UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Commentary to the Hua-Yan Dharma-Realm Meditation King, Sallie Behn 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A8 K56.pdf [ 7.85MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093473.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093473-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093473-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093473-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093473-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093473-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093473-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093473-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093473.ris

Full Text

COMMENTARY TO THE HUA-YAN DM RMA-REALM MEDITATION (Translated, with an Introduction and Notes) by SALLIE BEEN KING B.A., Smith College, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FTJLF1XMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Religious Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my writ ten pe rm i ss i on . Department of g_.ki.___t S J u r i - t t The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Sylt^u*, ,g /. . ^ ABSTRACT This thesis i s a translation, with notes and introduction, of the Commentary to the Hua-yan Dharma-realm Meditation, This text i s a commentary to the Dharma-realm Meditation, which i s incorporated into the former. The core text i s by the f i r s t patriarch of the Hua-yan school of Buddhism in China, Du-shun (557-64-0)5 the commentary i s by the f i f t h patriarch of the Hua-yan school, Zong-mi (780-841), The text i s both philosophical and medltatlonal i n nature, and i s a concise statement of the key doctrines of the school. The introduction to this text prepares the reader for the translation by providing the information and concepts necessary for an understanding of the text. This includes material on the trans-lat i o n of technical terms, a brief sketch of some Buddhist texts referred to by the authors, biographical information on the authors, his t o r i c a l and philosophical background to the Hua-yan school, a comment on the l i t e r a r y and meditational aspects of the text, and a general summary of the text by chapters, i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Acknowledgement v Purpose 1 Method 2 Introduction 3 Translation of Technical Terras 3 A Comment on Some Important Texts 12 Biographical Background 14-Du-shun 14 Zong-mi 16 Background to the Hua-yan School 21 Historical Background 21 Philosophical Background 25 The Text 37 Literary Aspect 37 Meditational Aspect 38 General Summary of the Text, by Chapters 41 Footnotes to the Introduction 48 Foreword to the Translation 55 Commentary to the Hua-yan Dharma-realm Meditation Introduction 56 Chapter One The Contemplation of Real Emptiness 60 Footnotes to Chapter One 81 Chapter Two The Contemplation of the Non-Obstruction of Noumenon and Phenomena 89 Footnotes to Chapter Two 110 C h a p t e r T h r e e T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f U n i v e r s a l I n c l u s i o n 116 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r T h r e e 135 C h i n e s e C h a r a c t e r s 138 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1._ V AOCNOWLiaXJEffiNT I am g r a t e f u l t o a n u m b e r o f p e o p l e w h o h a v e h e l p e d me i n t h i s e f f o r t . A b o v e a l l , I w a n t t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r L e o n H u r v i t z f o r t h e m a n y h o u r s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , c r i t i c i s m , a n d c o r r e c t i o n w h i c h h e s o g e n e r o u s l y g a v e . T h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f t h e C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o t u r n a w a y a l l b u t t h e m o s t k n o w l e d g e a b l e a n d e x p e r i e n c e d e n q u i r e r j t o h a v e s u c h a p e r s o n a s a g u i d e m a k e s a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p o s s i b i l i t y a n d i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n a n e f f o r t s u c h a s t h i s , I h a v e b e e n m o s t f o r t u n a t e , I a l s o w a n t t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r F r a n c i s C o o k o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t R i v e r s i d e , f o r o r i g i n a l l y s u g g e s t i n g t h e t o p i c t o m e , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d P r o f e s s o r T a i t e t s u U n n o o f S m i t h C o l l e g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , f o r s i m i l a r a i d a n d i n s p i r a t i o n . T h a n k s t o P r o f e s s o r J o e R i c h a r d s o n f o r t h e g u i d a n c e a n d g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n h e p r o v i d e d , a n d t o A l a n S p o n b e r g f o r h e l p a s o n l y a s e n i o r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t c a n g i v e . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t I h a v e e n j o y e d t h e s e y e a r s . 1 P U R P O S E T h i s t h e s i s m a k e s a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h a t e x t w h i c h h a s p l a y e d a k e y r o l e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l o f B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a , T h i s s c h o o l i s l i t t l e k n o w n i n t h e W e s t , a n d l e s s u n d e r -s t o o d . W h i l e n o l o n g e r e x t a n t i n C h i n a , i t t o o k r o o t i n J a p a n a n d c u r r e n t l y f l o u r i s h e s t h e r e . T h e p r e s e n t w o r k i s t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f a c o r e t e x t , t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m M e d i t a t i o n , a n d a c o m m e n t a r y o n i t . W h i l e t h e c o r e t e x t i s a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h ( t r a n s l a t e d b y G a r m a C . C . C h a n g i n h i s T h e B u d d h i s t T e a c h i n g o f T o t a l i t y T h e P h i l o s o p h y  o f H w a Y e n B u d d h i s m ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k t P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971)» P P . 207-223), i t w a s t r a n s l a t e d w i t h o u t c o m m e n t a r y , a n d i n t h a t f o r m i t i s v i r t u a l l y i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . P r e s e n t e d h e r e w i t h c o m m e n t a r y , i t c a n b e s e e n t o b e a v e r y c o n c i s e s t a t e m e n t o f a p r o f o u n d a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e p h i l o s o p h y . 2 METHOD I r e l i e d on the version of the text as found i n the Taisho  Shinshu Daizokyo*> ed, Takakusu Junjiro and Watanabe Kaikyoku (Tokyo s Daizo Shuppansha, 1924-34) #1884, Volume 45, pp. 683-692. I compared the core text with Taisho" #1883, another commentary which incorporates the core text, I read the text and prepared a "crib", working with the aid and supervision of Professor Leon Hurvitz, Then I prepared a translation which was checked again by Professor Hurvitz, Finally, I wrote an introduction including a l l the background material I f e l t necessary to a proper understanding of the text for one familiar with the basic teachings of Buddhism, The system of transliteration used throughout the thesis i s the "pinyin" system, without the marking for tones, I included many Chinese terms i n the translation for the benefit of the Chinese reader, but relegated most of the characters to the end of the text, to avoid intimidating the non-Chinese reader. 3 I N T R O D U C T I O N Translation of Technical Terms There are several terms, the translation of which require a foreword of explanation. While I t r i e d to remain f a i t h f u l to standard translation whenever possible, there were instances i n which this practice would have been confusing, i f not misleading. Several terms require different renderings in different contexts. The most problematic terms i s l i gjj^, which was usually trans-lated as "noumenon*', but sometimes as "truth", I eschewed the perhaps standard translation, "principle" to avoid possible confusion with the Confucian use of the term, which denotes rational order, whether on the microcosmic le v e l of the individual, the social l e v e l of government, or the raacrocosmic l e v e l of the universe,Though this i s a use of the term which had evolved over the centuries, l i was bound to evolve further, particularly when brought into the Buddhist framework, Zurcher focuses on Zhi Dun (Chih Tun), a fourth century monk, as a significant figure i n this process. He states that with Zhi Dun, l i "(as f a r as we know for the f i r s t time) acquires a new and more abstract significance, the Chinese concept of cosmic or natural order having merged with the Buddhist notion of transcen-dental Truth, Suchness (tathata,)." DeraieVille makes the same point, a b i t more expansivelyt 4 Nous voila en pleine mStaphysique. De l a raultlplicitS d<?.*> otres (wou^j) qui s'offrent a notre experience bornSe, de l a d.VvorsitS des f a i t s (che Jfv), des SvSnements sans cesse changeants, l a Chine antique avait degage l a notion d'un ordre universe!, d'une 'rationalite* structurelle qui les t o t a l i s a i t et les uni.C:lalt, Mais ce l i r e s tait compris dans l e raondei c ' l t a i t une explica-tion du raonde et de l a nature, non pas leur negation, mOmo pas une negation niee a son tour par l a dialectique des contraires, Avec Tche Touen [Zhi Dun") et l e bouddhisme, on accede a una ambiance differente, Le l i releve des lors d'un ordre surna-turel, 'supraraondain' a l a maniere indienne ou neo-platon.Vol©nne, en somrae indo-europSene, t e l que jamais l a Chine n'en avait connu jusque la,3 However, the story of l i does not end there, A continually evolving term, we find i n the text at hand a very significant further development in i t s use. One of the most unmistakable points of the text i s the immanence of this transcendental l i . Over and ovor again we are shown that l i and shi , phenomena) coalesce, enter each other, are l i k e each other, are not different, etc. Hence, neither transcen-dence nor immanence i s able to describe l i , unless both terms are taken together i n a d i a l e c t i c , the resolution of which i s l i . Yet 11 remains always and inescapably the opposite of shi and thus does preserve some-thing of a transcendental flavor, especially episteraologically. Hence my translation as "noumenon". The term i s actually untranslatable, but this w i l l do as long as one does not conceive of "nouraenon" as a thing. For here, as i n the rest of mainstream MahSyana thought, r e i f i c a t i o n of terms that are intended only as pointers along the spi r i t u a l way, i s a very serious error. That l i must be so treated i s evident from another of i t s trans-lations, "truth". Here the sense i s close to "true principle", but these are always Buddhist truths, not truths of a Confucian rational 5 o r d e r . O n e m a y f i n d s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t s u c h p h r a s e s a s , " t h e T r u t h o f t h e M i d d l e W a y " , " t h e T r u t h o f R e a l E m p t i n e s s " , o r " t h e T r u t h o f n o - s e l f ( a r i l t m a n ) i n d h a r m a s " , T h i s i s t h e s a m e l i t h a t i s a l s o r e n d e r e d a s " n o u m e n o n " — t h e e p i s t a m o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e l a t t e r , t h e n , i s c l e a r . I n s h o r t , " n o u m e n o n " a n d " t h e T r u t h o f R e a l E m p t i n e s s " a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e t e r m s . I h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d i n p a s s i n g t h e t e r m s h i j j l , w h i c h I h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y r e n d e r e d a s " p h e n o m e n o n / p h e n o m e n a " . T h i s t e r m i s u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t w i t h t h e c o m p o u n d t e r m , s h i - f a w h i c h I h a v e r e n d e r e d s o m e w h a t a w k w a r d l y a s " p h e n o r a e n a -d h a r m a s " . T h e c h o i c e o f t e r m s e e m s t o r e s t o n r h y t h m i c g r o u n d s , w i t h s h i a s t h e b a s i c t e r m , a n d s h i - f a a s t h e v a r i a n t . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e t e r r a g e n e r a l l y m e a n s a n a f f a i r , a m a t t e r , a n e v e n t , e t c . , b u t i s u s e d s o m e w h a t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s t e x t w i t h t h e t e r m f a > ^ w h i c h I h a v e r e n d e r e d b y t h e S a n s k r i t " d h a r m a " , w h e n t h i s t e r m i s u s e d t o d e n o t e a t h i n g , S h i , t h e n , c o m e s t o s i g n i f y a n y c o n c r e t e , s p e c i f i c p h e n o m e n o n o c c u r i n g w i t h i n t h e w o r l d l y s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l f r a m e w o r k . I t o f c o u r s e i s e m p t y o f o w n - b e i n g a n d e n t e r s i n t o t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l i t h a t w i l l b e s h o w n i n t h e t e x t . I n s u r a , l i i s i n e v e r y c a s e u n i v e r s a l , a n d s h i i s i n e v e r y c a s e p a r t i c u l a r , I h a v e c h o s e n t o r e n d e r _ a > £ b y t h e S a n s k r i t " d h a r m a " a s t h i s i s b y n o w s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e . T h e w o r d i s q u i t e w e l l k n o w n t o E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s o f B u d d h i s m , w h o m i g h t b e m o r e c o n f u s e d t h a n h e l p e d i f t h e t e r m w e r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a n u n f a m i l i a r f o r m . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e n s e o f " t h i n g " , i t a l s o r e n d e r s s u c h a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s a s T r u t h , T e a c h i n g , D o c t r i n e , L a w , e t c . T h e s p e c i f i c s e n s e o f t h e t e r m c a n o n l y b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e c o n t e x t o f e a c h o c c u r r e n c e . 6 Fa-jie >\ ^ , "Dhar-a-dhatu" i s easily rendered as "Dharma-realm", but more d i f f i c u l t to explain. In this text i t seems to have two basic uses. F i r s t , less frequently used and less important, i s the sense of the cosmos, or the t o t a l i t y of the universe. The phrase i s used i n this sense very spe c i f i c a l l y , and i s not the sense which should be attributed to i t s use i n , for example, the t i t l e of the work. However, the conno-tation of totalism, which i s very important i n the Hua-yan school, may be a desirable overlap.of the f i r s t sense into the second. The second sense i s more abstract and i s ti e d to the abstract senses of the word "Dharma", The realm of Dharma i s the realm i n which the Truth or the Doctrine Is manifest. This i s obviously the same as the cosmos, since the Truth i s i n fact a statement of the way things are. However, Dharma or Truth seems here to be interchangeable with l i , and hence the phrase might mean realm of noumenon. However, as we saw before, this has basically an episteraological nature. Hence Dharma-realm also means the realm i n which one realizes the Truth, or simply the experience of self-realization of the Truth, A further p o s s i b i l i t y i s that "dhStu" should be taken i n the sense of "ultimate element". Hence Dharma-realm would came to mean the ultimate r e a l i t y of a l l dharmas and by extension simply ultimate r e a l i t y . A l l these senses are present i n the term and should be kept i n mind. However, as the Chinese character .jie generally expresses a boundary, l i m i t , region, or world, I have maintained the translation as "Dharma-realm", A quite d i f f i c u l t problem i s the variety of terras Zong-mi uses for "emptiness" (Sunyata), The basic ones are kong , ghen kong JJL '^ g , and xu (kong) f§__, A fourth term, duan kong f&fj'i^ i s used only to show 7 what real emptimsss i s not, that i s , i t i s not an emptiness of annihila-tion. A proper explanation of these terms requires a rather lengthy-digression on the history of the translation of the term "Suhyata" i n China. Anyone studying the concept of "emptiness" in China must be shown that the understanding of this concept di f f e r s considerably from i t s Indian understanding. This was especially true i n the early period of Buddhist influence i n China, but remained a factor thereafter. Briefly, there were three practices i n China which had decisive influence on the shaping of Buddhist doctrine as i t came into China, These were at their height i n the third and fourth centuries A.D. The f i r s t of these, which probably declined i n popularity before the other two, was the practice of ge-yixt^ i f or "matching meanings". In this practice, incoming Indian Buddhist terras and concepts were matched with indigenous Chinese terms and concepts which seemed to be similar. The sources of the l a t t e r were most frequently the Lao-zi H j - , Zhuang-zi#+ >- , and Yi-.jing^7,f.1£ — a l l Taoist texts. This method was obviously very faulty, and resulted i n an avoidance of any real appreciation of the new cultural material which was being offered. The practice was one of re-affirmation of old ideas and beliefs, without any broadening of horizons. Inevitably the Buddhist teachings were distorted, Once Buddhism had made i t s f i r s t inroads into China, there arose the practices of qing-tan% - k . or "pure conversation", and xuan-xue $L 2- or "study of the abstruse". These practices were especially popular among the group of gentry in Southern China who had been recently displaced from their positions of prestige and power in the 8 N o r t h b y a n u p s u r g e o f b a r b a r i a n s , ^ T h e w o r l d o f H a n s e c u r i t y s t e e p e d i n C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y c r u m b l i n g a b o u t t h e m , t h e s e p e o p l e w e r e f o r c e d t o q u e s t i o n o r a b a n d o n t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s t h e y h a d i n h e r i t e d — e i t h e r t o s e e k a r e a s o n f o r t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e i r w a y o f l i f e , o r t o s i m p l y t r y t o e s c a p e f r o m a r e a l i t y w h i c h w a s u n b e a r a b l e . T u r n i n g f r o m t h e s t a t u s - q u o p h i l o s o p h y o f C o n f u c i a n i s m t o T a o i s m , t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h o s e w h o t u r n e d a w a y f r o m t h e n o r m s o f h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d s o c i e t y , t h e y w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n o n t o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . I n B u d d h i s m , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e P r a j f i a p a r a m i t a l i t e r a t u r e , t h e y f o u n d a d o c t r i n e w h i c h s e e m e d s i m i l a r t o T a o i s t d o c t r i n e a n d w h i c h " m u s t h a v e a p p e a l e d j u s t b e c a u s e o f t h i s s e e m i n g f a m i l i a r i t y * b e c a u s e i t h a n d l e d w h a t s e e m e d t o b e t h e s a m e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , h o w e v e r , p l a c i n g t h e s e i d e a s I n a n e w p e r s p e c t i v e , g i v i n g t h e m a n o t h e r a n d d e e p e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d s u r r o u n d i n g t h e m w i t h t h e h a l o o f a s u p r a m u n d a n e r e v e l a t i o n . T h i s m i n g l i n g o f T a o i s t a n d P r a j f t a p a r a m i t a t e a c h i n g s w a s x u a n - x u e . Q i n g - t a n , t h e t h i r d o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s , w a s a v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d w i t t y e x c h a n g e o f r e m a r k s o n t h e m o s t h i g h l y a b s t r a c t , m e t a p h y s i c a l i s s u e s . T h e T a o i s t - P r a j n a p S r a m i t a a m a l g a m o f t e r m s a n d c o n c e p t s f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n t h e e x c h a n g e s , a n d m e n o f B u d d h i s t l e a r n i n g w e r e n o t i n f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s . B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s w e r e o f t e n t h e c e n t e r o f d i s c u s s i o n . T h e e n q u i r y i n t o m e t a p h y s i c a l m a t t e r s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e t e r m s y o u ^ ( b e i n g ) , wu'jat ( n o n - b e i n g ) , a n d k o n g ( e m p t i n e s s ) . T h o s e w h o w e r e i n v o l v e d i n x u a n - x u e p r a c t i c e d , 9 the contemplation of the mystery behind a l l mysteries, the ultimate truth that i s behind the phenomenal world. As these men contemplated the natural order of the universe, the regu-l a r i t y of the seasons, the orderliness of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, they speculated that there must be some absolute principle that i s the origin of i t a l l , some ultimate re a l i t y that brings about this universal harmony. Out of such speculation arose the concept of wu or nonbeing that i s the basis of a l l things, , , , This nonbeing can function only i n being, and i s made manifest in being, Nonbeing i t s e l f i s without substance or tangible appearance, but i t can be manifested in the functioning of being,7 However, the meaning of the Taoist wu i s d i f f i c u l t to determine, since a l l e x p l i c i t l y Taoist theories date to no earlier than the Six Dynasties, when the influence of Buddhism was already present, Wu and you early came to take on abstract, cosmological significance} i n the Lao-zi and Zhuang-zi they convey the senses of non-existence and existence, respectively. Later, you was used for the Sanskrit bhava, "being", and wu for abhava, "non-being". In China prior to the introduction of Buddhism we , , , find that the term wu had already two abstract meanings. F i r s t , i t signified a primal unity i n which, as i t were, both existence and non-existence l a y fused and undifferentiated. This unitive state was not, however, a mere 'nothing', for i t contained a l l future p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r world manifestation. Moreover, although i t was declared to be 'unnaraable*, at least one statement could be made about i t : this was that i t lay beyond the beginning of things. In the Taoistic sense, one could speak of such a state as pen wu |"ben vnj:SS 1, 'Original Non-existence', Second , , , wu signified no more than the dualism implied i n the con-trast between the presence of something and/or i t s absence,10 The central problem of xuan-xue " i s .be relation between this 'fundamental non-being' , , , and ' f i n a l being' (mo-yu .^Ji. ) [the manifested world"), a relation which i s described as that of 'substance' (t'i'tf__) and function (yung % ) , n ± x In sum, this term wu, or ben, wu was given the meaning of the unthinkable origin of a l l things, beyond the duality of b e i n g a n d n o n - b e i n g ( i . e . , n o n - e m p i r i c a l , t r a n s c e n d e n t a l ) . I t h a d t h e v e r y d e f i n i t e a n d i m p o r t a n t t e m p o r a l s e n s e o f t h e u l t i m a t e f i r s t , w h e n c e a l l t h i n g s c a m e . T h i s w i l l p r o v e t o b e a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e C h i n e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f B u d d h i s m , M o s t o f t h e f i r s t B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s o r s e c t s w e r e a c t u a l l y l i t t l m o r e t h a n e x e g e t i c a l t h e o r i e s , " c e n t e r e d a r o u n d a n a t t e m p t t o u n d e r -s t a n d ' e m p t i n e s s ' o r s T L n y a t a " , a s p r e a c h e d i n t h e P r a j f i a p a ' r a m i t a ' . T h i s e m p t i n e s s w a s o f t e n t h o u g h t o f a s t h e B u d d h i s t e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e T a o i s t c o n c e p t o f ' n o n - e x i s t e n c e ' ( w u ) , o r o f a n ' o r i g i n a l n o n - e x i s t e n c e ' ( p e n w u ) . T ' a n g Y u n g - t ' u n g h a s n o t e d t h a t , b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , t h e t e r m p e n w u m a y a l m o s t b e s a i d t o b e a n o t h e r n a m e f o r t h e P r a j K a s t u d y o f t h i s 1 2 — 1 3 p e r i o d , " B e n w u a l s o r e n d e r s t a t h a t a , " T h u s n e s s " , T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s i s a f u n d a m e n t a l n e w e l e m e n t i n B u d d h i s m a s i t d e v e l o p e d i n C h i n a , D a o - a n c l e a r l y " a s s u m e s a t e m p o r a l p r o c e s s i n w o r l d c r e a t i o n . We a r e t o l d t h a t , ' m e r g e d i n d a r k n e s s p r i o r t o c r e a t i o n , t h e r e w a s o n l y a v a s t , i l l i m i t a b l e e m p t i n e s s , ' " N o I n d i a n B u d d h i s t s p e a k s o f c r e a t i o n i n t h i s t e m p o r a l f r a m e w o r k . T h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a u n i t a r y s o u r c e f r o m w h i c h a l l t h i n g s c a m e i s s o m e t h i n g n e w t o B u d d h i s m , a n d i s a c t u a l l y q u i t e i l l - s u i t e d t o t h e B u d d h i s t s c h e m e . T h i s c o n c e p t , a l t h o u g h p l a y e d d o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s , s t i l l m a i n t a i n s a s u b t l e p r e s e n c e i n Z o n g - m i ' s t i m e . F o r D a o - a n t h e r e " i s a p r i o r s t a t e o f n o n - m a n i f e s t a t i o n w h i c h i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a n d e x a l t e d o v e r a l a t e r s t a t e o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n . . , , T h e r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n i n t h i s k i n d o f t h o u g h t i s t h e p a i r i n g o f w u , ' n o n - e x i s t e n c e ' , t h e u n m a n i f e s t e d c o n c e i v e d a s t h e ' t r u n k ' , t h a t i s , t h a t w h i c h i s f u n d a m e n t a l a n d o r i g i n a l ( p e n w u ^ ^ i . ) w i t h t h e l a t t e r , c o n t i n g e n t a n d e p h e m e r a l , ' t w i g s a n d b r a n c h e s o f e x i s t e n c e ' ( m o _ u T h e m o s t o b v i o u s i n s t a n c e o f t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g i n t h i n t e x t i s t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m g u i j N p , " r e t u r n " o r "revert" i n s u c h p h r a s e s as " f o r m r e t u r n s t o e m p t i n e s s " , o r " p h e n o m e n a r e t u r n t o n o u m e n o n . " I t i s h a r d t o d e t e r m i n e h o w m u c h o f a t e m p o r a l s e n s e t h e r e i s i n t h i s , b u t t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y t h e s e n s e o f t h e m a n i f e s t e d r e t u r n i n g i n s o m e way t o t h e i r o r i g i n , t h e u n m a n i f e s t e d . I n f a c t , Z o n g - m i u s e s t h e t r u n k a n d t h e t w i g s a n d b r a n c h e s a s c e n t r a l i m a g e s i n h i s w o r k , " T r e a t i s e o n t h o I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f M a n " , ^ I n t h a t w o r k h e f i n d s t h e s o u r c e ( b e n ^ . ) o f m a n i n B u d d h a - n a t u r e ( f o - x i n g - l f f i o r R e a l M i n d ( z h e n x i n $J^~). W i t h t h a t a s b a c k g r o u n d , w e m a y r e t u r n t o Z o n g - r a i ' s t e r n s w h i c h r e n d e r s u h y a t a . K o n g " ^ i s t h e s t a n d a r d t e r r a u s e d b y e v e r y o n e . I t m e a n s s i m p l y h o l l o w o r e m p t y , Z h e n k o n g ^ " r e a l e m p t i n e s s " i s t h e t e r m Z o n g - r a i u s e s t o r e f e r t o t h e p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e m p t i n e s s , t o w h i c h t h e e n t i r e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h e w o r k i s d e v o t e d , X U y _ £ i s r a t h e r i n t e r -e s t i n g a s i t c a n m e a n e i t h e r e m p t y s p a c e , e m p t y i n t h e s e n s e o f f a l s e , w o r t h l e s s , e t c . , — o r e m p t y i n t h e s e n s e o f z h e n k o n g . O f c o u r s e , e m p t y s p a c e i s a n o l d e q u i v a l e n t f o r t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t o f B u d d h i s t 1 7 e m p t i n e s s . I n I n d i a , s u n y a i s a c o n s t a n t a t t r i b u t e o f a k a s a . I n t h e 1 8 U t t a r a t a n t r a , t o n a m e j u s t o n e t e x t , s p a c e i s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o e x e m p l i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e U n c o n d i t i o n e d , T h e i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f t h e o t h e r t w o s e n s e s , h o w e v e r , c a n b e r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g a t t i m e s . I h a v e v a r i o u s l y r e n d e r e d x u a s h o l l o w n e s s , t h e V o i d , e m p t y s p a c e , I n s u b s t a n t i a l , e t c , , a n d x u - k o n g a s e i t h e r e m p t i n e s s o r e m p t y s p a c e . T h u s , u n l e s s i t f o r m s a c o m p o u n d w i t h k o n g , x u s e e m s t o l a c k t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y B u d d h i s t s e n s e o f e m p t i n e s s , a n d m e a n s " e m p t y " i n e i t h e r a s p a t i a l o r a n e g a t i v e s e n s e , Z o n g - r a i ' s e x a l t e d t e r m i s d e f i n i t e l y z h e n k o n g . 12 A Comment on Some Important Texts 1) The Buddhlvatamsaka-sutra A.73 1% i$ W ML ^ This monumental text can be found i n the Taisho, #278, #279, #293. In China, most of the indigenous Buddhist schools formed around the inspira-tion of one text, which the members of the school considered to contain the most perfect and complete teachings of the Buddha, This practice was determined by the historical and cultural situation i n which Buddhism entered China. That i s , Buddhist texts of quite variant teachings entered the country entirely haphazardly. The Chinese were faced with a dilemma in their attempt to understand how such different (and sometimes contra-dictory) teachings as the Pra.jfiaparamita, Sarv5stivJTda, Madhyamika, Vijnanavada, etc, could a l l be the Word of the Buddha, Their solution was that the Buddha had given different teachings at different times, modifying his doctrine according to the capacity of his listeners. Thus the problem became one of ordering the sacred literature, and evaluating the teachings according to the order. The Hua-yan school selected the Buddhavatamsaka-sutra as the highest teaching of the Buddha, since according to legend i t was spoken immediately after his Enlightenment, while he was s t i l l s i t t i n g under the Bodhi tree, s t i l l i n the samudra-19 mudra-samadhi (the concentration which i s l i k e the emblem of the ocean). There are three Chinese translations of this sutrai one in 60 juan by Buddhabhadra, another i n 80 .juan by Siksananda, and a third in 40 juan by Prajrfa, which i s basically a translation of the Gapdavyu"ha, one of the best-known sutras of the text (which is r e a l l y a collection). Another famous sutra within the Avatamsaka i s the Da_abhumika-sutra. 2) P r a j n l p a r a m i t a t e x t s , t h e " P e r f e c t i o n o f W i s d o m " I n h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e i n t o t h e f i v e t e a c h i n g s 35 , t h e H u a - y a n m a s t e r F a - z a n g r e l e g a t e d t h e c l a s s o f p r a . j n a o r l u n y a t a l i t e r -a t u r e t o t h e s t r a t u m i n b e t w e e n t h e d h a r m a - l a k s a n a ( f a - x i a n g ) t e a c h i n g , w h i c h w a s c o n s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r , a n d t h e " f i n a l " d o c t r i n e o f t h e M a h a y a n a , i n c l u d i n g s u c h t e x t s a s t h e L a n k a v a t a r a , t h e M a h a p a r i n i r v a n a , a n d t h e 20 21 A w a k e n i n g o f F a i t h . Z o n g - m i , i n h i s o w n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e , p l a c e d t h e m i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . T h i s , h o w e v e r , s e e m s m o r e e x a l t e d i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , a s t h e r e i s n o " a b r u p t " t e a c h i n g s u p e r i o r t o t h e " f i n a l " t e a c h i n g i n Z o n g - m i * s s c h e m e , w h i l e t h e r e i s i n F a - z a n g ' s . T h e f r e q u e n t q u o t a t i o n o f P r a j n a p a r a m i t a t e x t s b y Z o n g - m i s h o w s t h a t h e h e l d t h e m i n q u i t e h i g h r e g a r d . I h o p e t o s h o w i n m y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e s c h o o l t h a t s u n y a v a d a , t h o u g h p e r h a p s n o t a s d e v e l o p e d o r a d v a n c e d a s o t h e r M a h a y a n a t e a c h i n g s , l a i d t h e b a s i c f o u n d a -t i o n f o r H u a - y a n t h o u g h t . A s a r e u l t , i t p l a y s a v e r y e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n t h i s s c h o o l . S o m e o f t h e t e x t s m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d b y Z o n g - m i a r e : 1) t h e " H e a r t S u t r a " , P r a j n a p a r a m i t a h r d a y a - s u t r a , T a i s h o #250-255, T h i s i s a v e r y p o p u l a r , s h o r t t e x t w h i c h w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e s u m m a r i z e d t h e " h e a r t " o f t h e p r a . i n a p a r a m i t a t e a c h i n g s . Z o n g - m i ( a l o n g w i t h m a n y o t h e r m o n k s ) a p p e a r s t o h a v e h a d i t m e m o r i z e d , 2) t h e M a h a p r a . j n a p a r am i t a - s u t r a w a s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e b y X u a n - z a n g , a n d i s a c t u a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f m a n y p r a j n a p a r a m i t a t e x t s . I t o c c u p i e s a n e n t i r e v o l u m e i n t h e T a i s h o c o l l e c t i o n (#220), T h e P a r f c a v i m s a t i s a h a s r i k a ( m a h a ) p r a . j n a p a r a m i t a - s u t r a i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , b u t w a s a l s o t r a n s l a t e d b y K u m a r a j l v a ( T a i s h o * #223). T h i s i s t h e t e x t t o w h i c h Z o n g - m i r e f e r s i n h i s c o m m e n t a r y j whether he refers to the KumarajTva or the Xuan-zang translation i s not clear. The Panea i s known as the version in 25,000 l i n e s , and i s one of the standard longer versions of prajngparamita literature. I t seems to have been quite familiar to Zong-mi, 3) Though not a prajnaparamita text, the Madhyamika Treatise tfj?^? i s considered a systeraatization of that teaching. Written by Nagarjuna, translated by KumarajTva (Taisho #1564), i t i s held i n the highest regard by Zong-rai, Though these texts are not usually considered as a major subdivision of Mahayana doctrine, i t i s necessary to so consider them when dealing with Hua-yan, Both Fa-zang and Zong-mi rank them as superior to the prajna- paramita texts, Zong-mi considering them inferior only to the "perfect" 2 2 doctrine of the Hua-yan, Fa-zang considering them inferior to both 2 3 the Hua-yan and the "abrupt" teachings. Within this group of texts, those that were most important to Zong-mi were the Uttaratantra (TaisKcT Vol, 31, p, 8 l 3 f f , ) , the Lankavatara ( i n three extant versions by Gunabhadra, Bodhiruci, and _iksananda), and the Awakening of Faith (in two extant versions by Paramartha and Siksananda). I w i l l show i n the section on philosophy what an important role this doctrine played i n the formation of Hua-yan thought. Biographical Background Du-shun, the author of the core text on which Zong-mi commented, i s considered the f i r s t Chinese patriarch of the Hua-yan school, (The school considered Asvaghosa and Nagarjuna to be their Indian patriarchs.) 1) Du-shun (557-640) li. I n s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e o n h i m . H i s o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h y ( i n t h e X u G a o - s e n g - z h u a n £ .f , C h a p t e r 25, T a i s h o * V o l , 50i P P . 653-4) c o n t a i n s m o s t l y l e g e n d a r y m a t e r i a l . H i s f a m i l y n a m e w a s D u ^ N 1 a n d h i s D h a r m a n a m e w a s F a - s h u n > £ . ' " I t , W h e n q u i t e y o u n g h e j o i n e d t h e a r m y a n d w a s s e n t o u t t o t h e b o r d e r r e g i o n s w h e r e h e p e r f o r m e d - m e n i a l t a s k s s u c h a s c a r r y i n g w a t e r a n d g a t h e r i n g f i r e -w o o d . A t t h e a g e o f s e v e n t e e n , h e a b a n d o n e d t h e w o r l d a n d b e c a m e a m o n k . H e w a s t a u g h t b y t h e C h a n m a s t e r Z h e n 2 ^ o f t h e Y i n - s h e n g Ijf) 5 - m o n a s t e r y , w h o g a v e h i m i n s t r u c t i o n i n m e d i t a t i o n . I t w a s f o r h i s m e d i t a t i o n p r a c -t i c e , a n d t h e m i r a c u l o u s p o w e r s t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m i t , t h a t D u - s h u n w a s t o b e r e v e r e d . H e l i v e d i n a r e t r e a t k n o w n a s M a - t o u , i n a " s p i r i t u a l c a v e " . F r o m t h e r e h i s f a m e s p r e a d , c h i e f l y i n r e s p e c t t o h i s m i r a c l e w o r k i n g . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f h i s c u r i n g t h e s i c k w i t h o u t m e d i c a t i o n — e v e n t h e d e a f a n d d u m b . I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e s i c k f l o c k e d t o h i m , a n d h e b e c a m e k n o w n a s t h e D u n - h u a n g B o d h i s a t t v a , Z o n g - m i s t a t e s i n t h e t e x t a t h a n d t h a t h i s b i o g r a p h y p r o v e s h e w a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f M a n j u s V l " , T h e r e i s a l e g e n d t o t h a t 24 e f f e c t . M a n y w e r e c o n v e r t e d b y t h i s m i r a c l e - w o r k e r . O n e o f t h o s e i m p r e s s e d w a s t h e E m p e r o r W e n o f t h e S u i d y n a s t y P ; a X _ r r p , w h o d a i l y s e n t t h r e e s h e n g - f t ( " p i n t s " ) o f r i c e f o r h i s m a i n t e n a n c e , D u - s h u n w a s a l s o k n o w n f o r h i s f r u g a l i t y , s e l f - c o n t r o l , a n d v i r t u e , T h e o n l y w o r k a t t r i b u t e d t o h i m i s t h e M e d i t a t i o n o n t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m , T h e m i r a c l e s t o r i e s o f h i s b i o g r a p h y i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g t a l e s , 1) O n c e D u - s h u n w a s h o l d i n g a g a t h e r i n g f o r a m a s s c o n v e r s i o n . H e g o t a p a t r o n t o p r o v i d e f o o d f o r f i v e h u n d r e d p e o p l e , b u t w h e n t h e d a y o f t h e g a t h e r i n g a r r i v e d , t h e r e w e r e t w i c e t h a t m a n y p e o p l e . T h e patron was afraid, but Du-shun told him just to give completely a l l he had and there would be enough. So the thousand people came, and a l l had sufficient, 2) On another occasion, Du-shun led a group of people to a mountain for meditation throughout the summer. However, the ground was covered with ants and insects, which prevented them from planting vegetables (since their Buddhist precepts prohibited the harming of any l i v i n g creatures). But Du-shun caused the insects to move away so a l l was well, 3) Once Du-shun himself was sick with boils from which pus flowed freely. Someone cleaned the sores and wiped them with s i l k . I t was l a t e r found that both the pus and the cloth had a very fragrant odor, 4) A monk was possessed by a poisonous dragon-demon, Du-shun was brought to the scene, bowed properly, and sat down facing the monk. The dragon said, "Since your Reverence, the Chan master, has come, the doctrine w i l l not cease for a long time to come, I am very sorry for the trouble [l have caused,1" He thereupon released the monk, 5) Once Du-shun wanted to cross the Yellow River when i t was in flood. He tr i e d to ford i t , but the bank was slippery, and he kept f a l l i n g down. Suddenly the water stopped flowing, Du-shun crossed over, and the water started flowing again, 6) When he died, Du-shun was placed in a cave, i n a s i t t i n g (meditation) position. Time passed, but his body did not decompose; on the contrary, his corpse gave off a fragrant odor, Fearing wrong-doing, his followers put his remains i n a shrine, 2) Zong-mi (780-841) ^ Zong-mi wa3 the f i f t h and l a s t patriarch of the Hua-yan school. Shortly after his death the Hui-chang suppression of Buddhism was put into effect, and the school faded away, Zong-rai's Buddhist interests were wide. He was a monk of the Chan he-ze^Sf > 1p school before he was a Hua-yan monk, and his written work i s proof of his broad knowledge, both experiential and scholarly. The biographical information on Zong-mi is much better than that on Du-shun, The original sources from which I have drawn this material, are* 1) his o f f i c i a l biography i n the Sung Gao-seng-zhuan ^ i r f W - Y i l i Taisho Vol. 50, pp, ?4l-3 , 2) the ji n - s h i c u i - b i a n ^ ^ ^ ^Jff which includes the epitaph written by Pel Xiu %^4^K In French there i s a translation of an introduction to one of Zong-mi's texts, also written by Pei Xiu, which contains a useful summary of 26 Zong-mi's achievements. In English there i s an a r t i c l e which focuses on Zong-mi as a Chan monk, which also has a very thorough biographical 27 sketch, Zong-iai was born into the Keffi family in the Xi-zhong j5? ^ C, county of Guo-zhouflt/l'H , which i s i n the central part of the present 28 Si-chuan province. His family was prosperous, and he studied the Confucian classics when young, i n preparation for the c i v i l service examinations. This was when he was between the ages of seven and seven-29 teen. Between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two he studied Buddhism as a lay Buddhist, often attending readings of Buddhist texts and listening to Buddhist discourses; from twenty-three to twenty-five 30 he again studied Confucianism, Apparently his parents died while he 31 was rather young (possibly i n his twenties), and this, in addition to being an emotional shock he carried with him for the rest of his l i f e was quite a setback to his fortunes. As his biographer said, "He had to turn his back on his superior talents, and apprentice himself to an 32 accountant," T w o y e a r s l a t e r h e t r a v e l e d f r o m h o m e a n d c h a n c e d t o m e e t a C h a n m o n k , D a o - y u a n , b y w h o m h e w a s g r e a t l y i m p r e s s e d , Z o n g - m i i m m e d i a t e l y d e c i d e d t o l e a v e w o r l d l y l i f e a n d b e c o m e a m o n k , D a o - y u a n p e r f o r m e d t h e t o n s u r e a n d a c c e p t e d h i m a s a n o v i c e . T h a t y e a r Z o n g - m i p r o c e e d e d o n a n d w a s f u l l y o r d a i n e d i n t o t h e S a m g h a b y Z h e n g - t z _ _ » a V i n a y a t e a c h e r . C o n t i n u i n g h i s p r a c t i c e o f t r a v e l l i n g w i t h i n t h e B u d d h i s t c o m m u n i t y , Z o n g - m i m e t Z h a n g . f t , h i s m a s t e r ' s t e a c h e r , w h o e n c o u r a g e d h i m t o b e c o m e a p r e a c h e r , s a y i n g , " Y o u a r e b y n a t u r e a b l e t o p r e a c h a n d t e a c h . Y o u s h o u l d p r o c l a i m [ t h e t e a c h i n g s " } a n d i n s t r u c t p e o p l e i n t h e 3 3 I m p e r i a l C a p i t a l . " O n e o f t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r s o f h i s l i f e w a s h i s o b t a i n i n g a c o p y o f t h e S u t r a o f P e r f e c t E n l i g h t e n m e n t ( Y u a n J u e J i n g l ^ J ' g j ' i - ^ ) i - r ^ U p o n r e a d i n g t h i s t e x t h e r e c e i v e d a f l a s h o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t , a n d c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l h i s t e a r s . W h e n h e t o l d h i s m a s t e r o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e , 3 5 h e w a s s e n t o f f t o p r o p a g a t e t h e d o c t r i n e , J T h i s t e x t w a s t o b e a f u n d a m e n t a l s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Z o n g - m i , a n d h e w a s t o w r i t e t w o c o m m e n t a r i e s o n i t , a s h o r t ( i n t w o c h a p t e r s , n o w l o s t ) a n d a l o n g ( i n 3 6 t w e l v e v o l u m e s ) . T h e n e x t t u r n i n g p o i n t i n h i s l i f e w a s s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , w h e n a m o n k h a p p e n e d t o g i v e h i m a c o p y o f a c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e A v a t a m s a k a - s u t r a w r i t t e n b y C h e n g - g u a n > 2. <&V> /' H e w a s a b l e t o s t u d y i t b y h i m s e l f , a n d w a s s o o n l e c t u r i n g o n i t , e v e n t h o u g h h e h a d n o t y e t r e a d t h e S f l t r a i t s e l f . H e t r a v e l l e d t o t h e E a s t e r n c a p i t a l , L e - y a n g , a n d r e a c h e d C h e n g - g u a n ' s t e m p l e , Y u n - h u a zv , w h e r e h e c o n t i n u e d t o l e c t u r e o n t h e H u a - y a n d o c t r i n e . T h i s l e d t o a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n Z o n g - m i a n d C h e n g - g u a n , w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e l a t t e r t a k i n g Z o n g - m i o n a s a d i s c i p l e a n d a H u a - y a n m o n k . H e d e v o t e d h i m s e l f a b s o l u t e l y t o Cheng-guan, who was a very prominent figure in the Buddhist world, having been awarded the honorary t i t l e s of "Imperial Master of the Pure, Cool Monastery" v-pl and "Imperial Master and Superintendent of Monks" ' , Thus began Zong-mi's acquaintance with the scholarly and p o l i t i c a l spheres. He closely attended Cheng-guan for two years, then lectured for two years, then, i n 816, retired to the Zhong-nan mountain Ff] near 39 Chang-an to l i v e i n seclusion and study the Tripitaka for three years. In 819 he returned to Chang-an, During this period he write his f i r s t commentary on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, and commentaries on the Vajracchedika-prajnaparamita-sutra (Taisho #1701), and the Wei-shi  san-shi-lun sungofeJU ^Jfaj fcj(Trimslka Vijnapttaatra Karika) J*° Here his wide-ranging interests already become evident. After a year at Chang-an, Zong-mi once again retired to the seclusion of the mountains, this time Gui-feng mountain =EL W~ near Chang-an, In this period he wrote his long commentary on the Sutra of Perfect  Enlightenment, his commentaries on the Hua-yan-.jing and the Vinaya i n Four Divisions (Dharmaguptaka-vinaya), and his commentary on Du-shun's text which i s the subject of the present study. He also wrote a large study of Chan Buddhism, particularly focusing on the philosophical bases of the various schools. Well aware that many of the schools would repu-diate his efforts,,he remained undaunted in his efforts to demonstrate that Chan, l i k e the rest of Buddhism, had a theoretical as well as an hz experiential basis. His other works include commentaries on the Awakening of Faith, J the Ritual of Avalambana (TaishTT #1792), the Sutra on the Realigation of Vows, the Treatise on the Investigation of Man above mentioned, and more. According to his biographer, his works total 44 two hundred juan. Another aspect of Zong-mi's l i f e which cannot be overlooked i s his involvement i n p o l i t i c s . On the positive side was his association with Pei Xiu, a devoted Buddhist layman who would l a t e r become prime minister and who admired Zong-mi greatly. He frequently wrote prefaces to his works, and wrote Zong-mi's epitaph, " I t seems very l i k e l y that the best ones of the honorific posthumous t i t l e s conferred upon Tsung-mi [Zong-mi"! by the throne were due to the i n i t i a t i v e and support of P'ei Hsiu [Pei Xiu"J, because they were conferred while P'ei was premier and , 45 inf l u e n t i a l at the T'ang Imperial Court," J Zong-mi's "reputation at the T'ang court reached i t s peak i n ? 2 8 , when he was invited to attend the celebration of the imperial birthday held i n the palace i n the tenth lunar month. On that occasion he discoursed on Buddhism before the Emperor and greatly impressed him. As a reward for his discourse, a purple robe was bestwed upon Tsung-mi, and he was also put i n the rank of Monks of Great Virtue (bhadanta)." Along with such honors, the dangers of p o l i t i c a l l i f e were inevitable. Zong-mi was involved, apparently innocently, but nonethe-^ - j - 47 less involved, i n an anti-eunuch plot led by L i Xun , ' In 835, L i , who was prime minister, organized a plot with fiv e hundred men against the eunuchs. The plan f a i l e d and many were massacred, L i f l e d to Zong-mi's monastery at Zhong-nan mountain and asked Zong-mi to shave him and hide him in the monastery. As the two had been friends for a long time, Zong-mi wanted to help his friend, but was prevented from doing so by his disciples, L i had to run on and was soon captured and k i l l e d , C h o u S h i - l i a n g ^ ^ 5 L , t h e e u n u c h l e a d e r , a r r e s t e d Z o n g - m i a n d k e p t h i m i n t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e L e f t A r m y , H e i n t e n d e d t o e x e c u t e h i m f o r f a i l i n g t o r e p o r t t h e c r i m i n a l , " M i , u n d i s t r u b e d , s a i d , ' I a m a p o o r f o l l o w e r o f t h e W a y a n d h a v e k n o w n X u n d e e p l y f o r y e a r s , I a l s o k n e w o f h i s r e b e l l i o n . Y e t m y o r i g i n a l t e a c h e r [ t h e B u d d h a l t a u g h t t h e D h a r m a o f h e l p i n g [ t h e n e e d y " ] e v e n i f t h e r e s u l t w e r e b i t t e r [ f o r o n e s e l f " ) , I d o n o t s o l o v e m y l i f e , a n d am w i l l i n g a n d c o n t e n t t o d i e , ' O n e o f t h e e u n u c h s , Y u H e n g - z h i ^ . w a s i m p r e s s e d w i t h h i m , a n d m e m o r i a l i z e d t o t h e t h r o n e t h a t h e s h o u l d b e e x o n e r a t e d . W h e n t h e 48 c o u r t i e r s h e a r d o f h i s r e l e a s e , t h e y w r u n g t h e i r h a n d s a n d w e p t , " A f t e r t h i s e p i s o d e , Z o n g - m i b e c a m e i n a c t i v e a n d c e a s e d w r i t i n g . P r e s u m a b l y h e w a s n o w i n b a d s t a n d i n g a t c o u r t a n d d e c i d e d t o w i t h d r a w t o a m o r e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e . H e d i e d i n 841 a n d w a s c r e m a t e d o n h i s b e l o v e d G u i - f e n g m o u n t a i n . A f t e r t h e B u d d h i s t p e r s e c u t i o n o f 842-845, P e i X i u b e c a m e p r i m e m i n i s t e r , a n d Z o n g - m i ' s n a m e w a s h o n o r e d a g a i n , H e w a s t i t l e d " C h a n M a s t e r o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d W i s d o m " '/sL^ ' t . f p if a n d i t w a s d e c r e e d t h a t t h e " B l u e L o t u s " % jJT p a g o d a s h o u l d b e b u i l t t o 49 h o u s e h i s r e m a i n s . B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e H u a - y a n S c h o o l 1) H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d T h a t t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l o f B u d d h i s m w a s a n a r i s t o c r a t i c o n e c a n h a r d l y b e d e n i e d . W i t h i t s e x t r e m e l y a b s t r u s e m e t a p h y s i c a l d o c t r i n e a n d i t s e m p h a s i s o n i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d s c h o l a r l y m a t t e r s , i t w a s h a r d l y s u i t e d t o b e a p o p u l a r m o v e m e n t . O n l y t h o s e w i t h a s o l i d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d a h i g h l y - d e v e l o p e d , i n t e l l e c t w e r e a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e d a z z l i n g v i s t a w h i c h H u a - y a n o f f e r e d . T h i s d i d n o t a t a l l p r e c l u d e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l w i t h t h e I m p e r i a l p o w e r . E a c h o f t h e C h i n e s e p a t r i a r c h s o f H u a - y a n w a s h o n o r e d a n d / o r s u p p o r t e d i n s o m e m e a s u r e b y t h e r u l i n g f a m i l y , D u - s h u n b y b o t h t h e S u i a n d t h e T a n g r u l e r s , a n d t h e o t h e r p a t r i a r c h s b y t h e T a n g , F a - z a n g i s b y f a r t h e m o s t r e n o w n e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t f o r h i s s u p p o r t b y t h e i n f a m o u s u s u r p e r , t h e E m p r e s s W u ( t e c h n i c a l l y n o t a m e m b e r o f t h e T a n g d y n a s t y ) . H i s f a m o u s e s s a y " O n t h e G o l d e n L i o n " w a s a p p a r e n t l y w r i t t e n p a r t i a l l y t o i n s t r u c t t h e E m p r e s s , a n d s h e i n t u r n w r o t e a p r e f a c e t o o n e o f h i s w o r k s , I n g e n e r a l , t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l c o u l d b e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e T a n g d y n a s t y , m u c h a s t h e T i a n - t a i w a s w i t h t h e S u i , T h e T a n g p e r i o d i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e " G o l d e n A g e " o f B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a , T h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s , a s i t w a s t h e e r a i n w h i c h t h e t r u l y C h i n e s e s c h o o l s o f B u d d h i s m w e r e b o r n ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e T i a n - t a i , w h i c h s l i g h t l y p r e c e d e d t h e T a n g ) , t h e e r a i n w h i c h B u d d h i s m w a s p o p u l a r w i t h a l l c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y , f r o m t h e r u l i n g e l i t e t o t h e m a s s e s , a n d i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l w e a l t h o f t h e C h u r c h ( i n l a n d , t e m p l e s e r f s , o i l p r e s s e s , p r e c i o u s m e t a l s , g r a i n , m i l l s m o n e y - l e n d i n g a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . ) w a s a t i t s h e i g h t . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , t h o s e t h a t t a k e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i d e a t h a t B u d d h i s m w a s a t i t s p e a k d u r i n g t h e T a n g , - ' 0 O n e f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t i s t h a t t h e T a n g r u l e r s t r a c e d t h e i r l i n e a g e b a c k t o L a o - z i , a n d t h u s t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s T a o i s t s , i f o n l y b y a n c e s t r a l s t a n d a r d s . A l t h o u g h B u d d h i s m w a s p o w e r f u l a n d p o p u l a r , i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t o f f i c i a l l y B u d d h i s m w a s n o t s u p p o r t e d by t h e S t a t e , t h a t i n f a c t i t w a s c o n t r o l l e d a s f i r m l y a s p o s s i b l e by t h e S t a t e , a p r o c e s s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f 842-845, T h i s c o n t r o l a n d s u p p r e s s i o n w a s o f c o u r s e l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d p o w e r a n d p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e C h u r c h , P e r h a p s i t i s b e s t t o s a y t h a t , m u c h a s a C h i n e s e d y n a s t y , t h e r i s e a n d t h e f a l l o f t h e f o r t u n e s o f 3uddhisra i n C h i n a w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y o n e a n d t h e s a m e c a u s e s . T h a t i s , t h e g r o w t h a n d d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h s o w e d s e e d s t h a t i n e v i t a b l y c a u s e d i t s d o w n f a l l . C h i e f a m o n g t h e s e c a u s e s w a s t h e g r e a t e c o n o m i c w e a l t h o f t h e C h u r c h w h i c h t h e S t a t e f e l t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e A n L u - s h a n r e b e l l i o n o f 756) a s a t h r e a t . B r i e f l y , t h e c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s t h a t t h e S t a t e t o o k a g a i n s t B u d d h i s m w e r e : c o n t r o l o f t h e s i z e o f t h e B u d d h i s t c o m m u n i t y , c h i e f l y t h r o u g h t h e s a l e o f o r d i n a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e s , w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e o r e t i c a l l y n o o n e c o u l d b e c o m e a m o n k } p e r i o d i c a l d e -f r o c k i n g o f " u n d e s i r a b l e " m e m b e r s o f t h e B u d d h i s t c o m m u n i t y ; o f f i c i a l l i m i t s t o t h e n u m b e r o f B u d d h i s t t e m p l e s a n d m o n a s t e r i e s t h a t w e r e p e r -m i t t e d ; o f f i c i a l c e n s u s o f t h e B u d d h i s t c o m m u n i t y ; t h e a p p o i n t m e n t b y t h e S t a t e o f o f f i c i a l s c h a r g e d w i t h o v e r s e e i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e B u d d h i s t C h u r c h ( i n 839 C h o u S h i - l i a n g , t h e e u n u c h l e a d e r w h o h a d a r r e s t e d Z o n g - m i , w a s m a d e o n e o f t h e s e o f f i c i a l s ) . H o w e v e r , t h e S t a t e a l s o m a d e u s e o f B u d d h i s m t o s e r v e i t s o w n n e e d s . T h u s t h e r e w e r e o f f i c i a l S t a t e m o n a s t e r i e s w i t h m o n k s c h a r g e d t o p r a y f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e S t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y i n s u c h m a t t e r s a s w a r f a r e a n d t h e h a r v e s t . T h e E m p r e s s W u u s e d a B u d d h i s t t e x t ( a d j u s t e d t o s u i t h e r n e e d s ) a s i d e o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f h e r u s u r p a t i o n o f p o w e r . T h i s w a s t h e D a - y u n - j i n g ( M a h a m e g h a - s u t r a o r " G r e a t C l o u d " S f l t r a ) , a d a p t e d b y t h e m o n k o f c o n v e n i e n c e X u e H u a i - - y i t o s a y t h a t t h e E m p r e s s Wu w a s a n i n c a r n a t i o n o f M a i t r e y a a n d t h u s a C a k r a v a r t l n , t h e p e r f e c t CO r u l e r ( w h o u n q u e s t i o n a b l y h a d t h e r i g h t t o r u l e ) . E m p e r o r s g e n e r a l l y s e e m e d t o f e e l t h a t t h e m o n k s w e r e a t t h e i r b e c k a n d c a l l . T h e f o r m e r w o u l d f r e q u e n t l y g i v e o r d e r s f o r a c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y t o b e c a r r i e d o u t , a n d t h e m o n k s w o u l d h a v e t o o b e y . M o n k s w h o h a d I m p e r i a l c o n n e c t i o n s h a d t o r e p e a t e d l y r e q u e s t p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e T h r o n e w h e n e v e r t h e y w a n t e d t o l e a v e t h e c a p i t a l f o r a r e t r e a t i n t h e m o u n t a i n s ( p e r h a p s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r m o r a l i t y . ) 53 T h e r e i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t h e o r y p u t f o r w a r d b y C h ' e n a n d , i n a m o r e d e v e l o p e d f o r m , b y W e i n s t e i n , c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l a n d t h e T a n g d y n a s t y . A s C h ' e n p u t s i t * S u m m a r i z i n g , o n e m a y s a y t h a t t h e e p i t o m e o f H u a - y e n t h o u g h t c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o i l o w i n g j t h e r e i s a w o r l d o f l i o r u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e a n d a w o r l d o f s h i h o r p h e n o m e n a , w h i c h a r e p e r f e c t l y i n t e r f u s e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r . A t t h e s a m e t i m e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p h e n o m e n o n i s a l s o u n i m p e d e d l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h e v e r y o t h e r p h e n o m e n o n , A t o t a l i s t i c s y s t e m i s t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h e v e r y t h i n g l e a d i n g t o o n e p o i n t , t h e B u d d h a , i n t h e c e n t e r . I t i s n o w o n d e r t h a t E m p r e s s W u T s e - t ' i e n a n d t h e J a p a n e s e e m p e r o r s f a v o r e d t h e s y s t e m , s i n c e i t p r o v i d e d a r e l i g i o u s s a n c t i o n f o r t h e i r t o t a l i t a r i a n s c h e m e s ,55 W e i n s t e i n a d d s t h a t s i n c e t h e E m p r e s s W u s a w h e r s e l f a s a u n i v e r s a l m o n a r c h , s h e w a s q u i t e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e H u a - y a n i m a g e o f a n o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e p r e s i d e d o v e r b y V a i r o c a n a B u d d h a , w h o s e e v e r y a c t w a s r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h c o u n t l e s s w o r l d s , ^ H e g o e s o n t o s a y t h a t t h e i n f u s i o n o f C h a n i n f l u e n c e i n t o H u a - y a n b y C h e n g - g u a n a n d Z o n g - m i i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e s u p p o r t t h e t w o g o t f r o m m i l i t a r y m e n , a m o n g w h o m C h a n w a s q u i t e p o p u l a r . A f t e r t h e A n L u - s h a n r e b e l l i o n , a l o n g w i t h I m p e r i a l p a t r o n a g e , p a t r o n a g e b y r e g i o n a l c o m m a n d e r s a n d l o c a l r u l e r s b e c a m e q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . T h u s , p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s a n d t h e f o r t u n e s o f B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s s e e m t o b e c l o s e l y 5 7 i n t e r - w o v e n , 2) P h i l o s o p h i c a l B a c k g r o u n d T h e H u a - y a n d o c t r i n e i s c o m p l e x , g r o u n d e d a s i t i s o n s u n y a v S d a , t a t h a g a t a - g a r b h a , a n d A v a t a m s a k a e l e m e n t s , w i t h t h e a d d e d f e a t u r e o f a d i s t i n c t l y C h i n e s e w o r l d - v i e w . T h e s c h o o l i s p o p u l a r l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t e a c h i n g t o t a l i s r a , w h i c h m e a n s i t . p r o v i d e s a s w e e p i n g v i e w o f a n i n f i n i t e u n i v e r s e , t h e p a r t s o f w h i c h a r e c o m p l e t e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , a n d e a c h o f w h i c h i s t o t a l l y c a p a b l e o f r e f l e c t i n g t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e u n i v e r s e . T h e t e c h n i c a l n a m e f o r t h i s t e a c h i n g i s s h i - s h i - w u - a i , " t h e n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p h e n o m e n a a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s " , B e f o r e d e v e l o p i n g t h i s a n y f u r t h e r , i t w i l l b e b e s t t o b a c k t r a c k t o a r e v i e w o f t h e r o o t s o f t h e H u a - y a n t h e o r i e s . T h e m o s t s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e H u a - y a n w o r i d - v i e w i s t h e e x a l t e d p l a c e w h i c h t h i n g s o r p h e n o m e n a o c c u p y . T h e H u a - y a n t r e a t i s e s d i s p l a y " a u n i v e r s e i n w h i c h p h e n o m e n a h a v e b e e n n o t o n l y r e s t o r e d t o a m e a s u r e o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , b u t , i n d e e d , h a v e b e c o m e i m p o r t a n t , v a l u a b l e , a n d l o v e l y , " ^ W h y a r e p h e n o m e n a t h u s a d m i r e d ? T h e r e a r e t w o b a s i c r e a s o n s . F i r s t , e a c h a n d e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d r e f l e c t s t h e n o u m e n o n , T h u s n e s s , T h i s r e a s o n i s b a s e d o n t a t h S g a t a g a r b h a t h e o r i e s a s w e s h a l l s e e . S e c o n d , t h e H u a - y a n c o s m o l o g y i s a v e r s i o n o f p r a t T t y a s a m u t p a d a ( c o n d i t i o n e d c o - o r i g i n a t i o n ) i n w h i c h t h e f o c u s i s o n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e a t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t . T o i l l u s t r a t e : e v e r y s i n g l e t h i n g i n t h e u n i v e r s e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e t o t a l i t y , w h i c h i s t h e u n i v e r s e . I f o n e p i e c e o f a n y s t r u c t u r e i s r e m o v e d , t h e n t h e f o r m e r s t r u c t u r e i s n o m o r e , a n d a n e w o n e h a s b e e n f o r m e d . I t i s e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t t h e s i n g l e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t , i s w h a t i t i s o n l y b y v i r t u e o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f w h i c h i t i s a p a r t . A s t h e r e a r e n o i n d e p e n d e n t d h a r r a a s o r p h e n o m e n a , s i n c e t h e u n i v e r s e i s t o t a l l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , a l l t h i n g s a r e i n t h i s w a y r e l a t i v e . T h e w h o l e a n d t h e p a r t a r e m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i n g a n d c o n d i t i o n i n g , I n f a c t , t h e n o t i o n o f " t h e w h o l e " i s h e r e d i s p e n s a b l e , " S i n c e t h e w h o l e i s n o m o r e t h a n t h e s u m o f i t s p a r t s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s s y s t e m i s r e a l l y t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h p a r t t o a l l t h e o t h e r p a r t s . T o c h a n g e t h e m e t a p h o r , t h e u n i v e r s e i s a g i g a n t i c c o s m i c d a n c e , i n w h i c h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e d a n c e , a n d w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l d a n c e r i n h i s c o n t r i b u t o r y a n d p a r t i c i p a t o r y r o l e f i n d s h i s m e a n i n g . T o t h e e y e s o f a n A m e r i c a n , i t 5 9 i s a s q u a r e d a n c e , " T h e o t h e r t h i n g w h i c h r e m a i n s t o b © s a i d f o r t h i s C h i n e s e w o r l d -v i e w , w h i c h i s a c o r o l l a r y o f t h e a b o v e , i s t h a t i t i s b a s i c a l l y p o s i t i v e a n d w o r l d - a f f i r m i n g . T h i s s h o u l d n o t b e t a k e n t o m e a n i t i s d i a l e c t i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o a w o r l d - n e g a t i n g I n d i a n w o r l d - v i e w . N o r e l i g i o n t h a t a t t a i n e d t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f B u d d h i s m i n I n d i a c o u l d b e t o t a l l y w o r l d - n e g a t i n g . H o w e v e r , i t i s f a i r t o s a y t h a t t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l e x t r a c t e d w h a t w a s p e r h a p s a l a t e n t a n d r a r e l y o v e r t l y - e x p r e s s e d a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d w h i c h w a s p r e s e n t i n t h e ( I n d i a n - b o r n ) t a t h a g a t a p ; a r b h a t r a d i t i o n , a n d m a d e i t a c e n t r a l a n d f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f i t s e x p r e s s e d d o c t r i n e . T h a t t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a n b e s e e n i n t h e s i m i l a r l y w o r l d - a f f i r m i n g n a t u r e s o f t h e T i a n - t a i a n d C h a n s c h o o l s o f B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a , A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h f i g u r e s l a r g e l y i n t h e H u a - y a n c o s m o l o g y i s t h e A v a t a m s a k a - s u t r a ( H u a - y a n - . j i n g ) , w h i c h t h e s c h o o l t o o k a s t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n a n d a s t h e h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e T r u t h . H o w e v e r , t h e S u t r a i s b a s i c a l l y n o t a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e x t , b u t r a t h e r a p p e a r s t o b e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a v i s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d i n s a m a d h i w h i c h v e r y d e f i n i t e l y t r a n s c e n d s t h e w o r l d l y s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m a n d s e e s a l l p h e n o m e n a a s b a s i c a l l y i l l u s o r y . T h e S u t r a i s a c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e p a t h o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a ( a f u t u r e B u d d h a , o r m o n k o f t h e M a h a y a n a p a t h ) , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e p s y c h i c p o w e r s h e a t t a i n s t h r o u g h h i s a s c e t i c a n d c o n t e m -p l a t i v e p r a c t i c e s , ^ 0 T h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l d o e s n o t i n c o r p o r a t e m u c h o f t h i s , b u t r a t h e r t a k e s i n t h e c o s m o l o g y o f t h e S u t r a , w h i c h , a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , i s a p r o d u c t o f c o n t e m p l a t i v e t r a n c e . T h e p i c t u r e i s o n e o f a P u r e L a n d p r e -s i d e d o v e r b y V a i r o c a n a B u d d h a , w h o i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f a n i n f i n i t e u n i v e r s e . S u r r o u n d i n g V a i r o c a n a ' s P u r e L a n d i n t e n d i r e c t i o n s ( t e n f o r t h e H u a - y a n i s t h e p e r f e c t l y " r o u n d " n u m b e r , e x p r e s s i n g i n f i n i t y ) a r e c o u n t l e s s o t h e r w o r l d s w h i c h p e r f e c t l y r e f l e c t t h e c e n t r a l P u r e L a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e i n t e r - p e n e t r a t i o n o f a l l p h e n o m e n a . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e G a n d a v y u h a , t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m c o n s i s t s o f t w o a s p e c t s : t h e u n d i v i d e d O n e , a n d t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e O n e , T h e l a t t e r a r e 62 n o t h i n g b u t i l l u s i o n s . I t i s t h i s l a s t s t e p w h i c h t h e H u a - y a n r e f u s e d t o t a k e . P h e n o m e n a a r e e m p t y , y e s ; b u t n o t p u r e l y i l l u s o r y . T h e S f i t r a g o e s o n t o d e v e l o p a v e r y e l a b o r a t e p a n o r a m a o f t h e m a g i c a l p o w e r s , m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , a n d e m a n a t i o n s o f t h e B u d d h a s a n d B o d h i -s a t t v a s , w h i c h , s i n c e a l l t h i n g s a r e i l l u s o r y , a r e a s r e a l a s a n y t h i n g 6T e l s e . H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e B u d d h a s " p r e s e n t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e P r i n c i p l e - f o u n d a t i o n [ D h a r m a - r e a l m l i n o n e a t o m i c p a r t i c l e b y m e a n s o f r e f l e c t i o n t h e y a r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f a l l p r i n c i p l e s L < i h a r m a s ~ | . T h u s , a B u d d h a ' s r e f l e c t i o n o f a l l p r i n c i p l e s — h i s p r o d u c -t i o n o f i l l u s o r y w o r l d s , b o d i e s a n d B o d h i s a t t v a s — c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e 6 4 -t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d , " I n s u m , t h e S u t r a c o n t a i n s f a n t a s t i c i m a g e s o f a w o r l d i n w h i c h o u r o r d i n a r y c o n c e p t s o f t i m e a n d s p a c e a r e m e a n i n g l e s s , a s t h e v a r i o u s p h e n o m e n a i n t e r - p e n e t r a t e , a n d t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e c a n b e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a m u s t a r d - s e e d . T h i s i m a g o w a s t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d a n d e x p l a i n e d , o n t h e b a s i s o f s u n y a v a d a a n d t a t h 5 g a t a g a r b h a d o c t r i n e s , b y t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l . T h e i m p o r t a n c e a n d t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t o f " e m p t i n e s s " ( s u h y a t a ) a s i t e n t e r e d C h i n a h a s b e e n s h o w n a b o v e . T h u s t h i s c o n c e p t b e c a m e a f u n d a m e n t a l p l a n k i n C h i n e s e B u d d h i s m i n g e n e r a l . T h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l i s c e r t a i n l y n o e x c e p t i o n . T h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f e m p t i n e s s w a s q u i t e s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d a n d c l o s e t o t h e o r i g i n a l I n d i a n c o n c e p t . B r i e f l y , t h e t h e o r y o f e m p t i n e s s i s t h a t a l l t h i n g s a r e l a c k i n g i n o w n - b e i n g o r s e l f - h o o d ; t h a t i s , " x " h a s n o " x - n e s s " w h i c h i s i t s s u b s t a n c e o r e s s e n c e . T h i s i s a l o g i c a l o u t c o m e o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f p r a t i t y a s a m u t p a d a , w h i c h t e a c h e s t h a t a l l t h i n g s c o m e i n t o b e i n g s t r i c t l y i n d e p e n d e n c e o n o t h e r t h i n g s . S i n c e a t h i n g d e p e n d s o n o t h e r t h i n g s f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , i t c a n n o t b e s a i d t o e x i s t i n i t s e l f o r b y i t s e l f . B u t s i n c e a l l t h i n g s a r e t h u s d e p e n d e n t o n o t h e r t h i n g s , n o t h i n g c a n b e s a i d t o e x i s t i n o r b y i t s e l f . T h u s w e f i n d o u r s e l v e s i n a w o r l d , a l l t h e p a r t s o f w h i c h d e p e n d o n o t h e r p a r t s , w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s a r e s e e n t o b e ^ i n d e p e n d a b l e " O n e q u i c k l y c o m e s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e x i s t e n c e i s a n i l l u s i o n . T h e m o r e d e v e l o p e d d o c t r i n e t e a c h e s t h a t b e i n g s d o h a v e a p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l e x i s t e n c e , . w i t h w h i c h w e m u s t c o p e i n o u r d a i l y a c t i -v i t i e s , b u t t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h i s e x i s t e n c e i s u n r e a l , a n d t h e r e f o r e w e s h o u l d v i e w t h i n g s a s u n r e a l i n o r d e r t o b e d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e m . T h e s p i r i t u a l b a s i s o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e u n h a p p i n e s s a l l h u m a n b e i n g s e x p e r i e n c e , d u e t o t h e i r a p e r r a a n e n c e o f e v e r y t h i n g i n l i f e . N o t h i n g c a n b e r e l i e d u p o n f o r h a p p i n e s s , s i n c e t o m o r r o w i t m a y b e l o s t , d e s t r o y e d o r d e a d . C h i e f a m o n g t h e s e s o r r o w s i s t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h o n e o f u s m u s t d i e . I f o n e c l i n g s w i t h a t t a c h m e n t t o t h i s e x i s t e n c e , h e c a n o n l y b e m i s e r a b l e a s h e s e e s t h e d e a t h o f f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s , a n d h i s o w n d e a t h i n e v i t a b l y a p p r o a c h i n g . T h e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s d i l a m r a a i s t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h e t r u t h o f t h e e m p t i n e s s o f a l l t h i n g s , t h e i r u l t i m a t e u n r e a l i t y . W h e n t h i s i s i n t e r n a l i z e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t o n e c a n a c t a n d l i v e f r o m t h i s k n o w l e d g e , w h i c h m u s t b e e x p e r i e n t i a l l y k n o w n , n o t j u s t c o g n i t i v e l y k n o w n , t h e n a n d o n l y t h e n w i l l o n e b e f r e e o f m i s e r y , N a " g S r j u n a , t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e M a d h y a m i k a s c h o o l w h i c h s y s t e m a -t i z e d t h e s u n y a v a d a d o c t r i n e ( a n d w h o w a s c o n s i d e r e d a n I n d i a n p a t r i a r c h o f t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l ) , v e r y i n s i s t e n t l y m a d e t h e p o i n t t h a t e m p t i n e s s i t s e l f i s e m p t y . T h a t i s , e m p t i n e s s i s n o t a t h i n g ; i t i s a n e p i s t e m o -l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t , o n e o f t h e p o i n t s o f w h i c h i s t o n e g a t e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . T h e M S d h y a m i k a s d e n i e d t h a t a n y a s s e r t i o n c o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a n y r e a l t h i n g , s i n c e n o r e a l t h i n g c o u l d b e f o u n d t h a t e x i s t e d . T h u s , a l l v i e w s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d f a l s e . T h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y n o t t o s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t e m p t i n e s s i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h n e g a t i o n . T h e M S d h y a m i k a s n e g a t e d a l l s t a t e m e n t s , b u t t h a t d i d n o t l e a v e n e g a t i o n a s a n e n d - p r o d u c t , s i n c e n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s w e r e a l s o d e n i e d , I n f a c t , s t a t e m e n t s o f " A " , " n o t - A " , " b o t h A a n d n o t - A " , a n d " n e i t h e r A n o r n o t - A " w e r e a l l d e n i e d , ( T h i s i s t h e t e t r a l e m m a f o r m o f l o g i c u s e d b y t h e M d h y a r a i k a s . ) W h a t r e m a i n s f r o m t h i s r a d i c a l d i a l e c t i c o f n e g a t i o n ? C e r t a i n l y n o t n o t h i n g . B u t w h a t d o e s r e m a i n i s u n s p e a k a b l e , u n t h i n k a b l e ; i t i s n o t e v e n h i n t e d a t b y t h e M S f d h y a r a i k a s . I t i s l e f t f o r t h e d i s c i p l e t o d i s c o v e r i n h i s o w n c o n t e m p l a t i o n . T h e r e w a s a C h i n e s e v e r s i o n o f t h i s s c h o o l , t h e S a n - l u n , f o u n d e d o n K u m a r a j X v a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f N a g a r j u n a ' s w o r k s . O n c e o n C h i n e s e s o i l , h o w e v e r , h i s c o n c e p t s u n d e r w e n t a f e w c h a n g e s . We h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f e m p t i n e s s w h i c h w e r e w i d e s p r e a d b e f o r e K u m a r a j l v a ' s t i m e . W i t h K u r a a r a j T v a , t h e d o c t r i n e w a s r e s t o r e d t o s o m e -t h i n g l i k e i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m . S u b s e q u e n t l y , h o w e v e r , h i s t e a c h i n g s u n d e r w e n t a f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t o t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h , o n c e a g a i n , N a g a r j u n a m i g h t n o t h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h e m . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e y w e r e . a n a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t i n t h e g r o w t h o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t t h o u g h t , T h e f i n a l e l e m e n t w h i c h w e m u s t r e v i e w a s a s o u r c e o f H u a - y a n t h o u g h t i s t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a d o c t r i n e . T h i s d o c t r i n e i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e V i j n a n a v a d a d o c t r i n e o f t h e V i . l n a p t i m a t r a t a - s i d d h i a n d t h e T r i m l i k a , W h i l e i t m a y b e r e l a t e d t o t h e s e , i t s h o u l d b e k e p t d i s -t i n c t . B a s i c a l l y t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a ( " m a t r i x o f t h e T h u s - C o m e , i . e . , t h e B u d d h a ) d o c t r i n e t e a c h e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s O n e M i n d ( a l s o k n o w n a s t h e R e a l M i n d , O r i g i n a l M i n d , O n e M i n d o f R e a l T h u s n e s s ) w h i c h h a s t w o a s p e c t s . T h u s i t h a s a p u r e f o r m , M i n d a s t a t h a t a , " T h u s n e s s " , t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , a n d M i n d a s s a m s i r a , b i r t h a n d d e a t h . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e O n e M i n d i s a l l t h a t i s , b u t i t h a s b o t h a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l a s p e c t a n d a m a n i f e s t e d f o r m . T h e s e t w o a r e , h o w e v e r , b u t t w o a s p e c t s o f a s i n g l e R e a l i t y , T h u s a l l t h i n g s a r e s a i d t o b e O n e M i n d , T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s d u a l n a t u r e i s v a r i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d . T h e s t a n d a r d e x p l a n a t i o n ( i n t h e A w a k e n i n g o f F a i t h a n d t h e L a h k X v a t a r a ) i s t h a t t h e M i n d i s l i k e t h e o c e a n s i n i t s d e p t h s i t i s c a l m a n d u n m o v i n g , b u t o n t h e s u r f a c e t h e r e a r e w a v e s , f o r m e d b y t h e w i n d s o f i g n o r a n c e . I t i s t o b e n o t e d t h a t t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f t h e O n e M i n d i s p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e D h a r r a a - r e a l m i n i t s t w o a s p e c t s o f u l t i m a t e R e a l i t y a n d u n i v e r s e . T h i s c o n c e p t i s n o t t a k e n i n t o t h e H u a - y a n w h o l e c l o t h . I n t h e I n d i a n f o r m o f t h e d o c t r i n e , t h e m a n i f e s t e d w o r l d i s u s u a l l y s e e n a s t h e " d e f i l e d " a s p e c t o f t h e O n e M i n d , a n d i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e i v e d a s i l l u s o r y . A s w i t h t h e A v a t a m s a k a a n d s u n y a v a d a t e a c h i n g s , t h e H u a -y a n d o e s n o t g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t t h i s n o t i o n o f t h e i l l u s o r y n a t u r e o f p h e n o m e n a . F o r H u a - y a n t h e r e d e f i n i t e l y a r e d e f i l e m e n t s t o g e t r i d o f , b u t t h e s e a r e h u m a n d e f i l e m e n t s , f a i l i n g s o f t h e h u m a n n a t u r e w h i c h o b s c u r e t h e r i g h t v i s i o n o f R e a l i t y , C h i e f a m o n g t h e s e , a n d m e n t i o n e d o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n t h e t e x t , a r e t h e d e f i l e m e n t s o f m a i n t a i n i n g v i e w s ( Ej» d r g t i ) w h i c h , j u s t a s f o r s u n y a v a d a , a r e i n h e r e n t l y f a l s e , a n d h e e d i n g f e e l i n g s ' ' " f l , i n w h i c h w e b e c o m e l o s t , f o r g e t t i n g t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f R e a l i t y , H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e s e h u m a n d e f i l e m e n t s a r e g o t t e n r i d o f , t h e r e i s n o m o r e t a l k o f a n y d e f i l e m e n t a t a l l . P h e n o m e n a ( o t h e r t h a n h u m a n m e n t a l p h e n o m e n a ) a r e s p o k e n o f n e i t h e r a s d e f i l e d , n o r a s i l l u s o r y . I n f a c t , p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i n a l a n d h i g h e s t v i s i o n t h e H u a - y a n h a s t o o f f e r . T o b e s u r e , o n e m u s t s e e f i r s t t h a t p h e n o m e n a a n d n o u m e n o n a r e o n e ( i . e . , t h a t t h e m a n i f e s t e d w o r l d i s t h e O n e M i n d ) , b u t o n c e t h a t p o i n t i s t h o r o u g h l y m a d e , t h i s t e x t s p e a k s n o m o r e o f n o u m e n o n . T h e e n t i r e f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h e w o r k i s d e v o t e d t o p h e n o m e n a a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a r i o u s p h e n o m e n a . I n s u m , t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a d o c t r i n e i s t h e b a s i c t o o l b y w h i c h t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l e x p l a i n s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a , b u t t h e H u a - y a n g o e s o n e s t e p f u r t h e r t h a n t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a d o c t r i n e i n i t s e x a l t a t i o n o f p h e n o m e n a . T h i s s t e p w a s m a d e n e c e s s a r y b y t h e C h i n e s e w o r l d - v i e w w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y w o r l d - a f f i r m i n g . S o m u c h f o r t h e s o u r c e s o f H u a - y a n t h o u g h t . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f H u a - y a n d o c t r i n e i t s e l f , a t t e n t i o n w i l l b e g i v e n p r i m a r i l y t o F a - z a n g ' s w o r k . H e i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e s y s t e r a a t i z e r a n d d e f a c t o f o u n d e r o f t h e s c h o o l , s o m o s t o f t h e s c h o l a r l y w o r k t h a t h a s b e e n d o n e o n H u a - y a n ( i n t h e W e s t ) h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d o n h i m . We s h a l l r e t u r n t o D u - s h u n a n d Z o n g - m i i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , F a - z a n g * s w r i t i n g s w e r e p r o l i f i c , b u t p e r h a p s t h e b e s t k n o w n o f t h e m a r e h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e H u a - y a n - . j i n g ( T a i s h o #1733)» h i s E s s a y o n t b e G o l d e n L i o n ( T a i s h o ' #1880), h i s C o m m e n t a r y o n t h e H e a r t  S u t r a ( T a i s h o #1712), a n d h i s T r e a t i s e o n t h e F i v e D o c t r i n e s ( T a i s h o #1886), O f t h e s e , I s h a l l c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e l a t t e r . T h o u g h i t s o s t e n -s i b l e p u r p o s e i s t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e s c h o o l ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e s , i t a l s o c o n t a i n s a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f H u a - y a n w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o o u r t e x t . I t i s d e v o t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f a l l p h e n o m e n a , a n d t h e i n t e r p e n e t r a -t i o n o f p h e n o m e n a , ^ A l l p h e n o m e n a a r e t h e s a m e , i n t h a t t h e y a r e a l l e m p t y , i . e . , t h e y a r e m a r k e d w i t h t h e m a r k o f e m p t i n e s s j t h e i r o w n - b e i n g i s e m p t i n e s s . T h i s i s t h e g r o u n d o f t h e i r u n i t y . F a - z a n g b r i n g s i n t h e B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e o f t h e t h r e e n a t u r e s ( t r i - s v a b h a v a ) t o f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e t h i s . T h e t h r e e a r e : p a r i k a l p i t a -s v a b h a V a — t h e c o m p l e t e l y i m a g i n a r y , f a l s e n a t u r e o f a t h i n g , e . g . a r o p e w h i c h i s s e e n a s a s n a k e b y a m a n w a l k i n g h o m e a t t w i l i g h t ; p a r a t a n t r a - s v a b h l T v a ~ t h e e m p i r i c a l l y r e a l b u t a b s o l u t e l y f a l s e n a t u r e o f a t h i n g ; a t h i n g i n i t s n a t u r e o f d e p e n d e n c e o n c a u s e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s ; p a r i n i s p a r m a - s v a b h a v a — t h e a b s o l u t e n a t u r e o f a t h i n g . T h e l a t t e r i s p a r a t a n t r a - s v a b h a v a s e e n f o r w h a t i t r e a l l y i s , w h i l e p a r i k a l p i t a - s v a b h a v a i s t o t a l l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d , F a - z a n g s h o w s t h e s e t h r e e n a t u r e s t o b e r e a l l y t w o n a t u r e s , t h e r e l a t i v e a n d t h e a b s o l u t e , ^ I n f a c t , h e n e e d n ' t h a v e b o t h e r e d w i t h t h e t r i - s v a b h a v a d o c t r i n e a t a l l , a s h e i s r e a l l y e x p r e s s i n g a t e a c h i n g w h i c h i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t . A c c o r d i n g t o F a - z a n g , t h e p a r i n i s p a n n a n a t u r e o f a t h i n g h a s t w o a s p e c t s : 1) i t i s i m m u t a b l e a n d u n c h a n g i n g ( T - ' K ) j 2) i t " o b e y s c o n d i t i o n s " ( f > l _ * v f ' 0 i . © # » i t i s c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h i n g s o u t s i d e i t s e l f 67 a n d s o m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f a s t h e p h e n o m e n a l w o r l d . T h i s i s c l e a r l y c l a s s i c t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a d o c t r i n e . B u t F a - z a n g g o e s o n t o s h o w t h a t t h e p a r a t a n t r a n a t u r e o f a t h i n g a l s o h a s t w o a s p e c t s : 1) i t h a s q u a s i -e x i s t e n c e (^vL^\ ) o r e m p i r i c a l e x i s t e n c e O f l M L I ? ) i . e . , c o n d i t i o n e d , n o n - u l t i m a t e e x i s t e n c e — a n d t h i s i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n e d a s p e c t o f t h e p a r n i s p a n n a n a t u r e . 2) I t l a c k s o w n - b e i n g j i t i s e m p t y . T h e k e y t o t h e w h o l e s y s t e m i s f o u n d h e r e : t h e e m p t y n a t u r e o f p h e n o m e n a l 68 t h i n g s i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e i m m u t a b l e a s p e c t o f t h e a b s o l u t e n a t u r e . T h u s w h e t h e r o n e l o o k s t o p h e n o m e n a o r t o t r a n s c e n d e n t a l R e a l i t y , o n e f i n d s t h e s a m e t w o a s p e c t s : t h e p h e n o m e n a l a n d t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l . I n o t h e r w o r d s , e m p t i n e s s i s t h e h i g h e s t T r u t h i n the B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s a n d i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h T h u s n e s s (tathata) , D h a r m a - n a t u r e ( d h a r m a t a ) , B u d d h a - n a t u r e , e t c . T h i s t o o i s n o t r e a l l y a t o t a l l y n e w t e a c h i n g , b u t i t s e x p l i c i t f o r m u l a t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l l a n g u a g e i s a s t e p i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r a d i c a l l y n e w d o c t r i n e s o f H u a - y a n , O n e s h o u l d n o t e i n p a s s i n g t h a t e m p t i n e s s h e r e d o e s n ' t s e e m t o b e b e h a v i n g l i k e a p u r e l y e p i s t e n o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t ; c e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t o v e r t o n e s o f a n o n t o l o g i c a l n a t u r e , H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d a g a i n b e e m p h a -s i z e d t h a t h e r e t o o e m p t i n e s s i s n o t a t h i n g : i t i s t h e T r u t h o f t h e a b s e n c e o f o w n - b e i n g i n a l l p h e n o m e n a a n d d h a r m a s , b u t i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e h i g h e s t v i s i o n o f R e a l i t y , o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s , t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t s h a v e t o o f f e r : " T h u s n e s s " , T h a t t h i s i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a n o n t o l o g i c a l m a t t e r c a n b e k n o w n i n t h a t w h a t i s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d i s d e f i n i t e l y a s o m e t h i n g t h a t i m p i n g e s o n w h a t w e c a l l t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f m a n . T h i s s o m e t h i n g i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d b y C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s ( a t l e a s t H u a - y a n a n d T i a n - t a i ) ^ t o b e p u r e l y i l l u s i o n ; t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y s o m e t h i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t w e a r e " a w a r e - o f " . W h e t h e r s o m e t h i n g i s " r e a l l y r e a l " b e y o n d t h i s " a w a r e n e s s - o f " i s n o t w o r t h d i s c u s s i o n ; i t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t c o n d u c i v e t o s a l v a t i o n . A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e a i m o f H u a - y a n i s t o e x p o u n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f s h i - s h i - w u - a i , t h e n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p h e n o m e n a a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s . T h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l h a s a w a y o f m a n i p u l a t i n g p h e n o m e n a t o s h o w t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s c a l l e d 3 1 # # , 7 0 c h o n ^ - c h o n g - w u - j i n - z h u - b a n - j u - z u . I n p r a c t i c e , t h i s m e a n s t h a t a n y p h e n o m e n o n c a n b e s e l e c t e d o u t o f t h e i n f i n i t e D h a r r a a - r e a l m o f p h e n o m e n a t o b e t h e " l o r d " o r " c h i e f " p h e n o m e n o n ; t h e o t h e r s a r e s e c o n d a r y t o i t . 35 T h e n , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s o n e p h e n o m e n o n , a l l t h e o t h e r s c a n b e s e e n t o c o n t a i n i t , b e c o n t a i n e d b y i t , e n t e r i t , b e e n t e r e d b y i t , b e i d e n t i c a l w i t h i t , b e d i f f e r e n t f r o m i t , e t c , A l l t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n b e s h o w n t o o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . N o t o n l y t h a t , b u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e a c h o n e o f t h e p h e n o m e n a c a n b e s a i d t o b e t h e " c h i e f " p h e n o m e n o n , s o t h a t a l l t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o c c u r i n t h e i n f i n i t e f o r m s w h i c h a r e p o s s i b l e , a l l a t t h e s a m e m o m e n t . T h i s i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m , I f t h i s s e e m s b e w i l d e r i n g , i t i s l i t t l e w o n d e r , a s i t i s t h e f i n a l p o i n t o f t h e H u a - y a n t e a c h i n g s , a n d q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o d u c t o f s a m a d h i d e s c r i b e d i n t h e A v a t a m s a k a - s u t r a , L e t u s b a c k t r a c k a g a i n . T h e t e a c h i n g o f s h i - s h i - w u - a i i s b a s e d s q u a r e l y o n t h e t e a c h i n g o f l i - s h i - w u - a i S § L % j S £$-k^, w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a , L i - s h i - w u - a i m e a n s t h e n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a ( n o u m e n o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e O n e M i n d i n i t s i m m u t a b l e a s p e c t , p h e n o m e n a b e i n g s i t s f o r m w h i c h " o b e y s c o n d i t i o n s " , ) I n o u r t e x t i t i s s h o w n t h a t p h e n o m e n a d e p e n d o n n o u m e n o n a s a b a s e ; n o u m e n o n i t s e l f i s w h a t r e q u i r e s n o b a s e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a a r e s a i d t o b e a l i k e a n d " n o t - d i f f e r e n t " . B o t h o f t h e s e a r e a s p e c t s o f t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a t e a c h i n g . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h s h i - s h i - w u - a i i s t h e h i g h e s t t e a c h i n g o f H u a - y a n , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f l i - s h i - w u - a i . T h e l a t t e r i s c e r t a i n l y n o t a b a n d o n e d i n H u a - y a n , " B y r e t a i n i n g t h e i d e a o f l i - s h i h - w u - a i , r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e a n d i t s f r u i t s r e m a i n a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i s [ F a - z a n g ' s ~ ) s y s t e m , b e c a u s e l i - s h i h - w u - a i m e a n s t h a t b e h i n d p h e n o m e n a l i e s t h e a b s o l u t e . O u r t r u e n a t u r e i s e n l i g h t e n m e n t , a n d t r a n s c e n d e n c e b e c o m e s p o s s i b l e ; 7 2 w i t h i n u s w e c a n f i n d B u d d h a h o o d , e n l i g h t e n m e n t , a n d n i r v a n a , " The outcome of this i s that i f each phenomenon i s the same as noumenon, and i f noumenon i s the same as a l l phenomena, then every pheno-menon i s identical with every other phenomenon. Here we return to shi-shi-wu-ai. However, identity i s not the only relationship between phenomena. According to Fa-zang, they also interpenetrate, (Du-shun shows several more relationships that exist between phenomena,) Inter-penetration can be seen as the dynamic part of the relationship of which 73 identity i s the static part. However, the Hua-yan teaching i s not that the differences of phenomena fade away to form an amorphous mass called the Dharma-realra, If this were so, Hua-yan could not be said to exalt phenomena as they do. To the contrary, the non-obstruction of noumenon and phenomena means that phenomena and noumenon co-exist, with each retaining i t s own char-acteristics and i n no way being limited or constrained by the other. Thus phenomena do not become less phenomenal i n order to participate i n the transcendental Reality, Our text w i l l emphasize this point: without moving from i t s original position, every phenomenon i s completely noumenon. The result i s a very dynamic image of a universe f i l l e d with phenomena vibrant with their (paradoxically) own nature, yet not one of which Impinges i n any way on any other, as their natures are a l l empty. In short, form i s emptiness — the nature of a l l phenomena i s emptiness, which i s identical with Thusness; and emptiness i s form — the distinctions 74 among phenomena are maintained as real distinctions. To take one example to demonstrate the interpenetration of phenomena: on the Bodhisattva path, the stage of faith, which i s the f i r s t stage of the path, i s seen by the Hua-yan school to be identical w i t h Buddhahood, T h i s i s s o w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e f i f t y - t w o s t a g e s o f t h e p a t h . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s i s t h e d o c t r i n e o f m u t u a l i d e n t i t y a n d i n t e r p e n - o t i - a t i o n , w h i c h h e r e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s t h e i d e n t i t y o f c a u s e and effect. T h e c a u s o ( t h e s t a g e o f f a i t h ) a n d t h e e f f e c t ( B u d d h a -h o o d ) are s h o ; , n to b e s i m p l y t w o m u t u a l l y c o n d i t i o n i n g e l e m e n t s i n a n o n - l i n e a r totality. T h a t i s , t h e r e i s n o p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m c a u s e t o e f f e c t , a l l alevents a r e b o t h c a u s e a n d e f f e c t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , B u d d h a -h o o d i s the r o s u l t o f f a i t h , y e t " w i t h o u t t h e r e s u l t s t a g e o f B u d d h a h o o d , t h e c a u s a l s t & g o of f a i t h i s n o t a c a u s e a t a l l , b e c a u s e a c a u s e i s a 75 c a u s e only with r e g a r d t o a d e f i n i t e r e s u l t , " v S o B u d d h a h o o d i s a c o n d i t i o n i n g factor w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s w h a t f a i t h i s ; i n s h o r t , i t i s a c a u s e of f.-3.1th, F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s t a g e o f f a i t h a n d B u d d h a h o o d a r e i d e n t i c a l . , because i n t h e i r m u t u a l c o n d i t i o n i n g , b o t h a r e s e e n t o b e e m p t y , "Therefore, s a y s t h e H u a - y a n , i f y o u a c q u i r e o n e [ o f t h e s t a g e s ] , y o u a c q u i r e a l l , b e c a u s e t h e w h o l e 52 s t a g e s a r e e a c h d e p e n d e n t . o n t h e o t h e r s . If the s t a g e o f f a i t h i s p e r f e c t e d , t h i s i s t a n t a m o u n t t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of the r e s t o f t h e s t a g e s , i n c l u d i n g B u d d h a h o o d , " ' However, t h i s d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t a f t e r o n e h a s r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e of f a i t h t h e r e i s n o t h i n g l e f t t o d o . T h e B o d h i s a t t v a " w h i l e i n d e e d bein2 a B u d d h a a t t h e s t a g e o f f a i t h , w i l l n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e h i s practices t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e 52 s t a g e s . T h i s a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x c a n bo resolved i f i t i s k e p t i n m i n d t h a t . . , w h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e stage of fai t h i s c a u s e f o r a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a g e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s t a g o of B u d d h a h o o d , i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a g e s a r e t h e cau_e of t h e s t a g e o f f a i t h , a n d t h i s m e a n s t h a t w i t h o u t t h e r e m a i n i n g stages, t h o s t a g e o f f a i t h i s n o t t h e c a u s e o f B u d d h a h o o d , T h e r e f o r e , n o p e r s o n h a s c o m p l e t e d t h e s t a g e o f f a i t h w h o h a s n o t b e c o m e a B u d d h a ; c o n v e r s e l y , n o p e r s o n b e c o m e s a B u d d h a w h o h a s n o t p e r f e c t e d 7 7 t h e s t a g e o f f a i t h , " T h i s i s s h i - s h i - w u - a i , a n d i t a p p l i e s t o a l l p h e n o m e n a o f t i m e a n d s p a c e , " O n e ' s e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n o n e p l a c e i m p l i e s t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f a l l p e r s o n s i n a l l p l a c e s ; S S k y a m u n i ' s e n l i g h t e n -m e n t i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B . C . o c c u r s e v e r y i n s t a n t o f t h e p a s t , f u t u r e , a n d p r e s e n t . W h e n t h e B o d h i s a t t v a e x t i n g u i s h e s o n e f a u l t , a l l a r e 7ft e x t i n g u i s h e d , a n d w h e n o n e p r a c t i c e i s p e r f e c t e d , a l l a r e p e r f e c t e d , " T o s u m u p : l i - s h i - w u - a i i s t h e g r o u n d o f t h e i n h e r e n t c o n n e c -t e d n e s s o f a l l t h i n g s . I t i s a l s o a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e e x a l t e d n e s s o f a l l t h i n g s : t h e l o w l i e s t p i l e o f d u s t i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f b h u t a t a -t h a t a , R e a l T h u s n e s s , t h e h i g h e s t T r u t h o f B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e . I t c o n -t a i n s t h e n o u m e n o n w i t h i n i t s e l f , n o t p a r t i a l l y , b u t t o t a l l y . T h u s i t i s n o t i n t h e l e a s t l o x J l y ; i t i s s u p r e m e , S h i - s h i - w u - a i i s b a s i c a l l y a n e c s t a t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f a b s o l u t e f r e e d o m , g r o u n d e d i n l i - s h i - w u - a i . T h e i m a g e i t c r e a t e s i s a b e w i l d e r i n g o n e t o t h o s e o f u s w h o c a n n o t j o i n i n t h e e c s t a t i c v i s i o n , b u t t o t h o s e w h o c a n , t h e w o r l d i s t h e p l a y g r o u n d o f t h e g o d s , a n d e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d i s s u c h a g o d . T h e T e x t 1) L i t e r a r y A s p e c t D u - s h u n , t h e f i r s t C h i n e s e p a t r i a r c h o f t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l , w r o t e o n l y o n e w o r k t h a t w e k n o w o f . T h i s i s t h e F a - . j i e g u a n - m e n 'Affi f l ^ J , G a r m a C . C , C h a n g e v a l u a t e s i t t h u s : T h e m o s t o r i g i n a l a n d i m p o r t a n t p i e c e o f w o r k i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f H w a Y e n p h i l o s o p h y i s n o d o u b t T u S h u n ' s F a C h i e h K u a n , O n  t h e M e d i t a t i o n o f D h a r m a d h a t u , T h e g e r m i n a l t h o u g h t s a n d c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c a p p r o a c h o f H w a Y e n p h i l o s o p h y a r e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n t h i s e s s a y . T h e f o u r f a m o u s m a s t e r s s u b s e q u e n t t o T u S h u n — C h i h Y e n , F a T s a n g , C h ' e n g K u a n , a n d T s u n g M i — a l l g a i n e d t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m t h i s e s s a y a n d w r o t e t h e i r w o r k s f o l l o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d a r g u m e n t s l a i d d o w n t h e r e i n . W i t h r e g a r d t o p h i l -o s o p h y , t h i s t r e a t i s e i s n o d o u b t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p i e c e o f w o r k o f H w a Y e n B u d d h i s m , 79 T h i s w o r k d o e s n o t e x i s t o n i t s o w n . I t e x i s t s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t e x t s w i t h c o m m e n t a r y b y C h e n g - g u a n ( T a i s h o #1883) a n d Z o n g - m i ( T a i s h o #1884), T h e l a t t e r w a s t h e b a s i s f o r t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , t h o u g h I d i d c o n s u l t t h e f o r m e r c o m p a r a t i v e l y , A t h i r d c o m m e n t a r y b y t h e S o n g m o n k B e n - s o n g ^ e x i s t s ( T a i s h o #1885), b u t I d i d n o t c o n s u l t t h i s t e x t , 2) M e d i t a t i o n a l A s p e c t T h e w o r d g u a n . f f i i i n t h e t i t l e o f t h i s t e x t s i g n a l s t h a t t h e a u t h o r c o n -s i d e r e d i t t o b e a m e d i t a t i o n t e x t . T h e f i r s t l i n e o f Z o n g - m i * s c o m m e n t a r y r e f e r s t o m e d i t a t i o n , z h i - g u a n i _ ? f | L l , C l e a r l y , t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t e x t h a d m e d i t a t i o n a s o n e o f t h e i r c h i e f c o n c e r n s . H o w -e v e r , a c a s u a l r e a d i n g o f t h e t e x t l e a d s o n e t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e x t , n o t a m e d i t a t i o n t e x t . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e n o p a s s a g e s o n h o w t o s i t p r o p e r l y , c l e a r o n e ' s m i n d , o b s e r v e t h e f l o w o f b r e a t h i n g , o r t h e l i k e . I n f a c t t h i s t e x t i s b o t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d m e d i t a t i o n a l i n i t s c o n c e r n s a n d a p p r o a c h . T h e w o r d z h i ._h_ i s t h e C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e S a n s k r i t s a m a t h a , a n d g u a n r e n d e r s v i p a s y a n a . T h e f o r m e r , i n t h e S a n s k r i t c o n t e x t , m e a n s : q u i e t , t r a n s q u i l l i t y , a b s e n c e o f p a s s i o n , t r a n q u i l l i z a t i o n , c a l m , o r q u i e t u d e o f t h e h e a r t . T h e l a t t e r m e a n s : r i g h t k n o w l e d g e , c o r r e c t k n o w l e d g e , c o r r e c t i n s i g h t , i n w a r d v i s i o n , i n t u i t i o n , i n t r o s p e c t i o n , Together« " l a pensee parfuraSe par l e samatha (calme) peut obtenir par 80 l a vipasyana (intelligence; elsewhere vision, contemplation) l a vinukti". The Chinese interpreted both of these i n tvro ways: 1) ting-zhi^»_th — "once one has arrived at the truth, to stop and not move"; 2) zhi-xijl: "to put an end to false notions"; 3) guan-da?i£>iJt "to realize one's own identity with Reality through perceptive wisdom"; 4; guan chuan f_>j- "to probe the klecas with one's mind and thus annihi-81 late them," In our text, zhi i s rarely mentioned — the emphasis definitely seems to be on guan, I t appears that for Du-shun and Zong-mi, zhi meant a preliminary step i n meditation, i.e., ridding oneself of one's ordinary preoccupation with false views ( %1) and feelings ('\-^Q ), Once one i s free of those hindrances, then one can go on to guan, meditation proper. In this text, meditation i s based on discursive reasoning (which i s provided by the text). However, this doesn't mean the meditation i t s e l f i s discursive, to the contrary, the text frequently states that the Truth i a inaccessible to reasoning or thought, and that one must abandon under-standing i n order to truly grasp i t . The text i t s e l f , though, i s quite lo g i c a l and well-reasoned. At regular intervals, when a point i s made, the disciple i s told "contemplate th i s " ( ® , Z J ). The only possible conclusion we can draw i s that this text and contemplative practice were designed to go hand-in-hand, neither being complete without the other, but that specific instruction i n contemplative practice was l e f t to oral instruction, Pei-82 Xiu himself makes this point i n his preface to the text: "If one wishes to gaze at the ancestral temples' profound beauty, or to look at the Imperial capital's great marvels, certainly only i f he unrolls a map and c l i m b s a h i g h t e r r a c e c a n h e c o m p l e t e l y g e t [ a g o o d v i e w " ] . I f h e u n r o l l s t h e m a p w i t h o u t c l i m b i n g , h e c a n ' t s p e a k o f t r u l y s e e i n g . I f h e w e r e t o c l i m b t h e h e i g h t w i t h o u t u n r o l l i n g t h e m a p , h e w o u l d b e d i m - s i g h t e d a n d l a c k i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e a l l t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m ' s t h r e e g r e a t q u a l i t i e s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s a r e f o u n d c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e m i n d , n o t i n t h e S u t r a . T h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f c a u s e a n d e f f e c t , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d e e d s a n d s t a t i o n s o f t h e [ B o d h i s a t t v a ' s i w a y , t h e d i s p l a y o f D h a r m a a n d m e a n i n g , t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f [ r e l i g i o u s ! j o y a n d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f a i t h a r e f o u n d c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e S u t r a [ i . e . , t h e A v a t a m s a k a - s u t r a ] , n o t i n m e d i t a t i o n . M e d i t a t i o n e n a b l e s o n e t o r e a c h t h e D h a r m a o f t h e S u t r a . T h e t e x t [ o f D u - s h u n l i s t h e g a t e w a y b y w h i c h o n e e n t e r s t h e m e d i t a t i o n . T h e c o m m e n t a r y [ o f Z o n g - m i " ] i s t h e k e y t o t h e g a t e w a y . T h e r e f o r e , i f o n e w a n t s t o r e a l i z e t h e n a t u r e a n d e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e D h a r m a - r a a l m , n o t h i n g i s a s g o o d a s t h e S u t r a . I f o n e w a n t s t o p e n e t r a t e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e S u t r a ' s D h a r m a , n o t h i n g i s a s g o o d a s m e d i t a -t i o n . I f o n e w a n t s t o e n t e r t h e m a n y - l a y e r e d m y s t e r i e s o f m e d i t a t i o n , o n e m u s t c e r t a i n l y g o t h r o u g h t h e g a t e w a y . I f o n e w a n t s t o o p e n t h e m y s t e r i o u s g a t e w a y o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f m e d i t a t i o n [ f o u n d i n t h i s t e x t ] , o n e m u s t c e r t a i n l y d o s o b y m e a n s o f t h e k e y , " H e l a t e r - a d d s t o t h i s l i s t o f 84 i n t e r d e p e n d e n t n e c e s s i t i e s : " O n e w h o s e e k s t h e W a y c e r t a i n l y m u s t r e l y o n t h e w i s d o m e y e . B u t t h e w i s d o m e y e i s n ' t a b l e t o o p e n i t s e l f . T h u s o n e m u s t s e e k o u t a t e a c h e r t o p i e r c e t h e m e m b r a n e [ o f t h e w i s d o m e y e , i . e . , g e t r i d o f t h a t w h i c h c l o u d s o n e ' s v i s i o n , ! I f t h i s m e m b r a n e o f f e e l i n g s h a s n o t b e e n p i e r c e d , e v e n i f o n e h a d t h e g a t e w a y , h o w w o u l d h e b e a b l e t o e n t e r i t ? E v e n i f t h o g a t e w a y b e b r o a d , h o w w i l l h e p r o f i t b y i t ? " 41 G e n e r a l S u m m a r y o f t h e T e x t , b y C h a p t e r s I n t r o d u c t i o n W h a t I c a l l t h e " i n t r o d u c t i o n " t o t h i s w o r k c o n s i s t s o f D u - s h u n ' s t i t l e a n d b y - l i n e , p l u s a s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e t e x t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c u l t i v a -t i o n o f t h e m e d i t a t i o n o n t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m , a s t a u g h t i n t h e B u d d h a v a t a m -s a k a - s T i t r a . Z o n g - m i ' s c o m m e n t a r y f i l l s o u t t h e t e x t w i t h b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e B u d d h a v a t a m s a k a a n d t h e D h a r m a - r e a l m , a n d a s h o r t b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f D u - s h u n , T h e r e i s a l s o a n o u t l i n e o f t h e c h a p t e r s o f t h e t e x t . C h a p t e r O n e s T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f R e a l E m p t i n e s s T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s f o u r c o n t e m p l a t i o n s : 1) t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n w h i c h o n e u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t f o r m r e v e r t s t o e m p t i n e s s , T h i s c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s b a s e d o n t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e H e a r t S u t r a t h a t f o r m i s e m p t i n e s s . T h e r e a r e f o u r s u b d i v i s i o n s h e r e . A ) R e a l e m p t i n e s s i s n o t e m p t i n e s s b y a n n i h i l a t i o n , B ) T h e s i g n s o f t h i n g s a r e n o t r e a l e m p t i n e s s , y e t t h i n g s h a v e n o s u b s t a n c e a n d t h e r e f o r e a r e e m p t y . T h u s t h e r e i s n o p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g o r q u a l i t y o f a t h i n g w h i c h o n e c a n p o i n t t o a n d s a y , " t h a t ' s e m p t i n e s s " " , y e t a l l t h i n g s a r e e m p t y , Z o n g - m i h e r e o f f e r s t h r e e f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n s o f e m p t i n e s s , 1) E m p t i n e s s i s n o t a n e m p t y s p a c e w i t h b o u n d a r i e s , a n d t h u s h a s n o o u t s i d e , 2) N e i t h e r i s e m p t i n e s s a s p a c e w i t h a n i n s i d e , 3) E m p t i n e s s i s n o t a s p a c e t h a t c o n t a i n s f o r m , b e c a u s e t h i s n o t i o n t u r n s e m p t i n e s s i n t o a t h i n g o r o b j e c t w h i c h w o u l d t h e n b e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h f o r m ( o t h e r o b j e c t s ) , w h i c h r e a l e m p t i n e s s i s n o t , Z o n g -m i p o i n t s o u t t h a t e m p t i n e s s a n d f o r m d i f f e r i n t w o w a y s : e m p t i n e s s i s n o n - m a t e r i a l a n d f o r m i s m a t e r i a l ; e m p t i n e s s ( a n d h e r e h e u s e s t h e t e r r a f o r " e m p t y s p a c e " ) i s e m p t y a n d p e n e t r a b l e , a n d f o r m i s s o l i d a n d o b s t r u c t i n g , 4 2 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t e m p t i n e s s _, e m p t y s p a c e i s e m p t y a n d p e n e t r a b l e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f t h e a r g u m e n t s h e u s e d i m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e i n d e n y i n g t h a t a m p t i n e s s w a s a t h i n g t o b e p e n e t r a t e d b y f o r m s , C ) F o r m i s t h e s a m e a s r e a l e m p t i n e s s , b e c a u s e f o r m l a c k s s u b s t a n c e a n d s o " r e v e r t s " t o e m p t i n e s s . T h i s i s a d e n i a l o f e m p t i n e s s a s a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e n t i t y . T h e a b o v e t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s w i p e o u t f e e l i n g s , a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g e s t a b l i s h e s n o u m e n o n , D ) F o r m a n d a l l o t h e r d h a r r a a s a r e t h e s a m e a s r e a l e m p t i n e s s b e c a u s e t h e y a l l l a c k o w n - n a t u r e , 2 ) T h e s e c o n d c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s t h e o n e w h i c h c l a r i f i e s t h a t e m p t i n e s s i s t h e s a m e a s f o r m . A g a i n t h e r e a r e f o u r s u b d i v i s i o n s , w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l y t h e s a m e a s i n t h e f i r s t c o n t e m p l a t i o n . I t i s t a u g h t h e r e t h a t e m p t i n e s s i s t h a t o n w h i c h o t h e r t h i n g s r e l y , w h i l e i t d o e s n o t r e l y o n a n y t h i n g e l s e . T h u s f o r t h e s a k e o f w h a t r e l i e s o n i t , i t b e c o m e s a b a s e , w h i c h i s f o r m . T h u s e m p t i n e s s i s s h o w n b o t h t o b e a n d n o t t o b e t h e s a m e a s f o r m . T h i s i s a k e y p a s s a g e , 3) T h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f f o r m a n d e m p t i -n e s s . H e r e f o r m a n d e m p t i n e s s a r e s h o w n t o b e t h e s a m e , 4 ) T h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f c u t t i n g - o f f a n d a b o d e l e s s n e s s . H e r e w e f i n d a c u t t i n g - o f f o f a l l v i e w s , s i m i l a r t o M a d h y a m i k a , W i t h a l l v e r b a l i z a t i o n n e g a t e d , w e r e a c h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r a c t i c e , i . e . , m e d i t a -t i v e p r a c t i c e . We a r e t a u g h t t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n n o t a r r i v e a t t h e T r u t h , b u t t h a t o n e ' s p r a c t i c e m u s t b e b a s e d o n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C h a p t e r T w o : T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e N o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f N o u m e n o n a n d P h e n o m e n o n T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e v a r i e t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a l t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s s h o u l d b e u n d e r s t o o d t o h o l d b o t h b e t w e e n n o u m e n o n a n d t h e t o t a l g r o u p o f p h e n o m e n a , a n d b e t w e e n t h e f o r m e r a n d e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p h e n o m e n o n , Z o n g - m i t e l l s u s t h a t h e r e w e m o v e a w a y f r o m p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e t o p r a c t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , i . e . , n o w T h u s n e s s f u n c t i o n s i n i t s r e l a t i o n w i t h p h e n o m e n a . T h e r e a r e t e n s u b d i v i s i o n s t o t h i s c h a p t e r , 1) s h o w s t h a t n o u m e n o n p e r v a d e s p h e n o m e n a , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t e a c h a n d e v e r y p h e n o m e n o n c o n t a i n s t h e e n t i r e n o u m e n o n , 2) i s b y f a r t h e l o n g e s t o f t h e s e g a t e w a y s — i t i s l o n g e r t h a n a l l t h e o t h e r s c o m b i n e d . T h i s l e a d s u s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i t i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r . H e r e w e l e a r n t h a t p h e n o m e n a p e r v a d e n o u m e n o n . T h i s m e a n s t h a t s i n c e t h e y l a c k s u b s t a n c e t h e y a r e l i k e n o u m e n o n . B e i n g t h e s a m e a s n o u m e n o n , a s i n g l e p h e n o m e n o n c a n c o n t a i n t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e . R e a l i z i n g t h a t t h i s m a y b e r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t f o r h i s r e a d e r s t o d i g e s t , D u - s h u n p r o v i d e s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o c e a n a n d a w a v e , f o l l o w e d b y q u e s t i o n s a n d a n s w e r s t h a t f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d b r i n g t h e t e r m s o f i l l u s t r a t i o n b a c k t o n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a ( i n t h i s c a s e , o n e a t o m ) . T h e o v e r a l l p o i n t w h i c h i s m a d e i s t h a t n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a a r e n e i t h e r t h e s a n e n o r d i f f e r e n t , t h u s t h e y i n t e r p e n e -t r a t e ( e a c h c a n a c t a s t h e o t h e r ) w i t h o u t o b s t r u c t i n g e a c h o t h e r , 3 ) s h o w s t h a t p h e n o m e n a a r e p r o d u c e d i n d e p e n d e n c e o n n o u m e n o n . T h i s i s j u s t l i k e d h a r m a s c o m i n g i n t o b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e B u d d h a - m a t r i x ( t a t & a g a t a g a r b h a ) . 4 ) s h o w s t h a t p h e n o m e n a m a n i f e s t n o u m e n o n , 5 ) s h o w s t h a t p h e n o m e n a a r e s n a t c h e d a w a y b y m e a n s o f n o u m e n o n . T h i s i s t o s a y t h a t a p a r t f r o m n o u m e n o n , t h e r e a r e n o p h e n o m e n a . T h u s a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p h e n o m e n a a r e e x h a u s t e d , 6 ) s h o w s t h a t p h e n o m e n a c o n c e a l n o u m e n o n . T h i s b a l a n c e s o u t t h e f i f t h LEAF 44 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. teaching, Noumenon causes phenomena to be manifested, but i s not i t s e l f made manifest, 7) shows that Real noumenon i s the same as phenomena. Thus noumenon is nover found outside of phenomena, but neither can there ever be phenomena ^rithout noumenon, since phenomena are empty. Only because noumenon i s phenomena, can i t be r i g h t l y called noumenon, 8) shows that phenomena are noumenon. Since phenomena lack own-being, they are Real, This leads to the conclusion that a l l beings are Thusness, 9) shows that Real noumenon i s not phenomena. Though they are the same, s t i l l they are different, because that which is dependent i s not that which can be depended on, 10) shows that phenomena are not noumenon. We are told that a l l the above doctrines have to do with one and the same topic: conditioned arising (pratxtyasamutpada). There follows a l i s t of the relations that exist between noumenon and phenomena, We learn that a l l these relations exist simultaneously without obstructing each other, Chapter Three: The Contemplation of Universal Inclusion This i s the contemplation of the non-obstruction of the various pheno-mena among themselves, Zong-mi makes clear that we must remember that this doctrine includes the principle already learned, namely, that phenomena are l i k e noumenon. I f this were not so, then from the point of view of phenomena, there would be mutual obstruction, and from the point of view of noumenon, a l l distinctions would vanish. The "theme" of the chapter t e l l s us that phenomena blend without obstruction, and intermingle, perfectly freely. Here too there are ten subdivisions. 46 1) teaches that noumenon i s l i k e phenomena. There i s not the least b i t of the noumenon-nature that i s hidden, nor that f a i l s to manifest i t s e l f as phenomena, 2) demonstrates that phenomena are l i k e noumenon, They are a l l utterly ubiquitous, and thus one atom pervades the entire Dliarma-realra, 3) i s the pivotal point of the chapter, I t shows that one single phenomenon (selected according to the principle of chong-chong-wu-.iin-zhu-ban-.iu-zu, discussed above) includes both noumenon and a l l other phenomena, Zong-mi clearly and carefully explains that since a single phenomenon contains noumenon i n i t s entirety (as has already been shown), and since a l l the remaining phenomena ( i . e . , the Dharma-realm) and noumenon are the same, as a consequence, one phenomenon contains a l l phenomena. Yet the only reason i t can do this, i s that i t i s not different from noumenon. Not only one phenomenon, but a l l dharmas are able to do this. There follows a l i s t of the various ways one and a l l can contain each other, 4) teaches the non-obstruction of the ubiquitous and the bounded. This and the following teaching are basically extensions of number three, 5) shows the non-obstruction of the broad and the narrow, 6) demonstrates the non-obstruction of pervading and con-taining. Here Zong-mi introduces the example of the ten mirrors and the lamp to i l l u s t r a t e the principles which are being discussed, 7) shows the non-obstruction of embracing and entering. This i s parallel to the non-obstruction of pervading and containing. The only difference i s that with pervading and containing the author i s referring to many phenomena, while with embracing and entering h e I s s p e a k i n g o f o n e . I t i s b a s i c a l l y a g r a m m a t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n h e i s m a k i n g , n o t a d o c t r i n a l p o i n t . A g a i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r s i s u s e d , 8) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , I n t h i s a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g t e a c h i n g , t h e r e i s a l i s t o f t h e v a r i o u s w a y s o n e a n d a l l c a n e m b r a c e a n d e n t e r e a c h o t h e r , T h e m i r r o r s a r e a g a i n u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e , 9) s h o w s t h e n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f e a c h b e i n g i n t h e o t h e r . F i n a l l y , 10) d e m o n s t r a t e s u n i v e r s a l b l e n d i n g w i t h o u t o b s t r u c t i o n , Z o n g - m i p r o c e e d s w i t h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c a t a l o g i n g o f t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e a b o v e t e a c h i n g s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e m u t u a l b l e n d i n g o f p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y ( t h e z h u a n d b a n o f c h o n g - c h o n g - w u - , j i n - z h u - b a n - j u - z u ) , T h e f i n a l w o r d i s t h a t o n e m u s t c o n t e m p l a t e t h e s e t e a c h i n g s a n d c a u s e t h e p e r f e c t l y l u m i n o u s t o b e m a n i f e s t . F O O T N O T E S 48 INTRODUCTION See Leon Hurvitz and Arthur Link, "Three Prajnaparamita Prefaces of Tao-an," Melanges Paul Demieyille, Vol, 2, Limoges (France): Inipritnerie A, Bonteraps, 1975, . 2 E, Zurcher, The Buddhist Conquest of China (Leiden: E.J, B r i l l , 1959), P. 125. 3 -Taul Demieville, as cited by Hurvitz and Link, p. 413, On Zhi Dun see also Leon Hurvitz, "Chih Tun's Notions of Prajna," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 88, No, 2, June, 1968, pp. 243-2o"0, 4 Some of the sources I have used for this are: E, Zurcher, Hurvitz and Link, Hurvitz, "Chih Tun", and Arthur E. Link, "The Taoist Antecedents of Tao-an's Prajfia Ontology," History of Religions, Vol. 9, Nos. 2 and 3, November 1969/February 1970, pp. 181-215. ^See Etienne Balazs, " N i h i l i s t i c Revolt or Mystical Escapism," Chinese C i v i l i z a t i o n and Bureaucracy, trans. H.M. Wright, ed, Arthur F. Wright (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964), pp. 226-254. ^Zurcher, p, 73, 7 Kenneth Ch'en, Buddhism i n China (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964), pp. 6l-2. g Hurvitz and Link, p. 410, 9 I b i d . , p. 417. 1 0 I b i d . Ziircher, p, 87, 12Hurv±tz and Link, p. 4l6, 1 3Ibid. l 4Ibid., p. 419. 1 5 I b i d . , Taisho #1886, translated by Paul Masson-Oursel. into French, "Le Yuan Jen Louen," Journal Asiatique, Onzierae Serie, Tome 5, 1915, PP. 299-354. 17 Herbert V, Guenther, "Words Denoting •Emptiness'," Proceedings of the All-India Oriental Conference. l6th session, 1951. (University of Lucknow, 1955), PP. 25l32oTI 18 Translated from the Tibetan by E, Obermiller, "The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation," Acta Orientalia, Vol. 9, 1931, PP. 81-306. 19 Francis H, Cook, Fa-tsang's Treatise on the Five Doctrines.' an Annotated Translation (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1970), pp, 158-9. Ibid., see pp. 76-IO3 and 173-182. "^Masson-Oursel, see pp. 304-5, 2 2Ibid. 23 Cook, Five Doctrines, pp. 188-9, 50 24 G a r m a C . C , C h a n g , T h e B u d d h i s t T e a c h i n g o f T o t a l i t y T h e  P h i l o s o p h y o f H w a Yen B u d d h i s m ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k ; P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971)» s e c o n d p r i n t i n g , 1974, p p . 2 3 2 - 3 . 25 The Vinaya forbids the monk to practice agriculture at a l l , for this very reason. In China, the monks had to choose between practicing agriculture and dying out. 26 Masson-Oursel, pp. 312-319, 27 _ _ l rfc1 Jan Yun H u a f t ^ # , "Tsung-mi, his analysis of Ch'an Buddhism," T'oung Pao, Vol. 58, 1972, pp. 1-54. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 5. ^ I b i d . 3 0 I b i d . , p. 6. ^ I b i d . 32 J Sung Gao-seng-zhuan, Taisho Vol, 50, p, 741. 3 3 I b i d . 34 ^ T a i s h o #842, This was most l i k e l y a Chinese forgery, and was quite popular among Chan followers, Xiu's preface; see Masson-Oursel, p. 314, ^Available in Xu - z a n g-jing I f , l/l4/2. Jan, p. 14. Taisho #1735-1737. o n Jan, p. 12, 3 9 I b i d . , p. 13, 40 Ibid. The f i r s t and l a s t mentioned commentaries are l o s t . 41 Both these commentaries are l o s t . ^ ; or -hW>^ s i s i o f w h i c h o n l y the preface remains, Taisho #2015, 43 Jan, p. 15, This can be found i n the Tokyo edition of the Chinese Tripitaka, section Tiao S'lH , Vol, 8, 44 Sung Gao-seng-zhuan, p. 472a, ^-\jan, p, 16, 46 ^ I b i d . , pp. 16-17. 47 The following account i s taken from Jan, pp. 17-18, and Sung  Gao-seng-zhuan, p. 742a-b, 48 Sung Gao-seng-zhuan, p. 742a-b, 49 Jan, p, 21, Stanley Weinstein, "Imperial Patronage in' the Formation of T'ang Buddhism," Perspectives on the T'ang, Arthur F. Wright and Denis Twitchett, eds. (New Havens Yale University Press, 1973), pp. 265-306, J a n , p , 20, 52 S e e S h o t a r o I i d a , " N e w L i g h t o n t h e E m p r e s s W u a n d B u d d h i s m , u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , 5 3 C h ' e n , p . 319. ch. ^ W e i n s t e i n , p p . 302-3, 5 5 C h ' e n , p . 319. 56 ^ w e i n s t e i n , p p . 302-3, 5 7 I b i d 0 , p p . 304-5, 5 8 C o o k , F i v e D o c t r i n e s , p , 2, 5 9 I b i d . , p p . 5-6. ^ ° S e e L u i s G o m e z , S e l e c t e d V e r s e s f r o m t h e G a n d a v y t T h a : T e x t , C r i t i c a l A p p a r a t u s a n d T r a n s l a t i o n ( P h . D . , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 7 ) 7 ' 6\ - / e i n s t e i n , p , 301. ^ 2 G o m e z , p . l x x i x . 63 I b i d . , p p . l x x i x - l x x x . ^ F r a n c i s H. Cook, "The Meaning of Vairocana in Hua-yen Buddhism, Philosophy East and West, Vol, 22, No, 4, October, 1972, p. 404, Ibid., pp. 4C4-5. 6 ? I b i d . ^ 8 I b i d , , p, 406, 69 See Zhi-yi's concept of miao-you, footnote 53, Chapter 2 of this work. 70 See Cook, Five Doctrines, pp, 6ff. ^Tbid,, p. 12, 7 2 I b i d . , p. 13. 7 3 I b i d . , p. 14. 74 1 Ibid., p. 15. 7 5 I b i d . , p. 23. ? 6 I b i d . 7 7 I b i d . , p. 25. 7 8 I b i d . , pp. 25-6. Chang, p. 207. 80 Edgerton et a l . , as cited i n Leon Hurvitz, Chih-I An Intro- duction to the L i f e and Ideas of a Chinese Buddhist Monk, Melanges  Chinois et Bouddhiques, Vol, 12, publies par L'Institut Beige des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, Bruges (Belgique): Iraprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1963, P, 319, footnote. I t a l i c s omitted. 81-, . , To id. 8 2Taisho Vol. 45, pp. 683c-684a. 83 I.e., the greatness of the Real Thusness i n i t s essence; the greatness of i t s attributes (wisdom, compassion, etc.), and the greatness of i t s functions. ^ p . 684a. 55 FOREWORD T O T H E T R A N S L A T I O N I n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e m d i s t i n g u i s h e d , D u - s h u n ' s t e x t i s w r i t t e n i n A L L C A P I T A L S , a n d Z o n g - m i ' s c o m m e n t a r y i s w r i t t e n i n r e g u l a r t y p e . T h e f o o t n o t e s a r e a t t h e e n d o f e a c h c h a p t e r , C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s ( k e y e d t o t h e t e x t b y s m a l l , s u p e r - s c r i p t l e t t e r s ) a r e a t t h e e n d o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . A l l m a t e r i a l i n b r a c k e t s w a s a d d e d b y t h i s w r i t e r . T h i s m a t e r i a l h a s t w o p u r p o s e s , 1) W h e n t h e m a t e r i a l i n b r a c k e t s s t a n d s o n i t s o w n , i t i s u s e d t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r a p h r a s e o r s e n t e n c e w r i t t e n b y D u - s h u n t h a t w a s d i v i d e d b y Z o n g - m i i n s u c h a w a y a s t o b e u n i n -t e l l i g i b l e o r c o n f u s i n g a s i t s t o o d , 2) W h e n t h e m a t e r i a l i n b r a c k e t s i s f o u n d i n t h e m i d d l e o f a s e n t e n c e , i t s f u n c t i o n i s t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n i m p l i c i t , b u t n o t e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d i n t h e C h i n e s e , 56 COMMENTARY TO THE HUA-YAN DHARMA-REALM MEDITATION (zhu hua - y a n fa-.He guan men)a by the Monk Zong-mi of Gui-feng Monastery INTRODUCTION [THE GATEWAY TO THE CULTIVATION OF THE BUDDHAVATAMSAKA'S DHARMA-REALM MEDITATION. ] CULTIVATION This refers to the reach of the perfuming effect (xun-_d.)b'^ of meditation (zhi-guan)0. OF THE BUDDHAVATAMSAKA'S (da fang guang fo hu&-yan)d This i s the sutra on which the meditation i s based. The great Vaipulya e 2 (da fang guang) s is the Dharma to which witness is borne. The f Buddhavat a., saka declares i t to men, "Great" (da) refers to substance ( t i ) ^ 9 that i s , the Mind-substance of a l l Buddhas and a l l beings. The h i "broad Vaipulya" (fang guang) is the marks (xlang) and the function 1 k 1 (yong)J of this substance. Buddhahood (fo) is the fruit (guo) j the Hua-yan is the cause. The flower (hua)m symbolizes the myriad deeds (ying) n; the adornment (yan)° is the great wisdom. The great wisdom is the agent (zhu)** which revolves the wheel of the myriad deeds. The adornment is great, broad, and far-reaching, and achieves the fruit of Buddhahood, The character for sutra (.jing)^ is omitted, as the meaning is not in the written word, DHARMA-REALM (fa-_ie) r s 3 - 4 Cheng-guan*s commentary on the Buddhavatamsaka-sutra says, "In a l l , there is only one real Dharma-realm, This means [the one Dharma-realm"] 57 comprises a l l the myriad things and accordingly they are One Mind, From another point of view, the Mind blends with the myriad things and becomes the four kinds of Dharma-realm," The f i r s t [of the four kinds of Dharma-realm1 is the Dharma-realm of phenomena (shl) x, Th© meaning of the realm is division (fen)^i every thing is distinguished from every other thing because each thing is limited. The second [kind] is the Dharma-realm of noumenon ( l i ) 2 , / \ aa The meaning of the realm is fundamental nature (xing) , because the ab inexhaustible phenoraena-dharraas (shi-fa) have on© and the same nature. The third is the Dharma-realm of the non-obstruction of noumenon and phenomena ( l i shi wu a i ) a o . The meaning of the realm combines both fundamental nature and division, because fundamental nature and division do not obstruct each other. The fourth is the Dharma-realm of the ad non-obstruction of the various phenomena among each other (shi shi wu ai) , That is to say, each and every limited (fen-qi) phenomenon-dharma blends in the manner of fundamental nature, with inexhaustible layering, MEDITATION (guan)*** With meditation, feelings (qing) a g are exhausted and false views (jlan, drsti) ak ,~* are removed} they are blended into the three [other, that i s , the non-phenomenal "J Dharma-realms. GATEWAY (men)ai. These eight or nine pages focus on the perfection of meditation, IN SUM THERE ARE THREE KINDS [OF DHARMA-REALM DISCUSSED IN THE TEXT.] Du-Shun put aside the Dharma-realm of phenomena because phenomena are not independent. Thus our school acknowledges no solitary dharmas. If you independently consider i t , [you will find] i t is a realm of sensation and intellectual calculation; i t is not a realm of meditative wisdom. If you analyze the gates in terms of meaning, then there are four, but in terms of what is suitable for meditative wisdom, there are only three kinds. These three are s t i l l but three aspectof one Way (dao)8^. The twists and turns7 [of these divisions] are dark and subtle. It is not a case of there being apart from the first Dharma-realm a second or third. Nor is i t a case of three separate entities standing side by side. Therefore he speaks of three kinds; he doesn't speak of three steps [i.e., one realm being on top of another,] BY SHI DU-SHUN OF THE ZONG-NAN MOUNTAIN OF THE CAPITAL (.ling zhong nan shan shi Du-shun j i ) 8 5 * . His surname was Du and he was called Fa-shun , In the time of early Tang he practiced converting others. The wonders he achieved were extremely many. In his biography there is evidence that proves he was a manifestation of Manjusrl. Two texts attest that he was the first patriarch of the Hua-yan,9 The venerable Yan [Zhi-yanaq] was the second patriarch, Kang-asang [Fa-aangar], State Preceptor, was the third patri-arch, and the initiator (ehuang-zhi)as [of the school as such]; in principle one should say [he was the] creator (suo) a t [of the school] 1 0. Now the fact that I speak of the compiler ( . 1 i-zhe) a u [Du-shun] is because the founding patriarch [in his writings] confined himself to his self-realized wisdom. He realized that within the Hua-yan are all Buddhas and all living beings, whether bodies and minds, or countries and lands. He saw that each and every thing is the substance and function (tl yong) of the Dharma-realm, and further, that such objects of perception are infinite. Thereupon with respect to this infinite realm, he compiled his assorted doctrinal statements. He grouped them into three layers. By merely writing on paper, he produced contemplative wisdom in others. It is not th© same as merely composing written words. Therefore I speak only of the compiler. This then is a collection of doctrine? i t is not merely a collection of written words, CHAPTER It REAL EMPTINESS (zhen kong)a* This is the Dharma-realm of noumenon ( l i ) z . Upon probing to the source of real substance (shi t i ) 8 * one only finds i t to be the Original Mind, Here, when one selectively denies false and insubstantial thoughts and imaginings, one speaks of the Real (shen)ay. When one eliminates the obstruction-nature and the characteristics of form (se xiang) a z, one / \b_ speaks of emptiness (kong) , CHAPTER 21 THE NON-OBSTRUCTION OF NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA. ( l i shd wu a i ) a c . This is what one calls the Dharma-realm, CHAPTER 3» UNIVERSAL INCLUSION (zhou Man ban rong)bb. This is the Dharma-realm of the non-obstruction of the various phenomena among themselves. 60 CHAPTER 1 THE CONTEMPLATION OF REAL EMPTINESS THE CONTEMPLATION OF DHARMAS AS REAL EMPTINESS IS SUMMED UP BY THE OPENING OF TEN GATEWAYS IN FOUR EXPRESSIONS, 1) THE CONTEMPLATION IN WHICH ONE UNDERSTANDS THAT FORM (s©) b C REVERTS TO EMPTINESS (kong)1*1. 2 ) THE CONTEMPLATION WHICH CLARIFIES THAT EMPTINESS IS THE SAME AS FORM. 3) THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE NON-OBSTRUCTION OF FORM AND EMPTINESS (kong se wu ai) 1* 1. 4) THE CONTEMPLATION CF CUTTING-OFF (min-.1ue)be AND ABODELESSNESS («u j l ) b f ACCORDINGLY, FIRST THERE ARE FOUR GATEWAYS. The first three clear away feelings (qlng)a^i the last one manifests noumenon ( l i ) Z , Within the first three, number one clears away the idea of emptiness as annihilation (duan kong)b^. The conclusion of the text says what we are dealing with here is reality, not annihilation. Number bh two clears away the idea that form is objective reality (shi se) , I say this for the following reason. When the text says "emptiness devoid of substance is neither green nor yellow, and therefore i t is bh called real form (shi se) „'* the author has in mind [the tendency of the ordinary man") to confine himself to false sensation (wang qlng)^" and intellectual calculation ( j i ) * 5 ^ imagining that their objects are real of an absolute certainty, and that they have their own substance (zi ti) bk. This is why this text does not in terras of form and color distinguish the real from the false. The author has in mind [the same tendency of the ordinary man") to reckon in terms of form and color as reality. However, this text makes color"1"'' stand for form and color"1"''. Number three clears away both of these misconceptions together. The text only speaks of understanding form reverting to emptiness (bud se gul kong)b\ Within emptiness there is certainly no form. Therefore, according to the meaning, phrase by phrase, one clears away sensation and calculation, the idea of emptiness as annihilation, and the idea that form is reality. According to the text then, the first two statements supplement each others' deficiencies and help clarify each other. Then number three clears away the two, bm 14 The Jewel Nature Treatise (bao xing lun) ' also clears away three misconceptions of emptiness: the confused thought, the beginning Bodhisattva's idea, and the calculating intellect's conception (luan bn yi pu-sa j i san zhong kong) , I fear this may belabor the reader's contemplation and wisdom, You won't necessarily be able to piece i t together and understand i t . Also the two understandings^ are not perfectly alike, 1) FORM IS NOT EMPTINESS BECAUSE IT IS EMPTINESS, This is the theme, WHY? This introduces the proof. The following sentences will explain It, At the very end is the concluding remark. The rest of the section follows this pattern, FORM IS NOT EMPTINESS BY ANNIHILATION (duan kong)bg, THEREFORE IT IS NOT EMPTINESS. This explains the first part of the sentence, Annihilation-emptiness means hollowness, a chasm (xu huo)bo, annihilation, and destruction 62 (duan rale)bp. It does not refer to Real Mind (zhen shi xin)***. Annihilation-emptiness lacks wisdom and function. It is unable to manifest itself among the myriad dharmas. There are two types of annihilation-emptiness: 1) the idea of emptiness as the absence of £orm~^ j 2 ) the idea of emptiness as annihilation and destruction. In th© absence of form type, emptiness is seen to be outside of form. For example, a place occupied by a wall is not emptyi the emptiness is outside the wall. In the annihilation and destruction type, the destruction of form brings emptiness to light. For example, digging a well and removing dirt brings out emptiness. For this kind you must eliminate matter, However,my clarification differs from this. Therefore I say what we are dealing with Is not annihilation-emptiness. Thus in the Vis 1 *7 Madhyataika Treatise (zhong Inn) ' i t says, "First there is something, and later there is nothing," This is what is called annihilation and destruction. And yet non-Buddhists and the Hlnayana both have annihila-tion and destruction. The non-Buddhist annihilation and destruction means reversion to the great void (tai xu) ' , The two vehicles [of the sravaka and the pratyekabuddha1 consider that annihilation and destruction revert to Nirvana, Thus th© Book of Zhao (zhao lun) 9 3ays, "Cf all calamities, none is like having a body (shen)*3*. Therefore bx they seek to destroy the body and thereby return to nothingness (wu) , Of all things toilsome, none is like having wisdom. If you cut off wisdom you are thereby engulfed in the Void (xu)^." It also says, "Form is fetters; wisdom is mixed poisons." The Lankavatara-sutra (leng-.jla)^"^ says, "If the mind's essence were destroyed, i t would not differ from the non-Buddhists' speaking of annihilation and destruction," BECAUSE THE ENTIRE SUBSTANCE OF FORM IS REAL EMPTINESS (zhen kong)aW, I SAID. "BECAUSE IT IS EMPTINESS."21 This explains the latter part of the sentence [i.e., that form is real emptiness,] Form and everything else are fundamentally the One Mind of Real Thusness (zhen ru yi xln, bhutatathata)cb. which blends with things that come into being and perish and is called " Alayavi.1nana" cc 22 (a-li-ye-shi) * , etc., and under those names transforms things. These transformations originate in the three realms of the sense organs (gen) , the body (shen) , and the "vessels" [i.e., the envi-roning world (fji) 0 9]. Because of this, we speak herein of "form and other dharmas," Therefore we now push one [i.e., form] forward,23 AH \Cf lack substance (wu <ji ti) and revert to the emptiness of the Real Mind (zhen xin zhi kong)cg. It is not proper to reduce (gui)0*1 them to the emptiness of annihilation and destruction, because fundamentally they are not altered forms of annihilation-emptiness. That which is ch called "reverting" (gui) will be treated in the text below, INDEED BECAUSE IT IS REAL EMPTINESS, IT IS NOT ANNIHILATION-EMPTINESS, This ties up the explanation, THIS IS WHY I SAY IT IS EMPTINESS (IN THE SENSE OF REAL EMPTINESS), THEREFORE IT IS NOT EMPTINESS (IN THE SENSE OF ANNIHILATION With this he ties up the theme. The former part ties up the latter, and vice versa. 2) FORM IS NOT EMPTINESS BECAUSE IT IS EMPTINESS. WHY? BY VIRTUE OF THE TRUTH THAT THE SIGNS (xlang)1 OF GREENNESS AND YELLOWNESS ARE NOT REAL EMPTINESS (zhen kong)aw, I SAY [FORM] IS NOT THE SAME AS EMPTINESS. This explains the first part of the sentence. Whenfthe average man] hears the sutra preach that form is emptiness, he doesn't understand that form is empty by nature (se xing kong)Cj. Accordingly, he grasps the signs of form and considers them to be real emptiness. There-fore we must clear this away. Here we will clear away the mistakes ok of the common man and the early stage Bodhisattva (chu xin pu-sa) , We will not dispose of the attitude of the HInayana as they do not consider form identical with emptiness, AND YET GREEN AND YELLOW HAVE NO SUBSTANCE (wu t i ) c l , THERE IS NOTHING THAT ISN'T EMPTY.25 THEREFORE I SAY FORM IS IDENTICAL WITH EMPTINESS. He is speaking of real emptiness. This explains the latter part of the sentence. Yet he first spoke of form in its entire substance being real emptiness. The statement we find here, namely that green and yellow have no substance and so there is nothing that isn't empty, even though i t refers to greenness and yellowness, includes such things as being long or short, etc. This is because without f a i l , when there is soidity and obstruction (zhi a i ) c m , there are green and yellow, and so forth. 2 6 There are three senses in which emptiness is a denial of form. 1) The sense of infinity (wu blan j i i ) C n . This means that i f emptiness had boundaries, there would be form-dharmas outside of the realm of emptiness. Since emptiness does not have limits, i t occupies to the 65 limit the space that exhausts the ten directions. It has no outside. Where in addition to this could there be form and all the other dharmas? 2) The sense of indestructibility (wu huai) c o. The meaning is as followss The misled say, "even if emptiness has no outside, how does this prevent form, etc, from being exclusively within the realm of emptiness?"27 It is to counter this idea that one speaks of indestructibility. This means that i f i t were the case [as the questioner thinks] that something entered (ru) c p into emptiness, then depending on the great or small size and quantity of the object, there would be a breach made into emptiness whereby the object would be inserted. Just as a post enters the ground, and nails, awls, etc, pierce into woodj as in every case of this, depending on the size and quantity of the post, etc,, there is a breach made into the ground, etc. If the ground, etc, is not pierced, then i t cannot admit entry to any posts, etc. To save his argument, the questioner says, "If water cannot be pierced and opened up, and yet admits the things that enter the water, C Q 2 8 what is to stop empty space (xu kong) q' from being thus?" To destroy that argument we say, "Even though water isn't breached, and yet at th© same time things enter i t , depending on the size and quantity of the things, they displace the water, and thereby i t admits the things. This is because water doesn't stop, but flows, moves, circulates and turns about, and thus the nature of water is extremely yielding. Surely empty space isn't like water? Can i t be pushed aside, moved, and rolled about?" 66 3) The sense of unmixed (wu za) c r. The meaning is as follows! The misled further say, "The realm of emptiness has no outside and the substance of emptiness is indestructible. Yet these character-istics don't obstruct the myriad things from being within emptiness. This is because emptiness is capable of containing, as i t is vacant (xu)ky"f c a n be pervaded (tong)cs, and is non-obstructing (wu gui)c^," To destroy this argument we say, "If all things were within emptiness, and emptiness were indestructible and immovable, then ma-terial things should get mixed up with emptiness. Take for example a single, compact lump of matter one foot squares since the emptiness of the space occupied by this quantity of a square foot is indestructible and immovable, in the last analysis, i f this space were in a place that measured o n e square foot in size, then how could i t be anything but mixed with an object that measured one foot square? If you say they aren't mixed, then one of them must go to make room for the other. If you say that both are retained together and also aren't mixed, then 29 a portion of one foot, in every case occupies five inches of the space. If the argument rolls about like this, then its parts are not mutually appropriate. The truth cannot b e that they coexist and yet each per-vades the whole one foot square," Why do I say this? Because of the two differences by which form and emptiness are opposed. They [i.e., form and emptiness] cannot in their entire substance share everywhere in one location. What is meant by these two differences? 1) Emptiness is non-material (wu-wu)0** and form is material (you-wu)cx, 2) Space is empty and penetrable and form is solid and obstructing. Concerning a space one foot square, one may not first say that the whole is not material, and then say again that the whole is material. Nor can yon say that the whole is insubstantial (xu)^ and omnipresent (tong)cs, and then on the other hand say the whole is substantial (zhi) c^ and obstructing ( a i ) c z . How is this possible (qjL you zi l i ye)**5? That is why above it was said that the signs of greenness and yellowness are not to be equated with the Truth of emptiness. That is what is meant by, "of [signs such as] greenness and yellowness, there is nothing that isn't 30 empty," This is to know that since empty space has no boundaries, is indestructible and unalloyed, therefore within emptiness there is positively no form. It is in this sense that the text says form is emptiness, INDEED BECAUSE THE EMPTINESS OF GREENNESS' AND YELLOWNESS' SUBSTANCE31 IS NOT THE SAME AS THE GREEN AND YELLOW THEMSELVES, I SAY FORM "IS NOT IDENTICAL WITH EMPTINESS." Citing their emptiness in the sense of their having no substance (qi db wu t i zhi kong) , the author unites [this non-substantiality] with a denial of the characteristics of form. He makes clear that emptiness is not being (kong fei you)**0 — how then could i t possibly be form? 3) FORM IS NOT EMPTINESS BECAUSE IT IS EMPTINESS. WHY? BECAUSE WITHIN EMPTINESS THERE IS NO FORM, FORM IS NOT IDENTICAL WITH EMPTINESS. IF WE UNDERSTAND THAT FORM HAS NO SUBSTANCE, THEN IT IS IDENTICAL WITH EMPTINESS. INDEED BECAUSE WE UNDERSTAND THAT FORM REVERTS TO EMPTINESS, WITHIN EMPTINESS THERE IS CERTAINLY NO FORM. This certainly refers to annihilation-emptiness. The Prajfeparamita-hrdaya-sutra says, "This is why within emptiness there is no form, no sensation, notion, karma-formations, cognition, no twelve sense-f i e l d s , no eighteen spheres, no twelve-fold chain of conditioned 32 cLd 33 origination, no four Truths, etc." The Fo-ding ' says, "What cl*3 3^* does 'within' (zhong) mean? One thing contains another," THIS IS WHY BECAUSE FORM IS EMPTINESS (IN THE SENSE OF NOT EXISTENT (wu)12*), THEREFORE FORM IS NOT EMPTINESS (IN THE SENSE OF REAL (zhen) a y EMPTINESS.) The above corresponds to the beginning statement. THE ABOVE THREE GATEWAYS, BY MEANS OF THE LAW (fa, Dharma)^, WIPE OUT FEELINGS AND ARE DONE WITH THEM, This generally ooncludes the three gateways. 4) FORM IS EMPTINESS. WHY? IN EVERY CASE THESE FORM-DHARMAS ARE CERTAINLY NOT DIFFERENT FROM REAL EMPTINESS, BECAUSE ALL FORMS ARE CERTAINLY WITHOUT OWN-NATURE ( x i n g ) a a . Since they exist from conditions, they are interdependent ( y i ta wu xing, paratantra)^. In this very fact l i e s their perfect (yuan cheng, . . xdh . 35 parinispanna; nature, THIS IS WHY FORM IS EMPTINESS. In as much as emptiness neither destroys form nor retains form, i t i s neither identical with nor different from form. Therefore form i s real emptiness. Emptiness i s a denial of material signs (se x i a n g ) a z and i s devoid of the purely imaginary (Man j i , parikalpita) nature. The true principle of interdependent lack of own being (paratantra ni-svabhava) i s identical with the perfect nature (parinispanna svabhava). The ancients said, "When form departs i t does not leave behind emptiness. Emptiness i s not a dwelling with boundaries," 69 AS FORM IS EMPTY, SO IN THE SAME WAY ALL DHARMAS ARE THUS. CONTEMPLATE THIS. Form is the chief of all the marks of dharmas (fa xlang)^. It is the first of the five skandhas. Thus whenever all stltras wish generally to preach the doctrine of emptiness, they all preach with exclusive 3 6 reference to form. If the Mahaprajnaparamlta-sutra lists more than eighty items in its categorized lists of names (ming shu)^", all are based on the analogy of form. If you l i f t out the essentials and exhibit them, they can be d m 3 7 stated thus* All beings of the six destinies (liu dao) ' , the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of all the directions, and the monks of the two vehicles [Hlnayana and Mahayana"] are nothing but the five aggregates (skandhas, yun) , twelve sense-field3, and eighteen realms. Because in our school the polluted and the pure do not have two separate sets of marks, one should say sensation, notion, karma-formations and cogni-tion are not annihilation-emptiness, etc. The passage on greenness, yellowness, etc, accordingly means the marks of sensation (ling na)^, and everything up to all Buddhas, are not the Truth of real emptiness. This is to say, the marks of supernatural qualities (shen)^, omni-presence (tong)cs, brightness (guang)<~r, illumination (ming)**3, etc, are not the true principle ( l i ) z of real emptiness, because i t is dt impossible to see the Thus-Come (ru-lal, tathagata) in terms of physical signs. 70 [l-B] THE MEDITATION ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF EMPTINESS AS FORM, IN FOUR PARTS, The first [part] clears away feelings * the second makes manifest the explanation, the third indicates the theme and the fourth unties bonds. They are each and every one as before [in Chapter l ] . The four gate-ways are mutually supportive in wording and mood. The passages to come on the non-obstruction of form and emptiness, and on cutting-off and abodelessness correspond to the passage in the Prajnaparamita-~ 38 hrdaya-sutra on emptiness being form, etc. Only the third proposition [the non-obstruction of form and emptiness") does not complement the others. Even so, the meanings are not opposed. Each and every one of the four turns back to the superior meaning and thereby they confirm (cheng) the Middle Path, Again, there is no difference in meaning, 1) EMPTINESS IS NOT FORM BECAUSE EMPTINESS IS FORM. WHY? ANNIHILATION-EMPTINESS IS NOT FORM. THEREFORE I SAY EMPTINESS IS NOT FORM. This explains the first part of the proposition, REAL EMPTINESS IS CERTAINLY NOT DIFFERENT FROM FORM, THERE-FORE I SAY EMPTINESS IS FORM, This explains the latter part of the proposition, IN SUM, SINCE REAL EMPTINESS IS FORM , . . This concludes the latter part of the proposition. AS A CONSEQUENCE, ANNIHILATION-EMPTINESS IS NOT FORM. This concludes the former part of the proposition. 2) EMPTINESS IS NOT FORM BECAUSE EMPTINESS IS FORM. WHY? BECAUSE THE TRUTH OF EMPTINESS IS NOT GREENNESS OR YELLOWNESS, THERE-FORE I SAY IT IS NOT FORM. This explains the former part of the proposition, AND YET IT IS NOT DIFFERENT FROM GREENNESS AND YELLOWNESS, THEREFORE I SAY EMPTINESS IS FORM. This explains the latter part of the sentence, BECAUSE OF A NECESSITY IT IS NOT DIFFERENT FROM GREENNESS AND YELLOWNESS, THAT IS WHY IT IS NOT THE SAME AS GREENNESS AND YELLOWNESS. 39 This is the conclusion of the explanation, THIS IS WHY EMPTINESS BOTH IS AND IS NOT FORM, This concludes the theme, 3) EMPTINESS IS NOT FORM BECAUSE EMPTINESS IS FORM, WHY? EMPTINESS IS THAT ON WHICH OTHER THINGS .RELY (suo y i ) d v . IT DOES NOT RELY ON ANYTHING ELSE (fei neng J*)**". THEREFORE IT IS NOT FORM, This explains the first part of the proposition. Vis-a-vis the above phrase, "within emptiness there is no form," we see that formlessness dx (wu £e) is the very thing on which form relies. Just as the brilliance within the mirror [i.e., the quality that makes a mirror able to reflect] itself has no reflection, IT MUST FOR THE SAKE OF WHAT RELIES ON IT BECOME A BASE (suo y i ) d v . THEREFORE IT IS FORM. This explains the latter part of the proposition. Because i t itself is formless i t can be a base for form. Just as the brilliance within the mirror has no reflection, all i t can do is be a base for reflection, Therefore i t is not a reflection. What is being said here does not oppose what was said above. To say that within emptiness there is no form — this is supported by both reason and scripture. But to say that within form there is no emptiness — this is supported by 40 neither reason nor scripture. Thus the author is simply confining himself to the clarification of the base of support and what rests on that base, The support of reasoni Within a fine jewel there are certainly 41 no dark blemishes of form. The support of scripture: The following 42 is just as quoted above: The Sutra says, "This is why within emptiness there is no form, no sensation, notion, etc," The opposition of reason: When a gem glitters and gives off color, where that color 43 is, there must be a gem, J The opposition of scripture: Within the sages' teaching, you will not find anywhere in scripture a passage that says, "Within form there is no emptiness," INDEED BECAUSE EMPTINESS IS WHAT IS RELIED UPON, THEREFORE IT ISN'T FORM, BECAUSE IT IS THAT WHICH IS RELIED UPON, THEREFORE IT IS 44 FORM. . THIS IS THE REASON THAT BECAUSE IT ISN'T FORM, THEREFORE IT IS FORM.*5 By means of doctrine, he concludes the theme, THE ABOVE THREE GATEWAYS BY APPEAL TO DOCTRINAL TRUTH CLEARED AWAY FEELINGS AND MADE DONE WITH THEM, 4) EMPTINESS IS FORM. WHY? IN EVERY CASE, REAL EMPTINESS IS NOT DIFFERENT FROM FORM BECAUSE OF THE TRUTH OF THE ABSENCE OF SELF (wu wo, anatman)*37 IN DHARMAS, This very truth is the substance of real emptiness, which means that i t is the Real Thusness (zhen ru, bhutatathata)dz manifested by the two emptinesses,^ THEREFORE BECAUSE IT IS NOT ANNIHILATION-EMPTINESS . . . Real Thusness does not maintain any own-being. The above is all fully explained, THIS IS THE REASON EMPTINESS- IS FORM. This is the conclusion, IF EMPTINESS AND FORM ARE LIKE THIS, SO ARE ALL DHARMAS. CONTEMPLATE THIS. Since real emptiness is not different from form, all dharraas are not different from this. You should view this on the previous analogy, [l-C] THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE NON-OBSTRUCTION OF FORM AND EMPTINESS Even though there are the two words "emptiness" and "form", the basic meaning can be reduced to emptiness, Thi3 is because form has empty 47 names and empty signs, which in turn is due to the fact that i t doesn't have even the tiniest atom of substance. Thus the meaning of the cultivation of this contemplation lies herein. In the text, when the author focuses on form, he says i t is the manifestation of / \ ea emptiness (kong xian) , When he focuses on emptiness though, he doesn't call i t the manifestation of form. But on the other hand, he does speak of emptiness not being hidden. This is why he only calls this the meditation on real emptiness. He doesn't speak of a meditation on real emptiness and false form. THE MEANING IS THAT THE ENTIRE SUBSTANCE OF FORM IS NOT DIFFERENT FROM EMPTINESS, BECAUSE THERE IS EMPTINESS TO THE TOTAL EXHAUSTION OF FORM. THEREFORE FORM IS EXHAUSTED AND EMPTINESS IS MANIFESTED. THE ENTIRE SUBSTANCE OF EMPTINESS IS NOT DIFFERENT FROM FORM, BECAUSE THERE IS FORM TO THE TOTAL EXHAUSTION OF EMPTINESS, THEREFORE EMPTINESS IS FORM AND EMPTINESS IS NOT HIDDEN (bu yin) e b. The passages on emptiness and form each have two parts. They both first point out the why and how of non-obstruction and then bring out the characteristics of this non-obstruction. The meaning is that i f bh form were real form (shi se) , then i t would obstruct emptiness. If emptiness were annihilation-emptiness, then i t would injure form. But since in reality form is illusory form (huan ee) 6 0, it doesn't obstruct emptiness. And since emptiness is real emptiness, i t doesn't injure form. There is a text that says, "Form is not exhausted and 48 r emptiness is manifested," This is also alright, [±£ you take i t to mean] there is no ease in which form must disappear for emptiness ed to be manifested (bu ru wu) , THIS IS THE REASON WHEN THE BODRTSATTVA SEES FORM, HE NEVER FAILS TO SEE EMPTINESS, WHEN HE CONTEMPLATES EMPTINESS, THERE IS NO CASE OF NOT SEEING FORM. THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO OBSTRUCTION INVOLVED, AS THE TWO ARE A DHARMA OF ONE TASTE (vi wei f a ) 6 6 . IF YOU CONTEMPLATE THIS IT CAN BE REALIZED. [l-D] THE CONTEMPLATION OF CUTTING-OFF AND A B O D S L E S S N E S 5 (rain jue The text has two parts. The first explains this contemplative view. The latter part generally distinguishes four gateways. Within the first part are two sections. The first of the two concerns cutting-off proper, and the latter part explains and proves the why and how of this cutting-off. In the first part when the text says, "It cannot be" (bu ke) e g, etc,, since the text basically explains itself, even i f I didn't comment on i t , you would understand i t . The tone of the latter part of the text is such that i t says varied things in varied ways. Even so, I will simplify this, arrange i t by headings, and match the text with explanation below, THE MEANING IS THAT WHAT IS CONTEMPLATED HERE, NAMELY REAL EMPTINESS, CANNOT BE (bu ke) e g SAID TO BE THE SAME AS FORMi If emptiness were the same as form, then the saint, the same as the ordinary man, should see false form (wang jse)6*1, and the ordinary man should, the same as the saint, see real emptiness. In that case, there wouldn't be two truths,^0 BUT NEITHER CAN IT BE SAID TO BE DIFFERENT FROM FORM. If i t were not the same as form, one would see emptiness outside of form, there would be no means to achieve the superior wisdom, the ordinary man and the saint would be eternally distinct, and then sagehood could not be obtained from the ordinary state of being. The above two propositions [that i t can neither be said that emptiness is identical with nor different from form], dispose of part 1-B [which stated that emptiness both is and is not form, ~) BUT IT ALSO CANNOT BE SAID THAT FORM IS EMPTINESSi If form were the same as emptiness, the ordinary man mistakenly seeing form, should, the same as the saint, see emptiness. Under these conditions the two truths would be lost, NOR THAT IT ISN'T EMPTINESS. If form were not the same as emptiness, then the ordinary man on seeing form wouldn't be deluded, the form which he sees would be permanently separate from real emptiness, and he would eternally be unable to achieve sainthood. The above two statements dispose of the first contemplation, "ALL DHARMAS" CANNOT BE (yi qie fa bu ke) e lt This disposes of the above concluding analogies. Above i t said, "If form and emptiness are like this, so are all dharmas," That is the meaning of this,^"" "CANNOT BE" ALSO IS NOT ACCEPTED (bu ke vi bu ke) e j. Seeing that all the other statements are not acceptable, here too he would be guilty of discrimination, THESE WORDS ARE ALSO NOT ACCEPTED, ek Acceptance is a form of thought (shou j i shi nian) , TOTALLY CUT-OFF AND ABODELESS, The perfection of wisdom comes up before you, THIS IS NOT A THING WHICH WORDS CAN REACH. el The path of language is cut off (van vu dao duan) , IT IS NOT A THING WHICH UNDERSTANDING ARRIVES AT, Because thought's field of action (xin xing chu) vanishes, and there-fore through wisdom cannot be known. T H I S I S C A L L E D " F I E L D OF P R A C T I C E " ( x i n g , j i n g ) . T h e r e a r e t w o o f t h e s e f i e l d s , 1) T h e f i r s t i s t h e a c t i o n ' s f i e l d ( x i n g z h i . j i n ^ ) e ° , i n w h i c h m i n d a n d f i e l d c o a l e s c e . W h e n m i n d i s b l e n d e d a w a y ( m i n g x i n ) e p , ~ ^ ' , w i s d o m i s l e f t b e h i n d . T h e n a n d o n l y t h e n c a n o n e r e a c h t h i s f i e l d , s i n c e o b v i o u s l y o n l y p r a c t i c e c a n a r r i v e a t t h i s f i e l d w h i c h i s n o t a f i e l d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( f e i j i e _ i n g ) e ( * , 2) T h e s e c o n d l i k e t h i s i s a c o a l e s c i n g , a n d a s s u c h i t i s r e a l p r a c t i c e ( z h e n x i n g ) 6 1 . H e r e , p r a c t i c e a n d f i e l d a r e o n e a n d t h e s a m e , WHY I S T H I S ? B E C A U S E WHEN M E N T A L A C T I V I T Y I S P R O D U C E D , O N E A G I T A T E S T H O U G H T S A N D S O O N E P E R V E R T S T H E D H A R M A - N A T U R E , A N D L O S E S R I G H T - M I N D F U L N E S S ( z h e n g n i a n ) e s . P a r t 1-B e x p l a i n e d a n d p r o v e d t h a t t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f r e a l e m p t i n e s s ( z h e n k o n g l i x i n g ) 8 ^ i s b a s i c a l l y u n i q u e t o i t s e l f ( b e n z i r u r a n ) e U . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e p e o p l e a r e c o n f u s e d a b o u t i t , a n d b e c a u s e t h e y a g i -t a t e t h o u g h t s a n d g r a s p a t s i g n s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p e l , d e s t r o y a n d c l e a r a w a y f e e l i n g s , a n d m a n i f e s t T r u t h ( l i ) z . G e n e r a l l y f e e l i n g s a r e f o r g o t t e n ( q i n g w a n g ) e v , ^ t a n d w i s d o m i s s u b m e r g e d . B u t o n l y w i s d o m i s t h e o r i g i n a l r e a l i t y ( b e n z h e n g ) e w * W h y b r i n g i n n e w l y p r o d u c e d a n a l y s e s b y c a t e g o r i e s ( . j i e s h u ) 8 * ? T h i s a g i t a t e s t h o u g h t s . I f t h o u g h t s a r e a g i t a t e d , m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r o d u c e d . T h e n o n e l o s e s r i g h t m i n d f u l n e s s . R i g h t m i n d f u l n e s s m e a n s k n o w i n g w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g ( w u n i a n e r z h i ) e y . B u t i f o n e i s t o t a l l y i g n o r a n t , h o w 56 c o u l d t h a t b e c a l l e d r i g h t m i n d f u l n e s s ? F r o m h e r e b e l o w a r e g e n e r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o u r g a t e w a y s . FURTHERMORE, WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THESE FIRST FOUR PROPOSITIONS57, THE FIRST TWO PROPOSITIONS IN EIGHT GATEWAYS58 BOTH CLEARED AWAY FEELINGS . . , In the case of the first three of the four sub-divisions of each; AND MANIFESTED EXPLANATION. In the case of the last [sub-division] of each, PART 1-C59 EXPLAINED THE FINAL GOAL OF PRACTICE. 1-D6° PROPERLY COMPLETED THE SUBSTANCE OF THE PRACTICE, The above has properly analyzed and explained practice. What has gone before and what is to come are both mutually reflecting, and mutually necessary, just as the eyes and the feet are dependent on each other. Furthermore, the first proposition made clear that form reverts to emptiness. Thus i t is free of the criticism of superfluous increase fa (wu zeng yi bang) , The second showed that emptiness is form. Thus i t is free of the criticism of unnecessary detraction (wu sun jlan fb bang) , The third, the non-obstruction of emptiness and form, does not negate both its msmbers and thus is free of the criticism of failing to make any statement (wu xi-lun — prapanca — bang)**0. The fourth, eutting-off and abodelessness, is not both form and empti-ness taken together and thus is free of the criticism of self-f d contradiction (wu xiang wei bang) , Since criticism on the four grounds is not possible, the hundred faults are here cut off. As such this corresponds to the eight collections of the Pra.jnaparamita6^, and to the signless, ultimate endpoint of the Mahayana. How much 62 more so are the following two contemplations profound in their twists and turnsJ Moreover, the first proposition corresponds to "form is empti-ness" j the next corresponds to "emptiness is form"j the third corresponds to "form is not different from emptiness and emptiness is not different from form"j the fourth accordingly corresponds to "neither production nor destruction , , , down to, no wisdom and no attaining," 6 3 Further, when one hastily looked at the characteristics of the text, i t seemed that in the first proposition, the contemplation of emptiness (kong guan)^e was real truth (zhen d i ) ^ . It seemed the next proposition was a contemplation of unreality (jia guan)**^  f h and hence was worldly truth (su di) , Both three and four seemed f i to be contemplations of the Middle Way (zhong dap guan) and hence were the supreme truth (di yjL vi di, paramartha)f ^"^\ i t seemed the third proposition was a clarification of the middle by mutual 6*> illumination , and that the fourth was a clarification of the middle 66 by mutual denial , But when one minutely examines the teaching of this contemplation text, one sees i t isn't so. In view of the 67 words, "even though there are the two words 'emptiness* and 'form'," ' etc., all one does is to achieve the contemplation of real emptiness (zhen kong)aw. The title of the chapter clearly says this. So emptiness: false (_ia)^n, true (zhen)a^, and worldly (su)^°, three 68 contemplations, three truths have been completed. Next is [Chapter 2~] the non-obstruction of noumenon and phenomenon. What is there further to contemplate? We know that i t is not the case that there is nothing further to view because from here on practice and theoretical understanding are interdependent and reflect each other. The author says , , , 80 IF ONE DOESN'T HAVE A CLEAR AND COMPREHENSIVE UNDERSTANDING OF THE PREVIOUS EXPLANATION, ONE WON'T HAVE THE MEANS TO ASCEND COMPLETELY TO THIS PRACTICE. By relying on what has been said above, we prove this, IF ONE DOESN'T UNDERSTAND THAT THIS PRACTICE OF THE DHARMA IS CUT OFF FROM THE PREVIOUS EXPLANATION, ONE WON'T HAVE THE MEANS TO ACHIEVE THE CORRECT UNDERSTANDING, Cutting off understanding Qjue J_e) f p is real understanding (zhen ,jie) f q. By means of this one perfects what has been discussed before, IF ONE HOLDS ON TO UNDERSTANDING AND DOESN'T RENOUNCE IT, ONE WON'T HAVE THE MEANS TO ENTER THIS RIGHT PRACTICE (zheng xing) f r. If one renounces understanding, one perfects practice, THIS IS THE REASON PRACTICE RELIES ON UNDERSTANDING, BUT PERFECT PRACTICE IS RAISED UP FROM WHERE UNDERSTANDING IS CUT OFF. 81 F O O T N O T E S C H A P T E R 1 ^ h i s i s a s t a n d a r d B u d d h i s t i d e a w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h i g n o r a n c e , m e d i t a t i o n , e t c , w e r e c o n c e i v e d t o t r a n s -m i t t h e i r e f f e c t s . T h a t i s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e t h i n g s m o v e s s u b t l y , l i k e p e r f u m e , s m o k e , o r f o g . ^ M a h a v a i p u l y a , o r s u t r a s o f t h e M a h a y a n a , o f w h i c h t h e B u d d h a v a t a g t s a k a i s o n e . T h e t e r m s r e f e r t o t h e g r e a t b r e a d t h a n d e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p u r v i e w o f t h e t e x t s . 3 t H e r e Q i n g - l i a n g , t h e f o u r t h H u a - y a n p a t r i a r c h , a n d Z o n g - m i ' s t e a c h e r . 4 T h e t e x t d o e s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n t h i s a s a c o m m e n t a r y t o t h e B u d d h a v a t a m s a k a , b u t I h a v e a s s u m e d t h i s , I h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o l o c a t e t h i s q u o t a t i o n . I t s h o u l d b e f o u n d i n e i t h e r : d a f a n g  g u a n g f o h u a - y a n s h u ^ T a i s h o #1735» o r d a f a n g g u a n g f o h u a - y a n j i n g s u d s h u v a n y i c h a o v , T a i s h o #1736, o r p o s s i b l y d a h u a - y a n j i n g l u e cW, T a i s h o - #1737. — - ' F o r t h e B u d d h i s t , a n y v i e w i s f a l s e . T h i s d o c t r i n e i s p e r h a p s b e s t s t a t e d i n t h e L a n k a v a t a r a - s u t r a , w h e r e i t i s r e p e a t e d o v e r a n d o v e r t h a t a n y t h e o r y , d o c t r i n e , o r p h i l o s o p h y i s a t b e s t o n l y a v a g u e p o i n t e r t o a t r u t h w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y u n s p e a k a b l e a n d u n t h i n k a b l e , a n d m u s t b e s e l f - r e a l i z e d ( o r d i n a r i l y b y m e d i t a t i v e m e a n s ) i n o r d e r t o h a v e a n y v a l i d i t y . A t t h e i r w o r s t , v i e w s l e a d o n e a s t r a y f r o m t h e w o r d l e s s t r u t h , s i n c e w e i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g , r a t i o n a l i z i n g h u m a n b e i n g s t e n d t o b e c o m e a t t a c h e d t o t h e m , f i l l u p o u r m i n d s w i t h t h e m , a n d t h u s o b s c u r e o u r a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e c o r r e c t l y . ( s h u q i o n g ) J : I d o n ' t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h i s t e r m , w h i c h I h a v e t a k e n f r o m t h e s e n s e o f s m a l l a n d d e e p t o t h e e x t e n d e d m e a n i n g u s e d i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . T h e p h r a s e m i g h t a l s o m e a n t h e t h r e e a r e b u t o n e W a y w h i c h i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 82 7 al r(zhan°zhuan) ; this tern has several connotations. It refers to the subtle implications of the text, but also implies that the more one investigates, the more mysterious the matter becomes, (wen-shu) p j Manjuiri is the Bodhisattva of wisdom, 9 The text is not clear here. It makes a reference to two commentaries, an old and a new, to an unknown text. If these were supposed to have been written by Du-shun, I was able to find no record of them. If these were supposed to be proof of the following l i s t of the Hua-yan patriarchs, again, i t is not clear what these texts are that offer this evidence. 10Fa-zang is usually given the credit for the establishment of the school as such, for organizing its doctrines, etc. Du-shun, however, is held to be the initiator of the unique doctrine of the Hua-yan and hence is perhaps the source of inspiration of the school, while Fa-zang is its systematicer. ^That is, the contemplation of the fact that there is nothing on which one relies or to which one commits oneself. ^"^I.e,, the yellow and green of Du-shun's text, 13 I.e., all dharmas. Taishg Vol, 31» P. 813ff, I was unable to find this quota-tion in the text, '"-'i.e., those of Zong-rai and of the "Jewel Nature Treatise", The text has: wei l i se ming kong, but the ming here is clearly an interpolation, as is shown by the repetition of the phrase below, where i t lacks this word. 83 17 I was not able to find this exact quotation. However, in the Treatise i t does say several quite similar things, the closest of which isx xian you er Jin wu,St (Taisho Vol. 30, p. 20b.27) "First there was something, and now there is nothing," 18 Here he refers to general Taoist ideas, 19Taisho!l858, Vol. 45, pp. 150-161. The first quotation can be found in a slightly different form on page 158a,19-21, The second quotation can be found on page 158a,22, 2 0 Taisho #671 (the Bodhiruci version) has, p. 522a,20-21j ro a-li-ye-shl mie-zhe, ci bu yi wai-dao duan ?\l&n xi-lun. c a This was tne closest of the three versions, 21 I.e., form is real emptiness, therefore form and emptiness are the same, 22The AJayavi.inana is the "store consciousness", one of several consciousnesses (to which the "etc," refers.) The Alaya is so called because i t stores the seeds (b'Sja) which are the traces of past actions, until they f u l f i l l their destiny by determining another action which is in some sense a result of the past action. Thus the concept of the SLayavi.jKana explains the mechanics of karma, and is responsible for keeping the wheel of l i f e and death revolving, 23 I,e,, any dharma would do as an example, but form was chosen to represent them all , 24 The material in parentheses renders inter-linear notes, 25 The gloss here says that "emptiness" is used in the sense of "nonbeing" (wu)*33", but from Zong-mi's commentary, this seems to be mistaken, 26 I.e., these colors represent all characteristics of solid, obstructing matter. 84 27 I , © . » g r a n t e d t h a t e m p t i n e s s h a s n o o u t s i d e , t h a t d o e s n ' t s t o p i t f r o m h a v i n g a n i n s i d e . I f i t h a s a n i n s i d e , t h e n f o r m a n d t h e o t h e r d h a r r a a s c a n b e w i t h i n e m p t i n e s s . 28 T h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n i n g i n t e r m s o f e m p t i n e s s i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o b e t a k e n i n t h e s e n s e o f e m p t y s p a c e . T e n c u n O U o r " i n c h e s * ' e q u a l s o n e c h i c v o r " f o o t " . T h u s i f t w o t h i n g s a r e i n s p a c e e n o u g h f o r o n e o f t h e m , t h e o b j e c t i n t h e s p a c e ( w h i c h i n a s e n s e i s s e e n h e r e a s a n o t h e r o b j e c t ) c a n o n l y m e a s u r e h a l f o f t h e t o t a l s p a c e . 30 G r e e n n e s s a n d y e l l o w n e s s h e r e a g a i n s y m b o l i z e a l l t h i n g s . 31 T h i s i s t o b e u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e s e n s e o f a s u b s t a n c e t h a t i s n o s u b s t a n c e , i . e . , a n e m p t y s u b s t a n c e . •'This i s n o t a v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n , b u t t h e s e n s e o f w h a t Z o n g - m i s a y s i s c e r t a i n l y t h e s a m e a s t h e S u t r a . C f . T a i s h o #250-255 ( V o l , 8, p p . 847-850). T h i s i s o f c o u r s e t h e f a m o u s p a s s a g e o f t h e H e a r t S u t r a w h i c h d e n i e s a l l t h e f u n d a m e n t a l B u d d h i s t p r e c e p t s i 1) t h e f i v e s k a n d h a s - f o r m ( r u p a ) , s e n s a t i o n ( y e d a r i a ) , n o t i o n o r p e r c e p t i o n ( s a m j n a ) , k a r m a - f o r m a t i o n ( s a m s k a r a s ) , a n d c o g n i t i o n ( v i j n S h a ) j 2 ) t h e t w e l v e g y a t a n a o r s e n s e - f i e l d s , w h i c h a r e t h e s i x s e n s e o r g a n s a n d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o b j e c t s ; 3) t h e e i g h t e e n d h a t u s o r e l e m e n t s , w h i c h a r e t h e s i x s e n s e o r g a n s , t h e i r o b j e c t s , a n d t h e s i x c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s w h i c h r e s u l t ; 4) t h e S U t r a h a s t h e t w e l v e l i n k s o f t h e c h a i n o f p r a t T t y a s a m u t p f d a a n d t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f e a c h l i n k , w h i l e Z o n g - m i s i m p l y n a m e s t h e c h a i n ; 5) t h e F o u r H o l y T r u t h s ( s u f f e r i n g , o r i g i n a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g , s t o p p i n g o f s u f f e r i n g , a n d p a t h ) ; 6) f i n a l l y , Z o n g - m i c o v e r s t h e r e s t w i t h " e t c . " , w h i l e t h e S u t r a s a y s t h e r e i s n o c o g n i t i o n , n o a t t a i n m e n t , a n d n o n o n - a t t a i n m e n t . 33 I c o u l d i d e n t i f y n e i t h e r t h i s t e x t ( w h e t h e r i t b e a f u l l e s s a y , s u t r a , c h a p t e r , o r v e r s e ) n o r t h e q u o t a t i o n , 34 I . e . , e a c h b y t u r n c o n t a i n s t h e o t h e r . 85 " ' - ' T h o u g h n o t e s s e n t i a l t o h i s a r g u m e n t , Z o n g - m i ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s Y o g a c a r a d o c t r i n e m a y p e r h a p s c l a r i f y h i s p o i n t t o t h o s e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t r i - s v a b h a v a t h e o r y . H e s h o w s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f o r m a n d e m p t i n e s s t o b e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p a r a t a n t r a a n d p a r i n i s p a n n a . T h u s f o r m h a s w o r l d l y v a l i d i t y b u t i s u l t i m a t e l y e m p t y , i . e . , u n r e a l . H e r e w e s e e t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f H u a - y a n d o c t r i n e o n N a g a r j u n a t y p e g u n y a t a t h e o r y . A l l t h i n g s ( f o r m i n t h i s c a s e ) a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , t h u s l a c k o w n - b e i n g a n d a r e n o t t o b e r e l i e d o n . T o r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s l a c k o f o w n - b e i n g o r e m p t i n e s s i s t h e v e r y s o u r c e o f t h e u l t i m a c y a n d s a c r e d n e s s o f f o r m i s p a r i n i s p a n n a . T h i s l a t t e r a s p e c t i s t h e s a m e a s e m p t i n e s s u n d e r s t o o d a s a s y n o n y m o f T h u s n e s s ( b h u t a t a t h a t a ) , a m o r e j o y o u s l y e x p r e s s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d t h a n t h e c o n s t a n t n e g a t i o n s o f t h e s u n y a t a ' s c h o o l . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m p r a t l t y a s a m u t p a d a n i * - s v a b h a v a —5> s u n y a t a —>> b h u t a t a t h a t a , i s r e a l l y t h e h e a r t o f t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l . b a n r o ( b o l o m i d o ) j i n g , T a i s h o #220. T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s m o s t l i k e l y t o _ t h e P a n c a v i m % t l s a n a s r i k a ( m a ' h a ) p r a j t r a n s l a t e d b y K u m a r a . f i v a , T a i s h o #223. h o w e v e r . I w a s u n a b l e t o t r a c e i t . 37 d n A l s o k n o w n a s l i u g u , t h a t i s , t h e d e s t i n i e s o f t h o s e i n t h e h e l l s , t h e h u n g r y g h o s t s , a n i m a l s , m a l e v o l e n t s p i r i t s , h u m a n s , a n d g o d s , T h e K u m a r a j T v a v e r s i o n h a s ( m y t r a n s l a t i o n ) t "0 S ^ a r i p u t r a , i t i s n o t t h e c a s e t h a t f o r m i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m e m p t i n e s s , n o r i s e m p t i n e s s d i f f e r e n t f r o m f o r m . F o r m i s t h e s a m e a s e m p t i n e s s , a n d e m p t i n e s s i s t h e s a m e a s f o r m . S e n s a t i o n , n o t i o n , k a r m a - f o r m a t i o n s , a n d c o g n i t i o n a r e a l s o l i k e t h i s , " S u c h a s i t i s , Z o n g - r a i m u s t h a v e a s s u m e d h e h a d a l r e a d y w e l l e n o u g h e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a l l f o r m a r i s e s d e p e n d e n t o n c o n d i t i o n s , a n d t h u s i s e m p t y b y n a t u r e . 40 I , e , , w i t h i n e m p t i n e s s t h e r e i s n o f o r m — j u s t a s t h e m i r r o r ' s b r i l l i a n c e h a s n o r e f l e c t i o n ; w i t h i n f o r m t h e r e i s e m p t i n e s s — b e c a u s e f o r m n e e d s a n o n - f o r m b a s e o n w h i c h t o r e l y , n a m e l y e m p t i n e s s . . e . , n o d i s c o l o r a t i o n , s t r e a k s , e t c . 42 M from the Prajnaparamita-hrdaya-sutra, see footnote 32. 43 The color represents form, and the gem represents emptiness. Thus the manifestation relies on the base, 44 Because form relies on emptiness, therefore within form there is emptiness. 45 B^ecause i t is the base of form, i t both is and is not form. ^Presumably zhena^ and xu3^. 47 I.e., its names and signs have no ultimate reality, 48 Contrast this with the above line of Du-shun, 49 I.e., in the next line of Du-shun's text. ^°I.e,, worldly truth and ultimate truth — samvrti and paramartha. "^T.e,, this statement is what is disposed of here. 52 The statement of inacceptability is also not acceptable. 53 Getting rid of error and delusion is wisdom itself. 54 I.e., when mind no longer exists as a separate entity. I.e., we are unmindful of sensations and take them for granted, contrary to the precept of right mindfulness spoken of by Du-shun, 87 So ©21 T h i s i s n o t a c h a l l e n g e t o x - r u - n i a n , b u t a c l a r i f i c a t i o n , cn J I . e . , a l l o f C h a p t e r 1, " T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f R e a l E m p t i n e s s " , I . e . , 1 - A , " T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n i n w h i c h O n e U n d e r s t a n d s t h a t F o r m R e v e r t s t o E m p t i n e s s , " a n d 1 - B , " T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n w h i c h C l a r i f i e s t h a t F o r m i s t h e S a m e a s E m p t i n o s s , " w i t h t h e i r s u b - d i v i s i o n s , cn ^ " T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e N o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f F o r m a n d E m p t i n e s s " 6 ° " T h e C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f C u t t i n g - o f f a n d A b o d e l e s s n e s s " 6 l I . e , , t h e s u m t o t a l o f l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f w i s d o m , • £2 C h a p t e r 2, " T h e N o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f N o u m e n o n a n d P h e n o m e n a , " a n d C h a p t e r 3» " U n i v e r s a l I n c l u s i o n " , 63 C f , P r a . j f t a p l i r a m i t a h r d a y a - s u t r a , f o o t n o t e 32. 64 T h e s e t h r e e t r u t h s a r e a p p a r e n t l y a C h i n e s e i n v e n t i o n t h a t c r e p t i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n t h r o u g h a f o r g e d t e x t . T h e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n o f c o u r s e s p o k e o f o n l y t w o — w o r l d l y t r u t h a n d a b s o l u t e t r u t h , " S a t o , , , p r o f e s s e s t o t r a c e t h e t h r e e t r u t h s , , , t o a n a t t e m p t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f E x i s t e n c e a n d N o n - E x i s t e n c e \ y o u w u ^ ] w h i c h s o e x e r c i s e d C h i n e s e t h i n k e r s d u r i n g t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s , T h e i r a n s w e r w a s t h a t e i t h e r f o r m u l a t i o n w a s a ' m u n d a n e ' o n e f s h i d i ^ - o r s u d i ^ n ] , w h i l e t h e ' s u p r a - m u n d a n e ' a n d o n l y t r u e f o r m u l a t i o n w a s o n e t h a t t r a n s c e n d e d b o t h E x i s t e n c e a n d N o n - E x i s t e n c e , U n l i k e t h e I n d i a n s , f o r w h o m t h e t w o t r u t h s r e p r e -s e n t e d t w o d i f f e r e n t w a y s o f l o o k i n g a t t h e s a m e t h i n g , t h e s e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s p l a c e d t h e s u p r a m u n d a n e t r u t h o n a p l a n e d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e m u n d a n e t r u t h , a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f r e c o n c i l i n g t h e m a r o s e a s a r e s u l t , A s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m w a s f o u n d i n t h e i n v e n t i o n o f a t h i r d t r u t h . " * ( H u r v i t z , C h i h - I , p . 274.) I n t h e f o r g e d t e x t , t h e t e r m s a r e s h i d i ^ , z h e n d _ f f ~ J ~ a n d d i y d _ _ i d i f - i . " A s a n e q u i v a l e n t f o r s a m v r t l s a t y a o r 1 o k a v y a v a h a r a s a t y a , s h i h t i ( " s h j d i " ! i s p e r f e c t l y v a l i d . B u t c h e n t i [ z h e n d i | a n d t l i i t i [ d i v i v i d i " ) a r e t w o C h i n e s e e q u i v a l e n t s f o r t h e s a m e w o r d , p a r a m a r t h a s a t y a . " ( H u r v i t z , 88 f m I b i d . , p p . 2 7 4 - 5 . ) D i y i y i d i w a s a l s o c a l l e d a h o n g d a o d i y i . y i d i , Z o n g - r a i . ' s o n l y s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r a m e m b e r o f t h i s l i s t i s s u d i ? b f o r  s h i d i * - * - . H o w e v e r , i t s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t h e u s e s t h e s e t e r m s f o r a n y r e a s o n o t h e r t h a n a s a m a t t e r o f t r a d i t i o n . C e r t a i n l y t h e H u a - y a n s c h o o l d o e s n o t t a k e e x i s t e n c e a n d n o n - e x i s t e n c e a s t h e b a s e o f t h e i r p r o b l e m a t i c j t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f p h e n o m e n a a n d n o u m e n o n i s t h e m a i n t h e m e o f t h e w o r k a t h a n d , ( * T h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n w e r e r e m o v e d t o t h e l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r s a t t h e e n d o f t h e w o r k , ) 6-'of t h e t w o e x t r e m e s , i . e . , f o r m a n d e m p t i n e s s , 6 6 C f t h e t w o e x t r e m e s , 67 r Z o n g - m i i s q u o t i n g h i m s e l f . T o c o n t i n u e t h e q u o t a t i o n : " , , , t h e b a s i c m e a n i n g c a n b e r e d u c e d t o e m p t i n e s s . " 68 Z o n g - m i s e e m s t o b e j u m b l i n g h i s c a t e g o r i e s h e r e , b u t t h e p o i n t i s c l e a r : d i f f e r e n t c o n t e m p l a t i o n s , a n d h e n c e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t r u t h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o r r e c t d i f f e r e n t m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n s . 89 CHAPTER 2 THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE NON-OBSTRUCTION OF NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA ( l i shi wu ai guan)fs [This is] the contemplation of the non-obstruction of noumenon and be phenomena. Even though we first spoke of form (se) 9 i t was a clearing-away of feelings and intellectual calculation in order to establish the view of real emptiness, "The non-obstructions of form and emptiness" and "cutting-off and abodelessness" — all they are f t is the Truth of Real Thusness (zhen ru zhi l i ) , They do not yet clarify the subtle functioning (miao yong) of Thusness, Thus [Chapter l ] was only the gateway to the contemplation of real emptiness, we have not yet dealt with the non-obstruction of noumenon and phenom-enon, ^  But now the class of phenomena (shi)xand noumenon ( l i ) z clearly coalesce. That is how one arrives at the name of this contem-plation. There are three parts to this chapter! 1) theme, 2) explanation, 3) conclusion and exhortation, [IT IS MERELY THAT NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA FUSE AND BLEND.] IT IS MERELY THAT NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA . „ , When compared, noumenon is superior, because i t is the foundation on \f r which phenomena are based (suo yi ben) , FUSE (rong)^ . . . This is a blending of fusion and means the preliminary linking, AND BLEND (rong)fx. This is a harmonious blending and means the parts complement each other. Fusing noumenon and phenomena, and the harmonious blending of noumenon and phenomena, are the first two gateways. These two gateways also coalesce (hu rong)^, and thus together include everything, PRESERVATION (9 AND 10) AND EXTINCTION (7 AND 8)t CONFLICT (5 AND 6) AND CO-OPERATION (3 AND 4) — ALTOGETHER THIS MAKES TEN GATEWAYS,3 This is the theme. Only the totality of these ten do we call "the contemplation of the non-obstruction of noumenon and phenomenon," Contemplating inwardly is called "contemplation". Contemplating phenomena corresponds to conventional [truth")? contemplating noumenon corresponds to [contemplating"] the Real [truth"] (zhen)ay. But now when on© contemplates the non-obstruction (wu ai) [of noumenon and phenomena], one achieves the contemplation of the Supreme Truth of the Middle Way (ahong dao di yi y l ) g a ; then compassion (bei) g b and wisdom spontaneously guide each other to the achievement of the practice of not-dwelling (wu zhu) g c ,\ This already corresponds to th© ultimate endpoint of the Common Teaching of the Mahayana (da sheng tong jjiao zhi j i ahi) g d'-\ Thus, the third contemplation [Chapter 3, "Universal Inclusion"] is the Distinct Teaching of the One Vehicle, which is totally different from all other teachings (bie jlao yi sheng)ge'6. The above explained what was indicated by the theme and is finished with i t . Next is a separate explanation of the ten gateways. There are five pairs [the members of which]t 1) mutually make up the whole; 2) are mutually complementary; 3) are mutually injurious; 4) are mutually identifying; and 5) are mutually denying. Within the first pair there are four partsi 1) the explanation proper} 2) the praise of the profundity; 3) the illustrations; and 4) the questions and answers. The first of these is further divided into two parts, 1) THE GATEWAY THAT SHOWS NOUMENON PERVADES PHENOMENA (l i bian yu shi raen)gg, THIS MEANS THAT NOUMENON, WHICH IS THE PERVADER (neng bian zhi l i ) g h IS OF A NATURE WITHOUT PARTS OR LIMITS, It is the Real Truth which is empty by nature (xlng kong zhen l i ) g \ e i 7 because the one mark is no mark (vi xiang wu x i a n g ) 6 J , PHENOMENA, WHICH ARE PERVADED (suo bian zhi shi) g k ARE DISTINGUISHED BY HAVING SEPARATE POSITIONS. Polluted and pure mind-objects (xin jing) g^ arise through mutual con-ditioning. In the time-periods of rise and extinction, they mutually sm 8 inform each other (xiang mao)^' , All of this is too much to detail, WITHIN EACH AND EVERY PHENOMENON, NOUMENON PERVADES ENTIRELY} If i t didn't pervade each one entirely, then i t could be divided, IT IS NOT A DIVISIBLE UBIQUITY. The Sutra says, "The Dharma-nature (fa-xing) g n is everywhere and in all places — in all beings and lands, It is totally in the three 9 10 times with no remainder. Thus i t has no shape or form that can be taken hold of," The first two statements^" refer to total perva-sion (quan bian)g°} the final statement refers to indivisibility (bu ke fen)51?. WHY? BECAUSE THAT REAL NOUMENON (zhen l i ) 8 * 1 CANNOT BE DIVIDED, This explains the why and how of total pervasion. THIS IS THE REASON EACH AND EVERY MINUTE ATOM CONTAINS THE UNLIMITED REAL NOUMENON, PERFECTLY AND ENTIRELY, 2) THE GATEWAY THAT SHOWS PHENOMENA PERVADE NOUMENON (shi Man yu l i m e n ) 5 * * . THIS MEANS THAT PHENOMENA, WHICH ARE THE PERVADERS, HAVE BOUNDARIES AND LIMITATIONS. NOUMENON, WHICH IS PERVADED, OF A NECESSITY HAS NO BOUNDARIES OR LIMITATIONS. THESE PHENOMENA WITH DIVISIONS AND NOUMENON WITHOUT DIVISIONS, ARE ENTIRELY THE SAME, NOR PARTIALLY THE SAME. Because of this total sameness (guan tong)gs, i t is called "ubiqui-tous" (Man)6*. WHY? BECAUSE PHENOMENA HAVE NO SUBSTANCE (wu t i ) c l , THEY ARE, AFTER ALL, LIKE NOUMENON. It is not like floating clouds pervading the sky (kong)ba. THIS IS THE REASON ONE ATOM IS NOT BROKEN UP AND YET PERVADES THE DHARMA-REALM (fa - , - j i e ) r . AS IS ONE ATOM, SO ARE ALL DHARMAS. CONTEMPLATE THIS, The above explanation proper in two gateways is completed. From here below we will conclude with a praise of the profundity, THIS GATEWAY OF TOTAL PERVASION TRANSCENDS FEELINGS AND PARTS FROM VIEWS (.jian, drst!)^' 1 2. Since one atom has no limits or divisions, what dharma can there be 13 that corresponds to feelings? Accordingly, phenomena and noumenon cannot be cognized by means of cognition (shi, vijnana)^7. The Real Noumenon (zhen l i ) 6 * 1 is entirely within the atom, but with what five 14 eyes could i t be observed,? Accordingly, i t cannot be known through knowledge (bu ke yi zhi zhl)^, There is a text that says, "It is difficult to perceive,"1-' This seems to indicate clearly the admlssa-bility of visible parts, and yet this does not go so far as saying "separate" [from views] ( U ) ^ ' 1 6 , IT CANNOT BE ILLUSTRATED BY MEANS OF ANY WORLDLY ILLUSTRATION. Th© Sutra says, "Th© three realms (san jie, trlloka) 5 7' 1^ of all conditioned and unconditioned dharmas (you wu vi qie f a ) S Z are some-thing inaccessible to comparisons." Herein by a praise of the profundity, he clears away all future possible illustrations. Nor can one understand i t by means of worldly sensations and views. For how can worldly people see an entire ocean in one wave? Above we have finished with the explanation and the concluding praise of the profundity. From here below there is an illustration in three parts: 1) the illustration of the non-obstruction of great and small? 2) the illustration of th© non-obstruction of identity and difference; 3) the illustration which shows that among all dharmas, each and every one is ubiquitous in each of the others. Here by means of the ha ocean and a wave we merely indicate th© relative positions (wei) of noumenon and phenomena. By dividing the various aspects of 1 8 meaning, w© show i t is not entirely a parable, FOR EXAMPLE, THE ENTIRE OCEAN IS IN ONE WAVE AND YET THE OCEAN IS NOT SMALL. Because the ocean is not two and in its entirety is salty and wet, JUST AS ONE SMALL WAVE ENCOMPASSES THE GREAT OCEAN, Because i t is the same as the ocean, AND YET THE WAVE 15 NOT GREAT. Because its form is not destroyed. This illustrates and finishes the above stated ubiquity of noumenon and phenomena each in the other. AT THE SAME TIME, THE OCEAN IS PERVADED BY ALL THE WAVES BUT ISN'T DIFFERENTIATEDj AT ALL TIMES EACH WAVE CONTAINS THE GREAT OCEAN, AND YET THE WAVES AREN'T ONE. The waves and the ocean are neither one nor different. Below the author poses questions and answers them to show this clearly, FURTHER, WHEN THE GREAT OCEAN IN ITS ENTIRETY PERVADES ONE WAVE, IT IS NOT HINDERED FROM PERVADING ALL OTHER WAVES IN ITS ENTIRE SUBSTANCE (ju t i ) h b , WHEN ONE WAVE ENCLOSES THE GREAT OCEAN IN ITS ENTIRETY, ALL OTHER WAVES ALSO ENCLOSE IT IN ITS ENTIRETY, NEITHER OBSTRUCTS THE OTHER, CONTEMPLATE THIS, The urging to contemplate means one should take this illustration and apply i t to noumenon and phenomena. If you just read "great ocean" as "Real Noumenon", and read "wave" as "phenomena", you will see the realm of meaning. Therefore the text below doesn't apply [the illustration] to them,19 The above explanation of part three, "illustration" is finished. Next part four, "questions and answers" is minutely explained. There are two layers of questions and answerst 1) in respect to the first two sections of the illustration there is a question and answer} 2) in respect to the latter section of the illustration there is a question and answer. The first says, QUESTION. SINCE NOUMENON IS ENTIRELY CONTAINED WITHIN ONE ATOM, WHY ISN'T IT SMALL? Because of total containment, he attacks the idea of smallness. SINCE IT IS NOT THE SAME AS AN ATOM AND SMALL LIKE IT, HOW CAN YOU SAY IT IS IN ITS ENTIRE SUBSTANCE CONTAINED IN ONE ATOM? Because of sraallness, he attacks the idea of total containment. The above both attack the proposition by taking a stand on noumenon and looking at phenomena, IF AN ATOM ENCLOSES THE NOUMSNON-NATURE (li-xing)hc*2° IN ITS ENTIRETY, WHY THEN ISN'T IT GREAT? Because of total containment he attacks the idea of greatness, IF AN ATOM IS NOT BROAD AND GREAT LIKE NOUMENON, HOW CAN IT TOTALLY PERVADE THE NOUMENON-NATURE? Because of greatness, be attacks the idea of total containment. The above both attack the proposition by taking a stand on phenomena and looking at noumenon, SINCE THERE HAS BEEN CREATED AN INHERENT INCONSISTENCY (map dun)^'2^, he hf The lance (mao) is a kind of spear. The shield (dun) is something that wards off blows. Formerly a man was selling them together. He expressed admiration for the superiority of each object. He praised his shield saying, "A spear which tries to pierce i t can't enter i t , " He praised his spear saying, "It can pierce ten layers of shield," A clever fellow said to him, "If I were to buy your spear and stab your shield [with it"], whether i t went in or not, you wouldn't be able to make an excuse," THE MEANING IS EXTREMELY SELF-CONTRADICTORY. The question in terms of great and small has the sense of uniting the same and different. The answer in terms of the same and different unites the great and small. ANSWER: NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA INTEND EACH OTHER (xiang wang)^'22. THEY ARE NEITHER THE SAME NOR DIFFERENT. THEREFORE EVEN IF BOTH ARE ACCEPTED (shou)hl, EVEN SO THEIR FUNDAMENTAL POSITIONS (ben wei)hjARE NOT DESTROYED.23 FIRST. FROM THE POINT QF VIEW OF NOUMENON INTENDING (wang)*13* PHENOMENA, THERE ARE FOUR PROPOSITIONS. The first two propositions consist of the explanation proper for the marks of something which is entirely contained within an atom and yet is not small, 1) BECAUSE NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA ARE NOT DIFFERENT, This is the reason, THE REAL NOUMENON (zhen l i ) 8 * 1 IN ITS ENTIRE SUBSTANCE IS WITHIN ONE PHENOMENON, This is the teaching. Above was the "totally pervading" parti below is the "not small" part, 2) BECAUSE NOUMENON AND PHENOMENA ARE NOT THE SAME, THE SUBSTANCE AND NATURE OF THE REAL NOUMENON IS CONSTANT AND INFINITE. The above settles the central principle; below is the answer proper to the objections, 3) BECAUSE THEIR NON-IDENTITY IS THEIR NON-DIFFERENCE (yi fed. yi J l fei yi gu)111, This is the reason. THE INFINITE NOUMENON-NATURE IS TOTALLY WITHIN ONE ATOM, This is the teaching, 4) BECAUSE THEIR NON-DIFFERENCE IS THEIR NON-IDENTITY, THE NOUMENON-NATURE OF AN ATOM HAS NO DIVISIONS OR LIMITS (fen xi_an)hm, The teaching and the reason are analagous to the above. Taking "non-identity is non-difference" as the reason, he replies with the teaching that noumenon entirely pervades phenomena and yet is not small, NEXT, FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF PHENOMENA INTENDING NOUMENON, THERE ARE ALSO FOUR PROPOSITIONS. 1) PHENOMENA-DHARMAS (shi-fa) a b AND NOUMENON ARE NOT DIFFERENT, THEREFORE THE FORMER ENTIRELY ENCLOSE NOUMENON-NATURE (li-xing) h c. 2) PHENOMENA-DHARMAS AND NOUMENON ARE 24 NOT THE SAME. THEREFORE THE LATTER DOES NOT IMPAIR ONE ATOM, Here too the above settles the teaching} the below responds properly, 3) BECAUSE NON-IDENTITY IS NON-DIFFERENCE, ONE MINUTE ATOM ENCLOSES THE INFINITE TRUE NATURE (wu bian zhen xing)1*", 4) BECAUSE NON-DIFFERENCE IS NON-IDENTITY, ONE ATOM ENCLOSES THE INFINITE NOUMENON AND YET THE ATOM IS NOT GREAT. CONTEMPLATE THIS, The teaching and the reason are analagous to the above. Taking "non-identity is non-difference" as the reason, he replies with the teaching that an atom totally encloses noumenon, and yet isn't great. The first question and answer are completed. Second, in respect to what was illustrated in the latter section, there is the question and answers QUESTION* WHEN THE INFINITE NOUMENON-NATURE IN ITS ENTIRETY PERVADES ONE ATOM, IN ALL PHENOMENA OUTSIDE THAT ONE, IS THERE OR IS THERE NOT NOUMENON-NATURE? The above unlocks two barriers} the below heaps them up and thus makes its objections. 98 IF OUTSIDE THE ATOM THERE IS NOUMENON, THEN IT IS NOT A CASE OF PERVADING THE ATOM WITH ITS TOTAL SUBSTANCE, IF OUTSIDE THE ATOM THERE IS NO NOUMENON, THEN IT ISN'T A CASE OF TOTALLY PERVADING ALL PHENOMENA, ALL IN ALL, THE TWO SENSES CONTRADICT EACH OTHER ABSOLUTELY. In each case reading "noumenon-nature" as "great ocean" and "phenomena" as "wave", rephrasing the question thus, you will also get i t . ANSWER: BECAUSE THE NOUMENON-NATURE IS A BLENDING (rong)fx, He will indicate below that he is speaking from the point of view of noumenon, in four propositions, AND BECAUSE THE MANY PHENOMENA ARE NON-OBSTRUCTING, He will indicate below that he is speaking from the point of view of phenomena, in four propositions. These both are the reason, THEREFORE, NOUMENON CAN BE BOTH TOALLY INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF A PHENOMENON, WITHOUT OBSTRUCTION (wu zhang wu ai)h°. This is the teaching, EACH [OF THE ABOVE PARTS TO THE REASON] HAS FOUR PROPOSITIONS. THE FIRST ADDRESSES ITSELF TO NOUMENON, IN FOUR PROPOSITIONS. 1) WHEN THE NOUMENON-NATURE WITH ITS ENTIRE SUBSTANCE IS IN ALL THINGS, IT IS NOT PREVENTED FROM BEING, WITH ITS ENTIRE SUBSTANCE, IN THE LOCATION OF ONE ATOM. THIS IS THE REASON BEING OUTSIDE IS THE SAME AS BEING INSIDE. First there was the question whether outside [the atom that noumenon enters] all phenomena have or don't have the noumenon-nature. He replied they have. Again there was the question if they have, then the noumenon-nature can't enter in its totality into the one atom. But he replied i t does enter totally. This means that noumenon and 99 t h e m a n y a t o m s a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e f o r e t h e n o u m e n o n - n a t u r e i n i t s e n t i r e s u b s t a n c e p e r v a d e s t h e m a n y a t o m s , b u t a l s o i s n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m o n e a t o m . T h u s i t i s n o t h i n d e r e d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , f r o m [ i n i t s t o t a l i t y ] p e r v a d i n g t h i s o n e a t o m . M o r e o v e r , i f w e c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e w o r d i n g , i t i s j u s t l i k e o n e f a t h e r r e g a r d i n g t e n s o n s : h e i s t o t a l l y f a t h e r t o e a c h o n e , 2) WHEN NOUMENON I S I N I T S E N T I R E S U B S T A N C E I N O N E A T O M , I T I S N ' T O B S T R U C T E D F R O M B E I N G I N I T S E N T I R E S U B S T A N C E I N T H E R E M A I N I N G L O C A T I O N S OF P H E N O M E N A . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e f o r m e r q u e s t i o n , w h e t h e r o r n o t [ i n t h e a t o m s o u t s i d e t h e o n e t h e n o u m e n o n - n a t u r e e n t e r s ] t h e r e i s o r i s n o t t h e n o u m e n o n - n a t u r e , h e r e p l i e d t h e r e i s . T h i s i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e f a t h e r a n d s o n s e x a m p l e a b o v e , T H I S I S T H E R E A S O N B E I N G I N S I D E I S B E I N G O U T S I D E . 3) B E C A U S E T H E N O N - D U A L [ N O U M E N O N ] N A T U R E I S E N T I R E L Y I N E A C H I N D I V I D U A L T H I N G , I T I S B O T H W I T H I N A N D W I T H O U T , B e c a u s e n o u m e n o n i s n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m " i n s i d e " a n d " o u t s i d e " , a t t h e s a m e t i m e i t p e r v a d e s b o t h i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e , 4) B E C A U S E T H E N O N - D U A L [ N O U M E N O N ] N A T U R E I S NOT T H E S A M E A S A L L T H I N G S , I T I S N E I T H E R I N S I D E NOR O U T S I D E . A l t h o u g h t h e n o u m e n o n - n a t u r e p e r v a d e s b o t h i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e , i t i s n e v e r b o t h i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e , T H E F I R S T T H R E E P R O P O S I T I O N S M E A N T H A T NOUMENON I S NOT D I F F E R E N T F R O M A L L D H A R M A S . T H E L A S T P R O P O S I T I O N M E A N S T H A T NOUMENON I S N ' T T H E S A M E A S A L L D H A R M A S . I N D E E D I T I S B E C A U S E T H E Y A R E N E I T H E R T H E S A M E NOR D I F F E R E N T , T H A T NOUMENON I S NOT O B S T R U C T E D W I T H I N O R W I T H O U T . 100 Formerly there was the objection that i f the phenomena outside [the one atom") have noumenon, then noumenon doesn't pervade in its entirety the one atom. If i t pervades in its entirety the one atom, then i t isn't all pervasive in the phenomena outside the one. But here because noumenon and phenomena are neither the same nor different, noumenon is whole both inside and outside, and there is no obstruction, NEXT WE APPROACH THE QUESTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF PHENOMENA, IN FOUR PROPOSITIONS, Because he already generally indicated the non-obstruction of the many phenomena [one against the other], here what he means by "from the standpoint of phenomena" is as follows. First there was questioning about what was lacking (suo wu)*ip»2-'. There was the illustration of the wave and the ocean to show there was [nothing lacking, but rather] a plenitude (you)*1^. Now he brings out an auxiliary argument, as i f someone had asked, "When one atom entirely pervades noumenon, do all phenomena also pervade noumenon, or not? If they do pervade i t , then there is the fault of having a many-layered noumenon. If they do not pervade i t , then the many phenomena are not like noumenon," (bu ru l i ) 1 * ' 2 6 1) WHEN ONE ATOM ENTIRELY ENCOMPASSES NOUMENON, IT DOES NOT OBSTRUCT ALL PHENOMENA-DHARMAS FROM ALSO ENCOMPASSING NOUMENON. THIS IS THE REASON BEING INSIDE IS THE SAME AS BEING OUTSIDE. One thing pervading noumenon,does not obstruct many things from per-vading i t . This means one atom and noumenon are not different, and therefore all the other atoms are the same. 2) WHEN AMONG ALL DHARMAS, EACH AND EVERY ONE ENCOMPASSES NOUMENON-NATURE, THIS DOESN'T OBSTRUCT ONE ATOM FROM ALSO ENTIRELY ENCOMPASSING IT. THIS IS THE REASON BEING OUTSIDE IS THE SAME AS BEING INSIDE. Many pervading does not obstruct one from pervading. This is the opposite of the father and sons example above. 3) BECAUSE AMONG ALL DHARMAS, EACH AND EVERY ONE SIMULTANE-OUSLY ENCOMPASSES NOUMENON, NEITHER "ENTIRELY INSIDE" NOR "ENTIRELY OUTSIDE" IS OBSTRUCTED. "All dharmas at the same time pervading noumenon" ~ this means "inside" and "outside" are not different from noumenon. At the same time, both inside and outside encompass the noumenon-nature. 4) BECAUSE AMONG ALL PHENOMENA-DHARMAS, EACH DOESN'T INJURE (huai) h S THE OTHERS, THESE VARIOUS PHENOMENA-DHARMAS, WITH RESPECT TO EACH OTHER (xiang wang)*1*1 ARE NEITHER WITHIN NOR WITHOUT. The forms of the one and the many are kept distinct and not injured. Thus [noumenon") nature is neither one nor many. Therefore, nature, ht 27 just as i t is (ju ran) ' , is neither inside nor outside, CONTEMPLATE THIS, The questioning first took up a position on noumenon and regarded phenomena. When noumenon was taken as being in one, i t was considered inside; when in many, i t was considered outside. Now what is meant by "inside" and "outside"? The answer also took the one and the many to be inside and outside. However, the former fset of answers") first riased up noumenon, while the latter first raised up phenomena,' There-fore he divided the two gateways and that's al l . It is, however, of 102 course only one kind of question. Because the one and the many both are noumenon, they both entirely pervade noumenon. It is not that there are many noumena. Each and every phenomenon pervades i t . There-fore the fourth proposition says, "It is neither inside nor outside," 3) THE GATEWAY THAT SHOWS THAT PHENOMENA ARE PRODUCED IN DEPENDENCE ON NOUMENON (vi l i cheng shi men)*™. THIS MEANS THAT PHENOMENA HAVE NO SEPARATE (bie) h v SUBSTANCE AND MUST COME INTO BEING IN DEPENDENCE ON THE TRUE NOUMENON. Above is the teaching} below is the reason, ALL THINGS ARISE DUE TO CONDITIONS ( j i zhu yuan oj.)*™'28. , , There are two reasons for this, BECAUSE THEY LACK OWN-NATURE (zi-xing) h x, This is the first, AND SINCE ONLY IN DEPENDENCE ON THE PRINCIPLE OF NO OWN-NATURE (wu xing l i ) * 1 7 ARE PHENOMENA PRODUCED. This is the second. Real Thusness (zhen ru, bhutatathata)^ accords with conditions (sui yuan)*12. Therefore the Madhyamika Treatise says,29 "Because there is the Truth of emptiness, all dharmas come into being," Of) The Mahaprajnaparamita-su"tra says, "If all dharmas weren't empty, there would be no path and no fruit [of attainment"!," JUST AS A WAVE INHERENTLY MUST DEPEND ON WATER TO BE ABLE TO COME INTO BEING, IN DEPENDENCE ON THE BUDDHA-MATRIX (ru-lai-cang. tathagatagarbha)ia'31 IT IS POSSIBLE FOR DHARMAS TO EXIST. IT IS TO BE KNOWN THAT THIS TOO IS JUST LIKE THAT [DEPENDENCE], CONTEMPLATE THIS. 103 T h e S r l m H a d e v a - s i m h a n l d a - s u t r a s a y s , " I n d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e B u d d h a -33 m a t r i x t h e r e i s b i r t h a n d d e a t h . I n d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e B u d d h a -34 m a t r i x t h e r e i s n i r v a n a . " T h e L a n k S v a t a r a - s u * t r a a l s o s a y s , " T h e B u d d h a - m a t r i x d o e s t h e d e e d s a n d r e a p s t h e r e t r i b u t i o n , " T h e 35 A w a k e n i n g o f F a i t h T r e a t i s e s a y s , " I n d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e B u d d h a -m a t r i x t h e r e a r e t h e t h o u g h t s o f b i r t h a n d e x t i n c t i o n , e t c , " T h e " Q u e s t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g U n d e r s t a n d i n g " C h a p t e r s a y s ( w e n m i n g ) * ' D h a r m a - n a t u r e ( f a - x i n g ) ^ " o r i g i n a l l y i s b i r t h l e s s ( w u s h e n g ) ^ ° t i t m a k e s i t s e l f m a n i f e s t , a n d t h e n t h e r e i s b i r t h , e t c , " 4) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H A T P H E N O M E N A M A N I F E S T NOUMENON i d ( s h i n e n g x i a n l i m e n ) , J u s t a s r e f l e c t i o n s m a n i f e s t t h e m i r r o r ' s b r i g h t n e s s , s o c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( s h i , v i . j ^ a n a ) ^ 7 a n d w i s d o m ( z h i ) ^ 9 m a n i f e s t t h e O r i g i n a l N a t u r e ( b e n i f 37 x i n g ) • T h e A w a k e n i n g o f F a i t h s a y s , " B e c a u s e n e s c i e n c e ( w u m i n g , a v i d y a ) 1 5 k n o w s n a m e s a n d t h e i r m e a n i n g s , w e s p e a k o f t r u e e n l i g h t e n -i h m e n t ( z h e n j u e ) , e t c , " T H I S M E A N S T H A T B E C A U S E P H E N O M E N A G R A S P ( l a n g ) 1 1 N O U M E N O N , P H E N O M E N A A R E U N R E A L ( x u ) * 7 A N D NOUMENON I S R E A L ( s h i ) i j . B E C A U S E P H E N O M E N A A R E U N R E A L , T H E NOUMENON W I T H I N A L L P H E N O M E N A I S S E L F -E v T D E N T L Y D I S C L O S E D I N T H E M , B E C A U S E T H E F O R M OF A W A V E I S U N R E A L , 3 8 I T C A U S E S T H E B O D Y OF T H E W A T E R T O B E D I S C L O S E D . I T I S T O B E KNOWN T H A T T H E T R U T H OF T H E M I D D L E W A Y ( z h o n g d a o l i ) ^ I S A L S O L I K E T H I S . C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S . i l 39 T h e " S u r a e r u " v e r s e ( x u m i ) ' s a y s , " O n e s h o u l d t h o r o u g h l y r e a l i z e Try t h a t t h e o w n - n a t u r e ( z i - x i n g ) o f a l l d h a r r a a s i s n o t s o m e t h i n g t h e y 1C4 h a v e . I f i n t h i s w a y o n e u n d e r s t a n d s D h a r m a - n a t u r e ( f a ^ x i n g ) , ini 4l o n e i m m e d i a t e l y v i e w V a i r o c a n a ( l u s h e n a ) 9 5) T H E G A T E W A Y W H E R E I N P H E N O M E N A A R E S N A T C H E D AWAY B Y M E A N S OF NOUMENON ( y i l i d u o s h i m e n ) 1 x 1 F o l l o w i n g f r o m t h e p r o c e e d i n g g a t e w a y i n w h i c h n o u m e n o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f , p h e n o m e n a a r e s n a t c h e d a w a y , T H I S M E A N S T H A T S I N C E P H E N O M E N A G R A S P N O U M E N O N , A S A C O N S E -Q U E N C E , A L L T H E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF P H E N O M E N A A R E E X H A U S T E D . T H U S O N L Y T H E O N E R E A L NOUMENON M A N I F E S T S I T S E L F W I T H O U T D I F F E R E N T I A T I O N . A b o v e i s t h e t e a c h i n g } b e l o w i s t h e r e a s o n , T H I S I S B E C A U S E A P A R T F R O M T H E R E A L N O U M E N O N , NOT A S P E C K OF P H E N O M E N O N C A N B E O B T A I N E D . J U S T S O , WHEN W A T E R S N A T C H E S A W A Y T H E W A V E A N D NOT A S I N G L E W A V E R E M A I N S , T H E W A T E R I S R E T A I N E D B Y M E A N S O F T H E D E S T R U C T I O N OF T H E W A V E W H I C H I S C O N S E Q U E N T L Y E X H A U S T E D . T h e " M a n i f e s t a t i o n " C h a p t e r ( c h u x i a n ) ± 0 * ^ Z s a y s , " E v e n i f a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s i n a s i n g l e m o m e n t o f t h o u g h t c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d R i g h t I n s i g h t i h ( z h e n g J u e , s a m b o d h i ) , t h a t w o u l d b e n o d i f f e r e n t f r o m n o t r e a l i z i n g R i g h t I n s i g h t . T h i s i s j u s t l i k e a c o n j u r e d - u p m a n w i t h a c o n j u r e d - u p m i n d a c h i e v i n g c o n j u r e d - u p R i g h t I n s i g h t ( h u a ) i p ' * 3 , " 6) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H A T P H E N O M E N A C O N C E A L NOUMENON ( s h i n e n g y i n l i m e n ) * * * . S i n c e t h e t h i r d [ g a t e w a y " ) e s t a b l i s h e s p h e n o m e n a , a c c o r d i n g l y t h e y c a n c o n c e a l n o u m e n o n , T H I S M E A N S T H A T T H E R E A L NOUMENON I N A C C O R D A N C E W I T H C O N D I -T I O N S E S T A B L I S H E S A L L P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S , A N D Y E T T H E S E P H E N O M E N A -D H A R M A S B Y P A S S ( w e i ) i r N O U M E N O N . C O N S E Q U E N T L Y I T C A U S E S P H E N O M E N A T O B E M A N I F E S T E D , A N D Y E T I T I T S E L F I S NOT M A D E M A N I F E S T . J U S T A S 105 WHEN WATER FORMS THE WAVES THE MOTION IS MANIFEST, BUT THE STILLNESS IS HIDDEN. THE SUTRA SATS, "THE CIRCULATION OF THE DHARMA-BODY (fa-shen, dharmakaya) IN THE FIVE DESTINIES IS CALLED 'ALL BEINGS'. WHEN IT CAUSES ALL BEINGS TO BE MANIFESTED, THE DHARMA-BODY ITSELF ISN'T MANIFESTED," 45 The "Questions Concerning Understanding" Chapter also says, "Thex1© has never before existed one dharma that obtained entry into the 46 Dharma-nature," 7) THE GATEWAY THAT SHOWS THAT THE REAL NOUMENON IS THE SAME AS PHENOMENA (zhen l i j i shi men)11, THIS MEANS THAT IN EVERY CASE THE REAL NOUMENON IS NEVER OUTSIDE OF PHENOMENA. Above is the teaching} below is the reason, BECAUSE OF THE TRUTH OF NO-SELF (wu-wo, anatman)dy IN DHARMAS, PHENOMENA MUST BE BASED ON NOUMENON. THIS IS BECAUSE THEY ARE VOID (xu) b y AND LACK SUBSTANCE (wu t i ) c l . If the Real Noumenon were nothing but emptiness, i t would be outside of phenomena and therefore different from them. But actually we take the identity with dharmas to be the Truth of no-self. Apart from phenomena, how could there be any noumenon? THIS IS THE REASON THAT THIS NOUMENON IN ITS ENTIRE SUBSTANCE IS ALL PHENOMENA. ONLY BECAUSE IT IS ALL PHENOMENA, IS IT THE REAL NOUMENON. JUST AS WATER IS THE SAME AS WAVES, SINCE THERE IS NOTHING 47 48 THAT MOVES THAT IS NOT WET , THEREFORE, WHATEVER IS WATER IS WAVES. CONTEMPLATE THIS, 8) THE GATEWAY THAT SHOWS THAT PHENOMENA-DHARMAS ARE NOUMENON (shi-fa j i l i men)iU. THIS MEANS THAT PHENOMENA-DHARMAS WHICH ARE 1 0 6 D E P E N D E N T ON C O N D I T I O N S C E R T A I N L Y H A V E NO O W N - B E I N G ( w u z i - x i n g ) l v . B E C A U S E T H E Y H A V E NO O W N - B E I N G , I N T H E I R E N T I R E S U B S T A N C E T H E Y A R E R E A L ( z h a n ) a y . T H E R E F O R E WE S A Y A L L B E I N G S A R E T H U S N E S S ( r u , t a t h a t a ) i w A N D D O N ' T H A V E T O WATT F O R E X T I N C T I O N ( m i e ) 1 * ' ^ 9 . T h e V i m a l a k T r t i n i r d e s a - s u t r a ( q i n g raing)^7'5^ s a y s , " A l l b e i n g s a r e T h u s n e s s , " I t a l s o s a y s , " A l l b e i n g s a r e m a r k e d w i t h m a r k s o f e x t i n c t i o n ( , 1 i - m i e ) l z . T h e y w o n ' t b e e x t i n g u i s h e d a g a i n ( w u f u g e n g m i e ) . " J U S T A S T H E M O V E M E N T - C H A R A C T E R I S T I C OF T H E W A V E S I S , I N I T S T O T A L I T Y , T H E S A M E A S T H E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C O F T H E W A T E R , W I T H NO D I F F E R E N C E W H A T S O E V E R . T h e p r e v i o u s g a t e w a y d e a l t w i t h t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e D h a r m a - b o d y , w h i c h w a s c a l l e d " a l l b e i n g s " . T h i s g a t e d e a l s w i t h t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f a l l b e i n g s , w h i c h i s t h e s a m e a s t h e D h a r m a - b o d y . T h e m e a n i n g i s o n e , t h o u g h t h e n a m e s a r e d i f f e r e n t , 9 ) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H A T T H E R E A L NOUMENON I S NOT P H E N O M E N A ( z h e n l i f e i s h i m e n ) j b . T H I S M E A N S T H A T N O U M E N O N , W H I C H I S T H E S A M E A S P H E N O M E N A , S T I L L I S NOT I D E N T I C A L W I T H P H E N O M E N A . T H I S I S B E C A U S E T R U E A N D F A L S E ( z h e n w a n g ) J ° A R E D I F F E R E N T , A N D B E C A U S E S O L I D I T Y I S NOT V O I D N E S S ( s h i f e i x u ) ^ d , A N D B E C A U S E T H A T W H I C H I S D E P E N D E N T I S NOT T H A T W H I C H C A N B E D E P E N D E D ON ( s u p y i f e i T h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e l a s t g a t e w a y [ N u m b e r 10~| o p p o s e s t h e s e t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s o n e b y o n e . H o w e v e r , t h e w r i t t e n w o r d i s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t a n d t h a t ' s a l l , J U S T A S T H E W A T E R W H I C H I S T H E S A M E A S T H E W A V E S S T I L L I S NOT I D E N T I C A L W I T H T H E W A V E S , B E C A U S E MOVEMENT A N D W E T N E S S A R E D I F F E R E N T . 1 0 7 10) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H A T P H E N O t f f i N A - D H A R M A S A R E NOT NOUMENON ( s h i - f a f e i l i m e n ) ^ . T H I S M E A N S T H A T T H E P H E N O M E N A W H I C H A R E E N T I R E L Y N O U M E N O N , A R E N E V E R N O U M E N O N , B E C A U S E T H E I R N A T U R E S ( x i a n g x i n g ) ^ q A R E D I F F E R E N T . F o r m e r l y h e s p o k e o f t r u e a n d f a l s e , r e a l a n d u n r e a l . N o w h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s o n l y o n e o p p o s i n g p a i r . B E C A U S E T H A T W H I C H I S D E P E N D E N T ( s u o v i ) d V I S NOT T H A T W H I C H I S D E P E N D E D O N , WE H A V E S O M E T H I N G T H A T I N I T S E N T I R E S U B S T A N C E I S C O M P L E T E L Y N O U M E N O N , A N D Y E T I S P H E N O M E N A L . T H E S E W O E N T I T I E S A R E M U T U A L L Y Y I E L D I N G ( y u a n - r a n ) 3 h , 5 Z , J U S T A S T H E W A V E S W H I C H A R E E N T I R E L Y W A T E R A R E NOT T H E W A T E R I T S E L F , B E C A U S E M O T I O N D O E S NOT M E A N . T H E S A M E A S W E T N E S S . i i G a t e w a y s s e v e n a n d e i g h t w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( j i e ) J [ s h o w e d t h a t n o u m e n o n a n d p h e n o m e n a ] a r e a l w a y s o n e . N i n e a n d t e n w i t h r e s p e c t t o T r u t h ( d i ) ^ s h o w e d t h e m t o b e a l w a y s t w o . F r o m h e r e b e l o w a r e t h e c o n c l u s i o n a n d e x h o r t a t i o n [ t o p r a c t i c e ] . F i r s t h e t i e s u p t h e f o r m e r m e a n i n g , T H E A B O V E T E N D O C T R I N E S A L L H A V E T O DO W I T H O N E A N D T H E S A M E T O P I Ct C O N D I T I O N E D A R I S I N G ( y u a n q i , p r a t l t y a s a m u t p a d a ) R e a l e m p t i n e s s ( z h e n k o n g ) a w h a s f o u r m e a n i n g s . 1) T h e f i r s t d o e s a w a y w i t h s e l f ( j i ) J 1 a n d i d e n t i f i e s w i t h o t h e r ( t a ) ^ . T h i s i s t h e t h i r d g a t e w a y [ i n w h i c h p h e n o m e n a a r e s h o w n t o h a v e n o i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d t o t o t a l l y r e l y o n n o u m e n o n , ] 2) T h e s e c o n d s u b m e r g e s o t h e r a n d r e t a i n s s e l f . T h i s i s n u m b e r f i v e [ i n w h i c h n o u m e n o n " s n a t c h e s a w a y " p h e n o m e n a , a g a i n b y v i r t u e o f t h e t o t a l d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e l a t t e r o n t h e f o r m e r , ] 3) I n t h e t h i r d b o t h s e l f a n d o t h e r a r e p r e s e r v e d . T h i s 108 is number nine [in which we find that Real Noumenon is not the same as phenomena, and each retains its own identity.] 4) In the fourth, both self and other are submerged. This is number seven [in which Real Noumenon is seen to be the same as phenomena, due to the Truth of no-self,] i n 3^ "Transcendental being" (miao you) J *° has four meanings, 1) The f i r s t hides other and retains self. This is the sixth gateway [in which phenomena are able to obscure noumenon, as they are the manifest member of the coalition,] 2) The second manifests other and exhausts self. This is number four [in which phenomena are able to manifest noumenon, yet they themselves are seen to be fundamentally unreal due to their grasping character.] 3) The third is number ten [i.e., phenomena-dharmas are not noumenon, Presumably here both self and other are submerged,] 4) The fourth is number eight [i.e., phenomena-dharmas are the same as noumenon. Presumably here both self and other are manifested,] Gateways one and two are general and so are not matched with anything else. The above i s the tying-up. Below is a separate l i s t of ten headings, BRIEFLY, FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF NOUMENON LOOKING AT PHENOMENA, THERE A RE i COMING INTO BEING (cheng) d u (#3) AND DISINTEGRATION (huai) h s (#5)j IDENTITY ( J i ) ^ 0 (#7) AND SEPARATION ( l i ) ^ (#9). FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF PHENOMENA LOOKING AT NOUMENON, THERE ARE: MANIFESTA-TION (xian) j q (#4) AND CONCEALMENT ( y i n ) j r (#6)5 SAMENESS (yi)* 5 5 (#8) AND DIFFERENCE ( y i ) ^ (#10). 109 [ C O N T R A R I E S A N D A C C O R D A N C E S A R E P E R F E C T L Y A T H O M E W I T H E A C H O T H E R , A N D A R E A B S O L U T E L Y W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . ] C O N T R A R I E S ( n i ) j U . . . [ T h e s e a r e g a t e w a y s n u m b e r ] 5>6,9» a n d 10, A N D A C C O R D A N C E S ( s h u n ) j V , , , 3,4,7, a n d 8. A R E P E R F E C T L Y A T H O M E W I T H E A C H O T H E R ( z i z a i ) J W » 5 * , C o m i n g t o b e i s t h e s a m e a s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d s o f o r t h , A N D A R E A B S O L U T E L Y W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N , C o m i n g t o b e d o e s n o t o b s t r u c t d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d s o f o r t h , A T T H E S A M E T I M E T H E Y S P O N T A N E O U S L Y ( d u n ) ^ x A R I S E . I t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f e a r l i e r a n d l a t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , p h e n o m e n a , h a v i n g n o s u b s t a n c e , d e p e n d o n c o n d i t i o n s . T h e y m a y b e c a l l e d p r o d u c e d o r d i s i n t e g r a t e d , e t c . , b u t n o t h i d d e n o r m a n i f e s t , e t c . T h e n o u m e n o n - n a t u r e i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y e x i s t e n t ( b e n y o u ) j y . I t m a y b e c a l l e d h i d d e n o r m a n i f e s t , e t c . , b u t n o t p r o d u c e d o r d i s i n t e g r a t e d . H e d o e s n ' t r e f e r [ i n t h i s l a s t l i s t o f c o m p a r i s o n s ] t o t h e f i r s t t w o g a t e w a y s , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t g a t e w a y s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n d e p e n d e n c e o n t h o s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e t w o m u t u a l p e r v a s i o n ( x i a n g b i a n ) ^ z g a t e w a y s h a v e n o s e p a r a t e o r d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n ' t d i s t i n -g u i s h e d a s h i d d e n o r m a n i f e s t , e t c . F r o m h e r e b e l o w h e e x h o r t s [ o n e t o p r a c t i c e , ] O N E S H O U L D D E E P L Y C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S T O L E T T H E M E D I T A T I O N C L E A R L Y M A N I F E S T I T S E L F . T H I S I S C A L L E D , " T H E C O N T E M P L A T I O N I N W H I C H NOUMENON A N D P H E N O M E N A P E R F E C T L Y B L E N D W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . " no F O O T N O T E S C H A P T E R 2 I n o t h e r words, the text has dealt with the abstract theory of T h u s n e s s , bub not the practical aspect of how i t is related to ordinary ' u o r l d l y phenomena. 2 To p u t t h e practice into action. 3 Along with the f i r s t two just named by Zong-rai, *I.e,, the practice of taking no stand on anything, 5TH.*t i s , the teaching common to a l l Mahayana schools. 6 Also known as yuan jiao 8^, i.e., the Hua-yan teaching of the n o n - o b s t r u c t i o n o f the various phenomena. 7 The one mark is emptiness. "Inform" is used in the sense that each is the formative principle of the other. The Chinese characters indicate that this is in the specific sense of giving form. Past, present, and future. 1 0That i s , there is no Dharma-nature that is somehow outside of time, 11 I.e., a l l Du-shun has said so far in this gateway. ^ 2I.e,, false viewsj see footnote 5» Chapter 1, I l l 1 3 ^ A p p a r e n t l y f o r Z o n g - m i , f e e l i n g s a r e c o m p l e x , h e n c e t h e y c o n -s i s t o f m o r e t h a n o n e d h a r m a . T h e f i v e e y e s a r e : 1 ) t h e o r d i n a r y , f l e s h y e y e } 2 ) t h e e y e o f t h e g o d s o f t h e m a t e r i a l r e a l m ; t h o s e w h o c u l t i v a t e m e d i t a t i o n c a n o b t a i n i t ; 3) t h e w i s d o m - e y e o f t h e H I n a y a n a ; 4 ) t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e B o d h i s a t t v a f e r r i e s a l l b e i n g s t o t h e o t h e r s h o r e ; 5) t h e B u d d h a ' s w i s d o m - e y e w h i c h i s t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s f o u r . • ^ T h i s i s a s o f t w a y o f s a y i n g " i m p o s s i b l e " , "*" 6 My i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p a s s a g e i s u n c e r t a i n . I t s e e m s t h a t f o r Z o n g - m i , t h e h i g h e s t t r u t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y i m m a n e n t , y e t c a n n o t b e k n o w n b y a n y w o r l d l y c a t e g o r i e s . 1 7 ' T h e s e a r e : t h e k a m a d h a t u - t h e r e a l m o f s e n s e a n d d e s i r e ; t h e r u p a d h a t u - t h e r e a l m o f f o r m ; a n d t h e a r u p a d h a t u - t h e r e a l m o f t h e f o r m l e s s o r u n c o n d i t i o n e d . 1 ff T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c ; t h e t e x t a p p e a r s c o r r u p t . 1 9 ^ T h a t i s , t h e t e x t d o e s n ' t d o t h i s f o r t h e r e a d e r , w h o i s u r g e d t o d o s o f o r h i m / h e r s e l f . 2 0 I . e . , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l n a t u r e o f e v e r y t h i n g e x i s t e n t . T h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o a f a m o u s t a l e f r o m H a n F e i - z i . w h i c h Z o n g - m i r e l a t e s i n b r i e f b e l o w . 2 2 T h i s t e r m i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s l a t e . M y t r a n s l a t i o n i s b a s e d o n a m e a n i n g o f " i n t e n d " w h i c h m a y b e a r c h a i c , i . e . " d i r e c t " , " t u r n " , o r " b e n d " . T h e s e n s e i s t h a t e a c h i s w h a t i t i s i n i t s e l f o n l y b e c a u s e o f w h a t i t i s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r , a n d y e t t h e s e t w o w a y s o f b e i n g a r e o f c o u r s e i n s e p a r a b l e . 2 3 T h a t i s , t h e y c a n b e t a k e n t o g e t h e r , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t a l i k e , w i t h o u t m a k i n g e i t h e r a n y l e s s i t s e l f . 24 I.e., of i t s atom-hood. ^He i s referring to the idea that there should be some of the noumenon lacking either inside or outside of the atom i t pervaded, i f i t was said to pervade a l l phenomena simultaneously. 26T x . , x i.e., not equal to noumenon, inferior, 27 I.e., staying where i t i s , without moving. 2p "Here Du-shun*s grammar and Zong-mi*s division of the phrases seem to indicate two distinct things, I have above translated Zong-rai's version, as indeed was incumbent on me. The following i s Du-shun's version, taken alone: A l l things that arise by virtue of causes are a l l without own-nature, because they depend on noumenon, 29 bs zhong lun , Taisho #1564, written by Nagarjuna, translated by Kuraarajlva, 30 I was unable to trace this quotation, 31 The Sanskrit word can mean two things: the Buddha-erabryo, which i s in a l l things; or the Buddha-womb, from which a l l things are produced, Zong-mi appears to take the l a t t e r meaning. Some of the quotations below (e.g. from the Lankavatara) may take the embryo meaning, 32 I if -f °4u — j f c j^isAfL ^JW kM-Taisho #353, translated by Gunabhadra. The f i r s t half of the quotation can be found on page 222b,5, I could not find the second half i n the Sutra, 33 -I.e., samsara. 34 I could not find this exact quotation. The closest I could find i s the following, from Gunabhadra (Taisho' #670, p, 510b,4-5) 113 and S i k s a n a n d a (TaishS #672, p. 6l9c.l) both: t i ^ ^  ^- ^ 35 /|5 -f s d a sheng oJL xin lun, Taisho #1666 by Paramlrtha, #1667 by Siksananda, This work now appears to have been a Chinese original, though the Chinese themselves early considered i t a translation of a MahayanasraddhotpSdasIstra, attributed to Asvaghosa0/ Cf, Walter Liebenthal, "New Light on the Mahayana-Sraddhotpada SSstra," T'oung Pao, Vol. 46, 1958, pp. 155-216 for f u l l treatment of the possible author of this treatise. This particular quotation can be found in the Paramartha version on page 276b,8, and in the s'iksananda version on page 585a,4, 36 This quotation can be found in the Avatamsaka-stttra, Chapter 10, "The Bodhisattva's Questions Concerning Understanding," p, 66b,18, 3 7The Paramartha/version has: f. 0t % ^ i & l The Siksananda version is rather different in this p a s s a g e , ~ 00 It is unreal because i t is ephemeral, 39 " I have been unable to locate either this verse or this quotation, I suspect, however, that i t can be found somewhere in the Avata&saka-sutra (TaishS #278, 279), and indeed there are passages and language similar to this therein, ^Reading ~fi. Pf M as either ^ Ff % or 41 The "Sun" Buddha| the Buddha of the Hua-yan-.jing, and hence especially dear to the Hua-yan school, 4? , This is the "Thus-Come One's Manifestation" Chapter of the Siksananda version of the Avatamsaka-sutra (Taisho #279), The quotation can*be found on page 275b,7-8, 43 _ _ This is a reference to the maya-like or magically unreal nature of existence. See above, footnote 37, Chapter 1. 114 45 -This quotation can be found in the Avatamsaka-sutra, Chapter 10, "The Bodhisattva's Questions Concerning Understanding," p. 66c.20, 46 The relation of this quotation to the above is difficult to determine. 47 T I.e., waves. *8I,e,, water, 49 I.e., they don't have to pass out of their worldly, finite, material state in order to be real. This is a statement on the funda-mental Mahayana thesis that samsara and nirvana are one, 5°This Sutra can be found in the Taisho by the following trans-lators: Zhi-qian (#474), Kuraarajlva (#475)» Xuan-zang (#476), Dharmaraksa (#4-77), Upalunya (#4?8), and Jnanagupta (#479), The first quotation can be found in the Kumarajlva version, p, 542b,12, The second is a non-verbatim citation of the same version, p. 542b.l8-19. •^T.e,, there is only one comparison, 52Each is just as i t is and yet is utterly the other, because its own-nature is the same as the other's, 53 The best source for an understanding of this terms is Leon Hurvitz's Chih-I, cited above. For Chih-I (and I suspect for Zong-mi as well), "a prime emphasis on 'emptiness' could not but be unsatis-factory, , , , The truth was a truth of being, not of the absence of being, but, of being seen through a different pair of eyes. The technical term for i t is miao vu J ^ / ^  ." (p. 272) "The cognizing mind and the cognized objects are interdependent, and the sphere in which they exist in a state of interdependence is a third realm transcending both of them," A footnote to the terms "exist" in this passage states: "The word is used advisedly. Though he might insist t h a t h e i s a t r u e d i s c i p l e o f M g a r j u n a , C h i h - I w o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h e l a t t e r ' s f o r m u l a t i o n t h a t t h i n g s n e i t h e r e x i s t n o r d o n o t e x i s t . F o r h i m t h i n g s d e f i n i t e l y e x i s t , b u t i n a m i a o y u w a y , " T o i l l u s t r a t e : " . . . t h e w o r l d o f m i a o v u i s l i k e t h e s c e n e o n w h i c h m i r r o r i m a g e s a p p e a r , i f o n e w i l l i g n o r e t h e o b j e c t s t h a t p r o v i d e t h e m i r r o r w i t h t h e r e f l e c t i o n s . , , , T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , o n e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e . T h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m i r r o r r e m a i n s , w h e t h e r a n y t h i n g i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t o r n o t . T h e m i n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s i n t e r p r e t e d b y C h i h - I , h a s n o i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e a s a s u b s t a n t i a l e n t i t y , b u t s t a n d s i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t s t h a t a r e r e f l e c t e d i n i t , . . . " ( p p . 272-3) T h i s t e r m , t h o u g h v e r y d e s c r i p t i v e , i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s l a t e . O n t h e f a c e o f i t , i t i s c l o s e t o t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g a t h o m e w i t h o n e s e l f , b u t i t h a s a n a d d e d s e n s e o f p e r f e c t f r e e d o m a n d o f t h e s t a t e o f t h i n g s a s t h e y s h o u l d b e . 116 CHAPTER 3 T H E CONTEMPLATION OF UNIVERSAL INCLUSION (zhou bian han rong guan)^ a The contemplation of 'universal inclusion i s the [realm of"] the non-kb obstruction of the various phenomena among themselves (shi shi wu ai) , The text has three partsi 1) theme, 2) explanation, and 3) conclusion and exhortation, P H E N O M E N A , L I K E NOUMENON, BLEND (rong)**. Each and every phenomenon i s l i k e noumenon, therefore phenomena blend Ice and pass through each other (rong tong) , This means i f we only look into this from the point of view of phenomena, then the various phenom-ena obstruct one another. I f we only look into this from the point of view of noumanon, then a mutual obstruction i s not possible, but kd 1 also a universal inclusion i s not possible (bian rong) ' , But now because phenomena, l i k e noumenon, blend, there are ten gateways of non-obstruction, ke T H E Y E V E R Y W H E R E EMBRACE (she) WITHOUT OBSTRUCTION, kf 2 Noumenon contains the myriad potentialities (wan de) ' , There i s nothing that can be likened to i t . In sum, noumenon has the two meanings of empty space (xu)* 3 7 and real emptiness (kong)*3* and i s kh 3 called "universally inclusive" (p_u bian han rong) ' , k k i • • • AMD I N T E R M I N G L E (jiao can) They pass t h r o u g h (she) k^ and enter ( r u ) c p each other. 117 P E R F E C T L Y F R E E L Y ( z i z a l ) ^ ' S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , e a c h a c t s u p o n t h e o t h e r s a n d i s a c t e d u p o n b y t h e o t h e r s ( h u w e i n e n ^ s u o ) ' * , I N S U M , W E D I S T I N G U I S H T E N G A T E W A Y S . T h e f i r s t i s t h e b a s i s o f D h a r m a a n d d o c t r i n e ( f a y j i ) ^ " * " , a n d s u b s t a n c e a n d f u n c t i o n ( t i y o n g ) * q n t T h e s e c o n d i s u n i v e r s a l i t y ( z h o u b i a n ) ^ * * . T h e t h i r d i s i n c l u s i o n ( h a n r o n g ) ^ 0 . W h e n t h e s e t h r e e a r e c o m p l e t e , t h e n [ g a t e w a y ] 4 e x p l a i n s 2, 5 e x p l a i n s 3, 6 a n d 7 b o t h c o m p r i s e h i ( s h o u ) 4 a n d 5, 8 a n d 9 b l e n d w i t h a n d e m b r a c e 6 a n d 7. 10 c o m -p r i s e s 8 a n d 9, 1) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H A T NOUMENON I S L I K E P H E N O M E N O N ( l i r u s h i m e n ) ^ 5 . B e c a u s e t h i s R e a l N o u m e n o n ( z h e n l i ) g q i s e n t i r e l y p h e n o m e n a l , l i k e p h e n o m e n a i t i s m a n i f e s t e d , l i k e p h e n o m e n a i t i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( c h a  b i e ) k q , L i k e p h e n o m e n a i t , i s g r e a t a n d s m a l l , o n e a n d m a n y , s u b j e c t t o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a n d c h a n g e l i m i t l e s s l y a n d i n e x h a u s t i b l y . T h e r e i s a [ c o p y o f t h e ] t e x t , t h e t h e m e o f w h i c h s a y s , " N o u m e n o n , l i k e p h e -n o m e n a , i s m a n i f e s t e d ; p h e n o m e n a , l i k e n o u m e n o n , a r e u n i v e r s a l , " T h i s i s b e c a u s e w h e n o n e f i r s t l o o k s a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n , o n e f i n d s b o t h t h e m e a n i n g s o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n a n d u n i v e r s a l i t y . H o w e v e r , u p o n c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o n e f i n d s o m i t t e d a n y s i g n o f f u r t h e r m e a n i n g s [ o t h e r t h a n m a n i f e s t a t i o n " ! , ^ T H I S M E A N S T H A T S I N C E P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S A R E V O I D ( x u ) b y , T H E R E I S NO S I G N ( x i a n g ) 1 T H A T F A I L S T O B E E X H A U S T E D . kr T h e y d o n ' t h a v e t o w a i t t o b e e x t i n g u i s h e d ( m i n ) , T H E N O U M E N O N - N A T U R E I S T R U E R E A L I T Y ( z h e n s h i ) . I T S S U B S T A N C E N E V E R F A I L S T O M A N I F E S T I T S E L F . 118 When the Real Noumenon is together with a l l the things of the thousand's and ten-thousand's of differences and distinctions, then i t is plainly manifest. For example, i t is the objects of the eyes and the ears; i t is a pot of mustard, or refined gold. When things take the shape of a Buddha, Eodhisattva, monk, and so forth, extending to a l l beings and a l l forms in the six destinies, then, at any given moment, of a l l the shapes which are manifested, there i s not the least bit that is hidden ( y i n ) j r . Also, there is not the least bit that does not take shape. Now the noumenon-nature is also like this. There is not the least bit that is hidden, nor is there the least bit that isn't phenomenal (shi) X, This is not the same as [chapter l's"| contemplative view of real emptiness. Also, in the "Phenomena are Snatched Away by Means of Noumenon" gateway [Chapter 2, #5]f i t was only noumenon that was manifest. Therefore, next he says, THERE IS NO PHENOMENON THAT IS NOTHING BUT PHENOMENON, BECAUSE ALL OF NOUMENON IS PHENOMENAL. Above is the explanation. Below he uses humans to demonstrate i t , THIS IS THE REASON EVEN THOUGH A BODHISATTVA SEES PHENOMENA, THIS SEEING IS A CONTEMPLATION OF NOUMENON, AND YET HE SAYS THESE PHENOMENA ARE NOT THE SAME AS NOUMENON. Because noumenon doesn't injure the phenomena, . 2) THE GATEWAY THAT DEMONSTRATES THE PHENOMENA ARE LIKE NOUMENON (shi ru l i men) . ku Each and every phenomenon, like noumenon, is ubiquitous (pu bian) , broad, and great; like noumenon, each penetrates the three times; l i k e n o u m e n o n , e a c h d w e l l s c o n t i n u a l l y a s i t d i d o r i g i n a l l y ( c h a n g  z h u b e n r a n ) ^ ' ^ . T H I S M E A N S T H A T A L L P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S A R E NOT D I F F E R E N T F R O M N O U M E N O N . F i r s t h e b r i n g s o u t t h e r e a s o n f o r [ p h e n o m e n a ' s " ! u b i q u i t y . B e c a u s e o f t h e f i r s t g a t e w a y ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t n o u m e n o n i s l i k e p h e n o m e n a , p h e n o m e n a a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m n o u m e n o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e e a c h i s u n i v e r s a l . S o t h i s m a k e s o n e p a i r w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g g a t e w a y . F u r -t h e r m o r e , i n t h e l a t e r g a t e s [3 a n d 4], b y s e t t i n g " n o t - s a m e " a n d " n o t - d i f f e r e n t " a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r , u b i q u i t y ( n e n g b i a n ) * ^ a n d k x i n c l u s i o n ( n e n g h a n ) m a k e a n o t h e r p a i r , T H E R E F O R E P H E N O M E N A , I N A C C O R D A N C E W I T H N O U M E N O N , A R E U T T E R L Y U B I Q U I T O U S ( y u a n b i a n ) 1 * 7 . T h i s i s t h e g e n e r a l t h e m e o f t h e t e a c h i n g . B e l o w h e s e p a r a t e l y d e m -o n s t r a t e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f u b i q u i t y , T H I S C A U S E S O N E A T O M T O U N I V E R S A L L Y P E R V A D E T H E E N T I R E D H A R M A -R E A L M ( f a - . 1 l e ) r . W H E N T H E D H A R M A - R E A L M I N I T S E N T I R E S U B S T A N C E P E R V A D E S A L L D H A R M A S , T H I S O N E M I N U T E A T O M A L S O , L I K E T H E N O U M E N O N - N A T U R E , I S E N T I R E L Y W I T H I N A L L D H A R M A S . P r o v i s i o n a l l y c i t i n g o n e p h e n o m e n o n , h e e x p l a i n s i t a s a n e x a m p l e , A S O N E M I N U T E A T O M , S O A R E A L L P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S . 6 7 A n a l a g o u s l y , a l l B u d d h a s , B o d h i s a t t v a s , p r a t y e k a b u d d h a s , s r a v a k a s , a n d s o f o r t h , e x t e n d i n g t o a l l b e i n g s i n t h e s i x d e s t i n i e s — e a c h a n d e v e r y o n e i s l i k e t h i s , 3) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS O N E P H E N O M E N O N I N C L U D E S B O T H NOUMENON A N D A L L P H E N O M E N A ( s h i h a n l i s h i m e n ) k z . T h e t e x t h a s t w o p a r t s . T h e f i r s t i s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n p r o p e r o f t h i s g a t e w a y . T h e s e c o n d I s t h e g e n e r a l b l e n d i n g o f t h e f i r s t t w o g a t e w a y s . T H I S M E A N S T H A T B E C A U S E A L L P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S A R E NOT T H E S A M E A S N O U M E N O N , I F Y O U M A I N T A I N O N E O R I G I N A L P H E N O M E N O N ( c u n b e n ) l a , I T S T I L L I S C A P A B L E OF B R O A D I N C L U S I O N ( g u a n g r o n g ) l b . J U S T S O , ONE M I N U T E A T O M , THOUGH I T S F O R M I S NOT L A R G E , S T I L L C A N C O N T A I N T H E I N F I N I T E D H A R M A - R E A L M . I N D E E D S I N C E A L L D H A R M A S OF A L L C O S M O S E S A R E NOT S E P A R A T E F R O M T H E D H A R M A - R E A L M , A L L A R E M A N I F E S T E D W I T H I N O N E A T O M . T h i s p o i n t s o u t t h e o n e [ p h e n o m e n o n p r o v i s i o n a l l y c i t e d a b o v e ] a s a n e x a m p l e . B e c a u s e t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d o n e p h e n o m e n o n i n c l u d e s n o u m e -n o n , a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g p h e n o m e n a a n d t h i s n o u m e n o n w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t i n s u b s t a n c e . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e n o u m e n o n w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d , a l l [ p h e n o m e n a ] a r e m a n i f e s t e d w i t h i n t h e o n e p h e n o m e n o n . A n d y e t i t a l s o i s n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m n o u m e n o n , a n d t h i s i s t h e o n l y r e a s o n t h a t i t c a n c o n t a i n t h e m . M e r e l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t h e m e ' s i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n o n - i d e n t i t y [ o f t h e p h e n o m e n a a n d n o u m e n o n ] , t h e r e a s o n h e f o c u s e s o n k e e p i n g t h e o r i g i n a l o n e p h e n o m e n o n a s a c o n t a i n -g i n g d h a r m a , i s b e c a u s e i t t h u s c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e f o r m e r g a t e w a y s . A S O N E A T O M , S O A L L D H A R M A S A R E T H U S . B E C A U S E T H I S NOUMENON A N D P H E N O M E N A B L E N D A N D P E R M E A T E E A C H O T H E R , A N D B E C A U S E T H E Y A R E N E I T H E R T H E S A M E NOR D I F F E R E N T , G E N E R A L L Y T H E R E A R E F O U R P R O P O S I T I O N S . F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f w h a t i n c l u d e s , a l l [ t h e f o l l o w i n g J c o n t a i n t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g n o t t h e s a m e a s , a n d n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m n o u m e n o n . 121 B e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t t h e s a m e , t h e r e i s a n a t u r e w h i c h i s p o t e n t i a l l y i n c l u s i v e ( y o u t i w e i n e n g h a n ) l c . I t i s o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s t h e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f i n c l u s i o n ( y o u y o n g f a n g \ l d n e n g h a n y_e) , 1) I N S I D E O N E I S O N E . T h e f i r s t " o n e " c o n t a i n s t h e s e c o n d " o n e " . T h e f i r s t " o n e " i s t h e i n c l u d e r ( n e n g h a n ) l e ; t h e s e c o n d " o n e " i s w h a t i s p e r v a d e d ( s u o b i a n ) 1 * 1 . T h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d a n a l a g o u s l y , 2) I N S I D E A L L T H E R E I S O N E . 3) I N S I D E O N E T H E R E I S A L L . 4) I N S I D E A L L T H E R E I S A L L . E A C H H A S I T S R E A S O N . C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S . D i s c u s s i n g t h e s e f o u r t o g e t h e r , w e s a y t h e f o l l o w i n g . I n e v e r y c a s e , t h e f i r s t m e m b e r i s w h a t i n c l u d e s a n d h e n c e i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o w h a t i s p e r v a d e d . T h e l a t t e r m e m b e r i s w h a t p e r v a d e s a n d h e n c e c o r r e s p o n d s t o w h a t i s i n c l u d e d . I f y o u l i k e n t h i s t o t h e m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e o n e a n d t h e m a n y , t h e n i t i s a b i t d i f f e r e n t . I n t h a t c a s e , #2 i s t h e " p e r v a s i o n " m e a n i n g ? #3 i s t h e " i n c l u s i o n " m e a n i n g , - ^ t h e f i n a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s b o t h i n c l u s i o n a n d p e r v a s i o n , a n d t h e f i r s t o n e i s n e i t h e r . I n t h i s f i n a l c a s e , o n e c a n o n l y s p e a k i n t e r m s o f e m b r a c i n g ( s h e ) k e a n d e n t e r i n g ( r u ) c p . W h e n y o u a r r i v e a t t h e f o l l o w i n g , t h a t s h o u l d b e c l e a r , 4) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H E N O N - O B S T R U C T I O N OF T H E U B I Q U I T O U S A N D T H E B O U N D E D ( t o n g J u w u a i m e n ) 1 1 . T h i s e x p l a i n s g a t e w a y #2, T h e s e c o n d g a t e w a y o n l y d e a l t w i t h u b i q u i t y ( t o n g ) 0 3 . B u t n o w w i t h o u t d o i n g d a m a g e t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , w e a l s o h a v e t h e n o n - u b i q u i t o u s . T h u s u b i q u i t y c o m p r i s e s t h e b o u n d e d a s w e l l . T H I S M E A N S T H A T A L L P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S A N D N O U M E N O N ' S B E I N G N O N - I D E N T I C A L I S T H E S A M E A S T H E I R B E I N G N O N - D I F F E R E N T . C O N -S E Q U E N T L Y , T H E S E P H E N O M E N A - D H A R M A S , W I T H O U T S E P A R A T I N G F R O M T H E I R R E S P E C T I V E P L A C E S , E N T I R E L Y P E R V A D E A L L A T O M S OF T H E T E N D I R E C T I O N S . B E C A U S E T H E I R N O N - D I F F E R E N C E I S T H E S A M E A S T H E I R N O N - I D E N T I T Y , T H E Y E N T I R E L Y P E R V A D E T H E T E N D I R E C T I O N S W I T H O U T M O V I N G F R O M T H E I R R E S P E C -T I V E P O S I T I O N S . A C C O R D I N G L Y , D I S T A N T I S N E A R , A N D A L L - P E R V A S I V E [ I N T H E S E N S E OF G O I N G E V E R Y W H E R E ] I S S T A T I O N A R Y , A B S O L U T E L Y W I T H O U T H I N D R A N C E O R O B S T R U C T I O N . 5 ) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H E N O N - O B S T R U C T I O N OF T H E B R O A D A N D T H E NARROW ( g u a n g x l a w u a i m e n ) l j . T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e t h i r d g a t e w a y , T H I S M E A N S T H A T B E C A U S E P H E N O M E N A A N D N O U M E N O N ' S N O N - I D E N T I T Y I S T H E S A M E A S T H E I R N O N - D I F F E R E N C E , A S I N G L E A T O M I S UNHARMED A N D Y E T B R O A D L Y C O N T A I N S T H E L A N D S A N D S E A S I N A L L T E N D I R E C T I O N S . B E C A U S E T H E I R N O N - D I F F E R E N C E I S T H E S A M E A S T H E I R N O N - I D E N T I T Y , [ A N A T O M ] B R O A D L Y C O N T A I N S T H E T E N D I R E C T I O N S O F T H E D H A R M A - R E A L M , A N D Y E T T H I S M I N U T E A T O M I S NOT L A R G E . S O I T I S , T H E N , T H A T O N E A T O M O F P A R T I C U -L A R I T Y ( y i c h e n z h i s h i ) l k I S B E D A D A N D N A R R O W , G R E A T A N D S M A L L , W I T H O U T H I N D R A N C E O R O B S T R U C T I O N . 6 ) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H E N O N - O B S T R U C T I O N OF P E R V A D I N G A N D C O N T A I N I N G ( b i a n r o n g w u a i m e n ) 1 1 . T h e t w o g a t e w a y s # 6 a n d # 7 p a i r u p ( h e ) w i t h # 4 a n d # 5 J [ # 4 a n d I n # 5 ] u n i t e ( , j i a n ) w i t h # 2 a n d # 3 . B e c a u s e b r o a d l y c o n t a i n i n g ( g u a n g  r o n g ) 1 * 3 a n d u n i v e r s a l l y p e r v a d i n g ( p u b i a n ) * 0 1 a r e n o t s e p a r a t e f r o m e a c h o t h e r , a l t h o u g h # 2 a n d # 4 o n l y p e r v a d e , a n d # 3 a n d # 5 o n l y 123 c o n t a i n , n o w w e p a i r t h e m . A t t h e s a m e t i m e i t i s o n l y b e c a u s e h e d e a l s w i t h t h e s e t w o m o d e s a l t e r n a t e l y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e o n e a n d t h e m a n y , t h a t h e c o m p l e t e s t h e t w o g a t e w a y s #6 a n d #7. I n t h e t e x t t h e r e a r e t w o p a i r s . 1) F i r s t h e m a k e s c l e a r t h a t p e r v a -d i n g i s t h e s a m e a s c o n t a i n i n g , 2) L a t e r h e s h o w s t h a t c o n t a i n i n g i s t h e s a m e a s p e r v a d i n g , T H I S M E A N S T H A T T H I S O N E A T O M L O O K S T O A L L ( w a n g ) 1 * ' 1 1 , B E C A U S E U N I V E R S A L L Y P E R V A D I N G I S T H E S A M E A S B R O A D L Y C O N T A I N I N G . 1 2 W h e n o n e l o o k s t o t h e m a n y , t h e r e a r e t h e s e n s e s o f p e r v a d i n g a n d c o n -t a i n i n g . T h i s i s b e c a u s e e a c h a n d e v e r y [ o n e o f * ] t h e m a n y c a n b e p e r v a d e d , a n d b e c a u s e e a c h a n d e v e r y o n e c a n b e c o n t a i n e d . I f t h e m a n y w e r e l o o k i n g t o t h e o n e , t h e r e w o u l d n ' t b e t h i s s e n s e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e i f w h a t i s l o o k e d t o i s o n l y o n e , i t w o u l d b e i m p r o p e r t o s p e a k o f p e r v a d i n g o r c o n t a i n i n g . O n e s h o u l d o n l y s p e a k o f e m b r a c i n g a n d e n t e r i n g . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e l a t e r g a t e w a y [#7], T H E R E F O R E WHEN O N E A T O M P E R V A D E S ( M a n ) 5 * A L L , I T A L S O , O N T H E O T H E R H A N D , E M B R A C E S ( s h e ) k e A L L D H A R M A S , W H I C H A L L S E T T L E ( z h u ) l Q W I T H I N I T , T h i s m e a n s w h e n t h e o n e p e r v a d e s t h e m a n y , i t o n c e a g a i n e m b r a c e s w i t h i n i t s e l f t h e m a n y t h a t a r e p e r v a d e d . U s i n g m i r r o r s a n d a l a m p t o i l l u s t r a t e i 3 " 3 I f i n t h e f o u r p o i n t s a n d t h e f o u r m i d - p o i n t s , a n d a l s o a b o v e a n d b e l o w , o n e d i s p l a y s e i g h t m i r r o r s j a n d i f i n e a c h p l a c e o n e p u t s a m i r r o r , t h i s m a k e s t e n . A n d i f i n s i d e a l l o f t h e s e o n e p l a c e s o n e l a m p , t h e n t h e t e n m i r r o r s e n t e r e a c h o t h e r ( h u r u ) l p > 1 ^ F U R T H E R M O R E , B E C A U S E B R O A D L Y C O N T A I N I N G I S T H E S A M E A S U N I V E R S A L L Y P E R V A D I N G , T H I S O N E A T O M O N C E A G A I N P E R V A D E S E A C H OF T H E D I S C R E T E D H A R M A S W H I C H A R E [ C O N T A I N E D ! W I T H I N I T S E L F . R e v e r s i n g t h e a b o v e [ i l l u s t r a t i o n " ! , w h e n o n e c o n t a i n s n i n e , t h i s i s t h e s a m e a s i t s p e r v a d i n g n i n e , T H I S I S T H E R E A S O N WHEN T H I S A T O M I T S E L F P E R V A D E S T H E O T H E R S , I T I S T H E S A M E A S T H E O T H E R S P E R V A D I N G I T . T H E T H I N G T H A T B O T H C O N T A I N S A N D E N T E R S , S I M U L T A N E O U S L Y P E R V A D E S A N D E M B R A C E S , W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S , 7) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H E N O N - O B S T R U C T I O N OF E M B R A C I N G AND E N T E R I N G ( s h e r u w u a i m e n ) l q . T H I S M E A N S A L L T H E O T H E R S L O O K T O T H E O N E D H A R M A . T h i s r e v e r s e s t h e a b o v e [#6], T h e r e f o r e b o t h t h e w r i t t e n w o r d a n d t h e m e a n i n g a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d . H e r e t o o a r e t w o p a i r s , B E C A U S E E N T E R I N G O T H E R S I S T H E S A M E A S E M B R A C I N G O T H E R S , " E n t e r i n g " i s t h e s a m e a s " p e r v a d i n g " , w h i c h w a s f o r m e r l y u s e d j " e m b r a c i n g " i s t h e s a m e a s " c o n t a i n i n g " w h i c h w a s f o r m e r l y u s e d . S i n c e t h e m a n y a r e l o o k i n g t o t h e o n e , t h e r e a r e n o " m a n y " w h i c h c a n b e p e r v a d e d , 1 5 T h e r e f o r e h e s p e a k s o f e n t e r i n g . T h e r e a r e n o " m a n y " w h i c h c a n b e c o n t a i n e d , t h e r e f o r e h e s p e a k s o f e m b r a c i n g , 1 6 WHEN A L L E N T I R E L Y E N T E R I N T O O N E , T H I S E N A B L E S T H E O N E T O O N C E A G A I N B E W I T H I N E V E R Y T H I N G W H I C H I S W I T H I N I T S E L F , S I M U L T A N E O U S L Y A N D W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S , W h e n t h e m a n y e n t e r t h e o n e , t h e y o n c e a g a i n e m b r a c e t h e o n e w h i c h t h e y e n t e r e d , s o t h a t i t , w h i c h i s w i t h i n t h e m , a g a i n e n t e r s t h e m . J u s t a s w h e n n i n e m i r r o r s e n t e r i n t o t h e o n e m i r r o r , t h i s i s t h e s a m e a s t h e i r e m b r a c i n g t h e o n e m i r r o r , s o t h a t i t i s w i t h i n t h e n i n e m i r r o r s [ t h a t e n t e r i t " ) . T h e y a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d r e c i p r o c a l ( j i a o h u ) l s . T h e r e f o r e h e s a y s t h e r e i s n o o b s t r u c t i o n . 125 F U R T H E R M O R E , B E C A U S E E M B R A C I N G O T H E R S I S T H E S A M E A S E N T E R I N G O T H E R S , R e v e r s i n g t h e a b o v e " e n t e r i n g " h e h a s " e m b r a c i n g " , T H E R E F O R E , O N E D H A R M A , T h i s i s w h a t i s e m b r a c e d ( s u o s h e ) 1 * , WHEN I T I S E N T I R E L Y W I T H I N A L L , T h e m a n y e m b r a c e i t ( s h e z h i ) l u , I N R E T U R N C A U S E S A L L , , . T h i s i s w h a t e n t e r s ( n e n g r u ) l v , T O B E A L W A Y S W I T H I N O N E , / \ l w T h e o n e i s w h a t i s e n t e r e d ( s u o r u ) , S I M U L T A N E O U S L Y A N D W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S . T h i s m e a n s e v e r y s i n g l e o n e o f t h e n i n e e m b r a c e s t h e o n e . W h e n t h e o n e i s i n s i d e t h e n i n e , t h e n i n e a l t o g e t h e r e n t e r i n t o t h e o n e m i r r o r , 8 ) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H E N O N - O B S T R U C T I O N OF I N T E R P E N E T R A -T I O N ( j i a o s h e w u a i m e n ) 1 * . T h e t w o g a t e w a y s #6 a n d #7 f o c u s o n t h e o n e a n d t h e m a n y l o o k i n g t o e a c h o t h e r . B e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a n i n g b e t w e e n a c t i v i t y a n d p a s s i v i t y ( n e n g s u o ) 1 7 , t h e r e w a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d p e r v a d i n g a n d c o n -t a i n i n g , e m b r a c i n g a n d e n t e r i n g . B u t n o w t h e m a n y e m b r a c i n g o n e a n d e n t e r i n g o n e i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e o n e e m b r a c i n g t h e m a n y a n d e n t e r i n g t h e m a n y . I n g e n e r a l , a c t i v i t y i s p a s s i v i t y , e m b r a c i n g i s e n t e r i n g , o n e i s m a n y . A l l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n d u n i v e r s a l l y c o n t a i n a l l , w i t h o u t o b s t r u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e h e s p e a k s o f i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n ( . j i a o s h e ) l z . T h i s m e a n s " m u t u a l l y ( j i a o x i a n g ) m a i n t e r c o n n e c t e d ( g u a n s h e ) r a b " , T H I S M E A N S WHEN O N E DHARMA L O O K S T O A L L T H E R E I S E M B R A C I N G A N D E N T E R I N G , T O U N D E R S T A N D T H I S T H E R E A R E F O U R P R O P O S I T I O N S . A l t h o u g h i t m a y s e e m t h a t t h e r e a r e e i g h t p r o p o s i t i o n s , i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n p a i r s . I f i t w e r e a s k e d , " S i n c e y o u a r e c o m b i n i n g t h e a b o v e t w o g a t e w a y s , h o w c a n y o u o n l y s p e a k o f u n i t i n g a n d e n t e r i n g , a n d n o t s p e a k o f p e r v a d i n g a n d c o n t a i n i n g ? " t h e a n s w e r w o u l d b e , " H e f i r s t f o c u s e d o n s e p a r a t i n g t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e o n e a n d t h e m a n y l o o k i n g t o e a c h o t h e r a n d s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e t w o g a t e w a y s b y n a m e . B u t n o w , s i n c e t h e y a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d m u t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l , p e r v a d i n g i s t h e s a m e a s e n t e r i n g , a n d c o n t a i n i n g i s t h e s a m e a s e m b r a c i n g . I f I w e r e t o e x p l a i n f u r t h e r t h e f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s o f p e r v a d i n g a n d c o n -t a i n i n g , t h e r e w o u l d b e d u p l i c a t i o n o f w o r d i n g a n d s e n s e . I f p r o p o -s i t i o n b y p r o p o s i t i o n , I w e r e t o s a y , " e m b r a c e s a n d c o n t a i n s a l l , p e r v a d e s a n d e n t e r s a l l , ' e t c , , t h e n t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e t e x t w o u l d b e v e r b o s e a n d c o n f u s i n g . T h e r e f o r e I o n l y s a y ' e m b r a c e * a n d ' e n t e r ' . I t i s t h e s a m e a s ' p e r v a d e ' a n d ' c o n t a i n ' , " I f s o m e o n e w e r e t o a s k , " I f t h e o n e a n d t h e m a n y a r e m u t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l , t h e n w h y d o w e a g a i n g e t t h i s t h e m e s a y i n g ' o n e l o o k s t o a l l , ' a n d a l a t e r g a t e w a y [#9] s a y i n g , ' a l l l o o k t o o n e ' ? " t h e r e p l y w o u l d b e , " A l t h o u g h y o u r a i s e u p ' t h e o n e ' a s s u b j e c t , t h e r e i s a l s o s i m u l t a n e i t y a n d m u t u a l i t y ( h u i h u ) m c . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e f i r s t p h r a s e , ' o n e l o o k s t o a l l * s a y s e m b r a c e s a n d e n t e r s , a n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e , ' a l l l o o k s t o o n e ' s a y s e m b r a c e s a n d e n t e r s . T h e t h i r d i s o n e l o o k i n g t o o n e a n d t h e f o u r t h i s a l l l o o k i n g t o a l l , a n d i n t h e m t h e w o r d i n g i s a p p a r e n t . G r a n t e d t h a t t h e t w o g a t e w a y s [#8 a n d #9] a r e p a i r e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a n d t h a t 127 e a c h r a i s e s u p o n e c a s e , i n f a c t , e a c h r e c i p r o c a l l y c o n t a i n s a l l o f t h e m w i t h i n i t s e l f . T h e r e f o r e t h e t e n t h g a t e w a y s u m s t h e m u p a n d n a m e s t h e m ' u n i v e r s a l b l e n d i n g ' (p_u r o n g ) , Y e t t h e r e i s n o d u p l i c a -t i o n i n t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e g a t e w a y s . W h e n w e g e t t o t h e l a s t g a t e w a y , w e w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t , " [ T H I S M E A N S T H E O N E E M B R A C E S A L L A N D E N T E R S A L L . ] T H I S M E A N S T H E O N E E M B R A C E S . . , I f y o u c i t e a n e a s t e r n m i r r o r a s s o m e t h i n g t h a t e m b r a c e s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t e n t e r s a n d w i t h t h a t w h i c h i s 17 m e e m b r a c e d . T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s " o n e e n t e r s " ( v i r u ) w h i c h o c c u r b e l o w . T h i s e n t e r e r ( n e n g r u ) i s t h e s a m e a s t h e o t h e r , w h i c h i s e m b r a c e d ( s u o s h e ) „ T h e e m b r a c e r ( n e n g s h e ) i s t h e s a m e a s t h e o t h e r , w h i c h i s e n t e r e d ( s u o r u ) l w , " O t h e r " ( b i ) m g m e a n s m h " a l l " ( y i q i e ) , T h u s t h e a b o v e e x p l a n a t i o n s a y s a c t i v i t y i s p a s s i v i t y , e m b r a c i n g i s e n t e r i n g , o n e i s m a n y , A L L ; I f y o u c i t e n i n e m i r r o r s a s w h a t i s e m b r a c e d ( s u o s h e ) 1 * , s i r a u l t a n e -l w o u s l y , t h e y a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h w h a t i s e n t e r e d ( s u o r u ) a n d t h e m f e m b r a c e r ( n e n g s h e ) . T h i s i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s " a l l " l a t e r c i t e d . E a c h a n d e v e r y o n e o f t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e a b o v e c a s e s c a n b e e x c h a n g e d f o r i t s o p p o s i t e , O N E E N T E R S . . . T h e a b o v e " o n e " w h i c h e m b r a c e s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i s t h i s e n t e r e r a n d i s w h a t i s e m b r a c e d , A L L . 128 T h i s i s t h e s a m e a s t h e a b o v e m e m b e r t h a t i s e m b r a c e d . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e n i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t w h i c h i s e n t e r e d a n d w i t h t h e e m b r a c e r . T h e r e f o r e o n e c a n c o n s i d e r t h e t w o p r o p o s i t i o n s a s o n e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t , f r o m t h e v a n t a g e p o i n t o f t h e o n e l o o k i n g t o t h e m a n y , o n e m a y o n l y s a y " p e r v a d e " a n d " c o n t a i n " ; o n e m a y n o t s a y " e m -b r a c e a n d " e n t e r " . B u t n o w b e c a u s e t h e s e g a t e w a y s b y t u r n s b e c o m e t h e s a m e a s e a c h o t h e r , t h e y t a k e e a c h o t h e r s p l a c e s w i t h o u t o b s t r u c t i o n , A L L E M B R A C E S O N E . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y t h e s a m e a s t h e a b o v e " o n e e n t e r s a l l . " A L L E N T E R S O N E . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y t h e s a m e a s t h e a b o v e " o n e e m b r a c e s a l l , " F o r t h e 18 g e n e r a l i m p o r t o f t h e t e x t , i n e v e r y c a s e g o b a c k t o t h e a b o v e , a n d i n t e r p r e t i t o n t h a t b a s i s , O N E E M B R A C E S O N E A N D E N T E R S O N E . J u s t a s w h e n t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r e m b r a c e s t h e o t h e r w e s t e r n m i r r o r , c a u s i n g t h e l a t t e r t o e n t e r i n t o t h e o r i g i n a l e a s t e r n m i r r o r . A t t h a t v e r y m o m e n t , t h e o r i g i n a l e a s t e r n m i r r o r e n t e r s i n t o t h e w e s t e r n m i r r o r , A L L E M B R A C E A L L A N D E N T E R A L L . J u s t a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s t h e p e r f e c t , c o m p l e t e , a n d m i c o n s t a n t [ n a t u r e o f t h i n g s ] ( y u a n m a n c h a n g ) , B u t s i n c e w o r d s c a n n o t i m m e d i a t e l y m a n i f e s t t h i s , t h e r e w e r e p r o v i s i o n a l l y t h e f i r s t t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h o s e t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s h o w e v e r , a l l r e f e r t o u b i q u i t y , T H E Y I N T E R P E N E T R A T E S I M U L T A N E O U S L Y A N D W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . T h i s s i m u l t a n e i t y i s a s w a s e x p l a i n e d i n f u l l i n t h e a b o v e c o m m e n t a r y . 129 9) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS T H E N O N - O B S T R U C T I O N O F E A C H B E I N G I N T H E O T H E R ( x i a n g z a i w u a i m e n ) ™ ^ . T h e " s e l f " ( w o ) " " ^ ' 1 9 e m b r a c e s a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g d h a r m a s a n d i s i n t h e o t h e r ( t a ) d h a r m a s . T h e o t h e r s a l s o e m b r a c e t h e r e m a i n i n g d h a r m a s a n d a r e i n t h e " s e l f " d h a r m a . T h i s a n d t h a t a r e i n e a c h o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e h e s p e a k s o f e a c h b e i n g i n t h e o t h e r , T H I S M E A N S T H E A L L L O O K TO T H E O N E . 2 0 T a k i n g t h e " a l l " a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h i s i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f [ g a t e w a y " ] 21 #8, S o i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t o n e l o o k s t o a l l . Now c o m e t h e f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s , A L S O H E R E T H E R E A R E E N T E R I N G A N D E M B R A C I N G I N F O U R P R O P O S I T I O N S . T h e s e a r e n o t t h e s a m e a s t h e f o r m e r p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h e f o r m e r m e r e l y h a d " t h i s " a n d " t h a t " e m b r a c e a n d u n i t e a t t h e s a m e t i m e . B u t n o w w h e n [ t h e s e l f " ] i s a b o u t t o e n t e r t h e o t h e r , [ t h e s e l f " ] m u s t i n e v i t a b l y e m b r a c e t h e r e m a i n i n g d h a r m a s . T a k i n g t h e s e a l o n g , i t e n t e r s t h e 22 o t h e r s . T h i s g i v e s r i s e t o a c o n t i n u o u s a n d i n e x h a u s t i b l e f o r c e , O N E I S E N T E R E D A N D E M B R A C E D ( s h e y i r u y i ) ™ 1 . T h e f i r s t " o n e " i s w h a t i s e m b r a c e d ; t h e s e c o n d " o n e " i s w h a t i s e n t e r e d . B o t h a r e p a s s i v e . T h u s i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a b o v e m u s t s e p a r a t e l y h a v e t h e d h a r m a t h a t e m b r a c e s a s s u b j e c t . I t w a s f e a r e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t t h a t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s w o u l d b e c o n f u s i n g a n d d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d , s o t h e a u t h o r a b b r e v i a t e d t h e m . T h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e a l s o t h u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n h e s h o u l d h a v e s a i d , " O n e e m b r a c e s o n e a n d e n t e r s o n e , " J u s t a s t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r e m b r a c e s t h e s o u t h e r n m i r r o r , a n d t a k e s t h i s a l o n g t o e n t e r t h e w e s t e r n m i r r o r , r i g h t t h e n t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r i s t h a t w h i c h 130 d o e s t h e e m b r a c i n g a n d e n t e r i n g , t h e s o u t h e r n o n e i s w h a t i s e m b r a c e d , a n d t h e w e s t e r n o n e i s w h a t i s e n t e r e d . T h i s i s t h e s a m e a s t h e W o r l d - H o n o r e d O n e , S a k y a m u n l , e m b r a c i n g t h e B o d h i s a t t v a M a n j u s r l a n d e n t e r i n g i n t o S a m a n t a b h a d r a , T h e s i m p l e a c t o f c i t i n g a l l B u d d h a s a s t h e a g e n t s i s a l s o a l r i g h t , A L L A R E E M B R A C E D A N D O N E I S E N T E R E D ( s h e v i o i e r u v i ) " " 1 . T h i s i s j u s t a s w h e n t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r e m b r a c e s t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t m i r r o r s , a n d t a k e s t h e m a l o n g t o e n t e r t h e w e s t e r n m i r r o r . R i g h t t h e n t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r i s w h a t e m b r a c e s a n d e n t e r s , t h e e i g h t m i r r o r s a r e w h a t i s e m b r a c e d , a n d t h e w e s t e r n m i r r o r i s w h a t i s e n t e r e d . T h u s o n e B u d d h a e m b r a c e s a l l B u d d h a s a n d a l l b e i n g s , a n d t a k e s t h e m a l l a l o n g t o e n t e r o n e b e i n g . I n e v e r y c a s e , i f o n e t r e a t s t h e n i n e m i r r o r s a n d a l l B u d d h a s a s t h e a g e n t s , t h a t i s a l s o a l r i g h t , O N E I S E M B R A C E D A N D A L L A R E E N T E R E D , J u s t a s t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r e m b r a c e s t h e s o u t h e r n m i r r o r t o e n t e r t h e e i g h t m i r r o r s , o r t h o s e n i n e m i r r o r s a l l e m b r a c e t h e e a s t e r n m i r r o r w h i c h i s g o i n g t o e n t e r t h e n i n e m i r r o r s . A L L A R E E M B R A C E D A N D E N T E R E D . I n t h i s i s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n p r o p e r o f t h e m u t u a l e m b r a c i n g a n d e n t e r i n g o f a l l d h a r m a s w i t h a n d i n t o e a c h o t h e r : s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d p e r f e c t t o t a l i t y c o n t i n u i n g o n a n d o n i n e x h a u s t i b l y ( v i s h i y u a n m a n c h o n g  c h o n g w u j l n ) m n . T h e f i r s t t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s t e n d p r o v i s i o n a l l y t o w a r d c i t i n g o n e [ a s t h e a g e n t o r s u b j e c t o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s ] , a n d c a u s e d o n e b y d e g r e e s t o c o m e t o s e e t h e s e n s e a n d i t s p r a c t i c a l 24 i m p l i c a t i o n s . H e a r g u e s t h a t a l l d h a r m a s ' i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n a n d p r e s e n c e w i t h i n e a c h o t h e r i s d u e t o s i m u l t a n e i t y . B u t n o w w h e n o n e s e e s m i r r o r s a n d l a m p s b e f o r e o n e ' s v e r y e y e s , w h i c h o n l y e n t e r o n e l a m p i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e m , r i g h t t h e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n e a c h a n d e v e r y m i r r o r a r e a l l t h e v a r i o u s a n d m a n y l a m p s . I t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f e a r l i e r a n d l a t e r . W i t h r e g a r d t o a l l B u d d h a s , B o d h i s a t t v a s a n d b e i n g s o f t h e s i x d e s t i n i e s , i f t h e y d o n ' t e x i s t , t h a t ' s t h e e n d o f i t ( b u y o u j i v i ) " 1 0 ; i f t h e y d o e x i s t , t h e n i n o n e i n s t a n t ( v i c h a - n a , k s a n a ) m p t h e y p e n e t r a t e p a s t , p r e s e n t , a n d f u t u r e , t h e t e n d i r e c t i o n s , 26 a n d a l l p e o p l e , b o t h c o m m o n e r s a n d s a i n t s , T H E Y I N T E R P E N E T R A T E S I M U L T A N E O U S L Y A N D W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N , T h e f i r s t t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e a l l c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o u r t h a n d s o i t i s c a l l e d " s i m u l t a n e o u s " ( t o n g s h i ) " " * , 10) T H E G A T E W A Y T H A T SHOWS U N I V E R S A L B L E N D I N G W I T H O U T O B S T R U C -T I O N ( p u r o n g w u a i m e n ) m r , T H I S M E A N S T H A T T H E O N E A N D T H E A L L 2? U N I V E R S A L L Y S H A R E T H E S A M E T I M E A N D M U T U A L L Y L O O K T O E A C H O T H E R . W i t h r e g a r d t o p r o p o s i t i o n s #8 a n d #9, e a c h h a d w h a t t h e o t h e r l a c k e d . E A C H A N D E V E R Y T H I N G I S I N F U L L P O S S E S S I O N OF B O T H A F O R E -M E N T I O N E D H E A D I N G S [ I . E . , T H E M U T U A L L Y F U L F I L L I N G G A T E W A Y S #8 A N D #9] I N F O U R P R O P O S I T I O N S , W H I C H U N I V E R S A L L Y B L E N D W I T H O U T O B S T R U C T I O N . T h e u n i v e r s a l b l e n d i n g o f e i g h t a n d n i n e c a u s e s e a c h a t o n e t i m e t o b e i m m e d i a t e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ( j u ) m s . T h e r e f o r e h e s a y s e a c h a n d e v e r y o n e i s i n f u l l p o s s e s s i o n o f b o t h a f o r e m e n t i o n e d h e a d i n g s i n f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , h e a l s o g e n e r a l l y b l e n d s t h e f i r s t n i n e [ g a t e w a y s ] b e c a u s e e a c h o f t h e m p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e o t h e r s . H e d o e s n ' t g e t a w a y f r o m [ t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ] o n e a n d a l l b e c a u s e t h e y m u t u a l l y l o o k t o e a c h o t h e r . T h e s e f i r s t n i n e a l s o a r e n o t s u d d e n l y m a n i f e s t e d . T h e r e f o r e t h i s e m b r a c i n g [ i . e . , o n e e m b r a c i n g 132 a l l ] c a u s e s t h e m t o s h a r e i n o n e i n s t a n t , s i n c e t h e g e n e r a l a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r s h a r e t h e s a m e t i m e , c o n t i n u i n g o n i n e x h a u s t i b l y , W E I G H T H I S [ G A T E W A Y ] I N T E R M S OF T H E F O R M E R [ G A T E W A Y S 1. C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S , A s a f i r s t s t e p , o n e i s t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h i s g a t e w a y b y w e i g h i n g i t i n t e r r a s o f g a t e w a y s e i g h t a n d n i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y , t h e f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n s a y s , " O n e e m b r a c e s a l l a n d o n e e n t e r s a l l , " W h e n t e n t a t i v e l y o n e u n d e r s t a n d s t h i s a s t h e s e l f - s a m e " o n e " ( w o z h i z i y j . ) m * e m b r a c i n g t h e o t h e r " a l l " ( t a y d . q i e ) r a U , t h i s " o n e " a g a i n i s t h e s i n g l e - s e l f ( d a n j i ) m V w h i c h e n t e r s t h e o t h e r " a l l " . H e h a d n o t y e t s a i d t h a t i t w a s t a k i n g a l o n g t h e " a l l " w h i c h a r e e m b r a c e d , t o g o o n a n d e n t e r t h e o t h e r " a l l " . W h e n t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y s a y s t h e s e l f ( w o ) m k " e m b r a c e s o n e a n d e n t e r s o n e , " e t c . , h e m e r e l y m a k e s c l e a r w h a t i s e m b r a c e d a n d w h a t i s e n t e r e d . H e d o e s n ' t e x p l a i n t h a t o n e a n d a l l m u t u a l l y l o o k t o e a c h o t h e r . A l l a r e e m b r a c e r s a n d e n t e r e r s . N o w w h e n w e c o m b i n e t h e s e t w o g a t e w a y s , a n d h a v e o n e l o o k i n g t o t h e m a n y , t h e n i t i s t h e s a m e a s t h e m a n y l o o k i n g t o t h e o n e . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , e a c h a n d e v e r y o n e i s b o t h a c t i v e ( n e n g ) " 1 ' " " " 2 8 a n d p a s s i v e ( s u o ) r n x ' 2 9 . T h u s a r e c o m p l e t e d t h e t w o h e a d i n g s i n f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s . F i r s t , i f w e t a k e o n e d h a r m a a n d r e g a r d i t a s t h e e m b r a c e r a n d e n t e r e r , b y m a t c h i n g t h i s [ o n e d h a r m a ] o n e b y o n e w i t h t h e f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s , w e g e t w h a t i s e m b r a c e d a n d w h a t i s e n t e r e d : 1) O n e d h a r m a e m b r a c e s o n e a n d e n t e r s o n e . T h i s i s t h e t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y . I t i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y , 2) O n e d h a r m a e m b r a c e s a l l a n d e n t e r s o n e . 133 T h i s i s t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y , a n d t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n . I t i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e s e c o n d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y , 3) O n e d h a r m a e m b r a c e s o n e a n d e n t e r s a l l . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n o f g a t e w a y e i g h t , a n d t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e f i r s t p r o p o -s i t i o n . I t i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y , 4) O n e d h a r m a e m b r a c e s a l l a n d e n t e r s a l l . T h i s i s t h e e n t i r e t y o f t h e f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y . I t i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e f o u r t h p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y . N e x t , t a k i n g a l l d h a r m a s a n d r e g a r d i n g t h e m a s t h e e m b r a c e r a n d e n t e r e r , b y m a t c h i n g t h e m o n e b y o n e w i t h t h e f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s , w e g e t w h a t i s e m b r a c e d a n d e n t e r e d : 1) A l l d h a r m a s e m b r a c e o n e a n d e n t e r o n e . T h i s i s t h e e n t i r e s e c o n d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y a n d i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y , 2) A l l d h a r m a s e m b r a c e a l l a n d e n t e r o n e . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e l a s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y a n d t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e s e c o n d p r o p o s i t i o n . I t i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e s e c o n d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y , 3) A l l d h a r m a s e m b r a c e o n e a n d e n t e r a l l . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e s e c o n d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e -w a y , a n d t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e l a s t p r o p o s i t i o n . I t i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y , 4) A l l d h a r m a s e m b r a c e a l l a n d e n t e r a l l . T h i s i s t h e l a s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e e i g h t h g a t e w a y , a n d i s a p e r f e c t m a t c h w i t h t h e l a s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e n i n t h g a t e w a y . T h e t w o g a t e w a y s b e l o n g t o o n e c l a s s a n d i n t e r t w i n e l i k e t h i s , c o n t i n u i n g o n i n e x h a u s t i b l y . T h e g a t e w a y o f t h i s m u t u a l b l e n d i n g o f p r i m a r y ( z h u ) a n d s e c o n d a r y ( b a n ) i s o p e n e d w i d e . I f y o u t a k e t h e s e t e n g a t e w a y s , a n d e v e r y w h e r e m a t c h t h e m t o t h e m e a n i n g o f a l l d h a r m a s , t h e n a n d o n l y t h e n w i l l y o u p e r f e c t [ y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " ) t h e t e n p r o f o u n d m e a n i n g s . B u t t h e n a l l y o u n e e d d o i s t a k e u p t h e s e t e n [ g a t e w a y s ] a n d m a t c h t h e m w i t h t h e t e n p r o f u n d i t i e s , a n d t h e w o r d i n g a n d t h e s e n s e o f t h e t e x t w i l l b e d i s t i n c t , ^ Y O U S H O U L D C A U S E T H E P E R F E C T L Y L U M I N O U S ( y u a n m i n g ) " * T O B E M A N I F E S T , A N D M A T C H I T W I T H T H E R E A L M OF P R A C T I C E ( x i n g j i n g , j i e ) h b W I T H O U T H I N D R A N C E O R O B S T R U C T I O N . D E E P L Y C O N T E M P L A T E T H I S A N D M A K E I T A P P E A R B E F O R E Y O U . T H E E N D o f t h e C O M M E N T A R Y T O T H E H U A - Y A N D H A R M A - R E A L M M E D I T A T I O N 135 F O O T N O T E S C H A P T E R 3 T h a t i s , i f s o l e l y c o n s i d e r e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f n o u -m e n o n , t h e m u l t i t u d e o f p h e n o m e n a w o u l d l o s e t h e i r d i v e r s i t y a n d i n d i v i d u a l i t y . " T J s s d f o r d e * * " " . T h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a r e o f c o u r s e t h e m y r i a d p h e n o m e n a , 3 I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e w h y t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f n o u m e n o n i s p l a c e d h e r e . 4 T h e t e x t i s p r o b l e m a t i c a n d m y t r a n s l a t i o n i s t e n t a t i v e . T h e p r o b l e m s e e m s t o b e o n e o f a m i s r e a d i n g o f D u - s h u n ' s t e x t i n o n e v e r s i o n , " * T h a t i s , e a c h f u n d a m e n t a l l y u n d e r g o e s n o c h a n g e , 6 A " p r i v a t e B u d d h a " , m e a n i n g b o t h o n e w h o i s s e l f - e n l i g h t e n e d , a n d o n e w h o d o e s n o t t e a c h o t h e r s . 7 A H i n a y a n a m o n k . Q T h i s l a s t s e n t e n c e i s f a r f r o m c l e a r , b u t s e e m s t o e m p h a s i z e t h e t u r n t h e a r g u m e n t h a s t a k e n — h e r e w e l e a m w h a t o n e p h e n o m e n o n c a n d o , i n s t a e a d o f p h e n o m e n a i n g e n e r a l . 9 I . e . , o n e p e r v a d e s a l l . • * " ° I , e , , o n e i n c l u d e s a l l . I h a v e s t r u g g l e d t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s t e r m a b o v e . H e r e t h e s e n s e i s t h a t o n e i s o n e o n l y i n c o n t r a s t t o a l l . I f t h e r e w e r e n o " a l l " 136 there could be no "one". It is with this idea in mind that Hua-yan teaches that "all" includes or contains "one". The members can be simply reversed, 12 As the preceding footnote showed, "all" contains "one" can easily be transformed to "one" contains "all", (In the sense that "all" only is "all" by contrast to "one", etc.) These statements can be exchanged with their alternatess "all" pervades "one" and "one" pervades "a l l " . If these antithetical statements are both true, then i t is a short step to the equation of the antithetical modes, 13 This illustration was used before Zong-mi by Fa-zang, Fa-zang, however, had a Buddha l i t by a lamp in the center of the ten mirrors. See Kenneth Ch'en, p, 317. 14 I.e., there are infinite reflections, l5The terra "pervasion" (bian)6^ implied to Du-shun and Zong-mi the pervasion of many, hence was inappropriate in the case of one, l6 l r It is similar for "contain" (rong) as for pervasion, 17 The latter two are the same even in terms of worldly language and logic. 18 I,e,, Zong-mi's commentary, 1 9This "self" (wo)1^ is not to be taken in the Buddhist sense of the fetter of the ego, but in the general sense of self as opposed to other. 20 I.e., the following propositions proceed from that point of view. 21 Which had one looking to a l l . 137 2 2 I , e . , t h i s s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s t o e v e r y s i n g l e d h a r m a . 2 3 A s o p p o s e d t o a l l . 24 T h i s s e c t i o n i s q u i t e p r o b l e m a t i c a n d s e e m s t o c o n t a i n s o m e c o r r u p t i o n . T h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s c o n j e c t u r a l . 2 5 A l t h o u g h Z o n g - m i o n l y s p o k e o f o n e l a m p a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n , h e n o w s h o w s t h e r e a r e a n i n f i n i t y o f l a m p s a s r e f l e c t e d i n a l l t h e m i r r o r s . 26 I n o t h e r w o r d s , e v e r y p h e n o m e n o n i n t h e u n i v e r s e p e n e t r a t e s a l l o f s p a c e a n d t i m e a t a n y g i v e n i n s t a n t , 2 7 T h a t i s , t h e y e x i s t a s t h e y a r e o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n t e r -r e l a t e d , D u - s h u n i s d e s c r i b i n g a n a b s o l u t e l y r e l a t i v e u n i v e r s e . 2 6 - , O r a g e n t . 2 9 7 0 r o b j e c t . T h a t i s , o n e m u s t r e l a t e t h i s t e a c h i n g t o w o r l d l y e x p e r i e n c e , a n d m u s t n o t j u s t c o n t e m p l a t e o n a n a b s t r a c t l e v e l . 138 CHINESE CHARACTERS A l l Chinese terras are t r a n s l i t e r a t e d w i t h i n the text and wr i t t e n i n character form here, with the exception of long t i t l e s , quotations, and some footnoted m a t e r i a l . h, -s" y f | i . ^ J . # 1. ^ ra, n. 4 f 9s-o . m -p. i q. r s t. / F9 v.-AtiM i% f i l l & p i i & w. * ¥ & & x y. /-7 a. *5£ aa. ab, ^ > ac. 1 ad. jar ae.^7 "ft af. ag. 'I^lf ah. $J a i . n ak. jjj, a l ^1 am. 1 ^ ^ ^/ ^ * ± "/I. ^ an, ^ N ± ao. > £ iilf 139 a s at. 4^ a u . 7F~ a w . ja a y . 9: a z . £ J b a . ^ b b . $ iH ^  ^ b e . j ^ j b d , ^ (bj h&k_^ b e . b f . f S . ' J ' b h . ^ ^ b i . ^ ' / ^ b k . t# # | b l . # £ i f f b m . ^ ^ f& b n . | f J Pyf %f b o . ; i b q . ^ T ' v u , b r . i f ,% A bt„ & ^ $ 4N |ar bu. 7 ^ !%_ b w . / bx. £3" b y . A bz, jj^? ^/Jo c a . £ H %L f / ? t& :,Jjk ° b . j J L _ , ^ c d , c e , 33-£ f t e g . £ ' H . 2 J " £ c h , c i , c k . ^77 f R£ c l . c m , y<3i&*— . c n . & j l f ^ T CO, £ 5 . c p . y V _ c r . £tr ^fi cs, ds. 0 # ct, W % dt. * c j £ -cu, TJ" du. ^ cv. dv, £f cw, §^1 dw. 4? ^ YtfL ex. # ^ dx. ^ dy. ^ cz. da. %: t« da. t >^ ^ ^ ea. fejLl db„ ft $ g 2^'^ eb, -7- P.-i:. dc. AY 1$ ec. i^ J d d . # 7 1 ed. ^ de. «f ee. — / - z k df. v £ ef. .f iH 1? 'IF d g . ^ -f^  y\~£- ©g. f^-dh. JJ//& eh. ^  g&j d i . ^  %f e i . ^ - t y i ^ «T dj . / I e j . 7- °T'7T^ ^ d k . * ^ £ 6 # & ^ £ ; * - § ek. " x , E ' /<_ < c d l . ^ « e l . i" i# dm, / v. am, 'b, tf ,/&L dn. r„ ^ en. ff f^j do, £g eo. ff i, dp. yrl *J*J ep. f^'U. dq. t-t eq. ^  ^ ^tl dr. 7 D er. \t_ %f e s , _ILL - C , e t . j l 5 $ ' / - i L eu ^ | ^ j ? e v . ' / ^ , " f r s ew. ^ J|L e x . $ f ^ e y . * £ F ^ ^ ^ e z . £j±f ^ f a . i f | fb. £3" -,7^ s 1^ f c . ^ /fe i t f d . 4£ i t. i t f e . ^ fg. <f#. f£J fh. "sf" f j . « f k . ^ £ E fm. at* — 4* X jz, 2 * f p . ft f q . J M j ^ f f r . j E f v . -ffX. / f c f w . ^ f x . i f f y . 5 f z . ^ g l ;6£ 4 . g a . cf7 j|_ X ~~ u g o . 'e_>, g°. g d . A A p€) | L ge. %') ^ - J ^ _ g f . 1/ ^ g g . ^ | g h . jg_ 2 J ^ gi. ^ ^ § L ^ g j . - *g | g t g k . ^ jJL 2 J # g l . ' u > , g n . g o . ^ j j f ? g p . *y^ g q . i l l S r« I-if /ft ?9 gt. j j j ^ gv. %%£ gw. ^  of i*c % ^e? gy. gz. ^ "^r — -5,-7 h a , -fi n b . # f # he. hd. ^ yf he. ^ hf. ;f ¥4* ^ hg. hh. ^  1? hi. hj, <SL hk. ^ hi. ^ h m . hn. ^ ho. £2 ^ hp. £*X fei hq. 7# hr. ^  ^ iff . hv, fij hw. ^ £ ^ hx. hy. £S £ J L ia. JS. ib. ^ ic. ^ ^_ i Si 3 ^ f ^ 0«= id. ^ x e , ' g -i f . ;£ 4 £ -ig . fe ^ 1 1 . i j . If ik. <=P il_ £JL i l . ^ 1 38? im. ^ in. ^  jE£ # io. Jfl *£i ip. • i ^  i — i s . >^ i t . i t tp I f J iu. 4 > t & f5 i w , i x . iy. Ja« ^ ^ > y^c jb. IJ J d- '-f # je. 7*f jg. '/;$_ jh. f^; j i . ^ j j . I T^ jk. jm. Y^J jn. "/ ^ jo. £P JP. fat jq. • P'S Jv. ///§. jw. it J ^ -jy. 4 ^ ka. ^ ^  f U kb, ^ 4f4?. kc. |f# kd. ^ k e * ^ J f i f « • S It, kg. 1 f wwl i | _ ^ ^ kj. kk . ^ ^ ^ kl. > 4 kn. / f ? ^ ko. ^ : kp. 2|f kr. i « . J & -p? kt. I" ^  i f f l kv. ^ f$ kw. $b kx. |9c 3 ky. Ill j|[ l a . j ^ T ^ i b . ; f ^ l c . # f f ^ i d . ^ w h  y a ^ u l e . & £ I f . ^ <5 l g . $ t l h . £ f i j . y f P@L|s ^ e ? Ik. — J§ i_» # i i . S L ^ l m . ^ 1 " . f?C l o . ' f e i p . I s . ^ j£ i t . ^ I v . i l t / V I w . i y . ^ ^ l z . >C > 7 m a . sfQ m b . ; f m c . - i H . rad, j f m e , —~ / \ m f , $b m g . fffs. ' i f m h , m i , m k , m l , ~ J\ — m m , - -fcy) m o , f P £ . ( f j m p . — ^ ' J T^P m s . m t . $i Zj @ m u . fit) — *y) m v , J^ . LJ raw. (gt w x , ray. ^ m z . - f f n b . f J f f 146 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A. REFERENCE WORKS DING FU-BAO T ^ % ed. Fo xue da c i dian ^ - f t Shanghai: Yi xue shu ju, 1921, 1926. Reprinted in Taipei, 1946. HARVARD-YENCHING INSTITUTE. Sinological Index Series, Index No. 11, Vol. 1-3, "Combined Indeces to the Authors and Titles of Books and Chapters in Four Collections of Buddhistic Literature," Republic of China: Harvard-Yenching Institute, 1966, Taiwan Authorized Reprint, printed by: Ch'eng-Wen Publishing Company, P.O. Box 22605, Taipei, Taiwan, The Republic of China, Distributed by: Chinese Materials and Research Aids Service Center, Inc., P.O. Box 22048, Taipei, Taiwan, The Republic of China, MATHEWS, R. H. Mathews' Chinese - English Dictionary. Shanghai: China Inland Mission and Presbyterian Mission Press, 1931, Revised American Edition - Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972, NELSON, ANDREW NATHANIEL, The Modern Reader's Japanese - English Character Dictionary. Revised Edition, Tokyo: Charles A, Tuttie, Co., 1962, 0 N 0 G E | I M Y 0 ^ l W - ^ , ed. Bussho kaisetsu d a i . j i t e n ^ ^ %h T ^ f l . * ^ . # Tokyo % Da dong chu ban she, 1933-36. Reprinted in 13 Volumes, 1964, S 0 0 T H I L L , WILLIAM EDWARD and LEWIS H 0 D 0 U S . A Dictionary of Chinese  Buddhist Terms. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., 1937. Reprinted - Taipei: Ch'eng-Wen Publishing Co., 1970, TAKAKUSU JUNJIRO and WATANABE KAIKYOKU, eds., Taisho shinshu dalzokyo. ^ %ff ^  Tokyo: Daizo Shuppansha, 1924-34. 147 T a i s h o s h i n s h u d a i z o k y o s a k u i n . A I E ^ 7 ^ ^ : ' <?/ I n d e x t o t h e T a i s h o " T r i p i t a k a . R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e T e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e T a i s h o T r i p i t a k a . T o k y o : D a i z o S h u p p a n s h a , 1967. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H o b o g i r i n ; F a s c i c u l e A n n e x e . T a b l e s d u T a i s h o I s s a i k y o , n o u v e l l e e d i t i o n d u C a n o n b o u d d h i q u e c h i n o i s . T o k y o : M a i s o n f a n c o - j a p o n a i s e , 1931. B . P R I M A R Y S O U R C E S C H E N G - G U A N . H u a - y a n f a - l i e y u a n - l i n g . H %*> >^ £ f f j T a i s h o s h i n s h u d a i z o k y o , # 1 8 6 3 . D a sheng q i xin lun. ^  A - & \ % t i p Taisho shinshu daizokyo, #1666. Sung gao-seng-zhuan.'*- Taisho shinshu daizokyo, Vol. 50, pp. 741-3. *~ W A N G - C H A N G . Jin-shi cnl-bian.-^^ ^ k& (Selected Epigraphical Texts from Metal and Stone Inscriptions.) Shanghai: zui-liu-tang, 1893. Il4/7d. X u g a o - s e n g - z h u a n . fcf ^ <(% < | T a i s h o s h i n s h u d a l z S k y o . V o l . 50, pp. 653-4. Z O N G - M I . Z h u ' - " 1 " - * * • , s ? ' - ^ s h i n s h u i h u a - y a n f a - , i i e g u a n m e n . > ± feh f ? T a i s h o i u d a i z o k y o . #1884: 1  C . S E C O N D A R Y S O U R C E S B A L A Z S , E T I E N N E , C h i n e s e C i v i l i z a t i o n a n d B u r e a u c r a c y . T r a n s . , H , M . W r i g h t , e d . A r t h u r F. W r i g h t . N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964, C H A N W I N G - T S I T , " S y n t h e s e s i n C h i n e s e M e t a p h y s i c s , " T h e C h i n e s e M i n d , e d . C h a r l e s A . M o o r e . H o n o l u l u : E a s t - W e s t C e n t e r P r e s s . 196*77 PP. 132-147. " 148 CHANG, GARMA C. C. The Buddhist T e a c h i n g of T o t a l i t y The Philosophy  of Hwa Yen Buddhism. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971. CH'EN, KENNETH. Buddhism in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 196W. CONZE, EDWARD. The Pra.jnapara?nita Literature. The Hague: Mouton and Co., 19o0, COOK, FRANCIS H. Fa-Tsang's Treatise on the Five Doctrines: An Annotated Translation, Ph.D.: University of Wisconsin, 1970. . "The Meaning of Vairocana i n Hua-yen Buddhism," Philosophy East and West, Vol, 22, No. 4, October, 1972, FUNG YU-LAN. A History of Chinese Philosophy, Vol. 2, Trans., Derk Eodde, ""Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953. GOMEZ, LUIS OSCAR. Selected Verses from the Gapdavyuha: Text, C r i t i c a l  Apparatus and Translation. Ph.D.: Yale University, I967. GUENTHER, HERBERT V. "Words Denoting 'Emptiness'," Proceedings of the  All-India Oriental Conference, l6th session, 1951. University of Lucknow, 1955, pp. 251-261, HAKEDA, YOSHTTO S., trans. The Awakening of Faith. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. HURVITZ, LEON, Chih-I An Introduction to the L i f e and Ideas of a Chinese Buddhist Honk. Melanges Chinois et Bouddhiques, Vol. 12, publies par L'Institut Beige des Hautes Etudes Chinoises. Bruges (Belgique): Imprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1963. "Chih Tun's Notions of Prajna," Journal of the and ARTHUR LINK. "Three Prajnaplramita Prefaces of Tao-an," M e l a ^ P ^ Y o ( £ Limoges ( S e e ) -Imprimerie A. Bonteraps, 1975. ' " ranee;: 149 I U J A , S H O T A R O . " N e w L i g h t o n t h e E m p r e s s W u a n d B u d d h i s m , " u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , D e p a r t m e n t o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J A N Y U N - H U A.-f^ $ ¥ " T s u n g - m i , h i s A n a l y s i s o f C h ' a n B u d d h i s m , " T ' o u n g P a o , V o l . 58, 1972, p p . 1-54. L I S B E N T H A L , W A L T E R . " N e w L i g h t o n t h e M a h a y a n a - o r a d d h o t p a d a £ s s t r a , " T ' o u n g P a o , V o l . 46, 1958, p p . 155-216. L I N K , A R T H U R E , " T h e T a o i s t A n t e c e d e n t s o f T a o - a n ' s P r a j n a O n t o l o g y , " H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s , V o l , 9, N o s , 2 a n d 3, N o v e m b e r , 1969/ F e b r u a r y , 1970, p p . 181-215. M A S S O N - O U R S E L , P A U L . " L e Y u a n J e n L o u e n , " J o u r n a l A s i a t i q u e . O n z i e m e S e r i e , T o r a e 5, 1915, P P . 299-354. O B E R M H L E R , E . " T h e S u b l i m e S c i e n c e o f t h e G r e a t V e h i c l e t o S a l v a t i o n , " A c t a O r i e n t a l i a , V o l , 9, 1931, P P . 81-306. R E I S C H A U E R , E D W I N 0., t r a n s , E n n i n ' s D i a r y T h e R e c o r d o f a P i l g r i m a g e t o C h i n a i n S e a r c h o f t h e L a w . N e w Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s C o . , 1955. . E n n i n ' s T r a v e l s i n T ' a n g C h i n a . N e w Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s C o . , 1955, R O B I N S O N , R I C H A R D . E a r l y M a d h y a m i k a i n I n d i a a n d C h i n a . M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 19&T. S U Z U K I , D A I S E T Z T K T T A R O . S t u d i e s i n t h e L a n k a v a t a r a S u t r a . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l L t d , , 1930, , t r a n s . T h e L a n k a v a t a r a S u t r a , L o n d o n : R o u t l e d s e a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1932, T A K A K U S U , J U N J I R O . . " B u d d h i s m a s a P h i l o s o p h y o f ' T h u s n e s s ' , " P h i l o s o p h y E a s t a n d W e s t , e d . C h a r l e s A . M o o r e , F r e e p o r t , N e w Y o r k : B o o k s f o r L i b r a r i e s P r e s s , 1970, 150 TAMAKI, KOSRTRO. "The Development of the Thought of Tathagatagarbha from India to China," Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu, Vol, 9, No. 1, January, 1961, pp, 378-386. USDA, YOSHIFUMI, "Two Main Streams of Thought in Yogacara Philosophy," Philosophy East and West, Vol, 17, No, 1-'+, January - October, 1967, PP. 155-165. UNNO TAITETSU, "Dimensions of Practice in Hua-yen Thought," Bukkyo  Shiso Shi Honshu (Yuki Commemorative Volume). Tokyo: Daizo Shuppansha, 1964, WEINSTEBI, STANLEY. "Imperial Patronage in the Formation of T'ang Buddhism," Perspectives on the T'ang, Arthur F, Wright and Denis Twitchett, eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973, pp. 265-306. WRIGHT, ARTHUR F. "T'ang T'ai-tsung and Buddhism," Perspectives on the T'ang, Arthur F. Wright and Denis Twitchett, eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973, pp. 239-263. Y U , DAVID C, "Skill-in-means and the Buddhism of Tao-sheng: A Study of Chinese Reaction to Mahayana of the F i f t h Century," Philosophy East and West, Vol. 24, No. 4, October, 1974. pp. 413-427. ZURCHER, E. The Buddhist Conquest of China. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1959, 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093473/manifest

Comment

Related Items