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Kabuki in New York, 1900-1969: the developing American interest and response 1975

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KABUKI IN NEW YORK, 1900-1969 THE DEVELOPING AMERICAN INTEREST AND RESPONSE by BARBARA ELLEN THORNBURY A.B., Smith C o l l e g e , 1971 A THESIS.>SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f THEATRE We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A b s t r a c t American a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h K a b u k i began b e f o r e W o r l d War I I , a l t h o u g h s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t d i d not b e g i n t o d e v e l - op u n t i l a f t e r t h e war. I n f a c t , K a b u k i became known i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s l a r g e l y because a number o f i n f l u e n t i a l A merican a u t h o r s and t h e a t r e p e o p l e responded e n t h u s i a s t i - c a l l y t o t h i s Japanese t h e a t r e form, w h i c h t h e y had seen d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n . On r e t u r n i n g t o Am e r i c a , t h e s e peo- p l e w r o t e about K a b u k i and made e f f o r t s t o b r i n g a t r o u p e on a v i s i t t o New Y o r k C i t y and o t h e r p a r t s o f f t h e c o u n t r y . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s came i n 1954 and a g a i n i n 1955-56, and t h e Grand K a b u k i v i s i t e d i n 1960 and 1969. F o c u s i n g on New Y o r k , t h e paper o u t l i n e s t h e h i s t o r y o f K a b u k i performances i n A m e r i c a and t r a c e s t h e d e v e l o p - ment o f i n t e r e s t , m a i n l y by showing how t h o s e w r i t i n g i n newspapers and p o p u l a r magazines responded t o K a b u k i o v e r t h e y e a r s . D e s p i t e problems o f d i p l o m a c y and t h e t e c h n i - c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a n s p o r t i n g a" f u l l - s i z e d t r o u p e abroad, a wide base o f i n t e r e s t had been e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e t i m e o f t h e l a s t t r o u p e ' s v i s i t i n 1969. i i i . T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n i v C h a p t e r I : E a r l y K a b u k i Performances i n New Y o r k , 1900 and 1930 1 C h a p t e r I I : Americans D i s c o v e r K a b u k i i n Japan: E f f o r t s t o B r i n g K a b u k i t o New Y o r k , 1952-1954 12 C h a p t e r I I I : The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s i n New Y o r k , 1954 and 1955-56 27 C h a p t e r IV: Grand K a b u k i i n New Y o r k , 1960 and 1969....51" C o n c l u s i o n . 88 B i b l i o g r a p h i e s ..91 I n t r o d u c t i o n A l o o k a t t h e p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h on t h e s u b j e c t o f K a b u k i r e v e a l s t h a t an overwhelming number o f a r t i c l e s c o n c e r n t h e s i x K a b u k i and K a b u k i - r e l a t e d t r o u p e s w h i c h v i s i t e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and performed p r i m a r i l y i n New Yo r k C i t y , from 1900 t o 1969. A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l a l s o d e a l s w i t h t h e American " d i s c o v e r y " o f Kabu- k i i n Japan a f t e r W o r l d War I I and t h e subsequent e f f o r t s t o b r i n g a f u l l - s i z e d t r o u p e t o New Yo r k and o t h e r p a r t s o f th e c o u n t r y . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e s e w r i t i n g s document t h e h i s - t o r y o f K a b u k i i n A m e r i c a and t h e development o f A m e r i c a n — and t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , W e s t e r n — i n t e r e s t i n t h i s c l a s s i c a l Japanese t h e a t r e form. Among t h e s t u d i e s t h a t have been done on K a b u k i , how- e v e r , l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n on t h e t o p i c o f K a b u k i i n Amer i c a , d e s p i t e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l . Zoe K i n c a i d ' s K a b u k i , The P o p u l a r Stage o f Japan (1925) and F a u b i o n Bowers' Japanese T h e a t r e (1952) b r i e f l y mention t h e two t r o u p e s w h i c h came i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y , w h i l e L eonard Proriko's T h e a t e r E a s t and West (1967) and E a r l e E r n s t ' s "The i n f l u e n c e o f Japanese T h e a t r i c a l S t y l e on Western T h e a t r e , " ( E d u c a t i o n a l T h e a t r e J o u r n a l , 1969) a l - so g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h r e e o f t h e f o u r l a t e r v i s i t i n g t r o u p e s . Up u n t i i now t h e r e has been no work w h i c h d e a l s e x c l u s i v e l y and c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e American i n t e r a c - t i o n w i t h K a b u k i , a f a s c i n a t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a o f s t u d y i n American t h e a t r e . The purpose o f t h i s p a p e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o o u t l i n e t h e h i s t o r y o f :Kabuki performances i n A m e r i c a and t o t r a c e t h e development o f American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i , m a i n l y by showing how t h o s e w r i t i n g i n newspapers and p6pa3ia;&emaga- z i n e s have responded t o K a b u k i o v e r t h e y e a r s . S i n c e most o f t h e a r t i c l e s a r e w r i t t e n by and c o n c e r n New York p e o p l e and t h e performances w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n New York, t h i s s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on t h a t c i t y . The paper b e g i n s w i t h an i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r on t h e v i s i t s o f t h e Kawakami t r o u p e (1900) and T s u t s u i and t h e P l a y e r s from Japan (1930). A l t h o u g h p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a - t i o n showed t h a t t h e s e two companies were not s t r i c t l y "Ka- b u k i , " t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s s t u d y because t h e y were t h e f i r s t t r o u p e s t o . b e r e p r e s e n t e d as such and t h u s gave Americans t h e i r i n i t i a l , though c u r i o u s , g l i m p s e o f Japan's p o p u l a r t h e a t r e . The main body o f t h e paper t h e n f o l l o w s E a r l M i n e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "the p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f K a b u k i i n . . . A m e r i c a has begun o n l y s i n c e t h e Second W o r l d War."^- A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e second c h a p t e r i s on how American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i d e v e l o p e d a f t e r t h e war, w h i l e t h e t h i r d and f i n a l c h a p t e r s a r e concerned w i t h t h e subsequent New York performances o f t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s (1954 and 1955-56) and t h e Grand K a b u k i (1960 and 1969). S i n c e much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Azuma and Grand K a b u k i t r o u p e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e e x t e n s i v e number o f r e - views o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s , c o n s i d e r a b l e space i s devoted t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n . I n Chapter I I I and Ch a p t e r IV t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l s e c t i o n s on t h e r e v i e w s , where, f o r t h e sake o f comparison as w e l l as c o n v e n i e n c e , t h e r e v i e w s a r e a r r a n g e d by i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c and grouped c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h o p e n i n g n i g h t and p r o g r e s s i n g t h r o u g h l a t e r program r e v i e w s . Because magazine r e v i e w s g e n e r a l l y came out a f t e r t h o s e i n t h e newspapers, t h e y have been g i v e n s e p a r a t e l y i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s . The New Yo r k Times Index and t h e Reader's Guide t o P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e were t h e main b i b l i o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s f o r t h e paper, a l t h o u g h m a t e r i a l was o b t a i n e d from books and o t h e r j o u r n a l s hot i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e g u i d e s . F o r t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y r e v i e w s t h a t were c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e Azuma and Grand K a b u k i t r o u p e s , t h e New York T h e a t r e C r i - t i c s ' Reviews and t h e Reader's Guide were used t o d e t e r m i n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , newspaper and magazine s e l e c t i o n . Macrons have been used t o i n d i c a t e l o n g vowels i n Japanese words except t h e most common p r o p e r nouns. J a - panese names a r e g i v e n i n t h e u s u a l Japanese manner, w i t h th e f a m i l y name coming b e f o r e t h e g i v e n name. Note '''Earl M i n e r , The Japanese T r a d i t i o n i n B r i t i s h and American L i t e r a t u r e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1966), p. 216. C h a p t e r I : E a r l y K a b u k i Performances i n New York, 1900 and 1930 The f i r s t t r o u p e t o b r i n g K a b u k i t o New York came by way o f San F r a n c i s c o and Boston i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g o f 1900. As the p l a y b i l l shows, t h e members o f t h e t r o u p e were Kawakami O t o j i r o , "Japan's Most D i s t i n g u i s h e d A c t o r , " h i s w i f e , Sada- yakko, "The L e a d i n g E m o t i o n a l A c t r e s s o f t h e F l o w e r y K i n g - dom, " and t h e "Dramatic S t u d e n t s o f t h e Kawakami T h e a t r e , Tokio,""'" w h i c h numbered between twenty and t h i r t y p e r f o r m e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r i n g a c c o u n t s . I n e a r l y March t h e t r o u p e opened a t New Y o r k ' s B e r k e l e y Lyceum T h e a t r e , about two weeks l a t e r moving t o t h e B i j o u T h e a t r e , where t h e y remained u n t i l l e a v i n g f o r t h e P a r i s E x p o s i t i o n i n A p r i l o f t h a t y e a r . I n Japanese t h e a t r e h i s t o r y , Kawakami O t o j i r o i s remem- be r e d as a founder o f t h e Shimpa ("New School") t h e a t r e move- ment. T h i s movement "which began i n t h e l a t e 1880's and 1890's, was o r i g i n a l l y i n s p i r e d by p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s , and used t r a d i - t i o n a l K a b u k i t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r t o p o r t r a y t h e contemporary 2 scene." Kawakami had some s u c c e s s , and i n 1896 founded t h e Kawakami T h e a t r e i n Tokyo, w h i c h soon c l o s e d , however, due t o poor management and bad p l a y s . Soon a f t e r , he s a i l e d f o r America and Europe w i t h h i s w i f e and t h e members o f h i s t r o u p e t o s t u d y Western t h e a t r e t e c h n i q u e s . Kawakami p l a n n e d t o use t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o r e v i t a l i z e h i s t h e a t r e when he r e t u r n e d t o J apan. On l a n d i n g i n San F r a n c i s c o , however, Kawakami found t h e r e was a ready a u d i e n c e f o r Japanese d r a m a — a n d not j u s t among p e o p l e o f Japanese e x t r a c t i o n . A mericans, g e n e r a l l y , were c u r i o u s about t h e g e i s h a and samurai t h e y had h e a r d and r e a d about, and were eager tor see t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d on s t a g e . So t a k i n g advantage o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e a l i t t l e fame and f o r t u n e abroad, Kawakami put t o g e t h e r a program o f K a b u k i - d e r i v e d dramas o f h i s own i n v e n t i o n , w h i c h t h e t r o u p e performed i n New Y o r k a few months l a t e r . Many o f t h e Americans who saw t h e Kawakami t r o u p e p e r f o r m b e l i e v e d t h e y were s e e i n g an a u t h e n t i c and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ex- ample o f t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e . However, i n K a b u k i , The P o p u l a r Stage o f Japan, Zoe K i n c a i d d e s c r i b e d t h e Kawakami e f f o r t as < 3 no more t h a n "crude melodrama," l a c k i n g even t h e t i m e l y J a - panese themes w h i c h had c h a r a c t e r i z e d Kawakami 1s t h e a t r e i n Tokyo. Many Japanese p e o p l e and o t h e r s who were f a m i l i a r w i t h Japanese t h e a t r e were ashamed t h a t Kawakami, h i s w i f e , and t h e o t h e r members o f t h e t r o u p e s h o u l d be thought o f as d i s t i n g u i s h e d K a b u k i a c t o r s , As K i n c a i d w r o t e i n 1925, a q u a r t e r c e n t u r y a f t e r t h e v i s i t t o o k p l a c e : "The poor im- p r e s s i o n [ t h e Kawakami t r o u p e ] gave o f Japan's t h e a t r e a r t has not been e r a s e d , s i n c e no l e a d i n g K a b u k i a c t o r has y e t been seen i n t h e West t o show what i s s i n c e r e and t r u e on t h e 4 Japanese s t a g e . " The Kawakami t r o u p e , however, was w e l l r e c e i v e d by many Americans. A f t e r s e e i n g such Kawakami p l a y s as " Z i n g o r o , an E a r n e s t S t a t u e Maker/" "The F a i t h f u l W i f e , " "The R o y a l i s t ; o r K o j i m a T a k a n o r i , " and what p r o v e d t o be t h e i r b i g g e s t h i t , "The G e i s h a and t h e K n i g h t " ("knight," h e r e , b e i n g a t r a n s l a - t i o n f o r " s a m u r a i " ) , c r i t i c s p r a i s e d t h e a c t i n g s t y l e o f t h e Japanese v i s i t o r s . To overcome language problems, Kawakami reduced Japanese d i a l o g u e t o t h e b a r e s t minimum and c o n c e n t r a - t e d on a c t i o n , i n t h e l i t e r a l sense o f t h e word. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e p l a y s were "melodramatic v e h i c l e s adapted from K a b u k i p l o t s , d e s i g n e d t o d i s p l a y Kawakami i n s w o r d - f i g h t i n g scenes 5 and Sada[yakko] i n t h o s e o f dance, madness, and d e a t h . " Sadayakko, who made an e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n i n New Yor k , had been t r a i n e d as a g e i s h a b e f o r e h e r m a r r i a g e ' and t h e r e f o r e had some competence i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s , such as d a n c i n g . B e f o r e coming t o Am e r i c a , however, she had had no a c t i n g t r a i n i n g . I t was s t i l l v i r t u a l l y unheard o f f o r a woman t o appear on t h e Japanese s t a g e . When Sadayakko a r - r i v e d i n San F r a n c i s c o w i t h t h e o t h e r w i s e a l l - m a l e t r o u p e and found t h a t t h e Americans wanted t o see a r e a l g e i s h a i n her husband's p l a y s , h e r a c t i n g c a r e e r began. Sadayakko's subsequent fame i n t h e West, moreover, h e l p e d t h e cause o f a c t r e s s e s i n Japan, and when she e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n e d t h e r e she founded a s c h o o l o f a c t i n g f o r women. New Y o r k e r s were e x t r e m e l y c u r i o u s about t h e g e i s h a l a d y . Soon a f t e r t h e t r o u p e opened, an a r t i c l e c a l l e d "A Japanese A c t r e s s " appeared i n t h e Sunday New Yo r k Times. H a v i n g seen Sadayakko i n h e r r o l e as a g e i s h a i n s e v e r a l o f :the p l a y s , p a r t i c u l a r l y "The G e i s h a and t h e K n i g h t , 1 ' t h e w r i t e r o f t h e a r t i c l e r e p o r t e d i n f r a n k amazement t h a t "the l i t t l e G e i s h a g i r l i s s u r p r i s i n g l y h u m a n . R e f l e c t i n g t h e p r e v a i l i n g l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y image o f Japan as a l a n d o f t h e " e x o t i c , " he added: " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t h i n k o f t h e Japanese woman o f any age, rank , o r c h a r a c t e r as a n y t h i n g but a p r e t t y , d a i n t y l i t t l e c r e a t u r e , s i t t i n g i n h e r t o y house, a r r a n g i n g h e r s i n g l e 7 b r a n c h o f c h e r r y blossoms." I f Sadayakko*s m e l o d r a m a t i c p o r t r a y a l s o f g e i s h a had no o t h e r e f f e c t , t h e y a t l e a s t changed some a t t i t u d e s . She showed t h a t "a Japanese woman can l o v e d e e p l y , h a t e s a v a g e l y , and t h e n 8 d i e q u i e t l y . " To t h e s u r p r i s e o f many she pr o v e d t h a t J a - panese women a r e p e o p l e o f f e e l i n g : "No one would have ex- p e c t e d t o f i n d an e m o t i o n a l a c t r e s s i n Japan, f o r who would ~ . -. 9 have e x p e c t e d t o f x n d an e m o t i o n a l woman t h e r e ? " Kawakami h i m s e l f a l s o p l e a s e d a u d i e n c e s i n t h e many scenes o f sword combat w h i c h f i l l e d t h e p l a y s . "The R o y a l i s t ; o r K o j i m a T a k a n o r i " was re m a r k a b l e f o r i t s " t e r r i f i c sword combats."'''^ As one c r i t i c d e s c r i b e d "The Ge i s h a and t h e K n i g h t , " i t opened w i t h a f i e r c e b a t t l e scene f o l l o w e d by "a second f i g h t , i n w h i c h t h e h e r o k i l l e d h a l f a dozen o f h i s f o e s w i t h d e x t e r i t y and dispatch."" 1""'" The second h a l f o f t h e p l a y c o n t a i n e d an " e x c i t i n g d u e l , " w h i l e t h e f i n a l c u r t a i n c l o s e d on a n o t h e r combat " w i t h n e a r l y e v e r y one on t h e s t a g e 12 i n a more o r l e s s d i l a p i d a t e d c o n d i t i o n . " A d m i t t i n g t h a t a l l t h e b l o o d s h e d may have been somewhat overdone, t h e c r i t i c , . 13- . n e v e r t h e l e s s , says t h a t t h e r e was " u n q u e s t i o n e d power" i n t h e performance. Scenes o f t h i s k i n d a l s o had a major r c l e i n t h e p e r - formances o f t h e n e x t t r o u p e t o v i s i t New Y o r k , i n 1930. T s u t s u i T o k u j i r S and The P l a y e r s from Japan, opened a t New Y o r k ' s Booth T h e a t r e on March 4, 1930. The t r o u p e o f t w e n t y - f i v e a c t o r s and a c t r e s s e s had been d o i n g a v a r i e t y o f c l a s s i - c a l and modern p i e c e s i n t h e Kyoto-Osaka a r e a when a man named I t o M i o h i o r e c r u i t e d them t o p e r f o r m i n A m e r i c a and Europe. He s u b s e q u e n t l y assumed t h e r o l e o f t h e i r managing d i r e c t o r . I t 5 , who has v a r i o u s l y been d e s c r i b e d as p l a y w r i g h t / d a n c e r / d i r e c t o r / e n t r e p r e n e u r , had f i r s t come t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e Western t h e a t r e w o r l d about f i f t e e n y e a r s e a r l i e r when he p e rformed h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e No drama f o r W i l l i a m B u t l e r Y e a t s . He l a t e r appeared i n a~ London p r o d u c t i o n o f Y e a t s ' N o - i n s p i r e d play,' A t t h e Hawk's W e l l . The t o u r o f t h e Tsu- t s u i t r o u p e seems t o have been I t o ' s attempt t o r a i s e h i s p r e s - t i g e f u r t h e r i n t h e Western t h e a t r e w o r l d . T s u t s u i was an a c t o r o f no s p e c i a l renown i n Japan. However, he had d e v i s e d a number o f k e n - q e k i ("sword p l a y s " ) from t h e K a b u k i r e p e r t o i r e . I t 5 took t h e s e and r e v i s e d them f o r Western a u d i e n c e s , p u t t i n g p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on "panto- 14 mime and t h e dance." U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e s u l t i n g "Romance i n C h e r r y Blossom Lane," "The Shadow Man," and " F e s t i v a l , " t h e i r a t t e n d a n t g e i s h a and samurai n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , o n l y moved c r i t i c s t o say t h a t I t o "has r e n d e r e d no s i g n a l s e r v i c e 15 e i t h e r t t o t h e Japanese t h e a t r e o r to...New York," c o n c l u d - i n g t h a t The P l a y e r s from Japan l a c k e d a r t i s t i c m e r i t . I t o seems t o have u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f New Y o r k a u d i e n c e s t o know a bad j o b when t h e y saw one, even i f i t was from t h e " e x o t i c " O r i e n t . R e f e r r i n g t o Zoe K i n c a i d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f K a b u k i as something o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , a c r i t i c remarked: " I t i s i n e v i t a b l y d i s a p p o i n t i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t o go t o t h e Booth and f i n d almost n o t h i n g o f t h i s s t i m u l a t i n g c h a r - 16 a c t e r , but o n l y . . . r a t h e r bad, o l d - f a s h i o n e d p l a y s . " As f o r s t a g e s e t t i n g s , t h e same c r i t i c c o u l d not b e l i e v e t h a t t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e i n Japan would have s e t s o f t h e " s t o r a g e - 17 warehouse" t y p e he saw. Another s a i d t h e s e t s resembled 18 "the ' S h e r l o c k Holmes' p e r i o d i n A m e r i c a , " r e c a l l i n g W i l l i a m G i l l e t t e ' s l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y melodrama, w h i c h was done so o f t e n and i n so many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s by t o u r i n g t h e a t r e companies t h a t not much c a r e was g i v e n t o s t a g e s e t t i n g s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o a c t i n g t e c h n i q u e , t h e r e was some p r a i s e f o r t h e k i n d o f s k i l l s Kawakami had d i s p l a y e d t h i r t y y e a r s e a r l i e r , but t h e program, g e n e r a l l y , was d i s m i s s e d as " O r i - e n t a l drama t h a t i s coming down t h e main highway o f t h e Oc- 19 c i d e n t a l t h e a t r e , and has not p r o g r e s s e d v e r y f a r . " I t o had m e r e l y reduced and adapted T s u t s u i ' s own K a b u k i a d a p t a t i o n s u n t i l t h e r e was no p e r c e p t i b l e s t y l e — O r i e n t a l o r W e s t e r n — l e f t i n them. Thus, by 1930, two Japanese t h e a t r e t r o u p e s had come t o New Y o r k t o p e r f o r m t h e i r K a b u k i - r e l a t e d dramas. The f a c t t h a t t h e Kawakami t r o u p e was b e t t e r r e c e i v e d t h a n T s u t s u i and The P l a y e r s from Japan a f t e r them must p a r t l y be e x p l a i n e d by changes i n a u d i e n c e t a s t e and e x p e c t a t i o n o v e r t h e t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d t h a t had e l a p s e d . The m e l o d r a m a t i c s t y l e t h a t had a p p e a l e d t o New Y ork a u d i e n c e s a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y d i d not s u i t them a f t e r t h e y had become accustomed t o t h e r e a l i s m o f I b s e n and O ' N e i l l . Another cause f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was t h e p e r f o r m e r s t h e m s e l v e s . A l t h o u g h a u d i e n c e s i n 1900 had been d e l i g h t e d w i t h Sadayakko as a g e i s h a , by 1930, t h o s e f a m i l i a r w i t h K a b u k i knew' f o r one t h i n g t h a t s p e c i a l l y " t r a i n e d men p l a y e d t h e women's r o l e s i n o r t h o d o x K a b u k i . T s u t s u i p a r t i c u l a r l y s u f f e r e d from comparison w i t h C h i n e s e t h e a t r e s t a r M e i Lan- f a n g who was p e r f o r m i n g i n New Y o r k a t t h e same t i m e and who was w e l l known i n C h i n a , Europe and Ameri c a f o r h i s imperson- 20 , a t i o n o f women. New Y o r k e r s , t h e r e f o r e , were b l a s e , i f n o t s i m p l y b o r e d , by women p l a y i n g women's r o l e s i n T s u t s u i 1 s t r o u p e . A l s o , by 1930 t h e New York t h e a t r e g o e r was more i n t e r - n a t i o n a l l y - m i n d e d and s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n h i s t a s t e f o r f o r - e i g n drama. As one t h e a t r e o b s e r v o r w r o t e e a r l y t h a t y e a r : "omnivorous t h e a t r e g o e r s o f New York...have a s s i m i l a t e d Rus- s i a n b a l l e t , German 'mystery' p l a y s , t h e dramas o f a l l Europe, - . 21 -and, most r e c e n t l y , t h e e x o t x c i s m o f M e i L a n - f a n g . " H a v i n g h e a r d t h a t a r e a l K a b u k i t r o u p e had v i s i t e d R u s s i a two y e a r s e a r l i e r , t h e y were c u r i o u s t o see what T s u t s u i and h i s t r o u p e would o f f e r . T s u t s u i , however, was a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , l a r g e - l y because a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n r e a l K a b u k i was not good enough any more f o r New Y o r k . F a v o r a b l e o r advers e c r i t i c i s m n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e Kawa- kami and T s u t s u i t r o u p e s were i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t t h e y gave New Y o r k e r s t h e i r f i r s t l o o k a t performances t h a t were l a b e l e d " K a b u k i . " Even i f t h i s s o - c a l l e d K a b u k i was o n l y d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a l t h i n g , t h e t r o u p e s broke ground i n J a - panese-American a r t i s t i c r e l a t i o n s i n an age when t h e concept o f Japan was l i t t l e more t h a n a s u p e r f i c i a l image i n most p e o p l e s ' minds. The movement t o b r i n g a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i t o New Yo r k had i t s f i r s t t e n t a t i v e b e g i n n i n g s i n 1930. "For s e v e r a l seasons i n Gotham ' t h a t O r i e n t a l atmosphere';-has been g e t t i n g t h i c k e r . . . t h e r e i s something 'Japanesey' i n e v e r y corner...We have sampled 22 e v e r y t h i n g Japanese but t h e drama." "Drama" meant K a b u k i , but i t was not u n t i l more t h a n twenty y e a r s l a t e r , w h i l e p e o p l e were s t i l l r e c o v e r i n g from war w i t h Japan, t h a t s e r i o u s nego- t i a t i o n s were s t a r t e d t o b r i n g K a b u k i on i t s f i r s t v i s i t t o A m e r i c a . Notes ' ' " P l a y b i l l f o r t h e B i j o u T h e a t r e , n.d. The New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n . 2 G u n j i M a sakatsu, K a b u k i , John B e s t e r , t r a n s . ( P a l o A l t o : Kodansha I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1 9 6 9 ) >•*p. 29. 3 Zoe K i n c a i d , K a b u k i , The P o p u l a r Stage o f Japan (1925; r p t . New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965), p. 345. 4 I b i d . 5 E a r l e E r n s t , "The I n f l u e n c e o f Japanese T h e a t r i c a l S t y l e on Western T h e a t r e , " E d u c a t i o n a l T h e a t r e J o u r n a l , 21 (1969), p. 131. 6 "A Japanese A c t r e s s , " New York Times, 11 March 1900, p. 16. 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . 9 I b i d . 1 0 " P l a y s i n Japanese: O t o j i r o Kawakami and Sada Yacco Appear i n Three P i e c e s a t t h e B e r k e l e y Lyceum," New York Times, 2 March 1900, p. 7. Japanese P l a y s i n Boston: A c t o r s and Dr a m a t i c - S t u d e n t s from T o k i o P r e s e n t Two o f Them," New York Times, 6 Dec. 1899, p. 8. I b i d . I b i d . 14 " G u i l d t o Sponsor Japanese Company: T o k u j i r o T s u t s u i and H i s Troupe o f A c t o r s and Dancers t o Appear Here T h i s Season," New York Times, 9 J a n . 1930, p. 22. 15 . . . "The D a n c e — J a p a n e s e A r t : V i s i t i n g Troupe R a i s e s Some Q u e s t i o n s o f Comparison," New Y o r k Times, 9 March 1930, S e c t i o n IX, p. 8. 1 6 I b i d . 17 T, I b i d . 18 , . • I b i d . 19 J . Brooks A t k i n s o n , "Japanese P l a y e r s i n R e a l i s t i c Drama," New York Times, 5 March 1930, p. 26. 20 . Kenneth Macgowan and W i l l i a m M e l n i t z , The L i v i n g Stage (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1955), p. 309. 21 M i r i a m Beard, "More About t h e Drama, Both Domestic and F o r e i g n — C o m e t h e Japanese," New Y o r k Times, 2 March 1930, S e c t i o n I X , p. 4. 22 I b i d . C h a p t e r I I : Americans D i s c o v e r K a b u k i i n Japan: E f f o r t s t o B r i n g K a b u k i t o New Yo r k , 1952-1954 On a r e c e n t r o u n d - t h e - w o r l d busman's h o l i d a y , Joshua Logan, t h e d i r e c t o r , c o - p r o d u c e r , and c o - a u t h o r o f t h e new m u s i c a l , 'Wish You Were Here,' went t o t h e a t r e s i n e v e r y one o f t h e c o u n t r i e s he v i s i t e d . Q uick t o sp o t a p o t e n t i a l h i t . . . L o g a n saw t h e f u n and f a n t a s y o f [ t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e ] and p r o m p t l y made arrangements f o r i t s f u t u r e t o u r o f t h e U n i t e d States."^ The y e a r was 1952 and Joshua Logan, r e c i p i e n t o f t h e P u l i t z e r P r i z e , a l o n g w i t h Oscar Hammerstein and R i c h a r d Rodgers, f o r h i s p a r t i n w r i t i n g , d i r e c t i n g and p r o d u c i n g t h e h i t m u s i c a l South P a c i f i c , was t r y i n g t o a r r a n g e t h e f i r s t v i s i t o f a K a b u k i t r o u p e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The v i s i t s o f t h e Kawa- kami and T s u t s u i t r o u p e s were now d i s t a n t memories and t h e w i s h — f i r s t e x p r e s s e d twenty y e a r s e a r l i e r — t o see a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i i n New York f i n a l l y seemed t o have t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a l i z a t i o n . Logan proposed t h a t t h e f i r s t and major s t o p would be New York C i t y . He aimed a t b r i n g i n g o v e r a t r o u p e as e a r l y as t h e autumn o f 1952, i n ti m e f o r t h e op e n i n g o f t h e new t h e a t r e season. E n v i s i o n i n g t h a t t h e v i s i t would be made under t h e j o i n t s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e American and Japanese governments, Logan was encouraged by John F o s t e r D u l l e s , t h e n a S t a t e Department a d v i s o r a t work on t h e peace t r e a t y w i t h Japan. I n s p i t e o f L o g a n ' s — a n d others.'-Tr.-enthusiasm and e f f o r t s , however, t h e v i s i t d i d not t a k e p l a c e f o r e i g h t y e a r s . Joshua Logan was not t h e f i r s t American t o d i s c o v e r Ka- b u k i i n Japan. Zoe K i n c a i d and o t h e r s had v i s i t e d and even l i v e d i n Japan e v e r s i n c e t h a t c o u n t r y was reopened t o f o r - e i g n e r s i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t was not u n t i l a f t e r W o r l d War I I , however, t h a t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i z a b l e numbers o f Americans, m o s t l y members o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s s t a t i o n e d i n Japan from 1945 t o 1952, had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o see K a b u k i . I n t h e September 1953 i s s u e o f t h e j o u r n a l ^ T h e a t r e A r t s , F a u b i o n Bowers, who was o f f i c i a l c e n s o r o f t h e Japanese t h e a t r e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n , t o l d about th e Americans' e x p e r i e n c e w i t h K a b u k i i n Tokyo. Bowers r e p o r t e d t h a t because t h e Japanese government had used t h e K a b u k i as a v e h i c l e f o r propaganda purposes b e f o r e and d u r i n g t h e war, t h e O c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s ' immediate r e a c t i o n was t o ban i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . I n due c o u r s e , however, i t was a l l o w e d t o reopen, but t o a v o i d a n t i - O c c u p a t i o n s e n t i m e n t and d i s e a s e t h r o u g h c o n t a c t w i t h J apan- ese p e o p l e i n t h e t h e a t r e , American and o t h e r A l l i e d f o r c e s were not p e r m i t t e d t o a t t e n d p e r f o r m a n c e s . However, no doubt t h a n k s at l e a s t i n p a r t t o Bowers' p e r s o n a l r e g a r d f o r t h e t h e a t r e , an e x p e r i e m e n t a l A l l i e d N i g h t o f K a b u k i was h e l d , t o w h i c h t h e Japanese p u b l i c , by t h e way, was not i n v i t e d . S i n c e t h e main t h e a t r e , t h e K a b u k i - z a , had been d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g t h e war, K a b u k i was performed t e m p o r a r i l y a t t h e Tokyo G e k i j o (Tokyo T h e a t r e ) . A f t e r s p r a y i n g t h e t h e a t r e w i t h DDT, t h e W e s t e r n e r s were a l l o w e d t o e n t e r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e had been t r e p i d a t i o n , as w e l l as c u r i o s i t y , on t h e p a r t o f b o t h p e r f o r m e r s and a u d i e n c e , t h e f i r s t A l l i e d N i g h t o f K a b u k i was a s u c c e s s and r e p e a t e d once a month f o r some ti m e 2 a f t e r . Bowers r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e main p l a y o f t h a t f i r s t A l l i e d N i g h t o f K a b u k i i n Tokyo was K a n j i n c h o C^The S u b s c r i p t i o n L i s t " ) and t h a t c u t s a were made t o speed up t h e p l a y i n g t i m e f o r an a u d i e n c e not used t o t h e l o n g h o u r s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e K a b u k i as i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y done i n Japan. F o r t h e many Americans and o t h e r s who s u b s e q u e n t l y de- v e l o p e d an i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i , t h e r e o p e n i n g o f t h e K a b u k i - z a i n J a n u a r y , 1951 was a welcomed e v e n t . As t h e armed f o r c e s ' newspaper r e p o r t e d : "Hundreds o f U n i t e d N a t i o n s p e r - s o n n e l on l e a v e o r s t a t i o n e d i n Tokyo a t t e n d e d a k a b u k i f i r s t n i g h t e r d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week o f t h e New Y e a r f o r t h e purpose o f f i n d i n g o u t , o r i f a l r e a d y a c q u a i n t e d . . . t o renew t h e en- 3 - chantment." I t was toward t h e end o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n p e r i o d , i n 1951, t h a t Joshua Logan made h i s r o u n d - t h e - w o r l d j o u r n e y w i t h t h a t i m p o r t a n t s t o p i n Japan. E x c i t e d by what he saw i n t h e t h e a t r e t h e r e , Logan became t h e f i r s t American t o 15. make a s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o b r i n g K a b u k i t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A t t h e same t i m e Logan was a t t e m p t i n g t o n e g o t i a t e a v i s i t , o t h e r p e o p l e — m o s t n o t a b l y , t h e p l a y w r i g h t P a u l Green, James M i c h e n e r , and l a t e r , F a u b i o n B o w e r s — a l s o spoke out i n s u p p o r t o f a K a b u k i v i s i t . L i k e Logan, t h e s e p e o p l e had been t o Japan, had seen K a b u k i t h e r e and f e l t i t was something th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - m i n d e d New York t h e a t r e community s h o u l d a l s o see and e x p e r i e n c e . W r i t i n g i n major newspapers and j o u r n a l s o v e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y a two y e a r p e t i o d — u n t i l t h e v i s i t by t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s i n 1 9 5 4 — t h e s e p e o p l e s e r v e d t o c r e a t e a p o t e n t i a l K a b u k i a u d i e n c e i n New Y o r k . These a r t i c l e s began t o appear a f t e r Joshua Logan announced h i s p l a n s t o b r i n g K a b u k i t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . "Logan t o Import Japanese Troupe, D i r e c t o r P l a n s t o P r e s e n t 50 i n Ka- b u k i T h e a t r e Here Next Season i n S t y l i z e d A r t " appeared i n th e December 24, 1951 i s s u e o f t h e New Y o r k Times. A f t e r c i t i n g Logan's c r e d e n t i a l s as a t o p d i r e c t o r and a u t h o r , a man who knows a t h e a t r i c a l s u c c e s s when he sees one, t h e a r t i c l e r e p o r t e d t h a t Logan has been " c o m p l e t e l y won over by t h e . . 4 e n t e r t a i n m e n t q u a l i t i e s i n h e r e n t m Japan's K a b u k i t h e a t r e . " Logan's i n t e n t i o n was t o have a t r o u p e s t a y i n New York two o r t h r e e months and t h e n t o u r o t h e r U.S. c i t i e s f o r a t o t a l o f perhaps two months. O p t i m i s t i c a l l y t h i n k i n g ahead toward an a c t u a l v i s i t , Logan t o l d t h e r e p o r t e r t h a t performance t i m e would be s h o r t e n e d i n o r d e r t o conform t o u s u a l New Y o r k s t a n d a r d s , but t h a t o t h e r w i s e , Japanese f e a t u r e s would be adhered t o . L a n t e r n s , f o r example, would be hung i n t h e t h e a t r e l o b b y and Japanese snacks and mementos would be s o l d . As f o r t h e p l a y s t h a t would be seen, "a l i g h t p l a y , •Revenge, 1 and a l o n g e r one o f a more s e r i o u s n a t u r e c a l l e d - 5 •The House o f P r e c i o u s D i s h e s on Ban S t r e e t 1 " were pr o m i s e d . A l t h o u g h t h e " l i g h t " and " s e r i o u s " d e s i g n a t i o n s were r e v e r s e d , i t p r o b a b l y d i d not m a t t e r a t t h a t t i m e t o f u t u r e New York K a b u k i a u d i e n c e s . L i k e t h e a u t h o r o f t h e a r t i c l e , t h e y were not q u i t e s u r e what K a b u k i was, a l t h o u g h i t d i d sound i n - t e r e s t i n g . The f i r s t a r t i c l e t o e x p l a i n K a b u k i and g i v e f i r s t - hand i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t i n a newspaper o f n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e was " T r i b u t e t o t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e o f Japan." T h i s appeared on t h e f r o n t page o f t h e t h e a t r e / a r t s s e c t i o n o f t h e Sunday New Y o r k Times, J a n u a r y 27, 1952, a month a f t e r Joshuas Logan's p l a n s were announced. I t was w r i t t e n by P a u l Green, a P u l i t z e r P r i z e - w i n n i n g p l a y w r i g h t , who had j u s t r e t u r n e d from a w o r l d t o u r w h i c h took him t o J a p a n — a n d t h e K a b u k i . A f t e r l e a v i n g Japan, Green happened t o meet Joshua Logan i n Burma and u r g e d him t o h u r r y and see K a b u k i f o r h i m s e l f . A f t e r s e e i n g t h e K a b u k i , Logan had r e a c t e d by t r y i n g t o b r i n g t h e K a b u k i "show" t o New York and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ("I f e l t t h a t t h e American p u b l i c must be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f s h a r i n g my e x p e r i e n c e . " ) On t h e o t h e r hand, Green r e a c t e d by w r i t i n g about what he saw and t r y i n g t o a n a l y z e t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r h i s f e l l o w Americans: Japan has i n t h e main t h e f i n e s t t h e a - t r e a r t i n t h e world...What c h o r e o g r a - phy! What c o l o r o f costume and e x q u i - s i t e use o f dance, pantomime and music! And t h e tremendous v i r t u o s i t y and l y r i c r e a c h o f t h e a c t i n g — t h e s e t a k e you l i k e ^ t h e r i c h o u t p o u r i n g o f a g r e a t g l o w i n g f l o w e r . He s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e European t h e a t r e t h e o r e t i c i a n s A d o l f A p p i a and Gordon C r a i g would a l s o have been i m p r e s s e d by Ka- b u k i p r o d u c t i o n methods. As Green s a i d ; i n K a b u k i one f i n d s " f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a l l t h e e lements, a l l t h e m a t e r i a l s o f s t a g e c r a f t , o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c , c o m p l e t e l y s e i z e d upon 8 and p o s s e s s e d by mind." Green, however, d i d more t h a n p r a i s e K a b u k i . He a l s o a d v i s e d young Japanese p l a y w r i g h t s t o r e v i t a l i z e — a n d r e - v i s e - - K a b u k i , w h i c h , from h i s p o i n t o f view " i s t o o much t a k e n up w i t h dead e t h i c s and empty l o y a l t i e s — w i t h puppet mikados, a n c i e n t shoguns, r o n i n s , s a m u r a i , and t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t g u t t i n g sword o f h a r a - k i r i . . . D e a t h , not l i f e , i s i t s 9 . downward p u l l and c l i m a x . " Green f e l t t h a t K a b u k i , l i k e p ost-war Japan i t s e l f , s h o u l d be made t o change w i t h t h e t i m e s . W i t h i n t h e body o f Green's a r t i c l e , Joshua Logan e n c l o s e d a s h o r t p a r a g r a p h , "Mrv<>Logan Seconds Mr. Green." I n Logan's words, a K a b u k i v i s i t would s e r v e as "an o u t s t a n d i n g g e s t u r e t o t h e E a s t , by a p p l a u d i n g one o f i t s g r e a t e s t t r a d i t i o n s . . . i t would be h e a r t w a r m i n g . . . [ i n each o t h e r we would] f i n d s o u r c e s o f sympathy and s i m i l a r i t y . " " ' ' 0 S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e " E a s t " meant Japan and w i t h a background o f t h e r e c e n t war and t h e c o n t i n u i n g O c c u p a t i o n , Logan knew t h a t a K a b u k i v i s i t c o u l d not be s i m p l y an a r t i s t i c o r c u l t u r a l e v e n t; p o l i t i c s and d i p l o m a c y would a l s o be i n v o l v e d . A l t h o u g h Logan was c o n v i n c e d K a b u k i would r e c e i v e a warm welcome i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , much o f t h e d e l a y i n a c t u a l l y b r i n g i n g about a v i s i t seemed due t o A m e r i c a n — a n d J a p a n e s e — d o u b t s on how k a b u k i would i n d e e d be r e c e i v e d i n t h e post-war U n i t e d S t a t e s . Both Logan and Green, however, had p e r c e i v e d a u n i v e r s a l a r t i s t i c a p p e a l i n K a b u k i , as d i d one former s o l d i e r o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n who wrote a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r o f t h e Times soon a f t e r s e e i n g Green and Logan's a r t i c l e s . T h i s p e r s o n had not o n l y seen K a b u k i a t t h e Tokyo T h e a t r e a t t h e A l l i e d N i g h t s o f K a b u k i , but had a l s o seen r u r a l K a b u k i p e r f o r m a n c e s , sometimes done o u t d o o r s even on c o l d w i n t e r n i g h t s . To him, K a b u k i was "a s t r o n g a f f i r m a t i o n o f man's t i m e l e s s need and d e s i r e f o r t h e a r t o f t h e theatre."''""'' He suggested t h a t i t was t i m e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e war e x p e r i e n c e and move toward a new -1-̂ . l e v e l o f human u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h a t h e a t r e v i s i t might h e l p p r o v i d e . A nother former s o l d i e r e x p r e s s e d h i s views on t h e sub- j e c t l a t e r t h a t y e a r . "Japan" by James M i c h e n e r , p r i z e - w i n n i n g a u t h o r o f T a l e s o f t h e South P a c i f i c , was t h e f e a - t u r e d a r t i c l e i n t h e August i s s u e o f t h e p o p u l a r t r a v e l - o r i e n t e d H o l i d a y magazine. That month's c o v e r was an eye- c a t c h i n g photograph o f a k i m o n o - c l a d Japanese g i r l . I n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks, t h e e d i t o r a d d r e s s e d r e a d e r s w i t h : " J u s t what i s Japan l i k e ? And what k i n d o f p e o p l e a r e t h e Japanese? Here i s a d o u b l e - l e n g t h r e p o r t on our r e c e n t en- emies by a man who fought them i n t h e P a c i f i c and who has j u s t r e v i s i t e d them t o g i v e you t h i s i n t i m a t e , c o l o r f u l and 12 s u r p r i s i n g p i c t u r e . " One o f t h e most s u r p r i s i n g p i c t u r e s , i i t e r a l l y , was a s p l e n d i d c o l o r p h otograph o f t h e K a b u k i a c t o r Bando M i t s u g o r S i n f u l l costume. A l t h o u g h t h e a r t i c l e was about d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f Japanese c u l t u r e , i t was t h e f i r s t o f s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t h a t M i c h e n e r wrote about K a b u k i . O b s e r v i n g t h a t K a b u k i i s t h e Japanese a r t w h i c h seems t o impress f o r e i g n e r s t h e most, M i c h e n e r d e s c r i b e d K a b u k i i n t h e s t y l e o f a n o v e l i s t : i t weaves an " i n t e n s e d r a m a t i c s p e l l " and "sounds l i k e Japan c e n t u r i e s ago: h a r s h , u n e a r t h l y , p o w e r f u l . . . [ i t ] h i t me l i k e - • 13 a t h u n d e r b o l t . " He c o n c l u d e d : " I f you can f i n d i t i n y o u r h e a r t t o e r a s e t h e h a t r e d s and s u s p i c i o n s b o r n o f a b i t t e r w ar...then you w i l l f i n d Japan a most r e w a r d i n g l a n d , " and 14 K a b u k i one o f i t s most r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . M i c h e n e r w r o t e o t h e r a r t i c l e s c oncerned e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h K a b u k i and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a v i s i t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , but next i n o r d e r o f appearance i s Joshua Logan's a r t i c l e " I Love t h e Japanese TheatreJ,''which appeared i n t h e August 15 1952 i s s u e o f Vogue magazine. Vogue i s a magazine f o r t h e s t y l e - c o n s c i o u s , e s p e c i a l l y s t y l e - c o n s c i o u s New Y o r k e r s , who, l i k e Logan, were fo n d o f and f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e Broadway t h e a t r e scene. As though d e s c r i b i n g some grand e x t r a v a g a n z a , Logan spoke o f K a b u k i as something w h i c h "has e v e r y t h i n g — s i n g i n g , d a n c i n g , clowns, sword p l a y , f i g h t s , murder, t h i e v e r y , mountains o f s c e n e r y w i t h r e a l b r i d g e s and o r c h a r d s o f a l m o s t - r e a l c h e r r y trees.""'' S u r e l y , t h e Vogue r e a d e r would want t o p u t i t on h i s o r h e r "must see" l i s t . Indeed, Logan's u n s h a k a b l e b e l i e f i n Ka- b u k i as "one o f t h e most s t i m u l a t i n g t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s 16 t o be found i n t h e w o r l d t o d a y " s h o u l d have been b r i n g i n g th e day o f Kabuki-in-New York c l o s e r . "It was a l r e a d y t h e autumn o f 1952, however, t h e new t h e a t r e season had begun, but t h e K a b u k i was nowhere i n s i g h t . I t was some t i m e a f t e r t h e Vogue a r t i c l e appeared t h a t Joshua Logan gave up t r y i n g t o b r i n g K a b u k i t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no f o r m a l announcement, Logan s i m p l y s a i d no more on t h e s u b j e c t . Then f o u r months l a t e r , i n a n T a r t i c l e c a l l e d "One More V o t e f o r K a b u k i T h e a t r e , " James M i c h e n e r r e p o r t e d on t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t Logan had e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e y e a r t h a t had a l r e a d y p a s s e d s i n c e he began t o work t h e p r o j e c t . C i t i n g " f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s on o u r p a r t and o b t u s e n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e Japanese," M i c h e n e r warned: " I f K a b u k i f a i l s t o v i s i t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s 17 . . i t w i l l be a c u l t u r a l t r a g e d y . " F o r New York i n p a r t i - c u l a r he added, " I t would be a shame i f New Y o r k , t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t e r o f t h e w o r l d , f a i l e d t o s e e . . . t h e w o r l d ' s most s a t i s - 18 f y m g t h e a t r e . " Whatever t h e o b s t a c l e s and no doubt t h e r e were m a n y — f r o m f u n d i n g t h e t r i p t o problems o f language once t h e t r o u p e a r r i v e d — i t was s t i l l n o t t i m e f o r t h e b i - l a t e r a l c o o p e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g k a b u k i t o A m e r i c a . Logan had f a i l e d , but o t h e r s were s t i l l t a l k i n g about t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a v i s i t . F a u b i o n Bowers wr o t e "Kabuki i s Broadway Bound" f o r t h e September, 1953 i s s u e o f T h e a t r e A r t s magazine. Here Bowers p r o j e c t e d t h a t K a b u k i might come w i t h i n t h e n e x t two t h e a t r i c a l s easons, p o s s i b l y "as e a r l y as" t h e autumn o f 1954, and he o u t l i n e d some o f t h e more b a s i c problems w h i c h must be s o l v e d f o r K a b u k i t o be a r e a l i t y i n New Y o r k . I t was t h e f i r s t t i m e K a b u k i s t a g i n g r e q u i r e - ments were s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d . Even when t h e Kawakami and T s t s u i t r o u p e s had come y e a r s b e f o r e , no mention was made o f t h e k i n d o f s p e c i a l s t a g i n g r e q u i r e d by a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i . Bowers c i t e d t h e need f o r a l a r g e s t a g e and suggested th e M e t r o p o l i t a n Opera House as a p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n . A l - though a r e v o l v i n g s t a g e and ha n a m i c h i would a l s o be r e - q u i r e d , t h e most d i f f i c u l t problem, he f e l t , was t h e l a r g e number o f s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d p e o p l e t h a t a r e needed. Bowers n o t e d t h a t " e x t r a s " cannot s i m p l y be r e c r u i t e d from t h e New Yo r k a r e a : "The problems o f s t a g i n g and t h e numbers o f p e r s o n n e l make t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f K a b u k i t o Ameri c a a g i - g a n t i c t a s k . Perhaps t h e magnitude s u b c o n s c i o u s l y put a l l thought o f t h e v e n t u r e out o f our heads i n t h o s e e a r l y d a y s . " ^ Those " e a r l y days" had been w i t h i n t h e p r e v i o u s two y e a r s , t h e t i m e o f Logan's and o t h e r s ' i n i t i a l e n t h u s i a s m f o r b r i n g - i n g K a b u k i t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S i x months a f t e r t h i s a r t i c l e by Bowers appeared, a whole group o f a r t i c l e s on K a b u k i was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e same j o u r n a l . " T h e a t re i n Japan" was t h e f e a t u r e d s e c t i o n i n t h e March 1954 i s s u e o f T h e a t r e A r t s . The a r t i c l e s , seven i n a l l , i n - c l u d e d P a u l Green's "East Meets West," F a u b i o n Bowers' "Back- s t a g e a t t h e K a b u k i , " and most i m p o r t a n t , James M i c h e n e r ' s "Kabuki i s a Must f o r A m e r i c a , " i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r sum- m a r i z e d what had been done toward b r i n g i n g K a b u k i t o A m e r i c a . He a l s o recommended what s h o u l d be done t o f i n a l l y make t h e v i s i t a r e a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o M i c h e n e r , t h e major o b s t a c l e was t h e Sho- c h i k u Company, t h e c o n t r o l l i n g management o f K a b u k i , w h i c h was opposed t o a t r o u p e ' s v i s i t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r r e a s o n s t h a t can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as "vague f e a r s o f how K a b u k i might be r e c e i v e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " S h o c h i k u seemed t o want a s s u r a n c e s t h a t a v i s i t would be c r i t i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l ; because t h e y d i d not want t o r i s k t h e embarrass- ment o f bad r e v i e w s and u n f a v o r a b l e comments. S t i l l s e n s i - t i v e war f e e l i n g s were no doubt l a r g e l y t o blame, but as M i c h e n e r h i m s e l f s a i d : I c a n ' t guess what r e c e p t i o n K a b u k i would have i n New Y o r k . I f t h e most r e c o n d i t e p i a y s and b o r i n g dances were put on, i t c o u l d n ' t l a s t a week...On t h e o t h e r hand I can name h a l f a dozen p l a y s w h i c h a r e overwhelming i n t h e i r f o r c e and b eauty, and...a s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e , perhaps changed each week, c o u l d r u n a t l e a s t a month and a h a l f . When t h e Grand K a b u k i f i n a l l y d i d come i n 1960, t h e program was c a r e f u l l y chosen f o r i t s b a l a n c e and a p p e a l and as M i c h e n e r had s u g g e s t e d , t h e p l a y s e l e c t i o n was changed i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e r u n . Thus, two y e a r s had p a s s e d s i n c e Joshua Logan f i r s t announced h i s p l a n s . Logan's attempt had s t i m u l a t e d t h e development o f American i n t e r e s t i n k a b u k i and even w h i l e t h e s i t u a t i o n s t i l l remained c o m p l i c a t e d w i t h numerous d i p l o - m a t i c i s s u e s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s , t h e r e was a s u r p r s i n g t u r n o f e v e n t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1954. I n response t o t h e ex- p r e s s e d American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i , independent a c t i o n was t a k e n t o b r i n g a t r o u p e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by an American t h e a t r e e n t r e p r e n e u r and a Japanese K a b u k i dance master. Notes ^Joshua Logan, " I Love t h e Japanese T h e a t r e , " e d i t o r ' s p r e f a c e , Vogue, 15 Aug. 1952, p. 134. 2 F a u b i o n Bowers, "Kabuki i s Broadway Bound," T h e a t r e A r t s , S e p t . 1953, p. 66. 3 . . Andrew Headland, J r . , " K a b u k i , " P a c i f i c S t a r s and S t r i p e s : F a r E a s t Weekly Review, 20 J a n . 1951, p. 3. 4 Sam Z o l o t o w , "Logan t o Import Japanese Troupe," New Y o r k Times, 24 Dec. 1951, p. 10. 5 I b i d . 6 Joshua Logan, "Mr. Logan Seconds Mr. Green," New York Times, 27 J a n . 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. 7 P a u l Green, " T r i b u t e t o t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e o f Japan," New York Times, 27 J a n . 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. 8 I b i d . 9 I b i d . ^°Logan, "Mr. Logan," p. 1. ''"'''Ned Manderino, l e t t e r i n "Drama M a i l b a g , " New Y o r k Times, 17 Feb. 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 3. 12 James A. M i c h e n e r , "Japan," e d i t o r ' s p r e f a c e , H o l i d a y , Aug. 1952, p. 27. - 13 James A. M i c h e n e r , "Japan," H o l i d a y , Aug. 1952, p. 27. 14 I b i d . , p. 78. 15 Logan, " I Love," p. 134. " ^ I b i d . , p. 176. 17 James M i c h e n e r , "One More V o t e f o r K a b u k i T h e a t r e , " New York Times, 14 Dec. 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 2. 18 T, I b i d . Bowers, p. 67. 20 James M i c h e n e r , "Kabuki i s a Must f o r America," T h e a t r e A r t s , March 1954, p. 80. C h a p t e r I I I : The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s i n New Y o r k , 1954 and 1955-56 The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s C e n t u r y T h e a t e r , F e b r u a r y 18-March 21, 1954 I n J a n u a r y 1954 i m p r e s s a r i o S o l Hurok, well-known f o r i n t r o d u c i n g h i g h q u a l i t y f o r e i g n p e r f o r m e r s t o America, announced t h a t he was b r i n g i n g a Japanese t r o u p e c a l l e d t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s t o New York t h e f o l l o w i n g month. A l t h o u g h r e p o r t e r s were t o l d t h a t t h i s was not a t r o u p e from t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e t h a t Logan, M i c h e n e r , and o t h e r s had been t a l k i n g and w r i t i n g about, but a s m a l l e r company "devoted e n t i r e l y t o t h e dance and m u s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e l a r g e r medium," one newspaperman o b s e r v e d , " i t i s no doubt p l a n n e d i n a measure t o p r e p a r e t h e American p u b l i c f o r t h e l a r g e r d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s t o follow."''" Madame Azuma Tokuho was founder and l e a d e r o f t h e t w e n t y - f i v e member t r o u p e . The d a u g h t e r o f t h e famous K a b u k i a c t o r Uzaemon XV, she had been t r a i n e d i n K a b u k i dance and was c o n s i d e r e d a master o f t h e a r t . Unable t o become a p e r f o r m e r on t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l K a b u k i s t a g e , she p r i v a t e l y founded t h e Azuma S c h o o l o f dance based on h e r f a t h e r ' s K a b u k i s t y l e . Madame Azuma knew t h a t Americans had e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o see K a b u k i . S i n c e no agreement had been reached i n ' s e n d i n g a f u l l - s i z e d K a b u k i t r o u p e abroad, she e n t e r p r i s i n g l y r e a l i z e d t h a t a s m a l l ' company under p r i v a t e management would be an immediate p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a f o r e i g n t o u r . She t h e r e f o r e formed a t r o u p e e x p r e s s l y f o r t h i s purpose from t h e men and women co n n e c t e d w i t h t h e Azuma S c h o o l , and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s . A s i d e from S o l Hurok who had a r r a n g e d t h e t o u r , t h e company r e c e i v e d t h e pa t r o n a g e o f P r i n c e Takamatsu ( b r o t h e r o f t h e "Japanese Emperor) and t h e Japanese M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . T h i s p a t r o n a g e i n p a r t i c u l a r made t h e v i s i t seem more o f f i c i a l l y " K a b u k i . " The members o f t h e t r o u p e were almost e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between d a n c e r s and m u s i c i a n s . W h i l e t h e m u s i c i a n s were, f o r t h e most part,, p r o f e s s i o n a l s from t h e K a b u k i s t a g e , t h e dancers were n o t . About h a l f t h e dan c e r s were women and among t h e men, o n l y one, Gnoe K i k u n o j o , was a p r o f e s s i o n a l K a b u k i a c t o r . A l t h o u g h t h e t r o u p e performed s e l e c t i o n s from t h e K a b u k i r e p e r t o i r e — a n d a l l o r i g i n a l works were s t r i c t l y K a b u k i s t y l e — i t s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d t h a t Madame Azuma was not concerned w i t h K a b u k i t h e a t r e as a whole, but o n l y w i t h i t s dance and m u s i c a l a s p e c t s . From t h e l a r g e amount o f advance p r e s s coverage i t r e - c e i v e d , t h e v i s i t o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e was viewed as a s i g n i - f i c a n t event on t h e New Yo r k c u l t u r a l scene. On Sunday, F e b r u a r y 14, 1954, f o u r days b e f o r e t h e s c h e d u l e d o p e n i n g , two a r t i c l e s o f an i n t r o d u c t o r y and e x p l a n a t o r y n a t u r e ap- pear e d i n t h e New Yo r k Times. The f i r s t a r t i c l e , "An A n c i e n t A r t from Japan," by Kawazoe H i r o s h i , S p e c i a l Envoy o f t h e Japanese S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s , d e a l t w i t h t h e " f o r e i g n " n a t u r e o f t h e music i n t h e upcoming performance. He warned t h a t a l t h o u g h i t might sound l i k e an " e x o t i c c l a m o r " t o some, t h e music i s a c t u a l l y a k i n d o f language w h i c h " n a r r a t e s , d e s c r i b e s and comments on t h e scene, a d d i n g a w e a l t h o f sub- t l e a t m o s p h e r i c and e m o t i o n a l d e t a i l , " h i g h l y m e a n i n g f u l t o . 2 t h e t r a i n e d e a r . I n s t r u m e n t s i n c l u d i n g t h e s t r i n g e d k o t o and samisen, Japanese f l u t e and v a r i o u s Japanese drums, b e l l s , and gongs would be p l a y e d by d i s t i n g u i s h e d K a b u k i m u s i c i a n s . Kawazoe f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t t o t h e s o - c a l l e d "Japanese" e a r , t h e sound o f t h e l a r g e drum evokes f e e l i n g s ' o f warmth; t h e gong and t h e h i g h - p i t c h e d drum suggest how one might f e e l " i n an e l a b o r a t e garden o r i n a s h r i n e w i t h blossoms" a d d i n g , "music, t o t h e t r u l y c u l t i v a t e d Japanese, i s not sound a l o n e . 3 I t i s t h e wisdom and e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e h e a r t . " H i s p o i n t , a f t e r a l l , was t h a t f o r e i g n a u d i e n c e s must be p r e p a r e d t o open t h e i r e a r s — a n d m i n d s — t o a new c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s was not o n l y t r u e o f t h e music, however, but a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e performance, and t h e problem was f u r t h e r u n d e r s c o r e d i n t h e second a r t i c l e ^ "A G l i m p s e o f Japan's C l a s s i c T h e a t r e i n i t s C h o r e o g r a p h i c A s p e c t s , " by John M a r t i n , dance c r i t i c o f t h e Times. Even b e f o r e he had seen a s i n g l e performance, M a r t i n had c o n c l u d e d : F o r t h e Western mind t o g r a s p s t r a i g h t - way t h e a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s o f Japanese t h e a t r e a r t and t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n would be a s k i n g a good d e a l , and t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y no way f o r us t o approach t h e coming season except w i t h complete r e l a x a t i o n and an open mind. I t i s g u i t e u s e l e s s t o t r y t o 'know' any- t h i n g . The w r i t e r , however, d e v o t e d most o f h i s a r t i c l e t o back- ground i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Azuma t r o u p e and K a b u k i i n g e n e r a l , presumably so a u d i e n c e s would know something b e f o r e t h e y went. S e v e r a l o t h e r newspaper and magazine w r i t e r s a l s o t r i e d t o e x p l a i n t o t h e i r r e a d e r s what k i n d o f t r o u p e Madame Azuma had brought o v e r and how i t was r e l a t e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i t h e a t r e . M a r t i n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Azuma t r o u p e d i d a s e l e c t i o n o f dances from t h e K a b u k i r e p e r t o i r e , though o f t e n i n v e r y a b b r e v i a t e d form, as w e l l as a few o r i g i n a l , though Kabuki--style> p i e c e s choreographed by Madame Azuma's husband, F u j i m a Masaya. "Japanese Import: The Dance-Drama" i n Time magazine r e f e r r e d t o t h e t r o u p e as K a b u k i s t y l e dancers and m u s i c i a n s , a d d i n g however, "the c o l o r o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i remains: s t y l i z e d p o s t u r e s , g a r i s h costumes and make- 5 • , up." I n f a c t , t h e Azuma t r o u p e had come equipped w i t h t w e n t y - f o u r t o n s o f s e t s , p l u s numerous t r u n k s o f p r o p s , costumes and w i g s , s e v e r a l c r a t e s o f d a n c i n g p l a t f o r m s , and t w e l v e c a s e s o f m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . L i k e t h e Grand K a b u k i t r o u p e s t o come, t h e Azuma t r o u p e was w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r a s p e c t a c u l a r ox . show. D u r i n g t h e t r o u p e ' s s t a y i n New Y o r k , two a r t i c l e s w r i t - t e n by F a u b i o n Bowers appeared: " C o n c e r n i n g K a b u k i " i n S a t u r - day Review and "from Japan: azuma tokuho" i n Dance Magazine. Bowers, t o o , t r i e d t o r e l a t e d t h e Azuma t r o u p e t o K a b u k i as a whole, and h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Japanese t h e a t r e , as w e l l as a p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h Madame Azuma, e n a b l e d him t o approach t h e t o p i c from s e v e r a l u n i q u e a n g l e s . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e was m a i n l y concerned w i t h t h e s t a g i n g . 7 a s p e c t s o f K a b u k i , i n "from Japan: azuma tokuho" Bowers a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f d i r e c t l y t o t h e problem o f Madame Azuma's - 8 " a u t h e n t i c i t y . " " I s i t K a b u k i ? . . . I s she a f a k e ? " Bowers was a s s i g n e d t o g i v e r e a d e r s t h e " e x c l u s i v e s t o r y . " A f t e r r e v i e w i n g Madame Azuma's K a b u k i c r e d i t s — h e r Ka- b u k i f a m i l y l i n e a g e , t h e f a c t t h a t she had s t u d i e d dance w i t h K a b u k i masters and had h e r own s c h o o l — B o w e r s t h e n c o n c l u d e d : a l l o f Madame Azuma's dances may not come d i r e c t l y from t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e , but t h e s t y l e d e f i n i t e l y does. H e r s i s t h e "Azuma v e r s i o n o f K a b u k i " and a l t h o u g h "Many s p e c t a - t o r s i n New York w i l l m i s t a k e n l y assume t h a t t h i s i s t h e K a b u k i , Japan's f a b u l o u s , c l a s s i c a l t h e a t r e t h a t has e x c i t e d such eminent p e r s o n a l i t i e s as Joshua Logan, James A. M i c h e n e r , P a u l Green...and w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be i m p o r t e d h e r e , " t h e y can be a s s u r e d t h a t t h e Azuma t r o u p e o f f e r s " b e a u t i f u l and e x p e r t dances, performed w i t h an a u t h e n t i c i t y w h i c h has never been shown h e r e b e f o r e . " " The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s d i d not ..represent K a b u k i t o t a l l y — o r even o f f i c i a l l y but a t l e a s t t h e y were a good r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f some a s p e c t s o f t h a t t h e a t r e . D u r i n g t h e i r s t a y i n New York t h e t r o u p e performed s e l e c t i o n s from t h e f o l l o w i n g dances and dance-dramas. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , t h e dances were choreographed by Madame Azuma and h e r husband. The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e t h o s e used by t h e t r o u p e . F i r s t program, F e b r u a r y 18 t o March 9: Sambaso ( " O f f e r i n g t o t h e Gods," K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p erformed i n 1853), Sagimusume ("White Heron Maiden," K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p e rformed i n 1762), K o j o ("Greet- i n g s " ) , Tsuchiqumo ("Spider Dance," K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p e r formed i n 1881), Ninin-Wankyu ("Memories"), and O-Matsu- r i no H i ( " F e s t i v a l D a y " ) . F i n a l program, March 10 t o March 21: Tsuchiqumo, Ninin-Wankyu, Ocho ("Ancient C o u r t D a y s " ) , H a s h i B e n k e i ("Benkei a t t h e B r i d g e , " dance-drama o f No o r i g i n ) , K o t e n K a b u k i ("Six S h o r t S k e t c h e s " ) , F u k i t o r i - T s u - ma ("The Would-Be F l u t e P l a y e r Seeks a W i f e , " adapted from th e Kyogen) , and Cha-no-yu ("Tea Ceremony").''"^ C r i t i c a l R e a c t i o n The Azuma k a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s came t o America i n a s p i r i t o f f r i e n d s h i p and g o o d w i l l , b u t i t cannot be f o r - g o t t e n t h a t t h e war was s t i l l a t e r r i b l e r e a l i t y i n t h e minds o f many p e o p l e a t t h a t t i m e , and would most l i k e l y have some i n f l u e n c e on t h e c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s . Even a sentence on t h e f r o n t page o f t h e p l a y b i l l showed t h a t a l l was not normal y e t : " I n t h e event o f an a i r r a i d remain i n y o u r s e a t s and obey t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e management.""'"''' D e s p i t e t h i s ominous w a r n i n g , however, t h e t r o u p e opened on s c h e d u l e and e n j o y e d a s u c c e s s f u l r u n . The Azuma t r o u p e was t h e n e a r e s t t h a t New Y o r k e r s had y e t come t o K a b u k i . Because o f t h e i n t e r e s t t h a t had a l r e a d y been g e n e r a t e d i n K a b u k i and t h e t r o u p e i t s e l f , t h e y were g i v e n e x t e n s i v e c r i t i c a l c o v e r a g e . Of t h e seven major d a i l y newspapers t h a t had r e g u l a r t h e a t r e a r t s r e v i e w s , o n l y two d i d not r e v i e w t h e Azuma p e r f o r m a n c e s . Among t h e f i v e major p o p u l a r magazines t h a t n o r m a l l y r e v i e w e d t h e a t r e a r t s e v e n t s i n New Y o r k , o n l y one d i d not c o v e r t h e performance. I n n e a r l y a l l c a s e s , dance c r i t i c s , r a t h e r t h a n r e g u l a r t h e a t r e c r i t i c s , w r o t e t h e r e v i e w s . The event was g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d w i t h a m i x t u r e o f e x c i t e m e n t and c u r i o s i t y . " There was s p e c i a l p r a i s e f o r t h e "gorgeous" costumes and s e t s . I n a d d i t i o n , a number o f c r i t i c s were s u r p r i s e d , though o f t e n p l e a s a n t l y so, by t h e v a r i e t y o f " s t r a n g e " m u s i c a l sounds t h e y heard.' Of c o u r s e , t h e y had been warned t o e x p e c t an " e x o t i c c l a m o r " o f m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s u n f a m i l i a r t o W e s t e r n e r s . But perhaps t h e s t r a n g e s t sounds o f a l l were t h e p e r f o r m e r s ' v o i c e s , p r o d u c i n g a k i n d o f g u t t u r a l s i n g s o n g , w h i c h upon f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e i s hardly- p l e a s i n g t o most Western e a r s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t o emerge was t h e concept o f t h e " t h e a t r i c a l i t y " o f K a b u k i . The term " t h e a - t r i c a l i t y " was used i n two ways, a l t h o u g h b o t h a r e based on c e r t a i n c o n t r a s t s w i t h Western " r e a l i s t i c " t h e a t r e . One r e f e r s t o K a b u k i ' s use o f t h e many r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n — f r o m e l a b o r a t e l y e x e c u t e d costumes and s e t s , t o dance, music and song, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e " b a s i c s " o f speech and g e s t u r e t h a t a r e fundamental t o s o - c a l l e d r e a l - i s t i c t h e a t r e . The second r e f e r s t o t h e s t y l i z e d , n on-re- p r e s e n t a t i o n a l n a t u r e o f K a b u k i . I t was seen as t h e a t r e f o r t h e a t r e ' s sake, w i t h no p r e t e n s e o f g i v i n g an i l l u s i o n o f l i f e . I n o t h e r words, K a b u k i — a s performed by t h e Azuma t r o u p e — w a s an a r t t h a t not o n l y made wide use o f t h e a t r e r e s o u r c e s , but a t t h e same t i m e gave no thought t o " n a t u r a l - i s t i c nonsense," as one c r i t i c had put i t . To be s u r e , t h e Azuma t r o u p e o n l y performed dance p i e c e s from t h e K a b u k i and d i d not show au d i e n c e s t h e k i n d o f " s e r i - ous, " more n e a r l y r e a l i s t i c dramas t h e r e p e r t o i r e a l s o i n - c l u d e s . What t h e t r o u p e d i d p e r f o r m , however, seems t o have succeeded i n c o n v e y i n g t h e s p i r i t o f K a b u k i t h e a t r e t o New Y o r k a u d i e n c e s . I n some ways, i t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t an a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i t r o u p e had not come, but i n o t h e r ways, t h e Azuma t r o u p e f u l f i l l e d i t s m i s s i o n as an i n t r o d u c t o r y envoy f o r t h e Grand K a b u k i t r o u p e s t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y f o l l o w . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t many Americans u n d o u b t e d l y s t i l l h a r b o r e d h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s t o Japan i n 1954, i t must be s a i d t h a t c r i t i c s , o v e r a l l , had been open-minded toward t h e i r new e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s f i r s t v i s i t o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e showed t h a t K a b u k i (even i n a somewhat a b b r e v i a t e d form) c o u l d arouse g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e West. Perhaps D o r i s H e r i n g o f Dance Magazine b e s t summarized t h e t r o u p e ' s v i s i t and i t s p l a c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f K a b u k i i n A m e rica: Of c o u r s e , now t h a t t h e s e charming Kabu- k i e x c e r p t s have been r e v e a l e d t o u s ^ w e s h o u l d l i k e t o see a complete K a b u k i p l a y . F o r some o f t h e numbers seemed so d r a s t i - c a l l y c u t t h a t one had t o . imagine t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t . But as a b e g i n n i n g — as a way o f i n t r o d u c i n g W e s t e r n e r s t o t h i s a n c i e n t and complex a r t f o r m — t h e programs were c o n c e i v e d and e x e c u t e d i n t h e f i n e s t o f t a s t e . 1 2 On March 22, t h e day a f t e r t h e i r New Y o r k ru n ended, n i n e l e a d i n g members o f t h e t r o u p e were i n t r o d u c e d t o P r e s i - dent Eisenhower a t t h e W hite House i n a g e s t u r e o f i n t e r - n a t i o n a l good w i l l . A s u c c e s s f u l l y combined a r t i s t i c and d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n had been a c c o m p l i s h e d . Two months l a t e r newspapers announced t h a t S o l Hurok and Madame Azuma had s i g n e d a c o n t r a c t f o r a second t o u r t o t a k e p l a c e approx m a t e l y two y e a r s l a t e r . The Reviews Newspapers: o p e n i n g n i g h t W a l t e r T e r r y ("Azuma K a b u k i Dancers," H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 19 F e b r u a r y 1954) d e s c r i b e d h i s encoun t e r w i t h t h e Azuma t r o u p e as an " e n c h a n t i n g , i j wonder f u l l y r i c h e v e n i n g o f dance." Impressed by t h e costumes and s e t t i n g s w h i c h gave t h e s t a g e e x t r a o r d i n a r y " p i c t o r i a l b e a u t y , " he was p l e a s e d t o d i s c o v e r a v a r i e t y o f themes and s t y l e s among t h e dances. He con- c l u d e d t h a t "the l e v e l o f dance p e r f o r m i n g was, by any s t a n - d a rds w i t h w h i c h I am f a m i l i a r , on a r e m a r k a b l y h i g h p l a n e . " F o r T e r r y , t h e performance succeeded on i t s own te r m s . M i l e s K a s t e n d i e c k ("Azuma K a b u k i Dancers: A P e r f e c t i o n o f A r t , " J o u r n a l - A m e r i c a n , 19 F e b r u a r y 1954) c a l l e d t h e performance a " p e r f e c t i o n o f a r t r a r e l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e s e days," but he was u n a b l e t o say e x a c t l y what k i n d o f a r t i t was. He u n d e r s t o o d t h e performance t o be " K a b u k i , " t h e r e - f o r e K a b u k i "viewed t h r o u g h o c c i d e n t a l eyes," as he put i t , i s p r i m a r i l y dance. A f t e r t h a t , he c o u l d o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e Azuma t r o u p e i s "the most u n u s u a l n o v e l t y i n t h e c i t y a t t h e moment," a d d i n g , " t h e i r p erformances a r e something t o see r a t h e r t h a n d e s c r i b e h e r e . " I t seemed b e s t , a f t e r a l l , t o l e t everyone draw t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s . F r a n c e s H e r r i d g e ("Japanese Company Opens a t C e n t u r y , " P o s t , 19 F e b r u a r y 1954) r e p o r t e d t h a t dance and non-dance f a n s a l i k e w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n "the s t r a n g e v o i c e and pan- tomime t e c h n i q u e s , t h e a u t h e n t i c music, t h e c r e a t i v e d e c o r . . . t h e s p e c t a c l e o f l a v i s h costumes, wigs and masks." However, as f o r t h e dances t h e m s e l v e s , she found them " d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y " and ended by c a l l i n g them "more s t y l i z e d pantomime t h a n dance." I f i t d i d not resemble t h e t y p e o f dance w i t h w h i c h she was f a m i l i a r , H e r r i d g e c o n c l u d e d i t p r o b a b l y was n o t dance, a f t e r a l l . " I t i s a show so f o r e i g n t o us i n e v e r y r e s p e c t t h a t a l l but t h e most p r o v i n c i a l w i l l f i n d i t an e x p e r i e n c e not t o be m i s s e d . " F o r t h i s c r i t i c , i t was a n o v e l , y e t a t t h e same t i m e , a f a s c i n a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . John M a r t i n ("Century Y i e l d s t o K a b u k i Troupe: Japanese Dancers i n A n c i e n t Drama-Music P r e s e n t a t i o n I m p r e s s i v e i n Opening," Times, 19 F e b r u a r y 1954) was v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c . " I t would be h a r d t o imagine a more c a p t i v a t i n g e v e n i n g . . . anyone who goes once w i l l c e r t a i n l y want t o go a g a i n . " L i k e W a l t e r T e r r y , he t o o k t h e performance on i t s own terms, as one example o f t h e u n i v e r s a l a r t o f dance. S a y i n g a good p e r f o r m e r i s good "no m a t t e r what language he speaks o r what t r a d i t i o n s o f a r t he p r a c t i c e s , " M a r t i n found e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e Azuma performance done " w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t a r t i s t i c a u t h o r i t y , w i t h a deep r e s p e c t f o r form and w i t h i m p e c c a b l e e l e g a n c e . " He seems t o have f o l l o w e d h i s own e a r l i e r a d v i c e t o have an open mind f o r t h i s new e x p e r i e n c e . F i n a l l y , L o u i s B i a n c o l l i ("West Meets E a s t V i a K a b u k i Show," World-Telegram and The Sun, 19 F e b r u a r y 1954) wrote t h e q u a i n t e s t among t h e op e n i n g n i g h t r e v i e w s : "A c o l o r f u l l i t t l e t r o u p e o f Japanese dancers and m u s i c i a n s f l u t t e r e d d e l i c a t e l y a c r o s s t h e s t a g e . " H e r r i d g e had c a l l e d i t " s t y l i z e d p a n t o m i m e " — B i a n e o l l i d e c i d e d i t was b a l l e t , though c l e a r l y " f a r beyond t h e scope o f c o n v e n t i o n a l b a l l e t . " He c o n c l u d e d w i t h an u p l i f t i n g n o t e : " I f e e l p r oud and p r i v i l e g e d t o have seen and h e a r d t h e s e e a r n e s t a r t i s t s from t h e E a s t . " The s l i g h t l y a n a c h r o n i s t i c tone o f t h i s r e v i e w i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n about t h e Kawakami t r o u p e more t h a n f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r . Newspapers: l a t e r r e v i e w s John M a r t i n ("The Azuma K a b u k i S t y l e Makes A l i e n Con- q u e s t , 11 Times, 28 F e b r u a r y 1954) began by s a y i n g t h a t when S o l Hurok f i r s t announced t h e Azuma t r o u p e v i s i t , some, i n - c l u d i n g M a r t i n h i m s e l f d i d not expect a s t i m u l a t i n g a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e from t h e f o r e i g n p e r f o r m e r s . We "were f a i r l y w e l l r e s i g n e d t o b e i n g p o l i t e l y i n s t r u c t e d and n o t h i n g more." But as t h e t i t l e o f t h e a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s , g r e a t i n t e r e s t was g e n e r a t e d by t h e t r o u p e . I n t h i s a r t i c l e and i n a l a t e r r e v i e w ("Kabuki Dancers i n New Program...Tokuho Azuma S c o r e s , " 10 March 1954) M a r t i n a l s o p r a i s e d t h e t h e a t r i c a l i t y o f t h e t r o u p e ' s performance w h i c h g i v e s no t h o u g h t t o " n a t u r a l i s t i c nonsense and p l a y i n g a t c r e d i b i l i t y . " The Kawakami mel o d r a m a t i c s t y l e had been w e l l r e c e i v e d a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , though t h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r T s u t s u i and h i s t r o u p e were much l e s s p o p u l a r w i t h an a u d i e n c e more i n t e r e s t e d i n " r e a l i s m . " S i m i l a r l y , by 1954 change had a g a i n t a k e n p l a c e . Now, M a r t i n and o t h e r s r e a c t e d t o t h e gloomy s l i c e - o f - l i f e r e a l i s m t h a t had been p r e v a l e n t i n t h e t h e a t r e f o r decades, and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t y l e o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e was p r a i s e d f o r i t s s p e c t a c l e o f "pure t h e a t r i c a l i t y . " M agazines The anonymous r e v i e w e r f o r Newsweek ( " S o n g - D a n c e - S k i l l , " 1 March 1954) found t h e songs and rhythms " s u r p r i s i n g l y p l e a s i n g , " but s a i d l i t t l e more. I r v i n g K o l o d i n ("Azuma K a b u k i Dancers," S a t u r d a y Review, 6 March 1954) c a l l e d t h e performance "an a g r e e a b l e e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t i m u l a t i n g one." A l t h o u g h he f e l t t h e Azuma t r o u p e was c e r t a i n l y s k i l l e d , t h e i r dances d i d not move him. " He a s c r i b e d t h i s t o h i s l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e i n Japanese t h e a t r e and dance, c a l l i n g h i m s e l f someone "not a t t u n e d t o i t s s u b t l e t i e s and f i n e p o i n t s . " K o l o d i n was t h e f i r s t c r i t i c t o a c t u a l l y d i s q u a l i f y h i m s e l f from j u d g i n g t h e performances because o f h i s l a c k o f knowledge and/or e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o Japanese dance i n p a r t i c u l a r and t h i n g s - J a p a n e s e i n g e n e r a l . W i n t h r o p Sargeant ("Kabuki," The New Y o r k e r . 6 March 1954) f e l t t h e d a n c i n g was " e x p e r t and moving." I n a l l , he found t h e show " a u t h e n t i c a l l y Japanese i n i t s q u a i n t s y m b o l i c pan- tomime, i t s s o l e m n l y e x a g g e r a t e d , c r o o n i n g d i a l o g u e , i t s s t r i k i n g r i t u a l i s t i c d a n c i n g . " F o r t h i s c r i t i c , u n l i k e K o l o d i n above, t h e Azuma performance succeeded as dance, i n g e n e r a l , and was p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s c i n a t i n g as Japanese dance. D o r i s H e r i n g ("The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s , " Dance Magazine, A p r i l 1954), l i k e John M a r t i n o f t h e Times, p r a i s e d t h e K a b u k i dancers f o r t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l i t y . R e v e a l i n g "a p e r f e c t b l e n d i n g o f t h e a t r e e lements," she found t h a t "speech, song, g e s t u r e , music, d e c o r and dance" were i n p e r - f e c t b a l a n c e . L i k e W i l l i a m B u t l e r Y e a t s who found h i s l o n g s o u g h t - a f t e r " l y r i c " t h e a t r e i n t h e No, H e r i n g found h e r s i n th e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s . (Note: The newspapers and magazines w h i c h d i d not c a r r y r e v i e w s were t h e D a i l y N e w s , o M i r r o r , and Time.) The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s Broadway T h e a t r e , December 26, 1955-January 14, 1956 From t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t v i s i t o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e near t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1954 u n t i l t h e i r r e t u r n a t t h e end o f 1955, no f u r t h e r mention was made o f f p l a n s t o b r i n g a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i t o A m e r i c a . A l t h o u g h t h e Azuma dances c o u l d o n l y have w h e t t e d t h e a p p e t i t e s o f K a b u k i c o n n o i s s e u r s , we must i n t e r p r e t t h e s i l e n c e as e v i d e n c e o f c o n t i n u i n g f r u s t r a t i o n i n a r r a n g i n g t h e v i s i t o f a f u l l - s i z e d t r o u p e o f p e r f o r m e r s . The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s r e t u r n e d t o New Y o r k ' i n December 1955 f o r t h r e e weeks a t t h e Broadway T h e a t r e . A l t h o u g h arrangements had a g a i n been made by S o l Hurok, and t h e t w e n t y - f i v e member t r o u p e was s t i l l under t h e p a t r o n a g e o f t h e Emperor's b r o t h e r and a Japanese government agency, c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g changes were e v i d e n t . As F a u b i o n Bowers s a i d : "There i s more o f t h e genuine K a b u k i . . . t h i s t i m e . " I t had been argued t h a t s i n c e "the problems o f t r a n s - p o r t i n g r e a l K a b u k i , w i t h i t s v a s t c a s t s and e l a b o r a t e s e t - 14 t i n g s , t o A m e r i c a seem i n s u r m o u n t a b l e , " t h e Azuma p e r f o r - mances were b e t t e r t h a n n o t h i n g a t a l l . The t r o u p e , however, had been c r i t i c i z e d — b o t h i n Japan and i n A m e r i c a — f o r c a l l i n g i t s e l f K a b u k i when i t d i d n o t t t r u l y r e p r e s e n t t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e , but m e r e l y one s c h o o l o f K a b u k i dance.' As Bowers r e p o r t e d : " I t was f e a r e d t h a t t h e g r e a t t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r e 15 o f Japan would be m i s r e p r e s e n t e d t o f o r e i g n e r s . " T h e r e f o r e , Madame Azuma f e l t more r e s p o n s i b l e t o l i v e up t o t h e "Kabuki name when she r e t u r n e d t o A m e r i c a i n 1955. Changes were made i n program s e l e c t i o n . F o r t h e f i r s t two weeks o f t h e new r u n , t h e t r o u p e d i d seven dances and dance-dramas w h i c h t h e y had not done b e f o r e i n New Y o r k . F o r t h e l a s t week however, t h e y m o s t l y chose works w h i c h had been e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r on t h e i r f i r s t v i s i t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l K a b u k i a c t o r s came t h i s t i m e , compared w i t h o n l y one b e f o r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , more s t r e s s was now put on t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i r o l e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e onnaqata, and s t a g e a c r o b a t i c s , w h i c h can be c o n s i d e r e d among t h e most s p e c i a l i z e d dance t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e . The t r o u p e performed s e l e c t i o n s from t h e f o l l o w i n g work F i r s t program, December 26 t o J a n u a r y 7: Dammari ("Kabuki Pantomime"), Fujimusume ( " W i s t e r i a Maiden," K a b u k i dance- drama, f i r s t p e rformed i n 1826), S e t s u - q e t s u - k a ("Snow, F l o w e r and Moon"), M o m i j i G a r i ("The W i t c h Among t h e Maple Leaves," K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p e r f o rmed i n 1788), Ka- sane ("The Sure Heavenly R e t r i b u t i o n , " K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p e r f o rmed i n 1823), S a n n i n Katawa, Kagami J i s h i ("The G i r l Who Became a L i o n , " K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p e rformed i n 1893). F i n a l program, J a n u a r y 9 to J a n u a r y 14: K 5 j o , O-Matsuri-no H i , Tsuchiqumo, Ninin-Wankyu, F u k i t o r i - T s u m a , Sambaso, and Musume Doj51i ("The Maiden a t t h e Dojo Temple," K a b u k i dance-drama, f i r s t p e r f o rmed i n 1753). C r i t i c a l R e a c t i o n As i n 1954, t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s r e - c e i v e d e x t e n s i v e c r i t i c a l c o v e r a g e . A g a i n , t h e b e a u t i f u l costumes and s e t s , t h e " e x o t i c " music and v o c a l sounds, as w e l l as t h e " t h e a t r i c a l i t y " o f t h e t r o u p e ' s performance were p r a i s e d — a n d i n much t h e same terms as i n 1954. Be- yond t h a t , t h e r e was a s u r p r s i n g emphasis on t h e " f o r e i g n " and " s t r a n g e " n a t u r e o f K a b u k i . S i n c e t h e c r i t i c s were i n a l l c a s e s t h e same ones who had r e v i e w e d t h e t r o u p e ' s performances two y e a r s e a r l i e r , i t would have been n a t u r a l t o e x p e c t a sense o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e s t y l e and methods o f t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s . However, i t was a f a c t t h a t Madame Azuma d i d not s i m p l y r e p e a t what t h e t r o u p e d i d i n 1 9 5 4 — a t l e a s t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1955-56 r u n . There was a new s e l e c t i o n o f dances and dance-dramas. Among t h e s e t h e r e were fewer o r i g i n a l l y choreographed works and more s t r i c t l y au- t h e n t i c and t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i dance-dramas, w i t h f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i t h e a t r e g i v e n more s t r e s s . Onnaqata r o l e s , as we have mentioned, were done by one o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l K a b u k i a c t o r s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s d i d K a b u k i sword f i g h t scenes and a c r o b a t i c s . T h i s s h i f t from 1954, however, i s h a r d l y mentioned by th e c r i t i c s . R e f e r r i n g t o onnaqata and such, no one s a i d more t h a n an o c c a s i o n a l "amazing." Knowing l i t t l e about t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i p e r f o r m a n c e s , t h e problem was t h a t t h e c r i t i c s c o u l d not f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y saw and f e l t u n q u a l i f i e d t o make d e t a i l e d comments. They^were i m p e l l e d t o c o n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , by l a b e l i n g t h e performances " f o r - e i g n " and " s t r a n g e , " o r by s i m p l y r e p e a t i n g what t h e y had w r i t t e n two y e a r s e a r l i e r . I I t i s c e r t a i n , however, t h a t i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i had not d i m i n i s h e d . However b e w i l d e r e d some c r i t i c s may have f e l t , t h e y s t i l l g e n e r a l l y found K a b u k i a u n i q u e l y i m p r e s s i v e a r t and r e t a i n e d a v i v i d sense o f t h e s p e c t a c l e n a t u r e o f Ka- b u k i w h i c h t h e y had f i r s t o b s e r v e d i n 1954. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e seemed t o be a growing d i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e Azuma t r o u p e had t r i e d t o con- vey more o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e K a b u k i a r t , t h e y c o u l d not r e a l l y break out o f t h e r e p e t i t i o u s p a t t e r n s imposed by t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r dance and dance-drama r e p e r t o r y . Some p e o p l e , l i k e D o r i s H e r i n g , b e l i e v e d t h a t New York had had enough i n t r o d u c t i o n t o K a b u k i . S e e i n g a few s e l e c t i o n s was not s u f f i c i e n t , and she now f i r m l y f e l t t h e n e c e s s i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e K a b u k i i n i t s " n a t i v e t h e a t r e , " t h a t i s , t o see t h e r e a l t h i n g — b e i t i n Tokyo o r New Y o r k . Four and a h a l f y e a r s l a t e r New Y o r k e r s had t h e i r chance. The Reviews Newspapers: o p e n i n g n i g h t W a l t e r T e r r y ("Azuma K a b u k i Dancers," H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 27 December 1955) a g a i n l i k e d t h e performance and expanded t h e o b s e r v a t i o n he made i n 1954 r e g a r d i n g t h e " p i c t o r i a l b e a u t y " o f t h e show. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e " p i c t o r i a l beauty" o f t h e costumes and s e t s , he a l s o found t h a t t h e t r o u p e o f f e r e d t h r e e o t h e r " b e a u t i e s : " e l e g a n t s t y l e , r i c h dance themes, and m y s t e r i o u s l y e x o t i c m u s i c . T e r r y c o n c l u d e d : " A l t h o u g h one can n o t , due t o sh a r p d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c t i n g s t y l e s and t h e use o f le g e n d s remote from b u r own h e r i t a g e , i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h t h e problems o f t h e b e i n g s on s t a g e , he can respond t o t h e d a n c e r s ' i n v i t a t i o n t o view an a r t e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h never l a c k s t h e warming glow o f beauty." S t i l l b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e K a b u k i dances succeed on t h e i r own terms as dance, he had come t o f e e l , however, t h a t f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n a r e somewhat d i m i n i s h e d by th e f o r e i g n n a t u r e o f t h e performance. M i l e s K a s t e n d i e c k ("Kabuki Dancers: B l e n d o f Beauty and A r t , " J o u r n a l - A m e r i c a n , 27 December 1955) changed l i t t l e i n two y e a r s . F o r him t h e Azuma t r o u p e c r e a t e d an " o t h e r - w o r l d atmosphere w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y e x p r e s s e s one t h i n g above a l l : Beauty." T h i s beauty was t o be found i n t h e s p e c t a c l e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n . F r a n c e s H e r r i d g e ("Japanese T h e a t e r Comes t o Town," P o s t , 27 December 1955) r e p e a t e d l y used t h e word " s t r a n g e " t o d e s c r i b e a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e performance. A p p a r e n t l y un- a b l e t o t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g new t o say, she c o n c l u d e d w i t h a l - most t h e same words she had used i n 1954. John M a r t i n ("Azuma K a b u k i Troupe S c o r e s : Japanese Group Here f o r Second Season, 1 1 Times, 27 December 1955) a g a i n was i m p r e s s e d by t h e performance, but l i k e t h e o t h e r s , he tended t o m e r e l y r e p e a t what he s a i d t h e l a s t t i m e t h e t r o u p e p e r f o r m e d . S i m i l a r l y , L o u i s B i a n c o l l i ("Kabuki Dancers P l e a s e a t Broadway," World-Telegram and The Sun, 27 December 1955) was as q u a i n t t h i s t i m e as i n 1954: "To a l o c a l scene a l - r e a d y teeming w i t h w o r l d - w i d e wares, t h e K a b u k i Dancers brought t h e i r own l i t t l e c a r g o o f a r t i s t r y l a s t n i g h t . " Newspapers: l a t e r r e v i e w s W a l t e r T e r r y ("The M a g i c a l A r t o f K a b u k i Dance," H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 8 J a n u a r y 1956) a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f t o t h e problem o f Western a u d i e n c e response t o t h e Japanese performance. He s a i d t h a t p e o p l e i n t h e W e s t — p a r t i c u l a r l y New Y o r k — a r e so accustomed t o speed i n a l l a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i f e and even i n a r t t h a t t h e " l e i s u r e l y pace" o f t h e Japanese dances may b o t h e r some. T e r r y , however, f e l t a c e r t a i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s e " u n h u r r i e d m a r v e l s " o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e . M o d i f y i n g h i s p r e v i o u s views on t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e dances because o f t h e i r Japanese c o n t e n t , T e r r y s a i d "the emotions a r e u n i v e r s a l and so a l s o , beneath e x o t i c g a r b , a r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s : h e roes and h e r o i n e s , v i l - l a i n s and bumpkins, i n n o c e n t s and s o p h i s t i c a t e s . " I n a f i n a l r e v i e w ("Azuma K a b u k i Dancers," 10 J a n u a r y 1956) t h e c r i t i c summed up h i s f e e l i n g s : To most o f u s , i t was an e v e n i n g o f en- chantment . There a r e t h o s e , I r e a l i z e , who miss t h e pace o f Western dance... But f o r many, t h e s e Japanese a r t i s t s work t h e i r magic and t r a n s p o r t us i n t o a won- d e r f u l new r e a l m where p i c t u r e s seem to- come t o v i v i d l i f e and where p o e t r y i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o h e r o i c , i n t o w i t t y , i n t o l y r i c a l a c t i o n . T e r r y , and l a t e r , D o r i s H e r i n g , a r e unique among c r i t i c s i n 1955-56 i n b e i n g a b l e t o go beyond what t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y w r i t t e n and t h o u g h t , and t o m e a n i n g f u l l y d i s c u s s t h e new pe r f o r m a n c e s . F i n a l l y , John M a r t i n ("Tokyo F i n a l e : Azuma K a b u k i Troupe i n F i n a l Week," Times, 10 J a n u a r y 1956) r e v i e w i n g a program o f dances w h i c h had been t h e " f a v o r i t e s " i n 1954, found t h a t "every number seems somehow b e t t e r t h a n i t d i d l a s t y e a r . " There was l i t t l e f e e l i n g , however, t h a t t h e r e was a n y t h i n g new t o be seen and e x p e r i e n c e d . Magazines W i n t h r o p Sargeant ( " M u s i c a l E v e n t s , " The New Y o r k e r , 7 J a n u a r y 1956) r e s t a t e d h i s o l d views i n new ways, and added some f r e s h o b s e r v a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e -dance-dramas "may s t r i k e t h e w e s t e r n mind as s l i g h t l y o b s c u r e i n m o t i v a - t i o n and b e h a v i o r , " he p r a i s e d "the u n f a i l i n g Japanese f l a i r f o r t h e v i s u a l s i d e o f t h e a t r i c a l s p e c t a c l e . " Commenting on a p a r t i c u l a r a c t o r ' s a b i l i t y i n female as w e l l as male r o l e s , he was t h e f i r s t t o remark on t h e v i r t u o s i t y o f K a b u k i a c - t o r s — a n o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i s o f t e n h e a r d i n ' c o n n e c t i o n w i t h K a b u k i t h e a t r e . D o r i s H e r i n g ("The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s , " Dance Magazine, March 1956) r e p o r t e d t h a t Madame Azuma has r e t u r n e d " w i t h h e r assemblage o f w a r r i o r s , l o v e r s , maidens, v i l l a i n s , c o u r t e s a n s , comedians, a c r o b a t s , s i n g e r s , and mu- s i c i a n s — a l l woven i n t o t h e p o w e r f u l beauty o f K a b u k i . " R a t h e r t h a n c a l l i t K a b u k i dance, H e r i n g now r e f e r r e d t o t h e Azuma performance as K a b u k i p r o p e r , s a y i n g t h a t t h i s t i m e she found t h a t t h e " d r a m a t i c " a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e — as opposed t o dance a s p e c t s a l o n e — h a v e been g i v e n much more prominence. Because t h e p l a y s $ e r e so a b r i d g e d , however, she c o m p l a i n e d t h a t c h a r a c t e r c o u l d not be s u f f i c i e n t l y de- v e l o p e d . (Note: I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e newspapers and magazines c i t e d l a s t t i m e , Newsweek and S a t u r d a y Review d i d not c a r r y r e v i e w s . Notes ''"New Yo r k Times, 17 J a n . 1954, S e c t i o n I I , p. 15. 2 Kawazoe H i r o s h i , "An A n c i e n t A r t from Japan," New Y o r k Times, 14 Feb. 1954, S e c t i o n I I , p. 7. 3 I b i d . 4 John M a r t i n , "A G l i m p s e o f Japan's C l a s s i c T h e a t r e i n i t s C h o r e o g r a p h i c A s p e c t s , " New York Times, 14 Feb. 1954, S e c t i o n I I , p. 15. 5 "Japanese Import: The Dance-Drama," Time , 22 Feb. 1954, p. 80. 6 M a r t i n , "A G l i m p s e , " p. 15. 7 F a u b i o n Bowers, " C o n c e r n i n g K a b u k i , " S a t u r d a y Review, 27 Feb. 1954, p. 24. p F a u b i o n Bowers, "f.U^m'k.Japamseazuma«'tokuho,, " Dance Magazine, March 1954, p. 15. 9 I b i d . . p. 14. 1 0 p l a y b i l l . New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n . 1 : L I b i d . 12 . . D o r i s H e r i n g , "The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s , Dance Magazine, A p r . 1954, p. 62. 13 F a u b i o n Bowers, "The Broadway Triumph o f a Lady from Japan," The R e p o r t e r , 12 J a n . 1956, p. 36. 1 4 , , I b i d . 1 5 I b i d . " ^ p l a y b i l l . New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n . C h a p t e r IV: Grand K a b u k i i n New Yo r k , 1960 and 1969 B e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v i s i t o f t h e Grand K a b u k i t r o u p e , mention s h o u l d be made o f how American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i was sudd e n l y m a n i f e s t e d i n books pub- l i s h e d i n t h e 1950's. P r i o r t o t h e war and t h e e n s u i n g O c c u p a t i o n , l i t t l e had been w r i t t e n on K a b u k i i n E n g l i s h . I n f a c t , K i n c a i d ' s K a b u k i , The P o p u l a r Stage o f Japan was t h e o n l y major s t u d y i n t h e f i e l d up u n t i l t h a t t i m e . As American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i began t o grow a f t e r t h e war and t h r o u g h t h e 1950's, however, books on K a b u k i began t o appear i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers. The major works o f t h e decade were: F a u b i o n Bowers' Japanese T h e a t r e (1952), a g e n e r a l account o f Japanese t h e a - t r e , though g i v i n g s p e c i a l emphasis t o K a b u k i ; Aubrey and Giovanha H a l f o r d ' s The K a b u k i Handbook (1956), an e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e f o r p l o t o u t l i n e s and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on many a s p e c t s o f p r o d u c t i o n ; A.C. S c o t t ' s The K a b u k i T h e a t r e o f Japan (1956) and E a r l e E r n s t ' s The K a b u k i T h e a t r e (1959), b o t h g e n e r a l h i s t o r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , Hamamura YonezS's K a b u k i (1956) and Kawatake S h i g e t o s h i ' s K a b u k i , Japanese Drama (1958) were w r i t t e n t o g i v e W e s t e r n e r s an i n t r o d u c - t i o n from t h e Japanese p o i n t o f view. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t w i t h one e x c e p t i o n a l l t h e s e books came out a f t e r t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s had pe r f o r m e d i n New York f o r t h e second t i m e . Two v i s i t s by t h e t r o u p e had e v i d e n t l y p r o v e d t o p u b l i s h e r s t h a t p e o p l e were r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e and would t h e r e f o r e buy books on t h e s u b j e c t . That so many books came out i n so s h o r t a t i m e i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n , t h a t t h e r e had been a g e n u i n e l y p o s i t i v e response t o K a b u k i . J u s t as t h e Azuma t r o u p e had f u l f i l l e d a k i n d o f i n t r o - d u c t o r y f u n c t i o n , t h e books the m s e l v e s tended t o be o f a g e n e r a l and i n t r o d u c t o r y n a t u r e . F o r y e a r s , moreover, books dominated p u b l i c a t i o n s on K a b u k i ; t h e r e was no comparable d i s p l a y o f i n t e r e s t i n newspapers and magazines u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1960. Grand K a b u k i C i t y C e n t e r , June 2-22, 1960 N i n e y e a r s a f t e r Joshua Logan had f i r s t s t a r t e d nego- t i a t i o n s t o b r i n g K a b u k i t o New Yo r k , a t r o u p e o f t w e n t y - f o u r a c t o r s , e i g h t e e n m u s i c i a n s , and twenty a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s t a g e a s s i s t a n t s from Tokyo's K a b u k i T h e a t r e came t o Americ a t o c e l e b r a t e t h e one hun d r e d t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e f i r s t Japanese-American Trade Agreement. The t r o u p e , sponsored by t h e S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l - t u r a l R e l a t i o n s and t h e Japan S o c i e t y , a r r i v e d a t t h e end o f May,1960 f o r a t h r e e week engagement a t New Y o r k ' s C i t y C e n t e r . Whether o r not t h e a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n was j u s t a scheme t o persuade t h e K a b u k i - c o n t r o l l i n g S h o c h i k u Company 53. t o l e t a t r o u p e l e a v e Japan, Grand K a b u k i , as i t was c a l l e d t o s i g n i f y t h a t t h i s was a b s o l u t e l y r e a l K a b u k i , had a t l a s t a r r i v e d . A l t h o u g h Logan was not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g about t h e v i s i t , i t was t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s and o t h e r s ' e a r l i e r dreams. I n t h e m i d d l e o f J a n u a r y 1960 p l a n s f o r t h e v i s i t were announced i n New York newspapers. By F e b r u a r y 20, f i n a l arrangements had been completed. L i n c o l n K i r s t e i n , i m p r e s - s a r i o and d i r e c t o r o f t h e New York C i t y B a l l e t , and F a u b i o n Bowers had p e r s o n a l l y gone t o Japan t o n e g o t i a t e t h e t o u r w i t h t h e S h o c h i k u Company. A l t h o u g h t h e Americans had o r i g - i n a l l y hoped t o a r r a n g e a two-month t o u r , w i t h s t o p s i n New Y o r k , Washington, B o s t o n , C h i c a g o , Los A n g e l e s , San F r a n - c i s c o , and p o s s i b l y H a w a i i , t h e y f i n a l l y had t o agree on a one-and-one-half-month t o u r , w i t h performances i n New Y o r k , Los A n g e l e s and San F r a n c i s c o . I n t h e s i x months between t h e f i r s t announcement o f t h e v i s i t and t h e f i r s t performance i t s e l f , t h e momentum o f i n - t e r e s t i n K a b u k i was g r a d u a l l y b u i l t i n newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s . I n March, f o r example, t h e Japanese c o n s u l was r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d t h a t t h e upcoming v i s i t would be "the i n i t i a l exposure i n t h e West o f complete K a b u k i w i t h t o p p e r f o r m e r s . " ^ K a b u k i t r o u p e s , s i m i l a r t o t h e one t h a t was coming t o New Y o r k , had o n l y been out o f Japan t w i c e b e f o r e — t o R u s s i a and C h i n a i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y . Then i n A p r i l , a c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n Japan sent word o f a t r a d i t i o n a l 2 name-taking ceremony a t t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e i n Tokyo. He r e - p o r t e d t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s one had t a k e n p l a c e i n 1951, when an o u t s t a n d i n g onnaqata a c t o r was g i v e n t h e name Utaemon V I . Now, Utaemon V I , a l o n g w i t h Kanzaburo X V I I and Shoroku I I , t h r e e o f Japan's g r e a t e s t K a b u k i a c t o r s , would be coming t o New York as t h e t r o u p e ' s s t a r p e r f o r m e r s . I n May, New Y o r k e r s r e a d t h a t t h e t r o u p e would be b r i n g i n g a t w e n t y - f o u r by s i x t y f o o t s p e c i a l s i l k g i f t c u r t a i n — c o n t a i n i n g 73,000 s m a l l s h e e t s o f g o l d f o i l — t o be hung f o r t h e performance a t 3 C i t y C e n t e r . The c u r t a i n had been donated by f i v e Japanese businessmen. The v i s i t was, a f t e r a l l , n o m i n a l l y i n commem- o r a t i o n o f t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f a t r a d e agreement. The June i s s u e o f Dance Magazine ( p u b l i s h e d i n May) announced t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e upcoming K a b u k i t o u r i n " P r e s s - t i m e News," and i n t h e same i s s u e , "The P a s t W i t h i n t h e P r e - s e n t : The Grand K a b u k i v e n t u r e s i n t o t h e New World," an a r - t i c l e by F a u b i o n Bowers, appeared. Bowers s a i d t h a t t h e K a b u k i v i s i t i s an i m p o r t a n t moment f o r America: "What a l o n g way we have come...in our awareness o f t h e a t r e a r t s 4 abroad!"; O b s e r v i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e word " K a b u k i " might now be p a r t o f our v o c a b u l a r y — a s f a m i l i a r as "kimono," " j u d o , " o r " Z e n " — he wr o t e t h a t as t h e a t r e , however, "no- t h i n g r e a l l y p r e p a r e s you f o r K a b u k i except d i r e c t e x p e r i - ence." Among t h e a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n p r i o r t o t h e v i s i t , " C l a s s i c S p e c t a c u l a r from Japan" by Donald Keene was most i n f o r m a - t i v e and e x c i t i n g f o r t h e newcomer t o K a b u k i . The a r t i c l e was f e a t u r e d i n t h e Sunday Magazine s e c t i o n o f t h e Times and aimed a t g i v i n g a s h o r t h i s t o r y o f K a b u k i i n Japan, i t s p r e s e n t day c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s on what American a u d i e n c e s may f i n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e performances t h e y would see. Keene and Bowers, i n c i d e n t a l l y , h e l p e d s e l e c t t h e p l a y s t h a t would be performed i n A m e r i c a . Keene wrote t h a t even i f not one word o f t h e Japanese d i a l o g u e i s u n d e r s t o o d , "The f l o w i n g movements...the b o l d g e s t u r e s and t h e s h a r p n o t e s o f t h e music g i v e p l e a s u r e , " adding-, "Eyes accustomed t o s i n g l e - s e t performances w i l l f i n d f r e s h i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e v o l v i n g s t a g e and t h e v a r i e t y o f p i c t o r i a l e f f e c t s i n w h i c h K a b u k i abounds."^ Keene f e l t t h a t Americans would l i k e K a b u k i , not j u s t as an " e x o t i c s p e c t a c l e " but as one o f t h e wo-mld's g r e a t c l a s s i c t h e a t r e s . P r i n t e d e x p l a n a t i o n s and a t r a n s l a t i o n / c o m m e n t a r y system a t t h e C i t y C e n t e r would h e l p s o l v e comprehension p r o b l e m s — not o n l y i n t h e spoken language, but a l s o i n t h e language o f K a b u k i t h e a t r i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s . As Keene w r o t e , f o r ex- ample, o f t e n i n K a b u k i " i t i s h a r d t o t e l l where a c t i n g ends and dance and song b e g i n . " F o r one d o l l a r a u d i e n c e members c o u l d r e n t s m a l l t r a n - s i s t o r i z e d r e c e i v e r s w h i c h were used t o b r o a d c a s t l i v e an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n and r u n n i n g commentary by Donald R i c h i e and Watanabe Mi y o k o . Watanabe had used t h e same k i n d o f sys tern t o h e l p f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s a t t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e i n Tokyo, but t h i s was t h e f i r s t t i m e i t was used i n America f o r a v i s i t i n g f o r e i g n t r o u p e . N a r r a t o r s and microphones a l o n e had been used d u r i n g t h e Azuma t r o u p e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s . One a s p e c t o f t h e system t h a t a u d i e n c e s found p a r t i c u l a r l y amusi was when Watanabe would d i s c r e e t l y suggest a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s f o r them t o a p p l a u d . On t h e o t h e r hand, K u n i z o Matsuo, spokesman f o r t h e t r o u p e , s a i d : " I am s u r e t h a t American a u d i e n c e s w i l l under- s t a n d t h e p l a y s . We have s h o r t e n e d some o f t h e sentences and changed some o f t h e pantomime so t h a t American a u d i e n c e s g can f o l l o w t h e a c t i o n s . " K a b u k i would p r e s e n t n o v e l p r o b - lems f o r many t h e a t r e g o e r s , but as some had suggested a t t h e t i m e t h e Azuma t r o u p e v i s i t e d A m e r i c a , a u d i e n c e s would do w e l l t o open t h e i r e a r s , eyes, and most i m p o r t a n t , t h e i r minds t o t h e new e x p e r i e n c e . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e n i g h t t h e K a b u k i opened a t t h e C i t y C e n t e r s t r i k i n g a c t o r s had f o r c e d t h e c l o s i n g o f a l l l e g i t - imate t h e a t r e s on Broadway. The s t r i k e was caused by a d i s - pute between t h e A c t o r s 1 E q u i t y U n i o n and t h e th e a t r e - m a n a g i n g League o f New Yo r k T h e a t r e s . K a b u k i p e r f o r m e r s were not a f f e c t e d , however, because t h e y came under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e American G u i l d o f M u s i c a l A r t i s t s , not A c t o r s ' E q u i t y . That a l l K a b u k i performances were s o l d out must be a s c r i b e d t o s t r o n g i n t e r e s t , but i t s h o u l d a l s o be r e a l i z e d t h a t from June 2 t o June 13 K a b u k i was j u s t about t h e o n l y t h e a t r i - c a l event open. One b e n e f i t o f t h e s t r i k e was t h e l e i s u r e i t gave New York a c t o r s t o a t t e n d t h e K a b u k i . Some a c t o r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , came back two, t h r e e , and f o u r t i m e s . The t r o u p e performed s e l e c t i o n s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a y s and dance-dramas from t h e K a b u k i r e p e r t o i r e . F i r s t program, June 2 t o June 8: Kanjincho.. ("The S u b s c r i p t i o n L i s t , " dance- drama, f i r s t p e r f o rmed i n 1840), Tsubosaka R e i g e n k i ("The M i r a c l e a t Tsubosaka Temple," p l a y , f i r s t performed i n 1887), and Kagotsurube ("The C o u r t e s a n , " p l a y , f i r s t p erformed i n 1888). Second program, June 9 t o June 15: Musume D o j o j i ("The Maiden a t Dojo Temple," dance-drama, f i r s t p e rformed i n 1753), C h u s h i n g u r a (1'T.heFForty-seven R o n i n , " p l a y , f i r s t p e r formed i n 1748),and M i g a w a r i Zazen ("The S u b s t i t u t e , " dance- drama) . F i n a l program, June 16 t o June 22: Musume D 5 j o j i # C h u s h i n g u r a , and T a k a t s u k i (dance-drama, f i r s t p erformed i n 19 3 3 ) . 9 C r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n The v i s i t o f t h e K a b u k i t o America i n t h e l a t e s p r i n g o f 1960 was a t h e a t r i c a l event o f t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e . Though t h e com- pany...has been abroad, i t had never been t o th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , had never performed be- f o r e a New Y o r k a u d i e n c e , one o f t h e w o r l d ' s most s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e most i n t o l e r a n t . The American b a c k e r s f e a r e d t h a t t h e Americans would not l i k e what t h e y saw; t h e Japanese f e a r e d t h a t t h e f o r e i g n e r s would not u n d e r s t a n d . That t h e New York p e r - formances were almost c o m p l e t e l y s o l d out be- f o r e t h e y began calmed no f e a r s and t h e d r e s s r e h e a r s a l was a shambles: t h e h a n a m i c h i , b u i l t i n t o t h e C i t y C e n t e r T h e a t e r j u s t t h e day be- f o r e , was t o o s h o r t ; t h e m a w a r i - b u t a i ( r e v o l - v i n g stage) s t u c k ; t h e b i g g i f t c u r t a i n was t o o b i g f o r t h e p r o s c e n i u m . . . t h e t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o t r a n s l a t i o n - u n i t s would not work i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e house. Y e t t h e performance, two h o u r s l a t e r , was p e r f e c t i o n i t s e l f . The American a u d i e n c e was ready f o r t h e Kabu- k i . . . and t h e t r o u p e c o u l d e a s i l y have p l a y e d a n o t h e r month. The r e v i e w s were almost en- t i r e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c and, upon t h o s e o c c a s i o n s when t h e y were n o t , r e s p e c t f u l . . . T h e audience was i n t e l l i g e n t and c o m p l e t e l y r e c e p t i v e . ^ D o n a l d R i c h i e and Watanabe Miyoko w r o t e t h i s summary o f t h e 1960 K a b u k i v i s i t i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g n o t e s o f t h e i r book, S i x K a b u k i P l a y s , a c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s t h e y had made f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s . To be s u r e , t h e l o n g - a w a i t e d v i s i t was a s u c c e s s and t h e consensus among most c r i t i c s was t h a t i t was an e x c i t i n g and r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Look i n g c l o s e l y , however, a t t h e r e v i e w s t h e m s e l v e s r e v e a l s t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h t h e c r i t i c s r e a c t e d t o K a b u k i . Where as dance c r i t i c s had r e v i e w e d t h e Azuma t r o u p e , r e g u l a r t h e a t r e c r i t i c s , g e n e r a l l y , gave t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h e Grand K a b u k i . As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s i n 1954 and a g a i n i n 1955-56, c r i t i c s were most i m p r e s s e d by t h e s p e c t a c u l a r a s p e c t s o f t h e K a b u k i p e r f o r m a n c e s — e s p e c i a l l y t h e grand d i s p l a y o f costumes, make-up, and s e t s . S e e i n g K a b u k i as t h e a t r e - i n - t o t a l now, and not as j u s t dance o r dance-drama, t h e r e was a w i d e r range o f comment. C r i t i c s had much t o say about t h e a c t i n g , l a b e l i n g i t " s t y l i z e d " and c i t i n g s t a r p e r f o r m e r s f o r t h e i r s k i l l and v e r s a t i l i t y i n p l a y i n g v a r i o u s r o l e s — e s p e c i a l l y t h e onna- q a t a r o l e s . There was much u n c e r t a i n t y a t f i r s t r e g a r d i n g what s h o u l d — o r c o u l d — b e s a i d about K a b u k i performance i n g e n e r a l . C r i t i c s o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e s k i r t e d i s s u e s by l a b e l - i n g what t h e y saw " f o r e i g n " o r " s t r a n g e ; " now i n 1960, s i m p l y t o c a l l t h e p r o d u c t i o n " h i g h l y s t y l i z e d " was o f t e n t h e sub- s t i t u t e f o r more t h o u g h t f u l c r i t i c i s m . W h i l e t h e concept o f K a b u k i ' s " t h e a t r i c a l i t y , " i t s wide use o f t h e a t r e r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as i t s " n o n - r e a l i s t i c " n a t u r e , emerged a g a i n , as i n 1954 and 1955-56, t h e K a b u k i i n 1 9 6 0 — s e e n as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e as i t i s done i n J a p a n — was a much more p o w e r f u l and c o m p l i c a t e d e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e e a r l i e r Azuma s e l e c t i o n s had been. There was so much more t o see and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a t f i r s t i t was overwhelming and many c r i t i c s c o u l d do l i t t l e more t h a n be " i m p r e s s e d . " As t h e y went back a second and t h i r d t i m e , however, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see t h a t t h e y were a b l e t o p e r c e i v e more d e t a i l s o f t h e performance, and t h e more m e a n i n g f u l and e n j o y a b l e t h e ex- p e r i e n c e became. A l t h o u g h o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d by comprehension p r o b l e m s — language, a c t i n g s t y l e , and s u c h — c r i t i c s t r i e d h a r d t o g r a p - p l e w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e , t o u n d e r s t a n d and i n t u r n e x p l a i n t o t h e i r r e a d e r s what t h e y saw.- At f i r s t some f e l t t h a t K a b u k i c o u l d o n l y be a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e d K a b u k i t h e a t r e - g o e r , but i n t h e end t h e y found i t was enough t o be an ex- p e r i e n c e d t h e a t r e g o e r i n g e n e r a l . Even a l l u s i o n s t o p a s t and p r e s e n t problems i n Japanese-American r e l a t i o n s g r a d u a l l y d i s s o l v e d as t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f K a b u k i as a u n i v e r s a l t h e a t r i - c a l and a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e began t o e v o l v e . The K a b u k i broke a l l a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s a t New Y o r k ' s C i t y C e n t e r . . . d e s p i t e t h e g r e a t c o s t o f s e n d i n g t h e e n t i r e t r o u p e , w i t h m u s i c i a n s , t e c h n i c i a n s , s c e n e r y and c o s t u m e s — i t l o s t no money, and i t gave p l e a s u r e t o thousands. No one who e v e r saw t h e i r s e r i e s o f p erformances w i l l e v e r f o r g e t them, t h i s ^ c u l m i n a t i o n o f E a s t and West w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . Time, however, would t e l l K a b u k i ' s s u c c e s s and t h e f a c t t h a t a t r o u p e r e t u r n e d i n 1969 i s . one i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t was i n - deed a s u c c e s s . As one c r i t i c w r o t e j u s t b e f o r e t h e t r o u p e l e f t New Y o r k , i t was "one o f t h i s season's most remarkable 12 t h e a t r e e v e n t s . " The Reviews Newspapers: o p e n i n g n i g h t John Chapman ("Grand K a b u k i Makes I m p r e s s i v e Appearance at t h e C i t y C e n t e r , 1 1 D a i l y News, 3 June 1960) was " i m p r e s s e d " by what he saw, but d i d not f e e l q u a l i f i e d t o judge t h i s f o r e i g n a r t form, as he r e f e r r e d d t o K a b u k i . "Being almost t o t a l l y u n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e p e a c e f u l and c u l t u r e d s i d e o f t h e Japanese, I had t o s t a r t from s c r a t c h , and can r e p o r t o n l y as an o n l o o k e r , not an e x p e r t . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Chap- man r e p o r t e d on l i t t l e , f i n d i n g g e n e r a l e x p e r t i s e i n t h e a t r e c r i t i c i s m i n a d e q u a t e when r e v i e w i n g Japanese t h e a t r e . He remarked, however, t h a t he found t h e a c t o r s " i m p r e s s i v e even t o t h e s e f o r e i g n and u n t u t o r e d eyes," humorously add- i n g , "Utaemon...struck me as t h e a b l e s t female i m p e r s o n a t o r s i n c e Mae West." Those who have seen Utaemon p e r f o r m know th e tremendous f e m i n i n i t y and almost w i c k e d beauty he b r i n g s t o h i s onnaqata r o l e s . Chapman c o n c l u d e d , however: "Give me about 40 more y e a r s o f w a t c h i n g t h e Grand K a b u k i and I ' l l be a b l e t o w r i t e you a s c h o l a r l y r e p o r t . " The tone o f t h e r e v i e w was l e s s t h a n s e r i o u s , g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t K a b u k i was not o n l y t o o " f o r e i g n " f o r t h i s c r i t i c ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , but t o o " J a p a n e s e " — i n t h e sense o f b e i n g s e n t by a former e n e m y — f o r t h i s c r i t i c ' s c o m f o r t . W a l t e r K e r r ("3 Japanese P l a y s G i v e n by 'Grand KabukiI' Troupe," H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 3 June 1960) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e K a b u k i p l a y s can be e n j o y e d by b e i n g " i n t e n t upon t h e s u r - f a c e t e x t u r e , w i t h o u t even h o p i n g t o become e m o t i o n a l l y em- b r o i l e d i n so r i g i d and a l i e n a form." A l t h o u g h he f e l t t h e f o r e i g n n a t u r e o f t h e performance tended t o l i m i t h i s f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , he went much f u r t h e r t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s c r i - t i c . P r a i s i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e use o f many d i f f e r e n t t h e a t r i c a l elements and d e v i c e s , K e r r s a i d : "Though e v e r y t h i n g i s s t r a n g e each d e v i c e b r i n g s i t s . . . f o r c e t o bear on an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s not i n any s u p e r f i c i a l sense r e a l i s t i c but t h a t d i g s a t r e c o g n i z a b l e e m o t i o n a l r o o t s j u s t t h e same." L i k e some c r i - t i c s o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e , K e r r applauded t h e f r a n k t h e a t r i - c a l i t y o f K a b u k i , a t t h e same t i m e r e c o g n i z i n g a u n i v e r s a l b a s i s f o r t h i s c l a s s i c a l Japanese t h e a t r e . John M c C l a i n ( " C u r t a i n R i s e s on K a b u k i , " J o u r n a l - A m e r i c a n 3 June 1960) r e p o r t e d t h a t K a b u k i " t o t h i s Western mind, : p r o v e d t o be almost t o o s t y l i z e d t o be e s t i m a t e d by our con - v e n t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , " t h e n added, "as e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n our sense o f t h e word i t l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d . " The tone i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n t h e D a i l y News, w i t h M c C l a i n w a r n i n g f u t u r e K a b u k i a u d i e n c e s : "be p r e p a r e d m e r e l y t o s t u d y an O r i e n t a l e x p r e s s i o n o f drama as d i f f e r e n t as pot r o a s t and s u k i y a k i . . . m o s t o f t h e e v e n i n g was v e r y s p e c i a l s t u f f , t o be sa v o r e d by s t u d e n t s . " I f s o - c a l l e d s t u d e n t s a r e p e o p l e who want t o l e a r n , t h i s c r i t i c c o u l d not count h i m s e l f i n t h e i r number. He even r e f u s e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e attempt t o h e l p t h e a u d i e n c e w i t h t h e t r a n s i s t o r i z e d commentary and t r a n s l a - t i o n : " I wasn't f r a n k l y f a s c i n a t e d i n what e i t h e r t h e a c t o r o r t h e t r a n s l a t o r had t o say." Though c o n c e d i n g t h a t t h e p e r f o r m e r s d i d seem competent, M c C l a i n c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e doubt t h a t K a b u k i " w i l l have much p o p u l a r a p p e a l h e r e . S t r i k e o r no s t r i k e . " H a p p i l y , however, he was wrong. Ka- b u k i d i d have much p o p u l a r a p p e a l and o t h e r c r i t i c s were more a b l e t o e x p l a i n why. R o b e r t Coleman ("Kabuki P l a y e r s P r o v e C a p t i v a t i n g , " M i r r o r , 3 June 1960) e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e p o r t e d on t h e " b r i l - l i a n c e " o f t h e e v e n i n g , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e , w h i c h was "comprised o f p o l i t i c a l , d i p l o m a t i c , s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c l e a d e r s . " W i t h h a r d l y a h i n t t h a t t h e r e might be any problem o f comprehension o r a p p r e c i a t i o n because o f language o r o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , he a s s u r e d h i s r e a d e r s t h a t t h e a c t o r s / " e x p r e s s i v e g e s t u r e s and movement speak l o u d e r t h a n words." P r a i s i n g "the e x o t i c s e t t i n g s and g o r - geous costumes," Coleman c o n c l u d e d t h a t K a b u k i i s " m a g n i f i - c e n t " and t h a t i t i s t h e k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e "the c o g n o s c e n t i o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t a r e t o o seldom g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n j o y . " R i c h a r d W a t t s , J r . ( " V i s i t o f t h e K a b u k i from Japan," . 0 : i s t - 3 J u n P o s t , 3 June 1960) s a i d t h a t t o have K a b u k i i n New York " i s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . . . [ i t i s ] an event o f a r t i s t i c and t h e a t r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . 1 1 The tone o f t h e r e v i e w changed, however, when Watts began d i s c u s s i n g t h e performance i t s e l f . He f e l t t h a t he has a " b l i n d s p o t " when i t comes t o K a b u k i , because he i s "an a l i e n t o [Japanese] a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . . . i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o f i n d t h e i r s t y l i z e d p l a y i n g d r a m a t i c o r moving. Unable t o share i n t h e i r emotions-, I must c o n f i n e m y s e l f t o r e s p e c t i n g them." Brooks A t k i n s o n ("Grand K a b u k i : Japanese Troupe i s a t t h e C i t y C e n t e r , " Times, 3 June 1960) wr o t e a r e v i e w t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d n e i t h e r by sweeping p r a i s e s nor c o m p l a i n t s . A t k i n s o n , who had v i s i t e d t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e i n Tokyo b e f o r e t h e war, began w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s t r i k e w h i c h t u r n e d out t h e l i g h t s on Broadway: "Amid t h e i n k y d a r k n e s s o f t h e t h e a t r e d i s t r i c t t h e r e i s one b r i g h t g l e a m — t h e 'Grand Ka- b u k i . ' " Where o t h e r c r i t i c s f a l t e r e d , A t k i n s o n e x p l a i n e d : " ' P r e s e n t a t i o n ' i s t h e k e y word t o d i s t i n g u i s h K a b u k i from t h e Western t h e a t r e o f ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . ' " I t i s a k i n d o f "pure t h e a t r e " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " r i t u a l , ceremony, s t y l e and s p e c t a c l e . " W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e problem o f language and comprehension, A t k i n s o n found t h e t r a n s i s t o r i z e d system h e l p f u l , but t o l d h i s r e a d e r s : I t i s s a i d t h a t Japanese a u d i e n c e s a re l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e words o f a drama t h a n t h e r i t u a l o f t h e a c t i n g , t h e g l o r y o f t h e costumes, t h e rhythm o f t h e move- ment, t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e performance, t h e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f t h e a c t i n g w i t h t h e e x o t i c t i n k l i n g , c l a p p i n g m u s i c a l i n s t r u - ments t h a t p u n c t u a t e t h e s t o r y . To be s u r e , d e s p i t e a somewhat a r c h a i c v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e K a b u k i p l a y s , Japanese a u d i e n c e s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e words q u i t e w e l l — j u s t as we u n d e r s t a n d Shakespeare t o d a y . I n t h e end, however, A t k i n s o n ' s p o i n t was t h a t even i f l a n - guage i s a b a r r i e r t o comprehension, t h e r e i s a l o t t h a t t h e Western t h e a t r e g o e r can s t i l l g a i n from K a b u k i . The s t r i k e brought d a r k days t o New York t h e a t r e s , "but t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e K a b u k i t r o u p e g i v e s us something t o admire and wonder a t d u r i n g a m e l a n c h o l y i n t e r r e g n u m . " F i n a l l y / Ted M o r e l l o ("Grand K a b u k i Bows a t C e n t e r , " World-Telegram and The Sun # 3 June 1960) r e l a t e d h i s im- p r e s s i o n s o f audi e n c e r e s p o n s e : " D e s p i t e a c e r t a i n under- s t a n d a b l e bewilderment o v e r what was happening b e f o r e t h e i r eyes [ t h e a u d i e n c e ] applauded warmly" and everyone e s p e c i a l l y went "ahhh" when t h e c u r t a i n opened on b e a u t i f u l l y e l a b o r a t e s e t s . M o r e l l o d e s c r i b e d "the extreme : ' s t y l i z a t i o n " — t h e a c t i n g w h i c h " c a l l s f o r g r o t e s q u e f a c i a l c o n t o r t i o n s and a manner o f d e l i v e r y i n w h i c h t h e words a r e squeezed out r e - l u c t a n t l y , l i k e c o l d molasses from an a t o m i z e r . " At t h e v e r y l e a s t he found K a b u k i a t h e a t r e o f s t r a n g e wonders. Newspapers: second program r e v i e w s W a l t e r K e r r ("3 Japanese P l a y s G i v e n By 'Grand K a b u k i , ' " H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 10 June 1960) c a l l e d t h e p e r f o r m e r s "remark- a b l e p l a y e r s i n a r e m a r k a b l e company." W i t h t h e i n i t i a l shock, as i t were, h a v i n g worn o f f , K e r r was now a b l e t o make more d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s . S u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e power o f K a b u k i i s i n c o n t r a s t s — b o l d c o l o r s s i d e by s i d e w i t h p a s t e l s , moments o f g r e a t a c t i o n f o l l o w e d by a b s o l u t e s t i l l - n e s s — h e f e l t t h a t t h e enchantment works something l i k e "snake- charming, i f you a r e r e a s o n a b l y w i l l i n g t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f snake." I n o t h e r words, K e r r a d v i s e d a u d i e n c e s t o l e t them- s e l v e s be open t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e — a n d not be stopped by i n i t i a l appearances o f f o r e i g n n e s s and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y . F r a n c e s H e r r i d g e ("Grand K a b u k i i n a New Program," P o s t , 10 June 1960) w r o t e t h e r e v i e w t h i s t i m e , i n s t e a d o f R i c h a r d W a t t s , J r . H a y i n g a l s o seen t h e K a b u k i d u r i n g i t s f i r s t week i n New Y o r k , H e r r i d g e found she l i k e d t h e second program b e t t e r f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : "For one t h i n g , you be- g i n t o c a t c h on t o t h e meaning o f t h o s e s t y l i z e d g e s t u r e s and e x p r e s s i o n s . . . Y o u g e t so you don't expect t o o much a c t i o n and you s e t t l e f o r w a t c h i n g t h e s m a l l e r d e t a i l s , t h e s t a t u - esque pose s t r u c k s u d d e n l y , t h e p r e c i s e . r i t u a l o f a bow... t h e use o f t h e f a n and kimono," As t h e c r i t i c who had r e - f e r r e d t o t h e dances o f t h e Azuma t r o u p e as " s t y l i z e d p a n t o - mime, " she now found t h e K a b u k i dances p a r t o f a " u n i v e r s a l language" o f dance. A l t h o u g h she found t h a t t h e speeches were "merely a w e i r d n o i s e t o W e s t e r n e r s , " " she had s p e c i a l p r a i s e f o r t h e onnaqata a c t o r Utaemon who "moves s p e c t a c u l a r l y w e l l . " L i k e W a l t e r K e r r and o t h e r s , t h e more she saw Kabu- k i , t h e b e t t e r she l i k e d i t . Brooks A t k i n s o n ("More K a b u k i : 'Chushingura' heads C i t y C e n t e r b i l l , " Times, 10 June 1960) s a i d t h a t a f t e r s e e i n g t h e second program, he f e l t t h a t t h e Grand K a b u k i i s r e a l l y g r a n d. Even w i t h t h e commentaries and ample p r o - gram n o t e s , however, "a t h e a t r e - g o e r i g n o r a n t o f Japanese may f i n d h i m s e l f l o s i n g h i s p l a c e as t h e s t o r y s l o w l y un- f o ' l d s , " but t h e a c t i n g was " m a g n i f i c e n t " and t h a t made up f o r d e f i c i e n c i e s e l s e w h e r e . F i n a l l y , D i ane de Bonneval ("Grand K a b u k i : A R e f r e s h i n g Change from T r i v i a l R e a l i t y , " World-Telegram and The Sun, 10 June 1960), w r i t i n g i n p l a c e o f Ted M o r e l l o ^ s a i d some- t h i n g s i m i l a r t o what Brooks A t k i n s o n and o t h e r s had remarked on e a r l i e r : " I n a t h e a t e r o f t e n f r e t t e d by s o c i a l e d i t o r i a l s and T h i s I s Your L i f e r e a l i s m , a b r e a t h o f pure ' a r t f o r a r t 1 i s r e f r e s h i n g . " Moreover, " i f a n y t h i n g good can be s a i d f o r t h e p r e s e n t b l a c k o u t along' Broadway, i t i s t h e added wattage i t a l l o t s t h e C e n t e r ' s O r i e n t a l g u e s t s . " A f t e r t h e second program o f p l a y s had ended and b e f o r e t h e t h i r d had begun, " V i s i t by K a b u k i : C i t y C e n t e r i s Host t o Troupe o f Japanese" (Times, 12 June 1960), a l e n g t h y a r t i c l e by Brooks A t k i n s o n appeared, a s s e s s i n g t h e p e r - formances t h u s f a r . A t k i n s o n made h i s p o i n t a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e a r t i c l e : t h e v i s i t o f t h e K a b u k i i s a momentous event " t o p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a t r e as an a r t . " He t h e n d i s c u s s e d some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between Western t h e a t r e a r t and O r i e n t a l , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e K a b u k i . " A l t h o u g h r e a l i s m i s no l o n g e r t h e s a c r e d g o a l o f t h e a t r i c a l a m b i t i o n , r e a l i s m u n d e r l i e s our approach t o t h e s t a g e . " But "the c l o s e r K a b u k i comes t o r e a l i s m , t h e f u r t h e r i t d e p a r t s from i t s n a t u r e . " Newspapers:~ t h i r d program r e v i e w s H a r r i e t t Johnson ("Kabuki M u s i c V i t a l P a r t o f Drama," P o s t , 17 June 1960) found t h e music i n K a b u k i "an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f each drama's e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . . . W h i l e t h e K a b u k i 1 s use o f c o l o r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y s p e c t a c u l a r and flamboyant, t h e m u s i c 1 c o n t r i b u t i o n i s more v a r i e d and f l e x i b l e . I t may s e r v e as a s i n u o u s c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h e speech, as a p r o t a g o n i s t i n t h e drama, as p u n c t u a t i o n , o r s i m p l y as background." Johnson i s t h e t h i r d c r i t i c t o r e v i e w K a b u k i f o r t h e P o s t . F i r s t t h e y sent a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e c r i t i c , t h e n a dance c r i t i c , and now a music c r i t i c . F o r t h o s e who t h i n k o f K a b u k i as m u s i c - dance-drama (the l i t e r a l meaning o f t h e word " K a b u k i " ) , t h e n i t does make sense t o send s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e s e a r e a s t o do t h e r e v i e w s . Johnson d i s c o v e r e d t h a t w h i l e t h e music was p a r t o f a " f l u i d , e x o t i c panorama," i t was not " s o o t h i n g , " The s i n g i n g was " g u t t u r a l w h i n i n g , " t h e speech sounded l i k e " s i n g s o n g , " t h e samisen l i k e a "mournful b a n j o , " and t h e f l u t e was s i m p l y " e e r y . " F o r t h o s e s e e k i n g a m e l o d i c o r c h e s - t r a l accompaniment, K a b u k i was d e f i n i t e l y not-t recommended. Brooks A t k i n s o n ("Superb Clown: K a b u k i 1 s Kanzaburo S t a r s as a Drunk," Times, 17 June 1960), r e p o r t i n g m a i n l y on one p l a y i n t h e f i n a l program, was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e v e r s a t i l i t y o f t h e K a b u k i a c t o r s . A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e r e v i e w was concerned w i t h t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Japan; r i o t s i n Tokyo had c a n c e l l e d P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower's t r i p t o t h a t c o u n t r y . As A t k i n s o n s a i d , Japanese-American P o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s a r e e m b r o i l e d i n p a s s i o n s — p e r s o n a l and " f o c u s e d on t h e p r e s e n t moment...Meanwhile, a t r o u p e o f Japanese a c t o r s b r i n g s us a r i c h , i m p e r s o n a l a r t t h a t has no time o r p l a c e . . . N o t h i n g i n t r u d e s on t h e i r w o r l d but g r a c e , beauty and s t a t e l i n e s s . An a u d i e n c e o f New Y o r k e r s r e c e i v e s them w i t h t h e r e s p e c t we owe t o a l l c i v i l i z e d p e r s o n s . F o r t h e t h e a t r e i s d e c e n t e r t h a n p o l i t i c s . " T h i s statement i s i n marked c o n t r a s t w i t h P a u l Green's o b s e r v a t i o n j u s t a f t e r t h e war t h a t K a b u k i was i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y concerned w i t h "dead e t h i c s " and s h o u l d be brought up t o d a t e . F o r A t k i n s o n , K a b u k i was e s s e n t i a l l y a t i m e l e s s , i f not u n i v e r s a l , a r t . F i n a l l y , F r a n k A s t o n ("Kabuki Stomps Out Hoedown," World-Telegram and The Sun, 17 June 1960) r e v i e w i n g K a b u k i f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , w r o t e about one o f t h e dance p l a y s i n t h e K a b u k i ' s t h i r d program. He p r a i s e d what had been p r a i s e d many t i m e s b e f o r e — t h e b e a u t i f u l costumes, t h e g r a c e f u l movements—and c o n c l u d e d : "Grand K a b u k i i s r e f r e s h m e n t f o r eye and s p i r i t . " M agazines The anonymous c r i t i c o f Newsweek ("Import from Japan: E n c h a n t i n g , E x c i t i n g , " 13 June 1960) r e p o r t e d t h a t "the Grand K a b u k i ' s p l a y s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a m a s t e r f u l and un- m i s t a k a b l e s t y l e t h a t i s t h e essence o f u n i v e r s a l make-be- l i e v e . " I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g f o r t h o s e who have o n l y p r e v i o u s l y seen t h e " s m a l l t r a v e l i n g companies e x p l o i t i n g t h e K a b u k i l a b e l " whereby "Americans got t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t Japan's g r e a t t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t e r was s i m p l y a charming form o f e x o t i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t d e d i c a t e d t o d a n c i n g g e i s h a g i r l s and t h e language o f t h e f a n , " r e f e r r i n g t o t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s . The c r i t i c f o r Time ("New Show i n Manhattan: Grand K a b u k i , " 13 June i960) a l s o r e f e r r e d t o t h e p a s t v i s i t o r s : " U n l i k e p r e v i o u s K a b u k i - t y p e v i s i t o r s t o Am e r i c a , Grand Ka- b u k i , as t r u e K a b u k i , c o n s i s t s o f a l l - m a l e c a s t s . " I n o t h e r words , Americans were s e e i n g a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . Henry Hewes ("The Song-Dance T r i c k s t e r s , " Saturday- Review, 18 June 1960) r e p o r t e d on t h e " s y m b o l i c c o m p l e x i t y " t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s a K a b u k i performance. A l t h o u g h he f e l t t h a t some g e s t u r e s , f o r example, can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e d K a b u k i t h e a t r e g o e r , most a r e i m m e d i a t e l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e d t h e a t r e g o e r i n g e n e r a l . Hewes c o n c l u d e d ; "the p r e s e n t t o u r s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrates K a b u k i 1 s superb t h e a t r i c a l i t y and an e x c i t i n g l y f u l l use o f s t a g e r e s o u r c e s . " I n a second r e v i e w , " O r i e n t a t i o n Course," (25 June I 9 6 0 ) , he was e s p e c i a l l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e g r e a t v e r s a t i l i t y o f K a b u k i a c t o r s — t h e i r a b i l i t y , f o r example, t o p l a y two d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n t h e same p l a y . I n Hewes 1 o p i n i o n , K a b u k i was a d e f i n i t e t h e a t r i c a l s u c c e s s . F i n a l l y , D o r i s H e r i n g ("Yatsuhashi o f t h e Western World," Dance Magazine, J u l y i960) compared K a b u k i t o t h e Ma r t h a Graham dance t r o u p e . I n h e r o p i n i o n b o t h use a l l t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e t h e a t r e and one f i n d s i n b o t h "the same c o n t r o l , t h e same f o r m a l i t y . " Magazines: s p e c i a l a r t i c l e s I n a d d i t i o n t o r e g u l a r r e v i e w s , two magazines had s p e c i a l a r t i c l e s t h a t a s s e s s e d t h e perf o r m a n c e s . "East Meets West 55th S t r e e t " (Dance Magazine, August 1960) was w r i t t e n by J a c q u e l i n e Maskey, who gave h e r v i e w o f the K a b u k i as a C i t y C e n t e r u s h e r e t t e . The a r t i c l e i s p a r - t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because i t d e s c r i b e d some a s p e c t s o f the performances no one e l s e thought o f o r knew enough t o mention. She tol«d, f o r example, how t h e C i t y C e n t e r was s p e c i a l l y equipped f o r t h e K a b u k i . A s p e c i a l sound booth was b u i l t on t h e second l e v e l o f t h e f i r s t b a l c o n y t o accomo- date Donald R i c h i e and Watanabe Mi y o k o . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l K a b u k i hanamichi". C i t y C e n t e r p e r s o n n e l chose t o b u i l d a s m a l l one from s t a g e r i g h t t o t h e f i r s t s i d e - e x i t door i n o r d e r not t o l o s e p a y i n g s e a t s by b u i l d i n g a f u l l - s c a l e h a n a m i c h i t h r o u g h t h e a u d i t o r i u m . There a p p a r e n t l y had been rumors t h a t t h e audience i t - s e l f might be e n t i r e l y Japanese. A f t e r a l l , some t h o u g h t , who e l s e would be i n t e r e s t e d i n K a b u k i . But as Maskey r e - p o r t e d : "the audience d i d not change much...we were p l e a s a n t - l y s u r p r i s e d . . . A s i d e from a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f O r i e n t a l s t h a n u s u a l , t h e customers were l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from t h e f a m i l y groups t h a t r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d o ur drama and m u s i c a l seasons." The a p p e a l o f K a b u k i i n t h e end was not j u s t as " e x o t i c " e n t e r t a i n m e n t . "Kabuki i n A m e r i c a " (The N a t i o n , 9 J u l y 1960) was w r i t t e n by F a u b i o n Bowers, who attempted t o a s s e s s what e f f e c t t h e K a b u k i v i s i t might have had e s p e c i a l l y on t h e American t h e a - t r e p e o p l e — a c t o r s , d i r e c t o r s and o t h e r s — w h o saw t h e p l a y s . " I t may be y e a r s b e f o r e each one has s o r t e d i n s i d e h i m s e l f e x a c t l y what h i s p r o f i t was, and t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f e l e - ments from K a b u k i may t a k e l o n g e r b e f o r e t h e y a r e v i s i b l e i n our t h e a t r e , but a g e n e r a l b r o a d e n i n g was immediate." Bowers r e p o r t e d t h a t p e o p l e were e s p e c i a l l y i m p r essed by t h e v e r s a t i l i t y o f t h e a c t o r s . The " s t y l i z e d " a s p e c t s o f K a b u k i were a l s o i m p r e s s i v e and "the depth o f emotion communicable t h r o u g h s t y l i z a t i o n came as a s u r p r i s e t o many." The ques- t i o n o f how K a b u k i has i n f l u e n c e d American t h e a t r e p r a c t i c e i s s t i l l unanswered, but t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e v i s i t o f t h e K a b u k i t r o u p e d i d have a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t . (Note: There was a f u l l " complement o f r e v i e w s i n news- papers and magazines i n 1960). J u s t as t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a number o f books i n t h e 1950's i n d i c a t e d a growing i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i , t h e decade t h a t e l a p s e d between th e f i r s t and second Grand K a b u k i v i s - i t s w i t n e s s e d a b l o s s o m i n g f o r t h o f i n t e r e s t not o n l y i n new books, but i n o t h e r a r e a s as w e l l . S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e books, s e v e r a l v e r y good ones on K a b u k i were p u b l i s h e d i n t h e 1960's. K a b u k i Costumes (1966) by Ruth Shaver, w i t h i t s b e a u t i f u l diagrams and i l l u s t r a - t i o n s , i s an almost e x h a u s t i v e r e f e r e n c e s o u r c e f o r t h e c o s - tumes and p r o p e r t i e s o f p r o d u c t i o n ; and T h e a t r e E a s t and West (1967) by L e o n a r d Pronko c o n t i n u e s t o be a p r o v o c a t i v e work f o r many, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s s u g g e s t i o n s on how K a b u k i t e c h n i q u e s might be used i n Western t h e a t r e . I n a d d i t i o n , K a b u k i (1969) by G u n j i M a s a k a t s u , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D o n a l d Keene, has an i n f o r m a t i v e t e x t and e x c e l l e n t p h o t o - graphs o f scenes frommmany p l a y s . The growth o f a r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t e d i n K a b u k i i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e d by t h e r e - i s s u e o f K i n c a i d * s K a b u k i , The P o p u l a r Stage o f Japan i n 1965. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e i n t e r e s t o f an academic n a t u r e a l s o d e v e l o p e d i n K a b u k i . S c h o o l s such as New Y o r k ' s Columbia U n i v e r s i t y and B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e began o f f e r i n g c o u r s e s on Japanese t h e a t r e . Even more e x c i t i n g , p e r h a p s , were t h e f i r s t K a b u k i p l a y s done by u n i v e r s i t y and o t h e r g roups. D u r i n g t h e m i d - s i x t i e s i n New Y o r k , t h e I n s t i t u t e f o r Advanced S t u d i e s i n T h e a t e r A r t s i n v i t e d Onoe B a i k o , a l e a d i n g K a b u k i a c t o r from Japan, t o d i r e c t t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n o f Narukami ("Thunder God"). IASTA, as t h e group was known, had been founded i n t h e l a t e f i f t i e s so "young p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n American t h e a t e r might become f a m i l i a r w i t h f o r e i g n t h e a t r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s under • 1 4 t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a master o f t h o s e t r a d i t i o n s . " One s p e c t a t o r a t t h e IASTA K a b u k i performance "commented t h a t i t was 'an e l e c t r i f y i n g t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . . . ' And S t e l l a A d l e r s t a t e d t h a t a s i n g l e moment o f Narukami had more s t y l e t h a n a hundred y e a r s o f n a t u r a l i s t i c theater."" 1"^ I n f a c t , a f t e r B a i k o l e f t , one o f h i s a s s i s t a n t s c o n t i n u e d t o t e a c h K a b u k i dance and movement i n New Y o r k . The e x p e r i - ment i t s e l f and t h e s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t a f t e r w a r d i n d i c a t e d t h a t K a b u k i had t r u l y p e n e t r a t e d t h e American t h e a t r e con- s c i o u s n e s s . There were o t h e r outgrowths o f i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i and A s i a n t h e a t r e i n g e n e r a l , i n c l u d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a . s p e c i a l A s i a n T h e a t e r R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , as w e l l as t h e sud- den p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f p l a y t r a n s l a t i o n s and s p e c i a l i s s u e s o f t h e a t r e j o u r n a l s d e v o t e d t o K a b u k i and Japanese t h e a t r e . A l t o g e t h e r , t h i s a c t i v i t y i n t h e 1960's showed t h a t t h e f i r s t Grand K a b u k i v i s i t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e decade had been a t o u c h s t o n e , as w e l l as a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e d e v e l o p - ment o f American i n t e r e s t i n t h e K a b u k i t h e a t r e . As we w i l l see below, t h e r e was even p a r a d o x i c a l p r o o f o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o n s p i c u o u s absence o f newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s on K a b u k i p r i o r t o t h e Grand K a b u k i 1 s r e t u r n t o New York i n 1969. Grand K a b u k i C i t y C e n t e r , September 10-21, 1969 Nin e y e a r s a f t e r K a b u k i 1 s f i r s t v i s i t t o New Y o r k — and t h e W e s t — a t r o u p e o f t w e n t y - s i x a c t o r s , t w e n t y - f i v e m u s i c i a n s , and t w e l v e s t a f f and crew members a r r i v e d f o r a two-week v i s i t a t New Y o r k ' s C i t y C e n t e r . They came equipped w i t h one hundred and f i f t y t o n s o f s c e n e r y and t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ' w o r t h o f costumes f o r a t o u r t h a t was a l s o t o t a k e them t o C h i c a g o , Los A n g e l e s , and San F r a n c i s c o . The t r o u p e was under t h e pa t r o n a g e o f t h e Japan C u l t u r a l S o c i e t y and P r i n c e Takamatsu, e a r l i e r p a t r o n o f t h e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s . T h i s t i m e , however, t h e t r i p was p l a n n e d and a r r a n g e d s t r i c t l y as a commercial v e n t u r e by t h e New Yo r k - b a s e d company, P a c i f i c W o r l d A r t i s t s , I n c o r - p o r a t e d . The e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s ponse w h i c h g r e e t e d t h e K a b u k i t r o u p e i n 1960 had broken ground f o r o t h e r v i s i t s t o t h e W e s t — E u r o p e (1965), and H a w a i i and Canada (1967). A l t h o u g h K a b u k i t o u r s i n v o l v e d much complex p l a n n i n g and a r r a n g i n g , t h e Japanese, e s p e c i a l l y t h e Kabuki-managing ShBchiku Company, had a t l a s t become accustomed t o t h e i d e a o f " c u l t u r a l ex- change" and m o b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a r t i s t s . By 1969, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was no l o n g e r any need f o r trade-agreement a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n s o r o t h e r such excuses t o b r i n g K a b u k i t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . They came on t h e s t r e n g t h o f American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i . There were c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e American a t t i t u d e t oward K a b u k i had changed o v e r t h e y e a r s . As p e o p l e h e a r d more and saw more o f t h i s c l a s s i c a l Japanese t h e a t r e form, i t became l e s s o f an e x o t i c c u r i o s i t y . The l a c k o f p r e s s coverage p r i o r r t o t h e v i s i t i s one i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s . I n 1960 newspapers had announced t h e K a b u k i v i s i t months i n advance; i n 1969 t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e appeared o n l y t h r e e days b e f o r e t h e show opened, though o f c o u r s e a d v e r - t i s e m e n t s t o s e l l t i c k e t s came out b e f o r e t h a t . On Septem- ber 7, 1969 t h e f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s appeared i n t h e Times: John Canaday's "Kabuki o M i r u Tsumori Desu," announcing t h a t t h e Japan S o c i e t y and Japan C u l t u r a l S o c i e t y were s p o n s o r i n g two shows o f Japanese p r i n t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e K a b u k i . . 17 • ~ v i s i t , and F a u b i o n Bower's "Even Garbo Wasn't A l l o w e d B a c k s t a g e , '•' w h i c h was p r i m a r i l y anecdotes from t h e I960 v i s i t , accompanied by a l a r g e c a r t o o n c a r i c a t u r e o f K a b u k i 18 a c t o r s drawn by A l H i r s c h f e l d . N e e d l e s s t o say, r e c o g n i - t i o n i n t h i s way by H i r s c h f e l d meant t h a t K a b u k i had i n d e e d a r r i v e d . The Bowers' a r t i c l e c o n t a i n e d r e m i n i s c e n c e s about t h e t i m e G r e t a Garbo asked t o be p e r m i t t e d t o watch one o f t h e a c t o r s put on h i s make-up and was r e f u s e d f o r f e a r i t would r u i n t h e t h e a t r i c a l i l l u s i o n f o r h e r . He a l s o t o l d r e a d e r s what was p l a n n e d f o r t h e coming K a b u k i program, w a r n i n g t h e " f o r e i g n s p e c t a t o r " o f 1969 t h a t " K a b u k i , i n e v i t a b l y , b r i n g s o b s t a c l e s when i t c r o s s e s so many thousands o f m i l e s and • . 19 t r a n s v e r s e s such l o n g g e n e r a t i o n s o f h i s t o r y . " S u g g e s t i n g t h a t p e o p l e s t u d y t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e p l a y s i n advance, Bowers f e l t t h a t w i t h a l i t t l e e f f o r t i t i s " j u s t about i m p o s s i b l e 20 not t o e n j o y — r a t h e r t h a n j u s t m a r v e l a t — K a b u k i . " I n - deed, t h e r e had been a' l o t o f "marveling'" d u r i n g t h e 1960 v i s i t . Bowers, who would p r o v i d e t h e t r a n s i s t o r i z e d r u n n i n g commentary and t r a n s l a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t v i s i t , c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e hope t h a t t h e n e x t K a b u k i v i s i t would be sooner t h a n n i n e y e a r s away. The s i x t y - f i v e member t r o u p e a r r i v e d i n New York on September 8. A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l o f them had come b e f o r e , most were i n New Y o r k f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . The t r o u p e was l e d by t h r e e o u t s t a n d i n g a c t o r s : B a i k o V I I (who had d i r e c t e d t h e IASTA p r o d u c t i o n o f N a r u k a m i ) , Shoroku I I , and Kuroemon I I . As l e a d i n g onnaqata o f t h e K a b u k i w o r l d , B a i k o ' s c l o s e s t r i v a l was Utaemon VI, who had come to New York i n 1960. Shoroku and Kuroemon, performers of the leading male roles, had both come on the previous v i s i t , although Kuroemon was now being featured i n the place KanzaburS XVII had held i n 1960. The twelve-day engagement was sold out before i t began, with extra matinee performances scheduled at the l a s t moment As before, the plays were s l i g h t l y cut to conform to usual performance times i n American theatres, but otherwise the plays were e s s e n t i a l l y done as they are i n Japan. The following i s the program of the Grand Kabuki i n 1969. F i r s t program, September 10 to September 16: Chushin- gura, Kagami J i s h i ("The Mirror Lion Dance," dance-drama, f i r s t performed i n 1893). F i n a l program, September 17 to September 21: Kumagai Jinya ("General Kumagai 1s Battle Camp, play, f i r s t performed i n 1751), and Momiji Gari ("The Maple Leaf-Viewing P i c n i c , " dance-drama, f i r s t performed i n 1788). C r i t i c a l Reaction In 1969, the o l d and often-repeated "beautiful costumes bea u t i f u l sets" type of review had been replaced by a more analytic approach," and two p a r t i c u l a r l y important concepts of Kabuki emerged. The f i r s t was the concept of Kabuki as an example of " t o t a l theatre." This i s a further development of the e a r l i concept o f t h e " t h e a t r i c a l i t y " o f K a b u k i , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i d e a t h a t K a b u k i makes wide use o f t h e a t r e r e s o u r c e s . By 1969, " t o t a l t h e a t r e " had become a p o p u l a r t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n and debate among Western t h e a t r e and drama t h e o r e t i c i a n s . W h i l e a d i s c u s s i o n o f " t o t a l t h e a t r e " and whether o r not K a b u k i can r e a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d as such i s not our purpose h e r e , t h e f a c t t h a t c r i t i c s were b e g i n n i n g t o t h i n k about K a b u k i i n t h e s e terms i n d i c a t e s a new and i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p - ment i n t h e c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f K a b u k i as p a r t o f t h e main stream o f u n i v e r s a l t h e a t r e a r t . The concept o f K a b u k i as something " e x o t i c " — t h o u g h i n a r a t h e r s p e c i a l s e n s e — a l s o emerged. As t h e c r i t i c o f Time magazine s a i d : A c u l t u r e t r a n s p l a n t poses t h e same d i f - f i c u l t y as a h e a r t t r a n s p l a n t . I t i s s o c i a l l y as w e l l as b i o l o g i c a l l y i n s t i n c - t i v e t o r e j e c t what i s a l i e n . One s l i g h t - l y c o n d e s c e n d i n g form o f acceptance i s t o t r e a t what i s f o r e i g n as e x o t i c . C u l t u r a l - l y s p e a k i n g , t h i s makes one man's meat an- o t h e r man's persimmon. I n many ways, t h e Grand K a b u k i i s a Japanese persimmon on a U.S. t h e a t e r g o e r ' s p a l a t e . I t i s a s w e e t , ^ sumptuous and s t r a n g e new t a s t e s e n s a t i o n . K a b u k i , t h e n , was seen t o have v a l u e by v i r t u e o f i t s " e x o t - i c " n a t u r e and as one c r i t i c had s u g g e s t e d , t h i s e x o t i c i s m c o u l d even reawaken us anew t o t h e m a g i c a l and o t h e r - w o r l d l y q u a l i t y w h i c h i s a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e a t r e . By 1969 K a b u k i was s t i l l r e g a r d e d as a " f o r e i g n " a r t , but because o f t h e tr e m e n d o u s l y i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t and under- s t a n d i n g o v e r t h e y e a r s — e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1 9 6 0 — i t had become much l e s s o f an " a l i e n " a r t t o t h e New York t h e a t r e g o e r . That K a b u k i c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be viewed and a c c e p t e d as a v i a b l e — a n d v a l u a b l e — t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e meant, more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , t h a t K a b u k i had i n d e e d a r r i v e d i n New Yo r k , A m e r i c a , and t h e West. The Reviews Newspapers: o p e n i n g n i g h t James D a v i s ("High F a s h i o n A c t i n g by K a b u k i , " D a i l y News, 11 September 1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t "New York t h e a t e r g o e r s , accustomed t o modern s t a g i n g t h a t c a l l s f o r s w i f t p r o g r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s and e l e c t r i c s c e n e - c h a n g i n g , c o u l d w e l l become im- p a t i e n t a t t h e d e l i b e r a t e pace o f t h i s h i g h l y s t y l i z e d p r o - d u c t i o n " and a d v i s e d a u d i e n c e s t o " r e l a x " and p a t i e n t l y l e t t h e p e r f o r m e r s t a k e t h e i r t i m e . He was i m p r e s s e d by t h e a c t i n g and f e l t t h a t K a b u k i " i s w e l l w o r t h a v i s i t , i f o n l y t o m a r v e l a t t h e s t y l e o f p l a y a c t i n g t h a t has s u r v i v e d f o r so l o n g . " R i c h a r d W a t t s , J r . ("The N o t a b l e Gentlemen o f Japan," P o s t , I I September 1969) was "the o n l y c r i t i c among t h e p r e s e n t t h r e e who a l s o r e v i e w e d t h e 1960 o p e n i n g n i g h t performance.- A g a i n , Watts found k a b u k i "an a l i e n but e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s t r i k - i n g form o f t h e a t r i c a l a r t i s t r y , " a d d i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h " i t would'be t h e h e i g h t o f a b s u r d i t y i f I attem p t e d t o judge t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e c a s t . . . 1 1 1 1 m e r e l y say t h a t a l l o f them were i m p r e s s i v e " — e s p e c i a l l y t h e men who p l a y e d women's r o l e s . Watts had changed i n n i n e y e a r s . I n 1960, f a c e d w i t h so " f o r e i g n " an a r t form, he c o u l d not respond a t a l l . I n 1969, however, he was q u i t e r e c e p t i v e , m e r e l y f e e l i n g i n a d e q u a t e t o judge what he saw. C l i v e Barnes ("Far From Remote K a b u k i , " Times, 11 Sep- tember 1969) w r o t e t h a t K a b u k i i s a " r i t u a l t h e a t e r o f a s p e c i e s h a r d l y u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e West." He n o t e d t h a t on t h e s u r f a c e K a b u k i "seems remote from t h e Western t h e a t e r and can be matched i n our e x p e r i e n c e o n l y by K a t h a k a l i dance- drama, t h e P e k i n g Opera" and o t h e r f o r e i g n t r o u p e s w h i c h New Y o r k e r s r e c e n t l y had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o see. The c l a s s i c a l I n d i a n K a t h a k a l i and t h e C h i n e s e P e k i n g Opera, l i k e K a b u k i , a r e p e r formed w i t h c e n t u r i e s o f t r a d i t i o n b e h i n d them. There i s l i t t l e i n t h e West t h a t i s comparable, except p e r - haps b a l l e t . Newspapers: second program r e v i e w s C l i v e Barnes ("Power o f K a b u k i : Drama and Dance O f f e r T h e a t r i c a l T r e a t s , " Times, 18 September 1969) wrote t h a t "the s o c i a l , m o r a l and h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s t h a t f i n d r e f l e c - t i o n i n t h e Japanese t h e a t e r a r e c o m p l e t e l y a p a r t from our own." T h i s r e s u l t s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o e K a b u k i as something " e x o t i c " w h i c h , f o r Barnes, t h e n e n a b l e s "the hardened, s k e p t i c a l t h e a t e r g o e r [ t o ] r e c a p t u r e something o f t h e awe he had f o r t h e a t e r as a c h i l d . " M agazines The unnamed c r i t i c o f Time ("Samurai Saga," 19 Sep- tember 1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t K a b u k i i s most c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o Western a u d i e n c e s when i t m i r r o r s human n a t u r e and l e a s t so when i t r e l e c t s t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f a n c i e n t Japan. As o t h e r s had s a i d , t h e r e were d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e "Japan- ese" c o n t e n t o f K a b u k i , but t h o s e d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d be overcome i f one were w i l l i n g t o l o o k f o r and r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n u n i v e r s a l b a s i c s o f t h e a t r e and human l i f e . Brendan G i l l ("The T i g h t e n i n g o f t h e S t r i n g s , " New Y o r k e r 20 September 1969) compared t h e e m o t i o n a l p i t c h o f K a b u k i performance t o t h e energy c o n t a i n e d i n t i g h t e n e d p i a n o s t r i n g s "what h e l d me a t once...was t h e f i e r c e n e s s o f t h e p a s s i o n t h a t t h e a c t o r s c o n v e y e d — a n d were e n a b l e d t o c o n v e y — b y c o n v e n t i o n s o f speech and g e s t u r e t h a t have been p r e s e r v e d l a r g e l y u n a l t e r e d from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . " G i l l f e l t t h a t i n t h e n i n e y e a r s s i n c e t h e f i r s t K a b u k i v i s i t , i n t e r e s t i n Japanese a r t and c u l t u r e had i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y "and t h e K a b u k i might w e l l have r i s k e d s c h e d u l i n g a r u n o f months i n s t e a d o f weeks." J a c k K r o l l ("Larger Than L i f e , " Newsweek, 22 September 1969X thought t h a t a p e r s o n ; pays more a t t e n t i o n t h a n u s u a l t o a K a b u k i performance j u s t because i t i s not f a m i l i a r , f e e l i n g , moreover, t h a t "Kabuki goes r i g h t t o t h e nerve o f t h e a t r e . " I n a r a t h e r d r a m a t i c c o n c l u s i o n K r o l l s a i d : "The f i n a l sense o f K a b u k i i s t h a t o f a cosmic animated d r a w i n g . I t c r e a t e s a s p e c i e s o f human b e i n g s moved and d r i v e n i n p r e d e t e r m i n e d o r b i t s by a t e r r i f y i n g l y n e u t r a l and a l l - p o w e r f u l hand." H a r o l d Clurman ("Theatre," The N a t i o n , 29 September 1969) s a i d : "The Grand K a b u k i . . . p r o v i d e s a p a r t i c u l a r p l e a - s u r e . No one t r u l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t h e a t r e s h o u l d m i s s i t . P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e a c t i n g i n t h i s "gorgeous show," Clurman c o n c l u d e d : "We t a l k a g r e a t d e a l about ' t o t a l t h e a t r e I t i s an a n c i e n t t h i n g : K a b u k i i s one o f i t s most b r i l l i a n t forms." F i n a l l y , M a r c i a Marks ("The Grand K a b u k i , " Dance Maga- z i n e , November 1969) wro t e a s h o r t r e v i e w w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y a d v i s e d p e o p l e t o go see K a b u k i f o r t h e m s e l v e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e v i e w i t s e l f appeared o v e r a month a f t e r t h e l a s t show had ended, perhaps i t was h e r way o f s a y i n g what many f e l t . That i s , p e o p l e were a l r e a d y l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o t h e nex t v i s i t o f a K a b u k i t r o u p e t o New Y o r k . (Note: Because o f i n s u r m o u n t a b l e economic problems, many New Yo r k newspapers went out o f b u s i n e s s i n t h e mid- s i x t i e s . By 1969, o n l y t h r e e o f t h e seven newspapers w h i c h had r e v i e w e d K a b u k i i n 1960 were s t i l l i n b u s i n e s s . ) Notes ^Oscar Godbout, "Japanese K a b u k i Company W i l l D i s p l a y I t s F o r m a l i z e d Beauty Here f o r F i r s t Time," New York Times, 22 March I960, p. 39. 2 R o b e r t T r u m b u l l , "Kabuki T h e a t r e E l e v a t e s A c t o r i n T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese R i t e s , " New York Times, 12 A p r i l 1960, p. 39. 3 "That G l i t t e r i n C u r t a i n F o r K a b u k i i s G o l d F o i l , " New York Times, 18 May 1960, p. 47. 4 F a u b i o n Bowers, "The P a s t W i t h i n t h e P r e s e n t : The Grand K a b u k i V e n t u r e s I n t o t h e New World," Dance Magazine, June 1960, p. 35. 5 , • I b i d . 6 D o n a l d Keene, " C l a s s i c S p e c t a c u l a r from Japan," New York Times Magazine, 22 May 1960, p. 60. 7 - - -I b i d . , p. 50. 8 "Kabuki A c t o r s Here t o P l a y C i t y C e n t e r , " New York Times. 29 May 1960, p. 4. • 9 • , p l a y b i l l . New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n . 10 D o n a l d R i c h i e and Watanabe Miyoko, t r a n s . , S i x Ka- b u k i P l a y s (Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1963), p o s t s c r i p t , pp. 103-4. 11 I b i d . , p. 114. 12 L o u i s C a l t a , "Japanese Troupe Ends 3-Week Run," New Y o r k Times. 23 June 1960, p. 18. 13 F o r a l i s t o f K a b u k i p r o d u c t i o n s done by u n i v e r s i t y groups see T h e a t r e E a s t and West by L e o n a r d Pronko. 14 L e o n a r d Pronko, T h e a t r e E a s t and West ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1967), p. 48. 15 I b i d . , p. 158. 16 Oka T a k a h a s h i , "The A r t o f K a b u k i : A B l e n d o f T h e a t e r , New York Times, 10 S e p t . 1969, p. 49. •^John Canaday, "Kabuki o M i r u Tsumori Desu, 1 1 New York Times, 7 S e p t . 1969, S e c t i o n I I , p. 33. 18 F a u b i o n Bowers, "Even Garbo Wasn't A l l o w e d B a c k s t a g e , New York Times, 7 S e p t . 1969, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. 1 9 I b i d . I b i d . 21 p l a y b i l l . New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n . 22 "Samurai Saga," Time, 19 S e p t . 1969, p. 66. C o n c l u s i o n The h i s t o r y o f K a b u k i i n A m e r i c a has not been a s e r i e s o f i s o l a t e d e v e n t s . As I have t r i e d t o show by i n v e s t i g a t i n g what too k p l a c e i n New York C i t y , a c e r t a i n amount o f i n t e r - e s t i n K a b u k i e x i s t e d p r i o r t o each t r o u p e ' s v i s i t . I n t u r n , t h e v i s i t s t h e m s e l v e s t h e n s t i m u l a t e d more i n t e r e s t f o r l a t e r v i s i t s . W h i l e t h i s might be t r u e when any f o r e i g n t h e a t r e form i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a n o t h e r c u l t u r e , what i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n ' t h e c a s e o f K a b u k i a r e t h e two major f a c t o r s w h i c h have shaped t h e c o u r s e o f K a b u k i i n A m e r i c a . One i s t h e war and.the o t h e r i s t h e sheer d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a n s p o r t i n g a f u l l - s i z e d t r o u p e abroad. As we have seen, by 1930 New Y o r k e r s were a l r e a d y l a - m e n t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y had not y e t been g i v e n a chance t o see a u t h e n t i c K a b u k i ; t h e T s u t s u i t r o u p e , a f t e r a l l , was viewed m e r e l y as a k i n d o f "cheap i m p o r t . " D e s p i t e t h e f a c t , however, t h a t t r o u p e s from t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e had r e c e n t l y p e r f o rmed i n R u s s i a and C h i n a , New York s t i l l seemed an im- p o s s i b l e d i s t a n c e from Tokyo f o r a l l t h e p e o p l e , s e t s , c o s - tumes and p r o p e r t i e s t h a t would have t o be b r o u g h t . There was a l s o t h e Japanese s e n s i t i v i t y t o c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e w h i c h p e r s i s t e d even i n l a t e r y e a r s . S e r i o u s Japanese a r t i s t s were h e s i t a n t t o p e r f o r m i n t h e West f o r f e a r o f b e i n g misunder- s t o o d and r i d i c u l e d . I t was n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o w a i t u n t i l Japanese- American r e l a t i o n s were r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d as a r e s u l t o f th e war. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t was t h e war and t h e f i r s t h a n d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Japanese way o f l i f e d u r i n g t h e e n s u i n g O c c u p a t i o n w h i c h f i r s t gave many Americans an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Japanese c u l t u r e . The American i n t r o d u c t i o n t o K a b u k i was b o t h a p r o d u c t o f O c c u p a t i o n a c t i v i t y ( the A l l i e d N i g h t s o f K abuki) and t h e f a c t t h a t a t t h i s t i m e Joshua Logan and o t h e r s t o o k t h e f i r s t d e f i n i t e s t e p s t o f i n a l l y b r i n g Ka- b u k i home t o New York and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . We have seen i n d e t a i l how K a b u k i was i n t r o d u c e d — a n d e s t a b l i s h e d — i n A m e r i c a d u r i n g t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s . That th e Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s c o u l d come t o New Yor k and be g r e e t e d so warmly even as e a r l y as 1954, w h i l e post-war t e n s i o n s s t i l l r a n h i g h , was a g r e a t accomplishment f o r t h o s e who were t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a r e c e p t i v e American a u d i e n c e f o r t h e Japanese t h e a t r e . P r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h t h e remainder o f t h e 1950's and 1960's we t h e n o b s e r v e d how a p a t t e r n o f f a d i n g war memories and growing i n t e r e s t t h e n d e v e l o p e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o , t h e v i s i t i n g t r o u p e s w h i c h came from J a p a n — c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e Grand K a b u k i i n 1960 and 1 9 6 9 — t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f books, t h e i n c e p t i o n o f u n i v e r s i - t y c o u r s e s , and even t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f K a b u k i by American p e r f o r m e r s a r e a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e e n l a r g e d r e s p o n s e . I t was not o n l y t h e new e r a o f Japanese-American r e l a - t i o n s , however, t h a t caused t h e g r e a t growth o f i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i . There had been s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a t t i t u d e s toward t h e a t r e as w e l l and New York was a w o r l d l e a d e r i n t h i s change. The s i x t i e s e s p e c i a l l y was a t i m e o f e x p e r i - m e n t a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n . Avant-garde groups were s e a r c h i n g f o r new ways t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e a t r e . I n c r e a s i n g l y t h e y t u r n e d toward f o r e i g n forms such as t h e K a b u k i f o r t h e i r i d e a s . Even t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e members o f t h e t h e a t r e communi- t y found i n s p i r a t i o n i n K a b u k i . American i n t e r e s t i n K a b u k i can f i n a l l y be i n t e r p r e t e d not s i m p l y as s u p e r f i c i a l a c q u a i n t a n c e , but more s i g n i f i - c a n t l y , as ac c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e mainstream o f t h e a t r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n ex a m i n i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f K a b u k i i n Amer- i c a , i t has become apparent t h a t a wide base o f i n t e r e s t has been e s t a b l i s h e d . The i c e has been brok e n d i p l o m a t i c a l - l y and a r t i s t i c a l l y . Moreover, w i t h t h e development o f an audie n c e f o r K a b u k i , t h e r e a r e no l o n g e r any b a r r i e r s t o f u r t h e r i n g American u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s t h e a t r e form. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s G e n e r a l A r n o t t , P e t e r . The T h e a t r e s o f Japan. T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1969. A s h i h a r a , E i r y o . The Japanese Dance. Tokyo: Japan T r a v e l Bureau, 1964. A t k i n s o n , J . Br o o k s . "Japanese P l a y e r s i n R e a l i s t i c Drama." New Yo r k Times, 5 March 1930, p. 26. Beard, M i r i a m . "More About t h e Drama, Both Domestic and F o r e i g n — C o m e t h e Japanese." New Yo r k Times, 2 March 1930, S e c t i o n IX, p. 4. Bowers, F a u b i o n . "The Broadway Triumph o f a Lady from Japan. The R e p o r t e r , 12 J a n . 1956, p. 36. . " C o n c e r n i n g K a b u k i . " S a t u r d a y Review, 27 Feb. 1954, p. 24. . "Even Garbo Wasn't A l l o w e d B a c k s t a g e . " New York Times, 7 S e p t . 1969, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. . "from Japan: azuma tokuho." Dance Magazine, March 1954, pp. 15 f . . Japanese T h e a t r e . New York: H i l l and Wang, 1952. . "Kabuki i s Broadway Bound." T h e a t r e A r t s , S e pt. 1953, pp. 66-68* . "The P a s t W i t h i n t h e P r e s e n t : The Grand K a b u k i Ven- t u r e s I n t o t h e New Wo r l d . " Dance Magazine, June 1960, pp. 35-6. B r o c k e t t , Oscar G. H i s t o r y o f t h e T h e a t r e . 2nd ed. Bos- t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, 1974. C a l t a , L o u i s . "Japanese Troupe Ends 3-Week Run." New York Times, 23 June 1960, p. 18. Canaday, John. "Kabuki o M i r u Tsumori Desu." New York Times, 7 Sept. 1969, S e c t i o n I I , p. 33. "The D a n c e — J a p a n e s e A r t : V i s i t i n g Troupe R a i s e s Some Ques- t i o n s o f Comparison." New York Times, 9 March 1930, S e c t i o n I X , p. 8. E r n s t , E a r l e . "The I n f l u e n c e o f Japanese T h e a t r i c a l S t y l e on Western T h e a t r e . " E d u c a t i o n a l T h e a t r e J o u r n a l , 21 (1969), 127-38. . The K a b u k i T h e a t r e . New York: Grove, 1959. Godbout, O s c a r . "Japanese K a b u k i Company W i l l D i s p l a y I t s F o r m a l i z e d Beauty Here f o r F i r s t Time." New York Times 22 March 1960, p. 39. Green, P a u l . "East Meets West." T h e a t r e A r t s , March 1954, p. 69. . " T r i b u t e t o t h e K a b u k i T h e a t r e o f Japan." New York Times, 27 J a n . 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. " G u i l d t o Sponsor Japanese Company: T o k u j i r o T s u t s u i and H i s Troupe o f A c t o r s and Dancers t o Appear Here T h i s Season." New Y o r k Times, 9 J a n . 1930, p. 22. G u n j i , M a s a k a t s u . Buyo, The C l a s s i c a l Dance. New York: W a l t e r / W e a t h e r h i l l , 1970. . K a b u k i . John B e s t e r , t r a n s . P a l o A l t o : Kodansha I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1969.* H a l f o r d , Aubrey S. and Giovanna M. The K a b u k i Handbook. R u t l a n d , V t . : C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1956. Hamamura, YonezS, e t a i . K a b u k i . Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1956. Headland, Andrew J r . " K a b u k i . " P a c i f i c S t a r s and S t r i p e s : F a r E a s t Weekly Review, 20 J a n . 1951, p. 3. "A Japanese A c t r e s s . " New Y o r k Times, 11 March 1900, p. 16. "Japanese Import: The Dance-Drama." Time, 22 Feb. 1954, p. Japanese N a t i o n a l Commission f o r UNESCO, comp. T h e a t r e i n Japan. Japanese M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1963. "Japanese P l a y s i n Boston: A c t o r s and D r a m a t i c S t u d e n t s from T o k i o P r e s e n t Two o f Them." New York Times, 6 Dec 1899, p. 8. "Kabuki A c t o r s Here t o P l a y C i t y C e n t e r . " New York Times, 29 May I960, p. 4. Kawatake, T o s h i o . A H i s t o r y o f Japanese T h e a t e r I I , Bunraku and K a b u k i . Japan: K o k u s a i Bunka S h i n k o k a i , 1971. Kawazoe, H i r o s h i . "An A n c i e n t A r t from Japan." New York Times, 14 Feb. 1954, S e c t i o n I I , p. 7. Keene, D o n a l d . " C l a s s i c S p e c t a c u l a r from Japan." New York Times Magazine, 22 May 1960, pp. 50 f . K i n c a i d , Zoe. K a b u k i , The P o p u l a r Stage o f Japan. 1925; New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965. L e i t e r , Samuel L. f "The D e p i c t i o n o f V i o l e n c e on t h e Kabu- k i S tage." E d u c a t i o n a l T h e a t r e J o u r n a l , 21 (1969), 147-55. Logan, J o s h u a . " I Love Japanese T h e a t r e . " Vogue, 15 Aug. 1955, pp. 134 f . .. "Mr. Logan Seconds Mr. Green." New York Times, 27 J a n . 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. Macgowan, Kenneth and W i l l i a m M e l n i t z . The L i v i n g S t a g e . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1955, p. 309. Manderino, Ned. L e t t e r i n "Drama M a i l b a g . " New York Times, 17 Feb. 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 3. M a r t i n , John. "A Glimpse o f Japan's C l a s s i c T h e a t r e i n i t s C h o r e o g r a p h i c A s p e c t s . " New York Times, 14 Feb. 1954, S e c t i o n I I , p. 15. M i c h e n e r , James. "Japan." H o l i d a y , Aug. 1952, pp. 27 f . . "Kabuki i s a Must f o r A m e r i c a . " T h e a t r e A r t s , March 1954, pp. 74 f . . "One More V o t e f o r K a b u k i T h e a t r e . " New York Times, 14 Dec. 1952, S e c t i o n I I , p. 2. M i n e r , E a r l . The Japanese T r a d i t i o n i n B r i t i s h and American L i t e r a t u r e . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1958. New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y . P l a y b i l l C o l l e c t i o n . " P l a y s i n Japanese: O t o j i r o Kawakami and Sada Yacco Appear i n Three P i e c e s a t t h e B e r k e l e y Lyceum." New York Times, 2 March 1900, p. 7. Pronko, L e o n a r d C a b e l l . T h e a t e r E a s t and West. B e r k e l e y : U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1967. R e i s c h a u e r , Edwin 0. The U n i t e d S t a t e s and Japan. New York: V i k i n g , 1965. R i c h i e , D o n a l d and Watanabe Miyoko, t r a n s . S i x K a b u k i P l a y s . Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1963. p o s t s c r i p t , 103-114. Shimmura, I z u r u . K o j i e n . Tokyo: Iwanami, 1973. 478. Sugiyama, Makoto and F u j i m a K a n j u r o . An O u t l i n e H i s t o r y o f th e Japanese Dance. Tokyo: K o k u s a i Bunka S h i n k o k a i , 1937. T a k a h a s l i , o k a . "The A r t o f K a b u k i : A B l e n d o f T h e a t e r . " New York Times, 10 S e p t . 1969, p. 49. "That G l i t t e r i n C u r t a i n F o r K a b u k i i s G o l d F o i l . " New . York Times, 18 May 1960, p. 47. T.rumbull, R o b e r t . "Kabuki T h e a t r e E l e v a t e s A c t o r i n T r a d i - t i o n a l Japanese R i t e s . " New York Times, 12 A p r i l 1960, p. 39. Washio, Dr. S. "The L u r e o f t h e Sword." T r a n s - P a c i f i c , 25 Aug. 1928, p. 7. Z o l o t o w , Sam. "Logan t o Import Japanese Troupe." New York Times, 24 Dec. 1951, p. 10. 95. The Reviews: The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s , 1954 B i a n c o l l i , L o u i s . "West Meets E a s t V i a K a b u k i Show." New York World-Telegram and The Sun, 19 Feb. 1954, p. 20. H e r i n g , D o r i s . "The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s . " Dance Magazine, A p r i l 1954, pp. 12 f . H e r r i d g e , F r a n c e s . "Japanese Company Opens a t C e n t u r y . " New York P o s t , 19 Feb. 1954, p. 53. K a s t e n d i e c k , M i l e s . "Azuma K a b u k i Dancers: A P e r f e c t i o n o f A r t . " New York J o u r n a l - A m e r i c a n , 19 Feb. 1954, p. 28. K o l o d i n , I r v i n g . "Azuma K a b u k i Dancers." S a t u r d a y Review, 6 March 1954, p. 29. M a r t i n , John. "The Azuma K a b u k i S t y l e Makes A l i e n Conquest." New York Times, 28 Feb. 1954, S e c t i o n I I , p. 4. . "Century Y i e l d s t o K a b u k i Troupe: Japanese Dancers i n A n c i e n t Drama-Music P r e s e n t a t i o n I m p r e s s i v e i n Open- i n g . " New Y o r k Times, 19 Feb. 1954, p. 22. . "Kabuki Dancers i n New Program." New York Times, 10 March 1954,>p. 29. S a r g e a n t , W i n t h r o p . " K a b u k i . " The New Y o r k e r , 6 March, 1954, pp. 94-5. " ' S o n g - D a n c e - S k i l l . ' " Newsweek, 1 March 1954, p. 51. T e r r y , W a l t e r . "Azuma K a b u k i Dancers." New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 19 Feb. 1954, p. 19. The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s , 1955-56 B i a n c o l l i , L o u i s . "Kabuki Dancers P l e a s e a t Broadway." New York World-Telegram and The Sun, 27 Dec. 1955, p. 15. H e r i n g , D o r i s . "The Azuma K a b u k i Dancers and M u s i c i a n s . " Dance Magazine, March 1956, p. 13. H e r r i d g e , F r a n c e s . "Japanese T h e a t e r Comes t o Town." New York P o s t , 27 Dec. 1955, p. 34. K a s t e n d i e c k , M i l e s . "Kabuki Dancers: B l e n d o f Beauty and A r t . " New York J o u r n a l - A m e r i c a n , 27 Dec. 1955, p. 9. M a r t i n , John. "Azuma K a b u k i Troupe S c o r e s : Japanese Group Here f o r Second Season." New York Times, 27 Dec. 1955, p. 31. . "Tokyo F i n a l e : Azuma K a b u k i Troupe i n F i n a l Week." New Yo r k Times, 10 J a n . 1956, p. 27. Sa r g e a n t , W i n t h r o p . " M u s i c a l E v e n t s . " The New Y o r k e r , 7 J a n . 1956, pp. 66-7. T e r r y , W a l t e r . "Azuma K a b u k i Dancers." New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 27 Dec. 1955, p. 13. _______ "Azuma K a b u k i Dancers." New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 10 J a n . 1956, p. 19. . "The M a g i c a l A r t o f K a b u k i Dance." New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 8 J a n . 1956, p. 5. Grand K a b u k i , 1960 A s t o n , F r a n k . "Kabuki Stomps Out Hoedown." New York W o r l d - Telegram and The Sun, 17 June 1960, p. 24. A t k i n s o n , Brooks.' "Grand K a b u k i : Japanese Troupe i s a t t h e C i t y C e n t e r . " New York Times, 3 June 1960, p. 26. . "More K a b u k i : 'Chushingura' heads C i t y C e n t e r b i l l . " New York Times, 10 June 1960, p. 37. . "Superb Clown: K a b u k i ' s Kanzaburo S t a r s as a Drunk." New York Times, 17 June 1960, p. 37. . " V i s i t by K a b u k i : C i t y C e n t e r i s Host t o Troupe o f Japanese." New York Times, 12 June 1960, S e c t i o n I I , p. 1. Bowers, F a u b i o n . "Kabuki i n A m e r i c a . " The N a t i o n , 9 J u l y 1960, pp. 39-40. Chapman, John. "Grand K a b u k i Makes I m p r e s s i v e Appearance at t h e C i t y C e n t e r . " New York D a i l y News, 3 June 1960, I n New York T h e a t r e C r i t i c s ' Reviews 1960, p. 261. Coleman, R o b e r t . "Kabuki P l a y e r s Prove C a p t i v a t i n g . " New York M i r r o r , 3 June 1960. I n New Y o r k T h e a t r e C r i t i c s ' Reviews 1960, p. 263. de B o n n e v a l , D i a n e . "Grand K a b u k i : A R e f r e s h i n g Change From T r i v i a l R e a l i t y . " New York World-Telegram and The Sun, 10 June I960, p. 18. H e r i n g , D o r i s . " Y a t s u h a s h i o f t h e Western World." Dance Magazine, J u l y I960, p. 39. H e r r i d g e , F r a n c e s . ' "Grand K a b u k i i n a New Program." New York P o s t , 10 June 1960, p. 68. Hewes, Henry. " O r i e n t a t i o n Course." S a t u r d a y Review, 25 June 1960, p. 31. . "The Song-Dance T r i c k s t e r s . " S a t u r d a y Review, 18 June I960, p. 27. "Import from Japan: E n c h a n t i n g , E x c i t i n g . " Newsweek, 13 June 1960, p. 94. Johnson, H a r r i e t t . "Kabuki M u s i c V i t a l P a r t o f Drama." New York P o s t , 17 June 1960, p. 68. K e r r , W a l t e r . "3 Japanese P l a y s G i v e n by "Grand K a b u k i ' Troupe." New Y o r k H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 3 June 1960. I n New York T h e a t r e C r i t i c s ' Reviews 1960, p. 263. . "3 Japanese P l a y s G i v e n by 'Grand K a b u k i 1 Troupe." New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e , 10 June 1960, p. 9. Maskey, J a c q u e l i n e . "East Meets West 55th S t . " Dance Maga- z i n e , Aug. 1960, p. 32. Mc C l a i n , John. " C u r t a i n R i s e s on K a b u k i . " New York J o u r - n a l - A m e r i c a n , 3 June 1960. I n New York T h e a t r e C r i t i c s ' Reviews 1960, p. 261. M o r e l l o , Ted. "Grand K a b u k i Bows at C e n t e r . " New York World-Telegram and The Sun, 3 June 1960. I n New Y o r k T h e a t r e C r i t i c s ' Reviews 1960, p. 264. "New Show i n Manhattan: Grand K a b u k i . " Time, 13 June 1960, p. 112. W a t t s , R i c h a r d J r . " W i s i t o f t h e K a b u k i from Japan." New Y o r k P o s t , 3 June 1960. I n New York T h e a t r e C r i t i c s ' Reviews 1960, p. 262. y a . Grand K a b u k i , 1969 Barnes, C l i v e . "Far From Remote K a b u k i . " New York Times, 11 S e p t . 1969, p. 53. . "Power o f K a b u k i : Drama and Dance O f f e r T h e a t r i c a l T r e a t s . " New York Times, 18 Sept. 1969, p. 64. Clurman, H a r o l d . " T h e a t r e . " The N a t i o n , 29 Sept. 1969, pp. 324-5. D a v i s , James. "High F a s h i o n A c t i n g by K a b u k i . " New York D a i l y News, 11 Sept. 1969, p. 79. G i l l , Brendan. "The T i g h t e n i n g o f t h e S t r i n g s . " The New Y o r k e r , 20 S e p t . 1969, p. 90. K r o l l , J a c k . " L a r g e r Than L i f e . " Newsweek, 22 Sept. 1969, P. 98. Marks, M a r c i a . "The Grand K a b u k i . " Dance Magazine, Nov. 1969, p. 36. "Samurai Saga." Time, 19 Sept. 1969, p. 66. W a t t s , R i c h a r d J r . "The N o t a b l e Gentlemen o f Japan." New York P o s t , 11 S e p t . 1969, p. 52.

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