Stable AIO Factors 92 15. Selected Examples of Unstable AIO Factors 93 iv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Relationships Between At t i t u d e s , Interests and Opinions and L i f e Style Categories 27 2. Framework f o r Advertising Strategy Development 58 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Segments and Their C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 59 4. Comparison of Dependent and Active Automobile Drivers 60 5. Psychographic P r o f i l e Variables and Sample Questions 77 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks are due my thesis advisers, Dr. Doyle L. Weiss, and Dr. Fred H. S i l l e r . Without the hours of t h e i r time spent in discussions and constructive c r i t i c i s m , the process of writing t h i s thesis would not have been kept so well under c o n t r o l . This thesis i s dedicated to my wife, Eva, whose help and under-standing made this thesis possible. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. Subject Matter of the Thesis E f f e c t i v e , p r o f i t directed management, demands an understanding of new developments i n the marketing d i s c i p l i n e f o r t h e i r e f f e c t i v e a p p l i -cation to marketing problems. The marketing d i s c i p l i n e i s now v i r t u a l l y flooded with new research developments and a p p l i c a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the p r a c t i s i n g marketer or researcher to remain current i n his knowledge of a p a r t i c u l a r research concept. The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to compile and analyse recent material on psychographics in such a way as to allow the p r a c t i s i n g marketer, or other interested reader, a reasonably quick, sound and current overview of t h i s subject. To gain an understanding of new concepts one should always s t a r t by studying the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e and research. In t h i s way, unintentional duplication of research and ultimately a waste of research funds can be avoided. In recent years the atmosphere surrounding market research a c t i v i t i e s has provided ideal grounds f o r a vast expansion of the f i e l d of psycho-graphics. This i s mainly because the e x i s t i n g tools f o r e f f e c t i v e market segmentation have f a i l e d to do the job on many occasions. This expansion however, has l e f t us with a d i s c i p l i n e which appears to be a l o g i c a l extension of demographics, yet d i f f i c u l t to understand because of a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of overlapping concepts and theories. Furthermore, researchers in the f i e l d cannot seem to agree on the proper or potential uses of 2 psychographics, in spite of the f a c t that a whole p o r t f o l i o of research and applications are now a v a i l a b l e . Moreover, i t appears that psycho-graphic research has not been f i r m l y vested in a supporting t h e o r e t i c a l framework, and thus the pioneering and recent work in t h i s f i e l d i s fr a g -mented and without focus. In order to s i m p l i f y the process of l i t e r a t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n i n the f i e l d of psychographic research, t h i s thesis sets forward the following objectives: a. Compile a bibliography of l i t e r a t u r e and research in the f i e l d of psychographics. b. Review selected l i t e r a t u r e and research. c. Conduct an analysis of trends in the f i e l d of psychographics. d. Indicate, from the l i t e r a t u r e , what has been done in psycho-graphics to date. e. Summarize findings about strengths and weaknesses of psycho-graphic research. f. Provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the concepts underlying psychographic research, applications of psychographic research, and c r i t i c i s m s of the subject matter. g. Bring forward the writer's view of the subject matter. 2. Reasons for Writing the Thesis The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to provide a comprehensive overview of psychographic theory and research practice and, in so doing, improve the understanding of psychographic research in marketing. Because i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d one's way through the extensive l i t e r a t u r e on 3 psychographics published over the l a s t several years, t h i s thesis t r i e s to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of psychographic research concepts, supported by a bibliography. The thesis should serve as a quick reference of psychographic research applications and method-ology. It explains basic concepts underlying psychographics, i t s possible a p p l i c a t i o n s , as well as problems which should be anticipated in carrying out psychographic research. 3. Limitations of the Thesis The thesis i s not without.1 imitations. It i s p h y s i c a l l y impossible, given the time c o n s t r a i n t s , to carry out a comprehensive and exhaustive review of the l i t e r a t u r e on psychographics. For t h i s reason, only selected publications of major research works, and other contributions to psycho-graphics, are d i r e c t l y referenced in the t h e s i s . In addition, not a l l publications deemed important for t h i s thesis were a v a i l a b l e in time to be included in the a n a l y s i s . 4. Organization and Outline of the Thesis For the sake of greater c l a r i t y the thesis deals with the subject matter under four headings: 1) Psychographics and Related Concepts; 2) Applications of Psychographics; 3) Evaluation of Psychographics; and 4) Conclusions. (Chapters II - V r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . An o u t l i n e and discussion of the purpose of individual chapters follow. 4 a) Outline of Chapter II - Psychographics and Related Concepts The main purpose of th i s chapter i s to discuss the theoret ica l foundations of psychographics (Section 1), and to deal with some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with def in ing i t s subject matter (Section 2). The problem of defining psychographics i s characterized by the fact that th i s d i s c i p l i n e i s f a i r l y new in the marketing context, and that i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y vested in a given theoret ical framework. A score of researchers have made attempts to define the f i e l d with various degrees of success, none exhaustively. The lack of a concise de f i n i t i on of psycho-graphics seems to be one of the most serious shortcomings of the d i s c i p l i ne leaving researchers and marketers without a common ground for understanding of the f i e l d . As a r e su l t , the appl icat ion of psychographic research techniques to marketing problems has been impaired by a lack of under-standing of the f i e l d . On the other hand, i t seems that psychographic research could become a v iable marketing research t o o l . This i s pa r t i cu l a r l y so in s i tuat ions where t rad i t i ona l market segmentation f a i l e d to produce meaningful r e su l t s , due to the dynamic character of market segments. For example, the l i f e s ty le of d i f fe rent demographic groups in the market can be very far apart or overlapping, giving no explanation as to why consumers buy the same products. The same i s true for d iscret ionary income spending patterns. I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to predict consumer behaviour of the market segment earning, say $10-15,000, ju s t because one consumer could be a heavy machinery operator and another an engineer - each enjoying a d i f fe rent l i f e s t y l e . In essence, psychographic research goes beyond t rad i t i ona l market 5 segmentation. In a psychographic approach to the market, i t does not matter how much the p a r t i c u l a r groups of prospects earn, where they l i v e , what t h e i r ages are, and so on; but the most important matter i s what the buyers of a p a r t i c u l a r product have in common in the way they think and react, and why they purchase a p a r t i c u l a r product or brand. It w i l l be shown that the psychographic variables are drawn from at l e a s t three underlying concepts, one - personality t r a i t s concept v a r i a b l e s , two - l i f e s t y l e concept v a r i a b l e s , and three - product benefits and a t t r i b u t e s concept v a r i a b l e s . These three concepts are seemingly incompatible, but a l l three are covered, in one way or another, by the term 'psychographics'. b) Outline of Chapter III - Marketing Applications of Psychographics The main purpose of t h i s chapter i s to deal with the applications of psychographics to marketing problems. Two major areas of psychographic applications are i d e n t i f i e d : the a p p l i c a t i o n of psychographics to marketing strategy development, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of psychographics to consumer behaviour. In p a r t i c u l a r , i n the context of marketing strategy, the following applications of psychographics are discussed: market segmen-t a t i o n , advertising strategy development, product development, channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n , and media s e l e c t i o n . In the context of consumer behaviour, the a p p l i c a t i o n of psychographics to consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s , and i d e n t i f y i n g of consumer p r o f i l e are discussed. In s p i t e of the f a c t that psychographic research i s r e l a t i v e l y new, i t has generated a score of r e s u l t s from which some generalizations f o r marketing decision making can be made. As Demby [3] points out, i t 6 appears that there are two kinds of products, those which do and those which do not change a person's l i f e s t y l e . Furthermore, he says that there are brand s e l e c t i o n s t y l e s and that some consumers require fewer inputs of adv e r t i s i n g . This has enabled advertisers to make media selections by measuring media not j u s t f o r heavy users, but also f or attitudes and behaviour that can be used to predict the changes - the propensity - of other parts of the audience to buy a s p e c i f i c product or brand. The applications of psychographic concepts to marketing are by no means easy. Psychographic research requires complicated psychological t e s t s , use of computer f a c i l i t i e s , and highly trained personnel to analyse the r e s u l t s . For these, and other reasons, psychographics have not been used on a mass scale to date. c) Outline of Chapter IV - Evaluation of Psychographics The main purpose of t h i s chapter i s to encompass c r i t i c a l points of psychographic l i t e r a t u r e , and to evaluate p o s i t i v e and negative aspects of psychographic research. For these reasons, the chapter deals with the subject matter under the following sub-headings: Relevancy of Psychographics to Consumer Behaviour and Marketing; R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y , and Measurement Problems; and Pros and Cons of Psychographics. The c r i t i c i s m s of psychographic research are generally of the following character: psychographic research has to do with motivation research, and as such i t i s f u l l y vulnerable to the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of psychological t e s t s . Psychological measurements are compli-cated, lengthy, require constraining assumptions, and yet'they must be su b j e c t i v e l y interpreted in s p i t e of the use of computer assisted a n a l y s i s . 7 In addition, the c r i t i c i s m s of psychographics are concerned with questions such as - are psychographics r e a l l y accomplishing what they are said to be?, i s psychographic research s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound?, and are the methodologies and techniques employed in psychographic research r e a l l y v a l i d ? The more serious c r i t i c i s m s of psychographics come from writers who question the relevance of psychographic research to marketing decision problems. In p a r t i c u l a r , the question here i s - can psychographic research help i n motivating consumers to buy a p a r t i c u l a r product or brand? (Young [29]). F i n a l l y , t h i s chapter closes with a summary of pros and cons of psychographics. d) Outline of Chapter V - Conclusions The concluding chapter summarizes the main points discussed in the t h e s i s . In add i t i o n , an attempt i s made to estimate the future o r i e n t a t i o n of psychographic research. Let us now turn to the discussion of psychographics and related concepts. 8 CHAPTER II PSYCHOGRAPHICS AND RELATED CONCEPTS The main purpose of this chapter is to explore the theoretical foundations of psychographics and to sort out some of the d i f f i cu l t i e s in defining psychographic research. For this reason, the chapter is divided into two sections: 1. Theoretical Foundations of Psychographics 2. Definitions of Psychographics In the f i r s t section, i t w i l l be shown that psychographics can be seen only partly within a particular theoretical framework, namely that of the theory of personal constructs. It seems that the lack of a more solid theoretical base for psychographics leads to d i f f i cu l t i e s in defining the subject matter, and more seriously to a lack of proper orientation of the entire psychographic research f i e l d . The second section of this chapter deals with the question of defining the psychographic research f i e l d . To this point in time, there has been considerable confusion about what psychographics i s , or what i t should represent. Some researchers feel that psychographics is research dealing with personality, others feel l i f e style is the basic subject matter of psychographics, and yet others believe that product attributes (as per-ceived by the consumer) should be included as well. In this connection, i t w i l l be suggested that a l l three research concepts (personality, l i f e style, product attributes) can be usefully included under the term psycho-graphics. 9 The t o p i c s of t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics, and d e f i n -i t i o n of psychographics must be seen as i n t e r r e l a t e d . As a - r e s u l t i t can be expected that the d i f f i c u l t y a s s o c i a t e d with the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of the subject matter w i l l have a bearing on i t s d e f i n i t i o n . F i n a l l y , the o v e r r i d i n g purpose of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework and d e f i n i t i o n of psychographics has to be seen i n the l i g h t of the marketer's needs. Perhaps, some shortcomings i n both might not be as important i f i t could be shown that psychographic research f u l f i l l s the marketer's d e s i r e to acquire more productive information about h i s market. In short, i f i t i s to be of value psychographic research must provide b e t t e r information than the a v a i l a b l e demographic approach to the market. The next chapter shows that psychographic research might have the p o t e n t i a l of p r o v i d i n g the marketer with b e t t e r information f o r a more e f f e c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n of the market. Let us now turn to the question of t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psycho-graphics. 1. T h e o r e t i c a l Foundations of Psychographics Apart from the work by Reynolds and Darden [21], not many published attempts dea l i n g with the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics are a v a i l a b l e . In t h e i r work, Reynolds and Darden t r y to show that psycho-graphics i s a c t u a l l y vested i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of K e l l y ' s [10] personal c o n s t r u c t s . However, i t seems that i f t h i s was the case, the e n t i r e f i e l d of psychographics would be much b e t t e r understood today. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n b r i e f l y e x p l a i n s the major points of the theory of personal c o n s t r u c t s . Then, the essence of d e r i v i n g the foundations 10 of psychographics from the personal constructs i s discussed. F i n a l l y , d i f f i c u l t i e s with psychographics as i t relates to the theory of personal constructs are brought to the readers' attention. In essence Kelly's [21, p. 75] theory of personal constructs i s concerned with two major f o c i . F i r s t ... i t sets f o r t h a description of the ways a person organises and structures his world, and Second ... the theory concerned with the process by which an individual changes h i s conceptual structures of that world. In order to explain the theory of human behaviour, Kelly sets f o r t h a number of 'constructs' [21, p. 75]*. These constructs are then formu-lated into d i f f e r e n t c o r o l l a r i e s , based on the notion of construction alt e r n a t i v i s m . This means that: ... an individual does not respond to the 'r e a l ' s i t u a t i o n (whatever ' r e a l ' might mean) but to a s i t u a t i o n as he sees i t . In turn his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be a function of his current construing system. Thus the prediction of human behaviour i s primarily dependent on the degree to which construct.systems can be t h e o r e t i c a l l y and experimentally subsumed. [21]. Next, K e l l y believes that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s cognitive process forms d i f f e r e n t c o r o l l a r i e s f o r various l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , an individual behaves i n about the same way under s i m i l a r conditions, perceives stimuli in the same way, and in general reacts to si t u a t i o n s with the same *People represent t h e i r worlds by creating constructs or patterns by which to construe the events happening in nature. Each person develops his own re p e r t o i r of constructs and uses them to i n t e r p r e t , conceptualize, and predict events. D i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s construe the universe in d i f f e r e n t ways; hence the constructions of some i n d i v i d u a l s f i t r e a l i t y better than the constructions of others. 11 behaviour. Because, the consumer's manifested l i f e s t y l e and personality are of i n t e r e s t to marketers, we want to know how the l i f e s t y l e and personality r e l a t e to the theory of personal constructs, and to what extent t h i s theory can explain them. a) L i f e Style In order to explain the notion of l i f e s t y l e , two of the c o r o l l a r i e s are important; one, the organization c o r o l l a r y , and two, the communality c o r o l l a r y . Both are explained below: (1) The organizational c o r o l l a r y states that: Each person c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y evolves, f o r his convenience in an t i c i p a t i n g events, a construction system enforcing ordinal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between constructs [21, p. 8.7]. The person's l i f e s t y l e can then be viewed as the construction system that he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y evolves f o r himself. Since l i f e s t y l e i s considered to be the construction system, i t is composed of construction sub-systems each of which are made up e n t i r e l y of personal constructs [21, p. 83] In p r a c t i c a l terms, t h i s means that the person's l i f e s t y l e i s composed of two aspects, one being the behaviour of an i n d i v i d u a l , and the second, his cognitive process. As a r e s u l t we are never able to determine p r e c i s e l y what the in d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s t y l e i s , or what i s the re l a t i o n s h i p between his l i f e s t y l e and behaviour. This i s indeed an unfortunate s i t u a t i o n f o r the p r a c t i s i n g marketer, because the information he may have about an in d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s t y l e and behaviour cannot be pr e c i s e l y related to his behaviour as a consumer. 12 In many cases the attempt to measure and explain the l i f e s t y l e of an individual i s done rather s u p e r f i c i a l l y . If a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour repeats i t s e l f , however, i t i s given a name and referred to as a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e of l i f e . Some of the labels created by researchers in the past [23] include hard working, outgoing, homebody, and others. (2) The communality c o r o l l a r y states: To the extent that one person employs a construction of experience which i s s i m i l a r to that employed by another, his processes are psychologically s i m i l a r to those of the other person [21,,p. 81]. This c o r o l l a r y t e l l s us that in spite of the p o s s i b i l i t y of persons being exposed to d i f f e r e n t sets of s t i m u l i , the r e s u l t i n g behaviour representing l i f e s t y l e can be the same. The cognitive process by which such behaviour was generated, however, i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . Furthermore, t h i s f a c t leads us to an explanation of p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e s , r e s u l t i n g from 'aggregating' or 'communality1 of l i f e s t y l e s . However, "... communality of background does not guarantee that people w i l l see things a l i k e or behave a l i k e " [21, p. 84], For p r a c t i c a l purposes then, we have to r e a l i s e that at best we are looking only at a part of l i f e s t y l e , and that the same l i f e s t y l e does not necessarily r e s u l t from i d e n t i c a l s t i m u l i . b) Personality Again, the theory and research associated with personality does not improve s u b s t a n t i a l l y the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s understanding of the market. Furthermore, the p r a c t i t i o n e r cannot reasonably i n t e r p r e t the causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the consumer's l i f e s t y l e , his behaviour, and forces 13 of marketing strategy with which the consumer i s confronted. Reynolds and Darden [21, p. 86] react to t h i s s i t u a t i o n in the following way: We are interested in tapping the construction (behaviour b u i l d i n g ] system for those constructs and sub-systems relevant to consumer behaviour - the product related, communicating, purchasing and consuming behaviours of persons. ... The other aspects of the person's l i f e - s t y l e are i r r e l e v a n t f o r our purpose. Indeed, any attempt to examine them in r e l a t i o n to the consumer relevant aspects of the system would tend to produce incompatible r e s u l t s . This, we believe, to be one of the main problems with the use of standardized c l i n i c a l measures in many previous attempts to predict consumer behaviour. It i s not that the measures are inaccurate per se, i t i s simply that such measures are subsuming i r r e l e v a n t aspects of the construction system and hence are incompatible with consumer behaviour. That raises the question of which behavioural construct should be used to explain the the o r e t i c a l foundation of the personality aspect of psychographic research. There does not seem to be a c l e a r answer to t h i s problem to be found in Kelly's constructs. However, one subset of personality related constructs could possibly improve the understanding of the the o r e t i c a l base f o r use of personality in consumer behaviour. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s subset of personality i s ' a c t i v i t y , i n t e r e s t and opinion' (AIO). This i s , of course, possible to the extent the marketer can be reasonably sure that these variables are related to the consumer behaviour in question. At t h i s point there does not seem to be a s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l foundation f o r incorporating personality into psychographic research. The only possible exception seems to be the variables related to AIO. The question of how well do the AIO co r r o l a t e with p a r t i c u l a r sets of consumer behaviour w i l l be discussed in Chapter I I I . 14 To summarize the discussion of l i f e s t y l e and personality as they r e l a t e to personal constructs, we can see that neither i s p e r f e c t l y vested in t h i s theoretical framework. For the marketer i t means that consumer behaviour and l i f e s t y l e must be seen and examined under given circum-stances, and that i s i s almost impossible to predict what the consumer behaviour under given stimuli may be. c) Product Benefits and Attributes This segment of psychographic research has to do with product benefits or product a t t r i b u t e s . This concept does not f i t into the human behaviour theory developed by Ke l l y , unless the product a t t r i b u t e , or benefit, i s seen as an a t t i t u d e towards the product held by the customer. Once t h i s t r a n s i t i o n of thought i s c a r r i e d out, the a t t i t u d e toward the product f a l l s into the sphere of personality, and the constructive c o r o l -l a r y can be used to explain the consumer a t t i t u d e . The construction c o r o l l a r y says that "a person antic i p a t e s events by construing t h e i r r e p l i c a t i o n s " [21, p. 76]. In t h i s sense then, the a t t i t u d e towards a product i s a person's in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the object or event, as well as the meaning which i s attached to i t . The attitu d e towards a product i s not l i m i t e d to the cognitive process, but can be c l e a r l y demonstrated by consumer behaviour - through purchasing or non-purchasing of the product, To conclude t h i s section, i t seems that psychographic research can be only p a r t l y vested in Kelly's theory of personal behaviour, However, there are some weaknesses in the explanation of p a r t i c u l a r personal behavioural elements with respect to marketing relevancy. It has been 15 shown that we do not know, and are unable to determine, what p r e c i s e l y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s t y l e i s and that i d e n t i c a l l i f e s t y l e s do not necess a r i l y r e s u l t from i d e n t i c a l s t i m u l i . The personality concept used in psychographic research i s related to the theory of personal constructs only to the extent that the ATO i s reasonably related to the consumer behaviour in question. F i n a l l y , i t was shown that the product a t t r i b u t e concept does not r e l a t e to any t h e o r e t i c a l framework. The c l o s i n g question then i s ; what are the implications of the findings about the t h e o r e t i c a l base of psychographics f o r the p r a c t i s i n g marketer? No cl e a r - c u t answer i s a v a i l a b l e at t h i s stage. However, the marketer must be a l e r t when using the psychographic concepts to abstract information from his market, because of the unexplained character of causal f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to the consumer's personality and l i f e s t y l e . The next section in t h i s chapter turns to the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the development of a workable d e f i n i t i o n of psychographics. 2. D e f i n i t i o n of Psychographics There seems to be some confusion and uncertainty about e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of psychographics. The research community, and more impor-t a n t l y the p r a c t i s i n g marketer, cannot expect to f i n d a c l e a r - c u t answer as to what can be expected from psychographics, how to regard i t , or even how to use i t in the marketing context. One of the reasons f o r the e x i s t i n g confusion l i e s in the number of d e f i n i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to date, and in the va r i e t y of d i r e c t i o n s in which psychographic research has been going. According to Wells [26] there are more than t h i r t y d e f i n i t i o n s 16 scattered throughout the l i t e r a t u r e . Furthermore, i t seems, that none of these d e f i n i t i o n s states the precise nature of psychographics. C e r t a i n l y , any new research f i e l d i s bound to be accompanied by i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with d e f i n i t i o n s and terminology. However, the p r a c t i s i n g community i s na t u r a l l y more hesitant to accept psychographics under these circumstances. To them, the purpose and ap p l i c a t i o n of such research must be c l e a r . Any misconceptions about the subject may r e s u l t in a waste of resources. In the section that follows, several recent d e f i n i t i o n s of psycho-graphics are analysed and compared. Some major aspects and di r e c t i o n s of these d e f i n i t i o n s are brought to the reader's attention. In p a r t i c u l a r , apparent shortcomings and possible, o r i e n t a t i o n with respect to marketing applications are given. F i n a l l y , i t appears that there are c e r t a i n common concepts in a number of the d e f i n i t i o n s of psychographics. These concepts underlie the ent i r e f i e l d of psychographics, namely: personality concepts, l i f e s t y l e and product a t t r i b u t e s . (These concepts were discussed in the previous section, in connection with the theor e t i c a l framework). This section s t a r t s with a discussion of the d e f i n i t i o n s of psycho-graphics as they evolved. In the l a t t e r part, psychographic variables and t h e i r use are discussed. a) D e f i n i t i o n s The lack of understanding of the precise nature of psychographic research i s well documented in the l i t e r a t u r e . Unfortuantely, not even the most recent writings c l e a r up t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The basis of misunderstanding of psychographics i s , according to Simmons [22] of the following character: ... the f i r s t and foremost impression about psychographics i s that there i s no general agreement as to j u s t exactly what i t i s , what are i t s major purposes and applications and what are the technical and/or the o r e t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s that d i s t i n g u i s h psycho-graphics from other types of research. Here we can see that at l e a s t a three-fold problem has been associated with the f i e l d of psychographics; one the major purpose of psychographics two i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s ; and three the d i s t i n c t i o n of psychographics from other forms of marketing research. These are, of course, fa c t s which the p r a c t i s i n g marketer i s the most interested i n . Recently published l i t e r a t u r e of psychographics brings forward l i t e r a l l y tens of d e f i n i t i o n s of psychographics. As can be expected, onl, seldom can we f i n d a d e f i n i t i o n which attempts to explain what psycho-graphics i s in an exhaustive, understandable and p r a c t i c a l manner ( i . e . stating the precise nature of the thing*). As a r e s u l t , the research community and the p r a c t i s i n g marketer are l e f t in an unfortunate state. However, in spite of the unsatisfacory r e s u l t s of attempts to define psychographic research, there are emerging trends in the d e f i n i t i o n s of the f i e l d . For example, Wells [26], using the e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s as a base, developed an operational d e f i n i t i o n which at l e a s t t r i e s to d i s t i n g u i s h between demographics and psychographics. According to Wells then, Operationally psychographic research can be defined as quantitive research intended to place consumers on psychological - as distinguished from demographic - dimensions. * Fowler, H.W. and F.Q. Fowler, eds., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of  Current English, (Oxford University Press, 1964), p.319, 18 In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n at l e a s t three important aspects emerge. 1. Psychographic research i s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y oriented, 2. It i s d i f f e r e n t from demographics, focusing on psychological dimensions, 3. The idea of psychological dimension needs further c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Fortunately, Wells [25] has provided us with an explanation of the psychological variables employed: One common element i s the r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of the (psycho-l o g i c a l ) variables employed. Some of the variables are person-a l i t y t r a i t s , l i k e s o c i a b i l i t y and self-confidence. Some are attit u d e s - towards c h i l d rearing, housekeeping, a d v e r t i s i n g , government, r e l i g i o n , morals, money and other f a m i l i a r concerns. Some are in t e r e s t s - in sports, cooking, c l o t h i n g , reading, a r t , music, p o l i t i c a l events. And some are opinions about the proper roles of males and females, about what i s l i k e l y to happen i n the future, about the importance of shopping c a r e f u l l y , or about the pros and cons of buying things on c r e d i t , investing in the stock market.or moving to a new community. However, even t h i s lengthy explanation of psychographic variables used in psychographic research does.not t e l l us yet what psychographic research i s a l l about. The quantitive view of psychographic research frees the researcher's mind to use quantitive t o o l s , as well as the methodologies of motivational research, such combinations have come to r e l y on large representative samples of respondents, and s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the findings [25, p. 197]. In a search for a d e f i n i t i o n of psychographic research, i t i s useful to turn to the d e f i n i t i o n proposed by Nelson [14], who suggests that: In i t s broadest sense, psychographics refers to any form of measurement or analysis of the consumer's mind which pinpoints how one thinks,, f e e l s , and reacts. In essence, then, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n has to do with the question of 'WHY' consumers buy the p a r t i c u l a r product, and not 'WHO' buys the 19 p a r t i c u l a r product, the l a t t e r one being the customary question behind demographic, market segmentation. To supplement his d e f i n i t i o n of psychographics, Nelson [14] goes on to explain psychographic research more s p e c i f i c a l l y , and claims that psychographic research encompasses such factors as: - the product benefits that consumers seek - the image of brands, companies and media that they perceive - the personality t r a i t s that they possess - the opinions and values that they hold - the mode, of buying that they employ - the u n f u l f i l l e d psychological needs that they crave - the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and in t e r e s t s that they pursue - the s e n s i t i v i t y to ad messages that they reveal - the new product adoption rate that they maintain - the degree of communication of product information that they convey - the s a t i s f a c t i o n s from products and media that they desire - the concepts of potential products that they r e l a t e - the information about 'existing' products that they spec i f y - the e f f e c t of the context in which ads are placed that are discerned - the frame of mind during exposure to ad messages that they fe e l - the degree of s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to at t i t u d e change that they have The broadening of the d e f i n i t i o n by Nelson into more s p e c i f i c aspects s t i l l does not help to adequately define psychographics. It can be seen from Nelson's d e f i n i t i o n that the term psychographics encompasses a wide range of concepts and research questions. For example, Nelson's l i s t 20 of aspects of psychographics can be segmented into at l e a s t three d i s t i n c t groups, each dealing with a si n g l e concept. Personality i s the f i r s t concept which could be observed in such aspects as 'the opinions and values that they hold', 'the personality t r a i t s that they hold', and 'the u n f u l f i l l e d psychological needs that they crave'. The second concept which can be traced from the aspects of psychographics l i s t e d by Nelson i s that of 1 i f e s t y l e . Obviously, 'the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s that they pursue', i s a matter of l i f e s t y l e . The t h i r d concept found in the aspects of psychographics i s that of product a t t r i b u t e s concept. 'The s a t i s f a c t i o n from products and media that they d e s i r e ' , and 'the concepts of " p o t e n t i a l " products that they r e l a t e ' have to do with the concept of product a t t r i b u t e s . To t h i s point we have been able to i s o l a t e one aspect meaningful to psychographics research, namely that psychographic research i s a quantit-ative t o o l , using three basic concepts to carry out the research: 1. the personality concept, 2. the l i f e s t y l e concept, and 3. the product a t t i t u d e concept. Before we proceed t o explore what i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e in the way of defining these concepts, i t i s useful to return f or a while to the question of 'WHY' consumers buy a p a r t i c u l a r product. Demby [3, p. 196] thinks about psychographics as a tool which: B a s i c a l l y , ... i s a way of segmenting the marketplace into meaningful and large enough segments so that a marketer can do the following: 1. Understand who i s most apt to buy his product f i r s t - and WHY; 2. Understand what kind of advertising and packaging message i s most l i k e l y to convince a consumer - and WHY; 3. Understand what media are most apt to e f f i c i e n t l y and success-f u l l y d e l i v e r his message - and WHY; 21 4. Understand the problem of converting non-customers into customers; 5. Understand what messages are l i k e l y to convince the non-customer - and WHY; 6. Understand what media are most apt to e f f i c i e n t l y and success-f u l l y d e l i v e r the marketer's message to e l i g i b l e convertees -non-customers, who can be turned into customers - and WHY. According to Demby [3] then, psychographics i s a concept which has to do with market segmentation, i d e n t i f y i n g the buyer, creating adver-t i s i n g mix, media s e l e c t i o n , problem of converting non-users, and possibly other aspects of marketing strategy. Thus, the scope of psychographics research reaches a wide v a r i e t y of marketing content. Demby [3, p. 197] stresses t h i s point by emphasising that "psychographics i s ... a media sel e c t i o n tool -- but i t i s also much more". The implication here seems to be that psychographics research goes beyond demographics or t r a d i t i o n a l market segmentation research, and according to Demby [3, p. 196] "... gives numbers to common sense". The only difference which can be observed between demographic and psychographic market segmentation i s in the additional question asked under the psychographic concept, namely the question 'WHY'. 'Why a p a r t i c u l a r state e x i s t s ' , 'why do consumers purchase a brand' and other s i m i l a r questions make the d i s t i n c t i o n between these two marketing t o o l s . As can be expected, i t i s in no way easy to answer these questions and provide the marketer with useful explanations f o r them. Young [29] defines psychographics as: ... research which makes use of consumers' attitudes i n analysing such groups in the market ... psychographic analysis has and continues to include attitudes about the product category, about brands, as well as attitudes which r e f l e c t personality and attitudes about l i f e s t y l e . The personality 22 and l i f e s t y l e data, of course, are what's r e l a t i v e l y new. It provides the content that captures the imagination of the researcher and marketer a l i k e . I t allows us to become voyeurs i n t o the psyche of the consumer. Young then, sees psychographics as a research t o o l d e a l i n g mainly with consumers' a t t i t u d e s towards d i f f e r e n t aspects of marketing mix, with which the consumer i s confronted. Such a view.is d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from previous w r i t e r s and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e Ties i n the per-ception of the scope of psychographic research. The previous w r i t e r s seemed to see psychographics as a tool which deals with market segmentation according to a s e t of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , l i f e s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s , whereas Young sees psychographics d e a l i n g with a t t i t u d e s of customers r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s , o p i n i o n s , and i n t e r e s t s . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that none of the w r i t e r s makes an attempt to provide us with a much needed linkage between psychographics research and b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d from i t by p r a c t i s i n g marketers. Obviously, i f psychographic research i s to serve the p r a c t i t i o n e r s , i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n must be more t a n g i b l e than mere academic e x e r c i s e can provide. Perhaps the c l o s e s t attempt to provide the marketer with an under-standing of how psychographic research could help i n comprehending h i s market, can be found i n one of the recent w r i t i n g s by Demby [ 2 ] * . In his view, psychographics can be defined i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. G e n e r a l l y , psychographics may be viewed as the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the behavioural and s o c i a l sciences to marketing research; 2. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , psychographics i s a q u a n t i t a t i v e research procedure that i s i n d i c a t e d when demographic, socioeconomic and user/non-user analyses are not s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t consumer behaviour; * This i s the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e work on the subject of Psychographics t h i s w r i t e r has seen. 23 3. Most s p e c i f i c a l l y , psychographics seeks to describe the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of consumers that may have a bearing on t h e i r response to products, packaging, advertising and public r e l a t i o n s e f f o r t s . Such variables may space the spectrum from self-concept and l i f e s t y l e to a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s and opinions, as well as perceptions of product a t t r i b u t e s [2, p. 13]. Evidently Demby's d e f i n i t i o n brings in several concepts which under-l i e psychographic research. In p a r t i c u l a r t h i s d e f i n i t i o n brings in the concepts of motivational research behind psychographics, the aspect of quantitative research procedure, and the aspect of variables which could be employed in psychographic research, namely l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , s e l f -concept or personality variables and product a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s . However, according to Dorny [4, p. 200], a shadow of doubt about what psychographic research means comes from writers who claim that the term psychographics should be reserved to research variables which are " t r u l y mental" in nature. By implication then, the psychographic research should include only personality t r a i t s research, and the l i f e s t y l e and product a t t r i b u t e s variables should be given a separate name. It seems that such a d i s t i n c t i o n would not r e a l l y help to define and i s o l a t e psychographics any further, but on the other hand, i f the term psychographics should include a v a r i e t y of concepts, only general under-standing of t h i s f a c t could j u s t i f y i t . Returning to Demby's d e f i n i t i o n above, i t i s possible, by i s o l a t i n g individual concepts used in psychographic research, to improve under-standing of what psychographics are a l l about. He i d e n t i f i e s the concepts used in psychographic research as follows: 1. personality t r a i t s , psychological, or self-concept v a r i a b l e s , 2. l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , and 3. product a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s . 24 The discussion below elaborates on these concepts: b) Psychographic Variables (1) Psychological Variables Psychological variables can play an. important role in describing an individual customer. In essence, psychological variables are linked with l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , the only difference i s in the scope. The personality and l i f e s t y l e variables can be measured with respect to individual consumers. However, for the purpose of understanding the to t a l market for a p a r t i c u l a r product, the aggregate information i s what the marketer needs. Some psychological variables such as personality t r a i t s , a ttitudes toward c h i l d rearing, s e l f confidence, conformity, s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to persuasion and others, were mentioned previously. The most unfortunate thing about these variables and t h e i r use in psychographics i s the f a c t that there appears to be l i t t l e agreement by authority on what a c t u a l l y constitutes personality [5, p. 305]. While we do not agree exactly on what i t i s , measuring personality c e r t a i n l y creates d i f f i c u l t i e s . There are several instruments a v a i l a b l e to measure personality, but, as Demby [2, p. 24] points out, The l i t e r a t u r e i s lacking in r e l i a b l e empirical evidence that standard personality t e s t s a c t u a l l y measure what they purport to measure - at l e a s t , as the measurements may pertain to market segmentation and the purchase decision making process; (and) In cases where standardized personality inventories have been applied to the marketing area, they have often not proven to be e s p e c i a l l y strong, in discriminating between groups. 25 Also, Koponen [2, p. 25] found in a study of a widely d i s t r i b u t e d consumer product ( t o i l e t tissue) that: Information on the demographic and personality t r a i t s was l i t t l e better than no information at a l l ... Indeed, such a s i t u a t i o n i s very disappointing for the marketer. The u n r e l i a b i l i t y of the personality t r a i t s suggests that the marketer needs a d i f f e r e n t set of variables with stronger discriminating character-i s t i c s ; "variables that are more c l o s e l y related to consumer behaviour under consideration ..." [2, p. 25]. (2) L i f e Style Variables The l i f e s t y l e concept constitutes the second major segment of research to which the term psychographics has been attached. The l i f e s t y l e has been defined "as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c u l a r manner of l i v i n g as r e f l e c t e d by a l l of his expenditures of time and money in both his p a r t i c u l a r pur-s u i t s and his active pleasures. It i s the expression of a l l the factors which influence him: psychological, s o c i o l o g i c a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and physical" [1, p. 190]. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the development and use of the l i f e s t y l e concept i s much older than the use of the personality t r a i t s concept. In one of the f i r s t writings on the subject of l i f e s t y l e , Lazer [13] elaborates on t h i s concept in the following way: " L i f e s t y l e i s a systems concept. It refers to the d i s t i n c t i v e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode of l i v i n g , in i t s aggregate and broadest sense, of a whole society or segment thereof. It i s concerned with those unique ingredients or q u a l i t i e s which describe the 26 s t y l e of some culture or group, and d i s t i n g u i s h i t from others. It embodies the patterns that develop and emerge from the dynamics of l i v i n g in a society. L i f e s t y l e , therefore, i s the r e s u l t of such forces as c u l t u r e , values, resources, symbols, l i c e n s e , and sanctions. From one pers-pective, the aggregate of consumer purchases, and the manner in which they are consumed, r e f l e c t a society's l i f e s t y l e " . L i f e s t y l e w i l l have no meaning to the marketer, unless i t can be used to help s e l l the product. According to King [12], l i f e s t y l e research i s relevant to marketing "... in the areas of market d e l i n e a t i o n , purchase motivation, product adjustment, and market communication". This i s , of course, i n t u i t i v e l y obvious. It can be expected that no two consumers are a l i k e , as f a r as t h e i r l i f e s t y l e i s concerned. For the marketer, however, i t i s important to i s o l a t e l i f e s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which would be s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r over a range of customers, so that t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c could form a segment. In more s p e c i f i c terms, the marketer needs to know into what par-t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e his product belongs, and what at t i t u d e the p a r t i c u l a r segment of customers holds towards the product. Wind [27] describes t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p by a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , opinions vs. l e i s u r e time, work time, and consumption, in a matrix (see Figure 1). Using the matrix in Figure 1, the marketer can then assess his p a r t i c u l a r product's position with respect to the consumer's AIO and his time d i s t r i b u t i o n . When the marketer chooses to use l i f e s t y l e variables to segment FIGURE 1 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ATTITUDE, INTERESTS AND OPINIONS, AND LIFE STYLE CATEGORIES [27] Leisure Time Work Consumption Outdoors Indoors Housework Paid Outside Work Sel f Social S e l f Social Self Social Self Social S e l f Social A c t i v i t i e s Active L M L H H L Passive L L L Interests Process L H M L L Product M H Opinions* Opinions H L E H L = Low M = Medium H = High E = Extremely High * Wind [27] does not make the d i s t i n c t i o n between own and induced opinion. However, i t seems that such d i s t i n c t i o n could be useful, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to difussion process. 28 his market, the most apparent d i f f i c u l t y i s in s e l e c t i n g such l i f e s t y l e items which are d i r e c t l y correlated with the p a r t i c u l a r product. (3) Product A t t r i b u t e Variables The product a t t r i b u t e variables are derived from the consumer's perception of the product. A product w i l l have meaning to the consumer only to the extent that he i s able and ready to attach c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s to the product. This idea of segmenting the market by product a t t r i b u t e s i s based on i d e n t i f y i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y large number of customers who perceive the product in the same way. It can be expected that there i s a large number of a t t r i b u t e s which could be assigned to the product, Demby [2, p. 19] l i s t s several possible product a t t r i b u t e s which f a l l in the following categories: a. Price/value perception b. Taste c. Texture d. Quality e. Benefits f. Trust The most obvious d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s type of de s c r i p t i o n of product a t t r i b u t e s a r i s e s from attempts to measure them. A l l of the above a t t r i b u t e s can be measured only q u a l i t a t i v e l y , thus leaving a substantial variance f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , as observed by Haley [7] "... the marketing implications of t h i s a n a l y t i c a l research tool are li m i t e d only by the imagination of the person using the experimentation a segmentation study provides". 29 To conclude, the discussion of d e f i n i t i o n s revealed that psycho-graphic research i s a market segmentation t o o l , using a quantitative approach to market data, The term psychographics encompasses the concepts of personality t r a i t s , l i f e s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s . None of the d e f i n i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e seem to be exhaustive and p r a c t i c a l ; furthermore, none of the d e f i n i t i o n s takes into account the need f o r l i n k i n g psycho-graphic research with the ultimate goals of the user of such research -the marketer. Unfortunately, to t h i s point the market research community or the p r a c t i s i n g marketers have not provided us with a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n i t i o n of the f i e l d of psychographic research. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s bound to have a bearing on the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of psychographics as a viable marketing t o o l , and i t w i l l have a bearing on any further explanation and explor-ation of the subject matter. Until there i s a concise d e f i n i t i o n of psychographic research, i t might be impossible to convince the marketers and researchers to accept psychographic research without serious reser-vations. To t h i s point we have to accept Reynolds and Darden's [21] obser-vations that "... the rapid r i s e of psychographics to 'success', i s l i t t e r e d with d e f i n i t i o n a l debris". 3. Summary This chapter dealt with the the o r e t i c a l foundations and d e f i n i t i o n s of psychographics. An attempt was made to show that psychographic research i s only p a r t l y vested in a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l framework. This in turn i s not conducive to defining psychographic research. 30 However, i t was shown that in s p i t e of the shortcomings in the theo r e t i c a l base of psychographics and a v a r i e t y of d e f i n i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , there i s an emerging trend in the understanding of what psychographic research i s a l l about. In general then, psychographics i s a m u l t i -v a r i e t y quantitative marketing research t o o l , based on three underlying concepts - personality t r a i t s , l i f e s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s or benefits. In t h i s sense psychographic market research i s d i s t i n c t from demographic research which uses socioeconomic and demographic va r i a b l e s . Furthermore, the purpose of analysing psychographic data i s to explain the underlying reasons f o r consumer behaviour, and purchasing decisions. Also, the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the d e f i n i t i o n of psychographic research can be a t t r i b u t e d , at l e a s t p a r t l y , to the incomplete t h e o r e t i c a l foundations on which psychographic research r e s t s . The next chapter turns to the marketing applications of psychographics. Some of the empirical evidence of psychographic research w i l l be reviewed, however, the preceding discussion of the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographics should be kept in mind. 31 CHAPTER III MARKETING APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS In s p i t e of psychographics' t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s (discussed in the previous chapter), psychographic research has been su c c e s s f u l l y applied to many marketing decision problems. The main areas of use have been marketing strategy development and consumer behaviour research. The f i r s t part of t h i s chapter reviews a v a i l a b l e psychographic research in the area of marketing strategy development. In p a r t i c u l a r , the following aspects are discussed: 1. Market Segmentation 2. Advertising Strategy Development 3. Product Development 4. Channels of D i s t r i b u t i o n Selection 5. Media Selection The second part of t h i s chapter concentrates on some research l i t e r -ature i n the area of psychographics as i t rel a t e s to consumer behaviour, in p a r t i c u l a r , the following aspects of the research are dealt with: 1. Consumer Behaviour Analysis 2. Identifying Consumer P r o f i l e P o t e n t i a l l y , the r e s u l t s of psychographic research in both major areas of i n t e r e s t could be of substantial value to marketers. Knowledge of consumer behaviour and understanding of the market through psychographic research could make the difference between a successful or unsuccessful marketing strategy. However, i t has to be kept in mind that the present 32 state of psychographic research has not allowed the marketer to use i t s r e s u l t s without reservations. An attempt to point out the major weak-nesses of the ava i l a b l e research w i l l be made in the next chapter. A. Psychographics and Marketing Strategy 1. Market Segmentation Meaningful segmentation of the target market has always been important in the development of marketing strategy. Unfortunately, a r a p i d l y changing socia l structure, dynamic economic conditions, and an ever-increasing number of new services and products, have resulted in a s i t u a t i o n where t r a d i t i o n a l (usually demographic) market segmentation often f a i l s . I t i s believed by many marketing researchers that demographic market segmen-ta t i o n could be supplemented with the r e s u l t s of psychographic market segmentation. The reason f o r t h i s b e l i e f a r i s e s from the f a c t that impor-tant demographic d i s t i n c t i o n s simply do not e x i s t in many product and service categories. The basic question then i s , how can psychographics help to segment the market? The previous chapter discussed at le a s t three important components of psychographics (personality t r a i t s , l i f e s t y l e , product a t t r i b u t e s ) . The answer to the question l i e s i n the use of these compon-ents and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to segmentation. Z i f f ' s [30] approach to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem can be summarized by the following quote: " I t has been understood that to a t t r a c t or motivate a p a r t i c u l a r group of consumers i t i s necessary to know how they think and what t h e i r values and attitudes are, as well 33 as who they are in terms of the t r a d i t i o n a l demographic variables of age, sex, income, etc.". To t h i s we could add that the way the consumer spends his time ( i . e . his l i f e s t y l e ) and what he expects from the product (good s e r v i c e , status, s a t i s f a c t i o n ) are equally important in the way market segments could be developed. In the remaining part of t h i s section we turn to research studies which attempt to segment the market by means of personality t r a i t s , l i f e s t y l e s , and product a t t r i b u t e s . a) Segmentation based on personality t r a i t s or attitudes Several i n t e r e s t i n g research studies are a v a i l a b l e i n the area of personality market segmentation. Two of these studies are reviewed here, mainly because they are, in a sense, complementary, and because of t h e i r wide implications f o r p r a c t i s i n g marketers. The f i r s t study i s by Ruth Z i f f [30] and deals with segmentation of housewives. The second study i s by The Newspaper Advertising Bureau (of New York) [20] and deals with the segmentation of the male population of New York. In the Z i f f study, leaving the a n a l y t i c a l procedures aside, the main objectives were: (1) "to determine whether a core of attitudes or values could be i d e n t i f i e d that would have meaning over a large number of i n d i v -idual products within a s i m i l a r c l a s s of products"; (2) "... to determine whether a core of attitudes or values could be i d e n t i f i e d that would cut across product classes" - that i s , be meaningful f o r drugs, foods, personal, and household items. An underlying b e l i e f here was that a par-t i c u l a r personality t r a i t would influence the consumer's behaviour towards 34 various product cla s s e s , f o r example, i f she i s , say, se l f - i n d u l g e n t t h i s would r e f l e c t i n an i d e n t i f i a b l e usage pattern of household as well as personal items. In turn, the self-indulgent housewife might possibly form a p a r t i c u l a r market segment which could become the focus of marketing strategy e f f o r t s . In her study, Z i f f c o l l e c t e d data on housewives' p e r s o n a l i t i e s and product usage. This data was then f a c t o r analysed in order to acquire a pattern of segmentation, related to o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of house-wives, and on individual product c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or t r a i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In order to i d e n t i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between ove r a l l segment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and in d i v i d u a l products, individual products were cross-tabulated with the overall scores. Some of the findings are discussed below. Using f a c t o r score a n a l y s i s , Z i f f was able to i d e n t i f y s i x segments or groups of housewives based,on personality t r a i t s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of these segments follows: 1. Outgoing Optimists (about 35% of the sample) are outgoing, innov-a t i v e , community-oriented, p o s i t i v e toward grooming, not bothered by d e l i c a t e health or digestion problems or e s p e c i a l l y concerned about germs or c l e a n l i n e s s . 2. Conscientious V i g i l a n t s (about 28%) are conscientious, r i g i d , meticulous, germ-fighting with a high c l e a n l i n e s s o r i e n t a t i o n and sensible attitud e about food. They have high cooking pride, a careful shopping o r i e n t a t i o n , tend not to be convenience-oriented. 3. Apathetic Indifferents (about 14%) are not outgoing, are uninvolved with family, i r r i t a b l e , have a negative grooming o r i e n t a t i o n , are lazy, e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of cooking pride. 35 4. Self-Indulgents (about 13%) relaxed, permissive, unconcerned with health problems, interested in convenience items but with r e l a t i v e l y high cooking pride, self-indulgent towards themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , 5. Contented Cows (about 8%) are relaxed, not worried, r e l a t i v e l y unconcerned about germs and c l e a n l i n e s s , not innovative or outgoing, strongly economy-oriented, not sel f - i n d u l g e n t . 6. Worriers (about 5%) are i r r i t a b l e , concerned about health, germs and c l e a n l i n e s s , negative about grooming and breakfast, but self-indulgent with a low economy and high convenience o r i e n t a t i o n . Already the general description of housewife personality-based segments could serve as an input to marketing strategy development. How-ever, when Z i f f analysed product s p e c i f i c personality t r a i t s and related them to the housewife c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s above, i t was found that the general segmentation of housewife market was not s u f f i c i e n t and revealing enough. There was no apparent product usage matching the i d e n t i f i e d i ndividual segments. That i s , people in a l l the segments used b a s i c a l l y a l l the products i n question and no apparent discrimination in usage was i d e n t i f i e d . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y demonstrated by segmentation with respect to drug products. Again, using f a c t o r score analysis on the same data, only the following four descriptions of the market segments with respect to drugs were i d e n t i f i e d : 1. Realists (35% of the sample) are not health f a t a l i s t s , nor excessively concerned with protection or germs. They view remedies p o s i t i v e l y , want something that i s convenient and works, and do not fee l the need of a doctor-recommended medicine. 36 2. Authority Seekers (31%) are doctor- and p r e s c r i p t i o n - o r i e n t e d , are neither f a t a l i s t s nor s t o i c s concerning health, but they prefer the stamp of authority on what they do take. 3. Sceptics (23%) have a low health concern, are l e a s t l i k e l y to resort to medication, and are highly sceptical of cold remedies. 4. Hypochondriacs (11%) have high health concern, regard themselves as prone to any bug going around and tend to take medication at the f i r s t symptoms. They do not look for strength in what they lake, but need some mild authority reassurance. Interesting r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be observed when the t o t a l housewife segmentation i s compared with the product related segmentation (see Table 1). It can be seen that the highest percentage of sel f - i n d u l g e n t and worriers segment considers themselves r e a l i s t s . The highest percentage of authority seekers comes from the segments of v i g i l a n t s . The sceptics group draws the highest percentage of housewives from contented cows, and hypochondriacs are drawn mainly from the worriers segment. Apart from the f a c t that these r e s u l t s are i n t u i t i v e l y obvious, c l e a r implications f o r the marketing strategy development are apparent, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of product promotion. For example, the association of the worriers segment with hypochondriacs might be used to promote the drug product as mainly preventive medicine, etc. Further l i g h t can be shed on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t o t a l segmentation of the housewife market and s p e c i f i c product usage (see Table 2). It can be observed that the worriers segment a c t u a l l y uses drug related products with higher rate than the other segments in most cases. This i s consistent with the verbal d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s segment, and with the findings from 37 TABLE 1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OVERALL AND DRUG SEGMENTATION GROUPS [30, p. 7] -o c cu Overall Segmentation of Housewives Outgoing Optimists % Consc. V i g i l a n t s % Apathetic Indifferents % S e l f Indulg. % Contented Cows % Worriers % Realists 37* 30 28 56 19 45 Authority Seekers 31 38 30 20 32 27 Sceptics 25 17 30 17 46 12 Hypochondriacs 7 14 13 7 3 16 *Reads: 37% of r e a l i s t s were outgoing optimists. TABLE 2 PRODUCT USAGE AMONG SIX HOUSEWIFE SEGMENTS 130, p. 8] Out Opts. % V i g i -lants % I n d i f f . % S e l f Ind. % Cont. Cows % Worr % Upset Stomach Remedies 40* 49 48 45 32 65 Acid Indigestion/ Heartburn Remedies . 39 47 46 43 35 61 Hangover Remedies 25 21 26 22 12 35 Cold or Al l e r g y Tab!ets 63 60 54 68 41 76 ; •, Nasal Sprays 28 29 28 26 26 .' 44 Nose Drops 19 20 25 19 22 32 Nasal Inhalers 22 25 21 23 17 40 Li q . Cold Remedies 13 15 16 21 12 29 Cough Drops 67 79 69 72 65 78 Sore Throat Lozenges 54 49 48 54 44 55 Cough Syrup 51 55 53 58 47 55 Pain Reliever Tablets 88 86 87 91 81 85 * Reads: 40% of outgoing optimists use upset stomach remedies. 3 9 Table 1 . Here, the worriers segment i s v i r t u a l l y the strongest user of a l l kinds of drug products. F i n a l l y , the same s i t u a t i o n can be observed when drug product usage i s compared with the four drug r e l a t e d segments (see Table 3 ) . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the hypochondriacs segment i s v i r t u a l l y the strongest i n use of a l l kinds of remedies. As a r e s u l t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worriers segment and the hypochondriacs segment i s very s t r o n g l y r e a f f i r m e d . To conclude, i n Z i f f s housewife market segmentation, i t seems that s i g n i f i c a n t and judgementally meaningful d i f f e r e n c e s i n product usage l e v e l s were found both on the basis of the o v e r a l l segmentation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l product c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Furthermore, according to Z i f f , a core of attitudes/needs/values can be used to provide the basis f o r a meaningful segmentation f o r a number of i n d i v i d u a l products - i n a broad c l a s s of products. This c o n c l u s i o n stems from the f i n d i n g s that segmentation based on a s i n g l e set of d r u g - r e l a t e d statements was found to be r e l e v a n t f o r a number of drug products. The second f i n d i n g i s that a core of a t t i t u d e s can be used to provide segments that have meaning not only w i t h i n a c l a s s o f products, but that are r e l e v a n t i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of products. The f i n d i n g s of Z i f f are i n a way encouraging, however, t h e i r oper-a t i o n a l i z a t i o n brings about d i f f i c u l t i e s which w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. To t h i s p o i n t , housewife p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t e d market segmentation has been dis c u s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n deals with male population p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t e d segmentation, as reported by The Newspaper A d v e r t i s i n g Bureau of New York. 40 TABLE 3 PRODUCT USAGE AMONG FOUR DRUG RELATED SEGMENTS [30, p. 9] Authority Hypo-Realists Seekers Skeptics chondriacs % % % % Upset Stomach Remedies 49* 43 32 59 Acid Indigestion/Heart- » g »c o c burn Remedies 50 Hangover Remedies 27 21 17 31 Cold or A l l e r g y Tablets 74 57 41 72 Nasal Sprays 33 27 21 38 Nasal Inhalers 26 23 17 31 Li q . Cold Remedies 17 16 11 21 Cough Drops 71 71 58 76 Sore Throat Lozenges 53 56 37 62 Cough Syrup 59 54 31 65 Pain Reliever Tablets 90 88 77 95 * Reads: 49% of r e a l i s t s use upset stomach remedies 41 Again, leaving aside research methodology, and a n a l y t i c a l procedures, we can turn to findings about general segmentation of the male market. In t h i s study, eight psychographic segments were developed and v e r b a l l y described. (Note: there were six ov e r a l l segments of housewives described in the previous study). Description of each segment (group) follows [20]: Group I. "The Quiet Family Man" (8% of total males) He i s a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t man who wants to be l e f t alone and i s b a s i c a l l y shy. T r i e s to be as l i t t l e involved with community l i f e as possible. His l i f e revolves around the family, simple work and t e l e v i s i o n viewing. Has a marked fantasy l i f e . As a shopper he i s p r a c t i c a l , less drawn to consumer goods and pleasures than other men. Low education and low economic status, he tends to be older than average. Group II. "The T r a d i t i o n a l i s t " (16% of t o t a l males) A man who fe e l s secure, has self-esteem, follows conventional r u l e s . He i s proper and respectable, regards himself as a l t r u i s t i c and interested in the welfare of others. As a shopper he i s conservative, l i k e s popular brands and well-known manufacturers. Low education and low or middle socioeconomic status; the oldest age group. Group I I I . "The Discontented Man" (13% of total males) He i s a man who i s l i k e l y to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with his work. He f e e l s bypassed by l i f e , dreams of better jobs, more money and more se c u r i t y . He tends to be d i s t r u s t f u l and s o c i a l l y aloof. As a buyer he i s quite price conscious. 42 Lowest education and lowest socioeconomic group, mostly older than average. Group IV. "The Ethical Highbrow" (14% of tota l males) . This i s a very concerned man, s e n s i t i v e to people's needs. B a s i c a l l y a puritan, content with family l i f e , friends and work. Interested in culture, r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l reform. As a consumer he i s interested in q u a l i t y , which may at times j u s t i f y greater expenditure. Well educated, middle or upper socioeconomic status, mainly middle aged or older. Group V. "The Pleasure Oriented Man" (9% of tota l males) He tends to emphasize his masculinity and rej e c t s whatever appears to be s o f t or feminine. He views himself as a leader among men. Self-centered d i s l i k e s his work or job. Seeks immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r his needs. He i s an impulsive "buyer, l i k e l y to buy products with a masculine image. Low education, lower socioeconomic c l a s s , middle aged or younger. Group VI. "The Achiever" (11% of t o t a l males) This i s l i k e l y to be a hardworking man, dedicated to success and a l l that i t implies, soc i a l prestige, power and money. Is in favour of diver-s i t y , i s adventurous about l e i s u r e time pursuits. Is s t y l i s h , l i k e s good food, music, etc. As a consumer he i s status conscious, a thoughtful and discriminating buyer. Good education, high socioeconomic status, young. Group VII. "The He-Man" (19% of tota l males) He i s gregarious, l i k e s a c t i o n , seeks an e x c i t i n g and dramatic l i f e . Thinks of himself as capable and dominant. Tends to be more of a bachelor 43 than a family man, even a f t e r marriage. Products he buys and brands preferred are l i k e l y to have "self-expressive value", e s p e c i a l l y a "Man of Action" dimension. Well educated, mainly middle socioeconomic status, the youngest of the male groups. Group VIII. "The Sophisticated Man" (10% of tota l males) He i s l i k e l y to be an i n t e l l e c t u a l , concerned about s o c i a l issues, admires men with a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements. S o c i a l l y cosmo-p o l i t a n , broad i n t e r e s t s . Wants to be dominant, and a leader. As a consumer he i s attracted to the unique and fashionable. Best educated and highest economic status of a l l groups, younger than average. As in the case of housewife personality segmentation, the male market segmentation could suggest various applications f o r marketing strategy development. However, none of the market segments described seem to be s u f f i c i e n t l y large to warrant development of s p e c i f i c strategy because of i t s absolute s i z e . Perhaps better r e s u l t s can be achieved when the male psychographic segments are compared with s p e c i f i c product and media usage. From Table 4 i t can be observed, f o r example, that a r e l a t i v e l y high per-centage of men in each segment drink beer, such a f i n d i n g leaves some doubt about a need to segment the male market as f a r as t h i s product i s concerned - i . e . in terms of users and non-users (other segmentation i s no doubt p o s s i b l e ) . A d i f f e r e n t picture can be observed with respect to cigarette smoking - here segmentation by smokers - non-smokers might be meaningful because the level of c i g a r e t t e smoking in each male segment 44 TABLE 4 PRODUCT AND MEDIA USE BY MALE PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTS [20 ] Psychographic group 9 percentages I II III IV V VI VII VII] Drink Beer 45* 56 57 51 75 59 80 72 Smoke Cigarettes 32 40 40 29 54 42 51 38 A i r Travel Outside U.S. 4 4 6 7 5 8 12 19 A i r T r a v e l , Domestic 14 15 14 26 19 32 20 42 Use Brand X Deodorant 7 7 6 8 14 10 9 12 Used Headache Remedy in Past Four Weeks 53 60 66 61 61 64 65 67 Read current issue of:, Playboy 8 11 8 13 25 27 36 30 National Geographic 21 13 11 30 13 28 16 27 Time 17 8 7 16 9 26 17 29 Newsweek 17 14 8 20 11 18 13 22 F i e l d and Stream 10 12 14 8 12 9 13 3 Popular Mechanics 11 6 9 9 9 9 8 6 Viewed in past week: Sanford & Son 32 35 29 19 26 25 27 23 Sonny & Cher 17 24 22 19 14 24 30 22 Marcus Wei by 26 25 26 23 20 16 20 18 Rowan & Martin 21 23 17 15 22 20 23 21 New Dick Van Dyke 19 15 16 13 11 8 10 12 aGroups or segments are described in the text * Reads:,45% of the quiet family men drink beer 45 v a r i e s . Similar conclusions could be reached with respect to other products and media usage. To conclude t h i s section, two approaches to personality t r a i t s market segmentation were discussed. The f i r s t study dealt with housewife per-s o n a l i t y based segmentation, the second study dealt with segmentation in the male population. Some general conclusions were mentioned, in p a r t i c u l a r , the housewife market segmentation produced meaningful differences in product usage l e v e l s , on the basis of the ove r a l l segmentation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as well as on the basis of individual product c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . These r e s u l t s were demonstrated on the worrier-hypochondriac market segments. However, the r e s u l t s of male population segmentation do not provide such a cl e a r cut example, mainly because of the absolute siz e of each segment. In the next section we turn to l i f e s t y l e segmentation a p p l i c a t i o n s . b) L i f e s t y l e segmentation L i f e s t y l e segmentation i s now a r e l a t i v e l y widely used marketing t o o l . It i s , however, almost impossible to sele c t one or more l i f e s t y l e studies which could be considered representative of the subject matter. This i s because the l i f e s t y l e studies do not follow a unique pattern and substantial differences can be observed among them. For the purpose of our discussion we f i r s t turn to a general description of l i f e s t y l e seg-mentation and then to an analysis of some research findings in the area. The f i r s t p r a c t i c a l question put to l i f e s t y l e research often i s , "what are the variables or dimensions that can help to segment and under-stand the market?" Some of these variables are l i s t e d in Table 5, in 46 TABLE 5 LIFE STYLE AND DEMOGRAPHIC DIMENSIONS [19] ACTIVITIES INTERESTS OPINIONS DEMOGRAPHICS Work Family Themselves Age Hobbies Home Social Issues Education Social events Job P o l i t i c s Income Vacation Community Business Occupation Entertainment Recreation Economics Family s i z e Club membership Fashion Education Dwelling Community Food Products Geography Shopping Media Future C i t y size Sports Achievements Culture Stage in l i f e cycle addition to typic a l demographic v a r i a b l e s . As can be observed, these variables are l i s t e d in three groups, a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , opinions (AIO). These three basic groups of variables provide a broad, everyday view of consumers. According to Plummer [19], when these variables are "combined with the theory of typologies and c l u s t e r i n g methods, l i f e s t y l e segmentation can generate i d e n t i f i a b l e whole persons rather than i s o l a t e d fragments. L i f e s t y l e segmentation begins with people instead of products and c l a s s i f i e s them into d i f f e r e n t l i f e style' types, each characterized by a unique s t y l e of l i v i n g based on a wide range of a c t i v -i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and opinions". The process of l i f e s t y l e segmentation in i t s e l f i s a complicated issue, and requires substantial research. The basic steps which should be covered are explained by Plummer [19]. 1. Determine which of the l i f e s t y l e segments are best from the standpoint of e f f i c i e n t l y producing the greatest number of customers for a brand. 2. Examine the usage of the product in the category (or segment). 3. Examine the frequency of usage of the category, that i s , who are the heavy users, the moderate users, and l i g h t users. 4. Determine brand usage and brand share. 5. Determine product attitudes and wage patterns. Having performed analysis through these steps, the selected l i f e s t y l e segment(s) should have a set of ideal properties, such as high product penetration, high proportion of heavy users, p o s s i b i l i t y of increasing the volume in the segment, and favourable brand a t t r i b u t e s . 48 Furthermore, the segment must be s u f f i c i e n t l y discriminated from other segments, and i t must possess other desirable properties of usable market segment. The next step in the l i f e s t y l e segmentation analysis i s to ver b a l l y explain each segment in every-day understandable words, while keeping in mind the question of 'why'. (This aspect of psychographics was discussed in the previous chapter). In r e a l i t y i t i s possible that more than one segment w i l l have to be considered as the target market, ei t h e r because of the closeness of the segments or because i t would be uneconomical to develop marketing strategy for each segment separately. One of the more i n t e r e s t i n g l i f e s t y l e segmentation studies was performed by Plummer [18] with respect to bank c r e d i t card usage. In essence, Plummer attempted to "indicate the difference between heavy users, and l i g h t or non-users" of c r e d i t cards (product) in terms of l i f e s t y l e variables (how they spend t h e i r time, t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , t h e i r opinions, where they stand on important issues, e t c . ) . Plummer analysed male and female segments of the sample separately, because apparently i t was f e l t that d i f f e r e n t motivational factors might be present in each group with respect to c r e d i t card usage. Results of the study show that the male bank c r e d i t card user leads "an a c t i v e , urbane, and upper socioeconomic s t y l e of l i f e congruent with t h e i r higher income, position and education". A comparison of male c r e d i t card users and non-users i s given in Table 6. A verbal description of a male c r e d i t card user can be: "He i s a young businessman on the r i s e , a r r i v i n g at his suburban home from the o f f i c e , and having a c o c k t a i l , TABLE 6 49 CROSS-TABULATION RESULTS OF AIO AGREEMENT WITH MALE BANK CHARGE CARD USERS [18] Card Users Noncard Users D e f i n i t e & D e f i n i t e & General General Statement Agreement Agreement I enjoy going to concerts 25% 17% A woman's place i s in the home 27 41 In my job I t e l l people what to do 53 21 I am a good cook 36 26 My greatest achievements are ahead of me 56 42 I buy many things with a charge or c r e d i t card 39 22 We w i l l probably move once in the next f i v e years 46 37 Five years from now the family income w i l l probably 71 60 be a l o t higher than i t i s now Good grooming is a sign of se l f - r e s p e c t 52 71 There i s too much advertising on TV today 59 70 Women wear too much make up today 43 51 My job requires a l o t of s e l l i n g a b i l i t y 51 37 I l i k e to.pay cash f o r everything I buy 26 67 T e l e v i s i o n i s a primary source of our entertainment 25 40 Investing in the stock market i s too r i s k y f o r most fa m i l i e s 47 56 To buy anything other than a house or a car on c r e d i t 29 47 i s unwise Young people have too many p r i v i l e g e s today 52 64 I love the outdoors 54 76 There i s too much emphasis on sex today 52 64 There are day people and there are night people; I 58 69 am a day person I expect to be a top executive in the next ten years 44 27 I am or have been president of a society or club 51 36 I would l i k e to have my boss 1 job 42 33 A party wouldn't be a party without l i q u o r 29 17 I would rather l i v e in or near a big c i t y than in or 46 34 near a smal1 town I often bet money at the races 18 8 I l i k e to think I'm a b i t of a swinger 38 26 I stay home most evenings 62 71 Advertising can't s e l l me anything I don't want 55 68 I often have a coc k t a i l before dinner 36 20 I l i k e b a l l e t 26 16 When I must choose between the two, I usually dress 19 10 for fashion not comfort Liquor i s .a curse on American l i f e 34 49 Movies should be censored 41 57 I read one or more business magazines r e g u l a r l y 34 18 I am active in two or.more service organizations 28 17 I do more things s o c i a l l y than most of my friends 19 10 We often serve wine with dinner 30 16 Continued .... 50 TABLE 6 continued .. Statement Card Users D e f i n i t e & General Agreement Noncard Users D e f i n i t e & General Agreement I buy at least three s u i t s a year 25 11 Playboy i s one of my favou r i t e magazines 25 16 I spend too much time t a l k i n g on the telephone 31 17 It i s good to have charge accounts 33 21 Hippies should be drafted 48 61 When I think of bad health, I think of doctor b i l l s 31 46 My days seem to follow a d e f i n i t e routine 47 58 NOTE: A l l differences are s i g n i f i c a n t above the .05 le v e l based on Chi-square tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e 51 s e t t l i n g down to a nice meal, and then going o f f to various a c t i v i t i e s " [18]. One more important l i f e s t y l e discussion found by t h i s study was the f a c t that the male c r e d i t card user belongs to several organizations, and he considers reading a source of information and entertainment. The female c r e d i t card user "leads an a c t i v e , upper socioeconomic s t y l e of l i f e , belongs to soci a l organizations and i s concerned about her appearance". The verbal description of female c r e d i t card user could be as follows: "She i s involved and a c t i v e , fantasy-oriented, would want to t r a v e l , l i k e s luxury items, has a desire f o r s e l f - a s p i r a t i o n , and has very s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s " [18]. For some statements comparing female c r e d i t card users, see Table 7. In Plummer's l i f e s t y l e study, several aspects emerge which have implications f or marketing strategy development re. c r e d i t card usage. Potential c r e d i t card users can be expected to be the higher income, better educated, middle-aged, and professional group. The l i f e s t y l e p o r t r a i t of c r e d i t card users indicates an a c t i v e , upper socioeconomic, urban-suburban l i f e s t y l e with many in t e r e s t s outside the home. Both the male and female users indicate a convenience-orientation toward c r e d i t cards as a s a t i s f a c t o r y cash substitute [18]. To conclude, in t h i s section we discussed the the o r e t i c a l approach to l i f e s t y l e segmentation, and then, a study of c r e d i t card usage was b r i e f l y examined. It was shown that l i f e s t y l e variables could be used to meaningfully segment the market. However, there are operational problems with l i f e s t y l e segmentation, and these w i l l be discussed in the next chapter. We turn now to the t h i r d maim va r i e t y of psychographic segmentation, namely, product benefit segmentation (also c a l l e d product a t t r i b u t e segmentation). 52 TABLE 7 CROSS-TABULATION RESULTS OF AIO AGREEMENT WITH FEMALE BANK CHARGE CARD USERS [18] Card Users Noncard Users D e f i n i t e & De f i n i t e & General General Statement Agreement Agreement I enjoy going to concerts 41% 32% The next car our family buys w i l l probably be a 32 18 station wagon I usually have my dresses al t e r e d to the l a t e s t 52 39 hemline l e v e l s There should be a gun in every home 13 27 I buy many things with a c r e d i t or charge card 64 28 If I had my way, I would own a convertible 17 7 I would l i k e to own and f l y my own airplane 17 10 I would l i k e to be a fashion model 22 10 I would l i k e to take a t r i p around the world 70 57 I enjoy going through an a r t g a l l e r y 51 42 I l i k e to pay cash f o r everything I buy 33 64 I bowl, play tennis, g o l f or other active sports 28 14 quite often I would l i k e to be an actress 16 6 I have more than ten pairs of shoes 47 37 To buy anything other than a house or car on c r e d i t 21 36 is unwise Our family t r a v e l s quite a l o t 44 29 I belong to one or more clubs 55 41 I must admit I don't l i k e household chores 40 32 I l i k e to play bridge 29 16 I l i k e to be considered a leader 33 22 I'd l i k e to spend a year i n London or Paris 40 28 I would rather spend a quiet evening at home than go 31 45 out to a party I would l i k e to know how to sew l i k e an expert 68 77 I would rather l i v e in or near a big c i t y than in or 47 28 near a small town I sometimes bet money at the races 16 5 I l i k e to think I am a b i t of a swinger 24 11 I am a homebody 44 58 I stay at home most evenings 63 73 I often have a coc k t a i l before dinner 21 9 I l i k e b a l l e t 27 18 I l i k e danger 13 3 I do volunteer work f o r a hospital or service organ- 27 11 i z a t i o n on a f a i r l y regular basis I am an active member of more than one service 26 16 organization Continued .... 53 TABLE 7 Continued Card Users Moncard Users De f i n i t e & D e f i n i t e & General General Statement Agreement Agreement I enjoy most forms of housework 36 47 I do more things s o c i a l l y than most of my friends 23 11 Clothes should be dried in the fresh a i r and sunshine 26 37 Movies should be censored 55 65 I would l i k e a maid to do the housework 41 27 It i s good to have charge accounts 62 41 NOTE: A l l differences are s i g n i f i c a n t above the .05 level based on Chi-square tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e 54 c) Product benefit segmentation The main purpose of t h i s approach to market segmentation according to Haley [7] i s to " i d e n t i f y market segments by causal factors rather than d e s c r i p t i v e f a c t o r s " . The underlying philosophy for t h i s approach to market segmentation i s the b e l i e f that the "benefits which people are seeking i n consuming a given product are the basic reasons f o r the existence of true market segments" [7]. What then are the product variables according to which the marketer should segment his market. I t seems that they can be any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the product which could p o t e n t i a l l y appeal to the consumer. Haley [7] shows, f o r example, the benefit segment variables of the toothpaste market. One segment of the market, for example, i s concerned with "decay prevention, one with brightness of teeth, one with flavour and appearance of the product, and one with p r i c e " . Haley in his study of the toothpaste market compared the four benefit segments with demographic and other variables (see Table 8). He found that in each of the benefit segments there was a disproportionately large number of members of one demographic group. Several implications of the benefit market segmentation should be mentioned here. The disproportionate number of demographic groups in each seg-ment suggest that media se l e c t i o n should be.done with t h i s f a c t i n mind. More importantly, the marketer should seek the needs and benefits which might be p o t e n t i a l l y derived by consumers, and then design the product or service with these in mind. This approach to market planning should give any pro-duct a s u f f i c i e n t competitive edge required for success. To conclude the section on psychographic market segmentation, l e t us return to Table 8. Here i t can be observed that not only was the market 55 TABLE 8 TOOTHPASTE MARKET SEGMENT DESCRIPTION [7] Segment Name The Sensory Segment The Sociables The The Indepen-Worriers dent Segment Pri n c i p a l benefit sought: Flavour, product appearance Brightness of teeth Decay Price Prevention Demographic strengths: Children Teens, young Large Men people f a m i l i e s Special behavioural character-, i s t i e s : Users of spearmint flavoured toothpaste Smokers Heavy users Heavy users Brands, dispropor-t i o n a t e l y favoured: Colgate, Stripe Macleans, Plus white, Ult r a B r i t e Crest Brands on sale Personal i t y character-i s t i c s : High s e l f -involvement High s o c i a b i l i t y High hypo- High autonomy chondriacs L i f e - s t y l e character-i s t i c s : Hedonistic Active Conser-vative Value-oriented 56 segmented according to product benefits, but also according to person-a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and l i f e s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of population in each segment. Also, in a sense, the purpose of t h i s section i s summarized in t h i s table; that i s , i t i s shown how the market segmentation can be performed using personality v a r i a b l e s , l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , and product a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s . Ideally, t h i s should be the t o t a l psychographic approach to market segmentation. 2. Advertising Strategy Development Providing that i t i s f e a s i b l e to segment the market with psychographic v a r i a b l e s , then the next question i s : "how can the knowledge about psycho-graphic segments be u t i l i z e d to develop e f f e c t i v e communication with each segment?" The answer to t h i s question l i e s in d i r e c t u t i l i z a t i o n of the verbal d e s c r i p t i o n of the market segment to develop advertising strategy. Substantial work in the area of advertising strategy development has been done by Z i f f . For t h i s reason, Z i f f ' s [31] framework f o r adver-t i s i n g strategy development w i l l be reviewed here. In essence, psychographic research must contain c e r t a i n elements in order to be of use in advertising strategy development. It should: 1. Encompass l i f e s t y l e s , values and needs, personality character-i s t i c s and (product) benefits. 2. Be r e s t r i c t e d to those segments considered relevant to the product under study. 3. Be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d wherever appropriate - to the product rather than framed in a general sense [31, p. 142]. 57 The important elements of the psychographic study are reproduced in Figure 2. This fugure suggests that i t i s necessary to assess the product on a number of dimensions before the r e s u l t s of the research can be used to develop p a r t i c u l a r promotional strategy. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s expected that personality v a r i a b l e s , l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , needs/values, and product benefit desired w i l l be analyzed. Furthermore, i t i s expected that product or brand data and demographic data w i l l be developed and analyzed as w e l l . In order to discover a competitive edge for the product, or brand, the analysis must be performed under a competitive frame of reference. The next step in the process of using psychographics in the promo-ti o n a l strategy development i s to i d e n t i f y market segments in terms of volume p o t e n t i a l , brand saturation, potential consumer benefits, potential brand c o m p a t i b i l i t y , and consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (see Figure 3). According to Z i f f [31], in more simple terminology the output of the psychographic study would describe each segment in the following way: "What they (the customers) are l i k e in terms of l i f e s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , needs, values and personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to the product under study. What they want in terms of that product's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or benefits. Who they are in terms of age, sex, and other demographic var i a b l e s . What they do in terms of purchase and usage". An example of t h i s type of analysis i s given in Figure 4. Here, two types of car dri v e r s are pictured; namely the Dependent Driver, and the Active Driver. It can be observed from, these two examples that we can form a d i s t i n c t picture of each group of d r i v e r s . However, in order to t a i l o r a s p e c i f i c strategy to each group or segment, several c r i t e r i a FIGURE 2 FRAMEWORK FOR ADVERTISING STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT [31, p. 143] Psychographic Variables Product/ Brand Data Individual Data Personality Variables Product Usage Demographic n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Frequency L i f e Style Variables Occasion Personal n i Family Personal Family Needs/Values Brand Usage Functional Frequency Aesthetic Occasions Media Data Situational (optional) Self-image Benefits Desired Brand Perceptions 1 1  Functional Aesthetic Emotional 59 FIGURE 3 IDENTIFICATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTS AMD THEIR CHARACTERISTICS [31, p. 144] Based on I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Important Segments In Terms of <^ L i f e Styles Needs & Values Volume Potential Brand Saturation Potential Consumer Benefits Potential Brand Compatibi1ity Consumer C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s No. of consumers in group and heaviness of use Brand usage -ss* Benefits desired Brand perceptions i f included Demographic data and media data i f included 60 FIGURE 4 COMPARISON OF DEPENDENT AND ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE DRIVERS [31, p. 145, 146] DEPENDENT DRIVERS 1/ WHAT THEY ARE LIKE - Know l i t t l e about cars - Uninvolved in cars, d r i v i n g , maintenance - Apprehensive about cars - Need reassurance that car w i l l run well - Car make and dealer important - Get pleasure from appearance of car ACTIVE DRIVERS V WHAT THEY ARE LIKE - Know a l o t about cars - Involved in cars and mainten-ance - Enjoy dr i v i n g - Are power oriented in dr i v i n g - Want to be in control when dri v i n g - Believe in differences between makes WHAT THEY WANT - Trust in manufacturer and dealer - Dependable car - Good engine performance - Good handling performance - Good s t y l i n g - Minimum maintenance WHAT THEY WANT - Powerful cars f or d r i v i n g control - Top engine performance - Good handling q u a l i t i e s - Cars made by major companies WHO THEY ARE WHO THEY ARE - Older - Younger - Better educated - Middle class in income and - Higher incomes education WHAT THEY DO - More own Chevrolets, Pontiacs, Oldsmobiles - Choose on t r u s t in makes; s t y l i n g - Own more cars; recent models WHAT THEY DO - More own a Ford, fewer a Chevrolet/AM - Drive more powerful cars - Choose on engine performance; s t y l i n g 61 must be s a t i s f i e d . The r i s e and importance of Various Possible Market Targets must be s u f f i c i e n t to warrant e f f o r t s with respect to it/them. The compatibility of the Product - does the product have s u f f i c i e n t i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s to s a t i s f y consumer needs and expectations in a p a r t i c u l a r market segment, and what i s the minimum required e f f o r t to convince consumers that the product can s a t i s f y t h e i r needs and wants. In what sense i s the product Unique. To what extent are various s e l l i n g promises about a product unique, and what i s the expected reaction of the competition with respect to t h i s uniqueness. Is the product promotional e f f o r t expected to cannibalize other entries by the firm. F i n a l l y , to what extent does the product lend i t s e l f to creative promotion.* When these c r i t e r i a are defined and reasonably s a t i s f i e d , the promotional strategy developed on t h i s basis should, according to Z i f f , s a t i s f y the following requirements of meaningful advertising strategy. The strategy i s : 1. Meaningful to a large number of consumers 2. Compatible with the product being sold 3. S u f f i c i e n t l y unique to have a competitive advantage 4. D i s t i n c t enough from the strategy offered by competitive product entries from the same company to minimize c a n n i b a l i z a t i o n 5. P o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g enough to be translated into e f f e c t i v e creative advertising. To conclude, in the section on use of psychographics i t was shown that i t can be used to i d e n t i f y a market segment or target, i t can describe * Freely adapted and modified from Z i f f [31]. 62 the market segment in terms of what i t i s l i k e , and f i n a l l y i t can show what the p a r t i c u l a r market segment might expect from the product. For these reasons, the use of psychographics as an approach to promotional strategy development could be very b e n e f i c i a l . 3. Product Development Development of any product i s no doubt a d i f f i c u l t task. The main task of the designer i s to develop a product that w i l l s a t i s f y consumer needs. The most important f a c t i n the product design process i s the i n f o r -mation about the anticipated consumer and his p r o f i l e . If the designer knows the consumer p r o f i l e , he has a better chance to develop a product which w i l l more c l o s e l y f i t into the consumer's frame of reference. In the study by Frye and Klein [6], i t was shown in an experimental setting that i t i s possible to use psychographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of consumers in a product design. In t h i s experiment, d i f f e r e n t groups of designers were given demographic data or psychographic data. The demographic data p r o f i l e of the consumer was described as follows: You are designing a clock radio f or a young market. About half your market i s under 25 and none i s over 34. Approximately 15% of the market are single people l i v i n g alone. Half would be c l a s s i f i e d as "young marrieds without c h i l d r e n " or "singles l i v i n g together". About a fourth have one c h i l d , and some 10 percent have two or more ch i l d r e n . The educational level i s high in your market. Only s l i g h t l y over 10% have no college at a l l . About half have some college t r a i n i n g , with many of t h i s group presently attending college. Over a fourth have an 63 undergraduate degree and s l i g h t l y over 10% have a graduate degree. About a f i f t h of the market earns $10,000 or over annually. About a fourth earn more than $7,500 but less than $10,000. A f a i r l y large group - s l i g h t l y over 35% - earns less than $5,000 [6]. The psychographic p r o f i l e , on the other hand, was described as follows: You are designing a clock radio f or a market that has a number of i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The people in your market tend to have a reasonably high aesthetic sense, appreciate music and things of beauty. They tend to be oriented toward suburban, single family residences, but choose to l i v e near c i t i e s rather than in rural or small town environ-ments. They have a f a i r l y high degree of self-confidence in whatever they undertake. However, they are not i n c l i n e d to be gamblers - to take un-necessary r i s k s in making the myriad of l i t t l e decisions involved in l i v i n g . They are not old-fashioned or tradition-bound, yet they are not, by any means, in the vanguard of fashion. They enjoy a pleasant evening out; however, they equally enjoy spending a quiet evening at home. They tend to maintain a neat, clean l i v i n g environment. They are moderately interested in cooking and serving a t t r a c t i v e , healthful meals, but are not compulsive about i t . F i n a l l y , they are not spendthrifts. While not exactly stingy, they are conscious of prices that they have to pay for the items needed in everyday l i v i n g [6]. The r e s u l t i n g product, a clock radio, prepared by d i f f e r e n t groups, was judged by i n d u s t r i a l design professors without knowing which consumer p r o f i l e was given to the designer. S t a t i s t i c a l tests showed that the product designed on the basis of the psychographic p r o f i l e had been rated "better" than the product designed on the basis of the demographic p r o f i l e However, i t i s not known i f the superior product would have also been rated better by actual consumers. Furthermore, no mention has been made as to what would have been the r e s u l t s should the two d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s have been u t i l i z e d simultaneously. In t h i s section i t was shown how i t may be possible to u t i l i z e psycho graphic data (and p r o f i l e ) in product design. 4. Channels of D i s t r i b u t i o n Selection Not very many aspects of a marketing strategy have escaped the enquiry of psychographic research. Apparently i t i s possible to u t i l i z e psychographic research even to se l e c t channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The under l y i n g philosophy behind i t i s in the following: the consumer's l i f e s t y l e and shopping habits vary by c i t y d i s t r i c t s as well as geographic regions. For these reasons i t i s necessary to i d e n t i f y l i f e s t y l e patterns in d i f f e r e n t parts of the c i t y (say, urban vs, sub-urban), and to i d e n t i f y l i f e s t y l e patterns in d i f f e r e n t geographical regions (say, a g r i c u l t u r a l region). Channels and modes of d i s t r i b u t i o n can then be t a i l o r e d to the p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e . A rural l i f e s t y l e might require 'catalog' d i s t r i b u t i o n , a sub-urban l i f e s t y l e might require a shopping centre. However, i t i s possible that a s p e c i f i c product might s t i l l need some other channel to reach the 65 consumer. Certain caution i s in place when l i f e s t y l e i s considered fo r possible channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n . It seems that i t may be possible that the causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n and l i f e s t y l e i s reversed. That i s , the channel of d i s t r i b u t i o n changes the l i f e s t y l e , and the channel does not follow a s p e c i f i c l i f e s t y l e . Hodoch [8] shows that the channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n have been changing over the l a s t century, b a s i c a l l y due to the changes in l i f e s t y l e . Most of the innovative merchandising techniques were brought about and succeeded because at the given point in time the l i f e s t y l e patterns were conducive to accept such innovations. Lately, we have been experiencing changes in l i f e s t y les which are bound to have impact on the channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n . Such fac t s as a shorter work week, working women, higher di s c r e t i o n a r y incomes, and w i l l i n g -ness to accept extremely uniform merchandise are prime motives for marketers to adapt t h e i r channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n . 5. Media Selection Media selec t i o n i s important from the marketing strategy point of view, because the 'correct' media might have greater impact on the consumer in a given segment. It i s to be expected that c e r t a i n media have t h e i r own followers, and in essence the media has a personality in the eyes of the consumer. Furthermore, i t i s possible that the consumer selects only media which resemble his own personality and l i f e s t y l e . A message ca r r i e d on the media which i s n a t u r a l l y close to the consumer has a better chance to succeed. For the marketer, a knowledge of which media reaches which segment of i n t e r e s t i s of utmost importance, r e s u l t i n g in 66 a more eff ic ient ly used advertising budget. An interesting approach to media selection has been taken by Tigert [23]. He takes two different approaches to media selection: "One approach is to examine the characteristics of a particular medium's audience, and to compare these char-acteristics with the characteristics of those who are not in the medium's audience ( i.e. compare viewers with non-viewers, readers with non-readers, etc.") This approach gives the marketer a chance to discover substantially important differences between two groups in the market segment. It is possible that viewers of a certain TV programme are also users of a particular product (and vice versa). "A second approach involves the examination of a particular medium's audience characteristics in relation to the audience characteristics of a l l other media that are being considered for a particular campaign. A comparison across audiences wi l l t e l l us something about the differences in the 'qual ity ' or 'appropriateness' of each audience for (a specific) promotional campaign. (Providing that i t is suff ic iently possible to dis-criminate between the audiences, i .e. the overlap is not interfering)". Tigert 's empirical findings show, for example, that the viewers with strong preference for Fantasy-Comedy TV shows [23], had the following characteristics: 1. A strong, more tradit ional, conservative incl ination: concern about rel ig ion, youth, drugs, liquor, security, tradit ion, and the permissive society. 2. A greater concern about cleanliness in the home. 3. A stronger view of l i f e as both a personal and financial defeat: never get ahead on their income and are now looking for a handout; more heavily in debt and no way out. 4. A strong commitment to television: l i t t l e interest in print media, or other outside act iv i ty. These people stay at home most of the time. 5. Price conscious - bargain seekers, but wi l l ing to pay more for nationally advertised brands. 67 6. An orientation towards the children as a focal point in the family. On the other hand, the p r o f i l e of viewers with strong preference f o r talk shows is d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the fantasy shows. These viewers had: 1. A strong i n t e r e s t in new products. 2. An i n c l i n a t i o n to transmit information and to seek out information about new products. 3. A need for excitement in t h e i r l i v e s , more outgoing, sociable. 4. A strong i n t e r e s t in fashion and personal appearance. 5. Pride in and care of the home; but not the f a n a t i c a l concern with d i r t and germs. 6. A commitment to t e l e v i s i o n and in p a r t i c u l a r the U.S. shows. 7. A d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i f e , in spite of t h e i r need for excitement. Perhaps they are looking for an escape. Apparently, both consumer segments ( i . e . fantasy-comedy segment, and talk show segment) provide a d i s t i n c t opportunity for the marketer to communicate the message about a p a r t i c u l a r product. Here, the marketer might be able to develop a media-product f i t with much greater e f f i c i e n c y of population reach. T i g e r t [23] suggests several products which could be u s e f u l l y combined with a p a r t i c u l a r TV programme type. 1. The fantasy-comedy shows represent viable media for a l l types of home cleaning products from d i s i n f e c t a n t s to a i r freshners to l i q u i d cleaners. And the appeals in the copy should be hard h i t t i n g attacks on germs and d i r t . 2. The fantasy-comedy shows represent viable media f o r many proprietary drugs such as deodorants, mouthwashes and vitamins. 3. The talk shows represent viable media for many types of new products. They warrant serious consideration during the introductory phase. 68 4. The t a l k shows represent v i a b l e media f o r women's cosmetics, fashions and grooming a i d s . F i n a l l y , T i g e r t developed audience p r o f i l e s f o r other types of TV programmes. These are reproduced i n Table 9. Here, in each category of viewers, some demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a l s o given. To conclude, i t seems that a l l media have a unique audience, with unique l i f e s t y l e customs, and unique product purchasing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The consumer in each audience group (segment) re q u i r e s a separate copy approach, t a i l o r e d to s p e c i f i c media, and product - in order to s a t i s f y his unique need more e f f i c i e n t l y . B. Psychographics and Consumer Behaviour The preceeding part of t h i s chapter d e a l t with psychographics as i t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s to marketers' concerns. Consumer behaviour questions were i m p l i c i t l y d e a l t with, but no s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n was given to them. In t h i s part we turn to the consumer side of psychographic research. However, in r e a l i t y we ought to r e a l i z e t h at separation of marketers' concerns from consumer behaviour i s incompatible, and marketers' i n t e r e s t w i l l always be at l e a s t p a r t l y o r i e n t e d toward consumer behaviour. Two aspects of consumer behaviour appear to be c l o s e l y connected with psychographics. One, consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s , as represented by p e r s o n a l i t y , a c t i v i t y , and a t t i t u d e s . Two, consumer p r o f i l e formation as represented by the actual consumer behaviour in the market place. We w i l l f i r s t discuss the consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s . TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS (1970 Canadian Female Data) [23] IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURES (IRONSIDE, TAKES A THIEF, MANNIX, MOD SQUAD, FBI AND MISSION IMPOSSIBLE) Lower education Concern with health A n t i - p o l l u t i o n and government control Compulsive TV viewers - a n t i - p r i n t Brand loyal T r a d i t i o n a l , conservative Price conscious F i n a n c i a l l y o p t i m i s t i c Family oriented Like science f i c t i o n L i t t l e i n t e r e s t in the arts HOCKEY (WEDNESDAY AND SATURDAY) Older Strong i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e of mother, wife and homemaker - anti-women's l i b Active sports p a r t i c i p a n t and sports fan Very non-permissive about cosmetics, sex and d i s c i p l i n e Not a t r a v e l l e r Heavy newspaper reader MALE SINGERS - I (CASH, MARTIN, WILLIAMS AND CAMPBELL) Lower education, s l i g h t l y lower income Pro-national brands Brand loyal Strong on uncertainty, d i s t r u s t and worry Care and pride of home Affecti o n a t e , tender and loving Permissive on female use of cosmetics, c i g a r e t t e s , etc. Worried about youth, drugs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Big on health aids (deodorant, mouthwash, etc.) MOVIES (ACADEMY, WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY) Lower income and education Strong on t r a d i t i o n a l conservatism ( l i k e fantasy-comedy shows) Compulsive TV viewers Home cl e a n l i n e s s , care of and pride in home Continued ... TABLE 9 Continued MOVIES (ACADEMY, WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY) Continued Non-risk takers, very secur ity conscious Homebody, not s o c i a l l y active F inanc ia l l y d i s s a t i s f i ed Price conscious VARIETY-COMEDY (GLEASON, BURNETT, LUCY, SKELTON) Very low education Older Lower income Strong on cooking Pos i t ive towards advert is ing Compulsive housekeepers Anti-youth, drugs Weight and health conscious Rel ig ious, non-permissive Pro TV, an t i - p r i n t except for Macleans magazine Fashion and personal appearance conscious Homebody Security conscious Sel f -conf ident, s e l f - d i s c i p l i ned Be l ie f in salvation Want an enjoyable, l e i su re l y l i f e BLACK COMEDY (JULIA, BILL CROSBY) Lower education and income Older L i f e s ty le p r o f i l e very f l a t in general Pos i t ive on cooking, non-permissive and t rad i t i ona l 71 1. Consumer Behaviour Analysis Pessemier and T i g e r t [17] undertook to study consumer behaviour using non-demographic measures which could aid the description and pre-d i c t i o n of market behaviour. In p a r t i c u l a r , they compared association of several demographic variables (age, education of husband and wife, and total family income) with market-oriented a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and opinions, personality t e s t s , brand purchase patterns, general usage rates, perceived r i s k of purchase, media exposure, and advertising slogan recog-n i t i o n . Some of the variables used and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s with demographic variables are reproduced in Table 10 ( i . e . c o r r e l a t i o n of factor scores with demographic v a r i a b l e s ) . It can be observed that many of the fac t o r scores are r e l a t i v e l y independent from demographic v a r i a b l e s . This, in essence, i s one of the most important f i n d i n g s . The independence of the psychographic variables from demographic ones suggest that there could be a reasonable explanatory power associated with psychographic v a r i a b l e s . Pessemier and T i g e r t c a r r i e d out regression analysis i n the same study. Some findings about variance explained by demographic and non-demographic variables i s given in Table 11. I t can be observed that the non-demographic variables have i n v a r i a b l y better explanatory power, with the exception of time variables (variables #41 and 43, brand recognition expen-sive f u r n i t u r e and brand recognition score carpets r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In t h i s section, a study dealing with consumer behaviour analysis was presented. It was shown that consumer behaviour can be explained with psycho-graphic variables which in many cases have greater variance explanatory power. The c l o s i n g section of this chapter turns to the question of consumer p r o f i l e formation. 72 TABLE 10 CORRELATIONS OF PSYCHOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES [17] Correlation with Demographic Variables Number Description 1 2 3 4 5 1 Housewife's age group - 01 02 -15 a 33 2 Housewife's education - 39 49 32 3 Husband's occupation - 66 33 4 Husband's education - 21 5 Total family income -6 2nd occupation FS - lawyer, psychologist, soci a l worker, etc. -06 17 08 06 12 7 3rd occupation FS - r e c e p t i o n i s t , secretary, etc. -03 -07 -07 -07 03 8 4th occupation FS - dress designer, i n t e r i o r decorator, a r t i s t , etc. -05 00 05 04 -01 9 2nd quasi-personality FS - outgoing, sociable, humorous 06 05 04 -01 04 10 4th quasi-personality FS - s k e p t i c a l , suspicious 05 -07 -05 -06 00 11 1st personality FS - s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n 10 -10 -05 -09 01 12 5th personality FS - assertive 04 -19 -10 -09 -02 13 6th personality FS - negative leadership 11 -32 -24 -28 -07 14 7th personality FS - impulsiveness -07 12 16 11 -03 15 8th personality FS - negative i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t and i n t e l l i g e n c e -05 -17 -05 -01 -07 16 1st AIO, FS - health and soc i a l conformity 23 -12 -12 -14 03 17 2nd AIO, FS - careful shopper price conscious, shops for specials 00 -03 -06 -07 -22 18 3rd AIO, FS - compulsive, orderly housekeeper 04 -15 -12 -06 -09 19 4th AIO, FS - careless and/or irrespon-s i b l e behaviour in shopping, f i n a n c i a l and personal a f f a i r s -11 -17 -10 -09 -09 20 5th AIO, FS - careless and/or irrespon-s i b l e behaviour in shopping, f i n a n c i a l and personal a f f a i r s -11 -17 -10 -09 -09 21 6th AIO, FS - negative attitudes towards advertising's value 18 14 08 06 14 73 TABLE 10 Continued Variable Number Description 22 7th AIO, FS att i t u d e s , - conservative, middle class mature, sociable 23 8th AIO, FS - weight watcher d i e t e r 24 9th AIO, FS - fear of unfamiliar, avoids r i s k 25 10th AIO, FS - outdoor, casual 26 11th AIO, thusiast FS - non-participating sports en-27 12th AIO, FS - active information seeker 28 13th AIO, FS - d o - i t - y o u r s e l f homemaker 29 14th AIO, FS - husband oriented, interested in husband's a c t i v i t i e s 30 Total hours watching t e l e v i s i o n on weekdays 31 Total hours watching t e l e v i s i o n on Saturdays 32 Total hours watching t e l e v i s i o n on Sundays 33 Advertising slogan recognition score company names 34 Advertising slogan recognition score cola flavoured soft drinks 35 Total score on advertising slogan recognition (includes additional categories other than variables 33 and 34 above) 36 1st Media FS - i n t e l l e c t u a l , c u l t u r a l (reads New York Times, Saturday Review, New Yorker, A t l a n t i c Monthly, Consumer Reports, etc.) 37 2nd Media FS - l i g h t reading (reads Post, Reader's Digest, Look, L i f e , Ladies Home Journal, etc.) 38 3rd Media FS - fashion, the swinger (reads Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, Glamour, Mademois-e l l e , etc.) 39 4th Media FS - movie, crime, s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c (reads Modern Romance, Modern Screen, True Story, True Confessions, etc.) 40 5th Media FS - the homemaker (reads Family C i r c l e , Woman's Day, McCalls, Good house-keeping, Better Homes and Gardens, etc.) 41 1st brand recognition score - expensive fu r n i t u r e 42 2nd brand recognition score - medium priced f u r n i t u r e Correlation with Demographic Variables 1 2 3 4 5 07 -09 -02 00 06 16 05 07 05 18 02 -09 -22 -19 -08 -29 -04 -09 09 -09 14 07 10 07 06 -14 -01 02 01 -07 -09 05 09 02 -02 06 16 15 09 12 -17 -25 -09 -12 -29 -09 -26 -19 -21 -18 00 -17 -11 -13 -10 -14 10 12 18 08 -23 -07 -05 -03 -11 -21 -03 -06 08 -02 12 36 23 24 24 18 14 04 -04 09 06 20 21 19 24 -08 -18 -27 -22 -18 08 -15 -01 -08 01 20 31 29 27 32 -05 09 00 04 15 74 TABLE 10 Continued Correlation with Variable Demographic Variables Number Description 1 2 3 4 5 43 3rd brand recognition score - carpets 33 21 20 12 38 44 4th brand recognition score - a r t i f i c i a l f i b r e s -06 21 08 12 14 45 5th brand recognition score - f a b r i c s 23 29 21 15 40 46 7th brand recognition score - liquors 04 18 30 23 26 47 Total score on brand recognition 17 26 24 21 40 decimals omitted 75 TABLE 11 REGRESSION ANALYSIS - COMPARISON OF EXPLANATORY POWER OF DEMOGRAPHIC VERSUS NON-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES f l 7 l Run Number Dependent Variable (from Table 10) Percent of Percent of Variance Variance Explained by Explained by Demographic Non-Demographic Variables Variables 1 30 - total hours watching TV on weekdays 2 31 - total hours watching TV on Saturdays 3 32 - total hours watching TV on Sundays 4 33 - Advertising slogan recognition score - company names 5 34 - Advertising slogan recognition score - cola flavoured s o f t drinks 6 35 - Total score on advertising slogan recognition 7 36 - 1st media fa c t o r score - i n t e l -l e c t u a l , c u l t u r a l 8 37 - 2nd media f a c t o r score - 1 l i g h t reading 9 38 - 3rd media fa c t o r score - fashion, the swinger 10 39 - 4th media factor score - movie, crime, s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c 11 40 - 5th media factor score - the homemaker 12 41 - 1st brand recognition score -expensive f u r n i t u r e 13 42 - 2nd brand recognition score -medium-priced f u r n i t u r e 14 43 - 3rd brand recognition score-carpets 15 44 - 4th brand recognition score -a r t i f i c i a l f i b r e s 16 45 - 5th brand recognition score -f a b r i c s 17 46 - 7th brand recognition score -liquors 18 47 - t o t a l score on brand recognition .33 12.4% 20.2% .32 8.8 23.1 .27 3.1 23.9 .23 5.3 17.7 .28 5.5 22.5 .33 5.0 28.0 .40 15.0 25.0 .26 6.0 20.0 .44 8.5 35.1 .26 8.6 17.9 . .25 3.0 22.0 .37 19.0 18.0 .24 4.0 20.1 .38 20.8 17.2 .22 6.2 15.8 .40 20.0 20.0 .35 12.0 23.0 .43 20.0 23.0 76 2. I d e n t i f y i n g Consumer P r o f i l e The most prevalent aspect o f psychographic research i s the f o r -mation or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of consumer p r o f i l e using v a r i a b l e s other than demographics. In essence the researcher develops an instrument which draws h e a v i l y on every-day aspects of the consumer's l i f e . The i m p l i c a t i o n here seems to be that the consumer psychographic p r o f i l e should be as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the product i n question as p o s s i b l e . Some examples of the v a r i a b l e s used to i d e n t i f y the consumer p r o f i l e are reproduced i n Figure 5. The questions i n the instrument are normally scored on a f i v e p o i n t s t r o n g l y agree-disagree s c a l e . The r e s u l t i n g psychographic p r o f i l e then v e r b a l l y describes a par-t i c u l a r c l a s s of customers, as they r e l a t e to a product. The psychographic p r o f i l e according to Hustad and Pessemier [9] could read: "Heavy users e x h i b i t a z e s t f o r l i f e . They are o p t i m i s t i c about t h e i r personal and f i n a n c i a l f u t u r e s , fashion and appearance conscious, p r o - c r e d i t , a c t i v e , i n f l u e n t i a l and r i s k t akers. They are not a f r a i d to borrow or i n v e s t and they l i k e to go to e x c i t i n g p a r t i e s . Although they are above average i n income they are not on top of the s o c i a l ladder". Providing that the researcher i s able to e s t a b l i s h the s i z e of the 'heavy user' segment which warrants p a r t i c u l a r l y t a i l o r e d promotion, then the promotional s t r a t e g y i m p l i c a t i o n s are obvious. For the psychographic p r o f i l e d e s c r i b e d above, Hustad and Pessemier [9] suggest the f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s : 1. Accept charge cards 2. Maintain an informal atmosphere 3. Don't s t r e s s c e n t s - o f f promotion, s i n c e heavy users do not seem to be p r i c e conscious 4. Consider home d e l i v e r y as an added time saver 77 FIGURE 5* PSYCHOGRAPHIC PROFILE VARIABLES AND SAMPLE QUESTIONS The Gambler I l i k e to play poker I sometimes bet money at the races I 1 ike danger I don't l i k e to take chances Sports Cars, Flying and Travel I l i k e sports cars If I had my way, I would own a convertible I would l i k e to own and f l y my own airplane I don't l i k e to f l y I would l i k e to take a t r i p around the world I'd l i k e to spend a year in London or Paris Conservative, T r a d i t i o n a l ism You can't have any respect f o r a g i r l who gets pregnant before marriage A woman should not smoke in public I have somewhat old-fashioned tastes and habits I often wish for the good old days There i s too much emphasis on sex today There i s too much violence on TV today Young people have too many p r i v i l e g e s today Today, most people don't have enough d i s c i p i i n e Parties and Liquor A party couldn't be a party without 1iquor We often serve wine at dinner I 1i ke beer Liquor i s a curse on American l i f e I often have a c o c k t a i l before dinner Unconcerned I dread the future Investing i n the stock market i s too r i s k y f or most fam i l i e s Unconcerned cont. Communism i s the greatest p e r i l in the world today Religion If Americans were more r e l i g i o u s , t h i s would be a better country I often read the Bible S p i r i t u a l values are more important than material things Self-Confidence, Leadership I l i k e to be considered a leader I think I have a l o t of personal a b i l i t y I have never been r e a l l y outstanding at anything I often can talk others into doing something The Swinging Party-Goer There are day people and there are night people; I am a day person I am a g i r l watcher I l i k e to think I am a b i t of a swinger I would rather spend a quiet evening at home than go out to a party I l i k e parties where there i s l o t s of music and t a l k I do more things s o c i a l l y than do most of my friends I l i k e to feel a t t r a c t i v e to women Books and TV T e l e v i s i o n programmes are more i n t e r -esting than they were 5 years ago T e l e v i s i o n should have more serious programs I l i k e t e l e v i s i o n news programs I l i k e to read comic s t r i p s I l i k e war s t o r i e s I l i k e science f i c t i o n A news magazine i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than a f i c t i o n magazine 78 FIGURE 5 Continued Money and Credit To buy anything, other than a house or car on c r e d i t i s unwise I l i k e to pay cash f o r everything I buy In the past year, we have borrowed money from a bank or finance company I buy many things with a c r e d i t card or a charge card I w i l l probably have more money to spend next year than I have now Five years from now the family income w i l l probably be a l o t higher than i t is now Physical & Occupational M o b i l i t y In the l a s t 10 years, we have l i v e d in at l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s We w i l l probably move at l e a s t once in the next 5 years I expect to be a top executive in the next 10 years Advertising & New Brands Advertising cannot s e l l me anything that I don't want Advertising leads to wasteful buying in our society I often t r y new brands before my friends and neighbours do Once I f i n d a brand, I l i k e to s t i c k with i t Price Conscious I shop a l o t for specials I f i n d myself checking the prices in the grocery store even f o r smal1 i terns I usually watch the advertisements for announcements for sales A person can save a l o t of money by shopping around for bargains Fashion Conscious cont. When I must choose between the two, I usually dress f o r fashion, not for comfort Child Oriented When my children are i l l in bed, I drop most everything else in order to see to t h e i r comfort My ch i l d r e n are the most important thing in my 1 i f e I t r y to arrange my home f o r my children's convenience I take a l o t of time and e f f o r t to teach my children good habits Compulsive Housekeeper I don't l i k e to see children's toys l y i n g about I usually keep my house very neat and clean I am uncomfortable when my house i s not completely clean Our days seem to follow a d e f i n i t e routine such as eating meals at a regular time, etc. Arts Enthusiast I enjoy going through an a r t g a l l e r y I enjoy going to concerts I l i k e b a l l e t Fashion Conscious I usually have one or more out-f i t s that are of the very l a t e s t s t y l e * Developed by T i g e r t [23] and Wells [25] 79 It i s possible that a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f i l e of consumer w i l l have i m p l i -cations f o r more than one product. In t h i s case the heavy user segment could vary i t s habits to a range of products. To conclude, the consumer p r o f i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s the underlying aspect of psychographic market research. In t h i s section, i t was shown how the p a r t i c u l a r p r o f i l e variables are developed, and how the verbal des c r i p t i o n of the consumer p r o f i l e could be formulated. Some promotional strategy implications were also mentioned. 3. Summary The main purpose of t h i s chapter was to review l i t e r a t u r e sources on the use of psychographic research. For this purpose, a framework fo r the uses of psychographics was presented. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was shown that psychographic research has applications in marketing strategy development, and consumer behaviour research. Several research studies were presented in each category, and the main aspects of t h e i r findings were reviewed. The following chapter proceeds to evaluate psychographics as i t relates to marketing. 80 CHAPTER IV EVALUATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHICS The two previous chapters examined theo r e t i c a l formulations of psychographic research and ap p l i c a t i o n of psychographic concepts to marketing decisions. This chapter sets out to evaluate and c r i t i c a l l y examine psychographic research and i t s contribution to marketing manage-ment. The evaluation and c r i t i c i s m of psychographics i s complex. The l i t e r a t u r e contains l i t e r a l l y dozens of a r t i c l e s c r i t i z i n g psychographic research per se, as well as the application of psychographics to the marketing d i s c i p l i n e and consumer behaviour research. In order to follow the c r i t i c i s m s and evaluation of psychographics in a systematic and objective manner, th i s chapter deals with the subject matter under the following headings: 1. Relevancy of Psychographics to Consumer Behaviour and Marketing 2. R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y and Measurements Problems 3 . Pros and Cons of Psychographics: Some comments from professionals 1. Relevancy of Psychographics to Consumer Behaviour and Marketing One of the more serious c r i t i c i s m s of psychographic research comes from those who hold that psychographics i s not relevant to the so l u t i o n of marketing questions. Indeed, i t would not make sense to deal with psychographics i f i t did not help to resolve the marketers' problems. Consequently, psychographic research i s relevant to marketing only to the extent that i t can help to solve marketing problems. Obviously, person-a l i t y and l i f e s t y l e concepts make i t d i f f i c u l t to draw the d i s t i n c t i o n 81 as to which of t h e i r aspects are relevant to marketing problems and which are not. Young [29] says: The only way to insure that measurements of personality and l i f e s t y l e are relevant to the marketing problem i s to analyze them within the context of a p a r t i c u l a r product category. This, however, i s not a s u f f i c i e n t condition. Here, Young assumes that consumers' l i f e s t y l e and personality vary from one product category to the next or that several product categories appeal to a p a r t i c u l a r personality or l i f e s t y l e . Apparently t h i s has to be true regardless of the psychographic approach to the market. The d i f f i c u l t y i s in i d e n t i f y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r personality or l i f e s t y l e (with substantial discriminating power) and c o r r e l a t i n g them with the anticipated consumer behaviour with respect to the product. Young [29] acknowledges that: As f a r as the marketer i s concerned, he need only be concerned with those aspects of personality and l i f e s t y l e which are relevant to the way consumers think r e l a t i v e to his product category. Any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of consumers which attempts to generalize about t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , without consideration given to the ro l e which the product places the consumer i n , or the importance i t plays in his l i f e , i s l i k e l y to be i r r e l e v a n t in many product s i t u a t i o n s , and even misleading. Furthermore, in order f o r the p a r t i c u l a r personality and l i f e s t y l e to have a meaning i n segmenting the market, aggregate values of person-a l i t y and l i f e s t y l e need to be properly conceptualized. It seems safe to say that at this time we do not know enough about personality and l i f e s t y l e to use them i n that way. The meanings of "an average person-a l i t y " or "an average l i f e s t y l e " are obscured, to say the l e a s t . This 82 i s because behaviour i s "countable, not segmented, and i t i s continuous, not d i s c r e t e " (Yoell [28]). Yoell further argues that researchers cannot segment markets in a meaningful way using personality and l i f e s t y l e concepts; thus there i s very l i t t l e relevance of these to marketing. He says: L i f e s t y l e i s a coined expression that sounds nice, but which has no objective basis. It i s an a p r i o r i assumption ... It i s no d i f f e r e n t than the attempt to put consumers into Personality categories such as cyclothegenic, pyknic, c h o l e r i c . You cannot take broad, macroscopic concepts, and predict cake mix, dog food, dessert or deodorant, skin care or p i c k l e eating behaviour, or extend them to these micros-copic areas. The researcher can choose to segment the market on any dimension which comes to his mind, and consumers w i l l be d i f f e r e n t on any such dimension. But there i s often no relevancy between such segmentation and the p a r t i c u l a r product of i n t e r e s t . That i s , the segmentation does not necessarily e s t a b l i s h a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p with the possible consumer behaviour. Behaviour i s a function of consequence [28], not of psycho-metric measurements, graphs of the psyche, l i f e s t y l e , or value systems. What happens a f t e r a response i s emitted determines whether or not i t i s repeated [28]. The problem of psychographic relevancy to p a r t i c u l a r brand or product often stems from the way the personality and l i f e s t y l e items deemed to be relevant are being developed. Pernica [15], f o r example, c i t e s questions used in connection with stomach remedies (see Table 12). It can be observed that most of the items were formulated as general predispositions, without reference to stomach problems. Furthermore, i t can be observed that the items in Table 12 almost e n t i r e l y omit the physiological and psychological needs usually associated with stomach remedy. It comes TABLE 12 STOMACH REMEDIES QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS f l 5 1 My d a i l y l i f e i s f u l l of things that keep me i n t e r e s t e d I am a very energetic person For a vacation I p r e f e r going to a q u i e t cottage o f f the beaten track I p r e f e r c l o t h e s that a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n I have never f e l t b e t t e r i n my l i f e than I do now I worry a great deal about my health I don't know what I would do without my medicines Even small aches and pains bother me g r e a t l y I f you overeat, you deserve to s u f f e r afterward I b e l i e v e a good many p o l i t i c i a n s are j u s t a l i t t l e crooked My hands and f e e t o f t e n f e e l c o l d I think i t i s true that "every cloud has a s i l v e r l i n i n g " I d i s l i k e medicines that take time to prepare L i q u i d remedies are more e f f e c t i v e than p i l l s A f i z z y medicine has a r e f r e s h i n g t a s t e An e f f e r v e s c e n t medicine i s a quick way to r e l i e v e stomach upsets 84 as no surprise to see that this approach to segmentation f a i l e d to y i e l d meaningful segments, in terms of brand usage, and size of the segment. (An even usage pattern over several brands was determined - in the seg-ment of healthy non-medicators, over-indulgent s e l f - t r e a t e r s , early medicators, and pressure-sensitive segments) [15]. Certainly the major d i f f i c u l t y in ascertaining personality and l i f e s t y l e relevancy to marketing i s in the question of s t a b i l i t y of these va r i a b l e s . Personality and l i f e s t y l e as determinants of behaviour, could be relevant to marketing only under a given set of circumstances. This, of course, means that even i f we succeed to determine a p a r t i c u l a r personality related behaviour, that behaviour w i l l most l i k e l y change with any change in circumstances. As a r e s u l t , the p a r t i c u l a r personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has very l i t t l e p rediction character f o r the marketer. In p r a c t i c e , i t means that the marketer cannot r e l y on personality or l i f e s t y l e defined segments as target groups f o r his product. Per-sonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as compulsions, h o s t i l i t i e s , slyness, s e l f -indulgence and so on, are not stable [28]. People make d i f f e r e n t responses in d i f f e r e n t categories of s i t u a t i o n s , and perhaps a des c r i p t i o n of such categories would be a better predictor of consumer behaviour than his personality. With respect to l i f e s t y l e , i t may well be c u l t u r a l , but not at a l l motive - or concept generating - and c e r t a i n l y not deodorant a f f e c -ting [28]. Should the behaviour be consistent with personality and l i f e s t y l e under any circumstances i t would have to co r r e l a t e with labels such as indulgent, aggressive, s e l f - a s s e r t i v e , conforming, l e i s u r e l y , baked bean eating, shaving, dancing, or oral hygiene [28]. Yoell asks [28]: 85 Is there a psychograph permeating t o i l e t t i s s u e use, face masking, toast eating with or without j e l l y , tying t i e s , smoking, making love to one's wife, drinking tea at lunch, scratching an i t c h - a v i t a l psychic i n v i s i b l e force per-meating a l l this? How can t h i s be established objectively? The behaviour f o r any given stimulus s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t , not only on the time horizon of an i n d i v i d u a l , but also varying from individual to i n d i v i d u a l . To conclude t h i s section, i t was shown that the use of personality and l i f e s t y l e variables requires caution when used in the marketing context. Both of these variables are unstable and as such they have l i t t l e p r e d i c t i v e power in consumer behaviour. Consequently, use of personality and l i f e s t y l e variables could prove i r r e l e v a n t to market segmentation, and ultimately to the solution of marketing problems. F i n a l l y , t h i s section examined q u a l i t a t i v e problems of psycho-graphic research. The next section turns to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y oriented problems of psychographic research. 2. R e l i a b i l i t y , V a l i d i t y and Measurement Problems Psychographic research i s based on motivational research and as such i t i s f u l l y vulnerable to the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of psychological t e s t s . Normally, these tests are very complicated, lengthy, require in many cases constraining assumptions, require "good q u a l i t y " samples, and yet remain subject to individual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Computer processed data speed up the analysis but the s u b j e c t i v i t y of in t e r p r e t a t i o n remains. It i s not clear at t h i s point how f a r and to what extent the marketing executive should r e l y on outcomes of such research. 86 It seems that f or the marketer i t may be easier to understand the more tangible t r a d i t i o n a l market segmentation, as well as to develop market strategy .for i t , and plan f o r such a segment, whatever the r e s u l -ting effectiveness may be. The psychographic research design i s of great importance in obtaining reasonably believable r e s u l t s . However, i t seems that most of the 'hard core' psychographic studies f a i l to gain c r e d i b i l i t y with marketers because of the way the studies are executed. According to Simmons [22], psycho-graphic research i s "good or bad, useful or misleading", according to p a r t i c u l a r methods that may be applied in any given case, and according to the soundness of a p p l i c a t i o n , analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s , soundness, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of psychographics i s subject to the same p r i n c i p l e s of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y as other research. Sophisticated computer programmes do not eliminate these d i f -f i c u l t i e s . Use of factor a n a l y s i s , for example, forces the researcher to make broad generalizations about groups of data and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i r various parts. The factor analysis technique i s d e s c r i p t i v e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between variables rather than determination of causes. Thus, the conclusions about consumer behaviour must be made through inferences resti n g on other assumptions. According to Simmons [22]: Any technique that narrows the range of guesswork in making inferences about the causes of behaviour w i l l obviously have a usefulness. Preoccupation with these extremely r e l e -vant and important questions of why people behave as they do has been a major concern since the early days of motivational research. To what extent can psychographics explain behaviour? Insofar as explaining motivations or behaviour i s a major focus of psychographics, i t i s i n e v i t a b l y subject to many of the p i t f a l l s that have beset the path of other i n q u i r i e s into the realm. Whether we are t a l k i n g about brand or product images, reasons f o r buying and using products, market segmen-tation or benefit segmentation, we i n e v i t a b l y encounter 87 1) serious problems of getting v a l i d answers to serve as input into the system, and 2) problems of analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A f t e r discussing the psychographic research problems in general terms, we turn now to some more s p e c i f i c problems, s t a r t i n g with i n s t r u -ment design. a) Instrument Design Almost a l l instruments used in psychographic research to date were extremely lengthy, with up to 300-400 questions per instrument. As a r e s u l t i t was almost impossible to u t i l i z e random samples, and instead question panels were used (where the participants obtain g i f t s f o r par-t i c i p a t i o n ) . Obviously, at l e a s t two serious shortcomings come to mind here. F i r s t , the par t i c i p a n t s are biased towards f i l l i n g and mailing the ques-ti o n n a i r e , because they know that there i s a reward f o r them. Second, the length of the instrument does not leave any doubt that a l l questions cannot receive the same attention, or minimum attention required. (Is i t possible that the par t i c i p a n t s would answer such a questionnaire randomly?) Another problem associated with the instrument design i s in the question format i t s e l f . The instruments usually contain sentence-like questions to which the respondents strongly agree or strongly disagree (5-7 point L i k e r t type s c a l e ) . On one hand, this type of scale i s easy to score, and understand. But, on the other hand, t h i s scale cannot be adopted without reservations to a l l questions. For example, "our family has moved at l e a s t three times in the past ten years" w i l l i n e v i t a b l y 88 y i e l d r e s u l t s at the extreme ends of the scale, due to i t s dichotomous character. Use of q u a l i f i e r s i n the question design creates potential misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Question: I thoroughly enjoy con-versation about sports, I would rather go to a sporting event than a dance, I often seek out the advice of my fr i e n d s ; Information from f r i e n d i s better, and A store's own brand usually gives you good value f o r the money, are only a few examples of ambiguous questions. Thoroughly, rather, often, better, usually, and good, represent d i f f e r e n t meaning to d i f f e r e n t persons. Any res u l t s are i n v a r i a b l y biased. Further d i f f i c u l t i e s with the question formulation i s in assumptions about the p a r t i c i p a n t . Some questions assume that the pa r t i c i p a n t has chi l d r e n , a house, or a car. Others assume that the p a r t i c i p a n t is a church goer, sport watcher, or p a r t i c i p a n t . Such assumptions i n v a r i a b l y e l l i c i t at l e a s t incorrect responses. Other questions do not have s p e c i f i c meaning. For example, the sentence "I l i k e to spend evenings at home" could generate d i f f e r e n t connotations in each respondent. Does one l i k e to spend evenings at home on cold nights? Twice a week? Always? When friends are over? When kids are asleep? One of the most ambiguous sentence formats i s the type "I would l i k e to spend a summer in London or Pa r i s " . Here the p a r t i c i p a n t cannot be sure to which part of the question he i s responding and as such the question i s inadmissible. C e r t a i n l y there are people who would l i k e to spend a summer in Paris but not in London, and people who would l i k e to spend a summer in London but not in Paris. There i s no apparent r e l a t i o n -ship between these two c i t i e s j u s t i f y i n g grouping them together. On the contrary, differences in cultures and languages in these two c i t i e s 89 could generate d i f f e r e n t responses in par t i c i p a n t s when the questions are asked separately. Furthermore, when analysing the responses to this question, i t i s impossible to separate those preferring Paris to London (and i t could well be that people preferring Paris are heavy users of French wines (males) and heavy users of Chanel No. 5 (female)). For these reasons, the participants should be given the chance to respond to each question separately. F i n a l l y , as was noted in the case of the stomach remedy in the previous section, the content of some questionnaire sentences i s not necessarily related to the product in question. Such an approach to instrument design leaves the researcher i n e v i t a b l y with d i f f i c u l t i e s in the area of data analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . b) R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y has to do with the question whether a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u -ment measures about the same over a period of time. T i g e r t [24] examined the r e l i a b i l i t y of some 150 d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and opinions items. The study was c a r r i e d out on housewives over a period of seven months. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s i s given in Table 13. It can be observed that only about 20% of the AIO questions' r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s better than .7. The greatest number of questions scored between .5 - .69 on the r e l i a b i l i t y s c ale, about 55%. T i g e r t found that there were b a s i c a l l y two types of AIO items. Those with stable factors and those with unstable factors (the unstable factors appeared in only the f i r s t and second data set factor a n a l y s i s ) . Selected examples of stable and unstable factors are reprinted in TABLE 13 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR 150 ACTIVITY, INTEREST AND OPINION QUESTIONS (AIO's) f24l Range of R e l i a b i l i t y Number of Questions % of C o e f f i c i e n t in th i s Range Total .80 or higher 10 a 6.6 .70-.79 23 15.3 .60-.69 47 31.3 .50-.59 35 23.3 .40-.49 25 16.6 .30-.39 9 6.0 less than .30 1 .6 150 100 aRead: 10 of the 150 a t t i t u d e questions had a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .80 or greater. 91 Table 14 and Table 15. T i g e r t explains the stable-unstable phenomena in t h i s way: Consider f i r s t the stable f a c t o r s : "fasion conscious", "price conscious", and "diet conscious". These three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might p l a u s i b l y be described as l a s t i n g rather than temporary. People with weight problems have them over long periods of time. However, i n s t a b i l i t y of the "new brand t r i e r - i n n o v a t o r " and "brand l o y a l t y " suggest that the consumer perceptions of new products and re-ported purchases change over time. Implication for marketing strategy development are i n e v i t a b l e - new brands cannot be aimed at s p e c i f i c segments. To conclude, T i g e r t found that some psychographic scale items were more r e l i a b l e than others. To improve the r e l i a b i l i t y of the scale words require careful rephrasing of some of the questions, and dropping or adding some of the items. Furthermore, Wells [26] stresses that u n r e l i a b i l i t y also reduces the confidence one can place in r e l a t i o n s h i p s revealed by cross-tabulations or regressions, and the confidence one can place in c l u s t e r s , both as to content and as to s i z e . When important decisions are to be made on the basis of psychographics, i t i s essential that cross-tabulations, regres-sions, or c l u s t e r s be cross-validated against holdout samples. It i s a l l too easy to overanalyze findings that may be p a r t i a l l y due to chance. c. V a l i d i t y R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e research into the question of psychographic instruments v a l i d i t y was found in the l i t e r a t u r e studied. The basic meaning behind v a l i d i t y i s that the measurement i s v a l i d to the extent 92 TABLE 14 SELECTED EXAMPLES OF STABLE AIO FACTORS [24] Loadings 9 Factors T-lb" T-2 C R e l i a b i l i t y Fashion Conscious I usually have one or more o u t f i t s that are of the very l a t e s t s t y l e 75 80 71 An important part of my l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s i s dressing smartly 72 78 68 I often t r y the l a t e s t hairdo styles when they change 66 67 70 I usually wear nail p o l i s h f or both work and pleasure and have several d i f f e r e n t shades to go with my clothes 51 54 75 Price or "Special" Shopper I shop a l o t for " s p e c i a l s " 78 76 76 I usually watch the advertisements for announcements of sales 73 73 66 I f i n d myself checking the brands and prices in the grocery store even f o r such items as toothpaste, milk and bread 64 73 60 I think newspaper advertising i s a real benefit to the housewife 63 58 51 Dieter, Weight Watcher I am careful about what I eat in order to keep my weight under control 70 66 66 I buy more low c a l o r i e foods than the average housewife 67 64 72 In order to control my weight, I have undertaken a s t r i c t d i e t one or more times 67 77 83 For a period of a week or more, I have used Metrecal or other d i e t supple-ments at least f or one meal a day 51 50 74 aDecimals omitted b0ctober, 1965 C A p r i l , 1966 93 TABLE 15 SELECTED EXAMPLES OF UNSTABLE AIO FACTORS9 f24l . R e l i a b i l i t y 5 Factors Loading C o e f f i c i e n t New Brand T r i e r - Innovator Sometimes, when I see a new product on the she l f , I w i l l buy i t ju s t on impulse, to try i t out, without worrying too much how much i t costs 72 44 I l i k e to t r y new brands of products I use the f i r s t time I see them in the store 62 43 I usually l i k e to wait and see how other people l i k e new brands before I t r y them -64 37 Brand Loyalty I'm the kind of person who makes up her mind on the brand to buy and then s t i c k s to that brand f o r a long time without tr y i n g any others 75 32 I keep away from unfamiliar brands 55 32 I feel that most of the buying I do i s based on habit 50 45 S a t i s f a c t i o n with L i f e We have as good a chance to enjoy l i f e as we should 77 46 Our family income is high enough to s a t i s f y nearly a l l our important desires 71 47 aAppeared in the fac t o r analysis only at T-l or T-2 ^Decimals omitted 94 that i t r e a l l y measures what i t was intended to measure. In r e a l i t y , we can never be e n t i r e l y sure that t h i s i s so, i n the context of motiv-ational and behavioural research. According to Wells [26], psychographic measurements, l i k e other measurements, can be r e l i a b l e without being v a l i d . They can be r e l a t i v e l y free of random error but so f u l l of i r r e l -evancies and bias that conclusions based on them are p a r t l y (or even completely) f a l s e . In the same study, Wells makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between standard per-s o n a l i t y scales, f o r which v a l i d i t y (and " r e l i a b i l i t y ) data are normally published, and v a l i d i t y of 'home made1 psychographic v a r i a b l e s . In the case of the l a t t e r , we can v i r t u a l l y make no conclusions about t h e i r v a l -i d i t y , in spite of the f a c t that some authors think otherwise [26]. Pessemier and Bruno [16] suggest that the v a l i d i t y of an instrument could be tested through the additions and deletions of v a r i a b l e s , par-t i c u l a r l y in the area of content, construct, concurrent and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . Furthermore, cross v a l i d a t i o n of the structural properties of the variables i s possible. The evidence in the previous chapter shows that psychographic variables generally r e l a t e to each other, to demographics, and to the use of product, and media. The degree of confidence which the marketer puts on those findings depends on his point of view. In t h i s context, the marketers who make important decisions on the basis of segmentation studies need ways to determine when the products of c l u s t e r analysis rep-resent groups of real consumers [26], About t h i s the marketer may never be c e r t a i n . 95 3. Pros and Cons of Psychographics: Some comments from professionals The l a s t section of t h i s chapter summarizes the pros and cons of psychographic research. On the po s i t i v e side, one of the strongest comments that can be made about psychographics i s that i t provides an a l t e r n a t i v e to other marketing research t o o l s , and perhaps that i t provides new d i r e c t i o n tn consumer research. To date, psychographic research can be credited with a number of accomplishments in the marketing sphere. To quote Demby [3, p. 198] on t h i s matter: 1. It has shown that there are two kinds of new products -those which do not change a person's l i f e s t y l e ; and two, those which do change a person's l i f e s t y l e . The f i r s t has an easier chance to reach the mass market, the second has an easier chance to reach that segment of the market place which i s always a v i d l y looking f o r new products; 2. I t has uncovered communications bridges that have made some products easier to s e l l . These communications bridges have been, i n v a r i a b l y , concepts which have shown consumers how to f i t the product and the brand into t h e i r l i f e s t y l e more e a s i l y . The d i f f i c u l t y of -not knowing how to f i t a product into one's l i f e s t y l e , or serving s t y l e - i s probably the most prevalent bar-r i e r that a new product confronts i n reaching a mass market. 3. It has predicted the coming of new products in quite a few product categories. The technique f o r segmenting the marketplace with psychographics - in-depth has suggested various patterns of product adoption by consumers. 4. It has shown that there are brand s e l e c t i o n styles -people l i k e l y to buy a premium brand in one product category are l i k e l y to buy a premium brand i n another product category. 5. It has demonstrated that some consumers require fewer inputs of advertising to be sold a given product than are required by other consumers. 96 6. It has enabled advertisers to make media selections by measuring media not j u s t f o r heavy users, but also f o r attitudes and behaviour that can be used to predict the chances - the propensity - of other parts of the audience to buy a s p e c i f i c product or brand. On the negative side of psychographic research, i t can be said that there are many misconceptions about the subject matter i t s e l f . Psycho-graphics could be p o t e n t i a l l y a powerful tool in marketing research, but to th i s date there i s no unequivocally convincing evidence to t h i s e f f e c t . Psychographic research requires an extremely competent analyst who i s as well versed in research design and in s t a t i s t i c a l techniques as he i s in imagination in psychological matters. Otherwise, the com-p l e x i t i e s surrounding the design, execution, analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of psychographic research run an uncomfortable r i s k of being misleading despite conscientious e f f o r t s in t h e i r execution [22]. In conclusion, to use King's quote [11]: 1. There i s no s c i e n t i f i c a l l y conceived, generally accepted d e f i n i t i o n of the concept of psychographics. 2. Multiple professional marketing researchers and academics have created t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n s and research i n s t r u -ments and methodologies in the arena of psychographics (and therefore no foundations f o r s c i e n t i f i c approach to psychographics are being developed). 3. ... Proprietary approaches ultimately produce only con-founding, inconclusive data. A more systematic approach to psychographic research i s required in order to strengthen the theoretical base. Otherwise, there i s a danger that psychographics w i l l become another research fad, r e s u l t i n g in ultimate waste of resources. 97 4. Summary The f i r s t section of t h i s chapter dealt with the question of eval-uating psychographics as i t relates to marketing problems. It was shown that there are problems in the r e l a t i o n s h i p of psychographics to marketing. The important point made was that personality and l i f e s t y l e variables may have no relevance to marketing problems unless a r e l a t i o n s h i p to a p a r t i c u l a r brand of product can be established. The second section of t h i s chapter d e a l t with technical d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with psychographic research in the area of instrument design, r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , and measurement problems. One of the short-comings of the instrument design i s i n e v i t a b l y in i t s length and in the design of p a r t i c u l a r items. Such a s i t u a t i o n brings about problems in the area of data analysis and in t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s . F i n a l l y , t h i s chapter discussed the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of psychographic research. It was shown that some of the scale items are more r e l i a b l e than others. With respect to v a l i d i t y of psychographic research, i t was said that the degree of confidence in psychographic research has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y ascertained, and therefore the marketer may never be sure that the psychographic research instrument i s measuring what i t was intended to measure. To t h i s point we have looked a t the the o r e t i c a l base of psycho-graphics, marketing applications of psychographics and some of the technical aspects. The f i n a l chapter of this thesis sets to summarize conclusions about psychographics. The future of psychographic research as i t r e l a t e s to marketing w i l l be assessed. 98 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS The main purpose of this thesis was to analyze some major aspects of psychographic research and present a comprehensive overview of the subject matter. For these reasons, the thesis has dealt with the sub-j e c t matter from three d i f f e r e n t perspectives. F i r s t , theoretical foundations and d e f i n i t i o n s of psychographics were explored. Second, marketing applications of psychographics were examined. Third, psycho-graphic research was c r i t i c a l l y evaluated. Some general conclusions of each perspective follow. 1 . With respect to the th e o r e t i c a l foundations of psychographic research, i t was concluded that psychographics i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y vested in an a v a i l a b l e theoretical framework. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was found that the underlying psychographic concepts (personality, l i f e s t y l e , product a t t r i b u t e s ) could only p a r t l y be explained through the theory of personal behaviour. It appears that the lack of a s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l base leads, at lea s t p a r t l y , to problems of defining psychographic research per se. It seems that the area of defining psychographics i s confused, and at th i s point there is no general agreement among researchers and marketers as to what psychographics i s or should be. In general, i t seems that personality, l i f e s t y l e , and product a t t r i b u t e s are concepts underlying psychographics. In addition, psycho-graphics research i s perceived as a mu l t i - v a r i e t y quantitative marketing research t o o l . 99 2. With respect to the marketing applications of psychographic research, i t was found that psychographic research i s being applied i n two major areas: One, marketing strategy development; in p a r t i c u l a r , market segmentation, advertising strategy development, product develop-ment, channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n s e l e c t i o n , and media select i o n seem to be the areas where psychographic research has been applied, and where some empirical evidence i s a v a i l a b l e . Two, consumer behaviour analysis; i n p a r t i c u l a r , consumer behaviour a n a l y s i s , and consumer p r o f i l e i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n , again, empirical evidence was examined. In general i t seems that psychographic research can be su c c e s s f u l l y applied to some marketing problems. However, because of the i n s u f f i c i e n t theoretical base, the marketer i s well advised to exercise caution when using psychographic research fi n d i n g s . The main reason l i e s in the f a c t that psychographics may not explain s u f f i c i e n t l y the causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between actual consumer behaviour, and personality or l i f e s t y l e or product a t t r i b u t e s . 3. With respect to the evaluation of psychographics, i t was found that one of the most important properties of psychographics i s i t s r e l -ationship to marketing, and consumer behaviour. However, i t was also found that some of the research designs were not prepared with t h i s need in mind. No meaningful r e s u l t s can be expected from psychographic research unless i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the marketing problem i s s t r i c t l y incorporated in the research design. In the same context, r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y and measurement problems were analyzed. Some shortcomings in each area were brought to the reader's attention. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was found that.the instrument designs do not 100 adhere to marketing research rules, bringing about d i f f i c u l t i e s in the individual items response and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these responses. It was also found that some of the questionnaire items were more r e l i a b l e than others, and that some improvements in the area of r e l i a b i l i t y of psycho-graphic instruments are needed. F i n a l l y , i t was found that very l i t t l e i s a v a i l a b l e i n terms of empirical evidence with respect to the v a l i d i t y of psychographic instruments. Here the marketer may be l e f t with sub-j e c t i v e judgement as to whether or not the instrument i s measuring what i t was intended to measure. To summarize the pros and cons of psychographics, i t seems that at th i s point the greatest value of psychographics i s in that i t provides a l t e r n a t i v e s to other marketing research t o o l s . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true in the area of marketing strategy development and consumer behaviour. Here the psychographic research r e s u l t s have provided some in t e r e s t i n g findings, both for the researcher and f o r the p r a c t i s i n g marketer. Generally, in the long run, psychographic research can be expected to generate better understanding of the market and consumer behaviour in the market. I t must be stressed again that the marketing relevance of psycho-graphic research i s of utmost importance. On the negative side, psychographic research lacks s u f f i c i e n t t heoretical foundations, and the subject matter has not been defined in precise terms. Unquestionably, additional work i s needed i n these areas. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , according to King [11]. 1. Psychographics as a concept must be well defined by the marketing community. 2. A 'generalized' research methodology must be defined in terms of content - basic l i f e s t y l e , measurement dimensions and instruments - and in terms of f i e l d execution to make appli c a t i o n across product categories possible. 3. Procedures f o r t a i l o r i n g psychographics, as a concept, to s p e c i f i c product consumption categories ... must be developed ... F i n a l l y , we may be interested to know what i s the future of psycho graphics in the marketing context. I t appears that psychographic research i s here to stay. We should be looking f o r i n t e r e s t i n g develop ments on two f r o n t s . One, the rate of d i f f u s i o n of psychographics throughout the research and marketing communities. Two, improvements in psychographic research instruments and technology. Both should then r e s u l t in many in t e r e s t i n g findings and empirical evidence in the areas of marketing strategy and consumer behaviour. 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