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An investigation of the usefulness of parking price increases as public policy for congestion relief… King, David James 1975

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INVESTIGATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF PARKING PRICE INCREASES PUBLIC POLICY FOR CONGESTION BELIEF IN VANCOUVER by DAVID JAMES KING Math, U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , 1 9 7 3  3.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF HASTES OF ARTS  School  We a c c e p t  this  i n the Of Community And R e g i o n a l  thesis  THE  as c o n f o r m i n g  Planning  to the required  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975  standard  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  the requirements f o r  make it  freely available  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  for extensive copying of  this  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  thesis  Community and R e g i o n a l  University of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  or  copying or p u b l i c a t i i on not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  that  study.  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department  by h i s  The  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  of  in p a r t i a l  Planning  i i  ABSTRACT The of  purpose  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  Vancouver. p u b l i c both  the  l o c a l  t h e o r i e s  i n c r e a s e  to  p o t e n t i a l  r e l i e f  c o n g e s t i o n  and  and  s o u r c e s  the  of  and  the of  areas  I n t e r v i e w s  and  the  system. i n  the  p o l i c y  a n a l y s i s ;  i t s  were  a l l e v i a t i o n ,  conducted the  to  a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  survey  behaviour  i n d i v i d u a l s  of  i d e a ,  of  r e v i e w e d :  of  response  of  were  c o n c e r n i n g  l i k e l y  framework  u t i l i z e d  p u b l i c  i n  examination  t h i s  were  methods  data  the  u s e f u l n e s s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  two  f i e l d  of  w i t h i n  permit  p o l i t i c a l  provide  A  the  s e t  l i t e r a t u r e ,  p o l i c i e s  i n v e s t i g a t e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  p r i c i n g .  t o  program.  i n v e s t i g a t e  the  i s  c o n g e s t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n  c u r r e n t  order  from  of  o f f i c i a l s  c o n t e x t ,  of  the  understanding  e s p e c i a l l y  i n  to  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  From and  i s  f o r  t e c h n i c a l  b a s i c  a n a l y s e s .  our  a n a l y s i s  response  Three  t h e s i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  l i k e l y  b e h a v i o u r a l  t h i s  i n c r e a s e s  This  p o l i c y  c o n c e p t s  of  with  Vancouver  parking  was  p r i c e  u t i l i z e d i n  to  the  t a r g e t  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  n e g l i g i b l e  impact  p o p u l a t i o n . E x a m i n a t i o n i n c r e a s e s  o f f e r s  upon  c o n g e s t i o n :  f e e l  shoppers  of  p r e v i o u s  the  f o l l o w i n g  are  e m p l o y e e - o r i e n t e d A c c o r d i n g l y , congested be  The  i n  the  r e s u l t s  o b s e r v a t i o n s  d i s c o u r a g e d ;  p a r k i n g ;  has  about  e m p l o y e r - c o n t r o l l e d  r e a s o n s  o p p o s i t i o n  i n c r e a s i n g  a r e a s  e x p l o r e d  s t r o n g  e x p e r i e n c e  been  from  p a r k i n g proposed  the  downtown  the  b u s i n e s s  exemption  i n s u f f i c i e n t l y  Vancouver of  for  with  p r i c e s as  a  of  l a r g e to  i n t e r e s t s  who  non-commercial p r i c e  those  workable  i n c r e a s e s . who  work  a l t e r n a t i v e  i n to  c o n t e x t . q u e s t i o n n a i r e workers  f a c i l i t i e s ;  many  who  survey  commute  park  f r e e ;  provide by a  c a r :  s e v e r a l many  m a j o r i t y  use  would  i i i  p r e f e r  to  d i s c o n t i n u e  parkers bus  r e a c t e d  t r a n s i t It  was  was  i n c r e a s e  t o  p a r k i n g  i n d u s t r y ,  t r a f f i c  volumes  would  i n  t r a f f i c  u n d e s i r a b l e  s i d e  reach  the  It d i r e c t e d  of  r e l i e f  of  t h i s  impacts  the  of  of  the  p r o f i t s h o r t  downtown  and  upon  the  auto  the  most  s m a l l  ones;  mode.  p a r k i n g  p r i c ^  experienced r u n ;  d u r i n g  assurance  by  the  r e d u c t i o n  of  the  rush  w h i l e of  t h a t  these  A  enforcement  hour.  a v o i d i n g  use  commuters. and  not  commuting  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c o l l e c t i o n  downtown of  program of  commitment  t h i s  to  that  i n  the  parking would  make  to  not  reduce  implementing  program  p r i c e  Vancouver.  depend  technique  the  a g e n c i e s .  w i l l  of  a  workers  c o n g e s t i o n  w i l l i n g n e s s  p u b l i c  i n c r e a s e s ,  the  depends  of  concluded  a t  the  the  i n  doubled;  s u f f i c e n t l y i n c r e a s e s  comprehensive procedures  i s  n e c e s s a r y .  i s  c a p a c i t y  e f f e c t s  wero  a l t e r n a t i v e  l o s s  around  i n c r e a s e s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e r e f o r e  be:  volumes  bulk  p r i c e s  l a r g e s t  l e a s t  and  Reducing  p r i c e  popular  the  at  i f  i n c r e m e n t a l  most  t h a t  program  l a r g e  l a r g e  the  found  parking  and  the  a  i n c r e a s e  u s e f u l  c o n t r i b u t i o n  Furthermore, upon  the  c o n g e s t i o n , agency  a c t i v e  to  program  b a s i c but  the  s u c c e s s  mechanical r a t h e r  demonstrate  c o - o p e r a t i o n  to  of  upon s t r o n g other  iv TABLE  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER  CONTENTS  . . .  I  THE  . . . 1  FRAMEWORK  1.1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n  1 . 2 .  P u b l i c  P o l i c y  A n a l y s i s :  D e f i n i t i o n s  1 . 2 . 2 .  Types  1 . 2 . 3 .  The  1 . 2 . 4 .  P u b l i c  1 . 2 . 5 .  The  1 . 2 . 6 .  Types  1.3.  A  1.4.  Analyses  1.5.  Factors  Of  P u b l i c  Formation Of  Some  P o l i c y  For  I n t r o d u c t i o n  2 . 2 .  D e f i n i t i o n  2 . 3 .  Measurement  2.4.  Costs  S o c i a l  2 . 4 . 2 . 2 . 4 . 3 .  A n a l y s i s  . . . . . . . . . 6  9  ........................9  VEHICLE  14  P r e s s u r e  Groups  Mechanisms  Conducted  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6  A n a l y s i s By  This  . . . . 1 5  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8  Study  . . . 2 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2  CONGESTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25  . . . . 2 5  Of  Congestion  Of  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5  Congestion  Congestion  2 . 4 . 1 .  Of  E v a l u a t i o n  2.1.  ANALYSIS  7  Behaviour  P o l i c y  Be  Concepts  Process  Comprehensive  To  POLICY  .7  Agency  MOTOR  Of  PUBLIC  D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  D e s i r a b l e  I I  OF  6  1 . 2 . 1 .  CHAPTER  OF  Cost  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9  Theory  29  Congestion  E f f e c t s  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1  Congestion  P r i c i n g  33  V 2 . 4 . 4 .  Problems  2 . 5 .  Methods  2 . 6 .  Congestion  CHAPTER  Of  I I I  Of  Congestion  a l l e v i a t i o n P r i c i n g  PARKING  P r i c i n g  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34  . . . . . . .  36  Techniques:  PRICE  Some  INCREASES  Comparisons  IN  40  VANCOUVER:  METHODOLOGY  46  I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 . 2 .  A  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6  Survey  Of  Related  Experience  3 . 2 . 1 .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  3 . 2 . 2 .  P a r k i n g  P r i c e  3 . 2 . 3 .  Surveys  Of  3 . 2 . 4 .  I m p l i c a t i o n s  3 . 3 .  The Vancouver  3 . 4 .  Commuter  CHAPTER  IV  Of  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46  The Urban  I n c r e a s e  Consumer  P a r k i n g  Programs  Response  F o r P a r k i n g  PARKING  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e  P o l i c i e s  I n c r e a s e s  INCREASES  F o r  IN  Vancouver  . . . . . . . . . 7 1  VANCOUVER:TECHNICAL  PERFORMANCE  4 . 1 .  I n t r o d u c t i o n  4 . 2 .  The Parking  P r i c e  Increase  Survey  Design  4 . 2 . 2 .  Survey  A n a l y s i s  Impact  Of  . . . . 7 5  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5  4 . 2 . 1 .  4 . 3 .  . . 6 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2  P r i c e  PRICE  . . . . 4 7  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48  Context  P a r k i n g  S i t u a t i o n  P a r k i n g  4 . 3 . 1 .  P a r k i n g  4 . 3 . 2 . ,  Downtown  4 . 3 . 3 .  Congestion  4 . 3 . 4 .  Other  . . 7 5  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . . . 8 3  P r i c e  A c t i v i t y Commuter  Aspects  Survey  I n c r e a s e s  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 T r a v e l  P a t t e r n s  . . . 1 0 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 3  Of  The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Problem  vi 4 . 3 . 5 4 . 4 .  Non-Downtown  O p e r a t i o n a l  Commuter  Choice  Of  Approach  4 . 4 . 2 .  Choice  Of  P a r k i n g  4 . 4 . 3 .  Range  4 . 4 . 4 .  General  V  P a t t e r n s  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  4 . 4 . 1 .  CHAPTER  T r a v e l  Of  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 ..108  P r i c e  Increase  Areas  ASSESSMENT  Of  OF  O p e r a t i o n a l  THE AS  5.1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n  5 . 2 .  T e c h n i c a l  Performance  5 . 3 .  P o l i t i c a l  And  USEFULNESS  PUBLIC  POLICY  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Vancouver  . .  5 . 3 . 2 .  The  Greater  Vancouver  Regional  5 . 3 . 3 .  The  Bureau  5 . 3 . 4 .  P r e s s u r e  5 . 4 .  Costs  5 . 5 .  Income  5.6  Of  VI  PARKING  FOR  PRICE  VANCOUVER  . , . . 1 1 5  . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 . . . . . . .  . . . , . 1 1 9  D i s t r i c t ( G V R D )  . . . . 1 2 1 122  Groups  P o l i c y  . , . 1 2 3  Mechanism  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4  Process  . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  D i s t r i b u t i o n  Summary  CHAPTER  112  T r a n s i t  D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  Of  OF  Behaviour  Of  The  ,-110  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5  C i t y  5 . 3 . 6 .  .  . . . . 1 1 5  The  Of  109  Concern  5 . 3 . 1 .  Type  Mechanism  A p p l i c a t i o n  INCREASES  5 . 3 . 5 .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6  E f f e c t s  ,.126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  128  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1  CONCLUSIONS  6.1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n  6 . 2 .  Congestion Vancouver  135  . . . 1 3 5 R e l i e f  Through  P a r k i n g  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e s  In  , , , . . . , . , . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . 1 3 5  v i i  6.3.  General  a p p l i c a b i l i t y  6.4.  F u r t h e r  Research  6.5.  The  D e s i r a b i l i t y  P o l i c y  SELECTED  For  ......................................137 Of  P a r k i n g  Congestion  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .................................137  R e l i e f  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e s  As  P u b l i c  ..........................138 ......................139  viii LIST  2 . 1 .  The  Costs  Of  2 . 2 .  Methods  2 . 3 .  Congestion  3 . 1 .  M u n i c i p a l  3 . 2 .  Demand  3 . 3 .  E l a s t i c i t y  3 . 4 .  Response  3 . 5 .  E l a s t i c i t y  3 . 6 .  R e a c t i o n  3 . 7 .  P r o j e c t e d  Of  Urban  A l l e v i a t i n g P r i c i n g  P a r k i n g  Of  To  Trends  P a r k i n g  To  Tax  In  Mode  4 . 2 .  Response  4 . 3 .  Mode  4 . 4 .  Payment  For  4 . 5 .  P a r k i n g  F a c i l i t y  4 . 6 .  Duration  Of  4 . 7 .  A t t i t u d e  Toward  Pate By  By  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1  San  F r a n c i s c o , 1 9 7 0 - 1 9 7 3  P a r k i n g  Charges ( For  Car  T r a v e l  For  For  A l l  .  D i f f e r e n t  Incomes  R e s u l t i n g  Prime  4 . 9 .  Response  4.10.  By  A  Subsamples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 . . . . 8 4 . . . . . 8 4  Subsample  U t i l i z a t i o n By  . 5 8  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60  Subsample  P a r k i n g  By  . 8 4 Subsample  . 8 6  Subsample  Automobile  As  Work  . . . 8 6 T r i p  V e h i c l e  By 88  Reason To  Rhy  Car  I s  E s s e n t i a l  By  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e  A c t i o n  A f t e r  D i s c o n t i n u i n g  Subsample  By  Subsample  P a r k i n g  A l t e r n a t i v e By  From  Subsample  P a r k i n g  57  . . . . . . . . . . . 58  Subsample 4 . 8 .  . . . . . . 5 7  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Purpose{%)  Behaviour D.C.  . 5 5  L i v e r p o o l  Drivers)  Journey  . . . . 5 0  T r a v e l  Space:  P a r k i n g  And  Percentages  37  Automobile  Washington,  4 . 1 .  S p l i t  In  In  For  R e s t r a i n t  Changes  S p l i t  For  Demand  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30  Congestion  Techniques  Demand  Of  TABLES  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  E l a s t i c i t i e s  p a r k i n g  OF  Subsample  . . , . . . . . , 8 8 . . . . . . . . 8 9  P a r k i n g  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1  ix 4.11.  Bus By  4.12.  System  Subsample  Importance S e l e c t i o n  4.13.  Reason  4.14.  E s t i m a t e s An  4.15.  With  5.1.  S w i t c h i n g  I n c r e a s e  A  Of  At  To  By  Automobile  I n c r e a s e s  Bus  Number  P a r k i n g  $ . 50  In  Of  In  Of  $.50  Behaviour  Commuters  Future  Job  P a r k e r s  At  D a i l y  At  99  P a r k i n g  P r i c e . . . . . 9 9  E m i s s i o n s Of  Of  With  $.50  In  $.50  Automobile  Subsamples)  I n c r e a s e  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3  .  I n c r e a s e  Cumulative  An  Subsample  D i s c o n t i n u i n g  P r i c e  V e h i c l e  P r i c e  ( A l l  By  D a i l y  Motor  Of  D i s t r i b u t i o n  P r i c e  A l t e r n a t i v e  P a r k i n g  Comparison  D i v e r t e d  The In  Of  T r i p s  Subsample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3  Of  Reduction  Work  P a r k i n g  By  E s t i m a t e s  For  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1  Of  For  I n c r e a s e 4.16.  Use  Vancouver  D a i l y  Commuter That  D a i l y  Of  . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 5  Income Those . . . . 1 2 9  z LIST  1.1.  The  P o l i c y  1.2.  The  D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  2.1.  S h o r t - r u n  2.2.  Flow  At  3.1.  Peak  Hour  3 . 2 .  C i t y  Of  3 . 3 .  Person  4.1.  Response Small  4 . 2 .  4 . 3 -  And  T r i p s  To  Firms To  FIGURES  P r o c e s s  S o c i a l  , , , . . . , . , , . . . . . . 3 2  Cost  32  T r a f f i c  G e n e r a l i z e d  E n t e r i n g  10  Costs  P e r i o d  P a r k i n g  ............................8  P r o c e s s  T r i p  Base  Vancouver  Land  Downtown,  P r i c e  Growth  7-9  I n c r e a s e ,  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Use-1973 A . M . ,  S p r i n g  Subsample  To  64  . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 1974  . . 6 7  Of  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 P a r k i n g  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e ,  Subsample  Of  Firms  Response Large  P r i v a t e  M a r g i n a l  Response Large  Formation  OF  96 P a r k i n g  M e r c h a n d i z e r s  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e ,  Subsample  Of 97  x i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  would  a s s i s t a n c e Stead, and  l i k e  given  Paul  R e g i o n a l  Boer,  t o  t o me  express while  and I r v i n g  P l a n n i n g .  my  g r a t i t u d e  p r e p a r i n g Fox,  a l l of  t h i s t h e  f o r  the  t h e s i s S c h o o l  i n v a l u a b l e by  of  Gordon  Community  1 INTRODUCTION  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c i t i e s ,  and Vancouver  l e v e l  o f  modern  urban  r e s u l t s  r e g i o n  d i r e c t l y i n  c o n g e s t i o n  aspect  Motor  i s  l a n d  i t  major  v a l u e s .  As  mentioned  problems  become  i s  be  seen  problem.  to  a  t h e  primary  i s  a i r  a s  t h e  i n  o f  Urban r e d u c i n g  North  q u a l i t y .  c o n g e s t i o n  o u r  a n i m a l s ,  noise  and  of  t h e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o  u s e  change p a t t e r n s  r i s e s ,  urban  t h e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Consequently, the  The  t o  aspect  a l t e r e d  f u e l  America.  p l a n t s ,  from  l a n d  problem  s t r o n g l y  upon  s i n c e  upon  aggravated.  a l s o  R e c e n t l y ,  another  and c a n be  a s p e c t  i n  u n d e s i r a b l e  a r i s e s  of  i s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  q u a l i t y  impact  t h e  and  movement.  c o n t r i b u t e  F i n a l l y ,  l e v e l  I t  e n v i r o n m e n t a l  a r e  o f  commuters  c o n g e s t i o n .  w e l l  adequate  c o n g e s t i o n  r o l e  concern  a c c i d e n t s  problem.  h a s a  of  major  c e n t r e s .  urban  which  l a n d - a b s o r b i n g ,  a c c e s s i b i l i t y , urban  amenity  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  network  s u f f e r  v e h i c l e  t h e  v e h i c l e s poor  both  goods  urban  problem  o f  Be  o u r  important  motor  e f f e c t s  v i s u a l  a c t i v i t y .  an  an  Urban  s i g n i f i c a n t  problem  t h e  of  b e i n g s .  of  t h e  a  a l l  f u n c t i o n i n g  .  f o r  urban  o f  i n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  i n  i n  t h e  down.  time  urban  p l a y s  to  break  o f  a s p e c t s  of  e m i s s i o n s  human  l o s s  h a s become  d e t r i m e n t a l  urban  other  concern Without  m o b i l i t y ,  t o  o f  important  e x c e p t i o n .  and  m o b i l i t y  r e l a t e d  consumption  l o s s  no  d e l a y s  and  a r e  a r e  exhaust  i n  t h e r e f o r e  There  very  begins  f o r  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  Another  i s  a l l modes  r e s p o n s i b l e  which  a  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  t r a n s i e n t s  and  i s  t h e  l o c a l and above-  c o n g e s t i o n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  2  In  the  a l l e v i a t e e a r l y of  p a s t ,  the  s o l u t i o n s ,  f e l t  a t t e n t i o n automobile  new  d e a l  i n with  r e c o g n i z e d  c a l l e d  t a k e n  systems s h i f t  together  to  or  u t i l i z e d  do  s o .  to  These  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  automobile  that  become  to  and  our  t r a f f i c .  It  present  i n t e n s i f i e d  a  the  the  p a t t e r n w i l l  or  urban  by  i n c r e a s e d  not  encourage  be  problems  provide  a  t o o l s  to  In  a v a i l a b l e i s  as  s t i l l  soon  p l a c e d  have  only  reduce  on  as  the  c a s e s  a  l a r g e -  d e s i r a b l e  upon  to  p o s s i b l e .  It  s o l u t i o n  i s  a  narrow  w e l l - r o u n d e d  system;  most  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  be  may  t r a n s i t  mode.  However,it  should  do  p u b l i c  not  ' b a l a n c e d '  themselves  w i l l  t o  which  t e c h n o l o g i e s ;  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i n  of  mechanisms  f u t u r e .  R e l i a n c e that  have  t e c h n o l o g i e s  t h a t  f o r .  t e c h n i q u e s  g i v e n  immediate  these  growth  improvements  or  or  the  the  been  f a i l e d  expansion  a u t h o r i t i e s  now  t r a v e l ,  systems  s c a l e  i s  i s  t r a f f i c :  of  roadway  and  have  a u t o m o b i l e .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  amount  as  d i f f i c u l t i e s the  approaches  c o n g e s t i o n ,  some  upon  of  of  f a c i l i t a t e d  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  new  such  by  dependency  number  problem  a c t i v i t i e s ,  i s  a  v a r i e t y impact,  improvement  t o  of but the  s i t u a t i o n . R e s t r a i n t to  have  lower  p o s s e s s i n g p h y s i c a l  t e c h n i q u e s , p u b l i c  the  growth  c o s t s  advantage of  our  become  an  p r o v i d e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  I t p o l i c y r e l i e f  i s  important  t h e r e f o r e  measures of  that  which than of  w i l l  c o n g e s t i o n .  and  t o  demand,  t e c h n i q u e s ,  a p p l i c a t i o n . c e n t r e s  t r a f f i c  complementary  r e s t r a i n Such  d i s c o u r a g e  other  urban  o b j e c t i v e ,  d e s i r a b l e  the  to  q u i c k  major  p o l i c y  t r y  to  measures  as are  an  as the  b e g i n n i n g  to  t h i s  the  w e l l  H a l t i n g  r e s t r a i n t  c o n s i d e r t r a f f i c  i s  as  tend  t e c h n i q u e s g o a l .  u s e f u l n e s s approach  aimed  to  d i r e c t l y  of the at  .3  changing the  human  l i k e l y  p o p u l a t i o n study  behaviour.  behaviour of  consumer  b e h a v i o u r a l  p o l i c y  p u b l i c  a g e n c i e s  I t  a l s o of  The  concerned  i n  time  and  as  a  t h i s  framework  of  been  chosen  the  t e c h n i c a l  The  p u b l i c  because  i t  measure  of  u t i l i z e d  as  by  problems.  p o s s i b l e  the  systems.  e v a l u a t e ,  f o r  the  w i t h i n  i s  of  r e l i e f  c a r r i e d T h i s  o p p o r t u n i t y  p a r k i n g  our  been  a n a l y s i s .  the  a  P r i m a r i l y  u s e f u l n e s s  e v a l u a t i o n  provides  of  to  from  c h a r g e s .  f a r  the  p o l i c y  performance  response  t h e s i s  r e s t r a i n t  Data  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  as  t a r g e t  a v a i l a b l e  p o l i t i c a l  r e s o u r c e s ,  Vancouver.  the  b e h a v i o u r a l  of  and  the  i s  seldom  a s s e s s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n c r e a s e s  c o n g e s t i o n  to  c r u c i a l .  Vancouver  urban  c o n c e r n i n g  comprise  p a r k i n g  have  with  be  of  to  mechanisms  who  w i l l  C i t y  response  o b j e c t i v e of  the  important  our  c o n s t r a i n t s p r i c e  be  i n f o r m a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s  mechanisms  by  c o n c e r n i n g  response  of  r e s t r a i n t  commissioned  w i l l  Consequently,  p r i c e  parking of  out  w i t h i n  study  i n c r e a s e s ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  urban  framework  to  and  the  has both  and  the  p o l i t i c a l  systems. T h i s  framework  enumeration d e s i r a b l e p r o v i d e s p r i c e where of  of to  a  a l l  broader  a n a l y s e s  has  i n  number  a n a l y s i s  are  a n a l y s i s  framework  be  o u t s i d e of  reviewed f o r  advantage  which  d e a l i n g  p e r s p e c t i v e  cannot  the  a n a l y s e s  mechanism.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s k  the  conduct  i n c r e a s e  made.  a l s o  f o r  with  the  be  e n v i s i o n e d  as  t h i s  problem.  e v a l u a t i o n  Suggestive  arguments  the  scope  d e f i n i t i o n s  t h i s  encouraging  the  c o m p l e t e l y  i n  can  of  of and  Chapter study  c a r r i e d  I, i s  t h i s  out  the  o u t l i n e d .  the  can and  study  concepts and'  of  of  This p a r k i n g  be  made  r e c o g n i t i o n  can  a l s o  p u b l i c p u b l i c  be  p o l i c y p o l i c y  4  I D The of  Chapter  concept  of  of  with  s i t u a t i o n  r a t i o n a l e  for  i n c r e a s e s a p p l i e d  l i k e l y  Chapter  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c r e a s e s provide  s u c c e s s f u l  economic, are  r e v i e w i n g p a r k i n g  t r a n s p o r t  d e s c r i b e d ,  of  t h i s  i n c r e a s e s  t h i s  the  t h i s  system a  as  a  r e l e v a n t of  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  p a r k i n g  scheme  i s  conducted  p r i c e  to  of  a  p r i c e charges  commuter  and  the  response  r e s u l t s the  are  p h y s i c a l  under  the  An t o  l i k e l y  i n  the  a t t i t u d i n a l  p a r k i n g  examined,  p o p u l a t i o n .  i n v o l v e d  determine  i n c r e a s e s  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  t e c h n i q u e  e n v i r o n n m e n t a l ,  a v a i l a b l e  commuters.  t a r g e t  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  a  developed:  c o n c e r n i n g  the  r a t i o n a l e .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  f o r  p a r k i n g  with  p r i c e  are  d i s c u s s e d ,  i n f o r m a t i o n  U t i l i z i n g  A  c o n g e s t i o n  p r i c i n g  F o l l o w i n g  c o s t s  problem.  are  c o s t  examined.  s o c i a l  t h i s  urban  the  i s  and  p r i c i n g  m a r g i n a l  s u c c e s s f u l  i n  o p e r a t i o n  by  i s  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s  the  a n a l y s i s  concerned  i s  road  automobile  performance of  of  methodology  IV,  p r i v a t e  d e s c r i b e  d i s c u s s e d .  Vancouver  c o n g e s t i o n  a l l e v i a t i n g  t o o l .  and are  downtown  assumption  The  the  i n  p r i c e  order  behaviour  of  c o n d i t i o n s  of  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  d i s c u s s e d .  and  s o c i a l  the  assessment  to  F i n a l l y ,  impacts  of  and the t h i s  d i s c u s s e d .  Chapter  the  a  f o r  to  In  p l a n n i n g  the  to  c o n c e r n i n g  p o l i t i c a l  Vancouver  p r i c e  b e g i n s  l i t e r a t u r e  p h y s i c a l ,  of  to  urban  between  methods  III  of  u t i l i z e d  r e s p e c t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p o l i c y  i s  The  Chapter the  problem  methods  enumerated. e s p e c i a l l y  the  d i v e r g e n c e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  number  i n  II,  i n c r e a s e  behaviour  V  i s  concerned  system of  the  as  w i t h  p u b l i c  p o l i c y .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  A  number  p o l i t i c a l  of  the  of  a s p e c t s  system  p a r k i n g  w i l l  of be  5  discussed  to provide  f u r t h e r input t o the e v a l u a t i o n .  C h a p t e r VI sums up t h e r e s u l t s conclusions  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  of the study, o f f e r i n g  for further action.  final  6  CHAPTER  1.1.  ONE :  T H E_ F R A M g W Q H K  OF  PUBLIC  POLICY  ANALYSIS  I n t r o d u c t i o n A  number  p u b l i c  p o l i c y  Next,  an  a n a l y s i s  i n  a  d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l  e v a l u a t i o n  w i l l  of  of  of  w i l l  and  be  be  comprehensive  problem  t h e s i s  d e f i n i t i o n s  o u t l i n e  undertaken the  o f  t h e  reviewed  be  given  t h e  p a r k i n g  from  of  p u b l i c  p o l i c y  some  t h e  the t h a t  study  be  f a c t o r s  t o  i n c r e a s e s  f i e l d  should  d e a l i n g  be with  F i n a l l y  conducted be  of  l i t e r a t u r e .  c o n g e s t i o n .  w i l l  p r i c e  t o  a n a l y s e s  urban  t h a t  and  b a s i c  given  r e l i e v i n g a n a l y s e s  concepts  by  c o n s i d e r e d  technique  a t h i s  i n  w i l l  t h e be  mentioned. The  purpose  of  p e r s p e c t i v e ,  f o r  w i t h i n  f i e l d  t h e  c o n c e i v a b l y  •  t h e  t h i s  chapter  r e s e a r c h of  t h a t  p u b l i c  d e s i r a b l e  i s  t o  was c o n d u c t e d  p o l i c y  The  p u b l i c  formation  process  w i l l  p a r t i c u l a r  a s p e c t s  of  c h a p t e r a p p l i e s  t o t o  t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n s p o l i c y  assessment provide  problem,  a v a i l a b l e  d e s c r i p t i o n  some  forming  i n f o r m a t i o n  a  f o r  of  of  c o n c e p t s be  t h e  l i n k e d  Vancouver  p r i c e  e x p l a n a t i o n  of  base  which  t h e  upon  Vancouver  framework,  i n  a n a l y s i s  v a r i o u s  p a r k i n g  a  a n a l y s i s ,  comprehensive  c o n g e s t i o n . p o l i c y  provide  t h i s  and  study;  w i t h i n  urban  c o n c e r n i n g  t o  s i t u a t i o n .  the  a  l a t e r  context  as  i n c r e a s e s .  c e r t a i n  the  of  i n  o r  a s p e c t s  i t  These of  i n t r e p r e t  the the  7  1.2-  P u b l i c  1.2.1.  p o l i c y  d e f i n t i o n s  a n a l y s i s  author  as  are  those  l o n g e s t  most  A n a l y s i s :  time  d e t a i l e d  main  components:  a f f e c t e d ;  a  s e l e c t e d  n e c e s s a r y .  and of  a  of  of  a c t i o n  i n t e n t ;  a c t u a l l y  that  p o l i c y  which  i n  the  " r e c o g n i z e d  d a i l y by  accepted as  as they  There  are  d i s c u s s i o n  of  d e f i n e process  the  and  and  The  p o l i c y  of  and  i s  t h a t  output.  a  the  output. to the  p r o c e s s produce  the  F i n a l l y ,  and  of  are  to  the  t h e r e  I s  worth  of  " t h o s e  of  of  are  members  so  .  3  i n  the  a l s o  p o l i c y the  concept  who  the  chosen  a u t h o r i t i e s  i s ,  having  between  a l t e r n a t i v e  a  are  used  i s  a  and  the  t a k i n g  output  the  by  be  s i m p l y  a c t i o n s  r o l e s "  a t t r i b u t e s  p u b l i c  i s  as  c o n c e p t s  composed  that  system"  d i s t i n g u i s h  one  f i v e  p o l i c y  most  to  o b j e c t s ;  i n t e n t ,  a  f i v e  e v e n t s ;  "whose  t h e i r  P o l i c y  i s  by  the  g i v e s  are  these  system  b a s i c  important  r e f e r s  the  which  author  implemented  time  other  r e q u i r e  these  p o l i t i c a l  of  one  r a m i f i c a t i o n s  which  of  of  by  i n c o r p o r a t i n g  P u b l i c  l i m i t s  p o l i c y  embodying  p o l i c y  i n t e r a c t i o n s the  number  Another  about  .  f i e l d  d e f i n e d  i n v o l v i n g  and  of  of  the  p o l i c y  content  most  .  p o l i c y ,  matters"  w i t h i n  It  2  the  g e n e r a l l y  implementation  adopted  t h e s e  p u b l i c  c l e a r l y .  o t h e r s  above.  a  b r i n g  members  b i n d i n g a c t  to  i n  widest  o b j e c t s  events  a f f a i r s  f o r  of  of  u n d e r t a k e n  most  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  s e t  an  i s  of  1  been  the  which  elements  c o u r s e  a c t i o n s  engage  and  words  has  have  c o m t e m p l a t i o n " the  those  used  P o l i c y  "which  p a r t i c u l a r  d e s i r e d  d e c l a r a t i o n  p o l i c y  Concepts  commonly  p e r s p e c t i v e ,  view  l i n e  of  d e c i s i o n s  i n f o r m a t i o n  more  l o n g  Some  D e f i n i t i o n s  Some  and  P o l i c y  the  time  p o l i c y known from  of  as a l l  d e s c r i b e d  a c t i o n s  f i n a l  to  c h o i c e  and of  8  F i g u r e  POLICY  1.1,:  The  P o l i c y  PROCESS  Source:  Formation  Process  POLICY  David  Easton  ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 3 2 .  CONTENT  9  policy  outcome,  the c o u r s e actions,  of events and  the  together, these overall  distinct isin  concepts  1.2.2.  by  i s t h e way  the  authorities  the 'setof objects'.  the elements  which  Brought  make  up  the  f o r m a t i o n , a s shown i n t h e s i m p l i f i e d  system  (Figure 1 . 1 ) .  o f academic study, p u b l i c  traditionally  economists..  analysis  is  describe  concerned  how  prescription  the  both  produce  decision-making of the  individual making briefly  policy  process,  works.  seeking  to  The o t h e r t y p e o f  examination,  evaluation  output. policy  There  and  i s also  analysis  which  a s p e c t o f t h e o t h e r , but seeks to  informed  the desirable  One b r a n c h o f  4  i n and p r a c t i v e o f p u b l i c  so t h a t  s c i e n t i s t s and  pursued .  content, or p o l i c y  one  has  comes two main b r a n c h i n g s i n  system  i t s e l f with the  analysis  d e c i s i o n s can  policy  be  made  which  outcomes.  Th_e__pj|cison-makin2_Pr  The section  the  policy  by p o l i t i c a l  objective  political  overemphasize  investigate  1.2.3.  tradition  with  of policy  interest  not  this  primarily  of a n a l y s i s  a n a l y s i s concerns  growing  pursued  From  terms of t h e type  will  which  f YEf § _ 0 f P u b l i c , P o l i c y A n a l y s i s  As a f i e l d  does  output,  affected  of  form  process of p o l i c y  policy  fact  response  model o f a p o l i t i c a l  been  from  policy  process  formation  decision-maker (s).  p r o c e s s i s shown i n described  understanding  in  of this  the  can  process, A simple  Figure  1.2.  following  process.  be r e g a r d e d  as a c r o s s -  focusing  upon  the  model o f t h e d e c i s i o n Some  ideas  will  be  s e c t i o n s t o p r e s e n t some  10  F i g u r e  i-.2..i  THE  Source:  The  D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  DECISION  adapted  from  Process  MAKER  B r o s s (1953) , p . 2 9 .  11  1 . 2 . 3 . 1 .  The_Role_Of_Value_Sx§tems  C o n s i d e r a b l e the  l i t e r a t u r e ;  D e u t s c h o f t e n  5  .  i s  a t t e n t i o n  to;  are and  reward.  i n t e r e s t e d  the  formulated  i n  of  l i s t ,  the  adds  of  d e s i r e d  own  p e r s o n a l i t y .  we  have  damage have T h i s  v a l u e s ,  o t h e r ,  any  d i f f e r e n t  p u b l i c  i n t e r e s t the  the i s  up  people the the  by  K a r l  are  more of  s u b j e c t i v e ,  choose  a c t u a l  the  i n  concept  t o  pay  p r o b a b i l i t y  case  wherein  p r o b a b i l i t y  be  g o a l s  p o l i t i c s  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  can  to  and  to  of  of  v a l u e , a  values  of  l i b e r t y  have  such  as  the  reward  values b r i n g s be  i n  s a i d  value  are  to  not  the  i t  held  d e a r  l e g i t i m a c y  the  p r a c t i c e s  p u b l i c are  of  i n  w i l l 7  .  not  becomes  .  To  a  t h i s  attainment with  o n e ' s  c o m p a t i b l e The  i f ,  i f ,  and  o n l y  i n t o l e r a b l e  d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i v e  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c o m p a t i b l e  6  l e g i t i m a c y .  i n f l i c t  S i n c e  power,  a f f e c t i o n ,  wholly of  been  needs:  accordance  always  of  j u s t i c e .  f u t u r e  l e g i t i m a t e  t h a t  of  or  of  i s ,  sometimes  d e f e r e n c e  concept  be  t h a t  s k i l l , and  a c t  i n t e r p l a y  power  p l u r a l i t y  s e c u r i t y to  the  rewards,  w e l l - b e i n g ,  v a l u e s ,  a p p l i e d  with  past  p o s t u l a t e  b e l i e v e  other  the  s i n g l e  and  which  d e a l s  r i g h t e o u s n e s s ) ,  These  value  reason  upon  can  t h a t  they  i s  systems  summed  a s p e c t s :  which  and  w e a l t h , and  a  a  t h e o r i e s  r e c t i t u d e ( j u s t i c e  of  and  t h e o r i e s  terms  e n l i g h t e n m e n t ,  Deutsch  that  c l a i m i n g  modern  p u r s u i t  are  whatever  o b j e c t i v e ,  observes  P o l i t i c a l  each  two  In  v a l u e  s a c r i f i c e s ,  i t s  a t t e n t i o n  t o  o b s e r v a t i o n  than  i n  given  c o i n c i d e .  i n t e r e s t s ;  with  the  rewards  the  of  Deutsch  However  with  been  o b s e r v a t i o n s  W e l l - u n d e r s t o o d  d i s t r i b u t i o n p o s i t i v e l y  i n  has  these  d e s c r i b e d  people  v a l u e s .  of  Beginning  I n t e r e s t  of  some  i n t e r e s t e d  wherein  a t t e n t i o n  w i t h  people concept.  p r o c e s s . the  When p r i v a t e  12  v a l u e s  and  p e r s o n a l i t i e s  i t s  laws  are  then  cannot  l e g i t i m a t e  break  the  Consequently,  d e c i s i o n s  which  with  when  the degree  d i s c u s s e d  l a t e r  w i l l  be  1.2.3.2The data  i s  qranted  e f f e c t i v e l y  be  of  i n  the  system  a  s u f f i c i e n t  Of  him,  g a t h e r i n g  to  d e c i s i o n s  must  reduce  d e f i c i e n c i e s . p r o c e s s ,  i t  behaviour  i s  A  In  u n c e r t a i n t i e s p o l i c i e s  (the  out  or  p r o c e s s  p a r k i n g  p r i c e s  to  produce  c o - o p e r a t e d  which  of  who s e l f -  only  q u e s t i o n  c o n t a i n s w i l l  a be  i n c r e a s e s  permit  the  o n l y  a  r e a l  environment  i s  are  them,  be  of  c o s t l y  c o n d i t i o n s  i n  c o n s i d e r i n g  i t  to  be  t h i s  augmented  s m a l l  p o r t i o n  9  .  of  u t i l i z e d an  w o r l d ,  by  the  8  .  of  the  I n f o r m a t i o n  C o n s e q u e n t l y , u n c e r t a i n t y .  most To  some  by  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  e f f o r t  to  overcome  aspect  of  the  o v e r s t a t e d  t h a t  the  and  knowledge  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  p r e d i c t i o n  of  human  d i f f i c u l t .  provide  a f t e r  the  under  approach  e x p e r i e n c e ,  d i r e c t i o n  a i d  q u i t e  which  w i l l  the  l e g i t i m a c y  systems  cannot  p o s i t i v e  p o l i c i e s t h e i r  made  which  system  u n c e r t a i n t y  p r e d i c t i v e  a n a l y s t s  One  c o n t a i n s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the  i n  c i t i z e n ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  c a r r i e d  u t i l i z e d  model  r e l e v a n t  e x t e n t ,  p r i v a t e  and  U n c e r t a i n t y  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r ' s  be  the  government  out.  The._.Problem  to  of  the  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r  e f f e c t i v e l y  whether  then  c a u s i n g  l e g i t i m a c y .  c a r r i e d  c h a n n e l l e d  eyes  without the  value  s u f f i c i e n t  i n d i v i d u a l s ,  law  damage.  w i l l  of  but new  new at  t h i s  the  same  with  k i n d  dilemma  u n d e r s t a n d i n g time  understanding  a s s o c i a t e d only  to  i s  and  w i l l  to  c a r r y  i n f o r m a t i o n  permit  a  change  g a i n e d .  implementing  which  i s *  produce  through  of  p o l i c y  R e c o g n i z i n g  new new  and  out  the  d i f f e r e n t  i n f o r m a t i o n ) ,  13  t h i s  approach  1 . 2 - 3 . 3 .  they  area  has  of  been  a c t  to  developed  and  c h o i c e  Although  i t  w i l l  i n  d i r e c t i o n  which  parking  the  be  not  depth, w i l l  p r i c e  those  be t h i s be  study  used  to  by  o u t  i n s t e a d  to  c a r r y  out  of  u s e f u l  1  0  the  number how  .  of  One  p u b l i c  have  formation of  d e c i s i o n  how  p r o c e s s .  This  p u b l i c model  here  does  provide  some the  1  l  .  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n s i g h t  i n  a c c e p t i b i l i t y  t h i s of  i d e a . t h i s  approach  t o  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  below: u n i v e r s e ,  at  2. A r e s t r i c t e d v a r i e t y of p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d , and these a l t e r n a t i v e s are i n c r e m e n t a l , s m a l l , changes i n the s t a t u s quo.  i s or  3. f o r 4. orde r e c i 5. c o u r  i s  i n c r e m e n t a l i s m '  examine  a s s e s s i n g  when  t h e o r i e s  model  d e s c r i b e  t h i s  of  p o l i c y  to  i n  f i e l d  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  d i s j o i n t e d  p o s s i b l e model  A  d e s c r i b e  c a r r i e d  i n c r e a s e of  who  o u t p u t .  ' s t r a t e g y  a t t r i b u t e s  summarized  attempt  a c t u a l l y  as  behaviour  f o r  p o l i c y  attempts  to  e x p e r i m e n a t i o n .  methodology  which  r e f e r r e d  The  concern the  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  of  Method^  s h o u l d  methodology  "1. the  p r o c e s s  produce  been  the  a  D e c i s i o n  One p o l i c y  i s  C h o i c e s are made i n margin of the s t a t u s  a given quo.  p o l i t i c a l  A r e s t r i c t e d number of consequences are c o n s i d e r e d any given p o l i c y . Adjustments are made i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s of p o l i c y i n r to conform to given means of p o l i c y , i m p l y i n g a p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between ends and means. Problems are r e c o n s t r u c t e d , or t r a n s f o r m e d , i n the s e of e x p l o r i n g r e l e v a n t d a t a .  6. A n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n occur the r e s u l t t h a t p o l i c y c o n s i s t s of amended c h o i c e s .  s e q u e n t i a l l y , with a long c h a i n of  7. A n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n are o r i e n t e d toward remedying a n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r than toward r e a c h i n g a p r e c o n c e i v e d g o a l . 8. A n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n are s o c i e t y , t h a t i s , the l o c u s fragmented or d i s j o i n t e d . " 1 2  undertaken throughout of these a c t i v i t i e s i s  are  14  It  should  noted  t h a t  f a i r l y  s u c c e s s f u l .  The  which  has  d e a l  be  been  with  i t .  s m a l l .  The  expected  does or  not  how  these  1  of  be  d i r e c t i o n  the  t h a t  of  Public_Agency many  p u b l i c  d e m o c r a c i e s ,  a g e n c i e s  which  behavionr  been  s t u d i e d P u b l i c  they  are  space  i s  of and  t e r r i t o r y  r e a l  terms  excluded  because can  be  of  of  p o l i c y mixed make  g o a l s  or h e l d  tendency  c o n s e r v a t i v e , are  . i t  s c a n n i n g ,  the  1 3  made,  c a l l e d  the  d i r e c t i o n ,  i s are  o c c a s s i o n a l l y  way,  remain  f a i r l y  i n c r e m e n t a l  process  i n  t h i s  without  s i t u a t i o n s  there  are  a g e n c i e s ,  can due i n  of be  to  t h a t  f o r  f o r  and  the  overcome.  and  t h e i r  which  to  t h e i r  have  v a r i o u s there  a  of  p u b l i c area.  i n t e r a c t i o n s ,  have  been  p o l i c y  f u n c t i o n s .  can  be  i n  of  i n  t h a t  have a  concern  number  a c t i v i t i e s  o b s e r v a t i o n s s a i d  are  u s u a l l y  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  number  a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d  a  to  p u b l i c a  seen  can  e l s e w h e r e  t h e o r y ,  a  a  for  p o l i c y  of  he  d e c i s i o n s  system  of  c h o i c e  p r a c t i c e  c r i t i c i z e d  s e r i e s  through  In  p o l i c y  share  been  a  be  .Behaviour  Western  The  a  present  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  a c t o r s .  d r i f t i n g  p o l i t i c a l  to  t h a t  from  tendency  changes  a l t e r n a t i v e s  d e c i s i o n s  from  f a c e s  such  d e c i s i o n  Another  d e c i s i o n s  main  i n v o l v e d  p o s s i b i l i t y  of  process  the  has  determined.  a s s e r t s  4  i n c r e m e n t a l  In  the  fundamental  e x p l o r i n g ,  1.2.4.  i n  approach  narrow-minded  by  e x p l a i n o v e r a l l  h i s  numerous  r e p r e s e n t e d  how  t h i s  change  c o u n t e r a c t e d  fundamental  the  the  approach  might  s c a n n i n g ,  by  be  make  i n c r e m e n t a l  the  s t e p s  be  to  t h i s  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r  through  because  dangers  to  T h i s  a b l e  base  to  concerns  i s  b e l i e v e s  i n d i v i d u a l  s i m p l i f i e d He  w e l l - i n f o r m e d  Lindblom  m a d e .  space  i n  T h i s  1 5  which p o l i c y  d i s t i n g u i s h e d  a  15  number  of  p o l i c y ;  i t  do  i s  o t h e r s ;  e a s i l y under of  zones,  dominant,  other  observed i t s  other  t h a t  t h i s  behaviour;  i n  the  f u t u r e .  s u r v i v a l ;  t h i s  r e l a t i o n s  P u b l i c  a g e n c i e s  s t r u g g l e s  p a r k i n g  s m a l l  an  are  and  a  s o c i a l whole  c r e a t e  s h a l l  be  i n c r e a s e  f o r  agency  w i l l  be  i n f l u e n c e  of  assessment  of  worthwhile order  to  p o i n t e d pressure  the  to  o b t a i n  some  i t  to  major  t h i s  t h r e a t  concerned  with  comes  only  consequences  i s  i n  w i t h ; by  time  to  reasons  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  d e a l s  s o c i a l l y  l a t e r  out  i n  groups  of  i f  c o - o p e r a t i o n .  i n  problem  of  p a r t i a l even  t e r r i t o r i a l  u s e f u l as  p r o d u c t s . i t  a f f e c t s  of  oup_s  Chapter i s  p r i c e  the  i d e a s  the  number  p o l i c y .  p a r k i n g  examine  The  i s  s t r u g g l e  a  are  It  l a r g e  good  to  so  c o n d i t i o n s  funding  spend  !£be_Fo rm at i o n _ 0 f _ P r e s s ur e_Gr As  grow  dominated  do  a  are  o r g a n i z a t i o n  no  given  may  and  are  departments  There  a g e n c i e s  important  o t h e r  upon  r e s o u r c e s .  l a r g e  any  of  but  i n f l u e n c e . .  c o n s i d e r a b l e  today  over  i n f l u e n c e ,  no  impact  e x i s t s  a c t  power  as  p r i c e  has  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  changes  i n f l u e n c e d .  Every  t h a t  C o n s i d e r a t i o n  change  has  has  department  f u n d i n g ,  every  t h e i r  a  i t  i t  r e q u i r e s  s t r u g g l e  with  dominate;  being  of  e x e r c i s e s  a l o n e ;  p u b l i c  f o r m a i t o n .  c o n f l i c t  not  U l t i m a t e l y ,  e x e r c i s e  t e r r i t o r i a l  s o l e l y  There  a  s u r v i v a l  through  1 . 2 . 5 .  when  r e s i s t  f o r  p o l i c y  but  a g e n c i e s . and  i t  a g e n c i e s  c o n t r o l ,  i n f l u e n c e  the  where:  an  I I I ,  important  i n c r e a s e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s where  to  expect  the  p o l i t i c a l  concern  f o r  the  I t  i s  mechanism. of  these  pressure  groups, to  i n come  from. A  very  i n t e r e s t i n g  theory  c o n c e r n i n g  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  16  c o l l e c t i v e a s s e r t e d groups  a c t i o n that  are  the  p r o v i d e .  g a i n s  of  same for  the  the  these  l a r g e  a u t h o r i t y  from he  groups  good  membership.  and  c a p a c i t y  come  i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t u a l l y  to  and  they  T h i s to  be  can  can be  or  s o l e l y  a  to  l a r g e ,  view,  j o i n s  done  some  l o b b y i n g  of  he  or  t h e r e  o f f e r  c o e r c i v e ,  (and  from  p e r s i s t  i s  s t r i v e s  p o i n t  h i m s e l f  which  It  people  l o b b y i n g  may  form  .  conduct  o r g a n i z e  t h e i r  1 6  o r g a n i z e d  do  to  group the  are  which  good  the  f o r m u l a t e d  which  i n c e n t i v e  whether  n o n - c o l l e c t i v e  a c h i e v e  no  of  been  and  c o l l e c t i v e  but  has  groups  organize)  membership  Consequently,  l a r g e  power  the  s o c i e y  have  the  The  j u s t  some  to  a c t u a l l y  b a s i s  m o b i l i z e d  our  those  unable  a c t i v i t y , on  i n  i n  not.  must  be  order  to  e i t h e r  through  through  p o s i t i v e  inducements. In  the  case  of  s m a l l e r  b u s i n e s s  community,  r e l y  n o n - c o l l e c t i v e  upon  group the  members  some  r e l a t i v e l y  inducements  1 . 2 . 6 .  embodied  f i x  argued  and  o f t e n  Of  can i n  the  be  to  one)  of  P o l i c y  This  to  good that  It  i s  exceeds  s m a l l  not  the  t o t a l  good.  group,  that  p e r s o n a l  the  l o c a l  n e c e s s a r i l y  argued  t h e i r  c o l l e c t i v e a  need  as  g a i n  from  c o s t  of  Furthermore,  and  some  i t  n o n - c o l l e c t i v e  Mechanisms t h r e e  p o l i c y : f i x  1  change  approach  f i n d  they  such  anyway.  i d e n t i f i e d  s t r u c t u r a l  that  w i l l  o r g a n i z e  e x i s t  p u b l i c  attempts  problem.  amount  groups,  inducements.  l e a s t  easy  Types  There  f i x  i s  c o l l e c t i v e l y - o b t a i n e d  p r o v i d i n g i s  (at  i t  p o t e n t i a l  has  the 7  .  the  d i f e r e n t  types  of  s o l u t i o n s c o g n i t i v e  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  f i x ,  the  E s s e n t i a l l y ,  the  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  p h y s i c a l  appeal  f o r  environment p u b l i c  to  s o l v e  the  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  17  because:  i n  the  p a s t ,  i t  i n c o r p o r a t e s  a  knowledge,  p r e c i s e n e s s  of  a p p l i c a t i o n ;  i t  to  d e a l i n g  new  modify  h i s  been i s  of  s e l e c t e d cheap  ,  supposed good  to  of  used I t  t h e i r  the  f a i r l y  comprehension  of  d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  of  the  r a t i o n a l  t h i s  whose  has  a c t o r b a s i s  behaviour  has  because  i t  i s  i n  are  f e l t  to  not  Western  c h o i c e ,  f r e e l y  of the  environment  of  who  i n v o l v e s  a p p e a l s  freedom and  approach  the  appeal  i n d i v i d u a l s  r e s p o n s i b l y  on  f i x  p h y s i c a l  have  t h i s  behaviour  i d e o l o g i c a l  f a t e ,  c o n t r i b u t e  of  support.  i n d i v i d u a l  where  own  a  approach  when has  terms  the  i n  i t  to and  the  be are  g r e a t e r  s o c i e t y .  The  s t r u c t u r a l  modifying  approach other  be  change.  f o r  as  c o n t r o l l e d  This  s o c i e t i e s ,  r e s p o n s i b l e  man  f o r  can  c o n t r o l  i n s t i t u t i o n a l  to  s u c c e s s f u l ;  Consequently,  methodology  change.  of  circumvent  i n f o r m a t i o n  t o  d e o m c r a t i c  views  The  and  s u s c e p t i b l e  f i x  h i g h l y  degree  behaviour.  i n t e r n a l l y  i n f o r m a t i o n .  been  a p p l i c a t i o n ,  c o n s i d e r a b l e  c o g n i t i v e  t r a n s f e r  by  human  e n j o y s  The  h i g h e r  attempts  with  c u r r e n t l y  w i l l  r e l a t i v e l y  has  the  can  f i x e s ,  f i x  attempts  p h y s i c a l  be but  seen the  or to  t o  s o c i a l  modify  s e t t i n g .  i n c o r p o r a t e  prime  i n d i v i d u a l  o b j e c t i v e  In  the i s  one  t a c t i c s one  of  behaviour s e n s e , of  t h i s  both  the  b e h a v i o u r a l  change. Each  approach  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  f i x  s u f f e r s  unplanned  e f f e c t s ,  f a i l u r e  making  o f t e n  by  s e c o n d - o r d e r  c o g n i t i v e  f i x  i s  s u f f e r s  such  from  from as  s i m p l e  the  assumptions s o c i a l as  s h o r t c o m i n g s .  a d v e r s i t y  p o l l u t i o n .  unplanned viewed  d i f f e r e n t  a l s o  having  t h i s  about  e f f e c t s severe  of  s e c o n d - o r d e r approach  human  r e s u l t  The  as  r i s k s  behaviour; w e l l .  s h o r t c o m i n g s ,  The s i n c e  18  a t t i t u d e s i n  f a c t ,  i t  i s  are  very  t h a t  d i f f i c u l t  a t t i t u d e s  r e c o g n i z e d  to  change.  f o l l o w  t h a t ,  at  b e s t ,  uses  a  r a t i o n a l i t y ;  that  i s ,  and  f o r  s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  s t r i v e s  b e h a v i o u r .  he  from  Consequently,  c o g n i t i v e  f i x  approach  cannot  c o l l e c t i v e  p o i n t i n g  to  d e a l  behaviour,  he  where  man  not  w i l l  a u t h o r i t i e s  b e h a v i o u r  1 8  .  Furthermore,  model  n e c e s s a r i l y  b e h a v i o u r .  the  important  i n d i v i d u a l  of  bounded the  n e c e s s a r i l y  not  f e e l ,  e x h i b i t s  s i m p l i f i e d  o p t i m a l  with  Some  w o r l d , o p t i m a l ,  respond  to  F i n a l l y ,  problems  a  t h i s  r e l a t e d  to  r a t i o n a l i t y  may  not  be  a p p e a l i n g  the  l i g h t  of  d e s i r a b l e . The the  s t r u c t u r a l  shortcomings  i n s t i t u t i o n a l the  three  of  f i x the  s u p p o r t ,  i t  a l t e r n a t i v e  p o l i c i e s ,  s t r u c t u r a l  f i x  e f f e c t s .  1.3.  A It  range  may  must  i t  f i g h t  would  be  s t r u g g l e s  demand  1  9  i t  s u f f e r s  t h i s  approach  i n s t i t u t i o n a l the  .  more  More  examination  because  a l s o  However,  i n  of  f o c u s e s from  i n e r t i a .  l i k e l y  so  than  o b j e c t i v e s upon  l a c k s  to  Of  generate  the  other  i n s t e a d  behaviour.  ignorance  of  of The  s e c o n d - o r d e r  ,  D e s i r a b l e w i l l of  be  Comprehensive  u s e f u l  a n a l y s e s  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h a t  w e l l - i n f o r m e d  c h o i c e  c o n g e s t i o n .  here  such some  an  to  would  a i d of  be  p u b l i c p o l i c i e s  Although  e x h a u s t i v e  p e r s p e c t i v e  A n a l y s i s  c o n s i d e r  t h a t  would  urban  p r o v i d e  and  t e r r i t o r i a l  approaches  becomes  o t h e r s .  a p p r o a c h e s ,  b u r e a u c r a t i c  then  i t  was  s t u d y ,  from  which  at  t h i s  d e s i r a b l e  p o i n t i n  order  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o not i t s to  d e a l  w i t h  p o s s i b l e d e s c r i p t i o n judge  the  the  e n t i r e  to  provide  to  make  a  the  problem  of  t o  c a r r y  w i l l  serve  out to  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  19  that  have been made. Presumably,  broad  a  c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s would b e g i n  o b j e c t i v e of a s s e s s i n g the  reducing through  urban c o n g e s t i o n  present  analysed.  and  congestion  what t h e i r  a  of  method the be  and  gives  be  measured.  and  the  congestion.  r e c o g n i z e the  values  determine the  of  concern  will  be  limits  problem  to  sources  of congestion  those  study  i n the  the s t u d y ,  and  The  problem  situations  can  which  are means  would s t r i v e i n our  would p r e s e n t wish  selection  and  is.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  may  be  are,  the  values  expressed  decision-makers  of  i n Vancouver  describes  which a l t e r n a t i v e  be of  should  congestion  r e l e v a n t i n the  the  should  extent  system  e s t a b l i s h e d what t h e  reflected of  of  levels,  defintion The  A comprehensive approach  results  t o any  different  upon a  transportation  range of v a l u e s t h a t are  the  disadvantages  measurement.  d e s i r a b l e to i d e n t i f y  to  as  of  against  w o r t h w h i l e and  These  to s e t t l e  This information  considered relieve  of  congestion  physical effects  context  would be  relevant  the  p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t r i b u t i o n  identified.  that  number  the  means.  necessary  I t should  socio-economic be  be  throughout  determined.  It  state  I t would  congestion  so  a  a number o f d i f f e r e n t  The  should  to  a d v a n t a g e s and  with  to  society,  information  to  consider.  processes  i n the e v a l u a t i o n  which  process  well. Practically  limit number  upon of  potential  the  speaking, areas  levels policy  of  i t would  of c o n g e s t i o n congestion  objectives.  be  necessary  t o be that  to  place  i n v e s t i g a t e d , and will  A l s o , i t must be  be  examined  determined  some the as what  20  sources  of c o n g e s t i o n  t o reduce  congestion.  investigate  a l l  of  carried  Quite p o s s i b l y a  i t would  number  urban area.  alternative  out,  be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e  sources,  examine t h e e n t i r e range  will  of  At t h i s  the i d e n t i f i e d  be  f o r means  desirable  different  levels,  point, selection  measures t h a t would  utilizing  search  be  examined  v a l u e s as  the  to and  of  the  should basis  be for  selection. Once should  be  selection carried  congestion, private  or  behaviour  and  concerns  interest  prediction measures.  Analyses alternative  mechanism, and  impact;  study  should  objective  based make  assess  impact;  relative  upon  the  f o r congestion  relief  various  to  also  identify  the  impact  the  should  income  the  usefulness preselected  be  economic  of  collected:  information; distributional  different  measures  usefulness.  values  recommendations  present  entity.  the  compare t h e  their  also  the  individual,  to evaluate their  indicative  e v a l u a t i o n should  the  o f each  of each  congestion  social  with  with both  under  cause  agencies,  involved  should  o f a number o f t y p e s  benefits;  order to e s t a b l i s h Finally,  of  actions  of i n d i v i d u a l behaviour  policies to  analyses  government  be c o n c e r n e d  behaviour  conducted  reduction  e c o n o m i c c o s t s and  in  whose  characteristics  entity  Information  The  behavioural  groups t h a t are  i n f l u e n c e and  must be  a c h i e v i n g the  effects.  individuals  Examination  of  policy  environmental  two  of f u t u r e behaviour  the socio-economic  examination  levels.  of the  made,  analyses should  powers, domain o f  in  been  c o n t r i b u t e t o i t ; of those  These  alternative  while  out:  f i r m s , and  problem.  has  identified concerning  which s h o u l d be  earlier, the  sought,  the  policy and  the  21  mechanisms  1.4.  which  a n a l y s e s I t  was  p o r t i o n  of  study,  due  o b j e c t i v e w i t h i n  To  Be  p o s s i b l e the  be  used  to  the  of  t h i s  t h i s  __By.^TJttis_Stud-y_  f o r  study  t h i s  study  c o n s t r a i n t s f o r  of  w i l l the  the  to  be  time to  a s s e s s ,  of  only  f o r and  u s e f u l n e s s r e l i e f  o b j e c t i v e ,  conduct  e n v i s i o n e d  c o n s t r a i n t s  program  a t t a i n  Conducted  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  to  these  i n c r e a s e  should  a  a  s m a l l  comprehensive  r e s o u r c e s . as  of  f a r  a  as  The  p o s s i b l e  p a r k i n g  c o n g e s t i o n  i n  p r i c e downtown  Vancouver. The  study  c o n g e s t i o n  i n  l i t e r a t u r e .  a  i n  are  number No  the  of  c o n s i d e r e d The  problem and  methods  t h a t  and  i t s  attempt  w i l l  p o l i c y The  some  i n  p r i c e  of  values  the  some  methods  and  are  be  undertaken,  the the  except  d i s c u s s i o n f a c t o r s  of  reviewed  d i s c u s s e d .  i n  of  a v a i l a b l e  are  w i l l  i n c r e a s e s  to  problem  c o n g e s t i o n  i t  r e c o g n i z e d  context  i n f o r m a t i o n  w i l l  system  made  to  w i l l  be  b r i e f l y  c o n c e r n i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Vancouver be  c o s t s  and  a l l e v i a t i n g  are  the  r e f e r e n c e  d e f i n e d ,  of  of  of  t h a t  the w i l l  e v a l u a t i o n .  a d m i n s i t r a t i v e  Congestion  with  The  of  t h e y  p a r k i n g  some  i s  d i s c u s s i o n  i n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  a b s t r a c t ,  Vancouver  p r e s e n t i n g  as  of  sense  an  d i s c u s s e d .  e x p l i c i t  a t t r i b u t e s be  the  with  C o n g e s t i o n  measurement and  begins  as  and i t  not  the  i s be  e s t a b l i s h  the  e x i s t i n g  make-up  i n v o l v e d measured  l e v e l s  d e s c r i b e d ,  of  of  thereby  c o n g e s t i o n  the  p o l i t i c a l  w i t h  t h i s  and  t h e r e f o r e  c o n g e s t i o n  problem. no  r e d u c t i o n  o b j e c t i v e s . , parking  d e t a i l .  p r i c e  Information  i n c r e a s e w i l l  mechanism be  w i l l  generated  be  examined  c o n c e r n i n g  i n i t s  22  impact  upon  distribution this  the effects,  technique  policy,  the  be  successful  the  field  political  of  and  to  Finally,  evaluated  i n terms of  congestion  price  increases,  i t  can  of  the  u n f o l d i n the effect  following a.  the  systems, the be  assessed  combined  with  from  their  policy as  the  available likely will  be  public policy  identifed necessary  evaluation that there in to  socio-economic system;  these  parking  total  of  parking  have been  the  the  process  finally,  problem.  the  This  considerations,  price increase  Technical  Performance  In t h i s  p o r t i o n of the  the  as  i t  adequacy  study  shall  in  the  and  it of  the  2 0  of  program, a s s e s s  evaluation,  that s u c c e s s f u l implementation  four  literature:  establishment  assessment of  i n terms of the  the  in  factors:  assumed  to  behaviour  ideas  concerning  noted  effect;  investigate of  be  this  questionnaire  price increase  be  effort  measure; a s s e s s m e n t o f  evaluation  of  target i n d i v i d u a l s .  f a c t o r s f o r use  assessment  to  will  i t s potential usefulness  evaluation  attempt  costs  Evaluation  considering  the  the  income  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  possible to analyse  parking  of  of  the  suggestions  categories  would  The  and  relief.  Factors,For In  the  concerning  attitudinal  adminstrative  produce  response.  1.5.  be  an  public policy analysis will  information  for  of  not  impact  implementation,  behaviour of  Although i t w i l l of  discussed.  utilization  i n v e s t i g a t e the  social  Some i n f o r m a t i o n  will  assuming  through  environment,  will  be  parking  the  23  p r i c e  i n c r e a s e  measure upon  system  w i l l  then  c o n g e s t i o n ,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n given b.  to  any  t h i s  government i n t e r e s t  other  problem.  and  i s  groups.  to  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  which  are  p a r k i n g these d.  Income  and  p r i c e  i n c r e a s e s  groups  i n  s o c i e t y .  p r e c i s e  e s t i m a t e s ,  suggest  how  appear  economic a v a i l a b l e .  as  the  these  though  e f f i c i e n c y  of  a l s o  be  develop.  m o t i v a t i o n groups:  and  s p e c i a l  response some  of  these  degree  be  the  of  shared  e f f e c t s  w i l l  not t h i s  might  would  t h i s  mechanisms  a p p l i c a t i o n  and  the  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s  c o s t s .  E f f e c t s  w i l l  i t  implementing  a d m i n s t r a t i v e  however,  i t  urban  d i f f e r e n t  to  p o l i c y ,  f o r  It  a l t h o u g h  the  the  s u c c e s s f u l  b e n e f i t s  w i l l  impact  w i l l  i n t e r e s t s ,  the  D i s t r i b u t i o n a l  c o s t s  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  with  to  have  i t s  p o l i c y .  i n c r e a s e  mechanisms  The  i s  n e c e s s a r y p r i c e  with  b e h a v i o u r a l  c .  here  of  This  Behaviour  d e t e r m i n i n g  t h i s  out. of  c o u l d  s e v e r a l  of  of  t h a t  p r i v a t e The  i n  terras  a s p e c t s  concerned  e f f e c t i v e n e s s Costs  i n  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a g e n c i e s ,  combine  c a r r i e d  C o n s i d e r a t i o n  impacts  p r o v i d e s  Concern  not  been  weighed  and  c r i t e r i o n  p o l i c y  groups  be  adverse  P o l i t i c a l T h i s  has  be be  measure,  implementing between be  many  p o s s i b l e  study be  w i l l  d i f f e r e n t to  o b t a i n  attempt  to  d i s t r i b u t e d .  d e s i r a b l e  to  p o s s i b l e  to  due  p a r k i n g  to  the  do  s o ,  i t  does  e v a l u a t e  the  p a u c i t y  of  data  24  1. Bauer and 2. 8 a n n e y , p . 3. E a s t o n , p . 4. R a n n e y , p p e n t i r e l y .  G e r g e n , p . 2. 7 . 2 1 2 . . 9 - 1 3 , n e i t h e r  branch  d i s r e g a r d s  the  o t h e r  5. D e u t s c h , p p . 1 0 - 1 5 , t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n Deutsch. 6. H. L a s w e l l , P o l i t i c s : W h o _ G e t s _ W h a t , ._>Jhen_,_How? P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1958, c i t e d i n D e u t s c h , p . 1 2 . 7. D e u t s c h , p . 1 3 . 8. S i m o n , p . 2 7 2 . 9. S i m o n , p p . 2 6 9 - 2 7 2 . 10. L i n d b l o m , p . 8 1 notes comprehensive p l a n n i n g ' .  the  method  c a l l e d  11. Lindblom(1959) and l a t e r Braybrooke and S t r a t e g y Of D e c i s i o n , New Y o r k . Free P r e s s , 1963. 12. S c h o e t t l e , i n Bauer and G e r g e n , p . 1 5 1 .  aspect  summarizes ,  World  ' r a t i o n a l -  L i n d b l o m ,  A  13. L i n d b l o m ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 8 5 . 14.. E t z i o n i , ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 2 8 2 - 2 9 0 . 15. the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n summarized from Downs,pp.211-216. 16. t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s summarized from O l s o n , p p . 5 52,132-167. 17. the f o l l o w i n g arguments are summarized form H e b e r l e i n , "The Three F i x e s : T e c h n o l o g i c a l , C o g n i t i v e And S t r u c t u r a l " , U n p u b l i s h e d , 1 9 7 3 . Es: T e c h n o l o g o c i a l , C o g n i t i v e And S t r u c t u r a l " , u n p u b l i s h e d , 1 9 7 3 . 18. D. Bern, B e l i e f s ^ ,Attitudes£._Andi_Human^Affairs^ c i t e d i n H e b e r l e i n ^ p.18. 19. H e b e r l e i n , p . 1 9 . 20. Suchman,pp.60-71.  25  CHAPTER  2.1.  c o n g e s t i o n  e x p e r i e n c e d , c e n t r e s .  and  Too a t  provide  m o b i l i t y  c h a p t e r ,  t h e  t h e  measurement t h e  Some  and  o f  used  those  t e c h n i q u e s  mechanism  i s  t o  v e h i c l e s of  case  would  v e h i c l e s  be  t h e  c a p a c i t y  f o r i s  t o  i n  p r i c i n g .  system I n  t h i s  i n  a r e  and terms  enumerated.  t e c h n i q u e s  c o n g e s t i o n ,  The  t o  D e f i n i t i o n  e x p l a i n e d  a v a i l a b l e  r e d u c t i o n  t h e  u s e r s .  examined. i s  urban  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of  most  e a s i l y  t o d a y ' s  and i t s e f f e c t s  given a  u s e  e x i s t e n c e  t r a v e l  road  c a n  i s  be  o f  i n c l u d e above s t a t e d c a n  t h e  l i g h t  s a i d  t h e  c o s t s  t r a v e l l i n g  under  t h e  i n  i s  which  e s p e c i a l l y  p a r k i n g  i n c r e a s e  Congestion  d e f i n i t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n  take  of  t h e  s i m p l y  Another  t o  c o n g e s t i o n  attempt  using  t h e  Although t o o  understood,  l i m i t s  I t s  t h a t  i n t r o d u c e d .  Congestion  i s  w i l l  D e f i n t i g n _ O f  a d d i t i o n  of  road  c o n s i d e r a t i o n be  t h i s  CONGESTION  o c c u r r e n c e  a c c e s s s i b i l i t y  d i s c u s s e d .  c o s t s  an  attempting  time  problem  i s  i s  people  same  might  more  VEHICLE  i n t u i t i v e l y  many  system  2 . 2 .  MOTOR  I n t r o d u c t i o n T r a f f i c  of  TWO:  t o  given each  when  f a c i l i t y  a r e  c o s t s  of  more  than  c o s t s  such  d e f i n i t i o n  r a t h e r  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,  u s e f u l  i n  terms  o f  be  very  made  i n  the  between  r o a d ,  t r a f f i c  and t h e  t h e  a  .  time  l o s s  t h a t T h i s  Costs  of  time  i t way.  time:  taken  they base  i n  l o s s .  p r a c t i c a l  a c t u a l  time  c o n d i t i o n s .  as  1  o r t h e  non-monetized i s  a l o n e  two  i t  be  them  t h e  u s i n g  t o  o f  d i f f e r e n c e on  e x i s t  by  would measure  26  r e p r e s e n t s of  an  attempt  c o n g e s t i o n :  imposes  under  l i t t l e  r e c o g n i z e s  that  c o n d i t i o n s  i n  guide  f o r  2 . 3 .  l i g h t  time some  i s  P a r t  u s e f u l  of  t h e  d e f i n e d . t r i p  t h e  2.4.  ).  on  urban  other  or  bound  f o r  c o n d i t i o n s , v e h i c l e s  w i l l  c e n t r e s  d e s i r a b l e  problem  On  the  must  one 2  .  e x i s t e n c e  e x t r a  This  e x i s t  and  the  i n  d e f i n i t i o n  the  attempts  v e h i c l e  best  to  provide  an  easy  of some  a c c e p t a b l e .  upon  road  to  other  the  number  Establishment  of  of  t r a v e l  a  determine  s p e c i f i e d  f o r  c o l l e c t i o n ,  of  b e g i n s road  by  by  v e h i c l e v e h i c l e ,  c o s t s  (see  measure  s o l e l y  ' l o s s  under  l i g h t  l i g h t  t r a f f i c  c o n d i t i o n s  and  s i z e  of  the  and  t y p e  of  number  u s i n g  i t ,  g e n e r a l l y t o  use  v a r i a b l e  some  and sought the  f a c t o r s  have  by  t h e  number This  l a r g e t h e i r  number  been  d e t e r m i n i n g  road  network.  change  a  ' z e r o '  accomodate.  t h e i r  i n v o l v e s  f o r  can  i s  these  l e v e l  network  one  each  expected  c o n g e s t i o n  b a s i c  c o n g e s t i o n  of  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  measuring  matter.  composition  t h i s  and  o f t e n .  some  to  attempting  standard  methods  approach  t h e  speed  d i f f e r e n t  One  f a c t o r s :  o f  v e h i c l e  and  of  times  of  some  nature  attempt  t r i p  v e h i c l e s  which  some  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  q u i c k l y  which  the  not  i n c u r r e d  i n d i v i d u a l  any  i s  i n  c o s t s  measuring  of  c o n d i t i o n  of  the  the  type  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  a l l  manner  Determination  the the  c o n g e s t i o n  the  hand,  network,  c a p a b i l i t i e s ;  i n  of  number  i n t e r s e c t i o n s ;  s c a l e  due  e s t a b l i s h  a  of  of  c o n d i t i o n s .  depends  u s e r s ;  l i e s  i n f e a s i b i l i t y  t r a f f i c  the  measurement  d i f f i c u l t ,  time'  t h a t  lower  c o n g e s t i o n  Measurement  i s  and  a l l  a  t r a f f i c  l o s s  our  what  d e f i n e  Measurement_Of^Congestion The  of  t o  of  developed,  c o n g e s t i o n . of  v e h i c l e s  c a l c u l a t i o n  27  i s  based  upon  hour,  and  c e n t r e  3  the  .  road  of  to  t r a v e l l i n g ,  i t  f o r  of the  to  4  .  p a r t s  and  whole  American  been to  examination  c o n g e s t i o n  5  T h i s has  measure  of  number  i n t e r r u p t i o n s ,  and  of  f a c t o r s  i n c l u d e d  i n  Highway from  d e s c r i b e d  a  a  r a n k i n g  are  i s  and  of a l s o  Using p o s s i b l e  u t i l i z i n g  i s  not  the  d i r e c t l y  approach  a  of  c e r t a i n  as  the flow  d e f i n e d f o r  l i n k e d  t o  c a p a c i t y of  the  idea  d r i v i n g  ' l e v e l  of  q u a l i t a t i v e t i m e ,  p r a c t i c e  c e r t a i n  of  a  s a f e t y ,  f o r  A  of  convey  In  t r a f f i c .  measurement  maneuver,  .  the  t h i s  t r a v e l  6  the  t h a t  " s p e e d ,  c o s t s "  the  of  i n d i c a t e s  the  with  t o  T r a d i t i o n a l l y  f a c t o r s :  t r a f f i c  comfort  and  only  s e l e c t e d  of  s e v e r a l  l i m i t s  measurement.  Capacity l a r g e of  the  number  then  e x i s t s  formula  terms  developed  d e r i v e d  the  the  i s  of  s p e c i f i e d  speeds,  i t  town  t r a f f i c ,  c o n d i t i o n s .  developed.  s u f f i c i e n t  o p e r a t i n g  s e r v i c e *  developed  c a p a c i t y  to  t h a t  t h i s  i n  accomodate  of  t i m e ,  t y p i c a l  the  c a l c u l a t e  t r a f f i c  of  hour  v a r i o u s  per  p r o p o r t i o n  of  d i f f e r e n t  been  d i s c u s s e d  been  freedom  ' l e v e l s  l o s s  area  f l o w  c o n d i t i o n s .  has  concept  which a  l i g h t  somewhat  not  s e r v i c e '  The  a  of  i s  .  c o n v e n i e n c e ,  of  c o n g e s t i o n  alone  at  a  the  peak  to at  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  has  concept  the  c o n g e s t i o n  system the  and  r o a d ' s  w i t h i n  by  measure  A m e r i c a ,  of  used  c e n t r e  speed  s i n g l e  c o n c e r n i n g  p o s s i b l e  town  a  journey  as  road  c l o s e r  a  f o r  c o n g e s t i o n  North  North  measurement  use  maximum  d e v e l o p e d  a p p l i c a b l e  becomes  can  of  e s t i m a t e s  v e h i c l e s  c a l c u l a t e  In  l e n g t h  e f f e c t i v e l y  d e f i n t i o n  formula  f i g u r e  system  t h a t  value  the  u t i l i z i n g  system,  v e h i c l e s  s t a n d a r d i z e d  s t a n d a r d i z e d  By  road  number  a  a  a  Manual  number  l e v e l s  of  of  (HCM),  u s i n g  e m p i r i c a l  s e r v i c e  f o r  s t a n d a r d s  s t u d i e s ,  urban  and  7  has  suburban  28  arterials. at is  the  After  the  standard  b a s e maximum l e v e l  legal  of  factor,  the  qualitative  road  network.  provide  and  other  description  same  possible to regard increase time  in  delay, One  and  by  management times . called  over  approach  a study  In  to  this  the  upon  way,  straight-line  following  major t r a v e l  provide  a  base  c a p a c i t y of  the  can  rough be  it is  8  as  of  congestion of  capacity times  A  1  similar  routes, could for  legal  be  and  with  is  travel  what  is from  speed  calculation, in  time  of  traffic  operating  used  estimating  an  provided.  c a p a c i t y ; t h a t i s , t r a v e l time at the  to  measure  the e f f e c t s  system  high  reticent  service  a very  to assess  route ".  figure  in  of  measurement  road  to destination calculated a  mentioned  more  level  compares a c t u a l j o u r n e y  speed-flow  is  busy downtown s t r e e t s ,  decreasing  attempting  techniques  airline  origin  for  much  of s e r v i c e  speeds,  Congestion  manual i s  defined  lower  of s e r v i c e at the  gradings each  and  other c o s t s of congestion,  This study  9  this  congestion.  final  suggested  indicators.  Although  the  is  speed, s u c c e s s i v e d e g r a d a t i o n  d e s c r i b e d i n terms of i n c r e a s i n g d e l a y  load  service  a  but  study  loss  to  through  congestion. I n sum, here  all  congestion conditions.  the  will  methods o f measurement o f c o n g e s t i o n  discussed  likely  extent  for a specified  road  However, f o r t h i s  would r e q u i r e a g r e a t beyond  provide  deal  t h a t which i s a l r e a d y  of  a  rough i d e a of the  system study data  intended.  under  to u t i l i z e collection  varied any  one  and  of  traffic of  them  analysis  29  2.4.  Costs In  Congestion  t h i s  developed e f f e c t s of  Of  s e c t i o n  i n  the  of  p r i c i n g  S o c i a l  Cost  Congestion i n d i v i d u a l be  s a i d  demand c o s t of  to f o r  of  a  the  w i l l  w i l l  be  be  be  d e s c r i b e d  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as  can  c o s t s  can  be  about  g a s o l i n e  c o s t s .  t r a f f i c  The  The  problems  c o s t s  whole.  Each  the  t h e  be  a  i n  Table  the  c o s t s  given  2 . 1 . of  etc.)  p r i v a t e  cost)  t i m e ; The  a  1  1  A  making of  and  a r e :  a  the  summary  t r i p  the  are  independent  c o s t s  g u a l i t a t i v e p r i v a t e  are  system  p e r c e i v e d  i n c r e a s i n g  The  of  .  can  2  p e r c e i v e d  marginal  where  1  the  t r i p .  f u n c t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i m i t ,  point  any  to  t r a v e l l e r  i n d i v i d u a l  the  t r a v e l  to  to  i n  both  of  an  o u t - o f -  d i s u t i l i t y  c o s t  (HPC)  t r a f f i c  i s  volumes  c o n g e s t i o n .  longer  shown  reviewed.  of  Therefore  (marginal  c o s t s ;  of  as  seen  speed  t r a f f i c .  up  by  p h y s i c a l  d i s t a n c e ,  c o n s t a n t  s a i d  s i t u a t i o n ,  f i x e d  t r i p  be  p e r c e i v e d  s h o r t - r u n  Congestion terms  terms  c o s t s  ( d i s c o m f o r t , i n c o n v e n i e n c e ) .  b r i n g  i n  p r i v a t e  of  c o n g e s t i o n  i n t r o d u c e d .  some  the  be  of  d e s c r i b e d .  experience  money  f a i r l y  b r i e f l y  as  by  viewpoint  w i l l  s o c i e t y  volume  pocket  economics  and  f i x e d  a d d i t i o n a l  of  c o s t  t r a v e l l e r  the  determined  of  can  p r i v a t e  In  s o c i a l  Theory  t r i p - m a k i n g  these  ( i . e .  f i e l d  c o n g e s t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n  2 . 4 . 1 .  the  i n  volume.  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  adds  to  t r a v e l  the  c o s t s  time,  Consequently, Figure When  volume  2.1., demand (Q1)  and  p e r c e i v e d  i n c r e a s e d the r i s e s f o r  each  d i s c o m f o r t ,  marginal  (C1)  t r a v e l l e r and  p r i v a t e  d r a m a t i c a l l y  t r a v e l  c o s t  by  i s  low  are  low.  i n c r e a s e d  c o s t  with (D1) As  i n  (MPC),  i n c r e a s i n g then  the  30  £ a b l e _ 2 . _ l . : _.The  PRIVATE  COSTS  Costs  Fixed  COSTS  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  V e h i c l e  V a r i a b l e  SOCIAL  Of . U r b a n  purchase  Annual  L i c e n c e  Annual  Insurance  Tax Premiui  G a s o l i n e Maintenance T o l l s P a r k i n g Charges T r a v e l Time Comfort, Convenience  F i x e d  Land A c q u i s i t i o n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e A e s t h e t i c Aspects Of F i x e d S t r u c t u r e s S o c i o l o g i c a l Costs  F i x e d /  V a r i a b l e  V a r i a b l e  Road Maintenance Snow Removal L i g h t i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P o l i c i n g Congestion Costs Accident Costs (e. c o s t s n o t d i r e c t l y covered by d i r e c t l y purchased insurance) A i r P o l l u t i o n Noise V i s u a l  Source:  H a n s e n , p . 5 2 .  I n t r u s i o n  31 the  demand  s u f f e r  c o n g e s t i o n ,  i n d i c a t e s If  the  (Q3)  i n c r e a s e s  the  becomes of  queues  the  of  at  making It  the  the  an  Looking  at  does  s o c i a l  c o s t s  c o n s i d e r and  road  e x i s t  c o s t  s o c i a l  the  i s .  t h a t  This  the  (C  c o s t  a  and  the  i n f l i c t s  for  e x a m p l e  2 . 2 .  which  p e r c e i v e d  by  i s  1  h i s  a  long c o s t  t r i p of  and r a r e l y  each  even  more  upon  o t h e r s :  t r i p  u n l i k e l y  flow  was  to  p o l l u t i o n  viewpoint  the  user  s o c i e t y . c o s t s  i n  by  imposes  t r a v e l l e r  This  road  and  p e r c e i v e d  p r i v a t e  i n d i c a t e s  the  as  c o s t s  * .  c a r r y i n g  ).  C l e a r l y ,  he  volume  p r i v a t e  r e s t  these  the  the  the  Qmax  s e c t i o n .  t r a f f i c  t r i p  c o s t s  l i c e n c e  t r i p  3  the  of  and  i n  r a i s e s  of  (D3),  slow  higher  a l l  time,  h i s  F i g u r e  Congestion  For  what  same  t r a f f i c  extremely  .  point  to  i s  t h a t  the  would  marginal  c o s t .  2 . 4 . 2 .  the  3  The  b e g i n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  decrease  a  i d e n t i f i e d .  maintenance by  the  i s  number  purchase  c o s t s  i l l u s t r a t e d i f  a  i n c r e a s e .  of  even  t h a t  t r a v e l l i n g  volume  r e f l e c t  be  the  f o r  i s 1  u n i t s  (C2)  t r a v e l l e r s ,  2.1.,  v e h i c l e  the  t r i p  not  can  at  t h a t  p o i n t s  other  Table  d e c i s i o n .  there  argued  the  c o s t s  t h i s  system;  be  h i m s e l f ,  c o n s i d e r s  t h a t  a d d i t i o n a l  can  and  c a p a c i t y  entrance  i n d i v i d u a l  upon  t r i p  exceeds  such  c a p a c i t y  the  maximum  demand  (D2),  the  Vancouver form  the  purposes  i n c r e a s e d  c o s t s  a r e . , by  of  s i t u a t i o n ,  T h e r e f o r e ,  c o n g e s t i o n  E f f e c t s  i t The  of  i t  e v a l u a t i n g w i l l  be  c o n g e s t i o n  i s  worthwhile  p r i v a t e  c o n g e s t i o n :  u s e f u l  t a k e , to  c o s t s  g a s o l i n e ,  parking to  and  p r i c e  attempt  what  enumerate of  other  maintenance,  i n c r e a s e s to  t h e i r what  the  a s s e s s magnitude e f f e c t s  t r a v e l l e r s t r a v e l  i n  t i m e ,  are  32  £ig:ure__2j_1. :__Short-run  P r i v a t e  cT COST  VOLUME Source:  H a n s e n , p . 3 3 ,  Fiqure_2^2.^_Flow_At_Marginal_Social_Cost  Source:  B e e s l e y , p . 2 2 4 .  33  comfort  and c o n v e n i e n c e c o s t s * .  larger  segments  Emissions increase diesel  of  society  as speed  drops  1 6  .  Emissions  engines appear t o i n c r e a s e  often  and go  conditions  1 7  sources  positive  1 8  .  It  relationship  there  is  little  conjecture °.  These  operating  the  road  particularily congestion  2.4. 3.  felt  with  of  policing,  becomes more  should  marginal  according  than  prove  social  such  would  are*  may  road  a  accidents,  1 9  disprove  this  associated  with  maintenance  and  costs  as be  or  have  likely  to  increase  as  severe.  cost pricing  to their  road  According  2 2  of road  that  and  road  users  t o cause s o c i a l  users  t h e p r i v a t e and s o c i a l  resources,  proposed  principle  liability  marginal  who v a l u e  their  costs of their  p r o d u c e more e f f i c i e n t  therefore this  approach  2 1  cost  .  under  would be c h a r g e d  c o s t s t o themselves  trip  t o the marginalist viewpoint,  margimal c o s t should  trips  would be pricing  allocation will  at  less denied  at  the  of scarce  produce t h e best  space.  Practically are  pollutants  be a p p l i e d t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r  o t h e r s , and thus  travel.  use  from  Congestion__Pricing  pricing  and  three  congestion  to  A number o f e c o n o m i s t s have  the  automobiles  of nitrogen  t h e number o f t r a f f i c  system,  congestion.  and motor v e h i c l e s a r e t h e  that  the  affect  d r a m a t i c a l l y a t low s p e e d s o r  .  evidence  Some  2  i s  by  from  of oxides  major c o n c e r n s i n urban a r e a s ,  primary  costs that  are also increased  o f c a r b o n monoxide and h y d r o c a r b o n s  under s t o p  but  Other s o c i a l  1  speaking  many s o c i a l  costs are ' i n t a n g i b l e s ' or  p r e s e n t l y not s u s c e p t i b l e t o estimation  of costs;  discomfort  34  i s It  an  example  has  been  p r i c i n g  the  o b j e c t  f o r  as  c o n g e s t i o n number  are  d i f f e r e n t  m o d e s ;  2.4.4.  times  c o n g e s t i o n problems  of  i n  t r i p , the  of  i t s  of  c o s t  f o r  t h i s  day;  with  w h i l e  to  may  l o n g  not  been  d i r e c t e d  at  to  s i d e s  f o r  2  6  .  among  network,  p r i c e s  t r i p  a  p o s s i b l e  demand  road  a  upon  d i s c r i m i n a t e  d i f f e r e n t  to  emphasis  i s  and  the  d i f f e r e n t  has  be  i t  r e s p e c t  t h i s  T h i s  to  of  upon  reasons  .  supply  p a r t s  for  t h i s  s o l e l y  scheme  o p p o r t u n t i e s  p r i c e s  as  p r o v i d i n g  the  .  c o s t s  two  2 5  3  c o n g e s t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n  p r o b l e m  2  road  problems  4  l a t t e r  a p p l i e d  e s t i m a t e d , 2  the  and  focus  p r i c i n g  both  the  p r i c i n g ,  c r i t i c i s m  i t  any i s  a s s o c i a t e d  l i t e r a t u r e .  t e c h n i c a l l y but  s o c i a l  s o c i a l  are  the  M a r g i n a l the  the  c o n s i d e r i n g  t h a t  p r a c t i c a l h i s  on  a b s t r a c t  are  c o s t s ;  of  and  d i f f e r e n t  purposes.  ? r o b l e m s _ O f ^ C o n g e s t i o n _ P r i c i n g  Without  r a i s e d  s o c i a l  d i f f e r e n t  d i f f e r e n t  2 7  a l l  markets,  number  markets:  d i f f e r e n t  There  f o r  p e r m i t s  market a  or  approximately  d i f f e r e n t  the  both  c o s t s ,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c o s t s  p o l l u t i o n  u t i l i z e  p r i c i n g .  be  a i r  i n  to  s o c i a l  other  a  of  s e p a r a t e  of  can  p o s s i b l e  c o n c e r n  a l l  and  p r a c t i c e ,  c o n g e s t i o n ,  measurement,  There  former,  common  f o r  p r a c t i c e :  be  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,  s u b s t i t u t e as  of  r a t h e r  t o  p a r t i c u l a r  p o s s i b l e with F i r s t  charge  each  road  a  an  to  a p p l i c a t i o n  mention  t h i s  i d e a ,  very  s i m p l e  a d d i t i o n a l  user  must  number  and  have  p o i n t :  i t  user  bear  a  an  of  the  of been  i s  not  c o s t s  of  e q u a l  p o r t i o n  c o s t . c o s t  c o s t s  i n  o u t l i n e d  p r i c i n g o n l y i n  which  one  the  approximates  s e c t o r  theorem  of of  the the  only  economy  a  p o r t i o n  runs  s e c o n d - b e s t .  i n t o There  of the i s  35  no  t h e o r e t i c a l  to  one  or  a  few  improvement However,  guarantee  i n  s e c t o r s the  i s  c e r t a i n l y  improvement  i n  w e l f a r e  one  g u e s t i o n  a s p e c t  of i n  c o n g e s t i o n  charges  investment problem i t  would  i n  occur  average  an  c o s t  3  1  under  w h i l e the  t h i s  t h i s  a r e a ;  once  the  .  agent  3  0  r e s o u r c e s  to  make  i n  .  good  has  Some  f o r  have  have  case 2  9  been  s i g n a l  to  There  s h o r t - r u n  t h i s  a  l o t  .  been  with  f o r  r e -  with  the  c a p a c i t y a  i s of  concerned  c o m p e t i t i o n  to  2 8  l o c a l  f a c i l i t i e s  i n c r e a s e  m a r g i n a l  an  .  concerned  has  i n  f o r  revenue  been  a p p l i e d  economy  r e c e i v e d  p r o d u c i n g  p e r f e c t  had  the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  program.  M c G i l l i v r a y  a  when  r e s u l t  i n  c o n t r o l s  which  market  w i l l  of  o t h e r s  under  p r i c i n g  economy  p r i c i n g  l i t e r a t u r e as  c o s t  c o n g e s t i o n  investment  r o a d s ,  e x i s t  the  p o s s i b l e  from  r e c o g n i z i n g  c o n f u s i o n should  of  the  i n  of  of  c o n g e s t i o n  a t t e n t i o n  m a r g i n a l  a l l o c a t i o n  i t  The  that  l o t  as of  r e - i n v e s t m e n t  c o s t  exceeds  the  say:  "Under c o n g e s t i o n , a road becomes s u b j e c t to d e c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s to u t i l i z a t i o n . Then i t may b e t h e c a s e t h a t the r o a d c a p a c i t y s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d , the high short run m a r g i n a l c o s t f l a g g i n g the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s excess or u n s a t i s f i e d demand. But the c r i t e r i o n f o r investment does not r e s t on t h e p r i c e or c o n g e s t i o n l e v e l ; i t i s a q u e s t i o n of maximizing net b e n e f i t given a l l o p t i o n s . Even i f a road i s s u b j e c t to s h a r p l y i n c r e a s i n g short run average and m a r g i n a l c o s t s t h i s i s not s u f f i c i e n t evidence by i t s e l f to j u s t i f y f u r t h e r investment. F u r t h e r , e x i s t e n c e of d e c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s to u t i l i z a t i o n i s not evidence t h a t t h e r e are a l s o d e c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s to s c a l e i n the i n d u s t r y . For a g i v e n road system there might be i n c r e a s i n g s h o r t run c o s t s so t h a t o p t i m a l l e v e l s of c o n g e s t i o n would r e q u i r e t o l l s . There may be at the same time d e c r e a s i n g l o n g run average c o s t s , p o s s i b l y due to investment being a v a i l a b l e only i n i n d i v i d u a l lumps such t h a t by c o n s i d e r i n g a l l non-market b e n e f i t s no f e a s i b l e investment i s worth i t s s a l t ! " 3 2 l a s t l y e f f e c t s . of  any  t h e r e  These  p u b l i c  i s  the  problem  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  p o l i c y  mechanism,  are but  of  income  important i n  the  i n  case  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n the of  assessment  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  36  i n c r e a s e s people  these  s u f f e r  community some  s u f f e r  has  more  such  d e c o n g e s t i o n  3  2 . 5 .  f o r  with  t h i s  of  the  these  order  p a r k i n g A  a l l e v i a t e  of of  i n  a s s e s s i n g  3 5  hand,  t h e r e  may  the  i s  a u t h o r i t i e s  would  groups  them such  the  under as  t a x i  the  new  b e n e f i t s  of  view  For  s p e c i a l  r e l e v a n t  extent  be  poorer  whether  exceed be  w i l l  have  p l a c e s  to  the  c o s t s .  c o n t i n u a l l y ,  h e l d  that  of  p l a y  an  s i g n i f i c n a t  these  charges  with  .  A l l e v i a t i o n of  of  a  t e c h n i q u e s of  the  are  p r e s e n t l y  have  urban  supposed  i n  to  some i n  of  a  that  t h e i r  p e r s p e c t i v e  i s  one It  and  e f f e c t g e n e r a l l y  technique  i s  b a s i c  d e a l  problem,  p o s i t i v e i t  no  to  worthwhile  can to  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  upon  the  a t t r i b u t e s  that  c o u l d  of  c o m p a r i s o n .  known  c o n g e s t i o n  have  c o n g e s t i o n .  terms  formulated  S t i l l ,  p l a n n e r s f o r  been  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n .  panecea  i n c r e a s e s  urban  other  may  Some  d r i v e r s  they  q u e s t i o n  are  a c h i e v e  of  t h i s  t h a t  of  income  s i n c e  t r a f f i c  v a l u e s  number  and  o c c u p a t i o n  The  a  b e n e f i t s  the  user  t e c h n i q u e s  p r i c e l i s t  whose  so  that  lower  On  past  l i k e l y  c h a r g e ,  .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  the  seems  some  problem  as  i n  by  t e c h n i q u e s  regarded  review  3  a s p e c t  a s p e c t s  by  3  primary  that  c o s t s  borne  v a r i e t y  these  of  those  r e a s o n  Of  v a r i o u s  r e c o g n i z e d  i n  and  l a r g e  upon  be  * .  Methods A  be  r o l e  i n e q u i t i e s , dismay  as  Another  w i l l  i t  c o n g e s t i o n  s o c i a l  d r i v e r s .  important  a  a than  argued  a l t e r n a t i v e s  the  that  c o s t s However,  been  from  f o r  of  c o s t s  many  g a i n .  are  d i s t r i b u t i o n  b e n e f i t ,  some cab  may  i t  c h o i c e s may  higher  uneven  example,  e f f e c t s  i s  techniques presented  i n  Table  2 . 2 . ,  be  used broken  to  37  Table A.  2.2.:  I n c r e a s e s 1.  New  To  Methods System  Of  A l l e v i a t i n g  Road  Congestion  C a p a c i t y  T e c h n o l o g i e s  - r a p i d t r a n s i t , p e r s o n a l r a p i d t r a n s i t , subways,dual mode s y s t e m s , urban j i t n e y s , freeway meter and monitor c o n t r o l systems, auto d r i v e r d i r e c t i o n systems, m i n i c a r s 2. T r a f f i c Management -improvem s c h e d u l i n to e x i s t l a n d e s , c u 3. Improv Components  ents t o e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l systems, b u s g , i n t e r s e c t i o n and t u r n i n g c o n t r o l s , c h a n g e s i n g road u s e , such as bus l a n e s , r e v e r s i b l e r b p a r k i n g , p e d e s t r i a n walkways ements T o , Or C o m b i n a t i o n s Of E x i s t i n g System  -roadway ex (increased systems, pa buses,more t  pansion,new ' b u s w a y * , r o a d s more buses frequency, new r o u t e s ) , l i n e h a u l f e e d e r rk •n ' r i d e systems, h i g h c a p a c i t y a x i s , f r e e w a y b u s  4. Volume R e d i s t r i b u t i o n Techniques - s u b s i d i z a t i o n of t r a n s i t , t a x i s , t e c h n i q u e s of s u a s i o n , o r g a n i z e d c a r p o o l i n g , staggered hours, a - b u s , b u s p r i o r i t y systems  moral d i a l -  B.  T r a f f i c  C.  - p a r t i a l o r complete road c l o s u r e , d r i v e r l i c e n s i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , route r e s t r i c t i o n s , area permits o r p r o h i b i t i o n s T r a f f i c R e s t r a i n t * 1. Through The P r i c e Mechanism - t a x a t i o n : p a r k i n g , auto imports and s a l e s , m i l e a g e , g a s o l i n e  D.  R e s t r i c t i o n  - f e e s : v e h i c l e r e g i s t r a t i o n , p a r k i n g , d r i v i n g , a r e a p e r m i t , b r i d g e u s e 2. Through C a p a c i t y C o n t r o l - l i m i t s on roadway e x p a n s i o n , c o n t r o l of p a r k i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y , c o n t r o l of q u a n t i t y of t a x i s , o r area permit t o enter l i c e n s e s T r a f f i c Avoidance - s t r a t e g i c land use p l a n n i n g , e n h a n c e d e l e c t r o n i c communications systems,encouragement of * in-home* w o r k i n g , c o n c e n t r a t i o n of urban f u n c t i o n s t h a t generate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n demand among themselves  • N o r m a l l y , t e c h n i q u e s of group 1 and programs of t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t ; as a c t i v i t i e s would be promoted.  2  would be combined i n w e l l , s t r o n g enforcement  Sources: Low_Cpst Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Techniques Of ,1mproving Orban Of Road T r a f f i c , OECD  A l t e r n a t i v e s , C o n d i t i o n s By  P r a t t R e s t r a i n t  Methpds.Of T r a f f i c L i Areas , U£ha6^l£ansportation I n n o v a t i o n , Brand 5£ban_Transport^ S t u d i e s _In^Economic P q l ,  Thomson Beesley  38  down i n t o (or  f o u r main c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  intended  effect)  urban c e n t r e s w i l l then  relief  be  of  will  techniques  From t h i s  highly favoured  undoubtedly  s i n c e they  i n c r e a s e s i n c a p a c i t y than  the  traffic  only  f o r small-scale, short-run capable  of  out o f f a v o u r due  interest  in  redistribution behavioural  techniques,  Besides  the  by  immediate  s m a l l e r c o s t than  impact.  consume more l a n d redistribution at  automobile  and  in  users,  Consequently,  the  .  new  Roadway  Some  of  suitable  expansion, to  be  encouragement  capacity  of  improvements other  through  techniques to  these  seek  the  mechanisms  main  aimed  at  methods i n v o l v e  t e c h n o l o g i e s , and  have t h e a d v a n t a g e  can  long-  capacity, continues  These  transportation  have a more  t h a t they  activity.  These  do  not  volume  be c a t e g o r i z e d a s i n c e n t i v e s aimed  i n t e n d e d t o encourage b e h a v i o u r a l change.  aspect  authorities  reduce  3 6  speaking,  g r o w t h , however, has  undesirable  some p u b l i c  They a l s o  techniques  Continued an  Generally  techniques.  increase  making o r by  to larger  to  t e c h n o l o g i e s , t h e r e i s some  volume.  users.  considerably  new  of  traffic  to lead  with the  which  a l t e r n a t i v e s to automobiles, automobile  relief  techniques  change  so,  through  f o r example, a r e  to i t s a s s o c i a t i o n  traffic.  years or  have to occur  many o t h e r  egually increasing  automobile  20  t e c h n o l o g i e s are l i k e l y  are l i k e l y  term  while  next  that  which emphasize i n c r e a s e s i n system  p e r s p e c t i v e , new  management  effect  I f i t i s presumed  c o n t i n u e t o grow i n t h e  of c o n g e s t i o n  utilization capacity.  o f each t e c h n i q u e .  primary  rate  methods o f  i n the  past  o f urban development. t h a t i t would of  growth  of  alleviating  be  few  years  I t i s now  desirable urban  to  become felt  by  control  areas i n Canada .  congestion  3 7  that  do  not  39  increase  system  which can  assist  centres are  in  capacity i n the  the  long run.  long-range  techniques,  techniques  of t r a f f i c are  of h a l t i n g  The  new and  v i e w e d as c o m p l e m e n t a r y  simply  pushed  still  though  the area increase  methods a p p e a r t o be  the  most i n t e r e s t i n g  These  restraint  c o n t r o l s and be the  utilized  i n a given of  techniques  the  L i k e the  low-cost  quickly applied.  controls,  some  techniques  represent  and  officials policies  the  more  prudent  policies  experimentation in  reducing  redistribution themselves . 3 9  with  techniques  restraint  present  of  of  time.  both  pricing  From  costs  In f a c t , be  discussed  course  earlier,  choice f o r reduction techniques,  i n the  expected.  travel.  case  of  However,  directly  they  may  seem  to  pursue  to  mechanisms.  Note t h a t  apparently  suggesting have  travel public  the i n c e n t i v e  instead  has  are  restraint  a p p l i e d to  It  of  pricing  mechanisms,  promotion  may  Therefore,  effective.  logical  motoring,  is  i n o r d e r t o be  of r e s t r a i n t transit  cheaply  would  a discouragement  automobile  and  The  approaches  o f volume r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  disincentive  success  can  .  3 8  both  volume r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  revenue  particularily  composed  transportation are  primarily  stage  traffic  at the  presumably  situation  congestion. and  capacity,  are  capacity controls;  perspective  restraint  methods  avoidance  of congestion  of r e s t r i c t i o n .  not  urban  small-scale, local  problem  methods which do  of  are  quickly  for strictly the  policies  of t r a f f i c  i n the conceptual  In e f f e c t ,  outside  growth  o b j e c t i v e , though t h e y  useful primarily  of congestion.  the  techniques  restriction,  control  the  process  well-suited to t h i s  activated,  are  of  the  recent  had  little  t h a t v e h i c l e volume  little  success  by  40  2 . 6 .  C o n g e s t i g n ^ P r i c i n g There  as  e x i s t  p r i c i n g as  c o n d i t i o n s , or  a b l e  to  of  p r i c i n g t h i s  methods  I n d i r e c t  are  as  which of  d a y  from  4 1  t i r e  because and  may  d i f f e r e n t i a l  f u e l  d o u b t f u l Of d a i l y terms and  and 4  3  i t s  a b i l i t y  other  l i c e n c e s , i t s  road  taxes  are  e f f e c t s  l o w e r i n g f u n c t i o n to  even  .  c o s t s  by  a l s o  time s u f f e r  as  too  between  modes  upon  t r a f f i c  0  l i c e n c e s ,  and  would  4  i n p u t s ,  r e j e c t e d  d i s c r i m i n a t e  from  c o n g e s t i o n  system  be  d i r e c t  u s e  annual  f o r  charges  a c t u a l l y  shortcoming  two  i n d i r e c t  the  l i c e n c e  approximation  r e s u l t a n t  congested  would  upon  paying  undesrable  a c t u a l l y  c h a r g e s or  to  p r e f e r a b l e road  mileage  cannot  The  to  f e e s  the  l i k e l y  the  employment  v o l u m e s  4 2  .  s i m i l a r i l y  to  an  d i s c r i m i n a t e  by  l o c a t i o n  A  o r d i n a r y i s  .  the  of  P o l l  tax  are  purchase to  more  c l o s e l y  which  throughout  have  without  more  approaches  they  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  tax  t a x e s ,  c r i t i c i s m .  t r a v e l  f u e l  respond  i s  From  c o s t .  t h e o r e t i c a l l y  E f f l u e n t - o r i e n t e d  t h i s  s o c i a l  be  i n t e r f a c i n g  2 . 3 . ) .  approach  used  congested  some  (Table  no  be can  under  through f o r  can  methods  t r a v e l  m a r g i n a l  l e a s t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n e q u i t a b l e , of  to  which  These  t o  p r i c i n g  t e c h n i q u e s  p r o m i s i n g  .  u s e . ,  charged  they  p r i c i n g  very  vary  at  s i n c e  or  i s  e q u a l  methods  a p p l i e d  c o s t  are  f u e l  not  road a p p l i e d  which  p r i c e  v i e w p o i n t ,  such  f o r  s o c i a l  a  d i f f e r e n t  i n d i r e c t l y  a c t i v i t y  s e t  of  d i r e c t l y  or  v i e w p o i n t  number  schemes  c l a s s i f i e d  o b j e c t  a  Tecto  b e n e f i t s  that  area  of  s u f f e r  the  approach m a r g i n a l  to  v e h i c l e s  methods,  s o c i e t y making  same  charge  4  p a r k i n g tends  s o c i a l 5  .  This  s h o r t as  to  charges be  favoured  c o s t s  journeys t h a t  i n  p r i c i n g ,  approach  v e h i c l e s  and  has  i n t o make  4  4  the the  U1  lable_2 3 _£ Mestion_Pri^ i  ti  2  CHARGING METHODS FOR USE OF ROADS  INDIRECT  RELATED TO VEHICLE OWNERSHIP t ANNUAL LICENCES IPURCHASE TAX  DIRECT RELATED TO VEHICLE USAGE  RELATED TO AMOUNT OF USAGE S. FUEL TAX 4. TYRE TAX  RELATED TO PLACE OF USAGE 6. POLL TAX • 7. PARKING TAX 8. DAILY LICENCES  CHARGES REGISTERED OFF VEHICLES  ZONE SYSTEMS r POINT SYSTEMS (BOUNDARY CONTROLLED) TIME PULSED I (TIME AUTOMATIC , 1 . REFERENCE / SCANNING IN ROAD) , AUTOMATIC UNIT SYSTEMS DRIVER AUTOMATIC OPERATED ELECTRONIC RECORDING "1 / SINGLE MULTIPLE I IFIXED CHARGE UNITS PER UNIT PER CONTINUOUS ON ENTRY POINT POINT CHARGING TO ZONE WITHIN ZONE  POINT PRICING  I  MANUAL SCANNING  TOLL GATES  RELATED TO AMOUNT AND PLACE- OF USAGE 6. DIFFERENTIAL FUEL TAX  I  I  j  TIME BASED CLOCKWORK OR ELECTRONIC REFERENCE IN VEHICLE)  .ii .__ . _  CHARGES REGISTERED ON VEHICLES  '  I _  I DISTANCE BASED (MECHANICAL LINK TO ODOMETER)  Sources Beesley,(1973),p.227„»Road P r i c i n g s The Economic And Technical P o s s i b i l i t i e s ' ,  H.H.SoO.  196U, and Road  Research  L a b o r a t o r y T e c h n i c a l Note No.132, November 1966.  42  extended  t r i p s  c r i t i c i s e d because Some  i n s i d e  because  they  are  they  more  p r i c i n g  o p t i m a l  p r i c e  c o u l d  a  be  becuase  can  not  are  l e s s  when  6  c o n t r o l i n  .  P a r k i n g  through  shown  that  the  s e n s i t i v e  to  charges  point  not  4  impact  p a r k i n g  would  a r e a  t h e i r  have  s i g n i f i c a n t  i t  l i c e n s e d  i n d i r e c t  i n v e s t i g a t o r s  through  the  be  the  are  i n  that  upon  of  an  and  other  u s e r s .  b e n e f i t s  gained  s e l e c t i o n  u t i l i z e d  are  t r a f f i c ,  net  favour  l i k e l y  c h a r g e s  4  7  of  .  a  T h i s  p a r k i n g  o p t i m a l  nonf a c t o r  c h a r g e s ,  p r i c e  c o u l d  be  e s t i m a t e d . The  d i r e c t  e x p e r i m e n t a l to  vary  methods,  s t a g e ,  charges  by  v e h i c l e  type  Of  methods  these  use road  p a r t i c u l a r a c c o r d i n g On t h e i r  a  It  l a r g e - s c a l e  s u r v e i l l a n c e m o n i t o r s terms  of  through  the  networks time  on  tend of  and  systems  f u n c t i o n  payment  i s  d i r e c t  n e c e s s a r y  the  ,  with  a  which  the  G e n e r a l l y ,  of  some  of  c o s t l y ,  manual with  change  b e h a v i o u r d i r e c t  prepayment  i n v o l v e s  ° .  5  those  p o l i t i c a l  t h e s e  a  a l t e r n a t i v e l y  n o t a b l y  f o r  of  u s e d  l o s e  i n d i v i d u a l  systems  a  c h a r g i n g  s t r e e t s  or  .  9  on  route  thereby  4  would  v e h i c l e s  a l t e r n a t i v e  l a r g e  w i t h  and  p r e c i s i o n  systems  t e c h n o l o g y ,  r e p r e s e n t  c a s e s ,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  approaches  enforcement  and  charge  a s s o c i a t e d  w e l l .  a r e a ,  l e n g t h  some  p r i c i n g  f o l l o w  the  a b i l i t y  i n  of  i n  t h e i r  r e l a t i v e  point  congested  involvement  and  to  s t i l l  l e a s t ,  presence  i n v o l v e  Some  a r e  at  of  p o s s i b l e  e l e c t r o n i c  v e h i c l e ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n not  the  i s  journey  to  c o s t s  government  may  i n  l e v e l ,  systems. each  a p p e a l i n g  be  They  the  appearance  would  p r a c t i c a l  p a r t ,  l o c a t i o n ,  sense  d i f f e r e n c e s  a p p e a l .  s u f f e r  to  most  t h e o r e t i c a l l y  the  most  d e v i c e s  v e h i c l e to  them  the  segment.  but  8  the  t i m e - o f - d a y ,  g i v e s  automatic  4  for  i n 5 1  ,  charge  or  d i f f i c u l t i e s  p o s t f o r  43  c o l l l e c t i o n  5  as  V i s i b i l i t y  w e l l .  p r a c t i c a l  2  .  This  problem  c r i t i c i s m of  f o r  the  d i r e c t  h o l d s  f o r  d a i l y  p r i c i n g  zone  f o r  charge  systems,  l i c e n c e d r i v e r s and  systems  i s  another  the  l i c e n c e  o f f e r s  s e v e r a l  from  present  system. In  c o n t r a s t ,  p r a c t i c a l  advantages.  p r a c t i c e ,  and  o p p o s i t i o n  i n  many  of  the  t h a t  any  c a s e ,  c o n c e r n i n g  road  5 4  .  i s  i s  a  i n  the c h o i c e  5 3  .  i s  d e v i a t i o n  l i k e l y f a r  to  It  f a m i l i a r  charges other  road  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  p r i c i n g  to  cheaper  although  parking  f o l l o w i n g  idea  t e c h n i q u e s .  already  comparison  of  s m a l l  It  p r i c e  charge  l e s s  T h e r e f o r e ,  s o l u t i o n ,  i n v e s t i g a t i n g  It  s e n s e  which  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  p a r k i n g  consequently  other  r e q u l a t i o n  economic  the  r a i s e to  f a r  implement  i s  to  a  road from  c e r t a i n l y p r i c i n g s h o u l d  p o l i t i c a l  system users the seem  kept  p r i c i n g s t s u b j e c t i v e i s t r u e c view of t range of o b j e c t i v e s , s . " 5 5  r a t e g y depe p r e f e r e n c e s even w i t h i n e c h n o l o g i e s i s s u e s to a d m i n i s t r a t  and  worth  i n  mechanism:  "In g e n e r a l , the c h o i c e of a at l e a s t to some,extent, on o b j e c t i v e s of p o l i c y . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d and s t a t i demand s t r u c t u r e s . Among t h e c o n s i d e r e d are development q u e s t i o n s , and w e l f a r e i s s u e  of  p e r f e c t  schemes. be  than  nds and a and be i v e  In mind  44  1. 2.  Adapted from B e e s l e y Smeed (1968) , p . 4 2 .  and  3. the 4.  Smeed (1968) , p p . 3 4 - 4 3 E n g l i s h road system i b i d , p p . 4 2 , 6 4 .  g e n e r a l i z i n g  5. 6.  Highway C a p a c i t y i b i d , p . 7 .  M a n u a l , 1 9 6 5 , p . 1 4 .  7.  Highway  M a n u a l , p . 3 2 3 .  C a p a c i t y  Roth  ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 8 4 . from  e m p i r i c a l  8. i b i d , p . 3 3 4 , i n t e r s e c t i o n - b y - i n t e r s e c t i o n t i m e s a n a l y s i s i s recommended. 9. Thomson(1968),pp. 3-32. 10. i b i d , p p . 4 - 5 . 11.  Heggie (1972) , p .  between  of  t r a v e l  8.  12. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n assumes homogenous: a l l v e h i c l e s the same, s a m e . , W a l t e r s ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 6 7 7 . 13. H a n s e n , p . 3 5 . 14. H e g g i e , p . 9 . 15.  and  evidence  that a l l  the t r a f f i c d r i v e r s  i s the  J o h n s o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 4 4 - 1 4 5 .  16. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n P o l l u t i o n Emission F a c t o r s , s e c o n d  Agency, E d i t i o n ,  17. S p r i n g e r f o r m a t i o n And 252.  E n g i n e ^ E m i s s i o n s : . P o l l u t i o n P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 7 3 , p p . 2 5 1 -  18. 19.  S P a t t e r s o n , ( e d s . ) , Measurement , Plenum  B a t e s (1972) , p p . P r a t t , p . 1 8 2 .  Compi1ation_0f p . 3 . 1 . 1 . 7 .  A i r  17-22.  20. A c c i d e n t data i s compared t o i n t e r s e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and o c c a s s i o n a l l y t r a f f i c volume, but not c o n g e s t i o n : T r a f f i c C o n t r o l . A n d . R p a d w a y _ E l e m e n t s ^ ^ T h e i r ^ e l a t i o n s h i p .To Safety , Automobile Safety Foundation, Washington, 1968-71, Chapters 2 , 4 . 21. B e e s l e y ( 1 9 7 3 ) , W a l t e r s (1961), Mohring (1964), H a n s e n , p . 5 7 p r e s e n t s a c h a r t of those i n v o l v e d i n development of road p r i c i n g . 22. H a n s e n , p . 5 8 . 23. Very g r o s s aggregate e s t i m a t e s can be made, but u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h and p o l l u t i o n i s s m a l l , B a t e s , p p . 7 6 - 8 0 . 24. 2 5. 26.  E f f l u e n t charges are Braybrooke. M c G i l l i v r a y , p . 18.  one  and the  the a i r  e x c e p t i o n .  27. H e g g i e , p . 9 . shows that the d i f f e r e n c e s between m a r g i n a l p r i v a t e c o s t and m a r g i n a l s o c i a l c o s t under c o n g e s t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r f o r autombobiles as compared to buses. 28. Dasgupta & P e a r c e , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 1 2 . 29. M c G i l l i v r a y , p . 1 3 . 30. i b i d , p . 1 2 . 31. Hansen,p. 62. 32. M c G i l l i v r a y , p p . 1 8 - 1 9 . 33. Z e t t e l S C a r l l , p p . 5 5 - 5 7 . 34. i b i d , p p . 5 1 - 5 4 . 35. Wohl(1970),pp. 22-23. 36. Thomson(1968) s u g g e s t s that t r a f f i c management t e c h n i q u e s may a c t u a l l y a d d t o t r i p l e n g t h i n the long r u n , p p . 2 8 - 3 0 . 37. The L i v a b l e Region 1976/1968 compromise p o s i t i o n : growth i s not to but d e c e n t r a l i z e d and d i s c o u r a g e d  ,GVRD,takes a common be d i r e c t l y r e s t r i c t e d , by l a n d and t r a n s p o r t  45  development  t e c h n i q u e s .  38. Owen (1970) 115,131-133. 39. 40. 41. 42.  d i s c u s s e s  some  Dewees (1974),pp.11-16 B e e s l e y (1973) , p . 23 0 .  d i s c u s s e s  50. 51. t h e i r  Toronto  8 8 -  e x p e r i e n c e .  . h u n t i n g  P r a t t Wigan K i r b y K i r b y  n e t  b e n e f i t  f o r  low  p r i c e  f u e l .  from  l i c e n c e s  exceeds  t h a t  , p . 1 6 1 . S B a m f o r d , p . 1 2 . , p . 5 . , p . 4 .  H a n s e n , p . 9 9 . M a n u f a c t u r e r s of these use f o r road p r i c i n g f o r  systems a r e h e s i t a n t t h i s r e a s o n , K i r b y , p . 5 .  52. when p e o p l e change j o b s , and c o l l e c t i o n methods t e n d t o become 53. B u r n s , p . 7 5 0 . 54. Wigan & B a m f o r d , p . 1 4 . 55.  t h e  t e c h n i q u e s , p p .  B e e s l e y , p . 2 2 9 .  45. Thomson(1967) shows of p a r k i n g c h a r g e s . 46. 47. 48. 49.  these  K i r b y , p . 3 . Beesley(1973) ,-p.228.  43. Due t o consumers Hedges (1969) , p. 2 3 . 44.  of  K i r b y , p . 2 , c i t i n g  Meyer  &  r e s i d e n c e o f t e n , c o m p l i c a t e d .  Straszheira(1971)  .  t o  suggest  t r a d i t i o n a l  46  CHAPTER_THJ*EEi_PaRKI  3.1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n The  of  purpose  knowledge  t e c h n i q u e the  to  Vancouver  i n  c h a p t e r  d i s c u s s e s d e a l i n g  demand  e l a s t i c i t y  r e v i e w s  a  i n c r e a s e  3 . 2 .  has  i n  A  Survey  yet  to  e x p e r i e n c e c o n c l u s i v e  i s  The  and  s t r a t e g y  to  be  f i n d i n g s .  l a s t  the  f o r  of  a s p e c t  of  next  s e c t i o n area  with  s e c t i o n  Vancouver  t h i s and  primary  the  f o r  a n a l y s e s  some  p e n i n s u l a ,  i n  developed  The  of  of  emphasis of  t h i s  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  s i t u a t i o n .  Experience  of  the  p o l i c y  c o m p l e t e l y  i n  or  the  a p p l i c a t i o n  analyzed  Related  l i m i t e d  of  be  s e c t i o n  t r a v e l .  The  i n c r e a s e  u s e f u l  proposed,  of  s t a t e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  f i r s t  downtown  p r i c e  can  i n c r e a s e s  automobile  present  i n s i g h t s  t e c h n i q u e  p r i c e  the  b a s i c  some  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  p u b l i c  be  that  parking  development  a p p l i e d  so  a c t u a l  the  p a r k i n g  r e l e v a n t  t h i s  review  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  a  Of  of  t o  the  of  Vancouver,  concept  i s  c h a p t e r s .  f o r  of  suggests  The i n t o  with  number  use  programs,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c h a p t e r  the  review  f o l l o w i n g  c o n g e s t i o n  chapter  a n a l y s i s  surveys  upon  t h i s  s i t u a t i o n  the  the  of  c o n c e r n i n g  and  d i r e c t i n g use  .  as  concept a  means  r e a l i z e d . and  It  evidence  of of  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  r e l i e v i n g  should  be  a v a i l a b l e  i n c r e a s e s c o n g e s t i o n  remembered does  not  t h a t permit  47  3.2.  1.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  In  most  l a r g e  c o n g e s t i o n  and  c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n  B u s i n e s s to  a  the  broad  d i f f e r e n t  v a r i e t y  f i n a n c i a l o f t e n  bylaws  t a x a t i o n  of  and a l s o  r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t  Through  c i t e d flow  the to  t r a f f i c  too  3  medium  a  high  s m a l l  p o r t i o n  undermine  the  A d d i t i o n a l l y , f o r  i t s  own  the  i s  between  user  to  a l l  order  that  through  suggests  t h a t  that  and  each  should the  l a r g e  e f f e c t i v e  2  .  charges i s  often  mechanism.  As  improved  roadway  f o r a  u t i l i z e d CBD's  more  through not  to  c o n s i d e r reasonable  t r a f f i c  i s  a  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n c r e a s e  s i n c e  be  through  s i t u a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  p r i c i n g  i n c r e a s e ,  would  p r i c e  I t  f i g u r e s  of  use  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  t h i s  t r a f f i c  of  land  f a c t o r  the  E x a m i n a t i o n  c l e a r  of  tend  o p e r a t o r .  c o n g e s t i o n  p r i c e ' to  C e n t r a l area  and  be  This  f a i l u r e  argued  the  to  be  number  address  a s s e s s e d  been  t r a f f i c ,  a  the  to  c o n g e s t i o n  must  p a r k i n g  of  t h i s  through  these  which  i n  response  of  p a r t i c u l a r  under  a c t i v i t i e s  i n  CBD's  a l l  e x i s t  p r i c e s .  the  w i t h i n  i n t r o d u c e d .  be  to  impact i t  spaces  i n  p a r k i n g  p o s s i b l e  a r e a .  of  the  and  charges  the  p r o p o r t i o n  of  around  be  p a r k i n g  has  an  a p p r o x i m a t i o n s s m a l l  of  due  It  i n  and  ways  cannot  i n c r e a s e  .  of  of  tend  Due  can  downtown  i n d i c a t e  c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e  number  most  s p a c e s  p a r k i n g  p o l i c i e s .  America,  p a r k i n g  arrangements  t r a f f i c  may  users  c o n g e s t i o n  i n  decreases  the  P a r k i n g  of  f a c i l i t i e s  s e c t o r  through  a  North  a r e a :  s u b s i d i z e  e x i s t s  p a r k i n g  p r i v a t e  same  Urban;,.Parlcing_Situatio.n i n  of  (CBD)1.  Governments  there  c i t i e s  most  D i s t r i c t  serve  Of ..The  t e c h n i q u e  must  be  4  .  examined  c o n d i t i o n s  vary  w i d e l y . Peak  hour  t r a v e l  i n  the  urban  core  i s  g e n e r a l l y  very  48  congested as  c o n s e q u e n t l y  commuters,  case  the  s i n c e  must  r o l e  of  o f t e n  t e r m ,  the  ,  w i l l  be  examined  parking  of  impact  the  of  the  3 . 2 . 2 . 1 .  p o l i c y  San  the  i n c r e a s e s  e x p e r i e n c e * . county  of  e x c e p t i o n  t o  This  tax  a l l e v i a t e  due  t o  i n t e r e s t s , In  the  e n t i r e l y The  number  upon of  more  i m p o r t a n t ,  s t a l l s  are  s h o r t -  i n c r e a s e s  i n  urban  p o s s i b l e , of  of  the  the  and  thoroughly  p r o p o s a l s  the  d i s c u s s i o n  p o l i c y ,  a f f e c t e d  t r a v e l  the  form  a r e a ,  and  or the  b e h a v i o u r .  examined  t a x a t i o n  October, was  was  1970  a  i s 25%  imposed  i n s t i g a t e d  c o n g e s t i o n ,  or  p r o b l e m . ,  J u l y  In  o p p o s i t i o n and  7  t h i s  In  u n s u c c e s s f u l  tax  upon  a l l  remains  m u n i c i p a l the  from at  a u t o m b i l e s  that  The  parked  the  a f f e c t e d  p a r k i n g  u s e r .  1972,  l e v e l  at  l o t s r e s u l t s dropped  the  p a r k i n g ,  to  tax  the are  the  was  lowered and  present tax  was  shown  s l i g h t l y  with  money,  of  i n d i v i d u a l s the  c i t y  and  r a i s e  p a r t  p a r k i n g F r a n c i s c o  s t o r a g e ,  other  of  San  c o v e r i n g  p r i m a r i l y  any  example  the  r e s i d e n t i a l , h o t e l , m i l i t a r y  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 10%  some  When  p a r k i n g  most  F r a n c i s c o  of:  p a r k i n g .  as  nature  through  In  San  w e l l  p r i c e  i n t e n t  upon  even  t o o l .  F r a n c i s c o  Probably p r i c e  as  the  i s  t h i s  such  Programs  p a r k i n g  the  of  p u b l i c l y - o w n e d  c h a r g e s .  p o l i c y ,  concern  p a r k e r s ,  .  5  of  i n d i c a t e  l o n g - t e r m  s t a l l s  of  I n c r e a s e  c a s e s  w i l l  c o n t e n t  m a j o r i t y  P r i c e  with  primary p a r k i n g  of  implement  below  a  number  c e n t r e s  d e a l i n g  f a c i l i t i e s  Parking &  be  p r i v a t e  o n - s t r e e t  3 . 2 . 2 .  to  and  and the meter not urban to  b u s i n e s s  t i m e . c o n f e r r e d  i n  Table  3.1.  each  year  and  49  the  g r o s s  year.  revenue  When  i n c r e a s e d  the  demand  p r o f i t s )  are  s u g g e s t s  that  to  l o n g - t e r m  i s  r e l a t i v e l y  stay  r e l a t i v e  to  s h o r t - t e r m  by  f o r  c i t y  l o s s  of  p a r k i n g  and  tax  on  the  t h i s  may  s y s t e m  1 5  or  the  no  types  demand  o t h e r ,  b e l i e v e d  concluded  was  f a i r l y r e v e n u e  of  p a r k e r s  decrease  i n  e s t i m a t e s  of  gathered  from  s u p p o r t s  tax It  i n  these  upon  peak B r i d g e  been  due  hour the to  r a t h e r  removed  the  s e v e r e ,  l o t s  were  r a t e - c u t t i n g  was  impact  at  l e a s t  the  l i m i t e d .  of  the  i n  p a r k i n g  terras  of  .  1 2  the  San  e f f e c t  may  seems  that  i s  that  i m p r e s s i o n  n o t i c e a b l e the  Gate  the  was  q u a l i t a t i v e  have  have  of  F r a n c i s c o upon  t r a f f i c ,  other  area  c o n g e s t i o n  reduced  r e a s o n a b l e  f i r s t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  month changes  1 3  v e h i c u l a r  t h a t .  and  i s  the  tax  r e d u c t i o n s of  the  i n  .  t h a t  the  It  was  t r a f f i c would were  tax;  the  agency  by have  noted  however,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  .  Downtown tax,  was  29S1*.  e f f e c t Golden  shopper  (or  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  Rough  f u r t h e r  g r o s s  that  a p p r o x i m a t e l y g r e a t e r  .  that  revenues  g r e a t e r  appeared  businessmen  had  c a l c u l a t e d  9  a  f a c i l i t i e s  i n d u s t r y  g e n e r a l  o f f i c i a l s  one  It  It  immediate  The  and  for  n o n - m u n i c i p a l  c o r e .  .  the  and  that  a l l  usage  suggest  seeming  f o r  each  0  from  upon  tendency  more and  r e s u l t s and  This  of  e l a s t i c i t y  tax  .  l e n g t h  commuter  a  3  t h e i r  Greater  1 1  i n e l a s t i c  s l i g h t l y revenue  These  has  I n f o r m a t i o n  w i d e s p r e a d  l e v e l s .  s e n s i t i v e been  both  t h e r e  dominated 1  r e d u c e d ,  p r e - t a x  f o r  s u g g e s t i o n s .  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  the  p a r k i n g  e l a s t i c i t i e s  the  was  r e l a t i v e l y  decrease  garages  t a x  beyond  p a r k i n g  dropped  f e e l i n g  b u s i n e s s t h a t  i t  i n t e r e s t s  reduced  the  were s a l e s  s t r o n g l y volume  opposed they  c o u l d  to have  the  50  lable_3^T_^2_Munici£al_ParJ^  F r a n c i s c o ,1970-197 3  INDEX  fi§£§i_IS§JE_  Autos  Gross  Parked  Income  (1969-70 = Autos  Parked  1.) Gross  1 9 6 9 - 1970  4,595,144  5,417,955  1.00  1.00  1 9 7 0 - 1971  4,579,091  5,189,768  1.00  .96  1971-  1972  4,516,494  5,046,734  .98  .93  1 9 7 2 - 1973  4,828,953  5,638,138  1.06  1.03  Income  51  had.  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o r  o p p o s i t i o n from  was  other  suburban  q u a r t e r s ,  c o m p e t i t i o n .  3 . 2 . 2 . 2 . In  c e n t s  o c c u r r e d .  broad i s  the  i l l e g a l  amount p a r k i n g  outcome  In p a r k i n g downtown  of  based  such  as  tax  was  g e n e r a l  upon  t h a t  t h i s  d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s  economic  c o n d i t i o n s  and  was  No  l e v i e d  a p p r e c i a b l e  imposed  upon  downtown  r e d u c t i o n s  e x p r e s s l y  t o  i n  r a i s e  p a r k e r s auto  m o n e y .  of  t r i p s 1 7  of  p a r k i n g  c o n s i d e r e d 1 8  of  .  i n  p o l i c i e s ,  order  B r o a d l y ,  p a r k i n g  to  a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s  t h i s be  and  p r o p o s a l  to  i s  i n c l u d i n g  d e a l p l a n  with c a l l s  p e r m i t t e d , i n c r e a s e d not  yet  t a x a t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n f o r  i n  i n  r e s t r i c t i o n  i n c r e s e d r a t e s  of  f i n e s  the  f o r  downtown.  known.  Ne w_ Y o r k 1971, i n  i t  was  downtown  a r e a ,  businessmen dropped.  i n t e r e s t i n g l y , too  day.  program  T o r o n t o  3 . 2 . 2 . 4 .  as  r a t h e r  concluded  6  s m a l l  tax  being  downtown  was  case  Toronto  &  The  a  per  The  3 . 2 . 2 . 3 .  upon  1  and  t h i s  Chicago C h i c a g o ,  f i f t e e n  u s e r s ,  unfounded  of  i n  Manhattan  an  o b j e c t e d However the  e x o r b i t a n t  1 9  proposed  e f f o r t  i l l e g a l  p l a c e  a  $10  fee  and  a  to  reduce  s t r e n u o u s l y  c o u r t s .  to  to  p a r k i n g  e v e n t u a l l y  $200/year upon  charge  auto  use  c o n g e s t i o n .  t h i s  p r o p o s a l  f i n e s r u l e d  were  i n  the  Downtown  and  the  i d e a  to  $50;  these  f i n e s  r a i s e d  a g a i n s t  upon  52  3 . 2 . 2 . 5 .  The_Enyironmental_Prptection_Agency  In  1973,  p a r k i n g  b a t t e r y  s u r c h a r g e s ,  c i t i e s  of  these  New  York,  c i t i e s  s t a n d a r d s . p r o p o s a l The  a  EPA  parked  Angeles  and  be  downtown  due  3 . 2 . 2 . 6 .  to  i n  was  n e g a t i v e  of  reach  and  1975,  r e s p o n s e  agency  for  f u t u r e  to  the  l e d  by  be  g i v e  up  so  t h i s  that q u a l i t y  i n t e r e s t s .  c a r to  the  surcharge  b u s i n e s s  r a i s e d  i n  a i r  per  them  use  p a r k i n g  c e n t s  to  to  among  Washington,D.C.  f i f t y  f o r c e  p o l i c i e s ,  t h i s  Washington  charge  EPA  to  negative  i n  the  a  a b l e i n  was  c i t i e s  per  day  $2.0G/day  p l a n  by  f o r  a l l  made  from  .  2 0  C o n c l u s i o n s  There the  are  a  scanty  i n c r e a s e  been  s u c c e s s f u l l y  p a r k e r s  meets  Evidence  from  t a x a t i o n as  urban  s i t u a t i o n  w i l l  w a t e r i n g  down  i n e f f e c t i v e .  be  they  r e s u l t  It  Any  i n  the  a l s o  case  the based  group:  s u g g e s t s  i n c r e a s e seems  parking  t r a v e l  tax  has  downtown community.  commuters  p r e v i o u s  above  the  are  downtown  o p p o s i t i o n  of  of  As  p a r k e r s a  very  businessmen. the  p a r k i n g that  p a r k i n g  o b s e r v a t i o n s .  a l l  downtown  l i k e l y  no  to  t h a t  of  t o  i n  a l l ,  shoppers.  the  r e j e c t i o n  be  b u s i n e s s  impotency  arouse  the  scheme  than  upon  of  can  automobile  the  apply  w i l l  pressure  of  r e d u c i n g  charges  schemes  i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y , s t r o n g  of  which  F i r s t  from  F r a n c i s c o  p a r k i n g  can  these  at  r e s i s t e n c e  e x p l a n a t i o n programs  h e r e .  d i r e c t e d  San  to  o b s e r v a t i o n s  implemented.  s t i f f the  of  a v a i l a b l e  scheme  r e s p o n s i v e One  number  data  p r i c e  long  Los  p r o p o s a l  E v e n t u a l l y ,  more  by  extemely  1977.  even  proposed  response  was  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  were  would  The  of  scheme, p r i c e s  s i n c e  T h i s or  u n t i l  most  of  the i t  i s the  53  implementing by  bodies  d i s c o u r a g i n g  n e c e s s a r y e f f e c t .  to In  ensure  f a c t ,  shape  demand  3 . 2 . 3 .  Surveys  There response o b t a i n :  are to  how  a l t e r n a t e which  the  p i e c e s  to  the  p r o v i d e of  may  changes  t r a n s i t to  purchase  demand  demand  p r i c e  an  upon  i n  f o r  the  the ft  be  the  consumer  d e s i r a b l e  p a r k i n g and  what  to  at  what  w i l l  t h e i r  number  of  above  q u e s t i o n s  o f t e n  2  1  .  the The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  system,  e i t h e r  or  through  There  term  l o n g  v a r i e s  change  i n  both  an  demand  once  to i t  t i m e ,  who  the  not p l a c e ,  a  a and  owns  a  p u b l i c necessary  made the  a  of  improved  f o r i s  for  s h o r t - t e r m  be  a  n e i t h e r  becomes  s h o u l d  demand  with  i s  i n d i v i d u a l  response  term  as  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  are  d i s t i n c t i o n and  r e p r e s e n t e d  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i t  would  t r a n s p o r t  example,  short  a c t i v i t y .  c o n c e r n i n g  i t  a  i s  e x e r c i s e .  c a r .  a c t i v i t y :  the  urban  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n homogeneous  w i l l  another  for  such  m o t o r i s t s  depending  demand);  i n d i c a t e s  f o r  d i f f e r e n t he  i n  t o  demand  e l a s t i c i t i e s ;  than  had  s t e p s  s u r v e y s .  of  c o n c l u s i v e  a  have  a t t i t u d i n a l  of  make  the  fewer  d i s c o n t i n u e  answers  i n  c a r  w i l l  been  change  l o n g - t e r m  c o n g e s t i o n  a l l  have  revenue,  i n c r e a s e s  There  one  nor  would  c o l l e c t e d  of  which  s i m p l e  of  e l a s t i c i t y  measure  e l a s t i c i t y  tax  r e d u c i n g taken  i n f o r m a t i o n  p r i c e  e l a s t i c i t y  cent  have  p a r k i n g  of  q u a n t i t a t i v e per  i n  c u r v e .  be.  a n a l y s e s  The  not  taxes  t r a v e l l e r s  i s  of  may  i n t e r e s t s  h i g h e r  two  a c t i o n  r e s u l t s  the  i n t e r e s t  Of^Consumer^Response  many  attempt  through  the  p a r k i n g  i n c r e a s e ( w h a t  they  that  i n  means  the  l i t t l e  m o t o r i s t s  d i s c o u r a g e d of  had  between p a r t i c u l a r  s t a t i c  or  d e s t i n a t i o n .  54  p r i c e , i s  mode  not  t r a v e l  The demand  the  2  i s  2  of of  d e r i v e d  p r i c e  The  e a r l i e s t  was  conducted  were  l e f t  on  c o l l e c t e d . p a r k i n g  i n  d i s c u s s e d  f o u r  parked  i n  journey were  only the  one  must  c o l l e c t e d  c o n c e r n i n g  parker  a l t h o u g h  d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  t h i s  not  t h e r e  was  t i m e .  F i n a l l y ,  i t f o r  the  be  r e s u l t  tempered  Demand and  i n i t i a t e d  mode  to  p a r k i n g  L i v e r p o o l .  f o r  so  was  f u t u r e p a r k i n g . each there  e l a s t i c i t i e s  were  shown  the to  f o r a  that  survey the  author  i n  Table  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  a c t i o n  from  use  t h a t  are  to  found  p o s s i b l e ;  some  demand  i n  c r o s s -  t h e i r  i n c r e a s e ,  The  are  p a r k i n g  i n c r e a s e  a t t r i b u t e d  change  of  i n c r e a s e  « i t h  whether  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  and  was  matter.  .  area  Response  was  2 4  a l t e r n a t i v e  f r u s t r a t e d  survey  1 9 6 3  p u r p o s e s ,  3 . 2 .  i n c r e a s e s  i n d i c a t e  p r i c e  Table  below.  p r i c e  take.  s u b j e c t  c o n s i d e r a b l e t h i s  t r i p  would  i n  the  other  response  d e t a i l  survey.  e s t i m a t e s  (22%),  v a r i o u s  w i t h  p r i c e  p r i c e  i n  some  to  of  some  and  asked  r a n g e s  or  e s t i m a t e s  purpose,  h o u r l y  i n  t h e s e  c e n t r a l  an  o f f e r r e d  ' p r i c e d - o f f *  found  i n d i c a t e s  s u r v e y s ,  p a r k i n g  the  3 . 3 .  was  study  England  f o r  data  the  more of  c a l c u l a t e d  No  presented  of  under  sub-samples  These  are  c o n c e r n i n g  are  d i r e c t l y i n  L i v e r p o o l ,  behaviour  g u e s t i o n n a i r e were  d e a l i n g  Respondents  f o u r  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  e l a s t i c i t i e s  a u t o m o b i l e s  c o n c e r n i n g  were  Many  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  c a r s  I n f o r m a t i o n  There  are  of  a t t i t u d i n a l  system.  Surveys  i n c r e a s e s  these  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  d e s c r i p t i o n  between  s p e c i f i c a l l y .  of  a u t o m o b i l e s  from  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  e l a s t i c t i e s  range  p r e v i o u s  the  3  a  a l l  .  e l a s t i c i t y p o s s i b l e ,  R e c o g n i z i n g that  2  r e s u l t s  data  the  r o u t e .  s u r p r i s i n g  a u t o m o b i l e  Where  or  the  was  low  method  of  e s t i m a t e d p a r k i n g  at  viewpoint  t h a t t h a t  55  T§ble_3.2.i_Deraand STUDY  E l a s t i c i t i e s  For  A u t o m o b i l e _ T r a y e l  DESCRIPTION  Moses  - c a l c u l a t e d  and W i l l i a m s o n  d i v e r t t o other modes, time and t r i p c o s t  % of  ELASTICITY  commuters  who  based  would  upon  t r a v e l 0 . 3  - d a t a came from s u r v e y of commuters Cook County i n t h e Chicago area J.M.Thomson  i n  -London,1965 - l o n g - r u n e l a s t i c i t y p e r m i t t i n g c a p i t a l improvement, change of j o b o r r e s i d e n c e -would be l e s s f o r s h o r t - r u n  M . E . B e e s l e y  - L o n d o n , 1 9 6 5 - l o n g - r u n  G.R.Brown 1971  3 . 3  e l a s t i c i t y  - c r o s s - e l a s t i c i t y between c a r based upon t h e q u e s t i o n : what minimum q u a l i t y o f d e s i r e i f you were s e r v i c e ? - d a t a came from hour t r a v e l l e r s  and b u s , i s t h e  s e r v i c e you would t o use normal bus  0 . 5  1967 s u r v e y of r u s h u s i n g L i o n ' s Gate Bridge  C h a r l e s R i v e r s A s s o c i a t e s  -Boston,1968  W i l b u r Smith A s s o c i a t e s 1968  - u s i n g data from surveys of commuter h a b i t s i n a number o f l a r g e c i t i e s , h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z e d c r o s s - e l a s t i c i t y developed between c a r s and t r a n s i t - t h e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of time and t r i p p r i c e between t h e e x i s i n g c a r and t r a n s i t commuters was us to develop t h e d i v e r s i o n curve  R . L . P r a t t 1970  1.3  . 4 9 5  a was  t ed  0 . 5 1.0 depending upon value g i v e n t o t r a v e l time  - u s i n g data from Washington (1965),D.C. commuter s u r v e y s , a n d Twin C i t i e s (1969) s u r v f o r f r e e - t h i c a r t r i p  e y , a d i those co c h o i c e s y i e l d s and t r a n , t r a v e l  v e r s i o n curve i s c a l mmuters c o n s i d e r e d t of mode a c r o s s - e l a s t i c i t y s i t , based upon p r i c time  c u l a t e d o have between e of  0 . 8 2  56  concerned i t s  p r i m a r i l y  the  s a t i s f a c t i o n  of  more  conducted  study  of  p r i c e  England  i n  r e c e n t  at  O x f o r d ,  commuters  a c h i e v e d income  t r a v e l l i n g  a  very  groups of  perhaps  unique  The  survey  p r i c e s ,  both  are  i n  1969 at  a  i t  demand,  not  of  3.4.  e f f e c t s  of  p a r k i n g  i s . o n e  more  survey  The  survey  c o l l e c t e d  2 6  .  b e h a v i o u r a l  p a r k i n g  response  London  (Table  s h i f t  l i k e l y  In  matter.  i n c r e a s e d and  charge  parking  a l t e r n a t i v e  t h e i r  expected  from  Thomson  the  with  s u b j e c t  what  are  of  s o c i e t y ,  The  parking  range  the  i n c r e a s e ;  t h i s  a  and  t h a t  p r i c e  3.5.  out  p a r k i n g  to  asked  and  c a r r i e d  c l o s e l y  the  e l a s t i c t i e s  t h a t  most  to  of  d i r e c t e d  O x f o r d ,  Though  sub-group  were  of  r e c o g n i z e d  r e a c t i o n  m e n t i o n i n g ,  dramatic  be  was  was  response  the  r e s u l t s  r e g r e s s i v e  o b s e r v a b l e  i n  shown.  There  c e n t r a l  study  (85%).  r e s p e c t  demand  i n c r e a s e s  U n i v e r s i t y  must  with  of  This  .  the  d i s t i n c t  sought  l e v e l s  2 5  r a t e  Respondents  Tables  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l data  i s  terms  two  p a r k i n g  response  a t t i t u d e s  i n  to  shown  the  survey  p a t t e r n s .  be  work  s u r v e y e d ,  s p e c i f i c a l l y  behaviour would  t h i s  to  h i g h  were  u n i v e r s e  by  p a r k i n g  r e s t r i c t i o n . a  at  with  to  t o be  r e l a t e d charge. high  should  other  The  response  that  p o l i c i e s  t r i p  modes,  which  of  the  d u r i n g  become  i s  these  the  some  i n most  appeared  r e a c t i o n s  i s  J.H.  c o n c e r n i n g  t r i p s  under  r e s u l t s  by  1966  made  shopping  occur  worth  u n a v a i l a b l e  p a r k e r s  w h i l e  would  which  i n f o r m a t i o n  C o n c e i v a b l y ,  c r e d i b i l i t y  form  are of  strengthened  (67%).  r a t e  Washington,D.C.  London  p a r k i n g  Work  3.6).  abandoned. to  i n  England  t h e r e  throughout  the  e x i s t s  a  wide  range  government-dominated  of  employee  l o c a l  57  Table  3 . 3 - ;  g l a s t i . c i t y . _ 0 f^Demand..For ^Pa.rking_Srjace:  P r i c e  'To  Change  Work'  0 to 3d 3d t o 6d 6d t o u / 0 to 1/-  Or  From  Other Shopping  0.095 0.414 0.333 0.332  0.087 0.081 0.870 0.391  Source:  Table  3 , 4 . :  L i v e r p o o l  B o t h ,  Purposes  a l l  0.075 0.081 0.525 0.272  P a r k e r s  0.074 0.259 0.357 0.273  (1965),p.49.  R e s p o n s e _ T o _ P a r k i n g _ C h a r g e s i _ C a r _ D r i v e r s ^ Park  30  Pay  F u r t h e r Out  50  Pay  Further  Out  No answer  T o t a l  -  -  -  6 ( 0 . 3)  297 (14.  139  343  —  _  2 (0.  484  ( 6 . ?)  (17 .1)  abandon  121  29  Car  ( 6 . 0)  (1-  5)  Other Answer  23  3 (0.  2)  NO  96  54  Answer  ( 4 . 8)  ( 2 . 7)  T o t a l  Other answer  (14 . 5 )  291  Park  abandon Car  (1.  2)  670 ( 3 3 . 4)  415 (20 ,7) 2  429 (21 - 4 )  Source:  —  ( 0 . 1)  D  4 ( 0 . 2)  290 (14.5)  61 ( 3 . 0)  8 (0.4)  478 ( 2 3 . 8)  298 (14.9)  H e g g i e , p . 2 2 .  1 (0.  D  (24.  D  569 ( 2 8 . 4) 319 ( 1 5 . 9)  118  337  ( 5 . 9)  (16.  131 ( 6 . 5)  8)  8)  2,006 ( 1 0 0 . 01  58  f_able_3.5.:  E l a s t i c i t y _Q f . D e m a n d . F o r Incomes Assumption P r i c e s (d.  P r i c e Range Average P r i c e  0-30 15  Income Under  P a r k i n g _ F o r _ D i f f e r e n t  1 per  30-50 40  day)  0-50 25  E l a s t i c i t i e s  900  0.75  900-1350 1350-2400  0.66 0.51  2 . 18 1.91  0.92 0 . 86 0.78  2400-4200  0.30  1.83 1.14  Over  0.  0.88  0.54 0.37 0.84  4200  17  Unknown  0.55  2.  T o t a l  0,50  1.54  N.B. It i s s t a t e d they S o u r c e :  17  0.74  assumed by t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s t h a t would pay the charge w i l l do s o .  adapted  from  H e g g i e , p . 24.  o n l y  t h o s e  who  ,  T a b l e _ 3 ^ 6 . i _ H e a c t i g n _ T o _ E e s t r Would Use P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t  Journey  Would Use T a x i  Purpose  Would Walk Or B i c y c l e  Would  Car  Not E s s Make e n t Journey i a l  Tot  Normal Work E m p l o y e r ' s B u s i n e s s P e r s o n a l B u s i n e s s Shopping  72 51 57 59  8 21 20 14  7 4 4 7  10 17 15 19  3 7 4 1  100 100 100 100  M e a l , V i s i t i n g Entertainment Return Home  58 62 50 64  20 21 21  5 2 14  15 14 6  2 1 9  100 100 100  18  5  11  2  100  62  16  5  13  4  100  More A l l  Than  One  F r i e n d s  Purpose  Purposes  Source:  Thomson,p.46.  59  economy.  U t i l i z i n g  whether s p l i t  or  (Table  and  based  an  s u b j e c t  develops  been  or  a  p a r k i n g  i n c r e a s e  were  i n  would based  F i n a l l y , the  morning b r i e f  In  hour  r e p o r t  r e s u l t s average  2 9  show of  was .  In that  $.55  t o  that  t o  57%-43%  i s  one  N.p.  has  Lea  p a t r o n s  i n  w o r k  which i t  p r i c e s order  a  The an  2 8  i d e a  broader  by  Quarmby  .  This  t r i p  a  made  much  number  study t r a v e l  purpose,  of  urban s p l i t  69%-31% i n c r e m e n t s  model  of  i n d i c a t e s  E n g l i s h  that  pound,  These  in%-59%.  .  t r i p s  upon  and  two  mode  p r e d i c t i o n s  p r i c e s . that had  the  a  7  t h i s  d r i v e r  based  t r a n s i t ,  or  $ 2 . 0 0 / d a y ,  2  t r i p s .  w i t h  of  p r o j e c t e d  auto  Beginning  has  L i o n ' s  i s  concern  Gate  some  have  produce  of  a  the  that to the  out  with  B r i d g e .  s t a t e d  would  c a r r i e d  conducted  analyzed  to  been  some  A s s o c i a t e s  r e p o r t  p a r k i n g $1.00  S  of  i s s u e d t h a t  and  survey  that  to  w i t h  made.  1/20,3/20  t r a v e l  conducted  t r a v e l l e r  of  incomes  area  1966,  rush  s u r v e y  1966  t h e r e  Vancouver  c h a r g e s .  p r i c e  i n  with  the  were  changes  p a r t i c u l a r  c h o i c e  p u b l i c  i n c r e a s e s  change  upon  and  t h i s  journey  changes.  mode-  passenger  modal  of  a  of  f o r  i n d i c a t e d  of  were  p r i m a r i l y  combination  automobile  a i d  charge  of  i s  of  which  the  -.41  bus  the  s t a t u s  p o l i c y  charge  s p l i t  model  i n  of  a n a l y s e s  study  economic  the  c u r r e n t  f o r  f o r  with  i n c r e a s e s  concerned  mode  p r e d i c t i v e ! y  between  other  s t a t i s t i c a l  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  .38  data  e s t i m a t e s ,  e s t i m a t e  of  such  t r a v e l  and  p r i c e  average  s t u d i e s  One  t i m e , c o s t s ,  t h i s  an  survey  p r i c e  p a r k i n g  e l a s t i c i t y  a r e a .  c o n c e r n i n g  f o r  upon  have  a r t i c l e s  used  f r e e ,  c r o s s - e l a s t i c i t y There  i n  was  p a r k i n g  Using  y i e l d s a  and  3.7.)  t r i p  p a r k i n g  model,  behaviour  data  not  work  parking  survey In  of  1972,  a  r e s u l t s  of  the  i n c r e a s e 50%  i n  survey from  s h i f t  to  an  60  l a b l e _ 3  i  7  i  i _ F r o j e c t e d _ C h  A  Parking  T a  x_I"_Wasbingtog, r)_ x  ; L  c.  P e r c e n t a g e C h a n g e l n I n c r e a s e  In  average P a r k i n g  auto Cost  D r i v e r  T r a n s i t  T r i p s  T r i p s  $.25  -4  +3  .50  -8  +6  .75  -12  +10  1.00  -15  +13  1.50  -20  +20  2.00  -23  +26  2.50  -26  +33  3 . 0 0  -29  +38  3.50  -31  +42  a.00  -34  +47  4 . 5 0  -36  +51  5.00  -37  +55  Source:  c i t e d  i n  K u l a s h ,  ( 1 ) , p . 3 5 .  61  bus  t r a n s i t .  T h i s  e l a s t i c i t y  of  has  the  be  q u a l i f i e d  of  most  h a l f  a  3 . 2 . 4 .  r e l e v a n c e by  a u t o m o b i l e elsewhere  i n  c o n s i s t e n t  with  to  0  .  a c t v i t i e s  d i r e c t e d  at may  occur  survey i t s  a  p r i c e  undoubtedly  r e s u l t s  s u r v e y ,  be i s  that  and  must  the  events  r e s u l t s  area  of  a  a  of  very  not work  i s  the  most  automobile r e s u l t s  c o u l d  as  a  be  urban avoidance  program  be  reimbursements, of  p a r k i n g  been  or  s t a n d -  our  i n c r e a s e  has  t r i p s  C l e a r l y ,  i n  a p p l i c a t i o n  which  data  congested  hour.  employer no  appears  u n d e s i r a b l e  p r i c e  An  Vancouver  c o n g e s t i o n  p a r k i n g  h i g h .  c o n s i d e r e d  of  of  i n c r e a s e s  t r i p s  The  r u s h  be  number  S i n c e  b e t t e r  i s  d u r i n g  r e l i e f that  p r i c e  area  to  e l a s t i c i t y  p a r k i n g  for  study  not  .  p r i c e  s p e c i f i c a l l y  r e d u c i n g expected  c o n g e s t i o n when  such  sought. e l a s t i c i t i e s  somewhat  t h a t  the  P o l i c i e s  the  a v a i l a b l e .  implemented  t r u l y  r e s u l t s  1  that  - . 4  p a r k i n g , 3  .Increase  t o  or  s h o u l d  t r i p s  been  appear  L i v e r p o o l  the  P r i c e  ought  c l e a r  r e d u c i n g  o b j e c t i v e  i n d i c a t e s  s i n c e  i l l e g a l  has  The  of  c a l c u l a t e  study,  B r i t a i n  i n f o r m a t i o n  the  i s  work  and  downtown  for  would  i n c r e a s e s  f i r s t  the  It  c h a u f f e r e d  an  f o c u s  - . 3  i n c r e a s e s  implemented:  i t  c u r r e n t  r e s p e c t  around  p r i c e  3  t h i s  Though  l i t e r a t u r e  America  the  p o l i c y  c e n t r e s  . 6 .  ,Parking  the  d i s t o r t e d ,  entranceway  a l o n e  For  w i t h  North of  p a r k i n g  to  the  narrow  from  demand  e l a s t i c i t y  then  the  f o r  s u f f i c i e n t  decade.  appears  be  i s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  I m p l i c a t i o n s It  may  data  compared  c o n f u s i n g :  commuter i n d i c a t e  demand that  the i s  San  more  shopping  by  t r i p  purpose  F r a n c i s c o e l a s t i c ,  t r i p s  have  case  w h i l e more  at  the  e l a s t i c  62  demand.  This  apparent  f o l l o w s :  work  t r i p  other  modes,  the  the  of  evidence  P o l i t i c a l be  a  h i g h l y  of  of  l e d  a p p l i e d  to  s u b s i d i z e d  overcome  3 . 3 .  3  The  or  Vancouver  examined  w i t h i n  A  of  Vancouver  3 . 3 . 1 .  of  to  i s  by  supported  commuter  p r i c e s  d e t e r m i n i n g b u s i n e s s For  c o n g e s t i o n the  p a r k i n g  the  p a r k i n g  for  3  2  r e a s o n , peak  p o t e n t i a l p a r k i n g  s u c c e s s .  i n t e r e s t s ,  t h i s  i n  appears  of  .  This  who  do  and  h o u r s ,  employees  i t  may  be  c h a r g e s  the  w i l l  not  because  p a r k i n g  However,  to  problem  have  to  be  and  the  some  disadvantages  and  i t s  s p e c i f i c  of  the  method  c o n t e x t  of  of of  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the  of  Vancouver the  must  be  s i t u a t i o n .  urban  c e n t r e  of  Congestion t o  the  r e s o u r c e s  measurement  p a r t i c u l a r a c c e p t e d  e l a s t i c i t y  f o l l o w s .  Due task  shoppers.  mechanism,  review  h i g h e r  to  Context  advantages  i n c r e a s e  i n  to  f r e e  as  c r o s s - e l a s t i c i t y  viewpoint  i n c r e a s e d  downtown  to  a  e x p l a i n e d  .  3  The  to  i n v e s t i g a t e  s e l e c t i v e l y  be  s t u d y .  f a c t o r  of  may  h i g h e r  T h i s  by  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  d e s i r a b l e a p p l i e d  Thomson  a  have  e n t i r e l y .  o p p o s i t i o n  i s  charges the  t r i p the  have  shoppers  s i g n i f i c a n t  o p p o s i t i o n want  p a r k e r s  w h i l e  d i s c o n t i n u e  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  of  a n a l y s i s that  predominantly  the i n  c o n g e s t i o n w i l l  more the  that  not  would i n  be  hours  to  Vancouver c a r r i e d  congested  peak  have  and  i n  (see  out.  t r a f f i c the  be  I t  given  to  2.3.) i s  t h i s  commonly  s i t u a t i o n s downtown  the  e x i s t  p e n i n s u l a  63  and  a l s o  along  c o n d i t i o n of  f l o w  St.  i s  i n t o  volumes that  has  hours.  some  Some  w i t h i n  the  by  Land  only  by  zones: c o u r s e ,  f o r  use  shown  by  to  two  p o i n t s  3  * .  the  an  appears road to  t r a v e l l e r s the  of  c r e a t e d  to e f f o r t  d u r i n g  extent  hour  I t due  i n  p e r i o d  peak  C e r t a i n l y  problems  p r o j e c t s  3  B u r r a r d  base  morning .1 0 I  volume  and  i n c r e a s e  hour  of  the  St.  T h i s  show  The  by  volume  these  p a t t e r n s i n  Figure  area  i s  b r i d g e s .  few West  w i l l  probably but  r u s h  c o n g e s t i o n f o r  t r a f f i c  .  5  i s  G r a n v i l l e  A c c o r d i n g l y , have  should  to  some be  of  noted  and  3.2.  I t  i s  the  important  almost  from  q u a r t e r s  use  three can  a r e a ;  e n t i r e l y there  e x i s t  H a l l , the  be the  p a r k i n g not  these  l o c a l the  of  number  of  St.  p r i c e  only  to  d e v i a t i o n s  b u s i n e s s  to  remember  the  i n t o  b u s i n e s s  homogeneous a  downtown  e n t i r e l y  d i v i d e d  Chinatown,  adapt  that  nearby  c o n t a i n e d  Land  downtown  to  i n  r e s i d e n t i a l  a r e a  the  Creek.  a c c e s s i b l e  End  the  F a l s e  I t  the  demand.  at  c h a r t s  1973.  i n c r e a s e  one  c e n t r e .  Use  n e i t h e r  d i v i s i o n s ,  i n  shown  a  example:  zone.  i s  i s  throughout  and  from  from  The  w h i l e  to  c i t y  G r a n v i l l e  s u g g e s t i o n  which  the  a b l e  c o n g e s t i o n  downtown  .  the  H0-50%  time  the  3.1.  1960  c o n s t r u c t i o n  are  p e n i n s u l a  f o r  i n c r e a s e  l a n d  p e n i n s u l a the  i n  i n t o  F i g u r e  r e s t r i c t e d  downtown  B a s i c  by  f u r t h e r  r e c e n t  3 . 3 . 2 .  that  f l o w  the  e x p e r i e n c e  i n  years  been  spread  accomodate  f l o w  o n l y  hour  c a p a c i t y  the  i n c r e a s e d  have  peak  r o u t e s  downtown  f o r  have  major  i l l u s t r a t e d the  b r i d g e s  volumes  the  on  compass  two  b a s i c  d i s t r i c t . i n  use,  s p e c i a l  P a u l ' s  Of and  a r e a s ;  h o s p i t a l ,  i n c r e a s e major  scheme  l a n d  w i t h i n  d i s t r i c t  a  a  use  s i n g l e  extends  64  65  beyond  the  downtown  p e n i n s u l a , Main on  St.  e x c l u d i n g  to  the  the  p r e s e n t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n or  by  bus.  r i d e  A  system  t r a v e l  by  c o n c e n t r a t e p r i v a t e  i s  t i m e ,  measures:  combines  motorcycle motor  of  i n  on  F i g u r e  many  east  It  to  a l l  the  east  a c t i v i t y  the  t h r e e  to  c e n t r e s  e a s t .  of  t r a v e l l e r s  the  car  major  Vancouver:  and  bus  methods  by  u t i l i z e  b i c y c l e .  f o o t ,  the  modes.  and  by  of c a r  park  ' n*  People  a l s o  here  w i l l  A t t e n t i o n  t r a f f i c ,  i s  may  3 . 3 .  through  t r a f f i c  3 . 3 . 4 .  P a r k i n g There  f l o w s  W i t h i n  the  a  l a n e s  on  Georgia  B u r r a r d ;  that  p r i m a r i l y  except  the  the  t r a f f i c on  the  upon  downtown  a r e a ,  t r a f f i c  of  t r a f f i c  management  S t . ;  one-way  n o r t h - s o u t h  of  r e s t r i t i o n s d u r i n g  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  downtown  b a r r i c a d e s  main  the  downtown  S t r e e t s  l i m i t s i n  i n t o  t u r n '  Georgia  reached  a r e a ,  number  'no  and  been  3 6  .  e x i s t  In to  on  c e r t a i n of  these  the  West  d i s c o u r a g e  s t r e e t s .  O p p o r t u n i t i e s  c u r r e n t l y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  hour  by  p o s s i b l e have  peak  s t r e e t s  of  r e s i d e n t i a l  of  are  v e h i c l e  B u r r a r d , H a s t i n g s , P e n d e r  t y p e s  Main  H a l l :  i n c l u d i n g  commercial  downtown  or  morning  r e v e r s i b l e  s t r e e t s  End  i n  which  shown  r e g u l a t e d  measures  there  p o r t i o n  p a t t e r n  i s  h o u r s .  past  and  C i t y  o n , P a t t e r n s  s m a l l  upon  Park,  by  v e h i c l e s .  The area  and  a v a i l a b l e  t a x i ,  d e f i n e d  c o n s i d e r b l e  s o u t h ,  T r a n s p o r t a t i at  S t a n l e y  P a r t i c u l a r i l y ,  Broadway  3 . 3 . 3 .  boundaries  i n  p a r k i n g  the  e x i s t s  a  very  downtown  f a c i l i t i e s  i n  broad  p e n i n s u l a .  terras  of:  range There  p h y s i c a l  of are  p a r k i n g d i f f e r e n t  vo  F i g u r e 3«2.  CITY OF VANCOUVER GENERALIZED LAND USE - 1973  Vacant Single Family Dwellings EJ:x:-:-:J^  Duplex and Conversions  \///Z\ Apartments t  | Commercial Industrial  68  c h a r a c t e r ;  c o s t s  r e s t r i c t i o n s ;  to  the  t e c h n i u q e s  type  of  demand  from  area  to  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n  c a t e g o r i e s the  f o r  area  of  of  more  w e l l  and  and  type  q u a n t i t y  t o t a l i s  an  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  i n c r e a s e  of  s t a l l s  be  commercial  o u t l e t s  p r i c i n g  s c h e m e s  s t a l l s  were  percentage pace  of  0 9  at  may  o f f i c e  p a r k i n g more the  u s e  4  1  .  of  3  then  8  favour  over  1971 of  a l l  P a r k i n g  be  the  at  i n t e r v e n i n g  of  a l l  s h o r t - t e r m t h a t  the  r e s t r i c t e d  t h i s  Comission  p a r k e r s  of  3 7  parking  17%  noted  i n from  i n  about  23%  or  the  Data  Combining  a l l - d a y  about  f r e e  c o n s i d e r  of  e x c l u s i v e l y  a l s o  the  many  i n  t h e i r  o f f - s t r e e t i n  p e r i o d  use; due  t o  t h i s the  c o n s t r u c t i o n . downtown  are  p a r k i n g  f i v e  i n d i c a t e s  4  0  .  t h a t  d i s t r i c t  r e g u l a t i o n s  policemen  throughout  d u t i e s  b u s i n e s s  to  time  grown  tower  r e g u l a t i o n s  downtown  should  tend  13%  Downtown  aimed  Furthermore,  have  there  important  c e n t r a l  .  i t  t h a t  Enforcement C u r r e n t l y  to  to  conducted  f a c i l i t i e s .  e s t i m a t e s  C o n v e r s e l y ,  vary  among  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  s t a l l s ,  p a r k e r s . ,  and  supply  system.  Approximately  o n - s t r e e t  s a i d  of  f a c t o r  f a c i l i t i e s  supply.  be  of  q u a n t i t y  supply  important  p u b l i c , o f f - s t r e e t , s h o r t - t e r m c o u l d  enforcement  downtown.  i n t e r e s t i n g  r e c e n t  use;  As  parking  s h o r t - t e r m ,  on  o p e r a t i o n .  the  s e v e r a l  with  r e s t r i c t i o n  e x i s t i n g  p a r k i n g  were  f i g u r e  a  of  demonstrates  s t a l l s  p a r k i n g  w i t h i n  of  i n v e n t o r y  Vancouver  of  f a c i l i t i e s  development  an  u s e r ;  A  the  C i t y  r e c e n t about  who  U0%  e x p e r i e n c e s  attempt  while  survey of  i s  of  a l l  about  not  30%  t o  e n f o r c e  occupied  i l l e g a l curb  m i n i m a l .  parking  space per  with  day  i n  i n the  i l l e g a l  69 3 . 3 . 5 .  P r o b l e m g A s s o c i a t e d g i t h As  i s  was  d i s c u s s e d  d i f f i c u l t  c o n g e s t i o n  to  s i n c e  u n c e r t a i n t y  i n  many  3 . 3 . 5 .  A i r  and  can  s h o r t - l i v e d  gaseous  n i t r o g e n "  i s  87% 4  4  of  .  r e a c t  o x i d a n t s .  Vancouver  r e c e n t  p o l l u t i o n  of i n  e x i s t  present  the  4  or  with  e f f e c t s  of  there  i s  c o n g e s t i o n .  have 2  Columbia  emergent:  .  that  o c c u r r e d , In  major  primary  the  i s ,  but  severe the  f o r  s m o g  4 5  prescence of  these  t h i s  for  70%  has  i s o l a t e d  as  yet  no a r e a ,  84%  of  been  s u n l i g h t  t o  of  these  the  carbon  o x i d e s  r a i s e d  of  to  of  the  Hydrocarbons  p o l l u t a n t s  minor These the  e m i s s i o n s  .  p r o c e s s  the  Vancouver  produces  and  concern  at  over  of the  and  o x i d e s  of  form  ozones  and  s u f f i c i e n t  i n  a r e  b e g i n .  P o l l u t i o n survey  c o n s i d e r e d i n  The  t h r e a t :  s o u r c e  h y d r o c a r b o n s ,  L e v e l s  a r e a  Noise  i s  poor  B r i t i s h  as  s i t u a t i o n s  E s p e c i a l  n i t r o g e n  n o i s e  the  i t  below.  i n  c a t e g o r i z e d  the  the  problem  3 . 3 . 5 . 2 .  2 . 4 . 3 . ) ,  terms  very  r e l a t i o n s h i p  summarized  problems  p o t e n t i a l  A  i s  p o l l u t a n t s : " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . . .  monoxide,  the  data  and  e v e l of gaseous contaminnants at which e e f f e c t s o c c u r has now been r e a c h e d . s w i l l become more s e r i o u s and pronounced i n , u n l e s s c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n i s t a k e n . " 4 3  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  o t h e r  be  contaminants  gaseous  2 . 4 . 2 .  q u a n t i t a t i v e  problem  s e r i o u s  major  "The l advers e f f e c t f u t u r e  i s  p o l l u t i o n  time  r e c u r r e n t  the  Two(see  . P o l l u t i o n  a i r  present  in  cases  c o n c e r n i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n  The  Chapter  d e s c r i b e  a v i a l a b l e  1.  i n  the  V a n c o u v e r  of  GVRD  most 4 6  .  r e s i d e n t s  s i g n i f i c a n t A  one-shot  i n d i c a t e d  that  t r a f f i c  s o u r c e  of  t h i s  type  survey  of  t r a f f i c  of n o i s e  70  from  c u r b s i d e  G r a n v i l l e , the  from  one  v a r i o u s  a n a l y s i s  that groups  do  p l a n n i n g  p o l i c i e s  p u b l i s h e d of  l a s t  the  r e s u l t e d , system  year  then  a  f o r  c a p a c i t y has  i s  t r a n s i t  u n t i l  the  to  the  7  .  the  n o i s e  DBA  and  88  78  Robson,  Taken  d u r i n g  l e v e l  hovered  DBA.  p o w e r s , p o l i c i e s  t h i s  be  i n  behaviour  d i s c u s s e d  t i m e ,  the  and  i t  i s  d u r i n g  n e c e s s a r y  bodies  s u c c e s s  and and  of the  only  to  p o l i t i c a l f a i l u r e  of  Development downtown by  and  i s  system  of  t r a n s i t system.  c o n s i d e r a b l y t r a n s i t  1980. i f  If  s p e c i a l  terms  of  downtown  the i s  r e s i d e n t i a l study  same of  commuting the  l e n g t h  i n  North  bus  e x t r a 9  .  to  be  hour.  pressure s t r e e t c a r  America,  expected  a r o s e *  modes  rush  and  If  roadway  c o n t i n u a l  f o r  n e c e s s a r y ,  e s t i m a t e  I ^ S O . * *  t h a t  Demand  needs  A  by  between  one  i s  appears  c o n s e r v a t i v e *  d o u b t f u l i n  f u t u r e  development.  volume  volumes  Bus  i n  ' e x t r e m e l y  extremely  the  immediate  growth  o f f i c e an  p u b l i c  l e a s t  t h e  employment  these  of  i n  s t r o n g  o f f e r s  l i m i t e d . at  1 9 7 2 *  of  Vancouver.  i n c r e a s e d  supply  added  i s  b l o c k  p.m.  w i l l  r o l e  d i v i s i o n  handle  o u t l o o k  the  v e h i c l e s  i t  i n  governmental  t o t a l  same  c o u l d  The upon  At  employment  142,000-145,000  r o u g h l y  be  have  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  p o p u l a t i o n ,  the  F i v e .  i n  s t r e e t s s i x  e n t i t i e s  Future.Downtown  Development  the  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ^ I n v o l v e m e n t  m  i n  around  about  v a r i o u s  p r e s s u r e  be  to  c o n c e r n i n g  Chapter  r e c o g n i z e  3 . 3 . 7 .  p.m.  i n v o l v e d  i n  Seymour  between  P o l i t i c a l A n d  I n f o r m a t i o n  to  and  c o n s i s t e n t l y  3 . 3 . 6 .  the  conducted  G e o r g i a ,  hours  f a i r l y  was  the  c a p a c i t y  while o n l y c o u l d  71  Another i s  outward  i n  the  a s p e c t  CBD  and  w i t h i n  p r i c e s  f o r c e s  e f f e c t  p a t t e r n s our  of of  d u p l i c a t e  i s  p a r k i n g  major  i s  r e a s o n a b l e Due  to  most  the  i n  the  to  i n t e r e s t  i n  There  p r i c e  to  a  downtown  the  program  urban  a  a r e  a l s o  a  park can  of  s m a l l  f a i r l y  a t  low a  the  time  i s and  growth  and  above  i n  g a s o l i n e  f o r e c a s t  be  of  need  not  w e l l - d e f i n e d program. l e v e l f o r  as  i t  seems u s e r s .  p e n i n s u l a ,  a r e a . be  here. along  downtown  downtown  and  reasons  and  Therefore  toward  suggest  u s e f u l  downtown  compact  i n c r e a s e  of  s i t u a t i o n  and  governmental  number  poor.  i n f l u e n c e  5 1  may  the  programs  Consequently  group  Vancouver  nature  i d e a  very  For_Vancouver  c e n t r e .  t h i s  who  the  the  p r i c e  This  a  that  form  l i f e s t y l e s  c o n s i d e r a b l y be  P a r k i n g  understanding  present  i n  f a i r l y i s  the  growth  changing  i s  upon  area  c o n d i t i o n s .  r e s t r a i n t  i n  r i s e ,  i m p o r t a n t ,  p r i m a r i l y  p h y s i c a l  park  but  At  i n c r e a s e  r o u t e s d i r e c t  of  to  as  changes  I n c r e a s e s  p a r k i n g  commuters 1.  P r i c e  downtown  p e n i n s u l a .  w e l l  economy  may  these  f e a t u r e s  f a c t o r .  apply  p r e d i c t ,  It  as  these  the  the  the  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  s l o w i n g  under  i s o l a t e d  adverse  which  upon  to  m o t o r i s t s  t r a f f i c an  i s  c o n c e n t r a t e d  a c c e s s  .  Vancouver.  Cgmmuter^Parking s p e c i f i c  p a t t e r n , 5 0  of  c o n t i n u e  o u t s i d e  cause  r i s e .  i n c o r r e c t  C o n g e s t i o n the  i n  economy  growth  a  to  of  to  values  p e n i n s u l a  the  c o n t i n u e  t h a t  t h i s  s t a t e  p o t e n t i a l  s h i f t  to  c o s t s  Some  l a n d  d i f f i c u l t  growth  n a t i o n a l  .3.4.  the  growth  may  o p e r a t i n g  Another the  As  a c t i v i t i e s may  the  the  e x p a n s i o n .  f a c i l i t i e s  of  of  Through c o n s i d e r e d  area There  e x i s t s  i n  i s  some  to  focus  w e l l .  c h o o s i n g  downtown: be  i d e n t i f i e d  w i t h  the  l a r g e s t  72  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n  Applying  2. (provided  there  d i s t u r b  the  i n c r e a s e s  can  p e r m i t s i n  i s  a  p r a c t i c e ,  of  the  r e l a t i v e l y  of  hours  the  without  t o i s  commuter l e a s t  downtown.  d i s c o n t i n u e d ,  s m a l l ,  e x p l o r a t i o n  peak  transport)  f u n c t i o n i n g  e a s i l y  the  d i s i n c e n t i v e s  a l t e r n a t i v e  be to  the  c o s t s :  economic  c u r r e n t  a p p l i c a t i o n  i d e a  of  or  ' s a f e '  s t r e n g t h s  l i k e l y  P a r k i n g  s e c t o r  of  A c t u a l  the  weaknesses  the  f i e l d  to  p r i c e  m o d i f i e d .  and  r e s t r i c t i n g  t r i p s  market  of  of  t h i s f u r t h e r  a c t i o n . 3.  A  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  i n c r e a s e s of  the  a p p l i e d p u b l i c  a v a i l a b l e 4.  f o r  o t h e r  should  o v e r l y  l i k e l y  to  of  downtown be  a p p l i e d  e a s t  by  p a r k i n g commuters. s o l e l y  encompassing  a  almost  and  downtown  the  of  of  p a r k i n g  n e c e s s a r y  growth  c a p a c i t y  the  w i l l  be  day.  i n c r e a s e s  pursued  The  should  p u b l i c  modes  p r i c e  can  t h i s  not  absorb  s h o u l d  b u s i n e s s e s  i n  be  become ' p r i c e d -  r e l a t i v e l y  s h o u l d  be  l e s s  program.  p r i c e  i n c r e a s e s w i l l the  s i n c e the  i s  shoppers  study  I t  b e n e f i t  i n c r e a s e d  r e s t  p r i c e  t h i s  w i t h i n  S t . ,  the  a l t e r n a t i v e  t h e r e f o r e such  The  minimum.  T o u r i s t s  oppose  Main  d u r i n g  provided  Consequently program  system.  a  s i d e  commuters  p a r k i n g  at  commuters. and  use t o  be  concerned  u n a f f e c t e d  downtown  t r a n s i t  O p p o s i t i o n  manner  o f f *  to  a t t r a c t i v e  w i l l  be  f o c u s  to  assumed  downtown  t h i s  e n t i r e t y  be  i s of  an  i t s  d i r e c t e d t h a t  the  p e n i n s u l a , obvious  downtown  and  a n a l y s i s  upon  p r i m a r i l y i n c r e a s e s bounded c l e a r  p a r k i n g .  on  a at  w i l l the  boundary  73  1. 2. 3.  K u l a s h (1212-1) , pp. i b i d , p . 5 . i b i d , p . 9 .  3 - 5 .  4. H e g g i e , p p . 1 6 - 1 7 and K u l a s h ( 1 ) , p p . 9 - 1 8 15-30% i s through t r a f f i c . 5. 6. 7. 8.  K u l a s h K u l a s h Kulash i b i d , p p  910. 11. 12.  i b i d , p p . 1 4 i b i d , p p . 1 i b i d , p p . 1 i b i d , p . 2 3  13. 14. 15. 16.  K u l a s h (9) K u l a s h , p . i b i d , p p . 2 6 i b i d , p p . 3 1  argues  that  about  (1) , p . 5 . (1212-9). (9) , p . 4 . . 1 2 .  17. From A u g u s t , 1 9 7 4 .  - 1 5 . 6 - 1 7 . 8 - 2 1 . . , 2 -  p 5 2 3  a  18. Summarized August,1974.  . 2 5 . . 8 . 6 . l e t t e r from  19. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n 5 , 6 , 1 0 , 1 9 7 1 . 20. T h i s November  who  r e c e i v e d  from  the  C i t y  of  C h i c a g o ,  l e t t e r  from  the  C i t y  of  Toronto,  a  summarized  i n f o r m a t i o n summarized 1 7 , 2 4 , 2 5 , 2 7 , 1 9 7 3 .  from  the  from  New  the  York  Times  Washington  ,March Post  ,  21. Samuelson 5 S c o t t , Economis: Canadian E d i t i o n , McGrawH i l l , Toronto, 1966,pp.424-57 22. The f o l l o w i n g s u m m a r i z e d from Technigues_Of_Improyin C o n d i t i o n s By R e s t r a i n t Of Road T r a f f i c , OECD,1973,pp.76-77. 23. Some o f the e l a s t i c i t y secondary s o u r c e s . 24. R o t h , G . J . , 1 9 6 5 . 25. 26.  U n i v e r s i t y T r a v e l And J . M . T h o m s o n , 1 9 6 8 . "  e s t i m a t e s  are  P a r k i n q S u r y e y  a v a i l a b l e  , c i t e d  i n  only  from  Heggie,1972.  27. Ted E r l i c h , " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r i c i n g and P a r k i n g C h a r g e s " , p r e s e n t e d to J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 3 meeting of the Highway Reseach Board Committee on T a x a t i o n , F i n a n c e and P r i c i n g , c i t e d i n Kulash ( 1 ) , p p . 3 4 - 3 6 28. D.A.Quarmby,1967. 29. G.Brown,1972. 30. K u l a s h (1) , p . 4 9 . 31. i b i d , p . 4 7 . 32. K u l a s h ( 9 ) , a l s o s u g g e s t s t h i s , p . 4 1 . 33. Not taxed i n the San F r a n c i s c o c a s e , K u l a s h ( 9 ) , p . 4 1 . 34. Turn_jDown^Traf f i c Volume, p. 9 , s i n c e downtown has a l s o r a p i d l y i t can be presumed that r u s h hour t r a f f i c volumes approach s i m i l a r magnitude i n c r e a s e s as base h o u r s . 35. P r o v i n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  ,March  36.  ,  P r o v i n c e  May  1 8 , 1 9 7 4 , p . 2 5  r e f e r r i n g  to  G r a n v i l l e  M a l l  8 , 1 9 7 5 , p . 2 9 .  37. 1971_Downtgwn Parking, I n v e n t o r y ^ S t u d y D e p a r t m e n t , C i t y of Vancouver. 38. P a r k i n g E n g i n e e r , C i t y of Vancouver. 39. DowntownRates , P a r k i n g E n g i n e e r , May 1974. 40. 41.  grown would  Phone i n t e r v i e w with the I l l e g a l Parking_Survey ,  S u p t . , Of T r a f f i c , June P a r k i n g E n g i n e e r , 1 9 7 4 .  , E n g i n e e r i n g  1974.  74  42. J . Columbia: 43.  A  H-. R e i n s t r a , A i r S W a t e r ^ P o l l u t i o n P e r s p e c t i y e , W e s t w a t e r , p . 1.  I n _ B r i t i s h  L y n c h , p . 9 0 .  4 4. i b i d , p . 1 . 45. B a t e s , " A i r P o l l u t i o n No.8, S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 4 , p . 1 . 46. E n v i r o n m e n t a l 47. The Vancouver U n i v e r s i t y .  Q u a l i t y In SoundScape  4849.  O f f i c e Space Demand In I n t e r v i e w , I a n Graham,  50.  I n t e r v i e w ,  51.  P r o v i n c e  P a r k i n g  June  In  The  Vancouver  Greater , World  A r e a " ,  Westwater  ,  Vancouver ,GVRD,1973. Soundscape, Simon F r a s e r  Downtown_Vancouyer , p . 6 9 . B u r e a u Of T r a n s i t , J u n e , 1 9 7 4 .  E n g i n e e r ,  14,1975,p.1,GNP  C i t y  Of  Drops  V a n c o u v e r , J u l y , 1 9 7 4 . 1.45  % In  Last  Quarter.  75  CHAPTER  FOUR:  PARKING  PRICE  INCREASES  IH  VANCOUVER;  TECHNICAL  PERFORMANCE  4. 1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s  c h a p t e r  performance downtown  of  a  p a r k i n g  commuters  c h a p t e r  d e s c r i b e s  a s s e s s  t h e  number  p r e s e n t  of  t h e  p r i m a r i l y  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  economic s e c t i o n s  d e a l  i d e n t i f i e d  of  i n i t i a t e  upon  t h e  t h e  f i r s t  s e c t i o n  downtown  e f f e c t s  i n a r e a ,  The t h a t  to t o  a  s e c t i o n  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  C o n c e n t r a t i n g  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i s  system  p r a c t i c a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  t h e  t h i s  Vancouver.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t o  o f  order  next a  e f f e c t s .  important  i n  a t  commuters  e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h e  t e c h n i c a l  d i r e c t e d  conducted  i n c r e a s e s .  p o s s i b l e  downtown  with  as  of  p r i c e  t h e  e f f e c t s ;  survey  of system  The  response  p a r k i n g  might  e f f e c t s  i n c r e a s e  Vancouver.  v a r i e t y  upon  a n a l y s i s  p r i c e  b e h a v i o u r a l  system  p h y s i c a l  a  d i f f e r e n t  c o n s i d e r s i n c r e a s e  i n  t h e  s u c c e s s f u l  g i v e n  t o :  and  land  The  c o n c l u d i n g  t h a t  u s e ;  c a n  implementation  of  be t h i s  p o l i c y .  4.2.  The_Parking In  t h e  commuters survey  commuters a  s e r i e s  the w i l l  summer  working  was  i n  and t h e i r of  of  p a r k i n g  1974, t h e  designed  methodology be  P r i c e ^ I n c r e a s e ^ S u r v e y  uncover  a t t i t u d e s p r i c e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  downtown  to  u t i l i z e d  d i s c u s s e d .  a  and  t h e  t h e  of  work  I n  s u r v e y ,  t h e and  was given  Vancouver. t r a v e l  h y p o t h e t i c a l  i n c r e a s e s . by  area  survey  f o l l o w i n g t h e  T h i s  behaviour  behaviour  r e s u l t s  t o  of  towards s e c t i o n s , obtained  76  4 . 2 . 1 -  Survey^  The  primary  downtown l e v e l  of  p r i c e  behaviour  of  u s e f u l  automobile was  p o r t i o n  i n c r e a s e  the  range  1.  A the  Type_Of  r e s o u r c e s  q u e s t i o n s  r a t e s  they  of  i n t e r v i e w surveys v  S i n c e  the  the  by  f a r  s u b j e c t s  as  of  at  and  t a k e n .  what  Knowledge  and  was  what  t r a v e l  c o n s i d e r e d  to  e x a m i n a t i o n bus  of  t r a n s i t .  responses  to  a  The  l a r g e  a  p o s s i b l e . e x i s t In  the  methodology  survey study  f o r  order  r e s u l t s u t i l i z e d  l e s s  f e l t  was  be  more  and  may  expensive  Futhermore and  sought that  r e s p o n s e s .  decided  p r e c l u d e d  may  s t a n d a r d i z e d  was  be  f o r  the  s u r v e y s .  respondents  i n f o r m a t i o n i t  p a r k i n g  c o n c e r n i n g of  sample  determine  commuters  a c q u i r e  to  to  i n f o r m a t i o n understand  obtained and  the  i t  the  w i l l  reasons  be f o r  Survey  s u r v e y s .  are  responses l i m i t  the  then  p o s s i b i l i t e s  a t t i t u d e  s u r v e y s  are  to  u n i v e r s e  of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e of  downtown  weaknesses  d e s c r i b e  1.  of  to  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  commuter  and  4 . 2 .  types  a l l o w  s t r e n g t h s  c h o i c e .  would  e x p e c t a t i o n s  the  i t s  a c t i o n  were  d i s c o n t i n u e  commuter's  through  to  of  survey  order  would  data  c o l l e c t i o n  u s e f u l  they  i n  secondary  l a r g e  a  t h i s  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l  to  of  of  commuters  c o u r s e  c o n c e r n i n g  design  o b j e c t i v e s  automobile  a l t e r n a t i v e  be  Design  s u b j e c t s u f f e r  and  e l s e .  to  r e s u l t s more  survey  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  because Although  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  from  consume  the  t h i s  p r i m a r i l y  anything  t h e r e f o r e by  upon  lower  l e s s  manpower  of  t o t a l l y r e q u i r e s would  response than  q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o m p a r a b l e  1  .  only  s i m p l e  not  unduly  77  4 . 2 . 1 . 2 .  The_Choice_Of_Po|>ula  Although automobile which  the  the  survey  was  there  were  commuters, p o p u l a t i o n  t i o n _ U n i v e r s e  u n i v e r s e  aimed a  number  c o u l d  be  1.  A l l  downtown  employees,  or  2.  A l l  downtown  p a r k e r s  some  3.  A l l  d u r i n g 4.  those  the  A l l  or  persons  morning  r e g i o n a l  p r i m a r i l y of  or  r e s i d e n t s  some  d i f f e r e n t  ways  i n  subgroup.  subgroup.  some who  downtown  drawn:  t r a v e l l i n g  r u s h ,  at  i n t o  the  downtown  subgroup.  work  downtown,  or  some  subgroup. It  s h o u l d  be  noted  s u c c e s s f u l l y ,  would  i n f o r m a t i o n  o b t a i n e d .  e l i m i n a t e d  because  i d e n t i f i e s  an  p l a c e  of  through t h i s  i n t e r f e r e  with  would  a  i n c u r  with  would  at  from  s a f e t y  i s  h i s  the  p l a c e  of  r e s o u r c e s  of  work of  of  q u i c k l y which and  h i s  downtown  i n f o r m a t i o n  about  d i f f i c u l t i e s  workers which  would  have  approach  r e q u i r e d ,  probably  out  terms  was  that  p r a c t i c a l  i n t e r s e c t i o n s  and  i n  a v a i l a b l e  e x t r a  Teams  the  problem  frame  p r o v i d e  the  c a r r i e d  p o s s i b i l i t y  p o p u l a t i o n ,  However,  i f  advantages  both  t h i r d  extreme.  t r a f f i c  approach,  f o u r t h  sampling  The  are  Aside  t h i s  o b s t r u c t  of to the  a c t i v i t y  rush  hour  .  U t i l i z i n g common  no  l e v e l s .  downtown.  2  The  t r a v e l l e r s ,  t r a f f i c  each  d i f f e r e n t  i n d i v i d u a l  approach  t r a f f i c  o f f e r  r e s i d e n c e .  r u s h - h o u r  that  downtown  p r a c t i c e  o b t a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , Furthermore,  f o r  t h i s  p e r m i s s i o n and  to  would  o n - s t r e e t  p a r k e r s type  of  enter a l s o and  as  the  survey. a  a  u n i v e r s e  i s  T h i s  would  r e q u i r e  of  p r i v a t e  p a r k i n g  number  r e g u i r e l a n e  sampling  team  p a r k i n g  of  would  workers. l i k e l y  be  78  underrepresented  i n  d i s t r i b u t i o n . as  very  e a s i l y  the  p o p u l a t i o n and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e i r  workers.  e x i s t  i n  to  the  response  p a r k i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e . s m a l l  the  should  for  of  the  whole  were  u n i v e r s e  was  mailback  b u s i n e s s  i m p l i e d  r e s u l t  i n  v a r i e t y  of  the  and  non-automobile  necessary  l i c e n c e or  would  r a t e  does  a p p r o v a l  r e p r e s e n t e d  response  among  b u s i n e s s e s  u n i v e r s e ,  be  h i g h  y i e l d  downtown  the  t h i s  a  r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n  d i s t r i b u t i o n  w i l l  hoped  t h i s  Vancouver  behaviour  would  be  the  commuters  a  r e l a t i v e l y  automobile  commuter  i s  commuters.  g e n e r a l i z a b l e  the  p e r f e c t l y  s a m p l i n g o p i n i o n  i s of  There survey. a  t h i s  f o r  the  a c t u a l l y  A l l of  samples a l l  a  r e s u l t s  u n i v e r s e  a  sample three  may of  and  chosen  c o n s i s t  of  a l l of  not  be  no  s u r v e y  as  ,  t h e i r  downtown r e l i a b l y commuters  one 3  of  method  and  i n  of the  s a t i s f a c t o r y .  subsaraples  randomly  b u s i n e s s e s  from  sample  downtown  i s  separate  random  sample  However,  s i t u a t i o n  downtown  t h a t  random  sample.  every  with  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  these  p o p u l a t i o n  author  were  sample  of  random  ' b e s t '  begin  n e c e s s a r i l y  a n a l y s i s  to  to  r e t u r n i n g  not  The  Samples noted  b u s i n e s s e s  employees  f i r m s :  of  Within  T h e S u r v e y  downtown  t h i s  t h a t  as  of  .  I t  a  f e l t  and  With  4 . 2 . 1 . 3 .  as  was  types  d i s t r i b u t i o n  r e t u r n s .  of  r a t e s .  f a c i l i t y  for  C i t y  d i f f i c u l t i e s  d i s t r i b u t i n g  f o r  frame  method  the  employees  by  employers  of  the  of  Sampling  done  sampling  I t by  downtown  u n i v e r s e .  t h e i r  form  given  because  cheaply  A  r e g i s t r a t i o n s .  high  r e s u l t s  Consequently,  chosen  a u t h o r i t y  the  u t i l i z e d  s e l e c t e d  which  have  i n  business, employment  79  of  one  hundred  government  o f f i c e s  downtown persons  persons  the  employees over the  of  one  a  p e r s o n s ) .  only  a c c e p t a b l e of  l i s t  frame  i t  and  law  Inadequacy  e x i s t s  r e n t - a - c a r  f i r m s  t h i s one  v i t a l i s  f i r m s from  It  with  l a r g e  The  and not  f i r m s  be  one  ;  a l l hundred  c o n t r a c t o r s , number  was  c a r r i e d  b u s i n e s s e s  out  e x i s t often  in  l i s t i n g the  i s  unknown.  o f f i c e s  of  The  that  l i c e n c e s .  h o t e l s , are  incomplete  number  of  sense  s e v e r a l  c o n t r a c t o r s ,  the  (BLF).  number  the  have  an  i s  F i l e a  t a x i s , excluded  e s p e c i a l l y  employees l i s t  for  i s  i n  taken  downtown  o b t a i n  weighted  seemed  with  to  l i k e l y  from  r e s u l t s t h i s  random  a c c o r d i n g t h a t  s p e c i a l i z e d the  a  t o  l a r g e  each  somewhat  should  a  sample  of  employment f i r m s ,  f u n c t i o n s ,  and  would  s i m p l e  be  random  l i s t .  Vancouver,  f o u r  approximately  4,800  l a r g e  merchandizing  employees  and of  (employment  approaches  from  p o s s i b l e  It  r e p r e s e n t  which  government  p r o b a b i l i t y  f i r m s  In  over  f i r m s ,  i n a c c u r a t e .  underrepresented  3.  procedure  s u f f e r s  t h a t  a s p e c t :  BLF.  s e l e c t i o n  firms)  merchandizer  L i c e n c e  and  g e n e r a l l y  was  the  t a x i  l i m i t e d  Business  f i r m s  i n  l i s t * .  o u t - o f - d a t e 2.  a  downtown  D u p l i c a t i o n s  r e s t a u r a n t s  l i c e n c e  most  Vancouver's  s h o r t c o m i n g s .  i n  l a r g e T h i s  of  h o t e l s ,  from  a v a i l a b l e  of  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  from  r e n t - a - c a r  employment  taken  chosen  h o t e l s ,  r e a s o n s :  The  C i t y  and  (excluding  sample  randomly  hundred  (excluding  have  o f f i c e  a  f o l l o w i n g 1.  which  same  m e r c h a n d i z e r s ) ;  l e s s  c o n t r a c t o r s  b u s i n e s s e s i n  or  (nearly  f o r  80  . 5 %  of  key  present  downtown  component  be  i g n o r e d ,  of  the  yet  employment).  downtown  each  one  These  c h a r a c t e r  i s  too  f i r m s  and  are  should  l a r g e  to  a not  sample  e n t i r e l y . I d e a l l y , e r r o r  sample  i n v o l v e d  magnitude c a s e .  of  an  f o r  t h a t  supply  Due  to  f o r  the  s a m p l e  e r r o r  s a m p l e s  of  f i r m  to  50 0  would  u t i l i z e d  the  by  the  i s  t a r g e t 6  .  b i a s e s  may  t h i s  s i t u a t i o n :  f l o w s  and  unigue  s t r u c t u r e  v a l u e  of  and  .  t h i s  the  standard  Preknowledge to  such  study  3000  o b t a i n  as  500  i t  was  each  knowing  how  s i z e  major  600-700  the  i n  t h i s  u n i t s ,  i s  would  were  how  many  roughly  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  f i r m s  and  the  be  sub-^universe.  e x a c t l y  goals  of  estimated  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  from  l a r g e  from  d i f f i c u l t  sample  between  s m a l l  s e t were  remainder  to  be  merchandizer.  e x i s t the  of  i n  Bias  the  the  case  of  r e s u l t s . of  the  survey a g a i n s t  the  p o s s i b l e  t h i s There  data  survey are  i n  which  a v a i l a b l e areas  b i a s  r e a s o n s  Vancouver; undermines  separate  f o r  determine f o r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  downtown  sample,  t o  two  c o n c e r n i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  comparisons of  Of  i n  p a u c i t y  employee  r e c o g n i t i o n  of  5  f i g u r e ,  For  have,  d i f f i c u l t  what  be  r e s p o n s e s  P o s s i b l e . S o u r c e s  It  c a l c u l a t e d  approximately  subsamples;  4 . 2 . 1 . 4 .  would  a r b i t r a r y  o b t a i n  d i s t r i b u t e d  Some  random  i m p o s s i b i l i t y a  the  t h i s  l a r g e  to  employees  be  sampling  u t i l i z e d  s u f f i c i e n t  s h o u l d  i n  Often  a  s i z e  data  s h o u l d  the the  s o u r c e s . be  made  n e v e r t h e l e s s . O r i g i n a l l y , i d e n t i f y i n g  i t  numbers  was to  intended  i n d i c a t e  t o  e x a c t l y  use  the  which  q u e s t i o n n a i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  81  were  g i v e n  t o  which  compare  response  t h o s e  f i r m s  among  would  f i r m  then  types  employee's  i t  due  and  to  been do  responses  to  became  have  a  mix-up  p o s s i b l e  f o l l o w - u p s  on  e x h i b i t e d  i n  the  subsequently  to  some  p r i n t i n g  i n f e a s i b l e  of  to  do  .  7  another As  It  U n f o r t u n a t e l y  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  t h i s  was  Those rush  p o s s i b l e  mentioned  c a t e g o r i e s  i n  r a t e s whose  p e c u l i a r i t y . the  f i r m .  which  e a r l i e r , have  e x c l u s i o n s hour  are  s o u r c e  not  seen  b i a s  there  been  which  of  are  a  e x c l u d e d c o u l d  as  i s  be  l i k e l y  through  number  from  to  have  of  the  expected  non-response. employment  survey  to  samples.  t r a v e l  s i g n i f i c a n t  sub-  d u r i n g  the  d i f f e r e n c e s  r e s p o n s e . One  non-response  d i s t r i b u t i o n . management too  busy  with  It  i n  to  a  t h i s  a s s e s s  f i l l  to  l a c k  of  s p l i t  p o s s i b l e of  on  f o r  a l l  the  p o p u l a t i o n  given  three  by  through e n t r a n c e s  to the  the  that may  p r i c e  be  s o u r c e  have  b i a s  i t  may  respond form.  r e s u l t s , a l s o  f i g u r e  f o r  L i o n ' s  Gate  be  a  composite  mode  mode  a r b i t r a r i l y  ,  and  Is  commuters t h e i r  mode  s p l i t  s p l i t  s p l i t  f o r  f i g u r e s  assuming  t r a v e l l e r s a l s o  to  the  i n d i c a t e the  automobile 8  l i k e l y ,  purposes.  to  the  were  d i f f i c u l t  i n d i c a t e s  are  By  seems  i s  of  c o r r e l a t e s  automobile  than  p l u s  they  non-response  that  4.1.  B r i d g e  as  income  l e v e l s  t h a t  income  T h i s  from  shown  1973.,  f e l t  comparison  r a t h e r Table  i n  If  h i g h e r  i n c r e a s e s ,  f o r  of  i n v o l v e s  the  i m p o r t a n t .  i n f o r m a t i o n  c o u n t s  e x i s t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  c o u l d  u n i v e r s e .  t r a f f i c  c o u l d  f i r m s  p a r k i n g  subsample  cordon  but  the  r e s p o n d e n t s ;  d e c l i n e d  d i s a p p r o v a l  of  toward b i a s  t h a t  c o n c e i v a b l e  the  of  due  sampled  out  type  another mode  i s  number  a t t i t u d e  then  b i a s  a  f o r  assuming  10% a l l  some  82  T a b l e  Hode  4.1.  Bode  S p l i t  Percentages  S m a l l  Large  Merchand.  Composite  Firms  Firms  Firms  S p l i t  F^r_All_Subsamgles  Cordon Count  Car  46  43  30  45  57  Bus  47  50  68  49  38  Other  7  7  2  6  5  T o t a l  100  100  100  100  100  83  600  persons  t r i p s  between  g i v e n that  would  by i t  i s  7  s a f e  to  by  subsamples from  which  response response The  l a r g e r  w i l l  b e ;  the  t h i s  mode  p u r p o s e l y  low  so  t h a t  the  s p l i t  t h a t  survey  on  percentages  i t  mode  non-work  can  be  s p l i t  shown  i s  not  r e l e v a n t  data  r e a l i t y .  r e p o r t  w i l l  summarize  survey  drawn. survey  51.9%  u s a b l e  u s e f u l  d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n  the  s i m p l e  r e t u r n s .  To  response  r a t e  s m a l l  or  to  It  1450  sample some  to  the  i n  the  e x t e n t ,  out  the  the  be  the  of  t r u e  b e t t e r  three  u n i v e r s e  noted  h i g h ;  r e t u r n e d  of  p o p u l a t i o n  q u i t e  l e s s  the terms  s h o u l d  was  i t  automobile  of  each  and the  i n  the may  w i t h ,  of  to  the mode  be  can  be  made  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  t a b u l a t i o n  f i r m s  r a t e  Noting  o b s e r v a t i o n s  begin  respond  4 . 3 . ) ,  the  from  were  was  the  response  automobile  t h a t  the  the  aggregate  2793  d e l i v e r e d .  sampling the  e r r o r  r e s u l t s .  Subsample_Analysis  Some  t o  by  then  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  t h e r e f o r e  9  A.M.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f o r  the  4 . 2 . 2 . 1 .  t h a t  of  a l s o  r a t e  downtown  A n a l y s i s  they  r a t e  9  assume  the  and  the  are  d i f f e r e n t  s e c t i o n  gathered  and  cordon  Survey.., This  A.M.  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  4 . 2 . 2 .  e n t e r  the  there  e x i s t s  t h e i r  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  i n  some  (Table  employees  an  a t t i t u d e s  responses  subsample  f e l t  examination t h a t  the  are  4 . 2 . ) .  It  l e s s  an  which  may  shown  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  d i f f e r e n c e s  of  of  i n  i s  the  p o s s i b l e  o b l i g a t i o n  e x p l a i n  the  lower  subsample. s p l i t  i n s t e a d  commuters  of  from  was  f o r  t h a t a  the  f a c t o r  the  t h r e e  s l i g h t l y i n  the  subsamples h i g h e r  lower  (Table  p r o p o r t i o n  response  from  of  T a b l e _ U  i  2  i  i _ R e s £ o n s e _ R a t e ^  Subsample  Response  Rate(%)  Small  Firms  45.0%  (536/1190)  Large Large  F i r m s M e r c h a n d i z e s  57.1% 56.7%  (799/1400) (115/203)  Table  4 . 3 . :  .Mode  S p l i t  B y S u b s a m p l e  % Of Response Small_F.. L a r £ e _ F i .  Mode Car Bus W a l k , B i c y l c e Taxi Other T o t a l  or  m o t o r c y c l e  Merchand.  46. 1  43.9  30.4  4 6 0 0  50.3 5-5 0.1 0.1  67.8 1.7  100  100  7.4 .0 . 2 .4  100  T a b l e _ 4 i 4 i i _ P a x m e n t _ F g r _ P a r k % Small_F^  Type O n - s t r e e t S t a l l C o n t r Commercial S t a l l A s s o c Unorganized Hot Parked D o n ' t Know Other No Response T o t a l  o l l e d By P l a c e Of Work S t a l l i a t e d With A Residence Space Dowtown  Of,Response |iarge_Fi Merchand  4 . 5 4 6 . 5 4 0 . 5 2.0 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.4  3.4 54.7  -1 4 . 3  33.9 2 . 3 0.9  71.4 2.9  1.1 0.6 0.6  -2 . 9 -5 - 7  3 . 6  2 . 6  2.9  100  100  100  /  85  s m a l l  f i r m s .  for  the  to  t h a t  survey  samples  ease  of  work  may  why  have  p a r k i n g  to  f o r  the  are an  to  h i g h  themselves  i s  s t r o n g  i n d i c a t e s which  park  p a r k i n g . t h a t i n vast  This  The  case  r a t h e r  of  t y p e s of  a l l  of  i n  some  of  way,  a  (Table of  In  do  the more  do  4 . 4 ) .  to the  C r o s s -  f i r m s  a n y t h i n g  to  a d m i n i s t e r  c l e a r  of  f o r  c o n c l u s i o n  t h a t  space  p l a c e  4.5.)  s m a l l  pay  u t i l i z e  pay  (Table  i n  to  f a c t o r  f i r m s .  used  i s  not  This  d i f f i c u l t  t h e i r  by  i n t e r e s t i n g  who  i t  l i k e l y  customers.  i s  not  to  f i r m s ,  h e l d  i n t u i t i v e  g e n e r a l ,  by  due  d i s t a n c e  l e s s  are  commuters  p r e s e n t l y e i t h e r  g r e a t e r  s m a l l  f a c i l i t i e s  be  q u e s t i o n n a i r e :  f o r i t  a  commuters  merchandizing  p a r k e r s  f a c i l i t i e s  why  n e c e s s i t y  s p a c e s  employees  may  e x i s t  the  b e h a v i o u r ,  r e i n f o r c e s  p a r k e r s  between  perhaps  few  automobile  f i r m s .  d i f f e r e n c e s  automobile  encouraged  of  i n c r e a s e s s m a l l  l a r g e  p r i v i l e d g e  case  s i m i l a r  b e i n g  t h e r e f o r e  p a r k i n g  s t a t i s t i c  of  of  t h a t  f a i r l y  b u i l d i n g ;  s i t e  a l s o ,  w o r k - r e l a t e d  m a j o r i t y  p a r k i n g  a l s o  84.7%  p r i c e  case  c o n t r o l l e d  the  the  suggested  r e a s o n s  to  and  the  of  r e s i s t a n t  p r o p o r t i o n  f o r  the  at  p a r k i n g the  i n  with that  but  The  of  s m a l l  was  appears  p r o p o r t i o n  of  female  i t  s p l i t  number  a  the  present  anything  t a b u l a t i o n  of  a u t o m o b i l e .  g e n e r a l l y  q u i t e  In  mode  A  l i k e l i h o o d  b i a s ,  u n i v e r s e .  more  l o t  employees,  Turning note  the  of  the  higher be  r o u t e s .  a c c e s s  company  a  may  on  employees  have  whole,  p o p u l a t i o n  t h e y  t r a n s i t  many  d i s c u s s i o n  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e .  f u n c t i o n ;  from  a  the  f i r m  a l s o  the  as  of seem  s m a l l and  In  the  a l r e a d y  work  or  some  e n t e r p r i s e . d u r a t i o n  v a r i e s  p r o p o r t i o n  from of  of  p a r k i n g  subsample  s m a l l  f i r m  to  a c t i v i t y  c a r r i e d  subsample  employees  (Table  p a r k i n g  f o r  out  on  4 . 6 . ) . a  f u l l  a  workday The  day  lower (over  %_0f _Bes_£onse Payment  Small  D a i l y  12.5 29.6  Monthly Free No  52-2 5.7  Response  T o t a l  T a b l e  100  4 . 6 . :  Number 1 ho over over over over over over over over over over No  D u r a t i o n  Of  ur or 1 t o 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6 to 7 to 8 to 9 to 10 t o  Hours l e s s 2 3 4  T o t a l  11  F.  Merchand.  12.5  28.6  41.0 43.0  42.9 20.0  3.4  5.7  100  100  JS_0f _ R e s D o n s e Small_F;. Large^F^ Merchand. 4.5 2.0  3.2  1.4 1. 4 0.9 1.7 3. 1 5.4 9.7 47.3 23.4 2.8 0.3 2.6  100  100  11. 3 8. 1 31.6  9 10  Large  P a r k i n g _ B y _ S u b s am p i e  4.5 10.5 4.0  5 6 7 8  Response  Of  F.  15.8 3-6 0.8  5.7  -5 . 7 40.0 31.4 5.7 2.9 5.7 100  87  7  hours)  a l s o  d i f f i c u l t .  suggest  S t i l l ,  the  t h a t  c o n t r o l  m a j o r i t y  of  a l l  of  t h e s e  p a r k e r s  commuters  park  may  f o r  a  be f u l l  day. Turning the  to  a t t i t u d e s  e s t a b l i s h  T a b l e i s  i n d i c a t e s  a  Is  note  t r a v e l Some  i s  h y p o t h e t i c a l i n d i c a t e  they  presented d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l  be  between  p o p u l a t i o n  the  e s s e n t i a l  q u e s t i o n . than  $ 2 . 0 0 '  of  4 . 9 .  The  need sum  the  t h e i r  what f e e l  r e a s o n . the  reasons  It  c a r g i v e n .  f e e l  t h e i r  i s  i n t e r e s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t  make  a  judging  by  the  p o p u l a r i t y  of  respondents  of  c a t e g o r i e s  the 1  0  'no f a l l s  p a r k i n g  s t r e s s e d  pay  the  i n c r e a s e .  response c a r  again  The  i s the  and  s h o r t  of  r e s u l t s  are  n o t i c e a b l e  of  p r i c i n g - o f f to  the  n o t i n g  the  c o n c e r n i n g  response  ' w i l l i n g the  would  respondents  q u e s t i o n  and  to  are  worth  the  the  asked  they  g e n e r a l i z i n g  i t to  t h a t  p a t t e r n s  when  were  p r i c e  t h e r e  The  r e s p o n s e ' f a r  c o n c e r n i n g  Respondents i n  d e t a i l  the  part  q u e s t i o n s  However,  f o r  the  was  Once  more  the  on  I t  subsamples.  i n  between  to  i n c r e a s e  would  u n i v e r s e .  d i s c r e p e n c i e s  f o r  of  to  may  i n c r e a s e s .  downtown.  Table  examined  use  who  j o u r n e y . .  u n c e r t a i n t y  p r i c e  themselves  i n  attempted  subsamples  v e h i c l e s  response  l e v e l  parking  and  p a r k e r s  a l l  work  f i r s t  with  hours.  t h e i r  what  of  concerned  t h a t  i n d i c a t e s  of  the  was  e s s e n t i a l  c o n g e s t i o n ,  and  p a r k i n g  at  d i s c o n t i n u e assume  work  by  f e l t  4 . 8 .  for  o f f - p e a k  c o n f u s i o n  i n d i c a t e d  commuters was  commuter  during  i t  p r o p o r t i o n  Table  n e c e s s a r y  to  of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  commuters  percentage  t h a t  c o n t r i b u t i o n  the  t r i p s the  and  l a r g e  automobile  of  automobile  work  e s s e n t i a l  to  part  p r o p o r t i o n  f o r  4.7.  C l e a r l y  of  of  what  automobile  t h a t  to  to  t h i s  pay  more  percentage  of  88  Table  4 . 7 . :  A t t i t u d e  Tqw^r^^automobile^As  Work  T r i p  y e h i c l e _ B y  Subsample  Response  Yes,  Car  No, No  Car  I s I s  S m a l l , . F.  E s s e n t i a l Not  E s s e n t i a l  Response  T o t a l  T a b l e . 4 . 8 . :  Prime  Reason  Why  Car  Large  Need  53.6  57.  29.6  44.2  34. 3  0 . 2  2.3  8.6  100  100  100  Is  E s s e n t i a l  Small_F._  V e h i c l e  For  Day  T r i p  Merchand.  6 9 . 6  % Reason  F.  By  1  Subsample  ,0f,Response Large  F.  Merchand.  44.2  31.3  55.0  3 . 5  1.1  -  14.5  11.1  5.0  20.9  37.2  40. 0  Other  0.6  2. 1  -  No  16.3  17.0  5.0  100  100  100  T r a n s p o r t i n g Often Only  Stay  O b j e c t s  L a t e /  A c c e p t a b l e  Response  T o t a l  I r r e g u l a r Means  Of  Hours T r a v e l  89  Table  4 . 9 . :  Response  To  P a r k i n g  P r i c e 5 Of  I n c r e a s e s Auto  P a r k i n g  I n c r e a s e (  $  .10  more  {$2.00  more)  9.7  8.0  $  . 2 0  $ $ $ $ $  . . . .  more more more  ($4.00 ($6.00  more) more) more)  5 . 3 5.7 1.6  more more  ($10.00 ($12.00 ($14.00  6.3 6.3 4.6 23.6  0 0 0 0 0  $ . 8 0 $ . 9 0 $1.00 $1.10 $1.20 $ 1 . 30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $ 1 . 90  more more more more more more more more more more more more more  ($8.00  ( ( ( ( (  $ $ $ $ $  16.00 18.00 20.00 22.00 24.00  ($26.00 ($28.00 ( ( ( ( (  $ $ $ $ $  3 3 3 3 3  0 2 4 6 8  . . . . .  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more) more)  ($40.00 more) $ 2 . 0 0 more W i l l i n g to pay i n c r e a s e g r e a t e r than $ 2 . 0 0 more d a i l y (or $40.00 more monthly) No R e s p o n s e T o t a l  Who  Would  At  T h i s  L e v e l Of I n c r e a s e L a r g e F. M e r c h a n d Small F.  Daily.  3 4 5 6 .7  Increase)  Subsample  Commuters  D i s c o n t i n u e Monthly  By  17.8 0.8 0.4  11.  4  11.4 2 0 . 5. 22. 5.  0 7 9 7  1.2 0.4 5.7  2.6 4.0 1.7 0.3 16.5 1.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.1  2.8  0. 0. 0. 2.  6 3 3  8. 6 2.9 2 . ?  17.0 12.1  7. 1 12.3  5-7  2.0  15.8 1.2 0.4  0.4  100  -3  100  2. 9  100  90  commuters be  i n  each  e s s e n t i a l  that  a  l a r g e  p a r k i n g  for  t h i s  In  of  c o n j u n c t i o n  i n c r e a s e s , take  once  shown  i n  Table  s i g n i f i c a n t i n by  the the  to  It  i s  a l t e r n a t i v e s might  or  to  e x i s t  i n s t a n c e ,  many  e l s e w h e r e ;  perhaps  i t  would  be  w i t h i n  the  asked  how  cause  of  behaviour a c t i o n s  o f t e n  were  not  of  to  the  the  was  i t  i s  the be  than  they  f e l t  t h a t  given  not  the  for  i s  o f f e r r e d  the i n  i t  T h i s of  the  seems  l a c k of  to  the  r e s u l t s  are  i s  i n h e r e n t  i s  borne  f i r m of  e x p e r i e n c e  with  most  that the  A l s o  r e a l i z a t i o n  t h i s  l i k e l y  b e l i e v e  r e s u l t s  for  out  seems  i n c r e a s e  system  a  It  p r i c e  that  that  d i s t r i b u t i o n  p a r t i c u l a r  prepared  they  merchandizing  the  zone.  a c t i o n  non-response l a r g e  p r i c e  l i k e l y  viewpoint  a l t e r n a t i v e s .  c l e a r  bus  The  u n r e l i a b i l i t y  the  p a r k i n g appear  p a r k i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e  i n t e r p r e t  i n c r e a s e  used  u n c e r t a i n t y q u e s t i o n  and  p r o p o r t i o n  commuters  they  i n d i c a t e  respondents  i n c r e a s e  p a r t ,  to  a c t u a l l y  that  of  c a r  r e s e n t  may  c o n c e r n i n g  what  g u e s t i o n .  u n c e r t a i n  under  they  p a r k i n g .  commuters  are  w i l l  be  most  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  d i f f i c u l t  automobile  many  the  asked  e x c e p t i o n  t h a t  may  l e v e l  q u e s t i o n  were  t h i s  response  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  c o u l d  l o w e r  u n c e r t a i n t y  percentage  that  the  h i g h  the  the  although  It  f o r  f e l t  commuters  d i s c o n t i n u e d  of  r e l a t i v e l y  sample.  a  4.10.  degree  with  at  they  u n l i k e l y .  with  they  response  g u e s t i o n  i t .  i s  respondents  would  by  r e a l i t y ;  response  This  program,  responded i n  i n d i c a t e d  automobile  d r i v i n g  d i s c o n t i n u e type  of  who  t r i p s .  i n c r e a s e  from  d e l i b e r a t e l y would  work  number  p r i c e  d i s c o u r a g e d  subsample  program. they  auto  of  4 . 1 1 . ) .  two  park  downtown  commuters  the  t h a t  For  would  e n t i r e  (Table  format:  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  were  Another  a l t e r n a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e  r e - l o c a t i o n  of  the  91  Table  4,10.:  m  A l t e r n a t i v e  A c t i o n  A f t e r _ D i s c o n t i n u i n g  Pa/rking_By  Subsample  % •  A l t e r n a t i v e  Small  F.  Of  Response  Large  F.  Merchand.  10.9  17.7  25- 7  4.0  13.4  11.4  39.3  40.5  57-1  4.5  2.3  -  4.Q  0.9  -  Other  11.7  6.8  -  No  25.5  18.5  5.7  100  100  100  Park  F a r t h e r  J o i n  A  Ose  Car  P u b l i c  P o o l T r a n s i t  W a l k , B i c y c l e Take  A  Away  Or  M o t o r c y c l e  T a x i  Response  T o t a l  Table_Ui.11  Bus  System  Use  Commuters  For By  Work  T r i p s  Automobile  Subsample  % Usage  By  Small_F.  Of  Response Larg__F_  Merchand.  49.4  44.7  40.0  38.5  37.9  40, 0  4.0  6.3  5.7  .Frequently  7.3  7.7  14.3  No  0. 8  3.4  Never Very  Seldom  Once  A  Seek  Response  T o t a l  100  100  100  92  f i r m ,  i n  t h e  downtown  i n  a r e a .  A  case  number  wrote  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and  p a r k i n g  wish  most  i t  f o r  i n  i s  not  t h e  a  t h i s  because  i t  f a c t o r s  had  they c o s t s , may would  t o  t r a v e l  t h a t  A  bus high  those back  -  and  i n  the  downtown  t h e  t h a t  I t One  o n e ,  category to  these  bus  t r a n s i t  t h a t  commuters  i f  i n c r e a s e d  a t t i t u d e s  a  needs  bus  system.  q u e s t i o n s  i s  i n prime i f  n o t  and  of  u s e f u l  c o n g e s t i o n  a r e  behaviour.  reasons  why  they  c  t h e y  f o r m e r l y  drove  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  reasons  were:  of  f i n d i n g  p a r k i n g .  over  because  of  c o n d i t i o n s .  t h i s  t r a v e l  commuters  d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  most  r e s t r i c t i o n  popular  improved  and  bus  use  the  s w i t c h e d  toward  to  of  The  who  d i r e c t e d  t o  decided  of  t h i s  p o o r l y  was  t r i p s  job  i l l u s t r a t e s  h y p o t h e t i c a l  percentage  t h e  a l s o  responded  t h e  f u t u r e  subsamples.  u t i l i z e  work  more  b u t  were  any  i n d i c a t e s  between  changes  f o r  i n  response  commuters  i n d i c a t e  use  f a c t o r  t h e  they  p a r k i n g  to  asked  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o  cause  u s e r s under  The  q u e s t i o n s  should  asked  s w i t c h e d .  s w i t c h  i n  commuters  Due  only  f u r t h e r  s e r i o u s  comparison  c a n  were  t h a t  of  a l t e r n a t i v e s  a t t i t u d e  of  q u e s t i o n s .  c o n g e s t i o n ,  be  i n  o b t a i n  i n d i c a t e s  4 . 1 3 . ) .  a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  which  had  say  the  4 . 1 2 . ) .  automobile  of  s w i t c h e d  (Table  i n c l u d e d  s i g n i f i c a n t  g e n e r a l l y  of  the  Respondents  a r e  a  (Table  commuters  sequence  be  number t o  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , of  t o  were  d i f f e r e n c e s  order  automobile  remain  a l t e r n a t i v e s .  prudent  away  would  purposes  s e c t i o n  seems  d e c i s i o n  F i n a l l y , u s e r s ,  not  respondents,  commuters  p r i c e s  again  do  d e l i v e r y  pursue.  p o s s i b i l i t y once  w h i c h '  t h e s e  f a r t h e r  t o  s e l e c t i o n  o f  i n  Automobile p a r k i n g  self-employment;  automobiles  s m a l l  • O t h e r * ,  of  reduced I t  c o n g e s t i o n  93  Table_4i1_2ii_Im2ortance_0f_ S e l e c t i o n ,„§;_Snbsample % Importance A  Factor  Response  Small_F.  Large_F.  Merchand.  4 8 . 2  61.0  48. 6  11.7  22. 9  C o u l d n ' t  C o n s i d e r  Could  Be  A  Minor  F a c t o r  18.2  Could  Be  A  Major  F a c t o r  15.4  9.7  14.  3  D o n ' t  Know  8 . 5  8.0  11.  4  9.7  9.7  No  It  Of  Response  T o t a l  100  Table  4 . 1 3 . ;  Reason  For  100  Season  S m a l l F .  C o s t s  28. 2  Save Time Avoid C o n g e s t i o Car Pre-empted P a r k i n g Too D i f C h a n g e Of R e s i d C h a n g e Of Work Improved Other M u l t i p l e  Bus  n f i c u l t e n t i a l L o c a t i o n L o c a t i o n  S e r v i c e  Of  Bus  Response  Commuters  2 . 9 15.5 9.7 17.5 6. 8 1.9 8.7 1.9 6. 8  T o t a l  %  Who  100  Switching^To_Bus_By__Subsample %  Reduce  2. 9  Switched  Of  Response  Larq_e_F._ 27.8 4. 3 21.6 11.1 17.3 3. 1 1.9 7.4 1.2 4.3  Merchand. 13.6  -  36.4 9. 1 27. 3  -  4 . 5  -  4. 5 4 . 5  100  100  100  40.6  4 0 . 3  28. 2  94  4 . 2 . 2 . 2 .  D i f f e r e n t  From i s  the  c l e a r  i n c r e a s e  s m a l l  s t r o n g e r  to  f e e l i n g  of  a  4 . 2 . 2 . 3 .  p a r k i n g  a  of  by  C i t y  V a n c o u v e r  employment  can  g e n e r a l i z e d  f i g u r e s to  c a l c u l a t i o n s  w i l l  the  v e h i c l e s  number  of  morning  rush  and  commuters  might  be,  a l s o  be  assumed  paid  by  a l l .  1 1  the  a  that  what  each  rough would  the  assuming the  the  same  somewhat employees  respond  more  drawn  from  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  to  survey  i s  r e c o g n i z e  help  of  and  of  been provided  g u i d e l i n e r e s u l t s  w o r k f o r c e .  These  the  r e d u c t i o n s d u r i n g  behaviour  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . p r i c e  of  survey  downtown  a l t e r n a t i v e  has  these the  the  t r a v e l  subset  e s t i m a t e s  of  e s t i m a t e  parking  l a r g e and  employee  s u c c e s s f u l  a  80%),  subsample,  m a j o r i t y a  more  s t r o n g e r  be  the  have  (about  With  provide  that  of  for  to  i n  Results  downtown  .  work  a  The  to  l e s s o n  of  p a t t e r n s .  Survey  the  The  w i l l  workforce  u t i l i z i n g  of  Of  who  e x h i b i t  appear  p r i c e  appears  a u t o m o b i l e .  and  i t  subgroups  which  s u c c e s s f u l ,  behaviour  p a r k i n g  commuters  a l r e a d y  be  s e c t i o n ,  demonstrating  the  scheme  u n i v e r s e  downtown  t o t a l be  i n c r e a s e  mixture  to  the  d i f f e r e n t  as  i n c r e a s e s . to  to  behaviour  w e l l  ,  p r e v i o u s  s p e a k i n g ,  t r a n s i t  that  p o p u l a t i o n  e s t i m a t e d the  i s  the  i n  f i r m s  p r i c e  p r i c e  e n t i r e  o c c u r  attachment  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n  The  by  as  i n  r e a c t i o n  p a r k i n g  p u b l i c  d i f f e r e n c e s  with  the  of  with  p a r k i n g  d e a l  to  merchandizing  t o  i n  Broadly  c o n t r o l ,  involvement  these  presented  l i k e l y  d i s p l a y e d  l a r g e  q u i c k l y  are  commuters.  f i r m s  Groups  d i f f e r e n c e s  scheme  d i f f i c u l t  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  that  downtown  Commuter  i n c r e a s e  of It w i l l  i n the auto w i l l be  95  F i g u r e  U.1  Response to Parking P r i c e Increase Subsample of Small Firms  Legend Curve I n t e r p o l a t e d from Major P r i c e Increases Curve Following A l l Responses Envelope Containing Probable Range of A c t u a l Response  ?  4  3  (0  «  -26  1  *•  -30 VO  *z  SO  «•  t*  *  -70  1  '80  *  -to  1  10*  »  1  /•/© Me  1 t-20  *  /VO  *  *  1  /.fb Mo /7fe  1  /.^  r—  96  Figure  4 . 2 .  Response t o P a r k i n g P r i c e I n c r e a s e Subsample o f Large Firms  98  The t h r e e  r e s u l t s  subsamples  4 . 1 . , 4 . 2 . , except  1  and  the  p o i n t s . o f f  f o r  v e r y  tended  to  It  t h r e e  or  t h e i r  t h a t  a l l  data  w i l l  not  shove. these  i n c l u d e  a r e  the  the  commuter's  to  note  with  the  that  s u g g e s t i o n could  T h i s  same  n u m e r i c a l  f o r m ,  U t i l i z i n g  the  of  t h e i r who  auto  are  be  c u r v e  c u r v e made  i n to  commuters  have i s  u n i v e r s e  an  with  l i g h t  curve  be  argued  because  most  changes  r e f l e c t these  r e a s o n a b l e envelope i s  t h a t  to  wherein  i n t e r e s t i n g does  concur  s m a l l  p r i c e  e f f e c t -  presented of  but  f a i r l y  p o i n t s  Three  c h o i c e  Since  I t  to  a  seems  l i t t l e  t h e i r  without  s m a l l  data  c h o i c e s  can  r e a l i t y  l i e .  a l l  i n  Table  $.50  e s t i m a t e s ,  d i s c o n t i n u i n g  c l o s e l y  unbroken  p r o v i d e  i n c r e a s e  most  m a j o r i t y . i t  Chapter  p r i c e  p o p u l a t i o n  to  u t i l i z i n g  expected  the  the  c o n c e i v a b l y  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  to  p r i c e o v e r a l l  the  It  ' p r i c e d i n  c u r v e ,  behaviour  u n c e r t a i n ,  may  t h i s  data  the  s i m p l i f y  r e f l e c t  with  broken  curve  the  r e p o n s i v e  subsample,  enough  of  c o n s t r u c t i o n .  present  aong  response the  f o l l o w  a l l  F i g u r e s  each  reduced to  i n  i n c r e a s e s  t h i s  order  would  i t s  f o r  percentages  c l o s e l y  somewhat  heavy  i n c r e a s e s  number  change  r e s u l t s  s p e c u l a t i o n s  i n  form  f o r  i n t e r p o l a t e d  spaced  A l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  most  few  i n  q u e s t i o n  wasn't  the  respondents  behaviour  p o i n t s  The  there  t h a t  Increments  c u r v e s  shown  widely  argued  i n c r e m e n t s .  these  people  l a r g e  are  shows  l a r g e  because  r e a l - l i f e  narrower u t i l i z e s  be  r e a l i t y four  few,  r e c e i v e  can  graph  where  curve  i n c r e a s e  i n  c u r v e s  m e r c h a h d i z e r s ,  f u n c t i o n  r e f l e c t s  i n  Three  a  p r i c e  d i s p l a y e d  broken  r e s p o n s e .  l a r g e  p a r k i n g  are  4 . 3 .  l a r g e The  the  l i g h t  t h a t  and  of  p a r k i n g  a  per f i g u r e i s  4.14. day for  a r r i v e d  i n  o n l y . t o t a l a t .  99  Table  4 . 1 4 . : Estimates Of The Number Of An I a c r g a s e _ I n _ P a r k i n g „ P r i Total P o p u l a t i o n  Subsample Small Firms Large Firms M e r c h a n d i z e s  %  Automobile Commuters  65,000 13,500 4,800  46.1 43.9 2 8 . 5 *  D i s c o n t i n u i n g  D i s c o n t i n u i n g P a r k i n g [%)  '  28-40 32-48 55-71  Number Diverted  2  11039-15802  1. 2. other  ^ ^ I § _ 4  At  8390-11986 187-02845 752-00971  T o t a l  T  P a r k e r s  Adjusted to remove non-peak t r a v e l l e r s . Assumed, t a k i n g maximum e n v e l o p e width subsamples  i  I 5 ^ i _ E s t i m a t e s _ O f _ A l I n c r e a s e %  R e a c t i o n Park Beyond Zone J o i n Car Pool P u b l i c T r a n s i t Walk Or Cycle Dse T a x i Other No Response  11.1 4 . 0 54.5 7. 1 3.0 10. 1 10. 1  Of  Of  1.  Rounded  2.  Not  exact  #  29. 2 8.3 6 2 . 5  7.6  -  --  5.8  —  T o t a l  graphs  Of P a r k e r s Diverted  %  Of P a r k e r s Diverted  1494-2129 709-1027 651-0934 252-0360 991-1427 957-1376  13.5 6.4 54. 1 5.9 2.2 8.9 8.6  11028-157892  100.  5974-8536  off with  Table  4.14.  f o r  $ . 5 0 _ D a i l y  Response L.F. Her. 18. 1 16.4 49- 1 2.9  from  due  to  rounding  e r r o r  l o s s  100  u t i l i z i n g appears  mode  that  t r a v e l l e r s be  who  system  f o r  probably i t  be  demand  rush  not a  due  to  the  r e s u l t s  4 . 3 .  f o r  While a  i s  f a r  the  depth  vast  p u b l i c  i t  automobile  morning  away  rush  would  system 27%.  mode  would  assumption  ease between f i g u r e  by  and  data  the  $-50  t h a t 'Park  of  rush  hour  i n v o l v e d  i n  w i t h  u t i l i z i n g  an  more,  i n c r e a s e  i s  respondents Away'  there  s t i l l  automobile  c a u t i o n , the  of  i n c r e a s e  F a r t h e r  16%  viewed  once  the  way,  be  w i l l  percentage  any  must  If  t r a n s i t  s p l i t  i n  22%  the  expansion  c o n g e s t i o n and  d i v i r t e d  then  the  i s  system.  u t i l i z e  F i n a l l y ,  Response'  of  e x p e r i e n c e  generous 'No  r e a c t i o n  m a j o r i t y  a l s o  journey, the  t h i s  t r a n s i t  removed  Of i t  P a r k i n g  P r i c e  w i l l  p o s s i b l e  implemented  d i f f i c u l t of  be  impact  to  however,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  of  each  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  r e s u l t s  survey  I n c r e a s e s  some  may  to  enumerate  p a r k i n g  measure  complementary the  1 2  e s t i m a t e s .  s u c c e s s f u l l y more  i n f o r m a t i o n  p r e s e n t  the  t r a f f i c  u n c e r t a i n t i e s  Impact  of  and  a c t u a l l y  This  the  t r a n s i t  the  the  the  U t i l i z i n g  ' O t h e r ' ,  p e r s o n - t r i p s .  the  accompany  f u r t h e r  of  hour  r e d u c t i o n  would  use  park  19%  Making  c a t e g o r i e s  remains  t o  the  between  count  d u r i n g  C l e a r l y  to  n e c e s s a r y .  c a l c u l a t e d .  c o u l d  4.15.  stage  that  of  downtown  that  d e s i r e  some  cordon  p a r k i n g .  Table  i n t e n d  automobile  i n  from  behaviour  appears  i n  34%  the  would  t h o s e  to  e n t e r i n g  i n  commuters  from  21%  new  presented  f i g u r e s  between  d i s c o u r a g e d The  s p l i t  with  e f f e c t . be  p r i c e any In  a  can  be  l i k e l y  i n c r e a s e  degree  a v a i l a b l e  e s t i m a t e  the  few so  of  program,  made.  i t  r e l i a b i l i t y  c a s e s , t h a t  e f f e c t s  s u f f i c i e n t  with Such  the  a i d  e s t i m a t e s  101  must  be  accepted  u n c e r t a i n t y  i n h e r e n t  i n v o l v e d  i n  r e a c t i o n s  to  4.3.1.  a  the  t h e r e  v a r i e t y  l o c a l  a  removal  the  the  demand  p a r k i n g  p r o f i t s  i n c r e a s e .  to  the  very t h a t  l o n g  would  One  the  t h i s  i s  l i m i t e d ;  the  l o t  the  b a s i c  u n c e r t a i n t y  t w i c e  complex  would major  case  i n  removed  system.  to  economics  of  commercial  the c a s e ,  a  share  as  a  market  c a r  wash;  p a r k e r s ; some  c o n t i n u e s ,  other other  l o s s . of  l e v e l of  p a r k i n g  i n d u s t r y not  p r i c e  p r i c e  a d d i t i o n a l  i n t o  e a s i l y  a  Under  :  the  f r e e  be  use  of  magnitude  p r o f i t - o p t i m i z i n g l o t s  the  o c c u r :  s h o r t - t e r m  growth  i s  f o r  w i l l  may  of  magnitude  i t  day  p r o f i t s  f a c i l i t i e s .  s p e c i f i c  cannot  a l l  f a c i l i t i e s  such  the  the  of  p r i c e  F r a n c i s c o ,  immediate  a  t h a t  any the  the  e s t i m a t e  o p e r a t o r s  San  use  p a r k i n g  under  i s  l o s s  of  r e a c t i o n s  toward  downtown  recoup  a  absorb  p a r k e r s  f a c i l i t y  o c c u r  pursue  to  p a r k i n g  number  i n d i v i d u a l  c u s t o m e r s ;  i f  the  p a r k i n g  d i f f e r e n t  the  of  the  of  day  r u n ,  i n  i n  upon  from  reason  of  of  a l l  d i f f i c u l t  Knowledge  Many  a  l e a s t  i n  commuters  s h o u l d  of  o p e r a t o r s  at  i n  r e a s o n s :  a d d i t i o n a l  r e s u l t  the  of  p a r k i n g  r e a c t i o n s  study  was  i m p a c t s  property  In  i n  As  a t t r a c t  a c t i v i t y .  i s  two  i n t r o d u c t i o n  r e d u c t i o n  m a i n t a i n i n g  to of  It  the  number  p r i c e s  o r i e n t a t i o n  f o r  program  undoubtedly  d i f f e r e n t  inducements  the  p r e d i c t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  w h i l e  of  a  i n d u s t r y .  of  i n c r e a s e  be  w i l l  c o n d i t i o n s  r e d u c t i o n  survey;  to  f o l l o w i n g w i l l  of  p r e c i p i t a t e  the  for  A c t i v i t y  T h i s  p a r k i n g  i n  h y p o t h e t i c a l  Immediately  p a r k e r s .  r e s e r v a t i o n  a t t e m p t i n g  Parking  i n c r e a s e  with  the of  the  l o s s p r i c e  p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t e d .  a v a i l a b l e  a x i o m a t i c c o u r s e  of  s t r u c t u r e  to t h a t  a c t i o n . t h a t  i s  102  p r e f e r e n t i a l  to  convenience  of  e x i t  time  r a t e s  these  s h o r t - t e r m  i n  to  l a n d  or  o t h e r  demand of  upon  these  t h i s  pure  4 . 3 . 2 .  w i l l  be  t h i s  impact  has  which i t  A l s o , what  are  by  p a r k i n g ;  1 3  e n t r y  and  the  to  appear  t h i s  made  the  hourly  h i g h e r  attempt would  l i k e l y  p a r k i n g  seek  to  than  the  c a t e r  to  t h a t  s e c t o r  .  Lot  they  impact  s p a c e s .  rent  out  l a r g e  of  the  owners  need  can  s e l l  t h e i r  of It  the  the  may  drop  be  e x t r a  i n  that  some  s p a c e s ,  but  and of  the  these  i n  given  same  The  s e c t i o n  to  the  u t i l i z e  downtown the  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  i n c r e a s e s  magnitude  4 . 2 . 2 . 3 . ;  c h a r a c t e r  i n of  of t h i s t h i s  e f f e c t s .  w i l l  the  d u r i n g  e n t i r e r o u t e s .  l i c e n c i n g  t h i s of  be  of  commuters.  d i s c u s s e d  c a r s  t a x i  P a t t e r n s  impacts  secondary  to  on  T r a v e l  w i l l  d u r i n g  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  number  somewhat  automobile  been  fewer  a v a i l a b i l i t y  A  are  s u s t a i n e d  the  s t r o n g e s t  p o s s i b l e  i n t r o d u c t i o n  i s  w i l l  downtown  l e a d i n g  b i k e w a y s ,  p o l i c y .  s h o r t - t e r m  Commuter  the  C l e a r l y r o u t e s  n o n - e a r n i n g  t h a t  a c t i o n .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  on  suggested  s p e c u l a t i o n .  impact  s e c t i o n  been  of  changes  n o n - c o m m e r c i a l  of upon  t o  u n c l e a r  Downtown One  p o l i c y  c a t e r  f a c i l i t i e s  i s  be  has  s a v i n g s  l o t s  would  some  choose  It  Consequently,  p r o f i t s  more  l o t s  Commission  not  take  and  type  major  u n l e s s  Even  t h i s  u s e r s .  r e d u c t i o n s  p a r k e r s .  o p e r a t i o n ,  P a r k i n g  i n d u s t r y  day  encourages  of  Downtown  a l l  may  major  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  r u s h  hours.  day The  show  s h o u l d  park  some  * n'  i n c r e a s e ,  r i d e  expansion  Bus  due  system, to  the  program.  u n d e s i r a b l e  e f f e c t s  may  develop.  P a r k i n g  103  a c t i v i t y  upon  Broadway,  may  occur  i n  a r e a .  These  i n c r e a s e  s m a l l  e x t r a  Some  o f f - d r i v e - o u t  commuters  t h i s  to  of  type  of  from  as  c e n t r a l  e x i s t s  they  adopt  of  the  the the  d r i v e - i n - d r o p -  and  a c t i v i t y  i n  near  i s o l a t i o n  jobs  may  c o n g e s t i o n .  a c t i v i t y  p h y s i c a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n  p a t t e r n  l o c a l  buses  along  of  homes  w i l l  the  i n  be  the  at  a  upon  i n  the  r e a c t i o n  of  to  attempt  to  *  1  C o n g e s t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  Two)  d i f f i c u l t i e s  complex  and  system  e s t i m a t e  the  suggest  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  expected C i t y  under of  i n  downtown  area  c a l c u l a t i o n s  In  i n c r e a s e s f o r  the  w e l l  1  5  . a  would  be  unwise  r e d u c t i o n  i n  c o n g e s t i o n  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  E n g i n e e r i n g  Dept.  of  which  i n c r e a s e has  proposed  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  10$  r e s u l t s  the  p a r k i n g  charge  grasp  t h i s  t e r m , t o  of  however, grow,  have It  a  a weaker  i s  such  that  i n t o  to  the  could  program.  According $.50  r i s e s .  p r e d i c t i n g  c o n g e s t i o n  g r a d u a l l y  t r a v e l  of  (commented  e l i m i n a t e  c o n t i n u e s w i l l  c o n g e s t i o n  " v i r t u a l l y  w i t h i n  l o n g e r  i t  volumes  would  f o r  the  employment  that  s p e c i f i c  t r a f f i c  c o r r i d o r s "  are  a  measuring  Vancouver  r e d u c t i o n  demand  d i s t a n c e s  type  The  p a r i c u l a r i l y  s i m i l a r  undoubtedly  p a t t e r n s .  that  A  hour  w i l l  s u g g e s t s  Chapter  volumes  rush  the  The  major  downtown,  c o n t r i b u t e  t h i s  of  t r a v e l  the  f u r t h e r  would  p l u s  4 . 3 . 3 .  The  at  a r e a ,  minimum.  be  .  upon  c a p a c i t y  downtown.  downtown  form  l i m i t  of  d r a m a t i c a l l y .  a c t i v i t i e s  n a t u r a l  a  f r i n g e s  s m a l l e r  Some  r e g i o n  the  on  a the  many  of  the  r e d u c t i o n s  i n  p o l i c y .  assuming system impact  p o s s i b l e  that  of upon  downtown  parking  p r i c e  c o n g e s t i o n  though,  that  as t h i s  104  p o l i c y  c o u l d  programs,  to  downtown  to  employment  4 . 3 . 4 .  be  used  i n  r e s t r a i n a  the  :  i n d i c a t i n g  have  upon  some  u n c e r t a i n t y  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  p r o j e c t i o n s  f o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  s i g n i f i c a n t throughout  a g a i n  make  p r i c e  i n c r e a s e  f o r  e n t e r i n g  c o n d i t i o n s  of  hazardous  program(see  s e c t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n  problem  e s t i m a t e  made  the  of  of  r e d u c t i o n and both  of  the  i n the  m i l e s  i t  i t  l e a s t  motor by  i n  500  i s  of  the  t h a t  u n t i l  v . p . h . i n  any the  such  t h a t volumes  In  the  p r e d i c t i o n  once  1  .  6  caused  by  a  r e c e n t  study  a r e a , of  1  i t  7  p a r k i n g  v e h i c l e  the  p a r k i n g  p o s s i b l e  y e a r l y  v e h i c l e  c o r r e s p o n d i n g and  to  the  p o s s i b l e  to  i n c r e a s e s  e m i s s i o n  e s t i m a t e s  Canada  c a l c u l a t e m i l e s  impact speed)  i s  of  p r i c e  Environment  was  t r a v e l l e d  r a t h e r  4 . 3 . 6 . ) .  impact  the  i s  appears  f e l t  changes  urban  p r e c l u d e s  volumes be  Vancouver  a v a i l a b l e  s u r v e y ,  w e l l ,  a v a i l a b l e  the  U t i l i z i n g  r e s u l t s  of  i n  the  understanding  u n c e r t a i n t i e s  p r e d i c t  problem.  a u t o m o b i l e s  u s e s ,  at  to  the  rough  to  of  a c c i d e n t s  not  c o n g e s t i o n  Vancouver  our  t r a f f i c  would  and  i n  and  reduced  a s p e c t s i n  As  and  decreased  i t  Vancouver  f u n c t i o n  under  that  stands  i n h e r e n t  n o i s e  v a l u e s  to  i t  a s p e c t .  l a n d  p o l l u t i o n  the  even  impact  c o n g e s t i o n  that  downtown  of  t h i s  as  improvement  case  on  p l a n n i n g  a u t o m o b i l e s  i n t e r r e l a t e d  s c a r c e .  a  l e v e l ,  the  problem  make  of  other  The_Tra.ns£ortation_Proble^m  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  - a i r  with  growth.  Evidence  Due  volume  s p e c i f i c  gther._aspects_.Of  might  c o n j u n c t i o n  an  a  e m i s s i o n parking  the  e s t i m a t e  t r a v e l l e d  upon f o r  and  by (a  p r i c e  105  Table_  4 . 1 6 . : _ R e d u c t ^ Wi t h _ A _ P a r k i n g ;  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e  Carbon Monoxide  E m i s s i o n  F a c t o r s  87.86  (gms/mile)  Of _$ . 50  HydroCarbons  D a i l y  Oxides  Nitrogen  8.08 2.65  Of  4.06 (evap)  10.73  %  Of  Due  Change To  Dnder  Speed  Change  Reduced  R e d u c t i o n V e h i c l e  T o t a l  Estimated  In  -.311  + .09%  1.1'  1-1!  1.1%  C o n g e s t i o n  Automobile  M i l e s  Reduction  Percentage  - . 4 5 %  T r a v e l l e d  In  1.03%  .97%  .66%  106  i n c r e a s e  of  i s  s m a l l ,  q u i t e  $.50  d a i l y about  (Table one  i n c r e a s e  i n  percentaqe  e m i s s i o n s  i s  d e s i r a b l e  r e d u c t i o n s  use  (  would  s e r i o u s l y  t h a t  i n c r e a s e  the  l o w e s t  would  the the  base  of  the  and  not  the  number  of  of  to  decrease  i n  r a t e  f o r  gaseous  c o n t a m i n a n t s ,  I t  u n l i k e l y  a  of  such  was  used  s e r v i c e i s  NOX  i n  automobile  buses maximum  automobiles  w h i l e  t h a t  buses  buses  T h i s f o r  new  the  f u l l - t i m e  n e c e s s a r y .  seems  l i k e l y  .  1 8  new  e m i s s i o n  s m a l l  e m i s s i o n s  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - i n d u c e d  e m i s s i o n s  124  i s  a  e f f e c t  y e a r l y  be  upon  i t  an  i s  the  i n c r e a s e  i n  n e c e s s a r y .  Non-Downtown_Comrauter_Trave1_Patterns  The o t h e r s  e a s i n g to  Assuming  of  make  that  commuters,  r e g i o n ,  North  or  p a r k i n g  f o r  i n  tax,  parking and  view  of  the  t h i s  a c t i v i t y  i n  the  l e a d  o f f - p e a k  of  to  i s  i n c r e a s e s i n  that  the  remain  behaviour  hours  c r o s s i n g  a v a i l a b l e  a v a i l a b i l i t y to  hours  the  a  i n  the  of  are  the  only  to  those Gate  b o t t l e n e c k be  encourage  downtown  homes  L i o n * s  should and  may  t r i p s  d i s t r i b u t i o n  S i n c e  l i k e l y  peak  p o t e n t i a l  l i k e l y  Vancouver.  type  the  t r i p s  hour  seems  t h i s  may  peak  i s  i n  through  i t  l a n e s ,  I n c r e a s e s  peak  more  West  t h r e e  c o n g e s t i o n  most  then  o p p o r t u n i t y  the  would  buses. be  NOX  s i n c e  i d e a  reduce  the  37%)  of  f o r  4 . 3 . 5 .  the  of  some  impact  Even  p r o m i s e  approximately  because  h i g h e s t buses  o b t a i n  r e d u c t i o n ,  f u t u r e .  f a d i n g  t h a t  e s t i m a t e  term  a  to  an  o n l y  be  the  The  o v e r a l l ,  e s p e c i a l l y  order  c a l c u l a t e  i s  to  percent  i n  In  e m i s s i o n s to  seem  4 . 1 6 . ) .  made  and  by  jobs  i n  s i g n i f i c a n t who  l i v e  i n  B r i d g e ,  with  d e s p i t e  the  m i n i m a l .  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s  t r a n s i e n t  downtown.  a r e a .  On  t r a v e l the  of  s h o r t -  i n  both  other  hand,  107  daytime, The  o f f - p e a k  aggregate  t r i p s  impact  of  by  downtown  these  e f f e c t s  commuters i s  w i l l  l i k e l y  d e c r e a s e .  to  be  g u i t e  s m a l l .  4 . 3 . 6.  Dowrjtown_Business_lna_Deyelopient  The  implementation  commuters  may  have  a  of  s l i g h t  o v e r a l l  commercial  e n t e r p r i s e  i n  s u p p l y  s h o r t - t e r m  p a r k i n g  of  a v a i l a b i l i t y downtown. impact they  where  upon  day  to  b e n e f i c i a l a r e a .  s t a l l s  and  can  only  b u s i n e s s e s  p r i v i l e d g e s  attempt  to  share  are  the  i n c r e a s e s  may a  The  to  upon  i n c r e a s e  of  t r a n s i t  b r i n g  shoppers  some  adverse  s u f f e r  f r i n g e  burden  e f f e c t  p u b l i c  h e l p  upon  b e n e f i t  or  where w i t h  of  the  i n c r e a s e  hasten  the  development  employees.  downtown  p o s s i b l y It  the  p r i c e  downtown  p a r k i n g  I n t r o d u c t i o n some  the  Non-merchandizing  choose  t h e i r  d u r i n g  p a r k i n g  may  l e s s be  the  c l o s e l y  that  t h i s of  i n  e x h i b i t  t h i s  f u n c t i o n a l  the  i n c r e a s e  program. t h e r e .  and  c o u l d  i n c r e a s e s  of  and  t o Yet  s l i g h t  a c t i v i t i e s as  an  perhaps  cause  change  remunerative a  the  i n  s l o w i n g i f  a  a c t i v i t y . e f f e c t  b u s i n e s s e s  a d d i t i o n a l  p a r k i n g  to  of  c o s t  i n d u s t r y  of w i l l  turn  changes  i n  the  the  downtown  w i l l  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  b u i l d i n g s .  a r e a s  f a c t o r s  owners  more  L i k e l y  downtown  t h i s  l o t  exert  p r i c e  p e r i p h e r a l  a c c o r d i n g  growth  program  downtown.  develop  p a r k i n g  c o n t r o l l e d  behaviour  the  as  may  downtown  c h a r a c t e r  C l e a r l y  p o l i c y  c e r t a i n  p a r k i n g  l o c a t i n g  t h i s  p r o p e r t i e s ,  growth  i n t r e p r e t  of  o u t s i d e  other  p o l i c y  may  than add  the some  impetus  to  108  4 . 4 .  O p e r a t i o n a l . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s However  s u c e s s f u l l y thought and  must  w i l l  r e c o g n i z e d  a  type  made  here  to  c o n s i d e r  4 . 4 . 1 .  a p p l i e d  a  the  appears  new  The  commuters  l o c a l  governments.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  4 . 4 . 2 .  that  f a i l u r e  i n  i n t o  a  p o l i c y ,  It  or  s h o u l d from  a  u n a c c e p t a b l e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  of  no  be  attempt  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  p r i c e  package  n e c e s s a r y  one,  p a r k i n g  a v o i d  p l a c e  f o r  t h a t  i n  w i l l  but  merely  p r a c t i c a l  t e r m s .  or  o f f e r s  some  advantages,  two  r e a s o n s : be  charge  e n t i r e l y ;  normal  A p p l y i n g  the  i n c r e a s e  t h i s  case  these would  the  the  to  t h e  powers  to  and  through  be  of  but  i t  of  the  ensure  t h a t  remoteness  d i f f i c u l t i e s , have  be  p l a c e  c o m p l e x i t y  necessary  the  a v o i d  c o u l d  work  from  to  i n c r e a s e s  of  would  the  o p e r a t i o n  appears  work,  or  p o l i c y  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  the  t h i s  method  type  p a r k i n g  of  of  for  system  some  many  t h i s  a  appear  u n d e s i r a b l e  are  as  b l u e p r i n t  former  t h i s  seem  may  developed  d e s i r a b l e  such  the  not  the  of  Approach  system  d i d  be  there  e i t h e r  to  i n c r e a s e  powers,  must  may  p o l i c y a  p r i c e  seem  i m p l i c a t i o n s  through  enforcement  may view  p o s s i b l e  prone  that  Since  provide  i s  p a r k i n g .  of  a c t i v i t i e s  of  the  p l a c e  of  even  though  the  more  d i v e r s i f i e d .  C h o i c e Q f _ P a r k i n q _ P r i c e _ I There  be  of  the  d i s a d v a n t a g e s  s u c c e s s f u l n e s s of  what  Choice_0f  I t  the  l e v e l ,  f o r  to  a c t i v i t y  p o i n t  and  p a r k i n g  g i v e n  that  p o l i t i c a l  t h i s  to  be  ensure  o p e r a t i o n a l at  advantages  implemented  enforcement  which be  the  s e t  are  upon  b a s i c a l l y the  p a r k i n g  four  o p t i o n s  s t a l l  owner;  to a  choose  from:  s u r c h a r g e  can  a  tax be  can  l e v i e d  109  upon  the  i n d i v i d u a l  the  commodity;  r e g u l a t e d the t h e i r most  c a p a c i t y complete  be  to  the  of  r e s u l t and  i n  of  The  the and  the  the  tax  employee  tax  being  by  i s  may  on  the  tax  some  of  upon  than  would  bear  d i s s i p a t e that  the  very  owner the  t h i s  commuter  w e l l  e f f e c t would  In  w i l l  l i k e l y u s e r s , T h i s  s i n c e  suggested.  the  i n c r e a s e , would  downtown.  s u i t e d  p a r k e r s . f o r  to  a  It  i s  commercial  i n i t i a l l y . by  not  a  been  l o c a t i n g  i n c r e a s e  be  s t a l l s .  Employers  tax  a  not  presumably  h i m s e l f .  has  o p e r a t i o n s . a  of  e s p e c i a l l y  p a r k e r s  as  of  problems  s h o r t - t e r m  o p e r a t o r  absorb  terms  the  method  to  u n d e s i r a b l e ,  a l s o  i n  a l t e r n a t i v e s  day  an  the  so  a l l  of  s i n c e  c o u l d  would  t h i s  passed  be  w i t h  these  sub-group  s t a l l s ,  s t r u c t u r e  o p e r a t i o n s ,  The  only  a t t r a c t i v e user  of  can  s e c t i o n s .  owner  number  i n  i n d i v i d u a l s  w i t h  upon  i n c l u d e d  d i s c u s s e d  i s  more  owner  the  l e v i e d  a c t i v i t i e s  approach  s l i g h t l y  p r i c e  c h a r g i n g  be  t a r g e t  l o t  be  i n c r e a s e  f o l l o w i n g  p a r k i n g  of  the  of  a p p l i c a t i o n  s a l e s - t y p e  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n two  can  i n c r e a s e .  s h o r t - t e r m  o p e r a t i o n s  t h i s  of  tax  p a r k i n g  w i l l  o r i g i n a l  i n c r e a s e  s t r a t e g y  a g a i n  and  range  absorbed  a v o i d i n g  view  f o r  p a r k i n g  b a s i s  the  the  Non-commercial  c e r t a i n l y  the  thennext  some  of  e s p e c i a l l y  i n  of  p o s s i b l y  d i s s i p a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e  c o m m e r c i a l  some  s t r a t e g y  of  upon  upon  s a l e s - t y p e  government,  l e g a l i t y  c a l c u l a t e d  a  a l t e r n a t i v e s  share  tax  case  by  reach  d i s c u s s e d  The  r a t e  These  enforcement, w i l l  the  d i r e c t l y  p r i c e .  p a r k e r ;  Once  changing f e e l  the  h i s e n t i r e  i n c r e a s e .  may  The  surcharge  be  u s e f u l  A p p l i e d  d i r e c t l y  a p p l i e d  to  p a r t i c u l a r i l y t o  the  the i n  a c t i v i t y the  i n d i v i d u a l ,  of  p a r k i n g  non-commercial  there  i s  some  hope  downtown f a c i l i t i e s . that  he  110  may  absorb  the  arranged  by  approach  T h i s  permits  some  the  l e n g t h  use  i n c r e a s e ;  employers  f a c i l i t i e s ; c e r t a i n  whole  or  time  might  through  v a r i a t i o n s  s u r c h a r g e  of  s t i l l ,  or  some income  i n  tax  be  placed  a r r i v e  at  a  upon  c e r t a i n  c o n s i d e r a b l e  c o u l d  d e d u c t i o n s .  a p p l i c a t i o n  c o u l d  encourage  compensation  to  T h i s  commercial  those  time  be  who  of  stay  the  u n d e s i r a b l e  a  day.  avoidance  behaviour. The  most  i n c r e a s e the  program  r a t e  extended  f a c e to  In  t h i s  would  a p p l y i n g  o p e r a t i o n s  way  e n t i r e  non-commercial  Range I t  group  the  would  This  o p e r a t i o n s .  It  the  parking be  p a r k i n g  i n c r e a s e .  encourage  the  c o n t r o l  over  commuter c o n t r o l  seems  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  would  c o u l d  l i k e l y  i n d u s t r y  to  be t h a t  oppose  a  i s as  O f _ A p p l i c a t i o n  important p o s s i b l e  p a r t i c u l a r should  range  f a c i l i t i e s  of  f a c i l i t y . p r e s e n t s Two  In w i l l  charqe  between  i n  be  be  l a r g e  a l s o  the some  the  p a r k i n g methods  the  the  t a r g e t  d e c o n g e s t i n g p r i c e that  i n d i v i d u a l of  of  f i t  nature  problems  t h i s  e f f e c t i n c r e a s e  w e l l of  the each  o b j e c t i v e  d i s c u s s e d .  mixture be  p o r t i o n  The  u t i l i z i n g  commercial a  a  maximize  i n c r e a s e .  b r i e f l y of  a to  s e c t i o n ,  mechanism  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  order  and  permit  u s e r s ,  reach  a p p l i e d  t h i s  a s p e c t s  l o t s  to  p r i c e  program  the  of  p o l i c y .  4 . 4 . 3 .  Many  method  commercial  the  mechanism  t h i s  of  to  s t r u c t u r e .  c e r t a i n l y  t h i s  p r o m i s i n g  s t a l l s of  user  s u f f i c i e n t l y  w h i l e  p r o c e d u r e s .  present t y p e s ,  Many  l o t s  which  f l e x i b l e  m a i n t a i n i n g  s i m p l e do  not  some  to  problems.  r e q u i r e s  t h a t  d i s c r i m i n a t e  enforcement m a i n t a i n  a  and human  111  o p e r a t o r ,  which  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g d i f f i c u l t  of  i n  these the  u t i l i z a t i o n  Enforcement  l o t s  case  of  as  of  i s  w e l l  the  commercial  l o t s  the  o p e r a t o r  l i k e l y  to  as  the  be  r e g u l a t i o n  of  overcomes  the  more  the  p r i c e problem  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Non-commercial  another  problem.  salesmen,  w i l l  have  w i l l  have  to  Another t a k e s  p l a c e .  which  the  be  from  s c h o o l  l o t s ,  p a r k i n g  i t  be  they  are  t h e s e  r e s i d u a l  that  o t h e r s a l l  be  who  u s e r s  system  used  by  may  be  of  these  of  exemptions  t r a n s a c t i o n  c u r r e n t l y  to  be  no  t o .  mechanism  e x i s t s  E i t h e r  government  e s t a b l i s h e d  are  a  o n - s i t e ,  methods  i d e n t i f i e d  a l r e a d y  u n a v a i l a b l e  to  to  or  a  s u g g e s t e d . then  and  r e s t r i c t the  c u r r e n t l y  become  with  t h e i r  morning  a  high hours r u s h  l e s s  s p a c e s ,  Laneway  d e a l t  with  i n  types s p a c e s  the  same  f a c i l i t i e s .  r a t e of  of  s t a l l s ,  t h e s e  non-commercial  r e l a t i v e l y  p l a c e s  laneway  d e a l i n g  e x p e r i e n c i n g  d u r i n g seem  s p a c e s , of  and  commercial  c o u l d  not  p r o g r a m : o n - s t r e e t  r e s i d e n t i a l  be  w h i l e  use,  i n c r e a s e  e a s i l y  d e s i r a b l e  s p a c e s  commuter  Some  can  and  f a c i l i t y ,  p r i c e  l o t s ,  o f f - s t r e e t  may  of  s p a c e s .  s t a l l s  i s  no  a t t a c h e d  have  p a r k i n g  p a r k i n g  f a c i l i t y  as  O n - s t r e e t use;  of  surveyed  be  some  w i l l  f i r m .  where  here  and  E i t h e r or  each  l o t s  present  up.  church  c o u r t e s e y  w i l l  these  v e h i c l e s  s t a l l s  can  terms  the  on  surcharge with  are  e m p l o y e r - p r o v i d e d ,  company.  d i f f i c u l t y  s e t  i n  r e l i e f  the  the  charge  types  s i g n i f i c a n t  manner  d e l i v e r y  arranged  The  p r i m a r i l y  s t a l l s  by  pay  problem  system  be  ,  mechanism  Some  c o u l d  to  p u b l i c  c o l l e c t i o n  and  Some  e s s e n t i a l  l o t s  b i l l i n g  s t a l l s ,  e x e c u t i v e s  c o n s i d e r e d  of  the  d e v i c e .  on  s t r u c t u r e  prevents  of  use  hour  the  l i k e l y  to  i l l e g a l ^ so  that  r e s t  of  abuse;  112  perhaps  some  4 . 4 . 4 .  G e n e r a l  There many  of  a  i s  s h o u l d  s u c c e s s  of  important Only  be  the  commercial  l o t s  Vancouver  to  mechanisms  r e q u i r e  p r o v i n c e charge  would seek  w i l l  t h e i r  d i v e r g e n c e  type  tax  i s  the  s t r u c t u r e ; A c c o r d i n g  p r i c e  i t ,  from most  owner to  i n c r e a s e s  to  there  can  be  the  p r e s e n t  extreme;  the on  o f f i c i a l s ,  i n d i v i d u a l  i n v o l v e  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  c a r r y  out  c o l l e c t i o n  enumerated  here.  t a x a t i o n f o r  the  same  o p e r a t i o n  mechanism the  C i t y  i s  guarantee  that  no  has  of  seldom to  the  s t a l l s  1  e n t i r e l y  2  the i f 0  the  the  of  s a l e s -  r e g u l a t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  workload  other  of  .  9  to  of  width  C i t y ;  of  o c c u r r e d .  the  the  the more  The  or  and  t o  C h a r t e r .  s u r c h a r g e ;  p a r k e r s  the  important  a c c o r d i n g  a l l  of  Some  t h e i r  powers  to  r e q u i r e s  The  r e f u s a l  ordered  pursued  are  owner  of  apply  involvement.  necessary  although  would  the  and  t a x a t i o n  c i t y  an  which  c o n g e s t i o n .  b r i e f l y  be  them.  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  they  amendment  amendment  monitor  s i g n i f i c a n c e  be  government  c h o s i n g not  an  mechanisms  be  can  and  r e d u c i n g  w i l l  The  which  because i n  i t  grant  of  t o  Concern.  manpower  l e v e l s  of  time  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  c h o i c e  taken  case  over  s i t u a t i o n s .  of  p o l i c y  the  taken  these  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n  of  each  d i f f e r i n g  a c t i o n s  r a t e  number  t h a t  be  O p e r a t i o n a l  a p p l i c a t i o n s  c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  The  Of  f a c i l i t i e s  problems  d i f f e r e n t  c o u l d  Areas  are  types  these  surveys  .  of  p a r k i n g  f a c i l i t y the  C i t y  owner had  R e g u l a t i o n  to of t  the t a s k s  r a t e  s t r u c t u r e  r e q u i r e d  s u g g e s t s c h a l l e n g e  by  that to  l o c a l  and  the t h i s  the  v a r i e t y  range  of  program  government.  of  the  p a r k i n g r e p r e s e n t s  other  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f a c i l i t i e s an  e x i s t e n t  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  113  Enforcement the  p a r k i n g  development  w i l l  p r i c e of  l i k e l y  be  i n c r e a s e  some  the  l a r g e s t  program.  ingeneous  It  methods  c o n t i n u i n g w i l l  f o r  a l s o  c o s t  of  r e q u i r e  the  e n f o r c i n g  i n  new  s i t u a t i o n s . Some overcome l o c a l  are  the as  a r e a s ;  p a r k i n g ; o u t s i d e and  of  other  a d a p t a t i o n  c o n t r o l  of  of  c o n t r o l  i n t r o d u c e d  the  zone;  These  problems  e s t a b l i s h e d  f o r  w h i l e  a  to  the  w i l l and  the  the  of  program  are  to  s p e c i a l space p a r k i n g  f a c i l i t i e s  designed  the  t h e r e f o r e  be  upon  e s t a b l i s h m e n t once  to  r e s i d e n t i a l  p a r k i n g  occur  problems  p o l i c y  market'  of  c o n t r o l  and  of  ' b l a c k  impact  subsequent  i n c r e a s e s .  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  o p e r a t i o n a l  f o l l o w s :  knowledge the  g e n e r a l  of  p a r k i n g  program the  p r i c e  has  concern  been of  the  114  1. Burton & C h e r r y , pp. 38-41 summarize the these two a p p r o a c h e s . 2. Phone i n t e r v i e w , T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r , C i t y A u g u s t , 1 9 7 4 . 3. Burton S C h e r r y , p . 9 6 . 4. The e x c l u s i o downtown employmen tend to a r r i v e a present i n rush ho 5. Burton & C h e r  pros of  and  cons  of  Vancouver,  n of h o t e l s , a l t h o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t segment of t i s not a s e r i o u s drawback. Hotel employees nd l e a v e at unusual h o u r s , and are not u s u a l l y ur t r a f f i c . r y , p . 1 0 4 .  6. J.T. Roscoe, Fundamental Research S t a t i s t i c s For The B e h a v i o u r a l , S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , R i n e h a r t S W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 9 , p p . 1 5 5 157. 7. The p r i n t e r promised sequenced prepared g u e s t i o n n a i r e s and c o u l d not d e l i v e r . 8. 9.  N.D. Lea Burton &  f i g u r e s used C h e r r y , p . 9 5 .  (42%  f o r  a u t o s ,  10%  f o r  b u s e s ) .  10. Making the assumption (generously) t h a t t h o s e who do respond i n d i c a t e t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l . 11. F i g u r e s o b t a i n e d from Advanced P l a n n i n g , A u g u s t , 1 9 7 4 . 12. The same cordon c o u n t shown i n F i g u r e 3 . 3 . Presumably d i f f e n c e between t o t a l downtown workforce and the cordon co i s made up o f a b s e n t e e s and non-rush hour commuters. S i n c e cordon count t o t a l and the p o p u l a t i o n u n i v e r s e are a p p r o x i m a t e g u a l , no adjustments were made. 13. It i s c e r t a i n l y p o s i b l e t o make p r i c e p o l i c would b r i n g i n a s i m i l a r revenue per day, p r s u f f i c i e n t demand f o r s h o r t - t e r m p a r k i n g . Examp maximum,30 s p a c e s , a l l commuters=8 h r s . , g r o s s change t o 3 0 / h r . , n o max, a l l short-term=7 h r s . u $63.00 14. It who h a s t job rout a v a i l a b l e 15. Turn 16. H a n  y o v i le: r s e ,  changes t d i n g there 4 5 / h r . , $ 2 evenue=$75. g r o s s reve  not  the unt the e l y hat i s , 5 0 00; nue  seems u n l i k e l y t h a t most f a m i l i e s would have a member he time to p l a y c h a u f f e r every day, or that a home-jobe f i r s t i n then out of the downtown i s r e a d i l y . For home-work d i s t r i b u t i o n , see L i v i n g C l o s e To Work Down^Traffic Volume , p . 7 . s e n , p . 1 1 2 .  17. M a i n l 18. e x t e n year  Lynch et a l . A n A n a l y s i s Of Air_Pollution_In_The_Lower a n d . Time ,March 16,1975: EPA a d m i n i s t r a t o r g r a n t s one-year s i o n on 1977 e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s , p e t i t i o n s Congress f o r 5moratorium on s t r i c t e r s t a n d a r d s .  19. 20. 1974,  I n t e r v i e w , C i t y lawyer,Spetember 1974, I n t e r v i e w , P e r m i t s 8 L i c e n c e s D e p t . , C i t y  of  Vancouver,August  115  CHAPTER_FIVEl_ASSESSMENT INCREASES  5.1.  AS  PUBLIC  FOR  VANCOUVER  I n t r o d u t i o n In  t h i s  c h a p t e r ,  c o n c e r n i n g  the and  u s e f u l n e s s  of  The  s e c t i o n  f i r s t  the  a t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n  help  of  response p o l i c y next  o v e r a l l  Income p o l i c y  which  i s  r e d u c i n g  i s c a n  s i g n i f i c a n t  p o l i c y  have  would  play t h e  Four.  second  t h e  from  i n  c o s t s  s e c t i o n  p o l i t i c a l  and  s u g g e s t ,  w i t h  t o  One,  i n t r o d u c t i o n  i t s of  t h e  t e c h n i c a l  Chapter  t h e  what  of  i n i t i a t i o n .  a d m i n i s t e r i n g of  f o u r t h  be  Vancouver.  o f  t o  t h e  about  a n a l y s i s  e f f e c t s  i n  w i l l  f o r  The  study  t h e  The such  parking  s e c t i o n ,  t h i s  a  p r i c e  and  the  f o l l o w s .  of t h i s be  s u c c e s s f u l l y t h e  might  c o n s i d e r e d  made  attempts  review  t h i s  Performance  r e s u l t s  o b s e r v a t i o n  and  by  mechanism  c o n c e r n i n g  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  a r e  p u b l i c  t h e  i n v o l v e d ,  c o n s i d e r s  asseessment  summarized  as  gathered  they  b r i e f l y  i n c r e a s e  Chapter  l i t e r a t u r e  r o l e  T e c h n i c a l The  i n  e n t i t i e s  what  program.  5 . 2 .  t h e  s e c t i o n  i n c r e a s e  e n t i t i e s  these  and  out  conducted  o b s e r v a t i o n s  summarizes  p r e s e n t s  the  of  mechanism  c a r r i e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p r i c e  number  performance t h e  a n a l y s e s  p a r k i n g  summarized  be  POLICY  volume  percentae  t h e  a n a l y s i s  conducted  s e c t i o n . made  t h a t  To a  implemented of  downtown  while  i n  begin  p a r k i n g  w i t h , p r i c e  appears  to  automobile  m i n i m i z i n g  Chapter  t h e  Four  t h e  i n c r e a s e be  w i l l  g e n e r a l scheme  c a p a b l e  commuters u n d e s i r a b l e  of by  a  s i d e  116  e f f e c t s . about  The  a  c e r t a i n  p r e d i c t a b l e p r o v i d e  a  s h o u l d  be  and  exact  f a c t o r .  rough  e x e r c i s e d  suggests  regarded  as  the  few  the  automobile  t h a t  the  c h o i c e  f a c i l i t i e s  A  m a j o r i t y  t r a n s i t  of  A d d i t i o n a l l y , s m a l l the  a c r o s s  be the  the  d i v e r s i o n s of  T h e r e f o r e ,  i t  may  p r i c e s  o n l y  i n  s m a l l  arouse  the by  F i n a l l y ,  i t  q u e s t i o n s  be  d i s l i k e  i n d i c a t e d  i n c l u d e d  a  was  t h a t  c l e a r w i t h i n  a and  from the  of  t a r g e t  pay  mechanism of  mode. a  s t i m u l a t e  i n t e r p o l a t i o n  p r i c e  i n c r e m e n t s .  change  does  the  bus  t h a t  n e c e s s a r i l y  to  p o l i c y .  t r a v e l  by  and  t h a t  suggests  automobile  of  the  i n d i c a t e d  responses  u n i v e r s e  and  are  p o l i c y  on  downtown  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  l a r g e  comments the  of  from  the  unrewarding  number  be  f o r  i n d i c a t e d  This  should  commercial  not  curve  not  of  and  i n c r e m e n t s .  non-response  be  number  d i s c o n t i n u i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e  w i l l  would  w a s t e f u l  of  of  Confusion  e x t r a c t e d  i n c r e a s e  the  d i v e r s i o n  i n c r e a s e t h a t  i n  c a u t i o n  curve  be  do  commuters  c h o i c e  a f t e r  to  i n d i c a t i n g  m a j o r i t y  These p r i c e  u t i l i z e d  however,  p r i v a t e ,  Many  of  c e r t a i n l y  while  can  The  p a t r o n i z e  be  p r i c e  p o i n t s  d a t a .  type  the  be  b r i n g  r e s u l t s .  o b s e r v a t i o n s  of  of  can  d i v e r s i o n  downtown.  t h e i r  l e s s  w i l l  e s t i m a t e .  pursue  a c h i e v a b l e  automobile  shape  i n c r e m e n t a l  expected  to  d i v e r t e d  would  of  t h i s  which  a  respondents  f a c i l i t i e s .  p a r k i n g  range  upon  survey  p r e s e n t l y  of i n  r e s u l t s  would  survey  p a r k i n g  important of  they  i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  the  the  the  commuters  p r i v i l e d g e  by  s i g n i f i c a n t  of  non-commercial  t h i s  l i m i t  i n c r e a s e  r e d u c t i o n  r e l y i n g  r e v e a l e d  upper  other  a n a l y s i s  of  i n  p r i c e  survey  behaviour  p a r k i n g  A  The  e s t i m a t e  a l t e r n a t i v e  of  percentage  u n c e r t a i n t i e s  what  l e v e l  p a r k i n g  appear  commuters,  to as  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . to  downtown  a  number  of  automobile  117  commuters some  t r a v e l  degree-  commuters  and  T h i s  c l a s s e d  urban  can  a c c o r d i n g  and  expected  to  appears  that  s m a l l  and  implementation a g e n c i e s p u b l i c  i n c r e a s e  on  the  and  b e n e f i t s  these  a v a i l a b l e about  a  impacts  i n f l u e n c e  may  g i v e n  having  the  r e v e r s e  t r i p s ,  and  i n c r e a s e d  The  key  to  e f f e c t  be  Assuming  the  and  may from  hour  i n  the  s u c c e s s f u l government  s e r v i c e s  then  should p r i c e  e x p e r i e n c e  time  gas  s a v i n g s .  systems  T h i s  some  some  p a r k i n g  mode  the  i t  s e e k i n g  t r a v e l  t o  be  Rush 23%  other  u n c e r t a i n :  f r i n g e ;  gained  and  p o l l u t i o n  w i t h i n  t r i p s  16%  w e l l -  a i r  and  growth the  as  can  ,  e x p e c t e d .  s h o u l d  a l t e r n a t i v e  i n  downtown  of  convenience  of  i n d u s t r y  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t r a v e l l e r s  parking  by  from  due  s m a l l  t h i s  between  modes  the  though  r o u t e s .  of  i n  l o s s  i n  upon  p r o f i t s ,  the  a c t i o n  s m a l l  through  o b s e r v a t i o n  by  u s e r s  on  of  impetus  improvement very  p a r k i n g  can  other  and  o f f - p e a k  are be  hour  to  program  r e l a t i v e l y  o c c u r  r e c t i f y  entrance  e x p a n s i o n s  s m a l l  The  a c t i v i t y  growth  vary  comparing  e f f e c t s of  would  o u t s i d e  and  of  a r e  l o s s  reduced  comfort  t o  them  c o u l d  p r o v i s i o n  b e n e f i c i a l  improved of  be  by  i n c r e a s e  number  i m p a c t s  market.  t a x i s  Rush  a  immediate  a t t i t u d e s  observed  p r i c e  t r a v e l -  major  i n  be  and  s i z e .  of  complementary  program.  s a v i n g s ,  o t h e r  s h o u l d  t r a n s i t , a  most  p a r k i n g  i n v o l v e d  e x p e r i e n c e  b r i n g  i n  f i r m  have  o p e r a t i o n s  p a r k i n g  volumes  downtown  hour some  many  i n c r e a s e s  t r a f f i c  to  s t r o n g e s t  s u f f e r  can  p a r k i n g  though  r u s h  s h o r t - t e r m  to  a  expected  The  a c t i v i t y  be  of  environment,  magnitude.  the  be  behaviour  h e t e r o g e n e i t y  Implementation Vancouver  p a r k i n g  a  should  program  should  l e v e l s .  Host  s l i g h t  s l o w i n g  downtown, rush  The  hour  while d r o p - o f f  o c c u r . the  a n a l y s i s  of  the  118  t e c h n i c a l  performance  r e a l i z a t i o n and  o p e r a t i o n  c l e a r l y  what  of  of  i s  such  between  p o p u l a t i o n r a t e  of  of  of  adapt  i n d i v i d u a l  to  a  i l l e g a l  o n - s t r e e t  e x i s t s  f o r  and an  program s u c c e s s f u l  5 . 3 .  and  As  a s  the  must  u n d e s i r a b l e with  agency  suggested  d i s c r i m i n a t e of  appear  t a r g e t  p r e f e r a b l e : a p p l i e d  developed  The  mount  a  the guard  such  and  as  v a r i e d  c h o i c e  c e r t a i n l y  l e s s  a m b i t i o u s  f a r  with  of  to  p a t t e r n s ,  f l e x i b l e  system.  to  A p p l i c a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  behaviour  h e r e ,  the  p a r k i n g .  be  a  to  to  surcharge  and  a  implementation  b u l k  mechanisms  o p e r a t i o n s ;  p o l i c y  p a r k i n g ,  And  l i k e l y  f a r  l e s s  groups  past  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n  of  on  probable  be  r e l e v a n t  the  g a i n e d  p a r k i n g  the  w i l l  a c t i o n s  p o s s i b l e  l i t e r a t u r e ,  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B e h a y i o u r  s e c t i o n ,  understanding  d i s c u s s e d .  of  t h a t  t h i s  p o l i c i e s  the  order  i s  r e s u l t s .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f a r  In  c o n d i t i o n s  implementing  P o l i t i c a l In  charge  p o l i c y  s u c c e s s f u l l  l o c a t e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  than  f o r  i n c r e a s e  • e m p l o y e e - o r i e n t e d '  The  v a r i e t y  enforcement  two  l o c a l  f a c i l i t y .  a g a i n s t  to  commercial  the  p r i c e  program.  p a r k e r s  p r i v a t e , n o n - c o m m e r c i a l must  p a r k i n g  n e c e s s a r y a  commuters  r e g u l a t i o n  a  r e c o g n i z e d i d e n t i f i e d to  b a s i s  of  from  the  response  p r i c e  p o l i t i c a l  t h i s the  and  r e s e a r c h  t h i n  data  p u b l i c of  i n c r e a s e s  powers,  d i s c u s s e d .  a v a i l a b l e  p o l i c y  these i n  t h e i r  and  groups  Vancouver  and  a n a l y s i s toward  the  w i l l  be  119  5 - 3 . 1.  T h e . C i t y . O f  The  C i t y  p l a n n i n g  and  as  Gate  With  Bridge to  v a r i e t y  i s  of  l a n d  At  t r a f f i c  and 1  .  r e l a t e d p r e v i o u s  a  by  the  C i t y  the  downtown  The  subway  i t  the  new .  spaces of  t h i s of  l i n e  t o t a l  p o l i c y .  was As  a  the  of  d i r e c t e d  downtown  of  of  p u b l i c  automobile a r e  number  being which  footage  a l s o  w e l l ,  C i t y  At  same  c o n t r o l l i n g  to  C o u n c i l  t r a n s i t the  i s than  j u s t i f i e d  r a p i d  downtown3.  p o l i c y  a  r o l e  sguare  H a l l  large  p e d e s t r i a n  adopted  maximum  encouraging  i n  s u p p o r t s  a  can  management  developments to  L i o n ' s  a  or  i n c r e a s e  i s  C i t y  p o l i c i e s  the  the  the  t r a f f i c  has  C i t y  p o s i t i o n  The  h o u r s ,  C i t y  the  through  p o l i c i e s ;  G r a n v i l l e  to  appears  program  p o l i c y  a c c u r a t e of  .  of  emphasizes  end,  p o l i c y  a  use  f o r  growth  and t i m e , i n  a r e a . *  d i s i n c e n t i v e s  l a c k  2  t h i s  g l a n c e :  roads  s t a g g e r e d  t i m e ,  p a r k i n g  area  f i r s t  downtown  percentage  supposedly  While  more  t h i s  w i t h i n  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  d i s c o u r a g e  r e f e r e n c e  c l e a r  as  which  t o  lower  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  i n c r e a s e  such  l i m i t  of  at  development  p r e s e n t  s t a n d a r d s  extent  seem  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  p a r k i n g  downtown  i n t e n s i v e  and  seeks  a  the  may  use  p o l i c y  to  to  i t  the  Toward  encouraged  to  primary  and  p r o v i n c i a l  use  the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t r a n s i t  as  u s e r s ,  walkways.  no  r e s p e c t  a  holds  roadways  p o l i c i e s :  downtown  has  of  r e g u l a t e  t e c h n i q u e s ;  some  Vancouver  comprehensive  attempt  at  of  c o n t r o l  b o u n d a r i e s . . not  Vancouver  would  that be  e x i s t s a p p l i e d to  i n t e r e s t  i n  the l i n e  which to  with  automobile  such  the  d i r e c t l y  i n t e r p r e t i n  r e s u l t s  t h i s a  a  p a r k i n g  p o l i c i e s  of  encourages  u s e r s . s i l e n c e  p r o p o s a l  of  5  .  In as  f a c t ,  p r i c e  C o u n c i l , economic  i t  may  demonstrating N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  be some some  120  attempt  can  C o u n c i l has  to  be  t h i s  s t r o n g  t h e i r  needs  and  development so  parking  to  i t  seems  downtown  downtown,  then  C o u n c i l .  Otherwise,  f o r  r e a s o n s  other  W i t h i n which  have  p a r k i n g i n v o l v e d  i n  downtown  8  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  u s e .  p r o j e c t  computerized The  Finance  k i n d  of  p a r k i n g producing  f o r  the  i n  r e c e n t  should  a  s e r i o u s l y  growth  some  b r i n g  the  to  of  the  o p p o s i t i o n  from  support  The f o r  or  o p p o s i t i o n  three  departments  i n c r e a s e  P l a n n i n g  E n g i n e e r i n g  Dept.  p o o l i n g  has  t r a f f i c  f u t u r e  of  p r e s e n t l y  w h i l e  to  are  the  reduce  problem,  rush and  not  road  and  working hour  shown i d e a ,  i s  through p r e s e n t l y  development has  p a r k i n g a  had  f e d e r a l l y - f u n d e d through  staggered i n v o l v e d  with  perhaps  the  development  volumes  of  d i r e c t l y  of  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  t r a f f i c  i n i t i a t i v e due  Dept.  upon  encouragement u s u a l l y  c o n t r o l  h o u r s i n  r e s p e c t  to  i t s  9  .  t h i s to  the  revenue-  c h a r a c t e r .  p o s s i b l e  f a c t o r s :  r e s p e c t  c o n t r o l  are  D e p t . ,  P r e d i c t i n g r e a l l y  The  c a r  p r i c e  with  p l a n s  .  to  r e c e i v e  i t  6  downtown  t h a t  d e s i r e d  i n d i c a t i n g  i n c r e a s e s .  designed  TEAM  l i k e l y  b u r e a u c r a c y , t h e r e  concern  They  to  e a s i l y  C o u n c i l  from  of  c o u n c i l  i n t e r e s t s ;  can  suggest  the  response  l a c k i n g .  p r e p a r i n g  a r e a  of  appear  or  l i k e l y  C i t y  p r i c e  to  the  present  i n t e r e s t s  support  scheme  evidence  be  b u s i n e s s  a t t e n t i o n  r e a s o n a b l e  i s  i s  the some  the  b u s i n e s s e s , i t  these  strong  i n c r e a s e  might  downtown  t h a t  to  r e c e i v e d  p r i c e  t h r e a t e n  expect  what  TEAM-dominated  with  f e e l i n g s  has t h a t  suggest The  c o n n e c t i o n s  r e a s o n a b l e  7  to  p r o p o s a l .  seems  p a s t ,  made  the s i n c e  p e r s o n a l  departmental t h e i r  response  r e a c t i o n  v a l u e s ,  to  i n v o l v e s  departmental  t h i s a  p o l i c y  i s  not  multitude  of  of  g o a l s , b u d g e t a r y  121  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  f o r  a v a i l a b l e ,  i t  each  department  F i n a n c e  might  although  E n g i n e e r i n g  p r o p o s a l .  has  i t  r e s p o n s i b l e  t h i s  can  f o r  a  major  be  some may  the  t h a t  to  and  the  to  some  p o l i c y  i n  e i t h e r  o p p o s i t i o n  of  some  t h i s  r e v e r s e the  t h i s  to  t h i s  source  b i a s .  j u s t  c a u s e .  Idea  i n  L i t t l e As  a  s t r u g g l e  i s  o p p o s i t i o n .  pursue  a r e a .  s o r t ;  t e r r i t o r i a l  department  i n t i a t i v e  a  have  determine  suggested  E n g i n e e r i n g  such  i s  p o s i t i o n  department  measures from  evidence  p o s s i b l e  c o n c e r n  d i s l i k e  to  the  support  i n d i c a t e d  a r i s e  point  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  suggest  c o e r c i v e  may  l i m i t e d  P l a n n i n g  t h i s  a g a i n s t  on  The  from  department  e x i s t s  to  probably  f a r  support  department,  t h e n ,  i s  Only  used  h o l d .  would  i t  b i a s  p l a n n i n g  e v i d e n c e  be  I n d i v i d u a l l y ,  p r o f e s s i o n a l as  can  department  degree, The  but  example.  O v e r a l l , seems  to  be  l a c k i n g . F i n a l l y , the  i t  n o n - c o m m e r c i a l  p r o v i n c i a l data  i s  a p p r o v a l a v a i l a b l e  d e c s i o n - m a k e r s t o  should  o b t a i n  may  t h i s  d e c i s i o n .  remembered  downtown of  a  which  c o n f l i c t  5 . 3 . 2 .  Greater_Vancouyer  a c t i v i t i e s a i r  r e g i o n a l w i t h i n  p o l l u t i o n  c o n t r o l  1  .  a  i s  the  Another  p o s i t i o n  s t r e n g t h i n  C i t y  of  i s s u e .  of  the  c o n c e r n  must  o b t a i n  1  no  p r o v i n c i a l d e s i r e  outcome  and  of  a  p r o v i n c i a l may  h i n d e r  0  D i s t r i c t  them  a f f e c t  C i t y  development  r e s p o n s i b l e one  C i t y  to  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  f a c t o r  minor  r e g i o n , 1  be  t h e  R e g i o n a l  government  order  what  t r a n s i t  r e l a t i v e l y  the  supply  between  r a p i d  of  T h i s  t h i s  w i l l  i n  amendment.  C e r t a i n l y  amendment  over  that  i n d i c a t e s  advancement  The  p a r k i n g  C h a r t e r  t a k e .  A l s o ,  a u t h o r i t i e s  be  (GVRD).  f o r b e i n g i s  a  number  of  n o n - v e h i c u l a r the  c o n t i n u e d  122  development The  GVRD  growth the  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  h a s e s t a b l i s h e d  and  change  R e g i o n "  1 2  development i n c l u d i n g The  . ,  so  f o r  as  t o  p l a n n i n g  i t s e l f  with  f o r  t h e  t h r e e f o l d :  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  needs,  e s p e c i a l l y  I t  use  present  t e c h n i q u e s ; t r a n s i t  of  s y s t e m ,  of  t h e  t h e  t o  p r e s e n t  The  t h i s  t h i s but  t h e  o b j e c t i v e i n  a  t o  "manage  l i v a b i l i t y  has  broad  P l a n * .  l e d  number  of  t o of  the  a r e a s ,  t h e  t i m e ,  c u r r e n t l y  e s t a b l i s h e d  by  and  that  t o  manage  a u t o m o b i l e ,  system  of  a r e  system  c a p a c i t y by  l i g h t  t h e  P l a n n i n g  i n  the  s o  that  m i n i m i z e d ;  c a p a c i t y  GVRD  r e g i o n a l  growth  e s p e c i a l l y  p r i c e s  t h e  GVRD  c o n t r o l  s i t u a t i o n  extent  Bureau  development  t o  through  development  r a p i d  t r a n s i t  Dept.  downtown  and  1  i s  3  .  i n  l i m i t i n g  g e n e r a l l y .  agency  Of  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y system  expand  p a r k i n g  parking  though  d e c i s i o n s ,  t o  note  development  Presumably,  5 . 3 . 3 .  t h i s  R e g i o n a l  o b j e c t i v e  enhance  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  f a c i l i t i e s ,  r a i s i n g  growth At  f o r  t h e  i n t e r e s t i n g  favour the  of  p u b l i c i s  major  o r  f u t u r e  i s  of  ' O f f i c i a l  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . p o l i c y  r e s t r a i n t  a  p o l i c i e s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  make  t h e  m a i n t a i n  Involvement  of  o f  may  has of  does of  change  some  t h i s  t h e  not  have  any  r e g i o n a l i n  t h e  i n f l u e n c e  i n f l u e n c e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n near  i n  i s  a u t h o r i t y  f u t u r e  1  4  .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  not  known.  T r a n s i t  f o r  p o l i c i e s  r e s i d e s the  with  and  the  p r o v i n c i a l  s t a t e m e n t s  i n d i c a t e  t h e  r e g i o n ,  i n  c h r o n o l o g i c a l  system  c a p a c i t y  f o l l o w i n g order:  i m m e d i a t e l y ;  p l a n n i n g  Bureau  o f  of  T r a n s i t  government. development  more  buses  augmentation  the  GVR  t r a n s i t  an  agency  Current of  to  t r a n s i t  i n c r e a s e o f  t h i s  p o l i c y f o r  t h e  c u r r e n t  system  with  123  s t r e e t - c a r i n  the  Recent  type  t h i r d  s e r v i c e  w i l l  the  u n c l e a r  the  p o s s i b l e , to  5 . 3 . 4 .  what or  but  system  l i g h t i n  the  have  have  r a p i d f o u r t h  been  been  t r a n s i t  made  s t a g e  d i r e c t e d that  1  5  .  at  downtown  .  1 6  developed  i n d e p e n d e n t l y  i n  p a r k i n g  c o m p a t i b l e  a  t r a n s i t  promises  e x t e n t  the  f u t u r e ;  Lower  p r i c e  with  n e c e s s a r y  the  these bus  i t s  M a i n l a n d ,  i n c r e a s e s p l a n s .  system  a u t h o r i t i e s  have  i n t e r e s t s  a l r e a d y  of  and  own  Bureau  power  i t  would  expansion  no  p l a n  to  i s be  c o n t a c t s would  be  commit  the  program.  Pressure^Groups  p r e s s u r e  on  b u s i n e s s a  o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a r k i n g  number i n  s e r i o u s  i n t e r e s t s  would  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  which  o r g a n i z e d  .  to  many  been  not a  T h i s  r e a c t i o n s  p o l i t i c a l  does  support  Undoubtedly, n e g a t i v e  i t  1 7  i s s u e s  Vancouver  o b j e c t i o n s  p r o g r a m  a g a i n s t  the  i n d u s t r y ,  i n c r e a s e  e x i s t  r a i l  t r a n s i t  m u n i c i p a l  such  near  bus  has of  t h a t  Downtown  have  the  Bureau  i n d i c a t e d  the  r a p i d  e x p a n d e d  expansion to  i n  however,  be  i n c o m p a t i b l e  Bureau  of  a r e a s ;  S i n c e  have  s t a g e ;  e x p a n s i o n s  suburban  f o r  systems  such  a  i s a  not  t h i s  which  promote  the  automobile  commuters.  I t  8  may  from  the  t h i s  group  w i l l  that  commuters  the  1  of  Aside  p a r k i n g  suggest  p r o p o s a l .  group  p o l i c y ,  to  number  that  p r i c e  b u s i n e s s  p o l i c y .  f o r  a  l i k e l y  p o l i t i c a l  a  c o m m u t e r - o r i e n t e d  p r e s s u r e  such  through  s i t u a t i o n .  seem  automobile t o  exert  but be  t h a t  o r g a n i z e d good.  and  that  have  Commuters  has  c o l l e c t i v e  w i l l  i s  they not  commuters  s t r o n g  have to  not apply  O r g a n i z a t i o n s may the  speak  same  r e p r e s e n t  do out  t h i n g  as  one  of  124  those  p o t e n t i a l  suggested appears good  i n to  Chapter be  the  appears  road i s  t h a t f r e e  not  o n l y  In  b u s i n e s s e s There  f e l l o w s  f o r  him.  p a r k i n g  would  one  groups  and  Environmental  example  t h i s  type  of  i n t e r e s t  i n  v e h i c l e s these  1  9  a i r  .  They  i s s u e s ,  2  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  5 . 3 . 5 .  T y p e O f  In  from  the  can  One,  t o  s u p p o r t ;  be  f o r  d e v e l o p i n g downtown  p o l i t i c a l  p r e s s u r e :  The  S o c i e t y have  operate  as as  c o n c e i v a b l y  a  (SPEC)  S c i e n t i f i c p r e s e n t s  a l r e a d y i t  taken  r e l a t e s  p r e s s u r e  be  an  to  motor  group  i n t e r e s t e d  an  on  i n  the  i d e a .  over  be  1 . 2 . 6 . ,  l i t e r a t u r e the  f o r  t h e i r  c o n c e r n i n g  repeated  s t r u g g l e .  i n of  to use.  as  some  c o n c e r n i n g  years  c l a s s i f i e d  u n c e r t a i n t y  t e r r i t o r i a l  the  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  They  to  s e c t i o n  the  o b s e r v a t i o n s  appear  by  probably  l e a v e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  p o l l u t i o n  could  to  an  Policy_Mechanism  a v a i l a b l e  i n c r e a s e s  attempt  i n c r e a s e  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s p o l i c y  do  j o i n  devleopment.  C o n t r o l  n o i s e  as  program  commuter  l e a d e r s h i p  group.  and  and  0  Chapter  presented  of  of  way,  n o n - c o l l e c t i v e to  commuting,  c i t i z e n  and  no  g i v e  p o s s i b i l i t y  P o l l u t i o n  and  downtown  up  t h i s  i n c r e a s e  average  t h i s  other  p r i c e  i n  commuters  p o s s i b i l i t y  s t i m u l a t e  o r g a n i z e  o r g a n i z e  a t t r a c t the  The  to  n o n - e x i s t e n t .  e x i s t s  e n v i r o n m e n t a l  The  to  h i s  c o u l d  cannot  reason  f a c t ,  e n t i r e l y  that  One.  present  o r g a n i z a t i o n . wishes  groups  a  the  the  system of  response  e f f e c t s ;  c a s e :  r e a c t i o n  a l t e r n a t i v e  k  p o l i c y  t h i s  the  o b s e r v a t i o n s  of  l a c k  t h i s  p a r k i n g  type  of  encouragement  p u b l i c  types  b e h a v i o u r a l to  of  were  f i x of  of p r i c e and  p o l i c y  i n s t i t u t i o n a l of  b u r e a u c r a t i c  125  Although p r o b l e m ,  i t  2 1  t r a n s i t  C o u n c i l c l e a r l y  over  the  by  t h i s  conducted f o r  such  a  the  Bureau  study  t h e i r  use  of  C i t y  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  intended  to  p a r k i n g  powers  l e g i t i m a c y  i s  a p p a r e n t l y  type  of  now  by  people about  most  a l s o  behaviour  on  now  f a c t o r  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  5 . 3 . 6 .  The  I t  t h i s  would  accept c o u l d  be  so  beyond  be  to  I t  the  f i x ,  the  i s  s o l e l y  i t  not  because  but  t h i s  p o l i c y  at be  l e a s t  t h a t  as  element  a l s o  f o r  f o r  the  some  of t h i s  m u n i c i p a l  some  r e g u l a t i n g be  years human  t h a t  l e g i t i m a t e .  i n  i t s  disenchantment  growing i n  i s  a p p l y i n g  S t i l l ,  may  p o l i c y  t h i s  of  i l l e g i t i m a t e  involvement  enough  U n c e r t a i n t y  i n d e c i s i v e n e s s  of  i d e a .  .Process  d e s i r a b l e  t o  p r e d i c t  i n t i a t e  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the  may  c o n s i s t e n t l y  an  t o  i t  c i t i z e n s .  t h i s be  type  Commuters,  t h a t  i n  w i t h i n  disagreement.  t h i s  to  been  r e s p e c t  c h o o s i n g  mechanism.  matter  has  C i t y ,  element.  i d e a ;  h e l d  and  e x i s t s  e x i s t  the  c o - o p e r a t e  b e h a v i o u r a l  f o r  Vancouver  s c a l e  with  a  r a p i d  a n a l y s i s  groups,  program,  s i t u a t i o n  6 . 2 . 3 . 1 . ) .  D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s p o l i c y  are  government  t h i s  would t h i s  t h i s  of  u n c e r t a i n t i e s  must  t h i s  f i x  The  government  already  t h i s  many  p r o v i n c e ,  c o n t r i b u t i n g  i s  automobile  and  t h a t  d i s l i k e  c o e r c i o n  the  .is  c o n g e s t i o n  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  t h a t  implement  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  them,  with  a  ( s e c t i o n  a u t h o r i t i e s  to  the  i n c r e a s e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Another  and  the  a l t e r n a t i v e s .  d i f f e r e n t  t h e r e  suggest  p r i c e  the  i n d i c a t e s  Three  T r a n s i t ,  r e c o g n i z e s  p r e f e r s  b e h a v i o u r a l  p o l i c y . of  a p p a r e n t l y  the  the  l i k e l i h o o d  implementation  very  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  l i t t l e  can  o f f e r r e d  be  of  C i t y  of  t h i s  s a i d  about  i n  s e c t i o n  126  1 . 2 . 3 . 3 .  a  the  of  the  of  being  margin  advantage p o l i c y  d i r e c t i o n  e s t i m a t i o n these  can  g e n e r a l  d e c i s i o n be  system  made  need  to  5.4.  r e v e r s i b l e c o u l d made  the  of a  a  from  there  through be  the  l i k e l y  may  of  Some  be  s t r u c t u r e ,  be  the  a  the  the  change  i n  Though  on  the  out  a p p l i c a t i o n  no  b a s i s  of  t h a t ,  f o r  a  t h i s  idea  to  of  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  t h r e e  of  the  a  p h y s i c a l  n e c e s s a r y . man-hours  o p e r a t i o n a l  i n  t h a t  some  to  to  T h i s  c o s t  areas  expenses  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  bulk  n e c e s s a r y  to  p r o c e d u r e s ,  upon  and  of  p o l i c y w i l l  s u f f e r  be  unduly need  not  program. expected  the  to  system  s i g n s ,  p r e p a r a t i o n  assemble  way.  c o s t s  i n c r e a s e as  the  c o s t s :  payments  may  be  such  of  ;  the  c o u l d  equipment,  of  p o s s i b i l i t y  of  the  g e n e r a l  Depending  who  to  e s t i m a t e  very  t r a n s f e r  those  income.  The  a  c o s t s .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  of  p o s s i b l e  i n c r e a s e  Due  implementation  generated  d i f f e r e n t  p r i c e  c o s t s .  d i f f e r e n t  enforcement be  p a r k i n g  be  e x c e c t  be  a l s o  t r u e  p r e p a r a t i o n  may  p o i n t e d  not  i n c l u d i n g  c h a r g e ;  a  number  t h a t  d e c i s o n  d i f f e r e n t  w i l l  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , o f  o p e r a t i o n . d e c a l s ,  w i l l  revenue  c o n s i d e r e d a  i n  the  i t  of  c o s t s ,  c o s t s ,  the  be  s u c c e s s f u l  number  these  made  so  have  a c c o m p l i s h e d .  l i k e l y  by  does  upon  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of  i t  can  c e r t a i n l y  commitment.  magnitudes  d e c i s i o n s ,  the  acceptance  i n v o l v e d ,  the  of  a  u n c e r t a i n t i e s  c o l l e c t i n g  e a s i l y  i s  I t  f l e x i b l e ,  s u c c e s s f u l  i n v o l v e  p r e p a r a t i o n  and  implement  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  B a s i c a l l y ,  be  i n c r e a s e s  f e a s i b l e .  i t  s t r o n g  w i l l  p r i c e  g u i d e l i n e s ,  Costs__0f  program  p a r k i n g  p o l i t i c a l l y  be  r e q u i r e s  f o r  of  f e n c e s  c o s t s  occur f o r and would  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t r a i n e d  p e r s o n n e l  127  necessary  to carry  out  Conceivably, a certain publicity.  This  significant the  the  stage  contribution  day-to-day  public  charge  from  the  necessary  of  seems l i k e l y Once  of  facilities  should not  costs  will  program.  t h a t even  magnitude  It  figures  would  be  will  be  a  preparation As  t o produce  around  by  the  on  an  the  fairly  $370,000  a  be  regularily.  month.  Once  for this  program.  to  operate,  by  transfer  a small portion the  the  survey  would be  have  population  per c a r s t a n d a r d 37,000 s t a l l s  a day  inital  reactions  approximately  of  potential  t o between $214,000-$226,000.  year  Since  task, i t  Using  $.50  a  present  of  a person  At  patrol  that administrative  approximately 2 2  first  may  continual  to  of the a t t i t u d i n a l  commuters .  be  transactions,  largest  t o the  illustration  that  may  v e r y much manpower.  necessary  costs,  the Aside  which  necessary  some e s t i m a t e s .  calculated  used  funds  collecting  without  I t appears  f o r t h e s u r v e y s a m p l e s and  for  of  defray these c o s t s  produced.  m o n t h l y r e v e n u e would d r o p revenue  represent  expenditure.  p r o b a b l y be  of revenue the r e s u l t s  i t c a n be  currently  involve  more would be  revenue.  been u t i l i z e d  1.57,  revenue  including  annual  to  p a r k i n g p r i c e i n c r e a s e scheme b e g i n s  o f some o f t h e  the  given  and  collectors  are apparently inadeguate  the  would  costs  on-site  however, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can  costs,  project  types of parking f a c i l i t i e s  patrolmen  would have t o be  to represent a small  program  program.  government.  f o r non-commercial  expense of t h i s  five  the  increase  i n manpower, commitment  possibility  Enforcement  variety  of  administrative  appears  managing t h i s  price  amount o f f u n d s  part of the sponser The  parking  of are  revenue set  in,  Annual  $2,600,000.  128  S i n c e  the  terms  of  5 . 5 .  survey  d i v e r s i o n s ,  are  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n p r i c e  e f f o r t  of  i n  c o n s i d e r e d  a c t u a l  can  change  income  income  be i s  made  to  revenue  there  are  w i l l  b e n e f i t  c l e a r l y  t o l l e d - o f f , c o s t s  m a r g i n a l  means  that  be  may  be  r e c t i f i c a t i o n many  i n c r e a s e .  of  o p t o m i s t i c  i n  h i g h e r .  i n  h i g h e r  r e s i d e n t s m a i n t a i n  borne  e x i s t i n g  c o u l d  be  argued.  other that  are  the  downtown  as  b e n e f i t s i n  p a r t  The  be  p a r k i n g  p o s s i b l e  w i l l  s t r o n g l y  d r i v i n g some  be,  and  to  some whether  of  the i f  s o ,  i t  from  may  of  t h e i r  an  c e n t r e .  The  t o l l e d having  viewpoint  i s  i t  merely  can  do  not  that  w i t h i n  other  lower some  such  as  r e g i o n a l  which the  the  downtown  t h e r e ,  income  s a i d  pay  c o n g e s t i o n be  the  be  perhaps  by  any,  t h i s  l o c a t i n g  s u b s i d i z e d  are  a c c o r d i n g  are  lower  the  t r i p ,  Vancouver  to  t o l l e d ,  merely  commuters Even  by  automobile  t h e r e  are  t h e i r  t r a v e l  Yet  at  a c c e p t i n g  auto  of  a f f e c t e d  c o n d i t i o n s . l o s s ,  c o s t s  by  f i r s t  u n t o l l e d ,  p o r t i o n urban  a  a c c r u e  subgroups:  throughout  due  not  they  Looking  i n e g u i t y .  Vancouver  of  some  ,  v i e w p o i n t .  c o s t s  through the  c o s t  t r u e  s o c i a l  r e c e i v e s a l a r i e s ,  the  d r i v e r s  although  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n workers  an  whom  t h r e e  of  e x p e r i e n c e  e f f e c t s  r e l a t i v e l y  e x p e r i e n c i n g  meet  w i l l  these  to  e f f e c t s .  terms  i t  what  be  w i l l  i n t r o d u c t i o n  p o s i t i v e .  i n c r e a s e  auto  elsewhere  terms  w i l l  i n  which  although  or  s o c i a l  t h i s  the  u n t o l l e d .  while to  to  b a s i c a l l y  the  r i s e  groups  d e s c r i b e  commuters  and  that  to  n e g a t i v e  t o l l e d - o f f ,  the  due  program.  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  commuters,  t h e i r  d i f f e r e n t  q u a n t i t a t i v e  Downtown  to  the  many  i n c r e a s e  i n d i c a t e  and  are  I n c o m e _ D i s t r i b u t i o n _ E f f e c t s There  the  r e s u l t s  goes  downtown  to  129  Table  5 . 1. :  Comparison_Of_Cumulati_____to_obi^  D i _ t r i _ _ _ i o j i _ i _ l l _ S _ b ^ I _ c r _ a s e _ 0 f _ $ _ 5 0 _ _ a i l _  Income  A l l  L e v e l  Commuters  under  $3,000  Auto  D i v e r t e d i_50_Daily_  0.5  0.7  $ 3 , 0 0 0 - $ 5 , 9 9 9  5.2  6.6  $ 6 , 0 0 0 - $ 8 , 9 9 9  23.4  27.4  $9,Q00-$11,999  40.9  5 3 . 8  $12,000-$14,999  59.7  71.1  $15,000-$17,999  71.7  82.0  $ 1 8 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 0 , 9 9 9  79.5  89. 1  $ 2 1 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 3 , 9 9 9  84. 1  92.3  $ 2 4 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 6 , 9 9 9  87.4  94.5  $ 2 7 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 9 , 9 9 9  90.3  9 6 . 9  $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 3 2 , 9 9 9  92.3  9 8 . 0  100.0  100.0  $33,000  and  over  At  130  auto  commuting  r e g r e s s i v e 5 . 1 . ,  group  e f f e c t s ,  d i s t r i b u t i o n  from  a l l  who  samples  would  with  than  o t h e r s .  charge  w i l l  s u f f e r  a  income  incomes  some  l e s s  i f  of  w i l l  e s p e c i a l l y  i n  the  does  not  seem  of  the  bus  system  route  Downtown d i s t r i b u t i o n of  income.  s u b s i d i z e d  w i l l  e f f e c t s  o f f e r  of  t h i s  b u s i n e s s  viewed the  to  i n  suggest  more  as  a c t i v i t y  w i l l  equal short  In  and the  always  or  the t i m e .  a l s o  e x p e r i e n c e  some  p a r k i n g  e x p e r i e n c e  r e c e i v e  a  t h i s  term, c a p a c i t y  o l d  This  s i g n i f i c a n t i s  p a r t i a l l y due  t r a v e l .  Other  s m a l l  user  income  i n d u s t r y .  downtown,  some  these  l o n g e r  to  f o r  d i s c o m f o r t ,  w a i t i n g  automobile  be  better  term,  or  the  a  from  demand  t i m e ,  i n  i n t o  i n c r e a s e d  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  t h a t  d o u b t f u l  b e n e f i t t i n g  the  t h a t  the  the  n e c c e s s i t i e s  a d d i t i o n a l  system.  argued  s h o u l d  the  more  t r i p .  improvements  bus  w i l l  downtown  that  the  that  i t  p e r f e c t l y  overcrowding  w i l l  be  charge.  d i s c o n t i n u e  commuters  c o u r s e ,  t r a v e l  b u s i n e s s  for  of  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  might  demand  downtown  Of  or  most  be  s u f f e r  b u s i n e s s e s  I t  overdevelopment  b r i n g  l o c a t i o n ,  downtown  c o s t s  by  w i l l  of  t r a n s l a t e  may  unreasonable  d a i l y  those  i s  l o s s  c o s t  the  $.50  of  income;  assumed  of  respondents  d i s t r i b u t i o n  a  Table  f a c i n g  i s  case  commuter  In  commuters  viewed  l i k e l y  at  r e s u l t s .  automobile  s o c i a l  s i t u a t i o n .  i t  i n  i t  survey  some  would  w i l l  s o c i a l  demonstrates  apparently  s m a l l  commuters  t r a v e l  p r e s e n t  people  the  downtown  modes the  than  as  the  p a r k i n g  O v e r a l l ,  downtown  t h e i r  of  the  of  program,  of  to  r e d u c t i o n  t h i s  s e c t o r  compared  e q u a l  or  e i t h e r  auto  r i s e  Other  than  the  p r i c e  d r i v i n g  e q u a l  of  c e r t a i n  c e r t a i n of  income  lower  r e a d i l y  i n c r e a s e  to  of  i s  the  a c c o r d i n g  d i s c o n t i n u e  Respondents  t h a t  i t s e l f ,  l o s s due  to  to the  s e c t o r s  b e n e f i t s ,  or  131  remain  unchanged  such  as  t a x i  e x p e r i e n c e  some  c o n d i t i o n s  f o r  the  Any  should  share  w i l l  the  motor  v e h i c l e  5 . 6 .  Summary  study  were  t h e i r  r e l a t i v e a  more  be  not  i t  i n  p u b l i c the  i t  appears  d i r e c t e d  a t  downtown  t r a f f i c  and  downtown  Vancouver.  ever  put  as  i t  a c t u a l l y  the  should  program.  congested  o c c u r i n g  Working  terms  of  and  s l i g h t l y  a l l  b u s i n e s s  c o n d i t i o n s  d u r i n g  F i n a l l y ,  be  the of  r e d u c i n g of  so  the  the  s l i g h t  i n  at  other  rush  hour  r e g i o n a l  a  r e s i d e n t s  r e d u c t i o n  a  of  i s  i n  would  Whether  other  some  t h i s p o l i c y  i n  terms  and  t h e i r  doubt  permit  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  no  of  of  assessment  can  here. t h i s  study  of  p a r k i n g  capable  the  of  mechanisms  u s e f u l n e s s  program  f o r  r e s o u r c e s  disadvantages  gathered  c o u r s e ,  c o n s i d e r e d  of  c o n g e s t i o n  c o n g e s t i o n  p r a c t i c e .  the  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  commuters  Of  number and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t  t h a t  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  the  p o l i c y .  t h e r e f o r e  i n t o  to  i n f o r m a t i o n  go,  to  example,  t o u r i s t s  perhaps  u n f o r t u n a t e  assessment  f a r  be  and  advantages  e f f i c i e n c y  as  i s  comparison  As t o  l e s s  i n  workers,  improved.  the  b e n e f i t s .  e q u a l  s i n c e  from  be  t h i s  s h o p p e r s ,  hour,  b e n e f i t  of  downtown  f o r  as  t r a n s f e r  same  w i t h ,  r e a l i s t i c  made  rush  s m a l l  w i l l  from  of  policemen  r e s u l t  such  d i f f e r e n t  i n c r e a s e s  a  subgroup  e m i s s i o n s .  begin  mechanisms, of  during  a  as  b e n e f i t  A  and  poeple  commodity  r e c e i v e  To  d r i v e r s  u s e r s ,  downtown  worst,  b e n e f i t  should  t i m e s .  the  these  Downtown v i s i t o r s  at  to r e a l or  of a  p r i c e  reducing  s i g n i f i c a n t  t e s t not  have  of  such  implementation  i n  t h i s a  been  a b l e  i n c r e a s e s rush  hour  e x t e n t  i n  idea  would  program  would  Vancouver  i s  a  132  p o l i t i c a l w h i l e  g u e s t i o n .  c o n g e s t i o n  c o n s i d e r e d  a  a p p a r e n t l y a  s o l u t i o n  by  to  case  t h i s  the  of  not  the  key  and  the  type  supported  of  i n  or  r e d u c i n g  O p p o s i t i o n due  to  which  a  p o p u l a t i o n ;  e f f o r t  The to  u n s o l v e d , r e l i e v e  c o n c e r n a  of  r e a c h  have  d e a l would  who  with  i s  the  the  p o r t i o n  of  a v a i l a b l e  with  would  while  c o n g e s t i o n s u g g e s t s  i s  as  a  t h a t  a  must  at  a  i n  committed  a b i l i t y  minimum The  c o -  order  t o :  a  and  p a r k e r s commuting  to  the  s i g n i f i c a n t revenue.  p a r k i n g  commitment  modes  t h a t , of  of  a  s t r o n g  i f  l e f t  program  to  p o r t i o n  of  The  of  p r i c e  cannot  become  q u e s t i o n .  a l t e r n a t i v e be  i s  e f f e c t i v e  automobile  s i g n i f i c a n t  t h i s  be  r e g u i r e d  problems,  problem  be  non-commercial  adequate  t h a t  i n i t i a l l y  commuters.  downtown  l e a v i n g  provide  s h o u l d  a g e n c i e s  the  the  e f f e c t s ,  p o l i t i c a l  upon  erode  In  p r o d u c t i o n ,  to  as  i n  a c t u a l l y  as  i s  held  be  i f  would  charge  o p e r a t i o n a l  may  not,  f a s h i o n  s o u r c e s  agency  s e r i o u s l y  or  another  the  i t  not  r o l e  p o l i c y .  revenue  p o l i c y  p r i v a t e ,  v a l u e s  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  a  a  e i t h e r  s i g n i f i c n a t  p o l i c y , or  p o l i c y  The  t h i s  t h a t  a p p a r e n t l y  o f f i c i a l s ,  of  such  such  i s  p a r t i c u l a r  a  Whether  i n  i n i t i a t i n g  s o l u t i o n ,  assumed.  to  p l a y  i s .  government  c o n g e s t i o n  commuters  i t  i n d i c a t e  m e r i t s .  income  non-governmental  l a r g e  to  other  the  i t  C i t y  r e d u c t i o n ,  rather  use  to  i n c r e a s e  o f f i c i a l s ,  other  powers  t r a v e l .  but  on  study  t h i s  d e s i r a b i l i t y  c o n g e s t i o n ,  of  form  the p r i c e  s e l e c t i v e  o p e r a t i o n develop  c o u r s e ,  of  Implemented  from  the  w i l l ,  mechanism  C i t y  implemented  a t t r a c t i v e  c o n g e s t i o n  v a l u e ,  by  Furthermore,  or  of  t h i s problem,  problem,  p a r k i n g  achievement  of  r e c o g n i z e d  s t r o n g l y  assessment of  a  r e s u l t s  one.  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  t h e i r  as  i s  major not  The  l a c k  i n c r e a s e s s i m p l y  be  133  In  the  e f f e c t s  that  o p i n i o n a  implemented, magnitude, In t h i s  the  except  o p i n i o n  suggest  would  t h i s  to  perhaps  i n  of  t h i s  such  Although  a  have the  these  be  are  case the  not of  u s e f u l  i n  s e r i o u s ,  the  to  for  be  adverse  s u c c e s s f u l l y nor  p a r k i n g  e f f e c t s  mechanism panecea  p o t e n t i a l  program,  b e n e f i t s  adverse  p o l i c y a  the  i n c r e a s e  author,  h a r d l y  c e r t a i n l y  author,  p r i c e  l i k e l y  outweigh  t h a t  Vancouver. p o l i c y  p a r k i n g i s  program  of  of  i n d u s t r y .  achieved  s u f f i c e n t l y  would  be  urban  c o n g e s t i o n ,  r e l i e v i n g  great  d e s i r a b l e  c o n g e s t i o n .  from to f o r t h i s  134  1. I n t e r 2. P a r k i E n g i n e e r i 3. P r o v i  v n n n  i e w , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r , J a n e , 1 9 7 4 . g and Loading Requirement Memo, Nov. g . c e , F e b r u a r y . 6,1975.  2 , 1 9 7 3 , D e p t .  4. G u t s t e i n , p . 1 4 6 and Vancouver Sun , M a r c h 14,1975 t h e r e a r e some a m b i g u i t i e s i n how much c o n t r o l . 5. C o u n c i l meeting t o d i s c u s s a p r o j e c t c o n c e r n i n g t h i s demonstrated l i t t l e i n t e r e s t , M a y , 1 9 7 4 . 6. G u t s t e i n , p p . 1 4 1 - 1 4 3 . 7. G u t s t e i n , p p . 1 4 8 - 1 5 0 . 8. Interview,Downtown Study G r o u p , J u n e , 1 9 7 4 , s u p p o r t c o n t r o l s . 9. Turn D o w n T r a f f i c _ V o l u m e . 10. T h i s c o n f l i c t has been i n the ,Feb. 6,1975. 11. T h e , L i v a b l e Region 1976/1986 r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s . 12. i b i d , p . 8 . 13.  news , p . 9  r e c e n t l y . l i s t s  of  suggest p o l i c y  p a r k i n g  P r o v i n c e the  GVRD  i b i d , p p . 2 1 - 2 4 .  14. V a n c o u y e r S u n , A p r i l 2 4 , 1 9 7 5 , p . 3 9 , G V R D a p p l i e s f o r t r a n s i t L e t t e r s Patent. 15. I n t e r v i e w , I a n Graham,August,1975. 16i i b i d . 17., Vancouver Sun ,August 2 1 , 1 9 7 3 , B u i l d i n g owner's and Managers Assoc. s u p p o r t s p a r k i n g f o r shoppers but not commuters. 18. P r o v i n c e ,August 1,1974, suggested P h i l l i p s r i d e the bus. 19. A l r _ P o l l u t i o n _ & _ T r a n ,SPEC. 20. P r o v i n c e ,March 6,1975,debate over GVRD n o i s e bylaw. 21P o r v i n c e , J u l y 3 1 , 1 9 7 4 , p . 2 5 , P h i l l i p s s a y s auto users cause c o n g e s t i o n , and they s h o u l d take t r a n s i t . 22. Standard o b t a i n e d from T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r , C i t y of Vancouver.  135  CHAPTER  6.1-  SIX:  CONCLUSIONS  I n t r g d u c t i o n In  t h i s  c h a p t e r ,  t h e  c o n c l u s i o n s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  d i s c u s s e d  i n  s h o u l d  t h a t  c o n c l u s i o n s  be  noted  p a r k i n g  p r i c e  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s  these  i n c r e a s e  some  t h i s  technique  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  p r i o r  t o  i n i t i a l  6 . 2 .  C o n g e s t i o n R e l i e f  t h e s i s  of  drawn  w i l l  be  from  p r e s e n t e d -  a r e  t e n t a t i v e ,  i s  t r i e d  t h i s  t h e  u n t i l  i n  t e c h n i q u e  It t h e  Vancouver.  i s  necessary  u s e .  Through  P a r k i n g  P r i c e  I n c r e a s e s , I n  Vancouver I t  i s  t a i l o r e d to  t o  In w h i l e area  appears  a t f o r  the  p r i c e  automobile A a  d e a l  the  parking,  i n  only  i n c r e a s e s  s h o u l d  and  system  u t i l i z e d  However  s p e c i f i c  c o n d i t i o n s  d e s i r a b l e  order  t o  downtown t a r g e t  avoid  workers  t o  focus  p o t e n t i a l l y p a r k i n g  away who  from  commute  p o p u l a t i o n .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n e c e s s a r y  U n d e s i r a b l e  p h y s i c a l  i n t e r e s t s , d i r e c t e d  t h i s  c o n d t i o n s .  manageable-sized  b u s i n e s s  i s  i n c r e a s e s ,  c o n g e s t i o n  seems In  dynamic  i n c r e a s e s .  a  s e l e c t i v e l y  t h e  p r i c e  s u c c e s s f u l l y  c e r t a i n  i t  from  T h e r e f o r e  comprise  be  h i g h  a r e a .  be  p a r k i n g  Vancouver.  e s t a b l i s h i n g  enforcement  p r i c e  under  primary  o p p o s i t i o n  s h o u l d  of  c o n g e s t i o n  downtown  t o u r i s t s .  system  c o u l d  time  comprehensive s t r o n g  a  s i t u a t i o n ,  w i t h  p r i c e  p o l i t i c a l  and  t h a t  u s e f u l  same  i n c r e a s e s  shoppers  with  t o  p a r k i n g upon  d e c i s i v e  l o c a l  t r a f f i c  order  s o l e l y  of  t h e  reduce  t e c h n i q u e  by  c o n c l u d e d  f o r  system,  along  s u c c e s s f u l  avoidance  use  b e h a v i o u r s ,  136 such of  as  i l l e g a l  p a r k i n g  p a r k i n g , of  p a r k i n g ,  s i t u a t i o n s  make  s t a l l s ,  the  e x i s t e n t  n e c e s s a r y  commercial  make  the  and  l a t t e r i n  p a r t i c u l a r  former.  a  n e c e s s a r y .  A  system  system  of  n o n - c o m m e r c i a l ,  commuter-oriented  e f f e c t i v e  i n  i n c r e a s e s  U t i l i z a t i o n the  of  f o l l o w i n g  p r i c e the  with  have  s i g n i f i c a n t  any  t r a f f i c  subsamples t r e a t e d  as  Some  avoided  b o d i e s .  reduced of  and  s t r o n g  a c t i v e  r e l y  i n c r e a s e s  Vancouver  C i t y  of  i n  of  to  r u s h  hour  to  23%.  16%  responses  parkers  the  between  should  a p p l i c a t i o n  of  many  are  other  dynamic  not of  be t h i s  c l a i m i n g  p a r k i n g  leakages  success  commitment of  of  t r a n s i t  n e c e s s a r y  t e c h n i q u e  i s  p r i c e s can  be  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  o v e r a l l  i n v o l v e d  t h i s  p o t e n t i a l  d e d i c a t i o n bus  of  businessmen  above-mentioned  the  C h a r t e r  c o - o p e r a t i o n  working  c o - o p e r a t i o n  the  upon  C a p a c i t y  ,  the  the  of  magnitude  roughly  expected  l e v e l , as  most  s u b s t a n t i a l  be  day  to  commuters.  only  much  a p p l i c a t i o n  However,  d i l i g e n t  Many  the  be  i n d i c a t e s  c o u l d  $.50  as  group  the  tax.  the  the  downtown  i n s t a n c e  upon  at  w i l l  automobile  day  r e g u l a t i o n a p p l i e d  s t a l l s  r e s u l t s  per  rate  t e c h n i q u e .  i m p o r t a n t l y ,  a p p l i c a t i o n  the  t h a t  i n  f o r  through  and  $.50  homogeneous  income  depend  agency,  a  be  v a r i a t i o n  leakage  Most w i l l  the  of  of  c o n c l u s i o n s :  i m p a c t ;  c o u l d  r e d u c t i o n  i n e v i t a b l e ; t h e i r  minimum  i n d i c a t e s  c o n g e s t i o n  on  a  volumes  Furthermore,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  q u a n t i t a t i v e  i n c r e a s e s ,  to  v a r i e t y  e m p l o y e r - p r o v i d e d  s u r c h a r g e s  p r i v a t e ,  p a s s i n g  The  other  t h i s  the  the  technique  implementing  i n v o l v e d  c o n d i t i o n s  and t o  of  of  of  government s u c c e s s f u l  implementing admendments  s u c c e s s ,  government  but  agency. of  the  depend  upon  a u t h o r i t i e s .  137  General.  6.3.  I t  should  r e s t r i c t e d North  t h i s  and  the  e a s i l y  i s o l a t i o n  a  d e f i n a b l e  a p p l i e d  d e f i n e d  a r e a ,  d e s i r a b l e . i n f l u e n c e  6 . 4 .  a  a i d  i n  which  being  f a i r l y  the  i n  of  t h i s  p r i c e  of  the  For  example,  a  unique  of  t h i s  program.  a c t i v i t y  of  through  t r a f f i c  t e c h n i q u e  the  aspect  i n c r e a s e s  a l s o  of  parking  p a r k i n g  w i l l  other  d e t a i l s  by  response  s u c c e s s  c o n t r o l  p a r k i n g  l e v e l  i s  t h i s  many  the  e f f e c t s  the  avoided  low  i n  downtown  u t i l i z e i n  expected.  Vancouver  Governmental upon  i n c r e a s e s  the  be  w i l l  area  without  of  must  the  which  s u c c e s s f u l l y  p r i c e  magnitude  of  to  V a r i a t i o n s  program  s i t u a t i o n  B e s i d e s  p a r k i n g  c i t i e s .  i n c r e a s e  p h y s i c a l  p o s s i b l e  of  American  p r i c e  the  be  program  a p p l i c a t i o n ,  of  A p p l i c a b i l i t y  can  be  o u t s i d e would  have  a  be  great  e l s e w h e r e .  g u r t h e r g e s e a r c h With  only  r e s p e c t  one  of  o p e r a t i n g  c l o s e l y  demand  a v a i l a b l e  f o r  e l i m i n a t e d  as  the f a r  of to  r e l i a b l y  appears  the  to  p r o f i t s ,  and  i n d u s t r y  comprehensive  i n v e s t i g a t e  a  the  what  as  p o l i t i c a l i t s  f u r t h e r .  f a c i l i t i e s d e t a i l  what  s o l e l y ,  how  The  should the  be  drop  i n  a l t e r n a t i v e s  t h a t  t h i s  e f f e c t  are can  be  p o s s i b l e .  d i s c u s s e d  such  i n  so  i d e a  p u r s u i n g  p a r k i n g  determine  p a r k i n g  i n c r e a s e  worth  c o n g e s t i o n  t e c h n i q u e s , i n v e s t i g a t e  to  as  p r i c e  commercial  a f f e c t  R e f e r r i n g  d e s i r a b l e  p a r k i n g  examined  should  problem  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  economics more  to  number c a r  i n of  i n  would  to  Chapter other  p o o l i n g  system  response  approach  f o r  more be  One,  i t  would  c o n g e s t i o n example,  depth to  a n a l y s i n g  to  be  c o n t r o l and  a s c e r t a i n  these  the  a l s o more  d i f f e r e n t  138  approaches  to  p o s s i b l e  a s s e s s  to  the  c o n g e s t i o n the  r e l a t i v e  d i f f e r e n t  c o u r s e s  6 . 5 .  D e s i r a b i l i t y _ O f  The  P o l i c y F o r Only e f f e c t s such  by  of  t h a t  a  the  v a r i o u s  magnitude, e f f o r t  encountered study be  of  u t i l i z i n g  can  be  t h a t  has i n  c o n g e s t i o n  i f  of  of  t h i s  i t s T h i s  t h i s  p r o c e s s  made  p a r k i n g  t h e r e  of  i t  would  disadvantages  be of  i s  P r i c e _ I n c r e a s e s _ A s _ P u b l i c  p r i o r i t y - o r d e r e d  i n c r e a s e  implementing  r e l i e f .  and  way,  R e l i e f  set  made.  been  commercial  t r i e d  a  p r i c e  e f f e c t s  so  t h i s  advantages  P a r k i n g  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  Vancouver  In  a c t i o n .  Congestion  p a r k i n g  f o r  An  of  problem.  to  p o l i c y  weighed  d e s i r a b i l i t y t h e s i s  has  t e c h n i q u e , can  be  f o r e s e e  t h i s  be  as  and  attempted and  the  o p e r a t i o n s ,  problems and  t h i s  the  b a l a n c e d  to  p o l i c y s e t  e s t i m a t e  out t h e i r  conducted.  t h a t  s u b j e c t  to  t e c h n i g u e  p o l i t i c a l  can  p u b l i c  knowledgeably  p o l i c y ,  s u f f i c i e n t  v a l u e s  would  be  f u r t h e r c o u l d  now  d e d i c a t i o n  to  139  SELECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B a t e s , David V., & . C i t i z e n * s Gu Queens U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M o n t r e a l , Bauer, R.A., Formation , B e e s l e y , R e l a t Confe On T h 1967,  and New  M.E., " T i o n To rence_Pr eory .Sfi pp.389-4  K . J . G e r g e n , ( e d s . ) , York, Free P r e s s , 1968.  May  C M . ,  The  " P l a n  P a r k i n g  M c G i l l -  Study..Of  e c h n i c a l P o s s i b i l i t y . 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