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Towards a creative problem-oriented approach to urban studies Drexel, Julia A. L. 1974

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TOWARDS A CREATIVE PROBLEM-ORIENTED APPROACH TO URBAN STUDIES by JULIA A.L. DREXEL B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1974 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s repre s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. S c h o o l ^ixacrttxieixix of C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i ng The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e D e c . 2 2 , 1 9 7 4 ABSTRACT The complexity, pervasiveness and urgency of the s o c i a l and biophysical problems now confronting mankind present planners and decision makers at a l l l e v e l s of human organization with monumental challenges. Un-doubtedly some of the most challenging problems are those associated with the process of urbanization and the c i t y i t s e l f . Indeed, i t could be argued that many of our s o c i a l and biophysical problems are re l a t e d to mankind's persistent congregation i n r e l a t i v e l y small geographical areas. This tends to concentrate and i n -t e n s i f y problems considerably, causing such basic and simple a c t i v i t i e s as the provision of one's own food to become an extremely complex problem, involving vast and interdependent networks of factors such as trans-portation, economics, waste disp o s a l , etc. These are the problems that currently perplex urban decision-makers . In order to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with our mounting urban problems, individuals must be both knowledge-able about the c i t y and sensitive to i t s attributes and i t s problems. But even more important , they must be capable of addressing these problems i n an open-minded, i n t e l l i g e n t and dynamic manner. They must not be bound by the worn out prescriptions and piecemeal approaches that have characterized past environmental problem solving. It i s t h i s l a s t a b i l i t y , which I s h a l l r e f e r to as 1 creative problem solving', that i s most often neglected at a l l l e v e l s of education. And i t i s t h i s a b i l i t y which concerns me here. I believe that properly designed and implemented programs of urban-oriented problem solving are of tremendous importance i n the education of profession-a l s and the c i t i z e n r y at large, to prepare them f o r t h e i r respective r o l e s as urban decision-makers. While the actual design of such programs would vary depending of the age l e v e l and career goals of those f o r whom they are intended, I believe that the basic concepts involved i n an understanding of the c i t y and the educational approach whereby these may be imparted, would be much the regardless of the context. I have therefore attempted to develop i n t h i s t h e s i s , a conceptual framework f o r programs of urban-oriented problem solving. From the volumes of work on problem solving, c r e a t i v i t y and education, I have c r y s t a l l i z e d an educational approach to creative problem solving which i s based on the phases of the creative problem solving process i t s e l f . Each phase i s discussed with reference to the major a b i l i t i e s required by the i n d i v i d u a l during that phase, and the educational methods whereby those a b i l i t i e s might best be developed. The applications of these methods to urban problem solving are i l l u s -trated by numerous suggestions f o r a c t i v i t i e s and exercises which involve s p e c i f i c urban concepts, such as transportation, communication and urban growth. I have generally addressed myself, i n these suggestions, to a secondary school l e v e l of education. However, i t should not be d i f f i c u l t f o r an experienced teacher to adapt the ideas presented to either lower of higher l e v e l s of education. It i s hoped that these ideas w i l l generate i n -creased ideation and a c t i v i t y at a l l l e v e l s of educa-t i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , where tomorrow's urban decision makers are now enrolle d i n schools of Planning, Architecture, and Environmental Design. CONTENTS ABSTRACT CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION Problem Statement D e f i n i t i o n of Problem Solving and C r e a t i v i t y Format CREATIVE URBAN PROBLEM SOLVING: TEACHING THE PROCESS Introduction Problem D e f i n i t i o n Information Gathering Idea Generation Incubation and Illumination Refinement Communication and Evaluation SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION FOOTNOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page i v v i v i i i x 8 14 16 25 34 38 49 54 60 67 74 80 92 APPENDIX I I : ORGANIZATIONS FOR SIMULATION GAMES Page 101 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary Table Page LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: SOUND Page 18 Figure 2: WALL Page 21 Figure 3: TIME Page 21 Figure 4: URBAN SURVIVAL Page 28 Figure 5: USES FOR THINGS Page 31 Figure 6: TRANSPORTATION Page 33 Figure 7: MAPPING Page 36 Figure 8: RE-USE Page 41 Figure 9: URBAN GAMES Page 44 Figure 10: GROWTH Page 47a Figure 11: LEARNING SPACE Page 53 Figure 12: WHAT IF...? Page 57 Figure 13: PEOPLE IN THE CITY Page 58 Figure 14: COMMUNICATION Page 62 Figure 15: URBAN GLOSSARY Page 65 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank my advisor, Dr. W. E. Rees for h i s invaluable assistance and support during the writing of t h i s thesis. I would also l i k e to thank Mr. W.W. Wood, from the School of Architecture fo r his patience and i n s p i r a t i o n . I believe that education i s the fundamental method of s o c i a l change. Bruner, 1962, p.125 INTRODUCTION Problem Statement We are l i v i n g i n a period of great s o c i a l c r i s i s — domestically and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y — a c r i s i s that i s becoming increasingly d i f -f i c u l t to ignore. I t used to be that most of us were able to 'tune out' rather e a s i l y whenever we were too depressed by the s o c i a l dilemmas of our time. ...Those times of aloughing o f f the problem or blaming others f o r i t seem to have gone forever. There are fewer and fewer places to hide. (1) I t seems that mankind i s always i n a 'period of c r i s i s ' . Wars, depressions, famines, and plagues f i g -ure prominently i n a l l h i s t o r i c a l accounts of man. The current s o c i a l and environmental c r i s i s , manifest i n world wide p o l i t i c a l upheaval, resource shortages, and mounting problems of p o l l u t i o n and environmental degredation i s , however, of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e . 2 This i s not because i t i s necessarily any more serious than previous c r i s e s , but because i t i s occurring at a time when extensive and e f f i c i e n t communications systems have v i r t u a l l y forced large numbers of people to become aware of the c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . Their aware-ness i s r e f l e c t e d , at the l o c a l l e v e l , i n such a c t i -v i t i e s as 'participatory planning* which allows i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s to become involved i n the decision-making a c t i v i t i e s which a f f e c t t h e i r urban and regional 2 environments. Because such a large percentage of our national population l i v e s i n urban areas, the c i t y has become a major focus of planning and decision-making a c t i v i -t i e s . Its s o c i a l and physical development and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the res t of the environment are a major concern of planners today. But i t has become increasingly c l e a r that i f e f f e c t i v e solutions to urban problems are to be found and i f c i t i z e n s are to have a meaningful r o l e i n urban problem-solving a c t i -v i t i e s , both professionals and c i t i z e n s must become more knowledgeable about and more sensi t i v e to the c i t y . They must furthermore become more capable of dealing with i t s problems i n an open-minded and dynamic manner. The need f o r programs of education to heighten public awareness of broad environmental issues and problems was heavily stressed i n the late 1960's by environmentalists such as Menesini: Our environment and i t s resources are a major concern of mankind today. That concern can be voiced, l e g i s l a t e d f o r , and exercised, but the one most p o s i t i v e means f o r creating concern f o r — and i n t e l l i g e n t management of — our world i s through the environmental education of those who w i l l i n h e r i t i t . (4) These authors repeatedly expressed concern over the dearth of educational programs dealing with the natural environment and the problems of resource a l -l o c a t i o n , conservation, and p o l l u t i o n . Indeed, many of them 5 developed programs of 'environmental educa-t i o n ' which stressed a problem-oriented and i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y approach and extensive use of the f i e l d t r i p method i n order to encourage the student's more active involvement i n environmental issues. For example, 'Outward Bound' programs have been integrated into many high school c u r r i c u l a . These are intended to heighten the student's understanding of the natural environment by involving him i n dy-namic and challenging wilderness or semi-wilderness experiences which demand his active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the learning process: he must learn i n order to survive. At the same time, educators and others concerned g with urban problems made a strong plea f o r the dev-elopment of educational programs, e s p e c i a l l y at the elementary and secondary l e v e l , which would deal with the c i t y and i t s problems: S o c i a l studies programs...either ignore c i t i e s and urban l i f e , or they stress the f a i l u r e s of the c i t y and support the r u r a l values of the past. There are hardly any teaching programs available today that take a pos i t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t o r y view of urban l i v i n g and the urban environment or deal constructively with planning and change. C i t i e s , the very environment of urban schools, don't seem to ex i s t inside of the classroom as a topic of discussion. Yet they shape the l i f e of every pupil and every teacher i n the school. (7) In response, a number of urban-oriented programs were developed to meet the demand. Unfortunately many of these programs f a i l to deal with urban issues i n the dynamic and challenging manner that characterizes the e c o l o g i c a l l y oriented programs. According to Ward, urban programs often s u f f e r from being ...descriptive and s t a t i c , rather than problem-oriented and dynamic. Even when the intentions are enlightened, the r e s u l t i s often wooden and f a c t - s t u f f e d , with l i t t l e f e e l i n g f o r the drama of choice and change. Urban studies programs have tended to make less use of the f i e l d t r i p method, perhaps on the assumption that because students l i v e i n the c i t y and experience i t d a i l y , they need not be d i r e c t l y exposed to i t i n the educational context. Thus urban studies courses have generally stressed the student's t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of the c i t y , r e l y i n g on textbook information to broaden h i s knowledge. This i s equally true at the university l e v e l , i n Schools of Planning, Architecture, and Environmental Design, as i t i s at the high school l e v e l . Professors Q and professionals i n these f i e l d s have repeatedly c a l l e d f o r more problem-oriented and dynamic programs which w i l l challenge and excite both students and teachers. In response to t h i s need, I have attempted to dev-elop, from the l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d s of problem 6. solving, c r e a t i v i t y , education, and the urban environ-ment, a conceptual framework from which one might design programs of creative problem-oriented urban studies at any l e v e l of education. In the f i e l d of education, Jerome Bruner 1 0 i s prominent among those educators who stress a s e l f -directed and problem-oriented approach to education. According to Bruner i t i s only through the 'exercise of problem solving' that one learns how to l e a r n . 1 1 12 13 S i m i l a r l y , Torrance and Koestler have exerted a major influence on the f i e l d of c r e a t i v i t y . While Torrance concentrates on the educational aspects of c r e a t i v i t y , developing exercises and tests f o r use i n the classroom, Koestler's work i s more r h e t o r i c a l , attempting to explain the phenomenon of the 'creative act'. Both authors stress the r o l e of the subconscious mind i n c r e a t i v i t y and the importance of re l a x i n g one's conscious control of the thought process when attempting to consider problems c r e a t i v e l y . This ap-parently allows thought material to pass into the sub-conscious mind, which reorganizes and restructures the material, f i n a l l y forming i t i n t o a unique and novel whole which i s an i n t e g r a l part of the sol u t i o n . 7. This spontaneous re s t r u c t u r a t i o n i s also stressed 14 15 i n the works of Moore S Gay and Karl Duncker , who are primarily concerned with the process of problem solving. While Moore and Gay concentrate on the de-s c r i p t i o n of the various phases of the problem solving process and the a b i l i t i e s required by an i n d i v i d u a l at each stage, Duncker i s concerned with the o v e r a l l nature of the process. He emphasizes the importance of mental e l a s t i c i t y and openness as prerequisites to creative problem solving. In terms of urban education or urban studies I tended to r e l y , f o r the majority of my ideas, on the works which r e f l e c t e d the attitudes and ideas discussed 16 17 above. These included books by Jones , Symonds , 18 19 Warren , and Wurman , a l l of which attempt to i n -volve the student i n dynamic programs of urban educa-t i o n . But whereas these authors have generally addressed themselves to p a r t i c u l a r urban issues and problems and to s p e c i f i c audiences (eg. elementary school students, professionals, e t c . ) , I intend to devise a more generally applicable approach to creative problem-oiiented urban studies that can be applied to the study of a wide range of issues and problems and that can be u t i l i z e d at any l e v e l of education. 8 D e f i n i t i o n of Problem Solving and C r e a t i v i t y 20 Authors i n the f i e l d s of problem solving and 21 c r e a t i v i t y share an i n t e r e s t i n the dynamics of human thought, and i n p a r t i c u l a r goal-directed thought. In t h i s process the i n d i v i d u a l i s attempting to reach, through the manipulation of ideas and i n f o r -mation, a desired objective. This kind of thinking i s c a l l e d 'problem solving', where the problem l i e s 22 i n how to a t t a i n the desired goal. Problem solving per se i s currently undergoing extensive research, however many studies have also been car r i e d out on the nature of the 'product' (or solution) of the process, the a b i l i t i e s required by an i n d i v i d u a l engaging i n the process, the educational methods whereby these a b i l i t i e s might be developed, and the environment most conducive to the occurrence of the process. I t i s generally agreed that the problem solving 2 3 process includes four basic phases: 1. Problem D e f i n i t i o n This phase involves the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n of the problem and the estab-lishment of a context or frame of reference within which i t w i l l be studied. 2. Information Gathering This phase involves the collection and analysis of information deemed relevant to the problem. In addition the problem solver reviews the range of possible strategies or approaches which might best suit the particular problem. 3. Solution Finding In this phase the problem solver decides on the appropriate strategy or approach, applies i t to the problem, and thereby achieves a preliminary solution to the problem. This solution i s then refined and modified to insure that a l l of the problem variables have been adequately re-solved. **• Communication 6 Evaluation This phase involves the communication of the refined solution to an outside audi-ence. The problem solver chooses an ap-propriate mode of communication (eg. gra-phic, verbal, etc.), attempting to maximize the potential impact of his ideas. The communication phase may also include evaluation of the solution, either by the problem solver himself, or by external c r i t i c s . Depending on the nature of both the problem and the individual problem solver, this basic process may be considerably altered. For example, certain tech-nical problems such as those encountered in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc., might best be approached by a p a r t i c u l a r theorem or p r i n c i p l e which then tends to dominate the problem solving a c t i v i t y . Thus the p r i n c i p l e s of l i n e a r algebra are applied to a whole class of mathematical problems which would otherwise require rather tedious and cir c u i t o u s methods of solution. In addition, these problems tend to have unique solutions. That i s , they are not 'open ended' and the problem solving a c t i v i t y may be highly l i n e a r , working towards a s p e c i f i c objective. S i m i l a r l y , an i n d i v i d u a l might be more disposed to precise a n a l y t i c a l thinking than to imaginative ordivergent thinking. He might therefore tend to concentrate, for example, on the precise a r t i c u l a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of a given problem than on the consi-deration of alternative perceptions and conceptions of the problem. Indeed these two factors the nature of the problem and the thought patterns of the problem solver — serve to i d e n t i f y or define the 'kind' of problem solving process that i s occurring. In t h i s paper I am concerned with urban problems which are usually of a complex and open-ended nature, involving both highly technical information and i n t e r -r e l a t e d issues which defy easy s o l u t i o n . I n t h i s kind of problem s i t u a t i o n , there may be any number of appropriate approaches and 'solutions', thus 'creative problem solving' becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Whereas the more t r a d i t i o n a l problem solving processes tend to e s t a b l i s h a f a i r l y r i g i d frame of reference fo r any given problem and then proceed to consider the problem within that context only, 'creative' problem solving tends to appreciate the openness of the problem proceeding with a less r e s t r i c t i v e consideration of the various a l t e r n a t i v e solutions which might be ap-p l i e d to the problem. Creative problem sol v i n g i s characterized by the same at t r i b u t e s as the creative i n d i v i d u a l — i t i s non-conforming ( i e . i t varies according to the problem being considered), contains active subconscious and imaginative elements ( i e . i t appears to be more i n -t u i t i v e than l o g i c a l ) , and tends to produce unique 25 or novel ideas. I t i s therefore p a r t i c u l a r l y ap-p l i c a b l e to complex and open-ended urban problems which c e r t a i n l y merit a problem-specific and imagina-t i v e approach and a serious consideration of a l t e r -native methods of solu t i o n . Many researchers have studied the workings of the mind during problem solving, attempting to under-stand how and why some processes appear to be more creative than others. One of t h e i r strongest conclu-sions i s that the process of creative problem solving involves, more than the t r a d i t i o n a l process, the powers 27 of the subconscious mind and the imagination. In-deed many researchers believe that the subconscious may be better able to r e t a i n , analyze, and organize thought material more e f f i c i e n t l y than the conscious 2 8 mind. However since so l i t t l e i s d e f i n i t i v e l y known about the subconscious mind, the exact nature of i t s r o l e i s s t i l l speculative. While i t i s evident that the subconscious mind has some input during a l l phases of the problem solving 29 process, i t i s believed that i t s greatest contribution comes d i r e c t l y a f t e r the phases of information gathering and idea generation, thus modifying the basic process as follows: 3. Problem D e f i n i t i o n (as previously defined) 2. Information Gathering (as previously defined) 3. Idea Generation This phase involves the conscious genera-t i o n of as many ideas as possible regar-ding the solutions of the problem. Incubation and Illumination This phase involves subconscious mental a c t i v i t y and culminates i n a sudden revelation of a conceptual solution to the problem. 5. Refinement In t h i s phase, the conceptual solution provided by the subconscious mind i s modified and refined to s u i t the o r i g i n a l problem conditions. 6. Communication and Evaluation (as previously defined) In the 'creative problem solving process' then, the t h i r d phase — 'solution f i n d i n g ' — of the more t r a d i t i o n a l problem solving process i s expanded int o three separate stages which d i s t i n g u i s h the contribu-tions of the conscious and subconscious minds during t h i s phase. In attempting to teach the creative problem solving process, one must consider the a b i l i t i e s required by an i n d i v i d u a l engaging i n the process, the educational methods through which these a b i l i t i e s may best be developed, and the educational atmosphere most condu-cive to t h e i r development. I t i s the b e l i e f of many 30 educators that the most e f f e c t i v e method of learning a process i s through d i r e c t experience of i t . I t therefore follows that the most e f f e c t i v e method of teaching a process i s through the f a c i l i t a t i o n of t h i s experience. The teacher, i n t h i s context, assumes a more passive r o l e , guiding the student through the s e l f - i n i t i a t e d problem-solving process by helping him 31 to develop the necessary a b i l i t i e s . Format From these ideas on problem solving, c r e a t i v i t y , and education, I intend to develop a number of sugges-tions regarding the design of programs of creative problem-oriented urban studies. My discussion w i l l focus on the educational methods and techniques which might be used to enhance the student's creative problem solving a b i l i t i e s i n the urban realm. In keeping with the e x p e r i e n t i a l approach to education, I w i l l discuss these a b i l i t i e s and methods i n the approximate order that they are required by the student as he progresses through the problem solving process. However i t w i l l become evident, during t h i s discussion, that a l l of the a b i l i t i e s are required, to some extent, throughout the process, and furthermore that, none of them may be completely or f u l l y developed i n the course of a few problem solving exercises, but w i l l develop incremen-t a l l y over the course of a l i f e t i m e of problem solving. Nevertheless i t i s my contention that the student's a b i l i t y to u t l i z e the creative problem solving pro-cess w i l l be greatly enhanced i f he i s encouraged to develop the basic s k i l l s associated with each phase of the process as they are required. Thus each ex-periencing of the process enhances the student's a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e i t e f f e c t i v e l y . CREATIVE URBAN-ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING: TEACHING THE PROCESS Introduction Before he can engage meaningfully i n the creative problem solving process, the i n d i v i d u a l must acquire some background knowledge i n the f i e l d of h i s endea-32 vour. In the context of solving urban problems (or 'urban problem solving') then, the i n d i v i d u a l must be-come aware of the ' c i t y ' as a s o c i a l and physical phenomenon and as the s p e c i f i c environment i n which he l i v e s . He must develop h i s perceptual awareness and objective knowledge of the c i t y . At the same 33 time, the i n d i v i d u a l must become more self-aware , more se n s i t i v e to h i s interactions with the urban environment — how he perceives, reacts to, and i n -fluences the c i t y as well as how i t reacts to and influences him. To develop t h i s general awareness of the c i t y , the i n d i v i d u a l should p a r t i c i p a t e i n experiences which involve not only an exploration of the c i t y , but also an exploration of s e l f . On the following pages are suggestions f o r three ' s e n s i t i c i t y ' exercises which might be designed to achieve t h i s goal. The f i r s t of these, 'SOUND' (see Figure 1) i s intended to s h i f t the student's awareness of the c i t y from one that i s v i s u a l l y dominated to one that i s a u d i t o r i a l y dominated. The suggestions l i s t e d under 'sounding' and 'noise' ( i n Figure 1) encourage the student to venture i n t o the urban environment, to experience i t , and to i n t e r a c t with i t , on a new l e v e l of awareness. Those under 'hearing', ' l i s t e n -ing', 'sound', and 'music* encourage the student to use h i s imagination, to be more areative i n his thinking. Exercises designed around these ideas should attempt to develop not only the student's knowledge of the nature of sound and i t s r o l e i n the c i t y , but also the various influences that sound has on urban man. For example, student might be encouraged to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p between constant background NEBMIffc f i n d o u t a l l you can abo u t ' e a r s ' .... then d e s i g n an 'urban e a r ' f o r p e o p l e who l i v e i n the urb...make a s c a l e model o f y o u r ' u r b e a r ' ...! LISTENIM6 what i s t h e sound o f : a b u i l d i n g p i e r c i n g t h e s k y ? t h e sun as i t r i s e s o v e r t h e c i t y ? t h e c i t y g r o w i n g ? s u b u r b i a ? Sauitft d e s i g n : 1. a new and unu-s u a l sound 2. a t h i n g t o e l i c i t t h a t sound go o u t i n t o t h e c i t y and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h sound... t r y y e l l i n g , w h i s p e r i n g , w h i s t l i n g , s i n g i n g . . . i n . . .an open p l a z a , a t a h i g h r i s e , i n a cement p a r k i n g l o t , t o a lamp-p o s t , i n a c l o s e t , i n someone's e a r . . . . ! t r y t o d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between p r i v a c y and sound... M O B s e t r y t o r e c o n s t r u c t y o u r c i t y t h rough sound: g e t ev e r y o n e to go t o a d i f f e r -e n t p l a c e i n the c i t y and r e c o r d the sounds o f t h a t p l a c e , t h e n . . . . 1. t r y to i d e n t i f y t h e p l a c e s by sound -- make a 'sound map' o f y o u r c i t y , u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e symbols 2. by e d i t i n g and j o i n i n g the v a r i o u s t a p e s , compose an 'urban sound symphony' around a theme su c h as --' u r b a s i a ' 'wrecker's r o c k ' '3pm t o 5pm1 '2120 A.D.' ' s i l e n c e ' tpmimmi *~V=> C7 £ y J ( Z . W O O JtofSlC i f a l l o f the bu" d i n g s on the mair s t r e e t o f y o u r c were m u s i c a l notf what song would 1 s t r e e t p l a y ? i f you were a mus c a l i n s t r u m e n t , which one would y be? ....why? noises, such as t r a f f i c , construction noise, etc., and p h s i c a l fatigue: which areas of the c i t y do people f i n d most t i r i n g , and what role does noise play i n t h i s effect? In exploring t h i s question, students might construct a three dimensional 'soundscape' map of the c i t y , showing the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s of sounds at various places i n the c i t y . An exercise on sound might be designed to provide the student with the opportunity to experiment with various kind3 of technical equipment f o r the measure-ment, production, and recording of sound and with d i f f e r e n t kinds of verbal and non-verbal communication. Again the suggestions l i s t e d under 'noise' i n Figure 1 might be u t i l i z e d to achieve these objectives. Exercises focussing on the sense of touch, smell, taste, and sight could s i m i l a r l y be developed. These exercises should incorporate as many aspects of each sense as possible, prompting the student to explore several avenues, to broaden h i s knowledge base. I t might be i n t e r e s t i n g to construct a series of overlay maps (one for each sense) to describe the sensory environment of the c i t y . The second set of suggestions (see Figure 2) i s intended to focus the student's attention on one el e -ment of the c i t y — i n t h i s case the 'wall' — which he has probably not considered seriously before. I t attempts to introduce the student to the many d i f f e r e n t levels of experience involved i n the concept of 'wall* by requesting him to contemplate 'wallness': 'What i s a wall?' The student should be encouraged to think about a l l kinds of walls — physical, s o c i a l and personal walls — as we l l as t h e i r uses — as b a r r i e r s , containers, and objets d'art. An i n t e r e s t i n g project for one or two students might involve a study of the h i s t o r y of walls i n c i v i l i z a t i o n . How and why were they b u i l t ? How have they developed over the ages? Students might even t r y changing the appearance and/or the function of one of the walls i n t h e i r classroom. In donjunction with the concept of 'wall', various r e l a t e d concepts such as space, privacy, containment, and punishment might be discussed. Students might t r y to design a prison without walls1 Once again the student should be encouraged to venture out into the urban environment and to i n t e r a c t 21, <3? G2) « 3? with i t , discovering as much about himself as he does about h i s c i t y . Thus, as i n the suggestions i n Figure 1, the student might be requested to explore the multitude of walls i n hi s c i t y (perhaps recording h i s observations with a camera or pen and i n k ) , and then to design a wall f o r himself which best r e f l e c t s h i s personality and his r e l a t i o n s h i p to hi s external environment. Similar exercises might be designed around concepts such as windows, roof-tops, edges, chimneys, r e f l e c t i o n s bridges, etc. Because each of these concepts has some physical manifestation i n the c i t y the student can ex-perience them d i r e c t l y and concretely, thereby gaining a deeper understanding of t h e i r nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e . More abstract concepts — such as time, space, den-s i t y , change, etc. — are much more d i f f i c u l t to under-stand. They have only i n d i r e c t physical manifestations, yet they are of c r u c i a l importance to the c i t y . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of time, which i s such an impor-tant f a c t o r i n any consideration of the c i t y . The student should be exposed, through appropriate exercises to the hourly, d a i l y , and seasonal changes which occur i n the c i t y . Photographs or drawings of some p a r t i c u l a r 23. place i n the city at various times of the day or year might be displayed as a mural or collage. In addition, the city's influence on our notion of time should be explored: why do we feel rushed when we are i n the downtown core? how does a windowless environment affect our sense of the passage of time? And of course the long-term influence of time on the cit y must also be studied, the physical and social changes that have taken place over the history of the city, the changes that are li k e l y to take place in years to come. It i s this issue which i s addressed in the poem in Figure 3 , 'TIME'. The student i s re-quested to explore his urban environment for vestiges of times gone by — old landmarks, a wooden paving stone showing through the ashphalt — and to attempt to recreate i n his imagination what might once have been there and what might be there i n the future. The value of such sensiticity exercises i s that they may be undertaken on a number of different levels from the physical or perceptual level through to the cultural and social level. In addition, they may be used to develop such specific s k i l l s as mapping, sketching, photography, etc., as well as a b i l i t i e s in 24 KE passage, of-kms. re-ueak fWlf •^ ne SUYL -fcVve. mooyi tir\£ t i d i e r ars a l l -time's rnixiums tlr\s passage. o9~tuAas toWcdb is - t h e urban c l o c k s Lfid on wboua c g h o s V — ecomt a a ubfbarb clock. Figure 3 TIME the communication and presentation of ideas. Once the student has been 'introduced' to the c i t y , he i s better able to engage i n urban problem solving a c t i v i t i e s . These begin with problem d e f i n i t i o n . Problem D e f i n i t i o n As the i n d i v i d u a l explores the urban environment, he w i l l encounter situations which he finds disturb-ing or 'problematical'. Hopefully h i s previous i n -volvement i n urban experiences w i l l prompt him to consider these sit u a t i o n s more c a r e f u l l y , to t r y to resolve them. In t h i s endeavour the in d i v i d u a l ' s f i r s t task i s to i d e n t i f y the problem — to e s t a b l i s h i t s context, i t s scope, and i t s complexity or depth — to define the problem. Quite obviously t h i s task demands the use of reason: the i n d i v i d u a l must analyze and evaluate the s i t u a t i o n , discriminating between relevent and i r r e l e v e n t information, i n order to come up with a l o g i c a l and comprehensive problem statement. But apart from the a b i l i t y to reason, the creative problem solver requires two ad d i t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s : a 34 35 tolerance of ambiguity and 'cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y ' According to the poet K e a t s 0 0 , an individual's a b i l i t y to t o l e r a t e ambiguity may be described as a 'negative c a p a b i l i t y 1 : he experiences 'uncertainties, mysteries [and] doubts, without any i r r i t a b l e reaching a f t e r fact and reason.' In chaotic problem s i t u a t i o n s , the advantage of t h i s c a p a b i l i t y i s evident. Whereas an insecure i n d i v i d u a l tends to i n h i b i t the problem solving process by imposing a premature structure on the s i t u a t i o n (to provide s e c u r i t y ) , a more t o l e r -ant i n d i v i d u a l r e f r a i n s from imposing a structure and thus 'keeps the problem open'. In order to take advantage of t h i s openness, the creative problem solver must also possess 'cognitive f l e x i b i l t y ' . This r e f e r s to h i s a b i l i t y to perceive a s i t u a t i o n from a variety of mental perspectives and to s h i f t quickly from the consideration of one perspec-37 38 ti v e to another. I t i s believed that the i n d i v i -dual's cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y during problem d e f i n i t i o n i s of c r u c i a l importance to the o v e r a l l c r e a t i v i t y of the ensuing problem solving a c t i v i t y . I f the i n d i v i d u a l i s able to e s t a b l i s h , from the outset, a wide variety of perspectives on the problem, he w i l l l i k e l y be able to generate more ideas towards i t s solu t i o n at a l a t e r stage i n the process. It is my contention that the student's tolerance of ambiguity may best be developed by confronting him 39 with complex and challenging situations. These must be structured in such a way that they do not overwhelm and intimidate the student, but rather stimulate his interest and involvement, thereby facilitating the development of his ability to tolerate ambiguous problem situations. For example, an older high school or university student might be asked to 'survive' in the city for a given period of time and with a limited amount of money (see Figure 4, 'URBAN SURVIVAL'). No additional instructions need to be given, and no spe-cific problem or project need be assigned. Thus the student must deal with both a complex and perhaps c confusing physical and social situation (the unknown environment) and an ambiguous problem assignment (to survive). Depending on a teacher's educational ob-jectives and the environment involved, an 'urban sur-vival' exercise might be developed to suit almost any group of students. Even youngsters could be left, perhaps in pairs, in strange urban environments (such as a department store, an unknown suburb, etc.) for short periods of time. 28. An i n t e r e s t i n g question which might be considered i n connection with urban s u r v i v a l i s what s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences e x i s t between urban and wilderness s u r v i v a l : what are the ind i v i d u a l ' s p r i o r i t i e s i n each situation? The teacher may also wish to have h i s stu-dents consider s u r v i v a l as a way of l i f e , to compare i t with the more decadent and luxurious lifestyles l i v e d i n various other parts of the c i t y . Or students might explore the concept of s u r v i v a l from the view-point of the entire c i t y : how does the c i t y 'survive'? where does i t s food and water come from? where does i t s waste go? A number of exercises have been developed to un enhance the ind i v i d u a l ' s cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y . The 'figure completion' exercise, developed by Torrance , requires the student to complete a graphic or written idea (eg. a figure, story, poem, etc.) i n as many d i f f e r e n t ways as possible. For example, a sheet of paper printed with 30 i d e n t i c a l c i r c l e s might be issued to the student with the instructions that he should make these c i r c l e s i n t o a3 many d i f f e r e n t and o r i g i n a l urban forms as he can think of (eg. a parking meter, stop sign, street l i g h t , e t c . ) . Or the student might be asked to provide a novel conclusion to an incomplete poem or story about some urban incident or phenomenon (eg. the description of a c i t y i n 2050 A.D.). Si m i l a r l y Torrance's 'uses f o r things' exercise requires the student to suggest as many o r i g i n a l uses as possible for an ordinary object such as a t i n can, a b r i c k , a paper-clip, etc. As i n the sample suggested exercises on the following page (see Figure 5, 'USES FOR THINGS'), an urban studies class might consider the range of possible uses for empty parking l o t s , the spaces under bridges, roof-tops, old telephone poles, etc. Both f i g u r e completion' and 'uses for things' pro-mote cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y by requiring the student to perceive the same piece of information from a variety of perspectives. They are generally intended as short (15 to 30 minute) mental warm-ups, to be used at frequent i n t e r v a l s during the problem solving pro-cess and e s p c i a l l y during the early phases of problem d e f i n i t i o n and idea generation. The student's a b i l i t i e s i n problem d e f i n i t i o n may also be developed simply by requesting him to consider O a O 6 a o o ooo tAcK such complex urban issues as transportation, housing, poverty, and zoning. While problems abound i n a l l of these areas, i t i s often extremely d i f f i c u l t to define a problem because there are so many factors involved i n each issue. This becomes increasingly apparent as one explores the various aspects of, f o r example, transportation. The suggested exercises and projects described i n Figure 6, 'TRANSPORTATION', do not formulate or define a transportation problem per se. Instead the student i s required to formulate for himself the problems associated with urban trans-portation (such as the c o n f l i c t between pedestrian and vehicular t r a f f i c ) , and to t r y to understand and a r t i c u l a t e these problems as he explores the various modes of urban transportation. According to the de-sign of t h i s exercise, the student may be required to solve one or more of the problems he discovers or sim-ply to l i s t the r e a l and p o t e n t i a l problems as he en-counters them during h i s explorations. The exercise may also be designed to develop certain s k i l l s , such as photography, graphics, mapping, etc., and to en-courage o r i g i n a l and imaginative thinking. v 33. Is mm (kfitf <£> d i 1 C9 CAT) 5s CD J fe fe? WD GP Oaf) a * <£><?0 I S t f ' S ^ S * Sis? [<» ^ <&D <3 <3<» 05* mis £ 3 w © =^9 <3 o«2> F i g u r e 6 T R A N S P O R T A T K Information Gathering Having determined the general context of h i s problem, the i n d i v i d u a l commences the r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t forward but often tedious and time con-suming task of c o l l e c t i n g the relevent information for i t s solution. The importance of t h i s stage to the o v e r a l l problem solving process i s acknow-ledged by most authors , however there i s some debate over the amount of e f f o r t that should be n i l expended i n t h i s phase. According to Gagne : One person i s better at solving a pro-blem than another because he knows  more — because he has more information of the sort thai u l t i m a t e l y turns out to be relevant to the problem or to the process of solving i t . Therefore a prolonged period of information gather-ing should r e s u l t i n better problem solving. On the 4-5 other hand, some authors contend that an overabun-dance of information may s t i f l e creative problem solving by imposing unnecessary r e s t r i c t i o n s on the problem. Nevertheless, i t i s evident that some information must be c o l l e c t e d , and i n t h i s endeavour the problem solver requires such s k i l l s as are involved i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of equipment (eg. video and tape recorders., cameras, etc.) arid techniques (eg. interviewing, sur-veying, etc.) associated with information gathering. In addition, t h i s phase requires not only the student's powers of l o g i c and reason to conduct the necessary analysis and evaluation of incoming information, but also his more subjective powers of sensory perception to appreciate the s o c i a l and emotional overtones of the problem. While t r a d i t i o n a l problem solving tends to concen-trate on the student's a b i l i t y to reason and think c r i t i c a l l y , creative problem solving tends to b a l -ance t h i s approach by including a considerably greater subjective component i n t h i s stage. An exercise which may be used to enhance both of these a b i l i t i e s as well as the student's s k i l l s i n one p a r t i c u l a r me hod of information gathering i s 'mapping'. In t h i s exercise the student i s required to design a map of h i s c i t y or some part of i t and to a r t i c u l a t e c e r t a i n kinds of information on i t . Some suggested ideas f o r the kinds of information which might be mapped appear on the following page (see Figure 7, "MAPPING1). The teacher may concentrate on developing the student's a b i l i t i e s i n c o l l e c t i n g , organizing, and presenting such fa c t u a l information as the location of underground services, the f r e -quency of cars i n an area of the c i t y , c i v i c boun-daries, topographical features, etc. Or he may focus on the student's emotional and perceptual s e n s i t i v i t y to the c i t y , requesting him to indicate on h i s map the 'moods' of various communities, the smells and textures most prevalent i n certa i n areas, the l e a s t s e n s i t i v e buildings, etc. The map i t s e l f might be a small notebook sketch or a large scale wall map including three dimensional features. Students should be encouraged to make t h e i r maps o r i -g i n a l and unusual, adding informational, v i s u a l , and tex t u r a l variety whenever possible. Over a period of time a classroom wap adorned i n t h i s fashion could e a s i l y become a community a t t r a c t i o n as well as a valuable source of information. While i t i s not necessary that the information c o l l e c t e d during mapping r e l a t e to a s p e c i f i c pro-blem ( i e . i t might be u t i l i z e d simply to enhance the student's general appreciation of the c i t y ) , i t i s often useful to approach problems through mapping. For example, i n considering the problem of providing more amenable public spaces i n a given area of the c i t y , students might map the various a c t i v i t i e s which occur i n that area and then t r y to determine how these i n t e r a c t with each other. Hopefully, some f o c a l points w i l l be discovered which may then be explored with design objectives i n mind. The stu-dent's s k i l l s i n interviewing, graphing, using recor-ding equipment, etc. could s i m i l a r l y be developed through appropriately designed exercises i n v o l v i n g these s k i l l s . Idea Generation I t i s i n t h i s phase of problem solving that the creative approach d i f f e r s most s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the more t r a d i t i o n a l approach. Whereas the t r a d i -t i o n a l problem sol v i n g approach proceeds with a con-ventional analysis of information, decision on the appropriate strategy, and s o l u t i o n of the problem according to the format of the chosen strategy, creative problem sol v i n g proceeds with what has 47 been c a l l e d ' l a t e r a l ' or 'divergent' thinking These terms r e f e r to an expansive and free-wheeling thought process as opposed to a more focussed and controlled ('convergent') process. Divergent thinking makes greater use of the imagination as a bridge i n t o the re s e r v o i r of ideas stored i n the sub-conscious mind. Its object i s to generate as many ideas as possible about the problem, not to f i n d the one idea which s a t i s f i e s the problem requirements. By using divergent thinking, the creative problem solver increases his l i k e l i h o o d of discovering an unusual sol u t i o n which, though i t s a t i s f i e s the problem requirements, i s not necessarily a ' l o g i c a l ' s olution i n that i t may involve the use of objects and ideas not normally associated with the problem 48 context. Authors i n the f i e l d of c r e a t i v i t y have designed a number of exercises to help the i n d i v i d u a l develop hi s a b i l i t i e s i n divergent thinking. These u t i l i z e three main techniques: brainstorming, play, and metaphorical thinking. 49 'Brainstorming' refers to the group process of generating as many ideas as possible regarding a con-cept or object. Generally t h i s concept represents an. i n t e g r a l part of a larger problem. For example, i f one were attempting to design a new system of rapid t r a n s i t , one might brainstorm the concept of trans-portation — how many d i f f e r e n t kinds of transporta-t i o n are there? how do they operate? Participants are generally instructed to express t h e i r ideas f r e e l y , without passing judgement on t h e i r apparent relevence or ultimate value as solutions to the problem. This i s referred to as the method of fde-50 ferred judgement' . When new ideas are exhausted, the group considers each idea more c a r e f u l l y , iden-t i f y i n g i t s relationships to the problem (eg. common pr i n c i p l e s and ideas) and how these might aid i n i t s sol u t i o n . In terms of the previous example, the pr i n c i p l e s of pipeline transport might be found to be applicable to the rapid t r a n s i t of individuals — people pipes? As i l l u s t r a t e d on the following page (Figure 8, 'REUSING'), the problem of re-using objects and events might well be approached by the brainstorming method. The f i r s t part of t h i s problem i s f a r i l y s traight forward. The student chooses an object, such as an old parking meter(s), p l a s t i c container(s), gas-station, or f i r e h a l l , and attempts to think of a l l of the ways i n which t h i s object might be re-used. The second part of the problem — re-using an 'experi-Approx. 10 acs. cleared, fenced view ppty.. barn, horse & few beef cattle. Langley area, close to free-way to Vane. Phone now re terms etc. RUSS WICKS, 581-1181 (eves. 531-4785) HILLTOP AGENCIES LTD. 10ACRES-$9800 Nicely treed property In the Cari-boo. Excellent hunting & fishing area. Existing mortgage at 8 ' » % . royd Jantzen, Beaver Rltv. '.M., 228-0(529 or 736-2544. 30 ACRE-5 mi., east of Blain, 'j t.-the border part., treed, acre tracts. $1800 per terms at 8% int.. Disco 206-332-8970  Q U A L I C U M R E T I R E M E N T S P E C I A L S —2 bdrm. full basement, V.L .A.-sized lot, newly renovated, only $25,000. —2 br, full basement, half acre lot, fireplace, some ocean view, broad-loom thrcighout. $31,000. —3 br., ; '11 basement, right In the ••«. f r t»vwt s»»r" r r . r f , n» . -toe- ? WESTSECHELT Large lots (75'xl50'>, paved roads, water & power. F.P. $11,000. Fi-nancing at 10 ' ! % • phone Owner, Ron Williams, 987-0154.  SOUTH PENDER 330' gravel beach 1- ac. treed privacy in shel-tered harbour. Dandy bldg. site. $32,900.Offers. Terms. No inter-est till 1975! E. C. Weber Co. Ltd., 943-9371.  T>/>":SBY—SVCHFV '• ' ••• . . '*•>•:.viced. '/-;..':.;";:?,>: ': ,o?z; . :59. 3 bdrm., full bsmt. Iv enste. plumbing, built I er, 4.75 acres lot, big buildings, land all clear Baker 1 mtns., offers eves. 856-6691.  Hugh & McKinnon R Cloverdale, White Roc INVEST IN WASH 20 ac. $297500. (206)7, 160 acres lake from area . 531-7834. 2.37 ac. treed, 61/24C Country Squire Rlty. 354 FARMS & R/ LYNDEN.SU/ FERNDAL WASHING" 6 dairy farms from 401 with or without cow. and quota. Call Pete B strap Realtors 206-73 nings 206-398-9205) 3 " Belflngham, WA 98225 By owner — Apprr , Cariboo Ranch land wl serviced trailer horn small bldgs. Located Big Lake. Includes sci vice, electricity, ex< abundant water for s 250 acres cleared, hay a small lake full of r F.P. $175,000. Forfui . tlon phone Parksville • BLUEBER 19 'j acre farm, 7 acr ries. Just coming int Tremendous potentia home and 16x34' sv, . also 3 bedroom home John Stegeman, 465*5 * Haney Realty Ltd. PEACE RIVER COUN 640 acres — 200 t-.-variable. Good 3 b Water & power, shop, etc. Good ac Fort St. John. $60 neft 929-2023. Cr« .-. 1381 Marine Drive, ver. 922-6196. Only8%In 7027 264 St., Langh acres, large 3 bean house, hog sheds & o George Mukanik • Raymar Realty Lt< LESS THAN $3,000 Approx. 52 acre farn home hugh barn & mostly fenced. Term 10%. Call Milt Hunn or 381-3321. • WOLSTENC: Since 19: 1T 900 ACR With 500 acres de River. There is al expansion potentia. ner 733.8671: K 732.3640. Squire : 736.2461. BEAT INFLA Buy this beautiful 4 nestled down on the large hill. Modern ho Lots of pure water. 1 miles to town of T\ $90,000. Phone eves Peace River blocl farmland, 300 acres b.r. home, power pi school bus, fair outbuildings. Must sell. $30,000. Phone 112-351-2226. H. J. Hlndmarch Spirit River, Alta. Delta — 40 Acres 5 room Pan-A-Bode home, barn, suitable for riding stables. Gillis In-vestments, 321-6424, ' eves. 325-7821. 320 acres of ranchland, 14 mi, from town of St. Pauls, Alta., 2 mi. off pavement. Older type buildings. $35,000. Call eves.. 403-645-2398. j . ' ' Pni-m llstfnaa..wanted 490 Trans-Canada Highway, Duncan, B.C., 746-4175 C0WICHAN VALLEY ONE ACRE OF PRIVACY Charming older home with a character all its own sitting in the midst of a lovely secluded garden. This 4 bedrm. home with bsmt. & separate 2 car garage is situated on a quiet I 74 C D I A I 175' beach, boat house, elec. park-like setting, salmon fisl your own front yard. Home 4 cotltage. Nr. Anacortes, W,ash Prop Research Co. Nr. Anac Wash. OCEAN FRONT U 50x150' at Belcarra Park. 1 view of Inlet 4 Deep Cove, road access and ample water, available. F.P. $55,000. Ric yon, 942-0150 or Kenyon 1 Ltd.. 588-6591 • _ Beautiful 2 level lakefront 3 BR, rec rm., boat garage., lent dock. Prime property. Goodwin. 50 mlns. south of I ham. Close to Wenberg State $45,000. 206-676-0821 or 652-7150 Vancouver Island Waterfro 'cialists. Thor Peterson, Coi Realty Ltd., Box 489, Ca River, B.C.  Lakeside cabin. $8000. 594-4016. Waterfront Okanagan Lak rlfic value. Private. 526-8214 361 RECREATIONAL PROP! ISLAND PROPERTY L A C L A H A C H E 18 waterfront lots averaging1 Price range from $7,500-$ 10% down, balance over six y 9%. Payments $95 per mo. Secord Lampman Capilano Highlands Ltd 1575 West Georgia Stre< Vancouver, B.C. 682-3764 or call colled Goldbrldge 224 Camano Is. Wash. Here Is your golden opporti Wooded homesMe , 2 ij acres . 3 acres bluff wtrfront . . . . $ 5 acres Take your pick. EZ terms, low est, free bridge, no ferry. 9( south of Vancouver. Call Coc Estate, 112-206-387-5611.-SALESMEN WAN! 100% comm. paid, $200 per 1st month ln advance. J. Ft 874-1866 or 327-8315. M.A.R.S. REALTY L SUDDEN VALLEY Exceptional view lot fronting < course at Sudden Valley OF Whatcom, Wash. Closing cost sume contract or best offer. C John Anderson. 206-284-8661 $2950 Beautifully timbered view lot tastic potential. Lake Whatcoi lingham. Terms. 681-2162. FREE CATALOGUE . SUNSHINE COAST In Vane. Phone 689-5831 Sechelt Agencies Ltd. Box 128, Sechelt, B.C. Sudden Valley, view lot -Bellingham. Wash. Close tn to ational facilities. Includes go membership. Reasonable. Ct lecteves; Seattle, (206) 282-! M O U N T B A K E R >« acre serviced lot, by ovvnei Land Option of lot Sat. 24th., 1 to 4 p.m., with proci Bellingham.Boys Club. Cai PAridlse 8 ml. S. Abbotsford/ border station. . . BLACK MOUNTAIN RAN Choice cleared river view lot \ without new 23' Trailer $6,000, Trailer, $3,500. ' 736-4698._ PITT LAKE Beautifully ' treed waterfront Bus. 936-0484 res. 941-2306, Big Gun Lake ,100* waterfront lots, 1 with Back lots with access to watei 9109 or 437-0046.  $2000 down, $103 mo., beautiful creek-side lot ln i Valley, Full price, $9,900, 6216.  POINT ROBERTS Boundary,Hgts. , 2 service 65x120, call Les & make an 733-6520.  Chioce p»bn T j i k A l n t . aoo ing & hun . on hydro. i r l g u r e 8 Whistl« oHil RE-USING Gunn Lane,, z/OLjicns. o » ence' — i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t , p a r t l y because of i t s ambiguity (how does one 're-use' an experience?), and p a r t l y because experiences are often more complex and abstract than objects. They are thus less e a s i l y v i s u a l i z e d and manipulated i n the mind. The student must f i r s t define the experience he wishes to consider (eg. shopping, r i d i n g on a bus, etc.) and then t r y to a l t e r that experience i n such a manner that i t s s i g -n i f icance or meaning i s changed. In e f f e c t , a second dimension i s added to the experience. In both cases the brainstorming method helps the student to generate numerous and unusual ideas f o r the re-use of objects and experiences. During brainstorming even the wildest and s i l l i e s t ideas should be encouraged i f only f o r t h e i r c a t a l y t i c value. A f t e r the brainstorming session, i n d i v i d u a l students (or groups of students) could develop one of the ideas into a viable solution to the problem of r e c y c l i n g the o r i g i n a l object. The value of play — physical and mental f r o -l i c k i n g — to learning and thinking has long been 51 recognized by both educators and psychologists In the process of idea generation, an attitude of playfulness enhances the powers of the imagination by allowing the i n d i v i d u a l to escape the bounds of r a t i o n -a l i t y imposed hy the conscious mind and to benefit more d i r e c t l y from the influence of the less i n h i b i t e d subconscious mind. During t h i s phase of problem s o l -ving, then, the teacher might encourage the use of games involving both physical and mental a c t i v i t y , which promote an atmosphere of fun and relaxation. Some general ideas f o r a game which might be used i n an urban studies course appear as 'rules' i n Figure 9, 'URBAN GAMES'. Any number of games could be developed from t h i s basis, focussing, for example, on the p o l i t i -c a l systems which operate within a c i t y , or on the vast communications networks that operate both within and between c i t i e s . The games may be extremely complex, requiring students to develop i n t r i c a t e strategies of play. Or they may stress physical a c t i v i t y within the c i t y , as i n a game of urban basketball, where the c i t y i s the courtI During the playing of games, students should be encouraged to assume the roles of other people, of animals, and of inanimate objects — to "become the 52 thing' . While such sympathetic role-playing i s r e l a t i v e l y easy i n a game s i t u a t i o n , i t may be some-R U L E S • I n v e n t an u r b a n game t h a t : 1. c a n be p l a y e d by 20 o r m o r e p e o p l e a t o n e t i m e ( i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n t e a m s ) 2. t a k e s o n e h a l f t o one d a y t o p l a y 3. e n h a n c e s t h e p l a y e r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c i t y 4. r e q u i r e s p l a y e r s t o go o u t i n t o t h e c i t y ( o p t i o n a l ) 5. a l l o w s f o r t h e p a r t i -c i p a t i o n o f t h e ' p u b l i c ' ( o p t i o n a l ) 6. i s f u n t o p l a y ! ( n o t o p t i o n a l ) T r y p l a y i n g t h e name i n y o u r c l a s s . . . i n o t h e r c l a s s e s . I n v e n t a o p r o p r i a t e p r i z e s f o r w i n n e r s . . . a n d l o s e r s ! what more d i f f i c u l t ' d u r i n g the more serious a c t i v i t y of problem solving. Yet role-playing can be of tremendous assistance i n the problem solving process. I f properly undertaken, i t can provide the i n d i v i d u a l with valuable insights into the essences of inanimate objects, i n t o the thoughts and feelings of other i n -di v i d u a l s , and into h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s . For example, the student might assume the guise of an o l d b u i l d i n g , f e e l i n g i t s inner l i f e and form i n order to gain some insight i n t o the problem of r e v i -t a l i z i n g or remodeling the bu i l d i n g . The opportunities for using role-playing are unlimited: v i r t u a l l y any problem includes some aspect which may be approached i n t h i s manner. Its use brings a welcome element of fun and spontaneity i n t o the problem solving process. A s p e c i a l kind of game which deserves separate mention i s the 'simulation game'. This has been de-S 3 f i n e d by Maidment and Bronstein as follows : A simulation game, as the name implies, contains c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both a simu-l a t i o n and a game. I t i s an a c t i v i t y i n which participants i n t e r a c t within an a r t i f i c i a l l y produced environment which recreates some aspect of s o c i a l r e a l i t y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s , termed players, assume the r o l e s of indivi d u a l s or groups who e x i s t i n the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l system being simulated. Their goals and those of the actors they represent are the same. The simulation game i s p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable then, i n s ituations where d i r e c t experience i s impossible or impractical because of time or space constraints, expense, p o l i t i c s , etc. Simulation games are believed to have some par-t i c u l a r educational advantages, such as 'their a b i l i -ty to focus attention, t h e i r requirement for action rather than merely passive observation, t h e i r ab-s t r a c t i o n of simple elements from the complex con-fusion of r e a l i t y , and the i n t r i n s i c rewards they hold f o r mastery' . In addition they provide 'a new and non-authoritan role f o r the teacher, a more r e a l -i s t i c and relevant presentation of learning experiences, s s and an increase i n student motivation and i n t e r e s t ' In the mid I960's the value of simulation games i n the education of urban planners and decision-makers 56 became evident. The increasing complexity of the c i t y and the growing amount of information avai l a b l e to urban decision-makers were making the task of under-5 7 standing the c i t y almost impossible. The use of games which reduced the c i t y and i t s systems to a com-prehensible whole allowed both planner and student a l i k e to develop an understanding of the c i t y . A number of games involving various aspects of the c i t y have been developed, many of which are available for classroom use (see l i s t of organizations at end of paper). Of these, perhaps the best known are CLUG and CITY I I , which have undergone, since t h e i r con-ception i n the early 1960 fs, a great deal of r e f i n e -ment . While commercially developed games may s u i t the educational objectives of the teacher, i t may be more desirable to have students design t h e i r own1 l o c a l l y based games. For example, i n Figure 10, 'GROWTH', students are requested to design a ' c i v i c development game'. This game could help to acquaint the student with the complex decision-making processes that occur at the municipal and regional l e v e l s . By •playing out' the roles of the people Involved i n such decision-making a c t i v i t i e s , the student gains an ap-prec i a t i o n of the myriad factors involved i n c i v i c development. While i t i s evident that the game de-sigend by the students w i l l have many imperfections, both as a game and as a simulation, i t i s becoming c l e a r that the greatest educational benefit to be gained from simulation games l i e s i n t h e i r design a 9 o what i s growth what 'stage o f growth i s y o u r c i t y a t . . . o o assume t h a t the run-away p o p u l a -t i o n growth has c a u s e d the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n t o t r i p l e ; c i t y c o u n c i l has d e c r e e d t h a t e v e r y r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k must t r i p l e i t s p r e s e n t pop-u l a t i o n ( e s t i m a t e d a t 5.5 p e o p l e per house) make a map o f y o u r b l o c k and f i g u r e o u t how y o u c o u l d accomo-date t h i s growth w i t h o u t d e m o l i -s h i n g e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g . , b e r -- more w i l l r e q u i r e a m e n i t i e s , ,as shops, p a r k s , ceenage, i n f a n t -hood, o r s e n i l i t y . . wha t i s CIVIC M V g e t a group p r o g r e s s p e o p l e to assume 'key' r o l e s i n the development o f a c i t y -- mayor, b u s i n e s s m e n , d e v e l o p e r s , ' e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s ' , e t c . g e t a l a r g e b l a n k map o f y o u r c i t y , p l a y money f o r each p l a y e r , and ' b l o c k s ' o r symbols t o as b u i l d i i remem-I p e o p l e (more such rather than i n t h e i r playing. The value of metaphorical thinking i n the genera-t i o n of ideas has long been recognized by poets and a r t i s t s , but has only recently become popular i n the educational context. In metaphorical thinking, one u t i l i z e s symbols to ' j o i n d i s s i m i l a r experiences' at 60 some l e v e l of meaning. In a r t i s t i c endeavours, i t i s most often used to add an extra dimension to a f a m i l i a r object or idea, to make something more c o l o u r f u l . U t i l i z i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of metaphorical 61 thinking, the Synectics Corporation has developed an exercise c a l l e d 'Making i t Strange' which encourages students to think of f a m i l i a r objects i n unusual terms, thereby promoting more novel perceptions of ordinary objects. For example, the student might be asked such questions as: 'What i s a lugubrious lamp-post?', 'How i s the c i t y l i k e a camera?', and 'How i s walking downtown l i k e playing a musical instrument?'. In h i s consideration of these questions, as the student draws analogies between the two ideas involved, he may discover novel ideas which, i f not of immediate value, may be useful i n future problem solving a c t i v i t i e s . Incubation and Illumination I t i s during incubation and ill u m i n a t i o n that the subconscious mind makes i t s greatest contribution to 6 2 the problem solving process. But because the sub-conscious s t i l l eludes man's complete understanding, the exact nature of i t s contribution can only be guessed from the outward manifestations during t h i s phase. Of the many explanations which have been 6 3 6 4 offered, one of the cle a r e s t i s by Kubie: Preconsciously we process many things at a time. By processes of free associations, we take ideas and approximate r e a l i t i e s apart and make swift condensations of t h e i r multiple a l l e g o r i c a l and emotional import. Preconscious processes make free use of analogy and allegory, superimposing d i s -s i m i l a r ingredients into new perceptual and conceptual patterns, thus r e s h u f f l i n g experience to achieve that extraordinary degree of condensation without which c r e a t i v i t y i n any f i e l d would be impossible. Kubie's term 'preconscious' ref e r s to that portion of the subconscious mind that i s 'open to r e c a l l when 65 the ego i s relaxed'. Or, i f we consider the human mind as a continuum of various states of consciousness 'preconsciousness* i s the l i a i s o n between subconscious ness and consciousness: i t i s the medium through which the subconscious communicates to the conscious mind. During 'incubation* the i n d i v i d u a l apparently 'forgets' the problem and s h i f t s his attention to other matters, allowing the previously acquired information and ideas to be transferred to the sub-6 6 conscious mind. Here they are reorganized along with otfeer previously acquired and perhaps long since 'forgotten' ideas, i n t o various patterns and configurations. This a c t i v i t y seems to proceed i n a haphazard manner, without regard for the ' l o g i c ' of r e a l i t y , but according to i t s 'own autonomous 6 7 laws'. In addition, i t i s by d e f i n i t i o n beyond the control of the i n d i v i d u a l i n whom i t i s occur-r i n g , and h i s attempts to influence i t generally 6 8 have a constipating, rather than c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t . F i n a l l y the subconscious mind arrives at one p a r t i c u l a r organization of material which ' s a t i s f i e s ' i t and ceases i t s problem solving a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s at t h i s time that the i n d i v i d u a l becomes aware of 69 the 'solution' discovered by the subconscious mind. There i s a sudden re v e l a t i o n or 'illumination' during which the v i t a l information i s transferred (according to Kubie through 'preconscious' processes). How and why t h i s occurs remains a mystery. However, many de-s c r i p t i o n s of the event have been advanced. According to Wehrli: The stage of i l l u m i n a t i o n i s frequently described as a period of e x h i l i r a t i o n , excitement and e l a t i o n . The long await-ed synthesis or insight may come i n a f l a s h of c l a r i t y , but as often i t comes i n a s w i r l of ideas and images, tumbling upon each other i n a frenzy of groupings and regroupings that gradually achieves a coherence and order that sparks o f f implications i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . The experience of i l l u m i n a t i o n i s common enough i n every day problem solving — one suddenly 'sees 1 the solution to a problem. But i t s i n t e n s i t y i s particu-l a r l y strongly f e l t by an i n d i v i d u a l who has expended a great deal of time and energy considering a speci-f i c problem. Obviously neither incubation or il l u m i n a t i o n can be 'taught' i n a d i r e c t fashion. At best t h i s phase of the process may be f a c i l i t a t e d through increasing the student's awarenss of what i s occurring within him and through the maintenance of a relaxed, but 71 72 expectant atmosphere. According to Harold Rugg: There i s emphatic agreement that the f l a s h comes when the person i s i n a state of re-laxed tension; being off-guard seems to be a central condition. The teacher should therefore r e f r a i n from demanding immediate 'answers' to problems, encouraging stu-dents to keep t h e i r patience during t h i s often 73 f r u s t r a t i n g stage. Exercises such as game playing, ' s e n s i t i c i t y 1 , mapping, and 'uses for things', which can be designed to promote an attitude of playfulness and r e l a t i v e relaxation, might again be u t i l i z e d during t h i s phase of the problem solving process. An exercise which may be well suited to t h i s phase of the pro-cess i s the construction of a 'LEARNING SPACE' as suggested i n Figure 11 on the following page. In designing and constructing an actual environment, students are allowed the pleasure and relaxation of physical a c t i v i t y and handiwork as well as the oppor-tunity to deal, i n a concrete fashion, with such ab-s t r a c t concepts as community, privacy, and the nature of learning. To increase the educational value of t h i s exercise a number of l i m i t a t i o n s could be placed on the basic design problem. For example, students might be requested to use modular construction or to design t h e i r spaces according to an appropriate theme. Or the problem might be cast i n terms of group i n t e r -action: students might be required to work i n the context of a larger group, conforming to i t s standards <52 o & O < 3 8 O § ° g £2 £ o 6> f w B ^ (3 w ° © o o O S 0!b c3 0 g 8 eg & * ^ g D 0 op (0 0 % 8 ^ o C D CP O 8 © (r> g © 0® G3 O Q o fe c£) © o ? > t o Q 3 ^ ^ 3 g §> o « ° © o GP o 1 ^ © ^ of design and construction. The 'LEARNING SPACE* exercise may be designed to provide a continuing focus of classroom a c t i v i t y , with constant additions, renovations, and embellish-ments of the basic structure. Thus a whole range of handicraft a c t i v i t i e s such as weaving, batik, wood-work, pottery, etc. could be incorporated into the larger design exercise. The main value of such an exercise i s as an outlet f o r f r u s t r a t i o n : i t helps the student to 'forget' h i s problem, to relax, and to allow h i s subconscious mind to continue i t s pro-blem solving a c t i v i t i e s unimpeded. Refinement During refinement the i n d i v i d u a l v e r i f i e s , de-velops, and refines the crude pattern provided by the subconscious mind during 'illumination' i n t o a viable solution to h i s problem. Depending on the i n -t r i c a c y and magnitude of the o r i g i n a l problem, the state of development of the pattern supplied by the subconscious mind, and the desired form of com-munication, t h i s stage of the process may take a great deal of time or almost none at a l l . I f , f o r example, the o r i g i n a l problem involved the design of a new housing development and the idea provided by the subconscious mind involved using the structure of the honeycomb as a model, then the task of actu-a l l y applying the idea, adapting i t to f i t the con-d i t i o s of s i t e , materials, economics, etc., and of d r a f t i n g preliminary plans, may be lengthy and t e -dious . This d e t a i l e d and concentrated work requires the mind's powers of analysis, reason, and judgement to analyze the various elements of the solution, to determine the relationships of these elements to the whole and to each other, and to v e r i f y the adequacy of the sol u t i o n . In other words, the i n d i v i d u a l must be able to think l o g i c a l l y and c r i t i c a l l y about h i s problem. His a c t i v i t i e s during t h i s phase then, are not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those which would occur at a comparable stage i n the t r a d i t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g process. The 'creative act' i s es-s e n t i a l l y complete. In teaching f o r t h i s phase of the process, the teacher should continue to encourage open-mindedness while at the same time helping h i s students to develop t h e i r s k i l l s i n idea refinement. A rather fun kind of exercise which might be employed at t h i s time i s exemplified i n the 'What i f . . . ? ' questions which appear 75 i n Figure 12 on the following page. By considering the f u l l range of consequences of such f a n c i f u l pro-positions as 'What i f houses looked l i k e t h e i r inha-bitants?', the student may develop his s k i l l s i n l o g i c a l thinking and idea refinement while at the same time maintaining an attitude of fun and play-fulness . More serious exercises accomplishing s i m i l a r objectives should also be developed. For example, i n Figure 13, 'PEOPLE IN THE CITY', one of the i m p l i -c i t 'What i f . . . ? ' questions i s 'What i f more people l i v e d i n the city...where would they l i v e ? ' The student i s requested to f i n d a sui t a b l e space within the urban core and to design within t h i s space a 'personal l i v i n g space' f o r himself. To ensure that the student engages i n the process of r e f i n i n g h i s ideas, a scale model should be required, showing i n t e r i o r space a l l o c a t i o n and design features. Once again, any number of r e s t r i c t i o n s (eg. l o c a t i o n , space, materials, cost, etc.) may be placed on the problem to increase i t s d i f f i c u l t y and to force the 57. • • • 1 9 © C E M E N T D I D N O T E X I S T ? T H E 3 D A Y V Q R K W E E K B E C A M E R E A L I T Y ? Z°NlNG W E R E A B O L I S H E D ? H O U S E S L Q ) K E D E I K E : T H E C I T Y W E R E M A D E O F O O PERSONAL L I V I N G S P A C E • f i n d a s p a c e i n t h e 'downtown' a r e a o f y o u r c i t y t h a t : 1. you w o u l d l i k e t o l i v e i n 2 . i s n o t now l i v e d i n 3. i s b e i n g u s e d , p a r t -t i m e , f o r p u r p o s e s o t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y r e s i d e n t i a l d e s i g n w i t h i n t h i s p l a c e a ' p e r s o n a l l i v i n g s p a c e ' make a d r a w i n g o r model o f y o u r s p a c e • • m ft K AMENABLE URBAN S P A C E S •what k i n d s o f ' t h i n g s ' c o u l d you i n v e n t t o g e t more p e o p l e i n t o t h e i n n e r c i t y ... t o v i s i t o l i v e i n c l u d e e v e n t s , b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s , a c t i v i t i e s , e t i n y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s •how c o u l d t h e c i t y be made more amenable t o p e o p l e ? - a l s o keep i n mind a l l o f t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p e o p l e t h a t l i v e i n t h e c i t y -- y o u n g , o l d , t h i n l o n e l y , a c t i v e , w e i r d . . . 00 ire l student to r e f i n e and modify h i s f a n c i f u l notions to the actual problem conditions. The ideas l i s t e d i n Figure 13 under 'amenable urban spaces' suggest avenues of exploration which might also be used to enhance the student's a b i l i t i e s i n idea refinement. I f , f o r example, the student f e l t that c i t i e s should be made more i n v i t i n g to youngsters, he might be requested to elaborate on some of the physical and s o c i a l changes that could be effected to achieve t h i s objective. Perhaps the student could f i n d a means of integrating c h i l d - s i z e d buildings i n t o the urban environment (between high-rises?) or making written signs more meaningful to children (converting them to p i c t u r e s ? ) . Exercises and problems may be developed around any number of urban issues to enhance the student's urban awareness as well as his s k i l l s of refinement. They must simply require the student to produce an a r t i c u l a t e and f i n i s h e d piece of work rather than a series of conceptual ideas. Communication and Evaluation The a c t i v i t y of communication occurs throughout the entire problem solving process: the i n d i v i d u a l receives 'communications' from h i s environment and undertakes a kind of inner 'communication' with h i s subconscious mind to develop a creative solution to the problem. But once the problem i s solved, the i n d i v i d u a l must communicate h i s new discovery to others. Depending on the nature of the o r i g i n a l problem and on the problem solver's p a r t i c u l a r t a l -ents and a b i l i t i e s , the f i n a l stage of the process may take several forms (eg. a book, painting, f i l m , s c i e n t i f i c paper, etc.) and may be more or less refined or 'polished'. In any case, to prepare h i s solut i o n for communication, the problem solver must choose a format which i s appropriate to both h i s problem and his own t a l e n t s . Then he must express h i s ideas as e f f e c t i v e l y as possible to achieve a maximum impact on h i s audience. In order to broaden the student's communications s k i l l s , the teacher should expose students to the techniques and equipment associated with various forms of communication and assign exercises which emphasize some form of communication. Experts i n any of the various f i e l d s of communication (dance, sculpture, computer programming, etc.) might be i n v i t e d to give workshops i n which students could become f a m i l i a r with the 'basics' of the given medium. Following (or during) the workshop, exercises based on the p a r t i c u l a r kind of communication being studied should be issued. For example, i f graphics were the focus of a workshop, the teacher might assign a simple exercise t i t i l i z i n g graphics, such as the design of a poster f o r some part of the c i t y or some event i n the c i t y . The student should attempt to communicate i n graphic form, his ideas or feelings about the c i t y . During a more general workshop on the various forms of communication, the teacher might experiment with some unusual 'communications' such as that irep-resented i n Figure 14 on the following page. The teacher could simply issue each student with a pro-vocative picture (poem, object, e t c . ) , perhaps iden-t i f y i n g i t as the week's assignment, and then wait for t h e i r response. I f the content of the teacher's communication to each student were kept secret, i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g to have the students attempt, at 62. the end of the assignment, to i d e n t i f y which presen-tations are responses to which communications. Thus, the entire exercise i s involved with communications and counter-communications of various kinds. Exercises and projects involving d i f f e r e n t forms of communication should be assigned whenever possible. These may deal with any subject matter and may there-fore be used to develop s k i l l s other than those d i r e c t l y associated with communication. An important element i n the student's a b i l i t y to communicate, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to a ce r t a i n f i e l d or d i s c i p l i n e , i s h i s knowledge of the 'jargon' or 'lingo' that characterizes that d i s c i p l i n e . In many cases t h i s w i l l be developed during the problem d e f i n i t i o n and information gathering stages, as the i n d i v i d u a l encounters s p e c i a l i s t s and printed matter i n the f i e l d , however i t often requires a sp e c i a l e f f o r t to 'learn the li n g o ' . During t h i s stage (or perhaps somewhat e a r l i e r ) , the teacher should attempt to make h i s students aware of the fac t that there i s , indeed, a language that must be mastered. A good way of achieving t h i s objective might be to have the students compile a 'glossary' of terms, including subjective as well as objective comments ( i e . the emotional and p o l i t i c a l overtones of the words), and perhaps i l l u s t r a t i n g the terms appro-p r i a t e l y with cartoons or graphics. At the end of term, a mimeographed copy of the glossary could be dis t r i b u t e d to the class and/or kept f o r the use of future students. A preliminary l i s t of terms which might require d e f i n i t i o n i n an urban studies class i s found i n Figure 15, 1 URBAN GLOSSARY', on the following page. To encourage a l l forms of communication, but i n pa r t i c u l a r the student's s k i l l s of verbal communicaiion, the teacher might organize, with each problem or pro-j e c t undertaken, a set of formal presentations made by the students to t h e i r classmates, to the school, or perhaps even to the whole community. Over the years, such presentations could be developed i n t o a major school undertaking, providing a stronger l i a i s o n between school and community. The presentation method also offers a perfect vehicle f o r classroom evaluation. A f t e r presentation, students might discuss the merits and drawbacks of both the presentation and the student's problem solving approach. This gives the problem solver valuable 65. ' ' U R B A N G L O S S A R Y " INC\ irsur os? D E V E L O P M E N T B L > , ^ E N V 1 R O M M E N T FIVE YEAR PUN , n r G R E ^ N BELT HIGH DENSJTY LOW RlS E OPEN S P A C E MASS TRANSIT PARTICIPATION SLUM UNDERGROUND M A L L URBAN R E N E W A L S O * I N G feedback from a number of persons and has the add i t i o n a l advantage of u t i l i z i n g peer relationships i n the learn-76 ing process. Such discussions should prompt the problem solver to undertake more rigourous and meaning-f u l self-evaluation of the way i n which he handled h i s problem and the conclusions he reached. Throughout evaluation, the emphasis should be on what the student has learned. Problem solving i s e s s e n t i a l l y a subjec-t i v e a c t i v i t y : the student must learn to e s t a b l i s h de-manding goals for himself and to evaluate f a i r l y h i s progress towards those goals. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The proceeding discussion has been summarized i n Table 1 (page 68), which includes a consideration of; 1. the a b i l i t i e s required during each phase of the creative problem solving process; 2. the exercises and methods whereby these a b i l i t i e s might be developed; and 3. examples of concepts and techniques which might be considered using these methods i n the context of urban education. This table represents a point-form outline of the creative problem solving approach to education. It i s not a course or even an outline for a course, i n i t s e l f . As an approach, i t may be applied to a range of subject areas, from the most simple of objects, such as boxes, to complex issues such as transporta-t i o n , to whole f i e l d s of endeavour, such as urban TABLE 1: SUMMARY TABLE PHASE A B I L I T I E S REQUIRED EDUCATIONAL METHODS : ' • • ' CONCEPTS-. P r e - p r o c e s s Knowledge o f and s e n s i - . t i v i t y t o t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m a r e a S e l f - a w a r e n e s s ' S e n s i t i c i t y ' e x e r c i s e s : e x p l o r a t i o n s i n -t o v a r i o u s ways o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m a r e a and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e l f SOUND WALL TIME P r o b l e m D e f i n i t i o n T o l e r a n c e o f a m b i g u i t y C o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y C h a l l e n g i n g and ambiguous p r o b l e m s F i g u r e c o m p l e t i o n ; 'uses f o r t h i n g s ' URBAN SURVIVAL TRANSPORTATION USES FOR THINGS I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g U t i l i z a t i o n o f eq u i p m e n t and t e c h n i q u e s o f i n f o r -m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g S e n s i t i v i t y t o s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f p r o b l e m s Problems w h i c h demand u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s and e q u i p m e n t as w e l l a s t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b o t h o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c -t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n MAPPING I d e a G e n e r a t i o n D i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g B r a i n s t o r m i n g P l a y ( r o l e p l a y i n g and s i m u l a t i o n games). M e t a p h o r i c a l ' t h i n k i n g RECYCLING URBAN GAMES GROWTH MAKING I T STRANGE I n c u b a t i o n S I l l u m i n a t i o n I m a g i n a t i o n and t h e a b i -l i t y t o r e l a x P l a y f u l e x e r c i s e s and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y LEARNING SPACE R e f i n e m e n t L o g i c a l t h i n k i n g C o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y P r oblems and i d e a s w h i c h r e q u i r e r e f i n e -ment and a d a p t a t i o n Fun p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e q u i r e an i m a g i n a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s PEOPLE IN THE CITY WHAT I F . . . ? Communica-t i o n 8 E v a l u a t i o n S k i l l s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n Knowledge o f l a n g u a g e P r e s e n t a t i o n and workshop methods and ' pro b l e m s i n v o l v i n g u n u s u a l modes o f com-m u n i c a t i o n D e l i b e r a t e s t u d y o f t h e l a n g u a g e POSTER DESIGN COMMUNICATION• GLOSSARY studies. In addition, i t may be employed with various emphases to achieve d i f f e r e n t educational objectives. For example the teacher may wish to develop his students' s k i l l s i n problem d e f i n i t i o n (phase 1) and may therefore r e f r a i n from assigning s p e c i f i c pro-blems, instead involving h i s students i n challenging experiences and situations and requiring them to define the problem(s) themselves. Or he might focus on the s k i l l s required i n phase f i v e , 'Refinement', by providing students with a conceptual solu t i o n to a given problem and requesting them to ref i n e i t to conform to cert a i n conditions or standards. In t h i s case the student must f e e l free to move backwards through the problem solving process i f he feels that inadequate consideration has been given to the problem at an e a r l i e r phase. Thus the creative pro-blem solving approach may be u t i l i z e d to achieve un-lim i t e d educational objectives at v i r t u a l l y any l e v e l of education. The format of a program or course de-veloped from t h i s approach w i l l depend on the educa-t i o n a l context for which i t i s designed — educational objectives, age of students, space and time constraints, etc. I have not, i n t h i s t h e s i s , designed such a spe-c i f i c program because i t i s by d e f i n i t i o n of such 70. l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y . By presenting instead a more general approach, I hope to make a more e f f e c t i v e con-t r i b u t i o n to the development of educational c u r r i c u l a . In designing a program which u t i l i z e s the crea-t i v e problem solving approach there are c e r t a i n general p r i n c i p l e s which should be kept i n mind. F i r s t , t h i s approach i s e s s e n t i a l l y a ' s e l f - d i r e c t e d ' learning approach: the student should take an active r o l e . The teacher, on the other hand, should assume a more passive r o l e , guiding the student through the process by suggesting a c t i v i t i e s and problems which w i l l help the student to develop the s k i l l s and a b i l i -t i e s required during each phase. Central to the design of any program of creative problem solving i s the teacher's presentation of i n -formation and ideas. This i s c r u c i a l to the student's perception and consequent handling of the various pro-blems within the f i e l d . I t has often been noted that 77 a creative approach y i e l d s creative r e s u l t s . There-fore the teacher should attempt to maintain an atmos-phere of openness and experimentation, encouraging students to become involved i n t h e i r work and to approach i t imaginatively. This may require a more casual attitude towards classroom organization: i n -di v i d u a l students w i l l tend to experiment more with d i f f e r e n t kinds of techniques for gathering and com-municating t h e i r ideas. In addition, c e r t a i n kinds of a c t i v i t i e s may require physical a c t i v i t y or access to various environments (eg. a darkroom, c i t y h a l l , or the community at lar g e ) . A teacher who wishes to have an e f f e c t i v e program of creative problem solving must accomodate the i n d i v i d u a l needs of 78 students at t h e i r various stages of progress. In presenting problems and information the tea-cher may f i n d that more creative work i s produced when instructions are kept to a minimum and students are required to c o l l e c t information themselves. By remaining somewhat non-directive or even secretive about a problem the teacher may c a p i t a l i z e on the inherent ambiguity of the problem to produce diverse 79 r e s u l t s . Each student w i l l i n t e r p r e t the problem d i f f e r e n t l y and w i l l therefore deal with i t i n a unique and i n d i v i d u a l manner. In c o l l e c t i n g h i s own information the student w i l l become more a c t i v e l y i n -volved i n problem solving, w i l l experience i t more f u l l y , and w i l l therefore learn how to use i t more e f f e c t i v e l y . 8 0 F i n a l l y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that programs of crea-t i v e problem solving appeal to the student's imagina-t i o n and to h i s powers of subconscious thought. To t h i s end the teacher should t r y to create an atmos-phere of fun and r e l a t i v e relaxation i n which students f e e l free to l e t t h e i r minds wander i n t h e i r consider-ation of problems. I t i s also believed that v i s u a l images are more strongly associated with the processes of subcon-81 scious thought than are words. According to Koestler , t h i s i s because v i s u a l images provide a more f l u i d medium of thought: they are not bound by the systems of l o g i c that characterize language. I t may therefore be appropriate to u t i l i z e more v i s u a l material i n the presentation of ideas, searching for r i c h and unusual images which appeal to the student's imagination and subconscious mind. I f we are to capture the i n t e r e s t of young problem solvers i t w i l l not be with serious, ' f a c t - s t u f f e d ' , and d i d a c t i c programs of education which often serve only to depress and overwhelm the student, but with fun and challenging problem-oriented programs which allow the student to assume a more active r o l e i n the learning process. I t i s intended that the ideas presented i n t h i s thesis w i l l contribute to the devel-opment of such programs at a l l l e v e l s of education, and i n p a r t i c u l a r at the university l e v e l , where future urban problem solvers are currently enrolled i n Schools of Planning, Architecture, and Environmental Design. FOOTNOTES 1 Fan t i n i 8 Weinstein, 1968, p . l . 2 Here and throughout the r e s t of t h i s paper the word 'environment' w i l l r e f e r to the physical and s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which man e x i s t s . It includes both the natural or biophysical environment and the man-made or urban environment. 3 These include Cook, 1970; E h r l i c h , 1970; Fyson, 1971; Schoenfeld, 1971; Stapp, 1971; and Ward, 1971. 4 Schoenfeld, 1971, p>.42. 5 For example i n Schoenfeld, 1971; Shomon, 1964; and Stapp, 1971. 6 Halprin, 1963; Harris, 1969; Hosken, 1971; Jones, 1972; Lynch, 1960; T o f f l e r , 1968; Symonds, 1971; Warren, 1955 Wurman, 1966, 1971, 1972. 7 Hosken, 1970, p . l . 8 Ward, 1971, p.222. 9 E h r l i c h , 1970; Elder, 1966; Feldt, 1966; Fyson, 1971; Goodman, 1972; Gutkind, 1962; Halprin, 1969; Hosken, 1970; Lynch, 1960; Michelson, 1970; Mumford, 1968; R i t t e r , 1966; Schoenfeld, 1971; Symonds, 1971; Ward, 1971, Warren, 1955; Wurman, 1971. 10 Bruner, 1962, 1966. 11 Bruner, 1962, p.94. 12 Torrance, 1963, 1964a, 1964b. 13 Koestler, 1964. 75. 14 Moore 8 Gay, 1967. 15 Duncker, 1945. 16 Jones, 1972. 17 Symonds, 1971. 18 Warren, 1955. 19 Wurman, 1971, 1972. 20 This includes Black, 1952; Davis, 1966; Duncker, 1945; Eberle, 1973; Emmett, 1960; 1965; Hudgins, 1966; Kleinmuntz, 1966; Maier, 1970; Osborn, 1963; Wason, 1968; Wertheimer, 1959; Wilson, 1969; Wehrli, 1968. 21 This includes Barnett, 1953; Barron, 1968; De Bono, 1969, 1971, 1972; Getzels 8 Jackson, 1962; Gordon, 1961; Gu i l f o r d , 1971; Kagan, 1967; Koestler, 1964; 1969; Osborn, 1963; Parnes, 1961; Rugg, 1963; Taylor, 1964, 1972; Torrance, 1963, 1964, 1965. 22 Dewey, 1916; Duncker, 1945; Hudgins, 1966; Robinson et a l , 1972; Wertheimer, 1959. 23 Davis, 1966; Dewey, 1916; Duncker, 1945; Elder, 1966; Gordon, 1961; Hinton, 1968; Maier, 1970; M e r r i f i e l d , 1970; Osborn, 1963; Patrick, 1935; Parnes, 1961; Rugg, 1963; Torrance S Myers, 1970; Wertheimer, 1959; Wehrli, 1968; Whitehead, 1959. 24 Wehrli, 1968. 25 Barnett, 1953; Cropley, 1967; Elder, 1966; Jackson 8 Messnick, i n Kagan, 1967; Lowenfeld, i n Parnes 8 Har-ding, 1962; MacKinnon, i n Smith, 1966; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969; Wakin, i n Perryman, 1966. 26 Barron, 1968; Cr u t c h f i e l d , i n Brim, 1966; De Bono, 1967; Duncker, 1945; Getzels 8 Jackson, 1962; Gordon, 1961; Koestler, 1964, 1967; Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; Maier, 1970; Moore, 1967; Osborn, 1963; Parnes 8 Harding, 1962; Synectics Corporation, 1970; Taylor, 1964; Torrance, 1964; Wehrli, 1968; Wertheimer, 1959. 76. 27 Bruner, 1962; Caudwell, 1953; Craik, i n Wehrli, 1968; De Bono, 1967; 1971; Elder, 1966; Gordon, 1961; H a l l -man, 1963; Kneller, 1965; Koestler, 1964, 1967; Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Maslow, 1968; Moore, 1967; Mock, 1970; Rugg, 1963; Russell, 1932; Seidel, 1966; Synectics Corporation, 1970; Torrance, 1964; Wehrli, 1968. 28 De Bono, 1967; Gordon, 1961; Koestler, 1964; Kneller, 1965; Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; LeNowitz, i n Burnshaw, 1970; Osborn, 1963; Rugg, 1963; Seidel, 1966; Synectics Corporation, 1970; Taylor, 1964; Torrance, 1964, 1965. 29 Barron, 1968; Craik, i n Wehrli, 1968; De Bono, 1967; Elder, 1966; Gordon, 1961; G u i l f o r d , 1971; Kagan, 1967; Koestler, 1967; Moore, 1967; Osborn, 1963; Parnes, i n Parnes 6 Harding, 1963; Roe, 1953; Taylor, 1964; Tor-rance, 1964, 1965; Wehrli, 1968; 30 Bruner, 1966; Dewey, 1916, 1967; Hudgins, 1966; Leon-ard, 1968; Rogers, 1969; Taba, i n Sears, 1971; Wendel, 1970; Whitehead, 1959. 31 Hudgins, 1966; Leonard, 1968; Robinson et a l , 1972; Smith, 1966; Taba, i n Sears, 1971; Wendel, 1970; Whitehead, 1959. 32 Barnett, 1953; Bruner, 1965; Duncker, 1945; Elder, 1966; Gagne, i n Kleinmuntz, 1966; Koestler, 1964; Ojemann, i n Aschner 8 Bish, 1965; Rugg, 1963; Taylor, 1964, 1972. 33 Kneller, 1965; Maslow, 1968; Plato, i n Bumbaugh 8 Law-rence, 1963; Rogers, 1969; Whitehead, 1959. 34 Barnett, 1953; Barron, 1968; Brim, i n Covington, 1966; Dewing, 1968; Elder, 1966; Hudgins, 1966; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969. 35 Duncker, 1945; Gagne, i n Kleinmuntz, 1966; Gough, i n Parnes 6 Harding, 1972; Lowenfeld, i n Parnes 8 Harding, 1972; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970. 36 Keats, i n Noyes, 1956, p.1213. 37 MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970. 77. 38 Guilford, i n Cropley, 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Maslow, 1968; Torrance, 196 3. 39 This i s based on the works of Dewey, 1916; Gowan, 1967; Kneller, 1965; and MacKinnon, i n Aschner 8 Bish, 1965. 40 These have been developed by such authors as: Get-zels 8 Jackson, 1962; Gough, i n Parnes 8 Harding, 1962; G u i l f o r d , i n Cropley, 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Myers 8 Torrance, 1964; Parnes, i n Taylor, 1972; Synectics Corporation, 1970; Torrance, i n Cropley, 1967; and Wallach 8 Kogan, i n Cropley, 1967. 41 Torrance, i n Cropley, 1967. 42 Developed by Torrance, i n Cropley, 1967; also used by Goodnow, 1969; Gu i l f o r d , 1967; and Wallach 8 Kogan, i n Cropley, 1967. 43 Bruner, 1966; Cropley, 1967; Hudgins, 1966; Koestler, 1964, 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Rugg, 1963; Taylor, 1964, 1972. 44 Gagne, i n Kleinmuntz, 1966, p.143. 45 Arnold, i n Parnes 8 Harding, 1962; De Bono, 1967; Gui l f o r d , i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; Holt, 1972; Koest-l e r , 1964; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Osborn, 1963; Seidel, 1966; Torrance, 1964. 46 For example the works of Black, 19 52; Emmett, 1960, 1965; Wertheimer, 1959; and Wilson, 1969. 47 The term 'divergent thinking' was coined by Bruner i n 1966; the term ' l a t e r a l thinking' was coined by De Bono i n 1972. These terms are used by several authors to r e f e r to two d i s t i n c t modes of thought which occur during problem solving, including G u i l f o r d , i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; Getzels 8 Jackson, 1972; Rugg, 1963; and Wertheimer, 1959. 48 De Bono, 1972; Rugg, 1963; Wertheimer, 1959. 49 Parnes, 1961. 78, 50 Parnes, 1961, 1963. 51 Dewey, 1916; Dunfee 8 Sagl, 1966; Getzels 8 Jackson, 1962; Gordon, 1961; Gowan, 1972; Holt, 1972; Koestler, 196H; Kneller, 1965; Kubie, 1958; Lieberman, 1967; Mock, 1970; Piaget, 1959; Plato, i n Bumbaugh 8 Law-rence, 196 3; Sadler, 1969. 52 Synectics Corporation, 1970. 53 Maidment 8 Bronstein, 1973, p.6. 54 Coleman, i n Boocock 6 Schild, 196 8, p.29. 55 Maidment 8 Bronstein, 1973, p.20. 56 Berkeley, 1968; Feldt, 1966; Inbar 8 S t o l l , 1972; Mieir 8 Duke, 1966. 57 Feldt, 1966, p.17. 58 Berkeley, 1968, p.58. 59 Gamson, i n Inbar 8 S t o l l , 1972, p.68. 60 Bruner, 1962, p.63. 61 Gordon, 1961; Synectics Corporation, 1970. 62 Craik, i n Wehrli, 1968. 63 Barron, 1968; Craik, i n Wehrli, 1968; Koestler, 196»+; Kubie, i n Mooney £ Razik, 1967; Maslow, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; Maslow, 1969; Rugg, 196 3. 64 Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967, p.38. 6 5 Kubie, i n Mooney 6 Razik, 1967, p.11. 66 De Bono, 1969; 1971a; Koestler, 1961; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969; Seidel, 1966; Torrance, 1963. 67 Hallman, i n Gowan, 1972, p.22. 68 Koestler, 196U; Kneller, 1965; Osborn, 1963. 79. 69 Barron, 1968; Craik, i n Wehrli, 1968; De Bono, 1971; Elder, 1966; Gordon, 1961; Kagan, 1967; Koestler, 1964; Maslow, 1968; Rugg, 1963; Seidel, 1966; Tor-rance, 1963, 1964, 1965; Wertheimer, 1959. 70 Wehrli, 1968, p.20. 71 Barnett, 1953; Bruner, 1962; Gowan, 1972; Koestler, 1964; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969; Rugg, 1963; Seidel, 1966. 72 Rugg, 1963; p.11. 73 Elder, 1966; Hudgins, 1966; Kneller, 1965; Mock, 1970; Whitehead, 1959. 74 See Craik, i n Wehrli, 1968; Black, 1952; Emmett, 1960, 1965; Moore, 1967; Wertheimer, 1959; and Wilson, 1969. 75 G u i l f o r d , i n Cropley, 1967. 76 Athey 8 Rubadeau, 1970; Hudgins, 1966; Maier, 1970. 77 Cropley, 1967; De Bono, 1967; Elder, 1966; Gowan, 1967; Kagan, 1967; Koestler, 1964; McKellar, 1957; Osborn, 1963; Parnes 6 Harding, 1962; Roslansky, 1970; Taylor, 1972; Torrance, 1964, 1965; White-head, 1959. 78 Bruner, 1962; Dewey, 1959; Kagan, 1967; Holt, 1971; Kagan, 1967; Rogers, 1969; Whitehead, 1959. 79 Bruner, 1962; De Bono, 1972a; Elder, 1966; Kagan, 1967; Koestler, 1964; McKellar, 1957; Storr, 1970; Torrance, 1964. 80 Bruner, 1962, 1966; Dewey, 1916, 1959; Dunfee 8 Sagl, 1966; Gowan, 1967; Koestler, 1964; Raths, 1965; Rob-inson, 1972; Schoenfeld, 1971; Whitehead, 19 59. 81 Koestler, 1964, p.193. 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Brauner, Charles 8 H. Burns. Problems i n Education and  Philosophy. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1965. Brim, O.G., R.S. C r u t c h f i e l d 8 W.H. Holtzman, eds. I n t e l - ligence; Perspectives 1965: Terman-Otis Memorial Lectures. New York, Harcourt, Brace 6 World, 1966. 81. Bruner, Jerome. On Knowing: Essays f o r the Left Hand. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1962. Ibid. Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, Mass-achusetts, larvard University Press, 1966. Bumbaugh, R.S. 8 N.M. Lawrence. Philosophers on Educa-t i o n . Boston, Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1963. Burnshaw, Stanley, ed. C r e a t i v i t y : The State of the  Art: Report of a National Seminar. U.S.A., Ins t i t u t e f o r the Development of Educational A c t i v i t i e s (IDEA), 1970. Caudwell, H. The Creative Impulse. London, MacMillan 8 Co., 1953. Chermayeff, Serge 8 Christopher Alexander. Community  and Privacy. New York, Anchor Books, Doubleday 8 Co., 1963. Cook, R.S. 8 G.T. O'Hearn, eds. Process f o r a Quality  Environment: Report of a National Conference on Environ-mental Education. University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, December, 1970. Covington, Martin V., Richard S. Cr u t c h f i e l d 8 L i l l i a n B. Davies, The Productive Thinking Program: Series 1: General Problem Solving^ Berkeley; C a l i f o r n i a , Brazelton P r i n t i n g Co., 1966. Cropley, A.J. Education Today: C r e a t i v i t y . New York, Humanities Press, 1967. Davis, Gary A. The Current Status of Research and Theory  i n Human Problem Solving. Washington, D.C., ERIC, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1966. De Bono, Edward. The Use of Lateral Thinking. London, Jonathan Cape, 1967. Ibid. P r a c t i c a l Thinking. London, Jonathan Cape, 1971. Ibid. Children Solve Problems> London, Penguin Books, 1972a. Ibid. About Think. London, Jonathan Cape, 1972b. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. New York, MacMillan Co., 1916. Ibid. Experience and Education. New York, MacMillan Co., 1938. Ibid. Dewey on Education. New York, Teachers' College Press, 1959. Duncker, K a r l . Trans. Lynne S. Lees. "On Problem Solving". Psychological Monographs, Vol. 58, No. 5, Whole of No. 27 0, 1945. Dunfee, Maxine 8 Helen Sagl. S o c i a l Studies Through  Problem Solving. New York, Holt, Rinehart 8 Winston, Inc., 1966. Eberle, Robert. "Problem Solving Modes of Classroom Instruction", Educational Leadership. May, 1973. Vol. 30, pp 726 - 728. Eckbo, Garret. Landscape f o r Li v i n g . New York, F.W. Dodge Corp, 1950. E h r l i c h , Paul R. 8 Anne H. E h r l i c h . Population, Re- sources, Environment: Issues i n Human Ecology. San Francisco, W.H. Freeman 8 Co., 1970. Elder, Henry. "The Vancouver Experiment". AIA Journal August 1966, pp 71 - 76, Emmet, E.R. The Use of Reason. London, Longmans, Green 8 Co. Ltd., 1960. Ibid. Learning to Philosophize. New York, Philosoph-i c a l Library, 1965. Ewald, William R., ed. Environment and Change: The  Next 50 Years. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1968. Ibid. Urban Landscape Design. New York, McGraw-Hill, Fabun, Donald. "You and C r e a t i v i t y " . Beverley H i l l s , Kaiser Aluminum Company, Glencoe Press, 1968. F a n t i n i , Mario D. 8 M.A. Young. Designing Education f o r Tomorrow's C i t i e s . New York, Holt, Rmehart S Winston, 1970. F a n t i n i , Mario D. 6 Gerald Weinstein. Making Urban  Schools Work. New York, Holt, Rinehart 6 Winston, 1968. Feldt, Alan G. "Operational Gaming i n Planning Edu-cation" . Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, 1966, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp 17 - 23. Freeman, James. C r e a t i v i t y : A Selective Review of  Research, London, Society f o r Research in t o Higher Education Ltd., 1968. Fyson, Anthony. "Environmental Education: Classroom Games", Town and Country Planning, June 1971, pp 324 - 326. Ibid. "Environmental Education: Fieldwork f o r Schools", Town and Country Planning, September 1971, pp 513 - 515. Ibid. "Environmental Education: Factors We Dare Not Ignore", Town and Country Planning, December, 1971, pp 564 - 565. Getzels, J.W. 8 P.W. Jackson. C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i -gence. London, John Wiley 8 Sons, 1962. Goodman, Robert. A f t e r the Planners. New York, Simon 8 Schuster, 1972. Gordon, W.J.J. Synectics: The Development of Creative  Capacity. New York, Harper 8 Row Publications, 1961. Gowan, J.C., ed. C r e a t i v i t y : I t s Educational Impli-cations. New York, John Wiley E Sons, 1967. Ibid. Development of the Creative Individual. San Diego, C a l i f o r n i a , Robert R. Knapp, Publisher, 1972. Guil f o r d , J.P. "Some Misconceptions Regarding Measure-ment of Creative Talents", Journal of Creative Behaviour, 1971. Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 77 - 87. Gunn, Angus M. Patterns i n Urban Geography. Vancouver, Canada, W.J. Gage Ltd., 1970. Gutkind, E.A. The Twilight of C i t i e s r London, Collier-MacMillan Ltd., 1962. Halprin, Lawrence. C i t i e s . New York, Reinhold Pub.Co. 1963. Ibid. The R.S.V.P. Cycles: Creative Processes i n  the Human Environment. New York, George B r a z i l l e r Inc., 1969. Harris, B r i t t o n . "Inventing the Future Metropolis", Shaping the Urban Future, eds., B. Frieden and M. Nash, Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. Press, 1969. Haworth, Lawrence. The Good Cit y. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1963. Hinton, Bernard L. "Environmental Frustration and Creative Problem Solving", Journal of Applied  Psychology, 1968, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp 211 - 217. Holt, John. Freedom and Beyond. New York, E.P. Dutton 8 Co., 1972. Hosken, Fran P. "Education f o r Urban Living; 1970". St. Paul, Minneapolis. AIP Confer-In, 197 0. House, Peter 8 P.D. Patterson. "An Environment Gaming - Simulation Laboratory", Journal of the  American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, 1961, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp 383 - 388. Hudgins, Bryce B. Problem Solving i n the Classroom. New York, MacMillan Co., 1966. Hungerford, H. S C . Knapp. "Conservation Education: Problems and Strategies", The Science Teacher. May 1969, Vol. 36, No. 5, I l l i c h , Ivan. Deschooling Society. New York, Harrow Books, Harper 8 Row, 1972. 35. Isaacs,, Nathan. The Growth of Understanding i n the  Young Child; A Brief Introduction to Piaget's Work. London, Ward Lock Education Co. Ltd., 1972. Jones, W. Ron. Your C i t y Has Been Kidnapped: Deschool  Primer #3. San Francisco, Zephyrus, 1972. Kagan, Jerome. C r e a t i v i t y and Learning. Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1967. Kepes, Gyorgy. The Education of V i s i o n . New York, George B r a z i l l e r Inc., 1965. Ibid. The Language of Vision. Chicago, Paul TheoVold 8 Co., 1967. Kleinmuntz, Benjamin, ed. Problem Solving; Research, Method, and Theory. New York, John Wiley 8 Sons, 1966. Kneller, G.F. The Art and Science of C r e a t i v i t y . New York, Holt, Rinehart S Winston, 1965. Koestler, Authur. The Act of Creation. New York, MacMillan Co., 1964. Ibid. The Ghost i n the Machine. New York, MacMillan Co., 1967. Leonard, G.B. Education and Ecstacy. New York, D e l l Publications, 1968. Lofland, Lyn H. A World of Strangers. New York, Basic Books, 1973. Lynch, Kevin. Image of the C i t y . Cambridge, M.I.T. Press, 1960. Ibid. What Time i s t h i s Place? Cambridge, M.I.T. Press, 1972. McKellar, Peter. Imagination and Thinking. New York, Basic Books Inc., 1957. MaLeish, John. "Fostering C r e a t i v i t y " . Journal of the Royal I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , Vol. 73, No. 8, August 1966, pp. 366-369. Mager, Robert F. Preparing Instr u c t i o n a l Objectives. Palo A l t o , Fearon Pubs., 1971. Maidment, R. 8 R.H. Bronstein. Simulation Games: De-sign and Implementation. Columbus, Ohio, Charles E. M e r r i l l Publishing Co., 1973. Maier, Norman R.F. Problem Solving and C r e a t i v i t y . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a , Brooks/Cole Pub. Co., 1960. Malt, Harold. Furnishing the C i t y . New York, McGraw-H i l l , 1970. Maslow, Abraham H. Toward A Psychology of Being. New York, Van Nostrand Rexnhold Co., 1968. Meier, Richard L. 6 R.D. Duke. "Gaming Simulation f o r Urban Planning". Journal of the American In s t i t u t e of Planners. Vol. 32, No. 1, 1966, pp. 3-17. M e r r i f i e l d , P.R. et a l . A Factor-Analytic Study of  Problem Solving A b i l i t i e s " Reports from the Laboratory of the University of C a l i f o r n i a , March, 1960. Michelson, William. Man and h i s Urban Environment: A  So c i o l o g i c a l Approach" Cambridge, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. CoT, 1970. M i l l e r , H.L. 8 M.B. Smiley. Education i n the Metropolis. New York, The Free Press, 1967T Mock, Ruth. Education and the Imagination. London, Chatto 8 Windus, 1970. Mooney, Ross L. 8 T.A. Razik, eds. Explorations i n Cre- a t i v i t y . New York, Harper 8 Row Pubs., 1967. Moore, Gary 8 L.M. Gay. Creative Problem Solving i n  Architecture: A P i l o t Study. University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, Department of Architecture, September, 1967. Mumford, Lewis. The C i t y i n History: Its Origins, Its  Transformations, and Its Prospects. New YorkT Harcourt, Brace 8 World, 1961. Ibid. The Urban Prospect. New York, Harcourt, Brace 8 World, 1968. Myers, Richard 8 E.Paul Torrance. Invitations to Think- ing and Doing. Boston, Ginn 6 Co., 1964. Nixon, G.P. S M.A. Campbell. Four C i t i e s . Toronto, McClelland S Stewart, 1971. Noyes, Russell, ed. English Romantic Poetry 6 Prose. Oxford University Press, 1956. Osborn, A.F. Applied Imagination: Pr i n c i p l e s and Pro- cedures of Creative Problem Solving. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Parnes, Sidney J . "Effects of Extended E f f o r t i n Cre-ative Problem Solving". Journal of Educational Psycho- logy, Vol. 52, No. 3, June 1961, pp. 117-122. Parnes, Sidney J . S H.F. Harding, eds. A Source-Book  for Creative THinking. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1962. Raths, A.J. et a l . Teac&ing f o r Thinking: Theory and  Application. Columbus, Ohio, Charles E. M e r r i l l Pub. Co., 1967. Reps, J.W. The Making of Urban America. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1965. Richardson, Boyce. The Future of Canadian C i t i e s . Toronto, New Press, 1972. Rioux, J.C. "Environmental Education i n Primary and Secondary Schools i n Canada". Department of the Envi-ronment, Ottawa, Canada, 1973. R i t t e r , Paul. Educreation: Education f o r Creation,  Growth and Change. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1966. Robinson, F.G. et a l . Inquiry Training. Toronto, On-t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r Education, 1972. Roe, Anne. The Making of a S c i e n t i s t . New York, Dodd Mead S Co., 1952. Rogers, C a r l . Freedom to Learn. Columbus, Ohio, Charles E. M e r r i l l Pub. Co., 1967. 88. Roslansky, John D., ed. C r e a t i v i t y : A Discussion at  the Nobel Conference. London, North-Holland Pub. Co., 1970. Rotter, George S. 8 S.M. Portugal. "Group and Indi-vidual Effects i n Problem Solving". Journal of Applied Psychology, 1969, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 338-41. Rudofsky, Bernard. Architecture Without Arc h i t e c t s . New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1964. Ibid. Streets f o r People. New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1969. Russell, Bertrand. Education and the Social Order. London, George A l l e n 8 Unwin Co., 1932. Saarinen, T.F. Perception of the Environment. Wash-ington D.C., Association of American Geographers, 1969. Schoenfeld, Clay, ed. Outlines of Environmental Edu- cation . Madison Wisconson, Dembar Educational Research Services, 1971. Sears, Pauline S., ed. I n t e l l e c t u a l Development. New York, John Wiley 6 Sons, 1971. Seide l , G.J. C r i s i s i n C r e a t i v i t y . London, University of Notre Dame Press, 1966. Shomon, Joseph. Manual of Outdoor Conservation Educa-t i o n . New York, National Audobon Society, 1964. Shjalman, Lee S. 8 E.R. K e i s l a r , eds. Learning by Dis- covery: A C r i t i c a l Appraisal. Chicago, Rand McNally 8 Co., 1966. Smith, David C. Changing Values. Scarborough, Ontario, Bellhaven House Ltd., 1971. Spreiregan, Paul. Architecture of Towns and C i t i e s . New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Spyer, Geoffry. Architect and Community: Environmental Design i n an Urban Society. London, Peter Owen Pubs., wrn Stapp, W.B. "Environmental Education Program (K-12), Based on Environmental Encounters". Environment and  Behaviour, Sept. 1971, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 221-232. Storr, Anthony. The Dynamics of Creation. New York, Athenum Press, 1970. Stratton, R. Paul S R. Brown. "Imroving Creative Thinking by Training i n the Production and/or Judge-ment of Solutions". Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp.390-397. Swan, J.A. "Environmental Education: One Approach to Resolving the Environmental C r i s i s . " Environment and  Behaviour, Sept. 1971, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 104-115. Symonds, Hilda, ed. The Teacher i n the C i t y . Toronto, Methuen Pubs., 1971. Synectics Corporation. Making i t Strange. New York, Harper S Row, 1970. Taylor, C.W., ed. Widening Horizons i n C r e a t i v i t y . New York, John Wiley 8 Sons, 1964. Ibid. , ed. Climate f o r C r e a t i v i t y . New York, Pergamon Press, 1972. -Taylor, C.W. 8 F. Barron, eds. S c i e n t i f i c C r e a t i v i t y :  Its Recognition and Development. New York, John Wiley 8 Sons, 196 3. Torrance, E. Paul. Education and the Creative P o t e n t i a l . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 196 3a. Ib i d . C r e a t i v i t y : What Research Says to the Teacher. U.S. National Education Association, 196 3b. ~ Ibid. Guiding Creative Talent. New Jersey, Prentice-H a l l Inc., 1964. Ibid. Rewarding Creative Behaviour. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1965. Torrance, E. Paul 8 R. Myers. Creative Learning and  Teaching. New York, Dodd Mead 8 Co., 19 70. Ward, Colin. "The TCPA and Environmental Education." Town and Country Planning, March 1971, pp.172-174. Ibid. "Environmental Education: Primary Evocations." Town and Country Planning, April 1971, pp.222-224. Ibid. "Environmental Education: The Critical Year." Town and Country Planning, July/Aug. 1971, pp.375-378. Ibid. "Environmental Education: There is no Wealth but Life." Town and Country Planning, Oct. 1971, pp.470-473. Ibid. "Environmental Education: The Landscape of Participation." Town and Country Planning, Nov. 1971, pp.515-517. Warren, Roland L. Studying Your Community. New York, The Free Press, Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 1955. Wason, P.C. 6 P.W. Johnson, eds. Thinking and Reason- ing: Selected Readings. Middlesex, England, Penguin Books, 196 8. Wehrli, Robert. Open-Ended Problem Solving in Design. Doctoral Thesis, University of Utah, August 196 8. Wendel, Robert L. "Developing Climates for Learning." Journal of Secondary Education, Nov. 1970, Vol. 45, pp.329-334. Wertheimer, Max. Productive Thinking. Ed. Michael Wertheimer. New York, Harper 6 BrosT Pubs., 1959. Whitehead, Alfred N. Aims of Education. New York, MacMillan Co., 1959. Whyte, William H. The Last Landscape. New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1968. Wilson, John. Thinking with Concepts. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1969. Winter, Eric, ed. Urban Landscapes. Scarborough On-tario, Bellhaven House, 1971. Ibid. Urban Areas. Scarborough, Ontario, Bellhaven House, 1971. Wolforth, J . 6 R. Leigh. Urban Prospects. Toronto, McClelland 8 Stewart Ltd., 1971. Wurman, Richard Saul. Making the City Observable. Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. Press, 1971. Ibi d . The Yellow Pages of Learning. Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.TT Press, 1972. Wurman, R.S. S J.R. Passonneau. Urban A t l a s . Cam-bridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. Press, 1966. Zucker, Paul. Town and Square. Cambridge, Massachu-s e t t s , M.I.T. Press, 1970. APPENDIX I: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT Annotated Bibliography The books discussed i n t h i s bibliography are considered c e n t r a l to the concepts developed within the thesis and are strongly recommended to those who i n end to design educational programs u t i l i z i n g the creative problem solving approach. Education: Bruner, Jerome. On Knowing: Essays f o r the Left Hand. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1962. Bruner attempts to deal, i n t h i s book, with the nature of c r e a t i v i t y . He defines the creative act as 'an act that produces e f f e c t i v e surprise' and that takes 'one beyond the common ways of experiencing the world' (p.22). He proaeeds to describe the v a r i -ous 'conditions' of c r e a t i v i t y or, more accurately, the i n d i v i d u a l predispositions which may be i d e n t i f i e d that lead to creati ve behaviour. In the l a s t h a l f of the book Bruner discusses discovery learning (problem solving) as the most e f f e c t i v e means of teaching an in d i v i d u a l to u t i l i z e h i s creative p o t e n t i a l . He also deals at length with the uee of metaphor i n both the learning and the creative processes. In the learning process, metaphor i s used to ' j o i n d i s s i m i l a r experi-ences' or ideas i n order to gain an ins i g h t into t h e i r separate natures. In creative endeavours the same procedure i s used to add another dimension to an exper-ience or idea, taking i t beyond i t s common l e v e l of meaning. The book i s a fascina t i n g study of the l i t t l e understood phenomenon of c r e a t i v i t y . 93. Bruner, Jerome. Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1966. In t h i s book Bruner sets f o r t h h i s theory on human i n t e l l e c t u a l growth and on i n s t r u c t i o n . According to Bruner a theory of i n s t r u c t i o n must i n -clude a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of: 3. the kinds of experiences which most e f f e c t -i v e l y implant i n the i n d i v i d u a l a predispo-s i t i o n toward learning; ^ 2. the ways i n which a body of knowledge should be structured so that i t can be most r e a d i l y absorbed by the learner; 3. the most e f f e c t i v e sequence of presenting ideas and information; and 4. the nature and pacing of rewards and punish-ments. Bruner discusses these requirements i n some d e t a i l , s t r e s s i n g the importance of increasing the student's sense of involvement i n the learning process. He suggests that student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d through a problem solving approach to learning which helps the student to personalize and therefore i n t e r -n a l i z e what he learns. Bruner i l l u s t r a t e s h is educa-t i o n a l methodology by developing, at the end of h i s book, a course on 'man', aimed at the secondary l e v e l student. The book provides a comprehensive statement of Bruner's educational theory which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n the design of problem oriented programs of education. C r e a t i v i t y : Koestler, Arthur. The Act of Creation. New York, MacMillan Co., 1964. The Act of Creation i s a lengthy and well-docu-mented description of the creative process as i t occurs i n nature and i n the human mind. The author attempts to explain the creative act as a 'bisocia-t i o n ' of 'two independent matrices of perception or reasoning' (p.45). In other words, the creative act unites two separate e n t i t i e s into new wholes. Koestler contends that t h i s act i s preci p i t a t e d by the random associations of thoughts and images which occur within the subconscious mind of the problem solver. A l l of a sudden there i s a fusion of two sets of facts or ideas and the creation i s born. In many cases t h i s creation represents the solution to a problem. Throughout his book, Koestler stresses the importance of the subconscious mind as the arena f o r creative thinking and the necessity of 'relinquishing' one's conscious control over one's thoughts to allow the subconscious mind to operate more f r e e l y . He also discusses the implications of h i s theory on edu-cation, concluding that education, e s p e c i a l l y i n the sciences, ought to take the form of problem solving. Students should be presented with the 'paradoxes' that b a f f l e d such s c i e n t i s t s as Newton, Harvey and > Darwin. This w i l l create an atmosphere of greater excitement and involvement, an atmosphere which the author contends i s more conducive to creative think-ing. Torrance, E. Paul. C r e a t i v i t y : What Research Says  to the Teacher. U.S. National Education Association, 196 3b. In t h i s pamphlet, Torrance presents a b r i e f but concise d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y and description of research a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d . He then discusses the implications of t h i s research on education and the r o l e of the teacher. In the f i n a l few pages, the author l i s t s ten guidelines f o r creative teaching which should help any teacher to develop an attitude which i s more conducive to c r e a t i v i t y . Torrance, E. Paul. Guiding Creative Talent. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964. This book provides a more extensive discussion of the nature of c r e a t i v i t y and i t s implications on edu-cation; Torrance i d e n t i f i e s several problems which may a r i s e when the student's c r e a t i v i t y i s suppressed and suggests methods for r e c t i f y i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n . He also deals at some length with the question of the rel a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y , concluding that the i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d , as i d e n t i f i e d by current systems of evaluation, i s not necessarily creative, and that new testfcs should be developed to tr y to i d e n t i f y those students with high creative p o t e n t i a l . Problem Solving: Duncker, K a r l . Trans. Lynne S. Lees. "On Problem Solving". Psychological Monographs, Vol. 58, No. 5, Whole of No. 270, 1945. Duncker describes the process of problem solving as a series of restructurations of the problem which bring i t closer to the desired (solution) state. These restructurings tend to unite formerly separated parts of the problem s i t u a t i o n into new wholes, (p 29). They are created, according to Duncker, out of an open and ' e l e s t i c ' mind, one which i s not r i g i d i n i t s patterns of thought. In connection with t h i s e l a s -t i c i t y , Duncker describes the phenomenon of 'functional fixedness' i n which the problem solver cannot r e s t r u c t -ure the problem because the problem material i s , i n * his mind, imbued with c e r t a i n functions or a t t r i b u t e s which he has d i f f i c u l t y i n separating from the material i t s e l f . I t i s only when the problem-solver can break free of t h i s fixedness that the sudden reformation of ideas, the 'aha' experience, takes place. Duncker i l l u s t r a t e s h i s theories with discussions of several experimental problem solving a c t i v i t i e s , mostly of a mathematical nature. His a r t i c l e represents one of the f i r s t d e t a i l e d discussions of creative problem solving. Moore, Gary 8 L.M. Gay. Creative Problem Solving i n  Architecture: A P i l o t Study. University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, Department of Architecture, September, 196 7. This study attempts to i d e n t i f y , by observing the problem solving a c t i v i t i e s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l students as they grapple with design problems, the discrete stages of the problem solving process and the a b i l i t i e s required by the problem solver during each of these stages. The stages i d e n t i f i e d by Moore are: 1. Problem Recognition, 2. Problem D e f i n i t i o n , 3. Strategy Development, 4. Problem Analysis 5. Solution Generation, 6. Solution Selection, and 7. Evaluation and V e r i f i c a t i o n . Under each of these headings, the authors provide an extensive l i s t of the a b i l i t i e s required. Many of these are concerned with the notion of perceptual and cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y (the a b i l i t y to see things and think of things i n new and unusual ways), and with the a b i l i t i e s associated with l o g i c a l thinking. This study i s of tremendous value to a teacher who wishes to design a program of creative problem solving as i t helps to e s t a b l i s h the educational objectives which should be achieved at each stage i n the process. Urban Education: Jones, W. Ron. Your City Has Been Kidnapped: Deschool  Primer #3. San Francisco, Zephyrus, 1972. This book i s b a s i c a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n of suggestions f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n the c i t y which w i l l help the par-t i c i p a n t to view h i s c i t y i n d i f f e r e n t and unusual ways. Many of these suggestions could be r e a d i l y adapted to f i t the educational context. Most are imaginative and fun, though the concepts they deal with may be somewhat more serious. I t i s well i l l u s -t r ated, with drawings and cartoons that help the reader to view the c i t y i n a more imaginative way. Symonds, Hilda, ed. The Teacher i n the C i t y . Toronto, Methuen Pubs., 1971. The Teacher i n the City i s a more serious attempt to provide the teacher with lesson outlines which deal with important urban issues and concepts. Projects and a c t i v i t i e s are suggested f o r each lesson, as are possible questions f o r consideration by the students. The book thus provides the teacher with a substantial framework f o r a course of urban studies. I t i s primarily intended f o r the secondary l e v e l of education, however an experienced teacher could adapt the ideas presented to almost any age l e v e l . This book also includes an annotated bibliography of references on the c i t y , i t s h i s t o r y , geography, economy, sociology and design, which i s invaluable to the teacher. Wurman, Richard Saul. The Yellow Pages of Learning. Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. Press, 1972. This book i s primarily intended f o r use at the elementary school l e v e l . I t suggests a number of f i e l d t r i p s that students could take to learn more about t h e i r c i t y - fo r example the a i r p o r t , a bakery, a f i r e h a l l , etc. The book's format i s s i m i l a r to that of the yellow pages of a telephone book, l i s t -ing the suggested f i e l d t r i p s i n alphabetical order fo r easy reference. Wurman, Richard Saul. Making the City Observable. Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. Press, 19 71. Making the City Observable i s a compilation of ideas f o r making the c i t y more understandable to the average c i t i z e n . Wurman places a great deal of emphasis on the development of maps and systems of graphic symbols within the c i t y i t s e l f to promote an increased v i s u a l understanding of the c i t y . The book i s i l l u s t r a t e d with several examples of graphic and mapping techniques which relay information i n a much more concise and e f f e c t i v e manner than do the tables of s t a t i s t i c s and written reports which one i s often faced with i n one's attempt to become more knowledgeable about the c i t y . While Wurman does not, i n t h i s book, suggest how hie ideas might be adapted f o r classroom use, an experienced teacher should have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n doing t h i s f o r himself. Warren, Roland L. Studying Your Community. New York, The Free Press, Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 19 55. Studying Your Community i s undoubtedly the most comprehensive and extensive work i n the f i e l d of urban studies. The book i s divided into general areas of concern ( s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , economic, p o l -i t i c a l ) . Within each of these areas, more s p e c i f i c issues and problems are considered - fo r example the structure of the s o c i a l welfare system i n the community. Warren considers these, not by discus-sing t h e i r general nature i n most communities, but by presenting a l i s t of very s p e c i f i c questions regarding t h e i r nature i n your community. In other words, the book enumerates s p e c i f i c questions which should be asked i n any community study. I t i s an absolutely invaluable teaching a i d , providing as i t does, a lesson outline f o r almost any avenue of inquiry into the c i t y . I t i s primarily intended 98. f o r secondary school and unive r s i t y students and f o r professionals who wish to explore an aspect of the c i t y i n which they have no expertise. Additional References on the Urban Environment Bacon, Edmund. The Design of C i t i e s New York, Viking Press, 1967. Blumenfeld, Hans. The Modern Metropolis: I t s Origins,  Growth C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and Planning, ed. Paul D. Spreiregen, Montreal, Harvest HouseT 1967. Blake, Peter. God's Own Junkyard. New York, Holt, Rinehart 8 Winston, 1964. Chermayeff, Serge and C. Alexander. Community and  Privacy. Garden C i t y , Doubleday, 196 3. Eckbo, Garret. Landscape f o r Li v i n g . New York, F.W. Dodge Corp., 1950. Ewald, William R., ed. Urban Landscape Design. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964. Gertler, L.O., ed. Planning the Canadian Environment. Montreal, Harvest House, 1968. Goodman, Robert. After the Planners. New York, Simon 6 Schuster, 19 72. Gutkind, E.A. The Twilight of C i t i e s . London, C o l l i e r MacMillan Ltd., 1962. H a l l , Peter. The World C i t i e s . London, Weidenfeld 8 Nicolson, 1966. Halprin, Lawrence. C i t i e s . New York, Reinhold Pub. Co., 196 3. Hosken, Fran. The Language of C i t i e s . Cambridge, Schenkmann, 1972. Howarth, Lawrence. The Good C i t y . Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1963. Jackson, John N. The Canadian C i t y : Space, Form,  Quality. Toronto, McGraw-Hill ftyerson, IS73. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of c i t i e s . New York, Random House, 1969. Lithwick, N.H. Urban Canada: Problems and Prospects. Ottawa, CMHC, 19701 —*~" Lofland, Lyn H. A World of Strangers: Order and  Action i n Urban Public Space. New York, Basic Books, wnr. — Lynch, Kevin. Image of the C i t y . Cambridge, M.I.T. Press, 1960. Ibid. What Time i s t h i s Place? Cambridge, M.I.T. Press, 1972. Malt, Harold. Furnishing the C i t y . New York, McGraw-Hill, 1970. Michalson, William. Man and His Urban Environment: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach*! Cambridge, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1970. Mumford, Lewis. The City i n History. New York, Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1961. Ibid. Urban Prospect. New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1968. Powell, A l l e n , ed. The Ci t y ; Attacking Modern Myths. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1972. Reps, J.W. The Making of Urban America. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1935. Richardson, Boyce. The Future of Canadian C i t i e s . Toronto, New Press, 1972. Rudofsky, Bernard. Streets f o r People. New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1939. Ibid. Architecture Without A r c h i t e c t s . New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1964. Saarinen, T.F. Perceptions of the Environment. Association of American Geographers, Washington, D. 1969. Simmons, James 6 R. Simmons. Urban Canada. Toronto, Copp-Clark, 1969. Spreiregan, Paul. Urban Design; The Architecture  of Towns and CitiesT New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Spyer, Geoffrey. Architect and Community:  Environmental Design i n an Urban Society. London, Peter 6wen Pubs., 19 71. Whyte, William H. The Last Landscape. New York, Doubleday g Co., 196 8* Zucker, Paul. Town and Square. Cambridge, M.I.T. Press, 1970. APPENDIX I I : ORGANIZATIONS TOR SIMULATION GAMES The following organizations are currently involved with the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of simulation games i n the urban f i e l d . The games available through each or-ganization are l i s t e d i n brackets. 1. Abt Associates Ltd., 55 Wheeler St., Cambridge., Mass. (P o l l u t i o n , Neighbourhood, Simpolis, Manchester 6 Urbcoin) 2. Applied Simulations International Inc., #900, 1100 Seventeenth St. N.W., Washington D.C. (City II) 3. The Free Press, 866 Third Ave., New York, New York. (Simsoc) 4. Interact, P.O. Box 26 2, Lakeside, C a l i f o r n i a . (Sunshine) 5. Science Research Associates Inc., 259 East E r i e St., Chicago, I l l i n o i s . (Interurban Simulation) 6. Simile I I , P.O. Box 1023, 1150 Silverado, La J o l l a , C a l i f o r n i a . (Napoli, Plans, S i t t e ) 7. LaClede Town Co., St. Louis, Missouri. (Trade-Off) 102. 8. Systems Gaming Associates, A 1-2 Lansing Apts., 20 Triphammer Rd., I t h i c a , N.Y. (Clug) 9. Urbandyne, 5659 South Woodlawn Ave., Chicago I l l i n o i s . (Edge City College) 10. Western Publishing Co. Inc., School S Library Dept., 850 Third Ave., New York. (Disaster, Ghetto) 

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