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Latvian immigration to São Paulo, Brazil : 1890-1970 immigration and assimilation Cornford, Ieva Mara Megnis 1975

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LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO SAO PAULO, BRAZIL: 1890-1970 IMMIGRATION AND ASSIMILATION by leva Mara Megnis Cornford B.M., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission for extensive copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s rep r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of H/Si~>r?nt'r J/r?//^-, /< >/V : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date SJ/yt/S J /*/Zi> i ABSTRACT Documentation of the extent of Latvian immigration to B r a z i l and to the urban centre of Sao Paulo between 1890 and 1970 and evidence of the degree of Latvian-Brazilian assimilation are non-existent. This thesis f u l f i l l s a need for investigating the displacement of the Latvian ethnic society into an unfamiliar geographical, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l B r a z i l i a n environment. Both Latvia and B r a z i l are discussed i n terms of geography and climate, origins of c i v i l i z a t i o n and language, c u l t u r a l heritage and s o c i a l structure. The cosmopolitan nature of Sao Paulo i s introduced. The reasons for Latvian migration and s t a t i s t i c a l information regarding B r a z i l i a n immigrant pol i c y and numbers of immigrants are derived from census data, church records and archival material. A Lutheran church record case study i s also documented as supporting material, and estimates are established from a wide variety of reported s t a t i s t i c a l information concerning Latvians i n B r a z i l . Latvian r e l i g i o u s subdivisions form the basis for tracing the Sao Paulo community development and extent of Latvian-Brazilian assimilation. General aspects of assimilation i n B r a z i l are applied to the Latvian community with detailed discussion of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l integration including i n t e r -marriage and language, customs and environment. Conclusions are drawn from the extent of Latvian influence within the B r a z i l i a n society and the reciprocal but stronger B r a z i l i a n contribution to the Latvian heritage. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION . . 1 SECTION A: TWO COUNTRIES AND TWO PEOPLES 5 CHAPTER I: LATVIA, A UNIQUE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE . . . 6 Geography and Climate . . . 6 Origins of C i v i l i z a t i o n and Climate . . 7 Cultural Heritage 8 Social Structure . . . 12 CHAPTER I I : BRAZIL, A DEVELOPING AND PROMISING LAND 18 Geography and Climate ' 18 Cultural Heritage . . ' 18 P o l i t i c a l and Social Structure 21 Racial and Geographical Subdivisions 23 CHAPTER I I I : SAO PAULO, THE HEART OF THE SOUTH 27 Geography, Topography and Climate 27 Population and Immigration Composition 28 SECTION B: LATVIAN EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION 37 CHAPTER IV: LATVIAN MIGRATION . . . 38 Reasons and Conditions for Migration 38 CHAPTER V: LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL 1+3 Latvian Religious Subdivisions i n Sao Paulo hh SECTION C: BRAZILIAN ASSIMILATION OF LATVIAN IMMIGRANTS 52 CHAPTER VI: GENERAL ASSIMILATION 53 i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued PAGE CHAPTER VII: LATVIAN ASSIMILATION 58 CHAPTER VIII: CULTURAL AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION . . . . . . . 63 Language and Intermarriage . 63 Customs and Environment Assimilation . . . 69 CONCLUSION 73 Extension of Latvian influence 73 A Monument to Latvian Immigrants i n B r a z i l 73 General Conclusion and Interpretation 7*+ BIBLIOGRAPHY • . . . . 78 APPENDIX:I: A CASE STUDY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LATVIAN LUTHERAN COMMUNITY IN SAO PAULO 85 APPENDIX I I : LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL B r a z i l i a n Immigration Po l i c y . . . . . . . . . 96 S t a t i s t i c s and Discussion 98 i v LIST OF TABLES TABLE NUMBER DESCRIPTION PAGE I Latvian S t a t i s t i c s : N a t i o n a l i t i e s (.1935) > Religions (1935) , Employment (1935) , Cultural A c t i v i t i e s (.1937), Education (1937) . . . . . . 9-10 I I Subdivision of Protestant Denominations i n B r a z i l . . . 22 I I I Occupational Categories of Urban Males i n the City of Sao Paulo 28 IV Immigration to B r a z i l : 188U-195T, According to Country of Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 V B r a z i l i a n Racial Subdivisions . . . . . . . 29 VI B r a z i l i a n Population S t a t i s t i c s : Native B r a z i l i a n s , Naturalized B r a z i l i a n s , Foreigners, and Location . . . . 32 VII Immigration to B r a z i l and Sao Paulo •• 33 VIII Latvian Immigration S t a t i s t i c s : Worldwide Di s t r i b u t i o n . 38 IX Population S t a t i s t i c s : Latvia: Urban and Rural . . . . hi X Latvian Immigration to B r a z i l and Sao Paulo: Totals . . ^5 XI Graphical Estimates of Latvian Immigration to B r a z i l and Sao Paulo . . h6 XII Important H i s t o r i c a l Dates Associated with Latvian Immigration to B r a z i l : Relationship to Five-Year Immigration Averages . . . hj XIII General Immigration to the State of Sao Paulo: 1827-1939 • 55 V LIST OF TABLES Continued TABLE NUMBER DESCRIPTION PAGE XIV Latvian Church Composition and A c t i v i t i e s i n B r a z i l : Association of Latvian Baptist Churches (1953), Location and Number of Baptist Churches (1953), Number and Denomination of Protestant Churches i n B r a z i l (1953) . . . 6 l XV Latvian Lutheran Church Records S t a t i s t i c s : (1951-197M : B i r t h s , Christenings, Confirmations, Marriages, Inter-marriages, Deaths . . • 66 XVI Word Endings Pronounced s i m i l a r l y i n Latvian and Portuguese . . • 67 XVII Latvian Words adapted from Portuguese • 67 XVIII Latvian adoption of Portuguese Words i n preference to Exi s t i n g Latvian Words . . 68 XIX Latvian Lutheran Church Record S t a t i s t i c s : (1953-1958) Membership -XX Sunday School Attendance (1955-19TO): Latvian Lutheran Church Records • . . . XXI Education Levels for the Latvian Immigrant Family {l9k6-195H): Church Records . . . . . . . . . . . 91 XXII Latvian Immigrants to B r a z i l a r r i v i n g by Ship: Church Records (19U6-195U) . . . • • 92 XXIII Origin and Number of Northern European Immigrants to B r a z i l : 1920-1970 . . . • 99-100 v i LIST OF TABLES Continued TABLE NUMBER DESCRIPTION PAGE XXIV Immigration of Latvians to B r a z i l : Estimated averages for five-year i n t e r v a l s 10.2 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. R.J. Barman and Professor H.V. Livermore for their assistance throughout the course of this work, and to thank Dr. K.I. Kobbervig for his advice and suggestions. I also wish to thank Ingrid L. Megnis for conducting research on my "behalf in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Minister J. Mekss and the Latvian Lutheran Church records administrator of Sao Paulo for supplying primary source material. I wish to acknowledge gratefully the experience and valuable i n -sight provided by my parents, Klara and Peteris V. Megnis, who have provided the opportunity and background for an appreciation of both the Latvian and Brazilian cultures. My sincerest appreciation to my husband, Dr. Alan B. Cornford, for his moral support, help and under-standing.throughout the writing of this t h e s i s . . 1 INTRODUCTION There i s a d i s t i n c t lack of available l i t e r a t u r e , information and reported research concerning the displacement of minority ethnic groups from Northern Europe and t h e i r assimilation into new s o c i a l structures and environments. No matter how small the immigrant population may be, there i s generally an i d e n t i f i a b l e and measurable degree of interaction with the host culture. The purpose of t h i s study i s to establish the extent of Latvian im-migration to B r a z i l and the urban centre of Sao Paulo between the approximate dates of 1890 and 1970; and secondly to assess evidence i n d i c a t i n g assimila-t i o n between the Latvian and B r a z i l i a n communities. The nature of t h i s type of investigation i s such that i t i s preferable and indeed almost imperative to have a working knowledge of both languages and cultures, and access to international sources of information. In addition to these q u a l i t i e s , the author has also had the advantage of personal involvement within the Sao Paulo Latvian environment and personal knowledge and insight into the subject of the thesis. The lack of reported information has forced heayy reliance on primary sources of information, several of which could e a s i l y lead to a complete study i n i t s own rig h t . Acquisition of church records, private communica-ti o n s , B r a z i l i a n government records and archival material, Latvian archival s t a t i s t i c a l information, and f i l e d newspaper reports has'e- played a major role i n the development and pursuit of the thesis. Secondary sources and supporting information available i n the reported l i t e r a t u r e have substantiated and sometimes cast doubt on the accuracy of immigration s t a t i s t i c s (outlined 2 i n the appendix), leaving judgement of the best estimate to the author. The research work presented f u l f i l l s the objectives of the thesis statement but i n no way pretends to be a complete and comprehensive t r e a t i s e covering a l l aspects of Latvian immigration nor a l l aspects of integration and assimilation. The outline has been designed to give an understanding of the background differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s of both countries and peoples together with the conditions of t h e i r co-existence. Where available, com-plementary information r e l a t i n g to Latvian migrations and B r a z i l i a n immigra-ti o n p o l i c y has been documented. The period treated i n the study has been defined by the available evidence documenting Latvian immigration to B r a z i l . During the l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century there i s considerable evidence of Latvian community development within the State of Sao Paulo; however, t h i s occurred predominantly i n the r u r a l areas p a r t i c u l a r l y at Varpa and Nova Odessa. Only with s i g n i f i -cant migration into the c i t y of Sao Paulo i n the twentieth century, and increased international migration of Latvians from Latvia and countries of temporary residence as a consequence of the two World Wars and constant oppression, were there s u f f i c i e n t numbers to permit us to analyse urban involvement and assimilation. Therefore the study has been r e s t r i c t e d to a period between 1890 and 1970, with greatest concentration and s t a t i s t i c a l data for the post-Second World War period. In general, s t a t i s t i c a l and s o c i a l data for an ethnic group within any population may be traced from governmental census data,dimmrgratiori records, international archives or published s o c i a l l i t e r a t u r e . Should these sources f a i l to supply adequate information, reliance must be placed on the primary source records of the community, such as personal communications, 3 manuscript papers, ethnic newspapers and church documents. In the case of the Latvian influence i n B r a z i l , by far the strongest t i e s and best source of Information i s the development and involvement of the church. Religion played a major role i n holding the Latvian community together and created two quite d i s t i n c t followings, the Lutherans and Baptists, which were readily distinguishable within the B r a z i l i a n r e l i g i o u s framework. There i s l i t t l e documented evidence for a Catholic Latvian community which presumably did exist but would be more d i f f i c u l t to trace i n a predominantly Catholic country. Social structure was not a viable determinant to c l a s s i f y or distinguish the Latvian immigrants, the majority of the i n i t i a l immigrants to B r a z i l having an a g r i c u l t u r a l background. However, the s o c i a l systems of both Latvia -and B r a z i l have been b r i e f l y analysed p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l freedoms and comparative educational systems. The study has been divided into three sections, dealing with geographical and c u l t u r a l background of both the Latvian and B r a z i l i a n communities, the Latvian migrations, and f i n a l l y the form of Latvian-Brazilian integration. These sections have been subdivided for theppurposes of presentation into the following chapters. Within Section A there are three chapters which deal i n turn with Latvia, B r a z i l and Sao Paulo. The chapters i n Section B concentrate on the reasons and conditions for Latvian emigration, and Latvian immigration s t a t i s t i c s to B r a z i l . This l a t t e r chapter also discusses aspects of r e l i g i o u s subdivisions. The f i n a l section includes three chapters involving the general assimilation of immigrants, Latvian assimilation and the form of integration. Detailed s t a t i s t i c a l material and o r i g i n a l manuscript information are contained i n an appendix. These two s u b d i v i s i o n s describe a case study of the L a t v i a n Lutheran community i n Sao Paulo and the L a t v i a n immigration to Sao Paulo (the B r a z i l i a n immigration p o l i c y and L a t v i a n s t a t i s t i c s and d i s c u s s i o n ) . 5 S E C T I O N A TWO C O U N T R I E S A N D TWO P E O P L E S 6 CHAPTER I LATVIA: A UNIQUE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE In order properly to introduce and discuss the present d i s t r i b u t i o n of Latvian peoples as a result of the emigration from the B a l t i c state and sub-sequent immigration to B r a z i l and Sao Paulo, i t i s important to understand the inherent s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between various physical and c u l t u r a l aspects of these two countries and peoples. This section deals with aspects of Latvia, followed by si m i l a r descriptions for B r a z i l and a subsequent evaluation of theppotential effects of displacing the Latvians into the new B r a z i l i a n s i t u a t i o n . Latvia, the central B a l t i c state, situated between 55°^0' and 58°05' N lat i t u d e and 20°58" and 28°lV E longitude-'- i s bordered on the west by the B a l t i c Sea and on the east by the U.S.S.R. I t has therefore occupied a strategic position within the conventional l i m i t s of northernEEurope. The B a l t i c countries have the qua l i t i e s of a natural geographical unit i n which the sea has played a dramatic role as provider and source of eventual op-pression: This border position i n the center of the continent i s one of the main characteristics of the geographical position of Latvia. The oceanic northwestern part of Europe i s super-seded here by the continental area.; t h i s contact between land and sea, and east and west, represents "geographical currency" of Latvia which has been coveted by a l l the greater powers of the B a l t i c coast. . . .^  C l i m a t i c a l l y , Latvia i s on the same latitude as the middle d i s t r i c t s of Juneau, Alaska, Labrador i n Canada and southern Great Br i t a i n . 3 Although i t l i e s so far north, the winters are not as severe as might be expected and the summers are generally f a i r l y warm with average temperatures i n January 7 and July of 23.0°F. and 6h.k°¥. respectively,^ influenced to a moderate ex-tent by the B a l t i c Sea and the Gulf Stream i n the A t l a n t i c Ocean. This creates very favourable weather for a g r i c u l t u r a l pursuits.5 The arable land covers 35% of the 25,^09 square miles of surface area of Latvia, the remainder being composed of 2k% pasture, 30% woodland and 11% water and bushland.^ Ex-cluding g l a c i a l features , the elevation i s not much above sea level.,- the average elevation being 293-U feet, while only one fourth of the t o t a l area i s above 1*00 feet.7 The e a r l i e s t human habitation i n Latvia dates to c i r c a 7800 to 6800 B.C.,1 forming part of the B a l t i c group of Indo-European peoples.closely related to the Germanic and Slav people. Their language belongs to one of the oldest Indo-European languages, related to Sanskrit: "Thus the Latvians belong to one of the oldest branches of the European people, from which a l l peoples of the white race trace t h e i r origin."9 However, because of continuous oppression throughout the centuries, the 1953 estimate of t o t a l global Latvian population i s only 2.5 m i l l i o n . Only between the years 1921 and 19^ 0 did Latvia gain r e a l independence and i t s people f r e e l y practise t h e i r c u l t u r a l heritage and guide t h e i r own destiny. The various aspects of Latvian culture, art and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y are wel l documented i n the literature:1»3J6>10 " i n 192^  the Latvian government established the Archives of Latvian Folklore (Latviesu folkloras k r a t u v e ) " ; 1 1 a comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n including about 2,308,000 texts comprising folksongs, f a i r y t a l e s , legends, r i d d l e s , proverbs and folk b e l i e f s among other things. However, there i s a lack of h i s t o r i c a l records and monuments of early art due mainly to the destruction i n the wars during the l6th and l8th centuries. By the middle of the 19th century Latvian a r t i s t s could t r u l y begin to express t h e i r own nat i o n a l i t y . After the 8 d e c l a r a t i o n of independence i n 1918 and w i t h the formation of a p r o v i s i o n a l government L a t v i a n l i t e r a t u r e showed a tendency toward expressionism which was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d i n the 1930's by a r e v i v a l o f urban l i t e r a t u r e under an Anglo-American i n f l u e n c e In the past only f o l k music was p r a c t i s e d . However, at the beginning of the nineteenth century Latvians were introduced to the music of Western Europe, p a r t i a l l y promoted by i n i t i a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n of c h o r a l s i n g i n g which began i n 181+3: " i n 1873 the Latvians gathered f o r the f i r s t n a t i o n a l s i n g i n g f e s t i v a l i n Riga." x3 This has developed i n t o a t r a d i t i o n s t i l l p r a c t i s e d today i n L a t v i a n communities i n most p a r t s of the world. During the t h i r t e e n t h century dominance of f o l k music, when C a t h o l i c i s m spread i n t o L a t v i a , t h i s form of music continued t o develop and remained even i n t o the s i x t e e n t h century when most Latvians were converted t o Lutheranism. This t r e n d continued i n t o the nineteenth century w i t h e f f o r t s t o expel the German B a i t t u t e l a g e . A f t e r d i s p e l l i n g the 1919 Soviet occupation and persecu-t i o n of the church, a new phase began i n the Lutheran c u l t i n L a t v i a . By 1935 the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f L a t v i a n r e l i g i o u s denominations was d i v i d e d as shown i n Table I . However, the Lutheran Latvians made t h e i r church a t r u e church of the people when they gained independence. This i s a t r a i t t h a t has been r e t a i n e d despite f o r c e d emigration and admixture w i t h other c u l t u r e s i n various p arts of the world. Table I i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l of the c u l t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s i n the 1935 t o 1937 p e r i o d . The n a t i o n a l makeup of L a t v i a was estimated t o be approximately 75% n a t i v e L a t v i a n s , 10% Russians and the remaining 15% comprising m i n o r i t y groups predominantly from neighbouring s t a t e s . The predominant r e l i g i o u s group, E v a n g e l i c a l Lutherans, comprised 55-1% of the total];-, however, from 9 TABLE I LATVIAN STATISTICS NATIONALITIES (1935) Nationality Total Number Percent Latvians 1,1+72,612 75-5 Russians 206,1+99 10.5 Jews 93,1+79 U.7 Germans 62,ll+l+ 3.2. Poles 1+8,91+9 2.5 White Ruthenians 26,867 1.^  Lithuanians ' 22,913 1.2 Estonians 7,0ll+ 0.3 Other n a t i o n a l i t i e s 10,025 0.5 RELIGIONS (1935) Evangelical Lutherans 11Q®75§61+1 55-1 Roman Catholics Vf6,963 2k.k Greek Orthodox 17^ ,389 8.9 Old B e l i e f 107,195 5-5 Hebrew , 93,!+06 1+.8 Other Protestants 19,ll+6 1.0 Other r e l i g i o n s 3,762 0.2 CULTURAL ACTIVITIES (1-937) Theatres 1^ Operas 2 Cinemas 9^  Public Li b r a r i e s 912 School Libraries 1,911 Books published 1,151 Daily Newspapers 13 Monthly Publications 15*+ Weeklies 3^ Broadcasting Stations 1+ Continued ... TABLE I continued EMPLOYMENT (1935) Branches T o t a l Number Percent A g r i c u l t u r e 801,563 67.8 Industry 17^,601 1U.8 Commerce 68,303 5-8 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 26,161 2.2 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 39,582 3.3 P r o f e s s i o n s , Education 21.70U 1 .8 Medical 18,169 1.5 Servants 32,63^ 2.8 D i f f e r e n t 9,800 EDUCATION (1937) T o t a l No. T o t a l Teachers Attendance Element ar y , Primary, Supplementary Schools and Kindergartens 11,90k 231,533 9,287 Lower Schools. - S p e c i a l 83 7,317 735 V o c a t i o n a l Secondary 5^ l,lhk 923 Gymnasia 77 16,779 1,603 P r i v a t e Academic I n s t i t u t i o n s k 528 83 U n i v e r s i t y of L a t v i a 1 6,813 1*16 L a t v i a n State Conservatory 1 278 38 L a t v i a n Academy of Fine A r t s 1 205 21 T o t a l 2,116 . 271,197 13,106 11 Table I data the other denomination that i s w e l l documented i n B r a z i l , the Baptists, must apparently be included i n the 'I.Other Protestant' group i n -volving 1% or less of the Latvian population* This value i s very s t r i k i n g i n comparison with the rel i g i o u s denominational subdivision noted i n the discussion of B r a z i l , assuming the estimates i n Table X of a t o t a l Latvian immigrant population from 1890 to 1957 i s between 2200 and 5^ 00, and the c i t y of Sao Paulo 1955 estimates of 320 Lutheran and 1*09 Baptist Latvians. From th i s l i m i t e d data alone i t i s apparent that the minimum percentage of Baptist contribution to the B r a z i l i a n r e l i g i o u s population i s approximately 7.5% or greater unless a s i g n i f i c a n t number of the p r a c t i s i n g Baptists i n Sao Paulo are Baptist B r a z i l i a n s . From additional data i n Table X there may be even i n excess of 1,1*82 Latvian Baptists i n B r a z i l , that i s , i n excess of 21% of Latvians may be Baptist. Therefore the 50 to 1 r a t i o of Lutherans to Baptists i n pre-Second World War Latvia has changed dramatically i n B r a z i l to an estimated minimum of 7 to 27% (.15 to 1, to 1* to l ) and i n Sao Paulo to approximately a 1 to 1 r a t i o . Data from private communications estimates the number of Baptist Latvians i n B r a z i l to be much larger than the Lutheran Latvians. The remainder of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Table I may be compared with Tables XV, XVI and XXI and the discussion i n the assimilation section of Chapter I I I . The Latvian professional theatre dates from the rebuilding period i n Riga i n 1886 during the German domination and was characterized by subsequent steady growth of Latvian elements. Like the other forms of c u l t u r a l enter-tainment, the Latvian theatre reached i t s peak during the years of independence: 12 "Stagecraft developed into a t r u l y popular art",-*-5 as i t remains today. The opera, founded in'1912 i n Riga, i s possibly the most representative of the performing arts of the Latvian republic. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Latvian National Opera consisted of opera and b a l l e t performances, and symphonic concerts with low admission fees to make the opera accessible to a l l sections of the population: The seasonal number of operatic and b a l l e t performances and concerts reached 3^ 0 during the l a s t pre-war years, with a t o t a l attendance of 235,000 . . . and 1+012 performances and concerts with a t o t a l attendance of 3.1+ m i l l i o n during i t s f i r s t 15 years.16 For the purposes of understanding the t r a n s i t i o n of the Latvian people from t h e i r homeland into a markedly different culturalaand s o c i a l climate, i t i s important to outline b r i e f l y the dominant characteristics of pre-war Latvian society. As a result of continuous p o l i t i c a l oppression, Latvia was more successful i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e than i n the realm of p o l i t i c s . However, at the advent of independence Latvians were quick to adopt "a demo-cr a t i c constitution containing an elaborate b i l l of r i g h t s , and providing for universal suffrage (to both sexes over the age of 21 years), proportional representation, a cabinet of ministers responsible to a unicameral l e g i s l a t u r e , and a wide use of i n i t i a t i v e and referendum."1''' The main aims of t h i s new government were to establish an equitable election law, an elected l e g i s -l a t i v e body and president of state and a three-party system consisting of labour (13$ of the population), farmers (66%) and a middle class with representation for r a c i a l minorities. The s o c i a l system was implemented and greatly broadened during the period of independence. The p o l i c i e s were successful i n fostering free enterprise with l i t t l e state interference, and i n promoting incentives for the i n d i v i d u a l to work independently for the 13 general b e n e f i t of the country. The rewards of l i f e were t o be gained from honest hard work and not from s p e c u l a t i o n or s o c i a l support. In keeping w i t h t h i s philosophy there was l i t t l e emphasis on l u x u r y , or on c l a s s d i s -t i n c t i o n . This aspect of L a t v i a n s o c i e t y i s t o be compared and contrasted-w i t h that discussed i n connection w i t h the B r a z i l i a n s o c i e t y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s "There were few m i l l i o n a i r e s and no 'high l i f e ' ; t h e r e were no shameful slums nor an i g n o r a n t , s u f f e r i n g p r o l e t a r i a t . " 1 8 An important observation may be put forward concerning the l a c k of beggars and low occurrence of poverty i n L a t v i a . As a consequence the L a t v i a n people possess an inherent work-ethic and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o provide f o r t h e i r needs whatever t h e i r geographical l o c a t i o n or s o c i a l s t a t u s . This f e a t u r e i s supported by the documentation of unemployment which was g e n e r a l l y almost non-existent throughout L a t v i a n h i s t o r y , except f o r a few instances i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o f e s s i o n s . A d a p t a b i l i t y i n the labour f o r c e developed according t o demand and t o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . For example, when there was a l a c k o f production i n the f a c t o r i e s the workers a s s i s t e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e and during the w i n t e r months they a s s i s t e d i n timber c u t t i n g . The L a t v i a n s t a t e during Independence maintained a w e l l developed s o c i a l s e c u r i t y system covering almost a l l phases o-f a s s i s t a n c e . This i n c l u d e d medical a i d , insurance f o r times of s i c k n e s s , accident insurance and many other programmes t h a t provided f o r almost complete coverage. As a r e s u l t , taxes were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , amounting t o one quarter of a worker's income, being p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y higher f o r the r i c h . As a general r u l e t h ere was very l i t t l e evidence of crime. The harmony of the L a t v i a n s o c i e t y i s a l s o shown by the existence of a w e l l developed cooperative system i n both consumer and a g r i c u l t u r a l spheres. These had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n improving Ik the general welfare of the country and increased the "bargaining power of the people with the corporations. The s o c i a l clubs and unions formed an import-ant part of l i f e i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . They were supported by a c u l t u r a l fund originating from a u t i l i t i e s tax that was also used to foster educational community recreation. Modern principles of education were introduced into Latvia only after the regaining of independence. School philosophy was stated i n the Latvian School Law: . "Every school must s t r i v e to develop i t s pupils phy s i c a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , aesthetically and morally, and inculcate i n them personal and s o c i a l virtues., industry, patriotism, and f r i e n d l y feelings toward people of other n a t i o n a l i t i e s and r a c e . " x 9 The educational system consisted of ten years of compulsory and free elementary school followed by several years of primary education for a l l Latvian children between the ages of 6 and 16. The law provided for education i n the family language and even the schools of Russian, German, P o l i s h and other ethnic groups were supported by the government. Up u n t i l 1935» the system was co-educational but separate education was introduced and maintained to a large extent after that time: In 19lk the population of Latvia numbered 2,552,000 and for every 1000 inhabitants only 67 pupils attended different schools. According to the census of 1937, 137 pupils out of every 1000 inhabitants were attending various schools (not including the uni v e r s i t y ) . I l l i t e r a c y i n 1937 "was less than one percent, among Latvians themselves less than four percent. In 1938, Latvia had one university graduate to every 278 inhabitants20 [generally from the University of Latvia founded i n Riga i n 19193. This i s approximately double the figure for either Sweden or Denmark. 1937 s t a t i s t i c s for attendance at various levels of education are given i n Table I (page 10). 15 The following general observations and comments have been put forward by other authors concerning the s o c i a l structure of the Latvian people. In Contemporary Europe (19^1), Dr. E.C. Helmreieh notes: In 1920 the B a l t i c states negotiated the peace tre a t i e s with Russia which recognized t h e i r independence, i n 19^ 0 they were broken again under Russian domination. Only two decades of freedom, but what progress was achieved! . . . Few states can show such a record of ag r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l expansion and c u l t u r a l development.21 S i m i l a r l y , i n B a l t i c Background (19^8), Bernard Newman quotes: Considering i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , Latvia did we l l i n i t s twenty years of freedom: education was of a high standard; there were few wealthy people - but fewer paupers. . . . The s p i r i t of progress was always ap-parent: the greatest need of Latvia was the one thing denied - another twenty years of peace.22 This b r i e f account of the Latvian s i t u a t i o n and heritage p r i o r to f i n a l occupation and l a s t hope for an independent freedom prepares us for an analysis of t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n a new and different environment. The s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n the aspects discussed, namely geographical loc a t i o n , climate, demography or c u l t u r a l heritage, language, r e l i g i o n , education and s o c i a l structure, are introduced, together with those of a new and e x c i t i n g l y different country, B r a z i l . • A discussion of the reasons for, and the impact of immigration to an unknown new homeland, forms the substance of the second chapter. 16 CHAPTER I: NOTES 1 J. Rutkis, Latvia, Country and. People (Stockholm: Latvian National Foundation, 1967), p. 15. ^' I b i d . , p. 16. 3 Edgards Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvia (Iowa: Ed. Dobelis, Latvju Gramata, 1953), p. 12. ^ I b i d . , p. 358. 5 American Latvian Association, Latvi a (Washington: American Latvian Association i n the United States, Inc., 1968), p. 15-6 Edgards Andersons, Latvi a , Past and Present (Iowa: Latvju Gramata, 1969). 7 Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvia, p. 19. 8 I b i d . , p. 637. 9 'Ihid., p. 135. 10 Sources for t h i s include the following: R.O.G. Urch, Latvia: Country and People (Riga: Walter and Rapa Ltd., 1935); Latvijas Psr. •Zinatnu Akademija Vestures I n s t i t u t s , Latviesu Etnografija (Riga: "Zinatne" Riga, I969); A. Spekke, Latvia and the B a l t i c Problem (London: Latvian Information Bureau, 1952) and Latvias Psr. Ministru Padomes Centrala S t a t i s t i k a s Parvalde, Padomju Latvijas Ekonomika un Kultura (Riga: "Stat-i s t i k a " Latvijas Nodala, 1966). 1 1 Rutkis, p. 500. 12 Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvia, p. 26^. IT 1 3 R u t k i s , p. 538. x ^ Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvia,, pp. 360-361. x5 - i b i d . , p. 5U8. lf= i b i d . , p. 555-IT Andersons, Cross Road Country, L a t v i a , p. -155. !8 I b i d . , p. 160. 19 j . K r o n l i n s , L a t v i a n Schools (Washington, D.C: School L i f e , V o l . XXIV, 1939). 20 Andersons, Cross Road Country, L a t v i a , p. 182. 2 1 I b i d . , p.-171. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 1 8 CHAPTER I I BRAZIL: A DEVELOPING AND PROMISING LAND In d i s t i n c t contrast to the small t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s of Latvia and the w e l l developed and deep rooted heritage of i t s peoples, B r a z i l i s a country of tremendous physical magnitude and rapidly changing c i v i l i z a t i o n : " B r a z i l i s an immense nation of many contrasts and inner differences, and yet i t has achieved a remarkably homogeneous national culture. " 1 B r a z i l i s the world's f i f t h largest country, covering over three m i l l i o n square miles and encompassing about one h a l f of the land area of South America. I t borders a l l of the nations of South America except Chile and Ecuador and has extended access to the At l a n t i c Ocean. The northern part, near the mouth of the Amazon River, i s at the equator, and the southern part extends beyond the Tropic of Capricorn, on which l i e s the c i t y of Sao Paulo. Despite i t s large s i z e , B r a z i l has a d i s t i n c t lack of climatic ex-tremes (dry deserts, high mountains, a r c t i c conditions and earthquakes), although i t contains many different physical environments, for example, the humid Amazon lands, the semi-arid lands of the northeast and the southern pampas among others. The detailed variations i n the B r a z i l i a n climate have been outlined by R.P. Moms en .2-CULTURAL HERITAGE As a result of the many and varied origins of the B r a z i l i a n population, t h i s country has one of the richest cultures i n the world. The basic B r a z i l i a n f o l k l o r i c t r a d i t i o n s are heavily mixed with Iberian, Amerindian 19 and A f r i c a n c o n t r i b u t i o n s , w i t h minor i n f l u e n c e s d e r i v e d from the seventeenth century Dutch dominance i n the no r t h e a s t , and s m a l l e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s from I t a l i a n , German, Lebanese, Poles and Japanese among others. These have been u n i f i e d by the common Portuguese language which has i n t u r n been enriched and modif i e d by the many European and non-European languages such as Yoruba, Angolan and Tupi.3 F o l k f e s t i v a l s and v i v i d expression i n both dance and song are an important i n g r e d i e n t i n the way o f - l i f e , p o s s i b l y best e x e m p l i f i e d by the annual C a r n i v a l of Rio de J a n e i r o . R e l i g i o u s music played an important r o l e as e a r l y as the seventeenth century, although music schools had e x i s t e d even e a r l i e r i n Bahia. A major i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f musical a c t i v i t y occurred w i t h the a r r i v a l o f the Portuguese r o y a l f a m i l y i n the e a r l y nineteenth century, which may be p a r a l l e l e d w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of western European music t o the L a t v i a n c u l t u r e i n northern Europe.in the same era. The Modern Ar t Week of 1922 began a new r e v o l u t i o n i n a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , p a i n t i n g and music which i n i t i a t e d a new t r e n d towards a B r a z i l i a n expression of modern forms. This was very evident i n the adaptation of f o l k l o r i c melodies and rhythms i n compositions such as H. V i l l a - L o b o s ' "Bachianas B r a s i l e i r a s " . B r a z i l i a n popular music i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f everyday l i f e and i s ex-pressed i n various forms such as: modinha, maxixe, samba, choro, marcha and f r e v o , a l l o f which are c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g subjected t o change. In p a r t i c u l a r , the s.amba and the "bossa nova" have gained world-wide r e c o g n i -t i o n , the former of which o r i g i n a t e d i n the " f a v e l a s " or shanty towns of Rio de J a n e i r o . At the beginning of B r a z i l i a n c o l o n i z a t i o n , p l a y s were performed as a means of communication w i t h the Indians. The t h e a t r e f l o u r i s h e d during the time of the g o l d and diamond e x p l o r a t i o n s i n Minas G e r a i s , Rio de J a n e i r o , 20 Pernambuco, Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre. With the advent of Independence, the B r a z i l i a n theatre, as w e l l as a l l the other a r t s , started to f l o u r i s h , s i m i l a r to that described e a r l i e r for the Latvian people at the onset of t h e i r independence, despite i t s occurrence at a much l a t e r date. The f i r s t expressions of the v i s u a l arts were displayed i n a primitive Indian form p r i o r t o discovery and influence by the early Dutch occupation. The c r e a t i v i t y of the eighteenth century art i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the arc h i -tecture, sculpture and reli g i o u s pictures found i n old mining c i t i e s during th i s "Golden Age of B r a z i l " . The period of tremendous expansion during Independence was dominated i n part by the French influence i n the v i s u a l a r t s , with Rio de Janeiro becoming the a r t i s t i c c a p i t a l of B r a z i l . A some-what different and appealing B r a z i l i a n c o l o n i a l architecture resulted as a modification of the European Portuguese style to the t r o p i c a l environment, and again influenced i n l a t e r years by the French. This stands as a unique and o r i g i n a l architecture which has now evolved into a new contemporary style r e adily exemplified by the creative s p i r i t of B r a s i l i a and the newer develop-ing areas i n a l l of B r a z i l . B r a z i l i a n l i t e r a t u r e accounts for approximately one h a l f of the Latin American output, having characteristics s i m i l a r i n some respects to Spanish American but being so different i n general that these two form t o t a l l y separate streams i n the world's l i t e r a r y scene: I t i s customary to distinguish four periods i n B r a z i l ' s l i t e r a r y development, each related to different stages i n i t s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l history: the Colonial Period, u n t i l the Independence; the Romantic Period, coinciding roughly with the fifty-seven years of the Empire ;.;the Post-Romantic Period of the f i r s t few decades of the republic with the Parnassian, Symbolist and Realist schools; and f i n a l l y the Modernist Period which set i n after the famousr Modern Art Week held i n Sao Paulo i n 21 1922 and which came to exercise such a profound influence on B r a z i l i a n l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c development.^ POLITICAL AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE Of primary interest and importance to th i s study i s the immediate pre-war and post-Second World War p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l structure i n B r a z i l ; however, some of the aspects that originated before this period have had an influence on i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n . The a b o l i t i o n of slavery i n 1888 was one of the immediate causes for the f a l l of the monarchy i n B r a z i l . The next year the Republic was proclaimed by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca,^ the " F i r s t Republic", which developed freely from dictatorship along l i b e r a l l i n e s . This period lasted u n t i l 1930 when a revolutionary.movement led by Gertulio Vargas f o r c e f u l l y assumed the leadership of the republic, during a period of worldwide economic depression. Although freedom was severely r e s t r i c t e d throughout the following f i f t e e n years of th i s regime, the country benefited greatly from the following p o l i c i e s : introduction of advanced s o c i a l welfare, a reform of the educational system, and very substantial progress i n i n d u s t r i a l i -zation with the i n i t i a t i o n of ste e l production. However during the postwar period Vargas was forced to resign, and on voting for the f i r s t time i n f i f t e e n years the electorate chose General E.G. Dutra. A new democratic constitution was adopted i n 19h6, and lasted u n t i l 196j. This era saw a succession of presidents terminated by a m i l i t a r y takeover i n an attempt to expel extremist factions. General Castello Branco was elected by the Congress and successfully brought p o l i t i c a l and economic s t a b i l i z a t i o n to B r a z i l . Succeeding presidents have i n s t i t u t e d reform i n the f i e l d s of tax po l i c y , s o c i a l welfare, education, housing and energy, accompanied by 22 unparalleled s t a b i l i t y and progress. The history of B r a z i l i s we l l documented. Although Roman Catholicism was the predominant r e l i g i o n of B r a z i l through out the entire period of the empire, " . . . nevertheless, there was a freedom of r e l i g i o n and worship i n B r a z i l that contrasted sharply with the severe re-stra i n t s imposed i n Spanish America."''' This was an observance! not generally afforded the Latvian people throughout the major part of t h e i r history i n t h e i r native land. In B r a z i l i n the 1889 republic affirmed, and subsequently the 1937 and 19^ 5 constitutions reaffirmed, freedom of r e l i g i o n : A l l individuals and religious sects may freely and p u b l i c l y exercise t h e i r c u l t , meet for t h i s purpose and acquire r e a l estate, observing the provisions of common law and the requisite of public and good usage.8 The 1950 census shows 93-5% of Brazilians to be Roman Catholic, 3-h% or a t o t a l of 1,7^ 1,^ 30 to be Protestant which were subdivided i n 1953 as follows:9 TABLE I I Protestant Denomination Number Assembly of God (Pentecostal) 200,000 Baptist Convention 109,638 Episcopal Church 7,500 Evangelical Lutheran Church 82,000 Independent Presbyterian Church 17,000 Methodist Church 37,000 Presbyterian Church 67,695 Reformed Christian Church 5,000 Synodical Federation (Lutheran) 500,000 Union of Congregational Churches 13,000 Others 26,500 Total 1,065,333 In p a r t i c u l a r , the Protestant groups most l i k e l y to include members of the Latvian community i n - B r a z i l l i e i n the Lutheran and Baptist denominations which have been referred to i n Table I. The Protestant church has shown 23 predominance i n the south and may be 'clearly represented by founding and maintaining Protestant schools and colleges, for example, Mackenzie College i n Sao Paulo, which have contributed measurably to the educational progress of the country. I t i s of interest to note that the less enlightened portion of the Brazilians i n the poorer sector of society even today retain some animistic b e l i e f s and magicalppractices as part of th e i r r e l i g i o n . In keeping with democratic p r i n c i p l e s , education i n B r a z i l i s designated as the right of every person, with the administration of the system under government control. The primary years of education are compulsory and sub-sidiz e d where lack of resources i s demonstrated, and in s t r u c t i o n i s given i n the language of the country, that i s , Portuguese. This i s i n contrast to the Latvian system while under oppression during the Soviet occupation, at which time use of Latvian language ins t r u c t i o n was prohibited i n educational i n -s t i t u t i o n s . Religious in s t r u c t i o n i n B r a z i l i a n schools was to be i n accord-ance with the b e l i e f s of the i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l i n such a way as to reinforce and relate to the family relationship. Under theppresent educational system primary school l a s t s four years, there i s a simi l a r period of 'ginasio', followed by three years of 'colegio' i n preparation for university: The contribution of private schools to primary education amounts to lQ% of the t o t a l number corresponding to th i s grade:? where secondary education i s concerned, however, the proportion i s as high as Q0% and th i s i s one of the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of B r a z i l i a n education at the present time. The secondary schools i n p a r t i c u l a r are run by associations, re l i g i o u s congregations, co-operative teachers' associa-tions or even indi v i d u a l firms. In higher education private i n i t i a t i v e also co-operates to a very large ex-t e n t . 1 0 RACIAL AID GEOGRAPHICAL SUBDIVISIONS The origins^ of the major r a c i a l groups of inhabitants may be c l a s s i f i e d 2k as the Mongoloid American I n d i a n , the A f r i c a n Negro and the European C a u c a s o i d . i x These groups have adapted themselves t o the environment i n many d i f f e r e n t ways as a r e s u l t of f a c t o r s such as topography, c l i m a t e , ecology, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , economic development and ethnic o r i g i n . P o s s i b l y the most c r i t i c a l o f these i s the p h y s i c a l nature of the country which i s d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s regions: the North, the Northeast, the East, the West and the S o u t h . 1 2 For the purposes o f t h i s study we w i l l concern ourselves only w i t h the South and d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y t o the State of Sao Paulo. The South can be subdivided i n t o a s e r i e s of regions each w i t h i t s own form of n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e . These may be a r b i t r a r i l y designated as "cosmopolitan Rio de J a n e i r o . . . the dynamic c i t y and s t a t e of Sao Paulo . . . the Southern regions of European immigration, Santa C a t a r i n a , Parana, and Rio Grande do S u l . . . and the wide pampas of the extreme s o u t h . " 1 3 25 CHAPTER I I : NOTES 1 Charles Wagley, An Introduction to B r a z i l (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971), p. 1« 2 Richard P. Momsen, J r . , B r a z i l : A giant S t i r s (Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company Inc., 1968), p. 11. 3 Information Department of the B r a z i l i a n Embassy, B r a z i l (London: The Lavenham Press Ltd., 1972), p. 32. ^ Ib i d . , p. 26. 5 H.V. Livermore, " B r a z i l i a n History: The Republic", i n Portugal  and B r a z i l , ed. H.V. Livermore (London: Oxford University Press, 1953), p. 320. 6 E. Bradford Burns, Nationalism i n B r a z i l (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968); G. Campbell, B r a z i l Struggles for Development (London: Charles Knight & Co. Ltd., 1972); E. Garrastazu Medici, Nosso Caminho ( B r a z i l i a : Departamento de Imprensa Nacional, 1972); H.V. Livermore, Portugal and B r a z i l . 7 T. Lynn Smith, B r a z i l : People and Institutions (Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1963) , p. 510. 8 I b i d . 9 I b i d . , p. -511. 10 M. Bergstrom Lourenco F i l h o , Education i n B r a z i l (Rio de Janeiro: Ministry of Foreign Relations, Departamento de Imprensa Nacional, 1951), p. 8. H Wagley, p. 1. !2 Momsen, p. 8. 1 3 Wagley, p. 6 2 . 27 CHAPTER I I I SAO PAULO: THE HEART OF THE SOUTH The c i t y of Sao Paulo i s l o c a t e d at 760 metres above sea l e v e l i n the o l d r e g i o n a l p l a t e a u of the southeast of B r a z i l which i s c a l l e d the " p l a n a l t o " and forms p a r t of the State's " p l a n a l t o A t l a n t i c o " . 1 I t i s s i t u a t e d between the l a t i t u d e s o f 20° and 25° south, andii^s considered p r i v i l e g e d i n terms of r a i n f a l l and humidity. The mean average temperature i n Sao Paulo ranges from 68° t o 73°F., which may be compared w i t h the data given f o r L a t v i a i n -d i c a t i n g a mean near i*U°F. This i s a d i r e c t i n d i c a t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n between the more t r o p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B r a z i l and the northern.climate of the B a l t i c r e g i o n , w i t h i t s seasonal v a r i a t i o n s and grea t e r c l i m a t i c ex-tremes . The present l o c a t i o n of Sao Paulo evolved as a r e s u l t of s e v e r a l i n t e r -e s t i n g geographical and e x p l o r a t i o n f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the T i e t e R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s the Tamanduatei and the P i n h e i r o s , e s t a b l i s h i n g a headquarters f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r by the Bandeirantes , 2 an abundance o f arable l a n d , ready access t o the sea port of Santos, and the energy and r e s o u r c e s - s u i t a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l development. A f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the development o f Sao Paulo was the l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n i n f l u x i n response t o the extreme expansion i n the coffee i n d u s t r y i n the reg i o n towards theeend of the nineteenth century. As a r e s u l t of the a b o l i t i o n of s l a v e r y i n 1888, Sao Paulo s t i m u l a t e d immigration t o f u l f i l l new labour demands: From 1886 t o 1936, almost a m i l l i o n and a h a l f immigrants, mainly I t a l i a n , Portuguese, Spanish, German and S l a v i c 28 people came to Sao Paulo. Since 1908 approximately 200,000 Japanese have entered B r a z i l , and the majority have come to Sao Paulo.3 A majority of these farm labourers eventually migrated into the i n d u s t r i a l force within the c i t y of Sao Paulo, making i t a melting pot of European immigrants who have had a great influence on shaping the national culture of the 'paulistas'. A description of the subdivision of the work force i n Sao Paulo i s presented i n Table I I I along with additional aspects of the s o c i a l makeup of B r a z i l i a n society. This information i s d i r e c t l y comparable to that given i n Table I for Latvian culture andiinference i s drawn from these data i n the assimilation discussion: TABLE I I I RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES OF THE URBAN MALE LABOR FORCE IN THE CITY OF SAO PAULO AND THE DISTRIT0 FEDERAL, 1950^  Occupational category Percent of male labor force Sao Paulo D i s t r i t o Federal Manufacturing, processing and construction Vf.3 22.6 Trade and commerce 16.0 15.9 Banking, r e a l estate, credit and insurance 3.3 Service a c t i v i t i e s lh.2 18.0 Transportation, communication and storage 8.3 10.1 L i b e r a l professions and a u x i l i a r y occupations 1.7 2.3 Social a c t i v i t i e s (teaching, s o c i a l work, rel i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , etc.) 3.6 9-5 Public administration, l e g i s l a t i o n and justice 2.9 6.8 National defense, public security and related a c t i v i t i e s 2.7 10.5 29 Table IV gives s t a t i s t i c s f o r t o t a l immigration t o B r a z i l d u r i ng the p e r i o d 1881+-1957, c l a s s i f i e d according to the country of o r i g i n . From a t o t a l of 765jll3 immigrants, the number from the B a l t i c s t a t e s was 33,578 of which only 2,209 o r i g i n a t e d i n L a t v i a (28,665 from L i t h u a n i a ) . However, as of 1967 the t o t a l number of immigrant Latvians l i v i n g i n B r a z i l i s reported t o be from 5,000 t o 6,000^  and estimated from t h i s work, t o be between 6,^ 00 and 9,000, as described more f u l l y i n the immigration chapter. Approximately 2,000 L a t v i a n s a r r i v e d i n B r a z i l between 1890 and 191^ , f o l l o w e d by 2,500 between 1922 and 1939, hut during the e n t i r e p e r i o d a f t e r 19^ 5 the t o t a l amounted t o a mere 900,6 the m a j o r i t y of whom l i v e i n Sao Paulo. Of importance t o the understanding of the consequences of L a t v i a n im-mi g r a t i o n t o B r a z i l and a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the Sao Paulo environment i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n and o r i g i n of the m a j o r i t y of the peoples comprising the populace of B r a z i l as a whole, and Sao Paulo i n p a r t i c u l a r . The s c a r c i t y of data f o r i n d i v i d u a l B a l t i c n a t i o n a l i t i e s makes t h i s a d i f f i c u l t task,.and t h e r e f o r e estimates are made where data i s l a c k i n g . These s t a t i s t i c s , s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the L a t v i a n peoples (or those o f B a l t i c o r i g i n ) , are d e t a i l e d i n the immigration s e c t i o n and the appendix. Therefore the i n f o r m a t i o n immediately f o l l o w i n g Is given f o r background i n f o r m a t i o n t o 'set the scene' f o r as complete a treatment as p o s s i b l e from e x i s t i n g sources. B r a z i l has one of the most complex r a c i a l mixtures of any country i n the worl d , i n c l u d i n g almost a l l o f the various stocks. The 1950 census recorded the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s according t o colour:7 TABLE V Colour Number White• 32,027,661 Black 5,692,657 Yellow 329,082 Brown 13,786,7^ 2 Undeclared 108,255 TABLE IV IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL, 1881+-1957, ACCORDING TO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN5 Country of Origin Immigrants Number Percent of t o t a l I t a l y 1,510,078 31. 7 Portugal 1,1+57,617 30. 6 Spain 657,7^ 13. 8 Japan 209,181+ 1+. 1+ Germany 192,57^  1+. 0 Russia 109,889 2. 3 Austria 88,789 1. 9 Turkey 78,706 1. 7 Poland 53,555 1. 1 France 1+1,1+95 0. 9 Romania 1+0,271+ 0. 8 United States 30,686 0. 6 England 28,771 0. 6 28,665 0. 6 Argentina 25,6l6 0. 5 Yugoslavia 2l+,109 0. 5 Syria 23,113 0. 5 Lebanon ll+,3l6 0. 3 Hungary 13,218 0. 3 The Netherlands 12,989 0. 3 Switzerland 12.5U1 0. 3 Uruguay 10,720 0. 2 Greece 10,112 0. 2 Belgium 7,1+92 0. 2 Czechoslovakia 6,1+86 0. 1 Sweden 5,51+3 0. 1 Denmark 3,388 0. 1 2.701+ .... 0. 1 China 2,1+85 0. 1 Chile 2,306 2.209 . . .. Peru 1,325 Other countries • -56.1UU 1. 2 Total 1+, 765,113 100. 0 31 62% are of European o r i g i n , mainly Portuguese, 11% are negroes and 1% are Indians; the remainder i s composed of mestizos, divided into the 'mulatos' ("black and white), the 'caboclos' (a mixture of whites and Indians) and the 'S'cafusos1 (of black and Indian o r i g i n ) . From the l a t e nineteenth century up to 1930, 3.3 m i l l i o n European immigrants arrived i n B r a z i l , and contributed extensively to the c u l t u r a l heritage. In the twentieth century, a large i n -f l u x of Japanese, especially to the, Sao Paulo area, added a new ingredient to the r a c i a l types of B r a z i l , but the Caucasians have contributed the most to the b i o l o g i c a l makeup of the population. However, i n spite of the varied m u l t i r a c i a l origins of i t s peoples, B r a z i l has developed predominantly as a one-culture society. The o f f i c i a l spoken language i s Portuguese and although there i s no designated o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n , almost 90% are Roman Catholics. Table VI presents the population s t a t i s t i c s f o r B r a z i l , South B r a z i l , the State of Sao Paulo and the c i t y of Sao Paulo between the period of the 19^ 0 and 1950 census. The population i s subdivided into B r a z i l i a n Born, Naturalized B r a z i l i a n s , Foreigners and Other N a t i o n a l i t i e s . The percentage of both r u r a l and urban location of the population i s also shown.- This may be compared with the figures i n Table VIII for theppercentage of urban and r u r a l Latvian population. Table VII gives immigration s t a t i s t i c s for B r a z i l from 1920 to 1950 and for Sao Paulo from 1920 to 1936 and i l l u s t r a t e s the percentage of the t o t a l population residing i n Sao Paulo. The average was approximately 50 to 60% throughout t h i s period. The effect of l i m i t i n g the number of immigrants i n 193^  i s reflected i n the data. The accompanying histograms i l l u s t r a t e the ethnic makeup of the immigrants and theppercentage s e t t l i n g i n Sao Paulo. Estimates for 1968 show a t o t a l population of 9^ -5 m i l l i o n i n B r a z i l with . TABLE VI POPULATION STATISTICS8 Date Location 19 UO 31 Dec. 31 Dec. 31 Dec. 1 July 31 Dec. 1 July 31 Dec. 19^ 0 1950 191*0 1950 I9U0 1950 1950 191*0 1950 1950 19^ 0 1950 B r a z i l B r a z i l Sul Sao Paulo State Sao Paulo City Greater S.P. City Brasileiros Natos Naturalizados Estrangeiros Other N a t i o n a l i t i e s 50, Total 50,727,113 = 1,0C*,776 m= w= m= 1*67,129 1*62,206 52,833 53,163 KEY 11*8,897 = 16,982 * 19 m= m= w= 8,91+2 6,373 3,71+3 2,792 1,085,287 282,705 * 198 m= w= m= 123,903 112,975 89,587 82,565 = 1,305,720 + 1,257 m= w= m= w= 316,580 * Minority European Groups = Non-Portuguese Speaking (at home) + No Declaration of Nationality m Men w Women 276 269 7^  116 m= w= m= 52,61*5,1+79 51,976,359 665,^ 62 61*0,258 600,250 581,823 7,180,316 m= ll*6,237 w= 138,636 9,21*2,610 9,13^ ,1+23 2,01*1,716 2,017,025 2,227,572 2,198,096 IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO YEAR TO BRAZIL TO SAO PAULO Total Total % of Total 1920 71,027 32,028 U5.1 1921 60,8kh 32,678 53.7 1922 66,967 31,281 1+6.7 1923 86,697 1+5,21+0 52.2 192k 98,125 56,085 57.2 1925 81+,883 57,^ 29 67.7 1926 121,569 76,796 63.2 1927 101,568 61,607 6O.7 1928 82,061 1+0,81+7 1+9.8 1929 100,1+21+ 53,262 53.0 1930 7l+,i+20 30,921+ 1+1.6 1931 2l+,056 16,216 67.I+ 1932 3l+,683 17,1+20 50.2 1933 1+8,812 33,680 69.O 193U 50,368 30,757 6l.l 1935 35,913 21,131 58.8 1936 1 1M5I+ 1937 3l+,677 12,381+ 35-7 1938 19,388 1939 22,668 I9I+O 18,1+1+9 19^ 1 9,938 19^ 2 2,1+25 19^ 3 1,308 191+1+ 1,593 i9*+5 3,168 191+6 13,939 19^ 7 18,753 191+8 21,568 191+9 23,81+1+ !950 3l+,691 ANNUAL IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO (1871+-19391 thousands 225 V 200 J. 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 •* To B r a z i l «* To Sao Paulo 3^ more than k0% under the age of lk and a growth rate of 2.7% per year, one of the highest i n the w o r l d . 1 0 This growth rate has increased from the 1958 estimate of 2.k%i:L showing a population of 83,719,000 i n 1970 and 105,527,000 by 1980 which w i l l surely be surpassed. 35 CHAPTER I I I : NOTES 1 A.N. Ab'Saber, "Sao Paulo: 0 Chao, 0 Clima e as Aguas" i n Sao Paulo, E s p i r i t o , Povo e Instituigoes, by J.V. Freitas Marcondes and 0. Pimentel (Sao Paulo: L i v r a r i a Pioneira Editora, 1968), p. 13. 2 Sources for t h i s note include: J. Cortesao, Introdugao a H i s t o r i a  das Bandeiras (Lisboa: Portugalia Ed., 196k), I I ; A. E l l i s J r . , 0 Bandeirismo  Pau l i s t a e o Recub Meridiano (Sao Paulo: Typografia P i r a t i n i n g a , 1923), pp. 105, 195; Cassiano Ricardo, Marcha para o Oeste (Rio de Janeiro: Ed. da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1970). 3 Charles Wagley, An Introduction to B r a z i l (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971), P> 69. ^ T. Lynn Smith, B r a z i l : People and Institutions (Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1963), p. 612. 5 I b i d . , p. 126. 6 J. Rutkis, Latvia: Country and People (Stockholm: Latvian National Foundation, 1967), p. 326. 7 T. Lynn Smith, "The People of B r a z i l and t h e i r Characteristics", Modern B r a z i l , ed. J. Saunders (Florida: University of Fl o r i d a Press, 1971), p. 5^ -8 Sources include: Conselho Nacional de E s t a t i s t i c a , B r a z i l : Censo  Demografico, serie nacional, Vol. I (Rio de Janeiro: IBGE, 1956), p. 1^ ; Anuario E s t a t r s t i c o do B r a z i l , Populacao (Rio de Janeiro; 1971), P> 115; Conselho Nacional de E s t a t r s t i c a , Sinopse Preliminar do Censo Demografico, Recenseamento Geral do B r a s i l , 1 de Julho de 1950 (Rio de Janeiro: Servigo G r a f i c o do I n s t i t u t o de Geografia e E s t a t i s t i c a , 1951), pp. 29-30. 9 T. Lynn Smith, B r a z i l : People and I n s t i t u t i o n s , p. 12l+. 1° Information Department of the B r a z i l i a n Embassy, B r a z i l (London The Lavenham Press L t d . , 1972), p. 23. H C u l t u r a l D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Foreign A f f a i r s , B r a z i l (Rio de J a n e i r o , 1958), p. 7°-SECTION B LATVIAN EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION 38 CHAPTER IV LATVIAN MIGRATIONS: REASONS AND CONDITIONS FOR EMIGRATION "The most common reasons f o g ? emigration are economic circumstance, adventure, p o l i t i c a l defeat, group salvation and group s o l i d a r i t y . " 1 During the period of i n t e r e s t , the early and mid-twentieth century, the major driving force for extensive Latvian emigration above that normally experienced by any nation was p o l i t i c a l l y motivated. During t h i s century, as a direct consequence of both World Wars, and subsequent occupation, the Latvians became a part of the large number of refugees seeking to reta i n t h e i r independence and freedom. Global Latvian emigration s t a t i s t i c s for t h i s period are presented i n Table V I I I , and according to a 1953 estimate^ the t o t a l global Latvian population at that time was only 2 .5 m i l l i o n . Table VIII i s not intended to give a com-plete assessment of Latvian emigration, but to i l l u s t r a t e a summary of the number and dispersion of Latvians on a world-wide scale (Table XIX gives population figure's for Latvia). TABLE VIII LATVIAN EMIGRATION STATISTICS3 Number Destination Year(s) 3,399 U.S.A. 1921-1930 519 " 1931-1936 20,000 A u s t r a l i a by Dec. 1951 17,800 (89%) " 19W-1950 19,600 (.97%) " 19^7-1951 5,000 Denmark 19J+6 115,000 Sweden I9I+6 30,000 U/S./A. 1950 15,000 Canada 1950 2 0 , 0 0 0 A u s t r a l i a 1950 15,000 Great B r i t a i n 1950 20,000 Germany 1950 20,000 Other South American and 1950 European countries 39 TABLE-. VIII Continued 6 to 9 ,000 B r a z i l . . . ... „ I89O-I967* 2,500,000 Global population 1953 *(Estimates from research carried out for t h i s thesis. ) A social-psychological study of Latvian immigrants i n Canberra, A u s t r a l i a ^ i s one of the very few studies concentrating solely on Latvians involving descriptive s o c i a l and assimilation data. The majority of t h i s migration occurred during 19^9 and 195° ( t o t a l l i n g 20,000 by 1951) and had v i r t u a l l y ceased by 1953: Previous studies of Latvians i n A u s t r a l i a were l i m i t e d to two student investigations (Lejejes, 196I+ and M i c u l i s , 1958) and two community surveys (Baitaks, i960 and Jurevies, 196l). The Latvians have however been lumped with other B a l t i c re-fugees (Zubrzycki, 196k), with Lithuanians (Taft, 1965, p. 6 l ) or studied as Displaced Persons (Martin, 1965; Murphy, 1952a, 1952b; Stadulis, 1952). There are a few studies of Latvians i n North America (Veidemanis, 1 9 6 l , 1962, 1963; S k r e i j a , 1965 and Radziw, 1965)-^ Emigration may, i n general, be c l a s s i f i e d i n to categories of voluntary and involuntary or e x i l e . In t h i s respect the majority of Latvians proceeded as individuals with some minor c o l l e c t i v e or group migration; however there was also a degree of involuntary ex i l e within the confines.of the new p o l i t i c a l state. Despite the lower percentage of the resident Latvian population being i n urban centres (see Table i ) there i s evidence that during t h i s period i n h i s t o r y the majority of the emigrants were from the Latvian towns and c i t i e s and comprised the better educated. This era may be con-trasted with the i n i t i a l Latvian immigrant population that s e t t l e d i n B r a z i l i n the l a t e nineteenth century. They were of a g r i c u l t u r a l and agrarian back-ground and, i n founding a new society i n colonies, one of which was Varpa, retained t h i s form of l i f e despite a lowering of s o c i a l and economic standards 1+0 i n numerous cases, because of the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n r u r a l Sao Paulo s t a t e . These f i r s t immigrants t o B r a z i l were seeking new economic and r e -l i g i o u s freedom, the l a t t e r a l s o being a dominant f a c t o r i n post-Second World War mig r a t i o n . Table I X 5 gives the L a t v i a n p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s f o r the p e r i o d from 1897 t o 19^ 3 i n c l u d i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t o n a t i v e .Latvians and the percentage of urban and r u r a l . From 1920 t o 19^ 3 the t o t a l number of n a t i v e Latvians i n c r e a s e d from l,l6l ,Uol+ t o l,lj-lj-U,525 which was approximately a p r o p o r t i o n a l i n c r e a s e from 72.8% t o 80.1% of the country's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . In the aftermath of the two World Wars there was a dramatic decrease i n t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . The 19ll+ p o p u l a t i o n maximum of 2,552,000 was reduced almost 1 m i l l i o n by 1920 and never again reached t h i s l e v e l . The 1939 l e v e l , 2,001,900, was reduced t o 1,803,10U by 191+3 due i n major p a r t t o war, and emigration.. Table IX a l s o shows the average percentage o f r u r a l popula-t i o n t o be approximately 65% and e s t a b l i s h e s L a t v i a t o be a predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . This proved t o be one of the main reasons f o r e a r l y L a t v i a n choice o f settlement i n B r a z i l ' s r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l areas as pr e -d i c t e d by Malves i n 19l6 (.©hapterpVe),^  and was not d e t r i m e n t a l t o immigration i n the post-1938 p e r i o d which r e q u i r e d 80% of a l l B r a z i l i a n immigrants t o be of a g r a r i a n background. TABLE IX POPULATION STATISTICS: LATVIA Year Total Population Latvians Percentage Urban Urban Rural Number of Year ' of t o t a l pop. " Percentage " Emigrants  1897 1,929,387 ? .' ? - 565,530 29.h 1,362,857 191k 2,552,000 1,016,000 1+0.3 1,506,000 1920 1,596,131 l,l6l,l+0l+ 72.8 ' 3lk,126 23.6 1,221,271+ 1925 1,881+, 805 1,35^ ,126 73.^  90,789 ( l? 2? x930 662,877 31+.9 1,237,168 1935 1,950,502 1,1+72,612 75.5 675,282 3I+.6 1,275,220 1939 2,001,900 191+3 1,803,101+ 1,1+1+1+,525 80.1 579,701 32.2 1,223,1+03 1921+) (Natural population growth rate per 1000 inhabitants i s l+.l.) H h2 CHAPTER IV: NOTES 1 J. Norris, Strangers Entertained (Vancouver: Evergreen Press Ltd., 1971), P. h. 2 E. Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvia (Iowa: Ed. Dobelis, Latvju Gramata, 1953), p. 135. ' 3 Sources include: 'F.J. Brown and J.S. Roucek, Our Racial and  National Minorities (New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1937), p. 10; I. Jaunzems and L.B. Brown, "A Social-Psychological Study of Latvian Immi-grants i n Canberra", ICEM, International .Migrations, Vols. I / I I , 1972, p. 53; A. Spekke, Latvia and the B a l t i c Problem (London: Latvian Information Bureau, 1952), p. 78; Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvia, p. 135. ^ Jaunzems and Brown, p. 53. 5 Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvi a , pp. 359-361, and National Bureau of Economic Research, International Migrations (New York, 1929), p. -78U. 3^ CHAPTER V LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL S t a t i s t i c s are i n general lacking for the entire period covering the Latvian immigration to B r a z i l . In p a r t i c u l a r , during the years 1890 to 1970 data has been collected i n order to assess the t o t a l number of Latvians i n B r a z i l , and also the approximate number i n Sao Paulo during the post-Second World War period. I t has been reported that the Latvian p e r i o d i c a l Latviesu Kolonijas published i n Riga i n 1938, estimated that there were approximately 6,000 to 8,000 Latvians i n B r a z i l p r i o r to that date. I t i s also estimated that about 1,500 Latvians arrived after the Second World War. Despite these figures, more recent data suggests that the post-war figure i s i n excess of 12,000 and could be as high as 15,000 (including dependents). The newspaper 0 Estado de Sao Paulo, i n 1959 reported that i n 19^ 0 of 50,628 immigrants to B r a z i l U,280 were Latvians and Estonians. The'Estonian newspaper i n Sao Paulo, Meie Tee, i n 1958 reported 6,216 Latvian immigrants i n the State of Sao Paulo to that date, 3,102 residing i n the c i t y and 3>11^  i n the r u r a l areas. These figures should be considered only as approximate since the newspaper's estimate of the 19^ 0 B a l t i c State population i n Sao Paulo i s 30,51^  whereas the I n s t i t u t e of Geography and S t a t i s t i c s for B r a z i l gives 20,215- The rate of growth and the number of births from B a l t i c o r i g i n families did not contribute to the s t a t i s t i c s for the B a l t i c n a t i o n a l i t y i n B r a z i l since the children were considered B r a z i l i a n c i t i z e n s i n the census. In 1967 a German monthly journal, Baltische Briefe, indicates that there were approximately 8,000 Latvian adults and 2,500 youths i n the State of Sao 1+1* Paulo at that time. Table X gives a summary of the available l i t e r a t u r e cited with respect to Latvian immigration to B r a z i l during the period between 1890 and 19T0. Supplementary data for the other B a l t i c countries i s also presented as a guide to establishing estimates for periods i n which Latvian data i s lacking or has not been located. As a supplement to the table, s t a t -i s t i c s for short intervals within t h i s period are also presented i n order to f i l l the gaps i n theyyearly data. Estimates i n the l i t e r a t u r e vary markedly, placing the t o t a l number of Latviansimmigrants i n B r a z i l as high as 95 00 with the most agreement being between 6,000 and 9,000. These estimates are more f u l l y discussed i n connection with Table XII i n which an attempt i s made to c l a s s i f y the material into five-year periods. Table X presents a summary of various estimates of Latvian immigration to B r a z i l and Sao Paulo. Although the estimate of Latvian immigrants after 1890 approximates 6,000 to 9,000, there Is evidence to show that the t o t a l number of Latvians including dependents i n B r a z i l would approximate between 13,000 and 18,000. A rather complete analysis of the s t a t i s t i c a l data available i s given i n the appendix of t h i s t h e s i s , which should be referred to as a supplement to the immigration s t a t i s t i c s discussion i n the text. For ease of reference, several of the tables for t h i s section have been duplicated and also appear i n the appendix. ' LATVIAN RELIGIOUS SUBDIVISIONS IN SAO PAULO The outline of the rel i g i o u s denominations of the Latvian native com-munity-enumerated i n Table I of Chapter I shows approximately 1% (or 12,000) Baptists and approximately 55% (or 1,075,000) Lutherans. However, there i s evidence1- that a large percentage of the Latvian immigrants to B r a z i l i n the early part of the twentieth century was of Baptist background. Religious *5 TABLE X LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO: TOTALS Reference International Migrations Rutkis Smith Andersons Period involved 1820 - 1926 1890 - 191U 191k - 1922 1922 - 1939 1939 - 19^ 5 I9I15 -(196T) lQ&k-r- 1957 1886 - 1953 Rudzitis Up to 19^ 0 (0 Estado de S.P.) Rudzitis Up to 1938 (Latviesu Kolonijas) Up to. Rudzitis Rudzitis Rudzitis (Meie Tee) Rudzitis (Baltische Briefe) Ronis 19^ 6 -(post war) 1960's Up to I960*s Up to 1958 Up to 1967 1916 - 1923 Up to 1953 Up to 1972 Total number of immigrants 331 2,000 ) ) 2,500 ) 5,^ 00 ) 900 ) 2,209 S.P. State 2,000 S.P. State 30,000 including des-cendants (k,280 LLatvians + Estonians 6,000-8,000 1,500 12,000-15,000 (including descendants) i>%\-£ (3,102 c i t y of S.P. ) b ' 2 1 b '(3,llU r u r a l S.P. ) 8,000 adults 2,500 children 1,750 (Varpa) 1,1+82 Baptists 1,072 " Table XXII 19I16 - 195U 65^  TABLE XI GRAPHICAL ESTIMATES OF LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO Reference 19 X R u t k i s 1 o Smith 3 a I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n s 8 A Andersons 16 0 R u d z i t i s ( L a t v i e s u Kolonias) 11 a R u d z i t i s (Meie Tee) 20 + R u d z i t i s T i 1 — i — 1 1 1 r 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 Date hi TABLE XII-ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF LATVIAN IMMIGRANTS ENTERING BRAZIL AND HISTORICAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD 1890-1970 8000 1 •H N rt u PQ 60 C •H M 0) •U a w e rt n •H C rt •H > 4J rt o )-< 7150 6250 3750 2000 1970 l S t WORLD WAR 2 n d WORLD WAR Unknown number of Latvian Immigrants during t h i s period x Estimates by Rutkis M Overlap i n immigrant data k8 freedom and search f o r b e t t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l land c o n d i t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s d i r e c t e d the L a t v i a n emigration towards B r a z i l and s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the States of Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do S u l and Santa C a t e r i n a . Between the years of 1890 and 19ll+ they formed r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l communities w i d e l y dispersed from the urban centres i n accordance w i t h the immigration p o l i c i e s e x i s t i n g during t h a t p e r i o d i n B r a z i l . A major reason f o r the immigration of Latvians t o B r a z i l was the v i s i t t o B r a z i l i n 1888 of two L a t v i a n u n i v e r s i t y graduates, K a r l i s B a l o d i s and P e t e r i s S a h l i t i s , who aimed t o evaluate the advantages t o be o f f e r e d by t h i s new country f o r p o t e n t i a l L a t v i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l immigrants. T h e i r p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s were described i n two L a t v i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s , B a l t i j a s  Wehstnesis (The B a l t i c Messenger) e d i t e d i n Riga i n 1889, and followed by a short book, B r a z i l i j a ( B r a z i l ) , p u b l i s h e d i n 1890.2 These a r t i c l e s described B r a z i l favourably i n terms of a g r i c u l t u r e , c l i m a t e and l i b e r a l government favouring e t h n i c s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . However, the optimism of these reports was not e n t i r e l y f u l f i l l e d upon reaching B r a z i l due i n p a r t t o the housing c o n d i t i o n s and wildness of the i n t e r i o r . This created a d r i v i n g f o r c e f o r t h e i r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n both i n and outside B r a z i l and t h e i r u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g few decades. One of the w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d L a t v i a n communities i n the State of Sao Paulo, Nova Odessa, was founded i n 1906. J u l i o Malves was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g the F i r s t L a t v i a n B a p t i s t Church and the core of t h i s community.3 With the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l unrest around 19lk, J u l i o Malves pub-l i s h e d a paper i n 19l6 p r e d i c t i n g a l a r g e exodus of Latvians t o B r a z i l t o seek s a f e t y from oppression': Because o f a l l of the c a l a m i t i e s , as soon as a l l of the communication systems have been r e e s t a b l i s h e d a huge exodus w i l l begin . . . and they should not f a i l t o f i n d h9 refuge i n B r a z i l . The war however, began again so suddenly that these plans, as we a l l know, could not be put into practice. . . . and as t h i s occurred, there would be a da i l y contribution towards the Evangelization of the new adopted country . ... i n the divine plans for the salvation of the world B r a z i l i s also included. . . .^  By 1922 i n the aftermath of the F i r s t World War, Latvians emigrated for political,andlrqlmgdious reasons, and for reasons of personal safety, seeking freedom and prosperity i n B r a z i l . This resulted i n the largest immigrant Latvian Baptist colony i n the world, c a l l e d Varpa, situated i n the v i r g i n i n t e r i o r i n the State of Sao Paulo. At t h i s time the community was composed of 1,750 members, and included one of the. fourteen Baptist churches already established i n B r a z i l . 5 In 1923 the f i r s t Latvian Baptist church was founded i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo. By 1926 i t had approximately 100 members with a c t i v i t i e s limited to morning and evening services (cultos dominicais e cultos vespertinos) and a female choir.^ I t continued to develop with increased youth p a r t i c i p a t i o n from inclusion of Brazilians and other ethnic or i g i n s . During the period of the Second World War the Latvian Baptists i n B r a z i l were not afforded the opportunity of uniting i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l meetings and assemblies. With the termination of the War the following conditions existed within the Latvian churches. The s p i r i t u a l l e v e l was found unsatisfactory and the i n f l u x of Latvian war refugees reinforced the necessity to maintain the Latvian culture within the church, and to create a fund for assistance of Latvian refugees i n Europe. Importance was placed on retaining a l i n k with the Latvian Baptists i n the United States and reporting r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e i n the Latvian language, especially musical material no longer readily available from European sources. Emphasis was also put on restructuring missionary work.^ 50 I t was evident that these matters could best be resolved through the unity of the Latvian Baptists i n B r a z i l , and through the formation of Latvian missionary conferences and the organization of The Association of Latvian Baptist Churches i n B r a z i l . • The oldest Latvian Lutheran community was also located i n the state of Sao Paulo at Nova Odessa and founded i n 1906; i t was formed from approx-imately t h i r t y families which originated primarily i n Ufa and the Urals;of Russia.^ Janis Mezgravis, the minister, conducted the f i r s t Lutheran service i n B r a z i l i n 1908; however, i t was o r i g i n a l l y given i n German and translated by Mezgravis. A Latvian Lutheran publication from Windau i n Latvia by the minister Theodore Grunberg, Evangeliuma Gaisma, was instrumental i n aiding the development of Lutheran theology i n Brazil.9 After the death of the minister i n 1931 there was a period of l i t t l e development of the Lutheran mission u n t i l the po:st-war era i n 19h6. K a r l i s Briedis was instrumental i n purchasing a house to be used as a Latvian Lutheran church f a c i l i t y i n 1950, which was blessed i n A p r i l , 1951 upon the a r r i v a l of new Latvian minister Jekabs Mekss i n Sao Paulo. This i n i t i a t e d the f i r s t t r u l y Latvian language service i n the Lutheran church. 51 CHAPTER V: NOTES 1 Osvaldo Ronis, Uma Epopeia de Fe: H i s t o r i a dos Batistas Letos no  B r a s i l (Rio de Janeiro: Casa Publicadora B a t i s t a , 197^), p. 8U. 2 I b i d . , p. 106. 3 I b i d . , p. 157-^ J u l i o Malves, "A Localizagao dos Batistas Letos no B r a s i l " , 0 Jornal  B a t i s t a , XVI, No. 27, 13 de julho de 1916, p. 6: 5 Em virtude de todas estas calamidades, comegara o exodo em grandes proporcoes logo que as vias de comunicagao estejam mais os menos restabelecidas . . . estes nao diexariam de. se refugiar no B r a s i l . A guerra todavia, precipitou-se tao repentinamente, que estes pianos, como todos sabemos, de forma alguma podiam ser postos em pratica. . . . E a medida que i s t o suceder, eles dia a dia ir a o contribuindo mais para a evangelizagao da nova p a t r i a adotada . . . Nos pianos divinos da salvagao do mundo esta. tambem incluido o B r a s i l . . . . • ^RRonis, pp.- 191 and 2k6. 6 I b i d . , p. 397-7 I b i d . , p. i+09. 8 Jekabs Mekss, Latvijas Ev. Lut. Baznicas Macitajs B r a z i l ! j a , 1957 (Latvian Minister i n Sao Paulo; private communication). 9 "Comunidade Luterana Leta de Sao Paulo", Sinbdo Evangelico do B r a s i l Central, 1962, p. 16. SECTION C THE BRAZILIAN ASSIMILATION OF LATVIAN IMMIGRANTS 53 CHAPTER VI GENERAL ASSIMILATION IN BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO For the purposes of t h i s study, s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l assimilation s h a l l be regarded as adaptation of the immigrant to the s o c i a l and physical en-vironment of the host country. In general, the more c r i t i c a l aspects i n -volve the basic a t t r i b u t e s , including race, creed and colour, a l l of which have d i s t i n c t characteristics. In addition the c u l t u r a l evolution within the homeland's geographical environment i s extremely important to adjustment and acclimatization, with thepperiod required for t h i s process being longer i n the areas of greatest d i s s i m i l a r i t y . An immigrant cannot be regarded as being assimilated u n t i l he i s f u l l y acclimatized to the new environment. To become f u l l y adapted to the new s i t u a t i o n the immigrant must establish and maintain a stable reciprocal relationship with the environment - t h i s includes the human, s o c i a l or interpersonal aspects. This assimilation should not be forced or rushed. The National I n s t i t u t e of Immigration and Settlement^ for B r a z i l recommends i n A r t i c l e 38: The aim of immigrant assimilation s h a l l be the adjustment of the s e t t l e r to B r a z i l i a n l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y by f a m i l i -a r i z a t i o n with the language of the country and adapting him to B r a z i l i a n customs and usages but without prejudice to such of his e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l values as do not c o n f l i c t with the t r a d i t i o n a l basis of the B r a z i l i a n s o c i a l structure. A b r i e f description of the evolution of B r a z i l i a n immigration to Sao Paulo and the i n i t i a l stages of c u l t u r a l assimilation i s now given, i n preparation for a detailed discussion of the Latvian s i t u a t i o n . 5h Late i n the nineteenth century, c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n was r e a d i l y ex-perienced by the German and Japanese immigrants t o Sao Paulo, evidenced by smooth and complete i n t e g r a t i o n . This was aided by a d i s p l a y of h o s p i t a l i t y and a l a c k o f c u l t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n or s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the character of the P o r t u g u e s e - B r a z i l i a n c u l t u r e . In general there was l i t t l e r e s t r a i n t t o freedom of movement, r e s t r i c t i o n t o r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , or demonstration o f s o c i a l or r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e . This may be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World War which saw d r a s t i c changes implemented i n the B r a z i l i a n and European s o c i a l framework. The r e l a t i v e improvements i n the w e l l b e i n g of the European working c l a s s i n t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s and the higher standard o f l i v i n g , decreased the emigration of the previous l a r g e number and the adventurous s p i r i t of those e n t e r i n g B r a z i l . As a consequence, the emigrant was more c r i t i c a l of the d e f i c i e n c i e s and the standard of l i v i n g i n the new environment, r e s u l t i n g i n gre a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s i m i l a t i o n . This e f f e c t was compounded by the r e s t r i c t i o n s implemented by the Vargas government and a p p l i e d t o immigration i n the 1930's, as discussed p r e v i o u s l y i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n o f Chapter I I . This t r e n d i s a l s o evident from the post-193^ s t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t e d i n Table V II (page 33). This r e s t r i c t i o n was most s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t e d i n the i n a b i l i t y of the immigrant t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y w i t h equal s t a t u s i n community l i f e . Of equal importance, the onset o f economic i n f l a t i o n i n B r a z i l and the spread o f t o t a l i t a r i a n p o l i c i e s i n Europe sboth enhanced the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n normal c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . The l a t t e r i n f l u e n c e was lessened only a f t e r the Second World War.^ Segregation was not as evident i n Sao Paulo State as i n the south; a s s i m i l a t i o n was more complete as a r e s u l t of greater i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and 55 urbanization. As a matter of f a c t , t h i s was a direct consequence of immigra-t i o n and settlement i n the State of Sao Paulo, population data for which, between 1827 and 1939, f o l l o w s : 3 T A B L E X I I I Nationality Number It a l i a n s 9^ 5,963 Portuguese 1+25,5^ 6 Spaniards 387,117 Japanese 186,769 Austrians 38,112 Other 317,7^ 7 Nationality Unknown 138,226 Total 2,1139,^ 90 A direct consequence of urbanization was a "more rapid and complete assimila-t i o n that Cin1 the ' i n f e r i o r ' r u r a l culture. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of immigrants i n the process of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n may be•demonstrated by a sample taken from the s t a t i s t i c a l yearbook of Sao Paulo. Out of 71^  i n d u s t r i a l enter-prises of various type(s), 521 were owned by immigrants or descendants of immigrants, as thennames of the proprietors c l e a r l y showed."^ I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n accelerated s o c i a l divisions among the immigrants and th e i r descendants especially within the urban society. This situation also created a greater awareness of an upper class society which attempted to ob-t a i n both, p o l i t i c a l and economic control because of the greater influence of th i s society i n general, as opposed to the previous non-industrial control exerted within the l o c a l community. A more complete assimilation with the upper class structure occurred, aided i n large part by the urban educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l systems and intermarriages between upper class families irrespective of ethnic o r i g i n . This l a t t e r aspect of assimilation, intermarria 56 was not s o l e l y a d i r e c t consequence of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n or u r b a n i z a t i o n , "but r a t h e r r e s u l t e d from the common bond o f wealth which acted as the connecting l i n k between f a m i l i e s t h a t might not otherwise have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one another. The i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Sao Paulo produced a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n f o r a l l segments and ethnic groups p r e v i o u s l y comprising the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The p e r i o d between the F i r s t and Second World Wars i n Sao Paulo saw the emergence of a c l a s s o f wage earners (lower c l a s s ) , who placed more emphasis on the s t r u g g l e f o r c l a s s i d e n t i t y and u n i t y than on maintenance o f i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Close r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y , e q u a l i t y of educational opportunity, and formation o f government-controlled trade unions l i n k e d more c l o s e l y people from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds and d i s p e l l e d some of the r a c i a l and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The degree of int e r m a r r i a g e i n t h i s lower c l a s s exceeded t h a t i n the upper c l a s s s o c i e t y : There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t , so f a r as urban s o c i e t y i s con-cerned, t r a d i t i o n a l values brought over by immigrants and preserved by t h e i r descendants found t h e i r greatest s t r o n g -h o l d i n the middle c l a s s . Confined t o l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , and c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p a r i s h and the r a t h e r f l o u r i s h i n g a s s o c i a t i o n a l l i f e of the community, the members of t h i s c l a s s found l i t t l e reward i n s u b s t i t u t i n g new values f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l ones.5 To t h i s c l a s s there was l i t t l e economic, p o l i t i c a l or status advantage found i n the other two c l a s s e s , and consequently the d r i v i n g forces f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n were not as a c t i v e or strong. In general there was a preference f o r r e t a i n i n g t h e i r n a t i v e language and f a m i l y ethnic l i n e a g e , w h i l e adopting the Portuguese language and c u l t u r e more sl o w l y . I t i s apparent t h a t a s s i m i l a t i o n as a whole i n c r e a s e d at an a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e . This i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r Sao Paulo i n comparison t o the South. The development of the va r i o u s s o c i a l c l a s s e s and t h e i r a s s i m i l a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the degree of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and general s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . 57 CHAPTER VI: NOTES 1 A.H. Neiva and M. Diegues J r . , "The C u l t u r a l A s s i m i l a t i o n of Immigrants i n B r a z i l " , The C u l t u r a l I n t e g r a t i o n of Immigrants, ed. 1959 United Nations: a UNESCO Conference h e l d i n Havana i n A p r i l , 1956, p. 233. 2 r b i d-> PP- 181-186. 3 E. Willems, "immigrants and t h e i r A s s i m i l a t i o n i n B r a z i l " , L a t i n  American M i g r a t i o n s , i i i World M i g r a t i o n i n Modern Times, ed. F r a n k l i n D. Scott (New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1968), p. 66. ^ I b i d . , p. 67. 5 I b i d . , p. 69. 58 CHAPTER V I I LATVIAN ASSIMILATION The L a t v i a n immigration t o B r a z i l was conditioned and s t r o n g l y i n -fluenced by the church ( e s p e c i a l l y the B a p t i s t and Lutheran churches) as i n i t i a l l y presented i n Chapter I I . The r e l i g i o u s t i e s played an important p a r t i n keeping the L a t v i a n n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a l i v e . One of the l a r g e s t L a t v i a n Lutheran community groups i n the c i t y o f Sao Paulo was formed i n 19^6 and became w e l l developed i n 19^ +9 under the s u p e r v i s i o n of 0. Biks.e who i n -s t i t u t e d a search i n the European community f o r a L a t v i a n Lutheran m i n i s t e r . With the a r r i v a l o f Jekabs Mekss i n 1951» there was an i n i t i a t i o n of intense community involvement i n both r e l i g i o u s and d a i l y s o c i a l matters. W i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g f i v e years the membership grew from approximately l6h t o 320 members w i t h a budget i n c r e a s e from.10,000 t o 50,000 c r u z e i r o s . 1 This Lutheran com-munity was annexed t o the World Lutheran F e d e r a t i o n , (Federacao Mundial Lutherana) and a l s o t o the E v a n g e l i c a l Synod of C e n t r a l B r a z i l (Sinodo Evangelico do B r a s i l C e n t r a l ) . As a r e s u l t o f the extreme p h y s i c a l l i m i t s of the c i t y o f Sao Paulo (by t h i s time the m e t r o p o l i t a n area was approximately 50 kilometres i n diameter), and the poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication net-work, i t was very d i f f i c u l t f o r the community t o r e t a i n a c l o s e l y - k n i t u n i t y . The o r g a n i z i n g and wornens1 committees were able t o acquire both l o c a l funding and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d from the aforementioned o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' s u f f i c i e n t t o construct a church, p a r o c h i a l residence and community h a l l i n B r o o k l i n , one of the n i c e s t r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the c i t y o f Sao Paulo. On the occasion of the s i l v e r anniversary of the o r d i n a t i o n of the m i n i s t e r Mekss, who was l a t e r appointed the o f f i c i a l B r a z i l i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the L a t v i a n 59 archbishop Grunberg, the f e s t i v i t i e s were attended by a large number of c l e r i c a l representatives from throughout Sao Paulo and the proceedings were conducted i n f i v e different languages. 2 This i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the i n -terest shown by the 'paulista' community i n the a f f a i r s of the Latvian Lutheran sector and a reciprocal willingness of the Latvians to accommodate the understanding of the other language groups demonstrating an interest i n t h e i r a f f a i r s . Even with Latvian emigration from Sao Paulo to the United States, the Lutheran community i n 1962 s t i l l had 260 members and had re-tained the Womens' A u x i l i a r y Committee and continued to receive grants from the Federacao Mundial Lutherana. The other dominant sector of the Latvian immigrant community that i s w e l l documented, the Baptists, contributed to t h e i r assimilation i n 1936 by jo i n i n g the Baptist Latvian church with the Sao Paulo Baptist Convention (Convencao B a t i s t a Paulistana) i n Sao Paulo. This was a d i s t i n c t e f f o r t to integrate themselves into the B r a z i l i a n Baptist family. One of the more active ministers was Joao Lukass, who emphasized rel i g i o u s teaching of both B r a z i l i a n children and adults through Sunday Bible Schools (Escolas B i b l i c a s Dominicais). This resulted i n a very strong congregation of 95 members, both B r a z i l i a n and Latvian, for which the Latvian Baptist church i n Sao Paulo bought land and constructed a church i n 1957-3 Part of Lukass' theological programme involved s o c i a l assistance for needy people, and provided assistance for Latvian refugees a r r i v i n g i n Sao Paulo. The Baptist Latvian church pro-moted youth choir music which was extended also to the Brazilians through Latvian choir p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B r a z i l i a n churches, schools and on radio programmes, and aid i n helping B r a z i l i a n churches form choirs. The develop-ment of r e l i g i o u s music i n the Latvian Baptist church promoted the i n f l u x of 6o many Latvian youths from r u r a l areas to the c a p i t a l of the state. Many l a t e r joined the conservatories i n Sao Paulo. Similar to the programmes i n i t i a t e d by Mekss i n the Lutheran church, the Baptists created a women;'s committee, Escola B i b l i c a Dominical as w e l l as a youth union. Throughout the history of the Baptist church i n Sao Paulo, an approximate membership number was,370 and i t i s believed that i n 1959 the number rose to ^ 09. In 1972 the lat e s t s t a t i s t i c s published by the Congress of the Association of the Baptist Latvian Churches of B r a z i l (Congresso da Associagao das Igrejas Batistas Letos do Br a s i l ) show the number of members to be 26l i n Sao Paulo headed by minister Andre Arajs.^ Table XIV describes the composition and a c t i v i t i e s of the Latvian Baptist Church Association i n 1953 i n B r a z i l . Data for the s.ame year showing the denominations of the Protestant church estimates a t o t a l of 1,065,333 members, of which 582,000 belong to the various Lutheran groups while 109,638 belong to the Baptist Convention. S t a t i s t i c s for 196l give a breakdown of the locations and number of Baptist church members for B r a z i l . The Baptist denomination increased between 1953 and 1961 to a t o t a l of 186,595 of which 26,370 belonged to the Sao Paulo area. TABLE XIV LATVIAN CHURCH COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITIES IN BRAZIL5 Association of the Latvian Baptist Churches of B r a z i l (1953 data) Number of Churches enrolled i n the Association 7 Number of members of churches i n the Association 1,W2 Schools ( B i b l i c a s Dominicais) 7 Students i n Schools 777 Choirs 7 Choir members 213 Orchestras 6 Orchestral Musicians 13^ Youth Unions 7 Youth Union members 276 Women' s Organizations 1.6*5' Women members l62 Number of Communicants i n Protestant Churches  i n B r a z i l , by Denomination (1953) Assembly of God (Pentecostal) 200,000 Baptist Convention 109,638 Episcopal Church 7,500 Evangelical Lutheran Church 82,000 ) Independent Presbyterian Church 17,000 ) Methodist Church 37,000 ) Presbyterian Church 67,695 ) Reformed C h r i s t i a n Church 5,000 ) Synodical Federation (.Lutheran) 500,000 ) Union of Congregational Churches 13,000 Others 26,500 T o t a l 1,065,333 ^Lutheran Location and number of Baptist Church Members i n B r a z i l ^ (1961) Rio de Janeiro F i e l d 73,997 Sao Paulo F i e l d 26,370 Baiano F i e l d 12,185 Evang. Pernambuco 12,000 E s p i r i t o Santo F i e l d 9,231* Capixaba F i e l d 8,530 Mineiro F i e l d 7,076 Parana F i e l d 6,562 Rio Grande do Sul F i e l d !+,159 Ass. Pernambucano 3,577 Estado Minas 3,1+08 T o t a l ( i n c l u d i n g the other states) 186,595 62 CHAPTER VII: NOTES x Jekabs Mekss, Latvijas Ev. Lut. Baznicas Macitaja B r a z i l i j a , 1957 (Latvian Lutheran Minister i n Sao Paulo; private communication). 2 "Comunidade Luterana Leta de Sao Paulo", Siriodo Evangelico do  B r a s i l Central, 1962, p. 16. 3 Osvaldo Ronis, Uma Epopeia de Fe: H i s t o r i a dos Batistas Letos no  B r a s i l (Rio de Janeiro: Casa Publicadora B a t i s t a , I97U), p. 399. ^ Ibid. , p. 1+01. 5 Sources include: Ronis, pp. 1+11+-1+15; T. Lynn Smith, B r a z i l : People  and I n s t i t u t i o n s (Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1963), p. 511; W.R. Read, New Patterns of Church Growth i i i B r a z i l (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1965),_. p. 192. 63 CHAPTER V I I I CULTURAL AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION LANGUAGE AND INTERMARRIAGE The L a t v i a n language has "been heard i n B r a z i l f o r approximately 75 years,-*- o r i g i n a t i n g i n i t i a l l y from the L a t v i a n c a p i t a l , Riga, as w e l l as throughout the country, from L a t v i a n c o l o n i e s i n R u s s i a and i n more recent years from various other parts of the world i n c l u d i n g China. In the b e g i n -ning the L a t v i a n language was heard only i n the southoof B r a z i l , and w i t h time i t was c e n t r a l i z e d i n the State of Sao Paulo, and i t s c a p i t a l , the C i t y of Sao Paulo. This occurred around 1906 when the c i t y began t o grow at an increased r a t e . A f t e r the Second World War a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the L a t v i a n immigrants went t o the Sao Pauibo area and t o a l e s s e r extent t o the c i t i e s and d i s t r i c t s o f Santo Andre, Sao Caetano, Suzana, Sao Miguel P a u l i s t a , Osasco, I t a p e s e r i c a , t o the beach areas of Santos, Sao V i c e n t e , Guaruja, P r a i a Grande, t o the area of the S e r r a da Mantiqueira such as Campinas, V a l i n h o s , J u n d i a i , Mojimirim and i n the area of the Serra do Paranapiacaba such as Sao Roque and Sorocaba. This immigration t o B r a z i l and m i g r a t i o n w i t h i n the country r e s u l t e d i n the almost complete disappearance of L a t v i a n presence i n the formerly e s t a b l i s h e d southern communities. The L a t v i a n language was l o s t t o the former areas but gained a new f o o t i n g i n the State of Sao Paulo. In some of these newer areas the L a t v i a n language i s o f t e n heard i n p u b l i c p l a c e s . As a general r u l e , the L a t v i a n women were the most i n s t r u m e n t a l i n keeping the usage of t h e i r parent language a l i v e . The men were predominantly i n v o l v e d i n the B r a z i l i a n employment scene and used Portuguese i n t h e i r d a i l y 6h work, whereas the women remained at home and p r e f e r r e d t o communicate w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n L a t v i a n . A minor s i d e e f f e c t became apparent i n a few cases, which was th a t the L a t v i a n i n f l u e n c e on the in-house maids occasion-a l l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r a c q u i r i n g the L a t v i a n language. The c h i l d r e n became the s t r o n g l i n k w i t h the B r a z i l i a n customs and language and more r e a d i l y l e a r n e d and adopted the host c u l t u r e . W i t h i n the school system, the c h i l d r e n were compelled t o become f l u e n t and adept at i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Portuguese language. Therefore communication by the c h i l d r e n w i t h the parents tended t o be i n Portuguese des p i t e e f f o r t s of the parents t o r e t a i n the L a t v i a n language at l e a s t i n the home. The emphasis onrpreserving L a t v i a n c u l t u r e r e s t e d almost e n t i r e l y w i t h the o l d e r generation, w h i l e the newer became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o B r a z i l i a n s o c i e t y . Intermarriage between Latvians and B r a z i l i a n and other immigrant groups r e s u l t e d from the s c a r c i t y of s e l e c t i o n i n t h e i r own race and d a i l y encounters w i t h the B r a z i l i a n p opulation. The new generation L a t v i a n - B r a z i l i a n s tended t o form f r i e n d s and acquaintances i n l a r g e p a r t w i t h Portuguese-speaking i n d i v i d u a l s , but d i d a l s o r e t a i n and develop t i e s w i t h other se c t o r s of the immigrant po p u l a t i o n such as the Swiss, Germans, Spanish, I t a l i a n s and other formerly European groups. In mixed marriages the spouse could o f t e n under-stand L a t v i a n , having acquired a knowledge of i t a f t e r marriage; however, they g e n e r a l l y could not speak i t . Therefore the main l i n k o f communication remained Portuguese. As a r e s u l t , i t was and s t i l l i s very common t o hear c h i l d r e n speaking two or three languages at home. The l a r g e degree o f inter m a r r i a g e may be emphasized by the data from Table XV which i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t approximately f6% of the L a t v i a n Lutherans i n a s i n g l e Sao Paulo church community i n t e r m a r r i e d between the years o f 1956 and 197^. Although the t o t a l 65 number of recorded marriages during t h i s p e r i o d f o r the community i n question was only 29, w i t h 22 int e r m a r r i a g e s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s t r e n d of a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h percentage o f intermarriage occurred i n the m a j o r i t y of the urban and h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d areas. However, i n the r u r a l and more i s o l a t e d communities, there were c l o s e r t i e s among the Latvians and l e s s i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the B r a z i l i a n s , r e s u l t i n g i n a much lower in t e r m a r r i a g e r a t i o . S p a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the c l o s e l y k n i t r u r a l u n i t s as opposed t o t h a t i n the sprawling c i t y o f Sao Paulo may have been a l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . I t has been speculated^ t h a t more than h a l f of the L a t v i a n - B r a z i l i a n s l i v i n g i n Sao Paulo s t i l l speak L a t v i a n , the non Latvian-speaking m a j o r i t y o f these being the c h i l d r e n . I n the p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g immigration, language was one o f the major f a c t o r s t h a t kept the s o c i e t y together and acted as a common bond between Lat v i a n s t h a t might not have normally a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each other i f s t i l l i n t h e i r homeland. As i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o B r a z i l i a n s o c i e t y progressed, a l a r g e number of these e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people of s i m i l a r s o c i a l and occupational i n t e r e s t s independent of t h e i r h e r i t a g e , and t h e r e f o r e they c o n t i n u a l l y withdrew from the L a t v i a n t i e s . This was e s p e c i a l l y apparent w i t h i n the growing c i t y <5f Sao Paulo, but d i d not i n some cases de-t r a c t from r e t e n t i o n of L a t v i a n p r i d e and h e r i t a g e w i t h i n the f a m i l y c o n f i n e s . LANGUAGE!'1 LINGUISTICS1^ The Portuguese language was i n general d i f f i c u l t f o r the Latvians t o l e a r n ; however there are a few s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the i n t o n a t i o n . Both have approximately the same p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r the consonants such as: 1_, n_, s_ and z_, and i n p a r t i c u l a r both languages do not u t i l i z e the phoneme h, as opposed t o i t s usage i n E n g l i s h and German. I t i s a remarkable coincidence t h a t the 66 TABLE XV STATISTICS FROM THE LATVIAN LUTHERAN CHURCH IN SAO PAULO (1951-1971)3 BIRTHS, CHRISTENINGS, COMMUNICANTS, MARRIAGES (INTERMARRIAGES), DEATHS Year B i r t h s - Chr i s t e n i n g s C arnmun i c an t s Marriages Deaths 1951 2 _ 1 1952 2 19 2 1 1953 1 7 h 0 195^  5 5 h 2 1955 6 2 1 1 1956 3 ih 1 (1) 7 i957 12 9 3 (2) k 1958 k 0 1 2 1959 8 5 2 (2) 3 I960 2 2 — 0 1961 5 0 2 (1) 2 1962 2 6 1 ( D 1+ 1963 5 2 1 ( D 1 1961+ 5 9 2 (1) 3 1965 0 0 2 (2) 5 1966 8 0 0 2 1967 2 2 (2) 3 1968 0 0 2 (1) 3 1969 2 0 1 ( D 7 1970 2 1+ 3 (3) 0 1971 0 - 1 ( D 5 1972 1 - 1 ( D 2 1973 3 - 1 ( D 6 197k 3 20 3 ( D ? (1) 83 108 29 22 6U (76%) These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t , from 1956 t o 197^ » the number of i n t e r -marriages between the L a t v i a n Lutheran community members r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo was 76%. 67 pronunciation of nearly a l l of the vowels i s almost i d e n t i c a l i n both Latvian and Portuguese, especially o_ and e_. However, the nasal sounds i n Portuguese are very d i f f i c u l t for the Latvians to master properly as they are for a l l other foreigners i n B r a z i l . There are Latvians i n B r a z i l today after more than a decade of residence i n Sao Paulo who s t i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s area, with the result that they w i l l possibly always retain traces of the foreign accent and may never achieve a perfect Portuguese pronunciation. Latvian and Portuguese have almost no words i n common; however, some endings of words i n both languages have similar pronunciation, for example:5 TABLE XVI LATVIAN ENDING PORTUGUESE ENDING Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. ins . ina inho inha i t i s i t e i t o i t a In B r a z i l , many words were added to the Latvian language to describe existing indispensible Portuguese words or e n t i t i e s u t i l i z e d i n B r a z i l i a n d a i l y l i f e . In general ex i s t i n g Portuguese words were adopted and the ending was changed according to the normal Latvian declension?}., for example:6 TABLE XVII . , Portuguese, T , ;Latvian-„Adaptation., . English .Meaning • . Portuguese- .,5^.J^ a L a t v i a . ^ + eS^y^- ^ b v i an. — ^ A ^ - L ^ O ^ :-^JRI • mamao mamorii papaya m i x i r i c a misirikas tangerine abacaxi abakali.. pineapple mandioca mandioki mandioc feijoada feizoadu black bean dish churrasco surasks barbecued meat dish cachaca kasasu type of drink (alcoholic) pinga pinga rum-base drink 68 In a d d i t i o n t o adaptation of Portuguese words f o r p r e v i o u s l y non-existent L a t v i a n words, there are many cases of adoption of the Brazil!an-Portuguese word f o r general usage where there was already an e x i s t i n g L a t v i a n e q u i v a l e n t , f o r example:7 Portuguese g e l a d e i r a elevador l i q u i f i c a d o r d i s c o cohra namorar TABLE XVIII Adopted L a t v i a n O r i g i n a l Latvian, z e l a d e i r a e l e v a t o r s l i k v i f ikadors disks kohram namoret ledus skapis l i f t s , c e l t n i s skidimama mas m a skanu p l a t cuskas m i l i n a t i e s E n g l i s h Meaning r e f r i g e r a t o r e l e v a t o r food "blender record snake to date ( s o c i a l ) The L a t v i a n language i s slo w l y being a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o B r a z i l i a n Portuguese as a r e s u l t of the many a d d i t i o n s , only some of which have been t a b u l a t e d . This has made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r Latvians coming from both L a t v i a and other c o u n t r i e s t o B r a z i l t o understand and be understood i n the new environment. A few L a t v i a n s c h o l a r s i n B r a z i l wrote books d e a l i n g w i t h the L a t v i a n and Portuguese languages. V i l i s B u t l e r s , i n the f i r s t decade o f the t w e n t i e t h century, wrote a book t o teach the Latv i a n s thePEortuguese language, and i n 1906 J a n i s Gutmanis wrote a Portuguese-Latvian d i c t i o n a r y c o n t a i n i n g 2,000 words. Continuation of communication and l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g was implemented through L a t v i a n news-papers pu b l i s h e d i n the State o f Sao Paulo, one of the f i r s t being the Lidumnieku, p u b l i s h e d by J u l i j s Malves f o l l o w e d l a t e r by the Biedrota.js and Graiids. 69 CUSTOMS AND ENVIRONMENT: ASSIMILATION Because of the l o c a t i o n and the great distance s e p a r a t i n g B r a z i l from other c o u n t r i e s c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e L a t v i a n p o p u l a t i o n such as Europe, A u s t r a l i a and North America, there was l i t t l e communication between these groups and the B r a z i l i a n L a t v i a n s . As a r e s u l t they have learned t o l i v e and cope w i t h the new environment w i t h l i t t l e e x t e r n a l a i d or i n f l u e n c e . General i n f o r m a t i o n and hooks concerning L a t v i a n c u l t u r e and i n f o r m a t i o n i n B r a z i l are few i n number and d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e . S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of f e s t i v e events was common t o both c u l t u r e s , an example.of which i s the June c e l e b r a t i o n s commonly ob-served i n both c o u n t r i e s and c a l l e d June F e s t i v a l s - Janu S v e t k i and Festas Juninas r e s p e c t i v e l y . C a r n i v a l , one of the major events i n B r a z i l , l a s t s approximately f o u r days - and i n v o l v e s s i n g i n g , and dancing emphasizing A f r i c a n rhythms. The i n t e n s i t y of the c e l e b r a t i o n s f r i g h t e n e d some of the immigrants i n t h e i r f i r s t years i n B r a z i l ; however, i n a very short time they became an i n t e g r a l part of the c e l e b r a t i o n s . E s p e c i a l l y i n the State of Sao Paulo they q u i c k l y j o i n e d the f e s t i v i t i e s i n clubs and p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . A major d r a s t i c change f o r the Sao Paulo Latvians was observance of Christmas at the height of summer a n d i i n the absence of snow. However, w i t h time they made the best of i t , s t i l l r e t a i n i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l candles and Christmas t r e e s , w h i l e u s i n g the good weather f o r shopping and p a r t y i n g . The young Latvians found i t necessary t o adapt themselves t o B r a z i l i a n customs w i t h respect t o d a t i n g and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t e n i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from t h a t experienced by t h e i r parents i n L a t v i a . As a general r u l e i t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o escort a B r a z i l i a n g i r l only i n the company TO of a chaperone and i t was understood that the suitor was not to enter the household of his g i r l f r i e n d unless he was prepared to face the commitment of an engagement for marriage. After marriage, i n the event of discord between the partners, there i s no l e g a l recourse for breaking the union similar to the divorce proceedings i n North America, but there i s a 'desquite', or separation, after which i t i s i l l e g a l t o remarry i n B r a z i l . There has been no shortage of food i n B r a z i l throughout i t s his t o r y , and i n t h i s respect the country was a haven during the European war years. However, the type-of food was quite different from that to which the Latvians were accustomed, but i t did not create any r e a l problems since i t was very nourishing, exotic and tasty. They were introduced to new B r a z i l i a n dishes such as 'Vatapa' ( f i s h paste), 'feijoada' (bean dish), 'churrasco' (barbecued meat) and many others. In the cosmopolitan atmos-phere of the c i t y of Sao Paulo they were also introduced to the foods of many other immigrant n a t i o n a l i t i e s , for example the I t a l i a n 'pizza' and 'polenta' and Japanese and Chinese dishes. The Latvians did not readily abandon t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l dishes and cookery but these were p a r t i a l l y modified due to the absence of t r a d i t i o n a l Latvian ingredients such as some berries and spices not indigenous to B r a z i l . However, the new-found abundance and variety i n B r a z i l i a n f r u i t s , spices and other foodstuffs made for a modification i n diet and preparation of j u i c e s , berry preserves and jams and newly adapted Latvian recipes. The newness, abundance and wildness of the t r o p i c a l and subtropical vegetation was strange to the Latvian immigrant, although direct contact with nature was minimized i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo. They were however i n dail y contact with new spe'cies of trees l i k e the 'pinheiro' and 'jacaranda' 71 and w i t h a l a r g e v a r i e t y of new and d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s and flowers never seen i n the northern c l i m a t e of L a t v i a . A few flowers of world-wide d i s t r i b u -t i o n , f o r example roses and g l a d i o l a s , were common t o both c o u n t r i e s . A major change i n the species present was r e a d i l y apparent because o f the abundance of i n s e c t s , mainly mosquitoes and f l i e s . The l a r g e number of ants was al s o uncommon t o the Latvians who now found i t necessary t o take a d d i t i o n a l precautions t o p r o t e c t food. During sojourns i n the country the r e p t i l e p o p u l a t i o n proved t o be a new problem and care had t o be taken against u n f a m i l i a r species o f s p i d e r s , snakes and scorpions. The l a r g e c i t y environment and the c o a s t a l beach areas were i n general not subject t o great d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , but s t i l l d i s p l a y e d the great beauty o f the B r a z i l i a n topography, v e g e t a t i o n , b i r d s and animals. 72 CHAPTER V I I I : NOTES 1 L. R u d z i t i s , " L a t v i e s u Valoda B r a z i l i j a " , unpublished work, B r a z i l , p. 1 . 2 I b i d . , p. 3 • 3 Jekabs Mekss, p r i v a t e communication, Sao Paulo, 197^. ^ R u d z i t i s , p. 21. 5 I b i d . , 6 I b i d . , p. 29-7 I b i d . , pp. 2 8 - 3 0 . 73 CONCLUSION EXTENSION OF'LATVIAN INFLUENCE: BRIEF COMPARISON BETWEEN SAO PAULO CITY AND SAO PAULO STATE Despite the great degree of assimilation between Latvians i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo with the B r a z i l i a n community and other foreign influences, the maintenance of a Latvian heritage was fostered by retention of the Latvian language i n r e l i g i o u s services. This may be contrasted with the Latvian colonization i n communities i n Sao Paulo State. Unlike the c a p i t a l of the state, and the North American colonies, the Latvian community of Varpa offered r e l i g i o u s services i n the language of the host country, Portuguese, making i t within reach of a l l B B r a z i l i a n s to attend and participate. This was of great importance i n aiding the development of r e l i g i o n and the associated arts which were a f f i l i a t e d with the church i n the i n t e r i o r . Description and development of t h i s area, although not s t r i c t l y pertinent to the theme of t h i s t h e s i s , may be found i n a r t i c l e s i n 0 Jornal B a t i s t a . 1 A MONUMENT TO THE LATVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN BRAZIL The construction of a monument to the Latvian immigrants i n B r a z i l i s possibly unique to t h i s immigrant people throughout the world. I t was constructed i n the i n t e r i o r of the State of Sao Paulo at Nova Odessa i n 1956 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the f i r s t Latvian colonization i n B r a z i l . Latvians from the c i t y and throughout the State came to the 7k event, which also involved a large contingent of B r a z i l i a n s . The celebra-tions included.a Latvian parade demonstrating the f o l k l o r e , culture and l i f e s t y l e . The effects of assimilation and intermarriage were quite .t apparent from the different physical features i n some of the Latvians ranging from dark-haired mestico to the original_Nordic blond. The Latvian Lutheran minister from the City of Sao Paulo, J. Mekss, related the success that the Latvians had had i n retaining t h e i r language and culture and, des-pi t e the integration and assimilation that would inevitably occur, would be as successful i n the following f i f t y years i n retaining the basic roots of the Latvian heritage. The occasion received a written compliment from the B r a z i l i a n Sao Paulo State governor, Janio Quadros, as we l l as from other interested prominent B r a z i l i a n s . 2 GENERAL CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION The primary purpose of the study was to establish the extent of Latvian immigration to B r a z i l and Sao Paulo and to describe the interaction with the urban B r a z i l i a n community. The degree of immigration and supportive s t a t i s t i c -a l evidence presented indicates that there was a rather constant immigration of Latvians to B r a z i l numbering between kOO and 900 per five-year i n t e r v a l p r i o r to the Second World War. During the post-war years t h i s estimate i s somewhat reduced to approximately 200 to 300 per five-year i n t e r v a l and may r e f l e c t the l i m i t a t i o n s to emigration from the Russian Latvian state, the new B r a z i l i a n immigration policy and the drawing power of western countries such as the United States and Canada more si m i l a r to the home environment. During the period 1890 to 1970 i t i s estimated that between 6,000 and 9,000 Latvian immigrants entered B r a z i l of which approximately 50% or between 75 3,000 and h,500 resided i n Sao Paulo by the end of 1970. I t i s further estimated that the t o t a l number of Latvian immigrants including descendants residing i n B r a z i l i s between 15,000 and 18,000, Possibly 50% of this t o t a l also inhabit Sao Paulo and a great majority of the remainder reside within the State of Sao Paulo i n the communities of Varpa and Nova Odessa. From the l i m i t e d s t a t i s t i c a l data available the re l i g i o u s subdivision of the Latvian immigrant community i n B r a z i l i s more heavily weighted to-wards the Baptist than the Lutheran denomination, i n contrast to that originating i n pre-Second World War Latvia. Some of the factors influencing t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n are documented i n the thesis and i n the Case Study reported i n the appendix. I t i s apparent that a more complete in-depth determination of s t a t i s t i c s would be necessary to establish with confidence the reli g i o u s denominational distributions and should include a comparison with the native and other immigrant population r e l i g i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n s during the same period as that studied for the Latvians. Despite the intense urbanization i n Sao Paulo, r e l i g i o n i s s t i l l very important as a means of organization and a focus of meaning i n the society. In comparison to other states i n B r a z i l , the Sao Paulo minority groups s t i l l remain f a i t h f u l to t h e i r ethnic r e l i g i o n s . In 1950 a census indicated that 92% of the Sao Paulo population was Roman Catholic; however there i s some question as to the number of true p r a c t i s i n g Catholics. Approximately one quarter of the Protestants i n B r a z i l resided i n Sao Paulo and formed about 6% of the Sao Paulo r e l i g i o u s population. The assimilation of a predominantly Catholic immigrant group such as the I t a l i a n s dint© B r a z i l i a n society was more ea s i l y achieved because of the dominance of r e l i g i o n i n so many of the aspects of dai l y l i f e , but the immigrants of the Protestant 76 f a i t h were thrust into a new r e l i g i o u s atmosphere. Integration of Latvians and of various other sectors of the European ethnic Protestant population proved more d i f f i c u l t due to t h e i r minority r o l e within the predominantly Catholic community. This, however, i s an important factor i n discovering the i d e n t i t y of such a small ethnic population. The unity of the Latvian community was important to the maintenance of i t s r e l i g i o u s heritage and i t s existence within a very small Protestant minority i n comparison with the Catholic majority i n Sao Paulo. An ethnic group consisting of a few thousand immigrants of Catholic background would be r e a d i l y dispersed and d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y or trace. I t i s apparent from the descriptions of both the geographical and c u l t u r a l aspects of the two countries and peoples of Latvia and B r a z i l that there are many differences to be overcome should the two societies attempt to become integrated. Section A comprehensively but b r i e f l y i n -troduced the important aspects of these two cultures, and i n connection with the characteristics of the urban centre of Sao Paulo and i t s cosmo-po l i t a n immigrant population, discussed the areas and degree of Latvian-B r a z i l i a n assimilation. This degree of assimilation i s i n general equated with the size of the immigrant group and i t s i n t e r n a l community development within the host society. Section B outlined the extent of Latvian immigra-t i o n and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s as a focalppoint for tracing Latvian community development and involvement i n B r a z i l i a n culture. The Latvian emigration was also traced b r i e f l y , both outside B r a z i l and to other B r a z i l i a n communities, to provide a more comprehensive review of the t o t a l assimilation picture to complement that of the Sao Paulo urban 77 sector. The extent of Latvian-Brazilian influence was traced through customs, language, intermarriage and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s to show the tenta-t i v e reluctance of the older generations to change and integrate f u l l y , t>ut also to indicate the almost t o t a l integration of the younger generation Latvians with the B r a z i l i a n urban society. I t i s quite possible that with the diminishing number of Latvian immigrants entering Sao Paulo at present, the Latvian heritage w i l l continue to be absorbed into the cosmopolitan structure of urban B r a z i l i a n society, and except for a few traces of language and family custom, w i l l tend to be more integrated into that society i n generations to come. The l a s t mainstay w i l l perhaps be the church unless a concerted e f f o r t i s directed to the Latvian youth to ret a i n t i e s with t h e i r parents' heritage. This d r i v i n g influence, i f i t i s to p r e v a i l , w i l l most l i k e l y rest with the Latvian wives, since they change more slowly than the men who are i n d a i l y working contact with B r a z i l i a n society. Therefore, i n comparison with the "Social-psychological study of Latvian immigrants i n Canberra" by Jaunzems and Brown, hypotheses r e l a t i n g to v a r i a b i l i t y of Latvian assimilation with age and sex appear to be equally v a l i d forbboth B r a z i l and Au s t r a l i a . The pride of a heritage with such deeply rooted ethnic origins as the Latvians' surely w i l l survive within the B r a z i l i a n environment. Those Latvians that have made Sao Paulo t h e i r home and B r a z i l t h e i r newly adopted land are thankful for the opportunity to share and grow with the B r a z i l i a n people. In the minds of many Brazilian-Latvians, t h e i r new country w i l l emerge as one of the most prosperous and important nations i n the world.' 78 BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES A. LATVIA Manuscript Papers from the L a t v i a n Church Archives i n Sao Paulo, S.P., B r a z i l A r c h i v s . R a k s t i par Latviskam Problemam. Redaktors, E. Dunsdorfs. •Au A u s t r a l i a : Loma P r i n t , 1973. " B r a z i l i j a s L a t v i e s u L u t e r a n i Organizejas." L a t v i . j a , g. 23, (novembri 19^9). " B r a z i l i j a s L a t v i e s u Ev.-Luteranu Draudze." Sao Paulo, 1958. Bruvers, Arnolds. L a t v i e s i Palmu Zeme. Riodezaneira: Rigas Spiestuve, 1970. Church A r c h i v e s . 'Documentation of L a t v i a n Immigrant A r r i v a l s i n B r a z i l , ' I9I16-I95U. Church Arc h i v e s . 'Yearly a d d i t i o n s t o the church r e g i s t e r and Community development' f o r the L a t v i a n Lutheran Community i n Sao Paulo, S.P., 191+0-1961. "Cinquentenario da Colonia Varpa," Estado de Sao Paulo. Rio de J a n e i r o : 0 J o r n a l B a t i s t a , No. 1+5,- 5 de novembro de 1972, pp. 1-3. "Dzimusie, I e s v e t i t i e , Laulibas un M i r u s i . " San Paulo Draudze, 1951-197"+. P r i v a t e communication. L a t v i e s u Preses B i e d r i b a s . Melns uz B a l t a . LPB Dienvidarnerikas kopa, No. 2, 1969. Mekss, Jekabs. "Baznicas Dzive B r a z i l i j a . " Sao Paulo, 197^ . P r i v a t e Sommunic at i o n . ' . " L a t v i j a s Ev. Lut. Baznicas D z i v i B r a z i l i j a . " P r i v a t e communication, 1957-• L a t v i e s u Draudze B r a z i l i . j a . L a t v i e s u Draudzu Dzive Pasaule. Sao Paulo, 1955-"Petnieka Gaitas Dienvid-America." Zurhals, 1953. 79 "Piemineklis Latviesu Imigrantiem B r a z i l i j a . " Laiks, 1956. "Pirmo Vacijas Latviesu Satiksanas ar Tautiesiem B r a z i l i j a . " L a t v i j a . "Pirmie Kurzemnieki B r a z i l i j a . " Laiks. New York. Rudz i t i s , Laimons. 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Rio de Janeiro: Servigo Grafico do I n s t i t u t o B r a s i l e i r o de Geografia e E s t a t i s t i c a , Dezembro 19^ 6. .tDiBiGtEy,• pSoBseJb&griNSei©rial de E s t a t i s t i c a . Sinopse "Prelimiriar do Ceriso  Demografico. Recenseamento Geral do B r a s i l , 1 de Julho de 1950. Rio de Janeiro: Servigo Grafico do I n s t i t u t o B r a s i l e i r o de Geografia e E s t a t i s t i c a , 1951, PP- 1, 27-30. Information Department of the B r a z i l i a n Embassy. B r a z i l . England: The Lavenham Press Ltd., 1972. Ministerio de Relagoes Exteriores, Divisao Cultural. B r a s i l . Rio de Janeiro, 1958. 80 M i n i s t e r i o do Planejamento e Coordenacao Geral. Sinopse E s t a t i s t i c a do  B r a s i l . Rio de Janeiro: Fundagao IBGE, I n s t i t u t o B r a s i l e i r o de E s t a t i s t i c a , 1971. Ministry of Foreign Relations. An Outline of B r a z i l i a n History. Rio de Janeiro: Grafica V i t o r i a , 1952, pp. h5-h-T. . 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A Segunda Republica. Sap Paulo: Difusao Europeia do L i v r o , 1973. Dean, Warren. The I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Sao Paulo, 1880-19^ 5. A u s t i n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , 1969. De Azevedo, Fernando. B r a z i l i a n C u l t u r e : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study  of Culture i n B r a z i l . New York: The Macmillan Co., 1950. De Azevedo, Thales. S o c i a l Change i n B r a z i l . G a i n e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a P r e s s , 1963. Durhan, E.R. Assimilagao e Mobilidade. Sao Paulo: I n s t i t u t o de Estudos B r a s i l e i r o s , 1966. F e r r e i r a Lima, H e i t o r . H i s t o r i a P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c a e I n d u s t r i a l do B r a s i l . Sao Paulo: Compania E d i t o r a N a c i o n a l , 1970. F r e i t a s Marcondes, J.S. and 0. Pimentel. Sao Paulo: E s p i r i t o , Povo e  I n s t i t u i g o e s . 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Hutter, Lucy M. • Imigracao I t a l i a n a em Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo: I n s t i t u t o de Estudos B r a s i l e i r o s , 1972. K a h l , Joseph A. The Measurements of Modernism. A u s t i n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , I n s t i t u t e of L a t i n American S t u d i e s , 1968. K e i t h , H.H. and S.F. Edwards. C o n f l i c t and C o n t i n u i t y i n B r a z i l i a n S o c i e t y . Columbia: U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1969. L e f f , N a t h a n i e l l H. Economic Policy-Making and Development i n B r a z i l , 19U7-196H. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1968. Leonard, Emile-G. 0 Protestantismo B r a s i l e i r o . Sao Paulo: Associacao de Seminarios Teologicos E v a n g e l i c o s , 1951. Lynn Smith, T. B r a z i l : People and I n s t i t u t i o n s . L o u i s i a n a : L o u i s i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y Press,1963. M a r g o l i s , Maxine L. 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Crowell Co., 1966. O i t i c i c a , Jose. Agao D i r e t a : Meio Seculo de Pregagao L i b e r t a r i a . Rio de J a n e i r o : E d i t o r a Germinal, 1970. Read,. W i l l i a m R. New Patterns of Church Growth i n B r a z i l . Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1965. Rodrigues, Jose Honorio. The B r a z i l i a n s : . Th e i r Character and A s p i r a t i o n s . A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , 196*7 • Saunders, John. Modern B r a z i l . G a i n e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a P r e s s , 1971. S h i r l e y , Robert W. The End of a T r a d i t i o n . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Smith, T. Lynn-and A. Marchant. B r a z i l : P o r t r a i t of Half a Continent. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 1951. Wagley, Charles. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o B r a z i l . New York: Columbia Univ-e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. C. MIGRATIONS Brody, Eugene B. Behavior i n New Environments: Adaptation of Migrant  Populations . C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1969. Brown, F.J. and J.S. Roucek. Our R a c i a l and N a t i o n a l M i n o r i t i e s . New York: P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c., 1937-D o l l o t , Louis. Race and Human M i g r a t i o n s . New York: Walker and Company, 1961+. H a n d l i n , Oscar. The Uprooted. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1951. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labor O f f i c e . A n a l y s i s o f the Immigration Laws and Regula- t i o n s . Geneva, 195^ . Johnston, Ruth. The A s s i m i l a t i o n Myth. The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1969. 8^ National .'Bureau of Economic Research. International Migrations. 1-11. New York: National Bureau of Research, Inc., 1929-Nor r i s , J. Strangers Entertained. Vancouver: Evergreen Press Ltd., 1971-Scott, Franklin D. World Migration i n Modern Times. New Jersey: Prentice-H a l l , Inc., 1961T Tabori, Paul. The Anatomy of E x i l e . London: George C. Harrap & Co. Ltd., 1972. Taft, Donald R. and Richard Robbins. International Migrations. New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1955-Unesco. Population and Culture. W.D. 'Borrie, "The c u l t u r a l Integration of I m m i g r a n t s . " P a r i s : U n i t e d Nations, 1959-85 APPENDIX A I . CASE STUDY: The Development of the L a t v i a n Lutheran Community i n Sao Paulo (Based on o r i g i n a l church records and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l ) 1 The c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l comprising t h i s case study was s u p p l i e d "by the L a t v i a n Lutheran m i n i s t e r c u r r e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y o f Sao Paulo, Jekabs Mekss, 1 and describes by year the a c t i v i t i e s , development and s t a t i s t i c s concerning the membership o f the L a t v i a n Lutheran church i n Sao Paulo. 19^6 The major m i g r a t i o n of L a t v i a n immigrants t o Sao Paulo o r i g i n a t e d from the i n t e r i o r . B r a z i l i a n - L a t v i a n c o l o n i e s , p r i m a r i l y Varpa and Nova Odessa, and from refugees from the Second World War. A l a r g e number of these refugees, although o r i g i n a l l y from L a t v i a p r i o r t o the war, entered B r a z i l from a l a r g e number of other c o u n t r i e s , p r i m a r i l y i n the Eurasian and A u s t r a l a s i a n c o n t i n e n t s . They were l a r g e l y helped by a few of the . o l d e r f a m i l i e s o f L a t v i a n o r i g i n s e t t l e d i n the Sao Paulo area and e s p e c i a l l y by the L a t v i a n B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r J . Lukass, mentioned b r i e f l y i n Chapter I I I . On 9 September 19^6, a meeting of the heads of nine f a m i l i e s was h e l d t o found the L a t v i a n Lutheran community i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo. On t h i s date they a l s o asked f o r the use of the L a t v i a n B a p t i s t church i n order t o h o l d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s . The answer t o t h i s request t o the 86 Baptists came on 8 October with the suggestion that they should endeavour to f i n d a place for t h e i r services among the various B r a z i l i a n churches. The Lutherans subsequently approached the B r a z i l i a n Evangelical Lutheran Synod which maintained various churches within the c i t y of Sao Paulo. They were granted the use of church space for services, but r e s t r i c t i o n was imposed forbidding services to be held i n a foreign language. This was unsatisfactory to the committee and the search for a place of worship and a Latvian Lutheran minister continued. 19^8 Having been unsuccessful to date i n pursuing t h e i r goals they turned i n 19^8 to the German community i n Sao Paulo, and through t h e i r minister, E. Heini, they concluded an agreement for the use of the Concordia School for t h e i r services. On 20 June ±9^8, the Latvian Lutherans held t h e i r f i r s t r e l i g i o u s service i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo with the attendance of TO persons. At the conclusion of the service a meeting was held and a t o t a l of 31 families registered as continuing members of the new church community. After t h i s date a regular service was held monthly. In -July, the new community i n i t i a t e d correspondence i n search of help, support and t h e i r own minister to lead the church. However, i n t h i s same year an i n f l u e n t i a l Latvian family moved to Canada, detracting from the strong community development. 19^9 The m i n i s t e r i a l search continued throughout Latvian communities overseas, but t h i s did not affect the continued functioning and organization 87 of the group i n Sao Paulo. Records show that during t h i s year there were 2U2 Latvian Lutherans residing i n Sao Paulo. The major achievements of 19^9 included organization of regular r e l i g i o u s services and establishment of community organizations, and among them, the Latvian Women's Committee. A Latvian journal, L a t v i j a , 2 of worldwide c i r c u l a t i o n , contained the following i n the 23 November 19^ +9 issue about the a c t i v i t i e s of the Latvian Lutherans i n Sao Paulo: The Sao Paulo Latvian Lutheran community held t h e i r meeting, i n October to elect a temporary leader, Engineer 0. Bikse,. . . There are also plans to organize a youth committee. Religious services are held up to now by the German minister, E. Heini*. A major reason for the delay i n acquiring t h e i r own minister resulted from discontinued support by the I.R.O. ,• The International Refugee Organiza-t i o n , i n subsidising the transport of immigrants to B r a z i l . However, the Baptist minister, J. Lukass, had working relations with the B r a z i l i a n immigration department and succeeded i n maintaining Latvian immigration although on a smaller scale. 1950 137 persons were registered i n the Lutheran community, although-.'it i s believed that t h i s was only about one quarter of the t o t a l number of Latvian residents i n Sao Paulo. This i s to be expected considering the size of the c i t y even at t h i s time and the d i f f i c u l t i e s with transportation. The average number i n attendance at regular services t o t a l l e d from 30 to kO persons, increasing to 100 during Christmas services. In order to maintain interest i n community a c t i v i t i e s , the Women's Committee organized tea parties with various programmes. However, the number of those who 88 participated reached only about kO of whom three quarters were the organizers or the a c t i v i t i e s . The youth involvement was also at a minimum l e v e l . This may possibly have occurred due to the easier assimilation of the youth into the B r a z i l i a n society as opposed to the resistance of the older generation to a new language and customs. However, i t i s anticipated that mobility and transportation was s t i l l a dominant factor. The main Latvian a i m . i n i t i a l l y was to maintain the national s p i r i t among themselves and t h e i r children. There i s only one record of a marriage between members of the Latvian com-munity during t h i s year. In the period between the end of 19^ 9 and 1950 the Latvian community printed 250 c i r c u l a r s about Latvian community and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s re-questing r e g i s t r a t i o n from interested Latvians. This resulted i n an increase from 137 to 225 Latvian Lutherans registered, but did not r e f l e c t the t o t a l number i n Sao Paulo. 1951 Their searches were rewarded i n 1951 with the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t Latvian Lutheran minister, J. Mekss, who proceeded to conduct the Latvian services. A d i s t i n c t mark of assimilation was the choice of the new name adopted by the community: " B r a z i l i a n Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Community". Assistance was contributed by the B r a z i l i a n Lutheran Synod i n the form of income support for the minister. The community began to f l o u r i s h under the leadership of thennew minister, who attempted to keep the Latvian heritage a l i v e by i n i t i a t i o n of Sunday school classes for the children. 89 1952-1958 In 1952, 18 Latvian youths-were confirmed by minister Mekss. By 195*+, three years after the new minister's arrival,.grants were given for con-struction of t h e i r own church i n Sao Paulo. During the l+00th anniversary jubilee year of Sao Paulo i n 195*+» a great exposition was held i n the Park Ibirapuera i n which the Latvian community had a stand showing t h e i r culture and heritage to the B r a z i l i a n s . This may be viewed as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the retention of the Latvian culture, but also i t was an attempt to p a r t i -cipate, communicate and be involved with the B r a z i l i a n community. 1955 records show some intermarriage between Latvians and members of other B a l t i c states residing i n Sao Paulo. In 1956 minister Mekss was in v i t e d to bless a new Latvian church i n Nova Odessa, i n the State of Sao Paulo. In t h i s same year l!+ Latvian youths were confirmed i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo; however, the community lo s t one of i t s oldest members, 0. Biks, who moved with his family to the United States to assume a new position. In 1957 the community gained 21 new members, and i n the following year 9 more registered, among them a prominent i n d u s t r i a l i s t , P. Megnis and his family. He was the managing director of an important industry i n Sao Paulo that, under his d i r e c t i o n , aided the i n d u s t r i a l growth of Sao Paulo. In 1958 with subsidies from the U.S. Missouri Synod and from members of the community, they b u i l t t h e i r own Latvian Lutheran church i n Sao Paulo. However, i n t h i s year the number of church participants decreased p a r t i a l l y as a result of Latvian emigration from Sao Paulo to the United States and Canada. S i m i l a r l y , the Sunday school r e g i s t r a t i o n declined to such an *Male and female 90 extent t h a t i t was terminated i n 1958 and r e i n s t i t u t e d only i n 1969. There i s evidence t h a t t h i s m i g r a t i o n perhaps r e s u l t e d from a wish of the Latvians t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h a c u l t u r e and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s c l o s e r t o tha t o f t h e i r o r i g i n . This emigration was p o s s i b l e l a r g e l y because of help from f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s who provided or l o c a t e d em-ployment f o r the B r a z i l i a n Latvians abroad. S t a t i s t i c s e x t r a c t e d from the L a t v i a n Lutheran Church records f o r the c i t y of Sao Paulo showing membership r e g i s t r a t i o n and Sunday School attendance are presented i n Tables XIX and XX r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE XIX S t a t i s t i c s E x t r a c t e d from L a t v i a n Lutheran Church Records  i n Sao Paulo (1953-1958)3 ~~ Year Regi s t e r e d church members 258 289 Beginning of 1953 End 1953 195^  i955 1956 i957 1958 373 359 328 3k 3 305 1958-1969 Decreased r e g i s t r a t i o n due t o emigration ( s t a t i s t i c s not a v a i l a b l e ) However, i t may be n o t i c e d t h a t during the l a t t e r p e r i o d covered by the s t a t i s t i c s i n the friext? t a b l e , the Sunday school attendance decreased between the years 1955-1970. TABLE XX Sunday School Attendance S t a t i s t i c s from the Latvian Lutheran  Church Records i n Sao Paulo ( c i t y ) (1955-1970)3 Year Attendance 1955 23 1956 18 1957 15 1958-1968 (Sunday School interrupted) 1969 13 1970 8 I t i s apparent from Table XXII that the change i n the I.R.O. po l i c y of providing transportation to B r a z i l created a dramatic i n f l u x i n 19^ 9; however, after that date the withdrawal of support resulted i n a large drop from the 19^ 9 l e v e l of k32 to an average of 8. per year over the following f i v e years. These s t a t i s t i c s must be viewed l i g h t l y i n terms of actual t o t a l s considering the acknowledgement of t h e i r incompleteness; however, the importance of the trends should be noted. The t o t a l number of Latvian immigrants from Source I I i n Table XXIII i s composed of family members of varying ages and levels of education. An approximate summary of t h i s i s given i n Table XXII below, compiled from exi s t i n g records, which were again i n many instances incomplete. TABLE XXI Levels of Education within the Latvian Immigrant Family (19^ 6-195^ )^  Education Number* % of Total B r a z i l i a n Education^ % of Population I9U6 Elementary 33- 38 '8.3 Secondary 26 26 6.3 Technical Training 7 8 . 3.8 University® 17 20 0.6 Academy of Arts 2 2 0.6 Conservatory __1 1 Total 86 *Th.ese figures include a l l members of the family unit and are therefore biased toward the lower age category and lower achievement levels i n education. 92 TABLE XXII Latvian Immigrants to B r a z i l , A r r i v i n g "by Ship,^ the Majority of -whom resided i n the City of Sao Paulo, (191*6-195 "0 (Aided by the I.R . 6 T ) (The data i s not complete) The majority of the data was derived from a Latvian Baptist journal, K r i s t i g s Draugs, the issue of which was interrupted i n 191+0 and rein-s t i t u t e d i n I9I+8. The journal contained a special column of a l l the numbers and names of Latvians immigrating to B r a z i l with the aid of the I.R.O. (international Refugee Organization). Year Month Day Port of Point of A r r i v a l Embarkation ( i f known) Name of Number Number Ship (Source i ) (Source II) 19^ 6 19^ 7 19 U8 9*49 Jan. 6 May 16 June 15 July 21+ Sep. l Sep. 5 Feb. 13 Feb. 17 May 16 June 16 July 21* Sep. 1 Jan. Jan. lk Feb. Apr. 13 June July 1+ Aug. Oct. 30 Dec. Dec. 30 Feb. n it Mar. 2 tt 16 it 25 Apr. n England Sweden Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro tt Rio de Janeiro ti n it it 2 3 1 Gen. Hanzelmann 28 Germany 19 Sweden 1+ Gen. Bliane 8 Gen. Stewart 1+ Gen. Langfitt 19 Gen. Stewart 29 tt 11 Gen. Campana 8 Gen. Hanzelmann 15 Gen. Holbrook 56 England Magdalena 9 ti 1 Sweden 1 Germany 2 6 l 7 2 7 2 2 17 1 1 8 1+ 2 1 3 1 9 3 TABLE XXII Continued Year Month Day- Port of A r r i v a l ( i f known) Point of Embarkation lame of Number Number Ship (Source I) (Source II) 19^ 9 May May 1950 1952 1953 195^  July Aug. Aug. Sep. Nov. Nov. Dec. May Aug. Oct. 1951 July Aug. Jan. Feb. June Jan. June 5 10 13 19 22 12 18 20 17 23 15 25 20 8 TOTALS (by year) Muir Fl o r i d a McRae Formosa Hersey Charlton Charlton Canberra Protea Charlton Gen. Langfitt Own boat* Paraguay Paraguay China Total (Source I) 191+8-1949: Total (Source I I ) I9I+6-I95I+: 70 7 7 1+ 37 7 37 21 55 19 6 5 Ik 530 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 5 7 3* 1 2 1 2 1 2 12*+ .9U6 1+1+ 1951 16 .91+7 25 1952 5 91+8 95 1953 2 9k9 1+32 1951+ 11 950 3 *In 1951, the Ploks family made sensational news when they success-f u l l y crossed the A t l a n t i c Ocean i n t h e i r self-constructed boat. The t o t a l journey lasted three years and involved stops i n A f r i c a . These education data are a d i r e c t counterpart o f and r e l a t e d t o the s t a t i s t i c s given i n Table I . f o r the 1 9 3 7 Education p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n L a t v i a , although they may be-somewhat modified or d i s t o r t e d by the un-settlement o f the L a t v i a n immigrants i n the post-war years i n s e v e r a l temporary l o c a t i o n s throughout the world. This may have accounted f o r temporary d i s r u p t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the higher l e v e l s of education, due to u n f a m i l i a r i t y o f language and the n e c e s s i t y t o work t o support the fa m i l y . By comparison o f the percentage o f the t o t a l attendance i n the various e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s i n L a t v i a (Table I ) and i n B r a z i l i n 1 9 "+6.5' shown i n Table X X I I , one can see a l a r g e degree o f s i m i l a r i t y i n the two c o u n t r i e s d u ring t h a t p e r i o d o f time. - However, the Table XXII data f o r the L a t v i a n immigrants from the post-Second World War p e r i o d shows a marked increase i n the higher educated c l a s s seeking refuge outside L a t v i a and e n t e r i n g B r a z i l . 95 APPENDIX A: NOTES 1 Minister J. Mekss, "Baznicas Dzive B r a z i l i j a " (Original Church Records, 1946-1958). 2 " B r a z i l i j a s Latviesu Luterani Organizejas," Latvia, 19^ 9> g. 23, novembri. 3 Minister J. Mekss, Sao Paulo, 197^ (private communication). ^ Latvian Lutheran Community Church Records, B r a z i l , 1946-1954. 5 Ministry of Foreign Relations, Cultural D i v i s i o n , Education i n  B r a z i l (Rio de Janeiro: Dept. de Imprensa Nacional, 1951)» pp. 15-16. 96 APPENDIX B LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO BRAZIL - BRAZILIAN IMMIGRATION POLICY - STATISTICS AND DISCUSSION Reasons f o r the l a c k o f good accurate s t a t i s t i c a l data a r i s e from the B r a z i l i a n government c i t i z e n s h i p law and r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Immigrant s t a t i s t i c s are recorded by c i t i z e n s h i p or the country o f embarka-t i o n . I f an immigrant i s under 16 years of age and i s not i n possession of a passport, h i s c i t i z e n s h i p i s taken as th a t o f h i s b i r t h p l a c e regard-l e s s o f the n a t i o n a l i t y o f h i s parents. This was of consequence both f o r c h i l d r e n of L a t v i a n refugees born i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s of temporary residence and f o r people of other n a t i o n a l i t i e s t e m p o r a r i l y r e s i d i n g i n L a t v i a before emigration t o B r a z i l and t h e r e f o r e i n possession of L a t v i a n passports. Often t h i s l a t t e r group d i d not even speak the L a t v i a n language. So s t a t i s t i c s t h a t show the country o f o r i g i n may not t r u l y r e f l e c t the n a t i o n a l o r i g i n but j u s t the passport c i t i z e n s h i p data. B r a z i l i a n law a l s o considers a l l c h i l d r e n born i n B r a z i l t o be B r a z i l i a n c i t i z e n s regard-l e s s o f the parents' country o f o r i g i n , making i t very d i f f i c u l t t o assess the r e a l number o f people o f L a t v i a n h e r i t a g e or parentage. Of f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , one of the more important developments i n B r a z i l i a n immigration p o l i c y was introduced by the government of G e t u l i o Vargas i n 193^ t o c o n t r o l more c l o s e l y the number and q u a l i t y of immigrants: Most important o f a l l , a quota system f o r l i m i t i n g immigration was placed i n e f f e c t . The number of f o r e i g n e r s o f one n a t i o n a l i t y who might enter the. n a t i o n during any one year was placed at two percent of the immigration from t h a t 97 country during the years lSSU t o 1933. This law set the t o t a l immigration permitted during any s i n g l e year at 77,020. A l a t e r decree i n 1938 r e s t r i c t e d 80% of the n a t i o n a l i t y quota t o those i n v o l v e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , a p o l i c y which remains today. The e f f e c t s of these two p o l i c i e s are r e f l e c t e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l data presented i n Table X X I I I , which i s i n d i c a t i v e o f r e s t r i c t i o n s t o f r e e immigration after. 1 9 3 k . P o s s i b l y the 1938 immigration p o l i c y had l i t t l e r e s t r a i n t s on L a t v i a n immigration due t o the major c o n c e n t r a t i o n of L a t v i a n education i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l sciences during the p e r i o d of independence. More r e -s t r i c t i v e perhaps was the occupation by the Soviets and r e s t r i c t i o n t o f r e e m i g r a t i o n from L a t v i a t o any d e s t i n a t i o n i n theppost-war era. B r a z i l i a n immigration law i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n of 18 September 19U6 provides t h a t : . . . i n time o f peace any person may enter, r e s i d e i n or leave the country and b r i n g h i s property w i t h him, provided t h a t the law i s observed . . . the s e l e c t i o n , e n t r y , as-signment and. settlement o f immigrants s h a l l be subject t o the requirements of the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the matter determined by law. However, there are some r e s t r i c t i v e measures imposed upon the a c t i v i t i e s o f a l i e n s p r o h i b i t i n g them from owning newspapers sanddradi6astati'ons', ; and there were l i m i t a t i o n s on the development of n a t i o n a l m i n e r a l resources and water power. B r a z i l i a n n a t i o n a l defence s e r v i c e s must employ a minimum of two t h i r d s o f i t s crews and a l l owners, agents and captains from B r a z i l i a n n a t i o n a l s . B r a z i l i a n immigration laws are n o n r e s t r i c t i v e on the b a s i s of r e l i g i o n ; however, the government reserves the r i g h t o f r e f u s a l of entry t o any p a r t i c u l a r race or o r i g i n f o r s o c i a l or economic reasons: 98 In a d m i t t i n g immigrants account w i l l be taken of the need t o maintain and develop the most d e s i r a b l e features of European descent i n the p o p u l a t i o n s ' r a c i a l make-up, and the need t o p r o t e c t B r a z i l i a n workers. B r a z i l i a n s t a t i s t i c s do not g e n e r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the B a l t i c s t a t e s , and a f t e r the U.S.S.R. occupation, the B r a z i l i a n s t a t i s t i c s do not f u r t h e r mention the B a l t i c s t a t e s but consider them t o be p a r t of the Soviet Union. There i s great d i s p a r i t y and v a r i a t i o n i n the a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l data and l i t e r a t u r e regarding L a t v i a n immigration t o B r a z i l and Sao Paulo. The f o l l o w i n g I s an account of some of these v a r i a t i o n s and, i n conjunction w i t h Tables X, X I , X I I , XIV, and XXIV, best estimates are summarized and reported. Various reported estimates of L a t v i a n immigration s t a t i s t i c s are summarized i n Table X, c o v e r i n g , i n g e n e r a l , the p e r i o d between 1890 and 1970- This Table i n conjunction w i t h the f i g u r e i n Table XI represents the data i n terms of number of immigrants t o B r a z i l and t o the State and C i t y of Sao Paulo. In b r i e f the estimates of R u t k i s 1 ^ and. R u d z i t i s 1 ^ are best s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the remaining sources f o r t o t a l immigration, and those of S m i t h 1 and R u d z i t i s 1 ^ appear t o be most r e l i a b l e f o r the S t a t e and C i t y o f Sao Paulo. R u t k i s ^ estimates t h a t f o r the p e r i o d between I89O and 191"+, approximately 2 , 0 0 0 Latvians entered B r a z i l . This would amount t o an average y e a r l y immigration r a t e of 83 per year over the p e r i o d o r , i n connection w i t h Table XXIV which i l l u s t r a t e s the L a t v i a n immigration t o t a l s f o r f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s , approximately kl5 i n each f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l . The m a j o r i t y of these i n i t i a l immigrants s e t t l e d i n the r u r a l TABLE XXIII ORIGIN AND NUMBER OF NORTHERN EUROPEAN IMMIGRANTS TO BRAZIL Year L a t v i a n Lithuanian Estonian F i n n i s h U.S.S.R. 1920 1921 1922 (3) 1923 29 192U 192 1 1 2(2) 1925 21 1926 289 6026(3) 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 193U 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 19UO 10*(7).. 56.(7) 19^ 1 2»(7) 19^ 2 1* 2* 0 19^ 3 0 1* 0 I9hk 13* 8* i ( ^ ) 0 19I+5 1+1+(21) 12* ]_(!+) 2* 191+6 13 36 10 19^ 7 .18 25 1+2 3 19I+8 118 95 167 2h 191+9 31 1+32 18 5 1669 1+39 (1+) 15 16 1*(7) 0 0 0 1* 3OO 19 65 7^  1+6 Low Countries 756 751 53* 2* 2* 20* 33* (7) 2W 28 18 131+2 36 VQ vo TABLE XXIII continued Year Latvian Lithuanian Estonian Finnish HiS.S.R. Low Countries 1950 1951 1952 1953 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 196U 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 3 16 5 2 11 7 32k 93 119 10 52 192 6 111 179 2 38 167 11 32 163 7 23 18 7 5 128 * Number of naturalizations i n a given year (. ) Reference number o o 101 TABLE X LATVIAN EMIGRATION TO BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO: TOTALS 19 1 8 18 16 17 Reference International Migrations Rutkis Smith Andersons Period involved 1820 - 1926 1890 - 191k 19lk - 1922 1922 - 1939 1939 - 19^ 5 191+5 -(1967) 18811 _ 1957 1886 - 1953 Rudzitis Up to 19h0 (0 Estado de S.P.) Rudzitis Up to 1938 (Latviesu Kolonijas) Rudzitis Rudzitis Rudzitis (Meie Tee) 13 Rudzitis (Baltische Briefe) Ronis 19"+6 -(post var) I960-'s Up to I960's Up to 1958 Up to 1967 1916 - 1923 Up to 1953 Up to 1972 Total number of immigrants 331 2,000 ) ) 2,500 ) 5,)+00 ) 900 ) 2,209 S.P. State 2,000 S.P. State 30,000 i n c l u d i n g des-cendants (U,280 Latvians + Estonians 6,000-8,000 1,500 12,000-15,000 (including descendants) s 0 1£ (3,102 c i t y of S.P.) b'^ l b (3,lll+ r u r a l S.P. ) 8,000 adults 2,500 children 1,750 (Varpa) 1,U82 Baptists 1,072 " Table XXII 191*6 - 195"+ 651+ 102 TABLE XXIV IMMIGRATION OF LATVIANS TO BRAZIL (Estimate over 5-year period) • 1750 immigrants Ronis (13): 1916 - 1923 (220/year) or! (1100/5-years) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Rutkis (1): 1890 - 1914 2000 immigrants (= 83/year) or (415/5-year period) S|i 2500 immigrants & Rutkis (1): 1922 - 1936 (149/year) or (745/5-years) j | | 531 immigrants "'Table VI : 1922 - 1926 (132/year) or (660/5-years) •654 immigrants Church Records: 1946 - 1954 (73/year) or (365/5-years) 1500 immigrants % Rud z i t i s (16): 1946 - 1965 (75/year) or (375/5-years) 900 immigrants |§s Rutkis (1): 1945 - 1961 (50/year) or (250/5-years) 1890 1900 1910 ! 1920 1930 1940 1950 i i I I 1960 1970 1st World War 2nd World War TABLE XI GRAPHICAL ESTIMATES OF LATVIAN IMMIGRATION TO Reference BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO 19 X R u t k i s 1 o Smith 3 a I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n s 8 A Andersons 16 • R u d z i t i s ( L a t v i e s u K o l o n i a s ) 11 • R u d z i t i s (Meie Tee) 20 + R u d z i t i s 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 Date lok TABLE XII ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF LATVIAN IMMIGRANTS ENTERING BRAZIL AND HISTORICAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD 1890-1970 r H •rt N n) u pq M C •rt u 0) 4-> C W CO u c nj M bO •rt •rt > 4-1 cd •4-1 o CU x> e 8000 i 7150 6250 3750 (1945.,-_ " I960?) 2000 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 I 1950 1960 1970 Date I WORLD WAR 2 n d WORLD WAR Unknown number of L a t v i a n Immigrants during t h i s p e r i o d x n Estimates by Ru t k i s Overlap i n immigrant data 105 communities such as Nova Odessa which was founded i n 1906. Data for the period during the F i r s t World War i s almost non-existent, but J u l i o Malves r paper i n 1916 describing the attributes-;of B r a z i l to the Latvians inspired an exodus from Latvia i n the following years. This i s substantiated by estimates of Ronis-'-S reporting that i n the period between 1916 and 1923 approximately 1,750 Latvians entered B r a z i l , the majority of them s e t t l i n g i n the community of Varpa which was founded in. 1923. In terms of five-year intervals i n Table XXIV t h i s amounts to 1,100 immigrants per i n t e r v a l . During the period between 1922 and 1939 there are various reported estimates and events determining the extent of immigration. An estimate by Rutkis 19 Q f approximately 2,500 Latvian immigrants making a t o t a l im-migration figure i n 1939 of 2,000 + 1,750 + 2,500 or 6,250 i s consistent with the figure of 6,000 to 8,000 reported by R u d z i t i s 1 ^ up u n t i l 1938 as stated i n the Latvian newspaper Latviesu Kolonijas. Reported data from the B r a z i l i a n newspaper 0 Estada do Sab Paulo x8 i n d i c a t i n g only k,280 Latvian plus Estonian immigrants up to 19h0 appears to be an underestimate for t h i s period. For the four-year period from 1923 to 1926 i n c l u s i v e , yearly data i s available and i s documented i n Table XXIII. The four-year t o t a l of 531 would approximate a five-year average of 660 i n Table XXIV during t h i s period. This i s i n close agreement with the five-year averages estimated from Rutkis"-9 data, that i s , approximately 7"+5 immigrants per five-year period between 1922 and 1936. However, during t h i s period, the 193^  B r a z i l i a n immigration po l i c y l i m i t e d the entry of foreigners to 2% of the previous yearly immigration rate, and i n 1938 the policy was adjusted to l i m i t Q0% of those entering B r a z i l , to work i n a g r i c u l t u r a l occupations. I t can therefore be assumed that the largest percentage of 106 the 2,500 or so immigrants entered B r a z i l before 193"+. During the Second World War there i s very l i m i t e d data, and no accurate s t a t i s t i c s are available. From 19"+5 to 196? Rutkis estimates that an additional 900 Latvian immigrants came to B r a z i l . Church arc h i v a l records, which are known to be incomplete, confirm a minimum number of Latvian immigrants entering B r a z i l by ship to be 65k between 19k6 and 195"+-This l a t t e r period gives an average five-year i n t e r v a l estimate of 365 i n Table XXIV as compared to the Rutkis average five-year i n t e r v a l of 250 immigrants. This may also be compared with the value of Rudzitis-"^ for the period between 19k6 and the mid-1960's of 1,500 immigrants which gives an approximate figure of 375 for the five-year i n t e r v a l . This appears to be i n reasonably good agreement with the data of Rutkis. • During t h i s period i n 19^ 9 the I.R.0. withdrew i t s support for immigration to B r a z i l with a resu l t i n g very large i n f l u x of Latvian immigrants by ship i n 19^ 9» number-ing h32 as opposed to an average of 8 for each of the next fiv e years. The figures i n Table XXIII for the period 19"+6 to 19"+9 from two sources may be compared and i n most cases show reasonable consistency. The remaining estimates i n Table X, 6,2l6 Latvian immigrants reported up to 1958 by Meie Tee, 1? and 8,000 adults and 2,500 children up to 1967 Of) by the Baltisehe B r i e f e , appear to be very consistent with t h i s analysis, and (Confirm the estimates of Rutkis. However, there appears to be some dis p a r i t y with the reported data i n International Migrations3 and that of -, Q Smith-1 and Andersons may be incomplete. I f the data from Table VI may be extrapolated to that for Latvian immigration rather than just for t o t a l immigration s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s to be expected that approximately 50% of a l l Latvian Immigrants resided i n the State of Sao Paulo. In 107 f a c t t h i s i s most l i k e l y a v e r y conservative estimate, s i n c e almost a l l of the f i r s t immigrants r e s i d e d i n Nova Odessa and Varpa and many o f the remainder went t o the c i t y o f Sao Paulo. Therefore confidence may he placed i n the data of R u d z i t i s ^ which r e p o r t s a t o t a l of 6,2l6 L a t v i a n immigrants by 1958, 3,102 r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y of Sao Paulo and 3,lll+ i n r u r a l Sao Paulo. The estimate o f a minimum of 12,000 t o a maximum of 15,000 Latvians i n c l u d i n g descendants r e s i d i n g i n B r a z i l by the mid-1960' s i s not an unreasonable f i g u r e . From the f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l averages given i n Table X I I an approxima-t i o n of between 1+00 and 500 L a t v i a n immigrants per i n t e r v a l i s a reasonable estimate and r e s u l t s i n a t o t a l immigrant L a t v i a n p o p u l a t i o n of between 6,1+00 and 9,000 f o r the p e r i o d 1890 t o i960. I f i t be assumed t h a t the average immigrant L a t v i a n f a m i l y had two c h i l d r e n the L a t v i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n B r a z i l would be 13,000 t o 18,000 i n c l u d i n g descendants. The 30,000 f i g u r e r e p o r t e d by Andersons 8 would appear t o be a l i t t l e h i g h f o r the p e r i o d 1886 t o 1953. 108 REFERENCES OF TABLES ON LATVIAN IMMIGRATION STATISTICS 1 T./Lynn Smith, B r a z i l : People and I n s t i t u t i o n s ( L o u i s i a n a : L o u i s i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p. 123. N a t i o n a l Bureau of Economic Research, I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n s , V o l . I (New York: N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Research, I nc., 1929), p. 781+. 3 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. l6k. h M i n i s t r y of Foreign A f f a i r s , B r a z i l , 1951 (Rio de J a n e i r o : G r a f i c a V i c t o r i a S.A., 1951), p. 20. 5 Conselho N a c i o n a l de E s t a t i s t i c a , B r a z i l : Ceriso Dembgrafico, s e r i e n a c i o n a l - V o l . I (Rio de J a n e i r o : I.B.G.E. Conselho Na c i o n a l de E s t a t i s t i c a , 1956), p. lh. 6 Anuario E s t a t i s t i c o do B r a s i l , Populagao (Rio de J a n e i r o : Conselho N a c i o n a l de E s t a t i s t i c a , 1971), P- 115-f Anuario E s t a t i s t i c o do B r a s i l , Populaeao, Conselho Nacional de E s t a t i s t i c a , I9I+6, p. 39-8 E. Andersons, Cross Road Country, L a t v i a (Iowa: Ed. D o b e l i s , L a t v j u Gramata, 1953), p. 353-9 C o n s e l h o P N a c i o n a l r d e b E s t a t i s t i c a , Sinopse P r e l i m i n a r do Censo  Demografico, Recenseamento G e r a l do B r a s i l , 1 de Julho de 1950 (Rio de Jan e i r o : Servigo G r a f i c o do I n s t i t u t o de Geografia e E s t a t i s t i c a , 1951), pp. 29-30. i§ Eunice R i b e i r o Durham, "0s Migrantes Nacionais em Sao Paulo," Sao Paulo, E s p i r i t o , Povo e I n s t i t u i g o e s , ed. F r e i t a s Marcondes e Pimentel (Sao Paulo: L i v r a r i a P i o n e i r a E d i t o r a , 1968), p. 59. 109 x x E. Andersons, Cross Road Country, Latvi a , pp. 359-361. x 2 National Bureau of Economic Research, International Migrations, p. T8U. !3 Osvaldo Ronis, Uma Epopeia de Fe: A H i s t o r i a dos Batistas  Letos no B r a s i l (Rio de Janeiro: Casa Publicadora B a t i s t a , 197k), pp. klk-kl<?. l l + T. Lynn Smith, B r a z i l , p. 511. 1 5 William R. Read, New Patterns of Church Growth i n B r a z i l (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965)> p. 192. 16 L. Rudzitis, "Latviesu Valoda B r a z i l i j a , " unpublished manu-s c r i p t , B r a z i l . x7 Ibid. (Estonian Newspaper Meie Tee, 1958), B r a z i l . !8 Ibid. (Sao Paulo Newspaper 0 Estado de Sao Paulo, 1959). 19 J. Rutkis, Latvia, Country and People (Stockholm: Latvian National Foundation, <b967), p. 326. 2 0 Rudzitis. 21 Latvian Church Archives, "Documentation of Latvian Immigrant Ar r i v a l s i n B r a z i l , " (19^6-195*0, Sao Paulo, 197k. 

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