UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Trans-Canada computer network and its application to point-of-sale and other systems Schuler, Max Michael 1976

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A TRANS-CANADA AND  COMPUTER NETWORK  ITS APPLICATION AND  OTHER  TO P O I N T - O F - S A L E  SYSTEMS by  MAX M I C H A E L SCHULER B.A.Sc,  University  A Thesis  Submitted  the  of British  i n Partial  Requirements  Master  1968  Fulfillment  of  f o r t h e Degree o f  of Business  in  Columbia,  Administration  t h e Department of  Commerce a n d B u s i n e s s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  as conforming  to the  OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A  June, @  Administration  1973  Max M i c h a e l S c h u l e r , 1976  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  in  financial  is  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  by  shall  that  not  copying  Commerce  The University of British V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  te  I  agree  this  be a l l o w e d  or  June 25 .  1 973  and Business Columbia  that  thesis or  publication  without  Schuler  Administration  for  study.  my D e p a r t m e n t  permission.  Department o f  a  of  copying  M.M.  D  requirements  r e f e r e n c e and  t h e Head o f  understood  gain  the  my  ABSTRACT The-" d i v e r g e n c e  communications media  computers and t h e present media as provided  complex that  by today's  i n this  manager a t t e m p t i n g  to gain  To p r o v i d e  this  insight  historical  accomplishments  examines present  t h e nature  an  and s o l i d - s t a t e  important  material  bearing  was g l e a m e d  and  personal interviews.  The  thesis  postulating  applies this the effect  Computer Network; that might the  into  the nature  of data  t h e means  developments  issues  technical  of a  solution.  of economically exas  time-shared communications  t h a t a r e deemed t o h a v e  t o t h e problem. literature,  t o a solution  The b a s i c  trade  articles,  o f t h e problem by  a n d mode o f o p e r a t i o n o f a T r a n s - C a n a d a  i t points out areas  b e n e f i t from  i s a  networks, i t  i n applied  electronics  insight  problem  recapitulates significant  i n t h e areas  on a s o l u t i o n from  warrants  and f i n a n c i a l  o f w h a t i s now c o n s i d e r e d  computing, and i t reviews  these  from t h e point o f view o f a  insight  about  of  i n Canada  of this  technical  thesis  of digital  o f t h e form  At the heart  the thesis  thinking  by u s e r s  common c a r r i e r s  of interrelated  a r e examined  technology  actual trend  examination.  series  panding  .  between t h e demands f o r more e f f e c t i v e and  more economic d a t a  unprecedented  i  such  i n computer a p p l i c a t i o n s  a n e t and s p e c i f i c a l l y  develops  subject of P o i n t - o f - S a l e systems.  Point-of-Sale either  s y s t e m s a r e shown t o f a l l  general-purpose  miniprocessor commercial  time-shared  into  processors  t h e areas o f or dedicated  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e framework o f  possibilities.  Analysis leads  today's  t o the suggestion of  ii. a m u l t i p r o c e s s o r approach t h a t would permit and  highly r e l i a b l e  economical o p e r a t i o n a l b e i t only w i t h i n the context of a  Trans-Canada Computer Network. I t i s concluded  t h a t a net such as proposed would be e n t i r e l y  d i g i t a l i n nature and operate  independently  from  telephone  equipment; i t s manner of s h a r i n g data net c a p a c i t y would complement the o p e r a t i o n of present t i m e - s h a r i n g more e f f i c i e n t would extend  computers and be  i n the use of data t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t y ; i t  the concept  of t i m e - s h a r i n g t o s m a l l machines and  reduce the need f o r f u l l redundancy i n h i g h - r e l i a b i l i t y  systems,  thus p e r m i t t i n g t h e Canada-wide use o f d i s t r i b u t e d m u l t i p r o c e s s o r s t o be a more common c o n f i g u r a t i o n .  By e n a b l i n g  computer-speed switching u s i n g d i g i t a l g a t i n g r a t h e r  than  e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l s w i t c h i n g , charges f o r data l i n k use would be based on access times r a t h e r than l i n e c a p a c i t y , thus becoming more e q u i t a b l e and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y  lower.  The Trans-Canada Computer Network c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would  provide  a common base f o r data t r a n s m i s s i o n thus e s s e n t i a l l y p o i n t i n g the way t o a s o l u t i o n of- the machine i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n problem i n the case of d i s s i m i l a r  processors.  The case f o r a s p e c i a l i z e d data network, then, a r i s e s from the i n a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g and t o a l l appearances, telephone  planned  s e r v i c e s t o s a t i s f y data user's t r a n s m i s s i o n r e -  quirements .  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  i  i  i  . PAGE  1.0  I n t r o d u c t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n 1.1  Sharing  of t h e Problem  1  Computers  1  1.1.1  General Purpose Machines  3  1.1.2  Special  3  Purpose Machines  1.1.2.1  The Communications  1.2  Problems A r i s i n g  from Sharing  1.3  The,Demands P l a c e d  .  Computers  4 6  Lines  9  2.0  Evaluation  3.0  B a s i s f o r an Independent Trans-Canada Computer Network Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e D e s i g n o f C o m p u t e r  22  Networks  25  4.1  27  4.0  5.0  6.0  of Existing  on Data  Processor  Computer Nets  /. . 12  Software and Hardware-Aspects  A TCCN a s a n I n i t i a l  Step i n a S o l u t i o n  to the  Problems o f Sharing  39  5.1  40  M a n a g e m e n t A s p e c t s o f a TCCN  Relevant Applications  of On-line  Systems  6.1 6.2  7.0  General Considerations Some E f f o r t s i n N e t w o r k A p p l i c a t i o n s 6.2.1 R e s e r v a t i o n Systems 6.2.2 P o i n t - o f - S a l e Systems 6.2.3 P e r s o n n e l Data Banks 6.2.4 Electronic Credit Verification 6.2.5 M e d i c a l Data Banks 6.2.6 Additional Applications Supermarket P o i n t - o f - S a l e Systems  44  7.1 7.2 7.3  Systems  Input/Output Considerations P r o c e s s i n g and C o m p u t a t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s C o m m u n i c a t i o n s A l t e r n a t i v e s a s POS S y s t e m Determinants 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4  44 47 48 51 55 57 58 59 63  66 .. 7 2  T h e U s e o f E x i s t i n g I n - h o u s e . j_,arge Central Processors The Use o f a S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t I n - s t o r e Minicomputer The Use o f L o a d - s h a r i n g M i n i - c o m p u t e r s Summary  75 75 78 80 82  iv. 8.0  Conclusions  83  Appendix 1  86  Appendix 2  92  Glossary Bibliography  9 8  l'0'.O  LIST  OF I L L U S T R A T I O N S  v.  FIGURE  PAGE  1  A Canadian  Time/Sharing  2  Western  3  A TCCN a n d i t s R o u t i n g P r o c e s s o r s  4  Alternative  5  TCCN M e s s a g e B l o c k  Section  N e t : C A L L / 3 60  o f CGE T i m e / S h a r i n g  POS S y s t e m s  Net  18 19 41,87 76 88  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish t o extend  h e r e w i t h my s i n c e r e s t g r a t i t u d e  Industries  Limited  assistance  and s e c r e t a r i a l  pletion  of this  v i .  o f Vancouver,  Canada f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l  a i d provided towards  t h e s i s , as w e l l as f o r t h e i r  t h e com-  initiative  in  realizing  an  a s s o c i a t i o n between b u s i n e s s and t h e MBA^student by  proper  that  t o EDP  definition  what f o l l o w s the  example  will  a s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t c a n be e x p e c t e d i n  o f a common g o a l .  I c a n o n l y hope  serve as a testimony t o the f a c t  i sworth  following i n similar future  that  that  enter-  prises . I'd  also  like  t o thank  either  directly  effort  i nproviding  those  or indirectly material  i n d i v i d u a l s and f i r m s contributed  for the following  in  p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s o r s Bernhard  Al  Dexter  thesis.  for pointing  their  out i n i t i a l  that  time and pages, and  Schwab, J i m F o r b e s and shortcomings  i n this  . .. B u t r e m e m b e r , p l e a s e , t h e Law b y w h i c h we l i v e , We a r e n o t b u i l t t o c o m p r e h e n d a l i e , We c a n n e i t h e r l o v e n o r p i t y n o r f o r g i v e . I f y o u make a s l i p i n h a n d l i n g u s y o u d i e ! We a r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e P e o p l e s o r t h e K i n g s Be h u m b l e , a s y o u c r a w l b e n e a t h o u r r o d s ! Our t o u c h c a n a l t e r a l l c r e a t e d t h i n g s , We a r e e v e r y t h i n g o n e a r t h - e x c e p t T h e G o d s I  Rudyard (from  "The  Secret  Kipling  of the Machines")  1.0  I n t r o d u c t i o n and  The of  s u b j e c t t o be vital  concern  secondary tended  Definition  of the  d i s c u s s e d i s , i n a more d e t a i l e d f o r m u l a t i o n , to those  industry  t o show t h e  interested  i n Canada.  The  program of academic but  as  interest  essence,  the technical 1  attributes  r e q u i r e d of  context  one  of  technical in  and  of  aimed  important  but  analysis,  c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis  is  merely  a reflection  have been almost  fundamental  affect  c h o i c e s b e t w e e n new  Sharing  The  virtues,  fact  facilities. economic in  While  totally  even t o economic and  are  h e r e i n and  the  the presented  single-  neglected. aspects,  an  established  this  inextricable  must  be  arguments where  they  machines.  Computers attributes,  advantages  and  disadvantages  enough developed  that  respect w i l l  1.  to,overcome  r a t h e r than  that they  computers have been w e l l little  international  i s p l a c e d upon t e c h n i c a l  of the  a  considerations,  subject to vote  considered  1.1  at  designed  political  to  isoteric  transmission  basis f o r opinions expressed  the  an  application.  fashion,  If  of a  as  economic f o u n d a t i o n s have been l a r g e l y  minded r a t i o n a l  part  merely  is i n -  attributed  a network are reviewed  area  a general managerial  pragmatically  data  strong  demands i m p o s e d upon and  such  specific  be  instrument  present  a  present material  possibly  a practical  the o b j e c t i o n s t o our In  i n creating  strength that should  Trans-Canada Computer Network, not  prestige,  Problem  more i n t h i s  be  i n the repeated  of  sharing  literature here."'"  B e r n h a r d S c h w a b , "The E c o n o m i c s o f S h a r i n g C o m p u t e r s " , Harvard Business Review, XLVI (September-October, 1968), pp. 61-70.  It  c a n be  sharing  t a k e n as a f a c t  large machines  is  not whether  is  sharing  means o f s h a r i n g all, to  given  provide  should  c a n be  the widest  employed  than just  can and  localized  be  t o best  should  within  one  of a d i s t r i b u t e d  have?  Who  shared?  being be  Can  large  Department  has.classified  frame?  computer?  number o f  the d i s t r i b u t i o n institutional  purpose, batch-oriented,  extent  a d v a n t a g e o u s ; what  advantage and  attributes  above  must t h e y  facilities. computers  Can  have  and/or  share each I f some  their  components  I f n o t , what would  be  the  What a d v a n t a g e s w o u l d i t computer  s h a r e d by  an  users?  of Communications  operating-mode and  but t o what  s h a r e d , must a l l  main  applications  Of c o n c e r n h e r e  s h a r e d by humans?  w o u l d manage a d i s t r i b u t e d  unprecedented  sound.  economically  range of sharing  "form"  The  s t i l l  number o f  indicated  t h e s e means, what g e n e r a l  other rather  be  i s at a l l  and  small machines  computers  f o r a vast  i s economically  sharing  possible  that  of the Canadian of computer bases as  government  power on  special  functional,  and  time-shared, mixed, private  general and  2 public  systems.  evaluation the  o f t h e means o f s h a r i n g  previous  general  on a f u n c t i o n a l 2.  In order to present  q u e s t i o n s , we  a new  computers shall  approach t o the and  retain  to  answer  classification  basis.  Department of Communications, Communications Canada, " P a r t i c i p a t i o n by T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s C a r r i e r s i n P u b l i c . Data P r o c e s s i n g , " (1970).  3. 1.1.1  General-Purpose Machines  These and  machines  exist  architecture  when programmed  which d e l i m i t i n their  real  capabilities,  user  i n terms  executors of  o f a) t h e i r  of specific  e.g;  may  computer  will  concurrently  be r e f e r r e d  physically today, this  In  even  with  the  reliability by  special  operating  i n b a t c h mode. t o as being  computers  b)  their  and c)  their  thesis  f o r these  of their  (executive)  may  be e x e c u t e d  Henceforth such a  shared only  soft-  machine  i fusers not i t .  As u n d e r s t o o d  and remote-batch  processing.  Machines of this  i n their  hardware  and  of a large-scale general-purpose  s e v e r a l u s e r programs  i n many  by t h e  software,  This  of reference  comprises time-sharing  operation  and  l a r g e r machines.  on i t s p r e m i s e s a r e a c c e s s i n g  purpose machines  measured  Their  i n the future.  Special-Purpose  general,  language.  management p a c k a g e s  support multitask  under which  capabilities  compilers/interpreters,  how t h e t e r m s  change  speed  general-purpose languages, i . e . i n terms  Today t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e  1.1.2  o r machine  a r e more u s u a l l y  and f i l e  compatibility  criteria  shall  theoretical  t o accept special-purpose hardware  intends t o explain  ware,  range o f s i z e ,  performance as t r a n s l a t o r s  of their  communications  upward  their  "native"  however,  t h e performance  ability  today i n a large  t y p e may  hardware,  n o t be u n l i k e  but d i f f e r  s o f t w a r e and i n t h e i r  cases.  This  considerably i n  need  f o r extreme  r e q u i r e m e n t i s . met  which can only  be u s e d  general-  oftentimes  by c u s t o m i z e d  4.  software.  Further, since the  hardware  can  radically  manufacturer  differ  indeed  vary  from  with the  category  can  be  shared.  This thesis  one  application  attempt  extreme machine r e l i a b i l i t y degree of such  as  s h a r i n g among t h e s e  the  parallel  new  We  Illiac-4,  processor  computational divided  into  shall  can  problems, process  to  be  s h o w how  reduced  f o r the  the  by  and  this  i f ever,  need  for  from  the  machines  general-purpose  solution  and  will  increasing  Apart  a  and  in  rarely,  of  special  special-purpose machines  nature  software  to another  are  machines.  controllers  examine the  and  essentially  intended  hence the  intended, machines  unusually expensive will  and  shall  communications  sharability  of  the  be  processors. communications  processor.  1.1.2.1 Just  as  The a  Communications  president of  addressed  directly  by  a  Processor  l a r g e company  h i s lowest  employees, d i r e c t  between c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e r m i n a l s and unthinkable handled basic into  by  today.  messages;  be  reply  possibly  and  condition; decoded; many  i f they  sources  processing  are  bits;  these  arrive  source  m u s t be  sent  two  must  is be  (CP).  The  formatted  too  severe  quickly  be  processed stored  t o b e t t e r t r a c k the  for  error  code t h e y must  to  errors  identified  in special  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e y m u s t be  i s possible;  connection  computer  m u s t be  f o r r e t r a n s m i s s i o n under are  never  i f messages c o n t a i n d e t e c t a b l e  corrected; their  i f they  shared  of communications processor  transmission units  t h e y must  a  A l l messages between the  some f o r m  words and  i s probably  be  or  from  until  identity  of  terminals  5. and  to prevent  may  be  m u s t be  transmission  involved; and  answered  s y s t e m by  when d i f f e r e n t  priority  means o f  Additional  they  tasks  m e s s a g e s and  over  transmission carried  out  line  costs. by  combinations  a  of  are  This  thesis will  user  dilemma.  more f u l l y ,  on  data  of  of to  shared  attempt  interest,  to  may  be  are  called  a  CP's  and  to  into  of CP.  merely  message  collecting  lines  meeting  several  gathered  fed to  may  bewildering  similar the  tasks  different may  a way  find out  to develop  of  in  itself  their  d i s c r e t e CP's  and  a  into  reduce be processor.  variety various  types  the  at  messages  and  transmission  the  some  today.  store-and-forward  processor point  executive  illustrate  specialized tasks  i n order  d i v i d e CP's  the  s p e c i a l i z e d CP's:  lines  due  external  by  c a r r y out  basically  to  used  are  a front-end  for long-distance  design  they  by  CP  Both these  intervals;  into  processor  c o n c e n t r a t i n g , where  s i n g l e CP  works w i t h i n which a  be  out  terminals  terminals  These t a s k s  performed  low-speed  complexity  will  of  passed  are  of machines a v a i l a b l e to  It  and  stand-alone  preset  classified  communications  carried  at  r o u t i n g them t h r o u g h v a r i o u s  high-speed  The  classes  i n a metwork, and  arriving  m u s t be  the  are  s w i t c h i n g , where a  one  conditions,  same c o d e t h a t  types  interrupts.  functions of  Specifically,  node  i n the  terminal requests  internal  basic  overflow  p o l l e d ( i . e . messages r e q u e s t e d )  terminals for  buffer storage  of  net-  embedded.  resultant  importance distributed  6. CP's.  Although  they on  a  basis  coming  CP  their  from a  computer  performs  It  of  can  (i.e.  site,  be  i s to  be  and  shared  information  c i r c u i t ) , then  in  general  literature, CP's  and  of  words,  tasks CP  t o machines  central  i f the  directly  a distributed  others  for  In other  a l l communications  for  a  i f i t  elsewhere  in  processor.  true function of  transmission  and  a  distribution  a s s i m i l a b l e at be  e a c h end  part  of, at  computer of  messages  of  a  least  one  processor.  Problems A r i s i n g have  i n the  processor.  i t must c o n t a i n , o r  communications  We  leaves  that  the  found  purposes to d i s t i n g u i s h  i t i s part  between user  concluded  be  d e d i c a t i o n t o messages d e s t i n e d  specific  some t a s k s  circuit  network  1.2  f o r our  i s d i s c r e t e if. i t handles  given  the  terms might  have been c o i n e d  the  and  these  said that  from  shared  Sharing  computers  Computers are  here  to  stay.  They  become f a r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d m a c h i n e s t h a n  were even s i x or  seven years  ago.  The  MULTICS  have  they  time-sharing 3  system f i r s t involving has  since  the  i n 1965  as  an  MIT  memory, m u l t i p r o c e s s i n g  1966.  i n c r e a s i n g the  increase 3.  virtual  been i n c o r p o r a t e d  machines by  described  into  the  These are  throughput  number o f  users  development, and  multiprogramming  a r c h i t e c t u r e of important  rate  of  jobs  various  features on  because,  a machine,  they  dependent upon i t .  F. J . C o r b a t o a n d V. A. V y s s o t s k y , " I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d O v e r v i e w o f t h e M u l t i c s S y s t e m , " A F I P S F a l l J o i n t Comput e r C o n f e r e n c e , X X V I I ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1 8 5 - 1 9 5 .  7.  From t h e not is  point of view  matter  whether a  i t necessarily  of  true that a  fail  more o f t e n t h a n  used  100%  of the  A  time.  a  Large  figure  of merit  however, i s the  80%  reliable  i s a poor computer  An  obvious  of  data  solution  i t be  to this  reliable  certain  been b u i l t i t now  an  records  a  will  record  i s connected  this now  be  about  was 16  being  now  on  system:  from  the is  that i s perhaps a remote-access  problem a  would  large  be  t o make t h e  20  time  wishes  indexed-sequential f i l e  by  a  some o f t h e m .  inserting of  120  system  Of  a few  listing  course,  for inserting 40 m i n u t e s  his printer  before  (assuming  on  his  file  records  has each  each.  of the  file;  his time-sharing telephone  access and  is  The  characters  complete  characters/second  and  user's  computer.  t o a c o n d i t i o n e d 150-baud  hours  instal-  computer t h a t  indeed  i s updating  sufficient  of t h a t f i l e  a  lines  10,000 r e c o r d s  i t , he  g i v e s him  Although  i t is  whole  data  s u p e r i o r i s w a i t i n g f o r a copy.  which  machine  reliability).  o f an  period of  contains  updated  terminal  nor  example t h a t a t i m e - s h a r i n g u s e r  t e r m i n a l and  over  as  of the  Obviously  set of  average  assumed as  time-sharing  it  as  lines. to a  (79.2%  links  examining  his  small,  large multi-access  reliability  coupled  of view  data  for a  reliable  Having  unless  does  m a c h i n e s have d i a g n o s t i c and  99%  day;  i s l a r g e or  s m a l l e r one,  the  Let  i t really  l a r g e r , more complex  computer and  point  user  u t i l i t y routines.  critical  lation,  individual  d i s a b l e d machine  will  fail-soft  the  speed.  updating he  the  line  sees  records,  the  system  last  does  not  8. fail The  at  the  user  batch  7653'rd r e c o r d ,  could  have avoided  t e r m i n a l on  leased  line  acoustic  the  through a high  coupler,  but  sharing  computer does not  using be  higher.  completely  an  IBM  he  support  may  s w i t c h , he 360/67 u s i n g  Management System) t o  ISAM  (Indexed  The  (to  and be  to to  be  the  present  Although  this  t o d a y , we  Schwab has  charged  command a  defined  OS.  that  be  cost  to  have access  f o r the  use  of  his  data  an  be  timeand  a Univac  1108  would have  Sequential  leased  baud  would  file  Sequential  of  4800  processing  from  His  (Indexed  remote-  through  costs  a p p l i c a b l e Univac machine  s o l u t i o n s here would  terminal, use,  at  a  2400 o r  batch  m u s t go  ISFMS  remote access  a  find  remote  from  nearest  to  having  processing  rebuilt  because the  by  s p e e d modem r a t h e r t h a n  Further,  does want t o  Exec-8 t o  coupled  h i s monthly  times  i f he  h i s problem  premises  several  that  say).  File  Access i s too  to  Method) far for  lines.  to  a more  lines  computer w i t h m u l t i - a c c e s s  flexible  according  to  facilities  later). set  shall  of  circumstances  develop  already  is unlikely  a means f o r r e n d e r i n g  pointed  out  that  certain  i f not  impossible  them h i g h l y  economies of  viable.  scale  4 are  to  be  realized  computers, with  from using  higher  for  markets of  4.  Schwab, l o c . c i t .  l a r g e r shared  throughput rates  larger radii,  and  machines.  imply  the  under a rather  Larger  requirements  inflexible  rate  9.  schedule  f o r data  savings by  an  If  the  of  the  use  c o s t s , the of  a given  arise.  rose  It will  be  link  were t o r i s e  i t s length shown t h a t  the  above  i t i s obvious that  sharing  of  data  computers are  offset  because  increased, s u c h an  this  access  the  problem  scheme  The  Demands P l a c e d  Data  lines,  data  from machine t o machine, or  viceversa. carried  meaning  of  or data  The  immediate problems  really  on  Data  data  should  impaired  ideally,  Whereas t h e  messages t o  m u s t e i t h e r be  capacity  ( i n order  the  message  nature this  t i m e and  to  a very  corrected  signal  channel  transmit  information  of man-machine i n t e r a c t i o n  either fixed  the  faulty correctly;  retransmission  possibly additional the  and  deduce  retransmitted  time,  carry  communications,  large extent, or  to  input  channel  buffer to  repeat  segment).  basically  information  short-  computer  human b r a i n c a n  data  link  able  unlike voice  additional  lines  the  from t e r m i n a l to  demands a d d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s o r  Data  of  l i n e s , m u s t be  correction  last  results  created  Lines  transmission  faultlessly.  computer data  the  lines.  1.3  of  be  the  possible.  comings of  be  that  costs.  data  as  danger e x i s t s  l a r g e r m a c h i n e s may  i n communications  utilization  not  From t h e by  from  revenues from  degree  is  accruing  increase  might  transmission  be  sent  i n binary  over these  i n bursts  or v a r i a b l e length.  lines  c o n s i s t i n g of Between data  form.  The  requires  blocks bursts  of the  that data data  10. link to  is idle  and  processor  t h e man-machine  computing  time  or  system  to  i s dedicated  operator  either  think-time i n  sharing  operation; i n remote-batch a p p l i c a t i o n s s i m i l a r  periods  i n the  or while  the  data  central  (usually)  lengthier  a  these  user  time  of  on  the  Further, time  users  realistic fact  can  processor jobs.  link,  are  central  as  of  The  processor  dedicated on--his The  to  Since  cost  the  of  executing  address  unreasonable  to  pay  for  that  unused  for  charge a r i s e s ,  utilization, data  but  connect-  not due  from to  to  a  large switching time  a  the  transmission  initiate a call  an  the  today.  standard  a  remote required.  open m u l t i p l e x e r p o r t t h a t  while that user's  connect-time  charge  high  s e r v i c e bureau accrues  link to  facilities  Although  case  This  cannot  ( c . f s e c t i o n 7.3.3) o f  on  expected  submissions  s e r v i c e b u r e a u s t o pay  relatively  each user  f o r the  multiplexer speed  i s the  context  only  and/or  idle  terminal i s  is  switched  connect-time.  reason  cost  the  can  be  processor  communications processor  between j o b  i s compiling  processor.  assessment  because of  expected  I t i s fundamentally  f o r c e d by  that w i t h i n the  user  be  services should  data  to the  link  time-  (usually on  a c t i n g as  a long-term  i t s system w i t h any  switched  full  general  data  leasing  a concentrator)  i f i t cannot  system or  many m o r e d e t a i l e d  e n u m e r a t e d , we  the  i n the  and  share  high  links.  cost  of  the  related  b a s i s , i t i s f o r c e d t o pass the  customers  other  speed  lies  high full  these  bureau.  demands on  data  have h i g h l i g h t e d here o n l y  links  the  could  be  most p r e s s i n g  need  11. to-date:  t h e need t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e  transmission  that  contributing  nothing  In t h e near  inflate  aspects  the long-run  to transmission  costs  of today's of data  data  lines  while  efficiency.  f u t u r e a d d i t i o n a l d e m a n d s may  be p l a c e d  on  data 5 6  lines,  such as s e c u r i t y and f a u l t  Security, be  i n the final  absolute.  cost  precisely too  Finally  that  rule i s  a r e almost high  of a data  over that  a technique  a very  degree of  network a t  of providing will  o r more  immediate  be c a l l e d  route-  transmission.  i t i s also possible t o foresee  users  transfer  by u s i n g  cost  feature  cannot  by i l l e g a l ,  Today, t h i s  that  '  a t which i t s  laws on t h e s u b j e c t  be shown l a t e r  no i n c r e m e n t a l  recovery,  diversity  the  It will  since  t o data.  c a n be made a n i n h e r e n t  essentially fault  access  particularly  non-existent. security  be r a i s e d t o t h e l e v e l  t o t h e b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d  unauthorized,  severe,  facilities.  a n a l y s i s , depends on p e o p l e and  I t can only  i s equal  recovery  desire to initiate information  dissimilar  feasibility  in  intercomputer  over  o f demand a data  line,  wherein to  f r o m one remote computer t o a n o t h e r  machine, without  The  a request,  a type  p h y s i c a l l y handling  of such an o p e r a t i o n communications  would  the information.  open a brand  new e r a  i n Canada.  5.  Department o f Communications,' l o c . c i t . ,  A p p e n d i x A, p. 20.  6.  Science C o u n c i l o f Canada, Committee on Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s a n d T e c h n o l o g y , T o w a r d a M a j o r P r o g r a m i n Comput e r s - B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n a n d a P o s i t i o n P a p e r , 25 J u l y , 1 9 7 0 , p. 28.  12. 2.0  Evaluation  Accessing  of Existing  methods  i n a computer  since they determine needed  from  are translated  the u t i l i z a t i o n  when t h e d e c i s i o n into  a single  tions.  computer  the specific  processors,  the user l e v e l  central  visory  that  he i s a c c e s s i n g .  no doubt  be  henceforth classify  by r i g i d  p r o c e s s o r o r group  f o rcontrolling system  access  of central  command l a n g u a g e  and r a t h e r  V e r y f e w commands e x i s t a t  machine-program controlling  interaction.  t h et i m e - s h a r i n g  of automating  the efficient  o f t h e machine r e s o u r c e s by b e i n g a l l o c a t e d  and housekeeping  system  instruc-  i n remote-batch and  are characterized  has been g i v e n t h e t a s k  utilization  arise  subnets  control  subnet  employed  and s l o w . t e r m i n a l s .  Instead, the operating operation  computers  problems  m e t h o d s o f a TCCN w i l l  by u s e o f a l i m i t e d  "unintelligent"  of  (m/a), m e t h o d s .  ( t / s ) systems  methods t o a s i n g l e  These  permit a user t o switch h i s  t i m e - s h a r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s , we s h a l l  them a s m u l t i - a c c e s s  t/s  serious  o f network  i n s t r u c t i o n might  the eventual accessing  Time-sharing  operations.  i s made t o a m a l g a m a t e o n e o r m o r e  a mixture of techniques presently pure  instructions  o r a system  As a r e s u l t  n e t , due t o t h e l a c k  One s u c h  importance  i n t o m a c h i n e commands t o o p t i m i z e  network.  data t o a machine o u t s i d e  Since  n e t a r e o f extreme  out certain  of a specific  a specific  Nets  t h e number and t y p e o f  the user t o carry  instructions  within  Computer  functions.  already mentioned.  F o r example,  In fact  super-  t h e MULTICS  user languages  must  13 . remain a n d even This  will  users, rule,  make n e t w o r k  already  become h i g h services  l e v e l nonprocedural.  available  a f a m i l i a r theme.  r u n under  ( o n e o f some MTS,  further  t o the widest range o f  Remote-batch  a separate operating  7  system  systems, a s a  from t / s jobs  e x c e p t i o n s i s t h e M i c h i g a n T e r m i n a l System, o r  which can run t / s andbatch jobs concurrently), and  a l t h o u g h t h e y have more p o w e r f u l h a r d w a r e - c o n t r o l f a c i l i t i e s a n d more i n t e l l i g e n t  terminals,  they lack  capabilities  o f t / s systems.  An e x c e l l e n t  case  study o f t h e problems  operation without a detailed  plan  stages  World  of the United  Control  System  integrate  its  into a global  present provided  around  Command a n d  WWMCCS i s a n a t t e m p t t o that  a r e networks i n  Apart from p o l i t i c a l  c e r t a i n major  technical  problems, difficulties,  the concept o f software t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . A t  p o t e n t i a l WWMCCS s u b s y s t e m s  consist  by d i f f e r e n t manufacturers, with  machine-dependent  network  i n the present  Wide M i l i t a r y  systems  net.  interaction  o f attempting a  c a n be f o u n d  f o r the Pentagon.  present planners face  revolving  not  States'  d i s s i m i l a r computer  themselves  the real-time  languages  ofmultiple  cpu's  i n s t r u c t i o n s coded i n  (because h i g h e r - l e v e l  languages d i d  have t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a l l needed  command a n d c o n t r o l environment  jobs).  Programs  have t o be r e w r i t t e n  7.  S p e e c h b y Commander •CApril 1, 1971) .  8.  P h i l H i r s c h , "Wimmix: the Best?" Datamation  written  for transfer  G. M. H o p p e r  f o r magnetic t oa disc  i n Vancouver,  I t ' s the Biggest, (October, 1969).  tape  B. C.  but w i l l  i t be  environment; nor  even s i n g l e - s o u r c e c o m p i l e r s  downward c o m p a t i b l e  to  options;  i n some c a s e s  same f a m i l y ; e v e n m i x i n g  the  same l e v e l  ANS  COBOL).  as  a n d new s y s t e m s  simulation  of existing  undertaken.  Although  a  are only  TCCN.  An a  a subset  IBM/360 P L / I and  stopgap measures and  such  emulation/  i n themselves  a r e enormous,  of a l l considerations that w i l l  fall  we h a v e n o t c o n s i d e r e d  channel  storage  Research  optimal  and s w i t c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s ,  upon  low-  data.  by t h e Pentagon  f o ri t s difficulties  work p r o j e c t whose c o n c e p t i o n  n e t w o r k was b r i e f l y  and, at  transferable software i s  problems  e x c e l l e n t step has been t a k e n  of t h e Advanced  (e.g.  costly  s e c u r i t y measure, and market  solution  o b j e c t code w i t h i n  on-site installations  these  Specifically,  long-range  COBOL), due  p r o g r a m s o n new e q u i p m e n t a r e b e i n g  bandwidths, d i s t r i b u t e d cost  and u n t i l  designed  systems, dual  DOS/360  upward  l a n g u a g e s o f t h e same t y p e  can produce problems  As a r e s u l t ,  overhead  they  (e.g.  some m a c h i n e s p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t  the  written  are neither  i n turning to  by f i n a n c i n g a  i s c r e d i t e d t o L a w r e n c e G.  P r o j e c t s Agency  d e s c r i b e d by D i c k s o n  (ARPA). before  netRoberts,  The ARPA i t became  9 operational highly centres  a t t h e e n d o f 1 9 7 0.  incompatible  conceivable 9.  c o m p u t e r s a t 15 u n i v e r s i t i e s  scattered across  grade telephone item  I t i s presently  lines  the United  to provide  States  access  linking and r e s e a r c h  by means o f h i g h  t o "...almost  o f computer hardware and s o f t w a r e . . . "  every The  P a u l A. D i c k s o n , "ARPA N e t w o r k w i l l r e p r e s e n t I n t e g r a t i o n on a L a r g e S c a l e , " E l e c t r o n i c s , X L I ( S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 6 8 ) .  15. communications-link-to-computer IMP's  ( f o r I n t e r f a c e Message Processors)  computers and key elements essential of  functions:  activities  of activities  with  functions;  on-site  transmission, Although  five  data  actual  program  ARPA a r e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  to  legitimate users,  o f messages,  co-ordination of  On t h e b a s i s load  sharing,  parameters  of these, t h e  sharing,  message  and remote  an estimate,  of information  allocation  by l a r g e r - t h a n - p r o p o r t i o n a l  probably  due t o t h e  Of p r i m a r y  concerning  of priorities  service.  forecasting a  cost/installation  Dickson's a r t i c l e .  to  loading  only  i noperating  network, i s a v a i l a b l e from  management  o n t h e ARPA n e t w o r k w i l l  a t present,  increase  packets;  IMP's;  digital  eight  measurement o f network  functions;  sharing,  into  formatting  other  detection.  economic data  soon be p u b l i s h e d , average  with  basic  They p r o v i d e  messages  users;  and f a u l t  network provides  10%  breaking  called  arei neffect,  i n t h e net.  message b u f f e r s ; message r o u t i n g ;  .co-ordination  and  i n t e r f a c e elements,  concern  the net  and uneven  demands f o r t h e more  system powerful  processors. In Canada, which ambitions  t h e computerized  and t h e funding  more c o n s e r v a t i v e carriers,  lacks  of a powerful m i l i t a r y  network developments  i nrecognition  o f growing  h a v e made s e r v i c e s m o r e f l e x i b l e activities  of ,switching such  and transmission  establishment,  a r e u n d e r way.  data  communication  and d i v e r s i f i e d  o f t h e Trans-Canada Telephone  developments a r e concerned with  of  command a n d c o n t r o l  System.  Common needs,  through the In general,  the provision o f a wider  services  systems a r e D i g i t r a n , Multicom  t o data a n d MSDS  users;  range  examples  (Message  16. Switching will  Data  Service).  s e r v e t o g i v e some s u p p o r t  singly  o r i n some c o m b i n e d  embodies  i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e n e e d s o f a TCCN  form.  some o f t h e c o n c e p t s  store-and-forward at  There  facilities,  F o r e x a m p l e , MSDS a l r e a d y  i n c l u d e d i n t h e ARPA n e t ,  and  (between p r i v a t e ^ l i n e  a message p r i o r i t y  fault-reporting At  t h e time  system  procedure  of the f i n a l  another,  t e l e t y p e a n d TWX  as w e l l  as an  (The F i n a n c i a l  message machines),  instantaneous  Post, March  compilation of this  20,  System  a  transmission f a c i l i t y of signal  to  d i g i t a l data  the findings  link and  error  herein.  rates,  possess  provide f o r limited  group has inaugurated  Dataroute  i s expected  inherent capacity  1971).  thesis, the  Trans-Canada Telephone totally  namely,  b u f f e r s t o a l l o w machines o p e r a t i n g  v a r i o u s speeds t o communicate with-one  switching  either  "Dataroute", importance  t o decrease  data  expandability,  switching capabilities  of a given  link  between v a r i o u s u s e r s .  By  f a r t h e most r e l e v a n t segment o f t h e d a t a  users  i n Canada i s composed  A comprehensive a  of the providers of t/s services.  l i s t i n g h a s b e e n g i v e n b y R o b e r t s , who i n c l u d e s  somewhat d e t a i l e d  from  communications  breakdown o f t h e types  of services  available  each.  In  order t o i l l u s t r a t e  on  which  these  services  the nature  and extent o f t h e  a r e p r e s e n t l y based,  figures  networks 1 and 2  1 0 . . A. G. R o b e r t s , " ' T i m e - s h a r i n g ' - how i t ' s s o l v i n g b u s i n e s s and e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s , " C a n a d i a n D a t a s y s t e m s , I I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1971), pp. 36-41.  17 . have been drawn from division  of the  service  and  material provided  Canadian General  IBM  Corporation's  are  based on  differentiate the  telephone  the  Western  Electric  Co.  Ltd. time-sharing  CALL/360  Most c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f e a t u r e s on they  by  both  and  the  computer  data  set  connected  to a  bits/sec.  business  the  call  remote data  located i n the  in  the  into  device  11.  CGE  this  network,  fed through  The  customer  or  end  we  a  both  a  200-300 being  office  where another  to  in turn i s  Dataline II line  same c i t y ,  end,  DCT-2000) c o n n e c t e d  central  3000). (e.g.  data  The  switches at  the  low-speed  link,  end,  physically  and  at the  normally using  i s to concentrate stream  TDM  remote  4800 b i t s / s e c . ) d a t a  m u l t i p l e x e r , which  computer  can  (terminal)  Dataline II service,  2000 o r  a high-speed  at the  or  the  since  port of a t i m e - d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e x e r  high-speed  f u n c t i o n of  data  and  i t t o one  v i a a high-speed  corresponding The  or  At  We  exchange v i a e i t h e r  required business  (e.g. Tel-Tech  addresses,  office"  line  similar  a c o u s t i c coupling) which  f o r data transmission.  set t i e s  (TDM)  "central  to the  end,  through  customer  end.  a t e r m i n a l ( e . g . , ASR-35, 2741, (possibly  are  1 1  company f a c i l i t i e s .  find  conditioned  nets  i n g e n e r a l between the  remote end,  service.  Canada  separate  as many a s  a l l incoming  route  where the  has  4C  i t t o an  stream  channels  end  set, a conditioning. 38  ports  low-speed identical  i s demultiplexed into  a  communications  C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Mr. Dave R e i d , W e s t e r n O p e r a t i o n s Manager of Canadian G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c Time-Sharing, V a n c o u v e r , B. C., M a y , 1 9 7 1 , a n d w i t h M r . R o n S t a n m o r e , S y s t e m s A n a l y s t a t IBM C a n a d a L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , B. C.  s  Fig.  1 - A CANADIAN TIME/SHARING NET : IBM CALL/360  19.  Edmonton r o t a r i e s Mk II Mk I Modems  High-speed data set  Compat  Mk II  system  Compat Network  F i g . 2- Western Section of CGE Time/Sharing Net  20. controller  ( e i t h e r IBM  27 03  operations  takes  i n reverse  a  terminal,  terminal  place  except that  C A L L / 3 60  3 60/50 p r o c e s s o r , user,  w h i c h we  available,  the  an  on  of  load  sharing  that  the  data  all,  but  may  has  to  computer  be  i s based  on  from Mark  because  a by  S.  I t i s part  dial  net  whose r e s u l t i s t h a t files  he  have to L.  has  be  controller  f o r the  A.  processors  i n Cleveland,  bring  system c o n f i g u r a t i o n s  stored  requested  Ohio or  very  the  of  System  Canadian not  the  Mark  II  i n Los  him  Angeles,  i n t e r e s t i n g (and but  in  i t is  p r i m i t i v e form  of  the  Canadian user  i s unaware  may  not  Angeles  by  the  be L.  i n Los A.  e i t h e r of  T e a n e c k , New  attention a  ranging  single  a number w h i c h g r a n t s  practices a  H6000 f r o m  to  the  I.  i s hardly  GE  addresses  i t was  thesis possibly regrettable) U.  of  "open" whereas  hardware addressable  I I may  same s e t  processor.  i n Canada  in itself  the  remains here to  The  ( p r e v i o u s l y GE-635) p r o c e s s o r  this  that  30).  when t h e  shown i n f u l l  Mark  H6000 This  context  noteworthy  It  line the  CGE  independent  California. the  net  have not  Canadian user  access to  up  Datanet  i s f a r more d i s p e r s e d .  s y s t e m , and A  the  u s e r must d i a l  Whereas the  or  communications the  similar  Jersey.  number o f  from h i g h l y  at  computer  centralized  complexes 12  to  totally  d i s t r i b u t e d systems described  configurations 12.  should  D. F. P a r k h i l l , IfiMassachussets: Ch. 3.  a l l be  considered  by  Parkhill.  seriously,  These  since,  The C h a l l e n g e o f t h e C o m p u t e r U t i l i t y A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1966) ,  according  t o C o m m a n d e r G r a c e M.  to  the Canadian Information  B.  C,  in  which every l o g i c a l  has  even a  Hopper  Processing  (USNR) i n a s p e e c h Society  seemingly unwieldy, t o t a l l y  a dedicated  device  minicomputer c o n t r o l l i n g  network,  tape, channel, etc.) i t , may  i n the  analysis  p r e s e n t t h e most  assuming  t h e s y s t e m c a n be made t o w o r k a s y n c h r o n o u s l y .  In  to create  order  demand and  supply  facilities, file  a true  where machines  t r a n s f e r s may  degree  carefully rather  If  the u s e r has  and  in this  be  possible  where t h e f o r c e s  at w i l l ,  s o f t w a r e and  i t will  be  and  excessive  be  be  remote  hardware related  essential  to  to  Today n e t s a r e  line  speeds  and  the entrapment  line  charges.  constructed  network  configuration, desired  Further,  ARPA n e t w o r k r e p r e s e n t s  and  "Dataroute" represents  a  large  a vehicle  machines,  any  f r o m t h e TCCN, by  interconnections.  step  such  of machine i n -  Details  accomplished are presented i n Appendix  Canada.  of  of  where d a t a  are d i r e c t l y  over network  to escape  The  in  to avoid  needs,  respect.  some c o n t r o l  software-controlled  plan  utilized  network usage,  n u m b e r o f s u b n e t s may  may  be  where u s e r c o s t s  commands t o s e l e c t  compatibility  this  may  take place  of actual  inflexible  will  utility,  p l a n a c c e s s commands t o t h e n e t .  as.access it  computer  final  system t o meet f u t u r e  determine the degree of u t i l i z a t i o n  incompatibilities, the  efficient  i n Vancouver,  distributed  (e.g. disc,  given  i n network  desired providing on  how  1. planning,  f o r implementing a  similar  22. 3.0  Basis  f o r an  When c o n s i d e r i n g disconcerting in  Independent Trans-Canada Computer the  future  unknown i s t h e  a l l probability rest, and  (although  they w i l l  political  g e n e r a l i t i e s of  only  be  part  of  be  the  i n the  Some r e a s o n s w i l l as  a  Lyman R i c h a r d s o n ,  be  a  entity  million  f o r Canada  13  comparison between the  to  Our  but  on  Politics  being i t  t e c h n i c a l and  contention  from the  a data  2400 b i t s / s e c . e a c h ) .  of  public resources,  document p r e p a r e d  1979  evaluation  will  an can  economic  TCCN.  Communications, estimates b i t s / s e c . by  decision  most  professionals  relevance.  r a i s e d f o r the  separate in a  qualified  subservient of  final  objective  management o f be  the  nation, the  t o make p r o p o s a l s )  limited  case  now  an by  allowed  hoped t h e y w i l l  survive  on  economic d e t a i l s  considerations  can  a TCCN i n t h i s  fact that  not  technical  unalienable  of  Network  telephone f o r the  r a t e volume of  own  number o f  that  a  TCCN  network.  Department about  of  7 0  (29,000 d a t a  circuits  of  8 conclusions* are  b a s e d on  the  computer  installations  in  the  14 U.  S.  (due If  vs to  this  that a  number i n Canada.  lack of  ratio  complete data)  i s applied  13.  Science  14.  N e i l Macdonald (ed.), and A u t o m a t i o n , X V I I I  *  Council  We a r e i n d e b t e d approach.  of  to  to  the  The,ratio  is  20,000/2,800 = data  rate  Canada, l o c . c i t . ,  approximately 7.2.  projections for Appendix  the  4.  "World Computer Census," Computers ( J u n e 30, 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 190-194.  Prof.  B.  Schwab f o r s u g g e s t i n g  this  U.  S.  i n 1990 ,  areas  such as  which are  be  transmission  presently non-existent  and  certainly  not  take  cation  360/7.2  f o r at into  the  transmission  50  million  least  we  in  estimate  far  reasons:  i s probably  1)  the  the  t r e a t i n some d e t a i l of  on  price elasticity  U.S.  b e l o w , and the  too  projections  particular  on  1990  appli-  2)  they  demand f o r  data  services.  an  e x a m p l e , we  of  T o r o n t o , who  would  are  now  like  firm  to  cite  I . P.  p r o v i d i n g APL  In a conversation  appears the  two  based  b i t s / s e c . f o r Canada  a c c o u n t , among o t h e r s ,  effect  As  Canada.  =  However, t h i s  areas that  disregard  bits/sec. (excluding certain newspaper  estimated.  not  million  and  conservative do  digital  360  television  computers), can  about  ± b  with  Mr.  t/s  Sharp A s s o c i a t e s services in  B r a i n Daly  i s interested i n extending  Western Canada, but  f i n d s the  present  Ltd.  Eastern  i n Ottawa, i t  i t s market  communications  to  costs  prohibitive.  The  efforts  centered  of  common c a r r i e r s  about  utilization  supposedly valued Dr.  E.  G.  15.  $8  Manning, of  Bell-Northern addition  at  to the  limited  satisfy  present  billion  the  Research  of  to  (from  Science  carrier  p l a n t and a  requirements  Canada).  with The  have r e c e n t l y proposed system, that  Robert Hough, " F u t u r e Data T r a f f i c Volume" I I I ( S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 11.  are  equipment,  conversation  Council of  Laboratories TI  data  will  allow  Computer,  an  direct  digital  transmission. "  system a r e s t i l l network using for  data  classified,  PCM p u l s e s  transmission.  will  be c l o s e l y m o n i t o r e d  We  find  and  could  i ti s a  and d i r e c t  indiscriminately.  switched  computer  Operation  bits  t o evaluate  parameters  handle  of the net such as e r r o r  Canada's approach m e r i t o r i o u s , but two  1 ) How m u c h o f t h e $8 b i l l i o n be d i s r e g a r d e d ?  ing, up" t h e e x i s t i n g consider  i n general,  of the  statistics.  Bell  remain:  the details  Time-division multiplexors w i l l  and v o i c e  and  Although  f o rvoice  data  rates  bits  LD  large  system r e a l l y  that, i fonly  over t o Picturephone,  2 ) How  has been  depreciated,  i s the job of  going  t o b e , when  1% o f C a n a d a ' s T C T S c u s t o m e r s the transmission  questions  requirements  "patchwe went  of the  17 telephone  network would  be i n c r e a s e d  by 100%?  16.  C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. B a r r y E c k h a r t , Manager o f S w i t c h ing Systems, B e l l - N o r t h e r n Research Laboratory, Ottawa, Ont., J u n e , 1971.  17.  "Lasers",  Electronics,  LXIV  (May 1 0 , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 36.  25. 4.0  Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e D e s i g n  There the  i s little  designers  modular  o f Computer  doubt t h a t i n t h e i n i t i a l  will  interfaces  be c o n c e r n e d  stages  Networks  o f a TCCN  w i t h t h e development of  between present  computers and  available  communications' f a c i l i t i e s . Byrns that  points out, i n outlining software  communications assembler  t o support  first  the  second  and ( c )  i s t o provide  t o the data  illustrated  how t h i s  for  i s a product data  and  compiler-like  short  logical  system.  software  tasks,  and  should  queue o r  I t shall could  package.  f o r communi-  o f t h e second  appear as a process  interface  a  communications-oriented  a teleprocessing applications  processing  file  p r e s e n t l y be  solve  some  between m u l t i - a c c e s s and t i m e - s h a r i n g  be t h e d i s t r i b u t e d i n his position  this  of (a)  problems.  A major d i f f e r e n c e  Dennis  t o t h i s end,  consist  i s to provide procedural capabilities  make t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  will  a  s w i t c h i n g between  tasks, the third  specific  (b)  will  with procedural capabilities  The  structure  a system  o p e r a t i n g system;  characteristics;  cations  such  t h e COMCET a p p r o a c h  nature  of the data  paper c o r r e c t l y  bases  recognizes  nets  i n t h e former. the reasons  arrangement as t h e f o l l o w i n g :  "1)  I t i s essential that the information service industry provide f o r t h e establishment and growth of s m a l l , independently conceived and operated i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e systems.  18.  P a u l D. B y r n s , Communications  " C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n D e s i g n i n g a Computer S y s t e m , " D a t a m a t i o n , !XV ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 9 ) .  26. 2)  The u s e r o f a n i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e w i l l o f t e n b e l o n g t o an i n s t i t u t i o n d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e e n t e r p r i s e o f f e r i n g t h e service.  3)  The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g demand f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e . w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and y e t o f i n s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o j u s t i f y e v e n one c o m p u t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n o f e f f i c i e n t s i z e .  4)  The c o m m u n i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e would p o o r l y u t i l i z e a p r i v a t e p o i n t - t o - p o i n t network.  5)  The c o s t o f i m p l e m e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s by c u r r e n t l y accepted techniques i s too high t o encourage t h e development o f s p e c i a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  6)  Many f o r e s e e a b l e s e r v i c e s e m b o d y ^ t h e f u n c t i o n o f o f f e r i n g the use o f programs f o r a f e e . "  A d i s t r i b u t e d data  base,  have a c c e s s t o a d a t a respect users  t o these  may  by  may  localized  base whose s e c t i o n s  i n disparate  or i n a fashion  user.  This  that  with  two o r more  o n t h e same  a valid  preceding  has been r e c o g n i z e d  clusters  are centralized  modes  such that  i n v a l i d a t e an immediately  another  terminal  c l u s t e r s , has t h e property  wish t o operate  simultaneously, item  i n which  query  item  update o f an of that  item  i n the literature  as  20 a  thorny  software suggested other  problem, could  solve  but the idea the problem  by D e n n i s :  users  1)  terminals  processed  and t h e item  no  are a l l items  longer  2)  COMCET's i n t e r f a c e  by e m p l o y i n g  updating  from the item;  from a l l other  behind  initiation  procedure  preempts a l l  update r e c o g n i t i o n  a r e then awaited;  returned  a  t o normal  of a given  data  3)  responses  t h e update i s  status.  Since  base a s s o c i a t e d  now with  a  19.  Dennis,  loc. c i t .  20.  W i l l i a m T. O l l e ( e d . ) , " T h e L a r g e D a t a B a s e , i t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and U s e r I n t e r f a c e , " Data Base ( F a l l , 1969).  given  central  processor, the  n e c e s s i t y t o connect  high  speed d a t a  links  with  each other  at rates approaching  speeds  i n order  becomes e s s e n t i a l .  t o a l l o w them t o  This  speed  switched  well  as  economic t r a d e - o f f s between a  speed  lines  function A  access  problems  access  single  r a t e s and  will  i t s users.  accomplished  using  present  as data  sooner  has  security  t r e a t e d below,  or  these  will  later  be  a  is typical on  how be  this  security  may  be  presented  below,  comprehensive  enough  data'without  proper  to access  of  multi-  have t o meet  on  low-  terminal cost.  systems based  not  as  l a r g e number o f  equipment w i l l  attempts  storage  been o u t l i n e d  base  schemes a r e  communicate  consideration of  interface  Some s u g g e s t i o n s  interface  deal w i t h determined  be  link;  possibly  scheme s u c h  and  shall  high-speed  of d i s t r i b u t e d  networks,  demands by  since  a  of t a r i f f  complex  the  and  which  mass  leads to the  high  to  links,  their  cpu's v i a ,  to  authorization.  4.1 An  Software  and  investigation  ment must t a k e of  the  art.  interface,  of the  into  The  conclusions.that A TCCN w i l l  Hardware  concepts  account  following  the will  of advanced theoretical serve  have been reached  likely and  Aspects  exhibit  network  three  software.  to  by  of  line-hunting techniques.  possibility  of  linking  interface  To and  telephone a  type  developers cpu, of  networks  large extent,  network  state  some  software:  simple  develop-  practical  indicate  of  very  ware i s p r e s e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e form  and  r e s e a r c h e r s and  levels A  network  software  softin  the will  the  28. depend on t h e l e v e l common c a r r i e r s . the  purpose  processors channel; there  o f edp a c t i v i t y  I n essence,  o f making as e i t h e r  the interface  t h e network  reason  should  be p r o v i d e d  to physically  tributed  H e r e we a r e a d d i n g  reasons  functions  by Baran,  exhaustive  study  will  implicit  b y common  separate  and s w i t c h i n g software  technical  software  have  "look" to the central  work a d d r e s s i n g form.  o u t by t h e  some k i n d o f a n i n p u t / o u t p u t d e v i c e , o r a  i fthat software  i s little  t o be c a r r i e d  i t from  by housing  legal  carriers the net-  i ti n d i s -  consideration tothe  i n the outline  o f network  Hamaker and R o b e r t s .  software  Baran has prepared  of the design features of a  an  "Distributed 2  Adaptive  Message  Although  the series  done  Block Network"  i n a series  was p u b l i s h e d  i n 1962, c e r t a i n  concepts  o f RAND  Memoranda.  i n 1964 and i s based  embedded  i n the design  on work remain  fundamental. If  software-is considered  machine either  instructions i n hard-wired  as a general  designed  term  t o perform  f o ra s e to f  certain functions,  o r programmable form,  then  the required  22 communications work a c h i e v e  software  o f Baran,  c e r t a i n remarkable  functional-requirements  Hamaker  similarities  a n d t h e ARPA  net-  i n terms o f  and f u n c t i o n s provided:  21.  P a u l B a r a n , On D i s t r i b u t e d C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ( 1 1 v o l s . ; Santa Monica, C a l i f . : The Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 ) .  22.  R. F . H a m a k e r , " D i s t r i b u t e d C o m p u t e r S y s t e m s , " m u n i c a t i o n s , IV ( M a r c h , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 25-30.  Telecom-  1)  rapid in  and  frequent  traffic  processor 2)  a d a p t a t i o n by  p a t t e r n s ; Baran's  means o f  node, t o v a r y i n g  signalling  feeding he  to  his signalling  changes  central  . 2 3 satisfy this;  s t o r e d programs a t requirements  e a c h node; B a r a n had  designed  network  s w i t c h i n g node  embodies r o u t i n e s t o  a c c o m m o d a t i o n , by  the  from  explicitly  standards  each the  foreseen  by  basing  network links  this  them  when  on  24 digital  pulse  signalling present  codes are  telephone  facilitate a  multiplexer  this  system  to  to data be  system  a  software  should  be  have been  left  the  by  the  hardware at telephone  signalling  f e a t u r e was  and  provide  systems;  call  i f a  person  present  designs,  lengthy  i n a d d i t i o n Hamaker  Baran,  loc. cit.,  24.  Ibid.,  VIII  25.  Ibid.  VII  (RM-3763-PR).  (RM-3764-PR).  answer  he  compatibility; i n mind,  i s desired  (e.g.  suggests,  route-finding, status updating,  23.  a  decode  equipment  batch-mode program  system;  called;  included with v o i c e communication  a  develops  forwarding 25  exchanges t o  after  the  Baran  to  i n t e r p r e t e d by  u s e f u l when an  into  the  a m u l t i p l e x e r and  h o w e v e r , i t c o u l d a l s o be inserting  of  Hamaker, i n o r d e r  rapidly  to reroute  bursts;  superset  by  involving  code t h a t can  provides  network  expected  numbering  coding  line-address  then  similar  communication w i t h other  different  address  sequences,  and  subscriber  simulation) Baran updating,  30. 26 and 3)  operation  and  Hamaker m e n t i o n s routing tree  of  the  need  s i g n a l s and  (network) are  structure,  but  contingency of  maintenance  a  by  signalling.  to. p r o v i d e  f o r automatic  m e s s a g e s when nodes o r  blocked;  Baran's net  p u r e n e t w o r k and  making  27 '  random  h i s message e n c r y p t i o n  he  links  i s not  provides  path-seeking  re-  a  in  tree  for  this  techniques  scheme o f m a i n t a i n i n g  a  a  part  network  ..28 security; 4)  both authors  agree  essential  keep the  to  intervention requirement routing,  plus and  Certain that  cyclic  points of  data  fullest  traffic,  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , and the  by  Ibid.,  VII.  27.  Ibid.,  VIII.  28 .  Ibid.,  IX.  to  software  human  this  random  sufficient  located we  service units  find  too  lengthy  here.  arising network prevent  from the  basic  i s designed  consideration  to apply  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  I n a TCCN, c o n c e r n although  with  nodes,  features  is  prevent  system complies  and  data  are  both  his design  i s solely  voice'transmission  network requirements f o r v o i c e  26.  and  strategically  enumerate  view,  extent.  low  e r r o r d e t e c t i o n c o d e s , and  l a r g e number o f to  node o p e r a t i o n  multiply-connected  supported  detailed  and  system cost Baran's  using  Baran's d i s t r i b u t e d  voice the  a  delays; by  reliability  that unattended  with  can  be  to to  data digitized,  significantly  different.  J  A large part routing  of voice  calls  plant  i s designed  between any two p o i n t s  f o r s w i t c h i n g and  i n a North  work, whereas computer networks a r e v e r y computer networks r e q u i r e mission  rates  peripheral  speeds f o r v o i c e and  need  servicing Further,  them  communications a r e very  paths.  Finally,  This  t o carry telephone  i s deemed u n v i a b l e .  finalized  Also  this  ( u p t o 20 s e c . )  rates  a fixed  t o data  i f the network  The a d v e n t  argument, j u s t  a t the time o f t h i s  earlier. o f 0.5  be a v o i d e d  conversations  a dedicated  of  i n a  over  timedata  lines  requirements i s computer  of "Dataroute"  as t h i s  writing,  delay  transmission  unless  require  o f the' e x i s t e n c e  c a n and should  improper use of resources,  work  switching  as a r e s u l t  whose e r r o r r a t e s a r e h e l d an  slow  but computer networks  incorporates  transmission  signal  network.  network  trans-  switching  i s t o have t h e p r o p e r t i e s mentioned  Baran's  respect  due t o t h e wide range o f  become d e s i r a b l e ;  i f not microsecond,  i n voice  varying  could  n o t be much f a s t e r ,  millisecond,  sec.  that  nets  net-  i n this  a wider range of information  than telephone  devices  limited  American  net-  has  t h e s i s i s being  completed.  a detailed description of the 30  ARPA n e t w o r k The  reader  communications  software  i s referred to this  h a s become a v a i l a b l e .  article  with  t h e comment  that  29.  C. G. B e l l e t a l . , " C o m p u t e r N e t w o r k s , " ( S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 17.  Computer, I I I  30.  F. E. H e a r t e t a l . , "The I n t e r f a c e M e s s a g e P r o c e s s o r f o r t h e ARPA C o m p u t e r N e t w o r k , " A F I P S S p r i n g J o i n t Comput e r C o n f e r e n c e , I I I V I (1970), pp. 551-563.  3 2A particular cribed to  attention  i n Figure  incorporate  should  denote  voice  from a  whether  communications  PCM c o d e r o r a r o u n d  regardless term a  communication  i s not used  whereby  data security  requirement integral  part  earlier,  of Baran's design.  though  Some  security  time-sharing Before  i ti s s t i l l  presenting  software machine  an experimental  identification  compatibility  between  c o d e s d e s e r v e s some a t t e n t i o n . was o v e r c o m e factorily  o r EBCDIC w i l l codes  I n t h e absence  be u s e d  network  i n the form o f  codes. idea t o attempt the problem o f  conventions f o r character  o r whether  file  i s supporting  problem  i t has been  o f agreement  t o represent  ( t h e U. S. G o v e r n m e n t  This  I t i s n o t k n o w n how t h i s  i n t h e ARPA n e t w o r k ,  solved.  device  tool.  processors,  of different  i s not only  o f Baran's concepts,  w h a t may b e a n o r i g i n a l  compatibility  t h e ARPA  available  and u s e r  (here the  be e n h a n c e d .  In fact,  f o rdata i s already  IMP  a n d was f o u n d t o b e a n  s t a n d s a s a monument t o t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y even  sense)  through  of the a r t , but a  i n t h e network would  has been mentioned  links  bits  message  any other  o f network  t o the state  made  terminal or  be r o u t e d  with  i n ARPA's r e s t r i c t e d  noteworthy contribution  were  network,  the interface  t o communicate status  des-  some o f t h e s p a r e  i s from a computer  In addition,  o f the temporary  "link"  using  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n may  it.  (IMP) a b i l i t y  I f the decision over a d i g i t a l  be m o d i f i e d  a t e l e p h o n e , so t h a t  processor's  t o the packet format  5 of the reference.  the packet format could to  be p a i d  satis-  on whether  characters  and  A S C I I , whereas  ASCII  terminal IBM  is  supporting  primarily  EBCDIC) t h e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g  task  of  31 translating necessity series most The  will  by  be  necessary.  providing  of machines,  but  IBM  internal  has  channel translators  i n the future  ferability viewed  from  i n one  unethical  sense  practices  serve market a waste  one  machine  s e v e r a l w a y s , one  preted  fashion, and  i s becoming  o f what might  means.  be  of which  to pre-  Since the result be  T h i s may  i t were an  virtues  of present i n t e r p r e t i v e  reduced  c o r e s t o r a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s and  solved  by  be d o n e i n  i s t o r u n programs i n an  though  is  cheaper, f o r pro-  where each o b j e c t - c o d e i n s t r u c t i o n  e x e c u t e d as  be  termed  industry  i s becoming dearer.  the  to another could  by t h e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g  time, which  prove  of software trans-  environment  as a r e s u l t  i n i t s 3 60  task.  s c a r c e m a n p o w e r , t h e p r o b l e m may  grammer t i m e , w h i c h  pretive  problem  s h a r e s by a r t i f i c i a l  of rather  substituting  computing  this  L S I b l o c k s may  e c o n o m i c a l means t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e perseverance of the general  recognized  isolated  interi s  inter-  command.  c o m p i l e r s a r e known t o be simplified  The highly  executive  32 programs..: i  In a multi-access multiprogramming  :  already  large  themselves advantage due 31. 32.  time-sharing  overheads, these advantages  into minimal user waiting o f an  t o t h e need Richard  interpreter  time.  - increased  t o " r e c o m p i l e " each  Canning  environment  ( e d . ) , The  Edp  The  program  instruction Analyzer,  main  with  translate  dis-  running time in a  loop -  VII (April  1969).  M e l v i n K l e r e r , " E l e m e n t s o f P r o g r a m m i n g " , D i g i t a l Comput e r U s e r ' s H a n d b o o k , e d . M e l v i n . K l e r e r a n d G r a n m o A. • K o r n (New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l I n c . , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 1-23-1-25.  c a n be e l i m i n a t e d b y p r o g r a m m i n g loop  d e c l a r a t i o n so t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t e r  subroutine  to efficiently  Whereas t h e s o f t w a r e cribed the  i n general  network  implemented  execute the loop  f o r an a l l - d i g i t a l  because  i ti s closely  i s a relatively  hardware  computational as  base on which  i n a digital  precompiled  arguments. c a n be  related  to the functions  des-  of t h e hardware  task  tobbe  due t o t h e b r o a d  be s e p a r a t e d  i n such a net represent  network  construction:  into  and communication  t h e communications  ponents  has been  a  i t i s founded.  n e t w o r k may  Again,  for a  network  more complex  o r p r o c e s s i n g modules  i n t h e ARPA n e t .  technique  attaches  i s to carry out,a description  technological  The  t h e o p e r a t i o n code  a general  adhered t o by Baran  hardware  consensus  the store-and-forward  modules,  on  comcomputer  technique.  The  i n t h e U. S. a n d b y  33 Davies If  i n t h e U.  K.  an improvement  would  be i n t h e t y p e s  by t h e n e t . Canada.  A data  of communication  "Dataroute"  has provided  The ARPA c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  an a v e r a g e t r a f f i c  of  i n t h e ARPA n e t w o r k  lines  i n  c o s t s a r e $43,000/year/node  c o s t s about  $l,200/yr., according  p r e s e n t l y used  such an improvement  o f 16 K b i t s / s e c , o v e r  s e t f o r such a l i n e  about  were t o be s u g g e s t e d , i t  50 K b i t / s e c .  $5,000,  to policy  lines.  or a rental  f o r some common  34 carriers. 33.  Science  C o u n c i l o f Canada,  loc. cit.,  34.  C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. T e r r y James o f L e n k u r t V a n c o u v e r , B. C , M a y , 1 9 7 1 . '  at  p . 23 Electric,  rate  Further,  a source of . d i f f i c u l t y  builders  w e r e t h e common c a r r i e r s  imposed  on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  explicitly and  n o t e d by  ARPA  the constraints  of the communications  they  lines  they  35 provide.  Specific  probably use  data rate  o f modems.  eventually cations  In  frequency  The  will  well This  be  cited  be  of o p t i c a l  Basically,  communi-  s e e n f i t by  f o r a TCCN i n  the a v a i l a b i l i t y be  solved  by  which r e a l  communications "practical"  of  radio  by h a v i n g r e -  i s i n general  individuals,  achievements are taking  to substantiate  this  remark,  only  still  unaware place  i n the technical  given here, wherein the cost  systems are  as  facilities  could  A l t h o g g h many r e f e r e n c e s be  t o be u s e d  private  i t may  transmission.  skepticism  speed w i t h  could  t o l e a s e raw  that  the  facilities.  spectrum space.  with  c h a r g e s , and  there are indications  the c a r r i e r s ,  t h e p r o b l e m may  application  field.  a result,  separate transmission  to optical  garded the  As  of processing  future,  course  restrictions, conditioning  from  developing  the  were not mentioned, t h e y a r e  be more a d v a n t a g e o u s  lines  providers  problems  re  of  in this  literature a  summary  advantages of  optical  one  featured.  optical  transmission  systems  (OTS)  c a n be  divided i n t  36 c o h e r e n t and costly,  non-coherent  but l i m i t e d  links.  Non-coherent  i n bandwidth, coherent l i n k s  links are  35.  Heart e t . a l . , l o c .  36.  W i l l i a m K. P r a t t , L a s e r C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S y s t e m s , J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 9 ) , C h . 1.  are  less  laser-  c i t . (New  York:  based lay  systems, with  reader,  carrying  bandwidth  i s a measure of  c a p a b i l i t y , and  frequency  at which a  highest-frequency at  tremendous bandwidth p o t e n t i a l .  about  12  (infrared)  GHz  i s more or  link  a  system's  For  information-  less proportional  operates.  I f we  consider  to  the  that  the  commercial microwave equipment today (1.2  x  10  c y c l e s / s e c . ) , and  1 0  lasers operate  at  about  the  that  operates  low-frequency  10,000 A n g s t r o m u n i t s ,  or  15 the  equivalent  of  10  cycles/second,  obvious.,  However, the  potential  is s t i l l  modulating available and as  the  of  OTS'  by  the  leased  the  capable of  novelty  out  that  i n the end  of  the U.  A  i n Boulder,  lines  at  that  future  a  atmospheric  3ft.  due  costing  saving  for data  cost  of  these  OTS  heat,  to  now  access  to  this  the to  $5,000/yr. point  the problem  production to  seven  University  be  of  replacing  Magill to  are  themselves  f r o m two  system at  this  Magill  i n the  increase  estimates  further  large  reductions  systems.  is their s u c h as  beyond  Needed  transmission.  engaged  are  exploit  have proved  $6,000 i s s a i d about  some i n d u s t r y  disturbances to  of  fully  Despite  l a s e r s , they  prototype  to  full  ability.  firms  capabilities  stages.  providing  S. i s e x p e c t e d 3 7  A major drawback of  layers  of  number o f  1971.  needed  laboratory  economical devices  indicates in  devices  relative  Colorado  i n the  information-carrying  highly  points  technology  the  inability  to  snow, r a i n ,  penetrate and  inversion  c e r t a i n l e v e l s which are  a  function  L e o n M. M a g i l l , " O p t i c a l L i n k F i r m s S e e W i d e Horizons," E l e c t r o n i c s , X L I I I ( D e c e m b e r 2 1 , 1970)., pp. 91-92.  of  laser frequency,  The  weight o f t h i s  to  increase  results.  the transmission  like  carry  tolerable  losses  currents.  using  t h e low-power  i n decibels/km.,  Corp.  and Corning  Glass  fibres  yield  methylmethacrylate-  of carrying  Their  light  j u s t as  e f f i c i e n c y , measured have r e c e n t l y  transmission  injection-type  of a  methods.  as e f f o r t s  e f f i c i e n c y of o p t i c a l  are capable  enough t o a l l o w  and m o d u l a t i o n  i s decreasing  made g e n e r a l l y  plastic  electric  transmission  levels,  p a r t i c u l a r problem  These f i b r e s ,  ("lucite") wires  l a s e r power  over  become  several  miles  (infrared) lasers.  Works a r e d r a w i n g  as  fibres with  Bendix losses  38 of  20 d B / k m  "Electronic As  at present.  The i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r  News" f o r f u r t h e r  current  of the laser's vast  almost  spectrum  based  work t h a t  such f u n c t i o n s  industry. would  includes  (random r o u t i n g )  feasible  i s based  on l a r g e  They p o i n t loc. c i t .  software-controlled  and e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h i n g  The f a c t s t h a t  "Lasers",  space due t o t h e  network  net-  as r o u t e - d i v e r s i t y t r a n s -  and w i t h i n t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s  complementary.  p o t e n t i a l , i t uses  i n free  on a d i g i t a l  h a v e t o be s t a n d a r d i z e d  industry  area.  o f i t s beam.  A computer u t i l i t y  mission  i n this  i t i s noteworthy that i n  communications  no e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c  narrow aperture  38.  developments  a c l o s i n g remark on communications,  spite  i s referred to  o f Canada's  i s entirely microelectronics  i n t e r f a c e and r o u t i n g  and t h a t  the microelectronics  volumes of i d e n t i c a l together  modules  parts, are  to the possibility  of  avoiding  38. the  problems  hardware  inherent i n highly  mentioned  store-and-forward  i n section techniques.  differentiated  communications  1.1.2.1, by u n i v e r s a l  reliance  39. 5.0  A  TCCN a s  an  Initial  Step  in a  S o l u t i o n to the  Problems  of Up  to this  p o i n t network problems have been s t a t e d , examples  networks  e x a m i n e d , and  stated.  In t h i s  into  a general  Figure The  figure  network built  a  sketch  i s reproduced  various  couplers  and  a  the  $3 0 0 ,  the  section of  system.  s u c h as  MOS  Key  the  1,  the  $7 0 0 ,  provide  the  In  a d d i t i o n , each a p p l i c a t i o n s - o r i e n t e d c e n t r a l would  customized more o r these  be  to  less  would  as be  the  network format,  By  recording  the  network  line to  the  the  do  by  the  today,  central  the  This  n e t w o r k by  IC  types  of could  with  of  received  user would  would enable  reducing  be  in  processor operating  some e x c e p t i o n s .  of message b l o c k s  decoding  processor  processor,  number o f message b l o c k s  coupler,  micro-  switchers; they  a communications  that  formatting  and  utilization.  share  needs of  CP's  be  lines.  supported  the  a  a l l network  mounted  net  could  and  need f o r v a r i o u s message  TCCN.  the  using  microprocessors  be  the  crystallized  proposed  former  concentrators data  be  which gives  multiplexers, on  and  subject  elements are  f o r about  These components c o u l d  f u n c t i o n s , o b v i a t i n g the  the  of  Canada.  i n Appendix  latter  on  topics will  routing processors;  components  memory c h i p s .  of  again  d e s c r i p t i o n of  electronic  thoughts  solution•applicableto  f o r about  control  some a d v a n c e d  section these  3 represents  technical  Sharing  into  One a  of  standard  blocks.  sent  charged  and  received  only  for  by  exact  a p p l i c a t i o n s minicomputers  transmission costs.  The  key  40. reason users  f o r these reduced  costs resides  s h a r e t h e same m a j o r  within  t h e network  network  network,  i n the fact  that a l l  due t o e l e c t r o n i c  c o u p l e r s and r o u t i n g  processors.  without the savings i n parallel  transmission  conferred  by e l e c t r o n i c  switching  offers  relatively  switching A  digital  lines minor  cost  advantages. It  i s evident from  an u n p r e c e d e n t e d  the operation  degree  of the routing  of r e l i a b i l i t y  processors that  and s e c u r i t y  i s avail-  able  i n t h e TCCN, b e c a u s e  t h e e x a c t p a t h a message b l o c k  take  cannot  "a p r i o r i "  be d e t e r m i n e d  work f a i l u r e s the urban  c a n be c i r c u m v e n t e d .  high-speed  A network  link  t h e y do n o t r a d i a t e  links  netbetween  totally  electromagnetic fields.  The  i s scrambled.  has thus  processors  In fact  The o p t i c a l  urban  n e t and t h e high-speed m u l t i p l e x e r / s c r a m b l e r a r e  secure because  are  and because  will  been d e s c r i b e d  i n which  not only  a r e s h a r e d , b u t where a l lcommunications s h a r e d , by b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d  t h e TCCN w o r k s a s a s i n g l e  central processors  throughout t h e network.  distributed  communications  processor.  5.1 The  TCCN  suggested  TCCN  i n section  5.0  today's  networks.  central  p r o c e s s o r i n t h e network  and -  Management A s p e c t s o f a  from  The u s e r o f computer  e a c h m a c h i n e may  services.  i s 'a r a d i c a l  the applications  s e r v i c e s may  (assuming  transmission hardware  provider  facilities  and t h e i r  from  address any  he i s a b l e t o u s e  be owned by a d i f f e r e n t  The network  departure  of  it),  computing  a r e independent  utilization  s h o u l d be  Buffer  3  CPU User  Buffer  1  RAM ROM  City Net A Optical links 1  1  D e t a i l of Network Coupler High  Scrambler/ Concentrator  capacity  digital  link  Scrambler/ Concentrator I/O Buffer  I/O Buffer  3*  I/O Buffer  CPU  I/O Buffer  of Fig.  Routing 3-  Net  B  2  3 ty  Detail  r—1  1  1  4  Processor  A TCCN a n d  i t s Routing  Processors  1  42. monitored A major the  by  set  i t s owners of  ( c . f . Appendix  problems, mentioned  allocation  of  priorities  i n s e c t i o n 2.0,  to users  machines.  These problems, however, c o u l d  policy.  s e c t i o n s of  subnets,  Hence they  Western General problem could this  was  based  TCCN p r o v i d e s  on  the  the  special-purpose  the  4.0  to  a file  could  be  to generate  turnaround  Generally of  sign-on, time  at  the  a  the  that  the  sharing,  although  machines. respect  facilities  The  the  problems;  the  of  The  by  by  enabling  controlling  Developments  been d e s c r i b e d  task  revolves  second  information  in  around  site  time  of  i n the  processing  statistics  processor  probabilistic  u n r e s t r i c t e d access  enumerated  load  in this  latest  utilization as  public  under are  1.  i s better than cure,  upon u s e r  non-profit by  evident  t r a n s f e r to a  prevention  s t a t u s and  within  d e s c r i p t i o n of  each c e n t r a l s i t e .  Since  periodic  and  Provisions f o r accounting  i n Appendix  adapted  banking  endeavour have a l r e a d y  initiate  responsive  even  similar  load-sharing  at  highly  i t was  of  be  processor  arise  resorting to  availability  CP's  s u c h an  control.  described  by  In the  I I net  could  is restricted  ( c . f . COMCET's a p p r o a c h ) .  ability  machine  new.  Mark  s e l e c t h i s own  facilitate  access  additional flexibility  user  section  not  resolved  the  to  to  where s i t e are  otherwise  a TCCN, s u c h as  Electric  be  of  central  and  university  overloading  of  facilities  "restricted"  the  1).  site  measure of  site  on  CP's  the  facilities p o t e n t i a l job  access.  to  a TCCN seems t o  final  solve  analysis i t could  a  number  create  43 . pressure,  from the users,  through the providers  to  the m a n u f a c t u r e r s of equipment  of  hardware  goal It  and  software.  This  of s p e c i a l i z e d computer  to increase  achievement  communications  i s improbable that the achievement  stagnate  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y  could  be  the  networks  final  anywhere.  of c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i l l  the s t a t e of the a r t i n computer  development.  of s e r v i c e s ,  hardware  and  software  44. 6.0  Relevant  A p p l i c a t i o n s of On-Line  6.1  General  Considerations  Some o f t h e g e n e r a l multi-access of  computer nets  the thesis w i l l  area  after  considerations  consider  examining  Systems  underlying  were developed  the v i a b i l i t y  above.  some c o n c r e t e  The  remainder  applications i n this  s e l e c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n developments  among t h e p r o g e n i t o r s  of multi-access  of  nets,  the  to-date  time-shared  networks. Considering section  will  recognition efforts  o f what t h e m u l t i - a c c e s s be c o n d i t i o n e d  relatively  and/or  technically cessing  quickly given  of marketing  net market  i n this and t h e  implies.  Our  appropriate  impetus  could by  p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , b u t by t h e need t o r e a l i g n t h e  disorganized  nature  i n d u s t r y ; we s h a l l contention.  This  of the present-day data  determine  this  and  i s , a t any r a t e , a t t h e r o o t  In  effort  n o t s o much b y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  for  with.  initial  c a p i t a l - s h o r t a g e and s o c i o - l e g a l problems which  resolved  public  thesis,  be d i r e c t e d a t t h e p r o b l e m s  will  ephemeral be  t h e purpose of t h i s  below  pro-  some o f t h e e v i d e n c e  c o n d i t i o n i s more l i k e l y  to persist  o f t h e p r o b l e m s t o be d e a l t  39,40 '  searching  f o r a p p l i c a t i o n areas  m a r k e t , t h e f a c t o r s t o be t a k e n internal  and e x t e r n a l .  39.  Byrns,  40.  Parkhill,  of the net t o the.Canadian  into  consideration are both  Internal factors are of a technical,  l o c . c i t . , p. 79. l o c . c i t . , p. 143  economic, and l e g a l nature External for In  factors  various  very useful  ture.  a r e the market conditions  a market  ideas  that  These  state  strategy  vehicle  that  of  undercapitalization,  of  software houses, and intense  ease of lease regional  for  the opportunity  network  areas;  ment c o s t s  o f some  i n the  c)  litera-  and d)  retail  net would  zones;  rise  b^  of package  providing appli-  develop-  attracting  professional  o f homogeneous  car-rental  smoothing  i n one o r more  external  and supermarket  n e t w o r k s , and n a t i o n w i d e  due t o t h e  therefore,  enhancing  internal requirements,  p o t e n t i a l are the growth  as  problems  f o r workload  the amortization  thus  serve  competition as a r e s u l t of the providing  places;  centre  talent  i n t e r a c t i o n across time  over m u l t i p l e  whom a m u l t i - a c c e s s  date  of t e c h n i c a l  by a)  allowing  these  present  net would  t o dominate t h e market  such as l a r g e  on-line  lack  f i n a n c i a l support,  Paralleling  banking  to alienate  financing,  and  media  be t a k e n  been advanced  a multi-access  excellent  network  cognizance w i l l  have a l r e a d y  an  stronger  r e f l e c t i n g t h e need  42 '  cation  above.  applications.  developing  • 41  and have been p a r t l y o u t l i n e d  growth.  factors  of  merchandising  chains,  hotel  and  systems, users  be i d e a l l y s u i t e d  on a  to  real-time  basis.  An e x a m p l e , however, w i l l ing  a checkless  society  41.  I b i d . , pp.  42.  Bernard Goldstein, XVI ( M a r c h , 1 9 7 0 ) .  demonstrate  may  certain pitfalls.  be t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e a n d  Developseem  133-140. "The C a s e f o r N e t w o r k s , "  Datamation, ;  economically realized  viable,  i fthere  verification  but f u l l  m a r k e t p o t e n t i a l may  i s consumer a v e r s i o n t o i n s t a n t a n e o u s  by means o f e l e c t r o n i c  balance  figures.  various  ways, but s p e c i f i c s  This  specific  shall  the various a p p l i c a t i o n s areas  If  i t c a n be a g r e e d market w i l l  that  and g e n e r a l  emphasis  should  by  systems.  generalization, certain  software;  Lest t h i s  may  car rental,  efficiency  analyzed an  i t c a n be a d d e d t h a t t h e  real  similar  software  ware i s r e d u c e d , product,  software  over  made m o d u l a r .  people  are provided. professional.  This  last  on  inventory  with  industries are  The a d v a n t a g e s o f  areas  further,  that  c o u l d be b a s e d  c a n be t e s t e d  of  and s p e c i a l i z e d  growth  such  with  obsolescence  b a s i s , and package development  m u l t i p l e markets;  enquiry  by n o t i n g  e s t a t e , and warehouse  manpower i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  spread  class  that maysserve h o t e l r e -  and/or hardware, t e c h n i c a l  not market  this  t o a broad  i n particular  i f t h e needs o f t h e v a r i o u s  and t h e software  since  seem t o be a n i n c o n s i s t e n t  approach a r e t h a t v a r i o u s market  today's  differentiated  systems, e.g. i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l ,  servation,  appear  t o enter the multi-access  t h e p o i n t c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d  communications and r e t r i e v a l  equal  efforts  applications belonging  means o f g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e  account  below.  on systems t h a t a r e f l e x i b l e  those  credit  c a n be o v e r c o m e i n  be d e a l t w i t h a s t h e y  purpose hardware,  be l a i d  exploiting  response  t o t h e bank  h a v e t o be o n t h e b a s i s o f  services  implies  initial  access  problem  in  net  n o t be  hard-  on a  c o s t s c a n be  o p p o r t u n i t i e sf o r  i s an important  factor f o r  One d r a w b a c k o f d e a l i n g w i t h problem of  of managing  the crucial  systems, need  l a r g e data-base  them, p a r t i c u l a r l y  areas  as they  f o rastronomical quantities  speed  One  enquiry-response  i n the literature of high  i sthe  grow i n s i z e .  i n multi-access, net-based,  as i t has been mentioned  storage  systems  i s that "the  random-access  has been one o f t h e m a j o r o b s t a c l e s t o t h e computer 43  public in  utility."  t h e f u t u r e by a c o n s o r t i u m  software the  houses,  expected  generally vehicle useful  economies  f o r solving  6.2  areas  i tshould  a be  t o be e x a m i n e d i n bases a r e a t t h e k e r n e l  to the successful exploitation  of related  i n Network A p p l i c a t i o n s  successes,  developed—thus  the  incomplete,  Multiple-access data  analyzing promising  businesses  shall  s o f t w a r e manpower, TCCN p r e s e n t s  yield  segments.  endeavours, like  skilled  The o u t l i n e d  respect  and/or  i n this  i tand although  sections.  review  efforts  i n evaluating the applications  Some E f f o r t s  Before  come u n d e r f r u i t f u l  o f equipment manufacturers  i n highly 44  supply.  a system's approach  market  may  i f the Japanese  i n short  subsequent of  The problem  and f a i l u r e s  computer-utility-  a potential  f a r , a n d some o f t h o s e  feuilding  i n some d e t a i l , t h e  o f some  o r some t h a t e x h i b i t  be e x a m i n e d .  basic  market areas  i n this  i n the planning  respect  stages  T h i s m u s t be d o n e w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g block of any f u t u r e u t i l i t y service  as presented  be a m o d i f i e d  form  of the present  43.  Parkhill,  44.  A t s u s h i F u j i i , "Software i n Japan: Supported Growth," D a t a m a t i o n , X V I I ( F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1971), pp. 27-28.  loc. cit.,  bureau,  may  that  i n this  Chapter.  p. 48.  48. 6.2.1 The  Reservation  earliest  Force's  SAGE  Systems  networks  of major  significance  (Semi-Automatic Ground  t h e U.. S. N a v y ' s NTDS ( N a v y  aspects  o f these systems  discussed they  with respect  needn't  be f u r t h e r  common p u r p o s e they  also  highly  special military these very  military costly  later  SABRE  system  since,  have  under  not only  to their  firm  their  (IBM produces  systems  Paralleling  Reservisor  SABRE s y s t e m , a j o i n t  that  IBM-AAL  Airlines)  could  development.  Environment) be c a r r i e d o u t  attempting to gain foothold  s t a g e s o f a TCCN, b u t i t h a s c e r t a i n  brought  f o r airlines.  Magnetronic  Business Machines-American  small  been  does  t h e 1950's and 60's have  i s not t h e type o f development  The  considerations, but  hardware  was A m e r i c a n A i r l i n e s '  S.  WWMCCS a n d  f o r these complexes).  developments,  by  System).  thesis  integration  specialized  followed  (Semi-Automatic Booking and R e s e r v a t i o n  by a s i n g l e initial  Information  economic  S. A i r  S y s t e m ) a n d t h e U.  to this  considered,  computers  changed  (International The  t o system  Data  and widespread r e s e r v a t i o n s  Among t h e f i r s t ( 1 9 5 2)  relevant  transcend normal  employ  Environment)  Tactical  A r m y ' s C C I S - 7 0 (Command a n d C o n t r o l  w e r e t h e U.  i nthe  adaptable  features U Ft  worth reviewing The  system  each w i t h  on t h e b a s i s  consisted  of a description  of a central  65 K m e m o r y , a n a s s e m b l y loc. cit.,  core of twin  by  Rothstein.  IBM 7 090 c p u ' s ,  o f IBM 1998 drum f i l e s  and a  45.  Parkhill,  p. 54.  46.  M a r v i n R o t h s t e i n , " A m e r i c a n A i r l i n e s 'SABRE' - T h e A n a l y s t ' s V i e w p o i n t , " (American A i r l i n e s , J a n u a r y 11, 1965) (Mimeographed).  49. drum c h a n n e l , pherals  such  equipment. radiated  an  From t h i s  that  and  intuition,  placing  the  the  system  or  well  techniques  would  I/O  2000 b i t s / s e c .  (TI's), remotely  latter  or  strategically  buffers', each f e e d i n g  linked  agent  adapters.  s e t s and  The  difficulties  the  admits key  be  here,  indicated too  used  by  agent's  in  either  analysis. for  statistics.  the  It  can,  i n passing, that simulation f o r such  complex  the  role  i n adapting  i t states that load characteristics recorded  a  teletype  report  played  analysis,  f o r queuing  operations research technique  of  lines  located  i n t e g e r programming models t o the  submitted  locations  and  voice-grade  rigorous calculation,  i s probably  successfully and  card  drives,-printers  known b e c a u s e o f  be  This  tape  communications not  therefore,  problem  less  same t i m e , are  peri-  T I ' s , because of the  transportation At  plus  were connected  interchanges"  output  7 28 6 " r e a l - t i m e c h a n n e l , "  core  to which  number o f more o r input  IBM  as m a g n e t i c  out  "terminal  and  SABRE p l a n n e r s s e t s t o be  since  theory  was,  as  well.  however,  to determine  placed  the  i n the  the  number  field.  The  47 s u g g e s t i o n comes f r o m The  f e a t u r e s of  figuration terms the  and  the  47.  interest the  latter  SABRE s y s t e m  the  i n the  preceding  are  the  system  use  of  a real-time channel;  in  would  be  called  channel.  i t links  7090 memory.  w o r k d o n e by K l e i n r o c k .  the  agent  Obviously,  a direct sets'  i t would  data  con-  System/360 In  information directly be  a very useful  part  Leonard K l e i n r o c k , "Computer N e t w o r k s , " A Survey of C o m p u t e r S c i e n c e ( J u n e 1969)', S e c . 3.3 (Unpublished, mimeographed).  the with . of  a  generalized interest  enquiry-response  because of  "intelligent" of  a fully  feature system batch is  when i n t h e  by  r e d u n d a n c y on  the  suchaas  weekly  has  periodically  of  the  of  provided  26,  1970  and  EN  November 30, leading  accepts a  credit  card  one  ten  predetermined  reservation  power of  factor  of  pansion in  EN  any  has  Although  interested a  as  a  reliability in  enquiry-  cost-benefit  analysis  yet  frequency  in  i n any  is forcefully  November  1970  present  extension and  issues  to a  penetration  1,  3,  the  i f the  1969  by  and  and  of  the  1969,  "snapshot" IBM's  ticket  user  has  flight  as  coverage  SABRE s y s t e m .  flight  expandability  demonstrated  December  facet  EN)  enquiry-response  been made, w i t h i n  service  market  henceforth  another  d e s t i n a t i o n i n American's  network  of  last  operating  of  destinations  previously  initial  issues  of  incorporation  to market acceptance of  device  to  be  (abbreviated  into  issues  (ATV)  or  use  This  switchover  consideration  Vendor  The  cpu  insight  Ticket  vation,  the  n e w s p a p e r E l e c t r o n i c News  developments  of  mode.  enter  the  of  SABRE.  expandability.  Automatic  off-line  firm  the  is  enquiry-response  could  to  and  backup.  cpu  well  basis  SABRE s y s t e m w o r t h y o f  January  do  TI's,  i n any  a l a r g e m a r g i n , any  systems would  The  redundant  configuration  simplicity,  system as  expensive proposition  processor  system:  network  computer  even though the  systems  The  communications-oriented  i s an  response of  i t s basic  redundant  increased  system.  60  a  no  plan  to  i f a  seconds.  compounding  some d e v e l o p m e n t s 19,  any  reser-  subsequent market  January  The  197 0.  ex-  described The  initial of  phase of  United  these developments  Airlines'  Unimatic reservation  t e r m i n a l s , , a more advanced Airways with  Corporation  and  efforts  by  panies  Societe  to  British  ITT,  reservations  services  in  hotel reservation  system are are:  United  (e.g.  i n the  the  said  f o r two  i s to  to  States  be  Corp.  York),  attempting  of and  Angeles),  systems as  Point-of-Sale  point-of-sale these  (POS)  purchased  i s not  • (EN  comshares  they  Planning  Re-  Computer Systems,  Some o f  with  hotel  volumes/  these  those of  firms  the  Inc. are  airlines'  January  19,  1970).  f o r networks, but  one  i n which  as  clearly  s y s t e m s and  tags  goods f o r the  shall  contain  their be the  is  for standardization,  defined  yet,  the  i s that  of  potential ramifications.  examined  in detail  source  information  computerized  cash r e g i s t e r s . )  need  Co.  services  traditional the  the  Certain  where economic  com-  Systems  systems, which  computer r e a d a b l e  into  dominant market  Wellington  well.  Another applicationgar.ea case f o r computers  airline  field.  ( s u b s i d i a r y of  American Express  t o merge t h e i r  reservations 6.2.2  Los  joint  100,000-150,000 room r a n g e ;  International Reservations  search  pooled  present  Paris-based  have a l r e a d y  i n the  the  be  Telecommunications  rental)  business,  CRT  Airlines,  systems f o r a i r l i n e s car  3 0 00  Overseas  system which  de  construction  systems w i t h  f u r t h e r phase are  Internationale  ( S I T A ) and  extend  ancillary  a  panies  (In  i s the  (BOAC) B o a d i c e a  A i r Ceylon;  Aeronautiques  (New  phase  separate  Quantas, South American Airways, East A f r i c a n  Nigeria  and  i s the  terminals  What i s c l e a r l y particularly  that  below, about replace  defined, i n regard  however, to  price/identification National  Retail  attempting that of  tage f o r r e t a i l  Merchants A s s o c i a t i o n  to define  for  sale  may  be  borne  are to provide  based  on  operator  test  general  are  required  The  products being marketed  POS  systems range  January NCR card  system, using  with  interesting  denotes an  with  200  but has  Fibre-optics-based  and  fibre  control It i s  tage p r i n t e r :  magnetic  that  reader,  also  at  In  and  tag  inventory  shallddwell  a  software.  i s notable.  on c e n t r a l  limited  i n the  acknowledgement  by c o m p e t i t o r s r a n g e  OCR,  $2 5 0 , 0 0 0  2 1 , 197 0,  the system w i l l  i t s own  t o t h o s e based  are t y p i c a l l y  that  limited  and  cpu's  o n w h i c h we  systems  flexibility  of c a p a b i l i t y  an o p t i c a l  calculator and  equipment  standardization.  September  industry  tonnote that  cpu's  Other  systems  Input devices readers.  sale  inconsistency  below.  in-store  o f EN,  C e n t u r y 100  competitive  length  197 0,  comprehensive  twenty companies  s u p p o r t e d by v e r y  issues  verifier,  of  a narrow range  become t h e l e a d e r  credit  further  exhibit  by a b o u t  f r o m J a n u a r y 5,  19, 1971  could  accuracy, system  to study the introduction  article  t h e NRMA  EDP  I t i s estimated  point  of present  i t s more  s t a n d a r d s f o r POS  capability.  of hardware  abstracting  since  i s  postulating  that  by t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  productivity,  data capturing  field  by  code g e n e r a t e d a t  It i s likely  stages,  and  wide  standard  1970).  guided i n i t s e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d  effect  S.  by a n o n - d e t a c h a b l e t a g on t h e  (EN J a n u a r y 1 9 ,  hardware aims  and  bear a  At present the  ( N R M A ) i n t h e U.  standards to this  these tags should  manufacture  goods.  operate this  greater  from  small  time-shared cpu's. t a g and  paper  pattern recognition  card devices  seem t o h a v e t h e h i g h e s t r e l i a b i l i t y competitive oriented  A major  prices.  was r e j e c t e d stores, which  The of  was  after  i n this  Canadian t h e U.  markets,  extensive.field  testing  a t some o f P e n n e y ' s  software  of  U.  i n t h e U.  stores,  has a l s o  cpu's  A more de-  been r e l e g a t e d t o  S.,  systems  (EN J a n u a r y Canadian  i n t h e U.  i s much t h i n n e r t h a n  28,245 a r e c l a s s e d a s  T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s demand  strategy since particularly  S. c o u l d s p i l l segment.  do much t o p r e v e n t  over  I t will this,  i n POS-related  into  be e x a m i n e d  particularly systems.  w i t h A. C. N i e l s o n C o . i n t h e f i e l d  processed  grocery marketing  data  a data  distribution,  profits:  magnetic  tape  shipments  by w a r e h o u s e s .  successful  Canada and later  i n the light  Inc.  bank f o r 5 y e a r s  and/or d i s c A t present  data  volume  i s  to  The  enable  sales,  and gross,  i s being maintained  the data  EN,  o f computer  f o r grocery warehouses.  product  how  For example,  6, 19 69 r e p o r t s t h a t C o m p u t e r A p p l i c a t i o n s  of product  super-  a r e 1 3 4 , 2,057 a n d 1 , 5 7 0 ,  5, 1 9 7 0 ) .  company h a s b e e n b u i l d i n g  that  4,223 c o r p o r a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g  competing  control  system  i n time-sharing  f o r that use.  failure  of which  S. d e v e l o p m e n t s  October  problems  intended  of this  preempt a l a r g e market a TCCN w o u l d  Inc.).  i t s Tradar  m a r k e t f o r POS  a more c a r e f u l development  Alpex,  E. when  i n Canada t h e f i g u r e s  respectively  batch-  thesis.  S.:  43,287 f o o d  by  at  b y G.  due t o complex  discussion  ( e . g . Pitney-Bowes  suffered  were n o t i n i t i a l l y  tailed later  Some s y s t e m s a r e l i m i t e d  inventory control  setback  and c a n be p r o d u c e d  i s being a i r -  of  freighted  for processing  this  results  data  by  a  c e n t r a l computer.  i n o p t i m i z a t i o n of  inventory  Processing levels  of  and  order q u a n t i t i e s .  Telemart system  i s scheduled  wherein the  audio  response  sale"  items  the  order  than having credit the  a  a  to  scheduling  the  a  sales/delivery service i n , i s provided  777 0 u n i t ) o n  An  ( t h i s may  keyboard) a f t e r  9,  wholesaler  schools, on  more  verifying  the  and  1970).  Foodco,  of  items  food  item Inc.  customer's  truck  New  York  is  to hospitals,  h o t e l s whose b u s i n e s s  computerized  transmit  and of  enters  economical  computer, which then proceeds t o  February  relying  "on  operator  be  c e n t r a l warehouse, p r o v i d i n g  (EN  with  p r i c e s and  what he/she needs.  separate  universities, by  food  customer telephones  orders  single-source  out  a  Touch-Tone Telephone  code on  order  start  ( p o s s i b l y IBM  and  by  to  inventory,  is  carried  scheduling,  and  48 delivery are  services.  said to  with  be  reductions  consequent  control  and  assertions  The  savings  accounting was  not  a data  item  ordering  customers  48.  orders), although  i t can  be  network  their  "Computer - Supported a Bundle," Journal of  to  assumed  inventory  ( p r e s u m a b l y due  customers  weekly  the  shipments,  inventory basis  this  for  is a  control.  facilitate  approach,  to  storing,  Although  system f o r  i s planning  of  number o f  overhead.  pany  by  i n the  i n unloading,  given,  management i n f o r m a t i o n  advantages accruing  to  involving  food the  these  type The  of com-  and  non-food  large  volume  intermediate  One-Stop S e r v i c e Saves Food Buyers D a t a Management ( A u g u s t , 1 9 6 8 ) .  card-punching  i s felt  with  Further, Digital  a TCCN.  credit from the of  card v e r i f i c a t i o n  t h e cash basis  of either  sources. puters to  purchases,  dependent  The p r e s e n t  l i m i t s / c u s t o m e r on  dollar  v a l u e and number  within  application  i s that  on t h e e f f i c i e n t  14,600 e m p l o y e e s  large  data  i n this  exploitation  Insurance  i n 47 r e g i o n a l  A larger  service  Group  i n t h e U.  i n t h e U. S.  offices)  has a  payroll  system  i s presently  S. a n d  (with  computerized  t h e system  functions, within  pro-  and  the organization  general merits, marketing  capabilities,  (EN, November 19,  of natural r e -  approaches  p e r s o n n e l advancement procedures  administrative  o f man-  Practical  personnel records, performs  specialties,  growth  respect.  cesses  preferences  of personnel  o f com-  Inventory Register (SIR) operational;  on employees'  time  storage capabilities  Skills  based  a certain  allocation  have a l r e a d y been undertaken  The H a r t f o r d  provides  independently'  Banks  even on t h e e f f i c i e n t  effect  Canada.  operate  1 9 , 197 0 ) .  c a n be i n v a l u a b l e  this  that  i s producing  Canada i s a young c o u n t r y , whose l o n g - t e r m  more v i t a l l y  power t h a n  Systems Corp.  and s e t t r a n s a c t i o n  network-compatible  d a t a banks.  by s t a n d a r d s a c h i e v a b l e  number o f p u r c h a s e s  Personnel Data  Another  Data  systems  total  and/or  (EN, January  6.2.3  is  register  purchases,  limit  t o be p r i m i t i v e  skills,  interests,  and  and  1969).  operational  within  the  Canadian  government, d e d i c a t e d t o t h e advancement and placement  of  federal  civil  M o r r i s o n has in  servants,  and  conducted a  answered,  Canada-wide t / s a c c e s s .  study revealing  p e r s o n n e l data systems  4 5%  supporting  indicating  wide-spread  i n the U.S.—of that  3 9%  900  o f them had  interest  companies  polled,  non-payroll  50 related A  personnel data  systems.  system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  for  the purposes  and  Hecht,  lating and It  wherein the categories  t o a person's  i s felt  ability  that  that  the f i e l d  been o u t l i n e d  are a b i l i t y  to deal  o f PDS  review i n the near f u t u r e  processor  and  the fact,  job mobility  interurban  based  i s severely  communications  solution  personnel  49.  o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n has  some  with  by  merit Cleff  parameters r e -  things,  people,  ideas  information.^  ful  One  f o r personnel data of  would  d a t a bank  be  due on  is likely  t o come u n d e r  to the advent the writer's  of the  own  a parallel  regional processor,  s e a r c h e s , embedded  in a  parallel  experience,  h i n d e r e d i n Canada by  between  fruit-  the lack  of  employment a g e n c i e s . ideally  suited  for  TCCN.  G. R. D ' A v i g n o n a n d C. G u r u p r a s a d , " D a t a S t r e a m - A Manpower D a t a Bank," S t a f f i n g B r a n c h , P u b l i c S e r v i c e " C o m m i s s i o n , O t t a w a 4, C a n a d a ( 1 9 7 0 ) ( ? ) , p p . 18-19 X'fMimeographed)  50.  Edward J . M o r r i s o n , D e v e l o p i n g Computer-Based Employee I n f o r m a t i o n Systems T C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , I n c . , 19 6 9 ) .  51.  S a m u e l H. C l e f f a n d R o b e r M. H e c h t , " J o b / M a n M a t c h i n g i n t h e 70's / ' " D a t a m a t i o n , X V I I ( F e b r u a r y 1, 1971)  6.2.4 The  Electronic Credit Verification cashless  lation may  but  very  remain  operation  s o c i e t y concept  so of  little  by  i n the  long  way  of  f o r some t i m e b e c a u s e the  establishment. that  has  banking The  banks would  like  o u t s i d e r s , as  sector, a  difficulty to  see  evidenced  concrete  resides  the  may  be  business  possibility behind  the  may  not  be  EDP  that  remote  following quotation  B.  Goldstein, President  is  more f u l l y  of  w e l l i n the  This  co-  fact  unencroached  services into  i n the  U.  Data  U.  S.,  S.  Centres  and  the  banks the  same  logic  banks,  of  which  that  i n Canada once the to  upon  services  i s some e v i d e n c e  applying  United  specu-  full  customer p a y r o l l  There  the  as  computer  employee b e n e f i t p l a n s . of  for  development.  activities  and  out  food  i t involves the  some b a n k s h a v e b e e n d r a w n , n o t a b l y  forced  provided  proverbially traditional  their  by  Systems  by  U.  S.,  examined:  "The t e n o r o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t m a s s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s - w h i c h i n e s s e n c e come f r o m c e r t a i n m o n o p o l y p o w e r s g r a n t e d t o t h e m - s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o i m p e d e t h e o r d e r l y g r o w t h o f new i n d u s t r i e s , s u c h a s d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s . " ( E N , D e c e m b e r 1, 19 6 9 , p . 33) Of  course,  the  same c o u l d  be  applied to  the  Notwithstanding  the  above comments, t h e r e  indication  the  Bank o f  that  Canada-wide o n - l i n e banking effect  would  d r a w money a t the  be  any  collection,  formation  to  (e.g.  allow branch  Montreal system  on  seems t o  of  the  i n operation  bank.  carriers. be  have a f u l l y  a bank customer t o  a n a l y s i s , and yields  may  common  The  distribution  by  integrated  197 5 w h o s e  deposit net  some  would  and  with-  also  of market f i e l d  p o r t f o l i o s managed  by  the  bank  allow inand  58 . current (EN,  November  there step the  overseas  t o an has  U.  S.,  the  1969).  who  been t a k e n  i s presently  19,  6.2.5  1970).  the  Medical  Society  Results to  say,  branch  more  managers  steps  from  transitional  Corporation  i t s Insta-Tran  directly  for this  from  the  in  system  store  has  Data  the  medicine  and  public health.  more e f f i c i e n t d r u g s and fession  has  ability  led  control  be and  From t h i s doctors  of  pay  and/or  of  involved  one  of  customer's  the  (EN,  been  to  re-  extremely  reasons  for  TCCN.  The  a  The  of  can  only  use  cases to  be  by  enquiry-response s t o r i n g and  by  the  would  providing of  plans  of  drug  pro-  drug-  These e f f e c t s  b a s i s , hence,  undertaken  medical  medical  by  their  means o f  customers lends  systems where the  histories,  of  detrimental  ailments.  accessing  for  field  a TCCN  gap  l a r g e number o f insurance  need  proliferation  statistical  view, the  patient's medical  i n the  existence  drug-induced on  between the  subsidizing this  i n medical  i n v o l v e the  i s subject  f o r them  services.  minimization  multi-access  cerning  to  i n some r e c o r d e d  determined  point  a  i n c r e a s i n g l y frequent  interaction only  cost  medical  their  of  dichotomy  the  the  system  to  Banks  recognized  to reduce  system have not  represents  s e c u r i t y aspects  and  might  few  Electrospace  such a  services  to  and  Indeed, a  producing  electronically  Needless  discussing  can  a  system.  by  s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s , and  drug  customers  I t i s only  electronic credit  funds  ported.  help  to  s t o r e merchant's account v i a Touch-Tone telephone  January  high  19,  already  transfer to  draft rates)  EDP.  and  itself  ideally  transactions  information  con-  effects, potential  59. organ donors, requests f o r organs about The  multi-doctor  need  patients,  f o r EDP e q u i p m e n t  cognized  by r e s p o n s i b l e  warnings  b l o o d bank i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c .  t o handle  f o r some t i m e , b u t o n l y  recognition  t o be t r a n s p l a n t e d ,  these tasks  recently  authorities,  has been r e -  has i t been g r a n t e d  such  as t h e M e d i c a l  52 Society  i n t h e U.  Western  Data  Shield tract  S.  A r e c e n t c o n c r e t e s t e p h a s been t a k e n by  P r o d u c t s , I n c . ( L o s A n g e l e s ) when i t s i g n e d up  and Blue Cross i n which  voice  ( U . S. m e d i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) response terminals  offices  Medicare  and Medicard on epidemic d i s e a s e s ,  patient  Laboratories to  i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e  visit  frequency  (EN, March  access t o records f o r  sently  a t t e m p t i n g t o market  6.2.6  Additional  from  t h e system.  exist  wholesalers,  radio  a n d TV  legal  services  provision  stations,  quotation  real  inventory  of commercial  data banking  and improve  services,  package  6, 1 9 6 9 )  Applications  i n centralized  52.  Johnson  I t i s pre-  (EN, October  advantage  stock  Mead  doctor's offices.  areas i n which multi-access  trieval  compatibility  2, 1 9 7 0 ) .  Some a d d i t i o n a l  and  drug  has designed a computer-assisted d i a g n o s i s  be a c c e s s e d i n r e a l - t i m e  con-  a r e t o be c o n n e c t e d t o  doctor's  and  fora  Blue  retrieval  estate  and p o r t f o l i o  nets might  systems  search systems,  E . R. G a b r i e l l i , " M e d i c a l N e t w o r k " , ( O c t o b e r 15, 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 36-40.  services f o r  c a s e s t o speed  efficiency,  management  f o r retailers  slotting  of legal  be o f  patent r e -  and  integrated  services. Datamation,  Although XVI  up  60. t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s where thought since  been l e a r n e d  securities the  that  service  to  IBM  Analysts  selection these  (EN,  are  not  neglected an  1,  to  1969  the  U.  i t  York  after  Society  computerized 23,  has  S.  library,  New  November  a v a i l a b l e on  Canada r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  the  consider  and  areas,  integrated  time-shared  Committee of  exhorted  December  services  w o r k , IBM  was  be  added  i t s C A L L / 3 60  Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s  Security  has  to  of  stock  1970).  Since  C a n a d i a n C A L L / 3 60  net-  i n Vancouver were u n a b l e  to  elaborate. Real Estate  s e l e c t i o n by  application, least  a  exist  in a  a  of  little  is a  p r i m i t i v e form, based of  the  r e t r i e v e d on  a  property card  p a r t i c u l a r l y simple  i n t e r e s t unless  regionally centralized basis.  lithograph  are  but  computer  for  on  c a r r i e d out  Such a  service  on  i s known  computer cards t h a t  s a l e on  sorter that  one  side.  at to  contain  The  cards  c o l l a t e s data about  the  53 property  punched on  R a d i o and problem  television stations  that  arises  advertisements arise  them.  from the  i n t o programs  when c o n s t r a i n t s  on  have- a  rather  necessity i n an  total  (CRTC) r e g u l a t i o n s ,  since  tiguous 53.  time  slots;  commercials  Conversation with V a n c o u v e r , B. C ;  Television  Mr. J . April,  of  cannot  be  Problems  time between  many c u s t o m e r s w i l l products  contend  for  advertised  E.  pro-  Commission  different length  S a u n d e r s o f A. 1971.  scheduling  customers'  manner.  advertising  C a n a d i a n R a d i o and  f u r t h e r , competing  place  optimal  g r a m s i s l i m i t e d by  time";  to  unsuspected  are  Austin  in  "prime con-  offered, Ltd.,  61. and  some c u s t o m e r s may  commercial  time  partitioned  to  insist  between program satisfy  p r a c t i c e , make f u l l  will  complex.  The  opportunity to of  occur,  study  lengths.  the  a description  revenues.  be  of  s c h e d u l i n g can  f o r IBM I t can  to a very  concerning  very  Canada, has  be  dowed w i t h l a r g e a m o u n t s o f r a n d o m - a c c e s s  to  maximize  problem  problem.  i n more d e t a i l s  advertising  and/or  o n - l i n e t / s t e r m i n a l s connected  interested  be o p t i m a l l y  sound  t i m e , and  allotted  last-minute cancellations  while working the  The  segments must t h e n  of a v a i l a b l e  that  author,  specific  customer requirements,  use  When i t i s c o n s i d e r e d insertions  on  s o l v e d by fast  system  of a r e a l - t i m e package c a l l e d  an  the  use  processor  storage.  ,such a  had  en-  The  reader  is  referred  STARCREST  54 presently To  operational i n Great  complete  isolated  this  with  software  coming  idea  of  lection  54.  felt  increasingly  the  can  be  Nevertheless, the  from  then  indication  a C a n a d a - w i d e TCCN.  compatibility  WWMCCS w i l l  works.  an  multi-access networks o f f e r i n g  might grow i n t o and  section,  Britain.  g r o u n d up initial of  The  previously in  development of  building  takeover  connection  separate  net-  is  by  the  be-  networks Hence,  with judicious  c o n f i g u r a t i o n remains  amalgamation or  hardware  software  outlays.  how  services  of d i s t i n c t  new  penetration coupled  system  to  problems of  integration  and  as  specialized  r e q u i r e s heavy c a p i t a l  market  by  i n the  expensive,  a modular  follow  outlined  i s needed  basic;  the se-  growth  stronger  L. F. W i l l s o n , " I n s t a n t A n s w e r s - S o u t h e r n T e l e v i s i o n ' s R e a l T i m e C o m p u t e r S y s t e m " , The C o m p u t e r B u l l e t i n (September 1970)  competitors,  by  communication is  already  has  23, by a  new,  a  Some e v i d e n c e U.  S.:  by of  the this  Honeywell  sharing latter  i n order  Cybernet  However, the  is a  t o m a r k e t HIS  position network  has  already  should  be  Systems to  s e r v i c e s (EN,  large time-sharing  network  use November  developed  been taken  the  of technique  Information  agreement w i t h C o n t r o l Data C o r p o r a t i o n  facilities  here  that  basis for a l l multi-  services.  digital  frequency, all  i n the  purely d i g i t a l  access In  an  1970). CDC.  facilities.  a t hand  entered  Cybernet  h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n or  the  evaluate  network,  b a s i s and  time, this  differences  lines  would  s i n c e no  additional  used  on  time-sharing  space w i l l  exist  argument, i t i s c r i t i c a l  between frequency  time-division  be  a time,  not  s e r v i c e uses for sharing.  to recognize  i n the  To  the t e c h n i c a l  d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e x i n g (FDM)  m u l t i p l e x i n g (TDM), e x p l a i n e d  i t s lines  and  Glossary.  63. 7.0  Supermarket  Unlike  Point-of-Sale  personnel  been occupying previously. lication  data  the  POS  area  systems, p o i n t - o f - s a l e  news m e d i a  systems are  presently  essence, these  of  process  of  retail  of-sale the  in  and  In order  to  systems the  store  management.  and  large  real-time service  chain  the  be  vitally  sensitive  point  of  customer.  For  a  product's  example, p r o f i t to  be  i s to  about  will  seem  said  that  a terminal  that  by  be  by  the  provide  check-  supermarkets,  real-time and  cash flows point sales  1.0-1.5%, and  an  for  more e f f e c t i v e  of  or  quasi-  customer  representatives  m a r g i n s on  point-  analogy  outlets,  the  set  To  information  about  area  the  source data  providing  locus:  the  at  i t may  collects  m a n a g e r s , as concerned  to  controller.  c a r r i e d out  f a s t food  app-  controlled is a  subject  systems  s t o r e s , by  Store  reported  belong  c o n t r o l , the  c o m p u t e r - a i d e d management  support.  are  POS  enumerated  States.  manager i s the  process  management o f  retail  to  have  intensive  i s c a r r i e d out  previously  of  management, a r e  field  sensing  store  t e s t s and  said to  simultaneously  objective  i n the  be  system  introduce  functions  e m p l o y e e , and  primary  field  cash r e g i s t e r i s replaced  stand  controls  the  f a m i l i a r with  automates the  The  data  systems  s p e c i a l i z e d computer  United  systems could  o u t l e t s , the  reader  POS  i n the  (POS)  c o n s i s t e n t l y , as  a new,  c o n t r o l , where the  terminal  obvious.  quite  undergoing  development, p a r t i c u l a r l y In  Systems  of  at  central  the  sale  i n the industry  most to  the  grocery average  64. on  losses  due t o c a s h i e r  Hence, supermarket  POS s y s t e m s  accuracy  due t o automated  increase  control  (or  customer)  arithmetic, items  over  effective  inventory  optimum f l o o r  further,  levels,  reduce  bookkeeping  of pricing  p r o v i d e f o rc r e d i t  0.7%.  they  retail  space  utilization.  cashier  checkout  stand  and accounting  strategies  (e.g.,  purchases and c r e d i t  marketing concepts  methods f o r d i f f e r e n t  55  should  r e d u c i n g one form o f p i l f e r a g e ) ,  of various  display  t o be a b o u t  should provide increased  data entry;  permit the testing  on " s p e c i a l " ) ,  testing  i s said  wait times, reduce  verification,(thus for  errors  and a l l o w  such a s most  p r o d u c t s and hence  Further,  i ti s evident from 56  the r a p i d i t y of r e a l  o f changes  estate  affecting  tendency  f o rc i t y  creasing  losses  ferage, a  (with  and t h e r i s e  quire  wide  be  costs  supermarkets, the  i n suburban  supermarket  the rising  a r e a s , t h ei n -  b u s i n e s s ) due t o p i l -  i n t h e n u m b e r o f w o r k i n g women, t o name b u t that  shopping  by t e l e p h o n e i s l i k e l y t o  Hence, any long-term v i a b l e  the incorporation  o f hardware  type o f r e t a i l i n g .  evaluated carefully  because  market,  areas near  to live  rising  acceptance.  amenable t o t h i s  parking  workers  few o f t h e v a r i a b l e s ,  gain  i nthe retail  and software  there are indications  that  personally,  features  However, t h i s  ( i t may b e s e n s i t i v e  approach  t o market  individuals  finding  POS m a y r e -  s t i l l  should  areas), prefer t o  shop  t h e supermarket  i t a r e l a x i n g and  55.  R. A. M c L a u g h l i n a n d J o h n W e s s l e r , " A t NRMA t h e y t a l k e d o f m a n y t h i n g s , o f P o i n t o f S a l e a n d C r e d i t S l i p s . . .," Datamation, XVI (March, 1970).  56.  D. T. W e l c h , B u d g e t a r y C o n t r o l a n d C o s t R e d u c t i o n f o r R e t a i l Companies (London: "MacDonald and Evans L t d . , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 1.  sociable opinion be  a  environment. '  In the f i n a l  0  that  the aim  o f EDP  "commercial exercise  analysis,  i n the supermarket  in profit  Welch  i s of  environment  maximization" rather  the should  than  an  58 "accounting follows,  exercise  the l a t t e r  former, and, considered  just  as  primarily  i n improved purpose  administration."  shall  above,  be  treated  supermarket  as a  I n what subset of  operations  shall  f o r r e a s o n s o f c o n c i s e n e s s , and  the  be  because  supermarkets epitomize the fast-moving, h i g h l y  competitive re-  tail  will  In  environment  f o r which  POS  o r d e r t o determine the market  approach would registers  be  i n the supermarket  practical  applicable these  approach yearly  figures  presented  f o r POS  industry  i n this  sales  could respect  b y NCR,  were u n a v a i l a b l e ,  based  a r e and  and  be  be  systems, the  to determine the replacement  percentage of these r e g i s t e r s A  systems  level  t a k e n o v e r by  the leader  be  a  cash certain  POS  systems.  to determine  i n the f i e l d .  the following  on t h e most u n a m b i g u o u s  best of  expect that  would  designed.  the Since  approach i s  s o u r c e o f d a t a on  super59  market The  operation  i n C a n a d a , a s t u d y , by  study i s considered  volumes/store stitutes Retail  a  reliable  c h a i n , hence,  Vickers  because  p r o v i d e s an  supermarket; other studies,  Trade, a r e vague i n t h i s  and  Benson.  i t indicates indication  sales  o f what  s u c h a s t h e 1966  respect,  and  references  con-  census to  them  57.  R o n a l d R. G i s t , M a n a g e m e n t P e r s p e c t i v e s i n R e t a i l i n g (New Y o r k : J o h n N i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 2 3 1 - 2 3 5.  58.  Welch,  59.  R. F. V i c k e r s a n d D. F. B e n s o n ( e d s . ) , C a n a d i a n F o o d S t o r e Data ( M o n t r e a l and T o r o n t o : V i c k e r s and Benson L t d . , A p r i l 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 7.  l o c . c i t . , p.  17 5.  on  are  omitted.  In  1963, there  and  were  1,549  corporate  7,687 v o l u n t a r y  chain  stores  growing in  a t about  t h e number  rate  i n Canada.  5% p e r a n n u m a t t h a t  5 cash r e g i s t e r s per store  i n 1971.  stores  sales  were  2% p e r a n n u m  Compounding  1963-1971, (9,236) x  s t o r e s c a n be e x p e c t e d  chain  Since  time,  o f s t o r e s c a n be a s s u m e d .  over the period  chain  supermarket  (1/.85) =  growth  this  growth  11,080  I f f u r t h e r an average  i s assumed, and a r e a s o n a b l e  10%  turnover  i n c a s h r e g i s t e r s p e r annum, a p o t e n t i a l m a r k e t o f  11,080 x  5 x 1 0 % = 5 , 5 4 0 POS  probable. suggested  The  a c t u a l number  terminals/year o f POS  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s below would  f o r Canada  systems,  of  seems  i n terms of the  t h e n be a b o u t  550  systems/  year. 7.1  Input/Output  Considerations  The  technical difficulties  end  i n t h e form of source  is  changing  with  o f POS data  such r a p i d i t y  systems  automation  start  at the  problems.  that recent  input  This  area  publications are  60 incomplete. and  In addition, i t i s fraught  a t t e m p t s a t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n were m e r e l y  1971 p a r t i c u l a r l y  where c r e d i t  shall  again  be r e v i e w e d  Unfortunately, sources: 60.  with  data  getting started i n i s involved.  This  later.  f o r a POS  the product  verification  uncertainty,  label,  t r a n s a c t i o n comes  from  the customer's c r e d i t  different  card,  and t h e  Auerback C o r p o r a t i o n , Source Data Automation ( D e t r o i t : Management I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s ( 1 9 7 0) ( ? ) ) .  67. employee's viable  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n badge.  alternative  error.  Although  this  i s being  machine checks  errors  c a n be c o r r e c t e d .  o p t i c a l l y encoded  Reading  device;  tag or label  day's end; f u r t h e r ,  i ts t i l l  on t h e e f f e c t  provides  of special  the  reading  at  a brand  head  has t o be a b l e  almost any speed  angle; cost  (which  by i n -  a  magnetically accurate.  by means  that  no  i n batch  pricing  of a  special mode a t  management w i t h  real-time  policies.  information  o f encoding  t o pass  by t h i s  and r e a d i n g ,  over t h e magnetic  may a l s o b e e r r a t i c )  t h e problem has been s o l v e d  ( i . e . about  tags  encoded  new m e t h o d  operator  and more  advantage  t o read  However, t h e use o f m a g n e t i c a l l y requires  reading  i s quicker  i t has t h e added  a  IMS S y s t e m ) n o t a l l  a t t r a n s a c t i o n time  a r e needed  method  i s no l o n g e r  t o some e x t e n t  In this respect  machine o r handling  information  remedied  (e.g. i n Honeywell's  c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d  hand-held  input  i n such a system as i ti s prone t o  ternal  or  Keyboard  and a t a  strip variable  a n d c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d  $1,000 o f h a r d w a r e / t e r m i n a l ) .  since  a t low  One m a n u f a c t u r e r 61  of  POS s y s t e m s c l a i m s  It  i s likely  pulse-width  that  t o have a s e c r e t process  i t c a n be done b y a method  modulation  (DPWM), t h e d e t a i l s  f o rdoing  this.  called differential  of which a r e l e f t  as  62 a  reference.  Some e m p h a s i s  should  be p l a c e d  on magnetic  input  over  optical  61.  A l f r e d R o s e n b l a t t a n d G e r a l d M. W a l k e r , " C o m p u t e r i z e d T e r m i n a l s R i n g Up S a l e s i n C a s h R e g i s t e r T e r r i t o r y , " E l e c t r o n i c s , X L I I I (November 2 3 , 1 9 7 0 ) .  62.  " M o d u l a t i o n Scheme P e r m i t s U s e o f L o w - C o s t E l e c t r o n i c s , XLIV ( A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 3 5 .  Recorder,"  68. input  f o r at least  defaced they  without destroying  are basically  Association to  two r e a s o n s :  be u s e d  February  (a) magnetic  their  information  (ABA) has recommended t h a t i n computer-readable c r e d i t  22, 1 9 7 1 , p. 4 3 ) .  t h e POS f i e l d  factors  here are the strength  with  an o p t i c a l that  o f new d e v e l o p m e n t s  and  the degree  ABA  stand,  of trust  since  this  some  thought  Source data automation d i f f i c u l t i e s  because  63.  numbers o n l y ,  show a c t u a l  prices.  will  require  A  damaged and hence  of including label  a  and  only.  no d o u b t  arise  education.  limited which A POS  g o o d s t o be t a g g e d  i s to facilitate  " C r e d i t Card Uses Hologram," ( O c t o b e r 1 2 , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 52.  on t h e  intervals,  although supermarket  This  cards,  planning  a r e by no means  of customer  of i t s nature, w i l l  permanent code s t i l l  by means  t o show  credit  banks  on t h e m a g n e t i c  a manual-entry keyboard, f o r emergencies  have t o be s o l v e d  uncertain  be a b l e  earlier.  to the possibility  Human p r o b l e m s  potentially  i n c o n v e n i e n c e employees  SKU n u m b e r o v e r p r i n t  technicalities.  affect  The o n l y  queuing p r o c e d u r e s a t busy  s h o u l d be g i v e n  human-readable  of  are presently  unnecessarily  and d i s r u p t  outlook  by C a n a d i a n  magnetic  Banker's  also  such as holographic  some o f t h e s e b a n k s  could  will  reader.  n e t w o r k s , as o u t l i n e d  customers  hence,  ( E L E C T R O N I C NEWS,  t h e ABA w i l l  t o be p l a c e d  be  be t h e t y p e o f c o d i n g  cards  Canada-wide computer label  contents,  The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  leading  the face  cannot  t a m p e r - p r o o f , and (b) t h e A m e r i c a n  C a n a d a a n d c a r r i e s m o r e w e i g h t t h a n NCR's  in  labels  Electronics,  XLIII  will system,  with  shelves price  to  will  changes  and at  inventory every  levels  control, since  p r i c e change w i l l  can  be  checked  computer from the be  traced  or  stockkeeping  Since  as  the  leaves  as  and  price  or  unit  slip  abbreviated  which has  has  no  name.  bought.  ability,  number a t  be  increased  with  be  out,  The  added  by  the  price  both a  to  inventory  the  product to  the  win  means o f  purchase  i t s code  identification clearly  cost  of  disc  terminal  and  today's usual  display  category  is  imprinted  customer to  articles will,  a  system  he  or  she  i n a l l prob-  transaction time w i l l 14.8  i t  psychological  customer over  storage  as  display i t s  name, f o r a d d e d  p r i c e of  also  counter.  receipt that  the  the  l e v e l s can  checkout  prove  items  interrogating  numeric  probably  a checkstand  amply j u s t i f i e d ,  even at  be  shelf  i t s c o d e number, p r i c e , and  i n order  "hide"  any  and  Inventory  necessary  It will  provide  and  seems t o  avoided  even h o u r l y  longer  showing  t y p e and  satisfaction  be  a l l remaining  i s r e g i s t e r e d by  (SKU)  i t i s checked  large  or  each purchase  advantageous to in  daily  shelf, i t will  price a  thereby  manager's t e r m i n a l .  article  the  remarking  character/sec.  not  be  printing  speeds. At  the  manager's t e r m i n a l ,  to  request  levels  information  costed  average  stand  will  be  daily  or  (to judge  freer to deal  weekly  inventory  e i t h e r FIFO,  c o s t , momentum o f  checkout now  at  on  a h i g h - l e v e l language levels,  LIFO or  specific  inventory  preferably,  transactions  the  c u s t o m e r as  since a  be  expected  dollar  weighted  g o o d s , number o f  employee performance, with  can  transactions/ the  employee  person),  ( o r , more c o r r e c t l y , a r t i c l e s  total sold/  70. article  class,  capabilities vs.  price,  play  t o trace  to  and p o s s i b l y  t o r e p r e s e n t momentum v s . p r i c e ,  as w e l l  some  statistical  or profit  a s momentum o f g o o d s a s a f u n c t i o n  margins  of dis-  promotion.  Automatic ordering also  pilferage)  be p o s s i b l e  dealing  v i a teletype  from  a central  warehouse  t o e n a b l e management t o d e v o t e more  with vendors  and s u p p l i e r s  merchandise.  In addition,  POS t e r m i n a l s  on- and o f f - l i n e  terminal  failure  volume.  Whether t e r m i n a l s  attention  of perishables  t h e manager  should  and  special  s h o u l d be a b l e t o p l a c e  through h i sconsole, i n case o f  o r i n o r d e r t o accommodate v a r y i n g  customer  a r e rented o r purchased,  i t will  be  important  t o a l l o w management t o m i n i m i z e t h e number o f o n - l i n e  terminals  within  Apart be  from  a c c e p t a b l e customer  on-line  terminals,  c o n s i d e r e d i n terms  registers. itself,  the viability  of o f f - l i n e  I f magnetic  queuing  limits.  of a system  equipment,  and d i s p l a c e d  coding i s considered f u l l y  ( a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f G. E . ' s T r a d a r  has t o cash  justified i n  system  users  seems  64 to  indicate  netically no  attempt  viding will if  that  encoded  i ti s ) , labels  i s a serious  s h o u l d b e made t o m a r k e t  the user with  be d e p e n d e n t  a whole  t h e s o u r c e and a p p l i c a t i o n  a reliable  a POS s y s t e m  supermarket  chain  t h e system  i s t h e customer, at a central  Certainly  without pro-  source of labels.  u p o n t h e way i n w h i c h  most e c o n o m i c a l l y be p e r f o r m e d 64.  consideration.  o f mag-  This  source  i s marketed;  labelling  warehouse,  might otherwise  R i c h a r d M. P e t e r s e n , "TRADAR: Death o f a R e t a i l e r ' s Dream", D a t a m a t i o n , X V I I ( J u n e 1, 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 34-37.  in-store. since  The  every  latter  supermarket  the responsibility losses)  concept  i s also  h i s , and  s h o u l d be  and  so t h a t  program c o n t r o l merely an  control  automatic  cutting The  of  plastic  marked  in English  an  would  automatic  bags w i l l  labels, the  a  hours. (V  kind  The  select  the correct  bag,  f i l l  balance r e g i s t e r s and  i t s SKU  prevent  be  forthcoming from  at transaction  to in-house  computer-readable  of third-party  comes a t t r a c t i v e  i t with the  of product  system  are  of  served  The  desired  counter or  Individual  p r o d u c t i o n of l a b e l s  such as  pro-  marking  magnetic by  printing  time.  present manufacturers  labels  which  the checkout  c o u l d be  a  grocery item.  dishonest cross-transfers  denomination  alternative  At  sold,  i s recorded.  same p u r p o s e  and  r e s o l v e d by  any  the weight  number  numbers;  i s only  of produce  i t out.  would  produce  as  check  cpu  hardware.  just  and  automatic  to the  i t c o u l d be  cause  software  w i d e ) w i t h SKU  prelabelled  hence,  Thus,  tape w i t h adhesive  unpackaged  operation:  system  out under  and  An  placement  carried  simple addition  bags f o r each  although the  product  be  p o i n t of  of a tape  odd-weight,  or quantity  delicatessen, of  be  case,  (which could  under h i s c o n t r o l .  integral  the w r i t i n g  viding  weight  an  i t might  more complex  customer  s h o u l d be  during non-business  then  labelling  slightly  products  device f o r backing the  would  i n any  i s i t s manager's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  for mislabelled  label-making hardware  i s probably better  Dennison  i s likely  of o p t i c a l l y  and  and  but  Kimball,  components r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  only i f strong contractual  agreements  to  the be-  exist  out  and  lower unit  The f o r c e d about  costs  prevail.  disinvestment  b y POS  systems  i n cash r e g i s t e r s that  will  many m a n a g e r s ' a c c e p t a n c e pamphlets the  no d o u b t  technological  impact  be  brought  constitute at deterrent  o f new i n p u t  o f some m a n u f a c t u r e r s  will  hardware.  illustrate  by i n t r o d u c i n g  to  Although the  attempts t o reduce  systems  that  can  s t i l l  accommodate t h e c a s h r e g i s t e r , i n a s e r i e s o f m u l t i p h a s e , gradual  improvements,  their  marginally  incremental  to market,  a n d may  approach  advantages,  produces  hence,  systems  might  with  be t o o  difficult  easily result i n larger long-run costs  to the  supermarket.  From t h e d i s c u s s i o n inputs  are subject  i n this  section  to considerable  i t i s evident constraints  that  due t o t h e  number o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s t h e y have t o s a t i s f y : cashier's,  the store  provider's.  Next,  extended  7.2  the consideration internal  and Computational  of these interests are  operation.  Considerations  The a r r a n g e m e n t  of the processing  will  to the overall v i a b i l i t y  basis  contribute  functions  i n a POS  plained  c e r t a i n thoughts outlined  system  o f t h e system  of the p r i n c i p l e of "balanced i n t e l l i g e n c e " , a  coineddfrom  65.  the  c u s t o m e r ' s , t h e management's and t h e system  t o t h e system's  Processing  POS  by Svensson,  on t h e  phrase  t o be e x -  below.^  C h r i s t e r Svensson, " B a n k i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s " , The B u l l e t i n (September, 1970).  Computer  The  input i n f o r m a t i o n i n a POS  system i s no l o n g e r as simple  that f o r a cash r e g i s t e r , and output  as  requirements depend on a  r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amount of p r o c e s s i n g , some of which i s being provided t o ease the workload of the checkstand employee.  Some  s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s i n g f u n c t i o n s have been mentioned i n the  liter-  ature:  tax  (a) accumulating  and  r e c e i p t t o t a l s by product, forming (i.e.  s t o r i n g the day's s a l e s and  checkstand and time of day;  tax c a l c u l a t i o n s and  "mix  (b)  per-  and match" c a l c u l a t i o n s  where d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s are s o l d a t , say 3 f o r $0.79);  (c) s t o r i n g and  updating  computer f i l e s ;  (d) r e t r i e v i n g f i l e  minal r e q u e s t s ;  (e) p r o v i d i n g management with  computational  and  c r e d i t and  inventory information i n f o r m a t i o n f o r POS  s t a t i s t i c a l software;  on  ter-  specific  (f) detecting  and  c o r r e c t i n g input and t r a n s m i s s i o n e r r o r s i n data r e c e i v e d from 66 remote t e r m i n a l s .  In c o n s i d e r i n g the t e c h n i c a l aspects  of  the problem, r e l i a n c e w i l l be p l a c e d on the l a t e s t d i s c u s s i o n 67 of the s u b j e c t t h a t has  been found,  68 '  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e POS  without  particular  systems, s i n c e  would merely l i m i t the scope of the d i s c u s s i o n , and  these  present  no  f i x e d , u n a l t e r a b l e p a t t e r n i n t h e i r approaches. Manufacturers of minicomputers and r e s e a r c h agencies  c e r t a i n p r i v a t e and u n i v e r s i t y  (notably the Advanced Research P r o j e c t s Agency,  66.  Rosenblatt  and Walker, l o c . c i t .  67.  Wallace B. R i l e y , "Minicomputer Networks - A Challenge Maxicomputers?" E l e c t r o n i c s , X.LIV (March 29 , 1971) pp.  68.  James, B r i n t o n , "Modules Making Waves i n EDP Market," E l e c t r o n i c s , XLIII (October 12, 1970), p. 1212  to 56-62 .  and  Washington  conclusion paration,  University  that  of  St. Louis,  f o r the execution of tasks  editing,  format  c h e c k i n g and  q u i r e m e n t s , an  interconnected  efficient  large  as  a  Mo.)  h a v e come t o such as  limited  data  pre-  arithmetic  set of minicomputers  p r o c e s s o r such as  a Control  System  the  light  may  also  3 6 0 / 5 0 , b u t much l e s s of the p r o p o s a l put  result  expenses. large for  The  i n at least advantages  data bases  rapid  Data  indexing  registers,  requirements  tailored large  expandable It  can  be  would  be  terminal direct  and  '  In  communications  become e v i d e n t when  special  hardware  features  amounts of d a t a , f o r example A  Further,  f o r POS  70  POS  system  has  the decisive  applications  limited  advantage  i s that  systems, while  retaining  the v i r t u e  of  of  they can  job requirements without the overhead  of  being  ( e . g . , G R I - 9 0 9 , P D P - 1 1 , P D P - 8 / e , Modcomp I a n d I I ) . concluded that  some f o r m  sizeable  sense.  systems  to specific  operating  queried  or  small processors  smaller,  of l a r g e machines  are necessary.  in this  small processing  i f not  as  6600  i n hardware.  forward below,  equal,  h a v e t o be  c o m p u t a t i o n on  costly  re-  i s just  69 IBM  the  any  of communications fully  and  software.  access mass-storage  69.  Ibid.  70.  Riley,  of  systems  loc.  c i t .  POS  function,  self-supporting,  hardware  glomeration  viable  and  be  since  the  incorporate  alternative  hence t o t a l l y  redundant  In view of the high cost  devices,  would  system must  the cost  prohibitive.  of  such a  of  con-  be  75. 7.3  Communications  Here  i t will  extension  be  A l t e r n a t i v e s as  shown t h a t  f o r any  similar  POS  System  system a l t e r n a t i v e s system)  are subject  Determinants f o r POS to  These a r e d i c t a t e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t  communications  systems a v a i l a b l e and  rates, (d)  (c) the d i s t r i b u t i o n  the coding  of processing  o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be  transmission  (real-time or batch  and  available,  hardware  wishes). in  this  The  effect  and  cost,  response),  (b) t r a n s a c t i o n  7.3.1  Use  The  ( e ) t h e mode o f software  ( i . e . edp  customer  1 will  discussed  (g) s t o r e p o l i c y  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c a n be  of E x i s t i n g  approach provides  abilities  In-house  abilities ications  handlers,  Large C e n t r a l  f o r every  the cpu  true  POS  saving  chain  and  task  enlarged  represent type  system cost  allows  and  a new of data  would  to the various  i s not  Y  S  l s  be  H  i n computational  o r added  t o the presence of communications where t h e cpu  S  existing  such as  cap-  edp  staff  cap-  commun-  additional  were u n d e r t a k e n by a f i r m  different  in relation  Processors f i g . )  However, communications  i n t e r r u p t software  If this  incremental  due  h a v e t o be  systems, i t would  problems  initial  to a large extent.  might  partitions.  of  an  t o the supermarket  utilization  The  be  visualized.  (  POS  memory,  context.  alternative  in  (a)  ( f ) system  o f t h e TCCN i n A p p e n d i x  Four major  This  by  f u n c t i o n s and  processed,  by  communications  alternatives.  their  (and  core specializing  set of t e c h n i c a l processing  sensitive  system.  to the  s u p e r m a r k e t s t o be lines.  This  location served,  i s particularly  l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e same c i t y  as  some  Central Processor Q  SYS  3  F i g . 4- A l t e r n a t i v e POS  Systems  modem  of  t h e supermarkets.  evident  that high  avoid response From A p p e n d i x  From t h e a n a l y s i s i n A p p e n d i x  speed  time  4) t h i s  would  be n e e d e d t o e a c h  2, i t i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n t lines  hardware  situation.  fed  by e i t h e r  and  h a v e no i n t e r n a l  item  configuration should  a concentrator  i s possible.  possess  logic  1/0 i n s t r u c t i o n s  Where t e l e p h o n e link  store, the data  link  In the latter  case  t o addressing,  each  would  be  buffered  multidrop terminal  polling,  end-of-transmission  a  start-  blocks.  c o n c e n t r a t o r s and  "intelligence".  lines  a r e u s e d , a modem a t e a c h e n d o f t h e d a t a  i s essential.  been d e m o n s t r a t e d System.  that  the failure  by Penney's r e j e c t i o n  quiring  o f SYS 1 ( f i g . 4) h a s o f G. E . ssTRADJSRR 1  7 1  G. E . ' s TRADAR s y s t e m w a s b a s e d  o n l a r g e GE-400 p r o c e s s o r s r e -  "extensive reprogramming" t o take  c u s t o m e r ' s NCR  71.  s i n c e t o do s o  o r by a m u l t i p l e x e r i f a  t o respond  In general, i ti s f e l t  to  I n SYS 1  i fthe terminals a r e merely  and t o generate  terminal  would  function off-line,  Hence t h e t r a d e o f f s a r e between more c o s t l y increased  links  duplex).  c a n n o t be a v o i d e d  A t each  logic,  that data  (4800 baud f u l l  w o u l d mean t a k i n g t h e m a i n p r o c e s s i n g meaningless  store t o  degradation.  h a v e t o be 9600 b a u d (fig.  links  2, i t i s  absorb  304 p r o c e s s o r ;  special  over  the tasks of the  h a r d w a r e h a d t o be  developed  t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t a s k s a n d a l l o w t h e GE-4 00 t o d o  Petersen,  loc.c i t .  78 . w h a t icti d i d b e s t :  compute.  far  were c o n c e r n e d  as p e r i p h e r a l s  t e r m i n a l r o s e t o about liability  of a single  telephone  lines,  psychological fail  proved  f o rr e l i a b i l i t y .  central  processing  o f a $10 m i l l i o n  system  have p l a y e d a  similar  i s interested desire  on t h e r e -  a n d many m i l e s o f Apparently the that  could  i n t h e demise  and unique  of the  economic  t h e l e s s o n t o be l e a r n e d  i n performance/cost and r e l i a b i l i t y .  banking and computerized  The Use o f a S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  capabilities  system  stock  In-store  times mini  or less,  could  In-store cessor  be used  since  costs.  A  trading.  Minicomputer  advantage  suffice,  POS  DASD  access  t i m e o f 200-400  be a v a i l a b l e  baud w i t h  f o r processing. and t h e pro-  negligible  Short coaxial  of not requiring  checks would  or less,  between t h e t e r m i n a l  i n nature).  within  1)  t i m e s a r e 500 n a n o -  transaction  2) w o u l d  lines  are well  2, f i g .  I n any case, a low performance  work a t 1 m i l l i o n  they are coaxial  mere p a r i t y  1 microsecond  the f u l l  ( c . f . Appendix  can easily  memory c y c l e  or better.  communications  additional  ware  add times  10 m i l l i s e c o n d s  milliseconds  (if  of today's minicomputers  requirements; their  seconds  conditions  i s that the  (SYS The  s t i l l  c a n be e x p e c t e d i n many o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s , f o r  example automated 7.3.2  cost/  role.  F r o m t h e TRADAR f a i l u r e , POS u s e r  site  to i t .  t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  The  based  1500 t e r m i n a l s  s y s t e m , a l t h o u g h human i n c o m p e t e n c e may a l s o  h a d t o be d u p l e x e d a s  $7,000 a n d was s t i l l  tying  impact  The system  lines  block error  delay  have t h e  c o n t r o l , and  thus reducing hardware/soft-  The in  d i s a d v a n t a g e o f SYS each  store:  verification, records. tumbling  disk SKU  2 i s the requirement f o r a  o r drum f o r o n - l i n e  item  name a n d  price)  However, the h i g h c o s t with  the advent  that  SYS  DASD's  storage (customer  and  credit  t a p e f o r permanent  of minicomputer  of the floppy  set of  disk  and  DASD's i s cassette  storage  units. The  fact  immune t o c o d e cpu is  be  a  made h e r e t o t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s E X C E S S - 3 c o d e s , w h i c h may value of  SYS  2 could  be  requests  while  the  store  access t o the day's  Appendix  data after  2 shows t h a t  transaction does  not need  t o be  requests  can a l s o  be  simple-operating  terms  of r e l i a b i l i t y  mechanical  72.  system  elements:  is  as  ASCII  or  terminals. software  to satisfy  another to allow (e.g. v i a a  terminal management  teletype).  to process  can p r o c e s s them Since the  the  Reference  i t two  in  each  sequence  manager's  batch transactions,  a very  indicated.  the weakest  POS  and  standard  are allowed  time-shared.  treated  one  i t closes  the mini  on  by g i v i n g  and  i f 2 seconds  at a terminal,  designed.  o f EBCDIC and  times:  i s open,  s y s t e m makes i t  the terminals  a l l be u s e d  enhanced  t o be r u n a t d i f f e r e n t  In  between  h a n d l e r , when p r o p e r l y  routines  and  self-contained  incompatibilities  communications  even The  2 would  terminals  links and  i n SYS  2 are the  DASD's, a p r o b l e m  semithat  J o h n C. T i r r e l l , " T e r m i n a l I n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s i n D a t a C o m m u n i c a t i o n S y s t e m s " T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , I I I , IV ( D e c e m b e r 19 6 9 a n d J a n u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) .  80. could  be  7.3.3  solved  The  Use  The  two  the  relative  with  of  as  shown.  in  r e l i a b i l i t y  In The  to  Given  failure  theory are  of  handled  by  DASD's while more  of but  Hence  and  links. since  may  SYS The  two  4  only  i n  linked  i s an  increase  systems  are  f i g . 4)  number  be  are  always  of  each  r e l i a b i l i t y  POS  terminal  high-speed or  any  links lines,  these  SYS  or  simultaneously  offers  a  to  and  each  as  of  major  SYS  made  4.  SYS  However,  the  (from  1,  with  shared.  these  advantage  be modems  fewer  SYS  4,  demand  lines  probability  one  w i l l theory),  subsystems where  has  links  I t requires  processing  cost  3  s t o r e must  i n SYS  being  using  7 3  m u l t i p l e x e r , does  used  i f one  3.  are  than  used  3  practical  be  i f desired.  multiplexer.  line  system  can  a  out-of-store data  requiring  concentrator  be  component,  not  no  this  data  3  4,  i n the  SYS  requiring  only  and  t r a d e o f f s between  although  w i l l  SYS  processes,  4,  be  of  and  differing  processors  f a i l s  SYS  never  of  system  Markov  concentrator  high-speed  almost  73.  than  these  overall  dedicated a  the  probabilities  the  advantages  number  of  similar,  3  cpu.  various  either  of  discrete  cpu's,  and  i f one  any  between  and  virtue  very  (SYS  miniprocessors,  advantage  by  of  the  primary  available  calculation  are  any  even  the  of  redundancy.  Minicomputers  general  protected  the  Load-sharing  location  DASD's.  There  hardware  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s shown  of  the  some  data  J o h n B. d e M e r c a d o , " R e l i a b i l i t y P r e d i c t i o n S t u d i e s o f Systems H a v i n g Many F a i l e d S t a t e s " , IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y , XX, n. 4 ( N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 223-229.  f a i l s . links  Complex on  81. are  switched  electronically  Unfortunately, between of  a dedicated  4 8 00 b a u d ,  Rather  price line  as quoted by B e l l  exhibits  exceed  little  4800 baud  than describe  Multicom or  however,  a n d c a n be r e n t e d  Bell  100 m i l e s .  difference  advantage  The hardware  tradeoffs  basis  Canada t a r i f f s  data links  are 5 miles  stores  equal n, n being  long  greater  SYS  i t will  where l i n e  and communications  ternal  3 communications  hours  o f usage/week;  lines  f o rdedicated  costs  costs  use  per line  charges costs, $100.  p e r month.  p e r POS t e r m i n a l  3  SYS 4  A l l fixed  line.  on t h e  t h e number o f  n n 2n n  $1344n+$699n/month $1344n+$614n/month  M u l t i c o m were based  these  costs  tariffs.  of cumulative  a r e due t o  except i n t e r n a l  a t $500.  o n 52  expensive t o use switched  were based o n 1 hour  b y t h e common c a r r i e r ,  approach  (assuming a l l ex-  and l e t t i n g  involving  w h i c h were e s t i m a t e d  lengths  that  than 2):  purposes under  4 Multicom calculations  be s a i d  evaluated  as follows  i ti s obviously  SYS  line  f o r SYS 3 a n d SYS 4  Minicomputers n H-S l i n k s n-1 H-S modems 2n-2 DASD's n(?) BUS ( i n t e r n a l ) l i n k s n MUX o r c o n c e n t r a t o r s n-1 Line costs: Multicom $2375n-$1875+$2624(n-l)/month Dedicated $(2419n-747)+$(918(n-l))/month SYS  today  Canada.  c a n be s u m m a r i z e d , o f 19.73 B e l l  exists  basis.  and a Multicom switched  Canada t a r i f f s ,  a price  on a usage  per high  installation  communications speed  l i n e and  82. The  problem  of  D A S D ' s i n SYS  large  s t r i d e s are  If  10  m s e c , maximum a c c e s s  on  the  basis  applying  to  terminals  of  Of  four  the  because low  cost  and  and  does not  compatible  be  provide  involve  i t would SYS  electronically due  to  the  SYS  4,  this  shown t h a t  be  no  and  i s not  dedicated  Appendix  1 describes  p r o v i s i o n of the  delay,  1 DASD/5 POS not  be  that  POS  functions  while  today, retaining  external data  between p o t e n t i a l l y  the  4 should  case  lines  are  so  the  inSYS  1.  high-  (ESSRHS)  high-speed In  lines  lines  fact,  of  in  i t  i n both  was systems,  4.  of  whose a t t r i b u t e s would  at r e a l i s t i c cost  lines  availability  more advantageous  a TCCN, one  demonstrated  the  i n Canada.  i n SYS  ESSRHS l i n e s  between  high-speed of  today  choice  depend on  .  sharable.  2 i s most l i k e l y  require  art.  f i g u r e , then  o f f e r i n g more r e l i a b i l i t y t h a n  short-range  marginally  the  SYS  I t does not  SYS  the  because  s t a t e of  less than  DASD's w o u l d  much l o w e r u t i l i z a t i o n  only  emphasizing  3 only)  expected  switched  the  communications  interconnections  3 and  although  the  sec.  a l l required  simplicity.  resolve  i s a representative  (1.76  required,  hardware, thus  reliability  i n improving  time  2  SYS  i s d i f f i c u l t to  alternatives discussed,  i t can  Although  1 and  might  Summary  taken  Appendix  SYS  7.3.4  being  3  costs,  advantages of  SYS  be  thus 4 over  SYS  3.  83. 8.0 By  Conclusions establishing  unquestionably in  this  sound  between  many c e n t r a l  i ti s concluded today  processor  facilities  by t h e h i g h  on t h e o t h e r .  that a r e shared  of special  t o a very  communications  of i n c o m p a t i b l e machines  enlarge  t h e sharing of communications  flates  by making  use of telephone  compatible  l i m i t e d ex-  structure  not  offer  ities  the security  presents  The e x -  incentive to hence  i t i n -  to diversify  a reliability  their  factor i n -  o f a computing  network  system.  e m p l o y i n g them surely  be  does  expected  market.  t h a t the growth of the data  conflicting  of  services.  expected  i n Canada and t h e p o t e n t i a l pose  little  advantages that w i l l  processing  i ti s expected  would  wishing  of the communications  by a n e x p a n d i n g d a t a Further,  lines  processors.  facilities,  use of s p e c i a l i z e d  with the r e l i a b i l i t y  The  market  provides  furfcher t h e c o s t s t o users  operations  advent  processing  o f videophone  demands on i n s u f f i c i e n t  facil-  facilities.  above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r c e t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a homogeneous  data is  cost of data  and by t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  systems  istence  The  practices  o r n o t a t a l l , t o t h e u s e o f modems, a n d t o t h e e f f e c t  large variety  The  that  i s an  costs of data transmission are attributable t o  communications  a  practice,  sharing large processors  s e r v i c e s on t h e one hand,  inflated  tent  that  respect are restricted  transmission  The  "a p r i o r i "  t r a n s m i s s i o n network,  needed  i n Canada.  independent from telephone  lines,  84. An  examination  of the thoughts  Baran, Hamaker, Byrns,  Roberts,  others,  l e dt o the conclusion  digital  i n nature,  entirely As  distributed  creased  sharing;  line than  i s possible that  electronics  and s o f t w a r e  costs  i t would  that  enable  load  C a n a d a , t h e TCCN 6 o u l d  zation  of multi-access  processors,  i twould  industry's  i n d u s t r y i fan attempt  ibility  provided  provide  the basis  i s made t o  increase  f o rthe formation  thus  allowing  computers .  o f a TCCN w o u l d  set of connections sharing  transmission  bases and l a r g e p a r a l l e l  seem t o be c a l l i n g f o r  of subnets  that  t h e edp  and/or  transmission  machines  flex-  their environment.  be t h e speed w i t h  (subnet) could  of dedicated  u t i l i -  array  due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d  a m a l g a m a t i o n w i t h i n a homogeneous d a t a  particular  t o Canada's  f o refficient  I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s concluded  One o f t h e f e a t u r e s  security.  i n t h e network.  data  s t r e n g t h would  on a  p a v e t h e way f o r  be p r o v i d e d  s i n c e many a p p l i c a t i o n a r e a s  such f a c i l i t i e s .  t h e TCCN  sharing  In terms o f p r o v i d i n g growth t o t h e market f o rdata in  almost  by p r o v i d i n g v a s t f y i n -  impetus could  maximize Canadian contents  be  (TCCN) i s p r o -  c o m p a t i b i l i t y , and f o r i n c r e a s e d added  among  should  and r e l y  I t i s expected  i n t h e case today;  machine and software It  network  i n character,  concepts.  transmission  data  by  techniques.  would reduce data  basis  this  a Trans-Canada Computer Network  embodying these  wider  presented  K l e i n r o c k and P a r k h i l l  that  on store-and-.forward  a result,  posed  and techniques  which  be e s t a b l i s h e d , such as m i n i -  a  85. It  i s concluded  promising  area  modularity,  t h a t P o i n t - o f - S a l e systems a r e a f o rminicomputers  independence  machines, possess  could  systems),  of time-sharing.  high-reliability provide  this  reliability  a n a l y s i s renders  switched  data  distances.  lines  defeat  large  (unlike  and do n o t r e q u i r e t h e  i n many l o w - d u t y  Economic  price  problems w i t h  F u r t h e r , POS e x e m p l i f y  systems, by making a v a i l a b l e  their  interface  provide f o r  immunity t o c a t a s t r o p h i c f a i l u r e  large-machine-based overhead  from  since these  particularly  costly  t h e need f o r  c y c l e c o m p u t e r s a n d a TCCN  without  t h e need f o r redundant  electronically  i tevident  switched  that today's  t h e purpose o u t l i n e d  data  lines.  high  speed  above,  since  i s p o s t u l a t e d on heavy u t i l i z a t i o n over  long  APPENDIX A The in the  Potential  design  presented  in f i g .3 this  i s subdivided  several city  essentially length  a  into  and  to the  through  it.  The  the  store-and-forward  grid  data  on on  concepts  presented  knowledge gained  in  chronous  logic,  processor the  nodes  d e v i c e "("terminal o r  by means o f a n e t w o r k  flow  the  grid  nodal  that  grid's  i n the  coupler,  inserts  data  grid  significant is feasible  regenerated  by  synchronizing the  t o mark b i t s  by  When i n t e r c i t y  variable-  stream  in controlled  multiplexed  and  incoming  of v a r i a b l e  because pulses are  data  i n the  by on  to the  on  syn-  " i n toto".  message  Each  block  delays and  bits  overcomes  i n the  grid;  precisely  nodes.  optical  links  will  time-division multiplexer  microwaves  There t h e message sent  path  routing i s necessary,  over  based  This approach  "cleaned"  repeater amplifiers  i s sent  city.  an  i n the message b l o c k . problem  are  c l o c k c y c l e s t o the message  scrambler/asynchronous  whose o u t p u t  processor  works asynchronously  clock i s triggered  effectively  a  whose  principle.  e a c h c o u p l e r and  processor  cable grid  r o u t i n g p r o c e s s o r s , whose o p e r a t i o n i s a l s o based  Although  desired  A user  store-and-forward  nodal  address  a coaxial  blocks apart.  the  it  thesis  f i x e d - f o r m a t messages i n t o  flowing  the  i s based  Network  m i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s i n d u s t r y i n Canada.  computer) i s l i n k e d  or  86.  Trans-Canada Computer  various sections of  Each c i t y are  1  (waveguide,  cable)  to  i s demodulated, decoded,  proper  grid.address.  the de-  Buffer  3  CPU  User  Buffer  Buffer  1  2  H  RAM ROM  City Net A  D e t a i l of Netv/ork Coupler  Optical links  1  1  High  Scrambler/ Concentrator  capacity  d i g i t a l  link  Scrambler/ Concentrator I/O Buffer  I/O Buffer  ]}  I/O Buffer  CPU  I/O Buffer  i  4  2  3 City  Detail  of Fig.  Routing 3-  A  Processor  TCCN  and  i t s  Routing  Processors  Net  B  88. Message  block  The message It  format  block  has t h e dual  another consists  i s the basic  function  of routing  and o f c o n t r o l l i n g of several  information data  unit  from  t h e network's  i n t h e network.  o n e TCCN u s e r t o  logical  paths.  I t  parts. -1,h  6 •ih  Fig. 1.  The " s t a r t "  2.  The "message and  3.  5.  generation  of buffer  address"  node"  a choice  section  section  network accounting  checks  storage.  consists  section  7.  The " p r i o r i t y "  o f two  sections: city"  Otherwise coupler  i s used  could  by t h e sender and by  and a c c o u n t i n g  i t su n i v e r s a l  be r e s t r i c t e d  localized  use could  purposes.  f o r the use of  network  defects.  be m o n i t o r e d  by  network  routines.  The " s t o p "  section  will  the nodal processor  reset  processor  addresses.  information  to signal  accounting  node  by each nodal  i s self-explanatory.  section  nodal processors  four  section  network f o rr e t u r n  The "data"  i s overlayed  o f a t most  address"  6.  8.  allows  clocks.  ( i fapplicable).  The " r e t u r n the  section  and coupler  n o d a l a d d r e s s t o end d e s t i n a t i o n , and " o t h e r  The "next with  Block  t r i g g e r s the nodal-  length"  The " f o r w a r d  code H.  section  permits  nearest  5 - TCCN M e s s a g e  clears t h e nodal  buffer  clock.  i toccupied and  89. 9.  The "code" verted work  section allows various data  by e i t h e r  The  device  cpu  chip with  capabilities,  a random a c c e s s  (ROM).  across  t h e power  memory  A low-capacity supply  based  address"  on t h e "forward  t o be f i l l e d .  exist:  "right"  word  t h e message.  An  incoming  or "left"  message  network coupler comparing  be c l a m p e d  o f t h e RAM  upon  i s contained  only  that  two c h o i c e s  on t h e r e l a t i v e  i n a one-bit  from t h e data  "forward  i t s destination.  v i a I/O b u f f e r #3.  from  a decision,  as t o the buffer  by t h e " f o r w a r d  network coupler address;  premises  continue  i s captured  by making  RAM  location word.  address"  block  flow through the  by " r e c o g n i t i o n " i n a s s o c i a t i v e f a s h i o n ,  message has reached  to  b u f f e r , based  each message's  specific  stream  section,  i s l o c a t e d i n t h e RAM  in  user  the data  For each network c o u p l e r  the d e s t i n a t i o n which  the  read-only  battery should  erasure  (shift  failure.  into  by  standby  an a s s o c i a t i v e  I/O b u f f e r c h i p s  (RAM), and a  t o prevent  A message i s i n s e r t e d  This  t h e r e c e i v e r o r by t h e n e t -  on m i c r o e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y ;  interrupt  memory  of  con-  operation  i s based  registers),  has  t o be  couplers.  Network c o u p l e r  power  t h e sender,  formats  address"  i . e .  i n parallel  against  a match i n d i c a t e s t h e I t i s then  routed  into the  A l l o t h e r messages a r e a l l o w e d  b u f f e r #1 t o #2 o r v i c e v e r s a , u n d e r c o n t r o l o f  the microprocessor cpu.  90. It  should  of  separate  of  simultaneous b i d i r e c t i o n a l  Routing In  input  similar  buffers  microprocessor  the  message  t o meet t h e  string  bits,  i n four  address  overlayed  released.  cpu c o n t r o l s switching  transmission  themselves affected) on a h i g h  the  priority  will The  directions at i s used  onto the "next  As  to  access  node"  i n the network  connections,  may once.  coupler,  i n t e r b u f f e r t r a n s f e r s by  buffer  that  of error  status  to adjacent  message  and  sense e r r o r words  gating  sensing  Subsequently  inhibit  node by t e m p o r a r i l y  node, and by f o r c i b l y  they  nodes o r t o a c e n t r a l  block.  nodes w i l l  conditions  (unless  messages  closing their gating  are  site  repairs are  from buffers  messages  and  a l l affected  be s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d by t h e c p u , u n t i l  adjacent  disabled  from  device  conditions.  initiate  made.  structured  contingency  this  section  addition, the microprocessors w i l l  buffers  3 are r e a l l y  flow.  blocks  forward  and t h e b l o c k  the  buffer  2 and  t o a network coupler,  message  a two-bit  section,  1,  Operation  and r e l e a s e  RAM,  buffers  and o u t p u t  incoming message's  the  In  that  Processor  construction  accept An  be n o t e d  t o an  reaching t o and alternate  node.  If  t h e cpu i t s e l f  will as  be t o c l o s e  to reflect  able  i s affected, the last one  connection  t h e messages  operations  between each  set of buffers  back t o t h e sender  a subchannel w a r n i n g message  i t performs  to a central  so  n o d e s , and t o ensite.  91. In  order  that the  to accomplish  three nodes:  channels  this  last  are provided  a signalling  operation, i t should on t h e c o a x i a l  subchannel,  a  sending,  be  noted  cable  linking  and  receiving  a  channel. Physical  failures,  c h a n g e s , c a n be The  detected  signalled  n e t w o r k o p e r a t i o n and  by n o d a l  amplifiers  to a central  as  impedance  site.  i t s economic v i a b i l i t y  hinge  on  the  of only  two  following: a) t h e use of p a r a l l e l b) t h e e f f i c i e n t bits  associative  microprocessors,  use of storage, such  f o r each network user  as t h e need  address,  c) t h e u s e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d hardware and composed o f r e l a t i v e l y d) r e m o t e address e) t h e u s e  simultaneous lists o f ROM  within  reliable  software  microelectronics,  r e p r o g r a m m i n g o f RAM's t o a l t e r the  user  microprocessors,  microprogramming f o r the  instruction set.  modules,  microprocessor  92. APPENDIX 2 Technical Analysis As  a first  o f POS  s t e p , i t c a n be shown what t h e o n - l i n e  volume and p r o c e s s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s figuration If  handle  5 active  a n SKU m a g n e t i c  t a g ) , 40 b i t s / S K U  ( f o r a maximum o f 99999 s t o c k c l a s s e s ,  parity  c h e c k i n g ) , 24 b i t s / e m p l o y e e  such  (we a r e a s s u m i n g  as t h e s o c i a l  customer the  credit  service  security  time  (5) x The  total  SKU,  1200  every  Before  two seconds  qualified units for of  every  i s about  further  (excluding  purchased),  two  then  seconds.  at 5 characters/  total  " t a x " and  (8) x  Every  additional  5 =  "total"  data rate/POS  terminal  times.  t h e manager t e r m i n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s  data, as follows.  10,000 d i f f e r e n t  total  (5 + 5 + 20) x  class  of store  b y a n SKU n u m b e r a n d q u a n t i f i e d  i n i t s class;  number,  20 c h a r a c t e r s / p r o d u c t n a m e , a n d  be 150 b i t s / s e c o n d a t p e a k  examine s t o r a g e needs.  a  t e r m i n a l s becomes:  Hence, an average  considering  t o check  decimal  (20 items  output volume f o r a l l 5 t e r m i n a l s ,  printouts). might  a 9-digit  ( 4 0 + 9 6 / 2 0 ) = 224 b i t s  (EBCDIC)/character,  bits  badge, 7 2 b i t s  o f 40 s e c o n d s  5 characters per price,  8 bits  p l u s one b i t f o r  number) and an average  i n p u t volume f o r a l l f i v e  con-  2 seconds/transaction  number  customer's  POS  hours.  terminals/store,  an i t e m and r e a d  communication  f o r an assumed  a r e d u r i n g peak b u s i n e s s  we a s s u m e  (to  Systems  l e t us  goods w i l l  be  by t h e number o f  fields  will  Making  the reasonable  i t e m s / s t o r e , and c o d i n g  have t o be p r o v i d e d  each  field  assumption i n  binary-coded  f o r m a t , we r e q u i r e  number o f i t e m s / c l a s s tax  information,  the  vendor  1>2 b i t s  12 b i t s  the quantity  ment and d a t e p a i d , be  s o l d , 12 b i t s  at which record  plus  Considering  i ti s possible  ventory  was  minute),  may b e r e q u i r e d  to foresee  transactions  will  POS  identification  f o rcredit  organization t h e need  terminal  veri-  f o r t h e above  f o ra f i l e  on i n -  bits;  of -  ( 8 + 16 + 12 + 12 + 12 + 16 + 1 2 ) =  file  (50000) x credit file  o f an a b s o l u t e  4 million  ( 1 2 + 12 + 8 + 1 6 ) = 2 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 b i t s , a n d  o f s a y ( 1 0 0 0 ) x 36 = 3 6 , 0 0 0  bits  "Inventory," figures, 4 bits  bits;  maximum o f -  bits.  These requirements a r e approximate, hence,  of  items  and 8 b i t s t o  of 3 2 bits/customer  the f i l e  to  t r a n s a c t i o n , the time  1,760,000  a  purchased,  f o r t h e method o f pay-  ( 1 6 + 12 + 8 + 1 0 0 ) = 1 , 3 6 0 , 0 0 0  on purchases (20000) x  a  identify  of (10000) x  file  16 b i t s  o f t h e employee and/or  standing  to  t o denote p r i c e a t which  A d d i t i o n a l storage  f o r the  i t w a s b o u g h t , 12 b i t s  ( t o the nearest  the identification  fication.  a  12 b i t s  when s t o c k  t o i n d i c a t e , f o r every  4 bits/credit  data,  t o record  acquired,  i t was made  involved.  8 bits  100 b i t s / i t e m c l a s s name, 8 b i t s  source,  f o rthe n  12 b i t s  ( f o r a maximum o f 4 0 9 5 ) ,  f o r the price a t which  indicate  16 b i t s / S K U # ,  of on-line  storage  "Transactions,"  the reader  i n round  may b e n e c e s s a r y f o r  and " C r e d i t " f i l e s .  may h a v e n o t i c e d  t o code t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ,  numbers  that  I n t h e above  we h a v e u s e d  and t h a t  multiples  transmission  and  storage requirements binary  format  accessed  takes  of  4 bits  p l a c e by  Simple  differently.  increases storage efficiency,  by m a c h i n e  multiples  were coded  "word" o r f o r an  8-bit  coding  in  information i s  "halfword" i n p a r a l l e l ,  hence,  in  m a c h i n e , and t r a n s m i s s i o n  character i n (possibly)  coding-decoding  Internal  8-bit  m a t r i c e s are used  EBCDIC  form.  to convert .character  representation.  A  word  tended or  about that  file  the most e f f i c i e n t  assigning  perienced  management t e c h n i q u e s :  analyst  data  partitioning.  i.e.  "purchases",  updated  d a t a would  continual  query  tape u n t i l purchased tape  of  day  t o be  once a day.  "credit"  to  The  and  The  will  kept  Processing  information  of  tape  on  the  by  disc  An  exbetter  c o s t ) and  last  SKU  system  will  configuration,  (plus  disc  date  #,  be  storage f o r kept  number o f  dumped f r o m  employee  be  kept  be  and  s h o u l d be  arbitrary  to  # and  on  lots disc  time  f o r a week o r  a  statistics.  be and  however, the  input information,  from  high-speed  T a p e s may  periodic  system  pre-  able to devise  (at lower  "Purchases"  printouts  Whatever these parameters, decoding  d o u b t be  T r a n s a c t i o n s d a t a may  needs f o r the  organization,  been d e v i s e d .  "inventory", "transactions",  have been generated.  month t o f a c i l i t a t e  to  on  update.  after  be  m e t h o d , h o w e v e r , d o e s a l l o w some d a t a ,  inventory reflects  daily,  has  no  h a v e t o be  ( s a y , 2).  not  manner o f c o d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  i t to various f i l e s  systems  i t will  a  enquiry POS  fetching  possible  function  of  frequency.  needs are price  file  and  limited name  tax d a t a ) , decoding  i t for  95. printing, customer  and or  adding  coupons being  would generate means o f cessing  the  a minus  transmit  and  Since  i t ;with are  provide  logic,  a l l the  messages.  to  available.  to  5 POS  10  (output) volume of  bits  x  8 = 320  40  characters/printed  be  treated  lines  By  adapting  are  terminal  value  will  by pro-  have  each t r a n s a c t i o n ,  8-bit  line  are  240  about  an  and 200  i s endowed w i t h will  be  required  been c a l c u l a t e d ;  f o r formatted  The  a v a i l a b l e today work at  required  for  of  this  messages i f  assumed, where each b l a n k  character.  a  bits/terminal for  fastest dedicated speeds of  second, hence, even f o r unformatted messages milliseconds  item  a  available for  common p r o c e s s o r  volume grows t o  telephone  the  terminal  already  an  customer, the  terminals/system  each u n f o r m a t t e d message has  as  by  c o m p u t a t i o n a l power, i n c l u d i n g f o r m a t t i n g  A return  40  returned  terminals  process  I f the  the  the  2 seconds are  a maximum o f  minimum amount o f  goods being  prefix i t to  system with  40 0 m i l l i s e c o n d s  milliseconds  to  a  For  credited  sign  keyboard.  each item,  average of  totals.  4800  240/4800 =  must city  bits/ 50  transmission.  the  "machine s e r v i c i n g " problem from  operations  the  above  a  7 4 research, population  queue o f  s i t u a t i o n can  5 terminals  distributed  interarrival  value  and  similarly  value  of  74.  a  be  treated  (machines) with  time of  400  The  an  milliseconds  distributed service  50 milliseconds.  as  expected  finiteexponentially  expected  time with  (or  average)  expected waiting  F r e d e r i c k S. H i l l i e r a n d G e r a l d J . L i e b e r m a n , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o O p e r a t i o n s R e s e a r c h (San F r a n c i s c o : Holden-Day, Inc., 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 304-305.  time  (Wq) f o r t e r m i n a l s  i n this  system  w i l l  be c a l c u l a t e d :  Wq = Lq/<x where  /A. n  i s t h e service rate (20 t e r m i n a l s / s e c ) , i s t h e number o f t e r m i n a l s simultaneously requiring output, (=5) i s t h e number o f t e r m i n a l s i n t h e s t o r e i s a p r o b a b i l i t y parameter.  M Po From  this  P o = 1/( ( 5 ! / 5 ! ) / 8 ° (5.'/2I)/8  +  +  3  (.Sl/kD/o  +  1  (.Sl/lD/8 *  +  1  (SI/3D/8  +  2  (5I/0!)/8 )  =  5  0.478. Hence,  Lq = 5 -  and  Wq = 4 . 4 1 3 / 2 . 5  To  this  ((20 + 2.5)/2.5)  average  input  milliseconds  must  milliseconds  (used  response  delay  be  imposed  fied  time  i n f i l e  computational  At  this  point  storage,  0.302;  o f 121  processor  time  searching),  demands  terminal, hours  by t h e communications  tape-resident  =  o f s a y 50  f o r a  total  170 m i l l i s e c o n d s .  by t h emanager's  or  0.478)  p e rterminal  an average  primarily  at the endof business  utilized  data  waiting  o f about  f a r t h e greatest  (1 -  = 0.121 seconds.  be added  By  *  computational  upon  but these  by replacing  software  with  t h e system c a n be core  satis-  space  otherwise  disc-  software.  i t has t o be considered  that,  t h e system  i n t h e neighbourhood  w i l l  w i l l  require  i n addition t o o f  97 . 200,000 b i t s instruction  of sets  storage of  8 K  for operating 16-bit  words).  systems  software  (two  GLOSSARY Analog:  here r e f e r s t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a t a , or i n f o r m a t i o n i n a waveform t h a t v a r i e s c o n t i n u o u s l y (as opposed t o abruptly) with time.  Asynchronous:  Automatic  Coaxial:  r e f e r s t o the frequency range needed t o c a r r y g i v e n amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n a ^ c h a n n e l .  Duplex:  e l e c t r i c a l cable capable of w i d t h d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n due conductors.  second"; r e f e r s to  a  data  for brief intervals, have b e e n met; also,  s u p p o r t i n g wide bandto s p e c i a l geometry of i t s  a m u l t i p l e x e r (q.v.) w i t h buffered ports used i n asynchronous time d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e x i n g (q.v.).  here, r e f e r s to data transmission that takes place i n two d i r e c t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e same p h y s i c a l channel.  ( f r e q u e n c y d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e x ) a method of s e p a r a t i n g c h a n n e l s o n t h e same p h y s i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n m e d i u m b y a l l o c a t i n g a unique set of f r e q u e n c i e s t o each.  Half-duplex:  Holding  LSI:  b i t per  a hardware item used to store data u n t i l c e r t a i n necessary conditions the act of using t h i s item.  Concentrator:  Line  a p r o c e d u r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m t o a l l o c a t e memory s p a c e d y n a m i c a l l y and t h u s c o n f o r m w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a v i r t u a l memory s u b system (q.v.)  a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r "one transmission rate.  Buffer:  FDM:  d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n u s i n g a " s t a r t " and a " s t o p " code f o r each message b l o c k t r a n s m i t t e d .  page t u r n i n g :  Bandwidth: Baud:  98.  time:  data  a l s o "simplex", r e f e r s here to data transmission t h a t may o n l y o c c u r i n a n y o n e d i r e c t i o n a t a n y given time, i n a given channel. i n a data l i n k , the time b u r s t s , during which the data flows.  conditioning:  between a c t u a l data l i n k i s connected but  no  the a l t e r a t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l parameters of a g i v e n d a t a l i n e ( w i r e ) a t i t s ends i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e i t s d i s t o r t i o n e f f e c t s on electrical signals. ( l a r g e s c a l e i n t e g r a t i o n ) a modern t e c h n i q u e f o r producing compact e l e c t r o n i c subassemblies i n c o r p o r a t i n g upwards of a thousand f u n c t i o n s .  99.  Memory s e g m e n t a t i o n :  Modem:  abbreviation f o r "modulator/demodulator"; a device, u s u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g e r r o r c o n t r o l l o g i c , that conv e r t s d i g i t a l pulses t o analog waveforms and v i c e v e r s a .  Multidrop  line:  Multiplexer:  a data l i n e i s s u i n g from a c o n t r o l point, t o which several devices a r e attached along i t s l e n g t h ; t h e devices communicate i n asynchronous (q.v.) f a s h i o n w i t h t h e c o n t r o l p o i n t .  a device f o rm a i n t a i n i n g s e p a r a t i o n between data from various users, while the data i s sent over a common c h a n n e l .  Non-procedural  PCM:  language:  a h i g h - l e v e l s e t o f computer i n s t r u c t t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g e x e c u t i o n o f complex t a s k s by n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s v i a p r e programmed subroutines.  ( p u l s e code m o d u l a t i o n ) a t e c h n i q u e used p r i m a r i l y f o r coding voice(analog) s i g n a l s i n t o s p e c i f i c b i n a r y code groups f o rd i g i t a l transmission.  Space-diversity:  Synchronous:  TDM:  a t e c h n i q u e f o r d i v i d i n g memory i n a v i r t u a l memory s y s t e m ( q . v . ) s o t h a t s e c t i o n s may b e m o v e d i n t o a n d o u t o f m a i n storage under automatic c o n t r o l o f t h e operating system.  (time d digital on t h e nating  a communications engineering technique of p r o v i d i n g a l t e r n a t e (microwave) paths f o r blocked^transmissions by s w i t c h i n g t h e direction of transmission.  data transmission wherein d i g i t a l pulses mitted at specific "clock" intervals.  are trans-  i v i s i o n multiplex) a technique f o r carrying several messages on a s i n g l e c h a n n e l by a l l o c a t i n g t i m e c h a n n e l t o s p e c i f i c p a r t s o f each message i n a l t e r sequence.  V i r t u a l memory:  a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e m a i n memory o f a c o m p u t e r , u s u a l l y on h i g h speed d i s k o r drum, a c c e s s i b l e by t h e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m i n s u c h a f a s h i o n t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o be a p a r t o f m a i n memory.  10 0.  B(DBEiD'0GRABHY Auerbach  C o r p o r a t i o n , Source Data Automation. Detroit, M a n a g e m e n t I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , CT97 0) ( ? ) .  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