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Towards a creative problem-oriented approach to urban studies Drexel, Julia A. L. 1974

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TOWARDS A CREATIVE PROBLEM-ORIENTED APPROACH TO URBAN STUDIES by JULIA B.A.,  A.L. DREXEL  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  that  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  gain s h a l l  permission.  School ^ixacrttxieixix of  Community and Regional  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  D a t e  not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Dec. 22, 1974  P l a n n i ng  ABSTRACT The complexity, p e r v a s i v e n e s s and urgency s o c i a l and b i o p h y s i c a l problems now  o f the  c o n f r o n t i n g mankind  present p l a n n e r s and d e c i s i o n makers a t a l l l e v e l s o f human o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h monumental c h a l l e n g e s .  Un-  doubtedly some o f the most c h a l l e n g i n g problems are those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the process o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and the c i t y i t s e l f .  Indeed, i t c o u l d be argued  t h a t many  o f our s o c i a l and b i o p h y s i c a l problems are r e l a t e d t o mankind's p e r s i s t e n t congregation i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l geographical areas.  T h i s tends t o c o n c e n t r a t e and i n -  t e n s i f y problems c o n s i d e r a b l y , c a u s i n g such b a s i c and simple a c t i v i t i e s as the p r o v i s i o n o f one's own  food  t o become an extremely complex problem, i n v o l v i n g v a s t and interdependent networks o f f a c t o r s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , economics, waste d i s p o s a l , e t c .  These are  the problems t h a t c u r r e n t l y p e r p l e x urban d e c i s i o n makers . In o r d e r t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h our mounting  urban problems,  i n d i v i d u a l s must be both knowledge-  a b l e about the c i t y and s e n s i t i v e t o i t s a t t r i b u t e s and i t s problems.  But even more important  , they  must be capable o f a d d r e s s i n g these problems i n an open-minded, i n t e l l i g e n t and dynamic manner.  They  must not be bound by the worn out p r e s c r i p t i o n s and piecemeal approaches environmental problem  t h a t have c h a r a c t e r i z e d p a s t solving.  It i s this  a b i l i t y , which I s h a l l r e f e r t o as  1  creative  last problem  s o l v i n g ' , t h a t i s most o f t e n n e g l e c t e d at a l l l e v e l s of education. me  And  i t i s t h i s a b i l i t y which concerns  here. I b e l i e v e t h a t p r o p e r l y designed and implemented  programs o f u r b a n - o r i e n t e d problem s o l v i n g tremendous importance  are o f  i n the e d u c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n -  a l s and the c i t i z e n r y at l a r g e , t o prepare them f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s as urban decision-makers. While the a c t u a l d e s i g n of such programs would vary depending  o f the age l e v e l and c a r e e r g o a l s o f those  f o r whom they are i n t e n d e d , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e b a s i c concepts i n v o l v e d i n an understanding of the c i t y and the e d u c a t i o n a l approach whereby these may imparted, would be much the  be  r e g a r d l e s s o f the  context.  I have t h e r e f o r e attempted  t o develop  i n t h i s t h e s i s , a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r programs of  u r b a n - o r i e n t e d problem s o l v i n g .  From the volumes  of work on problem s o l v i n g , c r e a t i v i t y and I have c r y s t a l l i z e d an  education,  e d u c a t i o n a l approach t o  c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g which i s based  on the phases  of the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g process i t s e l f . Each phase i s d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the major a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l d u r i n g t h a t phase, and the e d u c a t i o n a l methods whereby those a b i l i t i e s might b e s t be developed.  The  applications  of these methods t o urban problem s o l v i n g are  illus-  t r a t e d by numerous suggestions f o r a c t i v i t i e s  and  e x e r c i s e s which i n v o l v e s p e c i f i c urban concepts,  such  as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication and urban growth.  I  have g e n e r a l l y addressed myself, i n these s u g g e s t i o n s , to  a secondary  school l e v e l of education.  However,  it  should not be d i f f i c u l t f o r an experienced  to  adapt the i d e a s presented t o e i t h e r lower o f h i g h e r  teacher  l e v e l s of education. I t i s hoped t h a t these i d e a s w i l l generate i n c r e a s e d i d e a t i o n and a c t i v i t y a t a l l l e v e l s o f educat i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , where  tomorrow's urban d e c i s i o n makers a r e now e n r o l l e d i n schools Design.  o f P l a n n i n g , A r c h i t e c t u r e , and Environmental  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  Page  i  CONTENTS  Page  v  LIST OF TABLES  Page  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  Page  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Page  ix  INTRODUCTION Problem Statement  Page  D e f i n i t i o n o f Problem S o l v i n g and C r e a t i v i t y  Page  8  Format  Page  14  Introduction  Page  16  Problem D e f i n i t i o n  Page  25  Information  Page  34  CREATIVE URBAN PROBLEM SOLVING: TEACHING THE PROCESS  Idea  Gathering  38  Generation Page  49  Page  54  Page  60  Page  67  Page  74  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Page  80  APPENDIX I : ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT  Page  92  APPENDIX I I : ORGANIZATIONS SIMULATION GAMES  Page  101  Incubation  and I l l u m i n a t i o n  Refinement Communication SUMMARY AND  and E v a l u a t i o n  CONCLUSION  FOOTNOTES  FOR  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1:  Summary T a b l e  Page  LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1:  SOUND  Page 18  Figure 2:  WALL  Page 21  F i g u r e 3:  TIME  Page 21  F i g u r e 4:  URBAN SURVIVAL  Page 28  F i g u r e 5:  USES FOR THINGS  Page 31  F i g u r e 6:  TRANSPORTATION  Page 33  F i g u r e 7:  MAPPING  Page 36  F i g u r e 8:  RE-USE  Page 41  F i g u r e 9:  URBAN GAMES  Page 44  F i g u r e 10:  GROWTH  Page 47a  F i g u r e 11:  LEARNING SPACE  Page 53  F i g u r e 12:  WHAT IF...?  Page 57  F i g u r e 13:  PEOPLE IN THE CITY  Page 58  F i g u r e 14:  COMMUNICATION  Page 62  F i g u r e 15:  URBAN GLOSSARY  Page 65  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. W. E. Rees f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and support the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . thank Mr. W.W.  during  I would a l s o l i k e t o  Wood, from the School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e  f o r h i s patience  and i n s p i r a t i o n .  I b e l i e v e t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s the fundamental method o f s o c i a l change.  Bruner, 1962,  p.125  INTRODUCTION  Problem  Statement  We are l i v i n g i n a p e r i o d o f g r e a t s o c i a l c r i s i s — d o m e s t i c a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y — a c r i s i s t h a t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o i g n o r e . I t used t o be t h a t most o f us were a b l e t o 'tune out' r a t h e r e a s i l y whenever we were too depressed by the s o c i a l dilemmas o f our time. ...Those times o f a l o u g h i n g o f f the problem or blaming others f o r i t seem t o have gone f o r e v e r . There are fewer and fewer p l a c e s t o h i d e . (1)  I t seems t h a t mankind i s always i n a 'period o f crisis'.  Wars, d e p r e s s i o n s , famines, and plagues  ure prominently i n a l l h i s t o r i c a l accounts o f  fig-  man.  The c u r r e n t s o c i a l and environmental c r i s i s , m a n i f e s t i n world wide p o l i t i c a l upheaval, r e s o u r c e s h o r t a g e s , and mounting problems  o f p o l l u t i o n and environmental  d e g r e d a t i o n i s , however, o f p a r t i c u l a r  significance.  2  T h i s i s not because i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y any more s e r i o u s than p r e v i o u s c r i s e s , but because i t i s o c c u r r i n g a t a time when e x t e n s i v e and e f f i c i e n t  communications  systems have v i r t u a l l y f o r c e d l a r g e numbers o f people t o become aware o f t h e c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n .  T h e i r aware-  ness i s r e f l e c t e d , a t the l o c a l l e v e l , i n such a c t i v i t i e s as ' p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g * which a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making a c t i v i t i e s which a f f e c t t h e i r urban and r e g i o n a l 2 environments. Because such a l a r g e percentage o f our n a t i o n a l population  l i v e s i n urban a r e a s , the c i t y has become  a major f o c u s o f p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i ties.  I t s s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l development  and i t s  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e s t o f the environment are a major concern o f p l a n n e r s today.  But i t has become  increasingly c l e a r that i f e f f e c t i v e solutions t o urban problems are t o be found and i f c i t i z e n s a r e t o have a meaningful r o l e i n urban p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s , both p r o f e s s i o n a l s and c i t i z e n s must become more knowledgeable about and more s e n s i t i v e t o the city.  They must furthermore become more capable o f  d e a l i n g w i t h i t s problems i n an open-minded and  dynamic manner. The need f o r programs o f e d u c a t i o n t o h e i g h t e n p u b l i c awareness o f broad environmental i s s u e s  and  problems was h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d i n the l a t e 1960's by environmentalists  such as Menesini:  Our environment and i t s r e s o u r c e s are a major concern o f mankind today. That concern can be v o i c e d , l e g i s l a t e d f o r , and e x e r c i s e d , but the one most p o s i t i v e means f o r c r e a t i n g concern f o r — and i n t e l l i g e n t management o f — our world i s through the environmental e d u c a t i o n of those who w i l l i n h e r i t i t . (4)  These authors r e p e a t e d l y expressed concern over the d e a r t h o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs d e a l i n g w i t h the n a t u r a l environment  and the problems o f r e s o u r c e a l -  l o c a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and p o l l u t i o n . of them  5  Indeed, many  developed programs o f 'environmental  t i o n ' which s t r e s s e d a p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d and d i s c i p l i n a r y approach  the student's more  a c t i v e involvement i n environmental  issues.  example, 'Outward Bound' programs have been  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o many h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . are  inter-  and e x t e n s i v e use o f the f i e l d  t r i p method i n o r d e r t o encourage  For  educa-  These  i n t e n d e d t o h e i g h t e n the s t u d e n t ' s understanding  of the n a t u r a l environment by i n v o l v i n g him i n dynamic and c h a l l e n g i n g w i l d e r n e s s o r  semi-wilderness  experiences which demand h i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s : he must l e a r n i n order t o survive. At the same time, educators and others  concerned  g  w i t h urban problems  made a s t r o n g p l e a f o r the dev-  elopment of e d u c a t i o n a l programs, e s p e c i a l l y a t the elementary  and secondary  l e v e l , which would d e a l w i t h  the c i t y and i t s problems: S o c i a l s t u d i e s programs...either i g n o r e c i t i e s and urban l i f e , o r they s t r e s s the f a i l u r e s o f the c i t y and support the r u r a l values of the p a s t . There are h a r d l y any t e a c h i n g programs a v a i l a b l e today t h a t take a p o s i t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t o r y view o f urban l i v i n g and the urban environment o r d e a l c o n s t r u c t i v e l y w i t h p l a n n i n g and change. C i t i e s , the very environment o f urban s c h o o l s , don't seem t o e x i s t i n s i d e o f the classroom as a t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n . Yet they shape the l i f e o f every p u p i l and every t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l . (7) In response, were developed  a number of u r b a n - o r i e n t e d programs  t o meet the demand.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y many  o f these programs f a i l t o d e a l w i t h urban i s s u e s i n the dynamic and c h a l l e n g i n g manner t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the e c o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d programs.  According to  Ward,  urban programs o f t e n s u f f e r from b e i n g . . . d e s c r i p t i v e and s t a t i c , r a t h e r than problem-oriented and dynamic. Even when t h e i n t e n t i o n s are e n l i g h t e n e d , the r e s u l t i s o f t e n wooden and f a c t - s t u f f e d , w i t h l i t t l e f e e l i n g f o r the drama o f c h o i c e and change.  Urban s t u d i e s programs have tended t o make l e s s o f the f i e l d t r i p method, perhaps on the t h a t because students  use  assumption  l i v e i n the c i t y and  experience  i t d a i l y , they need not be d i r e c t l y exposed t o i t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t .  Thus urban s t u d i e s  have g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s e d the student's  courses  theoretical  knowledge of the c i t y , r e l y i n g on textbook  information  t o broaden h i s knowledge. T h i s i s e q u a l l y t r u e a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , i n Schools  o f P l a n n i n g , A r c h i t e c t u r e , and  Environmental  Design,  as i t i s a t the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l .  Professors  Q  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i n these f i e l d s have r e p e a t e d l y  c a l l e d f o r more problem-oriented  and dynamic programs  which w i l l c h a l l e n g e and e x c i t e both students  and  teachers. In response t o t h i s need, I have attempted t o deve l o p , from the l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d s o f problem  6.  s o l v i n g , c r e a t i v i t y , e d u c a t i o n , and the urban e n v i r o n ment, a c o n c e p t u a l framework from which one might d e s i g n programs of c r e a t i v e problem-oriented  urban  s t u d i e s a t any l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . In the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , Jerome B r u n e r prominent among those educators who  1 0  is  stress a s e l f -  d i r e c t e d and problem-oriented approach t o e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Bruner i t i s o n l y through the ' e x e r c i s e of problem s o l v i n g ' t h a t one l e a r n s how S i m i l a r l y , Torrance  12  and K o e s t l e r  to l e a r n . 13  1 1  have e x e r t e d  a major i n f l u e n c e on the f i e l d o f c r e a t i v i t y .  While  Torrance c o n c e n t r a t e s on the e d u c a t i o n a l aspects of c r e a t i v i t y , d e v e l o p i n g e x e r c i s e s and t e s t s f o r use i n the classroom, K o e s t l e r ' s work i s more r h e t o r i c a l , attempting t o e x p l a i n the phenomenon o f the act'.  Both authors s t r e s s the r o l e o f the  'creative subconscious  mind i n c r e a t i v i t y and the i m p o r t a n c e  of r e l a x i n g  one's c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l o f the thought  process when  attempting t o c o n s i d e r problems c r e a t i v e l y .  T h i s ap-  p a r e n t l y allows thought m a t e r i a l t o pass i n t o the subconscious mind, which r e o r g a n i z e s and r e s t r u c t u r e s the m a t e r i a l , f i n a l l y forming i t i n t o a unique whole which i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the  and n o v e l  solution.  7.  T h i s spontaneous r e s t r u c t u r a t i o n i s a l s o s t r e s s e d i n the works o f Moore S Gay  14  and K a r l Duncker  15  , who  are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the process o f problem solving.  While Moore and Gay c o n c e n t r a t e on the de-  s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i o u s phases o f the problem s o l v i n g process and the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by an i n d i v i d u a l at each s t a g e , Duncker i s concerned w i t h the o v e r a l l nature o f the p r o c e s s .  He emphasizes  the importance  o f mental e l a s t i c i t y and openness as p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g . I n terms o f urban e d u c a t i o n o r urban s t u d i e s I tended t o r e l y , f o r the m a j o r i t y o f my i d e a s , on t h e works which r e f l e c t e d the a t t i t u d e s and ideas d i s c u s s e d above.  These i n c l u d e d books by Jones 18  Warren  , Symonds  17  ,  19 , and Wurman  , a l l o f which attempt t o i n -  volve the s t u d e n t i n dynamic programs tion.  16  o f urban educa-  But whereas these authors have g e n e r a l l y  addressed themselves t o p a r t i c u l a r urban i s s u e s and problems and t o s p e c i f i c audiences (eg. elementary school students, professionals, e t c . ) , I intend to d e v i s e a more g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e approach t o c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - o i i e n t e d urban s t u d i e s t h a t can be a p p l i e d t o the study o f a wide range o f i s s u e s and problems t h a t can be u t i l i z e d a t any l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n .  and  8  D e f i n i t i o n o f Problem S o l v i n g and C r e a t i v i t y  20 Authors i n the f i e l d s o f problem s o l v i n g  and  21 creativity  share an i n t e r e s t i n t h e dynamics o f  human thought, and i n p a r t i c u l a r g o a l - d i r e c t e d thought.  I n t h i s process t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s attempting  t o r e a c h , through the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f ideas and i n f o r mation, a d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e . is called  This kind o f thinking  'problem s o l v i n g ' , where the problem l i e s 22  i n how t o a t t a i n the d e s i r e d g o a l .  Problem s o l v i n g  per se i s c u r r e n t l y undergoing e x t e n s i v e  research,  however many s t u d i e s have a l s o been c a r r i e d out on the nature o f the 'product' ( o r s o l u t i o n ) o f t h e p r o c e s s , the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by an i n d i v i d u a l engaging i n the p r o c e s s ,  t h e e d u c a t i o n a l methods whereby these  a b i l i t i e s might be developed, and the environment most conducive t o the occurrence o f the p r o c e s s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the problem s o l v i n g 23 process i n c l u d e s f o u r b a s i c phases: 1.  Problem D e f i n i t i o n T h i s phase i n v o l v e s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e problem and the establishment o f a context o r frame o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n which i t w i l l be s t u d i e d .  2.  Information  Gathering  This phase involves the c o l l e c t i o n and analysis of information deemed relevant to the problem. In addition the problem solver reviews the range of possible strategies or approaches which might best s u i t the p a r t i c u l a r problem. 3.  Solution Finding In t h i s phase the problem solver decides on the appropriate strategy or approach, applies i t to the problem, and thereby achieves a preliminary solution to the problem. This solution i s then refined and modified to insure that a l l of the problem variables have been adequately resolved.  **•  Communication 6 Evaluation This phase involves the communication of the refined s o l u t i o n to an outside audience. The problem solver chooses an appropriate mode of communication (eg. graphic, verbal, e t c . ) , attempting to maximize the p o t e n t i a l impact of his ideas. The communication phase may also include evaluation of the solution, e i t h e r by the problem solver himself, or by external critics.  Depending on the nature of both the problem and the i n d i v i d u a l problem solver, t h i s basic process be considerably a l t e r e d .  may  For example, c e r t a i n tech-  n i c a l problems such as those encountered i n the f i e l d s of mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc., might best  be approached by a p a r t i c u l a r theorem or p r i n c i p l e which then tends t o dominate t h e problem s o l v i n g activity.  Thus the p r i n c i p l e s o f l i n e a r a l g e b r a  are a p p l i e d t o a whole c l a s s o f mathematical problems which would otherwise r e q u i r e r a t h e r t e d i o u s and c i r c u i t o u s methods o f s o l u t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , these  problems tend t o have unique s o l u t i o n s .  That i s ,  they are not 'open ended' and the problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y may specific  be h i g h l y l i n e a r , working towards a  objective.  S i m i l a r l y , an i n d i v i d u a l might be more d i s p o s e d t o p r e c i s e a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g than t o i m a g i n a t i v e ordivergent thinking.  He might t h e r e f o r e tend t o  c o n c e n t r a t e , f o r example,  on the p r e c i s e  articulation  and d e f i n i t i o n o f a given problem than on the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s and conceptions o f the problem.  Indeed these two f a c t o r s  the  nature o f the problem and the thought p a t t e r n s o f the problem s o l v e r — the  serve t o i d e n t i f y or d e f i n e  'kind' o f problem s o l v i n g process t h a t i s o c c u r r i n g . In t h i s paper I am concerned w i t h urban problems  which are u s u a l l y o f a complex  and open-ended n a t u r e ,  i n v o l v i n g both h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and  inter-  r e l a t e d i s s u e s which defy easy s o l u t i o n . I n  this  k i n d o f problem s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e may be any number o f appropriate  approaches and ' s o l u t i o n s ' , thus ' c r e a t i v e  problem s o l v i n g ' becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Whereas t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g tend t o e s t a b l i s h a f a i r l y r i g i d  processes  frame o f r e f e r e n c e  f o r any given problem and then proceed t o c o n s i d e r the problem w i t h i n t h a t context  only,  ' c r e a t i v e ' problem  s o l v i n g tends t o a p p r e c i a t e the openness o f t h e problem proceeding  with a less r e s t r i c t i v e consideration of  the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s which might be app l i e d t o the problem. C r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e same a t t r i b u t e s as t h e c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l — non-conforming  i t is  ( i e . i t v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e problem  b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d ) , c o n t a i n s a c t i v e subconscious and imaginative  elements ( i e . i t appears t o be more i n -  t u i t i v e than l o g i c a l ) , and tends t o produce unique 25 o r novel i d e a s .  I t i s t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y ap-  p l i c a b l e t o complex and open-ended urban problems which c e r t a i n l y m e r i t a p r o b l e m - s p e c i f i c and imaginat i v e approach and a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f s o l u t i o n .  Many r e s e a r c h e r s  have s t u d i e d the workings o f  the mind d u r i n g problem s o l v i n g , attempting stand how and why some processes c r e a t i v e than o t h e r s .  t o under-  appear t o be more  One o f t h e i r s t r o n g e s t  s i o n s i s t h a t t h e process  conclu-  o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g  i n v o l v e s , more than t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s , t h e powers 27  o f the subconscious mind and t h e i m a g i n a t i o n .  In-  deed many r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the subconscious may be b e t t e r a b l e t o r e t a i n , a n a l y z e , and o r g a n i z e thought m a t e r i a l more e f f i c i e n t l y than the conscious 28 mind.  However s i n c e so l i t t l e  i s definitively  known about the subconscious mind, t h e exact  nature  of i t s r o l e i s s t i l l speculative. While i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the subconscious mind has  some i n p u t d u r i n g a l l phases o f the problem s o l v i n g 29  process, i t i s b e l i e v e d  that i t s greatest contribution  comes d i r e c t l y a f t e r the phases o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a g e n e r a t i o n , thus modifying as f o l l o w s : 3.  Problem D e f i n i t i o n (as p r e v i o u s l y  defined)  the b a s i c  gathering process  2.  Information Gathering (as p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d )  3.  Idea  Generation  T h i s phase i n v o l v e s the conscious generat i o n o f as many ideas as p o s s i b l e r e g a r d i n g the s o l u t i o n s o f the problem. I n c u b a t i o n and  Illumination  T h i s phase i n v o l v e s subconscious mental a c t i v i t y and culminates i n a sudden r e v e l a t i o n of a conceptual s o l u t i o n to the problem. 5.  Refinement In t h i s phase, the c o n c e p t u a l s o l u t i o n p r o v i d e d by the subconscious mind i s m o d i f i e d and r e f i n e d t o s u i t the o r i g i n a l problem c o n d i t i o n s .  6.  Communication and E v a l u a t i o n (as p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d )  In the  ' c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ' then, the  t h i r d phase —  'solution finding' —  o f the more  t r a d i t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g process i s expanded i n t o t h r e e separate stages which d i s t i n g u i s h the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the conscious and subconscious minds d u r i n g t h i s phase.  In attempting t o teach the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s , one must c o n s i d e r the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by an i n d i v i d u a l engaging  i n the p r o c e s s , the e d u c a t i o n a l  methods through which these a b i l i t i e s may developed,  b e s t be  and the e d u c a t i o n a l atmosphere most condu-  c i v e t o t h e i r development.  I t i s the b e l i e f o f many  30 educators  t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e method o f l e a r n i n g  a process i s through d i r e c t experience o f i t .  It  t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w s t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e method o f t e a c h i n g a process i s through the f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t h i s experience.  The t e a c h e r , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , assumes a  more p a s s i v e r o l e , g u i d i n g the student through  the  s e l f - i n i t i a t e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g process by h e l p i n g him 31  t o develop the necessary  abilities.  Format From these i d e a s on problem s o l v i n g ,  creativity,  and e d u c a t i o n , I i n t e n d t o develop a number o f suggest i o n s r e g a r d i n g the d e s i g n o f programs of creative problem-oriented urban s t u d i e s .  My d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  focus on the e d u c a t i o n a l methods and techniques which might be used t o enhance the student's c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s i n the urban realm.  I n keeping w i t h  the e x p e r i e n t i a l approach t o e d u c a t i o n , I w i l l d i s c u s s these a b i l i t i e s  and methods i n the approximate o r d e r  t h a t they are r e q u i r e d by the student as he through the problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s .  progresses  However i t w i l l  become e v i d e n t , d u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t h a t a l l o f the a b i l i t i e s  are r e q u i r e d , t o some e x t e n t ,  the p r o c e s s , and furthermore completely or f u l l y developed  throughout  that, none o f them may i n the course o f a  problem s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e s , but w i l l develop  be few  incremen-  t a l l y over the course o f a l i f e t i m e o f problem s o l v i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s my ability  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the student's  t o u t l i z e the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g pro-  cess w i l l be g r e a t l y enhanced i f he i s encouraged t o develop the b a s i c s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each phase of  the process as they are r e q u i r e d .  Thus each ex-  p e r i e n c i n g o f the process enhances the student's to u t i l i z e i t e f f e c t i v e l y .  ability  CREATIVE URBAN-ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING: TEACHING THE PROCESS  Introduction Before he can engage m e a n i n g f u l l y i n the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s , the i n d i v i d u a l must a c q u i r e some background knowledge i n the f i e l d o f h i s endea32 vour.  In the c o n t e x t o f s o l v i n g urban problems ( o r  'urban problem s o l v i n g ' ) then, the i n d i v i d u a l must become aware o f the ' c i t y ' as a s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l phenomenon and as the s p e c i f i c environment i n which he l i v e s .  He must develop h i s p e r c e p t u a l  and o b j e c t i v e knowledge o f the c i t y .  awareness  At t h e same 33  time, the i n d i v i d u a l must become more self-aware  ,  more s e n s i t i v e t o h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the urban environment —  how  he p e r c e i v e s , r e a c t s t o , and i n -  f l u e n c e s the c i t y as w e l l as how influences  him.  i t r e a c t s t o and  To develop t h i s g e n e r a l awareness of the  city,  the i n d i v i d u a l should p a r t i c i p a t e i n experiences which i n v o l v e not o n l y an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the c i t y , but an e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e l f .  also  On the f o l l o w i n g pages are  suggestions f o r t h r e e ' s e n s i t i c i t y '  e x e r c i s e s which  might be designed t o achieve t h i s g o a l . The  f i r s t o f t h e s e , 'SOUND' (see F i g u r e 1) i s  i n t e n d e d t o s h i f t the student's awareness o f the  city  from one t h a t i s v i s u a l l y dominated t o one t h a t i s a u d i t o r i a l y dominated. 'sounding' and  The suggestions l i s t e d under  ' n o i s e ' ( i n F i g u r e 1) encourage the  student t o venture i n t o the urban environment, t o experience  i t , and t o i n t e r a c t w i t h i t , on a  l e v e l o f awareness. ing',  'sound', and  Those under 'hearing',  new  'listen-  'music* encourage the student t o  use h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , t o be more a r e a t i v e i n h i s thinking. E x e r c i s e s designed around these i d e a s should attempt  t o develop not o n l y the student's knowledge  of the nature o f sound and i t s r o l e i n the c i t y ,  but  a l s o the v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s t h a t sound has on urban man.  For example, student might be encouraged t o  e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between constant background  se  MOB  NEBMIffc f i n d o u t a l l y o u can a b o u t ' e a r s ' .... then d e s i g n an 'urban e a r ' f o r p e o p l e who l i v e i n t h e urb...make a s c a l e model o f y o u r ' u r b e a r ' ...!  LISTENIM6 Sauitft  what i s t h e sound o f : design: a b u i l d i n g piercing the 1. a new a n d unus k y ? t h e sun as i t r i s e s s u a l sound over the city? t h e 2. a t h i n g t o c i t y growing? suburbia? e l i c i t that sound  try to reconstruct your c i t y t h r o u g h sound: g e t e v e r y o n e t o go t o a d i f f e r ent p l a c e i n t h e c i t y and r e c o r d t h e sounds o f t h a t place, then.... 1. t r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e p l a c e s by sound -- make a 'sound map' o f y o u r c i t y , u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e symbols 2. by e d i t i n g and j o i n i n g the v a r i o u s t a p e s , compose an 'urban sound symphony' around a theme s u c h a s -'urbasia' 'wrecker's r o c k ' '3pm t o 5pm '2120 A.D.' 'silence'  go o u t i n t o t h e c i t y and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h sound... try yelling, whispering, whistling, singing... i n . . .an open p l a z a , a t a h i g h r i s e , i n a cement p a r k i n g l o t , t o a lamppost, i n a c l o s e t , i n someone's e a r . . . . ! try to determine the nature o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i v a c y and sound...  1  tpmimmi *~V=>  C7  £yJ(Z.WOO  JtofSlC  i f a l l o f the bu" d i n g s on t h e mair street o f your c were m u s i c a l notf what song would 1 street play?  i f y o u were a mus cal instrument, which one would y be? ....why?  n o i s e s , such as t r a f f i c , c o n s t r u c t i o n n o i s e , e t c . , and p h s i c a l f a t i g u e : which areas o f the c i t y do people f i n d most t i r i n g , and what r o l e does n o i s e in this effect?  In e x p l o r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n ,  might c o n s t r u c t a three dimensional  play  students  'soundscape' map  of t h e c i t y , showing the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f sounds at various places i n the c i t y . An e x e r c i s e on sound might be designed t o p r o v i d e the student with the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o experiment with  v a r i o u s k i n d 3 o f t e c h n i c a l equipment f o r t h e measurement, p r o d u c t i o n ,  and r e c o r d i n g o f sound and with  d i f f e r e n t kinds o f v e r b a l and non-verbal communication. Again the suggestions  l i s t e d under 'noise' i n F i g u r e 1  might be u t i l i z e d t o achieve  these o b j e c t i v e s .  E x e r c i s e s f o c u s s i n g on t h e sense o f t o u c h , s m e l l , t a s t e , and s i g h t c o u l d s i m i l a r l y be developed. e x e r c i s e s should  i n c o r p o r a t e as many aspects  sense as p o s s i b l e , prompting the student  These  o f each  t o explore  s e v e r a l avenues, t o broaden h i s knowledge base.  It  might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s t r u c t a s e r i e s o f o v e r l a y maps (one f o r each sense) t o d e s c r i b e the sensory environment o f t h e c i t y .  The second s e t o f s u g g e s t i o n s (see F i g u r e 2) i s i n t e n d e d t o focus t h e student's a t t e n t i o n on one e l e ment o f the c i t y —  i n t h i s case the ' w a l l ' —  which  he has probably n o t c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y b e f o r e . I t attempts  t o i n t r o d u c e the student t o t h e many d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s o f experience i n v o l v e d i n t h e concept o f 'wall* by r e q u e s t i n g him t o contemplate a wall?'  The student s h o u l d be encouraged  about a l l kinds o f w a l l s — personal walls —  t o think  p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and  as w e l l as t h e i r uses —  c o n t a i n e r s , and o b j e t s d ' a r t . for  'wallness': 'What i s  as b a r r i e r s ,  An i n t e r e s t i n g p r o j e c t  one o r two students might i n v o l v e a study o f t h e  h i s t o r y o f walls i n c i v i l i z a t i o n . they b u i l t ?  How and why were  How have they developed over t h e ages?  Students might even t r y changing t h e appearance and/or the f u n c t i o n o f one o f t h e w a l l s i n t h e i r  classroom.  In d o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e concept o f ' w a l l ' , v a r i o u s r e l a t e d concepts such as space, p r i v a c y , containment, and punishment might be d i s c u s s e d . try  Students might  t o d e s i g n a p r i s o n without w a l l s 1 Once a g a i n the student should be encouraged t o  venture out i n t o the urban environment  and t o i n t e r a c t  21,  <3?  G2)  «  3?  with i t ,  d i s c o v e r i n g as much about h i m s e l f as he  does about h i s c i t y .  Thus, as i n the suggestions i n  F i g u r e 1, t h e student might be requested the m u l t i t u d e o f w a l l s i n h i s c i t y  t o explore  (perhaps r e c o r d i n g  h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s with a camera o r pen and i n k ) , and then t o d e s i g n a w a l l f o r h i m s e l f which b e s t  reflects  h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s e x t e r n a l environment. S i m i l a r e x e r c i s e s might be designed  around concepts  such as windows, r o o f - t o p s , edges, chimneys, r e f l e c t i o n s bridges, etc.  Because each o f these  concepts has some  p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n t h e c i t y the student can exp e r i e n c e them d i r e c t l y and c o n c r e t e l y , thereby a deeper understanding  o f t h e i r nature  More a b s t r a c t concepts — s i t y , change, e t c . — stand.  gaining  and s i g n i f i c a n c e .  such as time, space, den-  a r e much more d i f f i c u l t t o under-  They have only i n d i r e c t p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ,  y e t they a r e o f c r u c i a l importance t o t h e c i t y .  This  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f time, which i s such an import a n t f a c t o r i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c i t y .  The  student  exercises  should be exposed, through a p p r o p r i a t e  t o t h e h o u r l y , d a i l y , and seasonal changes which occur i n the c i t y .  Photographs o r drawings o f some p a r t i c u l a r  23.  place i n the c i t y at various times of the day or year might be displayed as a mural or collage. In addition, the c i t y ' s influence on our notion of time should be explored: why do we f e e l rushed when we are i n the downtown core? how does a windowless environment a f f e c t our sense of the passage of time? And of course the long-term influence of time on the c i t y must also be studied, the physical and s o c i a l changes that have taken place over the history of the c i t y , the changes that are l i k e l y to take place i n years to come.  I t i s t h i s issue which i s addressed  i n the poem i n Figure 3 , 'TIME'.  The student i s r e -  quested to explore h i s urban environment f o r vestiges of times gone by —  o l d landmarks, a wooden paving  stone showing through the ashphalt —  and to attempt  to recreate i n h i s imagination what might once have been there and what might be there i n the future. The value of such s e n s i t i c i t y exercises i s that they may be undertaken on a number of d i f f e r e n t  levels  from the physical or perceptual l e v e l through to the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l l e v e l .  In addition, they may be  used to develop such s p e c i f i c s k i l l s as mapping, sketching, photography, etc., as well as a b i l i t i e s i n  24  KE  passage, of-kms. re-ueak fWlf  •^ne SUYL -fcVve. mooyi tir\£ t i d i e r ars a l l -time's rnixiums tlr\s passage. o9~tuAas toWcdb is - t h e urban c l o c k s Lfid on wboua  c  ghosV —  ecomt a a ubfbarb clock.  Figure TIME  3  the  communication and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s .  the  student has been  Once  ' i n t r o d u c e d ' t o the c i t y ,  he  i s b e t t e r able t o engage i n urban problem s o l v i n g activities.  These b e g i n w i t h problem d e f i n i t i o n .  Problem D e f i n i t i o n  As the i n d i v i d u a l e x p l o r e s t h e urban environment, he w i l l encounter s i t u a t i o n s which he f i n d s ing  or 'problematical'.  disturb-  Hopefully h i s previous i n -  volvement i n urban e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l prompt him t o c o n s i d e r these s i t u a t i o n s more c a r e f u l l y , t o t r y t o r e s o l v e them.  I n t h i s endeavour the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  f i r s t task i s t o i d e n t i f y the problem —  to establish  i t s c o n t e x t , i t s scope, and i t s complexity o r depth to d e f i n e the problem.  —  Quite o b v i o u s l y t h i s t a s k  demands the use o f r e a s o n : the i n d i v i d u a l must analyze and e v a l u a t e the s i t u a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between r e l e v e n t and i r r e l e v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o come up w i t h a l o g i c a l and comprehensive problem statement. But a p a r t from the a b i l i t y  t o reason, the c r e a t i v e  problem s o l v e r r e q u i r e s two a d d i t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s : a t o l e r a n c e o f ambiguity  34  and ' c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y '  35  A c c o r d i n g t o the poet K e a t s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s 0 0  a b i l i t y t o t o l e r a t e ambiguity may  be d e s c r i b e d as a  'negative c a p a b i l i t y : he e x p e r i e n c e s 1  'uncertainties,  mysteries [and] doubts, without any i r r i t a b l e r e a c h i n g a f t e r f a c t and r e a s o n . ' the advantage  I n c h a o t i c problem  situations,  of this c a p a b i l i t y i s evident.  an i n s e c u r e i n d i v i d u a l tends t o i n h i b i t the  Whereas problem  s o l v i n g process by imposing a premature s t r u c t u r e on the s i t u a t i o n ( t o p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y ) , a more t o l e r ant i n d i v i d u a l r e f r a i n s from imposing a s t r u c t u r e and thus 'keeps the problem open'. I n o r d e r t o take advantage  o f t h i s openness, the  c r e a t i v e problem s o l v e r must a l s o possess flexibilty'.  'cognitive  This refers to h i s a b i l i t y to perceive  a s i t u a t i o n from a v a r i e t y o f mental p e r s p e c t i v e s and t o s h i f t q u i c k l y from the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f one 37 t i v e t o another.  perspec-  38 I t i s believed  t h a t the i n d i v i -  dual's c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y d u r i n g problem  definition  i s o f c r u c i a l importance t o the o v e r a l l c r e a t i v i t y o f t h e ensuing problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y .  I f the i n d i v i d u a l  i s a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h , from the o u t s e t , a wide v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s on the problem, he w i l l l i k e l y  be  a b l e t o generate more i d e a s towards i t s s o l u t i o n a t a l a t e r stage i n the p r o c e s s .  It is my contention that the student's tolerance of ambiguity may best be developed by confronting him 39  with complex and challenging situations.  These must  be structured in such a way that they do not overwhelm and intimidate the student, but rather stimulate his interest and involvement, thereby facilitating the development of his ability to tolerate ambiguous problem situations.  For example, an older high school  or university student might be asked to 'survive' in the city for a given period of time and with a limited amount of money (see Figure 4, 'URBAN SURVIVAL'). No additional instructions need to be given, and no specific problem or project need be assigned.  Thus the  student must deal with both a complex and perhaps c confusing physical and social situation  (the unknown  environment) and an ambiguous problem assignment (to survive).  Depending on a teacher's educational ob-  jectives and the environment involved, an 'urban survival' exercise might be developed to suit almost any group of students.  Even youngsters could be left,  perhaps in pairs, in strange urban environments (such as a department store, an unknown suburb, etc.) for short periods of time.  28.  An i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n which might be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h urban s u r v i v a l i s what  similarities  and d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between urban and w i l d e r n e s s s u r v i v a l : what are the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r i o r i t i e s i n each situation?  The t e a c h e r may  a l s o wish t o have h i s s t u -  dents c o n s i d e r s u r v i v a l as a way  o f l i f e , t o compare  i t w i t h the more decadent and l u x u r i o u s l i f e s t y l e s l i v e d i n v a r i o u s o t h e r p a r t s o f the c i t y .  Or students  might e x p l o r e the concept o f s u r v i v a l from the viewp o i n t o f the e n t i r e c i t y : how  does the c i t y ' s u r v i v e ' ?  where does i t s food and water come from? where does i t s waste go? A number o f e x e r c i s e s have been developed  to un  enhance the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y .  The  ' f i g u r e completion' e x e r c i s e , developed by Torrance  ,  r e q u i r e s the student t o complete a g r a p h i c o r w r i t t e n i d e a (eg. a f i g u r e , s t o r y , poem, e t c . ) i n as many d i f f e r e n t ways as p o s s i b l e .  For example, a sheet o f  paper p r i n t e d w i t h 30 i d e n t i c a l c i r c l e s might be i s s u e d to the student w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t he make these c i r c l e s i n t o a3 many d i f f e r e n t and  should original  urban forms as he can t h i n k o f (eg. a p a r k i n g meter, stop s i g n , s t r e e t l i g h t , e t c . ) .  Or the student might  be asked t o p r o v i d e a n o v e l c o n c l u s i o n t o an  incomplete  poem o r s t o r y about some urban i n c i d e n t o r phenomenon (eg. the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c i t y i n 2050 A.D.). S i m i l a r l y Torrance's  'uses f o r t h i n g s ' e x e r c i s e  r e q u i r e s t h e student t o suggest as many o r i g i n a l uses as p o s s i b l e f o r an o r d i n a r y o b j e c t such as a t i n can, a brick, a paper-clip, etc.  As i n t h e sample suggested  e x e r c i s e s on the f o l l o w i n g page (see F i g u r e 5, 'USES FOR THINGS'), an urban s t u d i e s c l a s s might c o n s i d e r the range o f p o s s i b l e uses f o r empty p a r k i n g l o t s , t h e spaces under b r i d g e s , r o o f - t o p s , o l d telephone  poles,  etc. Both f i g u r e completion'  and 'uses f o r t h i n g s ' pro-  mote c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y by r e q u i r i n g the student t o p e r c e i v e the same p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n from a variety of perspectives.  They a r e g e n e r a l l y  intended  as s h o r t (15 t o 30 minute) mental warm-ups, t o be used a t frequent i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g t h e problem s o l v i n g process and e s p c i a l l y d u r i n g the e a r l y phases o f problem d e f i n i t i o n and i d e a The  student's  generation.  a b i l i t i e s i n problem d e f i n i t i o n may  a l s o be developed simply by r e q u e s t i n g him t o c o n s i d e r  OaO6  aoo  ooo  tAcK  such complex urban i s s u e s as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , housing, p o v e r t y , and  zoning.  While problems abound i n a l l  of these a r e a s , i t i s o f t e n extremely d i f f i c u l t  to  d e f i n e a problem because there are so many f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n each i s s u e .  This becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  apparent as one  the v a r i o u s aspects o f , f o r  explores  example, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . and  The  suggested  p r o j e c t s d e s c r i b e d i n Figure  do not  6,  exercises  'TRANSPORTATION',  formulate o r d e f i n e a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem  per se.  Instead  the student i s r e q u i r e d t o formulate  f o r h i m s e l f the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (such as the c o n f l i c t between and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c ) , and  pedestrian  t o t r y t o understand  a r t i c u l a t e these problems as he e x p l o r e s modes o f urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  According  s i g n o f t h i s e x e r c i s e , the student may s o l v e one ply  or more o f the problems he  to l i s t  the r e a l and  various  to the  de-  be r e q u i r e d  to  d i s c o v e r s or sim-  p o t e n t i a l problems as he  counters them d u r i n g h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s . may  the  and  The  en-  exercise  a l s o be designed t o develop c e r t a i n s k i l l s , such  as photography, g r a p h i c s , mapping, e t c . , and courage o r i g i n a l and  imaginative  thinking.  to  en-  v  33.  Is  d i  1  C9  mm CAT)  <£>  (kfitf  5s  CD  a*  J  05*  fe fe?  WD  £3  mis  GP Oaf)  ^=9  <£><?0  w  <3  IStf'S^S*  © o«2>  Sis?  [<» ^ <&D <3 <3<»  Figure  6  TRANSPORTATK  Information Gathering  Having determined  the g e n e r a l context o f h i s  problem, the i n d i v i d u a l commences the r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t forward but o f t e n t e d i o u s and time consuming task o f c o l l e c t i n g the r e l e v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n for i t s solution.  The importance o f t h i s  stage  t o the o v e r a l l problem s o l v i n g process i s acknowledged by most authors  , however t h e r e i s some  debate over the amount o f e f f o r t t h a t should be expended i n t h i s phase.  A c c o r d i n g t o Gagne  nil  :  One person i s b e t t e r a t s o l v i n g a problem than another because he knows more — because he has more i n f o r m a t i o n o f the s o r t t h a i u l t i m a t e l y t u r n s out t o be r e l e v a n t t o the problem o r t o the process o f s o l v i n g i t . T h e r e f o r e a prolonged p e r i o d o f i n f o r m a t i o n gatheri n g s h o u l d r e s u l t i n b e t t e r problem s o l v i n g .  On the  4-5  o t h e r hand, some authors  contend  t h a t an overabun-  dance o f i n f o r m a t i o n may s t i f l e c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g by imposing  unnecessary  r e s t r i c t i o n s on the  problem. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t some i n f o r m a t i o n must be c o l l e c t e d , and i n t h i s endeavour the problem  s o l v e r r e q u i r e s such s k i l l s as are i n v o l v e d i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f equipment (eg. v i d e o and tape recorders., cameras, e t c . ) arid techniques  (eg. i n t e r v i e w i n g , s u r -  veying, etc.) associated with information  gathering.  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s phase r e q u i r e s not only the powers o f l o g i c and reason  t o conduct the  student's  necessary  a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n o f incoming i n f o r m a t i o n , a l s o h i s more s u b j e c t i v e powers o f sensory t o a p p r e c i a t e the s o c i a l and emotional  but  perception  overtones o f  the problem. While t r a d i t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g tends t o concent r a t e on the student's critically  a b i l i t y t o reason and  think  , c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g tends t o b a l -  ance t h i s approach by i n c l u d i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l y s u b j e c t i v e component i n t h i s stage. which may  hod  exercise  be used to enhance both o f these  as w e l l as the student's me  An  s k i l l s i n one  greater  abilities  particular  o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g i s 'mapping'.  In t h i s  e x e r c i s e the student i s r e q u i r e d t o d e s i g n a map  of  h i s c i t y o r some p a r t o f i t and t o a r t i c u l a t e c e r t a i n k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on i t . Some suggested ideas f o r the k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n which might be mapped appear on the f o l l o w i n g page  (see  F i g u r e 7, "MAPPING ). 1  on d e v e l o p i n g  The t e a c h e r may  the student's  abilities  concentrate i n collecting,  o r g a n i z i n g , and p r e s e n t i n g such f a c t u a l  information  as the l o c a t i o n o f underground s e r v i c e s , the f r e quency o f cars i n an area o f the c i t y , c i v i c boundaries, topographical features, etc. focus on the student's  emotional  Or he may  and p e r c e p t u a l  s e n s i t i v i t y t o the c i t y , r e q u e s t i n g him t o i n d i c a t e on h i s map the 'moods' o f v a r i o u s communities, t h e smells and t e x t u r e s most p r e v a l e n t i n c e r t a i n areas, the l e a s t s e n s i t i v e b u i l d i n g s , e t c .  The map  itself  might be a s m a l l notebook s k e t c h o r a l a r g e s c a l e w a l l map i n c l u d i n g three dimensional  features.  Students should be encouraged t o make t h e i r maps o r i g i n a l and unusual,  adding i n f o r m a t i o n a l , v i s u a l , and  t e x t u r a l v a r i e t y whenever p o s s i b l e .  Over  o f time a classroom wap adorned i n t h i s  a period  fashion  c o u l d e a s i l y become a community a t t r a c t i o n as w e l l as a v a l u a b l e source  of information.  While i t i s not necessary  t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n  c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g mapping r e l a t e t o a s p e c i f i c  pro-  blem ( i e . i t might be u t i l i z e d simply t o enhance t h e student's  g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the c i t y ) , i t i s  o f t e n u s e f u l t o approach problems through mapping.  For example, i n c o n s i d e r i n g the problem o f p r o v i d i n g more amenable p u b l i c spaces i n a g i v e n a r e a o f c i t y , students  might map  the  the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s which  occur i n t h a t area and then t r y t o determine these i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r .  how  H o p e f u l l y , some  f o c a l p o i n t s w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d which may  then be  e x p l o r e d w i t h design o b j e c t i v e s i n mind.  The  dent's s k i l l s i n i n t e r v i e w i n g , graphing, d i n g equipment, e t c . c o u l d s i m i l a r l y be  stu-  using recordeveloped  through a p p r o p r i a t e l y designed e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v i n g these  Idea  skills.  Generation  I t i s i n t h i s phase o f problem s o l v i n g t h a t  the  c r e a t i v e approach d i f f e r s most s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the more t r a d i t i o n a l approach.  Whereas the  tradi-  t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g approach proceeds with a conv e n t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , d e c i s i o n on appropriate  the  s t r a t e g y , and s o l u t i o n o f the problem  a c c o r d i n g t o the format o f the chosen s t r a t e g y , c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g proceeds w i t h what has 47  been c a l l e d  ' l a t e r a l ' or 'divergent'  These terms r e f e r t o an expansive and thought process  thinking free-wheeling  as opposed t o a more focussed  and  controlled  ('convergent') p r o c e s s .  Divergent  t h i n k i n g makes g r e a t e r use o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n as a b r i d g e i n t o the r e s e r v o i r o f i d e a s s t o r e d i n t h e subconscious mind.  I t s o b j e c t i s t o generate  as many  ideas as p o s s i b l e about the problem, n o t t o f i n d t h e one  i d e a which s a t i s f i e s t h e problem  requirements.  By u s i n g d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , t h e c r e a t i v e problem s o l v e r i n c r e a s e s h i s l i k e l i h o o d o f d i s c o v e r i n g an unusual  s o l u t i o n which, though i t s a t i s f i e s t h e  problem requirements,  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a ' l o g i c a l '  s o l u t i o n i n t h a t i t may i n v o l v e the use o f o b j e c t s and i d e a s n o t normally  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the problem  48 context. Authors i n t h e f i e l d o f c r e a t i v i t y have a number o f e x e r c i s e s t o h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l h i s a b i l i t i e s i n divergent t h i n k i n g .  designed develop  These u t i l i z e  t h r e e main t e c h n i q u e s : b r a i n s t o r m i n g , p l a y , and metaphorical t h i n k i n g . 49 'Brainstorming'  r e f e r s t o t h e group process o f  g e n e r a t i n g as many i d e a s as p o s s i b l e r e g a r d i n g a concept o r object.  G e n e r a l l y t h i s concept  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l a r g e r problem. one were attempting  r e p r e s e n t s an.  F o r example, i f  t o d e s i g n a new system o f r a p i d  t r a n s i t , one might b r a i n s t o r m portation —  the concept o f t r a n s -  how many d i f f e r e n t kinds o f t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n a r e there? how do they operate?  Participants  are g e n e r a l l y i n s t r u c t e d t o express t h e i r  ideas  f r e e l y , without p a s s i n g judgement on t h e i r apparent relevence  o r u l t i m a t e value  as s o l u t i o n s t o t h e  problem.  T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e method o f d e f  50  f e r r e d judgement'  .  When new ideas a r e exhausted,  the group c o n s i d e r s each i d e a more c a r e f u l l y ,  iden-  t i f y i n g i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e problem (eg. common p r i n c i p l e s and i d e a s ) and how these might a i d i n i t s solution.  I n terms o f t h e p r e v i o u s  example, t h e  p r i n c i p l e s o f p i p e l i n e t r a n s p o r t might be found t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o the r a p i d t r a n s i t o f i n d i v i d u a l s — people  pipes?  As i l l u s t r a t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g page ( F i g u r e 8, 'REUSING'), t h e problem o f r e - u s i n g o b j e c t s and events might w e l l be approached by t h e b r a i n s t o r m i n g method.  The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s problem i s f a r i l y  s t r a i g h t forward.  The student  chooses an o b j e c t ,  such as an o l d p a r k i n g m e t e r ( s ) ,  plastic container(s),  g a s - s t a t i o n , o r f i r e h a l l , and attempts t o t h i n k o f a l l o f t h e ways i n which t h i s o b j e c t might be r e - u s e d . The  second p a r t o f t h e problem —  r e - u s i n g an ' e x p e r i -  Approx. 10 acs. cleared, fenced view ppty.. barn, horse & few beef cattle. Langley area, close to freeway to Vane. Phone now re terms etc. RUSS WICKS, 581-1181 (eves. 531-4785) HILLTOP AGENCIES LTD. —2 bdrm. full basement, V . L . A . sized lot, newly renovated, only $25,000. —2 br, full basement, half acre lot, Nicely treed property In the Cari- fireplace, some ocean view, broadboo. Excellent hunting & fishing loom thrcighout. $31,000. area. Existing mortgage at 8 ' » % . —3 br., ; '11 basement, right In the royd Jantzen, Beaver Rltv. '.M., ••«. f r t»vwt s»»r" r r . r f , n» 228-0(529 or 736-2544. . -toe?  QUALICUM RETIREMENT SPECIALS  10ACRES-$9800 30 ACRE-  5 mi., east of Blain, 'j t.the border part., treed, acre tracts. $1800 per terms at 8% int.. Disco 206-332-8970 3 bdrm., full bsmt. Iv enste. plumbing, built I er, 4.75 acres lot, big buildings, land all clear Baker 1 mtns., offers eves. 856-6691. Hugh & McKinnon R Cloverdale, White Roc INVEST IN WASH 20 ac. $297500. (206)7, 160 acres lake from area . 531-7834. 2.37 ac. treed, 61/24C Country Squire Rlty.  354  WESTSECHELT  Large lots (75'xl50'>, paved roads, water & power. F.P. $11,000. Financing at 10 ' ! % • phone Owner, Ron Williams, 987-0154. SOUTH PENDER 330' gravel beach 1- ac. treed privacy in sheltered harbour. Dandy bldg. site. $32,900.Offers. Terms. No inter- 50x150' at Belcarra Park. 1 est till 1975! E. C . Weber Co. view of Inlet 4 Deep Cove, Ltd., 943-9371. road access and ample water, available. F.P. $55,000. Ric yon, 942-0150 or Kenyon 1 T>/>":SBY—SVCHFV Ltd.. 588-6591 • _ '• ' ••• . .'*•>•:.viced. Beautiful 2 level lakefront 3 BR, rec rm., boat garage., '/-;..':.;";:?,>: ': ,o?z; . :lent 5 9 . dock. Prime property. Goodwin. 50 mlns. south of I ham. Close to Wenberg State $45,000. 206-676-0821 or 652-7150 Vancouver Island Waterfro 'cialists. Thor Peterson, Coi Realty Ltd., Box 489, Ca River, B.C. Lakeside cabin. $8000. 594-4016. Waterfront Okanagan Lak rlfic value. Private. 526-8214  OCEAN FRONT U  361 RECREATIONAL PROP! ISLAND PROPERTY LACLAHACHE  FARMS & R/  18 waterfront lots averaging1 Price range from $7,500-$ 10% down, balance over six y 9%. Payments $95 per mo. Secord Lampman Capilano Highlands Ltd 1575 West Georgia Stre< Vancouver, B.C. 682-3764 or call colled Goldbrldge 224 Camano Is. Wash. Here Is your golden opporti Wooded homesMe , 2 ij acres . 3 acres bluff wtrfront . . . . $ 5 acres Take your pick. EZ terms, low est, free bridge, no ferry. 9( south of Vancouver. Call Coc Estate, 112-206-387-5611.-  LYNDEN.SU/ FERNDAL WASHING"  6 dairy farms from 401 with or without cow. and quota. Call Pete B strap Realtors 206-73 nings 206-398-9205) 3 " Belflngham, WA 98225 By owner — Apprr , Cariboo Ranch land wl serviced trailer horn small bldgs. Located Big Lake. Includes sci vice, electricity, ex< abundant water for s 250 acres cleared, hay a small lake full of r F.P. $175,000. Forfui . tlon phone Parksville •  SALESMEN WAN!  100% comm. paid, $200 per 1st month ln advance. J. Ft 874-1866 or 327-8315.  BLUEBER  M.A.R.S. REALTY L  19 'j acre farm, 7 acr ries. Just coming int Tremendous potentia home and 16x34' sv, . also 3 bedroom home John Stegeman, 465*5 * Haney Realty Ltd. PEACE RIVER COUN 640 acres — 200 t-.variable. Good 3 b Water & power, shop, etc. Good ac Fort St. John. $60 neft 929-2023. Cr« .-. 1381 Marine Drive, ver. 922-6196. Only8%In 7027 264 St., Langh acres, large 3 bean house, hog sheds & o George Mukanik • Raymar Realty Lt< LESS THAN $3,000 Approx. 52 acre farn home hugh barn & mostly fenced. Term 10%. Call Milt Hunn or 381-3321. • WOLSTENC: Since 19: 900 ACR With 500 acres de River. There is al expansion potentia. ner 733.8671: K 732.3640. Squire : 736.2461. BEAT INFLA Buy this beautiful 4 nestled down on the large hill. Modern ho Lots of pure water. 1 miles to town of T\ $90,000. Phone eves Peace River blocl farmland, 300 acres b.r. home, power pi school bus, fair outbuildings. Must sell. $30,000. Phone 112-351-2226. H. J. Hlndmarch Spirit River, Alta. Delta — 40 Acres 5 room Pan-A-Bode home, barn, suitable for riding stables. Gillis Investments, 321-6424, ' eves. 3257821. 320 acres of ranchland, 14 mi, from town of St. Pauls, Alta., 2 mi. off pavement. Older type buildings. $35,000. Call eves.. 403-645-2398. j . ' ' Pni-m llstfnaa..wanted  I 74 CD I A 175' beach, boat house, elec. park-like setting, salmon fisl your own front yard. Home 4 cotltage. Nr. Anacortes, W,ash Prop Research Co. Nr. Anac Wash.  SUDDEN VALLEY Exceptional view lot fronting < course at Sudden Valley OF Whatcom, Wash. Closing cost sume contract or best offer. C John Anderson. 206-284-8661  $2950  1T  Beautifully timbered view lot tastic potential. Lake Whatcoi lingham. Terms. 681-2162. FREE CATALOGUE . SUNSHINE COAST In Vane. Phone 689-5831 Sechelt Agencies Ltd. Box 128, Sechelt, B.C. Sudden Valley, view lot Bellingham. Wash. Close tn to ational facilities. Includes go membership. Reasonable. Ct lecteves; Seattle, (206) 282-!  M O U N T B A K E R  >« acre serviced lot, by ovvnei Land Option of lot Sat. 24th., 1 to 4 p.m., with proci Bellingham.Boys Club. Cai PAridlse 8 ml. S. Abbotsford/ border station. . . BLACK MOUNTAIN RAN Choice cleared river view lot \ without new 23' Trailer $6,000, Trailer, $3,500. ' 736-4698._  PITT LAKE  490 Trans-Canada Highway, Duncan, B.C., 746-4175  C0WICHAN VALLEY ONE ACRE OF PRIVACY  Charming older home with a character all its own sitting i n the midst of a lovely secluded garden. This 4 bedrm. home with bsmt. & separate 2 car garage is situated on a quiet  Beautifully ' treed waterfront Bus. 936-0484 res. 941-2306, Big Gun Lake ,100* waterfront lots, 1 with Back lots with access to watei 9109 or 437-0046. $2000 down, $103 mo., beautiful creek-side lot ln i Valley, Full price, $9,900, 6216. POINT ROBERTS Boundary,Hgts. , 2 service 65x120, call Les & make an 733-6520. Chioce p » b n T j i k A l n t . aoo ing & hun .  on hydro.  irlgure  oHil  RE-USING  Whistl«  8  G u n n Lane,, z/OLjicns. o »  ence' — of  i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t , p a r t l y because  i t s ambiguity  (how  does one  're-use' an e x p e r i e n c e ? ) ,  and p a r t l y because experiences are o f t e n more complex and a b s t r a c t than o b j e c t s . v i s u a l i z e d and manipulated  They are thus l e s s i n the mind.  The  easily student  must f i r s t d e f i n e the experience he wishes t o c o n s i d e r (eg.  shopping, r i d i n g on a bus, e t c . ) and then t r y t o  a l t e r t h a t experience i n such a manner t h a t i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e o r meaning i s changed. second dimension  In e f f e c t , a  i s added t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e .  In both  cases the b r a i n s t o r m i n g method h e l p s the student t o generate numerous and unusual i d e a s f o r the re-use o f o b j e c t s and  experiences.  During b r a i n s t o r m i n g even the w i l d e s t and ideas should be encouraged i f o n l y f o r t h e i r value.  catalytic  A f t e r the b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n , i n d i v i d u a l  students of  silliest  ( o r groups o f s t u d e n t s ) c o u l d develop  one  the i d e a s i n t o a v i a b l e s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f  r e c y c l i n g the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t . The value o f p l a y — licking —  p h y s i c a l and mental f r o -  t o l e a r n i n g and t h i n k i n g has l o n g been 51  r e c o g n i z e d by both educators and p s y c h o l o g i s t s In  the process o f i d e a g e n e r a t i o n , an a t t i t u d e o f  p l a y f u l n e s s enhances the powers o f the i m a g i n a t i o n by a l l o w i n g the i n d i v i d u a l t o escape  the bounds o f r a t i o n -  a l i t y imposed hy the conscious mind and t o b e n e f i t more d i r e c t l y from the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e l e s s subconscious mind.  inhibited  During t h i s phase o f problem  sol-  v i n g , then, t h e t e a c h e r might encourage the use o f games i n v o l v i n g both p h y s i c a l and mental a c t i v i t y , which promote an atmosphere o f f u n and r e l a x a t i o n .  Some  g e n e r a l i d e a s f o r a game which might be used i n an urban s t u d i e s course appear as ' r u l e s ' i n F i g u r e 9, 'URBAN GAMES'.  Any number o f games c o u l d be developed  from t h i s b a s i s , f o c u s s i n g , f o r example, on t h e p o l i t i c a l systems which operate w i t h i n a c i t y , o r on t h e v a s t communications networks t h a t operate both w i t h i n and between c i t i e s .  The games may be extremely  complex,  r e q u i r i n g students t o develop i n t r i c a t e s t r a t e g i e s o f play.  Or they may s t r e s s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e  c i t y , as i n a game o f urban b a s k e t b a l l , where t h e c i t y i s the c o u r t I During t h e p l a y i n g o f games, students s h o u l d be encouraged  t o assume the r o l e s o f o t h e r people, o f  animals, and o f inanimate o b j e c t s —  t o "become the  52 thing'  .  While such sympathetic r o l e - p l a y i n g i s  r e l a t i v e l y easy i n a game s i t u a t i o n , i t may be some-  RULES• I n v e n t a n u r b a n game t h a t : 1. c a n b e p l a y e d b y 2 0 o r more p e o p l e a t one time (individually or i n teams) 2. t a k e s o n e h a l f t o o n e day t o p l a y 3. e n h a n c e s t h e p l a y e r ' s knowledge o f the c i t y 4. r e q u i r e s p l a y e r s t o g o out i n t o t h e c i t y (optional) 5. a l l o w s f o r t h e p a r t i cipation o fthe 'public' (optional) 6. i s f u n t o p l a y ! (not o p t i o n a l ) T r y p l a y i n g t h e name i n your c l a s s . . . i n other classes. Invent aopropriate p r i z e s f o r winners...and losers!  what more d i f f i c u l t ' d u r i n g the more s e r i o u s a c t i v i t y o f problem s o l v i n g .  Yet r o l e - p l a y i n g  tremendous a s s i s t a n c e  can be o f  i n the problem s o l v i n g  process.  I f p r o p e r l y undertaken, i t can p r o v i d e the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o the essences o f inanimate objects,  i n t o the thoughts and f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r i n -  d i v i d u a l s , and i n t o h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s . For example, t h e student might assume the g u i s e o f an o l d b u i l d i n g ,  f e e l i n g i t s i n n e r l i f e and form i n  o r d e r t o g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o the problem o f r e v i t a l i z i n g o r remodeling the b u i l d i n g .  The  for  v i r t u a l l y any  using role-playing  are u n l i m i t e d :  opportunities  problem i n c l u d e s  some aspect which may be approached  i n t h i s manner.  I t s use b r i n g s a welcome element o f  fun and s p o n t a n e i t y i n t o t h e problem s o l v i n g A s p e c i a l kind  process.  o f game which deserves separate  mention i s t h e ' s i m u l a t i o n  game'.  T h i s has been deS  f i n e d by Maidment and B r o n s t e i n as f o l l o w s  3  :  A s i m u l a t i o n game, as t h e name i m p l i e s , c o n t a i n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f both a simul a t i o n and a game. I t i s an a c t i v i t y i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r a c t w i t h i n an a r t i f i c i a l l y produced environment which r e c r e a t e s some aspect o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s , termed p l a y e r s , assume the r o l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups who e x i s t i n the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l system b e i n g s i m u l a t e d . T h e i r goals and those  of  t h e a c t o r s they r e p r e s e n t are t h e same.  The s i m u l a t i o n game i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e then, i n s i t u a t i o n s where d i r e c t experience i s i m p o s s i b l e or  i m p r a c t i c a l because o f time o r space  constraints,  expense, p o l i t i c s , e t c . S i m u l a t i o n games are b e l i e v e d t o have some part i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l advantages, ty  such as ' t h e i r  t o focus a t t e n t i o n , t h e i r requirement  abili-  f o r action  r a t h e r than merely p a s s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e i r abs t r a c t i o n o f simple elements from the complex conf u s i o n o f r e a l i t y , and the i n t r i n s i c rewards they h o l d f o r mastery'  .  In a d d i t i o n they p r o v i d e  'a new  and non-authoritan r o l e f o r the t e a c h e r , a more r e a l i s t i c and r e l e v a n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and an i n c r e a s e i n student m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e r e s t ' In  ss  the mid I960's the value o f s i m u l a t i o n games  i n the e d u c a t i o n o f urban planners and  decision-makers  56 became e v i d e n t .  The i n c r e a s i n g complexity o f t h e  c i t y and the growing amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to urban decision-makers were making the t a s k o f under57  s t a n d i n g the c i t y almost i m p o s s i b l e . games which reduced  The use o f  the c i t y and i t s systems t o a com-  p r e h e n s i b l e whole allowed both p l a n n e r and student  a l i k e t o develop an understanding o f the c i t y .  A  number o f games i n v o l v i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the c i t y have been developed, many o f which a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r classroom u s e (see l i s t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t end o f paper).  Of t h e s e , perhaps the b e s t known are CLUG  and CITY I I , which have undergone, s i n c e t h e i r  con-  c e p t i o n i n the e a r l y 1960 s, a g r e a t d e a l o f r e f i n e f  ment . While  commercially  developed  games may s u i t t h e  e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e t e a c h e r , i t may be more d e s i r a b l e t o have students d e s i g n t h e i r own l o c a l l y 1  based  games.  F o r example, i n F i g u r e 10, 'GROWTH',  students a r e requested t o d e s i g n a ' c i v i c development game'.  T h i s game c o u l d h e l p t o acquaint the student  w i t h t h e complex decision-making processes t h a t occur a t t h e m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s .  By  • p l a y i n g out' the r o l e s o f t h e people I n v o l v e d i n such decision-making a c t i v i t i e s , the student gains an app r e c i a t i o n o f t h e myriad development.  factors involved i n c i v i c  While i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the game de-  s i g e n d by t h e students w i l l have many i m p e r f e c t i o n s , both as a game and as a s i m u l a t i o n , i t i s becoming c l e a r t h a t the g r e a t e s t e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t t o be gained from s i m u l a t i o n games l i e s i n t h e i r d e s i g n a  what is growth  9 o  what 'stage o f growth i s your c i t y at...  o  o  assume t h a t the run-away p o p u l a t i o n growth has c a u s e d the c i t y ' s population to t r i p l e ; c i t y c o u n c i l has d e c r e e d t h a t e v e r y r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k must t r i p l e i t s p r e s e n t popu l a t i o n ( e s t i m a t e d a t 5.5 p e o p l e per house) make a map o f y o u r b l o c k and f i g u r e o u t how y o u c o u l d accomodate t h i s growth w i t h o u t d e m o l i shing e x i s t i n g housing. remem, b e r -- more I people will require (more amenities, such ,as s h o p s , parks,  ceenage, infanthood, o r senility..  CIVIC M V  wha t is progress  get a group p e o p l e to assume 'key' r o l e s i n the development o f a c i t y -- mayor, b u s i n e s s m e n , developers, 'environmentalists', etc. get a l a r g e b l a n k map o f y o u r c i t y , p l a y money f o r each p l a y e r , and ' b l o c k s ' o r symbols t o as b u i l d i i  r a t h e r than i n t h e i r p l a y i n g . The value o f m e t a p h o r i c a l t h i n k i n g i n t h e generat i o n o f i d e a s has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d by poets and a r t i s t s , but has only r e c e n t l y become p o p u l a r i n t h e educational context. utilizes  In m e t a p h o r i c a l t h i n k i n g , one  symbols t o ' j o i n d i s s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s ' a t 60  some l e v e l o f meaning.  In a r t i s t i c endeavours, i t  i s most o f t e n used t o add an e x t r a dimension  to a  f a m i l i a r o b j e c t o r i d e a , t o make something more colourful.  U t i l i z i n g the p r i n c i p l e s  o f metaphorical  61 t h i n k i n g , the Synectics Corporation an e x e r c i s e c a l l e d  has developed  'Making i t Strange' which encourages  students t o t h i n k o f f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s i n unusual terms, thereby promoting objects.  more n o v e l p e r c e p t i o n s o f o r d i n a r y  For example, the student might be asked  such q u e s t i o n s a s : 'What i s a l u g u b r i o u s  lamp-post?',  'How i s the c i t y l i k e a camera?', and 'How i s w a l k i n g downtown l i k e p l a y i n g a m u s i c a l instrument?'.  In h i s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these q u e s t i o n s , as the student draws a n a l o g i e s between t h e two i d e a s i n v o l v e d , he may d i s c o v e r n o v e l i d e a s which, i f not o f immediate v a l u e , may be u s e f u l i n f u t u r e problem s o l v i n g activities.  I n c u b a t i o n and I l l u m i n a t i o n  I t i s d u r i n g i n c u b a t i o n and i l l u m i n a t i o n t h a t the subconscious  mind makes i t s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o 6 2  the problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s .  But because t h e sub-  conscious s t i l l eludes man's complete  understanding,  the exact nature o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n can o n l y be guessed  from the outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s  phase.  Of t h e many e x p l a n a t i o n s which have been  offered,  63  one o f the c l e a r e s t i s by Kubie:  64  P r e c o n s c i o u s l y we process many t h i n g s a t a time. By processes o f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s , we take i d e a s and approximate r e a l i t i e s a p a r t and make s w i f t condensations o f t h e i r m u l t i p l e a l l e g o r i c a l and emotional import. Preconscious processes make f r e e use o f analogy and a l l e g o r y , superimposing d i s s i m i l a r i n g r e d i e n t s i n t o new p e r c e p t u a l and c o n c e p t u a l p a t t e r n s , thus r e s h u f f l i n g experience t o achieve t h a t e x t r a o r d i n a r y degree o f condensation without which c r e a t i v i t y i n any f i e l d would be i m p o s s i b l e . Kubie's  term  'preconscious' r e f e r s t o t h a t p o r t i o n o f  the subconscious  mind t h a t i s 'open t o r e c a l l when 65  the ego i s r e l a x e d ' .  Or, i f we c o n s i d e r t h e human  mind as a continuum o f v a r i o u s s t a t e s o f consciousness 'preconsciousness*  i s t h e l i a i s o n between  subconscious  ness and c o n s c i o u s n e s s : i t i s the medium through which the subconscious  communicates t o the conscious mind.  During  ' i n c u b a t i o n * the i n d i v i d u a l  ' f o r g e t s ' the problem and o t h e r matters,  apparently  shifts his attention to  a l l o w i n g the p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d  i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the  sub-  66 conscious  mind.  Here they are r e o r g a n i z e d  along  with otfeer p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d and perhaps l o n g since  'forgotten' ideas, i n t o various patterns  configurations.  and  T h i s a c t i v i t y seems t o proceed i n  a haphazard manner, without  r e g a r d f o r the  o f r e a l i t y , but a c c o r d i n g t o i t s 'own  'logic'  autonomous  67 laws'.  In a d d i t i o n , i t i s by d e f i n i t i o n beyond  the c o n t r o l o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n whom i t i s occurr i n g , and h i s attempts t o i n f l u e n c e i t g e n e r a l l y 68 have a c o n s t i p a t i n g , r a t h e r than c a t a l y t i c  effect.  F i n a l l y the subconscious mind a r r i v e s a t p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l which it  one  'satisfies'  and ceases i t s problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  It is  a t t h i s time t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l becomes aware o f 69 the  ' s o l u t i o n ' d i s c o v e r e d by the subconscious mind.  There i s a sudden r e v e l a t i o n o r ' i l l u m i n a t i o n ' d u r i n g which the v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d ( a c c o r d i n g t o Kubie through 'preconscious' why  processes).  t h i s occurs remains a mystery.  How  and  However, many de-  s c r i p t i o n s o f the event have been advanced.  According  to  Wehrli: The stage o f i l l u m i n a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d as a p e r i o d o f e x h i l i r a t i o n , excitement and e l a t i o n . The l o n g awaited s y n t h e s i s o r i n s i g h t may come i n a f l a s h o f c l a r i t y , but as o f t e n i t comes i n a s w i r l o f ideas and images, tumbling upon each o t h e r i n a f r e n z y o f groupings and regroupings t h a t g r a d u a l l y achieves a coherence and order t h a t sparks o f f implications i n a l l directions.  The  experience  o f i l l u m i n a t i o n i s common enough i n  every day problem s o l v i n g — s o l u t i o n t o a problem.  one suddenly 'sees  1  the  But i t s i n t e n s i t y i s p a r t i c u -  l a r l y s t r o n g l y f e l t by an i n d i v i d u a l who has expended a great d e a l o f time and energy c o n s i d e r i n g a s p e c i f i c problem. Obviously be  'taught' i n a d i r e c t f a s h i o n .  o f the process the student's him  n e i t h e r i n c u b a t i o n o r i l l u m i n a t i o n can A t b e s t t h i s phase  may be f a c i l i t a t e d through i n c r e a s i n g awarenss o f what i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n  and through the maintenance o f a r e l a x e d , b u t  expectant atmosphere.  71  According  t o H a r o l d Rugg:  72  There i s emphatic agreement t h a t t h e f l a s h comes when the person i s i n a s t a t e o f r e l a x e d t e n s i o n ; being o f f - g u a r d seems t o be a central condition. The  teacher  should t h e r e f o r e r e f r a i n from demanding  immediate 'answers' t o problems, encouraging s t u dents t o keep t h e i r p a t i e n c e frustrating  stage.  during t h i s  73  E x e r c i s e s such as game p l a y i n g , mapping, and  often  'sensiticity , 1  'uses f o r t h i n g s ' , which can be  t o promote an a t t i t u d e o f p l a y f u l n e s s and r e l a x a t i o n , might again be u t i l i z e d d u r i n g phase o f the problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . which may  An  designed  relative this exercise  be w e l l s u i t e d t o t h i s phase of the  pro-  cess i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a 'LEARNING SPACE' as suggested i n F i g u r e designing  and  11 on the f o l l o w i n g page.  In  c o n s t r u c t i n g an a c t u a l environment,  students are allowed the p l e a s u r e  and r e l a x a t i o n o f  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and handiwork as w e l l as the opport u n i t y t o d e a l , i n a concrete  f a s h i o n , w i t h such  s t r a c t concepts as community, p r i v a c y , and of learning.  To i n c r e a s e the e d u c a t i o n a l  the value  t h i s e x e r c i s e a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s could be on the b a s i c d e s i g n problem.  ab-  nature of placed  For example, students  might be requested t o use modular c o n s t r u c t i o n or t o d e s i g n t h e i r spaces a c c o r d i n g  t o an a p p r o p r i a t e  theme.  Or the problem might be c a s t i n terms o f group i n t e r a c t i o n : students might be r e q u i r e d t o work i n the context  o f a l a r g e r group, conforming t o i t s standards  8  o  &  O  0!b c3  O  0  <3  o  £2 6>  (0  eg 8 & *  f w B (3 w  ©  g  § °  g £  <52  0  D  oo  ^  op 0  © (r> g ©  0®  G O Q 3  g  8 ^  ^ o fe o c£) © C D ° o  OS  CP  O  8  ? > t o Q 3 ^ ^ 3  o  %  1^ ° © g  «  o GP  o  §>  © ^  o f d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The  'LEARNING SPACE* e x e r c i s e may be designed t o  p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i n g f o c u s o f classroom a c t i v i t y , w i t h constant a d d i t i o n s , r e n o v a t i o n s , and e m b e l l i s h ments o f the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e .  Thus a whole range o f  h a n d i c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s such as weaving, b a t i k , woodwork, p o t t e r y , e t c . c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the l a r g e r design exercise.  The main value o f such an  e x e r c i s e i s as an o u t l e t f o r f r u s t r a t i o n : i t h e l p s the student t o ' f o r g e t ' h i s problem, t o r e l a x , and t o a l l o w h i s subconscious mind t o continue i t s problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s  unimpeded.  Refinement  During refinement t h e i n d i v i d u a l v e r i f i e s , dev e l o p s , and r e f i n e s the crude p a t t e r n p r o v i d e d by the subconscious mind d u r i n g ' i l l u m i n a t i o n ' i n t o a v i a b l e s o l u t i o n t o h i s problem.  Depending on the i n -  t r i c a c y and magnitude o f the o r i g i n a l problem, the s t a t e o f development o f t h e p a t t e r n s u p p l i e d by the subconscious mind, and the d e s i r e d form o f communication, t h i s stage o f the process may take a great d e a l o f time o r almost none a t a l l .  If, for  example, the o r i g i n a l problem i n v o l v e d the d e s i g n o f a new  housing development and the i d e a p r o v i d e d by  the subconscious  mind i n v o l v e d u s i n g the s t r u c t u r e  o f the honeycomb as a model, then the task of a c t u a l l y a p p l y i n g the i d e a , a d a p t i n g i t t o f i t the  con-  d i t i o s o f s i t e , m a t e r i a l s , economics, e t c . , and of d r a f t i n g p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n s , may  be lengthy and t e -  dious . T h i s d e t a i l e d and c o n c e n t r a t e d work r e q u i r e s the mind's powers o f a n a l y s i s , reason, and judgement t o analyze the v a r i o u s elements o f the s o l u t i o n , t o determine  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f these elements t o the  whole and t o each o t h e r , and t o v e r i f y the adequacy o f the s o l u t i o n .  I n o t h e r words, the  individual  must be able t o t h i n k l o g i c a l l y and c r i t i c a l l y h i s problem.  about  H i s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s phase then,  are not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those which would occur a t a comparable stage i n the problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . sentially  The  traditional  ' c r e a t i v e a c t ' i s es-  complete.  In t e a c h i n g f o r t h i s phase o f the p r o c e s s , the t e a c h e r should continue t o encourage open-mindedness w h i l e a t the same time h e l p i n g h i s students t o develop  t h e i r s k i l l s i n i d e a refinement.  A rather fun kind  o f e x e r c i s e which might be employed a t t h i s time i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e 'What i f . . . ? ' questions  which appear  75  in  F i g u r e 12 on the f o l l o w i n g page.  By c o n s i d e r i n g  the f u l l range o f consequences o f such f a n c i f u l p o s i t i o n s as 'What i f houses looked b i t a n t s ? ' , the student  like their  inha-  may develop h i s s k i l l s i n  l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g and i d e a refinement w h i l e same time m a i n t a i n i n g  pro-  a t the  an a t t i t u d e o f f u n and p l a y -  fulness . More s e r i o u s e x e r c i s e s a c c o m p l i s h i n g o b j e c t i v e s should in cit  a l s o be developed.  similar  For example,  F i g u r e 13, 'PEOPLE IN THE CITY', one o f the i m p l i 'What i f . . . ? '  questions  i s 'What i f more people  l i v e d i n t h e city...where would they l i v e ? ' student  i s requested  The  t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e space w i t h i n  the urban core and t o design w i t h i n t h i s space a 'personal  l i v i n g space' f o r h i m s e l f .  the student  engages i n t h e process  To ensure t h a t  of refining h i s  i d e a s , a s c a l e model should be r e q u i r e d , showing i n t e r i o r space a l l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n a g a i n , any number o f r e s t r i c t i o n s  features.  Once  (eg. l o c a t i o n ,  space, m a t e r i a l s , c o s t , e t c . ) may be p l a c e d on t h e problem t o i n c r e a s e i t s d i f f i c u l t y and t o f o r c e the  57. • • • 1 9  CEM DID  E  THE  NT  Z°NlNG HOUSES LQ)KED E IKE :  3 DAYVQRK  WEEK BECAME  NOT  EXIST  ©  ? WERE  REALITY  ?  ABOLISHED  ?  THE  CITY  MADE  WERE  OF  O O  PERSONAL •find  LIVING  a space  'downtown' city 1.  SPACE  area  •what  of your  you  that:  you would in  like  to  into  live  to  place  within a  invent  t o g e t more  people  the inner  city  ... t o v i s i  events,  building  live  in  your  activities,  considerations  •how c o u l d  living  et  made m o r e  the c i t y  be  amenable to  people?  make a d r a w i n g your  could  designs,  space'  of  of 'things'  include  this  'personal  kinds  in  i s being used, p a r t time, f o r purposes o t h e r than strictly residential  design  SPACES  i n the  2 . i s n o t now l i v e d 3.  A M E N A B L E URBAN  o r model -also  space  the  keep  different  people city  •• m  i n mind  that  kinds of  live  -- y o u n g ,  lonely,  a l l of  i n the  o l d , thin  active,  weird... 00  ft  K  ire l  student  t o r e f i n e and modify h i s f a n c i f u l n o t i o n s  to  the a c t u a l problem c o n d i t i o n s . The  ideas l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 13 under 'amenable  urban spaces' suggest avenues o f e x p l o r a t i o n which might a l s o be used t o enhance the student's i n i d e a refinement.  I f , f o r example, the  abilities student  f e l t t h a t c i t i e s should be made more i n v i t i n g youngsters, he might be requested some o f the p h y s i c a l and be e f f e c t e d t o achieve student  to elaborate  to on  s o c i a l changes t h a t c o u l d  this objective.  Perhaps the  c o u l d f i n d a means o f i n t e g r a t i n g c h i l d - s i z e d  b u i l d i n g s i n t o the urban environment (between h i g h r i s e s ? ) o r making w r i t t e n s i g n s more meaningful t o children  ( c o n v e r t i n g them t o p i c t u r e s ? ) .  E x e r c i s e s and problems may  be developed around  any number o f urban i s s u e s t o enhance the  student's  urban awareness as w e l l as h i s s k i l l s o f  refinement.  They must simply a r t i c u l a t e and  r e q u i r e the student  t o produce an  f i n i s h e d p i e c e o f work r a t h e r than  a s e r i e s of conceptual  ideas.  Communication  and E v a l u a t i o n  The a c t i v i t y o f communication occurs throughout the  e n t i r e problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s : the i n d i v i d u a l  receives  'communications' from h i s environment and  undertakes a k i n d o f i n n e r 'communication' w i t h h i s subconscious mind t o develop a c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o the  problem.  But once the problem i s s o l v e d , the  i n d i v i d u a l must communicate h i s new d i s c o v e r y t o others.  Depending on the nature o f the o r i g i n a l  problem and on the problem s o l v e r ' s p a r t i c u l a r  tal-  ents and a b i l i t i e s , the f i n a l stage o f the process may  take s e v e r a l forms (eg. a book, p a i n t i n g ,  scientific or for  film,  paper, e t c . ) and may be more o r l e s s r e f i n e d  'polished'.  In any case, t o prepare h i s s o l u t i o n  communication, the problem s o l v e r must choose a  format which i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o both h i s problem and his  own t a l e n t s .  Then he must express h i s i d e a s as  e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e t o achieve a maximum impact on h i s audience. In  order t o broaden the student's  communications  s k i l l s , the t e a c h e r should expose students t o the techniques and equipment a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s forms of  communication and a s s i g n e x e r c i s e s which emphasize  some form o f communication. various f i e l d s  Experts i n any o f the  o f communication (dance, s c u l p t u r e ,  computer programming, e t c . ) might be i n v i t e d t o give workshops i n which students c o u l d become f a m i l i a r w i t h the  ' b a s i c s ' o f the g i v e n medium.  Following  (or during) the workshop, e x e r c i s e s based on the p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f communication b e i n g s t u d i e d should be i s s u e d .  For example, i f g r a p h i c s were  the focus o f a workshop, the t e a c h e r might a s s i g n a simple e x e r c i s e t i t i l i z i n g g r a p h i c s , such as the d e s i g n o f a p o s t e r f o r some p a r t o f the c i t y o r some event i n the c i t y .  The student should attempt  to  communicate i n g r a p h i c form, h i s i d e a s o r f e e l i n g s about the  city.  During a more g e n e r a l workshop on the v a r i o u s forms o f communication, the t e a c h e r might w i t h some unusual  experiment  'communications' such as that irep-  r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 14 on the f o l l o w i n g page.  The  t e a c h e r c o u l d simply i s s u e each student w i t h a provocative picture  (poem, o b j e c t , e t c . ) , perhaps i d e n -  t i f y i n g i t as the week's assignment, and then w a i t f o r t h e i r response.  I f the content o f the t e a c h e r ' s  communication t o each student were kept s e c r e t , i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o have the students attempt,  at  62.  the end o f t h e assignment, t o i d e n t i f y which present a t i o n s a r e responses t o which communications. the e n t i r e e x e r c i s e i s i n v o l v e d w i t h  Thus,  communications  and counter-communications o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . E x e r c i s e s and p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g d i f f e r e n t o f communication  forms  s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d whenever p o s s i b l e .  These may d e a l w i t h any s u b j e c t matter and may t h e r e f o r e be used t o develop s k i l l s o t h e r than those d i r e c t l y associated with  communication.  An important element i n t h e student's a b i l i t y t o communicate, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o a c e r t a i n f i e l d o r d i s c i p l i n e , i s h i s knowledge o f the 'jargon' or 'lingo' that characterizes that d i s c i p l i n e .  In  many cases t h i s w i l l be developed d u r i n g the problem d e f i n i t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g s t a g e s , as t h e i n d i v i d u a l encounters s p e c i a l i s t s and p r i n t e d matter i n t h e f i e l d , however i t o f t e n r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o ' l e a r n the l i n g o ' .  During t h i s stage ( o r  perhaps somewhat e a r l i e r ) , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d attempt t o make h i s students aware o f the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s , indeed, a language t h a t must be mastered. A good way o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e might be t o have the students compile a ' g l o s s a r y ' of terms,  i n c l u d i n g s u b j e c t i v e as w e l l as o b j e c t i v e comments ( i e . the emotional  and p o l i t i c a l overtones o f t h e  words), and perhaps i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e terms approp r i a t e l y with cartoons  or graphics.  A t t h e end o f  term, a mimeographed copy o f t h e g l o s s a r y c o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e c l a s s and/or kept f o r t h e use o f future students.  A p r e l i m i n a r y l i s t o f terms which  might r e q u i r e d e f i n i t i o n i n an urban s t u d i e s c l a s s i s found i n F i g u r e 15, URBAN GLOSSARY', on t h e 1  f o l l o w i n g page. To encourage a l l forms o f communication, b u t i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e student's  s k i l l s o f v e r b a l communicaiion,  the t e a c h e r might o r g a n i z e , w i t h each problem o r proj e c t undertaken, a s e t o f formal p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by t h e students  t o t h e i r classmates,  t o the school,  o r perhaps even t o the whole community.  Over t h e  y e a r s , such p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o u l d be developed i n t o a major s c h o o l undertaking,  providing a stronger  liaison  between s c h o o l and community. The p r e s e n t a t i o n method a l s o o f f e r s a p e r f e c t v e h i c l e f o r classroom  evaluation.  After presentation,  students might d i s c u s s t h e m e r i t s and drawbacks o f both the p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h e student's approach.  problem s o l v i n g  T h i s g i v e s the problem s o l v e r v a l u a b l e  65.  ''URBAN  GLOSSARY"  DEVELOPMENT  B L >  ENV1ROMMENT  INC\ i r s u r os?  FIVE YEAR PUN , n r G R E ^ N BELT HIGH D E N S J T Y LOW R l S E OPEN S P A C E MASS TRANSIT PARTICIPATION SLUM UNDERGROUND URBAN  MALL  RENEWAL  SO*ING  ,^  feedback from a number o f persons advantage o f u t i l i z i n g  and has the  peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s  additional  i n the  learn-  76 ing process.  Such d i s c u s s i o n s  should prompt the  problem s o l v e r t o undertake more r i g o u r o u s and meaningf u l s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n o f the way  i n which he handled h i s  problem and the c o n c l u s i o n s he reached. evaluation, has  learned.  Throughout  the emphasis s h o u l d be on what the  student  Problem s o l v i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a subjec-  t i v e a c t i v i t y : the student must l e a r n t o e s t a b l i s h  de-  manding goals f o r h i m s e l f and t o e v a l u a t e f a i r l y h i s progress towards those g o a l s .  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSION  The p r o c e e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has been summarized i n Table 1 (page 68), which i n c l u d e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f ; 1.  the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g each phase o f the  2.  c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ;  the e x e r c i s e s and methods whereby these a b i l i t i e s might be developed;  3.  and  examples o f concepts and techniques which might be c o n s i d e r e d u s i n g these methods i n the  context o f urban e d u c a t i o n .  T h i s t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a p o i n t - f o r m o u t l i n e o f the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g approach t o e d u c a t i o n .  It  i s not a course o r even an o u t l i n e f o r a c o u r s e , i n itself. of  As an approach, i t may be a p p l i e d t o a range  s u b j e c t a r e a s , from the most simple o f o b j e c t s ,  such as boxes, t o complex i s s u e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t o whole  fields  o f endeavour, such as urban  TABLE  1:  SUMMARY  TABLE  PHASE  ABILITIES  REQUIRED  E D U C A T I O N A L METHODS  Pre-process  K n o w l e d g e o f a n d s e n s i - . ' S e n s i t i c i t y ' e x e r c i s e s : e x p l o r a t i o n s i n - SOUND t i v i t y to the general t o v a r i o u s w a y s o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e g e n e r a l WALL problem area p r o b l e m a r e a a n d i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e l f TIME  :  '  •  •  '  CONCEPTS-.  Self-awareness Problem Definition  Tolerance  o f ambiguity  Cognitive  flexibility  Information Gathering  U t i l i z a t i o n o f e q u i p m e n t P r o b l e m s w h i c h demand u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e and t e c h n i q u e s o f i n f o r - t e c h n i q u e s and equipment as w e l l a s t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c mation gathering tive information Critical thinking  Challenging Figure  and ambiguous  completion;  'uses  problems f o r things'  URBAN S U R V I V A L TRANSPORTATION U S E S FOR T H I N G S MAPPING  Sensitivity to subjective aspects o f problems Idea Generation  Divergent  thinking  Brainstorming Play  (role  playing  and s i m u l a t i o n  games).  Metaphorical'thinking Incubation S I m a g i n a t i o n and t h e a b i - P l a y f u l Illumination lity to relax Refinement  Logical  thinking  Cognitive Communication 8 Evaluation  Skills  flexibility  i n communication  Knowledge  o f language  exercises  and p h y s i c a l  Problems and i d e a s which ment a n d a d a p t a t i o n  activity  require  refine-  RECYCLING URBAN GAMES GROWTH MAKING I T STRANGE LEARNING PEOPLE CITY  F u n p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e q u i r e a n i m a g i n a t i v e WHAT consideration of possible solutions  SPACE  IN THE  IF...?  P r e s e n t a t i o n and workshop methods and ' p r o b l e m s i n v o l v i n g u n u s u a l modes o f communication  POSTER DESIGN COMMUNICATION•  Deliberate  GLOSSARY  study  o f the language  studies.  In a d d i t i o n , i t may  be employed w i t h v a r i o u s  emphases t o achieve d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . For example the teacher may  wish t o develop h i s  s t u d e n t s ' s k i l l s i n problem d e f i n i t i o n may  (phase 1)  and  t h e r e f o r e r e f r a i n from a s s i g n i n g s p e c i f i c pro-  blems, i n s t e a d i n v o l v i n g h i s students i n c h a l l e n g i n g experiences and  s i t u a t i o n s and r e q u i r i n g them t o  d e f i n e the problem(s)  themselves.  Or he might focus  on t h e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n phase f i v e ,  'Refinement',  by p r o v i d i n g students w i t h a c o n c e p t u a l s o l u t i o n t o a g i v e n problem and r e q u e s t i n g them t o r e f i n e i t t o conform t o c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s or standards.  In t h i s  case the student must f e e l f r e e t o move backwards through the problem s o l v i n g process i f he t h a t inadequate  feels  c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n t o the  problem a t an e a r l i e r phase. blem s o l v i n g approach may  Thus the c r e a t i v e pro-  be u t i l i z e d t o achieve  l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a t v i r t u a l l y any of education.  The  unlevel  format o f a program or course  de-  veloped from t h i s approach w i l l depend on the educat i o n a l c o n t e x t f o r which i t i s designed — o b j e c t i v e s , age o f s t u d e n t s , space and time etc.  educational constraints,  I have not, i n t h i s t h e s i s , designed such a spe-  c i f i c program because i t i s by d e f i n i t i o n o f such  70.  limited applicability. g e n e r a l approach,  By p r e s e n t i n g i n s t e a d a more  I hope t o make a more e f f e c t i v e  con-  t r i b u t i o n t o the development o f e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a . In d e s i g n i n g a program which u t i l i z e s the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g approach t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s which should be kept i n mind. F i r s t , t h i s approach i s e s s e n t i a l l y a ' s e l f - d i r e c t e d ' l e a r n i n g approach: role.  t h e student should take an a c t i v e  The t e a c h e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, should assume  a more p a s s i v e r o l e , g u i d i n g the student through the process by s u g g e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and problems which w i l l h e l p t h e student t o develop the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g each phase. C e n t r a l t o t h e d e s i g n o f any program o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s .  T h i s i s c r u c i a l t o t h e student's  p e r c e p t i o n and consequent h a n d l i n g o f the v a r i o u s problems w i t h i n t h e f i e l d .  I t has o f t e n been noted t h a t  77 a c r e a t i v e approach y i e l d s c r e a t i v e r e s u l t s . f o r e the t e a c h e r should attempt  There-  t o m a i n t a i n an atmos-  phere o f openness and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ,  encouraging  students t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r work and t o approach i t i m a g i n a t i v e l y .  T h i s may r e q u i r e a more  c a s u a l a t t i t u d e towards classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n : i n d i v i d u a l students w i l l tend t o experiment  more w i t h  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f techniques f o r g a t h e r i n g and communicating t h e i r i d e a s .  In a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n k i n d s  of a c t i v i t i e s may r e q u i r e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o r access t o v a r i o u s environments (eg. a darkroom, c i t y or t h e community a t l a r g e ) .  hall,  A t e a c h e r who wishes  t o have an e f f e c t i v e program o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g must accomodate the i n d i v i d u a l needs o f 78 students a t t h e i r v a r i o u s stages o f p r o g r e s s . In p r e s e n t i n g problems and i n f o r m a t i o n t h e t e a cher may f i n d t h a t more c r e a t i v e work i s produced when i n s t r u c t i o n s are kept t o a minimum and students are r e q u i r e d t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n themselves.  By  remaining somewhat n o n - d i r e c t i v e o r even s e c r e t i v e about a problem the t e a c h e r may c a p i t a l i z e on the i n h e r e n t ambiguity  o f t h e problem t o produce d i v e r s e  79 results.  Each student w i l l i n t e r p r e t the problem  d i f f e r e n t l y and w i l l t h e r e f o r e d e a l w i t h i t i n a unique  and i n d i v i d u a l manner.  I n c o l l e c t i n g h i s own  i n f o r m a t i o n t h e student w i l l become more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n problem s o l v i n g , w i l l experience i t more f u l l y , and w i l l t h e r e f o r e l e a r n how t o use i t more effectively.  8 0  F i n a l l y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t programs o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g appeal t o the student's t i o n and t o h i s powers o f subconscious  imagina-  thought.  To  t h i s end the t e a c h e r should t r y t o c r e a t e an atmosphere o f fun and r e l a t i v e r e l a x a t i o n i n which students f e e l f r e e t o l e t t h e i r minds wander i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f problems. I t i s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t v i s u a l images are more s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the processes o f subcon81 s c i o u s thought  than are words.  According to Koestler  t h i s i s because v i s u a l images p r o v i d e a more f l u i d medium o f thought:  they are not bound by the systems  o f l o g i c t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e language.  I t may  therefore  be a p p r o p r i a t e t o u t i l i z e more v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s , s e a r c h i n g f o r r i c h and  unusual  images which appeal t o the student's i m a g i n a t i o n and subconscious I f we  mind.  are t o capture the i n t e r e s t o f young problem  s o l v e r s i t w i l l not be w i t h s e r i o u s , ' f a c t - s t u f f e d ' , and d i d a c t i c programs o f e d u c a t i o n which o f t e n serve o n l y t o depress and overwhelm the s t u d e n t , but w i t h fun and c h a l l e n g i n g problem-oriented programs which a l l o w the student t o assume a more a c t i v e r o l e i n the  ,  l e a r n i n g process.  I t i s intended  t h a t t h e ideas  presented i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the d e v e l opment o f such programs a t a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , and  i n p a r t i c u l a r a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , where  f u t u r e urban problem s o l v e r s a r e c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n Schools o f P l a n n i n g , Design.  A r c h i t e c t u r e , and Environmental  FOOTNOTES 1  F a n t i n i 8 W e i n s t e i n , 1968, p . l .  2  Here and throughout the r e s t o f t h i s paper the word 'environment' w i l l r e f e r t o the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which man e x i s t s . I t i n c l u d e s both the n a t u r a l o r b i o p h y s i c a l environment and the man-made o r urban environment.  3  These i n c l u d e Cook, 1970; E h r l i c h , 1970; Fyson, S c h o e n f e l d , 1971; Stapp, 1971; and Ward, 1971.  4  S c h o e n f e l d , 1971, p>.42.  5  F o r example i n S c h o e n f e l d , 1971; Shomon, 1964; Stapp, 1971.  6  H a l p r i n , 1963; H a r r i s , 1969; Hosken, 1971; Jones, 1972; Lynch, 1960; T o f f l e r , 1968; Symonds, 1971; Warren, 1955 Wurman, 1966, 1971, 1972.  7  Hosken, 1970, p . l .  8  Ward, 1971, p.222.  9  E h r l i c h , 1970; E l d e r , 1966; F e l d t , 1966; Fyson, 1971; Goodman, 1972; Gutkind, 1962; H a l p r i n , 1969; Hosken, 1970; Lynch, 1960; M i c h e l s o n , 1970; Mumford, 1968; R i t t e r , 1966; S c h o e n f e l d , 1971; Symonds, 1971; Ward, 1971, Warren, 1955; Wurman, 1971.  10  Bruner, 1962,  1966.  11  Bruner, 1962,  p.94.  12  Torrance, 1963, 1964a, 1964b.  13  Koestler,  1964.  1971;  and  75.  14  Moore 8 Gay,  1967.  15  Duncker, 1945.  16  Jones, 1972.  17  Symonds, 1971.  18  Warren,  19  Wurman, 1971,  20  T h i s i n c l u d e s B l a c k , 1952; D a v i s , 1966; Duncker, 1945; E b e r l e , 1973; Emmett, 1960; 1965; Hudgins, 1966; Kleinmuntz, 1966; Maier, 1970; Osborn, 1963; Wason, 1968; Wertheimer, 1959; W i l s o n , 1969; W e h r l i , 1968.  21  T h i s i n c l u d e s B a r n e t t , 1953; Barron, 1968; De Bono, 1969, 1971, 1972; G e t z e l s 8 Jackson, 1962; Gordon, 1961; G u i l f o r d , 1971; Kagan, 1967; K o e s t l e r , 1964; 1969; Osborn, 1963; Parnes, 1961; Rugg, 1963; T a y l o r , 1964, 1972; T o r r a n c e , 1963, 1964, 1965.  22  Dewey, 1916; Duncker, 1945; Hudgins, 1966; Robinson e t a l , 1972; Wertheimer, 1959.  23  D a v i s , 1966; Dewey, 1916; Duncker, 1945; E l d e r , 1966; Gordon, 1961; H i n t o n , 1968; M a i e r , 1970; M e r r i f i e l d , 1970; Osborn, 1963; P a t r i c k , 1935; Parnes, 1961; Rugg, 1963; Torrance S Myers, 1970; Wertheimer, 1959; W e h r l i , 1968; Whitehead, 1959.  24  Wehrli,  25  B a r n e t t , 1953; C r o p l e y , 1967; E l d e r , 1966; Jackson 8 Messnick, i n Kagan, 1967; Lowenfeld, i n Parnes 8 Hard i n g , 1962; MacKinnon, i n Smith, 1966; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969; Wakin, i n Perryman, 1966.  26  Barron, 1968; C r u t c h f i e l d , i n Brim, 1966; De Bono, 1967; Duncker, 1945; G e t z e l s 8 Jackson, 1962; Gordon, 1961; K o e s t l e r , 1964, 1967; Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; Maier, 1970; Moore, 1967; Osborn, 1963; Parnes 8 H a r d i n g , 1962; S y n e c t i c s C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970; T a y l o r , 1964; Torrance, 1964; W e h r l i , 1968; Wertheimer, 1959.  1955. 1972.  1968.  76.  27  Bruner, 1962; Caudwell, 1953; C r a i k , i n W e h r l i , 1968; De Bono, 1967; 1971; E l d e r , 1966; Gordon, 1961; H a l l man, 1963; K n e l l e r , 1965; K o e s t l e r , 1964, 1967; Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Maslow, 1968; Moore, 1967; Mock, 1970; Rugg, 1963; R u s s e l l , 1932; S e i d e l , 1966; S y n e c t i c s C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970; T o r r a n c e , 1964; W e h r l i , 1968.  28  De Bono, 1967; Gordon, 1961; K o e s t l e r , 1964; K n e l l e r , 1965; Kubie, i n Mooney 8 R a z i k , 1967; LeNowitz, i n Burnshaw, 1970; Osborn, 1963; Rugg, 1963; S e i d e l , 1966; S y n e c t i c s C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970; T a y l o r , 1964; Torrance, 1964, 1965.  29  Barron, 1968; C r a i k , i n W e h r l i , 1968; De Bono, 1967; E l d e r , 1966; Gordon, 1961; G u i l f o r d , 1971; Kagan, 1967; K o e s t l e r , 1967; Moore, 1967; Osborn, 1963; Parnes, i n Parnes 6 Harding, 1963; Roe, 1953; T a y l o r , 1964; Torrance, 1964, 1965; W e h r l i , 1968;  30  Bruner, 1966; Dewey, 1916, 1967; Hudgins, 1966; Leona r d , 1968; Rogers, 1969; Taba, i n S e a r s , 1971; Wendel, 1970; Whitehead, 1959.  31  Hudgins, 1966; Leonard, 1968; Robinson e t a l , 1972; Smith, 1966; Taba, i n Sears, 1971; Wendel, 1970; Whitehead, 1959.  32  B a r n e t t , 1953; Bruner, 1965; Duncker, 1945; E l d e r , 1966; Gagne, i n Kleinmuntz, 1966; K o e s t l e r , 1964; Ojemann, i n Aschner 8 B i s h , 1965; Rugg, 1963; T a y l o r , 1964, 1972.  33  K n e l l e r , 1965; Maslow, 1968; P l a t o , i n Bumbaugh 8 Lawr e n c e , 1963; Rogers, 1969; Whitehead, 1959.  34  B a r n e t t , 1953; Barron, 1968; Brim, i n Covington, 1966; Dewing, 1968; E l d e r , 1966; Hudgins, 1966; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969.  35  Duncker, 1945; Gagne, i n Kleinmuntz, 1966; Gough, i n Parnes 6 Harding, 1972; Lowenfeld, i n Parnes 8 Harding, 1972; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970.  36  Keats, i n Noyes, 1956,  37  MacKinnon, i n Roslansky,  p.1213. 1970.  77.  38  G u i l f o r d , i n C r o p l e y , 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Maslow, 1968; Torrance, 196 3.  39  T h i s i s based on the works o f Dewey, 1916; Gowan, 1967; K n e l l e r , 1965; and MacKinnon, i n Aschner 8 B i s h , 1965.  40  These have been developed by such authors as: Getz e l s 8 Jackson, 1962; Gough, i n Parnes 8 Harding, 1962; G u i l f o r d , i n C r o p l e y , 1967; MacKinnon, i n R o s l a n s k y , 1970; Myers 8 T o r r a n c e , 1964; Parnes, i n T a y l o r , 1972; S y n e c t i c s C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970; Torrance, i n C r o p l e y , 1967; and Wallach 8 Kogan, i n C r o p l e y , 1967.  41  T o r r a n c e , i n C r o p l e y , 1967.  42  Developed by Torrance, i n C r o p l e y , 1967; a l s o used by Goodnow, 1969; G u i l f o r d , 1967; and Wallach 8 Kogan, i n C r o p l e y , 1967.  43  Bruner, 1966; C r o p l e y , 1967; Hudgins, 1966; K o e s t l e r , 1964, 1967; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Rugg, 1963; T a y l o r , 1964, 1972.  44  Gagne, i n Kleinmuntz, 1966,  45  A r n o l d , i n Parnes 8 Harding, 1962; De Bono, 1967; G u i l f o r d , i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; H o l t , 1972; Koestl e r , 1964; MacKinnon, i n Roslansky, 1970; Osborn, 1963; S e i d e l , 1966; Torrance, 1964.  46  For example the works o f B l a c k , 19 52; Emmett, 1965; Wertheimer, 1959; and Wilson, 1969.  47  The term 'divergent t h i n k i n g ' was c o i n e d by Bruner i n 1966; the term ' l a t e r a l t h i n k i n g ' was c o i n e d by De Bono i n 1972. These terms are used by s e v e r a l authors t o r e f e r t o two d i s t i n c t modes o f thought which o c c u r d u r i n g problem s o l v i n g , i n c l u d i n g G u i l f o r d , i n Mooney 8 R a z i k , 1967; G e t z e l s 8 Jackson, 1972; Rugg, 1963; and Wertheimer, 1959.  48  De Bono, 1972;  49  Parnes,  1961.  p.143.  Rugg, 1963; Wertheimer,  1959.  1960,  78,  50  Parnes, 1961,  1963.  51  Dewey, 1916; Dunfee 8 S a g l , 1966; G e t z e l s 8 Jackson, 1962; Gordon, 1961; Gowan, 1972; H o l t , 1972; K o e s t l e r , 196H; K n e l l e r , 1965; Kubie, 1958; Lieberman, 1967; Mock, 1970; P i a g e t , 1959; P l a t o , i n Bumbaugh 8 Lawrence, 196 3; S a d l e r , 1969.  52  Synectics Corporation,  53  Maidment 8 B r o n s t e i n , 1973,  54  Coleman, i n Boocock 6 S c h i l d , 196 8,  55  Maidment 8 B r o n s t e i n , 1973,  p.20.  56  B e r k e l e y , 1968; F e l d t , 1966; M i e i r 8 Duke, 1966.  Inbar  57  F e l d t , 1966,  58  Berkeley, 1968,  59  Gamson, i n Inbar  60  Bruner, 1962,  61  Gordon, 1961;  62  Craik, i n Wehrli,  63  Barron, 1968; C r a i k , i n W e h r l i , 1968; K o e s t l e r , 196»+; Kubie, i n Mooney £ Razik, 1967; Maslow, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967; Maslow, 1969; Rugg, 196 3.  64  Kubie, i n Mooney 8 Razik, 1967,  p.38.  65  Kubie, i n Mooney 6 Razik, 1967,  p.11.  66  De Bono, 1969; 1971a; K o e s t l e r , 1961; Maslow, Rogers, 1969; S e i d e l , 1966; Torrance, 1963.  67  Hallman, i n Gowan, 1972,  68  K o e s t l e r , 196U;  1970. p.6. p.29.  8 Stoll,  1972;  p.17. p.58. 8 S t o l l , 1972,  p.68.  p.63. Synectics Corporation,  1970.  1968.  p.22.  K n e l l e r , 1965;  Osborn,  1963.  1968;  79.  69  Barron, 1968; C r a i k , i n W e h r l i , 1968; De Bono, 1971; E l d e r , 1966; Gordon, 1961; Kagan, 1967; K o e s t l e r , 1964; Maslow, 1968; Rugg, 1963; S e i d e l , 1966; T o r r a n c e , 1963, 1964, 1965; Wertheimer, 1959.  70  Wehrli,  71  B a r n e t t , 1953; Bruner, 1962; Gowan, 1972; K o e s t l e r , 1964; Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1969; Rugg, 1963; S e i d e l , 1966.  72  Rugg, 1963;  73  E l d e r , 1966; Hudgins, 1966; 1970; Whitehead, 1959.  74  See C r a i k , i n W e h r l i , 1968; Black, 1952; Emmett, 1960, 1965; Moore, 1967; Wertheimer, 1959; and Wilson, 1969.  75  G u i l f o r d , i n Cropley,  76  Athey 8 Rubadeau, 1970;  77  C r o p l e y , 1967; De Bono, 1967; E l d e r , 1966; Gowan, 1967; Kagan, 1967; K o e s t l e r , 1964; M c K e l l a r , 1957; Osborn, 1963; Parnes 6 Harding, 1962; Roslansky, 1970; T a y l o r , 1972; Torrance, 1964, 1965; Whitehead, 1959.  78  Bruner, 1962; Dewey, 1959; Kagan, 1967; Rogers, 1969;  79  Bruner, 1962; De Bono, 1972a; E l d e r , 1966; Kagan, 1967; K o e s t l e r , 1964; M c K e l l a r , 1957; S t o r r , 1970; T o r r a n c e , 1964.  80  Bruner, 1962, 1966; Dewey, 1916, 1959; Dunfee 8 S a g l , 1966; Gowan, 1967; K o e s t l e r , 1964; Raths, 1965; Robi n s o n , 1972; Schoenfeld, 1971; Whitehead, 19 59.  81  K o e s t l e r , 1964,  1968,  p.20.  p.11.  p.193.  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New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1964. Ibid. 1969.  S t r e e t s f o r People.  New York, Doubleday  8 Co.,  R u s s e l l , B e r t r a n d . E d u c a t i o n and t h e S o c i a l Order. London, George A l l e n 8 Unwin Co., 1932. S a a r i n e n , T.F. P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e Environment. Washi n g t o n D.C., A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, 1969. Schoenfeld, C l a y , ed. O u t l i n e s o f Environmental Educ a t i o n . Madison Wisconson, Dembar E d u c a t i o n a l Research S e r v i c e s , 1971. Sears, P a u l i n e S., e d . I n t e l l e c t u a l Development. York, John Wiley 6 Sons, 1971. S e i d e l , G.J. C r i s i s i n C r e a t i v i t y . o f Notre Dame P r e s s , 1966.  New  London, U n i v e r s i t y  Shomon, Joseph. Manual o f Outdoor C o n s e r v a t i o n Educat i o n . New York, N a t i o n a l Audobon S o c i e t y , 1964. Shjalman, Lee S. 8 E.R. K e i s l a r , eds. L e a r n i n g by D i s covery: A C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l . Chicago, Rand McNally 8 Co., 1966. Smith, David C. Changing V a l u e s . B e l l h a v e n House L t d . , 1971.  Scarborough, O n t a r i o ,  S p r e i r e g a n , P a u l . A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Towns and C i t i e s . New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Spyer, G e o f f r y . A r c h i t e c t and Community: Environmental Design i n an Urban S o c i e t y . London, P e t e r Owen Pubs.,  wrn  Stapp, W.B. "Environmental E d u c a t i o n Program (K-12), Based on Environmental Encounters". Environment and Behaviour, Sept. 1971, V o l . 3, No. 3, pp. 221-232. S t o r r , Anthony. The Dynamics o f C r e a t i o n . Athenum P r e s s , 1970.  New  York,  S t r a t t o n , R. P a u l S R. Brown. "Imroving C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g by T r a i n i n g i n the P r o d u c t i o n and/or Judgement o f S o l u t i o n s " . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1972, V o l . 63, No. 4, pp.390-397. Swan, J.A. "Environmental E d u c a t i o n : One Approach t o R e s o l v i n g the Environmental C r i s i s . " Environment and Behaviour, Sept. 1971, V o l . 3, No. 3, pp. 104-115. Symonds, H i l d a , ed. The Teacher i n the C i t y . Methuen Pubs., 1971. Synectics Corporation. Harper S Row, 1970.  Making i t Strange.  New  Toronto, York,  T a y l o r , C.W., ed. Widening Horizons i n C r e a t i v i t y . New York, John Wiley 8 Sons, 1964. I b i d . , ed. Climate f o r C r e a t i v i t y . P r e s s , 1972. -  New  York, Pergamon  T a y l o r , C.W. 8 F. Barron, eds. S c i e n t i f i c C r e a t i v i t y : I t s R e c o g n i t i o n and Development. New York, John Wiley 8 Sons, 196 3. T o r r a n c e , E. P a u l . E d u c a t i o n and the C r e a t i v e P o t e n t i a l . M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , 196 3a. Ibid. C r e a t i v i t y : What Research Says t o the Teacher. U.S. N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 196 3b. ~ I b i d . Guiding Creative Talent. H a l l I n c . , 1964.  New  Ibid. Rewarding C r e a t i v e Behaviour. P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1965.  Jersey, PrenticeNew  Jersey,  Torrance, E. Paul 8 R. Myers. C r e a t i v e L e a r n i n g and Teaching. New York, Dodd Mead 8 Co., 19 70.  Ward, Colin. "The TCPA and Environmental Education." Town and Country Planning, March 1971, pp.172-174. Ibid. "Environmental Education: Primary Evocations." Town and Country Planning, April 1971, pp.222-224. Ibid. "Environmental Education: The Critical Year." Town and Country Planning, July/Aug. 1971, pp.375-378. Ibid. "Environmental Education: There is no Wealth but Life." Town and Country Planning, Oct. 1971, pp.470-473. Ibid. "Environmental Education: The Landscape of Participation." Town and Country Planning, Nov. 1971, pp.515-517. Warren, Roland L. Studying Your Community. New York, The Free Press, Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 1955. Wason, P.C. 6 P.W. Johnson, eds. Thinking and Reasoning: Selected Readings. Middlesex, England, Penguin Books, 196 8. Wehrli, Robert. Open-Ended Problem Solving in Design. Doctoral Thesis, University of Utah, August 196 8. Wendel, Robert L. "Developing Climates for Learning." Journal of Secondary Education, Nov. 1970, Vol. 45, pp.329-334. Wertheimer, Max. Productive Thinking. Ed. Michael Wertheimer. New York, Harper 6 BrosT Pubs., 1959. Whitehead, Alfred N. Aims of Education. MacMillan Co., 1959.  New York,  Whyte, William H. The Last Landscape. Doubleday 8 Co., 1968.  New York,  Wilson, John. Thinking with Concepts. Cambridge University Press, 1969.  Cambridge,  Winter, Eric, ed. Urban Landscapes. tario, Bellhaven House, 1971. Ibid. Urban Areas. House, 1971.  Scarborough On-  Scarborough, Ontario, Bellhaven  W o l f o r t h , J . 6 R. L e i g h . Urban P r o s p e c t s . M c C l e l l a n d 8 Stewart L t d . , 1971.  Toronto,  Wurman, R i c h a r d S a u l . Making t h e C i t y Observable. Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. P r e s s , 1971. I b i d . The Yellow Pages o f L e a r n i n g . Massachusetts, M.I.TT P r e s s , 1972.  Cambridge,  Wurman, R.S. S J.R. Passonneau. Urban A t l a s . b r i d g e , Massachusetts, M.I.T. P r e s s , 1966. Zucker, P a u l . Town and Square. s e t t s , M.I.T. P r e s s , 1970.  Cam-  Cambridge, Massachu-  APPENDIX I :  ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT  Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y  The books d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y are c o n s i d e r e d c e n t r a l t o t h e concepts developed w i t h i n the t h e s i s and a r e s t r o n g l y recommended t o those who i n end t o d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n a l programs u t i l i z i n g t h e c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g approach. Education: Bruner, Jerome. On Knowing: Essays f o r t h e L e f t Hand. Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. Bruner attempts t o d e a l , i n t h i s book, w i t h t h e nature o f c r e a t i v i t y . He d e f i n e s t h e c r e a t i v e a c t as 'an a c t t h a t produces e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e ' and t h a t takes 'one beyond t h e common ways o f e x p e r i e n c i n g the world' (p.22). He proaeeds t o d e s c r i b e t h e v a r i ous ' c o n d i t i o n s ' o f c r e a t i v i t y o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , the i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s which may be i d e n t i f i e d t h a t l e a d t o c r e a t i ve behaviour. I n the l a s t h a l f o f the book Bruner d i s c u s s e s d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g (problem s o l v i n g ) as the most e f f e c t i v e means o f t e a c h i n g an individual to u t i l i z e h i s creative potential. He a l s o deals a t l e n g t h w i t h the uee o f metaphor i n both t h e l e a r n i n g and t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . In t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , metaphor i s used t o ' j o i n d i s s i m i l a r e x p e r i ences' o r i d e a s i n order t o g a i n an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r separate n a t u r e s . I n c r e a t i v e endeavours t h e same procedure i s used t o add another dimension t o an experience o r i d e a , t a k i n g i t beyond i t s common l e v e l o f meaning. The book i s a f a s c i n a t i n g study o f t h e l i t t l e understood phenomenon o f c r e a t i v i t y .  93.  Bruner, Jerome. Toward a Theory o f I n s t r u c t i o n . Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. In t h i s book Bruner s e t s f o r t h h i s theory on human i n t e l l e c t u a l growth and on i n s t r u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Bruner a theory o f i n s t r u c t i o n must i n clude a s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f : 3. t h e kinds o f experiences which most e f f e c t i v e l y implant i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n toward l e a r n i n g ; ^ 2. t h e ways i n which a body o f knowledge should be s t r u c t u r e d so t h a t i t c a n be most r e a d i l y absorbed by t h e l e a r n e r ; 3. t h e most e f f e c t i v e sequence o f p r e s e n t i n g i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n ; and 4. t h e nature and p a c i n g o f rewards and punishments. Bruner d i s c u s s e s these requirements i n some d e t a i l , s t r e s s i n g t h e importance o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e student's sense o f involvement i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . He suggests t h a t student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d through a problem s o l v i n g approach t o l e a r n i n g which h e l p s t h e student t o p e r s o n a l i z e and t h e r e f o r e i n t e r n a l i z e what he l e a r n s . Bruner i l l u s t r a t e s h i s educat i o n a l methodology by d e v e l o p i n g , a t t h e end o f h i s book, a course on 'man', aimed a t the secondary l e v e l s t u d e n t . The book p r o v i d e s a comprehensive statement o f Bruner's e d u c a t i o n a l theory which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t h e d e s i g n o f problem o r i e n t e d programs o f education. Creativity: K o e s t l e r , A r t h u r . The A c t o f C r e a t i o n . New York, MacMillan Co., 1964. The A c t o f C r e a t i o n i s a l e n g t h y and w e l l - d o c u mented d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e process as i t occurs i n nature and i n t h e human mind. The author attempts t o e x p l a i n t h e c r e a t i v e a c t as a ' b i s o c i a t i o n ' o f 'two independent m a t r i c e s o f p e r c e p t i o n o r r e a s o n i n g ' (p.45). In o t h e r words, the c r e a t i v e a c t u n i t e s two separate e n t i t i e s i n t o new wholes. K o e s t l e r contends t h a t t h i s a c t i s p r e c i p i t a t e d by the random a s s o c i a t i o n s o f thoughts and images which occur w i t h i n t h e subconscious mind o f t h e problem  s o l v e r . A l l o f a sudden t h e r e i s a f u s i o n o f two s e t s o f f a c t s o r ideas and the c r e a t i o n i s born. In many cases t h i s c r e a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the s o l u t i o n t o a problem. Throughout h i s book, K o e s t l e r s t r e s s e s the importance o f the subconscious mind as the arena f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and the n e c e s s i t y o f ' r e l i n q u i s h i n g ' one's conscious c o n t r o l over one's thoughts t o a l l o w the subconscious mind t o operate more f r e e l y . He a l s o d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s theory on educ a t i o n , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the s c i e n c e s , ought t o take the form o f problem s o l v i n g . Students should be presented w i t h the 'paradoxes' t h a t b a f f l e d such s c i e n t i s t s as Newton, Harvey and > Darwin. T h i s w i l l c r e a t e an atmosphere o f g r e a t e r excitement and involvement, an atmosphere which the author contends i s more conducive t o c r e a t i v e t h i n k ing. Torrance, E. P a u l . C r e a t i v i t y : What Research Says t o the Teacher. U.S. N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 196 3b. In t h i s pamphlet, Torrance p r e s e n t s a b r i e f b u t c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y and d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d . He then d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n and the r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r . In the f i n a l few pages, the author l i s t s t e n g u i d e l i n e s f o r c r e a t i v e t e a c h i n g which should h e l p any t e a c h e r t o develop an a t t i t u d e which i s more conducive t o c r e a t i v i t y . Torrance, E. P a u l . G u i d i n g C r e a t i v e T a l e n t . New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1964. T h i s book p r o v i d e s a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f the nature o f c r e a t i v i t y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s on education; Torrance i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l problems which may a r i s e when the student's c r e a t i v i t y i s suppressed and suggests methods f o r r e c t i f y i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n . He a l s o d e a l s a t some l e n g t h w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d , as i d e n t i f i e d by c u r r e n t systems o f e v a l u a t i o n , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y c r e a t i v e , and t h a t new testfcs should be developed t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y those students w i t h h i g h c r e a t i v e potential.  Problem S o l v i n g : Duncker, K a r l . Trans. Lynne S. Lees. "On Problem Solving". P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, V o l . 58, No. 5, Whole o f No. 270, 1945. Duncker d e s c r i b e s the process of problem s o l v i n g as a s e r i e s o f r e s t r u c t u r a t i o n s o f the problem which b r i n g i t c l o s e r t o the d e s i r e d ( s o l u t i o n ) s t a t e . These r e s t r u c t u r i n g s tend t o u n i t e f o r m e r l y separated p a r t s o f the problem s i t u a t i o n i n t o new wholes, (p 29). They are c r e a t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Duncker, out o f an open and ' e l e s t i c ' mind, one which i s not r i g i d i n i t s p a t t e r n s o f thought. In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s e l a s t i c i t y , Duncker d e s c r i b e s the phenomenon of ' f u n c t i o n a l f i x e d n e s s ' i n which the problem s o l v e r cannot r e s t r u c t ure the problem because the problem m a t e r i a l i s , i n * h i s mind, imbued w i t h c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s or a t t r i b u t e s which he has d i f f i c u l t y i n s e p a r a t i n g from the m a t e r i a l itself. I t i s o n l y when the problem-solver can break f r e e o f t h i s f i x e d n e s s t h a t the sudden r e f o r m a t i o n o f i d e a s , the 'aha' e x p e r i e n c e , takes p l a c e . Duncker i l l u s t r a t e s h i s theories with discussions of s e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s , mostly o f a mathematical n a t u r e . H i s a r t i c l e r e p r e s e n t s one of the f i r s t d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s o f c r e a t i v e problem solving. Moore, Gary 8 L.M. Gay. C r e a t i v e Problem S o l v i n g i n Architecture: A P i l o t Study. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , Department o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , September, 196 7. T h i s study attempts t o i d e n t i f y , by o b s e r v i n g the problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l students as they g r a p p l e w i t h d e s i g n problems, the d i s c r e t e stages of the problem s o l v i n g process and the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by the problem s o l v e r d u r i n g each o f these stages. The stages i d e n t i f i e d by Moore a r e : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Problem R e c o g n i t i o n , Problem D e f i n i t i o n , S t r a t e g y Development, Problem A n a l y s i s Solution Generation, S o l u t i o n S e l e c t i o n , and E v a l u a t i o n and V e r i f i c a t i o n .  Under each of these headings, the authors p r o v i d e an e x t e n s i v e l i s t of the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . Many of these are concerned w i t h the n o t i o n of p e r c e p t u a l and c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y (the a b i l i t y t o see t h i n g s and t h i n k o f t h i n g s i n new and unusual ways), and w i t h the a b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h i s study i s o f tremendous v a l u e t o a t e a c h e r who wishes t o d e s i g n a program o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g as i t h e l p s t o e s t a b l i s h the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s which should be achieved a t each stage i n the p r o c e s s . Urban E d u c a t i o n : Jones, W. Ron. Your C i t y Has Been Kidnapped: Primer #3. San F r a n c i s c o , Zephyrus, 1972.  Deschool  T h i s book i s b a s i c a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n of s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n the c i t y which w i l l h e l p the part i c i p a n t t o view h i s c i t y i n d i f f e r e n t and unusual ways. Many o f these suggestions c o u l d be r e a d i l y adapted t o f i t the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . Most are i m a g i n a t i v e and f u n , though the concepts they d e a l w i t h may be somewhat more s e r i o u s . I t i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d , w i t h drawings and cartoons t h a t h e l p the r e a d e r to view the c i t y i n a more i m a g i n a t i v e way. Symonds, H i l d a , ed. The Teacher Toronto, Methuen Pubs., 1971.  i n the C i t y .  The Teacher i n the C i t y i s a more s e r i o u s attempt t o p r o v i d e the t e a c h e r w i t h l e s s o n o u t l i n e s which d e a l w i t h important urban i s s u e s and concepts. P r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s are suggested f o r each l e s s o n , as are p o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the s t u d e n t s . The book thus p r o v i d e s the t e a c h e r w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l framework f o r a course of urban s t u d i e s . I t i s p r i m a r i l y intended f o r the secondary l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , however an experienced t e a c h e r c o u l d adapt the i d e a s presented t o almost any age l e v e l . This book a l s o i n c l u d e s an annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y o f r e f e r e n c e s on the c i t y , i t s h i s t o r y , geography, economy, s o c i o l o g y and d e s i g n , which i s i n v a l u a b l e t o the t e a c h e r . Wurman, R i c h a r d S a u l . The Yellow Pages o f L e a r n i n g . Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. P r e s s , 1972. T h i s book i s p r i m a r i l y intended f o r use a t the  elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . I t suggests a number o f f i e l d t r i p s t h a t students c o u l d take t o l e a r n more about t h e i r c i t y - f o r example t h e a i r p o r t , a bakery, a f i r e h a l l , e t c . The book's format i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e y e l l o w pages o f a telephone book, l i s t i n g the suggested f i e l d t r i p s i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order f o r easy r e f e r e n c e . Wurman, R i c h a r d S a u l . Making t h e C i t y Observable. Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. P r e s s , 19 71. Making t h e C i t y Observable i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f i d e a s f o r making t h e c i t y more understandable t o the average c i t i z e n . Wurman p l a c e s a g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis on the development o f maps and systems o f g r a p h i c symbols w i t h i n t h e c i t y i t s e l f t o promote an i n c r e a s e d v i s u a l understanding o f the c i t y . The book i s i l l u s t r a t e d with s e v e r a l examples o f g r a p h i c and mapping techniques which r e l a y i n f o r m a t i o n i n a much more c o n c i s e and e f f e c t i v e manner than do t h e t a b l e s o f s t a t i s t i c s and w r i t t e n r e p o r t s which one i s o f t e n f a c e d w i t h i n one's attempt t o become more knowledgeable about t h e c i t y . While Wurman does n o t , i n t h i s book, suggest how h i e ideas might be adapted f o r classroom use, an experienced t e a c h e r should have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n doing t h i s f o r himself. Warren, Roland L. Studying Your Community. New York, The Free P r e s s , C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n L t d . , 19 55. Studying Your Community i s undoubtedly the most comprehensive and e x t e n s i v e work i n t h e f i e l d o f urban s t u d i e s . The book i s d i v i d e d i n t o g e n e r a l areas o f concern ( s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , economic, p o l itical). W i t h i n each o f these a r e a s , more s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and problems a r e c o n s i d e r e d - f o r example the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e system i n t h e community. Warren c o n s i d e r s t h e s e , n o t by d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l nature i n most communities, b u t by p r e s e n t i n g a l i s t o f v e r y s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r nature i n your community. In o t h e r words, t h e book enumerates s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s which should be asked i n any community study. I t i s an a b s o l u t e l y i n v a l u a b l e t e a c h i n g a i d , p r o v i d i n g as i t does, a l e s s o n o u t l i n e f o r almost any avenue o f i n q u i r y i n t o the c i t y . I t i s p r i m a r i l y intended  98.  f o r secondary s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y students and f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who wish t o e x p l o r e an a s p e c t o f the c i t y i n which they have no e x p e r t i s e .  A d d i t i o n a l References on the Urban Environment Bacon, Edmund. The Design o f C i t i e s New York, V i k i n g P r e s s , 1967. Blumenfeld, Hans. The Modern M e t r o p o l i s : Its Origins, Growth C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and P l a n n i n g , ed. Paul D. S p r e i r e g e n , M o n t r e a l , Harvest HouseT 1967. Blake, P e t e r . God's Own Junkyard. New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t 8 Winston,  1964.  Chermayeff, Serge and C. A l e x a n d e r . Community and P r i v a c y . Garden C i t y , Doubleday, 196 3. Eckbo, G a r r e t . Landscape f o r L i v i n g . New York, F.W. Dodge Corp., 1950. Ewald, W i l l i a m R., ed. Urban Landscape Design. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964. G e r t l e r , L.O., ed. P l a n n i n g the Canadian Environment. M o n t r e a l , H a r v e s t House, 1968. Goodman, Robert. A f t e r the P l a n n e r s . New York, Simon 6 S c h u s t e r , 19 72. Gutkind, E.A. The T w i l i g h t o f C i t i e s . London, C o l l i e r M a c M i l l a n L t d . , 1962. H a l l , P e t e r . The World C i t i e s . London, Weidenfeld 8 N i c o l s o n , 1966. H a l p r i n , Lawrence. Cities. New York, R e i n h o l d Pub. Co.,  196 3.  Hosken, Fran. The Language o f C i t i e s . Cambridge, Schenkmann, 1972.  Howarth, Lawrence. The Good C i t y . Bloomington, I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  1963.  J a c k s o n , John N. The Canadian C i t y : Space, Form, Q u a l i t y . Toronto, McGraw-Hill ftyerson, I S 7 3 . J a c o b s , Jane. The Economy o f c i t i e s . New York, Random House, 1969. L i t h w i c k , N.H. Urban Canada: Ottawa, CMHC, 19701  Problems and P r o s p e c t s . —*~"  L o f l a n d , Lyn H. A World o f S t r a n g e r s : Order and A c t i o n i n Urban P u b l i c Space. New York, B a s i c Books,  wnr.  —  Lynch, K e v i n . Image o f the C i t y . Cambridge, M.I.T. P r e s s , 1960. I b i d . What Time i s t h i s P l a c e ? Cambridge, M.I.T. P r e s s , 1972. M a l t , H a r o l d . F u r n i s h i n g the C i t y . New York, McGraw-Hill, 1970. M i c h a l s o n , W i l l i a m . Man and H i s Urban Environment: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach*! Cambridge, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1970. Mumford, Lewis. The C i t y i n H i s t o r y . New York, H a r c o u r t , Brace and J o v a n o v i c h , 1961. I b i d . Urban P r o s p e c t . New York, H a r c o u r t , Brace and World,  1968.  P o w e l l , A l l e n , ed. The C i t y ; A t t a c k i n g Modern Myths. Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972. Reps, J.W. The Making o f Urban America. P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935. R i c h a r d s o n , Boyce. The F u t u r e o f Canadian C i t i e s . Toronto, New P r e s s , 1972. Rudofsky, Bernard. S t r e e t s f o r People. New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1939.  I b i d . A r c h i t e c t u r e Without A r c h i t e c t s . New York, Doubleday 8 Co., 1964. S a a r i n e n , T.F. P e r c e p t i o n s o f the Environment. A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, Washington, D. 1969. Simmons, James 6 R. Simmons. Toronto, Copp-Clark, 1969.  Urban Canada.  S p r e i r e g a n , P a u l . Urban Design; The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Towns and C i t i e s T New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Spyer, G e o f f r e y . A r c h i t e c t and Community: Environmental Design i n an Urban S o c i e t y . London, P e t e r 6wen Pubs., 19 71. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. The L a s t Landscape. New York, Doubleday g Co., 196 8* Zucker, P a u l . Town and Square. Cambridge, M.I.T. P r e s s , 1970.  APPENDIX I I : ORGANIZATIONS TOR SIMULATION GAMES  The f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s are c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d with the p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i m u l a t i o n games i n the urban f i e l d . The games a v a i l a b l e through each o r g a n i z a t i o n are l i s t e d i n b r a c k e t s . 1.  Abt A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 55 Wheeler S t . , Cambridge., Mass. ( P o l l u t i o n , Neighbourhood, S i m p o l i s , Manchester 6 Urbcoin)  2.  Applied Simulations I n t e r n a t i o n a l Inc., #900, 1100 Seventeenth S t . N.W., Washington D.C. (City II)  3.  The Free P r e s s , 866 T h i r d Ave., New York, New York. (Simsoc)  4.  Interact, P.O. Box 26 2, Lakeside,  California.  (Sunshine) 5.  Science Research A s s o c i a t e s I n c . , 259 E a s t E r i e S t . , Chicago, I l l i n o i s . (Interurban  6.  7.  Simulation)  Simile I I , P.O. Box 1023,  1150 S i l v e r a d o , La J o l l a ,  (Napoli, Plans,  Sitte)  LaClede Town Co., St. L o u i s , M i s s o u r i . (Trade-Off)  California.  102.  8.  Systems Gaming A s s o c i a t e s , A 1-2 Lansing Apts., 20 Triphammer Rd., I t h i c a ,  N.Y.  (Clug) 9.  Urbandyne, 5659 South Woodlawn Ave., Chicago I l l i n o i s . (Edge C i t y  10.  College)  Western P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , School S L i b r a r y Dept., 850 T h i r d Ave., New ( D i s a s t e r , Ghetto)  York.  

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