UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Selenium availability and metabolism in the chick Seier, Lorne Charles 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A1 S43_9.pdf [ 3.34MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093525.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093525-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093525-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093525-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093525-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093525-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093525-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093525-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093525.ris

Full Text

C • /  /  SELENIUM  AVAILABILITY IN  THE  AND  METABOLISM  CHICK  BY LORNE  A  SEIER  B.Sc.,  UNIVERSITY  OF  MANITOBA,  1967  M.Sc,  UNIVERSITY  OF  MANITOBA,  1969  THESIS THE  CHARLES  SUBMITTED  IN  PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  IN  FOR  OF  THE  THE  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  PHILOSOPHY  DEPARTMENT OF  POULTRY  WE  ACCEPT  REQUIRED  THE  THIS  THESIS  SCIENCE  AS  CONFORMING  TO  STANDARD  UNIVERSITY  OF  DECEMBER,  BRITISH 1973  COLUMBIA  THE  In  presenting this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the I  Library  further  for  s h a l l make i t  agree  fulfilment  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I  freely  available  that permission for  for  extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e  by h i s of  the  in partial  this  representatives. thesis for  It  financial  of  the  requirements  reference copying of  agree  copying or  this  thesis  Department  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  or  publication  g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  written permission.  that  and s t u d y .  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  i s understood that  for  ABSTRACT  THE WAS  BIOLOGICAL  DETERMINED  THAT  OF  DIETARY  EXUDATIVE WHEAT  TO  SAMPLES  SODIUM  SELENIUM ADDING  GRADED  DEFICIENT TO  THE  WITH  DIET  AND  SELENIUM  KIDNEY,  AND  A  TISSUES  EXAMINED  OF  THE  SELENIUM  CONCENTRATION  1.0  PPM  STEADILY.  SELENIUM  LEVELS  WAS  WHEN  TO  CHICK  RESPONSE SELENIUM  WAS  THE IN  THE  MEAN  MEAL  THE  OF  IN  TEN 105  OF  RANGED  THE  0.2  TO  1.0  FROM  SELENIUM  BLOOD  AN  LIVER  AND (A  IN  DIETARY  SLIGHTLY  BLOOD  THE  LEVELS AS  THE  LIVER  SELENIUM  OF  EITHER  IN  SELENIUM.  EITHER  STATUS  LIVER,  INCREASE  DIETARY  SELENIUM  SUPPLIED  CONTENT  BLOOD  THAT  SELENIUM  CONCENTRATION  CONSTANT  AND  SHOW  TISSUE  TO  OF  BY  ( L . E . BLOOD,  PPM.  PPM  BASAL  SELENIUM  TISSUES  SELENIUM  WAS  A  INVESTIGATED  TO  DIETARY  RESULTS  INCIDENCE  WITH  PERCENT.  RELATIVELY  SELENIUM,  REPRESENT  SIMILAR  OBSERVED  0.2  SELENIUM  FEEDSTUFF  SELENIUM  WITH  RAPESEED  PROPORTIONATELY  REMAIN  THESE  IN  SELENITE  0  THE  AVAILABLE  PERCENT  CHICKS).  FROM  FROM  DIETARY  INCREASE  A  SODIUM  INCREASED  PLATEAU)  THE  THE  IN  SUPPLEMENTATION  ABOVE  IN  CONCENTRATION OF  THE  PREVENTING  61  OF  THE  SELENIUM  INCREASING  MEAN  COMPARING  MUSCLE  IN  AVAILABILITY  METABOLISM  LEVELS  OF  178  TO  FEEDSTUFF  EFFECTIVENESS  CHICK. 62  FROM  SELENIUM  PERCENT  THE  THE  A V A I L A B I L I T Y or  OR  SELENITE  IN  VARIED  THE  89  COMPARING  DIATHESIS  PERCENT. 27  BY  ACTIVITY  LEVELS OR  LIVER  BIRD. OF  THE  SODIUM  CHICK  SELENITE  OR  A  BIRDS  FEEDSTUFF  (BREWERS  F E D WHEAT  SELENIUM  (SODIUM  DIETS  YEAST).  WERE  SELENITE)  FURTHERMORE,  SIMILAR SUPPLIED  I I I  TO  THOSE  SELENIUM  FED  IN THE BASAL  LEVELS  EQUIVALENT DIET.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  PAGE ABSTRACT  i i vi  LIST  OF  TABLES  LIST  OF  FIGURES  vi  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  GENERAL  1  INTRODUCTION  LITERATURE  2  REVIEW  ESTABLISHMENT  OF  SELENIUM  SELENIUM  CONTENT  SELENIUM  METABOLISM  SELENIUM  LEVELS  TISSUE  IN  AN  ESSENTIAL  ELEMENT  . . .  1.  ON THE  ANTIOXIDANT DIATHESIS  THE  12 18  BLOOD  19 MECHANISM  OF  EFFECT  OF  ON  INCIDENCE  IN  THE  ACTION  SELENIUM, OF  FOR  VITAMIN  SELENIUM E,  . . .  RESULTS EXPERIMENT THE  2.  AND 33  CHICKS  33  AND  34  METHODS  AND  DISCUSSION  THE  AVAILABILITY  36 OF  SELENIUM  FROM  GRAINS  FOR 41  CHICK  41  INTRODUCTION MATERIALS RESULTS EXPERIMENT MEAL  3.  AND  DISCUSSION  THE  AVAILABILITY  THE  42  METHODS  AND  FOR  43 OF  RESULTS  FROM  RAPESEED  49  AND  AND  SELENIUM  49  CHICK  INTRODUCTION MATERIALS  23  EXUDATIVE  INTRODUCTION MATERIALS  7 11  PLANTS  SELENIUM  THEORIES EXPERIMENT  OF  AS  49  METHODS  DISCUSSION  50  1 v  PAGE E X P E R I M E N T 4.  SELENIUM  IN THE BROILER  CHICK  . . .  55  INTRODUCTION  55  MATERIALS  56  RESULTS E X P E R I M E N T 5.  AND METHODS  56  AND D I S C U S S I O N TISSUE  SELENIUM  SELENIUM  LEVELS  AS  INDICATORS  OF 62  STATUS  INTRODUCTION  62  MATERIALS  62  RESULTS GENERAL  METABOLISM  AND METHODS  AND  63  DISCUSSION  DISCUSSION SELENIUM  69 70  REQUIREMENTS  73  REFERENCES APPENDIXES |»  II. III.  SELENIUM  ANALYSIS  A.  DIGESTION  B.  TRACE  METAL  82 82  ACESSORY  UNIT  83  ANALYSES  85  OF VARIANCE  89  STATISTICAL ANALYSES  PROCEDURE  v  LIST  OF  TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE SELENIUM  RESPONSIVE  DIFFERENT II. III.  COMPOSITION E F F E C T OF BODY AND  IV.  OF  SELENIUM,  BLOOD  THE  VITAMIN  MORTALITY,  SELENIUM  CONTENT  OF  FEED  SELENIUM  RESPONSE  OF  CHICKS  IN  RESPONSE LIVER,  AND  GRAIN,  OF  THE  SUPPLEMENTATION  ON  DIATHESIS 40  CHICKS BIOLOGICAL AND  ASSAY  THE  AND 2)  46  BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY  OF 53  MEAL  LEVELS  AND  ANTIOXIDANT  (EXPERIMENT  RAPESEED  KIDNEY  AND  IN GRAIN  FED  DIETS  CONTENT  E  EXUDATIVE  IN GROWING  OF  SELENIUM  35  DIET  ACTIVITY  SELENIUM VI.  3  BASAL  EXPERIMENTAL V.  IN  SPECIES  WEIGHT,  SELENIUM  D E F I C I E N C Y SYMPTOMS  OF  MUSCLE  WITH  SELENIUM  TO  IN  BLOOD,  DIETARY  SELENIUM  AS  SODIUM 57  SELENITE VII. VIII.  COMPOSITION COMPARISON  OF OF  SELENIUM FED IX.  WHEAT  APPENDIX  TISSUE  SUPPLIED  EQUIVALENT  COMPARISON FED  WHEAT  AN  OF  THE  DIETS  CONCENTRATIONS BY  BREJWERS  LEVELS BLOOD  WITH  EQUIVALENT  64  DIETS  THE  OF  SODIUM  LEVEL  OF  BLOOD  LEVEL  AMOUNT  OF  BIRDS WITH  FED BIRDS 65  SELENITE  BIRDS OF  SODIUM  FED  THE  BIRDS SELENITE  . . . .  67  TABLE  I.  ANALYSIS  OF  STANDARD  LIVER  SAMPLE  II.  RECOVERY  OF  SELENIUM  ADDED  TO  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  FOR  III.  OF  YEAST  DIATHESIS  IN CHICKS  THE  BASAL  91  DIET  I N C I D E N C E OF  (EXPERIMENT  vI  90  1)  EXUDATES 92  APPENDIX IV.  TABLE  ANALYSIS  PAGE OF  D i A T H E S IS  VARIANCE  FOR  THE  IN CHICKS  INCIDENCE  OF  EXUDATIVE 93  v I I  LIST  OF  FIGURES  FIGURE 1.  PAGE INCIDENCE CHICKS  2.  INCIDENCE CHICK AND  3.  OF DUE OF  FED  THE  AND  TO  OF  FED  THE  DIATHESIS  DIETARY  EXUDATIVE DIFFERENT  SODIUM  INCIDENCE CHICK  EXUDATIVE  DIATHESIS LEVELS  SELENITE  EXUDATIVE DIFFERENT  SODIUM  AMONG  GROWING  SUPPLEMENTATION  OF  EQUIVALENT  DIATHESIS LEVELS  SELENITE  IN  OF  THE  DIETARY  IN  GROWING SELENIUM  IN WHEAT THE  DIETARY  EQUIVALENT  37  IN  THE  SELENIUM RAPESEED 51  RESPONSE  DIETARY  OF  TISSUE  SELENIUM  SUPPLEMENTATION  OF  LEVELS  TO  SODIUM  SELENITE  APPENDIX  44  GROWING  MEAL 4.  . . . .  58  FIGURE  1.  LINEARITY  OF  SELENIUM  2.  SELENIUM  3.  R E P E A T A B I L I T Y OF  STANDARD  ANALYSIS  ANALYSIS SELENIUM  VIM  86 87  ANALYSIS  88  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  APPRECIATION THE  OTHER  DR.  M.  ADVICE  MEMBERS  TUNG, AND  STUDY.  I ALSO  THE NUTRITION  DR.  HELP  TO  J.  FOR  TO  KRISHNAMURTI, AFFORDED THANK  THE  FOR  ME  AND  FARM  INDEBTED  THEIR  THE  FINANCIAL  PROF. DR.  THE  B.  W.  DR. E.  D.  DURING  D.  B.  BRAGG  AND  MARCH,  KITTS,  THE  MEMBERS  COURSE OF  THE  FOR OF  THE THIS  FACULTY,  ASSISTANCE.  PROVIDED  STAFF TO  ADVISOR,  OTHER  ENCOURAGEMENT  is  MY  COMMITTEE:  BI E L Y ,  AND  AUTHOR  BY  THE  IS G R E A T L Y BRITISH  MEMBERS  OF  THE  APPRECIATED.  COLUMBIA  A S S I S T A N C E WHICH  MADE  DEPARTMENT THIS  POSSIBLE. ALSO  UNDERSTANDING THIS  S.  WISH  AGRICULTURE  I  OF  N.  THE  LABORATORY  THE  PROJECT  OF  EXTENDED  ENCOURAGEMENT  PARTICULARLY  OF  DR.  IS  WISH AND  TO  EXPRESS  ENCOURAGEMENT  A P P R E C I A T I O N TO DURING  THESIS.  IX  THE  MY  WIFE  PREPARATION  FOR AND  HER WRITING  GENERAL  THE  I N C I D E N C E  D I S O R D E R S  OF  IN  C A N A D A  P R O B A B L Y  L I V E S T O C K  AND  T H E  O F  P E R F O R M A N C E  B U T  THE  IN  T H E  C A N A D I A N  T O  NOT  BY  D I E T A R Y  F O R M U L A T I O N  OF  WERE  F E E D  E S T A B L I S H  S T A T E S  TO  T H E  T U R K E Y S .  AND  D I E T A R Y  IN  A G R I C U L T U R A L  D O C U M E N T E D .  F O R  T H I S  IS  P R O C E D U R E S  S E L E N I U M  (1971)  A R E A S  ( J E N K I N S  R E P O R T E D  A  AND  A N D  L A R G E  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  W H I C H  P U L L E T S  A N D  R E P R O D U C T I V E  P O O R  P R O B L E M S  WERE  C O R R E C T E D  BY  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N .  E  R E Q U I R E M E N T ,  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  T H E  R E S P O N S I V E  E  D I A G N O S T I C  T H E S E  R A T I O N S .  E S T I M A T E  G R A I N  IN  R E P L A C E M E N T  ITS  P O U L T R Y  W E L L  M C C A U S L A N D  P O U L T R Y  S E L E N I U M  V I T A M I N  M A N Y  T E C H N I Q U E S  V I T A M I N  AND  IS  IN  I M P R O V E M E N T S  W I T H  O F  A N D / O R  P O U L T R Y  R E C E N T L Y  B R E E D E R  F E E D S T U F F  S T U D I E S  O F  L O S S E S  IN  AND  A N A L Y T I C A L  P R O B L E M S  C O N S I S T E D  S E L E N I U M  IN  S E L E N I U M  U N I T E D  1972).  H I D I R O G L O U ,  O F  T H E  R E S U L T  D E V E L O P M E N T S  N U M B E R  O F  INTRODUCTION  THE  M U S T  S E L E N I U M  1  Q U A N T I T Y  BE  O F  U T I L I Z A T I O N  O F  S E L E N I U M  C O N S I D E R E D  O B J E C T I V E S  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  S E L E N I U M  T H E  O F  T H E  S E L E N I U M  B Y  R E Q U I R E M E N T .  T H E  IN  T H E  F O L L O W I N G  IN  C H I C K  IN  O R D E R  LITERATURE  S E L E N I U M  N U T R I T I O N  WAS  S I N C E  C O N F I N E D  B E C A M E  H A S B E E N  KNOWN  T H E  T O X I C I T Y  A S  A N  U S E D  T O  D E S C R I B E  FORM  O F  T O X I C I T Y ;  THE  R A T S  F I R S T  D E F I C I E N C Y  IN  E .  F A C T O R S  S U C H  E L E M E N T  S T A G G E R S "  V I T A M I N  A S  S U G G E S T  I T S  W A S  O F  N U T R I T I O N  O F  IN  S E L E N I U M  1957  " A L K A L I  -  A T  A N  F A C T O R  T H A T  T H A T  N U T R I T I O N .  A B I L I T Y  IN  T I M E  S E L E N I U M  T W O T E R M S  D I S E A S E "  A C U T E  M A N Y  FORM  O F  -  A  WERE  C H R O N I C  T O X I C I T Y  T H A T  A  I S  A  E  V I T A M I N  B E T W E E N  R E Q U I R E M E N T  C O M P L I C A T I N G  F A C T O R S .  M U L T I P L I C I T Y  O F  T H I S  S Y M P T O M S  A C I D S .  N U T R I T I O N A L  S Y S T E M S .  F O R V I T A M I N  W H I C H  W I L L  2  T H E  IN  A S S O C I A T E D  D E F I C I E N C Y  P R O B A B L Y  l).  I N  R O L E  R E L A T I O N S H I P  W I T H  O T H E R  M'A'CCHLllfN  C O M P O N E N T S  E  U N L E S S  A C C O U N T S ,  R E S P O N D  T O  IN  O F  (10-100  T H E D I E T  F A C T ,  IN  1957).  A N D  W A S T H E R E S U L T  | N  E S S E N T I A L  N E C R O S I S  D E G R E E S  S Y N E R G I S T I C  F A T T Y  A N  A N D F O L T Z ,  A M O U N T S  H A S A  A S  L I V E R  V A R Y I N G  ( T A B L E  M I C R O  D E F I C I E N C Y  S E L E N I U M  P R E V E N T  T O  S P E C I E S  R E Q U I R E S  O F  ( S C H W A R Z  I M P L I C A T E D  A N D S E L E N I U M  E  IPO  D I E T  A N D B I O C H E M I C A L  D E M O N S T R A T E  T H E R O L E  P O L Y U N S A T U R A T E D  I N T E R A C T I O N  P H Y S I O L O G I C A L  TO  S I G N I F I C A N T  W A S N O T U N T I L  D E F I C I E N T  E  S Y N D R O M E S  V I T A M I N  C O M P L E X  I N  S E L E N I U M  P E R B I L L I O N )  (1962)  I T  A  O F  T O X I C I T Y :  I N D I C A T I O N  V I T A M I N  S U B S E Q U E N T L Y  P A R T S  A N D  S E L E N I U M  W A S SHOWN  F E D A  S E L E N I U M  T H E R O L E  E S S E N T I A L  " B L I N D  A S  1971).  ( U N D E R W O O D ,  N U T R I E N T ,  A  E S T A B L I S H E D  1930'S.  T O  REVIEW  A N D  I T  I S  T H E R E  P A R T ,  S E L E N I U M  W I T H  D I E T A R Y  G O R D O N  O F  A  T H E  N O T  P O S S I B L E  A R E  F O R  T H E  IN T H E  TABLE  I  .--SEL.EN  I UM  R E S P O N S I V E  D E F I C I E N C Y  S P E C I E S  CHI  H E N S  T U R K E Y  P O U L T S  1.  E X U D A T I V E  2.  M U S C U L A R  3.  E N C E P H A L O M A L A C 1 A  LOW  H A T C H A B I L I T Y  D I F F E R E N T  SPEGiCES.  1.  E X U D A T 1 V E M U S C U L A R  3.  G I Z Z A R D  W A S T I N G  C A L V E S  M U S C U L A R  C A T T L E  SE  COWS  POOR  L A M B S  M U S C U L A R  O F  O F  E G G S  D 1 A T H E S 1 S  M Y O P A T H Y  E N T I R E  B O D Y  D Y S T R O P H Y U N T H R I F T I N E S S  I M P L A N T A T I O N  THR1  D Y S T R O P H Y F T  S H E E P  SE  EWES  P E R I D O N T A L  A T  R E S P O N S I V E  POOR  D I A T H E S I S  D Y S T R O P H Y  R E S P O N S I V E  1 L L  R E F E R E N C E  D Y S T R O P H Y  2.  Q U A I L  F O A L S  IN  S Y M P T O M S  .  C K S  S Y M P T O M S  _ET _AL . ,  O L D F I E L D ,  1971  O L D F I E L D ,  1971  U N D E R W O O D ,  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  S C O T T  _ET _ A L . ,  O L D F I E L D ,  1971  O L D F I E L D ,  1971  1  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  O L D F I E L D ,  1971  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  U N T H R I F T I N E S S  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  D I S E A S E  D Y S T R O P H Y  O L D F I E L D ,  1957  1971  P A S T U R E  I M P L A N T A T I O N  M U S C U L A R  S C H W A R Z  1971  967  TABLE  I . - - C O N T I N U E D  S P E C I E S  G R O W I N G  P I G S  S Y M P T O M S  H E P A T O S I S M U S C U L A R  L I V E R  RAT  M I N K  D Y S T R O P H Y  N E C R O S I S  M U S C U L A R  M O U S E  D I E T E T I C A  D Y S T R O P H Y  N O N - R E S P O N S I V E  R E F E R E N C E  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  U N D E R W O O D ,  1971  N E C R O S I S  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  M U S C U L A R  D Y S T R O P H Y  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  M U S C U L A R  D Y S T R O P H Y  S C H W A R Z ,  1961 1961  M U L T I P L E  H E A R T  N E C R O S I S  S C H W A R Z ,  T R O U T  L I V E R  N E C R O S I S  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  R A B B  L I V E R  N E C R O S I S  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  S C H W A R Z ,  1961  1 T  L U N G  H E M O R R H A G E S  M U S C U L A R  C H I L D R E N  D Y S T R O P H Y  K W A S H 1 O R K O R  N O N - R E S P O N S I V E  U N D E R W O O D ,  H O P K I N S  AND  1971  M A J A J ,  1967  V A R I O U S  S P E C I E S .  (1967)  S O N D E G A A R D  T O  T H E  I N F L U E N C E  D E F I C I E N C Y  (1  V I T A M I N  O F  F A T T Y  V A R I O U S  TO  T H E  D I E T A R Y  F O L L O W I N G  F A C T O R S  C O N C L U S I O N S  ON  V I T A M I N  R E L A T I V E  E  S Y M P T O M S :  D I E T A R Y  )  E  E  S E L E N I U M  D E F I C I E N C Y  P O L Y U N S A T U R A T E D  V I T A M I N  C A M E  S Y M P T O M S  F A T T Y  D E F I C I E N C Y  A C I D S  A R E  D E F I C I E N C Y  A C I D S  S Y M P T O M S  A L L  F O R  S Y M P T O M S  P R E V E N T E D  D I E T A R Y  (2)  P R O T E C T S  B Y  S E L E N I U M  O F  A G A I N S T  W H I C H  A  D O  D E V E L O P M E N T .  T H A T  DO  NOT  V A R I E T Y  N O T  R E Q U I R E  H O W E V E R ,  R E Q U I R E  OF  D I E T A R Y  NOT  A L L  T H E  P O L Y U N S A T U R A T E D  S E L E N I U M .  D O E S  R E Q U I R I N G  N O T  P R O T E C T  P O L Y U N S A T U R A T E D  A G A I N S T  F A T T Y  V I T A M I N  A C I D S  E  F O R  D E V E L O P M E N T .  V I T A M I N  (3)  S E V E R A L  FOR  OF  T H E  A C T S  S Y N D R O M E S  AS  AN  IN  R E Q U I R I N G  V I V O  A N T I O X I D A N T  P O L Y U N S A T U R A T E D  A G A I N S T  F A T T Y  A C I D S  D E V E L O P M E N T .  IT  (4)  T H A T  OF  AN  IN  A N T I O X I D A N T  V I T A M I N  E  A C I A E ,  V I V O  AND  C H I C K S  R E C O R D A B L E  V I T A M I N  HAS  E  O T H E R  F U N C T I O N S  T H A N  R E P L A C E  T H I S  V I T A M I N  S U G G E S T S  A  E  IN  COMMON  P A R T  OF  T H E  N O N -  B I O C H E M I C A L  M E C H A N I S M  S E L E N I U M .  D O E S  M U S C U L A R  NOT  A C T  D E F I C I E N C Y  R E S P O N D  C O N D I T I O N S .  AND  C A N  D I S T I N C T  T H A T  T H A T  A N T I O X I D A N T .  S E L E N I U M  T H R E E  D I E T A R Y  L I K E L Y  F U N C T I O N S .  (6)  Y O U N G  IS  S E L E N I U M  (5)  OF  E  T H E S E  TO  P A T H O L O G I C A L  S I G N  A  G E N E R A L  S Y N D R O M E S  V I T A M I N  A R E  D Y S T R O P H Y  AS  E  D U R I N G  A N Y  V I V O  B E  P R O D U C E D  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  E X U D A T I V E  ( N E S H E I M  C A N  IN  D I A T H E S I S ,  AND  ONE  S C O T T ,  A N T I O X I D A N T .  IN  W I T H  P R O P E R  E N C E P H A L O M A L -  1961).  T O C O P H E R O L  T H E  D E F I C I E N C Y  S T U D Y  O N E  IS  FUNCTION  A  A R E A  O F  T H E  E N C E P H A L O M A L A C  O F  is  M O S T  O N  I S  WHEN  I N  C H I C K S  D E P E N D I N G  O N  D I E T A R Y  (1969)  D E F I C I E N C Y  F L U I D  S K I N  F O U N D  P L A S M A  A B D O M E N  T I S S U E S  P R O T E I N S  D E P L E T E D .  OF  A N  T H E  W A L L  A N D  T O  B L O O D  T H E  S U G G E S T E D .  MORE  B E  P R O D U C E D ,  F O L L O W I N G  O F  T H E  T H R E E  I N  P E R I O D S  T H E  B R A I N  D E F I C I E N C Y  B Y  O F  T H E  O T H E R ,  1961).  A N D S C O T T ,  D E S C R I P T I O N  IN  C H I C K  A C T I V E  L I P I D S  U N C O M P L I C A T E D  ( N E S H E I M  T H A T  T H E M O S T  D E P O S I T I O N  O F  O C C U R R I N G  H Y P O T H E S I Z E D  D U R I N G  E A C H  D I A T H E S I S  B O D Y  A N D  B R E A S T .  T H E  W I T H  T O  C H I C K S  W I T H  F L U I D  B L O O D  G R E A T E S T  S M A L L  S C O T T  V I T A M I N  F R A C T I O N  C A P I L L A R I E S  T R Y P A N  A P P E A R S  U S U A L L Y  E  T H E  M O B I L I T Y  S I M I L A R  O F  IN  B E  IN  T H E  P R O T E I N S  T O  IN  O F  T H E  O F  U N D E R  A R E  B E  THE  L O W E R E D  A N D  P L A S M A  T H E  C A P I L L A R Y  T H E W I D E S P R E A D  P R O T E I N  S Y N T H E S I S  C H I C K S  W I T H  E X U D A T I V E  D I A T H E S I S  T H A N  I N  N O T  C H I C K S  F L U I D  P R O T E I N S  P L A S M A  D Y E  S I M I L A R  E X U D A T E  L E S S  B L U E  IN  P A R T I C U L A R L Y  C O L O R ,  O F  T H E  C O M M O N L Y  F L U I D .  T H E  P E R M E A B I L I T Y  C A U S E  A C C U M U L A T I O N  A R E  O F  T O  B L U I S H  A N  F O U N D  D I A T H E S I S  P L A S M A .  M A Y  A M O U N T S  H E M O R R H A G E S  E X U D A T I V E  IS  B Y  A C C U M U L A T I O N S  C H A N G E S  P O S S I B I L I T Y  C H A R A C T E R I Z E D  L A R G E  A L B U M E N  C H I C K S .  T O  IS  T H E  P R O T E I N S  P E R M E A B L E  D I S E A S E  T H E  E X U D A T E  THE  A F F E C T E D  A L T H O U G H  O F  1965).  E L E C T R O P H O R E T I C  T O  R A T E  A D J A C E N T  O F  C O M P O S I T I O N  H A V E  O F T E N  C O N D I T I O N S  P R O V I D E  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  IN  I T  M O S T  T H E  E X U D A T I V E  T H E  IN  M A Y  C A N B E  T H R O U G H O U T  O N  T H U S ,  C O N D I T I O N  S Y M P T O M S .  (1)  OF  S T R E S S F U L  (HORWITT,  A C T I V E  _ A L .  S P E C I F I C  N O T E D  SIYNDROMES  _E_[  A  A N I M A L .  I A  M Y E L I N I Z A T I  O F  E D E M A  H A S  B E E N  A R E  H A V I N G  T H E  .  (2)  A P P E A R A N C E  M U S C U L A R  O F  W H I T E  D Y S T R O P H Y  S T R I A T I O N S  O F  IN  C H I C K S  I S  C H A R A C T E R I Z E D  T H E M U S C L E S  O N  T H E  B Y T H E  B R E A S T  O F  C H I C K S  AND  L E S S  F R E Q U E N T L Y  D E G E N E R A T I O N ,  (A  M U S C L E ) ,  P E R I V A S C U L A R  OF  E O S I N O P H I L S ,  T H E S E  OF  W I T H  C E L L S  H Y D R O L Y T I C  D Y S T R O P H I C  E N Z Y M E S  D E G E N E R A T I O N .  (3)  T H E  R E P A I R E D  A T O X I A  AND  G R A N U L A R  C H I C K S ,  G R A N U L A R  P R E V E N T I N G  T H E  T H E  O C T O A D E C E N O I C  ( K E T O )  E S T A B L I S H M E N T  OF  R A I S E D  C E L L S  OF  L I N O L E I C  S E L E N I U M  AS  AN  T H E  Q U E S T I O N  W H E T H E R  S E L E N I U M  WOULD  O B J E C T E D  TO  T H E  AS  NOT  OF  IN  D Y S T R O P H I C  L E S I O N S  BY  N A M E  E D E M A  A  A R E  D E G E N E R A T I O N  L A C K  " C R A Z Y  W I T H I N  P Y K N O S I S  S E P A R A T I O N  F O L I A .  | T  OF  T H E  HAS  A C I D  TO  12  D I S E A S E " .  M O L E C U L A R  AND  OF  OF  L O C O -  C H I C K  E V E N T U A L  T H E  M O L E C U L A R  B E E N  S U G G E S T E D  E N C E P H A L O M A L A C I A  E S S E N T I A L  R E L A T I O N S H I P  A C T S  I N C R E A S E  B Y  O X O - C I S - 9 -  A C I D .  S Y N E R G I S T I C  IT  AND  L A R G E  I N V O L V E D  P E C U L I A R  W I T H  A G A I N S T  T H E  W H E T H E R  A  AND  BE  A  OF  O L D E R .  T H E  C E R E B E L L A R  C H I C K S  B R E A K D O W N  IN  S K E L E T A L  A C C U M U L A T I O N  F O R  TO  Z E N K E R ' S  A C C U M U L A T I O N  M U S C L E  G E T  C E R E B E L L U M  T H E  T H E  P R O D U C T S  T H E  S U G G E S T E D  P U R K I N J I  OF  T H E  OF  M A R K E D  C H A R A C T E R I Z E D  R E S U L T I N G  T H E  P R O T E C T S  E  IS  H E M O R R H A G E S  OF  AND  R E S P O N S I B L E  C H I C K S  F R O M  L A Y E R S  V I T A M I N  OF  SHOW  D E G E N E R A T I O N  A P P E A R S  HAS  L A Y E R S  OF  IS  T H A T  R E S U L T S  D I S A P P E A R A N C E  T H A T  OF  C O O R D I N A T I O N  THE  AND  T H E  M U S C L E S  H I S T O C Y T E S .  F U N C T I O N  E N C E P H A L O M A L A C I A  C E R E B E L L U M  M O T O R  AND  C O N D I T I O N S ,  AS  T H E  I N F I L T R A T I O N ,  R E M O V A L  S O M E  L E G S .  H Y A L I N E  T I S S U E  AND  U N D E R  T H E  WAXY  WHOSE  B R E A K D O W N  S P O N T A N E O U S L Y  OR  L Y M P H O C Y T E S  IN  L Y S O S O M A L  G L O S S Y  ON  OF  A  O L D E R  S E L E N I U M  R E P L A C E M E N T  N E C E S S A R I L Y  OF  BE  D E F I N I T I O N  F O R  E L E M E N T  S E L E N I U M  IS  R E Q U I R E D  V I T A M I N  E S S E N T I A L .  OF  AN  W I T H  E,  IN  M E R T Z  E S S E N T I A L  V I T A M I N  P E R  S E  W H I C H  (1970)  E L E M E N T ,  E  OR  C A S E  HAS  W H I C H  HAS  8  S T A T E S  IS  T H A T  T H E  A B S E N C E  I N C O M P A T I B L E  P R A C T I C A L  TO  SHOW  TO  AN  T H E  T H E  THE  IN  OF  A N A L Y T I C A L  M E A S U R E  OF  L I F E  T I M E  M E R T Z  W H I C H  T H E  T H A T  R E S U L T S  IN  M A Y  AN  E L E M E N T  I M P A I R M E N T  P R E S E N C E  BE  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S ,  A  S Y M P T O M S  G E N E R A T I O N  OF  R A T S  G R O W T H  MCCOY  L A C K E D  AN  E S S E N T I A L  AND  E L E M E N T  IN  AN  F E M A L E S  AND  S E L E N I U M  R E S E R V E S  TO  A  AS  T H E  S U B O P T I M A L  M O D I F Y  1970)  E L E M E N T S .  T H E  H A V E  V A L U A B L E  W H I C H  R E P R O D U C A B L Y  A  F U N C T I O N .  OF  AN  FOR  AND  E L E M E N T ,  (H U R T  BE  AND  _ET  AS  D E F I C I E N T  1971;  O T H E R  T H A T  OF  B O D Y  _AL . ,  D E F I C I E N C Y  SHOWN  TO  S U B S E Q U E N T  H A I R  W E L L  E X A M P L E ,  A P P E A R  S E L E N I U M  S U P P L E M E N T S  AND  D E F I N I T I O N  R A T S  B O T H  AS  W H I C H  A V A I L A B L E  IN  ON  ON  E L E M E N T ,  F U N C T I O N .  S E C O N D  S E L E N I U M  R E L I A N C E  V E R Y  AN  A B S E N C E  P O O R L Y .  C H I C K S .  O F  A  P P B  1.0  S U F F I C I E N T  S Y M P T O M S  S U B O P T I M A L  D E F I C I E N C Y  IS  NOT  S O M E  BE  F O R  I M P O S S I B L E  D E F I C I E N C Y  M A I N T A I N E D  R I G I D  D E F I C I E N C Y ,  P R A C T I C A L  ITS  O N L Y  C A N  (1969;  F O R  C A N  R O L E  IF  T O O  T H E  W I T H  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  THUS,  S C O T T  W H I C H  I M P A I R E D  G R E W  IS  M E T A B O L I C  MORE  IN  D E P L E T I O N .  H A I R  E L E M E N T  NOT  S E L E N I U M  1969).  T I S S U E  T H O M P S O N  IS  TO  W E S W I G ,  M I C R O - E L E M E N T  AN  F R O M  N O R M A L  R E S P O N D E D  AND  O P T I M A L  BY  S E L E N I U M  A  F R O M  T H E N  IS  O R G A N I S M  R E Q U I R E M E N T  S E V E R E  B I O L O G I C A L  E S S E N T I A L  R E S U L T I N G  OF  AND  IS  OF  P R O D U C E D  T H E  T H E  A  AN  P R E S E N T L Y  A C H I E V E  T H E  P R O P O S E S  D E F I N E D  F U N C T I O N  D I E T S  N E G L E C T S  OF  IT  F U R T H E R M O R E ,  TO  D E A T H  F R O M  T E C H N I Q U E S  R E Q U I R E S  D I F F I C U L T  T H E R E F O R E ,  BUT  THE  IS  D E A T H  T H A T  IS  WHEN  E L E M E N T .  P R E C E D E  C A N  T H E  OR  A P P R O A C H  D E F I C I E N C Y  AS  T H E  D E F I N I T I O N  (1970),  S T A T E S  IT  S E N S I T I V I T Y  A L L - O R - N O N E  T O O L  E X A M P L E ,  FOR  E L E M E N T  G R O U N D S  R E Q U I R E D  P R E S E N T  D I S E A S E S  T H E  IS  C R I T E R I A  AT  ON  E S S E N T I A L  E L E M E N T  A C C U R A T E L Y  THE  A N Y  L I F E ,  A P P L I C A T I O N .  T H A T  B E C A U S E  W I T H  OF  100  S Y N D R O M E .  S E L E N I U M  TO  1 , 0 0 0 P P M  O F  V I T A M I N  G R O W T H  N O T  P R O D U C E D  C O N T A I N E D  G R O W T H  A N D  D E F I N E D  AND  C A N  L E V E L  O F  S E V E R E  IS  O N L Y  IN  F O U N D  D E C R E A S E  T H E  IN  T H E  P R I M A R I L Y  C H A N G E S  THE  D E C R E A S E  T H E  M O D E  OF  T H E  L E V E L S  O F  C H I C K S  T H E  A M O U N T S  A B N O R M A L I T I E S  T H E  P A N C R E A S .  B E  T H E  O F  P O O R  A N D  U P T A K E  IN  U N H Y D R O L Y Z E D  F A T  T H E  D I G E S T I O N  P A N C R E A S  T O  BE  E F F E C T  L E V E L  IN  S H O W N  L E V E L ,  E  A  IN  F A T  A  A  T O  BE  M A R K E D  IN  T H E  L O S S  TO  O F  A  WOULD  F R O M  B E  L A T E R  C L U E  M U S T  LOW  T O  O C C U R  B L O O D  I M P A I R E D  E)  W H I C H  D U E  IT  O F  IS  D E V E L O P  V A L I D  (viTAMIN  AN  D E F I C I E N C Y .  E  T H E  E.  A B S O R P T I O N  T R I G L Y C E R I D E S  S H O W E D  IS  D U R I N G  C H I C K S  W H I C H  C O N S E Q U E N C E  T O C O P H E R O L  A P P E A R  I E N T  I O M A T I C A L L Y  OF  LOW  F E A T H E R I N G  I N T A K E .  E  V I T A M I N  V I T A M I N  IN  B E  AX  A  S E V E R E L Y  D I S T I N G U I S H E D  I T S E L F ,  T H A T  A R E  T H E R E F O R E ,  O F  A T  B A S A L  A N D  A N D  L E S I O N S  E.  C L E A R L Y  A B N O R M A L I T I E S  U M - D E F I C  S H O U L D  D E F I C I E N T  A B N O R M A L I T I E S  O F  S E L E N I  S E C O N D A R Y  E  G R O W T H  V I T A M I N  •  O F  T H E  T H A T  S I G N I F I C A N T  V I T A M I N  S E L E N I U M  W E R E  E  C H I C K  I M P R O V E D  D E F I C I E N C Y  E  T H A T  I N E F F E C T I V E  F R O M  B I R D S  IN  IN  N O T  B E  F E A T H E R  D I E T S  L E V E L S  Y E T ,  W O U L D  E  AS  V I T A M I N  V I T A M I N  AS  A D E Q U A T E  IN  H I G H  E L I M I N A T E D  P O O R  M O S T  W I T H  R E S U L T E D  E  I S ,  I N F E R I O R  H O W E V E R ,  V I T A M I N  S A M E  O F  A N D  W H I C H  V I T A M I N  T H E  B L O O D  A  T O  W I T H  T H E  L E V E L  B E C O M E  V I T A M I N  B Y  NOT  S E L E N I U M  B L O O D  A C T I O N  A C C O M P A N I E D  L A R G E  B Y  M I G H T  IN  A B S O R P T I O N .  B I R D S  A R E  IN  V I T A M I N  C O M P L E T E L Y  C O N S I S T E N T L Y  D E C R E A S E  W H I C H  NO  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M .  B L O O D  C A U S E D  B E F O R E  A R E  G R O W T H  D E F I C I E N C Y .  T H A T  D E F I C I E N C Y  A B N O R M A L I T Y  B E F O R E  IN  M O R T A L I T Y  S E L E N I U M  F O R  WAS  P O O R  E X T E N T  P O S S I B L E  D I S O R D E R S  BY  B U T  T H E  S E L E N I U M  T H E  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  D E F I C I E N T  F O L L O W E D  T H E  S U B S T I T U T E  IT  IF  T H E  I N T A K E  C O R R E C T  F E A T H E R I N G .  E  D I E T .  B Y  O . I P P M  V I T A M I N  A N Y  D I D  E  WAS  R E S U L T E D  F E C E S .  C H A N G E S  T H E  IN  S E C R E T O R Y  IN  10  C E L L S  A NO  S E L E N I U M  L I P A S E ,  F A I L S  T H E  P R E S E N C E  D E F I C I E N C I E S  T R Y P S I N  T O  A N D  A C C O U N T  N E V E R T H E L E S S ,  IN  T H E  C H I C K .  P A N C R E A T I C  T H E R E  L E S I O N  S E L E N I U M  D E F I C I E N C Y ,  A R E  H O W E V E R ,  U S E D  ( T H O M P S O N  T H E  T H E  P A N C R E A S  T H A T  B Y  R E M A I N E D  P A T H O L O G I C A L  T H E R E  T H E  D I D  A C I N I  N O T  O F  F I B R O S I S  D O E S  T H E  OR  IN  POOR  S E L E N I U M  N O T  P A N C R E A T I C  T O  B E  R E S I D E  C E L L S .  IN  OR  A N Y  T A D A S H I  S I G N  I N V A D I N G  P R O T E C T I N G  IN  S E L E N I U M  D E F I C I E N C Y  V I T A M I N  T H U S  A B N O R M A L I T I E S ,  IT  S E L E N I U M  T H E  S C O T T  O F  O F  L O W  U P O N  F O U N D  T H E  L E V E L  T H E  D I E T ,  T H E  D I E T  H A V E  T H A T  H A V E  O N L Y  SHOWN  D E M O N S T R A T E D  O F  Z Y M O G E N .  D I S R U P T I O N  F R O M  E,  E N D O C R I N E  D E M O N S T R A T I N G  P A N C R E A S  T R U E  V I T A M I N  (1972)  C H I C K S  L Y S O S O M A L  O F  T H E  (1973)  _ E T _ A L .  C E L L S ,  T H E  A N D  C H A N G E S ,  A  T O  A B S E N C E  O F  A B S O R P T I O N  D E P E N D I N G  A N D  A N D  A B S O R P T I O N  E  T H E  D E F I C I E N T  P R O T E C T I O N  O F  I F  D E F I C I E N C Y  P A N C R E A S  D E F I C I E N C Y ,  A N D  MORE  G R I E S  L E S I O N  S E L E N I U M  T O C O P H E R O L  P A T H O L O G I C A L  T H E  IN  A N D  A C T I V I T I E S ,  O F  M A N I F E S T A T I O N S  0.01PPM  S E L E N I U M  E N Z Y M E  P A N C R E A T I C  G R O W T H ,  T H E S E  F A T  A G E S E L E N I U M  T H E  O N  F O R  S E L E N I U M  IN  T H E  D I G E S T I O N  E F F E C T  T I S S U E .  P A N C R E A S  E F F E C T  D I A T H E S I S  SHOWS  O F  A P P E A R  C E L L S  F A T  U N D I S T U R B E D .  W E E K S  L O W  P R I M A R Y  1970).  O F  F I B R O U S  A L T H O U G H  A D D I N G  S C O T T ,  C H A N G E S  F U N C T I O N  OF  0.04PPM  P A N C R E A S  T H R E E  A S  B Y  IN  D E F I C I E N C Y .  E  S U C H  O F  C O N S E Q U E N C E S  R E S P O N S I B L E  P A T H O L O G Y  E X O C R I N E  A  M A R K E D  E X U D A T I V E  A N D  I N .  T H E  IN  V I T A M I N  O F  R E Q U I R E S  F O L L O W E D  A  P R E V E N T E D  P R E V E N T I O N  THE  O F  C L E A R L Y  IS  P R E C E E D S  C H I C K S  M A N Y  IS  A M O U N T S  R E S U L T E D  C H A N G E S  THE  P R O B A B L Y  IN  A L S O  F O R  I S ,  B E F O R E  L A R G E  C H Y M O T R Y P S  IT  O C C U R  O F  IN  T H A T  T H E  A T R O P H Y  A N D  L Y S O S O M A L  M E M B R A N E S  S E L E N I U M  C O N T E N T  C E R T A I N  S E L E N I U M  T H I S  ( B E E S O N ,  1961).  N O N - A G R I  C U L T U R A L  B E E N  THE  TO  B Y  A C C U M U L A T I O N  T H A N  T H E  U S E F U L  P O T E N T I A L L Y  WHEN  GROWN  IN  L E S S  T H A N  C O N T A I N E D  P E R C E N T  IN  MORE  K U B O T A  A  MAP  OF  S E L E N I U M  ARE  B E E N  T H O S E  M O S T  T H E  IN  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L S  THE  TO  A R E A  T H E  _E_T  T H E  AND  OF  OF  W H I C H  T H E M  G R A I N  OF  _ET  T H E  M A G N I T U D E  S P E C I E S  O F  S A M P L E S  _ET  _AL .  GROWN  ,  H A V E  C O N T E N T  AND  S T A T E S  1941).  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  L I V E S T O C K  B U T  U N I T E D  (1968)  _ A L .  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  T H E  I L L I A M S  P L A N T S  IN  P R E S E N T E D  OF  P L A N T S  P O U L T R Y  HAS  1971). AND  C O N T E N T  F E E D S  L E V E L S  A V A I L A B L E  (W  IN  ON  IN  ( 7 5 P P M )  S E L E N I U M  D E F I C I E N C Y  M A N Y  T H E  LOW  D R Y  F E E D  V E G E T A B L E  P A R T S  C A R T E R  AND  S T R I K I N G  F E E D  I N D I C A T I N G  A R E A S  1972)  S E L E N I U M  AND  IN  G R A Z E  F O R A G E  AND  OF  S E L E N I U M  ( O L D F I E L D ,  A D E Q U A T E  F R O M  (1967)  THE  C R O P  W H E A T  A R E A S  F E E D S .  L E S S  L E V E L S  GROW  NOT  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  OF  S T A T E S  (1971;  C O N T E N T  A L L  S O I L S .  S E L E N I F E R O U S  DO  F O O D ,  M U C H  O F  S E L E N I F E R O U S  N O R M A L L Y  O T H E R  OF  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  ON  A N I M A L S  S E L E N I F E R O U S  S E L E N I U M  S E R I O U S  A R E  T H E  PPM  _AL .  C R O P S .  WHERE  OF  5  T H A N  OF  H I G H  M O S T  U N I T E D  A R T H U R  P R E S E N T E D  W I T H  GROWN  P L A N T S  S P E C I E S  T O X I C  H I G H  I D E N T I F Y I N G  R A N G E  P L A N T S .  A C C U M U L A T E  C O M M E R C I A L L Y  AND  S E L E N I U M  A C C U M U L A T O R  10  IN  S H O R T A G E S  S O I L S  A R E  A C C U M U L A T O R  A M O N G  OF  A C C U M U L A T E  S P E C I E S  A R E A S ,  D I F F E R E N C E S  IN  S P E C I E S  T H E S E  HAS  F O R C E D  P L A N T S  P L A N T  W H E N E V E R  F E A T U R E  U N L E S S  OF  OF  S C O T T  OF  A  AND  V A R I E T Y  F L U C T U A T E D  S E L E N I U M  S A M P L E  WAS  (1971)  T H O M P S O N  OF  F E E D S .  W I D E L Y  D E P E N D I N G  O B T A I N E D .  F R O M  ON  T H E  H A V E  THE  D E F I C I E N T  F E E D  AND  12  S E L E N I U M  M E T A B O L I S M  S C O T T  OF  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  T H E Y  S H O W E D  T H A T  R A T I O N S  R E T E N T I O N  IS  F E E D S  E X U D A T I V E  42,  A L S O  T H E  O B S E R V E D  T H A T  S E L E N I U M  140$  35$  O T H E R  Y E A S T  O F  F A C T O R S  R E P O R T E D  T H A T  A N D  V A R I O U S  T H E  T O  IN  O F  (1)  L O W  W I T H  A  C O M M E R C I A L  T H A T  P O O R  D E F I C I E N C Y .  O F  O F  T O  S O D I U M  S E L E N I T E  F E E D S T U F F S  O F  P L A N T - O R I G I N  IN  P R E V E N T  S E L E N I T E .  WAS  IN  S C O T T  S E L E N I U M  F E E D S T U F F S  T H A T  I N C I D E N C E  S E L E N I U M .  T H R E E  I N D I C A T E S  T H E  T H E  C O M B I N A T I O N  S E L E N I U M  S O D I U M  F E E D S T U F F S  A N  IN  T I S S U E S  T H A N  C O M P A R E D  T O  R E P O R T E D  A  T H E  O F  100$,  T H E Y  A N I M A L - 0 R I G I N  IT  C O N T A I N I N G  S E L E N I U M  F R A C T I O N  ( F A C T O R  WAS  A N D  S E L E N I T E .  140$  A N D  IN  60  T O  (1969)  A T  IN  C O N S I D E R E D  C O M P O U N D  IN  R A T S  A N D  R A N G E D  T H R E E  P R E V E N T I N G  C A N T O R  S E L E N I U M  IN  F R O M  H A S  B R E W E R S  L E A S T  H A V E  A N D  (1961)  T I M E S  L I V E R  S Y N T H E S I Z E D  D I S E L E N O - D I C A R B O X Y L I C  S C O T T  F O R  IS  C O M P O U N D S  F R E D G A  IS  S C H W A R Z  P R E S E N T  3-SELENIUM)  S E L E N I U M  B10POTENCY  O F  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  U T I L I Z A T I O N .  M O N O S E L E N O ,  B I O P O T E N C Y  O F  S E L E N I U M  S C H W A R Z  T H E  S O D I U M  E F F E C T I V E N E S S  O F  I N O R G A N I C  R A T S .  T H A T  T O  O R G A N I C  A L I P H A T I C ,  S H O W E D  OR  P O T E N C Y  R E L A T E D  O T H E R  P O T E N T  N E C R O S I S  AND  IN  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  F U N C T I O N  MORE  O F  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  D U E  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  W I T H  O F  B E  IN  A V A I L A B L E .  T H E  A  T O  T H E  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  W H E R E A S  T H I S  F A C T O R  C H I C K  IN  S E L E N I U M  A B I L I T Y  T H E  T O  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  59$.  E X A M I N E D  IN  T H A T  O F  I N C R E A S E  P O U L T R Y  P O O R  A N D  C O M P A R I N G  D I A T H E S I S  A B O U T  54  T H E  P O S S I B L Y  (2)  C O N T R I B U T I N G  B Y  IN  R E T E N T I O N  A S S U M I N G  WAS  S Y M P T O M S  AND/OR  WAS  A  S U G G E S T  F E E D S T U F F S ,  T H E  (1972)  C A N T O R  S E V E R A L  O F  D E F I C I E N C Y  E  P O U L T R Y  AND  R E S P O N S I V E  C O N T E N T  V I T A M I N  (1972)  C A N T O R  A N D  4  (1972) A L F A L F A  T O  A C I D S  169$  H A V E  U S I N G  A L S O  A  13  A  C H I C K  B I O A S S A Y  T O R U L A  A  P R O C E D U R E .  Y E A S T  B E C A U S E  OF  LOW  V I T A M I N  E  (1958A)  C O N C L U D E D  T H E S E  F R O M  F R O M  T O R U L A  S I M I L A R  I N T A C T  TO  WAS  AS  T H A T  T H E  _E_T  IS  _AJ_  .  (DPPD),  AND  (1962)  U N S A T U R A T E D  P R O P I O N I C  A C I D  I N C I D E N C E  OF  OF  T H E  S A M E  1971). A F F E C T E D  BY  M A N Y  _ET  IN  ,  _AL .  W I T H  AND  A S H  D I A T H E S I S  A M O U N T  T A L L  S E L E N I U M  T H A T  T H E  HAS  A C E T A T E ,  F O R  IT H E  S E L E N I U M  T H E R E F O R E ,  L I P I D  AND  .  T H E  E X U D A T I V E  Y E A S T  (BlERI A  OF  A C I D ,  T O R U L A  R E L A T I O N S H I P  T H E  WERE  B A S A L  P R E S E R V E D  C O R N  T H E  OF  A L  E X P E R I M E N T ,  E Q U I V A L E N T  ION  O L E I C  R E P O R T E D  E F F E C T S  TO  AN  COMBIIINAT  50$  OF  E T  A S S O C I A T E D  F U R T H E R  I N C I D E N C E  B Y  T H A T  OR  O I L ,  A  OF  T H E  W H I C H  S Y N T H E T I C  I N C R E A S I N G  A S H  T H E  1958B).  A N T A G O N I S T  IN  B E A N S  H E A T I N G .  T O C O P H E R Y L  F A T  T H E  A  AND  H A V E  A  IN  BlERI  S T U D Y  IS  D I E T S  S E L E N I U M  1961).  Y E A S T  C O M B I N A T I O N  D I A T H E S I S  BY  T H E S E  Y E A S T .  D E F I C I E N T  P O S S I B L E  S C O T T ,  T O R U L A  D I E T A R Y  E X U D A T I V E  A  S E L E N I U M  P R O D U C E D  15$  AS  L - C Y S T I N E  AND  AND  A  D I E T .  S Y N E R G I S T I C  S E L E N I U M  T H A T  L I N O L E I C  D E S T R O Y E D  A  C H I C K S  OF  T H E  I N C R E A S E D  T H E  E F F E C T I V E  OF  S E L E N I U M  AND  AND  D I E T A R Y  OF  I N C R E A S E  IN  48.0$  I N C I D E N C E  H O G U E  S H O W E D  IN  C O N T E N T  A C T I V I T Y  Y E A S T ,  Y E A S T  C O N T A I N S  A  C O M P O N E N T  W O R K E R S  U S E D  (NESHEIM  A N T A G O N I S T  M I N E R A L  O F T E N  S E L E N I U M  E X U D A T E S - P R O D U C I N G  T H E  IS  P R E V E N T I O N  M A R K E D L Y  HAS  D E F I C I E N C Y  WAS  D R I E D  IN  OF  B E T W E E N  R E D U C E D  T H E  0  D I E T  T H E  _E_T  _A_L .  IN  T H E  AND  A  S E L E N I U M  MAY  BE  A D D I T I O N  ,  OF  1963).  A  D I E T  E T  A L . ,  A P P E A R S  A  IN  H I G H E R  TO  ( M O R A N  I AM I NE  D E G E N E R A T I O N  B Y  C O M P A R E D  U N T R E A T E D  OF  N  R E S U L T E D  S Y M P T O M S  AND  M U S C U L A R  ( H UTC HE S  A L S O  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  C O M P O N E N T S  R E P O R T E D  D I P H E N Y L - P - P H E N Y L E N E D  R A T I O N  C O R N  B E E N  M A J O R  T O  B E  I N F L U E N C E  ON  T H E  S E L E N I U M  THE  T L N S L E Y  T O X I C I T Y  _E_T  T O X I C I T Y  F R O M  T H A T  FOR  P R O T E I N  T O X I C I T Y  TO  A S S U M E  THE  M A I N  A F T E R  L A R G E  R O U T E  IS  OF  AN  D O S E  I  WAS  R E C O V E R E D  (1970) R O U T E  L I T T L E  THE  O F  E X C R E T I O N  A P P E A R S  P R O T E I N  TO  AND  T H A T  A T  B E  B E E N  10  _E_T  D I E T A R Y  E X H A L E D  M E T H I O N I N E  A T  T H E  T H A N  TO  O F  LOW  C O N T E N T  E X P I R E D  S E L E N I U M  OF  T H E  IS  T H A N  L E S S  A  S U B T O X I C  A I R  OF  AND  AN  T H E  R A T S  G O D W I N  I M P O R T A N T  E L E M E N T  I N T A K E S .  D I E T  BY  IN  H A N D R E C K  OF  IS  R E S P I R A T O R Y  O F  40$  S E L E N I U M  I N T A K E S  R E A S O N A B L E  P R E D O M I N A T E S  UP  AND  IS  R U M I N A N T S  W H E R E A S  E X H A L A T I O N  H I G H  D I E T .  E X H A L E  (1 9 6 6 )  T H E  ( U N D E R W O O D ,  T H E  TO  _ A L .  R E D U C E  IN  P A T H W A Y  T H E  TO  T H E  R U M I N A N T S  F R O M  A C C O U N T E D  R E D U C E  BY  OF  (1955)  C A T T L E  A D M I N I S T E R E D .  H O U R S  V A R I O U S  IT  L E V E L S  IN  W A Y S ,  WAS  R E P O R T E D  S E L E N I T E ,  G A N T H E R  D E M O N S T R A T E D  A R E  IN  T O X I C I T Y  C O U L D  U R I N A R Y  F E E D S .  A_L.  F E D  AND  E X C R E T I O N  I M P O R T A N T  H A V E  O F  T H E  D O S E S  W I T H I N  1971).  ( O L D F I E L D ,  S E L E N I U M  _ET  B E E N  S E L E N I U M  M A R G I N A L  A L T H O U G H  S H E E P  HAS  C O M M E R C I A L  E L E V A T I O N  T H A N  C H I C K S  C O M P O N E N T S  L E S S  D O S E  D O G S ,  D I E T A R Y  O F  T H E  E F F E C T I V E  R E D U C E  P A T H W A Y  IN  H A L V E R S O N  A R S E N I C  A T  W I T H  A L L E V I A T E D  R E S P O N S E  MORE  P I G S ,  S U B C U T A N E O U S  I N J E C T E D  B E E N  F A C T O R S  S Y S T E M  N A N T S .  A  A L O N E .  S E L E N I U M  A P P A R E N T L Y  HAS  O B S E R V E D  D I E T S .  WAS  IN  S U C H  O F  D I G E S T I V E  N O N - R U M  C O N T E N T  T H A T  THE  M E A L  T H E S E  E F F E C T I V E N E S S  S E L E N I U M  P R O T E I N  S E L E N I U M  S I N C E  C O N D I T I O N S  O B S E R V E D  H I G H E R  L I N S E E D  O F  1971).  OF  (1967)  AJL.  S H O W E D  BY  R E S P O N S I V E  B U T  .  I N C R E A S I N G  I N C R E A S E S  T H E  75 P U L M O N A R Y  T H A T ,  A L S O  E X C R E T I O N  " I N J E C T I O N S  I N C R E A S E  S E L E N I U M  O F  O F  I N J E C T E D  A R S E N I C ,  E X C R E T I O N  B U T  V O L A T I L I Z A T I O N . "  SE.  M E R C U R Y  L E A D  A N D  U N D E R W O O D  A N D  Z I N C  (1971)  T H A L L I U M  H A V E  N O  A N D  S U C H  S T A T E S  O F  C A D M I U M  E F F E C T  ON  15  N O N - R U M  MORE  S E L E N I U M  G I V E N  AND  O R A L L Y ,  N O N - R U M  A P P E A R  T O  IN  U R I N E  T H E  H O W E V E R ,  H A V E  F E C A L  C O M P O U N D  IN  T H E  T H E  B O D Y  IN  T H E  R U M E N .  IN  IS  A N D  F R O M  O N E  IS  I T S  M O S T L Y  T O  R U M I N A N T S  S E L E N I U M  T O  AN  O F  T H A N  P R E S E N T  IN  I N S O L U B L E  S E L E N I U M  R E T E N T I O N  S P E C I E S  O F  IS  M O N O G A S T R I C S  O F  A M O U N T  E X C R E T E  S E L E N I U M  P A T T E R N S  R E D U C E D  T H E  T H E Y  WHEN  1971).  S H E E P  S E L E N I T E  TRACiT  T H A T  A B S O R P T I O N  T H E R E F O R E ,  C H A N G E S  F E C E S  ( O L D F I E L D ,  S E L E N I U M  W H E R E A S  IN  D I S T R I B U T I O N  I N T E S T I N A L  G A S T R O I N T E S T I N A L  T H E  R U M I N A N T S  T H A N  S I M I L A R  H I G H E R  F O R M S ,  F R O M  T I S S U E  A R E  A  T H E  I N S O L U B L E  W I T H I N  D I F F E R  I N A N T S  R U M I N A N T S .  F R O M  I N A N T S  A N D  A B S O R B E D  D I S T R I B U T I O N  A N O T H E R .  T H E  S T U D I E S  75 OF  W R I G H T  I N D I C A T E  A N D  T H A T  I T  D U O D E N U M .  R U M E N  OR  T O T A L  N E T  OF  T H E  B E L L  (1  T H E  M A I N  WOULD  A B O M A S U M  I N G E S T E D  RAD  UM  B Y  S E L E N I U M ,  O F  IS  T H I S  I N T E S T I N A L  L E V E L  B U T  1971).  O F  R A T S ,  T H E  IS  OR  IN  T H E R E  F R O M  S H E E P  A N D  IN  I N T A K E  S E L E N I U M  A S S O C I A T E D  IS  A N D  R E S P O N S E  S T O M A C H  85$  IN  NO  D E C A Y  IS  IN  T H E  F R O M  T H E  T H E  P I G .  T H E  WHEN  R A T I O N S  WERE  F E D .  S E L E N I U M - D E F I C I  T O  T I S S U E  O F  T H E  I N C R E A S E D  D E M A N D S  A F F E C T E D  T I S S U E  P R O T E I N S  B L O O D  E N T  S E L E N I U M - S U P P L E M E N T E D  R E F L E C T S  A L S O  35$  B Y  F O R  T H E  1971).  P L A S M A  C U R V E  T H E  G R E A T E R  T R A N S P O R T E D  T H E  P I G S  D O U B T  L E V E L S ' "  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  F R O M  F R O M  E X C R E T I O N  W I T H  O F  R E S P E C T I V E L Y ,  T H A N  ( U N D E R W O O D ,  IS  A B S O R P T I O N  R E T A I N E D  T O  D I E T A R Y  A B S O R P T I O N  R E P R E S E N T E D  R E T E N T I O N  O F  N O R M A L  N O  T H E  S E L E N I U M ,  S H E E P  IS  A T  S E L E N I U M  E F F I C I E N T L Y  P A T T E R N  R A D I O A C T I V E  SE  S E L E N I U M  I N C R E A S E D  S E L E N I U M  A N D  T H A T  0.50PPM  MORE  T H E  O F  S H E E P  A B S O R P T I O N  A B S O R B E D  P L A S M A  O F  A N D  C H I C K S ,  C O N T R O L S .  S I T E  I S O T O P E  0.35  I O S E L E N I  U S I N G  S E E M  A B S O R P T I O N  C O N T A I N I N G  D I E T S  966)  B Y  T H E  ( U N D E R W O O D ,  O B S E R V E D  A F T E R  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  O F  R E F L E C T I N G  F I R S T - O R D E R  TWO  D I F F E R E N T  FROM  A  A  R A T E S ,  R A P I D L Y  T I M E  OF  T H E  (SCOTT  O F  H A V E  T H E  A  O F  I N T A K E  B I O S Y N T H E S I S  ARE  P R O B A B L Y  ON  T H E  T H E  T H A T  B E E N  O C C U R R I N G  FORM  HOUR  A L B U M E N  TO  T H E  F A I R L Y  IS  AS  W I D E L Y  C O N V E R T E D  1960).  S E L E N I U M  A F T E R  F R A C T I O N  A T  ( B L I N C O E ,  R A D I O A C T I V E  F I R S T  T R A N S F E R  I N T E R P R E T E D  S E L E N I U M  E X C R E T E D  W I T H  , R E M A I NED  THE  M U S C L E  ARE  O B S E R V E D .  W R I G H T  C A P A C I T Y  O F  I N J E C T I O N  O F  T H E  G L O B U L I N S  C O N S T A N T  F O R  U T I L I Z I N G  C O N C E N T R A T E S  TO  BE  A  IN  F O R  M O S T  S E R U M  AND  T H E  W E E K S  14  P O T E N T  A N I M A L S  T H O S E  I N O R G A N I C  T H E  M A N I F E S T A T I O N S  K I D N E Y  T H A T  C O M P O U N D S .  T H R O U G H O U T  W H E R E  D E M O N S T R A T E D  I N D I C A T E  S E L E N I U M  0 R G A N O S E L E N I U M  L I V E R  T H E  (1967)  C O N C E N T R A T E  R E D I S T R I B U T E D  OR  S T U D Y  HAS  P R O C E S S E S  S L O W L Y  G R A D U A L  F R A C T I  G R E A T E S T  B E E N  A  BY  R A T  1969).  THE  A L S O  BY  R E S U L T S  D I E T A R Y  TO  UP  T H E  I N D I C A T I O N  D U R I N G  T A K E N  T H I S  _ET_ A L . ,  THE  LOW  WAS  F O L L O W E D  A C T I V I T Y  AN  D I S T R I B U T I O N  T H A T  TO  M E T A B O L I C  IS  E X C R E T E D  S H O W E D  S E  P R O T E I N  A  W H I C H  S E Q U E N C E  C O M P O U N D S  ' ^ S E - S E L E N I TE  T I S S U E S  T H E S E  S O U R C E  O F  IN  C O M P O U N D S  N O T A B L Y  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  T H A T  S E L E N I U M  O R G A N I S M ,  O F  H A V I N G  TO  D E F I C I E N C Y  R A P I D L Y  AND  HAS  O R G A N I C  F A C T O R  3 - S E L E N I U M .  R O T H  (1962)  M A I N T A I N  M I C R O S O M E S  A P P E A R  TO  M C C O N N E L L  F R A C T I O N S ,  T H E  I N C O R P O R A T I N G  A C C U M U L A T E S  P A R T  I C U L A R I  S E L E N I U M  IS  AND  S E L E N I U M  Q U I C K L Y  L Y  T H E  IN  I N T O . P R O T E I N .  T H E  L I V E R  I N C O R P O R A T E D  S E L E N O M E T H I O N I N E  IN  BE  B O T H  AND  IN  P R O T E I N  O F  K I D N E Y S .  T H E  R U M I N A N T  B O D Y  AND  T H A T ,  T H E  O F  I N I T I A L  T H E  S I T E  I N G E S T E D  S E L E N I U M  T H E  T I S S U E S ,  B O D Y  T H E R E  T I S S U E S  IS  AS  E V I D E N C E  S U B C E L L U L A R  .OF  T H A T  S E L E N O C Y S T I N E  M O N O G A S T R I C  A N I M A L S  AND  1962).  ( S C O T T ,  B E N Z E N E ,  T H I S  WHEN  I N G E S T E D ,  P H E N Y L M E R C A P T U R I C  T O  BE  F O R M E D  BY  S E L E N I U M  E X C R E T I O N  S E L E N I U M  OF  A C I D .  E X C R E T I O N  IN  D O E S  B O D Y  OF  S E L E N I U M  B R O M O B E N Z E N E  ( W E S T F A L L  T H E  ON  AND  AND  R A T S  D I E T .  NOT  S O M E  A L W A Y S  E X C R E T I O N  S E L E N O C Y S T I N E  OR  S E L E N O M E T H I O N I N E  S U L F U R  OR  A C I D  IN  I N D I R E C T  A  WAS  T H E  A N I M A L  C O N V E R S I O N  F R O M  OF  IN  S E L E N I U M  HOURS  E I T H E R  S E L E N I U M  TO  A C T I V E  T H E  F O U N D  H I G H  IN  AND  FORM  T H E  R A B B I T  OF  T H A T  T H A T  OR  T H E  I D E N T I F I E D  AS  TRI  T H E  C O N T A I N I N G  TO  A  T H E  T H E  S U L F U R  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  M A N I F E S T  T H E  S U G G E S T S  BOUND  OF  OF  OF  F R A C T I O N S  S U G G E S T E D  F O R M ,  I N D I C A T E S  E F F E C T  S Y N T H E S I S  U N D E R G O E S  L E V E L S  T H A T  (1967)  S E L E N I T E  TO  T H E  P R O P O R T I O N  S E L E N I T E  T H E  U R I N A R Y  I N C R E A S E D  E V I D E N C E  W I T H  R E D U C E D  TO  ITS  A  A C T I O N .  R E L A T I V E L Y  E F F E C T  A M I N O  IS  S L O W  AN  P R O C E S S .  M E T A B O L I T E  T H E  OF  A L S O  NOT  M A R K E D L Y  G I V E N  M A R T I N  V I V O  F R O M  P R E S U M E D  I N C R E A S E D  M A J O R  NOT  AND  J_N  C O N S I S T  S E V E R A L  T H E  A  A S S O C I A T E D  (1965)  E F F E C T  B I O C H E M I C A L  I S O L A T E D  WAS  T H E  P R O B A B L Y  R E Q U I R E S  T H A T  S E L E N I U M  M E R E L Y  S C H W A R Z  T I S S U E S  I N D I C A T E S  C H E M I C A L  WAS  M E T H I O N I N E  A N A L O G U E S .  D E F I C I E N T  T H I S  C O M P O U N D S  C O M P O U N D S .  S E L E N I U M  F O R  IS  1962).  C U M M I N S  A  IS  A C E T Y L A T E D  P R E V I O U S L Y  T H E R E  B R O M O -  P - B R O M O -  B R O M O B E N Z E N E  ( S C O T T ,  OF  C Y S T I N E  OF  D O G S ,  L A C K  S E L E N I U M - C O N T A I N I N G  AS  T H A T  E X C R E T I O N  W I T H  R E P R E S E N T  S P E C I E S  P A T H W A Y  F A C T  C O R R E S P O N D I N G L Y  AND  1941).  S M I T H ,  T H E  B R O M O B E N Z E N E ,  H O W E V E R ,  S E L E N I U M  OF  R E A C T I N G  OF  ON  L A R G E L Y  P R O D U C T  I N G E S T I O N  IN  T H E  S E L E N O C Y S T I N E  T H A T  L E V E L S  B A S E D  E X C R E T E D  T H I S  S E L E N I U M .  S E L E N I U M  IS  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  B L O O D  O F  IS  B R O M O B E N Z E N E  S E L E N O C Y S T E I N E .  THE  E V I D E N C E  U R I N E  OF  R A T S  F O L L O W I N G  M E T H Y S E L E N O M I  I N G E S T I O N  O F  UM  ION  18  S E L E N I T E  F R O M  (  T O  30  A F T E R  75  A  R A P I D L Y  D I F F I C U L T  T O  O F  T A T I O N  L O W E R  O F  O F  T H E  S K E L E T A L  L E V E L S ,  Y E A S T  D I E T ,  0.01  P P M  U P T A K E  O V I N E  A N D  O F  B L O O D  C E L L S  S U B S T A N C E ,  H O U R S ,  24  B E E N  WERE  R A N G I N G  E X C R E T E D  B Y A R D ,  1969;  IS  1  969).  C E L L S  WERE  T O  E W E S  I N C U B A T E D  V I T R O  V I A  IN  T H E  M A I N T A I N E D  F R O M  F E D  0.06  W I T H  A N  6  A  A C T I V E  U G / M L  S U F F E R I N G  F R O M  S U P P L E M E N -  A S  S E L E N O M E T H I O N I N E  L I V E R  O V E R  20  O N  A  (H U R T  T O  D E F I C I E N T  S E V E N T Y  A N D  P U R I F I E D  A S  A05  W E E K S .  6  M O N T H S  S E L E N I U M  A D D E D  B E  W E E K S .  B L O O D  UG/ML  A  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  S E L E N I U M  C O N S T A N T  F O R  F E D  T O  S E L E N I U M  IN  F E D  O F  S E L E N I U M  A  20  A G E  S A T I S F A C T O R Y  S H E E P  F I R S T  0 . 5 P P M  S E L E N I U M - 7 5  IN  R A T S  T O  S O  IS  O R  R A T S  A  1967).  R E M A I N E D  0.52  O F  1972).  IN  IT  S P E C I E S  C O N S I D E R E D  S E L E N I U M  T H A T  U G / M L  U G / M L  W I T H  R E S P O N D S  0.3  ( H A R T L E Y ,  IN  D I E T  T H E  R E P O R T E D  0.05  B L O O D  B L O O D  F R O M  I N C R E A S E S  F R O M  O F  W H O L E  W E A N L I N G  D I E T  T H E  T O  _ E T _ A L . ,  O C C U R R E D  F E M A L E S  S E L E N I U M .  D U E  IN  S H E E P  T O  IN  P R O D U C E D  D E C R E A S E D  S E L E N I U M  O F  0.32  P U R I F I E D  B L O O D  (BURK  IN  B L O O D  O F  T H I S  _ E T _AL. ,  L E V E L  R A P I D L Y  D I S E A S E S  M U S C L E  B L O O D  L E V E L  H A V E  D E C L I N E  G R O W T H  S E L E N I U M  D I F F E R E N C E S  W E E K S  F R O M  T H E  RED  T H E  L E V E L S  IN  P E R  ( P A L M E R  S E L E N I U M  D E C R E A S E D  R E S P O N S I V E  I M P R O V E D  BUT  IN  O F  S E L E N I U M  D E C R E A S E D  P E R C E N T  S E L E N I T E  O F  B L O O D  F O U R  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  D I E T  O F  S E L E N I U M  D I E T  IN  L E V E L  S E L E N I U M  U R I N A R Y  D E T E R M I N E  Y E A S T  M U C H  S E L E N I U M  IN  THE  U G / M L  B L O O D  T H E  C H A N G E S  A N I M A L .  0.05  Q U A N T I T I E S  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  T O  T O R U L A  S U B S T A N T I A L  D O S E  L E V E L S  THE  BUT  O F  50$  S I N G L E  S E L E N I U M  THE  S E ) .  D I E T  W E E K S .  T R A N S P O R T  THE  T O R U L A  _ E T _AL .  , 1971).  C O N T A I N I N G  P E T E RMI N E  S E L E N I T E ,  S E L E N I U M  M O V E D  IN  VI T R O  I N T O  M E C H A N I S M .  THE  19  7  M A G N I T U D E  I N T A K E  OF  OF  T H E  1967).  R E S U L T E D  IN  AND  A  B U T  L I N E A R  WAS  WAS  NOT  I N V E R S E L Y  A F F E C T E D  I N C R E A S E  IN  B L O O D  I N C R E A S E D  B L O O D  L E V E L  OF  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  IN  A  S T A T U S .  G R O U P  L E V E L S  OF  S E L E N I U M  O N E - H A L F  OF  T H E  B L O O D  L E V E L S  IN  A  ( H O P K I N S  AND  B L O O D  THE  IS  8  W I T H  L E V E L  D I E T  ( F R O S E T H  AND  E V E N L Y  A P P E A R S  I N D I V I D U A L S  T H A T  WERE  G R O U P  T H E  W I T H  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  OF  C H I L D R E N  (1967)  T O M L I N S O N  B E T W E E N  TO  C E L L S  S H O W E D  AND  P L A S M A  C A N T O R  F E D  A  W E E K S .  ON  H O W E V E R ,  A  R E P O R T E D  D E F I C I E N T  D I F F E R E N C E S  IS  (1971)  IN  P L A T E A U  D I E T  T H E  T E N D S  B L O O D  D I E T A R Y  W I T H  T H A T  T O  TO  B L O O D  I N C R E A S E  S E L E N I U M  C O N T E N T  0.27  T H E  L E V E L S  I N D I C A T I N G  PPM  0.87  S E L E N I U M  W I T H  A G E  S H O W E D  T H A T  NO  T H E  S E L E N I U M  IN  D I E T .  T I S S U E  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  T H A T  V A R Y  K I D N E Y ,  T H E  W I T H  IS  P R E S E N T  T I S S U E  P A R T I C U L A R L Y  S E L E N I U M  IN  S W I N E  S U P P L E M E N T A R Y  A L S O  OF  C O N T R O L  D I C K S O N  D I S T R I B U T E D  AND  C H I C K S  TO  C H A N G E  B A S A L  B L O O D .  IN  4  1967).  M A J A J ,  S E L E N I U M  S C O T T  F R O M  D I E T A R Y  O C - T O C 0 P H E R O L  S E L E N I U M  H U M A N S  B L O O D  L E V E L  A  TO  1971).  D I E T A R Y  HUMAN  OF  B L O O D  HAD  OF  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M .  K W A S H I O R K O R  T H A T  P R O P O R T I O N A L  BY  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  MCDOWELL,  THE  U P T A K E  SE  S E L E N I U M  A L S O  E  R E F L E C T  P  S E L E N I U M ,  ( W R I G H T ,  V I T A M I N  5  T Y P E  T H E  C O N C E N T R A T I O N .  P A N C R E A S ,  IN  A L L  AND  S E L E N I U M  K I D N E Y  H L G H  P I T U I T A R Y  AND  C E L L S  C O R T E X ,  L E V E L S  L I V E R .  OF  O F  T H E  L E V E L  HAS  B Y  B O D Y  IN  THE  T H E  F A R  S E L E N I U M  IN  M U S C L E ,  D I E T .  T H E  A R E  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  H I G H E S T  A L S O  B O N E S  THE  F O U N D  AND  B L O O D  A R E  N O R M A L L Y  S E L E N I U M  R E L A T I V E L Y  IN  1.0  H E A L T H Y  (1967)  UG/G  L A M B S  IN  A T  K I D N E Y  O R G A N S  I N D I C A T E D  G L A N D S  C O N T A I N  T I S S U E  AND  R E P O R T S  A D I P O S E  T H A T  N O R M A L  U G / M L  0.05  C O R T E X .  T H E  T H E  T I S S U E  V E R Y  LOW  IN  1971).  ( U N D E R W O O D ,  H A R T L E Y  LOW  A F T E R  H I G H E S T  R E T E N T I O N  IN  B L O O D ,  T H E  D E T A I L E D  T H E  R E N A L  L E V E L S  O F  L E V E L S  S E L E N I U M  UG/G  0.25  IN  S E L E N I U M  C O R T E X ,  O F  S E L E N I U M  O F  IN  T I S S U E  L I V E R  AND  A N A L Y S I S  P I T U I T A R Y  O F  AND  A D R E N A L  S E L E N I U M .  WAS  S T U D I E D  BY  BURK  E T  A L .  75 (1972)  IN  R A T S  C O U N T I N G .  BY  T H E  U S E  I N C R E A S E  AN  O F  IN  SE  I N J E C T E D  E I T H E R  D I E T A R Y  75 D E C R E A S E D  T H E  W H O L E - B O D Y  E X C R E T I O N  E X C E P T  V O L A T I L I Z A T I O N  T H E  S A M E  S P L E E N ,  F O R  B A S A L  WAS  A L L  D I E T  T H E  A N I M A L S  L O W E R  S M A L L  WAS  I N C R E A S E D  S E L E N I U M  W H E R E A S  L I V E R  HAD  T H E  B A S A L  F E D  S H O W E D  R E T E N T I O N  _A_L . ,  S E L E N I U M ,  U P T A K E  AND  B U T  H I G H E R  R E T E N T I O N  W H I C H  D I E T A R Y  R E T E N T I O N  S M A L L E S T  S E L E N I U M  RAD  D O S E  AND  B O D Y  T H Y M U S  WHEN  W H I C H  WAS  AS  B R A I N ,  LOW  O F  S E L E N I U M  T H E  O P P O S I T E  W H O L E - B O D Y  W I T H  R E T E N T I O N  T H E  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  S H O W E D  P E R C E N T A G E  A B O U T  C O N T A I N E D  T H E  B L O O D  U R I N A R Y  SE  O . I O P P M  C O M P A R E D  TO  L E V E L S .  A L S O  E  IN  T E S T I S ,  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  D I E T A R Y  WAS  I N C R E A S E D  D E C R E A S E D  IN  W H O L E  S E L E N I U M  E X C R E T I O N  SE  I N C R E A S E  V I T A M I N  O F  AND  M U S C L E  D I E T .  F O U R - F O L D  A T  IN  1963)  A  P E R C E N T A G E  T H E  AND  I N J E C T E D .  W H O L E - B O D Y  S K E L E T A L  C A R R I E R  L A R G E S T  E Y E ,  AND  P  F E C A L  S E L E N I U M  T H E  OR  SE  T H E  O C C U R R E D .  I N T E S T I N E ,  T H I S  O F  G I V E N  O F  O F  F E D .  S E L E N I U M  _ET  L E V E L S  P E R C E N T A G E  P A T T E R N .  IN  A N I M A L S  A P P A R E N T L Y .  K I D N E Y ,  G R E A T E S T  IN  R E T E N T I O N  S E L E N I T E  S T U D I E D  HAD  HAD  A  NO  E F F E C T  M A R K E D  I O S E L E N I U M .  IN  T H E  C H I C K  ON  D I S T R I B U T I O N  E F F E C T  O N E - H A L F  ( J E N S E N  ON  T H E  B O T H  D O S E  T H E  WAS  OF  R E T A I N E D  O N L Y  B Y  S E L E N I U M  O N E - F I F T H  O F  D E F I C I E N T  T H E  D O S E  C H I C K S  WAS  A T  R E T A I N E D  S E V E N  B Y  D A Y S  C H I C K S  O F  A G E ,  F E D  W H E R E A S  1PPM  S E L E N I U M .  S E L E N I U M  THE  S O M E  E X T E N T  U P O N  M E N T A T I O N .  OF  V I T A M I N  A D D E D  T Y P E  AND  T H E  D I E T  ON  ( S C O T T  E  L E V E L  S E L E N I U M  T H O S E  B R E A S T  T O X I C  BEYOND  T O  T H E R E F O R E ,  ( U N D E R W O O D ,  MAAG  E W E S  M U S C L E S  B A S I S ) .  I N G E S T E D )  T I S S U E  S O  O F  W E I G H T  L E G  O F  L E V E L S ,  IS  N O T  A N D  AND  S T U D I E D  T H E  IN  T H E  R E P O R T E D  S E L E N I U M  TO  OF  S O D I U M  B Y  L E V E L  F I N I S H I N G  S U P P L E M E N T S  W H I C H  A B S E N C E  P R A C T I C A L  B A S A L  F A I L E D  P R E S E N C E  D I E T A R Y  A  WAS  O C C U R R I N G  S U P P L E -  T H E  O F  TO  O F  S O D I U M  C H A N G E  I N C L U D E D  T H E  B L O O D ,  M U S C L E .  (10-100  S E L E N I U M ,  T I S S U E  L I V E R  E F F E C T  T U R K E Y S  D I E T A R Y  G A I N S  T I S S U E  A N D  IN  IN  IN  S E L E N I U M  0 . 2 0 P P M  S E L E N I U M .  A N Y  IN  0 . 2 P P M  D E P E N D S  M E T H I O N I N E  0 . 1 8 P P M  THE  N A T U R A L L Y  WAS  D I E T S  S E L E N I U M  1 9 6 7 ) .  L E V E L S  THE  D I E T  I N T A K E S  5 - 7 P P M  T H E S E  S E L E N I U M ,  IN  OR  E  PPM  0.28  AND  0.1  A F F E C T  M U S C L E ,  N O R M A L L Y  S T E A D I L Y  AND  NOT  V I T A M I N  _AL • ,  S E L E N I U M  0 . 1 3 P P M  DID  AT  O F  S T A R T I N G  S E L E N I T E  L I V E R ,  _E_T  T U R K E Y  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  (1972).  S C O T T  C O N T A I N E D  O F  F R O M  OF  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  T I S S U E  B A S A L  I N . P R A C T I C A L  A M O U N T  S U P P L E M E N T S  D I E T  C A N T O R  T H E  R A N G E D  TO  E  V I T A M I N  S E L E N I T E  IN  IT  L E V E L  AND  S E L E N I U M  K I D N E Y S  E X C R E T I O N  G R E A T E R  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  A N D  K E E P S  C O N T I N U O U S L Y  T I M E S  1 - 2 P P M  P A C E  IN  W I T H  C U M U L A T I V E  IN  T H A N  I N C R E A S E D  T H E  M U S C L E S .  A B S O R P T I O N .  T H E  T I S S U E S  1971). AND  G L E N  T H A T  T H E S E  L I V E R  (1967)  M O R T A L I T Y  S T E E R S  S E L E N I U M  F E D  12-24  E N S U E D .  R A N G E D  F R O M  MG  KG  S E L E N I T E  S E L E N I U M  THE  0.10  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  P E R  IN  TO  C O N T E N T  0 . 7 3 P P M  S H E E P  WAS  TO  S T E E R S  IN  T H E  ( F R E S H  2 8 P P M  T I S S U E  22  ( F R E S H  W E I G H T  B A S I S )  0.9PPM  ( F R E S H  W E I G H T  C H R O N I C  C O N S U M E  A  A N I M A L S  S E L E N I U M  OF  V A R I E S  T H E D I E T .  AND  A T  U L T I M A T E L Y  ( D R Y  W E I G H T  I N C L U D I N G  3-4PPM  T H E  H A T C H A B I L I T Y  D E C R E A S E D  C O N T A I N  L E S S  T H E  D I E T  B E Y O N D  O F  A D D I T I O N  L E V E L  (ARNOLD  8PPM  T H E S E L E N I U M  C O N T E N T  D A Y S  Z E R O  A F T E R  W A S  WHEN  R E T U R N E D  D I E T A R Y  _ET _ A L .  ,  T O  O F  T H E  M I N I M U M  N O R M A L  IN  T H E  3-4PPM  I N  O F  O F  C H I C K S  OR  G R A I N S  10PPM  P O L E Y  F O R C H I C K S  S H O U L D  R A T E .  S E L E N I T E  W I T H I N  IN  B U T  1938).  12  T O  A  D A Y S  N O T A P P E A R  W A S F E D F O R 104  L E V E L S  L E V E L S  S L I G H T L Y ,  D I D  D I E T  C O M P O S I T I O N ,  G R O W T H  E G G S  T I S S U E S  T H E  S E L E N I F E R O U S  S O D I U M  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  1972).  E S T I M A T E D  A N D M O X O N ,  IN  O F T H E  N A T U R E  T H E G R O W T H  A S  S E L E N I U M  A N D  R A T I O N S  S E L E N I U M  O V E R  D U E T O  F U R T H E R M O R E ,  F O R N O R M A L  C O N T E N T  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  O N  A N I M A L S  I N T A K E ,  H A T C H A B I L I T Y  S T A R T I N G  T H E L E V E L  E V E N  B A S E D  ( P O L E Y  S E L E N I U M  O F  1.7PPM.  E I G H T  D I E T S  T H A T  A T  W I T H  A F F E C T  R E D U C E D  T O  5PPM  T H E P L A T E A U  S E L E N I U M  E G G S .  S E L E N I U M  T H A N  M U S C L E  WHEN  F O R M S  A C C U M U L A T E  C O N T E N T S .  N O T A D V E R S E L Y  S U G G E S T E D  I N C R E A S E D  P L A T E A U  T O X I C I T Y  A N D S U L F A T E  H A T C H A B I L I T Y  (1941)  S I G N S  V A R Y  O F  (1931)  W I L L  W I L L  O F  A N D C H E M I C A L  A N D C O N T I N U I T Y  O F  O C C U R S  T H E T O X I C I T Y  S E L E N I U M  T H I S  O F  5PPM  S K E L E T A L  3-20PPM  1971).  A N D C O - W O R K E R S  W H I C H  D O  IN  L I V E S T O C K  C O N T A I N I N G  D U R A T I O N  B A S I S ) .  IN  T H E A M O U N T S  P R O D U C E  S E L E N I U M  _ A L .  W I T H  P R O T E I N  C O N T A I N I N G  P L A N T S  M U N S E L L  L E V E L  T O X I C I T Y  ( O L D F I E L D ,  I N G E S T E D ,  D I E T A R Y  _ET  S E L E N I U M  P E R I O D  L E V E L  B A S I S ) .  S E L E N I F E R O U S  P R O L O N G E D  IN  A N D T H E H I G H E S T  L A Y E R  T O  T O  W E E K S .  A  I N C R E A S E  T H E  T H E E G G W I T H I N  W A S D E C R E A S E D  T O  T H E  C O N T R O L  23  T H E O R I E S  ON  O F  V I T A M I N  E V I D E N C E  T H A T  B I O L O G I C A L  THE  S E V E R A L  R O L E  AND  E  IS  OF  S E L E N I U M  TO  W I T H  A N I M A L S  ( H A M I L T O N  AND  T A P P E L ,  P R O T E I N S ,  F U N C T I O N I N G  I N  V I T R O  V I V O .  ( O L C O T T  P E R O X I D E S  AND  G R E E N  T I M E S  _ET  U N A B L E  THE  _ET  R A T  L I P I D  T H E  SHOW  A N D  T H A T  C H I C K  T H A T  TO  IT  AN  T H E  T H E  AS  M O L A R  WAS  WAS  OF  D I P L O C K  OF  A C C O M P A N I E D  A N T I O X I D A N T  OF  OR  T H A T  I N T O  T H E  L I P I D  P E R -  T I S S U E  T H A T  A C T I V E  S E L E N O -  FORM  L I P I D  OF  A N T I O X I D A N T  D E C O M P O S I N G  S U L F U R  L I P I D  P E R O X I D E  A N A L O G U E S  S E L E N 0 - P R O T E I N S  E  AND  S E L E N I U M  B Y  T H E  I N C R E A S E  NO  1965).  (1 9 6 7 )  E  WAS  H A V E  ( T A P P E L ,  C O - W O R K E R S  T H E R E F O R E ,  H Y P O T H E S I S  A M E L I O R A T E  C A T A L Y Z E D  V I T A M I N  V I T A M I N  E X P E C T E D .  T H E  T H E I R  AND  T H E  P R O P O S E D  R E D U C E D  A C T I V E  DID  IS  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  IN  A C I D S  IN  C A N  P R O P O S E D  B A S I S  A C T I V I T Y  AS  E  C A P A B L E  T H A N  A B S E N C E  T I S S U E S  IS  AN  E  W I T H  T H E R E  C O M P O U N D  WERE  F A S T E R  W E L L  B E E N  A U T H O R S  A M I N O  A  HAS  A C T I V I T Y  S E L E N O  ON  V I T A M I N  V I T A M I N  IS  L I N K E D  A N T I O X I D A N T  O R G A N I C  IN  IS  A C I D S .  P R O P E R T I E S .  AND  1961)  T H A T  AS  A M I N O  A N T I O X I D A N T S ,  _AL . ,  A N I M A L S  T H A T  T H E S E  A N T I O X I D A N T  P E R O X I D A T I O N  C O N C L U D E D  F A C T  A N T I O X I D A N T  1965).  (1967)  _ A L .  T O  V I V O  1963).  SHOW  IN  D E F I C I E N C Y ,  C O N S I D E R A B L Y  C A L C U L A T I O N S  50-100  T H E  AS  S E L E N I U M  S O L U B L E  S E L E N O M E T H I O N I N E  ( T A P P E L ,  D E C O M P O S I T I O N  L I P I D  D E F I C I E N T  I N C R E A S E D  F O R  C O N T A I N I N G  A N T I O X I D A N T  AND  IN  S E L E N I U M  TO  J_N  O X I D A T I O N  S E L E N I U M  O F  A  S E L E N I U M  C O M P O U N D S  A C T I O N  IS  E  DUE  C O N V E R T E D  OF  S U L F U R  V I T A M I N  S Y S T E M .  S Y M P T O M S  S E L E N I U M  OF  M E C H A N I S M  M E T A B O L I C  THE  T H A T  T H E  T H E S E  WERE  F R O M  IN  A U T H O R S  L O N G E R  A C C E P T A B L E .  H Y P O T H E S E S  S H O U L D  E X P L A I N  T H E  C O N C E R N I N G  T H E  MODE  I N T E R R E L A T I O N S H I P S  OF  A C T I O N  W I T H  O F  V I T A M I N  S U L F U R - C O N T A I NI  E  NG  A M I N O  A C I D S ,  T H E R E F O R E ,  S E L E N I U M  D I P L O C K  F O R M  O F  S E L E N I U M  P A R T  O F  T H E  F R O M  SHOWN  IN  IN  W I T H  B E  S E L E N I D E  C E N T E R  O F  B Y  L I V E R  S U B C E L L U L A R  V I T A M I N  S T A T U S  E  IN  O F  T H A T  T H E  R E D U C T I O N  O C C U R S  V I V O  A N D  T H A T  R E S P O N S I B L E .  S E L E N I U M  T H I S  T A K E S  D  E.  V I T A M I N  IN  T H E  R O L E  R E D U C E D  F O R  IN  T H E  S Y M P O S I U M  " S E L E N I U M  IN  T O  C A U S E  T H E  C O N F L I C T  F O L L O W I N G  ON  E  A P P E A R S  T O  A S  A N  O F  T H E  F U N C T I O N  T H E  A N T I O X I D A N T  J U S T  A  A  O F  P R O B A B L Y  A R E  N O T  A N D  E  N A T U R E  O F  S P E C I F I C  M A I N T A I N I N G  E  T O  T R A C T  V I T A M I N  MORE  A N D  R E L A T E D  A L I M E N T A R Y  T H I S  H A V E  S E L E N I T E ,  M I C R O - O R G A N I S M S  P R O P O S E  F O R  A U T H O R S  S E L E N I D E  N O N - S P E C I F I C  T H A T  V I T A M I N  E  H A S  R O L E  T H E  A C T I O N  MODE  T H A T  P R E V E N T I O N  O F  P R E S E N T E D  B I O M E D I C I N E " .  A N T I O X I D A N T .  I N V O L V E  T O  F O R M  P R O T E C T E D  T H E S E  T H E  A C T I V E  M A Y  E V I D E N C E  D I R E C T L Y  A N T I O X I D A N T  P A P E R  E N C E P H A L O M A L A C I A  V I T A M I N  WAS  T H E  S E L E N I U M  A N T I O X I D A N T  S E L E N I U M .  T O  D I S C U S S E D  A R E  S E L E N I D E ,  V I T A M I N  T H A N  S U G G E S T E D  A D D I T I O N  2 5 - Y E A R - O L D  W I T H  R A T H E R  A N D  (1967)  S C O T T  THE  E  F O R  (1971)  S Y S T E M  S T A T E  V I T A M I N  F U N C T I O N  ON  W H I C H  S E L E N I T E  C O N S I D E R A T I O N  I P L O C K _ E T _AL .  OX I D A TI O N - R E D U C T I  S T A T E S  T H A T  C L A S S  S U P P O R T I N G  I N T E S T I N A L  H Y P O T H E S I S  I N T O  E.  A C I D S .  S E L E N I D E  T H A T  S T E R I L I Z I N G  O F  T H E  T H E  P R O T E I N S  S E L E N I D E  R A T S .  S U G G E S T E D  T H A T  O R G A N E L L E S :  I N D I C A T E D  IN  I R O N  O X I D A T I O N  P R O P O R T I O N  F A T T Y  U N C H A R A C T E R I Z E D  V I T A M I N  S E L E N I U M  T H E  (1971) A N D  A N  N O N - H A E M -  V I V O  P O L Y U N S A T U R A T E D  C O - W O R K E R S  T H R E E  S E L E N A T E .  T H E  M A Y  A C T I V E  O X I D A T I O N  I N C L U D E S  A N D  A C T I V E  C A T A L Y T I C A L L Y  A N D  IS  A  O F  B Y  S P E C I F I C  M U S C U L A R  T O  R O L E  S P E C I F I C  P R E V I O U S L Y  F O R  D E S C R I B E D .  V I T A M I N  (1967)  S C O T T  V I T A M I N  R E L A T E D  A  IN  E  D E F I C I E N C Y  T H E  F U N C T I O N  F O R  V I T A M I N  D Y S T R O P H Y  A N D  E  IS  T H E  A P P E A R S  O F  E  E X U D A T I V E  D I A T H E S I S  W H I C H  A C I D S  P R O T E C T I O N  F O R  A L S O  S E L E N I U M  D E G E N E R A T I O N  L I P I D S  OF  O F  T H E  T H E  OF  I N O R G A N I C  _ET  _AJ_  V I T A M I N  F U R T H E R M O R E ,  W E R E  IN  T H A T  IT  C A U S E S  S T I L L  T H E  T H E  N O T  S E L E N I U M  A R E  M E T A B O L I S M .  I N J U R Y  O F  T H E  IN  ,  T O  E I T H E R  T H E  O F  A  E T  O T H E R  H E A R T  IN  A T  T H E  T I S S U E S .  M U S C L E ,  S P A R E  F I B R O T I C  O F  T H E  A M O U N T  O F  T I M E  A  R A P I D  H I G H  1959;  OR  T H E  S E V E R I T Y  1964B).  T H E  S P E C I F I C  TH IS  A  D Y S T R O P H Y .  E N Z Y M E S  O F  S T U D Y  M U S C U L A R  S H O W E D  E N Z Y M E S  T H A T  H O W E V E R ,  IT  R E S P O N S I B L E  O F  S I T E S  M E R E L Y  N E C R O T I C  P E R I P H E R A L  T O  IS  F O R  D E G E N E R A T I O N .  F U N C T I O N  IS  C A L V E R T  L Y S O S O M A L  IS  R E D U C E D  M E T H I O N I N E  S E Q U E N C E  IN  T U R N O V E R  A L S O  M U S C U L A R  IN  T H A N  E N E R G Y  _ E T _AL. ,  L Y S O S O M A L  F R O M  R A T  G R E A T E R  WAS  M E C H A N I S M  T I S S U E S  C O F A C T O R S  A  A B S O R P T I O N  E N Z Y M E  A N D  A L . ,  B I O C H E M I C A L  T H A T  O F  P R E V E N T S  H Y D R O L Y T I C  ( D E S A I  I N T O  C Y S T I N E  I N C R E A S E  1 964A) .  IN  A B S O R P T I O N  M U C H  T U R N O V E R  P E R O X I D A T I O N  N E C R O S I S  T H E  D I V I D E D  ( NES HE I M  O F  S U G G E S T S  E S S E N T I A L  I N V O L V I N G  S L O W  IS  P H O S P H O R Y L A S E  M U S C L E  (1965)  L I V E R  O B S E R V E D  O F  D Y S T R O P H Y  WHAT  M U S C L E  IS  T H E  1961).  S C O T T ,  F I R S T  T O  A M I N O  1970).  C O M P L E T E L Y  B U I L D U P  Q U E S T I O N A B L E  P R O T E C T I O N  B E E N  D E G R E E  T H E  M U S C U L A R  S C H W A R Z  OF  D I E T  _ E T _AL .  IN  M U S C L E S  P R O P O R T I O N  ( D E S A I  IS  O F  T H E A D D I T I O N  D I R E C T  D Y S T R O P H Y  A  A P P E A R S  C O N T A I N I N G  A N D  I M P A I R E D  E N H A N C E S  S C O T T ,  T H I S  A N D  C H I C K  D E F I C I E N T  E  A N D  R E S U L T S  B Y  E  S U L F U R  ( N E S H E I M  C H I C K  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  1961).  T H E  T U R N O V E R  P H O S P H O R U S  D I S E A S E  V L T A M I N  C H I C K S .  D Y S T R O P H I C  .,  A N D  A N D / O R  F O L L O W E D  E.  ( T H O M P S O N  T H E  IN  P A N C R E A S  V I T A M I N  D Y S T R O P H I C  T H E  T H E  P H O S P H O R U S  P H O S P H A T E .  IN  A G A I N S T  R E Q U I R E D  O C - T O C O P H E R O L  N O R M A L  S E L E N I U M  D E F I C I E N C Y  I N C L U D I N G  S E L E N I U M  R E Q U I R E  A  V I T A M I N  O F  A N D  I N T E R M E D I A R Y  S P E C I A L  S Y N D R O M E  M U S C L E ,  E  I N S T A N C E  H A S  K I D N E Y ,  26  P A N C R E A S ,  AND  R A T S  T H E  AND  M E T A B O L I C  A R E  S U M M A R Y  OF  D I S C U S S I O N ,  F O R  F R O M  T H E  T H E  OF  S I M U L T A N E O U S  B R E A K D O W N  O X I D A T I V E  AS  A P P E A R S  OF  C O U L D  T H E  M E T A B O L I C  I N F L U E N C E  A  N E C R O T I C  T E R M  OF  TO  L I V E R  OF  W I T H I N  S U L F U R  A  A D D E D  3 - S E L E N I U M  T O  S P R E A D  IS  A  O F  N O R M A L  T H E  R E S U L T S  E  IN  T H R O U G H  A  TO  T H I S  IS  NOT  A M I N O  C A P A C I T Y  O X Y G E N  O F  L I V E R  F U L L Y  S L I C E S  A G A I N S T  T H E  I N H I B I T O R Y  S U C H  C Y C L E  T H E  AND  OF  I N I T I A L  D E L E T E R I O U S  M E T A B O L I S M .  TO  OF  T H E  A N I M A L .  S L I C E S  O V E R  P R E -  BY  AN  OR  E X T E N D E D  R E S P I R A T O R Y  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  S H O W I N G  IS  D E V E L O P M E N T  A F F E C T E D  A C I D S  | F ,  N E C R O S I S ,  F E A T U R E  C O N S U M P T I O N  D I E T A R Y  L I V E R  A  I N T E R M E D I A R Y  IT  A C I D  M E C H A N I S M  E X E R T  IT  S Y S T E M .  A C I D  T H E  T H E  F A C T O R S .  P O T E N T  C A R B O X Y L I C  T H E  D E C I S I V E  U T I L I Z A T I O N .  M U C H  IN  IN  A  O X A L O A C E T I C  C H A R A C T E R I S T I C  P R O T E C T S  D I E T .  S E V E R A L  L I V E R  AND  C O N T A I N I N G  P E C U L I A R  V I T A M I N  T H E  IS  D I E T A R Y  T H R O U G H  A R E A S  S E L E N I U M  M E T A B O L I C  OF  IN  (1965)  E Q U I L I B R I A .  OF  A C I D  C O N T R I B U T E  N E C R O S I S .  M A I N T A I N  T I M E .  WHEN  L A R G E  IN  S U C C I N I C  C A N  D E C L I N E  D E S I G N A T E S  H O M O G E N A T E S  O F  S I T E  T H R O U G H O U T  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  ON  O F  D E G E N E R A T I O N  B L O C K E D  I M P A I R M E N T .  S I N G U L A R  P H A S E  A C I D  N E C R O S I S  S C H W A R Z ' S  E S S E N T I A L  C A S E  IS  C O N C E I V A B L Y  R E S P I R A T O R Y  AN  T H E  R E A C T I O N S  E L S E W H E R E  A T  BE  A C I D  O X A L O A C E T I C  L I V E R  D E F I C I E N C Y  OF  L I V E R  A R E  D E C A R B O X Y L A T I O N  TO  S U C C I N I C  F E E D B A C K  A C U T E  N E C R O T I C  I N T E R R E L A T I O N S H I P S  F U N C T I O N  I N T E R R E L A T I O N S H I P S  N E G A T I V E  F A C T O R  T H E  M E T A B O L I C  M E T A B O L I S M  D E C L I N E  F O R  TO  S P E C I E S .  MOST  I M P A I R E D ,  P E R I O D  O T H E R  I N T E R P R E T A T I O N  I N S T A N C E ,  THIS  P E R T A I N I N G  B E L O W .  R E S U L T S  D E F E C T  IN  D I E T A R Y  P R E S E N T E D  U N D E R  E F F E C T  P R E S E N T  T H E  IS  C R I T E R I O N  F O R  H I S  O R G A N S .  D I S T U R B A N C E S  P R O B A B L Y  O R G A N I S M  C A S E  P A R E N C H Y M A L  N O R M A L  OF  R E S P I R A T O R Y  T H E S E  A C T I V I T Y  R E S U L T S  I N I T I A L L Y  I N D I C A T E  R E S P I R A T O R Y  D I F F E R .  S U L F H Y D R Y L  G R O U P S  IN  C O N N E C T  T H E  U P T A K E  AND  C A N  C A R B O X Y L I C  D E C L I N E S  A  -  M A N N E R  S Y S T E M .  T H E  S E L E N I U M  IS  C O U L D  AND  TO  M O S T  T H E  A C I D S ,  WOULD  A C C O M M O D A T E  O X I D A S E  AND  C O M P O N E N T S  L I P O Y L  IN  T H E  O X I D A T I O N  C O U L D  BE  E I T H E R  ON  A C I D  OR  ON  T O T A L  L I P O I C  C O N T A I N I N G  N E C R O T I C  TO  S U C H  E N Z Y M E  L I V E R  A  LOW  T H E  T H E  P R O T E I N  I|)N  D E G E N E R A T I O N  L E V E L  S H T U T M A N  _ET  T H A T  _AL .  A L L  IT  O V E R A L L  T H E  T H R E E  OR  WOULD  IS  (1968)  T H E  O C C U R  OF  T H E  OF  IF  E X A M I N E D  IN  ONE  T H E  R A T E S  OF  OF  T H E  T H E  S I T E  S I T E  OF  OF  E F F E C T S  C O E N Z Y M E  A  S U L F H Y D R Y L -  T H E S E  O V E R A L L  W I T H  A T  O D . - K E T O G L U T A R A T E  A V A I L A B L E  O T H E R  E,  I N T E R P R E T E D  THE  T H E  S U P P L Y  IN  V I T A M I N  T H E  R E A C T I O N .  OF  I N V O L V E D  OF  T H E  BY  THE  F U N C T I O N A L  S T E P .  I N C O M P A T I B L E  H A V E  P R E V E N T E D  F A C T O R S  P R O D U C T  A M O U N T  O X Y G E N  S U B S T R A T E S ,  BE  P E R F O R M A N C E  O V E R A L L  ONE  AS  OF  C O U L D  W H I C H  C H A I N .  P R I M A R I L Y  R A T E  S Y S T E M S  H O M O G E N A T E .  S E L E N I U M  D E C A R B O X Y L A T I O N  A C I D S  A C I D  E F F E C T S  D E H Y D R O G E N A S E  A M I N O  AND  ON  BE  T H E  A  AND  R E S P I R A T O R Y  C Y T O C H R O M E  O P E R A T E .  S U L F U R  TO  T O C O P H E R O L  T I T R A B L E  D E H Y D R O G E N A S E  TO  IS  AND  OF  Q U A N T I T A T I V E L Y  O V E R A L L  S Y S T E M  L O S S  M I N U T E S .  60  G L U T A T H I O N E  D E F I C I E N T  L I K E L Y  T H E  A  L E A D I N G  T H E  IS  TO  30  S E L E N I U M  O X A L O A C E T I C  A M I N O  T H E  BE  TO  D E C L I N E  O B V I O U S L Y  IN  C Y C L E  OF  BY  T H O S E  H Y P O T H E T I C A L L Y  I N D I V I D U A L  E  V I T A M I N  OF  W H I C H  K E T O G L U T A R A T E  W H I C H  IS  D E C L I N E .  C O N T A I N I N G  E N Z Y M E  CC  T H I S  D E H Y D R O G E N A S E  S U L F U R  A C I D  A F T E R  TO  I M P A I R M E N T  I N V O L V E S  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  R E S P I R A T O R Y  IN  AND  R E L A T E D  P R E V E N T E D  K E T O G L U T A R A T E  R A P I D L Y  T O C O P H E R O L  L I P O Y L  -  CL.  BE  D E C L I N E  F U N C T I O N S  IS  I N I T I A L  M I T O C H O N D R I A  W I T H  T H E  D E C L I N E  D I M E R C A P T O P R O P A N O L .  D E C L I N E  T H A T  B U T  S T E P S .  R A T E  F A L L S  L I F E .  E F F E C T  OF  S E L E N I U M  28  35 ON  T H E  M E T A B O L I S M  O F  e  S  M E T H I O N I N E  W I T H  A  S I N G L E  D O S E  O F  35 A D M I N I S T E R E D  L A T E R  IN  A F T E R  F O L L O W E D  R A T S .  T H E  M E T H I O N I N E  B Y  R A T S  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  W E R E  OF  D E C A P I T A T E D  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N .  AN  HOUR  A F T E R  e  S  M E T H I O N I N E  B E T W E E N  S E L E N I U M  O N E  AND  1/2  H O U R  H O U R S  2  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  O F  35 S  M E T H I O N I N E T I S S U E  WAS  P R E S E N T  L I V E R  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  D E T E C T E D  IN  IN  H O M O G E N A T E S .  A N A L Y S I S  ( A S  IN  AS  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  35  C Y S T E I N E  T H E  WAS  WAS  B Y  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  T H E  IN  R E M A I N I N G  T H E  E X T R A C T  G U I N E A  T H A T  P I G S )  N E I T H E R  O F  T H E  F R E E  IN WAS  30$  E X T R A C T  C H R O M A T O G R A P H I C  P R O T E I N - F R E E  G L U T A T H I O N E .  P E R  WAS  O B S E R V E D  OF  100  G L U T A T H I O N E  E X T R A C T  IN  O F  ON I N E .  P R O D U C T S  F O U N D  T H E  L I V E R  F O R M E D  S Y N T H E S I S  S E L E N I U M  OF  WAS  O F  T O T A L  O F  T H E  AND  R A D I O -  R A T  L I V E R  H I G H E S T  S  C Y S T E I N E  NOR  0  S  C Y S T I N E  T H E  WAS  T H E  I N - M E T H I  M E T A B O L I C  | T  A U T O G R A P H I C  W E L L  P R O T E  I N T E R M E D I A T E  O F  70$  F R O M  IN  T H E  P R O T E I N - F R E E  M E T H I O N I N E  G L U T A T H I O N E .  T H E  G  O F  L I V E  W E I G H T  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y .  I N C R E A S E D  AND  U S E D  R A T  D U E  TO  O F  E L E V A T E D  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  IN  R A T  L I V E R .  P R E D O M I N A T E L Y  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  T H E  C O N S I D E R A B L Y  E X T R A C T  OF  UG  75  T H E  T H E  S E L E N I U M ,  IN  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  P R O T E I N - F R E E  M I N U T E S ,  20  35. O N E  H O U R ,  AND  TWO  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  W I T H O U T  D U E  35  TO  O F  D E L A Y I N G  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  T H E  H O U R S  O F  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M .  C O M P O U N D S  T H E  IN  E X T R A C T S  O F  S E L E N I U M  S  C E L L U L A R  O F  WAS  T H E  R E S U L T  L I V E R  T H A T  O F  G L U T A T H I O N E  I N C R E A S E D  O F  R A T  C O N V E R T I N G  L I V E R  M E T H I O N I N E  0  IN  C O N N E C T I O N  S T I M U L A T I O N  O F  G L U T A T H I O N E  C Y S T E I N E  IN  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  P R O T E I N - F R E E  S.  M E T H I O N I N E  T H E  E F F E C T  | N  I N C R E A S E D  OF  D E C O M P O S I T I O N .  35 I N T O  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  G L U T A T H I O N E  0  S  A F T E R  T H E  T H E  W I T H  R A T  T H E  M E T A B O L I S M ,  C O N V E R S I O N  I M P O R T A N T  T H E S E  O F  WAS  R O L E  A U T H O R S  M E T H I O N I N E  A C T I V A T E D  O F  S U L F H Y D R Y L  C O N C L U D E D  BY  B Y  T H A T  S E L E N I U M  29  S U G G E S T S  T H E  P A R T I C I P A T I O N  S U L F U R - C O N T A I N I N G  A M I N O  O F  A C I D S  B I O L O G I C A L  F U N C T I O N  IN  ITS  ON  A S P E C T S  E F F E C T  O T H E R  C H I N G - S I N G  S E L E N I U M  IN  C Y S T E I N E  A  D I E T  T H E  S  S Y N T H E S I S  E X P E R I M E N T S  D I E T  D E C R E A S E  M U S C L E  D I S E A S E  S H O W E D  A  NO  IN  _ET  G R O U P S  G R O U P S  AND  AS  R E D U C E D  IN  T H E  R A T  (1973)  W E L L  AS  T H E  OF  M U S C L E S  F R O M  I N C R E A S E  IN  N O N - P R O T E I N  IN  W H I T E  D I F F E R E N C E S  L A M _ E T _ A L . ,  K I D N E Y  WERE  OF  M U S C L E  S U G G E S T  AND  T H E  A S  A M O U N T  A L S O  E V E N  OF  OF  ON  E N H A N C E S  IN  IN  V I T R O  T H E S E  L E A S T  T O T A L  L A M B S  W I T H  N O R M A L  W H I T E  L A M B S  S U L F H Y D R Y L  B U T  G R O U P S  L A M B ' S  M U S C L E ,  S U L F H Y D R Y L  HAD  A  T R E N D  R E S U L T S  Y A N G _ E T _ A L . ,  O N E  OF  S U L F H Y D R Y L  F R A C T I O N S  (WMD)  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  S U L F H Y D R Y L  OF  N U M B E R  S E L E N I U M - D E F I C I E N T  R A T S  I N V O L V E M E N T  A T  IN  O P P O S I T E  C H I N G - S I N G  T H E  AND  N O N - P R O T E I N  G R O U P S .  C O M P O U N D S  E X C L U D E  M A I N T A I N E D  D I E T  D I S E A S E D  O B S E R V E D  N O R M A L  R A T S .  1961;  NOT  S M A L L  P R O T E I N  TO  T O T A L  S E L E N I U M .  T H E  C O M P A R E D  S U L F H Y D R Y L  A  R A T S  T H E  OF  OF  S U L F H Y D R Y L  IN  T H A T  N U M B E R  C O N T E N T  OF  OF  M U S C L E S  S E L E N I U M - S U P P L E M E N T E D  ITS  I N C O R P O R A T I O N  IN  OR  O F  D O E S  P R E P A R A T I O N S  S H O W E D  H I G H E R  1968)  T H A T  T H E  L I V E R S  L I V E R  S E L E N I U M - D E F I C I E N T  _ E T _ A L . ,  T H I S  S H O W E D  S E L E N I U M  OF  1973;  A S P E C T  I N C R E A S E D  L I V E R S  P R O T E I N  O N E  O R G A N I S M .  L A M B S .  T H E  F O R M S  OF  1961).  G L U T A T H I O N E  H E A R T  M E T A B O L I S M  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  (WMD)  S I G N I F I C A N T  T H E  (1958)  A  B Y  _ A L .  S I G N I F I C A N T  L I V E R ,  A  IN  M E T A B O L I S M .  N E C R O S I S .  ( L A M _ E T _ A L . ,  S U L F H Y D R Y L  O F  C O E N Z Y M E  C O E N Z Y M E  B R O D E R I U S  A N I M A L  M A R K E D L Y  I N D U C E S  OF  T H E  W H I C H  Y A N G _ E T _ A L .  I N T O  W H I C H  S E L E N I U M  C O M P A R E D  WAS  O B S E R V E D  ( B R O D E R I U S  1958;  S E L E N I U M  B I O C H E M I C A L  IN  E T  TO  F O R  A L . ,  S H T U T M A N  T H E  M E T A B O L I S M  F U N C T I O N  O F  30  E V I D E N C E  1973)  T H A T  A  P E R O X I D A S E  HAS  B E E N  B I O C H E M I C A L  R O L E  HgO,-,  ( G L U T A T I O N E :  ^2^2 ~~ GSSG + 2 W^O) • O X I D A T I V E  D A M A G E  E R Y T H R O C Y T E S  G L U C O S E  B E E N  OF  O F  I N  TO  T H E  M O D E L  U S E D  AND  D A M A G E  R E D U C T A S E  (GSH)  G L U T A T H I O N E  (GSSG)  1969).  A C T S  ( C O H E N  BY  E X I S T S  F O R  R E D  O F  ( W H I C H  GSH  1963;  H Y D R O G E N  C A T A L Y Z E D  THE  A G A I N S T  H E M O L Y S I S  AND  A D D I T I O N  E R Y T H R O C Y T E S  OF  O F  R A T S  I N H I B I T O R  O F  H E M O L Y S I S  W H E T H E R  A G A I N S T  E F F E C T  E  O F  _ET  A L  WAS  S P E C I F I C  WAS  V I T R O .  S A M P L E  WAS  AND  T H I S  N O T  _AL  .,  IN  T H E  O X I D I Z E D  E T  A B S E N T  R E L A T E D  B U T  DID  F R O M  T H A T  A L . ,  A C I D  D I E T A R Y  P R O T E C T  T H A T  OF  T H E  V I T A M I N  G L U T A T H I O N E  T H A N  IN  M A I N T A I N E D  T H E  M A I N T E N A N C E  A G A I N S T  NOT  T H A T  THE  A F F O R D E D  IN  P R O T E C T E D  E F F E C T I V E L Y  S U G G E S T E D  AND  F A T T Y  S E L E N I U M - D E F I C I E N T  WAS  AND  O X I D A T I O N  1972).  HAS  O F  D E M O N S T R A T E D  D I S T I N C T  _ET  IN  P R E S E N T ,  R E S U L T  AND  R O T R U C K  H I G H E R  A  B Y  P E R O X I D A S E .  V I R T U A L L Y  S E L E N I U M .  T H I S  E R Y T H R O C Y T E S  I N  WAS  Q £ _ - T O C O P H E R O L ,  G L U C O S E  1971;  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  S E L E N I U M - D E F I C I E N T  IN  D A M A G E ,  NOT  WAS  .,  I NC U B A T I ON  V I T R O  O X I D A T I O N .  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M - A D E Q U A T E  D U R I N G  OR  _I_N  D E F I C I E N T  O X I D A T I V E  H E M O G L O B I N  ( R O T R U C K  (GSH)  G L U C O S E  H E M O G L O B I N  R A T  NADPH)  AND  GSH  BY  T H E  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  K O S O W E R  P E R O X I D E  WAS  W H I C H  NADPH  FROM  A L . ,  +  A F F O R D E D  A C T I O N S  G E N E R A T E S  GSH  O F  B E E N  C E L L S  C O M B I N E D  R E A C T I O N S  T H E  S T U D I E S  I N T R A C E L L U L A R  T H R O U G H  BY  T H E S E  B L O O D  H Y D R O P E R O X I D E S  P R O T E C T I O N  1.11.1.9 2  EC  E T  G L U T A T H I O N E  HAS  H O C H S T E I N ,  D E S T R O Y I N G  IN  P R O T E C T I O N  G E N E R A T E S  AND  ( R Q T R U C K  O X I D A T I O N  T H R O U G H  W H I C H  W O R K E R S  H E M O G L O B I N  TO  D E H Y D R O G E N A S E  G L U T A T H I O N E  O T H E R  OX I D O R E D U C T A S E  M A I N T E N A N C E  G L U T A T H I O N E  G L U C O S E - 6 - P H O S P H A T E  B Y  S E L E N I U M  V I T R O .  O X I D A T I V E  A T T R I B U T E D  GSH  THE  F O R  H E M O L Y S I S  I N C U B A T E D  A G A I N S T  R E D U C E D  P R E S E N T E D  D E F E C T  O F  IN  A  G L U T A T H I O N E  BUT  R A T H E R  S U G G E S T E D  IN  IN  T H E  T H A T  T H E  S E L E N I U M - D E F I C  D E A C T I V A T E D .  T H I O N E  I  N  T  1969).  H  IS  E  C  T H E  E  L  L  S  P R I M A R Y  (COHEN  L I T T L E  O F  _E_T  T H E  S E L E N I U M  T H E  BE  AN  T H A N  B O U N D  _ET  (1973)  _AL .  MAY  B E I N G  I N T E G R A L  L O O S E L Y  _A_L.,  I N  B E  L O W E R  O X I D A T I V E L Y  P A R T  O F  C O F A C T O R  T H E  O F  A C I D S  G L U T A -  OF  LOW  D I S E A S E S .  S I N C E  V I T A M I N  F O R M A T I O N ,  T H E  WOULD  L O W E R I N G  T H E  P R O D U C T S  IN  S U S C E P T I B L E  E  I N V O L V E D  P R O D U C E  A  T H E  T I S S U E ' S .  N O N - M E M B R A N E  D A M A G E  T H E  P R E V E N T S  F A T T Y  O F  A M I N O  P E R O X I D E  P R O T E I N S  BY  F R O M  E X P L A I N S  T H A T  T H E  S A M E  R O L E  H E M O G L O B I N ,  A N D  E,  ON  L I T T L E ,  M E M B R A N E S  NEW  AND  O C C U R  I N S I G H T S  S U L F U R  N U T R I T I O N A L  A C I D  A C I D S  OR  A C T  I M P O R T A N T  O F F E R  OF  A L . ,  AND  AN  TO  B I O C H E M I C A L  P R O T E C T I O N  TO  H Y D R O P E R O X I D E  ( P R E C U R S O R S  D E S T R U C T I O N ,  P E R O X I D E  E T  C O N D I T I O N S  V I T A M I N  L E V E L S  D E S T R U C T I O N  O B S E R V A T I O N S  S I M I L A R  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  C E L L  P R E V E N T I N G  IN  SHOWN  P L A Y S  P E R O X I D E  S E L E N I U M ,  LOW  ( O ' B R I E N  D E G E N E R A T I V E  S U L F U R - C O N T A I N I N G  A R E  T H U S ,  O F  G L U T A T H I O N E  KQSQWER  B E E N  A C I D S  O X I D A T I V E  OF  IN  1963;  E N Z Y M E  AND  T H E S E  A M I N O  S E L E N I U M  T H I S  O F  D E G R A D I N G  HAS  F A T T Y  F A I L U R E  D E F I C I E N C Y .  R O L E  F O R  A L S O  L I P I D S ,  V A R I E T Y  I N T E R A C T I O N S  T H E  H O C H S T E I N ,  1970).  V I T R O ,  W I D E  T H A T  U N S A T U R A T E D  C O N T A I N I N G  N U T R I E N T S  A  P E R O X I D A S E  D I S T R U C T I O N .  H E M O L YS IS  P O S S I B L Y  AND  TO  R O T R U C K  P E R O X I D A S E  R A T H E R  M E C H A N I S M  AND  P R O T E C T I N G M M E M B R A N E  I N T O  T H A N  S U G G E S T E D  G L U T A T H I O N E  O X I D A T I V E  IN  G L U T A T I O N E  A P P E A R S  R A T H E R  B E E N  H Y D R O P E R O X I D E S  THE  O F  G L U T A T I O N E .  H E M O L Y Z A T E S  S E L E N I U M  HAS  P E R O X I D A S E  1 969;  I E N T  O F  W E I G H T .  | T  t^Cv,  A C T I V I T Y  P E R O X I D A S E  M O L E C U L A R  IN  U T I L I Z A T I O N  T H E N  R E S U L T ;  P E R 0 X  I D E -  I  OF  GSH)  T H E S E  T H A T  IS  N D U C E D  A G A I N S T  O X I D A T I V E  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M  D A M A G E  B U T  NOT  TO  B Y  VITAMIN SELENIUM OR  E,  MIGHT EXPLAIN WHY  BUT  NOT  SUBCELLULAR  OXIDANT DAMAGE PEROXIDASE  TO VITAMIN  SELENIUM  E.  COMPONENTS MAY BECAUSE  AND  TO  ON NOT  THEY ARE  EVEN WITH ADEQUATE  WOULD BE EXPECTED FATTY ACIDS  SOME  NUTRITIONAL THE  INHERENTLY  SELENIUM.  BE AGGRAVATED  ET _AJL . ,  1973).  TO  HAND, CERTAIN TISSUES  BE ADEQUATELY LOW  PROTECTED IN  DAMAGE  BY DIETS HIGH  TO RESPOND ADEQUATELY  (ROTRUCK  OTHER  DISEASES RESPOND  TO VITAMIN  FROM  GLUTATHIONE  TO SUCH TISSUES IN UNSATURATED E BUT  NOT  EXPERIMENT 1  THE  E F F E C T  I N C I D E N C E  INTROD  S M A L L  A M O U N T S  I N T E R R E L A T I O N S H I P S  I M E N T A T I O N  W I T H  WAS  F O R M U L A T E D  T H E  S E L E N I U M  H I G H  A F T E R  O F  R E S P E C T S .  E X U D A T I V E  D I A T H E S I S  D U E  E.D.  A T  A N D  (20  TO  A  LOW  P R E C I S E L Y  V I T A M I N  T H E  E,  ON  T H E  A F T E R  B A S A L  IN  T H E  F E E D I N G  WAS  R A T I O N  T H E  O F  T H E  AND  BY  A  T H A T  D I A T H E S I S  TO  T H E  TO  IN  33  T H E  IN  T H E  OF  WAS  E A C H  L E V E L S  B I O L O G I C A L  OF  G R A I N  O F  A S S A Y  B I R D S .  MORE  S E L E N I U M ,  T H E S E  S Y N D R O M E  IN  I N C I D E N C E  T E S T  O F  A  T H A T  H I G H E R  T H E  I N F L U E N C E  I N T E R A C T I O N S  B I R D S .  P R O D U C E D  C O N T A I N E D  O F  D I E T  A D E Q U A T E  C H A R A C T E R I Z E  D E F I C I E N C Y  E X P E R -  G R A I N S  S E L E N I T E .  S E N S I T I V I T Y  T H E  S E L E N I U M  A P P E A R E D  IN  A N D  D E F I C I E N T  W H I C H  C O M P A R I N G  D I E T  C H I C K  D I A T H E S I S )  S E L E N I U M  D E S I G N E D  A S  T R I A L S  B U T  S O D I U M  E X U D A T I V E  A N T I O X I D A N T ,  O F  T H E  O B T A I N E D  L E V E L S  E X P E R I M E N T  T H E  O F  T H E  C O M P L I C A T E  ( E X U D A T I V E  T E S T E D ,  BY  S E L E N I U M  A  P R E L I M I N A R Y  B I R D S  WAS  O F  N U T R I E N T S  S Y N D R O M E  R E D U C E D  40$)  L E V E L  I N C I D E N C E  D I A T H E S I S )  B I R D  R E Q U I R E D  M E T A B O L I S M .  E S T I M A T E  D I F F E R E N T  T H I S  T H E  A N T I O X I D A N T  C H I C K S .  IN  S O M E  S E V E R A L  T H E  AN  TO  G R A I N  A N D  E  S E L E N I U M  A M O N G  D E F I C I E N C Y  A V A I L A B L E  T O  O F  S E L E N I U M  P E R C E N T A G E  O T H E R  V I T A M I N D I A T H E S I S  E X U D A T I V E  U C T I O N  THE  T H E  S E L E N I U M ,  O F OF  F A C T O R S  ( E X U D A T I V E  ON  M A T E R I A L S  AND  M E T H O D S  C O M M E R C I A L  B A S A L  D I E T  F R O M  S E L E N I U M .  A N D  F O L L O W I N G  AND  T H E  P R O T E I N  OF  S O U R C E  T H E  6 5 ° C  D E S T R O Y  L A R D  A N Y  F R O M  HOURS  NOT  B E F O R E  0.050,  TO  B A S A L  (0,  +  2.5  E T H O X Y Q U I N )  OF  TO  A G E )  WERE  D E P L E T E  E X P E R I M E N T  H E A T E D  B A T T E R Y  B I R D S  480  T H E  O F  ( D E P L E T I O N  B R O O D E R S .  WERE  B I R D S / P E N ) .  (10  F E D  T I S S U E S  E N T I R E  P E R I O D ,  T H E  I N T O  W E I G H E D  W E E K L Y  IN  A  T H E  A I R  E  ITS  A F T E R  IN  W E I G H T S  ( C A N A D A  A D D E D .  T H E  A  AS  T H R O U G H  R A N C I D I T Y  AS  L T D . ,  IT  AS  M E A S U R E D  F O U R  L E V E L S  L A R D  H E A T E D  O R D E R  B Y  T A K E  THE  T R E A T M E N T  THE  L O W E R  V A N C O U V E R )  WAS  IN  TO  TO  P R E S E N T .  L A R D  THE  AS  T O R U L A  S O U R C E  W E L L  P A C K E R S  L E V E L  W E L L  F R A C T I O N .  U S E D  L A R D .  LOW  AS  P R O T E I N  THE  I I ) .  A  S E L E N I U M  A N T A G O N I S M  B U B B L E D  IN  AS  P R O T E I N  B E E N  T H E  TO  TO  OF  T H E  P E R O X I D E  T R E A T M E N T .  IN  I N C L U D E D  T H E  ( C O N T A I N I N G  AND  D I E T  ( T A B L E  C O N T A I N E D  A N T A G O N I S T I C  S U P P L I E R  W H I L E  LOW  S E L E N I U M  HAD  T Y P E  P R O T E I N )  V E R Y  S O Y B E A N  O.IOOPPM)  I U / K G ) ;  IS  S E L E N I U M  T R E A T M E N T S  D I E T  S E M I - P U R I F I E D  S O Y B E A N  V I T A M I N  AND  0.025,  A  Y E A S T  I N C R E A S E  D I E T A R Y  T H E  WAS  A N T I O X I D A N T  24  D A Y  A G E  T H E  P E N S  48  P O S S I B L E  R E S I D U A L  DID  V A L U E  D I E T  I S O L A T E D  OF  A N Y  F O R  TO  P O S S I B L E  O B T A I N E D  B E F O R E  F O R  D E P L E T I O N  ( I S O L A T E D  OF  A D V A N T A G E  OF  E L E C T R I C A L L Y  I N C O R P O R A T E D  A M O U N T  WAS  D A Y  T O R U L A  A  WAS  D A Y S  H O U S E D  IN  ( O N E  T H E R E A F T E R .  B A S A L  P O S S E S S I N G  C H I C K S  T E N  A L L O T T E D  S E L E N I U M .  Y E A S T  WERE  T E N  O B T A I N E D  THE  T O  P H A S E )  R A N D O M L Y  W E R E  O N E  B I R D S  R E P L E T I O N  B R O I L E R  TWO  F A C T O R I A L  FORM  OF  O.OIPPM);  L E V E L S  OF  S O D I U M  TWO  OF  S E L E N I T E  L E V E L S  A N T I O X I D A N T  A R R A N G E M E N T  OF  S E L E N I U M  (0  OF  AND  T R E A T M E N T S .  (0,  S U P P L E M E N T E D  V I T A M I N  1 0 0 P P M  E A C H  E  35  TABLE  I I.--COMPOSiTiON  OF  B A S A L  D I E T .  I N G R E D I E N T  I S O L A T E D  S O Y B E A N  P E R C E N T  11.8  P R O T E I N  1 S  49. €  U C R O S E  T O R U L A  20.0  Y E A S T  5.0  LARD  7.0  C E L L U L O S E 2  V I TAM  I N  P R E M I  1 .3  X 2  M I N E R A L  G R A I N  P R E M  S A M P L E S  E X P E R I M E N T A L 10$  OF  S C O T T 0.1$  T H E  T E S T E D D I E T S  JLT _AL .  ON  AS  WERE A  S U P P L I E D  IN  R E P L A C E M E N T  T H E F O R  S U C R O S E .  ,  (1969)  M E T H I O N I N E  M I N E R A L SHOWN  5.6  I X  V I T A M I N  W I T H O U T  P R E M I X  (B)  P A G E  497.  P R E M I X  V I T A M I N  W I T H O U T  E  P L U S AND  S E L E N I U M  E X P E R I M E N T A L  D I E T A R Y  D I E T  WAS  T R E A T M E N T S  D E P L E T I O N  F E D  WERE  T O  F E D  T H R E E  F O R  T H E  T W I C E  W E E K L Y .  B L O O D  A F T E R  B I R D S  WERE  T H E  T H E  D A Y S  O F  BY  F O R  T H E  (No.  A N A L Y S I S  P R O C E D U R E  B O V I N E  WAS  U S E D  A S  M A T E R  R E S U L T S  F O R  B I R D S  E A C H .  THE  10-DAY  T H E  A N D  T R E A T M E N T S  A  IN  B Y  U S I N G  1.1  O F  A T  (1968)  W A S  M E A S U R E D  A T O M I C  W I T H  A  S T A N D A R D  ±  ( U . S .  O F F I C E  A P P E N D I X  A N A L Y S I S  WAS  T H E  C O N T A I N  A  S T O R E D  _ET _ A L .  R E F E R E N C E  D . C ) .  D A Y S  WERE  C O M B I N A T I O N  C O N T R O L  P U N C T U R E  O U T .  U S I N G  IN  WAS  H E A R T  12  S E L E N I U M  S T A N D A R D S ,  N G T O N ,  B Y  F O R  S A M P L E S  L I V E R  T O  D E T E R M I N E D  O . I P P M  D E P A R T M E N T  O F  O F  S T A N D A R D  F U R T H E R  D E S C R I P T I O N  I.  V A R I A N C E  A N D  O R T H O G O N A L  V A R I A T I O N  C O N T R A S T S  1967).  C O C H R A N ,  D I S C U S S I O N  I N F L U E N C E  A N D  T H E  B R O I L E R  A P P E N D i x  O F  D I E T  H O F F M A N  ASH  A N A L Y T I C A L  T E S T E D  UW-A'S:  B Y  D I A T H E S I S  T A K E N  C A R R I E D  (jA-500)  C E R T I F I E D  .WASHI  WERE  A N A L Y S I S .  (JA-TMA).  T H E  WAS  J A R R E L  P R E S E N T E D  WERE  A N D  THE  IN  IS  T R E A T M E N T S  D E P L E T E D  10  E X U D A T I V E  B L O O D  O U T L I N E D  B Y  B U R E A U  I A L S ,  A N A L Y S I S  R E S U L T S  S A M P L E S  L I V E R )  R E F E R E N C E  ( S N E D E C O R  M E T H O D  A C C E S S O R Y  N A T I O N A L  A M O N G  S E L E N I U M  O U T L I N E D  C O M M E R C E ,  T H E  F O R  O F  E X P E R I M E N T A L  S P E C T R O P H O T O M E T E R  M E T A L  S E L E N I U M  OF  F O L L O W I N G  S A M P L E S  H E P A R I N I Z E D  THE  P R E P A R I N G  1577  F E D  D I G E S T I O N  A B S O R P T I O N  T R A C E  A G E ) .  U N T I L  THE U S E D  D A Y S  P R E S E N C E  P E R F O R M E D  -20°C  O F  P E R I O D .  E X A M I N A T I O N  (22  21  F O R  P E N S  I  I).  O F  D I E T A R Y  I N C I D E N C E  C H I C K S  A R E  O F  S E L E N I U M ,  V I T A M I N  E X U D A T I V E  D I A T H E S I S  SHOWN  IN  F I G U R E  1  E,  A N D  IN  A N T I O X I D A N T  S E L E N I U M  ( S T A T I S T I C A L  A N A L Y S I S  37  100+  \  +  \  \  «  80~ \ ^ X  \  4  \  »  £ <  \  V  W  \  60+  Q D X  £  V I T .  0 0  \  0  A N T I O X I D A N T  0  V I T .  E,  +  A N T I OX  I D A N T  +  V I T .  E,  0  A N T I O X  I D A N T  E,  +  A  A  \  E,  O  •  +  V I T .  O  A N T I O X I D A N T  D  \  V  \ \ X \  404  v.  o  \ '.X  20+  1" - ~  ,050  .025  P P M  F I G U R E  1  .-- I N C I D E N C E C H I C K S  D U E  O F T O  E X U D A T I V E D I E T A R Y  .075  100  SE  D I A T H E S I S  A M O N G  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N .  G R O W I N G  S E L E N I U M  (P  •"=  .05)  C H I C K S  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  D E C R E A S E D  IN  E F F E C T S  A  T H E  B E I N G  B E T W E E N  OF  D I A T H E S I S  E X U D A T I V E  B I O A S S A Y  O F  D E C R E A S E D  T H E  A G R E E M E N T  W I T H  T H O M P S O N  A N D  I N T E R A C T I O N  X  A  V I T A M I N  OF  E  V I T A M I N  T H E  A L S O  H O W E V E R ,  B E T W E E N  O F  B I R D S  F E D  A  I A  WOULD  AS  W E L L  T O  D I E T S  C U R V E S  F O R  A N T I O X I D A N T  IN  T H E  T H E  T O  O T H E R  WAS  A N D  T E S T  O F  AND  B I O A S S A Y  NO  E,  M A T E R I A L  (P  W H I C H  <  F O R  A  A L S O  B U T  .05)  IS  WAS  NO  IN  S I G N I F I C A N T  T H E  A N T I O X I D A N T  A N T I O X I D A N T  E  WAS  O F  WOULD  N O T  S T A N D A R D  F E E D S T U F F S  B A S A L  (P  >  S I G N I F I C A N T  A P P E A R E D  S E L E N I U M  S H O U L D  R A T I O N  F O R  A  C O N T A I N  B I O A S S A Y  E.  V I T A M I N  .05)  A D D I T I O N  B E  T H E  ( E N C E P H A L O M A L A C IA )  P A R T I C U L A R L Y  T H E  S L N C E  A N T I O X I D A N T  C O N D I T I O N  T H E  OR  S U G G E S T I V E  D I A T H E S I S .  T H E  S I G N I F I C A N T  V I T A M I N  S U I T A B L E  C O O R D I N A T I O N  T H E  F A C T O R S  I N C I D E N C E  1961;  V I T A M I N  P R O D U C E  T O  T H E  .05).  P A R A L L E L .  F E E D S T U F F S  C O N T R I B U T E  >  D E F I C I E N C Y  U S E D  A D D I N G  T H E R E  B E  AND  T H E  S C O T T ,  S E L E N I U M  E X U D A T I V E  A N T I O X I D A N T  T E N D  AND  T H E R E  L A C K  AS  IN  C O N S I D E R E D  C O N T A I N I N G  P E C U L I A R  C O N F O U N D I N G  T H A T  E  D I E T S  R A N G E  D I A T H E S I S  H O W E V E R ,  (P  N O T  T H E  Q U A D R A T I C  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  ( N E S H E I M  S I G N I F I C A N T  S I N C E  V I T A M I N  B O T H  WAS  A N T I O X I D A N T .  W O U L D  1969).  A N D  A M O N G  F E E D S ' .  E X U D A T I V E  L I T E R A T U R E  B E T W E E N  S U P P L E M E N T A L  N A T U R A L  A N D  T H E  S U G G E S T I N G  WAS  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  D I A T H E S I S  L I N E A R  L I N E A R  B I R D S  A N T I O X I D A N T  C U R V E S  R E M O V E  T H E  T H E  A N T I O X I D A N T  OF  D I E T  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  T H E  IN  B A S A L  E X U D A T I V E  W I T H  B E T W E E N  E N C E P H A L O M A L A C  T H E S E  IN  I N C I D E N C E  E X H I B I T E D  I N T E R A C T I O N  TO  A N D  S C O T T ,  F E W  E  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  E  V I T A M I N  M A N N E R  T H E  O F  S I G N I F I C A N T .  R E L A T I O N S H I P  T H E  I N C I D E N C E  C U R V I L I N E A R  B O T H  OF  I N T E R A C T I O N  O F  C O N S T A N T  A  S M A L L  F O R  A L L  A M O U N T  S A M P L E S  T E S T E D  F I N A L  A R E  SHOWN  R E L A T I V E  T H E  B L O O D  B O D Y  IN  T O  A N D  T A B L E  T H E  O N .  P R O P O R T I O N A L  W E I G H T S ,  I I I .  D E T E C T I O N  S E L E N I U M  S U P P L E M E N T A T I  A L S O  L E V E L S  M O R T A L I T Y ,  T H E  B L O O D  A T  A L L  A N D  L E V E L S  L E V E L S  B L O O D  O F  L I M I T S  O F  T H E  A P P E A R  T O  R E F L E C T  O F  L E V E L  S E L E N I U M  A N A L Y S I S  (0.01  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M .  O F  A R E  S E L E N I U M  LOW  U G / M L ) .  S E L E N I U M  TABLE  I I I . - - E F F E C T  O F  D I A T H E S I S  S E L E N I U M ,  V I T A M I N  A N D  S E L E N I U M  B L O O D  SE L E V E L  A N T I -  1  ( P P M ]  OOO 000 000 000  1  ^  +  9  .050 .050 .050 .050  +  + +  -  _  _  -  +  +  -  + +  +  _  .100 .100 .100 .100  -  +  -  + +  E  I N D I C A T E D  S U P P L 1  N U M B E R  E D  O F  +  A T  2.5  D E A T H S  1 .  U . / K G  P E R  B O D Y  W E I G H T ,  M O R T A L I T Y ,  E X U D A T I V E  SE  E X U D A T 1 V E  2  D I A T H E S I S  M O R T A L I T Y  {%)  L E V E L  BLOOD ( U G / M L  111.3 244.3 214.1 303.5  28 25 1 8 19  100 100 86 85  .02 .02 .02 .02  267.0 417.2 361 .7 434.4  10 11 10 04  93 49 53 33  .03 .02 .03 .03  41 8.4 423.5 420.1 457.1  1 2 2 5  36 21 18 0  .04 .04 .04 .04  453.5 419.6 468.9 432.5  1 2 5 1  7 5 12 4  .07 .05 .05 .08  A N D S A N T O Q U 1 N  T . R E A T M E N T  ON  C H I C K S .  WT.  (<0  -  -  A N T I O X I D A N T  G R O W I N G  BODY  +  + +  A N D IN  O X I D A N T  -  .025 .025 .025 .025  V 1 T A M 1 N  E  V I T .  E  ( E T H O X Y Q U I N )  C O N T A I N I N G  30  B I R D S  S U P P L I E D  E A C H .  A T  100PPM.  )  EXPERIMENT  THE  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  I N T R O D U C T I  O F  S E L E N I U M  HAS  B E E N  P O U L T R Y ,  AND  R E Q U I R E D  S E L E N I U M  AND  V I T A M I N  ( T H O M P S O N  A N D  S C O T T ,  OF  S E L E N I  O C C U R R E N C E  M O S T  S T A T E S  ( J E N K I N S  A R I S E N  IN  H A V E  C H I C K .  W I T H  4  T O  H A V E  P E R C E N T  169  A N D  ON  ON  T H E  S E L E N I U M  I M P O R T A N C E  IN  AS  IN  P O U L T R Y  P R O D U C T I O N  T H A T  V A R I O U S  L I V E R  B R E W E R S  T H E  H A V E  F O R  L I V E S T O C K  T H E  U N I T E D  P R O B L E M S  H A V E  ( M C C A U S L A N D ,  N E C R O S I S  HAS  S Y N T H E T I C  V A L U E  IN  S E L E N I U M  Y E A S T  TO  W I D E S P R E A D  D I S O R D E R S  W E L L  S Y S T E M S  S O U R C E S  IN  R A T S  T H R E E - F O L D  O R G A N I C  C O M P O U N D S  P O T E N C I E S  S O D I U M  T H E  T H A T  S E L E N I T E  1969).  F R E D G A ,  I N F O R M A T I O N  B E E N  F O R  T H O U G H  B I O L O G I C A L  H A V E  AS  R E P O R T E D  O F  IN  E L E M E N T  E V E N  S E L E N I U M  V A R I O U S  B E E N  E,  1972).  F R O M  S E L E N I T E ) .  R A N G E  I N F O R M A T I O N  C A N A D A ,  H I D I R O G L O U ,  I S O L A T E D  S E L E N I U M  F E E D S T U F F S ,  O F  P R E V E N T I N G  C O N T A I N I N G  E S S E N T I A L  R E S P O N S I V E  E  F O R  S O D I U M  AND  A R E A S  I N  P O T E N C I E S  O F  G R E A T  T H E  V I T A M I N  T H E R E  SHOWN  P O T E N C Y  AN  O F  HAS  3 - S E L E N 1 U M  F R O M  I T A M  C O L U M B I A  ( F A C T O R  ( S C H W A R Z  F O R  S Y N E R G I S T 1 C A L L Y  1969, 1970). U M / V  AS  (1961)  S C H W A R Z  V A R Y I N G  A C T  E  AND  B R I T I S H  E S T A B L I S H E D  I N D E P E N D E N T L Y  A G R I C U L T U R A L  1971).  G R A I N S  ON  S E L E N I U M  IN  F R O M  2  F E E D  S E L E N I U M  A M O U N T  O F  S E L E N I U M  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  ( B I O L O G I C A L  F O R M U L A T I O N .  C O N T E N T  IN  41  S U P P L I E D  F E E D  O N L Y  A  V A R I O U S  A C T I V I T Y )  L I M I T E D  I N G R E D I E N T S  B Y  A M O U N T  IS  IS  O F  O F  A V A I L A B L E  1971;  ( A R T H U R ,  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  O F  I N G R E D I E N T S  T H A T  T H E  S C O T T  50$  O F  T H E  A N D  S C O T T  F E E D  B I O L O G I C A L  IN  F E E D  (1969)  _ E T _ A L .  I N G R E D I E N T S  IS  S U G G E S T E D  U T I L I Z E D  BY  F E E D  WAS  T H E  (AS  B I R D S  S O D I U M  E X U D A T I V E  P E R C E N T  A C T I V I T Y  T H E N  D E T E R M I N E D  A M O N G  S E L E N I U M  A G A I N S T  M E T H O D S  E F F E C T I V E N E S S  D I A T H E S I S  O F  E X P R E S S E D  AS  A  P E R C E N T  S E L E N I U M  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  ( T A B L E  O F  THE  B A S A L  II)  W I T H  D I E T  S E L E N I U M .  H U N D R E D  B I R D S  F O L L O W I N G  T H A T  D I E T  T H E  B I R D S  WAS  T H E  W E R E  OF  C H I C K S  F I R S T  H O U S E D  IN  T E N  F O R  D E P L E T I O N  WAS  A D J U S T E D  I N D I C A T E  T O T A L  S E L E N I U M  P E R C E N T  S E L E N I U M  P R O V I D E S  T H E  A C T I V I T Y  R E P R E S E N T S  T H E  AN  P R O T E C T I O N  S E L E N I U M  ( P P M )  O F  F O R  T H E  WAS  G R A I N  A C T I V I T Y .  E F F E C T I V E N E S S  E S T I M A T E  O F  T H E  F E E D S T U F F .  AS  T H A T  100PPM  ( O N E  D A Y S  T H E  E L E C T R I C A L L Y  R A N D O M L Y  S A M E  T H E  AND  E X U D A T I V E  T H E  S E L E N I U M  S A M E  O F  V A L U E  IN  S U P P L E M E N T A L  T H E  T H E  T H E  O F  P R O V I D E  TO  S U P P L I E D  O F  L E V E L  R A T I O N  A C T I V I T Y ,  T H E  A D D I T I O N  P H A S E )  T H E  IN  T H E  WOULD  T H E  F E E D S T U F F  B R O I L E R  W E R E  IN  TO  S E L E N I U M  I N C I D E N C E  S E L E N I U M  THE  Y I E L D I N G  S E L E N I U M  D U R I N G  R E P L E T I O N  T H A T  T H E  T H E  F E E D  P E R C E N T A G E  S E L E N I U M  IN  C O M M E R C I A L  B A S A L  T E S T  F E E D S T U F F .  A N A L Y S I S  OF  E Q U A T I N G  F E E D S T U F F  T H E  T H E  T H E  F E D  OF  B Y  V A L U E ,  BY  A C T I V I T Y  S E L E N I T E )  T H E  ( P P M )  OR  D I A T H E S I S .  D E T E R M I N E D  P E N  F R O M  T H E  A V A I L A B I L I T Y )  SE  U N K N O W N .  S E L E N I U M  H O W E V E R ,  C H I C K .  THE  AND  A C T I V I T Y ,  (SE  R E M A I N E D  T H E  1971).  T H O M P S O N ,  S E L E N I U M  R E P O R T E D  A B O U T  M A T E R I A L S  OF  AND  A L L O T T E D  P E R I O D .  O F  D A Y  TO  U S E D  IN  E X P E R I M E N T  A N T I O X I D A N T  ( E T H O X Y Q U I N ) .  O F  F E D  A G E )  D E P L E T E  W E R E  T I S S U E S  E N T I R E  E X P E R I M E N T  H E A T E D  B A T T E R Y  TO  60  1  P E N S  W I T H  T H E  OF  ( D E P L E T I O N  B R O O D E R S .  10  B I R D S  S L X  P E R  F I F T E E N  (0.01,  S E L E N I U M  (9  W H E A T  E A C H  THE  AND  T E S T  E A C H  R E S P O N S E  F E D  AND  P P M / . 1 0  F O L L O W S :  S E L E N I U M  IN  D I E T A R Y  A N A L Y Z E D  (SE  F O U R  TO  10  S E L E N I U M  ( S E  10$  G R A I N  A  IN  OF  G R A I N ) .  T H E  C O N T E N T  (SE  =  WAS  G R A I N  S A M P L E S  RANDOM  TO  M E A L  OF  R E C O R D E D  TO  BY  T H E  WAS  C O M P A R I N G  R E S P O N S E  AS  F R O M  A C T I V I T Y  C A L C U L A T E D  ( P P M ) / S E  A  C A L C U L A T E D  S E L E N I U M  WAS  AT  D E V E L O P  E Q U I V A L E N T  G R A I N  A C T I V I T Y  D I E T .  D E S I G N .  D E T E R M I N E D  E A C H  T H E  D I E T A R Y  B A S A L  U S E D  S E L E N I T E  IN  T H E  OF  A G E .  T R E A T M E N T S  R A T I O  10  (E.D.)  WAS  IN  PPM  ° /  P E N S  ( S E L E N I T E )  A C T I V I T Y  A C T I V I T Y  IN  D A Y S  L E V E L S  AND  D I A T H E S I S  E Q U I V A L E N T  S E L E N I U M  F I V E  P P M ) ,  E Q U I V A L E N T  T H E  OF  S U C R O S E  31  E X U D A T I V E  S E L E N I T E  A C T I V I T Y  TO  F R O M  OF  E.D.  OF  S O D I U M  T H E  R E P L A C E D  D I E T A R Y  C U R V E  S E L E N I U M  TO  O F  I N C I D E N C E  C U R V E  WERE  C O M P O S E D  0.06, 0.08  A L L O T T E D  I N C I D E N C E  L E V E L  C U R V E .  WAS  D I E T S  WERE  0.02, 0.04, B A R L E Y )  1  T R E A T M E N T  THE  THE  T R E A T M E N T S  C O N T E N T  ( P P M )  AS  PPM)  X  100). E X A M I N A T I O N  P E R F O R M E D  T W I C E  P U N C T U R E  W E E K S  A F T E R  S T O R E D  A T  O F  -20°C  R E S U L T S  A M O N G  R E S U L T S  AND  A G E ) .  W E R E  WAS  T O R R I E ,  AND  SHOWN  P R E S E N C E  B L O O D  B I R D S  U N T I L  T R E A T M E N T S  ( S T E E L  T H E  W E E K L Y .  T H E  D A Y S  (31  F O R  WERE  S A M P L E S  F E D  E X U D A T I V E  WERE  A N A L Y Z E D  B Y  F O R  BY  B L O O D  BY  D I E T S  WAS  H E A R T  F O R  S A M P L E S  T H R E E  WERE  S E L E N I U M .  A N A L Y S I S  D E T E R M I N E D  D I A T H E S I S  T A K E N  E X P E R I M E N T A L  H E P A R I N I Z E D  THE  T E S T E D  OF  O F  V A R I A N C E ,  D U N C A N ' S  M U L T I P L E  AND  V A R I A T I O N  R A N G E  T E S T  1960).  D I S C U S S I O N  IN  F I G U R E  2  A R E  T H E  R E S U L T S  OF  T H E  I N C I D E N C E  OF  E.D.  1  WPG  2  D A W S O N  ( P I T I C )  3  WPG  ( N E E P A W A )  4  WPG  ( M A N I T O U )  C R E E K  B A R L E Y  5 6  F T .  S T .  J O H N  7  F T .  S T .  J O H N  8  P O U C E  C O U P E  9  P O U C E  C O U P E  I 2 2 1  P R A I R I E  10  x  1  1  010  1  1  .030 P P M  - - I N C I D E N C E  O F  C H I C K  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M IN  F E D  1  1  1  .070  SE  E X U D A T I V E  G R O W I N G  E Q U I V A L E N T  1  .050  D I A T H E S I S  D I F F E R E N T A N D  W H E A T .  T H E  IN  L E V E L S  S O D I U M  T H E O F  S E L E N I T E  A M O N G  T H E  BLOOD  L E V E L S  OF  B I R D S  D I E T S  IS  T H E  T A B L E  G R A I N  F R O M  H I G H  H A V E  P R E S E N T  IN  T H E  IS  IN  F O R  S O D I U M  W H E A T  S E L E N I T E  T H E  D I E T S  THE  #2,  T H E  L I M I T  B L O O D .  S H O W E D  O F  T H E R E F O R E ,  NO  THE  S I G N I F I C A N T  I N C I D E N C E  T H E  T O  T H A N  T O T A L  S T .  WAS  G R A I N S  T H E I R  L E V E L  S E L E N I U M  #1  J O H N  A N D  ( P I T I C )  P O S S E S S  P R A I R I E  A  O F  V A L U E S  P O U C E  T H E  P O U C E  A C T I V I T Y  C O U P E  T O  O B T A I N E D  F O R  S E L E N I U M  T H E  O F  T H A N  #1 69  A N D  IV).  T H E  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  A N D  POTTENCY  ( T A B L E  F E D  ( M A N I T O U )  P R E S E N C E  F E D  C H I C K S  C O U P E  178$  WERE  C H I C K S  IS  IN  A M O U N T  S E L E N I U M  E Q U I V A L E N T  S E L E N I U M  S A M P L E  T H E  H I G H E R  A N D  V A L U E S  B L O O D  S E L E N I U M  S U G G E S T  F O R  W I N N I P E G  W I N N I P E G  T O T A L  S E L E N I U M  A N D  IN  E X C E P T  F O R  T H E  T H A T  T H E  B A R L E Y  A C T I V I T I E S  C R E E K  C O N T E N T  G R A I N  C O N T E N T .  O R D E R  B Y  T H E  L I S T E D  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y .  M A Y  F E D  A R E  I N D I C A T E D  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  IN  B L O O D  S E L E N I U M  D A W S O N  T H E  O F  T H E  T H E  O F  B L O O D  W H I C H  IN  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  B I R D S  S E L E N I U M  1961).  R E F L E C T S  IN  S A M E  ( S C H W A R Z ,  L E V E L  O F  T H E  C O M P O U N D S  D E T E C T I O N  F R O M  A C T I V I T Y  R E S P E C T I V E L Y  G E N E R A L L Y  2  D I A T H E S I S  S E L E N I U M  T H I S  R E S P O N S E  T O  1.  ( N E E P A W A )  S E L E N I U M  T H E  IN  F O R T  W I T H  HAD  T O  G R A I N S  T H E  C O N T A I N I N G  P E R C E N T  T H E  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N .  P R O P O R T I O N A L L Y  A C C O R D I N G  G R A I N .  W I N N I P E G  S A M P L E S  LOW  A C T I V I T Y  J O H N  S E L E N I U M  C A L C U L A T E D .  C R E E K .  R E S P E C T I V E L Y .  S E L E N I U M  62  WERE  L E S S  A G R E E M E N T  V A L U E S  144$  S T .  F I G U R E  T O  O F  E X U D A T I V E  R A N K S  D A W S O N  T O  F O R T  IN  S A M P L E S  A P P E A R S  #2,  O F  SHOWN  A C T I V I T Y  S I M I L A R  E X P E R I M E N T  I N C I D E N C E  I V ' F R O M  W H E A T  IN  L E V E L S  I N C R E A S E D  IV),  ( T A B L E  A L S O  S E L E N I U M  V A R I O U S  S E L E N I U M  O B S E R V E D  THE  OF  O F  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L S  F E D  V A R I O U S  0.01  G R A I N  G R A I N  A C T I V I T Y .  U G / M L  S A M P L E S  V A R I A T I O N .  O F  E X U D A T I V E  D I A T H E S I S  90$,  45$  A N D  13$  IN  TABLE  I V . - - S E L E N I U M R E S P O N S E  C O N T E N T O F  O F  C H I C K S  F E E D F E D  E X U D A T I V E  B I O L O G I C A L  C O N T E N T  %  P P M  STD.  MIX+.08  S E  3*  0.08  STD.  MIx+,06  S E  3  0.07  STD.  MIX+,04  S E  13  0.05  P R A I R I E  14  0.58  g h  F" C H P O U C E  C O U P E  P O U C E  C O U P E  F T .  STD. F T .  S T .  J O H N  #1  20  #2 #2  32 36  MIX+.02 S T .  J O H N  45°  #1  50  ( M A N I T O U )  WPG.  ( N E E P A W A ) C R E E K  (PITIC)  STD.  MIX+,01  S T D .  M I X  V A L U E S  S E  C O N T A I N E D  W I T H  90  ,01PPM  D I F F E R E N T  0.03  E  0.20  58 63 65 69 76  B A R L E Y  D A W S O N  E F  S E  WPG.  WPG.  0.58  0.29 0.27  E F G  0.16 0.14 0.09 0.18 0.09  B C D  B C D  B C D  B C  a b  A C T I V I T Y  E X P E R I M E N T A L  S E  2  D I A T H E S I S D I E T S ^  G R A I N ,  A S S A Y . A N D  D I E T S .  O F  S E L E N I U M ( E X P E R I M E N T  S E  A C I S E : : . '  A C T I V I T Y  A'd^n  P P M  vfi T Y %  0.40 0.36 0.28 0.26  69 62 97 96  0.19 0.1 8 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.13  95 113 114 178 83 144  0.02  A  S E L E N I U M .  S U P E R S C R I P T S  A R E  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  D I F F E R E N T  (P  <=.05).  IN  G R A I N  A N D T H E  2)  BLOOD SE G / /M L UU G  0.08 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02  BODY W E I G H T G  359 388 373 456 442 41 8 419 328 414 399 382 397 378 370 304  B I R D S  F E D  D I E T S  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  S E L E N I U M  C O N T A I N I N G  °/  E.D.)  FED  T H E  0.01PPM  G R O U P  T H A N  D I E T A R Y  (P <  E.D.). F O R T  S H O W E D  F R O M  T H E  0 . 0 2 P P M  0 . 0 4 P P M  S E L E N I U M  THE  WERE  AND  R E F L E C T  G R O W N .  ( P I T I C )  A R E A  T H E  T H R E E  T H I S  R E F L E C T S  T H E  O F  ( 0 . 0 9 P P M )  TO  V A R I E T I E S  A  H I G H  O F  IN  D U E  O F  E X A M I N E D  AND  IN  < . 0 5 )  (45 °/  D I E T  ( M A N I T O U ) ,  P O U C E  B A R L E Y ,  T R E A T M E N T S  #2  E X U D A T I V E  C H I C K S  D I A T H E S I S  C O U P E  #1  C O M P A R A B L E  FORT  A R E  A L L  T O  0.58  S T .  T H E  #1  S A M E  0 . 1 4 P P M ,  E T C . )  W I N N I P E G  J O H N  TO  T H E  AND  #2,  IN  V A R I E T Y .  OF  T H E S E  W H I C H  ( N E E P A W A ) ,  T H E  G R A I N S  S A M P L E S  W I N N I P E G  G R A I N  S A M P L E S  GROWN  IN  S E L E N I U M  C O N T E N T  (0.14  TO  TO  T H E  S A M E  0 . 0 9 P P M )  V A R I E T Y .  O.IPPM  AND  #2,  ( L O C A T I O N ,  ( M A N I T O U ) ,  C O N D I T I O N S  AND  L E V E L ,  E N V I R O N M E N T  S E L E N I U M  W H E A T  #1  ( M A N I T O U )  S E L E N I U M  V A R I A T I O N  D E F I C I E N C Y  S A M P L E S  C O U P E  D I F F E R E N C E  D I E T A R Y  OF  IN  P R A I R I E  (P  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  C O U P E  IN  .05)  B I R D S  C R E E K  L O W E R  S T A N D A R D  P O U C E  F R O M  D I E T .  W I N N I P E G  W I N N I P E G  A R E  AND  P O U C E  >•  D I A T H E S I S  S T A N D A R D  D I F F E R E N C E S  WOULD  E X U D A T I V E  W H E A T S  C R E E K ,  D I E T .  (P  G R O U P  D A W S O N  WAS  WAS  D I E T A R Y  .05)  W I N N I P E G  AND  #2  D I F F E R E N C E  S T A N D A R D  S H O W E D  THE  J O H N  B U T  .02PPM  T H E  IN  (P  THE  E.D.)  S E L E N I U M  T R E A T M E N T  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  (NEEPAWA),  S T .  A D D E D  I N C R E A S E  (90$).  °/  F E D  W I N N I P E G  F O R T  #1,  (90  B I R D S  S I G N I F I C A N T  T R E A T M E N T S  D A W S O N  F E D  J O H N  NO  T H A N  WAS  E.D.)  E A C H  D I F F E R E N T  T R E A T M E N T  °/  P P M  0.04  ( P I T I C )  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  S E L E N I U M  .05)  C H I C K S  S T .  (69  W I T H  W I N N I P E G  S T A N D A R D  T R E A T M E N T  H I G H E R  NOT  0.02,  .05)  <  THE  I V ) .  WAS  (76  0.01  (P  L O W E R E D  ( T A B L E  0.01,  IS  A D E Q U A T E  R A N G E D  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  F R O M  R E C O M M E N D E D  F O R  G R O W T H  IN  A  M A R G I N A L  V E R Y  ( 0 . 5 8 P P M ) .  T H E  P O U L T R Y  R E S U L T S  P R E V E N T I O N  (NRC,  1971),  L E V E L  I N D I C A T E D  T H A T  T H E  S E L E N I U M  C H I C K .  T H E S E  T H E  T H I S  W O R K E R S  P R O T E I N  P R O V I D E D  A G R E E S  N O T E D  C O N C E N T R A T E S  C H I C K .  B Y  T H A T  W H E A T  W I T H  M A N Y  C O N T A I N  A N D  C A N T O R  B A R L E Y  A N D  S A M P L E S  S E L E N I U M  O F  IS  S C O T T  R E A D I L Y  ;(1  972  ).  F E E D S T U F F  T H A T  IS  P O O R L Y  U T I L I Z E D  B Y  H O W E V E R ,  I N C L U D I N G  U T I L I Z E D  B Y  3  EXPERIMENT  THE  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  FOR  T H E  I N T R O D U C T I  A N I M A L  _ E T _ A L .  G O O D  OF  S E L E N I U M  F R O M  R A P E S E E D  OF  R A P E S E E D  M E A L  AS  ON  THE  V A L U E  AND  P O U L T R Y  1972).  ;  S O U R C E  OF  F E E D  T H E S E  S E L E N I U M  WAS  ( A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  I.OOPPM  A S S U M P T I O N  T H A T  L I V E S T O C K .  I N D I C A T E S  T H A T  BY  F E E D  L I M I T E D  AND  A C T I V I T Y  T H E S E  OF  P R O C E S S O R S  M E A L  H O W E V E R ,  R E C E N T  D U E  A R E  WAS  WORK  T H E  M E A L  BY  IN  M A N Y  WAS  OF  S E L E N I U M  V A R I O U S  T H E  F O R  P O U L T R Y  (1972) P O O R L Y  IN  A N I M A L  B I O L O G I C A L  R A P E S E E D  D I F F E R E N T  R E P R E S E N T A T I V E  IS  T H E  TO  C A N T O R  F E E D S T U F F S ,  F R O M  AND  A V A I L A B L E  C O N C E N T R A T E S  A  O B S E R V E D  M E A L  AND  IS  T H I S  S E L E N I U M  S C O T T  F O R  M E A L  F E E D S .  R A P E S E E D  I M P O R T A N C E  C O L L E C T E D  C O N S I D E R E D  IN  OF  F O R  ( C L A N D I N I N  R A P E S E E D  P O U L T R Y  P R O T E I N  D E T E R M I N E D  WERE  T H A T  L E V E L  1971)  M A N Y  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  M E A L S  H I G H  S U P P L E M E N T  E S T A B L I S H E D  AND  R A P E S E E D  TO  P R O T E I N  A R E A S  C A N A D I A N  M E A L S .  AND  R A P E S E E D  .  M A T E R I A L S  THE  FOR  IN  S E L E N I U M  AND  T H E  A R T H U R ,  IN  W E L L  A N I M A L  ON  A  S U G G E S T E D  S E L E N I U M  P O U L T R Y .  R A P E S E E D  B E E N  F O R  B A S E D  S E L E N I U M  U T I L I Z E D  HAS  W O R K E R S  R E C O M M E N D A T I O N  AND  M E A L  C H I C K .  M I N O R  AND  M E T H O D S  B A S I C  C H A N G E S  P R O C E D U R E  U S E D  I N D I C A T E D .  IN  S L X  49  E X P E R I M E N T  H U N D R E D  AND  2  WAS  F O R T Y  F O L L O W E D  E X C E P T  C O M M E R I C A L  B R O I L E R  C H I C K S ,  ONE  D A Y  D A Y S  F E E D I N G  T H E  B A S A L  BY  P E R I O D ,  P E R  IN  F O U R  P E N S  O F  B A S A L  D I E T  0.06,  AND  11  W H I C H  E X U D A T I V E  OF  R E P L A C E M E N T  D A Y S  (7-28  E X U D A T I V E  O F  M E A L  WERE  A G E ) .  F E D  B I R D S  D I A T H E S I S .  C O M P A R I N G  T R E A T M E N T S  TO  T H E  A C T I V I T Y  S E L E N I T E  E Q U I V A L E N T  WAS  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M  (SE  A C T I V I T Y  %  THE  D I E T A R Y  IN  AND  T H E  T H E  F O R  T H E  W I T H  B I R D S  10  T R E A T M E N T  WAS  A D D E D  0.01,  0.02,  TO  T H E  0.04,  ( P R O T E C T I O N  T R E A T M E N T S  B A S A L  D E P L E T I O N  D I E T A R Y  C U R V E  S E V E N  D I E T  AS  I N C L U D E D  A  WERE  T H E  SE  A  T H R E E - W E E K  E X A M I N E D  OF  E  .  A C T I V I T Y  THE  C O N T E N T  A C T I V I T Y  T W I C E  E Q U I V A L E N T  I N C I D E N C E  IN  D  O F  . O F  E A C H  P P M  =  T H E  P P M / S E  O F  E  .  T H E  F O R  R A T I O  T R E A T M E N T  W E E K L Y  E A C H  .  D  IN  R E S P O N S E  M E A L  O F  M E A L  C O N T E N T  R A P E S E E D  T H E  THE  S O D I U M  E Q U I V A L E N T  S E L E N I U M  WAS  WAS  C U R V E .  F R O M  S E L E N I T E  F O R  M E A L  T H E  P E R I O D  F R O M  A C T I V I T Y  A L S O  TO  C A L C U L A T E D  P P M  X  F O R  E A C H  100).  D I S C U S S I O N  I N C I D E N C E  S E L E N I U M  F I G U R E  R E M A I N I N G  D U R I N G  RSM).  A N A L Y Z E D  AND  OF  T H E  C A L C U L A T E D  (SE  T H E  R E S U L T S  E A C H  L E V E L S  TO  P E N S  S E L E N I T E  R E S P O N S E  A D D E D  I N C I D E N C E  S E L E N I U M  =  ON  T H E  S E L E N I U M  BY  P P M / . 0 3  AT  S E L E N I U M  S U C R O S E .  D E T E R M I N E D  C U R V E  B A T T E R Y  64  P L A C E D  . 0 1 P P M  OF  F O L L O W I N G  I I ) .  S O D I U M  D I A T H E S I S ) .  3fo  D I E T S  WERE  E S T A B L I S H  R A P E S E E D  F O R  T E S T  TO  I N T O  D E S I G N .  C O N T A I N E D  0 . 0 8 P P M  S A M P L E S  B I R D S  D E P L E T E D  ( T A B L E  D I S T R I B U T E D  R A N D O M  WERE  D I E T  W E R E  C O M P L E T E L Y  A G A I N S T  A G E ,  C H I C K S  P E N .  A  O F  3.  B R O K E N  THE  O F  E X U D A T I V E  ( N A ^ S E O ^ )  S O L I D  L I N E  L E V E L  L I N E  I N D I C A T E S  D I A T H E S I S  S U P P L I E D  I N D I C A T E S  T H E  IN  T H E  P R O J E C T E D  B A S A L  R E S P O N S E  L E V E L  D I E T  IS  C U R V E  I N C I D E N C E  O F  O F  S H O W N  M E A S U R E D  E  .  D  .  TO  51  1  1004  \ —2  RSM  P  3  S P A N  71  4  RSM  N  5  RSM  D  6  MAN  72  7  RSM  E  8  RSM  A  5  RSM  L  10  S P A N  72  11  A L T A  72  9 60-  o  -10  72  2  »—1  80H  S A S K  11  40o 2  20-  H  1  1  I  1  20 D I E T A R Y  F I G U R E  SE  3 . - - I N C I D E N C E  1  O F  E X U D A T I V E  C H I C K  F E D  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M  1  6 0  S U P P L E M E N T  G R O W I N G  S E L E N I T E  1  4 0  ( P P B )  D I A T H E S I S  D I F F E R E N T A N D  E Q U I V A L E N T  T H E IN  1  80  IN  L E V E L S  T H E O F  S O D I U M  R A P E S E E D  M E A L .  E S T I M A T E  S E L E N I U M  S A M P L E S  C U R V E  HAD  WAS  L O W E R  T H A T  D E S C R I B E D  A N D  0.46  IN  P O O L E D  T H E  P P M  C O N T E N T  A R T H U R  ( S P A N  THE  IN  T H E  S E L E N I U M  C O N T E N T  R A P E S E E D  M E A L  E S T I M A T E  T O T A L  V A R I A T I O N  WAS  FROM  A V E R A G E  R A P E S E E D  O F  0.96PPM  IS  T O  N O T  89.0$  O F  A  ' M E A L .  T H E  S A M P L E S  R A N G E  W E L L  A R E A S  A S  A N D  T H E R E F O R E ,  W I T H  A N D  WAS  M E A L  A R E A S .  C O N T E N T  GOOD  T E S T E D .  T H E  A V E R A G E  S E L E N I U M  A S  P R O D U C T I O N  A N D  T H E  R A P E S E E D  S E A S O N S  T O  S E L E N I U M  W I T H  A S S O C I A T E D  S E L E N I U M  T O  V A R I A T I O N  O F  C O M P A R E S  P R O D U C T I O N  R A P E S E E D  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  IN  T O  T H A T  L E V E L  F A C T O R S  A C T I V I T Y .  A C C O R D I N G  V  L O W E S T  G R O W I N G  R E S P O N S E  R A P E S E E D  A C T I V I T Y  WOULD  A V E R A G E  R E P O R T E D  S E L E N I U M  B Y  0.93PPM.  M E A L  (0.96PPM)  T H E  27.4$  WAS  C O N T E N T  SHOWS  WOULD  O F  C O M M E R C I A L  T A B L E  D I F F E R E N T  S E V E R A L  A V E R A G E  T E S T E D  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  O F  S E L E N I U M  (1971).  S E V E R A L  P R O J E C T E D  S I M I L A R  W H I C H  TWO  A C T I V I T Y .  SHOW  A R T H U R  F R O M  N U M B E R  T H E  O F  AN  72)  A  A N D  S A M P L E S  S H O W E D  B Y  R E P R E S E N T E D  R E P R E S E N T S  O F  1.65PPM  O B T A I N E D  R E P R E S E N T A T I V E  T H E  T H E  O F  IN  V A L U E S  (1971).  R E P O R T E D  S T U D Y  P R O D U C T I O N  T H E S E  L I S T E D  L O W E R  A N D  E S T I M A T E  A R E  WAS  W I T H  E X P E C T E D  A N  S A M P L E S  H I G H E S T  S A M P L E  R A P E S E E D  O B T A I N  A R T H U R  S A M P L E S  V A R I A T I O N  BE  T O  ( P P M ) .  B Y  T H I S  I N D I V I D U A L  M E A L  T H A N  M E A L  1.90  T O  T E S T E D  A  A C T I V I T Y  A C T I V I T Y  0.37PPM  O F  IN  N E C E S S A R Y  R A P E S E E D  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  C O M P A R I S O N  A V E R A G E  P E R C E N T  O F  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  T H A T  A  I N D I C A T I O N  IN  IN  T H E  O B S E R V E D  O F  S E L E N I U M  T H E  A C T I V I T Y  WAS  61.3$  R A P E S E E D  R A P E S E E D  W I T H  O F  A V E R A G E  IN  W H I C H  M E A L .  M E A L  S U P P L E M E N T A L  T E S T E D  S O D I U M  S E L E N I T E .  S C O T T  OF  S O Y B E A N  A N D  M E A L  C A N T O R  WAS  64$.  (1972)  S H O W E D  R E S U L T S  O F  T H A T  T H I S  A V A I L A B I L I T Y  S T U D Y  I N D I C A T E  IN  S E L E N I U M  T H A T  TABLE  V . - - S E L E N I U M  C O N T E N T  R A P E S E E D  AND  B I O L O G I C A L  S  E  C O N T E T R E A T M E N T  fo  0.08PPM  SE  13.5  0.06PPM  SE  20  E  O.CHPPM  SE  40  °  A L T A .  72  S P A N  72  E.D.  RSM  D  0.01PPM  RSM  H  S P A N  RSM  71  S A M P L E S  P R O C E S S E D L E T T E R S  ( P P M )  (<0  (fo)  294 303  E  48.7  C  D  1 .75  1.10  62.5  311  1 .63  .97  59.5  300  .82  .73  89.0  222  B  C  A  B  D  C  D  222  6 4 . 5  A  B  C  7 1 . 1  A  B  C  .93  .50  53.8  256  7 2 . 5  A  B  C  .80  .47  58.6  261  7 3 . 7  A  B  C  °  .83  .43  51 .8  292 214  7 8 . 3  A  B  79.0  A  B  .44  .30  68.2  196  79.0  A  B  .37  .30  81 .1  226  .54  .27  50.0  230  .73  .20  27.4  254  .96  .59  61 . 3  A  R A P E S E E D  R A P E S E E D  I N D I C A T E  A S S O C I A T I O N .  M E A L ,  T Y P E ,  C O O P E R A T I V E T R E A T M E N T S  SE  T H E  N A M E  N U M B E R  I N D I C A T E S  I N D I C A T E S  S A M P L E S I N D I C A T E  Y E A R  S U P P L I E D  BY  L E V E L  SE  L O C A T I O N P R O D U C E D T H E  A D D E D  AND  R A P E S E E D TO  T H E  B A S A L  D I E T .  V A L U E S (P  <  W I T H  ' A N A L Y Z E D  I N D I C A T E D  S E L E N I U M  B I O L O G I C A L T H E  D I F F E R E N T  AS  .05)  Y  W E I G H T  299  WERE  OR  BOD  A C T I V I T Y  F  .  A L L  )  SE  4  E  298  87.2  72  S  70.9  82.5  P  S A S K . AVE  SE  .  A C T I V I T Y  1.17  6 2 . 5  72  3  1 .65  A  MAN.  ( P P M  NT  D  RSM  E  IN  C  5 3 . 9  RSM  S E L E N I U M  46.2  L  SE  OF  F  RSM  0.02PPM  A C T I V I T Y  M E A L .  OF  B Y  D U N C A N ' S  C O N T E N T  A C T I V I T Y  P R E V E N T I O N  S U P E R S C R I P T S  O F  IN  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y R A N G E  D I F F E R E N T  T E S T .  S A M P L E .  S E L E N I U M  E X U D A T I V E  A R E  M U L T I P L E  E Q U I V A L E N T  D I A T H E S I S  IN  TO  S O D I U M  C H I C K S .  S E L E N I T E  IN  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  IN  R A P E S E E D  S E L E N I U M  A C T I V I T Y  IN  S O Y B E A N  C O N T E N T  IN  P R O V I D E  T H E  T H E  D I E T .  (1971) N A T U R A L  AND  R A P E S E E D  M E A L  M I N I M U M  T H E S E  C L A N D  S O U R C E  OF  N  _ET  (I.OPPM)  S E L E N I U M .  (1 972)  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  H O W E V E R ,  C O M P A R E D  W I T H  S U P P O R T  _ A L .  IS  M E A L .  R E Q U I R E M E N T  R E S U L T S  I NI  M E A L  T H E  10$  OR  T H E  TO  H I G H E R  S O Y B E A N  MORE  R A P E S E E D  TO  S E L E N I U M  M E A L  R A P E S E E D  R E C O M M E N D A T I O N  T H A T  E Q U A L  BY  M E A L  W I L L  M E A L  A R T H U R  IS  A  GOOD  I  EXPERIMENT  S E L E N I U M  M E T A B O L I S M  I N T R O D U C T I  R E S P O N S E  S H O W S  (1971)  IS  E L E M E N T  N O R M A L  A N D  T H E  I N C R E A S I N G  S I G N S  AS  O F  A  T H A T  S E L E N I U M  S O M E  S E L E N I U M  B L O O D  A C T I O N  IS  IN  AND  R E S U L T S  WAS  IN  IS  T H E  O F  W H I C H  U N T I L  D E T E R M I N E D  O F  A  O F  B Y  T H E  F U R T H E R  I R R I T A T I O N  T H E  E F F E C T  D E F I C I E N C Y  A P P E A R A N C E  T H E  AND  A N D  P H A R M A C O L O G I C A L  O F  A  T H E  O F  A C T I O N  W L T H  P H A S E  D E S C R I P T I V E  I N D E P E N D E N T  T H E  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  S Y S T E M .  A  P A R T  B I O L O G I C A L  P L A T E A U  E N T E R S  B E T W E E N  WAS  D I E T A R Y  O B S E R V E D  S U P P L E M E N T E D  S E L E N I U M ;  T H E  OR  F I R S T  W H I C H  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  O P T I M A L  T H E  IN  O F  A C T I O N ,  T H E  S T A T E .  O F  T O X I C I T Y  D E A T H .  B L O O D  2 ) .  C O N C E P T  T H E  E X P R E S S I N G  IS  S E L E N I U M  IN  M A X I M A ,  A N I M A L  F U N C T I O N  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L S  O F  T H E  A  I N C R E A S I N G  R E L A T I O N S H I P  C O N T E N T  1  TWO  E L E M E N T  T H A T  F O R W A R D  E X P R E S S E S  OF  R E S U L T  L I N E A R  0 . 1 0 P P M  ( A )  O F  M A Y  ( E X P E R I M E N T S  A N D  C H I C K .  E X P R E S S E S  W I D T H  T H E  D R U G  D O S A G E  A  T O  T H E  P H A R M A C O L O G I C A L  H I G H E R  0  P L A T E A U  D O S E S ,  P U T  W I T H  T H I S  C A P A C I T Y  S T I M U L A T I O N  HAS  E F F E C T  F U N C T I O N .  E L E M E N T  B R O I L E R  P R E S E N T S  R E A C H E D .  H O M E O S T A T I C  T H E  C U R V E  I N C R E A S I N G  P L A T E A U  T H E  ON  V E N C H I K O V  D O S E  IN  4  T O  F O R  T H E  THE  R E L A T I O N S H I P  ( B )  T I S S U E  I N V E S T I G A T E D  55  A  A  D I E T A R Y  LOW  L I V E R  W I D E R  AND  R A N G E  S E L E N I U M  B E T W E E N  ( K I D N E Y ,  O V E R  S E L E N I U M  R A N G E  OF  F R O M  B A S A L  D I E T A R Y  AND  T H E  D I E T  S E L E N I U M  M U S C L E )  D I E T A R Y  56  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L S  S E L E N  F U N C T I  I UM  M A T E R I A L S  AND  IN  ( T A B L E  D E P L E T I O N  (10  (0.01, 1.0,  P E R  0.02,  3.0,  B R O I L E R  H E A T E D  9.0,  12.0,  D I E T A R Y  W H I C H  AND  T I S S U E  H E A R T  WAS  P U N C T U R E  P O O L E D  L I V E R ,  WERE  WAS  C A R R I E D  THE  L I V E R  G R O U N D  D E T E R M I N E D  THE  T A B L E  0.2'PPM  A  O U T  VI  SE  L I N E A R  IN  TO  OF  AND  A G E )  F E D  M E C H A N I S M  WERE  T H E  H O U S E D  B A S A L  F O R  A L L O T T E D  T O  IN  D I E T  P E R I O D ) .  D I E T A R Y  18  ON  A F T E R  T H E  P E N S  18  S E L E N I U M  M U S C L E  S E L E N I U M  WERE  WERE  F E D  F O R  T A K E N .  T R E A T M E N T S  H E P A R I N .  P O O L E D  B L O O D  WERE  R E M O V E D  F R O M  E A C H  T R E A T M E N T .  F R O M  B L O O D  AS  F O R  S A M P L E .  O B T A I N E D  S A M P L E S  W H O L E  H O M O G E N I Z E D  B I R D S  10  S E L E N I U M  D E S C R I B E D  WET  WAS  B I R D S  T H E  AS  A F T E R  F I V E  A N A L Y Z E D .  S E L E N I U M  D A Y S  21  S O D I U M  F R O M  U N T I L  WAS  AS  B L O O D  -20°C  T I S S U E  S U P P L I E D  B L O O D  AT  K I D N E Y  E A C H  1 8 . 0 P P M  W I T H  TWO  F O R  IN  AND  P O O L E D .  A N A L Y S I S  E X P E R I M E N T  T H E  T I S S U E .  AND  M U S C L E  MO:I;STURE  1.  T I S S U E  WAS  D I S C U S S I O N  S E L E N I U M  AND  )  D A Y  D E P L E T I O N  T R E A T M E N T S  A N A L Y Z E D  AND  H O M E O S T A T I C  R A N D O M L Y  15.0,  M I X E D  L E G  S T O R E D  AND  AND  R E S U L T S  AND  WERE  S A M P L E S  AND  R E S U L T I N G  K I D N E Y  S A M P L E S  T H E  0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80,  THE  BY  B R O O D E R S  A S S I G N E D  S E L E N I T E ) .  B L O O D  ( O N E  ( S E L E N I U M  B I R D S  AND  0.04,  6.0,  D A Y S  180  P E N )  C H I C K S  B A T T E R Y  S E V E N  P E R I O D  B I R D S  D E T E R M I N E  M E T H O D S  F O R  I I )  TO  O N S .  C O M M E R C I A L  E L E C T R I C A L L Y  O R D E R  F I G U R E  T H E  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  4.  S E L E N I U M  I N C R E A S E  W I T H  AT  LOW  C O N T E N T  T H E  OF  T H E  D I E T A R Y  OF  S E L E N I U M  T I S S U E S  S E L E N I U M  B L O O D ,  L I V E R  C O N T E N T  IN  IS  SHOWN  L E V E L S  AND  T H E  (.01  K I D N E Y  D I E T  IN  TO  S H O W E D  TABLE  VI.--THE  R E S P O N S E  K I D N E Y  A N D  S E L E N I U M  D I E T  A S  O F  T H E  M U S C L E  L E V E L S  T O  S O D I U M  PPM  K  {fo  S E L E N I U M  IN  B L O O D ,  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  L I V E R ,  W I T H  S E L E N I T E .  L I V E R  BLOOD  O F  D I E T A R Y  D.M.)  PPM  I D N E Y  {fo  M U S C L E  D.M. )  PPM  {f,  D.M.)  PPM  P P M  0.01  0.02  0.12  (25.9)  0.02  0.03  0.11  (26.9)  0.14  (22.4)  0.04  (24.5)  0.04  0.04  0.06  0.06  0.22  (26.7)  0.25  (23.2)  0.07  (30.6)  0.08  0.09  0.21  (26.6)  0.10  0.08  0.24  (26.7)  0.28  (23.7)  0.07  (31.8)  0.20  0.12  0.40  (28.1)  0.30  0.1 1  0.40  (25.7)  0.50  (22.9)  0.10  (29.2)  0.40  0.16  0.45  (27.5)  0.60  0.1 9  0.47  (26.0)  0.51  (22.0)  0.12  (28.6)  0.80  0.16  0.53  (27.5)  1 .0  0.19  0.44  (26.5)  0.67  (22.6)  0.13  (31.5)  3.0  0.30  0.81  (26.8)  6.0  0.42  1.44  (24.9)  1.37  (22.7)  0.14  (29.9)  9.0  0.40 2.32  (24.7)  1.92  (22.4)  0.24  (31.7)  2.24  (25.0)  2.50  (21.8)  0.30  (29.2)  12.0  0.49  15.0  0.56  1 8.0  0.52  _- 6 6  i—i—i—i  .2  .4  1  .5  1  1  —  .1.0  .8  D I E T A R Y  F I G U R E  4.--THE  R E S P O N S E  O F  T I S S U E  SE  S U P P L E M E N T  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L  T O  1  1—  2.0  3.0  P P M  P P M  1 .37  1.44  ( P P M )  D I E T A R Y  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  O F  S O D I U M  S E L E N I T E .  CO  ( F I G U R E  4 ) .  S A M P L E S  O B T A I N E D  1 . 0 P P M  D I E T A R Y  S O M E W H A T  B L O O D .  THE  S U P P L E M E N T  R E P O R T E D  D I E T A R Y  K I D N E Y  D I E T A R Y  K I D N E Y  R A T E  O F  I N T A K E S  E X C R E T I O N  E X H A L A T I O N  L E S S  AND  OF  S O  E X C R E T I O N  AT  S E L E N I U M  HAS  MAY  E X T R E M E L Y  AT  AND  E X P L A I N  H I G H  0 . 8 P P M .  S E L E N I U M  TO  IN  P L A T E A U .  IT  WAS  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  O R D E R  TO  M A I N T A I N  T O X I C I T Y .  A N O T H E R  A N D  0  18.0,  H I G H  F O R  A  H O W E V E R ,  AT  WAS  MORE  L I V E R  F R O M  I N C R E A S I N G  T O  TO  0 . 2 P P M  I N C R E A S E D  I N C R E A S E  AND  D I E T A R Y  K I D N E Y  P R O G R E S S I V E L Y  HAS  B E E N  D I E T A R Y  H I G H  M E C H A N I S M  IN  W I T H  UP  10  1962).  R E A S O N  R E P O R T E D  I N T A K E S  1971).  R E C O V E R E D  L E V E L S  TO  TO  S C O T T  OF  C O M P A R E D  I N C R E A S E D  I N T A K E S . (G A N T H E R  T H E  B L O O D .  IN  K I D N E Y  D I E T A R Y  OR  T I S S U E  BE  AN  IS  S E L E N I U M .  H I G H  B A U M A N N ,  P L A T E A U E D  K I D N E Y  D I E T  P R E V E N T  T H A T  U N D E R W O O D ,  B E E N  T H E  E X T R E M E L Y  TO  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  1970;  ( G A N T H E R  E X C R E T I O N  TO  LOW  G O D W I N ,  R A T S  OF  O F  TO  S L I G H T L Y  I N C R E A S E D  I N D I C A T I N G  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  B L O O D  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  0.2  R A P I D  WAS  O F  E X C R E T I O N  S E L E N I U M  O F  A  IN  F R O M  T H E  A  SHOW  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  T H E  IN  S H O W E D  WOULD  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  R O U T E  L E V E L S  BY  T O  P L A T E A U  IN  AND  R E L A T I O N S H I P  UP  L E V E L  L I V E R  0 . 2 0 P P M  6 . 0 P P M  C L O S E  D I E T A R Y  F O L L O W E D  S E L E N I U M  S H A R I N G  A  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  T H A T  S U F F I C I E N T  BY  T H E  L E V E L  0.2  D I E T A R Y  E X P E C T E D  E X C E P T  AND  A  IN  A B O V E  L E V E L S  O F  I N C R E A S I N G  TO  L I V E R  F O L L O W E D  S I M I L A R  W I T H  T H I S  W I T H  L E V E L S  IN  R E L A T I O N S H I P  R A P I D L Y  C O N C E N T R A T I O N S  D I E T A R Y  A L S O  S E L E N I U M  THE  S I N C E  A T  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  S E L E N I U M  (1971)  T H O M P S O N  B L O O D  THE  T I S S U E  H I G H  S E L E N I U M  _E_T  _AL . ,  TO  40$  HOURS  THE  O F  TO  F R O M  D I E T A R Y  S U B T O X I C  E X P I R E D  E X H A L A T I O N  L E V E L S  A  B U T  R O U T E  D I D  S E L E N I U M  IS  M U C H  H A N D R E C K  1966;  O F  I M P O R T A N T  NOT  A I R  O F  D O S E  OF  S E L E N I U M  I N C R E A S E  L E V E L S  ( 1 8 P P M )  IN  O F  T H E  K I D N E Y  T I S S U E  A T  M U S C L E  T I S S U E  D O E S  S E L E N I U M  T H E  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  N O T  IN  M E A T  D E G R E E .  TO  B E  M A I N  W H I C H  THE  L I V E R  WOULD  B L O O D ,  A N D  B Y  0.8PPM  S E L E N I U M  T H E  T O  S E M I P U R I F I E D  H O M E O S T A T I C  T O  O F  ( F I G U R E  (1970) C O N T R O L  A  D I E T  H A S  C A S E  T H E  B Y  O F  O F  T H E  N A T U R A L  F E D  IN  M E C H A N I S M S  A N I M A L S  F E E D  A N D  T H E  L E V E L S  L O W  T H E  A N D  T O  W A S  IN  HUMAN  B L O O D .  F O L L O W  A N D  D I E T A R Y  F O R  B E T W E E N  T H E  S I M I L A R  A S  T O  S E L E N I U M  L I V E R ,  T H E  1.0  F R O M  (1971).  S E L E N I U M  A P P E A R  S I M I L A R  P L A T E A U  A R E  A N Y  T H E  L E V E L S  T O  T H O M P S O N  T H A T  IN  A P P E A R  M U S C L E  WOULD  D E M O N S T R A T E S  0.2  IS  T O  K I D N E Y  O P T I M U M  W I T H  (1971).  T H O M P S O N  D E M O N S T R A T E D  F R O M  T H I S  IN  IS  P A R A M E T E R S  D I E T  S U G G E S T E D  W H I C H  A N I M A L  P L A T E A U  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  A S  A G R E E S  S C O T T  D O E S  L I V E R ,  THE  E X T E N D S  T H E R E  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  6.0PPM  T O  T H I S  F R O M  O F  S E L E N I U M ,  U P  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  T W O  0.2PPM  W H I C H  A B O V E  C O N C E N T R A T E  (1971).  T H A T  S L O W L Y  A N D  H U M A N S  I N D I C A T O R  D I E T A R Y  M U S C L E  S C O T T  D I E T A R Y  4).  B L O O D  F E D  O F  L E V E L S  V E N C H I K O V  O F  IN  S E L E N I U M  T H E  R E S P E C T  R E P O R T E D  V A L U E S  M E R T Z  IN  B L O O D  S E L E N I U M  I N V E S T I G A T O R S  T H E  E X C E P T  R E G U L A T I O N  D I E T A R Y  A C T U A L  T H E  S E N S I T I V E  L E V E L S  F O R  T O  A  V E R Y  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  M U S C L E  3.0PPM  AND  I T E M  A P P E A R  ON  A N D  D I E T A R Y  V A L U E S  R E L A T I O N S H I P  B E  H O M E O S T A T I C  N O T  W I T H  D E S C R I B E D  L E V E L  T H E  B E  0.06PPM  A B O V E  I N C R E A S E  C O N S U M P T I O N  M E A T  D O S E - R E S P O N S E  T H A T  W I T H  T O  I N C R E A S E D  A T  D R A M A T I C  E F F E C T  C U R V E S  D I E T .  E V E N  L E V E L S .  A P P E A R  M U S C L E  S E L E N I U M  L I T T L E  P R O D U C T  S I M I L A R  A  D O E S  T H U S ,  H A V E  F O O D  T O  IN  D I E T A R Y  N O T  T H E  A N D  A G R E E M E N T  THE  IN  L E V E L S  S E L E N I U M ,  A P P E A R  A L S O  OR  L E V E L S  H I G H  A N D  0.2  THE  T O  R E S P O N S E  E V E N  T H O U G H  O P P O S E D  E X P E R I M E N T .  A L L . E S S E N T I  B O D Y .  THE  A L  E L E M E N T S  H O M E O S T A T I C  H A V E  C O N T R O L  M E C H A N I S M  W O U L D  C O N C E N T R A T I O N ,  A C C O R D I N G  T I S S U E  T H E  E . G .  A M O U N T  O F  A G A I N  IN  T H E  T H E  P L A T E A U ,  O P T I M U M  T H I S  A N D  P L A T E A U  (1971) O F  F E E D  OR  A N D  WHAT  T O X I C  C A S E  S A F E  T H E  O F  A T  R E G U L A T E D  H O M E O S T A T I C  E X P R E S S I N G  IN  M A I N T A I N  T H E  V E N C H I K O V  P H A R M A C O L O G I C A L  T H E  T O  C O N C E N T R A T I O N  C A P A C I T Y  R I S E  T O  T E N D  A T  L E V E L  B L O O D  L E V E L S  A N D  L E V E L S  (1971)  S E L E N I U M  T H E  E L E M E N T .  T O  1.0  A N D  T E N D  T O  T I S S U E  T H E  3.0PPM  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L S .  R E Q U I R E M E N T ,  T H E  A S  WOULD  T H E  W I D T H  S E L E N I U M ,  F O R  T H E  R E F L E C T  L E V E L S  D E S C R I B E S  O F  D I E T A R Y  O P T I M U M  E X C E E D I N G  V E N C H I K O V  O F  T H E  WOULD  M E C H A N I S M  0.2  I T S  L I V E R  U N D E R  T I S S U E S  D I E T A R Y  A T  C O N T R O L  L E V E L  F R O M  E L E M E N T  G R O W I N G  O F  T H E  I N D I C A T E S  C H I C K S .  EXPERIMENT  T I S S U E  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L S  AS  5  I N D I C A T O R S  OF  S T A T U S .  I N T R O D U C T I O N  THE  I N T O  W H E A T  D I E T S  D E R I V E D  L E V E L  F R O M  O F  L E V E L S  S O  T H A T  T H E  B I R D S  O F  S A M P L E S  T H E  F E D  AN  C O U L D  BE  M A D E .  OF  B L O O D  S E L E N I U M  L E V E L  O F  B I R D S  AND  B A S A L  D I E T  R E L A T E D  F O R  BE  TO  T H E  S O U R C E  M A T E R I A L S  OF  W I T H  S E V E N  TO  A N O T H E R  I . O P P M  D A Y S  A N D  B L O O D  S E L E N I U M  O F  S E L E N I U M  I N D I C A T E  O F  T H E I R  I N V E S T I G A T E  S O U R C E  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I U M  AND  T I S S U E  T H E  U S E D  T H E  S O D I U M  S U I T A B I L I T Y  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I T E )  S E L E N I U M  Y E A S T  S A M E  S E L E N I U M .  WAS  AS  S T A T U S  D I E T .  B R E W E R S  O F  T H E  ( S O D I U M  W H E T H E R  M O S T L Y  W H E A T  C O N T E N T  L E V E L .  WAS  S E L E N I U M  P R E D I C T  IN  D I E T  F O R M U L A T E D  B L O O D  A L S O  S E L E N I U M  WERE  T H E  TO  S E L E N I U M  O R G A N I C  AND  A  T H E  T O O L  R E S P O N S E  IN  B Y  2  OF  A M O U N T  WOULD  R E S U L T E D  BY  WAS  TO  T H E  T H A T  WAS  S U B S T I T U T E D  R E S P O N S E  WOULD  B R E W E R S  Y E A S T  S C H W A R Z  (1961)  C O N T A I N S  AS  ( F A C T O R - 3 ) .  M E T H O D S  C O M M E R C I A L  F O R  S U P P L I E D  A  O F  C O M P A R I S O N  O F  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  A  A  T H I S  AS  E X P E R I M E N T  C O N T E N T  S U P P L E M E N T I ON  Y E A S T  O B T A I N E D  IN  E Q U I V A L E N T  S E L E N I U M  D I E T A R Y  T O R U L A  T H U S  S E L E N I U M  S E L E N I T E  THE  S E L E N I U M  W H E A T .  F E D  B I R D S  A S S A Y E D  TO  B R O I L E R  C H I C K S  D E P L E T E  T H E  WERE  C H I C K  62  O F  F E D  T H E  B A S A L  S E L E N I U M .  D I E T  ONE  ( T A B L E  H U N D R E D  I I )  T E N  BIRDS  WERE  BIRDS  PER  ALLOTTED,  AND  UP  TO  16$  OF  FOUR  MAKE  DIET  YEAST THE  2,  ONE  DEPLETION  VIl).  SUBSTITUTED  AT  THE  PERIOD,  EACH  NEEPAWA, WERE  EACH  INTO  EXPENSE  TREATMENTS.  EXCEPT SAMPLE,  (TABLE  WAS  DIET  DIETARY  EXPERIMENT TO  THE  11  TO  (10  PENS  PEN).  BREWERS 8,  AFTER  OF OF  MANITOU  BASAL  TORULA THE  AND  INCORPORATED DIETARY  THE  AT  YEAST,  WHEAT  PITIC A  TREATMENT  WHICH  FED  TO  4, MADE  IN  WERE  68$  OF  2,  AT  SAMPLES  WHICH  LEVEL WAS  DIET  POOLED  IN  ONE  THE  PEN  OF  1 0 B I RDS . THE A  DIETARY  SEVEN-DAY  PUNCTURE POOLED EACH  AT  AND  10  OF  SO  AND  BIRDS  FEEDING (TABLE  HEPARIN.  THAT  TWO  FROM  KIDNEY  EACH  BLOOD  SAMPLES TISSUE  DAYS  WERE FROM  WERE  TAKEN FIVE  THE  AND  FROM  BY  HEART  BIRDS  ANALYZED  REPRESENT  TREATMENT.  FOLLOWING  ONE  SAMPLES  WAS  FROM POOLED  WERE  STORED  DISCUSSION IN  EQUIVALENT  VIII).  SELENIUM  6-28  FROM  SAMPLES  THE  POOLED  BLOOD  CORRESPONDSCLOSELY  EXPERIMENT  BLOOD  WITH  AND  FED  ANALYZED.  SELENIUM  AN  EXPERIMENT  WERE  PERIOD.  LIVER  BIRDS  UNTIL  THE  OF  MIXED  TOGETHER  -20°C  RESULTS  FED  DEPLETION  TREATMENT.  SAMPLE  TREATMENTS  4  THIS USING  FROM  WITH  AMOUNT  OF  EXPERIMENT BIRDS  FEEDING  TISSUES  FROM  TISSUE  SELENIUM WAS  THE  SODIUM  THE  .RUN SAME  AS  THE  BREWERS  LEVELS SODIUM  CONCURRENTLY HATCH.  SELENITE  ARE  RESPONSE  OF  THE THE  YEAST  OBSERVED  BY  SELENITE WITH TISSUE  SAME  AS  LEVELS IN  4.  RESULTS  SUGGEST  THAT  THE  TISSUE  SELENIUM  TO  TABLE V I  I.--COMPOSiTI  ON  OF  WHEAT  DIETS.  INGREDIENTS  %  WHEAT  68.  TORULA  YEAST  23. 5.  FAT CA  PH0  CAC0  1.8  2H 0  4  2  1.1  3  SALT VIT.  .3 &  MiNERAL  PREMI X  .8 100.  VITAMIN KG.  11,000 MG .3%.  AND  150  MG I.U.  V I T K,  MINERAL MNSO., V I T . A,  .011  MG  PREMIX  SUPPLIED  CuSO.,  2 8 MG 110  I.U.  V I T B^ , 0  ^  55  PER MG  V I T . D, METHIONINE  ZNO 2.2  TABLE  V I I I . - - C 0 M P A R 1 S 0 N OF TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS OF BIRDS FED SELENIUM SUPPLIED BY BREWERS YEAST WITH BIRDS FED EQUIVALENT LEVELS OF SODIUM S E L E N I T E .  SE  BLOOD  IN  SE  K I DNE Y  LIVER SE  SE  SE  SE  SE  I  DIET  DIET  FOUND  2$ BR. Y .  0.02  0.03  0.03  0.1 1  0.1 1  0. 14  0. 14  4$ BR. Y .  0.03  0.04  0.04  --  --  --  --  8$ BR. Y .  0.06  0.05  0.0!6  0.23  0.22  0. 25  0. 25  16$ BR. Y .  0.12  0.11  0.08  0.36  0.25  0. 32  0. 28  VALUES  FOR S E  IN  THE  EXPECT.  DIET ARE  FOUND  EXPRESSED  EXPECT.  IN  PPM .  FOUND  EXPECT.  LOW  DIETARY  INORGANIC BY  SELENIUM  SELENIUM  BREWERS  (SODIUM  IN T A B L E  SELENITE.  T H E AVAILABLE  IN THE  AN  ANALYZED  THE  SELENIUM  PERCENT  BIRDS  POUCE  COUPE  # 1 AND  100.  THESE SAME  FED  AN  WINNIPEG  THREE  POUCE  RESPECTIVELY)  GRAINS  COUPE  BUT  #1  HAD  THE SELENIUM  WINNIPEG  (PITIC)  SUPPLIED  IN THE  BLOOD SELENIUM  SODIUM  S E L E N I T E ON APPEARS OF  SUPPLIED  WHEAT DIETS  THE  THAT WAS  WAS  BIRDS  AND  THE  AGREEMENT  WHEAT AND  GRAINS:  THE  PRAIRIE,  CONSIDERABLY  THOSE  FOUND  MIXTURE  ACTIVITIES  WHICH HAD  145$)  (MANITOU),  HAD  (69  BLOOD WAS A  A LOWER  FROM  BETWEEN  EXPECTED.  IN THE  OF WINNIPEG WAS  A CLOSE  FED  THREE  SELENIUM  LEVEL  CALCULATED  POOREST AGREEMENT  BIRDS  LOW  SODIUM  AMOUNT OF SODIUM S E L E N I T E .  OF  THE  OBSERVED  BY WHEAT WAS  THERE  THE  AS  ARE  BOTH AND 6 2 $ HIGHER  HIGH WINNIPEG BLOOD  LEVEL  EXPECTED.  SELENIUM  STATUS  HAD  T H E WINNIPEG  A C T I V I T Y (THE AVERAGE AND  FOR  IN THE  SELENIUM  LEVEL  FED  (MIXTURE), DEVIATED  EXPECTED.  THAN WAS  SELENIUM  SUPPLIED  EQUIVALENT  THAN WAS  (NEEPAWA)  DIETARY  BLOOD L E V E L  A C T I V I T Y VALUES  BLOOD LEVELS OBSERVED AND  BIRDS  CONTENT.  BLOOD LEVELS DETERMINED  PRAIRIE  CONTAINING  AMOUNT OF SELENIUM  SELENIUM  SELENIUM  OF  OF  WITH THE  EQUIVALENT  BLOOD LEVEL  THE  LEVEL  I X TOGETHER  BIRDS  THE  TO DIETS  S E L E N I T E ) AND  BLOOD SELENIUM  BY FEEDING  USING  IS SIMILAR  YEAST.  THE SHOWN  LEVELS  THE  TO  BY  BREWERS  LEVELS SIMILAR  BLOOD L E V E L S .  BE A VALUABLE  ANIMAL  YEAST TO  OR  THE  THEREFORE,  TOOL  WHEAT  INFLUENCE § E L E NI UM  IN DIAGNOSING  INDICATING SELENIUM  IS REFLECTED  ADEQUACY  THE OR  OF  DIETARY  BLOOD SELENIUM DEFICIENCY.  T A B L E I X . - -COMPARISON DIETS  WITH  OF THE BLOOD THE BLOOD  AMOUNT OF SODIUM  LEVEL  LEVEL  OF  OF  BIRDS  BIRDS  FED THE WHEAT  FED AN  EQUIVALENT  SELENITE.  BLOOD BLOOD  SE IN DIET  S E  DIET  PRA1R1E  1  SE  1  EXPECT.  IN  DIET  BLOOD  SE  ACTIvITY  EXPECT. FROM  ^  SE ACTIVITY  P  S E  1  FOUND  0.39  0.15  0.27  0.13  0.21  P.  COUPE il.  0.39  0.15  0.25  0.13  0.19  P.  COUPE  2  0.19  0.1 1  0.1 9  0.11  0.11  FT.  S T . JOHN 2  0.1 8  0.1 1  0.1 8  0.11  0.13  FT.  S T . JOHN 1  0.14  0.10  0.13  0.10  0.09  0.12  0.09  0.10  0.09  0.09  0.07  0.07  0.10  0.09  0.05  DAWSON  CREEK  WPG. (MIX)  VALUES  FOR S E ARE  EXPRESSED  IN PPM.  THE  SELE'NIUM LEVEL  TO MEASURE SELENIUM OF  IN BLOOD MAY  THE U T I L I Z A T I O N  APPEAR  AND METABOLISM  WITH THE END RESULT  SELENIUM.  ALSO  TO HAVE  OF VARIOUS  BEING THE METABOLICALLY  POSSIBILITIES FORMS OF ACTIVE FORM  GENERAL  THE  BIRDS  SEM I - PUR I F I ED THIS  DIET  INCIDENCE  BIOLOGICAL  SAMPLES  WAS  EFFECTIVENESS  RAPESEED  MEAL  THE  WITH THE  MEAL)  RAPESEED  THIS  ON  STUDY AS  APPEAR  THE  WELL  OF SELENIUM  AND  ANTAGONISMS  THE  INCIDENCE  DUE  TO  IT TO SODIUM  AND  THESE  100  RAPESEED  THE  FOR  CHICK.  SELENIUM  RESULTS  ARE  THE IN  IN  (1972)  WHO  REPORTED  PERCENT  AND  THE  SCOTT  BE  SELENIUM.  SELENITE  IN THE  (A PLANT  TO  WITH  O.IPPM  PROTEIN  SUPPLEMENT  ANALYSES  OF  GRAINS  PRESENTED  PRESENTED  THE  BY ARTHUR  (1971  ),  D E F I C I E N T L E V E L S OF SELENIUM  PARTICULARLY  SINCE  (PETERSON AND  1962).  OF SELENIUM  SELENIUM  MEAL  ADDED  IN WHEAT AND  DIATHESIS  AND TO  WAS  THE  AS  PERCENT.  THOSE  RATIONS,  1958B; HOGUE _ET _AL . ,  LOW  IN GRAINS  SELENIUM AS  OF SELENIUM  AVAILABLE  OF CANTOR  BE 64  TO  APPROXIMATELY  AVAILABLE.  IN SOYBEAN  THAT MARGINAL  COMMERCIAL  PERCENT  ON  D I A T H E S I S DECREASED  EXUDATIVE  PERCENT  DATA  SELENIUM  BASED  IN  60  TO  GREW ADEQUATELY WHEN SELENIUM  BY COMPARING  100  AVAILABLE SELENIUM  AVAILABLE IS  WAS  UP  AVAILABILITY  IN PREVENTING  IN WHEAT WAS  II).  (TABLE  OF EXUDATIVE  MEASURED  SELENIUM  AGREEMENT  EXPERIMENTS  L E V E L S OF SELENIUM  THE MEAL  BASAL  DIET, THE  INCREASING  IN ALL F I V E  DISCUSSION  JENSEN,  SCOTT AND  DEFICIENCY  LEVELS A N D / O R  69  THERE  CANTOR  1972;  POOR  HAVE  POULTRY  AVAILABILITY.  OCCUR  EVIDENCE  BLERI  (1972)  IN COMMERCIAL  IT WOULD  MAY  IS ALSO  IN  ET AL., REPORTED FLOCKS,  70  SELENIUM  REQUIREMENTS  THE SELENIUM THAT OF  RESPONSE  SHOW  0.05  BIRDS.  THAT  THESE  CONCENTRATIONS PREVENTING  IN THESE  TO  PLATEAU  OF O.LPPM  LEVELS  SELENIUM  MERTZ  HOMEOSTATIC  APPEAR  TO  BE REGULATED HOMEOSTATIC  OF SELENIUM LEVELS  FROM 0 . 2 P P M  LEVEL  OF  LEVEL  WOULD APPEAR  (O.IPPM  (1970)  BE  OPTIMUM  TO  (1971).  TO  SELENIUM  BETWEEN  1.0  AND  (0.2PPM)  BE TWICE HOWEVER,  GROWTH.  FROM CONTENT 3.0PPM  FOR  IT WOULD  THE OF  AND  TO  APPEARS  REQUIREMENTS  IN LIVER  AND  ELEMENTS BLOOD  IN THE  BLOOD AND  AND DIETARY LIVER  THE DIET WOULD THE MINIMAL  SELENIUM.  THAT  0.01  MECHANISM  RANGE  2  TH IS PLATEAU  ESSENTIAL  OPTIMAL  AS MUCH AS  1,  INCREASED  FROM  OPTIMUM  CONTROL  THE OPTIMUM  PREDICTED.  FOR  IN BLOOD  LlVER  MECHANISMS.  WHO  EXUDATIVE  IN BLOOD  OBSERVED THAT  MOST  (1969)  SCOTT  DIETARY SELENIUM.  BY A HOMEOSTATIC  DIETARY SELENIUM  SE)  CONTENT  WAS  FOR  IN EXPERIMENTS  OF SELENIUM  SUGGESTS  REGULATION  DEMONSTRATES  (1971)  ADEQUATE  ESTIMATES THE  TO  DIETARY SELENIUM  BY NRC  FOR  RESPONSE  CONTROL  COULD  THE  RANGE  0.2PPM  THE SAME  HAVE  SELENIUM  PREVENTING  EXAMINED  THE L E V E L  (1971),  VENCHIKOV  WOULD  LEVEL  AND  BIRDS  PROJECTION  TO DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION  LEVELS.  THIS  FOR  THE SELENIUM  AT APPROXIMATELY TO  3  THOMPSON AND  FURTHERMORE,  WERE  THE  2 AND  PROVIDES  IS RECOMMENDED  EXPERIMENTS,  OF MOST ELEMENTS.  FROM  REQUIREMENT  DIETARY SELENIUM.  ACCORDING  WITH  SELENIUM.  SELENIUM  PROPORTIONALLY Q.IPPM  AGREE  D E F I C I E N C Y CONDITIONS  BLOOD  1,  IN EXPERIMENTS  DATA  IS 0.05PPM  D I A T H E S I S AMONG  O.IPPM SELENIUM  AND  THE SELENIUM  DIATHESIS  4.  EXUDATIVE  SUPPLEMENTATION  BETWEEN  THE  OF  TISSUE  SELENIUM  SUGGESTED  BE EXPECTED  THAT  BY THE  NRC OPTIMUM  71  REQUIREMENTS ON  WOULD BE SOMEWHAT HIGHER SINCE  THE MINIMUM  THE  HOMEOSTATIC  SELENIUM  DIETARY  UP TO  BEGINS  SELENIUM  BE NO  LEVEL TO  MECHANISM  LEVELS OF  THE MECHANISM  TO  DIETARY  WAS  REMAIN  BE LOW  OF SELENIUM  CAN  BY SODIUM  HAVE  POTENTIAL  THE  OTHER  BREWERS  OF  FACTORS SUCH AS  DIET DOES NOT BLOOD  BLOOD LEVELS OF  BEING AGE  APPEAR  LEVELS OF  S E L E N I T E , IN THE  APPEAR  TO A F F E C T THE  BIRDS  MAY  IMPROVE  WERE ALL THE  SELENIUM  STATUS.  SELENIUM  A T HIGH  LEVEL  NATURAL  FOR  THE  THE  SELENIUM OF  APPEARS  THE NATURE  BUT  DIETARY  OF  VALUES TO  AMOUNT OF SELENIUM  DIETS.  TO  DEFICIENCY.  BLOOD SELENIUM  THE  AS  V I T AM I N E DID IN EXPERIMENT  NOT  1  BY JENSEN _E_T _AL . (1963).  FEEDING  AND  REPRODUCABILITY  TO  AS  SELENIUM  OF  SOURCES  SELENIUM  OF SELENIUM  RELATIVE TO  APPEARS  STATUS  WHETHER  THE  REPORTED  LIBITUM  S E N S I T I V I T Y OR  L I V E R ALSO  LONG  DIETARY  THIS CRITERION  EQUIVALENT  BLOOD LEVELS  TIME  TO  INVESTIGATED.  SEMI-PURI FI ED  FED _AD  AT A S P E C I F I C THE  LIVER  AN  AS  THE WHEAT DIETS CORRESPONDED  IS IN AGREEMENT WITH DATA  THE  FROM  INFLUENCE  FED  FED  SODIUM  TAKEN  RESPONSIVE  A DIAGNOSIS BE  SELENIUM  TISSUES.  WHEAT.  MUST TO  BIRDS  BIRDS  OR  DIETARY  DIETARY  THE SELENIUM  S E L E N I T E OR  YEAST  HANDLE  THEREFORE,  S I M I L A R BLOOD LEVELS WERE OBSERVED  SUPPLIED  WHICH  INDICATE  IS BASED  3.0PPM, THERE WOULD APPEAR  IN THE  L E V E L S , BEING ALSO  TO  AT 3.0PPM  BUT  LEVELS  AS  AS  BE ABLE  OVERTAXED.  SELENIUM  THE  I.OPPM  TO  BECOME  BLOOD SELENIUM  BIRD.  APPEARS  LEVEL  GROSS D E F I C I E N C Y SYMPTOMS.  TO  BUILD-UP  SUPPLEMENTATION,  PREVENT  NRC  THE  OF  FASTING  REGIMENS  BLOOD LEVELS  FEEDING.  PROVIDE  A GOOD  SELENIUM  IS MORE PRONOUNCED  INDICATION  LEVELS THE  THAN  IN BLOOD.  OF  INCREASE  IN  T H E LIVER  SELENIUM  LEVEL  MAY  BE MORE S E N S I T I V E  TO DETERMINE  TOXIC LEVELS  OF  SE LE N I UM. THE PATTERN  KIDNEY SELENIUM LEVELS  OF  BLOOD AND  LIVER  DO  NOT  APPEAR  SELENIUM L E V E L S .  TO FOLLOW  THE  I F THE KIDNEY  WAS  INVOLVED  ONLY WITH THE EXCRETION OF SELENIUM THEN  IT WOULD BE  EXPECTED  THAT  REMAINS  CONSTANT  LOW  HAS  LEVEL,  FOUND THE  SEEMS THAT  THE LEVEL  TO BE A SOURCE  TO BE A POTENT  OTHER  FORM HAVE  OF ORGANIC SOME OTHER  REQUIREMENT.  SELENIUM. ROLE  SCHWARZ  3-SELENIUM  OF FACTOR  THIS  IN SELENIUM  AT A (1961)  WHICH  SUGGESTS METABOLISM  THAN EXCRETING SELENIUM. THE  HIGHER  LEVELS  OF SELENIUM  MORTALITY.  THIS  TO  OF SELENIUM AS SODIUM  THE FORM  (1964)  IN THE KIDNEY  BELOW THE SELENIUM  KIDNEY  THE KIDNEY MAY  OF SELENIUM  HAVE  DEPENDENT  ALSO  ON THE  COULD BE DUE  REPORTED FORM  POSSESSES A GREATER  THAT  DID  NOT  TO THE LENGTH SELENITE.  APPEAR  TO CAUSE  OF THE EXPERIMENT ROSENFELD  AND  PRESENT.  ORGANIC  TOXIC POTENTIAL THAN SODIUM  SELENIUM  SELENITE.  OR  BEATH  THE T O X I C I T Y OF SELENIUM IS  OF SELENIUM  ANY  REFERENCES  R. L . ,  ARNOLD,  OLSON,  WITHDRAWAL  C . W., 1972.  0. E . AND CARLSON,  AND EGG SELENIUM  CONTENT.  SELENIUM  POULTRY S C I . ,  51:341-342. ARTHUR,  D . , 1971. S E L E N I U M CONTENT OF SOME AVAILABLE IN CANADA. CAN. J . ANIMAL D . , 1972.  ARTHUR,  INST.  S E L E N I U M CONTENT  p.  PLANTS,  OCCURRENCE  34-40,  OF CANADIAN  FOODS.  CAN.  J . , 5:165-169.  FOOD S C I . TECHNOL.  K . C , 1961.  BEESON,  FEED INGREDIENTS SCI., 51:71-74.  AND S I G N I F I C A N C E  IN AGR. HANDBOOK 200,  OF SELENIUM IN  U . S . D E P T . AGR.,  WASHINGTON, D . C . BIERI,  BRIGGS, G . M . AND I^O.II.L^RD,, C . J . , 1958A.  J . 6.,  ACCELERATION TORULA BIERI,  OF VITAMIN  YEAST.  TORULA  G . M . AND POLLARD,  E DEFICIENCY  YEAST  THE  IN THE CHICK BY  64:113-125.  J . NUTR.,  J . G . , BRIGGS, OF VITAMIN  E DEFICIENCY  C . J . , 1958B.  BY TORULA  ASH AND L I P I D .  YEAST.  ACCELERATION  I I . E F F E C T OF  EXP. BI OL . AND MED .  PROC,  99:262-265. C , 1960.  BLINCOE,  BRODERIUS,  M . A . , WHANGER,  SULFHYDRYL  J. BURK,  TURNOVER  GROUPS  P . D . AND WESWIG,  OF DIETARY  RETENTION, 5  SE  0 "  2  3  ROUTE  AND  RATS  J . L . , 1969.  AND T I S S U E  J . NUTR.,  TRIMETHYL  ARCH.  R . J . AND S E A I E F ,  INJECTED SELENIUM  OF EXCRETION  IN THE RAT.  SELENITE. CALVERT,  IN THE RAT.  P . H . , 1973.  IN S E L E N I U M - D E F I C I E N T  R . F . , BROWN, D . G . , S E E L Y ,  7  OF SELENIUM  AND  TISSUE  LAMBS.  N UTR . , 103-336-341 .  INFLUENCE  BYARD,  WHOLE-BODY  186:398.  NATURE,  RETENTION OF  102:1049-1056.  SELENIDE.  BIOCHEM.  C . C , 1972.  ON WHOLE-BODY  BIOPHYS.,  A URINARY  METABOLITE  C . C , MONROE, R . A . AND S C O T T , M . L . , 1961.  PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM  IN DYSTROPHIC  73:355^362.  73  OF  130:556-560.  CHICKS.  S T U D I E S ON  J . NUTR.,  CANTOR,  A . H . AND S C O T T , M . L . , 1972. E F F E C T OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS OF SODIUM S E L E N I T E ON T I S S U E SELENIUM LEVELS ON MARKET AGE TURKEYS. POULTRY S C I . , 51:1790. (ABST.)  CARTER,  D . L . , BROWN, M . J . , ALLOWAY, W. H . AND CARY, E . E . , 1968. SELENIUM CONTENT OF FORAGE AND HAY CROPS IN THE P A C I F I C NORTHWEST. AGRONOMY, 6 0 : 5 3 2 - 5 3 4 .  CHING  S I N G YANG, DIALAMEL, G . H . , OLSON, R . E . , 1958. SELENIUM SULFUR INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN THE VITAMIN E - D E F I C I E N T WEANLING RAT. F E D . P R O C , 18:553 ( A B S T . ) .  C L A N D I N I N , D . R . , S L I N G E R , S . J . AND B E L L , J . M . , 1972. COMPOSITION OF CANADIAN RAPESEED MEAL. CANADIAN RAPESEED MEAL IN POULTRY AND ANIMAL FEEDING. P U B L . #16 RAPESEED A S S O C I A T I O N OF CANADA. COHEN,  G . AND HOCHSTEIN, P . , 1963. PRIMARY AGENT  GLUTATHIONE  PEROXIDASE.  FOR THE ELIMINATION OF HYDROGEN  IN ERYTHROCYTES.  BI OC HEM.,  THE  PEROXIDE  2:1420-1428.  CUMMINSS, L . M . AND MARTIN, J . L . , 1967. ARE SELENOCYSTINE AND SELENOMETHIONINE SYNTHES I ZED IN VIVO FROMSODIUM S E L E N I T E IN MAMMALS. BI OC HEM. J . , 6:3162-3168. DESAI,  I. D . , C A L V E R T , C . C , SCOTT, M . L . AND T A P P E L ,  A . L . , 1964A.  PEROXIDATION AND LYSOSOMES IN NUTRITIONAL MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY OF CHICKS. PROC. S O C . E X P . B I O L . MED., 115:462^466. DESAI,  I. D . , C A L V E R T , C . C . AND S C O T T , M . L . , 1964B. A TIMESEQUENCE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF PEROXIDATION, LYSOMAL ENZYMES AND NUTRITIONAL MUSCULAR ARCH. BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS., 108:60T64.  DYSTROPHY.  DICKSON, R . C . AND TOMLINSON, R . H . , 1967. FROM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY: A P P L I C A T I O N S IN AGRICULTURE, BIOLOGY AND M E D I C I N E , ED. C H R I S T I A N AND FELDMAN. D I P L O C K , A . T . , BUNYAN, J . , M C H A L E , C . AND GREEN, J . , 1967. VITAMIN E AND S T R E S S . 2. THE METABOLISM OF D - O C TOCOPHEROL AND THE E F F E C T S OF STRESS IN VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY  IN THE CHICK.  BR. J . NUTR.,  21:103-114.  D I P L O C K , A . T . , BAUM, H . AND LUCY, J . A . , 1971. T H E E F F E C T OF VITAMIN E ON THE OXIDATION STATE OF SELENIUM IN RAT L I V E R . BIOCHEM. FROSETH,  J . , 123:721-729.  J . A . AND MCDOWELL,  IN SWINE NUTRITION. NUTR. CONFERENCE.  L . R . , 1971. 6 T H ANN. P R O C  S E L E N I U M AND VITAMIN E PAC. NORTHWEST  ANIMAL  75  GANTHER,  H . E . AND BAUMANN,  I.  EFFECTS  C.  A . , 1962.  SELENIUM  METABOLISM.  J . NUTR.,  OF DIET-ARSENIC AND CADMIUM.  77:210-216. GANTHER, H . E . , LEVANDER, 0. A.,AND BAUMANN, C . A . , 1966. DIETARY CONTROL OF SELENIUM V O L A T I L I Z A T I O N IN THE RAT. J . NUTR.,  88:55-60. GREEN,  J . , D I P L O C K , A . T . , BUNYAN, J . , M C H A L E , D . AND MUTHY, 1967. VITAMIN E AND S T R E S S . 1. D I E T A R Y UNSATURATED ACID  STRESS AND THE METABOLISM  C . L . AND SCOTT, M . L . , 1972. DEFICIENCY  IN THE  RAT.  21:69-101.  BR. J . NUTR., GRIES,  OF CX_-TOCOPHEROL  I . R., FATTY  IN THE CHICK.  HALVERSON, A . W., HENDRICK,  PATHOLOGY  OF SELENIUM  102:1287-1296.  J . NUTR.,  C . M . AND OLSON,  1955.  0. E . ,  OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROTECTIVE E F F E C T OF LINSEED OIL MEAL AND SOME EXTRACTS AGAINST CHRONIC SELENIUM POISIONING IN RATS. J . NUTR., 56:51-60. HAMILTON, J . W. AND T A P P E L , A. L . , 1963. L I P I D ANTIOXIDANT A C T I V I T Y IN TISSUES AND PROTEINS OF SELENIUM-FED ANIMALS. J . NUTR.,  79:493-502. HANDRECK, K . A.,.AND GODWIN, K . D . , 1970^, D I S T R I B U T I O N IN THE SHEEP OF SELENIUM DERIVED FROM S E - L A B E L L E D RUMINAL PELLETS. A U S T . J . A G R I C . R E S . , 21:71-84. HARTLEY, W. J . , 1967.  LEVELS  METHODS OF SELENIUM BLOMEDICINE."  I.,  WESTERBY,  FLUOROMETRIC MATERIALS. HOGUE,  TISSUES AND  "SELENIUM IN  CONN. R . J . AND HIDIROGLOU, M . , 1968.  MICRODETERMI NAT I ON OF SELENIUM J . OF A . 0 . A . C ,  PRECISE  IN AGRICULTURAL  51:1039-1042.  D . E . , PROCTOR, J . F . , WARNER, R . G . AND L O O S L I , J . K . , 1962. R E L A T I O N S H I P OF SELENIUM, VITAMIN E AND AN UNIDENTIFIED FACTOR TO MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. J . ANIM. S C I . , 21:25-29.  HOPKINS,  L . L . , J R . AND M A J A J ,  NUTRITION. AND HORWITT,  WESWIG.  MUSCLE  A . S . , 1967.  S E L E N I U M IN HUMAN  " S E L E N I U M IN BIOMEDIcINE." A V I P U B L . WESTPORT,  M . K . , 1965.  UNSATURATED  HURT,  IN ANIMAL  ED. MUTH. OLDFIELD AND WESWIG. AVI  P U B L . WESTPORT, HOFFMAN,  OF SELENIUM  ADMINISTRATION.  ROLE  OF VITAMIN  FATTY ACIDS  DISEASE.  E , SELENIUM  IN C L I N I C A L  FED. P R O C ,  ED. MUTH,  AND POLY-  AND EXPERIMENTAL  24:68-72.  H . D . , CARY, E . E . AND V I S E K , W. J . , 1971. GROWTH REPRODUCTION AND TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS OF SELENIUM  SELENIUM-DEPLETED  RAT.  OLDFIELD  CONN.  J . NUTR., 101:761-766.  IN THE  HUTCHESON, L . M., H I L L , D. C. AND J E N K I N S , K. J . , 1963. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE E F F I C A C Y OF AGENTS PROTECTING AGAINST MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY IN THE CHICK. POULTRY S C I . ,  42:842-855. JARREL  ASH  TRACE  METAL  ACCESSORY  UNIT.  INSTRUCTION MANUAL,  P BB  JENKINS, K. J . AND HIDIROGLOUS M., 1972. A REVIEW OF SELENIUM/ VITAMIN E . RESPONSIVE PROBLEMS IN L I V E S T O C K . A CASE FOR SELENIUM AS A FEED ADDITIVE IN CANADA. CAN. J . ANIMAL SCI ., 5 2 : 5 9 1 - 6 2 1 . JENSEN,  L . S . , WALTER, E . D. AND DUNLOP, J . S . , 1963. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM ON DISTRIBUTION OF SE IN THE CHICK. PROC. S o c . EXPER. B I O L . MED., 112:899-901.  KOSOWER, N. S . , SONG, K. R. AND KOSOWER, E . M., 1969. GLUTATHIONE III. BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE AZOESTER PROCEDURE FOR OXIDATION WITHIN THE NORMAL HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE. BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. ACTA 1 9 2 : 1 5 - 2 2 . KUBOTA, J . , ALLOWAY, W. H., CARTER, D. L . , CARY, E . E . AND LAZAR, V. A., 1967. SELENIUM IN CROPS IN THE UNITED S T A T E S IN RELATION TO THE SELENIUM RESPONSIVE DISEASES OF L I V E S T O C K . J . A G R I C . FOOD CHEM., 15:448-453. LAM,  K. W., R I E G L , M.,AND OLSON, R. E., 1961. BIOSYNTHESIS OF SELENOCOENZ YME A IN THE RAT. FED. P R O C , 20:229 ( A B S T . ) .  LITTLE,  C , OLINESCU, R., REID, K. AND O'BRIEN, PROPERTIES AND REGULATION OF GLUTATHIONE J . B I O L . CHEM., 245:3632-3636.  MAAG, D. D.  AND  GLENN, M. W.,  "SELENIUM AVI.  1967.  IN BIOMEDIcINE."  PUBL. CO.,  P. J . , 1970. PEROXIDASE.  T O X I C I T Y OF SELENIUM, ED. MUTH,  OLDFIELD AND  IN WESWIG,  WESTPORT, CONN.  MACHLIN, L . J . AND GORDON, R. S., 1962. ETIOLOGY OF EXUDATIVE D I A T H E S I S , ENCEPHALOMALACIA AND MUSCULAR DEGENERATION IN THE CHICKEN. POULTRY S C I . , 4 1 : 4 7 3 - 4 7 7 . MCCAUSLAND, H. E., 1971. D I S E A S E CONDITIONS IN POULTRY RELATED SELENIUM D E F I C I E N C I E S . ANIMAL AND POULTRY S C I . SEMINAR, UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER, B. C.  TO  75 MCCONNELL, K. D. AND ROTH, 0. M., 1962. LIVER FRACTIONS. BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. MCCOY, E . M. THE  AND  RAT  WESWIG, P. H.,  NOT  RELATED  1969.  TO VITAMIN  SE IN RAT INTRACELLULAR ACTA, 6 2 : 5 0 3 - 5 0 8 .  SOME SELENIUM E.  J . NUTR.,  RESPONSES 98:383-389.  IN  77  MERTZ,  WALTER, 1970. SOME ASPECTS OF NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH. F E D . P R O C , 29:1482-1488.  MORAN,  E . T . , D E W I T T , D . AND SUMMERS, J . D . , 1971. SELENIUM D E F I C I E N C Y WITH THE DUCK AS A CONSEQUENCE OF FEEDING PROPIIONIIICC ACID PRESERVED HIGH MOISTURE CORN. POULTRY S c i . , 50:1609 ( A B S T . ).  TRACE  ELEMENT  MUNSELL, H . E . , DEVANEY, G . M . AND KENNEDY, M . H . , 1936. FROM TRACE ELEMENT IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL N U T R I T I O N . E. J . UNDERWOOD, 1971, ACADEMIC P R E S S , NEW YORK. NATIONAL ACADAMEY OF S C I E N C E N U T R I E N T REQUIREMENTS NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS  - NATIONAL RESEARCH C O U N C I L . OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. NO. 1. OF POULTRY, 1971.  S. L . AND S C O T T , M . L . , 1959.  NESHEIM, M . C , LEONARD,  A L T E R A T I O N S IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF S K E L E T A L MUSCLE OF VITAMIN E D E F I C I E N C Y CHICKS. J . NUT-R.,  68:359-361 . NESHEIM, M . C . AND SCOTT, M . L . , 1961. NUTRITIONAL E F F E C T S OF SELENIUM COMPOUNDS IN CHICKS AND TURKEYS. F E D . PROC.  20:674-678. O ' B R I E N , P . J . AND L I T T L E , C . , 1969. INTRACELLULAR MECHANISMS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF A L I P I D PEROXIDE. I I . DECOMPOSITION OF A L I P I D PEROXIDE BY SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.' C A N . J . BIOCHEM., 4 7 : 4 9 3 - 4 9 9 . OLCOTT,  H . S.,  BROWN, W. D . AND VAN DER VEEN,  SELENOMETHIONINE OLDFIELD,  J . E . , 1971.  OF S C I E N C E , PALMER,  I . S., 1969.  SELENIUM  FISHER,  IN N U T R I T I O N .  D . D . , HALVORSON, OF A MAJOR  IN RAT URINE.  BIOCHEM.  W. E . AND MOXON, A . L . , 1938. RATIONS.  J . , 1961.  NATURE,  191:1201-1202.  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  WASHINGTON, D . C .  IDENTIFICATION  PRODUCT POLEY,  AS AN ANTIOXIDANT.  POULTRY S C I . ,  A . W. AND OLSON, SELENIUM  BIOPHYS. A C T A , TOLERANCE  0. E . ,  EXCRETORY  LEVELS  177:336-342. IN LAYING  17:72-76.  POLEY, W. E . , WILSON, W. 0., MOXON, A . L . AND TAYLOR, J . B . , 1941. THE E F F E C T OF S E L E N I Z E D GRAINS ON THE RATE OF GROWTH OF CHICKS. POULTRY S C I . , 2 0 : 1 7 1 - 1 7 9 . PETERSON,  R . P . AND J E N S E N ,  SILVER (ABST.)  WITH COPPER  L . S.,  1972.  AND SELENIUM.  INTERACTION OF DIETARY POULTRY SCI., 51 : 1 849T1 850.  78  ROSENFELD, |. AND BEATH, 0. A . , 1964. S E L E N I UM:GE0BOTANY. CHEMISTRY, T O X I C I T Y AND N U T R I T I O N . ACADEMIC PRESS, NEW YORK.  RoniRucK,  BIO-  J . T . , HOEKSTRA, W. G . AND POPE, A. 1971. GLUCOSEDEPENDENT PROTECTION BY DIETARY S E AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE TO ERYTHROCYTES. F E D . P R O C , 30:237. (ABST.) L  .  ,  ROTRUCK, J . T . , POPE, A . L . , GANTHER, H . E . AND HOEKSTRA, W. G . , 1972. PREVENTION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE TO RAT ERYTHROCYTES BY DIETARY SELENIUM. J . NUTR., 102:689-696. ROTRUCK, J . T . , HAFEMAN, C HEM IC AL SCIENCE,  POPE, A. L . , GANTHER, H . E . , SWANSON, A . B . , D . G . AND HOEKSTRA, W. G . , 1973. SELENIUM:BioROLE AS A COMPONENT OF GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE. 179:588-590.  SCHWARZ, K . , B I E R I , J . G . , BRIGGS, G . M . AND S C O T T , M . L . , 1957. PREVENTION OF EXUDATIVE D I A T H E S I S IN CHICKS BY FACTOR-3-SELENIUM. Soc. E x p . B i O L . MED., 9 5 : 6 2 1 - 6 2 5 . SCHWARZ, K . AND F O L T Z , C. M . , 1957. S E L E N I U M AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF FACTOR-3 AGAINST DIETARY NECROTIC LIVER DEGENERATION. J . AM. CHEM. S O C , 79:3292-3293. SCHWARZ, K . , 1961. DEVELOPMENT AND STATUS OF EXPERIMENTAL ON FACTOR-3-SELENI UM. F E D . P R O C , 20:666-672. SCHWARZ,  K . , 1965.  ROLE  IN EXPERIMENTAL  E, SELENIUM  OF VITAMIN  NUTRITIONAL  LIVER  WORK  AND RELATED  DISEASE.  FACTORS  F E D . PROC.  24:58-67. SCHWARZ,  K . AND IFREDGA, A . , 1969.  SELENIUM SCOTT, M . L . ,  COMPOUNDS.  1962.  SELENIUM.  C H A P T . 3 7 . E D . COMAR SCOTT, M .  L . ,  1967.  "SELENIUM AvI SCOTT,  M.  SCOTT, M .  L . ,  YORK.  C  M .L .  AND  OLDFIELD  POULTS. AND WESWIG.  AND BROWN, W. R . , 1967B.  MYOPATHIES  IN THE YOUNG  NESHEIM, M .  NEW YORK.  CONN.  OLSON, G . , KROOK, L .  OF THE CH'ICKEN. NEW  ED. MUTH,  ORGANIC  VOL. 2 B .  PRESS,  S E L E N I U M D E F I C I E N C Y IN CHICKS  SELENIUM-RESPONSIVE  OF  244:2103-2110.  "MINERAL METABOLISM."  IN BIOMEDIc I NE ."  SMOOTH MUSCLE  CHEM.,  AND BONNER, ACADEMIC  P U B L . C O . , WESTPORT, L . ,  B I O L O G I C A L POTENCY  J . BIOL.  OF MYOCARDIUM  POULT.  AND YOUNG, SCOTT  J . NUTR., R . J . , 1969.  AND ASSOCIATES,  AND OF 91:573-583. NUTRITION ITHACA,  79  SCOTT,  M . L . AND CHICKS FED.  SCOTT,  30:237  PROC,  TISSUE  AMOUNTS  OF  FEEDSTUFFS  AND  E F F E C T S OF  SELENIUM  SELENIUM  DIETARY  LEVELS  IN  SELENIUM.  (ABST.).  THOMPSON, J . N . , 1971.  M . L . AND TISSUE  A . H . , 1971.  CANTOR,  RECEIVING GRADUAL  S E L E N I U M CONTENT OF  DIETARY  IN CHICKS  AND  SELENIUM  POULTS.  LEVEL  UPON  POULTRY S C I . ,  50:1742-1748. SCOTT,  M . L . AND  A . H . , 1972.  CANTOR,  FEEDSTUFFS.  PROC. CORNELL  SELENIUM AVAILABILITY  NUTR. CONF. FOR  FEED  IN  MAN.  P. 66-71 . SHTUTMAN,  T . M . , CHAGOVETS,  KASHLEVA, SELENIUM  ON  MEDITEINA SNEDECOR,  G . W.  THE  IOWA  "SELENIUM WESWIG.  TADASHI,  G . , 1967.  WM.  A V I . , WESTPORT,  IN RATS. #1:3-7.  VITAMIN  MCGRAW  BIOCHEMICAL  SELENIUM-DEFICIENT  AND  METHODS.  IOWA.  E INTERRELATIONSHIPS.  ED. MUTH,  OLDFIELD,  AND  CONN.  HILL  PRINCIPLES  HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES  PANCREAS  AND  PROCEDURES  CO., L T D . , TORONTO.  N . , LANGEVIN, M . L . , COMBS, G . F . , J R . AND  1973.  AND  OF  STATISTICAL  AMES,  J . H . , 1960.  TORRIE,  A . M.  EFFECT  NUTRITION)  UNIVERSITY PRESS, S E L E N I U M AND  STATISTICS.  THE  MOSCOW.  IN B I O M E D I c I N E . "  R . G . D . AND OF  HOUSE,  OF  OF METHIONINE  (PROBLEMS OF  COCHRAN,  STATE  E . , 1967.  SONDEGAARD,  STEEL,  PUBL. AND  A STUDY  THE CONVERSION  PiTANIYA  VOPROSY  R . V . , SUKHAREVSKAYA,  T . I . , 1968.  IN CHICKS.  SCOTT, M . L . , OF  THE 103:  J . NUTR.,  444-453. A . L . , 1965.  TAPPEL,  ITS  FREE  INHIBITION  RADICAL  BY VITAMIN  LIPID  E AND  PEROXIDATION  SELENIUM.  DAMAGE  AND  FED. P R O C ,  24:73-78. THOMPSON,  J . N . AND  NUTRITION THOMPSON, E.  OF  J . N . AND  THE CHICK.  I . J . , AARR,  YAMAMOTO, 1.  RELATED  CONN.  TO  J . R . , BONE,  AND  OF SELENIUM  IN THE  97:335-342. IMPAIRED  J . NUTR.,  THE  LIPID  AND  PANCREAS  VITAMIN  IN  100:797-809.  J . F . , WESWIG,  P . H.  AND  S E L E N I U M T O X I C I T Y IN RATS.  LONGEVITY  OLDFIELD  ROLE  ATROPHY OF  CHICKS.  R . S . , 1967.  GROWTH AND  ED. MUTH,  J . NUTR.,  S C O T T , M . L . , 1970.  ABSORPTION  SELENIUM-DEFICIENT TINSLEY,  1 969.  SCOTT, M'.-L.,  IN " S E L E N I U M IN BIOMEDICINE."  WESWIG.  A V I . P U B L . CO.,  WESTPORT,  UNDERWOOD, E . J . , NUTRITION. VENCHIKOV,  A. J.,  ANIMAL NEW  1971. TRACE ELEMENTS IN HUMAN ACADEMIC PRESS, NEW YORK. 1960.  TAKEN FROM E. J.  NUTRITION.  TRACE  AND  ELEMENTS  UNDERWOOD,  1971,  ANIMAL  IN HUMAN  ACADEMIC  AND  PRESS,  YORK.  W E S T F A L L , B . B . AND S M I T H , M . I . , 1941. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE FATE OF SELENIUM IN THE ORGANISM. J . PHARMACOL. E X P T L . THERAP., 7 2 : 2 4 5 . WILLIAMS,  K . T . , L A R K I N , H . W.  IN CERTAIN SOILS  DISCUSSION  OF  D E P T . AGR., WRIGHT,  P . L . AND SELENIUM PHYSIOL.,  WRIGHT,  AND  OCCURRENCE  ED. MUTH, CONN .  THE UNITED  TOPICS.  TECH.  SELENIUM  STATES WITH A  BULL. 758.  U. S.  WASHINGTON, D . C . BELL,  AND  M. C ,  TELLURIUM  1966.  COMPARATIVE  IN SHEEP  AND  SWINE.  METABOLISM  OF  AMER. J .  211:6-10.  P . L . , 1967. SELENIUM  RELATED  BYERS, H . G . , 1941. OF  THE ABSORPTION  IN DEPLETED  ANIMALS,  O L D F I E L D AND  WESWIG.  AND  T I S S U E DISTRIBUTION  IN " S E L E N I U M  OF  IN B I O M E D I C I N E .  A V I . P U B L . Co.,  WESTPORT,  APPENDIX I  APPENDIX  SELENIUM  A.  ANALYSIS  PROCEDURE,  D I GESTION THE  DIGESTION PROCEDURE WAS  (1968)  BUT S L I G H T L Y MODIFIED.  NITRIC  ACID  ACID  AND  SAMPLE, FIVE  (WITHOUT  FIVE  COMBINATION  OF  GRAMS  NITRIC  AND  OF  FROM HOFFMAN  THE ACIDS  REDISTILLATION),  USED  THREE  SUITABLE FOR  OF BLOOD, OR SAMPLE  WERE DIGESTED  PERCHLORIC  AT FIVE 5-8  ML. ML  GRAMS  ACIDS. THE  ML  GRAM  OF ANIMAL BY  NINE ML  CONC.  IN THAT  DIGESTING ONE  THREE  WERE  ET AL.  PERCHLORIC  OF DRY  REMAINING.  WAS  DIGESTED  FEED U P TO  TISSUE. THE  THE SULFURIC ACID WAS  SAMPLE  THIS  ORDER.  INCREASING  CONC.  AMOUNTS  ALWAYS  UNTIL THERE  E X C E S S I V E HEATING  WAS  RESULTED  IN  SELENIUM. THE  VOLUMETRIC  DIGEST WAS  TO VOLUME  QUANTITATIVELY TRANSFERRED  FLASK WITH ABOUT S I X WASHES  CONC. HYDROCHLORIC  AND  TAKEN  OF SULFURIC ACID, ADDED  OF DRY  APPROXIMATELY LOSS  ML  WAS  10 ML  MAINTAINED  HC1  I  ACID WAS  WITH WATER.  ADDED.  THE SOLUTION  THIS RESULTED  5$ H2S0^ WHICH WAS  OF WATER  TO A 100 AND  THEN  WAS  THAT  45 ML  BROUGHT UP  IN A FINAL MIXTURE  THE MIXTURE  ML  OF  PRODUCED THE  45$  HIGHEST  SENS ITI V I TY. ALL WAS  RINSED  WATER  WAS  DEIONIZED  WITH D I S T I L L E D  AND  GLASS  WATER, WASHED  A  82  DISTILLED. AND  SOAKED  A L L GLASSWARE IN 20$  NITRIC  ACID  B.  AND  WASHED  TRACE  TIMES WITH D I S T I L L E D  METAL ACCESSORY  THE A RUBBER  THREE  TRACE  METAL  TUBE 45  THE  WATER  TRAP  PUT  INTO THE  CM  AND  ACCESSORY  RELEASED  TO  RESULTED OF 20  CELL  OF STANDARDS  PPB WERE RUN  (FIGURE  1.87  DEVIATION, THEREFORE,  APPENDix  I I).  STANDARDS  APPARENT TO  BOVINE  STATES  OFFICE  OF STANDARD  LIVER  DEPARTMENT  1.1  IS SHOWN  DUE  CHAMBER  THE  BURNER  THE SAMPLE INPUT.  OF THE  1,  PPB WAS  APPENDIX  WAS  5.7  WAS  THE  BURNER  RUN,  ||).  AND  STORED  THE  PERCENT  AND  WHICH  TEN STANDARDS  ON  IN THE OPERATING #1577 WAS  OF COMMERCE,  (FIGURES 2 AND  ±  .1  PPM  SELENIUM.  IN TABLE 1  (APPENDIX  TWICE.  VALUES.  WERE ASHED  THE  REPORTED  72  FOR  3,  HOURS  TO THE GLASS  WHICH  INSTRUCTIONS.  OBTAINED  NATIONAL  AND  RELATIVE  IN GLASS  TO ABSORPTION  LIVER  ALL SAMPLES  ANALYZED  OF THESE FOUR  WERE REMOVED.  FROM THE  BUREAU  REFERENCE M A T E R I A L S , WASHINGTON,  TO CONTAIN  AS WELL AS  DUPLICATE  LOSS  BE A PROBLEM  UNITED  STANDARD  CONNECTING  FLASK AND  SCALE D E F L E C T I O N S .  WERE PREPARED  A STANDARD  THIS  BY  WITH A MEAN SCALE D E F L E C T I O N OF 32.7  STANDARD  CERTIFIED  REACTION  FROM 5 TO 50  DEVIATION OF  SUGGESTED  MODIFIED  DRAIN.  STANDARD  WAS  THE  IN THE MIXING  IN A LINEAR CURVE  WITHOUT ANY  UNIT WAS  THROUGH THE AUXILIARY OXIDANT  THEN CONDENSED  A SERIES  BETWEEN  DESICCATOR  MOISTURE  THE  UNIT  LONG  BURNER  WATER.  OF  STANDARDS  D . C . AND  THE ANALYSIS III).  EACH  STANDARD  IN DUPLICATE AND ANALYSIS  IS AN  FOR  EACH  AVERAGE  THE APPENDIX OF  BASAL  III)  DIET AND DIETS WITH ADDED SELENIUM  WERE ANALYZED.  ADDED SELENIUM  APPEND I X M l ) .  AS SODIUM  I T WOULD  APPEAR  (TABLE  II,  THAT THE RECOVERY  S E L E N I T E WAS ± 0.01  PPM (TABLE  I I,  APPENDIX II  1  20  TO  30 PPB  FIGURE  1.--LINEARITY  OF  SELENIUM  SE ANALYSIS.  40  50~  -50 pfJ,  .4  -i  U  ..J_.._.:  '•30 » L  —• s  „M  ...  2 5 /yl>  4 .... e  /5  f f  t  10 ppt 5 ppb  Blank  I FIGURE  2.--SELENIUM  STANDARD  ANALYSIS.-  oo  —J  88  ri—  FIGURE  3.--REPEATABILITY  OF  SELENIUM  ANALYSIS.  APPENDIX I I |.  APPENDIX  TABLE  I.--ANALYSIS LIVER  ANALYSIS  #1  SE  OF  STANDARD  SAMPLE  CONTENT  1.18  2  1.15  3  1 .20  4  0.95  5  1 .01  6  1 .03  7  0.96  AVERAGE  1 .07  PPM  APPENDIX  TABLE  I I.--RECOVERY BASAL  D 1 ET  SE  OF  SELENIUM  ADDED  TO  DIET.  CONTENT  OF  PPM  RECOVERY  OF  ADDED  PPM  SE  0.01  BASAL BASAL  +  0.01  SE  0.02  0.01  BASAL  +  0.02 SE  0.04  0.03  BASAL  +  0.04 S E  0.06  0.05  BASAL  +  0.06 S E  0.07  0.06  BASAL  +  0.08 S E  0.08  0.07  APPENDIX  /TABLE  I I I . - -ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE  INCIDENCE IN CHICKS .  SOURCE  DF  V I TAMiN E  FOR THE  OF EXUDATES  DIATHESIS  (EXPERIMENT  I)  M.S.  2,745.2**  ANTioxioANT  1  2,120.0**  SELENIUM  3  1 8,284.1**  LINEAR  1  52,464.6**  QUADRAiT I C  1  1,716.5**  CUBIC  1  53.9  VIT.  E x ANTI  1  42.2 N.S,  VIT.  E X SE  3  461.7 N.S,  x SE  3  602.1 *  3  182.9 N.S.  ANTI. VIT. ERROR  E X ANTI  x SE  32  190.07  APPENDIX  T A B L E IV.- - A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE FOR THE INCIDENCE OF EXUDATIVE DIATHESIS  SOURCE  IN CHICKS.  DF  M.S  EXPERI ME NT 2 GRAINS  14  ERROR  45  2,947.3** 5.1  EXPERIMENT RAPESEED ERROR  MEAL  3  15  1,943.0**  48  319.7  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093525/manifest

Comment

Related Items