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The soteriology of Gaudāpada’s Māndūkya Kārikā Cole, Colin A. 1975

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THE S OTERIOLOGY OF GAUDAPADA * S MANDtJKYA KARIKA by COLIN A. COLE B„A 0 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of RELIGIOUS STUDIES We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to A the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 197 5 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s re p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of £gM (H^S, SXK& i e s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date iVwL l 30, lf7S". ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o t e r i o l o g y o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . W h i l e A d v a i t a c a n be s t u d i e d e i t h e r as a s y s t e m o f p h i l o s o p h y o r as a r e l i g i o u s d i s c i p l i n e , i t i s u s u a l l y t r e a t e d a c a d e m i c a l l y as a s y s t e m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y o r m e t a p h y s i c w i t h a r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t . The r e l i g i o -s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s y s t e m a r e i g n o r e d o r n e g l e c t e d t o a l a r g e d e g r e e and s e l d o m i s an a u t h o r o r a t e x t p r e s e n t e d f r o m s u c h s a p e r s p e c t i v e . The e n q u i r y r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f t o a c o n c r e t e example o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r o b l e m . Gaudapada and h i s t e a c h i n g s as s e t f o r t h i n t h e Mandukya K a r i k a a r e p r e s -e n t e d u s i n g t h i s l a t t e r a p p r o a c h . Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g s a r e t h u s d e s c r i b e d , a n a l y z e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f h i s e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n . T h e r e a r e two m a j o r a r e a s e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t i n v o l v e s t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n and i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e o f p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n . Gaudapada and h i s t e x t a r e u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e s e two a s p e c t s w i t h i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . They a r e f o u n d t o be i n t e r - t w i n e d and m u t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e e a c h o t h e r . The more p r e c i s e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f m e t a p h y s i c s , p h i l o s o p h y , e p i s t e m o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , r e l i g i o n and s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e a r e a l s o s e e n t o be i n t e g r a l l y u n i t e d t h r o u g h t h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e w h i c h u n d e r l i e s them. E a c h c a t e g o r y o r p e r s p e c t i v e i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d s e p -a r a t e l y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e o t h e r components i s i i i i n d i c a t e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f Gaudapada's Mandukya K a r i k a i n b o t h i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c -• • « 1 1 1 1 1 1 t i c a l l e v e l s a r e g i v e n p r o m i n a n c e . The s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o -s p i r i t u a l q u e s t d e t a i l e d i n t h e t e x t i s f o c u s e d on i n an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e n a t u r e o f Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g s as w e l l as t o f u l f i l l t h e n e e d f o r a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f b o t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and t h e p r a g m a t i c r e l i g i o u s m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t e x t . T h i s a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n i s f o u n d t o be n e c e s s a r y s o as t o i n t e r p r e t h i s t h o u g h t t h o r -o u g h l y and a c c u r a t e l y . Gaudapada i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n more as a r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t o r t h a n as a s y s t e m a t i c p h i l o s o p h e r . The Mandukya K a r i k a i s a l s o e x a m i n e d as a t e a c h i n g t e x t f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . Gaudapada's u s e o f s c r i p t u r e and r e a s o n i n g a r e e x p l o r e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s y n t h e s i s o f p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g -i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e t e a c h i n g s . H i s u s e o f v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s a r e f o u n d t o s u p p o r t t h e v i e w t h a t Gaudapada's t e a c h -i n g s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l . E v e n h i s s y s -t e m a t i c m e t a p h y s i c i s f o u n d t o h a v e a s o t e r i o l o g i c a l o r i e n -t a t i o n . H i s a n a l y s i s o f e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l s a w o r k i n g p s y -c h o l o g y w h i c h b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f h i s t o t a l s y s t e m . I t i s u pon t h i s b a c k g r o u n d t h a t Gaudapada i s a b l e t o e l a b o r a t e h i s r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l q u e s t . He f i r s t p r e s e n t s a t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f man's s p i r -i t u a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e g o a l o f l i b e r a t i o n . T hen he d e s c r i b e s i r t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s p r e s c r i b e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l e x p e r -i e n t i a l l y and i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s w h i c h a r e s a i d t o a c c r u e f r o m them. Thus t h e r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n o f Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g s a r e documented i n terms o f i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l l e v e l s . The t e a c h i n g s as a w h o l e a r e s c h e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c -t i v e and c o n c e r n o f Gaudapada as f o u n d i n h i s Mandukya K a r i k a e x p o s i t i o n o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION . 1 CHAPTER I . GAUDAPADA AS PHILOSOPHER AND PRECEPTOR . . . . 4 I I . THE MANDUKYA KAR IKA OF GAUDAPADA ,19 I I I . S T Y L I S T I C ELEMENTS OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA 30 IV. THE PHILOSOPHY OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA 55 — V. THE PHENOMENOLOGY AND META-PSYCHOLOGY OF THE MANDUKYA KAR IKA 73 V I . THE SOTERIOLOGY OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA 114 — V I I . THE SYNTHESIS_OF_PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION IN GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY 220 APPENDIX I . THE PRINCIPAL UPADESA SECTION OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA * 226 I I . THE INTEGRAL UNITY OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA 229 1 INTRODUCTION I t i s a l l e g e d t h a t A d v a i t a Vedanta can be s t u d i e d e i t h e r as a system o f p h i l o s o p h y or as a r e l i g i o u s d i s c i p l i n e . I t i s u s u a l l y presented a c a d e m i c a l l y as a s y s t e m a t i c metaphysic which has a r e l i g i o u s u nderpinning. L i t t l e i n t e r e s t has been shown i n i t s p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o u s or s p i r i t u a l s i d e beyond a r e l a t i v e l y c u r s o r y overview. Nor has the c o n t e n t i o n been e l a b o r a t e d beyond being merely assumed, t h a t i n A d v a i t a p h i l -osophy and r e l i g i o n are one and the same. The pre s e n t work attempts t o look a t ^ t h e s e i s s u e s . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the nature of the s o t e r i o l o g y o f A d v a i t a Vedanta. As t h i s system has been heterogeneous i n i t s expressions throughout i t s h i s t o r y , the p r e s e n t enquiry r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f t o a s p e c i f i c author, Gaudapada, and h i s t e x t e n t i t l e d the Mandukya K a r i k a . The author and the t e x t have been p r e v i o u s l y analyzed and i n t e r -p r e t e d by s c h o l a r s from m e t a p h y s i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s -p e c t i v e s or from the p o s i t i o n which the author and the t e x t have h e l d i n the Buddhist-Hindu p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Both approaches have e c l i p s e d the r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l dimension o f the t e x t through which i t has remained a p a r t of the l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e . Thus i t has been c o n s i d e r e d necessary here t o d e s c r i b e , analyze and i n t e r -p r e t the r e l i g i o u s or s p i r i t u a l dimension o f the t e x t on both i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l l e v e l s . 2 The study i n v o l v e s the problem o f the i n t e r -dependance o f ph i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n i n A d v a i t a . A d v a i t a i s u s u a l l y presented as a r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y documented from the me t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n presented i n a t e x t . Seldom i s A d v a i t a regarded as a r e l i g i o u s or s p i r i t u a l p u r s u i t wherein the ph i l o s o p h y i s presented as a r a t i o n a l attempt t o understand and e x p l a i n t h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l dimen-s i o n . F u r t h e r , most s t u d i e s omit, or a t l e a s t appear t o ignore, even the pragmatic r e l i g i o u s m a t e r i a l which i s p r e s -ented i n the t e x t s . Gaudapada and h i s Mandukya Kar i k a w i l l be presented from a s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and an emphasis w i l l be pl a c e d on the r e l i g i o u s v e r s u s the p u r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l aspects o f the t e x t . T h i s l a t t e r m a t e r i a l has been schemat-i c a l l y presented elsewhere. The t e x t , then, w i l l be looked at as a predominantly r e l i g i o u s one and the content presented and i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s l i g h t . Chapters I-IV d e l i n i a t e much of the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e along with new data and i n s i g h t s . Chapter I d e a l s with Gaudapada as a r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t o r r a t h e r than as merely a l o g i c i a n , metaphysican or p h i l o s o p h e r . Chapter I I examines the nature o f the t e x t , i t s form and purpose, and adds some f u r t h e r reasons f o r viewing i t from the r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e as w e l l as the p h i l o s o p h i c a l . Chapter I I I analyzes the t e x t f o r i t s s t y l i s t i c elements which i n c l u d e s 3 an inquiry into the re l a t i o n s h i p of philosophy and r e l i g i o n and indicates some of the teaching methods and techniques u t i l i z e d . In Chapter IV a summation of Gaudapada's p h i l o s -ophy i s outlined with the additional purpose of indicating the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l concern inherent within the metaphysics. The remaining chapters deal with the material of Gaudapada's Mandukya Karika i n new ways and present a description, analysis and interpretation of the r e l i g i o u s theory and p r a c t i c e . Chapter V indicates the blending of philosophy and r e l i g i o n in the meta-psychology of the text which is the foundation of the meditative d i s c i p l i n e elab-orated by Gaudapada. This is followed i n Chapter VI by a lengthy description of the actual practices advocated in the Karika and a discussion of the results which are said to accrue from them. The f i n a l chapter, Chapter VII, i s a summary conclusion which indicates the synthetic unity of the r e l i g i o u s and philosophical perspectives when seen from the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l concern of the text. 4 CHAPTER I GAUDAPADA AS PHILOSOPHER AND PRECEPTOR I p r o s t r a t e t o the f e e t o f t h a t Great Teacher, the most adored among the adorable, who - out of sheer compassion f o r the beings drowned i n the deep ocean of the world, i n f e s t e d w i t h the t e r r i b l e sharks of incessant b i r t h s (and deaths) - rescued, f o r the b e n e f i t of a l l , t h i s n ectar, h a r d l y o b t a i n a b l e even by the gods, from the innermost depths of the ocean of the Vedas by churning i t w i t h the (churning) rod of h i s i l l u m i n e d reason. ^ - from the Concluding S a l u t a t i o n by Sankara Gaudapada, the author of the Mandukya K a r i k a , was a preceptor i n the t r a d i t i o n known today as A d v a i t a Vedanta. In t h i s chapter r e l e v a n t background m a t e r i a l concerning Gaudapada and h i s r e l a t i o n to the r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s of h i s day w i l l be Introduced. 1. THE PLACE OF GAUDAPADA IN THE TRADITION OF ADVAITA VEDANTA # The t r a d i t i o n of A d v a i t a Vedanta had i t s formal p h i l o s -o p h i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l beginnings w i t h the teacher s'ankara, 2 who l i v e d c i r c a 788-820 A.D. Through h i s voluminous w r i t i n g s T h e Mandukyopanisad w i t h Gaudapada's K a r i k a and Sankara's  Commentary, t r a n s l a t e d and annotated by Swami Ni k h i l a n a d a , (Mysore: S r i Ramakrishna Ashrama, 1955), p.314. 2 ' . TheX'date of Sankara i s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n . "Our o l d t r a d -i t i o n s are so divergent t h a t according t o them as w e l l as modern researchers we s h a l l have to place Sankara some time between the 6th century B.C. and the 9th century A.D., v i z , 6th century B.C., 4th century E.g., and the '1st century B.C., 4th century A.D., 6th century A.D., and the 9th century (788-820 A.D.). The l a s t date i s now accepted by many a s c h o l a r . " V. Bhattacharya (ed., t r a n s . , and annotated), The Aqamasastra  of Gaudapada ( C a l c u t t a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , 1943), p . l x x i x , f n 8. * 5 o f both a d e v o t i o n a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l nature as w e l l as through the c r e a t i o n o f the dasanamx orders o f sannyasins throughout the Indian subcontinent, Sankara e s t a b l i s h e d what has come t o be c a l l e d the t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a Vedanta. I t i s w i t h i n the U t t a r a MimamsS, the r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y based on the l a t t e r p o r t i o n s of the V e d i c l i t e r a t u r e , t h e Upanisads i n p a r t i c u l a r . S'ankara acknowledges t h a t t h i s s p i r i t u a l and p h i l o s -o p h i c a l h e r i t a g e comes from the a d v a i t i c t e a c h i n g s t r a n s m i t t e d through a s u c c e s s i o n o f gurus. The t r a d i t i o n m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s l i n e a g e has been c o n t i n u o u s l y upheld i n some form s i n c e the time o f the c o m p i l a t i o n of the a d v a i t i c s p i r i t u a l t r u t h s and i n s i g h t s i n t o the U p a n i s a d i c l i t e r a t u r e . A type o f s u c c -e s i o m i l i s t o f e a r l y A d v a i t a i s g i v e n i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s a l u t -' 3 a t i o n d a i l y repeated by the f o l l o w e r s of Sankara. The order f o l l o w s thus: Narayana, the l o t u s - b o r n Brahma, V a s i s t h a , • • • S a k t i , h i s son Parasara, Vyasa, Suka, the g r e a t Gaudapada, Govmda-yogmidra, h i s d i s c i p l e Sankaracarya, and then h i s f o u r famous d i s c i p l e s Padmapada, Hastamalaka, T r o t a k a and V a r -t i k a k a r a ( S u r e s v a r a ) . The f i r s t p r e c e p t o r i s Lord Narayana h i m s e l f and the JR.D. Karmarkar (ed., t r a n s . , and n o t e s ) , Gaudapada-Karika Poona: Bhandarkar. O r i e n t a l I n s t i t u t e , 1953, p . i ; T.M.P. Mahadevan, Gaudapada: A Study i n E a r l y A d v a i t a (2nd ed.; Madras: U n i v e r s i t y of Madras, 1952), p.2. T h i s s u c c e s s i o n i s s a i d t o be v e r y a n c i e n t as even s'uka i s s a i d t o have l i v e d about 3000 B.C. as he was the son o f VySsa who l i v e d a t the time o f the Mahabharata b a t t l e . 6 l i n e o f s u c c e s s i o n up t o Suka i s from f a t h e r t o son ( p i t r -p u t r a or vamsars i-parampara)• These f i g u r e s are pro b a b l y myth-i c a l p ersons. From Suka onwards th e r e i s the t e a c h e r - d i s c i p l e s u c c e s s i o n ( g u r u - s i s y a or s /isya-parampara) . With Gaudapada commences the manava-sampradaya, the t r a d i t i o n a l handing down of i n s t r u c t i o n by human agents. Gaudapada i s the f i r s t human p r e c e p t o r accorded the h i g h e s t r e s p e c t i n the t r a d i t i o n . He i s the f i r s t t e a c h e r or p r e c e p t o r whose h i s t o r i c i t y i s assured and i t i s from him onwards t h a t the t r a d i t i o n i s v i s i b l e h i s -t o r i c a l l y . Whether or not i n f a c t Gaudapada was the f i r s t p r e c e p t o r o f A d v a i t a Ved5nta and t h a t the whole t r a d i t i o n began with him or t h a t he merely r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a c o n c r e t e t r a d i t i o n remains c o n j e c t u r e . A l l t h a t needs be p o i n t e d out here i s t h a t Gaudapada i s accorded a unique p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n on the b a s i s o f h i s • Mandukya K a r i k a . T r a d i t i o n regards Gaudapada as Sankara's "paramaguru" which suggests t h a t he was e i t h e r Sankara's "teacher's t e a c h e r " ' . 4 or t h a t Sankara regarded h i s as the "supreme p r e c e p t o r " . E i t h e r way Sankara accords him the h i g h e s t r e s p e c t and homage. Besides the mentioning o f h i s own g u r u 1 s name, he p r a i s e s Gaudapada i n some o f h i s commentaries, quotes s e v e r a l v e r s e s T h i s can account f o r the problem i n d a t i n g . For i f Gaudapada was indeed Govinda's guru t h a t would p l a c e him d u r i n g the e i g h t h c e n t u r y A.D., But i f the o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h o l d s t r u e Gaudapada c o u l d have l i v e d much e a r l i e r . For more d e t a i l s see below s e c t i o n 3. 7 from the K a r i k a i n h i s Brahmasutrabhasya, and perhaps of " • g r e a t o r import, he wrote a commentary on Gaudapada's Mandukya 5 / • • K a r i k a . The v e r y f a c t t h a t Sankara c o n s i d e r e d i t e i t h e r n e cessary or f r u i t f u l t o w r i t e a commentary on the Mandukya i n d i c a t e s the importance and v a l u e o f t h i s t r e a t i s e o f Gaud-apada's t o A d v a i t a p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e . Besides the continued use of the Mandukya K a r i k a i n the t r a d i t i o n up t o t h i s day, t h e r e i s acknowledgement o f Gaudapada and the Kar i k a i n the a u t h o r i t a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e . Some r e f e r e n c e s t o well-known A d v a i t i n s are p e r t i n e n t h e r e . S u r e s -v a r a , an immediate d i s c i p l e o f Sankara, quotes two k a r i k a s (1.11 and 15) i n h i s Naiskarmyasiddhi (IV.41 and 42) a t t r i b u t -i n g !them t o the Gaudas and t h i s i s f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d by the commentator Jnanottama as gaudapadiyavakyas. T h i s i s a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o a t e a c h e r Gaudapada. In h i s Brhadaranyakopanisad-* . . . — — • , _ b h a s y a - v a r t t i k a , S u resvara e x p l i c i t l y mentions Gaudapada by 5 ' • There i s a r e f e r e n c e t o Gaudapada i n Sankara's commentary on the S v e t a s v a t a r a Upanisad (.1,8: "t a t h a c a sukas^isyo gaud-apadScaryah"). Even i f t h i s commentary and the one on the K a r i k a i t s e l f are not genuine works of Sankara as has been suggested, the evidence of the Brahmasutrabhasya i s s u f f i c i e n t . Sankara quotes s e v e r a l v e r s e s o f the Mgndukya K g r i k a (1,16 i n £fB 2-1-9' and I I I , 15 i n SB 1^4-14) which he regards as e x p r e s s -ing the view o f a teacher who knows the Vedanta t r a d i t i o n (vedSnta-sampradayavid). The language used suggests deep ven-e r a t i o n f o r a g r e a t t e a c h e r . 8 name s e v e r a l times. Vidyaranya i n h i s Paneadas I (11.28 and 29) makes a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to the t e a c h e r (acarya) Gaudapada and 7 • h i s t e a c h i n g s . Sadananda i n h i s VedantasSra uses v e r s e s from both the Mandukyopan i s ad (2,5,7) and the K a r i k a (III.44 and 45) without r e f e r e n c e as t o t h e i r o r i g i n but suggests t h a t they are well-known. These v e r s e s are drawn from a s e c t i o n of i n s t r u c -t i o n f o r the p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n and as such r e - a f f i r m both the importance and use of the Mandukya K a r i k a as a p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g t e x t w i t h i n the h i s t o r y of the t r a d i t i o n . These examples and others show t h a t Gaudapada's work was w e l l known t o both authors and commentators w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n and t h a t he was r e f e r r e d t o i n terms o f r e s p e c t 8 whether or not he was mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y by name. 6 -• — . In I.iv.389 he uses the words gaudapadiya vacas, m I I . l . 386 he r e f e r s t o the teacher as Gaudapada, and i n a t h i r d r e f -erence (IV.iv.886) he w r i t e s o f the v e r s e s of Gaudapada. See Mahadeyan, Ibid.., p.6 f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . 7 T h i s v e r s e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y o f i n t e r e s t here as i t is a r e f e r e n c e t o , as w e l l as a p a r t i a l quote, o f MK III.39 concern-i n g Asparsa-yoga. p Some oth e r l e s s e r known examples are as f o l l o w s : Mandana-M i s r a quotes v e r s e s i n h i s Brahmas i d d h i , Anandanubhava i n chap-t e r 4 o f h i s Nyaya Ratna D i p a v a l i quotes MK 11.32, N i s c a l a Dasa quotes the same v e r s e along with other a u t h o r i t i e s i n v e r s e s 322 t o 341 o f h i s V i c a r a Sagara, and MK IV.81 and others are r e f e r r e d t o i n v e r s e s 1-13 of SuresVara*s g l o s s on Manasau- l l a s a m . From Swami Ramananda T l r t h a , A W r i t e r ' s Study of San- k a r a versus the S i x P r e c e p t o r s o f A d v a i t a (Madras: Tinniyam Sankara Mutt Bhakta Jana Sabha, 1970), pp.15, 16, 43 and 125 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The author o f t h i s work acknowledges i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t h i s guru gave him the Mandukya KS r i k S t o use as a p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n manual. 9 The t e x t i s s t i l l h i g h l y regarded and used w i t h i n the t r a d i t -i o n as a manual o f i n s t r u c t i o n concerning both p h i l o s o p h y and 9 p r a c t i c e . 2. THE IDENTITY OF GAUDAPADA Now t h a t Gaudapada's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a Vedanta has been e s t a b l i s h e d , the i d e n t i t y o f t h i s g r e a t p h i l o s o p h e r and p r e c e p t o r must be determined. L i k e most of the c l a s s i c a l Indian t e x t u a l authors, Gaudapada^ i s known s o l e l y through h i s work and the r e p u t a t -i o n handed down w i t h i n h i s t r a d i t i o n . Thus t r a d i t i o n a l hagio-graphy and h i s own p h i l o s o p h y are h i s o n l y bidgraphy."'""1" 9 —<"•— . . _ For r e f e r e n c e s see: I b i d . ; and Swami N i k h i l a n a n d a , ( t r a n s , and annotated), The Mandukyopanisad with Gaudapgda 1s K S r i k a and Sankara's Commentary. (Mysore: S r i Ramakrishna Ashrama, 1955), p p . i i - i v and x x x i v ; and o t h e r s . The c u r r e n t use o f and r e s p e c t f o r the t e x t was witnessed by the p r e s e n t w r i t e r w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g i n I n d i a d u r i n g the summer o f 1973. " ^ T r a d i t i o n a l l y he has the well-known name of_Gaudapada. Sometimes he i s c a l l e d Gaudacarana ( i n Sarira-kamimamsa- b h a s y a v a r t t i k a II.9-12), Gaudapadacarya (S'ankara on the SvetSsvataropa'nisad 1,8), Gaudacarya (Pancadasi 11.23) (Sayana on T a i t t i r i y a Aranyaka V I I . 2 ) , or simply Gauda (Naiskarmyas-i d d h i IV.44) (SMV I I . 9 - 1 2 ) . From Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p . l x i v ^ B i o g r a p h y , as indeed h i s t o r y , i n I n d i a i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . Hagiography i s o f a s s i s t a n c e t o some extent but i s o f t e n o f l i m i t e d v a l u e . An a n a l y s i s of a p h i l o s o p h i c a l work i s another way and may be more f r u i t f u l . See below s e c t i o n 5. 10 That he l i v e d and taught i s evidenced by h i s w r i t t e n work, the s u c c e s s i o n o f t e a c h e r s c l a i m i n g h i s l i n e a g e , and the homage p a i d t o him w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n . But o f the d e t a i l s o f h i s l i f e l i t t l e i s known except legend and some s p e c u l a t i o n . The hagiography a v a i l a b l e h e l p s t o c r e a t e an account o f Gaudapada. A n a n d a g i r i , i n h i s g l o s s ( t i k a ) on the Mandukya- Kanka-Bhasya IV. 1, t e l l s us t h a t the t e a c h e r Gaudapada spent h i s time doing penance (tapasyg) a t Badarikasrama, the h o l y r e s i d e n c e o f Nara-Narayana. I t was wh i l e GaudapSda was in. deep m e d i t a t i o n , the legend says, t h a t the ple a s e d Lord - - 13 Narayana r e v e a l e d the A d v a i t a wisdom to him. The h a g i b g r a p h i c accounts h i g h l i g h t two b a s i c c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o Gaudapada. These concern h i s p r a c t i c e of m e d i t a t i o n as a p a r t o f h i s own p u r s u i t o f Brahma-vidyS and h i s d e f t n e s s as a p h i l o s o p h e r while a s p i r i t u a l p r e c e p t o r . For example, i n Stmabodhendra's commentary to Sadas'ivabrahme-ndra's JagadgururatnamSlastava he g i v e s more i n f o r m a t i o n on 12 ' ' • ' Mandukyopanis ad with GaudapSda's K a r i k a , Sankara's Bhasya and R n a n d a g i r i ' s T i k a , AnandSsrama S a n s k r i t S e r i e s 10, pp.2 and 157. 13 Mahadevan, op . c i t . , pp.8-9: "That Gaudapada was absorbed i n deep m e d i t a t i o n most of the time we l e a r n both from Ananda-g i r i and Balakrsnanda. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the Acarya v i s i t e d Badarikasrama and, t h e r e , was b l e s s e d with the i n t u i t i v e wisdom of the A b s o l u t e . Then he must have taught those who gathered round him the t r u t h he had d i s c o v e r e d and embodied i t i n a work which came t o be c a l l e d the Agamasastra or Gaudapadakarika." 11 Gaudapada. He says t h a t Gaudapada at one time was i n quest of the S e l f (atman) under the guidance of h i s p r e c e p t o r Suka on y a peak i n the Himalayas. I t was here t h a t through Gaudapada's i n f l u e n c e the erroneous views o f a Buddhist teacher and h i s 14 d i s c i p l e s were made t o d i s a p p e a r . Balakrsnananda ( c i r c a 17th c e n t u r y A.D.) i n h i s S a r i r a -• • * 1 i i • i kamimamsabhasyavarttika (II.9-12) w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e was i n the c o u n t r y o f K u r u k s e t r a a r i v e r c a l l e d H i r a r a v a t i , on whose banks l i v e d some Gauda pe o p l e . Pre-eminent among them was Gaudapada who was absorbed i n deep m e d i t a t i o n (samadhi) b e g i n n -ing from the Dvapara age and because of t h i s h i s proper name i s not known t o those of t h i s p r e s e n t age o f K a l i , though he 15 i s c e l e b r a t e d by the class-name o f the Gaudas. T h i s account suggests two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t has been suggested t h a t the d e s i g n a t i o n "Gaudapada" i s not a proper name but t h a t t h i s i n d i v i d u a l renounced h i s g i v e n name when he became a sannyasin, a r e n u n c i a t e or an a s c e t i c , and was even-t u a l l y g i v e n t h i s name. Another s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t from the i n d i c a t i o n of h i s coming from Gaudadesa, the l a n d o f the Gaudas (modern North Bengal), i t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t as a renun-c i a t e or as a teacher l i v i n g i n another p a r t o f the country, 1 4 G i v e n w i t h more d e t a i l i n Mahadevan, op_ c i t . , p.9 w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Indian H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I I (1959), pp.415 f f . 1 5Mahadevan, op . c i t . , p.3: Karmarkar, op . c i t . , pp. i i i and i v ; Bhattacharya, op . c i t . , p p . l x v i and l x v i i . 12 the l o c a l people c a l l e d him a f t e r the name o f h i s n a t i v e p l a c e . F u r t h e r , the "pada" ending i s probably an h o n o r i f i c t i t l e o f r e s p e c t as i s o f t e n the c u s t o m . E i t h e r way, i t is accepted t h a t the name or t i t l e "Gaudapada" was g i v e n to him i n r e f e r -ence t o h i s p u r s u i t o f s p i r i t u a l i t y . 3. THE DATE OF GAUDAPADA As t o the time when Gaudapada l i v e d t h e r e i s not as ye t one undisputed d a t e . G e n e r a l l y the t r a d i t i o n accepts the 8th c e n t u r y A.D. on the b a s i s of Sankara's statement t h a t Gaudapada i s h i s paramaguru and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which p l a c e s him as the t e a c h e r o f Sankara's guru Govinda. Some accept the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s statement as t h a t of "great t e a c h e r " which would p l a c e him any time p r i o r t o Sankara. One such t r a d i t i o n a l account p l a c e s him somewhere between 2900 B.C. and 17 A. ' -900 B.C. A s a k t a work c a l l e d S r i Vidyarnava by Vidyaranya ± uMahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.8; A.V. Subbiah, "The Mandukyopa-n i s a d and Gaudapada,". Indian A n t i q u a r y , V o l . 62 (1933), pp. 192-3; Karmarkar, o p . c i t . , p . i v . Here he suggests t h a t the t e a c h e r was named Gauda as i t r e f e r s t o the area where he became famous. I t should be noted t h a t StiresVara's N a i s k a - rmyasiddhi evidence i s i n d i c a t i v e o f support f o r Gauda as h i s p l a c e o f b i r t h . F u r t h e r , Dr. W a l l a s e r , i n h i s Der A l t e r e  VedSnta (Heidelberg, 1910), suggests t h a t Gaudapada i s not the name o f a man but i s the d e s i g n a t i o n o f a s c h o o l and t h a t the K 5 r i k a s r e p r e s e n t the views o f the s c h o o l o f A d v a i t a i n Gauda-des*a T i e * the four pgdas or books o f the Gaudas) . For a summ-a t i o n and r e f u t a t i o n of the arguements see Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , pp.309 and Bhattacharya, op . c i t . , p p . l x v i i - l x x . Karmarkar, op . c i t . , p p . i - i i . 13 ( c i r c a 1100 A.D.) l i s t s f i v e Acaryas between Gaudapada and Sankara which 1would p l a c e him much near e r the accepted date f o r Sankara.''"^ On the b a s i s o f s t r o n g evidence c u l l e d from Buddhist sources where v e r s e s are quoted which appear t o be from the Mandukya K a r i k a , the date o f approximately 500 A.D. has been 19 suggested. T h i s c o r r o b o r a t e s the evidence c i t e d f o r a date near and y e t e a r l i e r than Sankara's. Bhavaviveka ( c i r c a 500-550 A.D.) i n h i s T a r k a j v a l a , a commentary on h i s own Madhyamaka-hrdaya-karikS, reviews the # VedSnta-darsana (the upholders o f the tea c h i n g s o f the Upani-sads) and quotes passages from s e v e r a l Upanisads and four p a s s -ages (VIII.10-13) which appear t o be drawn from the Mandukya • # - 20 s K a r i k a o f Gaudapada. S a n t i r a k s i t a (705-762 A.D.) i n h i s Madhyamakalankara-karika, 93, c i t e s t e n v e r s e s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the views o f the Aupanisadas. His d i s c i p l e K a m a l a s i l a (8th 18 I b i d . , p . i i . There i s some doubt c o n c e r n i n g t h i s as t h e r e may be a Gaudapada o f the sfakta t r a d i t i o n . F or the £akta works a t t r i b u t e d t o Gaudapada see s e c t i o n 4 below. 19 Mahadevan, op . c i t . , pp.13^15 f o l l o w i n g Bhattacharya, op. c i t . , p . l x x v i . 20 . . For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on these Buddhist w r i t e r s see espec-i a l l y Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p p . l x x v - l x x v i i i . Most s c h o l a r s have accepted t h i s evidence as c o n v i n c i n g y e t t h e r e i s some d i s s e n t . S.K. B e l v a l k a r goes so f a r as t o suggest the po s s -i b i l i t y o f them having been an independent common source f o r both Bhavaviveka and Gaudapada (Vedanta Philosophy, Poona 1929, p.183) as the p a r a l l e l i s m i s not a b s o l u t e l y c o n v i n c i n g . 14 cen t u r y A.D.) i n h i s commentary, the P a n j i k a , c a l l s these k a r i k g s "upanisat s a s t r a " ( a u t h o r a t i v e t r e a t i s e based on the Upanisadic t e a c h i n g s ) . I f these t h r e e Buddhist w r i t e r s were aware o f the McEndukya K a r i k a , Gaudapada must be p l a c e d b e f o r e Bhavaviveka and thus approximately 500 A.D. Less c o n c r e t e evidence e x i s t s i n the r a t h e r s t r i k i n g resemblances between some v e r s e s i n the K a r i k a and the Lanka- v a t g r a s u t r a and the works o f Buddhist w r i t e r s Nagarjuna, Aryadeva and Asanga who l i v e d between 200 and 400 A.D. These p a r a l l e l i s m s s t r e n g t h e n the p r o b a b i l i t y o f Gaudapada's a c q u a i n -tance with these w r i t e r s and t h a t he was e i t h e r a contemporary 21 or l i v e d a t a l a t e r d a t e . In sum then, the upper l i m i t f o r Gaudapada*s date has been g e n e r a l l y accepted as sometime d u r i n g the 8th c e n t u r y A.Dfi and the lower l i m i t a t around 500 A.D. wit h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s h a v ing l i v e d as e a r l y as 200 A.D. T h i s d i f f e r s from the t r a d i t i o n which accepts the upper l i m i t but a l s o p l a c e s him i n the v e r y d i s t a n t p a s t . 4. WORKS ATTRIBUTED TO GAUDAPADA Besides the MandtSkya K a r i k a , Gaudapada i s a l l e g e d t o 21 The important q u e s t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n o f Mahayaua Buddhism and Hindu A d v a i t a Vedanta i s bra c k e t e d here as i t i s a complex i s s u e and another work i n i t s e l f . The Mandukya  KSri k S i s approached h e r e i n as a statement o f the A d v a i t a Veda-n t a t r a d i t i o n . Gaudapada d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f a V e d a n t i s t i n sev-e r a l p l a c e s . See MK 11.12, 31, 35 e t a l . 15 have composed s e v e r a l o t h e r works. There are seven a t t r i b u t e d t o the pen o f Gaudapada, or, a t l e a s t , to an author named Gaudapada. Of these two works are c o n s i d e r e d more l i k e l y than the o t h e r s t o have been w r i t t e n by t h i s Gaudapada. The f i r s t - • 22 i s a bhasya or commentary on the Sankhya-karika o f I s v a r a k r s n a . The second work i s a v r t t i or commentary on the U t t a r a - g i t a , an'assignment which i s based on evidence o f the colophon i n one or two m a n u s c r i p t s . The other works i n c l u d e some s m a l l t a n t r i c o r s 5 k t a t e x t s c a l l e d Subhagodayastuti and S r i v i d y a r a n a y a s u t r a . The l a s t t h r e e are commentaries on the D u r g a s a p r a s a t i , the — - . _ _ 23 Anugita, and on the Nrs imhottaratapan iyopan i s ad. • • • That these works are composed by the author o f the Mandukya K a r i k a cannot be c o n c l u s i v e l y shown. N e i t h e r the view f o r , nor t h a t a g a i n s t , a t t r i b u t i o n o f these works i s based on any s t a b l e ground. As such the Mandukya K a r i k a alone w i l l be 22 Karmarkar, o p . c i t . , p p . v - v i i says t h a t he accepts the a u t h o r s h i p a t t r i b u t i o n because of the t r a d i t i o n a l assignment. But other s c h o l a r s c o n t e s t such a view. F o r example: "Gauda-pada, the commentator on I s v a r a k r i s h n a , cannot be the same person as the author o f the Mandukya Karikay t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s are c l e a r l y too d i f f e r e n t . " M i r c e a E l i a d e , Yoga: Immortality  and Freedom (2nd ed.; P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1969) pp.369-370.) 23 Works c i t e d i n Karmarkar, op c i t . , pp.v-x. Karmarkar a l s o accepts the U t t a r a g l t a - v r t t i and the Subhagodayastuti as from the same pen as the MahdHkya K 3 r i k a . 16 used f o r an a n a l y s i s o f Gaudapada's s o t e r i o l o g y . 5. GAUDAPADA«S PHILOSOPHY AS HIS BIOGRAPHY While hagiography g i v e s a l i m i t e d and o f t e n d i s t o r t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f an important and re s p e c t e d f i g u r e , i t does emphasize c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s . These can be c o r r o b o r a t e d from other s o u r c e s . One such source i s the a n a l y s i s o f the i n d i v i d -u a l ' s work. T h i s i s the use of p h i l o s o p h y as biography i Gaudapada can c l a i m t o be the e a r l i e s t s y s t e m a t i c ex-ponent o f the A d v a i t i c t e a c h i n g s . H i s t e a c h i n g p r o v i d e d the f i r m foundation on which Sankara and h i s su c c e s s o r s i n the A d v a i t a t r a d i t i o n b u i l t t h e i r e d i f a c e o f d e t a i l e d and a n a l y t i -c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f A d v a i t i c t h e o r y . These s u c c e s s o r s t o a l a r g e degree o n l y expounded, promulgated, framed and e s t a b l i s h e d the same t r u t h s as those enunciated by t h i s e a r l y A d v a i t i n through t h e i r s k i l l s o f ex e g s i s , e x p o s i t i o n , l o g i c a l reasoning, and e x p e r i e n t i a l i n s i g h t . H i s p h i l o s o p h y i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was a brahma-nistha, one who i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the d i r e c t knowledge o f Brahman, l e , an e n l i g h t e n e d or s e l f - r e a l i z e d man. Having known the non-dual t r u t h o f R e a l i t y he chose t o teach others and as a p r e c e p t o r guided a s p i r a n t s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f Brahma-vidya. He used a l l the t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o him - h i s own experience as a sannyasin, Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.30i "Since n o t h i n g d e f i n i t e can be s a i d r e g a r d i n g the a u t h o r s h i p o f these other works, we s h a l l study the Mandukya-karika alone with a view t o understand the ph i l o s o p h y o f Gaudapada." 1 7 h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n , s c r i p t u r a l t e x t s , l o g i c a l r e a s o n -ing , and the p r a c t i c a l techniques o f s p i r i t u a l l i f e known t o him. An a n a l y s i s o f h i s work i n d i c a t e s t h a t Gaudapada had a b o l d v i s i o n o f man, h i s nature and p o t e n t i a l i t y . He saw man bound i n saiftsara unable t o p e r c e i v e h i s t r u e nature as e t e r -n a l l y b l i s s f u l and f r e e (moksa). H i s compassion and h i s i n t e l l -e c t j o i n e d f o r c e s t o teach and l e a d others t o t h i s l i b e r a t i o n . A l l t h a t remains as h i s l e g a c y i s the K a r i k a on the Mandukyopanisad. Herein, he s e t s f o r t h the a d v a i t i c t r u t h s and the p r a c t i c a l means t o a c t u a l i z e them. H i s p i e r c i n g i n t e l l -e c t p i c k s out examples o f erroneous views f o r the a s p i r a n t which he r e f u t e s as w e l l as g i v e s the r i g h t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He e x h i b i t s l u c i d r easoning, c l e a r examples, a knowledge of the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s o f h i s day, the depths of h i s own s c r i p t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , and an acute i n s i g h t i n t o the nature o f man and the u n i v e r s e . A l l these combine i n the t e x t t o produce a m a s t e r l y work i n the moksa-sastra ( t r e a t i s e s spec-i f i c a l l y c o n c erning l i b e r a t i o n ) t r a d i t i o n o f Indian p h i l o s o p h -i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . As he taught so he l i v e d . P hilosophy was not merely a p a t t e r n o f ideas e x h i b i t e d f o r human understanding, but was a system o f p r e c e p t s i n t e r n a l t o the p h i l o s o p h e r . Gaudapada taught p r a c t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . P h i l o s o p h y f o r him was r e l a t e d t o l i f e and human ex p e r i e n c e . Philosophy must be a f f i r m e d by 18 the d i r e c t i n t u i t i v e experience of non-dual Reality, through knowing and seeing things as they r e a l l y are. This experien-t i a l philosophy and the p r a c t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s for i t s r e a l i z a -t i o n are his r e a l legacy. The d e t a i l s of his personality remain v i r t u a l l y unknown. In conclusion, the picture constructed of Gaudapada's id e n t i t y i s on the one hand minimal quantitatively, and yet on the other hand, exhibits greatness q u a l i t a t i v e l y . His b i o -graphy i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain. The sources for t h i s are the t r a d i t i o n a l hagiographical accounts, the place and the res-pect afforded him by h i s own t r a d i t i o n and those from outside who quote his work as an example of that t r a d i t i o n , as well as the impressions c u l l e d from his written work. These describe a man i n pursuit of S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , deep i n meditation, who upon r e a l i z i n g the supreme truth becomes a great and respected preceptor leading others to the fullness of l i f e through his philosophical exposition and the p r a c t i c a l sadhana ( s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e ) he advocates. Gaudapada remains respected as both a b r i l l i a n t philosopher and a great preceptor of the Advaita Vedanta t r a d i t i o n . 19 CHAPTER I I THE MANDUKYA KARIKA OF GAUDAPADA With the word Aunt e t c . , begins the t r e a t i s e , c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r chapters, the quin t e s s e n c e o f the substance of t h i s import of Vedanta. Hence no separate mention i s made o f the (mutual) r e l a t i o n s h i p , the sub j e c t - m a t t e r and the o b j e c t t o be a t t a i n e d . . . . T h i s t r e a t i s e must be s a i d t o c o n t a i n a subj e c t - m a t t e r on account o f i t s r e v -e a l i n g the means ( f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f A"tman t h a t serves the purpose, or the end t o be a t t a i n e d . . . . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f n o n - d u a l i t y i s the end t o be a t t a i n e d . T h i s t r e a t i s e i s begun f o r the purpose of r e v e a l i n g Brahman inasmuch as by knowledge (vidya) the i l l u s i o n o f d u a l i t y , caused by ignorance, i s d e s t r o y e d . -Sankara • s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the commentary. The Mandukya K a r i k a i s the o n l y w r i t t e n work o f which Gaudapada's a u t h o r s h i p i s assured. This chapter w i l l examine the nature o f the t e x t , i t s form and purpose> and g i v e a summ-ary overview o f the work as a whole. 1. THE MANDUKYA KARIKA The work under d i s c u s s i o n here i s p o p u l a r l y known as the Mandukya-kar i k a (or k a r i k a s ) . I t i s a l s o known by the names - - /- 2 Gaudapada- or Gaudapadiya-karika(s) and Agamasastra. These t i t l e s g i v e us a d e s c r i p t i o n of the type and content o f the t e x t . xSwami Ni k h i l a n a n d a , o p . c i t i., p.2. 2 B h a t t a c h a r y a , o p . c i t . , p . l x i , p o i n t s out d i f f e r e n t readings i n d i f f e r e n t manuscripts such as,. Agamagrantha, Upadesaqrantha, Mandukya-varttika, Mandukyopan i s ad-gaudapada-vyakhyana, Mandu- kyas'akha, or simply Gaudapad i y a a f t e r i t s author. 20 The k g r i k g s or v e r s e s are composed by the p r e c e p t o r Gaudapada and r e p r e s e n t h i s commentary and e x p o s i t i o n upon ideas suggested by the Mandukyopanisad. The t i t l e ffgamas'astra suggests t h a t t h i s t e x t i s a r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l auth-o r a t i v e t r e a t i s e ( s a s t r a ) based on or c o ncerning a s c r i p t u r a l t e a c h i n g or d o c t r i n e handed down and e s t a b l i s h e d by t r a d i t i o n (agama) . Jaaftkara h i m s e l f , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Upani-s a d i c commentary, has s a i d t h a t the Mandukyopanisad wi t h the K a r i k a embodies i n i t s e l f the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f the substance o f the e n t i r e p h i l o s o p h y o f Vedanta. For d e t a i l s on manuscripts see: Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p p . i x -xv (18 l i s t e d ) ; Snandas'rama S a n s k r i t S e r i e s , no. 10 e d i t i o n (13 l i s t e d ) ; Karmarkar, o p . c i t . , p . l l i s t s two more and notes, " F o r t u n a t e l y as regards the t e x t o f the k a r i k S s , t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n . P r o f e s s o r Bhattacharya has c o l l a t e d a l a r g e number o f Mss, but h i s t e x t does not m a t e r i a l l y d i f f e r from t h a t p u b l i s h e d i n the Anandasrama s e r i e s more than f i f t y y ears ago....It may t h e r e f o r e be taken f o r granted t h a t the t e x t o f the K a r i k a s i s more or l e s s f i x e d . " Texts and commentaries: There are two accepted s c h o l a r l y pub-l i c a t i o n s o f the manuscripts of the Mandukyopanisad and Gauda-pgda's K a r i k a w i t h commentaries. They are the Memorial E d i t i o n , V o l . 5 of the Mandukyopan i s ad with Gaudapada's K a r i k a and A n k a -ra' s Bhgsya and the standard Anandas'rama S a n s k r i t S e r i e s , No. 10 which i n c l u d e s A n a n d a g i r i 0 s T i k a as w e l l . Other l a t e r comm-e n t a r i e s e x i s t but have not been r e f e r r e d t o h e r e i n . For f u r -t h e r d e t a i l s see K a r l H. P o t t e r , ed., The E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f Ind- i a n P h i l o s o p h i e s , V o l . I B i b l i o g r a p h y ( D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i -dass, 1970), p p . 7 1 f f . I t should be noted t h a t t h e r e are a l t e r -n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by Kuranarayana, Madhva and Purusottama f o r the V a s i s t a d v a i t a , D v a i t a and Suddhadvaita t r a d i t i o n s r e s -p e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r commentaries on the Mgndukyg. There are s e v e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the t e x t a v a i l a b l e . The f i r s t E n g l i s h , t r a n s l a t i o n was done i n 1894 by M a n i l a l N. D v i -v e d i o f the Mandukyopanisad with Gaudapada's K a r i k a and the  Bhasya o f S*ankara (The Bombay Th e o s o p h i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n Fund) . 21 The t e x t c o n s i s t s of f o u r chapters or prakaranas c a l l e d « A*qama-prakarana, V a i t a t h y a - p r a k a r a n a , Advaita-prakarana , and • • • A l g t a s a n t i - p r a k a r a n a s u c c e s s i v e l y . The e n t i r e t e x t c o n s i s t s o f 215 m e t r i c a l v e r s e s and each chapter c o n t a i n s 29, 38, 48 and 100 v e r s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s o n l y the f i r s t chapter, t h e Aqama-prakarana, where the mantras or v e r s e s o f the Mandukyopanisad are expre-s s l y d e l i n e a t e d . The remaining chapters d e a l with s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o the Upanisad but f o l l o w independent d i r e c t i o n s . As such, Gaudapada's K a r i k a i s not a commentary on the Mandukyo- panisad i n the u s u a l sense o f the term. T h i s was soon f o l l o w e d by a German t r a n s l a t i o n by Paul Deussen i n 1897 (Sechzig Upanishad's des Veda, L e i p z i g ) . From the y e ars 1931-5, Dr. M. S r i n i v a s a Rao's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Mandu-kyopan i s ad w i t h GaudapSda's K a r i k a and Sankara's Commentary : appeared i n the Vedanta K e s a r i , V o l s , x v i i i - x x i , Madras, 1931-5. In 1936 Swami Nikhi l a n a n d a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n with a n n o t a t i o n o f the same appeared p u b l i s h e d by S r i Ramakrishna Ashrama, Mysore. Vidhushekara Bhattacharya p u b l i s h e d a newly e d i t e d , t r a n s l a t e d and annotated e d i t i o n c a l l e d the Agamasastra o f Gaudapada i n 1943 ( C a l c u t t a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a P r e s s ) . In p a r t a r e a -c t i o n t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n , R.D. Karmarkar produced a new e d i t i o n o f the Gffudapada-Karika with an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n and notes i n 1953 (Poona: Bhandarkar O r i e n t a l Research I n s t i t -ute) . In the same year Swami Chinmayananda p u b l i s h e d h i s D i s - courses on the Mgndukyopanisad with Gaudapada's K a r i k a (Madras: Chinmayananda P u b l i c a t i o n s T r u s t ) . In 1957 another t r a n s l a t i o n o f the Uganisad and K g r i k a with Sankara's commentary was i n c l u d -ed i n Swami Gambhirananda*s E i g h t Upanisads, V o l . I I ( C a l c u t t a : A d v a i t a Ashrama, 1957), pp.173-404. There are s e v e r a l other e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o d i f f e r e n t Indian languages. For d e t a i l s see P o t t e r , I b i d . , p p . 7 I f f . 22 2. THE TYPE OF TEXT J Gaudapada's work i s n o t a b h a s y a o r commentary t y p e o f l i t e r a t u r e a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l c ommentators r e f e r t o i t as s i m i -l a r t o a commentary. I t i s n o t a b h a s y a i n t h a t t h e f o r m w o u l d t h e n be l i k e S a n k a r a ' s b h a s y a on t h i s k a r i k a - a word b y word e x p l a n a t i o n and e x p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h S n a n d a g i r i c a l l s i t a y a r t t i k a , b y d e f i n i t i o n i t i s n o t one, as a commentary o f t h i s s o r t i s an e x p l a n a t o r y work d e a l i n g w i t h what i s s a i d , n o t s a i d and s a i d b a d l y i n t h e o r i g i n a l work. Nor c a n i t be a v y a k h y a o r e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e U p a n i s a d f o r i t i s o n l y t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r w h i c h r e a l l y d e a l s 3 wxth t h e u p a n i s a d i c t e x t p e r s e . Gaudapada's work i s a K a r i k a , a s e r i o u s t r e a t i s e whose 0 I  i p u r p o s e i s t o expound i n a m e t r i c a l f o r m an a s p e c t o f a s u b j e c t o r a p a r t i c u l a r d o c t r i n e so t h a t i t would be e a s y t o memorize i t . The o b j e c t h e r e i s t h e same as t h a t o f t h e s u t r a s o r a p h -o r i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e b u t w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s . "While t h e s u t r a s a r e i n p r o s e and aim a t c o n d e n s a t i o n t o an e x t r e m e d e g r e e , t h e k a r i k a s w h i c h a r e m e t r i c a l v e r s e s a r e n o t s o b r i e f and c r y p t i c . B o t h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e o r a l f o r m f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f E v e n h e r e t h e r e i s n o t a word b y word commentary n o r a s t e p b y s t e p a n a l y s i s o f t h e U p a n i s a d . Gaudapada r e - a r r a n g e s t h e i d e a s i n t o a p a t t e r n w h i c h e a s i l y c o n v e y s t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g T u r l y a , t h e A b s o l u t e n o n - d u a l R e a l i t y and p a s s e s o v e r t h a t w h i c h i s n o t d i r e c t l y u s e f u l f o r h i s e l a b o r a t i o n . A l s o , h e expounds some i d e a s o n l y h i n t e d a t o r s u g g e s t e d b y t h i s compact, c r y p t i c t e x t . 23 memorization and both r e q u i r e commentary t o some degree." 1 The s u t r a s need e x t e n s i v e commentary as they are v e r y s h o r t and t e r s e i n o r d e r t o cover an e n t i r e system. The k a r i k a s are not as b r i e f as s u t r a s , w h i l e not f u l l y developed as i n s S s t r a or t r e a t i s e l i t e r a t u r e . The k S r i k S form i s d e f i n e d by Hemacandra as t h a t which i n d i c a t e s profound meaning i n a few words. The k a r i k a l i t e r a t u r e , then, o r d i n a r i l y d e a l s w i t h a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f themes and expounds on an aspect or a s i n g l e phase o f a s u b j e c t . There are two types of A d v a i t a manuals, the e x p o s i t o r y and the p o l e m i c a l . T h i s work does not attempt t o answer c r i t -i c i s m s by opponents nor n e c e s s a r i l y t o r e f u t e the d e t a i l e d arguements o f o t h e r s c h o o l s or t h i n k e r s . I t i s r a t h e r a p r a k a - rana-grantha, a "book o f c a t e g o r i e s " , which is an e x p o s i t o r y t e x t d e a l i n g with the b a s i c ideas o f the system. As a t e x t -book o f i n s t r u c t i o n i t u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s an upadesa s e c t i o n on the p r a c t i c a l methods and concerns o f sadhana ( s p i r i t u a l d i s c i -p l i n e ) . Gaudapada*s Mandukya K a r i k a i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an upadesa-grantha as i s e v i d e n t from the colophons i n some o f the m a n u s c r i p t s - 5 , The t e x t i s a work whose main purpose i s t o F o r t h i s reason Sankara *"s commentary w i l l be used d i s c r i m -i n a t i v e l y and o n l y where i t i s necessary to understand d i f f i c u l t s e c t i o n s o f the t e x t . The p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s aware o f the prob-lems o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t occur w i t h the use o f a l a t e r comm-entary, even i f i t i s from w i t h i n the same t r a d i t i o n . 5 , Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.63. The term upadesa i s used by Gaudapada h i m s e l f i n 1.18. 24 t e a c h those who seek t o know the e s s e n t i a l s o f A d v a i t a and t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y h e l p the student understand the t e n e t s o f the t r a d i t i o n i t s e l f . The method adopted i s the d i r e c t mode o f s e t t i n g f o r t h the te a c h i n g s and c l a r i f y i n g the ideas i n v o l v e d t h e r e i n . The purpose o f t h i s i s f o r the s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f 6 / / the students concerned. Every upadesa-sastra c o n t a i n s p a r t i c -u l a r a d v i c e t o h e l p the sadhaka on the s p i r i t u a l p a t h . Gaudapada's K a r i k a i s t r u e t o t h i s t w o - f o l d c h a r a c t e r o f upadesa-skstra. On one hand, he expounds on a b a s i c s c r i p t -u r a l t e x t and d e l i n e a t e s the b a s i c t e n e t s o f A d v a i t a from d i f f -e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . And, on the o t h e r hand, he i n c l u d e s p r a c -t i c a l t e a chings at the end of each chapter i n p a r t i c u l a r and a l s o some advic e i s found s c a t t e r e d throughout the t e x t i n g e n e r a l . Though t h e r e i s an apparent t w o - f o l d d i v i s i o n they are i n f a c t one, f o r t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e go hand-in-hand and are r e c i p r o c a l l y r e l a t e d i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n . 3. THE MANDUKYOPANISAD The Mandukya K a r i k a i s s a i d t o be an e x p o s i t i o n o f the ^ Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.170: "The purpose o f (upadesa-) s g s t r a i s t o enable the a s p i r a n t t o c r o s s the sea o f samsara and reach the shore o f blessedness which i s the h i g h e s t human g o a l . " See a l s o S*ankara's i n t r o d u c t o r y ^ q u o t a t i o n at the beg-i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 25 s h o r t but important Upanisad named the Mandflkya. 1 T h i s l a t e Upanisad i s c o n s i d e r e d one of the p r i n c i p a l Upanisads by a l l s c h o o l s o f Vedanta. Although i t c o n s i s t s o f o n l y twelve prose v e r s e s i t i s unique i n i t s summation o f u p a n i s a d i c thought. Upanisad-brahmayogin, a commentator on the 108 Upani-sads, c h a r a c t e r i z e s the Mgndukyopanisad as s a r v a - v e d a n t a - s a r i - s t h a (the essence of the e n t i r e Vedanta). The l a t e r Muktiko- panisad d e s c r i b e s i t as the one Upanisad which alone i s s u f f -1 T r a d i t i o n a l l y Gaudapada's K a r i k a i s s a i d t o be c e n t e r e d around the Mgndukyopanisad. Some r i v a l t r a d i t i o n s and some mod-ern s c h o l a r s suggest t h i s i s not so. The problems here can be grouped i n t o t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t i o n s . They are as f o l l o w s : 1. The Mgndukyopanisad does not c o n s i s t o f the 12 prose p a s s -ages alone but a l s o o f the 20 k g r i k g s o f the f i r s t prakarana. 2. There i s no Upanisad named the MgndQkya. Gaudapada was the author o f the prose passages as w e l l as the k g r i k g s o f the f i r s t prakarana. 3. T'^ M.-P. Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , reviews the arguements and d e a l s w i t h these c o n t e n t i o n s (pp.32-55). On these problems he con-c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e i s "no reasonable ground t o r e j e c t t he t r a d -i t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Upanisad and the f i r s t prakarana o f the K S r i k a . The v e r y name o f the prakarana "A*gama" s i g n i f i e s t h a t i t i s based on a s c r i p t u r a l t e x t . " (p.65). V. Bhattacharya, o p . c i t • , p p . x x x i - x l v i i a l s o examines the arguements o f other s c h o l a r s . The m a t e r i a l on these ques-t i o n s are drawn from: 1. V. Bhattacharya ("The MgndGkyopani- gad and the Gaudapgda-Kgrikg," Indian H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I (1925), pp.119-125, 295-302), 2. B.N.K. Sarma ("Upani-s a d i c t h e o r y of GaudapSda's K g r i k a , " Poona O r i e n t a l i s t , V o l . 1.2 (1936-7)), pp.27-38; "Further l i g h t on Gau^apada-Kgrik^s, " Review o f P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n , V o l . 3.1, pp.45-55; "New l i g h t on the Gaudapgda-Kgrikgs," Review o f P h i l o s o p h y and R e l - i g i o n , V o l . 2.1 (1931), pp.35-56; " S t i l l f u r t h e r l i g h t on the Gaudapa*da-Karikas»" Review o f Ph i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n . V o l . 4.2 (1933), pp.174-195), 3. Y. Subrahmanya Sarma ("Upanisadic t h e o r y o f the Gaudapgda-Karikas," Review o f P h i l o s o p h y and R e l -i g i o n , V o l . 4.2 (1933), pp.196-204), and 4. A^.Vv Subbiah ("The Mandukyopan i s ad and Gaudapada, 1^ Indian A n t i q u a r y , V o l . 62 (1933), pp.181-193; "Gaudapada's Rgamasastra," Indian H i s t o r i c a l Quar- t e r l y , V o l . 11 (1935), pp.783-790; "Are Gaudapada-Karikas s'ruti?", Poona O r i e n t a l i s t , V o l . 1.1 (1936), pp.7-18, V o l . 1.2, pp.2-12). 26 i c i e n t f o r the attainment d f t r u t h and l i b e r a t i o n . T h i s t e x t , though b r i e f , c o n t a i n s what may be c o n s i d -ered the key passages o f non-dualism. I t i n c o r p o r a t e s many l e v e l s o f r e f e r e n c e i n i t s s y n t h e s i s o f Upan i s a d i c , y o g i c , m y s t i c a l and c o s m o l o g i c a l elements.^ T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f mat-e r i a l i n o n l y a dozen v e r s e s makes i t extremely t e r s e and s u b t l e . The Mandukyopanisad, l i k e other Upanisads, d i s c u s s e s • • • • the problem o f U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . The knowledge of Brahman or Atman i s i t s theme. I t uses homologies based on the s y l l a b l e OM (AUM) i n an attempt t o e x p l a i n a l l e x p e r i e n c e . Brahman or Atman i s e x p l a i n e d through i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n as the four pSdas or q u a r t e r s o f the d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t t e l l s how the Atman i s a s s o c i a t e d with the t h r e e s t a t e s o f waking, dream and deep s l e e p and then how these s t a t e s are r e l a t e d t o T u r i y a , the f o u r t h , which d e s i g n a t e s U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . Along with t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i t teaches a method of m e d i t a t i o n f o r the e n q u i r e r t o r e a l i z e t h i s w i t h i n h i s own ex-p e r i e n c e . The s u b j e c t i v e approach h e r e i n i s one of enqui r y and n e g a t i o n o f t h a t which i s f i n i t e and l i m i t e d , working from the more gross m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f experience and p i e r c i n g p r o -g r e s s i v e l y towards the s u b t l e r ones u n t i l the a s p i r a n t r e a l i z e s Mandukyamekamevalam mumuksunam vimuktaye. 'Eliade, Yoga, pp. 122-124. 27 t h a t the S e l f (atman) i s Brahman (avam atma brahma)."^ C o n s i d e r i n g the Mandukyopan i s ad 1 s unique p l a c e i n A d v a i t a l i t e r a t u r e i t i s no wonder t h a t Gaudapada chose t h i s s c r i p t u r a l t e x t as the primary o p e r a t i o n a l base f o r h i s e x p o s i t i o n . 4. THE SCOPE OF THE M S I S T O U K Y A KARIKA" The Mandukya K a r i k a o f Gaudapada i s a work c o n t a i n i n g f o u r c h a p t e r s . ^ In t h i s u p a d e s a - s a s t r a he s e t s f o r t h the e s s e n t i a l s of the A d v a i t a Vedanta t e a c h i n g s c o n c e r n i n g non-d u a l i s m . Mgndukyopanisad 12. T h i s i s one o f the famous Mahava-kyas o f the V e d S n t i c l i t e r a t u r e which a l s o occurs i n BrhadS- ranyakopanisad, II.5.19. "^There are s e v e r a l views c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n of the f o u r prakaranas. These d i f f e r i n g views can be summarized i n t h r e e p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s : 1. t h a t the work i s an i n t e g r a t e d whole, 2. t h a t each <prakarana i s a separate work and the Mandukya K a r i k a i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f the f o u r t r e a t i s e s , and 3. t h a t the c h a p t e r s c o u l d have been w r i t t e n s e p a r a t e l y and thus c o u l d be e i t h e r seen as independent works or as comple-mentary t r e a t i s e s which can be e a s i l y taken t o g e t h e r . The, f i r s t view i s the one t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d p a r t i c u l a r l y as Sank-a r a r i g h t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s commentary accepts the work as an i n t e g r a t e d whole, assumes the c o n t i g u i t y o f the four prakaranas, and d e f t l y argues f o r t h i s i n t e r - r e l a t i o n . I t i s a l s o accepted by the s c h o l a r s T.M.P. Mahadevan and R.D. Karma-r k a r . T h i s r e l a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n p r e s e n t l y . The second view i s h e l d by V. Bhattacharya. For d e t a i l s see o p . c i t . , p p . x l v i i -l v i . These are taken up by Karmarkar, o p . c i t . , p p . x x i i i - x l i and Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , pp.55-63. The t h i r d view i s a comprmise s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the weight o f the arguments g i v e n on both s i d e s . The p r e s e n t e x p o s i t i o n assumes t h e f i r s t view w i t h d e f e r e n c e t o the t h i r d and thus takes the work as a whole what-ever the p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f o u r prakaranas. 28 In the f i r s t c hapter, the Agama-prakarana, Gaudapada uses the Mandukyopan i s ad as h i s b a s i c s c r i p t u r a l t e x t (s^ruti) and begins w i t h a summary o f i t s t e a c h i n g s . He focuses on the a n a l y s i s o f the t h r e e s t a t e s o f experience (avasthas) i n order t o show t h a t the S e l f which i s r e f e r r e d t o as the T u r i y a , the f o u r t h , u n d e r l i e s and transcends the changing s t a t e s of e x p e r i e n c e . The second chapter, V a i t a t h y a - p r a k a r a n a , d e a l s w i t h the i d e a o f the I l l u s o r i n e s s or f a l s e n e s s o f the world o f p l u r a l -i t y . T h i s Gaudapada seeks t o e s t a b l i s h and e x p l a i n on the b a s i s o f v a r i o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s , the 1 analogy o f dreams, and through a c r i t i c i s m o f c r e a t i o n t h e o r i e s . The Advaita-prakarana, the t h i r d c h a p t e r , seeks t o show the n o n - i l l u s o r i n e s s o f n o n - d u a l i t y . Through c i t a t i o n s from s c r i p t u r e and r e a s o n i n g he d e t a i l s the arguements f o r t h e t r u t h o f a d v a i t a (non-dualism). I t i s i n t h i s c h apter t h a t the major d i s c u s s i o n o f the path t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f non-d u a l i t y c a l l e d Asparsa-yoga i s g i v e n . The l a s t chapter, c a l l e d the AlHtas'anti-prakarana, repeats some o f the arguements o f the e a r l i e r prakaranas. I t shows the u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f the concept o f c a u s a l i t y through the use o f d i a l e c t i c a l r easoning which p o i n t s out the mutual c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of the opposing or d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f thought prominent a t h i s time, e x p l a i n s and argues the i l l u s o r i n e s s o f the phenomenal world, and e s t a b l i s h e s the t r u t h o f n o n - d u a l i t y 2 9 which Gaudapada proclaims i s e t e r n a l l y "unborn" or " u n o r i g i n -a t e d " ( a j S t i v a c i a ) . One summary o f the work as a whole i s t h a t o f the commentator Sankara. The f i r s t c hapter, then, seeks, by d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the Vedic t e x t s , t o i n d i c a t e the ( t r a d i t i o n a l ) means t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l nature o f A tin an and i s devoted t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the meaning o f Aum. The second chapter seeks r a t i o n a l l y t o demon-s t r a t e the u n r e a l i t y o f d u a l i t y ; the i l l u s i o n ( d u a l i t y ) b e i n g destroyed, the knowledge of n o n - d u a l i t y (becomes e v i d e n t ) , as the c e s s a t i o n o f the i m a g i n a t i o n o f snake e t c . , i n the rope r e v e a l s the r e a l nature of the rope. The t h i r d c h apter i s devoted t o the r a t i o n a l demonstra-t i o n o f the t r u t h o f n o n - d u a l i t y , l e s t i t should, i n l i k e manner, be contended t o be u n r e a l . The f o u r t h chapter i s devoted t o the r a t i o n a l r e f u t a t i o n o f the o t h e r s c h o o l s o f thought which are a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the t r u t h as p o i n t e d out i n the Vedas and which are opposed t o the knowledge o f the A d v a i t i c R e a l i t y , by p o i n t i n g out t h e i r f a l s i t y on account of t h e i r own mutual con-t r a d i c t i o n . -*-2 T h i s statement i s made from the p e r s p e c t i v e of those who see GaudapSda as a s y s t e m a t i c p h i l o s o p h e r which indeed he was. And y e t an a n a l y s i s o f the work c l e a r l y . s h o w s t h a t t h i s i s t o some extent merely an overview which ignores or passes l i g h t l y over much other m a t e r i a l and a l s o other p o s s i b l e uses of the same m a t e r i a l . For Gaudapada was not o n l y a g r e a t p h i l osopher, he was a l s o a p r e c e p t o r concerned w i t h the s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e of those t o whom he ijaught. T h i s aspect of the t e x t w i l l be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . Swami Ni k h i l a n a n d a , o p . c i t . , p.3. T h i s understanding o f GaudapSda's t e x t i s r e a f f i r m e d i n Sankara's commentary on MK IV.1. 30 CHAPTER I I I STYLISTIC ELEMENTS OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA D i v e r s i t y would di s a p p e a r i f i t had been imagined by anyone. T h i s k i n d o f t a l k i s f o r the sake o f (making) i n s t r u c t i o n ( p o s s i b l e ) . D u a l i t y ceases t o e x i s t a f t e r r e a l i z a t i o n . - MK 1.18 The separateness o f the i n d i v i d u a l and the supreme S e l f t h a t has been d e c l a r e d ( i n the Ve d i c t e x t s ) e a r l i e r than (the t a l k of) c r e a t i o n ( i n the Upanisads), i s o n l y i n a secondary sense t h a t keeps i n view a f u t u r e r e s u l t ( v i z u n i t y ) ; f o r such separateness i s out o f p l a c e i n i t s primary sense. - MK III.14 The c r e a t i o n t h a t has been m u l t i f a r i o u s l y s e t f o r t h with the h e l p o f the examples o f e a r t h , g o l d , sparks, e t c . , i s merely by way o f g e n e r a t i n g the i d e a (of oneness); but t h e r e i s no m u l t i p l i c i t y i n any way. - MK I I I . 1 5 1 T h i s chapter w i l l p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l t o f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e the importance of the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l nature o f Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g as embodied i n the Mandukya K a r i k a . An attempt w i l l be made t o i n d i c a t e the v a r i o u s modes and d e v i c e s which Gauda-pada uses i n h i s t e x t as an a i d t o t e a c h i n g both p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e . Two areas w i l l be d e a l t with h e r e . The nature of A d v a i t a Vedanta w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f the j u x t a -p o s i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n and the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween these two aspects w i l l be g i v e n i n g e n e r a l . The s t y l i s -XA11 q u o t a t i o n s _ o f the K a r i k a s , u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d , are. from Swami Gambhlrananda's t r a n s l a t i o n found i n h i s E i g h t  Upanisads ( C a l c u t t a : A d v a i t a Ashrama, 1966) pp.173-404. 31 t i c elements w i t h i n the Mandukya K a r i k a which Gaudapada uses • • • t o d e l i n e a t e these aspects o f A d v a i t a Vedanta w i l l a l s o be i n d i c a t e d . 1. THE RELIGIO-PHILOSOPHICAL NATURE OF ADVAITA VEDANTA A d v a i t a Vedanta i s a r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n . I t i s one of the c l a s s i c a l Indian dars'anas or systems o f thought. Darsana l i t e r a l l y means " p e r s p e c t i v e " or " p o i n t of view" and suggests t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n t ways of understand-in g and answering the problems which concern r e l i g i o n and p h i l -2 osophy. While t h e r e are p h i l o s o p h i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e con-c e r n i n g a r t h a (worldly a f f a i r s ) , dharma ( s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s d u t y ) , and kama (the p l e a s u r e s ) , and so f o r t h , the d e s i g n a t i o n The c u r r e n t d i s c u s s i o n concerning the r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a -t i o n o f Indian p h i l o s o p h y as a whole w i l l be omitted as i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o enter i n t o the debate h e r e . The problem and i t s i n t r a c a s i e s are noted, but as the p r e s e n t work l i m i t s i t -s e l f t o a s p e c i f i c t e x t w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a Vedanta, the debate i s t o a l a r g e extent p e r i p h e r a l f o r t h i s system, and e s p e c i a l l y f o r Gaudapada, as w i l l be p o i n t e d out below. The debate r e v o l v e s around the i s s u e of the purpose o f the p a r t i c u -l a r "philosophy" and the emphasis g i v e n by the s p e c i f i c i n d i v -i d u a l t e x t u a l author. The t r a d i t i o n of A d v a i t a Vedanta i s d e f i n a t e l y Moksa or l i b e r a t i o n o r i e n t e d and perhaps of g r e a t e r importance here i s t h a t t h i s aim and purpose i s v e r y c l e a r i n Gaudapada's K a r i k a . For d e t a i l s c o n cerning t h i s debate, see f o r example, S. Radha-k r i s h n a n , Indian Philosophy, V o l . I (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1927) pp.24 f f , and r e a c t i o n from R.Hv Robinson, "Class--i c a l Indian P h i l o s o p h y , " i n Joseph E l d e r , ed., Chapters i n  Indian C i v i l i z a t i o n , V o l . I (Kendall/Hunt P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1970), pp. 129.-227. See a l s o : K a r l H. P o t t e r , P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f  I n d i a ' s P h i l o s o p h i e s (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1963); Swami Agehananda .BhSrati, A F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of Indian Thought and i t s S o c i a l Margins ( V a r a n a s i : Chowkhamba S a n s k r i t S e r i e s O f f i c e , 1964; C h a r l e s A. Moore, "Philosophy as d i s t i n c t from 32 of "philosophy" i n I n d i a i s u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r the Moksa- s g s t r a l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s system o f thought and p r a c t i c e i s d e f i n i t e l y a p a r t o f the moksa ( l i b e r a t i o n ) o r i e n t e d p h i l o s o p h i e s . As a darsaria i t i s a s t i k a or orthodox w i t h i n the Brahmanical t r a d -i t i o n . I t i s a s c h o o l w i t h i n the group c a l l e d the U t t a r a -mImamsa, or more p o p u l a r l y , the Vedanta, the l a t t e r p o r t i o n or end (anta) o f the V e d i c l i t e r a t u r e . L i k e a l l the mImamsa sc h o o l s i t i s t r u e t o the name - a s y s t e m a t i c e n q u i r y or i n v e s -t i g a t i o n o f t h i s s c r i p t u r e . As i t bases i t s e l f on the non-d u a l t e a c h i n g s t h e r e i n i t i s designated advaita-vgda. The e s s e n t i a l problem o f A d v a i t a Vedanta, which the t r a d i t i o n c a l l s the fundamental problem o f human l i f e , i s the problem o f l i b e r a t i o n (moksa). I t i s concerned with how human l i f e may r e t a i n i t s t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e , anywhere and at anytime. T h i s i s man's n a t u r a l urge t o search f o r meaning and v a l u e i n l i f e . The necessary p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r t h i s i s the ta s k o f a n a l y z i n g the human s i t u a t i o n i n comprehensive and thorough-going manner. I t must enquire i n t o and analyze the b a s i c a s -pects o f human a f f a i r s such as the nature o f the world, know-r e l i g i o n i n I n d i a , " Philosophy E a s t and West, V o l . XI, Nos. 1 and 2 ( A p r i l - J u l y 1961), pp.3-26; P.T. Raju, " R e l i g i o n and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s i n Indian thought," Philosophy E a s t and West, V o l . IX, Nos. .1 and 2 ( A p r i l - J u l y 1959), pp.38-40, The P h i l - o s o p h i c a l T r a d i t i o n s o f I n d i a (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1971), and other works; Daya Kr i s h n a , "Three conceptions o f Indian p h i l o s o p h y , " P h i l o s o p h y E a s t and West, V o l . XV (1965), pp.37-51; e t a l . 33 ledge, p r i n c i p l e s o f human conduct, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , and so f o r t h . 3 P h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n come tog e t h e r when i t i s seen t h a t the c e n t r a l problems o f l i f e are centered i n man. The answers t o these problems or i s s u e s concerning the nature and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man t o the world and both o f these t o u l t i m a t e R e a l i t y are r e f l e c t e d i n the advocated behaviour and p r a c t i c e s 4 a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A d v a i t a Vedanta is such a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o r y and """Philosophy i s : the attempt to t h i n k out the p r e s u p p o s i t -ions o f experience, to grasp, by means o f reason, l i f e o r r e a l i t y as a whole. I t seeks t o d i s c o v e r a r a t i o n a l e x p l a n -a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e - an e x p l a n a t i o n which g i v e s to a l l p a r t s , nature, God and man, t h e i r due, views a l l t h i n g s i n t h e i r r i g h t p r o p o r t i o n , and r e s o l v e s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e . P h i l o s o p h y has t o f i n d out an a l l - c o m p r e h e n s i v e and u n i v e r s a l concept which i t s e l f r e q u i r e s no e x p l a n a t i o n , w h i l e i t e x p l a i n s e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . I t must be the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y i n t o which a l l e l s e can be r e s o l v e d and which cannot i t s e l f be r e s o l v e d i n t o anything e l s e . P h i l o s o p h y i s the theory o f r e a l i t y i f by r e a l i t y we mean something t h a t e x i s t s o f i t s e l f and i n i t s own r i g h t and not merely as a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f something e l s e . The t e s t o f a p h i l o s o p h i c theory i s i t s c a p a c i t y t o c o - o r d i n a t e the wealth o f a p p a r e n t l y d i s c o n n e c t e d phenomena i n t o an ordered whole, t o comprehend and s y n t h e s i s e a l l aspects of r e a l i t y . " S. Radhakrishnan, The Reign of R e l i g i o n i n Contemporary P h i l -osophy (London: M a c M i l l i a n and Co., L t d . , 1920), p.412. 4 "Philosophy i s meant...to understand what one i s , what one can and ought t o become i n t h i s world, how one can become i t , and what the nature of the world i s i n which one has one's being and can a t t a i n the i d e a l of l i f e . I t i s necessary to understand both o n e s e l f and the r e a l i t y i n which one has one's being; f o r one has t o know whether the nature o f o n e s e l f and o f r e a l i t y a l l o w the achievement of the i d e a l . " P.TJ Raju, The P h i l o s o p h i c a l T r a d i t i o n s o f I n d i a , p.16. 3 4 p r a c t i c e , being a t once an enquiry i n t o the nature o f Brahman which i s regarded as the h i g h e s t R e a l i t y , and a search f o r the way t o the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f Brahman regarded as the supreme g o a l o f l i f e . Thus t h e r e are two dominant f e a -tures; o f A d v a i t a Vedanta, i t s m e t a p h s i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the way of l i f e t o f u l f i l l t h i s quest. The p u r s u i t of t h i s t w o - f o l d o r i e n t a t i o n has produced an ontology, a theory o f knowledge, a psychology, an e t h i c a l system, and a phi l o s o p h y o f r e l i g i o n amongst other t h i n g s . The combination or r a t h e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f these elements i n t o a "system," " s c h o o l , " or " t r a d i t i o n " i s the sense i n which Indians under-5 stand "philosophy." The u n i t y of 5tman-Brahman i s the aim o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l "'The words "philosophy", " r e l i g i o n " , and " s p i r i t u a l i t y " do not mean e x a c t l y the same t h i n g s t o the Indian and to the westerner. "Philosophy", as has been i n d i c a t e d , r e f e r s t o a "way o f l i f e " which c o n s i s t s o f both the elements o f theory and p r a c t i c e . Darsana as view, theory, o r p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e a l i t y , and mata as o p i n i o n , d o c t r i n e or the o r y w i t h i n the moksa a t t i t u d e i s u n i q u e l y Indian i n comparison t o the u s u a l western d e f i n i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y as the l o v e o f wisdom or knowledge f o r i t s own sake. That t h e r e have been s i m i l a r i t i e s throughout h i s t o r y i s not being denied here. " R e l i g i o n " i n I n d i a and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n A d v i a t a Vedanta i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d to be w i t h i n the realm o f dharma and " s p i r i t u a l i t y " f a l l s w i t h -i n the scope o f the moksa a t t i t u d e . S p i r i t u a l i t y , i n t h i s c o ntext, i s d i f f e r e n t from i t s western c o n t e r p a r t which u s u a l l y r e l a t e s t o what i s a l s o d e s i g n a t e d as r e l i g i o n . In A d v a i t a Vedanta i t i s a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o the h i g h e s t quest, the search f o r the S e l f (atman) as the quin t e s s e n c e of l i f e . " R e l i g i o n " and " s p i r i t u a l i t y " are used i n t e r c h a n g a b l y h e r e i n as i t i s more consonant f o r westerners although the f u l l gamut of the Indian meanings f o r both terms w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o h e r -e i n . 35 t h o u g h t and t h e g o a l o f s p i r i t u a l a t t a i n m e n t i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . P h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n b l e n d t o a l a r g e d e g r e e and y e t e a c h h a s i t s own s p h e r e and c a n be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , t o a p o i n t , as a s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t on t h e one hand, and as a p a t h o f s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e on t h e o t h e r . The t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t c o n c e r n s t h e d e s i r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e u n i v e r s e and t h e n a t u r e and s t a t u s o f man t h e r e i n . The p r a c -t i c a l a s p e c t c o n c e r n s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i -p l e s o f c o n d u c t and t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o r t e c h n i q u e s t o be u t i l -i z e d f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f c o m p l e t e human f r e e d o m . T h e s e a s p e c t s a g a i n a r e n o t r e a l l y u n r e l a t e d , b u t a r e o f n e c e s s i t y m u t u a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g . ^ P h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n a r e t h u s s a i d t o be i n t e r w o v e n and e v e n c o i n c i d e i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . P h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n a r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f one and t h e same a t t e m p t a t r e a l i z i n g t h e h i g h e s t end o f l i f e . P h i l o s o p h y forms t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s o f r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r -i e n c e . I t i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h a l s o s u p p l i e s t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d o c t r i n e s o f p h i l o s o p h y . I t "I n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f r e l i g i o n t h e r e i s s o c l o s e a c o n n -e c t i o n b etween t h e s t a t e m e n t o f p r i n c i p l e and t h e s e q u e n c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e d e e d s t h a t a d i v o r c e b e t w e e n them, o t h e r t h a n momentary, i s o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n ; r e l i g i o n when n o t b a c k e d b y b e h a v i o u r i s h e l d t o be i n f e r t i l e and e v e n u n r e a l . " Dunham, The R e l i g i o n o f P h i l o s o p h e r s , p.2. 36 i s the t a s k o f p h i l o s o p h y to t r y t o t r a n s l a t e and understand a n a l y t i c a l l y i n terms o f thought or c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g what has been presented i n the l i v i n g experience o f s p i r i t u a l i n -t u i t i o n . In the case o f A d v a i t a , i t s t a r t s from experience 7 and i t r e c o g n i z e s experience to be the g o a l o f p h i l o s o p h y . Reason j u s t i f i e s the experiences o f r e l i g i o n , can show the experience t o be c o n s i s t e n t , but cannot y i e l d the experience i t s e l f which transcends reason. P h i l o s o p h y cannot g i v e us the experience but merely shows what i s p o s s i b l e . The merely p o s s i b l e demands v e r i f i c a t i o n or an a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s p r a c t i c a l sadhana which makes the r e a l i z a -g t i o n o f t h i s experience p o s s i b l e . i "Advaita as p h i l o s o p h y aims t o seek t h a t which i s d i s -covered or r e a l i z e d by A d v a i t a as r e l i g i o n or m y s t i c i s m . As p h i l o s o p h y , A d v a i t a has n o t h i n g more i n i t than t o p l a n i t s procedure i n e v a l u a t i n g the t h i n g s o f experience i n t h i s l i g h t . I t s o r i e n t a t i o n , then, must be d i f f e r e n t from a l l o t h e r p u r s u i t s which e q u a l l y d i s c u s s l o g i c , epistemology, psychology, a x i o l o g y e t c . In a l l these modes of p h i l o s o p h y , the o r i e n t a t i o n o f A d v a i t a should never be l o s t s i g h t o f . " K.B. Ramakrishna Rao, Three L e c t u r e s on A d v a i t a as P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n (Mysore: U n i v e r s i t y o f Mysore, 1969), pp.8-9. g While experience i s s a i d t o be p r i o r i n A d v a i t a , the f o l l o w i n g statement concerning the e f f e c t of d o c t r i n e on sub-sequent experience and p r a c t i c e i s a l s o t r u e . "Vedantic sadhana i s the s u b s t a n t i a l h y p o s t a s i s of which the d o c t r i n e may be c o n s i d e r e d as an a t t r i b u t e . The r e v e r s e too i s t r u e . F o r the sgdhana t h a t s t a r t s now i s i n i t i a t e d and maintained by the i n s p i r a t i o n coming from the a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d d o c t r i n e . In consequence the s p i r i t u a l experience w i l l be i n e v i t a b l y de-termined by the metaphsics t o which the sadhaka has a l r e a d y bound h i m s e l f by h i s f a i t h i n i t s v a l i d i t y , (p.61) "...the metaphsics o f a d o c t r i n e imparts a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n t o the s p i r i t u a l endeavour. I t a l s o i n v e s t s the experience with i t s p a r t i c u l a r c ontent and i s i t s ground and support throughout a l l i t s phases." (p.81). D. P r i t h i p a l , A d v a i t a Vedanta ( V a r a n a r s i : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a Bhavan, 1969). 37 Thus i n A d v a i t a Vedanta the c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r s p e c t i v e s o f metaphysics, epistemology, psychology, and s o t e r i o l o g y are interwoven and i n t e r r e l a t e d and r e c i p r o c a l l y i n f l u e n c e each ot h e r To a p r e c e p t o r such as Gaudapada t h e r e are r e a l l y none o f these d i v i s i o n s , f o r from h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s he t a l k s o n l y o f T r u t h and o n l y uses d i f f e r e n t ways t o communicate t h i s t o h i s students t o a i d them i n t h e i r d i r e c t r e a l i z a t i o n o f i t . As a guru he i s u n i n t e r e s t e d i n these c a t e g o r i e s and y e t as a p h i l o s o p h e r he i s aware of some necessary procedures i n out-l i n g arguements and o f f e r i n g c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n s . An a n a l y s i s o f the t e x t shows no r e a l concern with these d i v i s o n s . A l s o , the e x p l i c i t d i v i s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f these p r e c i s e c a t -e g o r i e s d i d not r e a l l y develop w i t h i n A d v a i t a Vedanta u n t i l a l a t e r d a t e . In c o n c l u s i o n , then, A d v a i t a Vedanta i s a r e l i g i o n as much as i t i s a t e c h n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s a way o f s p i r i t u a l ^A reasonable account can be found i n P r i t h i p a l , o p . c i t . , pp.69-74. For example, he shows t h a t "there i s no demarkation sundering epistemology from metaphysics. While the e n t i r e V e d a n t i c d o c t r i n e s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t i o n t o Being i t s t h e o r y o f knowledge l i k e w i s e a c t s as a handmaid t o the s p i r i t u a l sadhana, epistemology and sadhana operate w i t h i n the f o l d o f ignorance. The i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of p h i l o s o p h y and experience l e a v e s no room f o r a p o s s i b l e antagonism on the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l between V e d a n t i c epistemology and metaphysics." (p.69) " I t i s no exaggeration to say t h a t Vedanta s y n t h e s i s e s t h e o l -ogy, p h i l o s o p h y with experience (anubhava) so t h a t the whole system i s complete o n l y with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p r a c -t i c i n g sadhaka." (p.71) I t i s t h i s l a s t aspect which i s the u n i f y i n g element around which the system i s c o n s t r u c t e d . 38 r e a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as a system of thought. As a p h i l o s o p h -i c a l system i t attempts t o d e a l with the nature o f r e a l i t y , aims t o g i v e a u n i f i e d account o f e x i s t e n c e as a whole, and t o p r e s e n t a schematic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the sum t o t a l o f ex p e r i e n c e . I t s r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a p r a c t i c a l guide t o s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . As such i t g i v e s a d v i c e and p r a c t i c e s conducive t o r e l e a s e and S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i n c o r r -espondance t o the f i n d i n g s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Gaudapada as the e a r l i e s t s y s t e m a t i c A d v a i t i n i s t r u e t o t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n o f A d v a i t a Vedanta. The f o l l o w i n g chap-t e r s w i l l p r o v i d e h i s unique c o n t r i b u t i o n t o A d v a i t a as p h i l -osophy and r e l i g i o n . 2. THE THEOLOGICAL CONCERNS OF ADVAITA VEDANTA AND GAUDAPADA Thi s system p r i m a r i l y aims a t deter m i n i n g the pur p o r t o f the Vedantas or Upanisadic t e x t s and u n l i k e other r a t i o n a l systems, i s not meant f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g or r e f u t i n g any p a r t i c u l a r system by means o f pure r a t i o -c i n a t i o n . -from Sankara's Brahma S u t r a Bhasya 2.2.1 T h i s H i g h e s t R e a l i t y , however, has t o be a s c e r t a i n e d from the Ve d a n t i c t e x t s o n l y . -Sankara on MK IV.99 The MImamsa darsanas are s c r i p t u r a l l y based s c h o o l s o f thought. As such they are i n v o l v e d with exegesis and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f r e v e a l e d t e x t s . In t h i s sense the Vedan t i c s c h o o l s as a whole are r e a l l y d e a l i n g with " r e l i g i o u s " or 39 " t h e o l o g i c a l " p h i l o s o p h y r a t h e r than with " c r i t i c a l " p h i l -osophy. A V e d a n t i c system, such as A d v a i t a , bases i t s e l f upon a n c i e n t s c r i p t u r a l t e x t s , and one o f i t s primary t a s k s i s to show t h a t these r e p r e s e n t a c o n s i s t e n t v i e w p o i n t . In t h i s way, s y s t e m a t i c Vedanta was formulated i n terms o f s c r i p t u r a l exiegisis as much as i t was formulated i n terms of p h i l o s o p h -i c a l a n a l y s i s . S c r i p t u r e ( s r u t i ) i s one o f the v a l i d sources of knowledge (pramanas) i n Indian p h i l o s o p h y and e s p e c i a l l y i n the Vedanta s c h o o l s o f thought. Besides the commonly accepted instruments o f knowledge l i k e p e r c e p t i o n (pratyaksa) and i n f e r e n c e (anumana), v e r b a l or w r i t t e n a u t h o r i t y (sabda) i s accepted. In the t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a i t is accorded the h i g h e s t p l a c e , as i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s the o t h e r pramanas are dependent on agreement with a u t h o r i t y . More important, i t i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the f i n a l or only means of knowledge because i t can show us what the o t h e r pramanas are i n c a p a b l e o f d i s -c l o s i n g . I t shows the o b j e c t and g o a l of s p i r i t u a l l i f e and thus d i s p e l s the a v i d y a or ignorance concerning Brahman, the Hig h e s t R e a l i t y . Thus i t i s s a i d t r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h a t A d v a i t a x w N o t e t h a t the cterm' t h e o l o g y i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o the concept o f God, but r a t h e r t o the s c r i p t u r a l nature o f such systems. See a l s o : B h a r a t i , o p . c i t . , pp.104 f f ; Robin-son, o p . c i t . , pp.217-8; Smart, o p . c i t . , p.15 e t c . T h i s a l s o suggests the p o i n t made i n s e c t i o n 1 above concerning the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n and the mutual d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s experience and p h i l o s o p h y . 40 Vedanta begins i n s r u t i and ends i n anubhuti/ d i r e c t exper-i e n c e o f Reality.''""'" The c e n t r a l concern of A d v a i t a i s t o e s t a b l i s h the oneness o f R e a l i t y and t o l e a d the sadhaka t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f i t . The Upanisads, which are l i t e r a l l y the "end" o f the Veda or the "crown o f s r u t i " , c o n t a i n the s p i r i t u a l d i s c o v e r -i e s made by the a n c i e n t seers ( r s i s ) . They are c o n s i d e r e d to be a r e c o r d of the experiences o f these sages and are designed t o i n i t i a t e the a s p i r a n t i n t o the s e c r e t s of t h i s i n t u i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . These d e c l a r a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the testimony o f S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n (atma-saksatkara). In t h i s way they are h e l d 1 J 1 • 1 1 1 • 1 t o be unique and v e r y v a l u a b l e . The a s p i r a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o p l a c e f a i t h i n these t e x t s d u r i n g h i s p u r s u i t but the f i n a l t e s t i n A d v a i t a i s always e x p e r i e n c e . The g o a l o f the e n q u i r y i n t o the nature o f R e a l -i t y (brahma—vijnana) i s d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i v e e xperience (anubhava). Because o f t h i s , s c r i p t u r e i s a l s o "devalued" as h a v i n g but a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l v a l u e i n the p u r s u i t o f the r e a l -i z a t i o n o f Brahma-vidya. S r u t i as other's experience i s but mediate knowledge (paroksa) and o n l y when t h i s becomes immed-i a t e knowledge (aparoksa jnana) has s c r i p t u r e f u l f i l l e d i t s i t s purpose. T h i s mediate knowledge must become immediate, p e r s o n a l , i n t e g r a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s the l a t e r formal A d v a i t a epistemology wherein s"ruti i s g i v e n a h i g h p l a c e amongst the pramanas and anubhuti i s g i v e n the h i g h e s t p l a c e . 41 Gaudapada as both a p h i l o s o p h e r and a p r e c e p t o r uses s r u t i i n t h i s f a s h i o n . His K a r i k a i s based on a s c r i p t u r a l t e x t , the Mandukyopan i s ad, and i s an e x p o s i t i o n o f the ideas • • • found or suggested t h e r e i n . As such he e x p l a i n s s*ruti as w e l l as makes use o f i t i n h i s t e a c h i n g . As the p o s s i b l e i n t e r p -r e t a t i o n s o f s c r i p t u r e are many, Gaudapada s e t s out t o g i v e a sy s t e m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s from the st a n d p o i n t o f a b s o l u t e non-dualism and as such r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t o f i t s k i n d , as f a r as the extant l i t e r a t u r e goes, i n the t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a Vedanta. One of the t e x t names, Agamasastra, suggests t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . As i t i s the p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Upanisads which Gauda-pada expounds, i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t he should quote and make r e f e r e n c e t o these s c r i p t u r e s . Again, the f i r s t prakarana i s based on the Mandukyopanisad. Here and i n the ot h e r c h a p t e r s , Gaudapada makes frequent a l l u s i o n s t o other s c r i p t u r a l t e x t s . 1 The major sources f o r Gaudapada are the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad • • • " i n p a r t i c u l a r , as w e l l as the Chandogva, Katha, T a i t t i r l y a , •"•"For example, i n 11.31 Gaudapada uses the term "vedantesu" by which he means the Upanisadic l i t e r a t u r e ; i n III.11 t h e r e * i s r e f e r e n c e t o the Madhu-BrShmana chapter o f the Brhadaranyaka  Upanisad; i n III.23 Gaudapada uses the word s r u t i i t s e l f , i n III.24 he g i v e s p a r t i a l q u o t a t i o n s from the Katha (II.1.11), Brhad. (11.15.19), and Y a i u r Veda (XXXI.19); III.25 t a l k s o f t e x t s and g i v e s Brhad. III.9.28 as r e f e r e n c e ; III.26 r e f e r s t o the famous " n e t i , n e t i " o f Brhad. II.3.6; e t c . 42 «. / - • 13 K a u s i t a k i , Prasna and I s a Upanisads. When Gaudapada r e f e r s t o a t o p i c d i s c u s s e d i n s c r i p -t u r e , he uses such e x p r e s s i o n s as p r a k g / i t a ( i t has been made c l e a r ) , samprakasita (made v e r y c l e a r ) , and ve d a n t a - n i s c a y a (the s e t t l e d c o n c l u s i o n a r r i v e d a t i n Vedanta)."^ Thus Gaudapada does not c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y f o r h i s views. He employes the word smrta from the r o o t smr, "to remember," • . 15 e l e v e n times which i n d i c a t e s t h a t he r e f e r s t o d o c t r i n e s or tea c h i n g s handed down t r a d i t i o n a l l y , e i t h e r from s c r i p t u r a l and a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e x t s or from p r e v i o u s t e a c h e r s . T h i s i s a l s o c l e a r from h i s use o f terms which suggest both s e l f -r e a l i z e d beings and i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r p r e t e r s o f s c r i p t u r e . He c a l l s them munis (sages), manisins (the w i s e ) , v i c a k s a n a s 13 For p r e c i s e d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g the Upanisadic b a s i s o f the Mandukya K a r i k a see T.M.P. Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , pp.65-80 and Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p p . l x x x x - c i i i . Mahadevan concludes that,"There can be no doubt, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Gaudapada i s an Aupanisada t e a c h e r whose so l e , purpose i n w r i t i n g the K a r i k a i s to expound'the c e n t r a l t e a c h i n g o f the Upanifjads." (p.80) Karmarkar, o p . c i t . , p . i v , adds t h a t the K a r i k a may be indebted t o the Bhagavad-Glta a l s o . F u r t h e r , he suggests t h a t , " I t i s not u n l i k e l y t h a t Gaudapada who seems t o be indebted t o the Bhagavad-Glta f o r many ideas i n h i s K a r i k a , may have thought o f emphasising the Yoga element i n the G l t a by w r i t i n g a supp-lement t o i t . " (p.ix) As to - t h e p o s s i b l e source w i t h i n Buddhist m a t e r i a l s , mention has been g i v e n above. 14 MK II.3 and III.12; III.11; and 11.12 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.89. 1 5MK 1.1, 20, 26; II.4, 7; I I I . l ; IV.32, 46, 88, 90, 94. Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p . l x i i i . 43 ( s u b t l e s e e r s ) , t a t t v a v i d s (knowers o f t r u t h ) , vedaparagas (those who have reached the o t h e r shore of the Vedas), buddhas (the e n l i g h t e n e d ) , v i p r a s (the w i s e ) , v i d v a n s (the l e a r n e d ) , mahadhis (of g r e a t i n t e l l e c t ) , and mahajnanas (great knowers) From a l l t h i s i t i s c l e a r t h a t Gaudapada not o n l y a s s e r t s h i s own experience but quotes and r e f e r s t o t h e p a s t t r a d i t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , the r e f e r e n c e t o which appears to be predominantly t o those o f the Upanisadic l i t e r a t u r e . He f i r m l y bases h i m s e l f and h i s t e a c h i n g i n the s c r i p t u r a l t r a d i t i o n and from t h e r e develops h i s p h i l o s o p h y . From the t r u t h s o f s c r i p -t u r e he p o i n t s out the g o a l o f the s p i r i t u a l l i f e and the means t h e r e t o . S c r i p t u r e i s the h i g h e s t pramana and as mediate know-ledge must be a c t u a l i z e d i n experience (anubhava). T h i s use of s c r i p t u r e as sravana, as "hearing," w i l l be e x p l a i n e d f u r t h e r below. 3. THE USE OF REASON IN ADVAITA VEDANTA AND GAUDAPADA That which i s supported by s^ruti and c o r r o b o r a t e d by reason, t h a t alone i s the a c c e p t a b l e t r u t h and none o t h e r . -MK III.23 Gaudapada, w h i l e r e s o r t i n g to s c r i p t u r e throughout the t e x t , makes use o f reason and p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l approach t o 1 6MK 1.29, 11.35; I I . 1 , 5; IV.54; 11.31; 11.34; 11.35; IV. 19, 88; IV.86;. IV.86; IV.89; and IV.95 r e s p e c t i v e l y . From Mahadevan, o p . c i t p . . . 9 0 . See a l s o a l i s t o f phrases g i v e n by Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p . l x i i . 44 A d v a i t a . Even h i s q u o t a t i o n o f s c r i p t u r e o f t e n i s a passage wherein arguments are g i v e n . He uses re a s o n i n g (hetu, y u k t i or u p a p a t t i ) throughout the t e x t i n h i s e f f o r t s t o show the i l l u s o r i n e s s o f the world of d u a l i t y , t o e s t a b l i s h the non-i l l u s o r i n e s s o f non-dual R e a l i t y , and to show the p l u r a l i s t i c views c o n c e r n i n g c r e a t i o n are mutually c o n t r a d i c t o r y and thus f a l l a c i o u s . As the above q u o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , Gaudapada g i v e s 17 reason a s u b s t a n t i a l p l a c e i n h i s A d v a i t a . Reason i s an a i d i n the s e l e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s c r i p t u r a l passages 18 wherein the T r u t h i s d i s c l o s e d . Reason i t s e l f i s unable t o comprehend U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y and i t i s a l s o unable to l e a d the a s p i r a n t t o i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . I t i s o n l y mediate knowledge but i s a b l e t o a s s i s t e n q u i r y and-the p u r s u i t of r e a l knowledge. On the l e v e l o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l enquiry, Gaudapada uses reason t o show the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b s u r d i t y o f d u a l i t y and the views which m i r r o r t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n and t o f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h the t r u t h of Non-dual R e a l i t y . In the K a r i k a t h e r e i s a n e t -"""'Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , pp.81-93. 18 "As a V e d a n t i s t , he t r e a t s h i s s u b j e c t i n accordance with the s c r i p t u r e s (s'ruti) ,-~ y e t , not without pure reasons. D i r e c t or i n d i r e c t , h i s reasonings are i n many cases based on s c r i p t u r e s (II.1-10; I I I . 2 4 - 2 6 ) . But when t h e r e are c o n t r a d -i c t o r y s c r i p t u r e s , he says (III.23) t h a t those which are w i t h reasons ( y u k t i yukta) are t o be accepted. Besides, throughout the work he has advanced a number o f independent grounds which are v e r y cogent." Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p . c x x v i i . 45 work o f interwoven arguments f o r t h i s purpose. The method on the whole i s not a thoroughly s y s t e m a t i c one, f o r Gaudapada passes from argument t o argument and the c o n n e c t i o n i s o f t e n / • 19 tenuous, even xn the face o f Sankara's m a s t e r l y commentary. The f o u r t h prakarana i s by f a r the most cogent and s y s t e m a t i c c h a p t e r . H e r e i n Gaudapada uses the four-pronged d i a l e c t i c ( c a t u s k o t i ) t o the advantage o f h i s f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n or pos-i t i o n ( s i d d h a n t a ) . S y l l o g i s t i c forms are r e c o n s t r u c t e d by s . - 20 the commentators Sankara and Anandagxrx. The a n v a y a v y a t i -r e k i ( i n f e r e n c e based on the co-presence and co-absence o f the probans and the probundum) mode o f argumentation i s used i n 21 s e v e r a l p l a c e s . Gaudapada a l s o employs the method o f ar g u -22 mentation known as t a r k a ( r e d u c t i o ad absurdum). He uses a n a l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g throughout the Kar i k a and w i t h g r e a t dex-t e r i t y i n showing the i l i u s o r i n e s s o f the waking world on the ground o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y with the world o f the dream s t a t e . Other comparisons are used, the most prominent of which are 19 C a t e r i n a C onio. The P h i l o s o p h y o f the Mandukya K a r i k a ( V a r a n a r s i : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a Bhavan,_1971), pp;69-94 d e a l s w i t h the d i s j o i n t e d n a ture o f Gaudapada's r e a s o n i n g and argu-mentation i n the work as a whole. 20 For example i n the commentary on MK 11.14. 21 For example i n MK 11.17-18 and I I I . 3 1 . 2 2MK 1.17-18. 46 those concerned w i t h i l l u s i o n , such as the f a t a morgana, the magic-elephant, the rope-snake, and the designs c r e a t e d by the movement o f the f i r e - b r a n d , e t c . Gaudapada a l s o p o i n t s out 23 the f a l l a c i e s i n the arguments o f other s c h o o l s of thought. I t i s through these modes t h a t Gaudapada has p r o v i d e d the p h i l o s o p h y of A d v a i t a w i t h a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n upon which to b u i l d and develop. When a n a l y z i n g the Mandukya K a r i k a from the p e r s p e c -t i v e o f Gaudapada as p r e c e p t o r , other uses of reason can be seen. The aim o f A d v a i t a i s not pure p h i l o s o p h y but pure e x p e r i e n c e . To a l a r g e extent i t aims a t the r e j e c t i o n o f a l l p h i l o s o p h i e s , though not out o f s c e p t i c i s m or antagonism, but by t r a n s c e n d i n g them. The d u a l i s t s , confirmed b e l i e v e r s i n the methodologies e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s , are a t logger-heads with one another. But t h i s (non-dual) view f i n d s no c o n f l i c t with them. N o n - d u a l i t y i s the h i g h e s t R e a l i t y , s i n c e d u a l i t y i s s a i d t o be a product of i t . But f o r them t h e r e i s d u a l i t y e i t h e r way. T h e r e f o r e t h i s view (of ours) does not c l a s h (with t h e i r s ) . """"Some d e t a i l s are p r o v i d e d by Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.91. 24 MK III.17-18. "Advaita Vedanta i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n e l a b o r a t i n g the o n t o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f b e i n g and i n d e f i n -i n g concepts and c a t e g o r i e s - r a t h e r to make a d i a l e c t i c a l c r i t i c i s m t h e r e o f - based on the awareness t h a t the concepts and c a t e g o r i e s being f i n i t e i n c h a r a c t e r , cannot comprehend the i n f i n i t e or the u n c o n d i t i o n e d b e i n g - they may be a p p l i c -a b l e i n the realm o f d u a l i t y and the f i n i t e , but have no r e l e v a n c e so f a r as the awareness or experience o f b e i n g Is concerned." R.S. M i s r a , S t u d i e s i n Philosophy and R e l i g i o n ( V a r a n a r s i : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a Prakasana, 1971), p.6. 47 The purpose o f e n q u i r y i s b a s i c i n A d v a i t a Vedanta. I t c o n s i s t s i n p osing problems or doubts and seeking s o l u t i o n s f o r them. The problem i n A d v a i t a concerns the knowledge o f Brahman, o f R e a l i t y . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t h i s becomes a matter of m e t a p h y s i c a l understanding and r e l i g i o u s l y i t i s a matter of "knowing" and "becoming" t h a t r e a l i t y . These two are s a i d t o be one u l t i m a t e l y . The " d e s i r e to know" i s the f i r s t p r e - r e q u i s i t e which A d v a i t a Vedanta says i s necessary f o r the a s p i r a n t (sadhaka). T r a d i t i o n a l l y he p l a c e s h i m s e l f under a p r e c e p t o r (guru) and begins h i s sadhana or s p i r i t u a l q uest. The t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t s (upadesa) the a s p i r a n t i n the knowledge o f R e a l i t y which p r o -v i d e s him w i t h the means t o understand t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t o some degree so t h a t he can e v e n t u a l l y experience t h i s d i r e c t l y f o r h i m s e l f . Here the p r e c e p t o r uses s c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y ( s r u t i ) which enunciate the t r u t h s t o c o r r o b o r a t e h i s statements. F o r s c r i p t u r e i s the h i g h e s t source of mediate .knowledge co n c e r n i n g s p i r i t u a l m a t t e r s . Then the teacher may show the f a l s i t y o f phenomenal experience and p o i n t out the erroneous nature o f the teachings o f other s c h o o l s through both s c r i p t u r e and reasoned argument. Along with t h i s the p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e f o r the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f Brahma-vidya i s g i v e n . In t h i s way the p h i l o s o p h y i n the sense o f reasoned argumentation i n i t s v a r i o u s forms becomes a p r a c t i c a l t e a c h -48 i n g t e c h n i q u e . R e a l i t y i s a s s e r t e d and " i l l u s i o n " i s d e n i e d . These are demonstrated and defended through the use o f s c r i p -t u r e and reason. Through t h i s method the a s p i r a n t l e a r n s b a s i c t e a c h i n g s of the system and i s able to understand and i n t e r -n a l i z e them e a s i l y . E x p l a n a t i o n of these v a r i o u s s o r t s are e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n t h a t they are means t o r e s o l v e the doubts and apprehensions of the a s p i r a n t concerning the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the experience and t h a t i t i s more adequate than t h a t o f f e r -ed by other s c h o o l s o f thought. What the student has heard he must r e f l e c t upon (manana). He i s t o look a t i t c r i t i c a l l y from d i f f e r e n t p e r s -p e c t i v e s and r e s o l v e any doubts which might a s s a i l him u n t i l he i s convinced o f the t r u t h o f what he has been taught. What he l e a r n s on the a u t h o r i t y o f s c r i p t u r e and h i s guru i s t o be mediated i n thought b e f o r e i t can become a matter o f p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Through c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n l i e s the way to d i r e c t r e a l i z a t i o n ( s a k s a t k a r a ) . ""MK 1.18: T h i s k i n d of t a l k i s f o r the sake of making i n s t r u c t i o n (upades^a) p o s s i b l e . 26 . "Does Gaudapada r e a l l y t r y t o g i v e a l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n t o the Upanisadic i n t u i t i o n , or does he merely t r y t o i l l u s -t r a t e i t by examples as any good guru does t o h e l p h i s p u p i l understand i t ? In other words, i s Gaudapada's purpose a p h i l -o s o p h i c a l or a p e d a g o g i c a l one? I t i s not o b v i o u s l y a q u e s t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i n g the p e r s o n a l i n t e n t i o n s o f the c o m p i l e r o f the Kar i k a - though the r e l i g i o u s motive i s q u i t e e v i d e n t . I t i s a q u e s t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i n g the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r or o t h e r -wise, o f the v a l u e o f the g i v e n arguments." Conio, d p . c i t . , p.3. 49 T h i s i s a l s o c a l l e d v i c a r a , the constant r e f l e c t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s p i r i t u a l problems. T h i s d i r e c t l y concerns the enquiry i n t o the nature o f R e a l i t y (Brahman) and the S e l f (Atman) . Reasoning by the student a i d e d by the e x p l a n a t i o n s , arguments, examples and i l l u s t r a t i o n s from the teacher, enables the sadhaka t o progress on the path towards S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . T h i s i s the p r a c t i c a l usage of p h i l o s o p h y w i t h i n A d v a i t a Vedanta. A d v a i t a r e p r e s e n t s the jriana-marga, the path o f know-ledge, which h o l d s t h a t the immediate knowledge of one's atman ( S e l f ) can be o n l y through aparoksa-jnana ( d i r e c t unmed-i a t e d i n t u i t i v e e xperience or knowledge). As has been shown, the t r a d i t i o n makes use o f the mediate forms o f knowledge to a i d i n t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n . S r u t i i s what i s helped; y u k t i or t a r k a i s what h e l p s . As an a i d to r e v e l a t i o n , reason i s o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e ; and i t should be regarded as s u b s i d i a r y to s'ruti and a n u b h u t i . 2 7 4. OTHER TEACHING DEVICES USED BY GAUDAPADA Things t o be r e j e c t e d , r e a l i z e d , accepted, and made e f f e c t i v e are to be known at the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . -MK IV.90 As i s e v i d e n t from t h i s q u o t a t i o n , an e n t i r e p r a c t i c e i s s e t f o r t h f o r the sadhaka as w e l l as i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.88, p a r a p h r a s i n g Sankara's Brahma  S u t r a Bhasya 1.1.2 and II.1.6. 50 j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Gaudapada p r o v i d e s both i n the t e x t o f the Mandukya K a r i k a . Although i n w r i t t e n form, i t s t i l l r e f l e c t s the technique o f p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n and d i a l o g u e of the o r a l u p a n i s a d i c t r a d i t i o n . I t merely takes a s t e p out o f the i n t i m a t e guru-s'isya (teacher-student) r e l a t i o n s h i p and s e t s f o r t h the process of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a t e x t u a l form. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e of s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t e x t i n i t s o v e r -t u r e s t o s y s t e m a t i c p r e s s e n t a t i o n and y e t i t r e t a i n s the l o o s e -ness of the i n t i m a t e and s e c r e t v e r b a l t r a n s m i s s i o n i n i t s s t r u c t u r e , form, e x p r e s s i o n s , and methods. Gaudapada, as has been shown, uses s c r i p t u r e , reason, and p r a c t i c a l s p i r i t u a l a d v i c e and a t times these are s p e c i f -i c a l l y f o r use as /ravana ( l i s t e n i n g ) , manana ( t h i n k i n g ) , and n i d idhyas ana ( c o n t e m p l a t i o n ) . With i n these forms he shows h i m s e l f as adept a t the use of f i g u r a t i v e language. He u t i l -i z e s p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , m y t h o l o g i c a l examples, sagacious a n a l o g i e s , examples and i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the purposes of d e s c r i p t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n . These are used p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t o s t i m u l a t e the i n t e l l e c t and a l s o r e l i g i o u s l y t o e n t i c e the h e a r t o f the a s p i r a n t . For the h i g h e s t t r u t h or U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y i s beyond d e s c r i p t i o n , beyond language, beyond the i n t e l l e c t . I t can o n l y be i n d i c a t e d i n a d e q u a t e l y through language by p o i n t i n g out some s i m i l a r i t i e s t o v a l u e d q u a l i t i e s , through analogous i n s t a n c e s and n e g a t i v e pronouncements con-c e r n i n g i t s n a t u r e . In t h i s way the language used e x h i b i t s 51 a l a r g e degree o f symbolic e x p r e s s i o n i n these v a r i o u s forms. In the f i r s t prakarana Gaudapada makes use o f the my t h o l o g i c a l - s y m b o l i c f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the thr e e s t a t e s o f experience t o good advantage f o r i t c o n c r e t i z e s what i s a r a t h e r a b s t r a c t concept o f t h a t t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e . H is use o f metaphors abounds throughout the whole t e x t , the most n o t a b l e o f which are t h a t o f the f i r e - b r a n d concerning the nature o f the c r e a t i o n and the i l l u s o r y nature o f the manifested u n i v e r s e (IV.47-50) and t h a t o f the space w i t h i n the v a r i o u s j a r s con-c e r n i n g the nature o f the i n d i v i d u a l s o u l s (jIvas) and Brahman (III.1-11 e t c . ) . In III.15, Gaudapada gives an instance o f the use of the examples o f e a r t h , g o l d , sparks, and so f o r t h i n s c r i p t u r e t o i n d i c a t e the u n i t y which e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e m u l t i f a r i o u s c r e a t i o n . In many other i n s t a n c e s , he merely f o l l o w s the p r i n c i p l e s o f e x p l a n a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e a d y used w i t h i n the Upanisadic l i t e r a t u r e . Gaudapada prese n t s images, r e l a t e d t o everyday exper-ience, by which the a s p i r a n t may f u r t h e r understand the ""An analogy's f u n c t i o n l i e s i n i t s s u g g e s t i n g a meaning which'-cannot be adequately formulated i n thought. I t i s not t o h i n t a t a t o t a l l y u n e x p r e s s i b l e r e a l i t y but to symbolize something we do know, though not e n t i r e l y . Thus i t opens a door t o deeper i n s i g h t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y seen i n the t a k i n g o f e p i s t e m o l o t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n t o the m e t a p h y s i c a l f i e l d . 29 -F u r t h e r , i n MK III.14, Gaudapada says t h a t the karma-kanda p o r t i o n s o f s c r i p t u r e use a f i g u r a t i v e or secondary language (gauna) when i t says t h a t the jIva and atman are d i f f e r e n t . 52 a b s t r u s e t e a c h i n g s . He e x p l a i n s t h i n g s i n ways understandable t o the e n q u i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l . For example, he t a l k s of " c r e a -t i o n " through the process o f " i m a g i n a t i o n " : Atman, t o which he g i v e s the c o n c r e t e form o f I s v a r a , the Lord, "turns h i s mind outward" ( I I I . 1 3 ) . He embellishes t h i s with examples o f dreaming, magic, i l l u s i o n and h a l l u c i n a t i o n . And i n t h i s way he enables the a s p i r a n t t o p e r c e i v e the process of c r e a t i o n and " t u r n i n g back" (IV.74) through t h i s v i s u a l and f a m i l i a r process o f the mind. These are a l l means o f e x p r e s s i n g and communicating r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t r e v e a l s the phenomen-o l o g i c a l v ersus the l o g i c a l nature of A d v a i t a . I t i s not so much a problem o f d e f i n i n g Brahman e t c . as i t i s one o f des-c r i b i n g the fundamental f e a t u r e s o f man's experi e n c e of Being. The e x p e r i e n t i a l dimension i s i n t e r p r e t e d by the mind i n t o symbols, c o n c r e t e d e s c r i p t i o n s and d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r the pur-poses o f communication. The name, Brahman, f o r example, i s the c o n c e p t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f the "content" o f n o n - d u a l i s t i c s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . Any d e s c r i p -t i o n of t h i s s o r t i s l i m i t e d by the s t r u c t u r e o f language and the content o f everyday e x p e r i e n c e . As such i t i s merely a p r o v i s i o n a l and p a r t i a l d e f i n i t i o n . But as Brahman i s acosmic, the t r a d i t i o n p r e f e r s to d e s c r i b e i t " v i a n e g a t i v a " , through terms l i k e acintyam (beyond thought), asparsam (beyond c o n t a c t ) , asabdam (beyond speech), e t c . What i s i m p l i e d t h e r e i n i s 53 t h a t the p r i n c i p l e i s i n d e f i n a b l e i n terms known to us. As i t cannot be d e f i n e d i n terms o f a "second", i t i s advyam, advaitam, advitTyam (non-dual). As i t i s incomparable, no f i n i t e word or thought can measure i t , nor negate i t . F o r these reasons, Gaudapada's t e x t i s d i f f i c u l t t o 30 f u l l y understand by the i n t e l l e c t a l o n e . In order t o enable the student t o understand here, as w e l l as on other l e v e l s , Gaudapada t a l k s from v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s t o aid the student i n coming t o a comprehensive i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding and e v e n t u a l l y t o p e r s o n a l r e a l i z a t i o n . Hence he w r i t e s paradox-i c a l l y when making statements from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the h i g h -e s t knowledge (paramartha s a t y a ) . When w r i t i n g from our ev e r y -day shared world o f experience (samvrti) he expresses these t r u t h s f i g u r a t i v e l y and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y . Thus he switches back and f o r t h between these two l e v e l s o f understanding i n h i s e x p o s i t i o n . A l s o , i t should be noted, t h a t u n l i k e Sankara, Gaudapada mostly expounds h i s teachings from paramartha, the h i g h e s t s t a t e o f n o n - d u a l i t y . T h i s leads him i n t o an enormous amount o f n e g a t i o n and s t r o n g arguments concerning the nature o f r e a l i t y . F i n a l l y , GaudapSda possesses an apt a b i l i t y t o compre-hend the d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s o f students and t o p r e s c r i b e f o r them an a p p r o p r i a t e s p i r i t u a l 'MK IV. 100. 54 p u r s u i t . T h i s i s c a l l e d upaya or s k i l l f u l means. R e a l i z i n g t h a t o r d i n a r y people f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o g r a s p t h e s u b t l e T r u t h o f A d v a i t a , Gaudapada r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r a p p r o p r i a t e understanding and e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e p r a c t i c e t o s u i t the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s s p i r i t u a l growth or e v o l u t i o n . Knowing t h a t i n the course of time they w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n t o understand the h i g h e s t Truth, Gaudapada allows the p r a c t i c e of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of d i s c i p l i n e s f o r those who are w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l stages of l i f e (asramas) (III.16) and f o r those t h e r e i n who are graded as being of lower, m i d d l i n g and h i g h e r or s u p e r i o r a b i l i t i e s . Though time and assiduous p r a c t i c e anyone can p r o -g r e s s i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . He s a n c t i o n s the use o f any means to l e a d the i n d i v i d u a l t o f u r t h e r growth and p r o g r e s s , be i t i n the form o f l e s s e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l understanding or the p r a c -t i c e o f a l e s s e r s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e . Through time, exper-i e n c e , r i g h t t h i n k i n g , and proper a d v i c e the a s p i r a n t w i l l e v o l ve and e v e n t u a l l y become S e l f - r e a l i z e d and thus f i n d f r e e -dom, peace and b l i s s i n t h i s v e r y l i f e . In sum, Gaudapada i s seen t o be a p r e c e p t o r of g r e a t a b i l i t y . Aware of the nature of R e a l i t y and the d i f f i c u l t y i n communicating t h i s i n any forms he uses v a r i o u s modes and d e v i c e s t o enable others t o come t o some understanding o f t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y i n d i r e c t , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Thus he harmoniously combines a mastery of s c r i p t u r e , l o g i c a l s k i l l , and r i c h s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n h i s Mandukya K a r i k a e x p o s i t i o n of the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of Brahma-vidya. 55 CHAPTER IV THE PHILOSOPHY OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA Hence I s h a l l speak of t h a t (Brahman) which i s f r e e from l i m i t a t i o n , has no b i r t h , and i s i n a s t a t e o f e q u i p o i s e ; and l i s t e n how n o t h i n g whatsoever i s born i n any way, though i t seems t o be b o r n . -MK III.2 In h i s d u a l r o l e as a p h i l o s o p h e r and p r e c e p t o r , Gaudapada's f u n c t i o n as a p h i l o s o p h e r has been i s o l a t e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by s c h o l a r s . He i s seen p r i m a r i l y as a meta-p h y s i c i a n and the f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c p h i l o s o p h e r of the A d v a i t a Vedanta t r a d i t i o n . T h i s aspect of h i s l i f e and work w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s chapter while the remaining chapters w i l l d e a l w i t h the e x p l i c i t though r e l a t e d aspects of Gaudapada's p r a c t i c a l s i d e as a p r e c e p t o r . T h i s chapter then w i l l b r i e f l y s k e t c h the main areas o f h i s m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e r n . Beginning w i t h h i s assumptions of the nature of non-dual R e a l i t y and the concept of a j a t i v a d a ( n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n ) , the nature and r e l a -t i o n s h i p between n o n - d u a l i t y and the world and the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n t u r n . 1. NON-DUALITY (ADVAITA) Brahman i s b i r t h l e s s , s l e e p l e s s , dreamless, nameless, fo r m l e s s , ever e f f u l g e n t , e v e r y t h i n g , and a knower. -MK III.36 Among the Vedantins, Gaudapada i s an A d v a i t i n , the 56 h i g h e s t t r u t h t o h i m b e i n g a d v a i t a o r " n o n - d u a l i t y . , , J - As w i t h a l l A d v a i t i n s t h e r e a r e two m a i n a s p e c t s o f h i s t e a c h i n g s c o n -c e r n i n g r e a l i t y . F i r s t , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e s o l e r e a l i t y i s t h e n o n - d u a l Brahman. S e c o n d l y , t h e p l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e o f common e x p e r i e n c e i s i l l u s o r y , f a l s e o r d e c e p t i v e . The d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n o f V e d a n t a i s t h a t o n l y t h e n o n - d u a l Brahman e x i s t s a n d t t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s r e a l l y Brahman. To p e r c e i v e o t h e r w i s e i s due t o i g n o r a n c e o f t h e n a t u r e o f R e a l i t y . Gaudapada assumes, o r r a t h e r t a k e s h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s t a n d , on n o n - d u a l Brahman as t h e h i g h e s t t r u t h and supreme r e a l i t y . T h i s i s b o t h t h e t e a c h i n g and t h e u l t i -mate g o a l o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y and a d v o c a t e d p r a c t i c e . The n o n -d u a l Brahman i s n o t j u s t a c o n c e p t u a l d o c t r i n e b u t r a t h e r t h e p l e n a r y e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s p i r a n t must a t t a i n i n o r d e r t o be t r u l y f r e e and e n l i g h t e n e d . Gaudapada expounds t h i s t e a c h i n g c o n c e r n i n g n o n - d u a l Brahman t h r o u g h q u o t i n g s c r i p t u r a l p a s s a g e s , t h r o u g h r e a s o n i n g and t h r o u g h i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The A g a m a - p r a k a r a n a i t s e l f embodies t h e r e l e v a n t q u o t -a t i o n s o f t h e M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d . H e r e t h e n o n - d u a l , u n c h a n g i n g — 2 R e a l i t y i s c a l l e d T u r i y a , "the f o u r t h . " I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f A d v a i t a m p a r a m a r t h a h ( 1 . 1 7 ) ; a d v a i t a m p a r a m a r t h o h i ( I I I . 1 8 ) ; a d v a i t e y o j a y e t s m r t i m ( 1 1 . 3 6 ) . T h e r e a r e i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t a l s o . MUp 7 and 12. 57 experience, and t h r e e avasthas are shown t o s u b s i s t i n t h i s r e a l i t y . I t i s not a f o u r t h s t a t e of experience i n a d d i t i o n t o , or over and above the o t h e r s , but i s i t s e l f the one r e a l -i t y o f which they are appearances. As i t i s not a f i n i t e e n t i t y i t cannot r e a l l y be d e s c r i b e d or even named. I t i s thus i n d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e d by n e g a t i v e terms i n d i c a t i n g what i t i s n o t . Thus i t i s s a i d t o be the c e s s a t i o n o f the world, q u i e -s c e n t , b l i s s f u l and non-dual. I t i s the S e l f which i s Brahman 3 and the s c r x p t u r e s r e f e r t o xt by the s a c r e d mantra OM. In h i s attached K a r i k a s , Gaudapada expands on t h i s d o c t r i n e of the Turxya w h i l e c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g the U p a n i s a d . 4 The e q u i -v a l e n c e between Turxya, Brahman, Atman, and the pranava (Omkara) are r e - i t e r a t e d . In the A d v a i t a - p r a k a r a n a Gaudapada c i t e s well-known • * passages from the Upanisads i n order t o i n d i c a t e the s c r i p -t u r a l b a s i s of the t e a c h i n g c o n c e r n i n g non-dual Brahman.^ The second and f o u r t h prakaranas a l s o add emphasis t o t h i s i n 3MUp 1, 2, 7, 8, and 12. 4MK 1.10-16 e s p e c i a l l y . 5MK 1.25-27. ^The s e l e c t i o n s i n the A d v a i t a - p r a k a r a n a are drawn from the BrhUp i n p a r t i c u l a r and e s p e c i a l l y book IV o f t h a t t e x t . A l s o , MK IV.12, 24, 25, 26 g i v e s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e through q u o t a t i o n s . 58 t h e i r concern with showing the f a l s i t y and d e c e p t i o n o f p l u r -a l i t y through reasoned argumentation. The nature of Brahman i s d e f i n e d both a f f i r m a t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y by Gaudapada, f o l l o w i n g the way o f the Upanisads. P o s i t i v e l y , Brahman i s i s v a r a o r God when r e l a t e d t o and i n c l u s i v e o f the world. In t h i s form he i s c a l l e d the lower (apara) Brahman and i s seated i n the h e a r t s o f a l l . He i s the a l l - p e r v a s i v e Lord, i m p e l l i n g a l l beings t o a c t i v -8 — / ' — i t y . I s v a r a i s equated w i t h T u r i y a and the symbol OM. As 9 such He i s a l s o the beginning, middle and end o f a l l t h i n g s and remains the same w i t h i n a l l the changing s t a t e s o f exper-i e n c e . 1 ^ To him d e v o t i o n and worship i s g i v e n through the p r a c t i c e o f upasanas e t c . N e g a t i v e l y , Brahman cannot be desi g n a t e d nor d e s c r i b e d f o r i t i s tr a n s - p h e n o m e n a l . 1 1 The h i g h e r Brahman (para-1 2 brahma) x i s not r e l a t e d t o t h i s p l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e i n any way. Because o f t h i s the language used i s a n e g a t i o n of d u a l i s t i c d e s i g n a t i o n s . Brahman can r e a l l y o n l y be c h a r a c t e r -1 o l z e d as "not t h i s , not t h i s " . There i s n o t h i n g p r i o r t o 7MK 1.26 and 28. 8MK I.10. 9MK 1.27. 1 0MK 1.22. 1:LMK IV.60. 1 2MK 1.26 and I I I . 1 2 . 1 3MK I I I . 2 6 . 59 i t ; nor anything a f t e r i t . I t has n e i t h e r an i n s i d e nor an 14 o u t s i d e ; no name, nor form; no content, nor movement. I t i s d e v o i d o f s l e e p and dream and as the " f o u r t h " transcends 15 the t h r e e s t a t e s of e x p e r i e n c e . In s p i t e o f the nature o f these r e s t r i c t i o n s of des-c r i p t i o n , Gaudapada does i n d i c a t e some p o s i t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s n e g a t i o n l e s t Brahman be i n f e r r e d as a v o i d or a non-e n t i t y . Brahman i s e t e r n a l and i n f i n i t e non-dual r e a l i t y . I t i s the s e l f - l u m i n o u s , a l l - l i g h t , pure consciousness which 17 remains ever the same. And i t i s s a i d t o be i n f i n i t e b l i s s 18 and t r a n q u i l i t y . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n essence the d e f i n -i t i o n o f Brahman as s a t , c i t , and ananda used l a t e r i n the t r a d i t i o n . 2. NON-ORIGINATION (AJATTVADA) S i n c e o r i g i n a t i o n i s not a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t , i t i s d e c l a r e d (by the Upanisads) t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s b i r t h l e s s . Moreover, t h e r e i s no o r i g i n a t i o n , i n any way whatsoever, of any n o n - e x i s t i n g t h i n g from an e x i s t i n g one. -MK IV.38 MK 1.26, III.36, IV.45 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 'MK 1.14; 16; III.36; IV.81. 'MK I I I . 18 and 33. MK 1.12, III.36, IV.81. 'MK 1.29, III.47, IV.93. 60 The c e n t r a l theme o f Gaudapada's metaphysics i s h i s d o c t r i n e of a j a t i v a d a , t h a t "nothing whatsoever i s born"."'"9 T h i s d o c t r i n e i s intended by Gaudapada t o show t h a t n o n - d u a l i t y i s the supreme T r u t h . For from the s t a n d p o i n t of the Absolute (Brahman), t h e r e i s no d u a l i t y , n o t h i n g f i n i t e or n o n - e t e r n a l . Brahman alone i s . A l l e l s e i s i l l u s o r y and n o n - r e a l appear-ance. E m p i r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s are untrue, they are devoid of r e a l i t y . Any i d e a o f o r i g i n a t i o n i s mere i l l u s i o n and non-o r i g i n a t i o n i s the u l t i m a t e t r u t h . N o n - o r i g i n a t i o n , n o n - b i r t h , or the n e g a t i o n of the concept o f c a u s a l i t y s t r i k e s a t the r o o t o f d u a l i s t i c concep-t u a l thought. The concept of b i r t h or c a u s a t i o n suggests d u a l i t y i n a l l i t s forms o f r e l a t i o n . Cause and e f f e c t i s the example which stands f o r the other r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n time, space and c a u s a l i t y such as s u b j e c t - o b j e c t , s u b s t a n c e - a t t r i b u t e , and so f o r t h . Instead o f d e a l i n g with m u l t i p l e examples o f d u a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s , he c o n f i n e s h i m s e l f t o f u l l y e x p l o r i n g t h i s one p r o p o s i t i o n . Gaudapada expounds the p h i l o s o p h y o f a j a t i i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h prakaranas o f the t e x t . In the Advaita-prakarana , Gaudapada draws support from s c r i p t u r a l passages. He admits t h a t s c r i p t u r e ( s r u t i ) -teaches c r e a t i o n ( s r s t i ) i n many p l a c e s ' • • • but he p o i n t s out t h a t s c r i p t u r e does not d e c l a r e t h a t i t i s r e a l . S c r i p t u r e a l s o teaches the n o n - d u a l i t y o f the S e l f and MK III.48, IV.38, and 71 are d e f i n i t e summation statements. I t i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n IV.5, 19, 22, 29, 40, 45, 78, and 96. 61 the i l l u s o r y nature o f p l u r a l i t y . I f c r e a t i o n were r e a l , these l a t t e r t e a c h i n g s would themselves be f a l l a c i o u s . The r e a l import and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e r i v e d through proper i n q u i r y ( n i s c i t a ) and reas o n i n g (yuktiyukta) i s t h a t the c r e a t i o n — — 20 which i s spoken o f must be an i l l u s o r y one (mayamaya). The r e a l purpose of the i n s t a n c e s where s c r i p t u r e speaks o f c r e a -t i o n are t o i n t r o d u c e the u n i t y o f the phenomenal m a n i f e s t a -21 t i o n which i n d i c a t e s i t s r e a l nature as non-dual r e a l i t y . GaudapSda a l s o admits t h a t c r e a t i o n i s spoken o f f o r those who are a f r a i d o f t h i s t r u t h o f n o n - b i r t h and who as y e t have not progressed on the s p i r i t u a l path t o the p o i n t o f such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ^ In the A l a t a s a n t i - p r a k a r a n a , the l a s t chapter o f the work, Gaudapada g i v e s a c r i t i q u e o f c a u s a l i t y and by means o f d i a l e c t i c a l arguments he attempts t o show t h a t the concept o f o r i g i n a t i o n i s untenable. Again, t h a t people o r d i n a r i l y b e l i e v e i n the o r i g i n a t i o n o f t h i n g s , Gaudapada does not deny. What he does do i s show t h a t such a b e l i e f , when c r i t i c a l l y examined, lends i t s e l f t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n s making i t u n i n t e l l -i g i b l e . In MK IV.3, 4 and 5, he says t h a t those who d i s p u t e with each other simply d e s t r o y each other's p o s i t i o n and thus a i d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a j a t i v a d a by t h e i r mutual c o n t r a d i c t i o n . 20 MK I I I . 2 3 . 21 MK III.15 and the f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s through t o I I I . 2 8 . 22 MK IV.42 and 43. 62 At the end o f the t h i r d prakarana, Gaudapada a l s o d e t a i l s the b a s i c arguments f o r n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n . He takes on the t h e o r i e s o f c a u s a t i o n h e l d by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s t s (parinamavadins) i n MK III.27 and the n i h i l i s t s (asadvadins) i n MK I I I . 2 8 . Those who s u b s c r i b e to the view of t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n o f o r i g i n a l b e i n g i n t o the world, t h a t t h i n g s take b i r t h i n a r e a l sense, h o l d t h a t t h e r e can onl y be the b i r t h o f what i s a l r e a d y born. T h i s , Gaudapada p o i n t s out, i s a con-t r a d i c t i o n . For when a t h i n g i s born i t ceases t o be b i r t h l e s s . What the d i s p u t a n t s should say i s t h a t what i s born i s born as something e l s e . T h i s , however, i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as i t leads the argument Into becoming one of a never-ending process of s eeking p r e v i o u s causes. The r e s u l t o f t h i s i s t h a t one can o n l y say t h a t the b i r t h o f what a l r e a d y e x i s t s can be reasonably p o s s i b l e o n l y through maya and not i n r e a l i t y . The n i h i l i s t maintains t h a t the world which appears i s produced out o f the u n r e a l ( a s a t ) , t h a t the n o n - e x i s t e n t cannot be born e i t h e r r e a l l y ( t a t t v a t a h ) , nor i l l u s o r i l y (mayaya). The example g i v e n i s the c l a s s i c a l one of the son o f a b a r r e n woman. Thus, a f t e r examining these opposing views, Gaudapada s t a t e s t h a t the r e a l alone may be s a i d t o be born, and even t h a t i s not i n r e a l i t y but o n l y through maya. In the second prakarana Gaudapada p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d t h i s on the analogy of the dream-world. As i n the dream state,< a world i s c r e a t e d i l l u s o r i l y , so a l s o i n waking a s i m i l a r t h i n g happens. In MK III.29 and 30 he goes f u r t h e r and suggests t h a t i t i s the 63 mind which moves through maya and c r e a t e s the i l l u s i o n o f the d u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s o f the p l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e . The d i s t i n c -t i o n s o f seer, seen, cause and e f f e c t , e t c . c r e a t e the app-earance o f a r e a l world. The u l t i m a t e t r u t h i s t h a t t h e r e i s not h i n g which i s born and t h a t R e a l i t y i s unborn (aja) and non-dual (advaya). ° The main d i a l e c t i c a l argument t h a t a l l i s a j a and t h a t the o r i g i n a t i o n o f anything cannot be demonstrated i s g i v e n s e v e r a l t i m e s . 2 4 In MK IV.22, TV.38 and 40, the argu-ment t h a t i n no way can the g e n e r a t i o n o f anything be demon-s t r a t e d f o l l o w s thus: 1. the n o n - e x i s t e n t cannot have the n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r i t s cause 2. nor the e x i s t e n t have the n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r i t s cause 3. the e x i s t e n t cannot be the e f f e c t o f the e x i s t e n t 4. nor can the e x i s t e n t be the e f f e c t o f the non-e x i s t e n t . The c a u s e - e f f e c t reflation i s thus seen t o be r e p l e t e with con-t r a d i c t i o n s when put t o c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s . Gaudapada a l s o uses i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the l a s t prakarana not o n l y t o show t h a t r e a l i t y i s non-dual (advaita) but t h a t n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n ( a j a t i ) i s the h i g h e s t t r u t h . He -"Corroborated by Sankara's and A n a n d a g i r i ' s commentaries on MK I I I . 2 7 . MK IV.22, 38, and 83-4. T h i s d i a l e c t i c i s used by Gaudapada throughout the four'thr prakarana. For example, i t can be seen w i t h i n the arguments used i n MK III.20-22 and IV.6-10, IV.11-19, IV.24-28 and so on. 64 uses the analogy o f dreams i n IV.32-41 t o show t h a t the waking s t a t e i s n o n - r e a l and thus u n - o r i g i n a t e d . Verses 47-50 g i v e the important i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the f i r e - b r a n d wherein the designs are not i n f a c t t r u l y formed by the moving f i r e - b r a n d and t h a t l i k e the t h i n g s o f the phenomenal u n i v e r s e they are not r e a l l y c r e a t e d . Other examples suggest t h a t as the snake i s not a t any time born o f the rope, and the s k y - c i t y i s not c r e a t e d by an a r c h i t e c t , nor the magic-elephant r e a l l y gener-ated, the apparent b i r t h and death o f t h i n g s are l i k e w i s e 25 -i l l u s o r y . The h i g h e s t t r u t h , s t a t e s Gaudapada, i s t h a t 2 6 n o t h i n g whatsoever i s born. Here, as w i t h T u r i y a and Brahman, even t o g i v e a desig-n a t i o n t o t h i s non-dual p r i n c i p l e i s i n f a c t t o d i s t o r t the t r u t h o f I t i t s e l f . For a j a t i i s meaningful o n l y as long as j a t i ( b i r t h ) c a r r i e s a meaning w i t h i n everyday e m p i r i c a l 27 T d e a l i n g s . J u s t as T u r i y a i s c a l l e d the " f o u r t h " through the s u p e r - i m p o s i t i o n o f a number categor y f o r t h e purpose o f i n d i c a t i n g the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e from the t h r e e avasthas, so a l s o i s a j a t i spoken o f e r r o n e o u s l y t o t h i s degree i n order t o enable the student t o understand the s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h i s r e a l i t y from what appears t o be born. 2 5MK IV.44, 68-70 and 71. 2 6MK III.48 and IV.71. 2 7MK IV.74. 65 Brahman i s not born, nor i s t h e r e anything e l s e t h a t i s born. Brahman, which i s the e t e r n a l and immutable R e a l i t y , i s n e i t h e r e f f e c t nor cause. There i s n o t h i n g o t h e r than i t , e i t h e r t o produce i t or be produced by i t . O r i g i n a t i o n ( j a t i ) , a c t i v i t y ( c a l a ) , and o b j e c t i v i t y (vastutva) are a l l f a l s e 28 appearances. There i s no d i s s o l u t i o n , no o r i g i n a t i o n , none i n bon-dage, none s t r i v i n g or a s p i r i n g f o r s a l v a t i o n , no seeker a f t e r r e l e a s e , and no one who i s l i b e r a t e d . T h i s , says Gaudapada, 29 i s the h i g h e s t t r u t h o f A d v a i t a Vedanta. These e x p r e s s i o n s have meaning on l y i n the r e l a t i v e world o f experience (samvrti) and make no sense sub s p e c i e a t e r n i t a t i s f o r they have no p l a c e i n the Absolute (paramartha). 3. THE NATURE OF THE WORLD A l l t h i s d u a l i t y t h a t i s n o t h i n g but Maya, i s but non-d u a l i t y i n r e a l i t y . -MK 1.17 Gaudapada speaks from the l e v e l of paramartha-satya ( a b s o l u t e t r u t h ) when he s t a t e s t h a t the non-dual Brahman i s the s o l e r e a l i t y and the world of p l u r a l i t y i s an i l l u s o r y appearance induced by maya (nescience or i g n o r a n c e ) . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , he a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e i s i n r e a l i t y no world O Q MK IV.45. 29 ^MK 11.32. 66 and hence t h e r e i s r e a l l y no q u e s t i o n as t o the mode o f i t s g e n e r a t i o n . The r e a l (sat) i s prapancopasama, the quiescence 30 o f the m a n i f o l d u n i v e r s e . I f the u n i v e r s e appears i t i s an i l l u s o r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n . T h i s view o f the v a i t a t h y a ( f a l s e or non-real) nature o f the world came t o be c a l l e d v i v a r t a - v a d a i n l a t e r A d v a i t a . Gaudapada uses s e v e r a l terms t o express t h i s i l l u s o r y nature o f the phenomenal world. Maya i s t h a t which covers 31 r e a l i t y and p r o j e c t s the n o n - r e a l world. V a i t a t h y a , as the name o f the second prakarana i n d i c a t e s , i s u n r e a l i t y or t h a t 32 which i s not the r e a l (sat, i e , Brahman). Mithya suggests t h a t the world i s f a l l a c i o u s due t o b e i n g e r r o n e o u s l y cognized, I t i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as an appearance (abhasa), t h a t which 33 i s wrongly imagined ( k a l p i t a ) , and an erroneous p e r c e p t i o n ( v i p a r y a y a ) , 3 4 C o n t r a s t e d with Brahman, the Absolute R e a l i t y (paramartha), the r e a l i t y which belongs t o the world i s - - 35 e m p i r i c a l or r e l a t i v e (vyavaharika or s a m v r t i ) . Gaudapada s t a t e s h i s p o s i t i o n i n the f i r s t two 3 0MUp 7 and 12; MK 1.29 (advaitasyopasamh) and 11.35 (prapaTicos*amah) . 3 1MK 1.17-18. 32 * Sankara's commentary on MK I I . 1 . 3 3MK 1.18; II. 9 , 10, 14 and 15. 3 4MK IV.46. 3 5MK IV.57 and 74. 67 prakaranas. In the A"qama-prakarana, he e s t a b l i s h e s through • * t a r k a ( r e d u c t i o ad absurdum) t h a t the u n i v e r s e does not r e a l l y e x i s t . In the V a i t a t h y a - p r a k a r a n a , he c h a r a c t e r i z e s the world o f waking t o be i l l u s o r y on the b a s i s o f i t s s i m i l a r i t -37 -i e s t o the dream-world. Gaudapada a l s o u t i l i z e s h i s many an a l o g i e s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o f u r t h e r e x p l a i n the i l l u s o r -i n e s s o f the phenomenal world. For example, the well-known rope-snake analogy i s g i v e n as w e l l as the many i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i n g s c r e a t e d by magic (maya). Though they appear, they do not t r u l y e x i s t . They are maya-matra, the p r o d u c t i o n o f m a g i c - l i k e maya" and thus mere i l l u s i o n . What then i s the agency by which the m a n i f o l d appear-ance i s generated? Gaudapada p r o v i d e s f o u r answers from d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s : 1. the S e l f (Atman) imagines (kalpana) i t s e l f through i t s e l f 3 8 2. the b i r t h l e s s S e l f becomes d i f f e r e n t i a t e d through m a ya 3 9 3. the world m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s a mere v i b r a t i o n o f consciousness ( c i t t a s p a n d i t a ) ^ 0 as i s p e r c e i v e d by the mind (manodrs'ya) 4 1 3 6MK 1.17-18, 3 7MK II.1-11, 3 8MK 11.12. 3 9MK I I I . 1 9 . 40 MK IV.72. 4 1MK I I I . 3 1 . 68 4. the Lord (prabhu) d i v e r s i f i e s the mundane t h i n g s t u r n i n g H i s mind outward.42 Thus GaudapSda s t a t e s t h a t the S e l f , M5ya, and God are r espon-s i b l e f o r the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the m a n i f o l d u n i v e r s e . In MK 11.12, 13 and 19, Gaudapada b r i n g s these v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s t o g e t h e r . As the S e l f i s unchanging and e t e r n a l , i t cannot o f i t s e l f be the cause o f or m a n i f e s t a n y t h i n g . I t i s only the substratum or ground o f the apparent m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the world through maya. 4 3 The S e l f c o n d i t i o n e d by maya i s the cause o f the p l u r a l u n i v e r s e . Brahman or the S e l f thus c o n d i t i o n e d i s c a l l e d I s v a r a , the Lord. Only God has r e l a t i o n s w i t h the world and i s thus the e f f i c i e n t and m a t e r i a l cause o f the u n i v e r s e . I t i s the Lord, who c r e a t e s or imagines the e x t e r n a l t h i n g s and the i n t e r n a l modes by t u r n i n g His mind o u t w a r d . 4 4 By whatever agency and i n whichever manner, the c r e a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e i s not r e a l from the paramartha p e r s p e c t i v e , b e i n g o n l y an i l l u s o r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n due t o maya. The o b j e c t s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the u n i v e r s e are n o n - r e a l , only 45 they appear as r e a l . In t r u t h they cannot be d e c l a r e d as e i t h e r r e a l nor n o n - r e a l . 42 MK 11.13. In 11.16 Gaudapada g i v e s a few d e t a i l s con-c e r n i n g c r e a t i o n . F i r s t the j l v a i s p o s i t e d then a l l the o b j e c t s , e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l . See a l s o MK 1.6. 4? See a l s o MK III.24 and 27. 44 More d e t a i l s concerning the "mind" and i t s r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n o f the man:i«Eold u n i v e r s e w i l l be g i v e n i n Chapter 5. 4 5MK II.6, 30-31 and 34. 69 Maya i s thus the c r e a t i v e and i l l u s i v e p r i n c i p l e . I t does not have an independent o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s as i t i s not an e n t i t y or a r e a l i t y having a substance o f i t s own. Brahman i s the o n l y r e a l ( s a t ) . As such, maya i s a r i d d l e t o the 46 i n t e l l e c t . I t i s ind e t e r m i n a b l e and u n t h i n k a b l e . But when the A b s o l u t e i s d i r e c t l y r e a l i z e d i n anubhava, t h e r e i s no - 47 maya t o be e x p l a i n e d f o r maya does not r e a l l y e x i s t . 4. THE INDIVIDUAL The f a c t t h a t the n o n - d i f f e r e n c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l and the supreme S e l f i s e x t o l l e d by a statement of t h e i r i d e n t i t y , and the f a c t t h a t d i v e r s i t y i s con-demned, become easy o f comprehension from t h i s p o i n t o f view a l o n e . -MK III.13 The Mandukyopan i s ad s t a t e s i n the second v e r s e t h a t " A l l t h i s i s s u r e l y Brahman. T h i s S e l f i s t h a t Brahman." 48 Brahman and Atman are n o n - d x f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . The tr u e S e l f o f each i n d i v i d u a l i s the A b s o l u t e . The apparent f i n i t u d e and i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f the j i v a ( s e l f ) i s due t o maya. Gaudapada shows t h i s u s i n g the a n a l o g i e s o f the space (akasa) 49 / 50 w i t h i n the j a r s , the kosas or c o v e r i n g s , and c r e a t u r e s 4 6MK IV.41 and 52. 4 7MK IV.57 and 58. 4 8MK III.13 and 14. 4 9MK III.3-10. 50 MK III.11 with r e f e r e n c e t o the e l a b o r a t i o n i n T a i t t . Up. II.1-4. 70 51 formed o f dream, or by magxc, or through super-normal powers. He says t h a t , " B i r t h , death, i n d i v i d u a l i t y , e t c . are a l l 52 i l l u s o r y . " Through ignorance alone does the S e l f wrongly i d e n t i f y i t s e l f with the changing phenomena of the n o t - S e l f and thus i s mistaken t o be many and f i n i t e . Gaudapada accepts the e m p i r i c a l p l u r a l i t y o f j i v a s but adamantly maintains the — •» 53 oneness o f the S e l f (ekatma-vada). For the h i g h e r S e l f (atman) t h e r e i s n e i t h e r b i r t h nor death, n e i t h e r a c t i o n nor enjoyment. These c o n d i t i o n s o n l y r e f e r to the f i n i t e i n d i v -— 54 l d u a l i i v a s which are m u l t i p l e . The d i s t i n c t i o n s are analogous t o those which are seen i n the space w i t h i n ? t h e j a r s . Form, purpose and name may va r y a c c o r d i n g t o the l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The psycho-p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l j i v a make no d i f f e r e n c e t o i t s nature as the e v e r - l i b e r a t e d S e l f (atman). They are a b s o l u t e l y n o n - d i f f e r e n t , being n e i t h e r a mode nor p o r t i o n , nor a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , nor m o d i f i c a t i o n o f Atman. The S e l f , then, i s d e c l a r e d t o be the non-dual, e t e r n a l and immut-— — 55 abl e A b s o l u t e R e a l i t y (ayam atma brahma). 5 1MK IV.68-71. 5 2MK II I . 4 8 . 5 3MK IV.91 and 98. 5 4MK III.3-9 and IV.68-71 5 5MUp 2. 71 5. LIBERATION No s o u l ever came under any v e i l . They are by nature pure as w e l l as i l l u m i n e d and f r e e from the v e r y be-g i n n i n g . Thus b e i n g endowed with the power (of know-le d g e ) , they are s a i d t o know. -MK IV.98 Moksa or l i b e r a t i o n i s the supreme g o a l o f man a c c o r d -i n g t o A d v a i t a . GaudapSda d e f i n e s i t as the r e a l i z a t i o n of — 56 the t r u t h o f the S e l f (atmasatyanubodha). The i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i z e s the n o n - d i f f e r e n c e o f the j i v a from the atma and 57 — a t t a i n s the f u l l n e s s o f non-dual Being. Ignorance (avidya or maya) van i s h e s c o m p l e t e l y . S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i s t r u e p e r -fection,; freedom, r e l e a s e , b l i s s and peace. I t i s the f i n a l and complete end of l i f e r e a l i z a b l e while i n embodiement 58 r a t h e r than a f t e r death. Moksa i s the e t e r n a l and i n a l i e n a b l e nature o f man. I t i s not something which has t o be accomplished or a t t a i n e d sometime i n the f u t u r e . I t i s a l r e a d y t h e r e and has always been t h e r e . What i s c a l l e d l i b e r a t i o n can o n l y be a t t a i n e d f i g u r a t i v e l y . F or r e l e a s e i s r e a l l y the r e - d i s c o v e r y o f what i s a l r e a d y t h e r e . The path t o t h i s attainment or r e - d i s c o v e r y 5 6MK I I I . 3 2 . 5 7MK III.13 and 11.36. 5 8MK IV.89. 72 i s jnana ( d i r e c t knowledge or e x p e r i e n c e ) . I t i s through the 59 "unborn knowledge" the "unborn S e l f " i s r e a l i z e d . I t i s f o r the aim and purpose of moksa which the system d e v i s e s i t s p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e . For moksa i s not an i n t e l l e c t u a l concept but the i d e a l o f l i f e . The t r u e S e l f i s the e x p e r i e n t i a l c o r e o f man. But, t h a t man cannot "know" and "be" t h a t c e n t e r , he s u f f e r s i n the world (duhkha). A d v a i t a Vedanta p u r p o r t s t o o u t l i n e t h i s s i t u a t i o n and, o f more importance, p r o v i d e s the p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e and techniques by which t h i s s t a t e o f Being may be f u l l y d i s c o v e r e d or r e a l i z e d by the a s p i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l . MK XV.96. 73 CHAPTER V THE PHENOMONOLOGY AND META-PSYCHOLOGY OF THE MANDUKYA KARIKA Tho s e o b j e c t s t h a t a p p e a r as o b s c u r e i n s i d e t h e mind, and t h o s e t h a t a p p e a r as v i v i d o u t s i d e , a r e a l l m e r e l y c r e a t e d b y i m a g i n a t i o n . T h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n i s t o be t r a c e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e o r g a n s o f p e r c e p t i o n . -MK 11.15 As i n dream t h e mind v i b r a t e s , as t h o u g h h a v i n g d u a l a s p e c t s , s o i n w a k i n g s t a t e t h e mind v i b r a t e s as t h o u g h w i t h f a c e t s . -MK I I I . 2 9 A l l t h i s t h a t t h e r e i s - t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l t h a t moves o r does n o t move - i s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e mind, (and t h e r e -f o r e a l l t h i s i s b u t t h e mind) ; f o r when t h e mind c e a s e s t o be mind, d u a l i t y i s no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e d . -MK I I I . 3 1 T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e an a r e a o f Gaudap5da's t h o u g h t w h i c h h a s b e e n somewhat n e g l e c t e d and y e t i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r an a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s s o t e r i o l o -g i c a l c o n c e r n . T h i s a r e a i s what c o u l d be c a l l e d h i s "Meta-P s y c h o l o g y , " f o r Gaudapada's o n t o l o g y , e p i s t e m o l o g y , s o t e r i o l -ogy, and h i s p s y c h o l o g y meet h e r e . F o u r a r e a s w i l l be e x p l o r e d . F i r s t , Gaudapada's a n a l y s i s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d . Then, h i s a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e and p r o -c e s s e s w i t h i n man and t h e n a t u r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i l l be e x a m i n e d . Next, t h e t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g "mind c r e a t i o n " w i l l be l o o k e d a t . And f i n a l l y , t h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s m e t a - p s y c h o l o g y w i l l be i n d i c a t e d . 74 1. THE ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE I bow t o t h a t Brahman w h i c h a f t e r h a v i n g e n j o y e d ( d u r i n g t h e w a k i n g s t a t e ) t h e g r o s s o b j e c t s b y p e r v a d i n g a l l t h e human o b j e c t i v e s t h r o u g h a d i f f -u s i o n o f I t s r a y s o f u n c h a n g i n g C o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t embraces a l l t h a t moves o r does n o t move; w h i c h a g a i n a f t e r h a v i n g d r u n k ( d u r i n g t h e dream s t a t e ) a l l t h e v a r i e t y o f o b j e c t s , p r o d u c e d b y d e s i r e (as w e l l as a c t i o n and i g n o r a n c e ) and l i g h t e d up by t h e i n t e l l e c t , s l e e p s w h i l e e n j o y i n g b l i s s and m a k i n g us e n j o y t h r o u g h Maya; and w h i c h i s c o u n t e d as t h e F o u r t h f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f Maya, and i s supreme, i m m o r t a l , and b i r t h l e s s . - S a n k a r a ' s o p e n i n g i n v o c a t i o n t o t h e K a r i k a A d v a i t a V e d a n t a p u r p o r t s t o be an e x p e r i e n t i a l l y b a s e d r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m . The m e e t i n g - p o i n t o f t h e c o n t e n t o f p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n and p s y c h o l o g y i s w i t h i n man's c o n s c -i o u s n e s s . The b ody-mind c o m p l e x o f man i s t h e l a b o r a t o r y f o r a n a l y s i s and d i s c o v e r y i n t h i s s c h o o l , whose m a i n c o n c e r n i s t o a n a l y s e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l e t e n a t u r e o f man. Gaudapada's Mandukya K a r i k a r e f l e c t s t h i s c e n t r a l c o n -• • • c e r n i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a s i n c e b o t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r e b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e . Gaudapada's p h i l o s o p h y a n a l y z e s and e x p l a i n s t h e i n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e . H i s r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s a r e a l s o b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r a c t i c a l m e t a p h y s i c a l p u r s u i t . The r a t i o n a l method o f t h e analysis o f a l l t h e s t a t e s o f man's e x p e r i e n c e i s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p u r s u e d i n V e d a n t a b y Gaudapada i n h i s K a r i k a s . T h i s c o n s i s t s ^ ___________________ o f an a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e s t a t e s o f waking, dream, and deep s l e e p and t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e s e s t a t e s . 75 The method pu r p o r t s t o be a comprehensive view o f the dimen-s i o n s o f human experience as i t attempts to analyse a l l p o s s -i b l e s t a t e s r a t h e r than being based on the waking s t a t e a l o n e . I t i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f the b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f each s t a t e and a r e - e s t i m a t i o n o f what i s fundamental to each. A l s o , on the b a s i s o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , t h e r e i s to be a new a s s i m i l a t i o n o f knowledge and experience f o r the h i g h e s t t r u t h must be known d i r e c t l y . The a n a l y s i s thus p r o v i d e s both a t h e o r e t i c a l understanding and a method f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g the s p i r i t u a l c e n t e r o f man. Gaudapada bases h i s a n a l y s i s o f experience d i r e c t l y on the Mandukyopanisad. In doing so, he a l s o makes the f u l l e s t • • • use o f the s i m i l a r analyses found i n the Brhadaranyaka„and t h e ChSndogya U p a n i s a d s . 1 These examinations are summarized, s y n t h e s i z e d and developed f u r t h e r by Gaudapada. The Mandukyopanisad i t s e l f i s concerned w i t h the i n -• • • q u i r y i n t o the t r u e nature o f the S e l f (atman). The a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t e s of experience i s employed with the aim o f show-ing the n o n - d u a l i t y o f the S e l f which i s found t o be Brahman or T u r i y a . The b a s i c q u e s t i o n asked by the Upanisad i s : i s t h e r e i n f a c t any fundamental, s i n g l e T ruth behind the evan-escent p l u r a l i t y cognized by experience around us? Thus i s concerned with d i s e n t a n g l i n g the substratum or ground of exper-ience from i t s complex m a n i f e s t a t i o n . I t s main c o n t e n t i o n i s In Brh.Up. IV.3.3 and i n Chand. V.12-18, VIII.6.3, and 11.1 i n p a r t i c u l a r . 76 t h a t the Atman, the S e l f , which i s the source o f " I " , the e x p e r i e n c e r , i s t h a t p r i n c i p l e which i s the common denomina-t o r of the t h r e e s t a t e s and t h a t i t remains unchanged and i d e n t i c a l w i t h i n them a l l . Gaudapada f o l l o w s the s t r u c t u r e and the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n h i s commentary-like e x p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the f i r s t prakarana o f the Mandukya Kar i k a . The remaining c h a p t e r s of the t e x t are based on the a n a l y s i s and the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s examination. The second chapter, f o r example, attempts t o show the i l l u s o r y nature o f the world of p l u r a l i t y . I t begins with the t h e s i s t h a t the waking s t a t e i s as u n r e a l and d e l -2 usory as the dream-world o f seemxng e x p e r i e n c e . The t h i r d c h a pter d e t a i l s the a d v i c e on m e d i t a t i o n based on the a n a l y s i s , understanding and c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s examination. The f o u r t h prakarana r e - i t e r a t e s the theory o f the t h r e e s t a t e s and - . . 3 T u r i y a but uses d i f f e r e n t t e r m i n o l o g y . E s s e n t i a l l y , then, Gaudapada takes the t o t a l realm o f human experience as h i s " u n i t o f l i f e " t o be s t u d i e d . He p o s i t s the f a c t o r s o f experience, the s t a t e s o f experience, and analyzes each a c c o r d i n g t o the nature o f the e x p e r i e n c e r , the f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y and the t h i n g s enjoyed t h e r e i n . The f a c t o r s o f experience, he says, are the e x p e r i e n c e r , the MK II.1-10. 3 MK IV.87-89. The e x p r e s s i o n s appear t o be those used i n Buddhist l i t e r a t u r e . 77 the experienced, and the e x p e r i e n c i n g i t s e l f . 4 E m p i r i c a l experience i s based on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s u b j e c t and i t s o b j e c t . For a l l e m p i r i c a l d e a l i n g s t h i s t r i a d o f knowledge i s fundamental. A l l phenomenal experience i s thus o f a d u a l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , be i t o f an o b j e c t experienced by a su b j e c t , or the o p p o s i t i o n o f two terms s e t a p a r t and r e l a t e d t o the o t h e r . The s t a t e s (avasthas) o f experience are thr e e i n 5 _ (T number. They are the world o f "waking" ( j a g r a t o r laukika),° the "dream" world (svapna or s u d d h a - l a u k i k a ) , 7 and the s t a t e p o f "deep s l e e p " ( s u s u p t i or l o k o t t a r a ) . The s t a t e o f "waking" ( j a g r a t ) i s the everyday, shared world o f phenomenal e x p e r i e n c e . Gaudapada uses the mytho-symbolic d e s c r i p t i o n o f V a i s v a n a r a or V i s v a t o e x p l a i n t h i s 9 / s t a t e . V i s v a i s saxd t o be the ego-state h e r e . He i s r e a l l y the S e l f (Atman) i d e n t i f y i n g with t h i s "outward" mode of cons-10 c i o u s n e s s ( b a h i s p r a j n a h ) . As "awareness d i r e c t e d t o t h i n g s 4MK 11.29, 30; IV.61, 62, 87 and 88. 5MUp 1-5; MK 1.9 and f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s ; MK IV.87-89. 6MUp 3; MK 11.14 and IV.87. 7MUp 4; MK II . 1 , 3, 4 e t c . and IV.87. 8MUp 5; MK III.34, 35, and IV.88. 9 _ Gaudapada c o n c r e t i z e s the r a t h e r a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t i o n o f the t o t a l experience o f each s t a t e by g i v i n g i t a mytho-symbolic p e r s o n a l i t y . Thus the r e f e r e n c e t o each s t a t e with a p e r s o n a l pronoun. 1 QMUp 3; MK 1.1. 78 o u t s i d e " , he i s s a i d t o be possessed o f n i n e t e e n "mouths 1 1 which are the f i v e senses o f p e r c e p t i o n , the f i v e organs o f a c t i o n , the f i v e v i t a l f o r c e s , p l u s manas (the mind), buddhi (the i n t e l l e c t ) , ahamkara (the ego), and c i t t a (the mind-s t u f f ) . Thus V i s v a i s the enjoyer of the d i v e r s e gross ob-j e c t s o f the phenomenal u n i v e r s e . ^ Svapna, the "dream-state" i s c a l l e d T a i j a s a h e r e . He i s the e x p e r i e n c e r or ego-state which i s "aware of the i n t e r n a l 12 o b j e c t s " (antahprajnah). For i n dream the senses are a t • • r e s t and o n l y the mind (manas) i s a c t i v e . Through the impress-ions l e f t on the senses by the waking s t a t e i t knows " o b j e c t s " . These o b j e c t s are then " i n t e r n a l " or " s u b t l e " i n t h a t they e x i s t o n l y s u b j e c t i v e l y i n the form o f mental modes. Although t h e r e i s no o t h e r e n t i t y p r e s e n t here than the mind o f the dreamer, the experiences appear as r e a l as those o f the waking s t a t e . A l s o , while i n t h i s s t a t e o f experience, the f a c t o r s o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e x t e r n a l i t y and i n t e r n a l i t y appear t o be p r e s e n t . J " x " I n the s t a t e o f waking, the s e l f i s conscious o f what i s w ithout. The e x t e r n a l world i s i t s f i e l d o f knowledge and enjoyment. The out-turned sense-organs are the channels o f e x p e r i e n c e . The ego i s s e t over a g a i n s t the non-ego. The former enjoys the l a t t e r ; and the enjoyment i s gross i n nature because i t i s o f the o b j e c t s o f the outer world. The i n d i v i d -u a l s o u l which thus r e s i d e s i n the p h y s i c a l body and uses the mind and the organs of sense as i t s instruments i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the world s o u l . " Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.97. 12 MUp 4. Note t h a t he i s i n t e r n a l i n r e l a t i o n t o the senses. 79 The experiences o f the waking and dream s t a t e s are thus o f the same nature f o r i n both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r c e p t i o n are the same. From the s t a n d p o i n t o f dream, dream o b j e c t s are as gross and m a t e r i a l as those experienced i n the waking s t a t e . But, from thevview-point o f the waking s t a t e alone, i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t the dream o b j e c t s are i n f a c t not gross o b j e c t s a t a l l , but r a t h e r o n l y s u b j e c t i v e modes o f ex p e r i e n c e . The t h i r d s t a t e o f "deep s l e e p " (susupti) i s c a l l e d P r a j n a . P r a j n a i s "a mass o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i n t h a t he i s the e x p e r i e n c e r or consciousness which remains i n deep s l e e p . Though t h e r e are no s p e c i f i c s t a t e s o f o b j e c t i v e consciousness here, t h e r e s t i l l i s t h i s "consciousness" per se which i s s a i d t o be a u n i f i e d s e l f - l u m i n o u s mass. He alone has the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f u n d i v e r s i f i e d c onsciousness, or o f c o n s c i o u s -ness without o b j e c t s . For he i s the s u b j e c t without an o b j e c t and y e t he i s a l s o s a i d t o be t h e "doorway" t o the other s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The s t a t e r e p r e s e n t e d here i s not r e a l l y the " d i s s o l u t i o n " o f the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t complex, but o n l y a " d i s s o c i a t i o n " , as d u a l i t y has o n l y ceased u n t i l the s t a t e o f 13 dream or t h a t o f waking agai n m a n i f e s t s . The m a n i f o l d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l not be d e a l t with here f o r l a c k o f space. S u f f i c e i t t o be s a i d t h a t the metaphysics and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l experience o f A d v a i t a Vedanta are based or j u s t i f i e d mainly on these e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l or phenomenological grounds. 80 These are the t h r e e b a s i c realms of human e x p e r i e n c e . Any other examples can be subsumed under one o f these c a t e g -o r i e s by a comparison o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s can be e a s i l y done, as the examinatiSn i s a l s o a phenomenology o f c o n s c i o u s -ness which suggests a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f the b a s i c k i n d s or types o f "consciousness". F o l l o w i n g the above a n a l y s i s they a r e : 1. the outward or o b j e c t i v e ( e m p i r i c a l ) consciousness which appears o n l y i n the waking s t a t e 2. the inward or s u b j e c t i v e sphere of consciousness of dream and a l i k e s t a t e s of consciousness 3. the un-consciousness (versus non-conscious) of the deep s l e e p - l i k e s t a t e s . T h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n ' f u r t h e r adds what can be c a l l e d "pure c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " T h i s i s "the f o u r t h , " T u r i y a , the Consciousness u n d e r l y i n g and y e t t r a n s c e n d i n g the t h r e e s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s the e v e r - p r e s e n t "witness" of a l l experience which i s never a n n u l l e d i n any s t a t e . I t i s s a i d t o be the one Consciousness o f which the o t h e r s are metaphor-i c a l l y c a l l e d "modes" due t o the b a s i c ignorance of the r e a l n ature o f the s u b j e c t o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e . The t h r e e s t a t e s have f o r t h e i r p e r c e i v e r or e x p e r i e n c e r , hot t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s or ego-centers, but o n l y one e x p e r i e n c e r h a v i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t names due t o the i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f each s t a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e . MK 1.1 and 2. "Thus, when I can remember a l l t h r e e planes of consciousness through which I t r a v e r s e d d u r i n g the 81 Sankara summarizes t h i s i n h i s commentary: In the t h r e e s t a t e s , namely, waking e t c . , the one and the same o b j e c t o f experience appears i n t h r e e f o l d forms as the g r o s s , the s u b t l e and the b l i s s f u l . F u r -t h e r , the e x p e r i e n c e r (of the t h r e e s t a t e s ) known ( d i f f e r e n t l y ) as V i s V a , T a i j a s a and P r a j n a has been d e s c r i b e d as one on account o f the u n i t y o f c o n s c i o u s -ness i m p l i e d i n such c o g n i t i o n as, "I am t h a t " (common t o a l l c o n d i t i o n s ) , as w e l l as from the absence o f any d i s t i n c t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f the p e r c e i v e r . He who knows the two (experi e n c er and the o b j e c t s o f exper-ience) , appearing as many i n the form o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t s o f experience, though e n j o y i n g them, i s not a f f e c t e d thereby; because a l l o b j e c t s (of experience) are experienced by one s u b j e c t a l o n e . As (the heat o f the f i r e ) does not i n c r e a s e or decrease by consuming wood e t c . , so a l s o n o t h i n g i s added t o or taken away (from the knowingness or awareness o f the Atman) by , ^  i t s experience o f t h a t which i s i t s o b j e c t . T h i s "pure c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " the substratum and "witness" or e x p e r i e n c e r o f the three s t a t e s i s i d e n t i f i e d as T u r i y a i n both the Mandukyopanisad and the Mandukya K a r i k a . 1 ^ • • • • • ' T u r i y a i s s a i d t o be n o n - d i f f e r e n t or the same as the d e s i g -n a t i o n s Brahman and Atman. Thus i t r e p r e s e n t s the h i g h e s t T r u t h , the supreme R e a l i t y , o n l y i t i s the s o - c a l l e d " f o u r t h " 24 hours o f l i f e , c e r t a i n l y t h e r e must be one common e x p e r i e n -c e r who was l i v i n g through the t h r e e p l a n e s s o f experiences i n me. The denominator or f a c t o r , who i s the common e x p e r i e n c e r i n t h r e e f i e l d s of my a c t i v i t y , i s the common - I, - the E t e r -n a l F a c t o r , the Pure Gonsciousness." Swami Chinmayananda, D i s c o u r s e s on the Mandukya Upanishad w i t h Gaudapada 1s K a r i k a (Madras: Chinmaya P u b l i c a t i o n T r u s t , 1953), p.51. 15 ' . Sankara's commentary on MK 1.5 (Swami N i k h i l a n a n d a 1 s t r a n s l a t i o n , o p . c i t . , p.36.). MUp 2, 7, 8, and 12; MK 1.10-16 e s p e c i a l l y . 82 from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t e s o f ex p e r i e n c e . They c o n s i d e r the Fo u r t h t o be t h a t which i s not conscious o f the i n t e r n a l world, nor con s c i o u s o f the e x t e r n a l world, nor conscious o f both the worlds, nor a mass of consciousness, nor simple consciousness, nor unconsciousness; which i s unseen, beyond e m p i r i c a l d e a l i n g s , bey6nd the grasp (of the organs o f a c t i o n ) , u n i n f e r a b l e , u n t h i n k a b l e , i n d e s c r i b a b l e ; whose v a l i d p r o o f c o n s i s t s i n the s i n g l e b e l i e f i n the S e l f ; i n which a l l phenomena cease; and which i s unchanging, a u s p i c i o u s , and non-dual. That i s the S e l f , and t h a t i s t o be known.^' T h i s i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f T u r i y a i n d i c a t e d by the l a n g -uage o f n e g a t i o n or c o n t r a s t t o the other t h r e e s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The second h a l f o f the v e r s e a l s o enumerates s e v e r a l p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s through t h i s n e g a t i o n . T u r i y a i s d e s c r i b e d as e s s e n t i a l l y a n e g a t i o n o f s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n , the world o f thought and ideas cognized through the instruments o f the mind and i n t e l l e c t , and ot h e r l i m i t e d forms o f c o n s c i o u s -ness. I t i s the negation, as i t were, o f the o b j e c t s ( i n t e r -n a l and e x t e r n a l ) o f experience as w e l l as t h e i r f i e l d s o f e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, the t e x t i n d i c a t e s t h a t "the f o u r t h " or the S e l f i s not an " o b j e c t " nor an " e n t i t y " nor an i d e a or concept, nor evan a " s t a t e " , but r a t h e r the ev e r - p r e s e n t " s u b j e c t , " "observer," "witness," or "substratum" which allows 18 f o r " s e n t i e n c e , " " i n t e l l i g e n c e , " " v i t a l i t y , " and "experience." MUp 7 . 18 " E i t h e r we know o f a sound or such other sense percep-t i o n s , or of f e e l i n g s or of our thoughts, but we do not know 83 T u r i y a i s thus the S e l f , the non-dual Brahman which on account of Maya" appears as the experient i n the v a r i o u s s t a t e s of experience. Although the experiences of the three s t a t e s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r from one another, there i s the know-ledge t h a t i t i s the same " I " or experiencer which was asleep and dreamt and i s now awake. These s t a t e s a l t e r n a t e , change and pass away whi l e the T u r i y a remains ever constant through the v a r y i n g s t a t e s of mind. I t i s the changeless i n the midst of change, the s t i l l p o i n t i n the t u r n i n g world. I t i s not caught i n the t r i p l e stream of experience though i t i s t h e i r underlaying s u b s t r a t e or l o c u s . T u r i y a ever remains unaffected and unattached by t h i s world p l a y (prapanca). Thus i t i s described as a d v a i t a (non-dual), santa (quiescent) , s^iva (auspicious) and prapancopasama (the c e s s a t i o n of the p l u r a l -i s t i c u n i v e r s e ) . This i s the Consciousness which makes a l l experience p o s s i b l e . The philosophy of A d v a i t a assumes t h i s c e n t r a l p o i n t of a l l e x i s t e n c e and evaluates the spheres of experience from t h a t absolute standard or standpoint. This gives r i s e t o the a n a l y s i s of experience i n t o paramartha and vyavahara or s a m v r t i . These are the fundamental l e v e l s or modes of being. the knowledge by which we p e r c e i v e , by which we understand our f e e l i n g s , by which we know our i d e a s . . . R e a l i t y i s Knowledge as such, wherein i t has no objects to q u a l i f y . I t i s Pure Awareness i n the l i g h t of which a l l other sense-organs go about t h e i r r o u t i n e work of i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l ob-j e c t s . " Swami Chinmayananda, o p . c i t . , p.74. 84 Paramartha i s t h a t which i s r e a l ( s a t ) , i e , t h a t which cannot be s u b l a t e d , denied, or c o n t r a d i c t e d by any other e x p e r i e n c e . I t r e f e r s t o t h a t T u r i y a , the w i t n e s s i n g S e l f , which i s d i s -19 c l o s e d i n the h i g h e s t form or q u a l i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e . "That which i s r e a l or n o t - r e a l " i s now seen from another p e r s p e c t i v e or v i e w p o i n t . Anything which i s other than t h i s becomes mere "appearance." I f something can be s u b l a t e d i n any way a t a l l i t i s a c c o r d i n g l y " d i s v a l u e d " . In t h i s way, the m a n i f o l d or p l u r a l i s t i c phenomenal u n i v e r s e i s d e c l a r e d t o be s a m v r t i or r e l a t i v e . The con t e n t of "sense-mental e x p e r i e n c e " w i t h i n the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t s i t u a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d a l e s s e r degree o f r e a l i t y . Although every datum o f experience w i t h i n t h i s appearance i s " e x i s t e n t " r a t h e r than " u n r e a l ? " i t i s s t i l l c a l l e d " n o n - r e a l " i n t h a t as sub-l a t a b l e i t l a c k s f u l l r e a l i t y . Thus i s the nature o f the world determined by experience and a l s o v a l u e d by the c r i t -e r i o n o f s u b l a t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , Gaudapada bases h i s p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e on e x p e r i e n c e . Rather than e x p l a n a t i o n , he i n v i t e s the a s p i r a n t t o r e f l e c t upon what i s e x p e r i e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . T h i s knowledge i s not t h e o r e t i c a l but based on "'""'"By the c r i t e r i o n o f s u b r a t i o n , then, R e a l i t y i s t h a t which i s when the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t s i t u a t i o n i s transcended. The Real i s t h a t which i s the content of non-dual s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s the t i m e l e s s - u n c o n d i t i o n e d , u n d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d oneness o f b e i n g . The Re a l i s (nirguna). Brahman." E l i o t Deutsch, A d v a i t a Vedanta; A P h i l o s o p h i c a l Reconstruc  t i o n (Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1969), p.19. 85 p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . The aim of A d v a i t a here i s t o p o i n t out the wider meaning o f ex p e r i e n c e as go i n g beyond the r e l a t i v e i n t o a t r a n s - e m p i r i c a l experience not o f "man" but o f the "witn e s s i n g S e l f " or "E x p e r i e n c e r . " T h i s s y n t h e s i s o f psych-o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t i t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f A d v a i t a metaphysics and s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . 2. GAUDAPADA'S PSYCHOLOGY: THE NATURE OF THE MIND V i s v a experiences the e x t e r n a l t h i n g s and i s a l l -p e rvading; but T a i j a s a experiences the i n t e r n a l t h i n g s ; s i m i l a r i l y , P r a j n a i s a mass o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s but the same e n t i t y t h a t i s thought o f i n t h r e e ways. -MK 1.1 Gaudapada's a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t e s o f experience (avasthas) a l s o r e v e a l s a working psychology o f A d v a i t a Vedanta. Consciousness i s the ground o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s consciousness as the w i t n e s s i n g S e l f i s prese n t throughout a l l phases o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s s a i d to be man's t r u e s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e . Thus man i s seen t o be a p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l being whose t r u e nature i s s p i r i t u a l . Man i s l i t e r a l l y s p i r i t w i t h i n matter. In the a n a l y s i s o f the f i v e sheaths (kosas) which Gaudapada a l l u d e s t o i n MK III.11, he i n d i c a t e s t h i s understanding o f man. The kosas are l i k e so many c o v e r i n g v e s t u r e s which the S e l f (Atman) wears w h i l e r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n the world. This p h i l o s o p h i c a l anatomy g i v e s f i v e sheaths or c o v e r i n g s which aire: 1. annamaya, the p h y s i c a l body which i s the locu s o f a c t i o n and enjoyment 86 2. pranamaya, the v i t a l sheath which i s m a n i f e s t i n the form o f b r e a t h , the p r i n c i p l e o f animation and ienergy : 3. manomaya, the mind which c o n s i s t s o f d e s i r e s 4. viitTanamaya, having the power t o c o g n i t i o n i t i s of the nature o f the agent and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l e m p i r i c a l knowledge both i n waking and-=dream 5. ctnandamaya, the mode o f b l i s s . T These are r e s p e c t i v e l y the gross and s u b t l e encasings which cover the S e l f w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l . S p i r i t and matter are thus the two extremes of man's b e i n g . Gaudapada accepts the Mandukyopanisad account o f • • • • 20 man's p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l complex. Man c o n s i s t s o f : 1. the f i v e organs o f p e r c e p t i o n ( b u d d h i n d r i y a s ) , i e , the organs o f s i g h t , sound, s m e l l , t a s t e and touch 2. the f i v e organs o f a c t i o n (karmandriyas), i e , the hands, f e e t , the organs o f speech, g e n e r a t i o n , and eva c u a t i o n 3. the f i v e aspects o f the v i t a l b r e a t h (prana) 4. the mind f manas) 5. the i n t e l l e c t (buddhi) 6. e g o i t y (ahamkara) 7. the m i n d - s t u f f ( c i t t a ) , . These are the "mouths" or instruments by means of which the S e l f experiences the outward and inward dimensions o f e x p e r i e n c e . The e x p e r i e n c e r i s seen t o be o f the g r e a t e s t importance i n t h i s complex. I t i s the most s u b t l e and t h a t aspect o f t h i s p s y c h - p h y s i c a l complex which remains when each MUp 2-7; MK 1.1-6 and 11.16. 87 f a c t o r i s withdrawn. For i t i s seen t h a t man e x i s t s s u b j e c -t i v e l y i n the dream-like s t a t e s when the out-going senses are a t r e s t . Even t h i s subsides when the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n deep s l e e p . The Vedantins, s e e i n g t h a t the S e l f remains a f t e r the other f a c t o r s o f man's makeup are withdrawn, have accorded i t the h i g h e s t p l a c e . For i t i s the S e l f which remains, the b a s i s o f a l l experience, and t h a t which i s not ameniable t o s u b l a t i o n . Moreover, i t i s t h i s S e l f which i l l u m i n e s the other f a c t o r s with i t s s e n t i e n c e . The c e n t e r of experience i n the t h r e e s t a t e s i s the p s y c h i c o r mental complex of man, i e , the "mind" as a whole. The manas, buddhi, ahamkara, and c i t t a are but d e s i g n a t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s " i n t e r n a l organ" which l a t e r Vedanta c a l l e d the antahkarana. Often, as here i n the Mandukya K a r i k a , t h i s i s simply designated as manas, the "mind." Narrowly d e f i n e d the manas i s an organ which i s o f s u b t l e matter and o f l i m i t e d s i z e . I t ranks as an i n t e r n a l sense-organ and i s t h a t which governs the other outer sense-organs. The ten i n d r i y a s work under the c o n t r o l o f manas, the c e n t r a l or i n t e r n a l sense-organ. These are dependent on manas f o r t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g and through the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f manas the i n d i v i d u a l has p e r c e p t u a l knowledge. Because o f t h i s , the manas taken i n t h i s s p e c i f i c sense, i s s a i d t o be o n l y an instrument o f knowledge f o r the e x p e r i e n c i n g S e l f (Atman). 88 B e s i d e s t h i s r e s t r i c t e d d e f i n i t i o n , manas a g a i n r e p -r e s e n t s t h e " i n t e r n a l o r g a n o f k n o w l e d g e " as a w h o l e . I t i s t h e i n t e g r a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t o f k n o w l e d g e f o r t h e S e l f . As t h e ahamkara f u n c t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r n a l o r g a n , manas becomes t h e i n d i v i d u a l " s e l f " o r "ego," known as t h e j i v a . The j i v a i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r l i t e r a l l y " p o s e s s e s " t h e e m p i r i c a l know-l e d g e w h i c h a r i s e s when t h e mind and t h e e x t e r n a l s e n s e - o r g a n s f u n c t i o n . T h i s i s so t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n o f "mind and " c o n -21 s c i o u s n e s s . " T h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s d e s i g n a t e d l a t e r m t h e t r a d i t i o n as " s u p e r - i m p o s i t i o n " ( a d h y a s a ) , and h e r e c a l l e d maya, v i k a l p a , e t c . by Gaudapada, t h e "mind" o r " e m p i r i c a l s e l f " as s u b t l e i n s e n t i e n t m a t t e r ( i e , as o b j e c t ) i s a t t r i b -u t e d w i t h s e n t i e n c e o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s (as t h e s u b j e c t ) . In t h i s way, " C o n s c i o u s n e s s " and t h e "mind" o r " s e l f " a r e one and t h e same. The d a n g e r h e r e i s t h a t o f a c o m p l e t e and e r r o n e o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h t h e e m p i r i c a l m i n d . T h i s i s t h e c r u x o f t h e b o n d a g e - r e l e a s e p r o b l e m f o r A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . P u r e C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a c o n t e n t l e s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s no c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f e i t h e r " I " (aham) o r " t h i s " (idam) whereas t h e mind h a s no c o n n o t a t i o n w i t h o u t t h i s s u b j e c t -o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The ahamkara o r e m p i r i c a l s e l f i s s a i d t o assume t h e c e n t e r p o i n t o f e x p e r i e n c e e r r o n e o u s l y and t h r o u g h t h i s f a l s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes t h o r o u g h l y enmeshed 2 1 M K IV.45-52, 54, 61-66, 72, 77, 79-81. 89 i n o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e experience wherein i t i s bound 22 and s u f f e r s . From the p o i n t of view t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s c o n s c i o u s -ness, manas and the other e m p i r i c a l t h i n g s cannot be d i f f e r e n t from i t . But from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the o b j e c t i v e experience of these, they cannot be r e a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with consciousness per se. I t i s onl y f o r the p r a c t i c a l purposes o f l i f e t h a t A d v a i t a uses "consciousness" t o denote the knowledge r e l a t i o n of the S e l f with i t s o b j e c t s . I t i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t i t i s s a i d , when the S e l f or pure Consciousness becomes l i m i t e d by a d j u n c t s , i t i s known as the i n d i v i d u a l atman, the j i v a , which i s the knower and t o whom knowledge i s s u p p l i e d by means of the organs of knowledge and s e n s a t i o n s . Yet, i t i s s t r o n g l y maintained t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n of knower, known, and 23 the process o f knowledge does not e x i s t f o r the h i g h e r S e l f . The S e l f i s the nature o f pure non-dual Consciousness, the substratum o f a l l experience, a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n . In t h i s way manas can be viewed from the two l e v e l s o f t r u t h . Gaudapada uses t h i s word p l a y t o good advantage p a r t i c u l a r l y when t a l k i n g of the nature o f the S e l f and the method by which t o a t t a i n i t . ^ z I n h i s commentary on MK 11.17 S'ankara remarks t h a t the im a g i n a t i o n or appearance o f the i n d i v i d u a l j i v a i s the r o o t o f a l l other imaginations ( j i v a kalpana sarvakalpana mulum). T h i s i s a f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o MK 11.16 which suggests t h a t the e m p i r i c a l s e l f i s f i r s t and then are imagined the v a r i o u s e n t i t i e s , both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e . MK IV.88-90. 90 The nature o f p e r c e p t u a l knowledge w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s important h e r e . For on the one hand, jfiana or knowledge i s s a i d t o be non-dual and, on the other hand, p e r c e p t u a l know-ledge f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the d u a l i s t i c sphere of s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s manas which determines the nature o f knowledge. P e r c e p t i o n i s immediate knowledge which i s p o s s i b l e o n l y o f o b j e c t s which are d i r e c t l y present and which are t a n -g i b l e enough t o be p e r c e i v e d . Mind as the s u b j e c t and the o b j e c t s o f p e r c e p t i o n are interdependent and determine one 24 another. Every knowledge s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s the t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n o f the knower, the process of knowing and the o b j e c t known. P e r c e p t u a l knowledge i s manifested t o the mind by g e t t i n g i n t o c o n t a c t with the e x t e r n a l o b j e c t through sense-p e r c e p t i o n or i n i t s mode as a c i t t a v r t t i ( m o d i f i c a t i o n o f 25 the m i n d - s t u f f ) . T h i s "mind-object c o n t a c t " i s necessary f o r knowledge t o a r i s e . In t h i s way the A d v a i t a Vedanta e p i s -temology of Gaudapada e x h i b i t s a form o f " s o f t r e a l i s m " i n t h a t the nature o f the phenomenal world and p h y s i c a l p e r c e p t i o n ***MK 11.14; III.29-31; IV.24, 25, 61, 62 and 87. 25 " P e r c e p t i o n r e q u i r e s a m o d i f i c a t i o n ( v r t t i ) o f the mind, a change, so t o speak, i n i t s proper form a f t e r the form of the o b j e c t ; i t r e q u i r e s an i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the o b j e c t by t h e . l i g h t of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . t h e s e l f , i n t h a t s t a t e o f consciousness wherein p e r c e p t u a l experience takes p l a c e , i s always i n v o l v e d with the world. To be awake means t o be caught-up with forms and r e l a t i o n s ; i t means t o have the mind f i l l e d w ith o b j e c t s and with d e s i r e s generated by i t s c o n t a c t w i t h these o b j e c t s . P e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e not o n l y i l l u m i n a t e s an o u t e r world t o consciousness but a l s o b r i n g s the changing world i n t o c o n s c i o u s -ness; i t i n v o l v e s the s e l f and the world." Deutsch, o p . c i t . , pp.91-2. 91 i s acknowledged and g i v e n some s t a t u s . But, from paramartha or the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the h i g h e s t t r u t h , t h i s cannot be e n t i r e l y accepted. For e v e r y t h i n g except the S e l f i s only an i l l u s o r y appearance caused by n e s c i e n c e or ignorance. Fromtithis p e r s p e c t i v e , then, the nature and s t a t u s o f the e x t e r n a l o b j e c t and p h y s i c a l p e r c e p t i o n i s devalued. Objects are seen t o be dependent upon the e x p e r i e n c e r and v i c e v e r s a . Objects " e x i s t " o r l a s t o n l y as long as the p e r c e i v e r t o them. Beyond t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n and time d u r a t i o n they cease t o "exist.'" So a l s o i s the case with s u b j e c t i v e ideas or ex-p e r i e n c e s . In t h i s way the whole world o f p e r c e i v e d d u a l i t y i s c a l l e d an "act o f the mind" or the mind *s "imagination. " 27 I t i s because o f the m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the mind ( c i t t a v r t t i s ) 28 t h a t the e x t e r n a l world appears as d u a l . F o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes the S e l f p e r c e i v e s the e x t e r n a l world through the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of the mind. The mind, as i t were, forms the l i a i s o n between the S e l f on the one hand, and the o b j e c t on t h e o b t h e r . But from the s t a n d p o i n t o f the S e l f , both the mind and the o b j e c t s of themmind are mere i l l u s i o n s . Thus any form o f t h i s d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s a i d t o be mere appearance and thus l i k e n e d t o " i m a g i n a t i o n . " 2 6MK 11.14, 15; III.24-26; TV.72, e t c . 27 T h i s aspect o f Gaudapada's meta-psychology w i l l be d e a l t with i n the next s e c t i o n . MK IV.72. 92 The arguments which Gaudapada uses i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n are r e m i n i s c e n t o f Buddhist Vijftanavada t h e o r y . But he i s not a " s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s t . " Rather, he i s an "Absolute I d e a l i s t " i n t h a t he p o s i t s a b a s i s f o r a l l e x p e r i e n c e . Consciousness alone i s r e a l , i t has no b e g i n n i n g nor end. I t alone i s the 29 substratum o f a l l knowledge. From what has been i n d i c a t e d , Gaudapada uses the term manas which suggests two meanings upon which he p l a y s t o i n d i -c a t e the nature of the S e l f and the method o f r e l e a s e or r e a l -i z a t i o n . The f i r s t meaning agai n i s t h a t o f the " e m p i r i c a l mind". The oth e r and t r u e r meaning i s t h a t o f "Mind" or "Consciousness" which i s the h i g h e r S e l f (Atman) . T h i s i s the key t o the many p a r a d o x i c a l statements both i n Gaudapada's t e x t and i n the A d v a i t a t r a d i t i o n . Gaudapada dw e l l s on t h i s l a t t e r aspect i n h i s r a t h e r r i g o r o u s non-dualism. The know-ledge o f the e m p i r i c a l mind and i t s workings are s e l f - e v i d e n t . But the r e a l nature o f the "mind" as "Mind" i s hidden or v e i l e d from the i n d i v i d u a l . So i t i s upon t h i s aspect, the 2 9MKr IV.26-28, 47-52, 72, 77, 79-81. Gaudapada o f t e n app-ears t o walk the t h i n l i n e between s u b j e c t i v e " i d e a l i s m and m o n i s t i c i d e a l i s m . That he i s not a s o l i p s i s t i s e y i d e n t from h i s r e f u t a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s t p o s i t i o n and h i s adamant non-dual s t a n d . The s u b j e c t and o b j e c t are both i n c l u -ded i n h i s i d e a l i s m and f i n d t h e i r substratum i n Pure C o n s c i o u s -ness. He o f t e n appears as a s u b j e c t i v i s t due t o h i s thorough-going i d e a l i s m wherein he t a l k s from the paramartha p e r s p e c t i v e . Thus he says t h a t the mind i s an "appearance" o f con s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t the r e a l i t y and e x i s t e n c e o f any t h i n g i s r e l a t i v e t o the mind which experiences i t , and so f o r t h . 93 g o a l o f A d v a i t a , which he dwells c o n s i s t e n t l y . Besides the use o f the terms j i v a ( l i v i n g b e i n g ) , drk 1 1» 1 1 1 ( s e e r ) , and grahaka (cognizer) f o r the s u b j e c t o r witness o f experience, Gaudapada a l s o uses the terms manas, c i t t a , and v i j n a n a synonymously f o r the Mind. The Mind or Gonsciousness i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be unborn, non-dual, immovable, immaterial and a l l - p e r v a d i n g , and y e t i t appears as d u a l , moving, and as 30 an o b j e c t . As f .the pure essence o f Gonsciousness, i t i s d e s c r i b e d n e g a t i v e l y as asvapna and a n i d r a (without s p i r i t u a l 31 s l e e p or d e l u s i o n ) , anabhasa (not appearing o r m a n i f e s t i n g i n the form o f o b j e c t s ) , ^ 2 asanga (having no attachment or 33 — — r e l a t i o n t o any t h i n g ) , amanibhava (when the e m p i r i c a l mind . 3 4 ceases t o e x i s t ) , and somewhat p o s i t i v e l y as s a n i r v g n a 0 • 3 5 (with c e s s a t i o n or freedom). Thus, the manas or c i t t a as Consciousness i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from anything e l s e . I t i s unique. I t i s not a product nor a c o l l o c a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s , nor i s I t f u r t h e r r e d u c i b l e i n t o any c o n s t i t u e n t s . I t i s f o u n d a t i o n a l , the MK IV.45 m p a r t i c u l a r . 3 1MR 1.16; IV.36; IV.81. 3 2MK III . 4 6 . 3 3MK III.45, IV.72, 79 and 96. 3 4MK II I . 3 1 . 3 5MK III . 3 7 . 94 ground or substratum o f a l l e l s e . I t i s n e i t h e r an a t t r i b u t e o f something, nor possessed by a n y t h i n g . I t does not come under any categor y of substance, a t t r i b u t e o r a c t i o n . For i t i s the b a s i s o f a l l . Consciousness i s s a i d t o be e t e r n a l , unproduced, i n f i n i t e , u n l i m i t e d and s e l f - r e v e a l i n g . I t i s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , d i s t i n c t i o n l e s s u n i t y , remaining ever u n a f f -ected and unchanged. That Consciousness i s the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o & i a l l knowledge and o f the t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n o f s u b j e c t -3, o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t alone e x i s t s b e i n g One and Non-dual. In c o n c l u s i o n , Gaudapada f o l l o w s the Upa n i s a d i c t r a d -i t i o n c o n c erning the nature of man as a s p i r i t u a l and psycho-p h y s i c a l e n t i t y . As a thoroughing A d v a i t i n he negates a l l d u a l i t y and u l t i m a t e l y p o s i t s the S e l f (Atman) which i s non-d i f f e r e n t from Brahmanvor T u r i y a , as the h i g h e s t , pure, non-d u a l Mind or Consciousness. A good summation which r e f l e c t s Gaudapada's p o s i t i o n suggests t h a t , The V e d a n t i c view, i n p a r t i c u l a r the A d v a i t i c view, i s t h a t antahkarana or the mind, i s l i k e e v e r y t h i n g , a product o f maya.. The s e l f alone i s cons c i o u s n e s s , and consciousness cannot a r i s e as a c o n t i n g e n t f a c t o r o f s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n . The A d v a i t i n agrees with the modern p s y c h o l o g i s t s and says t h a t mind i s j u s t a t o t -a l i t y o f conscious s t a t e s and p r o c e s s e s . The s e l f which i s n e i t h e r mind nor matter i s the ground o f both mental and p h y s i c a l s t a t e s o f e x i s t e n c e s . That which r e v e a l s e v e r y t h i n g , v i z . , consciousness, i s the b a s i s o f a l l experiences whether i t i s p s y c h i c or p h y s i c a l . That mind i s not consciousness i s e s t a b l i s h e d on an a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e s t a t e s o f experience, v i z . , the waking, A good account o f t h i s s u b j e c t i s found i n S.K. Saksena, Nature o f Consciousness i n Hindu P h i l o s o p h y ( D e l h i : M o t i l a l B anarsidass, 1971). A r e l e v a n t summary i s g i v e n on pages 60-1, 102-3, and 132-140. 95 dreaming and s l e e p i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Consciousness i s not mere knowing, i t i n v o l v e s transcendence of the o b j e c t s known and the knowing p r o c e s s . Mind i s t h a t which has a l o c u s i n time and space, whereas consc-iousness i s t h a t which i s not l i m i t e d e i t h e r by time or space, but s t i l l i s t h a t which g i v e s a meaning t o t h e s e . Mind, l i k e matter, i s o n l y an appearance of c o n s c i o u s -ness. J u s t as i n dreams the m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n t i v e exper-ience of waking l i f e becomes onl y an appearance, so a l s o i n the l i g h t o f pure consciousness the mental and p h y s i c a l experiences merely become i l l u s i o n s . 3 7 3. GAUDAPADA * S THEORY OF MIND CREAT'ION T h i s d u a l i t y , possessed of s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , i s a mere v i b r a t i o n of Consciousness. And Consciousness i s o b j e c t l e s s ; hence I t i s d e c l a r e d t o be e t e r n a l l y without r e l a t i o n s . -MK IV.72 As e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d , GaudapSda r e l a t e s f o u r agencies 38 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the world appearance. 39 The S e l f , God, Maya, and the Mind are the f o u r g i v e n . These are shown t o be not f o u r d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s but r a t h e r one process as seen from d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . That these are a l l e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - d i f f e r e n t i s due t o t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y c o n c e r n i n g the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the phenomenal u n i v e r s e upon a substratum which i n t h i s case i s pure Consc-i o u s n e s s . The S e l f (atman) i s not d i f f e r e n t from Brahman or T u r i y a , nor i s the Lord (as the lower form or m a n i f e s t a t i o n of 37 S a r a s v a t i Chennakesavan, The Concept o f Mind i n Indian  P h i l o s o p h y (Bombay: A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1960). p p . v i i i - i x . 38 See Chapter IV s e c t i o n 3. 3 9MK 11.12, III.19, IV.72 and I I I . 3 1 . 96 Brahman) e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the h i g h e r form, nor i s the Mind d i f f e r e n t from t h i s non-dual s u b s t r a t e Gonsciousness. Even maya i s r e l a t e d t o these l o f t y p r i n c i p l e s on the b a s i s o f i t s process o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or m a n i f e s t a t i o n on a substratum. The key t o these agencies i s t h e i r mode of m a n i f e s t a -t i o n . T h i s i s expressed m e t a p h o r i c a l l y with the images o f : 1. the process o f ima g i n a t i o n (kalpana), 4 <^ 2. the " c r e a t i o n " o f an appearance o r i l l u s i o n through s u p e r n a t u r a l or magical means (maya), 3. the v i b r a t i o n , movement, or o s s c i l a t i o n s o f consc-iousness (c i t t a - s p a n d i t a ) , 4 4. something dependent on the immediate p e r c e p t i o n of the mind f o r i t s " e x i s t e n c e " (mano-dr/ya), 4 3 5. t u r n i n g the mind outward thereby " c r e a t i n g " through " i m a g i n a t i o n " what p r e - e x i s t s or s u b s i s t s w i t h i n the M i n d . 4 4 These images share some common f e a t u r e s . F i r s t , the nature or r e a l i t y o f phenomenal u n i v e r s e i s q u e s t i o n e d . I t i s s a i d t o e x i s t but i t s p e r s i s t e n c e or u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y i s den i e d . A h i g h e r or t r u e r s t a t u s i s g i v e n t o t h a t which "manifests" the l e s s e r one. T h i s ground o r substratum i s the 3 9MK 11.12, III.19, 17.72' and I I I . 3 1 . 4 QMK 11.12-16. 4 1MK 11.12, III.10, 19, 23, 24, 27, IV.57-58, e t c . 4 2MK III.28, IV.72. 4 3MK III.31, IV.63-66. 44 MR 11.13. 97 second common f e a t u r e . I t i s t h a t pure non-dual Consciousness however i t be expressed as Brahman, as God, e t c . T h i r d l y , and most important here i s the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the p r o -cesses o f the mind used i n these images. For the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f p e r c e p t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , and so f o r t h are e s s e n t i a l processes w i t h i n ' e a c h person. Through the use o f t h i s terminology and the p i c t u r e which i s thus c r e a t e d , Gaudapada e a s i l y suggests the process o f world gen-e r a t i o n and the consequent phenomenal m a n i f e s t a t i o n . To an a s p i r a n t undergoing the e x p e r i e n t i a l p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n , t h i s image i s a f a m i l i a r one. For the f i r s t r e s u l t o f t h i s p r a c t i c e i s the knowledge o f the mind and i t s workings, not t h e o r e t i c a l l y but e x p e r i e n t i a l l y . In t h i s way the examples are v e r y c o n c r e t e and e a s i l y understandable by the p r a c t i t i o n e r o f m e d i t a t i o n . F u r t h e r , they are a p a r t o f h i s m e d i t a t i o n a l process as the a s p i r a n t p e r s o n a l l y partakes i n t h i s i n n e r p r o c e s s . Once again Gaudapada uses the terms manas and c i t t a i n the double sense o f the " i n d i v i d u a l e m p i r i c a l mind" as w e l l as the meaning of the "cosmic Mind" which i s pure non-dual Consc-i o u s n e s s . The Mind or Consciousness i s a l s o c a l l e d the ~ 45 "unborn" mind and the "non-mind" (amanibhava). What he suggests by t h i s i s t h a t the process o f w o r l d - c r e a t i o n i s due MR III.31 and IV.28. 98 t o the a c t i v i t y or the processes o f the "mind" i n i t s e m p i r i c a l sense and t h a t when t h i s process ceases or subsides, the t r u e n a t u r e o f pure non-dual Consciousness, which though prese n t 46 a t a l l times, i s experienced, or r a t h e r i t simply " i s " . The process h e r e i n i s d e s c r i b e d as the "Mind" or "mind" (manas, c i t t a , or v i j n a n a ) moving, o s s c i l l a t i n g or v i b r a t i n g ( s p a n d i t a ) W h e n i t does so an i l l u s i o n of an o b j e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e or an appearance of o b j e c t s i s produced. To f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s image, Gaudapada uses the analogy o f the f i r e - b r a n d ( a l S t a ) F o r the " w h i r l i n g " movement o f the f i r e - b r a n d " c r e a t e s " d i f f e r e n t forms, shapes and p a t t e r n s . When i t i s not i n motion, i t i s seenrito be f r e e from a l l appearances and remains c h a n g e l e s s . The s t r a i g h t and crooked l i n e s and p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d from the one p o i n t are l i k e n e d to the c r e a t i o n o f any and a l l names (samakhya or nama) and forms (rupa) i n the phenomenal u n i v e r s e . T h i s movement o f the s i n g l e p o i n t e d f i r e - b r a n d c r e a t i n g p l u r a l forms i s a l s o s i m i l a r t o the process o f the Consciousness " c r e a t i n g , " as i t were,/ the d u a l i t y o f the p e r c e i v e r (grahana) and p e r c e i v e d (grahaka). T h i s h e l p s t o e x p l a i n the p a r a d o x i c a l and im p o s s i b l e i d e a o f the seeming change i n the unchanging substratum. As the f i r e -MK III.28, IV.47 and 72. 3MK IV.47-52. 99 brand/consciousness moves, the v a r i e g a t e d names and forms c o n s t i t u t i n g the world are p e r c e i v e d . When the m i n d / f i r e -brand i s s t i l l , the v i b r a t i o n s cease and a l l the shapes "merge" or disappear, as i t were, i n t o the s i n g l e - p o i n t e d n e s s o f the substratum. F u r t h e r , the forms o r appearances when the f i r e - b r a n d i s i n motion are r e l a t e d o n l y t o i t and have no o t h e r source. The appearances s t a y a t the t i p o f the f i r e - b r a n d when motion-l e s s and do not go elsewhere. They do not e n t e r the f i r e -brand, nor d i d they r e a l l y emerge from the f i r e - b r a n d . The appearances n e i t h e r go out of nor e n t e r i n t o the f i r e - b r a n d . S i m i l a r i s the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f non-dual Consciousness i n t o the p l u r a l world. The m a n i f o l d p l u r a l i t y i s n e i t h e r i d e n t i c a l w ith nor independt from Atman or Consciousness. I t i s n e i t h e r separate nor non-separate from i t . The p l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e i s n o t h i n g but t h i s R e a l i t y , y e t the world i s not " r e a l . " R e a l i t y i s not the world, y e t the m u l t i p l e u n i v e r s e has no 49 e x i s t e n c e without t h i s R e a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g i t . Inv\this way, the g e n e r a t i o n o f the world o f d u a l i t y and a l s o the e s s e n t i a l non-dual nature of e v e r y t h i n g i s ex-p l a i n e d . Gaudapada r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t and u l t i m -a t e l y i m p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a complete i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the how and the why o f t h i s p r o c e s s . For the t r u t h o f MR 11.33-35. 100 n o n - d u a l i t y i s always beyond i n t e l l e c t u a l comprehension as i t i s not s u b j e c t t o the d u a l i s t i c s u b - s t r u c t u r e o f our language and thought processes and transcends these a t a l l times. Thus the A d v a i t i n d e c l a r e s t h a t "the world e x i s t s 50' o n l y i n the mind" and t h a t i t i s onl y "the movement o f consciousness producing the appearance o f the p e r c e i v i n g and 51 the p e r c e i v e d " thereby "imagining v a r i e t y where i t i s not." The world i s s a i d t o be r e a l l y o n l y the o b j e c t i v i z a t i o n o f the mind imposed on the Abs o l u t e Atman. T h i s i s a l s o expressed i n other ways. Imagination or c r e a t i o n i s a l s o c a l l e d " p r o j e c -t i o n " or " s u p e r - i m p o s i t i o n . " One use o f the term maya by — 52 Gaudapada i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s p r o c e s s . The S e l f , through maya, p o s i t s the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n t e n t s . I t i s the non-moving o r unchanging Mind which moves on account o f maya. I t i s l i t e r a l l y a s u p e r - i m p o s i t i o n on the non-dual Brahmari. The pure Consciousness o r Atman deludes I t s e l f by I t s e l f , p r o j e c t s (kaplana) the p l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e which i s 5 0MK Iv.45-48, 72, 77 and 1.17. Cp. Brhad. Up.1.53; " A l l this is truly mind" (sarvam mana eva). 5 1MK 11.15, 17 and IV.47. 5 2MK 1.16 (anadi mayaya), 11.31 (svapna maya), 11.19 (maya  i/a), 11.19 (devasya mayayai, III.19 (mayaya bidhyate), III.29 (mayayg spandhate manaha), IV.58 (janma mSyopama; yatho  mgyamayat), III.27 (mSyaya jgtSj, III.24 (mayaya jayate), TV.69 (mSyamaya* jiva) . 101 n o t h i n g but I t s e l f , and cognizes (budvate) the o b j e c t s so c r e a t e d . ^ 3 To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s Gaudapada uses the well-known rope-snake analogy. The rope substratum has imagined or p r o j e c t e d ( v i k a l p a ) upon i t s v a r i o u s names and forms. I t can be mis-p e r c e i v e d as a snake, a p i e c e of s t i c k , a s t r e a k o f water, a c r a c k i n the ground and so f o r t h . When the r e a l nature o f i t i s d i s c o v e r e d the i l l u s i o n s d i s a p p e a r . In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n i s Atman m i s p e r c e i v e d . T h i s p r o c e s s c o f v i k a l p a or kalpana suggests a miscon-c e p t i o n or f a l s e a s c r i p t i o n . I t i s a f i c t i o n or c o n s t r u c t i o n of the mind whereby s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s not o f ja p r i o r i o r i g i n are superimposed upon the one u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e i n g (sat or Brahman) or Consciousness ( c i t ) . Space, time and c a u s a l i t y , f o r example, are such c a t e g o r i e s of the mind and are s a i d t o be c o n s t r u c t i o n s of the i n t e l l e c t f o r the purpose of u n derstanding. As such they convert indeterminate percep-t i o n , experience, or knowledge i n t o a coherent order o f i n t e l l -i g i b l e e x p e r i e n c e . They have v a l i d i t y o n l y w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f our e m p i r i c a l knowledge. From the paramSrtha p e r s p e c t i v e they are merely i l l -u s i v e c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , merely names or words h a v i n g MK 11.12. Cp. "The statement t h a t the world i s . born of Atman simply means t h a t i t i s a super imposition, on Atman.." Swami Satchidanandendra Saraswati, S a l i e n t Features o f Sankara's  Vedanta ( H o l e n a r s i p u r : Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya, 1967), p.123. 102 no r e a l o b j e c t s f o r t h e i r s i g n i f i c a t i o n , or u n r e a l forms o f i d e a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . For when the i n d i v i d u a l has the d i r e c t i n t u i t i v e apprehension o f Brahman, he transcends the l i m i t s of e m p i r i c a l knowledge. In s h o r t , the c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s are not the framework of the r e a l but only those o f mind-imposed s t r u c t u r e on R e a l i t y . T h i s s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n i s essen-t i a l l y t h a t of the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n o f determinate p e r c e p t i o n . ^ 4 T h i s i s the c l a s s i c i m p o s i t i o n of the dvandvas, the p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e s , upon non-dual Consciousness or R e a l i t y . The impositions of s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , b e i n g and non-being, the one and the many, f i n i t e and i n f i n i t e , i n d i v i d u a l i t y and u n i v -e r s a l i t y , l i b e r a t i o n and bondage, and so f o r t h are but concepts o f thenimind which are taken f o r granted and agreed upon con-v e n t i o n a l l y . I t i s granted t h a t these are the b a s i s of o r d i -nary experience, but the p o i n t i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s d e c e i v e d or deluded by them and by e r r o n e o u s l y i d e n t i f y i n g with them and g i v i n g them a f a l s e l y u l t i m a t e s t a t u s , the i n d i v i d u a l s u f f e r s f r u s t r a t i o n , a n x i e t y , g r i e f and misery i n h i s d a i l y l i f e i n the world. For A d v a i t a says t h a t t h i s i s not the t r u e nature o f e x i s t e n c e or r e a l i t y . The nature o f the Atman, Mind, or Consciousness i s r e a l l y asanga, never i n touch with any o b j e c t , unattached, and ever without r e l a t i o n s . Thus, though the m u l t i p l e phenomena ma n i f e s t upon i t , as i t were, t h i s non-d u a l p r i n c i p l e remains u n a f f e c t e d i n every way. :MK III.29-31, IV.61-62, 72, 87-88. 103 T h i s i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by Gaudapada i n h i s argu-# ments concerning the i d e a o f the s t a t e o f waking b e i n g as 55 u n r e a l or i l l u s o r y as t h a t o f the dream s t a t e . The crux o f the argument r e l e v a n t here c e n t e r s again on the nature o f the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h a t these are interdependent and determine one a n o t h e r . ^ F u r t h e r , t h i s " p e r c e i v e r -p e r c e i v e d " r e l a t i o n i s r e a l l y only t h a t which i s "presented" t o consciousness i n both s t a t e s . And as the dream s t a t e i s seen t o be i l l u s o r y and but the product of the mind when com-pared with the waking s t a t e , so a l s o the waking s t a t e i s l i k e -wise i l l u s o r y and mind-dependent on the b a s i s of i t s comparison and subsequent s u b l a t i o n from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the non-d u a l i s t i c s t a t e of deep s l e e p and T u r i y a , and l a t t e r i n p a r -t i c u l a r . 5 7 5 5MK III.29-31, IV.61-62, 65-68. ^ " C i t t a (the mind) m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n the form of d u a l -i t y as much i n the waking s t a t e as i n dream...the phenomena n o t i c e d . . . a r e not independent o f the mind t h e r e ; nor i s t h a t mind independent o f t h e . . . o b s e r v e r . The phenomena t h e r e do not enjoy an e x i s t e n c e o f t h e i r own apa r t from the mind n o t -i c i n g them; nor has the mind any e x i s t e n c e o f i t s own indep-endent o f the waking observer. A p a r t from the w i t n e s s i n g S e l f n e i t h e r the mind nor the phenomena enjoy any a b s o l u t e e x i s -tence, f o r they are r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r . . . . E v e r y t h i n g t h e r e i s r e a l l y the mind, and the mind r e a l l y Atman.•..Waking and dream are each the r e s u l t o f m i n d - v i b r a t i o n p e c u l i a r t o the r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s . " Swami Satchidanandendra Saraswati, o p . c i t . , pp.74-6. 57 There are important d i f f e r e n c e s between the s t a t e o f deep s l e e p and T u r i y a which are fundamental t o Gaudapada's system o f thought and p r a c t i c e . See MK 1.12-15 and III.34-36. Gauda-pada i s c a r e f u l not to confuse "the f o u r t h " with the "causal* 104 Duality i s thus said to be perceived only by the mind. But when i t becomes "non-mind" and the functions of thinking (manana) i n the sense of vikalpa or kalpana cease, there i s no more d u a l i t y . That i n the absence of the "mind," the p l u r a l -i s t i c universe t o t a l l y disappears from experience i s the argu-ment given for the b e l i e f that the world i s but a perception or "creation" of the mind. Gaudapada does not recognize duality i n any form as being ultimately r e a l , though i t exists and i s the basic i n -frastructure of our r e l a t i o n s within the world of everyday experience. A l l d u a l i s t i c conceptions based on the subject and object r e l a t i o n or the opposition of extremes such as being and non-being, are the work of the discriminating mind. This process, variously c a l l e d c i t t a spandita, kalpana, vikalpa, and maya, transforms in thought through images and conceptions the perception of r e a l i t y as i t r e a l l y i s . Behind t h i s imposed d u a l i s t i c structure l i e s Reality,, pure and non-state" of deep sleep as could be interpreted from the descrip-tions of samadhi given i n Yoga and Vedanta texts. They are s i m i l a r i n that non-duality, i e , the non-perception of d u a l i t y i s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The difference is that Prajna i s the objectless world of sleep, while Turiya i s the "sleepless" world of R e a l i t y . As such the state of deep sleep i s s t i l l enmeshed i n ignorance though i t remains latent therein u n t i l re-manifestation takes place. It i s the doorway or causal "state" of dual experience and i n r e l a t i o n to the other states of experience. But Turiya i s neither a "state" of experience nor a condition of "unconsciousness." Rather i t i s the non-dual, changeless and pure consciousness which underlies the three states. The attainment of this state i s said to be true and everlasting freedom versus the temporary and unconscious state of deep s l e e p - l i k e states. 105 d u a l . The s o - c a l l e d m a n i f o l d u n i v e r s e i s thus c a l l e d a "pro-j e c t i o n of the mind" t e m p o r a r i l y appearing as d u a l . But the a n a l y s i s o f experience i n d i c a t e s e x p e r i e n t i a l l y the u n i t y of our experience i n the t h r e e s t a t e s as due t o t h i s u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y o f Consciousness. What Gaudapada denies i s simply the "independence" o f the o b j e c t s from the mind and i t s s t r u c t u r e s as w e l l as t h e i r e t e r n a l i t y . H i s work i s b a s i c a l l y , then, an attempt t o show the i l l u s o r y or u n r e a l nature o f the phenom-e n a l world by b r i n g i n g out the antinomies of e m p i r i c a l r e l a -t i o n s and t o emphasize t h a t the u l t i m a t e and t r u e r e a l i t y can be o n l y t h a t which i s f r e e from t h e s e . 4. SOTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GAUDAPADA•S META-PSYCHOLOGY When, ( f o l l o w i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n of s c r i p t u r e s and the t e a c h e r ) , the mind ceases to t h i n k as a consequence of the r e a l i s a t i o n o f the T r u t h t h a t i s the S e l f , then the mind a t t a i n s the s t a t e of not being the mind; i n the abscence o f t h i n g s t o be p e r c e i v e d , i t becomes a n o n - p e r c e i v e r . -MK III.32 Gaudapada's phenomenological a n a l y s i s and meta-psychology r e v e a l the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l theory upon which h i s advocated p r a c t i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y m e d i t a t i o n , are based. One use o f the term Maya i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o the con-58 d i t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l s l e e p or ignorance o f t r u e R e a l i t y . Man, enmeshed i n maya, i n the i l l u s o r i n e s s or d e ceptiveness of t h e MK 1.16. 106 world, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the b i n d i n g processes o f "mind c r e a t i o n , " and i t s d u a l i s t i c framework, i s s a i d t o be s p i r -i t u a l l y a s l e e p ( n i d r a ) . ^ F o r r e a l wakefulness i s s p i r i t u a l awakening (prabodha) There are two aspects of t h i s s t a t e o f ignorance or s p i r i t u a l s l e e p . F i r s t , the s t a t e s o f waking^and dream are c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d svapna (dream) wherein r e a l i t y i s "mis-apprehended" (anyathagxahana) as the v a r i e g a t e d world o f p l u r a l i t y . T h i s e r r o r or wrong c o g n i t i o n i s termed v i k s e p a * ( p r o j e c t i o n ) i n l a t e r A d v a i t a . The second aspect of t h i s s t a t e o f n e s c i e n c e i s c a l l e d n i d r a (sleep) i t s e l f and r e f e r s t o the "non-apprehension" o f R e a l i t y (tattvajna*na) . T h i s was l a t e r termed avarana, the v e i l i n g , c o v e r i n g or c o n c e a l i n g * aspect of p r i m o r d i a l i g n o r a n c e . ^ T h i s b e g i n n i n g l e s s i g n o r -ance (ahadi maya) i s equated with the l a c k o f "knowledge" (jnana) o:f R e a l i t y . T h i s non-knowing (ajnana) or non-appreh-e n s i o n (nidra) i s s a i d t o be the cause (karana) and mis-apprehension i s the e f f e c t ( k a r y a ) . Gaudapada a l s o uses other m e t a - p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms f o r t h i s b a s i c ignorance. The terms mithya ( f a l s e due t o b e i n g 5 9MK 1.14 and 15. 6 ° M K 1.16. 61 MK1 1.16. Gaudapada a l s o uses the term avarana i n MK IV. 82-84 and 97. 107 e r r o n e o u s l y c o g n i z e d ) , k a l p i t a (wrongly imagined), v i p a r y a s a t or v i p a r y a y a ( e r r o r o r d e l u s i o n i n the sense o f t a k i n g what 62 i s u n r e a l or f a l s e t o be r e a l or true) are used synonym-o u s l y with n i d r a , svapna and maya. These d e s c r i b e man's s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n the world. Theyc.are i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts which c o l l e c t i v e l y express man's estrangement from R e a l i t y . The terms are used f i g u r a t i v e l y f o r t h e i r s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . They i n d i c a t e t h a t the crux o f man's s p i r i t u a l problem i s erroneous knowledge. Mis-apprehension and non-apprehension c o n t i n u e u n t i l the s i t u a t i o n i s r e c t i f i e d by the onset o f t r u e or r i g h t knowledge. Gaudapada d e c l a r e s : When the i n d i v i d u a l , s l e e p i n g under the i n f l u e n c e of b e g i n n i n g l e s s Maya, i s awakened, then he r e a l i s e s the b i r t h l e s s , s l e e p l e s s , dreamless, non-dual ( T u r i y a ) . 63 The b a s i c s p i r i t u a l dilemna f o r man, then, i s h i s f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y and the consequent.erroneous i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the modes o f p e r c e p t i o n through'which consciousness expresses i t s e l f . A l s o , the impressions o f the d u a l i t y , i t s common-sensuality, i s so deeply rooted i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up of the i n d i v i d u a l t h a t i t i s not easy t o understand, p e r c e i v e and r e a l i z e the non-dual R e a l i t y which i s the s u b s t r a t e of t h i s m a n i f o l d appearance. P e r c e i v i n g through the v e h i c l e s o f the senses and the mind and i d e n t i -6 2MK IV.41. 6 3MK 1.16. 108 f y i n g with them, the i n d i v i d u a l i s thus b l i n d e d t o the percep-t i o n o f the t r u e nature o f r e a l i t y . H i s mental a g i t a t i o n s and d i s t u r b a n c e s do not a l l o w him t o r e a l i z e or experience h i s r e a l n a t u r e . They a l s o cause the m i s e r i e s and f r u s t r a -t i o n s o f l i f e e a n d deny man peace, happiness, e t c . Gaudapada suggests t h a t t h i s i s i n p a r t due t o the ease w i t h which t h i s process o f s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n , c o v e r i n g or 64 concealment takes p l a c e . Man n a t u r a l l y enmeshes h i m s e l f i n t h i s web o f p r i m o r d i a l ignorance. Man's b a s i c eagerness t o grasp (grahana) i s a l s o c i t e d by Gaudapada as e a s i l y f a c i l i -t a t i n g concealment. The f a l s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the s u b j e c t over a g a i n s t the o b j e c t s o f experience i s the f i r s t p a r t o f man's bondage and consequent t r i b u l a t i o n s . The ego's p o s s e s s -iveness and attachment t o obgects completes the enslavement. The f a l s e b e l i e f i n the separate r e a l i t y o f s u b j e c t over o b j e c t and the a t t r a c t i o n towards o b j e c t i s s a i d by Gaudapada t o be the cause o f samsara, the c y c l e o f t r a n s m i g r a t i o n and man's s i t u a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g i n the world. Because o f the ease wi t h which t h i s fundamental s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s and i t s p e r s i s -tance, i t i s "uncovered" ( v i v r i y a t e ) with g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y Gaudapada says t h a t t h i s n o t i o n o f d u a l i t y and i t s consequences f o r the i n d i v i d u a l a r i s e s from the mental p r e -fix. MK IV.82-84. 6 5MK IV.75 and 56. 6 6MK IV.82. 109 o c c u p a t i o n with or o b s e s s i o n f o r the phenomenal appearance o f d u a l i t y . Owing t o t h i s p e r s i s t e n t b e l i e f or f a i t h i n the r e a l i t y - o f the u n r e a l (abhutabhinivesa), the mind r e l e n t l e s s l y proceeds i n i t s outgoing a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s the concept o f maya at the p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than as an impersonal cosmic p r i n c i p l e which merely a f f e c t s 67 - - / the i n d i v i d u a l . A bhutabhinivesa as the p e r s i s t e n t b e l i e f i n and fondness f o r d u a l i t y i s a c o n g e n i t a l d i s p o s i t i o n con-d i t i o n i n g a l l knowledge and thus makes the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e p l u r a l i t y where t h e r e i s r e a l l y one, the non-dual pure Consc-i o u s n e s s . As such i t i s the cause o f bondage. T h i s mental p r e - o c c u p a t i o n and p e r s i s t e n t b e l i e f i n d u a l i t y can be c o r r e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o Gaudapada. Using h i s example o f c a u s a t i o n , he suggests t h a t the cause of c a u s a t i o n 68 i s i t s e l f o n l y the b e l i e f and o b s e s s i o n with t h a t concept. T h i s i s why he endeavours t o p o i n t out the empty myth of caus-a l i t y which people i n t h e i r d e l u s o r y understanding m a i n t a i n as ° 1 M K IV.75 and 79. " I f a v i d y a or n e s c i e n c e be i n t e r p r e t e d as the r o o t p r i n c i p l e o f a l l s u b j e c t i v i t y and t o work out i t s programme through a f a l s e b e l i e f i n and attachment t o the non-s e l f and the s u b j e c t i v e and the o b j e c t i v e world c o n s t r u c t e d by i t , then i t can be equated with Gaudapada's concept o f abhQta- b h i n i v e s a — the b l i s s and the p r e d i l e c t i o n of the s u b j e c t f o r the u n r e a l p l u r a l i t y . " from N. T a t i a , S t u d i e s i n J a i n a P h i l o s -ophy (Banaras: J a i n a C u l t u r a l Research S o c i e t y ) , pp.120-1, quoted i n E.A. Solomon's Avidya; A Problem o f T r u t h and  R e a l i t y , (Ahmedabad, G u j a r a t U n i v e r s i t y , 1969), pp.209-210. MK IV.56. 110 t r u e . By i n t e l l e c t u a l l y b r e a k i n g down our f a i t h i n c a u s a l i t y , the p r e c e p t o r i s , i n e f f e c t , e x p l o d i n g the b e l i e f and f a i t h i n a l l o f the f a m i l i a r s t r u c t u r e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s world view. A l l concepts and c a t e g o r i e s imposed upon experience are c h a l l -enged and through the v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g methods o f the guru are shown t o be f a l l a c i o u s . Speaking p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , Gaudapada suggests t h a t abhutabhinives'a i s the "out-going mind}'" the mind r e l a t i n g i t s e l f as p o s s e s s i v e s u b j e c t t o i t s o b j e c t s . When t h e i r abscence i s known, when d u a l i t y d i s a p p e a r s , the mind becomes unattached (nihsanga) t o them and "turns back" ( v i n i v a r t a t e ) . T h i s absence o f r e l a t i o n t o o b j e c t s , the t u r n i n g back and non-movement outwards i s s a i d t o be the t r u e s t a t e o f the mind. As the unwavering, non-dual mind of pure experience i t has 69 become the unattached, unborn Consciousness. T h i s i s the s t a t e o f amanibhava (non-mind) o f Gaudapada's meta-psychology. I t i s the s t a t e o f quiescence, peace, b l i s s — the s t a t e o f S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n d e s c r i b e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the i n d i v -i d u a l ' s mind p r o c e s s e s . T h i s "non-mind" (amanibhava) c o n d i t i o n i s the samadhi o f the yogins wherein the mind i s c o n t r o l l e d and l a i d t o r e s t ( i e , as i n m a n o - n i g r h a ) . 7 0 When the "mind" becomes "non-mind" MK IV.79-80. 'MR III.32, 34 and 37. I l l i t becomes f r e e from t h e t h r e e s t a t e s and t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n s ( v i k a l p a ) and i s s a i d t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h Brahman, T u r i y a , o r 7 1 Pure C o n s c i o u s n e s s x The i n d i v i d u a l c e a s e s t o imagine o r t h i n k d u a l i s t i c a l l y ( s a n k a l p a ) and t h u s i s s a i d t o be f r e e from c o g n i t i o n due t o t h e l a c k o f o b j e c t s t o g r a s p . The s u b j e c t - o b j e c t d i s t i n c t i o n d i s a p p e a r s on t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f / x " T h e atman i s not a mere aggregate o f consciousness as i s sometimes assumed by the Buddhists and other a l l i e d s c h o o l s o f thought, and t h i s can o n l y be proved by a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s t a t e o f s l e e p , when through a n a t u r a l process the i n c e s s a n t flow o f thought i s brought t o a stop and y e t the l i g h t of con-s c i o u s n e s s i s not e x t i n g u i s h e d or put out. And once t h i s i s proved, one must t r y t o r e a l i z e i t c o n s c i o u s l y and with i t s c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n the n e c e s s i t y f o r l e a v i n g one s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and e n t e r i n g i n t o another u n d i f f e r i a t e d s t a t e o f apparent consciousness ceases a l t o g e t h e r . Then one f e e l s the indepencence o f the Atman even w h i l e awake t o the numerous s t a t e s o f thought or c o n s c i o u s n e s s . There i s no f u r t h e r nec-e s s i t y o f c o n t r a c t i n g the thoughts once t h i s a b s o l u t e freedom o f the atman i s r e a l i z e d , f o r the atman n e i t h e r c o n t r a c t s nor expands. I t i s o n l y the mind t h a t possesses t h i s t w i n aspect o f c o n t r a c t i o n and expansion, and the atman being i n c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' w i t h i t , appears to be c o n t r a c t i n g and expanding. Hence i t seems, at one time, withdrawing i t s e l f and again coming out and s p r e a d i n g i t s e l f a l l around, as the mind goes t o r e s t and again becomes a c t i v e . There i s no withdrawal on t h e p a r t o f the Stman, f o r i t i s everywhere and a l l the time the same i d e n t i c a l r e a l i t y , without any c o n t r a c t i o n or expan-s i o n whatsoever i n i t s e l f . Hence i t must be c a r e f u l l y rem-embered t h a t o n l y because, i n the waking s t a t e , i t becomes im p o s s i b l e to" have any i d e a o f the gtman i n i t s p u r i t y , f r e e from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the s t a t e s o f consciousness, one i s taken t o the s t a t e o f s l e e p Qthe r e f e r e n c e h e r e i s t o the Brhadararryaka Upanisad whereas the r e f e r e n c e c i n the Mandukya i s t o T u r l y a j , where through a n a t u r a l process the s t a t e s o f consciousness cease and i t becomes easy t o get h o l d of atman as i t i s per se....As one must pass beyond the s t a t e o f waking ...are e q u a l l y s t a t e s o f mind, and the Atman i s not a s t a t e but an unchanging e n t i t y which remains the same i n a l l s t a t e s and c o n d i t i o n s . " Govindagopal Mukhopadhyaya, S t u d i e s i n the  Upanishads ( C a l c u t t a : S a n s k r i t C o l l e g e , 1960) pp.232-233. 112 T r u t h . P o s i t i v e l y s t a t e d , the e m p i r i c a l mind reaches t he c o n d i t i o n o f quietude o r e q u i p o i s e (samya) when i t becomes 7 3 u n i f i e d o r one with the A b s o l u t e Mind. Rather than engaging i n the processes o f "mind c r e a t i o n , " the mind i s s a i d t o d e s i s t from a l l a c t i v i t y and remains i n i t s b i r t h l e s s , non-du a l , m o t i o n l e s s nature" as Mind o r Pure G o n s c i o u s n e s s . 7 4 How i s t h i s accomplished? Gaudapada uses the phrases "out-going" and then " t u r n i n g back" f o r the movement of con-s c i o u s n e s s . The process here i s d e s c r i b e d i n ne g a t i v e terms. On the one hand, i t i s c a l l e d a process o f " r e v e r s i n g " the e x t r o v e r s i o n o f co n s c i o u s n e s s . L i b e r a t i o n i s achieved through the process o f i n t r o v e r s i o n , going from the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l world o f o b j e c t s ( i e , d u a l i t y ) t o the s t a t e of S e l f -awareness ( n o n - d u a l i t y ) . On the other hand, the problem i s one o f erroneous knowledge (ajnana, svapna, n i d r a , maya, etc.) and i t s "removal" leads t o freedom. As the rope i s d i s c o v e r e d "The mind though i t s own nature i s undoubtedly without the two ( i e , the p e r c i p i e n t and the p e r c e p t i b l e ) , y e t i t moves owing t o i l l u s i o n w ith the appearance o f the two (MK III.30, TV.62). T h i s d u a l i t y compromising the movable and the unmov-ab l e i s t h e r e f o r e p e r c e p t i b l e o n l y by the mind. Hence when the mind becomes non-mind, i e , when i t ceases from i t s f u n c -t i o n o f t h i n k i n g , no d u a l i t y i s experienced ( I I I . 3 1 ) . The c e s s a t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n o f t h i n k i n g o f the mind, or, i n other words, the s t a t e o f non-mind i s reached when the mind through i t s knowledge o f the t r u t h o f the Atman does not t h i n k a n ything b e i n g non-cognizant owing t o the abscence o f the t h i n g s t o cognized ( I I I . 3 2 ) . " Bhattacharya, o p . c i t . , p.cxxx. 7 3MK IV.80. 7 4MK IV.80-81. 113 by "negating" the appearance o f the snake, the S e l f i s t o be r e a l i z e d by "removing" what i s i l l u s o r i l y superimposed upon i t . The " r e - d i s c o v e r y , " " r e a l i z a t i o n , " or "knowledge o f " r e a l i t y "as i t r e a l l y i s " i s the g o a l , the o n l y a n t i d o t e t o man's p a i n f u l w o r l d l y s i t u a t i o n . The processes o f " r e v e r s a l " and "removal" r e f e r t o the new c o n d i t i o n , experience or knowledge which r e s u l t s from the nega t i o n o f t h a t which causes bondage and i t s consequent s u f f e r i n g . For i n t h a t new s p i r i t u a l e xperience a l l t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p r e v i o u s l y knew i s transformed. I t i s s a i d t h a t upon t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o r e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l change, the i n d i v -i d u a l i s never again s u b j e c t t o f a l s e knowledge or any mis-7 5 apprehension o f R e a l i t y . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s t h e r e and language t r i e s t o express t h i s new c o n d i t i o n but o n l y i n d i ^ c a t e s a semblance o f t h a t d i r e c t i n t u i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . And t h a t i s v o i c e d mostly i n terms which negate q u a l i t i e s o f comm-on or normal everyday experience and the processes i n v o l v e d t h e r e i n . In c o n c l u s i o n then, Gaudapada d e s c r i b e s t h i s t o t a l p r ocess p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y both t o e x p l a i n the t h e o r e t i c a l aspect o f h i s t e a c h i n g s and t o d e s c r i b e the process which the i n d i v -i d u a l a s p i r a n t goes through d u r i n g the c u l m i n a t i o n of the p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n . F o r t h i s Gaudapada teaches the e n q u i r y i n t o and the a n a l y s i s of experience, the nature o f the mind, and f i n a l l y , the methods by which i t can be mastered. MK I V . 4 7 . 114 CHAPTER VI THE SOTERIOLOGY OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA I bow down t o t h a t Yoga t h a t i s w e l l known as f r e e from r e l a t i o n s h i p s , j o y f u l t o a l l beings, b e n e f i c i a l , f r e e from d i s p u t e , n o n - c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and s e t f o r t h i n the s c r i p t u r e s . -MK IV.2 As an upadesa-sastra ( a p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g t e x t ) , the Mandukya K a r i k a i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the q u e s t i o n of l i b e r a t i o n ( m o k s a ) G a u d a p a d a 1 s metaphysics, epistemology, psychology and p r a c t i c a l s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e s a l l r e l a t e t o 2 t h i s e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o l o g i c a l concern of A d v a i t a . H i s t e x t assumes t h i s problem o f human l i f e g i v i n g the d e t a i l s o f """The major s o t e r i o l o g i c a l v e r s e s comprise approximately o n e - t h i r d o f the t o t a l t e x t a1thoughtthe t e x t as a whole can be s a i d t o be an upadesa s a s t r a . The major v e r s e s comprising t h i s e s s e n t i a l concern are as f o l l o w s : MK 1.2, 5, 10, 15, 16, 19-23, 24-25, 27-28, 29; 11.32, 34, 35, 38; I I I . l , 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14-16, 29-48; IV.2, 30, 42-43, 46, 52, 54, 55-56, 60, 72-99. The e s s e n t i a l v e r s e s d e s c r i b i n g the m e d i t a t i v e d i s c i p l i n e and i t s background are g i v e n i n f u l l i n Appendix I. These are drawn from the p r i n c i p a l upadesa p o r t i o n which comes a t the end o f the t h i r d prakarana o f the Mandukya K a r i k a . 2 "For I n d i a , t r u t h i s not p r e c i o u s i n i t s e l f ; i t becomes p r e c i o u s by v i r t u e of i t s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n , because knowledge o f t r u t h h e l p s man t o l i b e r a t e h i m s e l f . I t i s not the p o s s e s s i o n o f t r u t h t h a t i s the supreme end o f the Indian sage; i t i s l i b e r a t i o n , and conquest of a b s o l u t e freedom." (p.4). "In I n d i a m e t a p h y s i c a l knowledge always has a s o t e r -i o l o g i c a l purpose. Thus on l y m e t a p h y s i c a l knowledge (vidyg, jnana, prajna) - t h a t i s , the knowledge of u l t i m a t e r e a l i t e s -i s v a lued and sought, f o r i t alone procures l i b e r a t i o n . For i t i s by "knowledge" t h a t man, c a s t i n g o f f the i l l u s i o n s of the world o f phenomena, "awakens". By knowledge - and t h a t means: by p r a c t i c i n g withdrawal, the e f f e c t o f which w i l l be 115 bondage and the promise of l i b e r a t i o n , s e t s f o r t h the nature of man's s i t u a t i o n and the c o r r e c t i v e procedures f o r t h i s , as w e l l as o u t l i n i n g the nature of the s t a t e o f l i b e r a t i o n t o be a t t a i n e d . T h i s i s the r e l i g i o u s or s p i r i t u a l purpose of the t e x t f o r i t was w r i t t e n by a s p i r i t u a l p r e c e p t o r (guru) f o r a s p i r a n t s (sadhakas) seeking l i b e r a t i o n from the round o f samsSra and freedom i n t h i s v e r y l i f e . 1. MAN'S RELIGIOUS SITUATION: THE PROBLEM OF BONDAGE AND MOKSA AS THE GOAL OF LIFE There i s i n evidence a (mere) c r a v i n g f o r f a l s e o b j e c t s , (though) no d u a l i t y i s i n e x i s t e n c e t h e r e . R e a l i s i n g the non-existence o f d u a l i t y , one becomes f r e e from c r a v i n g f o r f a l s e t h i n g s , and one does not undergo b i r t h . -MK IV.75 No s o u l ever came under any v e i l . They are by nature pure as w e l l as i l l u m i n e d and f r e e from the ve r y beg-i n n i n g . Thus being endowed with the power t(6f knowledge), they are s a i d t o know. -MK IV.98 Gaudapada's Mandukya Kar i k a assumes the A d v a i t a Vedanta view o f man's e x i s t e n t i a l s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n . I t presupposes two e x i s t e n t i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r man, t h a t o f the s t a t e o f t o make him f i n d h i s own c e n t e r , t o make him c o i n c i d e with h i s "true s p i r i t " (purusagi atman) . Knowledge i s transformed i n t o a k i n d o f m e d i t a t i o n , and metaphysics becomes s o t e r i o l o g y . In I n d i a not even " l o g i c " i s without a s o t e r i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n i t s b e g i n n i n g s . " (p. 13).. M i r c e a E l i a d e , Yoga: Immortality  and Freedom ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958). The p r e c i d e n t f o r u s i n g the term " s o t e r i o l o g y " i n the sphere o f E a s t e r n thought thus e n l a r g i n g i t s meaning from t h a t o f " s a l v a t i o n " i n the Western f a i t h s t o i t s wider use w i t h i n the " l i b e r a t i o n " o r i e n t e d r e l i g i o n s , has been e s t a b l i s h e d by E l i a d e 116 duhkha (bondage) and t h a t o f moksa (freedom). The A d v a i t i n thus sees two types o f e x i s t e n c e , a u t h e n t i c and i n a u t h e n t i c . T h i s i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t with those who h o l d t h a t man's f i n i t e everyday s i t u a t i o n i s not only the r e a l s i t u a t i o n but a l s o an a u t h e n t i c one. Man's s i t u a t i o n i s s a i d by A d v a i t a t o be a s t a t e o f bondage, fr a u g h t with p a i n , f r u s t r a t i o n , a n x i e t y and misery. That duhkha or s u f f e r i n g i s the s t a t e o f normal man i s put f o r t h on the b a s i s o f the r e a l i z a b i l i t y o f the c o n d i t i o n o f moksa which i s l i b e r a t i o n , freedom or a u t h e n t i c e x i s t e n c e . S u f f e r i n g i s s a i d t o c o n s t i t u t e the ve r y s t r u c t u r e o f man's temporal e x i s t e n c e . Man's p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n the world upon enquiry r e v e a l s i t s d u p l i c i t y . C o n d i t i o n e d by, p a r t i c i -p a t i n g w i t h i n , and b u f f e t e d by p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e s , such as p l e a s u r e and pa i n , man r a r e l y r e f l e c t s on the nature o f h i s l i f e . H o l d i n g onto p l e a s u r e s , endeavouring t o f o r g e t the s u f f e r i n g i n l i f e , d i s t r a c t i n g h i m s e l f from the problems, anx-i e t i e s , f r u s t r a t i o n and p a i n o f h i s w o r l d l y l i f e , man t r i e s t o make the b e s t o f h i s s i t u a t i o n and seeks t o a l l i e v i a t e t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n . But duhkha i s s a i d t o be the b a s i c f a c t o f l i f e . i n the above work and by F .'j-.' S t r e n g i n h i s Emptiness: A Study i n R e l i g i o u s M e a n i n g , ( N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon Press, 1967). S a l -v a t i o n , l i b e r a t i o n , freedom, r e l e a s e , or however i t i s e x p l a i n -ed and by whatever means i t i s achieved i s a r e l i g i o u s t a s k and g o a l . On the l e v e l o f comparative or world r e l i g i o n s , although t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n c e s e v i d e n t , these p r i n c i p l e s can be brought under the heading of the s i n g l e concept o f " s o t e r i o l o g y " . Thus i t i s used here i n con n e c t i o n with Gaudapada's t e x t . 117 I t symbolizes the ambiguous c h a r a c t e r o f l i f e and the s e l f -c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of man. As a concept i t p o i n t s t o man's f i n i t u d e and a l l o f i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s such as h i s s u b j e c t i o n to karma ( r e t r i b u t i v e a c t i o n ) , time, death and so f o r t h . The awareness o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n s t r a i n s man t o r e f l e c t and enquire i n t o the nature of h i s and the world's e x i s t e n c e . I t p o i n t s t o another s t a t e o f e x i s t e n c e f r e e from s u f f e r i n g , f i n i t u d e and death, t h a t of moksa. I t awakens man t o h i s human dilemna and puts him on the quest of t r u t h and freedom t o r e c t i f y t h i s i n a u t h e n t i c i t y and a l i e n a t i o n from a t r u e and complete l i f e . So begins the p u r s u i t o f moksa based on the knowledge o f i t s p o s s i b i l i t y . Duhkha thus r e p r e s e n t s man's e s s e n t i a l unawareness of the depth of h i s own e x i s t e n c e . Man's involvement i n i g n o r -ance and i l l u s i o n and h i s s u b j e c t i o n t o the processes o f l i f e make him f o r g e t f u l o f h i s r e a l e x i s t e n c e as the S e l f (atman). F a l s e l y i d e n t i f y i n g with the body-mind complex he becomes a l i e n a t e d from h i s t r u e s t a t e . The conscious i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the S e l f with i t s adjuncts c r e a t e s a c o n d i t i o n o f i n d i v i d -u a l i t y , separateness, or i n s u l a r i t y and thus the j i v a l i v e s a " l i m i t e d " r a t h e r than a "complete" l i f e . T h i s s t a t e o f bondage or s u f f e r i n g (duhkha) i s d e s i g -nated samsSra by Gaudapada. I t i s the c o n d i t i o n o f cause and e f f e c t , the r e p i t i o n o f b i r t h and death, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the world o f maya both i n the e x t e r n a l world o f phenomena and a l s o p e r s o n a l l y on an ego levels The b e l i e f (abhinivesa) i n 118 the d u a l i s t i c process, the attachment (sanga) t o o b j e c t s , and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the body-mind complex are s a i d t o be the cause o f t h i s p r o c e s s . T h i s i s the b a s i c "ignorance" o f one's r e a l n a t u r e . Man's not knowing t r u e r e a l i t y ( t a t t v a -jnana) and h i s e g o t i s t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the u n r e a l world 4 o f mSya i s the reason f o r h i s bondage. The removal o f t h i s b a s i c f a l s e h o o d i s the remedy t o man's p l i g h t . As "ignorance" i s the cause i t must be e r a d i -c a t e d . And when the f a l s e b e l i e f , p e r c e p t i o n or understanding o f r e a l i t y i s des t r o y e d throughtknowledge (jnana), samsara i s 5 removed or r a t h e r d i s a p p e a r s a l s o . As attachment e t c . i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the wanderings i n samsara, the i n d i v i d u a l JMK IV. 10, 75, 91-94. 4 T h i s appears a t f i r s t s i g h t t o be a c l a s s i c a l double-b i n d s i t u a t i o n . The argumentiis c i r c u l a r i n t h a t i t suggests t h a t man i s i n bondage due t o ignorance and i n ignorance be-cause o f h i s bound c o n d i t i o n . But what i t r e a l l y attempts t o communicate i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The be g i n n i n g or u l t i m a t e cause o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s not and cannot be known and the p u r s u i t o f i t i s u s e l e s s as i t remains an unanswerable q u e s t i o n . The p o i n t i s t h a t each man i s born i n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n unawares and i t i s perpetuated by h i s w i l l i n g though o f t unconscious p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t . Thoughbit i s b e g i n n i n g l e s s , i t does have an end. T h i s i s the promise o f r e l e a s e or l i b e r a t i o n through the r e a l i z a t i o n o f The T r u t h o f R e a l i t y . 5 ' -MK IV.56. Sankara i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the U p a n i s a d i c commentary s t a t e s t h a t , "Just as the normal s t a t e o f a man a f f l i c t e d by d i s e a s e , c o n s i s t s i n h i s g e t t i n g cured o f the d i s e a s e , s i m i l a r i l y the normal s t a t e o f the S e l f , s t r i c k e n with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h misery, i s re g a i n e d through the c e s s a t i o n o f the phenomenal u n i v e r s e o f d u a l i t y . The end i n view i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f n o n - d u a l i t y . S i n c e the phenomenal world o f d u a l i t y i s a c r e a t i o n o f ignorance, i t can be e r a d i c a t e d through knowledge." 119 becomes non-attached through knowledge. He "turns back" from the f a l s e p u r s u i t o f the n o n - r e a l and reaches the non-dual R e a l i t y . ^ T h i s i s accomplished by the r e a l i z a t i o n of the S e l f (atmasatyanubodha), which i s the s o l e r e a l i t y . With the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s t r u t h the i n d i v i d u a l a t t a i n s t o moksa which i s r e l e a s e or freedom from sorrow, d e s i r e , f e a r , e t c . Moksa, then, r e f e r s t o the attainment o f s p i r i t u a l freedom and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l e a s e from the trammels and f e t t e r s o f l i f e . T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s g i v e n supreme v a l u a t i o n by Gaudapada and by A d v a i t a Vedanta as a whole. Faced with the acuteness o f s u f f e r i n g and bondage the i n d i v i d u a l seeks r e l i e f . F i n d i n g t h a t normal l i f e i s i n a u t h e n t i c and essen-t i a l l y one o f a l i e n a t i o n from one's t r u e nature or r e a l i t y , the i n d i v i d u a l b e g i n s the p u r s u i t of t h i s i d e a l . Though t o the bound man i t i s merely an i d e a l and an aim a t f i r s t , the t r a d i t i o n o f those who have found such a r e l e a s e and l i b e r a t i o n , and who l i v e a u t h e n t i c a l l y i n t h i s freedom, happiness and peace i s the e x t e r n a l evidence o f what the i n d i v i d u a l must prove e x i s t e n t i a l l y f o r h i m s e l f . Moksa i s thus a s t a t e or c o n d i t i o n o f "freedom." 6MR IV.78-80. 7MR I I I . 3 2 . p For a b r i e f but e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s b a s i c concept o f freedom i n Indian p h i l o s o p h y see K a r l H. P o t t e r , Presuppos- i t i o n s o f I n d i a ' s P h i l o s o p h i e s (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. P r e n t i c e -H a l l Inc., 1963), pp.1-24 and 48-49 i n • p a r t i c u l a r . 120 T h i s "freedom" i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d n e g a t i v e l y as a freedom "from" s u f f e r i n g , bondage and a l l t h a t t h a t i m p l i e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , moksa as t h a t which i s u l t i m a t e l y v a l u a b l e i s d e f i n e d as freedom " t o " be a u t h e n t i c and t o l i v e l i f e f u l l y and completely without d e l u s i o n and r e s t r i c t i o n . T h i s i s a c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e , o f the "here-and-now, " and i s not the redemption of an a f t e r - d e a t h s t a t e . I t i s a new c o n d i t i o n o f being, the r e a l i z a t i o n o f one's r e a l nature, the e v e r - f r e e S e l f . I t i s the d i s c o v e r y o f what one always was, the d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i v e experience of one's inmost depths o f b e i n g . I t i s an e p i s t e m i c change a f f e c t i n g both the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s r e l a t i o n t o the world. For moksa m i s Brahma-vidya, the knowledge or d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n o f R e a l i t y . I t i s not t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f the world per se, but o n l y t h e disappearance o f a f a l s e o u t l o o k . Freedom c o n s i s t s i n the d i s s o l u t i o n of a l l e e m p i r i c a l c a t e g o r i e s and the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t d i s t i n c t i o n . The world o f experience with i t s d i s t i n c t i o n s i s s a i d t o disappear, as i t were, f o r the i n d i v i d u a l who r e c o g -n i z e s the non-dual oneness o f Brahman and Atman. 9 As the snake i s s u b l a t e d through knowledge r e v e a l i n g the rope, so a l s o i s the case o f the s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f the m a n i f o l d world upon Brahman b e i n g removed through knowledge (jnana or anubhava). I t i s not the " p r o d u c t i o n " o f anything MK' III.32-33 and 37-38. 121 but r a t h e r a " r e - d i s c o v e r y . " Nor can i t be c a t e g o r i z e d as a m o d i f i c a t i o n , p u r i f i c a t i o n , refinement, attainment or a c q u i s -i t i o n o f a n y t h i n g . I t i s not even a change of s t a t e , a sep-a r a t i o n from Nature, nor union with Brahman, nor the j l v a g oing t o Brahman or v i c e v e r s a . Moksa i s n o t h i n g b u t - b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n one's r e a l S e l f . I t i s the knowledge t h a t Brahman i s the only u l t i m a t e R e a l i t y , t h a t the j r v a i s non-d i f f e r e n t from Brahman, and t h a t the world o f p l u r a l i t y and m u l t i p l i c i t y i s f a l s e or d e l u s o r y , because i t i s a superim-p o s i t i o n on Brahman. What i s c a l l e d r e l e a s e , then, i s r e a l l y o n l y the attainment of what i s a l r e a d y t h e r e . P o s i t i v e l y , i t i s s a i d t o be the d i s c o v e r y o f the S e l f (atman) and n e g a t i v e l y t h i s knowledge or r e a l i z a t i o n i s s a i d t o be simply the removal of ignorance c o n c e r n i n g r e a l i t y . T h i s new outlook a f f e c t s both the i n d i v i d u a l ' s understanding o f h i m s e l f and a l s o o f h i s r e l a t i o n t o the world. Gaudapada a l s o reminds the a s p i r a n t t h a t t h i s t a l k o f bondage ariddSiiberation i s from the s t a n d p o i n t of the r e l a t i v e . While the f a l s i t y o f bondage can o n l y be s t a t e d from the paramaftha p e r s p e c t i v e or experience, from t h i s s t a n d p o i n t t h e r e i s o n l y the e v e r - l i b e r a t e d S e l f . The S e l f never r e a l l y becomes bound and so t h e r e i s no r e a l q u e s t i o n o f i t s bondage and the need t o a t t a i n r e l e a s e a t any p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time. For the S e l f i s the nature o f e t e r n a l r e l e a s e . I t i s MK 11.32 and IV.30 ( a l s o see Sankara's commentary t h e r e o n ) . 122 freedom i t s e l f . The h i g h e s t t r u t h i s t h a t t h e r e i s n e i t h e r samsara nor moksa. When the o b s c u r a t i o n by maya i s removed through knowledge, r e l e a s e i s s a i d t o be a t t a i n e d i n a f i g u r -a t i v e sense o n l y . L i b e r a t i o n thus s i g n i f i e s or r e p r e s e n t s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f what i s ever-present, the e t e r n a l non-dual R e a l i t y , r a t h e r than t h e accomplishment o f anything new. For the A b s o l u t e i s not the ' f r u i t o f a c t i v i t y as t h e r e i s no t h i n g t o be done i n r e f e r n e e t o Brahman. 1 1 There i s no cause o f S e l f - R e a l i z a t i o n , f o r i f i t were an e f f e c t , i t would be a p e r i s h a b l e quantum and as f i n i t e as anything e l s e . Only the removal o f ignorance through knowledge, the d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i v e e xperience o f Brahman, i s necessary t o r e v e a l what has always been t h e r e but v e i l e d from immediate e x p e r i e n c e . Thus the path t h e r e t o i s the jnana marga, the way o f knowledge. Gaudapada d e f i n e s t h i s as atmasatyanubodha, the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the t r u t h o f the S e l f . I t i s through the "unborn knowledge" 1 o t h a t the "unborn S e l f " i s r e a l i z e d . 2. SADHANA OR SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINE Things t o be r e j e c t e d , r e a l i s e d , accepted, and made i n e f f e c t i v e are t o be known a t the ve r y b e g i n n i n g . -MK IV.90 11 MK III . 3 6 . 12 MK III.32-33. 123 For the bound man t o r e a l i z e or a c t u a l i z e the c o n d i t -i o n o f moksa i n h i s l i f e , he must undertake some process t o i n i t i a t e t h i s change. T h i s i s c a l l e d sadhana, s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e . Sadhana l i t e r a l l y means "that b y which something i s performed," or more p r e c i s e l y , "the means to an end." In the s p i r i t u a l quest, i t r e f e r s t o t h e e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c i p l i n e t h a t leads t o the attainment o f the s p i r i t u a l e x perience which i s regarded as the summum bonum, the h i g h e s t good, the s i d d h i (completion or p e r f e c t i o n ) o f e x i s t e n c e . Sadhana, then, i s the means or instrument by which s i d d h i , 13 success or p e r f e c t i o n , i s a t t a i n e d . Sadhana i s thus a broad term which covers and c o n t a i n s a n y t h i n g which r e l a t e s and i s h e l p f u l t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s the p r a c t i c a l r a t h e r than the t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e o f the r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l quest. As such i t i n v o l v e s an a t t i t u d e towards l i f e as a whole and can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as the t a k i n g up of a new way. o f l i v i n g . For i t r e q u i r e s a r a d i c a l change i n a t t i t u d e , d i r e c t i o n and l i f e - s t y l e . Sadhana becomes a method or p r a c t i c e o f l i v i n g f o r the purpose o f e f f e c t i n g s p i r i t u a l change, growth and p e r f e c t i o n . Sadhana combines the t h e o r e t i c a l base w i t h the p r a c -t i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r S e l f - R e a l i z a t i o n . P hilosophy and r e l i g -i o n t r u l y blend h e r e . For, as was p o i n t e d out i n a p r e v i o u s Brahma, o p . c i t . , p.13. 124 chapter, n e i t h e r i s r e a l l y independent. They are i n t e r -dependent and r e c i p r o c a l l y r e l a t e d . A d v a i t a Vedanta in gen-e r a l and GaudapSda i n p a r t i c u l a r s u b s c r i b e t o t h i s view o f the g o a l o f l i f e b e i n g the s p i r i t u a l achievement o f moksa and a l l t h a t t h i s term i m p l i e s . E v e r y t h i n g becomes subsumed t o t h a t end. Philosophy i s not f o r thessake o f the i n t e l l e c t , nor i s r e l i g i o n f o r anything other than t h i s b a s i c t a s k or r e a l i z a -t i o n or enlightenment. They are a l l d i r e c t e d towards a i d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l towards a c t u a l i z i n g the sadhya, t h a t which i s t o be obtained, which i n t h i s case i s the Brahman or Atman exp e r i e n c e . Thus, on l y i n the realm o f thought can t h i s t o t a l a t t i t u d e and way of l i f e be c a t e g o r i z e d f o r the purpose o f understanding. Metaphysics, epistemology, psychology, s o t e r -i o l o g y are a l l u l t i m a t e l y merely aspects of V e d a n t i c sSdhana. Sadhana i n c o r p o r a t e s them a l l i n t o a dynamic e x i s t e n t i a l p r o -cess of S e l f - d i s c o v e r y (atma-vidya). As such Gaudapada g i v e s the a s p i r a n t a b a s i c and a l l -comprehensive sadhana. Theory and p r a c t i c e are drawn from the i l l u m i n a t i o n s of S e l f - r e a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s s o l e l y f o r the purpose o f g u i d i n g s e e k e r s . T h i s i s s a i d t o be done out of compassion f o r the s u f f e r i n g , bound man. The siddhas, the p e r f e c t e d , e n l i g h t e n e d or l i b e r a t e d beings, know o f the d i f f -i c u l t y i n a t t a i n i n g moksa. As i d e a l and p u r s u i t , A d v a i t i c 14 r e a l i z a t i o n i s not e a s i l y a c q u i r e d due t o b a s i c ignorance. :MK IV.82. 125 Because o f t h i s , they saw the need f o r a process o f educat i o n , of d i s c i p l i n e , as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . E n l i g h -tenment r e q u i r e s the "attunement" o f the whole b e i n g o f the a s p i r a n t t o enable him t o become so transformed. Such a s p i r i t u a l experience occurs o n l y when the i n d i v i d u a l i s f u l l y prepared t o r e c e i v e such r e v e l a t i o n or s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . The guru g i v e s the sadhaka, or p r a c t i t i o n e r o f sadhana, a t o t a l way o f l i f e c o n s i s t i n g o f the essence o f the l i f e p h i l o s o p h y , the g o a l t o achieve, and the path o f d i r e c t i o n s and pr o c e d -u r a l methods t o pursue t h a t end. In MK IV.90, Gaudapada g i v e s a summary o f h i s process of sadhana. He says t h a t four t h i n g s are t o be known by the a s p i r a n t a t the be g i n n i n g o f the s p i r i t u a l q u e s t . These are t o be worked with u n t i l the end or g o a l o f l i b e r a t i o n or S e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n i s ach i e v e d . F i r s t i s t h a t which i s t o be avoided or r e j e c t e d (heya). Sankara i n h i s commentary says t h a t t h i s i s a l l t h a t i s n o n - r e a l , i e , the t h r e e s t a t e s o f e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . Second, i s t h a t which i s t o be known or r e a l i z e d (jneya) . s'ankara comments t h a t t h i s r e f e r s t o the knowledge of rfectationless, non-dual, U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . T h i r d i s t h a t which i s t o be a t t a i n e d or a p p r o p r i a t e d (apya). T h i s , says Sankara, i s the d i s c i p l i n e s o f p r a c t i c a l sadhana, the a c c e s s -o r i e s o f s p i r i t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n . F o u r t h i s t h a t which i s t o be made i n e f f e c t i v e ( pakyani). These are the blemishes or i m p u r i t i e s which s'ankara c a l l s kasaya (the passions) , such as 126 a t t r a c t i o n , r e p u l s i o n , d e l u s i o n e t c . What i s t o be r e j e c t e d and what i s t o be r e a l i z e d comprises the t h e o r e t i c a l aspect o f the sadhana w h i l e what methods are to be u t i l i z e d and what i s t o be thus rendered i n e f f e c t i v e i s the p r a c t i c a l s i d e o f the sadhana. T h i s can a l s o be seen another way. On the neg-a t i v e s i d e , Gaudapada p o i n t s out t h e o r e t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y what i s t o be r e j e c t e d and what are t o be made i n e f f e c t i v e . P o s i t i v e l y he s t a t e s what i s t o be r e a l i z e d and the ways or means t o be u t i l i z e d f o r t h a t attainment. While t h i s d i s c i p l i n e as a way of l i f e cannot a c t u a l l y be p r e c i s e l y c a t e g o r i z e d , the t r a d i t i o n does sketch a b a s i c s c h e m a t i z a t i o n t o a i d understanding and p r a c t i c e . T h i s can a l s o be seen w i t h i n Gaudapada's p r a c t i c a l sadhana. I t i s the path c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as the t h r e e - f o l d process o f sravana ( l i s t e n i n g ) , manana ( r e f l e c t i n g ) and n i d i d h y a s a n a (contempla-t i o n ) . T h i s t h r e e - f o l d process i s g i v e n o r i g i n a l l y i n the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, from which Gaudapada draws much o f h i s s c r i p t u r a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l support. Atman, v e r i l y . . . i s t o be seen by l i s t e n i n g t o t e a c h i n g s about him,, by t h i n k i n g over h i s nature, and by contem-p l a t i o n . 15 T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d e s p e c i a l l y i n MK 11.35 and 36. As w e l l as t h i s r e f e r e n c e , Gaudapada's e x t e n s i v e use o f s c r i p t u r e , r e a s o n -i n g and m e d i t a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a t t e s t t o t h i s framework. Brhadaranyaka Upanisad II.4.5. Compare Chand. VI.14.2 and V I I I . 7 . 1 . " * 127 Gaudapada uses a s c r i p t u r a l b a s i s f o r h i s t e a c h i n g s . He p l a c e s s'ruti ( r e vealed s c r i p t u r e ) as the h i g h e s t pramana, and f r e q u e n t l y a l l u d e s t o passages as w e l l as g i v e s q u o t a t i o n s from t e x t s t o support h i s views and t o show the a s p i r a n t the nature o f r e a l i t y . Sravana as the study o f s a c r e d r e v e l -a t i o n i s one o f these t h r e e - f o l d means t o s p i r i t u a l attainment. The l i s t e n i n g t o and study o f s c r i p t u r e t u r n s the seeker i n -wards and d i r e c t s him t o o r i e n t h i s mind towards the S e l f which i s sought. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s the framework by means o f which the a s p i r a n t ' s subsequent experience may be understood and i n t e r p r e t e d . Gaudapada r e p e a t e d l y emphasizes the f a c t t h a t the u p a n i s a d i c t r u t h s are not mere Utopian dreams but experiences which can be a c t u a l i z e d w i t h i n the l i f e o f every p r a c t i t i o n e r . i 7 Manana as r e f l e c t i v e thinking i s the second aspect or stage o f t h i s t h r e e - f o l d p r o c e s s . The seeker i s asked t o r e f l e c t and c o n s i d e r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f A d v a i t a and i n t e r n a l i z e these as a p a r t o f h i s own l i v i n g f a i t h . -He i s t o see f o r h i m s e l f the Tightness or v a l i d i t y o f these p r i n c i p l e s . He i s t o e x p l o r e the dimensions o f h i s experiences and pursue the p r a c t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l e n q u i r y i n t o the nature o f the S e l f . On the one hand, t h i s i m p l i e s a r a t i o n a l j u s t i -f i c a t i o n o f the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s whereby q u e s t i o n s See Chapter I I I s e c t i o n 2 and e s p e c i a l l y f o o t n o t e s 10 and 11 f o r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . 1 7M K 1.16 f o r example. 128 concerning these are reasoned out. T h i s allows the i n d i v i d u a l t o seek out the reasonableness and accuracy of the p r o p o s i t -ions and a l s o t o remove any doubts which he may have about them. T h i s r e f l e c t i o n i s the method by which doubts and a m b i g u i t i e s about the V e d a n t i c t e a c h i n g s are removed or a t l e a s t a l l a y e d . On the o t h e r hand, t h i s process a l s o becomes v i c a r a or S e l f - e n q u i r y as a method o f reasoningwwhich as i t i s r e l a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d a i l y l i f e s i t u a t i o n becomes i n i t s e l f a type o f m e d i t a t i o n . Uses o f these types o f r e a s o n i n g i n the Mandukya K a r i k a has been i n d i c a t e d i n chapter I I I above. T h i s process o f manana or r e f l e c t i o n prepares the sadhaka f o r the next stage of sadhana which i s n i d i d h y a s a n a or contempla-t i o n per se. The t h i r d i n t e r - r e l a t e d aspect o f t h i s process, then, i s m e d i t a t i o n or contemplation. T h i s i s the s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p -l i n e by means o f which the a s p i r a n t c o n c e n t r a t e s h i s mind on the s u b t l e p r i n c i p l e , the S e l f (atman). I t i s through t h i s process o f c o n c e n t r a t e d contemplation t h a t the a c t u a l exper-i e n t i a l attainment of moksa, o f Self-knowledge or wisdom takes p l a c e . T h i s i s the p r a c t i c e o f c o n s t a n t m e d i t a t i o n which Gaudapada r e f e r s t o when!talking about the p r a c t i c e of Aspars'a  Yoga. I t i s the i n t r i c a c i e s o f t h i s p r a c t i c e and process which he focuses upon a t the end o f the t h i r d prakarana o f h i s K a r i k a . Sravana and manana are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Mandukya • * K a r i k a but t h e i r d i r e c t u t i l i z a t i o n i s not as c l e a r l y and 129 d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e d as i s t h i s t h i r d aspect o f nid i d h y a s a n a • Yet these t h r e e are s t i l l v e r y much i n t e r - r e l a t e d h e r e i n . They are u s u a l l y s a i d t o be stages o r steps o f p r a c t i c e and are so a t the begin n i n g o f the p u r s u i t . When the sadhaka i s p r a c t i c i n g h i s c o n s i s t e n t and prolonged sadhana, the th r e e are found t o be i n t e r - t w i n e d and t h e r e i s r e a l l y no s u c c e s s i o n from one t o the o t h e r . They are turned t o c o n s t a n t l y and each supplements the development and success o f the o t h e r . The th r e e aspects are s a i d t o e q u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the dawning of knowledge (jnana o r anubhava) which i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the S e l f . 3. THE BAHIRANGA OR OUTER WORK OF SADHANA The mendicant should have no a p p r e c i a t i o n or g r e e t i n g s ( f o r o t h e r s ) , and he should be f r e e from r i t u a l s . He should have the body and s o u l as h i s support, and he should be dependent on ci r c u m s t a n c e s . -MK 11.37 There are two a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n s o f sadhana. They are the bahiranga, the outer limb, and the antaranga, the inn e r work. The e x o t e r i c aspect, bahiranga, i s the p r e p a r a t o r y p o r t i o n o f the s p i r i t u a l p u r s u i t , w h i l e the e s o t e r i c aspect, the antaranga i s the r e a l i n n e r work towards the m a n i f e s t a t i o n or a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f the anubhava or d i r e c t experience o f t r u t h . These two are a l s o a c t u a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e and merge c o n s t a n t l y i n the dynamic process o f p r a c t i c i n g s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e s . Both are necessary even though the emphasis may be p l a c e d on the l a t t e r aspects o f m e d i t a t i o n . 130 For example, P a t a n j a l i ' s astanga-yoga ( e i g h t limbs or stages o f yoga p r a c t i c e ) combines both the o u t e r and i n n e r work r e s p e c t i v e l y under the c a t e g o r i e s o f yama ( r e s t r i c t i o n s ) , niyama ( o b l i g a t i o n s ) , asana ( p o s t u r e ) , pranayama (breath or energy c o n t r o l ) , pratyShara (withdrawal o f the senses), and then the samyama which c o n s i s t s o f dharana ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) , dhyana (meditation) and samadhi ( a b s o r p t i o n ) . T h e f f i r s t four correspond t o the o u t e r work, the p r e p a r a t o r y or p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c i p l i n e s , w h i l e the f i n a l four c a t e g o r i e s r e l a t e t o the r e a l i n n e r work or m e d i t a t i o n . Though g i v e n s c h e m a t i c a l l y and t o a degree s u c c e s s i v e l y these o f n e c e s s i t y are t o be done co n g r u e n t l y . When Gaudapada's Asparsa Yoga i s i n t e r p r e t e d schemati-c a l l y i t a l s o r e v e a l s such a complete s c i e n c e o f the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . He has not so c o n v e n i e n t l y organized the system. In the Mandukya K a r i k a he goes r a t h e r d i r e c t l y t o the i n n e r work and t o a l a r g e extent assumes the c o n t e x t u a l s i t u a t i o n of the student r e g a r d i n g the knowledge and p r a c t i c e o f the outer work (bahiranga). T h i s then must be c u l l e d from the t e x t as a whole. The major p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the quest f o r the S e l f and the consequent p r a c t i c e o f sadhana i s mumuksatva, the d e s i r e f o r l i b e r a t i o n . F e e l i n g the e f f e c t s o f samsara the i n d i v i d u a l must h i m s e l f s t r o n g l y d e s i r e both r e l e a s e from these circumstances and the g o a l o f freedom, peace and h a p p i -ness which i s consequent with moksa. I t i s t h i s v e r y y e a r n i n g which pushes the a s p i r a n t i n t o the s p i r i t u a l quest t h a t under-131 l i e s Gaudapada's K a r i k a as a moksa - or upadesa-sltstra (prac-t i c a l t e a c h i n g manual). I t i s t h i s d e s i r e which a l s o under-l i e s the t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a i d t o be necessary f o r f r u i t f u l sadhana. The guru-s'isya samvada (teacher-student d i s c u s s i o n s ) • — — — — i s the foundation o f sadhana. Gaudapada's t e x t can be seen as a somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y organized form of the d i a l o g u e and r e l a t i o n s h i p . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h i s t e x t i t s e l f i s used i n t h i s i n t i m a t e s i t u a t i o n as are the s'ruti or sacred s c r i p t u r a l t e x t s . The presence and guidance o f an e n l i g h t e n e d being e i t h e r phy-s i c a l l y o r through the medium o f s c r i p t u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d i n d i s -p e n s i b l e . On the one hand, i t i s the sage or p r e c e p t o r who teaches the p u r p o r t o f the s c r i p t u r e s . I t i s through t h i s t h a t the t e a c h i n g s become meaningful. Not only are the abs-t r u s e t r u t h s e x p l i c a t e d , but a l s o they are seen as embodied i n the t e a c h e r . Through d e f i n i t i o n of these s u b t l t i e s by d i r e c t comment and e x p o s i t i o n and through the use o f v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i v e d e v i c e s such as reasoning, analogy and i l l u s t r a -t i o n the import of the teachings i s f u l l y e x p l a i n e d . In sum, the p r e c e p t o r ' s t a s k i s to e x p l a i n the i n e x p l i c a b l e , t o d e f i n e the i n f i n i t e i n f i n i t e terms and t o awaken the a s p i r a n t to the t r u t h o f h i s own b e i n g . F u r t h e r , he i s t o s e t f o r t h a complete l i f e program of philosophy, e t h i c s and p r a c t i c e s whereby the a s p i r a n t through h i s own s e l f - e f f o r t can t r a n s f o r m the i n s t r u c -t i o n r e c e i v e d i n t o d i r e c t p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . 132 Gaudapada advocates the t a k i n g up o f the l i f e o f 18 sannyasa (complete r e n u n c i a t i o n ) . The l i f e o f a r e n u n c i a t e or r e l i g i o u s mendicant i s c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s i t y f o r those who want t o devote themselves e x c l u s i v e l y t o sadhana and the s p i r i t u a l q uest. The d e v o t i n g o f one's t o t a l l i f e t o Brahma- v i d y a i m p l i e s the whole-hearted s t a y i n g of the mind on Brahman t o the e x c l u s i o n o f every other a c t i v i t y . And t h i s cannot r e l a t e t o the w o r l d l y as*ramas ( t r a d i t i o n a l stages of l i f e ) f o r the d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s imposed t h e r e i n are a constant d i s t r a c t i o n and o b s t r u c t i o n t o the s p i r i t u a l p u r s u i t . Brahma- n i s t h a t r a (devotion t o Brahman only) i s p o s s i b l e t o the i n d i v -i d u a l who has renounced a l l d u t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the other t h r e e stages o f l i f e . While t h i s i s the i d e a l , Gaudapada i s aware o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the s p i r i t u a l l i f e and the n e c e s s i t y of com-promise f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s c S f seekers and f o r those who are 19 _ at d i f f e r e n t stages of l i f e . Gaudapada f i r s t makes the b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n among people i n t o those who are knowers, wise or 20 mature and those who are i g n o r a n t , c h i l d - l i k e or immature. Of the l a t t e r group t h e r e are s e v e r a l d i v i s o n s . He suggests t h r e e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s here? i n - f e r i o r , i n t e r m e d i a t e and sup-e r i o r which corresponds to the d i f f e r e n t s types of seekers a t 18 See MK 11.37 and the general tenor of the text as a whole. 1 9MK I I I . 14-16 and IV.42-43 (both with Ankara's commentary) 20 MK III.8 and IV.94. 133 d i f f e r e n t stages o f l i f e . The lower group i s comprised o f those who are " d u l l " i n t h a t they are s p i r i t u a l l y d e f i c i e n t and t h e i r i n n e r eye has not y e t opened. The m i d d l i n g group c o n s i s t s o f those people o f average attainments and who are t o r n between w o r l d l y d u t i e s and t h e s p i r i t u a l q uest. The s u p e r i o r group i s comprised o f those few i n d i v i d u a l s who are w e l l i n t e g r a t e d , capable o f p e r c e i v i n g the t r u t h and r i p e f o r r e a l i z a t i o n . F or the b e n e f i t o f those o f the i n f e r i o r and m i d d l i n g groups Gaudapada advocates v a r i o u s upasanas or devot-i o n a l m e d i t a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by the s c r i p t u r e s and which can 21 • — be done w i t h i n the s o c i a l framework. A n a n d a g i r i ' s g l o s s on MK III.16 suggests t h a t men o f low v i s i o n are those who medi-t a t e on the karya-Brahman, v i z , V i r a j , and the mi d d l i n g s on karana-Brahman, v i z , I s v a r a . In MK I I I . l , Gaudapa"da says t h a t these people are p i t i a b l e (krpana) i n comparison t o those o f s u p e r i o r c a p a b i l i t i e s who can see the e t e r n a l and u n o r i g i n a t e d Brahman. Yet, the d i f f e r e n c e i n competence cannot r e a l l y be helpe d as i t i s o f the nature o f p l u r a l i t y . As a l l must reach the g o a l , o n l y some w i l l take a longer time than o t h e r s . Those who are p r a c t i c i n g m e d i t a t i o n have entered the path and t h e i r d e f e c t s w i l l not amount t o much i f they have a f i r m r e s o l v e and are p e r s i s t e n t i n t h e i r e f f o r t s towards s p i r i t u a l 22 growth. See f o r example, the upasanas i n the f i r s t V a l l i o f the T a i t t i r l y a Upanisad and those found throughout the Chandogya. 2 2MK i v . 4 3 . 134 The u p a s a n a s a r e g i v e n t o d e v e l o p s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h t o w a r d s n o n - d u a l i t y . From d e v o t i o n and r i t u a l t h e a s p i r a n t moves i n t o c o n t e m p l a t i v e t e c h n i q u e d e p e n d i n g on h i s r e a d i n e s s . T h i s i s t h e u s e o f u p a y a o r s k i l l f u l means by t h e s c r i p t u r e s and p r e c e p t o r s . R e a l i z i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , powers o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n , and p s y c h i c c o n c e n t r a -t i o n o f t h e s e e k e r s , d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g s and p r a c t i c e s a r e g i v e n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e l e v e l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l f i b r e . T h i s p r o v i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e t i m e and a b i l i t y t o grow and d e v e l o p s p i r i t u a l l y . G i v i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f a j a t i ( n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n ) t o an i n d i v i d u a l u n a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d i t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r s p i r i t u a l o p e n i n g may be n e i t h e r h e l p -f u l n o r c r e a t i v e . O n l y a few i n d i v i d u a l s a r e r e a d y f o r t h e h i g h e r t r u t h s . The masses a r e a f r a i d o f t h e v e r y i d e a o f t h e n o n - m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i n g s ( a j a t i - v a d a ) as t h e y a r e t o t a l l y g i v e n o v e r t o and enmeshed w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e y a l s o p r e f e r t o r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l i a r w o r l d o f w a k i n g p e r c e p t i o n a l o n e and p l a c e t h e i r f a i t h i n r i t u a l s and s o f o r t h . Thus t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a g r a d e d o r 23 d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s o f s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h . Some s p e c i f i c p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c i p l i n e s o r p r a c t i c e s a r e g i v e n f o r t h o s e p u r s u i n g s a d h a n a . They a r e r e g a r d e d as u s e f u l ^MK IV.43. 23 - _ Gaudapada's s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e o f u p a s a n a w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 135 i n p r e p a r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t r u e n a t u r e . F i r s t the a s p i r a n t i s encouraged t o develop and main-t a i n a t t i t u d e s towards h i s sadhana. A t t i t u d e s such as f a i t h , r i g h t understanding, s i n c e r e e f f o r t and whole-hearted a p p l i -24 c a t i o n are c o n s i d e r e d h e l p f u l . E t h i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s are a l s o 25 g i v e n as an a i d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the i n n e r work. While l e a r n i n g the import o f the Vedas and r e f l e c t i n g upon t h e i r t e a c h i n g s , the a s p i r a n t i s encouraged t o a l s o b e g i n g e t t i n g r i d o f the d e f e c t s t h a t o b s t r u c t s h i s r e a l i z a t i o n . To c l e a n s e h i m s e l f o f the p a s s i o n s , d e s i r e , e g o i t y , and t o c o n t r o l the mind, the a s p i r a n t i s encouraged t o develop and p r a c t i c e v i v e k a ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) , v a i r a g y a ( d i s p a s s i o n ) , abhyasa ( f i x i n g the mind), and v i c a r a ( s e l f - e n q u i r y ) V iveka, which Gaudapada here c a l l s prajna^means the 24 MK III.41 f o r example. 25 "For A d v a i t a , then, which i n s i s t s on the s o l e r e a l i t y o f a d i s t i n c t i o n l e s s Oneness, t h e r e cannot be any a b s o l u t e moral laws, p r i n c i p l e s , or d u t i e s . M o r a l i t y , i f i t has any enduring s p i r i t u a l meaning, i s simply a q u a l i t y o f the man who r e a l i z e s -h i s s e l f as " n o t - d i f f e r e n t " from Brahman....The most b a s i c c r i t e r i o n f o r moral judgement recommended by A d v a i t a i s t h a t those a c t s , d e s i r e s , and thoughts t h a t l e a d the moral agent t o the h i g h e s t good, namely, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , are "good" and t h a t those t h a t l e a d him towards the f u l f i l l m e n t o f e g o i s t i c d e s i r e , so f a r as they prevent s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , are " b a d " . . . a l l a c t i v -i t i e s a re...transformed and r e - d i r e c t e d . . . a l o n g the path o f r e a l i z a t i o n . " Deutsch, o p . c i t y , pp.100-101. 2 6 These are not named as such nor i s t h e r e d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o them, although t h e i r presence i s i n d i c a t e d i n the p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . MK IV.79 and 80 are examples h e r e . The use o f the above t e c h n i c a l terms became s t a n d a r d i z e d l a t e r i n the t r a d i t i o n . 136 d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the r e a l from the u n r e a l . I t i s the attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e the new knowledge and understanding i n t o one's d a i l y l i f e . A c t i o n s and c h o i c e s are based on t h i s new c r i t -e r i a . Only t h a t which i s conducive t o l i b e r a t i o n i s t o be pursued. Only t h a t which i s r e a l i s v a l u e d . Anything e l s e i s t o be ignored or t o t a l l y renounced. F o r a l l but the non-dual r e a l i t y i s ladden with m i s e r y . A l l e f f o r t s are t o be based on t h i s premise. The d e s i r e f o r l i b e r a t i o n coupled with v i v e k a leads the a s p i r a n t towards the r e a l . He f i x e s h i s thoughts or s t e a d i e s h i s mind on one p o i n t , which i n t h i s case i s on U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . T h i s i s the p r a c t i c e of abhyasa, c o n c e n t r a -2 7 t i o n or c o n t i n u o u s l y t h i n k i n g of non-dual r e a l i t y . R e a l i z a -t i o n i s s a i d t o "come e a s i l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l who i s s t e a d f a s t i n h i s quest o f the S e l f and i n whose mind the thought o f Brahman•always a b i d e s . Knowing the d i f f e r e n c e between the r e a l and the u n r e a l and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the r e a l , the a s p i r a n t renounces the — 28 — u n r e a l . T h i s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d v a i r a g y a . V a i r a g y a as detachment and d i s p a s s i o n i s regarded as the c o n d i t i o s i n e qua non o f V e d a n t i c enlightenment. I t i s one o f the important 29 means by which the i n d i v i d u a l can a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n . For "'MK 11.36 and I I I . 4 3 . 28 MK I I I . 4 3 . For^ a. comparison and i l l u s t r a t i o n from the l a t e r t r a d i t i o n see Sankara's Vivekacudamani, e s p e c i a l l y v e r s e s 373-9. 29 MK IV.79 and 80. The synonymous term asanga i s used h e r e . 137 conscious dispassion, desirelessness or indifference emerges as the natural outcome of the r e a l i z a t i o n of the finit u d e and worthlessness of desires and t h e i r objects when contrasted to the i n f i n i t u d e of peace and b l i s s of the higher experience of the S e l f . In t h i s way the aspirant becomes unattached (asanga) to the objects of sense and mentally detached and i n d i f f e r e n t to the play of the mind and ego. True and complete detachment is said to be the highest samadhi, the condition of l i b e r a t i o n wherein the i n d i v i d u a l i s t r u l y asparsa, unattached to the play of the world and world unrelated or never touching the non-dual S e l f . Thus Va-iragya means the ever developing t r a i t of dispassion s t a r t i n g withethe world of sense-objects and ego-enjoyments and culminating in the state of l i b e r a t i o n . Again here i s an example of the goal being the means or method to extract oneself from delusion and pain. Desire i s the root of attachment. Because of th i s Gaudapada says that the i n d i v i d u a l must become free from desire and i t s consequences. Unless attachment, fear and anger — 30 (raga-bhaya-krodha) are removed no progress i s possible. These represent or symbolize the t o t a l i t y of man's deluded state and h i s consequent bondage with i t s fru s t r a t i o n s , anxie-t i e s , sufferings and misery. MK 11.35. Compare Gi t a 11.62-63, III.37 and IV.10 ("Completely r i d of passion, fear and anger, wholly absorbed i n Me, depending on Me, and p u r i f i e d by the penance of wisdom, many have become one with Me even in the past."). 138 The r o o t o f d e s i r e i s the ego (ahamkara) which g i v e s the i n d i v i d u a l a f e e l i n g o f separateness, independence or autonomy. The cause o f man's problems i s t h i s f a l s e under-s t a n d i n g and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the ego with the h i g h e r S e l f . The i n d i v i d u a l , a c c o r d i n g t o A d v a i t a , must d e c e n t r a l i z e h i s e g o i t y and r e a l i z e the i l l u s i o n o f sepa r a t e n e s s . L i b e r a t i o n i s the l o s s o f t h i s f a l s e i n d i v i d u a l i t y and f i n i t u d e f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f one's own i n f i n i t u d e as the expanse o f Brahman. The aim o f the p r a c t i c e s o f sadhana i s t o b r i n g about t h i s 31 p u r i f i c a t i o n and prevent t h i s e r r o r from r e - o c c u r i n g . T h i s can o n l y be achieved p r o p e r l y i f the o l d h a b i t s o f the mind are d e s t r o y e d . Mind and egoism are synonymous. So long as th e r e i s the mind, the i n t e r n a l f a c u l t y , t h e r e w i l l be the i n d i v i d u a l . I n d i v i d u a l i t y l a s t s o n l y as long as the mind or ego e x i s t s . A l l o f p r a c t i c a l sadhana attempts t o "destroy" the mind, " a n n i h i l a t e " the ego, " p u r i f y " the i n t e l l e c t and 32 " r e a l i z e " the pure S e l f . "''"There can be no i r r e v e r s i b l e peace u n t i l the ego, or I-thought, i s seen f o r what i t i s , namely, a mere n o t i o n , a bad h a b i t , and the o b j e c t o f co n s c i o u s n e s s . " John Levy, The  Nature o f Man A c c o r d i n g t o the Ved ant a, K-London: Routledge and Kegan Paul L t d . , 1956), p.99. •3 O ° "Mind transcended i s ego a n n i h i l a t e d . I t i s f o r the ego-c e n t e r t h a t we have the world o f ignorance experienced i n terms of b i r t h and death, joys and sorrows, successes and f a i l u r e s , e t c . Once the ego has been ended t h e r e can be no more r e i n -c a r n a t i o n s f o r the jTya. The v e r y purpose o f t h i s endless p i l g r i m a g e through repeated i n c a r n a t i o n s i s but t o d i s c o v e r o u r s e l v e s . Once the hidden S e l f has been d i s c o v e r e d t h e r e i s no more o f t t h i s h i d e and seek p l a y . When I have d i s c o v e r e d 139 4. VICARA AND UPASANA One should know Om, q u a r t e r by q u a r t e r ; (for) t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t the q u a r t e r s (of the S e l f ) are the l e t t e r s (of Om). Having known Om, q u a r t e r by q u a r t e r , one should not t h i n k o f anything whatsoever. -MK 1.24 The f i r s t prakarana of Gaudapada's Mandukya K a r i k a i n c l u d e s and i s based on the Mandukyopanisad. T h i s s c r i p t u r a l t e x t l i k e the Upanisads as a whole teaches two b a s i c methods or approaches t o S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . They are the a n a l y t i c method o f v i c a r a and the contemplative or y o g i c method o f upasana. The y o g i c method o f upasana or d e v o t i o n a l m e d i t a t i o n uses p a r t i c u l a r c e n t e r s or symbols through which the S e l f may be r e a l i z e d . The a n a l y t i c method o f v i c a r a t r i e s t o grasp the S e l f more d i r e c t l y and c o n c e n t r a t e s on an e n q u i r y o f the S e l f w i t h i n the s t a t e s of e x p e r i e n c e . The upanisad i t s e l f appears t o advocate a combination o f both methods and suggests t h a t they are supplementary r a t h e r than opposed t e c h n i q u e s . The method of a n a l y s i s appears t o be predominant when the upanisad i s taken a l o n e . Gaudapada's commentary and a d d i t i o n s appear t o a l t e r and almost r e v e r s e t h i s emphasis. F o r w h i l e advocat-i n g the a n a l y s i s o f experience and the process o f S e l f - e n q u i r y , he appears t o d w e l l on the use o f the upasana on the Pranava, 33 OM. F u r t h e r , he p l a c e s the h i g h e s t v a l u a t i o n on the contem-myself t o be n o t h i n g other than S e l f , no more can I, the S e l f , have the d e s t i n i e s of r e b i r t h or death." Swami Chinmayananda, o p . c i t . , p.379. 33 " MK 1.19-23 suggests t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . A l s o see MK 1.24-140 p l a t i o n o f the matra-less OM as the formless Brahman or T u r i y a which he c a l l s the method o f Asparsa Yoga. Though one appears t o be predominant over the other i n t h i s way i t w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t these two p r a c t i c e s are interwoven a t a l l l e v e l s o f the sadhana. V i c a r a l i t e r a l l y means c o g i t a t i o n , the e x e r c i s e of reason, r e f l e c t i o n , d e l i b e r a t i o n and examination. I t i s c a l l e d S e l f - a n a l y s i s or e n q u i r y f o r the c h i e f -function o f a knower (jnani) i s t o know h i m s e l f . I t i s the attempt t o analyze experience and enquire a f t e r the S e l f t h e r e i n . I t i s a k i n d of dynamic m e d i t a t i o n , a method whereby the mind does the work necessary t o prepare i t s e l f f o r the deeper m e d i t a t i o n on the S e l f . The movement o f V e d a n t i c sadhana i s always one o f simp-l i f i c a t i o n , o f going from what i s complex t o what i s more s u b t l e and s i m p l e . In s h o r t i t i s the process of i n v o l u t i o n or i n t r o v e r s i o n . The sadhaka proceeds by way of an a n a l y t i c s e a rch f o r the e x i s t e n t i a l core, p e n e t r a t i n g deeper and deeper by c a s t i n g o f f , one by one, the outer wrappings t h a t h i d e the r e a l i t y o f the S e l f . Thus the t h r e e avasthas ( s t a t e s o f exper-ience) are examined t o d i s c e r n and s i f t the imperishable from the p e r i s h a b l e , the r e a l from the n o n - r e a l , the S e l f from non-S e l f and then t o d i r e c t l y experience t h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l s i t u a ^ -t i o n . T h i s i s a l s o the process used i n the a n a l y s i s of the f i v e kosas or sheaths o f man. The method appears t o be essen-t i a l l y a method o f negation but one which leads t o an u l t i m a t e 141 34 a f f i r m a t i o n a t the end o f the quest. The p h i l o s p h y or reasoned argumentation of Gaudapada's Mandukya K a r i k a i s an a i d t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e of • • _________________ yJLcjara. Both use r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g when r e f l e c t i n g on exper-i e n c e . The path or way f o r r e - d i s c o v e r i n g the S e l f i s s a i d t o be through t h i s v e r y process o f r i g h t u nderstanding. Gauda-pada's use o f the methods o f reason i n the K a r i k a has been 35 i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y . The other major method i n the Mandukyopanisad and e l a b o r a t e d on i n the Mandukya K a r i k a i s the use o f UpSsana (meditation) . S^ankara has d e f i n e d the V e d a n t i c meaning o f t h i s term. Upasana i s "the continuous course o f thought, not d i s t u r b e d by any other d i s s i m i l a r thoughts, toward a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t supported by s c r i p t u r e . " The J,.lambana or support i s the o b j e c t which i s the f o c a l p o i n t o f m e d i t a t i o n . The 3 4 U s i n g the m e d i t a t i o n on the panch-ko/as the process would f o l l o w something l i k e t h i s : "By the mind examine the nature o f the f i v e sheaths, by experience determine them, then d i s c a r d each o f them s t e p by s t e p s a y i n g " t h i s i s not the S e l f - t h i s i s not the S e l f " " and by the mind thus grown s u b t l e look f o r the S e l f and r e a l i z e I t as the w i t n e s s i n g Consciousness l y i n g beyond the f i v e sheaths." 35 See Chapter I I I s e c t i o n 3 i n p a r t i c u l a r and the process o f manana i n s e c t i o n 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r . Chapter V s e c t i o n 1 i s a l s o p e r t i n e n t h e r e . I t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t Gaudapada used the process o f d i a l e c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g as a method f o r t h i s p u r s u i t o f S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . For t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e l i n k between d i a l e c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g and i n t u i t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n . T h i s i s the use of p h i l o s o p h y as a contemplative technique, although one o f r i g o r o u s n e g a t i o n . 36/^ Sankara's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o ChUp. 1.1.1. See a l s o h i s commentary on PU. 5, BS_» 1.1.11, and IV.1.7. 142 alambana of the Upanisadic m e d i t a t i o n s i s Brahman. There are numerous upasanas d e t a i l e d throughout the e a r l y upanisads. But the b e s t alambana f o r the upasana on Brahman i s s a i d t o be the s a c r e d s y l l a b l e OM. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r technique i s g i v e n - . 3 7 the c e n t r a l and unique p o s i t i o n i n the Mandukyopanisad. • • • There are two k i n d s o f upasana which can be seen combined i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r upasana on Onkara, as g i v e n i n the t e x t s a t hand. Pr a t i k o p a s a n a i s the k i n d which i s s y m b o l i c a l or concerned wi t h e x t e r n a l symbols ( p r a t i k a ) . These are the forms o f d e v o t i o n a l m e d i t a t i o n s or worship wherein the o b j e c t i s taken as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e symbol of the God or the A b s o l u t e . Rather than being i d e n t i c a l with the A b s o l u t e , t h i s r e a l i t y i s sought t o be r e a l i z e d "through" the p r a t i k a and not "as" the p r a t i k a . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the i d e a t h a t the sadhaka i s t o take the p r a t i k a as God r a t h e r than t a k i n g God as the p r a t i k a f o r God i s i n f i n e t l y s u p e r i o r t o the p r a t i k a . The other k i n d i s c a l l e d ahamgrahopasana which i n v o l v e s the contemplation of the S e l f . T h i s i s an i n n e r (antara) form o f m e d i t a t i o n wherein t h e r e i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the o b j e c t contemplated with the s u b j e c t h i m s e l f . Here the S e l f i s supp-osed t o be not merely a symbol or m a n i f e s t a t i o n but the v e r y A b s o l u t e i t s e l f . There are two c l a s s e s o f t h i s k i n d , saguna 3 7 S e e Katha 1.2.15-17; Prasna V2»2-7: Mundaka II.2.4; T a i t t i r T v a 1.8; M a i t r l VI.2-5, 14, 22, 24, 25; CKandogya I.1.1, 1.1.5, 6, 1.1.8, 1.4.4, 1.5.1, II.13.2, II.13.3, VI.2, Mandukya 1-12. 143 and n i r g u n a . When some q u a l i t i e s are a t t r i b u t e d t o the S e l f and the m e d i t a t i o n i s upon them, the upasana i s c a l l e d saguna. I t i s termed a nir g u n a form when a l l q u a l i t i e s and a t t r i b u t e s are s t r i p p e d o f the S e l f and the upasana seeks f o r an i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n w i t h the v e r y essence o f Being. The Mandukyopanisad i s s o l e l y concerned w i t h the • • • m e d i t a t i o n on the pranava, OM. The f i r s t v e r s e begins w i t h the phrase, "the s y l l a b l e OM i s a l l t h i s , " and then t h i s i s e l a b o r a t e d upon i n f u l l e r d e t a i l i n the subsequent v e r s e s . The Agamaprakarana o f Gaudapada's K a r i k a i s the f u l l e r expos-i t i o n o f these t e r s e v e r s e s . F i r s t , he d e d i c a t e s t h i s chapter t o the e x p l a n a t i o n o f the scope and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f OM as t h e o r y . Secondly, the upas ana on Onkara i s o f f e r e d as a p r a c -t i c a l m e d i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s t e a c h -ing t r e n d whereby he begins with t h e e n u n c i a t i o n o f the r e l i g -i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f the system as back-ground, r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the m e d i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e which i s then g i v e n . I t i s c l e a r from the l a s t v e r s e o f the f i r s t prakarana t h a t Gaudapada intends t o advocate t h i s upasana as the b a s i s 3 8 — o f h i s m e d i t a t i v e d i s c i p l i n e . K a r i k a s 1.24-20 e x t o l the upasana and the upasaka (the p r a c t i c e r o f the technique) as a whole and e s p e c i a l l y i t s amatra or matra - l e s s a s p e c t . In MK MK 1.29. 144 1.24 Gaudapada g i v e s h i s d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t on t e c h n i q u e . One s h o u l d know OM, q u a r t e r b y q u a r t e r : ( f o r ) t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e q u a r t e r s ( o f t h e S e l f ) a r e t h e l e t t e r s ( o f OM) . H a v i n g known OM, q u a r t e r b y q u a r t e r , , one s h o u l d n o t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g w h a t s o e v e r . T h i s s u g g e s t s a p r o g r e s s i v e d i s c i p l i n e o f m e d i t a t i o n upon t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e m a n t r a w o r k i n g f r o m t h e g r o s s e s t t o t h e s u b t l e s t l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e . The u p a s a n a i s an a l l - i n c l u s -i v e and s y n t h e t i c t e c h n i q u e w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s many i n d i v i d u a l methods and b r i n g s them t o g e t h e r on a g r a d e d o r e v o l u t i o n a r y s c a l e l e a d i n g t h e a s p i r a n t t o w a r d s d e e p e r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e i s no n e c e s s i t y o f m e d i t a t i n g upon a n y t h i n g e l s e . S p i r -i t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o r u n f o l d i n g w i l l e n s u e t h r o u g h t h e p e r s i s t t e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h i s d i s c i p l i n e . The s y l l a b l e OM (AUM) i s t h e symbol i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e Brahman-Atman i d e a . OM as a sound p r i n c i p l e i s s a i d t o be i n c l u s i v e o f a l l sounds and h e n c e i s c a l l e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e w o r l d o f s p e e c h ( v a k - p r a p a n c a ) . The s u p p o r t o r g r o u n d o f t h e w o r l d i s Brahman. On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s h o m o l o g y t h e sound OM i s made t o s t a n d f o r t h e Atman o r Brahman. T h r o u g h i t s " " ^ I t i s s a i d t h a t any e x p e r i e n c e , i n t h e u n i v e r s e , a n y t h i n g t h a t i s s e e n o r f e l t , c a n be communicated t h r o u g h p h o n e t i c s o u n d s . S a n s k r i t i s a p h o n e t i c s y s t e m w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e u t t e r a n c e s o f w h i c h man i s c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g . F u r t h e r , t h e s y l l a b l e OM (AUM) i s s a i d i n i t s e l f t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e n t i r e r a n g e o f v e r b a l s o u n d s . "A" h a s i t s o r i g i n i n t h e t h r o a t , "u" f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f t h e mouth and "m" i s p r o d u c e d b y t h e l i p s . W i t h o u t t h e s e t h r e e s o u n d s , no word c a n be p r o d u c e d o r p r o n o u n c e d . The l e t t e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and end o f a l l p h o n e t i c s o u n d s . A l l s ounds c a n be t h u s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f t h s e s t h r e e s o u n d s . 145 u s e , t h e upas i k a i s s a i d t o a t t a i n Brahma-vidya'. The p r a n a v a - y o g a g i v e n h e r e i s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r e q u a t i o n (samanyadharma). MK 1.19-22 s u g g e s t s t h e p r o c e s s h a p p e n i n g i n e a c h m e d i t a t i o n . Gaudapada c a l l s t h i s m a t r a s a i f t p r a t i p a t t i , k n o w i n g t h e m a t r a s t o be i d e n -t i c a l w i t h t h e p a d a s 4 0 and o n k a r a r a s y a p a d a s o v i d y a , t h e know-l e d g e o f t h e m a t r a s o f OM as t h e padas o f t h e S e l f . 4 1 Thus t h e l e t t e r -"a," c o r r e s p o n d s t o V i s v a who r e p r e s e n t s t h e g r o s s 42 u n i v e r s e , t h e w a k i n g s t a t e . The l e t t e r "u" c o r r e s p o n d s t o 43 T a i j a s a who r e p r e s e n t s t h e dream s t a t e o r w o r l d . The l e t t e r "m" c o r r e s p o n d s t o P r a j n a who r e p r e s e n t s t h e deep s l e e p s t a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e . 4 4 The l a s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t o f t h e a m a t r a o r m a t r a - l e s s a s p e c t o f AUM w i t h t h e s t a t e o f T u r i y a w h i c h c o n c e p t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e n o n - d u a l S e l f o r P u r e C o n s c -45 l o u s n e s s . The M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d and Gaudapada's K a r i k a g i v e r e a s o n s • • • • 1 , 1 1 f o r t h e s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o f u r t h e r e n a b l e t h e s a d h a k a t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f OM. The l e t t e r " a " and t h e w a k i n g s t a t e r e p r e s e n t e d b y V i s v a a r e 4 0 M K 1.19. 4 1 M K 1.24. 4 2MUp 9, MK 1.19. 43 MUp 10, MK 1.20. 4 4MUp 11, MK 1.21. 146 r e g a r d e d as i d e n t i c a l b e c a u s e o f t h e common q u a l i t y o f b e i n g f i r s t ( a d i ) as w e l l as t h a t o f p e r v a d i n g ( a p t i ) . As " a " i s t h e f i r s t sound-component o f OM, s o i s V i s v a t h e f i r s t a s p e c t o f t h e S e l f . And as t h e v o w e l - s o u n d " a " i s s a i d t o be p e r v a s -i v e o f a l l s p e e c h , V i s v a i s p e r v a s i v e o f t h e u n i v e r s e . The s e c o n d m a t r a "u" and t h e s e c o n d p a d a T a i j a s a s h a r e t h e common q u a l i t i e s o f e x a l t a t i o n ( u t k a r s a ) and i n t e r m e d i a c y ( u b h y a t v a ) . The e x c e l l e n c e o f "u" i s due t o i t s f o l l o w i n g " a " , w h i l e s i m i l a r l y T a i j a s a e x c e e d s V i ^ v a b e c a u s e o f i t s s u p e r i o r p o s i t -i o n i n g . And as "u" i s i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n "a_" and "m", s o a l s o i s T a i j a s a between V i s v a and P r a j n a . The common f e a t u r e s i d e n t i f y i n g "m" and P r a j n a a r e s a i d t o be me a s u r e ( m i t i o r mana) and a b s o r p t i o n ( a p l t i o r l a y a ) . The m a t r a "m" i s t h e measure o f t h e o t h e r s as upon t h e r e p e a t e d c h a n t i n g o f OM, t h e " a " and "u", as i t were, merge and emerge f r o m "m". P r a j n a i s t h e measure o f V i s v a and T a i j a s a as t h e s e e v o l v e f r o m i t a t c r e a t i o n and r e t u r n a t d i s s o l u t i o n . T h i s c a n be s e e n a g a i n i n t h a t t h e w o r l d s o f w a k i n g and dream d i s a p p e a r i n d e e p s l e e p and f r o m t h a t v e r y s l e e p t h e y emerge a g a i n . T h i s shows b o t h t h e m e a s u r i n g (mana) and t h e d i s a p p e a r i n g ( l a y a ) a s p e c t s o f t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d f e a t u r e o f P r a j n a , e a c h l e t t e r s t a n d s f o r t h e f i r s t l e t t e r o f t h e words s i g n i f y i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e S e l f i n i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as V i s v a , T a i j a s a and P r a j n a . Thus " a " s t a n d s f o r a d i and a p t i , "u" f o r u t k a r s a and u b h a y a t v a , and "m" f o r m i t i o r mana. From 147 t h i s i t i s c l e a r t h a t the matras are used i n these m e d i t a t i o n s as mnemonics. The f o u r t h matra i s s a i d t o be represented by the p o i n t (bindu) of the anusvSra over the "m". But t h i s i s r e a l l y amatra or moraeless. I t i s the s i l e n c e i n t o which the sound OM c u l m i n a t e s . I t i s the p a r t l e s s or d i s t i n c t i o n l e s s OM. As such i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the S e l f d e s i g n a t e d here as T u r i y a or Pure Gonsciousness which transcends the d i s t i n c t i o n s i n h e r -ent i n the forms of the S e l f known as V i s v a , T a i j a s a and P r a j n a . Mandukyopanisad 9-12 e u l o g i z e s t h i s p r a c t i c e o f medit-a t i o n by s p e c i f y i n g the r e s u l t s of each s t a g e . He who know Va i s v a n a r a ( i e , V i s v a ) thus o b t a i n s a l l d e s i r e s and becomes the foremost among people, i e , prominent, w e l l - r e s p e c t e d , adored and r e v e r e d . T h i s suggests someone who has achieved a h i g h e r l e v e l o f self-development than the o r d i n a r y man and who has the a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h the e m p i r i c a l world i n a balanced or harmonious f a s h i o n . He who knows T a i j a s a i n t h i s way e x a l t s or i n c r e a s e s the c u r r e n t o f knowledge and becomes equal t o a l l . T h i s suggests the development o f the mind and i n t e l l e c t t o the p o i n t o f p o s s e s s i n g s u p e r i o r knowledge and a l s o the a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t o o t h e r s , as w e l l as them t o o n e s e l f , on an e g a l i t -a r i a n l e v e l . A l s o , t h e r e i s s a i d t o be none born i n h i s l i n e who i s not a knower o f Brahman. He who knows the i d e n t i t y o f MUp 12. 148 P r a j n a and "m" measures the whole world, t h a t i s t o say, he knows i t s r e a l i t y , and he becomes the p l a c e o f a b s o r p t i o n i n 47 t h a t he becomes the S e l f i n i t s c a u s a l s t a t e . F i n a l l y , he who t r u l y knows the p a r t l e s s OM as T u r i y a r e a l i z e s the S e l f and r e t a i n s t h i s t h e n c e f o r t h . These b e n e f i t s or r e s u l t s suggest the f u l f i l m e n t o f the "well-developed" p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f each s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . For the r e s u l t s are d i f f e r e n t i n accordance with the emphasis l a i d on i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . The f r u i t s o f the m e d i t a t i o n s o f the f i r s t t h r e e appear t o be r a t h e r mundane gains i n comparison t o the r e s u l t o f l i b e r a t i o n or the r e a l -i z a t i o n o f the S e l f which i s s a i d t o accrue from the upasana on the amatra aspect o f OM. Other upanisads l i s t the bene-f i t s or r e s u l t s o f t h i s type o f m e d i t a t i o n on Onkara but t h e r e 48 are some fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s . The emphasis appears t o be p l a c e d more on the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f the m e d i t a t i o n e x e r -c i s e s r a t h e r than on the g a i n i n g o f the f r u i t s t h e r e o f which seem o n l y t o be the enticements t o motivate p r a c t i c e . In MK 1.2, Gaudapada g i v e s some a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s which are p o s s i b l y r e l e v a n t h e r e . He a s s i g n s l o c a l i t i e s i n the body f o r the d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s s i o n s of consciousness f o r A d d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from Sankara's commentary on MUp 11. 48 -For s i m i l a r r e s u l t s o f m e d i t a t i o n on the matras o f OM i n the other Upanisads see Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , p.177-178. "The i m p l i c a t i o n o f the eulogy i s t h a t the slldhaka should understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f OM and meditate on i t ; the deeper the com-prehension, the g r e a t e r wli'll be the b e n e f i t . " 149 the purpose o f m e d i t a t i o n . V i s v a i s s a i d t o r e s i d e i n the r i g h t eye (daksina-aksi) . T h i s i s both symbolic and r e a l i s t i c as i t suggests experience and p e r c e p t i o n through the senses b e g i n n i n g w i t h s i g h t . 4 9 T a i j a s a i s t o be meditated on i n the mind (manas) which again suggests a symbolic and a r e a l i s t i c a t t r i b u t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c i n g . Prajfia. has i t s s e a t i n the e t h e r o f the h e a r t (akas^a) . The h e a r t - s p a c e i s sym-b o l i c o f the c e n t e r or core o f man's inmost S e l f and suggests t h a t a t the time o f the a b s o r p t i o n of consciousness i n deep s l e e p one r e t u r n s t o o n e s e l f . One of the fundamental purposes o f t h i s l o c a t i n g o f the t h r e e s e l v e s i s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l o f them are l o c a t e d w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . F u r t h e r , these are t o be found w i t h i n the waking s t a t e i t s e l f and as such t h i s teaches t h e i r fundamental u n i t y . Thus, the one S e l f can be found as t h r e e i n one body w h i l e u l t i m a t e l y remaining unique 50 xn xts non-dual n a t u r e . Most important here i s t h a t the p r a c t i c e remains e x p e r i e n t i a l i n t h a t the p l a c e of p r a c t i c e i s w i t h i n the microcosm of the m e d i t a t o r . In the f i n a l v e r s e s o f the Agamaprakarana f o l l o w i n g the l a s t v e r s e o f the Mandukyopanisad, Gaudapada s t r e s s e s the • • • r e a l v a l u e o f the m e d i t a t i o n on Onkara. In MK 1.23 he a g a i n p o i n t s out t h a t "a" leads t o V i s v a , "u" t o T a i j a s a , "m" t o 49 ^ . T h i s i s a f f i r m e d by Sankara's commentary on MK 1.2. 50 t MK 1.1 and Sankara's commentary. 150 Prajna, and t h a t t h e r e i s no "attainment" o f anything i n the amatra. A n a n d a g i r i adds t h a t t h i s means the r e s p e c t i v e attainment or f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the gross u n i v e r s e or waking s t a t e , the s u b t l e u n i v e r s e or dream s t a t e , the c a u s a l c o n d i t i o n or deep s l e e p s u c c e s s i v e l y . F u r t h e r he e x p l a i n s t h a t the purpose of m e d i t a t i o n i s t o l e a d the sadhaka from the g r o s s e r s t a t e s t o the s u b t l e r s u c c e s s i v e l y u n t i l he reaches the con-d i t i o n wherein a l l d u a l i t y i s removed. T h i s i s the T u r i y a or non-dual S e l f wherein t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i o n s o f a t t a i n e r , o b j e c t - t o - b e - a t t a i n e d , and the attainment j, i t s e l f . The achievement o f the l a s t stage of p r a c t i c e i s the u l t i m a t e g o a l of the e a r l i e r stages as w e l l . I t i s the f i n a l movement o f the ahamgraha upasana, the t u r n i n g inward towards one's own S e l f . Thus the emphasis or r e a l import o f the technique i s upon t h i s l a t t e r aspect, the m a t r a - l e s s aspect o f the upasana on Onkara. T h i s i s the unique V e d a n t i c sadhana. I t i s the move-ment from c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a p r a t i k a , t o h i g h e r forms o f upasana, c u l m i n a t i n g i n A d v a i t i c contemplation t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d Nididhyasana. Onkara as the symbol o f Brahman can be u t i l i z e d i n many ways, but the h i g h e s t method i s the.movement i n t o Jn*ana Sadhana. Through understanding the h i g h e r meaning and import o f OM and merging the r e p e t i t i o n o f the t h r e e s y l l a b l e s i n t o the amatra aspect, the u p a s i k a l e t s the t h r e e s t a t e s o f consciousness merge and d i s s o l v e i n t h a t profound p a s s i v e s i l e n c e o f T u r i y a and simply remaining i n t h a t , l e t s 151 t h e Atman u n f o l d t h e r e . The p r o c e s s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o c e e d s as f o l l o w s . The m e d i t a t i o n b e g i n s b y t a k i n g t h e alambana and u s i n g i t as t h e p o i n t o f a t t e n t i o n f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n . I t i s u s e f u l i n s t e a d y -i n g t h e m i n d - m o d i f i c a t i o n s and m a k i n g t h e t h o u g h t - c u r r e n t f l o w i n one d i r e c t i o n . The p r a c t i c e o f u p a s a n a i s t h e d i r e c t i n g o f a c o n t i n u o u s f l o w o f t h o u g h t t o w a r d s t h e o b j e c t o f m e d i t a t i o n w i t h o u t any c o n t r a r y m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t s s u c c e s s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i k e n e d t o t h e s t e a d y s t r e a m o f t h e f l o w o f o i l b e i n g p o u r e d . In t h i s way t h e c e n t r i f u g a l t e n d e n c y o f t h e mind i s e v e n t u a l l y a r r e s t e d and becomes o n e - p o i n t e d l i k e t h e f l a m e o f a lamp i n a w i n d l e s s p l a c e . The p r o c e s s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e h e r e i s t o e c o n o m i z e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h o u g h t and t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e t h e f l o w o f t h i n k i n g i n t h e m i n d . The mind becomes o n e - p o i n t e d b y c o n t i n u o u s c h a n t i n g and c o n c e n -t r a t i o n . When t h e mind i s u n i f i e d w i t h t h e sound OM t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r i z e d t h o u g h t o f a d i s c u r s i v e n a t u r e and i t becomes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h o r a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e sound s y l l a b l e . The mind's v r t t i s o r t h o u g h t - c u r r e n t s a r e s i l e n c e d i n t h e Brahma-v r t t i . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e c o n t i n u o u s c h a n t i n g o f OM i n t h e mind w h e r e i n t h e m e d i t a t o r o b s e r v i n g t h e r i s i n g , f a l l i n g and d y i n g away o f t h e s o u n d - s y l l a b l e f i n a l l y merges i n t o and e x p e r i e n c e s t h e e n s u i n g s i l e n c e . Upon r e a c h i n g t h e s i l e n c e , t h e u p a s i k a does n o t t r y t o i n i t i a t e new t h o u g h t waves, b u t o n l y t o d e l v e i n t o t h a t s i l e n c e and t o a b i d e t h e r e i n . T h i s i s t h e sama o r s t i l l n e s s o f t h e mind w h i c h i s c a l l e d t h e s t a t e o f 152 "no-mind" ( a m a n i b h a v a ) . T h i s i s t h e T u r i y a o r Brahman e x p e r -i e n c e d as P u r e C o n s c i o u s n e s s . Thus, t h r o u g h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e movement f r o m t h e u s e o f t h e l o w e r u p a s a n a s t h e s e e k e r p r a c -t i c e s t h e h i g h e r m e d i t a t i o n w h i c h Gaudapada a d v o c a t e s and d e s i g n a t e s as A s p a r s a Y o g a . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s i s a new d e p a r t u r e f r o m e a r l i e r u p a n i s a d s as w e l l as fr o m o t h e r t e a c h i n g s and t e c h n i -q u e s . The o t h e r o l d e r u p a n i s a d s w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e p r a c t i c e d e a l w i t h O n k a r a i n i t s t h r e e - f o l d a s p e c t and w i t h o u t e i t h e r t h e a w a r e n e s s o r a t l e a s t t h e emphasis on t h e T u r i y a a s p e c t . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , b o t h t h e M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d and Gaudapada i n h i s • • • * K a r i k a mark a new o r u n i q u e h i s t o r i c a l p h a s e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e a c h i n g as w e l l as i n t h e t e c h n i q u e f o r i t s e x p e r i e n -51 t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n . G audapada c o n c l u d e s h i s e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r a n a v a -d h y a n a b y p r a i s i n g i t and t h o s e who p r a c t i c e i t . The mind s h o u l d be c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e p r a n a v a ; one s h o u l d n o t t h i n k o f 52 a n y t h i n g e l s e w h a t s o e v e r . P r a n a v a i s t h e Brahman b e y o n d f e a r and f o r a man e v e r f i x e d i n Brahman t h e r e c a n be no f e a r 53 — / anywhere. P r a n a v a i s t h e l o w e r Brahman ( I s v a r a ) and a l s o ^ 1 54 t h e h i g h e r Brahman. I t i s t h e b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and end o f 51 Gaudapada h i m s e l f a p p e a r s t o be aware o f I t s u n i q u e n e s s i n MK I I I . 3 9 . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 5 2MK 1.24. 5 3MK 1.25. 54 D*MK 1.26. 153 5 5 56 e v e r y t h i n g . Yet i t i s without cause and without e f f e c t . There i s n o t h i n g b e s i d e s i t , nothing o u t s i d e i t , nor any t h i n g t h a t f o l l o w s i t . Pranava i s known, on the one hand, as the . 57 Lord seated i n the h e a r t s o f a l l , and on the other, as the a u s p i c i o u s e n t i t y , without measures and possessed o f i n f i n i t e 58 — dimension, where a l l d u a l i t y c e a s e s . Thus the sadhaka who knows the Pranava i n t h i s way i s s a i d t o a t t a i n i d e n t i t y w i t h — c n T u r i y a or Brahman immediately. He i s indeed the r e a l sage, the t r u l y e n l i g h t e n e d or S e l f - r e a l i z e d man. To f u r t h e r emphasize the T u r i y a aspect o f the Onkara upasana, <in chapter t h r e e o f the Mandukya K a r i k a Gaudapada c r i t i c i z e s those upasikas who are p r a c t i c i n g the i n f e r i o r forms of m e d i t a t i o n . While not denying the e f f i c a c y o f the stages o f t h i s upasana from the e m p i r i c a l p o i n t o f view f o r mediocre fin a s p i r a n t s , u Gaudapada f i r m l y promotes the n i d i d h y a s a n a t e c h -nique based upon the i d e a l o f the a j a Brahman as u l t i m a t e l y the h i g h e s t and o n l y r e a l i t y . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , he c a l l s the o r d i n a r y u p a s i k a " p i t i a b l e " o r "narrow-minded" (krpana) 5 5MK 1.27. 5 6MK 1.26. 5 7 MR 1.28. 5 8MK 1.29. 5 9MK 1.27. 6 0MK II I . 1 6 . 154 s i n c e he who p r a c t i c e s the i n f e r i o r forms o f m e d i t a t i o n s t a y s i n the c o n d i t i o n e d Brahman.^ 1 He d i r e c t s c r i t i c i s m towards t h e i r s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s , t h e i r l i m i t e d understanding or b e l i e f , and suggests t h a t they are s t i l l i n v o l v e d i i n b i n d i n g c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s superimposed upon r e a l i t y . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and a l l t h a t f o l l o w s from i t n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r understanding and p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n . Gaudapada's K a r i k a i s thus seen t o be a t e x t p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d t o the h i g h e s t students o f the s p i r i t u a l path, w h i l e the other and lower p h i l o s o p h i e s and techniques are p r e s c r i b e d out of com-p a s s i o n and the r e c o g n i t i o n of the g r a d u a l s p i r i t u a l d e v e lop-ment o f the sadhaka. For the h i g h e s t a s p i r a n t s , GaudapSda p r e s c r i b e s the T u r i y a upasana which he l a t e r c a l l s the p r a c t i c e MK I I I . l . 62 On the one hand, Gaudapada allows a p l a c e f o r b h a k t i or d e v o t i o n t o God (Is'vara) i n h i s sadhana as AUM i s the Lord, ever p r e s e n t i n the minds and h e a r t s o f man as the antaryamin (MK 1.28). While on the other hand, he i s ve r y c r i t i c a l o f a l l p o s i t i o n s o t h e r than t h a t from the paramartha p e r s p e c t i v e . "There i s an i n h e r e n t l o g i c a l c o n t r a r i n e s s i n a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t permits a d e v o t i o n a l approach t o a Lord who has a r e l a t i o n with the devotee as p a r t and whole, when t o the same devotee the Lord H i m s e l f has manifested as the p l u r a l i s t i c w o r l d . I f the Supreme R e a l i t y has manifested H i m s e l f as the p l u r a l i s t i c world o f phenomena, then the devotee h i m s e l f i s , i n f a c t , noth-i n g but the same R e a l i t y . A f t e r a c c e p t i n g t h i s t h e o r y o f c r e a -t i o n , f o r any devotee t o worship the Lord who i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be something other than h i m s e l f would, n a t u r a l l y , be a p a l p a b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n which has s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s l e a d i n g t o imper-f e c t t h i n k i n g . I t i s t h i s i d e a t h a t has been condemned by t h i s opening s t a n z a o f t h i s , c h a p t e r . " Swami Chinmayananda, o p . c i t . , p.198. See a l s o Sankara's commentary on MK I I I . l and 2. 155 of Asparsa Yoga. T h i s and o n l y t h i s method leads t o atmasatyanubodha, the d i r e c t e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the h i g h e s t t r u t h which i s the S e l f . 5. ASPARSA YOGA I bow down t o t h a t yoga known as asparsa which i s j o y f u l t o a l l beings, b e n e f i c i a l , f r e e from d i s p u t e , n o n - c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and s e t f o r t h i n the s c r i p t u r e s . -MK IV.2 Asparsa Yoga i s the key s o t e r i o l o g i c a l term i n the Mandukya K a r i k a . Mentioned twice a t prominent p l a c e s , MK III.39 and IV.2, t h i s term embodies the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f Gaudapada's l i b e r a t i o n p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e . In the t h i r d book, the A d v a i t a prakarana, the r e f e r e n c e comes a f t e r he has shown the v a r i o u s d u a l i s t p o s i t i o n s t o be f a u l t y and t h a t the t r u t h o f A d v a i t a i s t o be accepted and then r e a l i z e d . I t i s i n the upadesa (teaching) s e c t i o n o f t h i s chapter d u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n o f m e d i t a t i o n technique and theory t h a t Gaudapada s t a t e s the A d v a i t a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e as b e i n g / 64 c a l l e d Asparsa Yoga. F u r t h e r , Gaudapada opens the f o u r t h prakarana w i t h two obeisances or s a l u a t i o n s , the f i r s t t o h i s t e a c h e r and the second one immediately f o l l o w i n g i s to t h i s yoga. Thus Asparsa Yoga i s g i v e n the h i g h e s t p l a c e i n Gauda-pada's t e x t and i n h i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l system. MK I I I . 3 9 . 'These v e r s e s are g i v e n i n f u l l i n Appendix I. 156 The above s a l u t a t i o n i s e u l o g i s t i c on the one hand and a l s o p o i n t s to c o n c r e t e r e a l i z a t i o n s on the o t h e r . He s t a t e s t h a t t h i s yoga promotes the happiness o f a l l i t s p r a c -t i t i o n e r s and i s conducive t o the w e l l - b e i n g o f a l l . F u r t h e r , he suggests t h a t i t r i s f r e e from d i s p u t e and c o n t r a d i c t i o n both p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y g i v i n g i t i t s supreme p l a c e . F i n a l l y , he suggests t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e i s w e l l known, which Sankara ( c i r c a 788-820 A.D.) e l a b o r a t e s as having been i n s t r u c t e d i n the s c r i p t u r e s , i e , the Upanisads. T h i s i s a r e - i t e r a t e d a g a i n i n III.39 with more c l a r i t y but s t i l l w i t h no s c r i p t u r a l r e f e r -ences . The term i t s e l f i s not t o be found i n the Upanisads nor the G i t a and i t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t Gaudapada c o i n e d the d e s i g n a t i o n t o express the A d v a i t a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f s o t e r i o l o g i c a l theory and p r a c t i c e . Sankara i n h i s commentary on MK IV.2 r e f e r s t o t h i s concept as " a d v a i t a dars'ana yoga, " the p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g of the h o l d e r s of the n o n - d u a l i s t p e r s -p e c t i v e . F u r t h e r he comments, Asparsa Yoga i s t h a t yoga, which has no sparsa, touch, r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h anything a t any time; i t i s o f the v e r y nature of Brahman. To the knowers o f Brahman... i t i s w e l l known as the Yoga f r e e from a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s term i s a compound of the two words asparsa and yoga. These should be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r e . F i r s t , the 65 / From Sankara's commentary on MK IV.2. 157 p r i n c i p a l term of the compound. The noun yoga i s found w i d e l y used i n S a n s k r i t l i t e r a t u r e and i n the r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s -o p h i c a l p o r t i o n s t h e r e o f i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t i s a m u l t i - v a l e n t term im p l y i n g s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t meanings and i s a l s o used t r a d -i t i o n a l l y i n s e v e r a l ways. From the r o o t , y u i , meaning "to j o i n , " i t s e t y m o l o g i c a l meaning i s "the process o f j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r " any two t h i n g s e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e l y or s u b j e c t i v e l y . A secondary and s p e c i a l i z e d sense o f the term i n r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t i t means "a process by which i t sought t o r e s t o r e the S e l f , S p i r i t , or S o u l t o i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e . " There are s e v e r a l aspects h e r e i n . I t e i t h e r emphasizes a p a r t i c u l a r means or method recommended or i t emphasizes the g o a l t o be reached. From Gaudapada's v e r s e and Sankara's commentary both of these emphases can be con-s t r u e d , though the predominant s t r e s s appears t o be upon i t as method or p r o c e s s . T h i s w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d a f t e r the term asparsa i s enquired i n t o . The f i r s t member o f the compound, asparsa, determines the meaning of the compound as a whole by emphasizing i t s s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e . Asparsa, i s the simple negation o f the term spars'a which l i t e r a l l y means r "touch" or " c o n t a c t " . The c l a s s i c a l r e f e r e n c e of t h i s term i s i n the i d e a o f the mind's c o n t a c t w i t h e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s through the sense organs. T h i s i s one o f the d e n o t a t i o n s o f Gaudapada's own use o f the term s p a r s a i n MK IV.41. The term asparsa i t s e l f i s not found elsewhere but 158 r e f e r e n c e s t o the term s p a r s a i n y o g i c contexts i s common. The use of t h i s l a t t e r term i n the G i t a i s r e l e v a n t h e r e . In the G i t a i t i s used i n the sense g i v e n above. In G 11.14 the term matra-sparsa i s used i n d i c a t i n g t h a t l i f e i s an i n t e r -a c t i o n between the senses and the o b j e c t s o f the phenomenal wor l d . L i f e c o n s i s t s o f an ongoing s e r i e s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s between these two. T h i s i s r e a f f i r m e d i n G V.21 and 22 where the term r e f e r s t o the c o n t a c t of the mind with the senses. The context here i s t h a t t h i s c o n t a c t or r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the cause o f w o r l d l y p a i n and s u f f e r i n g . And i n G V.21 the a n t i -dote o f non-attachment t o the e x t e r n a l senses (bahyaspars'esva- saktatma) i s i n d i c a t e d . T h i s process i s undertaken d u r i n g the m e d i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e advocated. One o f the d e f i n i t i o n s of yoga g i v e n i n G VI.23 i s p e r t i n e n t h e r e . I t i s d e f i n e d as the s t a t e o f severance from union w i t h p a i n (duhkha-samyoga-viyoga) which i s none other than the p a i n born of the c o n t a c t (sparsa) o f the senses w i t h the o b j e c t s o f the m a n i f o l d u n i v e r s e . From t h i s d e f i n i t i v e background, the development and meaning o f the term As par s^ a Yoga can be e a s i l y seen. While sparsa-yoga r e f e r s t o c o n t a c t with s e n s e - o b j e c t s b e i n g the cause o f misery, aspars'a-yoga suggests t h a t the d i s c o n n e c t i o n o r freedom from t h i s source o f p a i n leads t o h a p p i n e s s . On a more a b s t r a c t l e v e l t h i s term r e f e r s t o the concept o f c o n t a c t i n the sense o f r e l a t i o n s h i p per se. A l l such r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i s t i n g o f two f a c t o r s , such as the senses c o n t a c t i n g the o b j e c t s , are found i n the realm o f r e l a t i v i t y i n the vyavaha- r i k a s t a t e s o f waking, dream and deep s l e e p . The paramarthika 159 or u l t i m a t e t r u t h i s t h a t t h e r e i s no d u a l i t y , t h a t the S e l f i s the non-dual T u r i y a or Brahman. In the nature o f Brahman t h e r e i s no sp a r s a o f any s o r t . T h i s i s s t a t e d c l e a r l y by Gaudapada i n MK IV.26-28 and 7 2 . 6 6 Thus t h i s term asparsa d i r e c t l y r e f e r s t o the h i g h e s t r e a l i t y , the a b s o l u t e Brahman. T h i s i s v e r i f i e d by s'ankara i n h i s commentary on MK IV.2. Thus t h e r e are two meanings of the term Asparsa Yoga. On the p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e v e l , the term i m p l i e s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f n o n - d u a l i t y , i e , o f T u r i y a o r Brahman. In t h i s sense i t c o u l d be c a l l e d the "Non-dual Yoga" or the "Yoga o f the Non-d u a l . " On the l e v e l o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , the term r e f e r s t o the d i s c i p l i n e , path, method or process whereby the sadhaka a t t a i n s t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f b e i n g one with U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . Normally, an A d v a i t a V e d a n t i n • w i l l not use the term yoga i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t l y , the s t r i c t l y n o n - d u a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e as s t a t e d by Gaudapada h i m s e l f i n MK 11.32 and III.36 p r e c l u d e s the v e r y t a l k o f "someone" doing "something" t o a t t a i n "some g o a l . " In MK III.36, Gauda-pada s t a t e s t h a t i n regard t o the non-dual Brahman t h e r e can be no ceremony, conduct or p r a c t i c e (upacara). Yet on an e m p i r i c a l l e v e l , i t i s obvious t h a t the t r a d i t i o n does suggest t h a t t h e r e a re methods by which the r e a l i z a t i o n of one's t r u e Note the use o f the verb sprs here; attam na samsprsa- tyartam ((Consciousness does not come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h o b j e c t s ) . 160 nature can be f a c i l i t a t e d or at least p r e c i p i t a t e d . 0 7 Secondly, the term yoga i t s e l f denotes the coming into union of two factors, one separated from the other. This i s s i m i l a r to the idea of sparsa suggested above. The problem here i s that the use of t h i s kind of language i s d u a l i s t oriented. Even to suggest that the yoga indicated here i s the union of the i n d i v i d u a l soul or s e l f (jiva) with the Supreme Soul (Brahman) alludes to the delusory b e l i e f i n d u a l i t y . None-theless, the term i s used i n a uniquely Advaitic sense to refer metaphorically to union with the Self, not i n the sense of gaining union with something separate, but rather in the r e a l i z a t i o n of the unity of the S e l f as being without a second, ie , as being the subtlest essence as well as the t o t a l i t y of non-dual r e a l i t y . Further, there are numerous references to yoga within advaitic contexts of the upanisads as well as i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the developed t r a d i t i o n . The use of the term yoga i n the sense of s p i r i t u a l practice or d i s c i p l i n e i n general appears to be common to a l l the r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n India. Also, Gaudapada i s teaching from within the mi l i e u of yoga p r a c t i t i o n e r s and many of h i s comments i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r section are d i r e c t l y aimed at the erroneous views and practices of the various yoga d i s c i p l i n e s . So i t i s quite appropriate that he uses the term yoga i n hi s discussions. This seeming paradox of stating there i s no practice to r e a l i z e enlightenment on the one hand, and on the other, advo-cating d i s c i p l i n e s w i l l be dealt with further in the next section. 161 C o n t e x t u a l l y , t h e t e r m A s p a r s a Yoga r e f e r s t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e a s p i r a n t s e e k s t o a c h i e v e t h i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l g o a l . The t e r m i s u s e d i n MK I I I . 3 9 w h i c h l i e s h a l f w a y w i t h i n t h e u p a d e s a - s a s t r a p o r t i o n o f t h e A d v a i t a p r a k a r a n a ( I I I . 3 2 - 4 6 ) . T h i s s e c t i o n comes a f t e r Gaudapada's r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e d u a l i s t v i e w s o f r e a l i t y and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e a d v a i t a p o s i t i o n . He b e g i n s t h e upades'a. s e c t i o n a f t e r t h e m e n t i o n o f maya and "mind c r e a t i o n " w h i c h s e t s t h e s t a g e f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e mind and i t s r e l a t i o n t o bondage and l i b e r a t i o n (MK I I I . 2 9 - 3 8 ) . T h i s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f amanlbhava, t h e s t a t e o f "non-mind," w h i c h i s g i v e n . s u p r e m e v a l u a t i o n , h e r e by Gaudapada. A t t h i s p o i n t t h e i d e a o f A s p a r s a Yoga i s i n t r o -d u c e d i n MK I I I . 3 9 and i s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n . Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t Aspars'a Yoga r e f e r s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s o f l i b e r a t i o n o r S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s s p e c i f i c a l l y A d v a i t a V e d a n t a c o n t e x t . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r t h i s i s a new s p e c i e s o f y o g a o r one a l r e a d y known b u t named d i f f e r -e n t l y b y Gaudapada. T h e r e a r e no s c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n t h e Mandukya Ka r i k a i n t h i s r e g a r d , t h o u g h he h a s u s e d t h e d e c l i n a b l e s v a i nama w h i l e m e n t i o n i n g t h e t e r m . From t h i s t h e i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t he meant a f a m i l i a r k i n d o f y o g a . s'ankara c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s i n h i s commentary. On MK I I I . 3 9 he s t a t e s t h a t A s p a r s a Y o g a i s w e l l - k n o w n i n t h e U p a n i s a d s and on MK 162 IV.2 s a y s t h a t i t i s w e l l - k n o w n by t h a t name t o t h e knowers o f Brahma. S a n k a r a h i m s e l f does n o t c i t e any s c r i p t u r a l s u p p o r t h e r e e i t h e r . The t e r m i t s e l f i s n o t a c t u a l l y u s e d i n . a n y s ' r u t i t e x t s . Y e t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t h e o r y and o f t h e p r a c t i c e i s d i s c e r n i b l e f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s . T h e r e a r e o t h e r s u c h t e r m s u s e d i n s c r i p t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e s u c h as Adhyatma-yoga ( K a t h o p a - n i s a d 1.2.12), S a n n y a s a - y o g a (Mund&kopan i s ad I I I . 2 - 6 ) , e t c . and v a r i o u s t e r m s i n t h e G i t a s u c h as Dhyana-yoga, Samkhya-y o g a and Atmasamyama-yoga. The d e t a i l s o f i t h e p r a c t i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e t e r m s a r e a t t i m e s v a g u e b u t t h e s i m i l -a r i t i e s a r e c l e a r . Gaudapada i n h i s K a r i k a h a s b r o u g h t t h e d e t a i l s o f p r a c t i c e i n t o a c o n s i s t e n t whole f o r e x p l i c i t t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s . Though b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y b a s e d on u p a n i s a -d i c d e t a i l s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i s Gaudapada's own u n i q u e c o n t r i -b u t i o n . 6. THE NATURE OF ASPARSA YOGA Brahman i s b i r t h l e s s , s l e e p l e s s , d r e a m l e s s , n a m e l e s s , f o r m l e s s , e v e r e f f u l g e n t , e v e r y t h i n g , and a knower. (With r e g a r d t o I t ) t h e r e i s n o t t h e l e a s t p o s s i b i l i t y o f c eremony. -MK I I I . 3 6 The above i d s c u s s i o n , f o l l o w i n g t h e A d v a i t a V e d a n t a o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t work, h a s n o t d e a l t w i t h t h e c o n -t e n t i o n b y some s c h o l a r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e B u d d h i s t n a t u r e o f t h i s A s p a r s a Yoga m a t e r i a l . To d e a l w i t h t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a t t h i s p o i n t i s s u p e r f l u o u s t o t h e argument b e i n g p r e s e n t e d . F o r r e f e r e n c e s s e e Mahadevan, o p . c i t . , and B h a t t a -c h a r y a , o p . c i t . . 163 A s p a r s a Y o g a i s Gaudapada's d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e u n i q u e a d v a i t a o r n o n ^ - d u a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n t o p r a c t i c e s o r t e c h n i q u e s o f l i b e r a t i o n . The g o a l he s e t s i s , i n y o g i c t e r m i n o l o g y , c a l l e d n i r v i k a l p a s a m a d h i w h i c h he s t a t e s i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h n o n - d u a l Brahman, t h e S e l f (atman), and Pure C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) . From t h e A d v a i t a p e r s p e c t i v e t h i s i s c a l l e d Brahma-v i d y a , t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l k n o w l e d g e o f Brahman. Gaudapada u s e s b o t h a d v a i t a and y o g a t e r m i n o l o g y and b r i n g s f o r t h a new s y n -t h e s i s i n h i s K a r i k a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s y n t h e s i s o f l a n g -uage, and p r a c t i c e t o some e x t e n t , Gaudapada i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t t h e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between t r a d i t i o n a l y o g a forms and t h e h i g h e r p r a c t i c e s o f t h e a d v a i t i c d i s c i p l i n e . I n t h i s way h i s d e s i g n a t i o n o f A s p a r s a Yoga i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a new a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e v i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s i n s c r i p t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e . F o r Gaudapada i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e a d v a i t a d i s -c i p l i n e w h i c h i s s e t f o r t h i n t h e U p a n i s a d s and e x p l i c a t e d f u r t h e r i n h i s own K a r i k a . T h i s p r o c e s s i s c o n t i n g e n t upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i t s f u n c t i o n i n g and t h e ways o r methods b y w h i c h i t c a n be known. T h i s h a s b e e n d e a l t w i t h p r e v i o u s l y i n c h a p t e r V. To b r i e f l y r e -i t e r a t e , Gaudapada u s e s t h e t e r m s manas, c i t t a , and v i j n a n a t o s i g n i f y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . He u s e s them i n two ways b u t d e l i b e r -a t e l y s o as t o show t h e i r a c t u a l u n i t y o r s a m e n e s s . On t h e one hand, C o n s c i o u s n e s s as p u r e n o n - d u a l B e i n g i s t h e e s s e n c e 164 o r s u b s t r a t u m o f r e a l i t y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s e t e r m s a r e t a k e n t o mean t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( a n t a h - k a r a n a ) o r t h e e m p i r i c a l mind (manas). So i t i s w i t h i n " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t h a t t h e s a d h a k a p r a c t i c e s . The t a s k a p p e a r s t o be one o f s u b l i m a t i n g o r s u b l a t i n g t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s and e x p e r i e n c i n g p u r e C o n s c i o u s n e s s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h i s p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d as b r i n g i n g t h e "mind" u n d e r c o n t r o l , a l l o w i n g t h e " m i n d - p r o c e s s " t o c e a s e and t h u s a t t a i n i n g t h e s t a t e o f "non-mind." T h i s , t h e n , i s a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e i n what i s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i s r e a l i z e d o r known and t h a t w h i c h c o v e r s i t i s removed. To do t h i s t h e e m p i r i c a l mind p e r s e must be t r a n s c e n d e d and t h a t s u b s t r a t u m t h r o u g h w h i c h i t o p e r a t e s must be d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e d . Thus, as t h i s i n v o l v e s u n d e r m i n i n g t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r e o f t h e mind, t h e V e d a n t i c n i d i d h y a s a n a ( m e d i t a t i o n and c o n t e m p l a t i o n ) c a n n o t be a t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v i n g t h e mind and i t s p r o c e s s e s . By i t s v e r y n a t u r e i t must be a s u b t l e t e c h n i q u e o f g o i n g b e h i n d , as 69 i t were, t h e m i n d - s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f . T h i s h e l p s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e e m i n g p a r a d o x t h a t t h e r e i s no p r a c t i c e b y w h i c h one c a n r e a l i z e Brahman a n d d y e t t h a t t h e r e a r e d i r e c t i o n s and d i s c i p -l i n e s g i v e n f o r s u c h a p u r p o s e . A l l t h i s becomes e v e n c l e a r e r when Gaudapada d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s t a t e o f s u s u p t i Swami Bhoomananda T i r t h a , Brahma V i d y a , A b h y a s a , I I ( T r i c h u r : - N a r a y a n a Ashrama Thapovanam, 1970), p. 8 2 . 165 and t h a t o f t h e n o n - d u a l T u r i y a i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m e d i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e . C a u s e and e f f e c t do n o t e x i s t i n T u r i y a whereas P r a j n a i s s a i d t o be c o n d i t i o n e d b y c a u s e . N o n - p e r c e p t i o n o f d u a l i t y i s common t o b o t h b u t P r a j n a i s s t i l l w i t h i n t h e 71 — s t r u c t u r e o f d u a l i s m . P r a j n a i s a s t a t e o f u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a s t a t e o f d e e p d r e a m l e s s s l e e p whereas t h e r e i s n e i t h e r dream nor s l e e p i n T u r i y a . As a n o n - c o n s c i o u s s t a t e P r a j n a d o e s 7 3 n o t comprehend a n y t h i n g , i t s e l f n o r o t h e r s . N o t h i n g c a n be d i s c e r n e d whereas T u r i y a i s t h e w i t n e s s o f e v e r y t h i n g . 7 4 F i n a l l y , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t i n t h e P r a j n a s t a t e , due t o t h e l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s , t h e r e i s b a s i c i g n o r a n c e o r r e a l i t y , whereas - 7 5 i n T u r i y a r e a l i t y i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d . T h i s l a s t p o i n t i s t h e c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m . F o r Gaudapada's K a r i k a as a s o t e r i o l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e i s m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d on t h e p r a c t i c a l l e v e l o f m e d i t a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s s u b t l e b u t v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 7 ^ G auda-p a d a i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a k i n g c l e a r t h e d i s t i n c -t i o n b e t w e e n t h e A d v a i t a s a m a d h i and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l y o g i c s a m a d h i . They a r e as d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r as a r e T u r i y a 70 MK I. 1 1 . 7 1 M K 1.13. 7 2 M K 1.14. 7 3 M K 1.12. 74 MK 1.12. 7 5 M K 1.15 and 16. 7 6 M K I I I . 3 4 - 3 6 and 39-40 i n p a r t i c u l a r . 166 and d e e p s l e e p , t o w h i c h Gaudapada compares them. B o t h o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e n i r - v i k a l p a , i e , w i t h o u t t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . B o t h s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t a c c e p t n i r v i k a l p a  s a m a d h i as t h e acme o f s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . B u t Gaudapada makes t h e f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n as h e p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e mere a c h i e v e -ment o f t h i s s a m a d h i, t h o u g h p l e a s a n t , i s n o t t r u e l i b e r a t i o n . T h e r e i s much more t o be done upon t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s and t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f s u c h i s t o be e d u c e d . Gaudapada t h u s t a l k s o f t h r e e b a s i c s t a t e s o f c o n s c -i o u s n e s s f r o m an e x p e r i e n t i a l p o i n t o f v i e w i n d i f f e r e n c e t o 77 t h e t r a d i t i o n a l two a s p e c t s o f v i k a l p a and n i r v i k a l p a ^ The v i k a l p a a s p e c t , o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h e e m p i r i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f e v e r y d a y ( e x p e r i e n c e . The n i r v i k a l p a a s p e c t i s t h a t s t a t e b e r e f t o f a l l t h o u g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n s . A l l s c h o o l s a c c e p t t h i s . B u t Gaudapada c a l l s t h i s s e c o n d one a c o n d i t i o n o r s t a t e o f u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r l a c k o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e v e r - p r e s e n t p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h h e now p o s i t s as t h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n . T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l s u g g e s t s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as t e c h n i q u e s o f p r a c t i c e 78 t o a t t a i n s u c h g o a l s . The t r a d i t i o n a l y o g a m e t h o d o l o g y o f 7 7 M K I I I . 3 4 - 3 5 ; and 46. 7 8 One o f t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s h e r e i s t h e way c l a s s i c a l P a t a n j a l a Yoga d e f i n e s t h e p r o b l e m and t h e g o a l . The p r o b l e m 167 ahyana o r m e d i t a t i o n i s t y p i f i e d b y t h e Yoga S u t r a d e f i n i t i o n as c i t t a - v r t t i - n i r o d h a h , t h e r e s t r a i n t o r s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e m i n d - f o r m s . R a t h e r t h a n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , Gaudapaida a d v o c a t e s t h e p r a c t i c e o f A d v a i t a n i d i d h y a s a n a w h i c h c a n be t e r m e d s u b l i m a t i o n o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I n s t e a d o f m e c h a n i c a l l y and e f f o r t f u l l y r e s t r a i n i n g t h e m i n d - f o r m s , t h i s p r a c t i c e i n t e n d s t o t r a n s f o r m t h e mind i n t o i t s p r i s t i n e c o n d i t i o n o f non-mind w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e S e l f o r P u r e C o n s c i o u s -n e s s due t o t h e s u b l a t i o n o r l o s s o f t h e f a l s e i m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e m i n d - f o r m s upon e x p e r i e n c e . The mind i s u n d e r c o n t r o l — 7 9 (manasah n i g r a h i t a ) , n o t i n t h e s e n s e o f s u p p r e s s i o n o r r e s t r a i n t ( n i r o d h a ) o f t h e m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s , b u t I n t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f i m a g i n a t i o n ( v i k a l p a ) c e a s e s and t h e r e i s no i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i t s p r o d u c t s o r d i s t r a c t i o n b y i t s a g i t a t i o n s and p u r e a w a r e n e s s r e m a i n s w i t h o u t t h e s u p e r - i m p o s i t i o n s o f d u a l i t y . I t i s n o t g o i n g i n t o a u n c o n s c i o u s t r a n c e - l i k e s t a t e ( l a y a ) . ^ S u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e mind m e r e l y l e a d s t o a d u l l i n e r t e x p e r i e n c e as i n s t u p o r , s l e e p , o r d e a t h . I n t h e s e s t a t e s t h e mind i s n o t a c t i v e and t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s o n l y remembered a f t e r t h e f a c t . W h i l e i n s u c h a s t a t e t h e i n d i v i d u a l knows n o t h i n g , h e r e c o n c e r n s t h e d i s e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e t h r e e gunas o f p r a k r t i ( m a t t e r ) and t h e g o a l o f t h e k a i v a l y a ( i s o l a t i o n ) o f p u r u s a ( s p i r i t ) f r o m p r a k r t i . The t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f A d v a i t a , e s p e c i a l l y Gaudapada h e r e i n t h i s s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e , i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . 7 9 M K I I I . 3 4 - 3 5 and 40. 168 t h e mind m e r e l y l i e s d ormant, and upon r e s u m a t i o n o f t h e w a k i n g s t a t e a l l o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s resume t h e i r p r e v i o u s f u n c t i o n i n g . F u r t h e r , t h e s e s t a t e s a r e p e r i o d i c and e p h e m e r a l and o n l y m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h r i g o r o u s e f f o r t and p e r s i s t a n t w i t h d r a w l f r o m n o r m a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Gaudapada p o i n t s o u t t h e f u t i l i t y o f s u c h methods t o a t t a i n p e a c e and l i b e r a t i o n . Thus t h e c l a s s i c a l n i r o d h a method r e f e r s t o t h e d e l i b -e r a t e e f f o r t s t o s u p p r e s s o r r e s t r a i n t h e mind b y n e g a t i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e , f u n c t i o n s and t h e r e s u l t s w h i c h t h o s e f u n c t i o n s p r o d u c e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e A d v a i t a method, c a l l e d n i g r h i t a f o r d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e by Gaudapada, r e f e r s t o t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e mind t h r o u g h i t s s u b l i m a t i o n o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The method o f A s p a r s a Yoga c a n be c a l l e d t h e "non-mind t e c h -n i q u e " f o r i t s t a s k i s t o r e n d e r e t h e mind q u i e s c e n t o r m o t i o n -• 80 l e s s ( a n i n g a n a ) . M i n d i n t h e f o r m o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e m p i r i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t o be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o I t s r e a l n a t u r e . a s p u r e n o n - d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F o r t h e m i n d s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h a s no i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e . I t s e x i s t e n c e depends upon t h e w o r l d and i t s o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e p o s i t e d as d i f f e r e n t f r o m i t . M i n d as s u c h a l w a y s r e m a i n s w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f d u a l i t y and d i s t r a c t e d b y t h e p l a y o f t h e p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e s i t d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e i t s e s s e n c e as t h e s u b s t r a t u m o f p u r e n o n - d u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s . The A s p a r s a Y o g a " n o n - m i n d " t e c h n i q u e ^ " t h e n , i s one o f MK I I I . 4 6 . 169 l o s i n g t h e e m p i r i c a l mind-mode w h i l e r e m a i n i n g immersed i n 81 t h e p u r e a w a r e n e s s o f n o n - d u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s . The e l e m e n t o f e f f o r t l e s s n e s s and s p o n t a n e i t y h e r e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e n i r o d h a method i s t h a t t h e mind and t h e s e n s e o r g a n s a r e s e e n as m e r e l y s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s on n o n - d u a l Brahman o r Pure C o n s c -i o u s n e s s r a t h e r t h a n as a s e p a r a t e v e h i c l e s w h i c h t h e s a d h a k a must b r i n g u n d e r c o n t r o l i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n s p i r i t u a l e x p e r -82 i e n c e . The mind b e i n g f r e e f r o m a l l i t s modes and s t a t e s does n o t l o s e i t s e l f , b u t becomes t h e f e a r l e s s Brahman, p u r e a l l - p e r v a d i n g C o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g r o o t e d i n m e d i t a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e t h a t A d v a i t a s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no p r a c t i c e o r p r a c t i c e s b y w h i c h t h e S e l f c a n b e r e a l i z e d . S a n k a r a ' s c o m m e n t a r i e s on MK I I I . 3 6 , 39 and 47 make t h i s q u i t e c l e a r . W h i l e t h e r e i s t h e c o n c e s s i o n t o t h e u t i l i t y and e v e n t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r a c t i c e s , t h i s i s o n l y g r a n t e d when s p e a k i n g f r o m w i t h i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o r d u a l i s m f o r one c a n n o t s p e a k as s u c h f r o m t h e n o n - d u a l 8 3 p o s i t i o n . 8 1 M K I I I . 3 4 and 35. 82 * • See S a n k a r a * s commentary on MK I I I . 3 9 - 4 0 . 83 T h e s e v e r s e s w h i c h deny p r a c t i c e a r e a l l d e c l a r e d f r o m t h e h i g h e s t c o n d i t i o n o f n o n - d u a l i t y and as s u c h o f n e c e s s i t y d e n y any p r a c t i c e o f any s o r t . F o r example, s'ankara i n h i s commen-t a r y on MK I I I . 3 6 s t a t e s , "With r e g a r d t o t h i s Brahman o f s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e r e c a n be no ceremony ( p r a c t i c e ) , as o t h e r s h a v e , e . g . c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f mind e t c . t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e j a a t u r e o f t h e S e l f . The i d e a i s t h i s : As Brahman i s b y n a t u r e e t e r n a l l y p u r e , i n t e l l i g e n t , and f r e e , t h e r e c a n be no p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n y t h i n g t o be done i n any way w h a t s o e v e r , 170 7. THE MODUS OPERANDI OF ASPARSA YOGA When the mind ceases t o t h i n k as a consequence o f the r e a l i s a t i o n o f the T r u t h t h a t i s the S e l f , then the mind a t t a i n s the s t a t e o f not b e i n g the mind; i n the absence o f t h i n g s t o be p e r c e i v e d , i t becomes a non-p e r c e i v e r . -MK III.32 As the above v e r s e i n d i c a t e s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the T r u t h t h a t i s the S e l f (ataxias aty a-anubodha) i s the g o a l o f Gaudapada's a d v a i t a sadhana. T h i s awakening i s s a i d by Sankara t o be the r e s u l t o f f o l l o w i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s o f 84 s c r i p t u r e and the t e a c h e r . The p r a c t i c e o f these culminate — 85 i n n i r v i k a l p a samadhi where the mind a t t a i n s the s t a t e o f ce a s i n g t o be the mind (amanastam^^ or am a n i b h a v a 8 7 ) . When a f t e r the d e s t r u c t i o n o f ignorance." In h i s commentary on MK III.39 Sankara adds, " f o r those t o whom the mind and the sense-organs e t c . , t h a t are imagined l i k e a snake on a rope, have no e x i s t e n c e i n r e a l i t y when co n s i d e r e d a p a r t from t h e i r e s s -ence t h a t i s Brahman - f o r those who have become i d e n t i f i e d w ith Brahman - comes f e a r l e s s n e s s ; and f o r them n a t u r a l l y i s accomplished the e v e r - l a s t i n g peace c a l l e d emancipation t h a t i s not dependent on any other f a c t o r , as we d e c l a r e d e a r l i e r . . . . " F i n a l l y he s t a t e s on MK III.47-48 t h a t , " A l l such ideas - e.g. the c o n t r o l o f the mind and so on, c r e a t i o n resembling the e v o l u t i o n o f forms from e a r t h and go l d , and m e d i t a t i o n - have been spoken as means l e a d i n g t o the r e a l i s a t i o n o f the supreme R e a l i t y as I t i s i n I t s e l f ; but these have not been spoken.of as supremely t r u e i n themselves. The a b s o l u t e l y h i g h e s t T r u t h , however, i s : no i n d i v i d u a l being whichsoever, t h a t i s a doer or an enjoyer i s born by any means whatsoever. Hence f o r the S e l f t h a t i s n a t u r a l l y unborn and non-dual t h e r e does not e x i s t . a n y source or cause f o r undergoing b i r t h . " 84 * Sankara on MK III . 3 2 . 8 5MK III.32-34 and 37. 8 6MK II I . 3 2 . MK I I I . 3 1 . 171 t h i s occurs knowledge (jnana) becomes e s t a b l i s h e d i n the S e l f and the c o n d i t i o n o f l i b e r a t i o n accrues f o r the s u c c e s s f u l seeker. The process through which t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s a c t u a l i z e d , Gaudapada r e f e r s t o as manasah n i g r h i t a ( c o n t r o l o f the mind). T h i s i s the a d v a i t i c n i d i h y a s a n a process o f m e d i t a t i o n or c o n t e m p l a t i o n . A l i k e o t h e r m e d i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , t h i s p r a c -t i c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a c t o f d e t a c h i n g the mind from the senses and c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t upon an i n t e r n a l o b j e c t . During the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n , the mind i s t o have o n l y a p u r e l y i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n wherein the senses or the outer f u n c -t i o n s do not e n t e r a t a l l . The i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n o f the mind can be o f s e v e r a l k i n d s . While other kinds o f m e d i t a t i o n are upon " o b j e c t s " o f d i f f e r e n t s o r t s , the A d v a i t i c m e d i t a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y upon the S e l f (atman). M e d i t a t i o n on the S e l f , b e i n g n e i t h e r a p o i n t nor an o b j e c t but the e x i s t e n t i a l s u b j e c t , thus appears t o be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k as i t i s q u i t e u n l i k e a technique i n v o l v i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n on some o b j e c t which the s u b j e c t i v e mind may g r a s p . T h i s i s the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the e a r l i e r upasanas on Onkara and t h e h i g h e r medita-t i o n on the m a t r a - l e s s aspect which r e p r e s e n t s T u r i y a . I t i s t h i s more profound m e d i t a t i v e t a s k which Gaudapada u l t i m a t e l y s e t s f o r the sadhaka. M e d i t a t i o n , then, i s s t r i c t l y speaking, an a c t wherein the mind alone i s i n v o l v e d . The g o a l of m e d i t a t i o n i s t o con-t r o l the mind and b r i n g i t t o the c o n d i t i o n of e q u i p o i s e 17 2 (samapraptam) which Gaudapada a l s o c a l l s the c o n d i t i o n o f "non-mind" (amanlbhava) wherein the S e l f alone remains as pure experience and knowledge. The nature or q u a l i t y o f the mind i s v i k a l p a , the p r o -d u c t i o n o f thought, for-ms., while the g o a l of m e d i t a t i o n i s t o q u e l l t h i s i n c e s s a n t thought-flow i n order t o r e a l i z e the S e l f upon which they s u b s i s t . The process i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as changing the d i r e c t i o n o f the mind, or f u r t h e r , as u s i n g the e f f e c t s c a l l e d thoughts t o reach the source or cause o f them. These ideas simply r e f e r t o the use o f the mind fu n c -t i o n s themselves t o go beyond the e n t i r e thought p r o c e s s . I t i s thus the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the v e r y cause ofbbondage or s u f f -e r i n g t o f r e e i t s e l f . The p a r t i c u l a r method t o a c c o m p l i s h g t h i s i s the mantra. Constant r e p i t i t i o n by the mind o f an i d e a i s c a l l e d anusa-88 mdhana. I t has the e f f e c t of l i n k i n g the wandering mind t o the d e s i r e d o b j e c t t o the e x c l u s i o n of other i n t r u s i o n s . The p a r t i c u l a r A d v a i t a method i s termed atma-anusamdhana wherein 89 the meditator c o n s t a n t l y dwells on the S e l f . Though t h e r e are s e v e r a l t r a d i t i o n a l moksa-mantras r e l a t e d t o the mahavakyas o f the Upanisads, Gaudapada u t i l i z e s the s a c r e d symbol OM f o r t h i s purpose h e r e . In t h i s way he remains c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the Swami Bhoomananda.Tirtha, Brahma V i d y a Abhyasa, I ( T r i c h u r : Narayanasrama Thapovanam, 1970) pp.92-95. 8 9MK 11.36 and I I I . 4 3 . 17 3 s c r i p t u r a l s o u r c e t o w h i c h h i s t e x t i s appended and t o t h e p e c u l i a r t e c h n i q u e s known and c u r r e n t d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e . The c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e o f atma-anusamdhara f i r s t r e s u l t s i n t h e l e s s e n i n g o f i n t r u s i o n s o f o t h e r t h o u g h t f o r m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e body and t h e w o r l d . The i n t e n s e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h i s m a n t r a i s n e c e s s a r y t h o u g h i t i s r e p e a t e d s l o w l y and g e n t l y . T h i s i s s t i l l w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f s p a r s a o r d u a l i t y and n o t b e y o n d i t . W h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r a c t i c e t h e m e d i t a t o r i s s t i l l " t o u c h i n g " as i t were, t h e t h o u g h t r e l a t i n g t o t h e S e l f , t h e mi n d b e i n g t h e a g e n c y employed f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . The g o a l i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h i s , s o t h e mind i s t h e n t o be l e a d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e anusamdhana i t s e l f c e a s e s g r a d u a l l y and a l l t h o u g h t s and d u a l i t y d i s s o l v e and d i s a p p e a r . When t h e m a n t r a i t s e l f v a n i s h e s and w i t h t h a t a l l t h e t h i n k i n g f u n c t i o n s a l s o , t h e r e i s no d u a l i t y and t h e n o n - d u a l S e l f r e m a i n s . Though t h e p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n d u a l i t y a r e made u s e o f i n m e d i t a t i o n , jfche i d e a l aimed a t i s n o t t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h a t p r o c e s s b u t t h e t r a n s c e n d i n g o f i t and t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e n o n - d u a l c o n d i t i o n . 9 ^ I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e r e i s n o t " c o n t a c t " ( s p a r s a ) w i t h d u a l i t y b u t r a t h e r t h e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f T u r i y a , " t h e f o u r t h " b e y o n d t h e t h r e e s t a t e s o f d u a l i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s c a l l e d A s p a r / a Yoga b y Gaudapada. In o r d e r t o do t h i s Gaudapada a d v o c a t e s a s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e o f m i n d . Once p r a c t i c e i s u n d e r t a k e n t h e s a d h a k a i s Swami Bhoomananda T i r t h a , Brahma V i d y a A b h y a s a , I I , p . 8 9 . 174 e x h o r t e d t o c o n t i n u o u s l y t h i n k o f n o n - d u a l i t y ( y o j a y e t s m r t i m a d v a i t e ) . 9 x The anusamdhana i s p a r t o f t h i s a t t i t u d e . T h i s f i x a t i o n i s t o p e r m e a t e a l l o f t h e s a d h a k a ' s a c t i v i t i e s . The s a d h a k a must b e d i l i g e n t i n h i s p r a c t i c e , s h o w i n g no d e p r e s s -92 i o n b u t e x h i b i t i n g u n t i r i n g e f f o r t . The n o r m a l s t a t e o f t h e mind i s t h a t i t r e m a i n s d i s p e r s e d a m i d s t t h e o b j e c t s o f d e s i r e and e n j o y m e n t w h i c h needs t o be c o u n t e r e d a t e v e r y 93 t u r n . Gaudapada s t a t e s two maxims t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e - 94 n e c e s s a r y frame o f mind f o r f r u i t f u l s a d h a n a . I n t h e f i r s t h e a d v o c a t e s t h a t by " c o n s t a n t l y remembering t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s f u l l o f m i s e r y , one s h o u l d w i t h d r a w t h e mind f r o m t h e e n j o y m e n t a r i s i n g o u t o f d e s i r e . " T u r n t h e mind b a c k f r o m e n j o y m e n t s remembering t h a t t h e p l e a s u r e s a r e n o t f r e e f r o m p a i n and m i s e r y . T h i s i s t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e n a t u r a l p r o p e n s i t y o f t h e mind t o s e e k e x t e r n a l p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e v e h i c l e o f t h e s e n s e s . F o r t h i s i s b a s e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e s e n s e - o b j e c t s a r e r e a l , p ermanent, and t h a t t h e y c a n g i v e h a p p i n e s s . A d v a i t a s a y s t h e s e a r e f a l s e v a l u e s s u p e r i m -p o s e d t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e b y t h e mind o n t o t h e s e n s e - o b j e c t s . G audapada t h u s a s k s t h e s a d h a k a t o be e v e r v i g i l a n t and n o n -a t t a c h e d . S a n k a r a i n h i s commentary on t h i s v e r s e a f f i r m s t h a t 91 MK 11.36. 92 MK I I I . 4 1 . T h i s i s c a l l e d a b h y a s a i n t h e l a t e r t r a d i t i o n , 9 3 M K I I I . 4 2 . 94 T h e s e a r e b o t h g i v e n i n MK I I I . 4 3 . 17 5 t h i s r e f e r s t o the development o f the s p i r i t o f d i s p a s s i o n or r e n u n c i a t i o n ( v a i r a g y a ) . T h i s v e r s e a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e p r o -cess o f v i c a r a or e n q u i r y wherein the sadhaka revamps h i s l i f e - s t y l e through the p r a c t i c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (viveka) which a i d s detachment. V i v e k a should be the constant compan-io n o f s p i r i t u a l l i f e and p r a c t i c e a c c o r d i n g t o A d v a i t a . A t every s t e p of the way i,t i s necessary and none the l e s s so i n m e d i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e as s h a l l be shown below. The second p i e c e o f a d v i c e supplements the f i r s t . Gaudapada suggests t h a t by "always remembering the f a c t t h a t the b i r t h l e s s Brahman i s e v e r y t h i n g , one does not p e r c e i v e the born ( i e , d u a l i t y ) . " T h i s a g a i n a f f i r m s the need f o r the c o n s t a n t r e f l e c t i o n on n o n - d u a l i t y . I t a l s o a f f i r m s t h a t while p a r t i c i p a t i n g amidst the phenomenal u n i v e r s e , the p e r -c e p t i o n o f d u a l i t y i s d e l u s o r y and the t r u t h or r e a l i t y o f t h i s v e r y world i s r e a l l y n o n - d u a l i t y . I t i s t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l understanding which must be e v e n t u a l l y brought i n t o a c t u a l d i r e c t e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge. In t h i s same v e r s e Gaudapada p o i n t s out the b a s i c o b s t a c l e t o S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n which the seeker i s t r y i n g t o overcome. Simply r e - i t e r a t e d , t h i s i s the b a s i c m i s p e r c e p t i o n o f R e a l i t y as d u a l i t y which i s caused by d e s i r e . The mind snared i n t h i s d e l u s o r y d u a l framework p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t , enjoyer-enjoyed s t r u c t u r i n g o f e x i s t e n c e . T h i s i s why Gaudapada says t h a t the g r e a t o b s t a c l e o f p r a c t i c -i n g y o g i s i s f e a r (bhaya) even though t h e r e i s no r e a l ground 176 95 / f o r such a r e a c t i o n . Asparsa Yoga xs a l o f t y g o a l but most seekers are d e t e r r e d b y ' t h e i r f e a r o f e g o - l o s s . T h n i k i n g t h i s yoga t o i n v o l v e the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t h i s v e r y thought becomes the cause of the f e a r of the des-t r u c t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o A d v a i t a , the t r u e nature o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s h i s i d e n t i t y w i t h the non-dual Brahman and the i d e a of i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e i s due t o i g n o r -ance o f one's own n a t u r e . Brahman i s f e a r l e s s n e s s i t s e l f f o r i t i s e v e r - f r e e , e v e r f i l l u m i n e d ; there i s n o t h i n g e l s e of which i t can be a f r a i d . Fear comes from the sense o f d u a l i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n thus r e f l e c t s the d u a l s t r u c t u r e o f e x i s t e n c e and the r o l e o f the mind i n i t s maintenance. While a l l o f t h i s r e f e r s t o the e s s e n t i a l o b s t a c l e t o overcome, Gaudapada p o i n t s out some o f the more s p e c i f i c v a r -i a t i o n s o f these t h a t occur d u r i n g the p r a c t i c e o f the process o f m e d i t a t i o n i t s e l f . The four major c a t e g o r i e s are l a y a (un-consciousness), v i k s e p a ( d i s t r a c t i o n ) , kasaya ( l a t e n t de-s i r e ) and sukha ( h a p p i n e s s ) . Gaudapada l i s t s each o b s t a c l e as the seeker experiences them d u r i n g m e d i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e and f o l l o w i n g each g i v e s a d v i c e or methods t o counter each prob-96 lem. In so doxng he a l s o leads the a s p i r a n t p r o g r e s s i v e l y through the proper method o f m e d i t a t i o n which a c t u a l i z e s Brahma-vidya, the e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge o f U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . 9 5MK I I I . 3 9 . 96 MK III.42 and 44-46. 177 The most r e c u r r e n t o b s t a c l e i n m e d i t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y 97 a t the b e g i n n i n g o f p r a c t i c e , i s ' v i k s e p a ( d i s t r a c t i o n ) . T h i s i s , i n essence, the normal s t a t e of the mind i n t e r r u p t i n g the atma-anusamdhana. The focussed mind l o s e s i t s c o n c e n t r a -tion-when the anusamdhana i s d i s p l a c e d by some other thoughts. Even when the p r a c t i c e appears smooth and easy, the d e f l e c t i o n can occur unawares. By the time the meditator r e c o g n i z e s the i n t r u s i o n o f other thoughts, a p e r i o d of time w i l l have a l r e a d y e l a p s e d . T h i s i s s a i d t o occur due t o t h e h a b i t u a l nature o f the mind's working. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o change. The mental process i s t r a c e d back t o the vasanas or d e s i r e s which almost u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r o p e l the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o h a b i t u a l modes o f a c t i o n . Gaudapada s t a t e s t h a t the sadhaka should simply b r i n g the d i s p e r s e d or t u r b u l e n t mind back t o t h e atma-anus amdhana p r a c t i c e and proceed t o make i t t r a n q u i l a g a i n . T h i s must be repeated over and over a g a i n u n t i r i n g l y . The mental a t t i t u d e s o f d i s p a s s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which are b e i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y developed w i l l a l s o a i d t h i s d i s c i p l i n i n g o f the mind. The next o b s t a c l e t o the h i g h e s t m e d i t a t i v e experience go i s c a l l e d l a y a (unconsciousness). Laya suggests d i s s o l u t i o n , a b s o r p t i o n , s l e e p and other s t a t e s o f mind which are c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by withdrawl from the non-awareness of e x t e r n a l MK III.42 and 44. 9 8 -I b i d . 178 o b j e c t s . Gaudapada uses the term here i n the sense of deep — 99 s l e e p (susupti) or y o g i c samadhi. Gaudapada warns the med-i t a t o r t h a t such a s t a t e of experience i s a major o b s t a c l e t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t r u t h . I t i s s a i d to be as harmful as d e s i r e i s i n the f i n d i n g o f t r u e freedom. During t h i s s t a t e of l a y a t h e r e i s no knowledge, i t i s an a l l - f o r g e t f u l c o n d i t -i o n . There i s the l o s s o f awareness or consciousness, which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the h i g h e s t s t a t e . On t h i s b a s i s l a y a i s r e g a r d -ed as u s e l e s s . F u r t h e r , l i k e s u s u p t i (deep sleep) the vasanas or l a t e n t d e s i r e s are not attenuated but merely l i e dormant aw a i t i n g re-awakening. While t h i s s t a t e i s p e a c e f u l and p l e a -sant and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the absence o f the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t J J L a y a has been c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s o f mental i n a c t i v i t y by v a r i o u s commentators w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n . Sada-nanda e x p l a i n s i t as n i d r a ( s l e e p ) . Madhusudana r e f e r s t o i t as the pseudo-sleep s t a t e s caused by such t h i n g s as i n d i g e s t i o n , o v e r - e a t i n g , f a t i g u e , e t c . A modern exponent e x p l a i n s i t t h u s : "Laya i s almost s i m i l a r t o s l e e p ( s u s h u p t i ) . But t h e r e i s a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e between the two. I should say l a y a i s denser and deeper than s l e e p . U s u a l l y when one goes a s l e e p , the e r e c t body w i l l f a l l f l a t . But d u r i n g l a y a t h i s need not be so. Suppose you are s i t t i n g i n m e d i t a t i o n and l a y a takes p l a c e , you w i l l c o ntinue t o be i n the same pose. When the c o n d i t i o n breaks o f f you can f i n d y o u r s e l f i n the same s i t t i n g pose. You w i l l f e e l t h a t you were i n a s t a t e of absence, the mind end consc-iousness b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y devoid o f a l l f u n c t i o n s . There w i l l be a l o t o f freshness and r e l e a s e coming t o you a f t e r you break away. I t w i l l take some time (a few minutes) f o r you t o r i s e up from your pose and proceed t o walk or speak. Is l a y a then something l i k e s l e e p ? When you wake up from s l e e p t h e r e w i l l be some drowsiness f o l l o w i n g . No such drowsiness w i l l be the r e when you wake up from l a y a . On the b a s i s o f t h i s d i f f -erence you can d i s t i n g u i s h them." Swami Bhoomananda T i r t h a , o p . c i t . , I I , pp.26-27. 17 9 r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t i s n o t t h e h i g h e s t n o n - d u a l e x p e r i e n c e . The u l t i m a t e a i m o f a l l s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s i s not t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o b l i v i o n b u t r a t h e r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e S e l f . To c o u n t e r - a c t t h i s s i t u a t i o n , Gaudapada s u g g e s t s t h a t when t h e mind i s merged i n t h i s k i n d o f samSdhi t h e med-i t a t o r s h o u l d awaken i t a g a i n and c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e . S a n k a r a i n h i s commentary adds t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and d e t a c h m e n t w i l l a i d i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h i s s t a t e and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e S e l f . 1 0 0 L a y a and v i k s e p a a r e t h e two m a j o r o b s t a c l e s w h i c h Gaudapada d w e l l s on a t l e n g t h . The n e x t o b s t a c l e , k a s a y a , i s a l s o p o r t r a y e d as an e x p e r i e n c e o r c o n d i t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n . S i m i l a r t o l a y a , i t c a n a l s o be e r r o n e o u s -l y t a k e n as t h e supreme e x p e r i e n c e o f s a m a d h i . Gaudapada s a y s t h e m e d i t a t o r " s h o u l d know when t h e mind i s t i n g e d w i t h d e s i r e ( k a s a y a ) . " l 0 x T h i s i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e commentator S a n k a r a , w h i c h must be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e — 102 d e s i r e d c o n d i t i o n o f e q u i p o i s e ( s a m a p r a p t a m) . T h i s d e c e p -1 0 0 S / a n k a r a on MK I I I . 4 4 . 1 0 1 M K I I I . 4 4 . 102 / I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h S a n k a r a s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s an i n t e r m e d i a r y s t a t e and s c h o l a r s h a v e r e l a t e d i t t o c l a s s -i c a l m e d i t a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s , Gaudapada h i m s e l f g i v e s no d i r e c -t i o n s t o c o u n t e r t h i s as he does w i t h a l l o f t h e o t h e r s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n may i n d e e d b e o n l y an a n a l y t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c a u s e o f t h e o b s t a c l e s t o m e d i t a t i o n . 180 t i v e s t a t e h a s b e e n c a l l e d s t a b d h i b h a v a w h e r e i n t h e mind 103 "becomes s t i f f e n e d " and t h e r e i s n e i t h e r l a y a n o r v x k s e p a . Due t o t h i s t h e mind c a n n o t be f i x e d on t h e o b j e c t o f m e d i t a -t i o n . The c a u s e o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n , w h i c h i s o f t e n b y i t s e l f u s e d t o d e s c r i b e i t , i s k a s a y a o r l a t e n t d e s i r e . T h i s i s t h e s i n g u l a r t e r m f o r t h e c l a s s i c a l p a s s i o n s o f r a g a ( d e s i r e ) , d v e s a ( h a t r e d ) , moha ( d e l u s i o n ) , and b h a y a ( f e a r ) . The mind o f t h e m e d i t a t o r i n t h i s i n t e r m e d i a t e c o n d i t i o n i s s a i d t o be u n d e r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e and t h e s e r e m a i n i n t h e i r l a t e n t f o r m t o r e - a c t i v a t e and re - e m e r g e upon a w a k e n i n g . The m e d i t a t o r h a s n o t y e t r e a l i z e d h i s S e l f and S a n k a r a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s a d h a k a s h o u l d a g a i n w i t h d i l i g e n c e move t h e mind t o w a r d s e q u i p o i s e o r e q u i l i b r i u m . When t h e m e d i a t a t i o n p r o g r e s s e s and mind g e t s u s e d t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i t w i l l e x p e r i e n c e u n u s u a l d e l i g h t s . V a r i o u s forms o f d e l i g h t f u l e x p e r i e n c e s and h a p p i n e s s n a t u r a l l y a c c r u e t o t h e m e d i t a t o r p e r i o d i c a l l y . T h e s e b y t h e i r n a t u r e w i l l be a l l u r i n g and h e n c e t h e m e d i t a t o r w i l l d e v e l o p a t e n d a n c y t o e x p e r i e n c e them o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n . T h i s i s why Gaudapada warns t h e s a d h a k a n o t t o s e e k p l e a s u r e ( s u k h a ) , n o t t o t a k e t h e s e d e l i g h t s as t r u e s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , n o r i n d u l g e i n them when t h e y a r i s e . T he j o y s and a l l u r e m e n t s o f m e d i t a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e t h u s t h e n e x t o b s t a c l e d i s c u s s e d by Ga u d a -104 p a d a . N o t o n l y h a s h e s a i d t h a t t h e p r o p e n s i t y f o r e n j o y i n g 103 T, K a r m a r k a r , o p _ , c i t . , p.106 and B h a t t a c h a r y a , - o p . c i t . . p.78 104 MK I I I . 4 5 . 181 the normal outer p l e a s u r e s o f the w o r l d l y l i f e i s a bondage t o be removed through r e n u n c i a t i o n , but now he a l s o says t h a t the d e s i r e t o enjoy the i n n e r p s y c h i c a l or s p i r i t u a l p l e a s u r e s are j u s t as b i n d i n g t o the meditator, i f not moreso than the o u t e r enjoyments. The a t t r a c t i o n f o r f e e l i n g s o f joy, p l e a -sure or happiness (sukha) i n m e d i t a t i o n can thus become a major impediment t o l i b e r a t i o n and S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . Gaudapada says t o counter t h i s new attachment or a t t -r a c t i o n t o sukha by becoming unattached (nihsanga). through d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( p r a j n a ) . By the e x e r c i s e o f c o n t i n u i n g d i s -cernment and judgement t h i s p a r t i c u l a r attachment, a l i k e any o t h e r remnants o f the d u a l n o t i o n o f enjoyer and enjoyed, can be expunged. S a^Akara comments on t h i s process o f d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n (viveka) as f o l l o w s : The m e d i t a t o r should be unattached by g a i n i n g knowledge through d i s c r i m i n a t i o n wherein he should i t h i n k t h a t whatever happiness i s experienced i s a c r e a t i o n o f ignorance and thus i t i s f a l s e . Then the mind should be turned back or withdrawn from such e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s p r a c t i c e which Gaudapada here c a l l s p r a j n a ( d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n ) i s the l a t e r t r a d i t i o n a l v i v e k a formula. I t i s a b a s i c t r u t h o f A d v a i t a t h a t o n l y when the mind i s attached t o a t h i n g w i l l i t want t o be a s s o c i a t e d with i t r e p e a t e d l y . I f the mind i s detached from i t , t h a t v e r y detachment w i l l a c t as a f o r c e t o keep away from i t . The m e d itator i s t o r e a l i z e the u s e l e s s n e s s of the p a r t i c u l a r a t t r a c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o 182 the g o a l o f l i b e r a t i o n or S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and on t h a t b a s i s grow i n d i f f e r e n t towards i t each time i t emerges u n t i l i t ceases t o appear at a l l . Even i f i t appears at a l l a f t e r a time, the m e d i t a t o r should be s u f f i c i e n t l y detached so t h a t the o b j e c t o f a t t r a c t i o n does not b i n d him. The s t r e n g t h t o d i s m i s s and t o outgrow comes from v i v e k a , the i n t e l l i g e n t assessment o f the m e r i t s and demerits o f the p a r t i c u l a r s i t -u a t i o n i n regard t o the f i n a l g o a l . Thus detachment can be c u l t i v a t e d through c o n s i s t e n t and continuous awareness and e f f o r t on the p a r t o f the ardent seeker. A l l o f the o b s t a c l e s t o s u c c e s s f u l m e d i t a t i o n which Gaudapada c a t e g o r i z e s i n h i s Mandukya K a r i k a must be met and s u c c e s s f u l l y overcome. The p r a c t i c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (prajna or viveka) i s o f prime importance. Using knowledge based on the new v a l u a t i o n o f s a t ( t r u t h ) , the sadhaka can judge the u s e f u l l n e s s or u s e l e s s n e s s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n regards t o a c h i e v i n g h i s g o a l . When one i s convinced t h a t something i s u s e l e s s , the d e s i r e f o r i t decreases and e v e n t u a l l y d i s -appears. The c o n v i c t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t i s not des-i r e a b l e and t h a t i t should not be indulged i n , i f preserved throughout sadhana, w i l l a c t as a safeguard a g a i n s t i t . The whole matter thus simply c a l l s f o r a c l e a r a n a l y s i s and under-s t a n d i n g o f any s i t u a t i o n . A d v a i t a goes so f a r as t o equate success i n a t t a i n i n g S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n t o t h i s p r a c t i c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a l o n e . I t 183 i s c o n s i d e r e d a s i n e qua non o f s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . T h i s i s where A d v a i t a sadhana p r i m a r i l y d i f f e r s from o t h e r systems o f s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . I t says t h a t a t every stage the sadhaka has t o q u e s t i o n h i m s e l f as t o what i s the aim which i s t o be c o n s t a n t l y kept i n mind and whether t h a t aim i s being f u l f i l l e d , and t o what degree, by the e f f o r t s t h a t he i s making. T h i s v e r y q u e s t i o n i n g w i l l i t s e l f i n c r e a s e the sadhaka's v i v e k a . When v i v e k a reaches i t s z e n i t h , the knowledge o f the S e l f i s s a i d t o i n s t a n t l y dawn. Self-knowledge i s thus s a i d by A d v a i t i c t e x t s t o be the outcome brought about by the d e v e l -opment o f viveka, r a t h e r than by any other p r a c t i c e . x ^ 5 A f t e r a l l these o b s t a c l e s have been conquered and the s t a t e o f s t e a d i n e s s ( n i s c a l a ) becomes experienced however f l e e t i n g l y , t h e r e i s y e t another impediment t o r e a l i z a t i o n which o c c u r s . When the mind f i n a l l y becomes p e r i o d i c a l l y s t i l l e d and remains e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t e a d i n e s s , t h i s becomes d i s t u r b e d and the mind tends t o r e v e r t t o i t s former c o n d i t i o n o f a g i t a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i t y . 1 ^ T h i s i s due t o the p e r s i s -105 T h i s b r i n g s t o l i g h t the c o n f u s i o n m the l i t e r a t u r e on A d v a i t a Vedanta sadhana co n c e r n i n g the methods o f p r a c t i c e . Some s c h o l a r s say t h a t t h e r e i s no p r a c t i c e , others t h a t the p r a c t i c e i s m e d i t a t i o n , and s t i l l o thers t h a t i t i s the p r a c -t i c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y . In a sense a l l are r i g h t t o a c e r t a i n degree. Some t r a d i t i o n s o f A d v a i t a do not advo-c a t e m e d i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e s while others do. Each guru a l s o takes a c e r t a i n unique p o s i t i o n i n regards t o these d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Nonetheless, Gaudapada and the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s he enunciates i n h i s Mandukya K a r i k a c l e a r l y d e f i n e a m e d i t a t i v e process wherein the p r a c t i c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s g i v e n a prominent r o l e . 1 0 6MK I I I . 4 5 . 184 tance o f the mind's outgoing p r o p e n s i t i e s . There are two important p o i n t s made h e r e . The f i r s t concerns the p e r i o d i c success the m e d i t a t o r has i n regard t o c o l l e c t i n g and c o n c e n t r a t i n g the mind. Freed of the other o b s t a c l e s the mind i s l e d t o a s t a t e of s t i l l n e s s and s t e a d -i n e s s which i s t h o u g h t - f r e e , emotion-free and v i b r a t i o n - f r e e . I n i t i a l l y these p e r i o d s do not l a s t long and the sadhaka must again r a l l y h i s e n e r g i e s t o overcome t h i s problem. As Gauda-pada p o i n t s out, the mind should a g a i n be c o l l e c t e d and a p p l i e d t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the anusamdhana. T h i s i s not an easy t a s k and thus the r e - i t e r a t i o n t h a t the meditator must t r y hard with d i l i g e n c e u n t i l the mind becomes as s t i l l as the 107 u n f l x c k e r i n g flame o f a candle i n a windless p l a c e . Though the mind a t times a t t a i n s e q u i p o i s e or e q u i l -i b r i u m which i s the achievement o f the samadhi s t a t e , t h i s must y e t be s t a b i l i z e d . E v e n t u a l l y t h i s becomes an easy t r a n s i t i o n . The a b i l i t y t o s t a y i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n f o r long p e r i o d s o f time e f f o r t l e s s l y i s t o be worked f o r a t t h i s s t a g e . T h i s alone i s s a i d t o b r i n g success f o r i t i s t h i s non-dual experience which i s t o be f u l l y a c t u a l i z e d and the r e s u l t s o f which are t o e v e n t u a l l y permeate the sadhaka's e n t i r e l i f e -s t y l e . Thus, even a f t e r glimpses o f the h i g h e s t s t a t e are a t t a i n e d and t h i s s t a t e i s becoming e a s i e r t o achieve and the MK' III.45 and 46 w i t h Sankara's commentary. 185 p e r i o d s o f s t e a d i n e s s are lengthened, t h e r e i s s t i l l work t o be done by the sadhaka. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s l a t t e r aspect i s c a l l e d vasana-ksaya, the d e s t r u c t i o n or a t t e n u a t i o n o f d e s i r e i n the form o f impressions, h a b i t s or tendencies w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s i s the second important p o i n t made i n t h i s p a r t o f the v e r s e . What then i s the nature o f the h i g h e s t m e d i t a t i v e con-d i t i o n , t h i s samadhi which Gaudapada e u l o g i z e s i n h i s Mandukya  Karik a ? T h i s n i r v i k a l p a samadhi s t a t e i s d e f i n e d as the i d e a l s t a t e and d e s c r i b e d by d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms. The mind becomes "motionless" (aningana, n i / c a l a s t h i t i h ) . x ° 8 T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o the mind's normal a g i t a t e d and d i s c u r -s i v e s t a t e . The mind n e i t h e r becomes l o s t i n sleep" or t r a n c e , nor d i s p e r s e d amidst the o b j e c t s o f p e r c e p t i o n , nor does i t 109 appear m the form o f o b j e c t s . The mind i s "non-mind" or "steady"' ( n i s c a l a ) . l x 0 I t i s t r u l y " e q u i p o i s e d " pr i n " e q u i l -i b r i u m " ( s a m a p r a p t a ) . x x x I t i s s a n t i , " t r a n q u i l " or a t peace, i n the sense wherein Gaudapada t a l k s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y o f the 112 "quietude" o f the f i r e - b r a n d i n i t s r e a l non-dual c o n d i t i o n . Because o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t i s c a l l e d amanastarn or 1 0 8MK III.46 and IV.80. 1 0 9MK III . 4 6 . 1 1 0MK I I I . 4 5 . l l xMK II I . 4 4 . l x 2MK III.47 and t i t l e o f the f o u r t h prakarana. 186 *** 113 amanibhava, "non-mind" s i n c e i t c e a s e s t o h a v e t h e q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i s c u r s i v e m i n d . The e m p i r i c a l mind c e a s e s t o a c t , i e , t h e r e i s no a g i t a t i o n ( s p a n d i t a ) , no i m a g -i n a t i o n (sankalpa)„ no t h i n k i n g ( c i n t a ) , e t c . I t " t u r n s b a c k " ^ v i n i v a r t a t e ) f r o m t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e d u a l w o r l d . 1 1 4 H a v i n g no r e l a t i o n a t a l l w i t h t h e o b j e c t s o f d u a l i t y t h e mind o r c o n s c -i o u s n e s s i s s a i d t o be d n i a c o n d i t i o n o f "sameness" o r "non-— IIS d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " ( s a m y a ). The mind " r e s t s i n i t s e l f " 116 ( s v a s t h a ) h a v i n g "become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Brahman" ( n i s p a -nnam b r a h m a ) 1 1 7 and i s t h u s " l i b e r a t e d " ( s a n i r v a n a ) . 1 1 8 The s u b s t r a t e C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s e x p o s e d and r e a l i z e d i n i t s f u l l n e s s 119 and p r o f u n d i t y . M i n d o r C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s b i r t h l e s s ( a j a ) , n o n - d u a l (advaya) and b e y o n d d e s c r i p t i o n ( a k a t h y a ) i n t h i s 120 c o n d i t i o n . 113 MK I I I . 3 1 and 32. 1 1 4 M K I I I . 4 6 and TV.79-80. 1 1 5 M K I I I . 3 8 , IV.80, 95 and 100. 1 1 6 M K I I I . 4 7 . 117 MK I I I . 4 6 . 1 1 8 M K I I I . 4 7 . 119 " I t w o u l d be wrong t o r e g a r d t h i s mode o f b e i n g o f t h e S p i r i t as a s i m p l e " t r a n c e " i n w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s was e m p t i e d o f a l l c o n t e n t . N o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e n t a s i s i s not " a b s o l u t e e m p t i n e s s . " The " s t a t e " and t h e "knowledge" s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p r e s s e d by t h i s t e r m r e f e r t o a t o t a l a b s e n c e o f o b j e c t s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , n o t t o a c o n s c i o u s n e s s a b s o l u t e l y empty. F o r , on t h e contrary,., a t s u c h a moment c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s s a t u r a t e d w i t h a d i r e c t and t o t a l i n t u i t i o n o f b e i n g . " E l i a d e , o p . c i t . , p . 9 3 . 1 2 Q M K I I I . 4 7 and IV.80. 187 T h i s h i g h e s t s t a t e i s t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n o r k n o w l e d g e o f what v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as t h e S e l f (atman), Brahman, T u r i y a , and P u r e C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) . M e d i t a t i v e l y i t i s a u n i q u e s t a t e o r c o n d i t i o n o f " s t i l l a w a r e n e s s " w h i c h i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . R a t h e r t h a n a u n i o n w i t h t h e o b j e c t s o f d u a l e x p e r i e n c e i t i s a mergence w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s a s t a t e o f " s e l f c o g n i t i o n " w h e r e i n , t h e mind s t a n d s c o g n i z i n g i t s own e s s e n c e . T h i s i s p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r a w a r e n e s s . T h e r e i s no " o t h e r " h e r e . In t h e s a m a d h i c o n d i t i o n o f s t i l l n e s s . a n d p e a c e f u l n e s s o f mind, t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s p r e s e n t i n i t i s s i m -i l a r t o t h a t o f d eep s l e e p ( s u s u p t i ) . I t i s l i k e what a p e r -s o n f e e l s d u r i n g s l e e p . B u t u n l i k e s l e e p , t h i s s t i l l n e s s i s r e c o g n i z e d and e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e mind i n i t s c u r r e n t a w a r e -n e s s a t t h a t t i m e . As a w a r e n e s s h e r e i s e v e r p r e s e n t and a v a i l a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s q u i t e o p p o s e d t o t h e s l e e p s t a t e f o r t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s l e e p comes t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l o n l y i n t h e f o r m o f a memory a f t e r a w a k e n i n g . A g a i n i t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e w a k i n g s t a t e i n t h a t t h e r e i s no a b s e n c e o f a w a r e n e s s . But j u s t as t h e m e d i t a t o r i s aware o f t h e s t a t e o f w a k e f u l n e s s , s o w i l l h e be aware o f t h e e s a m a d h i c o n d i t i o n e v e n when he i s 121 w i t h x n x t . I n f a c t , A d v a x t a s t a t e s t h a t i t i s o n l y i n t h i s 121 F o r t h x s d e s c r x p t i o n s e e Swami Bhoomananda T i r t h a , BVA, V o l . I I , pp.66-67, 71 and 8 1 . In summation he s t a t e s , " f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e s c r i p t i o n , we c a n s a y t h a t i t i s a k i n d o f s l e e p d u r i n g w h i c h y o u a r e a b l e t o f e e l , Y e s , I am a s l e e p . I n o t h e r words, i t i s a w a k e f u l s l u m b e r o r s l e e p y w a k e f u l n e s s . 188 " f o u r t h " c o n d i t i o n t h a t one c a n t r u l y come t o know and r e a l i z e one's t r u e n a t u r e as p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h i s one's own e s s e n c e o r S e l f . 8. SELF-REALIZATION T h a t h i g h e s t B l i s s i s l o c a t e d i n one's own S e l f . I t i s q u i e s c e n t , c o e x i s t e n t w i t h l i b e r a t i o n , b e y o n d d e s -c r i p t i o n , and b i r t h l e s s . And s i n c e I t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e u n b o r n k n o w a b l e (Brahman), t h e y c a l l I t t h e O m n i s c i e n t (Brahman). -MK I I I . 4 7 T h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f n o n - d u a l i t y Gaudapada c a l l s t h e " r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t r u t h o f t h e S e l f " ( a t m a s a t y a n u b o d h a ) . The f i n a l t e s t i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The end o r g o a l o f B r a h m a - v i j n a n a , t h e e n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y , i s anubhava o r imm e d i a t e k n o w l e d g e ( a p a r o k s a - j n a n a ) . R e a l i z a t i o n i s t r u l y s e e i n g o r p e r c e i v i n g ( d r s ) and u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o r knowing R e a l i t y f i r s t h a n d . I t i s kn o w l e d g e ( j n a n a ) w h i c h i s a k a l p a , n o n - c o n c e p t u a l o r d e v o i d o f a l l i m a g i n a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n f o r my s a y i n g t h a t t h e Yoga s t a t e i s a k i n t o s l e e p and a l s o o p p o s e d t o i t a t t h e same t i m e . The a k i n n e s s i s on t h e g r o u n d o f i t s p e a c e f u l s t i l l n e s s and o p p o s e d n e s s on t h e g r o u n d o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f a w a r e n e s s . . . . T h u s t h e da w n i n g o f t h e Yoga s t a t e o r t h e s e t t i n g i n o f t h e s p i r i t u a l s t i l l n e s s (sama- d h i ) w i l l be a.,"feature q u i t e n a t u r a l and p l e a s a n t . I t w i l l b e l i k e t h e s e t t i n g i n o f s l e e p a t t h e end o f w a k e f u l n e s s . Or l i k e t h e dawning o f w a k e f u l n e s s a t t h e end o f a r e f r e s h i n g s l e e p . Or l i k e t h e emergence o f a t h o u g h t i n t h e mind f o l l o w -i n g t h e s u b s i d e n c e o f a n o t h e r . " (pp.81 and 8 3 ) . 1 2 2 M K I I I . 3 2 . 1 2 3 M K 11.3 5 and 38. 189 I t i s s a i d t o be n o n - d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e k n o w a b l e ( j n e y a b h i n n a ) w h i c h I s B r a h m a n . 1 2 4 Brahman i s t h e s o l e o b j e c t o f k n o w l e d g e . Brahman, as r e a l i z e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n m e d i t a t i o n , i s n o n -125 d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e S e l f ( a t m a n ) . Gaudapada i n h i s K a r i k a e q u a t e s t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n w i t h t h e p a t h o f kn o w l e d g e ( j n a n a m a r g a ) . The p a t h t o p e r f e c t i o n ( v a i s a r a d y a ) l i e s i n and t h r o u g h j n a n a f o r I g n o r a n c e w h i c h i s t h e r o o t o f a l l t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s and i l l s o f t h e w o r l d c a n be d e s t r o y e d o n l y b y c o r r e c t i v e k n o w l e d g e . Thus k n o w l e d g e — 127 i s h e l d b y Gaudapada t o be t h e d i r e c t means t o r e l e a s e . A g a i n , t h i s j n a n a i s n o t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g b u t t h e d i r e c t p e r s o n a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o r e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h h a s b e e n 1 2 4 M K I I I . 3 3 and I V . 1 . 125 The e x a c t e q u i v a l e n c e may n o t s e e m e p o s s l b f t l e y y e t . t h e r e i s s a i d t o be a r e l a t i o n o f some p r i n c i p l e , s u c h a s C o n s c i o u s n e s s , w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t i s p r e s e n t e v e r y w h e r e as t h e s u b -s t r a t u m o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e . I t I s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i d e n t i t y OJ5 b e i n g on b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a nd u n i v e r s a l l e v e l s . A good summary s t a t e m e n t i s f o u n d i n D e u t s c h , o p . c i t . , p . 6 5 . "The S e l f i s one, i t i s n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m Brahman. T h i s i s t h e c e n t r a l m e t a - r e l i g i o u s o r m e t a - p s y c h o l o g i c a l a f f -i r m a t i o n o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . I t means t h a t man i s e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l ; t h a t i n t h e most p r o f o u n d d i m e n s i o n o f h i s b e i n g he i s no l o n g e r t h e " i n d i v i d u a l " t h a t h e o r d i n a r i l y t a k e s h i m s e l f t o be, b u t t h a t h e i s p r e c i s e l y R e a l i t y i t s e l f . The a f f i r m a -t i o n i s b a s e d n o t on mere s p e c u l a t i o n , b u t upon e x p e r i e n c e s u p p o r t e d b y a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f what we e r r o n e o u s l y t a k e t o be o u r s e l v e s . F o r A d v a i t a , t o a f f i r m o n e s e l f as R e a l i t y i s an a c t o f a f r e e man. The kn o w l e d g e o f n o n - d i f f e r e n c e l e a d s t o freedom, t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f o u r human b e i n g . " 1 2 6 M K IV.94. 127 •^'MK I I I . 3 3 , 38, 47, IV.1, 88, 89, 96 and 99. 190 128 i n d i c a t e d above. T h i s e x i s t e n t i a l g r a s p o f r e a l i t y i s d e s c r i b e d by Gaudapada i n two ways. Upon knowing the t r u t h , the j n a n i , the r e a l i z e d man, becomes one with the Absolute R e a l i t y . T h i s r e f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l dictum, t h a t t o "know" Brahman i s t o "become" Brahman. As such t h i s experience partakes o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o Brahman. Brahman i s s a i d t o be unborn and e t e r n a l (brahma jneyam ajam n i t y a m ) , 1 2 9 non-dual ;(tgdvaya) , homogeneous (sjama) , • a l l - p e r v a d i n g ( v v a p t i ) , X J s e l f - e s t a b l i s h e d ( s v a s t h a ) , 1 3 3 peace ( s a n t a ) , 1 3 4 ever-luminous ( s a k r t - v i b h a t a t ) , i , 1 3 5 all-knowledge (sarvajna) , 1 3 f i f r e e from ~\ 37 l i m i t a t i o n s (akarpanyam), the nature o f supreme happiness 128 That the " o b j e c t " o f knowledge i s s a i d t o be u n r e a l i z -a b l e or unknowable through thought f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s the nec-e s s i t y o f adopting a n o n - r a t i o n a l technique o f p i e r c i n g through the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o experience the n o n - r e l a t i o n a l S u b j e c t . Thus the unique m e d i t a t i v e technique o f Asparsa Yoga. 1 2 9MK II I . 2 , 33, IV.77 and 91-93. 130 MK IV.45 and 77. 1 3 1MK I I I . 2 , 38 and IV.77. 132 s MK III.3 (with Sankara's commentary) e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o akasa. 133 MK I I I . 4 7 . 1 3 4MK III.47 and IV.45. 1 3 5MK III.36, IV.81 and 91-93. 1 3 6MK II I . 3 6 . 137 MK I I I . 2 , IV.81 and 91-93. 191 (sukham anuttamam) and r e l e a s e ( s a n i r v a n a ) . 138 t h o u g h u l t i m a t -e l y Brahman i s r e a l l y s a i d t o be i n d e s c r i b a b l e as i t i s w i t h -p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f l i b e r a t i o n . I t a t t e m p t s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s s u p e r s e n s u o u s and s u p r a m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e i n w h i c h t h e i l l u s o r y n o t i o n s o f name and form, s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , e t c . c o m p l e t e l y d i s a p p e a r . i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p r e s s i o n o f a c o n c r e t e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h c a n become i n t e l l i g i b l e upon f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n . Take t h e c o n c e p t o f " o m n i s c i e n c e " ( s a r v a j n a t a ) as an example h e r e . 1 4 T h i s t e r m i s u s e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e n o r m a l s t a t e o f know-l e d g e o r k n o w i n g n e s s f r o m t h e new c o n d i t i o n o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t . T h i s s t a t e o f o m n i s c i e n c e a c c r u e s o n l y when t h e s a d h a k a h a s t r a n s c e n d e d t h e n a r r o w l i m i t s o f human k n o w l e d g e and h a s i d e n -t i f i e d w i t h h i s Atman. S a r v a j n a i s an a t t r i b u t e . o f Atman o r Brahman. T h i s c o n d i t i o n o f " a l l - k n o w l e d g e " i s t h e "Knowledge A b s o l u t e " o f l a t e r V e d a n t i c w r i t i n g s . I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e s u p e r -c o n s c i o u s c o n d i t i o n , o f t h e S e l f as pure C o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e e t e r n a l W i t n e s s who i s t h e knower o f a l l t h i n g s a t a l l t i m e s ?and i n a l l p l a c e s . The s u c c e s s f u l s e e k e r becomes one w i t h o u t name (ananakam) and f o r m ( a r u p a k a m ) . 139 T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n A l t h o u g h a b s t r a c t , t h e s e t e r m s a r e r e a l l y o n l y t h e 138 MK I I I . 4 7 . 139 MK 1 1 . 3 6 . 140 MK I I I . 4 7 , IV.84, 85 and 89. 192 t h i s upon r e a l i z a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he i s now t h e knower o f a l l t h i n g s p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , i t p u r -p o r t s t h a t t h e e n l i g h t e n e d man " s h a r e s " t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h i s t h e s u b s t r a t u m o f a l l ; k n o w l e d g e . He c o n t i n u o u s l y a b i d e s i n t h a t new c o n d i t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Though p e r -s o n a l , t h i s r e a l m o f e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t e x c l u s i v e t o him, n o r does h e p a r t a k e o f i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y e x c e p t i n t h a t he i s now c o n j o i n e d w i t h i t t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f i t as h i s e s s e n t i a l b e i n g and as t h e v e h i c l e o f a l l k n o w l e d g e . E v e r y f o r m o f e x p e r i e n c e and k n o w l e d g e comes f r o m o r t h r o u g h t h i s C o n s c i o u s -n e s s . I t i s t h i s u n d e r l y i n g e s s e n c e o r g r o u n d upon w h i c h t h e o b j e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e m a n i f e s t . I t i s t h e r e a l b e s t o w e r and p o s s e s s o r o f a l l k n o w l e d g e . The S e l f - r e a l i z e d man e x p e r i e n c e s and c o n s t a n t l y a b i d e s i n t h i s s o u r c e . o f a l l k n o w l e d g e . T h i s f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n i s s a i d t o be p e r m a n e n t and t h e s e e k e r i s n e v e r a g a i n s u b j e c t t o f a l s e k n o w l e d g e o r m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n o f R e a l i t y . T h i s i s why t h e V e d a n t i c t e x t s s t a t e t h a t when Brahman i s known, n o t h i n g e l s e needs t o be known. The s e c o n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f l i b e r a t i o n s u p p l e m e n t s t h e f i r s t one w h i c h e n u m e r a t e s some o f t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f Brahman. I t h e l p s t o g i v e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e p s y c h o - s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s a d h a k a who h a s a t t a i n e d i l l u m i n a t i o n . R e l e a s e means t h e end o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f m i s e r y ( s a m s a r a o r duhkha) and t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f f e a r l e s s n e s s and 193 e t e r n a l p e a c e and b l i s s . 1 4 - ' - T ake " f e a r l e s s n e s s " as an i l l u s -t r a t i o n h e r e as t h e o t h e r s h a v e b e e n p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . I n MK IV.78, Gaudapada d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e s e e k e r a t t a i n s t h e s t a t e o f f e a r l e s s n e s s (abhayam padam) w h i c h i s f r e e f r o m s o r r o w 1 4 0 — and d e s i r e . Gaudapada e m p h a s i z e s f e a r as a b a s i c f a c t o r o f o u r e x i s t e n c e and r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d b e f o r e l i b e r a t i o n . T h i s u s e o f " f e a r " as a b a s i c c o n c e p t e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e bound c o n d i t i o n o f man i s u p a n s a d i c i n o r i g i n . Gaudapada q u o t e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r a g a - b h a y a - k r o d h a f o r m u l a in.MK 11.35 f o r ex a m p l e . I n one o f h i s m a i n v e r s e s c o n c e r n i n g A s p a r s a Yoga, MK I I I . 3 9 , he e m p h a t i c a l l y r e l a t e s t h i s i d e a o f " f e a r " t o i n d i v i d u a l i t y o r t h e e g o - s e n s e and a l l o f i t s c o n c o m i t a n t p r o b l e m s . F e a r i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s g r e a t e s t enemy as i t mars 143 e v e r y a s p e c t o f one's l i f e . The c o n d i t i o n o f fre e d o m , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s t h a t o f Brahman d e s c r i b e d as a s t a t e o r c o n d i t i o n o f " f e a r l e s s n e s s . " The e n l i g h t e n e d man becomes 1 4 1 M K I.10, 29, I I I . 4 0 and 47. 142 A l s o m e n t i o n e d i n MK 1.25. 143 " I n e n j o y m e n t , t h e r e i s t h e f e a r o f d i s e a s e ; i n s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , t h e f e a r o f f a l l i n g - o f f ; i n w e a l t h , t h e f e a r o f h o s t i l e k i n g s ; i n h o n o u r , t h e f e a r o f h u m i l i a t i o n ; i n power, t h e f e a r o f foemen; i n b e a u t y , t h e f e a r o f o l d age; i n s c r i p -t u r a l e r u d i t i o n , t h e f e a r o f opponents;, i n v i r t u e , t h e f e a r o f t r a d u c e r s ; i n body, t h e f e a r o f d e a t h . A l l t h i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d p e r t a i n i n g t o man a r e a t t e n d e d w i t h f e a r ; r e n u n c i a t i o n a l o n e s t a n d s f o r f e a r l e s s n e s s . " ( B h a r t a h a r i , V a i r a g y a - S a t a k a m , v e r s e 3 1 ) . F e a r i s n o t t a k e n i n i t s l i m i t e d s e n s e o f t h e e m o t i o n c a l l e d f r i g h t b u t i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l o f man's a g i t a t i o n s , d e s i r e s , p a s s i o n s and hopes w h e r e i n f r u s t r a t i o n o r l o s s c a n o c c u r . 194 f e a r l e s s , h a v i n g no d e s i r e s and n o t h i n g t o l o s e . B e i n g t h u s h e a l s o f i n d s p e a c e and b l i s s as s u f f e r i n g and p a i n h a s b e e n o v e r c o m e . T h i s i s t h e p s y c h o - s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f bound man i n t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f f r e e d o m . The l i b e r a t e d man s e e s and e x p e r i e n c e s b o t h h i m s e l f and t h e w o r l d d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n b e f o r e . A t r a n s v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s h a s o c c u r r e d . The j n a n i u n d e r g o e s an a x i o - n o e t i c c h a n g e w h e r e i n t h e s e l f ( s u b j e c t ) and t h e w o r l d ( o b j e c t ) a r e no l o n g e r v a l u e d as b e f o r e . T h e y i n f a c t a r e s a i d t o l o s e t h e i r v a l u e e n t i r e l y as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . The S e l f i s r e a l -i z e d a s one and n o n - d i f f e r e n t f r o m Brahman and o n l y t h i s c a n now be g i v e n t h e h i g h e s t v a l u a t i o n . A l l e l s e a p p e a r s s h a l l o w and f a l s e when s e e n i n t h i s l i g h t . Thus t h e w o r l d s e e n d u a l -i s t i c a l l y i s t o t a l l y d e v a l u e d . T h a t i s why Gaudapada u s e s t h e e x p r e s s i o n s o f dream, i l l u s i o n , e t c . t o i n d i c a t e and d e s c r i b e t h e w o r l d now s e e n f r o m t h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e . He s p e a k s f r o m t h e h i g h e s t v i e w p o i n t ( p a r a m a r t h a s a t y a ) and as s u c h h e c l a s s -i f i e s t h e d u a l w o r l d as u n r e a l when compared t o t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e R e a l i t y w h i c h i s one w i t h o u t a s e c o n d . The w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e i s . b u t a dream f o r t h e j f t a n i w h i l e i t r e m a i n s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a l i t y f o r a l l o t h e r s . Gaudapada u s e s t h e c o n -v e n t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t e a c h i n g and r a i s i n g t h e i g n o r a n t t o s u c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t i s n o t h i s p u r p o s e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d o c t r i n e o f maya as t h e f i n a l t r u t h b u t t o l e a d t h e mind o f t h e a s p i r a n t t o t h e k n o w l e d g e o f Brahman, t h e 195 non-dual r e a l i t y . 1 4 4 The world i s s u b l a t e d (badha) as the l a t e r t r a d i t i o n terms i t . T h i s i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the c e s s a t i o n ( n i r v r t t i ) o f the world. In the former the process i s l i k e the overcoming o f the rope-snake i l l u s i o n where n o t h i n g i s transformed i n the overcoming o f the cosmic i l l u s i o n o f the Brahman-world d i s t i n c t i o n . The change which i s brought about i s o n l y i n the o u t l o o k and not i n the o b j e c t i t s e l f . The change i n the r e a l i z a t i o n o f l i b e r a t i o n i s o n l y e p i s t e m i c and not o n t o l o g i c a l . I t i s not the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o a new realm o f experience, but r a t h e r i t i n v o l v e s a t r a n s v a l u a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g one. I t i s not an attainment, nor a m o d i f i c a t i o n , nor a p r o d u c t i o n de novo but r a t h e r a d i s c o v e r y of an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n t t h r o u g h the removal of p r i m e v a l i g n o r a n c e . 1 4 5 Though t h i s appears t o be a form of s p i r i t u a l n e g a t i o n 1 4 4 " D o e s Vedanta r e a l l y ask us t o negate the world? Does i t r e a l l y t e ach us t o negate the e x i s t i n g o b j e c t s ? A student o f the K a r i k a w i l l a t once r e a l i z e t h a t there i s n o t h i n g t o be negated or added. That which e x i s t s can never be n o n - e x i s t e n t . Brahman alone i s e x i s t e n t on account o f i t s p e r s i s t e n c e i n a l l a c t s o f c o g n i t i o n . Names, forms and r e l a t i o n s are i l l u s o r y on account o f t h e i r c h a n g e a b i l i t y and n e g a t a b i l i t y . Vedanta teaches us to r e a l i z e the world as Brahman and then be one w i t h i t . Vedanta teaches us t o see Brahman everywhere even i n the s o - c a l l e d i l l u s i o n . An i l l u s i o n can never be r e a l and i t i s p e r c e i v e d on account o f our ignorance. A V e d a n t i s t does not negate the world which, being Brahman, can never be negated, I t o n l y asks the student t o know the r e a l nature o f the world." Swami Ni k h i l a n a n d a , o p . c i t . , p . x x x i . 145 _ T h i s i s suggested c o n s i s t e n t l y by Gaudapada. An example of t h i s can be found i n MK IV.91-95. 196 i n i t s d e n i a l and d e v a l u a t i o n i t i s r e a l l y t h e u l t i m a t e i n a f f i r m a t i o n . I t woul d i n d e e d be n e g a t i v e i f i t o n l y s a i d t h a t t h e w o r l d d i d n o t e x i s t , b u t i n s t e a d i t i s a p o s i t i v e o r i e n -t a t i o n as i t a f f i r m s t h e a l l - c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e n o n - d u a l A b s o l u t e . The atman i s n o t a n n i h i l a t e d when t h e t h r e e s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e s a i d t o c e a s e t o e x i s t . The s e e k e r comes t o r e a l i z e t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e S e l f and a l s o how t h e whol e u n i v e r s e f o l l o w s f r o m and i s s u s t a i n e d b y t h i s a b s o l u t e . To s e e e v e r y t h i n g and e v e r y b o d y as t h e one Brahman i m p l i e s a p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n n o t e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e m a n i f o l d u n i v e r s e w h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e d u a l c o n c e p t i o n o f s e p a r a t e n e s s and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Thus t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e i n d i c a t i n g t h e n o n - u l t i m a c y o f mundane r e a l i t y , a f f i r m s t h e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e o f R e a l i t y as t h e S e l f (atman) o r Brahman. The i n d i v i d u a l who u n d e r g o e s t h i s t r a n s f o r m i n g e x p e r -i e n c e o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t and becomes a " l i b e r a t e d man" i s c a l l e d a "knower" ( j n a n i ) , t h o u g h Gaudapada u s e s many synonymous t e r m s t o i n d i c a t e t h i s i d e a . The l i b e r a t e d man i s r e f e r r e d t o as a manis i n (man o f w i s d o m ) , 1 4 6 a buddha ( e n l i g h t e n e d m a n ) , 1 4 7 a d h l r a (man o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ) , 1 4 8 a v i d v a n ( k n o w e r ) , 1 4 9 a 1 4 6 M K IV.54 . 1 4 7 M K IV.80 and 99. 1 4 8 M K 1.28. 149 MK IV.87 . 197 bra*hmana (knower o f Brahman) ,150 and muni (sage) .151 T h i s muni i s a r e n u n c i a t e , a c o n t e m p l a t i v e p e r s o n , w e l l v e r s e d i n t h e V e d i c l i t e r a t u r e and i t s p r o f o u n d t e a c h -i n g s . He i s s a i d t o be u n a f f l i c t e d by d e s i r e , f e a r and 1 52 a n g e r . As a mendxcant, o r man o f s e l f - r e s t r a i n t he i s above a l l p r a i s e and s a l u t a t i o n , h a s no u s e f o r p r a y e r s t o d e i t i e s n o r t h e s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g s t o t h e a n c e s t o r s ( p i t r s ) and o t h e r r i t u a l s , n o r ne e d he f o l l o w t h e v i d h i ( i n j u n c t i o n s ) o r n i s e d h a ( p r o h i b i t i o n s ) r u l e s . H i s o n l y s u p p o r t s s h o u l d be t h e u n c h a n g i n g Atman and t h e e v e r - c h a n g e f u l b o d y - v e h i c l e . As s u c h h e s t a y s o r wanders a t w i l l b e i n g d e p e n d e n t on c i r c u m -153 s t a n c e f o r h i s p h y s i c a l n e e d s . To t h e w o r l d h e a p p e a r s as n o r m a l o r d u l l - w i t t e d ( j a d a v a t ) as he does n o t l e t o t h e r s know what h e h a s beco m e . - ^ 4 T h i s i s t h e n a t u r a l m o d e s t y and 1 5 0 M K IV.85 and 86. 1 5 1 M K 1.29, 11.35 and 36. 1 52** - L D^MKXII.35 1 5 3 M K 11.37. x 5 4 M K 11.36. The t e r m j a d a v a t l i t e r a l l y means d u l l , s e n s e -l e s s , s t u p i d , i r r a t i o n a l , u n i n t e l l i g e n t o r i n a n i m a t e . I t u s -u a l l y r e f e r s t o a p e r s o n who i s d u l l - w i t t e d , s i m p l e - m i n d e d , o r i d i o t i c . O f t e n s u c h a d e s i g n a t i o n i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a r e a l -i z e d b e i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i m fr o m o t h e r men. I t c a n r e f e r t o h i s s e e m i n g l y u n c o n v e n t i o n a l i d e a s and b e h a v i o u r w h i c h r e f l e c t s h i s new c o n d i t i o n on one e x t r e m e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Or, on t h e o t h e r h a n d as S*ankara s u g g e s t s i n t h e commentary, i t r e f e r s t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h o u g h t h e S e l f - r e a l i z e d man i s d i f f e r e n t h e a b i d e s w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y o f o t h e r men-who i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e l i b e r a t e d c o n d i t i o n a r e r a t h e r j a d a - l i k e . L i v i n g i n t h i s f a s h i o n t h e ' s a g e does n o t f l a u n t h i s new u n d e r s t a n d i n g b u t a p p e a r s l i k e a l l o t h e r s when m i x i n g i n s o c i e t y . 198 conduct o f a brahmana (knower o f Brahman). ' Con t i n u o u s l y m e d i t a t i n g on and then a b i d i n g i n t h a t n o n - d u a l i t y , the sage r e a l i z e s the t r u t h o f the S e l f and the world . The S e l f i s beyond a l l thought c o n s t r u c t i o n s , ever f r e e and non-dual and the world i s seen t o be f r e e from the v a r i e -gated d i v e r s i t y o f the phenomenal world (prapancopas^ama) .155 Thus r e a l i z i n g the t r u t h inward and outward he remains unmoved from i t . Becoming i d e n t i f i e d with t h a t R e a l i t y he t h e r e a f t e r d e r i v e s h i s p l e a s u r e s from i t alone and takes care t o see t h a t he does not d e v i a t e from t h a t u n t i l h i s body comes t o an e n d . x 5 ^ T h i s i s the dynamic s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n o f ji v a n m u k t i ( l i b e r a t i o n w h i l e a l i v e ) , 1 5 7 Gaudapada says t h a t the l i b e r -i a t e d man does not r e v e r t t o the d u a l plane o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The i d e a here i s t h a t those who have r e a l i z e d t h i s s t a t e o f consciousness are never a g a i n s u b j e c t t o f a l s e knowledge which i s d e s c r i b e d f u r t h e r as the misapprehension o f R e a l i t y . 1 5 8 In p r a c t i c a l terms t h i s means t h a t the r e a l i z e d man upon r e t u r n t o the f i e l d o f a c t i v e l i f e i n the t h r e e s t a t e s o f consciousness i s not a f f e c t e d by the w o r l d - p l a y around him. F i r m l y e s t a b -155 MK 11.35. 1 5 6MK 11.38. 157 T h i s term i s not used i n the t e x t but i n d i c a t e d i n MK 1.5, 11.35-38, IV.85-86 and 89. This i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by the term jadavat i n 11.36. 1 5 8MK IV.46. 159 MK 1.5. 199 l i s h e d i n h i s own S e l f , s e r e n e and c o n f i d e n t , f i l l e d w i t h b l i s s , p o s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h and power, he e n j o y s l i f e b u t i s c o m p l e t e l y d e t a c h e d . W h i l e t h e o r d i n a r y man i s t o s s e d h i t h e r and t h i t h e r b y t h e p l a y o f o p p o s i t e s and t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e f i n i t e s e l f , h e i s unmoved by t h e s e and. i s n o t i n v o l v e d on a p e r s o n a l ego l e v e l . B e c a u s e h i s e g o - hood h a s b e e n subdued i n h i m and r e p l a c e d , as i t were, by h i s t r u e S e l f w i t h w h i c h he i s now i d e n t i f i e d , t h e w o r l d no l o n g e r t o u c h e s h i m . x 0 ^ He e x p e r i e n c e s t h e w o r l d f r o m a c o n d i t i o n o f p e r f e c t d e t a c h m e n t w h i c h Gaudapada s a y s i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e n a t u r a l h u m i l i t y and t r a n q u i l i t y o f t h e n o n - d u a l a w a k e n i n g . 1 ^ 1 The l i b e r a t e d man i s n a t u r a l l y r e s t r a i n e d o r s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and a t p e a c e as h e p a r t a k e s o f t h e e q u i p o i s e o f Brahman w i t h w h i c h he i s f i r m l y i d e n t i f i e d and e s t a b l i s h e d . 1 ^ 2 B e i n g f a r i g o r o u s n o n - d u a l i s t , Gaudapada m a i n t a i n s t h a t o n ce l i b e r a t i o n i s a t t a i n e d t h e r e i s i n e f f e c t no a c t o r , no - 1 £%C\ T h i s i s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i t i o n e r o f Asparsa Y o g a irifrMK I I I . 3 8 and I V . 2 . 1 6 1 M K I V . 8 6 . "162 / The d e s i g n a t i o n o f sama ( p e a c e f u l n e s s ) and dama ( s e l f -c o n t r o l ) h e r e r e s e m b l e s t h e l i s t o f t h e s a t - s a m p a t t i ( s i x a t t -a i n m e n t s ) o f l a t e r V e d a n t a w h i c h GaudapSda h a s i n d i c a t e d b o t h h e r e and i n o t h e r v e r s e s . T h e s e s i x a r e : ssama ( m e n t a l t r a n -q u i l i t y ) , dama ( r e s t r a i n t ) , u p a r a t i ( d i s p a s s i o n ) , t i t i k s a ( e n -d u r a n c e ) , samSdhana ( i n t e n t n e s s o f mind) and s'raddha' ( f a i t h ) . T h i s l i s t i s one o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o u r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e s v i v e k a ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) , v a i r a g y a ( r e n u n c i a t i o n ) and mumuksutva ( d e s i r e f o r l i b e r a t i o n ) . 200 a c t i o n , n o r o b j e c t t o be a c t e d u p o n . T h i s i s t h e l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n f r o m s u c h a p r e m i s e . B u t h e does i n d i c a t e i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e j i v a n m u k t i c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e e m a n c i p a t e d i z e d as f o l l o w s : I t i s p o s s i b l e t o do any work w h i c h a l w a y s i m p l i e s t h e t r i a d o f p e r c e i v e r , p e r c e i v e d , and p e r c e p t i o n , i f one be e s t a b l i s h e d i n n o n - d u a l Brahman? The i d e a may i n v o l v e a l o g i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n , b u t t h i s p o s i t i o n c a n be f u l l y j u s t i f i e d f r o m t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l o r r a t h e r , p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . One p u r s u i n g T r u t h d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y , when once e s t a b -l i s h e d i n T r u t h , c a n s e e t h i s w o r l d o f m u l t i p l i c i t y and a t t h e same t i m e know i t t o be t h e n o n - d u a l Brahman. p u r e , f r e e , and e v e r - i l l u m i n e d . A Knower o f T r u t h may move and a c t i n t h e w o r l d l i k e an o r d i n -a r y man. He f e e l s h u n g r y and t h i r s t y . He goes t o s l e e p when t i r e d . He f e e l s c o m p a s s i o n f o r t h e m i s e r y o f o t h e r s and t r i e s h i s u t m o s t t o a l l e v i a t e i t ; b u t a t t h e same t i m e h e s e e s e v e r y w h e r e t h e n o n - d u a l Brahman a l o n e , e v e r - f r e e and e v e r - p u r e . T h i s i s a new mode o f l i v i n g . I t i s a n o n - a c t i o n o r n o n -e g o c e n t r i c l i v i n g ; a l i v i n g and d o i n g w i t h o u t d e s i r e . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be done as t h e r e e x i s t s no d o e r . Y e t t h i s mer-e l y means t h a t there.f.is no d o e r i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s e n s e w h i l e a c t i o n i s b e i n g d o n e . E v e r y w i s h , c r a v i n g , d e s i r e , a l l hope and f e a r h a v e been d e s t r o y e d f f o r t h e l i b e r a t e d man. As — 16 5 Gaudapada s a y s , "what c a n he d e s i r e who has e v e r y t h i n g ? " F o r t h e r e i s s a i d t o be no d e s i r e r n o r o b j e c t o f d e s i r e when o n e n e s s w i t h Brahman i s r e a l i z e d . Thus Gaudapada d e s c r i b e s man does a c t , t h o u g h i n a new way. 163 T h i s p o i n t i s summar-163 MK 11.32, t h e n 1.9 and I V . 8 5 . 164 Swami N i k h i l a n a n d a , o p . c i t p . x x x . 165 MK 1.9. 201 t h e c o n d i t i o n o f S e l f - R e a l i z a t i o n w h i c h a c c r u e s f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l a s p i r a n t upon b e c o m i n g a t r u e A s p a r s a - y o g i n . In c o n c l u s i o n , Gaudapada s e t s o u t a c o m p l e t e s p i r i t u a l r e g i m e w i t h i n t h e p i t h y s t a t e m e n t s o f h i s Mandukya K a r i k a . T a k e n o u t o f t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i n t i m a t e g u r u - s ^ i s y a ( p r e c e p t o r -d i s c i p l e ) r e l a t i o n s h i p t h i s t e x t needs t o be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s c h e m a t i c f a s h i o n where t h e a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f human l i f e , man's a s p i r a t i o n s , and t h e d e t a i l e d p a t h o f s a d h a n a a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d . Once t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , Gaudapada's t e x t c a n be s e e n and v a l u e d as i t i s w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . T h e r e i t i s h i g h l y r e g a r d e d as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e and p a r t i c u l a r l y as a p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g t e x t . B o t h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s a r e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and t h i s p u r p o s e h a s been g i v e n p r o m i n a n c e . T h r o u g h t h i s u l t i m a t e c o n c e r n t h e d i s p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e t e x t a r e u n i f i e d i n t o a c o h e s i v e whole and t h e r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l d i m e n -s i o n o f t h e Mandukya K a r i k a i s c l e a r l y s e e n . 202 CHAPTER V I I THE SYNTHESIS OF PHILOSOPHY OF PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION IN GAUDAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA • S-5 Gaudapada's Mandukya K a r i k a h as b e e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c -t i v e o f h i s t e a c h i n g s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f Gaudapada's p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g s u n d e r t h i s p u r p o s e . F i r s t , t h e i n t e g r a l u n i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s components o f t h e s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d . The c o n c e p t o f t o u c h , c o n t a c t , c o n n e c t i o n a n d r e l a t i o n w i l l be u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h i s u n i f i c a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , a summary c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s work w i l l be g i v e n . 1. THE INTEGRAL UNITY OF GAUDAPADA'S MANDUYKA KARIKA The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t work h a s b e e n t o p o i n t o u t t h e e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n and p u r p o s e o f Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g s as e s p o u s e d i n t h e Mandukya K a r i k a . The t e r m " t e a c h i n g s " i s u s e d h e r e t o i n d i c a t e t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e l i g i o -s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s t e x t . F o r t h e t e x t embodies s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e I n d i a n s o t e r i o l o g i c a l q u e s t . P h i l o s o p h y , m e t a p h y s i c s , e p i s t e m o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y and r e l i g i o n a r e a l l b l e n d e d u n d e r t h i s e s s e n t i a l c o n c e r n . I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , any component can be i s o l a t e d a nd g i v e n p r o m i n a n c e . T h i s h as b e e n 203 done by s c h o l a r s who i n g e n e r a l have p a r t i c u l a r l y i s o l a t e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f Gaudapada's t h o u g h t t o t h e r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t o f h i s m e t a - p s y c h o l o g y , t h e r e l i g i o -s p i r i t u a l q u e s t and t h e means a d v o c a t e d t o a c t u a l i z e t h i s . The p r e s e n t work has f o c u s e d on t h e s e l a t e r a s p e c t s o f t h e t e x t i n an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e n a t u r e o f Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g s as w e l l as t o f u l f i l l t h e n e e d o f f u l l y d e s c r i b i n g t h i s m a t e r -i a l w h i c h p r o v i d e s a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f Gaudapada and h i s Mandukya K a r i k a . 1 Though t h e s e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e x t c a n be s e p a r a t e d , t h e y a r e q u i t e i n t e r - r e l a t e d a nd r e c i p r o c a l l y i n f l u e n c e e a c h o t h e r . I t i s b e c a u s e o f t h i s t h a t t h e m a j o r c a t e g o r i c a l c o n -c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n a r e s t a t e d t o be i n t e r - t w i n e d . T h i s p r e m i s e has b e e n summarized i n C h a p t e r I I I above, t h e r e m a n i n d e r o f t h i s work b e i n g t h e d e t a i l e d e x p l i c a -t i o n o f t h i s i n a s p e c i f i c a u t h o r and t e x t w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . T h i s s y s t e m i s s e e n t o be a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , an e n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f Brahman w h i c h i s r e g a r d e d as U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y and a s e a r c h f o r t h e p a t h f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f Brahman r e g a r d e d as t h e h i g h e s t g o a l o f T h i s mode o f e n q u i r y has b e e n e n d o r s e d i n C o n i o , o p . c i t . , p. 158: "We have t h e r e f o r e t o e x p l o r e Gaudapada's v a r i o u s r e l i -g i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s , so as t o i n t e r p r e t h i s t h o u g h t t h o r o u g h l y . I n s p i t e o f t h e c o m p o s i t e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e K a r i k a s , a u n i f i c a -t i o n o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y , b e s i d e s t h e one made by S'ankara i n h i s b h a s y a f r o m a m e t a p h y s i c a l a n g l e , may a l s o be made f r u i t f u l l y f r o m t h e r e l i g i o u s - m y s t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . " 204 l i f e . The knowledge o f t h e u n i t y o f Atman-Brahman i s t h e a i m o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t and t h e g o a l o f s p i r i t u a l a t t a i n m e n t i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a as a w h o l e and i n Gaudapada as a p a r t i c u l a r example o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n . T h e s e two a r e b u t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e same a t t e m p t a t r e a l i z i n g t h e h i g h e s t e n d o f l i f e . P h i l o s o p h y f o r m s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e o f r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e w h e r e a s r e l i g i o n makes p o s s i b l e t h e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . E a c h one i s l o o k i n g a t t h e same p r o b l e m , t h a t o f moksa, f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s and i n t h a t s e n s e e a c h h a s a d i f f e r e n t and d i s -t i n c t f u n c t i o n . The r e a l b i f u r c a t i o n o f n o t o n l y p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n , b u t o f t h e more m i n u t e e l e m e n t s o f m e t a p h y s i c s , e p i s t e m o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y and r e l i g i o n a r e n o t f o u n d i n Gaudapada's work t o any g r e a t e x t e n t and i t i s o n l y i n t h e l a t e r more d e v e l o p e d t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e s e a r e e x p r e s s l y i s o -l a t e d and p r e c i s e l y d e t e r m i n e d . I n t h e Mandukya K a r i k a t h e y a r e s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e work and c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r when n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e a p o i n t o r argument. Much o f t h e d e t a i l o f e a c h e l e m e n t i s m e r e l y assumed when r e a d i n g t h e t e x t and y e t e a c h e l e m e n t c a n be d i s c r i m i n a t e d and t r e a t e d 2 s e p a r a t e l y when t h e s i t u a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d i s d i s c e r n e d . The d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e and f u n c t i o n s o f e a c h have b e e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : p h i l o s o p h y and meta-p h y s i c s i n C h a p t e r s I I I and IV, e p i s t e m o l o g y i n C h a p t e r I I I , p s y c h o l o g y i n C h a p t e r V, and t h e r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t s i n C h a p t e r s I I I a n d VI i n p a r t i c u l a r . 205 Gaudapada's m e t a p h y s i c i s p r e s u p p o s e d i n t h e t e x t , d r a w i n g t h e t e a c h i n g s f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l and U p a n i s a d i c s o u r c e s . He assumes t h e t r u t h o f t h e Brahman-Atman i d e n t i t y and i t s e q u a t i o n w i t h T u r i y a . T h i s T r u t h o r R e a l i t y i s s a i d t o be n o n - d u a l ( a d v a i t a ) , a p r i n c i p l e w h i c h he p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and l o g i c a l l y t r e a t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . The A b s o l u t e c a n be i n d i c a t e d i n no o t h e r way f o r i t i s i n d e s c r i b a b l e i n any known way. I t i s i n d e t e r m i n a b l e as i t b o t h encompasses e v e r y t h i n g a n d goes b e y o n d e v e r y t h i n g known. Though i t i s s e e m i n g l y s o i n e f f a b l e i t i s s a i d t o r e m a i n as t h e o n l y t r u e r e a l i t y . Once t h i s i s known, t h a t w h i c h i s e x p e r i e n c e d p h e n o m e n a l l y as t h e m u l t i p l e u n i v e r s e i s s e e n t o be m e r e l y t h e p l a y o f t h e p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e s , t h e d e l u s o r y o r r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y o f maya. The h i g h e s t e x p e r i e n c e o f R e a l i t y ( p a r a m a r t h a s a t y a ) i s a v y a v a h a r y a , i e , n o n - r e l a t i v e , b e y o n d e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s and c o n v e n t i o n a l d e a l i n g s . I t i s n o t d e p e n d e n t on, n o r r e l a t e d t o a n y t h i n g , t o t h e o t h e r t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d . I t i s l i t e r a l l y u n a t t a c h e d t o , o r u n t o u c h e d b y , d u a l e x i s t e n c e . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g bound i n t h e v a c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e d u a l w o r l d , e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e e n d -l e s s r o u n d o f s a m s a r a and i t s e s s e n t i a l duhkha ( f r u s t r a t i o n , s u f f e r i n g and p a i n ) , t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h i s e s s e n t i a l B e i n g i s s a i d t o e x p e r i e n c e and a b i d e i n t r u e f r e e d o m (moksa), p e a c e and b l i s s . T h i s n o n - d u a l R e a l i t y i s t r e a t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y by Gaudapada i n h i s arguments c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f a j a t i v a d a 206 ( n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n ) . R e a l i t y known v a r i o u s l y as Atman, Brahman, T u r i y a , and c i t t a i s s t a t e d t o be b i r t h l e s s and i n no way g i v e n t o m a n i f e s t a t i o n e x c e p t t h r o u g h maya. T h i s i n v o l v e s a c r i t i q u e o f c a u s a l i t y and an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s o f t h e d u a l i s t i c a l l y c o n c e i v e d u n i v e r s e . To t h i s Gaudapada t u r n s h i s k e e n m i n d and makes an o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u -t i o n w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f p h i l o s o p h y w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e k e e p i n g i t s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e i n v i e w . I n t h e a r e a o f e p i s t e m o l o g y Gaudapada i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n h i s t o t a l s y s t e m . He g i v e s s c r i p t u r e ( s r u t i ) and t r a d i t i o n a l k nowledge (s^abda) a h i g h p l a c e as v a l i d s o u r c e s o f knowledge e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s m e t a p h y s i c s . He u s e s t h e s e p l u s t h e commonly a c c e p t e d pramanas o f p e r c e p t i o n ( p r a t y a k s a ) and i n f e r e n c e (anumana) i n h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o r t i o n s . And f i n a l l y a l l o f t h e s e a r e d i s v a l u e d as p a r o k s a o r m e d i a t e k n owledge when compared t o a n u b h u t i o r anubhava, d i r e c t p e r -s o n a l i n t u i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s r e a l j n a n a , k n o w l e d g e . I t i s Atma- o r B r a h m a - v i d y a , t h e knowledge o r r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t r u t h t h a t i s t h e S e l f o r U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . T h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y a s p e c t i s s a i d t o be e x p e r i e n t i a l l y b a s e d . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e Gaudapada i n t r o d u c e s t h e i d e a o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) as a n o t h e r v e h i c l e f o r e x a m i n i n g h i s p r o p o s i t i o n s . M i n d o r C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s shown t o have d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o r modes o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s c o n c e p t t h a t Gaudapada b r i n g s h i s l o f t y m e t a p h y s i c 207 t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e . F o r he e l a b o r a t e s a m e t a - p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h he u t i l i z e s t o a i d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n o f b o t h t h e s e a s p e c t s . Con-s c i o u s n e s s i s c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h e b a s i c a s p e c t s o r modes o f t h e o u t w a r d o r o b j e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e w a k i n g s t a t e , t h e i n n e r o r s u b j e c t i v e s p h e r e o f t h e dream and a l i k e s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e u n - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f deep s l e e p - l i k e s t a t e s , and t h e c o n d i t i o n o f p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h u n d e r l i e s and y e t t r a n s c e n d s t h e s e o t h e r t h r e e s t a t e s . T h i s l a t t e r c o n -d i t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d and d e f i n e d c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h i n Gaudapada's s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t . Gaudapada e x p a n d s t h i s i n t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y w h i c h becomes t h e b a s i s o f t h e m e d i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e w h i c h he p r o p o s e s . He e q u a t e s P u r e C o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h t h e " u n b o r n " m i n d w h i c h he c a l l s amanastam a n d a m a n i b h a v a, "non-mind". T h i s h i g h e s t c o n d i t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s l y i n t e r m s o f t h e q u i e t u d e o f t h e mind, i t s m o t i o n l e s s n e s s , i t s s t e a d i n e s s , e q u i -p o i s e o r e q u i l i b r i u m . The m i n d c e a s e s t o have t h e q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i s c u r s i v e mind. T h e r e i s s a i d t o be no a g i t a t i o n , no i m a g i n a t i o n , n o r t h i n k i n g . I t " t u r n s b a c k " f r o m t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e d u a l w o r l d and t h u s h a v i n g no r e l a t i o n w i t h d u a l i t y i s i s s a i d t o be i n a c o n d i t i o n o f "sameness" o r "non-d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " (samya). The s u b s t r a t e C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n i t s f u l l n e s s . R a t h e r t h a n a u n i o n w i t h t h e o b j e c t s o f d u a l e x p e r i e n c e i t i s a mergence w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s a s t a t e o f " s e l f - c o g n i t i o n " w h e r e i n 208 t h e mind s t a n d s c o g n i z i n g i t s own e s s e n c e . R e s t i n g i n i t s e l f i t becomes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e n o n - d u a l Brahman and i s t h u s l i b e r a t e d . M e d i t a t i v e l y t h i s i s a u n i q u e c o n d i t i o n o f " s t i l l a w a r e n e s s " q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s -n e s s . I t i s c a l l e d n i r v i k a l p a s a madhi f r o m t h i s r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s i s t h e e s t e e m e d e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h Gaudapada terms A s p a r s a Yoga. T h i s i s h i s d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e u n i q u e n o n - d u a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n t o b o t h t h e means and t h e g o a l o f t h e s p i r i t u a l q u e s t . I n t h e Mandukya K a r i k a i t becomes t h e p i v o t a l c o n c e p t o f h i s s o t e r o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n . The i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s c a n be e a s i l y s e e n w i t h i n e a c h p r a k a r a n a . A number o f k e y v e r s e s f r o m any one o f t h e p r a k a r a n a s c o u l d be s e l e c t e d and when t a k e n t o g e t h e r w o u l d i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n t e g r a l u n i t y o f t h e Mandukya K a r i k a w i t h i n Gaudapada's s o t e r i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n . T h i s , f o r e xample, can be done w i t h t h e v e r s e s f r o m t h e t h i r d p r a k a r a n a g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x I o r b y u s i n g t h e v e r s e s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e f o u r t h p r a k a r a n a g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x I I . T h e s e l a t t e r v e r s e s w i l l be u s e d h e r e t o b r i e f l y document t h i s p o i n t . E a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o r p e r s p e c t i v e s w i l l be shown t o be i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t o f t o u c h , c o n t a c t , c o n n e c t i o n o r r e l a t i o n . From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f m e t a p h y s i c s , Brahman, Atman, o r T u r i y a i s s t a t e d t o be a v y a v a h a r a , b e y o n d r e l a t i o n s o r e m p i r i c a l 209 c o n n e c t i o n s . J I t s o t r a n s c e n d s t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t a l l t h a t can be p r e d i c a t e d o f i t i s i t s e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e as n o n - d u a l i t y 4 ( a d v a y a o r a d v a i t a ) . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , t h i s a b s o l u t e i s s a i d t o be a j a , unbo r n o r b i r t h l e s s as i t t r a n s c e n d s r e l a t i v e o r d e p e n d e n t c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n s o r r e l a t i o n s . E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , t h e h i g h e s t knowledge ( j n a n a ) w h i c h i s n o t m e d i a t e i s s t a t e d t o be n o n - r e l a t i o n a l s i n c e i t h a s no o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n as i t does n o t r e a c h o u t o r e x t e n d t o o b j e c t s (na k r a m a t e ) . ^ I t i s c o m p l e t e l y a s a n g a ( u n a t t a c h e d ) . C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) i n i t s t r u e s t a t e , f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f Gaudapada's m e t a - p s y c h o l o g y , i s s a i d t o be n o n - d u a l ( a d v a y a ) , b i r t h l e s s ( a j a ) , and u n a t t a c h e d 7 / ( a s a n g a o r n i h s a n g a ) . I t h a s no c o n t a c t (na s p r s a t i o r n a s 8 s a m s p r s a t i ) w i t h e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s i n a l l t h e t h r e e s t a t e s . Gaudapada's s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e o r d i s c i p l i n e i s named A s p a r s a  Yoga, w h i c h a g a i n r e f l e c t s t h i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l g o a l o r h i g h e s t 3MUp 12. 4 MK IV.100. D u a l i t y i s p a r t i a l l y d e f i n e d i n MK. IV.7 as t h e i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n two t h i n g s w h i c h i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s t h e s u b j e c t a n d o b j e c t . 5MK IV.77-78, 83-84 a n d 100. 6MK IV.96 and 99. 7MK IV.28, 72, 77, 79 and 80. N o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h a s a n g a means n o n - a t t a c h e d , t h i s i s t h e n e g a t i o n o f s a n g a w h i c h has c o n n o t a t i o n s and meanings s i m i l a r t o t h e t e r m Yoga. I t s u g g e s t s a j o i n i n g , a c o m i n g t o g e t h e r , o r a u n i o n . I t a l s o means t o u c h o r c o n t a c t . F u r t h e r i t c o n n o t e s f r i e n d l i n e s s , f o n d n e s s and o u t -r i g h t a t t a c h m e n t t o w o r l d l y t i e s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s . MK IV.26 and 27. 210 c o n d i t i o n as b e i n g u n t o u c h e d , c o n t a c t l e s s , o r f r e e f r o m r e l a -9 t i o n s h x p s . The p r a c t i c e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o r method o f Aspars'a Yoga l e a d s t h e s e e k e r t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f l i b e r a t i o n w h i c h Gaudapada c a l l s t h e s t a t e o f f e a r l e s s n e s s ( a b h a y a ) . Gaudapada u s e s t h e s e k e y words t o d e s c r i b e t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h r o u g h t h e c o n -c e p t o f t o u c h , c o n t a c t , c o n n e c t i o n o r r e l a t i o n d e s i g n a t e d by t h e use o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t e r m s , he i n d i c a t e s t h e i n t e g r a l u n i t y o f h i s work as a w h o l e . Though s e e m i n g l y s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t s w i t h d i f f e r i n g f u n c t i o n s , t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f meta-p h y s i c s , p h i l o s o p h y , e p i s t e m o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , r e l i g i o n a nd s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e a l l come t o g e t h e r when t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e t e x t a r e compared and f o u n d t o be s i m i l a r i n m e a n i n g and i n d i c a t i o n . The two m a j o r t e r m s h e r e a r e a s a n g a and a s p a r s a . A s a n g a i s u s e d i n MK I I I . 4 5 , IV.72, 79, 96 and 97 t o d e s c r i b e a r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e and a t t i t u d e , t h e n a t u r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e n a t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e , and i n a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o n c e p t o f n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n s u c c e s s i v e l y . The t e r m a s p a r s a o r a f o r m o f t h e v e r b s p r s i s u s e d i n MK I I I . 3 9 , I V . 2 , 26, 2 7 and 84 t o s u c c e s s i v e l y i n d i c a t e t h e g o a l o f A d v a i t a and t h e p r a c t i c a l means t o a c h i e v e t h a t e n d , t h e n a t u r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i n r e f e r e n c e t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s p u t a t i o n . 1 1 MK I I I . 3 9 and IV.2. 10 MK I I I . 3 7 , 39, 40 and IV.78. N o t e t h e s i m i l a r c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e t e r m s a s a n g a and a s p a r s a i n t h e G i t a . See G 11.14, 48, V.21, 22 and 23 i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s i s b r i e f l y d e a l t w i t h above i n C h a p t e r V I , s e c t i o n 5. 211 W i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h e s e t e r m s , C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a c e n t r a l i s s u e e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y b e h i n d t h e p r a c t i c e o f s a d h a n a , a n d t h a t o f m e d i t a t i o n o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . C i t t a h a s two m eanings w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e " e m p i r i c a l mind" and t h e "non-mind" o r " u n b o r n mind" o f P u r e C o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n t h e f i r s t , t h e w o r l d i s p e r c e i v e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , o f t h e d u a l s t r u c -t u r e i m p o s e d by t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e mind. The m i n d i s s a i d t o r u n a f t e r u n r e a l o b j e c t s due t o a t t a c h m e n t o r t h e m e n t a l p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e d u a l w o r l d . The r e a l n a t u r e o f t h e m i n d o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h a t i t i s e t e r n a l l y u n a t t a c h e d , n e v e r i n t o u c h w i t h any o b j e c t , and e v e r w i t h o u t r e l a t i o n s . The mind " t u r n s b a c k " f r o m d u a l i t y t o i t s p u r e c o n d i t i o n when i t becomes u n a t t a c h e d . I t i s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f A s p a r s a Y o g a t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f n o n - d u a l i t y , o f f r e e d o m and l i b e r a t i o n , i s r e a l i z e d . T h i s i s Gaudapada's s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e i n t h e Mandukya K a r i k a . 2. SUMMARY OF GAUDAPADA'S SOTERIOLOGICAL PURPOSE Gaudapada i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n as an e a r l y p r e c e p t o r i n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a . He i s h i g h l y • r e s p e c t e d and r e v e r e d w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a s . b o t h a p h i l o s p h e r and r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r . Though h i s b i o g r a p h y i s unknown, t h e a v a i l a b l e h a g i o g r a p h y d e s c r i b e s h i m as a d e e p l y r e l i g i o u s 212 i n d i v i d u a l , e n g r o s s e d i n m e d i t a t i o n and o t h e r p r a c t i c e s , who upon r e a l i z a t i o n becomes a g r e a t and r e s p e c t e d t e a c h e r t o a s p i r a n t s on t h e s p i r i t u a l q u e s t . Gaudapada's work embodies h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n b o t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y a n d p r a c t i c a l l y . H i s m a j o r t e x t , t h e Mandukya  K a r i k a , i s a t t a c h e d t o and i s a p a r t i a l commentary on a s c r i p -t u r a l t e x t , t h e M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d . As an e x p o s i t o r y t e x t o f • • • V e d a n t i c t e a c h i n g s , t h e K a r i k a i s r e f e r r e d t o as an u p a d e s a -s a s t r a ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t i s e ) . I t s t w o - f o l d p u r p o s e i s t o t e a c h t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f A d v a i t a p h i l o s o p h y and s e t f o r t h p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e t o h e l p t h e s a d h a k a on t h e p a t h o f S e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e x t w h i c h f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f Gaudapada's t e a c h i n g s as e m b o d i e d i n t h e K a r i k a s . F i r s t , A d v a i t a V e d a n t a i s f o u n d t o be a d a r s a n a o r s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t w h i c h i s a s y n t h e s i s o f p h i l o s o p h y a n d r e l i g i o n . As a moksa o r i e n t e d s y s t e m t h i s i n v o l v e s t h e e n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y and t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e way t o r e a l i z e t h i s k n o w l e d g e . T h e s e two a s p e c t s a r e s e e n t o be i n t e r - r e l a t e d and m u t u a l l y a f f e c t e a c h o t h e r . S e c o n d , t h e r e i s t h e t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a and Gaudapada. The use o f s c r i p t u r e as a v a l i d s o u r c e o f k n o w l e d g e , t h e e x e g e s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s r u t i , a nd t h e c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s s u g g e s t s t h i s r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n . 213 T h i r d , Gaudapada's use o f r e a s o n c a n be s e e n t o have a r e l i g i o u s o r s o t e r i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i t l e a d s t o r i g h t t h i n k i n g and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . I n t h i s way i t a s s i s t s e n q u i r y and a i d s t h e p u r -s u i t o f r e a l i z a t i o n . I t h e l p s t o show t h e f a l l a c i o u s n e s s and e r r o n e o u s n e s s o f t h e p a r t i a l v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g r e a l i t y as w e l l as e n a b l e s t h e s a d h a k a t o see t h e m u t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e m u l t i p l e v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s . M o r e s o , i t p r o v i d e s t h e means t o u n d e r s t a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d i r e c t e x p e r i e n t i a l k n o w l e d g e . I t p o s e s p r o b l e m s o r d o u b t s and s e e k s r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s f o r them. F u r t h e r , i t a l l o w s i n t e l l i g e n t u s e o f s c r i p t u r e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a n d u t i l i z e s t h e b a s i c method o f r e f l e c t i o n (manana and v i c a r a ) t o a s s i s t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d i r e c t r e a l i z a t i o n . Gaudapada's e p i s t e m o l o g y p l a c e s p e r c e p t i o n , r e a s o n i n g , v e r b a l t e s t i m o n y , and r e l e v a t i o n as m e d i a t e knowledge w h i l e he p o s i t s j n a n a o r a n u b h u t i ( i n t u i t i o n o r d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e ) as t h e o n l y t r u l y v a l i d means o f knowledge (pramana). A l l t h i s i s a i d e d i n t h e Mandukya K a r i k a by t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s s u c h as e x p l a n a t i o n s , a r g u m e n t s , e x a m p l e s , i l l u s t r a -t i o n s , f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e a n d so f o r t h . T h e s e a r e Gaudapada's means o f e x p r e s s i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i n g r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . A l s o , i n t h e t e x t he combines a m a s t e r y o f s c r i p -t u r e , l o g i c a l s k i l l , and p r o f o u n d s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n h i s e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f B r a h m a - v i d y a . 214 Gaudapada's m e t a p h y s i c s s k e t c h t h e i d e a s o f n o n - d u a l -i t y ( a d v a i t a ) a n d n o n - o r i g i n a t i o n ( a j a t i v a d a ) and i n d i c a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d and o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f t h e moksa o r l i b -e r a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n i s f o u n d t o be i n h e r e n t w i t h i n t h e meta-p h y s i c s . Gaudapada p r e s e n t s a phenomenology o f e x p e r i e n c e and a u n i q u e m e t a - p s y c h o l o g y . F i r s t he o f f e r s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t a t e s o f man's e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d b y a d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s w o r k i n g p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s o f man as a p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l b e i n g whose t r u e n a t u r e i s d i s c o v e r e d as b e i n g s p i r i t u a l . T h i s a l s o i n v o l v e s a s t u d y o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e m i n d w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p l a c e and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m e d i t a t i v e d i s c i p l i n e a d v o c a t e d i n Gaudapada's t e x t . T h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n h a s i t s m e t a p h y s i c a l o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i d e w h i c h , f o r example, c a n be s e e n i n t h e e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g "mind c r e a t i o n " . Gaudapada d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f i g n o r a n c e o r s p i r i t u a l s l e e p and i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a u s e s as w e l l as i t s c o r r e c t i o n t h r o u g h r i g h t k n o wledge w h i c h i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o f t h i s m e t a - p s y c h o l o g y . C h a p t e r s I t h r o u g h V d e a l w i t h t h e above a s p e c t s and t h e y p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y b a c k g r o u n d f o r Gaudapada's e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n w h i c h i s d e t a i l e d i n C h a p t e r VI o f t h i s work. H i s s o t e r i o l o g y c o n c e r n s a s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s 215 d e s i r e and a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s e x h i b i t e d i n t h e t w o - f o l d d i v i s i o n o f t h e o r y and t h a t o f a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e p e r c e i v e d g o a l . T h e s e two s u p p l e m e n t a n d m u t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e e a c h o t h e r . The f i r s t a s p e c t i s t h a t o f Gaudapada's c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l g o a l . T h i s i s h i s v i e w o f man's r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n as b e i n g one o f bondage and t h a t moksa i s i s t h e r i g h t f u l e n d o f man's e x i s t e n c e . He s t a t e s man's b a s i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s l i f e i n t h e w o r l d and o f f e r s a d e s -c r i p t i o n o f t h i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f s a l v a t i o n o r l i b e r a t i o n w h i c h he e s p o u s e s . C o s m i c a l l y , man p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e bondange o f s a m s a r a , i g n o r a n t o f t h e f i n i t u d e and i l l u s i o n o f t h e m a n i f o l d u n i v e r s e . I n d i v i d u a l l y , man i s s a i d t o s u f f e r o r f e e l a b a s i c f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e , f e e l i n g a s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n w h i l e l i v i n g an e s s e n t i a l l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o r s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e f r o m a b a s i c e g o t i s t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Gaudapada s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s i n a u t h e n t i c l i v i n g and t h a t man's n a t u r e i s r e a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . R a t h e r t h a n t h e c o s m i c c o n d i t i o n o f bondage t h e r e i s c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m , t h e w h e e l o f s a m s a r a i s r e a l l y t h e u n i t y o f Brahman, t h e f i n i t u d e , m a n i f o l d n e s s and d e c e p t i v e n e s s o f phenomena i s r e a l l y t h e o n e -n e s s o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f n o n - d u a l r e a l i t y . R a t h e r t h a n l i v i n g an a l i e n a t e d e x i s t e n c e on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , man i s s a i d t o p a r t a k e o f t h e p e a c e and b l i s s o f m e a n i n g f u l e x i s t e n c e i n 216 p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e h i g h e r o r d e e p e r a s p e c t s o f h i s b e i n g w h i c h a r e a t one w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f p l e n a r y r e a l i t y . The p r o b l e m i s t h a t man i s n o t aware o f h i s t r u e n a t u r e and has n o t r e a l k nowledge o f h i m s e l f n o r o f t h e w o r l d L i n w h i c h he p a r t i c i p a t e s and e x i s t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n Gaudapada has t o e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e t h i s i d e a o f l i b e r a t i o n . Moksa, t h e n , i s t h e summon bonurn o f l i f e . P o s i t i v e l y s t a t e d , i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f f r e e d o m and i n d e p e n d e n c e , p e r f e c -t i o n , f u l l n e s s and p e a c e , supreme f e l i c i t y and u n e x c e l l a b l e b l i s s . I t i s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e a l S e l f (atman) and t h e d i s c o v e r y o f i t s o n e n e s s w i t h , o r n o n - d i f f e r e n c e f r o m , U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y (Brahman). Thus i t i s t r u e knowledge ( j n a n a ) o r B r a h m a - v i d y a . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s new a f f i r m a t i o n , what was once s e e n as n o r m a l e v e r y - d a y l i v i n g i s s e v e r e l y d e p r e c i a t e d and d i s v a l u e d . I n t h i s way, moksa i s n e g a t i v e l y s t a t e d , as l i b e r a t i o n , e m a n c i p a t i o n , r e l e a s e , o r f r e e d o m f r o m bondage, e t c . I t i s an u n - b i n d i n g , f e t t e r i n g o r b u r d e n i n g ; a d i s e n c o u m b e r i n g o r u n a t t a c h i n g f r o m d e l u s o r y l i v i n g . I t c a n a l s o be s e e n as a r e l i e f , r e s c u e o r d e l i v e r y f r o m s u f f e r i n g . F i n a l l y , i n t h i s l i g h t , i t c a n be s e e n as f i n a l r e d e m p t i o n , a r e c l a i m i n g , r e c o v e r y o r r e s t o r i n g o f a u t h e n t i c e x i s t e n c e . The s e c o n d a s p e c t o f Gaudapada's s o t e r i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n i s t h a t o f a c t u a l r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . W h i l e f i r s t d e s c r i b i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n o f man and s t a t i n g t h e n e e d f o r p o s i -t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he i s a l s o j u s t i f y i n g t h e s p i r i t u a l q u e s t 217 as a w h o l e . T h i s q u e s t i s n o t m e r e l y a t h e o r e t i c a l one b u t a p r a c t i c a l p u r s u i t w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f ways o r methods t o a c h i e v e l i b e r a t i o n , t o a c t u a l i z e t h i s g o a l e x p e r i e n t i a l l y . Guadapada's s a d h a n a o r s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e c o n s i s t s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s and t e c h n i q u e s f o r s p i r i t u a l u n f o l d m e n t . He a d v o -c a t e s t h e l i f e o f s annyas a ( r e n u n c i a t i o n ) , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r a c t i c e s and v i r t u e s o f a b h y a s a ( f i x i n g t h e m i n d ) , v a i r a g y a ( d i s p a s s i o n ) , v i v e k a ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) and v i c a r a ( s e I f - e n q u i r y ) . The main t e c h n i q u e t o be u s e d i s t h e u p a s a n a o r m e d i t a t i o n on t h e s a c r e d s y l l a b l e OM. Gaudapada p r o p o s e s a p r o g r e s s i v e p r a c t i c e u t i l i z i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t m a t r a s ( s y l l a b l e s ) o f AUM u n t i l t h e s a d h a k a i s p r a c t i c i n g t h e contem-p l a t i o n o f t h e m a t r a - l e s s a s p e c t . T h i s i s t h e f i n a l movement o f t h e ahamgraha u p a s a n a , t h e t u r n i n g i n w a r d t o w a r d s t h e S e l f . I t i s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f m e d i t a t i o n i n t o n i d i d h y a s a n a , c o n -t e m p l a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e h i g h e s t J n a n a Sadhana o f t r a d i t i o n a l V e d a n t a , w h i c h Gaudapada c a l l s A s p a r s a Yoga. The g o a l o f t h i s p r a c t i c e i s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f n i r v i k a l p a samadhi w h e r e i n t h e mind a t t a i n s t h e s t a t e o f "non-mind" (amanastam o r a m a n i b h a v a ) . When t h i s o c c u r s , knowledge ( j n a n a ) becomes e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e S e l f , T u r i y a o r Brahman i s r e a l i z e d , and t h e c o n d i t i o n o f l i b -e r a t i o n a c c r u e s f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l a s p i r a n t . Once t h i s samadhi i s s t a b i l i z e d and t h e e x p e r i e n c e p e r m e a t e s t h e s a d h a k a ' s e n t i r e l i f e , he t r u l y becomes a j n a n i , a "knower". As a S e l f - r e a l i z e d o r a l i b e r a t e d man he 218 e x p e r i e n c e s b o t h h i m s e l f and t h e w o r l d d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n b e f o r e . F o r now he h a s a t t a i n e d t h e s t a t e o f f e a r l e s s n e s s (abhyam padam) w h i c h i s f r e e f r o m s o r r o w and d e s i r e and d u a l i t y i s no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e d . E v e r y t h i n g i s t h e S e l f (Atman) o r Brahman. And h i s b a s i c a l l y e g o t i s t i c a l e x i s t e n c e i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n c o n -f o r m i t y w i t h t h i s new u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A b i d i n g t h u s he p a r t a k e s o f t h e p e a c e and t h e b l i s s o f t r u e f r e e d o m . T h i s i s t h e d y n a m i c s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n o f j i v a n m u k t i / l i b e r a t i o n w h i l e a l i v e . The e m a n c i p a t e d man p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e w o r l d , t h o u g h i n a new way. B e c a u s e h i s e g o - h o o d has b e e n s u b d u e d and r e p l a c e d , as i t were, by h i s t r u e S e l f w i t h w h i c h he i s now i d e n t i f i e d , t h e w o r l d no l o n g e r t o u c h e s h i m . He now e x p e r -i e n c e s t h e w o r l d f r o m a c o n d i t i o n o f p e r f e c t d e t a c h m e n t ( a s a n g a ) . Thus t h i s i s a new mode o f l i v i n g - a l i v i n g and d o i n g w i t h o u t d e s i r e o r a t t a c h m e n t . I t i s t h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l g o a l o f Gaudapada's p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , Gaudapada and h i s Mandukya K a r i k a h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d , a n a l y z e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f h i s s o t e r i o l o g y . The r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t e x t h a v e been p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l l e v e l s . The i n t e g r a l u n i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s components o f Gaudapada's s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t i s i n d i c a t e d . He i s s e e n t o s n y t h e s i z e p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n h e r e i n t h r o u g h h i s e s s e n t i a l s o t e r i o -l o g i c a l c o n c e r n . Gaudapada i s o f t e n o n l y s e e n as a s y s t e m a t i c 219 p h i l o s o p h e r t o t h e r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t o f h i s r o l e as a r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r o r p r e c e p t o r . He and h i s t e x t have t h u s b e en p r e s e n t e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h i s l a t t e r r e l i g i o - s p i r i t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n t h i s way Gaudapada and t h e Mandukya K a r i k a h a s b e e n u t i l i z e d as a c o n c r e t e example an d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a i n an a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s o t e r i o l o g y o f t h i s s y s t e m . 220 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. TRANSLATIONS OF TEXTS AND COMMENTARIES Man, duky op an i s ad / t r a n s l a t i o n and n o t e s by Swami S a r v a n a d a , w i t h a summary o f Gaudapada's K a r i k a s by Swami T y a g i s a n a n d a , M a dras: S r i R a m a k r i s h n a Math, 1964. A g a m a s a s t r a o f Gaudapada, t r a n s l a t e d and a n n o t a t e d b y V i d h u s h e k a r a B h a t t a c h a r y a , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l c u t t a , 194 3. The M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d w i t h Gaudapada's K a r i k a s and t h e B h a s y a  o f Samkara, t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by M.N. D v i v e d i , The Bombay T e h o s o p h i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n F und, 1894. M a n d u k y a - K a r i k a s o f Gaudapada, t r a n s l a t e d and a n n o t a t e d b y R.D. K a r m a r k a r , Government O r i e n t a l S e r i e s , B h a n d a r k a r O r i e n t a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , Poona, 1953. M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d w i t h Gaudapada's K a r i k a and s'amkara's com-^ ^ .A .A. ^ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ p —. _______________ ______ ^ i, • m e n t a r y , t r a n s l a t e d and a n n o t a t e d b y Swami N i k h i l a n a n d a , S r i R a m a k r i s h n a n Asrama, M y s o r e , 19 36. _ _ x. Mandukya U p a n i s a d and K a r i k a , w i t h S a n k a r a ' s commentary i n Swami Gambhirananda, t r a n s . , E i g h t U p a n i s a d s , V o l . I I , C a l c u t t a : A d v a i t a Ashrama, 1966, pp. 173-404. B. BOOKS AND ARTICLES CONSULTED A g n i h o t r i , B.S. " I n f l u e n c e o f Y o g a p a n i s a d on t h e Gaudapada K a r i k a s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A l l - I n d i a O r i e n t a l C o n f e r e n c e ( 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 126. B h a t t a c h a r y y a , H a r i d a s , ( e d i t o r ) . The C u l t u r a l H e r i t a g e o f  I n d i a , 5 V o l s . , C a l c u t t a : The R a m a k r i s h n a M i s s i o n I n s t i t u t e o f C u l t u r e , 1953 ( 1 9 3 7 ) . B h a t t a c h a r y a , V i d h u s e k h a r a . "The G a u d a p a d a - K a r i k a on t h e Mandukya U p a n i s h a d " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A l l - I n d i a O r i e n t a l  C o n f e r e n c e , No. 2 (1920-2) , pp. 439-462. . "Gaudapada", I n d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . XIV ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 392-397. ( A l s o i n t h e W i n t e r n i t z M e m o r i a l  Volume, L a h o r e 1940). . " A s p a r s a - y o g a " , i n Mehar Chandhachhman Das. W o o l n e r Commemorative Volume, L a h o r e , 1940, pp. 19-20. 221 . "The Mandukya U p a n i s h a d and t h e Gaudapada K a r i k a , " I n d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I (.1925) , pp. 119-125, 295-302. Brahma, N a l i n i K a n t a . P h i l o s o p h y o f H i n d u Sadhana, L o n d o n : Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r & Co., L t d . , 1932. C h a k r a b o r t y , N.B. "Gaudapada: h i s work and v i e w s " , C a l c u t t a  Review, V o l . 145 (1957) , pp. 89-96. C h e n n a k e s a v a n , S a r a s v a t i . The C o n c e p t o f M i n d i n I n d i a n  P h i l o s o p h y , Bombay: A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1960. C o n i o , C a t e r i n a . The P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Mandukya K a r i k a , V a r a n a r s i : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a P r a k a s a m , 19 71. D a s g u p t a , S u r e n d r a n a t h . A H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . I , C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922. . I n d i a n I d e a l i s m , C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969 , (1933) . D a t t a , D.M. The S i x Ways o f Knowing, C a l c u t t a , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l c u t t a , 1960. D e u s s e n , P a u l . The P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e U p a n i s h a d s , New Y o r k : D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1966 ( 1 9 0 6 ) . D e u t s c h , E l i o t . A d v a i t a V e d a n t a : A P h i l o s o p h i c a l R e c o n s t r u c -t i o n , H o n o l u l u : E a s t - W e s t C e n t e r P r e s s , 1969. D i v a n j i , P.C., "Gaudapada's A s p a r s a y o g a and S a m k a r a 1 s j n a n a v a d a " , Poona O r i e n t a l i s t , V o l . 4 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 149-158. E l i a d e , M i r c e a . Yoga: I m m o r t a l i t y and Freedom, P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , s e c o n d e d i t i o n , 1969. 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"Gaudapada's K a r i k a " , J o u r n a l o f t h e G a n g a n a t h a J h a R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ( A l l a h a b a d ) , V o l . 5 ( 1 9 4 7 - 8 ) , pp. 203-227, 347-379; V o l . 6 ( 1 9 4 8 - 9 ) , pp. 65-87. . " P h i l o s o p h y o f Gaudapada", I n d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r -ly_, V o l . 23 ( 1 9 4 7 ) , p p . ' l - 1 6 . . " P h i l o s o p h y o f Gaudapada ( a l a t a - s a n t i - p r a k a r a n a m ) " , J o u r n a l o f t h e G a n g a n a t h a J h a R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 8 ( 1 9 5 0 - 1 ) , pp. 115-129, 233-249, 335-371; V o l . 9 ( 1 9 5 1 - 2 ) , pp. 11-25. M a l k a n i , G.R. M e t a p h y s i c s o f A d v a i t a V e d a n t a , A m a l n e r : The I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f P h i l o s o p h y , 1961. M i s r a , R.S. S t u d i e s i n P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n , V a r a n a s i : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a P r a k a s a n a , 1971. Moore, C h a r l e s A., e d . The I n d i a n M i n d , H o n o l u l u : E a s t - W e s t C e n t e r P r e s s , U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 196 7. Mukhopadhyaya, G o v i n d a g o p a l . S t u d i e s i n t h e U p a n i s a d s , C a l c u t t a : S a n s k r i t C o l l e g e , 1960. Nakamura, H a j i m e . "A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y o f I n d i a n R e l i g i o n a n d P h i l o s o p h y c h i e f l y b a s e d upon J a p a n e s e S t u d i e s " , A c t a  A s i a t i c a , No. 5 (Tokyo 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 1-75. 223 P o t t e r , K a r l H. " A t t i t u d e s , Games, and I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y " , P h i l o s o p h y E a s t and West, V o l . V I . 3 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 239-245. . P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f I n d i a 1 s P h i l o s o p h i e s , W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : Greewood P r e s s , 1972 ( 1 9 6 3 ) . P r a s a d , J w a l a . H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n E p i s t e m o l o g y , D e l h i : M u n s h iram M a n o h a r l a l , 1956. 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A C o n s t r u c t i v e S u r v e y o f U p a n i s h a d i c P h i l o s o p h y , Bombay, B h a r a t i y a V i d y a Bhavan, 196 8. Rao, K.B. R a m k r i s h n a . T h r e e L e c t u r e s on A d v a i t a as P h i l o s o p h y  and R e l i g i o n , M y s o r e : U n i v e r s i t y o f M y s o re, 1969. Reyna, Ruth. The C o n c e p t o f Maya, Bombay: A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1962. R o b i n s o n , R i c h a r d H. " C l a s s i c a l I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y " , i n J o s e p h W. E l d e r , e d . C h a p t e r s i n I n d i a n C i v i l i z a t i o n , V o l . I , K e n d a l l Hunt P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19 70. Roy, B.A.N. "The Mandukya U p a n i s a d and t h e k a r i k a s o f Gaudapada", I n d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 14 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 564-9. A l s o f o u n d i n W i n t e r n i t z M e m o r i a l Number, pp. 364-9. Roy, S.S. The H e r i t a g e o f S a n k a r a , A l l a h b a d : Udayana P u b l i c a -t i o n s , 1965. 224 S a h a s r a b u d h e , M.T. A S u r v e y o f t h e P r e - S a h k a r a A d v a i t a  V e d a n t a / Poona: Poona U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. S a k s e n a , S h r i K r i s h n a . E s s a y s on I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y , H o n o l u l u : U n i n v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i P r e s s , 1970. . N a t u r e o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s i n H i n d u P h i l o s o p h y , D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1971 (19 4 4 ) . Sarma, B.N.K. " F u r t h e r L i g h t on G a u d a p a d a - k a r i k a s " , Review o f  P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n ( P o o n a ) , V o l . 3.1, pp. 45-55. - "New l i g h t on t h e G a u d a p a d a - k a r i k a s " , Review o f P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n ( P o o n a ) , V o l . 2.1 ( 1 9 3 1 ) , pp. 35-56. . " S t i l l f u r t h e r l i g h t on t h e G a u a d a p a d a - k a r i k a s " , Review o f P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n ( P o o n a ) , V o l . 4.2, pp. 174-195. . " U p a n i s h a d i c t h e o r y o f Gaudapada^s K a r i k a s " , P o o n a O r i e n t a l i s t , V o l . 1.2 ( 1 9 3 6 - 7 ) , pp. 27-38. Sarma, Y. Subrahmanya. A v a s t h a t r a y a o r t h e U n i q u e Method o f V e d a n t a , B a n g a l o r e : Adhyatma P r a k a s h a K a r y a l a y a , 19 37. . "The U p a n i s h a d i c t h e o r y o f t h e G a u d a p a d a - k a r i k a s " , Review o f P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n (Poona) , Vo. 4.2 (1933) , pp. 196-204. S a s t r i , S.S. "Some o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e M a n d u k y a - K a r i k a s " , J o u r n a l o f O r i e n t a l R e s e a r c h ( M a d r a s J " V o l . ;3 (19 3 9 ) . Sharma, C h a n d r a d h a r . A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y o f I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y , D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1964 ( 1 9 6 0 ) . S i n a r i , Ramakant A. The S t r u c t u r e o f I n d i a n T h o u g h t , S p r i n g -f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1970. S i n h a , J a d u n a t h . A H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . I I , C a l c u t t a : C e n t r a l Book A g e n c y , 1952. . I n d i a n E p i s t e m o l o g y o f P e r c e p t i o n , C a l c u t t a , S i n h a P u b l i s h i n g House P r i v a t e L t d . , 1969. Smart, N i n i a n . D o c t r i n e and Argument i n I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y , London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1964. Solomon, E.A. A v i d y a - A P r o b l e m o f T r u t h and R e a l i t y , Ahmedabad: G u j a r a t U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. 225 S t r e n g , F r e d e r i c k , J . E m p t i n e s s : A S t u d y i n R e l i g i o u s  M e a n i n g , N a s h v i l l e : A b i n g d o n P r e s s , 196 7. S u b b i a h , A.V. "Gaudapada's A g a m a s a s t r a " , I n d i a n H i s t o r i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y , Vol.* 11 (1935) , pp. 783-790. . "The M a n d u k y o p a n i s a d and Gaudapada", I n d i a n A n t i q u a r y , V o l ! 62 (19 3 3 ) , PP- 181-193. Sundaram, P.K. A d v a i t a E p i s t e m o l o g y , M adras: U n i v e r s i t y o f M a d r a s , 196 8. Swami Agehahanda B h a r a t x . A F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f I n d i a n  T h o u g h t and i t s S o c i a l M a r g i n s , V a r a n a s i : Chowkhamba S a n s k r i t S e r i e s O f f i c e , 1964. Swami Bhoomananda T i r t h a . Brahma V i d y a A b h y a s a , V o l . I , T r i c h u r K e r a l a : N a r a y a n a s r a m a Thapovanam, 1968. . Brahma V i d y a A b h y a s a , V o l . I I , T r i c h u r K e r a l a : N a r a y a n a s r a m a Thapovanam, 1970. Swami Chinmayananda. D i s c o u r s e s on Mandukya U p a n i s h a d w i t h Gaudapada's K a r i k a , M a d r a s : Chinmaya P u b l i c a t i o n T r u s t , 1953. Swami I s w a r a n a n d a . G o d - R e a l i z a t i o n T h r o u g h R e a s o n , T r i c h u r K e r a l a : S r i R a m a k r i s h n a Ashrama, 1959. Swami Madhavananda, t r a n s . The B r h a d a r a n y a k a U p a n i s a d , C a l c u t t a : A d v a i t a Ashrama, f o u r t h e d i t i o n ^ 1965. Swami Poornananda T i r t h a . Brahma V i d y a , W a d a k a n c h e r i K e r a l a : J n a n a Asram, 1966. Swami P u r u s h o t t a m T i r t h a . "The t h r e e s t a t e s a n a l y s e d " , K a i v a l y a Sudha, V o l . 8, No. 11 (15 November 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 3-13. Swami Ramananda T i r t h a . A W r i t e r ' s S t u d y o f s'ankara v e r s u s t h e  S i x P r e c e p t o r s o f A d v a i t a , M a dras: T i n n i y a m S a n k a r a M u t t B h a k t a J a n a Sabha, 19 70. Swami S a t c h i d a n a n d e n d r a S a r a s w a t i . S a l i e n t F e a t u r e s o f  Sankara's V e d a n t a , H o l e n a r s i p u r : Adhyatma P r a k a s h a K a r y a l a y a , 196 7. W a r r i e r , A.G. K r i s h n a . The C o n c e p t o f M u k t i i n A d v a i t a V e d a n t a , Madras: U n i v e r s i t y o f Madras, 1961. _ x . "Gaudapada and Samkara (a s t u d y i n c o n t r a s t ) " , A n n a l s o f t h e B h a n d a r k a r O r i e n t a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e (Poona) 48/49 (1968), pp. 179-186. 226 APPENDIX I THE PRINCIPAL UPADESA SECTION OF GUADAPADA'S MANDUKYA KARIKA MK I I I 29. As i n dream t h e mind v i b r a t e s , as t h o u g h h a v i n g d u a l a s p e c t s , s o i n t h e w a k i n g s t a t e t h e mind v i b r a t e s as t h o u g h w i t h two f a c e t s . 30. T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t i n dream, t h e mind, t h o u g h one, a p p e a r s i n d u a l a s p e c t s ; s o a l s o i n t h e w a k i n g s t a t e , t h o u g h one, a p p e a r s t o h a v e two a s p e c t s . 31. A l l t h i s t h a t t h e r e i s - t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l t h a t moves o r does n o t move - i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e mind (and t h e r e -f o r e a l l t h i s i s b u t t h e m i n d ) ; f o r when t h e mind c e a s e s t o be t h e mind, d u a l i t y i s no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e d . 32. When, ( f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f s c r i p t u r e s a n d t h e t e a c h e r ) , t h e mind c e a s e s t o t h i n k as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e T r u t h t h a t i s t h e S e l f , t h e n t h e mind a t t a i n s t h e s t a t e o f n o t b e i n g t h e mind; i n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h i n g s t o be p e r c i e v e d , i t becomes a non -p e r c e i v e r . 33. T h e y s a y t h a t t h e n o n - c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e , t h a t i s b i r t h l e s s , i s n o n M i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e k n o w a b l e (Brahman) . The k n o w l e d g e t h a t h a s Brahman f o r i t s c o n t e n t i s b i r t h -l e s s and e v e r l a s t i n g . The b i r t h l e s s ( S e l f ) i s known by t h e b i r t h l e s s ( k n o w l e d g e ) . 43;4. The b e h a v i o r t h a t t h e mind h a s , when i t i s u n d e r c o n t r o l , f r e e f r o m a l l i d e a t i o n , and f u l l o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e d . The b e h a v i o r o f t h e mind i n d e e p s l e e p i s d i f f e r e n t and i s n o t s i m i l a r t o t h a t ( o f t h e c o n t r o l l e d m i n d ) . 35. F o r t h a t mind l o s e s i t s e l f i n s l e e p , b u t does n o t l o s e i t s e l f when u n d e r c o n t r o l * . T h a t v e r y mind becomes t h e f e a r l e s s Brahman, p o s s e s s e d o f t h e l i g h t o f C o n s c i o u s -n e s s a l l a r o u n d . 36. Brahman i s b i r t h l e s s , s l e e p l e s s , d r e a m l e s s , n a m e l e s s , f o r m l e s s , e v e r e f f u l g e n t , e v e r y t h i n g , and a knower. (With r e g a r d t o I t ) t h e r e i s n o t t h e l e a s t p o s s i b i l i t y o f c e r e m o n y . 227 37. The S e l f i s f r e e o f a l l s e n s e - o r g a n s , and i s above a l l i n t e r n a l o r g a n s . I t i s s u p r e m e l y t r a n q u i l , e t e r n a l e f f u l g e n c e , d i v i n e a b s o r p t i o n , immutable and f e a r l e s s . 38. T h e r e c a n be no a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n where a l l men-t a t i o n s t o p s . Then k n o w l e d g e becomes e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e S e l f , and i s u n b o r n and p o i s e d i n e q u a l i t y . 39. The Yoga t h a t i s f a m i l a r l y r e f e r r e d t o as w i t h o u t any t o u c h w i t h a n y t h i n g ( A s p a r s a Yoga) i s d i f f i c u l t t o be comprehended b y anyone o f t h e y o g i s . F o r t h o s e y o g i s , who a p p r e h e n d f e a r ' where t h e r e i s n o t f e a r , are a f r a i d o f i t . 40. F o r a l l t h e s e y o g i s , f e a r l e s s n e s s , t h e r e m o v a l o f m i s e r y , k n o w l e d g e ( o f t h e S e l f ) , and e v e r l a s t i n g p e a c e a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e m i n d . 41. J u s t as an o c e a n c a n be e m p t i e d w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e t i p o f a b l a d e o f Ku_a; g r a s s t h a t c a n h o l d j u s t a d r o p , s o a l s o c a n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e mind be b r o u g h t a b o u t b y a b s e n c e o f d e p r e s s i o n . 42. W i t h t h e h e l p o f t h a t p r o p e r p r o c e s s one s h o u l d b r i n g u n d e r d i s c i p l i n e t h e mind t h a t r e m a i n s d i s p e r s e d a m i d s t o b j e c t s o f d e s i r e and enjoyment? and one s h o u l d b r i n g i t u n d e r c o n t r o l e v e n when i t i s i n f u l l p e a c e i n s l e e p , f o r s l e e p i s as b a d as d e s i r e . 43. C o n s t a n t l y remembering t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s f u l l o f m i s e r y , "one s h o u l d w i t h d r a w t h e mind f r o m t h e e n j o y m e n t • a r i s i n g o u t o f d e s i r e . Remembering e v e r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b i r t h l e s s Brahman i s e v e r y t h i n g , one does n o t s u r e l y p e r c e i v e t h e b o r n ( v i z . t h e h o s t o f d u a l i t y ) . 44. One s h o u l d wake up t h e mind merged i n d eep s l e e p ; one s h o u l d b r i n g