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Municipal incorporation as a communicative process Tonn, Gerhard Rolf 1975

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MUNICIPAL INCORPORATION AS A COMMUNICATIVE PROCESS by GERHARD ROLF TONN B.A., Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department o The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date JO , /973 ( i i ) ABSTRACT Urbanization i n B r i t i s h Columbia has generally oc-curred by way of two processes. I t has e i t h e r occurred i n r e l a t i o n to the establishment of a single enterprise community i n the resource f r o n t i e r , or, i t has occurred i n r e l a t i o n to the growth of established m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n which previously non urban areas surrounding established m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have become urbanized. The urbanization of previously r u r a l areas has, i n most cases, r e s u l t e d i n the need f o r basic municipal services as well as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure to administer these services and to provide a basic p u b l i c decision-making structure i n the community. Although i n the case of single enterprise communities the P r o v i n c i a l Government has followed a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y i n the implementation of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure i n these communities, no d e f i n i t e p o l i c y has been achieved f o r the implementation of such a structure i n what have become known as peripheral communities. These communities have been per-mitted to follow a number of alternate mechanisms f o r the p r o v i s i o n and administration of services although in c o r -poration under the Municipal Act or the Water Act has gene-r a l l y been viewed by these communities as the only viable mechanism f o r ( i ) the p r o v i s i o n and administration of ser-v i c e s and ( i i ) the implementation of a public decision-making structure i n the community. ( i i i ) The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of one community's attempt to incorporate under both the Municipal Act and the Water Act revealed that the present incorporation process as i t i s presented i n the Municipal Act and as i t i s prescribed by the Water Rights Branch i s not as e f f e c t i v e as i t might be. This i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s was found to derive from two sources. The f i r s t of these sources was found to be the i n f l e x i b i l i t y of the corporate forms permitted under both the Municipal  Act and the Water Act. In terms of the incorporation process as outlined i n the Municipal Act i t was found that the popu-l a t i o n c r i t e r i a as well as obligations which are established f o r each municipal form deterred communities from assuming a l o c a l government structure f o r the reason that although communities had a s u f f i c i e n t population l e v e l , they were unable to f i n a n c i a l l y support a l o c a l government structure of the type outlined i n the Municipal Act. _. In terms of the incorporation process f o r water im-provement d i s t r i c t s a s i m i l a r i n f l e x i b i l i t y was discerned although t h i s i n f l e x i b i l i t y did not derive from the Water  Act per se but, resulted from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Water Act by the Water Rights Branch and the Department of Munici-p a l A f f a i r s . These two agencies viewed water improvement d i s t r i c t s as corporate bodies with only l i m i t e d objects and powers. Consequently, communities wishing to incorporate under the Water Act for the exercise of a number of objects are deterred from assuming the status of water Improvement d i s t r i c t . (iv) A second reason f o r the ine f f e c t i v e n e s s of the incor-poration process was found to be the lack of communication between the agencies entrusted with the incorporation process and the communities wishing to incorporate. I t was found that t h i s lack of communication resulted i n ( i ) the f a i l u r e of the agencies to perceive the i n s t i t u t i o n a l needs of these com-munities and ( i i ) the f a i l u r e of communities to meet standard and act according to established procedures. To remedy the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the present incorporation process, i t i s proposed that the incorporation process be made a "communicative" process which e n t a i l s b a s i c a l l y a three phase process. In the f i r s t phase known as the i n i t i a -t i o n phase, the community approaches the relevant agency and makes evident i t s need f o r a l o c a l government structure. In the second phase, known as the design phase, the community and the agency engage i n a process of evolving a design which would best s u i t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l needs of the community. In the t h i r d phase, known as the incorporation phase, the incorporation of the community takes place. (v) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES « . . . « . * . . . i . o » . o » « . . . . . . . * . « • • • • vixi LIST OF FIGURES x[\ X i X S*P OF MAPS ft«««««0ooeeee«««ooaa«oe«e««»»»«**9 X J - / ACKNOWLEDGMENT x i i : Chapter I. INTRODUCTION .... «.«...•.«.««««. ••••«•»•• 1 Introduction * 1 Problem Statement 5 Organization of the Thesis ............ 10 I I . THE DEFINITION, NATURE AND POWER OF MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS 15 Municipal Corporations Defined 15 Nature of Municipal Corporations 16 Sources of Municipal Power ............ 18 Powers and Duties 21 Limits of Municipal Power 23 I I I . PAST AND PRESENT ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR THE INCORPORATION OF MUNICIPAL-ITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 27 Incorporation under the Municipal Act of B r i t i s h Columbia 27 Incorporation under the Water Act of B r i t i s h Columbia 7^ IV. THE STUDY A R E A i THE COMMUNITY OF THORNHILL 55 Introduction 55 (vi) P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 57 Geological Setting 57 Groundwater Sources i n the T h o r n h i l l Area • 59 S o i l s , P ercolation and Surface Drainage i n the T h o r n h i l l Area 63 Climate 68 History and Development 68 Population C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T h o r n h i l l Residents 69 Age Structure 69 Family Size 70 Occupational Structure .... 0............ • 72 Income 73 Housing 7^  Present Development 75 Landuse •.. 0 75 Road System 79 Land Tenure 81 Service Structure 84 Comraunity Organizations • 95 Representation of T h o r n h i l l on the Board of Directors of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine 96 Assessment 98 Summary 98 V. INCORPORATION ATTEMPTS OF THE THORNHILL COMMUNITY 10^ ( v i i y Incorporation Attempts of the Thornhill Community 104 Summary , 126 VI. ANALYSIS OF THE CASE STUDY 137 Models of P o l i t i c a l Development .......... 137 Development Models - A Generic Overview 138 P o l i t i c a l Systems 140 P o l i t i c a l Development - The Macro Level 149 P o l i t i c a l Development at the Local Government Level 155 Models of P o l i t i c a l Development at the Urban and Community Level ........ 159 P o l i t i c a l Development i n Urban Fringe Communities ................... 165 A Heuristic Model of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Fringe Communities •••• 167 P o l i t i c a l Development i n Thornhill 169 Reasons for the Lack of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Thornhill 172 VII. THE COMMUNICATIVE PROCESS OF INCORPORATION 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 214 APPENDIX A Thornhill Questionaire and Results 1972 219 APPENDIX B Thornhill Census 1973 235 (viii) LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Urban-Rural Populations of B r i t i s h Columbia 19^ 1-1971 6 2 Population C r i t e r i a and Major Obligations of Municipal Forms i n B r i t s h Columbia 7 3 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of T h o r n h i l l ' s Population by Five Year I n t e r v a l and Sex 70 'k Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Population of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine By Five Year Interval and Sex 1971 .......... 71 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Family Size i n T h o m h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i -mat-Stikine 0 72 6 Occupational Structure of T h o m h i l l - 1972 .... 72 7 Income Levels of T h o m h i l l Residents 73 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Dwelling Unit Type i n T h o m h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine 7^  9 Dwelling Tenure i n T h o m h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine 75 10 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Lot Sizes i n Thom-h i l l , 197^  78 11 Commercial Establishments i n the Thorn-h i l l Area By Type, 197^  79 12 I n d u s t r i a l Establishments i n the T h o m h i l l Area by Type, 197^  81 13 M i l l - r a t e Levied Against T h o m h i l l f o r Provision of Services On Regional Special Benefit Area Basis, 197^ -5 88 1^  M i l l - r a t e Levied Against T h o m h i l l f o r the Provision of Services by the Regional D i s t r i c t On An Area-Wide Basis 9*t (ix) Table Page 15 Population C r i t e r i a and Major Obligations of Municipal Forms 185 (x) LIST OP FIGURES Figure Page 1 A S i m p l i f i e d Model of a P o l i t i c a l System 145 2 Eyestone and Eulau*s Model of the P o l i t i c a l System of a C i t y 161 3 Possible Combinations of the Variables of Eyestone and Eulau's Model 162 4 Wichern et, a l , 's Model of Community P o l i t i c a l Development I63 (xi) LIST OF MAPS Map Page 1 Relationship of T h o r n h i l l to Terrace 56 2 Boundaries of T h o r n h i l l As Designated By the Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine 58 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Major Hydrogeological Environments ....*•.••.....<>.• 60 4 T h o r n h i l l Area - S o i l s 64 5 T h o r n h i l l Area - S o i l Permeability 66 6 Th o r n h i l l - Topography 6? 7 ..Thornhill - Planning Areas ?6 8 T h o r n h i l l - Landuse 77 9 Th o r n h i l l - Residential Density 80 10 Th o r n h i l l - Road System./ «, 82 11 Th o r n h i l l - Land Ownership 83 12 T h o r n h i l l - Water Systems 86 13 E l e c t o r a l Areas of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine 97 14 Water Improvement D i s t r i c t # 1 123 15 T h o r n h i l l - Census Areas, 1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 ( x i i ) , ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to thank Professor B. Wiesraan and Professor P. Tennant f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions and encouragement throughout the wr i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . I would also l i k e to thank my wife Karen f o r her support during the wr i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . - 1 -1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The u r b a n i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia has g e n e r a l l y occurred by way of two processes; i t has e i t h e r occurred i n r e l a t i o n to the development of a resource i n the resource f r o n t i e r and has, as a consequence, r e s u l t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h -ment of resource towns, or, i t has occurred by way of the growth of e s t a b l i s h e d urban c e n t e r s . In the second case, high land and housing costs as w e l l as the l o s s of c e r t a i n valued amenities, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n growth, have caused an extensive m i g r a t i o n of urban r e s i d e n t s i n t o the l a r g e l y r u r a l areas surrounding these urban cen t e r s . U r b a n i z a t i o n has, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, neces-s i t a t e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been financed by the p u b l i c s e c t o r of the developing area. Increased r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s and commercial and i n d u s t r i a l develop-ment have n e c e s s i t a t e d c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e , high technology p u b l i c improvements as w e l l as an incre a s e d l e v e l of p u b l i c s e r v i c e . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the pu b l i c , f u n d s to develop and a d m i n i s t e r the r e q u i r e d improvements and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n newly u r b a n i z i n g areas have been made a v a i l a b l e by e i t h e r , ( i ) the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the newly urbanized area as a munic i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n o r as a s p e c i a l purpose p u b l i c corpor-a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e e f f i c i e n t development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the re q u i r e d s e r v i c e s , ( i i ) the p o l i t i c a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the newly urbanized area w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , 2 ( i i i ) the c r e a t i o n of a s p e c i f i e d area under the s t r u c t u r e of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t whereby a s p e c i a l m i l l rate i s l e v i e d by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t on the area b e n e f i t t i n g from the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d on the s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , or ( i v ) by v a r i o u s departments of the P r o v i n c i a l government which provide a number of s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y to unincorporated areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. In the case of communities e s t a b l i s h e d i n con-j u n c t i o n with the development of a n a t u r a l resource, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanism favoured by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r the p r o v i s i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the implementation of a p u b l i c decision-making s t r u c t u r e i s c l e a r . S e c t i o n 10A of the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act s t a t e s t h a t "Where i t i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t to e s t a b l i s h a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development of a n a t u r a l resource, the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may, by L e t t e r s Patent, i n c o r p o r a t e the r e s i d e n t s of any area of land i n unincorporated t e r r i t o r y i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y upon the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n from at l e a s t f i v e r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n the proposed m u n i c i p a l i t y . " ! Although s t a t e d somewhat moderately i n the Munic-i p a l Act, i t i s the p o l i c y of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s that a resource community should not be dominated by the resource i n d u s t r y i n a l l aspects of community l i f e , l e a s t of a l l , the p u b l i c decision-making of the community. For t h i s reason, the community s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s establishment i s to assume the s t a t u s of v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y to provide f o r - 3 -and administer the required p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , and to otherwj.se l e g i s l a t e with respect to community concerns with autonomy from the resource i n d u s t r y . ^ In respect to communities developing on the p e r i -phery of e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , no one s p e c i f i c p o l i c y has been a r t i c u l a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia although i n recent years, there has been a trend toward the amalgamation of these communities with adjacent e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . These communities known as p e r i p h e r a l communities or as urban-rural f r i n g e communities have been allowed to pursue a number of a l t e r n a t i v e mechanisms i n order to provide t h e i r s e r v i c i n g and l o c a l government needs. Many of these a l t e r -n a t i v e s , however, are not v i a b l e i n a l l o w i n g f o r the estab-lishment of a complete range of required s e r v i c e s of a l o c a l decision-making s t r u c t u r e . For example, the departments of the P r o v i n c i a l government provide only s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s and only a l i m i t e d number of s e r v i c e s to the unincorporated areas of the province. Another a l t e r n a t i v e , the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s by a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , i s a l s o not v i a b l e i n a l l o w i n g f o r the development of a f u l l range of municipal s e r v i c e s . The concept of s p e c i f i e d area was con-ceived to allow f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a l i m i t e d number of s e r v i c e s to those unincorporated areas w i t h i n the boundaries of a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r a t h e r than as a device f o r . t h e p r o v i s i o n of an e n t i r e range of municipal s e r v i c e s to an 4 area l o c a t e d w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . P r o v i s i o n of a f u l l range of s e r v i c e s by the r e g i o n a l d i s t -r i c t to a s p e c i f i e d area would r e q u i r e t h a t the l i m i t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f of a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t engage i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of by-laws, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p o l l s and the development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these s e r v i c e s . For t h i s reason, i t has been suggested t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of a l a r g e number of s e r v i c e s by way of the concept o f s p e c i f i e d area would make the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s a c o s t l y and i n e f f i c i e n t operation.** A l s o , s i n c e r e g i o n a l boards do not a f f o r d the same l e v e l of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e would pro v i d e , i t i s conceivable that the d e c i s i o n s made by the board of d i r e c t o r s concerning the s p e c i f i e d area may be unresponsive to the demands of the community r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s . A t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t of amalgamating newly urbanized f r i n g e areas w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l i t y to form one p o l i t i c a l u n i t has been met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n from r e s i d e n t s of these f r i n g e areas who have been concerned w i t h the l o s s of l o c a l autonomy, dramatic i n c r e a s e s i n the m i l l -r a t e s , as w e l l as the l o s s of t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e . 5 The f o u r t h a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t of i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the community e i t h e r under the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act or the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act as a water improvement d i s t r i c t has been viewed as the only v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r - 5 -both f o r the development of s e r v i c e s as w e l l as f o r the implementation of a community decision-making s t r u c t u r e to administer these s e r v i c e s . The v i a b i l i t y of t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e d e r i v e s from the fact that i n c o r p o r a t i o n permits autonomy i n d e c i s i o n -making fo r the community. As a municipal c o r p o r a t i o n , the community i s not dependent on the d e c i s i o n s of a board of d i r e c t o r s of a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t as would be the case i f i t became a s p e c i f i e d area, nor i s i t dependent on the d e c i s i o n -making of a c o u n c i l of a neighbouring established, m u n i c i p a l -i t y which would be the case i f the community as w e l l as the e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l i t y chose to amalgamate. Rather, the community possesses i t s own formal government s t r u c t u r e which allows i t to l e g i s l a t e , a d j u d i c a t e , and administer i n respect to community concerns. Inco r p o r a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s such autonomy by ( i ) a l l o w i n g the community to assume a formal decision-making s t r u c t u r e through which d e c i s i o n s f o r the community may be made more e f f i c i e n t l y and more e q u i t a b l y , and ( i i ) c o n f e r r i n g a number of powers on t h i s decision-making s t r u c t u r e i n order that i t may implement i t s d e c i s i o n . 1 . 2 Problem Statement . Since, as i n d i c a t e d by Table 1^, B r i t i s h Columbia i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y urbanized, i t i s of importance that an e f f e c t i v e i n c o r p o r a t i o n process e x i s t s , whereby newly urbanized areas may assume a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n order to ameliorate the problems which accompany such u r b a n i z a t i o n . Table 1 Urban-Rural Populations of B r i t i s h Columbia; 1941-1971 URBAN RURAL 1941 1951 1961 1971 824,744 ( 7 0 0 8 % ) 1,181,925 (72.570 1 ,654,405 (75.7%) 443,394 (54.2f 0 ) 374,467 (45.8J5) 340,466 (29.2%) 447,157 (27.570 530,215 (24o3%) The f o l l o w i n g study, t h e o r i z i n g on evidence of a case study i n northwest B r i t i s h Columbia suggests t h a t the present process of i n c o r p o r a t i o n as i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act and the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act i s not as e f f e c t i v e i n terms o f f a c i l i t a t i n g community p o l i t i c a l development as i t might be. ti v e n e s s i s due to the f a c t t h a t the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process as i t now e x i s t s i s not' a "communicative one" whereby a community a s p i r i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e may make evident i t s i n s t i -t u t i o n a l needs to the a u t h o r i t y e n t r u s t e d w i t h m u n i c i p a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n and implement a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e which would enable i t to meet both i t s s e r v i c i n g needs and i t s need f o r a decision-making s t r u c t u r e . Rather than being "communicative", the present i n c o r p o r a t i o n process as e s t a b l i s h e d i n the M u n i c i p a l Act i s I t i s suggested t h a t the reasons f o r the i n e f f e c -encumbered by ( i ) p o p u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a which must be met by the community f o r i t to assume a given municipal s t a t u s , ( i i ) a l i m i t e d number of muni c i p a l forms which i n B r i t i s h Columbia in c l u d e the st a t u s of v i l l a g e , town, d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y , and c i t y , and ( i i i ) r i g i d o b l i g a t i o n s which are commensurate w i t h each m u n i c i p a l form and which increase as the mu n i c i p a l s t a t u s becomes higher. Table 2 i n d i c a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a o f the va r i o u s m u n i c i p a l forms as w e l l as the o b l i -g a t i o n s , although i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t these o b l i g a t i o n s represent what the P r o v i n c i a l government demands above and beyond those f u n c t i o n s f o r which a community may wish to in c o r p o r a t e . Table 2 P o p u l a t i o n C r i t e r i a & Major O b l i g a t i o n s of Mu n i c i p a l Forms i n B r i t i s h Columbia Status V i l l a g e Town D i s t r i c t C i t y P o p u l a t i o n 500 - 2,500 2,500 - 5,000 area over 2,000 acres and d e n s i t y l e s s than two persons per acr<-5,000 + O b l i g a t i o n s Road Maintenance Road Maintenance WeIfare Road Maintenance Welfare P o l i c i n g Road Maintenance Welfare P o l i c i n g In terms of the minimum and maximum po p u l a t i o n l e v e l s which a community must possess i n order to assume a given m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that a community without the r e q u i r e d p o p u l a t i o n yet wishing a c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l form, i i s not afforded the opp o r t u n i t y to assume one. A l s o , a 8 community which has surpassed, f o r example, the p o p u l a t i o n maximum of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y yet r e q u i r e s only the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e to maintain a few s e r v i c e s , must assume a l l the o b l i g a t i o n s of a town m u n i c i p a l i t y or assume no l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e at a l l . Although the costs to c a r r y out these o b l i g a t i o n s may appear i n s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s argued t h a t these costs i n a d d i t i o n to the c o s t s of those f u n c t i o n s f o r which the community wishes to i n c o r p o r a t e may 8 prove too great an economic burden f o r a community to c a r r y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e evident t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a as w e l l as the o b l i g a t i o n s which are commensurate w i t h each mu n i c i p a l form are not f l e x i b l e i n a l l o w i n g a community to assume a l o c a l government form which best s u i t s i t s needs. The method of assuming a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e as suggested by the M u n i c i p a l Act a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process. Rather than a community assuming o b l i g a t i o n s as w e l l as the competence to a d m i n i s t e r these o b l i g a t i o n s i n a gradual manner, the present l e g i s l a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t a community assume a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e without any s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d of p r e p a r a t i o n . Although the l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a water improvement d i s t r i c t does not c a l l f o r p o p u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a , and r i g i d o b l i g a t i o n s , i t too has become an i n -f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e . However, t h i s i n f l e x i b i l i t y does not derive from the l e g i s l a t i o n but from the f a c t t h a t the - 9 -Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has evolved a p o l i c y over the l a s t three years which suggests t h a t l o c a l i t i e s r e q u i r i n g a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e should i n c o r p o r a t e as m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s r a t h e r than as water improvement d i s t r i c t s . ^ When the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of water improvement d i s t r i c t s has been per-m i t t e d , they have been i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h o n l y a l i m i t e d number of f u n c t i o n s . Yet another reason f o r the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process was found to be the l a c k of communication between the agencies entrusted w i t h the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process and the communities wishing to i n c o r p o r a t e . I t was found that t h i s l a c k of communication r e s u l t e d i n ( i ) f a i l u r e of these agencies to perceive the i n s t i t u t i o n a l needs o f these communities, and ( i i ) f a i l u r e of communities to meet the s t a n -dards and procedures e s t a b l i s h e d by these agencies f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process. This study suggests t h a t to remedy the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the present i n c o r p o r a t i o n process a simple communicative process between the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the communities a s p i r i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e should occur. This communicative process would be unencumbered by p o p u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a , e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l forms as w e l l as the o b l i g a -t i o n s which are commensurate w i t h the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l forms. The process should c o n s i s t of three phases which are ( i ) an i n i t i a l phase i n which the community a s p i r i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e makes evident i t s need f o r a l o c a l government 1 s t r u c t u r e , 10 ( i i ) a design phase i n which the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the community a s p i r i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e generate p o s s i b l e designs f o r such a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e and agree upon one design, and ( i i i ) an i n c o r p o r a t i o n phase, where the community r e c e i v e s a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e which has been achieved i n the design phase. As the community grows and r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l powers and a new l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e , t h i s three-phase process i s again i n i t i a t e d to achieve a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e which would enable the community to meet i t s new ch a l l e n g e s . 1.3 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Thesis The l o g i c and s t r u c t u r e of the t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : Chapter I I deals i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y manner w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n , n ature, power and l i m i t s of power of m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . Chapter I I I documents the development of the procedures estab-l i s h e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act and the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia from the p e r i o d 1870 to 1974. Although no conscious e f f o r t i s made to suggest the antecedents f o r the present i n c o r p o r a t i o n process, the n a r r a t i v e makes obvious the e f f e c t s of the past l e g i s l a t i o n on the present l e g i s l a t i o n . The chapter a l s o attempts to o f f e r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the various changes which have been introduced i n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n . 11 -Chapter IV introduces the study area of T h o m h i l l and b r i e f l y d e scribes the community'in terms of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the h i s t o r y of development i n the T h o m h i l l area, the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area, the present development, the present s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e , the community o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the T h o m h i l l community, the p o l i t i c a l rep-r e s e n t a t i o n of T h o m h i l l on the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and a summary which introduces a more i n t u i t i v e approach to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the community. The data presented i n t h i s chapter d e r i v e s from a number of sources. These i n c l u d e , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey c a r r i e d out by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n T h o m h i l l i n 1972 ( c f . Appendix A f o r a sample q u e s t i o n n a i r e as w e l l as the r e s u l t s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , a census c a r r i e d out i n T h o m h i l l by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i n 1973 ( c f . Appendix B ) , and v a r i o u s o t h e r data compiled by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i n 197^ f o r the pre p a r a t i o n o f a zoning by-law f o r the community of T h o m h i l l . In Chapter IV, a comparison i s attempted between the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T h o m h i l l and those of the e n t i r e Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . Data f o r the establishment of p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e were obtained from the 1971 Census of S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Chapter V des c r i b e s the attempts of the T h o m h i l l community to in c o r p o r a t e from the i n i t i a l attempt i n i960 to 12 197^. The summary of the chapter i n d i c a t e s i n a more d i r e c t manner the number of attempts, the success of these attempts, the reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of these attempts and the form of communication which took place between the v a r i o u s govern-mental agencies and the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the community of T h o m h i l l . Chapter VI introduces the concept of p o l i t i c a l development i n g e n e r i c terms and i n terms of the p o l i t i c a l development of communities. The chapter also i n d i c a t e s ways and at which p o i n t s the p o l i t i c a l development of T h o m h i l l was impeded by the e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o r p o r a t i o n process. Chapter V I I des c r i b e s a "communicative" i n c o r p o r -a t i o n process and suggests how t h i s process may be implemented to f a c i l i t a t e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities more e f f e c t i v e l y . 13 CHAPTER I NOTES AND COMMENTS 1. B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C., i 9 6 0 , c. 255, S. 10A. 2. Statement by Mr. E. Brown (former Deputy M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) , Personal I n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 3. I b i d . 4. Based on correspondence dated October 6, 1972, from Mr. J . Pousette, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to the Comptroller of Water Ri g h t s . 5. The Vancouver Sun, November 4, 1974, p. 12. 6. Based on data d e r i v e d from the 1941, 1951, 1961, and 1971 census of S t a t i s t i c s Canada. The term urban i s defined by S t a t i s t i c s Canada as ( i ) i n c o r -porated c i t i e s , towns o r v i l l a g e s w i t h a popul-a t i o n of 1,000 or over, (2) unincorporated places of 1,000 o r over having a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of at l e a s t 1,000 per square mile and (3) the urbanized f r i n g e of (1) or ( 2 ) . A l l the remaining p o p u l a t i o n i s r u r a l . 7. B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1973, c. 133, S. 639, S. 644. Although the road maintenance f u n c t i o n i s not demanded i n the M u n i c i p a l Act i t i s demanded by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (based on communication between the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the author, March 12, 1975). An amendment to the M u n i c i p a l Act i n 1974 made the o b l i g a t i o n s commensurate w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n of an i n c o r p o r a t e d area and not w i t h the m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s . For example, r a t h e r than the s t a t u s of town having the o b l i g a t i o n s of road maintenance and w e l f a r e , these o b l i g a t i o n s are now commensurate w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2,500 which i s al s o the pop u l a t i o n l e v e l r e q u i r e d f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community as a town 0 However, f o r a com-munity i n c o r p o r a t i n g f o r the f i r s t time, t h i s change i s of l i t t l e consequence f o r the f a c t t h a t the m u n i c i p a l forms are also based on p o p u l a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s that a community assumes, i n the process of assuming a m u n i c i p a l form, the o b l i -gations which are commensurate w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n of t h a t m u n i c i p a l form. i - 14 -8. I t i s a l s o evident from t h i s case study t h a t the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has a precon-cei v e d n o t i o n of what the l e v e l of s e r v i c i n g should be. This i s based on the f a c t t h a t the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s c o u n s e l l e d the community of T h o r n h i l l as to whether i t had a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e tax base to assume a given m u n i c i p a l form. 9. Based on communication between the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the author, March 12, 1975. - 15 -CHAPTER II THE DEFINITION. NATURE AND POWER OF  MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS - 15a -2.1 Municipal Corporations Defined Crawford has suggested that municipal c o r p o r a t i o n s may be defined as: "...devices which enable groups of persons to j o i n together f o r the purposes of l o c a l government and to obtain the r e s u l t s desired through one medium ra t h e r than by the sum t o t a l of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t has, moreover, the added advantage that as a c o r p o r a t i o n , they may be endowed with a d d i t i o n a l powers which as i n d i v i d u a l s they would not possess. 1 , 1 A more complete d e f i n i t i o n of "municipal c o r p o r a t i o n " has been o f f e r e d by the Canadian Encyclopedic Digest which de-fined a municipal c o r p o r a t i o n as: "...a body corporate c o n s t i t u t e d by the i n c o r p o r -a t i o n of i n h a b i t a n t s r e s i d i n g w i t h i n a defined area upon whom the L e g i s l a t u r e has, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y or through some intermediary agency, conferred corporate s t a t u s , r i g h t s and l i a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the r i g h t to administer through the agency of an elected c o u n c i l or other governing body such matters of l o c a l concern as are e i t h e r expressly s p e c i f i e d or as are n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e d from the nature and extent of the a u t h o r i t y conferred." Combining the two previous d e f i n i t i o n s to formulate an even more complete d e f i n i t i o n , a municipal c o r p o r a t i o n can be said to be a c r e a t i o n of law, composed of a geographical l o c a l i t y whose boundaries have been s p e c i f i e d , w i t h i n which r e s i d e i n -h a b i t a n t s who have been incorporated f o r the e x e r c i s e of powers and objects conferred upon them by a higher a u t h o r i t y . A l -though the body corporate of any municipal c o r p o r a t i o n i s composed of the i n h a b i t a n t s of a defined, l o c a l i t y , Rogers s t a t e s that the subject of r i g h t of a municipal c o r p o r a t i o n does not e x i s t 16 i n the i n d i v i d u a l members or i n a l l the members taken c o l -li-l e c t i v e l y , but i n the i d e a l whole. The m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i s not merely the sum of the l e g a l r i g h t s and powers of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t members, but i s a new c r e a t i o n recognized by the law. Because a c o r p o r a t i o n i s l e g a l l y d i s t i n c t from i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and i s i t s e l f a l e g a l person, a change i n the membership of a c o r p o r a t i o n does not a l t e r e i t h e r the "essence" or " u n i t y " of a c o r p o r a t i o n . 2.2 Nature of M u n i c i p a l Corporations The one q u a l i t y that d i s t i n g u i s h e s a m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n from p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s i s i t s power of s e l f government, although by no means i s t h i s autonomy complete. While considerable autonomy to r e g u l a t e l o c a l a f f a i r s i s granted the m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n , the l e g i s l a t u r e r e t a i n s , f o r the purpose of c o n t r o l l i n g m u n i c i p a l power, a c e r t a i n amount of j u r i s d i c t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s . A l s o , the degree of s e l f government i s contingent on the c l a s s which the munic-i p a l i t y has assumed. I n the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which are c l a s s e d as c i t i e s and towns have a g r e a t e r degree of s e l f government than do lower c l a s s e s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as v i l l a g e s o r water improvement d i s t r i c t s . The a t t r i b u t e of s e l f government allows the i n c o r -porated i n h a b i t a n t s , v i a t h e i r e l e c t e d agents, to l e g i s l a t e i n respect to l o c a l concerns. 5 As long as m u n i c i p a l by-laws are i n t r a v i r e s , d e f i n i t e l y expressed, p o s i t i v e , g eneral and - 17 -equal i n op e r a t i o n , reasonable i n t h e i r terms, made bona .fide i n the i n t e r e s t of the c o r p o r a t i o n and not repugnant to the general lav; of the land, m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s by way of t h e i r e l e c t e d c o u n c i l s , have plenary power i n t h e i r corporate j u r i s d i c t i o n . While i t i s a f u n c t i o n of the mu n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n by i t s e l e c t e d agent to l e g i s l a t e i n terms of l o c a l i n t e r e s t s f o r the b e n e f i t of the i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h i n the corporate l i m i t s , i t i s al s o the f u n c t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n to act i n the c a p a c i t y of agent f o r the P r o v i n c i a l government. In that c a p a c i t y , a mu n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n u t i l i z e s c e r t a i n pov/ers which have been conferred on i t f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c at l a r g e . A c t i n g i n t h i s c a p a c i t y , m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s are instruments of the P r o v i n c i a l government i n ord e r t h a t l e g i s l a t i n g f o r the p u b l i c w e l f a r e may be more e f f i c i e n t l y c a r r i e d out. A t h i r d f u n c t i o n of a m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n , which tends to be a c o r o l l a r y of the f i r s t f u n c t i o n , allows i t to provide u t i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s to the i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h i n i t s geographical boundaries, thereby a c t i n g i n a c a p a c i t y s i m i l a r Q to a commercial c o r p o r a t i o n . Rogers has suggested t h a t the e s s e n t i a l i n c i d e n t s and a t t r i b u t e s of a muni c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i n c l u d e : a corporate name which i s the c h i e f means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s due to t h e i r f l u c t u a t i n g membership, a s e a l to be used i n evidencing the sense of the whole body i n expressing the 18 w i l l of the c o r p o r a t i o n i n a by-law o r c o n t r a c t ; amembership composed of the inc o r p o r a t e d i n h a b i t a n t s of a d e f i n e d geog-r a p h i c a l area; a t e r r i t o r y which i s an e s s e n t i a l component of a mun i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n and cannot be separated from the corporate e n t i t y e i t h e r i n f a c t o r i n law; p e r p e t u a l s u c c e s s i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g death of i t s members; power to acquire and h o l d property f o r au t h o r i z e d purposes and to a l i e n a t e the same i n i t s corporate name; the power to sue and be sued i n i t s cor-porate name; the power to c o n t r a c t i n i t s corporate name; the power of the m a j o r i t y to bind o t h e r s ; exemption of agents from l i a b i l i t y when a c t i n g i n conformity w i t h the fundamental law of the corporation} a governing body or agent which exer-c i s e s the power of the c o r p o r a t i o n ; the r i g h t to e x e r c i s e through i t s c o u n c i l c e r t a i n a u t h o r i t y over the p o p u l a t i o n of a defined area.^ 2.3 Sources of M u n i c i p a l Power M u n i c i p a l power d e r i v e s b a s i c a l l y from three sources: the Crown by i t s e x e r c i s e of r o y a l p e r o g a t i v e , by a p r i v a t e P r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e , and by general P r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e . The Crown i n the e x e r c i s e of the r o y a l perogative could b r i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e common law c o r p o r a t i o n s v/hich could sue and be sued, implead o r be impleaded, grant o r rece i v e by i t s corporate name and g e n e r a l l y engage i n a l l acts permitted to any n a t u r a l person even to the extent of exceeding the powers e x p r e s s l y conferred on i t by i t s C h a r t e r - 19 -or exceeding the obj e c t s of i t s incorporation." 1' 0 The only-l i m i t a t i o n s on the powers of a common law mu n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n are s t a t u t o r y l i m i t a t i o n s made b i n d i n g by the i n c o r p o r a t i n g c h a r t e r and the general law o f the land. Although at present there e x i s t no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s placed on the r i g h t of the Crown to create c o r p o r a t i o n s by e x e r c i s e of the r o y a l perogative i n Canada, few m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s have been created i n t h i s manner.^"'' The most commonly c i t e d example of a common lav/ m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i s S t . John, New Brunswick, 12 which was granted a c h a r t e r i n 1785. Although the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act confers power on the Lieutenant Governor i n C o u n c i l to i s s u e L e t t e r s Patent, f o r the c r e a t i o n of common law c o r p o r a t i o n s , the p r o v i s i o n s f o r the issuance of L e t t e r s Patent i s bound by procedures l a i d down i n s t a t u t e . For t h i s reason, m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are s t a t u t o r y c r e a t i o n s . A second source of m u n i c i p a l power d e r i v e s from the power of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e , on the a u t h o r i t y of Head 8, S e c t i o n 92 of the B r i t i s h North America Act, to create. 13 muni c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i n the area of i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . J This head allows the P r o v i n c i a l government to delegate c e r t a i n powers to mu n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s to e x e r c i s e at the l o c a l l e v e l , although the Province cannot delegate such powers and j u r i s d i c t i o n which i t does not possess i t s e l f . The P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the c r e a t i o n of mu n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has u s u a l l y occurred i n - 20 -two forms. The l e g i s l a t i o n may take the form of a p r i v a t e act i n c o r p o r a t i n g a s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t y such as the Vancou-ver Charter," 1^ or, by way of a general s t a t u t e such as the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act which allows for the i n c o r -poration of any m u n i c i p a l i t y meeting c e r t a i n requirements l i s t e d i n the s t a t u t e . In some cases, as i n the case of K i t -imat, B.C., the issuance of L e t t e r s Patent was preceded by a s p e c i a l act of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e although a l l the p r o v i s i o n s of the general municipal l e g i s l a t i o n remained ap-15 p l i c a b l e to a municipal c o r p o r a t i o n so formed. ^ In the case of a m u n i c i p a l i t y formed by a p r i v a t e a c t , such an act s e t s out a l l objects as v/ell as powers of the c o r p o r a t i o n which the municipal c o r p o r a t i o n may not exceed without being u l t r a  v i r e s . I t i n f a c t brings the " c o n s t i t u t i o n " of the munici-p a l c o rporation i n t o being. General s t a t u t e s provide the opportunity f o r any l o c a l i t y meeting c e r t a i n s t a t u t o r y requirements to assume corporate s t a t u s . The general s t a t u t e designates o f f i c e r s or agencies authorized to confer corporate s t a t u s on l o c a l i t i e s , o u t l i n e s uniform procedures f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process, provides f o r municipal c o r p o r a t i o n s to be divided i n t o c e r t a i n c l a s s e s according to population and area, and assigns (or l i m i t s ) the powers and objects of each municipal c l a s s . Of-f i c e r s or agencies which are authorized to confer corporate s t a t u s on a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e are u s u a l l y the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l of the Province (as i s the 21 case i n B r i t i s h Columbia), the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , a j u d i c i a l o f f i c e r , a p r o v i n c i a l board (such as the Ontario M u n i c i p a l Board), or a s u p e r i o r m u n i c i p a l i t y such as a c o u n t y . ^ The i n c o r p o r a t i n g document may take the form of L e t t e r s Patent (as i s the case i n B.C.), an Order i n C o u n c i l , a proclamation, a decree, or a by-law. Besides o b j e c t s and powers o u t l i n e d i n e i t h e r a g e n e r a l or p r i v a t e s t a t u t e i n c o r p o r a t i n g a m u n i c i p a l corpor-a t i o n , power may a l s o accrue to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by v i r t u e of o t h e r p u b l i c acts such as the B.C. Health Act which i d e n t i f i e s the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as agents to a d m i n i s t e r c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n s of the s t a t u t e . Also c e r t a i n p r i v a t e acts such as the C i t y of P r i n c e Rupert Railway Lands Agreement R a t i f i c a t i o n Act grant s p e c i f i c m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a d d i t i o n a l power needed to meet the objects of t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n , or l e g i s l a t e on matters which are of m u n i c i p a l concern yet are beyond m u n i c i p a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n . 2.4 Powers and Duties The Canadian Encyclopedic Digest s t a t e s : "A m u n i c i p a l i t y i s e n t r u s t e d with c e r t a i n powers of government f o r the b e n e f i t of the i n h a b i t a n t s i n t h e i r l o c a l o r corporate l i m i t s as d i s t i n c t from the i n t e r e s t of the p u b l i c at l a r g e . I t also i s g iven c e r t a i n powers to be used f o r the b e n e f i t of the community at l a r g e as a convenient method of exer-c i s i n g some of the f u n c t i o n s of government. In the former case, c i v i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y attaches to the m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t s servants and agents j u s t as i n the case of any o ther corporate body. In the l a t t e r 22 case, the o f f i c e r s e l e c t e d o r appointed by the m u n i c i p a l i t y are not regarded as servants o r agents of the m u n i c i p a l i t y a p p o i n t i n g them, but as p u b l i c o f f i c e r s a c t i n g i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , f o r whose conduct c i v i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y does not a t t a c h to the municipality."17 Rogers s t a t e s t h a t when the c o r p o r a t i o n i s the agent of the Province i n executing g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l laws w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r y , i t can be s a i d to be a c t i n g i n i t s governmental -] Q aspect. When i t i s performing the d u t i e s of r e g u l a t i n g the conduct and su p p l y i n g the wants o f the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n i t s g e o graphical area i t i s a c t i n g i n i t s m u n i c i p a l aspect. In the case where a m u n i c i p a l i t y undertakes to provide u t i l -i t i e s and s e r v i c e s f o r i t s c i t i z e n s , i t i s a c t i n g i n the ca p a c i t y of a commercial c o r p o r a t i o n . M u n i c i p a l power may also be assessed and demarcated i n v a r i o u s other ways. M u n i c i p a l powers may, f o r example, be j u d i c i a l , e x e cutive o r l e g i s l a t i v e i n nature; they may be general powers granted by a p u b l i c a ct of the l e g i s l a t u r e o r , the power may be s p e c i f i c and a p p l i c a b l e to on l y one municip-20 a l i t y . M u n i c i p a l power may also be made express i n the s t a t u t e o r i t may be i m p l i e d or i n c i d e n t a l to the express powers i n order t h a t express powers may be c a r r i e d out more 21 f u l l y . M u n i c i p a l power may also be- d i s c r e t i o n a r y o r manda-to r y . I f a m u n i c i p a l i t y i s under a duty to perform a c e r t a i n a c t , and is compellable by appropriate procedures (eg, mandamus), the power i s of a mandatory nature. I f the power i s given to a m u n i c i p a l i t y without an express duty to e x e r c i s e the granted - 23 -power, the m u n i c i p a l i t y may use i t s own d i s c r e t i o n to act or to r e f r a i n from a c t i o n . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a l s o possess inherent powers such as the power to h o l d land and the r i g h t of p e r p e t u a l succession which accrue to the m u n i c i p a l i t y due to i t s corporate s t a t u s . Also conferred on mu n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s are omnibus clauses which serve as a source of p o l i c e power i n ins t a n c e s when such power i s r e q u i r e d . W i t h i n the granted j u r i s d i c t i o n of power, a munic-i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n ' s power i s plenary and i t may, by way of i t s e l e c t e d c o u n c i l enact any by-laws i t pleases as lon g as the by-laws are i n good f a i t h . Besides possessing power to enact by-laws w i t h i n t h e i r granted j u r i s d i c t i o n , m u n i c i p a l corpor-a t i o n s , by way of t h e i r c o u n c i l , may a l s o amend, a l t e r o r revoke t h e i r by-laws from time t o time and enact others i n t h e i r p l a c e . M u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s may also enforce t h e i r by-laws and impose p e n a l t i e s by way o f f i n e o r imprisonment i n respect of any r e g u l a t i o n s e t out i n a by-law which they 23 are competent to enact. y 2.5 L i m i t s of M u n i c i p a l Power The l i m i t s of m u n i c i p a l power derive from two basi c p r i n c i p l e s . The f i r s t of these s t a t e s t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y may not exceed the objects and powers conferred upon i t by the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e and which are s t a t e d e x p r e s s l y o r pjh i i m p l i e d i n a p p l i c a b l e s t a t u t e o r s t a t u t e s . I f a mu n i c i p a l - 24 -c o r p o r a t i o n exceeds the objects of i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n or enacts by-laws beyond i t s granted j u r i s d i c t i o n , i t i s subject to the d o c t r i n e of u l t r a v i r e s . M u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s a l s o l i m i t e d i n respect to the Crown o r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s which are exempt from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the concerned m u n i c i p a l i t y . The Crown, unless i t has been bound by the Act, i s not s u b j e c t to m u n i c i p a l by-laws o r mu n i c i p a l money payments such as m u n i c i p a l t a x e s . ^ A l s o , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , such as s i n g l e purpose bodies or r e g i o n a l governments have c e r t a i n r i g h t s and d u t i e s which may not be i n f r i n g e d upon or assumed by a m u n i c i p a l i t y unless express s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s are made. A second p r i n c i p l e l i m i t i n g the powers o f mu n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s suggest that m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s may e x e r c i s e t h e i r m u n i c i p a l powers only w i t h i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s . Any by-law which i s e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l i n i t s purpose, scope, and ope r a t i o n i s i l l e g a l and u l t r a v i r e s unless s t a t u t o r y 27 a u t h o r i t y has been given f o r the enactment of such by-laws. ' S i m i l a r l y , any c o n t r a c t s , l i c e n s i n g o r trade r e g u l a t i o n s cannot be e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l i n nature unless express j u r i s -pQ d i c t i o n has been granted by s t a t u t e . 25 CHAPTER I I - NOTES 1. K.G. Crawford, Canadian M u n i c i p a l Government, 1954, pp. 48 - 9 . 2. "Municipal Corporations", Canadian Encyclopedic D i g e s t , V o l . 14 ( O n t a r i o ) , Second E d i t i o n , p. 324. 3. I . MacF. Rogers, The Law of Canadian M u n i c i p a l Corporations, 1974, p. 1. 4. I b i d . 5. " I b i d . 6. "Municipal Corporations", Canadian Encyclopedic D i g e s t , V o l . 6 (Western), p. 251. 7. I b i d . , p. 234. 8 . I . MacF. Rogers, op. c i t . , p. 7-9. I b i d . , p. 8 . 10. I b i d . , p. 10. 11. I b i d . 12. E.C.E. Todd, Cases and M a t e r i a l s on M u n i c i p a l Law, 1971, PP. 3-4. 13. The B r i t i s h North America Act, I 8 6 7 , 30 E. 31, V i c t o r i a C 3, Head 8 . 14. The term " c h a r t e r " as used i n the Vancouver Ch a r t e r i s a misnomer. In f a c t the Vancouver Charter i s not a c h a r t e r i n the common lav/ sense but only a pseudonym f o r a p r i v a t e a c t . 15. E.C.E. Todd, l o c . c i t . 16. I . MacF. Rogers, op_. c i t . , p. 37. 17. "Municipal Corporations", C.E.D. (Western), V o l . 6, p. 234. 18. I . MacF. Rogers, op_. c i t . , pp. 6-7. 19. I b i d . 20. I b i d . , p. 294. 21. I b i d . , p. 309. 26 -22. I b i d . , p. 300. 23. I b i d . , p. 288. 24. "Municipal Corporations", C.E.D. (Western), V o l . 6, p. 234. 25. I . MacF. Rogers, p_p_. c i t . , pp. 317-18. 26. I b i d . , pp. 320-21. 27. I b i d . 28. I b i d . CHAPTER I I I PAST AND PRESENT ENABLING LEGISLATION  FOR THE INCORPORATION OF MUNICIPALITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA - 2 7 a -The c r i t e r i a and procedures e s t a b l i s h e d by the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of settlements and communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia have v a r i e d considerably s i n c e 1870 when B r i t i s h Columbia entered i n t o union with Canada. I t i s the purpose of t h i s chapter to document these changes and to i n d i c a t e the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s past l e g i s l a t i o n on the present l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with the c r i t e r i a and pro-cedures f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of settlements. 3 . 1 Incorporation Under the Mu n i c i p a l Act of B r i t i s h Columbia  From 1870 to 1872, the l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was found i n the Borough  Ordinance which was passed i n the L e g i s l a t u r e on March 2 2 , 1865."^" The p r o v i s i o n s of the Ordinance which de a l t with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities were general s t a t i n g merely that i t was l a w f u l f o r the Governor, "on the p e t i t i o n of a s u f f i c i e n t p r o p o r t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s i n any town or place i n the Colony praying f o r municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s , to grant the same by Charter under the great s e a l of the Colony". A l -though the Borough Ordinance was i n existence f o r seven years, no m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were incorporated under the Ordinance. Rather, the two communities which did in c o r p o r a t e during t h i s 2 time were incorporated by p r i v a t e a c t s of the L e g i s l a t u r e . In 1872, with the rep e a l of the Borough Ordinance of 1865 , came more d e f i n i t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with the - 28 -i n c o r p o r a t i o n of settlements and communities. S e c t i o n 4 of the M u n i c i p a l i t y Act of 1872, which was assented to on A p r i l 11, enabled the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l by L e t t e r s Patent under the p u b l i c s e a l of the P r o v i n c e , to create a m u n i c i p a l i t y upon the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n of at l e a s t two-thirds of the male f r e e h o l d e r s , householders, f r e e miners, pre-emptors and l e a s e h o l d e r s f o r a term of not l e s s than two years, who were of the f u l l age of twenty-one years and r e s i d e n t i n any l o c a l i t y of an area not g r e a t e r than ten miles square ( i f on the mainland but not o t h e r w i s e ) . ^ I t was e s t a b l i s h e d that the g i v e n l o c a l i t y was tohave a minimum pop u l a t i o n of not l e s s than t h i r t y male r e s i d e n t s before i n c o r p o r a t i o n could proceed. S e c t i o n 6 s t a t e d t h a t any m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o r p o r a t e d under the M u n i c i p a l i t y Act of 1872, be i t of the s t a t u s of township, c i t y or d i s t r i c t was to have f u l l corporate r i g h t s and be s u b j e c t to the l i a b i l i t i e s of a c o r p o r a t i o n . The Act also provided a schedulw h i c h enumerated f o r t y s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t areas i n which the munic-i p a l i t y had the r i g h t to pass and enforce by-laws. The 1872 l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the i n c o r p o r -a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was not amended to any great degree u n t i l 1889 when i t was replaced by more comprehensive l e g i s l a t i o n . S e c t i o n 10 of the M u n i c i p a l i t y Act of I889 l i s t e d c r i t e r i a and procedures f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a l o c a l i t y as a c i t y or town m u n i c i p a l i t y while s e c t i o n 11 l i s t e d - 2 9 -separate c r i t e r i a f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an area as a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y o r township„ The Act s t a t e d t h a t i t was l a w f u l f o r the L i e u t -enant Governor i n C o u n c i l by L e t t e r s Patent under the p u b l i c s e a l to i n c o r p o r a t e a l o c a l i t y as a c i t y or town m u n i c i p a l i t y upon r e c e i v i n g a p e t i t i o n signed by the owners of the m a j o r i t y of r e g i s t e r e d town l o t s of the l o c a l i t y as shown by the k documents i n the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e of the d i s t r i c t . A l s o , i t was s t i p u l a t e d that the land area of the l o c a l i t y to be incorporated was not to be i n excess of one thousand a c r e s , and, t h a t the area had been subdivided by survey i n t o town or suburban l o t s which had been r e g i s t e r e d i n the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e of the d i s t r i c t . Yet another p r o v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by the M u n i c i p a l i t y  Act o f I 8 8 9 s t a t e d t h a t i n order to be i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y , a l o c a l i t y had to have w i t h i n i t s proposed boun-d a r i e s one hundred male B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s of the f u l l age of twenty-one years who had been r e s i d e n t i n the l o c a l i t y f o r at l e a s t s i x months p r i o r to the date of the f i r s t s i g n a t u r e on the p e t i t i o n . A township o r d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y was to be incorporated by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l by L e t t e r s Patent upon the request of the m a j o r i t y of landowners i n the area and those r e s i d e n t pre-emptors of the area who had r e s i d e d on t h e i r pre-emptions f o r a minimum of one year.^ I t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t p e t i t i o n e r s could be e i t h e r male o r - 30 -female but were r e q u i r e d to be B r i t i s h subjects of the f u l l age of twenty-one years who had r e s i d e d i n the l o c a l i t y f o r at l e a s t s i x months p r i o r t o the date of the f i r s t s i g n a t u r e to the p e t i t i o n . Other c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an area of l o c a l i t y as a township or d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y were t h a t the area of the proposed township o r d i s t r i c t had a land area of l e s s than one hundred and ten square miles and that the area had a p o p u l a t i o n of at l e a s t f i f t y male B r i t i s h 7 subjects of the f u l l age of twenty-one years. In I 8 9 I the l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to m u n i c i p a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n of c i t y and town m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was f u r t h e r amended, whi l e the l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f townships and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s remained the same. S e c t i o n 9 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1891 s t a t e d t h a t i t was l a w f u l f o r the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l by L e t t e r Patent, to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o a town o r c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y any l o c a l i t y i n the province i f a p e t i t i o n was r e c e i v e d by the Executive C o u n c i l bearing the names of the owners of more than h a l f of the value o f the r e a l p r operty w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the l o c a l i t y to be i n c o r p o r a t e d , w i t h such value being a s c e r t a i n e d by reference to the then l a s t r e v i s e d P r o v i n c i a l Assessment 8 Role. The maximum land area of a town or c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y as e s t a b l i s h e d i n I889 was i n c r e a s e d from one thousand acres while the minimum p o p u l a t i o n of one hundred male B r i t i s h subjects of the f u l l age of twenty-one years remained as i n - 31 -the M u n i c i p a l i t y Act of 1889. In the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act of 1912, power was granted to the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l to vary the boundaries or reduce the l i m i t s of the proposed m u n i c i p a l i t y d e scribed i n the p e t i t i o n i n such a way as was 9 considered expedient by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . y The need f o r such l e g i s l a t i o n arose i n response to the f a i l u r e of p e t i t i o n e r s to proposed m u n i c i p a l boundaries which would be economical to s e r v i c e i n the event of i n c o r -p o r a t i o n . Rather than refuse to accept p e t i t i o n s which were f a u l t y i n t h i s r espect, and by doing so, f o r c e the p e t i t i o n e r s to engage i n the lengthy and c o s t l y process of drawing up a new p e t i t i o n , the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f e l t the need to i n v o l v e the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l i n the task of determining the boundaries of the l o c a l i t y proposing to . 10 i n c o r p o r a t e . The f o l l o w i n g year, the township was a b o l i s h e d as a m u n i c i p a l form. However, the l i s t of p o t e n t i a l forms of corporate s t a t u s was supplemented i n 1920 by the passage of the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act which provided f o r the i n c o r -p o r a t i o n of s m a l l settlements and communities as v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The c r e a t i o n of t h i s -form of corporation came i n response to the need f o r l o c a l government i n s m a l l i s o l a t e d communities which d i d not have the tax base to assume the h i g h e r forms of m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act p r i o r to 1 9 2 0 . 1 1 - 32 -S e c t i o n 2 of the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act gave the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l the power to i s s u e L e t t e r s Patent to any group of p e t i t i o n i n g i n h a b i t a n t s of any area i n which the number of persons then r e s i d e n t d i d not exceed 12 one thousand. The v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y was to have such r i g h t s , powers and p r i v i l e g e s as were s e t out and s p e c i f i e d i n the L e t t e r s Patent. The p r o v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l Act were not to apply to the v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y unless s p e c i f i c a l l y provided f o r i n the L e t t e r s Patent. D i s c r e t i o n was to be ex e r c i s e d by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l to vary the boundaries of the area d e s c r i b e d i n the p e t i t i o n f o r the i n -c o r p o r a t i o n of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r to r e c a l l any L e t t e r s Patent i s s u e d under the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act i n whole or 13 i n p a r t and is s u e supplementary or new L e t t e r s Patent. ^ In 1922, the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act was amended although not g r e a t l y a l t e r e d i n substance. Included i n the l e g i s l a t i o n of the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act of 1922 was a schedule of s p e c i f i c powers which were to be w h o l l y or par-t i a l l y assumed by a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y depending upon the l i m i t a t i o n s expressed i n the L e t t e r s Patent. I t was al s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d p r o v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l  Act were to be a p p l i c a b l e to a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y . In 1925 and 1926, the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act was again amended. The 1925 amendment s t r u c k out the clause c a l l i n g f o r a minimum p o p u l a t i o n of one thousand before i n -14 c o r p o r a t i o n of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y could proceed. This - 33 -amendment was a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t t h a t s m a l l communities, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the northern p o r t i o n of the Province d i d not have a p o p u l a t i o n of one thousand i n h a b i t a n t s yet r e q u i r e d a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e . ^ The 1926 amendment, which was more s u b s t a n t i a l , provided f o r d e f i n i t i v e procedures regarding the h o l d i n g of a p o l l to determine whether or not i n c o r p o r a t i o n was favoured. The reason f o r r e q u i r i n g t h a t a p o l l be h e l d i n a d d i t i o n to the r e q u i r e d p e t i t i o n d e r i v e d from the f a c t t h a t i n many cases, the p e t i t i o n d i d not a c c u r a t e l y represent the p o p u l a r i t y of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n . I t was thought t h a t the requirement o f a p o l l as w e l l as a p e t i t i o n would remedy the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the process i n which only a p e t i t i o n was r e -q u i r e d . 1 ' 7 S e c t i o n 3A of the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act of 1926 s t a t e d t h a t whether o r not a p e t i t i o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n had been presented under the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A c t , i t was regarded as l a w f u l f o r a p e t i t i o n to be presented r e q u e s t i n g that a p o l l be taken i n the area to a s c e r t a i n whether those e n t i t l e d to vote approved of i n c o r p o r a t i o n . Subsequent to the p o l l , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could i n c o r p o r a t e a l o c a l i t y as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y i f t h r e e - f i f t h s of a l l B r i t i s h s u bjects of the f u l l age of twenty-one years who had paid a minimum of two d o l l a r s taxes i n the preceding year on property s i t u a t e i n the l o c a l i t y proposed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d , 18 favoured i n c o r p o r a t i o n . In 1928, a f u r t h e r amendment to the V i l l a g e Munic-- 3^ -i p a l i t i e s Act a b o l i s h e d the t h r e e - f i f t h s approval r e q u i r e d i n the p o l l t o provide f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The l e g i s l a t i o n of 1928 c a l l e d f o r only a m a j o r i t y i n such p o l l s . I n 193°, "the r i g h t to take part i n a p o l l f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a l o c a l i t y as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y was extended to c o r p o r a t i o n s which had, f o r one month preceding the day of v o t i n g , been the owners of land w i t h i n the area 19 proposed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d . 7 A c o r p o r a t i o n , according to s e c t i o n 4 of the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act o f 1930, was to vote by i t s duly a u t h o r i z e d agent whose a u t h o r i t y was to be f i l e d w i t h the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r , and who was a r e s i d e n t of the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia and a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t o f the f u l l age of twenty-one years. By 1949 the concept of h o l d i n g a p o l l to determine the p o p u l a r i t y of i n c o r p o r a t i o n as p r e s c r i b e d i n the V i l l a g e  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act was a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the i n c o r p o r a t i o n procedures of a c i t y and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y . Such a p o l l was to be d i r e c t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l at the expense of the p e t i t i o n e r s . I f the m a j o r i t y of e l e c t o r s was i n f a v o u r of i n c o r p o r a t i o n , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could i n c o r p o r a t e such a l o c a l i t y as a c i t y o r d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y . Those persons e n t i t l e d to vote at such p o l l s were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s of the f u l l age of twenty-one years and such c o r p o r a t i o n s as had f o r one month preceding the day of v o t i n g been r e g i s t e r e d owners - 35 -o f land w i t h i n the l o c a l i t y proposed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d . 2 0 In 1957 a major r e v i s i o n of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia occurred. This major r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the M u n i c i p a l Act was i n response to the i n c r e a s i n g f r a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which, p r i o r to 19571 could be found i n as many as twelve separate ac t s of 21 the L e g i s l a t u r e . The purpose of t h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g was to co n s o l i d a t e these v a r i o u s acts i n t o one act and to giv e the r e s u l t i n g act a l o g i c a l and coherent s t r u c t u r e which would be more r e l e v a n t to the m u n i c i p a l concerns of 1957 r a t h e r than those of 1914 when the l a s t r e s t r u c t u r i n g of l e g i s l a t i o n per-22 t a i n i n g to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had taken place. D e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n s and procedures f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p e t i t i o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n were introduced i n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n . S e c t i o n 10 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1957 r e q u i r e d that a pe-t i t i o n r e q u e s t i n g the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a l o c a l i t y was to i n c l u d e , ( i ) the proposed name of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , ( i i ) a d e s c r i p t i o n of the land to be i n c l u d e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , ( i i i ) a statement showing the t o t a l number of persons then r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the area and the number of persons of the f u l l age of twenty-one so r e s i d e n t , ( i v ) a statement i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p u b l i c n o t i c e of the i n t e n t i o n to apply f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n had been given once i n each week f o r two consecutive weeks i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette o r i n a newspaper c i r c u l a t i n g i n the area, (v) the signa t u r e s of at l e a s t t h r e e - f i f t h s of - 3 6 -the r e s i d e n t s of the area who were sought to be i n c l u d e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y who were owners of land i n the area along w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of r e a l property owned by each s i g n a t o r y and the date of the s i g n a t u r e , and ( v i ) a request t h a t a p o l l be taken i n the area to a s c e r t a i n whether or not those e n t i t l e d to vote were i n favour of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n . ' I t was also s t a t e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n that a p e t i t i o n was to be accompanied by a s t a t u t o r y d e c l a r a t i o n of one or more of the p e t i t i o n e r s , a t t e s t i n g to the number of persons e n t i t l e d to s i g n the p e t i t i o n , t h e i r names, the a u t h e n t i c i t y of s i g -natures to the p e t i t i o n and to the p u b l i c a t i o n of the n o t i c e of i n t e n t i o n to apply f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n of v o t e r s i n such p o l l s remained as before w i t h only B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s of the f u l l age of twenty-one years and corporations which had f o r at l e a s t one month preceding the day of v o t i n g been r e g i s t e r e d owners of land w i t h i n the area proposed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d , allowed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l l . I f the p o l l i n d i c a t e d at l e a s t a t h r e e - f i f t h s m a j o r i t y f a v o u r i n g i n c o r p o r a t i o n , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could i n c o r p o r a t e the area and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y . Another important aspect of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1957 was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new m u n i c i p a l form known as the l o c a l d i s t r i c t . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " l o c a l d i s t r i c t " appeared to have been an attempt on the part of the Department - 37 -of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to r e g u l a t e the establishment of water improvement d i s t r i c t s under the Water Act. I t was the purpose of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to r e g u l a t e the establishment of water improvement d i s t r i c t s by ( i ) e s t a b l i s h i n g l o c a l i t i e s r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e s as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g them to i n c o r p o r a t e as water improvement d i s t r i c t s , and by ( i i ) c o n s o l i d a t i n g e x i s t i n g water improve-ment d i s t r i c t s and r e i n c o r p o r a t i n g them as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s under the M u n i c i p a l Act. S e c t i o n 18 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1957 gave the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l the power to d i s s o l v e any improvement d i s t r i c t or d i s t r i c t s and r e i n c o r p o r a t e the water improvement d i s t r i c t s as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s , and by so doing, t r a n s f e r any or a l l of the a s s e t s , r i g h t s , c l a i m s , o b l i g a t i o n s and l i a b i l i t i e s of the water improvement d i s t r i c t s to the l o c a l d i s t r i c t . 2 - ' Also s u b j e c t to r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s were l o c a l areas which had been e s t a b l i s h e d under the B r i t i s h Columbia L o c a l S e r v i c e s Act. The o n l y improvement d i s t r i c t s exempt from such r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n were those i n c o r -porated f o r the purposes of p r o v i d i n g i r r i g a t i o n and dyking. Where such a l o c a l d i s t r i c t had been created, the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could, by L e t t e r s Patent, "empower the l o c a l d i s t r i c t s to impose upon any such p a r c e l or p a r c e l s of land t h e r e i n and the owner and owners thereof such s p e c i a l r a t e s as may be r e q u i r e d to f u l f i l l the o b l i -gations of the improvement d i s t r i c t or d i s t r i c t s i n which - 38 -such p a r c e l o r p a r c e l s were s i t u a t e i n accordance w i t h the l a w f u l terms and c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g at the time of the d i s s o l u t i o n of the improvement d i s t r i c t o r d i s t r i c t s . " In 1957i w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the l o c a l d i s t r i c t , there were f i v e c l a s s e s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the M u n i c i p a l  Act which could be assumed by l o c a l i t i e s proposing to i n c o r -porate. Each c l a s s of m u n i c i p a l i t y possessed a minimum and maximum l e v e l of p o p u l a t i o n which determined the c l a s s a community could assume. These f i v e c l a s s e s i n c l u d e d a l o c a l d i s t r i c t where the p o p u l a t i o n of an area d i d not exceed f i v e hundred, a v i l l a g e where the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded f i v e hundred but d i d not exceed two thousand and f i v e hundred, a town where the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded two thousand f i v e hundred but not f i v e thousand, a c i t y where the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded f i v e thousand, and a d i s t r i c t where the area exceeded two thousand acres and had an average d e n s i t y of l e s s than two persons 27 per acre. P o p u l a t i o n minimum and maximums f o r the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1957 were adopted from Goldenberg's Royal Commission Report of 19 k6 which l a r g e l y assumed p o p u l a t i o n maximums and minimums f o r each m u n i c i p a l c l a s s from Ontario's M u n i c i p a l Act. I n a d d i t i o n to the f i v e m u n i c i p a l c l a s s e s a v a i l a b l e to i n c o r p o r a t i n g communities, the Municipal Act of 1957 pro-vided f o r the c r e a t i o n of urban areas and m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The stat u s of "urban area" was created to a l l o w f o r c e r t a i n autonomy of urbanized sub-areas l o c a t e d w i t h i n d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i l e the s t a t u s of m e t r o p o l i t a n area was created to f a c i l i t a t e the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of adjacent - 39 -m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which c o u l d b e n e f i t from m u n i c i p a l f e d e r a t i o n . The c r e a t i o n of "urban areas", which were only-a p p l i c a b l e to d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s having an area of more than ten thousand square acres and a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of more than one person per acre, was to act as a d e t e r r e n t to a t r e n d of schism prev a l e n t at t h i s time i n a number of lower 29 mainland d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 7 Rather than allow u r -banized sub-areas to completely break away from e x i s t i n g d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f e l t the need to provide these sub-areas w i t h a c e r t a i n amount of l o c a l autonomy, or at l e a s t the assurance t h a t a l i m i t e d amount of s e l f government was p o s s i b l e . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the value of the l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the c r e a t i o n of urban areas would not l i e i n the a c t u a l assumption of t h i s form o f l o c a l government by a sub-area w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y , but as a b a r g a i n i n g device f o r the P r o v i n c i a l 30 government to use i n the event of such schisms. The procedures e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the implementation of an urban area were to be as f o l l o w s : On the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n e i t h e r from the i n h a b i t a n t s of an area w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y o r from the c o u n c i l of the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r the establishment of an urban area, the M i n i s t e r was empowered to d i r e c t t h a t the I n s p e c t o r of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s make a r e p o r t on the f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g such an urban 31 area. Before making a r e p o r t , the Inspector of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s could use h i s d i s c r e t i o n to h o l d e i t h e r a p u b l i c meeting i n 40 the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r d i r e c t the c o u n c i l to hold a referendum at i t s own expense to a s c e r t a i n the o p i n i o n of the owners-e l e c t o r s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . - ^ 2 Upon r e c e i p t of the r e p o r t , the M i n i s t e r could recommend to the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l t h a t the s a i d area w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y be e s t a b l i s h e d as an urban area w i t h the powers, p r i v i l e g e s , d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s as set out i n the d i v i s i o n of the M u n i c i p a l Act d e a l i n g w i t h " S p e c i a l Areas". I n t u r n , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could, on the M i n i s t e r ' s recommendations e s t a b l i s h an urban area. The concept of m e t r o p o l i t a n area which was intended p r i m a r i l y f o r the g r e a t e r Vancouver area was not assumed by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of t h i s area and was l a t e r taken out of the M u n i c i p a l Act. An exception to the p o p u l a t i o n determinants estab-l i s h e d i n 1957 f o r the various c l a s s e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s came i n i960 when s e c t i o n 19 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of i960 enabled the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to a u t h o r i z e i n c o r p o r -a t i o n as a v i l l a g e an area where the p o p u l a t i o n d i d not exceed f i v e hundred. In 1965» f o u r important amendments took place i n terms of the m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i o n . The f i r s t of these allowed any L e t t e r s Patent to be issued to i n c o r p o r a t i n g communities by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l 41 to c o n t a i n exemptions from s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s and from provisions s p e c i f y i n g the time or times duri n g which any exception i s e f f e c t i v e . The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could also r e s t r i c t , modify, or annul any exception o r pro-v i s i o n granted to in c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e i r L e t t e r s 3Z4, Patent. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s p r o v i s i o n l a y i n the f a c t t h a t the r a p i d development of resource communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia's resource f r o n t i e r i n the e a r l y and mid 1960's r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n which had up to tha t p o i n t not e x i s t e d i n the Municipal Act. ^ I t was thought t h a t the use of the M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n i n the establishment of l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e s i n resource communities would be the most s u i t a b l e means to e f f e c t v i a b l e l o c a l government s t r u c -tures and j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o r such communities.-^ A second amendment found i n the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1965 provided f o r the exception of i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s i t e s from i n c l u s i o n i n t o surrounding o r adjacent m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I f the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t , because of s i z e and l o c a t i o n would not b e n e f i t from the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l be L e t t e r s Patent c o u l d s e t f o r t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a r c e l o r p a r c e l s of land on which the p l a n t was s i t u a t e and exempt these p a r c e l s from i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . No m u n i c i p a l by-law was to be b i n d i n g on the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t and any s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t were to be provided by the owner of the 37 i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t at the owner's expense. Again, the 42 r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s p r o v i s i o n i n the l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t e d to the growth of resource towns i n the resource f r o n t i e r . This p r o v i s i o n allowed major i n d u s t r i e s i n "company towns" to escape u n f a i r t a x a t i o n schemes devised by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where the i n d u s t r i e s were l o c a t e d . S e c t i o n 10A of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1965 w a s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities w i t h i n the Provi n c e . This s e c t i o n permitted the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l to e s t a b l i s h , i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development of a n a t u r a l resource upon the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n from at l e a s t f i v e owners of l a n d w i t h i n the area of the proposed m u n i c i p a l i t y . This p r o v i s i o n was i n response to the philosophy of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s that a f i r m o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community should not be dominant i n a l l 40 s e c t o r s of the community, p a r t i c u l a r l y l o c a l government. The Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t h a t the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of such a community occur and t h a t the f i r m or e n t e r p r i s e o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the community p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a c t i v e manner to b r i n g l o c a l government about. The Munic-i p a l Act of 1965 a l s o s t a t e d that u n t i l the f i r s t c o u n c i l was e l e c t e d under s e c t i o n 10A, the m u n i c i p a l i t y was to have the st a t u s of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y . What was to become the most i n f l u e n t i a l aspect of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1965 was the c r e a t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s -t r i c t s i n the Province. S e c t i o n 766 of the Act permitted 43 the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , on the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r "to i n c o r p o r a t e any area of la n d w i t h i n a school d i s t r i c t o r d i s t r i c t s o r any p a r t thereof and the r e s i d e n t s t h e r e i n i n t o a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t w i t h such powers, o b l i g a t i o n s and d u t i e s as provided i n the L e t t e r s Patent o r i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . " 4 l Although the s t a t u s of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t was not to be taken as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r m u n i c i p a l government, i t assumed many f u n c t i o n s which had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed by m u n i c i p a l governments. I t al s o allowed unincorporated communities, on the s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , to approach the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s f o r s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than assuming a l o c a l 42 government s t r u c t u r e to provide these s e r v i c e s on t h e i r own. In 1966, an amendment to s e c t i o n 12 of the Munic-i p a l Act of 1965 allowed the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l by L e t t e r s Patent, i n c o r p o r a t i n g a community o r by supplemen-t a r y L e t t e r s Patent e n l a r g i n g a m u n i c i p a l i t y , to provide f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n the maximum r a t e permitted under the M u n i c i p a l 43 Act i n terms of m u n i c i p a l taxes. J This p r o v i s i o n was included i n the M u n i c i p a l Act of 19&5 ^° l i m i t the amount of mun i c i p a l taxes which could be l e v i e d on areas which had been amalgamated w i t h e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . ^ I t was thought that these p r e v i o u s l y unincorporated areas should not assume the f u l l m i l l r a t e immediately a f t e r amalgamation but should be subjected to gradual i n c r e a s e s o f the m i l l r a t e as they began to re c e i v e s e r v i c e s . y In 1968, the s e c t i o n o u t l i n i n g the procedures f o r - 44 -the i n i t i a t i o n of i n c o r p o r a t i o n was amended. In accordance with s e c t i o n 10 of the Mun i c i p a l Act of 1968, the M i n i s t e r could, upon the r e c e i p t of a w r i t t e n request from one or more r e s i d e n t s , and, i f he was of the opinion that a m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n the area were i n favour of i n c o r p o r a t i o n , d i r e c t that a p o l l be taken to a s c e r t a i n whether or not those en-t i t l e d to vote were i n favour of the proposed incorporation.^° I f the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r , a f t e r h o l d i n g such a p o l l reported that at l e a s t t h r e e - f i f t h s of the voters were i n favour of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n , the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council could, upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , i n c o r p o r a t e the r e s i d e n t s of the area i n t o a muni-4 7 c i p a l i t y / . n The a b o l i t i o n of the p e t i t i o n i n 1968 as a means to i n d i c a t e to the Lieutenant-Governor i n Cou n c i l the i n t e n -t i o n of a community to inc o r p o r a t e came about as a r e s u l t of the f a i l u r e of the p e t i t i o n to a c c u r a t e l y assess the popular-i t y of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n the community i n which l o i n c o r p o r a t i o n was to take p l a c e . *" For t h i s reason, more d i s c r e t i o n a r y power was'given to the M i n i s t e r of Mun i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n order that the M i n i s t e r might- more a c c u r a t e l y assess the p o p u l a r i t y of i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n the community. ' A f u r t h e r amendment to be found i n the Mu n i c i p a l Act of 1968 was the a b o l i t i o n of l o c a l d i s t r i c t s as a c l a s s 50 of m u n i c i p a l i t y . In 1971, a new s e c t i o n was added to the l e g i s l a t i o n - 45 -d e a l i n g with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which set out the minimum c r i t e r i a to be met by a l o c a l i t y wishing to in c o r p o r a t e . Section 9A of the Mun i c i p a l Act of 1971 stated that with the exception of s e c t i o n 10A (which provided f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of resource towns and n a t i v e communities), no community was to be incorporated unless, ( i ) the t o t a l population of the area exceeded four hundred i n the case of a c i t y , town or v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y , ( i i ) the density of population exceeded one person per acre, or, i n the case of a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y , the area was comprised of more than two thousand acres and had an average density of l e s s than two persons per acre, and ( i i i ) the r e a l property assessment taxable f o r general municipal purposes exceeded f i f t e e n 51 hundred d o l l a r s per c a p i t a . These minimum c r i t e r i a were e s t a b l i s h e d i n response to the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of extremely small communities which did not possess the tax base to support a l o c a l government 52 s t r u c t u r e of the s o r t envisioned by the Mun i c i p a l Act. A f u r t h e r amendment of some importance which was found i n the Mu n i c i p a l Act of 1971 was a s e c t i o n p e r m i t t i n g the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to designate the area w i t h i n which a p o l l to a s c e r t a i n the p o p u l a r i t y of i n c o r p o r a t i o n was to be taken. The amendments to the l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with i n -corporation i n the Mun i c i p a l Act of 1973 were few i n number although important. - 1,6 -The major amendment was the re p e a l of s e c t i o n 9 A. which had set minimum c r i t e r i a f o r a community wishing to in c o r p o r a t e . In the place of l e g i s l a t i o n enumerating basic c r i t e r i a to be met by i n c o r p o r a t i n g communities, the i . u n i c i p a l  Act posited more d i s c r e t i o n a r y power to the M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s . Section 9 of the Mu n i c i p a l Act of 1973 enabled the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r , to i n c o r p o r a t e the r e s i d e n t s of any area i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y . Section 10, again emphasizing the r o l e of the M i n i s t e r , stated that the M i n i s t e r was to d i r e c t that a p o l l be talien w i t h i n the' area he may designate, to a s c e r t a i n the p o p u l a r i t y of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n the area so de-signated. He was to d i r e c t that a p o l l be held ( i ) on the request of the c o u n c i l of a m u n i c i p a l i t y s i t u a t e d v/ithin a l l or part of the area proposed to be in c o r p o r a t e d , ( i i ) upon the request of tv/o or more r e s i d e n t s i n the area proposed, to be incorporated but not s i t u a t e w i t h i n the boundaries of any other m u n i c i p a l i t y , and. ( i i i ) where the M i n i s t e r i s of the opinion that an area should, i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , be i n -53 corporated i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y upon h i s own i n i t i a t i v e . I f the p o l l i n d i c a t e d that more than f i f t y percent of the votes cast by v a l i d b a l l o t were i n favour of i n c o r -p o r a t i o n , the Lieutenant-Governor i n Co u n c i l could i s s u e L e t t e r s Patent to the community or area. No f u r t h e r amendments were enacted i n 1974. - 47 -3 . 2 . I n c o r p o r a t i o n Under the Water Act Procedures and c r i t e r i a f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities as water improvement d i s t r i c t s were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1920 when the concept of water improvement d i s t r i c t was f i r s t introduced i n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n of the Water Act of B r i t i s h Columbia. The procedure f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community or an area as a water improvement d i s t r i c t was to be i n i t i a t e d by a p e t i t i o n to the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l asking that a c e r t a i n t r a c t of la n d be c o n s t i t u t e d as a water improve-ment d i s t r i c t . Subsequent to the r e c e i p t of the p e t i t i o n by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , i t was to be f i l e d i n the o f f i c e of the Comptroller. The p e t i t i o n was to s e t f o r t h i n a general manner the nature of the works to be ac-quired and operated, the t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s and the approximate area of the proposed improvement d i s t r i c t and, was to be signed by the owners of land w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s of the proposed improvement district„ Accompanying the p e t i -t i o n was to be a sketch map i n d i c a t i n g the t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s of the proposed improvement d i s t r i c t , a statement made by owners, before witnesses, a t t e s t i n g t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n land l y i n g i n the proposed boundaries and such a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r -mation bearing on the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n as the p e t i t i o n e r s deemed advisable to i n c l u d e . A f t e r review of these m a t e r i a l s by the Comptro l l e r , he was to report to the M i n i s t e r of Lands, F o r e s t s and Water 48 Resources, on the f e a s i b i l i t y , p r a c t i c a l i t y and probable co s t of the p r o j e c t as o u t l i n e d i n the p e t i t i o n and to s t a t e whether i n h i s o p i n i o n , f u r t h e r examinations or surveys were deemed necessary. I f f u r t h e r examinations and surveys were deemed necessary, the M i n i s t e r c ould order them to be c a r r i e d out.- 5 7 A f t e r a l l necessary surveys and examinations had been c a r r i e d out, the M i n i s t e r was to d i r e c t the Board of I n v e s t i g a t i o n to ( i ) examine the p e t i t i o n , ( i i ) examine the r e p o r t of the Comptroller, ( i i i ) examine a l l o b j e c t i o n s and suggestions to the proposed water improvement d i s t r i c t , ( i v ) determine the number of landowners w i t h i n the boundaries of the proposed water improvement d i s t r i c t , and (v) determine the number of landowners who have s u b s c r i b e d to the p e t i t i o n . A f t e r the review of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the C o m p t r o l l e r was to prepare a statement i n d i c a t i n g what i n h i s o p i n i o n should be ( i ) the name and t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s of the proposed water improvement d i s t r i c t , ( i i ) the works to be acquired and operated, ( i i i ) the estimated c o s t of the works, ( i v ) the moneys, i f any, to be advanced from the Conservation Fund, (v) the c o n d i t i o n s and terms of such advance, ( v i ) the e s t i -mated revenue o f the improvement d i s t r i c t , and ( v i i ) any f u r t h e r d e t a i l s the M i n i s t e r may r e q u i r e . 7 A f t e r such review, the M i n i s t e r was to present the p e t i t i o n to the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l and to recommend t h a t the p e t i t i o n be refused or t h a t i t be granted _ kg _ on terms and c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to o r d i f f e r e n t from those s e t out i n the p e t i t i o n o r i n the statement prepared by the Board of I n v e s t i g a t i o n . ^ 0 Upon the r e c e i p t of the M i n i s t e r ' s recommendations, i t was l a w f u l f o r the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , by L e t t e r s Patent to c o n s t i t u t e a t r a c t of land an improvement d i s t r i c t and the owners of the la n d s i t u a t e w i t h i n the boundaries of the water improvement d i s t r i c t as a body cor-porate w i t h such name as deemed proper and with such o b j e c t s , r i g h t s , powers, p r i v i l e g e s , d u t i e s and a u t h o r i t i e s as con-f e r r e d by the Water Act on water improvement d i s t r i c t s . ^ 1 The L e t t e r s Patent c o n s t i t u t i n g a water improvement d i s t r i c t c ould a l s o c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s l i m i t i n g the s e c t i o n s of the Water Act which were to apply to the water improvement d i s t r i c t . Where the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l f e l t t h a t i t was advis a b l e t h a t L e t t e r s Patent should not be is s u e d u n t i l a p o l l was taken to a s c e r t a i n the p o p u l a r i t y of c o n s t i -t u t i n g an improvement d i s t r i c t , such a vote was to be au t h o r i z e d and i n c o r p o r a t i o n was not to occur unless a m a j o r i t y was o b t a i n e d . ^ 2 The l e g i s l a t i o n of 1920 p e r t a i n i n g to the i n c o r -p o r a t i o n of water improvement d i s t r i c t s was not a l t e r e d u n t i l 1939 at which time the procedure f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a water improvement d i s t r i c t was somewhat s i m p l i f i e d . In the l e g i s l a t i o n of 1939» which remained unamended I u n t i l 1962, the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d at any-50 time, by L e t t e r s Patent, i n c o r p o r a t e any t r a c t of land and the owners the r e o f i n t o an improvement d i s t r i c t . ^ The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l was a l s o to co n f e r a name and such objects as appeared a d v i s a b l e and such powers as were 64 deemed necessary to c a r r y out the s a i d o b j e c t s . The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could a l s o , i n the act of i n c o r p o r a t i n g a water improvement d i s t r i c t provide that some s e c t i o n s of the Water Act should not apply to the improvement d i s t r i c t s and t h a t other s p e c i f i e d p r o v i s i o n s were to apply. A l s o , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d e x e r c i s e d i s -c r e t i o n i n amending or r e c a l l i n g L e t t e r s Patent. From 1962 to 1974 the o n l y amendment to the i n c o r -p o r a t i o n procedures f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a water improve-ment d i s t r i c t as set out i n the Water Act of 1939 occurred i n 1962. T h i s amendment enabled the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l to d i v i d e an improvement d i s t r i c t i n t o any number of zones to s p e c i f y the number of t r u s t e e s to be e l e c t e d from each zone, to provide f o r e l e c t i o n s and procedures f o r e l e c t i o n s f o r the new system, and to provide f o r gen e r a l meetings of landowners i n each z o n e . ^ - 51 -CHAPTER I I I - NOTES AND COMMENTS 1. B.C. Borough Ordinance, 1865. 2. Statement by Mr. E. Brown (former Deputy M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) , p ersonal i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 3. B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t y Act. R.S.B.C., 1872, c. 35, s. 4. B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t y Act, R.S.B.C., I889, c. 18, s. j.,(a). 5. I b i d . 6. I b i d . , s. 1 1(a). 7. I b i d . 8. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act. R.S.B.C., 1891, c. 29, s. 9. 9. B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n A ct Amendment Act, 1912, c. 29, s. 9. 10. Statement by Mr. E. Brown, pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 11. I b i d . 12. B.C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act. R.S.B.C., 1920, C o 65 5 S i 2 o 13. I b i d . 14. B.C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment A c t , 1925, c. 38, s. 2. 15. Statement by Mr. E„ Brown, personal i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 16. B.C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment Act, 1926, c. 47, s. 3A. 17. Statement by E. Brown, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 18. B.C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Amendment Act, 1926, c. 47, s. 3A. 19* B.C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Amendment Act, 1930, c. 51, s. 2. 52 20. B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act Amendment Act, 19k9, c 42, s. 2. 21. Statement by E. Brown, pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 22. I b i d . 23. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act. R.S.B.C., 1957, c. 42, s.. 10. 24. Statement by E. Brown, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 25. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act. R.S.B.C., 1957, c. 42, s. 18. 26. I b i d . . s. 18 (7 ) . 27. I b i d . . s. 19. 28. c f . H.C. Goldenberg, B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l Relations ( V i c t o r i a : McDiarmid, 1947). 29. Statement by E. Brown, pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 30o I b i d . 3 L BcC. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C., 1957, c. 42, s. 759. 32. I b i d . , s. 759(2 ) . 33. BoC. M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C., i 9 6 0 , c. 255, s. 19 (3 ) . 34. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act. 1965, c. 28, s. 11. 35- Statement by E. Brown, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 36. I b i d . 37. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1965, c. 28, s. 7 ( 3 ) . 38. Statement by E. Brown, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 39. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1965, c. 28, s. 5. 40. Statement by E. Brown, pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , February 13, 1975. 41. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1965, c. 28, s. 22. 5 3 42. A sub-area w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t boundaries may, by i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Board of D i r e c t o r s or by an agent approach the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t to be made a s p e c i f i e d area. A p e t i t i o n as w e l l as a p o l l i s r e q u i r e d f o r a by-law making a sub-area a s p e c i f i e d area. The e n t i r e cost of the work or s e r v i c e made a v a i l a b l e to sub-areas i s to be borne by the owners of r e a l property w i t h i n the s p e c i f i e d area. ( c f . B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C., I 9 6 0 , c. 2 5 5 , s. 6 1 6 ) . 4 3 . B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1 9 6 6 , . c. 3 1 , s. 4 . 4 4 . Statement by E. Brown, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , Feb. 1 3 , 1 9 7 5 . 4 5 . I b i d . 46. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1 9 6 8 , c. 3 3 , s. 5 . 4 7 . I b i d . , s. 5 ( 3 ) . 48. Statement by E. Brown, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , Feb. 1 3 , 1 9 7 5 . 4 9 . I b i d . 5 0 . B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1 9 6 8 , c. 3 3 , s. 9 . 5 1 . B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1 9 7 1 , c. 3 8 , s. 3 . 5 2 . Statment by E. Brown, pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , Feb. 1 3 , 1 9 7 5 . 5 3 . B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1 9 7 3 , c. 1 3 3 , s. 2 . 5 4 . B.C. Water Act, R.S.B.C., 1 9 2 0 , c. 1 0 2 , s. 1 7 3 ( a ) . 5 5 . I b i d . 5 6 . I b i d . , s. 1 7 4 ( a ) . 5 7 . I b i d . , s. 1 7 5 ( a ) . 5 8 . I b i d . , s. 1 7 7 ( a ) . 5 9 . I b i d . 6 0 . I b i d . , s. 1 7 8 ( a ) . 6 1 . I b i d . , s. 1 7 9 ( a ) . 6 2 . I b i d . , s. 1 8 0 ( a ) . - 5 k -63. B.C. Water Act Amendment A c t , 1939. c. 63, s. 49(1). 6 4 . I b i d . 65. B.C. Water Act Amendment Act, 1962, c. 68, s. 12. - 55 -CHAPTER IV THE STUDY AREA t THE COMMUNITY OF THORNHILL 55a -In order to comprehend more completely the d e v e l -opment problems o f the community of T h o r n h i l l as w e l l as the s t r a t e g i e s adopted by the r e s i d e n t s in a l l e v i a t e these developmental problems, i t i s necessary to be f a m i l i a r w i t h ( i ) the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as they r e l a t e to T h o r n h i l l ' s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development, ( i i ) the h i s t o r y of development i n the area, ( i i i ) the demographic and socioeconomic charac-t e r i s t i c s of the community's present p o p u l a t i o n , ( i v ) the nature of the community's present development, (v) the s e r v i c e s and the source of s e r v i c e s which are p r e s e n t l y made a v a i l a b l e to the area's r e s i d e n t s , ( v i ) the community o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , and ( v i ) the assessment of the community. 4.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h o r n h i l l i s a name adopted to designate an un i n -corporated community of approximately 4,000 i n h a b i t a n t s 1 l o c a t e d w i t h i n the boundaries of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and immediately southeast of Terrace, although separated from the mu n i c i p a l boundaries of Terrace by the Skeena Ri v e r . Map 1 i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the com-munity of T h o r n h i l l to the D i s t r i c t of Terrace. Although no l e g a l boundaries e x i s t f o r the community of T h o r n h i l l i n the sense of mu n i c i p a l boundaries, various - 57 -by-laws of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e concerning the T h o r n h i l l area have designated boundaries f o r the com-munity. A l s o , the va r i o u s referenda f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community have designed boundaries f o r the community which on many occasions were c o i n c i d e n t with those e s t a b l i s h e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . The boundaries so achieved enclose an area of approximately 3 , 8 2 5 acres as shown on Map 2. 4.1 P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 4.1.1 G e o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g T h o r n h i l l l i e s i n the h e a v i l y g l a c i a t e d Skeena V a l l e y . Of the va r i o u s periods of g l a c i a t i o n which occurred i n the P l e i s t o c e n e , two are of importance i n terms of the area which the community of T h o r n h i l l now occupies. An e a r l y p e r i o d of g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y saw the advance of i c e down the Kitsumkalum V a l l e y beyond the area on which 2 the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y of K i t i m a t i s now s i t u a t e d . As t h i s i c e movement subsequently r e t r e a t e d , i t was f o l l o w e d by a marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n to an e l e v a t i o n of at l e a s t s i x hundred f e e t above present sea l e v e l . ^ Evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the coarse m a t e r i a l s encountered beneath the a l l u v i u m of the northern p o r t i o n of Thornhillmay represent outwash or i c e contact m a t e r i a l s deposited i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of g l a c i a t i o n . A subsequent period of g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y , i n v o l v e d • I MAP 2 T H O R N H I L L BOUNDARIES OF THORNHILL AS DESIGNATED BY THE REGIONAL 'DISTRICT1 «0F< KITIMAT-STIKINE 4 0 0 ! . - 59 -a re-advance of i c e down both the Skeena and Kitsumkalum V a l l e y s . In i t s r e c e s s i o n , the i c e paused s u f f i c i e n t l y long i i n the T e r r a c e - T h o r n h i l l area to permit the d e p o s i t i o n of L l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of unconsolidated m a t e r i a l . As the p e r i o d of d e g l a c i a t i o n continued, meltwater began to s o r t and d e p o s i t the various m a t e r i a l s i n a sequence of bedded sediments i n the form of a d e l t a i c apron extending out from the i c e f r o n t to' the area now occupied by the Terrace A i r p o r t . - 5 At the t e r m i n a t i o n of t h i s l a t e r p e r i o d of g l a c i -a t i o n , the meltwater charged Skeena R i v e r cut i t s present channel through the unconsolidated m a t e r i a l , d e p o s i t i n g a l l u v i a l sands, s i l t s and g r a v e l s i n p r o x i m i t y to i t s present channel. Map 3 i n d i c a t e s i n a g e n e r a l i z e d f a s h i o n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i c e contact f a c i e s , the c l a y f a c i e s , the d e l t a i c f a c i e s and the a l l u v i a l f a c i e s i n the area p r e s e n t l y occupied by the community of T h o r n h i l l . 4.1.2 Groundwater Sources i n the T h o m h i l l Area  An important a t t r i b u t e of these deposited, m a t e r i a l s i n an area where water w e l l s predominate are t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n groundwater sources. C a l l e n found t h a t a l l f o u r f a c i e s contained ground-water although the groundwater found i n each of the f a c i e s v a r i e d both i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . In the area of the a l l u v i a l f a c i e s along the south bank of the Skeena R i v e r , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i s l o s e d evidence of MAP 3 DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR HYDROGEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS 4 61 groundwater at the shallow depths of f i f t e e n to t h i r t y - f i v e f e e t , although i t was a l s o d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h i s groundwater was not the r e s u l t of one s i n g l e or continuous a c q u i f e r . ^ The groundwater was found to discharge along the t e r r a c e d bank of the Skeena R i v e r at or near the e l e v a t i o n of the water t a b l e . I t was assumed t h a t t h i s discharge was a r e s u l t of n a t u r a l e q u i l i b r i u m discharge from the a c q u i f e r . ' C a l l e n estimated t h a t due to the e l e v a t i o n of t h i s water t a b l e as w e l l as the northward gradient of the area, l i t t l e o r no r e -charge of t h i s a c q u i f e r was to be expected from the adjacent Skeena R i v e r . F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g that although t h i s a c q u i f e r i s r e l a t i v e l y widespread, i t i s t h i n and not capable of sus-t a i n i n g h i g h y i e l d s of groundwater. W e l l d r i l l i n g i n the area of the a l l u v i a l f a c i e s r e c e n t l y d i s c l o s e d the presence of two a d d i t i o n a l and d i s t i n c t a c q u i f e r s found i n compact sands and g r a v e l s beneath the a l l u v i u m . I t was found that these deeper a c q u i f e r s were confined and not i n communication w i t h the f r e e water t a b l e Q a c q u i f e r i n the o v e r l y i n g a l l u v i u m . Since w e l l s u t i l i z i n g these a c q u i f e r s s t a b i l i z e d at r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l drawdowns, i t was suggested that these a c q u i f e r s i n d i c a t e d good storage and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e recharge from e i t h e r the Copper or Skeena R i v e r s . Water q u a l i t y a n a l y s i s (Hach) i n d i c a t e d ' t h e presence of 7 0 - 8 0 ppm. d i s s o l v e d s o l i d s i n the water which were a n a l -9 yzed to be predominantly calcium and bicarbonate 10ns. 62 Although C a l l e n suggests that these a c q u i f e r s represent a good source of potable water, they are l i m i t e d to a s m a l l area northeast of R i v e r D r i v e . The l o c a t i o n of groundwater sources i n the area of the i c e contact f a c i e s was found to be l i m i t e d and h i g h l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s revealed t h a t modest water s u p p l i e s were a v a i l a b l e below the t h i n mantle of s o r t e d sands and grav e l s which cover the i c e contact facies„ C a l l e n suggests t h a t the o r i g i n of such water may be the downward p e r c o l a t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n which e v e n t u a l l y p e r c o l a t e s to the moderately permeable i c e contact f a c i e s and subsequently discharges as s p r i n g s . " ^ Tests performed on a w e l l of a depth of 250 f e e t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s a c q u i f e r had only moderate p e r m e a b i l i t y , making the development of i n d i v i d u a l w e l l s f o r domestic water consumption i m p r a c t i c a l . Although no a n a l y s i s was performed on the c l a y f a c i e s to determine groundwater sources, i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f i l t r a t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n to recharge e x i s t e n t groundwater would occur. Rather, i t was suggested t h a t pre-c i p i t a t i o n would tend t o "pond" and u l t i m a t e l y d r a i n o f f the land by way of T h o r n h i l l Creek. Areas of c l a y , o c c u r r i n g at the base of Copper Mountain, were found to be somewhat more permeable, a l l o w i n g some i n f i l t r a t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n to p e r c o l a t e down to the groundwater. L i m i t e d a n a l y s i s was a l s o c a r r i e d out on the d e l t a i c f a c i e s , although C a l l e n suggests the l i k e l i h o o d of a s i g n i f i c a n t - 63 -i n f i l t r a t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n to groundwater sources i n the coarse f o r e s t beds which drape r a d i a l l y around the d e l t a i c apron. 4.1.3 S o i l s , P e r c o l a t i o n and Surface Drainage i n the T h o r n h i l l Area  Since the e n t i r e T h o r n h i l l community r e l i e s on s e p t i c tanks f o r sewage d i s p o s a l purposes, i t i s important to d escribe the v a r i o u s s o i l s e r i e s which occur here and to assess the a b i l i t y of each s e r i e s to f a c i l i t a t e the p e r c o l a t i o n and l e a c h i n g o f sewage e f f l u e n t . S i x d i f f e r e n t s o i l s e r i e s predominate i n the T h o r n h i l l area. These i n c l u d e a l l u v i a l s , loams, two s e r i e s of c l a y s and eroded m a t e r i a l s and are d i s t r i b u t e d as i n d i c a t e d by Map 4. The loam s o i l s which cover the l a r g e s t area of T h o r n h i l l are g e n e r a l l y w e l l drained and f a c i l i t a t e good per-c o l a t i o n whereas the v arious s o i l types of the lower l y i n g p o r t i o n s of T h o r n h i l l and the areas of the n a t u r a l drainage channels are e i t h e r p o o r l y drained or l a c k any p e r c o l a t i o n at a l l . ^ S o i l types e x h i b i t i n g the poorest p e r c o l a t i o n are the T h o r n h i l l and Lakelse Clay s e r i e s which l i e i n a b e l t around T h o r n h i l l Creek and extend northward along the base of Copper Mountain. The depth of c l a y along the base of Copper Mountain has r e s u l t e d i n no p e r c o l a t i o n , causing an extremely high water t a b l e which i n t u r n causes extensive surface ponding. - 65 -The a l l u v i a l s o i l s which occupy the narrow r i v e r "benches of the Skeena R i v e r vary i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to f a c i l i t a t e p e r c o l a t i o n . A l l u v i a l areas having good p e r c o l a t i o n l i e i n the northeast area of T h o r n h i l l and i n the area of D i s t r i c t Lots 374 and 839 whereas areas e x h i b i t i n g poor or no p e r c o l -a t i o n are l o c a t e d i n the area of D i s t r i c t Lots 370, 372 and 84-0. Although i t has been mentioned t h a t the Skeena Sandy Loam s e r i e s are g e n e r a l l y w e l l drained, two sub-areas l i e w i t h i n the area of the loam which e x h i b i t only f a i r per-c o l a t i o n . C a l l e n has suggested t h a t the cause of t h i s r e l a t i v e l y poor drainage i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y due to a h i g h e r content 12 of c l a y or a shallow d i p p i n g c l a y s t r a t a beneath the loam. Map 5 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of areas e x h i b i t i n g good, f a i r , poor and no p e r c o l a t i o n . In the T h o r n h i l l area the l a n d area having good p e r c o l a t i o n i s approximately 2 5625 acres while the land area having f a i r p e r c o l a t i o n amounts to approximately 200 acres. The area e x h i b i t i n g poor p e r c o l a t i o n occupies approximately 550 acres while the area having no p e r c o l a t i o n amounts to approximately 450 a c r e s ^ Surface drainage i n the T h o r n h i l l area g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s the topography which i s i n d i c a t e d on Map 6. The only s i g n i f i c a n t s u r f a c e drainage channel i s T h o r n h i l l Creek which, with i t s three major t r i b u t a r i e s , d r a i n s the southeast p o r t i o n of T h o r n h i l l and enters the Skeena R i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y of Ferry I s l a n d . As i s i n d i c a t e d on Map 6, s i g n i f i c a n t s u r f a c e T H O R N H I L L TOPOGRAPHY 100-200 "205-300 300-46'0 koo-500 500-600 over 60 - 68 -drainage occurs o n l y i n the areas of the c l a y s o i l s . 4.1 .4 ' Climate The c l i m a t e of T h o r n h i l l as i n the case of Terrace i s r e l a t i v e l y m i l d i n r e l a t i o n to i t s l a t i t u d e . The mean d a i l y temperature computed on the b a s i s of a year was 44.1 degrees 14 Fahrenheit. The mean d a i l y maximum temperature computed on the "basis of a year was 51 • 4 degrees Fahrenheit w h i l e the mean d a i l y minimum temperature recorded on the same b a s i s was 36.8 15" degrees Fahrenheit. J The extreme minimum temperature recorded i n the areas was 99.0 degrees Fahrenheit while the extreme 1 fi minimum temperature recorded was -22 „0 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean r a i n f a l l computed on the b a s i s of a year was measured to be 36.10 inches while the mean s n o w f a l l computed on the same b a s i s was 71.5 inches making a sum of 43.25 inches 17 of p r e c i p i t a t i o n per year. 4.2 H i s t o r y and Development T h o r n h i l l was i n i t i a l l y s e t t l e d i n I89I by pioneers who e i t h e r engaged i n s m a l l s c a l e market gardening to supply the r i v e r b o a t s which o f t e n put i n t o p o r t i n the T h o r n h i l l area 18 or, maintained t r a p l i n e s i n the area. During t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of settlement, T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s were dependent on Terrace as a supply and s e r v i c e center and commuted to Terrace by way of a r i v e r f e r r y which ran from the mouth of T h o r n h i l l Creek to F e r r y I s l a n d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of a c t i v i t y which l a s t e d from 1891 to 1905» T h o r n h i l l became v i r t u a l l y unpopulated w i t h - 69 -o n l y three f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g there as l a t e as 1940o 1^ From 19^ -0 to I963 the p o p u l a t i o n growth of T h o r n h i l l was slow. During t h i s p e r i o d the area was p r i m a r i l y an a g r i -c u l t u r a l community c o n t a i n i n g s m a l l subsistence farms„ A survey of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s i n 1972 i n d i c a t e d t h a t only 60Jfo of a l l r e s i d e n t s had l i v e d i n the area s i n c e I963 or e a r l i e r . The p e r i o d from 1963 "to I968 was a pe r i o d of moderate p o p u l a t i o n growth which transformed T h o r n h i l l from a predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l community to an area of mixed a g r i c u l t u r a l and urban land uses. From. 1969 to 1974 "the T h o r n h i l l community underwent r a p i d r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial development. The 1972 survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t 60.676 of a l l respondents s e t t l e d i n T h o r n h i l l 21 d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 4.3 Po p u l a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T h o r n h i l l Residents 4.3.1 Age S t r u c t u r e The p o p u l a t i o n of Thornhill i s predominantly young w i t h 49.807& of the p o p u l a t i o n twenty years or younger and only 6,19% of the p o p u l a t i o n over the age of 50 years. Table 3 i n d i c a t e s the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of T h o r n h i l l ' s p o p u l a t i o n by 22 f i v e year age i n t e r v a l s and by sex. In comparing the p o p u l a t i o n of the e n t i r e Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e .to the po p u l a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l i n terms of age d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t was found t h a t the age d i s t r i b u t i o n s were s i m i l a r , although as 70 Table 3 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of T h o r n h i l l ' s P o p u l a t i o n by F i v e Year I n t e r v a l & By Sex  Age T o t a l fo of Male <fo O f Female fa O f I n t e r v a l No. T o t a l T o t a l Male T o t a l Female T o t a l No. T o t a l 0 -5 50 9 17.89 244 16.86 265 18.95 6 -10 357 12.54 189 13.06 168 12.01 11-15 343 12.05 176 12.16 167 11.94 16-20 211 7.41 93 6.42 118 8.44 21-25 322 11.31 138 9.53 184 13.16 26-30 321 11.28 157 10.85 164 11.73 31-35 236 8.29 131 9.05 105 7.51 36-40 156 5.48 81 5.59 75 5.36 41-45 121 4.25 77 5.32 44 3.14 46-50 92 3.23 57 3.92 35 2.50 51-55 81 2.84 42 2.90 39 2.78 56-60 48 1.68 30 2.07 18 1.28 61-65 23 .80 15 I . 0 3 8 .57 66-70 13 .45 10 .69 3 .21 70 + 12 .42 7 .48 5 .35 T o t a l 2845 100.00 1447 100.00 1389 100.00 as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 4, the percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n over 50 years was somewhat higher for the p o p u l a t i o n of the Regional D i s t r i c t . 2 ^ 4 „ 3 . 2 Family S i z e The average f a m i l y s i z e f o r the T h o r n h i l l area was found to be 3-51 persons per f a m i l y although the range f o r f a m i l y s i z e was from 1 person per f a m i l y to 12 persons per f a m i l y . Table 5 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l y s i z e i n ? 4 T h o r n h i l l and i n the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . By comparison to the average f a m i l y s i z e of 4.1 persons per f a m i l y f o r the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , the average f a m i l y s i z e of T h o r n h i l l was found to be c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r . 2 ^ Table 4 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Population of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e by Five Year I n t e r v a l and Sex 1971 Age % of Male % of Female % of I n t e r v a l T o t a l No. T o t a l T o t a l Male T o t a l Female T o t a l No. T o t a l 0 - 4 4655 12.46 2375 11.91 2280 13.10 5 - 9 5125 13.73 2635 13.22 2490 14.31 10-14 4485 12.01 2265 11.36 2220 12.76 15-19 3400 9.10 1795 9.00 1605 9.22 20-24 3415 9.15 1750 8.78 1665 9-57 25-29 3510 9.40 1845 9.25 1660 9.54 30-34 2675 7.16 1445 7.25 1225 7.04 35-39 2495 6.68 1365 6.84 1130 6.49 40-44 2160 5.78 1290 6.47 865 4.97 45-49 I690 4.52 945 4.74 745 4.28 50-54 1235 3.30 680 3.41 560 3.21 55-59 905 2.42 525 2.63 380 2.18 60-64 590 1.58 350 1.75 235 1.35 65-69 345 .92 210 I .05 140 .80 70-74 255 .68 170 .85 90 .51 75-79 170 .45 125 .62 50 .28 80-84 125 .33 85 .42 35 .20 85-89 65 .17 50 .25 15 .08 90-94 25 .06 20 .10 5 .02 95 + 5 .01 5 .02 -1 -3 T o t a l 37325 100.00 19930 100.00 17395 100.00 72 -Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Family S i z e i n T h o r n h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Number of T h o r n h i l l fa O f R. D • K• S . fa O f Pe rs ons (frequency) 1973 T o t a l (frequency) 1971 T o t a l 1 59 6.6 740 8.2 2 188 21.1 1615 18 .0 3 176 19.7 1510 16.8 4 225 25.2 1890 21.0 5 133 15.0 1390 15.5 6 62 6.9 790 8.8 7 30 3.4 480 5-3 8 12 1.3 210 2.4 9 33 0.3 140 1.6 10 + 4 0.5 215 2.4 4.3 .3 Occupational S t r u c t u r e The occupations of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s ( i n terms of the occupation of the head of the household) were found to be as l i s t e d i n Table 6 2 6 Table 6 Occupational S t r u c t u r e of T h o r n h i l l , 1972 (by head of household) f0 of T o t a l Occupation Number Sample Managerial 37 6.3 P r o f e s s i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l 26 4.5 C l e r i c a l 7 1.2 S a l e s 20 3.4 S e r v i c e 32 5.4 Craftsman 97 16.4 Transportation-Communication 65 11 oO S k i l l e d Labour 267 45.3 Unemployed 7 1.2 R e t i r e d 11 1.9 Self-employed 20 3.4 As i n d i c a t e d by Table 6, 45.3% of a l l employed heads of house-holds were s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . This f i g u r e as w e l l as the 11% - 73 -employed i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r can he d i r e c t l y a t t r i -buted to the high percentage of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s engaged i n the f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y . The 16.4% of the labour for c e engaged as craftsmen can also be i n d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s i n d u s t r y . In comparing the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of T h o r n h i l l with t h a t of the po p u l a t i o n of the e n t i r e Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i t was found th a t the two s t r u c t u r e s were s i m i l a r i n respect to the h i g h percentages of the labour f o r c e engaged i n occupations r e q u i r i n g s k i l l e d labour. 4 . 3 . 4 . Income . by Table 7 The income l e v e l s of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s i s i n d i c a t e d 27 Table 7 Income Levels o f T h o r n h i l l Residents Income Number % of t o t a l sample $0 - 2999 31 7.3 3000 - 5999 70 16.5 6000 - 8999 145 34.1 9000 - 11999 ' 133 31.3 12000 + 46 10.8 425 100.00 As i s evident from the t a b l e , 42.1% of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e i n excess of $9,000 per annum. Although an accurate comparison cannot be made between T h o r n h i l l income l e v e l s and those of r e s i d e n t s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , i t appears t h a t the income l e v e l s of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s are s i m i l a r i f not higher than those of the p o p u l a t i o n of the - 74 -Regional D i s t r i c t . 4.3«5. Housing Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the T h o r n h i l l area which d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the r e s t of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e are the type and tenure of d w e l l i n g occupied by T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n t o the cat e g o r i e s of s i n g l e f a m i l y detached, s i n g l e f a m i l y attached (e.g., duplex), mobile homes and apartment f o r both O Q T h o r n h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t are indicated i n Table 8. Table 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Dwelling U n i t Type i n T h o r n h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Dwelling T h o r n h i l l f of R.D.K.S. % of Unit Type (frequency) T o t a l (frequency) T o t a l 1973 1971 S i n g l e Family Detached 375 51 o 2 5595 62.3 Mobile Home 275 37 .5 920 10.3 S i n g l e Family Attached 40 5.6 1225 13.6 Apartment 42 5.7 1235 13.8 The t a b l e suggests that although detached s i n g l e f a m i l y u n i t s are the predominant d w e l l i n g i n the T h o r n h i l l area, there i s an extremely l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of mobile homes i n the community. Attached s i n g l e f a m i l y u n i t s and apartments are r e l a t i v e l y few i n number. In c o n t r a s t to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of T h o r n h i l l d w e l l i n g u n i t s i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g u n i t s f o r the Regional - 75 -D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . There i s a predominance of detached s i n g l e f a m i l y u n i t s f o l l o w e d by apartment d w e l l i n g s , 29 attached s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and mobile homes. y A c o n t r a s t between T h o r n h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i s also evident i n the tenure of d w e l l i n g s . As Table 9 i n d i c a t e s , only JO.8% of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s own 30 t h e i r d w e l l i n g s w h i l e 69.2% rent t h e i r housing. This i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the p o p u l a t i o n of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e where 63.4% own t h e i r residences while 36.6% 31 r e n t . J Table 9 D w e l l i n g Tenure i n T h o r n h i l l and the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Tenure T h o r n h i l l % of R.D.K.S. % of (frequency) T o t a l (frequency) T o t a l 1972 1971 Own 176 30.8 5695 63.4 Rent 396 69.2 3285 36.6 4.4 Present Development 4.4 .1 Landuse P r e s e n t l y , development ±1 T h o r n h i l l i s g e n e r a l l y confined to the fo u r planning areas designated by Map 7« Land use w i t h i n these areas as w e l l as the e n t i r e T h o r n h i l l area i s portrayed on Map 8. As i n d i c a t e d by t h i s map, the land uses w i t h i n these areas are predominantly r e s i d e n t i a l although commercial and i n d u s t r i a l land uses are extensive i n planning areas 2 and 3 due to the presence of the highway. Development outside of the f o u r planning areas i s p r i m a r i l y a g r i c u l t u r a l , or undeveloped wooded areas. As i n d i c a t e d "by Table 8 , the d w e l l i n g types of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas of T h o r n h i l l are p r i m a r i l y detached s i n g l e f a m i l y housing although the number of mobile homes s i t u a t e d e i t h e r i n mobile home parks o r on s i n g l e l o t s are significant<> The l o t s i z e s and s i z e of landholdings i n T h o r n h i l l vary from l e s s than .25 acres to 160 acres although the majo-r i t y of l o t s i n the T h o r n h i l l area f a l l i n the category of .25 to one acre. Table 10 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o t s i z e s 32 i n the T h o r n h i l l area. Table 10 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Lot S i z e s i n T h o r n h i l l , 197 k  Acreage Number of Lots % of T o t a l .25 77 9.96 .25-.50 344 44.50 .51-1.0 126 16.30 1.1-2.0 100 12.9** 2.1-3.0 23 2.97 3.1-4.0 8 1.03 4.1-5.0 13 1.68 5.1-6.0 9 1.16 6.1-7.0 6 .77 7.1-8.0 6 .77 8.1-9.0 9 1.16 9.1-10.0 12 1.53 10.0 + 40 5.17 T o t a l 773 100.00 The r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y i n the T h o r n h i l l area ranges from I . 6 7 persons per acre i n the southeast area of T h o r n h i l l to 3.55 i n the core area of T h o r n h i l l approximated - 79 -by planning area number 3 . " ^ Map 9 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b -u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s i n the T h o r n h i l l area. The commercial s t r u c t u r e of T h o r n h i l l i s l i m i t e d although commercial development has been a recent phenomenon. As Table 11 i n d i c a t e s , the maj o r i t y of commercial e s t a b l i s h -ments i n the T h o r n h i l l area are t r u c k i n g firms and heavy machine s h o p s . T h e number of r e t a i l s a l e s o u t l e t s i s min-i m a l . Table 11 Commercial Establishments i n the T h o r n h i l l Area by Type, 1974 Type Number % of T o t a l Used Goods 2 4-76 Food P r o d u c t s - R e t a i l 4 9.52 Commercial Trucking 8 19.04 Mobile Home Sales 3 7.14 Automobile Sales 2 4.76 Service S t a t i o n s 11.90 Machine Shops 8 19.04 B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s - R e t a i l 1 2.38 B u i l d i n g Tradesmen 7 16.66 Appliance Repair 2 4.76 42 1000.00 The i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e of T h o r n h i l l i s a l s o l i m i t e d although l i k e the commercial development, the i n -d u s t r i a l development has been a recent phenomenon. As Table 12 i n d i c a t e s , the i n d u s t r i a l establishments located here are those which would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e w i t h i n the 35 boundaries of the D i s t r i c t of Terrace. MAP 9 T H O R N H I L L POPULATION DENSITY l e s s than one person! per acre - 81 -Table 12 I n d u s t r i a l Establishments i n the T h o r n h i l l Area by Type, 1974 Meat Packing B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l -i s e Number % of T o t a l 1 1 6 . 6 6 Man u f a c t u r i n g 2 2 1 3 3 . 3 3 3 3 . 3 3 1 6 . 6 6 Food Processing Auto Wrecking T o t a l 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 . 4 . 2 Road System As Map 10 i n d i c a t e s , , the road system of T h o r n h i l l i s extensive although the ma j o r i t y of secondary roads are not surfaced by asp h a l t . The t o t a l length of paved roads i s 12 .46 miles whereas the t o t a l length of unpaved road i s 1 7 . 2 1 m i l e s . 3 6 ' As i s made evident by Map 1 0 , the T h o r n h i l l area i s dissec t e d by two major highways, one of which l i n k s the D i s -t r i c t of K i t i m a t to Highway #16 and Highway #16 which l i n k s p r i n c e Rupert to the east. 4 . 4 . 3 Land Tenure As i s i n d i c a t e d by Map 1 1 , the greater p o r t i o n of land i n the T h o r n h i l l area i s p r i v a t e l y owned although there e x i s t s extensive acreage of Crown land , land belonging to the Department of Highways and land belonging to major timber i n d u s t r i e s . In terms of the land which i s p r i v a t e l y owned, Map 11 i n d i c a t e s that the greater p o r t i o n i s held i n l a r g e r p a r c e l s . MAP 11 T H O R N H I L L A R E A L A N D O W N E R S H I P t i l l NO LARGE PRIVATE OWNERSHIP LARGE TIMBER COMPANY HOLDINGS CROWN LAND • MALL PP /ATI OWNERSHIP SCHOOLS RECREATION AREAS C ANA 01 AN NATIONAL RAILWAY PACIFIC NORTHERN CAS TRANSMITTING TOWERS HIGHWAYS If PUSLIC WORKS RESERVE DEPARTMENT OP HIGHWAYS OWNERSHIP LEASED AREAS AGREEMENT TO PURCHASE Egggga BESS R E G I O N A L D I S T R I C T O F K I T I M A T - S T I K I M E SCALE • Ft IT tlO» I N F O R M A T I O N C O M f M I D BY Of PAR T M t H I lit MUN IC IPAL A F t A l H *i 1972 B A S E M A P P i t t PAH 10 BV R E G I O N A L Oi *i I n i '. f Of KIT IMAT - b I IN INI M A P - 84 -4.5 S e r v i c e S t r u c t u r e The s e r v i c e s the community of T h o r n h i l l has access to d e r i v e from f i v e sources. These i n c l u d e ( i ) s e r v i c e s which are s u p p l i e d e i t h e r by the r e s i d e n t f o r h i s own use or s u p p l i e d p r i v a t e l y on a co n t r a c t b a s i s , ( i i ) s e r v i c e s which are s u p p l i e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t or K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to the T h o r n h i l l area on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , ( i i i ) s e r v i c e s which are s u p p l i e d by va r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l government departments to the T h o r n h i l l area e i t h e r b y v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t T h o r n h i l l i s an unincorporated community o r t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e i s only o f f e r e d by a department of the P r o v i n c i a l government, ( i v ) s e r v i c e s which are s u p p l i e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e f o r the b e n e f i t o f the e n t i r e area f a l l i n g w i t h i n the boundaries of the Regional D i s t r i c t , (v) those s e r v i c e s which are made a c c e s s i b l e to T h o r n h i l l by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t T h o r n h i l l l i e s i n c l o s e proxmity to the D i s t r i c t of Terrace, and ( v i ) s e r v i c e s made a v a i l a b l e by School D i s t -r i c t #88. r The s e r v i c e s which are s u p p l i e d to the T h o r n h i l l area e i t h e r by i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s f o r t h e i r own use o r by p r i v a t e companies on a co n t r a c t b a s i s i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n of a domestic water supply, sewage d i s p o s a l and refuse c o l -l e c t i o n . Although a l a r g e percentage of r e s i d e n t s i n the T h o r n h i l l area have p r i v a t e water w e l l s , there are e i g h t p r i v a t e water systems which supply approximately 52$ o f the - 85 -domestic water needs of the community.-^7 The water systems vary both i n s i z e and design. The l a r g e s t water system has one hundred and seventeen connection w h i l e the s m a l l e s t has only f i v e . - ^ Water sources f o r the o p e r a t i o n of these systems are predominantly a r t e s i a n w e l l s although i n two cases surface s p r i n g s are u t i l i z e d . Map 12 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of the various water systems i n the T h o r n h i l l area. Both the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of water obtained from e i t h e r p r i v a t e w e l l or water system has f l u c t u a t e d . A p r o x i -mately 22% of r e s i d e n t s o p e r a t i n g e i t h e r a p r i v a t e w e l l o r s e r v i c e d by a p r i v a t e water system i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had experienced water shortages, although 87.9% of t h i s 22% i n d i -39 cated t h a t t h i s water shortage was seasonal. y As f o r water q u a l i t y , r e s u l t s of coli-aerogenes t e s t s performed on p r i v a t e w e l l s and water systems by the Health Branch during the years 1966 to 1973 i n d i c a t e d a v a r i -ance i n the density of f e c a l c o l i f o r m s i n the water, The readings ranged from a low of no c o l i f o r m s per 100 ml. to a . 40 reading of 16 plus per 100 ml. Since there are no major sewage treatment f a c i l i t i e s i n the T h o r n h i l l area, a l l sewage d i s p o s a l i s p r e s e n t l y accomplished by the use of i n d i v i d u a l s e p t i c tanks f o r each d w e l l i n g . Of those r e s i d e n t s s e r v i c e d by s e p t i c tank, 9.5% i n d i c a t e d that they had experienced d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the 41 f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e i r tank. i» I 2 - 87 -A t h i r d s e r v i c e which i s provided e i t h e r p r i v a t e l y o r by p r i v a t e company on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s i s refuse c o l l e c t i o n . Two refuse c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , one based i n T h o r n h i l l and the other i n Terrace, s e r v i c e approximately 64% of the r e s i -dents i n the T h o r n h i l l area. The remainder e i t h e r dispose t h e i r own refuse at the T h o r n h i l l refuse d i s p o s a l ground or i n c i n e r a t e i t . S e r v i c e s which are provided f o r the T h o r n h i l l area on a Regional S p e c i a l B e n e f i t t i n g Area b a s i s i n c l u d e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n by means of a v o l u n t e e r f i r e department, access to the Terrace Arena and Swimming Pool Complex, access to the Terrace P u b l i c L i b r a r y , use of the Terrace P u b l i c Cemetery, and p r o v i s i o n f o r the completion of the T h o r n h i l l Community Center. The l e v e l of these s e r v i c e s i s g e n e r a l l y low. The T h o r n h i l l Volunteer F i r e f i g h t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i s a v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n which operates on a budget of $18,000 per annum. The present equipment c o n s i s t s of a l a t e model pumper, a l a t e model tanker, a r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a l e r t i n g system and other necessary sundry equipment. Both the pumper and tanker are c u r r e n t l y housed i n a s m a l l s t r u c t u r e l o c a t e d at the j u n c t i o n of Highways 25 and 16. Since there i s o n l y one sub-d i v i s i o n i n the T h o r n h i l l area which has f i r e hydrants, the e f f i c i e n c y of the T h o r n h i l l Volunteer F i r e f i g h t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i s s e v e r e l y hindered. The T h o r n h i l l Community Center b u i l d i n g which was s t a r t e d i n 1971 was neglected u n t i l J u l y of 1974 when increased community i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t allowed the Regional D i s t r i c t - 88 -Board to make the T h o r n h i l l area a r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l b e n e f i t -t i n g area to r a i s e the revenue to complete the s t r u c t u r e . Access to the Terrace P u b l i c Arena and Swimming Pool Complex, the Terrace P u b l i c L i b r a r y and the Terrace P u b l i c Cemetery was granted to T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s i n November of 1973 when T h o r n h i l l was made a s p e c i f i e d area i n order t h a t T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s could c o n t r i b u t e to the o p e r a t i n g expenses of these f a c i l i t i e s . In 1974 and 1975 "the m i l l r a t e l e v i e d against the assessment of T h o r n h i l l f o r these s e r v i c e s was as f o l l o w s : J Table 13 M i l l r a t e L e v i e d Against T h o r n h i l l f o r P r o v i s i o n of S e r v i c e s on Regional S p e c i a l B e n e f i t AreaBasis  1 9 ? k _ ? 5 S e r v i c e 1 9 7 k 1975 T h o r n h i l l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n 3.92 3.65 Recreation F a c i l i t i e s & Cemetery 3«26 6.32 T h o r n h i l l Community Center - 2.11 T o t a l 7.18 12.08 The. s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d to the T h o r n h i l l area by the v a r i o u s departments of the P r o v i n c i a l government i n c l u d e assessment, w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , education, p o l i c i n g and road c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance„ The Department of Human Resources o f f e r s both f i n a n -c i a l s e r v i c e s and programs f o r those r e s i d e n t s r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e . There were 165 cases r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s i n 1974 which accounted f o r 25%of a l l f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s dispensed i n the g r e a t e r Terrace area. The breakdown of cases r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the year 197^ were s i n g l e a d u l t s who accounted f o r 52 out of the 165 cases, couples which accounted f o r 11 cases, one parent f a m i l i e s which accounted f o r 61 cases, two parent f a m i l i e s which accounted f o r 31 cases and c h i l d r e n i n the home of r e l a t i v e s which accounted f o r 10 45 cases. J A l s o , of 38 cases r e c e i v i n g Handicapped Persons Income As s i s t a n c e administered by the Terrace o f f i c e , 17 were 46 r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l area. Of cases r e c e i v i n g Min-47 come, s i x out of a t o t a l of 71 cases r e s i d e d i n T h o r n h i l l . ' Programs i n i t i a t e d i n the T h o r n h i l l area by the Department of Human Resources in c l u d e a day care center f o r preschool c h i l d r e n and a c o u n s e l l i n g program f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n T h o r n h i l l ' s f o u r s c h o o l s . E x i s t i n g h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and programs to which T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s have access are those provided by the Health Branch, the Mental He a l t h S e r v i c e and the B r i t i s h Columbia H o s p i t a l Insurance S e r v i c e . The s e r v i c e s of the Health Branch of the Department of Health e n t a i l p r i m a r i l y p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and programs, such as p u b l i c h e a l t h nursing programs and environmental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . Programs made a v a i l a b l e to T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s by the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s i n g personnel of the Terrace Branch of the Skeena Health Unit i n c l u d e maternal and c h i l d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , s c h o o l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and adul t h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . The maternal and c h i l d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e p r e - n a t a l - 90 -i n s t r u c t i o n , home v i s i t a t i o n sessions f o r parents of newly born c h i l d r e n and c h i l d h e a l t h conferences which provide immunization and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . The s c h o o l h e a l t h s e r v i c e provides d i r e c t s e r v i c e s to i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s of School D i s t r i c t #88 as w e l l as oper-a t i n g routine screening devices and follow-up s e r v i c e s to detect and a i d p u p i l s w i t h v i s i o n , hearing, emotional, s k i n and other d i s o r d e r s . In T h o r n h i l l , these programs are c a r r i e d out i n a l l f o u r schools. In terms of a d u l t h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s i n g personnel o f f e r immunization programs and a l s o pro-vided d i r e c t t r a v e l l i n g c l i n i c s such as the Cancer C l i n i c and the T u b e r c u l o s i s C o n s u l t a t i o n C l i n i c . One program not o f f e r e d to the T h o r n h i l l area although o f f e r e d to the D i s t r i c t of Terrace i s the Home Care program. The Environmental He a l t h S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n of the Terrace Branch of the Skeena Hea l t h Unit provides the T h o r n h i l l area w i t h i n s p e c t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r food premises, housing, p r i v a t e sewage d i s p o s a l , s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l , s u b d i v i s i o n s and p r i v a t e and p u b l i c water s u p p l i e s . The f a c i l i t y provided by the B r i t i s h Columbia H o s p i t a l Insurance S e r v i c e to which T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s have access i s the M i l l s Memorial H o s p i t a l l o c a t e d i n Terrace. The h o s p i t a l has 87 beds d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g wards: medical i and s u r g i c a l 50, o b s t e t r i c s 12, p e d i a t r i c s 24, and p s y c h i a t r i c 1. - 91 -The h o s p i t a l a lso has 18 b a s s i n e t s . T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s a l s o have access to both the s e r v i c e s of the Skeena Mental Health Center and the Skeena-view H o s p i t a l . The r e c e n t l y formed Skeena Mental Health Center i s an agency which provides the s e r v i c e s of a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker, a p s y c h o l o g i s t and a p s y c h i a t r i c nurse to the area which i s at present c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the area served by the Skeena P u b l i c Health U n i t . The Skeenaview H o s p i t a l i s p r e s e n t l y run as a s o c i e t y and j o i n t l y funded by the Department of Human Resources and the Mental H e a l t h Branch. The h o s p i t a l provides long term f a c i l i t i e s f o r approximately 300 males o f the r e g i o n who are mentally r e t a r d e d . A t h i r d s e r v i c e provided by the P r o v i n c i a l government to the T h o r n h i l l area i s p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n which i s s u p p l i e d by the Terrace detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . The l e v e l of p o l i c i n g w i t h i n the community i s minimal w i t h o n l y the d i s p a t c h of one p a t r o l c ar per s h i f t to both the T h o r n h i l l area and the eastern p o r t i o n of Highway 16. A f i n a l s e r v i c e provided to the community o f Thorn-h i l l by the P r o v i n c i a l government i s the maintenance o f the road system by the Department of Highways. Summer maintenance costs f o r the road i n the T h o r n h i l l area amount to $6000. per annum whi l e w i n t e r maintenance costs demount to approximately h o $50,000. Road c o n s t r u c t i o n o r the paving of roads w i t h i n - 92 -the community has not occurred to a great extent, w i t h only main a r t e r i a l s r e c e i v i n g a s p h a l t s u r f a c i n g . A l s o , o n l y a minimal number of t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n the community. Se r v i c e s which are o f f e r e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e f o r the e n t i r e area of the Reg i o n a l D i s t -r i c t i n c l u d e general government s e r v i c e s , environmental s e r v i c e s ( r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ) , r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , b u i l d i n g and plan i n s p e c t i o n s e r v i c e s and refuse d i s p o s a l ground main-tenance . General government s e r v i c e s provided by the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t to the area of the Regional D i s t r i c t i n general and to T h o r n h i l l i n s p e c i f i c i n c l u d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the va r i o u s s e r v i c e s f o r which T h o r n h i l l i s a r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l b e n e f i t t i n g area and the s e r v i c e of a c t i n g as a l i a i s o n between the r e s i d e n t s of T h o r n h i l l and the v a r i o u s departments of the P r o v i n c i a l government which have been concerned w i t h the T h o r n h i l l community. The p r o v i s i o n of land use c o n t r o l f o r T h o r n h i l l by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e has been recent and l i m i t e d . In January of 1975» "the only l a n d use c o n t r o l implemented i n the T h o r n h i l l area was a s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-law passed on November 19, 1971° This by-law was confined to the f o u r planning areas as i n d i c a t e d on Map 7 and contained rudimentary r e s t r i c t i o n s such as minimum l o t frontage r e q u i r e -ments, l o t s i z e r e s t r i c t i o n s , road and walkway r e s t r i c t i o n s . . k 9 and p r o v i s i o n s f o r adequate sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . - 93 -Proposed zoning by-laws f o r the T h o r n h i l l area were suggested by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n 1972 and by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i n 1 9 7 k . The zoning by-law proposed i n 1972 was not accepted by the T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission o r the Regional Board because the Commission f e l t t h a t T h o r n h i l l * s p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e should be e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to the implementation of a zoning by-law. The zoning by-law of 1 9 7 k was r e j e c t e d because i t d i d not take i n t o account newly e s t a b l i s h e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s . S i m i l a r l y no b u i l d i n g and plan i n s p e c t i o n c o n t r o l s e x i s t i n the T h o r n h i l l area although p r o v i s i o n s f o r such s e r v i c e s have been budgeted f o r s i n c e 1 9 7 k . The r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t c o n s i s t s of the Kitsumkalum Mountain S k i f a c i l i t y which began l i m i t e d o p e r a t i o n i n 1 9 7 k . A f u r t h e r s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t i s the maintenance of refuse d i s p o s a l grounds i n the unincor-porated areas. The T h o r n h i l l refuse d i s p o s a l ground i s f i n a n c e d and operated i n t h i s manner. This f a c i l i t y i s l o c a t e d approximately 3.5 m i l e s from the main development area i n T h o r n h i l l and l i e s immediately adjacent to o l d Lakelse Lake Road. The s i t e i s covered by a Crown lease which was i n i t i a l l y issued to the T h o r n h i l l Rate-payers A s s o c i a t i o n although the A s s o c i a t i o n was unable to maintain the refuse d i s p o s a l ground and subsequently requested the Regional D i s t r i s t to assume the o p e r a t i n g expenses as of - 94 -January 1971. The operating p r a c t i c e s of the refuse d i s p o s a l ground up to the beginning of 1975 did not comply with standards e s t a b l i s h e d by the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board f o r s an i t ary 1andfi11s. The m i l l r a t e s l e v i e d against T h o r n h i l l ' s assess-ment for the s e r v i c e s provided by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e were as f o l l o w s f o r the years 1974 and 1975." Table 14 M i l l - r a t e Levied against T h o r n h i l l f o r the P r o v i s i o n of Services by the Regional D i s t r j . c t on an area-wide Basis 1974 - 1975 1974 1975 B u i l d i n g and Plan Inspection .44 .28 Kitsumkalum Ski Development - .51 General Government Services and Environmental Development Services 1.50 1.59 Refuse Disposal Ground Maintenance .44 .45 T o t a l 2 . 3 8 2 . 8 3 The s e r v i c e s provided to T h o r n h i l l by v i r t u e of i t s p r oximity to the D i s t r i c t of Terrace but which are not l o c a l l y supported i n c l u d e s access to r e t a i l and other com-merci a l f a c i l i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e c l u b s , medical, dental and l e g a l o f f i c e s , churches and government s e r v i c e s such as the post o f f i c e . School D i s t r i c t #88 administers four schools i n T h o r n h i l l which i n c l u d e the Copper Mountain Elementary School with an enrolment of 296 p u p i l s , the T h o r n h i l l Primary School with an enrolment of 267 p u p i l s , the T h o r n h i l l Elementary School with an enrolment of 460 p u p i l s , and the T h o r n h i l l - 95 " J u n i o r Secondary School which had an enrolment of app r o x i -mately 350 p u p i l s . School bussing i s provided f o r T h o r n h i l l s e n i o r secondary students attending a s e n i o r secondary school i n Terrace and f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g i n o u t l y i n g areas but attending school i n T h o r n h i l l . - 5 1 4.6 Community Organizations Although there were three community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n T h o r n h i l l i n 197k, they were r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the decision-making f o r the community during recent years. These i n c l u d e d the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Rate-payers A s s o c i a t i o n which was i n c o r p o r a t e d under the S o c i e t i e s  Act i n i 9 6 0 , the T h o r n h i l l R e c r e a t i o n Commission which was el e c t e d i n I966, and the T h o r n h i l l A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1972. As Chapter V w i l l i n d i c a t e , the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers Association and i t s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee were extremely a c t i v e i n the years from i 960 to 1972 attempting to implement a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n the community. During these years, the T h o r n h i l l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n , which was made up of a cross s e c t i o n of the community i n terms of occupation, age, e t c . , was the dominant o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the T h o r n h i l l community having a great d e a l of community support. The T h o r n h i l l R e c r e a t i o n Commission, which was el e c t e d i n 1966 was a c t i v e from i t s i n c e p t i o n to approximately - 96 -1973» although t h i s a c t i v i t y was p e r i o d i c . The Commission was i n v o l v e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f community sports f a c i l -i t i e s (although none were completed), a number of summer playground programs and played an important r o l e i n p e t i t i o n i n g the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to a l l o w T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s to use sports f a c i l i t i e s i n Terrace. The T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1972 to evaluate a zoning by-law which was d r a f t e d by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Since t h a t time, the Commission has been r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e aLthough i t was engaged i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a zoning by-law along w i t h the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i n the months of J u l y and August of 1 9 7 k . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of these community groups was and i s one of cooperation. Many members i n the executive p o s i t i o n s of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n also serve on the T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission as w e l l as the Recreation Commission. 4.7 Representation of T h o r n h i l l on the Board o f D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e T h o r n h i l l i s represented on the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t i t i s l o c a t e d i n e l e c t o r a l area C ( c f . Map 1 3 ) . At present, the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e l e c t o r a l area C on the Board of D i r e c t o r s i s one d i r e c t o r . 4/\ V * . 6 * . gLECTDRAL.-AREAS QF,..Tffijr RESIOML • -j' ""jV A,- DIS; v.- » -3T.^ OF K'lTJJVIA'r-STIKI-.NE. ,.....,-> A \ \ Bof*kx*« of (teetotal fam » IKCOIPOOM* Mm<«a>lln - 98 -Although the community of T h o r n h i l l comprises almost f o u r - f i f t h s of the p o p u l a t i o n of e l e c t o r a l area C, i t occupies a very s m a l l p a r t of the area and wh i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a r e s i d e n t of the community to become the d i r e c t o r f o r e l e c t o r a l area C, the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the community on the Board of D i r e c t o r s i s not guaranteed. During recent years the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from e l e c -t o r a l area C has not been from T h o r n h i l l and has not e f f e c t i v e l y represented the community on the Board of D i r e c t o r s . 4.8 Assessment In 1974, the assessed value of l a n d i n T h o r n h i l l was $1,768,020.00 w h i l e the assessed value o f improvements was $ 4 , 6 5 9 , 8 3 3 - 0 0 . 5 2 4.9 Summary The data generated by the f i r s t p o r t i o n of t h i s chapter suggests s e v e r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s concerning the com-munity and i t s past and present development. T h o r n h i l l ' s development p r i o r to I969 was slow both i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n growth and commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development. The p e r i o d from 1969 to 1974 was one o f r a p i d growth and r e s u l t e d from both the r a p i d growth of the Terrace area and the D i s t r i c t of Terrace's i n a b i l i t y to accommodate t h i s growth w i t h i n i t s m u n i c i p a l boundaries. I t was durin g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t increased s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y and land - 99 -s p e c u l a t i o n i n the f r i n g e areas of Terrace caused not only the r a p i d growth of these areas but al s o the i r r e g u l a r land use patterns to occur. Since l a n d use and b u i l d i n g c o n t r o l s were v i r t u a l l y non-existent i n T h o r n h i l l during t h i s p e r i o d of growth, land developers were not r e q u i r e d to prodde many of the rudimentary s e r v i c e s . This r e s u l t e d i n not on l y p o o r l y designed s u b d i v i s i o n s but s u b d i v i s i o n s which lacked s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , paved roads, sewage d i s p o s a l , drainage f a c i l i t i e s , f i r e hydrants and v a r i o u s o t h e r s e r v i c e s . The "pockets" of moderate d e n s i t y development which emerged i n T h o r n h i l l as a r e s u l t of t h i s p e r i o d of increased s u b d i v i s i o n and land s p e c u l a t i o n a c t i v i t y was seen by many of the T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s as a source of p o t e n t i a l problems. Since i n many areas, the groundwater was l o c a t e d near the su r f a c e , and, the c a p a b i l i t y of the s o i l to f a c i l i t a t e per-c o l a t i o n was poor, the use of water w e l l s and s e p t i c tanks i n areas of moderate d e n s i t y was seen as a p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h hazard. S i m i l a r l y , the low l e v e l of p o l i c i n g , the increased t r a f f i c f l o w i n the area and the l a c k of t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s , was seen as a problem f o r the l a r g e number of p e d e s t r i a n s , par-t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n u s i n g the roads. These examples are but a few instances o f p o t e n t i a l hazard which the r e s i d e n t s of T h o r n h i l l suggested were the r e s u l t of the low l e v e l of s e r v i c i n g i n the area. I t was t h i s l a c k of l o c a l s e r v i c e s as w e l l as community wide s e r v i c e s such as f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , t h a t prompted - 100 -T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s to be unj.fied i n requesting thai: a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e be implemented i n the area to supply the required s e r v i c e s . T h o r n h i l l ' s present development i s a r e s u l t of the past development processes. Although a number of serv-i c e s have been provided to the area, they are of a minimal standard. Also, they are administered by government agencies on which T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s do not have any or, have at best, only a minimal degree of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . For these reasons they have l i t t l e c o n t r o l over the q u a l i t y of these s e r v i c e s . - 101 -CHAPTER IV - NOTES AND COMMENTS 1. Based on data d e r i v e d from the T h o r n h i l l Census c a r r i e d out by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1973-2. D.M. C a l l a n , "A P r e l i m i n a r y Groundwater I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the T h o r n h i l l Planning Area", Unpublished Study of the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Water Resources S e r v i c e , Department of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water Resources, V i c t o r i a , 1972, p. 1. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d . » P. 2. 5. I b i d . 6. I b i d . » P- 3. 7. I b i d . » p. 4. 8. I b i d . , P. 5. 9. I b i d . > P- 6. 10. I b i d . . P. 7. 11. I b i d . » p. 10. 12. I b i d . 13. Ibido 14. Based on data Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e , Terrace, B.C. 15. I b i d . 16. I b i d . 17. I b i d . 18. Nadine Asante, H i s t o r y of Terrace (Terrace: Totem Press, 1972), pp. 64 - 5 . 19. I b i d . , p. 66. 20. Based on data der i v e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey c a r r i e d out by the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1972. 21. I b i d . 22. Based on data d e r i v e d from the T h o r n h i l l Census c a r r i e d out by the Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1973. 23. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, The 1971 Census. - 102 -2k. Based on data derived from the T h o r n h i l l Census c a r r i e d out "by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t -S t i k i n e , 1973. 25o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, The 1971 Census. 26. Based on data d e r i v e d from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey c a r r i e d out by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1972. 27. I b i d . 28. Based on data d e r i v e d from the T h o r n h i l l Census c a r r i e d out by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1973. 29. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, The 1971 Census. 3 0 . Based on data d e r i v e d from the T h o r n h i l l Census c a r r i e d out by the Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1973. 31 . S t a t i s t i c s Canada, The 1971 Census. 32. Based on data d e r i v e d from the Assessment R o l l , Assessor's O f f i c e , P r i n c e Rupert, 197k. 33• Based on data d e r i v e d from the T h o r n h i l l Census c a r r i e d out by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1973. 3 k . Based on data compiled by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1 9 7 k . 3 5 . I b i d . 36. B.C. Department of Highways, "Summary of Road Charac-t e r i s t i c s i n the T h o r n h i l l Area", Unpublished Study, 1972. 37. Based on data compiled by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 197k. 38. I b i d . 39. Based on data d e r i v e d from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey c a r r i e d out by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1972. 4 0 . Based on data d e r i v e d from the records of the Skeena P u b l i c Health U n i t , Terrace, B.C. - 103 -41. Based on data d e r i v e d from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey-c a r r i e d out by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1972. 42. Based on data compiled by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 1974. 43. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Budgets f o r 1974 and 1975. 44. Based on correspondence dated June 14, 1974 from D.E. Anonby, D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r , Department of Human Resources, to the author., 45. I b i d . I b i d . ^7. I b i d . 48. Based on correspondence dated February 23, 1973, from R. P a r f i t t , A s s i s t a n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r , Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to Mr. K. Ohlemann, Planning O f f i c e r , Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . 49. Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l . 50. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Budgets f o r 1974 and 1975. 51. Based on data compiled by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . 52. Based on the Assessment R o l l , Assessor's O f f i c e , Prince Rupert, 1974. - 104 -CHAPTER V INCORPORATION ATTEMPTS OF THE THORNHILL COMMUNITY - 104a -5.1 I n c o r p o r a t i o n Attempts of the T h o r n h i l l Community  T h o r n h i l l ' s attempt to provide i t s e l f w ith a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e date back to June ?, I960 when at a meeting of the newly organized T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n , the st a t u s of l o c a l d i s t r i c t was considered as a p o s s i b l e m u n i c i p a l form f o r the community.^ The concept of l o c a l d i s t r i c t was, however, abandoned and the community d i d not attempt to again i n c o r p o r a t e u n t i l March 6, 1962 when the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n proposed t h a t T h o r n h i l l be in c o r p o r a t e d as a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purpose of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered by the A s s o c i a t i o n i n T h o r n h i l l i n J u l y of 1962 i n d i c a t e d t h a t SJfo of the r e s i d e n t s favoured the i n c o r p o r a t i o n , of Thom-3 h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t . A p e t i t i o n , however, was not c i r c u l a t e d and the attempt to in c o r p o r a t e g r a d u a l l y l o s t momentum. T h o r n h i l l ' s next attempt to in c o r p o r a t e occurred i n A p r i l of 1964 when at a meeting of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n a motion was passed by the A s s o c i a t i o n to c i r c u l a t e a p e t i t i o n i n the community w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of determining the number of persons who would favour the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a v/ater improvement d i s t r i c t 4 f o r the p r o v i s i o n of water and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . At a sub-sequent meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n held i n A p r i l of the same - 105 -year, the Deputy M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s was present to enumerate to the A s s o c i a t i o n the va r i o u s forms of m u n i c i p a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n . The Deputy M i n i s t e r also suggested to the A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of both domestic water and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n would, under the p r e v a i l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n not ore but two water improvement d i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e s . 5 In e a r l y May of 1965, a p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d i n the community to estimate the p o p u l a r i t y of the v a r i o u s forms of incorporated status a v a i l a b l e to T h o r n h i l l f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e s . The p e t i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a 65% m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s f a v o u r i n g the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y r a t h e r than a water improvement d i s t r i c t . ^ A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l p o l l , however, the p o p u l a r i t y of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y as a p o s s i b l e l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e appears to have subsided and the concept of water improvement d i s t r i c t readopted. The reason f o r abandoning the concept of v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y at t h i s time was due to the f a c t that T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s were of the persuasion t h a t the community d i d not have the tax base necessary to support i t . At a meeting of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n on August 14, 19&5 y e~t another s o l u t i o n was o f f e r e d to a l l o w f o r the development of s e r v i c e s i n the T h o r n h i l l community. I t v/as proposed at t h i s meeting th a t T h o r n h i l l should seek to amalgamate with the V i l l a g e of Terrace to form a new d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y . Support f o r t h i s scheme was n e g l i g i b l e both i n the community of T h o r n h i l l and the V i l l a g e of T e r r a c e . 7 - 106 -In the e a r l y months of 1966, the concept of v/ater improvement d i s t r i c t was again adopted and the necessary work of assembling and c i r c u l a t i n g a p e t i t i o n completed. In March of 1967, the work of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the establishment of a water im-provement d i s t r i c t r e s u l t e d i n the g r a n t i n g of i n i t i a l approval to e s t a b l i s h a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purpose of 8 f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . Upon t h i s ' i n i t i a l a pproval, e l e c t i o n s f o r the p o s i t i o n s of t r u s t e e were arranged and a nominating com-mittee appointed. F i n a l approval, however, was not g i v e n due to the f a c t t h a t the p e t i t i o n forwarded to the Water Rights Branch was found to be incomplete. In January of 1968, the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n was again p o l l i n g the r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l community to determine the p o p u l a r i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purpose of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . 9 Since the subsequent response to t h i s p o l l favoured the estab-lishment of a water improvement d i s t r i c t , the necessary procedures were f o l l o w e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n and the r e s u l t a n t documents submitted to the Water Rights Branch f o r approval. In October of 1968, i n a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t approval would be granted by the Water Rights Branch, a nominating committee f o r candidates f o r the p o s i t i o n s of t r u s t e e was e s t a b l i s h e d . As i t became evident to T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s t h a t the p e t i t i o n f o r the implementation of a water improvement d i s t r i c t had s t a l l e d i n V i c t o r i a , the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers - 107 " A s s o c i a t i o n approached the Regional D i s t r i c t o f Skeena B to provide f i r e p r o t e c t i o n to the community on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s . This request v/as r e f e r r e d by the A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the D i s t r i c t to the D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r comment and advice."'" 0 In response, the D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n recommended t h a t since T h o r n h i l l ' s p o p u l a t i o n was s t i l l under 2 5 0 0 , i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y would provide the necessary p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e to a l l o w T h o r n h i l l to provide i t s e l f w i t h the r e q u i r e d services."''"'" I t was f u r t h e r suggested by the D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n t h a t i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y would provide T h o r n h i l l w i t h the f u l l amount of the l o c a l taxes r a i s e d i n the area other than school and h o s p i t a l taxes, i n c l u d i n g the r e t u r n of the home-owner grant p o r t i o n of the taxes not absorbed i n school t a x a t i o n , a per c a p i t a grant and o t h e r grants f o r P r o v i n c i a l government 12 p r o p e r t i e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the community. I t was f u r t h e r suggested t h a t i f the r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e s were to be provided by the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , access to these resources would be l o s t . The D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n s t a t e d , however, th a t i f the l e v e l of s e r v i c e s to be provided to the T h o r n h i l l community was on l y of an elementary nature, i t would be more f e a s i b l e and economical to allow the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B to provide them."'"^ - 108 -On January 28, 1969 , the concept of v i l l a g e munic-i p a l i t y as a p o s s i b l e l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e f o r T h o r n h i l l was presented by the. A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r to a meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B. The response of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s to the proposed v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y was not fav o u r a b l e . I t was s t a t e d by the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n that a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y had been considered i n 1966 but abandoned at that time because T h o r n h i l l d i d not have, i n the e s t i m a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s , a s u f f i c i e n t tax base to support a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . I t was f u r t h e r suggested by the A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t although a range of s e r v i c e s was r e q u i r e d i n the community of T h o r n h i l l , only f i r e p r o t e c t i o n was at that time u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d . I t was consequently argued t h a t only a water improvement d i s t r i c t and not a v i l l a g e muncip-a l i t y was r e q u i r e d to f a c i l i t a t e the p r o v i s i o n and adminis-14 t r a t i o n of t h i s one s e r v i c e . In l a t e September of 1969» however, the chairman of the newly formed I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n requested the Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B to authorize a f e a s i b i l i t y study to i n v e s t i g a t e the v i a b i l i t y of T h o r n h i l l (now known as plann i n g area #3, c f . Map 7 ) , or, the establishment of a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r the e n t i r e T h o r n h i l l area."^ The response of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the - 1 0 9 -Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena 3 was immediate. A d e l e g a t i o n from the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B met w i t h the Thorn-h i l l R ural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n to d i s c u s s the i n c o r p o r a -t i o n of T h o r n h i l l and to o u t l i n e the o b l i g a t i o n s and charac-t e r i s t i c s of each type of corporate s t a t u s p o s s i b l e under both the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act and the B r i t i s h Columbia V/ater A c t . 1 ^ On October 2 9 , 19&9. the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B approved the request f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y study to be c a r r i e d out i n the T h o r n h i l l com-munity to a s c e r t a i n the best means of i n c o r p o r a t i o n f o r the 17 area, ' The chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n requested t h a t the study be based on three a l t e r n a t i v e s which i n c l u d e d ( i ) some form of m u n i c i p a l government covering the whole or a p a r t of the area known as T h o r n h i l l , ( i i ) the establishment of a s p e c i f i e d area under the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B f o r the p r o v i s i o n of water, sewage d i s p o s a l and other p e r t -i n e n t s e r v i c e s to the whole or a p a r t of the community of 1 o T h o r n h i l l , and ( i i i ) T h o r n h i l l * s amalgamation.with Terrace. On December 4 , 1 9 6 9 , a p u b l i c meeting was h e l d i n T h o r n h i l l to ( i ) make p u b l i c the d i s c u s s i o n s of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B, ( i i ) e l i c i t the response of the p u b l i c as to how the funds which had been procedured f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n study were to be spent, and ( i i i ) acquaint the p u b l i c w i t h the v a r i o u s forms of l o c a l government as w e l l as the charac-- n o -19 t e r i s t i c s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f each form. 7 The S e c r e t a r y -Treasurer of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B suggested to the p u b l i c present at the meeting t h a t the concept of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t was not to be viewed as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i n c o r p o r -a t i o n . Rather, i t was suggested t h a t the community should not be dependent on the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B, or amalgamate w i t h the D i s t r i c t of Terrace but should bargain w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l government f o r the form of l o c a l government best s u i t e d to the needs of the community. At t h i s p u b l i c meeting, i t was agreed upon by both the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B and the p u b l i c present at the meeting t h a t the assumption of l o c a l government i n the T h o r n h i l l area should not be immediate but should be a gradual process whereby the community assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by 20 degrees, The meeting culminated i n the e l e c t i o n of a new I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee to i n v e s t i g a t e the problems and rami-f i c a t i o n s of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l . In e a r l y January of 1970, communications from the chairman of the newly formed I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee to the D i r e c t o r o f the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n i n d i c a t e d that the r e s i d e n t s of the community of T h o r n h i l l were i n favour of i n c o r p o r a t i n g as e i t h e r a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r as a 21 d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y . The response of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n of a v o t e r s l i s t to be used - I l l -f o r the purposes of a p o l l i n the event of i n c o r p o r a t i o n was being compiled. The Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d that i t was c o n s i d e r i n g the establishment of a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the T h o r n h i l l area f o r a temporary period of two to three years a f t e r which the village municip-a l i t y would be d i s s o l v e d and r e i n c o r p o r a t e d as a d i s t r i c t 22 m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t was suggested by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t h a t although T h o m h i l l had al r e a d y exceeded the po p u l a t i o n maximum e s t a b l i s h e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic-i p a l Act f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a l o c a l i t y as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y , the i n i t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a v i l l a g e would a l l o w T h o r n h i l l to escape the c o s t l y s e r v i c e s 23 of w e l f a r e , assessment and some aspects of p o l i c i n g . J At a p u b l i c meeting h e l d on February 5 i 1970 i n T h o r n h i l l , the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee informed the p u b l i c of i t s d i s c u s s i o n s with the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and d e s c r i b e d the proposed v i l l a g e and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 24 under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . At t h i s meeting, a motion was introduced to form a committee to conduct a census of the T h o r n h i l l area i n order to o b t a i n a more accurate estimate of T h o r n h i l l ' s p o p u l a t i o n f o r the purpose of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n study v/hich had been j o i n t l y funded by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B and f o r the d r a f t i n g of a p e t i t i o n f o r p o s s i b l e i n c o r p o r a t i o n procedures. At a meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the - 112 -Regional D i s t r i c t o f Skeena B on February 11, 1970, a l e t t e r from the D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n was read s t a t i n g t h a t the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s was i n favour of T h o r n h i l l ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a v i l l a g e munic-i p a l i t y but t h a t an agreement would have to be made between the community and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s as to how the v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y was t o be implemented o r "phased i n " . 2 5 In e a r l y May of the same year, the T h o r n h i l l Incor-p o r a t i o n Committee requested the Regional D i s t r i c t to stop a l l Crown land leases w i t h i n the proposed v i l l a g e boundaries. Also during t h i s time, an engineering c o n s u l t a n t was engaged by the T h o r n h i l l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee to produce both estimates and designs f o r a sewage system and a domestic water ?6 system f o r the area of the proposed v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y . In August of 1970, however, the proceedings f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a village m u n i c i p a l i t y were abandoned when i t became evident t h a t T h o r n h i l l s t i l l d i d not, i n the view of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s , possess the tax base 27 necessary to implement a v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e . Immediately a f t e r the community abandoned the concept of v i l l a g e municip-a l i t y as a p o s s i b l e m u n i c i p a l form f o r T h o r n h i l l , the concept of water improvement d i s t r i c t was again adopted by the Incor-28 p o r a t i o n Committee. In a l e t t e r from the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B on b e h a l f of the T h o r n h i l l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee to the M i n i s t e r of Lands, F o r e s t s and - 113 -Water Resources, i t was again requested as to what the requirements and procedures were f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an area as a water improvement d i s t r i c t . At a meeting c a l l e d by the T h o r n h i l l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee, the p u b l i c was i n v i t e d to d i s c u s s w i t h the I n c o r -p o r a t i o n Committee the problems v/hich the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee had faced i n i t s work to i n c o r p o r a t e the T h o r n h i l l community as a water improvement d i s t r i c t and to determine whether the p u b l i c s t i l l wished to i n c o r p o r a t e as a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purposes of a sewage system, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and a refuse d i s p o s a l ground. A vote taken at the meeting of two hundred r e s i d e n t s revealed t h a t 98% of those a t t e n d i n g the meeting favoured the proposed 29 i n c o r p o r a t i o n . 7 In response to t h i s vote, the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee was g i v e n the mandate to e s t a b l i s h the requirements of the Water Rights Branch f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an area as a water improvement d i s t r i c t and to prepare the necessary p e t i t i o n and m a t e r i a l s f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process. The I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee i n response to t h i s mandate c i r c u l a t e d a p e t i t i o n and an accompanying l e t t e r to each e l e c t o r i n the T h o r n h i l l area o u t l i n i n g the necessary steps and g u i d e l i n e s to be f o l l o w e d i n the formation of a water improvement d i s t r i c t . The p e t i t i o n d escribed the t r a c t of land to be i n c l u d e d i n the proposed v/ater improvement d i s t r i c t and s t a t e d t h a t the improvement d i s t r i c t was to be i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r the p r o v i s i o n and maintenance of a domestic water supply, a sewage system, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , a refuse d i s p o s a l ground and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . ^ 0 - 114 -The subsequent request f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t by the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee was turned down by the Water Rights Branch f o r the reason t h a t the extensive range of s e r v i c e s requested by the p e t i t i o n made i t uneconomic f o r the Water Rights Branch to administer.-^ 1 In November of 1970, the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee turned to the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e ( p r e v i o u s l y the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B) f o r the p r o v i s i o n of these s e r v i c e s on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s f o r t h a t area of T h o r n h i l l known as planning area #3.^2 I t was suggested by the In c o r -p o r a t i o n Committee t h a t i f t h i s was not f e a s i b l e , the In c o r p o r a t i o n Committee would again p e t i t i o n the Water Rights Branch to form a water improvement d i s t r i c t to provide the necessary s e r v i c e s . At a meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e h e l d on November 18, 1970 to con s i d e r the proposed s p e c i f i e d area, i t was res o l v e d that the Board o f D i r e c t o r s was not prepared to supply the number of s e r v i c e s at t h a t time. ^ In response to t h i s r e f u s a l , r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l community again r e s o l v e d to -become a water improve-ment d i s t r i c t and a p e t i t i o n was again c i r c u l a t e d to o b t a i n the necessary sig n a t u r e s w i t h v/hich to approach the 'Water Rights Branch. By mid February of 1971» 90% of a l l property owners had signed the p e t i t i o n w h i l e at a referendum h e l d i n - 115 -May of 1971» 90% o f the v a l i d b a l l o t s c a s t were i n favour of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purposes of developing a domestic water system, a sewage system, f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , and a refuse d i s -34 posal ground. During the e a r l y months of 1972, however, i t appears that the impetus f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t had f a l t e r e d . The p e t i t i o n which had been i n i t i a t e d i n February of 1971 had s t i l l not been forwarded to the Water Rights Branch for approval. In February of 1972, a p u b l i c meeting was held i n T h o r n h i l l w i t h the a s s i s t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and a d i s t r i c t engineer of the Water Rights Branch to d i s c u s s w i t h the T h o r n h i l l p u b l i c the advantages and disadvantages o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a water improve-ment d i s t r i c t . J The response of the r e s i d e n t s of T h o r n h i l l to t h i s meeting came i n the form of another p u b l i c meeting c a l l e d by a newly e s t a b l i s h e d group known as the T h o m h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . At t h i s p u b l i c meeting, which took place on March 21, 1972, i t was r e s o l v e to complete the p e t i t i o n i n i t i a t e d i n February of 1971 and to forward the same to the Water Rights Branch f o r approval. Opposition to t h i s p u b l i c meeting c a l l e d by the T h o m h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n came from the o r i g i n a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee which f e l t t h a t the T h o r n h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was attempting to i n t r u d e - 116 -on the i n c o r p o r a t i o n procedures already m progress. This a c c u s a t i o n was countered by the T h o r n h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c -t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n "by ma i n t a i n i n g t h a t the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee was not s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s of the T h o r n h i l l community e f f e c t i v e l y . * This c o n f l i c t was r e s o l v e d by the f a c t t h a t the p e t i t i o n f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t had a l r e a d y been forwarded by the T h o r n h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n to the Water Rights Branch. A l l e g a t i o n s were t e m p o r a r i l y dropped and a l e g i t i m a t e I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee v/as formed i n e a r l y May of 1972 w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from both groups. On June 6, 1972, c e r t a i n T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s met with the M i n i s t e r of Education who was r e p r e s e n t i n g the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The r e s i d e n t s ' purpose i n t h i s meeting was to request the immediate i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a s i n g l e water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purposes of developing a water supply system and a sewage system. The reasons l i s t e d f o r T h o r n h i l l ' s immediate i n c o r -p o r a t i o n as a water improvement d i s t r i c t were ( i ) T h o r n h i l l ' s and Terrace's mutual r e f u s a l to amalgamate w i t h each o t h e r , ( i i ) the f a c t t h a t T h o r n h i l l ' s p o p u l a t i o n had already exceeded the p o p u l a t i o n maximum f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community as a v i l l a g e , and ( i i i ) t h a t T h o r n h i l l d i d not have, i n the e s t i m a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s the tax base to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which were commensurate w i t h the s t a t u s of town o r d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y . - ^ - 117 " S h o r t l y a f t e r the meeting with the M i n i s t e r of Education, the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s announced that h i s department was i n contact w i t h the Water Rights Branch to continue d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h regard to T h o r n h i l l * s i n c o r p o r -a t i o n as a water improvement d i s t r i c t . On June 29» 1972, at a p u b l i c meeting h e l d i n T h o r n h i l l , the Sec r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e made i t p u b l i c t h a t the p e t i t i o n r e q u e s t i n g T h o r n h i l l ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a water improvement d i s t r i c t which had been sent to the Water Rights Branch i n A p r i l had been refused by the Water Rights Branch due to the request f o r the numerous s e r v i c e s which were to be provided under the s t r u c t u r e of the improvement d i s t r i c t . ^ Immediately a f t e r t h i s r e f u s a l , p r o p e r t y owners i n the Queensway area of T h o r n h i l l (v/hich i s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the present p l a n n i n g area 4, c f . map 7) made i t evident to the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e t h a t they were opposed to the concept of one water improvement d i s t r i c t c o v ering the e n t i r e T h o r n h i l l area f o r the reason t h a t they considered i t uneconomic to i n c o r p o r a t e such a l a r g e area 41 v/hich had only a moderate tax base. Rather than be i n c o r -porated v/ith the r e s t o f T h o r n h i l l as one l a r g e improvement d i s t r i c t , Queensway r e s i d e n t s approached the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and requested i t be made a s p e c i f i e d area under the auspices of the Regional D i s t r i c t f o r the p r o v i s i o n 42 of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . - 118 -During the month of J u l y 1972, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Water Rights Branch were engaged i n a i d i n g the r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l area to develop an economically sound pro-posal f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the area as a water improvement d i s t r i c t . The r e s u l t of t h i s study program was a suggestion to i n c o r p o r a t e the lower core area of T h o r n h i l l (planning area #3» ci"» m a P 7) as a water improvement d i s t r i c t and to leave the remainder of the T h o r n h i l l area to "be made a s p e c i -f i e d area under the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e f o r 43 the p r o v i s i o n of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . J Although t h i s p r o p o s a l was accepted "by a s m a l l p o r t i o n of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s , the T h o r n h i l l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee argued t h a t the T h o r n h i l l area should not be f r a g -mented i n t o v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l u n i t s but should be u n i t e d as 44 one p o l i t i c a l u n i t . A p e t i t i o n c i r c u l a t e d to measure the p o p u l a r i t y of i n c o r p o r a t i o n as one water improvement d i s t r i c t r a t h e r than one water improvement d i s t r i c t and a s p e c i f i e d Uf area r e c e i v e d an 80% m a j o r i t y from T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s . J Immediately a f t e r the c i r c u l a t i o n of the p e t i t i o n i n August 1972, the p e t i t i o n f o r the implementation of a water improvement d i s t r i c t and o t h e r required m a t e r i a l s were sent 46 to the Inspector of Improvement D i s t r i c t s f o r approval,, However, o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s p e t i t i o n was c o n s i d e r a b l e i n the Queensway area. Opposing c i t i z e n s were of the persuasion t h a t i t would be more economical to i n c o r p o r a t e f o u r improve-ment d i s t r i c t s c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the f o u r areas o f development r a t h e r than one improvement d i s t r i c t v/hich took i n the e n t i r e T h o r n h i l l area. In September 1972, at a meeting of T h o r n h i l l r e s i -dents and the Inspector of Improvement D i s t r i c t s , i t was d i s c l o s e d that he was not i n favour of a s i n g l e water improve-ment d i s t r i c t , c i t i n g the f a c t t h a t 65% of Queensway r e s i d e n t s had already sought approval f o r the implementation of a r e g i o n a l s p e c i f i e d area under the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t . . 47 Stikine. ' The request f o r the implementation of a s p e c i f i e d area f o r the Queensway area, however, was turned down by the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Rather than a l l o w the Queensway area to become a s p e c i f i e d area, the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e requested the Water Rights Branch to a s s i s t the r e s i d e n t s of the Queensway area to e s t a b l i s h a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purpose of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . 7 The reasons c i t e d by the Board i n defence of i t s r e f u s a l were: ( i ) Improvement d i s t r i c t s make p r o v i s i o n s f o r l o c a l boards to handle t h e i r own a f f a i r s . Under the l o c a l area concept a l l l o c a l a f f a i r s would e n t a i l the v o t i n g of the e n t i r e Board of D i r e c t o r s which i s o f t e n too remote and d i s -i n t e r e s t e d and preoccupied to keep i t s e l f w e l l informed on matters p e r t a i n i n g to the admin-i s t r a t i o n of the l o c a l area. , - 120 -( i i ) F i n a n c i n g s m a l l c a p i t a l expenditures under the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t machinery i s complex, d i f f i c u l t and o f t e n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , ( i i i ) The Water Rights Branch has i n f i n i t e l y more experience i n the f i e l d of e s t a b l i s h i n g s i n g l e purpose government bodies and i s consequently more competent to d e a l w i t h the matter at h a n d . 5 0 On October 3, 1972, the Water Rights Branch i n V i c t o r i a informed the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e t h a t the p e t i t i o n f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the l a r g e r T h o r n h i l l area as a water improvement d i s t r i c t could not proceed because the e n t i r e area had not been canvassed f o r the r e q u i r e d s i g -natures. ^  The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i n t u r n advised the T h o r n h i l l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s i g n a t u r e s were r e q u i r e d on the p e t i t i o n i n order f o r i t to comply with the r e g u l a t i o n of the Water Rights Branch, In October 1972, a meeting of l o c a l area represen-t a t i v e s from the Queensway area met wi t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t -S t i k i n e to d i s c u s s the m e r i t s of a l t e r n a t i v e forms of i n c o r -p o r a t i o n f o r the purpose of implementing f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the Queensway area. The meeting r e s u l t e d i n Queensway r e s i d e n t s p r e f e r r i n g i n c o r p o r a t i o n under the Water Act as a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the purpose of f i r e 52 p r o t e c t i o n . A p e t i t i o n v/as consequently c i r c u l a t e d and submitted to the Water Rights Branch f o r approval on October - 121 -6, 1 9 7 2 . 5 3 In e a r l y February 1973« when i t became apparent that the Queensv/ay p e t i t i o n had al s o s t a l l e d i n V i c t o r i a , due to a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l dispute between the Water Rights Branch and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , the newly formed T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission began a c t i v e cooper-a t i o n w i t h the T h o r n h i l l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee i n order to obt a i n a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e or s t r u c t u r e s f o r the area. A zoning by-law prepared f o r T h o r n h i l l by the Department of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to re g u l a t e the i r r e g u l a r land use p a t t e r n s was r e j e c t e d by the T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission f o r the reason that the Commission was of the o p i n i o n t h a t Thorn-h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e should f i r s t be e s t a b l i s h e d before any v i a b l e land use c o n t r o l s could be implemented. At a meeting of the S p e c i a l T h o r n h i l l Planning Committee, (composed of the Chairman of the Regional Board, the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e for e l e c t o r a l area C, the S e c r e t a r y -Treasurer of the Regional D i s t r i c t , and the T h o r n h i l l A d v i s o r y Planning Commission) on May 4, 1973» a renewed e f f o r t was i n s t i g a t e d to evaluate T h o r n h i l l ' s s e r v i c i n g needs and to determine a s t r u c t u r e of l o c a l government which would a l l o w these needs to be met i n the most economical and e f f i c i e n t manner.55 The Committee's e v a l u a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l ' s p o s i t i o n prompted the Committee to recommend to the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e t h a t i t ( i ) explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s p e c i f i e d area i n the area described as plann i n g area number 4 i n the T h o r n h i l l - 122 -S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By-Law f o r the purposes of f i r e p r o t e c -t i o n , ( i i ) explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a water improvement d i s t r i c t t h a t area d e s c r i b e d as Water Improvement D i s t r i c t #1 ( c f . Map 13) f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a domestic water supply and as a s p e c i a l b e n e f i t area f o r the purposes of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , and ( i i i ) explore the f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a water improvement d i s t r i c t f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f a domestic water supply i n t h a t area of T h o r n h i l l d e s i g -nated p l a n n i n g area number 1 i n the T h o r n h i l l S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By-Lav/. ^ In e a r l y June 1973 > the T h o r n h i l l A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission met w i t h t h e i r M.L.A. to d i s c u s s the view taken by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n respect to the s e r v i c i n g needs of the T h o r n h i l l area. 1 The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e d t h a t the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s was aware of the s e r v i c i n g needs of the T h o r n h i l l community but also s t a t e d that the low assessment i n the T h o r n h i l l area would make the implementation of a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n the Thorn-h i l l area uneconomical at t h a t time.- 5^ S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s meeting, the T h o r n h i l l A d v i s o r y Planning Commission met w i t h the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The M i n i s t e r made no p o s i t i v e statements concerning the imple-mentation of a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e but suggested t h a t T h o r n h i l l should e i t h e r seek amalgamation with Terrace or i t should become a s p e c i f i e d area under the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , 7 I t was made evident by the M i n i s t e r t h a t under no circumstances would the Department of M u n i c i p a l 19 12 - 124 -A f f a i r s a l l o w T h o r n h i l l to become a water improvement ,. . . ,60 d i s t r i c t . Immediately a f t e r t h i s meeting with the T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission, the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s advised the Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e t h a t although the s i t u -a t i o n i n respect to T h o r n h i l l could not be re s o l v e d simply, i t was imperative t h a t the T h o r n h i l l area be made a s p e c i f i e d area f o r the p r o v i s i o n of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . ^ I t was f u r t h e r s t a t e d by the M i n i s t e r that the development of a domestic water supply i n the community of T h o r n h i l l was to f o l l o w the imple-mentation of a land use pl a n f o r the area, f o r i t was f e l t t h a t the development of a water system i n the T h o r n h i l l area without a land use plan would perpetuate the unplanned d e v e l -62 opment of the community. In J u l y , 1973» "the Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e advised the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s that the Board of D i r e c t o r s was i n agree-ment wit h the M i n i s t e r ' s suggestion t h a t the T h o r n h i l l area be made a s p e c i f i e d area f o r the p r o v i s i o n of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and that the necessary data was being assembled i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the d r a f t i n g of the by-law.^ 3 On November 19, 1973» "the T h o r n h i l l area as i n d i c a t e d on Map 2 was made a s p e c i f i e d area f o r ( i ) the p r o v i s i o n of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , ( i i ) the purpose of s h a r i n g i n the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of the Terrace Arena and Swimming Pool Complex, ( i i i ) - 125 -the s h a r i n g i n the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of the Terrace P u b l i c L i b r a r y , and ( i v ) the sharing of the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of 64 the Terrace Cemetery. The r e s u l t s of the p o l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t 87.6% were i n favour of the by-law making T h o r n h i l l a specified area f o r the purpose of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , 65.9% were i n favour of making T h o r n h i l l a s p e c i f i e d area f o r the s h a r i n g of the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of the Terrace Arena and Sv/imming Pool Complex and 66.5% were i n favour of making T h o r n h i l l a s p e c i f i e d area f o r the sh a r i n g i n the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of the Terrace Cemetery. Throughout 1974, no attempt to in c o r p o r a t e under e i t h e r the Water Act or the M u n i c i p a l Act was made by the In c o r p o r a t i o n Committee, the T h o r n h i l l A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Com-mission o r any other community groups i n the T h o r n h i l l area although, the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e decided on a number of p o l i c i e s regarding T h o r n h i l l ' s f u t u r e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l development. One such p o l i c y was conceived as a d i r e c t consequence of the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a water supply system to a newly con-s t r u c t e d secondary school i n the T h o r n h i l l area. I t was agreed by both the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and the Department of Education t h a t once completed, the op e r a t i o n and ownership of the water system v/ould be o f f e r e d to the e l e c t o r s of planning area #3 ( c f . Map 7) on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s . Although the water system was completed i n 1974, the operat i o n of the water system by the Regional D i s t r i c t of - 126 -K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e as w e l l as i t s extension to s e r v i c e the re s i d e n t s of planning area #3 has not occurred due to the r e f u s a l of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to a l l o w the system to be extended without the implementation of land use c o n t r o l s i n the a r e a . ^ A second p o l i c y of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e was adopted at a meeting of the Board of May 24, 1974. This p o l i c y s t a t e d t h a t a l l zoning or land use c o n t r o l s which were to be implemented i n the T h o r n h i l l area were to have as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e the f a c t t h a t T h o r n h i l l was to be developed and planned as a separate 67 and independent community capable of s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y . ' 5.2 Summary The I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n , which was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community of T h o r n h i l l to A p r i l 1972, r e s o l v e d to become a water improvement d i s t r i c t on eleven d i f f e r e n t occasions i n the p e r i o d from June i960 to December 1974 although the Com-mittee forwarded only f o u r f o r m a l p e t i t i o n s to the Water Rights Branch d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The T h o r n h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n v/hich was i n existence approximately the months of A p r i l and May of 1972 resolved that T h o r n h i l l should become a water improvement d i s t r i c t on one occasion and submitted a p e t i t i o n to the Water Rights Branch at that time. - 127 -The Queensway Water Improvement D i s t r i c t Incor-p o r a t i o n Committee, which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n October 1972, resolved t h a t the Queensway area of T h o r n h i l l should become a water improvement d i s t r i c t on one occasion and submitted a p e t i t i o n i n response to t h i s r e s o l u t i o n . The I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of The T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l as the A s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f r e s o l v e d to become a m u n i c i p a l i t y under the M u n i c i p a l Act on three separate occasions although only one p e t i t i o n f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y was submitted to the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n the p e r i o d from June i960 to December 197 k. The T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n by way of i t s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee re s o l v e d t h a t T h o r n h i l l should be made a s p e c i f i e d area on f o u r separate occasions i n the per i o d from i960 to 197 k i and a formal a p p l i c a t i o n to the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e was made on three of these occasions. The r e s i d e n t s of the Queensway area r e s o l v e d t h a t the Queensway area of T h o r n h i l l should be made a s p e c i f i e d area on one occasion i n the p e r i o d from i960 to 197 k and made a formal a p p l i c a t i o n to the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t -S t i k i n e subsequent to t h i s r e s o l u t i o n . As the case study i n d i c a t e s , s i x p e t i t i o n s were submitted to the Water Rights Branch d u r i n g the p e r i o d from June i960 to December 197 k by the var i o u s groups i n T h o r n h i l l - 128 -although no p e t i t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l i n the implementation of a water improvement d i s t r i c t on the whole or i n a sub-area of the community of T h o r n h i l l . The p e t i t i o n which was submitted to the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y was withdrawn by the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n . Of the three a p p l i c a t i o n s which were made to the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e by the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n and 68 by Queensway r e s i d e n t s , o n l y one a p p l i c a t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l . The reasons given by the Water Rights Branch to the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s of T h o r n h i l l f o r r e f u s i n g to a l l o w the establishment of water improvement d i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e s i n the whole or i n sub-areas of T h o r n h i l l were ( i ) t h a t the s e r v i c e s requested by the T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s were too numerous to be provided economically under the s t r u c t u r e of the v/ater improvement d i s t r i c t , and ( i i ) t h a t t e c h n i c a l e r r o r s i n the p e t i t i o n s p r o h i b i t e d f u r t h e r proceedings. The f i r s t reason f o r the f a i l u r e of the p e t i t i o n to be s u c c e s s f u l was g i v e n twice while the second reason was a l s o given t w i c e . On two occasions, no adequate reason was g i v e n by the Water Rights Branch f o r the f a i l u r e of the p e t i t i o n s to be s u c c e s s f u l , although i t i s evident t h a t on one occasion the p e t i t i o n f a i l e d due to a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s pute between the Water Rights Branch and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . - 129 -The reasons given by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e f o r the r e f u s a l to a l l o w the T h o r n h i l l area to become a s p e c i f i e d area were ( i ) that the range of s e r v i c e s which were requested by the o r g a n i z a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l were too extensive f o r the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to a d m i n i s t e r of a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , and ( i i ) that the r e g i -onal d i s t r i c t concept was not the most s u i t a b l e s t r u c t u r e to e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r s e r v i c e s to unin-corporated communities. The f i r s t reason was given one while the second reason f o r the r e f u s a l to a l l o w T h o r n h i l l to become a s p e c i f i e d area was g i v e n twice. The p u b l i c as w e l l as the o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempting to implement a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n the T h o r n h i l l area r e c e i v e d o n l y minimal guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g from the r e l e v a n t agencies before the a c t u a l submission of a formal request to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the p e r i o d of June i960 to December 1974. C o u n s e l l i n g before the a c t u a l submission of a formal request by the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l area occurred on eight occasions. The personnel engaged i n t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t y on these e i g h t occasions i n c l u d e d ( i ) the Deputy M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s who addressed the T h o r n h i l l p u b l i c p r i o r to the request of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n ' s request i n 1964 to be i n c o r p o r a t e d as a water improvement d i s t r i c t , ( i i ) the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s p r i o r to the attempt of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n - 130 -Committee to implement a v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e i n the community of T h o r n h i l l i n 1969. ( i i i ) "the A s s i s t a n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e and a D i s t r i c t Engineer of the Water Rights Branch who addressed the Thorn-h i l l p u b l i c i n February 1972 p r i o r to the attempt by the T h o r n h i l l Taxpayer's P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , ( i v ) represen-t a t i v e s from the Water Rights Branch who attempted to develop, along w i t h the r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l area, an economically v i a b l e proposal f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t i n J u l y 1972, and (v) members of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e who met w i t h Queensway r e s i d e n t s i n October of 1972 to a r r i v e at the best means to provide f i r e p r o t e c t i o n to the Queensway area, ( v i ) the M.L.A. f o r the area who addressed the T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission i n June 1973, ( v i ! ) "the M i n i s t e r of Education who met w i t h T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s i n June 1972, and ( v i i i ) the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s who met w i t h the T h o r n h i l l Advisory Planning Commission i n June 1973• I t should be noted,however, t h a t only on f i v e of these occasions d i d the c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t y take place p r i o r to the submission of an attempt to in c o r p o r a t e o r to be made a s p e c i f i e d area. The nature of t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t y d i d not, to any great extent,. i n v o l v e the d i s c u s s i o n of what the a c t u a l needs of the community were i n terms of s e r v i c i n g and a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e . Rather, the c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a requested by the - 131 -Department o f • M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Water Rights Branch f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities as m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or water improvement d i s t r i c t s . - 132 -CHAPTER V - NOTES AND COMMENTS 1. Based on the Minutes of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the meeting held on June 7, I960. 2. Based on the Minutes of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the meeting held on March 6, 1962. 3. Based on the Minutes of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the meeting held on J u l y 24, 1962. k. Based on the Minutes of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the meeting h e l d on A p r i l 2, 1964. 5. The Terrace Omenica Herald, A p r i l 17, 1964. 6. The Terrace Omenica Herald, May 12, 1965. 7. The Terrace Omenica Herald, June 6, 1972. 8. The Terrace Omenica Herald, March 8, 1967. 9. The Terrace Omenica Herald, January 10, 1968. 10. Based on correspondence dated November 21, 1968 between Mr. J . Slemko, A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B and Mr. C.H.L. Woodward, D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . 11. Based on correspondence dated November 26, I968 from C.H.L. Woodward, D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l Admin-i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n to Mr. J.L. Slemko, A s s i s t a n t S e c r e tary-Treasurer, Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena 3. 12. I b i d . 13. I b i d . 14. The Terrace Omenica Herald, February 5, 1969. 15. Based on correspondence dated September 24, 1969 between J . Nance, Chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n to Mr. F. Webber, Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B. 16. The Terrace Omenica Herald, September 25, 1969. 17. The Terrace Omenica Herald, October 29, 1969. I - 133 -18, Based on correspondence dated October 29, 1969 between J . Nance, Chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n and Mr. J . Pousette, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B. 20. I b i d . 21. Based on correspondence dated January 7, 1970 between J . Nance, Chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n and Mr. C.H.L. Woodward, D i r e c t o r of the M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . 22. The Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B, The Se c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r ' s Report on the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Study of T h o r n h i l l to The Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of  Skeena B, January 14, 1970. 23. I b i d . 24. The Terrace Omenica H e r a l d , February 11, 1970. 25. The Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B, Minutes of the Board of D i r e c t o r s Meeting on February 11, 1970. 26. Based on correspondence dated May 25, 1970 from W i l l i s , C u n l i f f e and T a i t , E n g i n e e r i n g Consultants to the Chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n . 27. Based on corrrespondence dated August 14, 1970 from Mr. J . Pousette, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Skeena B to the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Water Resources, Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources. 28. I b i d . 29. Terrace Omenica Herald, October 26, 1970. 30. Based on the p e t i t i o n and accompanying l e t t e r dated November 2, 1970 from the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n to T h o r n h i l l e l e c t o r s , 31. Terrace_Omenica Herald, November 4, 1970. 32. Based on correspondence dated November 3, 1970 from the Chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n to Mr. J . - I 3 k -The Terrace Omenica Herald I b i d . The Terrace Omenica Herald The Terrace Omenica Herald The Terrace Omenica Herald Fousette, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . 33. I b i d . 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. I b i d . 4 0 . Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Minutes of the p u b l i c meeting h e l d on June 29» 1972. 41. Based on correspondence dated J u l y 5 i 1972 from Mr. R. Lowrie and others, to Mr. J . Pousette, S e c r e t a r y -Treasurer of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . 42. I b i d . 4 3 . Based on correspondence dated J u l y 11, 1972 from Mr. J . Pousette, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to Mr. T. P o l l a r d , Chief of Improvement D i s t r i c t s , Water Rights Branch. 44. The Terrace Omenica H e r a l d , August 16, 1972. 4 5 . I b i d . 46. Based on correspondence dated August 18, 1972 from Mr. C. Cleve, Chairman of the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee of the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n to Mr. A.O. Ferguson, Inspector of Improvement D i s t r i c t s , Water Rights Branch. k 7 « The Terrace Omenica H e r a l d , September 13, 1972. 48. The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Minutes of the Board of D i r e c t o r s meeting of September 26, 1972. 49. Based on correspondence dated October 6, 1972 from Mr. J . Pousette, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e to the C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , Water Rights Branch. 50. I b i d . - 135 -51. Based on correspondence dated October 3, 1972 from the Comptroller of Water Rights to Mr. J . Pousette, Secretary-Treasuer of the Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . 52. The Terrace Omenica Herald, September 26, 1972. 53» Based on the p e t i t i o n and accompanying correspondence dated October 6, 1972 from the Chairman of the Queensway Water Improvement I n c o r p o r a t i o n Committee to the C o m p t r o l ler of Water Ri g h t s , Water Rights Branch. 54. The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , The T h o r n h i l l A d v i s o r y Planning Commission, Report on the Proposed  Zoning By-Law, May 4, 1973. 55. The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Minutes of the Meeting of the S p e c i a l T h o r n h i l l P l a n n i n g Committee, May 4, 1973. 56. I b i d . 57. The Terrace Omenica Herald, June 5, 1973. 58. I b i d . 59. The Terrace Omenica Herald, June 27. 1973. 60. I b i d . 61. Based on correspondence dated J u l y 3» 1973 from the Hon. J . Lorimer, M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to Mr. Dubnick, Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . 62. I b i d . 63. Based on correspondence dated J u l y 17, 1973 from Mr. E. C l i f t , A c t i n g Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t M n e to the Hon. J . Lorimer, M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . 64. The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , By-Laws # 26 - 29. 65. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , N otice of the Result of the Referenda, November 17, 1973. 66. The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , The Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , A p r i l 5, 1974. - 136 -67. The Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , The Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , May 24, 1974. 68. I t oust be noted t h a t only the by-lav/ e n a b l i n g T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s h a r i n g of the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of the Terrace Arena and Swimming Pool complex came as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n i -t i a t i v e of T h o r n h i l l r e s i d e n t s . The by-law making T h o r n h i l l a s p e c i f i e d area f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d by the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s while the by-lav; making T h o r n h i l l a s p e c i f i e d area f o r sharing i n the o p e r a t i o n a l costs of the Terrace P u b l i c L i b r a r y v/as made the Terrace P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board. The by-law which made T h o r n h i l l a s p e c i f i e d area i n order to r a i s e funds to complete the Thorn-h i l l Community H a l l was i n i t i a t e d by the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . 137 -CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS OF THE CASE STUDY - 137a-6 .1 Models of P o l i t i c a l Development Since i t has "been hypothesized that the present i n c o r p o r a t i o n process does not f a c i l i t a t e community p o l i t i c a l development, i t must be i n d i c a t e d what community p o l i t i c a l development c o n s i s t s of, how T h o r n h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l development was impeded by the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process and f i n a l l y why t h i s was the case. In order to suggest what community p o l i t i c a l develop-ment c o n s i s t s of, t h i s chapter examines ( i ) the nature of developmental models i n gen e r i c terms, ( i i ) Easton's model of the p o l i t i c a l system upon which much of the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l development has been based, ( i i i ) the t h e o r i e s of p o l i t i c a l development which have been proposed on the macro or n a t i o n a l l e v e l (due to the f a c t t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with p o l i t i c a l development at the urban or community l e v e l has been s p a r s e ) , and ( i v ) the t h e o r i e s of p o l i t i c a l development which have been proposed on the micro o r community l e v e l . To suggest how T h o r n h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l development has been impeded by the I n a b i l i t y of the community to assume a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e , T h o r n h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l development p r i o r to the a c t u a l assumption of a p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s contrasted w i t h a generic model of p o l i t i c a l development model i n p e r i p h e r a l communities based on the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. To i n d i c a t e reasons why T h o r n h i l l f a i l e d to assume. i a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e , Easton's model of the p o l i t i c a l - 138 -system i s adapted to the T h o r n h i l l community to indicate how the assumption of established municipal forms may not be conducive to the development of the community p o l i t i c a l system. 6.1.1 Development Models - A Generic Overview Chin has defined development models as those bod-ies of thought that center around growth and d i r e c t i o n a l change. He maintains that a development model assumes that (i) there are noticeable differences between states of a system at d i f f e r e n t times, ( i i ) the succession of these states implies that the system i s heading somewhere, and ( i i i ) there are orderly processes which explain how a sys-tem gets from i t s present state to wherever i t i s going,''" Huntington has maintained, however, that the focus on suc-cession and maturation of a system has often overlooked the fact that a system capable of growth and development i s also 2 capable of decay and d e t e r i o r a t i o n . To indicate more p r e c i s e l y what assumptions devel-opment models make, Chin makes use of the concepts of " d i -re c t i o n " , "state", "force", "form of progression" and " p o t e n t i a l i t y " . Chin claims that development models postulate that a system exhibits mobility which i s t e l e o l o g i c a l i n nature. The d i r e c t i o n s of a mobile system may be defined as (i) some goal or end state, ( i i ) the process of becoming, or ( i i i ) the degree of achievement toward some goal or end s t a t e . J I t i s also postulated by development models that t h i s t e l e o l o g i c a l - 139 -m o b i l i t y occurs i n i d e n t i f i a b l e s t a t e s or phases which may be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another "by way of i d e n t i f y i n g t u r n i n g p o i n t s , t r a n s i t i o n a l areas or c r i t i c a l events which c h a r a c t e r i z e the change. Fundamental to the concept of the development model i s the n o t i o n of f o r c e which permits or induces change to oc-cur. The term f o r c e , however, does not le n d i t s e l f to a gen-e r i c d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the reason t h a t the f o r c e of a system may o r i g i n a t e from a v a r i e t y of sources depending on the na-ture of the system which the development model i s attempting to d e s c r i b e . For example, a b i o l o g i c a l system may d e r i v e i t s f o r c e from n a t u r a l chemical r e a c t i o n s such as photosynthesis wh i l e a s o c i a l system may d e r i v e i t s f o r c e from s t r e s s caused by the i n t e r a c t i o n of the system w i t h i t s environment. Work w i t h developing systems has r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of f o u r b a s i c forms of p r o g r e s s i o n which d e v e l -oping systems tend t o assume. These f o u r b a s i c forms of ' p r o g r e s s i o n i n c l u d e i ( i ) the p r o g r e s s i o n through one stage to which the system w i l l never again r e g r e s s t o ; ( i i ) p r o g r e s s i o n i n a s p i r a l form where although the system may r e t u r n to a previous s t a t e , i t w i l l pass through i t i n a more advanced s t a t e j ( i i i ) p r o g r e s s i o n i n which a system moves through stages which occur and reoccur i n a c y c l i c a l f a s h i o m ( i v ) p r o g r e s s i o n which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a branching out of the system i n d i f f e r e n t i -a t e d forms and processes with each p a r t i n -c r e a s i n g i t s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , 5 - 140 -Chin s t a t e s that development models also v ary i n t h e i r assumptions about the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of a system f o r development, growth and change. Systems may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as possessing e i t h e r l a t e n t l y o r o v e r t l y the p o t e n t i a l i t y f o r change or they may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as systems which do not possess such p o t e n t i a l . 6 . 1 . 2 P o l i t i c a l Systems As Chin has i n d i c a t e d , a model of development i s only p o s s i b l e where the s t r u c t u r e of what i s to be explained-i n developmental terms i s known. Without such a s t r u c t u r e , there .is no b a s i s upon which to measure change. For, without a knowledge of what d i d e x i s t , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e what d i d e x i s t to what e x i s t s i n the present. For t h i s reason, i t i s necessary to suggest a model of a p o l i t i c a l system before a model of p o l i t i c a l development can be suggested. The a p p l i c a t i o n of general systems theory to p o l -i t i c a l phenomena was f i r s t proposed by Easton i n which he 7 attempted to view p o l i t i c a l phenomena as a system of behavior. Although Easton v i s u a l i z e d the p o l i t i c a l system of a s o c i e t y as a subsystem o f the g r e a t e r s o c i a l system, he n e v e r t h e l e s s suggested t h a t a d i s c e r n i b l e boundary d i d e x i s t which d e l i -neated s o c i a l phenomena from p o l i t i c a l phenomena, although i t was a l s o suggested that t h i s boundary was not c l e a r as the g boundaries of p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l systems. The s o c i a l phenomena not considered by Easton to be p a r t o f the p o l i t i c a l system were to be seen as the environment of the p o l i t i c a l system. - 141 -Easton suggests t h a t the components of a p o l i t i c a l system are not e n t i t i e s such as s o c i a l groups or i n d i v i d u a l s but the i n t e r a c t i o n of these s o c i a l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s when they have assumed p o l i t i c a l r o l e s . ' ' I t i s a l s o suggeste by Easton th a t these p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s need not e x c l u -s i v e l y occur between what are p e r c e i v e d to be e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as l e g i s l a t u r e s , e x e c u t i v e s , e t c . but may a l s o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p r i m i t i v e groups i n which the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and processes are not as d i f f e r e n t i -ated as are those of the western n a t i o n s . Almond has claimed th a t such u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t r u c t u r e s as k i n s h i p , l i n e a g e , and s t a t u s , as w e l l as anomic phenomena such as u p r i s i n g s and r i o t s , may be considered as i n c l u d e d i n the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e when these s t r u c t u r e s and phenomena present them-selv e s i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a s p ects. Easton's p o s i t i o n of viewing the components of a p o l i t i c a l system as the i n t e r a c t i o n of p o l i t i c a l r o l e s , p l a c e s him i n the p o s i t i o n of having to define what i s meant by a p o l i t i c a l r o l e or what c o n s t i t u t e s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n H i s d e f i n i t i o n suggests t h a t p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n may be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from other types of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h a t p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s are predominantly o r i e n t e d toward the a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n of values f o r a society."'""'' Easton d e f i n e s a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n s as those a l l o c a t i o n s which ( i ) may deprive a person of a valued t h i n g a l r e a d y possessed, ( i i ) may o b s t r u c t the attainment of values which would other-wise have been obtained, or ( i i i ) may give some person - 142 -1 p access to values and deny them to others. A p o l i c y i s authoritative, Easton claims, when the f e e l i n g p r e v a i l s that i t must be or ought to be obeyed, or, when persons oriented 13 toward i t consider they are bound by i t . J This d e f i n i t i o n , however, forces Easton to d i f f e r -entiate between the "legitimate" p o l i t i c a l system of the entire society and the p o l i c a l systems of s o c i e t a l subsystems i n which the i d e n t i c a l process of authoritative a l l o c a t i o n i s present. Easton's defence suggests that what i s being considered are not p a r a p o l i t i c a l systems but the p o l i t i c a l system of the entire society. The differences which e x i s t between the p o l i -t i c a l system of the entire society and the p a r a p o l i t i c a l systems of s o c i e t a l subsystems are f i r s t l y the f a c t that p a r a p o l i t i c a l systems are only concerned with authoritative a l l o c a t i o n s within the subsystem and secondly that p a r a p o l i t i c a l systems do not possess the scope and breadth of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which characterize the p o l i t i c a l system of the greater society nor do they possess the a b i l i t y to act on behalf of the greater 14 society. Easton therefore delineates the boundaries of a p o l i t i c a l system as that set of int e r a c t i o n s , abstracted from the t o t a l i t y of s o c i a l behavior through which values are au t h o r i t a t i v e l y .allocated f o r a society.~*" 5 Although Easton suggests that the p o l i t i c a l system can be distinguished from the s o c i a l system (which becomes i t s environment), he claims that the p o l i t i c a l system i s - 143 -not a closed system but one which enters i n t o an exchange 16 or symbiotic process w i t h i t s environment. This exchange process may be d i v i d e d i n t o three phases which i n c l u d e the 17 input phase, the conversion phase and the output phase. ' The input and output phases d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e the environment of the p o l i t i c a l system whereas the conversion process can be 18 s a i d to be i n t e r n a l to the p o l i t i c a l system. Almond i d e n t i f i e s two types of inputs i n t o the p o l i t i c a l system from the environment of the system which include demands placed on the p o l i t i c a l system and supports 19 o f f e r e d f o r the maintenance of the p o l i t i c a l system,, Demand inputs may be c l a s s i f i e d as ( i ) demands f o r goods and s e r v i c e s , ( i i ) demands f o r r e g u l a t i o n of behavior such as the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c s a f e t y , ( i i i ) demands f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l -i t i c a l system, such as the r i g h t ID h o l d o f f i c e , the r i g h t to vote, the r i g h t to organize p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , or the r i g h t to p e t i t i o n , and ( i v ) demands f o r symbolic outputs such 20 as d i s p l a y s of majesty i n periods o f t h r e a t . Support i n -puts in c l u d e ( i ) m a t e r i a l s supports such as the payment of taxes, ( i i ) obedience to laws and r e g u l a t i o n s , ( i i i ) p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , such as v o t i n g , forming o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e t c . , and ( i v ) manife s t a t i o n s of deference to p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y , symbols • -1 21 and ceremonials. The outputs of the p o l i t i c a l system tend to be c o r r e l a t e d to the supports which e n t e r the p o l i t i c a l system and may or may not be responsive to the demands placed on the - 144 -p o l i t i c a l system. The outputs of a p o l i t i c a l system, according to Almond, i n c l u d e ( i ) e x t r a c t i o n s , which may take the form of t r i b u t e , taxes, e t c . , ( i i ) r e g u l a t i o n of behavior which may take a v a r i e t y of forms as w e l l as a d i v e r s i t y i n scope, ( i i i ) a l l o c a t i o n or d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods, s e r v i c e s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s , honours, e t c . , and (iv) symbolic outputs i n -c l u d i n g the a f f i r m a t i o n of values, d i s p l a y s o f p o l i t i c a l 22 symbols, statements of p o l i c i e s , e t c . Almond has suggested t h a t these i n p u t s may d e r i v e from three sources which on the macro o r n a t i o n a l l e v e l may inclu d e the domestic s o c i e t y , the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s o r the 23 i n t e r n a t i o n a l environment. J Easton has claimed t h a t the inputs to the p o l i t i c a l system d e r i v e b a s i c a l l y from two sources which i n c l u d e s the i n t r a - s o c i e t a l environment and 24 the e x t r a - s o c i e t a l environment. Included i n the i n t r a -s o c i e t a l environment are s o c i a l systems, p e r s o n a l i t y systems, b i o l o g i c a l systems and e c o l o g i c a l systems whereas the e x t r a -s o c i e t a l environment i n c l u d e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l s y s -tems, i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o l o g i c a l systems, and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l s y s t e m s . 2 5 Almond maintains t h a t there e x i s t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the demands which are made on the p o l i t i c a l systems and the supports which accrue to the p o l i t i c a l system. The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a supportive one i n which demands which de r i v e from outside o r i n s i d e the p o l i t i c a l system are sup-ported by the resources made a v a i l a b l e by the supportive Figure 1 A S i m p l i f i e d Model of a P o l i t i c a l System I N P U T S DEMANDS SUPPORT THE POLITICAL SYSTEM DECISIONS AND ACTIONS 0 U T P U T S -P-Source: D. Easton, A Framework For P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , 1965, p. 112. - 146 -26 i n p u t s to b r i n g the implementation of p o l i c y about. The a c t u a l conversion of i n p u t s i n t o ouputs i s accomplished i n Easton's model by the s t r u c t u r e s of the p o l i t i c a l system no matter how simple and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d these may be. The demands which e n t e r the p o l i t i c a l system are a r t i c u l a t e d , and aggregated, converted i n t o p o l i c y r u l e s 2 7 and r e g u l a t i o n s and are a p p l i e d , enforced and a d j u d i c a t e d . ' Figure 1 i n d i c a t e s the f l o w of i n p u t s to the conversion process and the r e s u l t a n t flow of outputs from the conversion process as conceived by Easton's model of the p o l i t i c a l system. Almond has proposed a s i x f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the conversion f u n c t i o n s which he claims c o n s i s t of ( i ) the a r t i c u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s o r demands, ( i i ) the aggregation o r combination of i n t e r e s t s i n t o p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s , ( i i i ) the conversion of p o l i c y proposals i n t o a u t h o r i t a t i v e r u l e s , ( i v ) the a p p l i c a t i o n of general r u l e s to p a r t i c u l a r cases, (v) the a d j u d i c a t i o n of g e n e r a l r u l e s i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, and ( v i ) the t r a n s m i s s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about these events w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l system from s t r u c t u r e to s t r u c t u r e and between the p o l i t i c a l system and i t s s o c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l environments. When the input flows have a - p a r t i c u l a r range of content and l e v e l of magnitude such t h a t the e x i s t i n g s t r u c -ture of the p o l i t i c a l system can cope w i t h them, the p o l i t i c a l system can be described as being i n e q u i l i b r i u m . However, should the system be s u b j e c t to an i n c r e a s e d s t a t e of s t r e s s - 147 -r e s u l t i n g from e i t h e r an increase i n the magnitude and d i v e r s i t y of demands or f a l l i n g support, the p o l i t i c a l system responds i n a number of ways. Easton claims t h a t the p o l i t i c a l system may be exposed to s t r e s s from demand i n two ways. F i r s t l y , the a u t h o r i t i e s o r s t r u c t u r e s e n t r u s t e d w i t h the conversion pro-cess may be u n w i l l i n g or unable to meet the demands of the members of the p o l i t i c a l system causing i n c r e a s i n g d i s c o n t e n t 29 among the membership. 7 This i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of the s t r u c t u r e of the p o l i t i c a l system to meet the demands placed on i t i s termed output f a i l u r e by Easton. Secondly, the v a r i e t y and number of demands made on the p o l i t i c a l system may cause a breakdown i n the e f f i c i e n c y 30 of the p o l i t i c a l system to produce the a n t i c i p a t e d outputs.^ Easton claims t h a t t h i s input overload i s due to the f a c t t h a t no system i s able to accept and process the u n l i m i t e d number of demands placed on i t . The r e g u l a t i o n of t h i s demand s t r e s s by the p o l i t i c a l system i s brought about by the f a c t that ( i ) not a l l s o c i a l wants and hopes are v o i c e d as proposals f o r i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n by the p o l i t i c a l system, ( i i ) c u l t u r a l r e s t r a i n t s p r o h i b i t the u n l i m i t e d use of the p o l i t i c a l system by con-veying which demands are p o l i t i c a l and which are not, and ( i i i ) by the f a c t t h a t the p o l i t i c a l system may engage i n processes by which the i n i t i a l volume of demands i s reduced 311 before the conversion process i s i n i t i a t e d . - 148 -J u s t as the system responds to s t r e s s caused by i n c r e a s i n g demands, so too the system responds to f a l l i n g support. Easton s t a t e s t h a t the r e g u l a t i o n of support by the p o l i t i c a l system occurs by way of three mechanisms. The most r a d i c a l approach to the r e g u l a t i o n of support i n v o l v e s the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the s t r u c t u r e s and processes which c h a r a c t e r i z e the p o l i t i c a l system. A somewhat l e s s r a d i c a l r e g u l a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s the procurement of what Easton c a l l s d i f f u s e support. D i f f u s e support i s e s t a b l i s h e d by way of p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n whereby the system encourages the sentiments of l e g i t i m a c y and compliance of the members to 32 assure i t s support of the members. Yet a t h i r d method of pr o c u r i n g support i s accomplished by the u t i l i z a t i o n of 33 outputs to a t t a i n s p e c i f i c supports. J A system which i s threatened by low support may produce b e n e f i t s f o r s p e c i f i c components of the p o l i t i c a l system i n r e t u r n f o r s p e c i f i c supports. A t h i r d source of s t r e s s f o r a p o l i t i c a l system occurs i n regard to i t s - o u t p u t s . I f the outputs are to have any impact on support, they must be able to meet the e x i s t i n g 34 or a n t i c i p a t e d demands of the members of the system.-' I f the system does not modify the c o n d i t i o n s which give r i s e to the demands, only l i m i t e d and perhaps no support w i l l be forthcoming from the environment. Easton claims t h a t the c a p a c i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system to respond to s t r e s s d e r i v e s from two c e n t r a l processes - 149 -which are inherent i n the system. These i n c l u d e the process whereby i n f o r m a t i o n about the s t a t e of the system i s com-municated back to the a u t h o r i t i e s i n d u c i n g them to e i t h e r maintain the s t a t e of a f f a i r s or to change i t by r e l e v e n t 35 p o l i c y outputs. ^ For t h i s feedback process to be e f f e c t i v e , i t must make evident to the p o l i t i c a l system ( i ) the con-d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the environment and the p o l i t i c a l system i t s e l f so t h a t the c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n may a c t as a base on which p r e d i c t i o n s can be made, ( i i ) the p r e v a i l i n g s u pportive s t a t e of mind of i t s members as w e l l as t h e i r demands, and ( i i i ) the impact which outputs have already had on the environment. 3^ 1 I t i s t h i s process of feedback, Easton c l a i m s , which allows the p o l i t i c a l system to behave as a s e l f regu-37 l a t i n g and s e l f d i r e c t i n g s e t of behaviours. 6.1.3 P o l i t i c a l Development - The Macro L e v e l On a general l e v e l , p o l i t i c a l development has been described as that process by which a p o l i t i c a l system acquires an incr e a s e d c a p a c i t y to s u s t a i n s u c c e s s f u l l y and continuously new types of goals and demands. 3^ To meet these new goals and demands, a p o l i t i c a l system must also have the a b i l i t y to create new types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s 39 to generate outputs to meet these demands. y Almond has defined p o l i t i c a l development as the a c q u i s i t i o n by p o l i t i c a l systems of "a new c a p a b i l i t y i n the sense of a s p e c i a l i z e d r o l e s t r u c t u r e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o r i e n t a t i o n which together, give a p o l i t i c a l system the a b i l i t y of responding e f f i c i e n t l y , - 150 -and more or l e s s autonomously, to a new range of problems."^ 0 Other i n d i c e s which have been proposed to measure p o l i t i c a l development have been numerous, K a r l Deutsch has evolved s i x c r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the growth of a p o l i t i c a l system. These i n c l u d e the ( i ) growth of manpower inc l u d e d i n the system and i t s c a p a b i l i t y f o r a c t i o n , ( i i ) economic growth of the p o l i t i c a l system w i t h p a r t i c u l a r em-phasis on the r a t e of growth, ( i i i ) o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e r v e s of the system or the a v a i l a b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l and human r e -sources f o r recommitment to new uses, ( i v ) growth of auto-nomy or s e l f determination which i n c l u d e s the growth, range, speed, and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n t e r n a l communication which i n t u r n produces a b e t t e r s t e e r i n g performance of the system, (v) a b i l i t y of the system to r e s i s t the trend toward s e l f preoccupation and eventual s e l f immolation from i t s en-vironment which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the enlargement of the system, and ( v i ) a b i l i t y of the system to change i t s g o a l s , ^ Pye has l i s t e d t e n p o s s i b l e i n d i c e s f o r d i s c e r n i n g p o l i t i -c a l development. These define p o l i t i c a l development as ( i ) a p o l i t i c a l p r e r e q u i s i t e of economic development where p o l i -t i c a l development i s measured i n respect to the r a t e or l e v e l of economic development, ( i i ) a type of p o l i t i c s t y p i c a l of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s where p o l i t i c a l 'development i s meas-ured i n respect to the type of p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e which i n -d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s possess, ( i i i ) p o l i t i c a l modernization where p o l i t i c a l development i s measured i n respect to the type of p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e which i s i n vogue wi t h the - 151 -modern s o c i e t i e s , ( i v ) a f u n c t i o n of a n a t i o n s t a t e to perform i n accordance w i t h the standards expected from a modern n a t i o n s t a t e by other n a t i o n s t a t e s , (v) the d e v e l -opment of l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e development where p o l i -t i c a l development i s measured by the degree to which a na-t i o n s t a t e has achieved order and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y by o r d e r l y l e g a l processes as w e l l as a bureaucracy and p u b l i c admini-s t r a t i o n to maintain t h i s l e g a l process, ( v i ) mass m o b i l i -z a t i o n where p o l i t i c a l development i s measured i n terms of the degree i n which c i t i z e n l o y a l t y and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s present i n the p o l i t i c a l system, ( v i i ) the b u i l d i n g of democracy where p o l i t i c a l development i s viewed as a f u n c t i o n of the degree to which the i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s of s o c i e t i e s are democratic, ( v i i i ) s t a b i l i t y and o r d e r l y change where the measure of p o l i t i c a l development i s based on the c a p a c i t y of a s o c i e t y to engage i n p u r p o s e f u l and o r d e r l y change, ( i x ) m o b i l i z a t i o n and pov/er where p o l i t i c a l development i s evaluated i n terms of the degree of absolute power which the n a t i o n i s able to m o b i l i z e , and (x) one as-pect of a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l process of s o c i a l change where the s t a t e of the s o c i a l order and economy are i n d i c e s f o r 42 measuring the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l development. Although Pye suggests t h a t there i s no consensus on what i n d i c e s should be u t i l i z e d to measure p o l i t i c a l development, he claims t h a t three i n d i c e s have g e n e r a l l y been accepted as proper. The f i r s t of these three i n d i c e s maintains t h a t - 152 -p o l i t i c a l development i s , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the concept of e q u a l i t y which e n t a i l s ( i ) mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n and popular involvement i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which Pye suggests may be e i t h e r democratic or i n the form of t o t a l i t a r i a n m o b i l i -z a t i o n , ( i i ) u n i v e r s a l i s t i c and a s c e r t a i n a b l e laws, and ( i i i ) that p o l i t i c a l r ecruitment f o r p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e should be on the b a s i s of m e r i t r a t h e r than on the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l system. J Diamant has claimed t h a t i n order to s u s t a i n new goals and demands, which he assumes to be a measure of p o l i t i c a l development, the p o l i t i c a l system must d i s t r i b u t e p o l i t i c a l power so t h a t u l t i m a t e l y a l l i n d i -v i d u a l s and groups w i l l be e n t i t l e d to be consulted by the p o l i c y makers i n some form. A second index f o r the measurement of p o l i t i c a l development which has g e n e r a l l y been accepted as a l e g i t i m a t e index has been the c a p a c i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system to produce outputs which can a f f e c t the r e s t of the s o c i e t y and economy. Pye s t a t e s t h a t the c a p a c i t y of a p o l i t i c a l system e n t a i l s the sheer magnitude, scope and s c a l e of p o l i t i c a l and govern-mental performance. J I t i s assumed t h a t more developed p o l i t i c a l systems are able to accomplish a l o t more and touch upon a wider v a r i e t y of social l i f e than are l e s s developed 46 p o l i t i c a l systems. Almond has presented a more r e f i n e d framework f o r the measurement of a p o l i t i c a l system's c a p a c i t y . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of c a p a b i l i t y , which Almond deriv e s from the inputs - 153 -and outputs of a p o l i t i c a l system, i n c l u d e the e x t r a c t i v e , the r e g u l a t i v e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e , the symbolic and the respon-s i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s . ' The e x t r a c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y i s the measure of the range of performance of the p o l i t i c a l system i n drawing m a t e r i a l as w e l l as human resources from the domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l environments. This c a p a b i l i t y , suggests Almond, may be crudely estimated q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , as a propor-t i o n of the n a t i o n a l product the v a r i a t i o n s of which could be measured over time. ' The c a p a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system to r e g u l a t e r e f e r s to the san c t i o n s which the p o l i t i c a l system i s able to e xert over the behavior of the system's components. 5 0 This c a p a c i t y , suggests Almond, i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y although some measure of the magnitude of the r e g u l a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y could be obtained by concerning o n e s e l f w i t h the objects of r e g u l a t i o n , the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of regu-l a t i o n and the l i m i t s of to l e r a n c e of l i m i t a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system r e f e r s to the system's a b i l i t y to a l l o c a t e goods, s e r v i c e s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and s t a t u t e s , e t c . , to the components of the p o l i t i c a l system. y Although again measurement i s d i f f i c u l t , Almond claims t h a t such s t r u c t u r e s as the tax s t r u c t u r e , the welfa r e and educa-t i o n a l programs, e t c . , lend themselves to the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g the d i s t r i b u t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of a p o l i t i c a l system. J Almond claims t h a t not only do these three capa-- 154 -b i l i t i e s taken s e p a r a t e l y lend themselves to the task of e s t i m a t i n g the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l development a p o l i t i c a l system has undergone, but that the three c a p a b i l i t i e s combined, produce a developmental p a t t e r n . For example, an e x t r a c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s i m p l i e s some r e g u l a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; a r e g u l a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y i m p l i e s an e x t r a c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y i n order to gain resources which i t then r e g u l a t e s . 5 5 The presence of a r e g u l a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y , i n turn, r e q u i r e s that a d i s t r i -b u t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y i s p r e s e n t . 5 ^ The s i m p l e s t p o l i t i c a l system, s t a t e d Almond, i s the e x t r a c t i v e system f o r the reason t h a t i t does not re q u i r e the f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as i s re q u i r e d of p o l i t i c a l systems which engage i n e x t r a c t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . ' The symbolic c a p a b i l i t y , suggests Almond, i s the rate at which a system can produce an e f f e c t i v e symbole flow i n t o the domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l environments. Almond suggests that the responsive c a p a b i l i t y i s the c a p a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system to produce outputs which p a c i f y the demands or inputs i n t o the system. y I f outputs do not co i n c i d e w i t h i n p u t s , the responsive c a p a b i l -i t y of the system may be s a i d to be poor w h i l e i f the outputs are i n d i r e c t response to i n p u t s , the-responsive c a p a b i l i t y of the system may be s a i d to be good. The f i f t h c a p a b i l i t y of a p o l i t i c a l system i s the system's a b i l i t y to maintain supports. The i n d i c e s which Almond proposes to measure t h i s c a p a b i l i t y are ( i ) the r e l a -- 155 -t i o n s h i p of the resources which are e x t r a c t e d from the environment to the resources which the p o l i t i c a l system produces f o r the environment, ( i i ) the obedience accorded i n r e l a t i o n to the obedience r e q u i r e d , ( i i i ) the r e l a t i o n s h i p of what a l l o c a t i o n s occur to what a l l o c a t i o n s are expected, and ( i v ) the responsiveness of the environment to the symbol 60 outputs of the system. To measure the support aspect of c a p a b i l i t y , Almond suggests t h a t ( i ) the support performance of the environment may be estimated and ( i i ) the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e may be probed to a s c e r t a i n what the support p o s s i -, . , . , . _ 6 l b i l i t i e s are. A t h i r d index f o r p o l i t i c a l development which has been g e n e r a l l y agreed upon i s t h a t p o l i t i c a l development i s l i n k e d to the process of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s . Pye s t a t e s that synonomous w i t h increased d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n there i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d fun-c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y of the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l r o l e s . Pye, however, maintains th a t the s p e c i f i c i t y of p o l i t i c a l r o l e s does make i m p l i c i t t h a t the p o l i t i c a l system has achieved a measure of p o l i t i c a l development. Rather, i t i s the i n t e -g r a t i o n of these r o l e s and s t r u c t u r e s which i s a measure of 62 p o l i t i c a l development. 6.1 .4 P o l i t i c a l Development at the L o c a l Government L e v e l  Almond has suggested t h a t p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s are to be viewed as u n i v e r s a l , t h a t i s , they are c a r r i e d out i n . - 156-p r i m i t i v e as w e l l as "advanced" s o c i e t i e s . However, to suggest that the same p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s which e x i s t on the l e v e l of n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l systems also e x i s t at the l e v e l of community p o l i t i c a l systems would only be p a r t i a l l y accurate. Although community p o l i t i c a l systems e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l process as do n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l system ( i . e . , the system draws i n p u t s , converts them i n t o p o l i c i e s and implements these p o l i c i e s ) , the f a c t t h a t a community p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s a subsystem of l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l systems places l i m i t a t i o n s on the a s s e r t i o n that the same dynamics which occur at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l a l s o occur at the community l e v e l . The major d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t a com-munity p o l i t i c a l system i n most western n a t i o n s at l e a s t , i s not only bound to a s m a l l e r t e r r i t o r y than a n a t i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l system i n which i t s l e g i s l a t i o n i s b i n d i n g , but a l s o has l i m i t a t i o n s placed on the su b j e c t s and ex e r c i s e of i t s powers ( i f i t i s a s t a t u t o r y m u n i c i p a l cor-p o r a t i o n ) . For t h i s reason, the inputs of the environment i n t o the p o l i t i c a l system of a community d i f f e r from the inputs which would enter a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l system. Since the c i t i z e n s of the community are aware t h a t the community p o l i t i c a l system i s l i m i t e d both i n respect to the areas i n which i t may l e g i s l a t e as w e l l as the f i n a n c i a l supports i t may e x t r a c t , only c e r t a i n demands are made on the community p o l i t i c a l system and only c e r t a i n supports o f f e r e d . - 157 -The a c t u a l f u n c t i o n s of the conversion process, however, are s i m i l a r at the l e v e l of the community p o l i t i -c a l system to those at the l e v e l of the n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l system, although d i f f e r e n c e s may e x i s t i n the degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s and functions which have occurred at both l e v e l s . The same processes of ( i ) a r t i c u -l a t i o n of demands, ( i i ) aggregation of these demands i n t o p o l i c y proposals, ( i i i ) conversion of p o l i c y proposals i n t o a u t h o r i t a t i v e r u l e s , ( i v ) a p p l i c a t i o n of general r u l e s to p a r t i c u l a r cases, (v) a d j u d i c a t i o n of r u l e s i n i n d i v i d u a l cases and ( v i ) transm i s s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about these events from s t r u c t u r e to s t r u c t u r e and from system to environment, occur at the l e v e l of the community p o l i t i c a l system as w e l l as at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . In respect to outputs, i t i s obvious that s i n c e the demands placed on the community p o l i t i c a l system d i f f e r from those placed on more encompassing p o l i t i c a l systems that outputs w i l l a l s o d i f f e r . Since the n a t i o n a l or pro-v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l system i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a greater number and v a r i e t y of demands, a greater magnitutde of supports should be expected than f o r a community p o l i t i c a l system. I t i s suggested that s i n c e community p o l i t i c a l systems d i f f e r from n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l systems only i n q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e , terms i n respect to inputs and outputs an'1 not i n terms of system f u n c t i o n s , i t should be p o s s i b l e to adopt a number of i n d i c e s Revised f o r the - 158 -understanding of p o l i t i c a l development at the n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l l e v e l to the l e v e l of the community p o l i t i c a l system. Although i t may he p o s s i b l e to adopt a number of Pye's i n d i c e s to the development of a community p o l i t i c a l system, three are of importance. The f i r s t i s the index of e q u a l i t y which suggests t h a t p o l i t i c a l development i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to ( i ) the l e v e l of mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n and popular involvement i n the p o l i t i c a l system, ( i i ) the presence of u n i v e r s a l i s t i c laws which are a s c e r t a i n a b l e and a p p l i c a b l e to a l l , and ( i i i ) the process of p o l i t i c a l r ecruitment i n which m e r i t r a t h e r than the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l system p r e v a i l s . ^ A second index i s t h a t of c a p a b i l i t y which Almond has elaborated upon. This index suggests t h a t p o l i t i c a l development i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c a p a b i l i t y of the p o l i -t i c a l system ( i ) to e x t r a c t m a t e r i a l s and human resources from i t s environment, ( i i ) to r e g u l a r behavior of the p o l i t i c a l system and i t s environment, ( i i i ) to a l l o c a t e goods and s e r -v i c e s , e t c . , to groups and i n d i v i d u a l s of the s o c i e t y , ( i v ) to a l l o w f o r a flow of symbols to the environment, and (v) 64 to be responsive to the demands of the environment. A t h i r d and f i n a l index which i s u s e f u l i n eva l u -a t i n g the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l development a community p o l i t i c a l system has achieved, suggests t h a t p o l i t i c a l development i s l i n k e d to the process whereby the s t r u c t u r e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s - 159 -of a p o l i t i c a l system become more s p e c i a l i z e d and d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d . 6.1.5 Models of P o l i t i c a l Development at the Urban and Community L e v e l  Two models of community p o l i t i c a l development which w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d to f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e the i n d i c e s adopted to evaluate community p o l i t i c a l development are those of Eyestone and Eulau who have devised a model of p o l i t i c a l development based on the nature of the p o l i c y outputs of c i t y governments, and Wichern e t . a l . who have developed a model of community p o l i t i c a l development based on the l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n which takes place i n a community p o l i -t i c a l system. Eyestone and Eulau c l a i m t h a t a s u i t a b l e measure of the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l development which a p o l i t i c a l system such a c i t y c o u n c i l has achieved, i s to examine the p o l i c y outcomes of the c i t y ' s decision-making process. I t i s claimed by these authors t h a t the nature of the p o l i c y outcomes are i n d i c a t i v e of the degree of p o l i t i c a l development a p o l i t i c a l system has achieved. The c r i t e r i a adopted by Eyestone and E u l a u to estimate the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l development a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y has achieved was to compare the expenditures of the c i t y c o u n c i l on planning and amenities to a median expenditure f o r planning and amenities c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of a number I of c i t i e s i n a s e l e c t e d universe i n which the c i t y under - 1 6 0 -i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a l s o i n c l u d e d . ^ The stages of development assumed "by Eyestone and Eulau to describe the p o l i t i c a l development of c i t i e s were taken from the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l development at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . These adopted stages c o n s i s t e d of a retarded phase, a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase and an advanced stage. A stage was defined by the authors as a p r o f i l e of s i m i l a r p o l i c y outcomes. Those p o l i c y outcomes which d i d not lend themselves to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n terms of the three stages were assigned to two p h a s e s . ^ I f a p o l i c y p r o f i l e f e l l below the medians estab-l i s h e d f o r planning and amenity expenditures, the p r o f i l e was assigned to the retarded stage. I f i t f e l l above the medians of e i t h e r planning o r amenity expenditures, i t was assigned to the t r a n s i t i o n a l phase, w h i l e , i f i t f e l l above both medians i t was considered as belonging to the advanced stage. Eyestone'and Eulau suggest t h a t the process of p o l i t i c a l development i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p r o g r e s s i v e movement from the retarded stage to the advanced stage a l -though r e v e r s a l s i n the process of p o l i t i c a l development are bound to occur p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the two phases. The progression of p u b l i c p o l i c y from the retarded stage to the advanced stage was viewed i n the authors' model as being i n f l u e n c e d by ( i ) l h e resources a v a i l a b l e to the c i t y government, ( i i ) the v i t a l i t y and d i v e r s i t y of the c i t y ' c i v i c o r i n t e r e s t groups i n terms of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n - 161 -the p o l i t i c a l system, ( i i i ) the b i a s e s of the d e c i s i o n -makers themselves, and ( i v ) the s t r e s s e s brought to bear on the p o l i t i c a l system by i t s environment ( i n Eyestone and Eu l a u ' s model, t h i s s t r e s s i s viewed as the growth r a t e and s i z e of the c i t y , although the authors admit there e x i s t numerous other sources of s t r e s s ) . ^ 0 In t h e i r model which attempts to b r i n g order to these v a r i a b l e s , the v a r i a b l e s of c i t y growth and c i t y s i z e are seen as challenges from the environment upon the p o l i -t i c a l system w h i l e the resource c a p a b i l i t i e s of the p o l i t i -c a l system are seen as a c o n s t r a i n t on p o l i c y outcomes,"^ The i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s which mediate between resource c o n s t r a i n t s , c i t y s i z e , c i t y growth and p o l i c y outcomes, are seen as the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the c i t y ' s groups and the b i a s e s of the decision-maker In t h i s model, i t i s assumed t h a t the v a r i a b l e s of c i t y growth, c i t y s i z e , and resource c a p a b i l i t i e s , are anteced-ent or independent v a r i a b l e s , while the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i -a b l e s are seen as dependent. Figure 2 d e s c r i b e s Eyestone and Eulau's model g r a p h i c a l l y . Figure 2 Eyestone and Eulau's Model of the P o l i t i c a l System of a C i t y C i t y Growth, C i t y Size ^ P a r t i c i o a t i o n of Groups , . ' I i x h o l i c ^ > T T •> Output Resource C a p a b i l i t i e s Biases of D e c i s i o n -Makers - 162 -Figure 3 i n d i c a t e s the v a r i o u s combinations these v a r i a b l e ; may assume to produce p o l i c y outcomes which may be subse-quently c h a r a c t e r i z e d as belonging to one of the three stages or one of the two phases. Figure 3 P o s s i b l e Combinations of the V a r i a b l e s of Eyestone and Eulau's Model  Size/Growth Resource C a p a b i l i t y Group L i f e P o l i c y O r i e n t a t i o n s Stage of Development High Large Small Advanced i> T r a n s i t i o n a l ^ Retarded 9» T r a n s i t i o n a l > Advanced S o u r c e i R, Eyestone and H. Eulau."City Councils and Policy Outcomes" , City P o l i t i c s and Public Policy. 1968, P. 52. Wichern e t . a l . , on the b a s i s of t h e i r work on the p o l i t i c a l development of s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities, suggest t h a t p o l i t i c a l development i s a f u n c t i o n of the 7 3 ' l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community, ^ I t i s maintained t h a t an increase i n the l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i -c i p a t i o n y i e l d s an increase i n the scope and r o l e of govern-ment i n the community which i n t u r n has an impact on the 7k nature of the p o l i c y outputs. Wichern e t . a l . c l a i m t h a t there e x i s t s an observ-able process of p o l i t i c a l development v/hich can be t r a c e d - 163 -through three d i s t i n c t stages and two phases. Wichern e t . al_.'s d e f i n i t i o n of stage and phase are taken from Eye-stone and Eulau's d e f i n i t i o n which suggests t h a t a stage i a p e r i o d of s i m i l a r p o l i c y outcomes whereas a phase i s a pe r i o d of ob s e r v a t i o n i n which the p o l i c y outcomes are suf f i c i e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r so that the p e r i o d cannot be assigned 75 to one of the three stages. The three stages used by Wichern e t . al_. to describe the process of p o l i t i c a l devel opment i n c l u d e the undeveloped stage which corresponds to Eyestone and Eulau's r e t a r d e d stage, the t r a n s i t i o n a l stag and the developed stage which i s the equ i v a l e n t of Eye-stone and Eulau's advanced stage. Figure 4 i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these stages and phases of community p o l i -t i c a l development as conceived by Wichern e t . a l . F i g u r e 4 Wichern e t . a l . ' s Model of Community P o l i t i c a l Development  Stage #1 Stage #2 Stage #3 (Undeveloped) ( T r a n s i t i o n a l ) (Developed) \ / \./ Emergent Maturing Phase Phase Source i P . Wichern e t . a l . The Product ion and T e s t i n g of  a Model of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Resource"" F r o n t i e r Communities, 1971. P. In keeping with the hypothesis that p o l i t i c a l development i s a f u n c t i o n of the l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i -- 164 -p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l system, Wichern e t , a l , describe the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w e l l as the other dynamics of the p o l i t i c a l system i n each of the three stages and i n the two phases. In the undeveloped stage, suggest Wichern e_t. a l . , there i s l i t t l e or no c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l system f o r the reason t h a t c i t i z e n s are s t i l l i n the process of a d j u s t i n g to a new p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment. There e x i s t s no s o c i a l n u c l e a r i z a t i o n and no d e f i n i t i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . ^ During t h i s stage, the demands on the l o c a l government (which during t h i s stage i n a s i n g l e enter-p r i s e community i s synonomous w i t h the e n t e r p r i s e ) , are r e s t r i c t e d t o those which the e n t e r p r i s e c o n s i d e r s necessary to maintain the present l a b o u r f o r c e and to a t t r a c t a d d i -77 t i o n a l r e q u i r e d labour,'' In the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage, the c o n t r o l of the l o c a l government i s shared w i t h other e l i t e s (eg., business, pro-f e s s i o n a l s ) i n the community although the form which t h i s c o n t r o l takes i s u s u a l l y i n the form of a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s 78 which are f i r s t appointed and then e l e c t e d . During t h i s stage of p o l i t i c a l development, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a s e s as does c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a whole, Wichern e t , a l _ , , however, s t a t e t h a t t h i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s only the higher socio-economic groups. With t h i s g r e a t e r response to p o l i c y outcomes, a feedback process to the decision-making process i s i n i t i a t e d . - 165 -The i n s t i t u t i o n of a feedback mechanism i n t u r n a l l o w s the l o c a l government to become broader i n i t s scope of l e g i s -l a t i o n . ' y Since, however, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n during t h i s stage d e r i v e s p r i m a r i l y from the higher socio-economic groups w i t h i n the community, the goals of the l o c a l govern-ment are u s u a l l y centered on the economic development of the .4. 80 community. In the developed stage, i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the com-munity occurs and a formal l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i s 81 implemented. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by organized groups as w e l l as c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a whole i n c r e a s e s , Wichern e t . a l . s t a t e that although most groups p a r t i c i p a t e i n the pro-cess of governing the community, t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i e s 82 i n terms of l e v e l and ways. Increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n during t h i s stage permits r e a c t i o n to p o l i c y outcomes to be pronounced a l l o w i n g the scope of the l o c a l government to be go broadened. J The p o l i c y outputs of the e l e c t e d government during the developed stage have a g r e a t e r impact on the community and a f f e c t more aspects of the c i t i z e n s ' l i v e s . The p r o v i s i o n of amenities and p u b l i c welfare c o n s i d e r a t i o n s become a dominant theme i n the ouput of the l o c a l govern-. 84 ment. 6.1.6 P o l i t i c a l Development i n Urban Fringe Communities While Wichern e t . a l . ' s model of community p o l i t i -c a l development may be of some u t i l i t y i n a h e u r i s t i c sense f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of p o l i t i c a l development i n urban f r i n g e - 166 -communities, i t cannot, because of i t s emphasis on s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities, be assumed as an accurate model f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of such p o l i t i c a l development although some s i m i l a r i t i e s are evident. A major d i f f e r e n c e between the process of p o l i t i -c a l development as i t occurs i n s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communi-t i e s and urban f r i n g e communities i s the f a c t t h a t while the e n t e r p r i s e r e p r e s e n t s the i n i t i a l decision-making s t r u c t u r e i n s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities, the decision-making f o r urban f r i n g e communities i s assumed by a Board of D i r e c t o r s of a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t or by a number of P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment departments. Wichern e t . a l . have suggested th a t the process of p o l i t i c a l development i n s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities i s one i n which the community g r a d u a l l y r e a c t s a g a i n s t the d e c i s i o n s of the e n t e r p r i s e so t h a t the e n t e r p r i s e i s r e -place d by a more democratic p u b l i c decision-making s t r u c -t u r e . In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , i t i s suggested t h a t urban f r i n g e communities g r a d u a l l y begin to react a g a i n s t the de-c i s i o n s or l a c k of d e c i s i o n s of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the departments of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and move toward the implementation of a decision-making s t r u c t u r e which i s more responsive to community demands. Reasons f o r the r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t or departments of the P r o v i n -c i a l Government may be numerous. Major reasons may i n c l u d e ( i ) the l a c k of a s u i t a b l e l e v e l of municipal s e r v i c e s , and - 167 -( i i ) the l a c k of c o n t r o l over d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the com-munity. 6.1.7 A H e u r i s t i c Model of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Fringe Communities  U t i l i z i n g Eyestone and Eulau*s model of p o l i t i c a l development, the model of Wichern e t . a l . , and the i n d i c e s proposed by Almond, Pye and Deutsch, i t i s p o s s i b l e to de-velop a simple, h e u r i s t i c model of p o l i t i c a l development f o r urban f r i n g e communities a g a i n s t which to assess Thorn-h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l development. The format adopted to present the model i s i d e n -t i c a l to t h a t of Wichern e t . a l . i n which each stage and phase of the p o l i t i c a l development process i s described i n terms of the l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the p o l i t i c a l system, the l e v e l s of s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from the environment and the nature of p o l i c y outputs. The f i r s t stage of p o l i t i c a l development, known as the re t a r d e d stage i n Eyestone and Eulau's model and as the undeveloped stage i n Wichern e t . a l * s model i s charac-t e r i z e d by low p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l system by both organized groups as w e l l as the p u b l i c . Reasons f o r t h i s low l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e r i v e s from the f a c t t h a t ( i ) there are few challenges from the environment and ( i i ) l i t t l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n has prevented the c i t i z e n s of the community from a r r i v i n g a t a consensus i n terms of the de-mands which are to be made on the p o l i t i c a l system. During t h i s stage of p o l i t i c a l development, the - 168 -decision-making s t r u c t u r e s which have the g r e a t e s t impact on the community are agencies such as the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the v a r i o u s department of the P r o v i n c i a l Government. In the emergent phase, the demands on the p o l i -t i c a l system become more frequent. Increased p o p u l a t i o n growth r e s u l t i n g i n higher d e n s i t i e s gives r i s e to a number of needs f o r s e r v i c e s and r e g u l a t i v e c o n t r o l s . A r t i c u l a t i o n of demands "by the community i s , however, s t i l l low. In the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage, there has been an i n -crease i n the number of a r t i c u l a t e d demands. Although the decision-making s t r u c t u r e s having the most impact on the community are s t i l l the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the depart-ments of the P r o v i n c i a l Government, increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n and involvement i n the p o l i t i c a l system has r e s u l t e d i n the formation of i n t e r e s t groups and a d v i s o r y bodies to these decision-making bodies. Since there has been an in c r e a s e i n demands, the e x t r a c t i v e , r e g u l a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the e x t e r n a l decision-making s t r u c t u r e s have i n c r e a s e d . However, although the scope of these decision-making s t r u c t u r e s has in c r e a s e d , they cannot f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and other reasons be completely responsive to a l l community de-mands. In the maturing phase, there i s a move toward the implementation of a decision-making s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the community which can be more responsive to community - 169 -demands and w h i c h can he more e f f i c i e n t i n terms o f the r e g u l a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l system. I t i s i n the d e v e l o p e d stage t h a t the implement-a t i o n o f a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e o c c u r s . W i t h i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the e x t r a c t i v e , r e g u l a t i v e and d i s t r i b u -t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l system i n c r e a s e sub-s t a n t i a l l y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n of both the p u b l i c and organized groups i s high, r e s u l t i n g i n a g r e a t e r degree of feedback from the environment to the p o l i t i c a l system which i n t u r n a l l o w s the p o l i t i c a l system to be more responsive t o the de-mands a r i s i n g i n the environment. 6.2.0 P o l i t i c a l Development i n T h o r n h i l l Although i t i s evident t h a t the g e n e r i c model of p o l i t i c a l development cannot be used t o produce a d e t a i l e d account of p o l i t i c a l development i n a given community, i t i s u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g on a general l e v e l the degree of p o l i t i c a l development which has occurred i n a community. In a s s e s s i n g T h o r n h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l development i n terms of the three stages and two phases of p o l i t i c a l d e v e l -opment described i n the model, the f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s of p o l i t i c a l development may be disc e r n e d i n T h o r n h i l l ' s pro-cess of p o l i t i c a l development. The stage i n T h o r n h i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l development which corresponds t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c i t e d i n the unde-veloped stage occurred from approximately 19k0 to i960 when - 1?0 -the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n was formed. During t h i s p e r i o d of p o l i t i c a l development few demands were made by the r e s i d e n t s of the T h o r n h i l l area on the v a r i o u s departments of the P r o v i n c i a l Government which pro-v i d e d the rudimentary s e r v i c e s to the area. The reasons f o r t h i s l a c k of demands were t h a t the community was s p a r s e l y populated and r e q u i r e d few s e r v i c e s and l i t t l e r e g u l a t i o n . From i960 to 1966 when the f i r s t attempt to i n c o r -porate was made, the community's p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e was s i m i l a r to the s t r u c t u r e described i n the model as the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage. Moderate p o p u l a t i o n growth r e s u l t i n g i n higher d e n s i t i e s i n the community n e c e s s i t a t e d the need f o r s e v e r a l s e r v i c e s and r e g u l a t i v e mechanisms. S e r v i c e s such as a domestic water supply and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n were viewed as r e q u i r e d i n T h o r n h i l l to m a i n t a i n the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the community. Increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l as a number of other c i v i c groups r e s u l t e d i n the d i s c o v e r y t h a t the e x i s t i n g decision-making agencies such as the r e g i o n a l d i s t -r i c t and the v a r i o u s departments of the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment could o n l y be responsive t o a l i m i t e d number of de-mands. The maturing phase was perhaps the most import-ant phase or stage. From 1966 to 1973* the community's c i v i c groups were engaged i n the attempt to achieve a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n the community so t h a t t h e i r demands f o r s e r v i c e s and r e g u l a t i v e mechanisms could be - 171 -r e a l i z e d . As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter V, seven such attempts were made by v a r i o u s c i v i c groups from 1966 to 1973 a l -though no l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e was implemented i n the T h o r n h i l l area. The e f f e c t s which t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o assume a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e had i n the community were two-f o l d . F i r s t l y , i t f o r c e d the c i t i z e n s of T h o r n h i l l t o assume an a d v i s o r y r o l e i n terms of the decision-making process f o r the community r a t h e r than assuming c o n t r o l over t h i s process. This phenomena i s best i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t T h o r n h i l l groups were f o r c e d to approach the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s r a t h e r than assuming the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s on t h e i r own. Secondly, the f a i l u r e t o progress i n the estab-lishment of a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n T h o r n h i l l had the e f f e c t of a l l o w i n g schisms to occur w i t h i n the community. Rather than being u n i t e d i n t h e i r attempt to implement a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e as they had been i n the i n i t i a l attempts, a number of groups e v e n t u a l l y broke away from the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n i n order to pursue i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community or p a r t s of the community on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . The f a i l u r e to assume a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e had, t h e r e f o r e , the e f f e c t of not o n l y impeding the p o l i t i -c a l development process but a l s o caused a r e g r e s s i o n i n the process by causing the community to be d i s u n i f i e d i n t h e i r - 172 -attempt to develop p o l i t i c a l l y . - 6 . 3 . 0 Reasons f o r the Lack of P o l i t i c a l Development i n T h o r n h i l l  Since i t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t the process of p o l i t i c a l development was impeded i n T h o r n h i l l , and t h a t a major cause of t h i s l a c k of development was the f a i l u r e of the community to assume a l o c a l government s t r u c u t r e , i t i s necessary t o i n d i c a t e why T h o r n h i l l d i d not or c o u l d not assume a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e . In order t o accomplish t h i s , i t i s u s e f u l to r e -s o r t t o Easton's model of the p o l i t i c a l system, Easton suggests t h a t i n p u t s , c o n s i s t i n g of de-mands from the environment and supports from the e n v i r o n -ment are taken i n by the conversion process of the p o l i t i -c a l system which i n t u r n produces outputs to meet the de-mands of the environment. When demands become too numerous or too d i v e r s e , the p o l i t i c a l system e i t h e r attempts t o r e -duce these demands or i t r e s t r u c t u r e s i t s e l f t o b e t t e r ac-commodate them. There e x i s t s , then, a process whereby a p o l i t i c a l system grows, remains s t a b l e or dimi n i s h e s i n r e l a t i o n to the growth, s t a b i l i z a t i o n , or decrease i n de-mands and supports. In B r i t i s h Columbia, as i n .other Canadian pro-v i n c e s , the p o l i t i c a l system must have l e g a l s t a t u s before i t i s able to engage i n the process of c o n v e r t i n g demands and supports i n t o p o l i c y outputs and t o implement, enforce and a d j u d i c a t e these p o l i c y outputs. I t i s t h i s need f o r a - 173 -l e g a l s t a t u s which n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t communities assume one o f the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l forms e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Mun i c i p a l Act or the Water Act. The assumption of one of these e s t a b l i s h e d muni-c i p a l forms, however, d i s r u p t s the process whereby a p o l i -t i c a l system a d j u s t s to the demands and supports which are placed on i t . The cause of such d i s r u p t i o n d e r i v e s from the f a c t t h a t because l o c a l government forms as presented i n the M u n i c i p a l Act or as o f f e r e d by the Water Ri g h t s Branch are r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e , they cannot c o i n c i d e w i t h the needs of a l l communities which are a s p i r i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e . An unincorporated community of two thousand may, f o r ex-ample, have an extensive tax base and a l a r g e number of de-mands which r e q u i r e a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e . How-ever, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t another community of two thousand a s p i r i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e may have a l i m i t e d tax base and only a few demands which r e q u i r e a l o c a l govern-ment s t r u c t u r e . Although both communities may r e q u i r e a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e , i t i s obvious t h a t the l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d by the community w i t h an ex-te n s i v e tax base and a l a r g e range of demands w i l l d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d by the community which possesses only a l i m i t e d tax base and has only few demands. According to the l e g i s l a t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l A c t , both communities would be i n c o r p o r a t e d as a v i l l a g e munici-- 174 -p a l i t y along w i t h which goes the o b l i g a t i o n of road main-tenance (although other f u n c t i o n s are i m p l i e d ) . In the case of a community w i t h an extensive tax base and a l a r g e number of demands, the assumption of a v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e would not be p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r i t may, r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t demands the maintenance of roads, have the tax base to assume t h i s o b l i g a t i o n without a s e r i o u s impediment to the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of i t s other demands* I n f a c t , the v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e f o r such a community may be l i m i t i n g to the goals which such a community has set f o r i t s e l f . I n the case of the second community, the f a c t t h a t the v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e s the community to assume the f u n c t i o n o f road maintenance may a c t as a d e t e r r e n t t o the assumption of a m u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e by the community. For example, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the cost increment f o r the assumption of the f u n c t i o n of road maintenance, a s e r v i c e which the community may not r e q u i r e a t t h a t time, may be s u f f i c i e n t t o make the assumption of a v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e by the community uneconomic (that i s , the i n c r e a s e i n the m i l l r a t e may be so great as t o deter the r e s i d e n t s of the com-munity from assuming a v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e ) . The community may, f o r example, r e q u i r e a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e t o a l l o w f o r the establishment and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a water system and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and may be w i l l i n g to support only these two s e r v i c e s at t h a t p o i n t i n time. The f a c t t h a t i t must assume the f u n c t i o n of road maintenance above - 175 -the f u n c t i o n s f o r which i t i s w i l l i n g to in c o r p o r a t e may, as mentioned, deter the community from i n c o r p o r a t i n g . For the unincorporated communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia which have p o p u l a t i o n s exceeding 2,500 but under 5 , 0 0 0 , the s i t u a t i o n i s even more c r i t i c a l . Again, a l -though the tax base of the communities as w e l l as the demands of the communities may vary from community to community, the communities must assume the s t a t u s of town which n e c e s s i -t a t e s t h a t the community assume the o b l i g a t i o n s of road maintenance and w e l f a r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t although many communities i n a p o s i t i o n such as mentioned w i l l be able to assume the s t r u c t u r e of a town m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t i s a l s o i n -e v i t a b l e t h a t many others w i l l be unable to assume any muni-c i p a l s t r u c t u r e . I n Easton's terms, t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s one i n which the c onversion s t r u c t u r e i s not allowed to r e a c t i n terms of the demands and supports d e r i v i n g from the environment. The M u n i c i p a l A c t , by i n t r o d u c i n g i n f l e x i b l e m u n i c i p a l forms, f a c i l i t a t e s a s i t u a t i o n i n which the conversion s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e s more supports than the environment i s w i l l i n g or capable of s u s t a i n i n g and produces outputs which are i n ex-cess of the demands from the environment, or, i t produces a s i t u a t i o n i n which a community which possesses the resources as w e l l as the demands to support a conversion s t r u c t u r e which i s beyond th a t allowed f o r the community, i s unable to a t t a i n such a mun i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e . i - 176 -This study suggests t h a t the f a i l u r e of the com-munity of T h o r n h i l l to i n c o r p o r a t e as a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y on the two out of three occasions when i n c o r p o r a t i o n under the M u n i c i p a l Act was suggested, was due to the reason t h a t the community was convinced t h a t i t could not support a v i l -lage s t r u c t u r e g i v e n the l i m i t e d tax "base of the T h o r n h i l l area. In May 1965 and August 1970, the T h o r n h i l l R u r a l Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l as the T h o r n h i l l p u b l i c were of the persuasion t h a t T h o r n h i l l d i d not have the tax base r e q u i r e d to meet the s e r v i c e requirements of T h o r n h i l l as w e l l as assume the f u n c t i o n of road maintenance. As a con-sequence, the community d i d not i n c o r p o r a t e . In terms of T h o r n h i l l ' s s i x attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e as a water improvement d i s t r i c t under the Water Act, i t i s suggested t h a t two f a c t o r s p r o h i b i t e d the i n c o r p o r a t i o n pro-cedures from being s u c c e s s f u l . On the b a s i s of the case study, i t i s p o s s i b l e to s t a t e t h a t the f i r s t of these pro-h i b i t o r y f a c t o r s was the philosophy of the Water Ri g h t s Branch to a l l o w communities i n c o r p o r a t i n g as water improve-ment d i s t r i c t s to be i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r only one or a t most a minimal number of o b j e c t s . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n , i t must be s t r e s s e d , was not expressed i n the l e g i s l a t i o n of the Water  Act but appears to have been a p o l i c y of the Water Rights Branch. This p o l i c y l i m i t i n g the number of o b j e c t s which were to be assumed by communities i n c o r p o r a t i n g as water im-provement d i s t r i c t s was the cause of the i n a b i l i t y of the - 177 -community of T h o r n h i l l to i n c o r p o r a t e as a water improve-ment d i s t r i c t on two of the s i x occasions. On these oc-casions, the community d e s i r e d to be in c o r p o r a t e d f o r the purpose of c a r r y i n g out a number of o b j e c t s although the s t r u c t u r e of the improvement d i s t r i c t allowed the c a r r y i n g out of o n l y a minimal number of o b j e c t s . Again r e s o r t i n g t o Easton's model, the f a c t t h a t the s t a t u s of water im-provement d i s t r i c t was t o be viewed as a conversion s t r u c -t u r e w i t h o n l y the r i g h t to produce outputs i n a l i m i t e d number of subject areas, had the e f f e c t of not a l l o w i n g a l l the demands and supports of the community to be con-v e r t e d i n t o p o l i c y outputs which the community d e s i r e d . A second f a c t o r p r o h i b i t i n g the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t d uring the p e r i o d from i960 to 197 k was the f a c t t h a t from 1965 onwards, the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s d i d not favour the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of sm a l l communities as water im-provement d i s t r i c t s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s but r a t h e r favoured t h a t these areas be made s p e c i f i e d areas under the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s of the Pr o v i n c e . Consequently, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of water improvement d i s t r i c t s from 1965 onwards, appears to have been impeded by the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of improvement d i s t r i c t s i n the Pr o v i n c e . This study, on the evidence of the case study, suggests t h a t the i n a b i l i t y of the Queensway area to i n c o r p o r a t e as a water improvement d i s t r i c t i n October 1972 was due to the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the - 178 -Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n the i n c o r p o r a t i o n pro-cess. Yet a t h i r d f a c t o r p r o h i b i t i n g the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l as a water improvement d i s t r i c t was the i n -a b i l i t y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s of T h o r n h i l l to produce p e t i -t i o n s and m a t e r i a l s which were of the standard r e q u i r e d by the Water Rights Branch f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process to proceed. The p e t i t i o n s were substandard on two occasions f o r the reason t h a t the p e t i t i o n d i d not have the s i g n a -t u r e s of the r e s i d e n t s of the e n t i r e area which was to be i n c o r p o r a t e d as a water improvement d i s t r i c t . - 1 7 9 CHAPTER VI - NOTES AND COMMENTS 1 . Robert Chin, "The U t i l i t y of System Models and Develop-ment Models", P o l i t i c a l Development and S o c i a l  Change (eds.) Jason L. F i n k l e and Richard V/. Gable, (New York i John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1 9 6 6 ) p. 14. 2 . Samuel P. Huntington, " P o l i t i c a l Development and P o l i -Decay", P o l i t i c a l Modernization: A Reader i n Com- p a r a t i v e P o l i t i c a l Change (ed) Claude E. Welch, (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a 1 Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1 9 6 7 ) P. 214. 3 . Robert Chin, l o c . c i t . 4. Robert Chin, l o c . c i t . 5 . Robert Chin, op. c i t . , p. 1 5 . 6 . I b i d . 7 . c f . David Easton, A Framework f o r P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : Prentice H a l l , 1965). 8. I b i d . , p. 47. 9. I b i d . , p. 49. 1 0 . G a b r i e l Almond, P o l i t i c a l Developmentt Essays i n Heur-i s t i c Theory (Bostom L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 1 9 3 . 1 1 . David Easton, op. c i t . , p. 5 0 . 1 2 . I b i d . 1 3 . David Easton, T h e • P o l i t i c a l System t An I n q u i r y i n t o the State of P o l i t i c a l Science (New Y o r k i A . A. Knopf, 1963), P. 1 3 3 . 14. '-David Easton, A Framework of P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . i P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 5 ) , PP. 5 2 - 3 . 1 5 . I b i d . , p. 57. 1 6 . I b i d . . p. 59. 1 7 . G a b r i e l Almond, op. c i t . , p. 1 9 2 . 18. I b i d . . p. 1 9 5 . 1 9 . I b i d . , p. 1 9 3 . 180 20. I b i d . 21. I b i d . , pp. 193-^ . 22. I b i d . 23. I b i d . , p. 195. 2k, David Easton, A Framework f o r P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . i P r e n t i c e H a l l , I965), p. iio. 25. I b i d . 26. G a b r i e l Almond, op. c i t . , p, 195. 27. I b i d . 28. I b i d . . pp. 196-7. 29. David Easton, A Framework f o r P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . t P r e n t i c H a l l , 1965)» pp. 119-20. 30. I b i d . . p. 120. 31. I b i d . , op, 122-3. 32. I b i d . , pp. 124-5. 33. I b i d . , p. 125. 3^ . I b i d . , pp. 126-7. 35. I b i d . , p. 128. 36. I b i d . 37. I b i d . 38. A l f r e d Diamant, "The Nature of P o l i t i c a l Development", P o l i t i c a l Development and S o c i a l Change (eds.) Jason F i n k l e and Richard Gable, (New Yorks John Wiley and Son, Inc., 1966), p, 96. 39. I b i d . kO. c f . G a b r i e l Almond, "Introduction t A F u n c t i o n a l Ap-proach to Comparative P o l i t i c s " , The P o l i t i c s of  Developing Areas (eds.) G a b r i e l Almond and James Coleman ( P r i n c e t o n , N. J . i P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960). - 181 -41. K a r l W. Deutsch, The Nerves of Governmentt Models of P o l i t i c a l Communication and Con t r o l (New York. The Free P r e s s , 1966) pp. 250-4. 42. L u c i e n Py, "The Concept of P o l i t i c a l Development" The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and  S o c i a l Science No. 358 (March 1965)» PP. 4-10. 43. L u c i e n Pye, Aspects of P o l i t i c a l Development (Boston. L i t t l e , Brown and Company, I966) pp. W5-6. 44. A l f r e d Diamant, op. c i t . , p. 92. 45. L u c i e n Pye, Aspects of P o l i t i c a l Development (Boston. L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1966), pp. 4-6-7. 46. I b i d . 47. G a b r i e l Almond, P o l i t i c a l Development. Essays i n H e u r i s t i c Theory (Boston! L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1970), p. 198. 48. I b i d . . p. 200. 49. I b i d . 50. I b i d . . p. 201. 51. I b i d . 52. I b i d . 53. I b i d . 54. I b i d . , p. 202. 55. I b i d . 56. I b i d . 57. I b i d . 58. I b i d . , p. 203. 59. I b i d . 60. I b i d . . p. 207. 61. I b i d . , p. 208. 62. L u c i e n Pye, Aspects of P o l i t i c a l Development (Boston. L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1966), p. 47. - 182 -63. I b i d . . p. 46. 64. G a b r i e l Almond, P o l i t i c a l Developmentt Essays i n H e u r i s t i c Theory (Boston! L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1970), pp. 200-3. 65. R. Eyestone and H. Eulau, " C i t y C o u n c i l s and P o l i c y Outcomesi Developmental P r o f i l e s " s , C i t y P o l i - t i c s and P u b l i c P o l i c y , (ed.) James Wilson (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., I968), p. 4 l . 66. I b i d . . p. 43. 67. I b i d . , p. 42. 68. I b i d . 69. I b i d . 70. I b i d . . p. 43. 71. I b i d . . pp. 46-7. 72. I b i d . . p. 50. 73. I b i d . 74. P h i l i p Wichern, G. Kunka, and D. Waddell, The Pro-d u c t i o n and T e s t i n g of a Model pf_ P o l i t i c a l De- velopment i n Resource PrcntiVr" Communities (Win-nipeg. Center f o r Settlements S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1971)1 p . 12. 75. I b i d . 76. I b i d . . P. 13. 77. I b i d . . p. 14. 78. I b i d . 79. I b i d . . p. 18. 80. I b i d . . p. 16. 81. I b i d . 82. I b i d . 83. I b i d . 84. I b i d . - 183 -85. Ibid.. p. 17. 86. Ibid. 87. Ibid. - 184 CHAPTER VII THE COMMUNICATIVE PROCESS OP INCORPORATION - 184* -This study proposes that the problems associated with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process as i t i s now presented i n the M u n i c i p a l Act and the Water Act can only be solved by r e -s t r u c t u r i n g the e n t i r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n process. This r e s t r u c t -u r i n g would i n v o l v e a simple "communicative" process between the l o c a l i t y wishing to i n c o r p o r a t e and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The process would not be encumbered by population c r i t e r i a , e s t a b l i s h e d municipal statuses or ob-l i g a t i o n s which are commensurate with each e s t a b l i s h e d muni-c i p a l form. However, before the communicative process can be presented i n a more d e t a i l e d manner, i t i s of b e n e f i t to describe again the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process as i t now e x i s t s . In the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1974, the u l t i m a t e power fo r the establishment of a m u n i c i p a l i t y r e s t s with the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l who may, by L e t t e r s Patent, i n c o r p o r a t e the r e s i d e n t s of any area i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y . This act of i n c o r p o r a t i o n , hov/ever, may be c a r r i e d out only on the recommendations of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s who may d i r e c t that a p o l l be taken v/ithin such an area as he may designate, f o r the purpose of a s c e r t a i n i n g whether the persons e n t i t l e d to vote are i n favour of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n . This p o l l i s to be taken ( i ) upon the r e -quest of the C o u n c i l of a m u n i c i p a l i t y s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a l l or i n part of the area proposed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d , ( i i ) upon the request of two or more r e s i d e n t s i n the area pro-posed to be incorporated but not s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the bound-a r i e s of any other m u n i c i p a l i t y , or, ( i i i ) on the i n i t i a t i v e - 185 -of the M i n i s t e r where he i s of the opinion that an area should, i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , be incorporated as a muni-c i p a l i t y . ^ I f more than f i f t y percent of the votes cast by v a l i d b a l l o t are i n favour of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n the area may be incorporated as a m u n i c i p a l i t y . In the case of a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community, the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council may, i f he considers i t i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , i n -corporate such a community upon the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n from at l e a s t f i v e r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n the area of the proposed 2 community. assume, as w e l l as the o b l i g a t i o n s i t has to assume i n ad-opting one of the municipal forms, are dependent on the pop-u l a t i o n of the area proposed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d . Table 15^ i n d i c a t e s the population c r i t e r i a f o r each municipal s t a t u s as w e l l as the o b l i g a t i o n s p r e s e n t l y imposed by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Table 15 Population C r i t e r i a and Major O b l i g a t i o n s of Mu n i c i p a l Forms Status Population O b l i g a t i o n s V i l l a g e 500 - 2,500 Road Maintenance Town 2,500 - 5,000 Road Maintenance The form of municipal s t a t u s which a community may Welfare D i s t r i c t area over 2,000 acres and density l e s s than two persons per acre Road Maintenance Wei fare P o l i c i n g C i t y 5,000 + Road Maintenance Welfare P o l i c i n g - 186 -I f an area proposing to in c o r p o r a t e wishes to be incorporated as a water improvement d i s t r i c t , the p r o v i s i o n s of the Water Act f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of water improve-ment d i s t r i c t s apply. Under the Water Act of 1974, the L i e u t -enant-Governor i n Council may at any time, by L e t t e r s Patent, i n c o r p o r a t e any t r a c t of land and the owners thereof i n t o an improvement d i s t r i c t . ^ The Lieutenant-Governor i n Council may a l s o confer a name and such o b j e c t s as appear a d v i s a b l e and such powers as are deemed necessary to car r y out the ob-j e c t s . The examination of one community's attempt to i n -corporate both as a m u n i c i p a l i t y under the M u n i c i p a l Act and as a water improvement d i s t r i c t under the Water Act has suggested that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the present i n c o r p o r a -t i o n process f o r m u n i c p a l i t i e s and water improvement d i s t -r i c t s i s impeded by a number of f a u l t s . In terms of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process as found i n the M u n i c i p a l Act, i t was found that the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s de-r i v e d from e s s e n t i a l l y two sources which were the i n f l e x i -b i l i t y of the various municipal forms i n terms of a c t u a l community a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l needs and the manner i n which the municipal forms are to be assumed by a community wishing to i n c o r p o r a t e . The i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f the var i o u s e s t a b l i s h e d muni-c i p a l forms was found to derive from the population l e v e l s required f o r each municipal s t a t u s and the o b l i g a t i o n s v/hich are commensurate with each form. An assumption made by the - 187 -present s t r u c t u r e i s that a c e r t a i n population l e v e l i n a given community guarantees the existence of a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e tax base i n order that the community can assume the o b l i g a t i o n s which are commensurate with that municipal s t a t u s above and beyond those f u n c t i o n s f o r which the community may d e s i r e to i n c o r p o r a t e . I t was found that the s i z e of the community did not guarantee the existence of a s u f f i c i e n t tax base to as-sume the costs of the o b l i g a t o r y f u n c t i o n s which are com-mensurate with the population of the community. T h o r n h i l l , because of i t s l i m i t e d tax base, was not able to assume the s t a t u s of v i l l a g e due to the f a c t that the assumption of the o b l i g a t i o n of road maintenance above and beyond the costs of those fu n c t i o n s f o r which the community wished to i n c o r p o r a t e , would have proven too demanding on the community's a b i l i t y to produce the necessary f i n a n c i a l resources. I t v/as a l s o found that although road maintenance was a s e r v i c e required by T h o r n h i l l , i t was not a s e r v i c e which was c r i t i c a l l y r e -qu i r e d . Rather, s e r v i c e s such as f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and domestic water were seen by the r e s i d e n t s of T h o r n h i l l as necessary to maintain the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the community. The second f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process as i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Muni-c i p a l Act was found to be the manner i n which a c e r t a i n mun-i c i p a l s t a t u s was to be assumed. The present process of i n -cor p o r a t i o n i m p l i e s that a municipal form i s to be assumed without any s i g n i f i c a n t period of preparation. The o b l i g a -- 188 -t i o n or o b l i g a t i o n s of a municipal form are to be assumed by a newly incorporated m u n i c i p a l i t y without a period i n which L i t e community may gr a d u a l l y accumulate resources (eg. s u f f i c i e n t tax base, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s , etc.) i n order to assure they are s u f f i c i e n t to meet the o b l i g a t i o n s . I t i s ar.rued that one of the reasons f o r the i n a b i l i t y of T h o r n h i l l to assume a municipal form was due to the f a c t that i t was to accept t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o b l i g a -t i o n s of i t s municipal s t a t u s without a period of prepara-t i o n . To remedy these f a u l t s of the municipal i n c o r -poration process, a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s are p l a u s i b l e . One such a l t e r n a t i v e would see a s u b s t a n t i a l i n -crease i n the municipal per c a p i t a grants from the P r o v i n -c i a l Government i n order that a community d e s i r i n g to i n c o r -porate would not be deterred from assuming a municipal form due to the apprehension that i t may not be able to meet the o b l i g a t i o n s of that municipal form. A second a l t e r n a t i v e would be the assumption by the P r o v i n c i a l Government of a l l of the present o b l i g a t i o n s of the various municipal forms as l i s t e d i n Table 15. The assumption of these mandatory f u n c t i o n s by the P r o v i n c i a l Government would a l l o w m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to assume f u n c t i o n s which would be more r e l e v a n t to the s p e c i f i c needs of the var i o u s incorporated communities. Yet a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e would be a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the present municipal tax s t r u c t u r e to allow .municipal!-- 189 -t i e s to gain access to a p o r t i o n of the revenue made a v a i l -able through the income tax r a t h e r than r e l y i n g s o l e l y on revenue gained from the property tax, business l i c e n s e s , and other means. I t i s suggested that the a d d i t i o n a l r e -sources made a v a i l a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would allo w them to c a r r y out the mandatory functions and not deter unin-corporated communities from assuming a municipal form. A f o u r t h a l t e r n a t i v e would be one i n which the community and the P r o v i n c i a l Government could evolve a co s t - s h a r i n g formula i n order that the costs f o r the manda-to r y functions could be shared. Such a c o s t - s h a r i n g a r -rangement would be based on the a b i l i t y of the community to provide the necessary resources f o r the mandatory f u n c t i o n s as w e l l as f o r other s e r v i c e s i t may r e q u i r e . As the com-munity developed, a greater share of the costs of these ' mandatory fu n c t i o n s could be assumed by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In terms of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of water improvement d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was found that the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process was impeded by three f a c t o r s . The f i r s t of these v/as found to be, as i n the case of the municipal i n c o r p o r a t i o n process, the i n f l e x i b i l i t y of the corporate form r e s u l t i n g from the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a com-munity as a water improvement d i s t r i c t . Although no pop-u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a are demanded f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community as a water improvement d i s t r i c t and no mandatory functions r e q u i r e d , the s t a t u s of v/ater improvement d i s t r i c t - 190 -i s i n f l e x i b l e due to the l i m i t a t i o n s on the number of func-t i o n s i t i s able to assume. This i n f l e x i b i l i t y does not de-r i v e from the l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community as a water improvement d i s t r i c t , but deri v e s from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n by the Water Ei g h t s Branch, v/hich i s the agency entrusted with the i n -c o r p o r a t i o n of water improvement d i s t r i c t s i n the Province. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has allowed water improvement' d i s t r i c t s to be incorporated f o r only a very l i m i t e d number of func-t i o n s and i n most cases f o r only one f u n c t i o n . As the d e s c r i p t i o n of T h o r n h i l l * s various attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e as a water improvement d i s t r i c t has i n d i c a t e d , the Water Rights Branch was h e s i t a n t i n a l l o w i n g a commun-i t y to i n c o r p o r a t e as a water improvement d i s t r i c t with a number of fu n c t i o n s due to the f a c t that the r e s u l t a n t water improvement d i s t r i c t would be uneconomic f o r the Water Rights Branch to administer. One s o l u t i o n which might be adopted to overcome t h i s i n f l e x i b i l i t y and allow communities to i n c o r p o r a t e f o r a greater number of functions than i s p r e s e n t l y allowed f o r would be to enlarge the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f of the Water Rights Branch i n order to allow f o r a more e f f i c i e n t admini-s t r a t i o n and management of water improvement d i s t r i c t s i n the Province. A second f a c t o r which was found to contribute to the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities as - 191 -water improvement d i s t r i c t s was the fact that there are two agencies i n the Province which are entrusted with the i n c o r -poration process. This phenomenon has, on evidence of the case study, allowed a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problem to a r i s e i n which both the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s and the V/ater Rights Branch have been of the opinion that the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia f a l l s w i t h i n t h e i r own j u r i s d i c t i o n . Although the l e g a l power to i n c o r p o r a t e a com-munity as a water improvement d i s t r i c t l i e s with the L i e u t -enant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , and the preparatory work f o r such i n c o r p o r a t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Water Rights Branch, the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s has a l s o been concerned with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of water improvement d i s t r i c t s i n the province. Since 1965 when the concept of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t was introduced i n the Province, the De-partment of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has favoured the s p e c i f i e d area concept as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e to a l l o w f o r the pro-v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to unincorporated areas r a t h e r than the p r o v i s i o n of these s e r v i c e s by i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a water im-provement d i s t r i c t . In response to t h i s philosophy, the Department.of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s entered i n t o the n e g o t i a -t i o n s between the Water Rights Branch and the Queensway Water Improvement Inco r p o r a t i o n Committee i n 1972 and suc-ceeded i n s t a l l i n g the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n . To prevent the s i t u a t i o n a r i s i n g i n which two ag-encies v i e with each other f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n over the i n c o r -- 192 -poratiori process, i t i s suggested that there should be only one agency i n the Province which would be entrusted with and be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Since the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has been involved i n a more comprehensive manner with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l o c a l government, i t should assume the r o l e of s o l e agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n pro-cess. A f i n a l f a c t o r which was found to contribute to the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process f o r water improvement d i s t r i c t s was the l a c k of communication between the Water Rights Branch and the community. The communication which d i d take place between these two p a r t i e s was found to be one i n which the Water Rights Branch made evident the pro-cedures f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community as a water im-provement d i s t r i c t and the community responded w i t h p e t i -t i o n s and other r e l e v a n t documents which were on some oc-casions found to be inadequate by the Water Rights Branch. Only on one of the s i x occasions was there an e f f o r t on the part of the Water Rights Branch to a c t i v e l y work with the community i n order to generate a proposal which would be acceptable to both the Water Rights Branch and the community. This l a c k of communication, i t i s suggested, r e s u l t e d i n ( i ) the i n a b i l i t y of the Water Rights Branch to perceive the s p e c i f i c needs and resources of the community, and ( i i ) the f a i l u r e of the community to produce p e t i t i o n s and other - 193 -documents which were of the standard required by the Water Rights Branch. Had the t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ex-p e r t i s e of the Water Rights Branch been made a v a i l a b l e to the community, acceptable p e t i t i o n s could e a s i l y have been obtained. Although p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s have been suggested to the problems associated with the present process of i n c o r -p oration as i t i s found i n the Municipa l Act and as i t i s adhered to by the Water Rights Branch, i t i s necessary to i n d i c a t e i n a generic and h e u r i s t i c fashion the form an a l -ternate process of i n c o r p o r a t i o n would take which would seek to minimize the problems associated with the present pro-cess of i n c o r p o r a t i o n . The .proposed process of i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s based on an a l t e r n a t e way of viewing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a bureaucracy such as the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s or the Water Rights Branch and the c l i e n t of a bureaucracy which i n terms of t h i s study may be taken to mean the community or g a n i z a t i o n s or the community as a v/hole which i s attempting to i n c o r p o r a t e . The suggested r e l a t i o n s h i p i s g e n e r a l l y one i n which the bureaucracy and the c l i e n t engage i n a process of communication free of s t r i c t adherence to prescribed r o l e s and uncomplicated by e s t a b l i s h e d b ureaucratic r e g u l a t i o n s and procedures. However, before t h i s communicative process may be described i n a more d e t a i l e d manner,.it i s necessary to ex-- 194 -p l a i n the changes which must occur i n the present s t r u c t u r e of the bureaucracy entrusted with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process and the c l i e n t (community) which i s attempting to i n c o r p o r -ate. I t i s suggested that the nature of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Water Rights Branch as they pre sented themselves i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s concerning T h o r n h i l l * s i n c o r p o r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y followed what has become the s t e r e o -typed nature of bureaucracies. Sjoberg has enumerated the basic a t t r i b u t e s of t h i s nature i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: "Modern bureaucracies s t r e s s r a t i o n a l i t y and ef-f i c i e n c y . . In order to a t t a i n these ends, men are c a l l e d upon to work w i t h i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l sys-tem with w e l l defined l i n e s of a u t h o r i t y , and with a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i a l s e t t i n g with an elaborate d i v i s i o n of labour that s t r e s s e s the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n . This h i e r a r c h y and d i v i s i o n of labour are, i n t u r n , sustained through a complex set of formalized r u l e s which are to be administered i n a h i g h l y impersonal and standardized manner. There i s a consider-able c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y and as one moves from top to bottm, there i s a greater s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n and adherence to the r u l e s , "r-Other a t t r i b u t e s of bureaucraces are ( i ) that bureaucrac-i e s are r e s i s t a n t to change and i n n o v a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h i s change emanates from ou t s i d e or i n s i d e the bureaucracy, ( i i ) t h a t l a r g e bureaucracies while p u r p o r t i n g to have e f f i c i e n c y as t h e i r goal tend to be i n e f f i c i e n t , ^ ( i i i ) that bureaucracies while s u b s c r i b i n g to the goal of 7 i m p a r t i a l i t y tend to c a t e r to the middle and upper-classes, and ( i v ) that bureaucracies o f t e n tend to ignore p u b l i c goal - 195 -i n favour of implementing p o l i c i e s which lend themselves g to easy a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and implementation. Although such a general d e s c r i p t i o n of modern bureaucracy may not lend i t s e l f to an a n a l y s i s of the be-haviour of the Department of Municipa l A f f a i r s and the Water Rights Branch i n any d e t a i l e d f a s h i o n , i t i s suggested that a number of a t t r i b u t e s of these agencies were s i m i l a r i n nature to those a t t r i b u t e s l i s t e d f o r the modern bureau-cracy. As v/as i n d i c a t e d by T h o r n h i l l ' s many attempts to in c o r p o r a t e , both the Department of M u n i c i p a l ' A f f a i r s and the Water Rights Branch did a s c r i b e to r e g u l a t i o n s , c r i t e r i a and e s t a b l i s h e d procedures f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communi-t i e s . In the case of the Department of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , these procedures and r e g u l a t i o n s were derived from the B r i t i s h Columbia Munici p a l Act while i n the case of the Water Rights Branch a greater p r o p o r t i o n of these r e g u l a t i o n s and procedures derived from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Water  Act by t h i s agency. Generally, as was made evident by the case study, both agencies upheld r e g u l a t i o n s and es t a b l i s h e d procedures with a degree of r i g i d i t y , i m p a r t i a l i t y , and u n i -v e r s a l i t y , not t a k i n g i n t o account the p a r t i c u l a r circum-stances which may have surrounded a community's attempt to in c o r p o r a t e . A t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n Of the c l i e n t i n r e -l a t i o n to the bureaucracy has been proposed by White, who - 196 -has evolved a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e a t t r i b -utes. The f i r s t of these a t t r i b u t e s i s the powerlessness which the c l i e n t f e e l s when he i s confronted with the w e l l organized, complex and seemingly powerful bureaucracy."^ A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the c l i e n t ' s i n a b i l i t y to ab s t r a c t w e l l and consequently h i s propensity to " p e r s o n a l i z e " a l l relationships." 1"''" Yet a t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the i n a b i l -i t y of the c l i e n t to p o s i t energy i n future goals, r a t h e r , 12 g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r expended energy i s demanded immediately. A fourth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the i n a b i l i t y of the c l i e n t to understand the r o l e of the bureaucracy and consequently ach-iev e a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e concerning the object of the c l i -ent's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the bureaucracy."*"-^ Rather than t a k i n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the c l i e n t i s s o l e l y concerned with the s o l u t i o n of h i s problem or f u l f i l m e n t of h i s demand i n terms of h i s value framework and h i s expectations. A f i f t h a t t r i b u t e suggested by White i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c l i e n t ' s expectation that h i s demands w i l l be met without any expenditure of energy or resources on h i s part."^ f F u l -f i l m e n t of h i s demands-are considered as not r e q u i r i n g any e f f o r t by the c l i e n t but are the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the bureaucracy. White suggests that when a . c l i e n t possessing these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s confronted by the demands and expecta-t i o n s of a formal o r g a n i z a t i o n the c l i e n t i s met by much v/hich i s i n complete c o n t r a d i c t i o n to h i s own expectations and h i s own nature. The sense of powerlessness v/hich the - 197 -c l i e n t possesses f a c i l i t a t e s the emergence of fear and sus-i 15 p i c i o n of the a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n being confronteo. The tendency to " p e r s o n a l i z e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s prevents the c l i e n t from accepting the f o r m a l i t y i n which bureaucratic t r a n s a c t i o n s occur while the i n a b i l i t y of the c l i e n t to ac-cept delayed f u l f i l m e n t of h i s demands causes the c l i e n t to become disenchanted with what appear to be time consuming f o r m a l i t i e s . ° A l s o , the f a c t that the c l i e n t expects f u l -f i lment of h i s demands without expense allows resentment to a r i s e on the part of the c l i e n t when demands are made on 17 him by the bureaucracy. Although again t h i s generic d e s c r i p t i o n of the typ-i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t i n a c l i e n t - b u r e a u c r a c y r e l a t i o n s h i p i s somewhat too general f o r an accurate assess-ment as to whether the community of T h o r n h i l l i n i t s attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e e x h i b i t e d such a t t r i b u t e s , a number of i n -s i g h t s may be obtained by comparing the behaviour of Thorn-h i l l to these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On the whole, the community i n i t s various attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e , did make evident a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g of power-lessness which derived from, p r i m a r i l y , the u n c e r t a i n t y of how the proposals f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community would be received and what processes were involved i n the granting of approval or i n the denying of the request. A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c suggested by White which has some a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the T h o r n h i l l community to the bureaucracies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c o r -- 198 -poration of communities was the i n a b i l i t y of the community to take the p e r s p e c t i v e of the Department of M u n i c i p a l Af-f a i r s and the Water Rights Branch. Rather than viewing the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of T h o r n h i l l from the p e r s p e c t i v e of these two agencies, the o r g a n i z a t i o n s of T h o r n h i l l were p r i m a r i l y concerned with the immediate concerns of the community. I t i s a l s o evident from the case study t h a t , to a degree, the community put forward proposals f o r the i n c o r -p o r a t i o n of the community without a p p r e c i a t i n g the t r u e expen-ses, both i n terms of energy and f i n a n c i a l resources, which were required to support such proposals. White suggests that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both c l i e n t and bureaucracy r e s u l t i n a t y p i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l -though he suggests that the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n of c l i -ent and bureaucracy i s defined by p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l a r -rangements* White has suggested that such a t y p i c a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n f i v e ways. The r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s one i n which ( i ) the c l i e n t i s viewed as a subord-i n a t e of the bureaucrat r a t h e r than an equal of the bureau-c r a t , ( i i ) the i n t e r a c t i o n of the c l i e n t with the bureau-crat i s only p a r t i a l or segmental s i n c e there e x i s t s a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the bureaucracy, ( i i i ) the s t a t u s quo of the c l i e n t i s advocated r a t h e r than a change i n the c l i e n t ' s s t a t e of a f f a i r s , ( i v ) the communication between c l i e n t and bureaucracy i s i m p a r t i a l due to the f a c t that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l i e n t and bureaucracy i s contingent on the enactment of r o l e sets and (v) the resources of the - 199 -bureaucracy are only p a r t i a l l y invested i n the c l i e n t due to resource c o n s t r a i n t s and the bureaucracy's preoccupation 19 with e f f i c i e n c y . The communicative process which i s being proposed i n t h i s t h e s i s r e q u i r e s changes both i n the nature of the bureaucracy and i n the stance of the c l i e n t . The changes which must occur i n the bureaucracy are, as K a r i e l has sug-gested, a change i n s t a t u s from a r e l a t i v e l y closed system 2 0 to one which i s open to the environment i t serves. Rather than p e r m i t t i n g only l i m i t e d input from the environment or, g r e a t l y reducing t h i s input by s e l e c t i o n , the bureaucracy must be w i l l i n g to accept a greater degree of input and or-i e n t i t s s t r u c t u r e to that purpose i n order that i t may be more responsive to i t s environment. Rather than r e l y i n g on es t a b l i s h e d procedures and dated methods and r e g u l a t i o n s , the bureaucracy must be w i l l i n g to engage i n experimental a c t i -v i t y i n a r r i v i n g at i n n o v a t i v e methodologies and techniques with which to deal with emerging problems and t a s k s . Rather than remaining a s t a t i c and unresponsive system, i t must be-come a dynamic system w i l l i n g to l e a r n and o r i e n t i t s e l f to the changes o c c u r r i n g i n the environment i t serves. Change by the c l i e n t i s eq u a l l y important i f the communicative process i s to be implemented. Rather than being f e a r f u l or apprehensive about the bureaucracy, the c l i -ent must perceive no d e p r i v a t i o n of power. The c l i e n t must be w i l l i n g to l e a r n the methods and procedures of the bur-eaucracy i n order that he/she may gain knowledge and hence a - 200 -degree of c e r t a i n t y as to how the bureaucracy w i l l react to oeman-'s and. problems. The c l i e n t must al s o be able to as-sume the perspective of the bureaucracy i n d e a l i n g with h i s needs and be able to accept the impersonal a t t i t u d e with which he i s t r e a t e d and be able to respond to the bureau-21 cracy i n a s i m i l a r impersonal fashio n . The c l i e n t must als o be able to r e a l i z e that the f u l f i l m e n t of demands and the s o l u t i o n of problems can only come about by h i s own a c t -i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n meeting h i s demands i n terms of energey, 22 time and f i n a n c i a l resources. When both bureaucracy and c l i e n t have reached a c e r t a i n l e v e l of development i n terms of the a t t r i b u t e s r e -quired f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the communicative process the process i s i n i t i a t e d and, once the process i s i n i t i a t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process f u r t h e r enhances the a b i l i t y of each party to engage i n the process. In the communicative process, a l l c l i e n t s have access to the bureaucracy. T h e i r demands and in p u t s to the bureaucracy are not s e l e c t i v e l y processed i n t o those de-mands which merit f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and those which do not but r a t h e r , a l l i n p u t s are reviewed. Since the c l i -ents have become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the bureaucracy, many demands which would p r e v i o u s l y have been made on the bureaucracy are hot made sin c e c l i -ents have become more s e l e c t i v e i n terms of the demands which they view as being a p p l i c a b l e to the concerns of the bureau-cracy. - 201 -In the communicative process, the c l i e n t i s viewed as an equal of the bureaucrat r a t h e r than a subordinate. T l i i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , at l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l , allows the c l i e n t to gain confidence i n p o s i t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s o l u -t i o n of the problem or f u l f i l m e n t of the demand f o r which he has approached the bureaucracy, r a t h e r than merely r e a c t i n g , u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e l y , to the a u t h o r i t a t i v e r u l e s and r e g u l a -t i o n s which the bureaucracy imposes on him. • In the communicative process, the problems and de-mands of the c l i e n t are not viewed, i n i s o l a t i o n of the c l i -ent's t o t a l circumstances. Rather than merely o b t a i n i n g a narrow conception of the problem or demand by reviewing only that p o r t i o n of the problem f o r which the c l i e n t has ap-proached i t , the bureaucracy assesses not only the problem or demand but a l s o the circumstances which gave r i s e to the pro-blem or demand. In gaining a wider p e r s p e c t i v e of the problem or demand, a greater number of a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s not p r e v i o u s l y recognized may become evident. Also, i n the communicative process the resources of the bureaucracy are made a v a i l a b l e to the c l i e n t . Rather than communicating with a s p e c i a l i z e d f a c t i o n of the bur-eaucracy, the bureaucrats of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are w e l l i n -formed as to the other resources and e x p e r t i s e of the bur-eaucracy which may be u s e f u l i n the s o l u t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s problem or i n the f u l f i l l i n g of h i s demand. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the communicative pro-cess i s the w i l l i n g n e s s of the bureaucracy to attempt the - 202 -f u l f i l m e n t of a demand re g a r d l e s s of how i n f e a s i b l e the s o l u t i o n of the problem may appear i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e terms. This i s not to say, however, that the bureaucracy merely acts as a mechanism to f a c i l i t a t e the r e a l i z a t i o n of every demand which i s placed on i t but r a t h e r that the bureau-cracy does not dismiss a demand as i r r e l e v a n t or i n f e a s i b l e before the demand i s a c t u a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . As Friedmann has suggested, the presence of c o n f l i c t may be as i n t e g r a l 23 to the communicative process as consensus. Most important i n the communicative process i s the abandonment by the bureaucracy of e s t a b l i s h e d proced-ures, r e g u l a t i o n s and customs which have proven to be i n -adequate i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c l i e n t and bureaucracy. Outmoded r e g u l a t i o n s and procedures are replaced by ones which have proven to be e f f e c t i v e , although the bureaucracy i s aware, si n c e the environment of the bureaucracy i s i n constant f l u x , that these newly derived techniques, r e g u l a -t i o n s , e t c . may only be v a l i d and e f f e c t i v e f o r a short period of time. In f a c t , i t i s the preoccupation of the bureaucracy to c l o s e l y monitor these changes In the environ-ment and c o n s t a n t l y produce new means with which to deal with demands a r i s i n g from the environment. The stance of the bur-eaucracy i n the communicative process i s not one i n which out-moded procedures, methods e t c . are protected, but one i n which new ones are co n s t a n t l y being looked f o r . Also, r a t h e r than producing procedures and, r e g u l a t i o n s which are of a u n i v e r s a l i s t i c nautre, the bureaucracy allows f o r pro-- 203 -cedures and r e g u l a t i o n s v/hich vary from c l i e n t to c l i e n t depending on the circumstances of the c l i e n t . In a p p l y i n g t h i s generic conception of the com-municative process to the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s study proposes a h e u r i s t i c model which c o n s i s t s of three basic phases. These phases i n c l u d e an i n i t i a t i o n phase, a design phase and an i n c o r p o r a t i o n phase. The i n i t i a t i o n phase i s one i n v/hich the process f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a community i s i n i t i a t e d . The im-petus f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community may de r i v e from the various community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community or from the Department of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . I f the impetus comes from community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s approach the Department of Mun i c i p a l A f f a i r s and make evident t h e i r need f o r a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e . The response of the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s i s not one i n v/hich estab-l i s h e d procedures, r e g u l a t i o n s and c r i t e r i a are made a v a i l -able to. the community but one i n v/hich the Department attempts to f a m i l i a r i s e i t s e l f with the community as v/ell as the c i r -cumstances which gave r i s e to the demand f o r a l o c a l govern-ment s t r u c t u r e i n the community. The Department of Mu n i c i -pal A f f a i r s a l s o seeks to discover whether or not the de-mand f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community i s representa-t i v e of the e n t i r e community or whether the demand has de-r i v e d from only a m i n o r i t y of c i t i z e n s . During the i n i t i a t i o n phase, the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s and the community o r g a n i s a t i o n ( s ) a l s o - 20/+ -e s t a b l i s h a pattern of communication i n which each party attempts to f a m i l i a r i z e i t s e l f with the methods of opera-t i o n as w e l l as the value o r i e n t a t i o n s of the other party. I f the Department of Municipa l A f f a i r s ' i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s d i s c l o s e that there does not e x i s t m a j o r i t y support f o r the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community and the Depart-ment i s of the opinion that i n c o r p o r a t i o n at t h i s time would not be i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , the process i s c u l -minated at that p o i n t . I f the Department of Mu n i c i p a l Af-f a i r s d i s c l o s e s that there does not e x i s t community support for the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n yet the Department i s of the opinion that i n c o r p o r a t i o n would be i n order to protect the pub l i c i n t e r e s t , then the Department may assume a p r o a c t i v e stance i n that i t dispatches an o f f i c i a l of the Department to the community to act i n the capacity of community organ-i z e r . Duties of t h i s o f f i c i a l would be to make evident to the community the p o s s i b l e consequences of present develop-ment (although these may be d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t ) , the pos-s i b l e b e n e f i t s of a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n terms of the present circumstances of the community and, to allo w the various s e c t o r s of the community to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r de-mands for and against the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n . I f the o f f i c i a l i s s u c c e s s f u l i n ach i e v i n g community consensus f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n the process continues while i f no consensus i s reached, e i t h e r the Department of Municipa l A f f a i r s makes evident i t s plans to i n c o r p o r a t e the community r e g a r d l e s s of consensus i f indeed i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s c r u c i a l to the pro-- 205 -t o c t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t or allows the process to terminate i f the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community i s not c r u -c i a l to the p r o t e c t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . I f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the Department of Munici-p a l A f f a i r s r e v e a l that there i s support f o r the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community and the Department i s of the opinion that the i n c o r p o r a t i o n should proceed, the process i s continue^ to the next phase. I f , however, there e x i s t s suf-f i c i e n t support f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community w i t h -i n the community, yet the Department i s of the opinion that i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s not i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , the Department may again dispatch an o f f i c i a l to the community to make e v i -dent the Department's view of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n as w e l l as the reasons f o r t h i s view. A l s o , the o f f i c i a l would then attempt to e l i c i t arguments from the community as to why the i n c o r p o r a t i o n should, proceed. I f the community suc-ceeds i n producing l e g i t i m a t e arguments fo r i n c o r p o r a t i o n , the Department of Muni c i p a l A f f a i r s should concede i t s po-s i t i o n and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n process would enter i n t o the next phase. I f the community r e s i g n s i t s e l f to the argu-ments of the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , the process would be terminated. In the i n i t i a t i o n phase, then, there i s a basic d i s c u s s i o n as to whether i n c o r p o r a t i o n per se i s i n the best i n t e r e s t of the community both from the viewpoint of the De-partment of Muni c i p a l A f f a i r s and the community. At t h i s noint i n the process, no d e f i n i t e designs f o r the corporate - 206 -form which may be attuned to the needs of the community are discussed although i t i s evident that some conception of p o s s i b l e designs enter i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n . During t h i s phase, the d i s c u s s i o n revolves around the question of whether the problems of the community and needs of the com-munity merit i n c o r p o r a t i o n . I f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s d e a l i n g with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the community i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase sug-gest that i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s both desired and a l s o i n the i n t e r e s t of the community, the design phase i s i n i t i a t e d . In the design phase of the communicative process of i n c o r p o r a t i o n , there i s a marked divergence from the present I n c o r p o r a t i o n process. The design of the corporate form which the community i s to assume i s not taken from a number of preconceived, designs which e n t a i l c e r t a i n popula-t i o n c r i t e r i a and. o b l i g a t i o n s , but i s evolved as a r e s u l t of a process i n which design proposals f o r the corporate form of the community are exchanged between the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n ( s ) of the community. In the design phase i t may become apparent that design pro-posals evolved by the community may be divergent from those evolved by the Department of Muni c i p a l A f f a i r s , both i n terms of design and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . I t may a l s o be evident that there may not be community consensus on one design; r a t h e r , a number of designs may be forthcoming from the community. In order to i n c r e a s e the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of design proposals of the community as w e l l as to achieve consensus i n the com-- 207 -munity i n terms of design proposals, the Department of Muni-c i p a l -Affairs would dispatch an o f f i c i a l to the community ( p r e f e r a b l y the one working with community during the i n i -t i a t i o n pho.se) i n order that the o f f i c i a l might serve as ( i ) an advocate f o r the community i n e v o l v i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d de-signs which would be i n the best i n t e r e s t of the community and ( i i ) a consensus b u i l d e r i n the community who would a t -tempt to e l i c i t a c t i v e communication among the exponents of the various designs and attempt to evolve one design which would be mutually acceptable to a l l f a c t i o n s and organiza-t i o n s i n the community. I t i s suggested that although the achievement of a design proposal might e n t a i l a long period of debate, i t i s maintained that c o n s t r a i n t s such as com-munity needs, community a b i l i t i e s (eg. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e capa-b i l i t i e s ) and community resources (eg. tax base) would g r e a t l y narrow the number of a l t e r n a t e design proposals which would be f e a s i b l e . I f the m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n a community can-not come to a consensus on one design proposal, the community could enter i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s with the Department of Munici-pal A f f a i r s with two design proposals although consensus on one design proposal would g r e a t l y strengthen the p o s i t i o n of the community i n the period of n e g o t i a t i o n with the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the community and the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a s u i t a b l e ''©sign fo r l o c a l government i s one i n which the com-- 208 -munity and the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s are viewed as equals (although i t i s obvious that the Department of Munici-pal A f f a i r s would f a r exceed the community i n terms of a c t -u a l power). The community does not, as A r n s t e i n has sug-gested, assume a p o s i t i o n which although seemingly meaning-f u l reduces to mere tokenism, but one i n which the community does not merely advise but negotiates with the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s . ^ 1 " Rather than using i t s power as a vant-age p o i n t , the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s concedes i t s power tempor a r i l y and negotiates i n terms of r a t i o n a l i t y . I t i s argued that i n such terms of reference, the party e v o l v i n g the most r a t i o n a l design would be s u c c e s s f u l r e -gardless of the power i t p o t e n t i a l l y possesses. Although t h i s n e g o t i a t i o n process would perhaps e n t a i l a lengthy period of time, i t would allow the d i f f -erences of the community and the Department of M u n i c i p a l Af-f a i r s to be openly discussed and the values and biases of each party d i s c l o s e d . I t i s again suggested that c o n s t r a i n t s , such as community needs, community c a p a b i l i t i e s and com-munity resources v/ould a c c e l e r a t e t h i s process of e v o l v i n g a design which would be acceptable to both the community and. the Department of Muni c i p a l A f f a i r s . I t must be s t r e s s e d , however, that the success of t h i s process of n e g o t i a t i o n r e s t s e n t i r e l y upon the w i l l i n g -ness of both p a r t i c i p a n t s to be open to i n n o v a t i v e and ex-perimental proposals which are p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the given con-s t r a i n t s . I f a proposal i s not a r r i v e d at as a consequence - 209 -of.an i n i t i a l period of n e g o t i a t i o n , each p a r t i c i p a n t en-t e r s i n t o a process of r e - e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r proposals i n terms of the demandssand values of the other p a r t i c i p a n t . I f the design phase of the communicative process of i n c o r p o r a t i o n has allowed the emergence of a design which i s acceptable to both the community as a whole and the Department of Mun i c i p a l A f f a i r s , a period of v a l i d a t i o n oc-curs i n which the community as a whole r e a c t s to the pro-p o s a l . Since the community has been engaged i n the pre-paration of proposals as w e l l as the debate concerning the optimal design, there should a r i s e l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n to the proposal. F o l l o w i n g t h i s period of v a l i d a t i o n , the commun-i t y and the Department of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s engage i n a d i a -logue as to the optimal means of implementing the l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e i n the community. At t h i s p o i n t , the c o n s t r a i n t s of the community w i l l g r e a t l y d i c t a t e the manner i n v/hich the community w i l l assume the designed l o c a l govern-ment s t r u c t u r e . However, si n c e the design has been based on community needs and community resources and a b i l i t i e s , i t i s suggested that the assumption of such a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e may be immediate r a t h e r than gradual. When a design has been achieved and v a l i d a t e d , an:'1, when a method of implementation has been achieved, the i n -corporation process enters i n t o the i n c o r p o r a t i o n phase. In the i n c o r p o r a t i o n phase, the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , by L e t t e r s Patent, i n c o r p o r a t e s the community as a corpora-tion- to assume those functions i t has been designed to carry - 210 -ou . Such functions may be extensive or extremely l i m i t e d an'" are t o t a l l y dependent on the needs, a b i l i t i e s and r e -sources of the community. Also made e x p l i c i t i n the Let-t e r s Patent would be the powers which the cor p o r a t i o n may possess, the maximum l i m i t of ~ebt which i t may assume, the area i n which i t s powers are to be bin d i n g as w e l l as other r e l e v a n t l i m i t a t i o n s and o b j e c t s . Since i t i s obvious that community needs and com-munity a b i l i t i e s and resources w i l l not remain s t a b l e but e i t h e r i n c r e a s e or decrease, i t i s p o s s i b l e that at a cer-t a i n point i n the futu r e a community may wish to re n e g o t i a t e the design of i t s l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e . I f , f o r ex-ample, the community has experienced, rapid, population growth as w e l l as an increased l e v e l of development, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the community may r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l powers to deal ef-f e c t i v e l y with the demands a r i s i n g from the community. The community may a l s o , f o r example, experience a growth i n the resource to which i t has access and consequently seek to im-prove the quaLity of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n the community. On the other hand, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that a community may ex-perience a cecrease i n population and a corresponding de-crease i n resources v/hich are at i t s d i s p o s a l . Such a com-munity may wish to decrease i t s formal f u n c t i o n s and powers. For these reasons, communities may wish to re n e g o t i a t e t h e i r designs i n order to achieve a design which would allow them to meet the needs a r i s i n g w i t h i n the community more e f f e c t -- 211 -i v e l y . However, r a t h e r than a change from one preconceived municipal s t a t u s to another, t h i s r e n e g o t i a t i o n , as i n the i n i t i a l negotiation.would be f r e e of commitment to pre-set municipal forms and be merely a r e n e g o t i a t i o n according to what the community and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s propose. In the process of r e n e g o t i a t i o n , the e n t i r e com-municative process would again be i n i t i a t e d . - 212 -CHAPTER VII - MOTES AND COMMENT5 1 . B. C. Municipal Act Amendment Act, 1973, c. 133, s. 2. 2. I b i d . , s. 10 A. 3. I b i d . , s. 639, s. 644-if. B. C. Water Act Amendment Act, 1939, c. 63, s. 49. 5. Gideon Sjoberg _et. a l . , "Bureaucracy and the Lower C l a s s " , Sociology and S o c i a l Research, ( A p r i l , i960), p. 326. 6. - A. Downs, Insi d e Bureaucracy, 1967, p. 39. 7 . c f . G. Sjoberg et_^ a!U_, c_p_. c i t . 8 . V i c t o r Thompson, "Bureaucracy i n a Democratic S o c i e t y " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Democracy, (ed.) R. C. Marti n , 1965, pp. 213-6. 9. Orion F. White, "The D i a l e c t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : An A l t e r n a t i v e to Bureaucracy", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Review, (January/February, 1969), p. 33. 10. I b i d . 11. I b i d . 12. I b i d . 13. I b i d . 14. I b i d . 15. I b i d . , pp. 33-4. 16. I b i d . 1 7 . I b i d . 18. I b i d . , p. 36/ 19. I b i d . 20. II. S. K a r i e l , Open Systems: Arenas f o r P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n , 1969 , pp. 7-o. 21. 0. F. White, op. c i t . , p. 34. - 213 22. I b i d . 23. John Frie'-mann, P e t r a c k i n g America: A Theory of Trans-a c t i v e Planning,' 1973, p. 179. 24. Sherry A r n s t e i n , "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XJuly/August, 19&9). - 214 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Almond, G a b r i e l , A. P o l i t i c a l Development: Essays i n Heu- r i s t i c Theory. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1970. and James S. Coleman (eds.). The P o l i t i c s of Developing Areas. P r i n c e t o n , N. J . : P r i n c e t o n Uni-v e r s i t y Press, 1960. Asante, Nadine. H i s t o r y of Terrace. Terrace: Totem Press, 1972. Blau, Peter M. Bureaucracy i n Modern So c i e t y . New York : Random Housed 1966. Crawford, Kenneth G. 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Todd, E r i c C. E. Cases and M a t e r i a l s on M u n i c i p a l Law. Vancouver: Best P r i n t e r s Co. L t d . , 1971. Warren, Roland. The Community i n America. Chicago: Rand, McNally and Co., 1963. Welch, Claude E. (ed.). P o l i t i c a l Modernization: A Reader  i n Comparative P o l i t i c a l Change. Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967. Wichern, P h i l i p , G. Kunka and Dr. Waddell. The Production  and T e s t i n g of a Model of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Resource F r o n t i e r Communities. Winnipeg: Center f o r Settlement Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1971. • . Two Studies i n P o l i t i c a l Development on Canada's Resource F r o n t i e r . Winnipeg: Center f o r Settlement Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1972. Wilson, James, (ed.) C i t y P o l i t i c s and P u b l i c P o l i c y . New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1968. P e r i o d i c a l s Archer, R. W. "Land Speculation and Scattered Development! F a i l u r e s i n the Urban Fringe Land Market", Urban Studies, 10, (1973). A r n s t e i n , S. "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , Journal  of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. (July/August, 1969). Brager, M. C. "Economic and S o c i a l D i s p a r i t i e s Between Cen t r a l C i t i e s and Their Suburbs", Land Economics. Volume 43 (August, 1967). - 216 -Coughlin, R. E. and J . F r i t z , "Land Values and. Environmental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the Rural-Urban Fringe", Regional  Science Research I n s t i t u t e Discussion Paper #45, (May, 1971). Deade, E r i c . "Community and the Rural-Urban Continuum", Journal of the Town Planning I n s t i t u t e , (November, 1968). Kurtz, R. A., and J . Smith. " S o c i a l L i f e i n the Rural-Urban Fringe", Rural Sociology, 26 (1 ) , (March, 1961). Pye, Lucien. "The Concept of P o l i t i c a l Development", The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  Science, No. 358 (March, 1965). Schaffer, A. "A Rural Community at the Urban Fr i n g e " , Rural  Sociology, 61 (March, 1956). Sjoberg, G. and Richard Brymer, Buford H a r r i s , "Bureaucracy and the Lower C l a s s " , Sociology and S o c i a l Research, ( A p r i l , 1966). Szablowski, G. J . "A P u b l i c Bureaucracy and the P o s s i b i l i t y of C i t i z e n ' Involvement i n the Government of Ontario", a working paper prepared f o r the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , Ontario, Canada, (November, 1971). Thayer, F. C. " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L i b e r a l Deomcratic Govern-ment", a working paper prepared f o r the Committe on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , Ontario, Canada, (October 1971). V/hite, 0. F. Jr.' '"The D i a l e c t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : An A l t e r n -a t i v e to Bureaucracy", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, (Jan./Feb., 1969). Planning Studies ' C i t y of Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a . Unincorporated Urban Area  Study. September, 1966. Bloomington, Minnesota. Planning Commission. P e r i p h e r a l  R e l a t i o n s h i p s . June, 1962. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. The Urban F r o n t i e r . Part I , Te c h n i c a l Report. Nev/spa pens The Terrace Omenica Herald, June I960 to To December 1974. - 217 -The Vancouver Sun, November 4, 1974. Unpublished Sources C a l l a n , D. M. "A Pr e l i m i n a r y Groundwater I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the T h o r n h i l l Planning Area" Unpublished study of the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Water Re-sources S e r v i c e , Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources, V i c t o r i a , 1972. T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n , Minutes of the Meet-ings of the T h o r n h i l l Rural Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n . I960 - 1972. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . Minutes of the Meet-ings of the Board, of D i r e c t o r s . I968 - 1974. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . By-laws of the Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . I968 - 1974. B r i t i s h Columbia. B. C. Department of Highways. "Summary of Road C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the T h o r n h i l l Area", Unpub-lished. Study, 1972. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia. The Water Act R. S. B. C. 1920. c. 120. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Water Act Amendment Act. 1936. c. 63. B. C. Borough Ordinance, 1865. B. C. M u n i c i p a l i t y Act R. S. B. C. 1872. c. 35. B. C. M u n i c i p a l i t y Act R. S. B. C. 1889. c 18. B. C. Muni c i p a l Act R. S. B. C. 1891. c. 29. B. C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act Amendment Act 1912. c. 29. B. C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act R. S. B. C, 1920. c. 65. B. C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment Act 1925. c. 33. 3. C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment Act 1926. c. 47. B. C. V i l l a "e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment Act 1930. c. 51. B. C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act Amendment Act 1949. - 218 -B. C. Municipal Act R. S. B. C 1957. c • 42. B. o. Mun i c i p a l Act Amendment Act 1965. c . 28. B. C. Municipal Act Amendment Act 1966. c . 31. B. C. Municipal Act Amendment Act 1968. c . 33. B. c. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act 1971. c . 38. B. c. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act 1973. c . 133. Encyclopedia H i d d e l l , W. R. ( C o n s u l t i n g E d i t o r ) Bolton, S. E. (Managing E d i t o r ) Canadian Encyclopedic Digest (Ontario E d i t i o n ) , Toronto: Burroughs and Company L t d . 1928. Tremeear, W. J . and J . K. Power (General E d i t o r s ) Bolton, S. E. (Managing E d i t o r ) Canadian Encyclopedic Digest (Western E d i t i o n ) Calgary: Burroughs and Company L t d . , 1922. Other Sources Brown, E v e r e t t . Personal Interview. February 13, 1975. - 219 APPENDIX A THORNHILL QUESTIONAIRE AND RESULTS Compiled by the Department of Muni« c i p a l A f f a i r s 1972 219a -T h o r n h i l l Q u e stionaire 1. How many members of the Household* a) work b) are i n school c) are unemployed d) r e t i r e d e) on S o c i a l Welfare 2. For v/hom do the members of t h i s household work: . 3. What i s the approximate income of each working member of t h i s f a m i l y per annum? a) 0-2999 b) 3000-5999 c) 6000-8999 d) 9000-11999 e) 12000-plus k . What are your annual p r o p e r t y taxes a f t e r the home-owners grant i s deducted? 5. Home address 6. Occupation of head of household 7. Number of people i n household 8 . Which school does each c h i l d i n t h i s residence attend? 9. Where do you do your shopping f o r i a) food b) c l o t h i n g and dry goods c) g a s o l i n e and automotive r e p a i r s 9a) How many l i c e n c e d automobi]es are there a t t h i s r e s i -dence? 10. I s an automobile used t o t a v e l to work? - 220 -11. Do you keep any l i v e s t o c k ? Yes I f yes, please s p e c i f y 12. D w e l l i n g type: a) s i n g l e f a m i l y home b) c a b i n c) mobile home d) duplex e) other No 13. I f you have a mobile home, do you own the p r o p e r t y on which your t r a i l e r i s lo c a t e d ? l k . How long have you l i v e d i n T h o r n h i l l or Queensway? 15. How long have you l i v e d a t t h i s address? 16. Do you own or re n t t h i s d w e l l i n g ? 17. What do you l i k e most about t h i s d w e l l i n g ? a) s i z e b) r e n t or payment c) a t t r a c t i v e l o t 18. What do you most enjoy about the l o c a t i o n of your home? a) q u i e t b) good yard s i z e c) convenience to work d) low p r o p e r t y taxes e) convenience t o school f ) r u r a l s e t t i n g (Please check a c c o r d i n g t o cho i c e , eg. 1, 2, or 3). 19. I f the f o l l o w i n g was to l o c a t e near you home, would youi 1) do nothing 2) p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t i t 3) support i t a) l a r g e apartment block b) s i z a b l e shopping center " c) office/warehouse complex d) junkyard or equipment yard e) s p o r t s car race t r a c k 221 20. From the f o l l o w i n g l i s t , which would you co n s i d e r are the three most important f a c t o r s i n s e l e c t i n g an area i n which to l i v e t a) newnesss b) access to schools and s t o r e s c) taxes d) adequate s e r v i c e s e) f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n f ) r u r a l atmosphere (Again, please i n d i c a t e choice 1, 2, or 3.) 21. Which of the f o l l o w i n g best expresses your f e e l i n g s about T h o r n h i l l . a) s a t i s f a c t o r y b) u n s a t i s f a c t o r y • c) n e u t r a l 22. I n d i c a t e the s e r v i c e s which you t h i n k T h o r n h i l l most needs i n order of importance i a) c) ZZIZIZIIZIZZZZZZZZZ: d) zz^zzzzzzzzzzzzzz: e) ZIIIZZIZIIZZZZZZZZZZ 23. Do you t h i n k there i s a t r a f f i c problem i n T h o r n h i l l ? Yes No -I f yes, i n d i c a t e the major f a c t o r s i a) road l a y o u t b) poor roads c) confusing corners d) weather 24. What f u t u r e development would you l i k e to see i n T h o r n h i l l t 25. Do you favour a form of l o c a l government? Yes No I f yes, please i n d i c a t e the form of i n c o r p o r a t i o n ! a) i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a M u n i c i p a l i t y b) water improvement d i s t r i c t c) amalgamation w i t h Terrace - 222 -26. Could you i n d i c a t e what r e c r e a t i o n programs or organ-i z a t i o n s you or members of your f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n or belong t o i BUSINESSES 27. Name of business 28. I s t h i s a s e l f operated business? 29. Type of business 30. Number of employees? 31. I n which community do the m a j o r i t y of employees l i v e ? SERVICES 32. From where i s your domestic water supply taken1 a) P r i v a t e w e l l b) Water system 33. Please i n d i c a t e the depth of your w e l l i f your water supply i s taken from your p r i v a t e w e l l 34. Have you or your predecessors ever experienced a water shortage 1 Yes No I f yes, i s t h i s seasonal or r e g u l a r ? Can you r e c a l l a s p e c i f i c year? 35. Have you ever experienced poor water q u a l i t y ? Yes No I f yes, i s t h i s seasonal or r e g u l a r ? 36. Are you s e r v i c e d by a s e p t i c tank? Yes No I f yes, have you experienced d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i t ? Yes No 37. Are you s e r v i c e d by a garbage c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e ? Yes No I f no, how do you dispose of your r e f u s e 1 - 223 -Questionnaire R e s u l t s 3. 4. How many members of the householdt No. fo of T o t a l Sample a) Work b) Are i n School c) Are Unemployed d) R e t i r e d e) On S o c i a l Welfare 548 581 109 15 32 42.6 45.2 8.5 1.2 2.5 2. For whom do the members of t h i s household worki - not done. What i s the approximate income of each working member of t h i s f a m i l y per annum? Income $0-2999 3000-5999 6000-8999 9000-11999 12000 + Number 31 7 0 145 i t 425 f> of T o t a l Sample 7.3 16.5 3 k.l 31.3 10.8 100.0 What are your annual taxes a f t e r the homeowners grant i s deducted? 5. Number % of T o t a l Sample Cumulati-1-10 69 38.5 ve.5 11-20 14 7.8 46.3 21-30 13 7.3 53.6 31-40 18 10.1 63.7 41-50 6 3.k 67.I 51-60 7 3.9 71.0 61-70 4 2.2 73.2 71-80 4 2.2 75.4 81-90 3 1.7 77.1 91-100 0 0 77.1 101-150 14 7.8 84.9 151-200 12 6.7 91.6 201-250 4 2.2 93.8 251-300 3 1.7 95.5 301 + 8 k.5 100.0 Home address -not done. 224 6. Occupation of head of householdi Occupation Managerial Professional-Technical C l e r i c a l Sales Service Craftsman Transportation-Communication S k i l l e d labour Unemployed Retired Self-employed 7. Number of people i n household: 8. Person(s) 1 2 I 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 + Number 19 94 114 151 115 63 23 10 1 0 1 of Number ' of Total Sample 37 6.3 26 7 1.2 20 32 5A 97 16.4 65 11.0 267 5^.3 7 1.2 11 1.9 20 3.* % of Total Sample 3.2 15.9 19.3 25.5 19.5 10.6 3.9 1.7 .2 0 .2 Total Number of survey f a m i l i e s : 591 Total sample population: 2366 Which school does each c h i l d i n t h i s residence attend? -not done. 9. Where do you do your shopping f o r i a) food b) c l o t h i n g and dry goods c) gasoline and automotive repairs Indication! Overwhelmingly - Terrace - 225 -9a) How many l i c e n c e d automobiles are there a t t h i s r e s i -dence? Number of Autos 0 1 2 3 3+ Frequency 25 360 164 23 13 fo of T o t a l Sample 4.3 61.5 28.0 3.9 2.2 10. I s an automobile used t o t r a v e l to work: I n d i c a t i o n Yes No Number 464 101 11. Do you keep any l i v e s t o c k ? I n d i c a t i o n Yes No 12. D w e l l i n g type: Type Number 40 566 Number Si n g l e f a m i l y home 278 Cabin 30 Mobile home 220 Duplex 35 Other 25 f> of T o t a l Sample 82.1 17.9 fo of T o t a l Sample 6.6 93.k f> of T o t a l Sample k7.3 5.1 37.k 5.9 13. I f you own a mobile home, do you own the pr o p e r t y on which your t r a i l e r i s l o c a t e d ? I n d i c a t i o n Yes No Number 100 109 fo of T o t a l Sample 47.8 52.2 - 226 -14. How long have you l i v e d i n T h o r n h i l l or Queensway? Since Number % of T o t a l Sample Cumulative % 1957 & before 13 2.1 2.1 1958 3 .5 2.6 1959 3 .5 3.1 i960 7 1.2 ^.3 1961 3 .5 4.8 1962 9 1.5 6.3 1963 10 1.7 8.0 1964 24 4.0 12.0 1965 31 5.2 17.2 1966 48 8.0 25.2 1967 27 ^.5 29.7 1968 58 9.7 39.** 1969 97 16.2 55.6 1970 108 18.0 73.6 1971 121 20.2 93.8 1972 37 6.2 100.0 How long have you been at t h i s address? Since Number % of T o t a l Sample Cumulative % 1957 & before 7 1.2 1.2 1958 3 .5 1.7 1959 2 .3 2.0 I960 4 .7 2.7 1961 3 .5 3.2 1962 10 1.7 4.9 1963 7 1.2 6.1 1964 12 2.0 8.1 1965 18 3.0 11.1 1966 26 4.4 15.5 1967 29 4.9 20.4 1968 8.9 29.3 1969 84 14.2 ^3.5 1970 106 17.8 61.3 1971 164 27.6 88.9 1972 66 11.1 100.0 16. Do you re n t or own t h i s d w e l l i n g ? I n d i c a t i o n Number % of T o t a l Sample Rent 176 30.8 Own 396 69.2 17. What do you most l i k e about t h i s d w e l l i n g ? a) s i z e b) r e n t or payment I c) a t t r a c t i v e l o t -not done. - 227 18. What do you most enjoy about the l o c a t i o n of your home? Preference 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l I n d i c a t i o n i a) Quiet 144 5 7 k 5 1 2 14 2 2 7 4 b) Good yard s i z e 46 8 7 6 2 1 5 6 0 2 1 6 c) Convenience to work 2 2 14 14 1 6 1 5 1 6 9 7 d) low property tax 6 2 5 5 3 4 1 1 4 6 1 7 2 e) Convenience to school 2 9 46 3 0 1 3 6 1 6 140 f ) r u r a l s e t t i n g 6 1 k 5 6 9 1 6 9 3 2 0 3 Preference category breakdowns! A) Quiet Responses Preference Rank 1 2 I I 144 >7 )<5 12 14 2 B) Good Yard Size Preference Responses Rank 1 2 I I 46 87 6 2 1 5 6 0 C) Convenience to Work Preference Responses Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 22 14 14 1 6 1 5 1 6 % of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 5 2 . 6 2 0 . 8 1 6 . 4 4 . 4 5 . 1 .7 fo of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 21 .3 4 0 . 3 28.7 6 . 9 2.8 f> of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 22.7 1 4 .4 14.4 1 6 . 5 1 5 . 5 1 6 . 5 Cumulative Category f> 52.6 7 3 . k 8 9 . 8 9 4 . 2 9 9 . 3 1 0 0 . 0 Cumulative Category fo 2 1 . 3 6 1 . 6 9 0 . 3 9 7 . 2 1 0 0 . 0 Cumulative Category f> 2 2 . 7 3 7 . 1 5 1 . 5 6 8 . 0 8 3 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 - 228 -D) Low Pro p e r t y Tax Preference Responses Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 62 55 3^  11 4 6 E) Convenience to School Preference Responses Rank 1 2 I I F) R u r a l S e t t i n g 29 46 30 *1 16 Preference Rank 1 2 I 5 6 Responses 61 5^ 69 16 9 3 % of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 36.0 32.0 19.8 6.4 2.3 3.5 % of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 20.7 32.9 21.4 9.3 11 70 of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 30.0 22.2 3^.0 I'X 1.5 Cumulative Category % 36.0 68.0 87.8 9^.2 96.5 100.0 Cumulative Category % 20.7 53.6 75.0 84.3 88.6 100.0 Cumulative Category % 30.0 52.2 86.2 9^.1 98.5 100.0 19. I f the f o l l o w i n g were l o c a t e d near your home, would you« 1) do nothing 2) p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t i t 3) support i t a) l a r g e apartment block b) s i z e a b l e shopping centre c) office/warehouse complex d) junkyard or equipment yard e) s p o r t s car race t r a c k 1 2 3 T o t a l 336 152 ' 77 565 105 55 405 565 307 173 85 565 113 435 6 554 145 325 77 547 I ! - 229 -Category Breakdowns: A) Large Apartment Blocks I n d i c a t i o n Response 1 2 3 336 152 77 B) S i z a b l e Shop-ping Centre I n d i c a t i o n Response 1 2 3 105 55 405 C) Office/Warehouse Complex I n d i c a t i o n Response 1 2 3 307 173 85 D) Junkyard or Equipment Yard I n d i c a t i o n Response 1 2 3 113 6 E) Sports Car Racetrack I n d i c a t i o n Response 1 2 .3 145 325 77 % of T o t a l Category Sample  59.5 26.9 13.6 fo of T o t a l Category Sample  18.6 9.7 71.7 % of T o t a l Category Sample  5^ .3 30.6 15.1 % of T o t a l Category Sample  20.4 78.5 1.1 % of T o t a l Category Sample  26.5 59.5 14.0 230 -20. From the f o l l o w i n g l i s t , the three most important i n which to l i v e : which would you consider are f a c t o r s i n s e l e c t i n g an area I n d i c a t i o n (preference) a) newness b) access to schools & s t o r e s c) taxes d) adequate s e r v i c e s e) f i r e & p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n f ) r u r a l atmosphere Category Breakdown A) Newness 1 2 3 T o t a l 13 8 23 44 83 85 7i 242 62 74 70 206 39 59 51 149 7^ 70 65 209 96 h 47 186 Preference Rank 1 2 3 Response 13 8 23 fo B) Access to Schools & Stores Preference Rank 1 2 3 C) Taxes Preference Rank 1 2 3 Response 83 8 7 Response 62 7^  70 fo of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 29.5 18.2 52.3 of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 3^ .3 35.1 30.6 fo of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample D) Adequate S e r v i c e s Preference Response Rank 30.1 35.9 3^.0 fo of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 1 2 3 39 59 51 26.2 39.6 3^.2 Cumulative Category f> 29.5 JJ-7.7 100.0 Cumulative Category % 3^ .3 69.^  100.0 Cumulative Category fo 30.1 66.0 100.0 Cumulative Category f> 26.2 65.8 100.0 - 231 -E) F i r e & P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n Preference Rank 1 2 3 Response 7 k 70 65 F) R u r a l Atmosphere Preference Response Rank 21. 22. 23. 1 2 3 96 43 47 fo of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 3 5 . k 33.5 31.1 f of T o t a l Cate-gory Sample 51.6 23.1 25.3 Cumulative Category fo 3 5 . k 68.9 100.0 Cumulative Category f> 51.6 7k.7 100.0 Which of the f o l l o w i n g best express your f e e l i n g s about T h o r n h i l l ? a) u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b) s a t i s f a c t o r y c) n e u t r a l -not done. I n d i c a t e the s e r v i c e s which you t h i n k T h o r n h i l l most needs i n order of importanceJ -not done - see #24 Do you t h i n k there i s a t r a f f i c problem i n T h o r n h i l l ? I n d i c a t i o n s . Number f> of Sample T o t a l Yes No 244 .332 42.4 57.6 I f yes, i n d i c a t e the major f a c t o r s t I n d i c a t i o n Number fo of Sample T o t a l Road l a y o u t Poor roads Confusing corners Weather 111 148 45 86 28.5 37.9 11.5 22.1 - 232 -24. What f u t u r e development would you l i k e to see i n T h o r n h i l l ? I n d i c a t i o n Number fo of T o t a l Sample shopping centre 306 43.4 housing 25 3.6 maintained garbage dump 10 1,4 schools 44 6,5 p a r t f a c i l i t i e s 27 3.8 community f a c i l i t i e s 88 12.5 f i r e department 84 11.9 water system 70 9.9 sewer system - 51 -7.2 More s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t i o n s , p o o l (9)i paving & road im-provement (29)» r e c r e a t i o n centre (37), clean-up (3), arena (5), c h i l d care (2), dog catcher (6), playground (5), laundry f a c i l i t i e s (2), bowling a l l e y (1), pub (1), h o t e l (3), m i n e r a l l a b o r a t o r y (1), medical c l i n i c (1), s t r e e t l i g h t i n g (11), t h e a t r e (2), sidewalks (2), c i v i c centre (4), l i q u o r s t o r e (2), bus s e r v i c e (3), zoning (1), convention h a l l (1), t r a i l e r parks (1), horse t r a i l s (1), race t r a c k (1). 25, Do you favour a form of l o c a l government? I n d i c a t i o n Number % of T o t a l Sample Yes 446 83.5 No 88 16.5 I f yes please i n d i c a t e e i t h e r * Number f> of T o t a l Sample a) i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y 171 38.7 b) water improvement d i s t r i c t 213 48,2 c) amalgamation w i t h Terrace 58 13.1 26, Could you i n d i c a t e what r e c r e a t i o n programs or organ-i z a t i o n s you or members of your f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n or belong t o i -not done, 27. Name of business? -not done. - 233 -28. I s t h i s a s e l f operated "business? -not done. 29. Business type? -not done. For general i n d i c a t i o n see qu e s t i o n #2. 30. Number of employees? -not done. 31. In v/hich community do the employees l i v e ? -not done. 32. Do you have a w e l l ? I n d i c a t i o n Number % of T o t a l Sample Yes 254 47.3 'No 283 52.7 Please i n d i c a t e depth i n f e e t i f you have a w e l l . Depth i n f e e t Frequency f> of T o t a l Sample l e s s than 10 1 .5 10-15 4 2.1 16-20 9 4.8 21-25 57 30.2 26-30 53 28.0 31-35 21 11.1 36-40 10 5.3 41-45 6 3.2 46-50 2 1.1 51-55 4 2.1 56-60 3 1.6 61-65 2 1.1 71-75 2 1.1 76-8O 2 1.1 96-IOO 1 .5 121-125 2 1.1 126-130 1 .5 146-150 1 .5 180-185 1 .5 186-190 2 1.1 196-200 1 .5 206-210 1 .5 220-225 1 .5 226-230 1 .5 245-250 1 .5 - 2 3 4 -34, Have you or your predecessors ever experienced a water shortagei I n d i c a t i o n Number fo of T o t a l Sample Yes 117 21.7 No 423 7 8 . 3 I f yes, i s t h i s seasonal or r e g u l a r ? Frequency Number fo of T o t a l Sample Seasonal 80 8 7 . 9 Regular 11 12.1 35, Have you ever experienced poor water q u a l i t y ? I n d i c a t i o n Number f> of T o t a l Sample Yes 50 9 . 5 No 475 9 0 . 5 3 6 . I f you are s e r v i c e d by a s e p t i c tank, have you ever experienced d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i t ? I n d i c a t i o n Number % of T o t a l Sample Yes 54 9 . 9 No 494 9 0 . 1 3 7 . Are you s e r v i c e d by a garbage c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e 1 I n d i c a t i o n Number % of T o t a l Sample Yes 358 64.1 No 201 35.9 I f no, how do you dispose of your refusex -not done. - 235 -APPENDIX B THORNHILL CENSUS RESULTS APRIL 1973 Compiled by the Regional Di s t r i c t of Kitimat Stikine 1. Age Distribution - Females Age Censi # 0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 3J-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 70+ is Area Census Area Census Area Census Area Census Area Total 1 # 2 # 3 # v # 5 32 k5 70 63 55 265 24 25 k7 37 35 168 26 20 46 4o 35 167 10 17 ?6 27 8 118 26 40 49 28 41 184 17 23 59 32 33 164 11 8 30 38 18 105 11 16 25 15 8 75 3 3 15 14 9 44 4 6 13 7 5 35 4 7 15 6 7 39 2 2 10 4 0 18 0 2 4 1 1 8 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 1 1 5 Total 172 215 k k l 31k 256 1398 I 2. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n - Males Age 0-5 33 3^ 73 52 52 244 6-10 29 18 9^ ^1 52 189 11-15 16-20 9 16 39 1? 15; 93 21-25 70+ T o t a l Census Area Census Area Census # 1 # 2 # 3 33 3^   4-9 22 23 61   18 29 45 22 29 49 9 17 38 12 11 24 8 12 28 7 8 20 4 7 17 3 6 10 2 3 7 1 0 5 2 0 3 181 213 468 Census Area Census Area T o t a l # k #5 40 30 176 28 18 138 26-30 2 29 ^  - 25 32- 157 31-3 «> 9 17  40 27 131 ;-40 12   18 16 81 41-45 ~   15 l i 77 46-50 7 8 14 8 57 51-55   9 5 42 56-60  6 5 30 61-65 2 1 15 66-70  1 2 2 2 0 7 312 287 l W O x 3. Family S i z e By Census Area Census Area Census Area # 1 # 2 1 Person 7 16 2 Persons 16 23 3 " 13 32 k « 23 26 5 " 16 19 6 8 5 7 " 6 9 8 2 1 O 1 0 10 + " 1 0 Census Area Census Area Census Area T o t a l # 3 # 4 # 5 20 15 1 59 • 68 59 22 188 57 45 29 176 65 66 45 225 26 47 25 133 17 21 11 62 5 7 3 30 4 3 2 12 1 0 1 3 2 1 0 4 I IV) I 4. Dwell ing Type By Census Area Dwelling Type Census Area # 1 Census Area # 2 House 42 42 T r a i l e r 44 40 Duplex 0 6 Apartment 0 33 Cabin 0 0 Unknown 4 2 Census Area Census Area Census Area # 3 # k #5 92 143 56 81 39 71 12 22 0 4 5 0 0 0 1 5 12 13 0 0 I LEAF 239a OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. 5. Inhabitants Per Dwelling Unit By Census Area Dwelling Unit Census Area # 1 Census Area # 2 Census Area # 3 Census Area # k Census # 5 House 168 180 332 537 243 T r a i l e r 172 155 258 135 256 Duplex 0 11 32 66 0 Apartment 0 80 10 10 0 Cabin 0 . 0 0 0 5 Unknown 19 4 25 48 51 Area i ro -p-o i 6. Average Family Size By Dwelling Type and Census Area Dwelling Census Area Census Area Type #1 #2 House 4.00 4.28 Trailer 3.90 3.87 Duplex 0 1.83 Apartment 0 2.24 Cabin 0 0 Census Area Census Area Census Area # 3 # * # 5 3.60 3.71 4.21 3.18 3.^6 3.63 2.66 3 .00 0 2.50 2.00 0 0 0 5 .00 7. Average Family Size By Census Area Census Area # 1 3 . 9 8 Census Area # 2 3 . k 9 Census Area # 3 3 . 3 8 Census Area # k 3 . 6 0 Census Area # 5 3 . 8 9 8. Average Family Size By Dwelling Type Dwelling Type House 3 .89 Trailer 3 .55 Duplex 2.73 Apartment 2.38 Cabin 5 .00 ro 1 243 9. Total Dwellings 796 10. Total Population 2797 11. Average Family Size 3*51 12. Estimated Total Population 3866 

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