UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The politics of self-preservation : a social history of the British Army rank-and-file during the Napoleonic… Kuczma, Roland Paul 1975

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THE POLITICS OF SELF-PRESERVATION: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ARMY RANK-AND-FILE DURING THE NAPOLEONIC ERA by ROLAND PAUL KUCZMA B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1975 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion for e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t ten pe rm i ss i on . Department of H' S^c> The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date \C ftuiAKA \<\1<: A b s t r a c t The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s was to g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o the common s o l d i e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Army d u r i n g the Napoleonic e r a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , I sought to understand how the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f them managed to cope w i t h c o n d i t i o n s that would s t r i k e most people today as a p p a l l i n g and which were e q u a l l y anathema to the g r e a t e r p a r t o f B r i t i s h c i v i l i a n s o c i e t y at the time. The tendency among h i s t o r i a n s has been to t r e a t the t r a d i t i o n a l s o l d i e r as an automaton: h i s l o y a l t y i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f s o c i a l deference or i n n a t e s t u p i d i t y . The r e s u l t i s that h i s t o r i e s o f the B r i t i s h Army e i t h e r dwell on i t s p u r e l y m i l i t a r y s i d e , t h a t i s , famous b a t t l e s and the d e t a i l s o f t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s } or e l s e the Army's mundane f e a t u r e s , f o r example, weaponry and uniforms. The most f a s c i n a t i n g aspect of war - how i t i s experienced by those who a c t u a l l y p a r t i -c i p a t e i n i t - i s ignored, and consequently v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the nature o f human m o t i v a t i o n and behaviour i s l o s t . In an e f f o r t to make the s o l d i e r ' s way of l i f e comprehensible I i n v e s t i g a t e d , f o r the moat p a r t , m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n by the com-batants themselves, c h i e f l y d i a r i e s , l e t t e r s and j o u r n a l s , and, to a s m a l l extent, o b s e r v a t i o n s of army l i f e by men o u t s i d e the rank-a n d - f i l e , p u b l i s h e d i n d i s p a t c h e s , newspapers, memoirs, and n o v e l s . I sought through an understanding o f the s o l d i e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n to i s o l a t e the p e r s o n a l needs served by the army as w e l l as to t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n of s e l f - p r e s e r v i n g s t r a t e g i e s needed to s u r v i v e i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s , w i t h concern to the way i n i i i which indigenous s o c i a l attitudes, the dynamics of group behav-iour, trauma, and fatigue contributed to t h e i r establishment. The research was, I think, extremely valuable. The import-ance to a soldier's dedication of h i s motivation for e n l i s t i n g was demonstrated. (The desire to escape poverty or the indus-t r i a l way of l i f e and the promise of adventure and glory were but a few of a number of reasons whey men joined.) The appeals of army l i f e were is o l a t e d , and these included f o r many, the growth of a sense of purpose, a dignity, a f e e l i n g of belonging, and an arran< v i t a l i t y which often develops through constant exposure to the threat of death, an experience that such modern e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s as Jaspers and Sartre have dwelt upon considerably i n t h e i r writings. F i n a l l y , the s o l d i e r ' s strong s u r v i v a l capa-c i t y , his 'tenacity of self-perservation* i n the words of E.P. Thompson, made possible through the u t i l i z a t i o n of coping mech-anisms, was recognized. These processes included forgetfulness, depersonalization, regression, romanticism, and the emergence of a b e l i e f i n strength through adversity. This was not to suggest, however, that the s o l d i e r was i n f i n i t e l y f l e x i b l e ; my analysis of the character of the Army i n the eighteenth century, included i n this paper, pointed out the high l e v e l of desertion r e s u l t i n g from i t s corrupt, b r u t a l , and demoralized state. Reform of the worst features of force, i n i t i a t e d about 1796, thus also c o n t r i -buted to army l o y a l t y , and not only insofar as i t made the l i f e more comfortable than hitherto i t had been, but also to the extent that i t gave men hope that amelioration would continue to occur. Clearly, then, the problem of why men maintained t h e i r dedication i v t o t h e f o r c e w a s a n e n o r m o u s l y c o m p l e x o n e , a n d i t i s h o p e d t h a t i n t h e e n d e a v o u r t o u n d e r s t a n d i t , t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r w a s p o r t r a y e d a c c u r a t e l y a n d i n a h u m a n e f a s h i o n . Table of Contents Introduction Chronology of the Peninsular War 8 I The Nature of War i n the Eighteenth Century 11 I I Joining Up 34 I I I Army L i f e i n the Peninsula 62 IV Coping 81 V Attitudes Toward Punishment 113 VI Pastimes 126 VII The Joys of War: Reflections on Combat 134 Conclusion 145 Bibliography 151 To Professor John M. Norris for his inspiration, assistance and above-all, patience throughout the preparation of my thesis and to Corinne Bathurst for her constant support. 1 D r ^ i J o h n s o n : " W h e n y o u l o o k ( a t t h e m ) . . . y o u s e e t h e e x t r e m i t y o f h u m a n m i s e r y : s u c h c r o w d i n g , s u c h f i l t h , s u c h s t e n c h . " J a m e s B o s w e l l : " Y e t s o l d i e r s a r e h a p p y . " D r . J o h n s o n : " T h e y a r e h a p p y a s b r u t e s a r e h a p p y , w i t h a p i e c e o f f r e s h m e a t - w i t h t h e g r o s s e s t s e n s u a l i t y . " B o s w e l l : " W e f i n d p e o p l e f o n d o f b e i n g s o l d i e r s . " D r . J o h n s o n : " I c a n n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h a t , a n y m o r e t h a n I c a n a c c o u n t f o r o t h e r p e r v e r s i o n s o f i m a g i n a t i o n . " 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e a i m o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e s s a y i s t o w r i t e s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y a b o u t a v e r y u n u s u a l c o m m i t m e n t , t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o e n d u r e t h e l i f e o f a c o m m o n s o l d i e r i n W e l l i n g t o n ' s a r m y d u r i n g t h e N a p o l e o n i c W a r s , i n l i g h t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e a b h o r r e n t t o a l l b u t t h e m o s t h a r d y o r l e a s t s e n s i b l e o f p e o p l e t o - d a y , a n d w h i c h w e r e e q u a l l y a n a t h e m a t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e D u k e ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . A n y a n a l y s i s o f W e l l i n g t o n ' s a r m y w i l l r e v e a l t h a t t h e m e n w e r e p o o r l y h o u s e d , b a d l y e q u i p p e d , s e v e r e l y d i s c i p l i n e d , m e r c i l o u s l y w o r k e d , u n d e r p a i d , a n d , o f c o u r s e , o f t e n e x p o s e d t o e x t r e m e d a n g e r . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g t e m p t a t i o n t o a g r e e w i t h D r . J o h n s o n ' s o p i n i o n t h a t a n y s a n e m a n w o u l d s u r e l y h a v e p r e f e r r e d a c o n v i c t ' s l i f e t o t h a t o f s e r v i n g i n t h e f o r c e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l i t t l e h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t h o w s o l d i e r s a d j u s t e d t o t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , a n i n t o l e r a b l e o m m i s s i o n i n l i g h t o f t h e p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t , a m o n g s c h o l a r s o f B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , i n h o w g r o u p s c o p e w i t h v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i a l c h a n g e s w r o u g h t b y 1 i n d u s t r i a l i s m . P a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m s t e m s f r o m a t r a d i t i o n a l l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r . A s a r e s u l t , s i m p l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f h i m p r e v a i l e d a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e G r e a t W a r . F o r J s o m e r e a s o n c o n t e m p o r a r y m i l i t a r y h i s t o r i a n s h a v e p e r p e t u -a t e d t h i s h a b i t o f l o o k i n g a t B r i t a i n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l s o l d i e r i n f a c i l e w a y s . A t t i t u d e s t h a t w e r e o n c e e x p l i c i t m a i n t a i n a t a c i t p o p u l a r i t y ^ T h e r e w a s t h e w i d e s p r e a d o p i n i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t s o l d i e r s w e r e d e v o t e d - d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y o f t e n w e r e n o t -3 b e c a u s e t h e n a t u r e o f B r i t i s h s o c i e t y t a u g h t o b e d i e n c e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w a s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e a r m y w a s a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e d e f e r e n t s o c i e t y . T h i s v i e w w a s r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e t y p i c a l s o l d i e r w a s b y - a n d - l a r g e a r a t h e r s t u p i d , e a s i l y - s a t i s f i e d a n d t i m i d s o u l . I n d e e d , o n e f i n d s t h e s e n o t i o n s e s p c f e e d w i t h t i r e s o m e r e g u l a r i t y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d p r e s s o f t h e p a s t . S o m e o b s e r v e r s p o r t r a y e d t h e s o l d i e r a s a l a d d e t e r m i n e d t o d o h i s d u t y a n d t h u s p r e p a r e d t o s a c r i f i c e e v e r y t h i n g t o h i s ^ r e g i m e n t , c o m m a n d e r a n d c o u n t r y ; t h e m a j o r i t y p r e f e r r e d t o d w e l l u p o n w h a t w a s s e e n a s t h e s o l d i e r ' s m e n t a l i n f e r i o r i t y . A s e a r l y a s t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t h e s o l d i e r w a s r i d -i c u l e d f o r h i s f a w n i n g s t u p i d i t y . S h a k e s p e a r ^ f o r e x a m p l e o c c a s i o n a l l y u s e d h i m f o r c o m i c r e l i e f . O n e h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r S t e r n e c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s o l d i e r , i n T h e L i f e a n d  O p i n i o n s o f T r i s t r a m S h a n d y , a s o n e w h o s e " o b s e r v a t i o n c a n n o t e x t e n d f a r b e y o n d t h e m u z z l e o f h i s f i r e l o c k " , a n d i n t h e n i n e t e e n c e n t u r y P u n c h p o p u l a r i z e d t h e i m a g e o f h i m a s a f a i t h f u l d u l l -w i t t e d w a t c h d o g . T h a t c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r i e s a r e a s e q u a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o l d i e r c a n e a s i l y b e s h o w n . F o r e x a m p l e , i t i s m y i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t w o k i n d s o f w o r k s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t B r i t a i n ' s a r m y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e N a p o l e o n i c W a r s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n a r e t h o s e w h i c h l a b o r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e t h e b a t t l e s f o u g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s , b u t w h i c h , j u d g i n g b y t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n i t , i n v a r -i a b l y r e g a r d t h e s o c i o l o g y o f t h e f o r c e s a s r a t i n g o n l y m a r g i n a l k c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^ U s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i s a h a s t y s u m m a t i o n o f w h y m e n v o l u n t e e r e d a l o n g w i t h a n e q u a l l y s h o r t a n d r a t h e r s t e r e o t y p e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t y p i c a l s o l d i e r . T h e o t h e r k i n d a r e t h o s e s t u d i e s i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r p u r p o r t s t o b e a n a l y z i n g d a i l y l i f e i n W e l l i n g t o n ' s a r m y b u t w h i c h a r e m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e m u n d a n e s i d e o f t h e m i l i t a r y , t h a t i s , w i t h c l o t h i n g , r a t i o n s , i s u p p l i e s , t h e r o u t i n e o f b i v o v a c k i n g , a n d w e a p o n s . T h e s e h i s t o r i e s t e n d t o b e r a t h e r c h a t t y t o t h e n e g l e c t o f a n y s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o l d i e r ' s w a y o f l i f e . I n d e e d , d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s , a n d l e t t e r s b e l o n g i n g t o m e n o f W e l l i n g t o n ' s a r m y r e m a i n t h e s o l e m e a n i n g f u l p a s s a g e i n t o t h e c o m m o n s o l d i e r ' s p s y c h e . T h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r h a s t h u s b e e n i n a d e q u a t e . T h e m o s t c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t h i m a r e s i m p l y i n a c c u r a t e . T h e f a c t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t b y t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , B r i t a i n ' s a n c i e n t r e g i m e w a s c r u m b l i n g , a n d w i t h i t m u c h o f t h e " f l a g s a l u t i n g , p e e r r e s p e c t i n g " s i d e o f t h e p l e b i a n m i n d , i s i g n o r e d . S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e i t w o u l d b e f o o l i s h t o d e n y t h a t m a n y s o l d i e r s w e r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y b r i g h t , t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a r m y s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t * h e a r t s o l d i e r s w e r e j u s t s i m p l e l a d s i s a d u b i o u s , o r a t l e a s t e x t r e m e l y s i m p l i s t i c p r o p o s i t i o n a t b e s t . D e s e r t i o n w a s f a r m o r e a p r o -b l e m i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r m i e s t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e , w h e n t h e l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e t y p i c a l s o l d i e r w a s p r e t t y l o w . tfilan i n t h e N a p o l e o n i c e r a w h e n m e n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w e r e n o l o n g e r s t i g m a t i z e d b y s e r v i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , n o t ' o n l y a r e t h e s e a s s u m p -t i o n s e m p i r i c a l l y u n s o u n d , a c c e p t i n g t h e m a m o u n t s t o a w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r e a t t h e s o l d i e r l i k e a n a u t o m a t o n . T h e y a r e t o o s i m p l e , t o o 5 o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l . T h e y c o n c e a l w h a t r e a l l y w a s i n v o l v e d i n d e v o -t i o n . T h e y " n i g g e r i z e " h i m . T h e s o l d i e r , n o l e s s t h a n t h e f a c t o r y w o r k e r s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , s u r v i v e d t h e l i f e n o t b e c a u s e h e w a s n a t u r a l l y d e f e r e n t o r t o o s t u p i d t o k n o w a n y b e t t e r , b u t b e c a u s e c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f h i s a r m y e x i s t e n c e w e r e a p p e a l i n g a n d t h o s e t h a t w e r e n o t w e r e m a d e b e a r a b l e w i t h t h e a i d o f n u m e r o u s " c o p i n g " m e c h a n i s m s . I t i s m y c o n t e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a t h o u g h t f u l and s e n s i t i v e a n a l y s i s m u s t d o t h e f o l l o w i n g , i f i t i s t o m a k e s e n s e o f t h e s o l d i e r ' s b e h a v i o u r b y i s o l a t i n g t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n -t r i b u t e d t o h i s d e v o t i o n : O u t l i n e t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d o c c u p a -t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f B r i t a i n ' s s o l d i e r s d u r i n g t h e N a p o l e o n i c W a r s , d o c u m e n t t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r j o i n i n g , a n d a n a l y z e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f a r m y l i f e . T h e l a t t e r m u s t b e a p p r o a c h e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t t o d i s c e r n t h e v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l n e e d s w h i c h t h e a r m y s e r v e d a n d w h i c h h e l p e d t o m a k e w h a t a p p e a r s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e t o b e a p r i s o n - l i k e e x i s t e n c e , t o l e r a b l e a n d e v e n m e a n i n g f u l ; a n d t o t r a c e t h e e v o l u t i o n o f s e l f - p r e s e r v i n g s t r a t e g i e s -b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s - a d e q u a t e t o t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e a r m y , x t f i t h a n e y e t o t h e w a y s i n w h i c h i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , t h e d y n a m i c s o f g r o u p b e h a v i o u r a n d s u c h f a c t o r s a s t r a u m a a n d e x h a u s t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . M y p u r p o s e i s n o t t o r o m a n t i c i z e t h e s o l d i e r ' s l i f e . I t i s s i m p l y t o c o r r e c t t h a t t e n d e n c y t o w r i t e a s t h o u g h s o l d i e r s w e r e r e -l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e w a r s a n d t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d f a c t . 6 I n c i d e n t l y , I c h o o s e t o a n a l y z e t h e B r i t i s h a r m y s p e c i f -i c a l l y i n t h e a g e o f N a p o l e o n f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : o n e , b e c a u s e m u c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e w a r s d u r i n g t h a t e r a w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e n e g l e c t a n d m i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s o l d i e r b y h i s t o r i a n s i s h e r e m o s t f l a g r a n t ; t w o , b e c a u s e f o r s o m e r e a s o n t h e r e w e r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f e w e r d e s e r t i o n s i n B r i t a i n ' s a r m y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a n a t a n y p r e v i o u s t i m e s i n c e t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e m o d e r n , m e t h o d i c a l l y - t r a i n e d , d i s c i p l i n e d a r m y b y C r o m w e l l ; a n d t h r e e , b e c a u s e W e l l i n g t o n ' s s o l d i e r s w r o t e a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y n u m b e r o f d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s a n d l e t t e r s , t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f w h i c h i s o b v i o u s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w e w i l l b r i e f l y l o o k a t t h e n a t u r e o f w a r i n t h e c e n t u r y p r i o r t o t h e N a p o l e o n i c e r a i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e s o l d i e r ' s t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t u s . M o r e o v e r , s u c h a n a n a l y s i s m a y a l s o p r o v i d e u s w i t h a v a l u a b l e c o n t r a s t t o t h e N a p o l e o n i c W a r s i n s o f a r a s t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s a p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r d e s e r t i o n p a t t e r n s . T h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n -t r i b u t e d t o t h e f l o w o f d e s e r t i o n m i g h t b e i s o l a t e d . C h a p t e r I I w i l l e x a m i n e r e c r u i t m e n t ^ A b r i e f r e v i e w o f c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e a r m y w i l l f o l l o i v ( C h a p t e r I I I ) . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e e s s a y w i l l d i s c u s s t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s t o i t ( C h a p t e r I V ) , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p u n i s h m e n t ( C h a p t e r V " ) , d i v e r s i o n s ( C h a p t e r V I ) a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s b a t t l e ( C h a p t e r V I I ) . 7 F o o t n o t e s 1 . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , E . P . T h o m p s o n ' s , T h e M a k i n g o f t h e  E n g l i s h W o r k i n g C l a s s ( P e l i c a n , 1972; 1963). 2. E v e n S i r J o h n F o y f e s c u e ' s g r e a t w o r k , A H i s t o r y o f t h e  B r i t i s h A r m y ( L o n d o n , 1889-1930)» t h o u g h d e s i g n e d a s a p i e c e o f s o c i a l h i s t o r y , w a s t h e m o s t p a r t a n a c c o u n t o f m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s . 3. T h e o d d h i s t o r y , l i k e R i c h a r d G l o v e r ' s , P e n i n s u l a  P r e p a r a t i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , I963), a n a n a l y s i s o f h o w t h e a r m y w a s r e f o r m e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e D u k e o f Y o r k , f a l l s o u t s i d e b o t h c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s s o r t o f v i e w i s e q u a l l y , i f n o t m o r e , - p o p u l a r a m o n g n a v a l h i s t o r i a n s . S e e M i c h a e l L e w i s ' s . A S o c i a l  H i s t o r y o f t h e N a v y , 1 7 9 3 - 1 8 1 5 ( L o n d o n , 19^0). 8 C h r o n o l o g y o f t h e P e n i n s u l a r W a r 1 8 0 7 T h e d e f e a t o f R u s s i a a t F r i e d l a n d ( 1 4 J u n e ) , f o l l o w e d b y t h e T r e a t y o f T i l s i t ( 2 5 J u n e ) . E v e r y E u r o p e n S t a t e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f P o r t u g a l i s n o w p a r t o f t h e ' C o n t i n e n t a l S y s t e m ' . T h e F r e n c h A r m y u n d e r J u n o t m a r c h e s a c r o s s S p a i n a n d o c c u p i e s P o r t u g a l . F r e n c h t r o o p s a l s o s e i z e s t r a t e g i c f o r t s a n d g a r r i s o n s i n n o r t h e r n S p a i n . 1 8 0 8 F r e n c h t r o o p s o c c u p y S p a i n a n d N a p o l e o n f o r c e s i t s K i n g , C h a r l e s a n d h i s s o n , F e r d i n a n d , t o a b d i c a t e t h e t h r o n e . 1 5 t h J u l y , t h e S p a n i s h r e v o l t a g a i n s t B o n a p a r t e ' s a c t i o n . N a p o l e o n ' s b r o t h e r J o s e p h , i s i n s t a l l e d a s t h e n e w K i n g o f S p a i n {_2h J u l y ) . B r i t i s h f o r c e s u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d o f W e l l i n g t o n l a n d i n P o r t u g a l . T h e y d e f e a t t h e F r e n c h a t V i m i e r a ( 2 1 A u g u s t ) . T h e F r e n c h t h e n a g r e e b y t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f C i n t r a t o w i t h d r a w f r o m P o r t u g a l . w h i c h t h e y d o b y t h e 3 0 t h , o f S e p t e m b e r ^ T h e B r i t i s h A r m y u n d e r S i r J o h n M o o r e i n v a d e s S p a i n , j o i n i n g f o r c e s w i t h B a i r d ' s t r o o p s f r o m C o r u n n a . B u t f a c e d w i t h t h e t h r e a t o f s u p e r i o r F r e n c h n u m b e r s , t h e B r i t i s h s o o n f a l l b a c k - o n C o r i m n a . 1 8 0 9 T h e B r i t i s h s a i l f r o m C o r u n n a t o B r i t a i n ( 1 6 J a n u a r y ) . 2 1 s t F e b r u a r y , S a r g o s s o f a l l s t o t h e F r e n c h . 1 2 t h M a y , W e l l i n g t o n r e t u r n s t o P o r t u g a l a n d e n t e r s S p a i n w i t h a m i x e d f o r c e o f B r i t i s h , P o r t u g u e s e a n d S p a n i s h t r o o p s . H e d e f e a t s t h e F r e n c h a t T a l a v e r a , ( 2 7 - 2 8 J u l y ) b u t l a c k i n g r e i n f o r c e m e n t s r e t u r n s t o A l m e i d a . T h e S p a n i s h a r e d e f e a t e d 9 a t O t a n a a n d s o u t h e r n S p a i n i s o v e r r u n b y t h e F r e n c h ( 2 0 N o v e m b e r ) . W e l l i n g t o n p r e p a r e s t h e f o r t i f i e d L i n e s o f T o r r e s V e d r a s , w h i c h c o v e r L i s b o n a n d a c t a s a s u p p l y b a s e a n d q u a r t e r s f o r w i n t e r i n g . F r a n c e ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n S p a i n e n c o u r a g e A u s t r i a t o r e n e w h e r w a r a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n . S h e i s s m a s h e d a t t h e B a t t l e o f W a g r a m ( J u l y ) . 1 8 1 0 T h e F r e n c h c o m m a n d e d b y M a s s e n a i n v a d e P o r t u g a l . T h e y t a k e C i u d a d R o d r i g o ( 1 0 J u l y ) . 2 7 t h S e p t e m b e r , W e l l i n g t o n d e f e a t s t h e F r e n c h a t B u s a c o , t h e n r e t i r e s b e h i n d t h e l i n e s . M a s s e n a , u n a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e W e l l i n g t o n ' s d e f e n c e o r m a i n t a i n h i s l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e t r e a t s t o w a r d s t h e S p a n i s h f r o n t i e r ( 1 4 N o v e m b e r ) . 1 8 1 1 1 9 t h F e b r u a r y , S o u l t t a k e s B a d a j o z f r o m t h e S p a n i s h . W e l l i n g t o n , n o w r e i n f o r c e d , f o l l o w s M a s s e n a a n d d e f e a t s h i m a t S a b u g a l ( 5 A p r i l ) . H e t h e n a t t a c k s A l m e i d a a n d M a s s e n a m o v e s t o r e l i e v e t h e t o x i m o n l y t o b e d e f e a t e d a t F u e n t e s D * O n o r o . ( 5 M a y ) A l m e i d a s u r r e n d e r s . T h e B r i t i s h t h e n a t t a c k B a d a j o z b u t f a i l . S o u l t , m a r c h i n g t o t h e a i d o f t h e F r e n c h g a r r i s o n a t B a d a j o z , i s d e f e a t e d a t A l b u e r a ( 1 6 M a y ) . T h e F r e n c h a r e d e f e a t e d b y t h e S p a n i s h a t Z i m e n a ( 1 0 S e p t e m b e r ) a n d t h e B r i t i s h a t M e r i d a ( 2 8 O c t o b e r ) . M e a n w h i l e , t h e R u s s i a n s w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e C o n t i n e n t a l S y s t e m . N a p o l e o n r e s o l v e s t o i n v a d e R u s s i a . 1 8 1 2 1 9 t h J a n u a r y , W e l l i n g t o n t a k e s C i w d a d R o d r i g o . 6 t h A p r i l , B a d a j o z f a l l s a n d t h e B r i t i s h a d v a n c e i n t o S p a i n . W e l l i n g t o n d e f e a t s M a r m o n t a t S a l a m a n c a ( 2 2 J u l y ) . ' 1 2 t h A u g u s t , t h e D u k e e n t e r s M a d r i d a n d t h e n a t t e m p t s t o c a p t u r e B u r g o s . H e f a i l s a n d f a l l s b a c k t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e f r o n t i e r f o r t h e 10 w i n t e r . N a p o l e o n i n v a d e s R u s s i a . 1313 P r u s s i a a n d A u s t r i a j o i n R u s s i a a n d B r i t a i n t o f o r m t h e F o u r t t * C o a l i t i o n ! ' 1 3 t h A p r i l , t h e F r e n c h a r e d e f e a t e d a t C a s t e l l a . W e l l i n g t o n d e f e a t s K i n g J o s e p h a t V i t t o r i a (21 J u n e ) a n d i n v a d e s F r a n c e i n O c t o b e r . N a p o l e o n i s c r u s h e d a t t h e B a t t l e o f L e i p z i g . 1 8 1 4 L e d b y B l u c h e r , t h e P r u s s i a n s c r o s s t h e R h i n e i n t o F r a n c e (1 J a n u a r y ) . W e l l i n g t o n d e f e a t s S o u l t a t O r t h e z ( 2 7 F e b r u a r y ) , a t T a r b e s ( 1 0 M a r c h ) , a n d , f i n a l l y , a t T o u l o u s e ( 1 0 A p r i l ) . T h e a r m i e s o f t h e F o u r t h C o a l i t i o n e n t e r P a r i s (31 M a r c h ) . 3 0 t h M a y , t h e P e a c e o f P a r i s i s s i g n e d a n d N a p o l e o n i s e x i l e d t o t h e i s l a n d o f E l b a . 1 8 1 5 N a p o l e o n e s c a p e s a n d r e t u r n s t o F r a n c e ( l M a r c h ) . H e i s c r u s h e d a t W a t e r l o o (18 J u n e ) a n d b a n i s h e d t o S t . H e l e n a . I The Nature of War i n the Eighteenth Century When war broke out i n February, 1793, B r i t a i n was, as usual, unprepared. Her strategic plan, i f one did e x i s t , was senescent, her administrative structure t o t a l l y chaotic, and her m i l i t a r y forces inadequate even for her own in t e r n a l and coastal security. Rapid and decisive action was, as a r e s u l t , impossible. What action there was i n the earlyyears against France was possible only through the expedient of h i r i n g mercenaries and subsidizing her continental a l l i e s , such as Prussia and Austria. The results were dismal. The French Army, revolutionized by the b r i l l i a n t Lazare Carnet devastated the armies of B r i t a i n and her a l l i e s . Prussia, I t a l y , and Austria were invaded and made subservient to France and her imperial designs. B r i t a i n survived only because her superior navy made a successful French invasion of the islands v i r t u a l l y impossible. Yet ultimately France was defeated i n Europe with B r i t a i n ' s army making a decisive contribution to the destruction of her empire. The B r i t i s h succeeded not by revolutionizing the organization of their army as the French had done, but to a great extent by exploiting conventional European patterns of m i l i t a r y organization more e f f e c t i v e l y than had been done before. In th i s chapter, we w i l l discuss the m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n inherited by the B r i t i s h Army; what follows then i s a br i e f outline of the nature of warfare i n the eighteenth century, describing i t s objectives, the manner i n which i t was fought, and most important, how armies were consequently organized. In the course of the discussion we w i l l hope to analyze the socia l origins of the rank-and-file, the reasons why men participated i n the army, and the sorts of conditions they were forced to endure. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries warfare was unrestrained, savage and anarchic. I t was s i m i l a r l y brutal during the American and French Revolutionary Wars. But between the eras of re l i g i o u s and national wars a moderating trend influenced the conduct of war. James Boswell's comment to his friend Rose at Leyden in 1764 "that" wars were going out nowadays from 1 their mildness" was, therefore, a typical eighteenth century perception of the state of war; one exception was Voltaire's portrayal of warefare in Candide. This change had nothing to do with the frequency of war but rather with the manner in which i t was fought, that i s , i t s scope and objectives. This transformation in the conduct of war had several causes. A general moral revulsion against the atrocities of the Thirty Years' War probably contributed somewhat to the decline in i t s ferocity. The efficacy of p o l i t i c a l alliances also helped to limit the scale of warfare. Indeed, the term "balance of power" came into popular usage in the early eighteenth century. Moreover, ara.increase i n the number of f o r t i f i e d towns, slow development of armaments, expensive costs of carrying out a sustained campaign, lack of mobility of armies owing to poor roads, slowness of communication, d i f f i c u l t i e s of winter campaigning, problems of supply in enemy countries and equal diffusions of military power and techniques among the armies of Europe had the same effect. As N. Barbon observed i n 1690, "Now both Parties are 2 Esqually Disciplin'd and Arm'd; and the Successes of War are not so great." The general unwillingness to improve the poor quality of the eighteenth century soldier reduced the f l e x i b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of 'armies. And the belief that large armies were undesirable because they were d i f f i c u l t to 3 manoeuvre, serving only "to perplex and embarass" according to the great French general, Maurice de Saxe, impossible to supply, and beyonddthe capacity of society to maintain, imposed further limits on the practice of warefare. But the principal causes for the rather limited scope of war through-out much of the eighteenth century were philosophic and economic. It appears that the Enlightenment generally had a c i v i l i z i n g effect on behaviour. It contributed to the growth of a common sense of humanity among the intelligent and the cultured, and to the acceptance of such concepts as moderation, proportion, t o l e r a t i o n , humanitarianism and a b e l i e f i n natural law to which a l l men could openly subscirbe. Conversely, b e l i e f i n extreme solutions, reli g i o u s factionalism, and notions of heroism and physical courage were generally held i n contempt. Reason was extolled as the tool which would unite mankind and reform societies. War thus seemed unworthy of an age i n which reason was steadily gaining control of human a f f a i r s . The mental climate of the eighteenth century simply lacked the s p i r i t of violence and hatred 4 that had generated past struggles. I t would also seem that the evolution of war i n that era was c r i t -i c a l l y affected by certain economic developments. There was from about 1640 onward a tendency among European nations to grow more alik e i n the i r commerc-i a l experiences. There thus emerged the common r e a l i z a t i o n that war had toO ruinous an effect on the human and material resource of the state. This fact was recognized i n government: witness Colbert's extensive calculations on the effect of war on commerce throughout history.^ I t was s i m i l a r l y observed by the f i r s t generation of p o l i t i c a l economists. In his Inquiry into the  Principles of P o l i t i c a l Economy (1767), the Scotsman, James Steuart, for example, wrote that "Nothing i s so evident as that war i s inconsistent with the prosperity of the modern s t a t e " t h i s sentiment was echoed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant i n the words that "The S p i r i t of Commerce ... i s incompatible with war".^ S i m i l a r l y , Montesquieu argued: "The natural effect of commerce i s to lead to peace. Two nations which trade with each other become reci p r o c a l l y dependent; i t i s to the advantage of the other to s e l l ; and a l l unions are founded on mutual needs."g The exigencies of economic development had imposed l i m i t s on the practice of war. New imperatives would, however, destroy these r e s t r a i n t s by the end of the century. None of t h i s , however, meant that war was a rare phenomena i n the Age of Reason. But i t did mean that the stakes were smaller than before. National su r v i v a l was almost never i n question. Indeed, war did not even impinge on the d a i l y l i v e s of the people: at l e a s t every e f f o r t was made to avoid i n t e r -f e r i n g with c i v i l i a n l i f e . The B r i t i s h people were p a r t i c u l a r l y immune be-cause of t h e i r i s o l a t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l theatres of war - Flanders, northern Germany, northern I t a l y and . Spain. They went about t h e i r l i v e s ignoring war. As Lawrence Sterne noted i n h i s Sentimental Journey. "I l e f t London with so much p r e c i p i t a t i o n that i t never entered my mind that we 9 were at war with France." This i n d i f f e r e n c e to some extent p e r s i s t e d i n B r i t a i n into the nineteenth century. Thus, for example, i n the middle of the Napoleonic Wars Jane Austen could write novels meant to r e f l e c t the times i n which that monumental c o n f l i c t was not even mentioned. The fundamental drives behind war i n that era were the desire by monarchs to strengthen t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n through the a c q u i s i t i o n of an extra s l i c e of t e r r i t o r y or two, and to make commercial gains, that i s , mari-time trade and colonies. A u s t r i a , Brandenburg-Prussia, and Russia were p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with expanding t h e i r borders, the Netherlands and Great B r i t a i n sought commercial advantage from war, while France and Spain were ambitious enough to seek both. Although gains were i n v a r i a b l y l i m i t e d ones, the conquest of even a few s t r a t e g i c points couldccommand a strong bargaining p o s i t i o n i n negotiating a peace treaty. Peace settlements were normally the r e s u l t of negotiation rather than imposed by one party upon another. Given the r e s t r a i n t s , imposed upon warfare, i t i s hardly s u r p r i s i n g that i t s t a c t i c a l side stagnated. Ware became highly formalized, even r i t u a l i z e d . I t was i n t h i s age that war became to a great extent the sport of Kings. Armies were r e l a t i v e l y small, though they continued to grow rapidly throughout the century; they were also ceremoniously clad, and trained i n parade-drill mechanical fashion. In campaign, these armies marched slowly because of their umbilical t i e s to elaborate magazines, and usually fought according to a universally accepted r i g i d set of rules. One might label the eighteenth century the 'neo-classical age' of modern war because success de-pended on the sophisticated use of techniques and rules known to everyone. Infantry formed the nucleas of the armed forces, (rifcS weapons con-s i s t i n g of the musket and bayonet. The f l i n t l o c k muskets used were only effectual at close quarters - withinaa few hundred yards - provided they were f i r e d i n unison out of close-order formations. Moreover, loading them was a slow process^ and thus i n order to get the greatest volume of f i r e from what was s t i l l a primitive weapon soldiers were usually organized i n l i n e s three deep, oneline shooting while the other two reloaded. Arranging troops i n such a formation was a slow and complicated task; the men were usually organized at a distance to the enemy and them marched i n r i g i d fashion onto the b a t t l e f i e l d . Such combat required well d i s c i p l i n e d , intensively trained troops that could not be squandered. This condition contrasted sharply with the character of war u n t i l the mid-seventeenth century, which e s s e n t i a l l y con-sisted of a confused scramble between two parties of undisciplined, half-trained men. Naturally, the object of combat was not to annihilate; the idea was no longer popular philosophically, nor sensible s t r a t e g i c a l l y since i t was near impossible for one army to gain the necessary advantage over another. There was the odd exception, l i k e the Battle of Malpla<juet (1704). The goal of war was no longer even to force battle but rather to disrupt the enemy's supply and communication and, therefore, leave him no choice but to 10 concede defeat without battle or else starve. Indeed, i n his posthumously published Mes Reveries (1756), Maurice de Saxe declared that not only was i t conceivable but quite reasonable to suppose that a successful general might wage war throughout his career without ever having to resort to b a t t l e . The I* Battle/Fontenoy (1745) was an excellent example of t h i s . Saxe himself was not so fortunate. Battles were fought then only when the enemy could not be manoeuvred into surrendering. I t was the age of march and counter-march, diversion and deception, a rather i n t r i g u i n g spectacle but, from a m i l i t a r y point of view, mediocre. In the words of Daniel Defoe: "Now i t i s frequent to have armies of f i f t y thousand mentof a side stand at bay within view of another, and spend a whole campaign i n dodging, or, as i t i s generally c a l l e d , ^ observing one another, and then march off into winter quarters." This highly formalized, r i g i d , chess-like* style of war was popular through most of the century. Neo-classical warfare came to be viewed by many as not only desirable but, i n e f f e c t , natural. I t was not u n t i l the American struggle for independence that the nature of combat began to change, That struggle set a precedent; heneefourth, war would increasingly become an instrument of ideological and nati o n a l i s t fanaticism. In this atmosphere the ideals of moderation and honourable conduct could not survive. The moral foundation of t o t a l war was being l a i d . During the American War of Independence new m i l i t a r y p o l i c i e s and tact i c s designedtto make decisive v i c t o r y the normal instead of an exceptional outcome of war were tested. The new ta c t i c s took advantage of minor inno-vations i n weaponry. Increased firepower suggested the adoption of irre g u l a r formations designed for quick strikes i n place of perfectly ordered l i n e s . In America, ' l i g h t troops' that fought i n this manner were used extensively and by the 1780's were popular throughout Europe. But what was r e a l l y needed was a means by which a superior force could be concentrated at an enemy's weak spot. M i l i t a r y theorists i n France looked to the column, a clumsy formation but one which combined mobility with close formation, as a means of concentrating men at a given point for a t e l l i n g blow. Comte de Guibert improved upon this arrangement by devising a method for alternating between the column and the l i n e , therefore maximizing both mobility and f i r e -power. Other t a c t i c a l innovations followed. The f i n a l two decades of the century was thus a period i n which con-ventional modes of fighting were acti v e l y challenged. The boldest innovation came from Revolutionary France; i n the process the nature of war was trans-formed. In the course of a threat of the invasion of France by the estab-lished powers, the young French republic discovered or invented t o t a l war. Involved was a complete mobilization of the nation's resources through modified conscription (the levee en masse), rationing and a r i g i d l y con-t r o l l e d war economy. The modern 'mass' army had been created and by the spring of 1794 the French had 750,000 men under arms. As ClaUsewitz 12 observed, "War had again suddenly become an a f f a i r of the people." They were successful because the enemy was s t i l l too attached to orthodox eighteenth century warfare and neither expected nor welcomed France's vast c i v i l i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n war. Under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte, for the most part, the French Army dominated European war for nearly two decades. Though not a great m i l i a t r y reformer, Napoleon was b r i l l i a n t i n his a b i l i t y to move France's armies of up to 200,000 men across great stretches of the continent at speeds fiftr greater than had hitherto been thought possible, to maneuvre his men into a position best suited to meet the enemy, and to s t r i k e with a decisive superiority of men at the c r i t i c a l moment. The French also revolutionized the treatment of soldiers. For example, they abolished corporal punishment; instead loyalty was promoted through the introduction of the Revolutionary s p i r i t into service. The soldier's role as defender of the fatherland and c a r r i e r of those pri n c i p l e s upon which the Revolution had been founded was continually proclaimed. The power of ideas, absent since the r e l i g i o u s wars of the sixteenth century, was re-invoked Moreover, prowess rather than b i r t h became the c r i t e r i o n of advancement through the ranks. The French Army r e a l l y did offer men l a  carriere ouverte aux talents. Elsewhere, unfortunately, t r a d i t i o n a l habits i n the organization and treatment of soldiers persisted. We might look now at that conventional m i l i t a r y organization. The armed forces i n the eighteenth century, both on the continent and i n B r i t a i n , were hi e r a r c h i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e f l e c t i n g the sharply-defined nature of European society. They were officered primarily by the n o b i l i t y j commoners found^t d i f f i c u l t to gain a commissioned rank as " s o c i a l status became increasingly the passport to m i l i t a r y rank as the century progressed". The trend was deliberate, for monarchs encouraged such patronage i n the hope of consolidating a r i s t o c r a t i c support. The popular rationale was that the hereditary privileged classes alon£ possessed the sense of honour required to carry out an o f f i c e r ' s work. The rank-and-file, on the other hand, was comprised of a combination of hired mercenaries, and natives recruited from the peasantry, n'er-do-wells, s o c i a l m i s f i t s , criminals, urban unemployed and even the insane. In other words: "Recruits were provided ... by those isolated individuals whose absence would inconvenience nobody: young men with a dis-taste for humdrum existence ... and a taste for adventure, and down-and-outs, ready to exchange their l i b e r t y for food and clothing; bad characters with l i t t l e choice i n l i f e except that between m i l i t a r y service or the gallows." 1 A J. -J In most states, enlistment was a volunteer act, although coercion and other unscrupulous practices were common. Voltaire's account of Candide's recruitment into the army of the Bulgarians provided one example of t h i s . "He halted sadly at the door of an inn. Two men dressed i n blue noticed him ... They went up to Candide and very c i v i l l y invited him to dinner. "Gentlemen", said Candide with charming modesty, "You do me a great honour, but I have no money to pay my share." "Ah, S i r , " said one of the men i n blue, "persons of your figure and merit neverrpay anything; are you not fi v e feet t a l l ? " "Yes, gentlemen, " said he, bowing, "That i s my height". "Ah, s i r , come to my table; we w i l l not only pay your expenses, we w i l l never allow a man l i k e you to be short of money; men are only made to help each other." ... "We were asking you i f you do not tenderly love the King of the Bulgarians." "Not a b i t , " said he, "for I have never seen him." "What. He i s the most charming of Kings, and you must drink to his health." "Oh, gladly, gentlemen." And he drank. "That i s s u f f i c i e n t , " he was t o l d , "You are now the support, the aid, the defender, the hero of the Bulgarians; your fortune i s made and your glory assured." They immediately put irons on his legs and took him to a regiment."^^ Saxe s i m i l a r l y condemned the " r a i s i n g of troops by fraud" as an "odious „16 practice." A few states developed.'.forms of compulsory service, but they .were generally haphazard and inequitable with the burden f a l l i n g heavily on the lowest orders. While universal conscription was advocated by such notable figures as Saxe, Guibert and Montesquiet*, there was no hope Of i t s imple-mentation owing to the existence of privileged s o c i a l classes, and by demands made on the labouring classes through mercantilist attempts to raise the l e v e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l production. The notion that the army should, i n some sense, be representative of the nation was to most people an absurdity. I t was almost universally agreed that the army should secure i t s r e c r u i t s from the s o c i a l groups of least economic value. According to the pre-Revolution French Minister of War, St. Germain^ "It would undoubtedly be desirable i f we could create an army of dependable, of specially selected men of the best types. But in order to make an army we must not destroy a nation: i t would be destructive to a nation i f i t were de-prived of i t s best elements. As things are, the army must inevitably consist of the scum of the people and a l l those for whom society has no use.",, J 17 War was simply too unimportant to risk u t i l i z i n g any but the least useful elements of society to fight i t . Britain's island position, combined with her superior navy, rec-ognized as such during the "War of the League of Augsburg" (1688-1697), relieved her of the need to maintain a standing army as large as most of those 18 prevailing on the continent. Indeed, the Anglo military tradition showed l i t t l e enthusiasm for an^fciwlJUtij arm^o^^**^&iV&>~, The army was notoriously unpopular, and as a result was generally neglected. Distaste for a standing army originated in the reign of Mary I (1550's). But the principal reason for i t s unpopularity in the eighteenth century was because i t had been used during the dictatorship of Cromwell as an army of occupation under the rule of the "major generals" (1655-59). This interference i n the internal politics of England "created a rooted aversion to standing armies and an 19 abiding dread of military rule." The unpopular use made of the army by both Charles II and James II, especially the latter's attempt to exploit i t to re-establish the Roman Catholic Church in England, and to rule the kingdom as an absolute monarch, served to intensify this reaction against the army. Sub-sequently, the Mutiny Act of 1689 established the principle of the subord-ination of the army to parliamentary control; and while the post-Revolution parliament recognized that a standing army was necessary, i f enacted measures 20 to keep i t small and p o l i t i c a l l y insignificant. Suspicion of the army re-mained. The army's status as a constabulatory force also did l i t t l e to improve i t s position in the eyes of public. The Navy, on the other hand, was 21 universally admired as the source of England's strength, the key to her defence, and as an institution which could not dominate c i v i l society. 21 "They protected the liberty of a l l , threatened the liberty of none," observed E l i e Halevy. Another reason for public displeasure with the army was due to it s increasing corruption after the "War of the Spanish Succession" (1702-1713). The purchase system, for example, became popular. For some reason Britain's army was the only one in Europe in which purchase was universal and founded on a regular, fixed basis. It was defended on the grounds that i t served as a pension for outgoing officers and thus saved parliament an expense, as a protection against the sort of tyranny that had allowed James II , for example, to replace Protestant with Catholic o f f i c e r s , and as a device that weeded out those who cared l i t t l e for the army l i f e and who would be willing to trade i t for the money offered by the purchaser. Unfortunately, the practice allowed numerous corrupt and incompetent men to gain office. Other abuses were common; indeed the army was thoroughly corrupt. As a result, army organization suffered terribly. There was l i t t l e top-to-bottom co-ordination and few standard regulations throughout the army. Incredibly, the affairs of the force were handled by up to nine separate offices: Those of Secretary at War, (later Secretary of State for Home Af f a i r s ) , Secretary of State (Colonies) between 1767 and 1782), The Home Office, The Treasury, The Colonial Board, The Board of Trade (1694-1782), The Master-General of the Ordinances, and the Pay Master of the Forces. The extreme unpopularity of the armed forces, combined with the growing prosperity of Britain, made i t d i f f i c u l t to f u l f i l the manpower needs of the army despite i t s small size. The general European tendency to look to the weakest, the most easily persuaded elements of society for recruits, and to u t i l i z e any means necessary to e n l i s t 'volunteers' was not a l i e n to the English experience. In time of war, recr u i t i n g often amounted to kidnap-ping. One soldier wrote: "In England the r e c r u i t i n g sergeant goes to the very places i n which he i s least l i k e l y to meet with steady and respectable men. He goes to the public house, to the f a i r , the races, or the wake, the haunts of the dissolute, and i n many cases, having stupefied some lazy vagabond with intoxicating drinks, he s l i p s a s h i l l i n g into his hand."22 ,tHa+ Saxe noted^ an almost i d e n t i c a l practice was followed on the Continent wherebye "money i s slipped secretly into a man's pocket and then he i s told that he i s 23 a sol d i e r . " Normally, the recr u i t i n g sergeant began by offering men various induc-ements. The appeal to patriotism was among the least important of them. He stressed the monetary rewards of the profession (the bounty, prize money), the ready a v a i l a b i l i t y of drink, i t s adventurous and rapacious side, and the freedom i t offered from severe masters, impersonal c i t i e s and tyrannical wives. This popular folk song of the time celebrates the new rec r u i t ' s l i b e r a t i o n : Our prentice Tom may now refuse To wipe his scoundrel master's shoes; For now he's free to sing and play -Over the h i l l s and far away, Over the h i l l s and far away. We a l l ' s h a l l lead more happy l i v e s By getting r i d of brats and wives, That scold and brawl both night and day -Over the h i l l s and far away,^ Over the h i l l s and far away. Some men did of course volunteer gladly, and perhaps the number of genuine VC. volunteers has never been appreciated f u l l y ; but to a great extent, recruitment practices involved, as on the continent, the systematic deception of the ignorant. I t should be pointed out that although volunteer enlistment was the most usual means of acquiring r e c r u i t s , certain forms of compulsory service were occasionally introduced. For example, i n 1696, drafting of insolvent debtors was legalized, and i n 1702 the Mutiny Act authorized the release of felons and c a p i t a l offenders on condition that they served i n the army. The Mutiny Acts of 1703 through 1750 reaffirmed these conditions. Moreover, by the Act 1703 l o c a l Justices were empowered "to raise and levy a l l such .IMA able-bodied/as not having any lawful c a l l i n g or employment, or v i s i b l e means 25 for their maintenance and livelihood". They u t i l i z e d this power extensively. Indeed, the Justices were usually i n active c o l l u s i o n with the army to serve r e c r u i t s . This sort of non-voluntary service continued throughout the century; one act i n 1779, for example, authorized the impressment of thieves around London. Those impounded by the r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r s on this occasion were described by one observer as being " f a r too lame to run away, or too 2 6 poor to bribe the parish authorities." In l i n e with European trends, forms of compulsory service became increasingly less popular i n the l a s t two decades of the century. France, of course, became the big exception. The B r i t i s h army i n the neo-classical age of modern warfare was thus comprised, for the most part, of the scum of B r i t i s h society and a sizeable contingent of foreign mercenaries. (The removal of r e s t r i c t i o n s against Catholies from serving ushered i n a wave of I r i s h r e c r u i t s , who joined mostly out of poverty, but this was not u n t i l the early 1780's. Henceforth, the I r i s h would contribute up to a t h i r d of the army's manpower needs.) In a sense, however, this was quite desirable, that i s , apart from the very r e a l economic advantages that i t served. The fact was that educated people were almost impossible to t r a i n , handle and d i s c i p l i n e . In the words of Frederick the Great, " I f my soldiers began to think, no one would remain i n the ranks."' 24 These sentiments are r e f l e c t e d i n George Farquhar's play, The R e c r u i t i n g O f f i c e r (1706) i n a scene inv o l v i n g Plume, the r e c r u i t i n g captain, and K i t e , his sergeant. Plume has just l e a r n t that K i t e has e n l i s t e d a lawyer: Plume: An attorney! Wert thou mad? L i s t a lawyer? Discharge him ,.. K i t e : Why Sir? Plume: Because I w i l l have nobody i n my company that can write; a feullow that can write, can draw p e t i t i o n s . I say t h i s minute discharge him.. Q and l a t e r Plume says: "You must know, i n the f i r s t place, then, that I*have gentlemen i n my company; for they are always troublesome and expensive, sometimes dangerous; and ' t i s a constant maxim among us, that those who know the l e a s t obey the most.'^g The f a c t that down-and-outs were preferred to educated people, did not mean, however, that i t was a simple manner to d i s c i p l i n e them. I n i t i a l l y , the r e c r u i t had l i t t l e respect for anyone; that h i s superiors were from the n o b i l i t y and h i s o r i g i n s were the lowest orders promoted no immediate sense of deference and l i t t l e respect for the minute s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and nuances of status operating i n that society. The s o l d i e r also made a nuisance of himself i n p u b l i c , both at home and abroad. He drank h e a v i l y , brawled, disputed, o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t e r f e r e d i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s and from time-to- time was involved i n kidnappings. But while t h i s sort of behaviour might be condoned i n p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n an age i n which drinking and boisterous behaviour were ha b i t u a l , lack of d i s c i p l i n e was i n t o l e r a b l e on the b a t t l e f i e l d . C l e a r l y , " f o r troops to expose themselves u n f l i n t h i n g l y i n the face of enemy muskets and a r t i l l e r y while advancing at the agonizingly slow cadence of eighty paces to the minute required d i s c i p l i n e of the very 30 highest kind"; anything less would be d i s a s t r o u s . In an e f f o r t to keep her troops i n l i n e , B r i t a i n did what every other power i n Europe did i n that age, she resorted to the lash. As Lieutenant-Colonel Dalrymple wrote i n 1761, " I t i s very d i f f i c u l t from the kind of men we get to avoid frequent and severe punishment". 31 There existed from the reign of King William III a harsh military code, based on the Earl of Essex's Laws and Ordinances of ^Jars^ (1642), and several authorized forms of punishment to deal with infrac-tions, though the British seemed to lack the variety and ingenuity of Several levels of punishment were operative. The Articles of War outlined six acts punishable by the death sentence: mutiny, sedition, demand for pay in mutinous fashion, seditious words, refusal to obey, striking an officer and desertion. Execution was generally by f i r i n g squad; decapitation was rarely used after 1700. Less severe acts, particularly minor acts of insubordination and disobedience, were subject to corporal punishment. The most popular forms were: whipping with the cat-o' nine-tails; picketing, which involved tying the man's wrist and suspending him by i t over a sharp stake in such a way that one of his feet would be slightly impaled by the spike; running the gauntlet (gantelope); and tying neck and heels, a pro-cedure where^in the prisoner was seated on the ground, a musket was placed under his buttocks and another over his neck, and then the two were tied to-gether such that the man's head was made to l i e between his legs, often un t i l 33 blood "rushed out of his nose, mouth and ears, and some suffered ruptures." Rarer punishments included branding on the forehead, cutting off an ear or boring a hole through the tongue, the latter occasionally used to punish excessive blasphemy, a popular diversion among British soldiers, and hence the inspiration behind the classic expression, "the army went to Flanders and swore horribly". As well, the men organized 'regimental courts', and used them often; the most common form of punishment was 'cobbing', a form of whipping using a belt, strap or rope. ishments common to the armies on the continent. Nevertheless, 1 "what the 32 Most forms of corporal punishment were removed i n the l a s t decades of the eighteenth century, and replaced, for the sake of s i m p l i c i t y , by flogging with the cat. However, the severity of punishment did not appreci-ably diminish, though i t was probably no worse than the fero c i t y of punishment i n the French or Prussian armies, and certainly no more barbaric than the growing cruelty of the English c i v i l code, the so-called 'Bloody Code', which by the 1780's l i s t e d i n excess of three hundred and f i f t y c a p i t a l offences, among them the theft of a s h i l l i n g or a handkerchief worth more than two 34 s h i l l i n g s . Nevertheless, i t i s c h i l l i n g to r e f l e c t that "perhaps as much blood from drum-head floggings has stained the barrack squares ... as was ever 35 s p i l t upon the b a t t l e f i e l d s of Europe and Empire." The results of the use of severe punishment to encourage obedience were, on the whole, effe c t u a l . B r i t a i n ' s soldiers had a reputation,earned i n the late seventeenth century, for steadiness i n b a t t l e , d i s c i p l i n e , unshake-able courage, and endurance. The price was a brutalized existence. I f the d i s c i p l i n a r y system was tyrannical, the army offered few compensations elsewhere to redress i t . The pay set at 8d i n 1660, was s t i l l 8d i n 1789 despite the steady r i s e i n the cost of l i v i n g , the only difference being that the soldier no longer supplied his own arms and ammunition. That i t remained so low was due to an attitude toward the soldier of late-feudal precedent, which saw him not as a c i t i z e n serving the state, but as a private adventurer seeking to enrich himself. According to S i r John Fortescue, "the pay of the soldier never pretendedito be a f a i r wage, but was only a retaining 3 6 fee against the day of prize-money." In any case, by the 1780's army pay was t o t a l l y inadequate. This condition was not remedied u n t i l the Revolu-tionary Wars, but when i t f i n a l l y was, there was reflected i n this correction a new attitude toward the so l d i e r , one i n which pay was no' longer seen as welfare but as a reward for a service done. Insufficiency of food was also a problem. Food rations were, in theory, adequate, but i n campaign, the relatively primitive state of the supply system often resulted in extreme shortages or provisions. Marlborough was one of the few British commanders able to ensure a regular supply. There was also much corruption in victualling. The results were appalling. William Cobbert wrote: "Judge of the quantity of food to sustain l i f e in a lad of 16, and to enable him to exercise with a musket ... six to eight hours a day ... I have seen them lay in their berths, many and many a time, crying on account of hunger. The whole week's food was not a bit too much for one day."^^ To make matters worse, the food was badly preserved; thus, the beef was tough, the biscuits hard and the bread coarse, although what passed for rations in the Navy, i t should be noted, was even worse. Admiral Raigershield wrote of the days when his biscuit, "... was so light that when you tapped i t upon the table i t f e l l amost into dust and thereout numerous insects called weevils crawled; they were bitter to the taste and a sure indication that the biscuits had lost i t s nutritious particles; i f , instead of these weevils, large maggots with black heads made their appear-ance, then the biscuit was considered to be only in the f i r s t stage of decay: These maggots were fat and cold to the taste but not b i t t e r . " 0 0 Jo Moreover, as late as 1789 many sailors refused to drink the beer on board, because i t was said to contain*great heaps of stuff not unlike to man's guts.' Lodging was similarly inadequate. On campaign, the men usually slept out in the open, tents being a late eighteenth century improvisation. At home, they survived without formal barracks; instead the soldier was billeted out, often in second-class Inns, a cold cellar or rat-infested garflet. Finally, the conditions of combat were hazardous. Not only was the mortality rate quite high in battle but health treatment for the wounded and sick was notoriously bad. No orderlies combed the battlefields i n search of wounded men; getting back to camp depended upon one's own volition, or the help of comrades and even i f one was successful, the chances of survival were s t i l l less than f i f t y percent i n the hands of army surgeons, many of whom were incompetent. Moreover, apart from the dangers of battle, the soldier was often made to fight i n areas which exposed him to disease and sickness. For example, during the 'War of Jenkin's Ear" (1739-1742), Walpole sent an expedition of eight battalions to the West Indies and South America to fight the Spanish. Although two thousand men quickly died of yellow fever, the army was nonetheless^made to fight on with the result that more than ninety percent of the men perished of the sickness. Such was the military like during the eighteenth century. Even i f we keep in mind that i t was an era in which poverty, brutality and inequities were habitual throughout British society, when c i v i l i a n living wages were in-sufficient and the legal system barbarous, "the soldier's calling nevertheless stands out as one which offered hardly any compensations for i t s discomforts 40 and hazards, not to say i t s perils to l i f e . " It is not surprising that under the circumstances desertion was a notorious problem throughout the century, not only in the British armed forces but within every army in Europe. Officers spent much of their time guarding over their men in order to pre-vent i t . As well, severe penalties were instituted to deal with recovered deserters. In one of the more extreme acts Frederick I ordered i n 1711 that captured deserters would have their nose and an ear cut off and be sent to hard labour for l i f e . Nonetheless, Prussia lost 30,000 men to desertion be-tween 1713 and 1740. In wartime the problem multipled. During the 'Seven Year's War', for example, desertion totals were staggering - Austria lost 62,000, France 70,000 and Prussia 80,000; and in the War of American Indepe-ndence one observer wrote that "the combatants had so l i t t l e zeal for the struggle that the B r i t i s h and American armies were composed of each other's 41 deserters." After the war desertion remained heavy i n the B r i t i s h army, as i t s organization and s p i r i t underwent a severe deterioration. For those who did not desert, army service was usually a long, tiresome, lonely and mentally-debilitating l i f e . I t had few compensations - the occasional excitement of b a t t l e , the freedom from c i v i l a i n responsibil-i t i e s , the ready supply of alcohol. I t also provided security for the old soldier, since the army heldoon to even the aged for their experience and because recruitment was such a problem. Those who were forced to leave, usually due to inj u r y , often had no alternative but to turn to begging. A poem from the late seventeenth century e n t i t l e d 'Mauding Soldier, or the Fr u i t of War i s Beggary' speaks of the former soldier's condition as a mendicant: Good worship, cast your eyes Upon a soldier's miseries: l e t not my leane cheeks, I pray Your bounty from a soldier stay, But l i k e a noble friend, Some s i l v e r lead, And Jove w i l l pay you i n the end. I pray your worship think on me, That I am what I seem to be, No rooking r a s c a l , nor no cheat, But a soldier i n every way compleat: I have wounds to show^ That prove i t so ... In sum, when B r i t a i n entered the war against Revolutionary France she possessed an army whose soldiers were badly treated and held i n low public esteem. Her force was s o l i d l y t r a d i t i o n a l . The result was a force, woefully i n e f f i c i e n t compared to the French Army, plagued by high rates of desertion. However, ultimately the B r i t i s h developed an e f f i c i e n t army, including a soldier whose dedication was at least as good as that of his French counter-part. Part of the reason for this remarkable sense of devotion stemmed from-improvements in the Army's organization, that i s , in the treatment of the rank-and-file. But as we w i l l endeavour to show,other factors as well contributed enormously. Footnotes 1. F.A. Pottle (ed.), Boswell in Holland, 1763-64 (London, 1952), 164. Cited i n M.S. Anderson, Europe in the Eighteenth Century 1713-1783 (Norwich, 1961), 130. 2. Anderson, i b i d . , 132. 3. Ibid., 133. 4. The Enlightenment s p i r i t was apparent, for example, in King Louis XIV of France's refusal to have a new form of powder issued to the French army because i t was, in his words, "too destructive of human l i f e " (John Nef, War and Human Progress [New York, 1950], 260.) 5. Anderson, op. c i t . , 264. 6. James Steuart, An Inquiry into the Priniciples of P o l i t i c a l Economy (London, 1767), 448. Cited i n Anderson, op. c i t . , 133. 7. Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace (New York, 1937), 37. 8. Cited in Nef, op. c i t . , 267. 9. Ibid., 162. 10. The great revolutionary general, Carnot, once noted with obvious sarcasm that hitherto "what was taught in the military school was ... the art of ... surrendering ... honourably after certain con-ventional formalities". (Cited in Nef, op. c i t . , 157.) 11. Cited in Nef, op. c i t . , 156. 12. C. von Clausewitz, On War, trans, by Colonel J.J. Graham (3 Vols., London, 1873), vol. I l l , 54-5. 13. Anderson, op. c i t . , 139. 14. Charles de Gaulle, France and Her Army (London, 1941), 23. Cited in Theodore Ropp, War in the Modern World (Duke Univ. Press, 1959), 39. 15. Voltaire, Candide (London, 1948), ch. i i , 4-5. 16. Cited in Thomas P h i l l i p s , Reveries on the Art of War (Harrisburg, Pa., 1944), 22-23. 17. Cited in Nef, op. c i t . , 306. 18. For example, in 1740 French had a force of 190,000 men, Austria 108,000, Prussia 80,000, Russia 130,000, Spain 67,000, Bavaria 40,000, Saxony 34,000, Holland 30,000, Hanover 20,000, and Great Britain 18,000. (Leonard W. Cowie, Eighteenth Century Europe [London, 1963], 130-137). 19. Colonel H. De Watteville, The British Soldier (London, 1954), 50. 20. The size of the army was fixed in the annual passage of the Mutiny Act. Parliament also controlled military finances. As well, parliamentary acts prohibited a soldier from appearing at an election site except to vote or in parliament unless called to appear, and confined soldiers to their quarters during the settings of the Assize Courts. 21. Elie Halevy, A History of the English People in 1815 (New York, 1942), 42. 22. John Stevenson, A Soldier in the Time of War (London, 1841), 153. 23. Cited i n P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , 22-23. 24. George Farquhar, The Recruiting Officer. Kenneth fytian (ed.), [London, 1965], Act II, Sc. 3, 47. 25. De Watteville, op. c i t . , 69. 26. Ibid, 78. 27. Cited in Nef, op. c i t . , 308. 28. Farquhar, op. c i t . , Act I, Sc. 1, 23. 29. Ibid., Act IV, Sc. 1, 86. 30. Richard Preston, Sydney F. Wise, Herman 0. Werner, Men in Arms; A History of.Warfare and i t s Interrelationships with Western Society (London, 1954), 137. 31. Cited in John Laffin, Tommy Atkins: The Story of the British Soldier (London, 1966), 102. 32. De Watteville, op. c i t . , 99. 33. Cited in Laffin, op. c i t . , 103. 34. According to Sir Samuel Romilly, influential opponent of the Code, "There is no country on the face of the earth in which there are so many difference offenses according to the]law to be punished with death as in England." (Cited in James Dugan, The Great Mutiny [New York, 1965], 15). 35. Laffin, op. c i t . , 99-100. 36. J.W. Fortescue, The British Army 1783-1802 (London, 1905). 9 37. Cited in Laffin, op. c i t . , 57 38. Cited in Christopher Lloyd, The Nation and the Navy. A History of  Naval Life and Policy (London, 1954), 138. 39. Cited in Ropp, op. c i t . , 57. 40. De Watteville, op. c i t . , 7. 41. Cited i n Nef, op. c i t . , 234. Desertion was also endemic i n The Royal Navy. Between 1776 and 1779 42,069 s a i l o r s deserted, as compared to 1243 k i l l e d * a c t i o n . (William L. Clowes [ed.], The Royal Navy (7 Vols., London, 1897-1903), I I I , 339). 42. Cited i n L a f f i n , op. c i t . , 28. 34' I I J o i n i n g Up In the p r e v i o u s chapter, we noted that i n the seventeenth century, the B r i t i s h s o l d i e r developed an o u t s t a n d i n g r e p u t a t i o n f o r b r a v e r y and s t e a d i n e s s i n b a t t l e . I n Cromwell's day, f o r example, the Frenchman Turenne observed, "I have seen the E n g l i s h . They are the f i n e s t troops imagineable*"^ T h i s renown was maintained f o r more than a cen-t u r y , d e s p i t e c h r o n i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mismanagement, n e g l e c t and numerous c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n the army. However, the de-m o r a l i z a t i o n s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t o f the f a i l u r e o f the c o l o n i a l war a g a i n s t America (1775-85) stuck a t e l l i n g blow at the q u a l i t y o f the f o r c e s , B r i t a i n ' s d e f e a t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c a p i t u l a t i o n s a t Saratoga and Yorkttown, bred a c e r t a i n war weariness and depression, which combined w i t h undue p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the a f f a i r s o f the army and a sharp d e c l i n e i n the q u a l i t y o f o f f i c e r s , l e d to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l chaos, apathy, and a n e g l e c t o f proper t r a i n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e . As S i r Henry Banbury wrote: "Our army was l a x i n i t s d i s c i p l i n e , e n t i r e l y without system, and v e r y weak i n numbers. Each c o l o n e l o f a regiment managed i t a c c o r d i n g to h i s own n o t i o n s , or n e g l e c t e d i t a l t o g e t h e r . There was no u n i f o r m i t y o f d r i l l o r movement; p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i d e was r a r e : p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge s t i l l more so:-. Furthermore, d e s p i t e the steady r i s e i n the c o s t o f l i v i n g , s o l d i e r ' s pay had remained f i x e d a t 8 d a day s i n c e 1660, and would remain unchanged u n t i l 17$7» the year o f the g r e a t n a v a l m u t i n i e s . A s o l d i e r now had great d i f f i c u l t y i n f e e d i n g him-s e l f adequately and i n s u p p l y i n g h i s equipment and c l o t h i n g needs. The r e s u l t was a steady stream o f d e s e r t i o n throughout 35 the 1780's, and a depletion i n the size of the army since l i t t l e energy was expended i n replacing the losses. In the f i r s t campaigns of the war against Revolutionary France, B r i t a i n was forced to hire foreign mercenaries. At t h i s time, the army did, however, expand i t s e f f o r t s to r e c r u i t B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s , i n part, through a practice known as " r e c r u i t -ing f o r rank", that i s , of of f e r i n g men o f f i c e s on condition that they raise a pre-designated quota of volunteers. The scheme was widely abused and t e r r i b l y i n e f f i c i e n t ; the majority of men e n l i s t e d tended to be either too young or too old to serve effectively, these unenthusiastic and badly trained re-c r u i t s were sent to Flanders, where S i r Henry Culvert described them as "worse than any I ever saw, even at the close of the American War." Adjutant General Fawcett added i n a l e t t e r to Lieutenant-Coionel Hewett: "It w i l l be some time before you can expect to make any use of them, as very few of the o f f i c e r s have served before and none of the men have ever had a F i r e -lock on t h e i r shoulders ... Four of those I r i s h corps you l a t e l y sent over, v i z . , the 1 0 7 t h , 11 0 t h , 1 1 9 t h and 1 2 0 t h , being not only almost t o t a l l y u n f i t for any service, but not;possibly to be rendered so i n any tolerable time, according to General Hunter's report, are going to be. reduced . t h e 118th (Lieutenant Cdlonel Talbot's) are at t h i s moment i n an open, bare-faced state of mutiny and w i l l do nothing but what they please, despising and i n s u l t i n g t h e i r o f f i c e r s i n the most .shameful manner."g By 1 7 9 5 » B r i t a i n ' s i n f e r i o r army had been chased out of Flanders, yet despite this f a i l u r e and emba/rassment her forces remained weak for nearly a decale; i n 1 7 9 9 B r i t i s h Army e f f i c i e n c y was s t i l l so low that on a second expedition to Holland, S i r Ralph Abercromby was forced to leave behind i n England two f u l l 36 regiments as ' u n f i t to appear i n the presence o f an enemy'. Indeed, u n t i l about the time o f her b r i l l i a n t v i c t o r y a t Maida i n s o u t h e r n I t a l y (1806), Great B r i t a i n ' s armed f o r c e was the l e a s t feared, l e a s t r e s p e c t e d of France's enemies, a c o r r u p t and incompetent anachronism i n the face o f France's r e v o l u t i o n a r y 'mass* army. Now i t i s odd t h a t although l i t t l e was done at f i r s t to reform the army b ^ l i m i n a t i n g i t s most u n a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s and i n c r e a s i n g i t s e f f i c i e n c y ? so that B r i t a i n might take the o f f e n -s i v e a g a i n s t France, a number o f w e1 1 - o r g a n i z e d a u x i l l i a r y f o r c e s were r a i s e d s t r i c t l y as a home defence. Not o n l y was t h i s p r o l i f -e r a t i o n of d e f e n s i v e corps u n n e c e s s a r i l y v a s t s i n c e i n the Royal Navy B r i t a i n had a superb f o r c e to defend the i s l a n d , but i t a l s o absorbed men who otherwise might c o n c e i v a b l y have e n t e r e d the r e g u l a r army. The m i l i t i a , f o r example, came i n t o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the army f o r r e c r u i t s . Though i t was a body c o n s c r i p t e d by b a l l o t , s u b s t i t u t i o n was allowed, and as there e x i s t e d a r a t h e r l i m i t e d f i e l d o f p r o s p e c t i v e s u b s t i t u t e s , t h e i r purchase p r i c e rose s u b s t a n t i a l l y . These men n a t u r a l l y tended to be o f the s o r t that d i d not mind s e r v i n g , but who chose to go where the money was most generous, and the X130 or so they r e -c e i v e d to a c t as s u b s t i t u t e s exceeded r e g u l a r army b o u n t i e s . The r a i s i n g of a s t a n d i n g army f o r war was a l s o made d i f -f i c u l t by the advantages i n amenities o f f e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y to m i l i t i a m e n , among them 'marriage* allowances. As W e l l i n g t o n argued, "Is i t t o be expected that people w i l l become s o l d i e r s i n the l i n e , and leave t h e i r f a m i l i e s to s t a r v e , when, i f they 37 b e c o m e s o l d i e r s i n t h e m i l i t i a , t h e i r f a m i l i e s a r e p r o v i d e d ? " ( O n l y s i x w i v e s p e r h u n d r e d s o l d i e r s w e r e a l l o w e d t o a c c o m p a n y t h e i r h u s b a n d s a b r o a d . ) M o r e o v e r , t h e p o p u l a r d e e p - r o o t e d a b h o r e n c e o f t h e a r m y s h o u l d a g a i n b e e m p h a s i z e d ; m o s t w o r k i n g - c l a s s f a m i l i e s s t i l l t h o u g h t i t a s o c i a l d i s g r a c e t o v o l u n t e e r . T h e l o s s e s o f e i g h t y t h o u s a n d m e n ( f o r t y t h o u s a n d d e a d , f o r t y t h o u s a n d p e r m a n e n t l y d i s a b l e d ) d u r i n g t h e c a m p a i g n t o " f i l c h s u g a r i s l a n d s " ( a s c r i t i c s l a b e l l e d t h e W e s t I n d i a n e x p e d i t i o n , 1 7 9 5 - 9 6 ) o n l y s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e p u b l i c ' s d i s t a s t e for the a r m y . T h e s e c a s u a l t i e s e x c e e d e d ' t h e t o t a l l o s s e s o f W e l l i n g t o n ' s f r o m d e a t h , d i s c h a r g e s , d e s e r t i o n , a n d a l l c a u s e s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e e n d o f t h e • ' 8 P e n n i n s u l a W a r . ' T h u s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e w a r a g a i n s t F r a n c e ( t o t h e P e a c e o f A m i e n s , 1 8 0 2 ) , t h e B r i t i s h A r m y w a s b o t h t e r r i b l y d i s o r g a n i z e d a n d t h o r o u g h l y u n p o p u l a r , a n d o n e w o u l d h a v e t h o u g h t T h o m a s P i t t ' s e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " a m a n ' s l i s t i n g i n t h e a r m y c a n n e v e r p r o c e e d f r o m p r u d e n c e o r d i s c r e t i o n o f f r o m a d e l i b e r a t e a c t o f t h e m i n d ; f o r n o o n e i n h i s r i g h t Q r i g h t s e n s e s w o u l d e v e r l e n d h i m s e l f , " a p p r o p r i a t e , y e t m e n w e r e d r a w n i n t o t h e f o r c e s , i n c r e a s i n g l y s o a s t h e w a r p r o g r e s s e d . T o a p p r e c i a t e t h i s p h e n o m e n a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s , a n d t h e i r e v o l u t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e a r m y , a n d t h e m o o d o f t h e c o u n t r y i t s e l f . T h e e a s i e s t , t h o u g h n o t t h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t , m e t h o d o f e n -l i s t i n g m e n w a s t o o f f e r t h e m o t l e y r e f u s e f r o m j a i l s a n d p r i s o n s h i p s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e t o s e r v i n g o u t t h e i r s e n t e n c e s o f e n l i s t i n g . A s w e l l , m e n a c c u s e d o f s e r i o u s c r i m e s w e r e e x o n e r a t e d , p r o v i d e d 38 t h a t t h e y v o l u n t e e r e d ! T h i s w a s p o s s i b l e o w i n g t o t h e r e c r u i t i n g S e r g e a n t ' s p o w e r t o s e c u r e a r u l i n g o f ' c a s e d i s m i s s e d ' i n t h e a s s i z e q u a r t e r s e s s i o n s . I t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a c o m m o n s i g h t t o s e e r e c r u i t i n g p a r t i e s a t t e n d i n g q u a r t e r s e s s i o n s a n d r e c e i v i n g m e n f o r t h e a r m y i n l i e u o f a n y o t h e r p u n i s h m e n t . M a n y m e n , o f c o u r s e , v o l u n t e e r e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f d e s e r t i n g a s s o o n a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a r o s e . T h e s c h e m e d i f f e r e d f r o m t h o s e e a r l i e r m e t h o d s w h i c h a l l o w e d t h i e v e s , h a r d e n e d c r i m i n a l s , a n d e v e n t h e u n e m p l o y e d t o b e c o n s c r i p t e d ; i t w a s s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y t h o u g h t h e s y s t e m w a s n a t u r a l l y a b u s e d . F o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s i n I r e l a n d , h u n d r e d s o f i n n o c e n t m e n w e r e a r r e s t e d f o r r e v o l u -t i o n a r y b e h a v i o u r a n d t h e n o f f e r e d a c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e g a l l o w s a n d e n l i s t i n g . O n t h e , w h o l e , h o w e v e r , r e p r i e v e d c r i m i n a l s c o m -p r i s e d a r e l a t i v e l y s < n f l l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e a r m y , t h o u g h t h e y h a d a m o n o p o l y o v e r c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n i t . I n 1 7 9 ^ , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e R o y a l W a g g o n e e r s , w e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o S i r J o h n F o r t e s c u e , ' t h e s w e e p i n g s o f t h e c r i m i n a l p o p u l a t i o n o f L o n d o n , 1 0 a n d t h e v e r y w o r s t m e n i n a n e x t r e m e l y i l l - c o n d u c t e d a r m y . ' I t s h o u l d p e r h a p s b e n o t e d t h a t m e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a v i n g c o m m i t t e d a c t s n o t i n t h e s t r i c t e s t s e n s e , i l l e g a l , b u t w h i c h w e r e s o c i a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e , s u c h a s f a t h e r i n g a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , w e r e o f t e n o f f e r e d a n a l t e r n a t i v e b y t h e l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e b e t w e e n ( i n t h i s c a s e ) m a r r y i n g o r e n l i s t i n g i n t h e a r m y . I n t h e w o r d s o f o n e r e c r u i t i n g s e r g e a n t , t h e s t u r d i e s t o f o u r y e o m e n , w h o h a v i n g i n c r e a s e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r p a r i s h w i t h o u t p e r -m i s s i o n o f t h e c l e r g y , a r e g l a d t o e s c a p e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s b y * s h e l t e r i n g u n d e r t h e l i c e n c e o « f * t h e c a m p . I n r e t r o s p e c t , h e a d d s 39 t h a t s u c h f e l l o w s , " o n e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e g r e a t m a s s o f r e c r u i t s 1 1 f r o m c o u n t r y d i s t r i c t s " . T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f B r i t a i n ' s r e c r u i t s w e r e , h o w e v e r , a t f i r s t s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m o f c i v i l i a n r e -c r u i t m e n t , w i t h a l l i t s a b u s e s ; , a n d i n v i e w o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d u n p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e a r m y i n t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e w a r s , t h e s y s t e m g r e w m o r e c o m p l e x a n d d e v i o u s t h a n e v e r . Y e t a l t h o u g h n o d o u b t m a n y c i v i l i a n s w e r e c a j o l e d , m a n i p u l a t e d o r c o e r c e d i n t o t h e a r m y , t h e e n l i s t m e n t o f a g o o d m a n y , i n d e e d t h e m a j o -r i t y , o f t h e m i s n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s o m e o t h e r s e n s e , e x p l i c a b l e . U n t i l 1 8 0 6 , r e c r u i t m e n t w a s w i t h i n t h e d o m i n i o n o f t h e I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l o f R e c r u i t i n g , a n d t h e r e a f t e r d i r e c t e d b y t h e A d j u t a n t G e n e r a l . I n 1 7 9 5 > f i f t e e n r e c r u i t i n g d i s t r i c t s w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n E n g l a n d , f o u r i n S c o t l a n d , a n d f i v e i n I r e l a n d . E a c h w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a n I n s p e c t i n g F i e l d O f f i c e r a n d h i s s t a f f , c o m p r i s e d o f a n a d j u t a n t , s e r g e a n t m a j o r , d e p i b s e r g e a n t a n d a ' h o s p i t a l m a t e ' ( r e p l a c e d i n 1 8 0 2 b y a D i s t r i c t S u r g e o n ) , T h e a c t u a l f i e l d w o r k w a s c a r r i e d o u t b y p a r t i e s o f s o l d i e r s b o r r o w e d f r o m l o c a l a r m y d e p o t s , a n d c o n s i s t e d o f a s u b a l t e r n o r c a p t a i n , a s e r g e a n t , a c o n t i n g e n t o f c o r p o r a l s a n d a d r u m m e r . I t w a s p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r t h a t i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r e c r u i t i n g p a r t i e s t e n d e d t o s o l i c i t t h o s e a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e o l d , t h e w e a k , t h e a b j e c t p o o f , a n d t h e s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e c o n g r e g a t e d , t h a t i s , t h e s l u m , t h e f a i r , t h e t a v e r n a n d t h e w a k e . T h e i r l o g i c w a s t w o f o l d ; o n e , i t w a s e a s i e r t o r e c r u i t t h i s s o r t o f c h a r a c t e r t h a n r e s p e c t a b l e p e o p l e ; a n d t w o , E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f F r a n c e , w a s s t i l l c o n v i n c e d t h a t o n l y t h i s l o w e s t a n d l e a s t u s e f u l o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s o u g h t t o b e e x p e n d e d f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . I n d e e d , P i t t ' s Q u o t a A c t o f 1 7 9 5 w a s u n p o p u l a r b e c a u s e i t w a s b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f m e n w e r e t o b e p r o v i d e d f r o m e c o n o m i c a l l y h e a l t h y d i s t r i c t s a s f r o m t h e p e r e n n i a l l y i m p r o v e r i s h e d a n d r u n - d o w n o n e s . U n d o u b t e d l y , a l a r g e s e g m e n t o f t h e f o r c e s i n t h e w a r a g a i n s t R e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e d i d c o n s i s t o f t h e ' n ' e r - d o - w e l l ' , w h o s e s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e w a s o t h e r w i s e n o n e x i s t e n t a n d w h o s e p r o s p e c t s o f a d v a n c i n g w e r e s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . B u t i n c r e a s i n g l y , a s w e w i l l l a t e r a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e , a b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f s o l d i e r w a s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e f o r c e s . A t y p i c a l r e c r u i t i n g p a r t y o f t h e t i m e o p e r a t e d i n a f a s h i o n s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t r u e e x a m p l e . I n 1 8 0 4 , a t a f a i r h e l d i n W i n c h e s t e r , t w o p r i v a t e s a n d s e v e r a l o f f i c e r s d i s g u i s e d a s y o k e l s , c o a c h m e n a n d l a b o u r e r s , e n t e r e d a t a v e r n , a n d p r o c e e d e d t o b u y d r i n k s f o r a n u m b e r o f m e n . T h e y b e g a n t o t a l k l o u d l y a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a b o u t t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s t o e n l i s t . T h e n o n e o f t h e s o l d i e r s s p u n a " l o n g r i g a m a r o l e o f h o w h i s e l d e s t b r o t h e r , w h o e n l i s t e d t h a t d a y t h r e e y e a r s a g o , w a s n o w a c a p t a i n " 1 2 i n I n d i a , a s r i c h a s a n a b o b " . A s e r g e a n t w a s t h e n s i g n a l l e d t o e n t e r t h e t a v e r n , w h e r e u p o n h e a n n o u n c e d t h a t s e v e r a l v a c a n c i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r p o s i t i o n s o f s e r g e a n t i n t h e a r m y , a n d t h e n p r o d u c e d a p o c k e t f u l o f b o u n t y m o n e y a n d w a t c h e s t o b e d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h o s e w h o v o l u n t e e r e d . I n t h e o p i n i o n o f o n e s e r g e a n t , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w a t c h e s i n v a r i a b l y h a d a n u n c a n n y e f f e c t u p o n o n l o o k e r s , A n u m b e r o f v o l u n t e e r s s t e p p e d f o r w a r d . O n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , t h e r e c r u i t i n g s e r g e a n t p a i d a v i s i t t o a f o r t u n e t e l l e r a t t h e f a i r , a n d i n s t r u c t e d h i m t o t e l l a l l h i s m a l e 41' customers that t h e i r futures lay with the 'red coat 1. As a r e s u l t , several more volunteers were added to the c o l l e c t i o n . A good r e c r u i t i n g party was, indeed, remarkably adept at i t s work, as recognized by one amazed new r e c r u i t : "Previously to this casual meeting with t h i s modern kite of E l l i o t ' s Light Horse, I.should have considered the career of a s o l d i e r not more improbable than the attainment of the Archbishopric of Cantebury. But i f ever a manufacturer of r e c r u i t s was q u a l i f i e d f o r the trade which he had undertaken, i t was the swaggering . .. B i l l Buckley."^ But when* r e c r u i t i n g parties were less successful, the 'last resource was to get him drunk and then s l i p a s h i l l i n g i n h i s pocket, get him home to your b i l l e t , and next morning swear he • 1 k enlisted, bringing a l l your party to prove i t . The enlistment of Duncan Stewart, so admirably described by the anonymous 1 5 author of The Subaltern^ was of t h i s fashion. And though, i n the f i n a l analysis, every r e c r u i t had to swear an oath before a magistrate that he had f r e e l y volunteered, no problem was en-countered with those who had been deceived into e n l i s t i n g since "as f o r magistrates, we knew whom to go to on these occasions. You know i t was a l l f o r the good of s e r v i c e , " 1 ^ Among those recruited by the standard practices was an unusually high prop©p-fc»®« of Irishmen. The economic backwardness of Ireland, produced a great deal of pauperism, and the despair which i t bred opened up the way f o r many to seek refuge i n the B r i t i s h Army, even p r i o r to Union. As one observer noted, 'the 1 7 poor turn s o l d i e r s , or thieves or s t a r v e 1 . Though fraudulent r e c r u i t i n g was practiced to an unparalleled extent i n Ireland, that result too was made bearable by the extreme impoverishment 42 a n d i n s e c u r i t y t h a t m o s t I r i s h m e n o t h e r w i s e f a c e d . B y 1 7 9 8 n u m e r o u s a r m y b a t t a l i o n s w e r e s o s t o c k e d w i t h Attn I r i s h A t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t d a r e d n o t t o u s e t h e m i n t h e c r i s i s i n I r e l a n d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e D u k e o f Y o r k , " A s a l m o s t t h e w h o l e o f t h e R e c r u i t s o f t h e I n f a n t r y o f t h e.1. l i n e a r e I r i s h , i t w o u l d b e b y n o m e a n s a p o l i t i c m e a s u r e t o s e n d a n y o f t h e r e g u l a r b a t t a l i o n s t o I r e l a n d " ! T h i s s t a t e m e n t w a s u n d o u b t e d l y , a b i t o f a n e x a g g e r a t i o n , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s , b e t w e e n o n e - q u a r t e r a n d o n e - t h i r d o f a l l m e n s e r v i n g , i n t h e r e g u l a r a r m y t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r , w e r e I r i s h , t h e m a j o r i t y o f w h o m h a d p r e v i o u s l y k n o w n o n l y c h r o n i c f o o d s h o r t a g e s , m a r g i n a l e m p l o y m e n t , a n d g e n e r a l i n s e c u r i t y . T h e r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e p a u p e r , t h e d r u n k a r d a n d t h e f o o l w e r e f a i r g a m e ' . H e a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s u b s t a n t i a l s o u r c e o f p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s i n m e n w h o t h o u g h r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - o f f , s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d , a n d r e g u l a r l y e m p l o y e d w e r e , i n s o m e s e n s e , a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e i r w o r k o r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , o r s u b j e c t t o s o m e i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n o r t r a u m a . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f a l i e n a t i o n i s a l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y i n v o k e d i n o u r d a y t o e x p l a i n a l m o s t a n y u n u s u a l b e h a v i o u r , a n d m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e a p p l i e d w i t h g r e a t c a u t i o n . I t s e e m s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n t h a t a g e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l i s m r e l e n t l e s s l y a b s o r b e d o l d e r f o r m s o f p r o d u c t i o n , m o d e s o f w o r k a n d c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s , t h e s a m e s o r t s o f i n t e r n a l p s y c h i c p r e s s u r e s a n d a n x i e t i e s w h i c h p r e p a r e d m e n t o t a k e t h e p l u n g e i n t o M f e t h o d i s m w e r e m a n i p u l a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e -c r u i t m e n i n t o t h e a r m y . N o n e o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s m a d e e n l i s t -m e n t p r e d i c t a b l e , b u t t h e y c e r t a i n l y m a d e i t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . 43 A f t e r a l l , army l i f e was not o n l y r e l a t i v e l y secure i n s o f a r as a r e g u l a r p r o v i s i o n o f food, pay and c l o t h i n g was ensured, i t was a l s o an escape, an o c c u p a t i o n f r e e o f normal a n x i e t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and y e t , at the same time, a mode of e x i s t e n c e a b l e to generate a profound sense o f s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e and per-s o n a l worth. One r e c r u i t i n g sergeant who c l e v e r l y e x p l o i t e d t h i s sense o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n wrote: "There i s no wonder ( a t h i s success, he s a i d modestly) no wonder at a l l . I knew Glasgow w e l l ... knew the minds o f the young f e l l o w s b e t t e r then they d i d themselves .- f o r I had been a weaver myself and a l a z y one too ... The t r u t h i s , you c o u l d s c a r c e l y c a t c h a weaver contented. They are always complaining. Therefore you would never have much t r o u b l e e n t i c i n g them to e n l i s t . The best way was to make up to the man you had i n your eye ... and ask him what s o r t o f a web he was i n . You might be sure i t was a bad one ... Ask him how a c l e v e r , handsome-looking f e l l o w l i k e him c o u l d waste h i s time hanging seesaw between heaven and e a r t h i n a damp, unwholesome shop no b e t t e r than one o f the d r i p p i n g v a u l t s i n St. Mungo's Church ...". D i s c o n t e n t stemming from occupations not y e t touched by i n d u s t r i -a l i s m a l s o produced i t s share o f r e c r u i t s . For a v i g o r o u s man war may have appeared v e r y a t t r a c t i v e as an a l t e r n a t i v e to f r u s t r a t i n g , monotonous or e x h a u s t i n g work. S e v e r a l j o u r n a l s o f s o l d i e r s t e l l o f having j o i n e d the army i n order to f l e e 20 c r u e l and t y r a n n i c a l masters. Lawrence o f the 20th 21 and Andrew Pearson were two such c h a r a c t e r s . The l a t t e r f l e d to Cork and w i t h i n a day was e n l i s t e d and a s s i g n e d to Duncannon F o r t . I n r u r a l B r i t a i n , men too r e s t l e s s and t u r b u l e n t f o r the l i f e o f a peasant yearned to escape i t s tedium. One sergeant's memoirs speak e x t e n s i v e l y o f 'country l a d s t i r e d o f the plough', 22 awed by promises o f adventure, excitement and g l o r y . One such 44 l a d w a s R i f l e m a n H a r r i s , t h e f a m o u s f o r m e r B d r s e t s h e p h e r d . I n h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e s , h e d i s m i s s e d h i s p r e - a r m y d a y s , i n a p a s s a g e o r t w o , a s b a n a l a n d i r r e l e v a n t , i g n o r i n g e v e n t o m e n t i o n h i s 23 n a m e o r b i r t h p l a c e . H a r r i s ' s o n l y i n t e r e s t w a s i n t h e t e l l i n g o f h i s a r m y e x p e r i e n c e s . S i m i l a r l y , a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e a r m y , o w i n g t o i n j u r y , H a r r i s h a d l i t t l e u s e f o r c i v i l i a n l i f e ; h i s a r m y d a y s , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n e d p r o u d m e m o r i e s . F i n a l l y , m e n w e r e m o r e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e s p i r i t e d a p p e a l s o f t h e r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r i f p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t c l o u d e d t h e i r l i v e s . T h e o d d g e n t l e m a n , f o r e x a m p l e , e n l i s t e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f s o m e d i s g r a c e f u l e v e n t , ( © r i n k , d i s h o n e s t l y a n d g a m b l i n g w e r e h i s - u s u a l p r o b l e m s . ) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h e t e n d e d t o d e g e n e r a t e e v e n f u r t h e r i n t h e a r m y . S u r t e e s ' d i a r y d e s c r i b e d t h i s p a t t e r n r e p e a t i n g i t s e l f a m o n g f o u r m e n o f f o r m e r h i g h s t a n d i n g . A n u n h a p p y l o v e a f f a i r c o u l d a l s o b e g r o u n d s f o r j o i n i n g . T h e u n k n o w n a u t h o r o f J o u r n a l o f a S o l d i e r o f T h e S e v e n t y F i r s t o r G l a s g o w R e g i m e n t a d d e d a n i n t r i g u i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h a v i n g e n t e r e d . T h o u g h p o o r , h i s p a r e n t s h a d e d u c a t e d h i m w e l l , b u t t h e b o y r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e t h o u g h t o f u t i l i z i n g t h i s e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o s e c v f t a j o b . U l t i m a t e l y , h i s f a t h e r d e v e l o p e d a n a c u t e i l l n e s s , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y b e c a m e i n c a p a c i t a t e d , b u t e v e n t h i s d i d n o t d e t e r t h e b o y f r o m r e m a i n i n g a t h o m e , u n e m p l o y e d a n d u n p e r t u r b e d , a t e r r i b l e b u r d e n o n t h e f a m i l y . F i n a l l y , h e a c q u i r e d a f a n c y f o r t h e l i f e o f t h e t h e a t r e , c e r t a i n o f h i s s u c c e s s d e s p i t e a l a c k o f f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a n d h i s p a r e n t s ' s k e p t i c i s m . I n d e e d , t h e y w e r e h o r r i f i e d w i t h h i s b e h a v i o u r . '-.45-H i s c a r e e r , a m o n u m e n t a l f a i l u r e , d i d n o t e v e n e n d u r e o n e p e r -f o r m a n c e . H e p a i n f u l l y s c r i b b l e d d o w n t h e d e t a i l s : " I w e n t t o t h e t h e a t r e a n d p r e p a r e d f o r m y a p p e a r a n c e . T h e h o u s e w a s c r o w d e d t o e x c e s s . I c a m e u p o n t h e s t a g e w i t h a f a l t e r i n g h e a r t , a m i d s t u n i v e r s a l s i l e n c e . I b o w e d a n d a t t e m p t e d t o s p e a k : m y l i p s o b e y e d t h e i m p u l s e b u t m y v o i c e h a d f l e d - I t r e m b l e d - m y s e n s e s b e c a m e c o n f u s e d - h i s s e s b e g a n f r o m t h e a u d i e n c e . I u t t e r l y f a i l e d . F r o m t h e c o n -f u s i o n o f m y m i n d I c o u l d n o t e v e n c o m p r e h e n d t h e p l a c e i n w h i c h I s t o o d . T o c o n c l u d e , I s l u n k u n s e e n f r o m t h e t h e a t r e , b e w i l d e r e d a n d i n a s t a t e o f d e s p a i r . " ^5 H e w a n d e r e d t h e s t r e e t t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i g h t , a n d i n t h e m o r n i n g e m b a r k e d w i t h s o m e r e c r u i t s t o t h e I s l e o f W i g h t . H e s u b s e q u e n t l y w r o t e : A s a n a t o n e m e n t f o r m y p a s t m i s c o n d u c t , I r e s o l v e d t o u n d e r g o a l l t h e d a n g e r s a n d f a t i g u e s o f a p r i v a t e s o l d i e r f o r „27 s e v e n y e a r s . " A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f h a v i n g e n l i s t e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f a t r o u b l e d m i n d w a s t h a t o f D u n c a n S t e w a r t , a S c o t s m a n . A p p a r e n t l y , S t e w a r t * s f a t h e r h a d b e e n c a u g h t s m u g g l i n g w h i s k e y a n d A s e v e r e l y r e p r i m a n d e d b y t h e l o c a l e x c i s e o f f i c e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , D u n c a n l o v e d t h e o f f i c e r ' s d a u g h t e r . T h e e l d e r S t e w a r t t h e n f o r b a d e h i s s o n t o s e e h e r , a n d o n a c c o u n t o f * t h e p o w e r o f t h e o l d i n S c o t l a n d 1 . h e a g r e e d . H i s i n t e r n a l f o r t i t u d e w a s l a c k i n g , h o w e v e r , a n d t h e t w o c o n t i n u e d t o m e e t ; i n a s h o r t w & i i l e , s h e b e c o m e p r e g n a n t . S e c r e t l y , t h e y w e r e m a r r i e d , b u t D u n c a n f e a r e d h i s f a t h e r ' s w r a t h o n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e f a c t . O n ' a t r i p t o D o w n t o s e l l s o m e s h e e p , h e e n d e d u p i n a p u b a n d s a t s i l e n t l y i n a s t a t e o f m e l a n c h o l y , u n a b l e t o r e s o l v e t h i s c u l d e s a c . P r e -s e n t l y , a r e c r u i t i n g s e r g e a n t w a l k e d i n . W i t h i n a f e w h o u r s , D u n c a n S t e w a r t w a s i n t h e a r m y , a n d o n h i s w a y s o u t h t o E n g l a n d . 4b N o w a l t h o u g h t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s t r i v i a l , t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f m o r e + K w & * v e « j U i j » l » \ c p r o p o r t i o n o f m e n w h o e n l i s t e d i n t o t h e B r i t i s h a r m y . P r o b a b l y , a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f m e n v o l u n t e e r e d i n o r d e r t o e s c a p e i r r e c -o n c i l a b l e p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n j o i n e d o u t o f p a t r i o t i s m , V e h a v e e x a m i n e d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h m a d e m e n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e a p p e a l s o f t h e r e c r u i t i n g s e r g e a n t , A d e s i r e t o a v o i d p r i s o n w a s o n e o f t h e m . O t h e r s i n c l u d e d a l o n g i n g t o e s c a p e c h r o n i c p o v e r t y a n d s o c i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e , p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t y , a l i e n a t i o n a n d b o r e d o m . O n e a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r j o i n i n g - a n o f f s h o o t o f t h e l a t t e r - w a s l o v e o f a d v e n t u r e , h o n o u r a n d g l o r y . W r o t e o n e o f f i c e r : " y o u r s e n t i m e n t a l c h a p s . . . w e r e t h e e a s i e s t c a u g h t . . . Y o u h a d o n l y t o g e t i n t o h e r o i c s , a n d s p o u t a g o o d d e a l a b o u t g l o r y . . . d e a t h l e s s f a m e . . . a n d a l l t h a t a n d y o u 2 8 h a v e h i m a s s a f e a s a m o u s e i n a t r a p ' . ' A n e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e d i a r y o f T h o m a s M o r r i s . ^ H i s s t o r y b e g i n s w i t h : " T h e m e a n e s t s o l d i e r , f i r e d b y g l o r y ' s r a g e , „ q B e l i e v e s h i s n a m e e n r o l l e d i n h i s t o r y ' s p a g e . " L a t e r , h e q u o t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : " S o u n d , s o u n d t h e c l a r i o n ] f i l l t h e f i f e , T o a l l t h e s e n s u a l w o r l d p r o c l a i m -O n e c r o w d e d h o u r o f g l o r i o u s l i f e ^ I s w o r t h a n a g e w i t h o u t a n a m e " M o r r i s a d d s t h a t h e h a d b e e n i n f a t u a t e d w i t h t h e l i f e o f a s o l d i e r s i n c e h i s c h i l d h o o d . " I w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d o f r e a d i n g t h e h e a r t - s t i r r i n g a c c o u n t s o f s i e g e s a n d b a t t l e s . . . h o w p r o u d d i d 3 2 I f e e l . . . a d e l i g h t f u l s e n s a t i o n . " A n o t h e r s o l d i e r w r o t e , " I l o n g e d f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o 47. d i s t i n g u i s h m y s e l f " t J J a n d s a w i n t h e a r m y h i s f i n e s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o s o . T o R i f l e m a n H a r r i s , t h e g l o r i o u s r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e R i f l e B r i g a d e p r o v e d i n f e c t i o u s . " I f e l l s o i n l o v e w i t h t h e i r s m a r t , d a s h i n g , a n d d e v i l - m a y c a r e a p p e a r a n c e t h a t n o t h i n g w o u l d s e r v e m e u n t i l I w a s a r i f l e m a n m y s e l f , " h i s d i a r y s t a t e s . I n c i d e n t a l l y , b y 1 8 1 1 , t h e R i f l e m e n w e r e t h e m o s t f a m o u s f i g h t i n g b r i g a d e i n E u r o p e . M a n y o t h e r " r e s t l e s s s p i r i t s w h o w e r e c a u g h t b y t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e r e d c o a t " e n l i s t e d i n t o - t h e a r m y . T h i s w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e w a r , w h e n v i c t o r y o v e r N a p o l e o n w a s i n s i g h t a n d m a n y j o i n e d i n o r d e r t o b e a p a r t o f t h a t t r i u m p h . A s w e l l , b y t h a t t i m e t h e a r m y h a d b e c o m e m u c h m o r e a s o u r c e o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e t h a n i n a n y p e r i o d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W h e r e o n c e t h e R o y a l N a v y h a d s t i r r e d t h e n a t i o n ' s d e e p e s t s A f i j e o f h o n o u r a n d p r i d e , t h e B r i t i s h A r m y n o w d i d . I n t h e w o r d s o f t h e P e n i n s u l a v e t e r a n , H a r r y S m i t h : " T h e f a c t i s t h a t A r m y a n d N a v y h a d r e c e n t l y c h a n g e d p l a c e s . W h e n I h a d j o i n e d t h e A r m y , i t w a s j u s t a t a t i m e w h e n o u r N a v y , a f t e r a s e r i e s o f b r i l l i a n t v i c t o r i e s , h a d d e s t r o y e d a t T r a f a l g a r t h e n a v y o f t h e w o r l d . N i n e y e a r s h a d e l a p s e d , a n d t h e g l o r i e s o f t h e A r m y w e r e s o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d b y o u r g a l l a n t b r o t h e r s o f t h e s e a s e r v i c e , w e w e r e n o w b y t h e m r e g a r d e d a s t h e h e r o e s w h o m I w e l l r e c o l l e c t I t h o u g h t t h e m t o b e i n 1 8 0 5 . ' ' 35 I n a n y c a s e , i n a s o c i e t y s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a f i n e l y g r a d e d h i e r a r c h y , i n w h i c h m a n y i f n o t m o s t p e o p l e l a c k e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e t o a t t a i n s u c c e s s a n d h o n o u r , t h e a r m y w a s , i n e f f e c t , t h e o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n ( a p a r t f r o m t h e n a v y ) t h a t p r o v i d e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y o p e n t o a l l t o e x p e r i e n c e h o n o u r , g l o r y a n d a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l w o v ^ , T h i s q u a l i t y a b o u t t h e a r m y , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h c i v i l i a n l i f e , i n s p i r e d n u m e r o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s 48" s i m i l a r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g : * _ h a v e n e v e r f e l t s u c h h a p p i n e s s s i n c e I b e c a m e a s o l d i e r . I o f t e n t h i n k t h a t t o b e l i v i n g i n E n g l a n d a f t e r t h i s w i l d , r o m a n t i c e x i s t e n c e w o u l d n o t g i v e m e 36 h a l f s o m u c h s a t i s f a c t i o n . " T h e d i s o r g a n i z e d s t a t e o f t h e a r m y , t h e f r a u d u l e n t c h a r a c t e r o f m a n y r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s , t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e o f t r o o p s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h e l o w e s t c l a s s o f s o c i e t y a n d f r o m a m o n g t h e a l i e n v a t e d a n d d i s c o n l J n t e d , r e l a t e m o s t s t r o n g l y t o t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f w a r . A n a t t e m p t t o r e f o r m t h e A r m y w a s i n i t i a t e d i n 1795 u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e n e w C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f , t h e D u k e o f Y o r k , s e c o n d s o n t o t h e K i n g o f E n g l a n d , G e o r g e I I I , a n d w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e a i d o f S i r J o h n M o o r e . I n S i r J o h n F o r t e s c u e ' s e s t i m a t i o n , t h e D u k e " t o o k o v e r a n u m b e r o f u n d i s c i p l i n e d a n d d i s o r g a n i z e d r e g i m e n t s , f i l l e d f o r t h e m o s t p a r t w i t h t h e w o r s t s t a m p o f m a n a n d o f f i c e r , a n d . . . i n l e s s t h a n s e v e n y e a r s h e c o n v e r t e d t h e s e u n p r o m i s i n g 37 e l e m e n t s i n t o a n a r m y " . B r i t a i n d i d i n d e e d r e c o v e r f r o m h e r d i s m a l p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e w a r t o b e c o m e a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e A l l i e d v i c t o r y o v e r N a p o l e o n . I t i s u n n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e t h e d e t a i l s o f Y o r k a n d M o o r e ' s w o r k , b u t s u f f i c e t o s a y t h a t t h e r e f o r m s g e n e r a t e d w e r e a n a t t e m p t t o o v e r c o m e t h e i r r a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d a u t h o r i t y , t h e p o o r d i s c i p l i n e a n d t r a i n i n g o f o f f i c e r s , a n d a b u s e s i n t h e s y s t e m o f p r o m o t i o n , t o i m p r o v e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o b a r r a c k a c c o m m o d a t i o n , f o o d , p a y , d r e s s , e q u i p m e n t a n d p u n i s h m e n t , t o e l e v a t e t h e l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g f o r b o t h c a v a l r y a n d i n f a n t r y , a n d t o e x p a n d t h e r e c r u i t i n g s y s t e m 49: i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t a s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y o f s o l d i e r - i n s h o r t , t o r e f o r m a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g . M a n y e x c e l l e n t i n n o v a t i o n s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d , b u t o u r m a i n c o n c e r n a t t h i s t i m e l i e s w i t h t h o s e r e l a t e d t o t h e l a s t o f t h e s e , r e c r u i t m e n t . T h e s o r t o f r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r d i d n o t c h a n g e m u c h i n s u b s t a n c e b u t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f i -c i e n c y i m p r o v e d . M o r e o v e r , a n o v e l m e t h o d o f r e c r u i t m e n t w a s a d d e d t o t h e s c h e m e , a s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t t o d r a w m e n o u t o f t h e m i l i t i a a n d i n t o t h e r e g u l a r a r m y . I t o c c u r r e d t o a n u m b e r o f p e o p l e t h a t i f a s u b s t a n t i a l b o u n t y w e r e o f f e r e d t o i n d u c e m i l i t i a m e n t o j o i n t h e a r m y , a b e t t e r s o l d i e r w o u l d b e r a i s e d , s i n c e a s a c o n s c r i p t f o r c e t h e m i l i t i a d r e w a s u p e r i o r s a m p l e o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t h a n d i d t h e r e g u l a r a r m y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a n A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t p a s s e d i n 1 7 9 5 " f o r a u g m e n t i n g t h e R o y a l R e g i m e n t o f A r t i l l e r y . . . o u t o f P r i v a t e M e n n o w s e r v i n g i n t h e M i l i t i a " ^ f a i l e d m i s e r a b l y . T h i s o c c u r r e d l a r g e l y a s a r e s u l t o f e f f o r t s t o s u b v e r t t h e s c h e m e b y C o l o n e l s o f t h e m i l i t i a i n d e f i a n c e f o r n o t h a v i n g b e e n i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t t h e m -s e l v e s , A s i m i l a r A c t i n 1 7 9 8 a l s o f a i l e d , b u t a n o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s u c c e e d e d a d m i r a b l y . M i l i t i a m e n w e r e a s t o n -i s h e d a n d d e l i g h t e d w i t h t h e s i z e o f b o u n t y o f f e r e d , a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t , m i l i t i a c o l o n e l s o f f e r e d l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e p l a n . T h e r e a s o n m a y h a v e b e e n , a c c o r d i n g t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r W a r , D u n d a s , t h a t " t h e p r o s p e c t o f a n a i d t o a r e v o l u t i o n i n H o l l a n d w a s i n t h e v i e w o f e v e r y p e r s o n , a n d t h e d r a f t f r o m t h e m i l i t i a ho f o r s u c h a n o b j e c t w a s u n i v e r s a l l y p o p u l a r " . T h i s p r a c t i c e w a s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y c o p i e d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f 50 o f t h e w a r . ' P r i m e M i n i s t e r A d d i n g t o n s o u g h t t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n b y c r e a t i n g a n " A r m y o f R e s e r v e " , a c o n s c r i p t b o d y s e c u r e d b y l o t , a n d d e s i g n e d f o r h o m e d e f e n c e , b u t r a i s e d i n t h e h o p e t h a t o n c e t h e r e s e r v i s t w a s t r a i n e d a n d f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h a f o r m o f m i l i t a r y l i f e , h e w o u l d v o l u n t e e r i n t o t h e r e g u l a r a r m y . M o r e o v e r , t h e s c h e m e e l i m i n a t e d p o t e n t i a l l y t r o u b l e -s o m e m i l i t i a c o l o n e l s . O f t h e t h i r t y t h o u s a n d m e n r a i s e d b y t h i s m e t h o d i n 1 8 0 3 - 0 4 , n i n e t e e n a n d a h a l f t h o u s a n d u l t i m a t e l y v o l u -41 n t e e r e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e A r m y o f R e s e r v e w a s d i s b a n d e d i n 1 8 0 5 w h e n P i t t r e g a i n e d t h e o f f i c e o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r , a n d s e v e r a l d u b i o u s s c h e m e s i n t r o d u c e d t o r e p l a c e i t . N o n e t h e l e s s , w h e n P i t t d i e d i n 1 8 0 6 , t h e c o u n t r y s t i l l p o s s e s s e d a s p l e n d i d h o m e d e f e n c e , i n c l u d i n g a v o l u n t e e r f o r c e t h r e e W u n d r e d t h o u s a n d s t r o n g , a s w e l l a s a r e g u l a r a r m y n o w p o w e r f u l e n o u g h , a n d s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l -t r a i n e d , t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d c o n f i d e n t l y p l a n a n i n v a s i o n o f s i x t y t h o u s a n d m e n i n t o n o r t h e r n G e r m a n y . ( T h e s c h e m e w a s d r o p p e d a f t e r F r a n c e s h a t t e r e d B r i t a i n ' s a l l y , A u s t r i a , a t A u s t e r l i t z ) B u t a s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e a t W a r , W i l l i a m W y n d a m s u b s e q u e n t l y m i s m a n a g e d t h e A r m y , w e a k e n i n g i t c o n s i d e r a b l y . 4 2 I n 1 8 0 7 , R o b e r t C a s t l e r e a g h r e p l a c e d h i m . C a s t l e r e a g h k n e w t h a t i t w o u l d b e r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o r e -s t o r e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y , s i z e a n d s t r e n g t h o f t h e h o m e f o r c e s d i s r u p t e d b y W y n d h a m . T h e r e a l d i f f i c u l t y l a y i n s e c u r i n g t h i r t y - f i v e t h o u s a n d m e n f o r t h e r e g u l a r a r m y . T H e t h e n d u t i f u l l y s u c c u m b e d t o t h e w i s d o m o f f e r e d i n t h e a d a g e , " w h e n i n d o u b t , r o b t h e m i l i t i a " . I t w a s a t i m e l y m o v e b e c a u s e had e n t e r e d t h e b i g i n f l u x o f m e n AT-O t h e m i l i t i a f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r w a s a b o u t t o b e d i s c h a r g e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g i t s t e r m . S i n c e m o s t o f t h e m i l i t i a w o u l d h a v e t o b e r e p l a c e d i n a n y c a s e , C a s t l e r e a g h c o u l d n o t b e a c c u s e d o f d r a i n i n g t h a t f o r c e d r y . H e a p p e a l e d f o r t w e n t y - e i g h t t h o u s a n d o f t h e s e w e l l - t r a i n e d m e n , a n d c a m e u p 43 l e s s t h a n a t h o u s a n d s h o r t o f h i s m a r k . C o n v e n t i o n a l r e c r u i t -m e n t p r a c t i c e s h a d e n l i s t e d a n a d d i t i o n a l t h i r t e e n t h o u s a n d v o l u n t e e r s i n 1 8 0 8 , w h i c h m e a n t t h a t i n t h i s f i r s t y e a r o f t h e P e n i n s u l a W a r , f o r t y t h o u s a n d f r e s h t r o o p j h a d b e e n a d d e d t o t h e B r i t i s h A r m y . I n 1 8 0 9 , a n o t h e r t w e n t y - e i g h t t h o u s a n d m i l i t i a -m e n e n t e r e d t h e s e r v i c e . M i l i t i a c o l o n e l s / b y t h e n f u l l y r e s i g n e d t o t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h i s p r a c t i c e , a n d , i n 1 8 1 1 , w h e n a n o t h e r 44 a p p e a l w a s m a d e , e l e v e n t h o u s a n d c a m e f o r w a r d . N o f u r t h e r i n n o v a t i o n s i n r e c r u i t m e n t w e r e i n i t i a t e d u p t o 1 8 1 5 . O b v i o u s l y , w e n e e d t o e x p l a i n w h y s o m a n y v o l u n t e e r e d i n t o t h e B r i t i s h A r m y d u r i n g , t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e w a r a g a i n s t F r a n c e . N o d o u b t , t h e f a c t t h a t m a n y o f t h e A r m y ' s w o r s t a b u s e s h a d b e e n r e m o v e d h a d a g o o d d e a l t o d o w i t h i t . T h e A r m y w a s n o l o n g e r q u i t e t h e v e r i t a b l e h e l l - o n - e a r t h t h a t i t h a d s o r e c e n t l y b e e n . T h e D u k e o f Y o r k ' s e f f o r t s t o m a k e t h e s e r v i c e m o r e l i v e a b l e w e r e , i n d e e d , w i d e l y a d m i r e d , a n d e a r n e d h i m t h e n i c k n a m e , " T h e S o l d i e r ' s F r i e n d " . ' H o w e v e r , o n e m u s t n o t o v e r -e s t i m a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e A r m y w a s n o w a c c e p t a b l e ; t h e b a r b a r i t y o f i t s m i l i t a r y c o d e , f o r e x a m p l e , s t i l l i n c i t e d h o r r o r i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p u b l i c . T h e i n c r e a s e i n e n l i s t m e n t i s a l s o e x p l i c a b l e i n t e r m s o f A d d i n g t o n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " o n c e t h e m e n w h o h a d e n t e r e d t h e m i l i t i a ( o r A r m y o f R e s e r v e ) h a d b e c o m e u s e d t o a s o l d i e r ' s l i f e , 5r2 h5 t h e y a r e r e a d y t o v o l u n t e e r i n t o t h e r e g u l a r a r m y " . E v e n h a d t h e r e b e e n l i t t l e r e f o r m w i t h i n t h e a r m y , m i l i t i a m e n w o u l d s t i l l h a v e b e e n a t t r a c t e d t o t h e f o r c e s i n r e s p e c t a b l e n u m b e r s f o r t h i s r e a s o n ; i n d e e d , o n t h e o n l y o c c a s i o n i n w h i c h a s c h e m e w a s i n t e l l i g e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t o r e c r u i t m e n o u t o f t h e m i l i t i a d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e w a r ( 1 7 9 9 ) » i t w a s a s u c c e s s . I t s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t , t h o u g h , t h a t s u c h v o l u n t a r i s m w a s o c c a - . s i o n a l l y l e s s t h a n f r e e . I n h i s R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e , T h o m a s M o r r i s d e s c r i b e d h o w a c l o s e f r i e n d h a d b e e n s o i n t i m i -d a t e d b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o p p r e s s i v e d r i l l s i n t o m i l i t i a t r a i n i n g t h a t h e e n l i s t e d i n t o t h e a r m y t o e s c a p e t h e m . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c e n t i n d u c e m e n t t o j o i n , h o w e v e r , w a s m o n e y . B r i t a i n c o u l d n o t h a v e e x p a n d e d t h e s i z e o f h e r a r m y t o s u c h a n e x t e n t , o n t h e b a s i s o f v o l u n t a r y r e c r u i t m e n t , h a d t h e b o u n t y n o t b e e n g e n e r o u s , a n d t h e p a y p r o g r e s s i v e l y b e t t e r ( a f t e r 1 7 9 7 ) . B y 1 8 0 8 w a g e s i n t h e B r i t i s h A r m y w e r e t w i c e t h o s e i n t h e F r e n c h o r P r u s s i a n a r m i e s . A p a r t f r o m b e i n g a n i n d u c e -m e n t t o j o i n , i m p r o v e m e n t s i n p a y a l s o r e f l e c t e d a g r o w i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e w a r d a m a n f o r h i s s e r v i c e , a n d n o t m e r e l y t o s u b s i d i z e h i m ; i n t h e f o r m o f " a r e t a i n i n g f e e a g a i n s t t h e d a y k8 o f p r i z e m o n e y " a s h a d b e e n t h e p r a c t i c e s i n c e t h e l a t e M i d d l e A g e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o b o u n t y a n d p a y , t h e A r m y n o w p r o -v i d e d w h a t w a s t h o u g h t t o b e a d e c e n t - p e n s i o n f o r d i s a b l e d a n d r e t i r e d s o l d i e r s . A s A n t o n w r o t e i n R e t r o s p e c t o f M i l i t a r y L i f e : " I n t h e m i l i t i a I s e r v e s e c u r e o f l i f e a n d l i m b , b u t w i t h n o p r o s p e c t o f f u t u r e b e n e f i t f o r o l d a g e ( p e n s i o n ) t o w h i c h I m a y a t t a i n . I t i s b e t t e r t o h a z a r d b o t h a b r o a d i n t h e r e g u l a r s e r v i c e , t h a n t o h a v e p o v e r t y a n d h a r d l a b o u r a c c o m p a n y i n g m e t o a p e a c e f u l g r a v e a t h o m e , " ^ 53 T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f b o u n t y a n d p a y i s d o u b l y i m p o r t a n t i f e x a m i n e d i n l i g h t o f t h e e c o n o m i c r e a l i t i e s o f B r i t a i n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s p e c i f i c a l l y f r o m 1 8 0 6 - 1 8 1 5 * E a r l i e r , w e h a d d e s c r i b e d h o w p o v e r t y h a d d r i v e n m a n y I r i s h m e n t o s e e k r e f u g e i n t h e a r m y . T h e s e p e o p l e w e r e t h e c h r o n i c a l l y p o o r , t h a t i s , t h e p a u p e r a n d t h e s l u m d w e l l e r , a n d p e r e n n i a l l y a s o u r c e o f r e c r u i t m e n t . T h e y w e r e t h e s o r t o f p e o p l e a b o u t w h o m i t w a s s a i d , H 5 0 " w e h a v e a l w a y s h a d c o m p u l s o r y s e r v i c e , t h e c o m p u l s i o n o f h u n g e r . H o w e v e r , t h e e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p s c r e a t e d b y t h i s w a r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l b l o c k a d e o f 1 8 0 6 , w e r e s e v e r e , a n d e v e n a f f e c t e d m a n y o f t h o s e w h o n o r m a l l y p o s s e s s e d s o m e s e c u r i t y o f e m p l o y m e n t a n d i n c o m e A f t e r 1 8 0 7 , e c o n o m i c d e p r i v a t i o n s b e g a n t o m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e f o r m o f w i l d f l u c t u a t i o n s i n e m p l o y m e n t , s u c h t h a t e v e n t h o u g h w a g e s w e r e r i s i n g i n m a n y o c c u p a t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e i n c r e a s e i n u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d p a r t - t i m e w o r k , t h e s t e a d y i n f l a t i o n a r y p a t t e r n , a n d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a n u m b e r o f b a d h a r v e s t s m e a n t t h a t , o n t h e w h o l e , a s i g n i f i -c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s n o w l e s s p r o s p e r o u s t h a n - 5 1 h i t h e r t o . E v e n w h e n t h e s t a t e o f t h e e c o n o m y o c c a s i o n a l l y r e -c o v e r e d a b i t , t h e r e a l w a y s e x i s t e d a n u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e f u t u r e , a n a n x i e t y w h o s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s w e r e p e r h a p s w o r s e t h a n t h o s e o f p o v e r t y i t s e l f . E x p e c t a t i o n s b e c a m e b l i g h t e d a f t e r y e a r s o f p r o g r e s s . The a r m y p r o m i s e d a c h a n g e f r o m t h i s s t a t e o f i n s e c u r i t y . A n d w h i l e I d o n o t t h i n k t h a t o n e c a n d r a w t h e e x a c t s o r t o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v o l u n t a r i s m a n d e c o n o m i c p r o s p e r i t y a s w a s s h o w n t o h a v e e x i s t e d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n d u r i n g / \ 5 2 t h e w a r o f S p a n i s h S u c c e s s i o n ( 1 7 0 2 - 1 3 ) , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f 5 4 w i d e s p r e a d e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e o f t h e w a r , w a s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e g r o w t h o f v o l u n t a r y e n l i s t m e n t . F o r m a n y w h o n o w l i v e d o n t h e e d g e o f p o v e r t y , w i t h o u t w o r k o r r e l e g a t e d t o e a r n i n g 5 3 l o w e r r e a l w a g e s t h a n b e f o r e , a n d f o r w h o m a f u l l s t o m a c h h a d f o r s o m e t i m e b e e n a r a r i t y , t h e a m e n i t i e s a n d s e c u r i t i e s o f f e r e d b y t h e f o r c e b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e . S e a m e n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u f f e r e d a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n e n t e r i n g t h e N a v y b e c a u s e t h e m e r c h a n t s e r v i c e n o t o n l y e x p a n d e d i t s e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s d u r i n g t h e w a r b u t a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y r a i s e d s e a m e n ' s w a g e s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n c r e a s e d d a n g e r s w h i c h m a r i -t i m e t r a f f i c w a s e x p o s e d t o . I t w a s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o u s e t h e P r e s s t o r e c r u i t s a i l o r s f o r t h e R o y a l N a v y , A c c o u n t s a r e p l e n t i f u l o f m e n e n l i s t i n g o u t o f p o v e r t y a t t h i s t i m e , a n d w e s h a l l m e n t i o n b u t a f e w o f t h e m : T h o m a s J a c k s o n e n t e r e d t h e M i l i t i a , a n d t h e n t h e A r m y , w h e n t h e r e n e w a l o f w a r i n 1 8 0 3 l e d t o t h e r u i n o f h i s f a t h e r ' s b u c k l e b u s i n e s s , G e o r g e S i m m o n s v o l u n t e e r e d i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t h i s p a r e n t s a n d 5 5 s i s t e r s , a n d J o h n S p e n c e r C o o p e r o n e x p e r i e n c i n g d e p r i v a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . A s a r e s u l t , m a n y w h o e n t e r e d t h e a r m y t o e s c a p e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s b r o u g h t o n b y t h e w a r - i n d u c e d e c o n o m i c c h a o s , n o d o u b t l a m e n t e d t h e i r r e t u r n t o t h e h a r d s h i p s o f t h e p o s t - w a r d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d . T h e u n k n o w n a u t h o r o f J o u j k a l o f a S o l d i e r w r o t e , f o r e x a m p l e , i n 1 8 15: " T h e s e t h r e e m o n t h s , I c a n f i n d n o t h i n g t o d o . I a m a b u r d e n o n J e a n i e ( h i s s i s t e r ) a n d h e r h u s b a n d . I w i s h I w a s a s o l d i e r a g a i n . I c a n n o t 5 7 e v e n g e t l a b o u r i n g w o r k . " 55, F i n a l l y , t h e g r o w t h i n a r m y v o l u n t e e r i s m c a n p a r t i c a l l y b e a t t r i b u t e d t o p a t r i o t i s m . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , t o d e t e r -m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e . I f o n e , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e t o j u d g e s o l e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f H a r d y ' s w o r k s s e t i n t h i s 58 p e r i o d ' - T h e T r u m p e t M a j o r o r D y n a s t s - - o n e w o u l d g e t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t e v e r y h o n e s t m a n i n B r i t a i n w h o d i d n o t v o l u n t e e r t h o u g h t h i m s e l f a c o w a r d a n d a t r a i t o r t o h i s n a t i o n ; a n d c e r t -a i n l y s o m e o f t h e p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e p e r i o d p l a y e d u p o n t h e p a t r i o t i c i m p u l s e , a n d , a s w e l l , r e c r u i t m e n t p o s t e r s o c c a -s i o n a l l y m a d e a p p e a l s " t o s t a n d f o u r t h i n D e f e n c e o f T h e i r K i n g a n d C o u n t r y . . . t o f i g h t f o r o u r l i b e r t y , o u r R e l i g i o n a n d o u r 5 9 L a w s " . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f o n e w e r e t o r e l y o n t h e m o r e c o n t e m p o r a r y n o v e l s o f J a n e A u s t e n t o g a u g e t h e p a t r i o t i c m o o d o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , t h e i m p r e s s i o n l e f t w o u l d b e o f a p e o p l e b a r e l y a w a r e o f e v e n b e i n g a t w a r a g a i n s t F r a n c e : a n d i n f a c t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f r e c r u i t i n g p o s t e r s e m p h a s i s e d n o t p a t r i o t i s m , a s i f i t w e r e a n i n a d e q u a t e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s g i m m a c k , b u t b o u n t y , b o o t y a n d p r i z e - m o n e y . U n d o u b t e d l y , J a n e A u s t e n ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e w a r y e a r s w a s s o m e w h a t m i s l e a d i n g f o r s o m e p a t r i o t i c s e n t i m e n t w a s g e n e r a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e y e a r s 1803-05 w h e n B r i t a i n s t o o d a l o n e a g a i n s t F r a n c e a n d / t h r e a t e n e d b y i n v a s i o n ; b u t e v e n i f w e w e r e t o g o s o f a r a s t o a c k n o w l e d g e H a r d y ' s c l a i m t h a t " t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y h a d , i n f a c t , c h a n g e d f r o m l o v e o f G o d t o h a t r e d o f N a p o l e o n B o n a p a r t e " , a n d t h a t i t i n s p i r e d a s t r o n g s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l p u r p o s e a n d p r i d e , • h i s f e e l i n g d i d n o t , o n t h e w h o l e , t r a n s f o r m i t s e l f i n t o a w i d e s p r e a d d e s i r e t o f i g h t . T h e e v i d e n c e s i m p l y c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . P e r h a p s t h e 56 p u b l i c , t h o u g h a r o u s e d , i n s u f f i c i e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e d e p t h a n d g r a v i t y o f t h e w a r s ; p e r h a p s t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s a t f a u l t f o r n o t e x p l o i t i n g t h i s t e m p e r b y k e e p i n g t h e c o u n t r y w e l l - i n f o r m e d o f t h e s t a k e s i n v o l v e d . T h i s s e e m e d t o h a v e W o r d s w o r t h ' s b e l i e f ! " A l l t h i s a p p a r e n t l i s t l e s s n e s s a n d l a n g u o r , " h e w r o t e , " i s t o b e a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t n o t h a v i n g t a k e n p r o p e r m e a n s t o c i r c u l a t e i n s t r u c t i n g a n d a n i m a t i n g w r i t i n g s a m o n g t h e p e o p l e : a n d t o o r g a n i z e t h e m i n s u c h a m a n n e r t h a t a n e l e c t r i c s h o c k m i g h t p a s s f r o m m i n d t o m i n d , f r o m o n e t o w n t o a n o t h e r , f r o m o n e v i l l a g e t o a n o t h e r , t h r o u g h a l l t h e l a n d . " ^ I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t m o r e m e n t h a n d i d w o u l d h a v e c o m e f o r w a r d o u t o f p a t r i o t i s m , h a d t h e y r e a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e i s s u e s . ' We h a v e e x a m i n e d r e c r u i t m e n t d u r i n g t h e w a r a g a i n s t F r a n c e f r o m 1 7 9 3 t o 1 8 1 5 , i n a n e f f o r t t o f a c i l i t a t e o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r a n k - a n d - f i l e m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e . A v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s f o r j o i n i n g w e r e d i s c e r n a b l e : m e n v o l u n t e e r e d t o e s c a p e p r i s o n o r p o v e r t y , f o r t h e b o u n t y o f f e r e d , o n a c c o u n t o f a n o c c u p a t i o n a l , s o c i a l o r p e r s o n a l s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , f o r w a n t o f a d v e n t u r e , o r a s a g e s t u r e o f p a t r i o t i s m . I t w a s a l s o n o t e d t h a t a s t h e v r a r p r o g r e s s e d t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f m e n w h o e n t e r e d a s a r e s u l t o f d u b i o u s r e c r u i t i n g p r a c t i c e s d e c l i n e d , t h e p r i n c i p e l r e a s o n b e i n g t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n v o l u n t e e r s o u t o f t h e m i l i t i a - t w e n t y - n i n e t h o u s a n d i n 1 8 0 8 a l o n e , a n d r o u g h l y f o r t y p e r c e n t o f a l l n e w r e c r u i t s f r o m 1 8 0 8 t o 1 8 15. T h i s m e a n t t h a t , o n t h e w h o l e , a b e t t e r c a l i b r e o f s o l d i e r t h a n h i t h e r t o w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e B r i t i s h l a n d f o r c e , a w e l l - t r a i n e d r e c r u i t a n d o n e a w a r e o f w h a t s e r v i c e e n t a i l e d , a n d t h u s k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i s a c t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , o n e ' s i n c e n t i v e t o j o i n - w h e t h e r i t w a s t o c o l l e c t a h a n d s o m e b o u n t y , t o f l e e f r o m 57 p o v e r t y , o r t o s m a s h t h e " c o r s i c a n p i r a t e " - d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e n s u r e o n e ' s s u s t a i n e d c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e f o r c e . R a t h e r , a s o l d i e r ' s l o y a l i t y w a s m o r e c r i t i c a l l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e a r m y e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f . W e m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , l o o k a t a r m y l i f e t o g a i n a n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c o m m o n s o l d i e r ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s m o d e o f e x i s t e n c e , a n d t o l a y b a r e t h o s e a s p e c t s o f i t w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o m a k i n g t h e s o l d i e r ' s l i f e p a f l ? a t a b l e a n d e v e n m e a n i n g f u l . We s h a l l f i r s t e x a m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h h e w a s f o r c e d t o c o n f r o n t . .- 1)8 1 . C i t e d i n R i c h a r d G l o v e r , P e n i n s u l a r P r e p a r a t i o n , T h e R e f o r m o f t h e B r i t i s h A r r a y 1 7 9 5 - 1 8 0 9 ( C a m b r i d g e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 . 2 . C i t e d i n C o l o n e l H » D e W a t t e v i l l e , T h e B r i t i s h S o l d i e r ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 4 ) , 9 4 . 3 . A c c o r d i n g t o S i r J o h n F o r t e s c u e , " T h e m u t i n y d i d n o t s p r e a d t o t h e A r m y g e n e r a l l y , t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e u n p l e a s a n t s y m p t o m s a m o n g t h e a r t i l l e r y o f W o o l w i c h , a n d s t i l l w o r s e , t h o u g h t h e y d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a p p e a r , a m o n g t h e c a v a l r y i n I r e l a n d . " J . W . F o r t e s c u e , T h e B r i t i s h A r m y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 5 ) , 4 f 4 . F o r t u n a t e l y , i n 1 7 9 1 a m e l i o r a t i v e a c t i o n w a s t a k e n t o l i m i t t h e n u m b e r o f s t o p p a g e s t h a t c o u l d l e g a l l y b e s u b s t r a c t e d f r o m a s o l d i e r ' s p a y , a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t , t o s u p p l y a f r e e d a i l y f o o d r a t i o n . 5 . V e r n e y , D i a r i e s o f S i r H a r r y C a l v e r t , 6 7 - 8 : c i t e d i n G l o v e r , o p . c i t . , 2 1 9 . 6 . C i t e d i n G l o v e r , o p . c i l , 1 5 0 . 7 . C i t e d i n G o d f r e y D a v i e s , W e l l i n g t o n a n d H i s A r m y ( O x f o r d , 1 9 5 4 ) , 2 0 . 8 . S i r J o h n F o r t e s c u e , H i s t o r y o f T h e B r i t i s h A r m y , 1 0 , 4 9 6 9 . C i t e d i n J . O ^ L i n d s a y ( e d ) . T h e " " N e w C a m b r i d g e M o d e r n H i s t o r y , v o l . V I I I , T h e O l d R e g i m e . 1 7 1 3 - 6 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 8 4 . 1 0 . S i r J o h n F o r t e s c u e , T h e B r i t i s h A r m y 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 0 2 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 5 ) , 1 4 2 . 1 1 . ' O n R e c r u i t i n g t h e A r m y ' , U n i t e d S e r v i c e J o u r n a l , v o l . I l l f o r 1 8 3 7 , 4 3 8 . 1 2 . C i t e d i n D e W a t t e v i l l e , o p . c i t . , 9 6 . 1 3 . I b i d . , 1 0 0 . 1 4 . I b i d . , 9 8 . 1 5 . H o w e v e r , S t e w a r t d i d n o t s e e m t o m i n d t e r r i b l y ; e n l i s t m e n t h a d p r o v e d a n e n o r m o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l e s c a p e f r o m a n o t h e r w i s e i n s u r m o u n t a b l e p e r s o n a l q u a n d r a y ; n o d o u b t o t h e r s s h a r e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e . ( T h e S u b a l t e r n ( E d i n b o r o u g h & L o n d o n , 1 8 2 5 ) , 7 - 1 6 ) . 1 6 . R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f a n E v e n t f u l L i f e , p a s s e d C h i e f l y i n t h e  A r m y b y a S o l d i e r ( G l a s g o w , 1 8 2 5 ) , 1 7 1 - 2 . 1 7 . W i l l i a m P e n n , E s s a y T o w a r d s t h e P r e s e n t a n d F u t u r e P e a c e  o f E u r o p e , c h . " ~ 1 ( 1 6 9 3 ) . 59 18. Duke o f York to George I I I , 2 2 A p r i l 1 7 9 7 , Windsor 8409: c i t e d i n Glover, op.' c i t . , 2 2 5 * 1 9 . R e c o l l e c t i o n s ..., op. c i t . , 7 7 - 8 . 20. C i t e d i n C.W.C. Oman, W e l l i n g t o n ' s Army 1809-1814 (London, 1 9 1 3 - ) . 211. 21. Autobiography o f Andrew Pearson (Edinburgh, 1 8 6 5 ) . 2 2 . R e c o l l e c t i o n s op. c i t . , 7 9 * 2 3 . Rifleman H a r r i s (Hamden, Conn, 1 9 7 0 ) . 2 4 . W i l l i a m Surtees, Twenty-five Years i n the R i f l e Brigade (Edinborough and London, 1 8 3 3 ) » 4 7 - 8 . 2 5 . J o u r n a l o f a S o l d i e r o f the S e v e n t y - F i r s t or Glasgow Kg^iteni-(From 1806 to 1815), (Edinburgh, 1819) 2 6 . I b i d . , 8 . 27. I b i d . , 12. 28. C i t e d i n D e W a t t e v i l l e , op. c i t . , 9 7 ! 2 9 * Thomas M o r r i s , R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f M i l i t a r y Service (London, 1 8 4 7 ) ; 3 0 ; I b i d . , 1 . 3 1 . I b i d . , 2 9 . 3 2 . I b i d . , 3 - 4 . 3 3 . The S u b a l t e r n (Edinborough, London, 1 8 2 5 ) , 5«l 3 4 . C i t e d i n W.H. F i t c h e H ( e d ) , W e l l i n g t on's Men (London, 1 9 1 2 ) , 4 7 - 8 . " 3 5 • G'jC. Moore Smith, the Autobiography o f L i e u t e n a n t - G e n e r a l  S i r Harry Smith, (London, 1 9 0 2 ) , v o l . 1 , 1 9 2 . 3 6 . C i t e d i n A r t h u r Bryant, 'Jackets o f Green'» A Study o f the H i s t o r y , P h i l o s o p h y and C h a r a c t e r o f the R i f l e Brigade (London, 1 9 7 2 ) , 7 8 . 3 7 ! S i r John Fo r t e s c u e , H i s t o r y o f the B r i t i s h Army, IV, 9 2 9 3 8 " . However, there was one important change i n the nature o f s e r v i c e ; one c o u l d now e n l i s t f o r seven, ten or twelve years r a t h e r than„life. for 3 9 . C i t e d i n Glover, op. c i t . , 2 2 5 . 60 40. Londonery, Castlereagh's Correspondances,VIII, 78: ci t e d i n Glover, op. c i t . , 228. 41. Glover, op. c i t . , 231. 42. Wyndham was Secretary of State at War from June 1806 to A p r i l 1807. Lord Castlereagh held the post from A p r i l 1807 to September 1809. 43. 27,505 men volunteered. 44. Glover, op. c i t . , 249. 45. I b i d . , 229. 46. According to E l i e Halevy, from the sixteenth century to the Treaty of Utrecht bounties were approximately £.2; they were raised to £3 during the American Revolution and then during the war against Revolutionary France ranged from £l6 to ^40. ( E l i e Halevy, A History  of The English People i n 1815 (New York, 1924), 69.) 47. I b i d . , 69. 48. S i r John W. Fortescue, The B r i t i s h Army 1783-1802 (London, 1905), 9. 49. James Anton, Retrospect of a M i l i t a r y L i f e (Edinburgh, 1841), 39. 50. Cited i n Godfrey Davies, op. c i t . , 88. 51. One s i g n i f i c a n t exception was the a g r i c u l t u r a l farmer; a g r i c u l t u r a l prices rose during the l a s t years of the war. 52. J.S. Bromley (ed.), The New Cambridge Modern History, V o l . V i , The Rise of Great B r i t a i n and Russia, 1688-1715/25 (Cambridge at the University Press, 1970), 769-770. 53. I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to compare wages i n the army and those of c i v i l i a n jobs since records of job wage rates are too incomplete. The point i s , though, that good wages are i r r e l e v a n t i f steady work i s scarce. 54. Narrative of the Eventful L i f e of Thomas Jackson (Birmingham, 1847), 1-5. '• 55. George Simmons, A B r i t i s h R i f l e Man, Willoughby Verner (ed.), (London, 1899). 56. John Spencer Cooper, Rough Notes of Seven Campaigns (London, 1869). 61 5 7 . J o u r n a l ... o p . c i t . , 2 3 1 58. Thomas Hardy, The Trumpet-Ma,ior (New York); Dynasts (London, 1908). 5 9 J C i t e d i n G e o f f r e y Cousins, The Defenders, A H i s t o r y o f  the B r i t i s h V o l u n t e e r (London, 1 9 6 8 ) , 3 2 , 4 9 . . 6 0 . Hardy, The Trumpet-Ma.ior, 2 3 5 . 6 1. To Thomas de Quincey, March 29, 1 8 0 9 . L e t t e r s o f the  Wordsworth Family, W i l l i a m Knight ( e d ) , ( B o s t o n , 1 9 0 7 ) , 42: c i t e d i n Davies, op. c i t . , 7 3 . Davies adds that "there was a f l o o d o f i n v a s i o n b r o a d s i d e s , h a n d - b i l l s , pamphlets, songs and ' l o y a l Papers' i n 1 8 0 3 , and there were many c a r i c a t u r e s to e x t o l Spanish g a l l a n t r y and E n g l i s h a i d to Spain i n 1808, but not l a t e r . " ( 7 3 ) . 62-I l l A r m y L i f e i n t h e P e n i n s u l a U p o n v o l u n t e e r i n g , t h e r e c r u i t s w e r e a w a r d e d t h e i r b o u n t i e s . L a t e r , t h e y w e r e a s s e m b l e d a n d m a r c h e d t o a n e a r b y p u b l i c h o u s e f o r a c a r o u s e , o r , i f t h e d a y ' s r e c r u i t m e n t h a d a l r e a d y t a k e n t h e r e c r u i t i n g p a r t y t o a p u b , t h e d r i n k i n g w a s m e r e l y c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e e v e n i n g . T h e e x c i t e m e n t o c c a s i o n a l l y a r o u s e d o t h e r m e n t o v o l u n t e e r . T h a t t h e r e w a s a c e l e b r a t i o n w a s n a t u r a l . T h e m e n n o d o u b t w i s h e d t o m a r k t h e d e m i s e o f t h e i r f r e e d o m r i o t o u s l y . M o r e o v e r , a r e c r u i t i n g p a r t y w a s a l w a y s q u i c k t o i n s i s t t h a t s u c h a c e l e b r a t i o n , p a i d f o r b y t h e n e w r e c r u i t s o f c o u r s e , w a s a t i m e -h o n o u r e d c u s t o m . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y c r e a t e d a n e x c u s e t o r o b a p o r t i o n o f t h e n e w s o l d i e r ' s b o u n t y f o r f r e e a l c o h o l a n d a f r o l i c . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e c r u i t o f t e n l o s t a g o o d p o r t i o n o f h i s r e w a r d o n h i s f i r s t n i g h t i n t h e s e r v i c e ^ t h e r e s t w o u l d p r o b a b l y d i s a p p e a r s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , p a r t o f i t d e d u c t e d f o r • n e c e s s a r i e s ' ( e q u i p m e n t ) , t h e r e m a i n d e r v a n i s h i n g w i t h t h e h e l p o f o l d ' k n a v e s ' o f h i s r e g i m e n t w h o s e s k i l l s a t m a n i p u l a t i n g n e w 1 r e c r u i t s r i v a l l e d t h o s e o f r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r s . T h e n e w s o l d i e r s drank a n d d a n c e d h a p p i l y o n t h i s f i n a l n i g h t o f f r e e d o m . T h e m o o d w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y s p i r i t e d a m o n g f o r m e r m i l i t i a m e n s i n c e f r i e n d l y , c l a n n i s h g r o u p s o f t h e m t e n d e d t o v o l u n t e e r i n t o t h e Army t o g e t h e r a n d b e c a u s e t h e y h a d m o r e t o s p e n d o n a l c o h o l t h a n t h e a v e r a g e r e c r u i t , h a v i n g a l r e a d y p u r -c h a s e d t h e n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t . P e r h a p s o r g i a s t i c r a t h e r t h a n s p i r i t e d w o u l d m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e s c e n e , a s t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t h e r c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s : 63 " B l a c k g u a r d i s m i s f a s h i o n a b l e , a n d e v e n t h e y o u n g e s t w e r e l e d i n t o s c e n e s o f l o w d e b a u c h e r y a n d d r u n k e n e s s , b y m e n a d v a n c e d i n y e a r s . M a n y o f t h e o f f i c e r s w h o , a t l e a s t , o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n o f s u p e r i o r t a l e n t s a n d e d u c a t i o n , s e e m e d t o b e l i t t l e b e t t e r , i f w e w e r e a l l o w e d t o j u d g e f r o m t h e a b o m i n a b l e o a t h s a n d s c u r r i l i t y w h i c h t h e y u s e d , a n d w h i c h . . . w a s t o o o f t e n i m i t a t e d b y t h o s e b e n e a t h t h e m . " O n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y t h e m e n w e r e m a r c h e d t o t h e i r r e g i -m e n t a l b a r r a c k s . T h e j o u r n e y w a s i n v a r i a b l y c h a o t i c , i n s o b r i e t y r e i g n i n g . T h o m a s J a c k s o n o b s e r v e d t h a t , " n o w e v e r y m a n d r u n k ( a l l d a y ) . . . a l l c o m m a n d w a s l o s t ; s u c h a s i g h t , p e r h a p s , w a s n e v e r s e e n ; t h r e e h u n d r e d s o l d i e r s , m o s t l y m a d d r u n k t h e y w o u l d m a r c h h o w t h e y l i k e d , a n d w h e n t h e y l i k e d , a n d h e r e a n d t h e r e s t o p a n d f i g h t a b a t t l e o n t h e r o a d . " ^ P r i v a t e W h e e l e r t o l d o f t h e c o m p l e t e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s t r a v e l -l i n g p a r t y a s i t m a r c h e d t h r o u g h S u r r e y . M i r a c u l o u s l y , t h e m e n w e r e s o m e h o w r o u n d e d u p a n d s o b e r e d b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d S a l i s b u r y , o n l y t o r i o t t h e r e . A n o t h e r s o l d i e r d e s c r i b e d t h e a r r i v a l o f h i s p a r t y a t B a r h a m D o w n s , K e n t i n t h e s e w o r d s : " ( t h e m e n ) c a m e t u m b l i n g d o w n . . . i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e c o n v e y a n c e - p o s t c o a c h e s , p o s t c h a i s e s , w i t h s i x h o r s e s , c a r a v a n s , l i f t - c a r t s , f l y i n g w a g g o n s e t c . e t c . , l e a v i n g t h e o f f i c e r t o p l o d h i s w a y o n f o o t , w i t h t w o o r t h r e e w h o h a d e i t h e r s p e n t o r l o s t t h e i r m o n e y b e f o r e s t a r t i n g . T h e t a l k . . . o f t h e f o l l y o f s a i l o r s i n s p e n d i n g t h e i r m o n e y - s o l d i e r s c a n b e e q u a l l y f o o l s o n s i m i l a r t e r m s . S e v e r a l . . . p u t o n e a n d t w o p o u n d n o t e s b e t w e e n s l i c e s o f b r e a d - a n d - b u t t e r a n d a t e t h e m l i k e s a n d w i c h e s . " ^ S u c h j o u r n e y s w e r e g e n e r a l l y h a r m l e s s a n d h u m o u r l e s s , b u t o c c a -s i o n a l l y t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f n e w t r o o p s t o t h e i r d e p o t h a d u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t s . S e v e r a l t i m e s v i o l e n c e w a s p r o v o k e d w i t h 5 c i v i l i a n s , a n d o n a n u m b e r o f o t h e r s , i n t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s , m e n w h o h a d p a s s e d o u t d r u n k a l o n g t h e w a y s u b s e q u e n t l y f r o z e t o d e a t h . 0 4 . I n t h e r e g i m e n t a l b a r r a c k s B r i t a i n ' s s o l d i e r s w e r e d r i l l e d 7 i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w a r . B a r r a c k s w e r e a n e w p h e n o m e n a i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . U n t i l 1 7 9 2 m o t i o n s i n P a r l i a m e n t t o e r e c t a s y s t e m o f m i l i t a r y w o r k s , i n c l u d i n g b a r r a c k s , d e s i g n e d f o r a d e f e n c e a g a i n s t a n i n v a s i o n w e r e u t t e r l y d e f e a t e d a s b e i n g d a n g e r o u s t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e . W h e n s u d d e n l y t h e i n v a s i o n s c a r e g r e w a n a m b i t i o u s p r o g r a m m e o f b a r r a c k c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s p u r s u e d . B y g 1 8 0 3 , 2 0 3 h a d b e e n e r e c t e d . B a r r a c k s h a d t h e f u r t h e r a d v a n t a g e s o f n o t o n l y b e i n g a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n c o m f o r t o v e r t h e o l d s y s t e m o f b i l l e t i n g m e n i n o f t e n r u n - d o w n t a v e r n s a n d o t h e r m a k e s h i f t q u a r t e r s , b u t a l s o a s u r e r w a y o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n e y e o n t h e s o l d i e r . U n d o u b t e d l y , d e s e r t i o n i n t h e h o m e c o u n t r y w a s r e d u c e d 9 a s a r e s u l t . A s a f u r t h e r p r e c a u t i o n , l a r g e b o d i e s o f t r o o p s u n d e r o r d e r s f o r f o r e i g n s e r v i c e w e r e o f t e n q u a r t e r e d o n t h e I s l e o f W i g h t " f r o m w h i c h t h e y c o u l d n o t e a s i l y e s c a p e " , ^ T h e l o c a t i o n tJUo o f p r e v i o u s d e p o t s o f f e r e d n o s u c h d e t e r r e n t a g a i n s t t h o s e / a t t h e l a s t m o m e n t l o s t t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e p r o s p e c t o f f i g h t i n g . O n t h e d a y t h e m e n d e p a r t e d a l a r g e a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c c r o w d w a s u s u a l l y o n h a n d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r o f T h e S u b a l t e r n , T1 " T h e i n h a b i t a n t s f i l l e d t h e i r w i n d o w s a n d t h r o n g e d t h e s t r e e t s " . A s b e f i t t e d t r a v e l l i n g o c c a s i o n s , t h e s o l d i e r s w e r e i n v a r i a b l y d r u n k , m u c h t o t h e a m u s e m e n t o f t h e l o c a l p o p u l a c e . D u r i n g o n e s u c h d e p a r t u r e " t h e h e a d o f t h e c o l u m n w a s a b l e t o k e e p s o b e r : t h e r e a r , u n d e r t h e e n d e a r m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a c e , s u b s i d e d d e a d 1 2 d r u n k o n t h e r o a d a n d w a s b r o u g h t o n i n c a r t s . " T h e a t m o s p h e r e w a s c o n g e n i a l a n d a s t h e w a r p r o g r e s s e d , a n d t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e 1 3 B r i t i s h A r m y g r e w , t h i s p o p u l a r e n t h u s i a s m m u s h r o o m e d . Y e t d e s p i t e t h e p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t , o r i n t h e w o r d s o f o n e s o l d i e r , " t h e s i n c e r i t y o f t h e g o o d w i s h e s w h i c h t h e y e x p r e s s e d , f o r o u r 1 k s u c c e s s a n d s a f e t y " , t h e r e w a s a s e n s e i n w h i c h t h e p e o p l e t h o u g h t t h a t s o l d i e r s w e r e n o n e t h e l e s s f o o l s , l a m b s b e i n g l e d o f f t o t h e s l a u g h t e r . I n s u m , t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f a r m y l i f e w a s n o t u n p l e a s a n t . T h e m e n w e r e p a i d w e l l ; f o r m a n y t h e b o u n t y h a d b e e n m o r e t h a n t h e y h a d e v e r p o s s e s s e d a t o n e t i m e b e f o r e . T h e y w e r e a l s o a l l o w e d t o p a s s a g o o d d e a l o f t h e i r t i m e a m u s i n g t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y h a d b e e n t r a i n e d i n t h e i r d u t i e s , a n d o f t e n t r a i n e d v i g -o r o u s l y , b u t t h e s i t u a t i o n w a s q u i t e u n l i k e t h a t p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e w a r t h e a t r e . U n t i l t h e n t h e s o l d i e r c o n f r o n t e d n e i t h e r t h e s e r i o u s n e s s n o r t h e r e a l h a r d s h i p o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s -c p l e a s a n t p u r g a t o r y - l i k e s t a t e , t h o u g h c o m f o r f e b l e f o r s o m e , d i d , h o w e v e r , i n s p i r e i n m a n y a n a n x i o u s m a l a i s e , a d e s i r e t o g e t o n w i t h i t , t h e s o r t o f f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h w h i c h C a n a d i a n t r o o p s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n w a i t i n g t o p r o c e e d t o t h e c o n t i n e n t d u r i n g t h e 1 5 S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , t o o , w e r e d e e p l y f a m i l a r . T h e f e e l i n g w a s n o d o u b t a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d b y s a i l o r s o f t h e R o y a l N a v y , w h o , h a t i n g t h e b o r e d o m o f p a t r o l i n g t h e v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i c a r e a s , p r e f e r r e d t o m e e t t h e i r f o e i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t " t h e h o t t e r w a r , t h e s o o n e r p e a c e " . C o n d i t i o n s o n b o a r d t r a n s p o r t v e s s e l s w e r e t o l e r a b l e t h o u g h t h e m e n ' s q u a r t e r s w e r e s o m e w h a t c r a m m e d a n d s m e l l y . T h e s o l d i e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o d o s o m e w o r k i n a i d o f t h e s h i p ' s c r e w . 66 P r i v a t e W h e e l e r t h o u g h t t h e w o r k p l e a s a n t , d e s c r i b i n g e v e r y m a n a s c h e e r f u l l y e m p l o y e d . D i s c i p l i n e w a s m o d e s t . T h e r e w a s a l s o p l e n t y o f t i m e f o r t h e m e n t o a m u s e t h e m s e l v e s . W h e e l e r w r o t e , " A m o n g s t e a c h p a r t y o f s a i l o r s m i g h t b e s e e n a g o o d s p r i n k l i n g o f r e d - j a c k e t s , t h i s g a v e l i f e t o t h e s c e n e . I v i e w e d i t w i t h d e l i g h t a n d I m i g h t t r u l y s a y I . n e v e r p a s s e d a d a y i n m y l i f e s o c o m p l e t e l y h a p p y . " g T r a n s p o r t v e s s e l s c a r r i e d m e n t o n u m e r o u s d e s t i n a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d N a p o l e o n i c w a r s . B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s s e r v e d i n I r e l a n d , * I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a , F l a n d e r s , F r a n c e , I t a l y , D e n m a r k , t h e I o n i a n I s l a n d s , N o r t h e r n G e r m a n y , S w e d e n , t h e S c h e l d t ( H o l l a n d ) , E g y p t , S y r i a , S o u t h A m e r i c a , t h e W e s t I n d i C s , C a n a d a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , I n d i a , a t t h e C a p e o f G o o d H o p e a n d o n t h e i s l a n d s o f B o u r b o n , M a u r i t i u s a n d J a v a . W e s h a l l f o c u s o n t h e s e c o n d o f t h e W a r s , t h a t i s , o n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e P e a c e o f A m i e n s ( 1 8 0 2 ) , a n d o n t h e P e n i n s u l a r c a m p a i g n , f o r t w o i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s : o n e , u n t i l a b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e p e a c e t h e B r i t i s h A r m y w a s s t i l l i n c h a o s ; b y t h e r e s u m p t i o n o f w a r i n I8O3 t h e A r m y , u n d e r t h e i n s p i r e d l e a d e r s h i p o f m e n s u c h a s t h e D u k e o f Y o r k , S i r C h a r l e s S t u a r t , a n d S i r J o h n M o o r e , w a s p u r g e d o f m u c h o f i t s f o r m e r d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d b a c k w a r d n e s s ; a n d t w o , s i m p l y b e c a u s e m o s t r a n k - a n d - f i l e w r i t t e n s o u r c e s r e l a t e t o t h e c a m p a i g n i n t h e P e n i n s u l a , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a c c o u n t s o f o t h e r e x p e d i t i o n s l i k e t h o s e t o B u e n o s A i r e s (18O7) a n d W a l c h e r e a ( 1 8 0 9 ) . I t w a s a l s o t h e l o n g e s t , m o s t i m p o r t a n t , a n d b e s t k n o w n 1 7 o f B r i t a i n ' s c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n . S h i p s j o u r n e y i n g t o t h e P e n i n s u l a c o u l d , b y v i r t u e o f B r i t a i n ' s d o m i n i o n o v e r t h e s e a s , u s u a l l y d i s e m b a r k iMoir t r o o p s D./ a t a n u m b e r o f p o r t s a l o n g t h e I b e r i a n c o a s t w i t h o u t t o o m u c h d i f f i c u l t y . I t g a v e t h e B r i t i s h A r m y a s u b s t a n t i a l a d v a n t a g e i n m o b i l i t y o v e r t h e F r e n c h . T h i s a d v a n t a g e a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f s u p p l i e s . T h e F r e n c h , m e a n w h i l e , w e r e f o r c e d t o r e l y o n a s i n g l e r o u t e f o r s u p p l i e s f r o m F r a n c e r u n n i n g f r o m B a y o n n e t h r o u g h V i t f t r i a a n d B u r g o s t o M a d r i d . S p a n i s h g u e r i l l a s c o n s t a n t l y s a b a t o g e d i t . T h e r a w , i n e x p e r -i e n c e d m e n w e r e t h e n m a r c h e d t o r e g i m e n t a l d e p o t s , f o r e x a m p l e , -j g A b r a n t e s , a n d t h e r e a s s i g n e d t o v a r i o u s r e g i m e n t s . We m i g h t l o o k n o w a t t h e n a t u r e o f a r m y l i f e i n t h e P e n i n -s u l a , T h e d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l b e b r i e f , m y i n t e n t i o n b e i n g m e r e l y 19 t o c a p t u r e a n i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s e n s e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n . C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s , s u c h a s d i s c i p l i n e a n d p u n i s h m e n t , w i l l o n l y b e a l l u d e d t o s i n c e t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s I r o n i c a l l y , d e s p i t e t h e r e f o r m o f t h e - w o r s t a b u s e s o f t h e B r i t i s h A r m y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a m p a i g n i n P o r t u g a l a n d S p a i n w a s s u c h t h a t r a r e l y h a s a n a r m y s u f f e r e d m o r e t h a n d i d X i T e l l i n g t o n A p a r t f r o m t h e u s u a l h i g h l y d i s c i p l i n e d c h a r a c t e r o f a r m y l i f e a n d i t s b r u t a l i z a t i o n b y t h e r a t h e r l i b e r a l u s e o f t h e l a s h a t t h e l e a s t i n d i s c r e t i o n , t h i s c a m p a i g n w a s e x h a u s t i n g , a t a l e o f c o n s t a n t t o i l a n d d i s c o m f o r t . O n e o f i t s m o s t s e v e r e a s p e c t s w a s t h e e x c e s s i v e , a l m o s t i n h u m a n a m o u n t o f m a r c h i n g d e m a n d e d o f t h e m e n . F o r a t l e a s t s i x m o n t h s o f t h e y e a r t h e A r m y w a s c o n -s t a n t l y m o b i l e , a v i v i d c o n t r a s t t o t h e p a s t w h e n t h e p a c e o f w a r w a s l e t h a r g i c . T h e c a m p a i g n i n t h e P e n i n s u l a w a s i n t e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d g r u e l l i n g . T h u s , o n t h e w h o l e , a m o r e d e t e r m i n e d a n d s t o i c s o l d i e r t h a n h i t h e r t o w a s r e q u i r e d . 6;8 T h e g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e w i t h r e g a r d t o m a r c h i n g w a s t o t r a v e l f r o m s u n r i s e t o t e n o ' c l o c k i n t h e m o r n i n g , a n d t h e n f r o m l a t e a f t e r n o o n t o d u s k , a v e r a g i n g a b o u t f i f t e e n m i l e s d a i l y . T h e m e n m a r c h e d f i f t y m i n u t e s o f e v e r y h o u r , r e s t i n g o s t e n s i b l y t o a l l o w s t r a g g l e r s t o c a t c h u p . T h e p a i n w a s e x c e s s i v e b e c a u s e o f t h e r a p i d p a c e o f t h e m a r c h i n g , t h e e f f e c t o n t h e f e e t h i d e o u s . O n e s o l d i e r s p o k e o f " b l o o d s o a k i n g t h r o u g h t h e g a i t e r s , a n d o v e r 2 0 t h e h e e l s o f t h e s o l d i e r ' s h a r d s h o e s , w h i t e n e d w i t h d u s t . " M e n m a r c h e d u n t i l t h e s o r e s h e a l e d ; t h o s e a b s o l u t e l y i n c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g o n w e r e i s s u e d a t i c k e t , p r e s u m a b l y a s a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t a c c u s a t i o n o f d e s e r t i o n , a n d e x p e c t e d t o m a k e t h e i r w a y b a c k e v e n t u a l l y . A n u m b e r o f t h e m a r c h i n g f e a t s o f t h e B r i t i s h A r m y i n t h e P e n i n s u l a w e r e r e m a r k a b l e . T h e m o s t r a p i d m a r c h e v e r u n d e r t a k e n b y a n a r m y ) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e c o r d s , w a s hZ m i l e s i n 26 h o u r s o n 2 8 - 2 9 J u l y , 1 8 0 9 b y t h e L i g h t B r i g a d e u n d e r B r i g a d i e r - ( l a t e r M a j o r G e n e r a l ) - G e n e r a l R o b e r t C r a w f o r d t o t h e a i d o f W e l l i n g t o n 2 1 a t T a l a v e r a . T h e y a r r i v e d l a t e , n o n e t h e l e s s . O n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , i n t h e P y r e n e e s , s e v e r a l r e g i m e n t s m a r c h e d f o r 32 c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s i n p u r s u i t o f t h e F r e n c h . M o s t e x t r a o r d i n a r y w a s t h e r e t r e a t t o C o r u n n a , a t r e k t h r o u g h t h e b l i z z a r d - r i d d e n m o u n t a i n s o f n o r t h e r n S p a i n i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1 8 0 8 - 0 9 , r e n d e r e d 2 2 i n f i n i t e l y w o r s t b y t h e f a c t t h a t d i s c i p l i n e b r o k e d o w n . A d d e d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f l o n g a n d e x h a u s t i n g m a r c h e s w e r e t h e t r e m e n d o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n . T h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a i s q u i t e u n l i k e t h e r e s t o f 69 W e s t e r n E u r o p e . T h e g r e e n f i e l d s a n d p l e a s a n t v a l l e y s d i s a p p e a r a t t h e P y r e n e e s , r e p l a c e d b y h i g h m o u n t a i n s , b l e a k , w i n d - s w e p t p l a t e a u x , a n d b a r r e n d e s e r t s . I t i s a h a r s h l a n d w h e r e t h e s o i l i s b a k e d h a r d b y t h e b l a z i n g s u n a n d v e g e t a t i o n i s s t u n t e d a n d p o o r . I n t h e P e n i n s u l a t h e w o r s t f e a t u r e s o f a l l s e a s o n s a p p e a r i n e x a g g e r a t e d f o r m : t h e s u m m e r s a r e h o t a n d d r y , t h e w i n t e r s b i t t e r l y c o l d , t h e s p r i n g s a n d a u t u m n s f u l l o f t o r r e n t i a l r a i n s . O f t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e m e n c o m p l a i n e d m o s t b i t t e r l y a b o u t t h e i n t e n s e h e a t o f s u m m e r . W r o t e o n e c a p t a i n , " T o s t i r o u t d u r i n g t h e h e a t o f t h e d a y , u n l e s s b y s p e c i a l o r d e r , i s a c c o u n t e d 23 a n a c t o f h e r o i s m , a n d b o r d e r i n g v e r y n e a r u p o n i n s a n i t y . " O f f i c e r s t r i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t m a r c h e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n e a r l y i n t h e d a y o r o t h e r w i s e a t n i g h t , b u t t h i s w a s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e , n o c t u r n a l t r a v e l b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y d a n g e r o u s i n a r e a s i n f e s t e d w i t h t h e e n e m y . W h e n m e n m a r c h e d u n d e r t h e o p p r e s s i v e h e a t o f t h e s u n , b r a n c h e s w e r e w o r n i n t h e i r s h a k o e s f o r p r o t e c t i o n , w i t h l i m i t e d s u c c e s s . A s o n e s o l d i e r r e m a r k e d , t y p i c a l l y , " T h e h e a t i s e x t r e m e . W e a r e a l l g e t t i n g v e r y b r o w n a n d o u r l i p s a r e s o 2k p a i n f u l t h a t w e c a n h a r d l y t o u c h t h e m . " I n d e e d , s u n s t r o k e failed m a n y . T h e c l i m a t e o f t h e r e g i o n t h u s i n t e n s i f i e d t h e t o i l o f m a r c h i n g . T h e u n i f o r m w o r n b y t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r , i n c l u d i n g a n e q u i p m e n t p a c k w e i g h i n g a b o u t 70 p o u n d s , o n l y a d d e d t o h i s m i s e r y . " " A g e n t l e m a n b l e s s e d w i t h a v a l e t " , s a i d A n t o n , " m i g h t h a v e i m a g i n e d w h i t e s m a l l - c l o t h e s v e r y s u i t a b l e t o a s o l d i e r ; b u t t h e y w e r e n e i t h e r p l e a s a n t , c l e a n l y , n o r c o m f o r t a b l e ; f o r t h e l e a s t s t a i n a p p e a r e d u p o n t h e m , a n d t h e c o a r s e q u a l i t y o f t h e c l o t h p u t w a s h i n g w i t h p u r e w a t e r a n d s o a p o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n : 70 t h e y h a d , t h e r e f o r e , t o b e r o b b e d f u l l o f p i p e c l a y a n d w h i t e n i n g , , s o a s a l m o s t t o b l i n d t h e p o o r m a n w i t h t h e d u s t . H e r e w e h a d a f a i r e x t e r i o r f o r a f i e l d d a y : b u t i f t h e w e a t h e r w a s h o t , t h e p e r s p i r -a t i o n a n d w h i t e n i n g f r e t t e d a n d p r i c k l e d o u r t h i g h s ; i f i t r a i n e d , t h e c l o t h b e c o m i n g s a t u r a t e d , t h e p i p e -c l a y d u s t w a s l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n q u i c k l i m e ; i f t h e s t r e e t s w e r e d i r t y , w o e f u l m a r k s f l e w f r o m o u r h e e l s t o o u r b r e e c h , a s i f s o m e w i c k e d e l f h a d f o l l o w e d w i t h a p a i n t - b r u s h . B u t s e t t i n g a s i d e t h e s e s e r i o u s a n n o y a n c e s , t h e y w e r e g e n e r a l l y m a d e s o t i g h t a n d b r a c e d u p s o f i r m t h a t w e a l m o s t s t o o d l i k e a u t o m a t a o f w o o d , m e c h a n i c a l l y a r r a n g e d f o r s o m e e x h i b i t i o n o n a l a r g e s c a l e . T o s t o o p w a s m o r e t h a n o u r s m a l l c l o t h e s w e r e w o r t h ; b u t t o n s f l y i n g , k n e e s b u r s t i n g , b a c k p a r t s r e n d i n g ; a n d t h e n t h e l o n g , h e a v y g r o a n w h e n w e s t o o d u p , j u s t l i k e a n o l d c o r p u l e n t g o u t y m a n a f t e r s t o o p i n g t o l i f t h i s f a l l e n c r u t c h . " ^ I n c r e d i b l y , e a r l i e r u n i f o r m s w e r e e v e n m o r e u n c o m f o r t a b l e . U n d e r t h e D u k e o f Y o r k a s C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f t h e r e w a s s o m e s t r e a m l i n i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r m y w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e W e l s h R e g i m e n t ; f o r e x a m p l e , p i g t a i l s w e r e a b o l i s h e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e e x t r e m e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s . S t i l l , t h e u n i f o r m r e m a i n e d u n c o m f o r t a b l e a n d t h i s d i s c o m f o r t w a s c o m p o u n d e d b y i t s l a c k o f d u r a b i l i t y , c o m -b i n e d w i t h a n i r r e g u l a r i s s u e o f s p a r e c l o t h i n g . F e w c o n c e s s i o n s w e r e m a d e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f w o r k o r t h e c l i m a t e w i t h t h e r e -s u l t t h a t t h e u n i f o r m , i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o o t w e a r , w o r e o u t e a s i l y . I n a n y r e g i m e n t a s m a n y a s a h u n d r e d m e n w e r e w i t h o u t s h o e s a t a n y t i m e . B u g l e r G r e e n c o m p l a i n e d t h a t : "We s a i d t h e s o l e s a n d h e e l s h a d b e e n g l u e d o r p e g g e d o n , a s t h e r e c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a n y w a x o r h e m p u s e d , a n d t h e p e r s o n w h o c o n t r a c t e d w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n t r i e d b y c o u r t - m a r t i a l , a n d t o h a v e b e e n r e w a r d e d w i t h a g o o d f l o g g i n g w i t h a c a t - o ' - n i n e - t a i l s ^ y O n t h e m a r c h t o C o r u n n a t h e e f f e c t s o n t h o s e w i t h o u t f o o t w e a r 71 w e r e d e v a s t a t i n g . O n e w o n d e r s t h e n , i n v i e w o f t h e s e c o n d i -t i o n s - t h e h e a v y m a r c h i n g , e x t r e m i t i e s o f c l i m a t e a n d i n -a d e q u a t e u n i f o r m s - h o w m e n c o u l d s u b s e q u e n t l y h a v e m u s t e r e d t h e s t r e n g t h t o f i g h t . W e s h a l l s e e , h o w e v e r , t h a t g o a d i n g t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r o n t o t h e b a t t l e f i e l d w a s t h e l e a s t o f a n , . o f f -i c e r ' s p r o b l e m s . T h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o f i g h t d i d n o t , t h o u g h , n e g a t e t h e b r u t a l i t y o f w a r , t h e d e a t h , p a i n a n d h i d e o u s n e s s . T o t h e s o l d i e r , d e a t h w a s a c o n s t a n t f e a t u r e o f h i s e x -i s t e n c e , a n d a n o m n i p r e s e n t t h r e a t . T h e d e a d a n d t h e d y i n g w e r e e v e r y w h e r e . T h e r e w e r e i n c r e d i b l e s c e n e s o f m a s s s l a u g h t e r a n d m u t i l a t i o n i n t h e P e n i n s u l a . W h e a t l e y d e s c r i b e d s t u m b l i n g u p o n a s o l d i e r w h o h a d b e e n s h o t : " ' A g a i n s t t h e w a l l o f a g a r d e n I s a w a f o o t s o l d i e r s i t t i n g w i t h h i s h e a d b a c k a n d b o t h h i s e y e b a l l s h a n g i n g o n h i s c h e e k s , a b a l l h a v i n g e n t e r e d t h e s i d e o f h i s h e a d a n d p a s s e d o u t o f t h e o t h e a ? i N o t h i n g c o u l d e q u a l t h e h o r r o r o f h i s s i t u a t i o n . H i s m o u t h w a s o p e n , s t i f f a n d c l o t t e d , c l e a r b l o o d o o z e d o u t o f h i s e a r s a n d t h e p u r u -l e n t m a t t e r f r o m h i s e m p t y s o c k e t s e m i t t e d a p a l e s t r e a m f r o m t h e v i t a l h e a t o p p o s e d t o t h e e v e n i n g c o l d . 1 ' 0 2 o T h e r e w a s a n e q u a l a b u n d a n c e o f c r u e l t y , r a p i n e a n d t o r t u r e . A s o l d i e r , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h P o r t u g a l i n 1 8 1 1 a f t e r t h e s u c c e s s f u l B r i t i s h d e f e n c e a t t h e L i n e s o f T o r r e s / e d r a s , d e s c r i b e d t h e s c e n e i n a t o w n t h a t t h e F r e n c h h a d r e c e n t l y a b a n d o n e d : " Y o u n g w o m e n w e r e l y i n g i n t h e i r h o u s e s b r u t a l l y v i o l a t e d , t h e s t r e e t s w e r e s t r e w e d w i t h b r o k e n f u r n i t u r e , i n t e r m i x e d w i t h p u t r i d c a r c a s s e s o f m u r d e r e d p e a s a n t s , m u l e s a n d d o n k e y s , a n d e v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f f i l t h , t h a t f i l l e d t h e a i r w i t h p e s t i l e n t i a l n a u s e a . T h e f e w s t a r v e d m a l e i n h a b i t a n t s w h o w e r e s t a l k i n g a m i d t h e w r e c k o f t h e i r f r i e n d s a n d p r o p e r t y , l o o k e d l i k e s o m a n y s k e l e t o n s w h o h a d b e e n p e r m i t t e d t o l e a v e t h e i r g r a v e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t a k i n g v e n g e a n c e . 72 I n r e t a l i a t i o n t h e n a t i v e g u e r i l l a s f o u g h t a s t h o u g h p o s s e s s e d b y d e v i l s . T o t h e h o r r o r o f t h e B r i t i s h , t h e y m u t i l a t e d c a p t u r e d F r e n c h s o l d i e r s w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n t , o f t e n b l i n d i n g , b o i l i n g o r d i s e m b o w e l l i n g t h e m . A c c o r d i n g t o o n e o b s e r v e r , t h e S p a n i s h q u e r i l i a s , " l i k e a v e n g i n g v u l t u r e s , f o l l o w e d t h e F r e n c h c o l u m n s a t a d i s t a n c e , t o m u r d e r s u c h o f t h e s o l d i e r s a s , f a t i g u e d o r w o u n d e d , r e m a i n e d b e h i n d . . . T h e w o m e n . . . t h r e w t h e m s e l v e s w i t h h o r r i b l e s h r i e k s u p o n t h e w o u n d e d , a n d d i s p u t e d w h o s h o u l d k i l l t h e m b y t h e m o s t c r u e l t o r t u r e , t h e y s t a b b e d t h e i r e y e s w i t h k n i v e s a n d s c i s s o r s , a n d s e e m e d t o e x u l t . . . a t t h e s i g h t o f t h e i r b l o o d . 1 1 q I f c o m b a t w a s b r u t a l , c a r e f o r i t s v i c t i m s w a s p o s i t i v e l y i n h u m a n . F e w e r t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f w o u n d e d B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s s u r v i v e d l o s s o f b l o o d o r g a n g r e n e . T h e r e a s o n s w e r e o b v i o u s . N o s y s t e m f o r c o l l e c t i n g t h e w o u n d e d o f f t h e b a t t l e f i e l d e x i s t e d . M e n i n n e e d o f a t t e n t i o n w e r e f o r c e d t o r e l y o n t h e i r o w n r e -s o u r c e s o r t h e h e l p o f c o m r a d e s t o m a k e t h e i r w a y . M o r e o v e r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f r o m s a f e t y t o h o s p i t a l s w a s d r e a d f u l , a s l o w , t o r t u o u s j o u r n e y o v e r g h a s t l y r o a d s i n u n c o m f o r t a b l e c a r t s . C a p t a i n W i l l i a m S w a b e y r e m a r k e d : " I a m o b l i g e d t o o n c e a g a i n t o c r y s h a m e a g a i n s t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t o f t h e s i c k . T h e u n f o r t u n a t e b e i n g s , m o r e f i t f o r t h e i r d e a t h b e d s t h a n f o r b e i n g m o v e d f r o m o n e p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , a r e d a i l y p a s s i n g t h r o u g h h e r e ( " S a n P a y o ) o n c a r t s w i t h o u t s p r i n g s , e v e r y j o l t o f w h i c h i s s u f f i c i e n t t o f r a c t u r e a l i m b ; o t h e r s d y i n g a r e l e f t n e g l e c t e d a n d u n p i t i e d b y t h e r o a d s i d e . " 1 I n h o s p i t a l s m a n y o f t h e s u r g e o n s e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e c a r e o f t h e s i c k a n d w o u n d e d w o r k e d i n s p i r e d m o r e w i t h e n t h u s i a s m t h a n s k i l l . A n u m b e r w e r e , i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f o n e s o l d i e r , " t h r u s t i n t o t h e a r m y a s a h u g e d i s s e c t i n g r o o m , w h e r e t h e y m i g h t m a n g l e w i t h 73 f j i ' i . i m p u n i t y , u n t i l t h e y w e r e d r i l l e d i n t o a n o r d i n a r y k n o w -l e d g e o f t h e i r b u s i n e s s . " ^ M o r e o v e r , e v e n t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f c o m p e t e n t s u r g e o n s w a s r e s t r i c t e d i n s o f a r a s o n l y o n e s u r g e o n a n d t w o a s s i s t a n t s u r g e o n s w e r e a t t a c h e d t o e a c h r e g i m e n t . T h u s , i n o r d e r t o s e r v i c e a s m a n y m e n a s p o s s i b l e , d o c t o r s t r e a t e d i n j u r i e s e i t h e r b y s i m p l y s t i t c h i n g u p t h e w o u n d r e -g a r d l e s s o f t h e d a m a g e e x i s t i n g t o i n t e r n a l o r g a n s o r b y a m ^ p u t a t i o n . M e a t c a r v e r s a n d s a w s w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l i n s t r u m e n t s , r u m v i r t u a l l y t h e s o l e a n a e s t h e t i c . O n o n e o c c a s i o n a m p u t a t e d l i m b s w e r e f l u n g o u t o f t h e h o s p i t a l o n t o a s q u a r e , m u c h t o t h e c h a g r i n o f w o u n d e d m e n l y i n g t h e r e w a i t i n g t h e i r t u r n . O v e r c r o w d e d n e s s , a f a c t o r i n s p r e a d i n g d i s e a s e , a n d s u p p l y s h o r t a g e s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n a d e q u a t e h o s p i t a l c a r e . T h e d i s m a l s t a t e o f a r m y h e a l t h c a r e m e a n t t h a t i t « w a s c n o t u n c o m m o n f o r m e n t o d i e o f r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r w o u n d s ( o r i l l n e s s e s ) . I t a l s o m e a n t t h a t r e c o v e r i e s w e r e e x t r e m e l y s l o w . " W e a r e a n a r m y o f c o n v a l e s c e n t s , " d e c l a r e d W e l l i n g t o n i n 1 8 1 1 ; I n d e e d , o f t e n a s m u c h a s a t h i r d o f t h e a r m y w a s s i d e l i n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i n l a t e 1 8 1 1 1 4 , 0 0 0 m e n o u t o f a f o r c e o f 5 0 , 0 0 0 w e r e i n d i s p o s e d , a n d a g a i n a f t e r t h e r e t r e a t f r o m B u r g o s i n t h e a u t u m n o f 1 8 1 2 a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f s o l d i e r s w a s u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m . W r o t e G e n e r a l H i l l f r o m M e r i d a ( 1 0 N o v . 1 8 0 9 ) : " I t i s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o s e d t h a t w e h a v e u p w a r d s o f 3 0 , 0 0 0 , b u t I a s s u r e y o u w e c o u l d n o t b r i n g m o r e t h a n 1 3 , 0 0 0 i n t h e f i e l d . T h e s i c k n e s s w h i c h p r e v a i l s i s d r e a d f u l a n d t h e m o r t a l i t y m e l a n c h o l y . T h e r e a r e n o t l e s s t h a n 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n t h e h o s p i t a l s . . . T h e d e a t h s d u r i n g t h e l a s t t h r e e w e e k s h a v e , u p o n a v e r a g e , b e e n l i t t l e s h o r t o f f i f t y m e n a d a y . " ^ L e s t o n e g e t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e B r i t i s h A r m y w a s c o n -s t a n t l y e n g a g e d a n d n e v e r f r e e f r o m e x p o s u r e t o d a n g e r , i t 74% s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t ( a p a r t f r o m h a l f o f e v e r y d a y ) a t l e a s t a t h i r d o f t h e y e a r w a s s p e n t i n b i v o u a c . T o t a k e o n e e x a m p l e : i n 1 8 1 2 , a f t e r t h e B a t t l e s o f C i u d a d R o d r i g o , B a d a j o z a n d S a l a m a n c a t h e B r i t i s h r e s o l v e d t o t a k e B u r g o s b u t a s t h e s i e g e d r a g g e d o n i n t o l a t e O c t o b e r a r e t r e a t w a s c a l l e d a n d t h e m e n f e l l b a c k t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e f r o n t i e r . N o t u n t i l A p r i l o f 1 8 1 3 d i d t h e B r i t i s h A r m y a g a i n r e s u m e i t s o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e F r e n c h ( a t C a s t e l l a 1 3 A p r i l , 1 8 1 3 ) ; B i v o u a c l i f e , h o w e v e r , w a s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m f o r t a b l e . I n a t y p i c a l b i v o u a c t h e c a m p w a s m a r k e d o u t , i f p o s s i b l e n e a r t h e e d g e o f a w o o d a n d c l o s e t o a s t r e a m . G u a r d s w e r e p o s t e d , f i r e p l a c e s b u i l t , w o o d c u t a n d w a t e r f e t c h e d . A f t e r d i n n e r , 3 6 v a r i o u s d u t i e s , s u c h a s e q u i p m e n t r e p a i r s , a n d s o m e a m u s e m e n t s , t h e m e n s l e p t , b u t w i t h o u t t e n t s ; t h e o n l y p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e e l e m e n t s w e r e b l a n k e t s o r w h a t e v e r m a k e s h i f t p r o t e c t i o n t h e y c o u l d c o n t r i v e . U s u a l l y , w r o t e T h o m a s P o c o k e , " w e m i g h t a s w e l l h a v e l a i n i n t h e r i v e r . N e x t m o r n i n g b l a n k e t s h a d t o b e w r u n g o u t a n d s h o e s e m p t i e d o f w a t e r . E a c h m a n w a s t r e m b l i n g l i k e a 37 l e a f . " W h e n t h e r a i n o r s n o w d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e m , t h e h e a v y d e w d i d . W i d e s p r e a d i l l n e s s f r o m e x p o s u r e w a s t h e r e s u l t . B y 1 8 1 3 , h o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t e n t s w o u l d s a v e i n u m e r a b l e l i v e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h e m e n w e r e b i l l e t e d i n t o w n s o r v i l l a g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s . T h e i r a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n -c l u d e d e v e r y t h i n g f r o m c o n v e n t s a n d f a r m h o u s e s t o h a y l o f t s a n d p i g e o n c o u p s . D e s p i t e t h e u n s a n i t a r y h a b i t s o f t h e S p a n i s h a n d P o r t u g u e s e a n d t h e l a c k o f g o o d h e a t i n g i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , If b i l l e t i n g w a s g e n e r a l l y m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e t h a n b i v o t c a c i n g . F o r a l l t h e d i s c o m f o r t a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e P e n i n s u l a , t h e s o l d i e r ' s o n l y m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s f o r h i s t r o u b l e s w e r e f o o d a n d p a y . Y e t i t w a s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f o n e o f f i c e r t h a t , " w h e n a m a n e n t e r e d a s o l d i e r ' s l i f e , h e s h o u l d h a v e p a r t e d w i t h h a l f h i s s t o m a c h . " - ^ T h e d a i l y r a t i o n w a s 1 p o u n d o f m e a t , 1|" p o u n d s o f b r e a d o r 1 p o u n d s h i p ' s b i s c u i t , a n d 1 / 3 p i n t o f r u m o r a p i n t o f w i n e . ( T h e r e w a s n o t o b a c c o r a t i o n ) . I t w a s , i f n o t i n s u f f i c i e n t , t h e n i n s i p i d . M o r e o v e r , b e c a u s e t h e b u l l o c k s w e r e d r i v e n s o f a s t o v e r s u c h d i s t a n c e s , t h e m e a t w a s n o t o r i o u s l y t o u g h a n d l e a n l i k e b o i l e d l e a t h e r . " T h e m e a t w e h a v e i s s o p o o r , ' " w r o t e o n e l i e u t e n a n t , " t h a t i t w o u l d b e b u r n t i f e x p o s e d f o r s a l e i n 3 9 B o l t o n M a r k e t " . S i m i l a r l y , t h e b r e a d s u f f e r e d f o r h a v i n g b e e n t r a n s p o r t e d o v e r e n o r m o u s d i s t a n c e s . F o r t u n a t e l y , a t l e a s t t h e s u p p l y s y s t e m w a s e f f i c i e n t l y o r g a n i z e d s i n c e i t w a s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r a n a r m y t o s u b s i s t o f f t h e l a n d , t h o u g h a b i t o f f o o d w a s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h f o r a g e a n d a t m a r k e t s . T h e F r e n c h , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s s u m i n g f o r m a l s u p p l y l i n e s w e r e n o t e v e r y -41 w h e r e n e c e s s a r y , s u f f e r e d h o r r i b l y f o r t h e i r m i s t a k e . P a y , w h i c h h a d b e e n r a i s e d i n 1 7 9 7 f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i n c e t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w a s p e r i o d i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d hZ d u r i n g t h e W a r s . T h e m e n r e c e i v e d a b o u t t w i c e t h e p a y r a t e hi f o r s o l d i e r s i n t h e F r e n c h o r P r u s s i a n A r m i e s . J I t c o u l d c o m -p a r e f a v o u r a b l y w i t h w a g e s o n l y i n t h e p o o r e s t o f t r a d e s , a l -hh t h o u g h t h e w o r k w a s m o r e s e c u r e t h a n t h a t o f m a n y o t h e r v o c a t i o n s . W e l l i n g t o n t r i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e m e n w e r e r e g u l a r l y p a i d b u t b y J a n u a r y , 1 8 1 4 w a g e s w e r e s i x m o n t h s i n a r r e a r s . S t i l l , t h i s w a s a n a d v a n t a g e t o h i m f o r i t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l o y a l t y o f h i s s o l d i e r s i n s o f a r a s t h e y h e s i t a t e d t o d e s e r t w i t h m o n e y o w i n g t o t h e m . E a r l i e r , C r o m w e l l h a d d e l i b e r a t e l y k e p t b a c k a p o r t i o n o f t h e p a y o f t h e s o l d i e r s i n t h e N e w M o d e l A r m y f o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n . A s E d m u n d F h e a t l y o b s e r v e d o f s o m e m u l a t e e r s , " t h e y a r e j u s t n o w f o u r m o n t h s i n a r r e a r s a n d i t i s a g o o d p l e d g e 45 f o r t h e i r s e c u r i t y . " I n s u m , c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e B r i t i s h A r m y i n t h e P e n i n s u l a w e r e d r e a d f u l , a n d i n m o s t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n t h o u g h t t h e m s o . T h e m e n w e r e p o o r l y h o u s e d , i l l - e q u i p p e d , u n d e r p a i d , m e r c i l e s s l y w o r k e d a n d p e r s o n a l l y n e g l e c t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n d i t i o n s w e r e i m p r o v i n g , a n d c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r m i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o f o o d , p a y , t r a i n i n g , l e n i e n c y at p u n i s h m e n t , a n d h o s p i t a l c a r e . T h e y w e r e i n f e r i o r i n t e r m s o f t h e h a r d s h i p s o f m a r c h i n g , c o n d i t i o n s o f c l i m a t e , 46 a n d f r e q u e n t c y o f b a t t l e . D e s p i t e t h e s e p r i v a t i o n s t h e m e n 47 f o u g h t w e l l . " T h e r e i s n o b e a t i n g t h e s e t r o o p s , " w r o t e M a r s h a l l S o u l t a f t e r y e a r s o f w i t n e s s i n g h i s F r e n c h c o l u m n s , s o s u c c e s s f u l i n w a r f a r e a g a i n s t o t h e r E u r o p e a n a r m i e s , d i s i n t e g r a t e t i m e a f t e r t i m e i n t h e f a c e o f w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d B r i t i s h l i n e s . A n d W e l l i n g t o n r e m a r k e d i n l a t e r y e a r s t h a t h e c o u l d t a k e h i s m e n a n y w h e r e a n d d o a n y t h i n g w i t h t h e m . I n d e e d , t h e y m a d e a b r i l l i -a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e v i c t o r y i n S p a i n a n d t h u s t o N a p o l e o n ' s u l t i m a t e d e f e a t ; f o r a s t h e g r e a t g e n e r a l w a s t o l a m e n t i n e x i l e , " T h e S p a n i s h u l c e r k i l l e d m e . " II F o o t n o t e s 1 . A v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p r a c t i c e c a n b e f o u n d i n R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f a n B v e n t f a » l L i f e , c h i e f l y p a s s e d i a  t h e A r m y , b y J o s e p h . D o n a l d s o n , S e r g e a n t 9 4 t h S c o t c h  B r i g a d e ( 1 8 0 9 - 1 4 ) ( L o n d o n , 1 8 1 5 ) . S e e , a l s o C o l o n e l " D e W a t t e v i l l e , T h e B r i t i s h S o l d i e r , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 4 ) , 8 3 - 8 4 . 2 . R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e E v e n t f u l L i f e o f a S o l d i e r ( L o n d o n , 1 8 5 6 ) , 3 5 - 3 7 , 4 0 - 1 . . 3 » N a r r a t i v e o f t h e E v e n t f u l L i f e o f T h o m a s J a c k s o n ( B i r m i n g h a m , 1 8 4 3 ) , 1 - 5 , 2 8 - 9 , 3 7 . 4 . " R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h A r m y " , U n i t e d S e r v i c e s  M a g a z i n e . v o l . I V , 2 2 7 . 5 . A s i n t h e c a s e o f s o m e r e c r u i t s f r o m S c o t l a n d w h o b r u t a l l y a t t a c k e d a ^ m a i l b o y b e t w e e n S w i n d e n a n d M a r l b o r o u g h ( T h e  N a t i o n a l R e g i s t e r . S e p t . 2 6 , 1 8 0 8 . , 6 1 3 ) . S e e G o d f r e y D a v i e s , W e l l i n g t o n a n d H i s A r m y ( O x f o r d , 1 9 5 4 ) , 7 2 ! 6 . T h e A n n u a l R e g i s t e r f o r 1 8 1 4 , p 5 * S e e D a v i e s , o p . c i t . , 7 2 . 7 . T h e i r d u t i e s w e r e n o t , h o w e v e r , l i m i t e d t o t r a i n i n g . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s t a b u l a r y B r i t a i n ' s s o l d i e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o p o l i c e t h e i s l a n d s . I n a n e x t r e m e e x a m p l e , 1 2 , 0 0 0 t r o o p s w e r e o r d e r e d i n t o Y o r k s h i r e , L a n c a s h i r e , a n d t h e W e s t R i d i n g i n t h e w a k e o f t h e L u d d i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s o f 1 8 1 1 - 1 2 , 8 . I n 1 8 0 3 t h e y h o u s e d 1 7 , 0 0 0 c a v a l r y a n d 1 4 6 , 0 0 0 i n f a n t r y , ( J o h n L a f f i n , T o m m y A t k i n s , t h e S t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h S o l d i e r ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 6 ) ' , 6 3 ) . 9 ! T h e p r o b l e m o f d e s e r t i o n w a s n o t , h o w e v e r , r e s o l v e d ^ itor w a s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l b o u n t y c o l l e c t o r , m e n w h o e n l i s t e d f o r t h e m o n e y a n d t h e n d e s e r t e d o n l y t o r e -l i s t i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t a g a i n , d i s c o u r a g e d , d e s p i t e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y f o r c h r o n i c v i o l a t o r s . R i f l e m a n H a r r i s d e s c r i b e d t h e e x e c u t i o n o , f a m a n w h o i t s t e r n s ' j u m p e d a b o u n t y s i x t e e n t i m e s ' . ( i R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f  R i f l e m a n H a r r i s , H e n r y C u r l i n g ( e d . ) , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 8 ) , 3 , ) 1 0 . S i r J o h n F o r t e s c u e , H i s t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h A r m y , V o l . I , 5 6 9 . 1 1 . T h e S u b a l t e r n ( E d i n b o r o u g h a n d L o n d o n , 1 8 2 5 ) , 1 7 . 1 2 . C i t e d i n F o r t e s c u e , o p . c i t . , v o l . I V , P a r t I , 6 6 . 1 3 . N o b e t t e r p i c t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s o l d i e r a n d t h e c i v i l i a n d u r i n g t h e N a p o l e o n i c W a r s e x i s t s t h a n T h o m a s H a r d y ' s T r u m p e t M a j o r . 1 4 . T h e S u b a l t e r n , o p . c i t . , 1 7 7 8 1 5 . S e e B a r r y B r o a d f o d t , S i x W a r Y e a r s 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 5 : ( T o r o n t o , 1 9 7 4 ) , t$o-l&l. 1 6 . C a p t a i n B . M . " L i d e l l . / H a r t ( e d . ) , T h e L e t t e r s o f P r i v a t e  W h e e l e r , s i 8 0 9 - 1 8 2 8 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 1 ) , 4 7 . • | . S h i p s c a r r y i n g s o l d i e r s h a d a p r e t t y g o o d s a f e t y r e c o r d d u r i n g t h e W a r s , y e t , f o r e x a m p l e , t w o s h i p s s a i l i n g t o E n g l a n d i n J a n u a r y , 1 8 0 9 f r o m C o r u n n a s u n k , k i l l i n g 2 7 3 m e n . C a p t a i n D . J , G o o d s p e e d , T h e B r i t i s h C a m p a i g n s i n  t h e P e n i n s u l a 1 8 0 8 - 1 8 1 4 ( 0 t t a w a , 1 9 5 8 ) , 6 9 . 1 7 - H o w e v e r , o n e s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t o n l y 5 0 , 0 0 0 o f B r i t a i n ' s f o r c e o f 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 - 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 m e n s e r v e d a t a n y o n e t i m e i n t h e P e n i n s u l a . 1 8 . S e n d i n g w h o l e r e g i m e n t s o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d m e n i n t o t h e f i e l d i n v i t e d d i s a s t e r , a n e r r o r n o t r e p e a t e d a f t e r 1 8 0 9 . 1 9 . T h e b e s t r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a i l y l i f e o f t h e . B r i t i s h s o l d i e r i n t h e P e n i n s u l a i s A n t o n y B r e t t - J a m e s ' , L i f e i n  W e l l i n g t o n ' s A r m y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . 2 0 . M e m o i r s o f t h e L a t e W a r : C o m p r i s i n g t h e P e r s o n a l N a r r a t i v e  o f C a p t a i n C o o k e o f t h e 4 3 r d R e g i m e n t o f L i g h t I n f a n t r y ( 2 v o l s . , 1 8 3 1 ) , 2 8 5 . 2 1 . G u i n e a s B o o k o f W o r l d R e c o r d s , N o r r i s a n d R o s s M c W h i r t e r ^ * - ) , ( N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 4 ) , 3 8 3 . 2 2 . U p o n h e a r i n g M o o r e ' s o r d e r s t o r e t r e a t t o C o r u n n a , m e n o n t h e r o a d t o C u r i a n t h r e w d o w n t h e i r m u s k e t s , c o m p l a i n e d b i t t e r l y , a n d r e f u s e d t o m o v e f o r s o m e t i m e ( G o o d s p e e d , o p . c i t . , 5 9 ) . R e t r e a t s w e r e a l w a y s t h e m o s t c h a o t i c , p o t e n t i a l l y m u t i n u o u s , a n d d e s e r t i o n - p r o n e p e r i o d s . 2 3 • L e t t e r s a n d J o u r n a l s o f F i e l d - M a r s h a l l S i r W i l l i a m G o m m ,  G . C . B . , f r o m 1 7 9 9 t o W a t e r l o o , 1 8 1 5 , F r a n c i s C . C a r r - G o m m ( e d ) , ( 1 8 8 1 ) , 1 6 1 , 1 6 7 . 2 4 . L i e u t e n a n t G e o r g e W o o d b e r r y , 1 8 t h L i g h t D r a g o o n s , 2 4 M a y 1 8 1 3 • C i t e d i n B r e t t - J a m e s , o p . c i t . , 2 3 . 2 5 . A t y p i c a l p a c k c o n t a i n e d : 79 ( R o u g h N o t e s o f S e v e n C a m p a i g n s i n P o r t u g a l ,  S p a i n , F r a n c e , a n d A m e r i c a , d u r i n g t h e Y e a r s  1 8 0 9 - 1 8 1 5 , b y J o h n S p e n c e r C o o p e r , l a t e  S e r g e a n t i n T h e R o y a l F u s i l i e r s ( L o n d o n -C a r l i s l e , 1 8 9 6 ) , 8 0 - 1 . ) 2 6 . C i t e d i n D e W a t t e v i l l e , o p . c i t . , 8 6 . 2 7 . A B r i e f O u t l i n e o f t h e T r a v e l s a n d A d v e n t u r e s o f W i l l i a m  G r e e n ( l a t e R i f l e B r i g a d e ) d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f 1 0 y e a r s i n  D e n m a r k , G e r m a n y , a n d t h e P e n i n s u l a r W a r ( L e i c e s t e r , 1 8 5 8 ) , 1 1 . 2 8 . C h r i s H i b e r t ( e d . ) , T h e W h e a t l e y D i a r y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , 7 4 . 2 9 . R o g e r P a r k i n s o n , T h e P e n i n s u l a r W a r ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 3 ) » 1 2 8 . 3 0 . M . d e R o c a , M e m o i r s s u r l e q u e r r e d e s F r a n e u i s e n E s p a g n e ( P a r i s , 1 8 1 4 ) , 1 4 5 , 1 9 1 . C i t e d i n R o p p . o p . c i t . 1 2 7 . 3 1 . L i e u t e n a n t W i l l i a m S w a b e y , D i a r y o f C a m p a i g n s i n t h e  P e n i n s u l a f o r t h e Y e a r s 1 8 1 1 , 1 2 . a n d 1 3 » C o l o n e l F . A . W h i n g a t e s ( e d . ) , ( W o o l w i c h , 1 8 9 5 ) i 1 5 1 . 3 2 . C i t e d i n B r e t t J a m e s , o p . c i t . , 2 6 1 3 3 . I b i d . , 2 6 6 . 3 4 . R e v . E d w i n S i d n e y , T h e L i f e o f L o r d H i l l , G . L . B . ( 1 8 4 5 ) » 1 1 6 . 3 5 . S i m i l a r l y , f r o m l a t e A u g u s t 1 8 0 9 t o F e b r u a r y 1 8 1 0 t h e A r m y r e m a i n e d i n w i n t e r g u a r t e r s . 3 6 . T h e s u b j e c t o f a s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r . 3 7 . C i t e d i n B r e t t - J a m e s , o p . c i t . , 9 0 . 3 8 . C o o p e r , o p . c i t . , 6 9 . 3 9 . C i t e d i n B r e t t - J a m e s , o p . c i t . , 1 0 7 . 4 0 . T w o c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r K i n g H e n r y I V o f F r a n c e h a d o b s e r v e d t h a t , " S p a i n i s a c o u n t r y w h e r e s m a l l a r m i e s g e t b e a t e n a n d l a r g e o n e s s t a r v e . " 4 1 . I n 1 8 1 0 , o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 F r e n c h l o s s e s i n t h e c a m p a i g n i n P o r t u g a l a g a i n s t B r i t a i n a t t h e L i n e s o f T o r r e s V e d r a s , 1 5 , 0 0 0 c a s u a l t i e s w e r e c a u s e d b y s t a r v a t i o n a n d s i c k n e s s . ( S i r C h a r l e s O m a n , A P l i s t p r v o f t h e P e n i n s u l a r W a r ( 7 v o l s . , L o n d o n 1 9 0 3 ) , I V , 2 0 3 ) . 4 2 . F r o m 1 5 5 7 t o 1 7 9 7 t h e d a i l y p a y r a t e w a s 8 d ( J . W . F o r t e s c u e , T h e B r i t i s h A r m y , 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 0 2 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 5 ) » 8 - 9 . ) 4 3 . FTlie H a l e v y , A H i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h P e o p l e i n 1 8 1 5 ( N e w ttU . Y o r k , 1 9 2 4 ) , 6 9 . N o t o n l y d i d t h e m e n r e c e i v e a r i s e i n p a y , t h e y w e r e a l s o g r a n t e d r e d u c t i o n s i n d e d u c t i o n s m a d e t o c o v e r v a r i o u s o t h e r e x p e n s e s . 4 4 . B o t h H a l e v y a n d C . M . C l o d e ( T h e M i l i t a r y F o r c e s o f t h e C r o w n ( 2 v o l s . , J o h n M u r r a y , 1 8 6 9 ) , T a b l e s , 4 8 9 ) a r g u e d t h a t w a g e s i n t h e A r m y , w e r e a b o u t e q u a l t o t h o s e e a r n e d b y u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s b o t h i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a n d i n i n d u s t r y . S e e H a l e v y , o p . c i t . , 7 0 . 4 5 . H i b e r t , o p . c i t . , 2 2 . 46. E i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r m i e s s i m p l y b i v o u a c k e d w h e n e v e r t h e w e a t h e r w a s u n p l e a s a n t . 4 7 . C i t e d i n L a f f i n , o p . c i t . , 9 1 . i 81 IV C o p i n g " S t r a n g e s e t , t h e E n g l i s h ] a n d s o d e t e r m i n e d a n d u n c o n q u e r a b l e . I n l i g h t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a i t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r r e -t a i n e d h i s d e d i c a t i o n . O n e c a n u n d e r s t a n d , e v e n s y m p a t h i s e w i t h t h e m e n w h o d e s e r t e d , b u t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g b a f f l i n g a b o u t t h o s e w h o c o n f o r m e d a n d m a d e t h a t p r i s o n - l i k e e x i s t e n c e t o l e r a b l e , e v e n m e a n i n g f u l ; a n d i n p e r c e n t a g e t e r m s m o r e m e n r e t a i n e d t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . W h i l e t h e e a r l y 1 7 9 0 * s w i t n e s s e d t y p i c a l e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y h i g h d e s e r t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h e B r i t i s h 2 A r m y , t h e l e v e l b e g a n t o f a l l i n t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e c e n t u r y a n d c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e t o t h e e n d o f t h e w a r . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 1 s t F o o t G u a r d s 3 1 8 s o l d i e r s d e s e r t e d b e t w e e n 1 7 8 3 a n d 1 7 9 9 , b u t o n l y 1 5 7 b e t w e e n 1 8 0 0 a n d 1 8 1 3 . S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e 3 r d F o o t t h e f i g u r e s w e r e 1 2 4 a n d 8 1 i n e a c h o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r i o d s . ' ' T h o s e w h o c r i t i c i z e t h e q u a l i t y o f W e l l i n g t o n ' s A r m y a l m o s t i n -h v a r i a b l y f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s f a c t . I n t h i s c h a p t e r w e w i l l e n d e a v o u r t h e n t o m a k e t h e a r m y e x p e r i e n c e o f B r i t a i n ' s s o l d i e r s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . E a r l i e r i t w a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a f t e r 1 8 0 0 o r s o r e c r u i t s t e n d e d t o b e m o r e s t r o n g l y m o t i v a t e d t h a n h i t h e r t o . T h e d e s i r e f o r a h a n d s o m e b o u n t y o r t h e w i s h t o e s c a p e i n s e c u r i t y , p o v e r t y , a l i e n a t i n g w o r k o r a r e g r e t a b l e e x p e r i e n c e w e r e s o m e o f t h e r e a s o n s w h y m e n j o i n e d . P a t r i o t i s m w a s a l s o a f a c t o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e -t w e e n 1 8 0 2 a n d 1 8 0 6 w h e n t h e r e s e e m e d a v e r y r e a l t h r e a t o f i n v a s i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e t e n d e n c y h a s b e e n t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e f l a g -5 s a l u t i n g s i d e o f t h e s o l d i e r ' s t e m p e r a m e n t . O n e m a y s p e c u l a t e 82 o n t h e r e a s o n s w h y m e n v o l u n t e e r e d , b u t w h a t i s c e r t a i n i s t h a t a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f m e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y m i l i t i a m e n ( t h e s o u r c e o f f o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e a r m y ' s r e c r u i t s a f t e r 1 8 0 6 ) w e r e w i l l i n g t o s e r v e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y t o t h a t w h i c h p r e v a i l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y w h e r e , i n m a n y c a s e s , t h e r e c r u i t w a s f r a u d u l e n t l y e n l i s t e d o r c o e r c e d i n t o 6 j o i n i n g a n d t h e r e f o r e , h a t i n g t h e s e r v i c e s , o f t e n d e s e r t e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f s o l d i e r s t h « * h a d a g e n u i n e d e s i r e t o d o w e l l . S e r v i c e h a d n o t b e e n t h r u s t u p o n t h e m . M o r e o v e r , t h o s e w h o h a d s e r v e d i n t h e M i l i t i a a l r e a d y h a d s o m e i d e a o f w h a t a r m y l i f e w o u l d b e l i k e . T h i s w a s i m p o r t a n t i n s o f a r a s e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t a s i t u a t i o n w i l l t o a ^ g r e a t e x t e n t d e t e r m i n e h o w w e l l o n e w i l l c o p e w i t h i t . F o r t h o s e m e n , e n t r y i n t o t h e A r m y w a s n o t a c a t a s t r o p h i c e x p e r i e n c e , t h o u g h t h e s u b s e o q u e n t a d j u s t m e n t w a s f a r f r o m a u t o m a t i c . T h e r e w a s c o n -s i d e r a b l e a n x i e t y a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e n e e d t o a p p r e c i a t e n e w p o w e r r e l a t i o n s , v a l u e s , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , f o o d , h o u r s o f s l e e p a n d f o r m s o f h y g i e n e . F o r t h o s e w h o h a d v o l u n t e e r e d b u t l a c k e d m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e o r h a d b e e n e n l i s t e d l e s s t h a n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , w i t h t h e a i d o f d r i n k , f o r e x a m p l e , a r m y l i f e a p p e a r e d a s a s t r a n g e a n d f o r b o d i n g o n e . S o m e n o d o u b t q u i c k l y d e s e r t e d , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y i t s e e m s s o u g h t t o p e r s e v e r e , i f f o r n o o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s w e r e b e c o m i n g i n -c r e a s i n g l y l e s s a t t r a c t i v e . B e h a v i o u r i s r e g u l a t e d i n a g e n e r a l w a y b y a d j u s t m e n t s t o s y m b o l s o f a u t h o r i t y . T h e s o l d i e r h a d t o l e a r n h o w t o f o l l o w o r d e r s . T h e p r o c e s s o f t r a i n i n g w a s b e g u n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , 83 b u t u n t i l t h e m e n a r r i v e d i n t h e P e n i n s u l a i t w a s s o m e w h a t a r t i f i c a l . T r a i n i n g m e t h o d s w e r e n e i t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d n o r p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v a n c e d . T h o u g h i n n o v a t i o n w a s i n t h e a i r t h r o u g h -o u t E u r o p e , t h e y r e m a i n e d p r i m i t i v e i n m a n y r e s p e c t s , p e r h a p s m o r e s o i n G r e a t B r i t a i n t h a n e l s e w h e r e . T h e B r i t i s h w e r e 7 r e l u c t a n t t o e x p e r i m e n t . M o r e o v e r , t h e A r m y s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e t h e q u a l i t y o f h e r o f f i c e r s v a r i e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y o w i n g t o t h e g w i d e s p r e a d p r a c t i c e o f o f f i c e p u r c h a s e . T h e m a j o r i t y o f o f f i c e r s w e r e p l u c k y a n d d e t e r m i n e d , b u t m a n y w e r e a l s o s t u p i d a r i d w o e f u l l y i n c o m p e t e n t . ( S o u l t * s c o m m e n t t h a t , " t h e r e i s n o b e a t i n g t h e s e t r o o p s " i n c l u d e d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n , " i n s p i t e o f t h e i r g e n e r a l s " , ) T w o a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e t r a i n i n g o f s o l d i e r s w e r e g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . T h e f i r s t e m p h a s i z e d s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , h a r d w o r k , a n d t h e c o n s t a n t t h r e a t o f p u n i s h m e n t i n t h e h o p e o f i n t i m i d a t i n g t h e s o l d i e r i n t o a t f e a r f u l . o b e d i e n c e o f h i s s u p e r i o r s . T h e o t h e r s o u g h t t o h u m a n i s e t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y a n d c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n m e n a n d o f f i c e r s . T h i s a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e a m u t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e h a p p y s u r r o g a t e f a m i l y s t r i k e s o n e a s s e l f - e v i d e n t l y s u p e r i o r , b u t o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f o f f i c e r s w o u l d h a v e a g r e e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e i d e a r a n c o u n t e r t o p o p u l a r m i l i t a r y t h o u g h t . A n e n o r m o u s g a p e x i s t e d b e t w e e n o f f i c e r s a n d t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e a n d a s a v a g e d i s c i p l i n e w a s r e l i e d u p o n a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o k e e p t h e m e n i n l i n e . M a n y o f f i c e r s w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t o t h e r w i s e i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s -i b l e t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r . T h e r e w a s s o m e t r u t h i n t h a t b e l i e f i n s o f a r a s i n t h a t e r a a r m i e s c o n t a i n e d s o m e o f t h e w o r s t t y p e s 84 e v e r t o d i s g r a c e a u n i f o r m , m e n c o m p l e t e l y w i t h o u t m o t i v a t i o n a n d u n t r u s t w o r t h y ; b u t i t b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . W e m i g h t e x a m i n e e a c h o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s i n t u r n , a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , h o w t h e m e n r e a c t e d t o t h e m . P e r h a p s i t i s s o m e w h a t a r t i f i c i a l t o s e p a r a t e t h e t w o s o c o m p l e t e l y , s i n c e i n n o o n e ' s m i n d w e r e t h e y s o m u t u a l l y d i s t i n c t ; y e t b y - a n d - l a r g e t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l a p p r o a c h s t i l l d o m i n a t e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e r e g u l a r a r m y , w h o s e m e m b e r s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f o f f i c e r s / G o n t i n u e d t o v i e w v e r y m u c h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w a y , v r h i l e i n t h e n e w l y f o r m e d R i f l e B r i g a d e / \ 9 ( 1 8 0 0 ) n e w m e t h o d s w e r e e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p u r s u e d , " D i s c i p l i n e i s t h e s o u l o f a n a r m y , " G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n n e v e r t i r e d o f i n s t r u c t i n g h i s o f f i c e r s . D i s c i p l i n e , i n t h e m a n n e r w h i c h t h e p l a t i d u d i n o u s f o u n d e r o f t h e A m e r i c a n n a t i o n u n d e r s t o o d i t a n d i n t h e c u s t o m a r y E u r o p e a n s e n s e , m e a n t d r i l l , h a r d w o r k , a n d t i r e s o m e , t r i v i a l a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l . T r o o p s w e r e t r a i n e d , b u t j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t , k e p t o c c u p i e d , " M e n m u s t b e c o n s t a n t l y k e p t b u s y t o k e e p t h e m o r d e r l y , " 1 ^ w r o t e t h e G e r m a n K e p e n f e l t , O t h e r w i s e t h e y h a d t o o m u c h t i m e t o t h i n k , t o b e c o m e e d g y j a n d a s F r e d e r i c k t h e G r e a t h a d o b s e r v e d , p e r h a p s w i t h a t o u c h o f e x a -g g e r a t i o n , " I f m y s o l d i e r s b e g a n t o t h i n k , n o o n e w o u l d r e m a i n i n t h e r a n k s , D i s c i p l i n e a l s o m e a n t t h e c o n s t a n t t h r e a t o f p u n i s h m e n t t o t h e u n y i e l d i n g . T h e s l i g h t e s t d e v i a t i o n f r o m d u t y b r o u g h t s a v a g e r e p r i s a l . I t w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d s o m e n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n b r e a k i n g a m a n ' s b a c k w i t h t h e l a s h , ; a -o r a t l e a s t t h r e a t e n i n g t o d o s o , a n d a n h i - l d r t a t i n g h i s w i l l . T h e r e i s o f c o u r s e s o m e v a l i d i t y t o t h a t n o t i o n . T h u s , i t w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e a s o l d i e r r e s p e c t h i s c o m m a n d e r b u t m e r e l y t o 85;. r e s p e c t t h e v a l u e o f f e a r , t o c o n d i t i o n h i s r e f l e x e s t o r e s p o n d t o a s h o w o f s t r e n g t h . I n t i m i d a t i o n w a s t h e k e y . T h i s d i d n o t m e a n , h o w e v e r , t h a t s u c h a c a l l o u j y a p p r o a c h p r e c l u d e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e a r n i n g a s o l d i e r ' s r e s p e c t . C e r t a i n l y W e l l i n g t o n w a s a g r e a t b e l i e v e r ! i n t h e v i r t u e o f s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e . H e w r o t e , f o r e x a m p l e , " I h a v e n o i d e a o f a n y g r e a t e f f e c t b e i n g p r o d u c e d o n B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s b y a n y t h i n g b u t f e a r o f i m m e d i a t e 1 2 c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t . " U n l o v e d , h e w a s n e v e r t h e l e s s g r e a t l y a d m i r e d f o r h i s t a l e n t s a s a s t r a t e g i s t , e n d u r a n c e , a n d c o n c e r n t h a t h i s s o l d i e r s w e r e e n s u r e d a d e q u a t e f o o d a n d p a y . S u b d u i n g t h e s o l d i e r h a d i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s , s o m e o f w h i c h w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e e n c o u n t e r e d i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e s t u b b o r n r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s w a s t r u e d e s p i t e a g e n e r a l c o m m i t t m e n t t o t h e A r m y b y t h e t h e m a j o r i t y o f m e n , s i n c e a f t e r a l l a r m y l i f e w a s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . A n o f f i c e r c o u l d n o t s i m p l y m a n i p u l a t e t h a t m i x t u r e o f f e a r a n d a w e i n h e r e n t i n t h e d e f e r e n t s t a t e b e c a u s e B r i t a i n ' s a n c i e n t r e g i m e w a s b e g i n n i n g t o c o m e a p a r t . B y 1 8 0 0 i t s p e o p l e w e r e n o t e d f o r t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t , t u r b u l e n t a n d s t u b b o r n c h a r a c t e r , a m a z i n g f o r e i g n e r s b y t h e i r l a c k o f d e f e n c e . T h e N a v a l M u t i n i e s a t S p i t h e a d a n d N o r e i n 1797 d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w p r e c a r i o u s t h e h o l d o f t h e a n c i e n t r e g i m e w a s o v e r B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e a d u t i f u l s o l d i e r u t i l i z i n g m e t h o d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y h a r s h d i s c i p l i n e . T h a t d e s e r t i o n p a t t e r n s d e c l i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h A r m y a t t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , w a s n o t d u e t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a m o r e s u b t l e m e a n s t o OVJ e x p l o i t s u c h m e t h o d s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e o f p u n i s h m e n t , t h a n h i t h e r t o . T h e r e a s o n s l a y e l s e w h e r e . B u t t h e s y s t e m w a s r e a s o n a b l y w o r k a b l e a n d t h e a d -j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s t o i t a n i n t r i g u i n g o n e , w h a t f o r m , f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d o n e e x p e c t t h i s a d j u s t m e n t t o t a k e ? C o n s i d e r f o r a m o m e n t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f A m e r i c a n s l a v e r y , t h e a r m y i n a c e r t a i n s e n s e b e i n g a k i n d o f s l a v e s y s t e m , U p r o o t e d f r o m h i s A f r i c a n c u l t u r e ( o n e o f t e n h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d ) a n d s h i p p e d o f f t o A m e r i c a , t h e s l a v e e v o l v e d i n h i s n e w s e t t i n g i n t o t h e S a m b o - t y p e s o w e l l k n o w n . H o w e v e r , l e s t o n e t h i n k t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m e n i n t o a n a u t h o r i t a r i a n s y s t e m i n v a r i a b l y p r o d u c e s a d o c i l e c h a r a c t e r , i t s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n B r a z i l s l a v e s w e r e n o t o r i o u s l y , r e b e l l i o u s . Y e t t h e s a m e r e g i o n s o f A f r i c a s e r v e d a s t h e s o u r c e s o f s l a v e s f o r b o t h A m e r i c a a n d B r a z i l , O b v i o u s l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e n a t u r e a n d c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e t w o s y s t e m s w e r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s a n d t h e i r d i f f -e r e n c e s w i l l h e l p t o i l l u m i n a t e o u r s t u d y . C o n s i d e r , a s w e l l , t h e N a z i c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p , a d m i t t e d l y a n i n s t i t u t i o n w h o s e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e a r m y i s r a t h e r t e n u o u s b u t w h i c h , p r o d u c e d a p r i s o n e r w h o n o t o n l y a c c e p t e d h i s f a t e b u t i n m a n y c a s e s c a m e 1 3 t o i d e n t i f y w i t h h i s S . S , m a s t e r . W h a t s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a b o u t t h e v a r i o u s e x a m p l e s , a n i n s i g h t d e v e l o p e d b y S t a n l e y 1 h E l k i n s , a u t h o r o f S l a v e r y , a b r i l l i a n t s t u d y o f t h e r o o t s o f t h e S a m b o c h a r a c t e r , i s t h a t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e v i c t i m t h e r e w a s n o f u t u r e f o r e i t h e r t h e A m e r i c a n s l a v e o r t h e o / c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p i n m a t e , b u t a r e l a t i v e l y o p e n o n e f o r t h e s l a v e i n B r a z i l . T h e B r a z i l i a n s l a v e c o u l d b y h i s l a b o u r p u r -c h a s e h i s l i b e r t y ; i n t h e U . S . A . i t w a s e n o r m o u s l y d i f f i c u l t 1 5 f o r a s l a v e t o b e c o m e a f r e e m a n . T h u s , a f t e r a n i n i t i a l p h a s e o f r e s i s t a n c e t h e A m e r i c a n s l a v e t e n d e d t o r e s i g n h i m -s e l f t o h i s f a t e . S i m i l a r l y , i n e x t r e m e l y i m p o v e r i s h e d s o c i -e t i e s t h e p o o r h a v e n o l e v e l o f e x p e c t a t i o n , a n d s o a c c e p t t h e i r w r e t c h e d l o t w i t h f e w c o m p l a i n t s . A h o p e f u l f u t u r e w a s t h e r e -f o r e a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t a p a t h y a n d s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n ; i t a l l o w e d o n e t o m a i n t a i n o n e ' s a m b i t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e a n d , o f c o u r s e , i m p a t i e n c e . H e n c e , B r a z i l ' s r e b e l l i o u s h i s t o r y . N o w t h e B r i t i s h A r m y w a s n o t a c l o s e d s y s t e m . T h e p r o f e s s i o n n o l o n g e r i n v o l v e d a l i f e - l o n g c o m m i t m e n t . A n a c t i n 1809 h a d i n t r o d u c e d t e r m s o f s e v e n , t e n o r t w e l v e / s e r v i c e . B u t e v e n s e v e n y e a r s w a s a l o n g t i m e . I t s p r o s p e c t m u s t s u r e l y h a v e a c t e d t o d i m i n i s h w h a t e v e r l e v e l o f e x p e c t a t i o n t h e m e n p o s s e s s e d a n d b r e d a c e r t a i n r e s i g n a t i o n . T h e e v i d e n c e i s o v e r w h e l m i n g t h a t i t i s m u c h e a s i e r t o c o p e w i t h a c o n d i t i o n i f t h e f u t u r e i s a m o r p h o u s t h a n w h e n i t i s f i l l e d w i t h h o p e . T h e a r m y l i f e b e c a m e f a r m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e ; o n e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s h i f t e d . O n e m a y s u p p o s e , t h e n , t h a t a f t e r s o m e r e s i s t a n c e , t h e s o l d i e r b e g a n t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t h e n c e f o ^ r t h l i t t l e b u t t h e s e r v i c e c o u l d b e p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l a n d t h a t h e h a d b e t t e r m a k e t h e m o s t 16 o f i t . T h e t o n e o f s o m e d i a r i e s s u g g e s t s t h i s , V i t h i n s i x m o n t h s t h e r e c r u i t m a d e a p a s s a b l e s o l d i e r , t h o u g h i n e v e r y r e g i -m e n t t h e r e w a s a l w a y s 50-100 i n c o r r i g i b l e m e n " w h o m n e i t h e r 8:8 1 7 p u n i s h m e n t n o r a n y k i n d o f d i s c i p l i n e c o u l d r e s t r a i n " . W h a t f a c t o r s , a p a r t f r o m a c e r t a i n s e n s e o f r e s i g n a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ? T h e f i r s t w a s t h e e f f e c t o f r e p e t i t i o n . D a i l y l i f e r e p e a t e d l y t a u g h t t h e l e s s o n o f a b s o l u t e p o w e r . E x p o s u r e t o t h a t w a y o f l i f e l o n g e n o u g h m a d e i t b e l i e v a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n o v e r i t h u n g t h e t h r e a t o f p u n i s h m e n t . A c c o r d -i n g t o o n e o f f i c e r , " t i r e s o m e a t t e n t i o n t o t r i f l e s ~, . . i n s t i l s i n t o t h e m i n d o f t h e s o l d i e r a t l e a s t , n o t s u r e l y t h e p h y s i c a l , b u t t h e m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a r e q u i s i t e d u t y . " O n e g r e w a c c u s t o m e d , ' " H a b i t g i v e s e n d u r a n c e , " a s o n e s o l d i e r o b s e r v e d . T h e e f f i c i e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n w a s g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d b y t h e a l m o s t p e r p e t u a l s t a t e o f e x h a u s t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e s o l d i e r . A r m y l i f e w o r e o n e d o w n , s t i f l e d o n e ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d f e e l i n g ' . ( T h e w i d e s p r e a d c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l c o h o l e n h a n c e d t h i s e f f e c t . ) T o q u o t e a m o r e r e c e n t o b s e r v e r : " T h e r o u t i n e o f m i l i t a r y l i f e 9,1 w o r k s t o d a m p e n a n d d u l l a n y i n d i v i d u a l i n t e n s i t y o f a w a r e n e s s . L o s s o f s l e e p , l o n g m a r c h e s . . . e x h a u s t t h e s o l d i e r , t h i s w e a r i n e s s c a n g o b e y o n d b o r d e r s t h a t m o s t o f u s e v e r k n o w a t o t h e r p e r i o d s i n o u r l i v e s . I t a l o n e c a n s o s t u p e f y t h e s e n s e s t h a t s o l d i e r s b e h a v e l i k e s l e e p w a l k e r s . . . T h i n k i n g t e n d s t o b e c o m e n o t o n l y p a i n f u l b u t m o r e a n d m o r e u n n e c e s s a r y . " T h e o f f i c e r ' s g o a l w a s t h u s t o b o g d o w n t h e s o l d i e r f t o w e a r h i m o u t a n d f o r c e h i m t o r e s p o n d a u t o m a t i c a l l y . H i s s u c c e s s w a s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t s t u p e f a c t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r , a b o u t w h i c h ' C o r p o r a l T r i m ' s a i d i n T r i s t r a m ' S h a n d y , " a s o l d i e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n - 2 0 c a n n o t e x t e n d f a r b e y o n d t h e m u z z l e o f h i s f i r e l o c k . " A s u b t l e 89; c h a n g e i n w o r l d v i e w s h a d o c c u r r e d . O n l y t h e m o m e n t b e c a m e i m p o r t a n t ; t h e s o l d i e r l o s t t h e s e n s e o f a n o v e r a l l c o n c e p t i o n , e v e n o f t h e p a s s i n g o f t i m e j u d g i n g b y t h e d i s t r a c t e d s e n s e o f c h r o n o l o g y a p p a r e n t i n s o l d i e r s * d i a r i e s a n d j o u r n a l s . T h e p a s t t e n d e d t o b e s u p p r e s s e d a n d w i t h i t a p e r s p e c t i v e o n o n e ' s p r e s e n t s t a t e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , " T h e p a s t h a d g r o w n s o d i s t a n t a n d u n r e a l t h a t a n y o t h e r w a y o f l i f e w a s : h a r d t o i m a g i n e . " 2 1 T h e o u t s i d e w o r l d b e c o m e a m e r e a b s t r a c t i o n . H o m e w a s n o w t h e a r m y . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f n u m b n e s s a n d f o r g e t f u l n e s s , e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o c o p i n g w i t h a r m y l i f e . O n e ' s f o r m e r l i f e w a s f r a g m e n t e d , a n d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , f o r g o t t e n . T h e b r u t a l i t y o f w a r w a s m a d e b e a r a b l e . T h e a r m y b e g a n t o a c q u i r e a c e r t a i n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , a n d i t s d i f f e r e n t m o d e s o f t h o u g h t a n d a c c u s -t o m e d a t t i t u d e s m o r e e a s i l y i n t e r n a l i z e d . " W e t h o u g h t o u r s e l v e s 2 2 b e t t e r o f f t h a n h a d w e r e m a i n e d a t h o m e , " w r o t e o n e s o l d i e r e x p r e s s i n g a c o m m o n f e e l i n g . T o t a k e o n e e x a m p l e : p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o f o o d t h e r e w a s a s e n s e i n w h i c h t h e m e n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e w e r e s u f f e r i n g . I t i s t r u e t h a t s o m e s o l d i e r s a t e l e s s w e l l a t h o m e : a s c i v i l i a n s t h a n t h e y d i d a s s o l d i e r s i n t h e P e n i n s u l a . T h e r e w a s s o m e t r u t h i l l u s t r a t e d i n F o r r e s t e r ' s R i f l e m a n D o d d w h e n i t i s m e n t i o n e d t h a t , " D o d d h a d k n o w n l i t t l e b e t t e r f o o d . . . h e h a d b e e n t h e e l e v e n t h c h i l d o f a f a r m - l a b o u r e r e a r n i n g t e n s h i l l i n g s a w e e k . . . s o t h a t h e b i t 2 3 i n t o t h e t o u g h f i b r e s w i t h c o n t e n t m e n t . " J B u t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y ; a f t e r a l l , t h e b r e a d w a s t o u g h , m o u l d y , a n d i n f e s t e d w i t h m a g g o t s a n d t h e m e a t o f t e n " s t i n k i n g 90. m e s s e s . . . h a l f - b o i l e d . " W h a t w a s i m p o r t a n t , t h o u g h , w a s t h a t t h e m e n t h o u g h t t h e f o o d w a s q u i t e a d e q u a t e , i f s o m e w h a t l a c k i n g i n v a r i e t y . T h i s d e l u s i o n a b o u t a r m y l i f e w a s r e i n f o r c e d b y c o n t r a s t i n g t h e i r d i e t t o t h e l e v e l o f f o o d c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e a n d s o l d i e r s i n t h e P o r t u g u e s e , S p a n i s h a n d F r e n c h a r m i e s . R e m a r k e d A n t o n , . . . o n l o o k i n g a r o u n d , w e g e n e r a l l y s a w m a n y w o r s e o f f t h e n o u r s e l v e s ; a n d d o u b t l e s s , w e r e w e a l w a y s t o l o o k i n t o o t h e r s ' ' m i s f o r t u n e s o r s u f f e r i n g s . . . w e w o u l d f i n d s o m e c a u s e f o r s e l f - c o n g r a t u l a t i o n . T h a t t h e m e n f e l t t h i s w a y w a s c r u c i a l g i v e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f o o d . B r i t a i n ' s s o l d i e r s w e r e c a p a b l e o f e n d u C i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f h a r d s h i p b u t c o u l d n e v e r t o l e r a t e w h a t t h e y s a w a s a n i n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f f o o d . D u r i n g t h o s e p e r i o d s o f t h e P e n i n s u l a r W a r w h e n t h e B r i t i s h w e r e s h o r t o f f o o d , a s a f t e r t h e B a t t l e o f T a l a v e r a w h e n W e l l i n g t o n h a d h i s t r o o p s b i v o u a c a t A l m i r e z , t h e a r m y l i t e r a l l y b e g a n t o d i s i n t e g r a t e . W e l l i n g t o n w r o t e t o h i s b r o t h e r : " A h u n g r y a r m y i s a c t u a l l y w o r s e t h a n * o n e . T h e s o l d i e r s l o s e t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e a n d t h e i r s p i r i t . T h e y p l u n d e r e v e n i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i r o f f i c e r s . . . a n d w i t h t h e a r m y w h i c h a f o r t n i g h t a g o b e a t d o u b l e t h e i r n u m b e r s , I s h o u l d n o w h e s i t a t e t o m e e t a F r e n c h c o r p s o f h a l f t h e i r s t r e n g t h . " H a d t h e m e n b e e n a d e q u a t e l y f e d a t a l l t i m e s d e s e r t i o n l e v e l s m i g h t h a v e b e e n s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e d . T h i s d i m i n i s h e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r n u m b n e s s w a s a l s o v a l u a b l e i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e h o r r o r s a n d b r u t a l i t y o f w a r . O n e s o l d i e r r e m a r k e d t h a t " T h e d a y ' s s e r v i c e h a d b e e n v e r y s e v e r e , b u t n o w I t o o k i t w i t h t h e c o o l e s t i n d i f f e r e n c e ; I f e l t n o a l a r m , i t w a s a l l o f c o u r s e . I b e g a n t o t h i n k •71 . . m y b o d y c h a r m e d . M y m i n d h a d c o m e t o t h a t p a s s -I t o o k e v e r y t h i n g a s i t c a m e w i t h o u t a t h o u g h t . . . I f i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e e n e m y ' s f i r e . . . I w a s n o t c o n c e r n e d . " ^ g C a p t a i n J o h n K i n c a i d o b s e r v e d o f h i s m e n t h a t t h e y " h a d b e c o m e s o i n u r e d . . . t h a t t h e y s e e m t o h a v e s e t d e a t h a n d d i s e a s e , t h e 2 7 e l e m e n t s a n d t h e e n e m y a l i k e a t d e f i a n c e . " B y n u m b i n g t h e s e l f , b y d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g l i f e , t h e h o r r o r w a s m a d e e a s i e r t o t o l e r a t e . T h u s , a f t e r w h i l e , s o l d i e r s 1 d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l b u t t h e m o s t h i d e o u s o f s c e n e s , l i k e s o m e o f t h e a t r o c i t i e s p e r p e t r a t e d b y t h e g u e r i l l a s u p o n t h e F r e n c h a n d v i c e - v e r s a , t o o k o n a v e r y r o u t i n e c h a r a c t e r . T h e r e w a s n o t h i n g b i z a r r e a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s e n s e o f f o r g e t f u l n e s s o r d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n . O n e s u r v i v e d b y s e t t i n g o n e s e l f a p a r t f r o m t h e w o r l d , f r o m i t s h o r r o r s a n d p r i v a t i o n s . M o r e u n u s u a l w a s i a t e n d e n c y , o f w h i c h t h e r e w a s s o m e e v i d e n c e / t o u n d e r g o ^ . a s u b t l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s n o w c a l l e d r e g r e s s i o n , a r e v e r s i o n t o c h i l d - l i k e r o l e s . I n d e e d , t h e p r o p e n s i t y m a y b e a u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a r m i e s . " I n h u n d r e d s o f w a y s t h e s o l d i e r . . . i s g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t h e i s a c h i l d , " w r o t e C o l a c o B e l m o n t e . R e g r e s s i o n w a s t h a t " f a w n i n g s e r v i l i t y " t h a t w a s s a t i r i z e d o f t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s ( a l o n g w i t h t h e i r l a r k o f p e r s p e c t i v e ) . I t w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c h i l d i s h b o a s t i n g , g i g g l i n g , p l a y f u l n e s s , s i l l i n e s s , m e n d a c i t y , d u p l i c i t y , e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y , e g o t i s m a n d w a n t o f s e l f - r e s p e c t . A l t h o u g h o n e s u s p e c t s t h a t t h i s f o r m o f b e h a v i o u r w a s l e s s w i d e s p r e a d o r i n t e n s e t h a n i t s s a t i r i z e r s m a d e i t o u t t o b e , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h a t s o r t o f b e h a v i o u r i n o f f i c e r a n d s o l d i e r s ' l e t t e r s a n d 92 j o u r n a l s w e r e t o o n u m e r o u s t o d o u b t t h a t i t w a s n o t a c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r t r a i t . C o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h o u g h t i t t h e r e s u l t o f n a t u r a l s t u p i d i t y , o r e l s e t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e b r u t a l i z i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e a r m y . T h e f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n i s l u d i c r o u s , t h e s e c o n d i n c o m p l e t e . R e g r e s s i o n w a s a r e s p o n s e t o a r m y l i f e . R e g r e s s i v e - l i k e b e -28 h a v i o u r w a s a l s o i n d i g e n o u s t o c e r t a i n s l a v e c u l t u r e s . E l k i n s a r g u e d t h a t t h e S a m b o t e m p e r m e n t o f t h e A m e r i c a n s l a v e g r e w o u t o f s u c h r e a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r . ^ T h e r e i s n o n e e d t o g o i n t o a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , b u t t h e p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n r o u g h l y t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : t h e s l a v e s a w i n t h e s l a v e - o w n e r h i s a b s o l u t e m a s t e r . T h e m a s t e r , l i k e t h e a r m y o f f i c e r a n d a c h i l d ' s f a t h e r , m a i n t a i n e d a n i r o n d o m i n a t i o n o v e r t h e w h o l e o f o n e ' s e x i s t e n c e . H e c o u l d m e t e o u t t h e w o r s t p u n i s h m e n t o r r e w a r d a n d p r o t e c t t h e s l a v e ; j u s t a s : a l l e v i l f l o w e d f r o m h i m , s o t o o , d i d a l l g o o d . K O n e w a s c o m p e l l e d t o b e l i e v e i n h i m . E l / i n s q u o t e s D r . E l i e C o h e n , a o n e - t i m e c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p i n m a t e : " T h e S . S , m a n w a s a l l - p o w e r f u l i n t h e c a m p , h e w a s t h e l o r d a n d m a s t e r o f t h e p r i s o n e r ' s l i f e . A s a c r u e l f a t h e r h e c o u l d , w i t h o u t f e a r o f p u n i s h m e n t , e v e n k i l l t h e p r i s o n e r a n d a s a g e n t l e f a t h e r h e c o u l d s c a t t e r l a r g e e s a n d a f f o r d t h e p r i s o n e r h i s p r o t e c t i o n . " T h e r e s u l t , a d m i t s D r C o h e n , w a s t h a t " f o r a l l o f u s t h e S . S . w a s a f a t h e r i m a g e . . . " ^ Q W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e a u t h o r i t y a s a f a t h e r - f i g u r e , o n e r e g r e s s e d a s a n a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n " . I n t h e s o l d i e r ' s c o n d i t i o n o f c h i l d - l i k e d e p e n d e n c y p a r e n t a l p r o h i b i t i o n s o n c e m o r e b e c a m e a l l - p o w e r f u l a n d p a r e n t a l j u d g e m e n t s o n c e a g a i n i n t e r -n a l i z e d . T h e i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t e d o u t o f h i s s i t u a t i o n r e l a t i o n -s h i p s a n d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y h a d b e e n m e a n i n g f u l , 93-gave comfort and p r o v i d e d r e l i e f . I n o t h e r words, i f t r e a t e d l i k e a c h i l d , one w i l l a c t l i k e a c h i l d . T h i s , i t i s suspected, o c c u r r e d among s o l d i e r s i n the f o r c e s . I n a very r e a l sense, the army was a p a t r i a r c h a l i n s t i t u t i o n , though not a grotesque one l i k e s l a v e r y o r the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp, and s o l d i e r s i t s c h i l d r e n . But r e g r e s s i o n was not merely an automatic r e a c t i o n to an a u t h o r i t a r i a n system: i t was a l s o a ve r y s k i l l f u l " a c t " , one that gave scope f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n i n s o f a r as the e a s i e s t way f o r the powerless to e x p l o i t the powerful i s through a g g r e s s i v e s t u p i d i t y , l i t e r a l - m i n d e d n e s s , s e r v i l e fawning and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A more s u b t l e and complete e x p l a n a t i o n than the above an-a l y s i s i s almost c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e . The r e g r e s s i v e p r o c e s s was no doubt somewhat d i f f e r e n t among s o l d i e r s than w i t h r e g a r d to s l a v e s o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp inmates. One cannot merely impose i n toto an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r one set o f circumstances onto another whatever t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . But i t i s a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t . A process l i k e i n f a n t i l e r e g r e s s i o n d i d occur, and i t c o n t r i b u t e d to making the s o l d i e r ' s m i l i t a r y e x i s t e n c e s e n s i b l e by p r o v i d i n g a meaningful frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m o f the army. I t helped c r e a t e that odd c h a r a c t e r known as the B r i t i s h s o l d i e r i n the e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . And the r e g r e s s i v e syndrome was c r i t i c a l not o n l y b e c a u s e / f a c i l i t a t e d the s o l d i e r ' s adjustment to a u t h o r i t y , but a l s o because i t tended to a l t e r h i s pr e v i o u s needs. His wants d i m i n i s h e d i n v a r i e t y . The en f o r c e d s i m p l i c i t y o f a sla v e c u l t u r e , c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp, o r army e x i s t e n c e took on a p e c u l i a r a c c e p t a b i l i t y . 94' The mechanisms described, above were an i n t e g r a l part of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process into the army. The coping process should not, however, be regarded as automatic.Mad c e r t a i n needs not been met, an adequate provision of food, f o r example, there would almost c e r t a i n l y have been high l e v e l s of desertion. More-over, f r u s t r a t i o n , which was endemic, was occasionally unleashed into rebellious action. For example, during the retreat from Burgos i n the autumn of 1812, about 4000 out of 20,000 men abandoned the march and became stragglers i n the face of exhaustion^ b i t t e r cold and lack of food. (Most of those who survived ultimately returned to t h e i r regiments quartered on the Portuguese f r o n t i e r . ) But f r u s t r a t i o n s were not manipulated as a tool for s p e c i f i c changes'^ On the other hand, the seamen of the Royal Navy, though as s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d as the B r i t i s h s o l d i e r , did mutiny, i n 1797, f o r better conditions. Their strength lay i n an a r t i c u l a t e minority able to transform the frustrations of the majority into conscious, planned a c t i o n . That mutinous s p i r i t was retained throughout the war (without prejudicing t h e i r f i g h t i n g a b i l i t y ) . Nothing of the sort 32 occurred within the Army i n the Peninsula. Other modes of coping with army l i f e , apart from the two already examined, were u t i l i z e d . Some were conscious actions, others purely i n s t i n c t u a l reactions. Two of the most important were the habit of romanticizing the s o l d i e r ' s condition, an action f a c i l i t a t e d by that forgetfulness of the past, and the tendency to elevate s u r v i v a b i l i t y into a v i r t u e . I f anyone d o u b t s t h a t s o l d i e r s r o m a n t i c i z e d t h e i r p l i g h t , l e t h i m e x a m i n e v i r t u a l l y a n y o f t h e n u m e r o u s d i a r i e s a n d j o u r n a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e c a m p a i g n . I t w a s n o t m e r e l y v e t e r a n s w h o r e c a l l e d t h e i r y o u t h a s o n e o f a p e r p e t u a l h i g h - b l o o m i n g s u m m e r ; w i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s j o u r n a l s w r i t t e n a t t h e t i m e w e r e q u i t e a s r o m a n t i c a s t h o s e c o m p o s e d i n r e t r o s p e c t . I n t h e m , t h e u n u s u a l was e m p h a s i z e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e n o r m a l ; i n d e e d , f e w o f t h e d a y -t o - d a y e v e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f r u s t r a t i n g a n d p a i n f u l , w e r e d e s c r i b e d ; a n d w h e n t h e y w e r e , o n l y i n t h e m o s t m a t t e r - o f - f a c t w a y s . C o n s t a n t l y r e i t e r a t e d w a s t h e b e l i e f t h a t a s a v o c a t i o n n o t h i n g c o u l d e q u a l t h e a r m y " i n p o i n t o f p l e a s u r e , i d l e n e s s a n d 33 34 g r a n d e u r " o r i n " w i l d e x c i t e m e n t " ^ . A n d a l t h o u g h i l l - t r e a t e d , t h e m e n s a w i n c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e p r o s p e c t o f m o r e a d v e n t u r e . P r i v a t e W h e e l e r r e m a r k e d , w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o n d n e s s t h a t , "What a c h e q u e r e d l i f e i s a s o l d i e r ' s o n a c t i v e s e r v i c e . O n e m o m e n t s e e k i n g t h e b u b b l e r e p u t a t i o n a t t h e c a n n o n ' s m o u t h ! T h e n e x t c o u r t i n g s o m e f a i r u n -k n o w n d a m s e l . Sometimes s c o r c h e d a l i v e b y h e a t , I h e n a l m o s t f r o z e n t o d e a t h o n s o m e s n o w y m o u n t a i n , At o n e t i m e t h e i n m a t e o f a p a l a c e , t h e n f o r m o n t h s , t h e s k y i s h i s o n l y c o v e r i n g . H u n t i n g t h e e n e m y l i k e a g r e y -h o u n d , a n d i n r e t u r n a s o f t e n h u n t e d b y t h e e n e m y . T h e s e t h o u g h t s n a t u r a l l y a r i s e w h e n f r o m t h e m i d s t o f ease a n d p l e n t y , w e f i n d o u r s e l v e s t r a n s p o r t e d a s i f w e r e b y m a g i c , c l o s e t o t h e e n e m y i n a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y , a t a d i s t a n c e o f t h r e e h u n d r e d m i l e s ! " _ 3 5 I n s u m , t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t t y p e f i e d m a n y a s o l d i e r ' s f e e l i n g " W h a t s t r a n g e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f l i f e t h e s o l d i e r m e e t s w i t h j C a m p a i g n i n g i s - t h e l i f e f o r m e , . I h a v e n e v e r f e l t s u c h h a p p i n e s s s i n c e I b e c a m e a s o l d i e r . I o f t e n t h i n k t h a t t o b e l i v i n g i n E n g l a n d a f t e r t h i s w i l d , r o m a n t i c e x i s t e n c e w o u l d n o t g i v e m e h a l f s o m u c h s a t i s f a c t i o n . " 3 6 A d m i t t e d l y , t h e r e w a s s o m e r o m a n c e i n f i g h t i n g i n t h e P e n i n s u l a a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n ' s A r m y , a n d i t b l o s s o m e d w i t h e a c h s u c c e s s . T h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h e m e n r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t p e r h a p s t h e y w e r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a n e v e n t o f p r o f o u n d h i s t o -r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e / i n t e n s i f i e d t h a t r o m a n t i c f e e l i n g / b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e w a r w a s a b o v e - a l l a t e r r i b l y c o s t l y a n d b r u t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . A n i l l u s o r y v i e w o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n h e l p e d t o d i m i n i s h t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s e f f o r t t o s u p p r e s s a w a r e n e s s o f w a r ' s h a r d s h i p s w a s m i x e d w i t h a p r i d e i n s t r e n g t h t h r o u g h a d v e r s i t y . T h e m e n t u r n e d t h e i r c o n d i t i o n i n t o a c h a l l e n g e j' t h e y m a d e t h e a b i l i t y t o s u r v i v e s o m e t h i n g t h a t p r o v e d a n d d e f i n e d t h e s e l f . A n e x t r e m e a r r o g a n c e f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s p r o c e s s ^ T h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r e n d u r e d , a n d u l t i m a t e l y w o n , a c c o r d i n g t o o n e F r e n c h 37 o b s e r v e r , b e c a u s e o f h i s " i n s u f f e r a b l e c o n c e i t " . T h e t h e m e o f ' s t r e n g t h t h r o u g h a d v e r s i t y 1 w a s w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e d i a r i e s o f s o l d i e r s . O n e w r o t e : " . . . t h e r e a l s p i r i t o f t h e s o l d i e r w a s i m p r o v i n g , a n d I m a k e l i t t l e d o u b t b u t w e w o u l d h a v e f o l l o w e d o u r l e a d e r s t o t h e e x t r e m i t y o f E u r o p e w i t h o u t g r u m b l i n g . We w e r e g e t t i n g h a r d i e r a n d s t r o n g e r e v e r y d a y i n p e r s o n ; t h e m o r e w e s u f f e r e d , t h e m o r e c o n f i d e n c e w e f e l t i n o u r s t r e n g t h . " ^ g W a r ' s s a l u t a r y s e v e r i t y w a s w e l c o m e d , a l b e i t a t w i s t e d r o m a n t i c v i s i o n o f i t , ' " T h e m e n m i g h t c u r s e , c o m p l a i n , c r u m b l e , b u t t h e y • 39 w e r e s e c r e t l y p r o u d o f t h e i r e f f o r t s . " - ^ T h e y l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o m o r e o f t h e s a m e . " 'We s u f f e r e d , b u t w e w e r e p r o u d o f o u r s u f f e r i n g s a n d t r i e d 40 t o l a u g h a t t h e m , " r e m a r k e d a s o l d i e r . T h e r e w a s t h u s a g r e a t 97 p r i d e i n h a r d s h i p s c h e e r f u l l y e n d u r e d , " E v e n i n t h e m i d s t o f o u r s o r r o w s , t h e r e w a s . . . a s a v a g e n e s s o f w i t , t h a t m a d e a j e s t hi o f i t s o w n m i s e r i e s , " s a i d a n o t h e r . I t s i m p o r t a n c e w a s e n o r m -o u s , c h e e r f u l n e s s a n d g o o d h u m o u r h e l p e d t h e s o l d i e r t o f o r g e t t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f h i s s i t u a t i o n a n d m a d e i t s l i g h t l y u n r e a l . T h e p s y c h o l o g i s t V i c t o r F r a n k i s i m i l a r l y o b s e r v e d , o f h i s e x -p e r i e n c e i n a N a z i c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p t h a t , " H u m o u r i s a w e a p o n o f t h e m i n d i n t h e s t r u g g l e , f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n , , , h u m o u r i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t h a n a l m o s t a n y t h i n g e l s e i n h u m a n l i f e t o a t t a i n a l o o f n e s s , t o r i s e s u p e r i o r t o t h e o c c a s i o n . . . t h e m o s t i n f a l l i b l e m e a n s t o k e e p u p m o r a l e • • • " j ^ I n s u m , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t a r i a n a p p r o a c h t o t r a i n i n g a n d d i s c i p l i n e w a s r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l . I t m a i n t a i n e d o r d e r w e l l e n o u g h , b u t w a s , b y i t s n a t u r e , t o o o v e r b e a r i n g f o r s o m e i n d e p e n d e n t s p i r i t s . D e s e r t i o n , s t r a g g l i n g , a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f m o r a l e w e r e t h e r e s u l t . F o r t h e m a j o r i t y , t h e h a r s h n e s s o f t h e s y s t e m ( a n d t h e l i f e ) w a s a l l e v i a t e d w i t h t h e a i d o f c o p i n g d e v i c e s . T h e i r i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n w a s , o f c o u r s e , n o t u n i v e r s a l b u t s u s t a i n e d i n d e g r e e s u n i q u e t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . T h e h u m a n m i n d , t w i s t e d a n d f r a g m e n t e d , w a s t h u s a b l e t o m a k e t h e g h a s t l y s t a t e e n d u r a b l e . T h e t a l e n t i s e i t h e r m a n ' s g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h o r h i s s u p r e m e f o l l y . B u t a l t h o u g h i t w a s a n a m a z i n g a d j u s t m e n t , a r m y l i f e w a s n o t t o t a l l y a l i e n t o t h e c i v i l i a n e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s o l d i e r w a s u n d e r t h e c o m p l e t e d o m i n a t i o n o f h i s o f f i c e r , a n d f o r c e d t o m a k e t h e b e s t o f i t , b u t a t t h e s a m e E n g l a n d w a s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y c l a s s - d o m i n a t e d . T h e e n c l o s u r e m o v e m e n t w a s d e s t r o y i n g t h e i n d i -v i d u a l f a r m e r , a n d i n t h e b u r g e o n i n g i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y t h e 98 worker was, i n the words of Asa Briggs, tinder the "absolute and uncontrolled power of the c a p i t a l i s t " . •* The army was not an experience unique to B r i t i s h society, d i f f e r i n g only i n degree. X X X We turn now to examine the second approach to s o c i a l i z i n g the s o l d i e r . The d i f f i c u l t y with the t r a d i t i o n a l method was that despite Its r e l a t i v e success i n creating a d i s c i p l i n e d troop on the b a t t l e f i e l d , i t tended to demoralize the soldier, often rob-bing him of his dignity, and the desire to do w e l l . In other words, the f i g h t i n g s p i r i t of the men was t r a d i t i o n a l l y often l a c k l u s t r e . By the end of the American War of Independence shrewder minds recognized the inadequacy of the system. D i s c i p l i n e alone, even i n i t s milder forms, was not enough to create a good s o l d i e r . Guibert, the French m i l i t a r y theorist, saw the problem. He observed that "we do not reason enough with the s o l d i e r ; " and Saldern, the Prussian commander recognized that, "Severity towards r e c r u i t s i s inappropriate and inhumane ... One must never cease to think of a s o l d i e r as a man; most can be got to do anything by good t r e a t -ment and a s o l d i e r w i l l do more f o r an o f f i c e r who treats him well and whom he trusts than fo r one who t e r r o r i s e s him."^ Slowly, e f f o r t s were made to bridge the enormous gulf between the two ranks, and to exploit more humane and e f f i c a c i o u s modes of t r a i n i n g . In Great B r i t a i n , there was at f i r s t l i t t l e sympathy f o r innovation. Indeed, not u n t i l 1800 with the creation of a new force, the R i f l e Brigade, was i t attempted on a reasonably large scale* The 95th, ^3rd and 52nd Foot were subjected to a rare 99 experiment. By a l l accounts the emphasis on appeals to the sol d i e r ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e rather than h i s fears seems more prom-inent than was a c t u a l l y the case because so many of the best-known dia r i e s were written by Riflemen. The Army, on the whole, remained quite f i x e d i n the eighteenth century s p i r i t , or at best suspended between the two i d e a l s . Innovative techniques were extended beyond these regiments slowly., as t h e i r value was recognized, p a r t i c u l a r l y by the Duke of York, and more men of st u r d i e r i n t e l l i g e n c e , to whom the ideals of l o y a l t y and honour were a t t r a c t i v e , e n l i s t e d than previously. Within the R i f l e Brigade, the men were encouraged instead of browbeaten, i n v i t e d to think rather than being made to obey b l i n d l y . To persuade rather than to break the w i l l was the intention; and i t was believed that i n the process the s o l d i e r would develop s e l f - p r i d e , a r a t i o n a l two-way trust and respect f o r his o f f i c e r s , and a sense of community. The i d e a l was e x p l i c i t i n William Stewart's, Outlines f o r a Plan f o r the  General Reform of the B r i t i s h Land Forces; " D i s c i p l i n e i s rendered most perfect when authority i s softened by feelings of honour and a f f e c t i o n . I t has Invariably been the object of great commanders to mingle authority with l e n i t y , to i n s p i r e t h e i r troops with con-fidence i n t h e i r own capacity, to c a l l f o r t h t h e i r enthu-siasm, and to create one common f e e l i n g between the o f f i c e r and the s o l d i e r * The R i f l e Brigade manual r e f l e c t s the same s p i r i t : "Every superior ••• s h a l l give h i s orders i n the language of moderation and of regard to the f e l l i n g s of the i n d i v i d u a l under his command; abuse, bad language or blows being p o s i t i v e l y forbid i n the Regiment."^3 One of the surest means of enhancing t h i s communitarian lo.o s p i r i t was through the encouragement of games such as cr i c k e t and f o o t b a l l . Postering a s p i r i t of play could "never be too much encouraged". Morris noted that* "the o f f i c e r s ... used to encourage games among the men* sometimes forming them i n parties ... these various pastimes had the e f f e c t of keeping up a good understanding among the o f f i c e r s and men." Wheeler added that they produced an excellent f e e l i n g between men and o f f i c e r s because the l a t t e r always d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these diversions. And as Colonel Syndney Beckwin of the 95th remarked: "to d i v e r t and to amuse h i s men. and to allow them every possible indulgence compatible with the d i s c i p l i n e of the battalion, was the surest way to make the s o l d i e r s follow him c h e e r f u l l y through f i r e and water, when the day of t r i a l came."_rt Xn sum, those who promoted games were loved, admired, obeyed, and well-remembered. The encouragement of such a c t i v i t i e s was also important, i t should be noted, i n helping to combat drunkenness, an endemic problem i n the forces. One o f f i c e r remarked that, "The Captains and other O f f i c e r s are requested to show every encouragement to t h e i r men to amuse them-selves at the game of cr i c k e t , hand or f o o t b a l l , leap-frog, quoits, vaulting, running, foot races, etc* etc* .., I t keeps up good humour and health, and, what i s of i n f i n i t e l y more consequence, prevents the men from _ passing t h e i r i d l e hours i n the canteens arid alehouses. "-> In the f i n a l analysis, the system was remarkably success-f u l . The lash was not often used "and yet d i s c i p l i n e i s i n the highest state of perfection."- I t worked better than i t s alternative because i t appealed to the sol d i e r ' s need f o r s e l f -53 respect and a sense of belonging. ^ The men learned how to do t h e i r job w e l l and to take pride i n t h e i r profession. I t s success was f a c i l i t a t e d by the s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e i r o f f i c e r s , f o r underlying the creation of a cooperative s p i r i t was an understanding of the most a t t r a c t i v e features of the o l d corporate way of l i f e . The best o f f i c e r s were dominated by a a r i s t o c r a t i c s e n s i t i v i t y . They resolved to recreate a sense of the o l d r u r a l society at i t s best, with the o f f i c e r as the good country gentleman, kind, reverant and thoughtful! and to many i t was a v i v i d contrast to the cold i n d i f f e r e n t ; c a p i t a l i s t . Indeed, many of the o f f i c e r s were described i n these terms. I t was'said of General H i l l , f o r example, that, "He was the very picture of an English country gentleman: to the soldiers who came from the r u r a l d i s t r i c t of o l d England be represented home; h i s fre s h complexion, p l a c i d face, kind eyes, kind voice, the absence of a l l parade or noise i n his manner delighted These men of a r i s t o c r a t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s were n a t u r a l l y preferred to those who had r i s e n from the lower ranks, e s p e c i a l l y bourgeois types. According to Rifleman H a r r i s : "There was a noble bearing i n our leaders, which they on the French-side (as f a r as I was capable of observing) had not: and I am convinced that the E n g l i s h s o l d i e r i s even better pleased to be commanded by some men of rank i n his own country than by one who has r i s e n from his own s t a t i o n . Thus, the late eighteenth century plea by the aristocracy i n the face of bourgeois interference that i t alone was q u a l i f i e d to 58 lead the army had some v a l i d i t y . This Innovation i n approaches to t r a i n i n g within the R i f l e Brigade enhanced r e l a t i o n s between o f f i c e r s ^ men and i t s success had an influence on the Army as a whole. I t also d i d much to promote friendship and s o l i d a r i t y among the men. Rank-and-file camaraderie exists to some degree i n a l l armies regardless of t h e i r respective modes of t r a i n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e ; but i t was greatly i n t e n s i f i e d by deliberate e f f o r t s , begun i n the R i f l e Brigade, to promote a communitarian s p i r i t . We might f o r a moment look at the importance of camaraderie. The growth of a sense of camaraderie among soldiers i s v i t a l to the maintenance of army cohesion. I t i s an enormous sustaining force. Part of the reason why t h i s i s so i s con-tained i i i the o l d addage, "misery loves company". As one veteran of the Second World War r e c a l l e d , "Somehow privations were not so onorous when you bore them as one of a band of brothers.""^ Companions are useful, comforting; they help to get one through. But that i s only part of the answer. The bonds of camaraderie transcended thdt sort of mutual b i g brother r e l a t i o n s h i p . They were more valuable than that; indeed the s o l d i e r s found them indispensable. In the broadest sense they were manifested i n a powerful group pride. Rifleman Harris explained at the outset of h i s memoir: "...Neither w i l l I mention any regiment but my own, i f I can possibly avoid i t . For there i s none other that I l i k e so much, and none else so much de-serves i t . For we were the l i g h t regiment of the Light D i v i s i o n , and f i r e d the f i r s t and the l a s t shot i n every b a t t l e , siege and skirmish, i n which the army was engaged during the war."^Q Harris was thoroughly convinced that h i s was the best regiment i n the entire B r i t i s h Army, superior at everything from f i g h t i n g to f o r n i c a t i n g . Being Riflemen they probably were though that i s beside the point. Everyone thought h i s regiment was the best. On a deeper l e v e l , men developed an almost fanatic willingness to share i n everything with t h e i r comrades. Wheeler, who was wounded and disabled, expressed t h i s f e e l i n g well, from his bed: "As much as I desire to see my dear native land, my home and a l l my dear r e l a t i o n s , o l d playmates and neighbours, I would much rather r e j o i n my Regiment again and take my chances with i t . Then, when thi s long, protracted war i s over, i f fortune should favour me I should have the proud s a t i s f a c t i o n of landing on my native shores with many a brave and gallant comrade, with whom I have braved the dangers of many a hard fought b a t t l e . The strength of t h i s devotion to one's comrades i s equally apparent i n the Judge Advocate-General's observation i n 181 hi "Our mulateers are now owed twenty-one months pay. They have therefore t h e i r own way, and are under no control at a l l . Northing but a sort of e s p i r i t de corps ... makes them keep with us at a l l . " ^ 2 A soldier's l o y a l t y to his group was thus immensely d i f f i c u l t to abrogate. From a management point of view the importance of t h i s f a c t was obvious. The comradeship that developed thus e n t a i l e d more than mutual comfort. I t involved group pride, devotion and s p i r i t . I t Lis perhaps a universal phenomena of war; as J. Glenn Gray argued, " u n t i l now war has appealed because we discover some of the mysteries of communal joy i n i t s forbidden depths." I t represents attainment of the genuine longing f o r community that most f e e l , but few achieve. But i f the desire f o r camaraderie i s so fundamental, and yet so rare save i n war, what i s i t s na ture ? 104 In a sense, t h i s bond between s o l d i e r s shares a common root with the psychology of Nazism or a nascent r e l i g i o u s movement. A s i m i l a r development unites the three. In each the participants are n a t u r a l l y bound by a common goal; t h i s shared purpose must be something concrete and f e a s i b l e ; other-wise i t becomes rather d i f f i c u l t to bring together desparate i n d i v i d u a l s . Despite i t s f e a s i b i l i t y , however, impediments to success - danger or adversity, r e a l or imaginary - emerge. Yet i t i s p r e c i s e l y a recognition of t h i s threat that makes camaraderie so a t t r a c t i v e . Captain Kincaid said of h i s men: "In every i n t e r v a l between our active services we indulged i n a l l manner of c h i l d i s h t r i c k and amuse-ment with an a v i d i t y and delight of which i t i s impos-si b l e to convey antiadequate idea. We l i v e d united, as men always are who are d a i l y s t a r i n g death i n the face on the same side, and who, caring l i t t l e about i t , look upon each new day added to t h e i r l i v e s as one more to rejo i c e i n 1 1 ^ In essence, a sense of danger makes one cognizant of the impor-tance of common e f f o r t ; i t acts to break down the b a r r i e r s of the s e l f . Alone one i s aware of i n d i v i d u a l impotency, but a recognition of something greater than the s e l f i s l i b e r a t i n g * Men become drunk with the power that union with others brings* For i t s members the group acquires an almost immortal status* This f e e l i n g predominates among the Nazi Party member, the Fla g e l l a n t , the revolutionary and the s o l d i e r * As Rifleman Harris explained, "The men seemed i n v i n c i b l e * Nothing, I thought 65 could have beaten them*" This intoxicated sense of camaraderie, blessed with delu-sions of grandeur, and the sense of unrealness caused by the 105 depersonalization described e a r l i e r , makes men daring and s e l f -s a c r i f i c i n g * The group becomes everything; one w i l l do any-thing f o r his comrades, hi s own safety meaning l i t t l e . Indeed, i n a l l the memoris written by those who took part i n the Peninsula campaign there was an astonishing lack of reference to one emotion, fear* As Captain George Smith observed of h i s men, "Fear f o r himself he never knows, though the loss of h i s comrade pierces h i s h e a r t . I n d e e d , a powerful example of such s e l f - s a c r i f i c e involved the anonymous author of Journal of  a Soldier of the Seventy F i r s t or Glasgow Regiment and a fellow s o l d i e r named McDonald. The l a t t e r was wounded and blinded, i n a skirmish just p r i o r to Moore's retreat to Corunna. Through precarious mountain passes steeped i n Snow the unknown s o l d i e r c a r r i e d McDonald and then treated him aboard ship on the journey back to B r i t a i n . This act was performed by a man who0 e a r l i e r had c a l l o u s l y abandoned hi s poverty-stricken parents to enter the theatre. The humanity shown McDonald was thus t o t a l l y a l i e n to h i s previous character. But such action typ4 i c a l l y r e f l e c t e d the s p i r i t of s a c r i f i c e and devotion that pre-v a i l e d among the men throughout the war. Inoidently, h i s action also t y p i f i e d the sort of behaviour found, f o r example, among American s o l d i e r s during World War Two. Many of them expressed amazement at how much sharing suddenly meant to them and how e a s i l y they cooperated and served others. They had grown so accustomed to the rugged competitiveness of American society that the more tender v i r t u e s had been l o s t . Paradoxically, i n the midst of war one may f i n d , then, a profound blossoming of C h r i s t i a n ethics, f o r i n Jesus' words, "greater love has no man than thee, that a man lay down hi s l i f e f or h i s 68 friends'*. Thus, Wellington's s o l d i e r s went into b a t t l e and exposed themselves to death not p r i n c i p a l l y i n hate or to pro-mote a cause but, to a great extent, out of love, love f o r the groups I t would be grossly misleading to suggest that camaraderie resolved a l l problems of army l o y a l t y . This monograph was i n -spired by the b e l i e f that singular explanations could not adequately account f o r a soldier's commitment. Army l i f e was vi c i o u s , a traumatic experience to endure at best. Numerous factors could intervene to break down group s p i r i t , to aggravate i n d i v i d u a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s . Consider, f o r example, Sergeant John Donaldson's des c r i p t i o n of the e f f e c t s that a p a r t i c u l a r l y long and a«(uous retreat had on the men: **A savage sort of desperation took possession of our minds: Those who l i v e d on most f r i e n d l y terms with each other i n better times now quarrelled with each other, using the most f r i g h t f u l Imprecations on the s l i g h t e s t offence. A misanthropic s p i r i t took possession of every b r e a s t . " ^ As f o r the f a l l e n , "the desparing looks that they gave us, when they saw us pass on, would have pierced the heart at any other time; but our feelings were steeled, and we had no power to 70 a s s i s t . " The pain was h o r r i f i c ; "... at the n i g h t l y h a l t many men threw themselves down i n the mud, praying, f o r death 71 to r e l i e v e them from t h e i r misery." Thus although a sense of camaraderie greatly heightened a s o l d i e r ' s l e v e l of tolerance and allowed him to endure f a r more than he could normally, be-yond'a 5 l i i n i t of pain and discomfort camaraderie weakened, the mind l o s t sight of i t s purpose, and became i r r a t i o n a l and s e l f -107 preoccupied. Breakdowns i n group morale were infrequent during the Peninsula War because the s o l d i e r was more strongly moti-vated than hitherto, good-training increased his stamina and tolerance, and e f f o r t s were made to provide at least a modicum of humanity to army l i f e . The s p i r i t of camaraderie remained strong and i t s memory happily retained i n l a t e r l i f e . Wheatley wrote, "The numerous acquaintances I formed and the endeavours they made to render my hours agreeable and s a t i s f a c t o r y w i l l '•- 72 never be r e c a l l e d without esteem and gratitude."' Another s a i d : nX was fortunate enough to have contracted an intimacy with one of my comrades, whose memory I have never ceased to cherish with the fondest a f f e c t i o n , r a r i d whose good q u a l i t i e s deserve that h i s memory should be cherished with a f f e c t i o n " , ^ F i n a l l y , one s o l d i e r summed up army l i f e appropriately with these works: n I l e f t my comrades with regret; but the services with joy." 7** 108 Footnotes 1. W.M. Fi t c h e t t (ed.), Wellington's Men (London, 1 9 1 2 ) , 212. 2. This was true i n the French Army as w e l l . By the end of 1792 France had l o s t 6 0 , 0 0 0 men to desertion, according to S i r John Fortescue*s, A History of the B r i t i s h Army, Vol. IV, Part I. 3 . R.S. Goulden, "Deserter Bounty C e r t i f i c a t e s " , Journal of  the Society f o r Army H i s t o r i c a l Research, Vol. 5 0 * 1 9 7 2 , 163-64. 4. William Moore's recent book, The Thin Yellow Line (London 197*0* gives the impression that desertion was a chronic problem during the campaign i n the Peninsula and he de-rides Wellington's Army for f a i l i n g to handle the problem. Any amount of desertion i s , n a t u r a l l y , a problem but Moore neglects to compare the rate there to e a r l i e r figures. Clearly, the pattern was declining. 5 . S t i l l , Carnor, the French m i l i t a r y genius, thought the B r i t i s h s o l d i e r to be the most p a t r i o t i c i n a l l of Europe. 6. During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars s a i l o r s i n the B r i t i s h Navy were generally conscripts not volunteers. As a r e s u l t , t h e i r sense of devotion was so myopic that they could not even be trusted to go on shore without supervision. According to Captain Fremantle, "Desertion from the ships i s so prevalent that not a man can be trusted on shore." Cited i n Christopher Lloyd, The Nation and the Navy, A History of Naval L i f e and Po l i c y (London. 1954). 176. 7. One obvious innovation adopted throughout the Army was Dundasr's system of d r i l l s . William Cobbett said of the system that "any old woman might have written such a book ... I t was excessively f o o l i s h , from beginning to end." (w. Cobbett, "The Court-Martial" (From Cobbett's Weekly  P o l i t i c a l Register. June 1 7 , 1809), 128.) 8. A Royal M i l i t a r y College was, however, founded at thi s time. Several men trained there a c t i v e l y served i n the Peninsula. 9 . Mistrust of the s o l d i e r ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s c e r t a i n l y helped to maintain the t r a d i t i o n a l system. The Subaltern's attitude that "Soldiers are ... mere machines" was s t i l l a popular one. (The Subaltern (Edinburgh and London, 1825)* 3 2 ) . 10, Cited i n The New Cambridge Modern History, J.0. Lindsay ( e d i t . ) , Vol. VII, The Old Regime. 1713-63 (Cambridge, 1 9 6 3 ) . Chapter VIII, The Armed Forces and the Act of War (Eric Robson), 172. 11. Cited i n John Nel, War and Human Progress (New York, 1950), 307. 12. Cited i n C.W.C, Oman, Wellington's Army 1809-1814 (London, 1913), hz. ti 13. See Stanley M. E#ins, Slavery (Chicago and London, 1971; 1958), 103-115. " I t i s remarkable," one observer remarked, "how l i t t l e hatred of t h e i r wardens i s revealed i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . " (115>. 14. Ibid. 15. I b i d . , 27-80. 16. In new units, f o r example, there was an enormous percentage of s i c k men and stragglers, part of the reason why Wellington was reluctant to replace f i r e d battations wholesale with fresh regiments. He preferred merely to add to depleted ones. 17. C.W.C. Oman, Wellington's Army 1809-1814 (London, 1913)» 212. 18. Cited i n Godfrey Davies, Wellington and His Army (Oxford, 195*»)» 98. 19. J. Glenn Gray, The Warriors: Reflections on Men i n Battle (New York, 1970; 1959). 122-23. 2 0 . Cited i n Captain B.H. L i d d e l l Hart (ed.). The Letters of Private Wheeler. 1809-1828 (London, 1951 )» 3**. 21. Gray, op. c i t . , 125. 22. John Stevenson, A Soldier i n Time of War (London, 1830), 14Q. 2 3 . C.S. Forester, Rifleman Dodd (New York, 1942), 177. 24. Quartermaster - Sargeant James Anton, Retrospect of a M i l i t a r y  L i f e , during the most eventful Period of the Last War (Fitohe?fct t i e d . ), op. c i t . ) , 250. 2 5 . Cited i n Davies, op. c i t . , 77» z6!. Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy F i r s t or Glasgow Regiment (from 1806 to 1815) (Edinburgh, 1 8 1 9 K 203. 27. Cited i n Arthur Bryant, Jackets of Green, A Study of the  History. Philosophy and Character of the R i f l e Brigade (London, 1972), 76". '. ' ' 2 8 . Note how the s o l d i e r was described as l i k e the slave i n character. Joseph Donaldson observed that because the s o l d i e r was so harshly treated, "We cannot wonder that he became the debased being, i n body and mind, which they already con-sidered him, or that he possessed the common vices of a slave. 110 fawning s e r v i l i t y , d u p l i c i t y , or want of self-res p e c t . " (Recollections of the Eventful L i f e of a Soldier (new ed. Edinburgh, 18^5) 7 3 . ) " 29. Elk i n s , op. c i t . , 98-139. 3 0 . Ibid., 113. 31. i n the concentration camp, f o r example, food became v i r t u a l l y the sole obsession. 3 2 . In B r i t a i n , the reactionary atmosphere a f t e r 1793 mitigated ... against e f f e c t i v e reformist action by the army rank-and-file^ Soldiers were not, however, completely unaffected by reform-i s t e r anti-establishment movements of the time. In 1812 more than 12,000 s o l d i e r s were sent to those countries plagued by Luddism. Judging by their^remarkable lack of enthusiasm f o r duty during the assignment* i t seems l i k e l y there was some sympathy f o r the Luddites. See E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Glass (Pelican, 1972; 1963), 615-617. 33. Cited i n Davles, op. c i t . , 100. 3 4 . G.C, Moore Smith, The Autobiography of Lieutenant-Genera1  S i r Harry Smith. (London, 1902), V o l . I, 210. 35* Hart, op* c i t . , 98. 3 6 . Cited i n Bryant, op. c i t . , 78. 37* Cited i n John L a f f i n , Tommy Atkins.The Story of the B r i t i s h  Soldier (London, 1966), 7. 38. F i t c h e t t , op. c i t . , 27**. 3 9 . C.S. Forester, The Gun (New York, 19*»2), 33 kO* Cited i n Field-Marshall Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, A History of Warfare (London, 1968), 3k0 kt* Journal of a Soldier •••» op. c i t . , 86-87* kz. Cited i n E l i e Cohen, Human Behaviour i n the Concentration  Camp (London, 195*0, 181. 1»3. Asa Briggs, The Ageofff Improvement* 1783-1867 (London, 1959). kk. Cited i n The New Cambridge Modern History. Vol^ VIII (Cambridge, 1965), 212. Ibid, 213* I l l 46. For example, Memoirs of Edward Costello of the R i f l e  Brigade (London. 1857): A B r i e f Outline of the Travels  and Adventures of Wm! Green. Bugler. R i f l e Brigade (Coventry* 1857): Rifleman Harris (HamdenConn. 1970): J.. Kincaid, Random Shots from a Rifleman (London, 1835) i J . Leach, Rough Sketches of the L i f e of an Old Soldier (London, 1831)7 47. Cited i n Bryant, op.cit., 42. 48. Ibid., 23. 49. Thomas Morris, Recollections of M i l i t a r y Service (London, 1843), 27-28. 50. Cited i n Antony Brett-James, L i f e i n We1lington 1s Army (London, 1972), 221. 51. Cited i n Bryant, ep. c i t . , 28. 52. William Moore, The Thin Yellow Line (London,1974), 35. 53. To the men of the Peninsula Army> Napoleon, who was gre a t l y admired i n contrast to h i s d e v i l i s h reputation i n Great B r i t a i n , c a r r i e d the i d e a l even further. According to Thomas Morris: " I f we seek a reason f o r such extra-ordinary attachment, we s h a l l f i n d i t i n that constant attention of Napoleon, to the wants of and wishes of h i s men: h i s i d e n t i t y with them i n a l l dangers; h i s prompt, profuse, but impartial d i s t r i b u t i o n of rewards; his throwing open to the meanest s o l d i e r , the road of pro-motion to the highest honours; so that every man had a strong incentive to good conduct.!' (Morris, op. c i t ; , 132). 54! The introduction of s p e c i a l uniforms f o r the Riflemen, badges f o r outstanding work, and a constant emphasis on the m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n that they were a part of gre a t l y added to t h e i r sense of pride! 55. In a culture growing increasingly depersonalized, i t must surely have been consoling to many to discover i n army l i f e a semblance of a disappearing way of l i f e } i n the face of the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the o l d society brought on by the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution the Army offered a new sec u r i t y to replace the vanished one. One suspects that this f e e l i n g of having belonged to the i n s t i t u t i o n was one of the most important reasons whygthe army days were l a t e r so fondly r e c a l l e d by many! 56. Cited i n Oman, op. c i t . , 116. 57! F i t c h e t t , op. c i t . , 212 58. Their f e e l f o r the task included a willingness to earn the soldier's respect through example. Like Frederick the Great* s willingness to march i n the r a i n alongside h i s men, they sought to convey a sense of being able to endure as l e a s t as much as the s o l d i e r . Their indisputable bravery was p a r t i c u l a r l y impressive,' The French General Foy thought them "the bravest and most p a t r i o t i c o f f i c e r s i n Europe," 59. Cited i n W i l l a r d Walter, The Veteran Comes Back (New York, I9hk), k5-k6. 60. Rifleman Harris, op. c i t , , 32. 6 1 H a r t , op, c i t . , 148. 62. Chris Hibbert, (ed.), The Wheatley Diary (London, 1964), 22 63. Gray, op. c i t , , 5k, 64. F i t c h e t t , op. c i t . 84, 65. Harris, op, oit.» 23, 66; G.C. Moore Smith, op. c i t . , Vol; I, 27V. 67• Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First or Glasgow Regiment (From 1806 to 1815) (Edinburgh, 1819). 68. Cited i n Grey, op, c i t , , 107. 69. Sergeant Donaldson, Eventful L i f e of a Soldier (London, 1825), 69. 70. Ibid., 69. 71. Ibid., 70. 72. Wheatley, op. c i t . , 57. 73. The Subaltern, op. c i t , , 3k. 7k. Journal of a Soldier ..., op, c i t , , 227. Attitudes Toward Punishment The d i s c i p l i n a r y character of the B r i t i s h Army underwent considerable change during the Napoleonic era. The notion of appealing to reason rather than the rope spread gradually through the force, so that the clear dichotomy between the two approaches to training described i n the previous chapter dimin-ished. The harshness of Br i t a i n ' s m i l i t a r y l i f e was subsequently softened. However, the inconsistency of B r i t a i n ' s class of o f f i c e r s perhaps s t i f l e d further progress. Wellington thought them t o t a l l y useless. "There i s nothing so stupid as a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r , "he once complained. Wellington overstated the case, but undoubtedly there were many incompetent o f f i c e r s ; some were turbulent, others drunken. But what r e a l l y m i l i t a t e d against the men receiving the best possible training was the o f f i c e r s ' habit of absenting themselves i n order to take care of domestic concerns, for example, thei r sexual a f f a i r s . Without careful supervision, i t was easier simply to revert to the threat of force. Punishment remained an integral part of army l i f e . But we have not discussed what the men thought of i t . Attitudes toward punishment are in t r i g u i n g and worthy of close attention, for they illuminate a good deal about the origins of desertion i n the eighteenth century and consequently are useful i n helping to explain why i t diminished during the Napoleonic Wars. Corporal punishment was generally tolerated throughout the era(indeed f o r more than i n the eighteenth century) and not simply because the men were too exhausted or numbed by the l i f e to know any better. There was a sensible rationale behind their tolerance. During the eighteenth century, European armies aroused a mixture of amazement and disgust among humanitarians for the extreme, even brutal severity of their codes of m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e . No i n s t i t u t i o n was more deliberately harsh or ruthless than the army and navy (with the possible exception of the penal system, but then criminals were merely a disagreeable part of l i f e , l i k e mosquitoesj they sounded few sympathetic chords). B r i t a i n ' s army was no exception. The B r i t i s h provosts punished frequently and with enthusiasm. I t i s surely i r o n i c that i n an era i n which a philanthropic enthu-siasm growing out of the Evangelical movement was so strong, this condition was allowed to perpetuate i t s e l f within the B r i t i s h Army. "We l i v e i n an age 2 when humanity i s i n fashion," , wrote London magistrate S i r John Hawkins i n 1787, and several events echoed these sentiments, such as the creation of the "Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor" i n 1796, S i r Frederick Morton Eden's three volume study of the state of the poor i n 1797, and the emergence of an anti-slavery crusade, inspired by the Clapham Sect, i n 1794). The problem was not so much that the m i l i t a r y was run by a c o l l e c t i o n of sadists, though certainly the army suffered no lack of s a d i s t i c types, but rather as we noted e a r l i e r , that tih.\uMscz appallingly ignorant of more e f f i c a -rious modes of behavioural control. The majority of those concerned with m i l i t a r y matters clung stubbornly to the t r a d i t i o n a l l y harsh and r e t r i b u t i v e approach to d i s c i p l i n e into the Napoleonic era. And Parliament, though, for example, increasingly sensitive to the plight of the negro slave, and which i n 1806 would l e g i s l a t e to ban the B r i t i s h slave trade, each year, i n passing the Mutiny Act, continued to approve a harsh m i l i t a r y code. During the wars against France (1793-1815), the penalties for various crimes were not permanent but fixed.?with each passage of the Mutiny Act. This had been the practice, v i r t u a l l y unaltered since 1689. However, rarely were si g n i f i c a n t changes made. The most serious punishment was execution by f i r i n g squad or hanging. The former was generally reserved for acts of desertion to the enemy, mutiny, or striking an officer. On one occasion a soldier was shot for robbing valuable stores (the case of Corporal Hammond of the 87th, 24 Jan, 1810). There were only seventy-eight executions by fi r i n g squad 3 during the entire Peninsular War. The rank-and-file were required to attend such spectacles, and although few diarists cared to write about the experience, those who did described i t with a blend of pity, fear and extreme awe. Hanging was the usual penalty for capital offences. Murder, rape and armed robbery were the most common crimes subject to the death penalty. There were also at least three instances i n which unarmed men were hanged for stealing small sums from officers' tents, and another in which the crime was, paradoxically, sodomy (It was s t i l l a capital offence in Britain). Leniency was occasionally shown, as in the case of a dragoon convicted of rape i n 1814 4 but whose sentence was reduced to a heavy flogging. In 1811, two additional punishments for serious crimes were introduced. Recovered deserters who had not gone over to the enemy but who had hidden themselves in the Peninsula, were sometimes given long service in the Colonial Corps, such as the African or New South Wales Regiments. As well, those prone to habitual theft without violence were sentenced to penal servitude for terms ranging from seven years to l i f e . Both colonial service and penal bondage were horrible, improverished, often disease-ridden existences. Minor offences were punished by that universal corrective, the lash, other forms of corporal punishment having been abandoned by this time. They varied in severity according to the degree of crime committed and the rank of the offender involved. The administering of punishment was relatively straight-forward. The prisoner was tied to three sergeant's halberds planted into the ground and joined at the top to form a triangle. The lashes were struck at the tap of a drum beaten in slow time; to ensure maximum results wielders of the ±10 cat alternated every twenty-five lashes. A surgeon was present to ensure the safety of the prisoner's health; the punishment was interrupted i f he thought that continuing i t would pose a threat to the man's l i f e . Upon recovery, which might take weeks, the carrying out of the sentence was resumed. One sol d i e r , William Lawre nee of the 40th, describes his experience of the lash i n the following words: "I absented myself without leave from guard for twenty-four hours ... I was sentenced to 400 lashes. I found the regiment assembled a l l ready to witness my punishment; the place chosen for i t was the square of a convent. As soon as I had been brought up by the guard, the sentence of the court-martial was read over to me by the colonel, and I was told to s t r i p , which I did firmly, and without using the help that was offered me, as I had by that time got hardened to my l o t . I was then lashed to the halberds, and the colonel gave the order for the drummers to commence, each one having to give me twenty-five lashes i n turn. I bore i t well u n t i l I had received 175, when I got so enraged with the pain that I began pushing the halberds, which did not stand at a l l firm (being planted on stones), right across the square, amid the laughter of the regiment. The colonel, I suppose thinking then that I had had s u f f i c i e n t , 'ordered the sulky rascal down' i n those very words. Perhaps a more true word could not have been spoken, for indeed I was sulky. I did not give vent to a sound the whole time, though the blood ran down my trousers from top to bottom. I was unbound, and a corporal hove my s h i r t and jacket over my shoulder, and conveyed me to hosp i t a l , presenting as miserable a picture as I possible could. The minimum penalty was usually twenty-five lashes, while the maximum was nevtfauthorized to exceed one thousand-two hundred, though this author re-c a l l s at least two examples of men receiving punishments of one thousand-nine hundred strokes. I f not calculated to k i l l , penalties of that severity would maiw. However, sentences of one thousand-two hundred strokes of the cat were awarded only about ten times during the entire Peninsular War, and those of a thousand lashes, f i f t y to sixty times. (Some cheated by committing suicide instead.) More t y p i c a l floggings were i n the area of seven hundred, five hundred or three hundred lashes, and applied to such crimes as attempted desertion," casual theft without violence,' disobedience, petty breaches of discipline, and occasionally, drunkenness on duty. Ironically, by 1812 a negro slave in the West Indies could not legally be flogged more than forty lashes. It should perhaps be pointed out that of those punished in the Peninsula, 1809-1814, a heavy proportion were Irish, and, incidently, very few, Scots. Wellington blamed the .'former1 s record on their horrible obsession with alcohol, observing that i t made them incapable of performing their duty and rendered them "unaware of the nature of the effect of their actions." Drink, intended to be a comfort, was for many Irishmen (and others) a curse. • • • Undoubtedly, the military code was draconian. Its aim'was to ensure obedience, and within the context of the war against France, the level of British Armydiscipline was rather high. And, on the whole, the average soldier found the system tolerable. The reason was simple. It had nothing to do with timidity, natural deference or innate stupidity. He accepted as ruthless and uncompromising system of punishments for the most part because in spite of i t s brutality, the system was above-all not arbitiary or discriminating. For example, the practice of striking soldiers at random so fashionable in a number of European armies was absent in the British Army. The last vestiges of this privilege had pretty well been eradicated by the Duke of York. The result, unique among European armies, was that a soldier had only himself to blame for his punishment. As John Stevenson argued,, "They talk of the lash. I was never any more afraid of the lash than I was of the gibbet, no man ever comes to that but through his own conduct, just as thousands come to the j a i l and penal settlements."g To see others punished naturally brought out one's sympathies, often un-10 bashedly, but at the same time the prisoner's culpability was not forgotten. 1 1 0 This i s not to suggest that this attitude toward punishment has my sympathy. To the modern reader the fact that punishment was infrequently a r b i t r a r y may seem l i k e small compensation for l i v i n g i n the midst of what seems l i k e a-; a veritable atmosphere of terror. The point, though, i s that the soldier thought the system quite reasonable. Moreover, not only was the p r i n c i p l e of punishment tolerated, most soldiers defended even i t s most severe manifestations - not for the sake of justice nor to s a t i s f y the Old Testament axiom that the righteous should rejoice at the sufferings of the sinner - but simply as a means to ensure order. After a l l , t h e i r profession demanded ef f i c i e n c y and order. These sentiments are repeatedly asserted i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the rank-and-file. Private Wheeler's view, for example, was that "the army ... could not be kept i n the order so essential to i t s well-being i f some examples had 11 not been made ... such punishments were necessary to deter others." On similar grounds, Wheailey opposed M.P. S i r Francis Burdett's plea for the a b o l i t i o n of corporal punishment i n the Army; and Anton remarked: "Examples ... are absolutely necessary, whatever philanthropists say to the contrary. Theyiend to preserve r e g u l a r i t y , order, and d i s c i p l i n e . . . Philanthropists who decry the lash ought to reconsider i n what manner the good men - the deserving exemplary, soldiers - are to be pro-tected; i f no coercive measures are to be resorted to i n purpose to prevent ruthless ruffians from i n s u l t i n g with impunity the temperate, the w e l l - i n c l i n e d , and the orderly-disposed, the good must be l e f t to the mercy of the worthless ... the good soldier thanks you not for such philanthropy; the i n c o r r i g i b l e laughs at your humanity, despises your clemency, and meditates only how he may g r a t i f y his naturally vicious propensities. Furthermore, i t should be recognized that although i t was not unusual for a man to be whipped b r u t a l l y , the soldier often sensed, nonetheless, that the Commander had his best interests i n mind. After suffering through a devastating punishment, William Lawrence of the |/40th remarked that "Perhaps i t was a good thing for me as could then have happened, as i t prevented me from committing greater crimes, which might at l a s t have brought me to my 13 r u i n " . Wellington's lieutenant, S i r Thomas Picton, beat m e r c i l i s s l y any man accused of ste a l i n g from the Spanish peasants, "always t a l k i n g about how wrong i t was to plunder the poor people becas#3,e countries happened to be at 14 war." He could have hanged them instead; more important, "every s o l d i e r i n the d i v i s i o n knew that i f he had anything to.complain of, 'Old Picton' would l i s t e n to his story, and set him r i g h t i f he c o u l d . T h e y respected Picton, and thus accepted the wisdom of his d i s c i p l i n a r y actions. S i m i l a r l y , Robert Crauford, well-remembered for having flogged his men i n a devastating fashion on the r e t r e a t to Corunna, i s r a r e l y acknowledged for the respect which the men had for h i s leadership. In the words of John Kincaid, "No one but one formed of s t u f f l i k e General Crauford could have saved the brigade from perishing altogether; and i f he flogged two, he saved hundreds from death." ^ Now i t has been ajpgued that the rank-and-file more or less uniformly supported the m i l i t a r y code. Various supportive material from d i a r i e s and journals was quoted. But, can one declare unequivocally that t h i s view permeated the rank-a n d - f i l e , or was i t an a t t i t u d e confined to the generally more i n t e l l i g e n t and thus perhaps less v o l a t i l e men who wrote diaries? Paradoxically, an analysis of the remarkable events of the mutinees at Spithead and Nore i n 1797 may shed some l i g h t on the matter. During the mutiny, the f i r s t B r i t i s h government «v»r* based on univ e r s a l sufferage over was elected among the s a i l o r s , and open forums created to a r t i c u l a t e grievances. P e t i t i o n s stemming out of these discussions demanded improvements i n food, health care, sleeping f a c i l i t i e s , and leave, but from no quarter came any c a l l to abandon the cat. The mutineers did i n s i s t on the dismissal or c a s t i g a t i o n of those o f f i c e r s who punished i l l e g a l l y , but no sense of outrage was directed at the p r i n c i p l e of punishment i t s e l f . According to the naval h i s t o r i a n , David Hannay: I Z U " I have never found any evidence (before 1815) that flogging as a punishment given for proven offences against d i s c i p l i n e or good order i n the ship was looked upon as a grievance. On the contrary, when i n f l i c t e d by a Captain, who, however severe he might be was just, i t was considered ... as ... protection against unruly s p i r i t s swept into the f l e e t by the press or the criminals imported from the g a o l s . " ^ Officers who continued their arbitary ways despite the efforts of the Duke of York, were confronted, i n varied and occasionally unusual ways. A certain amount of malpractice was tolerated, understandably since every soldier had inherited his world view through experience i n a c i v i l society replete with i n j u s t i c e s . These were the s i l e n t r e v o l t s , the revolutions of hope. Sometimes justice did p r e v a i l . Several tyrannical o f f i c e r s were cashiered, p u b l i c a l l y reprimanded, corporally punished or reduced i n rank by their superior; on at least one occasion, i n Belgi.um, i t was a l o c a l outcry against an o f f i c e r ' s methods that inspired the regional commander to< to take action against him. Retribution was swifter and more appreciated i f the o f f i c e r was simply k i l l e d i n action. Bugler Green of the 68th recorded one incident where the men actually cheered at the sight of their f a l l e n commander, and afterwards 18 celebrated the end of his despotic reign. Another s interesting strategy of dealing with reprobrate o f f i c e r s was described by John Donaldson. A new Commander was bent on making his men absolutely s e r v i l e , at any cost. His effo r t s to s a t i s f y that ambition, however, backfired completely. Wrote Donaldson: "When he got command of the regiment he introduced flogging for every t r i v i a l offence, and i n addition invented disgraceful and torturing modes of i n f l i c t i n g the lash. But this was not enough - he ordered that a l l defaulters should have a patch of black and yellow cloth sewed on to the sleeve of their jacket, and a hole cut i n i t for every time they were punished. The effect was soon v i s i b l e ; as good men were l i a b l e to be punished for the sli g h t e s t f a u l t , the barrier between them and hardened i l l - d o e r s was broken down, and those who had l o s t respect i n their own eyes became broken-hearted and i n e f f i c i e n t s o ldiers, or else grew reckless and launched out into real crime. Those who were hardened and unprincipled before, being brought by the prevalence of punishments nearer to a l e v e l with the better men, seemed to glory misconduct. In short, a l l idea of honour and character was l o s t , and l i s t l e s s apathy g and bad conduct become the prevailing features of the Corps." Occasionally, a s t a r t l i n g increase i n desertion accompanied the introduction of unfair and i l l e g a l treatment. This .occurred, for example, within the York Hussars after i t s esteemed Colonel Jassar, had been succeeded by a tyrant named Long. Moreover, Long's subsequent attempt to stem the tide of desertion through an indiscriminate increase i n the severity of punishment only served to aggravate the trend. F i n a l l y , i n the extreme, there were isolated incidences of mutiny, as i n the Breadahbane corps at Glasgow. In sum, although i t would be f o o l i s h to assume that the harshness of Br i t a i n ' s m i l i t a r y system of justice did not generate some antipathies among the rank-and-file towards the Army, the generally f a i r |C that i s , non-arbitary] use of the code minimized the potential for h o s t i l i t y . Thus incidences of disorder and desertion were generally the result of the meting out of i l l e g a l punishment or else were stimulated by events quite unrelated to d i s c i p l i n e , most notably shortages of food. Indeed, f a i l u r e to ensure an adequate supply of foodstuffs produced the greatest amount of unrulliness. A good deal of the bitterness and f r u s t r a t i o n expressed i n personal memoirs, therefore, pertained to food or, for example, coping with boredom or the experience of losing a comrade i n b a t t l e , rather than to some sense of displeasure with d i s c i p l i n a r y action. Despite the arguments offered and the evidence supplied, one suspects that the heavy hand of army d i s c i p l i n e would not have been so well tolerated had there not been p a l l i a t i v e s to compensate the soldier. A l c h o l , sex and other diversions were of enormous importance and their f u l l s i g n i f i c a n e t w i l l be explored at ailater point. More important, what occurred several times was a profound release, a complete and utter negation of d i s c i p l i n e , that i s , mass plunder. According to S i r John Fortescue, "The men, a r t i f i c a l l y restrained by harsh d i s c i p l i n e at home, thought themselves e n t i t l e d (not wholly without 20 sympathy from their o f f i c e r s ) to be lawless i n the f i e l d . " As one o f f i c e r wrote: "The s p i r i t of the soldiers rose to a f r i g h t f u l height (At Badajoz). I say f r i g h t f u l because i t was not of that sort which denoted exultation at the prospect of achieving an exploit which was about to hold them up to the admiration of the world; there was a certain something i n their bearing which told p l a i n l y that they had suffered fatigues of which they had not complained, and seen their comrades and o f f i c e r s s l a i n around them with re-pining, but that they had smarted under the,one and f e l t acutely for the other. They smothered both, so long as body and mind were employed, but now, before the storm, they had a momentary license to think, and every fine feeling vanished - plunder and revenge took the i r place •••"21 Naturally, the army did not encourage such behaviour, i t made i t subject to the death penalty. Indeed, many of f i c e r s t r i e d to r e s t r a i n mass acts of wanton p i l l a g e , though some, as Fortescue implies, merely ignored i t . The d i f f i c u l t y was that when men became possessed of that feverish anxiety, and their c o l l e c t i v e blood grew hot, almost nothing could be done to quell their emotions. The best examples of such action were at Vimiera (1808), Ciodad Rodrigo (1812), Badajoz (1812), San Sebastian (1818) and U i t o r i a (1819). At Vitoria, Wellington sought to pursue the retreating French Army, but abandoned the plan after his army succumbed to mass looting and drink. I t was here that the Duke labelled B r i t i s h soldiers 'the scum of the earth', adding that i t seemed, i n his opinion, 'impossible to command a B r i t i s h army'. S t i l l , B r i t a i n ' s record of plunder and rapine during this war was, on the whole, a r e l a t i v e l y modest one, certainly i n comparison to the behaviour of France's amies. The m i l i t a r y code remained harsh throughout the war. We noted, however, that there occurred some change i n attitude concerning the value of severe d i s c i p l i n e . E f f o r t s were made to appeal to the soldier's i n t e l l i g e n c e , to lead rather than drive him. For even though soldiers tolerated punishment i t was becoming increasingly clear that men fought more zealously when the atmosphere of army l i f e was free of the constant threat of punishment simply because i t meant that officers were ma&A. to reply on more humane and digni-fied methods in order to motivate their troops. It should be recognized, however, that in 1815 the British officer was s t i l l quite likely the most backward thinking in Europe. In light of these comments on the tendency to soften the severity of punishment, the importance of public efforts to improve the soldier's lot are worth noting. An active Press campaign in 1811-1812 was instrumental in getting certain regulations passed to render punishments of flogging less frequent and less severe. In 1812, a circular issued by the Commander-in-Chief forbade 'on any pretext whatsoever' the authorization of punishments exceeding three hundred lashes. This was followed in 1813 by the Secretary-of-State-at-War's acceptance of Sir Samuel Romilly's plea that no man should be flogged oijf he had fallen. Thus, despite certain government limitations imposed on Press and public criticism of the code - for example, the Hunts, owners of the Examiner were tried on charges of seditious l i b e l for various criticisms of the lash, and though acquited,their editor was fined £ 200 and jailed for eighteen months - their efforts did contribute to the mitigation of i t s worst features. In sum, the British military system of discipline and punishments was «jr«.<(»>«U<j a crude and cruel one, though i t s severity was*ameliorated. In spite of the harshness of the code the soldier tolerated i t , partly because army l i f e had i t s compensations elsewhere, but for the most part because i t was not arbitary. An attempt to maintain order in the British Army wasimade without subjecting men indiscrimately to the lash. In the fi n a l analysis, the fact that as long as one was obedient one remained immune from punishment seemed to soldiers sensible and worth tolerating. ±ZO Footnotes 1. Captain B.H. Liddell Hart (ed.) 5 The Letters of Private Wheeler,  1809-1828 (London, 1951), 57. 2: Cited in Asa Briggs, The Age of Improvement, 1783-1867 (London, 1959), 15. 3. See C.W.C. Oman, Wellington's Army 1809-1814 (London, 1913), 243. 4. Ibid., 245. 5. Autobiography of Sergeant William Lawrence (London, 1901), 48, 49. 6. Wheatley mentioned several examples of men receiving eight hundred lashes or so for attempting to desert; he cited another in which the culprit received only three hundred sttokes. John Skipp, at age fifteen, was court-martialed for attempted desertion from the 'Boys Regiments' (10-16 years old) and sentenced to nine hundred and ninety-nie strokes. Fortunately, i t was commutted. 7. William Morris told of one man given one hundred and f i f t y lashes for the theft of one carrot. 8. Cited in Oman, op. c i t . , 239. 9. John Stevenson, A Soldier in the Time of War (London, 1841), 140. 10. For example, in one of his letters, Private Wheeler writes of an introverted, humble and father popular soldier who, in an intoxicated state, struck an officer. He was condemned to be shot. At the execution, there was, according to Wheeler, "not a dry eye in the regiment." (Captain B.H. Liddell Hart (ed.), The Letters of Private Wheeler, 1809-1828 (London, 1951), 33-34.) 11. Hart, op. c i t . , 196 12. James Anton, Retrospect of a Military Life (Edinburgh, 1841),11. 13. Lawrence, op. c i t . , 49. 14. Cited i n Oman, op. c i t . , 137. 15. Ibid., 137. 16. John Kincaid, Random Shots from a Rifleman (London, 1835). 17. David Hannay, Naval Courts Martial (Cambridge, 1914), 67. 18. William Green, The Vicissitudes of a Soldier's Life (Leicester, 1858), 81. 19. Sergeant Donaldson, Eventful Life of a Soldier, (London, 1825), 145, 146 20. J.W. Fortescue, The British Army 1783-1802 (London, 1905), 34. 21. W. Grattan, Adventures with the Connaught Rangers, 1804-1814 (London, 1847), 193-94. VI Pastimes There was, removed from the pain and drudgery, another side to army l i f e - that of diversion and entertainment. The men wasted no opportunity in pursuit of ways to amuse themselves. Their amusements were instrumental in helping to make a d i f f i c u l t and often monotonous l i f e endurable. The s p i r i t of play was also c r i t i c a l in enhancing that sense of community v i t a l to good morale, a factor not overlooked by the authorities. The most important source of comfort to the British soldier was drinking. The consumption of alcohol in the Peninsular Army was enormous, exceeding even the characteristically high levels consumed by the British c i v i l i a n population. Previous British armies had often discouraged soldiers from drinking. In Cromwell's New Model Army, for example, drunks were made to endure a type of punishment known as the wooden horse, a device whose pain 1 to the genitals was excruciating. Marlborough's Army had also severely re-pressed drunken behaviour. The worst forms of insobriety were punished in Wellington's Army, but no dramatic effort was made to moderate the wide-spread consumption of alcohol. Drinking was simply too popular and, i n the Peninsula, too cheap and accessible to have been s t i f l e d effectively. Wellington wrote in 1810 that "No soldier can withstand the temptation of wine. This is constantly before their eyes in this country, and they are con-stantly intoxicated when absent from their regiments, and there is no crime which they do not commit to obtain money to purchase i t , or i f they cannot get money, to obtain i t by force. One gets the impression from analyzing available dispatches that most officers simply f e l t that i f the men were so infatuated with alcohol then i t was pointless to suppress i t s consumption. A good officer allowed some self-indulgence as a necessary concession to the needs of the rank-and-file. The only d i f f i c u l t y with that policy was that the abuse of alcohol often got out of hand, with debilitating effects to the soldiers' fighting a b i l i t y . Observed the anomymous author of Journal of a Soldier ...: "The great f a u l t of our soldiers, at this time, was an inordinate desire for s p i r i t s of any kind. Thej( s a c r i f i c e d their l i f e and safety for drink, i n many ways} for they lay down intoxicated upon the snow, and slept the sleep of death; or, staggering behind, were overtaken and cut down by the merciless French soldiers."^ During the retreat to Corunna, a thousand men were l e f t behind at Bimbibre too drunk to move as a resu l t of having exhausted the l o c a l wine c e l l a r s . The French cavalry attackedfthe town shortly thereafter, k i l l i n g a number of the stragglers and incarcerating the rest. Alcohol was the p r i n c i p a l source of comfort but there were, as w e l l , numerous other a c t i v i t i e s which appealed to the soldier. During the day, when time allowed, the men, for example, passed time and supplemented their d i e t s , by hunting and f i s h i n g . These diversions were ideal for the s o l i t a r y type. Races were also very popular and occasions for much eager betting. Men occasionally competed i n foot races, but more prevalent were sweepstakes and greyhound racing. A number of o f f i c e r s brought dogs from England s p e c i f i c a l l y for that purpose. The men also enjoyed coarse, rough and primitive sports l i k e boxing and wrestling. According to one observer, soldiers were "mad for violent exercises". However, few took a l i k i n g to b u l l f i g h t i n g . The men were puzzled to understand how the Spanish people could enjoy the sport, when i t s excitement seemed to be d i r e c t l y proportional to the amount of cruelty practised and when there was disappointment when someone was not R i l l e d or at least badly injured. However, their own sports of cock and dog-fighting were equally cruel. Few, i f any other pastimes were neglected. Indeed, the men pursued a wide variety of amusements, from f o o t b a l l , 4 cricket and handball to swimming, shooting marbles and making wine. Rambles were also popular, p a r t i c u l a r l y because Spain and Portugal were r i c h i n both scenic beauty as well as cathedrals, monasteries, aqueducts, and other a n t i q u i t i e s . J Men of the 43rd described going on long hikes during which they chased herds of wild ponies, f i r e d at eagles and vultures c i r c l i n g above, and wandered up among giant c l i f f s where they sat gazing at the A t l a n t i c Ocean for hours.^ F i n a l l y , i t should be noted that a number of so l d i e r s , especially Riflemen, consumed some of their leisure hours i n educating them-selves. They read books supplied by families with..whom they were b i l l e t i n g and purchased others from booksellers, one of whom had assured Moyle Sherer of having sold more books to the B r i t i s h ' i i n two weeks than he had sold i n two years to French soldiers whoc constantly passed through the c i t y . ^ g Evenings were spent around a f i r e i n "a continuous round of pleasure," i n the words of Private Wheeler. For the most part the men simply talked. VYou would laugh i f you could hear our conversations here," wrote one soldier to his wife; "one moment spherical case and round shot, the next tea or shoes 9 or Russian ducks." They also san^, read aloud English newspapers (the one precious l i n k with home), played cards and, at least twice a week, were treated to more formal entertainments l i k e dancing displays or amateur t h e a t r i c a l s . Throughout the evening, the men of course drank; they also smoked and nibbled at whatever extra food they had obtained. Cigars, "the great comfort of the 10 sold i e r , " were ea s i l y accessible. On the other hand, apart from the daily r a t i o n , food was d i f f i c u l t to procure. Nonetheless, the men a c t i v e l y scrounged for i t not because they were starving, for they f e l t themselves adequately fed, but for the sake of variety. The reason may also have had something to do with the nature of the c l a s s i c regression pattern described e a r l i e r . The regressive syndrome i s often characterized by an overwhelming obsession with food. In the Nazi concentration camps food took on. an enormous e x i s t e n t i a l importance. 11 Victor Frankl called i t "gastric masturbation." Unfortunately, there i s so l i t t l e known about the hunger drive that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to explain i t s compulsive character under certain conditions. What i s certain i s that i n the Peninsula men went to extraordinary lengths to supplement thei r diet. Indeed, i t was Lieutenant Mercer's opinion that this soldiers fancied easing above a l l else. As Private Wheeler observed, "mostly the b e l l y was not for-gotten." Foragimjwas usually a f u t i l e exercise, and i t was impractical to steal food off the natives since offenders were often executed. Extra food was, therefore, c h i e f l y procured through purchase. Farmers sold a b i t of their produce. As w e l l , merchants occasionally set up markets adjacent to camps, because the B r i t i s h could be trusted to pay for the goods, and sold mostly bread, milk, eggs, poultry, and wine. The following passage describes the legendary Johnny Newcombe's encounter with one su t l e r : ' "Pray, s i r , " says John, "do you s e l l Hams, and cheese?" " S i , Senhor, I do s e l l a l l vat you please; B i s c u i t s , '&c Porter, Tongues, Hollands, &i.Brandy." John crack'd his whip, and swore 'twas a l l the dandy. "Tea, Sugar, Sal t , and vat of a l l most nice i s , Pickles and Soda, good Seegars and Spices. Unfortunately, among the variety of foods sold by sutlers were sometimes meats 1 4 cut off the bodies of French soldiers. Occasionally, the regular pattern of night l i f e was interrupted by special war*fcimC parties. Celebrations were held at Christmas and on other special dates, such as St. Patrick's Day or the anniversary of a famous b a t t l e , complete with a meal t y p i c a l l y consisting of punch, plum-pudding, and r roast beef. The men were paid i n a^ears and various forms of gambling set up. One observer noted that, "There was no lack of ... dominoes, pitc h and toss: Heads, I win! - t a i l s , you lose! - anything to catch the penny. So their 1 5 t h i r t y or forty dollars did not l a s t long."-S i m i l a r l y , o f f i c e r s would endeavour where possible to vary the soldier's l i f e by arranging parties or dances with the l o c a l inhabitants. During Kincaid's stay i n one v i l l a g e ; "We invited the v i l l a g e r s , every evening, to a dance at our quarters ... A Spanish peasant g i r l has an address about her which I have never met within the same class of any other country ... We used^Jp f l o u r i s h away at the bolero, fandango and waltz, and woulcj^up early i n the evening with a supper of roasted chestnuts."., 16 Incidently, most soldiers thought the fandango was scarcely decent, even obscene and thus t e r r i b l y exciting. "This dance," wrote one Scot, "had a great effect upon us, but the Spaniards ... laughed at the quick breathing 17 and amorous looks of our men." The result of mixing with the people on such occasions was thoroughly b e n e f i c i a l . Not only was the contact pleasurable, i t also did much to enhance relations between the Army and the inhabitants of the Peninsula. A more sympathetic understanding of the native people developed and this awareness 18 helped to soften that a i r of superiority t y p i c a l of the B r i t i s h s o ldier. Although f e s t i v i t i e s shared with towns and v i l l a g e s brought soldiers r into contact with women the majority of intimate a f f a i r s were with prostitutes. In small towns, brothels were the most popular form of entertainment, especially i n winter. During the long B r i t i s h stand behind the Lines of Torres Vedras many whores journeyed up from Lisbon and settled i n the v i l l a g e s occupied by the B r i t i s h i n order to exploit the situ a t i o n . Though providing what the men undoubtedly thought was a valuable service, they were not w e l l - l i k e d by the soldiers, and fought b i t t e r l y with them, mostly over payment. Wellington was f i n a l l y forced to evacuate shiploads of the most brazen women i n order to stem the chaos. Prostitutes also followed regiments on the march. The Duke allowed his colonels to permit "a few (women) who have proved themselves useful and regular" to accompany the soldiers to whom they were attached "with a view to 20 being ultimately married," but i n fact the majority of these women con-21 s t i t u t e d "a t r a v e l l i n g brothel". The men were thus rarely without the pleasures of female companionship, though the result of "plenty of love a f f a i r s , " to quote the modest words of August Schaumann, the Hannovarian 22 assistant-commissary, was widespread venereal disease. In sum, the rank-and-file enjoyed a pleasant variety of diversions which with the exception of the abuse of alcohol, had no detrimental effe on their d i s c i p l i n e or performance. Indeed, not only did their pastimes help to make the l i f e endurable, they also contributed to disseminating a s p i r i t of good-fellowship among the men. According to Charles Stewart: "Then i n our quarters we l i v e d g a i l y and well ... i n the midst of war, - b a l l s , private theatricals and agreeable parties were things of continual occurrence. I t i s un-necessary to add that this system, whilst i t detracted i n no degree from the d i s c i p l i n e and eff i c i e n c y of the troops, spread abroad among those who came under i t s influence the very best disposition and temper; and a l l men r e a l l y learned to love their occupation."^^ Footnotes 1. Cromwell's p u r i t a n i c a l zeal also inspired him to i n s t i t u t e fines for swearing and floggings for fornication. 2. Wellington, Second Duke of (ed.), Supplementary Despatches and  Memoranda (London, 1858), 321. 3. Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First or Glasgow Regiment (from 1806 to 1815) (Edinburgh, 1819), 87. 4. An extensive description of outdoor pastimes popular with.the Peninsula Army can be found i n Antony Brett-James 1, L i f e i n Wellington's Army (London, 1972), 121-134, 145-178, 195-227. 5. See Moyle Sherer's excellent account of sightseeing i n the Peninsula. (Recollections of the Peninsula, by the Author of Sketches of India (3rd. ed., 1824) Published anonymously). 6. Joseph Donaldson, Recollections of the Eventful L i f e of a Soldier [A Sergeant i n the 94th Scots BrigadeJ (new ed., Edinburgh, 1845), 193. 7. Brett-James, op. c i t . , 152. 8. Captain B.H. L i d d e l l Hart (ed.), The Letters of Private Wheeler, 1809-1828 (London, 1951), 81. 9. Letters of Colonel Augustus Frazer, K.C.B., Commanding the Royal Horse  A r t i l l e r y i n the Army under the Duke of Wellington, written during the  Peninsular and Waterloo Campaigns, Major-General Edward Sabine (ed.), (1859), 192. ' ' ' 10. Brett-James, op. c i t . , 147. 11. Cited i n E l i e Cohen, Human Behaviour i n the Concentration Camp (London, 1954), 132. 12. Wheeler, op. c i t . , 43. Indeed, when plundering the enemy, the men, contrary to o r i g i n a l expectation, greatly preferred to find foodstuffs than 'prizes'. One fellow who had removed a valuable gold watch off the dead body of a French soldier remarked that he would have traded i t for a good meal anytime.The most..audacious, turned dead Frenchmen into good meals. (Journal ... op. c i t . , 71) 13. Lieutenant-Colonel David Roberts, The M i l i t a r y Adventures of Johny  Newcombe, with an Account of his Campaign on the Peninsula and i n  P a l l Mall and Notes by an Officer (new ed., 1904). Published anonymously. 35-36. 14.. Ross Lewin, With the 32nd i n the Peninsula War (London, 1834), 205. Cited i n Oman, op c i t . , 274. 15. Major-General S i r George B e l l , Soldier's Glory, being Rough Notes of an  Old Soldier, Brian Stuart (ed.), (1956), 144. 16. Cited i n Roger Parkinson, The Peninsular War (London, 1973), 145. 17. Captain Thomas Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-first Regiment (Highland Light Infantry) from 1806 to 1815 CConstable 1s Miscellany, v o l . XXVII, Edinburgh, 1828). Published anonymously. 110. 18,,, According to Moyle Sherer, the B r i t i s h "cannot make themselves beloved; they are not content with being great, they must be thought so, and told so. They w i l l not bend with good humour to the customs of other nations ... wherever they march or t r a v e l , they bear with tham a haughty a i r of conscious superiority and expect that their customs, habits, and opinions should supersede, or at least suspend, those of a l l the countries through which they pass." (Sherer, op. c i t . , 36-7). 19. Note, however, that s i x wives of soldiers were allowed to accompany each regiment when i t l e f t England. The practice was an ancient one among armies; Tacitus described i t . But while i t was a great comfort to those few men whose wives were fortunate enough to be selected (by lo t ) out of the hundreds applying, i t had l i t t l e bearing on the rest of the men. Incidently, most women who became widowed i n the Peninsula quickly remarried (other s o l d i e r s ) . There was l i t t l e , point.in.returning to Great B r i t a i n alone, p a r t i c u l a r l y since rel a t i v e s had often severed their t i e s with a g i r l who "ran away with a soldier". 20. Cited i n S i r Charles Oman, Wellington's Army 1809-1814 (London, 1913), 276. 21. Godfrey Davies, Wellington and His Army (Oxford, 1954), 136. 22. Precise s t a t i s t i c s are unavailable for the Napoleonic Wars, but i t i s known, for example, that during the Crimean Wars one-third of a l l h o s p i t i l i z a t i o n s were caused by the disease (32,000 admissions out of 91,000 hospital cases) and that there were 422 admissions for treatment of venereal disease per thousand men at a loss of the equivalent of eight service days a year per soldier. (See Richard Blanco, "The Attempted Control of Venereal Disease i n the Army of Mid-Victorian England", Journal of The Society for Army H i s t o r i c a l Review, 45, 1967, 234-41). 23. Charles Stewart, Narrative of the Peninsular War (London, 1829), I I , 182. VII The Joys of War: Reflections on Combat Attr i b u t i n g to combat a joyous character may seem unusual, even facetious today. The thoughtoof fighti n g does not excite people with any great passion, at least not younger people. The impression i s rather that war would not only be f u t i l e but a t e r r i f y i n g experience. This i s a mistake. Anyone can be possessed by the arcane a t t r a c t i o n of war; indeed, combat has greatly excited men of v i r t u a l l y every culture since the dawn of c i v i l i z a t i o n . My purpose i s not to g l o r i f y war nor i s i t to suggest that man i s by nature a violent creature simply because war can generate a powerful appeal. Although combat can be an e x c i t i n g , i n fact e x h i l i r a t i n g , a c t i v i t y , there i s no need to attribute this to man's possession of innate d i a b o l i c a l urges. My view i s an openoone of man's nature, one that i s at odds with much popular sentiment and a great deal of fashionable l i t e r a t u r e , such as the work of Konrad Lorenz, Desmond Morris, and Robert Ardrey which purports to find i n the behaviour of cackling geese or, i n a medicine man-like way, i n the bones of Australopithecus man, proof of our inherent aggressiveness, but which does not contradict the mainstream of thought i n contemporary anthropology, biology or genetics. I t i s rather my impression that one can make sense of the experience of men i n combat (at least i n the Peninsular War) simply by analyzing the i r way of l i f e and the atmosphere within which they dwelt. I t i s also my feeling that the intensity of this experience was one of the most important factors i n maintaining the devotion of the B r i t i s h soldier during the Napoleonic Wars. I t i s natural, to assume that combat would have been seen as one more horrible feature of a ghastly business. Bad enough that the soldier should have to serve i n f i l t h and deprivation, worst s t i l l that he should have to r i s k his l i f e on the b a t t l e f i e l d . But of course we have described how a sense of camaraderie made the men strong and eager and sustained that enthusiastic ardour. As w e l l , i t must not be forgotten that a goal lay behind that dedicated s p i r i t - to end the war. To delay would solve nothing. The feeling expressed i n the following passage, though the sentiments of a s a i l o r , John N i c o l , i s , therefore, appropriate: "We rejoiced i n general action; not that we loved f i g h t i n g ; but we a l l wished to be free to return to our homes, and follow our own pursuits. We knew there was no way of obtaining this than by defeating the enemy. 'The hotter war, the sooner peace' was a saying with us."^ Moreover, i n a c t i v i t y could be t e r r i b l y boring. In a t y p i c a l year, only a few days or at best a few weeks were spent act i v e l y f i g h t i n g ; regular duties were generally excruciating i n their monotony. I f not on the march -which was often exhausting and dreary - men were continuously kept busy i n camp. Otherwise, they became troublesome, even p o t e n t i a l l y mutinous. While constant attention to a c t i v i t y did keep the rank-and-file moderately p a c i f i c , i t also made them fe e l as though what they were doing was meaningless, which i t usually was. Their tasks were often akin to digging one hole i n order to f i l l i n another. Hence, i n the words of one s o l d i e r , "we had been so long i d l e , that the moere prospect of a l i t t l e f i g h t i n g , instead of creating gloomy 2 sensations was viewed with sincere delight." Another noted: "The ensuing month passed by without the sl i g h t e s t novelty, and we began to get h e a r t i l y t i r e d of our situation. Our souls, i n fact, were strong for war, and peace offered no enjoyment."^ 4 Indeed, "variety i s everything i n the l i f e of a so l d i e r , " pointed out one combatant yearning for b a t t l e . That explains why i n spite ofbbeing plagued by chronic starvation and exhaustion during the two-hundred-mile-long retreat through the mountains of northern Spain to the port of Corunna, i n the middle of December, 1808, the Riflemen at the rear of the l i n e found constant engage-ment with the enemy i n pursuit a d e l i g h t f u l d i s t r a c t i o n . ^ As one of Harris' superiors, Captain Kincaid remarked, 'The sight of the Frenchman always acted 1JU l i k e a co r d i a l on the s p i r i t s of a rifleman." The regular troops, too, came to l i f e whenever the trek was halted i n order to engage the enemy. They hated the indignity of retreating but even more they hated i t s ceaseless pain and drudgery. That they fought so readily was a surprise to the Lieutenant-General John Moore, commander of the force: "I could not have believed, had I not witnessed i t , that a B r i t i s h Army could, i n so short a time, have been so completely disorganized ... except that when there was a prospect of fighting the Enemy. The men were then orderly, and seemed pleased and determined to do their duty."^ Wellington's men may also have been drawn into battle simply because i t was v i o l e n t . B r i t i s h society was, after a l l , a v i o l e n t one; these men were coarse, rough and primitive. War created an atmosphere i n which impulses bred from youth could be satiated, though i t should be pointed out that Br i t a i n ' s soldiers were rarely deliberately cruel towards the enemy. I t i s possible as well that the clear threat "fo one's existence that combat entailed added a poignancy and intensity to l i f e normally absent. L i f e became sweet when over i t hung the mystery of death. This theme has of course been a popular one among a number of twentieth century writers, including Camus, g Hemingway, and Sartre. The l a t t e r observed i n Confederation de l a Silence that he was never so free and a l i v e as during the Second World War when he worked with the French Resistance constantly under the threat' of betrayal and death. S i r Winston Churchill summed up the feeling exquisitely when he re-marked that, "There i s nothing more invigorating than to be shot at without r e s u l t . " Thus they may have welcomed the opportunities for battle that arose not merely as gestures of comrade s o l i d a r i t y or to a l l e v i a t e the tedium of the march or camp existence, but because they found them inherently exciting and personally meaningful. Indeed, i n l a t e r l i f e , soldier's tended to remember their experience i n combat as "the one great l y r i c passage i n their l i v e s " . In order to get a sense of the intensity of combat, i t i s best to dissect the experience into i t s various elements. We ought to look f i r s t at preparation for b a t t l e . On the march to meet the enemy, a strong sense of an t i c i p a t i o n quickly took form. Rifleman Harris describes the effect of knowing that combat was imminent: "The next day we again advanced, and being i n a state of the utmost anxiety to come up with the French, neither the heat of the burning sun, long miles, nor heavy Knapsacks were able to diminish our ardour. Indeed, I often look back with wonder at the lighthearted s t y l e , the j o l l i t y , and reckless indifference with which men who were destined i n so short a time to f a l l , hurried onwards to the f i e l d of s t r i f e ; seemingly without a thought of anything but the sheer love of meeting the foe and  the excitement of the battle." g The immediate hours before battle were usually devoted to somber r e f l e c t i o n , e f f o r t s to patch up old quarrels and animosities, and the preparation of l e t t e r s or w i l l s to be delivered to r e l a t i v e s or friends i f death should ensue. The atmosphere was e l e c t r i c as the following passage i l l u s t r a t e s : " I t would be d i f f i c u l t to conveys to the mind of an ordinary reader anything l i k e a correct notion of the state of feelings which takes possession of a man waiting for the commencement of a b a t t l e . In the f i r s t place, time appears to move upon laden wings; every minute seems an hour, and every hour a day. Then there i s a strange mingling of l e v i t y and seriousness - a l e v i t y which prompts him to laugh, he scarce knows why; and a seriousness which urges him ever and anon to l i f t up a mental prayer to the Throne of Grace. On such occasions, l i t t l e or no conversation passes. The privates generally lean upon thei r f i r e l o c k s - the o f f i c e r s ; and few words, except monosyllables, at least i n answer to questions put, are wasted. On these occasions, too, the faces of the bravest often change colour, and the limbs of the most resolute tremble, not with fear, but with anxiety; whilst watches are consulted, t i l l the individuals who consult them grow absolutely weary of employment. On the whole, i t i s a s i t u a t i o n of higher  excitement, and darker and deeper agitation, than any other i n  human l i f e ; nor can he be said to have f e l t a l l which man i s  capable of f e e l i n g , who has'not f i l l e d it."^Q S i m i l a r l y , i n the words of one captain: 138 "The infuriated soldier resembled rather a pack of h e l l -hounds vomitted' upon the internal regions for the extirpation of mankind than what they were twelve hours previously - a well-organized, brave, disciplined, and obedient Br i t i s h army, and burning only with impatience for what is called glory." ^ A profound anxiety and excitement thus prevailed in the midst.of preparations for combat. This excitement was carried into battle. The men consequently fought well despite their impression that the Spanish and Portuguese people were not sufficiently appreciative of their efforts. Indeed, i t may have been d i f f i c u l t to get the British soldier to do many things, but fighting was not one of them. It was an amazing, compelling attraction. Few men were able to resist i t . One soldier, though troubled with flux, noted to a friend: "What would you have me crying to Doctor Webster, when . we are close to the enemy and expecting to every hour to be exchanged, no, no, I w i l l wait a bit longer and try my hand at shooting at a few Frenchmen f i r s t , afterwards I• w i l l give up but not before, I would die on the road f i r s t . Into the centre of the cyclone the men marched, "blood hot and courage 13 on f i r e " . Anton describes a typical opening engagement: "No movement i n the f i e l d i s made with greater confidence of success than that of a charge; i t affords l i t t l e time for thinking, while i t creates a fearless excitement, attends to give a fresh impulse to the blood of the advancing soldier, rouses his courage, strengthens every nerve, and drowns every ; fear of danger or of death; thus emboldened, amidst the deafening shouts that anticipates victory, he rushes on and mingles with the flying f o e . " ^ Another soldier wrote, "I f e l t no tremor or cold sensation whatever. I walked in without thought or reflection ... The idea of f l i g h t never entered my mind but the hotter the f i r e the stronger I f e l t myself urged to advance. Danger captivated them, and fear of death was e>^>rcised. How then did the men describe a combat experience that followed? Visually, they thought i t awesome. One soldier wrote at Waterloo, "the scene which met the eye conveyed a feeling of more exquisite, gratification than can 16 be conceived," and another said of his f i r s t skirmish, " I t was r e a l l y a 17 beautiful sight." Harris, pausing before a b a t t l e f i e l d , exclaimed, "As I looked about me, I thought i t the most imposing sight the world could produce ... Altogether, the sight had a singular and t e r r i b l e effect upon the feelings of a youth, who, a few short months before, had been a s o l i t a r y shepherd upon the Downs of Dorsetshire, and had never contemplated any other sort of l i f e than the peaceful occupation of watching the innocent sheep as they fed upon the grassy turf."^g As to the action, the following sort of comment was not uncommon: "This was the f i r s t night of my l i f e which I had ever spent i n so warlike a fashion; i and I perfectly r e c o l l e c t , to this hour, the impression which i t made upon me. 19 I t was one of exquisite delight." Wheeler, describes a moment on the ba t t l e -f i e l d i n these words: " I was so overjoyed ... and so animated was the moment ... that forgetting the danger I exposed myself to, I sat up with my cap on 20 the muzzle of my f i r e l o c k and cheered." There was a joy and glory i n ba t t l e . The same could not be said about the t y p i c a l soldier's previous experi-ence. Men even experienced a sense of being involved i n history, as private Thomas Morris''1' inclusion of these lines into his diary makes apparent: "The meanest sol d i e r , f i r e d by glory's rage, ^ Believes his name enroll'd i n history's page." Battles we,re short, a day or two at most. -Forv..the combatant i t was not enough to avoid being R i l l e d . One did not gamble one's l i f e merely to survive. The only f i t t i n g reward was v i c t o r y , splendid and honourable. Not surprisingly, then, chasing the enemy was ecstatic. 'There i s something i n the idea of pursuing a f l y i n g enemy, far more e x h i l i r a t i n g than i n any other idea 22 to which the human mind gives harbour," observed one soldier. Another re-marked, " I wish to God I had been with the Russians as nothing can equal the 23 delight of pursuing an Army, especially a French one." Nonetheless, on several occasions the men preferred to plunder a f a l l e n c i t y rather than chase the retreating enemy. It should be pointed out that although the men fought with enthusiasm, they were rarely senselessly violent toward the French. There was l i t t l e cruelty. Nor was there even much of a sense of animosity f e l t toward the enemy.^ One fellow wrote simply, "I should hate to fight out of personal malice 24 or revenge, but have no objection to fight for 'Fun and glory'." Another revealed, "Poor fellows, what is war? Is i t natural to man as to beast, or is i t what a French soldier said to me - i t might be that i t was.-.me that wounded you or you that wounded me, but i t was neither of our faults but our grandees.' Moreover, there exist'ed, a tremendous amount of fraternisation between French and British soldiers. Away from the battlefield a virtual absence of ho s t i l i t y prevailed. Courtesies were observed - prisoners were commonly ex-changed, truces were enforced in order that the dead might be buried, and so on. Usually encamped within walking distance of each other, the men often mingled, bathing together, exchanging various items, and sharing forages. As one Lieutenant observed, "I was highly amused, just before dusk, by observing many of our soldiers run into a f i e l d between the hostile pickets, and dig with their bayonets. Soon after I saw many of the enemy do the same thing: they did not molest each other, but appeared even familiar, laughing and joking promiscously." How strange, thought I, that these men, who to-morrow would be slaying each other, should now be so good-humouredly employed together: They were digging potatoes! Sterotyped images of an e v i l , satanic enemy so popular in Britain had dis-27 solved completely." Indeed, by 1814 relations between the two armies were so good that Wellington f e l t compelled to forbid any further contact with the French. British soldiers thus got along better with their enemy, men who were quite prepared,to k i l l them when the occasion arose, than with the natives of the Peninsula who they were supposedly liberating from Napoleon's domination. In fact, a l l the worst excesses of cruelty were perpetrated not against the French but the Spanish and Portuguese people. At Badojoz, for example, according to one o f f i c e r , "The barbarity of our soldiers extended to that p i t c h that they would not for two days carry off the wounded men at the foot of the walls - our own men!!! ... the town was dreadfully plundered, and the inhabitants murdered of a l l ages and sexes.'^g Such actions occurred not as a result of any animosity f e l t by the B r i t i s h towards these people - indeed there were generally f r i e n d l y relations between the two - but owing to p a r t i c u l a r circumstances. They occurred usually after long, costly sieges when bitterness over the pain and extreme r i s k of the assault and, i t would seem from examining some of the writings, frustrations accumulated as a result of the highly d i s c i p l i n e d character of the l i f e , combined to unleash primitive responses at the heart of the B r i t i s h soldier's v o l a t i l e character. The battle over, the men celebrated. "Nothing i n this l i f e i s half 29 so enviable as the feelings of a soldier after a v i c t o r y " , said Anton. An old s o l d i e r , r e f l e c t i n g on his experience wrote, "Nor do I r e c a l l many 30 happier moments." Yet many comrades had f a l l e n , anda feelings of sorrow interrupted their pleasure. To quote Anton, once more: "Night after battle i s always glorious to the undisputed vi c t o r s ... here, however, by the f i r s t early dawning of the morning, l e t us more seriously cast our eye over this scene of slaughter, where the blood of the commander and the commanded mix indiscriminately together over the f i e l d . " ^ ^ The dead were subsequently honoured with a service. One soldier described one i n those words: "The beautiful manner i n which he (the parson) dwell on the b a t t l e , and the sad and sudden loss of friends and comrades, drew tears from many; and when he wound up with the sad pangs i t would cause at home, to the widows and orphans, the parents and friends of those that had f a l l e n , concluding with the text, "Go to your tents and r e j o i c e , and return thanks to the Lord for the mercies he has granted you", there was hardly a dry eye i n the whole d i v i s i o n , and i t had an excellent effect on the men."^2 But lamentations did not l a s t long; a soldier could not afford to brood over death. Inner defences, such as humour and optimisedwere u t i l i z e d to help one bear the losses. In sum, war was brutal and men^on the whole, did not prefer i t to peace, yet there was something about i t which offered men a poignancy to their l i v e s , a l i f e - a f f i r m a t i o n , a feeling of importance. Private Thomas Morris prefaced his memoir with this passage: "Sound, sound the c l a r i o n ! f i l l the f i f e , To a l l the sensual world proclaim -One crowded hour of glorious l i f e ^3 Is worth an age without a name!" There was glory i n b a t t l e , and i t s excitement helped bear a soldier through. Despite wartime's privations, a good deal of s a t i s f a c t i o n marked a soldier's l i f e ; the return to peacetime society was, by comparison, a pale shadow. Footnotes 1. Cited i n Henry Baynham (ed.), From the Lower Deck (London, 1969), 61. 2. The Subaltern (Edinburough, 1825), 161. 3. W.H. Fitchett (ed.), Wellington's Men (London, 1912), 109. 4. The Subaltern, op. c i t . , 91. 5. The c l a s s i c description of the retreat i s that of Rifleman Harris, (Camden: Conn., 1970), 47-50. 6. F i t c h e t t , op. c i t . , 107. 7. Cited i n Roger Parkinson, The Peninsular War (London, 1973), 69. 8. See Colin Wilson, The Outsider (London, 1956), 31. Also, see Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus (New York, 1955). 9. Rifleman Harris, op. c i t . , 57. 10. The Subaltern, op. c i t . , 51. 11. Cited i n Parkinson, op. c i t . , 151. 12. Captain B.H. L i d e l l Hart (ed.), The Letters of Private Wheeler, 1809-.. 1828 (London, 1951), 139-40. 13. The Subaltern, op. c i t . , 52. 14. F i t c h e t t , op. c i t . , 269. 15. Chris Hibbert (ed.), The Wheatley Diary (London, 1964), 4. 16. F i t c h e t t , op. c i t . , 135. 17. The Subaltern, op. c i t . , 162. 18. Harris, op. c i t . , 65. 19. The Subaltern, op. c i t . , 33. 20. Hart, op. c i t . , 138. 21. Thomas Morris, Recollections of M i l i t a r y Service (London, 1847), 2. 22. The Subaltern, op., c i t . , 136. 23. Cited i n S.A. Cassells, Peninsular P o r t r a i t (London, 1963), 89. 24. Cited i n Antony Brett-James, L i f e i n Wellington's Army (London, 1972), 292. 25. Dr. R.H. Roy, (ed), "The Memoirs of Private James Gun'!, Journal of the  Society for Army H i s t o r i c a l Research, Vol. 49, 1971, 180. 26. Cited i n Brett-James, op. c i t . , 292. 27. Wrote Sergeant John Donaldson, "How differenct were our feelings i n this respect from many of our countryment at home, whose ideas of the French character were drawn from servile ..newspapers and pamphlets ... but I myself must confess, in common with many others, that I was astonished when I came into contact with French soldiers, to find them, instead of pigmy spider-shanked wretches, who fed on nothing but frogs and beef tea, stout handsome looking fellows, who understood the principles of good-living as well as any Englishment amongst us; and, whatever may be said to the contrary, remarkably brave s o l d i e r " Cited in Antony Brett-James, op. c i t . , 309. 28. H.H. Bruce, Like of Napier, I, (London), 96. Normally, such behaviour was deplored, except among the Army's worst elements. The average man, for example, found no vicarious delight in the almost continuous acts of Portugese and Spanish brutality. One fellow described these in the following terms: "Here I beheld a sight ... even more horrible (than vultures); the peasantry prowling about, more ferorious than the beasts and birds of prey, finishing the work of death, and carrying away whatever they thought worthy of their grasp. Avarice and revenge were the causes of these horros. No fallen Frenchman, that showed the least signs of l i f e , was spared. They even seemed pleased with mangling the dead bodies." From Journal of a Soldier of the  Seventy Fir s t or Glasgow Regiment (From 1806 to 1815) (Edinburg, 1815), 59. 29. Cited in Fitchett, op. c i t . , 93-94. 30.. The Subaltern, op. c i t . , 105. 31. Fitchett, op., c i t . , 283. 32. Cited in Brett-James, op. c i t . , 235. 33. Morris, op. c i t . , 30. Conclusion Several arguments were put forward i n this paper to explain, within the context of the Napoleonic era, the loyalty of B r i t a i n ' s s o l d i e r s . The obvious importance of t h e i r motivation for e n l i s t i n g was f i r s t discussed. The chief reason why men joined at that time was because the bounty was so a t t r a c t i v e ; i t p a r t i c u l a r l y appealed to the poor, especially the I r i s h , and to growing numbers of the economically insecure. They also volunteered be-cause the army held the promise of glory and adventure, a strong antidote to the d u l l , alienating work many r e c r u i t s were accustomed to. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true from 1812 onward as the B r i t i s h Army took the offensive i n the Peninsula and pushed towards France. Many men, too, were attracted by the widespread a v a i l a b i l i t y of alcohol i n the army. There was, as. w e l l , the usual assortment of criminals and m i s f i t s who joined i n order to escape j a i l or regretable experiences. Patriotism was the least important of the reasons for j o i n i n g . We also endeavoured to show that while men en.U'sfa&f . for example,^the bounty appealed to them, the willingness of many to serve was aided by an underlying desire to escape the i n d u s t r i a l way of l i f e . Tradi-t i o n a l society, with i t s established customs, secure s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and f l e x i b l e work habits was disintegrating before the onslaught of indus-t r i a l i s m . A large segment of the population was distressed by the new order a f r a c t i o n of them perceived the army as one way out of i t . There was thus some hidden blessing i n the turmoil and s o c i a l uprooting caused by indus-t r i a l i s m . H i s t o r i c a l l y , those secure i n t h e i r status were not attracted to the army; indeed when conscription was introduced i n eighteenth century Prussia, for example, an overwhelming percentage of those whose s o c i a l roles were firmly established were subsequently unable to endure army l i f e . . I t was said that many farmboys l i t e r a l l y died of homesickness. And an enormous 1 4 0 number of men deserted. On the other hand, i n a rapidly changing society, the security offered by the army acted as an inducement to men to e n l i s t . During the Napoleonic era many B r i t i s h Soldiers were, i n fact, i n d u s t r i a l dropouts. Thereafter i t was shown how certain features of army l i f e contributed to sustaining that o r i g i n a l motivation. The m i l i t a r y inspired a sense of purpose, p a r t i c u l a r l y under Wellington's strong leadership and, with improve-ments i n relations between o f f i c e r s and the rank-and-file, some dignity. There was the profound sense of belonging that camaraderie i n s t i l l e d , an experience that soldiers have always cherished. S i m i l a r l y , success brought great s a t i s f a c t i o n . The French i n the Peninsula, on the other hand, became demoralized as a result of increasing setbacks i n battle at the hands of the B r i t i s h , Portuguese, and Spanish armies and by the i n a b i l i t y to suppress constant g u e r r i l l a terror (and by the inadequacy of their supply system). There were the l i t t l e things as wejjl - the natural beauty of the country, the friendliness of the people, and one's diversions. Like Alexandre Solzenhitsyn*s hero i n One Day i n the L i f e of Ivan Denisovich, the men drew strength from experiences normally glossed over. F i n a l l y , the l i f e was enhanced by that strange v i t a l i t y which often comes from l i v i n g i n the constant presence of death. For these reasons many men saw their army years as the most important period of their l i v e s . Said Rifleman Harris: "For my own part, I can only say that I enjoyed l i f e more whilst on active service than I have ever done since; and as I s i t at my workvin my shop i n Richmond Street, Soho, I look back upon that portion of my time spent i n the f i e l d s of the Peninsula as the only part worthy of remembrance. I t i s at such time that scenes long past come back upon my mind as i f they had taken place but yesterday. I remember even the very appearance of some of the regiments engaged; and comrades, long thouldered'' to dust, I see again performing the acts of heroes.'^ . Another wrote: "... the year referred to (1814) i s one on which I now look back, with the feeling of melancholy s a t i s f a c t i o n , which invariably accompanies a retrospect of happiness gone by. I f there ever existed an enthusiastic lover of the profession of arms, I believe that I was one ... I loved my profession as long as i t gave f u l l occupation to my bodily and mental powers; but the peace came ... The brightest hopes of my boyhood have a l l f a i l e d , and that manhood has produced none capable of taking their place. The friend who shared with me so many dangers and hardships, f e l l at my side ... The walk of l i f e which I pursued, for a while, so merrily, has been abandoned; my sabre hangs rusty upon the w a l l ; and my poor old f a i t h f u l dog i s gathered to her fathers ... Well, well ... i t i s quite right that we should learn the f o l l y of f i x i n g our affections so strongly upon anything i n a sceme so s h i f t i n g and uncertain as human l i f e . " ^ There was then an attractiveness to army l i f e . However, we sought to emphasise the point that surviving i t nonetheless required coping with enormous d i f f i c u l t i e s . The men succeeded because of their strong survival i n s t i n c t s . They admirably demonstrated thosfcadaptive powers that E.P. Thompson labelled the 'Brechtian values' - "fatalism, irony i n the face of Establishment 4 homilies and tenacity of self-preservation." An analysis of the various coping processes - regression, romanticism, and the creation of b e l i e f i n strength through adversity - did make clear , however, that to a great extent the men l i v e d by i l l u s i o n s . ( I t also explained the soldier's t r a d i t i o n a l lack of perspective and 'fawning s e r v i l i t y 1 . ) Nonetheless, soldiers' attitudes re-flected a t r u l y remarkable adjustment. The above were some of the factors that contributed to the loyalty of Wellington's soldiers. We made no claim to their u n i v e r s a l i t y though the implication was that certain ones l i k e camaraderie contribute to the s o c i a l i -zation process i n v i r t u a l l y any army. But while these agents were instrumental i n contributing to a soldier's devotion they certainly did not guarantee his tolerance for any condition. On w i l l r e c a l l that desertion was somewhat of a problem i n the eighteenth century. The p r i n c i p a l cause of i t s decline during the Napoleonic era stemmed from the considerable reforms i n s t i t u t e d within the army. Contrasting the nature of armies i n the eighteenth century to Wellington's c l e a r l y illuminated the importance of these reforms. In the e a r l i e r period men deserted c h i e f l y because many recrui t s had been coerced into j o i n i n g , d i s c i p l i n e was t o t a l l y chaotic, punishment not only brutal but more important ar b i t r a r y , food woefully i n s u f f i c i e n t , and pay inadequate and unchanging. Though the B r i t i s h Army retained more of a t r a d i t i o n a l outlook than some of the other forces i n the Napoleonic era, the effect of the reforms,initiated by the Duke of York and S i r John Moore, was dramatic. Bounties were enlarged and pay increased for the f i r s t time since the sixteenth century. The arbitrary character of so many of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s features as reduced; for example, the administrative network was rationalized somewhat. A greater ef f i c i e n c y of command was established with the result that the quality of training was considerably improved. Indeed, the old b e l i e f that only a savage d i s c i p l i n e could maintain order diminished i n appeal; the arbitrariness of punishment was suppressed and i t s severity reduced. And as o f f i c e r s turned to more humane modes of d i s c i p l i n i n g the troops the t r a d i t i o n a l gulf between o f f i c e r and ordinary soldier began to wither. In sum, i f one simply examines i n i s o l a t i o n conditions i n B r i t a i n ' s army at this time, one i s struck by the sheer barbarism of the i n s t i t u t i o n , but a recognition of the extent to which the previous state of her army had been ameliorated and how much these reforms were appreciated dramatically a l t e r s this perspective. The reform of the army helps to explain the great i n f l u x of serious, i n t e l l i g e n t , and dedicated soldiers«»during these wars. An unusual picture of the period thus emerges: while B r i t a i n ' s soldiers became progressively better o f f , her people suffered increasingly, a develop-ment which, incidently, was staunchly defended by the apologists of indus-t r i a l i s m . Their condition had improved because i t was the only way to ensure the maintenance of a force whose enormous size was unprecedented. -According to E r i c Hobsbawm, B r i t a i n may have carried a heavier load of servicemen proportionate to her t o t a l population than did France for most of the war**. Customary desertion patterns simply could not have been tolerated; i t would have been too d i f f i c u l t to keep the army up to size. B r i t a i n may not have los t but she could not have contributed to the vic t o r y over Napoleon without the reform of her army. Unfortunately,:, this concern for the soldier was quickly abandoned as soon as the war ended. I t was a severe blow to have served one's country so f a i t h f u l l y only to be sent home to confront the wide-spread unemployment and poverty of post-war B r i t a i n . Costello wrote b i t t e r l y of being unable to survive with a wife and c h i l d on the meagre d i s a b i l i t y pension provided by the army and of f i n a l l y having to ship them back to France. Many.former soldiers:became p o l i t i c a l l y ' a c t i v e as "a.result of their d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the events of those turbulent post-war years most has been called "the glorious age of English radicalism". Lieutenant-General Harry Smith, sent to Glasgow to command a force to police the c i t y , recalled meeting numerous former soldiers among the c i t y ' s p o l i t i c a l l y active weavers. He observed that they had helped to organise these craftsmen into 16 Battalions, including a "Battalion of Volunteer Riflemenj" which marched throughout Glasgow i n order to popularize their grievances.^ An investigation of the influence of former soldiers on the p o l i t i c s of the post-Napoleonic era might prove fascinating. In sum, i t i s my hope that this study succeeded i n i t s intention to portray the B r i t i s h soldier honestly and with a touch of humanity. Perhaps a hint of thecenormous sociological and psychological complexity entailed i n pa r t i c i p a t i o n was revealed (and something about the general process of adjust-ment to d i f f i c u l t circumstances as w e l l ) . I t i s hoped that this included some insight into the e x i s t e n t i a l character of war and i t s mysterious attractions. Footnotes 1. Alcohol was consumed in such enormous quantities in the British Army that Wellington f e l t compelled to remark that, "English soldiers are fellows who have enlisted for drink - that is the plain fact - they have a l l enlisted for drink." (Earl of Stanhope, Notes of Conversations  with the Duke of Wellington (London, 1888), 14. 2. W.H. Fitchett (ed.), Wellington's Men (London, 1912), 207. 3. The Subaltern (Edinburgh and London, 1825), 372-73. 4. E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (Pelican, 1972; 1963), 63. 5. In 1813-14 money was voted in Parliament to support an army of 300,000 soldiers and a navy of 140,000 seamen. See E.J. Hobsbawm, The Age of  Revolution Europe 1798-1848 (London, 1962), 94 6. Edward Costello, Adventures of a Soldier (London, 1857), 207-13. 7. G.C. Moore Smith (ed.), The Autob^cjography of Lieutenant-General Sir  Harry Smith, (London, 1902), Vol. I, 330-31. Peninsular Diaries, Journals, Letters, Etc. Anon., Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First or Glasgow Regiment (From  1806 to 1815 (Edinburgh, 1819). Anon., Recollections of an Eventful L i f e , passed c h i e f l y i n the Army by a  Soldier (Glasgow, 1825). Anon.., The Subaltern (Edinburgh and London, 1825).. Anton, James, Retrospect of a M i l i t a r y L i f e , during the most eventful Period  of the Last War (Edinburgh, 1841). Bald: "The l e t t e r s of Private John Bald, 91st Regiment", S.G.P., Ward (ed.), Journal of the Society for Army H i s t o r i c a l Research, Vol. 50, 1972, 101-06. Bourgogne: Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne (London, 1940), Bragge: Peninsular P o r t r a i t 1811-1814: The Letters of Captain William Bragge, Third (King's Own) Dragoons, S.A. Cassells (ed.), (London, 1963). Costello: Memoris of Edward Costello of the R i f l e Brigade (London, 1857). Donaldson: Recollections of an Eventful L i f e , c h i e f l y passed i n the Army by Joseph Donaldson, Sergeant 94th Scotch Brigade (1809-14) (London, 1825). F i t c h e t t , W.H. (ed.), Wellington's Men (London, 1912). Gunn: "The Memoirs of Private James Gunn," Dr. R.H. Roy (ed.), Journal of the  Society for Army H i s t o r i c a l Research, Vol. 49, 1971, 90-120. Harris: Recollections of Rifleman Harris, Henry Curling (ed.), (London, 1928). Harris: Rifleman Harris (Hamden, Conn., 1970). Jackson: Narrative of the Eventful L i f e of Thomas Jackson (Birmingham, 1847). Kincaid, Captain John, Random Shots from a Rifleman (London, 1835). Lawrence: Autobiography of Sergeant William Lawrence (London, 1901). Morris, Thomas, Recollections of M i l i t a r y Service (London, 1847). Pearson, Andrew, Autobiography of Andrew Pearson (Edinburgh, 1865)# Rundle, E.G., A Soldier's L i f e (Toronto, 1909). Sherer, Moyle, "Recollections of the Peninsula", by the Author of "Sketches of  India" (3rd ed., London, 1824). Simmons, George, A B r i t i s h Rifleman, Willoughby Verner (ed.), (London, 1899). Smith: The Autobiography of Lieutenant-General S i r Harry Smith, G.C. Moore Smith (ed.), (London, 1902). Stevenson, John, A Soldier i n the Time of War (London, 1841). Wellington, The Duke of, Dispatches, John Gurwood (ed.), (12 Vols., London, 1834). Wellington, The Duke of, Supplementary Dispatches and Memoranda, The Second Duke of Wellington (ed.), (15 Vols., London, 1858). 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